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Full text of "Notes on the translation of the New Testament"


Divis.on^.S(S8 
Section. x.rr.^O 

N. im9 



NOTES ON THE TRANSLATION 



OF THE 



NEW TESTAMENT. 



3tont)on: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MARIA LANE. 

©Insgoto: 263, ARGYLE STREET. 








Enpjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

^tia lork: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

JSombaB: E. SEYMOUR HALE. 



NOTES ON THE TRANSLATION 



OF THE 



NEW TESTAMENT 



BEING THE 

OTIUM NORVICENSE (PARS TERTIA) 



BY 'mE LATE 

FREDERICK FIELD, M.A., LL.D. 

FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



REPRINTED WITH ADDITIONS BY THE AUTHOR 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1899 



(JCambritJge : 

PRINTED BY J. AND C. F. CLAY, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



PREFACE. 

'' I ^HE greater number of these notes appeared in 1881 as 
Pars Tertia of the Otiuvi Norvicense. They are here 
reprinted, with additions which may be classified under two 
heads : first, notes which Dr Field at his death left in the 
final stages of their preparation for publication, and, secondly, 
supplementary illustrations from classical sources which he 
had jotted down in the margin of his own copy of the Otium. 
Additions of the first class will be found in their due order 
marked by asterisks, while those of the second class are 
placed as footnotes and enclosed in square brackets. 

For aid in the selection of these additions, and in the 
verification of references, I owe many thanks to the Reverend 
J. Armitage Robinson, D.D., late Norrisian Professor of 
Divinity in this University, now Canon of Westminster ; to 
W. Aldis Wright, Esq., M.A., Vice-Master of Trinity College ; 
and to the Reverend C. A. Phillips, M.A., of King's College ; 
but I am, of course, myself responsible for all errors which 
may be found in the rejjroduction of the notes or the verifica- 
tion of the references. 

I ought also to acknowledge gratefully the kindness of 
the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, which has made it 

b2 



VI ■ PREFACE. 

possible to reprint the interesting autobiography prefixed by 
Dr Field to his edition of the Hexapla of Origen, Lastly, 
the skill and patience of the readers and workmen of the 
Pitt Press deserve thankful recognition from one who is a 
slow novice in the work of seeing a book such as this 
through the press. 

A. M. KNIGHT. 

GONVILLE AND CaIUS COLLEGE, 

Cambridge. 

May, 1899. J 



The following autobiography is reprinted from Dr Field's 
edition of the Hexapla of Origen. 

QUOD Germanis literatis moris est, ut ad summos in philosophia 
honores rite capessendos vitae et studiorum rationes reddant, id 
mihi semper visum est senescenti quam adolescenti aetati, et absolute 
quam vixdum inchoato curriculo, magis consentaneum esse. Cum 
igitur, Deo favente, ad finem ultimi mei laboris literarii tanquam ex 
longa navigatione in portum pervenerim, peto indulgentiam tuam, 
L. B., dum quid in vita ultra communem terminum producta pere- 
gerim, et quibus studiorum inceptorumque meorum auctoribus et 
fautoribus, breviter expono. 

Natus sum Londini anno MDCCCI mensis Julii die XX in vico 
cui nomen a Nova Porta, in quo pater meus Henricus Field, et 
ante eum pater ejus, et post eum frater meus natu maximus per 
longam annorum seriem medicam artem exercuerunt. Avus meus 
Joannes Field uxorem duxit Annam filiam Thomae Cromwell, 
negotiatoris Londinensis, viri humili conditione, sed stirpe illustri, 
quippe qui patrem habuerit Henricum Cromwell, Majorem (qui 
dicitur) in exercitu Reginae Annae ; avum autem Henricum 
Cromwell, Hiberniae Dominum deputatum, filium natu minorem 
OLIVERII CROMWELL, Reipublicae Angliae, Scotiae et Hiber- 
niae Protectoris. Sed stemmatum satis. Redeo ad patrem meum, 
virum strenuissimum, integerrimum, piissimum, cujus memoriam 
nunquam eo quo par est amore et veneratione prosequi potero. 
Is, dum sextum annum agebam, cooptatus est in medicum Orphano- 
trophei Christi a Rege Edvardo VI fundati, quo eventu patuit 
mihi aditus gratuitus ad scholas dicti Orphanotrophei grammaticas, 
primum sub disciplina viri optimi et amabilissimi, Lancelotti 
Pepys Stephens, A.M., scholae inferioris magistri ; donee, aetate 
paulo provectior, transii in scholam superiorem ab Arthuro 



Vlll AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

GuLiELMO Trollope, S.T.P., tunc temporis gubernatam, quo 
praeceptore, nulli coaetaneorum suorum secundo, a pueritia usque 
ad annum aetatis duodevigesimum Uteris Latinis, Graecis, Hebraeis 
sedulo imbutus sum. E schola egressum anno MDCCCXIX excepit 
me Collegium SS. Trinitatis apud Cantabrigienses, cujus post sex 
menses Discipulus factus sum. Tutores habui in disciplinis mathe- 
maticis Joannem Brown, A.M., et Gulielmum Whewell, A.M.; 
in eruditione autem classica (quae dicitur) Jacobum Henricum 
Monk, S.T.B., Graecarum literarum Professorem Regium ; quorum 
praelectiones diligenter attendens, privato tutore facile carere potui. 
Elapso triennio (cujus disciplinae quotidianae jucundissimam me- 
moriam recolo) anni MDCCCXXIII mense Januario in gradum 
Baccalaurei Artiuni admissus sum, quo tempore in tripode (quem 
vocant) mathematico primae classis decimum locum obtinui. Ejus- 
dem anni mense Martio numisma aureum a Cancellario Universitatis 
pro profectu in studiis classicis quotannis propositum reportavi. 
Vix bimestri spatio elapso, tertium in arenam descendi, et exhibitione 
a Roberto Tyrwhitt, A.M., ad eruditionem Hebraeam promovendam 
instituta dignatus sum. Proximo anno, Octobris die primo, culmine 
votorum meorum potitus sum, in Sociorum celeberrimi Collegii 
ordinem post examinationem habitam cooptatus. Collegas honoris 
habui tres : Thomam Babington Macaulay, Poetam, Oratorem, 
Historicum ; Henricum Malden, in CoUegio Universitatis Londini 
Graecarum literarum Professorem ; et Georgium Biddell Airy, 
Astronomum Regium. Anno MDCCCXXVIII a Joanne Kaye, 
S.T.P., Episcopo Lincolniensi, sacris ordinibus obligatus sum. Ex 
eo tempore S. Scripturae et Patrum Ecclesiae studio me addixi, 
nuUo tamen publice edito fructu, donee anno MDCCCXXXIX 
S. Joannis Chrysostomi Homilias in Matthaeum ad fidem codicum 
MSS. et versionum emendatas et annotationibus illustratas non 
modico sudore ac sumptu evulgavi. Non multo post almae matri 
meae valedixi, et curam pastoralem Saxhamiae Magnae in agro 
Suffolciensi per trcs annos administravi. Anno MDCCCXLII 
beneficium ecclesiasticum Reephamiae cum Kerdistone in agro 
Norfolciensi, cujus coUatio ad Collegium SS. Trinitatis pertinet, jure 
successionis mihi obtigit. In hoc viculo amoenissimo annos unum 
et viginti non inutiliter consumpsi, partim in cura animarum non ita 
multarum mihi commissarum, partim in studiis eis sectandis, quae 
gloriam Dei illustrare, et Ecclesiae ejus adjumento esse posscnt. 
Ne longior fiam, per id tempus Chrysostomi, deliciarum mearum, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. " IX 

Homiliarum in Divi Pauli Epistolas novam recensionem, septem 
voluminibus inclusam, in gratiam Bibliothecae Patrum Ecclesiae a 
presbyteris quibusdam Oxoniensibus inceptae edidi. Praeterea, 
rogatu venerabilis Societatis de Promovenda Doctrina Christiana, 
Veteris Testamenti juxta LXX interpretes recensionem Grabianam 
denuo recognovi ; cujus operis, quamvis ad aliorum modulum et prae- 
scriptum conformati, merita qualiacunque candide agnovit Tischen- 
dorfius in Prolegoinenis ad V. T. juxta LXX interpretes, Lipsiae, 
1869, quartum editis. Vixdum hoc pensum finieram, cum in mentem 
mihi venit cogitatio operis, quod ad priora ilia quasi cumulus 
accederet, hoc est, Origenis Hexaplorum novae et quae nostri 
saeculi votis satisfaceret editionis ; quod tamen ut ad felicem exitum 
perducerem, quantulum mihi restaret tam vitae quam vigoris in hunc 
unum laborem impendendum esse sensi. Resignato igitur beneficio 
meo, e cujus amplis reditibus jam omnibus bonis affluebam, anno 
MDCCCLXIII Norvicum me contuli, unde anno sequenti, pro- 
lusionis gratia, Otium meum Norvicense, sive Tentamen de 
Reliquiis Aquilae, Syinmachi et Theodotionis e lingua Syriaca in 
Graecam cofivertendis, emisi. In animo habebam librum per sub- 
scriptiones {quas vocant) publicare, sed in hac bonarum literarum 
despicientia res tam male mihi successit, ut spem omnem operis 
edendi abjecissem, nisi peropportune Delegati Preli Oxoniensis 
Academici, interveniente Roberto Scott, S.T.P., CoUegii Balliolensis 
Magistro, omnem novae editionis impensam in se suscepissent ; 
quibus pro sua in me, exterae Academiae alumnum, benevolentia 
gratias quam maximas ago. 

Quod superest quam brevissime potero conficiam. Fidem catho- 
licam, ab Ecclesia Anglicana reformata expositam, firmiter teneo. 
Errores ac novitates, qui in tot annorum decursu alter alteri super- 
venerint, sive Evangelicalium (qui nominantur), sive Rationalistarum, 
sive (quod novissimum ulcus est) Ritualistarum et Papizantium, 
praeveniente Dei gratia feliciter evasi. Jus fasque tum in privatis 
turn in publicis rebus impense amavi; injurias et aggressiones, sive 
regum delirantium, sive plebeculae tyrannidem affectantis, immiti- 
gabiU odio ac detestatione prosecutus sum. Vitam umbratilem et 
otiosam semper sectatus sum, non ut desidiae indulgerem, sed ut iis 
negotiis, in quibus me aliquid proficere posse senserim, vacarem. 
Per quadraginta fere annos in bonis literis excolendis, praecipue eis 
quae ad Verbi Divini illustrationem pertinent, sine patrocinio, sine 



X AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

emolumento, sine honore desudavi. Nunc senio confectus, et rude 
donatus, nihil antiquius habeo quam ut juniores competentioresque 
in eodem campo decurrentes, dum vivo et valeo, consiliis, adhor- 
tationibus, facultatibus adjuvem. 

Scribebam Norvici die XVI Septembris, A. D. MDCCCLXXIV 



To this autobiography a few extracts may be added from a 
notice of Dr Field which was written 1)y an intimate friend for the 
Cambridge Revinv of May 6, 1885'. 

"In 1870 he was invited to become a member of the Old 
Testament Revision Company, and although his deafness precluded 
him from taking part in the discussions, and he was never present 
at any of the meetings of the Company, he regularly contributed the 
most valuable suggestions, which like everything that he did were 
marked by a ripe and sober judgment. It was one of the few 
regrets which could have shadowed a life of such blameless simplicity 
that he did not see the completion of a work in which he was so 
profoundly interested. In a letter written on the 2nd of April 
(1885), in serene expectation of his approaching end, he said, 
' Although I should have been glad to see this part offspring of my 
brain completed and given to the public (as I have most provi- 
dentially been spared to see other important "opera" of mine 
brought to their desired consummation), yet I am aware that this is 
a matter mostly beyond all human calculation, and that I have no 
right to expect that uniform success should be dealt out to me by a 
higher power.' 

"In t88i, after the appearance of the Revised Version of the 
New Testament, and to some extent in conseciuence of it, he printed 
and circulated privately a third part of the Otium Norvkeiisc, 
containing 'Notes on Select Passages of the Greek Testament, 
chiefly with reference to recent English Versions.'... This was written 
when he had already entered upon his eighty-first year. 

1 For permission to use this notice my thanks arc due to the Editor of the 
Cambridge Revieiv. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. XI 

The reading which he had undertaken in view of this work (see 
note on p. xvii.) "is one proof among many that the vita timhratilis 
et otiosa which he desired was not idly spent. 

" Although he sought no honours for himself, his great merits 
were recognised by the University, and in 1875 ^'^^ honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him. In the same year he 
was elected to an honorary fellowship in his own College. 

"At the ripe age of 83 he died on the 19th of April [1885], 
at his residence, 2, Carlton Terrace, Norwich. 

" It is fitting that these short and simple annals of the life of a 
scholar of the antique type should be placed on record, that others 
may be encouraged by the example it affords of single-minded 
devotion to a lofty object." 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD 
PART OF THE OTIUM NORVICENSE. 

' I ^HE following pages, from the desultory and fragmentary 
-'- character of their contents, have no claim to be con- 
sidered as anything more than the Author's contribution to 
the common stock of materials for the right understanding 
of that part of the Word of God to which they relate. 
'^O ea-)(^ev, eirolrjaev. The study of the original text has 
lately received a notable impulse from the publication of the 
Revised New Testament, as well as from the intelligent 
interest taken therein by all classes of the Anglo-Christian 
body, and the criticism which it has received at the hands of 
a number of more or less competent judges. In the three 
or four months which have elapsed since the memorable 
17 May 1 88 1, much has been written in approval or depre- 
ciation of the gerteral style of the Revised version, and its 
treatment of particular passages ; and it cannot yet be 
affirmed that a sound public opinion has been pronounced 
for or against its adaptation to the purposes of private 
study ; still less its adoption as a substitute for the vener- 
able translation now "appointed to be read in Churches." 
Speaking for himself, as an original member of the O. T. 
Revision Company, the present Writer would say that 
nothing short of this latter consummation, as the ultimate, 
however distant, end of his labours, entered into his view, in 
agreeing to bear his humble part in the prosecution of so 
arduous an undertaking. A new version of the Bible for 
the use of students who could follow the original tongues, 



AUTHORS PREFACE TO THE THIRD PART. xili 

might safely be left to the ordinary purveyors of sacred 
literature, and to private speculation. The solemn accept- 
ance of the completed work by the English-speaking portion 
of the Church of Christ, its authorized introduction into 
the reading-desk and pulpit, its ascendancy in our schools, 
families, and closets, is the sole worthy aim, the digmis 
vindice nodus, which should gather so large an assembly of 
scholars and divines, for ten or fifteen years at stated 
intervals, round the table of the Jerusalem Chamber, to 
compare together the results of so many hours of laborious 
investigation, conducted in their respective studies at home. 

Whether the departure from precedent in the issue of a 
portion of the Revised version as soon as completed, without 
waiting till the HOLY Bible in its integrity, " the Law, the 
Prophets and the Psalms," together with their counterparts 
in the teachings of Christ and his Apostles, could be pre- 
sented to a Church built upon the foundation of both, was 
a judicious step, may admit of a doubt. One consequence 
of it, which might have been anticipated, has taken place ; 
namely, that it has drawn down upon the devoted heads of 
the first adventurers a hail of criticism, some part of which 
might have been diverted to that other band of heroes which 
has yet to stand on its defence. When the time comes for 
the O. T, Company to bespeak a share of the public atten- 
tion, it is to be feared that its utterances will fall somewhat 
flat upon the exhausted energies of reviewers and corre- 
spondents. On the other hand it may be taken as an 
undoubted gain, that by this mode of publication an experi- 
ment has been made, the results of which may furnish useful 
suggestions for the future conduct of the undertaking. The 
pulse of the patient has been felt ; and the doctors will do 
well to make a note of it. From the nature of the reception 
accorded to the Revised N. T. two important facts may be 
considered as placed beyond all reasonable doubt : firsts that 
public opinion has declared itself unmistakably in favour of 
REVISION ; a question on which, before the inception of the 



xiv author's preface to the third part. 

work, learned men, including, perhaps, some of the Revisers 
themselves, were not agreed ; and secondly, that the same 
public opinion which sanctions the undertaking, and does not 
question the competence of those who have been entrusted 
with it, reserves to itself the right of the freest discussion of 
the manner in which it has been executed. This right it has 
not scrupled to exercise on that portion of the work which 
has been submitted to it ; and the result is, underlying a 
strong feeling of appreciation of the sterling merits of the 
Revision, equally strong marks of dissatisfaction with certain 
unlooked-for, and (it might be thought) uncalled-for innova- 
tions, both in the general principles of translation adopted 
by the Revisers, and in their handling of particular (so to 
speak) rr//a«/ passages. The latter class of objections cannot 
here be discussed ; as to the former, it is alleged that in 
construing the leading " Rule " prescribed to them by the 
Committee of Convocation — " To introduce as few alterations 
as possible into the text of the A. V. consistently with 
faithfulness " — the Revisers have understood by this word, 
not (as was evidently intended) faithfulness to the sense and 
spirit of the original, but to its grammatical and etymological 
proprieties ; the effect of which has been, not only to intro- 
duce needless and finical changes i, which jar upon the ear, 
but also to throw over the general style an air of pedantry 
and punctiliousness, which cannot but be distasteful to the 
reader who has been " nourished up " in the plain, homely, 
and idiomatic English of the men of 1611. — Non nostriuii est 
tantos coDiponere lites ; but that they will be composed, and 
that the final result will be, in conjunction with the revised 
Hebrew Scriptures, a work worthy to take its place as the 
English Bible of the future, we have no doubt. That the 
N. T. Company are not inaccessible to suggestions from 
without, the Author is personally able to avouch, having 

' As an instance, take the exclusion single verbal alteration has met with 
of "the ultcrinosl farthing" in favour such general reprobation, 
of " the last farthing," than which no 



author's preface to the third part, XV 

had occasion to bring- under their notice two papers, on 
"Conversion" (Matt. xiii. 15) and on "The first recorded 
utterance of Jesus Christ " (Luke ii. 49), which materially 
influenced the final revision of those two passages. A third 
paper, on Acts xx. 24, in defence of the Textus receptiis 
against the mutilation (as he conceives) proposed to be 
inflicted upon it, was not so fortunate\ 

And this leads him to say a word upon the subject of the 
reformed Greek text adopted by the Revisers in deference to 
what are generally conceded to be the oldest MSS. extant, 
which were not accessible to the Translators of 161 1. That 
these " ancient authorities " are deserving of the greatest 
respect, cannot and need not be denied. Still, as all MSS. 
are liable to be affected by the errors, and, occasionally, the 
caprices of their transcribers, the interests of truth require 
that even the oldest and best of them should be continually 
checked by a reference to the other great branch of the 
critical art, the internal evidence of the good sense and pro- 
priety of the passage itself This is a far more delicate 
criterion than the former, and requires a longer apprentice- 
ship to attain to eminence in the application of it ; for which 
very reason, perhaps, it has not received its due share of 
attention. With every respect for great names and well- 
earned reputations, we cannot ignore the fact, that our 
foremost biblical critics are not the men whom, from their 
distinguished attainments in philological studies, or their 
successful exercise of the critical faculty on works of less 
transcendent difficulty and importance, we should, a priori, 
have thought most fitted for the task. Such qualifications 
can only be developed by early training, and a life-long 
study of the grand monuments of ancient learning, which 
(we devoutly believe) have been providentially preserved to 
us for this, among other reasons, that by the light reflected 
from the pages of the poets, historians, and philosophers of a 

1 Of these three papers the second and third are printed at the end of the 
will be found in its due order, the first notes. Ed. 



XVI AUTHOR S PREFACE TO THE THIRD TART. 

bygone race and religion, we might be better able to interpret 
the records of our own imperishable faith. In making these 
remarks, it is not by any means the wish of the Writer, that 
documentary proofs should have one grain less than their 
due weight in the constitution of the sacred text ; but only 
that considerations of internal evidence should have FAIR 
PLAY ; and whenever the preponderance of the former in- 
clines to what is absurd in sense or impossible in construction, 
that then the latter should be allowed to turn the scale. The 
former may not inaptly be compared to the direct proofs of 
guilt in criminal jurisprudence ; while the latter partake more 
of the nature of what is called circumstantial evidence. The 
analogy holds good also in regard to the cogency of either 
description of proof, lawyers invariably insisting, in favour of 
the latter, on the point of its being comparatively exempt 
from the danger of error or falsification, to which the testi- 
mony of alleged eye-witnesses must always be subject. 

The foregoing remarks may suffice as an apology for the 
greater part of the present work, which is taken up with a 
comparison of the venerable A. V. with its more modern 
competitors. For the remainder, which is of a more miscel- 
laneous character, the Author's excuse must be that the 
study of the Greek language and literature, especially in 
connexion with the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments, has been not so much the 
pursuit as the passion of a life protracted far beyond the 
ordinary limits. In particular, in the illustration of the 
phraseology of the writers of the Greek Testament from 
classical sources he has found a never-failing fund of delightful 
occupation, a small portion of the fruits of which, in the hope 
of meeting with a few readers like-minded with himself, he 
has included in the following pages. This was a favourite 
exercise of the biblical scholars of the eighteenth century, 
but has lately fallen into unmerited neglect. Indeed, after 
the researches of L, Bos (1700), Hombergk (1712), Heupelius 
(1716), Eisner (1720), Alberti (1725), Ottius (from Joscphus, 



AUTHORS PREFACE TO THE THIRD PART. 



XVll 



1 741), Raphelius (from Xenophon, Polybius, Arrian, and 
Herodotus, 1747), Ger. Horreus (1749), Palairet (1752), 
Kypke (1755), Munthe (from Diodorus Siculus, 1755), Krebs 
(from Josephus, 1755), Koehler (1765), Loesner (from Philo 
Judaeus, 1777) ; and especially after the immense collec- 
tion (partly borrowed, but to a great extent original) of 
J. J. Wetstein (1751), it might be thought that little 
remained to be gleaned in regard to a comparison of the 
style of the writers of the Greek Testament with that of 
classical authors. Still a spicilegiiwi there is, as will appear 
from a cursory glance at the following pages ; in which most 
of the quotations from the Greek classics (unless expressly 
assigned to Wetstein and others) are due to the Author's 
own reading of the last three or four years\ and are now for 
the first time (as far as he is aware) applied to the elucidation 
of the sacred text. Being extracted in full, carefully printed, 
with occasional assistance to the better understanding of 
them, it is hoped that they will afford no little gratification 
to the reader, who, in his riper years, has retained, or 
desires to recover, the fruits of his early culture at school 
and college. 



^ This has embraced the -whole of the 
following: Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius 
Hal. Antiq. Rom. , Stobaei Florilegium 
ed. Gaisford, Alciphron, Achilles Tatius, 
Antoninus Liberalis, Andocides, Babrii 
Fabulae, Charito Aphrodisiensis, Philo- 
strati Heroica and Imagines; also parts 



of Herodotus (VIII), Thucydides {VII, 
VIII), Lucian (Tom. I, II, III, V, 
VIII, IX, ed. Bipont.), Plutarchi Vitae 
(Vol. I, pp. 1-312, Vol. II, pp. 1-393, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 1-178, ed. Schaefer. ), 
Diogenes Laert. Lib. I-VI, Pausaniae 
Corinth., Messen., Lacon. 



Norwich, September 14, 1881. 



NOTE. 

Where 'the Syriac Versions' are quoted in these notes the lately 
discovered ' Sinaitic ' Syriac of the Gospels is not included. Ed. 



NOTES ON SELECT PASSAGES 

OF THE 

GREEK TESTAMENT. 



ST MATTHEW. 

*Chap. I. i8 : |xvii<rT€ve€i(riis k.t.X.] A. V. 'When as his mother Mary 
was espoused to Joseph.' When as or Whenas is a good old English 
combination, though our great Lexicographer has described it as 
obsolete. He gives examples from Spenser, 'This when as Guyon saw,' 
and Milton, ' When as sacred light began to dawn'; but has not noticed 
the biblical use of it, here and Ecclus. xxxiii. 7 : ' Why doth one day 
excel another, luhen as all the light of every day in the year is of the 
sun .-" 

The elimination of this 'innocent archaism' is said to be owing to a 
suggestion of the 'American committee'; though neither set of Revisers 
appear to have stumbled at the cognate form while as in Heb. ix. 8 : 
' while as the first tabernacle was yet standing.' 

I. 21 : avTos yap a-uxrn] A. V. 'For he shall save.' The Revised 
Version, 1881 [R. V.J renders: 'For it is he that shall save.' But 
this would seem to require avros yap ea-nv ^ neWwv aa^eiv. Compare 
Matt. xi. 14: avTos ((TTip 'HX/oj o fitWcop epxta-Oai. Luke xxiv. 21 : on 
avTos iaTiv 6 fifWa>v \vTpuva6ui tov 'lapatjX. The proposed correction 
takes for granted that there would be a Saviour, which the Greek does 
not. 

*L 22 : TovTo il oXov Yt'^ovtv] A. V. 'Now all this was done.' R. V. 
' Now all this is come to pass.' The substitution of the perfect tense for 
the aorist is probably due to the influence of Prof Lightfoot (fresh 
Revision of N. 7". ed. 1891, p. loi) who fancies he sees in the former 'the 
freshness of the earliest catechetical narrative, when the narrator was not 
so far removed from the fact that it was unnatural for him to say, 'This 

K. I 



2 ST MATTHFAV. II. 4 

/.f come to pass.' A less ingenious, but, perhaps for that very reason, 
more probable account of the matter is, that St Matthew, as being tSitorr^s 
Tw Xoyo), a'XX' ov Ttj yvaxrei, had fallen into a habit of using the perfect 
tense, in this particular phrase, instead of the aorist (compare ch. xxi. 4, 
xxvi. 56). 

There is little or no choice between 'was done' and 'came to 
pass'; but the A. V. is amply defended by Luke xiv. 22 : ytyovtv ('it is 
done') «s fVeVa^ay. John xix. 36 : eytvero (' were done') yap ravra. Exod. 
xxxiv. 10: TToiJjo-co €vbo^a a nv y/yowi' (' such as have not been done') (v 
irdcrrj rfj yfj. Dan. ix. 12 : ola ov yiyovtv (as before) vTroKflTO) navTos rov 
ovpavov. Also by classical usage, as Plut. l^if. Anton. XIV: f\ 8e o-vyKXrjTos 
fKVpuicre ravra, Ka\ ru>v vno Kn/cropoy yeyovorcov i^rj<^i<TaTO prjSev aWarreiv. 

II. 4 : €irvv9dv€To Trap' avTwv] A. \^^. 'He demanded of them.' We 
accept the R. V. 'he enquired of them'; though Mr Davies has shown 
{Bible English, p. 121) that there was not, in old English, that peremp- 
toriness in the use of the word ' demand,' which is now conveyed by it. 
So in Luke iii. 14, the soldiers 'demanded of him, saying. What shall we 
do?' where the Greek is simply efrripojTcov. And in the Office for Baptism, 
the priest says, ' I demand therefore. Dost thou in the name of this 
child' &c. 

With the incident related by St Matthew it is interesting to compare 
Dion. Hal. Anl. IV. 59 : avyKaXeaas Se (Tarquinius) rovs eTrixo>piovs 
pavreis, (nvvdavfro nap' airwv, ri j3ovXfrai (rrjpaivfii/ ro rfpas; 

*III. 4 : etx€ TO ¥v8v(j.a auTov diri Tpi\wv Ka|XT]Xoxi] Mark i. 6 : {vdebvptvos 
rpixas Kapi]Xov. In Joseph. /)'. % i. 24, 3, the sons of Mariamne, when 
they see Herod's other wives exhibiting themselves in her clothes, 
threaten coy avrl ra>v fiaaiXiKcoi', iv ra^et Trepidyjirovcnv eavra7s €k rpixcHv 
TTfTToirjpepas ; or, as the same incident is otherwise related by the same 
historian Anl. Jud. (ed. Hudson) XVI. 7, 3, avr\ rfjs 7rapov(TT]s ajipoTrjros 
aneiXflv as rpix^o'iv i^p(f)iea-pevai Kadftpyovvrai ; the former expression 
coinciding exactly with St Matthew's, the latter with St Mark's. 

The error of painters in attiring the Baptist with a catnel's skin has 
been pointed out by Sir Thomas Browne {Vulgar Er7'ors v. 15), De Rohr 
{Pictor errans p. 11. 2, 9) and others. From Eustath. ad II. r, p. 1249, 
52 : /iJjVco fcrdrjrav evprjptvtov, irfpi^Xripacriv exp^fTO ro'is eK rpi^^v, rj Kal 
rtrpixf^pf^ats Sopats, it plainly appears that a garment (k Tpixa>u is not 
a skin with the hair on (Terpt;^co^fVr? 8opa.), in contradiction to C. F. A. 
Fritzsche's suggestion : ' Might not John wear a camel's skin, and still 
be clothed in camel's hair?' 

St Chrysostom (T. VII. p. 674 D) speaking of the austerity of the 
monks of his time says that their clothes were made, some of goat's hair 
{ano rpix^v aiyav), others of camel's hair (dno rptxoiv Kap^Xcov) ; adding 
fieri 8( oli Kut AEPMATA fjpKtcre povov. 



V. 11 ST MATTH?:W. 3 

*IV. 24: xdvTtts Tois KttKws ^x^vxas] A. V. 'all sick people.' R. V. 
'all that were sick.' A good Greek phrase, often played upon by the 
Comic writers, as Stob. Flor. T. c. 5 : nokv \i.ii^6v ia-n roii kokois f'xfiv 
KaKov I TO Ka6' eva naai Tols eTnaKonovfiivois | Self tov kukuis e)(oi/Ta, Trcoy e;^ft, 
Xf'yeii'. /d. T. CI I. 6: ris oiVoy e'or' ; larpus. cos icaKcos fX^'- I oTray larpos, civ 
KUKas /LtT/Sflf ex!]- Anglice : 'It is ill with the physician, when nobody 
is ill.' 

V. 22 : ' But whosoever shall say, Thou fool (/xwpe), shall be in danger 
of hell fire (els ttjv yiewav rov Trvpoy).' ' It may be interesting,' says Dean 
Stanley ^ 'for those who can follow the original, to know that it is not, as 
is often supposed, a Greek word, nor does it, perhaps, mts.n fool. It is a 
Hebrew or Syriac word, j/ioreh, like the other word raca ; and though it, 
probably, gains an additional strength of meaning from its likeness to the 
Greek word 7nore,fool, its own proper signification is rebel ov heretic, one 
who wilfully breaks the laws of his church or country, one who would 
presume to teach his own teachers. It is the same word which Moses 
(Num. XX. 10) uses to the Israelites : " Hear now, ye rebelsP It was, 
according to the Jewish tradition, for using this offensive word to God's 
people, that he was forbidden to enter the promised land.' 

If, as is here strangely asserted, \iciipi is not a Greek word, then of 
course, not perhaps, it does not mean fool ; nor, if a Hebrew or Syriac 
word, can it possibly derive any additional strength from its accidental 
resemblance to the Greek word. Moreover, Hebrew and Syriac being 
different languages 2, or agreeing only in particular instances (of which 
the present is tiot one), it is not enough to describe it as a Hebrew OR 
Syriac word, but it should be distinctly stated for which of the two 
languages the claim is preferred. 

(i) There is a Syriac word in ore ( jjiD), and a very common one, as 

common as Kvpios in Greek, or doniinus in Latin, for which words it is 
the equivalent, as the emphatic form p^iD is for o Kvpto?, or Domimis. 
But this honourable title can have no place in our Lord's denunciation ; 
and, in fact, no other objector to the common interpretation ever 
suggested that /xwpe is a Syriac word, but always a Hebrew one. 

(2) There is a Hebrew word vioreh (H^b) which means contumax, 
rebellis, as in the passage from Numbers, and many others. But if /xwpe 
were intended to represent this, it would enjoy the distinction of being 
the only pure Hebrew word in the Greek Testament {aKkr\kovia, dfjLijv, and 

1 The Christian Rule of Speech. A sahadutha ("j 2.0 JOT-CD j-it-*' ^''''?^'^''/ 

Sermon preached in Westminster Abbey, . . ^ , t u ru tt u n 

, , . V.^ of 'Witness), but Jacob [the Hebrew] 

July 4, 1869. , 

2 Any one may convince himself of called it Gal-eed' (ny-?4, Tlu heap of 
this by turning to Gen. xxxi. 47 : ' And iwtness). 

Laban [the Syrian] called it Jegar- 



4 ST MATTHEW. V. 21 

(Tc.^acid, as being taken from the LXX., belong to a different class), all 
other foreign words being indisputably Aramaic, as raca, talitha kumi'^, 
maran atha, &c., which, as might have been expected, are retained by the 
authors of the Syriac versions without alteration. Not so iiuapi, for which 
both the Peschito and Philoxenian versions have lelo (|1^), which is also 

put for fxoipoi in Matt. vii. 26 (Philox.), and Deut. xxxii. 6, Psal. xciii. 8, 
and Jerem. v. 21 (all in the Syro-hexaplar version) — a plain proof that 
these learned Syrians took it for an exotic, and not, like pam, a native 
word. 

As there is no reason for disturbing the A. V. in regard to this word 
fool, so neither can we accept the same learned writer's suggestion as to 
the remaining part of the sentence — the penalty assigned to the person 
committing this offence. The use of this term, he says, ' deserves as 
much shame and reproach as belongs to those whose carcases were 
thrown out into the Valley of Hinnom — Gehenna, as it was called — 
where they were burnt up in the fires which consumed all the offal of the 
city. This is the meaning of the words, which we translate in this place 
hell fire. It is the fire, the funeral pile, the burning furnaces of that 
dark valley, the Smithfield (.?), the slaughter-house, the draught-house of 
Jerusalem.' The pollution of the Valley of Hinnom, the scene of the 
horrid rites of Moloch, by Josiah, as related in 2 Kings xxiii. 10, 13, 14, 
and its subsequent appropriation to the most ignominious purposes, may 
be accepted as historical facts ; though the additional circumstance of 
' burning furnaces,' perpetually maintained for the consumption of the 
bodies of criminals, carcases of animals, and other ejecta of a great city, 
does not appear to rest on sufficient evidence, but was probably invented 
after the application of the name of this valley to denote the place of 
eternal tortncnt. At all events it is in the latter sense, and in that alone, 
that the word Gehenna is used by our Lord. Indeed, the applied sense 
being once established in the religious nomenclature of the Jews, it is 
very improbable that the valley itself should continue to be called by the 
same name, 23 nj, yUvva ; nor can any instance be produced of either of 
these words being so used. 

The unusual construction ei/o;^oy ds tt]v y. has been variously 
explained : e.g. by supposing an ellipsis of ^Xrjdfjvai (Homberg, Kuinoel) 
or, according to modern phraseology, a pregnant constructtofi for tvoxoi 
wo-Tf (ikridfjvai. (Is rfiv y. (Alford) ; or by taking tU in the sense of ecoy fU, 

^ Although talitha (\l\^^ f\ is the content with suggesting that there may 

ordinary Syriac word for 'damsel,' be an etymological connexion between 

and is so interpreted by St Mark (6 i(jTi the two, actually translates our Lord's 

H€d(p^7)Viv6ixevov, rb Kopdaiov), a writer words, ' My lamb — my pet lamb — 

in the "Sunday at Home" for March arise!' Truly, 'A little learning is a 

1 88 1, having met with the poetical word dangerous thing.' 
n?t3, 'a lamb,' in Isai. Ixv. 25, not 



VI. 2, 5 ST MATTHEW. 5 

usque ad (C. F. A. Fritzsche). But since ets is perpetually interchanged 
with ffi, there seems no objection to take it so here, and then we may 
compare such examples as Andocid. tt. }x. 79 : d 8e firj, k'poxov dvai 
Tov napajiaivovra ravra iv tols avTols, iv olcnrep 01 i^ 'Aptiov nayov 
(pfvyovTfs. 

* The notion of neope being a Syriac or Hebrew word seems to 
be of recent and, probably, English origin, as it is not mentioned by 
Wolf, Schleusner, Kuinoel, De Wette &c. It is quoted in Bowyer's 
Critical Conjectures, Lond. 1 782, from a work of Sykes on the Connexion 
of Natural and Revealed Religion^ p. 426 ; on which Dr Owen remarks : 
' This observation is certainly just ; and yet the Syriac interpreter did 
not take the word in this sense, for he retains Raka untranslated, yet he 
renders Moreh by a word that signifies /^^/.' 

It is generally understood that Dean Stanley, in taking the view 
which we have now combated, was under the influence of his friend the 
late Emmanuel Deutsch of the British Museum ; against whose authority 
I am now able to set that of Dr A. Neubauer of the Bodleian, who has 
favoured me with the following communication dated Nov. 24, 1881 : 
' You are certainly right for the word p-capi. But I may be allowed to 
draw your attention to the fact that this Greek word was much in use 
with the Jews at the time of Christ. The MidrasJi Tan/iunia explains 
the word Dmon (Num. x.x. 10) : piriD piXI "I IDX mim ^Vi^h IHD 
(/xcopoj) DTnO N'^DC''? I^nil^* n^JV SJtJ''*?. in the same Midrash Tanhunia 
Sect, npn this word is explained {iivtpol) mo pmt^"? |nip D"'n '3133. 
The feminine also is mentioned : {^p.<x>pa) NIID i<n''Dw''p pmi^ ^jr pt^'b2.' 

* VI. 2, 5 : dire'xovo-i tov [iio-Oov avrwvj R. V. ' they have received their 
reward,' i.e. (says one of the American Revisers) ' they have received all 
the reward they sought from men, and need not expect any more.' The 
Greek word by no means implies that human applause was all the 
reward they sought, but only that it was all they would get ; and this 
coulJ not be more significantly expressed than by the emphatic 'they 
HAVE their reward.' In making the change, the Revisers, no doubt, 
were influenced by the A. V. of Luke vi. 24 ' ye have received your 



1 Compare v. 35 : (/irj o/xocrai) iv rrj points out that the first is from the 

y^.../ji7)T€ els 'lefiojoXvua: where some Pesikta d' Kab Kahana, ed. Buber, 

would render 'toward Jerusalem,' re- p. ii8<^: the second is from the Tan- 

ferring to i Kings viii. 30, Dan. vi. 10. chuma on Num. xx. 10: and the third 

But in those places the person praying is to be found in the Introduction to 

is in a foreign land. [In Luke iv. 44 : Midrask Echah Rabbah § 31. Mr 

'And he preached in their synagogues' Schechter also remarks that R. Reuben 

(ev rats <jvv. T. R.), the Revisers have to whom this interpretation is attributed 

adopted ets ras (t., but retain ' in.'] lived late in the third century after 

'^ Of these quotations Mr Schechter Christ. Ed. 



ST MATTHEW. 



VI. 



consolation'; but there still remains Philip, iv. i8 (in both versions) 'I 
HAVE all, and abound '.' 

VI. 27 : ' Which of you by taking thought can add unto his rJXtKi'a one 
?' The word rjXiKin is ambiguous, signifying either d^-v or stature; 



in classical Greek more frequently age, in biblical statiire. We therefore 
wait for the concluding word to clear up the doubt. Shall it be a 
measure of time, as year (Isai. xxxviii. 5 : npoa-Tidrjfii irpos rov xp^'vov aov 
8(KairfVTe errj) or of length ? The answer is conclusive : EIHXYN fiiav. 
nfjxvi is not only a measure of length, but that by which a man's stature 
was properly measured-. Euthymius on this place remarks : Km fxrjv ovSe 
(TTnBa^irjv (half a cubit), ovhe ^ciktvKov (a 24th part) : \onrhv ovv Trfj^vu fine, 
SioTi Kvpidis p-irpov tcov i^Xikicov 6 nfjxi's tariK Thus a short man is rpi- 
TTtjxvs, a tall man TeTpdnTjxvs (as Aristoph. Vesp. 553: nv8pes picyaXoi koi 
TfTpaTT^X^''^- Philostr. luiag. I. 24 : /cat koKws, koi reTpanr]xm etc p,iKpuv). 
We read in the Martyrdom of St Eusignius (Montfaucon,/";^;/. Or. p. 27): 
aTTodvcravTfs ovv avrov 01 (rTpaTiSrai elaijyayov ■ ku\ l8ov rji/ 6 dvrjp rpiav rjp.i(Tv 
TTTjx'iv (a medium height). Above four cubits the stature became gigantic, 
as Diodorus Siculus (i. 55) says of the statue of Sesostris, tw p.fye6fi 
TfTTapai TToXaiaTois p-fi^ova twv reTTapccv irrjxoiv, adding, rjXiKos {(jua 
statura) mv koI avTo^ irvyxavev (4.^ cubits)*' ; and Plutarch {Vit. Alex. 60) 
of Porus, Tov Yi.(opov VTTfpatpovTa Tecraapcov ntjxmu (Tni6ap.7i to /x^koj (4^ 
cubits). Of scriptural examples we have i Chron. xi. 23 an Egyptian, 
au8pa oparov TTiVTaTT-qxw, slain by Benaiah ; and Goliath of Gath, i Sam. 
xvii. 4, whose height was 1^ irrixf(i>v kih a-nidapfjs. To which may be 
added the bedstead of Og (Deut. iii. 11), 'nine cubits was the length 



' Fhilologians do not seem to have 

appreciated the Ileljrew phrase vN N3 

pei"venit ad iiic, addressed (i) by Joseph's 
steward to his brethren (Gen. xliii. 23): 
' Your money came to me' ; and (2) by 
the representatives of the 2\ tribes to 
Moses (Num. xxxii. 19): ' We will not 
inherit with them on yonder side Jordan 
...because our inheritance is fallen to us 

(■13vN nN3) on lliis side Jordan east- 
ward.' In both cases il seems to be 
implied, that the speaker had no further 
claim on the person addressed, an idea 
which is also suggested liy the A. V. of 
the former jjlace, 'I had your money.' 
Now it is remarkable that the ' Penta- 
teuch Company' of the L.\x. (who were 
in an especial degree (/ocli utriusquc 



linguae) iiave in both places used the 
very word, which best expresses this 
idea : in tlie first, to apyiipiov vp,Civ 
'AIIEXfi; in the second, ort 'AIIB- 
XOMEN Tot)s K\r)pov% i]p.Qv iv tw nepaf 
TOV 'lopddvov iv dvaroXais. 

- [Cf. Arislaen. Ii/>. I. 5 : ^ti de 
eiip-riKrii rjXiKia.] 

3 Cf. Aristot. Mdapli. y (p. 183 
Bekker) : uicnrep cLv ei dXXov i]p.ds p.e- 
TpovvTos iyviiipiffap.ev trffKiKoi iapiv T<jj 
Tbv irrjxvv iirl ToaovTov rjptv (TrijSdXXeiv. 

•* Herodotus (11. 106) says of the 
same statue, in his peculiar manner, 
piyado! iripwT7)s <7indap.iis (^h cubits); 
and Eusebius (from Manctlio) Tri)xCi)v 5 
TraXotcrriij' 7 daKTvXuv /3 (41V cubits). 
Hut such precision in the measurement 
of stature is of very rare occurrence. 



XI. 28 ST MATTHEW. 7 

thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man'; and 
Nebuchadnezzar's image of gold (Dan. iii. i) 'whose height was threescore 
cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits.' 

The other interpretation, age, would, probably, never have been 
thought of, had it not been for the place in Psal. xxxix. 5 (where 
Symmachus inserts ws before TraXatoraf, and so both our English 
versions) ; which does not at all defend the present text : first, because 
in the Psalm there is no ambiguous word to be guarded against ; and, 
secondly, because we are not required, as here, to solve the curious 
problem ' Find the sum of so many years 4- one cubit.' 

* It may be interesting to the admirers of conjectufal criiicism 
to give one more instance of irfixvi as a measure of stature from a 
fragment of Alcaeus preserved by Strabo (xill. 2. 3), if only to show 
quant II in critic us critico praestet. The geographer's text has corruptly 
KTfii'ovT civdpa fiaxai-Tav, coj (f)i]tTi, fiacrikriatv TraXoiorai/, anoknTovra fxovov avlav 
T d)(fo)u dTTOTTtfiTTcov. Bishop Blomficld {Mits. Crit. i. 444) proposes to read 
KTeiPcuv hf^pa ixa\at.Tai/, ^aaiKrja TraXaioTfii', dno Xoiyov t' dfivvcou, oviav r* 
aj^e'wi/ aTTonefiTrav. Now compare with this 'prentice-work the hand of a 
master (O. Miiller) : naXaiaTau aTroKe'nrovra fiovov fiiav Tra)(fO)v ano TTep.na>v, 
' (in stature) wanting only one span of five cubits.' Compare Herod. I. 
60 : (yvvr]) /xe'ya^oy diro rav recraepcov 7rr])(ea>i' dnoXtiTTOvcra rpeli baKTiiXovi. 

* VIII. 3: eeXw, Ka9ap£o-etiTi,] A. V. ' I will, be thou clean.' 'This,' 
says Jeremiah Markland, 'seems to be as strong an instance of the 
sublime, as that more noted one in Genesis i. "Let there be lights" ' 
One is tempted to ask, is anything gained in respect to faithfulness in 
the R. V. 'I will ; be thou made clean,' to compensate for the appreciable 
loss of sublimity 1 

* \ III. 14: PepX-qiAevTiv Kal irvptcro-ODO-av] A. V. 'laid, and sick of a 
fever.' R.V. 'lying sick of a fever.' This is Tyndale's version. Cranmer's, 
' lying in bed, and sick of a fever,' is to be preferred, as distinguishing 
between the two conditions of the woman, (i) as 'keeping her bed' (Exod. 
xxi. 18), and (2) as 'being in a fever.' See on Luke xvi. 20. 

* XL 28 : KoiriwvTts] ''that labour^' or, 'are weary,' as the version of 
Geneva. Both meanings are undoubted, but the use of the LXX. is in 
favour of the latter, of which good examples are 2 Kings (Sam.) xvii. 2 : 
' 1 will come upon him,' Ka\ avros Kumoov (P^l) koX (KXeXvfievos ras x^eipas 
'while he is weary and weak-handed.' Isai. xl. 30: TTfivda-ovcn yap 
vfcoTfpoi, Koi KOTTidcrovcri veavlaKoi. I add S. Clirysost. T. XI. p. io6a: 
ovx dirkms r)p.ds epyd^eadai (SovXeTca, aXX' da-re KOTTidv, wcrre frtpois p.(Ta- 
8i8opa'i, where Hales has a note ' Lege «XXa kotticiv. Nam quid est 
e'pyd(fa6ai uxm kotticiv?' But compare the same T. IX. p. 700 A : aXXd 
Toa-niiTa e'jidSi^fv, w'frre kuI Koniaa-ui (alluding to Joh. iv. 6). 

' [Cf. Bowyer's Critical Coirjcti tires, ad loc. Ed.] 



8 ST MATTHEW. XI. 29 

* XI. 29 : aparc tov Jvyov [aov «<}>' vji.ds...Kal €vpijo-€T£ avdirav<rtv rats 
»)/vxais vjiwv] Canon Farrar remarks {Life of Christ, ed. 1888, p. 90) 'It is 
probable, though not certain, that he (Christ) was acquainted with the un- 
canonical books,' comparing this passage of St Matthew with Sirac. li. 26, 
27: TOV Tpa-)(r]hov vixav vwoderf vtto (vyov...uTi, okiyov (Koniacra, Koi evpov 
ffiavTui ttoWtjv avi'nravaiv ; also Luke xiv. 28 : ris yap i^ vficiv, QiXutv nvpyov 
otKoSoprjaai k.t.X. with 2 Macc. ii. 29 : Kaddnep yap r^s Kaij/ijs olKias 
dpx^iTtKTovi Trjs oXijs KurajioXfis <PpovTi(TT€ov, T(p 8e iyKnUiv Ka\ ^a>ypa(f)(lv 
(TTix^cpoiivTi ra eniTrjdeia npos diaKocrfirjcnp i^fTaarfov k.t.X. In the former 
example a slight verbal coincidence may be conceded, in the latter none 
at all. A much better than either is Sirac. xxviii. 2 : a0es d8Ur]p.a tw 
irXTjcriov (TOV, kuX Tore 8fT]devTos crov al afiapriai crov XvdqaoPTai compared with 
Matth. vi. 12. Outside the Gospels Prof. Plumptre (Farrar I.e.) 'has 
observed that James "the Lord's brother" certainly makes allusions to 
the Apocrypha (cf. James i. 6, 8, 25 with Ecclus. vii. 10; i. 28; xiv. 23).' 
In all these the resemblance is of the very slightest, in the last consisting 
in the single word napaKvnTfiv, which, moreover, the apocryphal writer 
uses in its proper sense (of looking in through the window), the canonical 
in a figurative one. Here also a better example might have been found 
in close proximity to the others, viz. James i. 19: Ta^v^ ds to n<ovaai, 
which is a palpable reminiscence of Ecclus. v. 1 1 : yivov tuxvs eV aKpodaa 

(TOV. 

XIII. 12: 8o0TJo-£Tai Kttl irepKro-tvOijo-fTai] A. V. 'To him shall be 
given, and he shall have more abundance (R. V. have abundance).' But 
TTfpiaaevdrja-eTai, like dodjjaeTai, is impersonal, and may be resolved into 
Trfpia-ads dodijcreTai, 'and given in abundance.' Compare John x. 10 
(R. v.): 'I came that they may have life, and may have it abundantly 
{iva ^cofju f)((ti<Tiv, Ka\ TTfpiaaov exwaiv). 

XIII. 15 : Kal eirio-Tpsil'wo-i] A. V. 'And should be converted.' R. V. 
'And should turn again.' In the LXX., wherever we find fTria-Tpiyj/ai in 
an intransitive sense, the A. V. is 'turn,' 'return,' or 'turn again,' with 
the single exception of the place here quoted by our Lord (Isai. vi. 10), 
where we read, 'and convert.' Any one of these is to be preferred to 
that which the Translators of the N.T. have three times, in quoting the 
words of Isaiah, substituted for it, 'and be converted,' an expression not 
in harmony with the voluntary acts of seeing, hearing, and under- 
standing, with which il is joined, and which, moreover, from its being 
popularly used in the present day in a different sense, is liable to 
misconstruction'. The same objection docs not apply to the intransitive 

1 A notable instance of such mis- would have employed this term, if they 

construction is Matt, xviii. 3 : ' Except had supposed that it would ever be 

ye be converted,' &c., where it is im- understood (as it is now universally 

possible to Ijclicvc that our Translators understood by common readers) of the 



XIII. 36 ST MATTHEW. 9 

form 'to convert,' as used by A. V. in Isai. vi. 10, and elsewhere by the 
older translators. Thus Coverdale, 2 Kings xxiii. 25: 'Which so 
converted unto the Lord with all his heart ' ; and Nehem. ix. 28 : 'So 
they converted, and cried unto thee'; and Cranmer, Acts iii. 19: 
'Repent and convert.^ See other examples in Davies, Bible English, 
p. 70. If this term, now obsolete, had been adopted in all places instead 
of the other, the question so often asked among a certain class of 
religious persons would no longer have been, '■Are you converted.?' but 
' Have you converted 'i ' 

*XIII. 36: t6t€ d<j)€ls Tovs oxXovs] A. V. 'Then Jesus sent the 
multitude away.' R. V. ' Then he left the multitudes.' Also Mark iv. 36 : 
Koi dcpevTfs tov o)(\op. A. V. 'And when they (the disciples) had sent 
away the multitude.' R. V. ' And leaving the multitude.' Dean Burgon 
in defence of the A. V. remarks {/Revision Revised, p. 194 sq.): 'It is 
found to have been our Saviour's practice to "send away" the multitude 
whom he had been feeding or teaching, in some formal manner... The 
word employed to designate this practice on two memorable occasions is 
drroXveiv (Matt. xiv. 15, 22, 23; XV. 32, 39; Mark vi. 36, 45; viii. 9; 
Luke ix. 12); on the other two (see above) d(f)ievai. This proves to have 
been perfectly well understood as well by the learned authors of the 
Latin version of the N. T. as by the scholars who translated the Gospels 
into the vernacular of Palestine.' The Latin version, in all cases, is 
dimissis (not reiictis) tiirbis ; but both Syriac versions agree m 
distinguishing dcpiivai from drroKvfiv, rendering the former by .0*^ » 

(d(^^/ce, KaTeXiTTf, etacre), and the latter by ];>.» (dneXvcre). While protesting, 
as strongly as the Dean himself, against the 'pedantic striving after 
uniformity of rendering' of the same Greek word (dcpels) by the same 
English one, we must insist upon dealing with every case on its merits. 
Now in the former of the two texts at the head of this note, Jesus ' went 
out of the house, and sat by the sea side, and there were gathered unto 
him great multitudes,' who stood on the beach, while he taught them 
from a boat. His discourse being ended, he ' left (dtptis) the multitudes, 
and went into the house,' some of them, no doubt, attending him to the 
very door, and then, without any formal dismissal, each returning to his 
own home. Here is no ' sending the multitudes away,' the utmost 
pressure that can be put on d(jiels being that he ' let them go.' Still 
less, in the other case, is there a question of any formal dismissing or 
leave-taking; for there it is our Lord himself who proposes to his 
disciples to 'go over unto the other side'; and his disciples who 'take 
him with them, even as he was, in the boat'; which they could not do 

general ' conversion ' of a sinner, and addressed : ' Except ye turn, and be- 
not of a specific change in the temper come as little children,' &c. 
and disposition of those to whom it was 



lO ST MATTHEW. XIIl. 54 

without 'leaving the multitude' on this side; though to 'send them 
away ' to their respective homes, would seem perfectly needless, whether 
on his part, or (still more) on theirs. 

We do not deny that the general sense of ' dismissal ' is common to 
both words, but not without a certain distinction, which may best be 
illustrated by an example. The president of a public meeting, when the 
business is finished, 'dismisses the assembly' (Acts xix. 41 : dnfXvcrf rfjv 
eKKXrialav), which disperses its several ways. A schoolmaster also, when 
the clock strikes, 'dismisses' his juvenile charge, who scamper away to 
their sports. Here then seems to be an occasion for the less formal and 
official term of the two. And it is at hand. In English, 'the playful 
children' are not 'just disinissfd,' but 'just let loose from school.' 
And in Greek (Aelian V. H. xil. 9), Timesias nap^d 81a. {praeter) 
8i8aa-KaXfinv, oi 8e 7rnl8es 'A<l>EeENTE2 vko tov 8i8a(TKaXov enai^ov. 

In Matthew I.e. of the older English translators, only Wickliff has 
'left'; in Mark 'leaving' is supported by Wickliff, Tyndale, Cranmer 
and Geneva. 

XIII. 54: els TT|v iraTpCSa avrov] ^ into his own country.'' The word 
' country ' carries with it to the English reader the idea of a man's native 
land., instead of his native place or town, which is the proper meaning of 
the Greek word, both in the N. T. and in profane authors. From the 
latter we may instance Stob. Flor. T. XLIV. 21 (from the laws of Zaleucus) : 
ttoKlv 8e cfiiXairepav nrf8e)s aXXrjv tvoifiadw rfjs avroii TrarpiSot. Appian. 
VL 38: e's noXiv ^v dno t^s 'iraXias 'lraXt(c»)f (Italica in Spain) eAcaXetre 
(Scipio), Koi Trarpis e'ari Tpaiapov re Koi 'Adpiavov. Ach. Tat. I. 3: (pol 
^oiviKT) yeVoy, Tvpos 7/ narpU^. 'Into their own country' is the rendering 
of 619 rrju \(iop(il' avrcov, ch. II. 12. 

XIV. 6: wpxiicraTo...ev tu> iac'ctu)] A. \'. 'before them.' R. V. 'in the 
midst.' 'Ef rw pea-a is /// pnd/ico, coram oninidus, as in the well-known 
phrases ev peao) (TTpfcfifadai, fls picrov npotXdflv, &c.' With the present 
example I compare Lucian. Dc Mortc Pcrcgr. 8 ; ri yap I'lWo, e^r;, <jo avSpes, 
XP^ Troi€lv...(')pu)VTas av8pas yipovras, do^upiov KciTaTrTvarov eveKa, povnvovxi 
Kv^KTTwvTas (i> Tw p(fT(o; (dancing on their heads in public)-'. 

' [Cf. AeL I'. //. .\.U. 54: e'^ wv Mox: ttoWoI 5' rjcrav ot Kal Xiyiif if 

Kul TTjv irarpida (Slagira) Kari^KLfff Ka- nkcui: roXptJivres. Id. Vit. Tun. V : 

re<r/ia/ii;Ue'j'7;i' I'TTo <l't\iV7roi' (Aiistotcles).] 'iyvw iyjv KaO' eavTou eK piffov yev6p.evos, 

" [Cf. Mark ill. .', : ^yeipe et's to XI\' : oiairXriKri^'opn'oi' iv peaifj rots dtp 

ptaov. liolh A. \'. and R. \'. have uipas fpya^opivots yvi/aiois. Dio. Chrys. 

'stand forlli,' Init R. \'. in margin 'Gr. xxxill. p. 395, 33: tui' KaXov/xevuv 

arise into llie midst. 'J larpwv, oi npoKaOi'^ovTis tp rt^ picLfi..., 

'■'' [Cf. Plut. /'//. Cdcsar XXVlll: oi i.X\I. ]). 604, 14: ovdiva dvOpwirojv 

ixiv dpxo-s peTwvTes iv piaij) dipevoi rpa- ^ovXerai XarOdi'df, d\\' (v picno ravra 

Tr^j'as ideKai^op ai'atcrxi^''Ttoj to. ir\riOri. iroid. J 



XVI. 21 ST MATTHEW. II 

XIV. 8 : -irpoPiPao-Ociira viiro Trjs (Atirpos] A. V. 'Being before instructed 
of her mother.' R. V. ' Being put forward by her mother.' This latter is 
objectionable, because the damsel, even if she had retired from the 
banquet, must have conw forward o{ her own accord to signify her choice 
of a gift. Other proposed renderings are 'set on,' 'urged on,' &c. But 
when we consider that Trpo/Si/Safetc is used by the LXX. in a very similar 
manner (e.g. Deut. vi. 7 : irpo^t.^aaeis avra rois viois (rov) we shall see no 
reason for departing from the Vulgate p7-acmouita, from which the A. V. 
is taken. But instead of 'before instructed' perhaps 'instructed' would 
be sufficient, the instruction necessarily preceding the action. Compare 
Ach. Tat. VII. I : f/xeXXe S' (Kfivoi, vtto tov 0epo-ai/Spou dfbidayfxevos, K.r.i.^ 
In Acts xix. 33: €K df tov ox^ov Trpoe^i^aa-av 'A}<e^av8pov, 'They brought 
Alexander out of the multitude,' the Revisers have given as an alternative 
version, ' Some of the multitude instructed Alexander-.' 

XVI. 5 • ^^^ tXOovTSS 01 |xa0T]Tai avrov els to irepav, eireXdGovTO aprovs 
XaPetv] A. V. ' And when his disciples were come to the other side, they 
had forgotten to take bread.' R. V. 'And the disciples came to the other 
side, and forgot to take bread.' But the omission having taken place 
before they set out on their voyage (Mark viii. 14), though not discovered 
till they were come to the other side, the A. V. has rightly used the 
pliisqua/n pcrfectian, 'they had forgotten', per breviloqueittiani for 'they 
found that they had forgotten.' So the best expositors, both ancient and 
modern ; as Beza, 'viderunt se oblitos fuisse'; Bois, 'senseruntse oblitos 
fuisse' ; Fritzsche, ' Audire tibi videaris ipsos admirantes, Noti clbos 
nobiscum tidimus^ Again in v. 7, the A. V. ' Saying, // is because we 
have taken no bread,' is, for the English reader, a more correct version of 
the Greek, Xeyoirff, "On aprovs ovk i\a^op.ev, than the R. V. ' Saying, We 
took no bread.' 

XVI. 21 : TT^ TpiTT) i][A€'pa] The phrases used in the N.T. to indicate 
the day of our Saviour's resurrection in respect to that of his crucifixion 
are three, (i) tt] Tplrr] ^/xepa. (2) ^era Tpels rifiipas. (3) Once (Matt. xii. 
40) it is intimated that he should be in the grave rpth i^p-epas kui rpds 

VVKTaS. 

(i) The first of these is by far the most common, being found eight 
times in the Gospels, and once (i Cor. xv. 4) in St Paul. It has long 
been taken as certain and indisputable that the interval between the days 
on which the Church has from the beginning commemorated these two 

' [Cf...Plut. I'/t. Crass, v: iJs 5' Dr Field considered the Revisers to 

aweKpivavTo SeSibayjiivai. (' as they had have translated awe^i^aaav in the text, 

been instructed'), id. 11. 256: t] Kopij and 7rpoe/3('/3a(rai' in the margin of their 

irafyrjyei/ avrbf viro ttjs /xijrpos didaaKO- version. According to Dr Scrivener 

fxivr),Kala.viir€id€ve\evdepodvTrivw6\iv.} [77ie Parallel New Testament Greet; 

- P'rom a note made in liis copy of and EnglisJi) the Revisers read crvvejii- 

ihe Otiiim NorvicensexK. is evident tlial ftaffav in either case. Ed. 



12 ST MATTHEW. XVI. 21 

events is that indicated by tjj tp'ltj] rjfiipa, of which phrase the others are 
merely variations. But as it has been lately questioned, ' whether there 
are not grounds for doubting the correctness of the common opinion >,' it 
may be as well to show, by examples both from sacred and profane 
authors, that when a speaker uses the phrase rij rptV?/ r]iiepa or only rfi 
TpiTu, he invariably means f/ie next day but one, and not the next day but 
two. If there were the smallest ambiguity in the use of the phrase, if it 
could possibly indicate cither of the two days, as the occasion might 
require, then the familiar use of it must be given up altogether ; I could 
not ask my friend to dine with me tri rpiTi), unless we both perfectly 
understood what day was intended. 

* To-day, to-morrow, the day after to-morrow.' In Greek, aiifiepov, 
uvpiov, rfj TpLTTj. Examples : Luke xiii. 33 : Idatis eniTe'Ka a-i]p.epov kqi 
civpiov, KQL Tij TpLTrj TeXfLovfiai. (In thc next verse for r^ rpiV/;, the third 
day, is substituted rij e'xo/ieVj;, the next day.) Acts xxvii. 18, 19: rfj i^f)s 
fK^oXfjv enoiovvTo- koi tj] Tpirj] avT6)(eipes rrfv aKfvrjv tov nXoiov €ppi\f/aixev. 
Exod. .\ix. 10, II : ayviaov avrovs (Trjixfpov kul avpiov...Kal iaruxrav eTuifioi 
th TTjv rjtitpav ttjv TpiTi]v. I Sam. xx. 12 : ^l^t^'?^f'^ "IPIO, for which LXX. 
have only rpiaaas (omitting "IHO altogether), but in the Hexapla after 
rpia-aws there is an insertion : avpiov koI els rpirr^v. Epict. Arr. IV. 10: on 
avpLOv T) els TTJV TpiTr]v Set rj avTov dnodavelv fj (Kelvov. Plut. Vlt. Phoc. XXII : 
' When many rushed to the /S^/xa, crying out that the report was true, and 
that Alexander was dead, ovkovv, elmv, el a-rip-epov redvrjKe, Kat avpiov earai 
Kin els Tpirrjv Te6vr]Ku>s, SO that we need not be in a hurry.' Id. Vit. Lys. X: 
ri] S' varepaia TrdXiv eylvovro Tuvra, koi rrj Tpirr] p.e)(pL TerapTrjs- Xenoph. 
Cyrop. VIII. 7, 5 : <wy hi. kvli rfj varepaia crvve^aivev avT(a Tavra, kuI rfj rpiTj], 
eKoXeae tovs iraldas K.r.e. Aristoph. Pax, 894: eneiT ay^va 5' evdvs e^earat 
TToielv I ravTtjv (Pacem) e)(ovoi.v avpiov koKov navv...TplTp 8e /lerd raid inno- 
8poiiiav d^ere. Antiph. Ylepl tov XopevToii, p. 145, 19: ovroi yap rrj fiev TrpcoTTj 
rip.epa fj dnedavev 6 nals, (cat r// vaTepaia jj irpoeKeiTO, oxib avTo\ rj^iovv 
alTiacrOai ep.e...Tri 8e TpiTt] r)p.(pa fj e^ecpepero 6 nali K.r.e. (There was a law 
of Solon eKC^epetv rov d-jvodavovra rfj varepaia f] av npodavrai.) We may 
add the express testimony of Porphyrius {(2uaest. Horn. 14) quoted by 
Wetstein on Matt. xii. 40: kuX yap 6 \r]yova-r]s r)p.epas eni.hr]p,r)a-as, Ka\ ri-js rpi- 
rm eu)6ev t'^icoi/, rr) rpirtj aTrodrjixelv Xeyerai, KaiToi p-iav rrjv p.ear)v oXrjv ereXecrev. 

' \\<i^\.co\.\.,Introdiiciionlo the Study who is not familiar with other ways 

0/ the Gospels, p. 348 (6th ecL). In a of reckoning besides his own. To a 

note at p. 349 the authop, after enume- scholar, as to a native Hebrew or Greek, 

rating the phrases above named and the obvious meaning not only favours 

one or two others, remarks: 'It will the shorter interval, but wa/tw «;/;/<?///(•/- 

scarcely be denied that the obvious impossible. 

meaning of these phrases favours the " [So a tertian fever is one that 

longer interval which follows from the returns every other day. Lucian. P/ii- 

strict interpretation of Matt. xii. 40." lops. 19: owbrt fx iacraro Sia TpiTr)% vrrb 

Obvious, tlial is, Icj an Englisli reader, toP' ?77rtct\oi; aTroXXiz/iei'oi'.] 



XVII. 27 ST MATTHEW. 1 3 

As might be expected, the same rule was observed in reckoning 
backward : ' To-day, yesterday, the day before yesterday {ttj Tpirr)).' Thus 
Xenoph. Cyrop. VI. 3, 11: kcCi e^des 8e koI rpiTTjv r)yi(pav to aVTO tovto 
firpaTTDv. Antiphon^ in Lex. Reg. (MS.) fx^^f ptfa tt^vt (ttivov, i]p.€pav rpiTrjv 
jifd^ 6777(1. Lucian. Hale. 3 : ecopaKas, Xai.pf(f>uiv, Tpirr]v rjpepav {nildt7is 
tertius) oa-os i*p 6 ;^ft/xwi/; To this agrees the Hebrew idiom DitJ'pSJ' 71003, 
cicTfl x^^^ '^"^'- Tp'TT^i' rjfxepav (Gen. xxxi. 2 ; Exod. v. 7). 

(2) The phrase pera rpf'is ijpepas is only another form for Ttj rpiTrj 
rjpipa, with which it is interchanged Mark viii. 31 ; Matt, xxvii. 63, 64. 
So Gen. xlii. 17, 18, Joseph 'put his brethren into ward tjpepai TpeU, and 
he said unto them ttj rjpepa ttj rptVj;.' In 2 Chron. x. 5 : Tropeufo-^e ecoy 
rpiav -qpfpav, Kai k'pxf(r6( npoi p4 is otherwise expressed v. 12 : enia-rpe'^aTf 
TTpos pe TTJ ripipa Trj TpiTt]. And lastly, in Hos. vi. 2 : vyida-ei rip.as peTa 8vo 
^p€pas, iv TTJ rip.epa Trj Tpirrj f^avaaTrjaopeOa, the former note of time cannot 
mean after ttvo complete days., or it would be identical with ' on the third 
day,' but must be understood as equivalent to h Tjj /jpepa Trj 8fvTepa. So 
of years : Shalmaneser came up against Samaria and besieged it in the 

fourth year of King Hezekiah, ' and at the end of three years {aivh re'Kovs 
Tpiav eTwv) they took it, even in the s/rth year of Hezekiah' (2 Kings xviii. 
9, 10). 

(3) The remaining passage (Matt. xii. 40) will not detain us long. 
The particular form of speech, three days and three nights, there used to 
express the same interval with the two former, is evidently accommodated 
to the language of the O.T. narrative of the history of Jonah. Even in 
that narrative it is not at all certain that the words are to be construed 
according to the strict literal meaning of them, the usiis loquendi in all 
languages admitting of a certain laxity in such cases, which being well 
understood is not liable to misapprehension. We have a similar case in 
the book of Esther (iv. 16), who sends word to Mordecai, ' Go, gather all 
the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat 
nor drink three days night or day; I also and my maidens will fast 
likewise, and so will I go in unto the king.' Yet it is certain that she did 
not herself fast, according to the strict letter of the prescribed term, 
three days, night afid day; for we read in the next chapter (v. i): 
' Now it came to pass on the third day {iv ttj rjpipa Tfj Tpkr}) that Esther 
put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king's house.' 

XVII. 27 : Kttl dvoi^as to o-Tojxa avrov evpii<r«i9 <rTaTT]pa] 'And when 
thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money.' It would 
seem impossible to twist these words into any meaning but that which 
they would convey to a child, who might be told to do the same thing at 
the present day. Yet they have been tampered with even by writers who 
do not deny the possibility of miracles in general, or of this in particular ; 
and who would probably repudiate such an interpretation of them as that 

^ See Ruhnken, Diss, de Antiph. Graec. III. p. i,s6. Ed. 
p. 248, and Meineke, Frag. Com- 



14 ST MATTHEW. XVIII. a? 

given by Paulus and others, whose clay is long since past : ' Postquam 
piscem hami vinculo liberaveiis, staterem co vendito liicraberis.' What 
else can be the meaning of Canon Farrar's remark {Life of Christy Chap, 
xxxvill.) : 'The literal translation of our Lord's words may most certainly 
be, "on opening its mouth, thou shalt get. or obtain, a stater'"? Yet 
fitiding and i^cttiiii:; are not the same thing. I find A\-hat I sought or 
looked for, in the present case, a piece of money in a fish's mouth : but if, 
in the ordinary course of business, I take a fish to market, and sell it for 
the same sum, I get^ but I cannot be said, either in Greek or English, to 
find it. That ivpr]<y(t,<i is properly used in the former case is evident from 
the similar incident (except that it was fortuitous, not miraculous) related 
by Herodotus (in. 42) : tqv 8e Ixdvv ranvovres 01 OffiaiTovTfs fvpi(TKov(Ti eV Ttj 
VT}8vi avTov tvfovcrav ttjv UnXvKpnTfos (rcfyprj-ylfia. And it is also true that the 
same verb is used, by a peculiarity of the Greek language, oi selling; but 
in that case it is not the seller, but the article sold, \\\\\c\\ finds (or, as we 
should say, fie fc/ies) the price for which it is sold. Thus Charit. Aphrod. 
I. 10: Xv<TiTf\((rTfpoi' eivai 7r(c\fjacu ttjv yvvnlKa' Tipriv yap evprjcrti Sia to 
KokXos. Theophr. Char. XV. I : Koi ttwXcoi/ ri, p.r] \iy(iv m'l'i (uvovp-fvois, 
TTOcrov av aTToSoiro, aXX' epcoroi', rl evplaKei (what is it worth ?). 

XVIII. 25: \i.r\ ?x°VTos St atPTov aTToSovvai] A. V. ' But forasmuch as 
he had not to pay.' R. V. ' had not 7vhe7-ewiih to pay.' The same phrase 
recurs Luke vii. 42, where A. V. less correctly: 'when they had nothing 
to pay^' In all such cases we may take e^w as not differing in sense 
from Sui/a/xm, ' he was not able to pay.' So, without the infinitive, Mark 
xiv. 8 : o 'i(Tytv fTTo/jjo-f , ' she hath done what she could.' This use of 
iX^iv is common in the best authors, but generally in the same connexion 
oi paying ; e.g. Plut. Vit. Cato Maj. XV: (mulctam) i]v ovk 'ix<>iv eKelvos 
dnoXvaacrdai, Koi Kivdvvfvcov 8e6r]pai, fioKis eTrtfcXr/crtt rmv brfpApxiav d(f>fidq. 
Id. Vii. Pericl. XXII : rhv p,ev /3a(rtXe'a ;^p?;/Lta(rii' f^rjp.i(o<Tav, cov to n\r)dos 
ovK e^o)!' fKrlcrai, nfTeaTTjaev iavrov eK AaKedaifiovos. Lucian. CAfonos. 1 5 : 
Koi TO ivo'iKiov, o'lTivfs au khi tovto 6(f)(l.XovTes Kara^aXflv p.rf £;^cocrt. Diod. 
Sic. T. X. p. 145 ed. Bip. (quoted by Wetstein) : (varavTos be tov opiaOeuros 
(xpovov) Kal jXT] f'xdiv (mobovvai, ndXiu (ra^e X' riptpuiv npodeap'iav (where 
dele K.ai)'^. 

*XIX. 1 1 : ou TrdvT€s x.wpoii<rL tov \6-yov tovtov] A. V. 'AH men cannot 
receive this saying.' A writer in the Expositor for April, 1882, says : 
' An inaccuracy for " All men receive not," though the fact that it is not 
indefensible is shewn by its acceptance by our Revisers.' But since 
X<^pf'iv is not to receive, but to contain, i.e. be capable ofi receiving, the 
rendering objected to is perfectly correct. 

^ [Cf. Luke xiv. 14: ovk 'ixovciv Trore KalavdiSTd 6/j.oia KaTaXd^oi, ^X'^'^^^t 

duTairodovval <Toi. R. V. ' they have not Trpbs to, iTpoyiypOiixp.iva diro^X^irovTes, 

wherewith to recompense thee.'] ei' XPW^"''^ '''"'s (f^ woai.] 

- [Cf. Lucian. l/ist. Cotisrr. 4? : tlis, ('( 



XXI. 42 ST MATTHEW. 



15 



XIX. 27 : Ti apa ^o-rai ii|j.rv ;] In an anonymous version published by 
G. Morrish, London (no date), these words are rendered : 'What then 
shall happen to us .^ ' But the phrase is classical as well as biblical, to 
signify, ' What reward shall we ha\'e ? ' Wetstein quotes two good 
examples from Xenophon, Anab. I. 7, 8 : n^tovi/res dSevai, ri acfjiaiv fo-rm, 
eav KparrjcruxTi. II. I, lO : XfyeVco Ti earai toIs cTTpaTWTan, tav avTM ravra 
Xapia-wPTai. I add I Kings (Sam.) xvii. 26 : ti noirjOrjo-emi ra dv8p\ or ni/ 
nara^r) rov d\X6(pv\op eKelvov ; as quoted from memory by St Chrysost. 
T. IX. p. 734 P : fl Se Xeyei, ti ecTTac rc5 nvfXni'Ti tov dW6(f)v\np tovtov ; nv 
piadnv aTTdiToiv eXeyfi' K.T.e.^ 

XXI. 13: o-n-qXaiov XT]<rTwv] 'a den (or cave) of robbers.' The phrase 
is taken from Jerem. vii. 11 : firj o-TTJjXaiov XtjaTuiv o oIkos p.ov . . .ivdinov 
vp.mv; The propriety of the comparison will be better seen, if we take 
into the account John ii. 14, where besides the moneychangers and 
sellers of doves are specially mentioned ' those that sold oxen and sheep,' 
a characteristic feature of the interior of those spacious caverns in which 
brigands were wont to house, not themselves only, but the droves of 
cattle which formed the chief produce of their successful raids. Thus we 
read in Dion. Hal. Ant. I. 39 that Hercules, when he had slain the 
robber Cacus, and recovered the stolen cattle from the cave to which 
they had been driv'en, ineihrj KaKovpymv vTroboxals (vBctov iatpa to )(^coplov, 
fniKaTaa-KaTTTd roi kXcottI re a-rrriXaiov (buried the thief in the ruins of his 
own cave). 

XXI. 42: irapd Kvpiov iyiviTO avrt]] Literally: 'This was from the 
Lord.' But both here and in Psal. cxviii. 23 the thoroughly English 
rendering, ' This is the Lord's doing,' so admirably represents the sense 
of the Hebrew and Greek originals, that it seems almost an act cf 
sacrilege to disturb it, especially if it should turn out that the O.T. 
revisers have abstained from doing so'-. Still more objectionable is the 
attempt of Fritzsche, Meyer and others to account for the gender of avrr} 
by making its antecedent to be Ke4>aXri, 'This (head of the corner) was 
from the Lord,' when every Hebrew scholar knows that the pronoun 
nXT, avTT], though properly feminine, is also used for the neuter tovto, and 
ought so to have been translated by the Lxx. in this and other places : 
e.g. I Sam. iv. 7 • oval rjpXv, oti ov yeyove Toiavrr] (^^^?) fX^^^ ''"' TpiTrjv. 
I Kings xi. 39 : kgI KaKovxwo) to aTrepp.a Aav\8 8ia tqiittju (^XT \V^7) nXfju 
ov ndaas tcis rjfxipas, where after tuvttjv Cod. 247 interpolates ttjv TrXdinjv. 

' [Cf. Aesop. Fad. 356: tL /xoi 'iarai Liban. I. 225 : avrb tovto to vvv i/j.^ Kai 

irpdiTTi ffoi eiiroijffri;] fij;/ Kai X^yeiv . . .irapa ttjs 'ApTepidos 

^ [Cf. Gen. xxiv. 50: irapa Kvpiov poi aacpiffTUTa, w avdpes. App. B. C. 

^^rjXde Tb irpdypa tovto. i Kings xii. ill. 65: Kal Tade p.01 Trap' vpCov, tS av- 

24 : 6ti Trap' ifxov yeyove Tb 'pripa tovto. aTpariwTai, yiyovef.] 



1 6 ST MATTHEW. XXII. i 

*XXII. 2: kttolr\iri -ydpiovs. 8: 6 |jiiv "yaiAos ?toi|aos] There does not 
seem to be any distinction between the phiral and the singular, though 
yafioi is generally used by good writers, when the marriage /east is 
principally intended : e.g. Diog. L. Vit. Plat. II : reKtvTa S', ay (^r^aiv 
"Ep/jLiirnos, iv yafiois demvcov. Xenoph. Eph. II. 7 : o 8e "A\|/'vprof (iroUi r^s 
dvyarpos tovs yafiovs, Koi tcopra^ov ttoXXols ijfifpais. Diod. Sic. XIII. 84 : 
AvTi(T6(VT]s...y(iiJ.ovs (TTiTeXmv rrjs Bvyarpos, (laTiaat tois nokiras fn\ rav 
(TTevcoiTwu a>v cokow eKacrros. Aelian, £p, penult. : tyw plv fdvov yapovs 
{tov vlov) o )(pv(TOVS parrjv, koi Trepir/fiv ((TTfCJiavapfPOi ovl^ev 8fOV. Ach. Tat. 
V. 14 : Koi oi^opa pev rjv tw dfinva yapoi, to 8e epyov {concubitutn) crvvtKfiTO 
Tapifvfadai. But the plural is sometimes used for marriage in the 
abstract, as Lucian Am. 51 : yapoi pkv dvdpcoirois ^i(o(f>t\es -rrpaypa. Plut. 
II. p. 27 A : are 8r) rpv^axm koi ynpwv copav i^ovcra. On the Other hand 
ydpos in the singular is often found in the Greek Bible for a marriage 
feast, as Gen. xxix. 22 : (rvi'i]yayf 8e Aa^av navras tovs dvdpas roO tottov, 
Kol enoirjae ydpov (Heb. HFl^'P, cotivivhtm). I Mace. x. 58 : kqi t^ihoTo 
qvtS KXeoTTOTpav ttjv dvyaTepa avTov, koi eVotJjo-e top ydpov avTJjs fv 
IlToX(pat8i,...fp 8('j^rj peydXjj. In the passage before us the most suitable 
English word both for ydpoi and ydpos will be found to be ' a wedding," 
which includes both the actual ceremony, and the festivities thereupon. 

*XXII. 23 : "irpoo-qXOov avTw ZaSSovKalOI, 01 Xe'-yovres it-r\ etvai 
dvdo-Tao-iv] Here, in deference to the principal uncials and other au- 
thorities, later Editors omit ol, according to which reading we must 
understand that they came to him, saying that there is no resurrection. 
But this is absurd. Their opinions on this subject were well known to 
our Lord, and any formal statement of them would have been impertinent. 
But as they might not be so well known to the reader, the writer himself 
inserts a parenthetical remark, which prepares his readers for what was 
to follow, and what the Sadducees really ' came to him saying.' So 
Mark xii. 18 : olTivfs Xtyovaiv dvaa-raaiv pfj dvai, and Luke xx. 27 : o« 
dvTiXtyovTfs dvd(TTafTiv prj flvai. The cause of the omission is patent. 

*XXII. 27: Wrepov 84 irdvTwv] A. V. 'And last of all.' This is 
better, perhaps, for the English reader than the more literal rendering, 
(R. V.) 'And after them all.' "YaTtpov is here used as a preposition, as in 
Dion. Hal. v. I : oKiyms ijpe'pais v(TT(pov Trjs fKftoXrjs tov Tvpdvvnv. Jerem. 
xxxi. 19 '• oTi voTfpov al)^paXo3aias pov ptTfvotjaa, koi vaTtpov tov yvavai pf 
((TTfPa^a. 

*XXII. 36 : rroCa €vtoXt] fxc-ydXt] «v tw v6}ia>] Here no MS. supplies the 
article r) after (VToKrj ; yet it is certain that we must either suppose it to 
have been accidentally omitted by a transcriber, or we must take 
ptydXr} in the sense of ptylaTi]. The rendering, adopted by Dean Alford 
and others, 'What commandment is great in the law?' is perfectly 



XXIII. 4 ST MATTHEW. \>j 

unmeaning. C. F. A. Fritzsche, who denies the use of fxeydXrj for 
fieyiarr], arrives at the same result by a roundabout way, explaining 
€vtoXt) jxeyoKri to mean ' a law, which you may rightly and truly call great, 
so that the others, be they ever so great in themselves, appear small in 
comparison with it.' What is this but the GREAT COMMANDMENT? 

*XX11I. 4: 'For they bind heavy burdens. ..and lay them on men's 
shoulders, but they themselves will not move them with their finger 
{avToX he rw SoktuXo) avTwv ov BfKovcri Kivfjcrai avrd).' The SCOpe of this 
charge, forming part of a general denunciation of the hypocrisy of the 
scribes and Pharisees, can hardly (one would suppose) admit of a doubt. 
It is the same thought as that which is expanded by St Paul in 
Rom. ii. 21 — 23: 'Thou therefore that teachest another' &c. But a 
writer in the Leisure Hour for August 1881, criticizing certain passages 
of the R. V. 'chiefly from the Jewish point of view,' upsets all this 
by simply denying the truth of the accusation, as thus understood. ' The 
passage cannot, therefore, mean that the Pharisees laid on others burdens 
which they did not touch ; nor yet, as has been suggested, that they did 
not sympathize with, or help others in their burdens.' The latter 
suggestion may be safely put aside ; as to the former, if the common 
understanding is not the true one, we would fain know what is. This 
our critic proceeds to show. The Pharisees, he says, claimed the power 
of 'binding and loosing,' and what they are here charged with is that 
they exercised this power of ' binding,' or laying heavy burdens on the 
shoulders of their disciples, but made no use of the ' loosing ' or 
'dispensing' power, when occasion required, in spite of one of the 
special warnings given them in the Talmud. 'A more heavy burden 
ought not to be laid on a congregation, unless the larger part of it is able 
to bear it.' Our Lord, therefore, in this passage, must be understood to 
charge the Pharisees with uncharitableness, because they bound heavy 
burdens &c. wliile with their finger they would not vio've them away ; in 
other words, remove, as they might have done, even the slightest part of 
them. Thus far the ' Jewish ' point of view, to reconcile which with the 
'grammatical' we are informed that Kiveiv means not only to 'move,' but 
also to ' remove,' as in Rev. ii. 5 : 'I will remove {Kipr](ra>) thy candlestick 
out of its place ' ; where, however, the addition of sk tov roVov avrfjs 
makes it a matter of indifference whether we translate 'move,' as the 
Revisers, or ' remove,' as A. V. But Kivelu in connexion with a heavy 
weight, and in contrast with the act of bearing it upon the shoulders, can 
only be understood of a simple moving or stirring of it, especially when 
it is added ' with the finger,' or, as the phrase is varied in Luke xi. 46 : 
'Ye touch not (oi5 Trpoa-^avere) the burdens with one of your fingers,' 
recalling the familiar Greek proverb a/cpw rw daKTvXa a-^aa-dm, for leviter 
attingere. So we find it used in a Scholium on Lucian, De conscrib. 
Hist. 34, where one Titormus a herdsman, in a trial of strength with Milo 

K. 2 



1 8 ST MATTHEW. XXIII. 25 

of Crotona, takes the biggest stone he can find, and after sundry 
manipulations with it, reXoi clpafxtvos eVi rav a/jLcov ((pepev cos eV npyvihs v, 
Kn\ eppiyl/ev avrnv ; while his antagonist, a professed athlete, poyis rnv 
\tBov 'EKINH2EN. 

*XXIII. 25 : 'Y«V°^''''-v *^ apiraYTJs Kal aKpacrias] This seems to be a 
locutio praegnaiis for yepovcn rav i^ apTrayfjs Koi aKpacrias (rvvfiXfypei'iov. 
The full phrase is found in Lucian. 7"/;//. 23 : "ixpis av...(v aaape'i tov 
Xpovov iidkioi (K)(ir] to. kut oXiyov eK TroWtov fTTinpKiaiv koi apirayiov Km 
irnvovpyioiv avveiKeypeva. 

XXIII. 38: 'Your house is left unto you desolate.' I would print 
'Your House' (comparing Isai. Ixiv. 11:' Our holy and beautiful House, 
where our fathers praised thee'), and in Luke xi. 51 : 'which perished 
between the altar and the House' [A. V. 'temple,' R. V. 'sanctuary']. 
Other explanations of 6 oIkos vpu>i> have been proposed^, but none so 
simple, and to Jewish ears so familiar. Thcophylact and Euthymius are 
quoted for this sense, but not St Chrysostom, although there is no doubt 
he so understood the words. In his exposition of St Matthew he rather 
assumes than declares it ; but in another passage {Horn. LXV. on St 
John, p. 389 e) he is very clear : ' But even thus [after the High 
Priesthood had been made an affair of purchase] the Spirit was still 
present. But when they lifted up their hands against the Messiah, then 
he left them, and transferred himself to the Apostles. And this was 
indicated by the rending of the veil, and the voice of Christ, which said, 
" Behold, your House is left unto you desolate." ' There is, however, no 
foundation for the gloss which Dean Alford puts upon the phrase, ' no 
more God's, hwX. your house.' It rather means 'the house you are so 
proud of 

XXIV. 4: [11] Tis V^s irXaviio-Ti] A. V. 'That no man deceive you.' 
R. V. 'That no man lead you astray.' Again, John vii. 12 : -nkava tov 
oxKoi/, the same versions give respectively, ' He deceiveth the people,' 
and ' He leadeth the multitude astray.' There is really no sound reason 
for the change, nor have those who introduced it attempted to carry it 
out uniformly. Thus in 2 Tim. iii. 13 they retain 'Deceiving and being 
deceived.' In Matt, xxvii. 63 cKdvos 6 nXavos is still 'that deceiver,' and 
in Rev. xii. 9 6 nXavoiv rffv olKovfitvrjv oXrjv, ' the deceiver of the whole 
world.' The glossaries give IlXam " aTrara. TlXavos' annTeciv. 

*XXIV. 45 : T£s tipa tcrrlv 6 itio-tos SovXos k.t.€.] 'A question asked 
//laf each one may put it to hiuisclf^?^w^ to signify the high honour 
of such an one' — Alford. Rather, to intimate the rarity of such a 

^ Alford characteristically: ^ Your then of Jerusalem — and then of tlie 
house — said primarily of the temple — whole land in which ye dwell.' 



XXVI. 15 ST MATTHEW. 19 

character. S. Basil, T. iii. p. 7 B {De Sp. Sancto v) : Ti'r 'iyva vovv Kvpiov, 
Koi Tis (TVfjLl3ov\os avTov eyevero ; To yap, Tii, ivTiivda ov)(^i to anopop jravre'Kcos, 
aWa TO (TTTcivLov Sr/XoT, <as eVt tov, Ti's avaoTrjaeTai fioi fVt TTOvrjpfvofievovs ; koi, 
Tt's eaTiv nvGpairos 6 OeXoiP (a>i]v ; koi, Ti'r ava^i](T€Tai els to opos tov Kvpiov ; 

XXV. 8 : at XaiiirdSes v\i.(av a-^ivvvvrai] Here the rendering of R. V. 
'are going out' is greatly to be preferred to that of A. V. 'are gone out.' 
Compare Prov. xxxi. 18: ovk aTToa^ivvvTai oKrjv ttjv vvktu 6 Xvxvos avTrjs. 
Charit. Aphrod. I. I : waTrep tc Xvxpov f/)c5? "]8r] a(3evuvpfPou inixvOevTo^ 
ikaiov TToXiu nvfXnpnf. 

*XXV. 21 : 'Thou hast been faithful eVt 6\iya, over a few things.' 
If it were eVi SXlyap, we might explain the preposition from the clause 
which immediately follows, ' when set over a few things.' As it is, eVl 
seems to have the force of gtiod attinct ad, as in i Cor. vii. 36 : d Se tis 
da-xrjp-opflp (n\ Trjp napdepop avrov vop.i^fi. If SO, it may be not improperly 
rendered 'in a few things,' which is the construction in Luke xix. 17 : eV 
e\a;^icrra) mcrTos iyepov ', and xvi. lo : 6 ttkttos eV iXaxio'Tco koi ep ttoXXm 
TTta-Tos icTTi. But pcrhaps 'over a few things' may be defended by Heb. 
iii. 6 : XpicrTos Se {irKTTos) (os vlog errl top oIkop nvTov. 

XXV. 27 : Kal IXOtiv €-yw eKop.io-d|xi^v dv to €|j.6v o-uv toko)] ' And at my 
coming I should have received (back) mine own with usury.' In Luke 
xix. 23 for eKop.i(rnpT)p the word is enpa^a, ' I should have demanded (lit. 
exacted) it.' Instead of eXdau, in this sense, we should rather have 
expected irrapeXButp, especially in St Luke (compare v, 1 5 : kui eyepeTo eV 
T(3 iirapeXBf'ip cwtop XafSoPTa ttjp ^aaiXeiap). This objection, however, is not 
conclusive against the A. V., because we find eX^co'i' so used in good 
writers, as Plut. F//. Pomp. XLVII : rore Se Kaicrap €X6a>p diro (TTpaTeias 
^yf^uTO iroXiTevp-aTos. Dion. Hal. Anf. VIII. 57: ft p.€v ev npa^as 6 MdpKios 
...eXdoi^. But it is remarkable that in both Gospels the pronoun eyco is 
so used as if it were intended to be emphatic, as it certainly was under- 
stood to be by St Chrysostom on St Matthew (T. vil. p. 754 b) : avTos de 
ovx ovTCOS' dXXa 2E eSei KaTa^aXelp, (prjai, koi ttjp dTraiTrjaiP 'EMOI eTriTpexj/ai. 
If we accept this view of the parable, we must translate: 'And I should 
have gone (to the bank) and received back mine own (or demanded it) 
with interest.' Compare Matt. ii. 8 : ottcos Kdym eXdap npocrKVPTja-a) avTOP. 
viii. 7 • cy^ iXda>p 6epa7reva-co avTov. 

XXVI. 15: ot Be ^o-TT]o-av avrw rpidKOvra dp^yvpia] A. V. 'And they 
covenanted with him for (R. V. and they weighed unto him) thirty pieces 
of silver.' Hieron. : At illi constittiertmt ei triginta argetiteos. So both 
Syriac versions (ai^ oV) . o() ; and this explanation of the phrase, 

^ [Cf. Dio Chrys. Or. XI. p. 171. P-W^ irporepov prjTe vcrrepov, iXdwv air' 
36: Kal yap r)v deivov, el N^frrwp pev, 'IXiov....] 

2 — 2 



20 ST MATTHEW. XXVI. 50 

which is that of Theophylact (ol fie ea-Trjaav X apyvpia, avri rov avvf(f)covi](Tav, 
d<p(opi(Tav 8ovvai, ovx o>j ol ttoXXoi voovctiv, dvA rov ((vyoa-Tarrjaav), Grotius, 
Bois, Eisner, and others, still finds its advocates in the present day (e.g. 
Alford (who relies chiefly on the (Trrjyye iXavro of Mark, and the avvedevro 
of Luke), Fritzsche (' non tarn ob locos parallelos Marci et Lucae, quam 
ob verba tI diXere /noi Boiimi — avrov ; quibus bene respondent, //// aiitem 
irigitita siclos se dattiros ei polliciti sunf') and others). But this use of 
a-rrjaai cannot be proved. In Gen. xxiii. 17 : i'crTr] 6 dypos...Ta 'A/Spaajn eli 
KTrjaiv, nothing is said about the price, and in v. 20, for the very same 
Hebrew, in the Greek is eKvpcodrj 6 dypos ra 'A/3paa/i, ' the field was made 
sin-e to him,' which is a very different thing from agreeing about the price. 
On the other hand, the biblical use of earrja-av dvrl rov e^vyoa-raTrjaav is 
undoubted. Besides the place of Zechariah (xi. 12) koI fcrTrjo-av rhv iiicrdov 
fiov X dpyvpovs, ' So they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver,' we 
have in Jeremiah (xxxii. 9) the identical construction of St Matthew: koI 
earrjaa avra ro dpyvpiov, iiTTa a-'iicXovs Koi S«a dpyvpiov. We find the same 
construction, only with /i?///«^ instead oi weighittg, in profane authors, as 
Dion. Hal. Ant. IV. 62 : eneXevaav dTrapidfirjcrai rrj yvvaiKl to -x^pvcriov oarov 
f)TiL. And even in the present transaction, we need not suppose that 
actual scales and weights were introduced, but only that the older form 
of speech remained in use long after the practice had become obsolete. 

XXVI. 50 : €(j>' o irdpsi,] A. V. ' Wherefore art thou come ?' R. V. 
^ Do that for which [or, wJicreforc, as Acts x. 21] thou art come.' So the 
words are rightly explained by Euthymius : 81' o Trapayiyovn^' Ijyovv to 
KiiTo. (TKOTTov np'iTTf, Tov npo(T)(r]p.aTos d(pup.{vos. The sentiment is the same 
as in John xiii. 27, where also the traitor is addressed : o -n-oiels, iro'irja-ov 
Taxiov. The phrase i4> o Trdpet may be illustrated from Ach. Tat. viii. 
16: dyvoovaav t^v dXrjdeiav €(ji o TrapTJv. Lucian. Pseiidomant. 53: 
fpcoTrjde\s yap e(ji o Ti rjKe, depairelav, e(f)r], ciIt^ctmv npos d8vvr]v TrXfvpoi). 
Aelian. V. H. VI. 14: /cm tpip,v eviBciv, ti ovv ov BpaTf tovto, flnfv, e<f)^ o koi 
c6pp.i](raT( ; ^ 

XXVI. 61 : 8id Tpiwv i][X€pwv] Not 'in three days' (eV Tpio-lv ^fiepait, 
Ch. xxvii. 40, John ii. 19); nor 'within three days' (A. V. Mark xiv. 58); 
but 'after three days.' So Mark ii. i : 81 ^p.epciv, 'after some days'; Acts 
xxiv. 17 : St' fTutv nXdoviau, 'after many years'; Gal. ii. i: Sin BeKnTea-adpcov 
(Twv, 'after fourteen years'; Dcut. xv. i: Si' eVra €Toiv (D^3C'"y3C* fi'p^P). 
Classical usage agrees: e.g. Stob. F/or. T. xnv. 41 : Savpo^nrm 8ia Tpiutv 
tj^fpav (TiTovvTai els Ttk-qpuxnv. Aelian. V. H. XIII. 42: oiKiaai Se Mta-cnjvrjv 
Si' eVwc TpiaKovra Koi BiaKocricov". 



[Cf. .Soph. Oc'i/. Col. 1280: \iy , Tr6(T0v xp^vov (poiTOLV Tah irbXeaiv duOtv. 
w TaXal-rrup', avT^s iSv xp^^f irdpei.] 'O 5e ^0??, did. p. trQv, ivloTe 5^ Kal 5td X 

2 [Cf. Aesop. Fal>. 372 : »;pcoTa 5ta ("OpAos loquitur).] 



XXVII. 28—31 ST MATTHEW. 21 

XXVII. 3 : dir€a-Tpex|/« to. X dp-yvpia tois dpxi«p«t'crt] For dnea-rpfyp^f, ' he 
brought back,' the uncials BLS read earpeyj/e, which is supposed to be not 
different in sense from the other. But this is not so. Examples of 
dTTO(TTpe(peiv, to bring back, are very common ; as Gen. xliii. 12 : to dpyvpiov 
TO diTO(TTpa^iv ev Tols fiapa-lmrois vfimv dnoarpi^aTe p.iS' vfjLcov, Deut. xxii. 
I : ' If thou seest thy brother's ox. ..go astray, dTroaTpo(f)fj dnoiXTpiyl/^eis avTo. 
ra aSeX^w aov.' But the simple verb <TTpi4>u) has no such meaning ; and 
the only instance referred to by Dean Alford, Isai. xxxviii. 8 : e'yco a-rpi^a 
(2''P'n) Tr].v a-Kidv, ' I will cause the shadow to return,' is quite different, 
though even there dTroa-Tp€(f)co would be more appropriate, and is so used 
in the very same verse. 

XXVII. 24 : oTi ovSev w<|)£X£l] 'that he prevailed nothing.' John xii. 
19: ort ovK (ocfjeXelre ovdev, 'how ye prevail nothing.' This sense of 
'prevail' for 'to be of use' seems to require confirmation. Somewhat 
similar is i Kings xxii. 22 : ' Thou shalt persuade him, ^xvA prevail also'; 
but there the Greek is Ko/ye dwria-j]. In James v. 16 we read: 'The 
prayer of a righteous man a^uiilctJi much' ; but there also the word is 
Ivx^^h not coc^eXfi. There seems to be no reason why we should not keep 
close to the Greek : ' When Pilate saw that he did no good'' ; ' Perceive 
ye how ye do no good at all.' Compare Job xv. 3 : ' With speeches 
wherewith he can do no good' (Iv Xoyot? ois oihkv ocpeXoi)^. In classical 
Greek (e.g. Thucyd. 11. 87 : Tf)^vr] avev dXKfji ov8ev to^eXei) the phrase is 
current, generally of things ; of persons, ovdev dvvei, or ovBev ovivrja-t is 
preferably employed'-^. St Matthew goes on : dWa p.ak\ov dopv^os yivfrai, 
'but that rather a tumult was made.' This is the generally received 
rendering ; for which one might prefer with Fritzsche (since the tumult 
had already begun) ' but that the tumult was increasing,' were it not for 
the absence of the article, which such a construction would seem to 
require. Thus Thucyd. VII. 25 : Ka\ tov f'/cel noXeixov p.a\Xov inorpvvaxTi 
ylyvfadai (should be carried on more vigorously). 

XXVIl. 28 — 31. With this irony of the Roman soldiery it is 
interesting to compare a grim jest which was wont to be played off by 
the Mediterranean pirates, of whose unbounded insolence many anecdotes 
are recorded by Plutarch in his life of Pompey xxiv. 'But the most 
contemptuous circumstance of all was, that when they had taken a 
prisoner, and he cried out that he was a Roman {Civis Romanns sum), 
they pretended to be struck with terror, smote their thighs, and fell upon 
their knees (TrpoaeTTiiTTou avra) to ask his pardon ; and that his quality 
might no more be mistaken, some put caloei on his feet, others threw a 
toga around him (ot ixev vnedovv rols kciXtIois avrou, ol 8e rrj^evvav nepie- 

1 [Cf. Tobit ii. 10: 'I went to the '" [Cf. irepaiveiv : Plut. Fit. Tim. X: 

physicians and they iielped me not,' oxjk ri yap du Kal irepaiveiv dTreiOwv ;] 
ihcpiXrjaav.] 



22 ST MATTHEW. XXVII. 48 

/3aXXoi/), the official costume of a Roman citizen. When they had made 
game of him {KaTeipaveva-afxevoi avrov) for some time, they let down a 
ladder into the sea, and bade his worship go in peace ; and if he refused, 
they pushed him off the deck, and drowned him.' 

*XXVII. 48; liroTi^ev auTov] 'gave him to drink.' An honoured 
correspondent (not a divine) writes to me : ' There is a point (of which 
I have seen no notice) which appears to me to shew that at least two of 
the evangelists were eye-witnesses of the crucifixion. It is //le sudden- 
ness of death after drinking. In speaking of impalement, which, in a 
physiological sense (destruction by fretting of branch-nerves, without 
injury to any vital organ) appears to resemble crucifixion, Lord Byron 

says : 

" Oh water ! water ! — smiling hate denies 

The victim's prayer; for if he drinks, he dies."' 

On which we remark : (.1) that there is no mention of water through- 
out the narrative of the crucifixion ; (2) that the first offer {edmKav, edidow) 
of drink (Matt, xxvii. 34, Mark xv. 23), 'wine mingled with gall' or 
' myrrh,' was the act of the soldiers before the crucifixion, and was refused 
by their victim (yevaafitvoi ovk rjde'Ke ni-flv, ovk eAa/3e) : (3) that the second 
offer (a sponge full of vinegar), from one of the bystanders, took place 
immediately after the exclamation ' My God &c.' Whether this was 
accepted by the sufferer, is not quite clear, as the word in both evangelists 
(Matt, xxvii. 48, Mark xv. 36) is eVdrtffj', which may mean only that 
they offered him this refreshment. According to both these evangelists 
his last outcry and death followed immediately. St John (xix. 28 — 30) 
agrees, with the additional circumstance that our Lord invited the 
refreshment, and, when it was offered, accepted it : ore ovv eXa^f to o^os 
lr]aovs, fine, TereAecrrai k.t.L 

XXVIII. 3 : i^v 8s T] ISe'a avrov (A. V. 'his countenance.' R. V. 'his 
appearance') ws ao-Tpairii] There seems no sufficient reason for the 
change. A man's I8ui is his form or aspect, which, as distinguished from 
his raiment, is chiefly shown in his countenance. Compare Dan. i. 15 : 
'And at the end of ten days their countenances (at iSeat avVwi') appeared 
fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of 
the king's meat.' The classical usage of the word does not differ from the 
biblical, e.g. Diod. Sic. in. 8: The Ethiopians rmy \xkv ^poai^ dal neXavts, 
Tois 8e I8(aii aifioi (flat-nosed), rols Se rpi^ci finer iv ovXoi. Plut. Vit. Flamin. 
I : \hf.av p.kv oTToios rjv TrdpeaTi 6faaaa6ai. rols ISovXofifvois dno rfjs fv Vwfxi] 
XoXk^s flKovoi. Philostr. //er. p. 160 cd. Boiss. : ^ iw8ev nepl rfjs IStas 
avToi) o IIpcoT€aiX(oys fpp.r]vev(i ;^ 

^ [Cf. I'lut. / 7/. Brut. I : ava<pipnv Some fishermen drew uji wpocfwjrov, 
ivLovs wpbs Tov avdpidvTa rod UpovTov made of olive wood — tovto ibiav irapi- 
TTjii 6/j.oi6T7jTa TTJs idias. i'lUis. x. 19,2: o-xero (jxlpovcav fx-iv ei's to Odov ^eivriv 



XXVIII. 14 ST MATTHEW. 23 

XXVIII. 14 : lav aKovo-Ofj tovto iirl toO ii"y€(A6vos] ' If this come to the 
governor's ears.' R. V. in margin : ' Or, come to a hearing before the 
governor.^ So Dean Alford : 'Not only coDie to the ears of the go^'ernor^, 
but, be borne witness of before the goverfwr, come before him officially.' 
But this supposed judicial sense of aKova-6fi seems rather to be suggested 
by the vernacular idiom (according to which we speak of a cause being 
' ripe for hearing,' being ' part heard ') than by the usage of the Greek 
word^. Compare John vii. 51, Acts xxv. 23, where it is the accused that 
is heard, not the cause. And the usual understanding of the passage is 
quite unobjectionable: ' If this be heard (talked of) before the governor.' 
Compare Mark ii. i : 'It was noised {i^Kovadr}) that he was in the 
house.' 

8L... Plut. F/t. Dcmctr. 11 : iieyidei ^ [The literal Greek version of the 

fxev rjv Tov irarpos iXdaauv, Idiq, re /cat English idiom is found in Liban. I. 195: 

KoWei TTpoffibTTov Oav/jLacTTos Kal TrepiTTos. eus eh wra rois ^aaiXfvcnv d<l)iKOLTo.^ 
Id. J^it. Galhaei): koX fidWov idoKei Kad' - In Acts xxv. 21 Paul 'appeals to 

o/j-oioTriraTTis iSeas eKeivii) TrpoffrjKeiv. But be reserved unto the hearing of Au- 

Plut. II. p. 257 e: TrepijjXewToi' ixh Ibia gustus,' but there the Greek is didyvwais 

aicfxaros Kai upa.] (R. V. 'decision'). 



ST MARK. 



*Chap. I. 7 : Xvcrai t6v i|xdvTa twv -inroSTiiJLdTwv avrov] In one word 
vTro\vcrai avruv, a servile office. Compare Plat. Syiiip. p. 213 B: v-nokviTi, 
naiSes, 'AXKi^iddrjv. Plut. V//. Pomp. LXXIII : tScoi/ o ^awi/toy, oIk€tQ>v 
aTTopla, TOP Tlofiirrfiov dpxo^epov avTov vTToKvfiv, irpocridpafie, Koi vneXvae, Knl 
avvi]\ei\p-{, where Langhorne oscitatiter, 'to wash himself'...' washed 
him.' 

*I. 27 : Ti €<rTi TovTo ; tis r\ 8i8axi] y\ Kaivi] avTT]; on Kar' e^ovcriav k.t.€.] 
This is the T. R. which is supported by AC, the Vulgate and both 
Syriac versions. A shorter reading is that of BLN : t'i iari tovto; StSaxv 
Kaii/Tj KQT f^ovcriav K.r.i. for which Tischendorf gives : 'What is this? A 
new doctrine with authority! He commandeth' &;c. Dean Alford : 
'What thing is this.'' It is a teaching new and with authority. He 
commandeth ' &c. R. V. ' What is this ? a new teaching ! with authority 
he commandeth ' &c. This last is to be preferred so far as it separates 
KOT e^ova-iav from StSa^'), and joins it with iniTaa-cTei, which is confirmed by 
Luke iv. 36 : on iv (^ovaia kuI 8vvdp,fi fniTaacrfi k.tJ. ; but the clumsy 
device of putting the two words 8i8axr) kulvi] extra constnictioncin, by 
interpolating a note of admiration after them, is tantamount to a con- 
fession that the reading, as a whole, cannot be construed. If the speaker 
had intended to utter an exclamation of surprise, he would have said, ojs 
(or Ti) KatvT] 7) hihayj] ! or w r^y KatJ^^y hi.ha-j(r\% ! Or, without the interjection, 
Tr\s Knivfis Sibaxvsl^ One is surprised to be told by Dean Alford, that 
the shorter reading 'seems to have been the original, and to have been 
variously conformed to the parallel place in St Luke,' who has only ris 6 
Xoyor ovTos, oVt e'f i^ovaia K.r.i. We should rather have supposed that 
the T. R. of St Mark had been conformed to Acts xvii. 19 : Swafxfda 

yvcovai, ris rj Kaiv^ nvTrj i] vnh (tov \aXovp.fPr) SiSax^] ', if it COuld be proved 
that the copyists were in the habit of interpolating the Gospels from the 
Acts, as well as from one another. 

^ Babr. /uz/j. xcill : Kaivijs ye raurris, elire, t?}s fxecnrelas ! where the note of 
admiration is mine. 



in. 21 ST MARK. 25 

I. 30 : KaT€K€iTo irvpeo-orovora] 'lay sick of a fever.' Rather, 'kept her 
bed (A. V. Exod. xxi. 18), being sick of a fever.' Compare Pkit. Vi/. 
Cic. XLIII : (being summoned to a meeting of the Senate) ovk ^Xdev, 
aWa KaTfKeiTo, fiaXaKws f'x^"' ^^ ''''^^ kottov aKrjnToixevos^. 

II. 23: Tj'plavTo 686v uoieiv TiWovres tovs o-Toixvas] 'They began, as 
they went, to pluck the ears of corn.' R. V. adds in margin : ' Gr. 
began to make their way plucking.^ The explanation, that the disciples 
made themselves a road through the corn by plucking the ears, is usually 
attributed to Meyer, but was long ago noticed and refuted by Rosen- 
miiller, who rightly objects that such a wanton act of mischief would 
have been unlawful on any day, let alone the Sabbath. It is even as old 
as Euthymius, who, in his commentary on the parallel place of St 
Matthew, says : 'O Se MapKos ilmv .... eVft yap fxicrou rav cmoptficov 
8it]p)(^ovTo, cifia fxev dueaTrcov tovs ardx^vas, Iva TrpolSaivdv e'xoiev, cifia de ijadiov 
Tovs dvaanafiivovs. But though the distinction between 6861/ noulv 
{ — uBoTTou'iv) 'to make a road,' and 686v ttou'ktOm 'to make a journey,' 
holds good in Classical Greek'^, some latitude must be allowed for 
the writers of the N. T., whose style was confessedly modified by their 
familiarity with the Greek version of their Scriptures. Now the usage of 
the LXX. is clearly proved from Jud. xvii. 8 : 'And he came to mount 
Ephraim to the house of Micah, as he journeyed\Y{Qh. in making his 
way J LXX. : tov noifjarai rrjv 686u avrov). 

III. 10: w(rT€ £irnri'irT€iv avTw] 'Insomuch that they pressed upon 
him.' R. V. in margin : ' Gr. /e//.' The examples of ennriTTTfiv quoted 
by Kypke, Eisner, and Wetstein are in favour of the meaning, /<? /a// 
upon, attack suddenly, assault, which is not suitable to this place. A 
better one from Thucydides (vii. 84) seems to have been overlooked : 
adpooi yap dpayKu^op.ei'oi x<^pelv iireTvmTov re aXX/JXois Koi KaTfnaTovu. 

III. 21 : 01 Trap' avrov] A. V. 'his friends. Or, kinsmen.' Hieron. 
sui. Theophylact and Euthymius explain 01 oiKe'ioi avrov, though the 
former adds : tv^op ol aTro rfjs avTrjs narpiSos, rj /cat 01 d8eX(f>o\ avrov. Oi 
Tvapd rivos, in Greek writers, are generally legati ab aliquo inissi, a sense 
which does not suit this place. Of the examples adduced in support 
of the sense oi oiKeloi avrov, many are irrelevant ; but after rejecting these, 
there still remain several indubitataejidei. (i) Prov. xxxi. 21 : Trdi/res yap 

1 [So cubo in Latin. Horace, Epist. all of them it is itoi-fiaQai., not itoiuv. 

II. ii. 68: cubat hie in colle Quirini.] Even in his quotation from Libanius, 

- Kypke {Observ. Sacr. T. I. p. 154) ij-nkp ad€\<pov rrjv oSbv 'Tirepextos ^<pr) 

to defend 65bv iroLeiv, iter facere, from ravrrjvi TreTroiijcrdai, where (he says) the 

the charge of being a Latinism, gives use of the passive implies that the active 

four examples from Xenophon, Dion. might be so used, Treiroi'qaOai is not 

Hal., Josephus and Dio Cass. ; but in passive, but middle. 



26 ST MARK. IV. i 

ol nap' avTr/S fv8i8vaKovTat dicrcrd. (Heb. nri''!l"?2).) Fritzsche objects : 
' E codd. reponendum ol nap' avrfj,' but the other is undoubtedly the true 
reading, being found in il, ill, and the Syro-hex. CTIJLSdj ^ \ rn 
(2) Susan. 33 : i'KXaiou 5e ol nap' avrfjs (Hieron. sui) kuI ndvres ol IBovrts 
avTi]v, (3) I Mace. xiii. 52 : Kal npoaa>)(vpaiae to bpos rov Upoii ro napa rrjv 
uKpav, Ka\ (OKfi (Kel avros Ka\ 01 nap avrov (A. V. ' his company,' Vulg. 
(/id cum CO craiit, against Fritzsche, who would understand posteri ejus, 
but gives no example of such an usage). (4) Joseph. Ant. I. 10, 5 : /cat 
"AlBpafios fi€U f'nl tovtois evxapicTTrjcras roj ^eco, nepiTepverai napavriKa, Kal 
ndvTfs ol nap' avrov, Ka\ 6 na'is 'lapdyjXos. Some good examples of this use 
of napd, from Polybius and others, may be found in Wetstein, to which 
may be added Diod. Sic. xix. 53 : t6 fiiv nprnrov rav OrjjBalav tov nap' 
avTwu eOvovs {sitae gcntis) npoaravrap, fMeTo. Se ravra Trjs Tmv 'EXX^pcov 
riyep.ovins d[j,(piaf:iT]TT]aai'T(ov. 

IV. I. For avvrjxBrj the reading awdyfrai is followed by R. V. : 
' There is gathered unto him a very great multitude, so that he entered 
into a boat, and sat in the sea.' But in that case the Greek, wcrre avTov 
efi^dvTa . . . Kudrja-dai, should also be rendered in the present tense, ' so 
that he entereth . . . and s/ttet/t.' 

IV. 29 : dTrocTTtXXei, to Sptiravov, on -jrapeo-TTiKev 6 0€pi(r|A6s] A. V. ' He 
pulteth in the sickle.' R. V. 'He pulteth forth the sickle. Or, sciideth 

forth^ Comparing Joel iv. (iii.) 13 : e^aTrooreiXare Bpenava, uri napearrjKfv 
6 rpvyrjTos, there can be no doubt that the Evangelist (or the speaker 
himself) had the words of the prophet, as rendered by the LXX. (for in the 
Hebrew the verb in the second clause is not H^i^, or any other word 

which might fitly be rendered by napeartjKf, but ?^?, coctiis est) in his 
mind. Now the Hebrew H?^, besides its ordinary meaning to send, has 
also a special one, to put forth, generally the hand, but also a rod (Jud. 
vi. 21, I Sam. xiv. 27), a branch (Ezek. viii. 17), here a sickle. In all 
such cases (about forty in number) the LXX. have employed the proper 
Greek word eKreiveip, with the single exception of Joel iv. 13. We must 
therefore understand e^anoareXXfiv in that place, as well as in St Mark, 
in the sense of putting fortJi. The marginal rendering can only be 
admitted on the assumption that 'the sickle' may be taken for 'the 
reapers,' which on the other supposition is unnecessary. 

V. 4 : 'io-xv« 8a|j.do-ai.] A.V. 'could tame him.' R.V. 'had strength to 
tame him' ; perhaps to indicate that il is not the same word as that used 
in V. 3 {r\hx)vaTo). But tV;(iJc<) followed by an infinitive occurs sixteen times 
in the Greek Testament ; in all of which (exc. Luke xvi. 3) the Revisers 
have left / can, or I am able; even in John xxi. 6, where bodily strength is 



V. 36 ST MARK. 27 

required: 'they were not able to draw the net for the multitude of fishes ^' 
In the next verse KaTaKonrcov favrou 'Kidois, for 'cutting himself I would 
recall the rendering of Wicliff, Tyndale and Cranmer, 'beating himself,' 
contttndens, not (as Hieron.) concideiis. Compare Ach. Tat. v. 23 : kXKVfra^ 
8e tSv Tpt)(av, dpa(r(rei rrpbs Tov8a(f>os, Koi TrpoaTTiTTToop KaraKOTTTd jxe TrKrjyais^. 
The word is also used of beating the breast, head, &c. in mourning : as St 
Chrysost. T. X. p. 544 C : 01 iv aKpji tov irivdovs prjdfvos dve^^opevoi Trarepes, 
Ka\ KaTaKOTTTOvres eavrovs. T. XI. p. 468 B : et Se to dXyelv enl toIs dneXdovatP 
iOviKav, To KaTaKoTTTeadai, koi Kara^alveiv irapfLas, rlvav dpa ecrrtf, eiTre p.01; 

V. 26: TToXXd iraGovo-a {iiro iroWwv larpwv] Wetstein quotes Menander 
[p. 338 ed. Meineke] : IIoXAcoi/ laTpav elVoSos p.' ajraXeae. Plin. Hist. Nat. 
XXIX. 5: 'Hinc ilia infelicis monumenti inscriptio, tttrba se viedicoriim 
periisse^ Compare Diod. Sic. T. x, p. 61 ed. Bip. : koI h^ivav aXy^Soi/wi/ 
fTTiyevopevav, crvv€K\T]dr] TrXrjdos larputv. 

ibid. : Kal Sairavijo-ao-a xd irap' auxTJs Trovra] 'And had spent all that 
she had^.' Good examples of this phrase are quoted by Kypke from 
Josephus, namely: Aiit. vill. 6, 6 (of the Queen of Sheba) : koi j) pev...av 
TTpoeiprjKaptv Tvxovaa, koi peraSovaa wdXiv rw /SatrtXei rwu nap' avTrjs, els rfju 
oIkiuv inridTpi'^ev. B. J. II. 8, 4 (of the Essenes) : ovhkv 8e iv dXXj;Xotj oiVe 
ayopa^ovaiv ovre TrcoXovaiv, dXXa rtu xPdC'^^''''- ^tBovs eKaaTos ra Trap' avTov, to 
Trap (Keii/ov xPW^h'-'^'^ dpTiKopi^eTai. Hence in Lucian Phal. ll. 13: Kai 
dvaXla-Kovra koi KaTadanavoovTa Trap" avTov, we should probably read Kara- 
danai/aivTA TA Trap' avrov. 

V. 30: eiTfyvovs €v lavTM ti]v i^ airov 8vva|xiv t^eXGovo-av] A. V. 'Know- 
ing in himself that virtue had gone out of him.' R.V. 'Perceiving in him- 
self that the power proceeding from him had gone forth.' Is it not rather 
a locutio praeg)ians, for ri^i/ iv avVw hvvapiv f^eXdovaav e'l avTov? and if so, 
does not the A.V. (which presupposes that a healing virtue resided in 
him) give the sense as clearly and faithfully as could be desired .'' Dean 
Alford and others translate: 'Knowing in himself the power which had 
gone forth from him.' But it was not the power itself that he knew 
(or recognized), but the fact that it had gone forth from him. 

V. 36 : ev0€ws aKoucras tov Xo^ov XaXovi(j.€vov] A.V. 'As soon as he heard 
the word that was spoken.' For fvdfoos aKovaas the uncials BLAX read 

^ [But in Luke xvi. 3 : dKCLirreiv ovk /cat peydXovs at Oepavaivioes eweKV- 

iffxvdJ, the R.V. has ' I have not strength XivSovf, a'xpts ov Ka,TeKO\pav avrov Kai 

to dig.'] KaTc'xwcraf .] 

- [Cf. Plut. II. p. 260 b: us 5' -^ [Cf. Luke x. 7: eaOiovres Kal iri- 

ijadeTo Trj (pwv^ Karu (at the bottom vovres to, wap avTuv, 'such things as 

of the well) yeyovoros, iroXXovs piv they give.'] 
avTT) tQv \idwv iwe<j)epe ttoXXovs oe 



28 ST MARK. V. 40 

TrapaKovaas, which has been variously rendered by 'overhearing' (Alford 
and margin of R.V.), 'having casually heard' (Tischend.), 'not heeding' 
(R. V. in text). The proper meaning of trapaKoveiv is 'to hear carelessly' 
{osctla/Ucr), or 'incidentally' {obiter), without heeding what one hears, or 
even intending to hear at all. This will include all the senses given 
above, and also that of rcfitshig to hear, which is required in Matt, xviii. 
1 7. But there is yet another meaning which seems very suitable to this 
place, namely, to pretend not to hear. 'Jesus, making as though he heareth 
not the word spoken, saith' &c. Compare Hex. ad Psal. xxxviii. 13: 
^'jni^'''^. O'. /xi) 7rapa<na)Tn]<TT}S. 'A. /xi) K<i)(j)ev(Tr}s- 2. prj TrapaKovajji 
{do not make as though thou hearest not). In this sense it is often 
joined with napopdv or irapiddv, as in the following examples. Plut. 
F/A Philop. XVI : Diophanes, the general of the Achaeans, would have 
punished the Lacedaemonians for some offence committed against the 
confederacy of which they formed a part; but Philopoemen remonstrated 
with him, urging that when King Antiochus and the Romans were threat- 
ening Greece with such powerful armies, it was to them that he should 
turn his attention, ra 8 otKfla prj Kivdv, dWa kuI TrapiSelv n Koi TrapaKoiKrai 
TOiv npapTai/opevav. Id. De Curiosit. XIV (T. II. p. 522 B): tovto drj ro i'dos 
eirayuiv rrj voKvTTpaypocrvv]], 7T(ipu> Koi rav Iblwv euia napnKovaai noTe Kcii 
TrapidelvK 

*V. 40 : tK^aXwy airavras] Compare Charit. Aphrod. ill. 2 : kuI etVeX- 
Oovcra 6is tou vemv, iravrai eKJ3aXovaa, ravra eiTre npos ttjv Oeov. Id. V. 8 
(varying the phrase) : fiacrikevs Se, ptTuaTrjcrdpfvos aTravTas, (fdovkcutTo pfrh 

TOIV (})iX(OV. 

VI. 14. For fXeyfu 'some ancient authorities' (including the Vatican 
MS.) read eXeyov. This variation, though not supported by the ancient 
versions, has great merit, when taken in connexion with the following 
verses. Read and point the whole passage thus : 'And king Herod heard 
thereof; (for his name had become known : and they said, John the 
Baptist is risen from the dead, and therefore do the powers work in him. 
But others said. It is ?21ijah ; and others said. It is a prophet, as one of 
the prophets). But Herod, when he heard the7-eof, said, John, whom I be- 
headed, the same {qvto^. See iMatt. xxi. 42, John iii. 26) is risen.' Here, 
after the words Ka\ rJKova-fv 6 /3. 'Up. (?'. 14), the sentence is suspended, in 
order to introduce the opinions of the people, and taken up again at z'. 16 : 
aKovcras 8e o 'H/jwSt;? k.t.€. 

VI. 19: €V€ix«v aviTw] A. \". 'had a quarrel (Or, an ///-auird grudge) 
against him.' R. V. 'set herself against him.' Against the Vulg. insidia- 
batur illi, and Beza's inuninebat ei, Bois rightly argues that these are the 

^ [Cf. Lucian. Ep. .Sat. 39: Kal Sta tovto napaKOvei avrwi' to, ttoXXci, 'turns 
a deaf oar.'] 



VT. lo ST INIARK. 29 

effects of malevolence, not the ill-feeling itself, which the writer intended 
to express, and could not have better expressed than by eWTxfi^, had a 
grudge against Jiim. [The epithet inward was probably added by A. V. 
to express the preposition in ivex^iv, but is not necessary.] There is no 
example of this use of the word in classical writers, except in Herodotus, 
with the addition of ^ol^ov, which is necessary to bring out the proper 
force oi ivexeiv, to hold or keep within, to cherish an imuard feeling ; e.g. 
Herod. VI. 119 : ivilxi 0^1 8eivov x^^o'^- VIII. 27 : are (TCJ)i evexovres aiel 
XoXov. By long usage (as Fritzsche remarks) the ellipsis was forgotten, 
as that of voii/ after iirexfiv, and of FjX after "itSJ (Psal. ciii. g : 'neither will 
he keep (his anger) for ever.' O'. ov8e els rhv alava fiTjvu'i). But the very 
best example for our purpose is the LXX. version of Gen. xlix. 23 : Km 
eVeixof avra (Joseph) Kvptoi ro^evixaToiP. The same Hebrew word (DDL") 
occurs in two other places in Genesis (xxvii. 41,1. 15), where the same admir- 
able translators (the Pentateuch Company, as we may call them, who were 
equally 'well seen' in Hebrew and Greek) have translated: Kal iueKorei 
'HcrdO Tc5 'laKa)l3 n€p\ Ttjs (vXoyias, and fxijTroTe fivrjcnKaKijcrrj ^filv 'laxriicf). 
These three words, eVe'^f i", eyKore'iv and fivrjaiKUKe'iv, mutually illustrate one 
another, and are in favour of Bois's emendation of Hesychius, 'Evexet^" 
fjLvrja-iKaKfl, eyKore'i (for ey/cetrai), were it not more probable that nvrjaiKaKel 
refers to Mark vi. 18, and eyneiTai to Luke xi. 53 : rlp^avro ol ypannar f7s 
Koi ^apiaaloi beivas evexeiv, where a different meaning must be sought 
for the word, not the ira alta mente reposta which is required in this 
place. 

*VI. 20 : Kal aKouo-as avrov iroWd liroui] For inoUi, which is supported 
by all the ancient versions except Memph., R.V. adopts the reading of 
BLN j?7ropet, ' he was much perplexed,' in favour of which it has not 
(I think) been suggested that this use of ttoXXo for veheinenter is very 
characteristic of this Evangelist : e.g. Ch. iii. 12 : ttoXXo e7r€Tip.a avrols. 
V. 23 : TrapeKoXei avrov TToXXa. XV. 3 : KaTTjyopovv avrov noXXa. On the 
other hand it will hardly be denied that the proposed change introduces a 
jarring note into the description of Herod's feelings towards the Baptist. 
He feared him, he respected his character, he kept him safely, he 'heard 
him gladly' (or 'with pleasure,' as Philip heard Aeschines, npaois Km 
rJSews fJKovev avToii (Aelian, V. H. VIII. 12)). This last especially seems 
inconsistent with a perplexed and doubtful state of mind^ Take, for 
example, the case of Felix, who ' sent for Paul to hear him concerning the 
faith in Christ.' Of the Roman governor and his prisoner, it might be 
truly said, Km aKovcras nvrov TToXXa rJTTopei, but certainly not, koi i^Beas avrov 
rJKove. 

In noticing this case, the ' Two Members of the N. T. Company ' (p. 47) 

^ Bishop of Lincoln's Address, &c. perplexed.' Xenophon (Anab. i. 3, 8) 
p. 14: 'People are not wont to hear joins toi^tois ciTropwi' re /cat Xurroi^/^efos, 
gladly those by whom they are much 



30 



ST MARK. Vr. 16 



ask, ' What are the " many things " that Herod did after he had heard St 
John the Baptist ? Meyer tells us that they were the many things which 
he heard from St John, though how this can be elicited from the words we 
do not clearly see.' But is not this (to use the fashionable phraseology) 
to 'miss the point' altogether? When Demosthenes (p. 658, 12) says of 
a certain king who was threatened with hostilities by a neighbouring 
power, TrpeV/Sets nffinoov AIIANTA noulv eroi/xos ^v, we understand this of 
an unconditional surrender on the part of the sender of the embassage. 
But suppose the message had been nOAAA Tmielv enn^os ^v, would not 
the alteration imply that there was something reserved, some concession 
that he was unwilling to make ? It is easy to perceive how this applies to 
Herod, and his relations to the Baptist, as his spiritual adviser. The 
remark is as old as Eisner ad loc. ' TroXXa li^oUi^ at non primarium ilhid 
quod Joannes urserat : fratris nxorem non diniisit: 

If r^TTopet is (as we think) a correction, it is an easy matter to trace the 
origin of it. Herod ' was much perplexed' (SiTjTroptt) on another occasion 
(Luke ix. 7), though still in connexion with the Baptist. His perplexity in 
regard to the character and claims of Jesus was not unnaturally trans- 
ferred to those of his forerunner. 

VI. 26 : ovK TJeeXrio-cv avriiv d0eTTi<rai] ' He would not reject her.' Per- 
haps, ' he would not disappoint her.' Compare the LXX. version of Psal. 
xiv. (Heb. xv.) 4 : o r>\).vvusv t-m ■!T\i]criov avmv, Kai ovk aBirSiv. The Hebrew 
is different, but the Prayer-book translation follows the LXX. : ' He that 
sweareth unto his neighbour, and disappoiiitetJi him not.' 

VI. 40 : Kttl dve'ir€<rov irpao-i.al irpao-iai] ' And they sat down in ranks.' 
A marginal note might be added : ' Gr. garden plots' Canon Farrar 
{Life of Christ, Chap, xxix.) would translate : ' They reclined in 
parterres^ supposing the word to be suggested by ' the gay red and blue 
and yellow colours of the clothing which the poorest Orientals wear.' But 
TTpaaiai are wol flower-beds only or chiefly, but also plots of leeks {irpaaov) 
and other vegetables {\ax°^va) ; and the allusion is not to the 'gay colours,' 
but to the regularly-formed groups, with spaces between, in which the 
companies were ranged, reminding the spectator of the square or oblong 
beds in a garden. So Hesychius : Ilpao-iai" aX iv ro'is Kiinoi^ Terpdyavoi 
\axaviai ; and Euthymius, absurdly enough, makes the distinction between 
avunoa-ia and Trpao-tai to be, that the former were arranged in circles, and 
the latter in squares. 

VII. 3: irv-ynfl] A. V. 'oft,' and in margin: 'Or, diligently: in the 
original, with the flst : Theophylact, up to the elbow? The rendering 
'diligently,' or 'carefully,' is supported by bothi Syriac versions, which 
have A t|l ' ^*^ (elsewhere put for the Greek eVtpeXcor and iiKpi^as). 
But the later Syriac has a note in the margin, "I^LlQili ^ > S ^;.£iLdi 

' viz. the Peshito .and Philoxenian. Ed. 



VII. 19 ST MARK. 3 1 

.OOlAi^iD. i.e. according to White, p. 593: qui se obledant digitos 
sues aqua (abluendo). But oblcctavit se is the meaning of the Ethpaal 
^la;.2)Z.], not of the Pael \12;^, to which (on the authority of this 
marginal note) J. D. Michaelis would assign the sense of humectavit, 
pt'7-fudit. In confirmation of this sense, I find in Geopon. p. 115, 13: 
mVin c^ «^ \\(y|. (7>/ j^5 l^n for the Greek, iha 8ia\l/-v^as koi dnoKXv^av 
TO (TTOfxa (gallinae) ; which would give for the Philoxenian scholium 
(probably a translation from the Greek) Ylvyiif]' cmnKkv^ovre^ rw vSort rouj 
finKTi'Xous avTutv. 

VII. 18 : ovTws Kal vi|j,€is d<rvv€Toi ktm ;] 'Are ye so without understand- 
ing also?' Perhaps it would be better to take oOVcoy {adconc, sicciiic) as in 
Matt. xxvi. 40, rendering : 'What, are ye also void of understanding?' 

VII. 19: •«>■''■ fi-S Tov d({>€Spwva eKiropcuerai, KaOapi^ov (KaOapi^wv ABX) 
■rrdvTa ra Ppto|iaTa] A.V. 'And goeth out into the draught, purging all 
meats.' It would be a waste of time to notice and to refute the various 
explanations that have been given of the clause Ka6api(ov Travra ra 
(Spcdfiara, all of them equally repugnant to grammar and common sense. 
Take Dean Alford's as a specimen. He reads KadaplCcov (rightly, as we 
shall presently see), and adds: 'The masc. part, applies to d(f>f8pcova, by 
a construction of which there are examples, in which the grammatical 
object of the sentence is regarded as the logical subject, e.g. \oyoL S' eV 
aKkr\ko\.(Tiv ippoOovv KaKo'i, \ (jyvXa^ fXeyx^^v (pvXaKa, Soph. Antig. 259. In 
my schoolboy days, we were taught to call this the nominative absolute, 
for (})v\aKos eXeyxovToi (f). He goes on: 'What is stated \s physically true. 
The n(f)t8pciv is that which, by the removal of the part carried off, purifies 
the meat; the portion available for nourishment being in its passage 
converted into chyle, and the remainder (the Kadapp.a) being cast out.' 
But surely, assuming the Dean's physiology to be correct, it is the actus 
egerendi vjhich. pu:rifies what is left, not the egesta themselves, still less the 
a<^ihpuiv which is merely the passive receptacle of them. But the whole 
thing is a mistake, arising from taking Kadapi^oiv it. t. iS. to be part of our 
Lord's discourse, uot (as it really is) a remark of the Evangelist founded 
upon it. Grammatically, Kadapi^cov depends on koi Xeyet avTo7s, v. 18: 
but since it is separated from it by the intervention of a discourse con- 
sisting of several sentences, it may be necessary in translating to help out 
the construction !by the insertion of a few words, as : ' This he said, cleans- 
ing all meaXs,' c^ca?ising hexng here taken in the same sense as in Acts 
X. 15: 'What Cpod hath cleansed, that call not thou common.' This 
simple explanation of a difficult passage will, probably, be objected to on 
the ground of its being novel ; but that also is a mistake. It is as old as 
Origen, who in commenting on the parallel place in St Matthew (Tom. ill. 



32 



ST MARK. 



VIIT. 24 



p. 494 r>) says : koI /ifiXtorn enel Kara rhv IslapKov i'Xeye ravra o crcoTrjp, 
Kn6npi((ov nnvra rci IBpupara. He is followed by St Chrysostom (T. vii- 
p. 526 a) : a ?)f MdpKOi (jiTja-iv, oti KaOapi^oiv rn lipcopara ravTa fXcyfv^. This 
explanation also accounts for the repetition of eXeye 5e in the following 
verse, in which the Evangelist takes up the continuation of our Lord's 
discourse after his own explanatory remark. We have a similar incid- 
ental remark in ch. iii. 30, after our Lord's denunciation of the sin 
against the Holy Ghost: 'Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit,' 
where we might also supply: ' T/ii's he said, because' &c. And the 
following from Xenophon {Anab. vii. i, 22) only differs from our con- 
struction of this passage of St Mark's in the length of the intervening 
discourse: o S' cmiKpivaro' cXX' (v re Xeyere, koi noi-qcru) ravra' fl Se rovrav 
entdvpLelrf, dtade ra oTrXa e'v rd^ei coj ra}(iara' (3nv\npevos avrovs Karrjpepiaai'^. 



*\'^IIL 24: pXe'irw Tovs dvOpuTTOvs, ws 8€v8pa, ircpnraTovvTas] We may 
compare the proverbial expression, ovSe avOpdirovs idpcov tovs dvdpcinovs, 
said of persons suddenly thrown into a state of excitement bordering on 
delirium, e.g. of criminals pardoned at the foot of the gallows (S. Chrysost. 
T. XI. p. 479 f). On this principle, Mill's reading iSXeVo) rour dvdpd- 
TTovf, on CO? 8ev8pa opu> nepinarovvras, though scarcely intelligible, may 
be explained from the confusion existing in the mind of the blind man. 
The same excuse will not avail for what follows in 7. 25, according to the 
sadly confused reading of BC^LAX thus rendered by R.V. : 'Then again 
he laid his hands upon his eyes ; and he looked stedfastly (kuI Su'^Xe\//-6i', 



^ Dean Burgon (Las^ xii verses of 
St Mark, p. 179, note u) adds from 
Gregory Thaumaturgus (Routh, Rel. 
Sacr. III. 257), a disciple of Origen : 
KoX 6 crwT-qp, 6 iravra Kadapiguv ra jSpw- 
para, ov rb d<nropev6pevov, (pr]ai, KOivoi 
rbv avdpujirov, dXXd rb eKiropevbpevov. 

^ The history (so to speak) of tlie 
above interpretation may be worth 
recording. The places of Origen and 
St Chrysostom liad escaped the notice 
of all critics and commentators till 
Matthaei in his critical edition of the 
N. T. (Riga 1788) T. 11. p. 117 
referred to the former in these dis- 
paraging terms: 'Sine sensu Orig. iii. 
494 D laiidat Kadapi^uv, quasi referre 
voluerit ad crwrrip, qitod plane absurdiiin 
est.' Again, in his minor edition (Wit- 
tenb. 1803) T. I. p. 211 he refers for 
the reading Kadapi^wv to St Chrysost. 
VII. 526 A ; but gives his opinion in 



favour of Kadapl'^ov, as explained by 
Euthymius, Kadapa awokipirdvov. From 
that time nothing more was heard of 
this interpretati(m till the year 1839, 
when the present writer, in editing 
St Chrysostom's Homilies on St Mat- 
thew, drew attention to it in a note 
(T. III. pp. 112 sq. ). lie was not, 
however, fortunate enough (so far as he 
is aware) 'to catch the eye' of even 
one of the many ciiitics and expositors 
of the Greek Testament, English and 
foreign, from that time till the ap- 
l)earance of the work of Dean Burgon 
quoted in the preceding note ; in which 
higlily favourable mention is made of 
the writer's attempt to restore the true 
interpretation of this passage. Shortly 
after he had the gratification of seeing 
it adopted, without any marginal varia- 
tion, by the Company of Revisers of 
the N. T. 



X. TO ST MARK. 33 

instead of the T. R. kcu eTrolrja-fp avrov mni[i\f^ai) and was restored, and 
saw all things clearly (TTjXnuyois) '.' On the last word Bois has a remark, 
which is worthy of the attention of translators in general, and of those 
of the Bible in particular: 'Vetiis, dare; alii [Beza] procul ct dilucidc^ 
niniis enucleate, et ut sic loquar, paedagogice. Origines verborum enu- 
cleare paedagogis potius quam interpretibus convenit. Interpres officio 
suo abunde functus est, si sensum recte et fideliter exprimat, id quod a 
vetere hie interprete praestitum nemo, opinor, negabit.' 

IX. II: Kai €irT)ptoTo)v avrov Xe'YOvres, "On (A. V. 'Why') Xe'YOvo-iv oi 
'yptt[Ji|xaT€ts...'<''. 28: eirripwTcov auxov Kar I8iav "On (as before) i]|X€is ovk 

l]8uVtj0T][X€V...] 

The use of oti for r'l, when the interrogation is indirect, is sanctioned 
by the practice of the best writers; as Herod, ill. 78: ei'pero on {ciirnani) 
ov xparai tt/ ^fpt. Thucyd. I. 90: oTTore Tts avrov epotro rau iv reXei uvrav, 
(in ovK (TTfpxfTai in\ to koivov. Lucian. Asiii. 32 : tovtov, dearroTa, tov ovov 
ovK ol8' on jioo-Kopfv, Set/'tos dpyov ovra Kai Bpabvu. Joseph. Aflf. VII. 7, I : 
ypovs TovTo u ^aaiXevs nveKpivev avrov (Uriam) on prj npos avrov en rrjv 
olKiav e"\6oi^. These examples do not defend the same usage in a direc/ 
interrogation, which cannot be proved from classical writers, and scarcely 
from biblical. Of the two instances, Gen. xii. 18 and i Chron. xvii. 6, 
where 6n corresponds to the Hebrew npp, the former is doubtful, accord- 
ing as we point, W roiiro enoirjads poi; on {quarc) ova anrjyyeiKas poi...OV, n 
Tovro fTTOirjads poi, on (quod) ovk dnijyyeiXni poi... The latter IS more to 
the purpose : 'Spake I a word to any of the judges of Israel, saying, on 
{qiiare) ovk aKoboprjKari poi oIkov KtBpivov;' Still, even if no authority could 
be found for this usage, these two instances, occurring in the same chapter 
of St Mark, must be held mutually to support and sanction each other. 
And the only alternative renderings: 'And they asked him, saying, The 
scribes say that Elias must first come'; and 'His disciples asked him 
privately, saying, We could not cast it out,' are simply intolerable. 

*X. 19 : |J.T| diro<rT€piio-Tis] ' Defraud not.' In biblical Greek this word 
is appropriated to the act of keepi7ig back the wages of an hireling, as 
Mai. iii. 5, James v. 4 ; from which the classical use differs only in the 
thing kept back being money or goods deposited with another for safe 
keeping, as the ten talents of silver which Tobit left in trust with Gabael 
at Rages of Media. So the Schol. on Aristoph. Pint, yj^:, : aTroorepw 
fo-nv, drav napaKaradijKrjv nvos \a^a>v els 8ia^o\rjv x^'^PW'^j ""' ^^''^ eOiXco 

^ "ATraj'Ttt alone of this reading seems dXXa cra^Qs Travra opav. 
preferable to the ojwavras of the T. R. - [Cf. Plut. Vit. Aral. 30: Kadairep 

Compare Lucian. Contemp. 7 : KaTTtibav rip KoKKvyi <py]<nv AtVwTros epiorQvTi Toii% 

f iVw TO. 'in-q, n^/nv-qa-o fi-qK^ri an^XvihrreLV, XiirTOVS opivOas on (pevyoief avrov.'] 



34 f^T MARK. X. 21 

StSoj/fu oi'tw a ('KajBov. As Striking at the root of the commercial integrity 
of those times, it was a grievous offence, and punished accordingly. 
Porphyr. y7. ./. IV. lo: 'I have worshipped the gods, honoured my parents,' 
raiv Tt (iXKcov avdpwTrcov ovTe nTrtKreiva, ovre T:apaKUTa6r}Kr]v cm(aTepr]cni, ovTf 
oXXo ov8ei> dvijKfo-Tov tieTrpa^afirjv. Stob. Floril. T. XLIV. 4 1 : Apud Pisidas 
j; fxeyiaTT] Kpicrii eari 7rapaKaTa6i]Kr]s' tov 8e airoareprjaavTa davarovaiv. It is 
distinguished from KT^enreiv. Ibid. T. LXXlX. 51 : KiK(vu\nvo^ v-n" uvrw 
KKfiTTfiv Tj TrnpaKaTa6r]KT]v dnoarfpe'iv. Plut. V//. Lyc. IX : Tii yhp (if men 
used iron money) ^ KKf-rrTnv tpiKK^v, rj StopoSo/cetf, rj dTroa-repfh', rj apnd- 

The precept p.rj dnoarfpijcrrjs is generally considered as coming under 
the Tenth Commandment, but it may also be referred to the preceding 
one, inasmuch as the person denying the deposit was obliged to purge 
himself by an oath to that effect. So Aesop. Fal>. CCCLXXll, ed. de Fur. : 
TiapaKaradrJKas tis XalSwv (/)tXou dno(TT€pelv diet'oelro. koi 8rj TrpocrKn\ovp.fvov 
avrov tKiivov ini opKoi'...d)p.ofTe fifj eiXrifjjevat rqv tt. 

X. 21 : 'And Jesus looking upon him, loved him {jqyaTvrja-fv cwtov).^ 
Perhaps we might translate ' caressed him,' comparing Plut. Vif. Pericl. i : 
^fvovi Tivas iv 'Poiprj TrXovaiovs Kvvoiv tIkvci kcu nidrjKcov iv roTf koXttoi? rrepi- 
(pfpovrns Koi dyanaiPTas {foildliiig) Idmu o Kniarcip...rjpciTT]a(P d naiSia nap' 
avTols ov TiKTOvaiv ai yvvaiKes. 

*Cf. Plut. Anton. 70. (Timon the misanthrope) 'AXKijSidBijv vtov ovra 
Ka\ Bpaavv 770-770^6x0 koi e(j}i\ei npoSvpus. Lightfoot ad loc. quotes examples 
of Jewish Doctors getting up and kissing their disciples when they were 
pleased with them, and adds : — ' Quid si ipsissimo hoc gestu usus fuerit 
Salvator erga hunc juvenem ? Aptiusque cum coram eo flexis genibus 
provolveretur. Aliquo saltern gestu usus est quo et ipsi juveni et astanti- 
bus planum fuit, juvenem et interrogatione sua et responsione non parum 
placuisse.' But his examples of dya-adv in this sense are naught, especially 
Jos. Ant. VI. I4j 6: dyaTTria(i,v be aeaaxrpevas ras yvuaiKas aTroXapfidvoi/TUi 
i'Xfyov. 

XI. 3 : Kal €u0€a)s avrov d-rroo-rfXei wSe] (St Matthew has only fi'^ecos- ^e 
dTToarfXe'i avTovi.) The question raised on these words is, whether the 
nominative to aTroo-TeXet is ny or o Kvpios ; in other words, whether they 
are a continuation of our Lord's speech to the two disciples, or of that of 
the two disciples to the owner of the colt. We should have little hesita- 
tion in deciding in favour of the former interpretation, were it not that in 
St Mark the uncials BCDLAN after aTroo-rfXel (or dnna-TfXXa) insert ndXiv, 
'he will send him dac/: hither.' Origen has the same reading; and his 
exi\i^es?s of both Evangelists, though highly allegorical, seems to assume 
the sending back of the animals eis rhv rdnov "i6(v (XvOt) npoTtpov, though 
no longer eVl roU epyois ro'is TrpoTtpois. But in defence of the T. R. and of 
the generally received interpretation, it may be urged (i) that (Cdfots (or 



XII. 4 ST MARK. 35 

fvdvs) is far more properly said of the promptness of the owners in giving 
up the colt than of the expedition of the borrower in returning it, which 
could only take place after a certain interval of time ; and (2) that the 
effect of the authoritative requisition, ' The Lord hath need of him,' upon 
the minds of the owners would be weakened rather than strengthened by 
the addition, 'and will be sure to return him.' 

XI. 19: Kai 0T€ 6^i lyiViTO, e^ciropevero 'il^oi ttJs iroXews] 'And when even 
was come, he went out of the city.' We learn from St Luke (xxi. ^y) that 
this was his daily custom ; but can St Mark's words be explained so as to 
convey the same information .'' Those who translate 'And every evening 
[Gr. whenever eveniiio- ca)iie\ he went forth out of the city,' evidently 
thought so, reading ortif o\//-e iyevfro with BCKLX. The solecism is pro- 
bably clue to St Mark himself, who writes urav i6(u>^}ovv ch. iii. 11, and 
orav (TTrjKere in this chapter. The imperfect i^enopevero (for which St 
Matthew has i^rj\6e) might appear to intimate a repetition of the action, 
but in this particular verb it does not seem to be necessarily so. Thus 

1 Kmgs (Sam.) xvii. 35 : Ka\ (^cnojxvonr^v ottiVo) nvrov, Kai itruTa^a avrov. 

2 Kings (.Sam.) xix. 19 : rj^fpa j) f^eTropei'ero o Kvpioi fiov 6 (:ia(TiXevs t^ 
'IfpovcraXrjfi^. And the connexion in St Mark's narrative is decidedly in 
favour of a single action, especially when contrasted with the clear and 
explicit terms in which St Luke indicates the general practice : r)v 8e 

Tat Tjfiepas iv rw tfp&J 8i8aaKO)v' ras fit vvKTai i^epxo^Kvat rjv\i^eTU ets to 
opos TO Ka\ovfXfvov i\aiuiv. 

XII, 4 • KaKcivov \t0oPoXi^<ravT€s eK€<j)aXai«(rav, Kai dir€<rT€i\av TJTiji.a)|xtvov] 
Or, according to the shorter reading of liDLAN and \'ulg. KUKflvov eVt^a- 
\aia)(Tav Ka\ rJTtpiaaav. In favour of the latter is the distinction laid down 
by Ammonius, p. 26 : arifMOVTai khI aTip-a^erai 8ia(pfpei' ciTifiovrai p.iv yap Tit 
VIVO T<i>v vopcov oXo(r;^epft annia' aTifxa^frai 8e o v^pi^ofxevot ev tlvi TTpaypari. 
But the ditficulty, common to both readings, is in the word eKftjioKaiaa-av, 
which it has been attempted, in various ways, to explain without departing 
from the proper meaning of the word, /o S2tni up ; but with so little 
success, that nearly all the commentators have been forced to acquiesce in 
the rendering of the Vulgate, et ilium in capite vuluerarunt. Both Syriac 

versions (following the T. R.) have : ■ ,mr> g^V.n - .rnnV>..> OOT^O 
where Q_2l_^f is simply vuluerarunt^ {TpavpaTiaav, without regard to 

the part wounded. While it is acknowledged that no example can 
be adduced, in which KfcfxiXainvv has this meaning-^, the legitimacy of 

^ [But cf, Tobit vii. u : ('I gaveher came in unto her they died in the 

to seven husbands,') KaioirSTe iav €l(reTro- night.'] 

pevovTO TTpos avTrjv, aTridv7\ffK0v inrb Ti]v ' Rev. W. Trollope, in his Notes oil 

vvKTU. R. V. 'And whensoever they the Gospel of St Mark, fancied that he 



36 ST MARK. XII. :i 

it is asserted from the analogy of yavrpi^tiv ( = to (U yacrrtpa rvnTfiv), 
yvadovv { = to eh yvadovs tvitt(iv), and a few others. But as Kopv<f)^ makes 
Kopvcf)ovv, not Kopv(j)aiovv, SO (according to this analogy) the derivative from 
Ke4>a\i] would be not Kf(f)a\aiovv, but K((f)a}<ovv ; and St Mark should ha\e 
written eKe(f>a.X(o(rav, a 7/^.r nihili^ it is true, but which would have been 
accepted without hesitation in the only sense which could have been 
assigned to it. The reading of BLX, iKt^aK'iacrav, does not help us much. 
We can only conjecture that the Evangelist adopted fKecpaXaicoaav, a 
known word in an unknown sense, in preference to eKe(j)a\cd<Tav, of which 
both sound and sense were unknown. 

That Kf(f)aXaiovv must be referred to KecpaXaiov, not to Ke4>a\^, was 
rightly understood by Alberti {Observ. Philol. pp. 174 — 183), who is also 
successful in showing that Ke(j)a\ainv is sometimes used for the f/u'c^^ end 
or knob of roots, bones, &c., why not therefore of a club (in fact, Phavorinus 
defines Kopvvrj to be iraaa pa^dos Ke(f)a\aia)Tij, from Ktipa, ca/)u/)? But 
when he goes on, by the help of the figure synecdoche, from the knob to 
the club itself, and from M<^aKainv, a club (?) to Ke(f>a\aiovv, to beat with 
clubs, we confess that we cannot follow him. A knob is not a knobbed 
stick. If the English reader were to meet with such a sentence as this, 
'and him they knobbed, and shamefully handled,' \\q rather think he 
would understand it in a sense not very different from that to which we 
are finally brought back, ' they wounded him in the head.' 

*XII. 21 : R. V. 'Leaving no seed behind him': reading a-niQavi nfj 
KaTaXiwav aTrepfia for aired. Koi ov8e avroi a<pr]Ke cnrepfia. In Mark xii. 1 9, 
where KaraXtTrT} is used of the wife, — 'leave behind.' But in the parallel, 
Luke XX. 31, 'left' (KaTeXiirov) ; and so constanter (iS passages out of 24) 
for KaraX. 

*XII. 28: TTola ecTTiv -rrpwTTi irdvTtov (T. R. irao-Jiv) €Vto\i] ;] The 
neuter Trdfrwi/, omnium 7'crum, is undoubtedly correct, though it may 
be difficult to find an exactly similar instance. Thucyd. iv. 52 is 
usually quoted, kcli ^v avrwv r) diavoia, ras re liWas noXfis rets 'AKraias 
Kci\ovfj.fvas...f\fv6epovp, koi ttoj'tcoj/ /idXtora (above all) rfjv "AvTav8pov. 
Fritzsche quotes as 'plane gemellus' Aristoph. A7>. 471: ov8' A'lawirov 
ireTraTTjKns | os ((pacrKf Xeycoi' Kopvbw TrdvTuiv irpaTrjv opviOa ytvicrdai \ Trporepav 
TTJs yrjs. But this is not an instance in point, because the speaker means 
to assert, not that the lark was the most ancient of the birds, but that the 
birds in general (he takes a particular one, the lark) were older than all 
other creatures; so that naacov would have been intolerable. A better 
example is St Chrysost. T. vii. p. 108 P.: ^//vx') *'""" I'oi'f^pios ciXovaa TravTu>v 
auorjTorepa yivfrai. 

had discovered a clear instance of this show that K€<pa\ai({j (not KccpaKaiw) is 

use of the word in Aristoph. /;'««. 854 : an adjective agreeing with prj/xarL, and 

iVa /A7J K€(pa\aiu) tov Kpdracpdf aov prj- that for the verl) we must go to the 

pan. But a reference to the place will next line, Otvuv vw opyrjs. 



XIIT. 2S ST MARK. 37 

XII. 2)7 '• o iroXvs oxXos] A. V. 'the common people.' Alford and 
others prefer ' the great multitude,' or ' the mass of the people.' There 
is not much to choose between these; but both biblical and classical 
usage is in favour of the older version. Thus Levit. iv. 27 ' the common 
people' is in Hebrew and Greek flXri'Dy, o \aos ttjs y^y, a term used by 
Rabbinical writers in a disparaging way. Eisner quotes from Plut. Vit. 
Rom. XXVII : eV Se rouro) (the occurrence of celestial portents during an 
assembly of the people) tov \i.kv ttoXvv o)(\ov aKebaadevra (pvyelv, ruiis 8e 
dwarovs avaTpa(prji>ai )j.eT dAXrjXwi^. I add Pausan. Messcn. XIV. i : o Se 
o)(Kos o TToXiis Kara ras naTplBas fKacrToi ray app^atus eaKfdaadrjaau. Dio Chrys. 
Or. IV. p. 72. 30: o noXvs Ka\ nfjLadrjs ofxiXos. Id. Or. LXXII. p. 629. 30: 
Kal davfjLa^eadai vno tov ttoWov ox^ov, /cat Trepi^XeTrecrOai. Lucian. Dt: Luetic 
2: 6 p.kv 8rj TToXiis ofiiXos, oiis Ibidras oi ao(po\ KaXovaiu^. Diod. Sic. T. X. 
p. 216 ed. Bip. : 6 be ttoXvs Xems (distinguished from 01 inK^iavidTaToi. Ka\ 
dpaa-TiKcoraroL) e^eTreaev (Is rrjv vvv KaXovp.evrfv lovdalav. 

*XIII. 8: 'There shall be earthquakes in divers places; there 
shall be famines.' After XifMol T. R. adds Ka\ rapaxal, which is not very 
appropriately coupled with Xinoi, and is wanting in BDLX. Dean Alford 
retains it, because ' no possible reason can be given for the interpolation 
of the clause.' But if the original reading was Xt/xot kuI Xoi/xol (as in 
Luke xxi. 1 1 and the T. R. of Matt. xxiv. 7) and <al Xoifjiol had been 
accidentally omitted, then it was very natural that some one should have 
attempted to restore the equilibrium (so to speak) of the construction, by 
the addition of some other particular, corresponding with St Luke's 
aKaraaTaa-lai. But if Kal rapaxal is to be eliminated, we think a strong 
case is made out for the insertion of Kal Xoip.oi, even though unsupported 
by MSS. or versions. \ip.ol Kal Xoip.ol have been connected ever since 

Hesiod {0/>. 242) : Tolcriv 8' ovpavoQev piy eTrrjyayt TTrjp.a Kpoviwv | Xip.ov 
6fj.ov Kal Xot/idi/, aiTo(^6ivvdovcn 5e Xaoi. 

*XIII. 28: "yivwo-KCTe] Dean Alford here most uncritically adopts 
yivuxTKerai from AB'-DLA, evidently an error of the scribe, since the very 
same MSS. have it in v. 29 also, where it is impossible; and in St Matthew 
all the MSS. read yivuxxKere in both places. Fritzsche also adopts 
yivocKTKeTai in all three Gospels-, otherwise (he says) the opposition ouro) 
Kal vp.€Ls..,yw(ia-KeTe is ' prorsus absona.' But (l) yivcia-Kfre in 7'. 28 is 
general,- not personal, ' one knows,' and (2) the impersonal yiucoa-Kerai, 

^ [Cf. Lucian. Hermot. 72: koI o/j-ws 10: t^v p-rj tov <jvp(p€Tov koI tov ttoXvv 

6 7roXi>s Xews TruTTeOovcnv avrois . . . oia drjpov eTrtvo^crats. ] 

TO ^eva Kal aWoKOTa eivat. Id. Harinoii. ~ \n Luke xxi. 30 for ^XeirovTes d(p' 

2: 6 yap TOL TToXvs oiTos \ew?, avTol pev eavTuiv yivwcTKeTe the same intrepid 

dyvoouffi TO, PeXriw k.t.e. Id. AV/c/. critic would read 'e Codd.'(?) : orac Trpo- 

Praecept. r 7 : oiirw yap ae 6 Xetbs 6 jSdXwatv rj^-q, drr avTuv {t(2v Ziv5puiv) 

TToXi's dTTofi\i\j/ovTaL. Id. Hist. Conscr. yivcljijKtTai K.T.i. 



38 ST MARK. XIV. 2 

'it is known,' does not occur in the N. T. (Matt. xii. 33, e'/c roii Kupnov to 
BevBpov yivcoa-KfTai, is quite another thing), nor yet in the O. T. (unless 
Eccles. vi. 10, Kai eyvMo-dr) o icTTiv avOpmrros, can be SO considered). 

In the same verse ( = Matt. xxiv. 32) the Edd. and MSS. (such of them 
as have accents) are divided between the transiti\e tKCJivT) 'putteth forth,' 
and the intransitive fK(f)vj], 'spring forth' (Hieron. <7 iiata fucrint folia). 
The latter is the more likely, as in the other case we should have expected 
the aorist eVc^vo-?/. Thus Euthymius (commenting on Matt. xxiv. 32) 
explains orne irpo^aKaxriv in St Luke by orav eKipva-r) ra (fyvWa. Cf. 
Symmachus on I'sa. ciii. 14: eh to eKCpiJa-ai. rpotpiju awb yfjs. 

*XIV. 2 : fiTJirore 'ia-Ton 66pv^os tov Xaov] A. V. ' lest there be an 
uproar of the people.' R. V. 'lest haply there shall be a tumult of the 
people.' To the same class belong Col. ii. 8 : fd'KenfTe p.r) ns vfias farui 6 
(TvKaybaycav, ' Take heed lest there shall be any one that maketh spoil of 
you': and Heb. iii. 12: /SXeVere fj-rjuore ea-rai ev tivi vfxcov, 'Take heed 
lest haply there shall be in any one of you.' In most cases fitjiroTe is 
sufficiently rendered by 'lest,' though, occasionally, the addition of 
' haply' or 'at any time,' may be an improvement. But what we strongly 
protest against is the literal translation of fxijirore ea-Tai, 'lest there shall 
be,' instead of the only grammatically correct English rendering, 'lest 
there be.' We appeal unto Cruden. Under ' lest' we find about a 
hundred examples from both Testaments, of which all but six belong to 
the form 'lest there be,' 'lest he fall,' &c. In the exceptions, the form 
is 'lest there should be,' which in five out of the six examples is correct, the 
verb in the preceding clause being in the pasf tense ; as 2 Cor. xii. 7 : 
' There was given me a thorn in the flesh, lest I should be exalted above 
measure.' In the other exception, Heb, ii. i: 'We ought to give the more 
earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we 
should let them slip' (^r^n-ore napappvdopev), 'we let them' would be more 
g-rammatical, and the Revisers have made this very correction. ' Lest 
there shall be' is not to be found at all. Grammarians have taken subtle 
distinctions between pr^nore »/ and pijnore ea-Tui, but it is doubtful whether 
the IdiuiTai Kai ciypappaTot, to whom we are indebted for the four Gospels, 
knew anything about them. Thus -St Matthew writes, iVa ^7) dopvjBos 
yii/rjTai: and it is not at all improbable that the true reason why wc find 
prjTTOTi earai in the instances quoted, is because the verb dpi has no aorist, 
which is the tense required in the present case'. 

XIV. 10: tls roiv 8w8€Ka] Recent editors have adopted (5 els Toiv 8. on 
the authority of V>C (ut videtur) LM and X (ex corn). Ikit 6 els tu>v b. can 
mean nothing but 'the first (No. i; of the twelve,' which is absurd. 

' .Sucli a conblriictioii as p-qirore j] luimill is a single iiniJcii/, wlierea.s 
dopv^oi would not be justified by 'iva pj] scliisni is an abiding:; coiidilioii. 
■I] (TX'c.ua (1 (,'iir. xii. 25) because a 



XIV. 41 ST MARK. 39 

R. V. in marg. ' Gr. the one of the tiuclve'' ; and in text, ' he that was one 
of the twelve,' which would require o S>v fls rav 8. The English reader 
might surely have been left in ignorance of such quisqiiiliae as these. 

XIV. 15: 'A large upper rooxn. furnished {i(rTpu>ixevov).' The Greek 
word signifies ' spread with carpets (aTpcifMara),' not that the floor of the 
room, but that the couches (KXlvai) on which the guests reclined, were so 
spread. Compare Ezek. xxiii. 41 : koi eKadov eVi KXlvrjs eo-rpaj/xeV);?. The 
articles necessary for the furnishing of a banquet-room are thus described 
by Aristoph. Aeh. 1089: tci 8' aXXa iravr e'crrli/ TTapecrKevacrjiiva, j KXivai, 
Tpan-e^m, TTpo(rK€(f)akai.a, (TTpmjjLaTa^. When, therefore, it is said that the 
two disciples were shown 'a large upper room earpcoixevov,' it is implied 
that all the other requisites, KXlvai, TpoTreCai, &c. had been previously 
provided, the spreading of the (TTpapLara being the last thing attended to 
before the arrival of the guests. 

XIV. 36: irapt'vc-yKt] A. V. 'Take away.' R. V. 'Remove.' More 
precisely, ' Turn aside, cause (or suffer) to pass by.' Compare Plut. Vit. 
Pelop. IX : Tov 81 ^vX\i8ov napacptpovTos tou \6yov, ' letting the remark 
pass without notice,' not, as Langhorne, ' endeavouring to turn the 
discourse.' Ibid. X : eVi Se tov nprnrov wapacpeponemv (while the first 
storm was passing away) 8evrepov inriyev r) tv)(t] x^eifimva roiy dvdpacnt/. So 
Buttmann {Excurs. ill. ad Deniosth. c. Mid. p. 531, 15) explains ras- copas 
TraprjViyKaTf (praeterire sivistis) rrjs Bvaias Kal ttjs dfcoplas. To pro\e the 
sense of 'take away,' the following passage from Xenoph. Cyrop. ll. 2, 4 
is usually relied on : KaKiivo^ eXatie /xer' eni Sevrepos. cos S' o rpiros eXa^e, 
Koi '48o^iv avra pel^ou eavrov Xaj3eiv, KarajSaXXfi o fXajiev, co? enpov Xrj'^o- 
pavos' Km 6 ciprapos (the cook) olopevos avTov ov8ev en Sfiadai o\|/'oi;, (a';^ero 
napacf)epu)v irp\v Xa^tlv avTov erepov: where, however, 7rapa(f)fp(ov is not 
auferens, hwi praeterf evens, 'passing on the dish to the next person-.' 

XIV. 41 : dirt'xei] 'It is enough.' Hieron. siifficit. Hesych. 'ATre^ff 
a7ro;^p77, e^apKfl. In Pseud-Anacreon. Od. xxviii. 2;^ the poet gives 
instructions to a painter for the portrait of his mistress, and concludes : 
'ATre'xet* ^Xeno) yap avTi]u- | rd^a, Krjpe, Koi XaXrjUfi?. 'Enough — the girl 
herself I view; So like, 'twill soon be speaking too.' These seem to be 
the only authorities for this use of the word ; for in the passage quoted 
from St Cyril on Hagg. ii. 9 (in the old editions) by Wetstein, Fritzsche, 
and Dean Alford, dTr€)(ei, koI TrejrX^pcopai, Kal ScSfT/yuai rav towvtmv ov8(v6s, 
the true reading is dnix^i <^s printed by P. E. Pusey 6 p.aKapiTr]s in his 
edition of St Cyril on the XII Prophets, Oxon. 1868. 

1 [Cf. Phit. II. p. 181 I': el be irore - [Cf. Athen. (ed. Dind.) XI. 3, 

deiirvi^ot rots tQv <j)i\oju exp7;7-o, p.era- p. 464: oluos avToh uivoxoeiTO Kal rpa- 

irep.irbp.evo% e/CTrti/xara koI ffTpiJ}p.ixTa. Kal yrjpaTa TvapecpipeTO.^ 
T^aTre'j'a?.] 



40 ST MARK. XIV. 51 

*XIV. 51 : Tr€pip€p\T]pL€'vos (TLvSova eirl •yvp.vov] The a-ivhwv or ' sheet' is 
well illustrated from Diog. Laert. vi. 90, where Crates the Cynic philosopher 
being censured by the magistrates {aaTwofioi) at Athens on. aivhova 
J7/i0tf (7T0, replies : Ka\ Qebcppaa-Tov Vfxiv bfl^o) (nv86pa 7r«pi/3e/3Xr;/xej'oi' ; and 
when they would not believe him, dnrj-yayev eVi /covpeToj/, koI eSfi^e 
Keiponevov. Perhaps the rendering 'cast about his body' conveys an idea 
of hurry and want of preparation, not in the original word, which is 
usually rendered 'clothed' or 'arrayed,' and in the above quotation is 
interchanged with i]h4>U(tto. We should prefer 'having a sheet wrapped 
about his naked body'; and in Acts xii. 8 (where the whole narrative 
negatives the idea of a hasty flight) for 7^6/J^^aXoO to iixanov a-ov, '"ivrap 
thy garment about thee.' 

XIV. 53: o-xivepxovTai. aviTu (sc. tw dpxt«p«i)] These words may mean, 
either ' there come with him,' or, ' there come together unto him,' not, as 
A. v., ' with him were assembled,' nor, as R. V., ' there come together with 
him.' We prefer taking avTta as equivalent to Trpos avTov^. The High 
Priest was already in his house ; the others came together on receiving a 
summons from him. So both Syriac versions, (nZa\ n m 1 n/ j. There 
is the same ambiguity in John xi. 33, where the former sense is the more 
probable one. 

XIV. 65 : pa-rrio-p.ao-iv avrov ^PaWov] For 'i^oKKov or '4{-iakov the oldest 
MSS. read eXa^ov (ABCN) or fXafxjBavou (DG). With the last agrees the 
Philoxenian .Syriac (OOCTI . '-^ffn 1) Dean Alford explains eXa/3oj/ 
'took him in hand,' 'treated him'; iMeyer, 'took him into custody'(!); 
R. V. 'received him with blows of their hands (Or, strokes of rods),' diS if 
he was now for the first time handed over to the officers, instead of 
having been in their custody from his apprehension. There is a verbal 
correspondence between the Greek panliTfinai Xa^elv nva, and an ex- 
pression of Cicero's {Tiisc. li. 14): ' Spartae vero pueri ad aram sic 
verberibns accipiuntur, ut multus e visceribus sanguis exeat.' But such a 
rude reception on the occasion of their first mtroduction to Diana Orthia 
is something very different from the present case ; and if such a sense had 
been intended, the Greek would probably have been fxira pama-ixaTwv 
avTov ibe^avTo. On ihc other hand, supposing ejSaXov to have been the 
original reading, the phrase jSaXXeiu pairia-fiaai may have appeared a 
KuivMs prjdetf to a transcriber accustomed only to such combinations as 
f-idXXfiv Xi6uii; jieXeai, &c., who might therefore have thought eXa/ioi/ (the 

^ [A good example is I'lul. /'//. XiovTL (llicir coininandcr) t/jktx'Ni'oi'J 

Timol. X,\V. Tlie .Syracusans were so a7r6 tocovtwv p.vpi.a.5wv 6w\a XaSocras 

terrified at the greatness of the Cartlia- roX/x^crat (rvt'eXdeiv.] 
irinian annameiU — aicrre /xuXis T<^J Tlho- 



XIV. 72 ST MARK. 4I 

two words being constantly interchanged with one another) more likely to 
be the true reading. On pmrla-fiaa-iu see on John xviii. 22. 

XIV. 72: Kal c-iriPaXwv ^KXau] A. \^ 'And when he thought thereon, 
he wept. Or, /le wept abundantly^ or, Jic began to loeep! The first of 
these is retained by R. V. in the text, the third in the margin. 

Of these three versions, the first is, probably, taken from Beza, who, 
while giving the preference to another translation, cum erupissef, cum sese 
foras prorupissef, adds : ' The words might, perhaps, be rendered cJim hoc 
animadvei'tisset, as if he had been suddenly roused out of a deep sleep by 
Christ's looking upon him [which, however, St Mark does not mention] 
and the crowing of the cock.' The second version, ' he wept abundantl)',' 
is arrived at by taking eni^aXaiv in the sense of irpoa-dels (as Luke xix. 1 1 : 
irpoa-Oeis eiiTe) q. d. adjicie/is, supcraddens, veJieincnter flcbat. So, it is 
argued, the word is used in such phrases as em^aXcov (prjcri, eTn^aXav epara 
(Theophr. C/iar. vill), where, however, the meaning rather seems to be 
subjictens, sermonein excipiens, taking up the discourse. The third version, 
' he began to weep,' is that of the Vulgate and both Syriac versions 
(Pesh. Kai rjp^aTo KkaUiv; Philox. kuI ap^dp.fvos e/<Xate, the former of which 
has found its way into the text of Cod. D, and the latter is one of the 
alternative explanations given by Theophylact, ^ lip^afxevos (rj) [xera 
(r(po8p(')Tr]ros). And if the Greek had been ku) eVe/^aXe KXaUiv, this 
rendering would have been less open to criticism on grammatical grounds 
than any other. But there is one objection common to all three 
renderings, namely, that they are frigid and lifeless; they present no new 
idea; instead of enlivening the description, they rather enfeeble it. 
Especially is this true of the first, ' when he thought thereon, he wept.' 
The chord was struck, the sluices were opened, when ' Peter called to 
mind the word that Jesus had said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, 
thou shalt deny me thrice.' Then, say St Matthew and St Luke, ' Peter 
went out, and wept bitterly.' Instead of the epithet St Mark introduces 
an additional action, imfiaXcou €K\aie, 'he did something, and wept.' He 
might have done many things to show the intensity of his grief. He 
might have thrown himself on the ground (as Xenoph. Ephes. p. 22 
(ed. Londini, 1726): /carn/3aXoj/ref (avTovs eKXaiop: or p. 50: avrov em Trjs 
(vvfjs pi\l/'as eKXaifp); he might have 'turned himself about,' like Joseph 
(Gen. xlii. 24 : aTroorpa^ei? de utt' avrav eK.\avfT() ^ ; he might have covered 
his face, like David mourning for Absalom (2 Sam. xi.x. 4)'-. Any of 
these actions would have expressed in a lively manner the e/cXauo-e niKpas 
of the other Evangelists; and the last, 'he covered his head and wept,' 
besides its characteristic propriety, may be shown to be not unsupported 
on linguistical grounds. 

^ [CL Aiiataan. \. £/>. 22: edaKpve T€ Kings (Sam.) \v. 30: dvajSaluui' Kai 
daraKTi fj.eTa<TTpa<peU eirl ddrepa..^ KXaiwi' Kalryjv Ke<pa\7]u eTnKeKa\vfx,u.^i>o?.] 

' [Or, lleeiug from ferusalein, 2 



42 ST MARK. XTV. 72 

The custom of covering the head in weeping is well known. Women 
did so, that they might indulge their grief more freely. Thus Charit. 
Aphrod. I. I : eppmro eVi Tijs koIttjs, (yKeKaXvunevr] kcu daKpvaaa-a. 3 : ravra 
eiTTOixra aTTf(TTpa(f)r], koi (TvyKa\vy}Aapivr] dciKpvcov dcf)fJKe TTT/yay. In the case 
of men there was an additional reason for so doing, tears in the sterner 
sex being considered as undignified, and even unmanly 1. There are 
many indications of this feeling both in sacred and profane writers, some 
of which may be quoted for the sake of the variety of expressions used in 
this connexion. Thus Eurip. Orcst. 280: ^vyyov€,Tl KXaUis, Kpara dela i'aa) 
TTfirXav; IpJl. A71/. 1 547: (as S' imlhev ^Ayapepvatv ava^ \ in\ (T(f)ayas (Trei- 
Xovcrav els aXcros Koprjv, | nTrecTTfva^e, KcipTToXiv (TTpexj/as Kapa \ bciKpva nporjyev, 
dp.p.aTo)v TrenXop rrpodeis". Plat. PJiacd. p. II7C: nXX' epov ye jila Kal 
dcrraKTi e^c^pet ra Saxpva, ooare eyKoXvylrdpevoi dneKXatov epavrov. Plut. F/7. 
Timol. IV : o pkv TipoXeav dnoxcap^'jTas pi.Kpov avrmv Ka\ dvyKokv^dpevos 
ei(TTf)Kei 8aKpv(op\ It appears, therefore, that if St Mark had written Koi 
e'yKa\v\lrdpevos eKXate (the very expression which occurs in Isocr. Trapes. 
p. 362 B : eVetSf) rjXdopev eh aKpoTroXiv, eyKaXvyjrdpevos eKXaie), there could 
have been no doubt of his meaning; and Dean Alford would hardly have 
ventured on the remark : ' This explanation of enijiaXcov, although it suits 
the sense very well, appears fa>icifiil.^ The only question is, whether 
ein^akwv would be likely to convey the same idea to a Greek reader as 
ev:iKaXv'\tdpevQs or (TvyKokv^dpevos. It certainly did so to Theophylact, 
who explains it by e7riKaXv\jrdpevos ttju KeffiaXijv. It is no objection to this 
sense of the word that it requires Ipdnoi' or some such word to be 
mentally supplied ; since that is the case with eniKaXvyj/dpevos (the full 
phrase being rw Iparlto rrju KefjjaXrjv eiriK. or eyK. as Plut. 17/. Brut. XVIl). 
In Charit. Aphrod. T. 3 we meet with the elliptical expression Ka\ 
Trepippr]^dpevos e/cXaie, where the action intended is equally clear. In 
I Cor. xi. 4 the phrase Kara KecfxiX^s '^x^^j •" connexion with praying or 
prophesying, has never occasioned any perplexity^; nor even the still 
harsher ellipsis in the Greek version of Esth. vi. 12: 'A/iotr fie virea-Tpey^ev 
els TO. i8ia XvTTovpevos Kara KetpaXrjs (Heb. operto capitc). In all these 
instances the association of ideas between sorroivitii^, and covering the 
head., or rending the clothes, supplies the missing link, and enables the 

' [Cf. Aristacn. I. Ep. 10: KXaieiu ^afV xpui'Of eV\aie77VxX''M''5a ^t'/xecosTrpo 

yap aidovpevos ti)v rifxepav, to oaKpvov tov wpoffLOTrov. Id. Cacs. XI, I : aTrrjKdev 

irapuveTO rais J'l'^t.] iyKaXv^dpevos Kal KaradaKpi'icrai- (Cato 

- This seems to be the most pro- on seeing tlie number of slain of the 

bable explanation of tlie veiling of enemy), hi. /'//fc. xxxiv : oi ptu jSeX- 

Agamemnon in Timantlies' picture of ticttoi tQii' ttoXltui' d<p0evTos tov ttw/ciw- 

the Sacrifice of Iphigeuia, and not the vos eveKaXv^avTo /vai kcitw Kvfavres 

one commonly given, that the jiainler edaKpvov.] 

had exhausted his sl<ill on llie other ' [Cf. PIul. 11. p. 200 E: Kal r^y 

figures. fcilis a7ro/?as. ij3ddi!i'e K-ara \'6</)aX7/5 e'xwj' 

■' [Cf. I'lul. F/V. Ch'OIII. .XXV : TToXvV TO i/iClTlO)'.] 



XV. 24 ST MARK. 43 

reader or hearer to choose, out of a great variety of possible meanings, 
that which the writer or speaker had in his mind. That eVtjSaXeli/ may l^e 
properly said of the wearing of apparel is not denied. Thus Lev. xix. 19: 
inariov €K 8vo vcpaaiiivov nvK e7rij3a\fl.s (Tfavro). Aristoph. Rccles. 536 : 
eni^aXovcra rovyKVKKov. Eurip. Elect. I22I : eyw [kkv lizSoKav (f)dpr) 
Kopais enaia-i. It may have been a trinial or colloquial word, such as 
would have stirred the bile of a Phrynichus or a Thomas Magister, 
who would have inserted it in tlieir Index cxpiirgatorius with a caution, 
'ETTt/SaXcoy \ir] Xe'ye, aKka f-y/caXw//'a/ifi'oy r\ eTrcKoKv^dnevos. But m this, as 
in most of the examples of vulgar or non-Attic words and phrases 
stigmatized by those grammatical purists. Magna est ?) nw-qQua, ct 
praevalebit; popular usage is more than a match for critical canons. We 
shall only add that the two Greek scholars who have most elaborately 
discussed the point in ciuestion, Salmasius in the early days of classical 
learning, and C. F. A. Fritzsche in our own time, have unhesitatingly 
come to the same conclusion ; the former {De Foctiorc Trapcsitico, p. 272) 
adding 'Quae sola expositio vera est, ceterae omnes falsae'; the latter 
{CoDiment. in Evang. Marci, p. 664) ' Omnes veritatis numeros eorum 
rationem habere existimo, cjui transferunt, Et veste capiti injccta/levit.'' 

XV. 6: ttir€'Xu€v avTOis ^va Seo-jAiov, ovirep i^toiivto] A. V. 'whomsoever 
they desired.' R. V. ' whom they asked of him.' The latter represents uv 
napTjTovvTo, which is the reading of ABX, but has no support from the 
versions (Vulg. quenicnnquc petiissent, Syr. t \ ] »^ ij~»])' ^^'^^ preposi- 
tion being represented by the addition 'of him.' To this it may be 
objected (i) that the word irapaiTfladai in the N. T. bears an entirely 
different meaning, to refuse, decline, avoids deprecate, conformably with the 
usage of good Greek writers. (2) By the latter Trapmrfia-dal nva is 
occasionally used for f^airela-dai, to beg off {as one condemned to death), 
which would be very suitable in Matt, xxvii. '20: 'But the chief priests 
and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask for {aWrjaavTm) 
Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.' But what is wanted here is some word 
expressive of the ?£//// or choice of the people in regard to the object of 
their accustomed privilege. So St Matthew : ' Now at that feast the 
governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, luhoin tlicy 
would {ov jjdeXov).' And St Luke : ' And he released unto them him that 
for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they desired {uv 
^TovvTo).' We therefore adhere to the T. R. 

*XV. 24: Tis Tt apT]] ' What each should take.' Gr. 7uho should take 
what. Compare Luke xix. 15: Iva yva> ris ri SuTrpayfiaTfiKraro. The 
construction has been traced up to Homer's ris n66ev els nvSpcou; but that 
is different, being merely an omission of the copula. Better examples are 

Xenoph. Mem. II. 2, 3 • flvas ovv vtto tivcov evpoLp.ei' dv fxei^ova fvtjpyert]- 
fxivovs 7] Trul8as vtto ynvicdp; Plat. Pliacdr. p. 259 c: IkBov irapa Moixrus 



44 ST MARK. XV. 36 

anayytWdv ris rivn civrcov Tifj.a Toiv evdd?)€. Charit. Aphrod. I. 8 : riva rts 
(iyyfXov ne^i^d; Philostr. ViL Apoll. III. p. 1 14 (ch. xxiv. ed. Didot): 
rty Ti ayoi. Euseb. //. E.W. 18: Tty ovv rivi xapi^frai ra afj-apr^fxara ; 

*XV. 36. KadcXciv avTov] This is the technical word for the operation 
here described. Wctst. quotes Polyb. i. 86 : tovtop fih ovv napaxpr^iia npos 
rov Tov STTei/Si'ou aravpov ayay6vT€S...fKfiP0V /xei' Kadt'iXov, tovtov f5' dvedtaau 
^uPTa. I add Charit. Aphrod. VIII. 8: eKeXevae KaBaiptBrjvai pa tov 
(TTavpov, axfdop ijdrj ntpas i'xovra. Philo De Legg. Spec. T. II. p. 324: p.T\ 
(TTiSveTO) 6 fjXios dv(aKaXoni(Tp,€Vois, dXX' eTnKpvnTeadaxTav yfj irpo Sufffcoy 
Kcidaipedevres- PUlt. Vi/. T]li'})list. XXII: ov vvv to. crcipara Tcii> 6avaT0vp,(va>v 
oi drjpioi Trpo^iXXoviTi, Koi ra i/xarta Koi Toiis ^po^ovs tuiv dTrayxop,€va>v (of 
those who hang themselves?) Km Kadaipedevrav €K.(f)epovai (Langhorne : 'of 
such as have been strangled, or otJierzvisc put to death (JY). Anton. 
Lib. XIII : (Spoa-eu on irporepov Tiatrai rov rvpavvov, rj to awpa Kadaiprjcrei t6 
Ttjs nSeX0t;? (she hanged herself). Plut. Vit. Agis xx : g5s Se fdfdauTo ttjv 
prjTepa viKpav e'/c tov ^p6)(ov Kpe pap.evT]v, (Keivrjv pep avTrj roty vnrjpeTais 
avyKade'iXf. 

XV. 43 : ToX|Ari<ras elo-^XOe irpos niXdrov] ' Went in boldly unto Pilate.' 
So Vulg. {audacter introhnt) and all other English versions that I know 
of, except an anonymous one (Lond., G. Morrish) which has 'emboldened 
himself,' for which the more biblical English would appear to be 'took 
courage' (2 Chron. xv. 8). And this is the rendering of Casaubon, 
Schleusner, and Fritzsche, who, however, do not give any examples 
except the Homeric, dapaijans pdXa elirf. H. Steph. quotes Herodian. Vlil. 
5, 22 : ToXp,i](raPTfS ovv {sioilptcl audacid) eVuicri tt; (TKrjvrj avTov. I add 
Plut. V/t. Cam. XXXIV : o\ p.i.v ovp noXiopKovpevoi dappi^aavTfs (taking 
heart) iut^Uvai BievoovPTo Ka\ pn^rju avvanTfiv. Ibid. XXII : cVel hk ToXpt](Tai 
Tis e'l avTcov (Gallorum) eyytiy napea-Ti] UaTreipLa Mavio), kgl npoa-ayayoop Trjp 
Xf'tpft, npaois fjyJAaro tov yeveiov. Langhorne: 'At last one of them 
ventured to go near Papirius Manius, and advancing his hand, gently 
stroked his beard.' This last example, which has hitherto escaped 
notice, seems to be conclusive in favour of the rendering, ' took courage, 
and went in unto Pilate^.' 

*X\T. 8: dxi 86 avras rpojios Kal ^Ko-Taerts] 'For they trembled and 
were amazed.' R. V. 'for trembling and astonishment had come upon 

' [Cf. J>ucian. Philops. i\: 670) 5e surancc to go lu 1).' Langhonic. Babr. 

Qo.p(jr\(ja% tTTtVi'i/'a. App. B. C. III. xxxi. 12 : /cai ns 7aX^i' mCj Trpoi/KaXetro 

13: Ktti TO ooypa ifp-i] yev^crdai p-qdevos Oaparjaas. XX\'. 8: Kat tis (leporum) 

TTw Tovs ui>5po(puvovs oiiOKOvTos' (xW (lire t)ap<TTi(xas. 'I'hey were going to 

oTrire Oapariaas rts diuKoi.... Plut. drown themselves as being llie weakest 

17/. Dcmctr. Xi.l v : tAos 5^ tw A. To\prj- of animals, but found the frogs fled from 

(SO.vtI% Tives TrpoaeXdcTf. 'Had the as- lliem.J 



XVI. R ST MARK. 45 

them.' Literally, 'had hold of them, possessed them.' It is nearly the 
same as eXajBt, which is 'had taken hold of,' Luke v. 26, vii. 16, Pint. 
Vlf. Crass. XI : ecfyo^ijOr] fxrj Xd^ot Tis opfJ'Tj Tov "InapraKov (tti rfjv 'Pcifirjv 
eXavvfiy, or Karfaxf, Jerem. vi. 24 : d\i\j/^cs Kartcrxev J^/xay. "E)(fiv is SO used 
in the best Greek Authors from Homer and Herodotus down to Plut., V/f. 
Pop/. VII : fKTrkri^ii fi)(( Ka\ (fipiKT] Kai crtcoTTi) Travras f'n\ toIs butnenpayfxtvon. 
Id. Vit. Pomp. XXXVIII: avrhv hi th epcos kuI C^Xos fl^f 'S.vp'iav avdhafie'iv. 
Ach. Tat. I. 4 • TTavTu Sf p,e fix^v opov, eTraivos, eKnXrj^is, rpopos, ntSco'f, 
dvaiBeia. 



ST LUKE. 



Chap. I. V. 2)1 '• OTi oviK dSvvaTTJo-fi, irapd tu) 0€(u irdv pTp-ci] A. \ . ' For 
with God nothing shall be impossible.' We may compare, for napa ra 
6f(o, Matt. xix. 26 : Trapa avdpwnois tovto abvvaTov ea-Tiv, napa de Oea iravra 
Sward. Hut the text, being undoubtedly a reminiscence of (if we may 
not say, a quotation fromy Gen. xviii. 14 in the Lxx. pfj ddwarija-ei nnpa 
TU) 6em pfjpa, must be considered with reference to that place ^. The Hebrew 
is "I3'1 nin^p X7S';n, ' is any thing too wonderful ( = hard) for the Lord.?' 
where nirTlp should have been translated virep rhv 6t6v, not napa tu> dfco 
(or, as the Cod. Cotton, and one or two cursives read, irapa mi) dfov, which 
may luivc been the reading of the Vatican and .Sinaitic MSS. when perfect, 
and which certainly represents the usual force of the Hebrew preposition 
better than the other). Another text bearing on the question under dis- 
cussion is Jerem. xxxii. 17, where the LXX. taking the Hebrew word in 
another meaning (as our Translators have done in Deut. xxx. 1 1, ' It is not 
]iiddc)2 from thee'), have rendered 01' pr diroKpvfij] diro a-oi ovSev, for which 
Aquila gives ovk ddwari^a-fi dno croii nav pfjpa (observe that this translator 
always renders JP by nVd, even when it is clearly vwfp), and Symmachus 
civK dbvvaTrjcrd. aoi (compare Matt. xvii. 20: koI ovSeu ddwarrjad vpiv-). 
Returning to the text, we observe that the very same variation napd mv 
6eov is found in BDLX^ (against ACN"), which circumstance, taken in 
conjunction with the disputed reading of Gen. xviii. 14, certainly makes 
out a strong case against the received text, although perfectly unob- 
jectionable in itself, and supported by the Vulgate and both Syriac 
versions. Supposing then that St Luke wrote on ovk dbvvuTrja-fi napa tov 
dfoii nav prjpa, how is this to be explained? The translation adopted by 
the Revisers is, ' For no word from God shall be void of power.' On 
which we remark (i) that it seems to require some word connecting irdv 
pripn with napd rnv dfov ; as, in P2nglish, ' no word iv]iich proceedeth from 
God'; or, in (jreek, napa roG Q^ov eKnopevopevov nav p^p-a; or, if not, a 
different arrangement of the words, on ovk dSwart^ad rrai^ pfipa napa rov deov 

' This reading (doi'caT7j(rei) is adopt- Dr Field reads doi'i/arer. Ed. 
ed by Holmes and Parsons in their - [Cf. also Jol) xlii. 2: dowaTci 54 

edition of llic I, XX. In his own edition croi oi'd^v.] 



11. T2 ST LUKE. 47 

(as I Kings (Sam.) xvi. 14: kch iTsviyiv avTvv Triei'/xo novripov naini Kvplov. 
Lam. ii. 9: Kinyf npocpfiTai aiTrjs ovk (l8ov opaaiv iropa Kvpiov). And 
(2) that dSwuTfiv never has the meaning, 'to be void of power'' ; but either 
(of things) 'to be impossible,' or (of persons) 'to be unable,' in which 
latter case it is invariably followed by a verb in the infinitive mood. To 
afford the sense proposed, the Greek should have been ovk aa-fffvi^a-d, or 
OVK dvfvepyrjTov earai. This last objection, however, might be obviated by 
translating, ' For from God no word (or, nothing) shall be impossible.' 

IL 7, 12 : 'Wrapped in swaddling clothes' (fanapyai/uifxevou). Ch. xxiv. 
12: 'the linen clothes' (d^dwa). John xi. 44: ' bound hand and foot with 
grave clothes' {Kfiplai}. \x. 5, 6, 7: 'linen clothes' {r:dupia). Since the 
distinction between clotJis (plural of clotli and clotlies (plural without a 
singular) has long been established, both in spelling and pronouncing, 
there seems no reason why the English reader of the N. T. should not 
have the benefit of it. The Revisers have accepted this suggestion in the 
second and fourth examples, but have left the two others unaltered'-'. In 
the present text all room for misunderstanding would be taken away by 
the use of the biblical term ' swaddlingbands.' Compare Job xxxviii. 9: 
'And thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,' where LXX. : o\i.iy\r] §« 
avTr]v ia-TTcipyavuxTa; and the well-known Christmas Hymn, 'AH meanly 
wrapped in swathing bands.' 

II. 9: aYY^Xos KvpCov €Tr€o-TT] avrois] A. V. 'came upon them.' R. V. 
'stood by theml' In Ch. xxiv. 4 both versions have 'Behold, two men 
stood by them.' The word properly signifies any siiddcji or jutexpcctcd 
arrival, or coining of one party upon another^. So i Thess. v. 3: r/.Tf 
al<pvi8ioi avToli €(f)icrTaTaL uXtdpos, cocnrep i] d8\v rrj iv yaarpl e;^oi;o-r;. In the 
present instance the A. V. fairly represents the Greek ; but in v. 38 
fnicTTaaa is not 'coming in,' for she was probably in the temple before; 
nor yet 'standing near' (Scholefield, Hints for mi Improved Ti'anslatioii 
of the N. T., p. 22), for that would imply that she had been present during 
the preceding incident; but (as rightly R. V.) 'coming up.' We read in 
the life of Myson (Diog. Laert. I. 108) that that philosopher once fell 
a-laughing when he was in a perfect solitude : a(^z/<D 8e nvos (Tria-Tavros, Kal 
TTvdofievov 8ia t'i p-rfhevos; rrapovTOs yfXa, (jidvai ' 81' avro tovto. 

*II. 12 : 'Ye shall find (evpTJafre) a babe,' 16, 'they found (dvevpov) both 
M. and J. and the babe.' It is singular that the Revisers should have 
failed to distinguish the simple and compound verbs. The former indic- 
ates no more than coming upon a thing, as in Luke xxi\-. 23, 24 : ' and 

1 [Except Lev. xxv. 35 (of a person): •* [But in Luke xxi. 34, R.V. 'come 

Kal dovvaTTjar] rais xepcrii' irapa aoi, on': A.V. 'come upon.'] 
where many MSS. read ddwa/nriari.] ■• [Cf. Lucian. De Gyvui. 34 : koX 

^ [E.\cept that in John xi. 44 they adrjXov oiroTe tis evLaras, Koip.(hiX€vov 

suggest 'grave-bands ' in the margin.] KaraffTrdaas dtrb ttjs dixd^y)s (poi'fvffti.ev.} 



4'^ ST T.UKE. TT. 



U 



when {hey f 01/ lid noi his body'...' we went to the sepulchre, and found it 
even so as the women had said.' The latter implies a previous search, 
'they found out' or 'discovered,' as in Acts xxi. 4: nv^vpovTe^ hk toit 
Hctdr)T<U, 'and having fmiiid out the disciples.' Take a few examples. 
Herod. 1\'. 127: rvyx^nvova-i i^fiiv eovTes Tucjioi TTiiTponoi' (fiepert, tovtovs 
nvfvix'iVTfi. avyxf'fit' 'n'fi-pcio-Oe uvtovs. Plut. I'//. MarccI. XIX: rhv avTuy^apn 
rov (IfSpor (Archimedes) (]neaTpci(f)ri Kadanep fvayfj, tovs S' niKfiovs dvevpav 
fTifii](Tfu. Id. 17/. Cam. xxxii. (in searching the ruins of the Hut of 
Mars) TovTo 8t) rore (the /t/uus of Romulus) tmv aWav dnoXcoXorav nvev- 
povTfs 8ia7rf(f)(vy6s rfju (fidopdv. ' The word nvevpia-Keiv, peculiar to .St 
Luke... is employed by the medical writers of finding out the seat of a 
disease'.' 

II. 14: €v dvOptoirois evSoKLtt] 'Good will toward men.' For 'good 
will' it would be better, perhaps, to substitute ' good pleasure.' EvboKtlv 
and €v8oKia, which answer to the Hebrew nVT and jiVl, are especially 
used in Scripture oi \}cit favour ox feclbig of C07nplacency with which God 
regards his people. Thus LXX. Psa. cxlvi. 1 1 : evhoKfi Kvpin^ iu rols 
cpnjBovpevois avrov. Psa. CV. 4 • pvijadrjrt r'jfjLwv, Kvpif, iv rfj €v8oKia rov \aov 
aov. Sym. Prov. xiv. 9: Acai dvapivov fv6f(ou fvSoKia. Hardly to be 
distinguished from these are ]*Dn and ]*Sn, generally rendered by deXeiv 
and deXrjp.a; e.g. Psa. xvii. 20: piKrerai p,e, on ^6e\r)<Te fie. Eccles. v. 3: 
ovK earai deXrjpa (sc. 6fov) iv d(])po(Ti. On a Consideration of these and 
similar passages we shall have no difficulty in understanding by fv8oKia 
the favour ox good pleasure of God, shown towards men (ev dvdpdTrois) by 
the birth of the Saviour of mankind. We may measure (humanly speak- 
ing) the intensity of the divine benevolence displayed on this occasion, 
by comparing it with that which he himself expresses towards the chosen 
instrument of it : ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased 
(«V <u €v8(')KT](Ta).' From henceforth men will be evapfarovvTa rw 6(u, and 
God will be fv8oKcov e'v avTo7s^. 

With respect to the force of the preposition, we adhere to the A. V. 
No doubt, in good Greek, 'good will toward men' would be evvoia npm 
TOVS nvOpcoTTovs, as Plut. F/t. LliCuU. I: r^s 8i. npos rov d8e\(fihv nvrnv MnpKov 
(vvoias TToWcov TfKprjpicov ovrav k.t.X? But the regular construction of 
the Hebrew verbs and nouns aforesaid being with the preposition ? of the 
object, the corresponding Greek terms fv8oKfLv, OeXeiv, tv8oKia, 6f\r]pa 
follow the same rule; and in the present case, the object of the 'good 

' Ilobart (W. K.), On the medical 'Peace on earth and mercy mild; 

language of St Ln/ie, ^. g<). God and sinners RECONCILED.' 

2 St Chrysost. T. XI. p. 347 V,: "' [Ei-Vota is said of men; eiifx^veia 

A6|o K.T.e. idoi'i, (prjcri, /cat avOpwiroi f - more correctly of divine favour. Lucian. 

(pdvqaav evapiarovvm \onr6v. tI iartv, De Gymn. 33 : ws 5^ vvv ^x^re, dewv 

(vdoKia; KATAAAAPH. We are re- Tivoi ev/ieveli^i awifffOal p-oi doKflre.] 
minded of another Christmas Hymn : 



n. 37 ST LUKE. 49 

pleasure' being 'men,' iv avdpunrois evSoKia is rightly translated 'good 
pleasure in men,' or 'good will toward men,' not, as in the margin of 
R. v., 'good pleasure among men.' 

The Revisers, as might have been foreseen, have followed the reading 
of the principal uncials and the Latin Vulgate, koI iwl y^s fiprjvr^ iv dvdpm- 
TTois evdoKiAC, 'And on earth peace among men in whom he is well 
pleased.' To which it may be (briefly) objected, (i) that it ruins the 
sticliometry ; (2) that it separates iv from ev8oKia, the word with which it 
is normally construed; (3) that 'men of good pleasure' (fl\*"l ^l;'JX) would 
be, according to Graeco-biblical usage, not avdpaivoi evdoKtas, but avSpes 
evdoKias^; (4) that the turn of the sentence, iv dvdpaTrois evdoKia, very 
much resembles that of the second clause of Prov. xiv. 9 : ]))i'\ DHl?'^ ]''!) 
rendered (as we have seen) by Symmachus: koi dvapiaov evdicov evdoKia. 

*Other renderings of iv dvdpconois fvdoKias have been proposed, as 
'among men of his counsel for good,' or 'of his gracious purpose' 
{Coiitemp. Rev. Dec. 1881, p. 1003), 'among men of contentment,' or 
' contented men ' (!). It has even been suggested that 'there is no need to 
take ivhoKMi as distinguishing certain men from the rest : the phrase 
admits likewise the more probable sense, "in (among and within) accepted 
mankind."' (Westcott and Hort, App. p. 56.) But although, taken alone, 
iv dvdpwnoLs can only mean iv rw dvdpanlva yivfi, yet the assumption of 
an epithet has the immediate effect of defining and marking off a select 
portion of mankind, to which the particular description applies. In fact 
avdpanoi fv8oKias or evdoKrjroi is exactly equivalent to dvdpanroi exXoy^y or 
iKXfKToi, and ''accepted mankind' is almost as great an absurdity as 
''selected mankind.'- 

II. yj : Kal avTi^ x^lP* "S €twv oYSoTJKovra Tccrcrdpwv] 'And she was a 
widow of about fourscore and four years.' For coy the uncials ABLX^ 
read ewy, which the Vulgate renders, Et haec vidua tisque ad annos 

1 I have examined all the instances x. 11: nnpn"Ji^''X, 0'. avy]p iiridv- 
of similar combinations in the O. T., ^^QJ,. Obad. 7: ^nnn %'Z^. 0'. oi 

and cannot find a single one in which „ ^ - i a » ' tij ».:.w. 

'^ avSpes T-qs oiad-qK-qs ffov. Ibid. : 'e'jX 

dvdpUTTOs is so used. The following ./ . , , ^ ^ " = " 

,, • . 1 o • "^uPiy , . afdpes dprivLKol <jov. fProv. 

are the prnicipal ones : 2 Sam. xvi. 7 : ' v : • t- r 1 i 

D''n"nn £;''{<. O'. avrip alpaTw. Ibid. xxix. 10 : D'^PT ""J^^X. 0'. avSpes ai- 
xviii. 20: nib3 t^\S\ 0'. dvT]p e^a^. f^^""^"' ^ Sam. viii. 10: niJDn^O ti^"'N\ 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■' [ei'oo^Tias at the end of ahne would 



0'. iir' dvdpa de^ids crov. Psa. cxix- 24: 



differ from evdoda only by the addition 



■ T-. ■■:-• f f ' <- of the smallest possible c, little more 

Jerem. xv. 10: 3n E^"'K. 0'. dv5pa than a point, for which it might have 
biKa^opevov. 'A. dvSpa pdxv^- L)an. been intended — thus eyAOKiA''.] 



K. 



4 



50 ST LUKE. II. 49 

octoginta qiiatuor, and R. V. 'And she had been a widow even for 
fourscore and four years'; which number of years, being added to those 
of her maiden and married state, would make her at this time upwards of 
a hundred years old, an improbable, though not incredible age. We 
may compare what is recorded of Judith (xvi. 22, 23), that she remained 
a widow {pvK eyvu) civrji) avTijv) all the days of her life, from the day that 
her husband Manasses died ; and she increased more and more in great- 
ness, Koi iyr]pa(TiV iv r<M o'Ikco tov dvdpos avTrjs fKarov Trevre err]. It should, 
however, be borne in mind, that EflC might very easily have been written 
instead of "flC (especially when followed by a noun in the genitive case), 
and that the phrase x^P"- ^c^^ ^tw" seems to require confirmation. Both 
Syriac versions read wy. 

The phrase ano rrji napdevim nvrfjs has not yet been illustrated, as it 
might be, from classical authors; e.g. J. Pollux, III. 39: rj Se (k napdevlas 
Tifl yfyap-qphiT] npaiTimoais eKoXe^To. Plut. Vt/. Pfl)np. LV : ov napdevov, 
dXXh xrjpnv dTioKf\fLfJ.p.(V7;V veaxrvl UottXiov Toii Kpdacrov, (o (tvv(okj](T€V €K 
napdevias. Id. V//. Britt. XIII: ilx^ S' avTr]v...ovK €k irapOevia^, aK\a tov 
nporepov T(\(vTtj(ravTos nv8p6s. Chant. Aphrod. III. 7 • fp-ns uurjp (k 
irapQiv'iai^. 

*1I. 49 : Tl OTl, «tT''eiT€ |A€; OVK Tl8£lT€ OTL Iv TOIS TOV TrttTpoS [iOD Sci 

elvai [AC ;] It is unfortunate that the very first words which can be 
certainly known to have been uttered by our blessed Lord are of 
dmtbtfiil i7ite7-p)-etation ; not, indeed (as we hope to show in this paper)-, 
intentionally ambiguous on the part of the speaker, nor even actually such 
as to fail to convey their intended meaning to the minds of the hearers, 
but yet so framed as to afford matter of disputation to after times, when 
Greek should cease to be a spoken language, and the exact force of 
particular idioms, instead of being seized intuitively, would have to be 
investigated by the research of learned men, trained to such enquiries, 
and applying to the conduct of them the accumulated critical stores 
of preceding ages. Thus, in the case before us, the words eV rois tov 
TvaTpo^ p.<w have been held by competent authorities, down to our own 
times, to admit of two different meanings, 'about my Father's business,' 
and 'in my Father's house'; yet it is certain that only one of these was 
in the mind of the artless child, from whose lips they fell, and that f/mi 
meaning was rightly apprehended by those who heard them. We are 
told, indeed, that his parents 'understood not the saying which he spake 
unto them' ; but this remark refers not to any difficulty in its gram- 
matical construction, but to its appropriateness in the mouth of the 
speaker, and its bearing on the actual circumstances. So when, at a 
later period, our Lord told his disciples that 'the Son of Man should 
be delivered unto the Gentiles, and they should scourge him, and put 

1 [Cf. App. B. C. II. 99: MapKig. yi " Dr Field printed this note in the 

TOL, rfi (InXiinrov, ^vuwv (k wapdlvov.] form of a pnmiililet, January 1H79. lid. 



II. 49 ST LUKE. 5 1 

him to death, and the third day he should rise again'; ahhough there 
could be no possible misunderstanding of the plain grammatical meaning 
of the words, we read that 'they understood none of these things, and this 
saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were 
spoken^.' • 

We have said that two interpretations have been attributed by 
learned men to the expression here used, only one of which (in this place 
at least) can be the right one. Attempts, indeed, are sometimes made to 
include both ; but such comprehensions are usually resorted to by that 
class of critics whose distrust of their own judgment makes them 
unwilling to reject any interpretation which ra^y possibly be the true one. 
Thus Dean Alford ad loc.\ 'Primarily, i)i the house of iny Father; but 
we must not exclude the wider sense, which embraces all places and 
employments of my Father. The best rendering would, perhaps, be, 
among my Fathcr''s mafters'^^ We shall ask the reader to weigh the 
evidence which we shall set before him, and to pronounce an unhesitating 
verdict in favour of one or other of the two renderings now to be 
discussed. 

I. The first is that of the Authorized Version (A. V.), with which we 
are all familiar: 'Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's 
business.'*' 

No example has been produced of the entire phrase, dvai eV toIs tlvos, 
to be about a pcrson^s business ; although there is no reason why it should 
not bear that meaning, if clearly required by the context. The authority 
most strongly urged in favour of this rendering is i Tim. iv. 15, where 
St Paul, after charging Timothy to attend to reading, exhortation, and 
doctrine, adds : ravra (xe'KeTa, iv tovtois 'ladi. Here the only question 
is as to the degree of interest and occupation intended to be conveyed by 
the expression, being in the things alluded to, whether ordinary or to the 
the exclusion of all other objects. The latter seems to be the view of 
A. v., ' Meditate upon these things, give thyself wholly to them ' ; and of 
those commentators who compare with St Paul's phrase Horace's om?ns 
in hoc sum and lotus in illis, where, however, the omnis and lotus make 
a notable difference^. If this view were correct, then the phrase, as used 

1 Luke xviii. 34. oXos elvai iv rivi Trpdyfj-aTi, occurs in a 
- So Cappellus, though he decides passage of Plutarch (11. p. 342 b), which 
for ' my Father's house,' adds negofiis affords an interesting parallel to this 
videlicet non exclusis ; and Philip Dod- incident of our Lord's childhood. The 
dridge, the most learned and candid of youthful Alexander, we are told, con- 
non-conformists, ' Did ye not know that versing with the ambassadors of the 
I ought to be at my Father's? and that King of Persia, asked no childish 
wherever I was, I should be so em- questions (as, for instance, about the 
ployed in his service as to be secure of Golden Vine, or the Hanging Gardens, 
his protection?' or how the king was dressed), dXX' 
^ The corresponding Greek phrase, oXos tv to'is Kvpiwrdrois r^v ttjs 7]y€/j.ovias, 



52 ST LUKE. II. 49 

by the child Jesus, might appear to be too strong for the occasion, and 
the example would prove too much. But, in fact, such an entire ab- 
sorption does 7iot seem to be implied, either in St Paul's use of the 
expression, or in other instances which may be quoted from profane 
authors. Of these latter we may set aside such as relate to the general 
piirstiit or mode of life of the persons spoken of, and not to their actual 
employjnent at the time. 'Nihil est frequentius,' says Jeremiah Mark- 
land i, 'locutione eV nvi eli/ai eiri.crT^ixr), scietitiam aliquam tfacfare, iv 
(f)i\oao<f)Lq, iv fxovaais dvai.' Thus Herod. II. 82 : ol iv iroi^a-ei ytvojifvoi. 
Aelian, V. H. I. 31 : art 8t] owes iv yecopyia, Kol nepl yrjv ttovovikvoi. To 
which we may add Soph. Oeel. Tyr. 562 : tot ovv o \xavTii oiros r^v iv 
Tji TexvT) ; i.e. 'Did he at that time profess the art of divination]' 
Making these deductions, we have remaining Xenoph. Cyrop. iv. 3, 23 : 
o\ /xef hi) iv TOVTOii Tols Xoyotf ^aav. Thucyd. Vlll. 14 : navTts iv r€i;^tcr/Lto) 
^(rav Kcn TrapcKTKfvrj TroXe'^ou. Dion. Hal. VI. 17: iv eopTols re Kai Ovaiats 
^aav (after a victory). Plu-t. i. p. 656 E (quoted by Wetstein) : iv tovtois pev 
ovv 6 Kaiaap ^v, which seems to be rightly understood by the English 
translator, 'While Caesar was thus employed.' We need not be 
surprised if examples of this usage are rare, because the ordinary Greek 
formula for occupari in aliqua re is not elvai %v tivi Trpdypan, but eivai irepi 
Ti TTpaypa, corresponding with the English idiom fo be about any busiitess. 
Of this use one or two authors alone will furnish sufficient examples. 
Thus Diod. Sic. IV. 28 : tov 8' 'WpaKkiovs nepl TaiiTa ovtos. XI I. 84 : 
^Adrjvaioi pfv ovv nfpl TavTa rfaav. XIV. 25 '■ ovTav 8e avrmv nepl tovtu. 
57 : TTfpi ravTa S' uvrcuv uvTmv. Dion. Hal. I. 82 : iv oj Se ovtoi irtpi TavTa 
■qaav. V. 40 ■ 01 pev 8r] Tvepl Tairra ijcrav. So with yivea-dat, SiaTpi^fiv, 
aa-xoXeladai, &c. As Diod. Sic. XI. 22 : nepl ttjv Bvcrlav yivopeva. Ibid. 
75 • oiiToi piv ovv 7rtp\ Tas 7Tapa(TKfvas iylvovro. XII. 5 1 '■ tov 8e '2iTaXKov nepl 
TavTa bi.aTpi^ovTQS. Ibid. 59 : twv be 'A6r]vaicov rrepl Taiira daxoXovpevoiV". 

The conclusion from this part of the enquiry seems to be, that if the 
child Jesus had intended to convey the meaning that 'he must be about 
his Father's business,' he 7)iight have said, iv rojy tov narpos pov 8el 

enquiring in what the power of the refers, nor liave I been able to trace 

Persians consisted, what was the king's them elsewhere. Ed.] 
post in battle, which were the shortest ^ A later usage seems to liavc been 

roads from the coast to the interior; ehai Trpds tivl, as Synes. E/>. iv. p. 

insomuch that the strangers were as- 165 u: Kal 01 p^v ^aav Trpbs toi^tois. 

tonished [eKirewXrixOon) &c. Pausan. Messen. xxvii. 7: Kal ri)v plv 

^ Ad Max. Tyr. XXI. (p. 396 ed. rbre 7]pipa.v irpb? OvcrlaLS re Kal ei'xais 

Reiske). Markland was, as we shall T)<jav. Lucian. D. D. xix. 2: koI oKus 

presently see, a strong advocate for the irpos rip Toiovrqi iaTiv. Stob. Floi: p. 

other interpretation, 'in my Father's 370,31: ocra piv yap ^pya irAvv ivTelvei 

house.' [The words quoted in the text t6 ffCipa Kal Kapirrei, Tavra Kal t/jv 

are not to be found in the note by i^vxv" dvayKa^ei Trpbs avroh cTfat p6poLS. 
Markland to ^\'liich Dr Field here 



II. 49 ST LUKE. 53 

flval fj-f, though it is doubtful whether his hearers would have so 
understood him, considering that the more familiar meaning of this 
expression was (as will hereafter be shown) something quite different. 
It is, therefore, more probable that he would have said, 7rep\ ra rov narpos 
fiov, which is quite free from ambiguity, and more in accordance with the 
Greek idiom. It is true that we have no other example of this identical 
combination in the Greek Testament ; but St Luke's pepiixvas kuI rvplBdCn 
Trept TToXXfi (Ch. x. 41) and his tovs rrepl ra Toiavra epydras (Acts xix. 25) 
are hardly to be distinguished from it. 

Another, and more obvious, form of speech, which might have been 
employed to express the same idea, would have been, ovk fjdeiTe on to. tov 
TTUTpos fiov Set TTpciTTeiv jLte; (comparing Trpacrafiv ra 'idia, I Thess. iv. II). 
There is also our Lord's own formula, after he had entered upon his real 
work, TO. fpya TOV TTUTpos fiov Set epyd^eadal p,e ; which, however, might be 
thought too grave and solemn for the childish incident here recorded. 

II. We pass on to the alternative meaning which has been assigned 
to this passage, 'that I must be /n my Father's liousc^ 

The omission of the word house is common in all languages, both 
ancient and modern. Thus, such phrases as et? Kav/ccows d(f)iK€To (Ael. 
V. H. I. 24), ets 'ApKeXaou Trore dcpiKovro (ll. 2l), e(poiTa els Aapias t^s 
eTaipas (XII. 1 7), TraprjKdev els nav^oKfcos (XIV. 48), ev ^apval^d^ov yevop-evos 
(iv. 15), iv 2vp(f)aKos ecmapevos (Appian VI. 30), might be paralleled 
in the familiar discourse of our own country 1. Sometimes the singular 
article is prefixed to the possessive case of the noun, as iv rw nanriKov, 
iv TM Kr](j)e(os'^, where otV<a may be understood. But what we are now 
concerned with is the peculiarly Greek usage, by which the article in the 
neuter plural (to) is utilized for the same purpose. Grammarians invite 
us to supply olKr]p.aTa or dapara, but unnecessarily. To tivos are, properly, 
a person's tilings or beloiigi/igs (as navra to. tov Trarpos -qpav Gen. xxxi. l), 
and came to be used specially of his house, either as being the chief 
of his possessions, or as being an aggregate of various parts, offices, or 
premises. However this may be, the use itself is certain, and not liable 
to be misunderstood. Common instances of it are Theocr. Id. li. 76 : a 
TO. Aukcoi/os (where Schol. ottou eio-l tci ol<r\paTa to. A.); Aristoph. Vesp. 
1440 : irapdTpex els to. HiTTaXov ; Artem. Onir. v. 82 : edos piv yap toIs 
(Tvp^KOTais Koi els to. tcov dnodavovTav eltnivai Koi benrvelv. This last 
phrase, els to. tov dirodavovTos elanevai, is also quoted by Demosthenes, 
c. Macart. (p. 1071, 6) from one of Solon's laws, as forbidden to women, 
except those above a certain age, or within a certain degree of relation- 
ship. Other examples require a special notice. 

I. A clear instance, and one much relied on by those who take this 

^ Even the Comic poet's ij'Ker' ovv glian vernacular, 'Come to iiiinc,^ 'I 
ei% epov, tVw els ipov {Lys. 1063, 12 ti) called at yours.' 
exactly correspond with the East An- - Lobeck. ad Phryn. p. 100. 



54 ST LUKE. II. 49 

view of the text, is Lys. c. Eratosth. p. 195 ed. Taylor. 'They overtake 
us at the very door, and ask us whither we are going ; whereupon my 
companion rephes : ei? ra tov ahiK<^o\) tov i\i.ov, tva koI to. iv iKsivT) tj] oIkIo. 
a-Keyj/Tjrai.' On which Markland has this note : ' Hinc illustratur Luc. 
ii. 49, €u Tols Toil rrarpos [j.ov, in domo patris iiiei. Sic Joseph. Afit. xvr. 
10, I : ^v b' avra (caraycoyij iv toIs 'AvTinarpov, hospitio auteni Antipatri 
domo titebatur. Sic fyyuy tQ>v Hvdoddpov Demosth. adv. Conon [p. 1258, 
25]. Miror aliquos hunc Lucae locum ahter interpretari et vertere.' 

• 2. Another good example is furnished by St Chrysos. Horn. Lil. i?i 
Gen. {0pp. T. IV. p. 507 b) : ' Whither dost thou send away the just 
man (Isaac).'' Knowest thou not that wherever he may chance to go, he 
must be in his Master's house (eV to\^ tov hicnrorov eavrov tivai avrov 
dvayKT])?' This place is quoted by Joh. Boisius (Boys), Canon of Ely^ ; 
but was first indicated by Nicolas Fuller {Miscel. Sacr. iv. 17); on 
which the Canon remarks : ' Qui amant bonas literas, studiisque 
cultioribus dediti sunt, muitum debent Nicolao propter loci istius indic- 
ationem.' I add, from the same author {0pp. T. Xl. p. 259 b): rrotoy 
yap, tine fxoi, vios, iv tols tov iraTpos rrovuiv, kcu iavTca novuiv, yoyyv^ei; 

3. The LXX. version of the Old Testament, besides Esth. vii. 9 : iv 
Tols 'A/itii/, supplies Job xviii. 19, where, after the Hebrew, ' He shall have 
neither son nor nephew among his people, nor any remaining in his 
dwellings,' the translator adds dc sito, aXA' iv toIs avTov ^rjaovTai sTepoi. 
But the most notable example from this version is Gen. xli. 51 : 6Vt 
iiriKaOeadai p-e inoirjo-ev 6 Oeos ttcivtwv tu)V novcov p-ov, Koi ndvT(t)V twv tov 
TTUTpos pov. The latter clause might be construed by borrowing -novdiv 
from the former ; but besides the impropriety of Joseph's forgetting his 
father's troubles, the Hebrew ''3S n'*3"'?3 nx) is conclusive in favour 
of 'and all my father's house^.' 

4. In another class of examples, a plural adjective is used instead of 
the noun to denote the person whose house it is. Thus Sirac. xlii. 10 : 
Kai iv Tols TTUTpiKols avTrjs i'yKvoi yivqrai (for iv tols tov TvaTpos avTi)s). 
Dion. Hal. VIII. p. 526 (ch. 57), dniXvaav inl tci olntla. Ibid. p. 531 (ch. 63) : 
dnrjeaav tKarepoi iirX to. (T(j)4Tepa (for eVt Tii iavTwv). In the Greek Testament 
itself we find John xvi. 32 : fKciaTos fts tci I'Sta (A. V. 'every man to his 
own, or, /lis owti home''). Acts xxi. 6 : vnia-Tpey^rav ds tci i'Stn (A. V. ' they 
returned home again'). In the A. V. of John i. 11, 'He came unto 
his own, and his own received him not,' an English reader would 
suppose that the Greek word was the same in both clauses ; which is not 
the case. In the former it is els to. 'idia, to his own home ; in the latter ol 
t'Siot, his own people. 

Besides philological grounds the testimony of the ancient versions, 
and of the Greek expositors, may be briefly referred to. 

1 Vet. Inlerprdis cum Bcza ahisqiic have been first pointed out by Pet. 
recentioribus Collatio &c. Lend. 1655. Keuchen {Annotata in omnes N. F. 

"^ Tliis capital example seems to lihros, Lvig. Bat. 1775). 



11.49 ST LUKE. 55 

With respect to the former, the Vulgate, Arabic, and Ethiopic 
translate literally, in his quae patris mei sunt^ which is not decisive 
in favour of either interpretation. But the Syriac Peschito is clear 
for in donio patris mei ; and this being the vernacular idiom both of 
parents and child, it is highly probable that in the text of this very 

ancient version, looilj .j.!^ ]]6 w^^] Aj.^5, we have the identical 
sounds which fell from the lips of the divine child. The Greek translator 
may have preferred eV toIs tov it. fj,. to ev rw o'ikco tov it. /x. as bemg more 
trivia/, and therefore more natural in the mouth of a child. Of Greek 
commentators, to the names of Origen (Cent, my, Theophylact (xi), 
and Euthymius (xii), which are commonly appealed to in favour of this 
rendering, we may add Epiphanius (iv)- and Theodoret (v)^. 

On a review of the arguments on both sides, the reader will, probably, 
be inclined to think that the preponderance is greatly in favour of the 
second interpretation. But if any doubt should remain, an appeal to the 
connexion in which the words are found will be sufficient to turn the 
scale. Mary had complained of her son's conduct, on the ground that 
she and her husband had suffered much anxiety in seeking for their lost 
child. He replies, 'How is it that ye sought me? Missing me, ye 
ought to have certainly known where to look for me. Where should the 
child be, but in his Father's house.?' All here is in logical sequence. 
Not so, if we adopt the other explanation. He might be 'about his 
(heavenly) Father's business,' and they might have been sure that he 
was so, without their knowing exactly where to find him. At a later 
period of his life, during his public ministry, he was always 'about his 
Father's business,' but not always in the Temple, or in the midst of the 
doctors. During the three days that he was missing, he, probably, found 
shelter in the house of some one or other of his parents' friends, with 
whom they had lodged during the feast. Of some of these friends we 
may suppose that the parents made their first enquiries ; though we 
cannot agree with those who assume that the greater part of the third 
day (the day which followed that on which they made their return 
journey) was spent in the fruitless search for him. For aught that 
appears on the face of the narrative*, they might have begun their search 

1 0pp. T. III. p. 954: ^ Nescitis irarpos ixoV a-qixaivoov 6T(.b vaos ehovofia 

quia in his quae sunt Patris mei oportet deou, roure'crri, tov aiiTOv Trarpos, qiKOOo- 

me esse? Ubi sunt haerelici impii fX7]9r]. ei roivw awb vqirlov oloe tov vaov 

atque vesani, qui asserunt non esse kolI tov Trarepa, ovk dpa i/'t\6s dvOpuwos 

Patris Jesu Christi legem et prophetas? 6 yevvr^deis'lrjaovs. 
Certe Jesus in templo erat, quod a ^ Ofip. T. v. p. 1063: Se el-rre' 

Salomone constructum est, et confi- tL otl e^rjTeXTe fxe ; ovk jfSetTe otl iv t<^ 

tetur templum illud Patris sui esse, olki{1 tov iraTpos /xov del fxe elvai ; 
quern nobis revelavit, cujus filiuni esse '* The phrase jotera Tpels rjfiipas is 

se dixit.' only another form for Ty Tpirrj 7]/j.ipa, 

^ Haeres. i. 30 (ch. 29) : 'Ei' rois tov wilh which it is interchanged Mark 



$6 ST LUKE. III. 14 

by a visit to the Temple, as a likely place to find the divine child. But 
even so, since they would have gone thinking only that he migJit be there, 
there would still have been room for the mild expostulation, 'How is 
it that ye sought me? Wist ye not that I tniist be in my Father's 
house ? ' 

III. 14: <rTpaT€v6|xevoi] 'soldiers.' R. V. in margin: ' Gr. soldiers on 
service.^ Alford : ' Properly, men on march.'' ' The expression used by 
St Luke is not "soldiers" {a-TpaTiaiTai)., but the participle a-Tparevofievoi, i.e. 
"men under arms," or men "going to battle.'" — J. D. Michaelis, Introduc- 
tion to N. T., Vol. I. p. 51. The latter finds in this form a proof of the 
authenticity of the N. T. 'Whence these persons came, and on what 
particular account, may be found at large in the history of Josephus 
{Atit. XVIII. 5, i). Herod the tetrarch of Galilee was engaged in a war 
with his father-in-law Aretas, a petty king in Arabia Petraea, at the very 
time in which John was preaching in the wilderness.... The army of 
Herod, then, in its march from Galilee passed through the country in 
which John baptized, which sufficiently explains the doubt, who the 
soldiers were.' But as this war did not break out till A.U.C. 789, and 
John began to preach A.U.C. 781, this ingenious explanation falls to the 
ground. Nor is it required. "S.TpaTfvofifvos is ' one who serves in the 
army,' whether engaged in actual warfare or not, not therefore distin- 
guishable from aTpaTicoTr]s. Here the advice given to them seems rather 
to point to soldiers at home, mixing among their fellow-citizens, than to 
those who were 'on the march' in an enemy's country. And so in 2 Tim. 
ii. 4, ovdeh arparevoiJifvos is hardly 'no man that warreth' (A. V.), or even 
'no soldier on service' (R. V.); otherwise he would be precluded by the 
necessity of the case from 'entangling himself in the affairs of (civil) 
life.' 

St Chrysostom uses a-Tparevop.fvoi in the same way to denote a class in 
the following passage (T. VII. p. 466 d): koi yap koI yepovra kui vtoi, koI 
yvvdiKas e'xoprei, koi na'iSas rpeffiovTei, Koi rexvas piTaxfipi^opevoi, kuX 
(TTpurevoixfvoi, KaTapuaxrav ra iniTaxBfVTa anavTa. 

*nL 14: (iT]8€'va 8i.a(r€to-T]T£] A. V. 'Do violence to no man' {or, pit t no 
man in fear). This case answers to the concussio of the Roman jurists, 
i.e. extorting money by threats, or under pretence of authority. Thus 
Chrysologus, Serm. XXVI. (de bono milite) : ' Si paruit impcratis, si 
concussit neminem.' 

The other clause, \ir)hl avKocjiavTijarjre is more correctly rendered 

viii. 31, ix. 31. Even the 'three days 'Good Friday,' is satisfied, according 

and three nights,' which proved such to Biblical usage, by a /e7i> hours of 

a stumbling-lijock to ' Herman Hein- one vvx^rj^iepov, the w/iole of a second, 

fetter' that he could only get over it by and less limn lial/oi a. third, 
keeping ' Good Tliursday ' instead of 



V. 7 ST LUKE. 57 

by A. V. ' neither accuse any falsely,' than by R. V. ' neither exact any 
//«';/^ wrongfully.' Again in Ch. xix. 8: et rtj/o? ti eaviio(pdvTi](ra, 'if I have 
taken anything from any man by false accusation,' R. V. renders, 'if I 
have wrongfully exacted aught of any man,' again ignoring the /a/se 
accusation, which is of the essence of the word. So Choricius ap. Villois. 
Anecd. II. p. ^O: toiovtov eVrt avuocfyavrla' to Trpo(TTV)(ov del Trp6(f)a(Tiu 
TToieire (TTOteirat) dca^oXrjs. 

IV. 13: iravTa Trcipao-fiov] A. V. 'all the temptation,' which would 
require the article. R. V. ' every temptation.' Rather, ' every kind of 
temptation.' So A. V. Matt. xii. 31: naa-a afxapTia /cat ^\aa({)t]fjLia, 'all 
manner of sin and blasphemy.' Dion. Hal. Aut. v. 48 : Kpariaros rav rore 
'Pcofiaicov Kara Tracrav dpeTrjv vop.ia6eLS. St Chrysostom (T. VII. p. 172 B) 
thus comments upon the text: kul ttcos o \ov<as (j)r](Tii', on navra (TWiTiKeae 
neipaa-fiou ; e'/zol 8oKel, ra KfCpaXaia T<av 7reipa(T[Ma>p elndv, navra flprjKevai, coi 
Kai Tu>v aXXcov iv tovtois TrepietXtjppei^cov. ra yap pvpia (Twixovra kokci ravrd 
ecTTf TO yacTTpl dovXeveiu, to irpos K€Vo8o^iau ti noielu, to p.avia XprjpuTcov 

virevOvvov eluai. And SO Beza (ed. 1 598) ad loc. : ' Vix enim reperiatur ulla 
tentationis species, quae vel ad diffidentiam de Deo, vel ad rerum caduc- 
arum studium, vel ad vanam sui ostentationem non referatur.' 

V. 7 : Tov E\96vTas o-uXXapeVOai avrots] The grammarians give : 2uX- 
Xap^avfc 6 delva Tm Selvi- rjyovv ^orjde'i; of which examples from the best 
Greek authors may be found in Wetstein. The use of the middle voice 
in this sense is more recent ; and the instances from older writers, to 
which the Lexicographers send us, are not to be relied on\ As examples 
from later Greek we may take Diod. Sic. xvi. 65 : o (which circumstance) 
(TweXdlBeTo aiiTw npos Tqv ttjs (TTparrjyias alpeaiv'^. Dion. Hal. A/U. IV. 76: 
Koi Tovs Oeovs fvxais XiTavevaavTfs crvXXa^ecrdai cr(f)i<Tiv. Anton. Lib. 12 : 
ev^QTo (TvXXalSeadai uvtS top 'Hpa/cXea. It may be worth while to compare 
with St Luke's narrative two cases of an extraordinary 'draught of fishes' 
from profane authors. The first is from Alciphron's Epistles (l. 17), 
quoted by Wetstein : koi T]fx€'is (on the report of a shoal of tunny fish) 
TTfia-devTes Trj aayrjvr] povovovx). top koXtvov oXov TrepieXajBopLev eha dvificofieda, 
Koi To ^apos p.e'iCov rju rj kutci (l)opTiov Ix^dvcov (it was, in fact, a dead camel). 
eXTTtSt ovv K.a\ Tmv TvX-qaiov Tipcii eKaXovpev, pepiTas d7ro(f)a[v€iv fnayyeXXopevoi, 
el (TvXXd^oi,vTo rjplv Kai (TvpTvovrjcraLev. The Other is described by Philostratus 
{^Iniag. I. 13): /3oi) 5e ripTai Tuip dXucov, epneTTTaKOTcov r]8t] rmv i)(dvcov es to 
hLKTvov...dpr]-^avovvTes 8e o Ti p^pyfo-oirat rw nX^dei, Kai napavoLyovai tov 

^ E.g. Herod, iii. 49, where av\- veadai. 
Xa^iaOai rod ffTparevfj-aTos is Wo take - [Cf. Plut. l-^it. Sertor.xui: opQp Se 

/«;-//« the expedition.' Xenoph. ^^t'J'. tovs Aayyo^piras ov /juKpa rep Seprwp/y 

II. 31, where cvW-qxperai. is the future avWap.^avop.evovs....'] 
of <jv\\ap.^dvei.v, not of avWap.j3d- 



58 ST LUKE. VI. I 

diicTvov, KOI ^vyx(^pov(Tiv fviovs 8ca(f)vyelv /cat difKTreae'iv Toaovrov is rrjv 
dqpav rpvcpaaiv^- 

*VI. I : kyiviTo ii ev o-appdru) (StvTtpoTrpwTO))] The last word is wanting 
in BLX, I. 33, al. Pesch. Copt. Ethiop. Those critics who have attempted 
to give a probable explanation of the epithet, and those who have offered 
ingenious speculations to account for its insertion, have both egregiously 
failed. At the risk of adding another name to the latter class, I offer the 
following solution. I suppose that in the original reading, eyevero Se eV 
aajS^ciTM bianopivfadai avrov dia rav (nropipLaiv, there was an accidental 
transposition in one of the MSS. (as D still has avrov before eV o-. 
dimropfveadai). The error being indicated in the usual manner, the text 

might have stood thus : eyevero 8e iv (ra^iSaTOi avrov dimropfveadai 8ia rav 
anoplp.cov. From these two superimposed numerals, I think it just possible 
that devrepnv npcorov, slightly altered in deference to the construction, may 
have made its way into the text in the form of SeurepoTrpwro), as an epithet 
of aa^^ara. Si quid novisti, Sec. 

VI. 3 : ovh\ TovTo dv€Yva)T€ 8 €iroit]<r€ Aap(8] A. V. ' Have ye not 
read so much as this (R. V. even this) what David did.' As if it were tL 
enoiTjae, as in the other two Gospels. The Vulgate recognizes the distinc- 
tion by rendering, in the latter, No)ine legistis quid fecerit, but in St 
Luke, Ntx hoc legistis quod fecit, 'this that David did.' 

VI. i6: 8s [Kal] t-ytvero irpoSoTris] 'Which [also] was the traitor.' In 
the other Gospels we read, os K.a\ napidcoKev avruv ; and it is to be noted 
that when the verb is used, it is always Trapa8i86vai, not TrpoStSwai ; when 
the noun, always npodorrjs (this of necessity, as the noun TrapaSorj/s- is not 
in use). But why ^ t/ie traitor'.-' He is never so stigmatized in the 
Gospels, 'Judas the traitor,' but always described by a periphrasis, 'lov8as 
6 Trapabidovs avrov. In the text os Kal eyevero Trpodorrjs must be taken to 
express neither more nor less than os kuI irapedoiKev avrov, ' which also 
became a traitor,' as the American R. V., or, as we say, ' turned traitor.' 
Compare Acts vii. 52: 'Of whom ye have now become betrayers and 
murderers' {npoduTai Ka\ (f)ove'is ytyivrjadi). Eurip. Fhocii. 99*^: T:pohorr]v 
yeviaOai narpiSos rj p.' eyeivuro. Diod. Sic. XIV. 70: Kal yap to nporfpov 
'ApiTr]S 6 AaKe8aLp6vLos, avriXapldavopfvos avrciv rfji eXevBfpias, eyevero TrpoSo- 
TTjs. XV. 91 : ovros fie, napaXujdav rfjv Tjyfpovuiv, Ka'i xp^pn'ra npos ^(voXoyiav 
...fytvf TO 7rpo86rT]i rtov mirrfvcravruiv. 

^ [Cf. Lucian. Ileniiot. 65: wcnrep ol ye irepijiejiX-qKivaL iXirL^ovrei, elra fVet- 

aXuvovres woXXaKis KaOivres (for x^^a- 5af Kapuiciv dvaaiTMVTa, ij XlOos ris 

(Tacres) ra diKTua, Kal ^dpovs rivbi aia- diroipaiverai avrois, rj Kepdpiov....^ 

Oavbpivoi dviXKovmv, IxOt'S TrapiruXXovs 



VII. 30 ST LUKE. 59 

VI. 35 : Kai 8av€iS€T€, \i.r]ilv direXiri^ovTes] A. V. 'And lend, hoping for 
nothing again.' It has been attempted to retain the classical use of 
aTTeXTTiCeiv, 'never despairing' (or, with fxrj^ieva, 'despairing of no man'), 
which is explained by Dean Alford, ' without anxiety about the result.' 
But such a state of mind (which would be more aptly expressed by firj^iv 
fifpifivcovres) belongs to the creditor who lends 'hoping for nothing again,' 
not to him who, however impoverished his debtor may be, does not 
despair of being repaid at last. No doubt this use of the word is nowhere 
else to be met with ; but the context is here too strong for philological 
quibbles. ' If ye lend to them imp av 'EAIIIZETE 'AnOXa^eTf, what thank 
have ye.?' Then follows the precept: 'Lend, fxr^^ev 'AIIEAIIIZONTES,' 
which can by no possibility bear any other meaning than jir^bev eXni^ovres 
dTToXa^elv. 

Dean Alford mentions a third rendering of aTreXTri'^coi', 'causing no one 
to despair, i.e. refusing no one' (reading ixijdeva), and adds: 'So the Syr. 
renders it.' But (i) this transitive sense of the word is almost as un- 
exampled as the other, resting on a single quotation from the Anthology 
(T. II. p. 325 Brunck) where aXXov d7r(\7ri(av (said of an astrologer, who 
had predicted that a certain person had only nine months to live) may as 
well mean 'despairing of another' (giving him over) as 'causing him to 
despair'; and (2) the Syriac ...•j]) Ir^^D ^OajCD^i. ]Jo is the 
ordinary periphrasis for dneXTriCeiv riva in its usual sense of ' despairing of 
any person.' Thus in Ecclus. xxii. 21 : eVi 4>ikov iav aTidarjs pojxf^a'iav, fx.f} 
dneXnlcrris- eari yap endvoSos, for p,fi dneXTriarjs Paul of Tela has jj 
] .«^m . on rng^ / . All that can be inferred, therefore, from this version 
is that it read /xijSeVa (not p.r]8€v). 

*Canon Norris {Public Opinion, July 30, 1881) states that 'never 
despairing' would be, according to Hellenistic usage, \ir\8lv diTT)\7n(Tp.fvoi. 
He quotes Isai. xxix. 19: ol (wz/XTTKr/xeVot rmv dvdpcoiroiv, in the sense of 
' the despairing among men.' But both in Hellenistic and classical Greek 
ol dTTrjKTn<Tp.evoi Can be nothing else than 'the despaired of or 'given 
over'; and the version of the LXX. is a free translation of D"tX ''Ji''^^, 
'the poor among men.' In Judith ix. 11 God is called dvTik^TTToip 
acrdevovi/Tcov, djreyvcjcrfxei'Qyv (jK.(TTaaTi]s, dTrrfXTTLap-evcov crcoTqp. Add from 
non-Hellenistic writers Diog. Laert. VIII. 69: Hdvdfcav dTrrjXTriap.evrjv vtto, 
Totv laTprnv. St Chrysost. T. V. p. 202 C : tSov 1] ttuXis avrr], r) aTTfyvuxTpiivr]. 
T) aTrrjX7Tiafj.ii'Tj, 1] fpfinLov ovaa, rrcuv eVt XafjiTrporepov eTravfjXde cr)^f]p,a ; 
Diod. Sic. I. 25 : koi noXXovs p.iv vno ratv iarpav 8id rrjv bvuKoXiav tov 
vo(ri]fia7os dnfXTricrdivTas vtto ravTrjs (Iside in somniis assistente) a-d^ea-dai. 

VII. 30: Ti]v PovXrv TOV Seou TJ6€TT|a-av els lavTovis] A. V. ' Rejected (Or, 
frustrated) the counsel of God against themselves.' Comparing Psa. 

xxxii. (Heb. xxxiii.) 10: Kai d^eret (SovXds dp^ovTcov, we prefer the marginal 
version, 'frustrated (or made void) the counsel of God.' So Gal. ii. 21 : 
' I do not frustrate (a^ei-co) the grace of God.' Then, as the frustration 



6o ST LUKE. IX. II 

could be only apparent, there is room for a qualification, such as, 'as far 
as in them lay,' or ' as far as concerned themselves,' which might be ex- 
pressed in a variety of ways, as to i^ vfia>v (Rom. xii. i8) ; oaov icf)' favrols 
(Dion. Hal. A /it v. 51); oaov eV avra (Plut. Vt/. Pericl. XVIIl) ; or (still 
nearer to the text) to y eh iavTov (Soph. Oed. T. 706) ; to fiev yap els t'/xe 
(Eurip. //)/!. T. 691). If we could get over the absence of the article (to 
(Is favTovs), we should have no hesitation in adopting this view. As the 
text stands, we have no difliculty in translating 'made void the counsel of 
God concerning themselves,' comparing i Thess. v. 18: tovto yap ^A^/na 
6eov iv XpiaTco 'irjaov els vp.as, which seems exactly parallel, both as relates 
to the hypcrbaton^ and also to the absence of the article Tr]v before ds 
eavTovs. The R. V. 'rejected for themselves the counsel of God,' seems 
to be liable to the objection before mentioned, that it would require t6 els 
eavTovs. 

IX. 1 1 : Kal Tovs xpetavi ^xovras Oepaireias IdwaTo] ' And healed them 
that had need of healing.' The repetition of the same word might be 
considered not inelegant, as in Diod. Sic. XII. 16: biopBovv be a-wexcoprjare 
(Charondas) t6v xpelav e^ovTO 8iop0(oaea)s {vofiov). But since depmreveiv 
and laadai are clearly distinguishable, it is better, if possible, to preserve 
the distinction in the rendering. So Vulg. : e^ qtii cum indigebant, 
sanabat. In English, we have to choose between ' He cured them that 
had need of healing,' and ' He healed them that had need of cure.' The 
latter seems preferable, because depmreia answers to the Latin cicratio^ the 
treatment of a disease, its cure, in the sense in which we use that word, 
when we speak of the 'cure of souls,' the 'water-cure' (7 St' vhaTos 
BepatTe'ia). Compare Diod. Sic. XVII. 89: 6 Ilcopor, efiTrvovs wi/, Trapebodrj 
Ttpos"lvhovs TTpos Trjv depmreiav^. Plut. Vlt. Alex. LXI: eK 8e ttjs rrpos Uuipov 
fiaxrjs K-oi o BouKfC^aXny eTeXevTT](rev, ovK evBvs, aXX' varTepov, cos 01 TrXelcTTOi 
Xeyovaiv, vno TpavjxnToyv depanevofievos (where, perhaps, we should read dno 
Tpavfiarcov, comparing Diod. Sic. XIV. 26 : o Se ^aaiXevs ^eXTiov e'xaiv dno 
Tov TpavfiaTos, hXX. 4 Kings viii. 29: tov laTpevdrjuai iv 'lefpaeX otto tu)v 
TrXrjyaiv). Aesop. Fab. CCXXIV. ed. de Fur.: laTpos voa-ovvTa idepdneve' 
tov he vo(TovvTos aTtoOavovTos-, k.t.L 

IX. 12: €iri(riTicrp.6v] 'victuals.' So the word is rendered by A. V. 
Jos. i. II, ix. II ; but by 'provision' Gen. xlii. 25, xlv. 21, Jos. ix. 5 ; in 
all which places it is used in its proper sense of 'provision for a journey.' 
Hesych. 'E7ricriri(r/xw • e^oStao-ynw. Diod. Sic. XIII. 95: Xa^ovTes (maiT- 
lapov Tipepuiv X- As our English term 'victuals' does not seem to include 
this idea, and is also of the plural form, it might be better to render it 

1 [Cf. I'lut. II. p. 208: -KpoaraTTOv- TreTrnoKios d((>' ittttov. Id. I'll. Arat. 33: 

ro^ bi TLVos avT<^ larpou wepiepyoripav rb ctk^Xos iairaae (sprained)... Arai ropas 

depairelav Kai ovx a.-rrXiji' . . . . Id. Vii. iXa^e woXXas Oepairevdfxevos.] 
Otlio 8 : oi) Trapriv ptv dX\' idepaireveTO 



X. 3° ST LUKE. 6 1 

here by 'provision,' and ^poifiara in the next verse by 'victuals' (as A. V. 
Lev. XXV. ;^7, Matt. xiv. 15). 

IX. 25 : eavTov 8^ diroXt'o-as t] ST]|itw9€is] A.V. 'And lose himself, or be 
cast away.' R. V. 'And lose or forfeit [i.e. lose by some offence or breach 
of condition— /o/inson] his own self Dean Alford: 'And destroy or 
lose himself None of these renderings of ^Tjfiiadfii seems satisfactory. 
In the A. V. of the Epistles, (r^ynaOrivai {absolute posituni) is either to 
'suffer loss,' or to 'receive damage,' which come to the same thing^. If 
iavTov is to be taken in connexion with both verbs, we may understand 
aTToXeVas of a lotal, and ^Tjfiiadeis of a partial loss : ' And lose, or receive 
damage in, his own self 

X. 30 : Xi[i<rTais irepteVeo-cv] ' fell among thieves (robbers).' Rather, 
'fell in with,' 'met with,' since the same verb is often joined with a noun 
in the singular number, as nepuTTfae ;^et/xa)i'/, Tradti (Thucyd.), rc5 Uavl 
(Herod.), Stob. I^/or. T. CVIII. 81 : ^ Xrjara'is 81a. tovto fxeXXovrts TTepnTea-elv, 
ri Tvpdvva. And Polybius (quoted by Raphel) makes the robbers ' fall in 
with' the other party: tovtovs (legates) XTjorai rives Trepinea-ovTes iv r<u 
TreXayet 8u(f)6(Lpav'". But in v. 36 ipnea-av els rovs XrjaTas is rightly 
rendered 'fell among.'^ On ^//.idavris Schleusner Lex. in N. T. says: 
' Phavor. 'Hpidvfjs p.ev Xeyerat 6 yl/vxay(^y(ov, Koi rjBr) to TJp.i(Tv davcov. Idem 
tradit Tzetzes in Lycophr. p. 511.' He should have noticed that Tzetzes 
for yj/vxayo}y^v gives the correct reading y\fvxoppayoi>v. To the few ex- 
amples quoted by the Lexicographers I add Dion. Hal. Ant. X. 7: tqv p.ev 
a8e\(f)ov pov veKp6v...epe. he T^pidavfj, Kol eXniSas exoura tov ^fjv dXt'ya?. 
Alciphr. £p. ill. 7 • rjpiOvrfra, paXkov 8e avroveKpov deaaapevos, (jiopddrjv 
dveXav rjyayev els eavrou o'UaSe. So far, and throughout this beautiful 
narrative, all is as classical as the most determined Anti-Hellenistic 
would require. But the phrase irXrjyas emdevres (here and Acts xvi. 23) 
seems to be a Latinism, plagas inip07iere, for which the Greek would be 
ttX. euTeivavres, as Stob. Flor. T, LXXIX. 39 : ;^aX67rJji'aj'ros yap avrih tov 
TTUTpos, Koi TeXos 7rXr]yas evTeivavTos...^. 

^ [Cf. Aristaen. II. 18: vvv be wLKpQi Ibid. 11. p. 234: irepiTvxovTes rives 

6\o(pvpaiJ.&ri rjv i^-qpLwrat. awcfypocrvvqv, XaKWffL KaO' 68bv, elwov Et)ri;;)(-^K-are, 

'perditam honestatem.'] dpTtujs evreudev XrjcTTwv diribvrwv. Ot 5^, 

■■^ [Cf. Liban. Argitm. ad Dem. c. ov pa tov "EvvaXiov, d\X iKeivoi, pi] 

Ti)iiOi)-.: TrX^ovres iv rpirjpei, Trepiwe- irepLrvxovTes 'r]p1v.~\ 

aSvres Nal'^■paTt'raiS dvOpuiirois ipwopois, ^ [Cf. Lucian. £>. D. XI. i : TrX^jyas 

^.(pe'CkovToa.vTQivTo.xP'hi^o.Ta.. K^X.V.H. avrqi eveTeiva...r<^ aavddXui. We find 

XIII. 25: Uiv8apos...dpad€(TL Trepnreaiiv also ttX. ip^aXeiv, Pint. Fit. Cor. 17: 

aKpoarals.] tois de dyopavopois Kal ttX. eve^aXov; 

^ [Cf. Plut. II. p. 194: eiwdvTos iiri^aXelv, Xen. Lac. 11. 8: ri Srjra... 

8e rivos twv aTpaTLCOTwV 'EpwevTiOKapev TroXXds ttX. eTrej3aXe Tip dXiaKopevip ; 

eis Tovs TToXepiovs. Tt pdWov, elirev, ^ evTpi\pai, Ael. K //. XIII. 38: evTpi^pas 

eh ijpds eKeivoi; Cf. also TrepiTvx^^v. avrip k6vSv\ov ev pdXa aTepeov.] 



62 ST LUKE. X. 32 

X. 32 : -yevonevos Kara tov tottov, tXOtiv Kal IStov dvTiirapTJXOev] This is 
the reading of the T. R. with which apparently agree A (with avrbv after 
I8u)v), C and others, and the Philoxenian Syriac : "JAdoJ wjOlIIi ]oo1 ^. 
._i(TLj|-kjO ]L.]- Other 'ancient authorities' omit t'KSwv, as D (with Idau 

avTov), the Vulgate, the Curetonian Syriac, and St Chrysostom (om. eXdav 
Kal). Lastly, the uncials BLXS and X'' (X^ omits the whole verse) omit 
yevofifvos. This last is the reading, Kara tov tottov eXdav Kai I8wv, which is 
adopted by the Revisers, 'when he came to the place, and saw him'; 
against whose decision it may be urged : 

1. That yevofifvos Kara tov tottov is a choice Greek idiom, quite in 
St Luke's style, and wholly unaccountable as an after-insertion by a 
corrector. Take a few examples. Acts xxvii. 7 : /xoXty ytvofifvoi KOTa ttjv 
Yivioov. Herod. III. 86: wr KaTa tovto to )(copiov eyevovTo. Stob. Flor. T. 
VII. 65: yft-o/neros he. kotg yecfivpav ttotci/j-ov ^apficovos. Thucyd. VIII. 86: 
eneibfi iyivovTO nXeovTCs kUt "Apyos. Xenoph. //. G. IV. 6, 14: Kara to 
'Plov (not, as quoted by Schleusner, Lex. A''. T. s. v. kotg, kutci tottov) 
eytveTo. Lucian. D. D. XI. I : ottot av Kara ttjv Kapiav y4vij (Luna). Ach. 
Tat. VIII. 15 : iTifibr] KOTO tov ^dpov eyfyovei. Pausan. Mcsscn. XVI. 5 : coj 
Kara t^v dxpada eyivtTO. Aesop. Fab. IV. ed. de Furia : w? iyevfTo kgtci t6 
avTo rppeap. LVI : as (yeveTO KUTa Tiva iroTapov TT\rjpixvpovvTa. LXIV: iyivfTO 
KaTa Ti (nTrjXaiov^. 

2. Another good Greek phrase is that which occurs in v. 33, rj\6e 
KaT avTov (of persons)^ answering exactly to the English 'came where he 
was.' So Plut. II. p. 235 (said of an old man looking for a seat in the 
amphitheatre at Olympia) : w? Se KaTo. tovs AaKftaipoviovs rJKfv (when he 
came to where they were sitting). Ach. Tat. v. 9 : ftVe Afr^o-ai^Tey, f IVe /cat 
TO TTvevpa avTovs KOTrjyayev, i'p)(0VTai KaT tpe, Kai tls tu>v vovtuiv nepTTei p,oi 
KoKcav (throws me a rope)^. 

3. There remains the phrase i\6a>v KaTa tov tottov (of places) for Trpoj 
TOV TOTTOV, of which I have not been able to find a single example^. 

On the whole, the most probable solution seems to be that St Luke 
wrote yevop-fvos KaTa tov tottov koI Idav, and that i\6d>v was originally a 
gloss on yevopevos, which found its way into the text, as it now appears in 
T. R. This produced an apparent tautology, which was remedied by the 
expunction oi ytvopevos. 

^ [Cf. Flat. F/'L . -lift's XIX : (KTpoTTTjv avrbv yivoLvro avpovres. Plut. V/f. 

5^ Tiva TTJs odov ixovarj^, ws iyivovTO Aetiiil. XXI : KaTO. tovtovs 5^ (where 

/car' avT7]v ^aSi^ovrei. Dio Chrys. Or. they were) ^^yas ^v dywv.] 
I- i."^' ?>7 (p- 68): iTTel KaTi6vT€s tyivovTo ■* [Cf. Plat. Phaedr. p. 229 A: kolto. 

KaTO. TT]v TvpavvLKrjv e'iaoBov. Lucian. Tbv'WKTcrbvtuixev. Acts xvi. 7 : A^cJjTes 

Philops. 25: ^7re2 5^ /cora t6 diKaaTrjpiov 5^ /cara ttjv 'Mvo'iav. A. V. 'after they 

iyevdprjv.l were come to Mysia.' R. V. ' when they 

" [Cf. Lucian. Ilcrod. 5 : Xoxwirt were come over against Mysia.'J 
loiKiv , cl)s (poftrjffiuv avTOvs, ottot t Kar^ 



X. 42 ST LUKE. 63 

X. 37 : TTopexiov, Kal <rv voUi 6|i.o£ws] Without wishing to stand between 
the English reader and a form of words so natural and familiar to him, as 
* Go, and do thou likewise,' we may remark that, philologically, any 
translation of the Greek must be faulty, which separates kuI from av, or 
reduces Ka\ to a mere copula. ' Go, and do thou likewise' would be 
TTopevov, Km ttoUi crii ofioiw^. 'Go thou, and do likewise,' Tropevnv crv, Ka\ 
TToUi ofJLoicos^. But Ka\ (TV is 'thou also,' and answers to the Latin /u 
qiioqite^ and the Hebrew nP}!<"D|. Compare 2 Kings (Sam.) xv. 19: ivar'i 
TTOpfvrj Kal ail p.f6' rjpatv; Obad. Ii: Km crii fj^ cos et? e^ nvTuiv. Matt. xxvi. 
69: Km (TV Tjcrda pfTci 'h](T()v tov TaXikaLov'^. This being assumed, we may 
either point Tropevov Km o-i', ttoUi 6poio}f. ' Go thou also, do likewise,' or 
TTopevov, Km crii iroUi opnicos, 'Go, do thou also likewise.' In the former 
case we rather seem to require a copula before nolfi, and so the words 
are actually quoted by St Chrysostom (T. Xli. p. 109 b) : nopfvnv ovv, 4>w'h 
Koi (TV, KOI TToUi o/ioio)?. In the latter Tropevov is merely 2i formula Iior/anfis, 
like nopevdevres fiadtre, and need not be coupled with ttoUi. But, as we 
have already hinted, such minutiae as these do not fall within the scope 
of a revision of the A. V. such as the proposers of it intended, and the 
English public will accept. 

X. 40 : irepl iro\XT|v SiaKovi'av] ' about much serving.' Those who would 
restrict the meaning of this term to waiting at table, and serving up the 
dishes (as Ch. xxii. 27, John xii. 2) suppose that Mary sat at Jesus' feet, 
while the meal was going on. But BiaKovia can be shown to include the 
preparations for the feast, even to the cleaving of the wood for cooking, 
as appears from a story told by Plutarch in his life of Philopoemen, which 
will remind the reader of a similar passage in English history. A woman 
of Megara, being told that the general of the Achaeans was coming to 
her house, IBopv^e'iTo iTapa(TKfva(ova-a bfinvov, her husband happening to 
be out of the way. In the meantime Philopoemen came in, and as his 
habit was ordinary, she took him for one of his own servants, and desired 
him to assist her in the business of the kitchen (t^s biaKovias awfcfxi- 
yjracrdm). He presently threw off his cloke, and began to cleave some 
wood (tcoi/ ^vXcov ((txi-C^v), when the master of the house came in and 
recognized him. It is worth remarking that Martha's expression "iva poi 
avvavTiXd^rjrm is explained by Euthymius, tW poi (Tvvf(t)a\l/r]Tni rfjs 8ia- 
Kovias, the identical phrase used in the extract from Plutarch. 

X. 42 : Ivos Se eo-ri xp«fa-Tiiv d^aGi^v (A€pi8a] In both these terms there 
seems to be a passing allusion to the feast which was in preparation, 
which was probably, as usually happens on such occasions, TrtpiTTrj t^s 
XPfias (Plut. Vii. Syll. xxxv) including not only to. npos ttjv xPf'"'^; but 

'^[CLFlnt. Vii. Oi/ioXVU-.'idiToivvv, - [Cf. 2 Tim. iii. 5: Kal rovrovs 

^(py), (Ti^, Kal irolet. rots arpaTidiraLS e/x- aTroTpi-rrov. R. V. 'from these also....'] 

(pavri aeavTov.^ 



64 ST LUKE. XI. 53 

ra TTpos rfjv Tpv(]i)]v. Mtpis also (at all events, let it be Englished by 
'portion,' not 'part') is well known as a convivial term, both from biblical 
(Gen. xliii. 34, i Reg. (Sam.) i. 4, ix. 23, Nehem. viii. 12) and classical 
writers. As Wetstein gives numerous examples from the latter, in all of 
which fiepis is portio caenae'^, we will add a few in which it is used in the 
higher sense. Synes. p. 25 A : ovs Xuttcu, ivpofT^uip'qcras rfj /xtpi'St rfj KpeiTTovi. 
Dion. Hal. Ant VIII. 30: e'^oi/ yap iXia-dai ri^v KpeiTToo /xepi'So (in republica), 
TTjv x^tpopa ('iXov'^. 

XI. 53: Seivws 6V€'x€iv] A. V. 'to urge /tz'm vehemently.' R. V. 'to 
press upon ///;// vehemently. Or, fo set theinschies vcJienicittly against 
him.' The only authorities for this use of ivix^iv appear to be the Vulg. 
(rraz'ftcr insistere, and a gloss of Hesychius: ^'Evix^i-' p-vrjaiKaKf'i, eyKeiTai. 
For the latter word Bois and others have conjectured eyKore'i; but eyKeuai 
may be defended, either by supposing the Lexicographer to indicate two 
different senses of the word, one belonging to Mark vi. 19, and the other 
to Luke xi. 53; or else by taking eyneirat in the sense of inhaerere, in 
which iviyiiv is occasionally used, e.g. Plut. Vit. Pomp. LXXI : dQii 8ia 
Tov arofiiiTos to $i(jioi, aare rfjv alxp-rjv nepaaaaav ivcrx^'i-v Kara to Ivlov (the 
nape of the neck)^. In our note on Mark vi. 19, while strongly maintain- 
ing the sense of fjLvrjaiKaKfh as eminently suited to that place, we hinted 
that for 8eivcos ivix^iv in St Luke it might be necessary to look out for 
some other meaning of the word ; and if so, none seems to have a better 
claim than that of Budaeus, acritcr insfarc, or of the A. V. 'to urge him 
vehemently.' But after all, it may still be a question, whether the notion 
of ajigry feeling be not suitable to this place as well as to the other. 
'The scribes and Pharisees began to be very angry.' So at least 
Euthymius: 'Ei/exet", rjyow tyKOTetv, opyi(f(T0nL; and the Philoxenian 
Syriac -, iTI » 1^ ; <^f^ ^ A . ] . » n -y. using the very same word ; nm as 

Paul of Tela for eVe;^eti/ Gen. xlix. 23, and for iyKOTflv Psa. liv. 4. The 
older Syriac version, though somewhat free, is to the same effect: 'they 
began 0001 ^ALQjoAIdo .. OOT.1^ ^j^C^t^, '^^g>'c' /crre, et irasce- 
baiitiir.^ 

XII. 19: 'Soul, thou hast much goods,' &c.] Compare Charit. Aphrod. 
III. 2 : KapTeprjaov, a/'v^'/j TvpoOfcrp-iav avvTOfiov, ii/a tov TrXfio) xP^^ov anoXav- 
arjs da({)aKnvs T^Soi/^y. And, for the whole parable, Lucian. Ahivig. 25 : 

1 [Cf. Plut. I'it. Ca/o Miii.w. iv U who compares Vit. Caes. WAX: dm- 

TOJS de'nri'Ois eKK-qpovTO irepl tQv /xepLSwv. KOimraL ^icpei TrXrjyels Sia rov CTOfiaTos, 

ei 8^ Tis dwoXdxoi . ■ ■ ■] ware koI t7]i> aixp^r)^ virip rb Ivlov 

- [Plut. Vit. Brut. 53 : iyth aoi, c3 ava<rxe'iv. But though the incident is 

Kaiffap, dd tt/s ^eXriovoi Kai oiKaiorepas the same, the difference in the prepo- 

rtyUTj! Kal /xepldoi iyev6fj.r]v.] sitions makes one hesitate to accept the 

^ For ivffxeiv G. IL Schaefer prints correction as certain. 
dvacrxf^" from a conjecture of Coraes, 



XIII. 9 ST LUKE. 65 

'AAEIMANT02. Toiirov el^ovXofirjv l3i(ovai tov jSiov, ttXoutcoz/ es vnfpl3oXrjv Koi 
rpvfpai', Koi ndcrais ijdoums d(p66va>s xpapivos. AYK1N02. Tts yap oidev, et 
eVt TTapaKfip.evTjs crot rfjs xP^'^V^ TpaTre^t]s...aTro(f)vai](rai to yj/vxiBiov dnei, 
yv^t Koi Kopa^i Travra eKelva KaTokLnoiv; 

XIII. I : iraprjo-av Se Tiv€s...dira'yY€'XXovT«s] 'There were present... some 
that told him.' Rather, as Dean Alford, 'There came some. ..that told 
him^' See for this use of napeip.i Matt. xxvi. 50, John xi. 28, Acts x. 21, 
Coloss. i. 6. Wetstein quotes a strikingly similar example from Diod. 
Sic. XVII. 8 : TTepi ravra 8 ovTOi avrov, Traprjcrdi' rive^ aTrayyeWoPTe^ noXXnvs 
rav 'EWtjvcov vecoTepl^eiv. We may also compare Gen. xiv. 13: napayevo- 
fievos 8e Tfov dvaacodevTcov th aTTJ^'yyeiXei/ 'A/3paa/i rto Trepdrrj^. 

XIII. 9: €ls TO ixe'XXov] A. V. '//leu after that' R. V. 'thenceforth.' 
The true rendering of eis to jxeWov was pointed out by Jeremiah Markland 
in his Expl. Vet. Auct. p. 286'^, namely, 'next year.' Here eVoy occurs in 
the preceding verse, but^ even without that, the idiom is well established. 
Plutarch frequently uses it of magistrates designate., as Vit. Caes. xiv: 
TOV 8e Uflaoiva KaT€(TTr)crev vnarov €is to /aeXXof*. Another gOOd example 
(also quoted by Markland) is Joseph. A;it. l. 11, 2: rj^eiv e(f>aaav ds t6 
fieWov, Koi evpt](T€iv avTrjv rjdTj fxriTepa yeyepr]p.€vr]v, compared with Gen. 
xviii. 10: Kara tov Kaipov tovtov eh apas, 'about this time next year,' for 
which we also find vecoTa or eh vecoTa. So the Lexicographers, as Moeris, 
p. 268: Necara, 'ArrtKMy to /xeXXoi/ eVoy, 'EXXrjviKas. Hesychius: Necora* 
fls TO iniov T) veov eras. We need not translate ' against next year,' the 
preposition being redundant, as in fls avpiov, els ttjv tpIttjv. But i Tim. 
vi. 19, 'laying up... against the time to come' {eh t6 fxeXKov) is different^ 

•^XIII. 9 : 'and if it bear fruit afterward — .' Dean Alford remarks : 
' After KapTTov, XetTTft TO ev e;)(ei, Euthym. : but not without reason : to fill 
up the aposiopesis, did not belong to the purpose of this parable.' 

An aposiopesis is a rhetorical figure, ' by which the speaker through 
some affection (as sorrow, bashfulness, fear, anger, or vehemency) breaks 
off his speech before it be all ended.' In the present case, if such a 
figure were found, it would be in the second, or minatory clause : ' but 
if not — .' But this is not a rhetorical, but a grajmnatical figure, very 
common in Greek, from Homer downwards (but strictly appropriated to 
this particular construction, Kav p-ev — el 8e prjye), and not without 

^ [So irapovcia, 'coming.' 2 Thess. '^ [Cf. Appian. B. C. 11. 5: StXacos... 

ii. &c., where the Revisers always put 6s es to p.€K\ov TJpriTo v-n-are'Lieiv . Also 

in the margin ' Gr. presence.'] es rovwiov, Ibid. il. 26; Plut. Vit. Caes, 

^ [Cf. Synes. p. 232 C: -qKe bi ti^ lvii.] 
dyyiWuif ws....] ^ [Cf. Appian. B. C. III. 17: es 

•* Eit7-ip. Stipplices...cnni expl. loc... hk to piWov, ' Avruvie..., 'quod super- 

ex and. Gr. et Lat. Londiiii, 1 763. Ed. est.'] 

K- 5 



66 ST LUKE. XIII. 24 

examples in Hebrew. Of the two places referred to in the margin, 
Luke xix. 42 does not belong to this idiom. In the other, Exod. xxxii. 
32, our translators have retained the avavraT^oborov : ' Yet now, if thou 
wilt forgive their sin — and if not,' probably because the introduction of 
an expression of approval or acquiescence might have appeared irreverent ; 
but in Dan. iii. 15 and this place, they have rightly supplied ivcll. 

*XIII. 24: a-ya>vCtccO€ elo-eXOeiv] Examples of this word with an 
infinitive being very rare, note the following from Diod. Sic. Tom. x. 
p. 25 ed. Bip. : coaTe o fiti/ naTTjp i^LcrTncrdai rrji oXrjt npx^^ ijytovi^fTo tw 
7rai8i. Plut. l^tf. CtC. I : Xeytrai veavifvadfifvoi flntlv, oiy ayayvidrai top 
KiKepMva Tcov '2Kaipu)i> Km twv KaVXcoi/ ivho^i'iTtpov drrobfl^ai, 

XIII. 33: TrX-qv Sci p.€ crTJp.€pov Kal avpiov — Kal xfj €x^o|j.€'vt) iroptveo-Oai] 
This is the arrangement approved by the (jreek commentators, the 
dTToa-icoTrrja-ii to be marked by the voice, making a pause at avpiov, and 
closely joining km rfj ex- nopfveadai. After avpiov the Syriac Peschito 
supplies ipya^icrOai, Euthymius (vepyrjaai a einov, Others eK^dWdf daipovia. 
But Theophylact prefers the more natural method described above. M17 
voijajjs, he says, oti Set /if (njpfpov Ka\ avpiov nopevfo-dai, aXXd arrjBi axpi 
Tov a-qfitpov Ka\ avpiov, Ka\ ovtcos eiTre to Trj ex- iropevecrQai. He goes on to 
illustrate the construction from common parlance: 'E-yw KvpiaKfj, Seur/pa — 
/cm TpiTj] e^fpxopai. So the unhappy debtor in Aristophanes {A^//d. 1131) 
counts the intervening days to the last day of the month, when the 
interest was to be paid : — 

UtP-TTTr], TfTpds, TplTTj, peTfi TavTtjv 8evT€pa- 

ei6^ r]v eyu) paXicrrn Tracrcov rjpepciv 
SeboiKa Ka\ wi^piKn koi ^beXvTTopai, 
ev0vs fxerci TavTrjv ear evr) re Kai vta. 
In that case, nopevfcrdai would be discedere ex vita, as in Ch. xxii. 22 ; 
and v-ndyeiv Matt. xxvi. 24. 

XIV. 10: -irpoo-avaPiiOi dvcorepov] 'Go up higher.' Here no account 
is taken of the preposition Trpor. It must have one of two values; either 
of addition, 'Adscende adkiic superius' (Bois) as 2 Mace. x. 36: eTtpoi 
be ofxoiws npoaava^dvTei (in addition to those who first mounted the wall) ; 
or, of fnotion toway'ds a place, ' Asccnde hue superius,' as Exod. xix. 23: 
ov bwrjaeTai o Xaos Trpoaavafirjvni npiis to opos to '2ivd. The latter seems 
to be the case here. The host comes into the room' (orav eX0r] 6 
KfKXr)K(os ae, not as in v. 9, eXOav e'pel croi), takes his place at the head of 
the table, and calls to the guest whom he intends to honour, ' Friend, 
eome up higher'-.' This view is remarkably confirmed by the passage in 

' [Cf. Aristaen. £p. v: wdfTuv ovv ^ [l!iit ?'; avwraTU} kXIvt) was luwost 

eh Taiirbv dOpoi'goixivwv twv oaiTvp-lvuiv, in point of honour, as in Plut. Vif. 
6 xp'J'^oOs eoTTidTup elarjei.] BrtU. XX.\IV: papTvpofjL^i'ov Sr) Kpovrov 



XIV. 31 ST LUKE. 6/ 

Prov. XXV. 7, which our Lord undoubtedly had in his mind: Kpdaaov yap 
TO prjQffvai aoi, dvdj^aive npos fie, tj TaTreivm(rai ere ei> Trpoaconu) bvvacTTOv. 

XIV. 17: oTi t)8ti ^Toi|j.d lo-Ti irdvTa] So A, Vulg. Philox. and (with a 
transposition, navTu eroip-a ia-nv) D, Pesch. In BX^ navTa is wanting. 
We shall first give a few examples of the more familiar phrase, 'All 
things are ready.' Matt. xxii. 4: Travra eroijjLa. Plut. Vt'L Pyrrh. XV: 
yevofifvcov 8e navrcov fToificov. Thucyd. VII. 65 : xai eVetSi) Travra eroipa rjv. 
Babr. /v?^. LXXV : eToifxa Set ae ndvr e'xeiV dirodvija-Keis. Ibid. CX : ■navff 
eroifjid aoi noieV. With evrpenr] for eToip-a we have Lucian. D. Mar. X. 2 : 
(jv fie aTTO-yyeXXe rw Att ndura fivai fVTpejrrj. Id. Asm. 20 : aXXa navTa, 
elwev -q ypavs, evrpenrj vpiv, aproi ttoXXoi, o'lvov iraXaiov Tridoi, Ka\ ra Kpea fie 
Vfuv rd dypia (TKevdaaaa e;^co. Diod. Sic. XVIII. 54' ^^^ ^^ evrpeirrj ndvrn rjv 
avT(5 ra irpos rrju dnoBrjpiav. Ibid. Jo: Ta)(v fie TravToov evrpfncov yevoptvcov. 
The curious expression, on tjSt] eroipd {'cttiv, 'for things are now ready,' 
is not defended by Paus. Messfii. xv. i : m? fie to dWa e'y tov TroXe/iov 
eToip.a ^v auToTy ; nor yet by Plut. Vif. Thcs. XIX: yevop.iva)v fie erolpav 
(sc. Tc5i/ i/f/coi/, which may be assumed from vavTvqyia). But the following 
clear instances from Thucydides, namely, II. 98: '2iTd\iir)s...Tvap€(TKevd^eTo 
TOV CTTpnTov' Ka\ eVetfii) avTa> eTOipa ^v, npas eVopei'ero K.T.e.; and VII. 50' 
Kal p.eXX6vT0}h ai'rcoi/, eneidr) eToijjLa ^v, dnonXe'iv, seem to establish a peculiar 
usage with regard to eroina, which is in accordance with the reading of 
the most generally approved MSS. in this place^. 

XIV. 21 : dvaiTT^povs] The uncials (here and v. 13) vary between 
dvaneipovs and dvanlpovs, which is the commonest of all faults of spelling. 
Yet Dean Alford (and, perhaps, other modern editors) have actually 
printed dvanelpovsl How would such preposterous sticklers for uncial 
infallibility deal with the witty saying of Diogenes : dvanripovs eXeyev, ov 
Tovs Ka)(f)ovs Kal Tv(f)Xoi)S, dXXd tovs prj e^ovTas irrjpav? 

XIV. 31 : iropevofAevos erufipaXeiv kripia PacriXei €is Tr6X€(iov] The A. V. 
'Going to make war against another king,' conveys to' the English 
reader the idea which would be expressed by the Greek peXXcou irphs 
eTfpov /3ao-tXe'a iToX(p.ov dpaadai, instead of the true sense, 'on his way to 
fight a battle with another king.' There need be no hesitation in 

fjir\ K€K\-qfx.ivov avTbv riKUv KOL KeKevovTos Nic. XXIII : (is 5e 7]v eroi/j-a ravra 

aurayeiv ewi ttjv dvoiTarw Kk'ivqv, j3ia Travra. Id. I'U. Arat. XXI : eTrel 5 r)V 

Trape\9ii}v eh riju /ji.i(T7]v KareKXidrj. See eroi/xa Travra. Id. Vit. Cleom. XXli: 

Smith's Did. of Cr. and Rom. Antiq. Trdvrwv ovv €toIij.ojv yevofievijjv.] 
s. V. triclinium.] - [Cf. Thuc. II. 3: eVet 5^ ws e/c ruiv 

' [Cf. also App. B. C. I. 56: ws 5^ dwaruf eroi/jLa rjv. Compare also tbj 

aiircp Travra eroifJ-a rjv. Ibid. II. 50: (I)S 5e y}v aTropa (Plut. Vit. Cues. XXXVIII), 

5(f ol Travra fjv eroL/aa. Ibid. 77 : (is 5^ ws r\v a<pvKTa (Id. Vil. Mar. XLVl).] 
acpiaiv eroifia Travra rjv. Plut. Vti. 



68 ST LUKE. XV. 13 

rendering noXtfiov by 'battle' here as well as in i Cor. xiv. 8, Rev. ix. 9 
(in both which places the A. V. has been injudiciously altered by the 
Revisers), because the Greek noun is employed in both senses (Passow 
says that in Homer and Hesiod the idea of battle prevails, in later 
writers, especially Attic, that of war), and the verb a-vixjiiikdv is decisive 
in favour of 'battle.' Compare the phrases a-vfilSaXdv tivi fls m"X'/''» "^ 
Xe'ipas, (rv/jL^aXfli' Tols TroXe/xi'ots (Herod.), find avfif3o\i], prat'//u/nK Even 
in the phrase noiiia-ai iroXefiov /xera rivoa (Rev. xi. 7, xii. 17) a single 
conflict seems to be intended. 

In what follows the use of e'v for fifra will offend no one who will take 
the trouble to compare Num. xx. 20: xal f^ijXdev 'Efiw/:* ev "x^w fiapd koi 
iv x^'P' '''"X^P? ' or Jude 14: Ihov r]\6( Kvpios iv fivpida-iv ayiais avrov. 
Those who suggest that the difference of prepositions indicates that the 
io,ocx3 were the entire force at the disposal of the one king, and the 
20,000 only so many as the other belligerent thought sufficient for the 
occasion, may be dismissed with the equivocal compliment Subtiluts 
quani verius. 

*For TTokepos in the sense of pn^r] may be quoted from 'later writers' 
Lucian. De Cojiscr. Hist. 29 : rmv aKpi^ms fldorcov on pr]8i kcitci toi)(ov 
yeypafi^evov noXepov fcopciKd. Also the following, which mutually illustrate 
each other. 3 Reg. xxxii. 34: e^dyaye fxf (k tov rroXefxov on Ttrpcofiai. 
Lucian. Dial. i\lort. XIV. 5 : ei' Trore Tpcodeirjs, Koi /SXeVoieV ae (f)opa8r)v tov 
TToXfpov (KKopi^opfvov, aifxaTi peufxfvov. Dion. Hal. Ant. VI. 12: aivoKo- 
piadivTodv S ap(f)OTep(ov e/c rrjs jnax';?- 

*XV. 13: <Tvvayaya>v cinavTa, subaildt et? dfiyvpiov : in one word 
f^apyvplaas, ' having sold all off.' Compare Plut. Vit. Cat. Miii. vi : 
KOI KXrjpovopiiav 8 avrco npoayfvofievTjv dvf\j/iov KaVcoi'or p ToXavrcov els 
dpyvpiov avvayayoyu, wapflxfv ai>ev tokcov xpiicdai rw ^fofxeva rav (j^iXcof. Id. 
Vzt. Alctb. V : ov TToXXa KeKTrjixfvov, dnoBopevov de Trdvra, koi to (Tvva)(6iv tls 
p (TTaTrjpas tu> 'AXfci/SiaSr; 7rpo(r(f)fpovTa, Km 8e6pevov Xa^flv. Xen. Ephes. 
III. 2: Travra ocra rji' poi xp^pora mrodofxevos, crvXXf^aj apyvpov els Bu^diTtoi/ 
epxopai. Uiog. Laert. IV. 47: os koi dnodv^qaKatv KnTiXint poi rrduTa' Kayto 
KUTaKavaas avTov to avyypappuTa, Koi Travra avy^vcras (having scraped all 
together) 'A6i]va(e ^X6ov nal e(j)(.Xo(T6cf)r](ra. If the prodigal had 'gathered 
all his goods together,' and taken them with him, the proper word would 
have been av(TKeva<Tdp.fvos anavra, as Dion. Hal. A/it. III. 46: (TvvtaKfvaa-- 
pevos TTjv ovcriav oarjv oios t' ^v, (oxf^o TrXf'coi' €« ttjs KopivBov, and a little 
further on, rd Te XPW"^" "^dvra (TvcrKevaa-dpevos (on moving from one place 
to another). 

XV. 13: t"v do-wTws] 'With riotous living.' Why not, 'with prodigal 
living,' with reference to the familiar Engli.sh title of the parable, 'The 

' [Cf. Plut. Fit. Dion. XLIX : CLva-yKacf^ds <jvvi:\ia.\e koX ijTTriOij.] 



XVI. 19 ST LUKE. 69 

prodigal son^'? Aristotle {Eth. Nic. iv. i, 3) defines the word: tov^ yhp 
aKpards Koi tls aKoXacriav daTravrjpovs 'A2QT0Y2 KaXov/iev. Profuse ex- 
penditure seems to be the leading idea of the word, other ideas, as those 
of profligacy, debauchery, and riotous living, coming in by way of 
association. Plutarch (T. il. p. 463 a) gives us a glimpse of the life of 
such an one (quoted in a garbled form by Wetstein) : hio rav fiev do-wro)!/ 
Tois oIkiuis TrpoatovTes, avXrjrpidos aKovonev eoiOivrjs, koX nrfKov, ws ris einev, 
o'lvov, Koi (TTrapdyixaTa arecpdvcov, Kai KpaiTtakauras oprnpifv fnl dvpais 
aKoXovdovs. Compare Archbishop Trench's Synonyms of the N. T., 
p. 52, ed. 9. 

XV. 30, 32: 6 vios o"o\j 0UT0S-..6 d8€X<j>6s o-ov oStos] To give the full 
force of ovTos we might almost venture to translate, ' This precious son 
of thine,' ' This dear brother of thine.' Wetstein compares Aristoph. 
Nub. 60 : fiera ravd' oncos vSv iytveS" v'los ovtotI, where the Scholiast 
directs the reader to stop at vloy, and then, after a pause, add ovToai, cos 
d)(doiJ,evov avTov ttj yeueaet. 

XVI. I : Kttl oviTos 8ttpXT|0T] aiJTO) cos Siao-KopTrt^wv to, tiirdpxovTa avrov] 

^ AiejdXjjdrj — not wrongfully.! which the word does not imply necessarily — 
but maliciously., which it does imply.' — Alford. It means properly being 
accused behind one's back'^. So Herod, vii. 10, 7 : o p.iv yap 8ialBaXXa>v 
abiKid, ov napeuvTos Karrjyopeai'. Lucian. De Calum. 8 : 6 8e rfj 8iaj3oX^ 
Kara rav dirovTcov Xddpa xpcofifvos. St Luke's construction, Stf/3Xr/^»; rivi 
(or TTpos Tiva) cos TToiav ti, is that of the best Greek authors ; e.g. Stob. 
Flor. T. XLII. 13: rieXoTriSas, dvhpe^'iov arpaTKOTOv 8inl3Xr]6evTos avra, ws 
j3Xa(T(})t]p,t](ravTos uvrov. Lucian. De Calum. 29 : toi> '2o)KpdTr]u tov ddiKcos 
TTpos Tovs Adrjvalovs 8ia(3f^Xr]ij.€voi', ws dcrtjirj Ka\ fnllBovXnv. Dion. Hal. 
A/lt. VIII. 49- fTreira 8ta/3X?;^e(s npos avrovs, ws (TvpTrpdrrcov ttoXiv toIs 
Tvpdvvois TTjv Kd6o8ov. 

XVI. 19: €v(j>paiv6|x€vos KaO' i^jiepav Xa|iTrpws] The Revisers have done 
right in retaining the A. V., except that for 'faring' they might with 
advantage have substituted 'feasting.' So the Vulg. et epulabatur 
qiiotidie splendide. But in the margin they propose another rendering: 
'living in mirth and splendour every day.' Here the luxurious living of 
the rich man is presented to us under two different aspects : mirth., which 
we may suppose to consist in eating and drinking, and splendour, which 
suggests elegance of house and furniture. But the Greek word 

^ The title of this Ke^dXaiov in a fragment of the Curetonian Syriac 

Greek is, Ilept tov dTrodtj/jLrjaavTos eis published by Professor Wright in 1872.] 
Xu>poLi> /xaKpaf ; hut a more appropriate - [For dia^oXr) we commonly use 

one would be, Ilepi rod viov tov dadiTov. 'suspicion,' in the well-known saying 

[Note, that in v. 22, the insertion of of Caesar: oti Ti]u Kaiaapos ywalKa Kal 

raxii before i^eviyKan is supported by ota/3oX^s SeZ KaOapav dvai.] 



70 ST LUKE. XVI. 20 

(v<ppaivofifvos only contains the former idea, that of merry-making i, 
which is quahfied by the adverb Xa/x7rpwy, /atife, ' sumptuously.' Thus 
Theophylact: Aanrrpcos- aacircos Ka\ noXvreXSs. And we often find this 
epithet in connexion with feasting: e.g. Ecclus. xxix. 22 : eBea-fiara Xafnrpd. 
Diod. Sic. XIV. 108 : to p.ev npcoTOV e0' rjpipai tlvcis ixopvy^^^ '''^^ rpo(/)as 
Xa/iTTpcSff. XVII. 91: TTjv hvvap.iv anacrav Xa/x7rpc5s eJcrrt'atre. 93: ^evicrdels 
Xapirpois^. 

XVI. 20: ipe'pXiiTo] 'was laid.' Dean Alford im;proves upon this, 
already too literal, version: ' e'/Se'/SXr^ro, was., or had been, cast down, i.e. 
was placed there on purpose to get what he could of alms.' In that case 
we should have expected irideTo, as in the account of the impotent man 
KaS" r)pipav npos rfjv 6vpav tov iepov. But e(Sefi\r]To is merely 'lay,' and 
differs from fKeiro only as it is used of sick persons'^. See Matt. viii. 6. 
Nor can we agree with the Dean in thinking that dWa kuI in the next 
verse seems to imply that he got the crumbs ;, or that the dogs licked his 
sores in pity (not, as Bengel, dolorem exasperantes). This latter incident 
is introduced to show the utter helplessness and friendlessness of the 
beggar, who had no one that cared for him even so much as to drive 
away the dogs that took advantage of his impotence. So Theophylact : 
dXXa Kai epr]pos tcov depamvaovrav' oi yap Kvvfi (Xeix^ov ra eXKT) avrov, oia 
prjSfvbs ovTos TOV dnocro(iir]crovTos avTovs. We may compare the fable of 
T/ie Flies, as told by Josephus {Atit. xviii. 6, 5): TpavpaTia tiv\ Keipeva 
pv2ai icaTa nXfidos Tcis (OTfiXas TrepiecTTj^aav' Kai rij tuv TrapaTvxovTU>v, oiKTeipas 
avTov TTjv dva-Tvx^av, K.al vopicras dSvvap.iu prj ^orjdeif [sc. eavTM] olos re rjv 
urroao^elv avToiii Trapaa-Tas k.t.X. 

*XVI. 31. ov8i, idv Tis €K vtKpoiv dvao-TT), "jreio-OrtrovTai.] So both 
Scrivener and Palmer point the words, differing from the common 
editions, which have either no commas at all, or the latter one only. The 
change was required to justify the rendering of both versions, 'Neither 
will they be persuaded, though one rose (R. V. if one rise) from the dead.' 
But ovde edv (or ov8' eav, as ABD) are closely connected, in the sense of 
' not even if ; and though the A. V. fairly represents the Greek, and may 
claim to keep its place by right of prescription, the more correct rendering 
would be, retaining the order of the original, ' not even if one rise from the 
dead, will they be persuaded.' Compare Hom. //. A 90: oi)S' fjv 
^Ayafxepvova einrj<:. Alciphr. II. 4 (quoted by Wetstein) : ovS' d ^ovs poi, to 
Xeyopevov, cfidey^aiTO, ireiadeiijiK 

^ [Cf. 3 Kings iv. 20: iaOovre^ Kai patia before killing herself — \ovaatx^i>r) 

irlvovres Kai tLi(f>paii'6iJ.evoi, ' making 5^ Kai KaruKXiOeiaa \ap.Trpbi' dpiaTov 

merry.'] yipla-ra.] 

^ [Cf. Ai)p. /). C. II. 6ij: Kai oi '■' [Cf- Aesop. Fa/}. CCLVII : Avko9 

OepdtrovTes avrocs daira Xa/xTrpoTdrrji' inrb kvvQiv STjx^f^Si xal kukuts Trdcrxwi') 

iirbpcTvvov. IMul. T;'/. ./;//'. 1, XXXV: Cleo- ijiif-iXTjTo.] 



>^VIII. 5 ST LUKE. 71 

XVII. 21. A. V. 'The kingdom of God is within you. Or, among 
you.^ The Greek is eW6y v\i.5>v, which some explain in the sense of eV 
ii>A.v, or eV \xi<j(a vfiav, and compare Ch. xi. 20 : Spa e(f)6a(T€V e(f)' vp.as K.r.e. 
But no sound example has yet been adduced of eWor so used. The only 
apparent one, which has been handed down from Raphel to Dean Alford, 
is Xenoph. Anab. I. 10, 3: ov fj,rju ttpvyov ye, aXXa Kal Tavrrjv (Cyrus's 
Milesian concubine) eawaav, tcai ciXXa onocra ivros avTwv kuX xP^y^^'^'O- 'fO' 
avdpwTToi iyivovTO, navra i'aaxrav ; where, however, euros avTmu is not simply 
'among them,' but 'within their position,' and does not differ from evrbs 
Toil rei^ovs- yeuea-dai, to get safe within the wall. The generally received 
version is supported by the invariable use of Ivros (compare Psa. xxxviii. 
4, cii. I : r\ KapSia /xov ivros fiov — jravra ra ivros fiov) as well as by similar 
sentiments in the Apostolic writings (e.g. Rom. xiv. 17). Though the 
kingdom of God was not, in any sense, in the hearts of the Pharisees, who 
were immediately addressed, nor is, in its fullest sense, in the hearts of 
the greater number of professed Christians, yet that is where it is to be 
sought : ravrrjv, says Theophylact, rrjv dyyeXiKriv Karaa-Taaiv Kal diayayyt/v 
ivros fnji<i>v exofiev, rovTiariv, "OTAN BOYAHeQMEN. ' Let every man retire 
into himself, and see if he can find this kingdom in his heart; for if he 
find it not there, in vain will he find it in all the world besides 1.' 

XVIII. 5: I'va [L-q €15 T€'\os €pxo|xe'vTi ti-irtoiridtT] p-e] A. V. 'Lest by her 
continual coming she weary me.' R. V. ' Lest she wear me out (Gr. 
bruise me) by her continual coming.' Dean Alford seems to incline 
towards Meyer's 'literal interpretation' — 'lest at last she should become 
desperate, and come and strike me in the face' (!). It may be conceded 
that ds reXos admits of either signification, ' continually,' or ' at last,' as 
may be most suited to the context. Here, where it is closely joined with 
a present participle, we prefer the former, in which sense it is constantly 
interchanged with the Hebrew n^*5?^ in perpetiiuni, as we might say, 
' She is for ever coming and wearying me.' With this also agrees the 
tense of the verb, vnoTrid^rj, not vTrconidar), which necessarily implies a 
recurring action, such as wearying a person by continual solicitation, not 
something which is to be done 'at last,' that is, once only. This distinc- 
tion is rightly insisted on by St Chrysostom in a somewhat similar place, 
2 Cor. xii. 7 : ayyeXos Sarai/ Iva p.e KoXacjii^tj ; on which he remarks : aare 
AIHNEK0Y2 delcrdai roii x^Xivoii' ov yap eiVev, iva KoXa(pLarj, aXX iva 
KoXa(f)LCr]. Meyer's interpretation is, therefore, doubly erroneous; as it 
would require, to satisfy the plainest rules of grammar, Iva firj els reXos 
iXdoiia-a vnaindar) pe. Need it be added, that what the unjust judge 
dreaded, was not a sudden burst of fury, which he would know how to 
deal with, but the trouble and annoyance of the woman's coming day 
after day, and preferring the same suit, which he, being under no 
restraints, human or divine, had no mind to grant? 

> John Hales' Golden Remains. 



72 ST LUKE. XVIII. 7 

XVIII. 7: Kal |xaKpoex)|j.uv iir aixois] A. V. 'Though he bear long 
with them.' R. V. 'And he is long-sufTering over them'; reading [laKpo- 
6viJL€l with all the uncials. There can be little doubt that this is the true 
construction of the passage, joining Ka\ fiaKpoduiJ.fl not with ov p.^ noii^ar], 
but with Tav ^o(opT<ov, which, in sense, is equivalent to ot ^ouxnv. Then 
the copula exerts the same force as in Psa. xxii. 2 : ' Lord, I cry unto 
thee, and thou hearest not.' Comparing Prov. xix. 1 1 (in the LXX. and 
A. V.) I would translate: 'who cry unto him day and night, and he 
deferreth his anger on their behalf.' This sense of iMUKpodvuelv, though 
not a very common one, is sufficiently supported by the very similar text 
(Bois says, Non est ovum ovo siinilius) in Ecclus. xxxv. 18, speakmg of 
the prayers of the poor: ' For the Lord will not be slack (ov /^i) (ipadvv;]), 
neither will the Mighty be patient towards them (ov8e n^ pLaKpodvp-rjcnj in 
auroTs).' I add two good examples from St Chrysostom, T. iv. p. 451 A: 
oiiK olnTeipeiTo yvvaiov . . .ak\a pLaKpoOvp-fi, ^ov\op(vos tov \av6avovTa drjcravpov 
...KaraSrjXov noirjaai. T. VII. p. 333 E : Kol pera ravTa ttoWcikis d(pfJKfv 
avTovs (Is x(i^f^<^'''ipovs _;^€t/ia)»'as Trpayparajv ipnf(T(lv, Kai epaKpodvprjiTf. 

Of course there is no contradiction between the tardiness implied in 
this verse, and the speedy vengeance denounced in the next. For (as 
Bois remarks) 'Tarditas est Kara to (paiuopfvou, et ex opinione eorum 
quibus etiam celeritas, ut dicitur, mora est : at celeritas est Kara to dXrjdes, 
et ex rei veritate.' 

*XVIII. 9: Kal iloDBtvovvTas Tois Xoiirovs] A. V. ' and despised others.' 
R. V. 'and set all others (Gr. //le rest) at nought.' There seems no reason 
for the change, except the etymological one. Suidas: i^ov6eva> ae' dvT 
ov8ev6i (Te \oyiCop.ai. The A. V. is retained by the Revisers in i Cor. i. 28, 
xvi. II, Gal. iv. 14, i Thess. v. 20. In Rom. xiv. 3, 10, where A. V. 
'despise. ..set at nought,' the latter rendering might be made conformable 
to the former, instead of (as R. V.) the former to the latter. In the 
present case, a good Greek writer would, perhaps, have said, koL vnep- 
(ppopovvTas, or (cat KaTitraipopivovi (tcov XotTrwi'). 

*XVIII. 12: R. V. 'I give tithes of all that I get' {KTapai not 
KeKTT]p.ai). The change (especially in so correct a writer as St Luke) may 
be accepted without difficulty, although the distinction is sometimes 
overlooked in later Greek; e.g. Aesop. Fal>. LXXXI. ed. de Fur.: A 
trumpeter says n\f]v yap tovtov tov xoXkov (his instrument) ov KTa>p.ai ciXXo. 
Again in Ch. xxi. 19 we have to choose between A. V. 'in your patience 
possess ye {KTrjo-aadf) your souls,' and R. V. ' in your patience ye shall 
win (liTijaea-df) your souls (lives),' both making a good sense. But 
in I Thess. iv. 4, 'that every one of you should know how to possess 
(KTiadai) his vessel in sanctification and honour,' the idea of acquiring is 
so remote from the common sense of the exhortation, that the Revisers 
have been forced to make use of the strange expression, ' to possess 



XIX. 29 ST LUKE. 73 

himself of his own vessel/ meaning, I suppose, 'to make himself master 
of his own body,' which before belonged to another, namely, to sin. This, 
at least, is St Chrysostom's explanation (T. xi. p. 460 e) : apa ^fj.ds avro 
KTcop,e6a, orav fi KadapoV urav 8e aKoQaprov, rj ap,apTia. But this seems very 
far fetched. 

*XVIII. 13. 'O e€6s, tXao-OriTi] A. V. 'God be merciful'; i.e. o Beos 
iXaa-deir]. It is marvellous how this erroneous punctuation (only the 
omission of a comma, which is rightly inserted in v. 11) should have been 
perpetuated through so many editions of the A. V. including {quod 
mireris) Dr Scrivener's Cambridge Paragraph Biblej not to mention 
innumerable quotations in sermons and other devotional works (some of 
them even pressing the point of the publican's not daring to address God 
directly). The only exception that I have ever met with is Le Bas's 
Sermons, vol. ill., p. 156, though he quotes carelessly, '■Lord, be merci- 
ful &c.' 

XIX. 16: irape-yiveTo, 'came,' not as R. V. 'came before him ^' It is 
exactly the same as rjXdiv in the following verse, and is used by LXX. for 
Xi3 106 times. If the nobleman had dealt with his servants through an 
agent, instead of personally, napeyevero would have been equally appro- 
priate. It is interchanged with TTpoaepxea-dai Stob. F/or. T. xxix. 78: 
irovov p.ev ■irpo(Tep-)(Ofiivov, kukov ^yovp.eda nrpoaipxecrdai eavrols' ijBovfjs 8e 
TrapayivonevTjs, dyadov i]yovp.eda napaylvecrdai rjnlv^ 



,2 



XIX. 29, XXI. ^y : irpos TO opos to KaXou^jicvov eXaioiv] 'The name, 
when thus put, must be accentuated eXaicov (Olivetum) ; for when it is the 
genitive of e'Xat'a, the article is prefixed (xix. 27)-' — L>ea/i Alford. But 
there it is Trpos r^ Kara(3dafL roii opovs raiv fXaiwv, which does not prove 
that the mount itself was not called "Opoy i\aia>v. Thus in 2 Chron. xx. 26 
we read fTriavv^x^drja-av eir rov av^mi/a rfjs evXoyias; but it follows, 8ia tovto 
(KaXecrav to ovapa rov Tonov fKfivov, KoiXa? fvXoyLai. And would it not, in 
the other case, be npos to opos to KoXovpevov eXaicova? comparing Acts i. 12, 
OTTO opovs tov KoKovpevov eXaiavos. The Syriac versions are divided, the 

Peschito accentuating eXai(oi> ("JAllj Aj_0)), and the Philoxeaian eXaicoi/ 

(lA:l?)^ 

^ [In I Cor. xvi. 2, 3, oTav ?\9w... awdivros 8e Kal irpayevopevov rrpbs avrbv 

orav irapayiviopai are both rendered rjadrivai. ctiatpepbvT tjjs.^ 
' when I come ' by A. V., R. V. 'come •* [Cf. Joseph. B. y. v. 2, 3: arparo- 

... arrive.' In Acts xxviii. 21, wapa- wedevaaadaL Kara to iXaiQv KaXoijpevov 

yevdpevos may be rendered ' in person,' opos, 8 ttj TroXei -irpbs avaToXr)v avTLKet,- 

as opposed to 'by letter.'] rat.] But see Deissmann, jVeice Bibel- 

2 [Cf. Plut. Vit. Caes. XLVi: e^' stii<Hcii. (1897), pp. 36 ff. for a fresh 

(^ \eyiTai pr] (paivopivo} pev dycoviaaaL discussion of eXai.uiv. Ed. 



74 ST LUKE. XIX. 44 

XIX. 44: Kttl €8a<j)iovo-( o-e] 'And shall lay thee even with the ground.' 
R. V. 'And shall dash thee to the ground.' Besides Psa. cxxxvi. g, 
where npos rrjv neTpau is added, Hos. xiv. i might be referred to, where we 
read, kuI to. vTvoTirdia avTMv edaffiKTBijanvrni, without the addition. In the 
other sense the only example quoted is from the Lxx. Amos ix. 14: 
TToXfis ras jySac^icr/iei/as', a false reading of Aldus, both the Vatican and 
Alexandrine MSS. having 7](f)avicrfi€vas, agreeing with the Hebrew n'lti)'J'3. 
'To lay even with the ground' is la-onebov Trotfjcrai (2 Mace. ix. 14), 
Karayftv ecos e8a(f)ovs (Isai. xxvi. 5), els edacpos Kudatpelv (Thucyd., Polyb.), 
etf i'Sacpoi Kara^aWdv (Plut.)i. With the places quoted above from 
Psalms and Hosea we may compare Eurip. Ip/i. A. 1151: ^ptcfyoi re 
Tovfiov ^coi> Trpocrovbicras Tre'Scu, | paarutv fSiaiois tuiv f'p.coi' dnoanacra^. Diod. 
Sic. T. X. p. 105 ed. Bip. : p,rjK avriov Twv vnopa^iwv (pei^ofxfvoi, aWa 
TavTa piv rrji drjXrjs aTrocmuivTfi npocrrjpncra'nu tij yfj". 

XX. 20: Kal TrapaTT|pT^(ravTes direVreiXav l-yKaOtVovs] 'And they watched 
/n'/u, and sent forth spies.' Better, perhaps : 'And watching their opportun- 
ity, they sent forth spies.' This seems to be the force of napaTrjpija-avres 
absolute positum J as in the following examples. Joseph. B. J. ll. 18, 3 
(quoted by Kypke) : ti] hi rpLTj] wktI TrapaTrjprja-avTes, ovs fM€V d({)v\aKTovs, 
ovs 8e Koipcopeifovs, Traj^rav ania(pa^nv. Schol. ad Hom. Od. K 494: 
idtaaaTo bvo bpaKOvras iv tw Kt^tupcu/'i piyvvp-tvovs, kul Traparijp^cras ttjv 
bpciKaivav ave'CKiV. 

*XXI. 13: a.Tro^y\triTa\. vfitv tls [iapTupiov] Both versions: 'It shall turn 
unto (A. V. to) you for a testimony.' Rather, ' it shall tur/i. out^ as also in 
Philip, i. 19. Wetstein quotes Plut. T. 11. p. 299 F: cmi^r] hi eif ovhlv 
XprjCTTov avTols. Thucyd. III. 93: eTreira fievroi wapa ho^av avTois aTTifirj. 
To which may be added Euseb. H. E. III. 23 : ane^r] yap novijpos, ' he 
turned out bad.' In Philip, i. 12 we have the same sense expressed by ra 
KOT efxe fiaXXov fls npoKonfju rov evayyeXlov 'EAHAY6EN, for which a more 
classical word would have been nfpifXtjXvdfp, as Appian. B. C. i. 7 : eh he 
TovvavTiov avTois Trepijjfi. 

*XX1. 25: <rvvo\T^ €0Vft)v iv diropia rjxovs (T. R. tJ^o-ucttjs) 0aXdcr(rT|s Kol 
ordXov] The Cod. Alex, and cursives (ap. Wetst.) join eV dnopla ^x"^^y '^^ 
R. V. 'in perplexity for the roaring of the sea,' and Uean Alford, 'in 
despair on account of the noise,' the genitive case being governed by 
anop'ia. But the only example of this construction quoted by the latter 
(from Meyer after Wetstein) is Herodian iv. 14, i : fV dcpaala re ^v-.-kuI 
dnopia Toil npaKreov, which is altogether different. I should prefer putting 
the stop after dnopia (as Philox.) and making ijxovs (governed by ei/e*ca 

1 [And cFwoiJ.a\vv€i.v, I'lut. Vil. 12: opwaas 8^ rd crjTrta r^Kva irphs rrj 
Thnol. XXII.] 7?? TrawMfa w^ws.j 

2 [Cf. Dio. Chiys. Or. XI. p. 159, 



XXII. 24 ST LUKE. 75 

understood) to depend on the whole clause ' distress of nations with 
perplexity.' 

XXI. 35-: tos ira-yls -yap iireXiva-iTai] The corrected text (from BDX, al.) 
followed by the Revisers is, as irayls' ejreia-eXevafTai ycip, which they 
translate, 'as a snare: for so shall it come upon,' &c. But (i) as to the 
punctuation : entXevaerai or eTreKreXeiKreTai does not seeni sufficiently 
strong to stand alone, especially when the verb in the preceding clause, 
ema-T^ (which is hardly distinguishable from lirfXeva-eTai) is doubly em- 
phasized by 'suddenly,' and 'as a snare.' And (2) as to the double 
compound eVeio-fXevo-eTat : the second preposition seems to have no force 
or propriety in this place. In i Mace. xvi. 16: 'So when Simon and his 
sons had drunk largely, Ptolemee and his men rose up, and took their 
weapons, and came upon Simon into the banqueting place {iiviia-rfkdov rw 
2ifi(ovi els TO crvixTroa-Lov), 3i.nd slew him, and his two sons,' both prepositions 
exert their proper force ; and, generally, when the enemy or the calamity 
'breaks in upon' an assembled multitude, as Palaeph. bicred. xvil. 4: 
ivii>')^ov\i.iv(iiv 8e avTMV (Trojans) inetirepxuvTai ol "EXXrjves. Lucian. Asifi. 
38: Koi yiXas eK roiv (TTfia-eXdovTcov ttoXvs yiverai e^co^. But that is not the 
case here ; what follows, eVl naprai rovs Kadrjuevovs, being governed by the 
eVt in eTTeicreXeva-fTat, not by the els. On the whole, the reading of T. R. 
ws wayls yap e'rreXevcrerai seems every way preferable, and is supported by 
all the ancient versions; although the /ifpcrbaton, ws Trayls eTreXeua-erai 
yap would not be without example^. If we accept this construction, and 
consider eneia-eX. to mean no more than eVeX., then we come back to the 
A. v., as equally satisfying either reading. 

*XXII. 6: €|a)(jioX6"yTicr€] A. V. 'he promised.' R. V. 'he consented.' 
Vulg. spopondit. Both Syriac versions have .^ijoA^I, which is inter- 
changed with eivrfyyeiXaTo, crvveTa^e &c. But all these are the equivalents 
of a>p.oX6yri(Te (as Matt. xiv. 7) not of e'^co/x. If the preposition has any 
force (which can hardly be disputed), it must be that of intensifying the 
simple idea, 'he fully consented,' 'agreed out and out'; which seems to 
be the feeling of the Greek commentators, as Euthymius: e'/c Kapdias 
wpoXoyrjcre, (ie^aicos inrjyyeiXaro. In the preceding verse, it is better to 
join avvedeuTo avrm, 'they covenanted with him,' as Thucyd. Vlll. 37: 
orvvedevTO ^aviXel. Xenoph. H. G. VI. 2, 34: naneivois p,ev avvedeTo, 
I Mace. XV. 27: ijderrjae jravra, oaa (TvvideTo avra to npoTepov. 

*XXII. 24: <j)iXov€iKia] A. V. 'a strife.' R. V. 'a contention.' 
Perhaps 'an emulation' might be sufficiently strong. In Greek writers 

^ [Id. Philops. 27: d'yua Tavra Xe- where, for irepi yap rod deou raOra 

yovTuiv rip-Qiv, iTreiarjXdoi' ol rod EvKpd- eipTJcrdai Xeyov<rt, the MSS. give wepl tou 

Tovs viol eK rrjs TraXaiarpas.] deoO ravTa yap eipijcrdai Xeyovai. 

- E.g. St Chrysost. T. xi. p. 25 E, 



^6 ST LUKE. XXII. 31 

(fxXoveiKia and (fnXon^ia are sometimes hardly distinguishable from each 
other. Thus Diod. Sic. XIX. 15: TroWrju awe^r] yeveadai (piKorifxiav vnep 
rfjs rjyffjLovias. And that (PikoveiKia does not imply any unfriendly feeling 
appears from Aelian. V. H. I. 24 : bioKverai ttjv irpos rov Aenpeau 6 'HpaKXijs 
eX^pf^v. '^iXoveLKui 8 ovv avTols e/xTTtTrrei veaviKrj, Kni epi^ovcriv aWijXois nepi 
8i(TK0V K.T.e. 



XXII. 31 : €^T)TT]o-aTo vfids] A. V. 'hath desired /^ /lat/e you.' R. V. 
' asked to have you. Or, obtained you by asking^ The best Greek 
authors distinguish between e^atrfiv, deposcere aliqtiein in pootam, and 
f'^airela-dai, deprecari^ to beg off; but later writers do not always observe 
this rule. Thus Plut. Vit. Pyrrh. Ill : Kai fxiKpov varfpov i^aiTovjxivav rcoK 
TToXfpicov (the child Pyrrhus), KaacravSpov de koI duiKuaia raXauTci 8i86vtos, 
ovK f^edaiKev. But in either case, the aorist certainly indicates the success 
of the requisition, as the following examples (from Wetstein) show. Plut. 
Vit. Pericl. XXXII : 'Aa-Traa-lav ph ovv f^r/Tija-aTo (he begged off)... d(^<ty 
vnep avTrjs daKpva, Koi 8et]6fh rav St/caorcoi'. Xenoph. Anab. I. I, 3: 
crvXXap,j8auet. Kvpov, as mroKTevwv, 7/ Se pfjrrjp e^airrjaapevrj avTov annn4p.mi. 
I add St Chrysost. T. XII. p. 137 B : axnrfp yap d ris av8pa (Povea, KXinrrjv, 
p.of}(ov p,eXXovTa aTrdyeadai e^airijaaLro. An unsuccessful demand would 
have been expressed by e^rjTelTo vpas. In the text we must have recourse 
to a periphrasis: ' Satan hath procured you to be given up to him.' 

XXII. Ti7 : Tt'Xos ^x**-] '^- ^- 'have an end,' i.e. 'are coming to a 
conclusion.' In this sense we might compare Diod. Sic. XX. 95 : rwi/ re 
prixava>v avra reXos e'^Youcrwi/. Dion. Hal. A/it. X. 46: eVetSr) re'Aoy icopa ra 
Tcov iroXepioov e;(oi'ra. 5 1 : eVftSi) 8e ra peu Ka6' r)pas TiXos e'xfi (is "A. fait 
accompli). But since ra irepl f'pov is best explained of the prophetic 
announcements concerning the Messiah, and reXos e'xft is a phrase 
appropriated by good Greek authors to the accomplishment of such 
predictions, we would so understand it here, 'are being fulfilled,' 'are 
receiving their accomplishment,' TeXdovvrai TJSrj (Euthyni.). The follow- 
ing are examples of reXos exf'" applied to oracles, prophecies, &c. Dion. 
Hal. Ant. I. 19: reXoj e'x*"' (T(f)ian to dfonpoTnov vneXafiov. 24: d Se brj 
Kai TovT(x>v XajioKv Trjf BcKaiav polpav, riXos e^ecv a-cfytai to Xnyiov. 55 : cos ra 
irpara tov pavrevparos rjdi] cr(f)iai. reXos f^"'* 5^ • TeXoi yap ra pavTfvpara 
((f}acvfT0 f'xfiv. Pausan. Corint/i. 16. 2: koI 'AKpi(ria> pev »; Trpopprjais tov 
6(011 (that Danae his daughter should give birth to a son who should kill 
his grandfather) riXos {axe (he did so accidentally by throwing a discus). 
The R. V. 'hath fulfilment' is ambiguous. 

XXII. 38: 'Behold, here are two swords.' Add in margin: 'Or, 
knifes.' 'Chrysostom gives a curious explanation of the two swords: 
(iKos OVV Ku\ pax'iipas eivai eKfi 8ia tu apvlov.' — Dean -ll/ord. There is 



XXII. 44 ST LUKE. ^J^ 

nothing cu7'ious in this : it is very probable. The ndxaipn, as is well- 
known, served both purposes, those of a knife and a sword. The Dean 
must have forgotten his Roman History (Dion. Hal. Anf. XI. 37): ws 
eyyvs rjv (pya(TTT]piov fiayecpiKov, ndxatpav e^apnaaas ano rfjs rpuTre^rjs k.t.X. 

XXII. 44: -ycvoftfvos Iv d-ywyCa] 'Being in an agony.' The word 
'agony' having become, by traditional usage, consecrated (as it were) 
to this particular phase of our Saviour's passion, it would be highly 
inexpedient to alter it ; but there can be no objection to adding in the 
margin : ' Gr. a great fear.^ The common notions of the meaning of the 
Greek word dyaivla are those which we are accustomed to attach to the 
English word 'agony,' and are so erroneous that it is necessary to discuss 
the noun and its cognate verb ay(i>viav at some length. Fear then, more 
or less intense, is the radical idea of the word. In Diog. Laert. vil. 113 
dyuivla is defined to be (f)6l3os d8i]Xov npaynaTos. And so Etym. M. p. 15, 
42: dycovia, eVi Toii els dywva fjLfXXovTos Karuvcu- Karo;^p//crrtKa)9 be Koi eVl 
Tov dnXas (po^ov. Viewing the words dycovia and dycoviav in connexion 
with their synonyms, we find them constantly joined with other words 
expressive o( /iuir. Thus Demosth. p. 236, 19: (v (fiojSco koI ttoXX^ dyavia. 
Joseph. An/. XI. 8, 4: ^v iv dyavia Ka\ 8(€i. Diod. Sic. XVI. 42 : ol ^aaiXels 
...fls dya>VLav Ka\ fifyL(TTOv<: (f)6^ovs ivinnrrov. Plut. Vtf. Mar. XLIII : wore 
Koi TUiv (piXcdv fKacTTOV dyoivias fiea-Tov eivai Koi (fypiKrjs, oadKis auTTacropievoi tS 
Mapico neXd^oLfv (because, if Marius did not return the salutation, his 
8opv(f)6poi took it as a hint to kill the person saluting). Aelian. V. H. 11. 
I : o p.iv {'AXKi^id8r]s) iqycavla Koi e'SeSi'et irdw a(po8pa els rov 8fjp.ov napeXdeiv. 
Stob. Flor. T. CVIII. 83 : aiv yhp iinap^avrwu av6pa>noi XvnoiivTai, Tovratv iv 
TrpocrdoKia ytvop-fvcov (jio^ovvrai koi dya>vioiai. Diod. Sic. XIII. 45 : Trepibeds 
iylvovTo, Trepl crf^wv dyioviwvTfs. XIX. 26: tov 8e irepl ravra dopv^ovfifvov, 
Koi 7T€p\ TOV fiiXXovTos dyoiVKovTOi. St Chrysost. T. VII. p. 334 B: ovtco koi 
McoiJarji TTpoTepov (pojSelTai tov o(f)iv, koi (fiofidTai ov)(^ ottXcos, aXXci fxera ttoXX^? 
TTjs dycovias. 

Of the phrase dvni or yivecrdai iv dyoyvia I have no other example, 
except one from Servius to be presently quoted ; but its equivalent iv 
dycovia KndecrT-qKevai is common: e.g. Diod. Sic. XIV. 35: Sionep ol Kupo) 
crvp.fxa)(rj<TavTfs cTaTpanai Koi TToXeis iv aycovici noXXjj KadeicrTiJKficrav, firjiroTe 
8a)ai TifjLcopiav K.T.i. XVII. I16: Ka\ dfols dnoTpoiraion 6vaas, iv dycov'ici 
KadeicTTrjKfi (Alex. M.) Koi Trjs rav X^aX8aicov npoppi](Te<os ifivrj/iovevcTe. XX. 5 I • 
{(Oi...fieXXovTes 8iaKiv8vv€Vfiv) iv dycovia noXXfj Kadei(TTr)Kei(Tav. 

Of the versions the Peschito renders dycavla by ]A_^>j5, which is the 

common word for <l>6lio<s ; the Philoxenian by |-»~3Q-i« j, and the Vulgate 

by agonia. But the Latin word most nearly corresponding to it is 
trepidatio, as we learn from Servius on Virg. Aen. xii. 737 : ' Dum 
trepidat, i.e. dum turbatur, festinat, quod Graeci iv dycovia iciTiv.^ May 
not this have been the word used by the old Latin version (commonly, on 



78 



ST LUKE. 



XXII. 66 



the precarious foundation of a doubtfuP reading in St Augustine, called 
the Itald) ; to which there is probably an allusion in a passage of St 
Bernard, quoted in D. Heinsii Excrc. Sacr. p. 232 : Et qiios vivificabat 
Dwrs tiia, iua nihilotnimis ct trepidatio robustos, et viaestitia laetos, et 
tacdium alacres^ et turbatio qttietos faceret. 

In the Greek versions of the O. T. the verb aytavuw answers to XT^ 
timuit, Dan. i. 10, LXX. (where Theod. has (Po^ovfiai) ; to Tin, trepidus, 
I Reg. iv. 13, in an anonymous version ; and to JX"!, solliciius fiiU., Jerem. 
xxxviii. 19 in Symmachus's version : eyw aycoi'ta) hia tov^ ^Yovhaiov^ i^^. V . 
' I am afraid of the Jews'). 

XXII. 66: Kttl dviiYa-yov avxov els to crvv«8piov lavrtov] A. V. 'And 
led him into their council.' Rather, 'they brought him up before their 
council.' Compare Acts xii. 4: 'intending after Easter to bring him 
forth to the people {avayayfiv avrov rw Xau).' 2 Mace. vi. 10: 8uo -ynp 
yvvaiKf^ ciprixdrjaav (for having circumcised their children). Lucian. Ver. 
Hist. II. 6: avax6iv7(i w? tov ^aaiXfa"^. The Revisers have here adopted 
the /ess difficult reading dnriyayop, 'they led him away.' 

XXIII. 32: ^TepoL 8vo KaKovp-yoi] A. V. 'two Other malefactors,' (in 
recent editions sometimes pointed, 'two other, malefactors'). R. V. 'two 
others, malefactors.' The more probable reading of BX, ('repoi KUKovpyoi 
(^vo, will not admit of being so tampered with. But even in T. R., there 
is no occasion to separate 'other' from 'malefactors.' It is a negligeiit 
construction, common to all languages, and not liable to be misunder- 
stood^ In the exhortation in our Communion Service, the minister says: 
' If he require further comfort or counsel, let him come to me, or to some 
other discreet and learned minister of God's word,' without incurring the 
imputation of vanity or self-laudation. And so far from this text being a 



1 I call the reading doubtful, (i) 
because the Italic version, if such there 
were, would have been called I/alica, 
not Ttala; and (2) because in the 
printed text, ' In ipsis autem interpreta- 
tionibVS ITALA caeteris praeferatur; 
nam est verborum tenacior cum perspic- 
uitate sententiae,' Archbishop Potter's 
emendation, ' interpretationiljVS VSI- 
TATA,' (or, as commonly written, 
' interpretationib' usitata,') is so ad- 
mirable, as almost to command assent. 
St Augustine elsewhere speaks of 
* codices ecclesiastici interpretationis 
tisitatac.'' [But see Texts and Sttidics, 



vol. IV. No. 3. Ttie Old Latin and the 
Itala, by F. C. Burkitt, M.A. Ed.] 

- [Cf. riut. Vil. Brut. XXXIII : 
dX\' a.va.xOi\% koX KoXacrdeis...; Paus. 
VIII. 47, 6: TTplv dvaxOv^ai irapa rbv 
Tvpavvov awoKTivvvcnv iavTrjv ; Plut. II. 
p. 259 c: TjcrdovTO Se oi (f)i'>\aK(s, Kai 
(Tv\\aj36uT€S avrjyayov irpbs rbv fiaai\ia\ 
Apji. />'. C. I. 60: Kal rbv ^vrvxbvra 
vT/TToivel KTtlveLv, T) dj'd7eii' fVt toi)s 
iJTraToi'S.] 

■' [Cf. Paus. VIII. 36, 3: Kal ts avrb 
oTi fxrj ynuai^l /i6vati lepais rrji deoO, 
cLpOpicTTOis ye ovSevl t<re\0eii' ?(xtl tQiv 



XXIII. 44 ST LUKE. 79 

stumbling-block to the intelligent reader, he should rather view in it 
a literal fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecy, 'And he was numbered with the 
transgressors.' 

XXIII. 42: |iviio-9TiTi \i.ov] Compare Gen. xl. 14. Herod, ix. 45: ^v 
He vfiiv 6 TroXf/xos o8e koto voov TeXevrqa-r), fivrjcrdfivai riva )(pri koi ffxev 
e\ev6epco<Tecos Trepi. Chariton. Aphrod. VI. 5 : Ka\ orav TrXovrfji, ifiov 
fivrjfiovfve. Babr. J^ad. L. 16: ippvcrafx-qv ae, (f)r]aiv, nWd p.ov jivrjCTKOv. 

XXIII. 44: Kal €0-K0Ti<r6T] 6 ijXios] Another reading is tov rfklov 
eKkeiTTovTos, which the Revisers adopt, rendering: 'the sun's light failing, 
Gr. f/ie sun failing.^ Rather, 'the sun being eclipsed,' this being the 
common manner of describing that phaenomenon in Greek, o jjAtoy 
f'^e'XiTre 1. Moreover the reading iKkmlivTo^ for eKXeinovTos is supported 
by LX and the Philoxenian Syriac, which latter reads in text, roii tJXi'ou 
t a-Koria-devToi, and in margin + eKXinovTos (not ficXf/Troi/rof, which would 
require ^j-SaLo ( • V) j ,0, not, as it stands, .-».^o] ] ■ V).> y^). 
However, as the MSS. have been divided, ever since Origen's time, 
between the two readings, I think it would be safer to retain the A. V., 
and to record in margin : ' Other ancient authorities read f/w sun beifig 
eclipsed'' ; as, indeed, it was Kara to ^aivo\i.fvov. 

*In answer to a remark of the Quarterly Reviewer (No. CCCIV. 
p. 343) : ' In like manner tov rjXlov eKXeiVofTo?, as our Revisionists are 
perfectly well aware, means, " l/ie sun becoming eclipsed^' or '•'■suffering an 
eclipse"'' the Two Revisers (p. 60) reply: 'We emphatically deny that 
there is anything in the Greek word iKkt'mfiv when associated with the 
sun which involves necessarily the notion of an eclipse.' This is a most 
rash assertion. There can be no doubt that the phrases e'^eXimv 6 rjXtos 
{■fj aeXijprj), e(cXfi\//ts tov ^Xiov, whenever they occur in the Greek historians, 
necessarily describe the phaenomenon of an astronomical eclipse, and 
nothing else. If, therefore, St Luke really wrote tov tJXi'ou eKXeiTrovTos 
(fKXnrovTos is the better reading) and his Greek is to be construed like 
that of any other Greek author, it can only be by rendering, 'the sun 
being eclipsed' ; and the version adopted by the Revisers, 'the sun's light 
failing,' does not convey to the mind of an English reader what the 
original does to that of a Greek. It is no answer to this objection, to say 
that the obscuration was not and could not be produced by an eclipse; 
and that St Luke, as a member of a liberal profession, must have been 
well aware of this. Still, if he thought proper to describe what took place 
in a popular way, and as an ordinary spectator would have spoken of it, 
his translator is bound in faithfulness to do the same, and to trust to the 
good sense and information of his readers to solve the difficulty. 

^ [Cf Plut. Fit Nic. XXIII: efe- irepi rds TpiaKo.da'i iiriaKbTqaLv ....'] 
Xiirev 7) (j'e\riV7)...T0v fi^p yap ijXiov t7]V 



8o ST LUKE. XXIII. 51 

As St Luke was not writing as an astronomer, when he affirms the 
sun to have been echpsed at or near the time of full moon, so Moses was 
not giving instruction in physiology, when he classed the hare among 
ruminating animals. Each deferred to the popular opinion. 

XXIII. 51: oStos ovk f^v o-vyKaTaT£0€i|i€'vos K.T.€.J 'He had not con- 
sented' &c. 'The meaning is, he had absented himself, and taken no 
part in their (the council's) determination against Jesus.' — Deau Alford. 
This is rather more than can be safely affirmed. He may have been 
present, but have dissented from the resolution taken ; perhaps, like 
Nicodemus, another secret disciple of Jesus (John vii. 50), stated his 
objections to it. We cannot say for certain ; but the word (TvyKaraTiOei,- 
fievos is rather in favour of this view. If we could interrogate the 
' honourable councillor ' on the subject, the following dialogue (adapted 
from Lys. c. Eratpsth. p. 122) might not be far from the truth: 'Ho-^a fV 
TUi l3ov\evTr]pi(o, ore ol \6yoi iyivovTO nepl 'ir/crov tov Na^wpai'ov; HN. IIoTe- 
pov crvvrjyopfvfs Tols KfXfvovcriu aTTOKTe'tvai, tj avreXeyes; ANTEAEFON. 

*XXIV. 10: ifcrav Se i^ Ma78a\Tjvii Map£a...Kal at Xonral <riiv avxais, at 
^Xe^ov K.T.i] According to the T. R., no names having been mentioned 
in the preceding verse, the women who returned from the sepulchre and 
reported what they had seen to the eleven, are only known as 'the women 
which had come with him from Galilee' (xxiii. 55). In this verse, three 
names are mentioned with others not named, who ' told these things to 
the Apostles.' In the text followed by the Revisers, the only change 
seems to be the omission of at before eXiyov. This has strong support 
from the uncials ; but its effect upon the construction of the passage is 
most unfortunate. ' Now they [the women who returned from the 
sepulchre, and told all these things &c.] were Mary M. and Joanna, and 
Mary the mother of James'; then after a long stop, we are reminded of 
'the other women with them,' and what they did, which differs in no 
respect from what the three coryphaei had done — 'told these things to 
the Apostles.' 

XXIV. 12: irapaKvixJ/as] A. V. 'stooping down.' In John xx. 5, 11 
A. V. gives 'stooping down and looking in (sic).' R. V. (ter) 'stooping 
and looking in.' I should prefer, in all cases, simply ' looking in,' though 
'peeping in' would more accurately define the word TrapaKv-rrrfiv, which 
means exserto capite prospicere sive introspicere'^. So Gen. xxvi. 8: 
7rapaKV^/^^c hia rrjs dvpidos, elde tov 'liracnc nni^ovTa K.r.f. Prov. vii. 6: otto 
Tfjs Bvp'ih)^ eh T(ii nXareias napanvnTovaa. Ecclus. xxi. 23 : a({)pu)v dnu dvpas 

1 [Cf. Aesop. Fob. CCXCVII : X^wv 1, 16: Kal wapaKvirTOfiev avvex^i'i, tIs 
€v Tin aiyidXu) TrXa^ofxevoi, (is idedaaro afc/xos Trcet. These two passages nega- 
d€\(f)7i'a TrapaKiiyj/avra. Arr. p:pict. I. tive the idea of stooping down.] 



XXIV. 17 ST LUKE. 8 1 

TrapaKVTTTfi els oIk'uiv, where A. V. ' A fool will peep in at the door into the 
house'; though this might be thought too trivial an expression in the 
Gospels. The doiuiiiuard stooping is rightly rejected by Casaubon 
against Baronius (ed. 1614), p. 693: 'Male etiam probat htwiilitatem 
sepulchri ex eo quod dicitur Joannes sc iuclitiasse; nam Graeca Veritas 
habet -napaKv^ai^ quod sive de fenestra sumatur, sive de janua, nullam 
inclinationem corporis designat, qualem sibi finxit Baronius, sed pro- 
tensionem colli potius cum modica corporis incKrvntionc'^i' 

*XXIV. ij : Ttv€s 01 \6yoi ovtoi, oils dvTtpdXXeTe irpos dXXiiXovs ;] The 
A. V. 'What manner of communications are these that ye have one to 
another?' fairly represents the sense of the original, and the Revisers 
have 'passed' it without substantial change. Still the question remains, 
What is the literal rendering of \6yovs dvri^dXXeiv? R. V. in marg. has : 
' Gr. IV/iat luords arc t/icse that ye exchange one with anotlier?'' Another 
explanation is, ' which ye toss one to another,' like a ball. But ai-rt/SaXXf ti/ 
may also mean, ' to lay two things one against another for the purpose of 
comparison,' and, in fact, it is commonly so used in the subscriptions of 
Greek MSS., for 'to compare,' or 'collate' one MS. with another for the 
sake of verification. Hence we arrive at the conclusion, that avTi^aKKnv 
\oyovi is neither more nor less than the Latin ^ conferre sermones' and 
may be added to the list of Latinisms to be found in St Luke's writings. 

Ibid.: Ktti «<rT€ o-KuOpwiror-] The reading of BX, and (it would 
appear) originally of A, is Ka\ (o-Tadrjaav (TKvdpmnoi, for which R. V. 'And 
they stood still, looking sad.' Apart from the testimony of the MSS., there 
are several reasons why we should hesitate to accept this reading. 
(i) The passive form aTaBfjvai is not 'to stand stilP,' but either 'to be 
established' (Deut. xix. 15, Matt, xviii. 16), or 'reared' (as the tabernacle 
Num. ix. 15); or else 'to be weighed' (Job xxviii. 15, Dan. v. 27). The 
only exception is the participle aTadfU, which (by usage) came to be 
interchanged with a-rds in the sense of 'standing' (Acts v. 20, xvii. 22) or 
even 'standing still' (Luke xviii. 40). To 'stand still,' said of a moving 
person or thing, is a-rrjvai, as ((ttt] 6 rjXios (Jos. x. 13, Hab. iii. 11); 

' James Fergusson {Essay 011 the building [commonly called, the Holy 

Ancient Topography of Jerusalem., p. Sepulchre] the tomb is several feet 

88) has fallen into the same error: 'I above the pavement of the church; 

may also mention here, that the position and if that pavement and the filling up 

of the cave on the Sakrah exactly cor- were removed, they must have stood 

responds with the indication in the on their tip-toes to have looked in.' 
Bible narrative; for the Evangelists all ^ [Cf. Lucian. Hermotim. 18: 6s 0' 

agree that those that came to look for ^v /xtj ^xV TaOra /xri^e aKvdpuTrbs y.] 
the body of Christ "looked down into '•' [Vet cf. Rev. viii. 3: aXXos dy- 

the .Sepulchre," which they must have yeXos rjXOe Kai eVrd^r; eirl rod dvcria- 

done in the Sakrah; — but in the modern aTripLov.] 

K. 6 



82 ST LUKE. XXIV. i8 

€(TTr](T<ii>, i)VK (n7(Kj)idipTav (Job xxxii. l6); oi f-iaaTn^ovT fs eartjaai' (Luke \ii. 
14); fKfXfvaf arfivcu to apfia (Acts viii. 38)'. (2) The sentence, 'They 
stood still, looking sad,' must strike the English reader as singular, 
considering that the 'sadness' must have been depicted on their count- 
enances both before and after their 'standing still.' In the Greek, 
faradrja-av (TKvdpoiTroi is open to the same remark, with the addition that 
'looking sad' is not aKvdfxonoi, but aKvdi)coTra^ovTfs, as in Psa. xxxvii. 6: 
(iXtjv TTjv rjfjLipav (TKv6f)ct)Trd((jov (TvojHvofirjv (compare Psa. xli. 10, xlii. 2 LXX.^). 
(3) But why should they 'stand still' at all? We read in ?'. 15 that 
while they conversed together as they walked, 'Jesus himself drew near 
and went with them,' joining, of course, in their conversation. It was 
natural for him to ask what they were talking about so earnestly when he 
came up, especially as, judging from the expression of their countenances, 
it was a painful subject. One of them answers for both, and the con- 
versation proceeds, still, it would appear, 'as they walked.' If they 'stood 
still,' the narrative would seem to imply that all the parties continued 
standing during the entire'discussion that followed; at least there is no 
mention of their resuming their journey, till we read in v. 28 that they 
' drew nigh unto the village whither they were going.' (4) On all other 
occasions similar to the present, it is not the narrator, but one of the 
parties concerned in the transaction, who notices 'the sadness of count- 
enance' of the other party. Thus in Gen. xl. 7 Joseph says to his 
fellow-prisoners : rl iWi ra TvpoauMra vfioiv aKvdpMTra (T^fifpnu; and in Neh. 
ii. 2 the king says to his cup-bearer : 8ia tI to npoa-coTrov aov irovi^pw (Hex. 
(TKvdf>u)Tr6v) ; ^ 

XXIV. 18: (TV (lovos "irapoiKCLS k.t.£.] R. \^. 'Dost thou alone sojourn 
in Jerusalem?' and in margin: 'Or, /)os/ thou sojoi/rn alone in Jeru- 
salem?'' But the former of the two versions seems to be the idea most 
commonly expressed on similar occasions. Thus Dio Chrys. Or. 111. 

p. 42 (quoted by WetStein) : rri' np«, fiVe, pnvo^ dur'}KO()S d tovtoh' a TTfJirfs 
irraaiv; Cliarit. Aphrod. I. 11: ixwoi yap vp.(\i ovk uKoxxTf rrji' TTcXvirpdypn- 
avvr/v Tu>v K6rjva'iu)v; Lucian. lip. Sat. 25 '• davpn^co yap ae, a pnvos tu)v 
(iirdvTUiv (tyi'Oflf, cuf eyto piv Trc'ikai jBaa-iKtiis a>v ntTravpai. 

XXIV. 39: 4''n^*<}>i «'■*"■''■« H-* K.T.I.] WetStein gives a quotation (in 
Latin) from a Raljbinical commentary on the Book of Ruth, which (in 
Greek) would read thus : "Hp^am <> Booy \ln]\(icf)fj(T<n TrjP Ki'ipip' mri]^, kg) 
(iTTf Ilvfvpa (iVK e^fi Kup-qv. 

* [Cf. Lucian. Philops. 24: iyii plv of BX and paraphrases it thus: 'They 
oxiv Ih^v ^(TTTjv.] stopped and looked at this unknown 

* [Cf. Plul. Vit. Phoc. 10: Tptl-iwfa traveller, with a dubious and unfriendly 
(popwf del Kal aKvOf)wirdi;u)i'.] glance.' {[Jfi: of Clirisl, II. p. 4.^X.) Hut 

•* [Canon Farrar adojils llic reading tluit is not llie meaning of rrAi'f^/iwTroL) 



XXIV. .so ST LUKE. 83 

XXIV. 50: ^tos irpos [T. R. els] BT]9avtav] The Revisers, adopting the 
reading of BC'DLX, have translated, 'until they 7vcrc over against 
Bethany'; but this sense of tt/jos requires confirmation. The preposition 
after ews would seem to be a mere expletive, perhaps from the Aramaic 
_i> (V>, V' "Ecoy €($• occurs Lev. xxiii. 14 : Iwy ds aiiTr)v rrjv ijfiipau ravTrju, 
and is common (of places) in Polybius : fioc npos is found Gen. xxxviii. i : 
Kai (iCJ)iK€To ecoy npoi avdputiTov Tiva '08o\\afjiiTr]v\ 

' [Cf. Ezra x. 14: mPI -\2'1^ IV.] 

" [Cf. Lucian. Hen>iot. ^4: ■Kopivh\iivo% dxpi- trpbs tt/c ttoXij'.] 



6—2 



ST JOHN. 



*Chap. I. 5 : ov KarcXapev] R. V. 'apprehended' and in margin 'or 
07>eirai)i£^ with a reference to xii. 35. Blakesley would translate 'ex- 
tinguished,' — see his note on Herod. I. 87 : coy unm iraiTa fitv av^pa 
a^evvvvTa to ttvj), ^vvaiMfvovs oi'/ce'ri KaraXalie'iu (also eniKixiTf'iv). 

I. I I : €is TO. i8ia tiXGe, Kal 01 iSioi avrov oi mrapeXaPov] A. Y. ' He came 
unto his own, and his own received him not.' By 'his own,' in />o//i 
places, an unlearned reader cannot fail to understand 'his own people.' 
But the R. V. is not much less misleading: 'He came unto his own 
(Gr. /as own things) and they that were his own received him not.' Why 
not, ' He came to his own Jionic, and his own people received him not,' 
though the italics are scarcely necessary? We may appeal to the A. V. 
itself, which translates (Kaaros fls ra I'Sta (John xvi. 32) by 'every man to 
his own (or, /it's 02ijn lionicy ; and virivTfii^av els ra I'Sta (Acts xxi. 6) by 
'they returned home again.' Compare also Ksth. v. 10: Kal (lafj'Xdfv tls 
Ta iSm (in''3"7X), vi. 12: 'Aixav 8e viritTTpcs^rfv els ra I'fitfi (same Hebrew). 
3 Esdr. vi. 31: Xrjfpdiiixu ^vXov €k tmv I8iu)v (ivToii (nn^3"|P Ezr. vi. 11). 
Dion. Hal. A/i/. VIII. 57 : nneXvafi' e'nl ra oiKfla. IbicL 63 : cmycfrav 
iKarepoi (tt\ tu (T(f}fT(pa. 

I. 24: Kal 01 a.Tr«rTaX|j.€VOL TJcrav £K twv 4>apio-a(o)v] If the reading of 
BC'LX', which omits ol, is to be followed, we would not render, 'And 
they had been sent from the Pharisees,' which would require napa t(2v <t>., 
as in 7'. 6 ; but, ' And there had been sent some of the Pharisees,' f k tuv 
being often so used by St John, e.g. in the nom. case (as here) Ch. xvi. 
17: (imtv ovr f<c Tuiv fin0T]Tciu avToii. vii. 40 (corrected text): tK tov oxXnv 
ovi> uKoviravTd tov Xo-yoi* ; in the accus. 2 Epist. 4 • fvprjKa (k tu>v TeKfoii/ a-ov 
nepiTrnTovvTas. Apoc. ii. lo; and perhaps in the gen. John iii. 25: tyepeTo 
ovv ^rjTtjaii tK Ta>i> pdflijTmv 'Iwa/'i'on, where the use of fV for 'on the part of 
is doubtful. 

II. 9: oi TjvTX-riKOTts TO v8(op] A. v. 'Which drew (R. V. had drawn) 
the water.' This is generally understood of dra-wjiig the luater front the 



It. 15 ST JOHN. S5 

well^ as in Ch. iv. 7. So St Chrysostom : ft yap e/xfXXoi/ rii/ef dfato-xwTftf, 
r)hvvavTo npos avrovs Xtyeiv 01 StaKovrjcrdpLfvoi- T]fj.e2s rn vBcop rjvrXrjaaixev 
i^fifis ras ii8piai (veirkr^crafjLfV. And Nonnus: v8pocf)6pos 8e | rjBei Xarpis 
ofiiXos, OS vypn^^vTdv ano koXttmv \ ayyeai \aiveois fM^ravaaTLov T}(j)v(rev vocop. 
But (i) it is not necessary to have actually drawn the water, in order to 
be assured that it was water; and (2) it is not likely that the Sta/coj/oi had 
themselves drawn the water from the well, that being a different service 
altogether, and usually assigned to women. I would therefore translate, 
' which had drawn out the water' (as in %>. 8), i.e. to vbuop olvov yeyevr]p.ivov. 
Painters erroneously represent the servants as pouring the wine out of 
the water-pots, shaped like pitchers, into the drinking vessels; whereas 
both the vdpim for purifying purposes, and the Kparfjpes for mixing the 
wine, were wide-mouthed vessels, and stationary (Plut. Vit. Pomp. LXXIi: 
Kill KpaTTjpes OLVOV TTpovKeivTo) in their places. 

II. 10: Tov KaXov olvov Ti0Tio-i] R. V. ' setteth on the good wine.' 
This would seem as if the wine were placed on the table, according to our 
customs, instead of being drawn out from the Kparrjp with jugs or cans 
(olvoxoai), and from the jug poured by the attendants into each man's 
drinking vessel (Kvados). Nonnus's TrpoTiOrjai seems to harmonize with the 
A. V. ' doth set forth.' 

II. 15 : iT-dvTas €|€paX€v €K tov Upov, tci t€ TrpoPaTa Kal tovs P6as] A. V. 
' He drove them all (R. V. cast all) out of the temple, and (R. V. both) the 
sheep, and the oxen.' In the preceding verse two classes of persons are 
mentioned, the sellers of certain animals, and the money-changers. When 
therefore we are told that he made a scourge of small cords, and drove 
them all {TTavrai) out of the temple, we cannot avoid the conclusion that 
the profaners of the temple are primarily intended, though, even if no 
more had been said, we should have had no difficulty in understanding 
that with the traffickers the objects and materials of their traffick were 
also summarily expelled. But more is said, and the particular manner in 
which each class of objects was dealt with is described. After this, it 
would seem the merest trifling to raise the question, whether the scourge 
was employed in the forcible expulsion of the dealers, or even whether 
they were forcibly expelled at all. Yet this is what is done by the 
grammatical purists of the present day. ' That our Lord,' says Dean 
Alford, ' used the scourge on the beasts only, not on the sellers of them, is 
almost necessarily contained in the form of the sentence here ; the to. tc 
TTpo^ara koi roiis ^oas being merely epexegetical of ndvTas, not conveying 
new particulars. It should therefore be rendered, "He drove all out of 
the temple, both the sheep and the oxen.'" But the meaning (or f^i^yrjais) 
of TTavras being strictly defined by the preceding verse, it is evident that 
no f7re^riyr](Tis of it, which is incompatible with that meaning, can be 
admitted. We hold therefore that Te...Kai is not to be taken here as in 



86 ST JCJlIN. II. Id 

Matt. xxii. lo: awqyayov navrai nanvs evpnv, novrjpovs re kiu dyadov^ {hlin 
vialos quatn bonos\ but that re is a copula (compare Heb. ix. i) con- 
necting r« Trp. Kai rovs /3. with navTas, omnes ejecit de templo^ oves quoquc 
et boves, which is, in fact, the rendering of the Vulgate^. 

With the remaining incident of this verse, Ka\ tu>v koXXvjSkttoov e'^e'xff 
TO Kfpfia, I compare Diog. Laert. VI. 82: Mot/t/xos...otWr?;y tii/6s Tpanf^iTov 
Kopivdiov, wishing to be dismissed that he might be able to attend 
Diogenes, fiavlau rrpoanoiTjdeis, to Tf Kepfia SitppinTfi, Kal nav to eVi Trji 
Tpane^Tjs apyvpioT, ea>s avToP o dfanoTrjs TraprjTrjcrnro'-'. 

*II. 20: T£<r<rapdKOVTa Kai H^ 'ina-iv (iKo8ofj.i]0T] 6 vaos ovtos] Both 
versions: 'Forty and six years was this temple in buildmg.' A learned 
correspondent asks: 'Can you find other good instances where the dative 
represents duration of titne combined with an aorist tense? I should 
have thought the natural translation was: "This temple was built in 
46 years," which is inconsistent with the historical date of its completion, 
A.D. 64.' The objection supposes that the aorist, (OKoSoprfdrj can only be 
used of a LO//i/>/c'/cd huWding. But any building which is so far advanced 
as to be capable of being used for the purposes of its erection is naturally 
spoken of by contemporaries with reference to its present state, not to 
some indefinite future time, when the designs of the founder or architect 
shall have been fully carried out. 'This temple ' is the building as it was 
then, at the end of 46 years from its foundation; and whether we say, 'it 
was built in 46 years,' or, ' it was 46 years in building,' seems to make 
no difference as to the sense. And that the latter is capable of being 
defended on grammatical grounds appears from the singularly apposite 
quotation from Ezra v. 16 : rore ^arrafiaacrap (Kdvos i]\6e, Koi fScoKe 6ep.(\iovs 
Tov oiKov Tov 6(ov iv ' lepovcrctXijp, ku'i drro Tore ecoy tov vvu fl!lKOAOMH0H, 
Koi ovK eT(X((Tdr] (A. V. 'hath it been in building, and yet it is not 
finished'). 

III. 3: €av |xii Tis 7€vvT]eTi avwOev] A. V. 'Except a man be born 
again. Or, from abovc^ The best example for the sense of again 
(R. V. 'anew'), dc novo., is Artemid. Onirocr. I. 13. A man dreams 
that he is being born. If his wife is pregnant at the time, this indicates 
that he will have a son in every respect like himself: ourco yap avwQiv 
avTos ^r'>$fif yevvauOai. On the other hand it may be urged, that .St John's 
writings furnish no example of this use of the word, and that the Hebrew 

^ [Cf. Babr. VII. 11, 12: iravra. tov not overturn the tables of the tlove- 

yi/xov \vwv ew' avrbv eriOeL ttjv adyrjv sellers, lest the birds should be hurt in 

T€ TOV KTTjvov^ Kal rijv 6u<i[y]v TTpoaewi- their cages ; but a more probable reason 

0r]K€v eKdelpai.] seems to be, that the dove-sellers were 

-Canon Farrar {/.//d of Christ, not rpaTrei- (rat, and had no tables. 
Chap. XIII) says that our Lord did 



IV. 6 ST JOHN. 87 

T'FJSJp is always local. The Syriac versions are divided, the Peschito for 
denuo (._«._,35 _!iD) and the Philoxenian for desiipcr ( \\vV ^^)^- 

III. 15. The reading followed by the Revisers is Iva ttoj o Trioreucoj' eV 
aJroi (T. R. fty avTov) e^rj C- a«-j which they translate, 'that whosoever 
believeth may in him have eternal life'; I suppose, because St John's 
usual construction is nicmveip els avrou, not ev avrai. But I doubt if 
o 7n(TT€va>v is ever used by this writer absolute'^; and if it were so used 
here, would he not (if only for the avoiding of ambiguity) have placed 
eV ai;ra) at the end of the sentence, as Si' avrov {v. 17)? 

*I 1 1. 25 : €7€V€T0 ovv SiJTr]<ris €K twv |Ji.a0T]Twv 'Icodvvou |i€Td 'lovSaiov (T. R. 
-«v) irtpi KaOapio-fiov] A. V. 'between some of John's disciples and the 
Jews.' R. V. 'on the part of John's disciples with a Jew.' The latter may 
be sustained (as by Raphel [ed. 1 750] : ' orta est quaestio a discipulis ; ut hi 
disputationis auctores fuisse intelligantur'). But the regular construction 
of iyfvero C^Trjais is with a dative, as Acts xv. 2: yemfj-eurjs Se-.-f/^rrJo-ewy 
ovK oXlyrjs rw IlavXco Kal tm Bapva^a npos avrovs. And this construction 
may be obtained in this place by supposing €k rmv ixadrjTcov to have the 
force of Tiaip eK tcou fi. as there are indubitable examples of (k for rivas (k, 
and Tivfs eV. Of the former is Matt, xxiii. 34: e'^ avrwu drroKTevelTe ; of the 
latter John xvi. 17: elirov ovv ck twv fiadtjrcov avrov npos aW^Xovs, and 
perhaps Acts xix. 2;^ : en de rov o\Xou irpof^i^aaav 'AXe^av8pov. R. V. marg. 
'And some of the multitude^ &c. See note on Ch. i. 24. 

*IV. 6: €Ka0tt€To outus] 'sat thus.' So both versions, having respect 
to the preceding clause KfKonuiKws €k rrjs 08., in which case ovtos will be 
equivalent to cos p-aKpav [iablaas 68uu. Another explanation of ovrots is 
indicated by the margin of R. V. : ' Or, as he was,' and is suppoi'ted by 
the Greek commentators (as Theoph. oTrXco? cos eri;;^ e • ovk eVi Bpovov, 
dW ovT(os fi0eXcoy, en\ €8c'i(f)ovs), Grotius {iiicui'iose, lit se locus obtiilerat), 
Wetstein, and others. Examples of this usage might be quoted from the 
best Greek writers; but in such cases it will generally be found that out-cos 
is explained by some other word, with which it is in combination, as Plat. 
Gorg. 506 D : ovras eiKfj, 503 D : iSaj/xei' §;) ovTioaiv arpffia (rK07Tovp.fvoi. 
Dem. C. Mid. p. 553, 14: flaeXdau olVaSe cos eKflvop, koL tcpe^fjs ovTcoal 
Kade^opevos. Dio Chrys. p. 6 1 3, 6: epo\ pev et Sei oJrcos (oft hand) d7ro(/)7- 
vacrOai (f)avXcos re koi aKupyj/cos. Hor. Od. II. II, \i\: jacentcs sic temerc. 
Reiske says of this phrase, ' Mirifica est vis leposque particulae ouVcos sic 
positae'; but, perhaps, for that very reason we should hardly expect to 
come upon it in the writings of St John. If, however, this refinement 
should be preferred, we would not render 'as he was,' but 'as it chanced,' 

^ [Cf. Plut. ii. p. 265 a: -wapaaxuv " [Cf. , however, vi. 47, T. R. 6 

iavTov UKTirep ef apx^' TiKToptvov raTs iriaTtvuv el% epe l^et fw^c alwviov ; 
yvvai^iv diro\od(rai k.t.L'] where R. \'. omits et's epLI 



88 ST JOHN. IV. 12 

nidlo dclcctu habito, or (as our common people say) 'promiscuously,' 
comparing Plut. Vit. Ages. XII : 6 hk <J>apfri/:<afo9, otSeo-^fli nV 'Ayrj^iXaoj/ 
OUT-CO KaraKfififvov (on the grass) KarfKXivr] K(ii avroi as fTyxf «Vl t^s Troay 

*IV. 12. With OS "EAQKEN rifiiv to (fytjai^} it is interesting to compare 
Pausan. ill. 25, 3: tan Se eV r^ nvp^t;(cp (^/k'«/j eV rrj dyopa, AOYNAI de 
cr(})i(Ti Tuv SiXf/foi/ vofj-i^ovcri. 

IV. 15: 'Neither come hither to draw.' For i'pxoyfj-ai 15X' read 
8Upxo>^J■al, which however may have arisen from a mistake in transcribing 
MHAEEPXfiMAI. But if not, there is no occasion to press the preposition, 
which merely implies a certain distance to be traversed, whether long or 
short, as Luke ii. 15 : biiXdccfuv 87 ew? htjdXeefi ; and Acts ix. 38 : /H17 oKvfia-ai 
dif^dilv ecos avTciv. The rendering, ' neither come all the way hither to 
draw' (as R. V. and Alford). would convey the impression, either that the 
well was at a longer distance from the city than usual, or that the woman 
regarded as a drudgery the ordinary and traditional occupation of her sex. 
Compare Gen. xxiv. 1 1 sqq. 

V. 4: vYiT|S iyivtTO, <i> Sijirore Kare^x*''"*' voo-iijiari] A. V. 'Was made 
whole of whatsoever disease he had.' R. V. ' Was made whole, with 
whatsoever disease he was holden.' Better, perhaps, ' Was made whole 
of whatsoever disease he was holden with.' The full construction of the 
Greek would be vyifji eyivfTo otto tov voarnJMTOi (cf. Mark v. 34: 'iadi vyirjs 
OTTO Trjs naariyos (Tov) w 8r']noT( KuTfixero. 

V. 13: i^iviva-tv] 'had conveyed himself away.' More correctly, 'had 
turned aside.' Vulg. declinavit. S. Chrysost. i^iiCKwiv. So Jud. iv. 18, 
Jael says to Sisera, ' Turn in, my lord, turn in,' where the Vat. Ris. reads 
eKKXivov, but the Alex. eKVfvarov. Plutarch (T. ll. p. 577 b) has (KUfvaas 
Trjs (')8ov fjLiKpw, and the Gloss. Vett. 'EKi/euo-eif, dh'ei'ticnla. Lastly, the 
Scholiast on Aristoph. Ran. 113 defines fKTpmral to be fKvevafis Tav o?)u>v, 
oTTov TLs eKTpanfjmi bvvarai^. These examples are strongly against the 
derivation from fKVflv, 'to swim out,' which was probably the one adopted 
by our Translators in deference to Beza's note: ''E^evtvatv, e7'asera/, ad 
verbum enataverat"-.^ 

*V. 39: tptwdre rds 7pa<j)ds] 'Search the scriptures.' R. V. 'Ye search 
the scriptures.' On this question the 'Five Clergymen,' who, some years 
ago, favoured the public with a revised translation of St John's Gospel, 



' [Cf. Lucian. Bis Ace. 9 : wore - Dr Field here ajipears to sum- 

t6 ^Iv "^ovvwv iv de^iq. KaTaKeiirufKv, es niarizc Beza's in)le. li-d. 
5^ TYjv a,Kpbiro\iv air ovevoiixiv i^^S?/.] 



V. 39 ST JOHN. 89 

were (like the ' five in one house ' of our Lord's prophecy) ' divided three 
against two and two against three'; thus, by a majority of one, t6 th 
avTovs ^Kou, robbing the Christian Church, or at least the reformed part 
of it, of its ra/son cVetre^ which has always been supposed to be bound up 
with this text. It is true that the duty of 'searching the scriptures' might 
be easily inferred from other texts; e.g. Acts xvii. 11, where the Bereans 
are commended because they 'searched the scriptures daily, whether these 
things were so'; where, however, the Greek word is not epevccoi-rfj, but 
avaKp'ivovTii (R. V. 'examining'). Still an old favourite text is hard to 
part with. And this is one. It is so compact, so directly to the point, so 
musical, so fitted to be the motto of a book, the text of a sermon, 
the emblazonment of a banner, the 'hand- writing on a wall,' that the 
loss of it (if we must lose it) would be, perhaps, more irreparable than 
that of any three words in the whole Bible. But must we lose it 1 Let 
us see how the necessity is made out. If we turn to the Preface of the 
work referred to, all we rind is, that 'while the majority believed that the 
context of vv. 39, 40 was decisive in favour of the indicative meaning 
of ipevvaTf, two of us were equally earnest in their conviction, that the 
context of the whole passage 7^v. 32 — 40 required that the verb should be 
understood in the imperative.' A like diversity of conviction appears to 
have prevailed among the members of the N. T. Revision Company, with 
a similar result, the majority of two-thirds having come to the conclusion 
to adopt the indicative in the text, and to relegate the imperative to the 
margin. It did not fall within the plan of the Revisers to state their 
reasons for retaining or rejecting any particular rendering ; but since the 
publication of the final result of their labours, a sort of revisional literature 
has sprung up, to which we may, without any breach of confidence, appeal. 
Thus, in regard to the present text, the views of the majority may be 
considered to be fairly set forth in Dr Kennedy's £/y Lectures, pp. 52, 53. 
Taking for his text John v. 39, ' Search the scriptures,' and bearing in 
mind the saying, 'If the trumpet give an uncertain sound' &c., he thus 
begins his discourse : ' So we read in the A. V., but wrongly : the R. V. 
writes with just correctness, "Ye search the scriptures." This is mani- 
festly shewn to be right by the next words, "because in them ye think ye 
have eternal life." ' The lecturer goes on to argue that to ' have eternal 
life ' is not to be taken in its best and highest sense of possessing a 
personal assurance of that inestimable benefit, but in the very low and 
restricted one, of being able to prove the truth of the doctrine against the 
Sadducees who disputed it. If this is correct, then the words are the 
reverse of commendatory; and the 'search' here spoken of is a partial 
one for party purposes ; not to get at the truth, but to confute the 
adversary. In other words, ye search the scriptures, and ye do not 
search them : ye search the scriptures diligently in support of a ' favourite 
doctrine'; yet 'ye do not find in them, because ye do not search diligently 
and faithfully, those many texts which bear witness of me.' This, no 



90 ST JOHN. V. 39 

doubt, was the case; but why not tell them so in so many words? Why 
not say, 'Ye do NOT search the scriptures, and therefore ye do not believe 
in me'? 

It will have been observed that Dr Kennedy, in quoting the sequel of 
his text, stops short at 'eternal life,' as if on had no influence beyond those 
words. To this mistake it is, probably, owing that the affirinatory view 
of epfware has by some interpreters been preferred to the hortatory. They 
did not perceive that our Lord's argument, briefly stated, is this : ipevvare 
Tcis ypaf^as, oTi...eKf'ivai elaiv a'l papTvpovtrai Trepl epov. The words 'in them 
ye think' &c. are parenthetical ; they do not give the reason why his 
hearers should search the scriptures, but enforce the duty from a con- 
sideration of the nature of the documents themselves. It is as if he had 
said, ' Search the scriptures, your own scriptures, the depositories of your 
faith and hope, those prophecies in which ye (rightly) think ye have 
eternal life — search them, I say, for they are they which testify of me.' 
So Beza: ' Scrutamini scripturas, quia illae testantur de me^'; and 
St Augustine : ' Scrutari enim jussit scripturas, quae testimonium per- 
hibent de illo'-.' By adopting this construction, we need not abate one 
jot from the full force of epevmre, which has always proved a stumbling- 
block to those who maintain the opposite view. Some of these (as Krebs, 
J. F. Schleusner) have even gone so far as to assert that there is no 
particular emphasis in the word, and that it may be properly used of 
any enquiry however superficial ; in fact, that all that our Lord concedes 
to the Jews in this saying, is, Vos legitis qiddcin littcras sacras. Against 
this absurd paradox it will be sufficient to quote the comment of Euthy- 
mius Zigab. ad loc. : "Opa 8e nms ovk eiinv, avayivuxiKfTf, aXK\ epevvaTC 
dfeytvuxTKOv peu ynp, uvk ijpfvuaiv Se- Sui tovto KfXevfi ipevvav. (we\ yap 
(TiiVfCTKiacrTo Tu nepl avrov yfypappevci.. .f'niTc'irTfi pvp diopvTTfiu, ifa ru tv tS 
(iadfi Kfipfva. . .hvvrjdmaiv fvpelv. 

Although Protestant expositors, generally, may be supposed to have 
a bias in favour of the imperative, there seems a want of candour in the 
Ely Lecturer's concluding remark, that the Translators of 1611 probably 
'chose the wrong form, because it gave a useful weapon against the 
practice of the Church of Rome, so far as this was supposed to forbid or 
condemn the study of Holy Scripture by the laity.' But the 'wrong form' 
had been chosen long before by Wycliffe, Tyndale, Cranmer, and the 
versions of Geneva and Rheims (a R. C. one) ; to say nothing of the 

ancient versions. Vet. Lat., Jerome, both Syriac (o^ not ^oAj") __.^), 
Memph., Armcn., Acthiop.'' 

1 But Beza (ed. 1598) has the fol- do mc. Ivl. 
lowing note; Cohacret aiUem copula - Dr Field here ajipears to give a 

non cum '6ti doKure, sed cum verbo suinniaiy of St Au.Ljii'.tine's remarks. 

fpiwdre, lioc niodo, Vos scrutamini Ed. 
scripturas, et illae sunt (|uae testantur •' As we liave, here and elsewhere, 



VI. 51 ST JOHN. 91 

V. 45: €ls ov t>n€is ■tjXiriKaTt] 'in whom ye trust (or hope).' This is 
one of the verbs, in which \h^ preterite in form is present in signification. 
Others are fyvcoKo (Ch. viii. 52, xvii. 7), deSoiKa, ea-rrjKa, nfiroida, oi8a (oi8as, 
'thou knowest,' not 'thou hast known,' 2 Tim. iii. 15), redavnaKa, ridrjira. 
The same remark appHes to i Cor. xv. 19, 2 Cor. i. 10, i Tim. iv. 10, 
V. 5 (ji^TTiKf Kai TTpocrfievfi), vi. 17 (jJ^rj v\lrr]\n<ppov€iu firjde riXniKtvai). In all 
these places rjXniKa is spero (as rendered by the Vulg.) not speravi\ 'I 
hope,' not ' 1 have hoped,' nor yet, as R. V., ' I have set my hope'; which 
last is merely an attempt to account for the origin of the grammatical 
anomaly ; a matter with which the English reader has nothing to do. 

*VI. 5: iroGtv dYopdo-ojxev dprovs ;] By ivoQiv is generally understood 
a qitibtis vendentibus? But, comparing the other Evangelists, the difficulty 
seems to have been one of money ^ rather than of sellers. Compare Lucian. 
Her mot. Jl : iju roivw ravTa ivvoovcnv avToi^, 6 nals TTfjoaeXdaf, eprjrai ti tu>v 
dvayKalu>v, oiov, '66fv (ipTovs (ivrjT€ov, tj o,Ti fj (pareov TTpos tou anaiTovvra 
TovpoLKiov (the rent). 

*VI. 10: T]v 84 xoRTos TToXvs fv T(i Toiru)] For similar descriptions we 
may compare Plut. Ages. XII : vnu aKia tivl ttIhis ovarjs (iaOfim KnTa(:ia\a>v 
lavTov epTauda TTipufxeive 'Papvdfda^ov. Pliilostr. Iinag. I. 6: ttoo Se anoKx) 
KaT€)(ei Tovs S/Jo/xoiiy, o'lci kcu KaTUKKidtvTL (TTpcofxvrj eivm. Alciphr. Fragni. 
6 : €7rt avTt]^ ^ovXoip.>]v av rfji ■nua<i KaTUKXidfji/ai, rj en\ tmv Tunr]Ti(t)V 
iKiivcav Ka\ riov piaXdctKoJu uTTocrrpw/xdrtoi', urj Aia. 

VI. 51 : 'And the bread that 1 will give is my flesh, [which I will give] 
for the life of the world.' Supposing fjv eyw daaw to be rightly ejected in 
deference to a great preponderance of Mss. and versions, I would still 
insert '' zuJiieJi I will give^ (in italics). But in the T. K. 6 apros 'l>v 'EFii 
AQ212 \r] crdp^ p.ov (crrlv rjv 'ETQ Ai22i2] vnip rfjs Toii Koapov fco^j, the words 
within the brackets might easily have been passed over; and afterwards 
a portion of them, ?; aap^ pov farii/, inserted to make a tolerable sense. 
And it is very observable that N has these four words in a different place 
from the other uncials, namely after C<^fjs^. 

ventured to differ from the conclusions help to reconcile scholars to a sacrifice 

of the learned Professor, it is only fair of their convictions in this particular 

to say that his reasonings in another instance, to remember that by this 

question, that of Love v. Charity (pp. concession they are relieved at once 

63 — 70) are, in our humble opinion, from the infliction of that most un- 

perfectly sound and irrefragable. Here, fortunate cadence (2 Pet. i. 7) 'and in 

however, the vox populi has a fair your love of the brethren love.' 
claim to be heard, and tliat has pro- ' [Cf. I-ucian. .Seyth. 10. Old Edd. 

nounced most strongly against disturbing koX tovtX yiyverai 6,ti dv apiarov fi ttj 

the old established favourite in i Cor. TroXet. Gesner. conj. Kal tovtI ylyferai 

xiii, and a few other places. It may 6,rL clp (j3ovXovTai' ftovXovrai yap 6,ti 



92 ST JOHN. VI. 62 

*VI. 62: eav ovv GecopTiTe] ^ What then if ye should behold' (R. V.). 
'What' need hardly be italicized. 'Eai/ ovv for rt our/ eViy is good Creek, 
an idiom, of which I have given examples in a note on S. Chrys. T. xil. 
p. ii6d. 

*VII. 12: 7077v<r|x6s] 'murmuring,' i.e. the sound made by a number 
of persons conversing together in an under tone ; but not necessarily one 
of complaint. The proper Greek word is 6^)ovi. Aelian. V. H. ll. 13: riXX' 
ot yf ^(vof Tov yap Kw/xcaSov/xei'oi' ijyvnovv dpovi Trap avrcoi' enavlaraTai, Koi 
f^rfTovv oiTTis noTf ovTot 6 ^coKpciTrjs ia-Tiv. The opposite opinions of the 
Jews about the character of Jesus remind one of the reception of Diogenes 
at the Isthmian games (Dio Chrys. p. 139, 35): nvts pev ovf avrof i6av- 
pa^ov ws a<i(f)coTaTov TravToyv • rial 8e paivfadai eSo/cef ttoXXoI 8e KUTftppovovv, 
(OS 7rTu>)(ov T€ Kal oii8fi>6s d^iov. 

*VII. 15 : irws ouTOS ■ypd|AfJ.aTa olSt, \i.ri jj.€fi.a0t]Kws ,] 15y ypapparn we are 
to understand clcmcntivy Iranii/ij^, wliat wc pleasantly {x^ipi(VTi(opfvoi) 
call the three R's. For j'cadiiii; alone we may refer to Lucian. Dial. 
Mer. X : dvayvatQi \aj3ovcro, co XeXidoviov • nicrda yap Sr;7rou ypappara ; for 
reading and w ri (i ng io Stob. Floi: T. Lxxix. 51 : ^ (TnirTapevov ypappara 
ovK fTnarapfvos (ceXeui; ae ypa(f)(iv koi dfayivaia-Kfiv prj cos epades, aXX tTtpcos- 
And that the ypappariarai also taught arithmetic, may be inferred from 
S. Chrysost. T. XI. p. 711 E: coa-ntp yap ia-ri napa rois ypappuTia-TCHS 6 rmv 
i^aKUT)(i\i(ov upidpns...Kai dia tov dpidpoii tovtov iravra (TTp((pfTnt, Ka) lancri 
Tuvra (XToi ypappara pepadtjuaa-Lv. The higher branches of education were 
usually called padijpara. 

That the Jews, by their laws and traditions, long before the Christian 
era, attached great importance to education, wc most readily admit. But 
we cannot go so far as Mr Mundella, who, at a banquet in aid of the Jews' 
Free School held in May 1884, flattered his entertainers with the notion 
of their co-religionists having been familiar with the principle of coz/i- 
pulsory or state education some 2000 years ago. This he had always 
thought to be a novelty; but some time ago he had had a conversation 
with the late Emmanuel Deutsch, who poured out such a cataclysm of 
authorities from the Talmud and other Jewish literature, as were a 
revelation to him. We confess that we should like to have some more 
definite information on the subject before admitting into our minds the 
somewhat incongruous idea of a Board-school at Nazareth, or a Minister 
of Public Instruction at Jerusalem. Meantime we would refer our 
Minister, for the germ of such a system, to profane history, and to the 
laws of Charondas of Catana, who flourished about 500 years B C, and 
legislated for the cities of Chalcidian origin in Sicily and Italy. One of 
his laws, and one, says the historian (Diod. Sic. XII. 12) which had been 

o.v) ixpicrov ... from llie Latin version of [ovtol el)i\(j}cnv idiXovin yap 6,ti tii') 
Solanus. Solaniis from ms. — 6,ti Slv afnarov ....] 



VIII. 25 ST JOHN. 93 

overlooked by the older legislators, was this: e'vofioderTjcrt twu ttoXitwv tovv 
vlfls cmavras fxavdiwdv ypafifiara, ^op-qyovarj^ r^s TroXecos rovs hktBovs toIs 
StSacTKoXois'. vneXafie yap rovi anopovs To'is j3iois, I8ia prj Svvapevovv ^tSofa' 
fiicrdovs, diT0(jT(prjdi](7f(rdai rcov KaXXiffToiv emTrj^evpaTav. 

*VII. 23: oXov avOpw-irov 117111 ktroi^a-a] Both versions: 'I have made 
a man every whit whole'; joining 0X01* vyi^, as 6\ov cfxttreivou Luke xi. 36, 
and Kadapos oXos John xiii. 10. But it seems more natural to connect 0X01/ 
with avBpanov, in the sense of ' a whole man,' or ' the whole of a man,' in 
contrast to a single member. Wetstein quotes: 'Si enim circumcisio, 
quae ad unum tantum membrum hominis spectat, sabbatum pellit, quanto 
magis periculum vitae, quod ad fotiiut honii'nan spectat ^' 

VII. 51 : €dv |Ai] ttKovcTTi irpctfTov Trap' avxov (T. R. Trap' avrov irporepov)] 
A. V. 'Before it hear him.' R. V. 'Except it first hear from himself.' 
'AKoveti/ nap avrov is to 'hear his defence,' 'hear what he has to say.' 
Compare Eurip. Heracl. 179: n's av h'iKr]v Kplveifv, rj yvoii] \6yov \ Trp\v av 
IIAP' dp.(j)o'iv p.v6ov fKfiaOr] aacjifj ; In Acts XXV. 22, ' I would hear the man 
myself.... To-morrow thou shalt hear him,' the preposition is wanting. 

VIII. i8 : iyii ii\i.i o |xapTvpwv irepl €p.avTov] A. V. ' I am one that bear 
witness of myself.' R. V. ' I am he that beareth witness of myself.' Un- 
grammatical. In the Greek 6 p.apTvpu>v does not depend on elpi, but on 
eyo). In making out the two witnesses, we should say in English : 'There 
is I (or myself) that bear witness of myself, and there is the Father,' &c. 
But the Greek idiom for 'There is I,' or 'It is I,' is not iariv fyw, but 
eyo) dpi (Ch. vi. 2o). Hence the A. V. (only italicizing one) exactly 
expresses what is intended. 

VIII. 25: T11V apxiiv o Ti Kttl XaXw v|xlv] A. V. 'Even t/u^ same that I 
said unto you from the beginning.' R. V. ' Even that which I have also 
spoken unto you from the beginning.' In these renderings there is a 
difficulty in XaXoj, which can only be got over by resolving it into Xt-yw 
vfiiv iv TT] XaXio. pov'^. According to another construction of the Greek, 
on is a conjunction, and ttjv dpxn" has the sense of oXcos; and we may 
either supply //o7i' is it (as R V. marg.) or consider it as an exclamation 
of surprise, perhaps with a corresponding gesture, 'That I should even 
speak to you at all!' as we sometimes say eV tij awrjOda, 'That it should 
come to this!' This version has the high authority of St Chrysostom : 
Ti)v up)(i]i> oTi (cot XaXco vp'iv. o Se Xe'-yet toiovtou iaTtv tov o\(os fiKoveiv tu>v 
Xdywi' Tciv nap epov avd^iol eare, prjTiyf Ka\ paOelv octtis fya> dpi- We may 

1 This is in general but not verbal St John in a way different from other 

agreement with Wetstein's quotations. writers are x^pf?'' (Ch. viii. 37), and 

Ed. Xaxelv (Ch. xix. 24). 

'^ Other examples of words used hy 



94 ST JOHN. VIII. 28 

also compare a similar construction in Ach. Tat. vi. 20, where a master, 
speaking to his female slave, says : ovk uyanqi on aoi koi XoXcG, ' Art thou 
not content that I even condescend to speak to thce^?' Still the generally 
received exposition commends itself by its he'ingjiest the aiisiuer we should 
have expected ; and the curious coincidence with Plant. Capth>. ill. 4, 91 : 
' Ouis igitur ille est? (Jteem diidiim dixi a principio tibi' is also in its 
favour. 

*VIII. 28: oxav ii»|/wo-t]T€] Both versions: 'when ye have lifted up.' 
Better, ' when ye shall have lifted up.' Vulg. cum exalta^'ei-itis. So 
Ch. X. 4 : orav eKfiaKrj, for which A. V. ' when he putteth forth.' R. V. 
'when he hath put forth,' following the Vulg. we would adopt, 'when 
he shall have put forth.' The use of this tense, so rare in English, but 
so common and withal so convenient in Latin, is sanctioned by both 
versions in Luke xvii. 10: !>Tav irnu'jaTjTf, 'when ye shall have done (all 
that is commanded you).' 

VIII. ^7: 6 XoYos 6 €|Aos ov x^P*"- *'' ^K^v] A. V. 'My word hath no 
place in you.' Other explanations of ov x<"Pf' ^•'^ 'doth not go forward,' 
' makelh no way-.' The Revisers (while retaining the A. V. as an 
alternative rendering) have awarded the palm to ' My word hath not free 
course in you,' a rendering which brings this text into a sort of connexion 
with 2 Thess. iii. i, where the Greek is TpixVi ^^^ the general scope of 
the passage is quite different from that of our text. Thetr the Apostle 
desires that the word of God may run, or spread rapidly, in the world : 
here our Lord's complaint is that his word does not gain an entrance into 
the hearts of his hearers, ' hath no room in you,' if such an use of j^w/ffir 
could be proved. It seems to be equivalent in sense to I'/xfTy ov ;^6)/je(re 

Tov Xi'iyov Tov i^i'iv (cf. Matt. XIX. I I : ov TravT€S ■)(<i>pov(Ti tov Xo'yoi' toiitov) 

as it was certainly understood by Theophylact (S«a to tov Xoyoi^ tov tfiov 
iy\rrfk(')Tfpov fivai tFjs vfiaiv ^lavoias, Koi fir) xwprjTov Vfjuv), and both .Syriac 
versions. That ^w/jfti^ to ho/d, contain (Ch. ii. 6, xxi. 25) was used with 
a certain elasticity is proved from Aristot. //. A. ix. 40: Km tov^ k^<\»]vh^ 
dTroKTfivov(Tiv, "nav pujKtTi x^Pli avrais tpya^ofifvois, where x^f'V i^ impersonal 
for x'^P" fh ^till nothing precisely similar to the sense here required, 
' hath no room in you,' has hitherto been produced ; and it was reserved 
for the present writer, in reading Alciphron's Epistles (iii. 7) to light upon 
a passage in which x<^l>f^^ is used in a way exactly parallel with St John's 
use of it in this place. The story is this. A parasite, having been stuffed 
to excess by his entertainers (Tr^dovd rj (cora to kvtos ttjs yauTpos firfiUiv 
tivnyKn(ovTfs) was met on his way home by Accsilaus the physician, who, 

• [Cf. Aesop. /}//'. 408: 01 5^ (/fUKi'ot) - [CT. Plut. Fit. Ga/tuj, 10: toj Si 

ytt.JXis fiiv avTas {xe\i56vai) rj^iuaav Kai Vd\[-ia p-era ttji' N^pwcos Tf\evTi]v ("x'^pfj 

\6yov, TTJs dSoXeffx^as p.iarjaavT€S' iircl wavra ( = 7rpoi)x'ipe')0 
5^ r]^iit)(Tav....'] 



VIII. 58 ST JOHN. 95 

seeing his plight, took him home with him, and administered a powerful 
emetic, the effects of which the parasite himself thus describes: 'What 
vessels, XfjSrjTas, niOoKvas, dfii8as, did I fill with what I threw up ! so that 
the doctor himself wondered ttov kuI riva rponov 'EXOPHSE roaovrov 6 twv 
^p(Ofj.dTa,i^ (fiopvTos, i.e. nh' LOCU.M HABERE /an fa (Wagner reads Toaoinns) 
ciborinn coUinnes potiierit^ Here also Bergler quarrels with the con- 
struction, and says : ' Ego verti quasi esset nVa rpitiov (xa>pr)(Ta Toacwrop 
^pcofidrav cjiopvTov.' But the reading of all the MSS. of the witty letter- 
writer may be now supported by this place of St John, and the two 
passages mutually throw light upon each other. 

*VIII. 39: El TSKVtt Tov 'Appad^ i^tc, to, ^p^a tov 'APpad(j. eiroieire] 
What Abraham was to the Jews, their great progenitor and pride, that 
was Hercules to the Greeks. This being understood, we may compare 
Plut. T. II. p. 226 A : ovKovv Km »)/xaf, to TroXtrat, nvdev -q napa To'ts jroWols 
Qavpa^optvi) fvjfvfia, Koi to n'^' 'Hpo/cXeovf eivai ovmjaiv, (I prj irpaTTop-ev Si 
o CKf'ivos UTravTav dvBpconav tTTibo^i'nfpos Ka\ fvyevicTTfpog f(f)avt], arrKovpevni 
Koi fjiai'davni'Te i koKci 81 oXov tdv j^iov. 

* VIII. 44: Kal €v TTJ dXriGtCa oux ?a-Tt]K€v] A. V. 'And abode not in the 
truth.' R. V. 'And stood not in the truth,' with a marginal note: 'Some 
ancient authorities read standeili.' These 'ancient authorities' are, in 
fact, those MSS. and Edd. (Erasm. i, R. Stephens 1550, and the T. R.) 
which read oZx ea-rrjKev, the pas/ tense (in form) having a present signifi- 
cation, as Rom. v. 2, i Cor. xv. i &c. This was not understood by the 
Vulg. non stetii, or A. V. 'abode not.' The R. V. 'stood not' is owing 
to the error of the uncials BDN and others, which write oyKecTHKeN 
without the aspirate, a very common fault, which should be corrected in 
ordinary printing, instead of being exaggerated by accenting oi'k earrjKfv. 
This, however, is what the Revisers have done, taking farrjKep to be the 
imperfect of (ttijkco. 

*VIII. 58: irpiv 'Appadjj. -yeveo-Oai] Both versions: 'Before Abraham 
was': but, more correctly, R. V. in margin, 'Or, auas born.' Again, 
Gal. iv. 4 : yivop-ivov Ik yvvaiKoi. A. V. ' made (Vulg. factum) of a 
woman.' R. V. ' born of a woman.' So the word is often used in 

LXX. for 1?.^ (as Gen. iv. 26), and also in profane authors, e.g. Dem. 
p. 1008 extr. : eV t^s narpwas otKiaf...eV ?; Koi iyeuoprfv kcii tTpa(f)r]v. Aelian. 
V, H. X. 18: yfvea-dcu fxiv avTuu (k vvfKprjs. Plut. Vz't. Sert. I: 8vfii> 8e 
ofKOVVficov Tols ev(i}8e(TTaTois cf)vTo7i woXecov, "lov koi Spvpvijs, tov ttoitjttjv 
"Oprfpov iv 17 p.iv yfVf (rdai \iyov(nv, iv fj 8e d7ro6avf7v. Pausan. A read. XXVI. 
6 : lepa 8e 'AtricXr^TrtoC T€ icrTi Kat ^Adrjvdi, 'i]V deaiv (Tt^ovrai p.akicrTH, yevfirdai 
Kai Tpacf)f)vai napa a(piaiv avTqv XiyovTfs. Dion. Hal. A/lt. III. 50 : oy ptTu 
Ttjv TeXfVTrjV Toi/ 7raTp<ts...yfvopfvoi, nvre toiv 7raTpo}(ov.,.xpiipdTu>v. . .iK\t]pov6- 
pt)(re pLo'ipav. 



96 ST JOHN. IX. 22 

*IX. 22 : diroo-uvd-ywyos -Yt'vTjTai] 'he should be put out of the synagogue.' 
Also Ch. xii. 42, xvi. 2. Might not dnoavudya>yos in these places be 
rendered 'out of the congregation,' from the O. T. use of cruvaycoyrj for 
the Hebrew ITiy (Exod. xii. 3, Num. xvi. 3 &c.).' In patristical writers 
fj crvvayayT] is the yciL'is/i church, as >7 fKKXrjaia the Christian; but this 
same word imocrvvayuiyos is applied by Theodoret {H. E. I. 3) to Christian 
excommunication, thus : (Paul of Samosata) awoha Km Kpiaei ruiv ntrav- 
Ta-)(ov fTTKTKonoiu aTTOKfjiyvx^iVTot rfji (kkXijctUh- (tv Smflf^o/xfi'os XovKiavix: 
uTTotTDi'aycoyos e'fidvf Tpiciv fTri(TKf)ira>v TToXyfreli xpovavs. It is true that 
arvvayutyrf does not occur in the N. T. in the sense of congregation, unless 
in Apoc. ii. 9 ») tr. tov "^aravn might more conveniently be so rendered 
than by ' synagogue.' 

* IX. 40: Kal TjKovcrav eK twv 4>apio-aCtov TaSra ot ovtcs jAfx' aurov] A. V. 
'And so7ne of the Pharisees which were with him heard these things.' 
R. V. ' Those of the Pharisees which were with him ' &c. The former 
is the better rendering. The nom. case to r\Kov(Tav is fV tS^v 4>. (see on 
Ch. i. 24). Literally: ''Some of the Pharisees heard these things (namely) 
they which were with him.' 

*X. 15: KaGws Yiv<oo-K€i n€ 6 iraTijp, Kd-yii -yLvwo-Kio] 'Even as the 
Father. ..and I know' (R. V.). 'Beware of rendering as A. V.' — Alford. 
But comparing Ch. xv. g, xvii. 18, it seems impossible to resist the 
conclusion that KaQi>^-.. is ihe protasis and Kuyo)... the apodosis. Nonnus, 
however, understood this place as the Revisers : oJ? yfi/eVr;? voUi fxe, Km w? 
vaeu) y(v(Tfjpa. 

*XI. 38: 'a stone lay against it' R. V. This correction of A. V. 
assumes that the cave was above ground; but the words eV/Ketro eV 
uvTU) seem rather to point to a subterranean ea^wrn, to which there w.is 
a descent by steps; and the only sepulchre in the neighbourhood of 
Bethany (still shown as Lazarus's) is of this kind. 

*XI. 39: On TCTapraios ^dp Itni (contrasted with nfx'mcfxiTos vfKpos, 
nuper defunetus) compare Herod, il. 89: (de foeminis defunctis ad pol- 
lincturam tradendis) 01' TrnjnivTiKa ^i^oiioi TUjHxfvfii', "AX erreav rpiTinm 
fj TfT(ii>T(U(ii ytvujvrm. Xen. Anab. VI. 4, 9: Ka\ rovi vtKimvi. roi's fifv 
TrXfiirroDS (vBnirtp (TTfo-ov (Kaariivi ida^iiv rjdr] yap tjaap irefnrTuiot, Km (w^ 

oit'w Tf (ICdt/Jf Ic (Tl rji'. 

*X1. 44: 8€8€|jLtvos Tous TToSas Kal rds x*'P*^5 K€ip£ais] 'with grave- 
clothes' — an inadequate rendering. Moschopulus dellnes: Ktipla- 6 rciu 
vniriutv fierrpiii, Tjyovu i) Koii'Mi cfiaa-Kin (fascia), k(u j) ^ifapovai rovs vfKpnvs : 
thus bringing together the two extremities of life, and affording a favourite 
common-place to patristic authors. Artemidorus {Onirocrit. I. 13) says 



XII. 6 ST JOHN. 97 

that to dream of ^i}f(j)r] (vtiXovfitva ras ^flpai, TO) voaovvTi Oavarov npo- 
ayopevfi- eVei Kai o'l dnoduijaKOVTes fcrp^ttr/iei/oty evfiKovvrai paKtaiv, as Koi 
TCI I3p(<jir]. The Latin word aovBapiou was also naturahzed in the Syrian 
language (^<■^1D, Chald. ad Ruth iii. 15) and Nonnus actually takes it for 
a Syrian word {(Tov8npini> n'mfp «tVe Si'pcoi/ aropa). 

*XII. 3 : 1] 8i oiKia tirXTipwOt] Ik ttjs 6or|jiTJs tou [ivpov] Compare Plut. 
Vz'i. Alex'. XX: toScofiet 8e decnreawv oiov, vjr apatparav koi pvpav 6 ockos (the 
tent of Darius). Stob. J^/or. 348, 5 : dWa pivroi rmu ye TroXyreXcov tovtcov 
ocTfiav, als ^pieade, tovs TrXTjcria^ovTas p.aWov oip,at dnoKaveiv rj avTovs v/xay. 

XII. 6: TO -yXwo-o-oKoiAov €tx*] ' Had the BAG.' It does not admit of 
a doubt, that yXaaaoKonov, both in its special and general sense, is not a 
da^, but a i>o.x; or c/ies^, always of wood or other hard material. Hesychius 
defines it to be a c/tt'si (aopos), a wooden receptacle of ronnants. Arrian 
{Periplus p. 1 59 ^) mentions yXaxraoKopa Ka\ TnvaKibui {table fs), both made of 
tortoise-shell. In the Greek Anthology (11. 47, i, ed. Stephan.) we read: 
' But when I look at Nicanor the coffin-maker {jov aropoTrqyov), and consider 
for what purpose he makes these wooden boxes (ravra tci yXaa-a-oKopa).' 
Josephus(/4«/. VI. I, 2) calls by this name the r^^r in which were preserved 
the golden emerods and mice, which the Philistines were ordered to make. 
Here (i Sam. vi. 8) the Hebrew is tpN (a dna^ X(y6p.(vov) ; but Aquila 
universally employs yXcaa a oKop-ov for the Hebrew p"lX in all its significa- 
tions : as (i) the co_ffin in which Joseph was buried (Gen. 1. 26), for which 
the Targum of Jonathan also has XDpDiSj, the Greek word in Hebrew 
characters; (2) the ark of the covenant (Exod. xxxvii. i ; i Sam. v. i); 
(3) whether also for Noah's ark, is not known ; but from this translator's 
well-known habit of using the same Greek word for the same Hebrew 
in all cases, is very probable. But the most apposite example for our 
purpose is 2 Chron. xxiv. 8 : ' And at the king's commandment they 
made a chest (in 2 Kings xii. 9 it is added that they bored a hole in the 
lid of it).. .and the people cast (eve^aXov) into the chest.' Here the LXX. 
also have translated fnX by yXcoacroKopov, though their usual rendering is 
Ki^coTos. The ancient versions in the two places of St John take the same 
view. Thus the Vulgate has loculi, a box, not a bag, as is shown by the 
plural form, indicating several partitions ; Nonnus (on xiii. 29) dovpuTerjv 
Xn^ov, lignea7n arculam; the Peschito |V)omo\ .. which is again 

the Greek word in Syriac characters. [In Dr Payne Smith's Thesaurus 
the Syriac word is Latinized by marsuptuiii, a purse or bag, but all 
his examples are of coffins, reliquaries, or other chests!\ Judas therefore 
'kept the BOX'; and 'carried' (.?) or 'pilfered' (?) what was cast therein 
(*cai TO ^dXXopeva e/Saorafe). In favour of 'bare' (A. V.) or 'carried' 
(R. V. marg.) may be quoted St Chrysostom, not ad loc., but in another 
part of his works (T. ill. p. 257 a): 'Although he (Christ) had made so many 
' [Periplus Maris Eryihraei, ch. vii, £d. Borheck (1809). Ed.] 
K. 7 



98 ST JOHN. XII. 7 

loaves, and was able to produce ever so many treasures by speaking the 
word, he did not do so, but ordered his disciples to have a box, and to 
carry those things wJiich were cast therein^ and to assist the poor there- 
from.' On the other hand, the sense of auferre^ to caryy off, take moay, 
is undoubted; and the only question is, whether it is properly used of a 
secret removal, stealing or purloining, as is required in this place. The 
most apt example of this use is Diog. Laert. iv. 59 (not noticed by Alford, 
and imperfectly quoted by Kuinoel and others). ' Lacydes,' he says, 
'whenever he took any thing out of his storeroom, was accustomed, after 
having sealed it up again, to throw the ring (seal) inside through the 
hole, so that it might never be taken off his finger, and any of the stores 
be stolen (kuI ti jBaaraxOflr] (hence, perhaps, the gloss of Suidas : Bnorn- 
X0f^f]j apdeiT}, KXaTTfir]) tuiv aTTOKft/j.fVcoi').' Here the quotation, as usually 
given, ends; but what follows is still more pertinent. 'When, therefore, 
the servants found this out, they used to take off the seal, and steal 
whatever they pleased {fxadovra 5« ravra rh depmvovTia nTr((r(f)f)ayi^f, Kal (ma 
f^ovXero 'EBA2TAZEN).' 

XII. 7 : a<J)es avTi]V' els ttjv i]|xepav tov €VTa(j)iao-|Jiov \iov t€tt]PT]k«v avTo] 
The reformed text, a(fifs avTfjv 'iva fh — TTjprja-r] avro, which is supported by 
all the uncials (except A) and the Vulgate, is rendered by R. V. in text : 
'Suffer her to keep it against the day of my burying'; and in margin: 
' Let her alone : // rc^as that she might keep it,' &c. The latter is 
preferable, in so far as it preserves the invariable use of acj)fs avri^v, 
as a prohibition of interference; e.g. Matt. xv. 14. Mark xiv. 6 (a(f){Tf 
avT7]v Ti avrf) kottovs napexfTe;). 2 Kings xvi. II. 4 Kings iv. 27; but then 
the remaining clause can only be rendered, ' that she may keep it,' or, 
perhaps (comparing Eph. v. 33: ?; 8e ywrj Iva (po^^Tai rov av8pa) 'let her 
keep it.' But however we may understand this reading, it is impossible 
to get over the palpable absurdity of our Lord's desiring to be kept for 
the occasion of his burial, that which had already been poured out upon 
his living person. The correction (supposing TertjprjKfv to be the original 
reading) may easily have been made by some critic-scribe, who did not 
understand how that day could be said to be the day of his (VTa(f)La(Tnos 
{pollinctura, laying out, not burying); or who failed to see how the 
ointment could have been kept already, as it might more naturally be 
supposed to have been just purchased. The conjecture that the ointment 
may have been reserved from that used at the 'burying' of Lazarus, so 
far from being 'fanciful' (Dean Alford) offers an excellent example of 
'undesigned coincidences'; since wc should never have perceived the 
propriety of the r^hvvaro rrpad^vai of the first two (Gospels, if St John had 
not helped us out with his TfTTjprjKfv. 

XII. 20: r\a-o.v Zi tiv«s " EXXrives €k tmv dvaPaivovTojv] A. V. 'And there 
were certain Greeks among them that came up.' This would be the 



XIII. 24 ST JOHN. 99 

rendering of eV rols ava^aivovaiv, and would include <?// worshippers, both 
Jews and Greeks. The meaning is 'of the number of those (Greeks)' &c. 

*XII. 40: A. V. 'He hath bhnded (rerv^XwKei') their eyes, and 
hardened (iTcn-odpcoKev) their heart.' In the second clause, the uncials, 
with the exception of B^, read eTrdpacrev. The preterite of this verb 
may, perhaps, have fallen into disuse, but to insist on forcing upon the 
English reader such an offensive solecism as, 'He hath blinded their eyes, 
and he hardened their heart,' especially after so many revisions, English 
and American, as the R. V. is said to have undergone, is a degree of 
perversity almost surpassing belief. Certainly, the present is not one of 
those cases ' where the combination of the aorist and the perfect shews, 
beyond all reasonable doubt, that different relations of time were intended 
to be expressed' (Revisers' Preface). 

* ibid. : o-Tpa<|>w<ri] Probably in a middle sense, 'turn,' or 'turn them- 
selves.' Ch. XX. 14, 16: 'she turned herself.' Matt. vii. 6: kcli arpaipevrts 
prj^axTiv vpas, 'and turn and rend you.' Job xli. 16 (Hebr. 25): a-rpacfiiVTos 
8e avTov (Leviathan), (po^os Brjpiois TerpaTrna-iv. Prov. xii. 7 : ov eav (TTpa(pTJ 
o aae^rji a({)avi^eTat. 

*XIII. 2 : Kttl SeCirvov •y€vo|j.€'vov] 'and supper being ended.' Another 
reading is yivopivovy which is followed by R. V. 'and during supper.' But 
as there has been no previous mention of a supper, we seem to want an 
announcement of the fact, like that in Ch. xii. 2 : ' There they made him 
a supper'; for which purpose the aorist is more suitable than the present, 
KOLi eyiviTo belTTvov, ' and a supper was holden.' We would therefore 
render, 'And a supper being holden, Jesus. ..riseth from the supper (eV 
Toi) SeiTTi'ov). 

XIII. 24: vivi\. ovv TOuTw 2£|Aa)v IleTpos] 'Simon Peter therefore 
beckoneth to him.' Thus far all the MSS. Then for the T. R. nvdeudai 
rls av (irj nepl ov Xeyei, which is supported by AD and both Syriac 
versions, modern critics have adopted that of BCLX and Vulg. Ka\ 
Xeyei avra • eiVe tls tariv nepl ov Xtyei, ' and saith unto him, Tell i(s 
who it is of whom he speaketh.' On which Dean Alford comments : 
'Peter supposes that John would know without asking; but he did not, 
and asks.' In favour of the old reading it may be observed, (i) that 
vfvei occurs twice only in the N. T., here and Acts xxiv. 10, and in both 
places is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood ; (2) that eirvOfro nap' 
avToii is used by St John, Ch. iv. 52; (3) that this reading must be older 
than N, because that MS. has a double reading; first, the received one 
(only with TKfyev for X/yei) and then the one proposed to be substituted 
for it. With regard to this latter (not to insist upon the absurdity of 
Peter asking John for the explanation of an announcement which was 
made to all in common) we may remark that it is inconsistent with itself, 



lOO ST JOHN. XIV. 4 

as makiiii^ signs and speaking- never go together, but are always opposed 
to each other, vfveiv being equivalent to 7intu tacite signijicare, as in 
Luke i. 62 : (vevevov Se rw narpl avTov to ti av deXoi KaXe'iadai avTo. From 
a number of examples which I had collected for this purpose, I select the 
following. Alciphr. Jl/>. Fragm. 5 : kcii m Ka)(f)o\ biavevovaiv oXXrfXots 
TO (Kfivijs (AaiSoy) kAWos. Stob. F/flf. T. XXXVI. 27: ipiarinov avhpus 
(pcoraivTOS avTov, (I 1] dptr!] co0eXi/:ioy, nvtvevcrfv (he shook his head), ov 
^nvKofifvos Trapaaxfiv ovtS sk tjjs aTroKpLcrtuis a(f)opfx^v ds fpiv. Pint. 
Vif. Mil): XLIII : ovtoi ttoWovs p.iv ano (pcovfji, noWovs S' arro vevp-aros 
dvjjpovv, TTpocTTacra-ovros avrov. So the Latin inm/o, as Auctor ad Herenn. 

IV. 26 : ' Quod si iste suos hospites rogassef, immo iiinuisset modo.' We 
conclude, therefore, that the shorter is the genuine text, and that it was 
tampered with by some one who found a difficulty in Peter's being able 
to indicate by beckoning alone the particular service which he wished 
John to perform. 

* If we apply the ordinary criteria^ or critical canons, to the passage 
before us, the rule, ' Brevior lectio praeferenda est verbosiori,' is con- 
fessedly in favour of the T. R. On the other hand the advocates for 
the Vatican text might argue that their reading is the more difficult of 
the two, and therefore, according to another well-known, but much-abused 
canon, the more likely to have invited a copyist to exercise his ' critical 
acumen' upon it. But supposing such an one to have found in his copy, 
Kai Xe'-yet qiJtw- etTre Tt'y eVrii/ Trept ov Xe'yei, and to have been justly offended 
by John's being required to tell what he had no means of knowing, would 
he not have had recourse to the simplest of all corrections, by substituting 
epcoTTjaov for eiVe? Again, if our critical friend had come across the 
reading vfvfi ovv tovtco 2. n. irvBiaOai k.t.L, might he not have found a 
difficulty in Peter's being able to indicate by beckoning alone the 
particular service which he wished John to perform ; and so, to make 
all perfectly plain, have remodelled the text according to his own idea, 
though he would have done better if he had merely inserted km \tyfi 
avra before nvdfcrdai ? 

* ibid. : vsvei] Signs are easily translated into words. Thus Aelian 

V. H. XIV. 22 : (A tyrant forbidding his subjects to speak to each other) 
e(To(f>i(TavTo Tn tov rvpavvov irpocrTayfia, Koi aWrjXois fvevov, k(h t^eipovopiovv 
npos dWijXovs. Ach. Tat. V. 18: ((TTi(Ofj,(V(o ^e p.01 fKTa^ii (rrjfiaivei vfvrras 
o ^.arvpos TrpoavicrTaa-dai. Aristaen. Fp. I. 22 : 77 8e p-aarponoi, Xadpnicot 
p,€i8i(oaa, difVfvaf Trj rXvKe'pa- ('8i]\ov 8( irais to vtiipn- E-yw aoi povrj tov 
VTrepri(f)avoi' vrrtTa^a toIs noa-lv. 

*XIV. 4- *(oX birov €"y" uird-yu ol!8aT€, Kal Tr\v 68ov ol'Saxc] .So T. R., for 
which the Revisers prefer the shorter reading, kui 6nov e'yw vTrdyco o'i8aTf 
TTjv o86v, 'and whither I go ye know the way.' Since Thomas in his 
reply distinguishes, in the clearest manner, between the place ivhithe7\ 
and the way by which his Lord was going, a plain reader would naturally 



XIV. r6 ST JOHN. lOI 

expect to find the same distinction in the saying which drew forth this 
reply, as it is actually found according to the T. R. ' But,' say the ' Two 
Members of the N. T. Company,' (p. 6i) 'a careful consideration of the 
clause and of the context leads us at once to surmise that we may here 
recognize the enfeebling hand of some early interpolator, who broke up 
the vigorous sentence, kui onov e'yw vnciyai o'ldare rrjv oScJi', into two clauses, 
answering to the two clauses in the ensuing question of the Apostle.' Is 
it not a more probable 'surmise,' that the clause Ka\ rrjv 68op o'idare was 
omitted on account of the ofiOiorfXevTov? and that then (since the Apostle's 
question seemed rather to turn upon the Tuaj/ than the end) the 'rough 
and ready' remedy was applied of tacking on rrjv 68bu to the end of 
the mutilated clause ? Without describing the result as ' really almost 
nonsense' {Q. A'. No. 304, p. 348) we may fairly ask why the sentence 
thus tinkered should be characterized as 'vigorous,' and the T. R. 
denounced as 'feeble'; unless those terms are to be taken as synony- 
mous with ' ungrammatical" and 'grammatical.' So at least we shall 
continue to call them, until an example shall turn up of the hitherto 
unheard-of construction, tt/p ob6i> onov vnayo), for ttjv 6dov fju (or Hcllenistice 
iv f/) vnayo). 

*XIV. 12: 'And greater works (R. V. -worlds) than these shall he do.' 
Since it is not expressly said that the Apostles should perform greatei-, 
i.e. more wonderful, miracles than Christ, it would be better, perhaps, to 
render fxfi^opa rovnov 'greater things than these,' comparing the results 
of the respective ministries of the two parties, rather than the modus 
operatidi. 

*XIV. 16: epwTTJo-w Tov iraT€ptt] xvii. 9 : eyco Trepi aurwi/ epcoroj. 'There 
are two words in the Greek, which in our A. V. are both translated by the 
word "pray" or "prayer." The one of them (alrdv) represents the prayer 
of an inferior to a superior, as, for instance, the prayer of the beggar who 
asked alms of them that entered into the temple (Acts iii. 2). Or, again, 
the prayer of a child to its father (Matt. vii. 9). The other {ipmrau) 
expresses a request made by a person on a level with us, and not by an 
inferior, as, for example, where it is said (Luke xiv. 32) that one king 
sends an ambassador to another king, and '■'■requests that he would make 
conditions of peace {epcora to. irphi flprjvrjv).^' Now it is very noticeable 
that our Blessed Lord, in speaking of liis own prayers, never uses the 
former word, but always the latter.' Whence the writer from whom 1 
quote draws the inference, that the prayers in question were no prayers 
of a creature, or of one dependent upon God, but of ' the man that is my 
fellow, saith the Lord of Hosts.' — The instances chosen by this writer are 
unfortunate, since in the place from the Acts, rov alrelp fXerifxoavvrjv in v. 2 
is immediately followed in ?/. 3 by rjpcora fXfrjfioavvrjv XajSelv. and the king 
who sends the embassy by the very act of ''asking {sic R. V.) conditions 



102 ST JOHN. XIV. i6 

of peace' acknowledges that he is not the equal of the rival potentate, but 
his inferior. But, in fact, the distinction sought to be imposed upon the 
unlearned reader is perfectly groundless. Every tiro knows that in good 
Greek aireii/ is to make a request, and fpajrav to make an enquiry ; but 
that Hellenistic writers, and St John in particular, frequently use the 
latter word in a sense not distinguishable from the former. The writer's 
mistake would not have been worth noticing, if he had not attempted to 
prop up a most true and irrefragable doctrine by a shaky pseudo-philo- 
logical argument. 

*X1V. i6: irapciKXiiTov] A. V. 'Comforter.' R. V. 'Comforter, or, 
Advocate, or. Helper.'' The primary meaning of irapaKokfiv is, undoubtedly, 
arcessere, advocare, to call or send for a person, in which sense it is used 
in the best Greek authors (as Plat. Lack. 3 : irapaKoKdv riva avfi^ovXov, to 
call some one in as an adviser), and in Acts xxviii. 20 (A. V.) ' For this 
cause therefore have I called for you.' Hence comes TrapaKkrjros, 'one 
sent, or called, for,' a noun passive in form, but active in sense, according 
to the particular service which he is called in to perform. 

According to our use of the term, the office of an Advocate is well 
understood, and harmonizes perfectly with i John ii. i : ' If any man sin, 
we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous,' who 
has the best right to plead our cause, as being himself ' the propitiation 
for our sins.' The Latin advocatus is somewhat different, as we learn 
from Asconius ad Cic. in Q. CaeciL, who says : ' Qui defendit alterum in 
judicio, aut patroniis dicitur, si orator est; aut advocatus, si aut jus 
suggerit, aut praesentiam suam commodat amico.' But the Rabbinical 
writers make use of their i<tp''^p"!Q precisely in the same way as St John 
in his Epistle, and as the Latin patronus, which they also adopt (piDS)- 
In classical Greek TrapaKXr^ros, as a judicial term, is not an 'advocate' in 
our sense of the word, but a friend of the accused person, called to speak 
to his character, or otherwise enlist the sympathy of the judges (or, as we 
should call them, the jury) in his favour ; in the words of Asconius, ' qui 
praesentiam suam commodat amico.' Even in this sense it is of very 
rare occurrence, as Dem. de F. L. init. (p. 341, 10), where it is used i7i 
inalaJil partem : ivBvfiovixivov^ on rnvTa fiev (n* SiKaiou Koi 6 upKoi) iariv 
virep vyioov Ka\ oXrjs ttjs TToXecos, ai Se twu TrapaKXrjrcov (piirtizans ?) avTdi 
de^tTfis fat anovbal raw i8i<oi> irXf ovf^iMv eufKa yiyvovrai. Nearly similar 
is Diog. Laert. Vit. Dionis iv. 50; where to a prating follow who besought 
his aid, the answer of the philosopher is : -va iKavov aoi noirjtra), tav napoKXi]- 
Tovs (a deputation) Trffi-^rjs, *cai p-rj avros eX6;is. Wo will give one more 
instance of a different kind from Philo de Opif. M. § 6 (quoted Ijy 
Loesner) : oi^SecI 8e Trapcj/cXr/ro) — ris yap fjv erepos; — piwai fie eavrui xprjaa- 
pevos (> 6e6s, i'yva tflv tvepyerdu-.-Tf/v f^ fuvrrji €niXa)(f'iv oufifi/oy ayadov 
8vvapiur]v {(f)v(Tiv). Hcrc the office intended is that of a inonitor or 
ad^'iscr (recalling the Apostle's ti'v -yu/j eyfco vwv Kvpiov, >/ ris iTvpfiuvXoi 



XVI. 23 ST JOHN. 103 

avToi) eyeVero;) but Still preserving the leading idea of a/m'cus advocatus 
in consiliion. 

On the whole, the arguments in favour of 'another Advocate' are 
briefly these: (i) 'Another,' i.e. besides Myself. (2) The word is only 
known from St John's writings, here and i John ii. i, where 'advocate' 
is, by general consent, ' the right word in the right place.' (3) Etymo- 
logically, 'advocate' and TTapaKKr\TOi are identical. (4) This is the only 
rendering which accounts for the passive form. 

If 'Comforter' were retained on the ground of prescription and long 
familiarity (a feeling which deserves the greatest respect i), I would still 
consider it as a derivative from TrapaKoXelv, ' to send for,' not from napaKa- 
Xelv, 'to comfort.' We send for a confidential friend on various occasions ; 
and according to the particular service which we require from him, he is 
our Counsellor in difficulties, our Advocate in danger, or our Comforter 
in distress. But the apparent countenance given to the old favourite by 
the mis-translation of 6p(j)avoiis in 7/. 18 must certainly be given up. 

*XV. I, 2: 6 •y€«p-y6s..-Ka9aip€i avTo] A good parallel is Philo De 
Soinn. T. ill. p. 280: tois hivhpifriv enL(pvouTai (BXaarai nepiaa-ai, p,eyaXat 
roiv yvrjcrioiv XwjSai, as KA9AIP0Y2I /cai anoTep-Povcn npovoia ratv avayKaiav 01 
TEfiPrOYNTES. 

*XV. 5: \bip\s €(xov] A. V. 'without me.' R. V. 'apart from me.' 
An unnecessary refinement, here and elsewhere (especially James ii. 26: 
'faith apart from works'). "Kvev and x'^P'-^ ^.re interchangeable; as Dion. 
Hal. Ant. VIII. 22 : edeof avev TrapayyiXp-aTos . . .i(^epovTO X'^P'-^ rjyepovos. 

* XVI. 16: 'And again a little while.' To prevent the misconception 
of two 'little whiles,' one succeeding the other, I would point: 'And 
again, a little while,' with a marginal reference to i John ii. 8 : 'Again, a 
new commandment' &c. (he had just before said: 'I write no new 
commandment'). So here, 'again,' introduces an apparent contradiction 
of what he had just said. Theophylact ad loc. : 810 kuI boKovcnv ivavria 
Tiva avTois (avroli) top 'irjcrovv (f>0fyyea6ai. Compare Hom. //. IX. 56 : ov8e 
nciXiv epeei, and such compounds as naXivadia, TraXi/x^oXt'a &c. 

* XVI. 23 : ' Or, as/c mc no question.^ R. V. marg. This seems to be 
precluded by the position of the pronoun, e/xe ovk fpa>Ti](TeT€ ov8ev (dXX' 
dpKf(T(i vpiu TO opofid p,ov fls TO napa Toi) noTpos Xo/Seii' to. alr-qpaTa, Theo- 
phylact). Grotius : ' Nihil hoc vos turbet quod me praesentem implorare 
non poteritis: ipsum Patrem precibus adite.' 



^ Dr P. Schaff {Companion to the Revisers retained the dear old word 
Greek Testament, p. 446) says on this (Comforter).' 
text : ' After long deliberation the 



I04 ST JOHN. XVI. 27 

*XV1. 27: avris Yap 6 -TraTTjp 4>iX€i Vo'S] ' ^or the Father himself 
loveth you.' Avtos is here equivalent to avrofiaros, ultra, me non com- 
inendante. An elegant Greek use of the pronoun, traceable to Homer 
(//. VIII. 293): Ti fxe anfv8ovTa Ka\ avTov | orpvuds; Compare also Soph. 
Oed. T. 341 : ^$fi yap avTa, Kav iya cnyr) artyco. Callim. //. Apoll. 6: avToi 
v\iv Karo;)(^6j, avaKKlvitrQe., where Schol. auro/xarot. 

* XVI. 32: ^Kao-Tos €ls TO, tSia] 'every man to his own,' and in margin: 
' Or, his own home' The latter should have been adopted by R. V. See 
on Ch. i. II. Luke ii. 49; and add to examples Appian. vi. 23: dne\vf 
Tovs alxfiaXcoTovs (Is to. I'Stn. We are glad, however, to see the Revisers 
departing, for once, from their 'hard and fast' rule of altering 'every' into 
'each,' when il stands for eKaaros ; e.g. James i. 14: 'But each man is 
tempted' &c. 

*XVII. 3: Tov p.6vov dXTjOivov Oeov] Compare Joseph. An/, viil. 13, 6: 
Oi S' 'icTparjXiTai tovto t'Soires (l Kings xviii. 39) (irea-ov eVi rfju yrjv, /cat 
TrpocreKvvovv eVa deov koi p-iyicrrov, Ka\ oKrfOfj p.6vov cmoKoKovvrfs, tovs S 
aXkovs 6v()p,aTa k.t.L Id. X. II, 7 : iiraivcov Tov 6(ov ov AavifjXos (Dan. vi. 26) 
TrpoafKvvfi, Koi p.6vov avTov Xeyav eivai oXtjOI], Kn\ tu nav Kparos f\ovTa. 
Athen. vi. p. 253 c (describing the abject flattery of the Athenians in 
their reception of Demetrius) : opxovp.evoi koi enaBovres, ms e'ir] povos dios 
akrjQivos, 01 8' aWoi Ka6ev8ov(ni', rj dTTo8rjpov(ri,v, f] ovk ilcTiv. The last 
quotation will be sure to remind the reader of the taunt (pvKTrjpiapos) 
of Elijah addressed to the prophets of Baal, i Kings xviii. 27. 

*XVII. 11: Ti]pTj(rov avTovs €V Tui 6v6|JiaTi crov, oOs Se'StoKtis [loi, iva 
wo-iv 'iv] So the T. R. which, however, is very feebly supported, the 
better class of uncials reading J for ovs, which can only be construed 
by taking ovofiaTi for the antecedent, 'thy name which thou hast given 
me.' So Erasmus, from the Greek of Euthymius, ' Serva eos per nomen 
tuum omnipotens, quod et ego natura habeo; nam et ego Deus sum.' 
A few uncials (D, U, X), and perhaps the Syriac versions, read o for w, 
which may signify precisely the same, but also admits of a construction 
by which the somewhat startling novelty of the Father having given his 
name to the Son may be avoided. Every reader of this Chapter must 
have noticed the peculiar way in which the neuter singular o is put for the 
masculine plural uvs, especially in this very phrase o edoiKas poi. Thus 
7'. 2 : iVa nap o didaxds poi, Scotr// avTols C'^rju aldviov. ?'7'. II, 12 (corrected 
into ovs), T'. 24 : Trdnp o SeSw/cds /not, ^eXco iva, orrov flpi e'yw, KUKtlvoi wai 
per tpov. This last example is so curiously matched with 7'. 11, even to 
the correction of ovy for o, which has found its way into the T. R., that 
we have no hesitation in rejecting the connection ev tw ovopaTi crov o 
bibtixas pot, and even pointing o bibuxas poi Iva coaiv ev, though this last 
is not absolutely necessary. 



XVIII. 22 ST JOHN. 105 

*XVII. 17, 19: aYiao-ov avTovs...a'yidtw efiavTov] 'Consecrate' seems 
preferable to 'sanctify' on account of ayia^o) iixavrov, morti me devoveo. 
There is a double meaning in this word, according as it is applied to 
Christ or to the disciples. In Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 10 (p. 686 ed. Potter): 
uTTopov (US dXrjdcos Oiifia, vios 6eov vjrep i^fiatv dyia^onevos, I would not read 
(T(f>ayinC6fj.fvoi with Bishop Kaye, p. 348. 

XVII I. 22: 'iiuKi pdTrio-(jia Tw 'Itio-ou] A. V. 'Struck Jesus with the palm 
of his hand.' R. V. 'Struck Jesus with his hand^' Both in marg. 'Or, 
■wi'/k a rod.^ The meaning of pdTri(Tp.a in the Greek Testament (here and 
Ch. xix. 3. Mark xiv. 65) ought not to be left any longer in doubt. 
Phrynichus says: ^'Pamo-na is not in use [by Attic writers]. If you 
would indicate a blow on the cheek with the open hiuid {rriv yuddov 
TrXareia t^ x^'P' TrX^^at) say, eVt Kopprjs nard^ai, which is the Attic usage-.' 
This shows clearly how the word was used in his time ; and to this 
agrees the scriptural usage both of the Old and New Testaments. Thus 
Isai. 1. 6 : ' I gave my back ds fidariyas, and my cheek els paTria-para.^ 
Hos. xi. 4 : cos pani^cov avdpaynos eVt ras criayovas avrov. Matt. V. 39 : 
ooTts (Tf panicra en\ Trjv 8e^idv aov (Tiayova. xxvi. 67 : /cat fKo\d(fii(Tav 
(ypitgnis caederunt) avrov, 01 8e ippdiTKrav ; (which last should be com- 
pared with the celebrated passage in Demosth. c. Mid. p. 537, 27 : drav 
(OS v^pi^cov, orav cos e'x^Po^ VTrapxc^v, orau koi>8vXols, orav eVi Koppijs). In 
I (3) Kings xxii. 24, where the LXX. have Kal endra^e (Zedekias) tuu 
Mixaiav eVl ttjv aiayupa, Josephus {Ant. VIII. 15, 4) puts these words into 
the mouth of Zedekias before striking him: 'If he be a true prophet, 
evdvs paiTiadus vn tp-oii /3Xa\//-arco pov ttju x^'^P^y ^^ Jeroboam's hand was 
dried up, when he put it forth against the man of God that came out of 
Judah.' — When paTri^eiv had acquired this meaning instead of the older 
one of pal38iCeiv, to strike with a rod, it is highly improbable that it would 
continue to be used in that older sense; of which I doubt if any clear 
instance can be found later than Herodotus. Schleusner, indeed, refers 
(for this sense) to Diog. Laert. IX. i, and Plut. Vit. Themist. xi, both 
moderns ; but the latter is an anecdote quoted from Herodotus, and the 
former a saying of Heraclitus, who flourished Olymp. LXix. Another 
instance quoted is Diog. Laert. viil. 36 : -navaai, pij8e pdmCf (said of 
beating a dog) ; but this is from the elegiacs of Xenophanes, another 
old writer. Lastly, a fragment of Anacreon, pepama-pfva vcara, is quoted 
by the Scholiast on Hom. Od. ^. 59^ So that in this sense pmri^fip 

' [Cf. Nonnus : ToXp-rjpri 7ra\d/x]7 iraiovaiv eiri rrjs KopprjS Kal pavl^'ovaii' ; 

fixf^er/i/ eTrdra^e Trapeirji'.] rj to /xev ravrrju paTri^eaOai....] 

- [Cf. Aristaen. E/>. i. 4: Kal t7]v '■' [Cf. Anacreon vir. 2, e Brunckiana 

de^Lav eVireti'as olos rjv (Trippairi^eiv lectione : 'TaKivdivq} pe pci/SSy x«Xe7r(5s 

pe TTJs Kopprjs. Phit. ii. p. 267 D : plav ^pws paTrtj'wi'.] 
Of povqv [bovXriv) al ywaiKes eicrdyovaai, 



Io6 ST JOHN. XVIII. 28 

would appear to be an archaic form of /ja/^SiXf"') connected with the 
Homeric xpi"^''PP«?''iy, an epithet of Hermes^ 

XVIII. 28: diro Tov Kaid<f)a] 'from Caiaphas.' Rather, 'from the 
house of Caiaphas.' So Mark v. 35: a-ao tov dp)(iavvayMyov, 'from the 
ruler of the synagogue's hoiisei' Acts xvi. 40 : ih Tr]v \v8iav, ' into 
the house of Lydia-.' 

XIX. 12: dvTtX€Y€t Tw Kaio-api] 'speaketh against Caesar.' The 
meaning is rather, ' setteth himself against Caesar,' ' resisteth his 
authority.' Euthymius : di/rtXe'yft, T\roi dfTalpei, from which latter comes 
dvrapTTjs a rebel; and the 7-ebellio7i of Korah is called his dj/nXoyi'a, 
Jude II. To 'speak against Caesar' would probably be expressed by 
^XaacfiTjixflv or KaKoKoydv^. [I now see that the Revisers have given a 
place to this suggestion in their margin : ' Or, opposeth Caesar:'] 

XIX. 24: \dx«>^€v Trept airov] 'let us cast lots for it.' An improper 
use of the word Xayx^dveiv, which in good Greek is always /o obtain so»ie- 
thitig by lot. No other example of this use is known. Schleusner's 
(Thucyd. ill. 50- rpiaKoaiovs fieu {kXi]povs) toIs dfois lepovs i^elXov, eVl 8e 
Toiis aXXovs a({>a>v avTcov KXrjpov)(ovs tovs Xa)(6vTas aiTiTTepi^\fav) and Dean 
Alford's (Diod. Sic. IV. 63 : eTreira irpos dXXrfXovs ofioXoyias edevro diaKXr)- 
paxraaOai- koi tov pev Xa^^oira yrjpai Trjv 'EXeVr/f K.T.e.) are both false. 

*XIX. 29: vo-o-MTTU) irepiOevres] Without entering into the disputes of 
naturalists as to the particular plant denoted by this word, we may 
remark both in the scriptural allusions to it, and in the indigenous plants 
which have been identified with it, a singular inaptness to the use to 
which it is here applied. As to the first, we read of a ' bunch of hyssop,' 
and of its 'springing out of the wall,' features which sufficiently indicate 
its habit of growth. Of the plants which have been proposed as its 
modern representatives (as different species of ;/iiut, marjoram, and the 
like, and, by the most recent biblical naturalists, the caper-plant) nearly 
all are of creeping, or climbing habits, agreeing well enough with the 
properties of the Hebrew 3iTN (lxx. uo-o-cottos) but not with the use 
assigned to it in this text, corresponding to that of the 'reed' in the 
description of the other Evangelists. The caper-plant in particular, we are 
told (Tristram, A". H. of tJie Bible, cd. 1868, p. 458), ' is always pendent on 

' I have since found in Anton. Lib. K\iov% yap ^pxopai. App. B. C. II. 1 25: 

XXlli: UppTJs 5^ ...ippcLTrLfffv avrbv rrj ra.xpVI^'^''''''-'^ov\s.al<xaposeisTbvA.VTdiivLov 

pdjidu), nal peri^ioKev eh irirpov ; but it ptTeKopi^tro (ul)i male eiiebatur eis tov 

may be taken from an older author (as ' Xvrijjvlov) .\ 

llesiod, whose work 'lioiai peydXai is •' [Or Ka/ciis dyopeveif, Liban. I. 

mentioned in the title of the chapter). 526 : /ca/cws dyopeijeiu Toi/i deoij^.] 

^ [Cf. Arisloph. P/ii/. 84) e\- Uarpo- 



XIX. 29 ST JOHN. 107 

the rocks, or trailing on the ground.' It does not appear on what authority 
this plant is said to be 'capable of producing a stick three or four feet in 
length ' (Smith's Diet, of the Bible) ; certainly Pliny's description of it, as 
Jirmioris ligni frutex\ does not warrant the assertion. But the question 
is not whether one might cut such a stick from a particular specimen of 
the capparis, but whether sticks were commonly so cut, so that on an 
occasion like the present, when one was wanted for a particular purpose, 
the first which came to hand would be one of this kmd. It adds to the 
improbability, that the narrator should have thought it necessary to 
specify the name of the shrub which furnished the stick, and also that 
he should have written vo-o-wtto) for i5cra-a)7rou KXdSo), which is the ordinary 
usage (eV ^vpTov Kkab\ TO ^icpos (fiopija-oo). Pressed by these difiiculties, 
some expositors have supposed that the ' hyssop ' was a bunch of the 
plant so called, fastened to the end of a reed (not noticed by St John) on 
which the sponge was placed. But of such a custom there is no trace, 
and the other Evangelists who relate the incident, use the very same 
word TTfpidiis to denote the attaching of the sponge to the reed without 
the intervention of the hyssop. Nothing remains but to call in the 
aid of conjectural emendation^ which, according to one master-critic 
(Scrivener, Introduction, &c. p. 490), ' must never be resorted to, even 
in passages of acknowledged difficulty'; and to another (Dean Burgon, 
Refusion Revised, p. 354) 'can be allowed no place whatever in the 
textual criticism of the N. T.' Would it not be better — instead of 
laying under an interdict an entire branch of verbal criticism, and that 
one which, in settling the text of the Greek and Roman classics, is justly 
held to be the crown and glory of the art — to treat each case separately 
on its merits, especially in regard to these two points : (i) Is some change 
or other a matter of absolute necessity? and (2) Is the proposed change 
so easy, so ingenious, so redolent of the true critical faculty, that any 
editor of a Greek or Roman classic, who understood his craft, would 
accept it as a matter of course.-^ A very small, in fact an infinitesimal, 
proportion of N. T. emendations will be found to satisfy these two 
conditions ; but of the few, perhaps the very best is one of Joachim 
Camerarius on this very place. For uo-crwTra) nepidevTfs, a perfectly 
unintelligible reading, write in uncial characters Y22Qm2riEPieENTE2, 
expunging, as we have done, the two letters Qli, repeated by a napopafia 
ypatpLKov from those immediately preceding ; and the thing is done. The 
text becomes as clear as day : ^woyyov ovu p.e<TTov rov o^ovs vaaa nepiOevres 
TTpoarjpfyKciv avTov Ta> aropuTi. The vaaos was the Greek equivalent for 
the Roman piliini, which is thus described by Dion. Hal. Ant. v. 46: 
X)craoi....^vKa ivpopr]Kr\ kcli \fipoTrXT]dri, rpKov ovx fjTTOV nodoov, (Tidrjpovs ojSeXca- 
Kovs i'xopTu -rrpovxovTas. Of these the Roman soldier carried two, and a 
Xoyxn besides ; so that when an instrument was required for the purpose 
of raising the sponge to the lips of the Saviour, no readier or more con- 
venient one could be found. It may be added that the difterence is of 



108 ST JOHN. XIX. 34 

the slightest between St John's va-cros and the KaKufj.o!; of the other 
Evangelists, who were not eye-witnesses as he was. And, histly, this 
most ingenious conjecture has stood the test of ii'/ne, has been approved 
by Sylburgius, Theod. Beza, Boisius, and other critics down to the 
present day, when it has been revived, re-stamped and re-issued by 
C. G. Cobet in his Collect. Crit. p. 586, who says of it : ' Ex densa 
caligine claram lucem fecit admirabilis Camerarii emendatio v<j(T(a 
nepidiVTfs. Nesciebant scribae veteres quid esset vacra. Itaque notum 
sibi vocabuhmi va-aanra substituerunt, quod abhorret prorsus a sententia.' 

XIX. 34: avTov Ti]v irXeupdv 'ivv^i] All versions: 'pierced his side,' 
for which I should prefer ' pricked his side,' to keep up the distinction 
between ew^e (the milder word) and e^tKevrrja-f {t. 2)7)- All the ancient 
versions vary the word, though Vulg. and Philoxenian Syriac seem to 
have had a different reading {rjvoi^e). Loesner iJDbservationes ad N. T. 
e Philone, p. 161) suggests that this word was chosen, ut cognosceremus 
non malo consilio {81' vnef>lio\r)v cofj-iW ijroi, as some of the Greek commen- 
tators express it) id fecisse /nilileiii, sed ut exploraj-et an Jesus vere 
mortuus esset. 1 have lately met with a passage in Plut. Vit. Cleoin. 
XXXVII, which greatly favours this idea. Cleomenes and a party of 
thirteen make their escape from prison, and endeavour to raise the town 
and get possession of the citadel ; but failing, resolve to put themselves 
to death, one of the number, Panteus, being ordered by Cleomenes not 
to kill himself till he had made sure that all the others were dead. When 
all are stretched on the ground, Panteus goes round, and makes trial of 
them one by one, touching them with his dagger (r<a ^Kpidlco irapauTofievos). 
When he came to Cleomenes, and pricking him on the ancle (NYSA2 irapa 
TO a(f)vp6v) saw him contract his face, he kissed him; then sat down by 
him, and when he was quite dead, embracing the body, slew himself 
upon it ^ 

*XIX. 42; €K€i ovv — ^0T]Kav Tov 'It)o-ovv] a. V. 'there laid they Jesus 
therefore ' &c. Amongst the ' needless changes ' introduced by the 
Revisers, inversions of the order of the A. V. to correspond with the 
Greek are justly complained of. A few exceptions may be noticed, of 
which this is one; in which the order of the original, 'There then 
because of the Jews' Preparation (for the sepulchre was nigh at hand) 
they laid Jesus,' has been properly restored by R. V. ; 'a cadence suited 

1 [Cf. Ecclus. xxii. 19: 'He that roc jipaxi-ova. rijs KXeoiraTpas ofpOrji'ai 

pricketh (6 viacosv) the eye will make 5i/o vvyp.a.s ^x'^^'^"'- XeTras /cat dpvhptK. 

tears to flow.' On ti^ a.'yKwvi. vvTTeii/ id. ii. p. 255: (pv\aKas eirl tCov wvXuiv 

see Boiss. ad Aristaen. p. jri. Cf. Pint. Ka.Ti(jTi}<T(v, ot rovs eKtpepopifovs fCKpous 

Vit. Aciiiil. XX : pLKpois piv t"7Xf'P'5iots i\vpaivovTOVvTTovTe%^i(pL5loisKalKavT-qr 

ffrepfoin Kal Trodripets Ovpeoiis vvcrjovTes. pia Tr/jocr/idWocres vir^p tou prfd^va rQu 

id. Vit. .hiloii. I.XXXVI : 'ivioL 8^ ual ttoXi.tQi' cbj viKpbv XaOetf iKKopi^optfof.] 



XXT. rS ST JOHN. IO9 

to the sacred calm in which the Evangelist brings the long sad agony to 
its close' (Humphry). 

XXI. 5 : |Ai] Ti xpoo-4>d-yiov ?x"^ '■>] ^- V. ' Have ye any meat?' R. V. 
' Have ye aught to eat.'" Rather, ' Have ye taken any fish^?' "^x^*^^ "> 
is the usual question addressed by a bystander to those who are employed 
in fishing or bird-catching, answering to our ' Have you had any sport?' 
This we learn from the Scholiast on Aristoph. N7(d. 731 (quoted by 
WetStein) : Xapievras ro, e;^f«s ti; ttj tuiv aypevrdiv Xe'^et xpapfvoi- ToTy yap 
akuxxTiv T) opvidaypevrals ovto) (^aaiv "EXEI2 TI; I add Nonnus ad Greg. 
Naz. Stelit. I. p. 138 ed. Montac. : "AvSpes an ^ApKaSirjs aXiriTopes, »} p 
exofjLev Ti; where the Scholiast has: Spa f6ripa(rap.ev tl'' ; 

XXI. 10: u>v iiria.a-a.ri vvv] 'which ye have now caught.' The aorist 
may be retained here by rendering, 'which ye caught just now.' So 
Ch. xi. 8 (R. v.): 'The Jews were but now seeking (viiv eXjjTow) to stone 
thee^.' 

*XXI. 18: €KT€V€is rds x€ipds o"ou, Kal dXXos <r€ X,(a<rii, Kal oi<r£i oirov 
ou 0€\€i.s-] Kuinol and others will not allow that there is here any allusion 
to the crucifixion of St Peter, chiefly on account of the preposterous order 
of the arrangements, otm k.t.L being placed last. But this may be 
accounted for by the circumstance of TrfpieTrarets onnv ^dtXes coming in 
order after f^covwes a-eavToi^; and it is not necessary to adopt Scaliger's 
explanation, that the criminal was led to the place of execution, tied to a 
/urea or patibiilum, before he was nailed to the cross. If St John had 
not furnished his own explanation, tovto hk etVe (rr]ij,aivwv ttoico davara K.r.i., 
the characteristic (Krevfls ras x^'P^s o'oi' would be conclusive as to the 
kind of death intended by the speaker. Wetstein quotes Artem. O^ttr. 
I. 76 : KOKoiipyoi di 03V aTavpadrjaiTai 8ia to v^oi Kal ttjv Toitv x^ipatv eKTaaiv. 
Arrian. Epict. III. 26: t.v iv rai ^aXaveia tKdvadfuvos, Koi eKTflvas creavTov 
(OS ol iaTavpcofievoi, TpijSfj evdev Ka\ evdev. I add Dion. Hal. Atlt. VII. 69: 
01 8' (iyovTis TOP depanovra enl ttjv Tinapiav, tcis xelpas drroTfivovTis dp.(f)OTfpai, 
Kal ^vXco irpocrdTjaavTes napa tci crTepva Te Kal tovs mp,ovs M^'xP' ''"'^'' Kapnaiv 
^irjKovTi, iraprjKokovdovv ^a'lVovTis (lacTTi^i yvfivou nvTa. 

1 [Babr. iv. i : dXtei'S <jayr}V7]u . . . caught his fish he drew up his line.' 

dz'etXer' • 6\(/ov 5' ^rvxe ttoikiXov TrXrjpijs.] Langhorne.] 

" [Cf. Flut. F/L A ti/oji. xxix: (hsdi ^ [Cf. Liban. 11. 291: ^7/5^ rjdio} 

^Xeti' 7rei(r(?ets dj'f£\/ce...7rapd5os'^u?;',^0'/7, vop-l^re toOtwu d vvv 5lt]\6ov. Ubi 

Toi/ KoXa/xov, ' when A. found that he had Cobet tentat d vvv 8r] dirjXdov.] 



I lO 



THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 



Chap. I. V. 4: Kal o-vvaXi?6|i€vos] A. V. and R. V. 'And being as- 
sembled together with them. Or, eating together ivith them.' Neither 
of these versions seems admissible. 

1. ' Being assembled with them' would certainly require (TvvdkmQe'n^. 
Hesychius, indeed, is appealed to, to show that o-vi'aXifo/xci'os is the same 
as avvakKrOd^ :, but his gloss, when fully quoted, stands thus: l.waKi^o- 
fifvos, avvaXicrdfis, avvaxdds, (Twadpnia-ddi ; where the explanation of 
(rvva\i(6^fvos {(Tvva6poi(6fifvos) is either purposely omitted, as unnecessary, 
or has dropped out. Alberti {Glossarium Graecte?n in Sacros N. F. libros, 
p. 61) has: 'SfVvaki^op.fvos, awadfWL^ofjifvoi Kal (rvvdv [potius (tvvicov. So 
Athenaeus (11. 40) joins i]\i(ovTo kui avin'ierrnv] avrols. 

2. ' Eating with them.' This use of the word seems to rest entirely 
on the ancient versions (Vulg. Pesch.) and glossaries, from the latter of 
which it probably found its way into patristic commentaries. It appears 
to have arisen from a fanciful etymology, coupled with what is elsewhere 
said that the Apostles ate and drank with our Lord after his resurrection 
(Ch. X. 41). And of the Fathers it is observable that they always join kuI 
avvaXiCofifvos with the preceding verse, sometimes even inserting it after 
oiTTavoufvos. The ou/y instance quoted of a-vvaXi^fo-dai in this sense is 
from the Hexapla on Psa. cxl. (Heb. cxli.) 4, where for the Hebrew 
Dn/X 7l'\ St Chrysostom ad loc. quotes : "aXXos • /xi) uvvaKiuQui (with a 
various reading o-vi/auXto-^w^). But (besides the uncertainty of the 
reading) it by no means follows that (TwaKurBai may not be used here 
in its legitimate sense of congregari, as the LXX. render the same words 

by Kai 01) \i.r) (Tvvhva<T(i> (or avvhoia(T(3i\ perhaps from the Syriac I>Q.kk_^, 
aptavii, condntiavit ; indeed the construction with h rats rtpnixWrjcnp 
nvTMv seems almost to require this. 

^ [Cf. \a\c. </,■ Luttit -j: fTreibau aw- - [Cf. Habr. F,i/>. CXU 5: ttoXi/s 

a\iaOib<Tt woWoi...] dr)pGiv SfxiKos avv-qvXladr).] 



11.23 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Ill 

The only remaining alternative is to take a-waXi^faOai in its proper 
sense of co)igregari or coiivemre, insisting on the present participle, 'as 
he was assembling with them,' as he was on the way to meet them (some 
of them being in the same company with him) he gave them this charge. 
Then it follows v. 6: 'when they were (all) come together.' If it be 
objected that one person can hardly be said to be 'assembling,' the same 
objection would apply to the common version, 'being assembled with 
them' (compare also Ch. xi. 26: eytVero he avrovs (Paul and Barnabas) 
(Tvva)(drii>ai t'v rrj fKKKrjcria ; and John xviii. 2 : on noWaKis avpijx^l '1'](tovs 
fKfi fiera tcov iiadrjToov avTov) ; although it cannot be denied that Hemster- 
huis's conjecture avvaXi^oiievois would greatly improve the text. 

I. 18: «KTiio-aTo \(opU>v] A. V. 'purchased a field.' R. V. 'obtained 
a field.' There seems no philological reason for the change. Kraa-dai 
(Ch. viii. 20) and 7ra>Xftj' are in common use for biiyitig and selling. So 
Aristoph. Aves 599: yavKov (a ship) Kvafiai, koi vavKXrjpm; and a few lines 
on : 7ra)X<5 yai/Xov, Kraiiai (T^ivvrjv. In Acts xxii. 28 (A. V.): 'With a great 
sum obtained I (eKTrjadfxrjv) this freedom,' a similar correction might be 
made^' 

* I. 21: €lo-fjX0€ Ktti «5tj\0€v €<j)' TifAas] ' Wcut in and out among us. 
'E<^' 77/uas seems to be rather 'over us,' as our head. Compare Luke xii. 14. 
Acts vii. 27: 'Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us {ecf)' i^nas)?' 
Heb. x. 21 : kqI Upia p.iyav iiv\ tov oIkov tov 6fov. Schleusner (under eVl 
in. 12) gives three examples of 'among,' but none of them is to the point 
(e.g. 'fell among thorns,' eVt ras aKavdas). The common resolution of the 
construction into 'went in e'0' ijfias, and went out e^ j;/i<5i/' is objection- 
able, because it would seem to make the Apostles stationary, and their 
Lord going and returning. 

II. 23: tovtov...^k8otov Xap6vT€s] A. V. 'Him being delivered... ye 
have taken.' The last word is wanting in the oldest MSS., Vulg. and 
Pesch. Whoever inserted it has the merit of perceiving that enSorov, 
being an adjective, cannot stand by itself; and his correction is in 
accordance with the usage of the best Greek writers, who invariably join 
€k8otov Xa^elv, dovvai, TrapaBoiiiaL; e.g. Diod. Sic. XVI. 3: "Xa^av nap' 
avrmv fMrovs roiis (f)vyd8as. Dion. Hal. Anl. VII. 53: cos XPV 'fapa- 
Sovvai Tiva i'KboTov eVi Tipa>pia rois ixdpols'. The A. V. improperly 

1 [Cf. I Kings xvi. 24: ' He bought " [Cf. Dem. 633, 28: Kal vvvl tov 

(eKTrjaaro) the hill Samaria... for two diroKreivavTa Xapi8r]p.op,...iai' dfTairoK- 

talents of silver.' Acts viii. 20 : tt)v reifual rives Xa^dvres iKdorov. Id. 635, 

Supeav TOV Oeou dia XPVI^'^''''^^ KTcLaOai. 2 r : (k de tov aov \pr]<pia/j.aTOs 6 ^ov\6- 

R. V. 'to obtain the gift of God with /iei'os d^ei tov dKovTa d-TreKTOvSra, 

money.' A. V. 'may be purchased with ^kSotov Xa^wv. Id. 648, 25: idv pri 

money.'] tov iKirrjv ^kSotov didwaiv.] 



112 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. H. 24 

separates the two words, joining Xa/Swrff with dveiXart. Perhaps St 
Luke originally wrote exSorON yevofievO'S, which is also a good con- 
struction, e.g. Herod. VI. 85 : €k8otou y(v6^(vov vtto t(ov noXiTjTecov. Eurip. 
/on 1251 : €k8otos 8e yiyvo^ai. Symmachus ad Isai. xlvi. i: eyei/fro ra 
elScoXa avTcav ^woty (Kdora. Compare evrpofios yevofifuos (Ch. vii. 32), 
e/x0o/3os yfvofifvos (x. 4), f^vnvoi yevofitvoi: (xvi. 27), a-KCdXtjKolBpcorns y(v6fj.evos 
(xii. 23). 

II. 24: Xvo-os Tois toSivas Tov 0avdTov] ''ilSii/ay Xveiv dicitur 7'e/ ipsa 
puerpera, ut S. Chrys. T. VII. p. 118 B: o/xoC re yap ini^t] t^s BrjdXeen, 
KOI ras w'Stwis eXvae ; vel id quod paritur, ut S. Chrys. T. Vll. p. 375 A: 
fit eyevvr](T(p jj/ias war-qp, ras avras navres fXixrapev cod'ivas ; ve/ qui partui 
adest et opem fert, ut LXX. Job xxxix. 2 : <o8lvas 8e avrSv i'Xvaas. Hinc 
explicandus est locus obscurus Act. Apost. ii. 24.' So I printed 42 years 
ago [1839] in my 'Index Graecus' to St Chrysostom's Homilies on St 
Matthew. The phrase Xva-ai ras dd'tvas is not uncommon (generally in the 
/asi of these cases) in later Greek writers, of which examples are given by 
L. Bos and others'. Although found in the LXX. version of Job, it is 
fwl a Hellenistic phrase, as the Hebrew is simply, ' Or knowest thou the 
time when they bring forth'; and the translator of Job, who was much 
'better seen' in Greek than in Hebrew, rather affected snc\\ flosculi (as 
witness his adaptatio)i of the names of Job's three daughters, Jemimah 
('H/Liepa), Keziah (Kno-i'a), and Keren-happuch (Repay "ApaXdalasl)). The 
meaning of the phrase in this place being certain, and recognized by 
St Chrysostom (especially in his Homilies on i Corinthians (T. x. 
p. 217 E): 816 0r;o-tj/ 6 a7r6(TTo\os' \vaas Tat, wdlvas tov davuTov oii8enia 
yap yvvrj naiHiov Kvovfra ovTas co8ivei, as (Ktlvm, to armfia e)(a>v to deanoTiKov, 
fiifKOTTTfTo 8ia(nr(cp.fvos) and others, the difficulty is to convey this sense 
to the English reader. ' Having loosed the pains (R. V. pangs) of death' 
certainly fails to suggest the idea of di-a//i in labour, and his pains 
relieved by the birth of the child. Perhaps the slight alteration, ' Having 
put an end to the pains ^ (Gr. pains as oj a woman in travail) of Death ' 
(with a capital letter), might afford a hint of the true meaning. 

*II. 39: 'To all that are afar off.' Reference is made to Ch. xxii. 21 : 
els tBvx] p.aKpav. Esth. ix. 20: Kai i^aiiitjTtiki toIs 'lov8aiois...To'is e-yyiiy Ka\ 
Tols fiaKpav. But here the Greek is irda-i toIs EI2 paKpav, which should 
rather be compared with 2 Sam. vii. 19: 'thou hast spoken of thy 
servant's house— ety puKpav, for a great while to come.' I cannot find 
any example in Greek authors of ds fiaKpav 7vithont a negative, though 
ovK (Is fiuKpav for propediem is common. 

' Theodoret (in 2 Reg. Interr. xi.ll.) iXvae rai udTvas. 

not inelegantly applies this phrase to - [Cf. Lucian. //ist. Conscr. \ : to7s 

the cessation of a three years' drought: ot I5pui<! imyd'o/j.fi'o^ iro\vt...?\v(Te rbv 

I'Xews 6 bf(nrbT7)s iyivfTo, koI tCov vecpfXQv iri'pfTbv. I'hit. ii. p. 662 c ; XiVic ciWoj'.] 



VI. II THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 113 

*III. 22: VII. 37: ws tpt] Both versions: 'like unto me'; but R. V. 
in marg. 'Or, as he raised up 7ne.' The order of the Hebrew (Deut. xviii- 
15) is against the alternative construction. 'A prophet from the midst 
of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me C?^^), shall raise up unto thee the 
Lord thy God.' The LXX. and Vulg. translate literally cos efit, tanquam 
me ; but the other Greek versions, here and v. 18, ofioiov ifj.oi or croi 

*IV. 25. For the T. R. 6 ^la crroyiaTos AajSiS tov naiSos crov elndv, the 
Revisers have adopted a confused congeries of duplicate readings, which 
has found its way into ABEN, and a few cursives: o tov narpoi r]^a>v Sia 
TTvevfiaros aylov arofjiaTOs Aa^\8 naiSos aov dncop, which they thus attempt 
to construe: 'who by the H. G. by the mouth of our father David thy 
servant didst say.' Dean Alford observes : ' Though harsh in con- 
struction, these words are not "senseless," as De Wette terms them, 
<jTo\ia.Tos t^av(\h being in apposition (!) with irviv^aTos ayiov.' But the 
greatest difficulty of all, the extraordinary trajectory described by tov 
nuTpos ^fimv, still remains. This Dr Hort gives up as a 'primitive 
error,' for which he proposes the desperate remedy toic nATpAcm tJ/xwi/! 
Even so, we cannot agree with him that 'the order of words in text 
presents no difficulty, David (or the mouth of David) being represented 
as the mouth of the H. G.' This would certainly require 8ui ttv. aylov 
AIA (TTopaTos A. 

*VI. 2: SiaKovcIv Tpaire'tais] The English rendering 'to serve tables' 
is equally ambiguous with the Greek, which, perhaps, may be considered 
a good reason for retaining it. But as no mention has been made of 
cotnnion meals {ava-aina), or of a distribution in kind, it seems better to 
understand by this phrase the transaction of mo7iey fnatters, in conformity 
with the well-known use of rpaTrtfa, both in Scripture (Matth. xxi. 12; 
Luke xix. 23), and in ordinary Greek: e.g. Plut. Vit. Caes. xxvili: ol 
fiev dpxas fieriovTes, iv fiecrco dtpfvoi rpani^as, ibeKU^ov avaicrx^vTOis tci irKrjdrj. 
Ibid. LXVii : uxTTe rovs p.iv (on hearing of the death of Caesar) oiKiai 
KkeUiv, ToiJi S' aTToXeinfiv rpane^as Koi xp-qpaTUTTrjpia (counting-houses). 

*VI. II : vire'PaXov] 'they suborned.' A very rare, but undoubted, use 
of the word. Vulg. submiserunt. Pesch. paraphrases : tniserunt viros, 
et instruxerunt eos ut dicerent. The only instance given by H. Steph. 
is Appian, B. C. I. 74: eVi fie Toi^rots-, e? vnoKpKTLV apx^^ (vvopov, fiera 
Toa-ovcrBe (povovs aKpirovi inTf^\r]6-q<Tav Kari^yopoi rw l(pe2 tov Aios MfpoXa. 
Dean Alford quotes vivi^akov from Symmachus's version of Jos. xxiii. 4, 
but the Hebrew is, ' I have divided unto you.' St Chrysostom says that 
Stephen, probably, only hinted at the supersession of the Law; for if he 
had declared it openly, ovk eSei tuiv inro^XrjTdiv av8pciv ovde tcov ^ev8o- 
fiapTvpcov. 

The nearest Greek word appears to be TTapfo-KevairavTo, ' they pro- 
cured'; as Dem. p. 1092, 13: 7rapaaK€vacrdp.ev6s Tivas rwi/ 8r]p.oTciv. Plut. 

K. 8 



114 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. VI. 15 

Vit. Luc. XLII : fv be T<u Srf/xo) \ovKovK\nv covofiaaev, coj vn' (Kflvov Tvapt- 
OKtvaafifVOs aTroKTelvai Iloixnr]'iov. 

*VI. 15. 'AH that sat in the council, looking stedfastly on him,' (l8op 
TO 7rp6(Ta>Trov avrov wcrei irpoa-ooTrov ayyeXov. 'It is a question with regard 
to this verse, Does it relate a^iy supernatural appearance, glorifying 
the face of Stephen ; or merely describe the calm and holy aspect with 
which he stood before the council.'" — Dean Alford. Those who hold the 
latter opinion send us to Gen. xxxiii. 10: eveKtv tovtov fiBov ru Trpoa-conov 
aov, a>s av rts I'Sot npocrccnrov Beov. 2 Sam. xiv. ly : on Ka6cx>i ayyeXot rov 
Bfoii, ovTcos 6 Kvpios (lov 6 ^aaiXfvs, rov aKOveiv to dyaOov Ka\ to Troi/rjpov. 
Ksth. V. 2 : fi86v crt, Kvpie, cos ayytXou deov, koi eTupaxOrj i] Kap8ia fiov 
fiTTo (})6l3ov TTJs 86^Tjs (Tov. In the first and last of these there is a certain 
verbal resemblance, which invites a comparison with the present text : 
otherwise, they are all of the same kind, not narrative, but addressed by 
an inferior to his superior by way of adulation, and throw no light at all 
upon the point under discussion. On the other hand Dean Alford's 
references to Luke ii. 9, Acts xii. 7 are equally inconclusive ; and those 
who agree with him as to the supernatural glorification of Stephen's 
visage will rather rely upon the plain statement of the supposed phae- 
nomenon, which hardly admits of being toned down to the ' calm and 
holy aspect' which he presented to 'all that sat in the council.' 

*VII. 4' fi€Tt6Ki.<r€v avTov els rqv ^-qv Ta\lTT|v, els rjv viieis vvv KaTOiK€iT«] 
For verbal resemblances, si tajiti est, compare Herod, iv. 116: airiKop-tvot 
he €s TovTov TOV x^pof, fv TO) vvv KaTOLKrjuTM, o'iKt]<Tau TOVTOV. In the ncxt 
verse fls KaTacrxeo-iv, the A. V. 'for a possession,' conveys the notion 
of permanence better than the Revisers' ' in possession,' and has a clearer 
reference to the original promise (Gen. xvii. 8) ds KaTuaxeaiu aloiviov, ' for 
an everlasting possession.' 

VII. 12. T. R. o-Tra, A. V. 'corn' (as in Gen. xlii. i, but there the 
Greek is irpaais). Nearly all the uncials read rrtWa, which the Revisers 
follow, still retaining 'corn.' In Greek o-iroy is 'corn,' o-tra or aiTia 
'food' (^pcoixaTa Zonaras). The LXX. use o-ira for ?3'X or DPI?, never 
for *13, ]n or Htsn. 2itiov occurs once only in LXX., viz. Prov. xxx. 22 : 
Kai a(f)poiv nXrja-dfj (titlwi^ (^HZ). Compare Aelian. V. //. V. I : eVei 8e ds 
Tlfpaas d(f)iK€To (Tachos Aegyptius), koi eij ttjv fKtivav Tpv(f)f]v e^tneat, to 
dijdts TMV 2IT1I2N ovK fveyKoiv k.t.I. 

*V1I. 21 : av€6p€<|/aTo avrov] Here dv(6pfyj/iiTo seems to be used in the 
wider sense of ' brought him up,' as Paul was dvaTf6pap.fX(vos at the feet of 
Gamaliel. 

*VII. 24: eTroiT]o-€v tK8(KT)criv Toi KaTairovo\)(X€vu> I Both versions, 



VII. 40 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, II5 

' aveno^ed him that was oppressed,' as if 6 Karanovovfj-evos were synony- 
mous with o ddiKoviMfvos, which does not seem to be the case. The 
latter is correctly rendered by 'he who suffered wrong,' and therefore 
had right on his side ; whereas the former has no reference to tnornl 
considerations, but only to the actual result of the contest — he was 
getting the worse. The word is often used by Diod. Sic. of those who 
were being hard pressed in battle by superior numbers ; as XV. 85 : Icr- 
XVpas 8e naxrjs yevofievrjs, Koi raiv 'Adrjvalav KaranovoviJievcov, kol trpos 4>vyT]v 
opfiTjo-dvToov. XVII. 60: T(a Tf n'kridfi Koi ^apei Toil (TV(TTi]iJiaTos...KaT(7rove'iTo 
TO Ta>v MaKebovav ImriKov. 

*VII. 26: Kttl avTovs o-vvi]Xao-€v els tlpijvTiv] 'and would have set 
them at one again.' So both versions, although the Revisers have 
adopted the reading of BCDt? awrjXXaaafv, Vulg. reconciliabat. Pesch. 
]ocn -(y> ' g^^ Dean Alford supports the T. R., but gives up the 
imperfect force, 'would have set them,' and renders boldly, 'he set them 
at one.' But this is what he certainly did not do ; especially if we 
insist on the proper meaning of trvi'T^Xao-ej', which always implies force, 
not persuasw?t, as the following examples will show. Plut. Vit. Serf. 
XXII : crvveXavvofievos vtto tuv e)(^pa>v els rci owXa. Id. Vit. Caes. XLI : 
€K TovTiov anavToyv (TvveXavvofXfvos oKwv (Is liaxqv. Lucian. Hermot. 63 : 
(TvviKavveis fif (Is (jt(v6v. Diod. Sic. XVI. 50: (rvvrjKaaav (rovs Xonrovs) (Is 
p.(pos Ti Tfjs TToXfcos. Dion. Hal. Ant. IX. 12 : woXkav ds SXiyov <TVV(Xa6ivTa>v 
xa)piov. On the whole we must give the preference to the reading adopted 
by the R. V., although we should be glad to find some support for the 
whole phrase, awaXXaaa-dv ds (iprivi]v. Const. Apost. Vll. 10: (\pr]V(V(T(is 
fj.axofjL(vovs, cos Moxr^s, avvaXXaiKrcov ds (pCXiav. 

VII. 35: €v x«^P^ dyyeXov] A. V. 'by the hand of the angel.' 'Ev 
X«.p\ is the Hebrew and Aramaic "1^3, which answers to the preposition 
bia in Greek. So Hag. i. I : e'-yeVero Xoyos KvpLov (V Xf'pi 'Ayyaiou. Here 
R. V. renders (not very intelligibly) ^ 'with the hand'; but in Gal. iii. 19 
we find A. V. 'in the hand of a mediator V R- V. 'by the hand of....' 

*VII. 40. 'We wot not what is become of him.' So both versions 
for the Greek, ovk o'ihafKv ri eyeVero (T. R. y(yov(v) avT<^. A distinction 
might be taken between tI iy(v(To ai/Vw, ' what has happened to him,' and 
Ti avTos (y(V(To, 'what is become of him.' (Ch. xii. 18 : ri apa 6 nerpos 
(y(v(To.) But having regard to Exod. xxxii. i the Revisers have judged 
rightly in retaining the A. V. Perhaps also in Rom. xi. 25, the A. V. 
'that blindness (or, hardness) in part is happened {y(yov(v) to Israel,' 
is quite as faithful as the R. V. 'that a hardening in part hath befallen 
Israel.' 

1 [Reading avv x^'/"'-] hand of prophets.' LXX. iv xe'/J' TWf 

- [Cf. I Sam. xxviii. 15 : A. V. Trpo^TjTtDi/. ] 
neither ' by prophets.' Heb. ' by the 



Il6 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. VH. 45 

VII. 45: TJv Kal elo-rj-ya-yov 8i,a86|dji€voi 01 iraTepcs ii(xoov] A. V. 'Which 
also our fathers that came after brought in.' Other proposed renderings 
of 8ia8f^dfi(voi are 'inheriting,' 'receiving it after,' 'receiving it from their 
predecessors' &c. I think diabe^d^evoi, simpliciter dictitiii, may be taken 
adverbially for eV hiahoxy]ii 'in their turn,' [as in the R. V.]. Compare 
Herod. VIII. 142 : ws 8e eTravaam Xeywv ' A\e§av8pos, ^la^e^d^ei/ni eXeyoi/ of 
aTTo ^TrapTTjs ayyeXoi k.t.X. 

*Ibid. tl<ri]'Ya'YOV...|i€Ta 'lT](rov €v tt) Karacrx^torei tuv €0vuv] A. V. 
' brought in with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles (Vulg. in 
possessionem gentiinn)^ R. V. 'brought in with Joshua, when they 
entered on the possession of the nations,' or as Mr Humphry explains 
{Comm. on R. V. 1888), 'in the taking possession of the nations, i.e. of 
the land of the nations.' But of the 50 examples of the same Greek 
word for the same Hebrew HTnX given by Trommius not one is to be 
found in which Koracrxf^Tii is used of the act of taking possession of a 
cotintry by the expulsion of its former occupiers. In the latter case the 
word employed is ^1^, not TPIN ; and instead of eV Tr\ Karaa-xfo-ei. tcov 
i6va>v, the usage of the LXX. would require eV rfj KaraKkripovoyirja-fi Ta>v 
(6va)V, or ev Tt5 KaraKKrjpoiiOfxricrai avTovs rci idvr], as Deut. xxxi. 3 : Kupios 
(^aiko6pev<T(i TCI '46vq ravra dnh npoacoTrov trov, Koi KaTaKKripovnp.r]creis avTOvs- 

*Ibid. (ov ^^wo-ev 6 Oeos airo irpoo-wTrov twv iraTt'pwv i^fj.wv] Grotius 
compares the inscription which Procopius saw in Africa, 'H/nely eV/iei/ 
01 ({)vy6vTes dno npocrunrov ^Irjcroii tov Xr/crroC v'lov Navt], written in Punic 
letters on two columns. The fugitives in question settled on the African 
coast near the city Tingis (Tangier). 

*VII. 53: els SiaraYds d^YeXtov] As dtarayfj is interchanged with 
didra^is in one of the significations of the latter (mandait/m), I do not 
see why it may not be so in the more proper one of dispositio. Sym- 
machus thrice puts j) hidra^i^ tov ovpavoii for the Heb. XZlV. 

VIII. I. 'And Saul was consenting unto his death (t^ dvaipta-fi 
avTov).' Rather, ' unto the killing (or slaying) of him.' Compare A. V. 
of 2 Mace. V. 13: 'Thus there was killing {dvaiptaen) of young and old... 
slaying {acf)ayai) of virgins and infants 1.' 

*VIII. 2: o-vveKojAio-av Si tov St.] A. V. 'carried Stephen /o his 
burial.'' R. V. 'buried Stephen.' The Scholiast on Acsch. Sept. c. T/ieb. 
1024 says: SvyKo/xiS?) • r) npo tov Td(f)ov ndaa (nip.e\(ut. fKKopi8r]- y] npoi tuv 

' [Cf. App. B. C. \. C)6: woWr) d^ Ti^eplov TpdKxov. Plut. Fit. Crass. 

Kal Tuiv'lTaXLLcTiov duaipeffis re Kal i^^- IV: ^v8r]\oi rjcrav KaridvTfs oi'k iir dyadij} 

Xacris Kal drjfitvais -n"- I- I'Z', dficpl t^s TrarpiSos ("tt' dvaip^aei 5^ Kal oX^lpw 

Tu t' (?TT]} fj.d\iaTa dnb tt/s dcaip^irews tQp dpicrTwv.] 



IX. 30 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 11/ 

Tn(pov oTraywyr?. I would translate ' took up Stephen ' or ' took up the 
body of Stephen,' of course for the purpose of burying him, though this 
is rather irnpHed than expressed. ^vyKOfii^eiv (said of a single person) 
is ' to take up a dead body, which is lying exposed,' as here, and in the 
often-quoted example from Soph. Aj. 1047: ovtos, a-e cpcovci rovBe rov 
viKpov ;^6poii' I /xi) (TvyKoyLL^iiv, aAX' iav ottcos f^f- Iri the case of several 
bodies, it also includes the notion of bringing them together into one 
place, as Thucyd. VI. 7 1 ■ crvyKOiMia-avTes 8e roiis eavTav veKpoiis Koi eVi 
nvpav inidiuT(s TjvXlaaiTo avrov. Plut. F//. Ages. XIX: 'AyrjaiXaos 8e... 
ov TTporepov ini (TKT]i'r)v dnfiXdev rj (fiopabrjv evf^dfjvai irpos ttjv (f>aXayya, Koi 
Toi/s veKpovi i8eii^ evros raiv ottXcoi/ avyKfKop.iiTpei'ovs (brought in withm 
the camp) : where the last four words have been misunderstood by Lang- 
horne, ' borne off upon their ai'ms,' and by Eisner ad h. 1. ' buried in 
their arms.' 

The ancient versions in diversa abeiint. Thus Vulg. ciifaverunt. 
Pesch. ,_iCnQ.;,Ci^ om c^ o ' gathered and buried.' Philox. ^.iOTCIjQ—^ 
{ = TTpoinep'^av). Compare Luke vii. 12, e^eKopi^ero "joOl (n\AVn. 

VIII. 31 : TTws 7dp av 8vvai|jiTiv] 'How can I.' Rather, 'Why, how 
can I.' So Matt, xxvii. 23: ri yap kukop inoirjae ; 'Why, what evil hath 
he done ?' 

*IX. 7: dKovovT€s |j.€v TTJs <|>wvTis] R. V. 'hearing [why not add 
'indeed,' as in Ch. xxii. 9?] the voice. Or, sound' But as 'the voice' 
had been already described in v. 4 as an articulate one, the marginal 
rendering is liable to the charge of being ' suggestive of differences that 
have no existence in the Greek' (Pref lii. 2). No doubt, if 'sound' were 
admissible, it would afford an easy method of harmonizing the account 
here given by the narrator with that of St Paul himself in Ch. xxii. 9: 
'And they that were with me saw indeed the light, Trfv 8e (pcovriv ovk 
rJKovaav Toii XaXovfTos poi.' But when we consider the wide range of 
perception between simply hearing the sound of the words, and taking 
in their full meaning and import, — the hearers also themselves being at 
the time in a confused and highly excited state of mind — there is really 
no contradiction between the two accounts. At all events the distinction 
taken by a writer in the Qicarterly Review that aKovew Tfjs (paviis is 
to hear something of the voice, and aKovnv ttjv (f)a}vriv to hear a/l of it, 
is perfectly puerile. 

*IX. 25: 8ta Tov T«ixovs] A. V. *by the wall.' R. V. 'through the 
wall.' But in the parallel place 2 Cor. xi. 33 it is 8ia dvpL8os...8ia tov 
reixovs, where both versions have 'through a window... by the wall.' 

*IX. 30: €Tri7v6vT€s] The absolute use of this word for re coguita, 
'when they knew of it,' has its parallel in Diod. Sic. xvi. 10: aKaTaax^Tov 



Il8 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. IX. 34 

be TT]s opfiris t(ov uxXuii/ ovcttjs, fniyvui'Tfs toxjs fjnadocjiofjuv^ kuI tovs to. tov 
dwaarov (pfjovovvras rjdpoKrav. 

*IX. 34: o-Tpwo-ov o-tavTw] 'make thy bed.' Perhaps, 'make thine 
own bed,' an office which had been used to be done for him by others. 
[The name of this patient should be pronounced Aeneas, not Aeneas, 
the change from Alveas to Alveias being a necessity induced by the laws 
of heroic versification.] 

Rev. T. Harmer {Observations^ &c. Vol. II. p. 374, edited by Adam 
Clarke, LL.D., Lond. 1808) says, in opposition to the common under- 
standing of this phrase : ' The Eastern people now do not keep their 
beds made : the mattresses, &c. are rolled up, carried away, and placed 
in cupboards, till they are wanted at night.' [But this can hardly apply 
to bed-ridden patients.] He therefore supposes that Aeneas is here 
recommended to give a feast to Peter and those that were with him 
on the occasion of his recovery, and to prepare his house for the 
reception of the company ! 

*IX. 38: Jill 6kvt]o-t)s 8ieX0€iv ^ws ij(awv] A courteous mode of pressing 
a request, of which a few examples from sacred and profane writers may 
not be inopportune. Of the former may be compared Num. xxii. 16: 
a^t<5 o-e, iir] 6Kvri(TT]s fXdelv irpos fxe (A. V. 'let nothing hinder thee 
(Heb. de not thou letted) from coming unto me'). Sirac. vii. 35 : p.r] 
oKUfi {Tna-KeTTTfo-dai appcaarov ('be not slow to visit the sick'). Aelian, 
V. H. IX. I : ovK coKUTjo-e 2cp.<ovi8r]s, ^apiis a)U vtto yrjpas, irpos avToi> 
dcf)iKfcr6ai. In Diog. Laert. I. 99 : Periander writes rots aocjio'is, ' I hear 
that last year you had a reunion at Sardes at the court of the Lydian 

(Croesus) ': rihr] uv prj oKve^Tf Ka\ nap^ tpt (f)oiTfjv top Kopivdov Tvpavvov. 

*X. 24 : TOVS dva^Kafovs <j)(Xovs] ' near friends.' As they are distin- 
guished from TOVS avyyfvels, we must abide by the A. V., unless we recall 
the version of Tyndale and his followers, ' special friends.' Generally, in 
the best authors, blood-relations and connexions, even the nearest, are 
included in the term. Festus explains the corresponding Latin term : 
^ Necessarii sunt, qui aut cognati aut affines sunt, in quos necessaria 
officia conferuntur praeter ceteros.' Good examples of this use of the 
word are: Plut. Vit. Pyrrh. XXX: ra de Tlvppa TrpofiprjTo pev...vn6 tov 
p.avT(cos dno^oXr] twos Toiv dpayKaicov (who proved to be his son). Stob. 
Floril. T. CVIII. '^2,: olov, TfdvrjKev vlhs fj fiijTTjp tivI, \ fj vfj Ai aWcou twi/ 
dvayKaiwv ye tis. Diod. Sic. XIX. 43: irapa to'is TvoXf fxlois ovrtov TfKvuiv 
KOL yvvaiKav, Koi rroWaiu aXXwv dvayKaicov aup-aTcov. 

X. 28 : KoXXao-eai] A. V. 'to keep company (with).' R. V. 'to join 
himself to,' as A. V. Ch. v. 13. 1 prefer the former in both places, a 
continued action being intended. The other would require KoWrjd^vai, as 



XI. 29 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, 1 19 

Luke XV. 15 ; 'he went and jointd himself (eKoXXtjdq).' Acts v. 36; 'to 
whom a number of men joined themselves {npoa-eKoXhi^dijy.' 

XL 12: |XT)8€v 8iaKpiv6|ji£vov] 'nothing doubting.' The MSS. usually 
followed by the Revisers read fj.T]8ev dioKpivavTa (or diaKpivovra), which 
they translate, 'making no distinction,' I suppose between Jews and 
Gentiles, but that should have been expressed, as it is Chap. xv. 9 : 
Koi ovdiv biiKpiviv fifra^i/ rip,a>v re Kol avrav. Ezek. xxxiv. 1 7 : diaKpivci 
dvap.i(Tov npo^arov Ka\ irpo^arov. Diod. Sic. XIX. 7 • ov 8ifKpiv€ (jiiKov t) 
TroXe'jtxtoi/'". We might also tolerate p,7]8fva biaKpipcov, 'giving no one a 
preference,' //" Ch. x. 20 were kept out of view. But comparing the two 
places, there seems no choice, but either to omit the clause altogether 
(with D, Philox.) or to bring it into harmony with its prototype. 

*XI. 21 : iroXvs T€ dpi.9|Ji6s Trio-Tevo-as (ABX read o TricrrfiJo-as) eirto-Tpeij/ev 
tirl Tov Kvpiov] ' T. R. omits o as unnecessary, not perceiving its force.' 
— Dean Alford. Without the article nothing can be simpler than the 
construction or clearer than the meaning of these words : ' And a great 
number believed, and turned unto the Lord.' What is the force of the 
article? The R. V. is : 'and a great number that believed turned unto 
the Lord'; which, however, would require 6 •noKv^ re dp. 6 Triarfvaas, with 
the double article. Besides, ' a great number that believed ' might easily 
be taken to mean 'a great number of them that believed,' not the whole, 
as, in fact, the Vulgate has translated, niulticsque numerus credentium 
coiiversiis est ad Doi/dnitm : which is not the sense intended. 

XL 29 : Twv Se |i.a9T|TiI»v KaOws tiviropeiTo Tts, wpwrav ^Ka<rTos avTwv els 
SiaKovtav •7r«(x4'oii] ' Then the disciples, every man according to his 
ability, determined to send relief.' The Greek word wpicrev is never used 
in N. T. for 'determined' in the sense of ' resolved,' but always eKpivep ; 
and if this were its meaning here, there seems no reason for adding 
eKaaTos avrav, which, in fact, is omitted in the A. V., ' every man 
according to his ability ' being no more than an adequate rendering 
of Kadms rjvrrope'iTo ris. I take the meaning to be, ' They set apart 
{Gx. fixed a limit) each of them a certain sum^.' In Gen. xxx. 28 Laban 
says to Jacob, 'Appoint 7ne (LXX. hidcmCKov., Sym. "OPISON) thy wages, 
and I will give it.' I would also join o^pia-av ds SiaKoviav, rendering the 
whole verse thus : ' And the disciples, as every man had to spare, set 

1 Here, however, the true reading ^ App. B. C. i. 21: (nrrjp^aiov ^fi/xr]- 

is wpoaeKKidri, 'whom... favoured,' or vov opiaas eKacTTcp tQv Stj/jlotQi' dtrb ti2v 

'to whom. ..consented.' kolvwv xpVIJ-^'-t^v • Phit. Ii. p. 219 A* 

^ [Cf. Lucian. Herni. 68 : to to'ivvv tSsv 5e (jvufj.dx'^v iTri^rjToiJi'Twi' irbaa 

diaKplvai Torn eiSoras dwo tGiv ovk xPVf^'^'''^ apKicei, Kal d^iowTUJi' bpiffai 

tiddruy fxiu, (pacKOvruv 5^...] tov% <p6povs. 



120 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XH. 7 

apart each of them for a ministration to send unto the brethren, which 
dwelt in Judea.' It follows in the next verse, o Kai (noirja-av (sc. e7rf^iy\ruv). 

*XII. 7 : €v Tw olKTJjiaxi] A. V. 'in the prison.' R. V. 'in the cell.' 
The latter version supposes that the prison was divided into separate 
cells, in one of which, that in which Peter was confined, the light shone, 
and the other particulars took place. This may have been the case, but 
we have no authority for o'lKrjixa being so used. All grammarians are 
agreed that it is an euphemism for Sia-fiarripiov ; and as we have nothing 
corresponding to it in our language, to attempt to distinguish between 
the two words is only misleading. If the distinction should be insisted 
upon, we should prefer ' chamber ' to ' cell.' 

XII. 12 : <rvvi8wv] A. V. and R. V. : 'When he had considered //le 
thitig^ following the Vulg. considerans. But (rvviheiv never has this 
meaning, but invariably that of 'perceiving,' 'being ware of,' as it is 
rightly rendered in both versions, Ch. xiv. 6. See a host of examples 
in Wetstein, to which may be added Diod. Sic. xvil. 88 : Tapaxr]^ ^e 
TToXX^s yeuofifUTjs, 6 ndpos, (rvviddv to yivofievof, k.tJ. Plut. Vi/. Mar. 
XXVI ; Kai avvfihov fiev oi rav 'Papaiav (TTpaTrjyoi tov boKov. Vil. Syl. IX : 
6 2i;XXa9 Trapfjv rjdt], /cat avvi8a)v to yivopevov, fjSoa Tas otKtas v({)a7rT€Ly. 

*X1I. 13 : Kpovo-avTos tt^v 0vipav..."rrai8(<rKT] vi'7raKOvi(rai,...€i<r8pa|AOv<ra 
dirTJ"yy€iX£v...«Tr€|X€V€ Kpoiwv] These are all familiar terms of the domestic 
life of the Greeks ; except that for Kpoveiv the purists preferred KOTrreiv, 
and fla-ayyeWfiv is more common than dirayytWeiv. E.g. Plut. V/l. 
Pelop. IX : e^ai(f}vrjs Se K07rTop.evr}s Trjs dvpas, irpoadpaficiv th koi irvdopLfVOs, 
rov invripeTOV Xdpava p.(TUvai napa twi> no\fpapX(^v (paa-Koirros, dnTjyyfWfv 
fiau) Tfdopv^Tjpevos. Ibid. XI : Kai "noKw xpovov kotttovctlv avTo'is vniJKOvcrev 
ov8fis. Lucian. Nigr. 1 : Koi Ko^as ttju Bvpav, tov Traidos el(rayyei\avTos, 
iKkr]6r)V. Xen. Symp. I. 11 : Kpoiiaas t^v 6vpav dire tw viraKovirauTi tla-ay- 
yelXai oaTis ftrj. It was a mark of dypoiKia to answer the door yourself, 
Ko'^avTos TTjv Bvpav, vTvaKovtrai, avTos (Theophr. Char.). 

*XII. 17: KaTao-€i<ras 8^ avrots rf X^'^P'' o'l-ydv] Compare Appian. 
B. C. II. 60 : Kai np07rt]8t](ras KaTea-ficrfi', w? tmuv rt /SovXo/iewy. aianfjs 8e 
avTco yevop.evrjs... 

*XII. 19: dvaKp£vas] Although we do not find fault with the Re- 
visers for retaining the A. V. 'he examined,' i.e. by simple interrogation, 
as the word is commonly used in the N. T., it ought to be understood 
that dvoKpivfiv, like the Latin quaerere and quaesiio, besides its general 
meaning, has a special reference to examination by torture, which is 
probably intended in this place. As examples of this usage, compare 
Plut. Vit. Alex. XLIX : fK TovTiw 8e (TvXXricf>0{).i (ivfKpipeTO, t<ov (Talpoav 



XIV. 6 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 121 

e(f)eaTa)T(ov rats jiatravois. Id. T. II. p. 256 C: Koi Tr\s KaX/iitas ecfiearoiar]! . . . 
'ApfTa(f)i\av ra'is ^aaavois dveKpive. Joseph. Afl^. XVI. 8, I : avaKplvavTt 8e 
trepl fitv TTji yeyiVJ}p.ivr}i irpbs avTov Koiuoyvias Kal /xi'^ews (CfioXoyovv, aXXo 8e 
ovSev dvax^epes fls tov narepa avveideuai. ^acravi^op.fi'oi Se fxaWov, Ka\ ev 
Tois avayKais ovres... 

*XIII. 9 : SavXos Se 6 Kal IlavXos] The insertion of this note in this 
place seems intended to account for the change of designation in 
St Luke's narrative, as much as to say, ' Saul, whom I shall in future call 
Paul ' ; from which we cannot certainly conclude that the change or 
addition took place at this time, much less that it had any connexion 
with the conversion of the proconsul. 

*XIIL 34: TO, bo-ia AapiS rd •n-to-Ta] A. V. 'the sure mercies of 
David.' R. V. ' the holy and sure blessings of David.' There is nothing 
about mercies in the Greek, nor any indication that that word is' to 
be supplied, to. ocria AavlS (Isai. Iv. 3) and to. eXerj AauiS (2 Chr. vi. 42) 
are /reversions of the Hebrew npn. It has been attempted to show 
that TO. oiTia may mean benejicia by a reference to Clem. Rom. Ep. ll. ad 
Cor. ch. I : noa-a Se avra ocpeiXontv ocria; to (fxUs yap i]fiLv (x.^pLaaTo k.t.X.; 
but oo-to is here (as elsewhere) pietatis officia ; and there seems to be no 
possible way of rendering Isaiah's to. So-m Aav\8 ra Tj-tora except by 'the 
sure pielies {pie facta) of David.' But what bearing the text so under- 
stood has upon the resurrection of our Lord, it is not easy to see. 

*XIV. 3 : iKavov |j.ev oiiv xpovov Su'rpnl'av] A. V. 'long time therefore 
abode they.' (R. V. 'they tarried there.') A good construction, as in 
Ch, xii. 19. But we may also join diarpl^fiv x.povov, teinpus terere, as 
in the following examples : Dion. Hal. Ant. l. 41 : Siar/jt^at be avrodi 
nXfLco xpo^ov TjvayKacrdri. Ibid. VI. 25 : hiaTpi^op.ivov S' ei'y ravra ttoXXoi) 
Xfiovov. The same construction followed by a participle (as here) is 
found in Herod. I. 189: fjvfro /xtV to epyov, ofMoos fiivToi ttju dfpflrjv naaav 
avTov TavTTj tuTpf^av ipya^6p.evoi. 

*XIV. 4: €<rxi<r0ii 8i TO irXTieos k.t.I.] Compare Diod. Sic. xil. 8: 
(jxL^op.iv(siv 8( Ta>v 2iKfXiKoov TToXfcov, Kot Twv fiei> Tols 'AKpayavTivois, Tav 
be Tois '2vpaKov(riois (TvaTpaTevovTOiv. Xenoph. Syinp. IV. 59 • evravda 
fievToi eaxio'drja-av, koX o'l p.ev elTroi>...oi be... Charit. Aphrod. VI. i : 
biecrxicTTo be j; ttc'Xis- koi 01 jj.ev Xaipea crnevbovTes eXeyov...oi be Aiovvaia) 
anevbovTei avTeXeyov... 

XIV. 6 : (rvvi86vT€s] A. V. 'they were ware of it.' R. V. 'they 
became aware of it.' Here also Prof. Scholefield would render, 'having 
considered it,' i.e. ' what was best to be done.' ' If,' he says, ' it had been 
an assault meditated, it might properly be said t/iej' were ware of it ; but 



122 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XIV. 13 

this is superfluous, where it was an assault inadeJ But that is the 
question : was it actually made, or only meditated} St Chrysostom 
says : ov Trfpufxeivav rolvvv, aXK' (i8ov ttju 6pfj.i]v, koI f(j)vyoi>. And this is 
agreeable to the use of the word opfuj, a sudden movement, or impulse 
(compare James iii. 4 R. V.), which might be rendered abortive, either 
by the timely retreat of the objects of it, as here, or by the influence 
of better counsels, as Uiod. Sic. T. x. p. jj ed. Bip. : tovs de Trpea-^evTas 
frre^dWovTO toIs Xidois KaraXeveiv Trpfcr/Surepoji' Se rivau eniKalBofxevMv rfjs 
opfirji Ta>v o^^Xtui', fioyis-.-Tov ^aXXeiv anicrxovTo. Uion. Hal. Ant. VI. 
16, 17: TO p.iv nXfidoi apfjLTjae (3a\e'if tovs OvoXvaKovs ojs iaXcoKoras 
eir avTO(j)copca KaraaKmrovs' o Se IloaTovfiioi...e7Tiax^'' ''"'?'' opiirjv tov TvXrjBovi, 
anuvai tovs avdpas tKeXevcrev^. 

*XIV. 13: ravpovs Kat <rT€[A|AaTa] 'Not for Tavpovs e'crrf/x/xez/ouj.' — 
Alford. In his horror of the hendiadys, the Dean goes on to mention 
other purposes to which the garlands might have been applied ; but 
there is no doubt that the principal one was the festive decoration of the 
animal to be sacrificed, as indicated by the following examples : Ora- 
culum ap. Diod. Sic. XVI. 91 : ecrTenTai fxev 6 Tavpos, e;^e£ reXoy, f'aTiv 
6 6va(ov. Plut. Vit. Ages. VI : koi KaTaaT€\l^as eXa(poi> (KiXtvafP airap^aaOai 
TOV iavToii fiavTiv. Lucian, De Sacrif. 1 2 : aXX' 01 ye dvovTfs, (TTf(f)avcicravTes 
TO ^aov. . .Trpoaayov(Ti. raJ ^cofia. Diod. Sic. T. X. p. 85 ed. Bip. : tovtovs 
dfj,(j)OTepovs KaTaa-Teylras iepdov Tponov ela-iqyaye. 

*XIV. 20: KVKXwo-dvTtov 8^ avTov twv ixaOiiTwv] A. V. and R. V. 'as 
the disciples stood round about him.' Rather, 'when the disciples came 
round about him' {KVKXuiadvTUiv not kvkXovvtwv). So John x. 24: 'the 
Jews came round about him ' (A. V. and R. V.). 

XV. 17, 18 : X«Y«'' Kvpios 6 iroiwv ravra TrdvTo. "yvtoo-Ta aTr* alwvos €<rTi 
Tw 8€w irdvTa to. ^p^a avTov] This is the T. R. of which the principal 
MSS. make sad havock. We willingly give up irdvTa in the quotation 
from Amos ix. 12, which, though retained in the Roman text of the LXX., 
is wanting in II, III, XII, and many others, as well as in the Syriac 
version of Paul of Tela, which represents Origen's text. But, besides 
this, the three uncials BCN also omit all the words that follow alavos, 
leaving to be dealt with only o Troicof TavTu yvaxrva air aleouoi. In which 
reading, whether we join yvuiaTa with noiutv, ' who maketh these things 
known,' thus affixing to the words of the prophet a meaning quite 
different from their proper one ; or whether we accept the very lame 
construction, 'who doeth these things luliich were known,' in cither case 

' [Cf. App. /)'. C. II. 118: KoX TOV ^ndpraKov tirl Tr]v 'Pibp.rjv eXavveiu. 

avTois <rK€TrTOfj.ivois op/xT] p.iv Tjv ap-vvetv Diod. Sic. XVl. 10: aKaTaaxirov U Trji 

TV Kalcrapi, rotdSe iraOdvri. Pint. Fit. opiXTJs tQiv oxXuv oUa-qs.] 
Crass. XI: i((>o^r]d-q...p.ri XdjSoi tis opfxij 



XV. 20 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 23 

the result is equally unsatisfactory. This being acknowledged to be a 
locus conclainatus, might it not be allowable, in a version intended for 
general use, to pass over these three words, yvcoara an alauos, altogether, as 
a fragment of uncertain origin, perhaps a marginal gloss on noiciv ravra ? 
Then in the margin might be noted : 'After //tese things the oldest authorities 
add, known from the beginning of the world. Other ancient authorities 
insert v. \2>: Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of 
the worlds This latter insertion will be very much missed, and, whatever 
may be the future of the R. V., will never cease to be quoted as a portion 
of the word of God ; therefore it is but right that some record of its 
existence, as such, should be preserved. 

*[In the foregoing remarks, I fear I have gone too far in the way of 
concession to the 'oldest authorities'; and am now inclined to agree 
with a correspondent bearing the honoured name of BiRKS, that the 
words yi/wo-ra aii ai'coi/os having been improperly joined to the preceding 
sentence, what followed was omitted by the copyists as unintelligible.] 

XV. 19: fJ.li irapevoxXeiv] 'that we trouble not.' v. 24: erapa^av vfias, 
' have troubled you.' In the former text we might translate, ' that we 
disquiet not.' Compare i Kings (Sam.) xxviii. 15, where Samuel's ghost 
says: cva rl Traprjvdx^iio'as /jloi ; ' Why hast thou disquieted mep'^ 

*XV. 20: TTjs TTopytCas] Dr Scrivener, in pronouncing a sweeping 
condemnation of conjectural emendations (Introduction, &c. p. 491, ed. 
1883) singles out as 'one of the best' that of nopKeias for nopveias in this 
place, whose he does not say. Against which selection it may be urged : 
(i) No emendation is required. In the judgment of the Apostles this 
was one of the 'necessary things' concerning which the converts from 
heathenism required to be cautioned, and not the less so, because other 
injunctions, relating to things not of perpetual obligation, are included in 
the same letter. (2) Even in later times Christians were thought by the 
ancient Fathers to be released from the obligations of the Mosaic law, 
but not from the precepts given to Noah (Gen. ix. 4). Thus TertuUian 
De Monogam. v: 'Ut et fides reversa sit a circumcisione ad integritatem 
carnis illius, sicut ab initio fuit: et libertas ciboru/n, et sanguinis solius 
abstinentia, sicut ab initio fuit.' A prohibition, therefore, of the flesh of 
particular animals, as unclean, could not be enforced without a violation 
of that libertas ciborum, which was obscurely shadowed forth by Christ 
himself (Mark vii. 19), and plainly declared, as a law of the Church, to 
St Peter (Acts x. 14, 15). (3) For iropvelas Bentley (if we may believe 
Wetstein) proposed to read x'^'-P^'-'^^i which is not only objectionable on 

^ [Cf.Vulg. Quare inquietasti. Plut. said to Socrates \).y\^k ■wa.pivo-)(\y\<s^% (in- 

Vit. Phoc. VII : irapevoyXoxivTo^ tov terfere with) y\pG}v rots i/eots py]hk rots 

veavlffKov Kal Kdirrovroi avrbv ipwrr)- y4pov(XLV.^ 
pa<nv. Arrian. Epict. i. 9: His judges 



1^4 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XV. 26 

the ground already stated, but also philological/y, the flesh of animals 
being always described in Greek by an adjective in the neuter singular 
or plural, (cpe'ay or Kpia being either expressed or understood. E.g. Isai. 
Ixvi. 17 : i'lrdovres Kpeas veiov (2. to Kpeas to xo^p^iov). Herod. II. ^7 : Kpeav 
(ioiav Ka\ x^viav. Diod. Sic. I. 70: /cpe'a fioax^ia Koi xi^^^ fiovou irpoiKpipo- 
p,ivovs. Ibid. 84: Kpta xw^ia. Artem. 0/tir. I. 70: ^otia, Tavpfia, xotpeta... 
opvideia koX x'/^fta Kpta. Hence r; x^'P^'" '^ ^ soloecism. (4) But what 
shall we say to r) nopKeia? Quis novus hie hospcs? Not only is the word 
itself unknown to the Greek language, but even n-op/coy, which is sometimes 
met with, is not the Latin porcus, but an instrument used in fishing, as 
Plut. T. II. p. 730c : Toa-avTTjv nXeovTa OaXaTTOP, ovBapoii KadrjKau ayKiaTpov, 
ovbi nopKov, ovSe Siktvov, dXcpiTav TrapovToov. 

XV. 26 : dvOpwTTois irapaStSMKocrt, toLs ^l/v^ds avTwv] ' Men that have 
hazarded their lives.' The English expression seems to refer to past 
dangers only, whereas the Greek word implies a general determination 
and readiness to die for the cause, ' men that have pledged their lives.' 
Homer says of pirates : yj/vxas ivapdepivoi, kukov dXXoSaTrotcn (j)fpovTfs, 
where the Scholiast : d(f)fi87](TavTfs iavTwv, napa^oKovTfs. A similar 
phrase in Hebrew is, 'I have put my Ufe in my hand' (Jud. xii. 3. 
Job xiii. 14)^ 

*XVI. 12: iiTis €0"tI TrpwTi] Tiis [X£p£8os [tt]?] MaKtSovias iroXis] A. V. 
'which is the chief city of that part of M.' R. V. 'which is a city of M., 
the first of the district.' Philippi belonged to the first fiepos of the four 
into which M. was divided (Diod. Sic. T. x. p. 228, ed. Bip.) ; but the 
chief city of that ptpos was not Philippi, but Amphipolis (Livy 45, 29). 
This and other difficulties of the present text might be got over by 
reading, iJtis eVn npaTijs p.fpi^os M. TroXty, 'which is a city of the first 
portion of M.,' where npaTrj, a ' primitive error,' may have been corrected 

npcoTr], and this correction misunderstood for TvpatTrf r^s . [When npcoTrj 
means the first in point of situation (as Alford) there is always something 
in the context which restricts it to that sense. E.g. Appian, B. C II. 35 : 
7]Tis {'ApLfJiivos) ioTiv TraXi'as npoiTT] /xera ttju FaXartaf (ex Gallia venien- 
tibus). Herod. I. 142: irpdTi] Ke'iTai TroXty Trpoy ptar^p^piav. VII. 198 : 
npwTr] TToXty f'crri eV rw koXtto) Iovti an' 'A;^nt7;y.] 

*XVL 26: Kai irdvTwv to. Sca-jxa dveGti] The Hellenistic use of the 
word (Mai. iv. 2 : poax^pia ex dtapoov dveipem) may be traced to Hom. 
Od. 6. 359: wy fiTTwi/ deapciv dvifi (Martem et Venerem) pevos 'U<paiaToio, 

1 [Also Jud. v. 18: 'jeoparded their not alone in suggesting npuiTris. See 

lives unto the death.' Heb. dcspised.~\ Blass, Philology of the Gospels, pp. 67 f. 

'■^ Professor J. Armilage Robinson 1898. Ed. 
has pointed out to me that Dr Field is 



XVII. 22 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 25 

where Eustath. : to 8e dve7vai ov Sea/xoC fjLovov crrjiialvfi Xi'o-tf, cos tu toIs 
prjdela-i ;^paTrtt o noir^Trjs K.r.i. On Dio Chrys. Or. IV. 70, eVeiSai/ 
apwo-f TOP lii'dpcoTTov fK t5>v dfa/jicov, Cobet {Coll. C?'it. p. 56) notes : 'Nihil est 
opwo-t. Nil prodest avaxri, quod Emperius, neque dcjiwai, quod Dindorfius 
conjecit. Verum est usitatissimum ilhid AYQ2I, solvant vincjilis^ But 
Xucoo-t is the wrong tense, and the difference between a^uxrt. {dvQxrC) and 
npaai is the very slightest possible. 

XVII. 14: irop€v«<rOai ws €irl ti^v 6dXa<ro-av] 'to go as it were to the 
sea.' For an the principal uncials (ABEN) read ewj, whence R. V. 'to go 
as far as to the sea.' But ecos tVl has not been shown to be a legitimate 
combination; whereas tt. as eirl 'to go in the direction of a place, whether 
the person arrives there or not, is an excellent Greek idiom, though it 
may not have been familiar to those scribes who changed d,s into eas. 
To the examples quoted by Wetstein may be added (from a single author) 
Pausan. Co7'int]l. 11, 2 : Kara^aivova-i 8e <os ('nl to neSlov, Up6v eaTiv ivTavOa 
i^rjp.r]Tp6s. 25, 9: KaTa^avTOiv he as (tt\ 6aKaTTav. 34, 8: otto bi ^KvWaiov 
nXeovTC (OS eVt ttjv ttoXlv. LacOH. 20, 3 : lov(Tiv evQiiav as eVi 6aXa<T(Tav^. 

XVII. 17 : irpos Tovs irapaTVYxavovTas] ' with them that met with him,' 
as if it were i^ipLTvyxavovTas or iVTvy\dvovTas. Vulg. qui aderanf, but it is 
rather qui forte aderani, 'that chanced to be there^.' Then 'met with 
him' might represent a-we^aWov avTw v. 18, though 'encountered him' is 
not to be found fault with. Compare Dio Chrys. Or. iv. 59, 4: ^aai 
TTOTf ^A\e^av8pov Aioyivei (TV/x/3aXeZf, ov ndw ri (TxoXd(ovTa noWfjv ayovri 
(TxoXrjv. Philostr. Her. p. 6 ed. Boiss.: ov yap avfi^aWa) ip.w6poLS, ovbe ttju 
bpaxP'rjv o Ti €(tt\ yiyvaaKO), where Schol. ofiiXai^. 

XVII. 22 : (OS 8€io-i8ainov£<rT«povs vixds 0€topw] A. V. ' I perceive that... 
ye are too superstitious.' 

In the Report of S.P.C.K. for 1877, page 82, I find the following 
extract from a discourse lately delivered by a distinguished prelate, and 
published by the Society : — 

'The Apostle of the Gentiles, in words that we have translated "too 
superstitious," called the Athenians "unusually God-fearing^," and thus he 
struck the one chord to which their hearts would vibrate.' 

It is not disputed that, according to their own ideas of religion, the 

1 [Also P/iOf. 19, 7: irpoeKdiLv 5^ (is ^ [Of rival armies, App. B. C. i. 

itrl TTju 'EXXdSa ovS^ tore eOdpp-rja-av oi no: (rvp-^dWovffiv dXXijXots Trepl ir6\iu, 

KeXroL] fi ovo/xa ^ovKpuv.] 

^ [Cf. Dio Chrys. Or. xi. 156: ^ ' Unusually God-fearing ' in Greek 

Kal ov p,6vov ye tovs iv koiv(^ yivop.evovs would be diaipepdvTus 0€O(7e^e?s, which 

(X670i's) Kal TrapaTvyxaf6vTwv airavTui' very phrase I find in Phit. VtV. Rodi. 

tQ>v dewv. Flat. Vit. Cat's. Xi.vil : XXII : rd 5' dXXa Tbv 'Pw/xi'Xoc diacpe- 

eKn\ayivTwv be tQiv irapaTvxbvTuv.l povrwi Oeoae^rj iaropovaL yeviaOai. 



126 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XVH. 22 

Athenians were very religions^ as Pausanias {Att. 24, 3) testifies : 
^Adrjvaiois TTfpKTcroTfpov ri rj toIs aXXois es Tci 6e7a iari anov8rjs. And 
that 8(i(Ti8aifiovla is occasionally used in a good sense cannot be denied 
in the face of such clear instances as Diod. Sic. I. 70: ravra 8' enparrfv, 
(ifxa fxev (Is 8eicn8aiiJ.nviai' Koi dfo<j}tXri [Blov tov ^aatXia TTporpeTTop.fi'Oi. But, 
undoubtedly, the general use of the word is /;/ malani partem, to signify 
such a superstitious observance of signs, omens &c., as is described in 
Theophrastus's well-known character, 'O Seto-iSoi'/xcoi' ; and, generally, the 
religious feeling carried to excess. In this sense it is expressly distin- 
guished from and contrasted with fvae^eia, (vXd^eia, and the like. Thus 
Plutarch (Vit. Nit>n. extr.) says that Tullus Hostilius laughed at Numa's 
Tr)v TrepX to 6elop (vXd^eiau, as making men idle and effeminate ; but did 
not continue in these swaggering notions {vfavc(vp,u(n), dW utto j/oo-ou 
;^aXf7r^s T171' yu(Sp.T]v aWaaaofievos, fls 8ei(ri8aifioviav eve8a>K(v ovSev ri rrj 
Kara. Novfidv fvcrelBfia irpocnqKovcrav. The same author {Vit. Pericl. Vl) 
says : ^1/ (ignorance of celestial phaenomena) 6 cf>vaiKoi \6yos dnaWdTTav, 
dvrl Trjs (Po^epas Koi (pXeyi^aivovarjs 8ei(Ti8aipoi>ias rrjv dafpaXi] per eXTTi'Stoi' 
dyadcov evae^fiav evepyd^frai, which Langhorne translates : ' The Study 
of nature, which, instead of the frightful extravagances of superstition, 
implants in us a sober piety, supported by a rational hope.' Again, in 
the life of Alexander (Lxxv), according to the same translator : ' When 
Alexander had once given himself up to superstition (eWSwKt npbs to dda), 
his mind was so preyed upon by vain fears and anxieties, that he turned 
the least incident, which was any thing strange and out of the way, into 
a sign or prodigy.. ..So true it is that though the disbelief of religion and 
contempt of things divine is a great evil, yet superstition is a greater' 
{8(ivbv p,€v dTTKTTLa TTpos TO. 6fui KGL KaTacppovrjaii avTav, Sfivr] 8 avdis tj 
SetcrtSat/ioi'ia). 

But there is another consideration which has not been sufficiently 
attended to in the discussion of this question, and which is really decisive 
of it ; and that is the comparative form of the adjective. By a well-known 
idiom, common to the Greek and Latin languages, the comparative is 
used to indicate either a deficiency or excess (in both cases slight'^) of 
the quality contained in the positive. In the former case, it may be 
expressed in English by 'somewhat' or 'rather'; in the latter, by 'too.' 
Our Translators have preferred the latter, 'too superstitious'; but as 
superstition is bad in every degree, and not only when it is excessive, 
the better rendering would seem to be that of R. V., 'somewhat super- 
stitious'; which is a mild form of censure, but still of censure^ not of 
praise. If the latter were intended to be conveyed, then it is evident 

' Thus Diog. Laert. 11. 132: tjv 5^ is Hor. Sat. i. 9, 70: — Nulla mihi, in- 

TTws ■r]pi)xa. koX BfKnBaipov^ffTfpos. In quam, | religio est. At mi : si/m patdo 

Latin the slighttiess is generally inti- in/innior, — which might almost be 

mated by 'paulo' prefixed; of which Grecized : detcndaipovicTTepdi dpi. 
the most apt example for our purpose 



XVII. 25 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 27 

that the comparative Seio-iSat^orfo-repovy, 'somewhat religious S' would be 
quite out of place ; and the superlative dfia-idaifiovea-Tarovs would be 
exclusively appropriate. 

Some critics (as H. Stephens quoted by Palairet) have considered 
the particle coy to be still further mitigatory of the censure contained in 
deia-iBaiixovea-Tepovs, as if it were the same as o5$ elnelv, lit ita dicatn ; but 
this usage cannot be proved. It appears to be an abnormal construction 
depending on 6f(opui, not unlike Matt. xiv. 5 : on wy TrpocptjTTjv avrhv eixov. 
I Cor. iv. I ; rjfxas Xoyi^tV^co avdpunros w? vTrrjpeTas Xpccrrov. The usual 
construction of 6euipa> is with a participle, as Diod. Sic. Xiv. 13: A.v(Tavbpoi 
...Ofcopciv Tovs A.aKe8at.noviovs fidXicTTa tois fiavrtiois iTpo<Ti\ovTas^. 

* Ibid. The supposed 'want of tact' shown by the Apostle at the 
very opening of his apology in characterizing his audience as 'some- 
what superstitious' has been remarked upon by the Bishop of Lincoln in 
his 'Address on the R. V. of the N. T.' p. 29, who says: 'St Paul was 
too skilful an orator ('too much of a gentleman' — Dr P. Schaff) to open 
a speech to such a sensitively critical audience as an Athenian with 
words of censure.' It is, however, a curious coincidence that at the 
regular sittings of this very Court of Areopagus, it was forbidden to the 
parties or their advocates to use rhetorical arts, and in particular, to 
conciliate the goodwill of the judges by a flattering prooemium. This 
we learn from Lucian De Gymnast. Xix : Ot 8e for' av p.kv nep} rov 
Trpayparos Xfyaicrip, dve)^€Tai ^ ^ovKrj, KaS" ^avxlav aKovovcra' -qv 8e tis rj 
(ppolpiov e'lTTTj trpo rov Xoyov, &)$• fi'vovcrrtpovs dTrtpydcraiTo avTnvs...7rape\dciv 
6 KTjpv^ KaTeataTTrjafv fvdvs. Although the Apostle was rather addressing 
a platform audience than pleading his cause before judges, we may 
suppose that the genius loci may have had some influence in inducing 
him to deliver his message /xera Tvdorr)^ nappTjcrlas, and not 'with enticing 
words of man's wisdom.' 

*XVII. 25: Sepaireverai] A. V. 'is worshipped.' R. V. 'is served.' 
The correction is supported by the following examples: Dion. Hal. Arit. 
II. 65 : rd ye roi KaXovpeva npvTavela nap' avrols 'Etrrta? icrriv it pa, Ka\ depa- 
TTfvfTai (are served) npos tcov ('xovroiv to peyia-rov ev ra'ts noXeo'i Kparos. 
Ibid. 67 : ai 8e depanevova-ai Trjv 6(ov ivapdivoi (Vestales). Stob. Floril. 
T. XLIV. 20 : <os ov riparai deos vn' dvQpatnov (f>avXov, ov8e Otpaneverai 
8aTvdvai^ ov8e rpaycodiais. . . 

* Ibid. irpoo-Seoixevos tivos] Both versions : 'as though he needed any 
thing.' We might add ' besides,' to express the full force of the prepo- 
sition, as in the following passages: Stob. Flor. T. XLIII. 134: dpiarov 
pev ovu rav oKav ttoKlv ovTas (TvuTerdxdai, oj'crre prjdevos Troridelcrdai f^coaev. 

1 [Yet this is the result of the R. V. ^ [Cf. Id. xiil. 86: 'AplXKas S^ 

mg. ^ Or, re/tgio/ts.'] Oewpwv to. TrXrjdri 8eiai8aipopovvTa.] 



128 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XVIH. 5 

Ibid. T. CVIII. 84: coy o ToirivTO^ /xfiXtora avTos avr^ avrapKr]s npos to ev (fju, 
Kal 8ia(f)€p6vT(os Twv aWcav rJKca-ra irepov irpoabelTai. Plut. Coinp. Lys. C. 
Syll. Ill : dela-dai yap e'St'Sa^f ttjv ^naprijv cov avros ffxaBf fxt) Trpoa^eladui. 
Diog. L. VI. 11: avrapKr] yap rrjV dpiTTjv eivai. npos (v8aip.oviav, pT]8€i>6i 
TTpoa-beopivqv. Dio Cass. XXXVIII. 8, 3: avros p.(v yap ov8evbs irpoa-bflcrdai 
eXfytv, aWa koI a(f)68pa toU napovaiv apKfla-dai (CTKr^TrTfTo. 

* XVI 1 1. 5: a-vvd\f.To T« irveviJiaTi] 'was pressed in the spirit.' But 
the principal MSS. and versions agree in reading r« Xdyw for tw nvevp-ari, 
and are followed by R. V. ' was constrained by the word.' Kuinol would 
understand, fo/us occiipatits erat in doctrina pfoimelganda, with whom 
agree Dean Alford and others : ' was earnestly (or closely) occupied in 
discoursing.' But this sense of crvvlx^aduL appears to be fictitious : at 
least, it is not defended by such phrases as awexta-dai i/Soi/alr, oSvpfia &c., 
where it is used in 7nalam partem. Another example Wisdom xvil. 20: 
okoi 6 KO(Tp.oi (except the land of Egypt) Xafinpai KareXapneTo <^cD7-i, Ka\ 
ai/f/iTToSio-T-oiy avpfix^To i'pyon, seems more to the purpose. But even here 
(TvvflxfTo is not occiipabaUir, but (as Vulg. renders) contincbatnr, 'was 
held together,' was preserved from dissolution by the ordinary works of 
daily life, which went on without hindrance 1. On the other hand, for 
Kuinol's version the proper Greek would be SietrTraro or d7r7cr_)(oXfiro, 
distinebatur. Comparing such passages as Kai n-cos o-uv€;^o^iat — awexopai 
(K Tav 8vo — rj ayanr] tov XpKTTov crvvex^'' vp^s — there can be little doubt 
that (Tvvfxopai here represents some strong internal feeling, which is 
further supported by the participle ^Lapaprvpopfvos, 'as he testified.' 

* XVIII. 17: ovSiv ToviTwv Tw FaXX^wvi ?jj.€\€v] Join ov8ev epeXev, not 
ovbh' rovTcov. Compare Dio Chrys. LXV. p. 611, 20: aXX' o/ico? ov8ev avra 
Tovrav fpf\(v. Diog. L. II. 34: ft Se (fiavXoi, jqplv avTwv pr]8(v peXi^aei. 

XVIII. 18: ?Ti irpo<r|A€£vas ijiA^pas iKavds] R. V. 'Having tarried after 
this yet many days.' In A. V. 'after this' is italicized, probably against 
the intention of the Translators, who have rendered npoape'ivai ev 'Et^/o-o) 
(i Tim, i. 3) by 'to abide still at Ephesus.' But there would seem to be 
no authority for this enforcing of the preposition, and it is not necessary 
with en. I would translate, ' having waited (or tarried) yet many days.' 
Compare LXX. (some MSS.) Jud. iii. 25 : koI Trpoaepfivav alaxwopfvoi. Aq. 
Job. iii. 9 : irpoa-p-flvai ds (f)cos, koX ov< ea-riv. Aesop. F'ab. XC, ed. de Fur. : 
npoapeivas Se avrop piKpov xpovov • 

' [Compare, for this use of avvix^- " LCf- Aesop. Fab. 258 : Sio 5^ 

adai, S. Chrysost. T. XI. p. 576 D: irpocififvov ws jueXXoiVr/s avrrj^ (sliip) 

SeLKvivre^ OTi ovk oUelg. dwdpei, dWa rrj irpoaoppi^fcdai. Ibid. 284: evpihv 5i) Toi)% 

avTwv <pv\aK7J cvvelxovTO Kai irepayivovTo dXi'iudovs prjbiirw ircjrelpovi irpoaipiViv 

{coutincbantiir et incoIuDies evadebaiit).\ iiji'i avKo. yivuivrai^ 



XIX. 27 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 29 

* XVI 1 1. 24: XoYios] A. V. 'eloquent' R. V. 'learned.' I prefer 
' eloquent,' CO? ol noWol Xeyovo-tf, eVt tov Bfivoii ilirflv (Phryn.). So Plut. 
Vit. Po7np. LI : \oyio<! i^ a<^a>vov yevofxevos. Philo De Cherub, p. 127: 
jjLiKpa vocrov 7rpo(f)a(ris ov rf^v yXSiTTav entjpcoirev ; ov to (rrofia Koi raiv iravv 
Xoyicov dirtppa-^ev; The other sense, 6 Trjs la-Toplas e/jLTreipos, is chiefly found 
in Herodotus and the cultivators of the Attic dialect. 

*XIX. 19: o-vv€v^7KavT€s Tas p^pXovs, KaT€Kaiov tvcoiriov -rrdvTwv] The 
custom of the public burning of atheistical books is well known from 
profane history. Thus Diog. Laert. IX. 52 (of the writings of Protagoras 
at Athens) : koi tq ^i^Xia avrov KareKavaav ev rfj dyopa, iVo KijpvKa dvaXe^a- 
fi€voi Trap' eKaaTov riov KfKTtjpfvav. Lucian. A/t'.v. 47 : Kop.ia-as {ra 'ErriKovpov 
/3t/3Xta) e'f rffv dyopciu pearjv eKavatv eVt ^iJXcoi/ crvKiucov.. .koi rffv (rnobov es 
BoKaaaav i^e^aXev. Magical books were treated in the same way, as we 
learn from Livy (XL. 29) ' Libri in comitio, igne a victimariis facto, in 
conspectu populi cremati sunt.' 

XIX. 27 : p'XXciv T€ Kttl Ka9aip€i(r6ai ti]V p.£7aX€i6Tt]Ta (r^r fieyaKei6TT)T0i 
ABK) avTTJs. A. V. 'And her magnificence should be destroyed.' 

If the T. R. were retained, I would not translate, 'and her magnifi- 
cence should be destroyed,^ but 'should be dmwiished^ for which rendering 
the authority of H. Stephens may be claimed, who in his Thes. L. G. 
gives: ^ Ka6aipovpai pass. dejVdor, evertor. Item immiftuor, ut Act. Ap. 
xix. 27^.' Y^aQaipdv in the sense of jninuere, detrahere, deprimere (e.g. 
86^av, (f)p6vr]pa, Tv(f)ov, oyKov, dXa^oveiav) is very Common, less so in the 
passive, of which an example is St Chrysost. T, ix. p. 682 A : ' Do not 
think that you are degraded {KadaipelcrBai), because you stand in need of 
another person's help; for this rather exalts {v\lrol) you.' But assuming 
rfjs fieyakeiorqTos to be the true reading, I do not think this need make 
any difference in the sense, if we suppose the genitive to depend on n 
understood. The pronoun is expressed in Diod. Sic. iv. 8 : Kadaipfiv 
Ti TTJs TOV 6eov (Hercules) So^r/r. XVIII. 4 : "iva Se pT) 86^T] 8ia Trjs ISias 
yvaprjs KaQaipdv rt t^s 'KKe^avbpov 86^r)i. If, in our text, the reading 
were peWdv re koi Kadaipe'iadni Tt T^y p. avTTJs, we should have no difficulty 
in translating, 'And that aught should be diminished from her magni- 
ficence'; but Ti is sometimes omitted with verbs of a similar character. 
Thus Matt. ix. 16: a'ipei yap to liKripapa avTOv dno tov IpaTiov. Plut. VzA 
Marcell. XXIV : pr] tt^s XimTjs a(f>€\f'iv, dWa tw (po^co Trpocrdelvai. Id. Vtt. 
Cat. Maj. XI : r] piv apxTj r<u ^KrjTrioivi, Trjs avTov paWov fj ttjs Karcouos 
a^fXoutra do^rjs, ev dirpa^La...8LTJ\6fp. For the same construction with 
KaOaipelv, im>ni)uiere, I would refer to Plut. Vit. Grace. Ill : too-ovtov ovv 

' [In this sense it is opposed to a(j- KadatpovvTuv. II. 29 : ttjv S-qixapxiav, 
^eadat. App. B. C. III. 64 : t7)v iih Hop- is aaOeviararov vwb l.vXKa Kadrip-qpiv-qv, 
TTTjiov poLpav av^hvTujv, ttjv 5^ Kalcapos dvayaydvTi avdts €Trl to apxcuov.] 

K. q 



130 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XIX. 33 

e^ejiiaaavTO rov brj^ov ol bwaroi, Kn\ Tt]i eXnidos rov Vatov Kade'iXov, 'that 
(oaov) he was not first, as he expected, but fourth on the polP.' 

Another rendering of the corrected reading is adopted by Dean 
Alford and the Revisers : ' And that she should be deposed from her 
magnificence.' Against which it may be urged that the act of deposition 
(generally from some office or government) being single, not continuous, 
would seem to require the aorist Kadaipfdfjuai ; and also to be followed by 
OTTO. Thus Luke i. 52 : KadelXe SvmcrTas otto dpovcov. Dan. v. 20 : KnTr)V()(0ri 
OTTO Tov 6p6vov Trjs ^aaiXflai". 

*XIX. 33: Ik 8i TOV iJxXov] R. V. margin : 'and some of the multitude 
instructed Alexander.' See on Matt. xiv. 8. 

/dii/. Karaa-tla-as ti]v x^^P'"'] 'beckoned with the hand.' Rather, 
'waved his hand,' 'beckoned' being reserved for vevfiv and its compounds. 
Compare Plut. Fit. Pomp. LXXIII : KuracnlovvL rh Ifxana koi x^'^Rns opeyova-i 
(to attract attention at sea). Philostr. Imag. i. 6 (of Cupids hunting a 
hare): o \i.iv Kporu xeipuiv, 6 8t KtKpayc^s, 6 8e KaTaa-eioov ttjv )(\.ap.v8a^. 

XIX. 35 : KaracTTtCXas tov oxXov] A. V. 'had appeased (R. V. quieted) 
the people.' Neither of these harmonizes so well with O. T. phraseology, 
as ' stilled.' Thus Num. xiii. 30: ' Caleb stilled {KaTea-iconrja-i) the people.' 
Neh. viii. 11: 'The Levites stilled the people.' Psal. Ixv. 8: 'Which 
stilleth (Aq. Karao-TeXXwi/) the noise of the seas... and the tumult of the 
people.' Psal. Ixxxix. 10: 'Thou stillest (O'. KaraTrpavvets, Sym. KaraaTeX- 
Xew) them.' 

/did. vEWKopov] A. V. 'a worshipper,' after the Vulg. cultriccni. 
R. V. 'temple-keeper,' which seems wanting in dignity. It is an official 
title, and might, perhaps, be rendered 'custodian of the temple (or 
worship) *.' 

Ibid. Kttl TOV AioircTovs (sic)] A. V. 'And of the image which fell 
down from Jupiter.' R. V. the same, but gives the right rendering in the 
margin: '■Ox., from heaven.^ Such words as dumeTfi, de caclo delapsum, 
and bioar^ixla, prodigiosa tcmpestas, should always be printed with a small 
initial letter. Compare Dion. Hal. Ant. 11. 71 : iv 8e rais TrtXrais as oi 
(TaXioi (fiopovai, noXXais iravv ovcrais, fiiav tivai Xeyoxxri StoTrer^ (afterwards 

' [Cf. Dio. Chry.s. Or. LVli. 571, /cws ('having deposed,' not ' post devic- 

17: KoX i^ovXero Taireifwcrai /cat tov turn Darium ').] 

(ppovrjfxaTOS, fl dwaiTo, KadeXdv — ubi •' [Cf. Lucian. Scytli. 11: koX iin- 

Cobet requirit a<f>eXuv.^ aficrat XP'J ''"'?*' X^'/"''' ■'""Pro /i6»'o;'...' you 

^ [Cf. Lucian. A'/ic/. Praec. 3: 'hpX'^ have only to wave your hand, and your 

ixiv yap ■fjSrj 'AX^^avSpoi Hepcrwv /xerA success is ensured.'] 
TTjv iv 'Ap^rjXois pdxvf Aa/)e?of KaOrjpr]- * [Latin : acdiftn/s.] 



XX. 15 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 13I 

explained by deoTrefinTov)^. Pausan. A/f. 26, 6 (quoted by Wetstein) : 
TO Sf dyi.(0TaT0v...f(TTiv 'Adrjpas ayaX/xa ev Tjj vvv dKpoTru\fi...(l)^firj 8e e's avro 
e'xei neaelv €k tov ovpavov. Plut. Vt'/. Num. XIII : IdTopfiTai ;;^aX»c^i/ neXrrjv 
(^ ovpavov KaTa(f)(pofj,€vr]v els rds 'Novp.d ireailv x^lpa^, who had eleven Others 
made exactly like it kcu ax^p^a, foi peyedos, koI popt^rjv, ottcos cnropov e'li] tw 
Kkinrrj 81 opotoTrjrn tov StonfTOVS €7rirv;(eii'. 

*X1X. 36 : ixTjS^v TrpoireT^s irparTnv] Compare Dion. Hal. A/if. XI. 29: 
ov8fv ovT€ TTpoTTfTes ovT€ ^laiov TviiTpaKTat poi. Diod. Sic. T. IX. p. 389 
ed. Bip. : koi prjSev Taxfd^s irpciTTdv. Charit. Aphrod. Vl. 3: &5f dirciv 
Ti npoTTtTes. Stob. Floril. T. III. 79 (Periandri dictum): fTnacfiaXfi 
TvpoTViTfia. Diod. Sic. XIII. 23 : ^ rt? r]TTov TOV pev copov tov eXtov, 
Trjs 8e nponeTeias ttju evXa^eiav faxt]<f; In LXX. the word is usually 
found in connexion with aTopa or x^'^'? > ^^'^ ^^ Eccles. v. i for pr; 
anreiiBe eVi crTopaTi aov Symmachus has prj TrpoTreri)? y'lvov to) aropnTi crov. 

*XIX. 40 : £-yKa\£io-6ai. (rrdo-ews irepi rr\s o-ijjxepov] So the preposition 
should be accented, according to the textual rendering of R. V. 'EyKa- 
Xficrdac TTfpl TTJs a-Tacrecos is a good construction (see Ch. xxiii. 29, xxvi. 7), 
and TTfpl is often placed eleganter after its noun ; more rarely between the 
noun and its epithet, as Aristoph. Lys. 1289: jjcrwxt'aj rrept tj}? peyoKo- 
(ppovos I ^v (noLr](Te dfo. Kinrpis. Pax 105 : eprjaopepos (Kelvov 'EXXj^Va)!/ 
nepi I dna^anavTmv o ti TToielv ^ovXeveTai. 

XX. 15 : irap€pdXofj.€v els SdjAov] A. V. ' We arrived at Samos.' R. V. 
'We touched at Samos.' But this is a very doubtful sense of the word. 
In a list of terms signifying appellere, J. Pollux (l. 102) includes ivpoa- 
^aXflv, but not Ttapa^aXfiv. Of the numerous examples given by Wetstein, 
appellere will not suit Herod. VII. 179: napejiaXe vr]va\ Tjjai cipiaTa 
nXfova-Tjai 8eKa iBv ^Kiddov; nor yet Thucyd. III. 32: /cat eXnida ov8e 
TTjv fXaxiCTTtjv fi-X'^^1 PWOTf, 'Adrjvaicov ttjs daXnaarjs KpaTovVTCov, vavs 
UfXonovi'rja-Lcov €s ^Iwviav napa^aXelv ; in both which places it can only 
mean trajicere, to cross over, a sense which is also suitable to most of 
the other quotations, as well as to Joseph. Atit. xviii. 6, 4: 'AypiVTras 

Se eiy IIoTioXouf irapa^aXcov inKTToXfjv fls Tt/Sepioc Kaiaapa ypd(f)ei . . n§ia>v 
((fieaiv avTM yeveadai eis Kanpeas TrnpajBaXflv. 

^ [Ci.Ibid.W. 27: Trpaypa dprixavov plained, Salpwv tls, ws 'ioLK€v...iKbfii(X€v 

virekdpfiavov elvat iroXefxlovs iTrL<pa.vrivaL i^ 'IraX/aj els ^vpaKOvaas nXarwva). 

To?s (T(peT^poLS dipaveis ua-irep irrrjvoijs rivas But in the two following examples 

f) BioTrereis.] the word seems rather to be used 

^ [Cf. Plut. F/V. Deniet)'. xxxix : in the sense of passing by a place. 

iireira KXewvvpov tov ^TrapTiarov irapa- Plut. V//. Aral. XII : ry 'Apdrqi ylveral 

^aXovTos is 0?7;8as fxera crrpaTids (where TisevTVxta^'Pi^paLKJisveihsTrapapaXovff-qs 

Langhorne absurdly, 'having thrown Ko.Ta.Tov Tb-Kov. Dio. Chrys. 6>r. xxxii. 

themselves into Thebes'). Vit. Dion. 375, 39: (the Sirens) ev eprip(^ riaav 

IV : delq. Tivl tvxV nXctrcocos els "LiKeXiav ■KeXdyec...€irl aKoiriX.ov TLvbs, Sirov prjdels 

Trapa§aX6vTOS (which is afterwards ex- p^5/ws trap^^aXXe.] 



132 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XX. 20 

*XX. 20: MS oi8iv viTTto-TfiXdiATiv Twv (rv|i,<})£p6vTa)v, Tov (A1] dva-yyeiXai 
vikiv Kal 8i8d|ai ijias] A. V. ' And how I kept back nothing that was 
profitable unto you, but have shewed you and have taught you.' R. V. 
'how that I shrank not from declaring unto you anything that was 
profitable, and teaching you.' The A. V. is as close to the letter and 
spirit of the Greek as can be desired, but the latter clause might be 
improved by rendering, ' so as not to declare it to you, and to teach you.' 
The Revisers have preferred the non-biblical phrase 'I shrank not' on 
account of 7>. 27, where ' I kept not back ' would not suit. But in so 
doing they have obliterated in t. 20 the exquisite Greek idiom, ov8(i> 
vTrocTTfXXf (T^at, ov8iv vnoa-TeCKafxevov flnflv, of which a few examples (out of 
a host) may be adduced. Thus Plut. De Adulat. XVlil. (T. ll, p. 60 c) : 
hiiv eXfvdepovs ovras Trapprjaia^fcrdai, Koi /HTjStV vnocrTeWfcrdai /i»/8' aTTOo-icoTrnc 
Tcov avfKpepovraiv (where vTrorrreXXeo-^ai is synonymous with cino(Tia>nnv). 
Lucian. Pseudol. 2 : Kai firj^ev vnocrTiKnvpevai to pi) ovxi ncivra e^eineli'. 
Demosth. p. 54 extr. : viiv re a yiyvdcrKco navd' nTrXcIis' nv8(v iiTroardKapevoi 
■jrfuapprjfrlaa-jjLai. Dio. Chrys. Or. XI. 158: or S' av (WtjOuh Xe'-yr; ti, 
$appa>v KOI ovdep VTrocrrfWopevos Xe'yei. 

In 7/. 27 ov yap viTf(TTfikaprjv tov prj nvnyyelXai vpiv, the verb being 
intransitive, its English equivalent must be varied, and the A. V. ' I 
shunned not' is at least as good as 'I shrank not.' 

*XX. 23: ijTi 8£(r)xd |j.€ Kal OXftj/eis p.€vov(riv] Both versions: 'abide 
me.' A. V. in marg. 'Or, wait f 07- i/ie.'' Perhaps 'await me' would be 
more in harmony with present usage. Palairet gives two good examples 
of the Greek word being so used. Anthol. I. 33, 32 (T. i, p. 125 
Jacobs. 1794): nav(xai- inei ae pivft taKpva Koi KaToirw. Ach. Tat. V. 2: 
ffifvev rjfias koi aWo Trjs TV)(r]s yvpvdmov. 

XX. 24 : dXX' ov8£v6s Xoyov iroioviAai, oi8i ^x" '""''l*' 4'^X''lv H-"^ Ti|j.iav 
tjAavTO)] The reading of BCN\ which is adopted by most modern 
editors, and followed by R. V., aXX' ovbevos \6yov noiovpai rfjv "^vx^jv 
Tifiiav ffiavTca, has every appearance of having consisted originally of 
two members, which, through the accidental omission of one or more 
words, have become fused into one. The unsuccessful attempts which 
have been made to construe the amalgamated sentence as a single clause 
plainly show this. Thus Dean Alford's ' I hold my life of no account, 
nor precious to me,' and the R. V. ' I hold not my life of any account, 
as dear unto myself,' do, in fact, break up the clause into two by the 
interpolation of ovSe and u>s respectively ; to say nothing of the tautology. 
On the other hand the T. R. while yielding a faultless construction, also 
gets rid of the tautology, the first clause, «XX' ovbtvoi \uyov nowiipai, 
plainly referring to the minor evils, the Bfapa kuI 6\i\l/(is mentioned in 
the preceding verse, which we should have expected the speaker to 
allude to before expressing his contempt for death itself. The principal 
difficulty in this reading is. that if the words ov8f «;^a) had once formed 



XX. 34 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 33 

a part of the original text, there is no apparent reason for their subsequent 
omission. This, however, does not apply to other supplements, in which 
the verb is in the middle voice, so forming a clear 6/iotoreXfuroi/ with 
Tj-oiovixai. In a paper printed in 1875 the present writer suggested 
several of these, giving the preference to ijyoiifiai, and quoting (besides 
the Pauline use of the word) several examples of rlfiiov ijye'iadal ri from 
profane authors, and a very remarkable one of the entire phrase rifiiav 
fiye'icrOai. t^v ^vxn" from Dion. Hal. Anl. v. 30 (due to Wetstein) : ft 
cf)i\ovs avrl TroXe fjiicov, €(fir], TTOvfjaaio tovs avdpas, Tifiicorepav i^yrjaanevos rfjv 
(ravToii "^vxriv Trjs Kadobov Tcoc avv TapKvviois (fivyabcov. 

The following is a copy of the Sinaitic MS. on this place, substituting 
\6yov for Xdyou, and inserting the line supposed to be omitted: — 

. .. AAAOYAGNOC 
AOrONnOIOYMAI 
OYAeHrOYMAI 
THNTYXHNTIMI 

ANeA\AYTnncTe 

The A. V. of ov8(v6s \6yov Troiovfiai, ' None of these things move me,' 
though somewhat free, admirably expresses the sense and spirit of the 
Greek ; and is so endeared to the English reader by long familiarity and 
frequent quotation, that it would be injudicious, not to say, irreverent, to 
meddle with it. Its literal counterpart may be found in Plut. F//. Pericl. 
XXXIV : iT\r]v VTT ovdevos eKiPtjdr] toiv toiovtodv (the importunity of his friends 
and the scoffs of his enemies) 6 TlepiKXfjs^. 

* Ibid. ovScvos XoYov iroiovjiai] The more common formula is 
ovhiva \6yov Troiovfiai tivos (whether person or thing), but that of the 
T. R. in this place is found in Dion. Hal. Anf. ix. 50: ttoWo. SeojueVwi/ 
Tap Trpfcr^iVTU)V...\6yov avbevos avrav noirjaaiJifvos.,, 

XX. 28 : TJv irtpifiroiijo-aTo 8ia tov ISiou al'[j.aTos] A. V. ' Which he 
[hath] purchased with his own blood.' To distinguish TrepuTronjaaro 
from eKTTjaaTo or jjyopao-e, we may translate, 'Which he gat him {sidi 
cotnparavit) through his own blood.' (Compare Eph. i. 7 : 'we have 
redemption through his blood.') So also in i Tim. iii. 13 (the only other 
place) for ' purchase to themselves {TrepinoioiivTai iavroh) a good degree,' 
may be substituted 'get themselves.' Compare Gen. xxxi. 18: 'all his 
goods which he had gotten (irepterroij^craro).' Diod. Sic. XVI. 7 : »/ Se 
TToXis d^LuXoyov a^icofia TT(pi.Troir)(Tafjiivrj. 34 ; Ka\ tovs (TaTpajrai fxeyaXais 
fj.a\ais 8v(r\ piKtjaas, TrfpieTroii^aaTo p.eyaXrjv 86^av iavTot re kuI tois BoiwToiy. 

*XX. 34: at x^i^P^s avTai] 'these hands' (stretching them out). 
Compare Philost. //er. p. 162 (ed. Boiss.) : flnofTos yovv noTe npos avTov 
' AxiXXecos, Q IlaXafXT)8fS, dypoiKOTepos (fiaivrj toIs rroXXo'is. oti jxt] TreTraaai top 
OepantvaovTa, Tt ovp TAYTA, ((prj, w 'AxiXXfi; r<a ;^eipe a/xfjio} npoTflvas. 

^ [Cf. Id. Dion. XXXI : koX, to /ndXiaTa KLvfjcrav avT6v....'\ 



134 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXI. i 

*XXI. I : diroo-rrao-ee'vTas dir' avTwv] A. V. 'after we were gotten from 
them.' R. V. ' when we were parted from them.' Perhaps ' hardly 
parted' might be not unsuitable to such an occasion, although the 
simple word is all that is required in such cases as Luke xxii. 41 : 
'and he was parted (A. V. withdrawn) from them about a stone's cast.' 
2 Mace. xii. 10 : fKf'idev 6e d-rvoanafrdiVTuiv ara8Uw9 0. Polyaen. Strat. 
VI. 16, 4: 0)9 Se \iaKpav (iTreandcrdrjcrav cixpt TreXayovs 8i(okovt(s. Perhaps 
the nearest example to our place is Eurip. Alcest. 287 : ovk rjdeXrjaa (^u 
dTToa-Traade'iaa (tov ; but even this does not warrant, in a simple narration, 
such a sensational rendering as 'after we had torn ourselves away from 
them' (Grot., Hemsterh., and some English versions); not to mention 
that this sense is more appropriate to the middle than to the passive 
form: e.g. Dion. Hal. Allt. v. 55: dyecrdat eVi t6v Odvarov, dnoa-naifjievovs 
yvvaiKav re Koi Tvaiboav Koi iraTepav. Virg. Aeu. II. 434 : Divelllinur 
inde \ Iphltus et Pellas mecuin. 

*XXL 3: dva«j)dvavT€s (T. R. dva<})av€VT€s) Si ti^v Kvirpov] A. V. 'when 
we had discovered Cyprus.' R. V. 'when we had come in sight of Cyprus.' 
' It is a nautical term for bringing the land in view by approaching it, and 
so bringing it up, as it were, above the honzon'' —Humphry. In departing 
from a place the opposite effect takes place; as Lucian. V. H. li. 38: 
fTTft 8' drLiKpv^a\i.iV avTovi. Synes. Ep. IV : i/oroy Xa|i7rpo?, v<\) ov rnxv 
fiev T^v yr]v dneKpviTToiJ,ev. Virg. Aen. III. 291 : aerlas Phaeaciim ab- 
scoridiinus arces. 

* Ibid. €Kei<r€ ■ydp ^v to irXoiov diro(|)opTL56|Ji€vov t6v 76[jiov] On the 
present part. dno(f)opTiC6iJievov see on 2 Pet. ii. 9. The more common 
meaning of the word is 'to throw overboard,' as Philo Tom. 11. p. 413 : 
Kvfiepvr]Tr)i Se x^eipuiva>v iinyivapivav aTTocfyopTi^fTai. Greg. Naz. Or. XXVII. 
p. 471 D (ad opulentos): dTro(f)opTiaai ti rrjs vrjos, tea nXe'rjs KovtfxWepoi. 
For 'unloading' is commonly quoted Dion. Hal. Anl. III. 44: al 8e 
Hfi^ovs (oXKclSey) eV dyKvpoiv (TokevovcraL rais noTnp.rjyols dnoyf^il^ovTai 
Ti Kill dTro(l)opTiCovTai a-Ka(f)ais, where, however, Cod. Vat. has dvTKpop- 
TiCovrai, ' take in a return cargo.' 

€K€i(r£ = €/c€T Ch. xxii. 5. Job xxxix. 29. Demosth. p. 1283, 21 : ttjv piv 
vavv fts 'Pobov KaT€Kupi(Te, koi tov yopov eKflire f^eXop-evos dntdoro. 

XXI. 7: ii|A€is 8i TOV irXovv 8iav«o-avT€s diro Tvpov] A. V. 'And when 
we had finished our course (R. V. the voyage) from Tyre.' From the 
comparison o'f a large number of places in Xenophon Ephesius (with 
whom the phrase is a very favourite one) I arrive at the correct version : 
'And we, continuing our voyage from Tyre.' The following are some of 
the places, from the edition of Locella : — P. 19: KaKelvrjv piv ttjv rjpfpav 
ovpia> ;^pr;(7-a/Li6i/ot nvfiipari, diavvcravTfs tov nXoiiv, ds ^dpov KaTrjvTTjaav (this 
was the first day's sail of a long voyage). P. 55: tirXfov di 'Atrmi/- Ka\ 
ptxpi ptv Tccoj 8irivv(TTo fvTvx<^s 6 ttXoGs (afterwards they were wrecked). 
P. 86: o 8( duivva-ui tov an \iyvnTov nXovv, fls avrfjv piv 'ItuXihv ovk 



XXI. 37 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 35 

(pxerai (he was sailing from Egypt to Italy, but the wind drove him out 
of his course). P. 107 : dvayofiepos, koi 8iavv(ras tov irKovv, to. fxiv npwra 
f'nl Ttjs 2t(ceXtay ep^frat (only the first stage of the voyage). P. in: 
of^yero, koI 8iavvaas fidXa acrfievoas tov tt\ovv, ov noWaii i^fiepais els 'PoSof 
Karaipd- rfj S' e^^r 7]8r] p,eu Trepi tov ttXovv eylvovTO (but put it off on account 
of a festival). In all these cases there is no question oi finishing the 
voyage, but only of continiiing or perforating it. 

XXI. 15: €iri<rK€va(rd|j.€voi (T. R. dtroo-K.^)] A. V. 'We took up our 
carriages (baggage).' I should prefer, ' Having furnished ourselves for 
the journey.' Hesychius explains the word by ei)rpe7rio-^ei/res ; St Chryso- 
stom by to. npos ttjv 68onropiav Xa^ovTes. Compare Jerem. xlvi. (Gr. xxvi.) 
19: ^7 ''^'y npiJ v3. O'. (TKiVT) anoiKi<jp.ov TTOirjcrov (TfavTrj, A. V. 
' Furnish thyself to go into captivity.' 

*XXI. 28: PoTiOeiTe] Wetstein quotes from Aristoph. Lysis/, (sic): 
yfiTovfs, fiorjde'iTe Bevpo, but there is no such reference in Caravella's 
Index Aristoph. Also from Meleager (Anthol. T. I. p. 8 Jacobs. 1794) 
" Qvdpa>noi, /3a)5f trf . I add Charit. Aphrod. I. 8 : ^0T]6f'iTf. eVet Se 
TToXXaKis avTijs KeKpayvias, ovdev eytvero nXeov... 

*XXI. 35: on 8i (•^iviro eirl tovs dvapaSjiovs] Both versions: 'and 
when he came upon the stairs.' The ancient versions, more correctly, 
'and when he came TO the stairs.' Vulg. cuw venissei ad gradiis. Pesch. 
L.Jj^ wjt4^ p- Philox. L.J5 Za\ ]0(n ^^j p. Cf Luke xxiv. 22 : 

yivop.evai opOpiai eVi to pvrjfxe'iov, 'which were early at the sepulchre.' 

*XXI. 37: 'EXXtivio-tI 7ivc5<rK€is ;] A. V. 'Canst thou speak Greek?' 
R. V. 'Dost thou know Greek?' Dean Burgon {Revisioi Revised, p. 149) 
instances this as a proof of the Revisers' ' want of familiarity with the 
refinements of the Greek language.' He rightly explains the full ex- 
pression to be, 'Dost thou know [how to talk] in Greek?' and quotes 
(from Wetstein) the plena locutio, as occurring in Nehem. xiii. 24: 01 
vioi avTcov Tjfiicrv XaXovvTfs ^A^a>TiaTi, koi ovk elcrlv entyivcoaKovTfs XaXelv 
'lovSato-ri. For the elliptical form we are referred to Xen. Cyrop. vil. 
5, 31 • TOVS 8' iv Tois olnlais KrjpvTTeiv Toi/s SuptOTi iTn<TTap.evovs fv8ov fitvfiv. 
Other examples are St Chrysost. T. ix. p. 200 E: opa/EXXrja-iv tvayyeXlCov- 
Tai. (Ikos yap avTovs re XotTroi' tl8evai ''EXXrjviaTi, Koi iv 'AvTio)(eia toiovtovs 
flvai TToXXovs. Xen. Anab. vil. 6, 8 : (Seuthes Thrax) iv iTrrjKoa fla-TiJKei 
€x<ov ipp.r}vea- ^vvUi 8e Koi avTos 'EXXrjvKTTi to. TrXeioTa, where the full con- 
struction would be Tav 'EXXr;i/ioTi XaXoviMfvcov. The Vulgate has here 
Gracce iiosti? and Graece scire., nescire is the ordinary Latin idiom, 

^ [Cf. Plut. Vit. Dion, xxvi : airo- Synalus to forward them when there 
(T/ceuacraynei'os ohv rk irepiovra. tCjv ottXwv was an opportunity.] 
Kal tQv (popTluiv iKil and requesting 



136 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXH. 18 

which would be not at all surprising in the mouth of the Roman 'chief 
captain,' as reported by the Latinizing St Luke. 

XX I L 18: ov irapaSelovTat trov ti^v [xapTupCav irepl €|xou] The reading 
of ABX {fiapTvpinv without the article) is thus represented by R. V. 'They 
will not receive of thee testimony concerning me.' But this, I think, would 
require napa a-oii. The preposition in napade^ovrai is necessary to express 
acceptance ox favourable reception, as Mark iv. 20 (where R. V. 'accept'), 
I Tim. V. 19; and has therefore spent its force. 

XXH. 23: piiTTovvTwv Ttt ijAciTta] A. V. 'And cast off their clothes.' 
R. V. 'And threw off their garments,' as preparing to stone them (Grot.). 
But pv^ai TO. ifi. is to throw them away, for the purpose of flight^, or of 
running faster; and those who put off their garments at the stoning of 
Stephen did not throw them away, but gave them to Saul to take care of. 
Amongst the gestures of an excited crowd the shaking or tossing of their 
garments (Lat. jactatio togariim) is often included. Wetstein quotes 
Aristaen. Ep. I. 26 : o Se hr]\xo^ (to express admiration of a dancer) 
dviaTrjKe re opdos inrb 6avp.aTos...Ka\ t(o x^'P^ Kti/ei, Koi rrjv ivBrfTa trowel. 
Philostr. p. 818: /cat 01 p.(v rw x^'P* dvaa-dovcri, 01 8e rrjv ea-dfjra. Lucian. 
De Salt. 83 (where an opxr\(Trr]^ overdoes the part of Ajax p.aiv6p.fvos) : 
dWa TO ye Oiarpov dnav (Tvvfp,efirivei. rw Ai'ai/rt, Kai eVf/Scof, Ka\ f^ooov, kgi ras 
ea-dfJTas divepp'nvTovv (' ubi legere mallem dveppinTovv^, spectatores enim 
non abjecisse, s^d sticcussisse, szirsum jecisse vestes credibile est.' — Bast.)\ 
Though there is no good example of this use of pinTflv, it was so under- 
stood by St ChrySOStom : kui rd j/xarta fKTivda-crovrfs, 4^r](Ti, Kovioprov e^oKov, 
using the same word as Nehem. v. 13, Acts xviii. 6'*. 

*XXII. 25: ws 8^ irpoirtivav avriiv tois i|Jia.<riv] A. V. 'and as they 
bound him with thongs.' R. V. 'and when they had tied him up with 
the thongs.' ' Dr Bloomfield quotes from Dio. Cass. XLIX. 22 (p. 405 e) : 
'AvTiyovov efiaariyuxre (rravpa npob^aas ; and explains rightly, I think, the 
Trpo in both verbs to allude to the position of the prisoner, which was bent 
forward, and tied (the position.?) with a sort of gear made of leather to 
an inclined post' — Bean Alford. But in the passage from Dio. Cass. 
npo8i](Tas is a vox nihili, and the true reading is Trpoo-Sijcrar, as quoted by 
Pearson, On the Creed, Article IV. p. 203, ed. 1723. The force of the pre- 
position, therefore, still remains obscure, unless we adopt Jos. Scaliger's 
explanation : ' Legimus in comoedia, Ego plectar pendens (h. e. p.eTfwpos). 

1 [Cf. Plut. Fit. Tim. xxxiv : ^^ei 40 : (l^an ot fjiv avrGiv irepiTpixovTis 

plxj/ai Tb ifjMTiov dia p-iaov rod dfarpov.] eUovTO • ol 5k to. l/xaTia ippLirTOvv virb 

^ [Cf. Lucian. De Gym. 27: (Keivo Tod (po^ov. Or. XXXII. p. 389, 40: 

Tolvvv (discum) dvw re avappiirTovcrLv (said of spectators in a theatre) TrTjSwcres 

(h rbv d^pa Kai els rb woppu}.] Kal fiaivb/xevoi /cat iraLovTfs dXXijXous, /cai 

"See Boiss. ad Aristaen. £/>is/. dir6ppr]Ta \^yovTiS...Kal to. ovTa[l/xdTia] 

p. s8o. Ed. piirToui/Tes /cat yv/xvoi ^adlj^ouTes dvb ttjs 

•* [Cf. Diu. Chrys. Or. Vll. p. 103, OUs iviore.] 



XXrir. i6 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. I37 

IMud pendet'e est luaai npoTe'ivea-dai, fumbus utrinque a terra lei'ari, non 
autem stantem funibus ad columnam alligari, ut pictorum natio somniat^' 
An extract from Ach. Tat. vil. 12 lends considerable support to this idea : 
apri 8i fxov dedevros (cf. V. 29) koi ttjs fadrjTos tov crco/xaro? yfyvixvuifxivov, 
fifTfcopov Tf €K ra>v ^p6)((ov Kpep.ap.evov, Ka\ twu pev paariyas Kopi^ovrav^ raiu 

8« TTVp KOI TpoXpV.... 

*XXIII. 10: evXapi]d£ls (11] 8i.a<nrao-ef] Those critics who pin their 
faith on the consensus of certain MSS. require us to believe that ev'Ka^rjdfh 
is a gloss on (jio^Tjdels, and not the reverse. We have often had occasion 
to notice resemblances between the diction of Diod. Sic. and that of 
St Luke, and we find an instance in the use of this word. As, for 
example, XII. 60: Arjpoadevrjs fvXa^ovpevos prj koL tov 'NavTroKTov fKnoXiop- 
Ki]<T(0(ri. XIV. 44: Aiopvcnos...fvXa(^f'iTo prjuore tcov KapxT]8ovi(ov dia^avrwp 
fls ^iKfXiaVj €K£ivois TTpoadavrat. XIX. 55- tcii't-' ovv evXajSTjdeis. XX. 36: 
TOP diro Trjs cruy/cX/jrou (^Oopov evXafirjdiU. 

Examples of biaa-natrdai. in a literal sense, from the violence of an 
infuriated multitude, are not wanting in the history of popular tumults. 
Thus in the account of the riotous proceedings which followed on the 
death of Julius Caesar, we read (Plut. Vit. Caes. LXVlli) aXXot S' ((poiTMP 
naPTaxocre Trjs noXeas, crvXXa^elp koi biacrndcraaOat. tovs av8pas fr;roDi'rff. One 
of their victims was Cinna the poet ( FiV. Brut, xx) who, eKKopi^opevov tov 
(T(i>paTos alhovpfvos pTj Trape'ipai, irporfXdep fls top o)(Xop rj8r) diaypiaipopepop, 
oipdels 8e SuaTTaardr], being taken for his namesake the conspirator 2. 
Appian (B. C. II. 147) tells the same story with an addition by way of 
embellishment : Kippap..,8t.fana(rap ^r/picoSwr, koI ov8(p avToii p.epos es Ta(j)^v 
fvpedrj. 

*XXin. 14. 'Ava6€|xaTi dv66€|xaT^(ra|Jiev tavrovs] Both versions, 'We 
have bound ourselves under a great curse.' Dele 'great.' It is not the 
Hebrew idiom (as in Deut. xx. 17: dpadepaTi dvadfpaTiflTe ovtovs, 'ye shall 
utterly destroy them '), but dpaOlpuTi is added e'^ tov TtXeopd^opTos, like 
evX^jV fv^aadai, etc. Suidas^: ea-Ti 8e 'Attikop to <Txfjp,a, to eltvopTa to 
7rpdyp.a enayayelp to dno tov Trpdyp,aTos ovop.a' oJy to vfipip v^pl^eip k.t.X.^ 

* XXII I. 16 : irapa'YCv6|ji«vos Kal elo-tXSwv «ls ti^v irapep-PoXiiv] A. V. ' He 
went and entered into the castle.' R. V. in margin proposes another 
rendering : ' Having come in 7ipon them, and he entered.' But this 
would surely require rJKova-e be instead of dKova-as 8e, and firiaras avToU 
for Trapayevopepos. As to how he came to hear of the plot, Ammonius 
gives the right explanation : fjKovdep m 'lovSa7or c^p, Ka\ avpup avTois. 

^ Scaliger, Bk II. Ep. 146. Ed. quotation is to be found j.z*. X?7pcis. Ed. 

2 [Shakespeare yi^/. Caes. in. 3: ■* Quoted by Vorstius, De Hebrais- 
• Truly, my name is Cinna. viis N. T. Comm. cap. xxxv. p. 632 ed. 
1st Cit. Tear him to pieces; he's a con- Fischer, Lips. 1778. This reference, as 

spirator.'] well as the other in note ^, I owe to 

3 Dr H.Jackson points out that this Mr W. Aldis Wright. Ed. 



13? THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXHI. 30 

XXI 1 1. 30: Xe'Y€iv TO, irpos airov tiri o-ou] A. V. ' To say before thee what 
tlwy //(?^/ against him.' Literally, 'the things concerning him,' as to. npos 
6e6v, 'the things which pertain to God' (Rom. xv. 17). But the prepo- 
sition may often be rendered 'against,' when the context implies 
opposition, as Ch. xxiv. 19: ei ti e'xoifv irpos pe, 'if they had aught 
against me^.' Col. iii. 13: eav rtr Trpns nva exjj /Lto/LK^r/'f, ' if any man 
have a quarrel against any.' The A. V. therefore requires no alteration, 
except that the words ' they had ' need not be italicized. But the T. R., 
though yielding an excellent sense, is not exempt from difficulties on the 
part of the MSS., of which B simply omits to, and AX read Xeyeiv avrovs 
eni aoii, supported by the Vulgate, ?// dicaiit apnd tc. Of the Syriac 
versions Philox. reads to. irpos avrov (CTlZciXj —j-XcTl) ; Pesch. 'that 
they should come and speak with him' ( mVtV .O^Sopo .oZ.pj), 
probably as B. The R. V. as usual follows the same MS. 'charging 
his accusers also to speak against him before thee.' If this reading 
must be adopted, since it seems superfluous to charge accusers to speak 
against the accused, I should prefer rendering, with the Peschito, ' to 
speak %vith him,' i.e. to say what they had against him, and to hear what 
he had to say in reply. 

*XXIII. 35 : SiaKoilo-oHiai o-ov] A. V. ' I will hear thee.' R. V. ' I will 
hear thy cause.' The forensic use of this word may be illustrated from 
Job ix. 33: hiaKovtxiv ava\ii(Tov dp.(f)OTepa)i'. Stob. Floril. T. XLVIII. 61 : 
€pya hi ^aaiKeas "rpia, to re crTparayev koi SiKacnroXev (to administer justice) 
Koi OepaTVfvev deovs- ..hiKaaTroKev be koi diaKoveii Travr<ov twv vtt avrov- ••. 
There is a story told of Philip, the father of Alexander, that when a poor 
old woman importuned him to hear her cause, and his answer was /xj) 
o-xoXdffti/, she promptly replied, km p.fj fSaa-lXfve. The narrator adds 
(Plut. T. II. p. 179 C) : 6 8e davixacras to pr]6iv, ov fiovov fKtivTjs, dXXa koI twv 
aXXcoi' fvdiis 8ii^Kov(Tfi'. 

*XXIV. 2 : Kal KaTop9oo|j.dTwv Ytvoiievtov tu) ?9v€i touto)] A. V. 'and that 
very worthy deeds are done unto this nation.' R. V. (with diopScopnTcov) 
'and that evils are corrected.' If 8iop6a>pdToiv is the true reading, this 
seems a good opportunity to confer the 'freedom' of the English Bible 
upon a word which would certainly have been employed by an English 
TertuUus on such an occasion : ' and that REFORMS are being carried out 
for this nation.' In partial support of this rendering we might appeal to 
Heb. ix. 10: /Ae'xpt Kuipov diopdcoatas, A. V. 'until the time of reformation.' 

*XXIV. 25 : Ai,aX€70[j,^vov 8i k.t.X.] It may be interesting to compare 
with this discourse an interview between Dionysius the tyrant and Plato, 

^ [Cf. Lucian. Her mot. 85: vvv hi... ^do^ev, oudii> t^alperov irpbs avrriv 
7rp6s Tr\v CToav atroTtTaaOai. 6 \6yoi ^)^wi'.] 



XXV. xs THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 139 

related in Plut. F//. D/ou. v. ' The discourse turned on virtue {api-rr]) 
in general. Afterwards they came to fortitude (avSpeia) in particular ; 
and the philosopher made it appear that tyrants have, of all men, the 
least pretension to that virtue. Justice {8iKaioa-vvr]) was the next topic ; 
and when Plato asserted the happiness of the just, and the wretched 
condition of the unjust, ovre roiis \6yovs e(f)fpfv 6 rvpawos wa-n-fp e'^eXey- 
XOfifvos, r/x^dero re Tols napoiiai davp-aaTcoi a7roSe;^o/xe'i'ots' tov avSpa Koi 
Kr]XovfjL€Vois VTTO Tav Xeyofievcov.^ 

In describing the impression made by St Paul's argument upon Felix, 
for the Greek e/Ll0o^os• yfv6iJ.evos we would render neither ' he trembled ' 
(k'vTpofios y.), nor 'he was terrified' (eVror;^/;), but simply 'he was afraid,' 
as A. V. Acts X. 4, xxii. 9. We are sorry to part with the former for 
Felix's sake, but the sequel shows that he was not so greatly moved on 
this occasion as to realize the picture usually drawn of him, of a judge 
trembling before his prisoner. 

*XXIV. 27: xdpiTa KaraGeo-Oai, tois 'lovSaCois] A. V. 'to shew the 
Jews a pleasure.' R. V. 'to gain favour with the Jews.' But since 
Felix, in retiring from his province, could have had no motive for 
ingratiating himself with those whom he no longer governed, but merely 
desired to lay them under a parting obligation, this view of the subject 
seems to be more correctly indicated by the A. V. ' to shew the Jews a 
pleasure,' than by the proposed improvement of it. 

XXV. II : ovSeis |A€ Svvarai avTois xap£(ra(r9ai] A. V. 'No man may 
deliver me (R. V. give me up) unto them.' Again v. 16: 'It is not the 
manner of the Romans to deliver (give up) any man ' (xapiC^a-dai nva 
civdpconop). To 'deliver' or 'give up' might be the rendering of napa- 
Boiivai or fKdovvai, in which the principal idea of ;^apt^f(r^at is lost ^ I 
would add 'as a matter of favour,' there being no single word in English 
equivalent to the Greek. The distinction is important, as showing the 
highly advanced state of the Roman criminal law, in contrast with that 
of Eastern nations : e.g. when Haman offered Artaxerxes 10,000 talents 
of silver for permission to destroy the Jews, the king (in the words of 
Josephus) Koi TO apyvpiov avrat x'^pi^erat, koi tovs avOpodirovs, cooTf TroieTc 
avTovs 6 Ti IBovXfTai. [I now see that R. V. offers an alternative version, 
' grant me by favour.'] 

*XXV. 13: KaTTiVTi]o-av €15 Kaio-dp€iav, do"7rao-6(i€VOi tov 'i>TJ<rTOv] 'to 

salute Festus.' So Vulg. and both Syriac versions, against the uncials, 
which agree in reading ao-Trao-a/xewt. But how is this to be construed ? 
Not surely as R. V. in text, ' they arrived at C. and saluted F.,' which 
would certainly require Km riaTrdcravTo tov <i>. We must therefore accept 

^ [Cf. Plut. lit. Dion. XLVli: ot cTTpaTnliTais xap('cra(r<?at tov 'HpaKXei- 
fxiv (pi\oL TrapeKeXevovTO ry AIuvl. . .to7s Ot/c] 



140 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXV. i6 

the only possible alternative, 'having saluted F.,' i.e. they first saluted F. 
and then arrived at C. where he resided. Can anything be more 
childish ? The participle of the aorist evidently got in here from Ch. xxi. 
7, KaTrjVTT]aafifv (is HroXe/xaiSa, koi aaTraaafievot rovs a8e\(f)ovs ffifivafxtv 
riiJLfpav niav, where it is perfectly correct. 

*XXV. i6: ovK 'ia-Tiv '49os ' Po}\i.alois] A more expressive phrase would 
have been, ovk ea-ri IIATPION 'Piofxaiois, as Plut. F//. Bruf. XXVI. Dion. 
Hal. Anf. vi. 71. On the custom itself compare Appian. B. C. ill. 54: 
o iJ,ev vojjLOi, <o /3ouXj7, diKaiol tov evdvvofievov avrov dKov(rai re rfjs Karriyopias, 
KOI aTToKoyrjcraixevov virep avrov Kpiveadai. 

*XXV. 18 : aWav ?<j>€pov] (for fneffifpov) is the reading of the principal 
uncials, adopted of course by the Revisers. Alford refers for this phrase 
to John xviii. 29 : Kar-qyoplav ^epere, and 2 Pet. ii. 1 1 : ov (pepovcri l3Xa(T(f)r] pov 
Kpiaiv ; but neither of these is a good authority for such a writer as 
St Luke. Wetstein quotes a score of examples of ahiav enKfyepfiv from 
writers of all ages ; but only one (from Libanius) of alrlav (^ipeiv. I add 
Lucian. Alex. 2 : nXX' r]V ns 'rjplv TavTrjv (TrKpeprj rrjv ahiap. Id. Apol. pfO 
M. C. 13: 6p6(T€ p^wpyjcras rw (TrKpfpopevco eyKktjpari. Ach. Tat. VI. 5: 
eyKkrjpa poi^eias (TrKJiepoiv. Diod. Sic. T. X. p. 40, cd. Bip. : ov yap SuXfinei' 
aiTias yp-evSels €7ri(f)€pu>v ro7s (VTropwraTois- Ibid. p. 213 : Trtpt Tav fTncpepo- 
pevcov (yKXrjparwv anokoyelcrOai. Pausan. VIII. 46: alriav (nevtyKMu Mi\T]aiois, 
edeXoKaKijaai o"0af...eV rfj 'EXXadt vavpaxi](ravTus. 

*XXV. 20, 2 1 : diropov|j.€vos. . .els ti^v tov SePacTOv Sid'yvoxriv. . .] Compare 
Dion. Hal. An/, ill. 22 : anopovpivos be tI xp-qcrtrai tols npaypaai (Horatius 
being accused of killing his sister) reXfVTwi/ Kpariarov elvai 8ifyvco tm Sr/juo) 
rfiv 8iayuoi(riv (the determiiiatio7i, cf Ch. xxiv. 22 R. V.) fTrirpenfiu. Diod. 
Sic. XVI. 59 : Koi TovTw (concilio Amphictyonum) Tfjp rrepl tcov oXmv didyvwaiv 
eniTpeyf/'ai. 

*XXV. 21 : dvaircfx^"^ (T. R. nepyp-u)) avrov Trpos KaC<rapa] The Latin 
forensic word is reviittere. So Plin. Epist. x. 97 : ' Fuerunt alii similis 
amentiae, quos, quia cives Romani erant, adnotavi in urbem rc»iittcndos.^ 
Compare Lucian. K?in. 12: tyvuaav dvanopTrtpov es ttju 'irnXi'ai/ eKTrfp^j^ai 
TT]V diKrjv. 

*XXV. 24: €v^Tvx6v jAoi] A. V. 'have dealt with me.' R. V. 'made 
suit to me.' Either of these fairly represents the Greek ; as do also 
'have been with me' (Tyndale), 'have called upon me' (Geneva), NOT, 
as Alford, ' have been urgent with me ' (eVeKeti/ro pot). A personal inter- 
view seems to be required by the following examples. Theophr. Char. I : 
rois fvTvyxdpdv Kara cmovdrjv (BovXopfvois npoard^ai iiraviXOfiv (to call 
agam). Plut. Vit, Ages. VII : eneira rav fvrvyxafdvTiov Koi Seoptvuv, ovi 
aladoiTo Avadfbpu) pdXicrru nfTToidoras, dnpdKTovs dnimpniv. Id. Vlt. 



XXVI. 28 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. I4I 

Alex. XLIX : eKeXevcrep uo'dyeiv avrovs irpos 'AXe^ai>8pov, coj Trtpt avayKalaiv 
exovras (vrvxf^" Kal fieyaXcov. Id. V/f. Themist. XXVIl : (SovXea-dai 8' 
(VTvxeiv ^aa-Ckei (to have an audience of the king) Trtpl neyiarav npay- 
liarcov. Dan. vi. 12 (LXX) : Tore ovtol 01 avBpconoi f'v€TVXOi> ra /3a(riX«i. 

*XXV. 27: •ir«|x-7rovTa 8€<r|i.iov, \>.r\ Kal tAs Kar' avTOv a'lTias crrifiavai] 
R. V. ' in sending a prisoner, not withal to signify the charges against 
him.' On which Mr Humphry observes: 'This idiomatic rendering of 
the Greek participle is rarely so convenient as it is here.' But the 
English 'idiomatic rendering' is that of the A. V. and of all preceding 
versions till 'snuffed out' by the Revisers: 'to send a prisoner, and not 
withal to signify' &c. 

*XXVI. 11: iivd-yKa?ov p\a<r4>ini€tv] A. V. 'I compelled them to 
blaspheme.' There seems no objection to ' compelled,' though perhaps 
'constrained' (as A. V. Acts xxviii. 19, Gal. vi. 12) might be better. It 
is not necessarily implied in either word that the compulsion or constraint 
employed was successful, but only that such means were employed. The 
imper/ec/, in this case, does not indicate an unsuccessful attempt, but only 
(like f8iu)Koi> in the same verse) the frequency of the action. There is 
therefore no necessity for the R. V. ' I strove to make them blaspheme,' 
which, taken by itself, does not even e.xclude moral force. 

*XXVI. 26: ov 7dp €<rTiv 6V ■ywvCa ireirpa-yiievov tovto] A proverbial 
expression, for which Wetstein quotes Galen." De loc. affect, ill : (piXoa-o- 
(f)oci fjiiv ovv iv ycovia KaBrjuevois afiapraveiv iv rtoSf Tax av tis avyyvoirj. 
Lucian. Dear. Concil, l : prjKeri rovOopl^iTc, w ueoi, p-T}8e Kara ycovias 
(rvaTpf(f)6p.€Voi npoi od? oXXjyXoty KoivoXoydade. I add Synes. £p. 22 : 
rav Tvovrjpmv avdpunratv ras iv cr/corco Koi ya>viais (XniSas. Lucian. Pseudol. 
24: T^ov yap Tavra tu>v ^i(3Xia)v fvplaKea ; tv ycoviq nov raxn raJv laX€p.o)v 
(melancholy) tlpos TroiTjTav Karopaypvyp-eva. 

XXVI. 28: kv oXi-yw |i€ xciOcis Xpio-Tuavov •yevt'o-Oai] This is the T. R. 
in which the only question is as to the meaning of the phrase ev oXiyco. 
All the examples of it which have been adduced by Wetstein and others 
may be classed under two heads : {i) in a little time, either understanding 
XP^vod, or taking oXiya to be in the neuter gender, like p.fr ov iroXv'^; (2) in 
a few words (as Eph. iii. 3), briefly, snnimatim. Either of these will make 
a good sense, and not be inconsistent with the proper use of neida, which 
is not to bring a person over to otie^s opinion, but to seek to do so"^. 

1 [Cf. Plut. Vii. Cor. IX: i(jxvpa,% hk 5i fxcSfov aKoXovOeiv /jlct' avroO. (But here 
p-dxv^ yevofi^vrjs Kal ttoXXujv ev oXlyw it may be the narrational present for 
veKpGiv ■weabvTuiv.'l itreKxe.) Plut. II. p. 185 B: /xt/ Vii6u)v 

2 [It seems to be used in the former 5^ rbv 'Eiipv^iaSrfv ev roh arevoh vav- 
of these senses by Lucian. Philops. 34: yuax^cai, KpiKpa irpbs rbv ^ap^apov 
/cat riXos ireldei /xe, roi/s p.^v oUiras ^■jreix\//e . . .On TrfiOu see Schafer ad Plut. 
airavTas iv rrj 'M.i/ji.cpidi KaTaXtirelu, avrbv T. IV. p. 398.] 



142 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXVI. 28 

Compare Ch. xix. 8, xxviii. 23, 2 Cor. v. 11. The A. V. 'almost' cannot 
be provecP, and would require us to understand nfidu) in the former 
sense, of conviction instead o{ persuasion. To which we may add, that 
if Agrippa had really been impressed (not to say, almost convinced) by 
the Apostle's arguments, he would hardly have used the contemptttous 
term, Xpta-navov yeveadai, in speaking of the new religion. 

Unfortunately, this is not the only difficulty connected with the 
passage before us, as it is found in the MSS. Of these three of the 
oldest ABN (the first with Treidrj for neidtis) read noirja-ai for yeveaBni, 
which is also given as a various reading by the Philoxenian Syriac. 
Dean Alford, who confesses that it is ' almost impossible to give any 
assignable meaning' to the reading of BX, throws in his lot with A, eV 
oXlycp fi€ TTeldr) Xpicrriavou Troifjcrai, which he translates, ' Lightly thou art 
persuading thyself that thou canst make me a Christian.' This sense 
might possibly be elicited from the Greek, if it were fV oXtya fxe nenoidas 
XpiaTtavbv TToifjaai, though even so the absence of di/vaadai could hardly 
be excused. 

How the Revisers' ' With but little persuasion thou wouldest fain 
make me a Christian ' is to be extracted from the reading adopted by 
them, ev oAi'yo) pe nfidtis XpicrTiavov TroiTJaai, seems quite inexplicable : 
videant ipsi. Re-translated into Greek, their English would be something 
like this : iv oXlyrj pe neid(H (3ov\oio av XpicTTiavov Troirjcrai'". 

* Ibid. R. V. In the good old times, when Latin was the vehicle 
of such lucubrations as we are now penning, we should probably 
have said of this desperate attempt, Haec ex Graecis ne fidiculis extor- 
queas. But before we dismiss it as utterly untenable, we will hear what 
one (and not the least distinguished) of the N. T. Company has to say in 
defence and explanation of it. 'This is a good rendering, and assuredly 
a true one. Literally the words are, " in a little thou usest persuasion to 
make me a Christian. "...Agrippa in effect says, "You are such an 
enthusiast that you think it will take little time and few words to 
make me a Christian 3."' This would be a good paraphrase, either of 
the T. R. with ntideis yfvea-dai, or of the corrected (.-') text, with 
IIEIPAZEIS Tvoifja-ai ; but by no possibility can it be brought into 
harmony with neldas Troifjcrau Ylelddv is not 'to use persuasion,' 
absolutely and without a construction, but 'to seek to persuade' 
some person to do something ; here to persuade Agrippa to become 
a Christian. So the Vulgate : in ?nodico sitades me Christianutn fieri. 
But if for fieri we substitute facere, then we get a sense which is little 
better than nonsense. The difficulty is not at all lightened by reading 
Tvddi] for wfiddi with Cod. A ; and, if in our unwillingness to part with 

' [r>ut cf. St Chrys. 11. 5160: Kal " [Or 7;5^ws (!(v...7roiVais.] 

rbv diKa^ovra piKpov peTairdcrai, ws Kal ^ | Kciinudy, Ely Lectures, \i. 60.] 

avrhv iKuvov \iyeiv, 'Ei* 6\[yi^....^ 



XXVII. 8 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTL. s. 



145 



noifjo-ai, we attempt to tamper with that portion of the sentence in which 
the MSS. present no variation, we may take warning by the ill success 
of previous adventurers in the same speculative line. Dr Hort, for 
instance {Notes on Select Readings, p. 100), hazards the remark : 'Possibly 
nenOIOAC should be read for MeTTeiOGIC ; for the personal refer- 
ence expressed by fie loses no force by being left to implication (?) and 
the changes of letters are inconsiderable (??).' But if the personal 
reference is suppressed, or only not prominently put forward, what 
becomes of the propriety of the Apostle's rejoinder : iv^aifir^v av rw 
6f(o...ov fiovov 2E, aXKa Ka\ iravTas Toiis aKovovras fxov K.T.i.? 

* XXV 1 1. 2: wXctv €is Toiis Kttxa T-f\v 'AcrCav tottovs] A favourite 
expression of Polybius, from whom Raphel quotes p. 4, 1. 14: et? re Tr)v 
'EXXaSa kul tovs Kara rrjv 'AaUtv tottovs. p. 3) 1- ^8 : tV de toIs kutci Trju 
'IraXlav Kai Ai^vrjv tottois. p. 3I) 1- 6: rois Kara rfjv SiKeXtaf tottois. Add 
Diod. Sic. V. 8 : t^aaiXevae fiexpi Tap Kara 'Fi^yiop Toncop. 

XXVII. 3 : £iri[x€X€ias rvxeiv] A. V. * to refresh himself.' R. V. adds: 
' Gr. to receive attention.^ An excellent Greek phrase, for which Wetstein 
quotes Schol. ApoU. Rhod. II. 390: eV ravTrj rfj p^<Ta> vavayijaapTis '4tvxov 
(■jrifJLfT^f las Tvapa tmp -qputuiv. I add Dion. Hal. Ant. I. 2)2> '■ '^^'^ ^"^ ravra 
TvoWfjs iirifiekeiai rvyxavfip npos rap virohf^afiepuip. Charit. Aphrod. III. 3: 
iivei he avrat Trpoarjpexdrj (ttotop), Koi Tracrtjs ervxfP fTrtjueX eiar. Plut. Vit. 
Thes. XXVIl : Kai ras rerpoifiepas (fiaal rap ' Afxa^opcop els XaXKi'Sa Xadpa 
8ianeix<pdel<Tas Tvyx^PfiP eVt/ieXet'ay^. 

*XXVII. 8: fxoXis T£ ■trapa\ey6\t.evoi avri^v] Rev. J. Milner {Voyage 
and Shipwreck of St Paul., Lond. 1880) says: 'Wordsworth and others 
are decidedly mistaken in rendering these words, " coasting it along the 
southern shore of Crete " ; for avrrjp must refer to the word immediately 
before it, viz. Salmone. The difficulty was in working round, or (as it is 
called) " weathering," the projecting headland.' In answer to which we 
would observe (i) that in the immediately preceding clause vneivXevaafiep 
TT/p Kpi]Tr]p Kara '2akjx(i>pr]v, the prominent idea is the name of the island 
under whose lee they ran, not of the part of the coast which they first 
made. The pronoun, therefore, is rightly referred to Crete, not to 
Salmone. (2) It does not appear that there was any necessity for 
' weathering ' Cape Salmone at all, as the words Kara 2aXfj.aPT]p will apply 
to the south of the headland, as well as to the north. In fact, since the 
aKpcoTijpiop is by Strabo in several places called SaX/xwi'toi/, it is not 
improbable that Salmone itself was a town or village from which the 
cape derived its name. (3) The word TrapaXeyeadai is always used of 
a coasting voyage, and followed by the name of the country to which the 

1 [Of medical attendance, Hobart, iiraveXdovres els to arpaTbireoov eavrQv 
p. 269; Plut. II. p. 197 e: 'iva... eTTLneXridQai.] 



Id.2 TF 

^ IE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXVII. 12 

coast belongs; e.g. Diod. Sic. XIII. 3 : KUKfldev ^'Sr; napeXeyovTo rfjv 'irakiav. 
XIV. 55 • "' ^^ TpiTjpeii (TvKfvcrav els rrjv Aif^vrjv, TrapfKiyovTO Se r?;i' yf)v. 
(4) How St Luke would have expressed 'working round' a headland 
may be inferred from the following examples. Aelian. V. H. I. 15: ore 
ivravQa aitoKovTO at ruiv Ylepaoiv rpijjpej?, n(piKap.ivTnv<Tai tou' Adco. Herod. 
VI. 44 • f* ^* ^AKavdov 6ppu>pevoi, tov "Adav nepuliaWov. Thuc. VIII. 95 • 
at 8e Tav neXoTrovvrjaiav vfjes, TrapanXfiKraaai koi Trepi^aXovaai Sovftof. 

* XXVII. 12 : fXifi^va) pX^irovra Kara XCpa Kal Kara. X"Pov] A. V. 'and 
lieth toward the S.W. and N.W.' R. V. 'looking N.E. and S.E. Gr. 
looking do7vn the S. IV. wind and down the N. IV. wind.' But this force 
of the preposition is not supported by biblical usage, as, for instance, 
Ezech. xl. 23, 24, where tti/Xj; ^Xeirovaa npos votov, and tt. ^SX. kot avuroXdi 
are interchanged in the sense of looking or facing to%vards a certain point 
of the compass. Mr Milner says : 'We must imagine the harbour itself to 
be personified,' in which case 'it will naturally look ahead of it, towards 
the land, and not astern, out to sea.* By way of illustration it may be 
mentioned that Nelson's column at Yarmouth, though on the furthest 
east coast of England, actually /SXeVet Trpos hva-pa's, being surmounted by 
a statue of the hero with his face towards the land. 

XXVII. 13: TT]s irpo0^o-€a)s K€KpaTT]K€vai] 'That they had obtained 
their purpose.' Another good Greek phrase: e.g. Diod. Sic. XVI. 20: 
o\ hi fxLadoffiopoi, K(KpaTT]K('>T€i t]8t] TTjs TTpodeaecos. Compare Lucian. Phal. 
prior 2: jjabicoi (KpaTTjcra ttjs f'mxfi-P'lo'ftos. Diod. Sic. XIII. 112: StoTrep 
K(KparrjK(V(n rrjs e'7r(/3oX^? vopi^ovres . 

*XXVII. 16: (loXis l<rx{i(ra[X€v irepiKparcis "ytv^o-Oai ttis a-Kd4>T)s] A. V. 
'we had much work to come by the boat.' An excellent specimen of 
vernacular English, for which we are indebted to Tyndale, but of which 
the Revisers have left not a trace in their ' we were able, with difficulty, 
to secure the boat.' To 'come by' is a good old idiom for 'to obtain 
possession of (as Hooker, quoted by Johnson, 'Things most needful to 
preserve this life, are most prompt and easy for all living creatures to 
come by '), which is the exact meaning of the Greek TrfpiKparfis y. or the 
Latin compos fieri. The first and hardest piece of work was to make 
themselves masters of the boat; the next, to hoist it on board {v. 17); 
which done, and not before, it was 'secured.' 

*XXVII. 17 : xa^<io"avT€s t6 o-k€vos] 'They lowered the gear.' R. V. 
Compare Polyb. I. 61 : Ka6i\op.ivai rovs Io-tovs. 

*XXVII. 18: €kPoXiiv tiroiovvTo] A. V. 'they lightened the ship' (but 
see 7'. 38). R. V. ' they began to throw the freight overboard.' The 

' [Cf. Polyli. I. 63: ov jjubvov iiTt- KaDlKovro rrjs irpoOicTfO}^, i.e. t^s tCiu 
pdXovTo ttJ tu)v okwv rjyfpovic)., dXXo Koi liXuv i]ye/j.ovla$.] 



XXVII. 39 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. I45 

proper commercial word, which may be seen every day in the * Ship 
News' of the daily press, is 'they jettisoned the cargo.' As this operation 
is necessarily a lengthened one, there seems no occasion to insist on the 
imperfect tense, ' they began to do it.' Of the figurative use of this 
expression Wetst. quotes a pleasing example from Greg. Naz. de Basil. : 
TravTcov eK^oXfjv <TT(p^as av tots flx^v, Kov(f)a)s SteTrXet ttjv tov ^iov OdKaaaav. 
I add another from Stob. Flor. T. cxv. 28 : Karayayr] (a putting into 
harbour) yap toiKfv 6 yepovriKos ddvaros, ex/SoX?) Se Koi vavdyiov icrriv o 
Ta>v viav. 

*XXVII. 21 : |AT] dva^to-Oai diro rijs Kpijrrjs, K£p8i]o-a£ t€...] R. V. 'and 
not have set sail from Crete, and have gotten....' This is a legitimate 
construction, the negative extending to both clauses. But there is 
another, which is a favourite with scholars, and deserves a place in 
the margin, if not in the text, of the Revised Version : 'not have set 
sail from Crete, and so have been spared this injury and loss.' This is 
a well-known use of the word KepBaiveiv, of which the following examples 
are quoted by Eisner and others. Philem. p. 352 ed. Grot, et Cler. : Ka\ 
yap Trevijs <ov /xeydXa Kepbalvti KUKa. Joseph. Anf. II. 3, 2 : (Reuben) rj^iov 
avTovs avToxfipas fiev p-fj yevecrdai tov d8e\(f)ov, plyj/avres Se (Is tov irapa- 
K(ip.fvov XciKKOv ovTcos dTToOavelv eaaai, ku\ to ye piavdfivai tus x«*P«f avTovs 
K€p8aiv€iv. I add Plut. Vt't. Cleom. xxxi : ' If it is not dishonourable for 
the descendants of Hercules to serve the successors of Philip and 
Alexander, we shall save ourselves a long voyage {liKovv noXvp Kep8a- 
vovp.€v) by making our submission to Antigonus.' And so the word 
appears to have been understood by the Peschito, which renders 
I i ;mn ^ > V) ^001 ___».^£D_K»A!iDO, <'/ iDuniines esseinus a damtio. 

XXVII. 29: iivxovTo iiixepav -yeveo-eai] For i\iQ phrase Wetstein quotes 
Long. Past. II. p. 40 ed. Schaef. : frndvpovaiv dXXijXovs 6pav' bid tovto 
BaTTOv (VxopeBa yeveadai T-qv Tjixipav. Ibid. p. 56 : ivx6p,fvos 8e tt/p rjpepav 
yeviaOai TaxecL>s...PVKT(ov iracrav eKeivq ebo^e p-aKpordTt] yeyovevai. For the 
situation compare Synes. Ep. iv. p. 165: kcli v(f)cipfi€i beoi ovk i'XaTTov, 
ei Ka\ diayevoip.fda fK tov KXvBapos, ovtcos exom-as eV vvkt\ ireXa^fip ttj yjj, 
(()6dpei 8e i^fxtpa, Ka\ 6pap.ep top fjXiop, a>s ovk oi8a e'l noTf fjdiop ^. 

*XXVII. 35 : Xapwv dpTov.K.T.I.] Compare Diod. Sic. xi. 9 : (Leonidas, 
on the eve of Thermopylae) toIs orpaTicoratf Trap^yyeiXe rax^os dpiaroTTOtei- 
a6aL...axiT OS S' dKoXovOcas ttj napayyeXia Tpocprfp TrpoarjPtyKaTu. 

XXVII. 39: KoXirov St Tiva Karevoow ^x*'^'''*"' ai'"y''a'X6v] A. V. 'They 
discovered a certain creek with a shore.' 'Some commentators [Kuinoel 
and others] suppose that it should be alyiaXop exovTa koXttop, since every 
creek must have a beach.'— Z?m« Alford. The true construction hardly 

* [Cf. Ach. Tat. IV. 17 : /UoXts r/ TroXi^ewros ^co? dva<pa!i.vtTa.<..'\ 

K. 10 



146 THE ACTS OF TFIE APOSTLES. XXVII. 39 

requires confirmation, but as the two following passages have (to the best 
of my knowledge) escaped the researches of collectors, I will set them 
down. Xenoph. A nab. VI. 4, 4 : Xifxr^v 8' vn avrrj rfj ntTpa to npos icnrfpav, 
AiriA.\ON EXQN. Xenoph. Ephes. II. 11 : kuI r^s vfofs diappayeiarjs, jjlo^is 
iv aaviSi, rivl aaOevTes en alyiaXoi) tivos ^\dov (where Locella has un- 
fortunately adopted Koen's conjecture nvfi for nvoi). 

*Ibid. A'lYiaXos is variously rendered ' a shore,' ' a beach,' ' a sandy 
shore.' It appears to be a gciicml term for the sea-coast (as Diod. 
Sic. III. 43 : alyiaKos iraprjKfi KprjuvciBrjs Kal 8v(nrap(iiT\ovs for looo stadia, 
without harbour or roads), but also used specially (as here) for a coast 
which had a beach of sand or shingle between the cliffs and the water's 
edcre (Philo Jud. T. II. p. 141 : oX p,eu nri^ap.fpoi a-Krjvas in\ tov alyia\ov, 
01 8e eVl Tijs aiytaXiTiSoj yl/dp.p.ov *(ara»cXjVai/rfs eV vnaidpio, h(t oIk(iwv kuI 
(PiXav icTTicovTai. Lucian. Pise. 35 : ov8tv rav tu roly atyuiXols v/zr/^i'^ajf 
8ia(f)(pov) on which a ship might be hauled up for refitting (Herod, vii. 
59 : f's TovTov TOV alyiaXoy KaTaaxovre^, Tcts veas aveyj^vxav di^eXKiiacivres) or 
driven, or run aground in case of shipwreck (Lucian. Ver. Hist. 1 1. 47 : 
veip.<t)v o-0o8p6? (jnTTeacov, koX npoaapd^as to (TKa(f)os t<3 alyiaXa, duXvcrev 
i^p-fls Se p-okis i^evrj^afxeda). 

* Ibid. €ls 8v ePovXevovTO, tl Svvaivro, e^wtrai to -rrXoiov] So the Greek 
text is pointed both by Palmer and Scrivener ; and also (with ti hwaTov) 
in A. v.: 'into the which they were minded, if it were possible, to 
thrust in the ship.' But the R. V. undoubtedly reads the passage thus : 
eiy ov (^ovXfvovTO ei ^vvaii^TO e^uxrai to nXolov, ' and they took counsel 
whether they could drive the ship upon it.' Which is right.? 

In favour of the punctuation el3ov\(vovTo d 8vvaivTo... might be cited 
Luke xiv. 3 1 : ^ovkevfTai d Bwaros itTTiv iv h(Ka ;^tXtao-ii' UTrair^crat K.T.e. 
But a fatal objection to this construction seems to be that, according to 
Greek usage, it would require ei bvvavTui, not d bivaivTo. The rule given 
by Hoogeveen De Partic. p. 226 (Ed. 1766) is : 'In obliquis interrogationi- 
bus, notandum tironibus, non subjunctivum aut optativum sequi (post ei), 
ut apud Latinos, sed indicativum.' Cf Mark xv. 47 : idewpovv nov TtOfiTai 
(rt'^erai). 

On the other hand the parenthetical ft SvvmvTo is of frequent occur- 
rence in the best Greek writers from Homer downwards. Thus //. A. 393 : 
fiXXa (TV, ft 8vva(Tai yt, Trfpio-^fo naibbs trjos. Soph. Oc'd. T. 697 : Tavvv 8' 
evTTonTTOs yivov, el 8vvaio. Thucyd. VI. i: e^ov\ovTo...e7T\ ^iKeXlav nXev- 
(TuvTes, KaTaaTpeyj/aa-daL, el bvvaiVTO. Plut. F/V. Aral. V : eyvcoKwy, el 
8vvaiT0...7rp6i eva Kiv8vvov to nav dvappl'^m. Dio. Chrys. Or. LVII. p. 571, 
17 : Koi ejiovXero TUTveivuxrai, koi tov (f)povr]p.aTos, el 8vvaiT0, KadeXelv. In 
the following (from Appian. B. C. ll. 124) there is precisely the same 
ambiguity as in the passage before us : e'SoKei 8e Kapa8oKe'iv en to 
yev7](T('>fxeva, Km Te^vd^eiv, el 8vvaivTO nepiairdaai npos euvTovi TtjV (TTpuTuw 



XXVIII. 2 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 147 

Toi) AfKfiov. So Schweigh. points, rendering, ef tentaj'i si qua arte 

posscnt. But here also we might join rex^nC^"' Trfpicnraaai, as Plut. 

Vzt. Fab. XXII : o $a/3toy Trepto-jrao-at rov ^ K.vv'i^av Tixva^<i>v. 

Of the ancient versions, Vulg., as generally pointed, reads : /;/ quern 
cogitabant, si possent, ejicere navem. Both Syriac (Pesch. with et hwarov, 
and Philox. with d hvvaivro) agree in joining (^ovXeiiovro i^axrai. 

The false spelling eKo-aa-ai is quite unworthy of a place in the margin 
of R. V. 

XXVIII. i: MeX^TTi] ' Melita.' Why not Melite? R. V. has a 
marginal note : ' Some ancient authorities read MeXiTTJvij,' which seems 
to be merely a aiiaprrjua ypa<^iK6v. The scribe had written M.eKnrivrj(Tos 
for Mi\Lrr]r]vr]aos, omitting the article ; but, perceiving his mistake, 
expunged vtj and began rjurjaos again, thus : Mf'KiTrjvrjrjvTjo-oi ^. 

XXVIII. 2 : 'And the barbarous people showed us no little kindness 
{ov TTjv Tvxovcrav (f)i\avdpa)niav).' 

Philanthropy^ according to the modern use of the term, is defined to 
be the love of jnankind, and does not condescend to individuals, except 
as a part of mankind. In Greek there is no trace of this world-embracing 
virtue ; the objects of (pi\avdp<onia being always individuals in distress, 
appealing to our common httmafiity, which word, perhaps, most accurate- 
ly conveys the sense of it to the English reader'''. This will be best seen 
by a few examples. Here the kindness is shown towards shipwrecked 
mariners., as it is also in Stob. Flor. T. xxxvii. 38, where we read that 
the ewot (a barbarous people settled in the N.W. part of Bithynia) roi»y 
vava-^ovs (f>ikavdpco7ru>s Sf;(o//ei'oi, (fiikovs noiovvrai. Among acts of philan- 
thropy is mentioned the ransoming of captives (Demosth. 107, 15: kcli 
Xv(7eis ai;^/LiaX<ara)i/, (cai roiavTas aSXa's (fnXavOpanias) ; the friendly reception 
of those who had escaped from the same fate by neighbouring cities 
(Diod. Sic. XIII. 58 : ol hk rrjv alxfJioKoxTiav 8ia(f)vy6vTfS buaatOrjaav els 
'AKpayavTa, Koi navTav f'rvxov tcov (piXaudpoincov. Plut. Vlt. Alex. XIII : 
Ka\ Tois KaTa<i>vyov<nv (of the Thebans, when their city was destroyed by 
Alexander) eVt Tf]v irokiv anavTOiv fitrfdiSoaav rav (f)i\av$p(iTr(ov). Conquerors 
showed their philanthropy by their humane treatment of the vanquished, 
as Agathocles (Diod. Sic. XX. 17), /Xcoi/ Neai/TroXic /cara Kpaxo^, (f)i\avOpcon(os 
('xptjaaro ro'ts ^f'P'^^eto'i ; and Mithridates (Id. Tom. X. p. 193 ed. Bip.), 

^ [The other McX^tjj, now Meleda, ^orjdyjTiKos ■3 iravrl t(^ drvxavvri : (3) dia 

is called MeXiTrjvfi (sic) by Ptol. II. 16, tov eariav Kal <pi\oaivovai.d.i;'eiv, giving 

§14. Smith's Geograph. Diet.] dinners and promoting j-i^aa/ intercourse. 

2 Plato (ap. Diog. Laert. ill. 98) Hence correct Liddell & Scott s. v. 

reckons three kinds of (piKavdpwirla: <t>LKoavvo\iaLa.^eiv. [Cf. Plut. Vit. Crass. 

(i) 5td TOV irpocrayopevew, greeting and III: vpeaKe 5e Kal rb irepl ras Sefiticreiy 

shaking hands with every one you Kai irpoaayopeija-eii (pCKdvdpojTrov avrov 

meet : (2) did tov eiiepyeTuv, orav rts Kal drip-OTiKdv-] 

10 2 



148 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXVHI. 4 

TToXXovs (coypi^aai, anavras Ttfirirras Koi eaBfjai Kai f(f}o8iois dn(\v<Tfv els ras 

Trarp/Sar. diaf:ior]6(iar]s t( ttjs roii Mt^ptSarou (piXapdfjconias Sometimes 

the philanthropic act was attended with danger, as the harbouring of 
proscribed persons in the wars of Sylla and Marius (Plut. F>V. Syl. 
XXXI : ^rjfjLiavT^s (^ikavBpanias opi^oiv BavarovY. To return to the instance 
before us : other barbarians besides those of Melite are commended for 
the exercise of this virtue. Thus the Atlantei (Diod. Sic. in. 55) (f)i\av- 
dpcoTTia Tfj Tvpos ^€vovs 8oKova'i 8ta(p€pfiv Ta>v TrXrjaio^wpoiv. The Celtiberes 
(v. 34) are described as npoi roiis ^tvovs eVtftKeis Ka\ (f)i\dvdp(onni. Of 
individuals, Aeolus, King of Lipara, who entertained Ulysses in his 
wanderings, is characterized by the historian (Diod. Sic. v. 7) as evae^rj 
Koi SiKaiov, €Ti 8e Koi npos roiis ^ivovs (^ikdvOpoinov ; and Phalaris in his 
defence before the Delphians (Lucian. P/ial. prior 10), as a proof of his 
hospitable treatment of voyagers {on, (f)iXapdp<^n(os iTpo(T(^(pop.ai tou 
Karaipovcnv), says that he employed spies about the harbours, whose 
business it was to accost strangers, and enquire who they were and 
whence they came, that he might pay them such attentions as were 
suitable to their rank. That kind of philanthropy, which (according 
to Plato's definition) consisted in entertaining company, may be illus- 
trated from Alciphr. Ep. ill. 50, where a parasite says of his patron, 
Kvpios yfv6p,fvos TTJs ovaias, ttoXXjji/ rrjv tls ijfiai (professionals) (]iiXav6p(OTrlav 
dvedel^nro ; as well as from Lucian. Cy/t. 6 : dv8p6i nXova-lov, Trpo6vfj.o)s 
Koi (t)i\av6pwTra)s, en de (f)i\o(j)p6v(os fariavTos ; from which latter example 
we gather that (f)i\o(f)p6v(os (Acts xxviii. 7) expresses a higher degree of 
friendliness than ^tXai/^poVcoy. We may remark, in conclusion, that 
Plutarch (FzV. Caf. Maj. v) recommends kindiwss to aniinals, as a 
training for the higher virtue of ^iXavOpinirla. ' We ought not,' he 
remarks, 'to treat creatures which have a living soul like shoes or 
household vessels, which, when worn out with service, we throw away ; 
but if for no other reason, p.e\fTT]s evtKa roii cfuXavdpdnrov, we should 
habituate ourselves in these lower animals to be gentle and placable 
towards each other.' 

XXVIIL 4: 1] 8Ckt]] 'Justice' (with a capital letter). To the examples 
collected by Wetstein may be added Dion. Hal. An/, vill. 80: rolyapToi 
81KT) jxev fKeluois (jvv xpovco Tifiwpos ov /nf/iTrri) {^nndex fion coniefmienda) 
7rnprjKo\nv6r](Tf. Aelian. V. H. III. 43 : toZs- hk KaKas pf^aai 8tKr}i rfXoy ou;^l 
Xpoi'i(TTOi' I ov8e TrnpaiTTjTov (mox ;; 8e 8iKr} nvK e^pd8vve). Synes. £p. 50: 
TO p.ev ovv d'S.Tjdfi ol8fv ^ SiKr), koi 6 xpouos (vpijafi. Aeschyl. <ap. Stob. 
Flor. T. CXXV. 7 : r]p.(iiv ye p.iVToi Ne/necrtr ((t6 vTreprfpa, \ koi tov davovros 
1] 8tKr) npdaafc kotov. Pseudo-Lucian. Philop. 16: iav KTavTjs TOP it\t](tiov, 
6nvaTa)d^crr] napa ttjs 8ikt]s. Dion. Hal. Aflt. XI. 27 : aXXri Kniirep ev (prjixla 

1 [Cf. I'lut. FiV. AnL ill: ov dUXade the body — t6 fftD/xo TnabvTOi ik,€vpuv, 
...i] TTpbs 'Apx^Xdov avTou TiOv-qKbra. Koi KOfffM-qffai fiaffiXtKus ^Ki^devaei'.] 
<pi\ai'Opo}wLa whicli was shown in burying 



XXVIir. 13 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 49 

Tov (f)6vov yeyoi'oTor.,.v7ro rfjs anavra (TTKTKonovcrTjs to. dvrjra TTfiayfiara diKrjs 
f^ijXeyxdrjaau ^. 

*XXVIII. 6: |i€\X€iv irijjiirpao-eai] 'that he would have swollen.' 
Compare Aelian. N. A. i. 57 (de morsu cerastae) : lav irplv rj irprjaOr^vai to 
TTav crcofia d(f)iKrjTai ris tcov cKeldev (Psylli) KKrjros. Diod. Sic. II, 12: evdvs 
df Stocde'i Koi nifnrpaTai ru (rana (vapore sulfureo). Lucian. De Dips. 4 : 
€KKaUi r« yap koI aijTrei, Kai Tr'nnrpaddai noul. Dio. Chrys. Or. LXXVIII. 
p. 655) 45 • TT(npr]<Tp4vov (sic conj. Cobet. pro ncnXTja-fjLti/ov) opoiVTes avrou 
inrb vocrov, Koi oldovvra, Koi vnovkov. 

* XXVI II. 10: Kal dvaYoji.€vois tire'SevTo xd irpos tt|V xP^'O'V] A. V. 'and 
when we departed, they laded us with such things as were necessary.' 
R. V. ' and when we sailed, they put on board such things as we needed.' 
Grotius observes on this text, ' permisceri lectiones de navigantibus et de 
navi, ut fieri solet ; nam avayofiivois ad navigantes, enidevro ad navim 
pertinere.' On this supposition the A. V. is perfectly correct, the full 
construction being avnyopivois tiredeuTo rip-'iv, and ' laded us ' being a 
familiar phrase for ' laded our ship.' The R. V. will have precisely the 
same meaning, if we insert 'us' after 'put on board' ; but as it stands, it is 
rather the rendering of enedepro rw nXoico, and then the other dative has 
nothing to govern it, and must be changed into the genitive absolute 
dvayopevoiv. Another objection to the common rendering is taken by 
Hemsterh. ad Lucian. Necyotii. 9, namely that for in navcni iiiipoiiere the 
Greeks said eV^fV^at not eVt^eo-^ai- ; and that St Luke's intention in the 
use of this word was to show the forwardness of the islanders in almost 
forcing their supplies upon their departing benefactors : q. d. nosque 
jamjam profectiiros onerarunt rebus necessariis. If this explanation 
were approved, it would only be necessary in the A. V. to understand 
' laded ' in the sense of ' loaded,' or to adopt the latter term instead of the 
former, as more conformable to modern parlance. But there seems to be 
no occasion to depart from the common understanding of this passage. 

*XXVIII. 13: irtpuXOovTes] R. V. 'we made a circuit,' with a note: 
' Some ancient authorities read cast loose.' It would have been more 
correct to say: 'Some ancient authorities read TrepteXoi/rff, which some 

' [Cf. Poll. VIII. 6: 5t/c7;, rj re debt yap deia diKt] i(f)Opa iravTa Kai to fcrov 

Kai TO irpdyfia ov vpoio'TrjKev 6 SiKo.i'uv. dirodidwcn Kai fuyoorarer.] 
Liban. il. 601 : In bonam partem, oh - The only instance of this use of 

TToXXd. dyaOa y^voiTo irapd ttjs SIkt/js iwidiaOai, which I have been able to 

ft Ttfi Au irapaKadriTai. Paus. VIII. 53, find, is Dio. Chrys. Or. xi. p. 167, 34 

3: AeLpwva peu To^evdb/ra vnb 'Apre- (said of Paris carrying off Helen) : wcrre 

pidos TrepLTJXdeu avTiKa i) BIkt] tov (povov ouKriviKavbv avTi^ ttju ywaiKadirayayeii', 

(cf. Herod. VIII. 106: i] rtcrts ireptrjXde dXXa /cat rd xP'Ja'*''''' '""/'oo'eTre^ero. 
tov Hai't.wi'ioi'). Aesop. Fad. 307 : 17 



I50 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. XXVHI. 21 

modern interpreters explain to mean cast hose.' The ancient authorities 
are BX' ; and TrtpteXoi/res, we are told, was a nautical term for the ' casting 
loose' of the cables on leaving a port, though the only shadow of authority 
for this use of the word is a supposed 'analogy' with Acts xxvii. 40, where 
irepiiKovTes tcis dyKvpas is said of ' cutting the anchors adrift,' an ex- 
traordinary manoeuvre for a particular purpose, that of running the ship 
aground, which has no 'analogy' with the ordinary action of 'casting 
loose' the cables on putting to sea. At all events, since ntpieXovTes in 
Ch. xxvii. 40 would have been unintelligible without the addition rat 
dyKvpas, so here 'analogy' requires that to. dnoyeia, or its equivalent, 
should have been expressed. 

*XXVIII. 21: ovT€ irapaYtvoiitvos tis twv d8€X<j)wv, dirij^'yeiXev tj 
tXdXricre ti irepl o-ou irovtipov] Badly rendered by R. V. ' Nor did any of the 
brethren come hither and report or speak &c.' Better the A. V. ' any of 
the brethren that came.' The best English would be: 'nor did any of 
the brethren in person report &c.' See on Luke xix. 16. 

*XXVIIL 25: do-v(i.<|)wvot hi 6vT«s irpos dXXtiXovs] Wetstein compares 
Diod. Sic. IV. I : avfi^aivei tovs dvayeypa(f)6Tas ras dp^aioTaras wpd^fis re 
Koi fivdoXoyiat d(Tvp.(t>(ovovs flvai ivphs dWrfkovi. I add Synes. p. 207 D : rt 
hrinoT ovv dcrv^cficovoi ft/xt nphs ip-avrov; Diod. Sic. XIX. 75- "*' 8vvapevu)v 
avTcov ovBancos crvp.(f)a>vri(rai. 

*XXVIIL 31. dKwXtiTws] A. V. 'no man forbidding him.' Compare 
Herodian. VIII. 2. i (quoted by Wetst.): dU^ijaav dK(o\vro3s, pr]8ep6s epTrodup 
yevopevov. Another periphrasis might be pr]8ei/6s napevox^ovvroi. In Plut. 
Vit. Ant. LXII. Caesar, urging his rival to a speedy settlement of their 
differences, both by land and by sea, offers, in respect to a naval contest, 
avTos T(o pev (TtoXco (Antony S fleet) Trape^eiv oppovi dKoyXvTcos kcu Xipeuas ; 
where the various reading aKaXvrovs is to be rejected. 



ROMANS. 



*I. 15: ouTw TO KttT tjii ■irp60\)fi.ov...€va"yY€XC(ra(r6ai] Both versions: 
'So, as much as in me is, I am ready' &c., as if the Greek were to kqt 

ffie npodv^os elfjii No change is necessary, but a marginal note might be 

added: ' Gr. my good will is ^ Wetst. quotes Eur. Med. 178: it.r)roi t6 y 
('nov TTpodvfiov (piXoiaiv arrearco. I add Dion. Hal. A/il. VI. 10: koi 6 
no(TTovfiios inaivtcras to TtpoOvpov a\iTa>v...flud^ g: to fxkv tu>u yfpouTccu 
•np6dvp.ov...T0 8( vp,iTfpov oKpa^ov 

*I. 20: voovjitva] A. V. 'being understood.' R. V. 'being perceived.' 
Is it not rather ' conceived ' — apprehended by the mind, so that we are 
able to form a conception (Xa^dv eupoiav) of them? Wetst. quotes Philo 
Li'g. Alleg. T. I. p. 107, 3: i(J\Tr](jav 01 TrpciTOi, 7ra>s ivorjaafiev to delov. fid' 
01 8oKovvTes apicTTa (pikoaocjjf'iv e(f>aaap, oti airo tov Koap-ov, Koi Tap pepwv 
avTov, Koi Tuv evvTTapxovaav tovtois dwapeau, avT'C\T)i\rLv enoir](Tapfda tov 
oItIov. 

* Ibid. eetoTTis] A. V. ' Godhead.' Other versions : 'divinity.' The 
attempt to distinguish between deoTrjs and deioTrjs is futile. The one is 
from dfos, and the other from to delop, and these are precisely the same. 

I. 28: ovK ^8oKCfi.a<rav] A. V. 'They did not like.' R. V. 'They 
refused.' But the negative should be retained, as in all the ancient 
versions. Vulg. uon probaverunt. Pesch. Qjj ]j. Philo.x. o n*'^ ]J. 
W. Wilberforce {Practical View &c. p. 308) gives his own version, 
' They were not solicitous,' which is not the meaning of the word. Better, 
' They thought not fit.' Wetstein quotes Plut. Vit. Thes. xii : ovk 
fSoKipa^e (ppd^eiv avTov, octtis f'lrj, Trporepos- Joseph. Anl. II. 7) 4 • ■>"« pfv 
ovu ovopuTa SrjXaaai tovtcov ovk e8oKipa(ov. I add Appian. VI. 70 : Ovpiardos 
ov 8oKipa.^(ov avTca avpTrXeKeadai 8ia ttjv oXiyoTrjTa^. 

1 [Cf. Lucian. B/s .-Merits. 31: oVep ovk edodpa^ef. App. B. C. II. 114: 

eyw pri (pipwv ypd^aaOai pkv avTTjv ws 5e a(pi(nv iSoKovv d\cs 'ix^iv, /cat 

aoLx^la^ OVK eSoKipa^ov. Himerius ap. ir\io<nv iKcfiepeiv (coiijurationem) ovk 

Aesopi Fab. (ed. de Furia) 406: (^pws) i5oKipa'gov.'[ 
TO pkv (XTrda'ats \pvxa'i^ eyKaToiKL^eadai... 



152 ROMANS. 1.29 

*I. 29: €pi8os] A. V. 'debate.' R. V. 'strife.' 2 Cor. xii. 20: epeit. 
A. V. 'debates.' R. V. (with epis) 'strife.' ' Debate' is a good old word 
(see T. L. O. Davies Bid/e English^ p. 200). Cf. A. V. Isai. Iviii. 4: 
' Behold ye fast for strife and debate (et'y Kpiaeis koi /xa;(uy)'; where R. V. 
has 'strife and contention.' 

*I. 30: ippwrrds, vnr€pTi(j)dvovs, dXa$6vas] A. V. 'despiteful, proud, 
boasters.' R. V. ' insolent, haughty, boastful.' An interesting study of 
these three words, by way of synonymous discrimination, may be found 
in Archbishop Trench's Synonyms of the N. T. pp. 95 — loi (8th ed.). It 
is worthy of notice that the order in which he takes them, which is the 
reverse of that of the Apostle's description, namely, aka^div, vTrepT]cf)avos, 
v^puTT-qs, is the very same in which their natural sequence is presented by 
Callicratidas the Pythagorean philosopher (ap. Stob. Flor. T. Lxxxv. 16) : 
avayKa yap rat noXXa f\ovTas TeTv<f)a)a6ai rrparov, TfTv(f)a>iJ.epa>s Se 'AAAZ0NA2 
yiyvecr6af d\a^6i>as 8( yevofitvuSy YnEFH$ANi22 fip.ev...inT(p'q(f)ava>s be 
yevofifvois, 'YBPI2TA2 r]fj.(i\, 

*II. 17. On the confusion of EIAE (i'Se) and El AE see on James iii. 3. 
It is remarkable that in both places the adoption of tl 8e involves a 
difficulty in regard to protasis and apodosis. In the present instance the 
protasis is inconveniently long^, and the apodosis in v. 21 requires to be 
marked by the insertion of a particle, o OYN StSao-zcwi/ ; for which a correct 
writer, it driven to such an expedient, would most certainly have written, 
2Y OYN 6 hihauKUiv, ' Thou therefore that teachest.' We are therefore 
compelled to differ from a writer in 'Public Opinion' for July 2, 1881: 
'El Se (TV. An interesting, and probably secure, various reading, recorded 
in the Revision ' &c. Our complaint is that the false spelling (for it is 
nothing more) is not recorded., but adopted, without even a marginal 
record of the true. 

*II. 21 : 6 ouv 8i8d<rKa(v k.t.€.] Wetstein's loci communes are ample, 
but not quite so apt as the following: Lucian. Nigritt. 25 : r\^[ov yap tov 
likovrov KaTa(f)poveli> BiSa^ovra, npaiTov eavrov nap^xtiv vy\fqK6T(pov Xr]p.p,aTa)V. 
Andoc. Or. IV. Argum. p. 29 : dp^Kaptv yap noWaKis on del tov to7s avTols 
iyKkripadi boKoiivra iv^xiddai, npuiTov eavrov i\iv6epovv, elra bia^aWeiv. 

III. 9: tC ovv; •jrpoexo|*«6o' > o^ irdvTws] The explanation of this text 
turns upon the word 7rpoexop.f6a, for which t/iree distinct versions have 

1 A familiar examjjle of such a of thai work, not being able to digest 

protasis is the ' Form of Absolution ' in this construction, have struck out the 

the Common Prayer, 'Almighty God copula before 'and hath given.' Then 

&c. who desireth not &c.' where the ' He pardoneth ' &c. begins a new 

deferred apodosis is indicated by the sentence, not connected, either logically 

insertion of the pronoun, 'He par- or grammatically, with the fonncr. 
doneth ' &c. The American Revisers 



III. 25 ROMANS. 153 

been proposed, according as it is taken in an active^ passive, or middle 
sense. 

1. A. V. 'Are we better than they}' This version, derived from the 
Yu\ga.\.G., praecellijitus eos? supposes TrpofxofieSa to bear the same meaning 
as Trpofxon(i> : Nidii quid prae gentilibtis habemus? (Schleusner) ; 'Have 
we (Jews) the (any) preference?' (Alford). This would agree with the 
alternative reading, rl ovv npoKaTexofic nepia-a-ou; (om. ov navTcos), which 
might therefore have been a gloss upon it ; but there is no example to be 
found of the middle form of this verb being so used. 

2. R. V. 'Are we in worse case than they?' Literally, 'Are we 
excelled?' Here jrpoexf 0-601 is taken to be the passive of wpoixeiv in the 
same sense as before. Examples of the active verb in this sense abound ; 
e.g. Diod. Sic. XIX. 26: Trpoexovros S' Evfievovs 8vo (fiv'KaKas (Eumenes 
having the start of him by two watches), /bid. 34: ?) 8e npea^vrepa 
oiKaioTfpov antcfyaiveTo eivai Trjv Trpoexovaau toIs xP'^^^'-^ irpoex^'-^ '^^' '''V ''"'M.V- 
Alciphr. Ep. Ili; 55 : Ta>v npovx^i'V boKovvrav 'Adrjvrja-i TrXovro). The use of 
the passive in this sense is, as might be expected, not so common ; 
Wetstein, however, has a clear example from Plutarch (T. ll. p. 1038 c) : 
waTTfp TO) All TTpocri^Kfi (TtpLVvvfaOai fV ai/Voj re koX tw ^I'to, Koi fitya (fipovdv... 
ovT<o Tols dyadols ttcuti ravra TTpo(ri]K(i, Kar ovdev 7rpo€;(o/i.€Voi£ vnb tov Aios 
{cum nulla in re a Jove superentur). 

3. R. V. in margin: ''Do we excuse ourselves?'' Upoexfa-Bai is 
properly to hold something before oneself, as Herod. 1 1. 42 : tov L'la 
p.r)xavT}aa(r6ai., Kpiov (Kbeipavra, Tvpoex^crBai re rrjv Kf(f)a\f]i> airorafiovTa rov 
Kpiov, Koi evdvvTa to vaKos, ovTot 01 eoiVTou eViSe^at. Hence, figuratively, 
to make use of anything as a pretext or excuse ( = npo(f)acriCf(rdai) ; as 
Herod. VIII. 3 : npo'icrxop-tvoi npocfiaaiv. Ill: npo'icrxoixevos \6yoi> Tovde. 
Thucyd. I. 140: onep fiaXioTa npovxovTai (Schol. npo^aXXovTai). Soph. 
Antig. 80: (TV p.kv ToK av Trpovxoio. Herodian. IV. 14, 3 : 6 de to yfjpas 
TTpo'iaxofifvos irapTjTriaaTo. But when npofx^odai is thus used, it is never 
absolute positum, as in the text, but is invariably followed by an accusa- 
tive of the thing made use of as an excuse. This is a fatal objection ; 
and we are obliged to fall back on the last number, as the best, if not the 
only solution of the difficulty. 

*III. 25: Sid Tvv irdpco-iv twv "irpo'ys'Y*'''®''"*"' a.|*'a'PTii|idTwv] A. V. 'for 
the remission (or, passing over) of sins that are past.' R. V. ' because of 
the passing over of the sins done aforetime.' Dean Alford says : 'llapea-tr 
is noi forgiveness (a^ecrti), but overlooking,' and compares Acts xvii. 30, 
vTrepi8(ov, ' winked at,' which is a different thing altogether. Others (as 
Schleusner) maintain that there is no distinction between napfais and 
a(fiea-is. May not the distinction lie rather in the use of the words, than 
in the words themselves? In both cases there is a remission, but a<pe(Tis 
is more commonly said of the remission or forgiveness of a sin, TTapean 



154 ROMANS. IV. 6 

of a debt. For the latter term H. Stephens refers to Phalar. Ep. cxiv. 
p. 328 : ov fifTGfjifXofjiei/os (n\ rrj Traptafi tcou ;cpf;/xaTcoi'...Tdre fifv as nevoyiivovi 
naptaiv alre'irrdai ;^pr;/xrir6)i'. Add (from Wetst.) Dion. Hal. A/i/. VII. ^7 '• 
rrji) fj.ev oXo(7;^6/j^ ndptaiv ovx fvpovro, ttjv Se els ;^poi/oi/ oaov rj^iovv ava(io\f)v 
eXafiov. 

St Chrysostom seems to understand this word in its medical sense of 
napdXva-is, with a transitive force ; q. d. //le paralyzitig effect ; observing, 
ovhi yap fiTTf, 8ia TCI ap.apTrjiJi.aTa, aXXa, 8ia ttjv naptaiv, TovTfo-Ti, ttju veKpacriv 
nvKiTi yap vyeiai (Xn)s tjv aXX wcrnep (rw/xa TrapaXvdtv ttjs dvoi6(v (ddro 
Xfipos, ovroi Kal rj '^vxrj veKpcodflaa. 

*IV. 6: Xiyn t6v (j.aKapio-jx6v] A. V. ' describeth the blessedness.' 
R. V. 'pronounceth blessing upon.' MaKapia-pos is properly the act of 
a person who poKapi^ei, or declares the blessedness of another. Thus 
in the Sermon on the Mount our Lord Xeyfi tovs puKapiapovs of the 
poor in spirit, the meek &c. We would retain 'blessedness' in the 
text, but as this is not 'described' but only 'declared,' we would correct 
the A. V. accordingly. 

The difference between fnaivos and paKapiapios is thus stated in Stob. 
Flor. T. I. 72 : ylverai 8' o pev enaifos eV apeTa, o 8e paKapiapos eV fiiTv\ia. 

*IV. 6, 8. In the A. V. we have Xoyi(ecr6ai, throughout this Chapter, 
variously rendered by 'count,' 'reckon,' 'impute'; for which the Revisers, 
following their inexorable rule, have uniformly translated 'reckon.' This, 
however, seems to be a case in which some relaxation might have been 
admitted, so far, at least, as to retain 'impute' in vv. 6, 8 : 'Blessed is 
the man to whom the Lord will not IMPUTE sin,' taken from Psal. xxxii. 2 
A. v., and not likely to be meddled with by the O. T. Revisers ^ 

*IV. 20: ov 8i€KpC0Ti] A. V. 'he staggered not.' R. V. 'he wavered 
not.' In all other places (including James i. 6) the Revisers have rendered 
difKpidri by ' he doubted.' In the present instance, having seen cause to 
depart from their ' hard and fast ' rule, it is a pity that they should not 
have stuck to Tyndale's and Cranmer's ' stackered ' : a word which has 
become consecrated, so to speak, to this particular text, and which the 
English Bible-reader will prefer to any other. 

V. I : T. R. ('xopfv, ' we have.' In favour of i'xapfv, ' let us have,' the 
preponderance of M.S. authority is very great ; namely, AB'CDKLN' ; of 
the versions, Vulg. and both Syriac ; of the Fathers, Chrys. Cyril. Thco- 
doret and many others. With respect to the Syriac versions. Dean Alford 
quotes the Philoxenian for exopfv (wrongly) and Peschito for tx'^h^^" ('but, 
according to Ethcridge, f^o/xei/'). Dr Scrivener is also somewhat confused 
about these two versions {A p/ai'u Introduction &c. p. 447 cd. 1861), 

1 Ps. xxxii. 1, R. v.: ' Unto whom the Lord imputcth not iniquity.' Kd. 



VI. s ROMANS. 1 5 5 

assigning to the Peschito 'probably' (instead of 'certainly') '4)((iniiv 
( ]v>\ m. \ "joOTJ), and to the Philoxenian, 'what,' he says, 'seems to 
be a combination of both readings, ]aT_^ Lo^ _ll A_i] loTU ]^ > • ' 
But this is a mistake. The Syriac li Aj] "joOTJ is e'x'^Mf? and nothing 
else. For exo/xev this version (and all others) would put ^^ Aj"j ; but 
when the word is in the subjunctive mood, since A_«| is indeclinable, it is 
a peculiarity of the Philoxenian to prefix the corresponding mood of "JOOI, 
here "JOOIJ. Thus Iva nva Kapirov (tx^ (Rom. i. 13) becomes \h\£^'i (mi] 
_*A AjI ]oC7U ^ylD; Iva exrjre (2 Cor. v. 12) Lj\ ^OOlZj t^l 

In favour of the old reading (which the English reader will be most 
unwilling to part with, as infolding a doctrine dear to the heart of every 
faithful Christian) it may be urged, (i) that it is hardly within the compe- 
tence of MSS.i to decide (especially against the strongest inUrnal evidence) 
between such variants as exoM^" and excofxev, so continually are these vowels 
confused even in the best MSS.; (2) that e'xonfv may have been changed 
into e'xafxev to correspond with Kavx^tJ^fGa, which was supposed to be the 
subjunctive mood ; and (3) that there is a tendency in the copyists to 
turn an affirmation into an exhortation, a striking example of which 
is I Cor. XV. 49, where (fiopea-o^ev is written cfyopeaonfifv in all the uncials 
except B. 

*V. 7: Toixa Tis Kttl ToX|ia diro0av€iv] ' Peradventure some (one) would 
even dare to die.' For roX^Si/ in the sense of inrofxevfiv, to submit to, 
WetSt. quotes Eurip. Ale. 644 : o? Trjk'iKoab^ U)V Kani rep/x' rjKo^v ^lov I ovK 
y]6e\r]aas oOS' (ToXfirjcras daveiu \ rov crov npo ttui86s. Dem. c'. Aristog. 2 : 
Tovs piv TTpoyivovs vnep tov prj KaraXvdqvai roiis vofiovs ciTrodvijcrKdv roKpav. 
In the following from Dio, Chrys. Or. ill. p. 48, 9 : vrrfp 8e Tfjs vtKrjs noXXol 
Tav dyadwv KAI dnoduijaKeiv alpovvrai, the particle will have the same force 
as in text, which is explained by some grammarians (as Haver, on Thucyd. 
vin. 54) to be si iisus tnlerit, el Scot, el tvxoi, ' if need be.' 

*VI. 5. In this somewhat difficult verse, while expositors are nearly 
agreed on the meaning o{ (jvp(l>vToi (not 'planted together,' but intimately 
united, and (as it were) 'grown together') there is room for difference as 
to two subsidiary points. First, should we understand avVw after crvp.(f)v- 
Toi? or should we connect a-vp4>vToi rw opotcopan., 'united with the likeness'? 
The latter seems preferable, (i) because o-v/xc^vroj has a natural affinity 
with a dative case ; and (2) because, if no such connexion were intended, 
St Paul would, probably, have guarded against misconstruction by writing 
fv 6p.oi(op.aTi, as he has done Rom. viii. 3, Phil. ii. 7. Secoidly, in the 

^ [Of such variations Cobet (Coll. quam est anceps et ambigua optio. 
Crit. p. 78) says : ' Saepissinie libri Sententia et structura loci ubique utra 
variant in -elro et -7;To....Tamen nus- scriptura sit potior plane demonstrant.'] 



156 ROMANS. VI. 17 

apodosis, dXXa Km r^j dvaaTdaeays (crdfitda ((Tvfi(f)VToi), is r<» ofiniafj-aTi to 
be mentally supplied before rfjs duaa-Taa-taa, or are we to join cTv^f^vmi 
Trjs dvaaTaa-fciis, as St Chrysostom does, insisting much on the absence of 
rw ofioicofiari, and actually construing, elnwu yap on avfji(f)vroi { = koli/oovo)) 
((Ti't^f6a rfjs di/aorao-fo)? ? But the construction of avfi(t>vTos with a genitive 
is not free from objection, especially when the other construction is found 
in close proximity to it ; although, according to Dean Alford, it could not 
well be said, that we shall be (tvii^vtoi rf) dvaaracrei, because ' the dative 
would not be strong enough to denote the state, of which we shall be 
actual partakers.' But if the Apostle had actually written, dWd kgI rfj 
dvaaTaa-ei iaoyLeda, we doubt whether such an objection would have entered 
into any one's head. 

*VI. 17: \d.p\.% h\ Tw Oew] Wetst. compares Arrian. Epict. iv. 4: t6t( 
Koi fydo rifxapTuvov, vvu 8e ovk(ti, x^P'-^ ''"<? ^f&>- I fldd Synes. Ep. VII : rco 
Se ^ecp X'^P'^^f '''''' 'fapeaxev riplv dKovcrai KoXXiova. Anthol. I. 30, 2 (vol. II. 
p. 257, Jacobs. 1794): IIoXXj} (Toi, (})VTo(pye, novov ;^apts' (iveKa (reto | dxpns 
fv evKOpTTOis 8ev8pfaiv iyypd(pop,ai. 

*VI. 19 : dvOpwirivov "Kiyui] 'I speak after the manner of men'; like 
Kara dvOpairov Xeyw Gal. iii. 1 5. Another version might be, 'I speak 
moderately,' or 'within bounds,' as i Cor. x. 13 : 'There hath no tempta- 
tion taken you, d p,^ dudpcomvos ( — a-vppfTpos).' St Chrysostom seems to 
waver between the two : (l) drrb dudpoinlvaiv Xoyiapcov, dno twv (V (Tvvrjdeia 
yevopiviiiv. (2) ovbiv vnepoyKov dnaiTfl, dWa Knl a(f)o8pa (rvpptTpov koi 

KOV(f)OV. 

*VII. 3 : -yivTiTai avSpl iTtpto. . .yivo\i.(vr]v dvSpl Ireptp] A. V. (bis) 'she 
be married to another man.' R. V. ' she be joined to another man.' The 
A. V. seems to be the more correct rendering, 'married' being understood 
in a popular sense, without reference to the legality of the tie. The 
Hebrew phrase is C^'^^>? riVn. Lev. xxii. 12 (LXX.): fdv yivrjTai dvbpX 
aXXoyei/<r, 'if she (the priest's daughter) be married unto a stranger.' 
In other places the same phrase idv yevrjrai dvdpl eVepw is rendered 
'if she become another man's' (Jerem. iii. i), or, 'another man's 7v(fc'' 
(Ueut. xxiv. 2), the dative indicating posscssiofi. Any one of these is 
preferable to 'be joined to' {npoa-KoXXrjdfi), which suggests a quite 
different idea. 

VII. 21 : TW 0^XOVTI €fJL0l TTOUiv TO KaXoV, OTl €|Aol TO KttKiv TTttpaKtlTai] 

A. V. 'That when I would do good, evil is present with me.' R. V. 
'That to me who would do good, evil is present.' But this latter version 
takes no account of the repetition of t/xol after napdKfiTai ; and in v. 18 
tpol rrapdKfiTui is rendered ' is present 7a///i me,' not ' /<> me.' On the 
whole the A. V. adequately expresses the Greek, and its rhythmical 
superiority to that which it is proposed to substitute for it is evident. 



'^'III. 28 ROMANS. 157 

*VIII. 3: Kal irepl d|xapT£as] A. V. 'and for sin.' R. V. 'and as 
an offering (ox sin.' Compare Heb. x. 6: 6\oKavT<i>naTa koI nepi dfiaprins. 
Ilepl cifxaprias from its frequent use in the O. T. for the Hebr. DNtijn came 
to be considered as a single word, whence were formed the derivatives 
Trfpiafiapri^fiv, expiaj'e (Ot XotTroi, Exod. xxix. 36, Lev. viii. 15) and 
nfpiapapTiap.6s (2. Zach. xiii. r). 

VIII. 18 : ovK alia-.-irpos ti^v (i^XXovcrav 86|av] 'Are not worthy to be 
compared with the glory.' This is, evidently, the correct version of the 
Greek, the idea of comparison being virtually included in Trpos ; as 
Xenoph. Anab. VII. 7? 4' • ^^pos Travra eBoKfi TTphs TO apyvpiov e;^eti'. 
But the construction of the whole sentence is novel, and appears to 
be a confusion in the writer's mind of two others, either of which would 
be free from objection. Thus he might have said, ovk a^ia (for di>Td^ia) 
rfjs 86^t]t, as Prov. iii. 15 : ovk a^iov avriis ; and viii. 1 1 : vdv to Tipnov ovk 
a^cov a-o(f>Las iaTiv ; which may be traced to the Homeric vvv S' ovff hbs 
n^ioi ia-fifv \ "EKTopoi. Or he might for ovk (i^ia have written ovbtvos 
a|io; and then we might have compared Dio. Chrys. Or. I. p. 12. 10: 
01 yap avOpuinuiv Xoyoi Kal ra navTa ao(f)icrp,aTa ov8(vos a^ia npos ttjv napci 
Tav ^ecoi/ (TTivoiav Ka\ (prjfirjv. This solution makes it unnecessary to give 
to OVK a^ia the meaning of ' insignificant,' or ' of no account,' which 
cannot be proved. 

VIII. 24: tI Kal eXirCSei] 'Why doth he yet hope for.?' R. V. in 
margin : ' Some ancient authorities read awaitcth ' (vnoixivei for {Xwi^ei). 
These are, according to Dean Alford's notation, 'AX^ 47 marg. Cyr. 
expectat syrr. Ambros.' By ' syrr.' we are to understand both Syriac 
versions, which is not correct. The Peschito seems to have read 

wTTo/xeVet, 01^ 1 . ncnVn p.Lo, as . » nm is frequently put for viri- 
fi€iv€, Trpoo-eSoKT/o-e &c., never for TJXniaf. But the Philoxenian certainly 

read eXTrtf" (j^ICDId), and White's translation, exspectat., as well as 

St Ambrose's exspectat, were also meant for fXnl^fi, not for vnofxevei, 
which latter, according to N. T. use, is not ' awaiteth,' but 'endureth.' 

VIII. 28: irdvTa oruvepY€l] 'AH things work together.' So the Philo- 
xenian Syriac \ vVi ^^ ^^2. According to the Peschito Wno 
^OT^ 3,SV) !>0^ we must translate, ' He (God) worketh with them 
in all things,' the Greek being the same, and ndvTa being taken in the 
sense of Kara ndvTa. If we adopt the reading of ABN, which interpolate 
o Qfbs after awepyel, the last mentioned version need not be altered. 
According to this reading, Dean Alford would write avuepyei from 
avvepya, concludo ; but this is not a biblical word ; and the Apostle, if 
such had been his meaning, would certainly have written o-vyKXfiei. 



158 ROMANS. IX. 6 

IX. 6: ovx olov 8i on eKiriirTtoKcv 6 Xoyos tov Gtov] 'Not (R. V. But 
// is not) as though tlie word of God hath taken none effect.' All English 
versions, following the Vulgate, N^on mitcni quod excidcrit iwrbinn Dei, 
agree in this explanation of the unique combination of particles, ovx °^°^ 
on, supposed by Dean Alford to be elliptical for ov toIov Xeyoo, olov on. 
But our English 'not as though' is sufficiently represented in Greek by 
01;;^ on (e.g. Phil. iii. 12: ovx °" '7^'? f^"^ov); and the question is, whether 
any, and what, additional force is contained in olov. We shall first take 
the well-known case of ovx °^'^^ (without on),.. d\Xa Kal, of which Munthe 
(who rightly gives it the meaning of /lo/i tantum tton, sed, or tantutn abest 
nt) adduces some good examples from Diodorus Siculus ; e.g. ill. 17 (of 
the Ichthyophagi) : 01;;^ olov vypav rpof^f^v (in^rjToiKTi ttotov, nW ovd' i'vvoiav 
exovcri. Ibid. 33 : ovx olov (jievyeiv ^ovKovrai (Troglodytae) ttjv vntplBoXrjv 
Tcov (7vp.^aiv(')VT0)v avToli KaKcov (from the excessive heat of the sun), dXXa 
Kai TovvavTiov, eKovaiats rrfwievat to ^fjv, ei/e/ca tov fxrj liiaadfjvai diaiTtjs fTfpas 
Kai ^lov TTfipadtjvai. Munthe goes on to explain the text in the same 
manner: 'Not only has the word of God not come to nought. ..but,' 
making the apodosis to begin at v. 7 : aAX' eV 'laaaK KXTjdrjcreral. o-oi (nreppa ; 
a construction (besides the insertion of ort) so unlike the instances from 
Diodorus as to admit of no comparison. The Greek Lexicographers 
recognize the phrase ovx o'°''> ^'^^ followed by dWd or aXXa kuI, but 
condemn it as a barbarism; as Phrynichus p. 372 ed. Lobeck : Ovx 
oiov dpyi^opai- Kil:i8r]Xov eVp^arcos. paXiara dpapTav€Tai fv rfj rjpehaiTfj 
(Bithynia), ovx "''"' '^"'' M') o""' XeyovT<iiv...Xiy(t.v he XPV "^ brjirov, prj 
Brjnov. Antiatt. Btkk. p. Iio: Ovx "'<"' ('piC^pai- [opyiCopai]...(rv Se, 
TToXv dTre^w tov opi^eadai [opyi^ea-dai]. In Athen. VI. p. 244 E a parasite 
complains of having to keep up with his patron's pace, which he describes 
as flying rather than walking : TreVerai ydp, ovx °'-°'' l^ahi^fi. rds 68ovs. 
From these instances it would appear that ovx °^°^j according to the 
vulgar use of it, was a strong negative, 7ieqiiaqiia7)i, ?ie 7nininmm ; and, 
perhaps, the sense and spirit of the whole sentence would be best con- 
veyed to the English reader by such a translation as the following: 'Not, 
however, that the word of God hath come to nought, far from it.' 

IX. 30: Ta [i.T| 8iwKOVTa...KaT€Xap€...'6/. 31 : tls v6(iov...ovk ^<j>0a(r€] A. V. 

'Which followed not after... have attained to... (31) hath not attained to 
the law.' R. V. 'Which followed not after... attained to... (31) did not 
arrive at that law.' Phil. iii. 12: StwKco fie ft koI KaToXd^co «<^' w KareXij- 
<l>6rfv...\6 : ets o ((})ddaapfv...A. V. ' But 1 follow after (R. V. press on) if 
that I may apprehend that for which also I am (was) apprehended. ..(16) 
whereto we have already attained.' 

On these versions we remark (i) that 8iw/c«ti/ and KaTaXa[d(7v are cor- 
relative terms for pursui?ig and ovcrtakiiii^. Thus Exod. xv. 9 : ' The 
enemy said, Si(a|as KaTaXr]^opai, I will pursue, I will overtake.' Wetstein 
quotes Herod. 11. 30: '^appryrixo', hi nvOnpfvos ehlcoKf u>s he KaTtXufif.., 



XI. 8 ROMANS. 159 

Lucian. Herinot. yy : o npo crov fidXa ttoXXoi koi dyadol koi uxvrepoi irapa 
TToXii 8i(OKovTfs ov KaWXa/3oi/^ (2) In the extract from Romans there is 
no reason why we should not translate KoreXa^e by ' overtook,' in which 
case we may leave 'did not attain to' as the most convenient rendering 
of ovK €(f)da(T{v els, agreeing with Phil. iii. 16, as represented by both 
versions. In Phil. iii. 12 the English 'apprehend' conveys the idea of 
an arrest, in which sense it is employed by our Translators, Acts xii. 4, 
2 Cor. xi. 32 ; where, however, the Greek word is itidaai, not KaraKa^iiv. 
Some persons may be pleased with the idea of Saul's being apprehended 
or arrested by Jesus Christ, while on his way to apprehend others. But 
such an idea is foreign to the word KaTaka(3f'iu, and the sense is equally 
good, if we translate, ' I follow after, if so be that I may 07'ertal'e that for 
which also I was overtaketi of Christ Jesus.' 

* X. 5 : Mtoijo-fis "yap •ypd(j)€i ti^v SiKaioo-vvrjv tijv €K v6|j.ov, oti o iron](ras 
aura av6pw7ros Sijo-erat ev aurfj] This is the reading of the T. R., which is 
supported by B, and all uncials except A and (originally) ND, as well as 
by both Syriac versions (Pesch. "IZqjId *^Ad ]jJDCn ; Philox. .^As 
12q.Q_.5],\). The only difficulties it presents are (i) the construction 
ypd(f)eL TTjit 8. (which, however, is warranted by John i. 46 : ov eypa-^e 
M(>)v(Tr]s...evpr)Kap.fv) and (2) the insertion of avrd, which is wanting in the 
MSS. of the Lxx. (Lev. xviii. 5) though found in Ed. Rom. (but the whole 
text is KOI ({)v\d^f(r6e...TrdvTa to Kpip-ard p-ov, koX iroiriaeTe avrd, A noirjuas 
[avrd] avdpuiuos fj^Vfrat eV avToU). The Other reading, that of AD^N\ is : 
M. yap ypd(^(L on rrjv 8. rfjv (k v. o Troir^cras avdpanros ^riaerai ev avrrj, rendered 
by Vulg. Af. eni)ii scripsit, qitotti'ain Jitstitiani, quae ex lege est, qui feeerit 
homo, vivet in ea; and by R. V. 'For M. writeth that the man that doeth 
the righteousness which is of the law shall live thereby.' Against which 
it may be urged that Moses ' writeth ' nothing of the sort. He does not 
even mention ' the righteousness that is of the law.' That is a phrase 
introduced by St Paul himself in contrast to ' the righteousness which is 
of faith.' True, M. 'describes' what the Apostle understands by 'the 
righteousness which is of the law,' when he declares that the man which 
doeth all the things contained in the law ' shall live by them ' ; but that is 
all. Hear St Chrysostom. M. yap ypd(^ei, (f)T](Ti, rfjv eK rov vdpov biKatn- 
(Tvvr]v. O 8e Xeyei, tovto e'ari. M. 8eiKvv(Tiv rjpiv Tr)v eK rov vopov 8iKaioavvr}v, 
I'lTToia Tis ecTTi Koi TToran^. ttoiu toivvv ea-ri, koi nodev avviararai; dno rot/ 
Tr\i]pa>6rjvai tcis evroXds. 6 Troi^aas avrd, ^TJaerat ev avTols. 

*XI. 8 : (irvtvua) Karavv^cws] A. V. 'of slumber.' R. V. 'of stupor.' 
The first of these is, certainly, too weak, the second, perhaps, too strong, 
to convey the precise sense of the original word in Isai. xxix. 10, HO'l'iri^ 
O'. Kardvv^is. The Hexapla on that place gives a choice of renderings : 
'A, Kciracjiopds. 2. Kapocxreas. Q. eKo-rda-eoos. The A. V. and R. V. in Isaiah 

* [Cf. Pint. y//. Araf. XL: /cai diu^^avres, ws ou Kar^Xa^ov.] 



l6o ROMANS. XI. II, 12 

is 'deep sleep,' which had been already used for the same word in Gen. 
ii. 21 : 'The LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam.' On 
a final revision 'deep sleep' might be recalled in St Paul's quotation. 
Other meanings of the word need not delay us, but we must be 
allowed to protest against Mr Humphry's derivation of the word from 
a verb, which means properly ' pin ' or ' nail down,' and thence ' the 
stupefaction which arises from such treatment.' St Chrysostom, indeed, 
has something like the former part of this statement : KaTavvyr\vin yap 
(he says) ov8tv trepou tariv t] to ffiTrayiji/ai nov Koi TrpoarfKaxrdai, whence 
he attributes to Karaw^is the notion of a fixed and inunoveahle state of 
mind, here in malam parte)n : to joIwv av'iarov avrOiv Kai SvafieTadfrov ttjs 
yvcip.Tis 8r]\av, nvtiifia Karavv^aos elirtv. But there is no authority for this 
use of the word ; and the sense oi stupefaction, if correct, must be derived 
not from vixrcTfiv, ' to prick,' and so cause pain, but from the Hellenistic 
use of KUTcivv^Ls in the examples quoted above. 

XI. II, 12: 'I say then. Have they stumbled (enTmaav) that they 
should fall (neacoa-i)? God forbid : but ra/Z/^r through their fall (tw avrap 
TrapaTTTcifjiaTi} salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to 
jealousy. Now if the fall {ro irapaTTTcopa) of them de the riches of the 
world, and the diminishing {to rJTTrjpn) of them the riches of the Gentiles, 
how much more their fulness (to n'\i]po)pa)?'' Besides other difficulties, 
there are two words in this passage which do not seem to be correctly 
rendered. 

1. For napaTTTapia the Revisers have retained 'fall,' with a marginal 
note, ' Or, trespass.' But wapanTOipa is not an actual fall (which, indeed, 
has just been strongly denied) but a. slip or false step (morally, a trespass), 
and differs from nTalrrpa only as slipping does from stumbling. In fact 
both Syriac versions have rendered (TTTaia-av and TrapairTapa by deriva- 
tives from the same root (Pesch. o\n V] and ')A\r>n7 • Philox. 
O S; » and "JAv^n «) • and if no better v.'ord could be found, we might 
do the same : ' Have they stumbled... through their stumbling.' 

2. The other word, ^tttjuq, is more difficult, as appears from the 
greater variety of its proposed equivalents, 'diminishing' (from Vulg. 
demin7(tio), 'decay,' 'loss,' 'small number,' &c. ; which, however, for the 
most part, seem to be mere guesses, inspired by the desire to make a 
good contrast with nXijpoopa. If we look only to the word itself, and its 
cognates rJTTa and i^TTaadai, we shall find that the only certain notion 
which can be assigned to them is that of being beaten or defeated in a 
contest, whether warlike or otherwise. Thus v'iKr\ and r\TTa are as 
commonly opposed to each other as 'victory' and 'defeat.' A man 
may be defeated or overcome {jiTTaaBai) either i-no tQ^v no\fpiu>v, or fv 
To'is 8iKaiTTr]piois (Xenoph. A/em. iv. 4, 17), or by his own passions and 
appetites (comp. 2 Pet. ii. 19). The particular form rJTTijpa is peculiar to 
biblical Greek, and (besides the present text) is only found in Isai. xxxi. 8 



XI. 22 ROMANS. l6l 

and I Cor. vi. 7. In the former place, the phrase etrovrai els f]TTr]iJ.a 
appears to be equivalent to ijTTrjdjjaovTai in the next verse, though the 
Hebrew is different. In i Cor. vi. 7 : ' Now therefore there is utterly 
a fault (TJTTTjua) among you, because ye go to law one with another,' 
St Chrysostom upholds the proper meaning of the word in respect to 
an action-at-law ; as if the Apostle had said, 'You have sustained a 
defeat at all events, by merely going to law ; the victory would have been 
to suffer yourself to be defrauded.' (See more on that place.) Returning 
to the text, we would translate 7/. 12 thus : ' Now if their stumblmg is the 
riches of the world, and their defeat the riches of the Gentiles ; how much 
more their fulness?' If it be objected that there is no opposition between 
'defeat' and 'fulness,' we answer, why should there be, any more than 
between 'stumbling' and 'fulness?' and what has nXovros to do with 
either of them? The sentence may be rhetorically faulty, but would not 
be much improved even if it could be shewn that rjrTrjfxa and nXijpcofia 
were as opposite to each other as 'impoverishment' to 'replenishment' 
(Alford), or as - to + (Wetstein). 

*XI. 18 : oi o-i T11V pitav PaoPTdSas, dW r\ pC?a a-i] A. V. 'thou bearest 
not the root, but the root thee.' The Revisers, perhaps with the idea of 
giving greater emphasis to av, have varied the former clause thus : 'it is 
not thou that bearest the root.' But in that case would not a correct 
English ear require in the latter clause, 'but the root //la/ bca7-eth thee'? 
At all events, no change was necessary. 

XI. 22 : €m |jiev Toiis ireo-ovTas, diroTOiifa (T. R. -lav), lirl 8^ crt, x.pt](rT6TT]s 
0€ov (T. R. xP^o-'''oTT}Ta sine deou), iav itri\idvr\s rfj •)(^pr\<rr6rj]Ti.] No English 
reader can fail to see the awkwardness of such a sentence as the follow- 
ing : 'Toward them that fell, severity ; but toward thee, God's goodness.' 
Dean Alford says : 'The repetition of 6eov is quite in the manner of the 
Apostle. See i Cor. i. 24, 25.' The place is, Xpiarov 6eov bvvap.iv kul 
dfoii <To(f)Lav. ..TO pmpov tov deoii. . .nai to do'deves rou deov. But this example 
would only support dnoTopia deov...xpr](TT6Tr]s deov. If deov were inserted 
at all, it should be after both ; or if after one only, then after anoTopia. It 
has been suggested that deov was erased as unnecessary. But surely 
Riickert's idea is much more probable, that 6eov was originally a marginal 
note on iav eiripeivrji ttj xpwtottjti, which might otherwise be understood 
in a subjective sense, like e'lripevovpevTrj dpapTia (Ch. vi. i), eav pifj e'lripeivaxri 
Trj aTna-Tia (Ch. xi. 23). And in this sense it seems to have been under- 
stood by St Chrysostom (T. IX. p. 650 B) : Sta tovto Trepi ae xPV'^'''^>'^^'''^ 
enedei^aTo, Iva eTripeivjji- koI ovk eine, ttj nio'Tei, aWa ttj ;i^pr;oTor;jrt ■ tuvt- 
eariv, eav a^ia ttjs tov 6eov (^CKavBpanias TTpdrTrji ^. 

^ I find dtroTopia and xPW'^'^V'i in ya.p irpo-ybvwv avrov cTKXripoTepov Kexpv 

contrast in a passage of Diod. Sic. T. X. pivuv ry iroXei, oSros 8ta. ttjs I8iai 

p. 69 ed. Bip.: ajrovepew ai'roj (Caesari) ijpepoTrjTos ^lupdwcraTO Tas eKeivuv aTroro- 

Tov aldjvLov TTJs xPV^TdrriTos kiraivov. tCiv pias. 

K. II 



l62 ROMANS. XT. 32 

Ibid, l-irtl Kal wu Ikkottiio-t)] ' Otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.' 
Dean Alford translates : ' For [otherwise] thou also shalt be cut off' ; 
with a note : ' Otherwise is not expressed in the original ; but the 
construction implies it.' He should have said : ' For is not expressed 
in the original.' 'ETrei is either 'for' or 'otherwise,' never both, a com- 
bination which correct English also eschews. See Rom. xi. 6. i Cor. 
XV. 29. Heb. ix. 17. Good examples of eVet, nlioqtiin, from Plato and 
Synesius may be found in Wetstein (on xi. 6), to which add Diog. Laert. 
I. 114; (Epimenides) Ihavra yovv ttjv Movvvxi-nv Trap Adrjvaiois, oyi/oeli/ 
(pdvai avTovs cxTuiv kukcov aiTiov earai tovto to x^^P^^v avTo'n- 'EIIEI Kciv to2s 
t)8ov(Tcu avTo 8ia(f)oprjaai {or else, they would have pulled it down with their 
teeth). S. Chrysost. T. XI. p. 407 D : nnXiv, nv nva Karrj^^i, X«yf f^ 
vnodfo-ecos vnoKeinevrji- 'EIIEI (Tiya {or else, be silent); where the last Paris 
Editor has fallen into the same error as that noticed above, noting : 'Fort. 
eVei aXXcoy triya^.' 

*X1I. 2 : Kal |iii (nj(rxilH''a'T£t««»'9e t« alcSvi tovtu), dWa jx€Ta|iop<j)ouo-0€...] 
Nothing could read better than the A. V. 'And be not conformed to this 
world ; but be ye transformed.' The very alliteration, though not in the 
original, is a beauty superadded to it. Granting that there is a distinc- 
tion between o-x'?/^" and m"P0'?' ^"<^ that this distinction is preserved by 
the A. V. in other places by the appropriation of 'fashion' to the one, 
and 'form' to the other, it does not follow that the inexorable rule of 
uniformity should override all other considerations, whether of sound 
or sense. ' Conformity to the world' is an established phrase, and much 
more likely to be understood than the proposed improvement, 'And be 
not fashioned according to this world.' 

That fiop<f)ri and crxriiia are contrasted with each other in Philipp. ii. 
6—8, in respect to the two natures in Christ, must be allowed, but such a 
distinction has no place in our text. St Chrysostom's explanation of ^17 
avcTXIIJ-ciTi^ea-df k.t.L is this : Mj) rvircoa-rjs favrov Kara to ax^P^n Toii napoUTos 
^iov. He calls it a-xfip-a, because of its unsubstantiality (to auvrroo-TaTov) : 
it is (Tx^f^a p.ovnv Ka\ (nidei^is Kal Trpocrconelov, ov TTpayp,aTos akr]6ei.a, ovx 
vTroaraa-is ptvovaa. In contrast to this (he says) is m"P0'? ^'^^ akrjBrjs, 
<f>v(riKov exovtra /cdXAor, ov ^eofievov Tmv e^(i)6fv itriTpipifiaTuiv re koi (rxflp-aTcov. 
And he concludes : *Av toIvw to a-xVl^n p'l^r)^, Taxf(^S en-i TrjU p.op(f)rjp T]^tis. 

Perhaps this idea might be conveyed to the English reader by rendering : 
'And be not outwardly conformed to this world; but be ye inwardly 
transformed by the renewing of your mind.' 

XII. 10, 11: TTJ Ti|ifi...Tf] o-ttovSt)] a more elegant arrangement would 
be KuTci Tiix-qv...KaTa a-jrov^v, which the Apostle has adopted Phil. iii. 6: 

^ [Cf. Pans. X. 1 I, 4: €1 d^^erai ae 17- P/ioc. IX : iVTVixelTe, eXwev, txovres arpa- 
TTt'ws rb ijdup, iirel fiXXws ye xaXeTrdi' vwb T-qybv eldora, vpds' fVei TrdXai dV dwoXu)- 
i^ecTTOTTjTos fffTiv ip^aiveadai. Pint. F/V. Xeire. ] 



XII. i8 ROMANS. 163 

KOTO. ^fjXov, SicoKcov TTjv eKKXtjaiup, K.T.X. With the latter we may compare 
Diod. Sic. IX. Fragm. 8 (T. iv. p. 43 ed. Bip.) : Kara fifv yap tt]v vofiode- 
aiav i^alvero ttoKitikos koI (j^povifios • Kara 8f ttjv nicrriv, diKaioi' Kara 8e rf]v 
iv Tois ottKois vTTfpo)(r]v, avhpelos' Kara de ttjv npos to KepSoj p(yaXo\l/vxlav, 
d(j)LKdpyvpos. 

XII. 13: To the authorities in favour of fxvelais (for xp^^fn-s) should 
be added Eusebius, who in his History of the Martyrs in Palestine, 
p. I (Cureton's Translation) says : ' We have been also charged in the 
book of the Apostles, that we should be partakers in the remembrance of 

the saints ("|^j'_^r)) "Ij^SO,^ .^ZoAjtJj).' 

XII. 16: dWa Tois Taireivois a-i)vaira-y6p.€voi] A. V. 'But condescend 
to men of low estate. Or, be contented witli niea?i things.'' R. V. ' But 
condescend to (Gr. be carried away with) things that are lowly (Or, thejti 
that are loivly).^ In favour oi persons it may be urged that both in the 
Old and New Testaments 01 Tarrfivol occurs continually ; tci Taneivd once 
only, Psal. cxxxvii. 6 : oti vy^rjXos 6 Kvpio^, koI tci Taneiva ecpopa, Koi to. 
vyJATiXa dnb p.aKp66fv yivcotTKfi, where persons are indicated in the Hebrew. 
Again, the verb awarrdyeadai, when used in a figurative sense, may be 
compared with (TvpTT€pi4>epe(Tdai, which is to comply with, humour, ac- 
commodate oneself to another, as Ecclus. xxv. i : ywi/?) «at dvr]p iavro7s 
a-viJ.Trepi(l)ep6iievoi. Stob. Plo?: T. LXIV. 31 : prj diapaxecrdai (with a 
madman) p-T]8e dvTiTeiveiv, dXXd koi avpnfpLCpepfa-Oai Km avvemvfveiv. 
Epict. Enchir. 68 (ch. XXII. ed. Wolf.) : /xe'xp' p(v toi \6yuv prj uKvei avp- 
■n-€pi4)epfa6ai avTols- On the whole, it would be very difficult to improve 
upon the A. V. ' condescend to,' whether we understand by rots Taneivols 
men of low degree, or of a meek and humble disposition. 

XII. 18 : €i Svvarov, to e^ vjxwv] By this Cumulation of conditions the 
difficulty of the precept is admirably brought out. In an extract from 
lamblichus, quoted by Cobet {Call. Crit. p. 397) : (k cf^iXlas dXr}6ivfjs 
(^aipelv dyavd re Ka\ (f)iXoveiKiav, paXicrTa pev e/c Tvaarji, el SvvctTov ei 8e 
pi], (K yf TTJs TraTpiKTJs, few scholars will be found to accept the dictufn 
of that celebrated Critic : ' MdXiaTa piv significat et ph bvvaTov ; itaque 
ridicule ft bwarov additur.' On this principle we might condemn 
Demosth. Phtl. IV. p. 147, I : idv vpeis opodvpabov eV pids yvcoprjs 
f^iXimrov dpvvTjade^. With 7'. 21 : aXXa vina ev rc5 dyada to kukov, I 
would compare Hierocles ap. Stob. Elor. T. Lxxxiv. 20 : eneiTa, kclv 
ovTds ToiovTOi fi d8eX(})bs {cTKaibs kuI dvaopiXrjTos), dXXd crv ye, (fiairjv av, 
dufivwv ivpidr}Ti, Kcn viKtjaov avTov ttjv dypioTrjTa Tais evnouais, 

^ [Cf. Min. Fel. Oct. ch. 16: Dicam vopov eiarjveyKe. Pint. Vii. Galb. X : 
equidem, ut potero, pro viribus. Dem. xaXeTrcDs pkv Kal p6\is, ^Trettre d' ovv....] 
715, 21: iv Trapa^uffTCj}, ...Xddpa tov 



164 ROMANS. XIII. 14 

*XIII. 14: Kal TTjs o-apKos TrpovoLav |x-q iroifio-Oc] Compare Dion. Hal. 
A7li. X. I : TUtv 8 e'vTns Tei)(<ivs KaKcov npoi'oiav enoiovvro. Diod. Sic. VIII. 
Fragm. 6, T. IV. p. 31 ed. Bip. : kul rod aci/xaroi e'nmovfirjv npovoiav (sc. lit 
arpaTOS evaderem). Id. XV. 23 : kuI rfjs ev to7s onXuis jueXeVrys- ttoXXiji/ 
Trpovoiav iwfTVolrjVTo. Id. T. X. p. 2l8 ed. Bip. : enoiTjaaTo Se o vo/xodeTrii 
(Moses) Taii> TToXtfiiKuip i'pywv TroXXrjv Tvpovoiav. Thucyd. VI. 9 : vop.'i^av 
o/Liot'cos ayadov ttoXlttjv elvai, os av Kcii tov crcofinTos ri Kai Trjs ovcrias TrpovorjTcn. 
Since the Revisers have rendered ■n-povoovfj.eva KuXa (?'. 17) by 'Take 
thought for things honourable,' they might also, in this verse, have 
translated 'Take no thought for the flesh'; though it would have been 
far better to have retained ' taking thought ' for p.tpifj.vav, as in A. V. See 
Davies B/d/e English, p. 99. 

*XIV. 6. The omission of the clause, Knl u /xi) tppopojv rfjp rmlpav 
Kvplw 01) (Ppnvf'i, in some i\lSS. (unfortunately followed by the Revisers) 
arose from the same obvicus cause as that for which the latter clause of 
I John ii. 23 is wanting in the T. R. The suggestion of Dean Alford, 
that it may have been iiiteiitioiially omitted after the observance of the 
Lord's day came to be regarded as obligatory, is highly improbable. 
Such an intentional mutilator would have struck out the preceding clause 
also. 

*XIV. 7 : €avTw tfj] Many examples of this phrase are commonly 
cited, in the sense of enjoying oneself (Ovid's ' Vive tibi'), as Terent. 
Ad. V. 4, 9: ' Ille suam semper egit vitam, in otio, in conviviis...sibi 
vixit, sibi sumptum fecit.' Menand. ap. Stob. Flot: T. CXXI. 5 : toPt' 
i(TT\ TO C^v ov)^ eavTca ^iji/ fiuvov. Plut. F/A Cleom. XXXI : al(r\pov yap 

(fjv fiovois iavTols Km dnoOvriaKeiv. But these are all irrelevant, as St Paul 
is not here speaking of our duty, whether as men or as Christians, but of 
our 7-espo7isibility. ' No man livelh to himself,' i.e. is his own master, is 
accountable to himself alone. The following from Dion. Hal. Ant. III. 
17 is nearer to this use of the dative, though not exactly similar : dXX' 
(vcTf^es p.ev TTpny/xn Trotflrf, <u nal^fS, rw nciTpl ^aura, kol ov8ev avev rfji (pfji 
yvfofirjs SuinpaTTiipei'oi.. 

XIV. 10: <rv ii rl Kpiveis-.TJ koI o-v t£ e^ovGcvels...] R- ^'• 'But thou, 
why dost thou judge.., or thou again, why dost thou set at nought.?' In 
the A. V. the distinction between the two parties appealed to, the 
abstainer and the eater, the weak and the strong, does not plainly 
appear. We may compare Charit. Aphrod. I. 10 : aii n^v yap, fiVe, 
Kivbwov inayeii- av 8e Kepba drroXXvds. Plut. Vit. Theinist. XXI. (from 
Timocreon) : aXX' <i ru yt Ilavcruvinv, rj Ka\ tv ye AtwOnrnov niveU-, 7 tv ye 
AfVTVKidnv ! f-yw 8' \\pi(TT(i8av inaLvioi '. 

1 [C;f. Boiss. (ad Aristnen. ]). 42-;) on Eurip. /ph. in 'J'. 1079: abv ipyov t^St; 
(Orestes) Kal aov (I'yladcs).] 



XV. 20 • ROMANS. 165 

*XV. 16: lepovpYouvTa TO euttYYtXiov Tou Oeou] Both versions : 'minister- 
ing the gospel of God.' R. V. in marg. 'Gr. ministering in sacrificed The 
A. V. has a marginal note on ' offering up ' in the next clause, ' Or, sacri- 
ficing,^ which probably belongs to ' ministering,' but has got misplaced. 
At all events, the passage as it is now read, ' that I should be a minister 
(XfiTovpy'is) of Christ Jesus unto the Gentiles, ministering {iepovpyovvra) 
the gospel of God,' sins against a fundamental principle of the Revisers, 
that two Greek words, occurring in close proximity, should not be repre- 
sented by the same English word. On this principle the substitution 
of 'sacrificing' for 'ministering' would be a decided improvement. 
That that is the correct meaning of the term will appear from the 
following examples. Hesych.: 'itpovpyel- Bvei, Upa epya^erai. We read 
of lepovpyovp-fuoi ravpoi, to. (nrXayxfa rav UpovpyrjOevTcav etc. Philo ( Vif. 
Mos. II. p. 94, 30) says : tw (iaaiXel dappovaiv rjdr] 8ui\(yfa6aL nepl Toi) rov 
Xea>v ifpovpyrjcrovTa eKnep-rj/ai rav opav. Plut. T. II. p. 228 E : avve^ov- 
Xevcrev, el fxev deov t^yovvrai (Leucotheam), fj.rj dprjuelv el Se avdpanrov, ixfj 
Upovpyelv (OS dea. 

XV. 20: ouTw St <J)i.\oTi.(xou(ji€vov eua-yY^X^SscOa'-] A. V. 'Yea, so have I 
strived to preach the gospel.' R. V. 'Yea, making it my aim (Gr. deing 
anibitioHs) so to preach the Gospel.' Though the word ' to strive ' does 
not exhaust the meaning of the Greek (fnXoTiixeladai, yet the English 
reader may accept it as adequately conveying the Apostle's meaning, 
both here and 2 Cor. v. 9. i Thess. iv. 11, where it is otherwise rendered. 
Dean Alford says : ' The word in the Apostle's usage seems to lose its 
primary meaning of making it a point of honour.' But this secondary 
meaning, sununo studio et contentione aliquid agere (Schleusner), is by no 
means 'Apostolic,' but the general usage of the best Greek writers, as the 
following examples will shew. Polyb. I. 83 : ai'i \ikv neyaXrjv eVoietro 
<T7rouS7i' fis nav to TrapaKa\ovp.fvov vtt avrau, rare be Ka\ p.aWov e(f)i\oTifxeiTo. 
Diod. Sic. XII. 46 : 6 8e 8rip.os (j^LXoTip.ovp.fvns Kara Kpdros eXelf rf/v IIoTidaiau. 

XVI. 49 : eKi'iTtpoi yap Idia 8ie(piXoTip,ovvTo Trapabidovai rh (jipovpia. Plut. 
Vlt. Caes. LIV : Karoava 8e XafSelv ^itvra (^iXoTip,ovp.ivos^. So with the 
noun, e.g. Uiod. Sic. XII. 32 : fieTci TroXXfjs (f>iXorip.ias Karea-Keva^ov rptrjpeis. 

XVII. 83 : Kara tou ttotov hirjvi)^6rj npoi Tiva rmv eTaipcov Trjs 8e (^tXori/itas 
eirl TrXiov TrpoeXdovarrjs.... 

*XV. 20: I'va |ii] €Tr' dWorpiov 0£(X€\iov oIko8o(j.w] A similar use of 
dXXoTpLoi is quoted by Wetstein from Aelian. A''. A. viii. 2 (de cane 
venatico) : veKpa 8e ivrvxai' rj Xayw rivi rj avt ovk av axj/aiTo, roli dXXoTpiois 
eavTop TTovois oxjk eyy pa<^wv, whence the writer infers : eoiKe 8e eK tovtcou 
e;^6ii' Ti cfuXoTijjLias iv favTa> ({)vcnKris {a certain ftatural sense of honour) ; 
which may also serve to illustrate the Apostle's use of 4>iXoTiiJ.ovfievos in 

^ [Cf. /(/. II. p. 268: Noi';uas...7rp6s ipya rrjs yrjs (ptXoTL/j.ov/j.evos rpixpai ttiv 
iroXiv, awoaTTJaai 5e ribv TroXe/xt/cwj'.] 



1 66 ROMANS. XVI. 2 

this verse. I add Plut. Vif. Flamin. XXI ; Taxna S17 roO ^KrjTrlwvoi ol noWnl 
davfift^ovTfS (KOKi^ov Tov TiTOV <oi akXoTpLCt} vtKpm npoaeveyKovTa tcis x^^P'^^ 
(because he procured the death of Hannibal, who had been spared by his 
conqueror Scipio). 

*XVI. 2: irpoo-TciTis] 'a succourer.' A more honourable title, as 
'protectress' or 'patroness,' might seem to be more appropriate to the 
technical term here used. Thus Dion. Hal. (Ant ll. 10) uses TrporrraTr^s 
and TTfXaTtjs for the Roman 'patronus' and 'cliens'; and the ^(toikoi at 
Athens were compelled ttoXittjv rivh 'hOr^vaiov vefifiv TrpoaTarrjv (Suidas). 
See Eisner, ad loc. I add Diod. Sic. T. x. p. 180 ed. Bip.: rap yap aWav 
(TTparr^yciv eladorav 8i.8ovai irpoaTaras tois op(pavtni Koi yvvai^iv eprjp.ois 
(Tvyyfvmv. Lucian. Bis Accus. 29 : Ka\ ravra vvv, i'more p.wr]i> e'/ne 6avp.a- 
Qovcri, Koi f7Tiypd(f)oiiTai anavTfs TrpotiraTr^v eavTwv. 

*XVI. \J\ o-Koireiv Toi/s rds 8i\oo-Ta<rias Kal to, <rKdv8aXa...TroiouvTas] 
A. V. ' mark them which cause divisions and offences.' R. V. ' mark 
them which are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling.' By 
this time the biblical sense of 'scandals' or 'offences' should be pretty 
well understood by the English reader, and does not require the ex- 
planatory rendering 'occasions of stumbling.' Again, if the article 
designates not divisions and scandals in general, but particular ones 
prevalent in the Roman Church, then this should be made clear by 
the addition in italics ^ that are among you.'' 

On ^LXP^rTafTM^ Wetst. quotes from Plut. li. p. 479 .A the proverbial 
saymg : eV hi. dixoaraau] kui 6 TrayKUKos e'fx^ope rifirji. I add Dion. Hal. 
An/. V. yy : vvv be koi iv rais ffi(f)vXiois dixoaraaiais. Id. X. 13 : d(f)opfj.^v 
8e 8i)(oaTa(rlas e^rjTOvv Kai dopvf'iov. Stob. Flor. T. XLVI. 32 : dp^r^v '<i\ijiv 
\ir] OTTOfjivrjcnKaKfe npos rovs iv 8i\oaTa<j'iy] trot nporepov yfyevrjfxevovs. 

*XVI. 18: T«v aKaKODv] A. V. 'of the simple.' R. V. 'of the innocent.' 
An unfortunate change. Innocence is opposed to guilt : simplicity to 
cunning. Prov. i. 4: Iva 8w aKciKois -rravovpyiav (A. V. 'to give subtilty 
to the simple'). Wetstein quotes Dio Cocc. Exc. p. 722: navovpyos nfi> 
yap ovK ecf)v, dW ei tis aXXos nvdpcoTrcov aKnKOS. Diod. Sic. V. 66 : 810 koI 
Tovs fni Kpiivov yevop-evovi avdpcomivi 7Tapa8e8o(r6ai rois fierayevfaTepot-s 
fvrjdfis Kcti aKUKovs TravreXun, eTi 8' fv8aip.oi'as yeyovoras. Then in 7'. 19 
aKepaioi should be rendered ' harmless,' as A. V. in marg., and both 
versions in Matth. x. 16: 'wise as serpents, and harmless as doves,' and 
Philipp. ii. 15 : 'blameless and harmless.' 



I. CORINTHIANS. 

*Chap. I. lo : i^t€ 81 KaTiipno-fjie'voi] A.V. ' but that ye be perfectly joined 
together.' R. V. ' but that ye be perfected together.' Unless ' perfected 
together' means the same as 'perfectly joined together,' it does not 
convey any very definite sense. It is true that the ancient versions 
also give prominence to the idea of perfection ; as Vulg. per/ecti, Pesch. 

■ >; t V) It, Philox. I I NV) ■ V) (both synonyms for riKeioi). But Karap- 

Ti^eiv is also applied to the composing of differences between individuals, 
or of factions in a state ; e.g. Stob. Flor. T. i. 85 : (ftiXovs bLacfxpofjievovs 
KarapTi^oifii. Dion. Hal. AnL III. 10: rj 8e vptTtpa iroXis, (ire veoKTiaros 
ovaa, KOI fK noWmv avfiffyoprjTos €6va>u,..'iva KaTapriaOrj, Kai TravcrrjTai rapar- 
Top.ivrj Koi (TTaa-idCova-a. In the passage before us, looking at the context, 
we would render : ' but that ye be compacted together in the same 
mind, and in the same judgment,' with a reference to Psal. cxxii. 3 (A. V.): 
'Jerusalem is builded as a city that is COMPACT TOGETHER' (P. B. 'that 
is at unity in itself). 

II. 2 : oi 7ap ^Kpivd ti clSe'vai ev v\x.iv] ' For I determined not to know 
any thing among you.' This sense of Kptveiv, aliqidd secuin statuere, is 
common in biblical Greek, of which a familiar example is Tit. iii. 12 : (kcI 
yap K€<piKa Trapax^i'Pna-ai ^. Here, however, it is not fKpiva yap pr]8ev 
eldevai, but 01) yap tKpiva ti ddhai, which requires a slight modification 
in the English : 'I thought not good to know' &c. Compare Diod. Sic. 
XV. 32 : (Agesilaus) to fiev jSid^fadai npos vwepbe^iovs T6Trovs...ovK iKpive. 

II. 4: €v ireiGols Xoyois] Salmasius De Hellenistica^ p. 86: 'Ilei^os 
a verbo TiiiQiii, qui persitadcf, ut 06i5os-, qui parcif, ut p.ip.os [/lii/ior], qui 
imitatur, et similia.' Schleusner 2, Alford, and others, in borrowing from 
this source, have tacitly changed Trei'^co into Treidci, clearly against the 
intention of the illustrious Frenchman, who compares the Latin cottdus 
from condo^ ^wA pro inns irom. pfoiiio. It is, however, to be observed that 
the analogy which connects neiOos with Treidco also exists between (f>ei86s, 
sparing, and c^ftSco, thrift. 

^ Compare Polyb. in. 100: ^ hvvl- ^ [Schleusner, 'Ilet^os, persuasorius, 

pas ... K plv as iK€i iroieiadai ttjp irapa- ...a ireldw, persuadeo, vel a neiOw, 60s 
Xeipaaiav. ...suada, suadela.' Ed.] 



l68 I. CORINTHIANS. II. 13 

*II. 13: irv€ii|AaTiKOis TTvevfiaTiKa o-vYKptvovTcs] 'Comparing spiritual 
things with spiritual' So all the ancient versions. Another interpre- 
tation, mentioned by Theophylact, which understands TrvevfiaTiKols of 
persons, and avyKpiveiv in a sense in which it occurs in the LXX., ' in- 
terpreting spiritual things to spiritual men,' has been thought worthy of a 
place in the margin of R. V., and of an elaborate defence in the ' Ely 
Lectures,' p. 75 : 'Biblical scholars,' says Dr Kennedy, 'do not deny that 
the verb avyKpivu) can have this sense [of "explaining"] in Hellenistic 
Greek, though the usage is not classical.' But this use of avyKfjiveiv is 
strictly confined to the interpretation of (h-ccmis (Gen. xl. 8, xli. 12, 
Dan. V. 12) ; and even in this sense is not accepted by Aquila and 
Symmachus, who substitute for it inikveddai and biaKpiveiv (Hex. ad 
Gen. xl. 8)1 The construction also with accusative and dative is in 
favour of the A. V.; as 2 Cor. x. 12 : avyKpivovrei eavrovs eavrots. Plut. 
Vi't. C. Gr'acc. IV : riva e)(a>v Trapprjatau crvyKpiveis KopvrjXia (Tfavruv ; Vet. 
Aduif. pobov dvefxdvTj crvyKpiveis. The Other marginal note, 'Or, combining'' 
seems taken from the American R. V. ' conibiiiing spiritual things with 
spiritual words (Xoyots).' So Erasm. Grot. al. ''Jilting or attaching.^ But 
this sense of the word also requires confirmation. 

III. 5 : SiaKOVOi 81' wv €Tri(rT€U(raT€, Kal eKdcTTu (is o Kvpios ^Swkcv] A. V. 
'Even as the Lord gave to every man.' R. V. 'And each as the Lord 
gave to him.' The latter version seems to refer the clause km fKaa-ra — 
'4b(OK€v to the hearers, not to the teachers ; as Dean Alford does expressly. 
That hearers believe, iKcmra cJy 6 dehs epepiae perpov Trt'orecos (Rom. xii. 3), 
is an undoubted truth ; but would not the assertion of it in this place 
introduce a new element into the context .-* St Chrysostom seems to take 
the other view : koI tKua-Tw cos o dtos eScoKfi'. ovde yap avTo tovto to piKpov 
(to biuKovovs fluai) nap' eavrmv, aXka napa rov deoi tov iyxiLpi^ovro^. Jerem. 
Markland {Co>ijecUirae in Lysiain, p. 560) even alters the punctuation to 
the same effect : ' i Cor. iii. 6 : imiTTa coy o Kvpios eduxev, «yco fcfivreva-a, 
'ATToXXcoy emWiaev. Ita distinguendum.' 

*IV. 4: ov8iv 7dp e|xavTa) (rvvoi.8a] Subaudi (pavXov vel aTonou, vel 
simile quid, as Charit. it. 5 : oCdev yap avvoida epavrfi (l)av\ou (v. 7, 
novrjpov). Job ix. 35 : <w yap avveniarapai {pavrS aSiKov. Luc. Caluni. 
23 : aT€ pr]hiv (f)uv\ov eavra avvcma-Tapevos. Perhaps the /u II construction 
is that of Plut. T. 11. p. 236 C : AaKcovd nva ns pva-raycoydov ijpdiTa, ri 
nPA3A2 f'avrco avvoi^tv a<T((ii(TTaTov. The omission of (ftavXov may be 
accounted for by the circumstance that conscience {a-vuel8r]cns) is more 
familiar to us as an accusing than as an approving faculty. The A. V. 
' I know nothing BY myself,' though a good old English idiom, is rightly 
rejected by the Revisers in favour of 'against myself,' though a closer 

^ The teclmic.il word is Kpivetv (Herod. 1. 120), whence the 'Ovei.poKpiTi.Kd. 
of Arlciuidorus and others. 



IV. 6 I. CORINTHIANS. 1 69 

imitation of the Greek idiom would, perhaps, be, ' I know no harm of 
myself 

IV. 6 : ravra 8€...[j.€T€<r)(r]jjiaTi<ra €ls IfxavTov Kai 'AiroXXto] 'And these 
things...! have in a figure transferred to myself and to ApoUos.' Instead 
of 'in a figure,' the meaning of the Apostle would be best conveyed to the 
English reader by the expression, ' by a fiction.' MeraaxqiJ^ar i((iv n is /c 
change the outward appearance of anything^ the thing itself remaining 
the same. E.g. i Sam. xxviii. 8 : ' Saul disguised himself (Sym. fifTfaxi]- 
Haria-ev eavrov) and put on other raiment.' I Kings xiv. 2 : 'And Jeroboam 
said unto his wife, Arise, I pray thee, and disguise tJiysclf (Theod. \iiTa- 
<T)(r\\i.aTi(jov aeavTov) that thou be not known to be the wife of Jeroboam.' 
So, in the present case, the Apostle, in the former part of the Epistle, 
had been speaking the truth, but, as he now declares, truth in disguise. 
It was perfectly true that there were contentions among the Corinthians, 
who had attached themselves to certain favourite teachers (or, as he 
here expresses himself, were ' puffed up for one against another '), saying, 
' I am of such an one,' and another, ' I am of such an one.' But instead 
of naming these leaders, or even describing them anonymously, as we 
have just done, St Paul, for a reason which he was now about to mention, 
substitutes for the names of the actual parties concerned those of himself, 
ApoUos, Cephas, and even of Christ himself Certainly, if we had only 
the earlier chapters to guide us, we should have taken it as a matter of 
fact, that there were parties in the Corinthian church, who ranged them- 
selves under the banners of those distinguished Apostles, and should 
have found a wide field of speculation in assigning to each its distinctive 
tenets and prepossessions. Still further to give an air of reality to his 
alleg'ations, the Apostle takes some pains to prove that he himself was 
free from participation or concurrence in this scandal ; thanking God 
that he had baptized two or three individuals only out of their whole 
number, 'lest any should say that I baptized in mine own name.' So 
well is the 'fiction' kept up. For it was a fiction after all. Those to 
whom he wrote must have known it to be so from the first ; but for the 
sake of others, he here, having accomplished his purpose, throws off the 
disguise, and declares plainly his object in assuming it. 'And these 
things, brethren, I have by a fiction transferred to myself and Apollos for 
your sakes, that ye might learn in us ' &c. 

This is the view taken by St Chrysostom at the beginning of his 
twelfth Homily on this Epistle. 'As when a sick child kicks and turns 
away from the food offered by the physicians, the attendants call the 
father or the tutor, and bid them take the food from the physician's 
hands, and bring it, so that out of fear towards them he may take it and 
be quiet : so also Paul, intending to find fault with the Corinthians in 
behalf of certain other persons (of some as being injured, of others as 
being honoured above measure) did not set down the persons themselves. 



I70 I. CORINTHIANS. IV. ii 

but conducted the argument in his own name, and that of Apollos, in 
Older that rev^erencing these they might receive his mode of cure. But 
that once received, he presently makes known in whose behalf he was so 
expressing himself. Now this was not hypocrisy, but condescension and 
nianagenient (avyKardlSaa-ii koi olKovofiia). For if he had said openly, 
"You are judging men who are saints, and worthy of admiration," they 
would probably have taken it ill, and have started off altogether. But 
now, in saying, But to me it is a very small thing that I should be judged 
of you; and again, Who is Paul, and who is Apollos? he had rendered 
his speech easy of reception.' 

IV. II : Kal dcTTaTOvpv] A. V. 'And have no certain dwelling-place.' 
Or, as we might otherwise render, ' no settled habitation,' with reference 
to the primary meaning of aaTaTos, instabilis, unsettled. But, perhaps, 
neither of these expresses the full force of the word, in which there may 
possibly be an allusion to Gen. iv. 12: 'A fugitive and a vagabond 
p3J yj) shalt thou be in the earth ' ; where for the incorrect a-revwu Kal 
TpiyLdOV of the LXX., the Hexapla gives : 2. avda-Taros kuX aKaTacrTaTni. To 

E.(3f)aiK<jU KaL 01 Xoinoi- craXevofifUos Kal aKaracTTaTav tovt€(ttl, ^fj fxevoiv iv 
eVi roTTO), dW dX&J/iefos. We may also compare Isai. Iviii. 7 : 'Is it not 
to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are 
cast out (Or, afflicted) to thy house? when thou seest the naked,' &c. 
Here in connexion with hunger and nakedness we find those that are 
D^/liPj errabundi, for which the LXX. have dariyovs, Symmachus dva- 
(TTarov^, Theodotion /xerai/ao-Tdrovs ^ ^'^d .^.quila the very word used by 
St Paul, dcrraroCi/ray. In the text, therefore, there seems no reason why 
we should not translate, ' and are vagabonds,' or ' and lead a vagabond 
life,' a more lively description than the other. 

V. I : oXws aKoverai. kv v^lv iropveia] A. V. ' It is reported commonly 
that there is fornication among you.' The only correction required is 
that of R. V. ' It is actually reported.' But Dean Alford has discovered 
a new sense for dKovofxai, 'from missing which commentators have gone 
wrong ' in other respects besides the meaning of oXcoy. ' 'AKoverat eV vfilv 
nopvfia is another way of saying aKovovari rives iv vfiiv Tropvoi, the character 
of iropvoi is borne (by some) among you, or, fornication is borne as a 
character amo Jig yon^ Now it is quite true that ttKou'eii/, like the Latin 
audire, is sometimes followed by a noun in the nominative case, in the 
sense of dicor, appellor ; in other words, the active aKovfiv puts on a 
passive signification, and therefore aKovea-dm, in this sense, would be the 
passive of a passive j which is absurd. But the Dean is also wrong in 
supposing that uKoveiv, used as before, means fo bear a certain character, 
instead of to be called by a certain name. Thus Demosth. de Cor. p. 241, 
12; vvv KoXnKfs, Knt deals ix.dpoi, Kni rdAX' a jrpoa^Kfi tt('ivt aKoiKwcTi, i.e. 

' [D.uuiial banc vocem Cobet. Co/l. Crit. p. 62, ulji vide. J 



VI. 7 I. CORINTHIANS. 171 

those epithets are freely bestowed on them. AeHan. N. A. vii. 45 : i'xaipe 
yap aKovoiv 'Aeroy. Lucian. De Merc. cond. 35 • ^f' 'ASwi'iSay avrovs koi 
'YaKivBovi aKoveiv. Hor. Ep. I. 7, 37 : Rexqiie paterqiie \ Attdisti coram^. 

*VI. 3: piwTiKd] 'Things pertaining to this hfe.' Alford explains, 
'matters relating to 6 ^loy, a inaii's livelihood.^ But ^imtlkos is derived 
from ^ios in the wider sense of human li/t\ or l/ie world, and ra /3. might 
be appropriately rendered ' things pertaining to common life,' ' worldly 
matters.' So Luke xxi. 34 : [lepifivan ^icoriKals. 2 Tim. ii. 4 : al tov j3iov 
Trpayixarelai. Compare Diod. Sic. T. X. p. 180 ed. Bip.: els (iravopdaaiv 
Toiv jSicoTiKciv KOI Tu>v ^rjpo(Ticov d8iKripaTa)v, where it is equivalent to IdicoriKav. 

VI. 4: Tois €|oTj0€VT)|ji6vovs...Ka0iSeTe] If this clause is to be read 
interrogatively, as R. V. ' Do ye set them to judge who are of no account 
in the church?' it must be understood to mean, ' Do ye have recourse to 
the heathen tribunals ?' But in that case, as the Christians had no voice 
in the appointment of the judges, the word Kadl^tre is hardly appropriate, 
judging from its use in Demosth. r. Afid. p. 585, 26 (quoted by Wetstein): 
ol 8iica^nvT€S, av t( 8iaKocriovs, av re ;^iXioiiy, av ff oTToaovs av rj TroXts Kaditrij. 
I add Philostr. //e/'. p. 174 • '^^t 8iKacrras eKadicrev ovs eiKos ^v Kara'^rjcpL- 
a-acrOai tov A'lavTos'^. 

*VI. 5 : ovK ?crTiv kv v|j.iv] A. V. 'there is not among you.' R. V. 

reads ov< hi for ovk earip ; but this makes not an atom of difference in 

the sense ; and the rendering ' there cannot be found among you ' is 
equally false and absurd. 

VI. 7 : tJ8t] |j.^v ouv oXws i]TTii|xa [iv] ti|j.iv Io-tiv] A. V. ' Now therefore 
there is utterly a fault among you.' R. V. ' Nay, already it is altogether 
a defect in you (Or, a loss to you).' On r\Trr]p.a see on Rom. xi. 12, where 
we have argued in favour of ' defeat,' whether in war, or in a court of 
justice. So St Chrysostom appears to have understood it in this place. 
'Wherefure also Paul goes on to say, Nay, it is already [i.e. whatever may 
be the result of the lawsuit] altogether a defeat {fJTTTjixa) to you, that ye go 
to law one with another. And, Wherefore do ye not rather suffer wrong? 
For that the injured person overcomes (yiKaY rather than he who cannot 
endure being injured, this 1 will make plain to you. He that cannot 
endure injury, though he drag the other party into court, though he gain 
the cause, yet is he then most of all defeated {kuv Tupiyivr^rai, totc p-aXiara 
r]TTr]Tai). For that which he would not, he hath suffered, in that the 

1 [Cf. Boisson. ad Aristaen. p. 207.] -' [Cf. Rom. iii. 4: kuI vtK-qaris ev ry 

^ [Cf. Galen. Metli. Med. I. 2: fir] Kplveadal ere. Dem. 711. 9: el yap... 

Toi)i bp.OTixvovs ry Trarpi crov Kpiras rives avridiKOL Trap vfuv ay ufL^oivro... 

Kadlaris larpQiv, ToKp-qpbraTe GeccraXe.] d^'toi oe eKarepos viKav ] 



1/2 I. CORINTHIANS. VI. 7 

adversary hath compelled him both to feel pain and incur a lawsuit.' 
This he exemplifies in the case of Job, and asks : tU fvUrjaev tnl rrjs 
KOTrpicii ; tU i^TTtjdr] ; 6 navTci a(Paipfde\s 'lw/3, tj o navra acfxXofjLfvos Sta/^oXoy; 

/fi/t/. Sid Tt oi\i jidXXov d8iK€i(r6€ ; Sid ti oux'' [AdXXov diroo-Tepeio-Ot ;] 
^'AbiKfia-df and dnovTepe'in-de are not passive, but middle, allow yourselves 
to be wronged and defrauded.'' — Alford. Yet the active and passive are 
very clearly set forth in this quotation from Plato's Gorgias (Stob. Flor. 
T. XLV. 31): IIQAOS. Su apa ^ovkoi av d8iKe'irr6ai fxaWov ^ n8iKf'iv ; 
2QKPATH2. BovAo('/xf?i/ /xei/ av eycoye ouSeVfpa- et 8e dvajKalop e'lr] d8iK('iU 
TJ dSiKeladai, fXoinr]v av fxaWov ddiKe'iadai t] dbiKflv. 

VI. 1 1 : Kttl Tavird Tiv€s iiTe] 'And such were some of you.' On which 
Dean Alford remarks: 'nves limits the vp.eii, which is the suppressed 
subject of ^T€.' Perhaps it would be more correct to say that nvfs limits 
the ravra, which though properly said of things, has here for its ante- 
cedent persons {-nopvoi Sec): 'And these, one or other of them, ye were.' 
This, at least, is the explanation of St Chrysostom in his fourth Homily 
on Ephesians (T. XI. p. 25 e): kuI enayaycSv, ^acriKflav dfov ov Kkrjpovofir)- 
(Tovai, Tore (prjcri- Kal ravrd rivfs ifre. ovk eintv dnXwi, ^re, dXXd, rivei jjre- 

■I T 

TOVTidTlV., OVTO) TTOJS i;rf. 

VI. 15 : dpas Td (xeXii tou XptcrTov] A. V. 'Shall I take the members 
of Christ.' R. V. 'Shall I take away...' Alford: 'Having alienated....' 
The English reader will probably prefer the first of these, being, in fact, 
in exact accordance with his own familiar style, in which the word 'take' 
is employed as a sort of expletive, preparatory to some other operation. 
Compare Acts xxi. 11:' He took Paul's girdle {apas ttjv ^covrjv rov n.) and 
bound his own hands and feet.' Ezek. iv. i, 3, 9 : 'Take thee {Xdj3( 
a(avrS) a tile. ..an iron pan. ..wheat, barley,' &c. Matt. xiii. 33: 'The 
kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took and hid 
{Xal3ov(Ta eviKpv^e) in three measures of meal.' The following from Plut. 
( Vit. Fab. Max. vj is somewhat similar : r]p(jira tovs (piXovs rov 4>a^t'ou, 
noTfpov fU Tov ovpavov dpas dva(f)epfi rov arparov, coy rffs y^y awfyi'dxcoi . 

VII. 16 : 'For how knowest thou (ri yap oi8as), O wife, whether thou 
shalt save thy husband .'' or how knowest thou, O husband, whether thou 
shalt save thy wife?' The only question about this argument is whether 
it is intended as a reason for the parties remaining united (in continuation 
of 7/7'. 12 — 14) or for their separating (as being in immediate connexion 

' [Cf. I'lut. F/V. Cor. XXXI I : t; d/>po7r6Xet Kai reixeffi ixeriB-QKev (is Trjf 

(iovXr^ KadcLTrep ev x^'-h'-^^'- ""oXXy koI 'MfaoTrorap.iav. Compare the use of 

kMHwvi TTJs TTJXews Sipaaa Tr]v a(f Upas <p4p(iiv — e.g. <piptav eavrbv (wiTpeirfi tui 

dcp^Kcf. So dpdfiivos in Lucian. /7/st. woifx4vi, Aesop. Fad. 400 (ed. de Fur.). 

Conscr. 24: (Urbem) Zap-baara ainos Babr. Fab. 66: iK 8k rov 5i/w ir-qpas 

iv T<2 avT(^ (iLiiXiu) dpafxevos avrri Kpfp-daai. (p^povra.^ 



IX. 5 I. CORINTHIANS. I73 

with V. 15). It is argued that if the/^>;-w^';- had been intended, it should 
have been el nrj adaen, not et acocrfis ; but this is a mistake. Et a-coafis 
is indeterminate, and holds an even balance (so to speak) between on 
(rcoaeis and on firj acocrds. And that tl oiSas ei top dvdpa aaicrfis is quite 
consistent with a hopeful view of the case, is abundantly proved by such 
examples from the O. T. as 2 Kings (Sam.) xii. 22. Joel. ii. 14. Jon. iii. 9^. 
In fact, the form under which the latter view is presented by Dean Alford, 
' For what assurance hast thou, O wife, whether thou shalt be the means 
of thy husband's conversion?' is a sufficient refutation of it ; philologically, 
because 'assurance' is incompatible with 'whether'; and morally, because 
if there be, not an assurance, but only a reasonable hope, of such a blessed 
result, it would be her bounden duty to act upon it, and not to leave her 
husband. St Chrysostom, who takes this view, sums up in these weighty 
words : 'And neither, on the one hand, doth he lay any necessity upon 
the wife, and absolutely demand the point of her, that he may not again 
do what would be too painful ; nor, on the other hand, doth he tell her to 
despair ; «AX' dcpirjcriv avro Trj rov ij.(X\ovtos dSrjXia fxeTecopov.' 

*VII. 20: i'Kao-Tos €v xfi kXiio-€i K.T.I.] A. V. 'Let every man abide in 
the same calling wherein he was called.' Another instance (see on 
John xix. 42) in which the order of the Greek might, with advantage, 
have been preserved : ' Every man in the calling wherein he was called, 
in that let him abide.' It is hardly necessary to observe, that by 'calling' 
is not here to be understood a man's calling (occupation) in life, but his 
calling of God, 'as God hath called each' (7/. 17). In 7/. 21 the ambiguous 
phrase naXXov xPW'^'- 's explained by St Chrysostom paWov SoiIXeuf, 
though he notices the other interpretation, ei bvvaa-ai eXfvdepadfjvai, 
eXfvdepwBrjri, but rejects it as ttoXv airevavrias tc5 rponm Toii IlavXov. 
The Peschito version ooClA.2)2.5 *^A «.^£^.^>, el(:^e tibi lit servias 

(Walton), takes the same view, which seems absolutely required by the 
particles, nXA' d KAI hvvafrai. 

*VIII. 12 : d|j.apTa,vovT€s els tovs d86\<|)ovs...€ls Xpio-rov d|iapTdv€T€] 
Compare Muson. ap. Stob. Flor. T. LXXV. 15 : aia-nep yhp 6 TT(p\ ^evovs 
adiKos els rov Sevtou ap-apravei Aia, Koi o nepl (f)iXovi fls rov fpiXiov ovtcos 
Sans els to eavrov yevos abiKos els tovs narpcoovs afiapTavei $eovs, Ka\ els top 
'Onoypiou At'a, rov eTVOTTTrjV rav dpapTiipiaTcov tcop nepl ra yevq. 

*IX. 5: (-ywaiKa) irepiaYtiv] 'to lead about.' IVe should rather say, 
' to carry about.' Compare Diod. Sic. xvii. jy : npus 8e tovtols rns 

• Dean Alford takes an exception occupies a 'subordinate place.' But 
to these parallels, because in all of there is nothing in this, which does 
them the verb stands in the ' emphatic not necessarily follow from the diver- 
position,' et iXei^aei, ei eirKTrpiypei, ei gence of Hebrew and Greek syntax. 
fieravoTiaei, whereas in our text it 



174 I. CORINTH-IANS. IX. 27 

TraWaKiBas n^oicoi Ta> Aapeico Trept^yf. More commonly the middle form 
is used, as Plut. F//. Anton. IX : S {yvvaiov) Srj Kal rhs TroAets eniav iv 
(f)op(iu> TvepiriyfTo. 

IX. 27, On Lucian. Nee. 4 : to acofia KaravayKa^eiv, Herosterhuis 
remarks : ' Idem est quod antistiti verae salutarisque philosophiae Paulo 
I ad Cor. ix. 27 vTroiina^fiv vel vnoivia^eiu sive vnoine^eiv (quarum lectionum 
utra sit anteferenda vi.\ constituas) 7-0 aci/xa koI dovXaycoyeiv.' There is the 
same confusion in Plut. T. II. p. 921 F : «XX' Srrfp dXrjdes jJi/, eXeyei/, 
vTTcoTTtn^wi^ (al. vnoTTif^oiv) rrjv aeXrjvrjv, where the true reading is placed 
beyond doubt by the addition, anikav kul peXacrpav avmTip.n\avTas. Nor 
is there any difficulty in the present place, where irvKrevoi immediately 
precedes, and uTrcoTrto^co is supported by the uncials ABCN. It has not, 
however, been remarked that the Philoxenian . . \ -^ ]». .. ,<yi |j] ^ . v\p 

is clearly in favour of vwmrifCo, as I am able to prove by the following 
examples from the version of Paul of Tela. Jud. vi. 38 : e^eniaa-f (J^Iu) 

Tov TToKov. Prov. XXX. 33: eav fKnU(i]s (?»JLZ) pvKTfjpa^. Amos ix. 13: 
Ot XoiTToi ■ K(n o Tni^oiv (5 »JL) OOl) rhi (TTa<^v\ds. Mic. vi. 15 : nifcrfis 
(JOt^Z) eXaiav. 

Ibid. (Aijirws aXXoLs Kfipv^as] Here it is disputed whether there is any 
allusion intended to the office of the Kj^pv^ in the public games, which was 
(we are told) not only to call out the names of the competitors before the 
several contests, and of the victors after them, but also to proclaim the 
laws of the games, and the qualifications required in the candidates ^ 
This view is supported by Wetstein, Dean Alford, and others ; but there 
seem to be serious, if not insurmountable difficulties in the way of it. 
The principal one is, that in the immediately preceding verse the Apostle 
speaks in the character of a combatant, between which and that of the 
herald who proclaimed the victor is a wide chasm, not to be bridged over 
by the single instance of the Emperor Nero^, from which (quite as ex- 
ceptional as that of the Emperor Napoleon I. at his coronation putting 
the crown on his own head) Dean Stanley would have us draw the 
inference that ''sometimes the victor in the games was also selected to 
announce his success.' If, indeed, St Paul had written aWovi Ktjpv^as, 
the continued allusion to the public games would have been irresistible ; 
but this alteration, though it has been proposed as a conjecture, is not 
supported by a single MS. On the whole, therefore, it is better to take 
Kr]pv^ai in the sense in which it is constantly used, of the /rtv^tV////^^'- of the 

^ St Chrysost. T. XII. p. 171 A el! ns tout ov KaTijyopei, Xiywv, fj.r] doOXoi 

(quoted by Wctst.): etV^ drj /jloi, irapa- cart, p-rj kX^wt-qs, prj TpoTnou TTOVTqpQv ; 
KoXCo' iv Tois 'OXu/iTTiaKotj d.'yGiaiv ovxl - Suet. Nero, 24: ' Victorcni autcni 

'i(STr\K(.v 6 Krjpv^ ^oQv piya Kal v\j/r}X6v, se ipse pronuncial)at.' 



XI. 12 T. CORINTHIANS. 1/5 

Gospel ; as St Chrysostom comments : fl yap fp.o\ rh Ktjpv^m, to ^i8c'i^ni, 
TO fivpiovs irpoa-ayayflv ovk apKfl eU acorrjpiav, d firj Kni ra kgt €p.avTop napa- 
a)(oifxriv aXrjTrTa, ttoXXw unWov vpTw. 

X. 13 : dvflpwirivos] R- V. ' such as man can bear.' Alford : 'within 
the power of human endurance.' But these renderings unnecessarily 
raise the question of what man is able to bear, and what are the limits 
of human endurance. It seems impossible to improve upon the A. V. 
'such as is common to man. Or, nwderaie^ as the following extracts will 

plainly show. Stob. Flor. T. XLIX. 48 : ei p.lv dvdpconlvriv {rj8ovrii>) deXfis, 
m AioviKTif., TTfivrjaov Iva (f)dyT]i, 8i\l/rjtTov Iva Trijji- el 8e...Tri\iKavTrji> rjXiK-qv 
ovbels npo aov, dnodov rfjv rvpavviSa. T. CVIII. 8l: koi ra TrpotnriTrTOVTa 
dv6pt!>iriva vop-i^ovTei,, koi p.ff jiovois crvp-fiaivovTa, (vdvp-OTtpov din^ofxev. Epict. 
Enchir. ch. 33 (ed. Wolf.) : viKvov aWov Ti6vT]Kfv, r) ywt]; ouSeis i(TTi.v OS 
ovK hv elVoi OTl dvdpcoTTivov . 

*XI. 5 : iv -ydp to-Ti Kai to airb tt) €|vpT][j.€VT)] A. V. 'for that is even 
all one (R. V. 'for it is one and the same thing') as if she were shaven.' 
Literally : ' she (so Alford) is all the same with her that hath been 
shaven.' 

XL 22 : Tovs \>.r\ ^xovTtts] A. V. 'them that have not. Or, f/iefu that 
are poor.^ R. V. in marg. ' Or, them that have nothing.'' There is the 
same ambiguity in Luke xxii. 36 : /cat 6 fxr] i'xcov, TrwXj/o-nro) ro lixdrtov 
avTov, Koi dyopaa-dru) p.d\aipav ; but there o ej^coi/ ^aXXdvTiou aparw had 
immediately preceded, or with only the slight interruption, ofxoicos Km 
TTijpav ; whereas here the olKias, which it is proposed to supply after fxfj 
exovTas, is in a clause which is separated from the one in question by the 
enunciation of a new idea, rj rfjs fKK\r]a-ias roii dfov KaTa(f)pov{lTf. Dean 
Alford says : ' Meyer refers in support of the meaning " the poor " to 
Wetst. on 2 Cor. viii. 12, where nothing on the subject is found.' The 
reference should have been to Wetst. on Matt. xiii. 12, where an abund- 
ance of examples may be found. Instead of selecting from them, I give 
de meo petiH Neh. viii. 10 : koli dnoa-TflXaTe fifpidas rois p-t] exovatv. Stob. 
Flor. T. I. 40 : d yap davpd^cov revs i'xouTas Kal p.aKapi^op.ei/ovs vno tcov 

aXkcov dv6p(i)TTWv T. III. 18 : e;^et«' Se TTfipa- tovto yap to t fJyei/es | Kal 

Toiis ynp.ovs S/Scocrt tovs npaTovs f'x^"'- ! ^^ """^ irivecrQai 8' iarXv rj r aho^ia 
k.tX. T. XCI. 7 : iTvi(TTap.ai Be Kal TTenfipap.ni Xiav | cJs Ta>v exovroiv ■ndvTei 

(ivOpUlTTOL (piXoL". 

^ [Cf. Die. Chrys. Or. Xi. 157, 26: yap rb ixel^oi' -fj Kar' di/dpojirov vodeis ; 

dXXd d/xiKpa Kai dvdpdbireia \pevcTp.aTa App. B. C. III. 69 : iroi'ovp.^i'wv 8i w5e 

irpbs Beta Kal /xeydXa. Plat. Fit Caes. TrduTuv vir^p <pv<nv dvdpwirivriv.] 

LVII : Cicero proposes honours to ^ [Cf. T. XXXVIII. 6 : Xlto's yevo- 

Caesar — wv dp^ucryewui^ dvdpwwivov t]v fxevos, toIs ixovai p-r] (pdovtL.^ 
rb peyedos. Soph. Oc'd. C. 598 : tL 



1/6 I. CORINTHIANS. XI. 24 

*XI. 24 : TO (iirtp {pfjicjv K\<ofi.€vov] The last word is omitted by AB and 
(a I"" manu) CN, and of the Fathers Cyr. Ath. Fulg. It is impossible that 
TO vTTfp I'txMv can stand alone (R. V. 'which is for you'); therefore Alford 
and others darkly hint at an ellipsis, 'the filling up of which is to be sought 
in the foregoing eKXan-e.' But how can an ellipsis in our Lord's speech be 
filled up from a word, which was not spoken, but only occurs in a narra- 
tive of the transaction? The only possible way of accounting for the 
omission of the participle is by supposing that the speaker did not suit 
the action to the word, but substituted the action for the luord, thus : 
'This is my body which is [here he breaks the bread] for you.' But 
this has never been suggested, and is so improbable that we are com- 
pelled, in justice to the Enghsh reader, to retain ' broken,' it matters 
little whether in the Roman or in the Italic character. 

If we were inclined to indulge in speculations on the motives which 
influenced transcribers in dealing with the I\I.SS. from which they copied, 
we might say that KK(i,\i(vov was dispensed with as being inapplicable to 
anything that was done to Christ's living body on the cross, though 
sometimes used of the tortures inflicted on martyrs. On the other hand, 
if the omission had existed in the original Epistle, copyists wishing to 
fill it up, would certainly have preferred SiSo/ifwi- (from Luke xxii. 19) to 
KXa/jievov, a word not elsewhere to be found in this connexion. 

*XIII. 1—3. 'Though I speak' &c. Mr Washington Moon, a great 
oracle in all cases of English grammar, objects to the A. V. of this 
passage, that the verbs are not hypothetical, as they should be, but 
directly affirmative. But this objection cannot be sustained. 'I speak' 
may be either the one or the other, according as it represents loquor, or 
loquar; yet practically there is no ambiguity, because the context 
plainly excludes the indicative mood. I cannot therefore believe that 
this was the reason why the Revisers changed 'Though' into 'If,' but 
a quite different one, which has escaped Mr Moon's perspicacity, and to 
which his own proposed version, 'Though I were to speak,' is equally 
liable; namely, that although the conjunction 'though" is correctly 
expressed in the leading clause of each verse, it is incorrectly under- 
stood in the concluding one, common to all three verses, 'and have not 
charity.' To be strictly grammatical, the A. V. should have been as 
follows : 'Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, yet if 
I have not charity' &c. By substituting ' If for 'Though,' the Revisers 
have avoided this difficulty. Not that I think they have done wisely in 
making the change, simply because no change was necessary. The 
A. V. as it stands, is perfectly intelligible, adequately represents the 
original, and the blot which I have mentioned is far too minute to be 
noticed by one English reader out of ten thousand. 

*XIII. 3 : €av irapaSJ) to o-w|xd |iov, I'va Kav0i]o-«(ji.ai] Compare Max. 
Tyr. VII. 9 (quoted by Wetst.) : (dappfi hv, oifj.ni, K<n rfj Airvrj fnVofi irapn- 



XIII. 7 I. CORINTHIANS. 177 

8ovt TO a-afia. The various reading Kavx'7'o-co/xai, 'that I may glory,' though 
supported by the trio ABX, and mentioned by Jerome, is rightly rejected 
by Dean Alford. This reading supposes that the good actions here 
specified were performed from a corrupt motive (Kfvodo^las (VfKev), which 
of itself would be sufficient to deprive them of all moral worth, without 
the superfluous addition (especially connected by an adversative particle) 
ayanrjv AE firj f\(o. Ostentation necessarily implies the absence of love. 

Observe also the indefiniteness of the phrase, lav rrapadu) to a-cifia fiov, 
without any hint of the purpose, for which the body is so given or yielded 
up. In Dan. iii. 28 (95 LXX.) we have irapibaxav tci adfxaTa avTciv fls niip 
(O'. ft? f'jjLTTvpLcrfxov), the very counterpart of St Paul's tva Kav6r](Tu>jjLai. In 
the passage quoted by Westcott and Hort from S. Clem. Rom. 55 : 
TToXXol ^atriXets Ka\ riyovp.evoi nnpeScoKav eavTovs k.tJ. all ambiguity is 
removed by the several additions tls 6dvaTov...els Sea-/xa...fiy 8ov\(iav. 
Equally inconclusive is another quotation from Plut. Vi/. Demetr. XLIX. 
When some one ventured to tell him, a5f 2eXfi;/c« \pr) to (TS>\ia TrapaSovvai, 
Demetrius drew his sword intending to kill himself, but was persuaded 
by his friends to accept the other alternative, namely, to give himself up 
as a prisoner to Seleucus ; which he accordingly did, and was handsomely 
treated by his magnanimous enemy. But what has this to do with St 
Paul's 'giving his body that he might glory'? 

XIII. 5: ovK do-xTip.ov€i] ' Doth not behave itself unseemly.' 'Seems 
to be general, without particular reference to the disorders in public 
speaking with tongues.' — Dean Alford. This will be readily conceded ; 
but the difficulty remains, how this general decorousness of behaviour is 
connected with ayairr]. To obviate this difficulty, the Greek expositors 
have given a different turn to the word cktxw'^^^'-) ^'^ '^ ^^ were equivalent 
to vofiiCfi aaxrifiovelv, the very phrase used by St Paul in Ch. vii. 36. 
Thus Theodoret : ovk aa-x'^p-ovel- ovbev Ta>v fVTe\av re Kai Taireivuiv r^s 
Tutv aSeX^coi/ a(f)e\eias eveKa TrapaiTf'iTai dpixcrai, aax^JfJ^ov ttjv toiqvttjv npa^iv 
iiTToXafi^avav. And St Chrysostom : tI yap Xt'yo), (prjalv, oti ov (ftvcnovTai, 
oirov ye to(tovtou airix^'' toC irddovs, oti Ka\ ra a'iaxi-0"''a nadovcra Sia tov 
ayancofifvov, ov8e dcrx^P'Ocrvvrjv to npayp-a vop-i^ei; He mstances m our 
Lord, who suffered a woman who was a sinner to anoint and kiss his 
feet ; in Rebecca, who felt no shame in practising a disgraceful fraud 
on her husband for the sake of her darling son ; in Jacob himself, who, 
besides the unseemliness of servitude, incurred ridicule from the trick 
put upon him by his father-in-law ; yet was so far from feeling himself 
disgraced, that the seven years ' seemed unto him but a few days for the 
love he had ' to Rachel : ») yap dydirr] ovk daxr]p.ove'i, ' doth not count any 
thing to be unseemly.' 

XIII. 7 : irdvTa a-riyd] ' Beareth all things.' R. V. in margin : 'Or, 
covereth^ probably with a reference to A. V. Prov. x. 12 : ' Love covereth 



K. 



12 



178 I. CORINTHIANS. XIV. 8 

all sins,' and xvii. 9 : ' He that coveirth a transgression, seeketh love.' 
But it does not appear that crriynv is the proper word to be used in this 
connexion, but rather KaKvirreiv (Psal. xxxi. 5. James v. 20. i Pet. iv. 8) 
or TTfpiaTtX'Kfiv (see on i Pet. iv. 12). Acquiescing in the generally 
received version, ' beareth all things ' {kuv (f)opTi<a 7), Kau enaxdrj, kuv 
v^peis, KOI/ n\T)yai, Kav davaros, kqv otiovu^), we would substitute in the 
margin for 'covereth,' 'keepeth close.' This is a well-known use of the 
word, of which take the following examples (partly from Wetstein on 
I Cor. ix. 12). Ecclus. viii. 17 : peTa putpov prj avplBovKfvnv, ov yap 
dvi^rjo-fTai Xoyov (rre^ai, ' he cannot keep counsel.' Thucyd. vi. 72 : a 
Tf KpvnTeadai Set, paXXov au (TTfyfadai. Stob. Flor. T. LXII. 23: ttkttov 
piv ovv fivai xpr] tov biaKoiov | toiovtov iivai, Kai areydv ra detnroTuii'. 
Lucian. AklVlg. I I : Kni loi iriKicrBrjpfv, coy olada, Kai (jTeyeiv pepa6r]K<ipfv. 
Themist. XXVI. p. 3I- • (rreyeiv arra tiu ei8a>(Tiv iv rfj Kapbia, Ka\ prj e^ayyiX- 
XdU. Hence the proverb : 'ApeoTrayirov areyai/oiTepos- 

XIV. 8 : €ls iroXefiov] A. V. 'to the battle.' R. V. 'for war.' See on 
Luke xiv. 31. The use of noXtpos for 'battle' is common in the LXX., 
e.g. 2 Kings (Sam.) xi. 15: e^fvavrlas tov iroXtpov tov Kparauw, 'in the 
forefront of the hottest (Heb. strong) battle.' Psal. xvii. (xviii.) 39: nepu- 
foxray pe dvvapiv els TToXepov. Eccles. ix. 1 1 : kgI ov to7s dvvarols 6 noXtpos, 
'nor the battle to the strong.' In the present case, it is, obviously, when 
the battle is about to be joined, that the trumpet comes into play. 
Wetstein quotes Dio Cass. p. 24 (ed. Leunclav. 1606) : eyeVero hi 77 paxr] 
Toiabi. Trpa>TOV pev 01 (TaXTriyKvai navrei apa to TToXepiKov dwu avvdr'jpaTos 
i^oTjcrav. 

*XV. 4 : e7T]-y€pTai] A. V. ' he rose again.' R. V. ' he hath been raised.' 
[But as it is followed by ttj ripepa rfj Tpirrj, the English idiom requires 
' he was raised,' i^yipdrj.] The Revisers persist in this change, so grating 
to the ears of the English Bible-reader, throughout the chapter, e.g. 
' Now if Christ is preached that he hath been raised from the dead... 
But if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been 
raised : and if Christ hath not been raised... But now hath Christ been 
raised from the dead, the firstfruits....' That God was the agent in the 
resurrection of Christ, is expressly declared in z/. 15 ; but is it necessary 
to recall this truth on every occasion that His resurrection is mentioned.'' 
And if the Apostle's argument does not require this, does the use of the 
passive form necessitate the proposed change .'' Clearly not. Ijoth ey?;- 
yepTai and eyepdrjafTui are commonly used as middle verbs, without any 

^ St Chrysostoni ad loc, who gives pevov, Kai aiuaros dLxf/uivra ivaTp(^ov: 

as an instance David's forebearaiice dWa Kai tovto ^areyev 6 paKapios tKeivos 

(compare i Tliess. iii. i) towards ...lax^'P^ 7"P V" V ttjs aydirrji Kprj-rrls' 

Absalom : t'l yap (popriKiliTepov tov vibv 5(6 Kai Trdfra crr^yet. 
Ide'iv iira.viaTdpei'oi', Kai TVpavviSo^ i<pU- 



XV. 47 I- CORINTHIANS. 1 79 

reference to an agent; e.g. 'There hath oot risen a greater prophet...' 
'Many false prophets shall rise...' 'Nation shall rise against nation. 
' Unto him which died for them, and rose again {rjyepdr}).' And so the 



ancient versions in this chapter : Vulg. rcsitrrexit. Both Syriac V"* (^ 

XV. 8: wo-irepel tw €KTpw|j.aTt] 'as to one born out of due time.' 
Compare Diod. Sic. ill. 63 : (Semelem) rfXevrtja-at, koI to f3i)fcf)os fKTpwam 
TTpo Tov KadrjKovTos xP'^'^ov ^ Perhaps, for the sake of uniformity, it would 
be better to adopt the O. T. version of eKTpcopa (?2)3), ' an untimely birth.' 
See Job iii. 16. Psal. Iviii. 8. Eccles. vi. 3. In the last place only do 
we find the article : eiWa ort dyadov v-rrep avTov to e'KTpu)fia (^^^i}), the 
sentiment being a general one. In our text it might be dispensed with, 
unless we accept the explanation that St Paul, comparing himself with 
the other Apostles, describes himself as ' the o/ie untimely birth ' in the 
family. Schleusner (Le.x: N. T. s.v.) quotes from Zonaras Lex. col. 661 : 
o eV Tvaai TtXeios UavXos, as aTeXrj ev aTTocrroAotf, Ka\ fxr] pnp(f)ovp,€vov Ttj 
Kara XpiaTov rri(TT(i an apx^js, eicTpapa (fyrjtriv eavTov' cos nepiTTa (KTpa>p.aTL 
a(fidr] Kap.0'1 ; where the singular reading, oSs nepiTTco for wo-Trfpel rc5, does 
not appear to have been noticed. 

*Ibid. American R. V. 'as to the child untimely born.' On 
this one of the American Revisers (in Public Opinion) comments : 
' It is certainly the child born into the world prematurely, and 
therefore puny and weak.' On the other hand an esteemed corre- 
spondent (Dr Greenhill) writes : ' I believe eKTpbdfxa never means any 
thing except a lifeless abortion — nol a living child prematurely born.' 
While the former of these definitions does not come up to either the 
proper or the figurative meaning of the term, we need not press the 
word, as here used by St Paul, so strongly as our medical friend would 
seem to insist. The eKTpap-a may be expelled in various stages of its 
development ; and it is not necessary to choose the lowest and most 
rudimental to satisfy the self-depreciating feeling of the Apostle. 'An 
untimely birth' fairly represents the general idea, while keeping clear of 
details which might offend the delicacy of the English reader. To 
perfectly reconcile these two qualities, strength and good taste, we must 
have recourse to the only language which fulfils both conditions : e.g. 
Theodoret. ad loc. HavTOiv avSpanrcov lavTov evTeXiCTTtpov aTroKoKeaai deXi]- 
cras, TravTas KaTaXincdv Toiis iv ttj p>jTpa TeXfcriovpyrjdevTas, fha kutu tov vofxov 
TTJs (jiva-ecos yfvvrjdiVTas, npl^Xoodpidico fcivTov aTTeiKct^ei f'p^pvco, o rw rav 
dvOpoiTrciv ovK eyKaTeiXtKTaL KUTaXoyat. 

*XV. 47 : «K -ytIs, x°"^'^os] 'of the earth, earthy.' By 'earthy' we must 
understand the material of which the first man was formed, which in the 

^ [Cf. Galen, ap. Hubart, p. 92 : H. E. v. 1 % \2: ovs ws veKpovs i^frpwae, 
yvvr]?yKVos4KTiTpii(XK€i{i7^so//fh'). Eluseb. tovtovs t^wvTas diroXafi^dvovcra.] 

12 2 



l80 I. CORINTHIANS. XV. 49 

Mosaic record is x^^^ OP^) "'^" '^^^ y^^- Unfortunately, we have no 
single English word which conveniently represents ;^oiKof, ' dusty' being 
used exclusively in the sense of ' covered with dust.' ' Earthy,' being of 
rare occurrence, is liable to be confounded by the unlearned with 'earthly,' 
and, in fact, is understood by the generality of readers as merely inten- 
sive, accentuating (to use the slang of the day) the preceding description 
' of the earth.' This misapprehension has given rise to a number of 
imitations, or rather parodies, of the phrase in question : e.g. a person 
or practice is said to be ' of the world, worldly,' meaning that he or it is 
intensely worldly. Without venturing to propose any alteration in the 
text, we should have no objection to see a marginal note on 'earthy': 
' Gr. 7nade of dust.' 

*XV. 49: 4)op€o-o|j.€v] 'Most of the ancient MSS. read, "let us also 
bear" {(^opifra^iev) ; but the Vatican MS. and ancient Syriac version read 
as in our text, " we shall also bear." ' — Alford {Hoiv to Study the N. T. 
Epistles, p. 98). Both Syriac versions read . « *^\ 1, which may either 

be 'induemus' or 'induamus.' In Rom. xiii. 12 it is for iv^vaoa^iBa. We 
have already remarked (on Rom. v. i) on the tendency of expositors 
(including copyists) to give a paraenetic turn to the sentiment in similar 
cases. Here St Chrysostom says : kuBms it^opicra^ev rrjv eiKova tov xo'Ikov, 
TOf Tvovrjpas wpa^eis, (^oparcapfv kol ttjv eiKova tov enovpaviov, ttjv TrdKiTeinv 
rfjv iv Totf ovpavoi^. On the Other side Theodoret : ro yap (poptaopfv 
7rpoppr]TiKa)s, ov napaiveTiKuis f'iprjKev. 

XVI. 22 : |j.apdv ded] The Syriac original is (^j .;i:D, Moran etho, 

which being interpreted is not ' Our Lord comcth,' but ' Our Lord came,' 
or rather ' Our Lord is come,' the Syriac verb representing either rjXBe 
(Jude 14) or fjKfi (Luke xv. 27. i John v. 20). Accordingly Theodoret 
and Schol. Cod. 7 explain the word to mean d Kvpioi rfKBtv ; Schol. Cod. 
19, o Kvpwi TTupayiyovfv ; and Schol. Cod. 46, o Ki'pioy »;/xwc rjKd. 



II. CORINTHIANS. 



Chap. II. 14: T«p -irdvTOT€ OpiaiJiPevovTi iijias] A. V. 'Which always 
causeth us to triumph.' R. V. ' Which always leadeth us in triumph.' The 
latter seems to be more agreeable to the general use of the phrase 
Spianlieveiv Tivd, ' to triumph over a person' (Coloss. ii. 15: dpiafififva-as 
avTots iv avra. Plut. Coinp. Thes. C. Roili. IV : jSao-tXfif idjucm^fvcre Ka\ 
rjyefiovai). But when we read of God's 'leading the Apostle in triumph,' 
we can only understand, with Meyer, Alford, and others, his public 
exhibition of him, as a conquered enemy ; an idea, which, though not 
incongruous in itself, does not seem suitable to the present argument, 
in which he thanks God for making him an instrument in ' manifesting 
the savour of his knowledge in every place.' We would, therefore, 
dismissing all reference to the Roman triumph, understand the word in 
a more general sense : ' Which always maketh a show (or spectacle) of 
us^' To be 'made a spectacle of is usually considered as a disgrace, 
and so St Paul himself understands it in other places (i Cor. iv. 9. 
Coloss. ii. 15). But viewed as a means of bringing the Apostle and his 
mission into greater publicity, and so tending to ' the furtherance of the 
Gospel,' he not only accepts, but glories in it : it is no longer a dearpov, 
but a dpiafi^os. This is, substantially, the view taken of this passage by 
the Greek commentators ; as St Chrysostom : rw TravTore Tj/xa? dpiap.- 
^evovTf rovTecTTi, roi ttckti ttoiovvtl nfpKpaveis- o yap 8oKe'i eivai arifjiias, 
TO TvavTodfv eXavvfadai, tovto rifjLrjs i^fuv eivai (^aiverai nfyiaTrjs. And 
Theodoret : dXXa Sta Trdvrav vp,vovjxev tov 6e6v, os aotpas to. Ka6' »;^a9 
7vpvTavev(ov, TjjSf KaKeicrf nepidyei, SrjXovs ijp.as anaaiv anat^aivcav. 

Some fanciful expositors go so far as to connect the 'savour' in the 
next clause with the same image of a Roman triumph. Thus Dean 
Alford : ' The similitude is not that of a sacrifice, but still the same as 
before : during a triumph, sweet spices were thrown about or burnt in 



A 



' The Peschito has ,«'^ V lt.].jsj specimen edit nobis; nor, as Schaaf, 
which I should 'render spec- triumphiun facit nobis. 



tacnhim facit nos. not, as Walton, 



l82 TI. CORINTHIANS. III. 14 

the streets, which were dvfiiaixdrcDv nXripen, Phit. ActniL p. 272 (cited by 
Dr Burton).' Both the idea and the reference to Plutarch are as old as 
Eisner, who mentions, in connexion with the burning of incense, 'the 
streets, and especially the temples,^ but is silent as to the 'throwing about 
of sweet spices' during the passage of the procession. Now if we turn to 
the place in Plutarch, we find that the only localities described by him as 
' full of fumigations ' are the very ones which Dean Alford entirely omits, 
namely, the tcniplcs. His words are : ttSs 8e vao% avecoKTo, koi a-Tecfu'ivoyv kuI 
Bvixinfiarcou tjv TrXr/p^?. This is all; and the Dean has 'cleckit this great 
muckle bird out o' this wee egg^.' 

III. 14: TO avTo KdXv[ji|j.a...|A€V€i (J.1] dvaKaXviTToixevov, o tl kv Xpio-xw 
Kaxap-yciTai.] A. V. ' Remaineth the same veil untaken away (K. V. 
unlifted), which veil is done away in Christ.' Dean Alford and R. V. 
in marg. point: fievei, /x^ dvaKaXv-n-Tontvov on, 'The veil remaineth, it 
not being revealed that it 's done away.' The use of o n, for o cannot be 
sustained, and forms an insuperable objection to the rendering 'which 
vet'/.' But neither is it possible to read /xf'i'fi /jlt] avaKoKvuTo^nvov otherwise 
than continuously, especially when the alternative is to introduce the rare 
construction of the noiniiiative absolute. But a compromise may, perhaps, 
be effected between these two renderings, by taking KciXvfiixa per syjiec- 
dochem for the tiling veiled, which is here declared to be, the fact ' that 
it (the old covenant) is done away in Christ.' That there is here a 
transition from one to the other of these two meanings is also indicated 
by the use of /X17 avaKoKvaTo^nvov, 'not uncovered,' instead of /ii) Trepiaipov- 
Hevov, 'not taken away.' In the editions of St Chrysostom before that of 
Oxford, 1845, the pronoun 6' ti is retained, against the tenour of his own 
exposition, which is : o be Xeyet, tovto icm- tovto avro ov dvuiivrai avviSelv, 
OTi nenavTai (o vopos), eVeiSi) rc5 Xpiara ov Triarfvovaiv. And elsewhere 
(T. VI. p. 179): elnwv yiip, KdXvp.p.a eVi tt/ dvayva>aei Trjs TraXaids diaOr'iKTjs 
ueud, entjyayf, prj duaKa\vTrT6p,€vov on iv Xpia-ro) KarapyflTcu. tovto ovto, 
(jjrja-iv, ovK dn(Ka'\v(f)6r], on fieXXei eu X. KaTcipyfla-dai. We may, therefore, 
venture to translate : ' For until this day at the reading of the old 
covenant, the same mystery (Or, covered thing, Gr. covei-ing) remaineth 
unrevealed, namely, that it is done away in Christ.' Or (if 'veil' must be 
retained) 'the same veil remaineth not taken off (Gr. not uncovered) lest 
they should perceive that it is done away in Christ.' In supplying the 
words in italics we follow the Catena on this place : /xij dvaK. els to 
■yi'cGi'at avTovs oTt iv X. KarapyeiTai. 

' [In the description of Cleopatra's Dion's tiiuini)hal enlianco into Syra- 

sailing up the Cydnus Plutarch [Vit. cuse: eKar^pudev irapa ttji/ 656;' rwi» 

Ant. XXVl) says: ddfial 5i davp-acrTal I,vpaicoo iuv 'upeia Kal rpawi^as Kal Kpa- 

Ttts 6'x^as d7r6 dvpnapiruv ttoWGiv /caret- Trjpas iardvYuv Kal KaO' oOs 7^^01x0 

Xov. He also describes (Dion, xxix) Tr/ooxi^Tais (flowers &c.) re /3a\X6i/rwv.] 



V. II II. CORINTHIANS. 1 83 

*IV. 17: TO YcLp irapavTiKa €Xa<|)p6v ttjs OXixj/ews iifiwv] A. V. 'For our 
light affliction which is but for a moment.' R. Y. ' for the moment,' for 
the present moment. Although to TTapavriKa e\a(pp6v is here contrasted 
with alcovLov (iapos, it must not be supposed that napavTLKa bears the same 
relation to els tov alava as eXat^poi' does to fiapos. To make the opposition 
exact the Apostle should have written to irphs SXlyov (or irpos Kcupov) 
fXacppov, which might have borne out the A. V., 'which is but for a 
moment,' or 'but for a season.' But the correlatives of irapavTiica are 
varfpov (Stob. Flor. T. CXIII. 5 ■ Trapavrlx /Jcr^fiy, varfpov arivei 8nrXa), 
fTTfLTa (Thucyd. II. 64: ^ -rvapavriKa Xap-TrpoTrji: Ka\ es to iirnTa bo^n), avdis 
(Eur. Ores/. 909 : ocroi 8e avi' va> ^prjaTo. ^ovXevova det, | Kav prj TTupavTiK , 
avdls (Icri )(pt'i(TiiJ.oi), Tw ;^pdi'0) (Stob. Flor'. T. XXIX. 35 • po-Qvpi-o- be ttjv 
wapavTix tjbovrju \ Xajiovaa, Xvnas tco )(p6v(o tlktclv (f)LX(l). We would 
therefore render, ' For our light affliction, which is for the present,' or 
simply, 'For our present light affliction.' The best parallel is Hebr. 
xii. 11: Traaa 8e rraideia npos p,ev to napov ov 8ok(i )(apas eivai, aXXa XvTrrji- 
varepov 8e k.t.X. 

V. I : T] iiriytios ruiiav oiKia tov o-kt]vovs] A. V. ' Our earthly house of 
iAzs tabernacle.' Rather, 'of the tabernacle'; and in margin, 'That is, 
0/ the body.' The depreciatory term a-Kijvos for the human body is 
borrowed from the Pythagorean philosophy. Thus Democritus (ap. 
Stob. Flor. T. X. 66) : u>v to (mrjvos XPllC^'-t ^^O"' napecrTiv evpapecos (iTep 
fiox^dov Ka\ TaXanra>pi7]s ' OKoaa 8e poxdov Ktu TaXaiTrapirji xp/lC^'- "^"^ (3iop 
aXyvvei, tovtwv ovk Ipeiperai to CTKr^voi, aXA' 1) Trjs yvcoprj^ KaKor^Blrj. And 
Perictyone, a female exponent of that philosophy, in her treatise ILep\ 
yvvaiKos appovlas {//uW. T. LXXXV. 1 9) says : crKrjvos yap e'deXei py) piyeeiv, 
p,T]8e yvpvov elvai, x^P'-^ evTTpenirjs, dXXov 8e ov8evos XPuC^'- ^^^ shall add 
two neatly-turned epigrams, belonging to the same school, the first from . 
Spohn. //in. T. ll. p. 81^: 

SKJyi/oy peu •yever^pe?, enel yepas eaTi Oavovai, 

T{,pa>VTis KXaUdKov avaiadrjTov 7rep\ Tvp^ov. 
The other is from a sepulchral bas-relief in the British Museum (also 
printed in Welck. Epigr. p. 98) over a recumbent skeleton : 

EiVeii' r/f 8vvaTai, aKrjvos XinoaapKop cidpijaas, 

EtTTfp YXas T] QipaLTrjs rjv, a5 irapoblTa; 

*V. II : €IS6t€s oSv tov <|>6pov tov Kvpiov] A. V. 'knowing therefore the 
terror (R. V. fear) of the Lord.' The Revisers, in adopting 'fear' from 
Alford, would hardly, I think, accept his explanation : ' he was inwardly 
conscious of the principle of the fear of God guiding and leading him.' 
In the sense in which this clause is usually understood, 'terror' is greatly 
to be preferred to ' fear,' reminding the reader of such texts as Gen. 
XXXV. 5 : Kai iyivsTo (pojBos deoii eVt ray noXeis. Job xxxiii. 7 : ovxi o (fio^os 
fj.ov aTpofirjaei 0"6 ; 

1 [See Jacob Spon, Voyai^t' dV/ah'c etc., 1724, vol. il, p. 267. Ed.] 



184 11. CORINTHIANS. VI. 2 

*VI. 2 : Kaipu StKTw. ..Kaipos €iirp6o-8£KTos] Of the latter term Dean 
Alford says that it is 'far stronger than 8eKTos, q.d. the very term of mosi 
favourable acceptance.' But if that were so, it would be more than is 
required by the Apostle's argument, which insists only on this being the 
favourable time indicated by the quotation. In fact, the words StKTos, 
TTpocrdeKTos, and evnpoaSeKTos do not differ in sense, but the last is the 
only one which is in use in Greek authors, and is always preferred by 
St Paul, except in the single instance of dvaia 8fKTrj Phil. iv. 18, a phrase 
borrowed from Isai. Ivi. 7. It is not desirable to vary the English word, 
as 'accepted... acceptable'; but since 'acceptable' is the regular render- 
ing o{ fvTrpoadfKTos, and sometimes of dfKTos (e.g. Luke iv. 19), it might be 
substituted for the A. V. ' accepted ' in both places. This substitution 
has been adopted in the R. V. 

*VII. 2: \(apr[irari tlp-ds] A. V. 'Receive us.' R. V. 'Open your 
hearts to us.' The latter is ambiguous, and without the marginal note : 
' Gr. Make room for us,' might be understood to mean, 'Make a full 
disclosure of your feelings to us.' This might be avoided by rendering, 
'Take us into your heart,' which agrees with Zonaras, avrl roii elcrbi^atrde 
rip.as els ras yp-v^as vpav. St Chrysostom explains : rls T)pas aTTJjXao-e; 0»7(rt, 
ris e^e(3aXf rfjs Siavoias tt]! vpfrepas; TtodfV arfvoxcopovpeda iv vplv; (alluding 
to Ch. VI. 12 : O"rei'o;^copetcr^e iv rols (nv\a.y)(^vois iipdv). 

*V1II. 3 : ijTi Kara 8vva(iiv, jiaprvpol, Kal virtp (napa BCDFK, silente A) 
8vva(jiiv...] Of KdTci dvvapLv in the sense of 'according to their means' 
good examples are Diod. Sic. I. -84: ddwrovai 8' ov Kara t^v iavrav dvvapiv, 
aWa TToXv rfjv a^iav Tfj<; iavrmv ovaiai vTrfp^aWoures. Aelian. V. H. I. 31 : 
ttavTii avra (rw /3aa-i\ft) Ilepa-ai Kara ttjv favrov dvvapiv {Kacrroi npocrKopi^ei. 
The opposite to this is vnep (beyond) Bvvapit', and in Latin, supra 7>ires ; 
but trapa (not in accordance with) hvvapiv, is also used ; as by Josephus 
{Ant. III. 6, i) in describing the offerings for the construction of the 
tabernacle (quoted by Schleusner, s. v. bvvapis) : ttJs Kara dvvapiv avrdv 
cnTov8fjs ov KaTfKfinovTO, aA\' elcricfxpov apyvpnv re Kal \pv<Tov...TQVT{>>v ovv 
Kara cnrovdfjv avyKopicrdiiTcov, eKaarov Kal Trapa bvvapiv (fiLKoTiprjcrapfvov k.t.X. 

*VI11. 12: d "ydp r\ irpoOvfiCa irpoKtixai K.T.e.] I compare Dion. Hal. 
Ant. X. 25 : (})i\o}v Tt Kal avyyfvav Scopfas npoafjifpovToov peya\nf...f7ratvf(ras 
avTovs Trjs Tvpodvp'ias, niihiv rav 8t,8(ipevu)v eXafSiv. 

*XI. 20 : ti Tis \a|ipdv£i] A. V. ' if a man take 0/ you.^ R. V. ' if he 
taketh you captive.' The A. V. should certainly be recorded in the 
margin, being supported by the Greek commentators, the Syriac Peschito 

(.QHliiD *dCDJ> —ioX), and a precisely similar use of Xap^avtiv by the 
best writers. Wetstein (from Eisner and others) quotes Isocr. J'a;iat/i. 
p. 55^ • ■'"'"'' H'^" p^TofKiiv TvoWovs ov-)( vnep rwv tj) TroXft (rvpcfxpovTcov, aXX* 
vnep wv avTol AH^ESOAI npocrduKoyaiv, drjprjyopflv ToXpwvrai. Xenopli. 



XI. 28 II. CORINTHIANS. 1S5 

Cyrop. II. 2, 12: Kfii ravra (})avfpnls yiyvoixtuois otl tov AABEIN fi>f ku Ka\ 
Ktpdavai noiovoriv. Aristid. Aiitonin. p. 65 (ed. Jebb. 1722): roii? /lei/ 
UTpaTiwTas Trpos tovs ttovovs koi ttjv aaKrja-iv dp.fivovs fTToirja-fV, ovk(TI tw 
AAMBANEIN avToi's fdcras TrpoCTf'xen'. 

XI. 28 : 1] tirio-vo-Tao-Cs \>-ov ri Ka9' i]|A€pttv] A. V. 'That which cometh 
upon me daily.' We will first consider the claims of the rival reading 
j) enia-raais p-ov, which is supported by BDFN, to which might probably 
be added the Vulgate [instantia mea qtiotidiaiia). In Acts xxiv. 12, 
iiri(jv<jTa(Tw iroiovvra oyXov, the only other place in which the word is 
found, there is the same confusion, eina-va-Taa-iv being supported by HLP 
and probably Vulg. {concursuni facienteiii turbae), and iirlaTacriv by 
ABEX. The evidence of MSS. may therefore be said to be in favour 
of (TTiaraais, but the difficulty is to assign it a meaning in this place 
consistent with its general use in Greek authors. It is a word of rare 
occurrence^, except in Polybius, who uses it in the sense of attention^ 
close observation (from the phrase eTriaTfiaai tov vovv, or, simply, eVio-r^o-at, 
to attend to), e.g. ovk €k napepyov, dXX' e^ eVtoTacrecos — eTTicrTacrecos aKpijBovs 
Sflrai — a^ios enia-Taafcis koX ^t^Xov. Dean Alford acquiesces in the Polybian 
use of the word, and his rendering of this and the succeeding clause is, 
*my care day by day, my anxiety for all the churches.' This gives a 
very poor sense even here, and in Acts xxiv. 12 none at all. The Revisers, 
who also adopt this reading, translate, 'that which presseth upon me daily' ; 
but the only example approaching to this meaning of the word is Soph. 
Atitig. 225 : TToXXa? yap eaxov (fipovrldcou emcrTaa-ds, where the addition of 
(ftpovTidcov indicates the general sense, whatever ambiguity may attach to 
fVto-Tao-eis'-. On the whole, if enla-raa-is be the original reading in both 
places, it may best be explained by supposing that eV a-vvrjOela, in stylo 
familiari, eTria-Taaiv had come to be used in a sense not difi"ering from 
that of iiTKTva-Taaii, about which, being a well-known biblical word, there 
is little room for doubt. But it seems easier to suppose that the eye of the 
copyist passed from the first C to the second in ETTICYCTACIC, than 
that having ETTICTACIC before him he should have interpolated the 
additional syllable YC 

The origin of emava-Taa-is, as a biblical word, is to be found in the 
rebellion of Korah and his company. Num. xvi. In v. 3 we read that 
they (Tvvea-TTjaav em Moivarjv koi 'Aaputv ; and in 7/. 40, after the suppression 
of it, a memorial is instituted, ' that no stranger, which is not of the seed 
of Aaron, come near to offer incense before the Lord ; that he be not as 
Korah, and as his company (koi ovk i'a-rai aa-rrep Kope, koi t; euKTvcrTaais 

1 The only example from the lxx. " ['In deliberando moras,' Herm. 

is 2 Mace. vi. 3: x^iXeTrT; 5e Kal rots 'Delays,' 'haltings,' L. and S. But it 

oxXois rjv Kal dvcrx^PV^ V iirlaTacns rijy may mean only that the anxious thoughts 

(caKt'a?, where Codd. 19, 106 read presented themselves.] 
eViratrti. 



l86 II. CORINTHIANS. XI. 32 

avTov).' Again Num. xxvi. 9 it is said of Dathan and Abiram : nvroi dcnv 
oi iin(TV(TTavTfs (v. 1. ima-Tavrfs) eVi Mtovcr^i' Ka\ ^Aapcov iv tt] awayaiyrj Kope, 
(If Trj fTTio-uarao-ei Kvf)iov. For the verb eTrKrvarfjvai in classical Greek we 
more commonly find ava-Tfjvai enl nva, as Plut. V//. Lye. XI : kcii crva-ravTas 
in aiiTov aOpoovs Karafioav Ka\ ayavaKTf'iv. Lucian. Don. lo : /cat nvi^ eV 
avTov avvtrrrrjtrau "Avvtoi koL Mf'Xiroi, t« avra KarrjyopovvTfi awfp KOKelvoi 
TtWf^. In all cases the object of the combination is hostile ; which con- 
sideration enables us to dismiss at once such interpretations as that of 
Schleusner, quotidiaJiae pe7-turbationes e.v niultitiidhie adeuntiion oriae, 
or Dean Stanley, 'the concourse of people to see me'; as well as those 
which make the succeeding clause, ' the care of all the churches,' to be 
an (Tr(^riyr](ris of the present one, as both A. V. and R. V. The Apostle 
is here describing two distinct elements of the harassing and wearying 
life which he led ; _firs/, the 'caballing' or 'conspiring against him' of 
those rulers or members of the church with whom he was in 'daily' 
communication ; and seecud/y, the interest which, from his position, he 
was led to take in the concerns of distant churches. Without some 
allusion to the former of these, no description of his Apostolical labours 
and sufferings would have been complete. 

* St Chrysostom, who certainly read ewiava-Taa-is, understands it 
in a more general sense than that which we have suggested : ol dopvjioi, 
al rapaxai, al noXiopKLai tcov dijpdiv Koi tcov noKfcov {(poBoi ; and especially 
of the Jews, eVeiSij /xaXto-ra iravrav avTovs (Tvvexff, Kni fiiyi(TTos T^y (Mavlas 
eXeyxos r^v, perara^apevoi ddponv. But the historieal use of the word, with 
which St Paul must have been familiar, seems to be against this extension. 

^Y.-ai(TV(TTa(Ti'i is also to be found in the Alex. MS. of the apocryphal book 
of Esdras, ch. v. 73 : eVi^ouXas (cai drjpayooylas k(h imavaTacnis (Vat. 
avaraa-eis) irot,ovp.fvoi aTreKwXucrai' (the work of rebuilding the temple); and 
in Joseph, e. Apion. I. 20 (from Berosus) : aixokopivov hi. tovtov, avfeXdovTfs 
01 eni^ovXevaavres avra, Koivrj rfju ^aaiXdav irepUdr^Kav Na^ovvrjSco tlvi tuiv ex 
Ba(:iv\wvos, outi eV rrjs avrfjs iui<rvcrTd(Tea)S. The double compound verb 
occurs in Plut. T. II. p. 227 a: irpos ovv ra roiavra tcov vopndfTrjpdroiv 
(Lycurgi)j xaXfrrrjvavrfs 01 €(f)opot eTria-vvea-Tija-av. But, as I have stated 
above, the more general phrase for 7-isiHg up or eonspirmg agaitist a 
person is crva-TTJvai eni nva. 

*Xl. 32 : €(|)po{ppei Ti^v Aajjiao-KTivwv iroXiv] A. V. 'kept the city of the 
Damascenes with a garrison.' R. V. 'guarded the city.' •tpoupeif is either 

^ [Cf. Plut. FiL Denicty. xi.iv : ol B. C. I. 81 : (TvviaTavTo roh virdroLS eVi 

rpeTs {^acnXe'is) avviffrqaav eirl tov tov "EvWav pera deovs. Lucian. /Via/. 

ArjpriTpi.ov. XXVIII : tuu yap dWiiiv prior \: oi d^ ijdT] re ffVflaTavTO iir €p^, 

^(KTiKiiiiv airdvTojv (Tvvi.arapiv(j)v iirl tov koI irepi toO Tpovrov ttjs ini^ovXr}^ Kal 

' kvTlyovov. Cat. Maj. XIX: o\ 5e Trept dTroo-Tacewj idKoirovvTO, nai jwu^poffias 

t6v TItov crvaTOLi'Tts tV auTov. A[)[i. ffweKpoTovf.] 



XII. 7 II. CORINTHIANS. 187 

to watch y"r(^;« the outside^ as Pint. Vit. Cam. xxrii : Kai hiiklwrts eavrnvs, 
ol fifv Tco fiaaiKel Trapafifvovres ((ppovpovi' to KmriTcciXiov ; ox front tlic inside., 
as Appian. VI. 32 : ol 8e (TroXtrai) toIs (f)povpovai o-0as e'/nTroScoi/ ovaiv eiride- 
fievoL Kcii Kparrjo-avTes, ivexf'i-pi'fTav rrjv iroKtv rc5 2Kinlu)vi. Here, since the 
ethnarch was in possession of the city, we must understand that he 
placed a watch at the gates, as the word is used by Dion. Hal. Ani. 
V. 57 • 1^0.1 ra TTfpt TTjv ayopav ((f^povpflro vtto tuiv inneoiv KVKkat, ovde/iia re 
KarfXeinero to'is anUvai. ^ovkopivois e^o8os. 

*XI1. 3: oI8a] A. V. 'I knew.' R. V. 'I know.' Perhaps 'I re- 
member' would be admissible, here and i Cor. i. 16 : Xonrov ovk otSn, el' 
Tiva aWov e^aTTTia-a. This use of oida is not unknown to classical Greek ; 
e.g. Lucian. Dial. Alereir. I. I : OiaOa avrov, fj intXiX-qcrai tov avSpmiTov; 
Ovk, dW oiba, w YXvKipiov. Plot. Vit. Euni. XVIII : dXX' ouSei't KpeiTTovi 
npo(TTvxo>i> ol8a. Pausan. VIII. 17 (3) : oI8a iv 2nrv\<o d(aa-ap.fvos (white 
eagles). 

XII. 7 : €869ti |xoi o-koXov]/ tt) <rapK(] There is no doubt tliat the 
Alexandrine use of crKoXoylr for 'thorn' (Num. xxxiii. 55. Ezek. xxviii. 24. 
Hos. ii. 6) is here intended, and that the ordinary meaning of 'stake' 
(R. V. in marg.) must be rejected. Eisner gives several examples of this 
use, especially one from Artemidorus, which has been repeated by suc- 
ceeding editors of the Greek Testament down to Dean Alford (who, as 
usual, gives the credit of it to Meyer). The following is new : Babr. 
J^ad. CXXII : "Ovos Trar^aas o-koXotto ;^a)Xoy flarijKfi. He meets a wolf, and 
appeals to him : x^'P'" ^^' M"' ^^^ nj3Xa(3i] re koI Kov(f)r}p, | (k tov TroSdy fiov 
ti7j/"AKAN6AN dpvaas. 



GALATIANS. 



*Chap. I. 6 : on ovitw raxews |x€TaT(0€o-9€] A. V. 'that ye are so soon 
removed.' R. V. 'that ye are so quickly removing.' Perhaps 'going 
over' would better express the change of religious views here indicated. 
The word is used of political changes, as Plut. Vi7. Marc. XX : ruvTtjv 
{tijv TTokiv) npodvyLOTara Knpx']8oi'L^ov(Tau, NiKuii...enfidf fifTadecrdat npos 
PafMaiovs- Diod. Sic. XVI. 69 : tvdvs 8e kgI Tr/v Meaaijvriv /jifTaTidefxevTjv 
Tvpos Kapxr)8oviovs aveKTijaaro. Of the different sects of philosophers, as 
Dionysius (Athenaeus VII. p. 281 e) : kuItoi yepaios dnoaTas rav rtji (ttoFis 
Xoyoyp Kai eVi rov 'EntKovpov peranrjdriaas, got the COgnont'fl of 6 peradepfvos. 

*I. 18 : lo-TopTio-ai, IleTpov] A. V. 'to see Peter.' R. V, 'to visit (Or, 
become acquainted witli).^ St Chrysostom remarks : kqI ovk eiTrev, I8f7v 
IleTpop, dW, ItTTop^trai Ilerpoi/- onep 01 ras peyoKas TToXeis Kn\ Xapnpas 
KarapavQavovTis Xeyovaiv. 'laTop^ani differs from Idelv only as it has for 
its object any remarkable person or thing. Thus IcrTopfjaai noXiu is /o 
visit the ctiriosities 0/ a place. Josephus {A/it. i. 1 1, 4) speaking of Lot's 
wife, says: els crTrfK-qv a\a)v pere^aXev la-ToprjKa 8' avrriv ert yap koi vvv 
8iap(vfi. Another phrase might have been, Kara ttjv IlfTpav liTTopiav, as 
Diog. Laert. I. 43 : rrXc^aavTa pev ets V^prjTTjv Kara Trjp Kf'idi IcrTopinv. Hence 
dvi(rT6pr]Toi in a passage of Epict. Diss. 1. 6, 23: nXA' tir 'oXvpnlav pev 
ano8T]pflTf, iva tdrjre to epyov tov <I>ftS/oD, Kai aTii^ripa eKacrToi vpu>i> o'Uthi to 

aUKTTUprjTOS TOVTCOV (iTTodavfiv. 

II. II : oTi. KaTe7vtoo-(jit'vos rjv] A. V. 'Because he was to be blamed,' 
from the Vulg. (/la'a repreheiisibilis erat. This peculiar force of the 
perfect participle passive is denied by Dean Alford, who renders, 'because 
he was condemned,' ' a condemned nian^ as we say ; by whom does not 
appear; possibly, by his own act, or by the Christians at Antioch....! 
prefer the former ; "he was self-convicted," convicted of inconsistency by 
his conduct.' But in this case the 'self,' being of the very essence of the 
charge, ought surely to have been expressed, as it is in Tit. iii. 1 1 : kuX 

OpnpTUVfl OIV (IVTOKUTllKpiTOS, 3.11(1 Jolin vlH. Q : VTTO TtJS CTUl'f lfi')o"f (DV €\(yXO- 

ptpui. The R. V. Stood condemned' is open to the same objection. In 



V. I GALATIANS. 1 89 

support of the Vulgate reprehetisibilis, we will not rely upon Lucian. 
de Salt. 84 ; where a dancer, in representing the madness of Ajax, 
carried his filnrjais to such an extravagant length that some of the 
spectators believed he had really gone mad : koI avrov fievroi (f)ci(T\v ovrw 
fifTavorfcrai ecj)' nis frroirjcrev, cocrre Koi voaijaai vno Xinrrji, ojj aXr)6ois eVi fiavia 
KaTfyvaxTfifvov. But the following from Diod. Sic. T. x. p. 19 ed. Bip. 
seems to be quite free from ambiguity : ore 8e di avrhv (Antiochus 
Epiphanes) areviam, Ka\ to tu>v eTnrr]8(VfiaTcov Knreyvaxr^evov, aTria-Telv ft 
Trepl jxiav koi rffv avTTjV (f)v(Tiv ToaavTrjv dperrju Kcii KaKiav vnap^ai bvvarov 
eVrtf : where to KaTeyvaafMevov can only mean the reprehensible character^ 
or blaineableness of the acts just described. We may also compare the 
Homeric usage (//. S 196) : ti 8vi>apai TeXea-ai ye, kol el TfTeXfa^fvov ((ttIv 
(where TfTeXfa-fJ-tvov = to TfXeadrjvai Tre<pvKos /cat 8vvafjLfvov) ; and SUCh 
familiar instances as evXayrjiievoi for fvXoytjros, e'/SSeXvy^eVos for /SSfXvKTos 
(Rev. xxi. 8)1. 

*III. I : Tis V^s epdcTKavev] A. V. 'who hath bewitched you.' R. V. 
'who did bewitch you.' But as the effect of the bewitching still con- 
tinued, the perfect is most agreeable to the English idiom, and would 
probably have been employed by the writer, if the perfect of fiimnaivu) 
had been in use. A more common Greek word for the operation is 
KaTayoTjreveiv, as Alciph. III. 44 : GtrrnXi'^a Tiva ypavv, j; AKapvavi8a 
(f>app,aKevTpiav nenopiap-evos, KaTayorjTevfi tovs adXiovs veavlcrKovs. 

* Ibid, irpoe^pd^)!]] A. V. 'hath been evidently (R. V. openly) set forth.' 
The Syriac versions understand ypdcpeiu here in the sense of (coypncf)f'iv. 
Thus Pesch. quasi pingeiido depictiis erat ; Philox. pritts depictiis est. 
Retaining the undoubted force of Trpo in composition ior piiblice, we would 
render, 'was evidently pourtrayed,' as it appears to have been understood 
by St Chrysostom, who enlarges eloquently upon the several details of 
the picture : ov (i8ov virep nvTtov yvpLvwdevTa, avf(TKoXoTn(Tp,evov, TrpoarjXa}- 

flfVOV, ip.TTTVnp.iVOV, KCL)pOi8ovp€VOV, TTOTi^OpfVOV <>^0S, KaTTjyopOliptVOV VTTO 

\r]0-Tav, XoyxD WTTop-evov TavTa yap navTa edijXaxre 8ia tov flnflv, npoe- 
ypa(l)T] iv vplv icnavpoapLevos. All these things had been so vividly placed 
before their minds by the preaching of Christ crucified, that they could 
see them with the eyes of faith even more plainly than if they had been 
among the actual spectators. 

Ill, 28: ovK 2vi] A. V. 'there is.' R. V. 'there can be.' See on 
I Cor. vi. 5. 

V. I. A. V. 'Stand fast therefore in the liberty' &c. The accidental 
omission of fj before >//xaf has thrown the whole sentence into confusion : 

' [Cf. Plut. Vit. Detnetr. I : ei fxrfii tQv c}>a6\(i}v koi \peyo/j.€vwv ^icov aviaropr^Tw^ 



190 GALATIANS. VI. i 

' With freedom did Christ set us free : stand fast therefore.' So the 
Revisers ; but if rfj fXevdfpiq ijXfvdfpuxrev be meant for a Hebraism (like 
fTridvfjLia (jrf6vfir](ra Luke xxii. 15) the article is in the way. The only 
objection to the T. R. is the construction of arriKere with a dative, instead 
of a preposition (as Rom. v. 2 : els ttjv ^aV"" Tuvrriv e'v § earrJKafiev ; I Cor. 
xvi. 13 : (TTrjKfTe (V rfj nlarei) but this may, perhaps, be accounted for by 
the noun r^ eXtvOepla standing at the head of a sentence, of which the 
writer had not forecasted the governing verb. Instead of a-Ti']K(Te he 
might have used frnfievfTe. 

*VI. I : iav Kal irpoXTi(j)0fj avOpwiros ^v rivi irapairTcafiaTt] A. V. ' If 

(Or, altJiflUi^h) a man be overtaken in a fault.' This use of the word 
7ri)(>\r](f)0}], in its moral aspect, is entirely passed over by the great Lexi- 
cographers ; but there is no doubt that it is accurately represented, both 
physically and morally, by the English 'overtaken.' Thus, physically, 
a man is said to be ' overtaken ' by the Egyptian plague of darkness. 
Wisdom xvii. 17: 'For whether he were husbandman, or shepherd, or 
a labourer in the field, he was overtaken, and endured that necessity, 
which could not be avoided' {7rpo\r](})6e\s ttjv SvadXvKTov epevtv dvdyKrjv) : 
and Arrian. Peripl. Mar. ErytJir. (quoted by Kypke) : hCu Kai to. tt/joXt;- 
(fidivra irXola rfj 'ivdiq, nXayiaadevra vivo rfjs 6^VTr)Tos rod poos, eVo/ceXXft toIs 
revdyeai Kal dvaKXarai. In a moral sense, St Chrysostom (whose com- 
mentary on this place is : ovk eirrfv, eav npd^r], dXX\ ehv TrpoXrjcpdrj, Tovreariv, 

iav awnpnayf]) will furnish several examples ; as T. vil. p. 526 D : Ti ovv, 
iav TrpoXrjcpOio ; (prjcrlv. T. IX. p. 455 D: ^Trjv dcrx^poavvrjv Karepya^opevoi. ... 
Ovk (in€v, napaavpivrts, fj 7rpoXr](f)divTes, onfp dXXaxov (ftrjaiv. T. XII. 
p. 220 c : TToXXol Se Kal npoXrjCfiQivTfs, rfji' ala^vvTjv ov (pepovres, Ka\ aTTTjy- 
^avTo. Other meanings which have been assigned to the word in this 
place, Siquis antca (before this Epistle reaches you) depreheiisus fiierit j 
Etiam siqitis aniea deprehensiis fuerit in pcccato, eiim taincn (iterum 
peccantem) corrigite ; Siqiiis vel JlagrtDik delicto deprehcnsus fuerit'^, 
are all destitute of any authority from the usage of Greek authors, and 
would never have been thought of, if it had not been for the emphatic Kai 
prefixed to TrpoXri(jiOrj. This is certainly a difficulty ; but if we suppose 
the Kot to attach to the whole sentence (as if the Apostle had intended to 
write iav Ka\ TTupanla-ri dvdpoinos ev rivi jr., but, on consideration, sub- 
stituted the milder term) then we may connect this verse with Ch. v. 25 : 
'If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. ...But and if any 
man professing so to walk, should, by reason of the frailty of his nature, 
fall into grievous sin, then do ye which arc spiritual' &c. 

' ['Tills sense,' says Dean Alford, reader may judge how far it justifies 

' though unusual, seems justified by the sense of being ' taken in the very 

Wisdom xvii. 17.' This is the place act' {KaTaXrjfpdrjuai t7rai'ro</>u)pw Joli. 

which we have ciuoted above; and the viii. 4).] 



VI. II GALATIANS. I9I 

VI. 10 : «s Kaipov ^xoK'^^l ' While we have time.' So the Prayer- 
book, and all English versions prior to A. V. It is also the rendering 
of Vulg. {dum temptis habemnj); of Peschito ( ^» A_.] \l.C:i\ (ews) A) 
and of Philox. { \ Zu] ]j-C)l (&5r) p). The use of cJy for ew?, in this 
and similar phrases, is undoubted^ Thus St Chrysost. T. iv. p. 315 e : 
&)f eVi Kaipov f'xoufv. T. VH. p. 754 ^ : COS fVri Kaipos. T. VIII. p. 148 A : 
(OS fTi Kaipos. T. XI. p. 458 D : COS en fet rrj p-v^prj raiv dyicov rj KapSia. 
Sym. Psal. cxviii. (cxix) 147 : eyeip6p.fvos ws en ctkotos. In John xii. 
35) 36, 'While ye have the light,' nearly all the uncials read cos for eas. 
The alternative rendering, 'As we have opportunity,' would seem to 
require cos av Kaipov exco/xev, comparing Thacyd. VIII. I : oinpes irepl rav 
TrapovTOiv cos av Kaipus ^ TvpofiovKfixrovcri'^. It is also obvious to remark, 
that ' as we have opportunity ' is as often an excuse for 7tot doing good, 
as an argument for doing it, like Felix's Kaipov 8e fieraXal^cov ^em/caXeo-o/xat 
ae ; whereas ' while we have time,' by reminding us of the shortness of 
our time here on earth, sets us upon seeking opportunities of doing good, 
instead of waiting for them. This is St Chrysostom's reflexion on our 
text : ap ovv, ds Kaipov €)(op.fv, tpya^copeda to ayadov. acrnep yap ovk del 
Tov aneipeiv eapev Kvpioi, oiiTws ovde tov eXee'iv. orav yap ivreiidev arrei^e;^- 
doofxev, Kav pvpiciKis ^ovXrjdcop.ev, ov8ev TTepavovp.ev liKiov. 

VI. II : "I8€T€ TTiiXiKOLS vfiiv "ypaixixao-iv ^-yP"'*!"* ^fj €|x,fj X^'-PO ^- ^- '^^ 
see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand.' 
The only possible rendering of Trrj^Uois ypdfip,aaiv, ' in what large letters,' 
is now generally accepted. St Paul was a very indifferent penman, and 
when he did not employ an amanuensis, was obliged to write in very 
large and, probably, ill-shaped characters. St Chrysostom is inclined 
to the latter hypothesis : to Se tttjXIkois e^ol 8oKel ov to p.eyedos, dWa Trjv 
dpop(j)iav Tcov ypap-paToov efi(f)aivcov Xeyeiv. But no doubt the size of the 
letters was their principal feature, as in a curiously parallel passage from 
Plutarch's life of Cato the elder (T. I. p. 348 b), which was first pointed 
out by the present writer in his edition of St Chrysostom's Commentary 
on this Epistle, Oxon. 1852. In describing Cato's method of educating 
his son, the historian tells us that he wrote histories for him wtf/i his own 
hand^ and in large character's {i8ia x^'P' 'f"' iJ.eyd\ois ypappaa-iv)^. 

The connexion of this verse with the next seems to have been rightly 
understood by Dean Alford. ' My indifferent penmanship is a type of 
my general character. I do not set much value upon outward appear- 
ances. I am not one of those who " desire to make a fair show in the 
flesh."' 

^ [Cf. Clem. Rom. II ad Cor. ix: 'howsoever ye might be led.'] 
(is ixojji.ev Kaipov rod iadrjvai ewibujixtv ^ [Cf. Lucian. Heii/ioi. 1 1 : wivclklov 

eavrous t(J5 OepawevovTi 6e(2.'} yap ti eKpefxaro vwep rod ttuXCovos, fxeyd- 

^ [Cf. I Cor. xii. 2: Ccs hv ijyeade. \oisypdfjL/j,aai X^yov, rrj/xepov ov av/j,(pi\o- 

A- V. 'even as ye were led.' R. V. <To<peTv.] 



EPHESIANS. 

*Chap. IV. 15: dXTi0€viovT€s] A. V. 'Speaking the truth. Or, bein^^ 
sincere^ Other renderings are, ' Being truthful,' ' Being followers of truth' 
(Alford), ' Cultivating truth ' (Alex. Knox) ; all which lay the chief stress 
on the inward disposition, as distinguished from the practice of truth. On 
the other hand, the Vulgate veritatc7n fncientes seems to be too strongly 
contrasted with vera dicentes^ which will always be the principal use of 
akr]6(v(iv. Perhaps our biblical phrase 'dealing truly' (from the Hebrew 
nipX nb'y^j to which the Revisers have given a place in the margin, is free 
from both objections. The following extract from Aristot. Eth. Nic. iv. 
13, 7 may serve to throw light upon this use of the word ; Ilfpi (Karepov 
8' enrcofjLtv, jrpoTfpov 8e nep\ rov aXT)6(VTiKov, ov yap nepi tov iv tuh opioXoyiais 
akrjBfvovTOi \iyopev, oi)S' oo"« eis abiKLav t) SiKaioaifrjv avvreivti. . .nXK tv oii 
fiTjdfvos ToiovTov 8ia(pepovTos (nothing of this kind being concerned) koi iv 
Xo-yoj Ka\ iv ^ico aXrjdfveL rco ttjv e^iv tolovtos etVat. 

IV. 29: dW €1 Tis d"ya6os irpos o'lKoSopii^v rrjs xP^^o-s] A. V. 'But that 
which is good to the use of edifying. Ox^to edify pt'ofitably^ The first of 
these is the translation of Trpos •)(^pi[av ttjs olKo8opfjs, with which we are not 
concerned. Dean Alford gives a servile rendering of the Greek, 'What- 
ever is good for the building up of the need,' understanding by 'need' 
some want or defect to be supplied by the discourse recommended. The 
translation of Tyndale, 'to edifye withall when nede ys' (Cranmer, 'as oft 
as nede is') has been lately revived by R. V. 'for edifying as the need 
may be'; and, in spite of the Dean's anathemas, might be simplified by 
the use of the 'miserable hendiadys' into 'that which is good for needful 
edification.' Or, taking xP^^° '" ^^^ sense of any special occasion or 
matter in hand (as Acts vi. 3 : ovj Karaa-Tija-onfv eVi rijs xP^i^"^ TavTtjs. 
Plut. Vit. Pcricl. VIII : p^/Se p^/xa firjbev iKirta-dv ukovtos axirov npos Tr)V 
irpoKeifievrjv ;^pftai' dvapp.n(Trov) and giving to olKodop.^ the somewhat 
modern, but not inappropriate sense of 'improvement' or 'turning to 
good account,' we might translate : ' That which is good for the IM- 
PROVEMENT OF THE OCCASION 1.' 

1 [For further illustration of xp^'a- Me«'os 5^ (Pompeius) ttjv xpe^a" (Crass!) 

cf. App. ^. C. III. 84: Kal diriaTovvTa da/xivus (Crassus soliciting his good 

eKfKeve ttjv ffrpariav ets woWd SuXdvTa offices). Id./irut. XXXVI : et 5^ cvviXoi 

(Kir^fxipai Kara drj rivas xpf^as- Lucian. Kai KaToiKovo/Ji-qffeie tt)v wepi ravra (rd 

Bis.Accus. 10: tIs 5e vpds, t!}'FjpiJ.rj, O€vpo KareirelyovTa twv Trpayndrwv) xpe^a«'.] 
Xpeia ijyaytv ; Plut. Vil. Crass. XU: bt^d- 



PHILIPPIANS. 

*Chap. II. 6 : oix dpTraYnov Ti^iio-aTo] A. V. 'thought it not robbery.' 
R.V. ' counted it not a prize,' with a marginal note on ' prize ' : ' Gr. a thing 
to be grasped.^ But aptta^fiv is not to 'grasp,' but to 'snatch,' and is so 
rendered by R. V. in John x. 12: 'the wolf snatcheth them.' Read 
therefore : ' Gr. a thing to be snatched! 

As a biblical curiosity the Rev. J. A. Beet's rendering of this phrase 
(quoted in the Church Q. R. for January, 1883, p. 366) is worth recording : 
' Not high-handed self-indulging did he deem his equality with God.' 

II. 16: Xo-yov Sw-qs iTTt'x.ovT^s] A. V. 'holding forth the word of life.' 
Nearly all our recent translators agree in this version, or vary only 
between 'holding forth' and 'holding fast.' The popular idea of the 
context is that the Apostle compares the Philippian church to tights 
or liiininai-ies (probably the heavenly luminaries {(fxoa-Tijpfs) described 
in Gen. i. 14 were in his mind ; certainly not such lights as the Pharos 
of Alexandria (Doddridge), to which the term is never applied) in which 
character they were to ' hold forth ' to the benighted world ' the word of 
life,' the preaching of salvation by Jesus Christ. But, not to mention the 
absence of the articles (compared with i John i. i), the employment of 
inix^iv in this sense is not supported by any sound example, the Homeric 
usage of offering (wine, the breast 1, &c.) being too remote to be brought 
into the comparison. If now we turn to the Greek expositors, we 
shall find Theodoret alone favouring the popular explanation of the 
words, avTi Tov, Tw Xoyo) 7rpo(re;(oi'Tey ttjs fw^y, and he puts himself 
out of court by quoting in support of it i Tim. iv. 16 : e'n-exe aeavra 
Kai TTJ 8i8aa-Ka\ia, where both the meaning of irrexeiv and its construc- 
tion are different. St Chrysostom entirely ignores 'the word of life,' 
and considers the words to contain not an exhortation to future action, 
but a reward for past exertions {opa ttcos evdeas ridrjcri ra enaffKa). He 
goes on : W cot/, \6yov fco^j e7re;(oin-e$'; Toure'crrt, p.eX\ovTfs ^ijaeadai, rav 
(TwCofifvcDV ovTes.,.oi (^woT^pej, (}>^(tI, \6yov (fxoTos enexovatv, vfMels Xoyov 
Ca>^s. TL ecTTi, \6you fco^j; (yirepfxa fw^p e\0VTfs, TovTfOTtv, evexvpa fa^f 

1 [Cf. Lucian. Zc'iix. 4: kuI Tpi<pfL dvdpuwLKCJs, eTrexoi'ca (female hippocentaur) 
t6v ywaiKeiov fiacrrov.] 

K. T3 



194 PHILIPPIANS. II. r6 

'e\oVTfS, KaT€)(OVT€S TTjV ((OrjV • TOVricTTl, CTTTfpHa fcO^f (V VfUV e)(OVTfS- TOVTO 

Xeyei, Xoyov fto^s. This redundancy of explanation probably arose from 
the Commentator's setting down a variety of glosses, as he found them in 
the margin of his Greek Testament ; which is known to have been a 
common practice with him. They all seem to point, as he had before 
remarked, to some benefit to be enjoyed by themselves, and not (as 
the context requires) conferred by them upon the world at large. How 
is this latter point to be made out consistently with sound philological 
principles .-* 

The phrase \6yov irrexfiv rivoi is not unknown to later Greek authors, 
and has been illustrated, as far as examples go, by Wetstein, from whose 
collection we quote Nemes. </r Aiu'ma ll (p. 32, ed. Antverp. 1565) : 
(pa>TT]Tfov TToia Kpacris icrriv rj TTOiovaa C^of, Koi '^vx^s Xi'ryov (TTiXOvaa. Diog. 
Laert. VII. 155 • npeaKei Se avrots koi rrjv 8iaK(icrp.r]cnv d>^€ ('xdv pfCTrjv tt]v yfju, 
nevrpov \6yov enexova-av. St Basil. Hexacni. IX. (T. I. p. 83 e) : KaKov 8e ivav 
appaxTTia yj/vxri^, V ^^ apfrfj \6yov vyieias (tt(x^^- I ^dd Aristid. T. II. p. 41 : 
coCTre Koi Tiiv rrjs p,aPTiKTJs tntx^i' Xoynv (r) prjTopiKi]) Koi tov rrjs (TTpaTrjyiKrj^. In 
all these places the sense required is that oi corresponding, or heitjg analo- 
gous to, in which it has a close affinity with the better-known phrases, Ta^w, 
or Tonov, inex^iv tivos (e.g. Theodoret. T. III. p. 489 : rj fvayyeXiKfj noXireia 
a-dparos eVc'xfi rd^iv, 6 Se vopos (TKicii) ; and in this sense it was undoubtedly 
understood by the older Syriac translator, whose version is ^nn .A ."j^ 

I .' K . AsOr^ ^nm\^ quibiis cstis loco vitae. Conformably to which, 
and in accordance with all the known examples of the phrase, I would 
render the whole passage thus: 'That ye may be blameless and harm- 
less... in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom 
ye appear as lights in the world, being (to it) in the stead of life.' 
To the last clause a marginal note might be added : ' Gr. holding the 
analogy of life? We are reminded of a portion of the Sermon on the 
Mount (Matt. v. 13, 14) in which ipu.^ ia-Tt to (f)coi mii Kocrpov — TO oXas Trjs 
yTJs would be, according to the Apostle's phraseology, vptls (f)mTos (nXfiros) 
Xo-yor enexfTf iv tw Kocrpco (eV r^ y^). 



COLOSSIANS. 

*Chap. II. I : iiXiKov ayutva. 'i\o) irepl v|x«v] A. V. 'what great conflict 
{Or, fear or care) I have for you.' R. V. ' how greatly I strive for you,' with 
reference to the preceding verse, ' striving {dycovi(6fifvos) according to his 
working.' But the former rendering, besides being more expressive, has 
the advantage of being closer to the original phrase, which may have 
been borrowed from Isai. vii. 13 : jmj yuKphv vyuv aya>va irapix^i-v dvOpconois, 
Kal TTsos Kvpta T^apex^'''^ dyu>va ; I compare Plut. Vit. Flam. XVI : rrXfla-Tov 
S' dymva Koi ivovov avTcii napfl^ov at irepl XaKKidecov deijaeis npos tov Maviov 
(Langhorne : 'But he had much greater difficulties to combat, when he 
applied to Manius in behalf of the Chalcidians.') Alciphr. li. i : to. 
' A(f)po8lcria Trotco kut eros, Koi dyava rj^cov el ra wporepa rols vcrrepois viK(o 
(Corrige, fere ut Arnaldus : dywva e'xo) aet to. irporepa rois varepois viKav). 

II. 8 : pX€Tr€T€ [i.r\ Tis v\>.a.s ^(rrai 6 o-vXa7wywv] A. V. ' Beware lest any 
man spoil you.' For ' spoil ' (which might easily be taken for ' mar,' and, 
in fact, has been so taken by our great English Lexicographer) the R. V. 
substitutes, 'make spoil of,' Dean Alford, 'lead you away as his prey'; 
both of which, especially the latter, convey the idea of the Colossians 
themselves being carried off, instead of their (spiritual) treasures. There 
can be no better rendering than, ' lest any man rod you,' which is quite 
justified by Aristaen. Fp. 11. 22 : tovtov Karfka^ov, avep, fyxapoiivra crvXa- 
yayrjo-ai tov ^fierepou oIkov. Dean Alford's objection is curious: 'The 
meaning to rob hardly appears suitable on account of the Kara... (card, 
which seems to imply motion ^' 

II. 14 : irpoo-TiXwo-as airi ra o-ravpa] The popular explanation of these 
words is derived from a supposed ' ancient custom ' of cancelling a bond 

^ St Chrysostom (on the word heed lest there be somebody,' and shows 

pXiirere) supposes the (rvXayajyia to be him by what way the robber may have 

conducted secretly, and so as /xr;5e gained an entrance, dia rovSe tov Sco/xa- 

aicrdijcrLi' wapix^i-v- The householder tIov, answering to the Apostle's 5td t^j 

finds himself losing his goods every (j)i\oao(pla'; k.t.\. 
day, and a friend warns him, ' Take 

13—2 



196 COLOSSI ANS. 



II. 18 



by driving a nail through it. Wolf refers for this custom to Grot, ad loc, 
Le Moyne Var. Sacr. p. 508, and Pearson on the Creed [\'ol. i. p. 317^ 
ed. Oxf. 1797]. Of these the last merely asserts the existence of such a 
custom, without giving any authority for it. Most probably it has no other 
foundation than this very passage ; just as the existence of a low gate 
in the wall of Jerusalem, called 'The needle's eye,' through which a 
camel could not pass without being unloaded, rests on a false interpreta- 
tion of Matt. xix. 24. St Chrysostom connects the 'nailing' with the 
cancelling of the bond, only as making a rent in it : km ovhk ourcoy 
f(f)vXa^ev, fiXXa ku) dupprj^fv avro, TrpoaTjXciaas ra aravpa. But since the 
cancelling of the 'handwriting that was against us' is already amply 
secured by its being 'blotted out' and ' taken out of the way,' may there 
not, in this seemingly superfluous addition of nailing it to the cross, be 
an allusion to another undeubted custom, of hanging up spoils taken in 
war in the temples of the gods ?■ Thus we read in Diod. Sic. xi. 25 : Ta>v 
8e Xa(f)vp(ov ra KaWi(TTevovTa irape(fivXa^e, ^ov\('>p.fvos tovs iv rais 2vpa<ova-aii 
Vfws Koapfja-ai rots (TkvXuIS • Tav bk aXXoov TrnXXa fiev fv 'ipfpa Trpoai^XaxTe 
To7s (ni(f)ave(TTaTois twv UpSv. Id. p. 152D (Munthe) : Kario-rvaa-fv (k tuiv 
V€u>v TCiS TTpuarjXupevas TvavonXias, a<: ol npoyovni aKvXn to'is dfols i](rav 
nvaTfdfiKcWfS. 

II. 18 : fXTiSels V^s KaxaPpaPevcTw] A. V. 'Let no man beguile you of 
your reward. Or, judge against yoti.^ R. V. ' Let no man rob you of 
your prize.' There is no doubt that the judge who assigned the prizes 
at the games was technically called j3paj3eiis or ^pa^evTtjs, and the prize 
itself fipa^ilov (1 Cor. ix. 24. Philip, iii. 14). Hence ^pa^eveiv would 
properly signify to act as ^pa^evs or umpire, and award the prize to the 
most meritorious candidate. But it so happens that in the examples 
that we have of this verb and its compounds, the prize itself never comes 
into view, but only the award or decision, and that not so much in its 
proper agonistical, as in an applied and general sense. Thus Isocr. 
p. 144 B : iv p.fv yap rrj KXrjpacrei (election of magistrates by lot) rrjv 
Tvxqv ^pa^evaeiv (Fortune will decide). Demosth. p. 36, 7 : t'^ov ^/xli/ 
Koi ra rip.eTfpa avTuiv a(r(f)a\us ^X^'^j '"'* '''^ ^'"'^ f'^^^^" ^i-Kaia fipa^eveiv (to 
arbitrate upon the rights of others). Diod. Sic. xiii. 53 : (Sa-rrep tijs rvxqs 

nvK fvaXXa^ eWicrfifvrjs /3pa/3eveii' ra Kara TToXfp.of TTpOTfprjpaTa (to adjudge 
to either side by turns the successes of war) ; or, as the same sentiment is 
expressed by Josephus {Ant. xiv. g, 5): us tl Km noXepov ponas ^pa^tva 
TO Bflnv ^. 

Of Kara^pa^evdv the examples are very rare, and must therefore be 
separately considered. The first is Eustath. on //. A. 402 sqq. (T. i. 
p. 124, 2 ed. Rom.). He had before explained that Herd, Posidon, and 
Pallas Athend had conspired against Zeus, and would have bound him ; 

' [Cf. Die. Chrys. Cr. XXXI. p. 344, Brut. XL: Oeov kuXQs to. irapbvTa prj 
36: ^pa^eiuv rbv Aydva. Plut. Vit. ^pa^tvffavTos.] 



11. i8 COLOSSIANS. 1 97 

but Briareus, the son of Posidon, at the invitation of Thetis, came to his 
assistance, and for fear of him the three celestials ceased from their 
attempt. On which the Commentator remarks : Spa 8e o7ra<s, ds eV 
avdpcoTTOis ei(r\ TroXXaActs naiSfs ov)( Ofxoioi, rjyovv ofiovorjTiKOi, tw Trarpi, 
ovToii ovSe 6 pvdiKos Bpidpeas (f)i\a (ppovel tw iraTpi, dXXa Kara^pa^evei 
avTov, as (Paaiv 01 waXaioi, tov (pvaiKoi/ dea-pov npodepevos to 8iKaiov. In 
Other words, Briareus decides, or takes part agamst his own father, pre- 
ferring the claims of right to those of natural affection 1. 

The only other example that is commonly quoted is from Demosth. 
c. Mid. p. 544 ; where one Straton, who had been chosen arbitrator in a 
cause between Demosthenes and Midias, in the absence of the latter 
condemns him by default ; but is afterwards himself in his absence 
accused by Midias, and, by the aid of artifice and stratagem, condemned, 
and branded with dnpia. In speaking of this latter condemnation, the 
witnesses conclude their statement of facts by saying : koI 8ia Tavrrjv rrjv 
atrial/ (TnaTapfda ^Tpdrcova vno Madiov Kara^pa^evdivra idamnatuni) kcli 
TTapa iravTa to. BiKUia dripadevTa. 

On the whole, comparing the phraseology oiv. 16: pfj ovv ns vpas Kpivira 
iv ^pcoaei k.t.L with that oi v. 18 : prjBels vpas KarajSpa^eveTco ev raTreivocfipo- 
avvr] K.r.L, we arrive at the conclusion that the two verbs are of cognate 
signification, but the second (as we might expect) the more forcible and 
emphatic of the two: 'Let no man jiid^e you,' 'Let no man condemn you.' 
This agrees with the definition of Phavorinus : Kara^pafSeviTa- napaXoyi- 
CeaOa Hal KaraKpiveTO) (Phot. KaraXoyi^eada, KaraKpiveTco, Karayavi^fa-Qai) ; as 
well as with the Syriac translators, of whom the older has: ' Nequis 
velit iv rair. damnare vos (.on7 n«-i . .. v^nV ) ' and the later : ' Nemo 

vos condemnet ( .»-> .. ... i^ volens,' the Syriac word being usually the 

rendering of KaraKpiveiv and /caraStxafetJ/. Theodoret defines Kara^pa^eveiv 
by TO ddiKOis (3pa^evfiv, but this is rather TrapajSpa^eveiv (Plut. T. II. p. 535 C : 
01 napa^pa^evovTes iv tols dyaxriv). If any by-sense was in the Apostle's 
mind in choosing this word in preference to KaTaKpiveiu, it may, possibly, 
have been that of assumption and officialism, as it follows, dKr\ (jivcriov- 
pevos. 

*Ibid. T. R. a ^t\ ewpaKtv IfipaTtvwv] A. V. 'intruding into those 
things which he hath not seen.' For the sense of 'intruding into' 
Wetstein quotes Aristid. c. Phil. p. 486 (ed. Jebb, 1722): ep^uTevav els 
TO. Ta>v 'EXXrjvtov, but the more familiar use of the word for 'searching 
into' (Phavorinus: ep^aTevaai- Ta evbov e'^epevv^aat. ^ a-Koirfjarai) seems 
to suit the place equally well. So the Philoxenian Syriac : (epewav) 

} «ji) IV-*^ ]]? — -lJOI r2. And for the biblical terms Trao-a? Kap8ias 

1 [Cf. /caTaStatrai'. Lucian. Hennot. vwaKeiv ovdi ep-qp-qv ijpuv KaradLaLrdv 
30: ware ovk ixPW airdprojp Karayiy- (to give judgment in default against us).] 



198 COLOSSIANS. II. 18 

f^f ra^fi Kvpios (i Paral. xxviii. 9), 6 Se ipewoiv ras k. (Rom. viii. 27), St 
Chrysostom's stereotyped phrase is 6 ras cmavrav efi^arevcov Kap8ias (T. I. 
p. 371 E. Cf. 472 C : 01 rrjv paKapiav (Kflvrjv (f)V(Tt.v tp^areveiv (mxfipovPTfs, 
and T. ix. p. 437 D : rbv ip.^aTivovra rais Kapblais). The Revisers' ' dwelling 
in' and (in marg.) 'taking his stand upon' are very doubtful. But the 
main difficulty lies in the omission of the negative, a eopaKfv epQarevcov, 
which is the reading adopted by nearly all modern Editors, and has 
driven expositors to such extremities that they have actually called 
in the aid of conjectural emendation, to which the fortuitous occur- 
rence of Kfp before ep,^aTev(ov has opened a door. But all such 
attempts, including the most approved of them, depa Kevep^arevav 
{Journal of Philology, No. 13, p. 130), are liable to the fatal objection 
that Kevefi^arevcop is a VOX milla, the inviolable laws regulating this 
class of composite verbs stamping Kevep.(iaTelv as the only legitimate, 
as it is the only existing, form. 



I. THESSALONIANS. 

Chap. II. 6: 8\Jvd[j.€voL Iv pdpei, etvai] 'When we might have been bur- 
densome.' Another understanding of the Greek phrase is suggested by the 
marginal versions, 'Or, used authority'' (A. V.), 'Or, claimed honour^ 
(R. v.). It is true that jBdpos, Hke our English 'weight,' is sometimes 
used in the sense of itnportance, preponderating influence; but in such 
cases it is always something inherent and intrinsic that is intended, not 
any outward manifestation of respect. Thus we find eV Ti\i% thai, iv 
86^T] elvai, iv o^tw/iari flvai, but never iv ^apei elvai. In this sense, though 
the Apostle had been ever so averse to ' seeking glory of men,' he could 
not help being iv jSapa, in a condition of weight and influence, from the 
mere force of character and position. Hence those who adopt this view 
are forced to give a turn to their renderings, which is not in the original; 
'though I might have ctai//ied honour' ; 'though I might have stood 2ipon 
my dignity.' But however this may be, the instances of i-m^apiiaai. {v. g. 
2 Thess. iii. 8), Kara^apfjcrat (2 Cor. xii. i6), and especially d^apfj ip.avTov 
irrip-qcTa (2 Cor. xi. 9), are so strongly in favour of the Vulgate, cum 
possejnus vobis oneri esse, as to leave no reasonable doubt ^. Dean 
Alford, who understands iv ^dpei to be equivalent to iv rtp-fj, appeals 
to St Chrysostom : Kairoiye ei koi i(rjTr}<Tapfv, oibe ovtcos tjv 'iyKkr^pa- eLKOs 
yap Tovs TTapa 6eov npos avOpconovs aTTOcrraXe'iTaf, coaavei diro rov ovpavov 
vvv r)KovTas Trpea-jSeis, noXXrjs aTToXavtrai Tififji. But the words et Koi i^rjrq- 
a-apev (passed over by the Dean) plainly shew that he is referring to the 
former part of the verse, otVe fr^roOi/re? k.t.c. ; and his understanding of 
the latter part must be gathered from his concluding remark : ivravda 8e 
Kai nepl xp^pd'r<ov (f)r](ri, 8vvdpfvoi iv ^dpfi elvai toy XpicrTov aTrocrroXoi. 

* II. 17: dirop<)>avi(r0€VT€s d<j)' iijjiwv] A. V. 'being taken from you.' 
R. V. 'being bereaved of you.' Mr Humphry comments: 'The Apostle, 

^ [In ii. 9 TTpbs TO /jlt] iiri^aprjcxal R. V. in 2 Sam. xiii. 25, where A. V. 

Ti.va vfiwv A. V. translates 'because has 'be chargeable unto thee.' But no 

we would not be chargeable.' R. V. change is necessary. Cf. Neh. v. 15, 

'Burden any.' A better translation 'were chargeable,' both A. V. and 

would be, 'be burdensome to,' as R. V., for LXX. i^dpvvav iir' avroi/y.] 



200 I. THESSALONIANS. IV. i 

having reminded them of his parental tenderness and care {vv. 7, 11), 
now speaks of his parental sorrow. A. V. misses the point of this allusion.' 
St Chrysostom has a similar remark : ineibrj einev dvarfpoi, cos Trarrjp reKva, 
cas Tpo<^(>s, (VTavda (repov (firjcnv, dnopCJiavKTdivTfS ; which is open to the 
objection (as he says himself) koI p-qv (Kflvoi dnapipavla-drjcrav, not the 
Apostle, who would rather have used the proper equivalent of ' bereaved,' 
dreKvoidfi'Tes. It is also to be observed that the R. V. is the rendering of 
d-n-op(f)avia6evT€s vpcov, which (not dcf)" vpciu) is the regular construction of 
the word. Dropping the idea of orphanhood, and taking aVop^ai/Kr^eVres 
in the general sense of ^wp'^^eVres, we would translate ' being separated 
from you,' which also harmonizes better with what follows, 'for a short 
season, in presence, not in heart.' The older versions have 'being kept 
from you,' which was altered by the Revisers of 161 1, perhaps (as a parent 
is commonly said to be 'taken from' his orphan family) for the sake of 
retaining the very allusion which they are said to have 'missed.' 

*IV. I : KttGtos irapeXaPexe Trap* ii(j.wv to irtis Sei vijAds ircpiiraTciv Kal 
dpt'o-Ktiv 6€u, I'va ■mpia-a-ivriTi p.dXXov] After Bern the uncials ABDipX 
insert Kadas kol nepinaTe'iTf. To these authorities Dean Alford adds 
(among other versions) the Vulgate and Philoxenian Syriac. In the 

latter the words are .oAj] . nV rnVnj ]j-^ij1) which White trans- 
lates, tt^ ambulantes ; but it should be, tit ambulatis, Kadas nepiTraTeWe 
(omitting the Kai). But the Vulg. is, stc et anibiileiis ( = oi5ra)j Ka\ nfpnra- 
TrJTe), the very words which, according to Alford, the Apostle intended 
to write, but changed his mind. All things considered, it seems most 
probable that the shorter, and seemingly defective, reading is the original, 
which was afterwards supplemented after the pattern of v. 10, where a 
like testimony is borne to the Thessalonians, that they are already doing 
the thing required, before they are exhorted to ' abound more and more.' 

V. 4 : ^va 1] i]iJLcpa v|Aa,s ws KX€TrTT)s KaraXaPi]] ' That that day should 
overtake you as a thief ' Some ancient authorities [AB Copt.] read, as 
thieves [ojs /cXeVras]!.' The marginal reading does not appear to have 
received so much attention as it deserves. If genuine, following so soon 
after %i. 2, »} r]pipa Kvpiov coy KXeTrrrjs ev vvkti ourws ipxerai, it is no wonder 
that it should have been tampered with; rather we may be surprised that 
it has escaped correction in two of the most ancient and representative 
MSS. With respect to internal evidence, we may observe that ' a thief in 
the night' is a well-known illustration of any thing that happens at a 
time when it is not expected (compare Matt. xxiv. 43), and so cannot be 
guarded against". Still it cannot be said, in such a case, that the thief 
ovcrta/ces the inmates, seeing it is his object not to disturb them, but to 

^ [K. V. margin.] Troip^aiv oUtl <pi\7)v, kX^ttt]] 5^ re uvktos 

'^ [Cf. Iloni. //. III. 10: 6/xLx\v^ d/xelvw.] 



V. 



I. THESSALONIANS. 



20 1 



begin and end his operations under cover of the nigiit. Should he fail in 
this, should 'the day' (not 'that day') 'overtake him,' then he furnishes 
an illustration of the manner in v/hich the day of the Lord would over- 
take those who were not prepared for it. The phrase occurs in Plut. 
Vit. Ages. XXIV 1, in the account of a nocturnal expedition of Sphodrias 
to seize on the Piraeus : ^fiejia yap avrov iv rw Qpiaa-im TreSt'cp Acare'Xa/36 Koi 
KareXafiyj/ev, eXni(TavTa vvktos npocriJ.i^€iu tm Heipaiel (where I would retain 
Koi KaTiXafjiylrfv against Cobet's opinion {Collect. Crit. p. 580): 'Ditto- 
graphiam vides manifestam -'). 



1 [Cf. Plut. Vit. Crass. XXIX: tov 
di Kpdcrcroi' rjixipa KaTe\diu,^ai'€i'...irepl 
Ttts ducrxt^pioLS Kal to eXos. Ibid. Cor. 
XVII: rdre /xiv odu icnrepa KaraXajiovaa 
Tr]v rapaxv'^ StAucrec. Paus. X. 23, 7 : 
Kal oi fxev iffTparoTredevaavTO ivda i] i^v^ 
KareXafi^avev di'ax(^poiivTas.} 

^ [For similar repetition see Plut. 
Vtf. Otho. VII : kAv awd^waii' oi TroXi- 



fXLoi Kara p.i.Kpbv dvaxoipeiv Kal dpa(pfv- 
yew. P'or KaraXafxireiv see Ael. V. H. 
XIII. 1 : Tocravrri /xerd t^s Spas Kare- 
Xafxirev a'iyXy] tovs opQfTas (the beauty 
of Atalante). IVisdoi/i X.W\l. 20: oKos b 
KocTfios XapLirpi^ KaTeXd/MweTO (purl. Com- 
pare Plut. Fit. Arat. XXII : ijfi^pas ijdr] 
dLavyovcrris, re rjXios evdi/s ^TriXa/XTre 
Ti2 ipyi^.'\ 



II. THESSALONIANS. 



*Chap. II. 2: }j.i]T€ 81' €TncrToXT)s ws 81* ii|j.o)v] 'Nor by letter, as from 
us.' No satisfactory account has been given of this use of the preposition. 
Dean Alford explains, 'as by agency of us'; but if St Paul was the agctit, 
who was the. principan In the subscriptions to the Epistles, 8ta indicates 
the bearer of the letter, as: IIpos KoXao-o-aels eypacpr] dnb 'PcofjLrjs 8ia Tvxikov 
Kal 'OvTjalfjiov. Perhaps the Apostle wrote, oj? 8)7 t^'/xcoj^, 'as pretending to 
be ours.' ' Cum irrisione quadam plerumque ponitur cor S//'.' — Ast. Lex. 
Plat. T. II. p. 586. Among other examples he quotes Prot. 342 D : ojy Si) 
Tourots KpaToiivTas raiv ''EW-qvwv roiis AaKe8aifj.ovl.ovs. Phaedr. 228 C : fdpxnr- 
TfTo, (OS 8rj ovK (ni6vixu)V \eyeiv. Conv. 222 D : a)s eV napepyco S17 \fyav. 
Pol. I. 337 C : (is 8tj op.oiov tovto (Ktiva. 



I. TIMOTHY. 

Chap. I. 3: I'va irapaY'y£i\T]s tktIv |ii^ IrepoSiSao-KaXeiv] 'The compound 
eTepodiSaa-KoKelv, not -8i8a(TKeiv, brings in the sense of " acting as a teacher," 
«(?/ /o be teachers of strange things.''— A If ord. On which it is sufficient 
to observe, that erfpoStSao-Keti/ is not a legitimate Greek formation, any 
more than KaKobibda-Keiv or XaOpobibaaKfiv, which were long ago exploded 
by Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 623. In the indefinite pronoun ncriV, which has 
been characterized as ' slightly contemptuous,' we would rather recognize, 
with St Chrysostom, an amiable feeling towards the offenders ; ov Ti6r}(nu 
avTOvs ovofMacrTi, iva fifj dpaiaxwroTepovs epydarjrai rfj tov eXey^ov Tr€pi(f)aveia. 

I. 15 : irio-Tos 6 XoYos] A. V. 'This is a faithful saying.' 2 Tim. ii. 11 : 
' /t is a faithful saying.' The latter might be adopted in all places. To 
insist upon retaining the order of the Greek text, ' Faithful is the saying ' 
(R. v.), is mere pedantry ^. Compare i Kings x. 6 : ^AXrjdivos 6 Xoyos ov 
rjKova-a iv tt) yfj fxav. A. V. ' It was a true report that I heard in mine own 
land.' 

/i>id. Kal Trdo-tis diroSoxTis a|iov] 'And worthy of all acceptation.' In 
this case the Revisers have (not improperly, on the ground of prescription) 
retained the old word, though, perhaps, 'approbation' or 'admiration' 
would more correctly represent the Greek. Wetstein says : ' Erotianus 
dnodox'^v opponit r^ fiep-yJAei, Sextus Empiricus tt] eTriTip-^a-ei.^ The word 
is a favourite one with later Greek authors, especially with Diodorus 
Siculus, generally in the phrases dnoBoxfji a|tos, d^toiJa-dai, Tuyx"''^"'' We 
subjoin a few examples. Diog. Laert. V. 64: avrhs 8e 6 'STpdrav dvrp 
yiyove TToWfjs Trjs air. a^ios. Diod. Sic. I. 47 : to S' epyov rovTO p,T) fioi/ov 
fivai Kara to fieyedos an. a^iov, dWd Koi Trj Te\yr) 6avp.a(TTov. I. 5 1 • p^eydkr^s 
an, d^iovp.€vov vrrb ndvTOiv. I. 69 : ov p.6vov napd toIs eyxcopiois an. sTvxfv, 
dXXd Ka\ napd toIs "EXXfjaiv ov /xerpi'ws idavp-acrdr). V. 31 : an. pieyaXrjs 
d^iovvres avTovs. XI. 40 : 6 8e QefxiaToKX^s, TOiovTa <TTpaTr]yrip,aTi, Tfix^aas 
Trjv naTpL8a...pfydXr]s dn. ervx^v napd toIs noXiTais. XII. 15 : vop.ov an. 
d^iovfifvov (ypa\lrev. XV. 35 : KaTenXevae fifTa noXXwv Xacfivptov fls tov 
IleipaUa, koi fifydXrii an. eTVX^ napd to'is noXiTais. 

^ [In I Cor. X. 13 the J\. V. has, for iricTTos 5e 6 deos, 'But God is failhfvil.'] 



204 I. Tii\i(rrHY. 1. 20 

* I. 20: oils ■iraptSwKa tu Sarava, I'va irai8ev0wo-i |xi] p\ao-<j>T]H£iv] 'Whom 
I have deUvered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.' 
R. V. 'Whom I delivered... that they might be taught....' Dean Alford 
says: 'The subjunctive after the aorist indicates that the effect of what 
was done (when he was last at Ephesus) still abides ; the sentence was not 
yet taken off.' This is precisely what is conveyed to the English reader 
by the substitution of the perfect tense for the aorist. Nor is anything 
gained by the correction, 'be taught' (Alford adds 'by chastisement') for 
'learn': on the contrary, there is a sort of irony in the choice of the 
latter word, which is very expressive. Let the reader compare Ach. 
Tat. VI. 20: TavTijv ^avdfjvai jidcrTi^i (^eZ. ..tor av findtj dea-TTtWov fxri Kiira- 
(fipovelv. Lucian. PlSC. 2 : es roiis Kparrjpas (finecre'iv avruv, coy fxddoi fXTj 
Xoidope'icrdai toIs Kpf'iTTocri. 

III. I: 6p€'7eTat...€Tri0u(j.€i] A. V. ' desire. ..desireth.' R. V. 'seeketh... 
desireth.' Though the two words are nearly synonymous (Hesych. 
'Opeyerai- eVt^u/xei) the former has a special application to such objects 
as a man is commonly said to aspire to. Thus Diod. Sic- xi. 86: (f)avep6s 
(ov oTi dvvaardas optyeTat. XV. 50 : (}ipovr]p.aTos ^u n'Kijprji, /cat fieyaXcop 
wpiyero Trpayp.aT(Civ. XVI. 65 : -rraKai pev ^v (f)av€pos Tvpavvidos opeyopevot 
{tyrannideni affectans). Thucyd. vi. 10: Ka\ apx^t nX\T]s opeyeadai, nplv 
TV exopev ^f^aiaxrapfda. Plut. FzV. Ariox. viii. (quoted by Wetst.): o-u 
KfXei/fts pf Tov fdaa-iXflai optyopevov dva^iov eivai j3a<Ti\fias^. We would 
therefore render : ' If a man asj>i're to the office of a bishop'; at the same 
time repudiating the idea of an ambitions seeking, which does not belong 
either to the word itself or to its connexion. 

*III. 16: "Os or Geos]'-^ Although not of the number of those who lightly 
estimate or altogether deny the doctnnal results of the Revision, I cannot 
help thinking that the extent and importance of them has been greatly 
exaggerated both by advocates and impugners of the Catholic faith. To 
take the articles of the Holy Trinity and of our Lord's divinity, the only 
alterations which can be said to detract from the scriptural arguments in 
favour of these doctrines are i John v. 7 and i Tim. iii. 16; and of these 
the first cannot fairly or reasonably be said to be a 'result of the Revision.' 
The change was virtually made long ago ; the Revisers had only to 
register it. If they have not even done this, but preserved an absolute 
silence as to the existence of a lis no longer snb judice, I would account 
for it by their desire to make a broad distinction between this particular 
corruption of the sacred text and all others, and not from any idea of 

' [Plut. Vit. Comp. Timol. c. Aemil. outos, on pbvqs opiyoiro inrarelas (Oct. 

II : KaiToi Aiuva iroWol povapxias opi- Caesar).] 

yeadai vir€vbovv. Id. Comp. Nic. c. ^ This note appeared in the Christian 

Crasso IV: ripaprev, wpix^V ^^ peydXwv. 0/>iiiionatiitJ\i:z'is/oiiis/,'March2l), 1882. 

App. B. C. III. 89 : 01) y6.p ttw cacpovs Ed. 



Ill- i6 I. TIMOTHY. 205 

bringing it to what one of their number has described as an 'ignominious 
end.' It should never be forgotten that the text i John v. 7 stands single 
and alone in the history of N. T. criticism : it has nothing simile ant 
secundum. Nothing can be more disingenuous than, by including this 
confessedly spurious text in the same category with some other which it 
is desired to get rid of, to procure the summary condemnation of both. 
Yet this is a charge to which more than one of the Revisers have laid 
themselves open. Professor Palmer, for instance, at the Newcastle Church 
Congress, is reported to have said : ' I will give two examples, but they 
shall be examples of the tirst importance. One is the famous text of the 
"Three heavenly witnesses"; the other is i Tim. iii. 16.. ..In both of 
these cases the consensus of critics is remarkable.' This is (unintention- 
ally no doubt) a most unfair and misleading representation of the facts 
of the case. It is, Mezentius-like, coupling the living with the dead — 
' Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis.' It is not correct to say that 
there is the same consensus of critics in regard to i Tim. iii. 16 as there 
is in the other case, nor anything like it. Exactly a century ago (Riga, 
1782) Matthcei, the most careful and conscientious of textual critics, and 
a good Greek scholar to boot, summed up the controversy in favour of 
the T. R., both on external and internal grounds. As to the latter, his 
judgment (as we shall presently show) requires no modification: 'Lectiones 
Of et o nee a-wdcjieia contextus, nee sententia, nee ratio grammatica ad- 
mittere potest ^' And with respect to documentary proofs, if the lapse of 
a century has brought to light one MS. of the greatest importance, it should 
be borne in mind that the oldest witness of all still remains dumb, and 
that the facilities for ascertaining by inspection the original reading of 
another cannot have been improved by the incessant handUng, lensing, 
and microscoping to which the Alexandrine MS. has been subjected. And 
accordingly we find that (speaking broadly) those critics who inspected 
the MS. in the last century (Young, Mill, Woide, Berriman) believed that 
0C was written djy the first hand; whereas those who have recently 
repeated the experiment, when the leaf in question was 'very thin and 
falling into holes' (Tregelles, Ellicott, Alford, and others), have arrived at 
the opposite conclusion. 

But to return to the alleged 'consensus of critics.' Dr Kennedy in his 
Ely Lectures, p. 15, sanctions the same ill-omened conjunction between 
I John V. 7 and i Tim. iii. 16 in these words: ' Do we not still see the 
spurious verse in St John's first epistle cited as genuine by writers of 
slender learning.?... Is not St Paul's evidence still quoted in terms which 
he did not use, "6^f^was manifest in the flesh"?' And again at p. 90, 
referring to the latter text: '*0? is now allowed by all wise and candid 
divines of our Church to be the true reading.' But (alas for critical 
unanimity!) between his Appendix I. and Postscript a certain bombshell 

' Praefat. ad Epist. Cathol. p. XLVi. 



206 I. TIMOTHY. III. i6 

had fallen upon the devoted heads of the N. T. Company of Revisers, 
which obliged our Ely Lecturer to qualify his previous statements. ' I 
really thought,' he says (p. 159), 'that when a divine at once so learned 
and conservative as Bishop C. [Christopher] Wordsworth had forsaken it 
[the reading 0C], there was no further chance of support for it in our 
Church. I find myself mistaken.' In other words, the question is still 
an arguable one; an admission which severs at once the Mezentian tie 
between this text and the defunct i John v. 7, and destroys the monopoly 
of wisdom and candour claimed for those who maintain that St Paul did 
not and could not say of our Lord Jesus Christ, *in express predication,' 
that He is God. 

The Revisers (as we have already remarked) as a body have very 
properly made a distinction in their modes of dealing with the two texts 
under discussion. While they wholly ignore i John v. 7, and treat it as 
non-existent, on the other text they have recorded in the margin : ' The 
word God in place o/He who, fes/s on no stijfficioit a?icient evidence.'' The 
word 'ancient,' while it includes the testimony of MSS., versions, and 
quotations from the Fathers, excludes proofs from internal evidence, to 
which the Revisers, in common with the majority of textual critics, seem 
to have assigned a very subordinate place, if any at all, in the determina- 
tion of the readings which they have adopted. By internal evidence I 
understand that which begins and ends within the compass of the passage 
itself, so that if it could be incontestably shown that St Paul has nowhere 
spoken of our Lord as God, that would not come within the scope of the 
present inquiry. Applying this criterion to the case before us, we ask: 
Which of the two readings, OC or 0C, makes the better sense.'' Which 
offers the greatest facility in regard to grammatical construction? Which 
vocable is the more worthy of the dignified post assigned to it, at the 
head and front of a recital, the like of which, from the inherent grandeur 
of its topics, and the exquisite symmetry of its arrangement, is not to be 
found, and which is introduced by a proem or preface, expressly designed 
to enhance the importance of the elaborate statement which is to follow, 
but distinct from that statement, as the porch from the temple, or the 
Propylaea from the Parthenon: 'Without controversy great is the mystery 
of godliness' 1 

I. 0C is entirely free from objection on grounds of internal evidence. 
If there had been no other reading known, assuredly no other would have 
been sought. The sense is perfect. The construction is easy and natural, 
flowing in a full majestic stream, without break or eddy, from beginning 
to end. It is also self-contained; it has a relation of order and comeli- 
ness with its preface, but is not dependent on it. If it be objected that 
the clauses after the first are more strictly applicable to Christ than to 
God, the answer is— that, after the leading enunciation, 'God was mani- 
fested in the flesh,' the notion of an incarnate Deity is so firmly established 



III. i6 I. TIMOTHY. 207 

in the mind of the reader that this complex idea, not the simple one of 
God only, is naturally taken as the subject to all the verbs that follow. 

2. The claims of OC to occupy the post of honour at the head of this 
compendium of Christian faith come now to be considered. °0f is a 
relative pronoun, and has no significance at all, no locus standi (or, to 
use the fashionable phraseology, no raison cfetre), without an antecedent. 
Now, if we ask, Where is the antecedent to or ((fiavepadrj, the answers 
usually furnished are various, but all open to grave objections, (i) Bishop 
Ellicott (as quoted by Alford) says, '*0y is a relative to an omitted, though 
easily recognised, antecedent, namely, Christ.' But in the whole compass 
of St Paul's writings can any instance of such a suppression of the ante- 
cedenthQ found? In the similar passage. Col. i. 27, ' To make known what 
is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles,' there follows, 
o idTLv Xpia-Tos iv vplv rj (XttIs ttjs 86^r)s. If such had been the design of the 
Apostle here, would he not have written to rfjs fvcre^elas iMvarripiov, o eanv 
Xpia-Tos, OS e(f)avepcodr], which is, in fact, the identical device adopted by 
St Cyril to help out the imperfect reading which he had before him, and 
which, he rightly judged, could not stand without such an interpolation? 
(2) Dean Alford, taking the text Col. i. 27 for his 'key-note,' also agrees 
that 'the mystery of godliness' is Christ, but says, in explanation, that 
the Apostle 'joins the deep and latent thought with the superficial and 
obvious one, and, without saying that the mystery is in fact Christ, passes 
from the mystery to the person of Christ, as being one and the same,' an 
explanation which seems to belong to the class pointed at in the proverb — 
Obscuruin per obscurius. (3) The Revisers have endeavoured to palliate 
the constructive difficulty by rendering os f(f)avfpci6r), 'He who was 
manifested'; but if this use of or (analogous to the Latin gui) could be 
proved, then all the clauses after the first must bear to it the relation 
of the apodosis to the protasis, and we must translate, ' He who was 
manifested in the flesh was justified in the spirit,' &c. But, in fact, no 
such use of OS (except in the oblique cases, as hv (piXels da-devel) is known ; 
and if such had been the construction intended by St Paul, he would 
certainly have written, 'O (f>avepai6e\s iv a-apKi ibiKaiwBr), k.t.X. (4) The 
latest apologist for os, and for the construction involved in it, is Dr 
Kennedy, who after the words already quoted, '"Of is now allowed by all 
wise and candid divines of our Church to be the true reading,' adds 
jauntily, ' Since the ixvarripiov [p.. deoTTjTos he repeatedly quotes from our 
text, instead of p.. fvae^elas, probably by accident, but the change is not 
without its significance] is Christ Himself, there is not the very slightest 
difficulty in its being referred to by a masculine relative.' Others, how- 
ever, have found considerable difficulty in this reference, and amongst 
them the Quarterly Reviewer, who, whatever else he may be, is certainly 
not a contemptible grammarian. He is, therefore, fairly entitled to one 
more 'last word' from the Ely Lecturer, for which the 'Postscript' off'ers 
an appropriate place (p. 160) : ' I will only add that when the Reviewer 



208 I. TIMOTHY. IV. 4 

calls fiva-T^piov OS a " patent absurdity," he seems to have forgotten the 
facts of grammar. If ^varijpiov means Christ (and it does), the reference 
to it by the masculine os is one of the simplest examples of sy?u'sis, a 
construction which abounds in Greek and Latin, and becomes, in this 
place, inevitable.' In other words, the construction is syficsis, or nothing. 
If synesis fails, we must either recall 0C, or retain a 'patent absurdity.' 
Of course the reader knows what synesis is ; but if not, we will tell 
him. It is a grammatical figure, also called a-xfjfxa npos to a-rjfiaivojxfvov, 
according to which (amongst other cases) the relative pronoun is made 
to agree in gender with the setise (aT]paii>6fiepov) of the antecedent, and 
not with its verbal representative. For example, Homer says, (f)iXov 
6a\os ov TfKov avrrj. Here 6a\os is a young shoot or sctoti, and neuter; 
but it is perfectly plain that a male child is intended, and therefore the 
construction Kara avveaiv (01/ for o) is rightly used. Again, (Sir) 'HpaKkijfir] 
is a well-known periphrasis for Hercules himself, and there is, therefore, 
no difficulty in its being construed with eX6a>v instead of eXdova-a (//. xi. 
690). But such instances as these, even if they ' abounded in Greek and 
Latin ' (which they do not), have nothing in common with the case before 
us. The peculiar characteristic of synesis, the clearly recognisable person- 
ality of the antecedent, is wanting. When we read, 'Great is the mystery 
of godliness,' we do not ask. Who is '\\?. but. What is it.? To pronounce 
dogmatically, ' Since the mystery is Christ Himself,' ' If p.v(TTrjpiov means 
Christ, AS IT DOES,' is to beg the question altogether. To say that os is 
grammatically correct, because its antecedent, the mystery of godliness, 
is a person ; and when pressed on this latter point to reply that the 
mystery of godliness must be a person, because its relative is a masculine 
pronoun — if this is not to argue in a circle, I know not what is. 

IV. 4: ov8^v dir6p\T]Tov] A proverbial saying, founded on Homer's 
yv(opT) (//. r. 65) : ov Toi aTr6^\r]T iari Oeav fpiKv8ea ficopa. Compare 
Lucian. Ttm. 37 : ov toi ajrojSXrjTd flat ra 8f2pa to irapa tov Aios. Stob. 
Flor. T. CXXIV. ^jZ '• Ttapaivovcri 8e iiWoi re aocpol Koi ovx ^kio-tu "Ofirjpos 
Ae-ytoi/, pr]8aprj ajro^XrjTa dvai av6pu>Tvois to. 6(U)v 8a>pa, koKSs ovofxa^oiv to 
ocopa TO. tpya tmv dtav, coy airavTa dyadci nvTa, koi eV uyadai yiyv6p.fi>a. Dio. 
Chrys. Or. IV. p. 74, 20: (^iXapyvpoy) nepl iravTa XvTTmv KTijfiara, koi ovBev 
dn6^\r)Tov riyovp.euos. Galen, de Coinpos. Med. (quoted by Wetstein) : 
■nictTiwavTis ovv ifioi, Tav (lpr]fievQ)P...(f)app.dK(ov ovdfu diTo^\-qTov virdpxfiv, 
aaKfiTe ttjv piOnbov ttjs xprjaecos avTciv. 

IV. 6 : TavTa viroTiOt'iitvos tois a8€X<J)ois] A. V. ' If thou put the brethren 
in remembrance (R. V. in mind) of these things.'^ 'YnoTldfadaL does not 
appear to contain the idea of reminding a person of something that he 
knew before, but simply of suggesting or advising. Both Thorn. M. and 

' [' Put in lenicmbmnce'^i'TTo^^/iZ'Tja-K-e, 1 Tim. ii. 14. Tit. iii. 1.] 



V. I I. TIMOTHY. 209 

Hesych. explain it by avfx^ov'kfvfiv. So in all Wetstein's examples, to 
which add Dion. Hal. An^. IX. 23 : Kara^povrjo-as rav ra a-v^K^ipovra 
vTroTi6eix4va)v. Diod. Sic. T. X. p. 163 ed. Bip. : Tv\f]v iiT€KpaTr](Tev -q yvrnfirj 

*IV. 12 : )jiT]S€Cs a-ov ttjs v€6ti]tos KaTac|)pov€tTa)] Compare Appian. Be//. 
Hisp. VI. 8: ojy efxadov avrouy (Barca and Hasdrubal) redveoiTas, 'Awt/3a 
Karecfipovovv (os veov. Diod. Sic. XVII. 2 : veos yap cov navTe'Kas (Alex. M.) 
Koi 8ia rrjv t^XiKiau vrro Tivav KaTa(f}popovfievos. 7 • ^tXiTrTrou 8e reXevri^cravTos, 
arreKvOr) rrjs aycovias, KaTacppovrjaas Trjs A\e^av8pov feorrjTos. The last 
example may be appealed to in defence of the construction, ' Let no 
man despise thy youth,' against those who would construe, 'Let no man 
despise thee on account of (thy) youth'; as may also the following, Plut. 
Vz'f. Peric/. XXVI : Karacppov^cras Tfjs oXcyorrjTos rav veav ^ r^s direipias rav 
(TTpaTTjywv. Herodian. I. 3, 14 (quoted by Wetstein) : vnciTTTevev p.r) ttjs 
i]\iKias avTov KaTa(f)povrjcravTes eiridaivTai avrco. 

*IV. 15 : Talra neXe'ra] A. V. 'Meditate on these things.' R. V. 'Be 
diligent in these things.' The best rendering seems to be Prof. Schole- 
field's, 'Exercise thyself in these things,' who quotes Psal. i. 2: eV rw voixco 
avTov ntXerija-ei, 'in his law will he exercise himself (P. B.); and Thucyd. 
I. 142, where he speaks of the Athenians having obtained their naval pre- 
eminence by /ono- trainirig and practice ; neXeraivTes avro eCdvs (itto tmv 
Mt]8i,kcov. I add Diog. L. So/. Xll : ra o-Troi/Saia /ieXeVo. Epict. Diss. I. 
I, 25: ravTa eSet fieXerav rovs (f)ikoa-o(f)ovvTas, ravTU Kaff rjpiepav ypacpeip, ev 
TOVTOis yvp-vd^eaOai. J. Pollux VIII. 105 : TrepiTvoXoi e(f)r)j3oL nepi^eaav ttjv 
)(^a)pav (pvXaTTOvTes, axnrfp r]8i] p,e\fTcovTes ra aTpariaTiKa. 

V. I : Trpto-pvTe'po) jii^ €in7rXtj^T)s, dXXa irapaKaXei (A. V. ' intreat,' R. V. 
'exhort') ws irartpa] The following extract from Hierocles, e'/c tov, Trcoy 
XprjcTTeov To'ii yovevaiv (Stob. F/oK. T. LXXix. 53), furnishes a good illus- 
tration of both verbs: Kav e'i ri ttov yevoivro 7rapap.apTdvovTes...€Travopd(OTeou 
fj,€v, aXX ov fieT fnnrXjj^fOii, p.d Ala, Kaddnep e'dos irpos rovs eXdrrovas rj 'icrovs 
TToulv, dXX' (is jxerd napaKXijafas (but as it were by way of intreaty). The 
reason why the Revisers (who have not altered i Cor. iv. 13 : ' Being 
defamed, we intreat') have here preferred 'exhort' is, probably, because 
exhortation is more suitable to the other persons to be dealt with, ' the 
younger men as brethren' &c. Dean Alford even goes so far as to make 
the prohibition p.r] eTrnrXri^r^s extend to all the classes described in vv. i, 2 ; 
as if the younger men, for instance, were never to be rebuked : to avoid 
which absurdity, he is compelled to give to ennrXria-adv the sense of 
'rebuking sharply,' which cannot be proved^. 

1 [Cf. Lucian. //arm. 2 : tbs 5^ 2 ^(^{^ Themist. Or. xxil. p. 277 A : 

irotTjaas yvucdrjari avroh, kuI iirl to wd/jLTroKv yap 5ia<p4p€i vovdeaia /jiiv 

■wipas dcpi^r) ttjs evxv^t ^y^ xal rov6' XoLdopias, iTriTr\7]^i.s Be oveidovs.] 
inrodrjcroixai <roi.] 

K, 14 



2IO I. TIMOTHY. V. 13 

V. 13: apvaV jjiav0dvov(ru] ' They learn /i? ^f idle.' ' A harsh construc- 
tion, but, it is said, not without example: however, the only one cited is 
Plat. Euthyd. p. 276 B : o\ afiaOtli apa ao(f)o\ fMavOtivovcriv, . .dW ovx 01 cro(f)oi, 
where the first a-ot^oi does not occur in Bekker's text' [it is inserted by 
Winckelmann from two excellent authorities, Bodl. and Vat. 6]. — Alford. 
Although the reading in Plato may be doubtful, there is no doubt of the 
agreement of St Paul's construction with later usage, especially if we 
take apya'i, (f)'Kvapoi, nepUpyoi as notins, 'idlers,' 'tattlers,' 'busybodies.' 
Winckelmann compares Uio. Chrys. T. II. p. 283 {Or. LV.) : ^axpi'iTrji... 
Trots c^v ip.av6avf Xido^oos rfjv tov narphs T()(vr)v : to which I add S. Chrysost. 
T. VII. p. 699 A : ri ovv; av TraXaia-rfji pavdavrjs ; T. IX. p. 259 B : et larpos 
peWoLs pavOavdv. Aesop. Fab. CXL, ed. de Furia : ri yap, tov narpos fie 
pdyeipov StSalairos, larpiKrjv rexvrjv vTTfXa^oprjv ; Examples similar to the 
last, dibd^ai (or bihd^aaBat) Tiva re/croi/a, x'^^'^^'^i 'Trrrea, prjTopa, are to be 
found in the best writers, as has been shown by Hemst. on Aristoph. 
Phlt. p. 4- 'YnO0E2I2...a0tKveirat eis 6iov, xprjaopfvos Trorepov tov nalSa 
cra)(f)p6vo)s avadpeyj/fie, koI upoiov iavTu> tovs Tpoirovi didd^fifv, tj (fiav^ou, coy 
Tcip (f)av\<i)v t6t€ evrrpayovvTU)v. 

*V. 23 : |ii]K^Tu vSpoiroTsi] A. V. ' Drink no longer water.' R. V. ' Be 
no longer a drinker of water.' Better, ' a water-drinker.' 

VI. 2 : oTi irio-TOi €icri Kai d-yairTiTol ol ttjs ivipyarias dvTiXap.pav6|j.€V0i] 

The subject is, undoubtedly, oi...dpTtXapjiav6pevoi, which requires the 
A. V. to be read, ' Because they that are partakers of the benefit are 
faithful (Or, believing) and beloved.' The 'benefit' is the improved 
quality of the service, and 'they that partake of it' are the masters. 
There is some difficulty in this applied sense of dvTi\apl3dveadai, the 
proper meaning of which is 'to lay hold of.' We cannot accept Dean 
Alford's version, 'receive in exchange,' because that is dvriXaplSdvfip, and 
his three instances from Euripides and Theognis are all of the active 
form, dvnX^i^fTai with an accusative case being active, not middle. The 
regular biblical meaning of the word, to Jiclp or siipport (Luke i. 54, 
Acts XX. 35, Sirac. ii. 6), though adopted by the Philoxenian Syriac, yields 
no tolerable sense. On the whole, we are disposed to acquiesce in the 
usual translation, 'they that partake of, or enjoy the benefit,' from the 
Vulgate, qui beneficii participes sunt. The older Syriac gives the sense 
very well, ^01^ > V? aAo _j.>^_ijZAk)5 ^.j-llCTl, which might be 
re-translated into Greek, oI dva-navi'pivoi tjj depaneia nvTutv. This use of 
the word is nearly allied to that in which a person is said to be sensible of 
any thing which acts upon the senses, as in the following examples : Alex. 
Aphr. Probl. (quoted by Budaeus) : -f] yjrvxr] n\iov dvrCKap^dvtTai rc5i/ 
(TdjpaTiKciv iradaiv kotci ttjv dnTiKrjv a'i(T6r)<Tiv. Artemid. Onirocr. I. 81: 
8ia TO Tovs KuQivbovTas prj dvTiXapl^dvecrdai iroviov. S. Chrysost. T. IV. 
p. 725 B: p(')8ou...ov TTJs fvoi^ias cinai'Tes ol KUTa ttjp olKovpivrjv dvTikap- 
^dvovTai {potiuntur) p-fXP'- T^pepov. 



VI. 5 I. TIMOTHY. 211 

*VI. 3 : Kttl [XT] ■Kpo<r{p\iTa,i vyialvova-i Xo^ois] A. V. 'And consent not 
to wholesome words.' Vulg. ef non acquiescit sanis sermoiiibus. This 
seems to be the only meaning suitable to the connexion ; but it is not 
borne out by the very few examples usually quoted in support of it. For 
instance, Diod. Sic. I. 95 (in an enumeration of the legislators of Egypt) : 
\iiTa 8e rovTov npouikdeiv XeyfTot toIs vofiois Afxacriv top /3acrtXea, i.e. as we 
should say, 'took his turn at law-making.' Philo Jud. De Gigant. 9 
(p. 267, ed. Mangey) : nadiTacrav 8fj Trapres ovroi ixrjdtvl Trpoa-ep^fo-dai yva>y.rf 
TU)v elprjfieviov (riches, honour, strength, the invobintary possessors of 
which are warned not to approach to them in their mind), tovto 8e icm, p.^ 
davp.a^eiv avra Ka\ airnbixecrdai Tr\iov tov p.(Tpiov, where the use of the 
word Tvpocripxea-Bai is to be explained by a reference to the text (Lev. xviii. 
6) of which the whole passage is an allegorical exposition : avdpwnos rrpos 
navra oiKe7ov crapKos avrov ov TrpocreKevaeTai. 

Bentley's conjecture tvpoa-ex^t^ occurs in a similar connexion ch. i. 4, 
where the Philoxenian has "%^ }_»^Lq_^, the very word which the same 

translator has employed in this place ("^o 3|j^). 

*VI. 4 : The structure of the sentence ^TjrTfo-ets' Kai Xoyofiaxias, 
'ES ^QN yiverai (f)d6voi, epis... is curiously paralleled by Stob. J^tor. 
T. X. 78 : evdvs ardaeis, XoiBopiai, Koi noXepos aanovhos, 'ES 'f2N ■»//'fiiSet$' 
8ia^o\ai, Koi nav elBos eTTi^ovKfjs. 

*VI. 5 : SiairapaTpiPat] R. V. ' wranglings.' The T. R. napa^iarpi^ai 
has no support from MSS. Those who introduced it were not so familiar 
with the use of the word 7raparpi/3ai, frictions, irritations, as with that of 
8caTpil3aL The prefix 8id has been thought to give the sense of con- 
tinuance, 'incessant quarrels' ; but comparing diapaxfcrdai, 8ia(j)iXoTipe'iadai, 
&c., I should prefer that of reciprocity, 'mutual irritations,' which seems 
to have been the opinion of our Translators, who, having adopted -napah., 
' perverse disputings,' in their text, have given their version of hiair. in the 
margin : ' Or, gallings one of another.^ 

* Ibid. vofxi^ovTwv iropio-iiov Hvax ti^v €v<r€'p€iav] A. V. ' Supposing that 
gain is godliness.' The Greek undoubtedly requires 'that godliness is 
gain.' Uopiapos is properly ' a means of gain,' which might be noted in 
the margin, 'gain' being retained in the text on account of the next verse. 
Cato the elder used to say that he had only two ways of making money 
(TTopia-fio!.), husbandry and thrift {yea>py'ia koi (f>ei8(o). In the text, instead 
of TTopia-p-bu a Greek classic would probably have used irpoaobov or 
Xpf]paTiap.6u. Thus Lucian. Saturn. 8 : aKka Tvpoaohov ol noXkol ireiroirjvrai 

^ ' If some MSS. then should have it expect to find irpoaix^'- > because irpoai- 

7r/)0(r^X€Tat or7r/30(r/xe'"a'['r/3oa-i(rxerat?], X"'' X6yoLS, to give heed, attend... \s a 

cleaves and adheres to the wholesome known phrase as well in sacred as pro- 

words, who has reason to be angry at fane authors.' Remarks on Freethinking, 

that variation? But I should sooner p. 107 (7th ed. 1737). 

14 — 2 



212 I. TIMOTHY. VI. 7 

TTjv fop-njv. Dion. Hal. An/. 11 1. 5 (quoted by Wetstein) : oi 8e xP'?MaT"^M"'' 
Tjyov^tvoi TOP TTokfyLov. We have a vulgar phrase of 'making capital' of 
any thing. 

VI. 7 : ovSJv 7dp €lo-iiv67Ka|i6v els t6v K6cr|iov, [SiiXov] on ov8i elcve-yKCiv Ti 
8vvdn«0a] A^Xoj/ is wholly wanting in AFN. In other authorities we find 
some substitute for it, as d\rj6is (D), haud dtibium (Vulg.), vere (Philox. 
in marg. Both Syriac versions have hr]\ov (|iij,j) in text). These 
variations clearly show that hr]\ov is spurious; but they further indicate 
that something is wanting to complete the sense, which something those 
who felt the deficiency had recourse each to his own critical faculty to 
supply. The most natural solution of the problem is, that there is an 
ellipsis of S^Xoj/, or that ort is for h^\ov ori. L. Bos adduces but one 
example of this ellipsis, l Joh. iii. 20: on Vav KaTnyivaiaKr] tjjjmv t; Kopbia, 
oTi pfi^ccv iariv o deos rrjs Kapbias i^pwv; in which, if an ellipsis of S^Xoj/ 
before the second on were admissible, it would seem to offer an easy 
explanation of that difficult text. I venture to add two examples from 
St Chrysostom (T. X, p. 38 BD) : El yap prj eyevero ra yfyev-qfieva... 
(supply bffKov) on ravra irkarTtiv cjuXoveiKovvres ... Koi ra 6f(3 npoaKpoveiv 
efifWov, Koi pvpuws civadfu TrpocrSo/cac Kfpavpovs ... El yap p.aiPupfi>oi ^aav ... 
ovSev oXcor KaTopddcxTai. eSei, oJSfis yap paivopevon nddeTui • ei Se KaToypdaxrav, 
aanep ovv Karutpdaxrav, koi deiKvvai to reXoy (supply SfjXov) on ndvTuiv rjaav 
(TotpooTepof el di navTuiv fjaav aoclxoTepoi, EYAHAON on ovk av dnXuis rfkOov 
ini TO Ki]pvyp.a. 

Those who reject the idea of an ellipsis, take 6ti for gtn'a, and demand 
our acquiescence in such a preposterous sentiment as the following : ' For 
we brought nothing into this world, for (because) neither can we carry 
anything out'; in other words: 'It was the ordinance of God, that we 
should bring nothing into the world, to teach us to remember that we can 
carry nothing out.' 

VI. 10 : pC^ci YCip TrdvTwv twv KaKwv eo-rlv r\ ^ikapyvpCa] A. V. ' For the love 
of money is THE root of all evil.' Recent translators (with the exception 
of Dean Alford) have ascribed to St Paul the very tame and unrhetorical 
sentiment : ' The love of money is A root of all evil.' ' This passage,' say 
the Authors of the Temperance Bible Conimetitary'^, 'has been strangely 
cited in opposition to the statement that strong drink is the source of 
much of the evil which afflicts and demoralizes society.' And again : 
' St Paul's words are, " For covetousness is a root of all the evils," i.e. of 
all the evils mentioned in the preceding verse^, but not the exclusive root 

1 Instead of 'Rightly dividing the aXhyKTrb's iffTi t^s dXridelas KpiTrjs. 
Word of Truth,' the present ' motto ' of ^ Another mis-translation, as if the 

this work, I would suggest the following Greek were irdvTwv rdv irpoeip-r)pAvu3v 

from Menander: kukwv. Compare Gen. xlviii. 16: 6 

poiXerai yap pivov bpHv Kal irpoa- &yyiKo'i 6 pv6pfv6s pe iK irivruv twv 

doKUf, KaKuv (A. V. 'from all evil'). 



VI. i8 I. TIMOTHY, 213 

of even these; — a much more moderate proposition.' Moderate enough, 
but (as we have before hinted) not rhetorical. If St Paul had been 
elsewhere declaiming against intemperance, as here against covetousness, 
he might have said, p'l^^a yap irdvToiv rav KaKav i] 4>iKoLvia, without being 
chargeable with inconsistency. From an animated and vehement speaker 
or writer we naturally look for strong and highly coloured denunciations 
of that particular folly or vice which comes under his lash, leaving out of 
sight for the time others which may equally deserve castigation. 

With respect to the absence of the article, we take the following 
examples from Wetstein (who collected them for another purpose), in all 
of which the English idiom requires its insertion. Athenaeus vil. p. 280 A : 
dpxTj KOL pi^a TravTos aya$ov 7; r^s yaarpos ^dovrj. Diog. Laert. VI. 50: rrjv 
(fiiXapyvpiav elne (Diogenes Cynicus) p.r)Tp6iroKiv navTcov tmv kukuiv. From 
our own observation we add : Stob. Flor. T. x. 38 : Bi'wi' 6 (ro(f)i(TTr]s ttjv 
(PiKapyvpiav firjTponoXiv eXfye Trd(T7]s KOKias eivai. Philostr. Her. p. 24, ed. 
Boissonade : p.T] rifioov dXtjdeiav, r]v cKelvos p-rirepa apfT^r 6vop.a^eiv eiodev. 
Synes. £p. 115: rfju evdeiav e(})T] vyeiai etVat firjTfpa. Aeschm. J^/>. 5- 
dpx^ doKel p.01 Toi) ^iov r; aTraWayfi ttjs avTodi TToXiremr. Diod. SlC. T. IX. 
p. 350, ed. Bip. : jJ yap ddiKia, fxrjTpoiroXis ovaa rmv kukuv ... ras peyiaras 
dirfpyd^erai cnjp.(^opds^. 

VI. 17: Tw irapexovTi r\^lv TrXoxxri'ws irdvTa] A more elegant Greek 
phrase would have been, tw Sa-v//-tXa)s rjplv diravra xopr]yovpTi (Diod. Sic. 
XIX. 3). The addition els dirokava-iv may mean ad fruendnin, non ad 
accumulandum, though we cannot accept Dean Alford's understanding of 
aTToXavo-is, ' the reaping enjoyment from, and so having done with,' for 
which he claims the analogy of dTrexco, and other verbs in which airo 
exerts this force, which does not hold when the simple verb, as in anoKaveiv, 
is not in use. But, more probably, eU dndXava-iv is an epexegesis of 
TrXoDo-i'ws, intended to emphasize the prodigality of the Giver of all good, 
as in the following passages : Lucian. Cyn. 5 : wot' 'ix^iv rip,a% trdvTa a(j>dova, 
fifj irpos TTjv xP^^civ povov, dWa Koi irpos ^dovrjv. Diod. Sic. XI. 25 : Ix^vo- 
Tpo(f)flov eyevfTO, rroXKovs napexopfvov Ix^vs fls Tpv<f)r]v koi aTroXavaiv. V. 40 
(quoted by Wetstein) : Kapncov d(f)doviav exovaiv, ov povov npos ttjv dpKovaav 
diarpocpT^v, dWd kol npos dnoXavaiv Sa'vl/'iXi} koi Tpvtprjv avrjKovaav. 

VI. 18: £v|i£Ta86Tovs...KoivwviKovs] 'Ready to distribute, willing to 
communicate.' For ' distribute ' (which is rather 8ia8i86vai, Luke xviii. 22, 
Acts iv. 35) a better word would be 'impart,' as A. V. Luke iii. 1 1, Rom. i. 
II, I Thess. ii. 8. Compare Schol. Platon. Ruhnk. p. 68: Kocvd rd roav 
(f)!Xcov eVi rav fvpfradorcov. S. Basil. T. II. p. 620 C: ijdvvaTo yap poi 
flirdv 6 (f>€i8a>\6s...0Ti pipovpai top pvpprjKa- dp€Td8oTov yap to C^ov eavra 
pev (Tvvdyfi, irepcp 8e ov drjcravpiCei. As 'imparting' and 'communicating' 

' [Cf. Phot. Cod. CLXVI. p. 189 : Kai Kiavou, /cat tou wepl /xeTapopcpubaeioi' Aov- 
yap Tov TTepi 6.\t)dwv bi-qyripdTWV Aou- k'lov, Trrjyr] Kai pi ^'a hixeu elvai touto.] 



214 I- TIMOTHY. VI. i8 

are virtually the same thing, to avoid tautology, another sense of koi-vcovikovs 
has been thought to be here intended, as St Chrysostom explains 
6ij.iXt]tikovs, TTpoarjvf'is ; Theodoret aTv(f)ov fjdos e'xovras ; A. V. 'Or, sociable^ ; 
R. V. 'Or, ready to sympathize^ ; all of them fairly within the scope of 
the term. But Gal. vi. 6 and Heb. xiii. i6 are in favour of the common 
interpretation, in support of which Wetstein also adduces Lucian. Tim. 
56 : Trpos ap8pa olov ere, aTrXo'iKov Koi tSv ovt(ov koiv(opik6v. Id. Pisc. 35 : 
oTav p.€V ovv avTovi ri ber] Xafjijiaveiv, iroXvs o nep\ roii KoivaviKov fivai delv 
Xoyos, Koi cos n8La(f)opoi' n ttXovtos. I add Alciphr. £J). III. 19: KoivaviKos 
a>v Kai cf)iXeTaipos ovaio aavTov. Diotogenes Pythagoricus ap. Stob. F/or. 
T. XLVIII. 62 : A true king should be aw(f)pcou peu vepl ras a8ovns, Koivava- 
TiKos 8e TTtpl TO. j^prniara, <pp6vip.os 8e Koi deivos nepl rav apxav. 



II. TIMOTHY. 

Chap. 1 1. 2 : Kal ci rJKovo-as Trap' «|iov 8id iroXXwv [xapTvptov] A. V. ' Among 
(Or, by) many witnesses.' The sense of 'among' seems to be confined (or 
nearly so) to the phrase hih. Tvavrmv, as Homer, 6 S' firpeirf Kal 8ia navrcov, 
or Herodotus, derjs ti^iov koi Sta navTcov t(ov avaOr^fiaroiv. The best Greek 
writers prefer eVi iiaprvpav^ to signify that anything was done adhibitis 
testibiis, in the presence of witnesses ; but Sta papTvpiov is also used in the 
same way, as was long since observed by H. Stephens, s. v. pdprvp; and 
the single example which he adduces might, perhaps, lead us to suppose 
that it was a /ega/ term. It is to be found in Plut. T. ii. p. 338 F, where 
Darius is made to say : ' I pray that I may be fortunate, and victorious in 
war ; but if I am ruined, m Zev irarpae ILepa-av koi /SacrtXetot deoi, may no 
other than Alexander sit on the throne of Gyrus ! ' ' This,' adds the 
Author, ' was an act of adoption {elanolrja-n) of Alexander in the presence 
of the gods as witnesses (Sia 6€u>v papTvpcov).' And so the phrase was 
understood by St Ghrysostom: Tt eari, 8ia iroWav paprvpcov; cos au el 
eXeyev • ov \d0pa rJKOvaas, ov8e Kpv(f)^, dWa ttoXXcov napovTUiv, fiera 
Trapprja-iaS' 

II. 20: els Ti(i.iiv...€ls dTi,|ACav] To the former class belonged the ^ad/e, 
to the latter the footstool^ according to Diod. Sic. xvil. 66 : ^XyrjKa ISav 
TO nap^ eKeiva paXia-ra rtpcopfvov (ttjv rpdnf^av) vvv aripov yeyovos anevos 
(vno^adpov) ; also the TrodavinrTjp, which was used evepeiv re Kal evovpeeiu 
Kal TToSas dnovi(e(T6ai (Herod. II. 172^). In the next verse evxprjo-rov tS 
bea-norr] might be translated, 'meet for the owner'' s use,' as Lucian. 
Demon. 17: ypappdnov iv dyopa TvporiOeis, ij^lov tov diroKiaavTa, oaTis fit] 
Tov baKTvKiov decTTTOTTjs, rJKeiv Kal ... aTZoKap^dveiv. Synes. Ep. i,2: enaviTca 
Tolvvv ^AcrcpdXios els to SecTTror/js etVat tcov Kepapiiov (potteries) ttj tov nuTpos 
diadrjKTj^. 

II. 25 : Toiis avTiSiaTiOciAevovs] All English versions : 'those that oppose 
themselves.' Vulg. eos qui rcsistunt veritati. Dean Alford quotes from 
Ambrosiaster, 'eos qui diversa sentiunt,' but puts it aside with the remark : 
' To take the general meaning of SiaTidea-dai satisfies the context better 

1 [EttI fidprvai is found App. B. C. tovs roioijrovs dv8pas, oirives tt]v aiiTrji/ 
III. 14: ^9os yap Ti'^ufxaiois To^s deroiis d/j.i8a Kal olvox^v" ^x°^'^'- See Synes. 
iirl pdpTvai yiyveffdai rols (xrpaTrjyo^s.] Ep. 57, p. 192 B: o\>t(i3 5e (T/ceDos ro pkv 

- [Compare the saying of Themis- dnpov to Si ripiSi' iari t€ Kal vopl^erai.'] 
tocles Ael. V. H. xiii. 40 (of the ^ [Cf. Lucian. ^'rj/^/i. i : oi oKraTroSes 

Athenians who first disgraced him and KaXajpevoi * tovto di iffTi, dijo ^ouv 
thenrecalledhim to power) : Ovk eiraivQ decnvbT-qv elvai, Kal dpa^ris ytttSs.] 



2l6 II. TIMOTHY. II. 26 

than to supply rhv vovv.' He evidently takes 8iaTideadai to be the middle 
form, of which the ' general meaning ' is disponere (aliquid), never that I 
am aware oi disponere se, which is what is required to make avridiaTideadai 
bear the sense of opponere se. Nor, if we accept the version of Am- 
brosiaster, is it necessary to supply tw vovv, since diarldea-Bai may well be 
passive, as it certainly is in such phrases as Svo-KoXwy or ;(aXe7rc5y 
8iari6((T6ai npos riva, differing in no respect from BiaKela-dm. Here, instead 
of a qualifying adverb, we have the compound form avTibiaTiBecrdai, which 
may therefore be considered as equivalent to ivavTias diaridecrdai, ' to be 
cofitrariwise or adversely affected^ which brings us back to the rejected 
version, 'eos qui diversa sentiunt.' 

The only other example of the compound verb is to be found in 
Longinus TTfpl v^nvs xvii. i. The Author is speaking of the too free use 
of figures {(Txwo-To) in pleading before an arbitrary judge, who might be 
apt, in such a case, to think the orator was treating him like a child, and 
trying to take advantage of his simplicity ; and so he either turns quite 
savage (dnodrjiHovTai to a-vvoXov), or if he should suppress his wrath, lie is 
siire to be adversely affected towards the persuasive force of the pleadings 
{npos TT]v neidu) tuiv Xoywv navTcos avTidiaTiderai). 

II. 26: €tw7pT]|J.€voi, vtr avTov els to iKiivov 6i\-r]\i.a] Literally, * having 
been caught by him unto his will.' If the second pronoun had been avrov 
as well as the first, there would have been no difficulty in referring both 
to o diaf^oXos. But the change of pronouns would lead us to look out for 
another and more remote person for tKflvov, and this could be none other 
than o 6(os in v. 25. But if God's will were the object in view, the agent 
could no longer be the devil, and we should have to go back to Sov'Kos 
Kvplov in 7K 24 for the antecedent of avrov ; in which case the words before 
us could only be made intelhgible by the insertion of explanatory notes in 
the text, as R. V. 'having been caught by him (the Lord's servant) unto 
his (God's) willi.' To avoid this, the question has been raised whether 
the two pronouns must necessarily be assigned to different persons. It is 
allowed that if their places had been reversed, vn iKtivov els to avTov 
( = eavTov) dfXrjfia, there would have been nothing abnormal in the phrase ; 
the devil, having been just mentioned by name, might properly be referred 
to as 'that person' (compare Tit. iii. 7, 2, Pet. i. 16). Here, however, it is, 
'having been caught by him unto that person's will'; which, though 
certainly a clumsy mode of putting it, is one which might slip from the 
pen of the most practised writer in the fervour of composition. Examples, 
coming more or less near to that of the text, are not wanting ; but the 
following from Xenoph. Cyrop. iv. 5, 20 seems to have escaped ob- 
servation : fTTfibav 8e a'icrdrjTai (Cyaxares) TToXXovs- ixev tcov TroXffiiav dno- 

^ [R. V. 'by the Lord's servant unto house,' with a marginal note 'That is, 
the will of God.' In Ileb. iii. 2, 5: iv God's house.'] 
6\if) T(^ oUku) avTov is translated ' in all his 



IV. 13 II. TIMOTHY. 21/ 

XcoXoras, ndi'Tas 8e anfXrjXafXfvovi ... yvcoaerat. on ov vvv eprjuos yiverat, ^viKa 
o'l ^iXot AYTOY Tovs EKEINOY e'xdpoiis dno\\vov(riv^. 

*III. 6: (r€a-o>p€V|j.^va d|JiapTiats] 'Laden with sins.' Dean Alford 
(after De Wette) says : ' They are burdened, their consciences oppressed, 
with sins, and in this morbid state they lie open to the insidious attacks 
of these proselytizers' &c. But o-eo-wpeu/xe'm is rather 'overwhelmed' than 
' burdened ' {^e[3ap7]fxeva) and so it was understood by the Syriac trans- 
lators, who render it by ■ y ' ^ ^ ^, which is the equivalent of such Greek 
words as KaraKexaa-iieva, Karopoypvyixiva, &C. St Chrysostom says of this 
word : to ttX^^os twv duapriav TrapicrTTjai,, kol to aTaKTOv, Ka\ to crvyKf^vp-evov. 

IV. 13: Tov (|)€\6vTiv] 'the cloke.' On the (f)e'K6ut]s {(f>aiv6\r]s, paenu/a) 
see Wetstein. His best examples are Artemid. Onirocr. ll. 3: ;^Xa/xus... 
6Ki>\nv Kai a-Ttvoxcoplav ... pLavreveTai, Sta to ip.nepux^i'V to (rafxa- to be avTO 
Koi 6 Xeyofxfvos (jiaivoXrjs. Ael. Lamprid. Alexandro Severo : Paeiuilis 
intra urbe^n/rigoris causa iit senes uterentur peimisitj cnin id vestirnenti 
genus semper itiiierariuiii aut pluviae fuisset. For the benefit of those 
who hold with the late Dr Neale, that the cloke which St Paul left behind 
him at Troas, and which he desires Timothy to bring with him, was a 
liturgical vestment or chasuble, I will point out a curious coincidence 
from profane history, in a story told of Hercules by Diod. Sic. iv. 38: 
"^VTavQa 8e Ovaiav emTeXuv, aneaTeiKe tov VTrrjpeTrjv els Tpax'tva irpos ttju 
yvvaiKa Arj'iaveipav tovto) 8e TTpO(TTiTnyp.ivov rjv, alTtjaai ^iroSi'a koi IpciTiov, 
ois flcodei p^p^cr^at Trpos Tas dvaias. 

As the subject of VESTMENTS possesses a certain interest at the 
present time^, it may be worth while to notice one or two passages from 
patristical writers, which have been thought (quite groundlessly) to favour 
the idea that St Paul's cloke was a chasuble. 

The first, in order of time, is that of TertuUian, L/b. de Oratione, c. 12 : 
' We will here notice certain other observances, which may be justly 
charged with vanity, as being practised without any authority of Christ or 
his Apostles. For instance; it is the practice of some persons to lay 
aside their clokes before they pray {positis pemilis oratione in facere), a 
rite borrowed from heathen worship; which if it were proper to be done, 
the Apostles who have given directions about the dress to be used in 
prayer {de Jiabitu orationis) would not have omitted : unless any one 
should claim St PauVs own example in favour of the custom, supposing 

^ [This passage from Xenoph. is octwj' iKiivijjv (Gall!) avTqi. iKeivos yap 

quoted by Stallbaum in his note on Plat. (Antiochus) k.t.L The Bishop of Here- 

PhaeJo 106 B. Cf. Dem. p. 633, 12: ford, in a letter, quotes Plat. Protag. 

TOV yap (pvyddaTOTTisirbXew^ovirpoffeiTrev 310 d: av avT(2 (Protagorae) SiSi^i apyi- 

ovofxa, T^s ovK ^(TTL fieTovffia avTi^ (t(^ (p.), piov /cat ireidrjs e/i-ercoc... where Stallb. 

aXXa rb rod Trpaynaros (rbv dv^po<p6vov) refers to his note on Phaed. 106 B.] 
y KariaTrjffev avrbv eKeivus ^voxov. ^ The Otium Norv. Pars Inertia 

Luciau. Z«/jr. 8: raOra opoJ;' (Antiochus) was published in i88i. Ed. 
iravv TTOvt\pa,% elx^ rds e\7rt5as, tor d/j.dx(^v 



2l8 II. TIMOTHY. IV. 13 

that he left his cloke with Civpus, while he was at prayer^ The sentence 
in italics (which is evidently a sort of banter) in the original is only, ' nisi 
si qui putant Paulum penulam suam in oratione penes Carpum reliquisse' ; 
but the writer's meaning is undoubtedly what I have expressed. Thus 
understood, the passage, instead of favouring, is so plainly opposed to the 
'chasuble theory,' as to elicit from one of its advocates^ the following 
remark: 'The passage is rhetorical, and the lacuna (sic) seems to require 
filling up in this way — "an opinion too absurd to be maintained by reason 
of the ({)aiv6\r]s not being a cloke."' This is 'filling up' with a vengeance! 

The next authority is that of St Chrysostom, who, however, is not 
claimed as a witness in favour of the 'chasuble theory,' but only as 
neutral, and not to be cited on the other side ; first, because he is 
undecided whether the (peXovrjs was a cloke, or a case wherein books were 
kept; and, secondly, because the use of a general term {l^ariov) does not 
exclude the particular kind of vestment called a chasuble. In reply we 
would remark, that although St Chrysostom was bound to mention the 
' portfolio theory,' as being held by some (his words are : Ifiariov ivravda 
\4yef Tives 8e (paai to yXaacroKOfjiOv, evOa ra /3i/3X/a fKetro) his own opinion 
was, evidently, the one first stated, as he goes on to remark: 'But he 
sends for the (peXovrjs, that he may not have to procure it from others, 
according to his own saying, "Ye know that these hands have ministered 
to my necessities"; and again, "It is more blessed to give than to 
receive.'" But there is another passage of St Chrysostom, which has 
never been quoted in connexion with this controversy, but which is quite 
conclusive, as far as his opinion goes. It is in his first homily on the 
Philippians, where he is replying to the objection of some mean persons, 
who excused themselves from providing a suitable maintenance for their 
spiritual pastors on the ground of such texts as Matt. x. 9, 10: 'Provide 
neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your girdles, nor scrip for your 
journey, neither two coats, neither shoes,' &c. 'What?' he says, 'had 
not Peter a girdle, and a cloke, and shoes (Acts xii. 8) .-" And Paul too, 
when he writes to Timothy, "Do thy diligence to come before winter"; 
and then gives him instructions, "The cloke which I left at Troas" &c. 
There now ! he says, tlie cloke ; and no one would pretend to say that he 
had not a second, namely, the one he was wearing. For if he was not in 
the habit of wearing one, it would be superfluous for him to bid Timothy 
bring this one ; but if he did wear one, and could not help wearing one, 
it is clear that he had another besides.' 

After this, I think there can be no doubt what this early Greek father 
understood by St Paul's (jifXovrjs, namely, not a portfolio (though that 
explanation has some support from antiquity, especially from both Syriac 
versions) but a cloke, perhaps of some particular make or material which 
procured it a peculiar name, but still a garment for ordinary wear, or as 
an additional protection against the winter. 

' Rev. J. R. Lunn, in the Report of Exhibition, licld at Yorii in October, 
tlie Proceedings of tlic Ecclesiastical Art 1 866. 



TITUS. 



*Chap. I. 5 : I'va to, XeCirovra ImSiopGcjo-r)] 'That thou shouldest set in 
order' &c. Dean Alford, in his New Testament, gives the more correct 
rendering, ' That thou shouldest further set in order ' (Sic. So St Chryso- 
stom, who urges it as a proof of the Apostle's freedom from jealousy, that 
he leaves to Timothy the appointment of elders, koi rh aWa iravra oaa 
edflro Tipos eVtStop^oJcrecBf, <os av eiTrot rtr, nXtiovos KarapTia-fiov. Then he 
goes on : rl Xe-yets, eiTTf fi-oi ; ra aa Trpo(r8iopdovTai ; 

I. 7 : \>.r\ avOdSr]] 'not self-willed.' 2 Pet. ii. lo: To\fir]Tai, avdabeis, 
' presumptuous are they, self-willed.' A self-willed person is one who 
follows his own will or opinion, and does not yield to the wishes or 
opinions of others. Perhaps he is best represented by the Greek Ihioyvcii- 
fimv and dvaTpdneXos. Avdd8r]s, though nearly related to these, is, properly, 
sibi placens, that is, not one who pleases himself, but who is pleased with 
himself and holds other people cheap, in one word, self-satisfied. This 
is the strict meaning of the word, but it is commonly used in a wider 
sense, best expressed by the English 'arrogant,' which is also etymo- 
logically appropriate {arrogatis, qui sibi aliquid arrogat). Aristotle 
{Eth. Magn. I. 29) says that (Tfp.v6Tr]s iarlv av6a8(ias dvap-iaov re Ka\ 
apf(TKfias, which H. Stephens correctly renders, Gravitas est vtedium inter 
arrogantiam et placendi studiiim. It should also be observed that 
self-will or wilfubtess usually displays itself in the disposition and 
actions; while avQdhna is chiefly concerned with a man's manners and 
outward behaviour^. 

The Philoxenian version of the N. T., and the Syro-hexaplarian of the 
O. T., render avBd8r]s by |jo;iO, which they also use for dpaavs, TrponfTi^s, 
and ha/jios. Compare Archbishop Trench's Synonyms of the N. 7!, 
p. 350, ed. 9. 

^ [Cf. Plut. Vit. Cor. XV : oi'5^ rr^v ttoh 6/xtXetc. See also Id. Dion VIII. 

ipr]fji,iq, ^vvoiKov, <I)s TVKarwv fKeyiv, and Coiiip. Alcib. c. Cor. IV: we airiov 

avdadeiav eldws OTL del fxaXicTTa 8La(peijyeLV airavrtjiv to avofiiXrjrov tov rpowov /cat 

iyxfipovvra Trpaypacri kolvois Kal dvdpd}- Xiap inreprjcpavov /cat au^aSes.] 



220 TITUS. II. 3 

*II. 3: €v Karao-TijfjLaTi] A.V. 'in behaviour.' Alf. 'in deportment.' R.V. 
'in demeanour.' Either of these two is to be preferred to the A. V. 
Karda-Trjua e.xpresses a man's outward bearing, including g'ai/, posture, 
expression of countenance, dress. Sec. The following descriptions have 
been previously quoted : Porphyr. De Abstin. iv. 6 : to (Ti\ivov kclk tov 
KciracTTrjfiaTns loifxiro. nopeia re yap rjv fvraKTOS, Koi ^\ip.p.a KadecrTrjKos 
fnfrr]8ev{To . . . yiXws Se andvios, el 8e ttov yevoiro, p-^xpi fieiSidcrftos • del 8e 
ivTos TOV ax^ifiaros x^'P^^- Joseph. Ant. XV. 7, 5 : axirr) (Mariamne) ye p.r]v 
aTpffia'no Tip KUTaaTt]fi,aTi Koi Tfj Xpo? ''"^s aapKos dfifTaf3\i]Ta> npos tov OdvaTOV 
aTTTjei. I add Ignat. ad Trail. 3 : eV tu> €Tvi(TK<'ma) vu-wu, ov avTo to Kard- 
a-Tr)p.a iieydXr] p.a6r]Tfia. It should, however, be observed that both 
KQTaa-TTjfia and KaTdaTaais, even without an epithet, involve the idea of 
calmness and composure. Thus, from the former we get the adjective 
KaTaa-TrjfiaTtKos, which is used by Plutarch in contrasting the characters of 
the two Gracchi ( Fit. T. Grace. 11) : npaTou p.kv ovv Idea npoa-conov koI 
^Xe'/ii/iart Kai KivrjfjiaTi. npaos Koi KaracTTrjpaTiKos ^v 6 Ti/Se'pioy, i'vTovos Se Koi 
<7</)oSpos o rd'ios. For (carao-roTty I would instance in St Chrysostom 
(T. X. p. 259 d), in describing the difference between the prophet and the 
fiavTisl oe TTpocfiiJTris ov^ ovtcos, dWd ^era diavoias vr](f)ov(Tr]s, kol (Tui(f)po(Tvvr)S, 
Koi KaTaa-Tacrecos, koi etSws 6 (pdeyyerai, dnavTa (jirjaiv : where for KardaTacris 
the Syriac version has "j/n mn ^Vy) the very word which the Philox. 
puts for KaTaiTTrjfia in this place, and the Syriac translator of Lagarde's 
Jiel. y tin's Eccles. for evTa^ia (p. »>^kI3, 16). 

II. 5: oiKovpovs] 'Keepers at home.' This is the old reading, which 
has lately been ousted on the authority of ACF and (before correction) 
ND, which read oUovpyovs, i.e. according to R. V. 'workers at home.' 
The only authority for this word is Soranus of Ephesus, a medical writer 
(not earlier than the 2nd century) from whose work llepl ywuiKfiau ttciBcov 
(published at Berlin 1838) Boissonade quotes oiKovpyov koi Ka6ibpwv 
(sedentary) bidyttv ^lav, where olKovpw would suit at least equally well. 
The verd is quoted from Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Cor. I. i : eV Te r&5 kovovi 
TTJs VTTOTayTJs VTTupxovcras, Ta KaTa tov oIkov aefivaii olnovpyeiv ibibdcrKtTe 
ndvv a-a>(f)povov(Tai^. The ancient versions have, Vulg. domus curam 

habentes; Pesch. .oai_»Ari> _S^; Philo.x. "jA^iJ A^i^; all for 
olKovpovi. But the strongest argument for the old reading is, that it is 
improbable, not to say incredible, that in his exhaustive description of 
the female character, the Apostle should have omitted this particular 
feature. 'Graecae mulieris' (to quote Valcken. ad Herod, iv. 1 14) 'prima 
virtus habebatur to fv8ov p.eveiv koI ol<ovpfiv.' Such was Sarah, ny"13V 
{abscondita, domi sedens) according to Raschi on Gen. xviii. 9 ; Dinah, 

' [Cf. Dio. Chrys. Or. III. p. 48, 1 : SiaKiKavfx^vos fU rb fxeXavTarov, olol 
34 : dX\ (Kf.lva.is pAv to. TroWa tCjv eiaiv oi daXarrovpyol y^povTes.] 
ipywv Kur' oiKiav iarl. Lucian. Here. 



II. 5 TITUS. 221 

on the contrary, is described as n''3XV {exietis extra aedes, ^tXe^oSor^) 
in allusion to Gen. xxxiv. i. And there is scarcely a single passage of 
ancient writers, from Solomon downwards, in praise of a virtuous wife, 
in which this feature is not specially set forth. From Wetstein's ample 
store and other sources we select the following. Dio. Cass. LVi. p. 391 : 
yvvT} acitPpcov, olnovpos, oIkovojios, 7ra>.8oTp6(j)os. Philo Jud. (fe Maled. T. II. 
p. 431 : ■yvva'iKa'i as yjyayovro /covptSiaj en), yvrjcricov TraiBav (nropdv, (rci(f)povas, 
oiKovpoiis, Kal (f)iXav8povs. Plut. Conjug. Praec. 32 (T. II. p. 142 D) : rr]v 
'HXeicoi" o <I>6tSt'as ' A.(f)po8iTriv (Troirjaev )(^eXa)VT]v Tvarovcrav, olKovpias crv^ftoXov 
TOis yvvai^l Kui (Tianfji. Alciphr. JSp. III. 58: eXeyeu yap ya/xeraZy fTrt/cXrfpotf 
oiKovpias npeireiv Koi rov (T(p.v6v ^lov, ras eraipas 8e Sei eivai navTcov avaipavdnv. 
[Compare Prov. vii. 11 : cV otVo) ovx yja-vxaCova-iv oi ■jroSes avTijs {meretricis).'] 
Ibid. 25 : tyco Se olKovpm fiovr] fiera r^s ^vpas ayaTrrjToii, ra Trai8ia ^uvKaXdxra 
(singing to sleep). Stob. Flor. T. LXXIV. 61 : I'Sia p.kv avhpos, to o-rpaTayef, 
Ka\ noXiTfvecrdai, Koi 8afj,ayopev tSia 8e yvvaiKos, to oiKOvpev, Kal i'vdov fxivev, 
(cai eK^fxeaSai Kal deparrevev top avbpa. Artemid. Oiiirocr. II. 32: Xr]-^iTai 
yvvaiKa evfiopcfiov, ijpifj.a nXovcriav, tticttiktjv koI oiKovpov Kal neidofxivqv tw 
avbpi. Orell. Inscrip. Lat. 4639: 'Hie sita est Amymone Marci, optima 
et pulcherrima, lanifica, pia, pudica, frugi, casta, domiseda. Ibid. 4848 : 
Nomen parentes nominarunt Claudiam, | suum maritum corde dilexit 
suo I ... I domum servavit, lanam fecit. Dixi; abi^.' 

Two distinct meanings have been correctly assigned to olKovpoi and 
its derivatives: first, domi se continejis^, and secondly, rent faniiliarctn 
curans. As might have been expected, and as may be seen in some of 
the above examples, they are apt to run into each other. The Vulgate 
and Syriac versions have taken the word in the second sense, which is 
etymologically the more correct of the two, as Hesychius : OtKoupo?, o 
(ppovTi^cop ra tov o'ikov koI cpvXaTTcov ovpos yap 6 cjivXa^ XiyeTai. But, 
without an epithet, it seems more natural to understand oiKovpos as 
significant of a moral quality, which, in the mistress of a family, 'keep- 
ing at home' undoubtedly is. If, however, with Theophylact and the 
elder Syriac, we point oUovpovs dyadds, 'good housekeepers,' we may 
then, include bo//i senses of oUovpos, our English word 'housekeeper' 

^ Epicharm. ap. Stob. F/or. T. LXix. not been able to find. That these two 

17: et de Kai (pL\4^od6v re /cat XaXoc Kal ideas were generally associated appears 

Sai/'tXTj, I oi; yvvoLx' '^^eis, Sia. ^iov 5' from Plutarch's ( Vit. Afitoii. x.) de- 

WTVX^o.v KO(Tfiovfj.4vav. [Plut. II. 242 E: scription of the character of Fulvia, the 

KaOdvep t6 a-Qfxa Kai rovfo/j-a rrjs dyadrjs wife of Antony, ' who had a soul above 

yvvaLKOs oiofievos deTv KaraKXeiaToj/ elvai wool-spinning and housekeeping' [ov 

Kai 'ANESOAON. Ps. Ixviii. 13: TaXaaiau ovde oUovpiav (ppouovv yvvaiov), 
r^a ny-l 'she that tarried at home ^ [Said of men. Plut. Fi'L Cues. 

divided the spoil.' Mater familias.] ^'^ : t'l o\jv...ov Kai <tv raOra 5e5iws 

2 A shorter and better-known epi- oUovpeh ; (instead of going to the 

taph on a good wife is ' Domum mansit; senate).] 
lanam fecit,' the source of which I have 



222 TITUS. III. 4 

having precisely the same twofold acceptation. At all events, we trust 
we have successfully vindicated the old and cherished reading against 
the proposed unnecessary and most tasteless innovation. We shall be 
told that it is hardly possible that for so well-known a word as oiKovpos 
the copyists should have substituted one, of which the existence is 
extremely doubtful. But to this it may be replied : if olKovpos was 
familiar to the copyists, a fo7-tiori it must have been familiar to the 
Apostle; and, in writing on such a subject, must have been (so to 
speak) at his fingers^ etids; how came he then to give the preference 
to a barbarous, scarcely intelligible a-na^ Xeyd/ifi-oi/, if not vox fiitlla, 
like otKOupyos ? 

III. 4: 0T€ 8^ 1] xP'n<'"''OTT)s Kal 11 (}>iXav9pw7ria eirtcJxivT) tov <r(i)Ti]pos iip-wv 
0€ov] In a note on Acts xxviii. 2 we have said that phila)ithropy, as felt 
and exercised by a human being towards mankind in general, is a novel 
use of the word; but this does not apply to beings of a superior nature. 
Indeed Thomas Magister (p. 896) places in the very front of his definition 
of (piKapdpaTTLa, ov fiovov rf dno rwv vnepexovTcov els rovs eXarrovs evfifveia, 
US ^ Tov 6iov (f)iXav6p(i)7ria rrepl jjyuas'. ..aXX' rj rivos cmkois irpos ovtlvovv (})ikia. 
In this special sense the word is used by Plutarch (F/A Ninn. iv): Ka'i ttov 
Xoyov i'xd, TOV deov ov (pikiTrnov, ov8e (pLkopvLv, aWa (piXdvdpconov ovra, ro?s 
8ia(f)€p6vTa)s dyadols i6i\fiv crvve'ivai ^. And when it is said of Prometheus, 
a heroic if not a divine personage, that he was /ca^' vTreplBo'Xrjv (f)i\dv6pa>Tros 
(Lucian. de Sacrif. 6), no doubt it is the whole race of mankind that he 
embraced in his beneficent views. To this class is usually supposed to 
belong St Paul's use of the word in Tit. iii. 4. The A. V. 'But after 
that the kindness and love (Or, pity) of God our Saviour toward man 
appeared,' is faulty because it seems to connect 'kindness' with 'toward 
man,' as well as ' love,' which the Greek does not. This may be avoided 
by rendering ' the kindness and love-toward-man of God our Saviour,' or 
(as R. V.) ' the kindness of God our Saviour, and his love toward man.' 
But in fact, the combination of xPlo"''OTt]s kqI (fyiXavdpania, ' kindness and 
humanity,' is so familiar to all readers of Greek, that it seems unlikely 
that the Apostle should have used this formula in any other way than 
that which has obtained the stamp of literary currency. The following 
examples, partly original, and partly from Wetstein's collection, may 
suffice. Stob. Flor. XLVI. 76 : aXX' orav xP^o"''orr]Ti Koi (f)ikav6p(onia Kpadfj 
TO crepLVov Kai ava-rrjpov rfjs tTriKpareias^. Liban. Progy7)m. p. 52 B: ;(^p»j(rT6- 
Tr\Ta aa-Kfi, (j)i\av6p(x>niav peXera. Lucian. Tim. 8: XP1'^'''°'''1^ iniTpi-s\fev 
avTov, Kui (juXuvOpcoTTid, KOI 6 TTpos 8{op.fvovs dnavTas oiktos. Id. Scyth. lo: 

' [Cf. Lvician. Bis Ace. i : iravTa (piKavdpwwo% 6 Oeb^ . . .TrpoarjKdvTOJs avTi.- 

yap TOLvra vTvb (j}Ckavdpu3iriai oi Oeol x<*P^f^''^*' '''^ ddpov.] 

■KovovcTi. Pliilo de Abr. § 36 (Mangey, " [Cf. Pint. Vit. Dciuclr. l: pirk 

p. 29): Tw Srj rrp> 0X1)67) TO-irtiv hpoko- twv dXKwv kuXQv airri^ (piXavSptiOTrlas 

yiaf wpoXoyrjK&ri Tpbiroi, xPV<^'''b^ '^^ '^'"' '>'<^' XPV<^'''bTr]TOS ewlbei^iu SiSoiVr?. ] 



III. 8, 14 TITUS. 223 

TTjP ^ev yap ;^pr;(rT6r)7ra, koX Trju npos tovs ^evovs <f)iKai>$p(0Triav. Diod. Sic. 
T. X. p. 122, ed. Bip. : koI yap tuelvoi, ;^p77frrorr;rt Ka\ (jiCKavOpaTvla xP^H'-^^Oh 
rah ^aa-ikeiais ivevbaip.6vr)(Tav. Joseph. Ajtt. X. 9, 3 : KaravorjaavTa 8e...Trjv 
Tov ToBoXiov ;YP'yo"'"orj;ra Kal (fnXavdpaniav. Aristid. p. 335 C : i^s (piXavdpo)- 
TTias Koi xP1c"''0'''r]Tos en ttoXXo koi icad' i^pas t] ttoXis eKCpepovaa deiyp-ara 
davpd^erai. So with the adjectives, as Stob. F/or. T. XLVill. 67 : eVi 8e 
evfpyfTiKos, (piXdvOpaiTTOs, ;j(pJ70-T-os. Plut. FzV. LtiC XVIII : ravra jxev ovv 
cf)vcrfi ;^/37;crroi/ ovra Ka\ (f). rjv'ia tov A.ovkovWov. Lucian. Ep. Sat. 33 : ivpos 
yap rw ;^p7;o"Toi's /cat <p. aKoiieiv. Charit. Aphrod. II. 2 : Aiofucrtoy yap o 
dea-TTOTTjs fjiiatv xP'?*^^"^ f''''"' '^''* 0- Herodian. IV. 3, 6: xPI'^'''^^ '"^ ^'^ 
Koi (f). Tols CTVvoxxTi. Onosandcr 38: ral^ 8e 7rpo(Tx<^pov(Tais'Tir6\(ai...(f}iXav- 
Bpanrcas Kal xP^'^'''^^ 7rpoa(f}fp€ada>. Sed nianum de tabula. 

III. 8, 14: KttXwv ^pY^v irpoio-TaerOai] A. V. 'To maintain good works.' 
And on v. 14 : ' Or, profess hoiiest trades^ The marginal version has 
been advocated by Grotius (on v. 14 only) and Clericus ; and recently by 
A. H. Wratislaw in the Journal of Philology, Vol. ill. p. 258 sq. We 
will first enquire how the verb n pota-raadai comes to be used in the sense 
oiprofessiitg or practising a particular calling or business. 

Comparing the \jaXvs\ prostare, it appears probable that this use of the 
word arose from the practice of the workman or tradesman standing before 
his shop for the purpose of soliciting customers. We have an example of 
this primary use in a passage of St Chrysostom (T. ix. p. 443 C), who 
says of St Paul : Kai ovhk iv tc5 K7]pvTr€iv ttjs rexv^S aTrea-Ti], dWa Kal rare 
deppara eppanre, Kal epyaaTrjpiov Trpo€i(TTi]K€i. Of course it is a rhetorical 
flourish to say that Paul stood before the workshop; but less so than if we 
were to understand the phrase (as St Chrysostom's translators have done) 
of his being the manager or foreman of a tent-manufactory. However, 
there is one kind of occupation (tcoi' eVt piada nmXova-cov ra 'A(j)po8iTr]s) to 
which the word has always been applicable in its literal sense ; which is 
sufficiently indicated by the well-known phrases Trpoea-rrjKevai olK^paros, 
Ttyovs, or simply Trpoea-rrjKfvai, prostare. Thus Xenoph. Ephes. V. 7 : 6 8e 
TTopvo^ocTKos . . .rjvdyKacrev avrr/v olKTjpaTos TvpoeaTavaf Kal 8f]...r]yev (os irpoo'TT]- 
(TQpevrjv reyovs. S. Chrysost. T. II. p. 559^- ''"^^ dno tov Teyovs yvvalKus 
dvaaTi]aas dno tmv olKrjpdraiv iv oit TrpoeiaTi]Kfcrap. T. X. p. 154E: Kal yap 
Trdarjs TTopvrjs alaxpoTfpoi/ TrpoetoTT/Ket 1] rjpeTepa (pvais. Macrob. Soinn. 
Scip. I. 2 : ' Visas sibi esse Eleusinias Ueas habitu meretricio ante 
lupanar ludere prostantes^ From this primary meaning is naturally 
derived that of exercising a calliftg or profession, whether discreditable, 
as Plut. Vit. Pertcl. XXIV : Kainep ov Kocrpiov Trpoea-Twa-av epyacrias ovde 
(TfpvfjS, dXXd jraiSlaKas eTaipovcras Tp€(f)ov(Tav ; Julian. JSp. XLIX : ^ Texvrjs 
Tivos Kal epyaaiai alaxpdi Kal enoveidiaTov Trpoia-Taadai; or respectable, as 
Trpota-Taadai prjTopiKfjs, laTpiKfjs etc. Hence, by an easy transition, we 
arrive at the general meaning of conducting or 7nanaging ajiy matter 
of business; as Stob. Flor. T. CXVi. 49 : oiVf pr]v dpxiis oUs re eVri 
Trpuia-Taadai (6 yipoiv). Dion. Hal. Ant. III. 36: ep€n(j)eTo 8e tovs /caKwy 



224 TITUS. III. 8, 14 

npoicTTafievovs twv tSi'coj/ [KTrjiinTcov^, coy ov ^e^alovs TToXtrar. V. 17: tav re 
TTokiyLUiv Tjyf^opias XfijSofTfy, edv re ttoXitikcou (pycov 7rpo(TTa(rias. Xenoph. 
IMem. III. 2, 2 : oi)/c ei \iovov tov favroii (ilov (caXwf irpofcrTijKoi. There is, 
therefore, no objection, as far as Trpoia-TaaBat is concerned, to either of the 
proposed interpretations. 

The advocates of honest trades or occtipatio77s insist strongly on the 
context in both places : in the former ravra iaTi KoKh koI wcfieXifxa toU 
dvdpcoTTois', in the latter, els ras avayKaias ;^/3et'as^ ; but these are general 
expressions, which are capable of being so explained as to suit either 
interpretation. Even if honest trades were intended, the ' necessary 
uses' may still be those of the Church, not of the individual, especially 
when it is added, 'that they be not unfruitful^ that is, 'that they may 
bring foith fruit unto (]od' (Rom. vii. 4). 

But the true solution of the question turns upon another point, namely, 
what is the idea most naturally suggested by the words KoKQiv epycoi/? Can 
any instance be found of KoKa fpya being said of honest occupations or 
crafts, dUaioL nouot, 3 3 St Chrysostom invariably calls them? The 
example adduced from i Tim. iii. i, where the office of a bishop is 
said to be a Ka\6v epyop, rather tells the other way, since it would be 
absurd to say that if a man aspires to such an office, he desires an 
honest occupation. Again we ask, what are koKo. fpya in the common 
acceptation of the term ? For an answer to this we need go no further 
than the pastoral epistles. Thus i Tim. v. 10, a widow should be iv 
fpyois KoKo'is fiapTvpovpivrj ; vi. 18, the rich are to be exhorted to be rich 
iv epyois KaXois; and Titus (ii. 7) is to shew himself tvttov KaXciv fpyav. 
These examples are sufficient to shew St Paul's practice in the use of 
this phrase, from which it is incredible that he should have departed in 
the two instances before us. By way of corollary I add the following 
from classical sources. Plut. Vit. Pelop. XIX : oilrwr aero tovs dyaOovi, 
^fjXov dWrjXoii KaXav epyav evievras, MCJieXijicoTaTovs eis koivov epyov flvai kuI 
irpodvpoTciTovs. Id. Vit. Mar. IX: are 817 fir]K airovs St evyivnav, dX\' an 
dpfTTJs Koi KaXciu epycov evBo^ovi ytvop,(i>ovs. Id. Fz/. Alex. XXXIV : oO'ro) ns 
tvfj.(vrjs rjv npos ana(Tav dpertju, Koi KaXwv fpyuiv (f)vXa^ Kal oiKe'ios. Diod. Sic. 
T. X. p. 196, ed. Bip. : tcov KaXav epyov opexde'is. Isocr. ad Demon. 48: 
/xaXiora S' av napo^vvdeirji ope^OfivaL tcov KoXav epyav, el Karapadois on koi 
Tas ^dovas eK rovrav p,d\i(TTa yvrjcrlovs e')(op,ev. 

^ [Cf. Dem. 668, 28 : Sn ai duayKalai XP"'*' ''"'""'5 ^ov tI wpaKriov ij firj 
Xoyiap.o{>i dvaipovffiv aTravras.] 



PHILEMON. 



* Verse 12: Corrected text: ov dveireixxj/a <rot, airov, Tovreo-Ti., to, €|xa 
o-TT-XdYxvo.] R- V. 'whom I have sent back to thee in his own person, 
that IS &c.' One is tempted to ask, how else could he have sent him 
back, if not in his own person! Dean Alford sets up an anacoluthon, the 
writer going off into the relative clause, ov eya e^ovXofir^v k.t.c., and losing 
sight of the construction with which he began, and which he takes up 
again at 7/. 17. This was also the opinion of those who interpolated av 8e 
before avrov, and TrpoaXajSov after anXayxva. But avTov seems to be merely 
a repetition of oj/ before rovTian; 'him, / say, that is, mine own bowels.' 
In T. 17 npocrXa^ov avrov is not 'receive him,' but 'take him unto thee,' as 
correctly rendered Acts xviii. 26. St Chrysostom, commenting on z'. 12, 
according to the T. R., remarks: Ovk flnev, aTT68(^ai...dX\a npocr\aj3ov- 
rovreariv, ovx^ cruyyi'co/ir;?, aWa Ttfj.rjs icrnv a^ios. 

*i}: virlp a-oi] A. V. 'in thy stead.' R. V. 'in thy behalf.' The 
A. V. might be defended from Ael. V. H. xil. 45: nii/Sap(B.../xe'Xirrat 
Tpo(po\ iyivovTO vrvep tov yaXaKTOS Tvaparideiaai fieXi. 

*I4: x^pis Tijs <rr\s yv<a\i.Ti]s] See the quotation from Dion. Hal. in the 
note on Rom. xiv. 7. 

*i9: Trpo<ro<j)£iX£is] 'thou owest besides.' The force of the prepo- 
sition is that, instead of Philemon's being the Apostle's creditor, he was, 
in fact, his debtor ; not only was the debt cancelled, but the balance was 
turned against Philemon. Compare Demosth. c. Aphob. I. p. 825, 17: 
avTO. Se ra ap^aia Tvavra dvdXcjKeuaL (ftacrl crvv rats of p,vals. Ar]fjLO(f)a)v 8e Kat 
irpoaocpeiXovTas jj/xay iviypa^iv. Adag. e Suid. collect. Cent. X. 72 : 6 iv 
Tenear] rjpcos' orav ris dnaiTHv ri, fiaXXov TrpocrocpdXcov evpedjj. 



15 



HEBREWS. 

Chap. I. 6: orav 8i irdXiv elo-aYaYT]] A. V. 'And again, when he 
bringeth in.' R. V. 'And when he again bringeth in.' The supposed 
transposition of iroKiv may easily be avoided, in reading the Greek by 
making a slight pause after TraXti', so as to separate it from eiVayay?; ; and 
in English by a slight correction of the A. V. 'And when, again, he 
bringeth in.' Dean Alford claims St Chrysostom in favour of the con- 
struction TvoKw ela-ayayr] ; but I can find nothing in that author to justify 
the assertion. He speaks of one fla-ayooyr], and only one; elaayayhv 
ravTrjv Xeycov, rrjv Trjs aapKos avaKTjyj/iv. And further on : ' If he was in 
the world, and the world was made by him, as St John says, ttws eripais 
da-ayerai, aXX* rj iv a-apKi;' One would also have expected, if a second 
fla-ayooyrj were intended, that some mention would have been made of a 
previous one, of which there is not the slightest hint, and the reader is 
left to speculate upon the time and manner of these two introductions 
without any assistance from the context. 

IV. 2 : A. V. ' Not being mixed with faith (/ii7 (TvyKfKpapevo; ttj niarei) 
in them that heard it. Or, because tlicy wci'e not united by faith {prj 
(TvyKeKfpaa-pfvovs ttj n.) to (R. V. with) t/iem that heard it.' The latter 
reading and version is that adopted by R. V. The Syriac Peschito 
certainly read avyKfKpapevos, but it is disputed which of the two cofi- 
stmctions of this word can lay claim to its authority. 

Dean Alford gives as the sense of this version : quoniam non covi- 
mixttis erat per Jideni cum lis qui eum audierant. On the other hand, 
the Latin version of Schaaf's Syriac N. T. has: quia non contenipera- 
batur ctDiifuic illis qui audiiicnint ipsHin. Which is right? The words 

are ^^l^iD Oiai^ln^j ^QJOX^ ]2.ai V> icnr:) Zooi LjlkilO )J?. We 

have therefore to enquire, what is the construction of w-.|Sd, (Kepaat, 

when one thing is mixed with another. A good example is 2 Mace. xv. 
39: olvos v8aT.L (TvyKfpacrdfls, for which the Syriac is ^.IIdAj __i5 . ") 

] . ^n»~i j ; ^n K . In the LXX. version of Dan. ii. 43 for avyKpaOfjvai 



VIII. r HEBREWS. 22/ 

Tw oa-rpaKu, the Syriac is I^^-jo ^>Q1. ..^.ISdAj. The same two-fold 
construction with ^hd and i>Qi, (but more frequently with the former) 
is found with w4^-»-», ^V'^^ (see Payne Smith's T/ies. Syr. s. v.). On the 
other hand, in Apoc. xviii. 6, for Kepdaare avrfj dnvXovv we have Q,^.0|!iD 

ley^jv- ot\, where rviV indicates the dathnis comviodi (avr^), as . QJCTLA 
in our text. The Peschito, therefore, is rightly rendered by Schaaf, and 
is in favour of A. V. 

*VII. l8, 19: d0€TT]o-is |A^v -yap -yCveTai irpoa-yovlo-Tis IvtoXtis-.-ovS^v ■ydp 
IreXeCftxrev 6 v6fi.os, iTma-ayoiyf] Sk KpeCxTOVos eXiriSos] A. V. ' For there is 
verily a disannulling of the commandment going before... For the law 
made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did' The 
error of the A. V., in contrasting 'the law' with 'the bringing in of a 
better hope,' has often been pointed out. Most critics are agreed in 
rendering: 'For there is, on the one hand, a disannulling &c. (for the 
law made nothing perfect) and, on the other, a bringing in &c.' From 
a morbid anxiety to reproduce in the translation every 'shade of mean- 
ing' which they conceive to be contained in the original, some critics 
have proposed to render eVetcraywy/; by ' a bringing in besides ' or ' there- 
upon' (R. v.), relying on such instances as Hippocr. p. 27, 20 (Ed. Anut. 
Foes. 1624): eTepcovlrjTpwv eneiaaycoy)]!'; or Josepli. Auf. XI. 6, 2: a^evvvadai 
yap TO npos rrjv npnrepav (yvvaiKa) (piXoaropyov trepas fTTficraywy^. But the 
analogy does not hold good; because the 'foregoing commandment' did 
not remain (as the first wife, or the first physician), but was 'disannulled.' 
The Syriac version, indeed, has expressed eVi- by , .rn n g^\ ^>j pro ea ; 
but that would rather represent dvTfia-dyeiv, which is the very word used 
by St Chrysostom (T. xil. p. 142c) of the two covenants: iroBfv tovto 
dfjXov; i^ av avrrj pev e^ejSXrjdr], eKelfi] 8e dvTeia-ijxdrj. 

VIII. i: K€<()dXaiov St tm tois X€yo|j.€'vois] A. V. 'Now of the things 
which we have spoken, ^/lis z's the sum.' R. V. 'Now in the things which 
we are saying the chief point is this.' The A. V. exactly represents the 
formula used by Isocrates {Nicocl. p. 39 d) in summing up his preceding 
discourse : K€(f)dXaiov 8i rau elp-qpivoDv, which resembles that of the Apostle 
in its construction ^^r asyndeton, but differs in other particulars. Nearer 
to our text, and, perhaps, modelled upon it, is the following from St Basil 
(T. II. p. 7 e) : Kecf)d\aiov 8e eVt vols elprjpevon- 6 Kvpios rjpmv vqareia tt]v 
aapKa, rjv vnep rj/xwi/ dvfXa^ev, oxvpaxras, K.r.i. ; where, however, he is not 
summarizing his former arguments, but introducing, by this formula, a 
new and stronger reason, drawn from the example of our Lord himself. 
By eVl ToU flprjpevoLs, therefore, in St Basil, we must understand ' besides 
what has been said ' (as Luke xvi. 26 : koI errl nda-i rovrois) ; and by 
K((f)dXaiov, not the sum, but the main point, palmariutn argnnientuvi, 

15—2 



228 HEBREWS. IX. i 

as in Thucyd. VI. 6: \eyovTes (iWn t? ttoXXo, k(u Kf(()a\aiov tt 2upa- 
K('i(TLOi...Trjv arraaav Bvunjiiv rfjs SiKeXt'ay crxw^^^h Kivdvvov fivai K.r.e.^ 
Returning to the text, there might seem to be a difficulty in the use 
of the present participle, eVi roZj Xeyo/iei/oty ; which, however, may easily 
be explained by the consideration that the discourse is continuous, and 
that what the writer had said just before, he might be considered as still 
saying. Compare Acts xxvii. 1 1 : rw vavK^ripa (Tveidero fiaXKov rj toIs vno 
Tov HavKov XeyofievoLs. Job xli. I (Heb. 9) : ovx eoopuKas avrov, ov8f tnl 
Tols Xtyofifvois Tedavfiaxas'^. We would, therefore, render the whole 
passage thus : ' Now to crown (Or, sr/zji up) our present discourse : We 
have such a high priest ' &;c. 



IX. I : TO T€ a-yiov koo-jj.ik6v] A. V. 'And a worldly sanctuary.' The 
absence of the article before Koa-fimov was a stumbling-block to Bishop 
Middleton, who having discovered^ in a certain Rabbinical writing the 
word J1p''Dnp meaning (it would appear) 'a woman's toilet' {mundiis 
vmliebris), hastily imported this exotic use of the word into the Greek 
Testament, in the general sense of "furniture.' What is still more sur- 
prising, this bold innovation has been endorsed by Professor Scholefield 
[Hints &c., p. 99) who settles the matter in a very few words : ' Both 
ayiov and koctiiikov being adjectives, one of them must be taken sub- 
stantively; and the position of the article determines that that one must 
be KOCT/LitKoi'.' But, surely, in such a case the better plan is to enquire, 
whether either and which of the two adjectives is commonly used as a 
substantive; and the result would be wholly in favour of ayiov (Joseph. 
Ant. III. 6, 4 : c5 fxkv nas vems "AriON (KoXdro) and against Koa-fxLKov. In 
fact, even as an adjective, KoafiKov is never connected with KO(Tp.oi, 
ornaties, but always with Koap-Ds, niinidiis. 

The omission of the article will appear to be quite regular, if we 
consider it to be added eirf^rjyrjriKMs, by way of explanation, to re ayiov, 
scilicet KoarpiKop, or to re ayiov KotrpiKov ov. Out of a number of examples 
which I had collected for this construction, I select the following in which 



^ [Cf. Lucian. Tyran. I'j: vvt> 8i - [Cf. Pint. F/LA'u.Xi: us /xdWoi' 

Kai rb Ke^aXaiov aiirb evvo7)aa.Te. Die eV rots wipl fKeivov (Alcibiades) ypa<po- 

Chrys. Or. XI. p. 158,30: ijSei Tdvavria pivots d-qXavTai. App. B. C. III. 88: 

\iyuv TOLS o7)cn, Kai t6 KecpdXaiov aiirb wj/ \iyopivuiv ij re arpaTid TrpoOvpws 

TOV TTpdypaTos xpevobpevos. Lucian. iwejioTiffe.] 

Pliilops. d: 6,Ti irep to KecpaKaiov auTO ■* TheoriginaldiscovererwasSchoett- 
el iKaaT-qs Trpoaipiaews (school of philo- gen, Horae Hebr. p. 973, from which 
sophy). Lilian, i. 694 (ed. Reiske, work, in Hugh James Rose's edition of 
1 791): aura;;' 5^ ye tQiv Xtyopivwv to Middleton, 0/7 //it' C;w/J' ^;-/«V/f, p. 4I4, 
K€<pd\atov ■ ret Trjuoe piXXoura Trjv nbXiv for |''D''L''Dn Tt2 read pt3''L"3n ''J"'0. 
iiriKXvaeiv ^crrTjcras.] 



IX. i6, 17 HEBREWS. 229 

the article is omitted before this identical adjective : Euseb. dc Mart. Pal. 
IV: npa)TOV fjL€V ovv rrjs 'EXKtjvcov nni8fias ev€Ka K02MIKH2 ^. 

IX. 1 1 : oi TavTT]s TTJs KTio-ews] A. V. 'Not of this building.' R. V. 
' Not of this creation.' By tqvttjs I understand vulgaris., quae inilgo 
diciiur. Wetstein rightly explains : habitacula super terrain in itsus 
Jioniinuni ab illis exstntcfa, comparing Ch. VIII. 2 : a-Krjvrjs fjv enrj^fv 
6 Kvpios, KOI ovK avdpanros, in other words, 01; ravrrji rfjs TTij^eas^. I have 
called attention to this use of ovtos in a note on S. Chrysost. T. vii. 
p. 376 B. To the examples there given may be added from the same 
author T. v. p. 208 E : eV fiev ovp rovrois rols diKacTTrjpiois. Ibid. p. 280 B : 
(l)(Ov fief yap rfju 86^av rrju trapa tov Oeov • enrero Kai avrrj (^J)iltndand). 
T. IX. p. 736 E: \vK0i Tovrav ivoKv niKporepoi. T. XII. p. 213 C: ti icm, 
TTjv Toi/s dep.e'Xiovs exovcrav noXtv; ovToi {quae apud nos sunt) yap ovk etal 
defieXioi. As this usage seems to have been overlooked by Lexico- 
graphers, I will add two examples from classical Greek. Stob. F/or. 
T. XCIII. I : ^vx^v e^fiv Sei nXovaiav ra 8e xPW^''''^ TAYT' {quae vulgo 
appellautur) icTiv o^j/'ts. Lucian. JVee. 4 • arexvas ovv enaaxov Toti vvcTTa- 
^ovai T0YT0I2 ofxoiov, apri fifu eTripevMV, apTi 8e dvavfiKov i'pnaXiv. This 
being understood, there is no occasion to take Krlais in any other sense 
than that in which Kri^fiv is commonly applied to a city (3 Esdr. iv. 53 : 
KTta-aL Tf]v Tvokiv) or to the tabernacle itself (Lev. xvi. 16: ovVo) iroiijaei r^ 
(TKrjvfj TTj €KTi(Tpei'i] aurotr)^. 

IX. 16, 17: A. V. 'For where a testament is, there must also of 
necessity be (Or, be brought in) the death of the testator; for a testa- 
ment is of force after men are dead (eVt veKpols) : otherwise it is of no 
strength at all while the testator liveth.' R. V. the same, with a few 
verbal alterations. We agree with Dean Alford, that 'it is quite vain to 
deny the testainentary sense of diadr^Kr] in this passage*.' If the question 
were put to any person of common intelligence, 'What document is that, 
which is of no force at all during the lifetime of the person who executed 

1 [Cf. Plut. Fi/. Aristid. xviii : ^ [Cf. also Synes. ^/. 103, p. 242B: 
dvTiXafx^avdpLevoi Tiov Soparicov Tois x^pc^^ ci^ P-^i' ^pyo.tV pV'opi.KriV Kal ffvyxoipuj 
yvfjLvais (sc. ovcrats). Diod. Sic. XI. 37: trot ^1117 TATTHN eiriT-qSeVeiv, dXXa ttjv 
Toiis de (yvfifj-axovs diairovTlovs (sc. ovras) opOrjv Kai yevvalav. Die. Chrys. Or. 
jXTj dvvaadai tcls ^orjdelas evKalpovs avTo7s XXXI. p. 356, 35 : ofiolws didore tovs 
TToiTjaaadaL. Id. XIII. 43: iijxa. fxh yap avSpiavras uia-irep ol ras Kopas TATTAS 
eTredv/jLovv TrapaXa^eLV Ty]v woXiv evKaipov wvoij/nevoi toTs vaLcriv. Orig. (Burgon, 
(sc. oCo-ai/). Charit. vi. 6: Kai tavrbv Revision Revised, p. 185) neque de hoc 
iXacppvvai rrjS 5i.aKoviai dv^xepovs (sc. quod oculis intuemur unguento, sed de 
oua7]s).] nardo spiritual!.] 

2 [Wetstein (ed. 1752) compares ^ [Compare John iii. 8, where TreeiJ/ia 
I Pet. ii. 17 (?iv. 17), Apoc. xiii. 6, Ps. is used in two senses (i) wind, (2) The 
cxv. 16, Rom. viii. 21. Ed.] Holy Spirit.] 



230 HEBREWS. X. 24 

it?' the answer can only be, 'A man's will or testament A covenant is 
out of the question ; partly, because there must be two parties to it, 
and also because the validity of a covenant, unless otherwise expressed, 
depends rather upon the life than the death of the parties ; so that, in 
this case, we should have expected the 17th verse to run thus: duidijKrj 
yap eVi ^(ocri (iefiaia, end ixrjnoTf Icrxvei ore TeOvrjKev 6 diadefievos. As to the 
word itself, it should be observed that BiadrjKTjv 8iedeTo is generally used in 
classical Greek of making a testament, not a covenant, which latter is 
rather awd^Krjv avvedero^. It is true that the LXX. for T\''~\2^ as between 
God and man, have invariably put diadrJKT], probably on account of the 
disparity of the parties to the covenant; but not without a protest from 
the other Greek translators, as we constantly find in the Hexapla, Ol 

XotTTOt' (TvvQrjK'qv. 

Such attempts as that of Prof. Scholefield : ' For where a covenant is, 
there must of necessity be brought in the death of the mediating sacrifice. 
For a covenant is valiJ over dead sacrifices ; since it is never of any force 
while the mediating sacrifice continues alive,' hardly deserve a serious 
refutation, especially as the Professor admits that 'he must be a man of 
strong nerve, who feels no difficulty in translating o 8iadefi.(vos in any sense 
but that of the party who makes the covenant' (or testament). 

In any case, there is a little difficulty about the precise meaning of 
(f>epea6ai. Wetstein explains : ' Necesse est afferri testimonia de morte 
testatoris.'^ Perhaps the idea may be that of being publicly known, 
carried from mouth to mouth ^; as in the case of a deceased author's 
works, of some it is said cfyepovrai (i.e. from hand to hand), of others 
ov (fitpourai, according as they are still extant, or have not come down to 
us. Compare the Latin Fertiir, ' It is reported.' 

X. 24 : €ls irapo|vo-|A6v aYainig] ' To provoke unto love.' There is no 
difficulty in the use <j{ ■nnpo^vvnv in bo>ia//i parlcin, for which the following 

^ A clear exception to this rule is dvOpwirui' Ka\oi''/j.€i'os. (Also irepKpi- 

Aristoph. Av. 432: rjv ixt) didOoovrai peaOai: I'lul. / 7/. .1///. LXX: t6 5i 

y' ol'oe 5ia0rjKrji' e/xol, \ rivwip 6 TrldrjKos Trepicjiepofxevov liaWifiaxfi^v icrrL.) Pint. 

Tj] yvvaiKi bUOero, \ firjT€ BaKveiv tovtovs ^i^- Brut. LIII: Kalroi (p^peral tis eVi- 

i/j.^ K.T.X. But this use may generally <jro\ri Upoirov irpbs tovs (plXovs.} Note 

be distinguished from the other by the also Plut. Fit. Aral, xxxix : Kal i<pi- 

mention of two parties. povro (were bandied about) \oL5oplai Kal 

^ [Plut. yit. Cat. Mill. XIX : Skr? ^\a(j<prjiJ.iaL...a.Wr)\ov% KaKws \eybvTuii 

Tivl fiapTvplas fJLias tpepoixivr)^, ' when (Cleomenes and Aratus). App. B. C. 

only one witness was produced.' Lang- 11. 143 : biadrtKat tov Kalo-apos LS^Orjcrav 

home.] <p€p6/jL€vai (qu. being brought to the 

3 [See Lidd. and Sc. (f)^pw, a. VIII. assembly?) kuI evdvs avras rb wXijeos 

Cf. Paus. \in. 4.',, 3: oo^r] oe i/xrj Kal iKeXevov dvayivuicKeaOai. 
rb ()vofj.a tov Kvpov (pipoiro &t>...TraTr)p 



X. 35 HEBREWS. 23 1 

examples have been adduced. Xenoph. Mem. in. 3, 13: (f)i\oTi,iJ.ia fjwep 
/j-aXtara Trapo^vvei irpos to. kuXci Kai evripa. Isocr. ad Demon. 48: paXicTTa 
8' av Trapo^vvdelrjs npexdrjvai t<ov KaXoiv epycov. I add Diod. Sic. XVI. 54- 
paXi(TTn S' avToiis napm^vvi TrpoaTrjvai rrjs EXXaSos Arjpoadevrjs o prjTcop. 
Since irapo^vvfiv is used by the Lxx. for 'to sharpen' (Deut. xxxii. 41, 
Prov. xxvii. 17), we might understand by Trapo^va-pos the 'sharpening' or 
'quickening' of love; but this does not apply so well to 'good works,' and 
the explanation usually given is the better one, namely, that ds napo^vb- 
pov (lyaTTT/s is equivalent to eU to napo^vveiv (dXXijXovs) npbs aydntjv, ' to 
incite, or proi'oke (used in a good sense here and 2 Cor. ix. 2) unto love.' 
The least probable rendering of all is that proposed by a distinguished 
living prelate, ' a paroxysm of love and good works,' the English reader 
knowing but one use of the word paroxysm, namely, the sudden and 
violent exacerbation of a disease. And that the Apostle does not con- 
template such love as exerts itself by fits and starts, but by a sustained 
and continued action, is evident from the means suggested to promote it, 
'Let us consider one another 1.' 

X. 27 : (t>op£pa, %i tls IkSoxti Kptcrcws] A. V. ' But a certain fearful 
looking for (R. V. expectation) of judgment.' Dean Alford denies the 
meaning of 'looking for' attributed to e'/cSo;^?;, and renders it by 'recep- 
tion' (i.e. meed, doom), against the Vulg. expectatio, and the Philox. 
Syriac j . '^ofiQ (elsewhere interchanged with ivpoahoKin). And so 
Hesychius: 'E/cSo;^?;'- TrpuaSoKia; and the use of eKSe'^fo-^at for dvapeveiv 
is undoubted, e.g. John v. 3, Acts xvii. 16, Heb. x. 13, xi. 10. [In the 
last instance the Dean explains that ' the preposition intensifies the 
expectation' ; but how can that be, seeing that 8fxopai is not 'to expect' 
at all?]- At all events the meaning of 'reception,' as equivalent to meed 
or doom, is equally unsupported by usage. 

X. 35 : |XT] dTropd\i]T€ ovv tt^v irappricriav v|xwv] A. V. ' Cast not away 
therefore your confidence ' (R. V. boldness). The rendering of the Vulgate 
is Nolite amittere, which is the more common meaning of the word, 'Lose 
not, let not go,' the opposite of which is Karaa-xdv rrjv n. (Ch. iii. 6). The 
following (from Wetstein) is strongly in favour of the change: Dio. Chrys. 
Or, XXXIV. p. 425 : BeSoiKU pfj re'Xecos dno^dXrjTe ttjv napprja-iav. I add 

1 The prelate alluded to, on the in Heb. x. 24, veiled from the English 

occasion of his consecrating four reader by the paraphrase " provoking 

churches at once, had let fall the one another"?' 

expression, 'a paroxysm of building - [But see L. and S. s. v. 11. 4. A 

churches,' which was mildly censured better example is Plut. F;?. ^r///. xviii : 

by the 'Times,' as 'somewhat irre- Si^rpeaav Kai to piWov ibexovTo Kocrpi^ 

verent.' Whereupon the Archbishop /cai crtwTrf;. But Schaf. «(T? /cc. proposes 

replies: 'If so, what becomes of the aveMxovTo.'\ 
"paroxysm of love and good works" 



232 HEBREWS. XI. XI 

Diod. Sic. XV^I. 64: a'l 7r6Xfis...v<TT€pnv vwo ' AvTinaTpov KaranoK^fxr^OeliTai, 
TTiv rjyfpoviav afxa Koi ttjv eKfvdfpiav aTre^aXov. Dion. Hal. An/. VIII. 86 : 
vvv de Tov TrXtiovos opeyofifvoi, Koi ttjv e'/c ttJs nporepas vIktjs 86^av aire^dXov^. 

XI. II : iricTTti Kal aurr] Sdppa 8uva|iiv els KaxaPoX-qv cnrepixaxos ^XaPtv] 
A. V. 'Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed.' 
There appear to be several difficulties in these words, (i) Ums niarei >J 
yfXaaaaa; This objection is noticed by St Chrysostom, who gets over it 
by saying that her laughing was through unbelief, but her afterwards 
denying it was 'by faith.' (2) The faith of Abraham in believing that a 
son should be born to him napa Kaipov i]XiKtai is here entirely passed over, 
though in Rom. iv. 18 it is particularly dwelt upon, and Sarah is men- 
tioned only for the purpose of setting it off. (3) The KarQ/3oX^ a-nepparos 
belonged to the malt'. Thus Galen Dc Semine l. (quoted by Wetstein) : 
TO TOV appevos aneppa to KarajSaXXopfvov els ra? prJTpas tov SrjXecos ; and 
Lucian. Amor. 19 (quoted by L. Bos) : toIs ph yap appeaiv IBias Kara/SoXay 
a-TTfpparcov ;^apjo-a/x€Vj; (»; tcov oXcov (f)vais), to 6f]Xv S" acrnep yovfji ti doxelov 
ava(f)j]vaaa. Hence the Greek commentators are forced to explain Acara- 
j3oXfj as if it were vrrodoxri, as St Chrysostom, ds to KaTaax^'iv to airtppa, 
fls TTJV VTToboxr^v bvvapiv eXa^fV, and Oecumenius, fvebvvapu>drj els to vtto- 
bi^acrdai Tvaiboiroiov cnvippa ^. 

If we suppose koi avTtj "Zappa to be an interpolation from the margin, 
the nth and 12th verses will be continued to Abraham without inter- 
ruption, and leave nothing to be desired. For though it follows in the 
T. R. Ka\ napa Kaipov r)XiKias eTeKe, A. V. 'and was delivered of a child 
when she was past age,' eVeAce is an acknowledged insertion, being wanting 
in A (B hiat) Di and N^. 

XI. 29: Tjs TTilpav XaPovTfs 01 Al-yuTTTioi] A. V. 'Which the Egyptians 
assaymg to do.' 36: epnaiypcov Ka\ pucrTiycov nflpav e'Xa/3oj/. A. V. 'Had 
trial of crue/ mockings and scourgings.' R. V. the same, omitting cnw/. 
In both places we should prefer, 'had experience of In v. 29 the 
antecedent of ^s is the Red sea ; and the words nelpav eXa^ov ttjs 
6aXd(r(Tt]s are intended to state the fact, not merely that they assayed 
to pass it, but that they /ukI woeful and disastrous experience of it. 
So in 7/. 36, the only distinction between the two cases being that in 
the first the experience was voluntary, in the second compulsory. The 
full force of the Greek phrase is best seen by examples, of which the 
following (partly from Wetstein) may suffice. Diod. Sic. xil. 24 : Iva prj 

1 [Cf. Dio. Chrys. Or. xxxi. p. /3a\e t6 f/^os.] 
345, I : TTJV iXevdeplav aTrofiaXeiv. Plut. " [Cf. II. Steph. : 'vim ad jaciendum 

F?V. Tim. XXXVII : dirofiaXe'iv Tr)v o^iv sive cmitleiKlum semen accepit, nam 

vvo yqpui diropapavOelaav. Id. Aeniil. KarajBoX-qv intorpretari conceptioncnt vio- 

XXI : ivOa 5t) Kal ]\Id/)^•oJ 6 Kdrcovos lenlum esse videtur.'] 
ui6s...7ra(rai' 6.\Kr\v eiridfiKi^vpevos dire- 



XII. 23 HEBREWS. 233 

TTJs v^pecos ^n^j] Trelpav, tt]v dvyarepa aneKTeivei'. XIII. 52: napov p.rjS' oXcos 
arvxLas Xa^flv Tveipav. XV. 88 : (r) Trarpjy avrov) aphpairobicrpov Kcd Kara- 
(rKa(f)7is eXa/3e Trelpav. Charit. Aphrod. VIII. 4 : prj Xd^r] 8e ivflpav pr^rpvias. 
Plut. FzV. Po7np. LXXIII : rjrrrji 8e Koi (f)vy^s Tore Trpairov tv yrjpa Xap^dvovra 
Tvelpav. Pausan. Cori/lih. 23^ 3 • L^rjpoaBivei 8e (fivyf]s re crvviirea-fv eV yr}pa 
Xa^flv neipav. Ach. Tat. VI. 20 : dXX' eVeiS)) prj OeXeis epacTTOii pov nflpav 
An/iJfii/, Treipaar] Seo-Trdrov. Aesop. J^ad. CXXXII, ed. de Fur.: o pvdos drjXoi, 
oTi paXiara tovs rrpcorovs SecrTToras Tore TToOovcriv oi olKerai, oTav neipav 
Xd(BoicrLv erepcov^. In the following the same idea is expressed by a 
single word, nfipadfjuai. Dio Chrys. Or. III. p. 158, 25 : 7roXXd/cij 
de Km Xipov Koi St\//-ouy -nfipadrjVM. Diod. Sic. T. X. p. II 3, ed. Bip. : 
fTreipddrjcrav Ta>v peyicrTcov drvxripaTcou. Charit. Aphrod. VII. 5 : o povov 
eXiTre pov rais (rvp(popais, rjdr] Kal TToXe'/xou neTTelpapai. This leads us to 
ofifer a speculation on the very difficult word eTreipda-drjaav, ' they were 
tempted,' placed between two kinds of capital punishment, (npia-drjaav 
and fv cpovco paxaipas dnedavov. Dean Alford says: ' // afiy conjecture 
is to be made, I would say that either the omission, or fTrp^a-drja-av (they 
were burned) would appear to be the most probable.' But no good 
writer would have brought two words hardly distinguishable in sound, 
(Trpiadrjaav, fTrp^a-drjaav, into juxta-position, and the biblical use of 
fTrprjadrjcrav (Num. v. 27-) is something quite different. It is entirely 
omitted by the Peschito, and inserted before fiTpiddrjcrav by LX, 17. 
Supposing it to be a gloss which has crept in from the margin, it can 
hardly, in its present form, be assigned to any particular word ; but if 
we conceive it to have been originally written fneipadrjaav, it may then 
have been intended to explain mlpav '4Xafiov in the same verse ^. 

XII. 23: irv€v(j.a<ri 8iKai<ov T€T€X€iio|x«Va»v] A. V. (Ye are come) 'to the 
spirits of just men made perfect.' To avoid ambiguity, a slight change 
is necessary; namely, 'to the spirits of just men who have been made 
perfect.' It is the just men, not their spirits, that are made perfect, and 
that not in the future state, but here on earth, where alone they can be 
subject to those trials and conflicts, by the patient endurance of which 
they are prepared for a higher state of being. 

That the common translation is often misunderstood will be seen by 
a few examples. Thus Archbishop Sumner in his Exposition on Ephe- 
sians, p. 17, {On the Epistles, 1845, p. 244), says: 'To know them fully... 

1 [Cf. Plut. Vit. Ant. XVIIJ: rhv xil : oi plv oiV "O^wfos dvdpes riaav 

ffTparbv ^X'^j' aTreTretparo toO Trorapov. evpwcTTOi Kal dyadol, TToXepov 5e Kal 

Kal TrpwTos auTos €pj3as iiropevero Trpos pdxv^ '''OTe irpwrov iretpav Xap^dvovTe^."] 
Trjv duTLTrepas oxdr)"- The phrase is " [Cf. also Acts xxviii. 6.] 

used in bonani partem in Dem. 663, 19: ^ [Boiss. ad Aristaen. p. 361 seems 

/cat Xa^ihv ?py^ ttjs eKeivov (piXias irelpav. to say that TreLpadijvac and ireLpaadrivai. 

Ael. V. H. XII. 22: e^ovXero Xa^e^v are both in use, Ep. II. 18: vvv irpwroi/ 

avTov tVxt^os TTf^pav. Plut. Vit. Otiio lpijiTo% ■Kupa.aOelaa.^ 



234 HEBREWS. XII. 25 

will be the high privilege of "the spirits made perfect."' Ibid. p. 11 : 
' The inheritance of the purchased possession, when " the spirits of 
just men" will be "made perfect," no longer clouded by the pains 
and anxieties which attend a fallen state.' And Sir Theodore Martin, 
in the concluding sentence of his Life of the Prince Consort, says of 
the heavenly state, ' where there is rest for the weary, and where " the 
spirits of the just are made perfect.'" 

*XII. 25 : [XT] TrapaiTiio-i^o-Se tov XaXoOvra] Q \] l\ 9' Both Versions : 
'refuse not.' Is it not rather (with tivo) 'to beg to be excused'? Cf. 
Plut. Vtt. Tun XXXVII : ds hi eTravffkdev eis "EvpaKovcras, fv6vs anoBicrOai 
TTjv (lovapx'iav Ka\ TvapniTf'icrdai rovs TToAiVas — on account of his blindness 
' excused himself to the people ' from any further service. 

*XII. 28: ^x'^K'*'' X'^P''^] ^- V- 'Let us have grace.' For 'grace' 
Dean Alford and others would translate ' thankfulness.' But x"P"^ ^X"" 
is not 'to have thankfulness,' but 'to thank,' and then only when it is 
followed by a dative. Schleusner s. v. x^P'S' num. 7, gives "■ gratiarnm 
actio, (vxapuTTia ; but of his eleven examples from N. T. in three ^"P'f 
is 'grace'; five are of x^?'-'^ ^? ^^^■: 'God be thanked'; and in the others 
there is a dative expressed. In the following from Xenoph. Anab.w. i, 
26, the dative, though not expres.sed, is easily supplied : 'E-yo), w civSpes, 
r]8op,ai fiev vrro vp.coi' Tifj.wp,fvos...Kal X^'p'" ^'x^y '^'*' f^X^M"' hovvai fj.01 rovs 
6(ovs diTu'iv Tcvos vjxiv aycidov yevecrdai. 

*XIII. 2: TTJs (j>iXo^€vCas H-T eTTiXavOdveo-Oe] A. V. ' Be not forgetful to 
entertain strangers.' R. V. ' Forget not to show love unto strangers : for 
thereby &c.,' which ruins the connexion between the two clauses, Rom. 
xii. 13: TTjv (piko^eviau SiaxoPTts. A. V. 'given to hospitality.' Not altered 
by R. V. but the margin has ' Gr. pursuing.' ^i\6^ei>os i Tim. iii. 2, 
A. V. 'given to hospitality,' and so R. V. Tit. i. 8, A. V. 'a lover of 
hospitality.' R. V. 'given to hospitality.' i Pet. iv. g both A. \^ and 
R. V. 'using hospitality.' 

With this command we may compare Plato Lcgif. p. 953 A; xpn Knra- 
Xvdfis npos lepoU dvai (^iKo^ivlms avOpcinrav Trapea-KfuacTpfvai. Synes. J£p. 
57> P- 192 C : Koi TOV 'A^paap ?} cjjiXo^tvia 6(ov TrenolrjKfv ia-Tiaropa. 



JAMES. 

*Chap. I. 4: €v |xii8€vi X.€iir6|A€voi,] A. V. 'wanting nothing.' R. V. 
'lacking in nothing.' AeiVeo-^ai eV nvi Trpny/xart is a doubtful construc- 
tion, except when Xe'iTrecrBai is used in the sense of inferiority, with 
or without a genitive of the person compared. Thus Diod. Sic. XX. 23 : 
\fi(f)6€UT(s (beaten) eV rrj ixaxj]. Polyb. (quoted by Raphel) p. 1202, 15 
(Ed. Amstelodami, 1670): fV rfi irphs 'Pconalovs evvola napa ttoXv raSeX^oiD 
Xenroiifvos (inferior to his brother). Plut. Vii. Afar. V: «? ovp 6 Mapios 
(fiavepbs ^v XfiTroptvos fv eKeivrj (the curule aedileship) raxv fifTaaras avOis 
rjrei rffv eripav (the plebeian). St Paul has the same construction with 
vcrrepeladai I Cor. i. 7 '• axTre vpai pr/ vcTepe'Ladai ev prjhevi )(^apl.(rpaTi. 

Another construction oiXelnfadai, with a genitive of the thing wanting, 
which occurs James i. 5, ii. 15, is only found in very late writers (as 
Libanius quoted by Wetstein). The regular construction is XeinfcrdaL 
Tivns (personae) nvi (rei) ; as Aelian. V. H. I. 23 : r^ Se aotpia too-ovtov 
fXeiTTovro {avTwv) oaov dvbpwv naiSfs. 

*l. 14: viro Ti]s iSias tiriOuixCas €|€Xk6|X€vos Kal SeXea^ofievos] Dean 
Alford, amongst other parallels, quotes (from Huther) as 'the nearest 
correspondence of all,' Plut. de Sera Num. Vind. : to yXvKv rrjs iTndvpius 
acrnep beXeap e^eXKnv [dvdpcoTrovs]. But when we turn to the place (Plut. 
T. II. p. 554) we find, instead of the words given above, the following : to 
yXvKV Trjs nSiKias, aanep biXfap, evdvs e'^eSf^SoKf (!). I have since found the 
same glaring mis-quotation (with e^eXKeiv) in Schneckenburger Anno/, ad 
i^/./rt^. (1832) p. 25. 

*I. 22: xapaXo-yitoiievoi] A. V. 'deceiving your own selves.' R. V. 
' deluding.' Col. ii. 4, A. V. ' Lest any man should beguile (R. V. delude) 
you.' But 'beguile' is used by A. V. of the wily act of the Gibeonites 
in Jos. ix. 22, where the LXX. have Sta ri TiapiXoy'ia-aa-di p.e ,- ' why have ye 
beguiled me ?' 

I. 25 : 6 8^ irapaK-uxl/as €is v6\i.ov rtXctov] I Pet. i. 12 : els a enidvpovcriv 
ayyfXoi TrapaKv^ai. On the proper meaning of jrapaKir^ai see on Luke 



236 JAMES. II. 3 

xxiv. 12. When used figuratively, as here, the same idea of 'looking in' 
or 'into' holds good, but without the intensive force which is usually 
claimed for it, of 'looking closely into' (Alford), diligeiiter considerare 
(Schleusner), iiitcntis ociilis acerrinie conteniplari (Eisner). On the 
contrary, 'to peep' or 'look sideways,' which is its original meaning, 
is rather to cast a careless or hurried glance on anything, than to 
submit it to close examination ; as may be shown from the very passage 
which Eisner appeals to in favour of the latter view, namely, Lucian. 
PlSC. 30. KaTTfidfj fiovov TvapeKv'^a e's to. vfiirtpa, <T€ fj-ev (co <I>tXoo-o(/)i«). .. 
iOaviia^ov K.r.f. I add S. Chrysost. T. X. p. 54 D: avrr] yap (rj e^odtv 
(Tofjiia) ovK d(Pfidr] eubov flcreXOfli', Koi TrapaKv\j/^ai eli tci SeanoTiKa fivarTrjpia^. 

II. 3 : KaXws] 'in a good place.' The classical phrase is ev koXm, as 
Alciphr. /ij?. III. 20: ayei fxe rts Xa^av ds to dearpov, Kadiaas ev KaXm. 
Philostr. //t'r. p. 10: j^eXriov 8e /cut ev Koka tov x^^P^ov l^ijn-ai. Aelian. V. 
H. II. 13: KCLi yap roi (cat irapjjv (Socrates) ovk aXXcoj ov8e eV rv)^r)s, el8a)S Se 
OTi Kcopaboiicnv avTov Ka\ 6r) Ka\ ev KaXa tov deaTpov eKciBrjTO'. 

II. 6: iiTi|ido-aT£ TOV tttwxov] A. V. 'ye have despised the poor.' 
R. V. ' ye have dishonoured the poor man.' The former rendering has 
good authority in its favour; e.g. Schol. ad Philostr. Her. p. 420: art/iaf<u- 
TO 7Tapa[i\eT7(o, to aTipov -qyovpai. Fragm. Lex. Gr. ap. Hermann. De 
Emend. Gr. Gr. p. 340 : aTipa^a • to nepKfypovu) napa Aif3avico ■ prj aTipa^e tov 
yapov. Compare Lucian. Nee. 20 : ^H<M2MA. 'Erreidrj iroXXa Ka\ irapdvopa 

01 nXova-ioi 8p(oai...apTid^ovTei Ka\ ^la^opevoi Ka\ navTa Tponov Ta>v TTevr^TOiv 
KaTa(ppovovvTes. 

II. 15: TTJs €(J)Ti|i€pov Tpo(j)TJs] ' of daily food.' More correctly, 'of the 
day's supply of food,' as distinguished from r^y kuO' ijpepav Tpo(f)ijs. 
J. Pollux defines ecjjtjpepov to be to els rfjv e'Tnovcrav pr] pevov. WetStein 
quotes Aristid. T. 1 1, p. 398 : av S' avros Trpoa-airuiv, /cat Trjs e(f)r]pepov 
Tpo<pr^s cnropwv^ /cat ^Xeiroiv els ^ /cat y o[3oXovs. Dion. Hal. A/i/. VIII. 
41 : dnrj^Ldev eK ttjs oIklus p6vos...adovXos, linopos, ov8e ttjv e(f>i]pepov 6 
dv(TTt]vos eK Twv eavTov xprjpc'iTcov Tpo(f}r]v {jie itnius qutdeiii diet vialiettiii) 
enayopevos. I add Aelian. V. H. III. 29 (probably from some Tragic 
writer, though Perizonius does not print it as verse) 7rXai/r;f, aot/coy, 
Trarpt'Soy e'crTeprjpevos, \ nTU))((>s, dvaeipcov, ^lov e^oov [rof] ((pr/pepov. Menand. 
ap. Stob. Flor. T. LIII. 2: arpuTela d' ov (pepei nepiova-iav | oi'Se/ii", e(f)i]- 
fifpov de /cat irpoireTr) filnv. S. Chrysost. T. IX. p. 677 B : dXX 6 pev 

^ [Cf. Liban. l. 511 : dW wcrnep - [Cf. 3id. XITI. 22 : TlroXefj-oioi 6 

irapaKvtpaffav ttjv dyaOriv tvxv" i^^i/^ ^iXoirdTwp KaTajKtvdffas 'OprjpLp veibv, 

otxeffda,!. (pevyovaav. Lucian. Hi'rmot. avrbv ixkv KaXbv /caXuis eKaOiae, KVK\(f) 

2 : irhOev, w AvKlve, 6s vvv cipxopai trapa- 5^ ras 7r6\ets TrepUarTjae tov dydXpaTos, 
KVirTeiv is rrjv bohv )\ 3aai avrnroiovvTai tov Oprjpov.] 



III. 7 JAMES. 237 

SecTTioTT/? (Tov Koi TjXiov rtvTW avuTeWei, (TV 8e koi Tqi fCfitjiMepov Tpo(f)rjs dvd^iov 

aVTOV Kplvdi ^. 

III. 3: I80V Tclv tirirtov k.t.I.] 'Behold, we put bits' &c. For (Sov 
(which is unsupported) the MSS. are divided between 'I8e and ft Se (or 
rather eiAG), the latter being contained in ABKL and N (with GIAG- 
rAP). Of the versions, the Vulg. has si antem, the old Syriac ecce enitn, 
and the Philoxenian ecce. Modern critics adopt the reading of the princi- 
pal uncials, and make the apodosis begin from Ka\ okov, thus : ' But if we 
put bridles into the horses' mouths, that they may obey us, we turn about 
their whole body also.' This is objectionable for several reasons, especially 
the insertion of the clause, ds r6 ireideadai i^fiiu avrovs, in presence of which 
we should rather have expected such an apodosis as this: 'in the same 
manner, when our object is that our own bodies should obey us, let us 
begin by restraining that member which corresponds to the horses' 
mouths, namely, the tongue.' 

It should be borne in mind that IA6 and 6 1 AG are rather different 
spellings than different readings. To take only the Sinaitic MS. : in Luke 
xxiii. 15 we have tihov for lhov\ in Luke xxiv. 39 and i Joh. iii. i, eiSerf 
for I'SfTf ; while in Rom. ii. 17, instead of the old reading i'Se uv 'louSaioy 
fiTovoij,a(r] most of the uncials have 6 1 AG, which has been (as in this 
place) assumed to be et 8e', and so introduced into the text, involving 
it in the same difficulty with regard to an apodosis, as we have seen in 
St James. 

In this very Epistle (v. 1 1), ddere (T. R.) is supported by B^KX against 
'idere, which is found in AB^L. In this case, however, e'ldere, being coupled 
with ijKova-aTe, is undoubtedly the true reading. 

*III. 6: 4>XoYC5ov(ra tov Tpo^ov (A. V. 'the course') ttJs -ycveo-ews] 
Without attempting to deal with the various explanations which have 
been given of this obscure phrase, we think that the word 'wheel' should 
be retained, and that Beza's idea is correct: 'Jacobus mihi videtur allu- 
dere ad rapiditatem circumactae rotae, suo motu flammam concipientis.' 
Strongly in favour of this idea is a passage quoted by Wetstein from 
Achmet. Onir. 160: et hi. 'idrj on yjXawfP iv tw di(f)pa), koi ol rpoxol e'0Xoyt- 
adrjcrav e'/c ttjs eXaaeais, evpr)<Tei voaov. 

III. 7: 8a[idS€Tai] 'is tamed.' This meaning more properly belongs 
to ijfifpovTai or Ttdaa-fveTai ; and perhaps the proposition itself, so stated, 
over-rates the 'taming' power of man. If we substitute 'subdued' for 
' tamed,' both objections will be obviated. So the word is rendered Dan. 



^ [Cf. Ael. l^. H. XIV. 6: TrpoaeraTTe ire^Civ . . .oir\o(popoviJ.ivov's ^aaiXeis ck twv 
5e i<p-qixf;pov r-qv yvihu-qv ^x^iv. Plut. iroKefjLlwv xet-pQv ((p^fxepa crtTia /cat TTora 
Fii. Aemil. XXVII : toi)j ctprt /jLvpidcn XapL^dvovras.] 



238 JAMKS. IV. 9 

ii. 40 : 6 ai8ripos Sa/id^fi Travra, ' iron subdues all things.' For the senti- 
ment we may compare a beautiful fragment of the Aeolus of Euripides, 
preserved by Plutarch, T. II. p. 959 C : 

'H ^pa)(v Toi adivos dvepoi- 

dWa TToiKiXia irpaTTibcav 

Safjio. (pvXa TTovTov, 

)(6ovio)v t' depicou re Traidfvfiara. 

IV. 9: els KaTii<j)€Lav] 'to heaviness.' But 'heaviness' {Xvttt) Rom. 
ix. 2, 2 Cor. ii. i), we know, is 'in the heart of a man'; and it is the 
outward expression of it in the countenance, 'gloominess,' which is 
indicated by this word, as will appear from the following examples. 
Plut. F//. Pelop. XXXIII: aiyrjv Se koi KaT^(p(iav fiuai rov crTparoTredov 
iravTos (on the death of Pelopidas). Uion. Hal. Anf. x. 59: eis noXXrjv 
^\6e Sva-dvfXLctv koi KaT^(f)eiav (despondency and dejection). Charit. 
Aphrod. VI. 8: 7rp6s Se 7171' (f)i]p.T]v KarT](f)eia traaav f<Txf BajSvXava (these 
tidings cast a gloom over the whole city'). 

IV. II : \Lr\ KaTaXa\€iT€ dXXTJXwv] A. V. 'Speak not evil one of 
another.' R. V. ' Speak not one against another.' On behalf of the 
former it may be urged, that to 'speak against another' may be said 
of open accusations; whereas KaToXaXe'iv is defined to be to fls dnovra 
VTTo Tivcov ^\acr(pr]fielv, and KardXaXoi are 01 Sia/3oXatf Kara Ta>v aTrovTcov 
aSfcoff Ke;^p7;/ieVot. Hence KaraXaXiai is rightly rendered 'evil-speakings,' 
I Pet. ii. I ; ' backbitings,' 2 Cor. xii. 20; and xaraXaXoi ' backbiters,' Rom. 
i. 30. 

1 [Cf. Dio Chrys. Or. XI. p. 174, Troy) Karrjcpeiav. Synes. £/>. 79, ]). 
2S: T-qv Tf viiKTa eKebriv TTJv x'^XeTrriv, Kal 227 c: diraXXa^ov KOLTrjcftdas llroXe- 
T17C ev ri2 <jTpaToiri5u3 (of the Greeks at /u,ai5a.] 



I. PETER. 

Chap. II. 5 : olKo8o|i€icr0€] A. V. 'are built up. Or, be ye built up.^ Dean 
Alford decides for the imperative, ''against the Peschito Syriac (Ethe- 
ridge : 'you also as living stones are builded') but with the same version 

(as commonly quoted).' The Syriac is ] i »..ni |l^ucn 00(710 ,QJ_oZ(, 
aedificai)iini, et estate tenipla spiritiialia. Etheridge's translation would 
require ^oZu-ioZ"!. 

IV. 12: jAi] ^€vC5€cr0€ TTJ €v v|iii' irvpw<r€i irpos ireipaernov v(iiv •Yivofitvi]] 

A. V. 'Think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you.' 
R. v.... 'concerning the fiery trial among you, which cometh upon you to 
prove you.' A better order would seem to be: t^ Trvpcoo-ei (r^) yivofievj] 
iv vfilv irpos Treipaatiov vp.iv {iip,cov). ' Be not surprised at the fiery trial 
which is taking place among you for to prove you.' On ?/. 8 ^ dydnr] 
KokinrTfi K.T.e. I compare Prov. x. I2: 'A. 0., Kai eVl Traa-as adeaias (caXv'\|/et 
dyaTTJ?. Stob. Ftor. T. XXXVII. 27: 2QKPAT0Y2. 'H /xeV iaGrjs rr]v appv6- 
p'lav, rj Se evvoia ttjv apapriav TreptoreXXet (Hesych. Ilepio-reXXei ' KoXvTrret)^. 

^ [Cf. Dio. Chrys. Or. LXVI. p. 604, 10: oipotpayQv p.iv yj itivwv ij epQv tlvos 
atcrxwcat kolI TrepuXTiWu ttjv aKpaffiav.} 



II. PETER. 

Chap. I. 1 : Tois io-otijaov ^[i-lv Xax^ouo-i ttCo-tiv] A. V. 'To them that 
have obtained hke precious faith with us.' R. V. agrees, with 'a hke' for 
Mike,' and in marg. ' Gr. an equally precioits.^ Alford : 'of equal value.' 
All these renderings suppose that tVorj/ios- is a derivative of Ti\i,r) in the 
sense of prctmm^ like TroXvrt/xor, whereas both \(t6ti[io% and ofioTifioi 
invariably borrow their meaning from rt/xj;', honor. In lo-ori/ios the 
emphatic idea is equality, 'la-orifila is properly acqualitas honoris., but 
comes to be used for equality in gtnQY-dl, par eonditio et jus"^. Wetstein 
quotes from Joseph. /Jjit. Xll. 3, i : iv ovttj tj/ firjTponoXei 'Avnoxfia 
TToKiTfias avToi/s (Judaeos) Tj^iuxre, kui roii evoiKicrdelaiv laoTiixovs OTreSft^e 
MaKf8('>(Ti Kal EWrjeTi. On I Cor. vii. 4: 6 dvrjfj tov l8iov criofxciTDs ovk 
(^ov(ria((i, St Chrysostom's reflexion is : ttoWt) r) laoTifila, kch ovdenia 
7r\fopf ^ia; and on Luke ii. 26: koi rjv atVw Kcx^prjiiaTifrfiivov vno tov 
irvfufxaros, he remarks: upa^ tov nv(Vfj.aTos to IcroTipiov; (oantp yap 6 deos 
Xpa, ovTco Kui TO TTvevfia to ayiov. This being the only recognized meaning 
of the word, we must render, 'to those who have obtained an equal faith 
with us,' understanding by 'equal,' equally privileged., a faith which puts 
them on an equality with us, whether us., the Apostles, or, if addressed to 
Gentiles, us Jews. In the latter case, there seems to be an allusion to 
St Peter's action in the admission of the Gentiles to the privileges of the 
Gospel. See Acts xi. 17, xv. 9. 

I. 12: 816 OVK d|j.€Xijo-(o {ip.ds dtl tPTroM.ip.VTJ<rK€tv irepl tovtwv] The reading 
of the uncials ABCX is hio fieWi^aa), which R. V. renders ' I shall be 
ready,' and Alford 'I will be sure'; but no example of any such use of 
fieXXriaoi is forthcoming. The Vulg. ificipiam is open to the same 
objection. I think it not improbable that St Peter wrote 810 /xeXr/trw, 
' I will take care,' a rare, but not unexampled construction for 810 iitXijafi 
fioi. The reading neWija-a would then be a very common clerical error, 
and that of KL, ovk d/^ieXrio-co, a correction either for the unusual personal 
form /xeXr/o-o), or for the unintelligible p.f\\7]aci>, ' I will delay.' There is 
the same confusion about this word in the Greek Lexicographers. Thus 
Suidas has, correctly: MeXijaco- (tttouSoo-w, (fipovria-co ; but Hesychius: 
MeXX/JfTW <Tnov8d<T<i> rj inrfp6a>fiai, and Photius : MeXXTjcrw • (rnovBaaa), 

(f)pOPTi(TCi). 

^ [Cf. lAician. Hermot. ■24: avTlKO. (xa.\a iroKiTTjv ovra toOtov, oans &i> fi, Kal 
icr6Ti.fji,oy airaatv.] 



II. 8 II. PETER. 241 

I. 19: Kal ^x.ofJ.€v pePaiorepov tov 'irpo4>T|TiK6v \6yov] A. V. 'We have 
also a more sure word of prophecy.' R. V. 'And we have the word of 
prophecy 7nade more sure.' Wetstein's explanation (from the Greek 
expositors) seems to agree with this : ' Sermo propheticus nunc firmior 
est, postquam eventu comprobatus fuit, quam ante eventum.' But as 
the phrase itself has not yet been illustrated from Greek authors, the 
following examples may be compared. Charit. Aphrod. ill. 9: /cayw 
/3e/3aioTfpoi/ f'axov to Oappfiv. Chaeremon ap. Stob. Flor. T. LXXix. 31 : 
^(^aioTtpav €)(€ Tijp (pikiau npos tovs ynvel.s. Isocr. ad Demon, p. 10 A: 
wore (Toi av/Ji^rjafTai rrapa re rS TrXrjdfi fiaWou evdoKifitlv, kol Tr)v nap' 
fKeivcov (rav jSnaiXecov) evvoiav ^f^aiorepav f'xeiv. These instances are 
in favour of construing j3e(3at6Tfpou in the text as an adjective; but if 
we should prefer to take it as an adverb, we may do so without any 
perceptible alteration in the sense. At least the distinction taken by 
Dean Alford between the adjective, 'we possess a thing more secure,' 
and the adverb, 'we hold it faster,' is not borne out by the following 
examples of the latter construction. Demosth. p. 99. 29 : olSe yap oKpi^ios 

OTi ov8 ap Tvavruiv tcov aWcov yevrjrai Kvpios, ovbev ear avra> j3e^aia>s e'X'*''' 
ecus au vp-fls drfp-oKpuTfjo-de. Stob. Flor. T. CV. 55 • *' ^^ '"'^ vTrdXrjcpe (3(l3ai(os 
e;^eti' tov itXovtov. Dion. Hal. An/. XI. 40! w*' i^/^'i' ov8ev (^ecrri (ie^aiuts 
fX^'-^i ^'^^ "'' ^''^0 '''^^ 8fKa Tvpavvrjade. 

II. 4: o-Eipals S64>ov] 'into chains of darkness.' For o-etpair (Vulg. 

rudentibns, Pesch. "J AV » . » ^ Philox. . m m y > m ( = n-fipf<: i.e. aeipais)) 
the uncials ABCX read a-eipoli, from aetpos, a-ipdi, or aippos, ' a pit,' or 
'excavation,' properly for the storage of grain, as Demosth. p. 100, 28: 
dXXa ravTa fiev fa<T(iv vfiai tx^iv, vnep Se rcof jifXivav kol rav uXvpcoi/ twv 
iv To7s QpqKiois (Tipoii e'v ra ^apadpa ;^ei/iafeii' ; where the Scholiast : rovs 
drjaavpovs Kal to. opvyfiaTa, iv ols KareTidevTo ra aTrepp.aTa, cripovs eKoXovv 01 
OpuKes Kal oi Aleves. Philo de Tel. Consir. p. 86 : ras 8e Kpi6as Set koI 
TOVS TTvpnvs cos /SeXTttrra KaddpavTos, Kal aeipovs (os jSadvTaTovs VTraidpiovs 
opv^avTas k.t.L And J. Pollux joins KaTayeioi otKJjo-ety, Kal a-fipoi, Kal 
(f>p(aTa, Kal Xukkol. Dean Alford wrongly translates ' dens,' and says : 
' The word is used for a wolfs deti by Longus, I. 11': but he can never 
have read the passage, in which the method of trapping a she-wolf is 
thus described; (Tvv(\66vTfs ovv ol Kajx^Toi vvKTcup, aippovs opvTTova-i to 
evpos opyvias, to ^a6os, Te<T<Tap(iiv,..^v\a be ^rjpa p.aKpa TeivavTes vnep tov 
\acrfj.aTos, to nepiTTOv tov x^t^^'^'^s Karenacrav K.T.e. 

II. 8: pXefijiaTi Kal aKofi] 'in seeing and hearing.' This seems to be 
the only admissible interpretation, though quite at variance with the use 
of ^Xepifia in good writers. Thus Demosthenes joins rw ax^iiaTi, tw 
j3Xe/i)u.art, Trj (pcovfj, and for epithets we find ^Xep.fj,a KaTea-TaXfieuov, fieiXtxtov, 
bpifiv, ijnepov, (^atSpov. St Peter should have written either opda-ei Kal 
(2X0,7, '^^ ^Xinatv Kal aKOvcuv. 

K. 16 



242 II. PETER. II. 9 

II. 9 ■ cISCko-us 8i els i^ji^pav KpCo-ews KoXa^ofi^vovs rripetv] A. V. 'And to 
reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished.' R. V. 'And 
to keep the unrighteous under punishment unto the day of judgment.' 
And so Dean Alford explains: 'Actually in a penal state, and awaiting 
their final punishment.' But if they are ' reserved unto the day of judg- 
ment,' it seems paradoxical to say that they are punished in the meantime ; 
and V. 4, which is usually appealed to in defence of this paradox, only 
speaks of their detention in prison till the time of trial, an arrangement 
which is in accordance with the administration of justice amongst our- 
selves. The solution of the difficulty seems to be the same which Dean 
Alford himself has recourse to in another place (Ch. iii. ii : Tovraiv Travrav 
Xvofitvav, 'seeing that all these things are to be dissolved'), namely, that 
the present participle implies destiny. So, at least, the Vulg. understood 
its force in both texts — ' iniquos vero in diem judicii reservare crucian- 
dos^ — 'cum igitur haec omnia dissolvenda sint.' I compare Diod. Sic. 
XII. 17, where Charondas is said to have made a law that any person 
proposing to amend an existing law, should come forward with a halter 
round his neck, and so continue axpis av otov ttjv Kpiaiv 6 Sfjfios nep\ roii 
8i.op6ovfiivov vofxov (the law to be amended) noirjcrrjrai. 

*III. 5: Kal -ytj tl xiSttTOS Kttl 81' tiSaros o-wveo-TwcraJ A. V. 'And 
the earth standing (Gr. consisting) out of the water and in the water.' 
R. V. 'And an earth compacted out of water and amidst (Or, througJi) 
water.' Neither of these is satisfactory. ^vv^drOxTa is 'consisting,' as 
in Col. i. 17: 'by him all things consist {a-wecTTrjKf),' not 'compacted' 
{(TVfi^i^a^onevov, Eph. iv. 16). Compare Diog. Laert. ill. 1,73: crvvearavai 
8e Tov Koafj-ov eK nvpos, vdaros, depos, y^r. Stob. Flor. T. LXXX. 14: t'i poi 
fieXfi, (prjcri, TT('>T(pov i^ dropcov, rj e^ dpfpwv, rj eK nvpos Kal yfjs <Tvve(rTT]Ke ra 
ovra; If we translate, 'And the earth consisting out of water and by 
means of water,' we must understand 'consisting' with a slight difference 
of meaning, pnt together and held together, according as it is construed 
with e^ vharo^ or 81' vhaTot. Oecumenius explains the matter thus : 'H 77 
e'^ {ISaros p.iv, tor c^ vkiKov alriov 81 vdaros 8f, co? 8iaTe\iKov (I would read 
8ia TfXiKov sc. aiTLOv)' v8a>p yap to avvexof rfju yfjv, oiov KoXKa ris vnap^ov 
avTrj. Or we may understand Si' JSaros, not of the conglutinating power 
of water upon the particles of which the earth is composed (as Oecumenius), 
but of its external pressure upon the mass of the earth. 

III. 8 : tv h\ ToiiTo [111 XavOaveVo) (i|jids] A. V. ' Be not ignorant of this 
one thing.' R. V. ' Forget not this one thing.' The very common 
formula, pr^be rovG' vpits XaudavtTco, is not one of reminding the hearers 
of something they knew already, but serves as an introduction to a new 
topic, to which the orator is desirous to call their attention : literally, ' let 
it not escape your notice.' The A. V. therefore seems here preferable to 
the corrected rendering. 



I. JOHN. 

*Chap. III. I : I'va rtKva 0€ov kXtjGojiasv + Kai eo-jjiev] R. V. 'and such we are.' 
Alford 'and we are so.' But it seems a gloss. Hort and Westcott adopt 

it, but without annotation. Philox. : —jA-.] "IootJO "I^^Aj (koI J/ifr). 

Pesch. qici filios vocavit nos (t ;-D) ct fecit nos ( *-^ K ^2^- Compare 
Just. Mart. Dial. c. Try. 123: xat Q^ov reKva KaXovfieda Kai eafxev. Synes. EJ>. 
57) P- 19- C : icrriv re Kn\ vofii^eTat. 

III. 20: OTi €av KaTa^yivwo-KT) t]jjlwv r\ KapSia, on \i.iit,oiv ia-riv 6 Oeos k.t.I,] 
The difficulty is in the second on, which is ignored by the Vulgate and 
A. V. The Revisers (after Hoogeveen, De Partic. p. 589 ed. Schiitz. and 
others) point 0,1-4 eai/in the first clause, which they join with the preceding 
verse : ' and shall assure our heart before him, whereinsoever our heart 
condemn us; because God' &c. But this is quite inadmissible, since 
nothing can be plainer than that Vav KaTayivaxrKrj {v. 20) and iav fir) Kara- 
yivcfdCTKr] (7/. 21) are both in protasi, and in strict correlation with each 
other. Dean Alford suggests an ellipsis of the verb substantive before 
the second on, and would translate : ' Because if our heart condemn us, 
(it is) because God' &c. He instances such cases as ei' n% eV Xptcrrw, (he 
is) KuivT] KxluLs, which are quite dissimilar; but the following from St 
Chrysostom (T. X. p. 122 b) fully bears out this construction: 'O fuyo? 
\iov xP^CTOS K.T.i., fl de ovk aladavj] ttjs kovCJjottjtos, "OTI Trpodvfjiiav fppu>iJ.evr]v 
ovK exfti ; where I have expunged 8fj\oi/ before on on the authority of 
three out of four MSS. collated for these Homilies, the fourth, with the old 
Latin version, for on npodvixiav reading p.f] davfina-Tji' Trpodvp-iav yap. In 
my note on that place I have pointed out that the ellipsis is not of dfjXov, 
but of TO a'Lnov, causa est, quia. So in the present instance we might 
translate : ' For if our heart condemn us, (the reason is) because God is 
greater' &c., were it not for the difficulty of explaining how the fact of 
God's being greater than our heart can be valid reason for our heart 
condemning us. I would, therefore, take the second on for quod, not 
quia, and suppose an ellipsis of hr]kov, as in i Tim. vi. 7, where see note. 



16 — 2 



JUDE. 

Verse 9 : oiK txoXiiiio-t KpCo-iv iirtvtyKilv ^\aa-^r]^Las] Comparing this text 
with 2 Pet. ii. 11: ov (fiepova-i kut avroip (dXd(r(fiJ]fj.ov Kpiaiv, all our English 
translators have arrived at the same conclusion, that Michael the arch- 
angel 'durst not bring a railing accusation' against the devil on the 
occasion alluded to. Even Dean Alford, whose antipathy to ' silly 
hendiadyses' and 'wretched adjectival renderings' is so marked, is here 
forced to give way, explaining Kpiaiv (iXaa-tprjiiias to be 'a sentence savour- 
ing of, or belonging to, ^Xaacjirjpin, a railing accusation^ adding (against 
Calovius, who translates 'ultionem de blasphemia sumere') that 'the 
blasphemy is not one spoken by^ but agai?isi the devil.' But if (as the 
Dean justly observes with reference to o-TrtXaSfr (?'. 12) and o-ttTXoi (2 Pet. 
ii. 13)) 'each passage must stand on its own ground,' we have only to 
enquire what is the meaning conveyed by the Greek phrase eTrfveyKelv 
Kpi(Tiv {tuTiav, 8iKr]v) Tivl {Kara tivos). This is, undoubtedly, ' to bring an 
accusation, or lay an information, against any one.' Compare (besides 
Acts XXV. 18) the following examples, furnished by a single Greek author. 
Diod. Sic. XVI. 29 : (Qrj^aioi) biKrjv fni^vfyKav els 'A/x^tKrvofas Kara rciv 
'S.irapri.aTmv (laying the damages at 500 talents). XX. 10: kui Kpicrtis 
d8iKovs eTTKpfpoi'Tes 8ia rov (pdovov, Tifiayplais irepi^dWovai. 62 : o St 
(f)o^r]6('is ras eTTLcfxpop-evas evdvvas Kai Kpiaeis, aTrfxt^prjcrev fls rrjv TtXav. 
Id. T. X. p. 17I) ed. Bip. : ol KaOv^piadevres fnrjVfyKav Kpicnv t« Sorovp- 
i>iva> iTep\ Tfjs els avrovs v^peas. In the last case the accusation might be 
described as a Kpiais v^peas ; here it is a Kpicris ^XaacftTjpias. To under- 
stand wherein the 'blasphemy' consisted, we should have to enter into 
the fruitless enquiry, which, among the various traditions relating to this 
subject, was the one followed by the Writer of this Epistle. Several of 
these are to be found in Cramer's Catena, as, for instance, that the devil 
claimed the body as being iord of inatter {on iphv to a-cop.a, cor rrjs vXrjs 
8e(T7r6^ovTi) ; that he charged Moses with being a murderer, because he 
slew the Egyptian &c. We have said enough to show that the literal 
rendering, 'durst not bring against him an accusation of blasphemy,' is 
the true one; and that instead of bringing St Jude's phraseology into 
conformity with St Peter's, it would be better to explain (iXd(T(f)r]pov Kpiaiv 
in the sense which we have now asserted for Kpiaiv ^Xaa(f>ijp.ias. 



REVELATION. 

*Chap. XIX. 5 • aiv£tT€ Tov 0€6v iijawv, iravTes ol SovXoi avrov, Kal ol 
(|>oPou(j.€voi. avTov, Kal ot |j.iKpol Kal oL |ji€-ydXoi] A. V. ' Praise our God, all 
ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.' For this 
incomparable rendering, the Revisers have given us : ' Give praise to our 
God, all ye his servants, ye that fear him, the small and the great': thus 
illustrating the two principal faults with which they have been charged, 
unnecessary changes^ and want of ear. As to the latter, the most un- 
practised reader cannot fail to be sensible of the rhythmical inferiority of 
the revised rendering; and the sole ground for the necessity of the change 
rests upon a various reading of rw ^eo> for rhv 6e6v, a rare construction of 
alvelv with the dative, which makes no difference at all to the English 
reader, and for which a Greek writer would probably have said AOTE 
AINON TOI eEQI. 



IS 'CONVERSION' A SCRIPTURAL TERM?' 

Non aliunde dissidia in religione dependent, quam ab ignoratione grammaticae. 

' JOSEPHUS SCALIGER. 

It is remarkable that the word Conversion, which, in the religious 
phraseology of the day, meets us at every turn, occurs but once in the 
Authorised Version (A. V.) of the canonical Scriptures; and then not of 
individuals, as now commonly used, but of an entire class, one, in fact, 
of the two great classes, into which, in regard to their religious condition, 
the whole world was divided. We read in Acts xv. 3, that Paul and 
Barnabas, on their way from Antioch to Jerusalem, 'passed through 
Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles j and they 
caused great joy unto all the brethren.' The Greek word {eiria-Tpocfiri) 
signifies a turning; and what kind of a turning is intended, is expressly 
declared in ver. 19: 'Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not 
them, which from among the Gentiles are turning {€TTtaTp((f)ov(riv, not 
€TreaTf)f^(iv) to God.'' All our English versions, from Tyndale to A. V., 
agree in the use of the word in this place; and there seems no objection 
to the retaining of it, if it be clearly understood that this conversion was 
the act of the Gentiles themselves, who, under the influence of the Holy 
Spirit (which in this whole enquiry must never be lost sight of) and the 
preaching of the two Apostles, ' turned {ini(TTpey\rav) to God from idols, 
to serve the living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven ' 
(i Thess. i. 9, 10). 

But (it may be said) although the noun itself is nowhere to be found 
with reference to the conversion of a sinner, yet the verb with which it is 
connected is often so employed ; and one text in particular (Matt, xviii. 3) 
is sure to be brought forward in connexion with this subject : ' Except ye 
BE CONVERTED, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven.' As this text is clearly distinguishable from all 
others which will come under our consideration in this paper, it may be 
as well to dispose of it in the first instance. 

It is distinguishable, first, in the use of the general word o-rpa<^^re 
instead of the special term eTria-Tpe'^tjTs ; and, secondly, in the limited 

' Cf. note on Matt. xiii. is- Ed. 



IS 'CONVERSION A SCRIPTURAL TERM? 



247 



nature of the so-called conversion, which is here intended. The verbal 
distinction was recognized by our older translators ; as Wycliffe, ' but ye 
be turned'; Coverdale, Cranmer, and Geneva, 'except ye turn'; the 
Rhemish (a Roman Catholic) version alone, following the Vulgate, and 
unfortunately followed by A. V., 'except ye be converted.' In deciding 
between the two renderings, ' except ye turn^ and ' except ye be turned^ 
the passive form of the original word might be urged in favour of the 
latter. But this would be a mistake. Though ea-rpcKprjv, according to 
the grammarians, is the second aorist passive, the 2(sus loquendi, from 
which there is no appeal, has determined otherwise, and assigned to this 
passive form what is technically called a iniddle force, the agent being 
himself the object of the action performed 1. We must therefore translate : 
'Except ye tn7'n, and become as little children.' — But a still more 
important objection to the use of the word conversion in this place, is 
the partial nature of the change proposed, not from sin to holiness, but 
from the self-seeking and ambitious views which prompted the question, 
'Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.?' to the opposite dis- 
positions. Theophylact explains this change from <^iKoho^ia to raiveivo- 
^podvvT] as a going back to their former state of mind, when they were 
children : hii ovv <TTpa(f)fjvai ttclXiv cKelae. Later expositors, who retain the 
word converted, explain it in a similar sense. Thus the good old non- 
conformist Doddridge: '■ Except ye be converted, and turned from these 
ambitious and carnal views, a7id become, &c. ' ; and the evangelical 
Thomas Scott: 'Though all the Apostles, except Judas, were at this 
time regenerate, and " converted " in the general sense of the word, yet 
they all needed a very great change in respect of their ambition and 
carnal emulation.' 



^ E.g. Matt. vii. 6: 'Lest they turn 
again and rend you (crrpa^eVres p-f)- 
|w(Tii').' Luke vii. 9 : ' He turned him 
about, and said (arpacpels elirev).' Joh. 
XX. 14: 'She turned Iicrself back 
(e(TTpd(pTj els TO, ottictuj).' Acts vii. 39: 
'And in their hearts turned back again 
{e(TTpd.<p7jaav) into Egypt.' The usage 
of the Septuagint version of the O. T. 
is the same; as Job xli. 16 (Heb. 25): 
' When he (Leviathan) turneth himself 
((TTpacpevTos auTov), the four-footed wild 
beasts are afraid.' i Kings (Sam.) xiv. 
47 : ' Whithersoever he turned hitnself 
(od &v ia-Tpd(p7]), he vexed them.' A 
notable example is Psal. cxiv. 3 : ' The 
sea saw it, and fled; Jordan was driven 
back (^b;").' So A. v.; but LXX., 
icrTpa.(pT] ei's to. oiriaw, turned back 



again; and that Jordan (personified) 
was himself the agent, appears not 
only from the parallel word ' fled,' but 
also from ver. 5 : ' What ailed thee, O 
thou sea, that thou fleddest ? thou, 
Jordan, that thou tumedst back?' The 
Hebrew 2b^ is also reflective, vertit se ; 
as in Prov. xxvi. 14: 'As the door 
turneth (^S^l, arpe(peTa.C) upon its 
hinges &c.' — An exception may be 
noted, when the verb is followed by 
ets with a noun expressing that into 
which any thing is changed; as Exod. 
vii. 15: 'The rod which was turned to 
a serpent (Tr\v crrpa^elaav els 6(j)iv) ' ; 
and r Kings (Sam.) x. 6: 'Thou shalt 
be turned into another man {a-rparpi'ia-rj 
els avdpa ctXXov).' 



248 IS 'conversion' a scriptural term? 

Returning to (nia-Tpfylrai, we observe that the cardinal text on which 
this enquiry turns is Isai. vi. 10: ' Lest they see with their eyes, and hear 
with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert (eViorpe- 
^(oai), and be healed.' This is three times quoted in the N. T., Matt, 
xiii. 15, John xii. 40 (with inuTrpaf^oixn or a-rpaffiaa-i), and Acts xxviii. 27. 
In all three places A. V. substitutes 'be converted' for 'convert,' herein 
agreeing with the older English versions, except that in the first place 
Tyndale has 'should turn,' and Geneva 'should return.' Now with 
respect to the usage of the LXX., we find that the Hebrew words 3-1B^, 
to return, and 3C'n, to cause to return, are both rendered by (Tria-Tpfyjrai, 
which is, therefore, to be taken in the former case in an iiitriDisitroe, and 
in the latter in a transitive sense, as is also common in classical Greek. 
Occasionally both senses are found in the same sentence; as 2 Kings 
(Sam.) xvii. 3 : ' I will bring back (eTrio-rpe'>//a)) all the people unto thee, as 
a bride returns {fTria-Tpecfiei) to her husband'; and Jerem. xxxviii. (xxxi.) 
18: ^ETTia-Tpc^ov /if, Koi enia-Tpe'^o}. In the texts before us we are con- 
cerned only with the intransitive sense, which is found in the following 
places, selected with a view to the variety of renderings adopted by our 
Translators. Zach. i. 3 : ' Turn {iiTKTTpi^aTi) ye unto me, and I will 
turn unto you.' Ezek. xviii. 32: ' Turn yourselves {iTTi(TTp(y\raTe\ and live 
ye.' Mai. iii. 7 : ' Return {(Tna-Tpi-^are) unto me, and I will return unto 
you.' I Kings viii. 33: 'When thy people Israel be smitten down before 
the enemy, because they have sinned against thee, and shall turn again 
{fTTia-Tpeyi/ova-i) to thee, and confess thy name, and pray.' — In all these 
places A. V. is in accordance with the Hebrew and Greek in representing 
the act as that of a free agent; not so in Jerem. xxxi. 18: 'Turn thou me, 
and so shall I be tur?ied.' For this 'being turned' has the obvious effect 
of removing the act from the province of the Will, and making the latter 
clause identical with the former, from which it is plainly intended to be 
distinguished. When I pray to God, ' Turn thou me,' I make a clear 
acknowledgment of the necessity of divine influence, or (as it is expressed 
in Art. X.) of 'the grace of God preventing me that I may have a good 
will'; and when I add, 'and so shall I turn^ I assert the freedom of my 
own will, against the unscriptural notion of the irresistible operation of 
divine grace. The same remark applies even more strongly to the A. V. 
of Matt. xiii. 15, 'and should understand with their heart, and be con- 
vej'ted^ inasmuch as this expression, from its being employed in this and 
similar passages, has acquired a more technical and dogmatical sense 
than the other, and is therefore more liable to misconstruction. For all 
these reasons it seems desirable, that both in the original passage 1, and 

^ In the original passage of Isaiah, eTTLUTp^tpai; and so Cranmer's version 

our Translators (or rather Coverdale, of Acts iii. 19: 'Repent and convert 

who preceded them) seem to have used {eirtcTTp^xl/aTe).' But this usage is now 

the verb ' to convert ' in an intransitive obsolete, 
sense, in close imitation of the Greek 



IS 'conversion' a scriptural term? 249 

in the N. T. citations of it, we should adopt one or other of the more 
familiar renderings, ' and should turn, return, or turn again.^ Even so 
the honour due to 'God our Saviour' is fully reserved. Fi7iis coronal 
opus. All that has preceded is only preparatory to the final consum- 
mation, 'and I SHOULD HEAL them 1.' 

The few remaining texts in which this word is introduced may be 
conveniently taken in the order in which they occur in the Old and 
New Testaments. 

Psal. xix. 7 : ' The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul? 
In the Hebrew this is a peculiar combination, which has nothing to do 
with the conversion of a sinner. A better translation, restoi'ing the soul, 
has a place in the margin here, and in the text of Psal. xxiii. 3. The 
literal rendering, ' making the soul to come again,' may be seen in the 
margin of Lam. i. ii. 

Psal. li. 13: 'Sinners shall be C07iverted {inKrrpi^ovaiv) unto thee.' 
This case follows the determination of Isai. vi. lo. 

Isai. Ix. 5 : 'The abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee.' 
Here both Hebrew and Greek ("=1?^'.'!, fMera^ake'i) are different from former 
examples. We may translate ' shall be turned unto thee,' in the sense of 
' shall be transferred unto thee,' comparing Lam. v. 2 : ' Our inheritance 
is turned (T\'2pr\i^ unto strangers.' 

Luke xxii. 32: 'And when thou art converted {iTria-Tply^as) strengthen thy 
brethren.' Here some Roman Catholic expositors (as Maldonatus, refuted 
by Casaubon in his Exercitatio7ies Anti-Baron, p. 640 [p. 520, ed. 161 5]), 
to avoid the application to the chief of the Apostles of what might seem a 
derogatory term, would join ewi(TTpf\l/as aTijpicroi/, return arid strengthen, i.e. 
by a common Hebraism, again strengthen, comparing Psal. Ixxxiv. (Ixxxv.) 
6 : <Tv enia-Tpeyj/ai ^(ocoaeis iqp.a.s. This is a legitimate construction, but 
unnecessary in the present instance. The meaning is perfectly plain, 
' when thou art come to thyself,' quum ad sanam nienteni redieris, 
(iTTOKaTao-Ta? (says Euthymius Zigabenus) iraKiv fls ttjv npcoriju rd^iv. 

There remains only James v. 19, 30: 'If any of you do err (TrXaurjOfj) 
from the truth, and one convert {(Tria-Tpf^j]) him; let him know that he 
which converteth {iTruTTpk^ai) a sinner from the error (TrXai'j;^) of his way 
&c.' Here we have an instance of the transitive use of iinaTpi-^ai. 

^ In John xii. 40 the substitution from the intransitive use of etriaTpixpai.. 

by the Evangelist of €maTpa(j>Q(n or Thus in Lam. v. 21 instead of koL 

(rTpa<pw<n for iiri(rTpi\f/o}<Ti might seem eTrtfrrpe'^o^ev we have Kal ein(Trpa(f)r](x6- 

to favour, in that passage at least, the /xeda; and in Zach. i. 3, and Mai. iii. 7, 

version 'be turned,' or 'be converted.' God says: ein(TTpe\j/aTe wpbs ni, koX 

But what has been said of the middle ^Tn(TTpa<pT^crofiai. irpds v/xdi. Compare 

force of (TTpacpTJi'ai is equally true of also Amos iv. 6 with verse 8 in the 

iin(TTpa(privaL, the use of which in the Hebrew and Greek. 
LXX. is in no respect distinguishable 



250 IS 'conversion' a scriptural term? 

(Heb. ^t^i^)? ^^ cause another to return^ which is also found in Luke 
i. 16: 'And many of the children of Israel shall he tJir)i [iixicrrpi^ii) to 
the Lord their God'; and in Acts xxvi. 18: 'To turn {fmaTpf^ai) them 
from darkness to light.' Being here used in connexion vj'\\.h. going astray, 
we are reminded of the figure of a lost sheep, which is to be brought back 
to the fold, either by {vtto) the Great Shepherd himself, as \\\q primary, or 
by {bia) one of those employed by him, as the secondary or instrumental 
agent in his restoration. In the latter case (which is here intended) we 
may aptly compare Ezek. xxxiv. 4, where it is laid to the charge of the 
shepherds of Israel, to TrXavwfxivov ovk fTTfo-Tpeyj/aTe, 'neither have ye 
brought again that which was lost.' Although the use of the word 
' to convert ' is not here liable to the same theological objection as 
before (since no one would think of attributing an irresistible power to 
mere human agency) we cannot help thinking that a more familiar term, 
as bringing back, would be more appropriate to the words TrXavx] and 
n\avacrdai ; in which opinion we find ourselves anticipated by an expositor 
who cannot be supposed to have had any prejudice against the popular 
idea of conversion, Doddridge, who thus paraphrases the passage : ' If 
any of you do wander from the truth, and one turn him back to it, let him 
know that he that turneth back a sinner t&c' 



On the whole, while protesting against that indiscriminate and 
fanatical use of the word, which is now so much in vogue, we would 
not be understood to deny that conversion itself is a real fact, and 
the term, when rightly understood, both convenient and appropriate. 
We will not say, indispensable, because we find that in many cases, to 
which, in later phraseology, the word would be thought specially 
applicable, the writers of Scripture, if they do not avoid the use of it, 
have certainly employed other words in preference. Thus, we do not 
read that Zacchaeus was converted by the preaching of Christ, or the 
three thousand on the day of Pentecost by that of Peter, or ' a great 
company of the priests ' by that of Stephen, or the gaoler by the stirring 
appeal of Paul, or Lydia by his more argumentative discourse. Even the 
conversion of Paul himself, though fulfilling every possible condition of a 
genuine conversion, is not described by that particular term in any one of 
the many places of Holy Writ in which it is alluded to. Yet in this and 
other instances, even up to the present day, of sudden and extraordinary 
changes in the state of mind of individuals in regard to religion, we 
certainly want a name to distinguish such cases from the experience of 
ordinary Christians; and we may therefore without impropriety, on a 
worthy occasion, allude to a conversion from infidelity, or a conversion 
from sin. Again, to speak of the conversion of the heathen, or the 
conversion of the Jews, or of any body of men, whom it is sought to 
bring over from their former ignorance or error to the true faith, if it be 
' done with charity,' should give no offence. But when conversion is 



IS 'conversion' a scriptural term? 251 

insisted upon as universally necessary in order to a state of salvation — 
when preachers divide their hearers, being believers in a common 
Christianity, into the two classes of 'converted' and 'unconverted' — 
when the former class are led to cherish overweening ideas of their 
acceptance with God, and of their assurance of eternal salvation ; and 
the latter are either driven to despair of their spiritual state, or else, 
without any real change of heart, to adopt the phraseology and exhibit 
the outward signs and badges of the 'converted'; — a candid enquiry, how 
far such views of CONVERSION are consistent with a 'discreet and learned' 
ministration of the Word of God, can never be deemed superfluous or 
inopportune ^ 



^ This note was printed in form of a pamphlet in October, 1876. See 
p. XV. Ed. 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 



*XX. 24' : 'AW ouSevos Xo-yov Troiovnai, oiSi 'i\o) ti]v 'I'vx.'HV \i.ov Ti.|iiav 
e|iavTu, ws TiXiiuxrai t6v Spofiov \i.ov k.t.I.] A. V. : 'But none of these things 
move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish 
my course' Sec. 

The variations of the principal MSS. are as follows : — ■ 

B, C, X*^ : dXX' ovSepos Xoyov iroioiifiai ttjv '^v^^v rifiiav fjiavrci. 
A, D, N^ : dXX' ovdfvbs 'Koyov i'xu) [ + /xot D] ovSe TrotoCfiat ttjv ylfv\r]i> 
(+/i6u D) TifjLiap f^avT(Z {-tov D^). 

E, H, L, P agree with T. R., except that L, P omit fiov after yp-vxJ]"- 

Of the Latin versions Lucifer Calaritanus (a.d. 354-367) has the 
shorter reading : Sed pro nihilo acstiino anitnam ineain carani esse 
mihij Cod. D the longer : Sed nihil horuni cura est 7nihi, neque habeo 
ipsatn (xniniatn carain iniJii. The Vulgate (whose authority Dean Alford 
unaccountably claims for the absence of ovhk e^w) has : Sed nihil horuin 
vereor^, ttec facio animain meam pfetiosiorein qiiain vie; a free translation 
(it would appear) of the reading of A or D. 

The Syriac Peschito version is the shortest of all : Sed mi/ii 7iihili 
aestimatur aninia i/iea (^,i^ - > » g^ 1 |i:l»..*_k» |j .™»^ ]jj)- Still 
the translator may have had before him the whole reading of B, because 
the words rifiiav e/iavrw add nothing to the sense contained in the 
preceding part of the clause. The Philoxenian Syriac agrees with T. R., 
somewhat more freely translated than is usual with this version : (Jo |J ( 

jfj^LxIiD, which may be thus Graecised : (iW ovSeva (not ovdeuos, as 
White) \6yoi> noioiinai, ov8e XeXoyiarai not '^vx^ f^'^^ ''"' t'i^iiov. 

St Chrysostom, in his Commentary on the Acts (a.d. 401), quotes 
vv. 22-24 in exact accordance with T. R., from which, however, no 
certain conclusion can be drawn, since we do not possess a critical 
edition of this work, and Matthaei found no MS. of it in the Moscow 
collection. Still there is no reason to doubt that his text agreed with 

^ Cf. p. 132 f- The note here re- Latin translation of llic Lxx. version 

printed appeared in form of a pam- of Job (xxii. 4), as the equivalent for 

phlet in March, 1875. See p. xv. Ed. 'Kbyov <rov woiov/j.ei'os eX^y^ei <7e, he 

^ As St Jerome here translates \6yoi> gives : tinicns te arguct tc. 
TTOiovfxai (or ix^) by vercor, so in his 



ACTS XX. 24. 253 

T. R. at least as far as relates to the clause, ov8e exco k.t.L, since he 
twice repeats those words with a slight variation {ovk €x<>> n^iav tt^v 
ffiavTov ^vxi]v) in his explanation of the passage (0pp. T. ix. pp. 332 c, 
334 B). 

In support of the longer reading it may be argued a priori, that it 
suits the context better. In the preceding verse the speaker had 
mentioned hicr\jLa and ffXiyj/^eis, but not death. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that before expressing his contempt for life itself, he should have 
alluded to these minor evils ; just as in the next chapter (xxi. 13), upon 
Agabus foretelling his imprisonment at Jerusalem, he replies : / am 
ready not to be bound only, but also to die &c. 

Modern critics, however, in deference to the authority of the older 
MSS., and to certain critical canons, which prescribe that preference 
should be given to the shorter and more difficult reading over the lono-er 
and easier one, have decided that the T. R. in this passage is to be 
replaced by that which is contained in those older MSS. 

I. In regard to the difficulty of this reading, that term seems hardly 
apphcable to the present case. A difficult reading is one which presents 
something apparently incongruous in the sense, or anomalous in the 
construction, which an ignorant or half-learned copyist would endeavour, 
by the use of such critical faculty as he possessed, to remove; but which 
a true critic is able, by probable explanation, and a comparison of similar 
cases, to defend against all such fancied improvements. In the reading 
before us, aX\' ouSefoj \6yov noiovfiai Trjv ^vx^f rifjLiav ifiavra, it is the 
construction, and not the sense, which is in question ; and this is not 
simply difficult, but impossible. There is really no way of getting over it ; 
it baffles novices and experts alike. Let us see how it has fared with the 
latter. 

1. Dr Tischendorf, in his edition of the A. V. (Tauchnitz, 1869), has 
this curious note on the place : 'S V [i.e. N, B] : But on no accou7it do I 
hold my life dear unto myself, that I might finish my course.^ The error 
is excusable in a foreigner ; but his English assistant ought to have 
informed him, that 'ON no account' and 'of no account ' bear a totally 
different meaning ; and that the Greek answering to his proposed version 
would be : dXX' ox)ha\iQ>s noiovfiac rfjv ^vxw Tifxiav enavrS. 

2. Dean Alford, in his Revision of the A. V. (London, 1870) 
translates the shorter reading thus : But I coutti my life of no value utito 
myself, so that I finish &c. ; a version which (as was remarked of the 
Peschito) is not more than is required to satisfy the Greek, dXX' ou'Sei/os 
\oyov noiovum ttjv ■^vxijf, the words ri^lav (fiavr^ being left untranslated. 
In the notes to his Greek Testament he says : 'The best rendering in 
English would be, / hold my life of no account, nor precious to me ;^ in 
which, if the tautology might be pardoned, the interpolation of the copula 



254 ACTS XX. 24. 

before rifilav shows clearly that this reading cannot be construed as a 
single clause, but must be broken up into two ; and if by ouSe, why 
not by ovhi. exco^ He also suggests, in explanation of the constructional 
difficulty, that 'the clause in question is a combination of i^co con- 
structions, ovdfvos Xoyou TTOioxifxai ttjv ■^vxh'" ffJiavToii, and ov noiovyidi ttjv 
yj/vx^iv Tifiiav e^avra.' Such combinations, no doubt, are to be found, a 
simple instance of which is Acts xi. 17 : eyw 8e ris rjfiT]v dvvaros KO)Xii<rai 
Tov 6e6v; which is an amalgamation of two forms in which the question 
might have been put : rt's- ruirjv Iva Kuikvaaiyn TOV deov, and nws rjfirju twaros 
Ka>\v(Tai TOP deov. But the present example is quite different. In it the 
original construction is not only begun, but concluded. After dXA' ov8ep6s 
\6yov TToioviiai ttjv "^vx^v nothing more is required ; and the other two 
words TifMiav ejiavra are a mere pantiiis assiittts, spoiling the construction 
without adding anything to the sense. 

II. The shortness of a reading may arise from two causes. Either 
the reading with which it is compared may have been interpolated for 
reasons which generally appear on the face of it ; or some words may 
have accidentally dropped out from the longer text, which usually 
happens from the similar endings of two words not far distant from each 
other, the eye of the copyist passing over the intermediate words. Such 
an accident commonly betrays itself by the want of coherence in the parts 
of the sentence thus improperly brought into contact ; they do not Join 
on together. This is just what we observe in the case before us. An 
accomplished critic, even if he knew of no other reading, would 
pronounce at once : Alendi aliqiiid hie latet, lactmain suspicor. He 
would probably detect the source of the error, the fusion of two members 
into one ; of which he would be pretty sure that aXX' ovhivos \oyov 
TToiovfiai belonged to the first, and Tifiiav ifiavTa to the second ; leaving it 
doubtful to which of the two tt^v -^vx^v should be assigned. Now let him 
be informed that the MSS. which he has been using are not the only 
authorities for settling the text, but that there are other ancient MSS. 
which confirm his suspicion, and make the construction sartani tectani by 
the insertion of two words before ttjv ^I'XV" j ^^d I think he would hardly 
entertain a doubt, that the accidental omission, if not of these identical 
words, at least of something- similar to them, furnished the true solution 
of the difficulty. 

Assuming, then, the probable existence of a lacuna between jroiovfiai 
and TTjv ^vxfjv, we may proceed to encjuire how it may most satisfactorily 
be supplied. 

No shorter or easier method can be proposed than that which is 
suggested by the reading of the other uncials ; a negative copula, and a 
7'er/f, the latter in the same mood, tense, &c. as that in the former clause. 
Is e^w that verb? As far as the language is concerned, there can be no 
objection to it. Some critics have denied that €x<i> per se is ever used in 



ACTS XX. 24. 255 

the sense of aestimo^ ; but all they seem to contend for is, that the idea 
of possessio)i is not to be excluded from such examples as on &5y 7rpo(f)riTr]v 
avTov fl-^ov — el ovv ifie exeis Koiv(op6i> — Kcil rovs toiovtovs evTifiovs ex^Tf {f(llt!S 
doctores possidete ita ut eos honofetisY ; which may be easily conceded 
so long as the use itself is not disputed. We have the very phrase Tiynov 
ex^i-v in Dion. Hal. A»t. Rom. X. 5 : Ol jih ovv TrarpiKioi tlulov avrw eVt 
TovTois eix^ov ol S' eK roii 8i]iJ,ov Travrcov 817 fiaXicrra avrop avdpcoTrav efiicrow. 
To which it may be added that if this use of e'xfiv should be held to be 
not of the purest Greek, it is not on that account less likely to have found 
a place, along with e^e fif TrapjjTTjiJLevnu, and other undoubted Latinisms, in 
the writings of St Luke. The real obstacle to our acquiescing in the 
reading of T. R. is, that if the words ov8i f'xm had once formed a part of 
the original text, there is no possibility of accounting for the subsequent 
omission of them. This is an insuperable objection, but it does not 
apply to other supplenients in which the verb is of the 7)iiddle voice, so 
forming a clear o/jLoioreXevTov with noLovpai. Of these there are at least 

fouy : TTOiovfiai, Xoyi'^o/xat, TiOejiai,, and rjyovp.ai. 

1. If St Luke originally wrote, dW ovdevos Xoyov xoiov|iai, ov8e 
Troiotpp-ai TTjv y\fvxhv Tip.iav epavrcS, the cause of the lacuna in B, C, X is 
patent ; and we might then have accounted for the readings of the other 
uncials by supposing that the copyists, for the sake of variety, had 
substituted e^o) for noiovpcu in one or other of the two clauses. Still 
it must be confessed to be highly improbable that so correct a writer as 
the author of the Acts of the Apostles, in this, one of the most finished 
portions of his work, should have repeated the same word, when he had 
others equally suitable at his command. 

2. One of these is Xoyi^opai, a word frequently used in similar phrases 
in the Greek Bible^. But if this had been the word, we might, perhaps, 
have expected (though not absolutely necessary) the insertion of as before 
Tifiiap, or of elvai after it, agreeably to St Paul's use, ovtcos '^pas Xoyi^fadco 
avOpatnos cos vwqpeTas HpicrTov — Xoyi^ecrde eavTovs veKpovs pev eivat, rrj 
dp.apriq'^ — and in other places. 

3. The use of riOepai in such phrases as peya Tideadai, nap' ovdev 
Tideadai, bevTepov ridecrdai ti tivos &c. is well known ; and with respect to 
this word it is worthy of observation that St Chrysostom in his Homilies 
on the Epistle to the Hebrews, in alluding to this very text, actually 
employs it in preference to e'xco. His words are (0pp. T. xii. p. 45 c) : 
dXXa ravra piKpa rw prfhe ttjv yj/vx^v Tiplav Tidepiuco, Kara tov p.aKapiov 
UavXov. But since we have seen reason to believe that St Chrysostom 

^ E.g. C. F. A. Fritzsche in his h.e. ut sit tnihi cara. 
Commentary on St Matthew, p. 487, ^ Matt. xiv. 5, Philem. 17, Phil, 

where he quotes our text without any ii. 29. 

suspicion of its genuineness, explaining ^ E.g. Deut. ii. 11, Nehem. xiii. 13. 

lii Jietvitafii inea??f^oss\(\QO fnihicaram, ** 1 Cor. iv. i, Rom. vi. ri. 



256 ACTS XX. 24. 

read the words alluded to exactly as they stand in T. R., all that can 
be certainly concluded from this passage is, that if St Luke had written 
ovSe Tideficu Trjv V'wx'?" TifJ-iav f/iaurm, he could not have expressed himself 
with greater propriety. 

4. There remains yet one more word, which besides being equally 
appropriate with any of the others, better fulfils the condition of rhy)ning 
(so to speak) with nomvfjLai ; that is, ijyov/xai. This is quite in the style of 
St Paul, e.g. (jXXT/Xovr i^yovfievoi vnepex^i'Tas iavraiv — on ttkttou jxe ^yrjcraTO 
— Tovs I810VS SfCTTroraf Traarjs riixrjs a^lovs ijyeiadcoirav — to aiiia ttjs 8ia6i^Kr)s 
Kotvov riyr](Ta^€vos^. Turning to profane authors, and confining ourselves 
to examples of rifnou riyeladai ri, we have ro iv rals y}/vxals koWos 
Tifii(OTff)ov riyrj(Taa6ai tov iv ra atofiari — 0Tav...fj.7]Tf ravra i]yrJTai. Tifxia k(h 
olKfla^. Lastly, we find the entire phrase rifilav rjyfla-dai. rfjv ylrvxi^v in 
Dion. Hal. A7itiq. Rom. v. 30 (quoted by Wetstein) : d (fiiXovs dvrl 
woXffjiiav, ((pr], TToiT^'crato tovs av8pas, ri/iKurepai' Tiyrja-apevos ttjv aavTou '\l/vx']'' 
TTJs Ka6o8ov Tu)v avv TapKvviois (f>vya8cov. We may add St Chrysostom 
ad loc. : Ovk einfu ort a\y^fifv (fort. dXy<5 nev), avayicTi Se (f)ep(iv' d\\ ov8f 

rjyovp.ai axrei eXtytv' ov (fiiXw avTTju npo TavTrjs' iTpoTip.6T(pov [fort. 01) 

(f>L\a> avTTju' TTpo TcivTrji TrpoTifjiOTepou] rjyovpai to TfXtcrai tov 8p6p.ov, to 
8iafiapTvpaa-6ai-^. It is unnecessary to point out how easily the words ov8i 
r)yovp,ai may have dropped out in transcribing, especially if (as is very 
probable) they occupied a whole line in the MS. The following is a copy 
of the Sinaitic MS. on this place, substituting Xoyov for Xoyou, and 
inserting the line supposed to have been omitted : — 

. . . AAAOYAENOC 

AOrONnOIOYMAI 

OYAEHTOYMAI 

THNYYXHNTIMI 

ANEMAYJnnCTE 
The third line having been passed over, it became necessary to rectify 
the construction by changing \6yov into \oyov., whence we get the reading 
of B, C, N. The T. R. (which is at least as old as St Chrysostom) arose 
from a fairly successful attempt to supply the obvious deficiency of the 
mutilated reading by the insertion of ov8e ex^ before ttjv ^//■ux»)^'. And, 
lastly, the reading of A, D would be derived from the last by changing 
the places of irowiifiai and exftv ; the author of this change being less 
familiar with the use of e'xft" for acstiiiiare than in the common com- 
bination, \oyov e^eti'. 

^ Phil, ii- 3, I Tim. i. 12, vi. i, passages may be compared. Herod. 

Heb. X. 29. IV. 65: ^etpwc 5^ oi iXddvTwv tuv olv 

"^ Platonis 0pp. {Couv.) p. 210 li, \6yov woU-qTai. Anton. Liberalis .XXX : 

(Pol.) 538 E. [Cf. Herod. IV. 2: Kal i] d^ twv fxiv (/xvrjaT-qpwv) \6yov ivoiUTO 

t6 fiev avTov eTncrrdnfuov airapvaavres ^paxvv. Pans. AIcss. xvi. 10: 'A/iictto- 

riyevvTai. flfat TLfj.nLiTepov.'] fxlvovi 5i drrelpyoi'TOS...' vdtva inoiovvro 

* For \6yov TroioO/xat the following \6yov.] 



LIST OF THE NOTES. 



St Matthew i. 


i8 


St Matthe' 


w XXIV. 45 




21 






XXV. 8 




22 






21 


II. 


4 






27 


III. 


4 






XXVI. 15 


IV. 


^4 






50 


V. 


22 






6r 


VI. 2 


, 5 
27 






XXVII. 3 
24 


VIII. 


3 
14 






28-31 
48 


XI. 


28 
29 






XXVIII. 3 


XIII. 


12 

15 
36 

54 




St 


Mark i. 7 
27 

30 

II. 23 


XIV. 


6 

8 






III. 10 
21 



XVII. 


27 


XVIII. 


25 


XIX. 


II 




27 


XXI. 


13 




42 


XXII. 


2 




23 




27 




36 


XXIII. 


4 




25 




38 


XXIV. 


4 



29 

4 
26 

30 
36 
40 
14 
19 
20 
26 
40 

3 

18 

19 

24 



St Mark 


IX. 


II 




X. 


19 

21 




XI. 


3 
19 




xn. 


4 
21 
28 
37 




XIII. 


8 



28 









15 








36 








4T 








51 








53 








65 








72 






XV. 


6 

24 
36 
43 






XVI. 


8 


St 


Lul. 


;e I. 


37 






11. 7, 


12 

9 
12 

14 

37 
49 






III. 


14 






IV. 


13 






V. 


• 7 



K. 



17 



258 LIST OF THE NOTES. 



St Luke VI. I 

3 
16 

35 

VII. 30 

i.\. II 

12 

25 
X. 30 

32 

37 
40 

42 
>^i- .S3 

XII. 19 
XIII. I 

9 

"+. 
33 





21 




31 


XV. 


'3 


30, 


32 


XVI. 


I 




19 




20 




31 


XVII. 


21 


XVIII. 


5 




7 




9 




12 




13 


XIX. 


16 


"vIX. 29 & XXI. 


37 


XIX. 


44 


XX. 


20 


XXI. 


13 




25 




35 


XXII. 


6 




24 




31 




37 




38 




44 



St Luke XXII. 


66 


St Johi 


[1 XI. 


44 


XXIII. 


32 
42 
44 

s 1 




XII. 


3 
6 

7 
20 


XXIV. 


10 






40 




12 




XIII. 


2 




17 






24 




r8 




XIV. 


4 




39 






12 




.so 






16 


St John I. 


.S 




XV. I 


, 2 

5 




24 




XVI. 


16 


II. 


9 
10 

15 






23 
27 
32 




20 




XVII. 


3 


III. 


3 






II 




15 




17. 


19 




25 




XVIII. 


22 


IV. 


6 






28 




12 




XIX. 


12 




15 






24 


V. 


4 
'3 
39 






29 
34 

42 



45 



51 

62 
12 
15 
23 

5> 
18 

25 
28 

37 
39 
44 

58 



IX. 





Acts I. 


4 
18 
21 




11. 


23 
24 
39 


II. 


22 & VII. 


37 




IV. 


25 




VI. 


2 
15 




VII. 


4 



40 24 

X. 15 26 

XI- 3S 35 

39 40 



LIST OF THE NOTES. 259 



Acts VII. 45 Acts 

53 



31 

IX. 7 

25 
30 
34 
38 
X. 24 
28 

XI. 12 
21 
29 

XII. 7 
12 
13 
17 
19 

XIII. 9 

34 

XIV. 3 



13 

20 

XV. 17, 18 

19 



XX. 


23 


Acts XXV 


III. 10 




24 




13 




28 




21 




34 




25 


XXI. 


I 




31 




3 


Romans 


I- 15 




7 




20 




^5 




28 




28 




29 




35 




30 




37 




II. 17 


XXII. 


18 




21 




23 




III. 9 



4 

6 16 



25 25 

XXIII. 10 IV. 6 
14 6, 8 
16 20 
30 ^- ' 
35 7 

XXIV. 2 ■^i- 5 

25 17 

27 19 

XXV. II VII* 3 

13 ^' 



21 



20, 21 24 

28 
24 IX- 6 

27 30 



20 

26 XXVI. II X. 5 

26 XI. 8 

XVI. 12 2U 

26 28 II, 12 

XVII. 14 XXVII. 2 18 

17-3 

22 8 XII. 2 

25 

XVIII. 5 

17 

18 17 



13 13 

16 16 



24 
XIX. 19 

27 

33 
35 
36 
40 
XX. 15 '^ 



18 XIII. 14 

2 1 XIV. 6 

29 7 

35 10 

39 XV. 16 

XXVIII. I 20 



20 



17 

6 18 



26o 



LIST OF THE NOTES. 



I Corinthians i. 


lO 


Galatians 


II. 


1 1 


Titus 


II. 


5 


II. 


2 




III. 


1 




III. 


4 




4 






28 




8, 


14 




13 




V. 


I 


Philemon verse 


12 


III. 


5 




VI. 


I 






13 


IV. 


4 
6 






10 
II 






14 
19 




II 


Ephesians 


IV. 


15 


Hebrews i. 


6 


V. 


I 






29 




IV. 


2 


VI. 


3 
4 


Philippians 


II. 


6 
16 


VII. 


, 18, 

VIII. 


19 
I 




5 


Colossians 


II. 


I 




IX. 


I 




7 






8 






II 




II 






14 




16, 


17 




J. 5 






18 




X. 


24 


VII. 


16 
20 


I Thessalonians 


II. 


6 
17 






27 
35 


VIII. 


12 • 




IV. 


I 




XI. 


11 


I.X. 


5 




V. 


4 






29 




27 


II Thessalonians 


II. 


2 




XII. 


23 


X. 


13 


I Timothy 


I. 


3 






25 


XI. 


5 






15 






28 




22 






20 


XIII. 


2 




24 




III. 


1 


James 


; I. 


4 


XIII. 


1-3 






16 






14 




3 




IV. 


4 






22 




5 






6 






25 




7 






12 




II. 


3 


XIV, 


8 






15 






6 


XV. 


4 




V. 


I 






15 




8 






13 




III. 


3 




47 






23 






6 




49 




VI. 


2 






7 


XVI. 


22 






3 




IV. 


9 


; Corinthians il. 


14 






4 






II 


III. 


'4 






5 


I Peter 


II. 


5 


IV. 


17 






7 




IV. 


12 



VI. 


2 


VII. 


2 


VIII. 


3 




12 


XI. 


20 




28 




32 


XII. 


3 


Galatians i. 


7 
6 



II Timothy II. 



III. 

IV. 

Titus I. 



•7 
18 

20 

25 

26 

6 

15 

5 
7 
3 







19 




II. 


4 

8 

9 




III. 


5 
8 


I John 


III. 


I 
20 


Jude 


verse 


9 


Revelalion 


XIX. 


5 



18 



SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX OF PASSAGES AND 
SUBJECTS DISCUSSED OR ILLUSTRATED. 



Acts of the Apostles 254 (xi. 17), 87 (xix. 33), 48 (xxi. 4), 185 f. (xxiv. 12), 

73 (XXVIII. 21), 252 f. (XX. 24) 
Amos 74 (LXX. IX. 14) 
Aorist, translation of 86, 99, 189, 204 

Books, Public burning of atheistical 129 

' Cloths ' and ' clothes '47 
Colossians, Epistle to the 38 (il. 8) 
' Come by, to ' (old English idiom) 144 
Conditional clauses, Accumulation of 163 
'Convert' and 'be converted' 8, 2 46f. 
Copyists, tendency to hortatory forms 155, 180 

Corinthians, First Epistle to the 187 (l. 16), 161 (vi. 7, TjTTTjfia), 173 (vii. 21), 
19 (VII. 36), 42 (XI. 4) 

' Demand ' 2 

Drink, The offers of to Christ on the Cross 22 

Esther, The Book of 13 (iv. 16), 42 (vi. 12, LXX.) 

Flattering prooemia forbidden 127 
Flesh, Greek words denoting 124 
Free education in 500 B.C. 92 

Hebrevi's, The Epistle to 38 (in. 12) 
Hosea 13 (LXX. vi. 2) 
Hyperbaton 75 

Isaiah 59 (LXX. xxix. 19), 248 f. (vi. 10), 249 (lx. 5) 



262 SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX OF PASSAGES AND SUBJECTS. 

James, St, Epistle of 8 (i. 19), 249 f. (v. jg, 20) 
Joel 26 (iv. 13) 

John, St, The Gospel according to 84 (iii. 25), 21 (xii. 19), 248, 249 n. (xii. 40), 
84, 87 (xvi. ,7) 

The First Epistle of 212 (iii. 20) 

The Second Epistle of 84 {v. 4) 

Kings, The Second Book of 13 (xviii. 9, 10) 

Luke, St, The Gospel according to 5 (vi. 24), 12 (xili. 32), 70 (xvi. 21), 72 
(XXI. 19), 249 (XXII. 32), I (XXIV. 21) 

Mark, St, The Gospel according to 2 (i. 6), 35 (iii. 11) 

Matthew, St, The Gospel according to i (xi. 14), 57 (xii. 31), 38 (xii. 33), 
248 f. (XIII. 15), 172 (XIII. 33), 246 f. (xviii. 3), 87 (xxiii. 34) 

Needle's Eye, The so-called Gate of 196 
Numbers 3 (xx. 10) 

'Other,' Negligent use of 78 

Paul, St (different accounts of Conversion) 117, (change of name) 121 

Perfect tense for aorist i 

Peter, St, First Epistle of 239 (iv. 8) 

Second Epistle of 244 (11. 11, ^Xdatptj/Mov Kpiuiv) 
Philippians, The Epistle to the 6 (iv. 18) 
Present participle (implying destiny) 242 
Preterite tense with present signification 91 
Proverbs 25 (xxxi. 21) 
Psalms, 247 n. (cxiv. 3) 

Revelation, The Book of the 84 (il. 10), 68 (xi. 7 and xii. 17), 189 (xxi. 8) 
Romans, The Epistle to the 163 (xii. 21) 

Strabo 7 (xiii. 2, 3) 

Tertullian, 217 {Lib. de Orat. xii.) 

Thessalonians, The First Epistle to the 72 (iv. 4), 60 (v. 18) 
Timothy, The First Epistle to 51 (iv. 15) 
The Second Epistle to 56 (11. 4) 

Uncanonical Books of the O.T., Christ's knowledge of 8, allusion to in 
St James' Epistle 8 

Vessels for honour and for dishonour 215 
Vestments 217 f. 

'When as,' 'while as' i 



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 



ayairav ( = caress) 34 

dyuva ^Xf"'> '^o.pix^i-v 195 

ayuvLa 77 

a-yiovLav (in LXX.) 78 

a/ywvl^oixaL (with an infinitive) 66 

dSwareiv (ri irapd tivi) 46 

ddeTelv 59, ( = disappoint) 30 

aiytaKbs 146 

aivetv (t(^ Oeip and t6j' ^e6;') 245 

atreiv, ipurav loi 

alriav (pipeip 140 

dKaKos 166 

cLKoijeiv [vapa Tt;'os = 'hear his defence') 

93, with gen. and accus. 117, 

(=:duor) 170 
cLKoieaOaL iwi tivos 23 
aKwXvTios 150 
dXrjdeveiv 192 
dXridivds deds 104 
aXX6Tpios 165 f. 
dfictpTaveiv eh... 173 
aj'iz7eti' eis (ro crvv^Bpiov) 78 
dj'a7/idf€ii' 1 4 1 
dvayKaloL (plXoi 118 
dvadefxari. di'ade/j.aTi^eiv 137 
dvalpeffL? 116 
dvaKpiveiv 120 f, 
dvaw^Hireiv 140 
dvdTTTjpos, spelling of 67 
dvarpecpecrdai 1 14 
dva<paip€ip (xrjc 7^1*) 134 
dcfi'i'at decr/xd I24f. 
dvevplcTKU} 47 f. 
dvdpwTrivbv Xiyeiu 156 
dvdpLCTTipds 175 
&vdpwTroi evdoKias 49 



dvTi^dXXeiv X6-/ovs 81 
dpTidiaridecrdai 2 1 5 f. 
dvTiXafi^dveadai 210 
dvTiXiyeLv 106 
dvTXelv [v5wp) 84 f. 
dvuidfv 86 

d^wTciTW (17 di'. kXIvt]) 66 
(o^k) dftos Trpos... 157 
dTTeXiri^eii' 59 
dTT^X" { = sufficit) 39 
dirix'^^v 5 f. 

dvo^dXXeiv ( — awittere) 231 f. 
dTTO^rjaeTaL [diri^-q) eZs... 74 
aTrdjSXTjTOS (ovd^v dir.) 208 
dTToSox?; 203 

dwoKpiTTTeiv {rriv yyjv) 134 
dwopla (with gen. of cause) 74 
diropcpavi^eadai 199 f. 
dirocnrdffdai dwb tivos 134 
dwoaTepeiv ^^ 

aTToavvdycoyos (of Christian excommu- 
nication) 96 
dirocpopTL^eadaL 134 
dpaj (colloquial) 172 
dpirayfj.6s 193 
daTCLTeiv 1 70 
d<Tljfi{pu)Pos irpbs... 150 

d(rx''?M<"'f''' 177 

ficrwTos 68 f. 

dTi/xd^eiv 236 

avdddTjs 219 

aCxT? ( = nNT) 15 

a^T6s ( = ai^TO/uaroj) 104 

our6s...eK€?j'os (of the same person) 

2l6f. 

d<pi.ivat and ciTroXi'etj' 9 f. 



264 



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 



jSdpos (iv ^dpei fJvai) 199 
^acTKalveiv 189 
jSao-Tdfeic ( = sh'a/) 97 f. 
^epXijadai (of sick persons) 7, 70 
^i(i}tik6s 171 
pX^fji/xa { — Spaais) 24 1 
pXiireiv /caret... (of places) 144 
Jei/etJ' I96f. 



7d/xos, ydfj-oi 16 

fTri with accus. (of place = to come 
to...) 135 

Kara, rbv rdrrov 62 

yi-yov(v = €yiveTO (in Matt.) i f. 

iyiverb ti avTcp and eyeverd tl 
ai)r6s 115 

yevitjdai ( = to be born) 95 

yeviadaL dvdpL (of marriage) 156 
yivuffKerat (impersonal) 37 f. 
yXcx}(T<j6Ko/ji.ov 97 
yoyyvdfxds 92 
ypdfifiara ( = elementary learning) 92 

daixd'^eiv 237 f. 

BeiaiBal/jLcov 125 f. 

5e/cr6s 184 

deair6Tr)s ( = owner) 215 

5id (napTiipwv) 215, (T/3itDi' i]fiepu)v) 20, 

[eTTicTToXr] 5id tivcs) 202 
oial-iaXXeiv 69 
0(d7;'a)(ns 140 

5ta5e^d/^e^'o^ ( = e/<- StaSox^s) 116 
BiadTjKT] 229 f. 

diuKOvia (of household service) 63 
Sia/coiJetv (forensic use) 138 
diaKplveiv ( = to make a distinction 

between) 119 
diavvetv (ttXovv) 1 34 f. 
dLaTraparpi^ai 2 1 1 
OLacnifLV 56 
5tara7^ 116 
OLaTpipeiv 1 2 I 
SiipxecrBai 88 
5^77, ^ ('Justice') 148 
Oiowerris l3of. 
oixo(^Ta(Tla 166 
oidjKeiv 158 f. 

(ou) OOKlfXa'^tLV I j^ I 



^cti' of/f (=:t/ ouv e'dj'...) 92 

iSatpl^eii' 74 

et 5e (in MSS.) for fSe 152, 237 

ei divacvTo (parenthetical) 146 f. 

elvai iv dyuvlq. 77 

elvai iv Toh tipos 50 ff. 

eh and (f 5 

eis (dTriXai/crtc) 213, (KauAWj'os) 53, 

(ixaKpdv) 112, (tAos) 71 
efs tQ>v dJideKo. (6 ffs) 38 
eK tQ}v { — TLvks eK tQ)!'...) 84, 87, 96 
e/c/3oXi7f TTOLeiadai 144 f. 

^K'SOTOS 1 1 1 f . 

eKdoxv {=expectatio) 231 
CKeiffe ( = €K€T) 134 
eKXeiiroPTOs tov ijXiov 79 
^KTpufMa 179 

iXanbv or eXatwc (to 3pos) 73 
EXXT/ytcrri yiVilxTKeiv 135 
(jx^areveiv 197 f. 
'4lJ.(po^os ylyveadai. 139 
eV yuvig, (proverbial) 141 
^^ T(j /x^(7(^ 10 
ez'^Xf"' 28 f., 64 
(oi)k) e^cf ( = (oi'k-) ^cTTti') 171 
^voxos els... 4 f. 
evTa<pia(j fibs 98 
ej'r6s 7 1 

^UTvyxdyeiv rivl 140 
e^aireti', -eiadai 76 
e^ivevaev 88 
e|o/xoXo7€rc 75 
e^oi^^evetj' 72 
^Trei { = a//oijia/i} 162 
eVei<Ta7W7'^ 227 
iireiaipxecdai 75 
eVi with accus. (of ruling) 111, ( = quod 

attincl ad) 19 
fTTt/SaXwi' (^/cXate) 41 ff. 
^7ri7J'6«'res ( = ;r cogui/a) 1 1 7 f. 
eiribiopOwv 219 
^TTt/ueXe/as tux"'' I43 
iirnriTTTeiv (of crowds = to press upon) 25 
iwiirX'qffaeLV 209 
eiTLffKevd^eaOai 135 
fTrlaraais 185 f. 
iwLffTrivaL Tivi 47 
tTTtcrToXr; 5ia rt/'os 202 
eTrL(TTp^\pai 8, 246 til. 



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 



265 



eTnavcrTaais 185 f. 

€TriTl0ecr6aL 149 

epidTav and atTelv loi f. 

icTTpufx.ei'os (of rooms) 39 

erepodLdaaKaKew 203 

iroifia iffTiv 67 

evSoKelv €v..., -ia 48 f. 

evfieradoTos ■213 

einrpoffdeKTOS 184 

eiiplffKecv 1 3 f. 

evcppaiveadai 69 f. 

i(pri/jLepos 236 

^Xet (rpd/JLOS riva) 44 f. 

^Xtf ( = 5i;i'a(7^at) 14, (of fishing) 109, 

( = aestimare) 254 f. 
?ws (^Twv) 49 f. 
?W5 7rp6y... 83 

^7]IJ.L(j36r)vai 61 
f^j* eaurii; 164 

TjXiKla 6 f. 

■fjXinKa { = spero) 91 

T]IJ.i0av)]S 61 

iJTTrifxa 160 f., 171 f. 

deioT-qs and Oeorrjs 151 

BepaTreCeiv (and lacrdai) 60, -eadaL (of 

gods) 127 
6pia/j,^€vetv 18 1 

IdaOai (and Oepaireveii') 60 

iS^a 22 

£5ia, TO, r5. ( = (his) own home) 84 

Upovpyelv 165 

Iffbrifios, -la 240 

IffTopetv 188 

KaOalpeiv (of arboriculture) 103 
Kadaipeiv ( = :mmim(ere) 129 f. 
KadeXew (of bodies of the dead) 44 
Kadl^eiv (of appointing judges) 171 
(cai (copula between a finite verb and 

a participle) 72 
/caXot ?p7a (in the Pastoral Epistles) 

224 
KaXws ( = ei' KoKifi, in a good place) 236 
/card. (k. dvfa/J.iv) 184, (k. Ke(pa\rjs 

^wv) 42, (ot Kara ttjj' 'Aalav t6xoi) 



143, (k. Ttj-a iXdelv) 62, (k. T67roj» 

^evetr^ai) 62 
Kara^pa^eveiv 196 f. 
KaraYOTyrei/eti' 189 
KaraKeiffOai 25 
/caTaKoTrTeti/ eaur6i' 27 
KaToKaXetv 238 

KaraKaix^aveiv 84, 158 f., 200 f. 
Karaj'i'^tj 159 f. 
KaraTTOfeiadai 114 f. 
KaTapTi^eif 167 
Karacrekiv (ttjv x^'^P") I30> {■''i? X^'PO 

120 
KaraaraaLS, KaraffTrifia, -tikos 220 
/carao-xeo-is 114, 116 
KaT€ypo)afi.ivo% { = reprehensibilis) 188 f. 
KaT7)(f>€La, 238 
Keipla 96 

K€ve/j.^aTeveiP 198 
Kepdalveiv 145 
Ke<pd\aiov 227 f. 
K€(pa\atovi' 35 f. 

KripvaaeLv (in athletic contests) 174 
Kivelv 17 
KOLVwviKOS 213 f. 
KoWacrSai tivl 118 

KOTTldv 7 
KOCTfllKOS 228 

Kpareiv rrjs irpodiaews 144 

Kplvew {^aliqiiid seciim statuere) 167 

Kplcris ^\aa<f>r]ijLias 244 

Kpoveiv (t7]v dijpav) 120 

KTOLffdai (of buying) 1 1 1 

KTuifxai and K^KTrj/xai 72 

XaYxoti'etj/ ( = to cast lots) 106 

Xajx^aveiv ( = to get gain) 1 84 f. 

XapLirpQs (of feasting) 70 

\avdaviT(j} (fiTj X. roCro u/xaj) 242 

XelwecrdaL ev rivi Trpay/xaTi 235 

XoYioj 129 

X670;' fTrexc"' Tti'os 193 f 

(ouSecis) X0701' iroieladai 133 f., 252 ff. 

fMaKapicT/jLOi 154 

/xaKpoOvfxe'iy 72 

jxavdoiviiv (with adjectives) 210 

jxapavaOa i8o 

fjiaxcipa. 76 f. 



K. 



266 



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 



Ij.€y6.\rj (ii/ToXi^) 1 6 

fueXeTau 209 

ytieXX^ffw (=1 will be ready) 240 

fi4Wov, et's TO 65 

fjAveiv tL TLva (of future events) 132 

IJLepU (convivial use) 64 

^lerd Tpds 7]fj.^pas 55 n. 

/tera(7X'?/'ia7^^et»' 169 f. 

fieTarldecrdaL 188 

HTjTTOTe iarai 38 

/uo/)07j and crxv/J-f"- '62 

Mwp^ 3 ff. 

I'eiyet;' { — nulu tacite significare) 100 

veuKopos 130 

j't/cac (of victory in lawsuits) 171 f. 

j'oetJ' 151 

vvcTdiiv 108 . 

oSiv Troieif ( = 65. Troieftr^ai) 25 

oTSa ( = 1 remember) 187 

oiK7}p.a. { — deafiUTTipiov) 120 

oiKodo/Mri 192 

oiKovpos and otVoi/pyds 220 ff. 

01 yUj; ^x^"'''^^ 175 

orj-oy Tid^uai. 85 

(/U7)) oKffjCTris (in requests) 118 

oXos dvdpioiros 93 

6piye<T0ai 204 

opl'^eiu ( = to resolve) 119 

opiU.-^ 122 

oVia, rd otr. Aa^iS 121 

6(r/nT7 (in connexion with triumph) 181 f. 

ora;/ with indie. 35, with aor. subj. 94 

071 { = Ti;) 33, ( = 5^Xoy oTt) 212, 243 

ouTos (deictic use) 133, (^vulgaris) 229 

ourws 87 f. 

ovx olov 1 58 

wapa (tt. 5(/fa/it;') 184, (ot ir. Tivos = ol 

olKeioi) 25 f. 
TrapajSaWeii' (^ = trajiccre) 131 
■wapaytviaBai 73 
■n-apabix^c6o-<- 136 
7ra/)a5i56cat (tt;!' ^vxr/") 124, (t6 aCofxa) 

176 f. 
TrapaiTeicr^at 43, 234 
irap6.K\riTOS 102 f. 
Trapa/fouet;' 28 



Trapa/cilTTTetv 80 f., 235 f. 

TrapaXiyeaOai 143 f. 

TrapaXoyii^eadaL 235 

TrapaTTTW/j-a 160 

irapaT-qprjcavTes {absolute posituni) 74 

7rapaTi'7x<i''f"' (0^ Traparicy^^di'Oi'Tes) 125 

wapavriKa 183 

irapacpipuv [rb iroTrjpiov) 39 

irdpeifii 65 

irdpeffts 153 f. 

irapdevla {x'ripcL...a.w6 ttjs irapd. ai'XTys) 50 

irapo^vveiv, -v<t/jl6s (in bonam partem) 

230 f. 
wapovaia 65 n. 
ttSs ( = all manner of) 57 
war pis 10 
■weideiv 141 ff. 
Tret^oj 167 
irelpav Xa^elv 232 f. 
TTeXaTTjs {=cliens) 166 
Trepi (after its noun) 131 
Trepidyeiv (yvvaiKa) 173 f. 
Trept ajxapTlas 157 
TrepijSf/SXT^/x^fos 40 
irepteXdv (nautical use) 149 f. 
TrfpnrlTTTfiv rivi 61 
wepiTToietadai 133 
irLp.irpa<T9ai 149 

(6) TTtcTTEt/wj' (absolute use of St John) 87 
5rX7;7ds iiriOeivaL 61 
vbOev (dyopdcrofxev ;) 91 
TroXf/Ltos ( = battle) 67 f. , 178 
(6) TroXus o'xXos ( = the common people) 

37 
TTopeijeadai [ = discedere e vita) 66 
TTopKTfxoi 21 1 
TTopKela 123 f. 
irpaaial 30 
wpo^i^d^etv 1 1 
wpoypd(f>eLV 189 
irpoix^<^6ai 152 f. 
irpo'tuTacrdai ( = to practise in business) 

223 f. 
irpoXafi^dveadai 190 
irpovoiav irouladaL 164 
vpoirerris {fxrid^v irp. irpa/rreiv) 131 
Tvpoaavafiaivuv 66 f. 
npocrSiicOai 127 f. 
wpoadeKTos 184 



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 



267 



irpoffipxeffdai tivl (=\.o consent to) 211 

Trpoa\a/j,^dvfCT0ai nva 225 

irpocTO(p€i\fiv 225 

irpodTa.T-q's {^^patromis) and -rts 166 

irpoTuveiv {riva ifMaffiv) 136 f. 

irpCJTos (of geographical situation) 124 

TTwy yap... ; 117 

pawt^eLv, -(T/xa 40, 105 
paTrlafxacn ^dWeiv, Xa^eif 40 
piirTelv IpuTLa 136 

cretpds [cripos, crippos) 241 

cnvddiv 40 

(Tiros, (Ttra, (Tiria 1 14 

a-Krjvos (of the body) 183 

ffK6\o\j/ 187 

CKvOpuTTOi, -a^eLv 82 

aovddpi.ov 97 

(TTadrjfai, crrjvaL 81 

OTeyeLv 177 f. 

(TT€fj.p.aTa (in sacrifices) 122 

(TT-^KU) (with dative) 190 

arrjaaL ( = f iiyocrTaTijcrat) 1 9 f. 

(TTpaTevo/xevos and aTpaTi(J)Tr]s 56 

CT pa<priv ai 247 

(TTpi(f)€iv and air oar pi (peiv 21 

(TvyKO/xi^eip 1 16 f. 

crvyKpiveiv 168 

<TVKO(j)avTuv 56 f. 

cruXaYWYer^ ( = rob) 195 

avWap.^a.v€<Tdai (=help) 57 

avix^dWeiP rifl [els Tr6\e/xov) 67, 125 

(TVfnrepKpipeffdai 163 

avix(f)VTO% 155 f. 

<rvvayayd)v ( = e^apyvpL<Tas) 68 

ffvvoKl^eadai iiof. 

avvairdyecrdaL 163 

(TvveiMvaL (ov^h iavT<^) 168 

(TDi'eXat/i'eti' et's... 115 

crvvipxeaOai tivl 40 

avviaTrjKivai. 242 

a\ivix^<^OaL 128 

(Ti'i'tServ 1 20 f. 

<TV(rx'rilJ-^Tii;e<ydat 162 

cXVfJ^o- and nopcprj 162 

ffX^ii'ea-dai (of multitudes) 12 [ 

crupevecrdai 217 



ra Trapa tii/os 27 

Te...Kai 85 f. 

tAo5 ^x^'" (of prophecies) 76 

TerapTatos (of dead bodies) 96 

r7;Xau7ws 33 

Tt ecrrat twi...; (what reward...?) 15 

rt o?5as ei... 172 f. 

Tts r/ (dtpg); 43 f. 

TO (car eyu.e wpddvfiov 151 

To\p.dv (=virop.iveiv) 155 

To\p.rj(Tas eicrrjXdf 44 

TpaTT^^ais diaKOPew 113 

(/it€Ta) rpets rifiipas 13 

TTj rp/rij vp-epq. 1 1 ff . 

Tpox^s (yevicreus) 237 

1)747)5 aTTo... 88 

yTF^/) ( = instead of ) 225, (I'Tr.Si'ca/tti') 184 

vTro^dWetv ( = suborn) 113 

VTToXvaai riva 24 

virocTTiWeadai (ovB^v) 132 

vworideadaL 208 f. 

I'TTcoTTtdfeii' 71, 174 

I'crcroj 107 f. 

i)(r(rw7ros 106 ff. 

<pe\6vr]s 2 1 7 f. 

<f>ipe(TdaL 230 

(f)ipo}v (colloquial) 172 

(piKavdpuwla 147 f. 

(piXoveiKia 75 f. 

(piXoTifieicr 6 ai 165 

(po^os, 6 0. roO Kvplov 183 

(ppovpeiu 186 f. 

XctpiJ' ^xe'" ^34 

Xap'S -rep ^e^j 156 

(^i/) xe'/'' = 5td 115 

Xoi'/cos 179 f. 

Xpeia 192 

XP'^/cTTOT^js 161, (and (piXavdpuiwia) 222 f. 

Xwpeti' 14, 94, 184 

Xwp/s ( = df€ii) 103 

tiSii'as Xuetc 112 

ws (with nouns) 127, ( = ?(<;5) 191 

(ij 5^ 202 

wj eVi... 125 

(i^eXer;/ ( = prevail) 21 



Cambriljgc : 

PRINTED BY J. AND C. F. CLAY, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



Date Due