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Ser, Ijy, If 
af Jnter-Commtmuatton 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 











" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV.-No. 88.] SATURDAY,. JULY 5. 1851. {SSJSSTk* 


To those thanks we will add our promise, that no 
effort shall be wanting to carry on this paper in the 
same spirit in which it was commenced, and to add, if 
possible, to its utility and interest. And by way of 
setting an example to our correspondents 
" every word to spare 
That wants or force, or light, or weight or care " 

we will, with these thanks and this promise, bid our 
friends fall to on the Banquet of Pleasant Inventions 
spread out for them in the following pages. 

The Duke of Monmouth's Pocket-books, by Sir F. Mad- 

Folk Lore : Stanton Drew and its Tradition, by David 

Minor Notes : The Hon. Spencer Perceval An Ad- 
venturer in 1632 Almanacs - .-'- 4 

Ghost Stories, by the Rev. Dr. Maitland - - -5 
A Book of Enzinas, or Dryander, wanted, by Benjamin 

Salting the Bodies of the Dead, by W. B. MacCabe - 6 
Minor Queries :_ The Star in the East Meaning of 
Sinage : Distord : Slander Miss Jacques Mabiotte 
Registry of British Subjects abroad Shawls 
Figures of Saints Conceyted Letters, who wrote? 
Acta Sanctorum Pope's " honest Factor "Meaning 
of " Nervous " Doomsday Book of Scotland - '-6 
MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: Dr. Sacheverell Prin- 
cess Wilbrahama Early Visitations - - 8 

Written Sermons, by J. Bruce, &c. - - - 8 
Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor - - 9 
Dr. Elrington's Edition of Ussher's Works, by the Rev. 



In "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. i., p. 198.) is 
inserted from Chambers' Edinburgh Journal an 
account of a manuscript volume said to have been 
found on the person of the Duke of Monmouth at 
the time of his arrest ; which was exhibited by Dr. 
Anster at a meeting of the Royal Irish Academy, 
November 30, 1849, accompanied by some remarks, 
which appeared in the Proceedings of the Academy, 
vol. iv. p. 411., and which furnish the substance of 
the article in Chambers above mentioned. In a 
subsequent number of the " NOTES AND QUERIES " 
(Vol. i., p. 397.), the authenticity of the volume is 
somewhat called in question by MR. C. Ross, on 
account of certain historical entries not appearing 
in it, which are printed by Welwood in his Me- 
moirs *, and stated to have been copied by him 
from " a little pocket-book " which was taken with 
Monmouth, and afterwards delivered to the King. 
Dr. Anster replied to this in the Dublin University 
Magazine for June, 1850 (vol. xxxv. p. 673.), and 
showed by references to the Harleian Miscellany 
(vol. vi. p. 322., ed. 1810), and Sir John Reresby's 
Memoirs (p. 121. 4to., 1734), that more than one 
book was found on the Duke of Monmouth's 
person when captured. In the former of these 
authorities, entitled An Account of the Manner of 
taking Hie late Duke of Monmouth : by his Majesty's 

Replies to Minor Queries: Mind your P's and Q's 
Serins Seriadesque Catharine Barton Alterius Or- 
bis Papa Charles Dodd " Prenzie" " In Print" 
Introduction of Reptiles into Ireland Ancient 
Wood Engraving of the Picture of Cebes "The 
Groves of Blarney" Tennyson's Lord of Burleigh 
Bicetre On a Passage in Dryden Derivation of 
Yankee Ferrante Pallavicino - - - - 11 

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. - - - 13 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 14 
Notices to Correspondents - - - - -14 
Advertisements - - - - - -15 


We cannot permit the present Number, which com- 
mences the Fourth Volume of" NOTES AND QUERIES," 
to come into the hands of our Readers without some 
few words of acknowledgment and thanks to those 
Friends, Readers, and Correspondents, whose kind 
encouragement and assistance have raised our paper to 
its present high position ; 

" and thanks to men 
Of noble mind, is honorable meed." 


* Query, what is the date of the first edition of 
Welwood's work ? The earliest in the Museum library 
is the third edition, printed in 1700. 

VOL. IV. No 88. 


[No. 88. 

command, printed in 1685, and perhaps compiled 
from information given by the king himself, the 
following statement is made : 

" The papers and books that were found on him are 
since delivered to his Majesty. One of the books was 
a manuscript of spells, charms, and conjurations, songs, 
receipts, and prayers, all written with the said late Duke's 
own hand. Two others were manuscripts of fortification 
and the military art. A nd a fourth book, fairly written, 
wherein are computes of the yearly expense of his Ma- 
jesty's navy and land forces." 

It is remarkable that the " pocket-book " men- 
tioned by Welwood is not here specified, but it is 
possible that the entries quoted by him may have 
been written on the pages of one of the other 
books. Two of the above only are noticed by 
Mr. Macaulay, namely, " a small treatise on for- 
tification," and "an album filled with songs, re- 
ceipts, prayers, and charms;" and there can be no 
reasonable doubt that the latter, which is men- 
tioned by the author of the tract in the Harleian 
Miscellany, as well as by Reresby and Barillon, 
is the identical manuscript which forms the subject 
of Dr. Anster's remarks. 

Within a few weeks this singular volume has 
been added by purchase to the National Collection 
of Manuscripts in the British Museum, previous 
to which I ascertained, by a careful comparison 
of its pages with several undoubted letters of the 
Duke of Monmouth (an advantage Dr. Anster 
did not possess), that the whole of the volume (or 
nearly so) is certainly in the Duke's handwriting. 
This evidence might of itself be deemed sufficient ; 
but some lines written on the fly-leaf of the 
volume (which are passed over by Dr. Anster as 
of no moment) confirm the fact beyond all cavil, 
since, on seeing them, I immediately recognised 
them as the autograph of King James himself. 
They are as follows : 

" This book was found in the Duke of Monmouth's 
pocket when he was taken, and is most of his owne 

Although the contents of this volume have been* 
already described in general terms by Dr. Anster, 
yet it may not perhaps be uninteresting to give a 
more detailed list of what is written in it : 

1. Receipts "for the stone ;" "to know the sum of 
numbers before they be writ doun;" "pour net- 
toyer 1'ovrages de cuyvre argente ; " " for to make 
Bouts and Choos [ Boots and Shoes] hold out water j" 
and " to keep the goms well." pp. 1 4. 8. 

2. Magical receipts and charms in French, written 
partly in an abbreviated form, accompanied by 
cabalistic figures. Two of these are to deliver a 
person out of prison, and are no doubt the same 

which Sir John Reresby refers to pp. 5. 7. 9. 


3. " The forme of a bill of Excheng," drawn on 
David Nairne of London, from Antwerp, May 16, 
1G84, for 200Z. sterling, p. 6. 

4. Astrological rules in French for finding out any- 
thing required ; together with a planetary wheel, 
dated 1680, to show life or death in case of illness, 
also happiness and adversity. pp. 19 25. 

5. Directions " pour savoire si une person sera fidelle 
ou non," &c. At the bottom is a cypher, in which 
a stands for 10, b for 52, &c., p. 27. All this is 
entered again at pp. 45. 47. 

6. " The way from London to East Tilbery," dated 
December 1, 1684. p. 29. 

7. Prayers for the morning and evening, pp. 31 43. 

8. List of the Christian names of women and men. 
pp.44. 46. 48. 

9. Arithmetical table of the number 7, multiplied 
from Ito 37: pp. 49. 51. 

10. Receipts "to take away a corne ;" "a soveraign 
water of Dr. Stephens ;" " to make the face fair ;" 
"to make golden letters without gold;" "to kip 
iron from rusting;" "to write letters of secrets ;" 
"to make hair grow," "to make hair grow black, 
though of any colour ;" and several more. pp. 52 

11. Casualties that happened in the reigns of the En- 
glish sovereigns, from William I. to Queen Mary 
inclusive ; consisting chiefly of remarkable acci- 
dents, and reputed prodigies. pp. 62 78. 

1 2. " Socrates, Platon, Aristote et Ciceron ont fait ces 
trente Comandemens pour leurs disciples." pp.78, 

13. " A receipt for the Farcy." p. 81. 

14. A poem intitled " The Twin Flame, sent mee by 
M P.-" .pp. 83 91. 

The words in Italics have been scribbled over 
with the pen for the purpose of concealment. The 
verses commence : 

" Fantastick wanton god, what dost thoti mean, 
To breake my rest, make mee grow pale and lean." 

15. Receipts for secret writing, to take impressions of 
prints upon glass, to boil plate, &c. pp. 93 98. 

16. Several songs in English and French, pp. 99 

Among them are the verses printed in " 
AND QUERIES, Vol. i., p. 199., beginning "With 
joie we do leave thee," accompanied by the musi- 
cal notes ; and also a song commencing " All ye 
gods that ar above," with the musical notes. It 
is most probable that these songs are copied from 
printed sources ; but as they have been conjec- 
tured to be compositions by Monmouth himself, 
the following short specimen may not be unac- 
ceptable, copied literatim. 

" O how blest, and how inocent, 
and happy is a country life, 
free from tumult and discontent ; 
heer is no flatterys nor strife, 
for t'was the first and happiest life, 
when first man did injoie him selfe. 

JULY 5. 1851.] 


This is a better fate than kings, 

hence jentle peace and love doth flow, 

for fancy is the rate of things ; 

I 'am pleased, hecause I think it so. 

for a hart that is nobly true, 

all the world's arts can n'er subdue." 

This poem immediately follows the one in 
which Toddington in Bedfordshire (which the 
Duke spells, probably as then pronounced, Te- 
dington} is referred to. 

17. Prayers after the confession of sins, and the sense 
of pardon obtained. pp. 108 125. 

These prayers breathe a spirit of the most hum- 
ble and ardent piety ; and if composed by the 
Duke himself, exhibit the weakness of his character 
in a more favourable light than the remainder of 
the volume. One paragraph is striking : 

" Mercy, mercy, good Lord ! I aske not of thee 
any longer the things of this world ; neither power, nor 
honours, nor riches, nor pleasures. No, my God, dis- 
pose of them to whom thou pleasest, so that thou 
givest me mercy." 

18. "The Batteryes that can be made at Flushing 
to keep ships from coming in." pp. 127, 128. 

19. " Traite de la guere ou Politique militaire." 
pp. ISO 132. 

20. " The Rode that is to be taken from Bruxels to 
Diren, the Pri. of Orange's house." p. 133. 

21. " The Road Trom Bruxells to Sousdyck, the 
Prince of Orange his hous." p. 134. 

22. " The way that I tooke from Diren, when I went 
for England, Nov. the 10. 84." p. 135. 

23. " The way that I took when I came from England, 
December the lOth. 84." p. 137. 

24. " The way that I took the first day of Jan. n. st. 
[168|] from Bruxells to the Hague." p. 139-. 

25. Similar memoranda from llth to 14th March, 
1685, between Antwerp and Dort. p. 141. 

26. The addresses of various persons in Holland, Lon- 
don, Paris, and elsewhere, to whom letters were to 
ba written, 1685. pp. 142. 147 155. 

27. "The footway from Trogou to Amsterdam:." 
p. 143. 

28. An obscure memorandum, as follows: "1683. 
Munday the 5th of November. H. W. had T. 
The 9th of November, Poupe. The 16th of 
November, Poupe." p. 156. 

29. Value of duckatons, pistols, and gilders. Ib. 

30. Note of the route from London to Tedington. 

p. 1 57. 

Although this volume is not of the same his- 
torical^ value as the Diary mentioned by Wei wood, 
yet it is a curious and interesting relic of the un- 
fortunate man who possessed it, and whose want 
of education, superstition, and frivolity are so 
prominently displayed in its pages. As to its 
recent history, Dr. Anster states that it was pur- 
chased at a book-stall in Paris, in 1827, by an 
Irish divinity student; the same, probably, who 

has written his name at p. 90. : " John Barrette, 
Irish College, Paris, Dec. 31, 1837." The same 
person has made a memorandum in pencil, at p. 1., 
which has subsequently been partially rubbed out, 
and, as far as now legible, is as follows : 

" This Book was found in of the English 

College in Paris, among other MSS. deposited there 
by James II." 

An earlier hand has scribbled a list of the con- 
tents at the commencement, with the signature 
" S. Rutter." If King James deposited this 
volume in the College at Paris, in all probability 
the others found on the person of the Duke of 
Monmouth accompanied it, and may one day or 
other turn up as unexpectedly as the present book 
has done. F. MADDEN. 

British Museum> June 27.. 


Stanton Drew and its Tradition. At the little 
village of Stanton Drew, in the county of Somer- 
set, east of the road between Bristol and Wells, 
stands a well-known Druidical monument, which, 
in the opinion of Dr. Stukeley, was more ancient 
than that at Abury. It consists (according to a 
recent writer) of four groups of stones, forming 
(or, rather, having formed when complete) two 
circles; and two other figures, one an ellipse. 
Although the largest stones are much inferior in 
their dimensions to those at Stonehenge and: 
Abury, they are by no means contemptible ; some 
of them being nine feet in height and twenty-two 
feet in girth. There is a curious tradition very pre-> 
valent amongst the country people, respecting the 
origin of these remains, which they designate the 
" Evil Wedding," for the following good and sub- 
stantial reasons : Many hundred years ago (on 
a Saturday evening), a newly married couple, with 
their relatives and friends, met on the spot now 
covered by these- ruins, to celebrate their nuptials. 
Here they feasted and danced right merrily, until 
the clock tolled the hour of midnight, when th 
piper (a pious man) refused to play any longer : 
this was much against the wish of the guests, and 
so exasperated the bride (who was fond of danc- 
ing), that she swore with an oath, she would not 
be baulked in her enjoyment by a beggarly piper, 
but would find a substitute, if she went to h-11 to 
fetch one. She had scarcely uttered the words, 
when a venerable old man, with a long beard, 
made his appearance, and having listened to their 
request, proffered his services, which were right 
gladly accepted. The old gentleman (who was 
no other than the Arch-fiend himself) having taken 
the seat vacated by the godly piper, commenced 
playing a slow and solemn air, which on the guests 
remonstrating he changed into one more lively and 
rapid. The company now began to dance, but 


[No. 88. 

soon found themselves impelled round the per- 
former so rapidly and mysteriously, that they 
would all fain have rested. But when they essayed 
to retire, they found, to their consternation, that they 
were moving faster and faster round their diabolical 
musician, who had now resumed his original shape. 
Their cries for mercy were unheeded, until the 
first glimmering of day warned the fiend that he 
I must depart. With such rapidity had they moved, 
that the gay and sportive assembly were now re- 
duced to a ghastly troop of skeletons. " I leave 
you," said the fiend, " a monument of my power 
and your wickedness to the end of time:" which 
saying, he vanished. The villagers, on rising in 
the morning, found the meadow strewn with large 
pieces of stone, and the pious piper lying under a 
hedge, half dead with fright, he having been a 
witness to the whole transaction. 

Godalming, May 10. 1831. 

The Hon. Spencer Perceval. Being on a tour 
through the West of England some years ago, I 
found myself one morning rapidly advancing up 
the river Tamar, in the gig of " the Captain of the 
Ordinary" at Plymouth. We were bound for the 
noble ruins of Trematon Castle, in the area of 
which a good modern house has been erected, and 
in one of the towers is arranged a very pleasing 
collection of antiquities. 

As we proceeded up the river, the gallant cap- 
tain related the following anecdote in reference to 
the then proprietor of Trematon : 

It is well known that in the afternoon of the 
12th May, 1812, the Hon. Spencer Perceval, the 
then prime minister, fell by the hand of Belling- 
ham in the lobby of the House of Commons ; the 
cause assigned by the murderer being the neglect 
of, or refusal to discharge a supposed claim he had 
upon the government. 

On the same night the gentleman above alluded* 
to, and residing at Trematon, had the tragic scene 
BO minutely and painfully depicted in his sleep, 
that he could not resist the desire of sending the 
particulars to a friend in town, which he did by 
the up mail, which departed a few hours after he 
had risen on the following morning. 

He informed his friend that his topographical 
knowledge of London was very meagre ; and that 
as to the House of Commons (the old one), he had 
seen only the exterior : he went on to state, that, 
dreaming he was in town, he had a desire to hear 
the debates in Parliament, and for this purpose 
enquired his way to the lobby of the House, the 
architectural peculiarities of which he minutely 
described ; he gave an exact description of the few 
officials and others in the room, and especially of a 
tall, thin man, who seemed to watch the opening 

of the door as any one entered with wild and rest- 
less gaze : at length Mr. Perceval arrived, whose 
person (although unknown to him) and dress he 
described, as also the manner in which the horrid 
deed was done: he further communicated the 
words uttered by the victim to the effect " the 
villain has murdered ;" how the wounded man 
was treated, and the person of the medical man 
who was on the instant called in. 

These, with other particulars, which have escaped 
my memory, were thus recorded, and the first news- 
paper he received confirmed the accuracy of this 
extraordinary dream. M. W. B. 

An Adventurer in 1632. I transcribe from a 
manuscript letter now before me, dated "Tuesday, 
Whitsun-week, 1632," the following passage. Can 
you or any of your correspondents give me (or 
tell me where I am likely to find) any further in- 
formation of the adventurer there named ? 

" Heer is much Speach of the Brauery of a Porter 
y* hath taken a Braue House, and hath his Coach & 
4 Horses. Y* Lord Mayor examined him ho\v he gott 
y* Wealth : he answered nothing. Then y* Lords of 
y* Council gott out of him, that he being the Pope's 
Brother Borne in Essex, Goodman Linges Sonnes, 
was maintained by him, and tempted mucli to have 
come over to him : these 2 Brothers being Ship Boyes 
to a French pirate, the porter gott meanes to come 
againe into England, but y* other being a Witty Boy 
was sould to a Coortier in Paris, who trauelling to 
Florence, thear bestowed his Boy of a Great Man, 
who when he dyed tooke such affection to this Boy, 
y* changeing his name to his owne left his estate to 
him : and so in time grew a Florentine, a Cardinall, 
& now Pope, & y* greatest linguist for the Latine y* 
ever was." 

C. DE D. 

[MafFeo Barberiui (Urban VIII.) was the Roman 
pontiff between 1623 and 1644, and is said to have 
been born at Florence in 1568, of a noble family. He 
was a good classical scholar, and no mean Latin poet. 
One charge brought against him was his weak par- 
tiality towards his nephews, who ahused his old age and 
credulity. It is probable some of our correspondents 
can throw some light on this mysterious document.] 

Almanacs. A friend of mine, in taking down 
his old rectory house last year, found under one 
of the floors a book almanac, of which the follow- 
ing is the title given : 

" A Prognossicacion and an Almanac fastened to- 
gether, declaring the Dispocission of the People, and 
also of the Wether, with certaine Electyons and Tymes 
chosen both for Phisicke and Surgerye, and for the 
Husbandman. And also for Hawekying, Huntying, 
Fyshing, and Foulyinge, according to the Science of 
Astronomy, made for the yeare of our Lord God 
M.D.L. calculed for the Merydyan of Yorke, and prac- 
ticed by Anthony Askam." 

At the end of the Almanac : 

Imprynted at London, in Flete Strete, at the Signe 

JULY 5. 1851.] 


of the George, next to Saynt Dunstone's Churche, by 
Wyllyam Powell, cum priuilegio ad imprimendum 

Then follows the " Prognossicacion," the title- 
page to which is as follows : 

" A Prognossicacion for the yere of our Lord 
M.CCCCCL., calculed upon the Meridiane of the Towne 
of Amvarpe and the Country thereabout, by Master 
Peter of Moorbecke, Doctoure in Physicke of y e sarae 
Towne, whereunto is added the Judgment of M. Cor- 
nelius Schute, Doctor in Physieke of the Towne of 
Bruges in Flanders, upon and concerning the Disposi- 
cion, Estate, and Condicion of certaine Prynces, Con- 
treys, and Regions for thys present yere, gathered oute 
of hys Prognostication for the same yere. Translated 
out of Duch into Englyshe by William Harrys." 

At the end 

. " Imprynted at London by John Daye, dwellynge 
over Aldersgate, and Wylliam Seres, dwellyng in 
Peter Colledge. These Bokes are to be sold at the 
Newe Shop by the lytle Conduyte in Chepesyde." 

The print is old English. Mr. Francis Moore 
and the Almanacs have figured in your recent 
Numbers, and I have thought that a brief notice 
of an almanac three hundred years old might not 
be unacceptable to your " NOTES AND QUERIES " 
friends. D. 

Exeter, June 18. 1851. 


From some recent experiments of the Baron 
von Reichenbach, it seems probable that wherever 
chemical action is going on light is evolved, though 
it is only by persons possessing peculiar (though 
not very rare) powers of sight, and by them only 
under peculiar circumstances, that it can be seen. 
It occurred to him that such persons might perhaps 
see light over graves in which dead bodies were 
undergoing decomposition. He says : 

*' The desire to inflict a mortal wound on the mon- 
ster, superstition, which, from a similar origin, a few 
centuries ago, inflicted on European society so vast an 
amount of misery; and by whose influence, not hun- 
dreds, but thousands of innocent persons died in tor- 
tures on the rack and at the stake ; this desire made 
me wish to make the experiment, if possible, of bringing 
a highly sensitive person, by night, to a churchyard." 
158. Gregory's Translation, p. 126. 

The experiment succeeded. Light " was chiefly 
seen over all new graves ; while there was no ap- 
pearance of it over very old ones." The fact was 
confirmed in subsequent experiments by five other 
sensitive persons , and I have no design of ques- 
tioning it. My doubt is only how far we can con- 
sider the knowledge of it as giving a "mortal 
wound " to superstition. " Thousands of ghost 
stories," the Baron tells us, " will now receive a 
natural explanation, and will thus cease to be mar- 

vellous;" and he afterwards says, " Thus I have, 
I trust, succeeded in tearing down one of the 
densest veils of darkened ignorance and human 
error." I repeat that I do not question the fact ; 
my Query is, where to find the " thousands of 

fhost stories " which are explained by it ; and as 
suspect that you have some correspondents 
capable of giving information on such subjects, I 
shall feel much obliged if they will tell me. 




Can any obliging reader of the " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " inform me of the existence, in any of 
our public libraries, or for sale, of the following 
book : Dryandri (Franciscus) FlandricB proprice in" 
carcerationis et liberationis Historia : Antwerpiae (?) 
1545. Sm. 8vo. ? Fox, the martyrologist, writing 
of Dryander, says : 

" I read the book in the shop of John Oporine, printer, 
of Basil." 

I have a French translation of it, and a Spanish 
version is mentioned by Pellicea (after Gerdes), 
under this title : Breve Description del Pais Baxo, 
y razon de la Religion en Espaha, en 8vo. ; but in 
such a manner as leaves it questionable. If a 
Spanish verson is known, I should esteem it a 
favour to be informed where it can now be found. 

Enzinas passed part of the years 1542-3 with 
Melancthon at Wittemberg. Having completed 
his New Testament, he returned early in the latter 
year to Antwerp to get it printed. After much 
reflection and advice with his friends, he made an 
agreement with Stephen Mierdmann of Antwerp, 
in the following manner : 

" I determined," says he, " to do my duty in the 
affair, at all events; which was, to undertake the pub- 
lication, and to leave the consequences, and the course 
of the inspired Word, to the providence of God, to 
whom it of right belonged. I therefore spoke with a 

, and asked him whether he was willing to print 

my book. He answered, Yes, very gladly ; partly 
because I desire to do some good for the commonweal 
more than for my own particular interest, caring little 
for gain or for the slander of opponents ; and partly, 
also, said he, because it is a book that has long been 
desired. Then I asked him whether it was needful to 
have a license or permission, and whether he could not 
print it without these : for, said I, it would ill beseem 
the Word of God, from which kings and rulers derive 
the authority for the exercise of their power, that it 
should be subject to the permission or prohibition of 
any human feeling or fancy. To this he answered, 
that no law of the Emperor had ever forbidden the 
printing of the Holy Scriptures ; and this was well 
known, for in Antwerp the New Testament had already 
been printed in almost every language of Europe but 



[No. 88. 

the Spanish, and that neither himself nor any other 
printer had ever previously asked permission. From 
his experience, he had no doubt that, provided it was 
faithfully translated, the New Testament might be 
freely printed without leave or license. Then, said I, 
get ready your presses and everything needful for the 
work. I will answer for the interpretation of the text, 
and you shall take the risk of printing. And more, in 
order that you shall not suffer by loss or fine from our 
Spaniards, I will take the expense of the impression on 
myself. So I delivered to him the copy, and begged 
him to dispatch the business as soon as possible. 

" Nothing relating to it was done in secret ; every- 
body knew that the New Testament was being printed 
in Spanish. Many praised the project ; many waited 
for it with eagerness ; my rooms were never closed, 
every one who wished came in and out : and yet I 
doubt not that some who came and beforehand praised 
my book, when they were behind my back, and with 
their own parties, sung another song; well perceiving 
that the reading of the Scriptures by the people is not 
very likely to profit their avaricious stomachs. I care 
little, however, for such opinions and selfish passions, 
confiding in God alone, who directed and would protect 
an undertaking devoted solely to His own glory." 

It were too long for the " NOTES AND QUERIES " 
to tell how he was induced to cancel the first leaf 
of his New Testament after it was printed, because 
it had one word which savoured of Lutheranism ; 
of his presenting the finished volume to the Em- 
peror Charles V. at Brussels ; how he received 
him, and what he said ; of his being entrapped by 
his confessor, and cast into prison for fifteen 
months, escaping and being let down by a rope 
over the city wall, until he found repose and 
security again at Wittemberg with Melancthon. 

Few of the early translations of the New Testa- 
ment into the vulgar languages of Europe are so 
little known as the Spanish of Francisco de En- 
zinas, or Dryander ; and yet, perhaps, of no one of 
them are there such minute particulars of the 
printing and publication to be found upon record 
as that published by him in 1543, and of his im- 
prisonment in consequence of it. 


Mount Pleasant, near Woburn. 


Every reader of Ariosto, of Boiardo, or of 
Berri, is acquainted with the character of Turpin, 
as an historian. John Turpin's History of the 
Life of Charles the Great and Roland has long 
since been regarded as a collection of fables ; 
as a romance written under a feigned name. 
Its real character is, however, best described 
by Ferrario, when he says that it is not to be 
considered as " the mere invention of any one im- 
postor, but rather as a compilation of ancient tales 
and ballads that had been circulating amongst the 
people from the ninth century." (Storia ed Analisi 

degli Antichi Romanzi di Cavalleria, vol. i. pp.21, 
22.) In such a work we must not calculate upon 
meeting with facts, but we may hope to be able to 
obtain an insight into ancient practices, and an 
acquaintance with ancient customs. It is for this 
reason I would desire to draw the attention of the 
reader to a curious mode of preserving the bodies 
of the dead, stated by Turpin. He says that the 
Christians, being without a sufficient supply of 
aromatic drugs wherewith to embalm the dead, 
disembowelled them, and filled them up with salt. 
The passage thus stands in the original : 

" Tune defunctorum corpora amici eorum diversis 
aromatibus condiverunt; alii myrrha, alii balsamo, alii 
sale diligentes perfuderunt: mutti corpora per ventrem 
findebant et stercora ejlciebant, et sale, alia aromata non 
halentes, condiebant." C. 27. 

Does any other author but Turpin mention this 
mode of " salting," or rather of " pickling " the 
dead ? This is the Query which I put, in the ex- 
pectation of having it answered in the affirmative, 
as I am quite certain I have met with another 
author although I cannot cite his name who 
mentions the body of a Duke of Gloucester being 
thus preserved with salt ; but unfortunately I have 
not taken a note of the author, and can only thus 
vaguely refer to the fact. W. B. MAC'CABE. 

The Star in the East (St. Matt. ii. 2.). I have 
been told that in the year of the Nativity three of 
the planets were in conjunction. Some one of 
your astronomical correspondents may probably 
be able to furnish information on this subject : it 
is full of sacred interest and wonder. J. W. H. 

Meaning of Sinage ; Distord ; Slander. In a 
translation of Luther's Revelation of Antichrist by 
the Protestant martyr Frith, the word sinage 
occurs in a list of ecclesiastical payments, which 
the popish prelates were wont to exact from the 
parochial clergy. 

If any of your correspondents can say what 
sinage means, he may oblige me still further by 
explaining the word distord, in the same page ; 
where it is said " they stir princes and officers to 
distord against them," viz., against such as resist 
the claims of churchmen. 

Is there any authority for supposing that sclawn- 
der, ordinarily slander, may sometimes mean in- 
jury, without reference to character? It is certain 
that the parallel term calumnia was so used in 
monkish Latin. H. W. 

Miss. It is generally, I believe, understood 
that, prior to the time of Charles II., married 
women were called Mistress, and unmarried had 
Mistress prefixed to their Christian name ; and 
that the equivocal position of many in that reign, 
gave rise to the peculiar designation of Miss or 
" Mis." Can any of your readers show an earlier 

JULY 5. 1851.] 


use of the term than the following, from Epigrams 
of all Sorts, by Richard Flecknoe, published 1669? 

" To Mis. Davis on her excellent Dancing. 
Dear Mis., delight of all the nobler sort, 
Pride of the stage and darling of the court." 
Again, was the term, when used with especial 
reference to these ladies, always spelt with one *, 
as Mis f M. S. 

Jacques Mabiotte. I read, that certain members 
of the continental masonic lodges interpret the 
Hiram, whose death the freemasons affect to 
deplore, as meaning Molai, Grand Master of the 
Templars; but that others understand the said 
Hiram to mean Jacques Mabiotte. Now, I should 
think the person whom secret associations can be 
even imagined, ever so falsely, to keep in continual 
remembrance, and who is thus placed in compe- 
tition with the Grand Master of the Temple, should 
at least enjoy that moderate share of celebrity 
that will enable some of your correspondents to 
inform me who he was, and what were the cir- 
cumstances of his death. 1 have not myself been, 
able to find him. A. N. 

Registry of British Subjects abroad. There is 
a notion that all British subjects born in foreign 
parts are considered as born within the diocese of 
London. What is the origin of this notion ? I 
have heard it said that it is founded on some 
order made by King George L, on the occasion 
of his journeys to Hanover. But it must be of 
older date. 

Can any of your readers throw any light upon 
this? and greatly oblige, J. B. 

A notice was published in the London Gazette 
in March, 1816, stating that the Bishop of London's 
registrar would register all marriages of British 
subjects solemnised in foreign countries ; and also 
the births and deaths of British subjects which oc- 
curred abroad. Has that notice any reference to 
the notion ? 

Shawls. When were shawls first introduced 
into this country from the East ? and whence has 
the name arisen ? for I see no trace of it in our 
English^ dictionaries. Is it from its Persian name, 
"do-shalla?" I should also much wish to know 
when plaids and tartans were first mentioned as 
part of the national dress of Scotland. A JUROR. 

" Racked by pain, by shame confounded" From 
whence are the following lines taken ? 

" Racked by pain, by shame confounded j 
Goaded to the desperate deed." 

Oxford, June 17. 1850. 

Figures of Saints. During some slight repairs 
in my parish church, vestiges of mural paintings 
were discovered above and on each side of the 
chancel arch. I caused the plaster and whitewash 

to be removed, and discovered two colossal angelic 
figures, but in a very imperfect state. Each have 
nimbi of a blue colour, surmounted by crosses, 
with globular extremities. 

The S. figure holds an enormous spear. The 
N. one is so much defaced that nothing could be 
traced but the outline of the figure, and what ap- 
pears a gigantic serpent, or perhaps a scroll of a 
blue colour behind it. The clerk reports that 
traces of an anchor could be seen ten years ago ; 
but on his statement I cannot place much reliance. 
I should be obliged for any information respecting 
the subject. Above the centre of the arch I could 
only see a profusion of fragments of wings sur- 
rounded by a glory. E. S. TAYLOR. 

Martham, Norfolk, June 7. 

Coneeyted Letters, who wrote f 

" Coneeyted Letters, newly laid open : or a most 
excellent bundle of new wit, wherein is knit up to- 
gether all the perfection or art of episteling, by which 
the most ignorant may with much modestie talke and 
argue with the best learned." London : B. Alsop, 

Who is the author of this little work ? Lowndes 
gives it as an anonymous production, but it is 
sometimes ascribed to Nicolas Breton. The 
initials I. M. affixed to the preface, would rather 
denote Jervase Markham as the author. A. 

Acta Sanctorum* Is any endeavour being 
made for the completion of that vast work, the 
Acta Sanctorum, the last volume of which I be- 
lieve was published at Brussels in 1845 ? P. S. E. 

Pope's " honest Factor." I shall be obliged if 
any of your readers can inform me who was the 
"honest factor" referred to in Pope's "Sir Ba- 
laam " in the lines : 

" Asleep and naked, as an Indian lay, 
An honest factor stole a gem away : 
He pledg'd it to the knight," &c. 

I have seen it noticed in the biography of an 
individual who held some official post in India, 
but have forgotten the name. J. SWANN. 

Norwich, May, 1851. 

Meaning of " Nervous." Will any of your 
correspondents kindly oblige me, by stating what 
is the actual meaning of the word nervous ? On 
reference to Johnson, I find it expressed as fol- 
lows : 

" Nervy, sinewy, vigorous ; also having diseased or 
weak nerves." 

Now, by this definition, I am led to believe that 
the word has two meanings, directly opposed to 
each other. Is this so? K. BANNEL. 


Doomsday Booh of Scotland. In vol. xx. of 
Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland. 
1798, the following extract of a letter appears 



[No. 88. 

from John Pinkerton, Esq., the antiquarian writer, 
dated the 23rd February, 1794 : 

" In looking over the Survey nf Scotland accom- 
plished by your exertions, it occurred to me that I 
could furnish an article, worthy to appear in an Ap- 
pendix to one of the volumes of the Statistical Account. 
I need not inform you, that in the third volume of 
Prynne's Records there is a large hut undigested list 
of all those in Scotland who paid homage to Edward I. 
in 1291 and 1296, forming a kind of Doomsday Book 
of the country at that period. Four years ago, I, with 
some labour, reduced the numerous names and designa- 
tions into alphabetical order, and the list .being now 
adapted to general use, and containing the names and 
designations of the chief landholders, citizens, and clergy 
of the time, it may be regarded as of no small import- 
ance to our ancient statistics, topography, and gene- 
alogy. If your opinion coincides, I shall with plea- 
sure present it to you for the purpose, and correct the 

Now the article so kindly proffered by Mr. 
Pinkerton did not appear in the Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland, or in any of Mr. Pinkerton's 
subsequent publications, that I am aware of. I 
should feel obliged if any correspondent could 
inform me if it was ever published. 


Dr. Sacheverell. Was Dr. Sacheverell's speech 
on his trial (supposed to have been the work of 
Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester) ever 
published ? If so, when, and by whom ? 


[A printed copy of Dr. Sacheverell's speech is now 
on our table, but without any publisher's name. The 
following is a copy of the title: " The Speech of Henry 
Sacheverell, D. D., upon his Impeachment at the Bar 
of the House of Lords, in Westminster Hall, March 7. 
170 T 9 . London, Printed in the year 1710." On the 
back of the title-page appears the following advertise- 
ment: "Just published, Collections of Passages re- 
ferred to by Dr. Henry Sacheverell in his Answer to 
the Articles of his Impeachment, under four Heads.' 
I. Testimonies concerning the doctrine of Non-resist- 
ance to the Supreme Powers. II. Blasphemous, irre- 
ligious, and heretical Positions, lately published. 
III. The Church and Clergy abused. IV. The Queen, 
State, and Ministry reflected upon."] 

Princess Wilbrahama. Advertisement of a 
pamphlet appearing in 1767 : 

" A plain Narrative of Facts relating to the Person 
who lately passed under the assumed name of the 
Princess Wilbrahama, lately detected at the Devizes : 
containing her whole History, from her first Elope- 
ment with the Hon. Mrs. Sc***ts, till her Discovery 
and Commitment to Devizes Bridewell ; together with 
the very extraordinary Circumstances attending that 
Discovery, and the Report of a Jury of Matrons sum- 
moned on that Occasion, &c. London : printed for 
the Author." 

I shall be very thankful for any elucidation of 
the above case. It appears to have been suffi- j 
ciently popular to warrant the publisher in engas;- ; 
ing, as he says, "the best artists" to illustrate it i 
with a series of caricatures. I have never been 
able to meet with a copy in any public library. 


[The notorious impostor noticed in the communica- 
tion of our correspondent, performed her surprising 
feats of hazardous versatility between the years 1765 
and 1768. On different occasions she assumed the 
names of Wilson, alias Boxall, alias Mollineaux, alias 
Irving, alias Baroness Wilmington, alias Lady Vis- 
countess Wilbrihammon, alias Countess of Normandy. 
In 1766 her ladyship, "with gentle mien and accent 
bland," received for her dextrous lubricities something 
like a whipping at Coventry. In 1767 she was ad- 
judged a vagabond at Devizes, and in the following 
year sentenced to transportation at the Westminster 
assizes. Alderman Hewitt of Coventry, in 1778, pub- 
lished some memorabilia of her ladyship in a pamphlet 
entitled, Memoirs of the celebrated Lady Viscountess 
Wilbrihammon, the greatest Impostress of the present aqe. 
The alderman does not notice the tract mentioned by 
our correspondent, so that it still remains a query 
whether it was ever issued, although it may have been 

Early Visitations. In Noble's College of Arms, 
it is stated, p. 25., that 

" Henry VI. sent persons through many of the 
counties of England to collect the names of the gentry 
of each ; these lists have reached our time. It is 
observable, that many are mentioned in them who had 
adopted the meanest trades, yet were still accounted 

Where are these lists to be found ? 


[Noble's statements upon such points are extremely 
loose. We know not of any such lists, but would 
refer to Grimaldi's Origines Genealogicce, under " Rolls 
and Visitations," where, in all probability, something 
may be found in reference to the subject, if there ever 
were any such lists.] 


(Vol. iii., pp. 478. 526.) 

Perhaps the publication of the following docu- 
ment may lead to a solution of the question sent 
by M. C. L. (Vol. iii., p. 478.). It is a copy of a 
letter from the Duke of Monmouth, as Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge, intimating to the 
clergy the displeasure of Charles II. at their use 
of periwigs, and their practice of reading sermons. 
His Majesty, it will be found, thought both cus- 
toms equally important and equally unbecoming. | 
Of the latter, it is stated that it " took beginning ! 
with the disorders of the late times, and that the 
way of preaching ^without book was most agree- 

JULY 5. 1851.] 



able to the use of the foreign churches, to the 
custom of the University heretofore, and to the 
nature and intendment of that holy exercise." It 
will surprise many of your readers to find that the 
reading of sermons was considered to be a mere 
puritanical innovation. 
" The Duke of Monmouth, Chancellor of the University 

of Cambridge, to the Vice- Chancellor and University. 
" Mr. Vice- Chancellor and Gentlemen, 

" His Majesty having taken notice of the liberty 
which several persons in holy orders have taken to wear 
their hair and periwigs of an unusual and unbecoming 
length, hath commanded me to let you know, that he 
is much displeased therewith, and strictly injoins that 
all such persons as profess or intend the study of 
divinity, do for the future wear their hair in a manner 
more suitable to the gravity and sobriety of their pro- 
fession, and that distinction which was always main- 
tained between the habit of men devoted to the ministry 
and other persons. 

" And whereas, his Majesty is informed that the prac- 
tice of reading sermons is generally taken up by the 
preachers before the University, and there for some 
time continued, even before himself, his Majesty hath 
commanded me to signify to you his pleasure, that the 
said practice, which took beginning with the disorders 
of the late times, be wholly laid aside ; and that the 
foresaid preachers deliver their sermons, both in Latin 
and English, by memory, or without book, as being a 
way of preaching which his Majesty judges most agree- 
able to the use of the foreign churches, and to the 
custom of the University heretofore, and to the nature 
and intendment of that holy exercise. 

" And that his Majesty's commands in the premisses 
may be duly regarded and observed, his Majesty's 
farther pleasure is, that the names of all such ecclesias- 
tical persons as shall wear their hair as heretofore in an 
unfitting imitation of the fashion of laymen, or that 
shall continue in the present slothfull way of preaching, 
be from time to time signified unto me by the Vice- 
Chancellor for the time being, upon pain of his 
Majesty's displeasure. 

" Having in obedience to his Majesty's will signified 
thus much unto you, I shall not doubt of that your 
ready compliance; and the rather because his Majesty 
intends to send the same injunctions very speedily to 
the University of Oxford, whom I am assured you will 
equal in all other excellencies, and so in obedience to 
the king; especially when his commands are so much 
to the honour and esteem of that renowned University, 
whose welfare is so heartily desired, and shall ever be 
endeavoured by, Mr. Vice- Chancellor, 

" Your loving friend and Chancellor, 


I believe this letter, or something like it, was 
published by Peck in his Desiderata Curiosa, and 
also by Mr. Roberts in his Life of Monmouth. 
The transcript I send you was made from a copy 
in^the handwriting of Dr. Birch in the Additional 
MS. 4162., fo. 230. JOHN BRUCE. 

The following passage occurs in Rutt's Diary of 
Thomas Burton, 4 vols. : Colburn, 1828. I have 

not the work at hand, but from a MS. extract 
from the same, believe it may be found as a note 
by the editor in vol. i. p. 359. 

" Burnet was always an extempore preacher. He 
says that reading is peculiar to this nation, and cannot 
be induced in any other. The only discourse he ever 
wrote beforehand was a thanksgiving sermon before 
the queen in 1705. He never before was at a pause 
in preaching. It is contrary to a university statute, 
obsolete, though unrepealed." 

C. H. P. 

Brighton, June 27. 


(Vol. iii., p. 496.) 

This Query, and your answer, involve one or 
two important questions, which are worth a fuller 
solution than you have given. 

The Lord Mayor is no more a Privy Councillor 
than he is Archbishop of Canterbury. The title 
of "Right Honourable," which has given rise to 
that vulgar error, is in itself a mere courtesy ap- 
pended to the title of " Lord ; " which is also, popu- 
larly, though not legally, given him : for in all 
his own acts, he is designated officially as " Mayor" 
only. The courtesy-title of Lord he shares with 
the Mayors of Dublin and York, the Lord- 
Advocate of Scotland, the younger sons of Dukes 
and Marquises, &c. &c., and all such Lords are 
styled by courtesy "Right Honourable ;" and this 
style of Right Honourable is also given to Privy 
Councillors in virtue of their proper official title 
of "Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable 
Privy Council." So, the " Right Honourable the 
Lords of the Treasury and Admiralty." So much 
for the title. The fact stated in the Editor's an- 
swer, of the admission of the Lord Mayor to the 
Council Chamber after some clamour, on the acces- 
sion of William IV., is a mistake arising out of the 
following circumstances. On the demise of the 
crown, a London Gazette Extraordinary is imme- 
diately published, with a proclamation announcing 
the death of one sovereign and the accession of 
the other. This proclamation styles itself to be 
that of the 

" Peers Spiritual and Temporal of the Realm, 
assisted by those of the late Privy Council, with num- 
bers of others, Gentlemen of Quality, with the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of London." 

The proclamation is that of the Peers alone, but 
assisted by the others. The cause of this form is, 
that the demise of the crown dissolves the Privy 
Council, and used (till modern times) to dissolve 
parliaments, and abrogate the commissions of the 
Judges, and all other public officers ; so that the 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal were the only sub- 
sisting authority. Hence they, of necessity, under- 
took the duty of proclaiming the new king ; but 



[No. 88. 

they fortified themselves " with the assistance of the 
principal gentlemen of quality, and of the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens." This paper is 
first signed by the Peers, and then by all who hap- 
pen to be present, promiscuously. At the acces- 
sion o.. William IV., there were about 180 names, of 
which " J. Crowder, Mayor," stands the 106th. 
At the accession ot Queen Victoria, there were 
about 160 names, of which "Thomas Kelly, 
Mayor," is the lllth. And in both cases we find 
the names of the Aldermen, Sheriffs, Town Clerk, 
City Remembrancer, ?and several others, private 
citizens, and many altogether private persons, who 
happened to come to the palace at that time. 

It is obvious that all this has nothing to do with 
the Privy Council, for, in fact, at that moment, no 
Privy Council exists. But while these things are 
going on in an outward room of the palace, where 
everybody is admitted, the new sovereign com- 
mands the attendance of the late Privy Council in 
the council chamber, where the old Privy Council- 
lors are generally (I suppose always) re- sworn of 
the new council ; and then and there are prepared 
and promulgated several acts of the new sovereign, 
to which are prefixed the names of the Privy 
Councillors present. Now, to this council chamber 
the Lord Mayor is no more admitted than the 
Town Clerk w^ould be, and to these acts of the 
council his name has never appeared. 

All these facts appear in the London Gazettes 
for the 27th June, 1830, and the 30th June, 1837 ; 
and similar proceedings took place in Dublin ; 
though since the Union the practice is at least su- 

This establishes the rationale of the case, but 
there is a precedent that concludes it : 

" On the 27th May, 1 768, Mr. Thomas Harley, then 
Lord Mayor of London, was sworn of His Majesty's 
Most Honourable Privy Council ! " 
- an honour never since conferred on any Mayor 
or Alderman, and which could not have been con- 
ferred on him if he had already been of that body. 



(Vol. iii., p. 496.) 

In reply to your correspondent C. PAINE, JUN. 
I beg to say that this University has recently 
requested me to undertake the completion of 
Ussher's works. Dr. Elrington has left about half 
the fourteenth volume printed off: but I have 
found considerable difficulty in ascertaining what 
he intended to print, or what ought to be printed, 
in the remaining half. The printed portion con- 
tains the archbishop's Theological Lectures, in 
reply to Bellarmine, never before published. * I 

* Elrington's Life of Ussher, p. 26. 

have found amongst Dr. Elrington's papers a vo- 
lume of sermons (a MS. of the latter half of the 
seventeenth century), which are attributed, in the 
MS. itself, to Ussher; but the authenticity of 
these sermons is, it appears to me, very doubtful. 
I therefore hesitate to print them. 

I am anxious to find a treatise on the Seventy 
Weeks, by Ussher, which I have some reason to 
think once existed in MS. This tract, with an- 
other on the question of the Millennium, from 
Rev. xx. 4., formed the exercises which he per- 
formed for the degree of D.D., at the commence- 
ment of the University in 1612: and I remember 
Dr. Elrington telling me (if I did not mistake his 
meaning), that he intended to print them in the 
fourteenth volume. My difficulty is, that I cannot 
find them amongst Ussher's MSS., and I do not 
know where they are to be had. Some imperfect 
fragments on the Seventy Weeks are preserved 
in MS. in Trinity College Library, in Ussher's au- 
tograph; but they are far too crude and unfinished 
for publication. 

The Bibliotheca Theologica, a work on the same 
plan as Cave's Scriptores Ecclesiastici, exists in 
MS. in the Bodleian Library, and a copy from the 
Bodleian MS. is in Dublin. This work has not 
been included in Dr. Elrington's edition ; and I 
remember his discussing the subject with me, and 
deciding not to print it. His reasons were these : 
1. It is an unfinished work, which the arch- 
bishop did not live to complete. 2. It is full of 
errors, which our present increased materials and 
knowledge of the subject would easily enable us 
to correct ; but the correction of them would 
swell the work to a considerable extent. 3. The 
work was used, and is frequently quoted by Cave, 
who seems to have published the most valuable 
parts of it. Its publication, therefore, would not 
add anything to our knowledge, whilst it would 
probably detract, however unfairly, from the arch- 
bishop's reputation : for the public seldom make 
allowances for an unfinished work. 4. It would 
probably make three, if not four volumes ; and 
Dr. Elrington did not think its publication of 
sufficient importance to warrant so great an ad- 
dition to the cost and bulk of the Works. 

The System of Theology having been disclaimed 
by Ussher himself (although it is quoted as his 
by the Committee of the Privy Council in their 
decision of the " Gorham Case"), has not been 
included by Dr. Elrington in the collection of 
Ussher's works. 

I shall be much obliged to MR. PAYNE, or to 
any other of your correspondents, if he will give 
me any information respecting the treatises on 
the Seventy Weeks and on the Millennium, or 
any other advice which may assist me in the com- 
pletion of the fourteenth volume. 

I may add, that it, is my intention, with the 
able assistance of my learned friend Dr. Reeves, of 

JULY 5. 1851.] 



Bally mena, to print a complete index to Ussher's 
Works, which will be compiled by Dr. Reeves, 
and is now in active preparation. The references 
to the more important works, such as the Pri- 
mordia, and Annals, will be so contrived as to be 
applicable to the old editions, as well as to Dr. 
Elrington's edition. This Index will form the 
seventeenth volume of the Works. 

Trinity Coll., Dublin, June 21. 1851. 


Mind your Ps and Q's (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 357. 
463. 523.). I have always thought that the 
.phrase "Mind your Ps and Q's" was derived 
from the school-room or the printing-office. The 
forms of the small " p " and " q," in the Roman 
type, have always been puzzling to the child and 
the printer's apprentice. In the one, the down- 
ward stroke is on the left of the oval ; in the 
other, on the right. Now, when the types are 
reversed, as they are when in the process of dis- 
tribution they are returned by the compositor to 
his case, the mind of the young printer is puz- 
zled to distinguish the "p" from the "q." In 
sorting pie, or a mixed heap of letters, where 
the " p" and the " q" are not in connexion with 
any other letters forming a word, I think it would 
be almost impossible for an inexperienced per- 
son to say which is which upon the instant. " Mind 
your p's and <?'s" I write it thus, and not 
" Mind your P's and Q's" has a higher philo- 
sophy than mind your toupees and your queues, 
which are things essentially different, and impos- 
sible to be mistaken. It means, have regard to 
small differences ; do not be deceived by apparent 
resemblances ; learn to discriminate between things 
essentially distinct, but which look the same ; be 
observant ; be cautious. CHARLES KNIGHT. 

Serius Seriadesque (Vol. iii., p. 494.). II Serio, 
a tributary to the Adda, which falls into the Po. 
II Serio is, like the Po, remarkable for the quan- 
tity of foam floating upon it, and also for disap- 
pearing under ground, through part of its course. 


Catharine Barton (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 434.). A 
correspondent has asked what was the maiden name 
of this lady, the widow, as he calls her, of Colonel 
Barton. I have a note of Charles Montagu, 
writing of her as " the beautiful, witty, and ac- 
complished Catharine Barton," and have marked 
her as the daughter of Major Barton, but cannot 
find my authority. What follows is hardly likely 
to be of use to your correspondent, though it may, 
possibly, suggest to him a channel of inquiry. 
The Rev. Alexander Chalmers married Catharine 
Ekins, a niece of Mr. Conduitt, to whose daughter 
he was guardian after her father's death. Airs. 

Chalmers had a brother who was rector or vicar of 
Barton, Northamptonshire. Alexander Chalmers 
was rector of St. Katharine-Coleman, London, 
and of Burstow, Surrey ; clerk of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn ; chaplain to the forces at Gibraltar and 
Port Mahon : he died in 1745, and was buried in 
St. Katharine's : his wife was of the family of 
Ekins, of Rushden, in Northamptonshire. On 
August 12, 1743, Alexander Chalmers writes, 
" This will be delivered you by my cousin Lieut. 
Mathew Barton," probably his wife's cousin : in 
another letter he speaks of Miss Conduitt as his 
wife's cousin. Mr. Conduitt died 23rd of May, 
1737, and his widow's " unexpected death" seems 
to be alluded to in a letter in 1740. 


Alterius Orbis Papa (Vol. iii., p. 497.). This 
was not, as A. B.'s informant thinks, a title of 
honour bestowed by any Supreme Pontiff upon 
any Archbishop of Canterbury, but a mere verbal 
compliment passed by Pope Urban II. upon St. 
Anselm, when the latter went to consult the 
former at Rome. The words are those of Gervase, 
the monk of Canterbury, who tells us : 

" Tantam ejus gratiam habuit, ut eum (Anselmum) 
alterius orbis papam vocaret (Urbanus papa)." Ed. 
Twysden, ii. 1327. 

Eadmer, who was with the archbishop when he 
went to Italy, gives the following as the Pope's 
expressions : 

" Cumque ilium, utpote hominem cunctis liberalium 
artium disciplinis innutritum, pro magistro teneamus; 
et quasi comparem, velut alterius orbis Apostolicum et 
Patriarcham jure venerandum censeamus." AA. SS. 
Aprilis, t. ii. 886. 


You have not told us the origin of this title. I 
have just been reminded of the omission by the 
dedication of Ludovici Cappelli Commentarii, 
Amstel., 1689, which is 

" Wilhelmo Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi .... alte- 
rius orbis, sed melioris, Papag." 

J. W. H. 

Charles Dodd (Vol. iii., p. 496.). TYRO will 
find an account of this writer in Biographical Il- 
lustrations of Worcestershire : by John Chambers, 
Esq.: Worcester, 1820, 8vo., p. 591., from which 
we learn that his true name was Hugh Tootel, a 
Lancashire man born in 1672, in the neighbour- 
hood of Preston. The name of Hugh Tootle is 
recognised in the prospectus or announcement of 
Mr. Tierney's new edition of Dodd's Church His- 
tory of England, of which the first and second 
volumes appeared so long ago as 1839; but I 
regret to say that the work is yet far from being 
completed. F. R. A. 

" Prenzie" (Vol. iii., p. 522.). We seem now to 
have got to the true reading, " primzie." The 



[No. 88. 

termination zie suits a Scotch word perhaps. 
I only wish to mention, that the form "prin" is 
connected with the verb " to preen," which we 
use of birds. Yet that again seems connected 
with prune. Etymology is always in a circle. 


"In Print" (Vol. in., p. 500.). In confirmation of 
the statement made as to the expression " in print" 
meaning " with exactness," &c., I perfectly re- 
member an old Somersetshire servant of our's, 
who used to say, when he saw me romping after I 
was dressed : " Take care, Sir, you'll put your 
hair out of print." C. W. B. 

Introduction of Reptiles into Ireland (Vol. iii., 
p. 491.). The snakes introduced into the county 
of Down in 1831, alluded to by EIRIONNACH, were 
the very harmless and easily tamed species, Colu- 
ber natrix of Linnaeus, Natrix torquata of Ray. 
They were purchased in Covent Garden Market ; 
and, to the number of six, were turned out in the 
garden of Rath Gael House. One was killed at 
Milecross, three miles distant, about a week after 
its liberation ; and three others were shortly after- 
wards killed in the same neighbourhood. The 
fate of the remaining two is unknown, but there 
can be little doubt that they were also killed, as 
the country-people offered a considerable reward 
for their destruction. The writer well remem- 
bers the consternation and exceedingly angry 
feelings caused by this novel importation. 

We may conclude, that though the snake is not 
indigenous to Ireland, yet there is nothing in 
either the soil or climate to prevent its naturalis- 
ation. It is highly probable that an insular posi- 
tion is unfavourable to the spread of the serpent 
tribe. Other islands New Zealand, for instance 
as well as Ireland, have no native Ophidia. 

It is generally, but erroneously, believed that 
there are no toads in Ireland. The Natter-jack 
(Bufo calamita), a closely allied species to the 
common toad, is found about Killarney. Can any^ 
reader inform me if there is any record of its' 
introduction ? W. PINKERTON. 

Ancient Wood Engraving of the Picture of Cebes 
(Vol. iii., pp. 277. 436.). Your correspondent 
THE HERMIT OF HOLYPORT having been informed 
respecting the subject of his wood-cut, may yet be 
further satisfied to know its date, and where it is 
to be found. It occurs in a Latin version of the 
Pinax, with a commentary by Justus Yelsius, 
printed in 4to., at Lyons? (Lugduni) in 1551. 
The title runs thus : Justi Velseri Hagani, in 
Cebetis Thebani Tabulam Commentariorurn Libri 
Sex, Totius Moralis Philosophies Thesaurus. The 
Pinax commonly accompanies that valuable little 
manual the Enchiridion of Epictetus, of which 
that excellent man John Evelyn, in a letter to 
Lord Cornbury, thus speaks : 

" Besides the Divine precepts, I could never receive 
anything from Philosophy that was able to add a graine 
to my courage upon the intellectual assaults like that 
Enchiridion and little weapon of Epictetus : ' Nun- 
quam te quicquam perdidisse dicito, sed reddidisse,' 
says he: ' Filius obijt ? redditus est.' It is in his 
15th chapter. You cannot imagine what that little 
target will encounter. / never go abroad without it in 
my pocket. What an incomparable guard is that : 
TO. Se OVK e<' rjfuv, cap. i., where he discourses of the 
things which are, and are not in our power. I know, 
my Lord, you employ your retirements nobly ; weare 
this defensive for my sake, I had almost said this 
Christian Office." 


" The Groves of Blarney" (Vol. iii., p. 495.). 
In a little volume of the Songs of Ireland, forming 
one of the series called Duffy's Library of Ireland, 
Dublin, 1845, 'this song is given. In the intro- 
ductory notice it is said to be by Mr. R. A. Mil- 
liken, a native of Cork. The passage referred to 
by your correspondent stands thus in this version, 
which is said to be taken from Croker's Popular 
Songs of Ireland : 

" There's statues gracing 

This noble place in 

All heathen gods, 

And nymphs so fair ; 

Bold Neptune, Plutarch, 

And Nicodemus, 

All standing naked 

In the open air !" 

Mr. Maloney, in his late account of the " palace 
made o' windows," has evidently had these verses 
in his mind ; and in his observations on the " sta- 
tues gracing that noble place in," has adverted to 
their like peculiar predicament with the charac- 
teristic modesty of his nation. S. H. 

On this subject permit me to observe that a 
change has " come o'er the spirit of its dream." A 
later poet, in celebrating the praises of the lake 
as the only place unchanged, says : 

" Sweet Blarney Castle, that was wanst so ancient, 

Is gone to ruin, och ! and waste, and bare 

Neptune and Plutarch is by Mrs. Deane * sent 

To Ballintemple, to watch praties there." 


Tennyson's Lord of Burleigh (Vol. iii., p. 493.). 
The poem of "The Lord of Burleigh" is founded 
upon a supposed romance connected with the 
marriage of the late Marquis of Exeter with his 
second wife, Miss Hoggins. This marriage has 
also formed the groundwork of a play entitled 
The Lord of Burghley, published by Churton in 
1845. The story of the courtship and marriage 
perpetuated by this poem, may be found in the 
Illustrated London News of the 16th November, 

* Now Lady Deane. 

JULY 5. 1851.] 



1844, having been copied into that paper from the 
Guide to Burgldey House, pp.36., published by 
Drakard in 1812. 

A very slight tinge of romance attends the real 
facts of this union, which took place when the late 
Marquis was Mr. Henry Cecil. The lady was not 
of so lowly an origin as the fiction relates. Mr. 
Cecil did not become the Lord of Burghley until 
the death of his uncle, the 9th Earl of Exeter, two 
years after this marriage, up to which time he 
resided at Bolas, Salop, the residence of his wife 
before her marriage, and there the two eldest of 
their four children were born. The Countess of 
Exeter died greatly beloved and respected at the 
early age of twenty-four, having been married 
nearly seven years. J. P. JUN. 

Bicetre (Vol. iii., p. 518.). It was certainly 
anciently called Vincestre. It is so in Monstrelet, 
whose history begins about 1400. One of the 
treaties between the Burgundians and Orleanists 
was made there. President Renault says (under 
Charles VI.) that this castle belonged to John, 
Bishop of Winchester. If he is right in the 
Christian name, he must mean had belonged, not 
appartenoit, for the John Bishops that I find in 
Britton's list are : 

Elected. Died. 

JohnofOxon ... 1261 1267 
John de Pontessara - 1282 1304 

John de Sandale - - - 1316 1319 

John de Stratford - - 1323" 1333 


On a Passage in Dryden (Vol. iii., p. 492.). 
MR. BREEN appears to me decidedly wrong in the 
view he takes of the passage he quotes from 
Dryden. In the first place, he commits the mis- 
take of assuming that Dryden is expressing his 
own opinion, or speaking in his own person. The 
fact is, however, that the speaker is Torresmond. 
Torresmond is " mad" enough to love the queen ; 
he has already spoken of the " madness of his high 
attempt," he says he raves ; and when the queen 
offers to give him counsel for his cure, he says he 
wishes not be cured : 

" There is a pleasure, sure, 

In being mad, which none but madmen know !" 
This is inference, not assertion. Whether it be 
natural or not, I will not say, but I can see no 
blunder. S. H. 

Derivation of Yankee (Vol. iii., p. 461.). 
Washington Irving, in his Knickerbockers His- 
tory of New York, gives the same derivation of 
" Yankee" that is quoted from Dr. Turnbull and 
from Mr. Richmond. Irving's authority is, I be- 
lieve, earlier than both these. Is the derivation 
his ? and if his, is he in earnest in giving it ? I 
ask this, not because I have reason to doubt in this 
instance either his seriousness or his philological 
accuracy, but by way of inserting a caution on 

behalf of the unwary. I have read or heard of 
a learned German who quoted that book as ve- 
ritable history. The philology may be as baseless 
as the narrative. It is a happy suggestion of a 
derivation at all events, be it in jest or in earnest. 

E. J. S. 

Ferrante Pallavicino (Vol. iii., pp. 478. 523.). 
Your correspondent CHARLES O'SouLEr will find 
some account of Ferrante Pallavicino in Chal- 
mers, or any other biographical dictionary ; and 
a very complete one in the Dictionnaire Historique 
of Prosper Marchand. The manuscript he pos- 
sesses has been printed more than once ; it first 
appeared in the Opere Scelte di Ferrante Palla- 
vicino printed at Geneva, but with the imprint 
Villafranca, 1660, 12mo., of which there are 
several reimpressions. It is there entitled La 
Disgratia del Conte D'Olivares, and bears the 
fictitious subscription of " Madrid li 28 Gennaro, 
1643," at the end. If the MS. was written at 
Genoa, it is most probably only a transcript ; for 
Pallavicino was resident at Venice when it appears 
to have been written, and was soon after tre- 
panned by a vile caitiff named Charles de Bresche 
alias De Morfu, a Frenchman employed by the 
Pope's nuncio Vitellio, into the power of those 
whom his writings had incensed, and was by them 
put to death at Avignon in 1644. 

S. W. SlNGEK. 


The reputation which Mr. Foss acquired as a dili- 
gent investigator oflegal antiquities, and an impartial 
biographer of those who have won for themselves seats 
on the woolsack or the bench, by the publication of the 
first two volumes of his Judges of England, with Sketches 
of their Lives, and Miscellaneous Notices connected with 
the Courts at Westminster from the time of the Conquest, 
will be more than confirmed by the third and fourth 
volumes, which have just been issued. In these, which 
are devoted to the Judges who flourished between the 
years 1272 and 1485 that is to say, from the reign of 
Edward I. to that of Richard III. inclusive, Mr. Foss 
has added 473 to his former list of 580 Judges ; and 
when we say, that every biography shows with what 
diligence, and we may add with what intelligence, 
Mr. Foss has waded through all available sources of 
information, including particularly the voluminous 
publications of the late Record Commission, we have 
done more than sufficient to justify our opening state- 
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notice of all lovers of historical truth. To the general 
reader the surveys of the reigns, in which Mr. Foss 
points out not only everything remarkable connected 
with the law, but the gradual development of our legal 
system, will be by no means the least attractive portion 
his book ; while his endeavours to trace the successive 
institution of the several Inns of Court and Chancery, 
and also of the three different Inns occupied by the 



[No. 88. 

Judges and Serjeants, will be found of great interest to 
the topographical antiquary. 

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell, on Friday 
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Canterbury Papers, containing the most recent In- 
formation relative to the Settlement of Canterbury, in New Zealand. 
Nos. I. to X. (id. each. 

History of Mohammedanism. By the same Author. 

Cautions for the Times, addressed to the Parishioners 

Cheaper Edition, 4s. 

of a Parish in England, by their former Rector. In numbers, 2d. each. 


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London ; and 
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, iu the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. 
Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, July 5. 1851. 





"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 89.] SATURDAY, JULY 12. 1851. 

f Price, with Index 
I Stamped Edition, 


NOTES : _ Page 

Privately printed Books and privately engraved Por- 
traits, by J. Wodderspoon - - - - 17 
Sardonic Smiles > - - - - - I 1 
Private Amours of Oliver Cromwell - - - 19 
Spurious Editions; of Bajly's Annuities, by Professor De 

Morgan - 19 

Minor Notes: Les Antilles d Mel tui Derivation 
of Mews Curious Monumental Inscriptions First 
Panorama - - - - - - -20 


Minor Queries : Vermuyden Portrait of Whiston 
Charities for the Clergy and their Families Principle 
of Notation by Coalwhippers Kiss the Hare's Foot 
Old Dog " Heu quanto minus,'* &c. Lady Russell 
and Mr. Hampden Burton Family " One who dwel-. 
teth on the castled Rhine " Lady Petre's Monument 
Dr. Young's, Narcissa Briwingable Thomas Kinge- 
ston Possession nine Points of the Law Rev. H. 
Bourne Prior Lachteim Robert Douglas Jacobus 
de Voragine- Peace Illumination, 1802 Planets of 
the Months Family of Kyme West of England 
Proverb Coke and Cowper Orinoco Petty Cury 
Virgil Sherid m and Vanbrugh Quotation from 
an old Ballad 20 


Princesses of Wales - - - - - 24 

The late Mr. William Hone - - - - 25 

Shakspeare's "Small Latin.'* Hi Use of " Triple** - 26 
Replies to Minor Queries : Family of Etty, the Artist 
Parish Register of Petworth Death " Lord Mayor 
not a Privy Councillor " Suum cuique tribuere," c. 
Meaning of Complex-ion Gillingham Nao, a Ship 
J,ohn Perrot Sneck up Meaning of Senage Early 
Visitations Rifles - - - - - 2? 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues^ &c. 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to. Correspondents - 
Advertisements * 

- 29 

- 30 

- 30 


If the " NOTES AND QUERIES," in the course 
of its career, had only called the attention of anti- 
quaries to the necessities of collecting epitaphs 
and inscriptions to the dead found in churches, 
and thus brought into active exertion a large 
number of zealous and intelligent recorders of 
monuments, its usefulness would have been fully 
established ; but the multitude of suggestive hints 
and recommendations constantly appearing: in> its 
pages, added to the great amount of' precise and 
unquestionable knowledge given to the public 

through its means, have established the publication 
as of the greatest importance to archaeologists, and 
literary men generally. 

A noble and highly regarded author (Lord 
Braybrooke) has recently shown the necessity for 
recording the existence of painted historical por- 
traits, scattered, as we know they are, throughout 
residences of the nobility and gentry, and from 
thence too often descending to the humble- dwell- 
ing or- broker's warehouse, through the effluxion 
of time, the ill appreciation, in some instances, of 
those who possess them, or the urgencies of indi- 
viduals : but there are other memorials of eminent 
persons extant, frequently the only ones, which, 
falling into the possession of but few persons, are 
to the seeker after biographical or topographical 
knowledge, for the most part, as though they had 
never existed. I allude to Privately Printed 
Books and Privately Engraved Portraits. Surely 
these might be made available to literary persons 
if their depository were generally known. 

How comparatively easy would it be for the 
readers of the " NOTES AND QUERIES," in each 
county, to transmit to its pages, a short note of any 
privately engraved portrait, or privately printed 
volume, of which they may be possessed, or of 
which they have a perfect knowledge. Collec- 
tors could in most instances, if they felt inclined 
to open their stores, give the required information 
in a complete list, and no doubt would do so ; but 
still a great assistance to those engaged in? the toils 
of biographical or other study could be afforded 
by the transmission to these pages of the casual 
" Note," which happens to have been taken at a 
moment when the book or portrait passed under 
the inspection of a recorder who did not amass 
graphic or literary treasures. 

As respects some counties, much has been done 
by the printing press to furnish this desideratum; 
at least that of privately engraved portraits. In 
Warwickshire, a list of all the portraits (with a few 
omissions) has within a few years been brought 
before the public in a volume. In Norfolk, the 
Illustrations of Norfolk Topography, a volume con- 
taining an enumeration of many thousand drawings 
and engravings, collected by Dawson Turner, Esq., 
of Great Yarmouth, to illustrate Blomefield's 

.. TV _-\ 




[No. 89. 

History of the county, is also a repertory of this 
kind of instruction, as far as portraits are con- 
cerned. Privately printed books are entirely 
unrecorded in this and most other localities. 
Without the publication now mentioned, persons 
having no personal knowledge of Mr. Turner's 
ample stores would be not only unacquainted with 
that gentleman's wonderful Norfolk collection, but 
also ignorant that through his liberality, and the 
elegant genius and labours of several members of 
his family, the portfolios of many of his friends 
have been enriched by the addition of portraits of 
many persons of great virtues, attainments, and 
learning, with whom he had become acquainted. 
In Suffolk, the veteran collectors, Mr.ElishaDavy, 
of Ufford, and Mr. William Fitch, of Ipswich, have 
compiled lists of portraits belonging to that county. 
These are, however, in manuscript, and therefore 
comparatively useless ; though, to the honour of 
both these gentlemen let it be said, that no one 
ever asks in vain for assistance from their col- 

I trust it can only be necessary to call attention 
to this source of knowledge, to be supported in a 
view of the necessity of a record open to all. I 
have taken the liberty to name the " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " as the storehouse for gathering these 
scattered memorabilia together, knowing no means 
of permanence superior, or more convenient, to 
literary persons, although I am not without fears 
indeed, perhaps convictions, that your present 
space would be too much burthened thereby. 

As the volume of " NOTES AND QUERIES " just 
completed has comprised a large amount of intel- 
ligence respecting the preservation of epitaphs, the 
present would, perhaps, be appropriately opened 
a new subject of, 1 am inclined to think, nearly 


equal value. 



A few words on the TeXeos a-apSdvtos, or Sardonius 
Risus, so celebrated in antiquity, may not be 
amiss, especially as the expression " a Sardonic 
smile" is a common one in our language. 

We find this epithet used by several Greek 
writers ; it is even as old as Homer's time, for we 
read in the Odyssey, /ueiSrjtre 8e flu/xy aaptidviov /uaAa 
Toiov, " but he laughed in his soul a very bitter 
laugh." The word was written indifferently 
ffap5dn/tos and <rap8oVtos ; and some lexicographers 
derive it from the verb a-aipu, of oVar/pa, "to show 
the teeth, grin like a dog:" especially in scorn 
or malice. The more usual derivation is from 
<rap$<!>viov, a plant of Sardinia (2p5^), which was 
said to distort the face of the eater. In the En- 
glish of the present day, a Sardonic laugh means 
a derisive, fiendish laugh, full of bitterness and 
mocking ; stinging with insult and rancour. Lord 

Byron has hit it off in his portraiture of the Cor- 
sair, Conrad : 

" There was a laughing devil in his sneer, 
That rais'd emotions both of rage andj^ar." 

In Izaak Walton's ever delightful Complete 
Angler, Venator, on coming to Tottenham High 
Cross, repeats his promised verse : *' it is a copy 
printed among some of Sir Henry Wotton's, and 
doubtless made either by him or by a lover of 
angling." Here is the first stanza : 
" Quivering fears, heart-tearing cares, 
Anxious sighs, untimely tears, 
Fly, fly to courts, 
Fly to fond worldlings' sports, 
Where strained Sardonic smiles are glosing still, 
And Grief is forced to laugh against her will j 
Where mirth's but mummery, 
And sorrows only real be." 

In Sir J. Hawkins's edition is the following note 
on the word " Sardonic" in these lines : 

"Feigned, or. forced smiles, from the word Sardon, 
the name of an herb resembling smallage, and growing 
in Sardinia, which, being eaten by men, contracts the 
muscles, and excites laughter even to death. Vide 
Erasmi Adagia, tit. Risus." 

Sardonic, in this passage, means " forced, 
strained, unusual, artificial ;" and is not taken in 
the worst sense. These lines of Sir H. Wotton's 
bring to mind some of Lorenzo de Medici's in a 
platonic poem of his, when he contrasts the court 
and country. I quote Mr. Roscoe's translation : 
" What the heart thinks, the tongue may here disclose, 

Nor inward grief with outward smiles is drest ; 

Not like the world where wisest he who knows 

To hide the secret closest in his breast." 

The Edinburgh Review, July, 1849, in an article 
on Tyndale's Sardinia, says : 

" The Sardonic smile, so celebrated in antiquity, baf- 
fles research much more than the intemperie ; nor have 
modern physiologists thrown any light on the nature- 
of the deleterious plant which produces it. The tradi- 
tion at least seems still to survive in the country, and 
Mr. Tyndale adduces some evidence to show that the 
Ranunculus sceleratus was the herb to which these exag- 
gerated qualities were ascribed. Some insular anti- 
quaries have found a different solution of the ancient 
proverb. The ancient Sardinians, they say, like many 
barbarous tribes, used to get rid of their relations in 
extreme old age by throwing them alive into deep pits; 
which attention it was the fashion for the venerable ob- 
jects of it to receive with great expressions of delight: 
whence the saying of a Sardinian laugh (vulgo), 
laughing on the wrong side of one's mouth. It seems 
not impossible, that the phenomenon may have been a 
result of the effects of ' Intemperie ' working on weak 
constitutions, and in circumstances favourable to phy- 
sical depression like the epidemic chorea, and similar 
complaints, of which such strange accounts are read in 
medical books." 


JULY 12. 1851.] 




I know nothing more of the enclosed, than that 
I found it with the MS. which I lately sent^you on 
the subject of Cromwell's " Dealings with the 
Devil" (Vol. iii., p. 282.). 

I should conclude it to be a carelessly-made 
transcript of a contemporary MS., the production, 
probably, of some warm royalist, who may, or may 
not, have had some grounds for his assertions. At 
all events, it gives a few curious details, and, in its 
general outline, agrees singularly with the incidents 
on which Mrs. Behn's play, The Round Heads ; or 
The Good Old Cause, is founded : sufficiently so 
to give it at least an air of authenticity, so far as 
the popular belief of the day was concerned. 

S. II. H. 

" After Cromwell had been declared General of the 
Commonwealth's Forces, he seized the possessions of 
the Royalists, who had escaped his implacable resent- 
ment ; and the New Hall fell to the share of the 
Usurper, who, flushed with the victory of Worcester, 
disposed at pleasure of the forsaken seates of the noble 
Fugitives, who still supported Charles II.'s Drooping 
Standards ; and adding insulte to oppression, com- 
manded the domesticks of the Duke of Buckingham to 
follow their master's desperate fortune, and to carry 
him five shillings, which he might want in his exile, 
for the purchase of a Lordship, whose yearly value 
exceeded then 1300/. Cromwell kept possession of 
New Hall till he assumed the title of Protector, and 
was instaled at White Hall, in the Pallace of the 
English Kings: Then he chose Hampton Court for 
his Summer Residence. He led at New Hall an ob- 
scure life, without pomp, without luxury, having but 
two servants in his retinue. Though his manners were 
natuaraly austere, he had some private amoures, which 
he indulged with great Caution and Secrecy. His 
favourites were General Lambert's wife and Major- 
General Vernon's sister : the first was a well-bred, 
genteel woman, fatheless to her husband from natural 
aversion, and attached to Cromwell from a conformity 
of inclination in a mysterious enjoyment and stolen 
embraces, with mask of religious deportment and severe 
virtue : the other was a person made to inspire lust 
and desire, but selfish, revengfull, and indiscreet. 
These two rivals heartily detested each other : Mrs. 
Lambert reproached Cromwell for his affection to a 
worthless, giddy, and wanton woman ; and Mrs. Ver- 
non laughed at him for being the dupe of the affected 
fondness and hipocry of an artful Mistress. They 
once met at the house of Colonel Hammond, a Creature 
of Cromwell's, and reviled each other with the most 
virulent sarcasms. Mrs. Lambert, fired with rage and 
resentment, went immediately to New Hall, where 
Oliver was at that juncture, and insisted upon her 
Rival's dismission for her unprovoked outrage. 
Cromwell, who was then past the meridian of volup- 
tuous sensations, sacrificed the person he was no longer 
fit to enjoy, to a woman who had gained his esteem 
and confidence, and delegated to Mrs. Lambert all the 
domestic concerns of his house in Essex. Cromwell's 

wife, called afterwards the Protectress, was a sober 
helpmate, who, dressed in humble stuff', like a Quaker, 
neither interfered in his amours or politics. She never 
went to New Hall but once, and that was on the 25th 
of April, 1652, when he invited all his family to a 
grand entertainment on account of his Birthday. The 
other Guests were, his mother, who survived his eleva- 
tion to the Protectorship: she was a virtuous woman 
of the name of Stewart, related to the Royall Family ; 
Desborough, his brother-in-law ; and Fleetwood, who 
had married his daughter ; his Eldest Son, Richard, a 
man of an inoffensive and unambitious Character, who 
had been married some years, and lived in the country 
on a small estate which he possessed in right of his 
wife, where he spent bis time in acts of benevolence : 
at the trial of Charles I. he fell on his knees and con- 
jured his Father in the most pathetic manner to spare 
the life of his Sovereign ; his brother Henry, after- 
wards Govonor of Ireland, where he was universally 
beloved for his mild administration ; Mrs. Claypole, 
the darling of her father ; and his three other daughters: 
Mrs. Rich, married to the Grandson and heir of 
the Earl of Warwick ; Lady Falconbridge ; and the 
Youngest, who lived in celibacy. They spent a week 
at New Hall, in innocent mirth and jollity ; Oliver 
himself joining in convivial pleasure with his children, 
disengaged the whole time from state affairs and Poli- 
tical Speculations. 

" His constant visitors at New Hall were some Regi- 
cides, and the meanest, lowest, and most ignorant 
among the Citizens on whome he had decreed that the 
Sovereign power should be vested. To excell in Fana- 
ticism seemed a necessary qualification in this new par- 
liment ; and Oliver foresaw that they would soon 
throw up the reins of Government, which they were un- 
qualified to guide, and raise himself to an unlimited 
power far beyond that of former Kings. 

" It seems Mrs. Lambert continued to reside at New 
Hall during Cromwell's Protectorship, and that Col. 
Wite, his trusty friend, was often sent with kind mes- 
sages and preasants from Oliver, who travelled himself 
in the night, with hurry and precipitation, to enjoy with 
her some moments of domestic comfort and tran- 


In the course of last year a curious and impu- 
dent bibliographical fraud was perpetrated by 
some parties unknown. I am not aware that it 
has been publicly exposed as yet. 

The celebrated work on annuities, by the late 
Francis Baily, was published in 1810 by Ilichard- 
son, and printed by Richard Taylor. It was at 
first in one volume ; but on the publication of an 
appendix in 1813, two titles were printed with 
this last date, and the stock then remaining was 
sold in two volumes. As the book became scarce, 
it gradually rose in price, until, when by a rare 
chance a copy came to the hammer, it seldom 
fetched less than five guineas. This price was 
lowered, as well by the general decline in the 



[No. 89. 

price of old books, as by the sale of Mr. Bail ys 
own library in 1844, which threw a few copies 
into the market ; but the work was still saleable 
at more than the original price. In the course of 
last year, copies, as it was pretended, of the ori- 
ginal edition were offered at the assurance offices, 
and to individuals known to be interested in the 
subject, at twenty-five shillings. Some were 
taken in, others saw the trick at once. There 
has been, in fact, a reprint, without any statement 
of the circumstance, and without a printer's name ; 
but with a strong, and, on the whole, successful 
attempt at imitation of the peculiar typography of 
the work. If the execution had been as good as 
the imitation, the success would have been greater. 
But this is wretchedly bad, and will amuse those 
who know how very particular Mr. Baily always 
was in his superintendence of the press, and how 
plainly his genuine works bear the marks of it. 

The spurious edition may be known at once by 
the title-page, in which the words " an appendix " 
are printed in open letter, which is not the case in 
the original. Also by " Leienitz," instead of 
" Leibnitz," in page xi. of the preface. Also by 
the Greek letter g throughout, which is, in the 
spurious edition, never anything but an inverted 
5, which looks as if it were trying to kick back- 

In all probability, the agents in this shabby trick 
are beneath reproof; but it is desirable that the 
reputation of the author whom they have chosen 
for its object should not suffer from the effects of 
their misprint. And as the work they have ap- 
propriated is only used by a small public, and a 
reading one, the mode of exposure which I here 
adopt will probably be sufficient. 

The spurious edition is now on the stalls at a 
few shillings; and, as a curiosity, will be worth 
its price. A. DE MORGAN. 


Les Anguilles de Melun. " Les anguilles de 
Melun orient avant qu'on les ecorche " is a well- 
known proverb in that town ; and as some of your 
readers may be curious to learn the circumstances 
in which it originated, I send them to you for 

According to the traditions of the Church, Saint 
Bartholomew was flayed alive, and his skin rolled 
up and tied to his back. When the religious 
dramas, called Mysteries, came into vogue, this 
martyrdom was represented on the stage at Melun, 
and the character of the saint was personated by 
one Languille. In the course of the performance, 
the executioner, armed with a knife, made his 
appearance; and as he proceeded to counterfoil 
the operation of flaying, Languille became terrifiec 
and uttered the most piteous cries, to the greal 

amusement of the spectators. The audience 
thereupon exclaimed, " Languille crie avant qu'on 
recorche;" and hence the "jeu de mots," and 
the proverb. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia, June, 1851. 

Derivation of Mews. 

" Muette.. C'est le nom qu'on donne a un Edifice 
eleve au bout d'un pare de maison royale ou seig- 
neuriale, pour servir de logement aux officiers de la 
venerie, et dans lequel il y a aussi des Chenils, dcs 
cours, ecuries, &c. Ce terme Muette, vient, dit-on, de 
Mue, parceque c'est dans ces maisons que les Gardes, 
et autres officiers de chasse, apportent les Mues ou bois 
que les Cerfs quittent et laissent dans les Forets." 
Lacombe, Dictionnaire portatif dea Beaux Arts, Sfe. 
Nouvelle Edition: Paris, 1759. 

Is this a better explanation of the English word 
mews than has generally been given by writers ? 

W. P. 

Curious Monumental Inscriptions. In the south 
aisle of Martham Church, Norfolk, are two slabs, 
of which one, nearly defaced, bears the following 
inscription : 

Here Lyeth 
The Body of Christ 
Burraway, who depar- 
ted this Life y e 18 day 
of October, Anno Domini 

Aged 59 years. 

And there Lyes i^" 

Alice who by hir Life 

Was my Sister, my mistres 

My mother and my wife. 

Dyed Feb. y 12. 1729. 

Aged 76 years. 

The following explanation is given of this enig- 
matical statement. Christopher Burraway was the 
fruit of an incestuous connexion between a father 
and daughter, and was early placed in the Found- 
ling Hospital, from whence, when he came of age, 
he was apprenticed to a farmer. Coming in after 
years by chance to Martham, he was hired un- 
wittingly by his own mother as farm steward, her 
father (or rather the father of both) being dead. 
His conduct proving satisfactory to his mistress 
she married him, who thus became, successively, 
mother, sister, mistress, and wife, to this modern 
OEdipus. The episode remains to be told. Being 
discovered by his wife to be her son, by a peculiar 
mark on his shoulder, she was so horror-stricken 
that she soon after died, he surviving her scarcely 
four months. Of the other slab enough remains 
to show that it covered her remains ; but the 
registers from 1729 to 1740 are unfortunately 
missing, so that I cannot trace the family further. 

E. S. T. 

JULY 12. 1851.] 



First Panorama (Vol. iiL, p. 526.). I remem- 
ber when a boy going to see that panorama. I was 
struck with " the baker knocking at the door, in 
Albion Place, and wondered the man did not 
move!" But this could not have been the first 
(though it might have been the first publicly ex- 
hibited), if what is told of Sir Joshua Reynolds 
be true, that, having held that the painting of a 
panorama was a " thing impossible," on the sight 
of it he exclaimed " This is the triumph of per- 
spective!" I have frequently met with this 
anecdote. B. G. 

Vermuyden. I wish very much to obtain a 
portrait, painted or engraved, of Sir Cornelius 
V ermuyden, Knt., a celebrated Flemish engineer 
in the time of Charles I. Can any one kindly 
assist my object, and inform me where one is to 
be met with ? J. 

Portrait of Whiston. Having an original and 
characteristic half-length portrait in oil, bearing 
to the left corner (below an oval, such as is found 
about portraits by Alex. Cooper) the name of 
William Whiston, which picture came from a 
farm-house named Westbrook, in Wiltshire, and 
was by my ancestors, who lived there,, called a 
family portrait, I should be glad to know how such 
connexion arose,, if any did exist. 

In the possession of a member of my family, on 
the maternal side, is a large silver tobacco-box, 
bearing the initials W. W., and given as a legacy 
by Whiston to his friend Thomas White, Fellow 
and Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
They were members of the same club. 


Wakefield, June 12. 1851. 

Charities for the Clergy and their Families. 
I am desirous of procuring a complete list of 
charities confined to, or primarily intended for, the 
benefit of clergymen, their wives and families. 
There are a good many such throughout the 
country, but I am not aware that any list has ever 
been published. Will your readers furnish me 
with the particulars of such as they may be ac- 
quainted with, together with the names of the 
secretaries ? J. WHITAKER. 

377. Strand. 

Principle of Notation ly Coalwhippers, fre. 
I shall feel much obliged to any of your readers 
who can inform me whether the principle adopted 
by the coalwhippers on the river Thames, and by 
the seafaring class in general, is adopted by any 
other class in these islands, or particularly in the 
North of Europe. 

This principle may be thus explained, viz. : 
1. A set of four perpendicular, equal, and equi- 
distant straight lines are cut by a diagonal line, 

which runs from right to left; that is to say, from 
the higher end of the fourth line to the lower ex- 
tremity of the first line. This diagonal then re- 
presents number 5, and completes the scale or tally 
of 5. 

2. A similar set of four lines are cut by another 
diagonal, which passes from left to right, or from 
the higher extremity of number one, to the lower 
extremity of number four. The diagonal thus 
completes the second score or tally for number 5. 

The two fives are marked or scored separately, 
and the diagonals thus form a series of alterna- 
tions, which, when repeated,, form a scale of ten, 
the tally of the coalwhippers. 

The " navvies " of the railroads carry this prin- 
ciple somewhat further. They form a cross with 
two diagonals on the perpendiculars, and count 
for ten ; then, by repeating the process, they have 
a division into tens, and count by two tens, or a 
score. I. J. C. 

Kiss the Hare's Foot. This locution is com- 
monly used in some parts of the United Kingdom, 
to describe what is expressed by the Latin pro- 
verb : " Sero venientibus ossa." Will any of your 
readers be so good as to explain the origin of the 
English phrase ? HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia, May, 1851. 

Old Dog. Can any correspondent of " NOTES 
AND QUERIES" inform me where "old dog" is 
used in the same sense as in HitcKbras, part ii. 
canto 3. v. 208. : 

" Pie (Sidrophel) was old dog a* physiology?" 

P. J. F. G. 

" Heu quanto minus" fyc. From what author is 
this passage taken ? 

" Heu quanto minus est cum aliis versari quam tui 

J. O. B. 


Lady Russell and Mr. Hampden. Extract 
from a letter of Rev. Alex. Chalmers, dated 
London, Feb. 10th, 1736-7 : 

" Mr. Hampden* has- had the misfortune to lose 
50OO/. by Lady Russell, f She was a Lady of good 
sense, and great piety in appearance, and made many 
believe she had a private way of tradeing which brought 
seven or eight per c*. to the adventurers, by which 
means she got above 30,000?. put in to her hands, and 

* M. P. for Buckinghamshire. 

f " Sept. 2. Lady Russell, mother of the wife of 
Thomas Scawen, Esq., Kt. of the Shire for Surrey, 
and wife to Sir Harry Houghton, Bt. She had an 
excellent character." Gent. Mag., vol. vi., 1736, 
p. 552. She had been previously married to Lord James 
Russell, 5th son of William, 1st Duke of Bedford, to 
whom she bore the daughter mentioned above. What 
was her maiden name ? 



[No. 89. 

for which she only gave her Note to put it to the best 
advantage ; for some years the interest was well paid, 
but at her death no books nor acc ts were found, and 
the principal money is all lost. She had a jointure of 
2000/. a year, but that goes to her Son-in-Law, Mr. 
Scawen, Knight of the Shire for Surry : her dissenting 
friends are the chiefe sufferers." 

Is anything more known of this story ; and, if 
so, where is the account to be found ? 


Burton Family. Roger Burton, in the reign of 
Charles I., purchased of the Earl of Chesterfield 
lands at Kilburn, in the parish of Horsley, co. 
Derby, which remained in the possession of his 
descendants for more than a century. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents may be able to inform 
me how he was connected with the Burtons of 
Lindley and Dronfield. E. H. A. 

" One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine." 
Longfellow, in his exquisite little poem on 
" Flowers," says: 

" Spake full well, in language quaint and olden, 
One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine, 
When he called the flowers so blue and golden, 
Stars that in earth's firmament do shine." 
To whom does he allude as dwelling " on the 
castled Rhine ? " Cowley says : 

" Upon the flowers of Heaven we gaze ; 

The stars of earth no wonder in us raise." 
And Washington Irving gives an Arabian in- 
scription from one of the gardens of the Alhambra, 
which commences with a somewhat similar thought : 
" How beauteous is this garden, where the flowers 
of the earth vie with the stars of Heaven !" 


Lady Petre s Monument. In the church at 
Ingatestone, in Essex, there is a beautiful monu- 
ment to Mary Lady Petre, of the date 1684, upon 
which there is the following curious inscription: 

"D. O. M. 

Certa spe Tmmortalitatis 
Parte sui mortali hoc tegitur marmore 


Vidua Domini Roberti Petre Baronis 
de Writtle Guilielmi Joannis et Thoma? 

Una trium Baronum Mater 

Quse 13 Jannuarii An Dmi 168f annum 

JEtatis agens 82 in terris devixit, ut 

Sternum in crelo viveret 

Quo illam singularis in Detim pietas 

Suavis in omnes benevolentia 

Profusa in egenos liberalitas 

Inconcussa in adversis patientia 

Ceu igneus Elia? currus totidem rotis haud 

dubie evixerunt 

Sicut Sol oriens Mundo in Altissimis Dei 

Sic Mulieris bona? Species in ornamentum domus sua?. 

Ecclus. 26. 


I should be glad if any of your learned readers 
could elucidate the meaning of the five vowels 
at the foot of the inscription. J. A. DOUGLAS. 

16. Russell Square, June 27. 1851. 

Dr. Young's Narcissa (Vol. iii., p. 422.). J. M. 
says that the Narcissa of Dr. Young was Elizabeth 
Lee, the poet's daughter-in-law. The letter quoted 
in the same article from the Evan. Mag. of Nov. 
1797, calls her Dr. Young's daughter. Has not 
your correspondent been led into a mistake by 
calling Narcissa Dr. Young's daughter-in-law ? 
as, if she were so, how could she have been named 
" Lee ?" She might have been his step-daughter, 
though it has been generally understood that 
Narcissa was the poet's own and favourite 
daughter. Will you, or your correspondent 
J. M., be so good as to clear up this point ? 

W. F. S. 


Briwingdble. What is briwingable, from which 
certain burgesses were exempted in a charter of 
John's ? It cannot be a corruption from borough- 
gable^ because all burgesses had to pay gable. 

J . ?V . 

Thomas Kingeston, Knt., called also Lord Thomas 
Kingeston. Can any of your correspondents give 
any clue or information touching this Lord 
Kingeston ? He lived in the early part of the 
reign of Edward III. 

In the extracts from Aske's Collections relating 
to the descendants of M. Furneaux, published in 
the first volume of Coll. Top. and Gen., at p. 248., 
it is stated : 

" Mathew of Bitton was married unto Constantyne 
Kingston, daughter to the Lord Thomas of Kingston ; 
and of the said Mathew and Constantyne came John of 
Bitton, which died in Portingale." 

In a pedigree (Harl. MSS. 1982. p. 102.) which 
shows the descendants of Furneaux, the match 
between " Sir Math. Bitton" and C. Kingston is 
laid down, and her arms are marked sab. a lion 
ramp. or. 

With regard to Mathew de Bitton, he was son 
and heir of John de Bitton and Havisia Furneaux. 
The residence of the family was at Hanham, in the 
parish of Bitton, Gloucestershire, at a place after- 
wards called "Barre's Court," from Sir John Barre, 
who married Joan, the great-granddaughter of the 
said Mathew. The house abutted on the Chace 
of Kingswood. 

In the 48th of Edward III. a- writ was is- 
sued, to inquire who were the destroyers of the 
deer and game in his Majesty's Chace, when it was 
found that Mathew de Bitton was "Communis 
malefactor de venasione Dom. Regis in Chacia 
predicta." It was proved that he had killed thirty- 
seven deer ! After much difficulty, he was brought 

JULY 12. 1851.] 



before the justiciaries, when he acknowledged all 
his transgressions, and placed himself at the niercy 
of the king. He was committed " prisonse Dom. 
Regis, quousque Justiciarii habeant locutionem 
cum consilio Dom. Regis." 

Any further information respecting him also 
would be very acceptable. A very detailed ac- 
count of the inquiry is at the Chapter House, 
among the Forest Proceedings. 


Clyst St. George, June 24. 1851. 

Possession nine Points of the Law. What is the 
origin of the expression " Possession is nine points 
of the law ?" The explanation I wish for is, not 
as to possession conferring a strong title to pro- 
perty, which is self-evident, but as to the number 
of points involved in the proposition, which I take 
to mean nine points out of ten. Has the phrase 
any reference to the ten commandments or points 
of law promulgated by Moses ? I should add that 
three things are said to be necessary to confer a 
perfect title to land, namely, possession, right of 
possession, and right of property. C. N". S. 

Rev. Henry Bourne, A.M. Could any of your 
numerous readers furnish me with any informa- 
tion respecting Bourne, whose history of New- 
castle-on-Tyne was published in 1736, after the 
author's decease ? I know, I believe, all that is 
to be gathered from local sources, but should be 
greatly obliged by any references to printed or 
MS, works which contain allusions to him or his 
writings. One of his college friends was the 
Reoerend Granville Wheler, Esq., of Otterden, 
Kent, who, though in holy orders, chose to be so 
described, being the eldest son of a knight, the 
amiable Sir George Wheler, Prebendary of Dur- 
ham, and Rector of Hough ton-le- Spring. 


Prior Lachteim Robert Douglas. In Bishop 
Keith's Affairs of Church and State of Scotland, 
vol. ii. p. 809., Prior Lachteim is mentioned : 
will any of your readers inform me who this per- 
son was ? It is not explained in the note ; but it 
is suggested that by Lachteim Loch Tay is meant. 
Is this correct ? 

Query 2. Is there any truth in the report that 
Mary, queen of Scotland, had a son by George 
Douglas, who was the father of Robert Douglas, 
a celebrated Presbyterian preacher during the 
Covenanting reign of terror in Scotland, after the 
Glasgow General Assembly in 1638? If, as I 
suppose, there is no truth in this, what was the 
parentage and early history of Mr. Robert Dou- 
glas ? Wodrow notices this report, and says that 
he was born in England. See Wodrow's Analecta, 
4to., 1842, vol.ii. p. 166. : printed for the Banna- 

tyne Club. 

A. C. W. 

Jacobus de Voragine. Can any friend give any 
information respecting an edition of the above 
author printed at Venice, A.D. 1482? The follow- 
ing is the colophon : 

" Reverend! Fratris Jacobi de Voragine de Sancto 
cum legendis opus perutile hie finem habet ; Venetiis 
per Andream Jacobi de Cattbara impressum: Impensis 
Octaviani scoti Modoetrensis sub inclyto duce Johanne 
Mo9enico. Anno ab incarnatione domini 1482, die 17 
Mensis Maii." 

I can find no mention of it either in Panzer or 
Brunet or Ebert. BNB. 


Peace Illumination, 1802. Miss Martineau, in 
her Introduction to the History of the Peace, p. 56., 
repeats the story told in a foot-note on p. 181. of 
the Annual Register for 1802, of M. Otto, the 
French ambassador, being compelled to substitute 
the word " amity " for the word " concord " sus- 
pended in coloured lamps, in consequence of the 
irritated mob's determination to assault his house, 
unless the offensive word " concord " were re- 
moved, the said mob reading it as though it were 
spelled "conquered," and inferring thence that 
M. Otto intended to insinuate that John Bull was 
conquered by France. The story, moreover, goes 
on to relate that the mob also insisted that the 
blazing initials G. R. should be surmounted by an 
illuminated crown. This anecdote, notwithstand- 
ing its embalmment in the Annual Register, has 
always borne in my eyes an apocryphal air. It 
assumes that the mob was ignorant and intel- 
lectual at the same moment ; that whilst it was in 
a riotous mood it was yet in a temper to be rea- 
soned with, and able to comprehend the reasons 
addressed to it. But one cannot help fancying 
that the mental calibre which understood " con- 
cord " to mean " conquered," would just as readily 
believe that " amity " meant " enmity," to say 
nought of its remarkable patience in waiting to 
see the changes dictated by itself carried out. 
This circumstance occurred, if at all, within the 
memory of many subscribers to " NOTES AND 
QUERIES." Is there one amongst them whose per- 
sonal recollection will enable him to endorse the 
word Truth upon this curious story ? 


Planets of the Months. Can any of your nu- 
merous correspondents give me the names of the 
planets for the months, and the names of the 
precious stones which symbolize those planets ? 


Wimpole Street. 

Family of Ky me. Sir John Kyme is said to 
have married a daughter of Edward IV. Can 
any of your correspondents inform me where I can 
find an account of this Sir John Kyme, his de- 
scendants, &c. ? I should be glad of information 
respecting the family of Kyme generally, their 



[No. 89. 

pedigree, &c. &c. I may say that I am aware that 
the original stock of his family had possessions in 
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, and that there were 
members of it of considerable importance during 
the reigns of the earlier monarchs succeeding 
William I. I am also acquainted with some old 
pedigrees found in certain visitation books. But 
none of the pedigrees I have seen appear to come 
down later than the fourteenth, or quite the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth, century. I should be 
glad to know of any pedigree coming down through 
the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, 
and to have any account of the later history of the 
family. BOLD. 

West of England Proverb. Can any of your 
correspondents explain the saying, used when a 
person undertakes what is beyond his ability, 
" He must go to Tiverton, and ask Mr. Able ? " 

D. X. 

Coke and Cowper, how pronounced. Upon 
what authority is Lord Coke's name pronounced 
as though it were spelt Cook ; and why is Cowper, 
the poet, generally called Cooper? Is this a 
modern affectation, or were these names so ren- 
dered by their respective owners and their con- 
temporaries ? Such illustrious names should cer- 
tainly be preserved in their integrity, and even 
pedanticism might blush at corrupting such 
"household words." There certainly should be 
no uncertainty on tlie subject. C. A. 

Orinoco or Orinooko. In the Illustrated News 
of May 26th is an account of the launch of the 
" Orinoco*' steamer. Can any of your readers 
tell me if this is the correct mode of spelling the 
name of this river f I believe the natives spell it 
"Orinooko," the two eo's being pronounced u. 

E. D. C. F. 

Petty Cury. There is a street bearing this 
name in Cambridge, which was always a mystery 
to me in my undergraduate days ; perhaps some 
correspondent can unravel it ? E. S. T. 

Virgil. .ZEneid, viii. 96. : 

" Viridesque secant placido {Equore silvas." 
Will any of your classical correspondents favour 
me with their opinion as to whether secant in the 
above passage is intended to convey, or is capable 
of conveying, the idea expressed in the following 
line of Tennyson (Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights) : 

" my shallop .... clove 

The citron shadows in the blue ?" 
This interpretation has been suggested to me as 
more poetical than the one usually given ; but it 
is only supported by one commentator, Servius. 


Sheridan and Vanbrugh. Could any of your 
readers inform me as to the following? I find 

printed in Sheridan's Dramatic Works by Bonn, a 
copy of Sir John Vanbrugh's play of The Relapse, 
or Virtue in Danger. It is, with a very few omis- 
sions, an exact reprint, but bears the title of A 
Trip to Scarborough, or Miss in her Teens. No 
comment is made, or any mention of Vanbrugh. 


Quotation from an old Ballad. 
" Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love, 
But, why did you kick me down stairs ? " 

In what old ballad or poetic effusion may the 
above forcibly expressive, though not remarkably 
elegant, lines be found ? A short time ago 
they were quoted in The Times' leading article, 
from which fact I suppose them to be of well- 
known origin. NREDRA NAMB. 


(Vol. iii., p. 477.) 

The statement of Hume, that Elizabeth and 
Mary were created Princesses of Wales, rests, I 
am disposed to think, on most insufficient autho- 
rity i and I am surprised that so illustrious an 
author should have made an assertion on such 
slender grounds, which carries on the face of it a 
manifest absurdity, and which was afterwards re- 
tracted by the very author from whom he bor- 
rowed it. 

Hume's authority is evidently Burnet's History 
of the Reformation; (indeed, in some editions your 
correspondent G. would have seen Burnet referred 
to) in which are the following passages (vol. i. 
p. 71., Oxford edition, 1829): 

" The king, being out of hopes of more children, de- 
clared his daughter (Mary) Princess of Wales, and 
sent her to Ludlow to hold her court there, and pro- 
jected divers matches for her." 

Again, p. 271.' 

" Elizabeth was soon after declared Princess of 
Wales ; though lawyers thought that against law, for 
she was only heir presumptive, but not apparent, to 
the crown, since a son coming after he must be pre- 
ferred. Yet the king would justify what he had done 
in his marriage with all possible respect ; and having 
before declared the Lady Mary Princess of Wales, he 
did now the same in favour of the Lady Elizabeth." 

Hume's statement is taken almost verbatim from 
this last passage of Burnet, who, however, it will 
be observed, does not say "created," but "de- 
clared" Princess of Wales; the distinction between 
which is obvious. He was evidently not aware 
that Burnet afterwards corrected this statement in 
an Appendix, entitled, "Some Mistakes in the 
first Portion of this History communicated to me 
by Mr. William Fulman, Rector of Hampton 
Meysey, in Gloucestershire." In this is the fol- 

JULY 12. 1851.] 



lowing note, in correction of the passages I have 
quoted (Burn. Hist. Ref., vol. iv. p. 578.) : 

" Here and in several other places it is supposed 
that the next heir apparent of the crown was Prince of 
Wales. The heir apparent of the crown is indeed 
prince, hut not, strictly speaking, of ^ Wales, unless he 
has it given him by creation ; and it is said that there 
is nothing on record to prove that any of Henry's 
children were ever created Prince of Wales. There are 
indeed some hints of the Lady Mary's being styled 
Princess of Wales ; for when a family was appointed 
for her, 1525, Veysey, bishop of Exeter, her tutor, was 
made president of Wales. She also is said to have kept 
her house at Ludlow ; and Leland says, that Tekenhill, 
a house in those parts, built for Prince Arthur, was 
prepared for her. And Thomas Linacre dedicates his 
Rudiments of Grammar to her, by the title of Princess 
of Cornwall and Wales." 

This is one of the many instances of the inaccu- 
racy, carelessness, and (where his religious or 
political prejudices were not concerned) credulity 
of Burnet. Whatever he found written in any 
previous historian, unless it militated against his 
preconceived opinions, he received as true, with- 
out considering whether the writer was entitled to 
credit, and had good means of gaming information. 
Now, neither Hall, Holinshed, Polydore Virgil, 
nor (I think) Cardinal Pole, contemporary writers, 
say anything about Mary or Elizabeth being 
Princesses of Wales. The only writer I am 
acquainted with who does say any such thing, 
previous to Burnet, and whose authority I am 
therefore compelled to suppose the latter relied on, 
when he made the statement which he afterwards 
contradicted, is Pollini, an obscure Italian Domi- 
nican, who wrote a work entitled L'Historia 
Ecclesiastica della Rivoluzion d'Inghilterra; Ra- 
colta da Gravissimi Scrittori non meno di quella 
Nazione, che delC altri, da F. Girolamo Pollini 
delV ordine de Predicatori, della Provincio de 
Toscana: Roma, Facciotti, 1594. In book i. 
chapter ii. page 7. of this author is the following 
statement, which I translate, speaking of the 
Princess Mary: 

" As the rightful heir of the throne she was declared 
by Henry, her father, Princess of Wales, which is the 
ordinary title borne by the first-born of the king; since 
the administration and government of this province is 
allowed to no other, except to that son or daughter of 
the king, to whom, by hereditary right, on the death of 
the king the government of the realm falls. ... In 
the same way that the first-born of the French king is 
called the Dauphin, so the first-born of the English 
king is called Prince of Britain, or of Wales, which is 
a province of that large island, lying to the west, and 
containing four bishoprics. Which Mary, with the 
dignity and title of Princess, assisted by a most illus- 
trious senate, and accompanied by a splendid establish- 
ment, administered with much prudence," &c. 

Pollini's history is, as may be supposed, of very 
little historical value ; and one feels surprised that, 

on a point like the present, Burnet should have 
allowed himself to be misled by him. But still 
more remarkable, in my opinion, is the use Miss 
Strickland makes of this author. After several 
times giving him as her authority at the foot of the 
page, by the name of Pollino, but without giving 
the least information as to the name of his work, 
or who he was, she has the following note relating 
to the passage I have quoted (Lives of the Queens 
of England, vol. v. p. 156.): 

" The Italian then carefully explains that the Princes 
of Wales were in the same position, in regard to the 
English crown, as the Dauphins were to that of France. 
Pollino must have had good documentary evidence, 
since he describes Mary's council and court, which he 
calls a senate, exactly as if the Privy Council books 
had been open to him. He says four bishops were 
attached to this court." 

It seems to me a singular mode of proving that 
Pollini must have had good documentary evidence, 
by saying that he speaks exactly and positively ; 
and I would ask what good documentary evidence 
would a Florentine friar be likely to have, who 
certainly never was in England, and in all proba- 
bility never far from his convent ? But it is the 
statement about the bishops that I wish more par- 
ticularly to allude to, as I can find no statement to 
that effect in Pollini, and can only suppose that 
Miss Strickland misunderstood the passage (quoted 
above) where he says the province of Wales con- 
tains four bishoprics. 

I think I have now shown that Hume's state- 
ment rests on no sufficient grounds as to the 
authority from whence he derived it. But there 
is yet another reason against it, which is this : it 
would be necessary, before Elizabeth was created 
Princess of Wales, that Mary should be deprived 
of it ; and this could only be done by a special act 
of parliament. But we find no act of such a 
nature passed in the reign of Henry VIII. There 
are other reasons also against it; but having, 
I think, said enough to show the want of any 
foundation for the assertion, I shall not trouble 
you any further. C. C. 11. 

Line. Coll., Oxon., June 26. 


(Vol.iii., p.477.) 

In reply to the inquiry of E. V. relative to the 
conversion of the late Mr. William Hone, I send 
a slight reminiscence of him, which may perhaps 
be generally interesting to the readers of the 
Every Day Book. It was soon after the period 
when Mr. Hone (at the time afflicted both in 
"body and estate") began to acknowledge the 
truths of Christianity, that I accidentally had an 
interview with him, though a perfect stranger. 
Our conversation was brief, but it turned upon 
the adaptation of the Christian religion to the 



[No. 89. 

wants of man, in all the varied stations in which 
he may be placed on earth, independent of its 
assurance of a better state hereafter. With child- 
like meekness, and earnest sincerity, the once 
contemner and reviler of Christianity testified to 
me that all his hope for the future was in the 
<*reat atonement made to reconcile fallen man to 
his Creator. 

Before we parted, I was anxious to possess his 
autograph, and asked him for it ; as I had made 
some collection towards illustrating his Every 
Day Book, to which it would have been no in- 
considerable addition. After a moment of deep 
thought, he presented me with a slip of paper 
inscribed as follows, in his small and usual very neat 
hand : 

" He that increaseth knowledge 
increascth sorro \v. ' * 

" Think on this. 

"15 January, 1839." 

Shortly after his death, the following appeared 
in the Evangelical Magazine, which I transcribed 
at the time : 

" The following was written by Mr. Hone on a 
blank leaf in his pocket Bible. On a particular occa- 
sion he displaced the leaf, and presented it to a gentle- 
man whom we know, and who has correctly copied its 
-contents for publication. 


Written before Breakfast, 3d June 1834, the Anniver- 
sary of my Birthday in 1 780. 

' The proudest heart that ever beat, 

Hath been subdued in me ; 
The wildest will that ever rose, 
To scorn Thy cause, and aid Thy foes, 

Is quell'd, my God, by Thee. 

' Thy will, and not my will, be done ; 

My heart be ever Thine ; 
Confessing Thee, the mighty Word, 
I hail Thee Christ, my God, my Lord, 
And make Thy Name my sign. 

'W. HONE/" 

At the sale of Mr. Hone's books, I purchased a 
bundle of religious pamphlets ; among them was 
Cecil's Friendly Visit to the House of Mourning. 
From the pencillings in it, it appears to have 
afforded him much comfort in the various trials, 
mental and bodily, which it is well known clouded 
his latter days. WILLIAM BARTON. 

19. Winchester Place, 
Southwark Bridge Road. 

* Ecclesiastes, i. 18. 



(Vol. iii., p. 497.) 

In reference to the observations of A. E. B., I 
beg leave to say that, in speaking of Shakspeare as 
a man who had small Latin, I intended no irreve- 
rence to his genius. I am no worshipper of Shak- 
speare, or of any man; but I am willing to do full 
justice, and to pay all due veneration, to those 
powers which, with little aid from education, ex- 
alted their possessor to the heights of dramatic 

As to the extent of Shakspeare's knowledge of 
Latin, I think that it was well estimated by 
Johnson, when he said that " Shakspeare had 
Latin enough to grammaticize his English." Had 
he possessed much more than was sufficient for 
this purpose, Ben Jonson would hardly have called 
his knowledge of the language small; for about 
the signification of small there can be no doubt, 
or about Ben's ability to determine whether it was 
small or not. But this consideration has nothing 
to do with the appreciation of Shakspeare's intel- 
lect : Shakspeare might know little of Latin and 
less of Greek, and yet be comparable to .ZEschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides ; as Burns, who may be 
said to have known no Latin, is comparable, in 
many passages, even to Horace. " The great in- 
strument of the man of genius," says Thomas 
Moore, " is his own language," which some know- 
ledge of another language may assist him to wield, 
but to the wielding of which the knowledge of 
another language is by no means necessary. The 
great dramatists of Greece were, in all probability, 
entirely ignorant of any language but their own ; 
but such ignorance did not incapacitate them from 
using their own with effect, nor is to be regarded 
as being, in any way, any detraction from their 
merits. Shakspeare had but a limited acquaint- 
ance witli Latin, but such limited acquaintance 
caused no debilitation of his mental powers, nor is 
to be mentioned at all to his disparagement. I 
desire, therefore, to be acquitted, both by A. E. B. 
and by all your other readers, of entertaining 
any disrespect for Shakspeare's high intellectual 

As to his usage of the word triple, that it is 
" fairly traced to Shakspeare's own reading " 
might not unreasonably be disputed. We may, 
however, concede, if A. E. B. wishes, that it was 
derived from his own reading, as no trace of its 
being borrowed is to be found. But I am not 
sure that if other writers had taken pains to 
establish this use of the word in our tongue, its 
establishment would have been much of a " con- 
venient acquisition." Had any man who has three 
sisters, closely conjoined in bonds of amity, the 
privilege of calling any one of them a triple sister, 
I do not consider that he or his language would 

JULY 12. 1851.] 



be much benefited. Ovid, I fear, employed triplex 
" improperly," as Warburton says that Shakspeare 
employed triple, when he spoke of the Fates spin- 
ning triplici pollice. I cannot find that any writer 
has imitated him. To call the Fates triplices decs 
{Met. viii. 48 1 .), or triplices sorores (Met. viii. 453.), 
was justifiable ; but to term any one of them 
triplex dea, or to speak of her as spinning triplici 
fuso or triplici pollice^ was apparently to go beyond 
what the Latin language warranted. A. E. B. 
rightly observes that triple must be explained as 
signifying " belonging to three conjoined ; " but 
the use of it in such a sense is not to be supported 
either by custom or reason, whether in reference 
to the Latin language or to our OAvn. . 

MR. SINGER, in his observations on " captious," 
has a very unlucky remark, which A. E. B. un- 
luckily repeats " We, no doubt, all know," says 
MR. SINGER, " by intuition as it were, what Shak- 
speare meant." If we all know Shakgpeare's mean- 
ing by intuition, how is it that the " true worship- 
pers of Shakspeare " dispute about his meanino-? 


Stockwell, June 27. 1851. 

ta f&inar 

Family of Etty, the Artist (Vol. iii., p. 496.). 
" Mr. Etty, Sen,, the architect," mentioned in the 
passage quoted by your correspondent from 
Thoresby's Diary, was John Etty, who died Jan. 
28th, 1709, at the age of seventy-five. Drake calls 
him "an ingenious architect," and quotes these 
lines from his epitaph in the church of All Saints, 
North Street, in York (Eboracum, p. 277.) : 
" His art was great, his industry no less, 
What one projected, t'other brought to pass," 

Although Thoresby and Drake dignify him with 
the title of architect, he was in fact a carpenter, or 
what would now be styled " a builder." Mr. Etty 
had several sons : Marmaduke, the painter men- 
tioned ^ by Thoresby, was one of them. He was 
called in those days a painter-stainer. Two others, 
James and William, were brought up to the busi- 
ness of a carpenter as their father and grand- 
father were before them. William had two sons : 
the eldest of whom, John, was also a carpenter. 
The other was the Reverend Lewis Etty, clerk ; 
who, about a century ago, was incumbent of one 
of the York churches. I suspect that no work is 
now extant which is known to be the production 
of either the architect or the painter ; and, but for 
the incidental ^ allusion to them in the Diary of 
the Leeds antiquary, the memory of their very 
names had lomr since perished. The fact stated in 
the Diary, of Grinlin Gibbons having wrought at 
York with Mr. Etty, the architect, is not men- 
tioned in any of the biographical notices of that 
skilful artist, although its accuracy may be safely 
accepted upon Thoresby's authority. 

The late William Etty, R.A., never claimed 
descent from the old York family. Most probably 
he did not know that such persons ever existed. 
His father, John Etty, and his grandfather, Mat- 
thew Etty, were established as millers at York 
during the latter part of the last century. To the 
occupation of a miller, John Etty added that of a 
ginger-bread baker ; and in the house in Fease- 
gate, York, where his distinguished son was born, 
he carried on an extensive business in supplying 
the smaller shops and itinerant dealers with ginger- 
bread of all descriptions, when it was a more 
popular luxury or " folk-cate" than it is now. A 
characteristic anecdote is told of William Etty, 
which may not inappropriately be introduced here. 
In his latter days, when in the zenith of his fame, 
the large sum he was about to receive for one of 
his pictures was the subject of conversation at a 
friend's table. "Ah!" said the artist, with the 
quiet simplicity of manner for which he was re- 
markable, " it will serve to gild the gingerbread !" 

It is possible that a keen genealogist might 
succeed in connecting the illustrious artist of our 
dny with the Ettys of Thoresby's time, and thus 
establish a case of hereditary genius, " Mr. Etty, 
the painter," had a son called John, who attained 
man's estate about the year 1710. He does not 
appear to have settled at York, and it is by no 
means out of the range of probability, that he was 
the progenitor of Matthew Etty, the miller -, who 
was, I believe, a native of Hull, and who, by the 
way, named one of his sons, John. EBORACOMB. 

Parish Register of Petworth (Vol. iii., pp. 449. 
485. 510.). By the parish register abstract ac- 
companying the population returns of 1831, it 
appears that in that year the earliest existing' 
register of Petworth commenced in 1559. We 
are indebted to the late Mr. Rickman for this ab- 
stract of the dates of all the parish registers in the 
kingdom; and it would be well if, at the next 
census, a similar return was called for, that it 
may be seen what registers are then missing. 

As ^to lost registers, I may state that I possess 
the bishop's transcripts of sixty registers, signed 
by the minister and churchwardens of parishes in 
the county of Kent ; they comprise the baptisms, 
marriages, and burials for the years 1640 and 1641. 
The registers of sixteen of these parishes do not 
be^in until after 1641, consequently these tran- 
scripts are the only records now existing of the 
baptisms, marriages, and burials in those sixteen 
parishes for 1640 and 1641. J. S. B. 

Death (Vol. iii., p. 450.). The ancients found 
in the successive transformations of the butterfly 
a striking and beautiful parallel to the more im- 
portant career of human existence. Thus to their 
fancy the caterpillar, or larva, represented man's 
earthly course ; the pupa, or chrysalis state, his 
death and utter inanition ; while the perfect state 



[No. 89. 

of the insect typified man's rise to life and glory, 
a bright and glorious being, without spot or trace 
of earthly stain. The Greeks from this notion 
named the butterfly "Psyche." A careful ex- 
amination of the anatomy and physiology of the 
insect world will show the strict and amazing 
beauty of this simile. TEE BEE. 

Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor (Yol. iv., 
p. 9.). Your printer has misprinted clamour in- 
stead of your own expression demur. Let me 
add that there was neither clamour nor even demur 
on that occasion all went off' quietly in the usual 
course. There is also an omission of two words 
in a subsequent line, which, though easily supplied, 
I may as well notice. 

" The proclamation is that of the peers alone, 
but assisted by the others" should rather be 
" the proclamation is that of the peers alone, but 
assisted by the ex-Privy Councillors and others" 
as this marks the distinction between the two 
classes of assistants more strongly. C. 

" Suum cuique tribuere," frc. (Vol. iii., p. 518.). 
Your correspondent M. D. will find the passage 
in do. Offic., i. 5. Y. V. S. 


Meaning of Complexion (Vol. i., p. 352.). 
Addison says in Cato : 

" 'Tis not a set of features or complexion, 

The tincture of a skin that I admire." 
Here he uses the word complexion as something 
distinct from " tincture of the skin." The colour 
of the hair and irides commonly indicates the 
colour of the skin. If they are dark, the skin is 
ordinarily dark ; and if blue or light, the skin is 
ordinarily fair. I have seen flaxen hair and sur- 
passing whiteness of skin with eyes as black as 
death. S. H. 

Gillingham (Vol. iii., pp. 448. 505.). As a means 
of furnishing your correspondent QUID AM with some 
historical and local data that may tend to identify 
the place where that memorable council was con- 
vened, by which the succession to the English- 
crown was transferred from the Danish to the 
Saxon line, I would refer him to Lambard's 
Perambulation of Kent, published in 1596, pp. 351, 
352, 353., as adducing strong evidence in favour 
of the council alluded to having been held at 
Gillingham next Chatham. FRANCISCUS. 

Nao, a Ship (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 509.). I perfectly 
agree with GOMER that the early Britons must have 
possessed vessels more capacious than osier baskets 
or cyry-glau before they, were able to transport 
warlike assistance to their brethren the Armoricans 
of Gaul; but I can inform GOMER and A. N. in 
addition, that a much older term for a ship was made 
use of by the first inhabitants of Britain, namely 
Naf, from whence no doubt the Latin Navis 
sprang ; and from the same root the Welsh word 

Nawf, a swim (now used), was derived. This 
term Naf is handed down to us in one of the 
oldest British triads, but which has been always, 
in my opinion, improperly interpreted. In speak- 
ing of the three master works of the island of 
Britain, is the ship of Nefydd Naf Neifion (or 
Noah) ; the translation is simply this 

Nefydd naf neifion. 

i. e. The ship constructor of the ship of ships. 
Here you have the hero personified by his avo- 
cation, and the noun from which the proper name 
is derived, both in the singular and plural number; 
in the latter sense it is made use of by D. ab 
Gwilym in the following couplet : 

" Y nofiad a wnaeth Neifion 
O Droia fawr draw i F6n." 

" The swimming that the ships performed 
From great Troy, afar, to Mona." 

Glyn y me), Fishguard, June 27. 1851. 

John Perrot (Vol. iii., p. 336.). I possess a 
neatly written MS., of 88 pp. small 8vo., entitled 
A Primmer for Children, written by a suffering 
Servant of God, John Perrot ; corrected, ammended, 
and made more easie : London, in the Yeare 1664. 
The only notice of him after this date is in p. 290. 
of Sew el's History of the Quakers : 

" Perrot now walked in an erroneous path, grew 
worse from time to time ; even to that degree that, 
being come into America, he fell into manifold sen- 
sualities and works of the flesh ; for he not only wore 
gawdy apparel, but also a sword : and being got into 
some place in the government, he became a severe 
exacter of oaths." 


Snech up (Vol. i., p. 467. ; Vol. ii., p. 14.). Sneck 
up is a stage direction for hiccup, which Sir Toby 
was likely to observe after his " pickle herring." 
Davis is quite right in following Theobald. A word 
for Theobald. Every commentator is indebted to 
him, and almost every one has abused him, from 
Warburton and Pope to Coleridge, and without 
Theobald's notes and most sagacious amendments, 
ordinary readers would be puzzled to read Shak- 
speare. The booksellers, I am glad to see, had 
sense enough to see Theobald's merit, and gave 
him a far larger sum for his edition than has been 
paid to most of his successors. S. H. (2) 

Meaning of Senage (Vol. iv., p. 6.). Have the 
kindness to inform W. H., that in my extracts 
from the Parish Account Book of St. Peter's Man- 
croft in this city, under the years 1582 and 1588, 
are entered as follows : 

" 1582. P d to the Bisshopp for Senage Money . . xxjr/. 
1588. P d for Senage and Proxage to the Bisshopp, ixe/." 

In Cowel's Law Dictionary, by Thomas Manley, 
folio, 1701, under the term " Senege," he says : 

JULY 12. 1851.] 



" There goes out yearly in Proxage and Senage 
33s. Gd. Perhaps senege may be money paid for 
Synodals, as Proxyes or Procurations." " Proxyes 
are yearly payments made by parish priests to their 
bishop, or archdeacon, in lieu of victuals for the visitor 
and his attendants" (which it was formerly the custom 
to provide). 

" Senage. The Senes be only courts to gather 
Senage and Proxye. The bishop should hold a Synod 
or Sene twice a year." Becon's Reliques of Rome, p. 2 1 3. 

" The priests should come to the Sene as they were 
wont to do." 

The series, courts, or ecclesiastical councils, were 
held for the purpose of correcting any neglect 
or omissions of the Church Reeves (as they were 
called), and fining them for such omissions, as well 
as receiving the usual and accustomed payments ; 
and sometimes they were fined for having secreted 
some Catholic reliques, which were discovered by 
the visitors (of course after the Reformation), as 
I have found entries of fines having been paid ; 
and more frequently are entries of " Payd for the 
withdraft" of the charge for some neglect in not 
providing articles necessary for the performance 
of divine worship. 

In Sir Thomas More's Works, folio, 1557, 
pp. 909., 991., " Senes or Indightments" (perhaps 
Citements or Citations) are mentioned. 

No doubt (I think) the term senege is derived 
from these courts being termed " Senes" and 
" Seens." G. H. I. 

Norwich, July 5. 1851. 

Early Visitations (Vol. iv., p. 8.). Your re- 
mark that Mr. Noble's statements "are extremely 
loose " is, generally speaking, very just ; although 
in the particular instance referred to there is 
some foundation for his statement, as in the 12th 
Henry VI. commissions were issued into the 
several counties, not merely to collect the names 
of the gentry, but to administer an oath to the 
gentry and others for conservation of the peace 
and observance of the laws. The returns con- 
taining the names of the parties sworn in all the 
counties (except twelve) are printed by Fuller in 
his Worthies from records in the Tower, which 
are probably yet extant. See Rotuli Parliamen- 
torum, iv. 455. ; v. 434. ; Fuller's Worthies of 
England, chap. xiv. ; Grimaldi's Origines Genea- 
logicce, 68, 69. I do not understand that all the 
parties who were sworn were accounted gentle- 
men, although Dr. Fuller's and Mr. Grimaldi's 
impressions on this point appear to have been 
similar to Mr. Noble's. C. H. COOPER. 

Cambridge, July 5. 1851. 

Rifles (Vol. iii., p. 517.). I am neither Mr. 
Gordon Gumming, nor an officer of the Rifle 
Brigade ; nevertheless, I have seen much of rifles 
and rifle-firing ; and I think I can assure your 
correspondent A. C. that " We make the best 

rifles" is rather an assumption. That the Americans 
make most excellent ones, there can be no doubt ; 
but I question whether they ever turned out a 
rifle which, either for finish or performance, would 
bear comparison with those made by Purdey, 
Lancaster, and others. As an example of what an 
English rifle will do, I subjoin the performance* 
of one made by Beattie of Regent Street 'on 
Minie's principle for an officer in the artillery 
now going out to the Cape. At one thousand mea- 
sured yards, sixteen balls out of thirty were put 
into the target ; and at four hundred yards, balls 
were driven through four regulation targets, each 
of two inch oak, placed six inches apart from one 
another ; and into the earthen mound behind them 
ten or twelve inches. If the Americans can beat 
that, either for precision or force, they may claim 
to make the best rifles. 

E. N. W. 
South wark, June 30. 1851. 


A Glossary of Terms used for Articles of British 
Dress and Armour, by the Reo. John Williams (ab Ithel), 
classifies alphabetically the several names which our 
British forefathers applied to the different portions of 
their garments and military weapons, and supplies the 
reader with their English synonymes ; and, in the 
majority of cases, cites corroborative passages from 
documents in which the original terms occur. Its 
value to the antiquaries of the Principality is suf- 
ficiently obvious ; and as Celtic elements may still be 
traced in our language, it will clearly be found of 
equal utility to their English brethren. 

The Golden and Silver Ages. Two Plays by Thomas 
Heywood, with an Introduction and Notes by J. Payne 
Collier, Esq. (which form the last work issued by the 
Shakspeare Society), will be read with great interest 
by the members; and, as completing the second volume 
of the collected edition of the works of Thomas Heywood, 
will give great satisfaction to those who urged upon 
the Shakspeare Society the propriety of printing an 
edition of the works of this able and prolific dramatist. 

In his Manual of the Anatomy and Physiology of the 
Human Mind, by James Carlile, D.D., the author has 
undertaken to write a popular treatise on an abstruse 
subject; and though he exhibits pains and method, 
yet we can hardly think that he has succeeded in his 
difficult task. One mistake he has evidently made. 
He seeks his illustrations too much from recent events, 
the Gorham controversy, the presidency of Louis 
Napoleon, and the like ; references which are more 
calculated to degrade a great subject than to popu- 
larise it. 

In The Gentleman's Magazine for the present month 
our readers will find a very able article, to which we 
beg to direct their attention, on the present state of 

* In Woolwich Marshes. 



[No. 89, 

English Historical Literature, the accessibility of our 
Historical Materials and the Record Offices. The 
article has apparently been called forth by a Memorial, 
addressed to the Master of the Rolls, requesting " that 
persons who are merely engaged in historical inquiry, 
antiquarian research, and other literary pursuits con- 
nected therewith, should have permission granted to 
them to have access to the Puhlie Records, with the 
Indexes and Calendars, without payment of any Fee." 
This important document is signed by all the principal 
historical and antiquarian writers of the day : we should 
think, therefore, that there can be little fear of their 
prayer being refused. The writer of the article in the 
Gentleman's Magazine has omitted two curious facts, 
which deserve mention, one that Pinkertou was 
stopped in the progress of his History of Scotland by 
the fees for searches in the Scotch Record Offices ; the 
other, that those fees in those very offices have recently 
been remitted; 

Mr. Douglas Allport has issued Proposals for the 
publication by subscription of a volume entitled Kits 
Coty House, a Monograph, which, as it is to treat not 
only of Kits Coty House, but of its Flora and Fauna, 
the Druidical Circles of Addington and Colebrook, the 
Antiquarian Relics and Traditions of the neighbour- 
hood, Boxley and its Rood of Grace, Chaucer and the 
Pilgrim's Road, and other vestiges of bygone times, 
clearly has within its subject the materials for an 
amusing and interesting volume. 




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"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 90.] 

SATURDAY, JULY 19. 1851. 

f Price Threepence. 
C. Stamped Edition, 4 


NOTES: : Page 

A Caxton Memorial suggested, by Boltou Corney - 33 

Supposed Witchcraft - - - - - 35 

The late Sir John Graham Dalyell ... 35 

Appropriation of a Thought, by James Cornish - - 3G 

The "Eisell" Controversy, by Samuel Hickson - 36 

Minor Notes : " Miserrimus " The Dog and Duck, 
St. George's Fields The Habit of profane Swearing 
by the English Tennyson's Use of the Word" Cycle" 
_ A Moiety - - - - - -37 


Etymology of Fontainebleau, by H. H. Rreen - .38 

Force of Conscience - - - - 3S 

English Literature in the North, by George Stephens - 38 
Minor Queries :. Painted Portraits of Overtan 
Fourth Fare John Wood, Architect Derivation of 
" Spon 11 Dell, iu what County Bummaree or Bu- 
maree Thread the Needle Proof of a Sword 
Shelley's Children Ackey Trade Baskerville the 
Prmter Statue of Charles II. .La Mere Jeanne 
Man of War, whv a Ship of War so called Secret 
Service Money of Charles II. Hampton Court - 39 

Abridgment of the Assizes Life of Cromwell - 41 


Written Sermons and Extempore Preaching - - 41 

Fest Sittings - - - - - - -42 

Hi-toiredes Severambes, by H. H. Breen - - 43 

Silting the Dead - - ' - - - - 43 

Replies to Minor Queries: Bosratsky Baronette 
Rifles Miss Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest 
English Sapphics Welwood Bellarmin's Mon- 
strous Paradox Jonah and the Whale Book Plates 44 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. - 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - 

Notices to Correspondents - - - 

Advertisements - - - - 

- 46 

- 46 

- 47 


After Caxton had slept with his fathers for three 
centuries, remembered only by a few antiquaries, 
it was deemed fit that a public monument should 
record his merits. 

The Roxburghe club, much to the honour of its 
members, undertook to bear the cost of it, and to 
superintend its execution. With regard to its 
location, there was no question as to the para- 
mount claims of Westminster. It was proposed, 
in the first instance, to place it in the collegiate 
church of St. Peter, within the precincts of which 
church Caxton had exercised his art. The want 
of a convenient space was rather an obstacle to 

that plan : a more serious obstacle was the amount 
of fees demanded on such occasions. It was then 
decided, and perhaps with more propriety, that it 
should be placed in the parish church of St. Mar- 
garet ; and the execution of the monument, which 
was to be of the tablet form, was entrusted to the 
younger Westmacott. 1 An engraving of it has 
been published. 2 The inscription is : 

" To the memory 

of William Caxton 

who first introduced into Great Britain 

the art of printing 
and who A.D. 1477 or earlier 

exercised that art 
in the abbey of Westminster. 

This tablet 
in remembrance of one 

to whom 

the literature of his country 
is so largely indebted 

was raised 

anno Domini MDCCCXX 

by the Roxburghe club 

earl Spencer, K.G. president." 

The monument, as a piece of sculpture, is sim- 
plicity itself, and therefore suitable to the place of 
its destination. To the inscription I venture to 
make some slight objections : 1. Whether Caxton 
" introduced into Great Britain the art of printing" 
admits of a doubt. There is no evidence to in- 
validate the colophon of the Exposicio S. Jeronimi 
in simbolo Apostolorum. 3 Dibdin fully believed 
in its authenticity. 4 2. Caxton is very imperfectly 
designated. He was a well-informed writer, a 
most assiduous translator, and a very careful 
editor. As early as 1548, he was classed among 
the Illustres majoris Britannics scriptores 5 but 

1 T. F. Dibdin, Reminiscences of a literary life. 
London, 1836. 8vo. i. 386. 

2 J. Martin, A catalogue of books privately printed. 
London, 1834. 8vo. p. 486. 

3 S. W. Singer, Some account of the book printed at 
Oxford in 1468. London, 1812. 8vo. p. 44. 

4 Typographical antiquities, by Joseph Ames, etc. 
London, 1810. 4to. Life of Caxton, p. 75. 

5 Il/vstrivm maioris Britanniae scriptorvm summariu 
avtore loanne Balaeo. Gippeswici, 1548. 4to. fol. 208. 

VrkT IV XTr. OH 



[No. 90. 

we are on the decline, it seems, in point of tact 
and intelligence. 3. The date of his decease, and 
the place of his burial, should have been stated. 
The facts are recorded in the accounts of the 
churchwardens of this very parish, and nowhere 
else. 6 4. The inscription, as a composition, wants 
terseness : on this point, I content myself with 
giving a hint typographically. 

In 1847 a fresh attempt was made to revive the 
memory of Caxton. After due notice, a public 
meeting was held on the 12th of June to " promote 
the erection of a monument to commemorate the 
introduction of printing into England, and in 
honour of William Caxton, the earliest English 
printer"- the lord Morpeth in the chair. The 
meeting was extremely well attended. The form 
of monument proposed was, the combination of a 
fountain by day and a light by night the poetical 
conception of the rev. H. H. Milman. Some 
excellent speeches were made and I cannot but 
particularize that of the noble chairman ; con- 
siderable sums were subscribed the messieurs 
Clowes tendering 100/. ; a committee, a sub-com- 
mittee, a treasurer, and a secretary, were appointed. 7 
With the proceedings of that meeting, as pub- 
licly reported, my information terminated. 

After a lapse of four years, a meeting of the 
subscribers to the Caxton Testimonial was adver- 
tised for the 10th of July, to "consider an offer 
made by the Coalbrookdale Iron Company to erect 
an iron statue of Caxton and, in the event of the 
proposal being adopted, to determine the best 
means of carrying the same into effect." I was 
much astonished at this announcement. A meeting 
to consider an offer to perpetuate a fiction in 
connexion with an art which surpasses all other 
arts in its power of establishing truth ! On re- 
flection, I became calm ; and felt that Mr. Henry 
Cole, the honorary secretary, was perfectly right 
in adopting the customary phraseology. The re- 
sult of this meeting is a desideratum. It seems to 
have been private ; for an examination of 300 
columns of The Times, being the history of four 
days, did not lead to the discovery of one word on' 
the iron statue of Caxton. 

If the statue-mania did not now prevail to an 
unexampled extent, I should feel much confidence 
in the sound sense of the subscribers but I have 
my misgivings. 

According to my feelings, which I avail myself 
of this opportunity of recording, we may comme- 
morate an eminent individual in better ways than 
by the erection of a statue ; the philanthropist, 
by an alms-house the scholar, by scholarships 
the naval commander, by a sea-mark etc. 

6 John Nichols, Illustrations of the manners and ex- 
pences of ancient times. London, 1797. 4 to. p. 3. 

7 The Times, June 14, 1847. 

Admitting that a statue may sometimes be the 
most desirable form of monument, the statue of an 
individual of whose features we are in entire igno- 
rance is a misnomer. It is scarcely less than an 

As I have intimated that there is no authentic 
portrait of Caxton, I must now justify my con- 
viction. Ames published a woodcut as a portrait 
of our venerable Caxton 8 : Dibdin discovered it to 
be a "portrait of Burchiello," 9 an eccentric Flo- 
rentine barber ! le poete le plus bizarre qui ait 
jamais ecrit ! Horace Walpole published a print 
said to represent earl Rivers "introducing Caxton 
to Edward IV." 10 It was copied from an illumi- 
nated MS. in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, 
No. 265. Now, what says Mr. Todd ? "That 
Caxton printed this book in 1477, is well known. 
But what has that circumstance to do with the 
earl presenting or attending the presentation of 7tis 
own manuscript f The figure here introduced by 
the earl is evidently, by the tonsure and habit, a 
priest; which Caxton was not." 11 I have heard of 
no other engraved portraits of Caxton. 

Viewing Caxton as a man of considerable lite- 
rary abilities, and as the first English printer, I 
have now to propose for him a monument which 
shall do justice to his merits in both capacities 
a monument which shall be visible at all times, 
and in all places : I propose a collective impres- 
sion of his original compositions. Such a volume 
would be the best account of his life and works. 
It would also exhibit much of the literary history 
of the times some sound criticism and notions 
on editorship and curious specimens of the style 
of our forefathers. It would comprise what no 
wealth could procure what no single library 
could produce. It would be, to use the forcible 
words of messieurs Visconti and Castellan, on a 
somewhat similar occasion, " un monument plus 
utile et plus durable que ceux meme que Ton 
peut eriger avec le marbre et le bronze." 12 

Proposed Conditions. 

1. A volume, to be entitled 1&t CajrtOll |Hf mortal, 
shall be printed for subscribers under approved 
editorship, and shall contain all the original com- 
positions of WILLIAM CAXTON, as proems, notes, 
colophons, etc., with specimens of his translations, 
and fac-simile cuts of his device and types. 

2. In order to expedite the progress of the volume, 
and to ensure the perfect accuracy of its contents, 

8 Typographical antiquities. London, 1749. 4to. p. 54. 

9 The 'bibliographical decameron. London, 1817. 8vo. 
ii. 288. 

10 Catalogue of royal and noble authors. Strawberry- 
hill, 1758. 8vo. i. 60. 

11 Catalogue of the archiepiscopal manuscripts at 
Lambeth. London, 1812. Fol. p. 37. 

12 Journal des savans. 1818. 4to. p. 389. 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



there shall be three co-editors one of whom shall 
act as secretary. 

3. The volume shall be printed in Roman type, with 
the ancient orthography and punctuation; and in 
t\vo sizes in royal octavo, and in demy octavo. 

4. Subscribers of \L Is. shall be entitled to a copy on 
royal paper, and subscribers of 105. 6d. to a copy on 
demy paper. 

5. Each editor shall be entitled to the same number 
of copies as are allowed by the Camden and other 
similar societies. 

6. The number of copies printed shall not exceed the 
number for which subscriptions shall have been re- 
ceived, except as required by the fifth rule, and as 
presents to such public libraries, or private collectors, 
as may furnish a part of the materials. 

7. Printers and publishers subscribing for six copies 
shall be allowed a discount of 25 per cent. 

8. The names of the subscribers, and an account of 
the receipts and expenditure, shall be added to the 

The project now announced was formed by me, 
as to its principal features, at the close of the year 
1849; but not a line was written before the ap- 
pearance of the advertisement of the 5th instant. 
It had been communicated, however, in private, to 
the editor of " NOTES AND QUERIES." To this 
fact I have no doubt he will cheerfully bear 
witness. As the previous scheme of a Caxton 
Testimonial was then almost forgotten, the idea 
could not have been conceived in a spirit of ri- 
valry. Nevertheless, if need be, I would oppose 
to the utmost of my ability, and fearless of any 
array of names which the rolls of literature may 


Barnes Terrace, Surrey, July 15. 


Cole, in his manuscript volume xlvi. p. 340. 
gives the copy of a paper written at. the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century, addressed to 
some Justices in Quarter Sessions,' though of what 
county is not mentioned : 

" Maye it please your worships to understand what 
troubles, sicknesse, and losses the Petitioner hath suf- 
fered, and in what manner theye happened, and by 
plaine tokens and lyklyhood, by the meanes of this 
woman and others ; but chiefly by her, as is gathered 
by all conjectures. And first of all, a Boare which I 
have, was in such case, that he could not crye nor 
grunt as beforetyme ; neither could he goe, but creepe, 
until we used some meanes to recover him ; but all 
was to no purpose, untill such tyme as we sent for 
Nicholas Wesgate, who, when he saw him, said, ' He 
was madd or bewitched ; ' and my Wyfe using meanes 
to give him some Milke, he bit her by the hand, and I 
fearing he was madd, sent after my wyfe, being toward 
Norwich, that she might get something at the Apothe- 
caries to prevent the danger we feared : and that Horse 
which my man did ryde upon after my wife, was taken 

lame as he returned back again, and suddenly after 
was swollen lyke a Bladder which is blown, and died 
within eight dayes, Nexte a Calfe was taken lame, 
the legg turning upward, which was a strange sight to 
them whoe did beholde the same. Suddenly after that 
I had fyve Calves more, which would have sold for 
xiijs. iiijrf. the Calfe, being sound and well in the 
evening, and the next daye in the morning they were 
in such case as wee could not endure to come nigh 
them, by reason of a filthy noisome savour, theyre 
hay re standinge upright on theyre backes, and theye 
shakinge in such sorte as I never sawe, nor any other, 
I suppose, lyveynge. Againe within a short space I 
had another Calfe, which was taken so strangely, as if 
the backe were broken, and much swollen, and within 
the space of three or four dayes it dyed. And within 
two or three dayes after, another Calfe was taken in 
such sorte that it turned round about, and did goe as if 
the backe were broken. Then was I wished to burne 
it, and I carried the Calfe to burne it, and after it was 
burned, I was taken with paynes and gripings, and soe 
continued in such sort, untyll shee came to my House ; 
whereupon I did earnestly chide her, and said I would 
beate her, and that daye, I prayse God, I was restored 
to my former health." 



This learned and accomplished gentleman was 
born in 1776. He was educated for the Scottish 
bar, to which lie was called in the year 1797. 
Within a year or two after he was enrolled as a 
member of the Faculty, he produced his first 
quarto, Fragments of Scottish History. This was 
followed, in the year 1801, by a collection of 
Scottish Poems of the Sixteenth Century, in two 
octavo volumes. In 1809 appeared a Tract chiefly 
relative to Monastic Antiquities, with some Account 
of a recent Search for the Remains of the Scottish 
Kings interred in the Abbey of Dunfermline, the 
first of four or five thin octavos, in which Mr. 
Graham Dalyell called attention to those eccle- 
siastical records of the north, so many of which 
have since been printed by the Bannatyne, Mait- 
land, and Spalding Clubs, under the editorial care 
of Mr. Cosmo Lines. A later and more laborious 
work was his Essay on the Darker Superstitions of 
Scotland; a performance which embodies the fruit 
of much patient study in rare and little read works, 
and affords many curious glimpses of the popular 
mythology of the north. The long list of the pro- 
ductions of Sir John Graham Dalyell closes with 
his Musical Memoirs of Scotland, published little 
more than a twelvemonth ago. The deceased 
baronet was distinguished also by his acquaintance 
with mechanical science, and still more by his 
knowledge of Natural History. Of the zeal with 
which he prosecuted this last pursuit, he has left 
a signal monument in his Rare and Remarkable 



[No. 90. 

Animals of Scotland. Sir John succeeded to the 
family title and estates, as sixth baronet, on the 
death of his elder borther, Sir James Dalyell, on 
February 1, 1841. He had previously been ad- 
vanced to the honours of knighthood, by patent 
under the Great Seal, in the year 1836. He had 
oeen for some time in infirm health, and died at 
his residence, Great King Street, Edinburgh, on 
May 17, 1851, in his seventy-fourth year. Dying 
unmarried, he is succeeded by his younger brother, 
now Sir William Cunningham Cavendish Dalyell, 
of Binns, baronet, Commander R.N., Royal Hos- 
pital, Greenwich. ABERDENIENSIS. 


" How when the Fancy, lab 'ring for a birth, 
With unfelt Throws brings its rude issue forth ; 
How after, when imperfect, shapeless thought 
Is by the judgment into Fashion wrought. 
When at first search I traverse o'er my mind, 
Nought but a dark and empty void I find : 
Some little hints at length like sparks break thence, 
And glimmer ing thoughts just dawning into sense : 

Confused awhile the mixt ideas lie, 

With nought of mark to be discover* d by, 
Like colours undistinguished in the night, 

Till the dusk images, moved to the light. 

Teach the discerning Faculty to choose 

Which it had lest adopt and which refuse." 

" Some New Pieces " in Oldham's Works, 
pp. 126-27., 1684. 

Dryden, alluding to his work : 

" When it was only a confused mass of thoughts 
tumbling over one another in the dark ; when the fancy 
was yet in its first work, moving the sleeping images of 
things towards the light, there to he distinguished, and 
there either to he chosen or rejected by the judgment" 
Dedication to the Rival Ladies. 

Lord Byron's appropriation of the same idea : 

"As yet 'tis hut a chaos 

Of darkly brooding thoughts: my fancy is 
In her^rsf work, more nearly to the light 
Holding the sleeping images of tilings 
For the selection of the pausing judgment." 

Doge of Venice. 

Had Oldham or Dryden the prior claim to the 
thought ? Byron derived Ms plagiarism from 
D'Israeli, " On the Literary Character " (vol. i. 
p. 284., 1828), where Dryden's Dedication to his 
Rival Ladies is quoted, and not from the Dedica- 
tion itself, as the Retrospective Review imagined 
(vol. vii. p. 158.), "by levying contributions in the 
most secret and lonely recesses of our literature." 



When Polonius proposed to use the players ac- 
cording to their desert, Hamlet rebuked him with 
" Much better man ! use every man after his 
desert, and who shall 'scape whipping ? Use them 
after your own honour and dignity ! " I do not 
think it necessary to notice that which is merely 
coarse and vulgar in an unprovoked attack upon 
myself, feeling that I have no right to expect the 
man who has no consideration for his own dignity 
to think of mine. But when an attempt is made 
to sow dissension between me and those whose 
opinions I value, and whose characters I esteem, I 
feel that in justice to myself and in satisfaction to 
them, a few words are not out of place. 

Some few of your readers may have seen a 
pamphlet in reply to MR. SUSXSER, on the meaning 
ofeisell; and from certain insinuations about "pegs 
and wires," and a " literary coterie," it might be 
supposed that there existed some other bond for 
the support of " NOTES AND QUERIES " than a 
common object affords. I wish then to inform 
such of them as may not happen to belong to the 
"coterie" in question (which I suppose exists 
somewhere perhaps holds a sort of witch's-sab- 
bath on some inaccessible peak in the pamphleteer's 
imagination), that 1 have never, to my knowledge, 
even seen either MR. SINGER or the editor "of 
" NOTES AND QUERIES;" and that, so far from 
meaning offence to the angry gentleman who 
seems disposed to run-a-muck against all who 
come in his way, I actually supposed all meant in 
good part, and characterised his remarks as " plea- 
sant criticism." 

From an apparent inability, however, of this 
pamphleteer to distinguish between pleasantry 
and acrimony, he has attempted to fix on me 
offences against others when I have ventured to 
dissent from their conclusions. All I can say is, 
that I have never written anything inconsistent 
with the very high respect I feel for the abilities 
and the great services rendered by the gentlemen 
I have had occasion to allude to. 

Dire is the wrath of the pamphleteer that he 
should have been charged by MR. SINGER with 
" want of truth." That gentleman doubtless saw 
what I did not, the implied insinuation since 
burst into full flower about a "coterie." Yet 
the candid controversialist, now, after due de- 
liberation, insinuates that a " canon of criticism," 
which I ventured to suggest, and at which he now 
finds it convenient to sneer, was remembered for 
the purpose of "bolstering up" MR. SINGER'S 
" bad argument." So far from this being the case, 
he knows that I used MR. SINGER'S argument 
at the close of, and apart from the main purpose 
of my letter, to illustrate mine. So, in another 
place, in the attempt to show up my " charming 
and off-hand modesty," he quotes my opinion that 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



the meaning of " rack '* might be " settled at once 
and for ever," suppressing the fact that I made 
the assertion with a view of "testing the cor- 
rectness of my opinion that the question was not 
one of etymology, but of construction. In short, 
an adept in the use of those weapons which are of 
value only where' victory seems a higher aim than 
truth, his honesty would appear to be upon a level 
with his taste. 

I have now done with this gentleman. Of the 
importance of inquiries into nice verbal distinctions 
there might be a question, but that they some- 
times furnish a clue to more valuable discoveries ; 
but for this fact I should little regard them. At 
all events, the remark about the difference " 'twixt 
tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee," comes with strange 
inconsistency from one who has written fifty-two 
pages with no other result than raising the question 
whether "bitter" was not "sour," and proving 
how both qualities may be combined in a truly 
" nauseous medicament." SAMUEL HICKSON. 

St. John's Wood. 

[Our attention having been directed by the pre- 
ceding letter to Mr. Causton's pamphlet, we procured 
and read it, with feelings of deep pain, not for our- 
selves but for the writer. We are content to rest the 
justification of our conduct in abridging, or, as Mr. 
Causton terms it, " mutilating," that gentleman's com- 
munication, on the very passages which \ve omitted, and 
he has reprinted. Mr. Causton's pamphlet, written in 
defence of his literary reputation, proves that that repu- 
tation has no enemy so dangerous as himself. We may 
add that we propose next week publishing a summary 
of the evidence on both sides of this disputed question, 
written not by Mr. Caustcm nor Mr. Hickson, hut by 
a correspondent who, like those gentlemen, is personally 
unknown to us.} 


" Miserrimus.'" I have an extraordinary little 
volume, which, I am told, was written by Frederic 
Mansell Reynolds, who died in June, 1850, enti- 
tled, " Miserrimus. On a gravestone in Worcester 
Cathedral is this inscription, ' Miserrimus,' with 
neither name, date, nor comment. NOT PUB- 
LISHED. Printed by Davison, Simmons. & Co.. 
1832," 12mo. 

The work purports to be a sort of autobio- 
graphy of a most miserable wretch, and we are left 
to suppose that his remains lie under the stone in 
question, for we are not furnished with any pre- 
face or introduction. Whether the author was 
aware of the name of the person over whom so 
singular an inscription was placed does not ap- 
pear ; ^but there is no reason to believe that the 
repulsive and painful aberrations he details had 
any relation to the individual buried under the 
memorial of "Miserrimus," whose name is recorded 

in Chambers's Biographical Illustrations of Wor- 
cestershire, p. 310., as the Rev. Thomas Morris, 
who was deprived of all ecclesiastical preferment 
for refusing to acknowledge the king's supremacy 
at the Revolution, and died, it is stated, in 1748, 
silvered over with the weight and infirmities of 
eighty-eight years " Miserrimus." F. R. A. 

The Dog and Duck, St. Georges Fields. It is 
not generally known, that the old stone sign of 
that celebrated place of public resort is still in 
existence, and is preserved by being- imbedded in 
the brick wall of the garden of Bedlam Hospital 
(visible from the road), representing a dog squat- 
ting on his haunches with a duck in his mouth ; and 
the date 1617. It was placed here on removal of 
the old house which stood on, or very close to, the 
spot ; and in the sixperintendant's (Mr. NichoH's) 
room is a very pretty drawing of that ancient 
place of amusement. I have had a sketch made 
of it in large. 

Any information respecting the Dog and Duck, 
its guests, visitors, or landlords, would be most 
acceptable to G. CREED. 

The Habit of Profane Swearing by the English. 
The revolting habit of swearing which, of 
late years, has happily diminished has been a 
marked characteristic of the English for many 
centuries ; and the national adjuration which has 
given us a nick-name on the continent, appears to 
have prevailed at an earlier period than is gene- 
rally supposed. 

" The English," observes Henry, " were re- 
markable in this period (between 1399 and 1485) 
among the nations of Europe, for the absurd and 
impious practice of profane swearing in conversa- 

The Count of Luxemburg, accompanied by the 
Earls of Warwick and Stafford, visited the Maid 
of Orleans in her prison at Rouen, where she was 
chained to the floor and loaded with irons. The 
Count, who had sold her to. the English, pretended 
that he had come to treat with her about her ran- 
som. After addressing him with contempt and dis- 
dain, she turned her eyes towards the two* Earls, and 
said, "I know that you English are determined 
to put me to death, and imagine that, after I am 
dead, you will conquer France : but, though there 

were a hundred thousand G dammees more in 

France than there are, they will never conquer 
that kingdom." So early had the English got this 
odious nick-name by their frequent and common 
use of that horrid and disgusting imprecation* 

T. WE. 

Tennyson s Use of the Word "Cycle" A Moiety* 
There is a line in Locksley Hall which has 
always appeared to me a sad blemish in a fine 
poem, and which may, perhaps, puzzle posterity 
as much as any of those which have been illus- 



[No. 90. 

trated by G. P. (Vol. iii., p. 319.) I allude to that 

in stanza 92. : 

" Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay." 

Posterity will easily learn that the Chinese cycle 
was just "sixtyyears," and will have some difficulty 
in believing that Tennyson should have rated the 
disparity between life in Europe and in China no 
higher than as six to five. It is evident that the 
poet used a " cycle " in the signification of a long 
period of years ; but will posterity be able to find 
any authority for this use of the word ? Can any 
one refer to a dictionary which explains it in that 
sense, or to any other good author who has so 
used it ? 

This use of the word " cycle " is associated in 
my mind with a use (or rather abuse} of the word 
" moiety," which prevails in the north of Ireland, 
and perhaps elsewhere. It properly signifies " one 
half," but many employ it in the sense of a very 
small portion. I hope no one will introduce it 
into poetry with this signification. 



The Description Routiere et Geographique de 
V Empire Franqais, already cited by me on the 
subject of Bicetre, furnishes the following parti- 
culars respecting the derivation of Fontainebleau : 

u Ce bassin sert de decharge a la fontaine, qui a 
donne, dit-on, son nom a Fontainebleau. Elle est 
nommee, dans les anciennes chartes, Fans BlaudL 
Quelques modernes substituent a cette etymologic celle 
de belle eau, d'ou ils font egalement deriver Fontaine- 
bleau. L'une et 1'autre sont rejetees par Expilly, et 
remplacees par une troisieme de sa fajon, qui est evi- 
dente, selon lui, et qui, selon ses lecteurs, est la plus 
absurde de toutes. Je vais citer ce passage pour faire 
sentir jusqu'a quel travers d'esprit peut conduire la 
manie des Etymologies. ' Pourquoi,' dit-il, ' se donner 
la torture a ce sujet ? II suffit de la moindre notion 
de la chasse pour savoir que, quand le chasseur appelle 
les chiens, il crie : Tkia hillaut! N'est-il pas vrai- 
semblable que le chateau ayant ete bati en pays de 
chasse, les habitans des environs, entendant continuelle- 
ment le mot hillaut^ 1'appellerent de ce nom, auquel ils 
joignirent celui de la fontaine pres de laquelle il avait 
ete bati. De Fontaine hillaut on fit insensiblement 
Fontainebleau.' " 

Two Queries suggest themselves here. Who or 
what was Blaudus or Blaudum f Is our Tally-ho 
derived from Thia hillaut, or vice verm ? As to 
the " travers d'esprit," so gravely imputed to 
Expilly, it is clear to me that his solution of the 
matter must be taken as a burlesque on etymolo- 
gists, rather than as any evidence of his own extra- 
vagance in that respect. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia, June, 1851. 


The following relation has often been reprinted 
in religious magazines and the like. It is given 
by Dr. Fordyce, Professor of Philosophy at Aber- 
deen, in his Dialogues concerning Education (Lon- 
don, 1748, vol. ii. p. 401.), as " a true story, which 
happened in a neighbouring state not many years 
ago" Can any of your readers furnish me with 
Dr. F.'s authority for the assertion ? the Doctor 
himself gives none. One would think that, if true, 
its truth might be easily verified. If its truth 
cannot be satisfactorily established, to reprint such 
tales cannot but be most mischievous : 

" A jeweller of considerable wealth having occasion 
to travel to some distance from the place of his abode, 
took with him a servant in order to take care of his 
portmanteau. Having occasion to dismount on the 
road, the servant, watching his opportunity, took a 
pistol from his master's saddle and shot him dead on 
the spot ; then rifled him of his money and jewels, and 
threw the body into the nearest river. With this 
booty he made off to a distant part of the country. 

He was at length admitted to a share of 

the government of the town, and rose from one post 
to another, till at length he was chosen to be chief 

magistrate One day as he sat on the bench 

with some of his brethren in the magistracy, a criminal 
was brought before him who was accused of murdering 
his master. The evidence was full ; the jury brought 
in their verdict that the prisoner was guilty; and the 
whole assembly awaited the sentence of the President 
of the court, which he happened to be on that day. 

At length coming down from the bench he 

placed himself by the guilty man at the bar, and made 
a full confession of his own guilt, and of all its aggra- 
vations We may easily suppose the great 

amazement of all the assembly, and especially of his 
fellow-judges. They proceeded, however, upon this 
confession, to pass sentence upon him, and he died 
with all the symptoms of a penitent mind." 



English letters are exciting a daily increasing 
interest in the north of Europe that hardy and 
romantic country whence we ourselves are de- 
scended. But their means for purchase are very 
scanty, and I have been requested by the chief 
librarians of the Royal Library, Stockholm, and 
the University Library, Copenhagen, to endeavour 
to procure them English books by gift from private 
individuals and public societies and libraries. 

Can you assist me in this work by making 
this their prayer known in your widely-spread 
columns ? 

Any English works, large or small, old or new, 
in any department of literature, but especially in 
archeology, folk-lore, history, theology, belles- 
lettres, &c., particularly books privately printed^ 
or otherwise scarce or dear, will be most accept- 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



able. Every donor will have the goodness to 
state for which library his gift is intended. So 
many have duplicates, or copies of books, which 
they no longer use or need, that many will doubt- 
less be able to assist in this pleasant book-gathering 
for our Scandinavian cousins. 

Professor of English Literature in the 

University of Copenhagen. 
Mill Farm, Barnes, Surrey, July, 1851. 

[We have good reason to know the great interest 
which our Scandinavian brethren take in the literature 
of this country, and hope this appeal of Ma. STEPHENS 
will be liberally responded to. Any donations for the 
libraries in question, which, we believe, are both public 
libraries, may be left for him at the office of " NOTES 

iHtnor <&u*r(e4. 

1. Painted Prints of Overton. In Vol. iii., pp. 
324, 325., under the title "The Bellman and his 
History," are quoted some lines from Gay's Trivia, 
book ii. p. 482. The last line is 

" The colour'd prints of Overton appear." 

Who was Overton, and what were his prints 
that Gay in these lines makes the companions of 

fTO T-kal 1 mo-r^o c*/\r\reV 11* T 

the bellman's sons ? 

P. L. H. 

2. Fourth Fare. In the accounts of the church- 
wardens of St. Edmund's, Sarum, temp. Edvv. IV., 
this item often occurs, for which a payment was 
made. Does it not mean the dying knell, from 
the German " to depart." H. T. E. 

Clyst St. George, June 3. 1851. 

3. John Wood, Architect. Can any of your 
readers inform me if any likeness is in existence 
of the author of An Essay towards a Description of 
Bath ? or if any of his descendants are still living ? 
He built the Bristol Exchange ; and Bath is in- 
debted to him for many of its most noble edifices. 
He was a magistrate for the county of Somerset, 
and died in 1754. GAMMA. 

4. Derivation of " Spon." Can you or your 
readers give me a derivation of the word " spon," 
in its application to street names ? There is " Spon 
End," and also " Spon Street," in Coventry, Spon 
Lane " at West Bromwich, and " Spon Terrace " 
at Birmingham. Can you supply any other in- 
stances ? 

Mr. Halliwell merely says, " Spon, a shaving of 
wood ; ' and it is used in this sense in Scott's Sir 
Tristrem, p. 1 19. : 

" Bi water he sent adoun 
Light linden spon." 

C. H. B. 
Clarence Street, Islington. 

5. Dell, in ivliat County ?I shall feel obliged if 
any of your correspondents can tell me where- 
abouts this place is, and in what county ? 

J. K C. 

6. Bummaree or Bumaree. There is a large 
class of salesmen in Billingsgate Market not re- 
cognised as such by the trade, but styled Bu- 
marees, who get a living by purchasing large 
parcels of fish of the factor or common salesman, 
and selling it out in smaller quantities to the fish- 
mongers and other retailing buyers. This whole- 
sale retailing of fish is also called bummareeing it, 
hence the name of these (self-styled) salesmen. 

I have not been able to find any clue to the 
meaning of this word thus used in any authority 
that I possess, though the word has been recog- 
nised in statutes and bye-laws of the markets for 
upwards of one hundred years. 

As I feel very interested in this matter, may I 
be allowed to call the attention of some of your 
very learned correspondents to this matter, and 
ask for the probable etymology and exact ortho- 
graphy of the word. 

I have been informed that the only other use of 
the word known is with the confectioners, who use 
Bummaree pans. 

The prefix " bum " is used to express the lowest 
of the kind in bum-bailiff, and also further addi- 
tionally in connexion with selling in " bum-boat." 
I cannot think that " bona venalia," goods set to 
sale, among the Romans, give any clue to Bum- 
maree. This, and other derivations equally un- 
satisfactory, have been submitted by those who 
have hitherto directed their attention to this 
subject. BLOWEN. 

7. Thread the Needle. What is the game so 
called? and what its origin ? 

In it these words occur : 

" How far hence to Hebron ? 
Threescore miles and ten ! 
Can I be there to-night ? 
Yes ! and back again ! " 

I have somewhere seen the name of Thread-the- 
Needle-Gate. Where is, or was, it ? and whence 
was the London street so named ? R. S. H. 


8. Proof of a Sword. Is the following statement 
correct and true (I mean, as to the trial of the 
sword blade, not the anecdote) ? 

*' A troop of horse are riding along under the com- 
mand of ' Duke William' of Cumberland, in the '45. 
A little old Highlander joins the march ; a strong 
lusty soldier laughs at, and insults him. He is allowed 
to demand satisfaction, and fight it out at once : he 
craves the loan of a sword ; one is handed to him. But 
Donald had seen too many snows to trust his life to the 
blade of untried metal : he minutely examined the 
handle, the edge, the point, and the spring, and finally 
turning aside to a pool of water, and applying the fiat 



[No. 90. 

side of the blade to its surface, with one smart stroke 
broke it in two." 

Is this a good test of a sword blade ? Would 
any sword stand it ? 

Would the Toledo blade, at the Crystal Palace, 
that rolls up into the form of a serpent, bear it ? 

What is the usual test of a good blade ? 


' 9. Shelley's Children. Are any of Shelley's chil- 
dren, by his first wife, still living, and where? a 
friend of mine, who was her companion, having a 
relic of her, which she would gladly give into their 
possession. PHILO. 

10. Ackey Trade. I have in my cabinet a silver 
coin (shilling size) which has on the obverse, be- 
sides the bust of the king, the date 1818, and the 
legend, the following under the head (between it 
and the legend), " Ackey Trades" and I shall be 
glad to have an explanation of what is meant by 
th^ Ackey Trade?" The reverse has the arms 
and crest of the African Company. The legend 
is " Free Trade to Africa by Act of Parliament, 
1750." J. N. C. 

11. Baskerville the Printer. I was informed in 
1835, by a friend living at Birmingham, that the 
coffin containing the body of that celebrated 
printer was then lying in a timber yard in that 
town under a pile of deals a fact which was 
well known there. 

Is it still in the same place ? And why ? And 
is there any portrait, engraved or otherwise, of 
him? Mr. Merridew of Coventry, and others, 
have assured me there was not. G. C. 

12. Statue of Charles //.What became of the 
fine statue of Charles II. on horseback which 
formerly stood in Stock's Market, the site of the 
present Mansion House ? 

It was placed on a conduit at the " sole cost 
and charges of that worthy citizen and alderman, 
Sir Robert Viner, Bark" I have 

it, folio. (London, pub. 1708.) 

seen a print of 

13. La Mere Jeanne. In Hallam's Literature of 
Europe, 2nd edition, vol. i. p. 461., I read this 
passage : 

" Two crude attempts at introducing the Eastern 
tongues were made soon afterwards (1530). One of 
these was by William Postel, a man of some parts, and 
more reading ; but chiefly known, while he was re- 
membered at all, for mad reveries of fanaticism, and 
an idolatrous veneration for a saint of his own manu- 
facture, La Mere Jeanne, the Joanna Southcote of the 
sixteenth century." 

Has any account of the character and proceed- 
ings of " La Mere Jeanne " been handed down to 

us ; and, if so, where is it to be found ? 


St. Lucia, June, 1851. 

14. Man of War, why a Ship of War so called. 
Will any of your readers inform me the origin of 
a ship of a certain number of guns being called 
" a man of war ?" In Shakspeare the term is ap- 
plied to Falstaff : Davy inquires of Shallow : 

" Doth the man of war stay all night, Sir?" 
And it is singular to remark, in the same scene, 
the first of Act V., the Second Part of Henry IV., 
that the dinner ordered by Shallow for Falstaff is 
just such as any country gentleman would now 
provide for an unexpected guest : 

" Some pigeons, Davy ; a couple of short-legged 
hens ; a joint of mutton ; and any pretty little tiny 
kickshaws, tell William cook." 

The only difference is the sex of the cook, as 
country gentlemen in these days have females in 
that capacity. AN M. D. 

15. Secret Service Money of Charles II. In 
Mr. Akerman's preface to this work, just published 
by the Camden Society, I find this passage : 

" Amongst these (sums lavished on female favourites) 
the payments to the Duchess of Portsmouth are most 
conspicuous. Nt> less a sum than 136,688/. 10s. ap- 
pears to have been bestowed by the profligate monarch 
on this woman within the space of one year." See Pay- 
ments under the year 1681, p. 42. 

Now, on turning to the year and pa^e desig- 
nated, I find that the whole of the class in which 
the Duchess's name appears amounts for that year 
only to about 22,000/., of which the Duchess of 
Portsmouth appears to have received about 12,000 
in several quarterly payments on account of an 
annual pension or pensions of that amount: so in 
other years. This is a very different sum from 
136,000/. I would beg leave to inquire of the 
editor, or of any of your Camdenite correspon- 
dents, whether there is an error in Mr. Akerman's 
statement, or only in my way of reading it ? C. 

16. Hampton Court. Miss Strickland, in the 
Queens of England, after saying that the Queen 
(Elizabeth of York, Henry VII.'s wife) had stayed 
at Hampton Court eight days, continues : 

" It is worth noticing that Hampton Court was a 
favourite residence of Elizabeth of York long before 
Cardinal Wolsey had it." 

Now, in the Gentleman $ Magazine for January, 
1834, is a copy of the lease from the prior of St. 
John of Jerusalem to Cardinal Wolsey of their 
manor of Hampton Court, it having been in the 
possession of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John 
since 1211, when Joan Lady Grey left it by will 
to that order. Where, then, 'was Elizabeth of 
York's residence ? Did she hold a lease of the 
manor and manor-house of Hampton of the 
Knights Hospitallers ? Or was there another 
royal residence in that locality ? TEE BEE. 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



De Rebus Hibernicis. 1. Silvester Giraldus 
Cambrensis, born in Wales, A.D. 1145, was the 
author of numerous works. Can any one furnish 
a list of them ? 

2. What is the date of the Annals of the Four 
Masters ? 

3. Who was Tigernach, and when did he live ? 

4. What are the Annals of Ulster, and when 
were they written ? WILLIAM E. C. NOURSE. 

[1. The printed works, as well as the manuscript 
collections, of Giraldus, are so numerous, and deposited 
in so many different libraries, that we must refer our 
correspondent to Sir 11. C. Hoare's description of them 
in his Introduction to the translation of Giraldus' 
Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin through Wales, vol. i. 
pp. liv. Ixxii. 4to. 1806. 

2. The Annals of Dunagall, otherwise called The 
Annals of the Four Masters, were compiled between 
A.D. 1632 and 1636. From a MS. in the Duke of 
Buckingham's library at Stowe, Dr. O'Conor pub- 
lished the first part of these Annals, extending from 
the earliest period to A.D. 1172, in his lierum Hiberni- 
carum Scrlptores. The latter portion has since been 
edited, with a translation and notes, by John O'Donovan, 
Esq., M. II. I. A., in 3 vols. 4to. 

3. Tigernach was Abbot, of Cluain-mac-nois, and 
died A.D. 1088. He wrote the Annals of Ireland, from 
A.M. 3596 to his own time. 

4. The Annals of Ulster were compiled by Cathald 
Mac Magnus (Charles Maguire), who died A.D. 1498. 
They commence with the reign of Feradach Fionn- 
fachtnaeh, monarch of Ireland, A.D. 60, and are carried 
down to the author's own time. They were afterwards 
continued to the year 1504, by Roderick O'Cassidy, 
Archdeacon of Clogher. See O'Reilly's Chronological 
Account of Irish Writers,] 

Abridgment of the Assizes. Where can one see, 
or what is the correct title of the book containing 
Abridgment of the Assizes, and Iters of Pickring 
and Lancaster? It is. referred to in Manwood on 
Forest Laws. S. S. 

[Richard Tottle, dwelling at the Hand and Star in 
Fleet Street, and who was " licensed to print all man- 
ner of books touching the common laws of England," 
published in the middle of the sixteenth century the 
following work: " The Abridgment of the Book of 
Assises, lately perused over and corrected, and now 
newely imprinted by Richard Tottle, the last day of 
September, 1555." It is probable that the Iters of 
Pickring and Lancaster are still in manuscript.] 

Life of Cromwell. I have in my possession a 
Life of Cromwell, written by R. B. "without 
passion or partiality," printed by N. Crouch in 
the Poultry, 1715. Query, who was this R. B.? 


[The author was Richard or Robert Burton, alias 
Nathaniel Crouch, who, says Dunton in his Life and 
Errors, "melted down the best of our English histories 
into twelve penny books, which are filled with wonders, 

rarities, and curiosities." The first edition of The 
History of Cromwell was published in 1693, "relating 
only matters of fact without reflection or observation."] 


(Vol. Hi., pp. 478. 526.; Vol. iv., p. 8.) 

Your versatile correspondent MR. GATTY has 
been led astray by an incorrect assertion of Bing- 
ham's (magni nominis vir), that Origen was the 
first who preached extempore. The passage to 
which Bingham refers us, in Eusebius, asserts 
nothing of this sort ; but simply that Origen 
would not sufFer his sermons to be taken down by 
the short-hand writers till he was sixty years old, 
a sufficient proof, if any were needed, that the 
custom of taking down sermons by notaries in the 
third century was not unusual. 

Some rogue has stolen my Number of the 
" NOTES AND QUERIES " in which the inquiry on 
the subject of written sermons was made ; but, if 
I remember rightly, the question was put cor- 
rectly, it having been asked when written sermons 
were first preached. As I at one time took some 
pains to look into this point, and as no one else 
seems inclined to take it up, perhaps you will 
allow me space for a few remarks. 

1. I suppose no one will be disposed to ques- 
tion the extreme improbability of the "sermons" 
in the Apostolic age having been written dis- 
courses : if, however, this be considered doubtful, 
I am willing to argue the point, and be set right 
if I am wrong in thinking it unquestionable. 

2. I believe it is almost as improbable, that in 
what Professor Blunt calls the " post- Apostolic " 
times sermons were written, not only from the 
complete silence of the Apostolic Fathers on the 
point for that would really prove next to 
nothing, but because it seems quite incredible 
that no vestige of any such sermon should have 
come down to us ; no forgery of one, no legend 
or tradition of the existence of one ; if the prac- 
tice of writing sermons had prevailed at all. 

3. In the Apologies of Justin and Tertullian 
[Justin, ed. Otto, i. 270. ; Tertullian,.^/?. ch.xxxix.] 
there is a description of the addresses delivered in 
the congregations of their times, which appears to 
me to prove that they knew of no such practice 
as reading" a sermon ; and the passage from Origen 
contra Gels., which De la Cerda gives in his note 
on Tertullian, though it is only quoted in the 
Latin, surely shows the same (vol. i. p. 190.). I 
came across something of the sort in Cyprian 
about two years ago ; and, if I may dare trust my 
memory, it appeared to me at the time to be more 
satisfactory than the passages above referred to ; 
but I made no note of it, and I was hunting for 
other game when I met with it. Still, if your 



[No. 90. 

querist is going into the subject as a student into 
a matter of history, I dare say I could find the 

4. I have really no acquaintance with the post- 
Nicene fathers, the mere desultory reading out of 
some few of the works of the Arian period count- 
ing for something less than nothing ; but, as far as 
secondary sources are to be trusted, I certainly 
never met with anything that would lead me to 
conclude that sermons were ever read in the 
fourth or fifth centuries. [I shall come to the 
only shadow of an argument in favour of such a 
practice having prevailed so early, presently.] 
Certainly, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Chry- 
sostom, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, were extempore 
preachers by Bingham's showing. Gregory the 
Great, much later, for all that appears to the con- 
trary, never wrote his sermons at all, and even 
preached his homilies on Ezekiel almost without 
any preparation. Indeed the prevalence of that 
most abominable system of applauding the 
preacher, which St. Chrysostom protests against 
in the magnificent sermon on 1 Cor. xiv. 38., could 
scarcely have been universal where sermons were 

5. I come now to the argument which Bingham 
deduces from a passage in Sidonius Apollinaris ; 
where, in speaking of Faustus, Bishop of Riez, 
he says that he was " raucus plausor," while hear- 
ing " tuas pra3dicationes, nunc repentinas, nunc, 
cum ratio poposcisset, elucubratas." Until I had 
turned up the passage itself, I thought there was 
no doubt that Bingham was right in explaining it 
as referring partly to extempore, partly to written- 
and-read sermons ; but taking the passage as it 
stands, I would submit that the " prcedicationes 
elucubratas" were not at all read sermons, though 
prepared and studied beforehand, and that the 
" prsedicationes repentinas" were such as St. Au- 
gustine sometimes delivered, viz., on a text which 
suggested itself to him during the time of service, 
or in consequence of some unforeseen event having 
happened just before his ascending the pulpit. 

6. I have as yet dealt only with the negative' 
evidence ; but the positive testimony against the 
reading, and in favour of the reciting or preach- 
ing sermons, is far from small. I should look 
upon a man as crazy who ventured to speak 
slightingly of Bingham, and should as soon think 
of setting up myself against that great man as of 
challenging Goliah of Gath to fisty cuffs ; but I 
can never get rid of the thought that Bingham 
had a strong prejudice against extempore preach- 
ing, and treated the history of sermons somewhat 
unfairly : e.g.) in his 22nd section of that 4th chap, 
of the xivth book (with which chap. I take it for 
granted my readers are acquainted), he somewhat 
roguishly misrepresents Mabillon and the Council 
of Vaison ; and as to every other passage he 
quotes or refers to, every one asserts that the 

sermons were to be preached or recited, not one 
says a word about reading. 

The Council of Yaison is, of course, that which 
was held in A.D. 529, and at which Caesarius of 
Aries presided : but the 2nd canon does not say a 
word about reading ; so far from it, it commands 
that the homilies which the deacons preached 
should be recited [recitentur, Labbe, iv. p. 1679.], 
as though the practice of reading a sermon were 
not known. So, with regard to the other passages 
from St. Augustine, there is not a hint about read- 
ing : if a man could not make his own sermons, 
he was to take another's ; but to take care to com- 
mit it to memory, and then deliver it. 

I should be glad to furnish you with a few 
"more last words" on this subject, but I fear that 
these remarks have already proceeded to too great 
a length : still, if you give me any encouragement, 
I should like to take up the matter again. 

I should be glad to be informed whether it be 
true, as I have heard, that the practice of learning 
their sermons by heart is universal and avowed by 
the preachers in Germany ; and whether it be 
really a common thing for a preacher there to 
deny himself on a Saturday, on the plea that he is 
getting his sermon by heart ? AJAX. 

Papworth St. Agnes, July 8. 1851. 

Written Sermons (Vol. iii., p. 478.). Your 
querist M. C. L. may be referred to Dr. Short's 
History of the Church of England, 223. ; or to 
Burnet's Reformation, vol. i. p. 317., folio ; where 
he will find that the practice commenced about 
the year 1542. N. E. R. (a Subscriber.) 


(Vol. iii., pp. 328. 396.) 

Not questioning the meaning given to the word 
Fest by R. VINCENT, I take leave to refer you to I 
Dr. Willan's list of words in use in the moun- 
tainous districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, I 
in the seventeenth volume of the Archceologia. 
You will there find : " FEST, to board from home." 
The word is used in that sense at the present time. 
A gentleman resident in the West Riding writes 
to me : 

11 1 have heard the term 'fest' used generally as 
applying to sending out cattle to pasture ; and so says 
Carr in his Dialect of Craven. I have also frequently 
heard it used in this manner : ' I have fest my lad out 
apprentice to so and so.' In my own neighbourhood, 
in the West Riding, it is a frequent practice for a poor 
man who possesses a cow, hut no pasture, to ' fest ' her 
with some occupier of land at a certain sum by the 
week, or for some other term. So a gamekeeper is said 
' to fest' his master's pointer, when he agrees with a 
farmer to keep it for a time. In these cases the boy, 
the cow, the pointer, 'are boarded from home.' " 

As to " statutes" or " sittings," the word 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



"statutes" is explained in Blount's Dictionary as 
follows : 

" It is also used in our vulgar discourse for the Petty 
Sessions which are yearly kept for the disposing of 
servants in service by the statute 5 Eliz. chap, iv." 

See in the Archaic and Provincial Dictionary, 
"SITTINGS" and "STATUTE." In Holderness (I 
collect it from the Query of F. R. H.) the term 
"sittings" is used in the same sense as "statute" 
in the West Riding, and in many other parts of 
the kingdom. " Fest sittings " appear then to 
mean "the annual assemblage of servants who 
hire themselves to board from home." In many 
places the "statute" or "stattie" is connected 
with the fair. 

" Statute Fairs," my friend writes, " are held at 
Settle, Long Preston, and other places, which don't 
occur to me, in our district (Craven). At Settle ser- 
vants wishing to hire stand with a small white wand 
in their hands, to show their object. In like manner 
horses, when taken to a fair, wear on their heads a white 
leather kind of bridle ; and (to come nearer home) 
when a young lady has attained a certain age, and 
begins to look with anxious eye to future prospects, we 
say that she also has put on the white bridle." 

He adds : " I have myself had servants hired at 
Long Preston Statute Fair." Another friend 
writes to me : 

" Richmond Statties are very famous, every servant 
desirous of hiring having a peeled twig or stick. At 
Penrith they put a straw in their mouths. I remem- 
ber a poor girl being killed by an infuriated cow at 
Penrith ; and the poor thing had the straw in her 
mouth when dead." 

In the East Riding, Pocklington Statute is 
well known ; and York has its Statute Fair. At 
these " statutes " or "statties" ("Stattie Fairs" 
and " Sittings," or Fest Sittings), servants " fest 
themselves," that is, hire themselves to board from 

Standing in the market-place to be hired will 
occur to any one who may take the trouble of 
reading these desultory observations. 

Excuse my adding irrelevantly the following use 
of the word " sitting." It is said that a young 
man is " sitting a young woman," when he is 
wooing or courting her. F. W. T. 


(Vol. iii., pp. 4. 72. 147. 374.) 

In Querard's France Litteraire (Didot, Paris, 
1839), tome x. p. 10., I read the following notice 
of the author of Histoire des Severambes : 

" Vairasse (Denis) d'Alais, 6crivain franoais du 
XVII. Siecle. 

" Grammaire raisonnee et methodique, con- 
tenant en abrege les principes de cet art et les regies 

les plus necessaires de la langue fran9aise. Nouv. 
edit. Paris, D. Mariette, 1702, in-12. 

'' La premiere edition a paru en 1681. 

" Histoire des Severambes (Roman poli- 

tique) nouv. edit. Amsterdam, Etienne Roger, 1716, 
2 vol. in-12. 

" La premiere edition parut de 1677 a 1679, en trois 
vol. in-12. 

" Cet ouvrage a e*te reimprime dans la collection 
des Voyages imaginaires." 

La France Litteraire is a compilation of extra- 
ordinary labour and research ; and, in the absence 
of more authentic information, I believe we may 
safely rely on the above statement. The facts, 
therefore, in so far as they have been brought to 
light, may be summed up as follows : 

1. The original work was written in English, 
was entitled History of the Sevarites, and pub- 
lished in 1675. 

2. That work suggested the idea of the Histoire 
des Severambes, which was published in 1677-9, 
and in all essential respects may be said to be an 
original composition. 

3. The Captain Liden of one edition, and the 
Captain Siden of another (from whose memoirs 
the work is said to have been translated), are one 
and the same imaginary personage. 

4. The author of the History of the Seoarites 
has not been ascertained ; the claims of Vairasse, 
Algernon Sidney, and Isaac Vossius, being founded 
on mere conjecture. 

5. There seems no reason to doubt that Denis 
Vairasse d'Alais was the author of Histoire des 
Severambes; supported as that opinion is by the 
testimony of Christian Thomasius, Barbier, and 
Querard. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia, June, 1851. 


(Vol. iv., p. 6.) 

An amusing instance of this custom perhaps 
even now, under certain circumstances, prevalent 
in some parts of England occurs in Mrs. Bray's 
Letters on the Superstitions, Sfc. of Devonshire. 
A traveller while passing over one of the large 
uninclosed tracts of land near Tavistock, was 
overtaken by a violent snowstorm, which com- 
pelled him to seek a night's shelter from the inha- 
bitants of a lonely cottage on the moor. In the 
chamber assigned for his repose, he observed a 
curiously carved oak chest of antique appearance. 

" He noticed or made some remarks upon it to the 
old woman who had lighted him up stairs, in order to 
see that all things in his room might be as comfortable 
as circumstances would permit for his rest. There was 
something he thought shy and odd about the manner of 
the woman when he observed the chest ; and after she 
was gone, he had half a mind to take a peep into it." 

After a while he does, and horribile dictu! a 



[No. 90. 

human corpse, stiff and cold, lay before his sight ! 
After a night spent in the most agonizing appre- 
hensions he descends to breakfast, and his fears 
become somewhat lightened by the savoury fumes 
of the morning meal. 

" Indeed so much did he feel reassured and elevated 
by the extinction of his personal fears, that, just as the 
good woman was hroiling him another rasher, he out 
with the secret of the chest, and let them know that he 
had been somewhat surprised by its contents; venturing 
to ask, in a friendly tone, for an explanation of so re- 
markable a circumstance. ' Bless your heart, your 
honour, 'tis nothing at all,' said her son ; ' 'tis only 
fayther ! ' ' Father ! your father ! ' cried the traveller ; 
* what do you mean ? ' ' Why, you know, your 
honour,' replied the peasant, ' the sna\v being so thick, 
and making the roads so cledgy like, when old fayther 
died, two weeks agon, we couldn't carry un to Tavi- 
stock to bury un, and so mother put un in the old box, 
and salted un in : mother's a fine hand at salting un 
in.'" Vol. i. pp. 29. 32. 

In connexion with this subject you will perhaps 
permit me to observe, that the custom of placing 
a plate of salt on the body is still retained in many 
parts of the country. An instance of its use in 
the metropolis came under my notice only last 
week. The reason assigned for this is, that it 
prevents the spread of any noxious vapours. But 
query, is it not an ancient superstitious obserr 
vance ? According to Moresin : 

" Salem abhorrere constat diabolum et ratione op- 
tima nititur, quia Sal aeternitatis est et immortalitatis 
signum, neque putredine neque corruptione infestatur 
unquam, sed ipse ab his omnia vendicat." Moresmi 
Papatus, p. 154. 


tn tftltturr tihterferf* 

Bogatsky (Vol. iii., p. 478.). A very satisfac- 
tory biographical sketcli of Bogatsky, author of the 
Golden Treasury \ will be found in Evangelical 
Christendom, vol. iii. for 1849, pp. 69. and 101. 

C. W. B.. 

Bqronette (Vol. iii., p. 450.). Selden was of 
opinion that Baronet was used for Banneret, as 
may be seen in the following extracts from the 
second part of Titles of Honor. 

Chap. iii. sect. 23. : 

" Bannerets some have stiled them Baronets, 

as if they had a diminitive title of Barons." 

Chap. v. sect. 25. : 

" And whereas in the statutes of the same King" 
(Richard II.), "as we read them in English, every 
Archbishop, Bishop, Abbot, Prior, Duke, Earl, Baron, 
Baronet, Knight of the Shire, &c., are commanded 
under paine of amerciament or other punishment, ac- 
cording to ancient use, to appear in Parlament ; the 
French, both of the Roll and of those Books that are 
truly printed, hath Banneret and by some little mis- 

take Barneret for the same word. And as when 
mention is in the old stories of Knight Banneret, the 
word Baronet (which runnes easier from the tongue) is 
often for Banneret ; so fell it not only in the English 
print of our statutes, but also in a report of a case that 
is of a later time than that to which our present di- 
vision confines us, that Baronet (for Banneret) is 
likewise used for a Baron. For in an attaint under 
Henry the Sixt, one of the Jury challenged himselfe 
because his ancestors had been Baronets and Seigneurs 
des Parlements. I cannot doubt but that the title of 
Banneret in this sense was meant there." 

Chap. v. sect. 39. : 

" Of the name of Banneret as it sometimes expressed 
a Baron of Parlament enough is before said. And as 
in that notion of it, Baronet was often miswritten for 
it, so also in this." (Milites vexilliferi) : " Neither 
only have the old stories Baronetti very frequent for 
Banneretti, but even in a patent passed to Sir Ralph 
Fane, a Knight- Banneret under Edward the Sixt, he 
is called Baronettus for Bannerettus." 


Rifles (Vol. iii., p. 517.), In reply to A. C., I 
can safely assert that the best American rifles are 
nearly equal, in point of workmanship, to the 
common ones made in Birmingham, and that there 
is no " use for which an American rifle is to be 
preferred to an English," French, or Belgian one ; 
and further, that the American rifles will not bear 
comparison with those of any London maker. 

Colt's revolvers were submitted to our Govern- 
ment twelve or fourteen years ago, and not ap- 
proved. The present revolvers, made in England, 
have always been considered improvements upon 

I do not pretend to be the " highest authority," 

though I profess to know something of the subject. 


Miss (Vol. iv., p. 6.). Evelyn's notice of this 
word is prior to the instance cited by your cor- 
respondent. Under the 9th of January, 1662, 
he has, 

" I saw acted The Third Part of the Siege of Rhodes. 
In this acted ye faire and famous comedian call'd 
Roxalana, from ye part she perform'd ; and I think it 
was ye last, she being taken to be ye Earle of Oxford's 
Misse (as at this time they began to call lewd women)." 


Lady Flora Hastings' 1 Bequest (Vol. iii., p. 522.). 
1 can state positively, that the lines with the 
above title were " in reality written by that 
lamented lady." I was not aware they had ever 
appeared in print, nor do I think her family are 
aware either. I am truly sorry that a " Christian 
Lady" should have been guilty of such a shame- 
less, heartless act of literary piracy. 

I here take the opportunity of remarking that, 
in the last stanza but one, and sixth line, " upon" 
is a misprint for " uprose." ERZA. 

JULY 19. 1851.] 



English Sapphics (Vol. ill., p. 494.). In the 
translation of the Psalms of David by Sir P. Sidney 
and his sister, the Countess of Pembroke, the 
125th Psalm is rendered in Sapphics. The first 
stanza is as follows : 

" As Sion standeth very firmly steadfast, 
Never once shaking : so on high Jehova 
Who his hope buildeth, very firmly steadfast 
Ever abideth." 

The 120th Psalm is in Alcaics, and, I think, 
very successful, considering the difficulty of the 
metre. It commences thus : 

" As to th' Eternall often in anguishes 
Erst have 1 called, never unanswered, 
Againe I call, againe I calling 
Doubt not againe to receave an answer." 
There are also specimens of other Latin metres 
in the same collection. 

I remember about eighteen or twenty years ago 
an " Ode to December," in Blachwood's Magazine, 
the first stanza of which was as follows (I quote 
from memory) : 

' O'er the bare hill tops moan the gusty breezes, 
From the dark branches sweeping the sere leaves, 
South comes the polar duck ; and the gliding grey 

Shrieks to her shelter." 

M. W. 

Welwood (Vol. iv., p. 1.). The imprint of the 
first edition of his Memoirs is " London, for Tim. 
Goodwin, 1700." The Museum copy which bears 
the press-mark 808. f. is a distinct impression. 


Bellarmins Monstrous Paradox (Vol. iii., p. 497.). 
In your paper of June 21st, there is a question 
inserted as to the precise text in which Cardinal 
Bellarmin is said to maintain that " should the 
Pope command the commission of vice, and forbid 
the practice of virtue, it would become the duty 
of Catholics to perform the one and to avoid the 
other." To that question you have replied by 
quoting a passage from the fourth book of the 
cardinal's great work. It is quite true that the 
words quoted by you occur at that place ; it is 
quite as untrue that the "monstrous paradox" is 
there attempted to be maintained. A reference 
to the book will show at once that this paradox is 
simply used as an argument to enable the cardinal 
to prove his point by the common method of a 
reductio ad dbsurdum. If what I maintain, says 
the cardinal, is false, then it follows that " should 
the Pope," &c. Of course, the rest of the argument 
fully stated would be : But this consequence is 
not true, therefore neither is the antecedent true ; 
that is to say, " what I maintain" is true. So that 
instead of maintaining in this passage the mon- 
strous paradox alleged, the cardinal, in reality, is 
only quoting it as a monstrous absurdity, which 
ho himself condemns, and which would result from 

;he contradiction of his proposition. Injustice to 
:he memory of a great man, who has been much 
ind most unjustly slandered upon this very point, 
may I ask for the insertion of this letter. 

J. W. CT. 

Jonah and the Whale (Vol. iii., p. 517.). E. J. K. 
probably founds his unqualified rejection of the 
word " whale " on the English version, as a pre- 
sumed more correct interpretation of the corre- 

mding term in the original Hebrew. But it 
should not be forgotten, that the equal, or per- 
tiaps superior authority of the Seventy translators, 
to that of our best modern interpreters, is becom- 
ing daily more apparent. At all events, without 
a reference to such collateral aid, it is scarcely 
safe to pronounce on the meaning of any word 
or passage in the Old Testament. On this sub- 
ject, among many other works, may be consulted 
the valuable Lexicon of the Rev. Dr. Wilson, 
Canon of Winchester ; and the learned Apology 
for the Septuagint, by the Rev. E. W. Grinfield. 

In the present case, it is certainly of little con- 
sequence, whether the Greek word KTJTOS, and the 
Latin cetus, be translated " whale," or " great 
fish," both of which may be comprehended under 
them. Though the former is the usual interpreta- 
tion, and though the English translators employ 
the term " great fish " in the passages " Kal irpotre- 
ra^e Kvpios /erjrei /j,Gyd\<p" and "&/ rfj KOiXtct. TOV /C^TOUS," 
the commonly accepted word seems more in ac- 
cordance with an authority of unquestionable im- 
portance. C. H. P. 

Brighton, June 28. 1851. 

It must have escaped the memory of your cor- 
respondent E. J. K., in speaking of the supposed 
error of calling the "great fish" which swallowed 
Jonah a " whale, " that our Lord, in giving this 
sign to the Jews, calls it in our English version a 
" whale" (TOV Kirovs, St. Matt. xii. 40., this being 
the word used in the Septuagint version, from 
which the Evangelists quoted the SS. of the Old 

Surely then there is not any popular error in 
the term "whale" as expressing the "great fish" 
of the prophet Jonah, for your correspondent does 
not go beyond the English version, nor can I say 
what the word used in the original Hebrew would 
strictly signify. KTJTOS, it is true, may not, and 
probably does not, mean anything more definite 
than the "great fish" of the Hebrew; but cer- 
tainly our translators, by adopting the term 
"whale" in the Gospels, have so sanctioned the 
interpretation, that the error, if such, must be 
referred to them, and not to any later period, and 
therefore can hardly be reckoned amongst those 
of the popular class. OXONIENSIS. 

Walthamstow, June 30. 1851. 

Great disputes have been raised what the fish 
was. As it is called a whale in the Septuagint, 



[No. 90. 

and in St. Matthew, xii. 40., one can hardly call 
it a vulgar error to speak of it commonly as a 
whale. C C.B. 

Book Plates (Vol. iii., p. 495.). Your corre- 
spondent inquiring about book plates mentions, 
that 1698 is the earliest date he has heard of. In 
a sale at Sotheby's, commencing on the 21st inst., 
there is a copy of Evelyn's Silva, presented by him 
to Sir Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor of London, 
with his book plate in it, date 1679. E, 1ST. W. 

South wark, July, 1851. 


The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, with 
a Supplement, containing the Condemnations of the Early 
Reformers, and other matters relating to the Council. 
Literally translated into English by Theodore Alois 
Buckley, B. A., of Christ Church, Oxford, is the title 
of a volume which has just been issued; and which 
many of our readers will probably consider a very well- 
timed volume. It is not, however, because we admit 
with Mr. Buckley that " to try Rome fairly we must 
hear her plead her own cause" (for with polemics we 
have nothing to do), that we direct their attention to 
it; but because we agree with him that the Decrees 
and Canons of the Council of Trent are documents as 
valuable in a legal and historical, as in a religious point 
of view, and because there must be many who would 
gladly learn what these Canons and Decrees were, yet 
are not acquainted with the language in which they 
were originally recorded. By such persons Mr. 
Buckley's name on the title-page may be received as a 
sufficient guarantee of the accuracy of the present 

The first volume of a history of the book-trade in 
Germany, containing notices of some booksellers of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, has just been pub- 
lished at Leipsic, under the title of Beitrage zur 
Geschichte des Deutschen Buchhandels. The author is 
Albrecht Kirchhoff, and the work, short as it is, will 
be found very useful to parties engaged in biblio- 
graphical investigations. 

Our valued correspondent, the Rev. Dr. Todd of 
Dublin, has just published Three Treatises by John 
Wycklyffe, 1). D. I. Of the Church and her Members. 
II. Of the Apostacy of the Church. III. Of Antichrist 
and his Meynee. Now first printed from a Manuscript in 
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. The Treatises, 
which, in Dr. Todd's opinion, contain internal evidence 
of having been written within the last year of the 
Reformer's life, are accompanied by Notes and a 
copious Glossary; and the work has been undertaken 
not without a hope that the publication of these 
Treatises may direct the attention of influential scholars 
to the importance of collecting and printing all the 
existing writings which remain in our libraries under 
the name of Wycklyffe and his followers. We sin- 
cerely trust that this hope will soon be realised. 

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson announce for approach- 

ing sale the highly important collection of Autograph 
Letters and Historical MSS. of Mons. A. Donnadieu. 
The series of English Royal Autographs alone ex- 
tends to nearly three hundred articles ; nearly all the 
letters after Henry VII. being entirely autograph. 
This fact alone will give some idea of the extent and 
value of this extraordinarv collection. 




BRITISH POETS. Whittingham's Edition, boards or quires, with- 
out the Plates. 


prior to 1550. 










DOMESDAY BOOK. 4 Vols. Folio. 


Antewerpie per G. Leeu, 1492. 


8vo. 1705. 

2 Vols. 12mo. Two copies wanted. 



THE DEMON, &c., by James Hinton. London : J. Mason. 

HISTORIC SACR^E VET. TEST. Hafniae. 4to. 1652. 



Published by Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. 


MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition. 

JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI. 

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV. 

Vol. II. 



OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 to 1774, or any portion 
thereof. 4to. 

Vol. I. 12mo. Lond. 1755. 



Necessite, de 1'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des differentes 
Formes de la Souverainete, selon les Principes de 1'Auteur de 
Telemaque. 2 Vols. 12mo. La Haye, without date, but 
printed in 1719. 

The same. Second Edition, under the title " Essai Philosophique 
sur le Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fenelon," 
12mo. Londres, 1721. 


BASTWICK. (Da. Jos.) SUPPLEMENTUM, &c., 1 635. 



ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849. 

BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6s. per Vol. Pilgrims 
of the Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni. 


%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to Mit. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

JULY 19. 1851.] 




REMIGIUS. " Murder considered as one of the Fine Arts " ap- 
peared in Blackwood's Magazine some twenty years since. 

MR. PARSONS, whose Query on the subject of Book plates appears 
in our 86/A No., is requested to say where a letter may be addressed 
to him. 

C. H. B. We are much obliged for his paper, which has been 
to our knowledge transcribed twice before ; and is about to be 
published in a way in which we are sure C. H. B. will be very 
pleased to see it. At present we think we had better not interfere 
with, we trust, a shortly forthcoming book. 

A CONSTANT READER (Temple) will find a very full account 
of the Lambe'.h Articles in Mr. Hardwick's recently published 
History of the Articles. 

J. C. (Falmouth). The Folk Lore Articles alluded to will be 
received with thanks. 

The subscribers who wanted BORLAND'S DARIAN and DENS' 
THEOLOGIA, 8 vols. 12mo., are requested to send their names to the 

REPLIES RECEIVED. Lady Pelre's Monument Redwing's 
Nest Dies Ir& Epitaph on Voltaire Sheridan and Vanbrugh 

Quotation from an old Ballad Curious Monumental Inscrip- 
tion Passage from Virgil Petty Cury Dr. Young's Nar- 
cissa Tennyson's In Memoriam Anonymous Ilavennas 
Topical Memory Plaids and Tartans System of Notation 
Salting Bodies of the Dead Passelew Family Mark for a 
Dollar Lay of the Last Minstrel Spenser's Age at his Death 

Charles Lamb's Epitaph. 

suggestion of T. E. H., that by way of hastening the period when 
we shall be justified in permanently enlarging our Paper to 
24 pages, we should forward copies of our Prospectus to corre- 
spondents who would kindly enclose them to such friends as they 
think likely, from their love of literature, to become subscribers to 
" NOTES AND QUERIES," has already been acted upon by several 
friendly correspondents, to whom we are greatly indebted. We 
shall be most happy to forward Prospectuses for this purpose to 
any other of our friends able and willing thus to assist towards 
increasing our circulation. 

The commencement of a New Volume with our B8th Number 
affords a favour able opportunity to gentlemen resident in the country 
to commence the work. The Subscription for the Stamped Edition 
of " NOTES AND QUERIES " is ten shillings and twopence for six 
months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in favour 
of our Publisher, MR. GEORGE BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street, 

VOL. III., neatly bound in cloth, and with very copious Index, 
is now ready, price 9s. 6d. VOLS. I. and II. may still be had, 
price 9s. Gd. each. 

NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Book- 
sellers and Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so 
that our country Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty 
in procuring it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, fyc., 
are, probably, not yet aware of this arrangement, which will 
enable them to receive NOTES AND QUERIES in their Saturday 

All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should 
be addressed to the care of MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 

Erratum. Vol. iii., p. 495., for 
Durawzore Castle." 

Dwwzore Castle" read 


In 8vo, price 12s., the Second Edition of 


XjL MENT of ROME, POLYCARP, and IGNATIUS ; and of the 
Introduction, and brief Notes illustrative of the Ecclesiastical History 
Of the First Two Centuries. By the REV. TEMPLE CHEVAI.LIER, B.D., 
late Fellow and Tutor of Catharine Hall, Cambridge ; Professor of 
Mathematics and Astronomy in the University of Durham. 

** The Introduction treats of the Integrity of the Greek Text of the 
Epistles of Ignatius, with reference to the Syriac Version lately edited 
by Mr. Cureton. 

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place ; 
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PH(ENICI,E MONUMENT A. Add. de Scriptura et Lingua Phoeni- 
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PERSICUM ; with an Arabic Index. Edited by J. G. WETZSTEIN. 

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DICTIONARY. The Third genuine German Edition, containing 
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NIBELUNGEN-NOT. Translated into Modern 

German by PFIZER. Illustrated with many Hundred Woodcuts by 
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4 vols. 8vo. half-bound, very rare. 182237. 2?. 15s. 

*** All Grimm's other Works are on hand. 

characteristic GERMAN and LATIN HYMNS, both Catholic and Protestant. 
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[No. 90. 

In a few days will be published, in 8ro., Divisions I. and II. price 2s. each, and Volume I. price 55., of the 








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By order of the Council, GEORGE GROVE, Sec. 

Adelphi, June 1.1851. 

This day is published, 


, from the Portrait by Burbage, of the same dimensions as the 
Jnal Picture in the possession of the Proprietor, William Nicol, of 
the Shakspeare Press. Proof impressions, of which only a very limited 
number have been taken, 2 guineas each. Prints 1 guinea each. 

W. N. WRIGHT, Bookseller to the Queen, 60. Pall Mall. 


The highly Important Collection of Autograph Letters and Historical 

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of 
Literary Property, will SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 
191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, July 29, and Four following' Days, the 
MSS. of M. ALCIDE DO.NNADIEU. The importance of this Collection can- 
not be estimated by a mere list of names, as in every instance, with a 
few exceptions where extreme rarity has precluded choice, each specimen 
has been selected for its intrinsic literary or historic worth. Among the 
English Royal Personages are the Autographs of Henry V., Henry VI., 
Edward IV., Richard III., and Henry VII. ; (from this period, nearly 
all are Letters entirely Autograph of) Henry VIII., Catherine of Aragon, 
Catherine Parr, Edward VI., Queen Mary and Philip of Spain, Eliza- 
beth, Mary Queen of Scots, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, James I. and 
Anne of Denmark, Henry Prince of Wales, Charles I. as Duke of York 
and as Kins: ; also, a Document of the greatest Interest, the Contract of 
Marriage between Charles I. and the Infanta of Spain, signed by the 

arties Henrietta Maria, Mary Princess of Orange, daughter of 

harles I. ; Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia, Frederic King of Bohemia 
and his Sons, Prince Rupert, Louisa Princess of Bohemia, her well- 
known Letter in Hieroglyphics, Oliver Cromwell, Letters and Docu- 
ments, and particularly the original Order to the Lord Mayor of 
London, directing him to proclaim Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 
of England Richard Cromwell, Charles II., Catherine of Braganza, 
James II., the Depositions concerning his Marriage with Anne Hyde, 
signed by the parties ; Mary d'Este, James III., the Pretender ; 
William III., Queen Mary, George I., and the rest of the House of 
Hanover to the present Sovereign. All these Letters, and indeed 
the whole of the Collection, are in the highest preservation, and 
notwithstanding the great rarity of many, several specimens of most 
are included. There are Autographs of the Regicides, temp. 
Charles I., and unique Letters of the Conspirators Robert Aske and 
Robert Catesby. The French Royal Series commences with an ex- 
tremely rare and important Autograph of Charles VII., and continues 
to the close of the Monarchy. Of Henry IV. alone there are twenty 
important Letters. Other Foreign Sovereigns, including the Bonaparte 
family, several of Napoleon, particularly &p/< in j>>/r<n'r to Caulincourt, 
enabling him to conclude a Treaty of Peace with the Allied Powers at 
the critical peri9d of January, 1814 Christina of Sweden, Catherine of 
Aragon, Catherine and others of the House of Medici, Diane de France, 
John sans Peur, 1410, Jeanne d'Albret, Louise de Savoie, Marguerite 
d'Autriche, Margaret Daughter of Francis I., Sovereign Princes of the 
House of Nassau, &c. Amongst the Ecclesiastics may be named a 
Holograph Letter of Pope Clement VIII., the Pere Joseph, Janssenius, 
Martin Luther (about Purgatory), Pere la Chaise, Cardinal Mazarin, 
St. Francis de Sales, St. Vincent de Paul, &c. The Autographs of 
Literary Men include P. Aretino, Lord Bacon (two), Boileau, Conrart, 
Fontenelle, Thomas Lord Fairfax, his Autograph Trnnslation of 
" Mercurius Trismagistus Pimander "_ Kepler, Lafontaine, Moliere 
(unique), Mirabeau, Marmontel, Malherbe, Newtun, Peiresc, J. J. 
Kousseau, Scaliger, Salmasius, Saimazarus, Thuanus, B. Tasso, 
Visconti, Voltaire, Vespucius, Winckelmann, &c. Amongst the Artists 
are Ph. de Champagne, Perrault, Poussin, Rubens, Rembrandt, Raphael 
d'Urbino, P. Veronese, Sir C. Wren (about building the Monument). 
To this very imperfect sketch of the contents of this important Col- 
lection may be added Autographs of Calas, Clairon, Sir F. Drake (papers 
relative to his descent upon the Spaniards), Richard Hakluyt, Robert 
Devereux Earl of Essex (Letter supplicating his Life), La None, " Bras 
de Fer," Duke of Monmouth (Letter supplicating his Life), Caesar 
Nostradamus, Sir W. Raleigh, the Chancellor Seguier, Duke of Sully, 
the Sforzas, Edmund de la Pole, Duke of SuffolK and his brother 
Richard (both unique), Turenne, Sir H. Vane, &c. 

Catalogues are preparing, and will be sent on application. 

The Catalogue Raisonne is now ready, and will be sent on application; 
if in the country, on receipt of six stamps. 

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London ; and 
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan fu the West, in the City of London, Publuiier. at No. ISii- 
Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, July 19. 1851. 





" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 91.] 

SATURDAY, JULY 26. 1851. 

f Price Sixpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 7<f. 



- 49 

- 50 

- 52 


Richard Rolle of Hampole ----.- 
Notes and Queries MSS. - - - 

MS. Fragments of Old Poetry - - - - 

Folk Lore: Medical Use of Mice Legend of Ilaydon's 
Gully The Crow Charm and the Lady-bird Charm , 
School Superstitions The Nightmare East Norfolk 
Folk Lore: 1. Cure for Fits ; 2. Cure for Ague Ex- 
treme Ignorance and Superstition - 
Minor Notes; The Word " Repudiate" The First 
Panorama Chaucer and Gray -.Burns and Proper- 
tius Shakspeare in Sweden - - - - 54 


On the Elision of the Letter "v" - - - - 59 

Anthony Mundy, by Sir F. Madden - - - 55 

Minor Queries j Margaret Maultasch Arms of Halle 

Test of Strength of a Bow Vox Populi Meaning 
of Whig and Tory "Fortune, Infortuive, Fort une " 

Unde derivator Stonehenge Marriage of Bishops 
The Sign f .Early German Virgil Fairlight Church 
The Leman Baronetcy Armorial Bearings History 
of Magnetical Discovery George Chalmers Mistake 
as to an Eclipse Statue of Mrs. Jordan " A Posie 
of other Men's Flowers" Sir Edmund Ployden or 
Plowden Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace 

John Bodley Dr. Thomas Johnson " You Friend 

drink to me Friend" The Latin Termination "aster" 
Portrait of Dryden Inscription on a Claymore out 

in 1745 - - - - - -.56 


De Rebus Septentrionalihus, hy W. E. C. Nourse - 59 

Hugh Holland and his Works, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault - G'2 
" Prenzie " in " Measure for Measure " - - - 63 

The Ten Commandments - - - - - 63 

The Republic of San Marino, by Walter Montagu - 64 

Shakspeare's Use of " Eisell" - - - 64 

Royal Library - - - - - - 69 

The Caxton Memorial, by Beriah Botfield - - 69 

Meaning of " Nervous, " by W. E. C. Nourse and 
E. J. Jones - - - - - - 70 

The Duke of Monmouth's Pocket-books, by C. Ross - 70 
Replies to Minor Queries : Pope's. " honest Factor '* 
Banks Family Dies Irae, Dies Ilia Equestrfaa 
Statues Monumental Symbolism Organsin Churches 

Tennyson : " The Princess " " Perhaps it was 
right to dissemble your love " Sardonic Smiles 
F.pitaph on Voltaire Voltaire, where situated 
Children at a Birth Milkmaids "; Heu quanto 
minus," &c. The " Passellew " Family Lady 
Petre's Monument Spenser's Age at his Death 
Blessing by the Hand Handel's Occasional Oratorio 

Moore's Almanack Kiss the Hare's Foot Deri- 
vation of the Word " Bummaree " or " Bumaree " 
Sheridan and Vanbrugh " Felix quern faciunt aliena 
pericula cautum" " Alterius Orbis Papa" Umbrella 

To learn by Heart " Suum cuique tribuere " 
Frogs in Ireland Round Towers Lines on the 
Temple Killigrew Arms Meaning of Hernshaw 
Theory of the Earth's Form Coke and Cowper, how 
pronounced Registry of British Subjects Abroad, &c. 71 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents - 
Advertisements - 

- 77 

- 78 

- 79 

- 79 


If the following "Notes" do not demand too 
much of your valuable space, they may possibly 
interest the philological reader, and elicit a num- 
ber of learned illustrations. They are drawn from 
a MS. belonging to this University (Dd. I. 1.), of 
which the main part is a course of metrical sermons 
upon the Gospels throughout the year. The au- 
thor of most, if not all, of the pieces, was the fa- 
mous solitary, Richard Rolle, of Hampole, near 
Doncaster, who died in 1348, 

1. The first sample I shall give is a curious il- 
lustration of the way in which the preachers of 
that age were wont to represent the harshness of 
the great in their dealings with the poor : 

" For wip ensample may we se, 
p* al Ms world is but as p se 
p* bremli barib on banke wip bale, 
And grete iischis etin per in p* smale. 
For rich.e- men of pis world ete 
p* pore men wip traueyle gete : 
For wip pore men farip p* king 
Riht as p* whal wip P e hering, 
Riht as p e sturgeoun etiJ? merling 
And lobkeling etip spirling, 
So stroyen more men e -lesse 
Wip worldis wo and wrongwisnesse, 
All p* skap - p* lesse sufferin of more 
Smytip as storm o.f *se ful sore." 

Pp. 115, 116. 

2. The word keling (cod-fish) occurs again in 
the following passage, where the subject of the 
preacher is the Incarnation of our Lord : 

" For right as bayt p e hok helip 
And so p e gredi keling telip, 
So telid I bus wip flesch & blode 
Gormond p e gredi on p rode : 
Gormond P* gredi I him calle 
p* swelewip synful soulis alle, 
p* neuer is ful but euer redi 
To haus^e liem as Gawen gredi. 
pis Gaweyn was hirchid on a hoke 
pat flesch & blod on Marie toke 
For birching p* bodi slas 
And so slow Ihe Salhanas." P. 193. 

VOL. IV. No. 91. 



[No. 91. 

3. At p. 352. a rebuke is administered to the 
gourmet in the following terms : 

" bat ober gostli ydropicy 
Is called on Englisch gloteny, 
b* mekil is vsed wib these burgese, 
b* lyue mekil at hir owne ese. 
bei gar (i. e. cause to) seke b e cuntre thorw, 
Bob* oplond and in borw, 
Riche metis for to bye, 
Summe to bake and summe to frye : 
Al schal ben broubt on to his ham 
Beste and foul bob* wylde & tame, 
And yet all bis way not fille 
His yernyng & his berte wille. 
On be pore men binkib he nought 
Ne on b* lord b* him der bought. 
Many a mes be forn him stondib 
And of ilkon sum bing he fondib, 
Of venyson, of gos and gryse, 
Tarte, blatemanger, and of ryse, 
Of euerilkon sumwhat he tastib 
And so forsob* his kynde he wastib, 
For ser deyntes & many mes 
Make men falle in many sicknes. 
But if b* riche man wolde binke 
Among al his mete & drynke, 
b* his flesch schol rote in molde, 
He wold not bin berto so bolde." 

4. The following passage is curious in more 
respects than one : 

" This day witsonday is cald, 
For wisdom & wit seuene fald 
Was youen to b* apostles as bis day 
For wise in alle bingis wer thay, 
To spek w* outen mannes lore 
Al maner langage eueri whore, 
bei spak latyn, frensch & grew, 
Saresenay, deuenisch & elrew, 
Gascoyne, Pikard, Englisch & Walsch 
And ober speche spak bei als." 

5. At p. 372. we have an interesting picture of 
a nun persecuted by the rest of the sisterhood on 
account of her stricter living : 

" Hir cher was ay semand sori 
Hir felawis held hir wod forb', 
And made of hir ful gret skornyng 
And callid hir oule & outcasting: 
For alle b* nonnes b* were thore 
Wend wel b 4 sche fonned wore, 
And summe on hir foul water keste, 
And sumtyme draf & sometyme yeste, 
And summe rubbid hir wib oute 
Wib ground mustard al a boute; 
But sche made no grucching 
For al hir euyl skornyng, 
Bui al sche suffrid ful mekeli 
And to hir seruise was ay redi, 
For ofte tymes sche grecid hir schos, 
And wisch hir vessel as a guystroun dos, 
And what so euer bei put hir to 
W* a good wil al dide scho. 
Hir hed was wounden al a boute 
Wib a foul lynen cloute, 

And for sche was so onlikli 

Alle bei letin of hir skornfulli. 

But yet sche was ful derworthi 

Beforn our lord god almyghti." 
6. I will add, in conclusion, a sample from one 
of the prose treatises contained in the same volume 
(p. 464.) : 

" Obere spices ber ben of pride whiche men & women 
ben founden inne, & it encresib fro day to day, of dyuers 
atire about b e bodi : as ofte streyte clothes & schorte 
daggid hodis, chaunsemlees (i.e. shoes) disgised & teyde 
op strayt in v. or vi. stedis : women with schorte 
clothis unneb* to b" hipes, booses & lokettes about b* 
heed, & vile stynkend homes longe & brode, & ober 
dyuers atire, b* I can nought witen ne discryen of 
surche binges. Eueri man & woman be his owne juge 
& loke weel if it be nought bus.'* 


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge. 


The commencement of a new volume appears 
to be the signal for new suggestions. May I fire 
one off as well as others ? 

In p. 282. of the Third, and in p. 19. of your pre- 
sent volume, you have printed two MSS. relating 
to Cromwell, which I sent you. No doubt there 
are many MSS. equally, or indeed more curious 
and interesting, scattered throughout the country, 
which would be worthy of preservation in type in 
your valuable columns, and which may possibly be 
so preserved. But what shall become of the ori- 
ginals ? Would not the possessors of twos or 
threes of such documents be glad to place them in 
a safe and useful repository, where they might be 
preserved and be made available to all who take 
an interest in our history, whether social or poli- 
tical ? And how could this be better effected than 
by opening a book for their reception and safe 
custody at your office ; such book to be open to 
the inspection of all applicants, under proper 
regulations ; and, when full, to be deposited in the 
British Museum as Vol. I. of the " NOTES AND 

With regard to the two which you have thought 
worth printing, I would by far prefer such a mode 
of disposing of them, to consigning them, as trifles, 
to what might prove the bottomless pit of the 
Museum, or to returning them to the snug dormi- 
tory in which I found them, between the leaves of 
Bishop Kennett's History of England. 

Should this hint find favour in the eyes of your- 
self and your learned correspondents, not only are 
these at your service, but I might find another or 
two to add to them. I think, however, that none 
should be admitted into the collection but such as 
were considered worthy of being also preserved in 
print in " NOTES AND QUERIES." S. H. H. 

St. John's Wood. 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



[It can scarcely be necessary for us to add that we 
shall be very glad to do our part towards carrying out 
the very sensible and practical suggestion of our Cor- 
respondent. We shall indeed be glad to show the 
sense we entertain of the obligations which we, in 
common with all lovers of literature in this country, 
owe to the British Museum, by aiding in this or any 
other well connected scheme for enriching that store- 
house of learning, and increasing, if possible, its present 


I have before me a sheet of vellum, part of old 
tale or tales in verse, which has been used as the 
cover of a manuscript book. I conceive it to be 
about the time of Henry VI. Can any of your 
correspondents, from the following extracts, give 
me any information as to the author, or the work 
of which it is a part ? There would appear to be 
parts of two tales, at least. G. H. D. 

" Thanne seide the Prest, i will the telle, 
For alle my good i wele the selle, 
For alle the synnes that thou hast don, 
I graunte the hem alle sone anon. 

Alle gode dedes and eke preiere. 
That Marchaunt the Prest wel understod, 
That the Prestes chaffare was to hym good, 

Gif that it mythe awelde ; 
And seide, as i am a trewe man, 
In alle the wittis that i can, 
Covenaunt i wele the helden. 

Gif thou wilt mewith herte and thouth (thought), 
Give me alle thi gode dedes that thou hast wrouth, 

As covenaunt was before ; 
Loke, he seide, to the Prest anon, 
That thou telle hem everecheon, 

That thou be nouth forswore. 
And i schal telle the anon, 
Alle the ... de dedes that I haue don, 

Alle with outen ende ; 
The Prest began anon to telle, 
Of hese goodnesse anon snelle, 

No lengere he wolde hym wende. 
The Prest seide, while i was yonge, 
And coude gon and speke with tunge, 

I was sette to lore ; 
Pore men i loved wel, 
Of that i hadde i zaf hem su . . . el, 

Bothe lesse and more. 
And quanne i my primer cou[the], 
I seide it eche day with my mouthe, 

And forgat . . . uth on ; 
To God i made my preiere, 
And eche dai seide oure ladies [sa]utere, 

To God I made my mone. 
Evereche day to chirche i went, 
And seide my psauter with sex [en ?.]tente 

Both be dai and be nyth ; 
Quanne i to bedde schulde go, 
Mi clothes i kest me fro, 

To serue God ful of myth. 

Certes oftyn i gan take, 

An usage on nyth moche to wake, 

And prei to hevene kyng ; 
That i moste comen to this . . . religion, 
To my soule Savacioun, 

To joye with outen endyng. 
And quanne i was made a prest here, 
God thewes i wolde lere, 

As I haue the told ; 
Now thou woste with outen strife, 
How I haue led in lif, 

And all my goodnesse I haue thee solde. 
Thanne seide the Prest to the Marchaunt, 
Hold thou me my covenaunt, 

That I of haue of the bouth ; 
Thou woste wel al untold, 
But gif a man wolde truthe hold, i 

Marchaundize is rith nouth, 
With tretchere thou myth me katche, 
And do me bie the cat in a Satche*, 

Thyng that I may nouth se ; 
All thi synnes thou me telle, 
And thou schalt be saued fro the payne of hell e, 

Gif thou ne levest nouth me. 
The Marchaunt seide, geve me myn, 
And thou schalt have chaffare thin, 

Gif thou wilt understonde ; 
This seide the Prest, be my leute, 
Alle thi synnes telle thou me, 

For no thyng that thou ne wende. 
The Marchaunt seide, wil I was yong, 
And coude gon and spake with tung, 

I was jolif and wilde ; 
Be myn own sister I lay, 
Many a nyth and many a day, 

And gret sche was with childe. 
With childe she was, tho sothe to telle, 
And I gaf reed my fader to quelle, 

So God me bryng out of care ; 
Now God Fader in Trinite, 
Have merci on here and on me, 

Of blisse I am all bare. 
And after that with outen othe, 
Oure fader and oure moder bothe, 

Whanne that it was eve ; 
And thei bothe aslepe were, 
We wenten to hem bothe in fere, 

And slowe hem with outen weve (?). 
And quanne this dede was i-do, 
We wenten away bothe to, 

Mi sister wente behynde ; 
As gret with childe as sche was, 
I lep to here a woligret pas, 

And dede here heved of wynde. 
Sche that was me lef and dere, 
T smot here heved of be the swere, 

Now lord, merci I crie ; 
Fader, God omnipotent, 
Ne lete our soules never be schent, 

For the love of oure lefdie. . 
Maries sone that sitteth in trone, 
Lade to the i make my mone, 

* Prorerb. 



[No. 91 

For thin holy grace ; 
That we mote be present, 
At the day of jujement, 

And seen thin holi face." 

Thanne he sei a leoun come, 
And taken awei hese yonge sone, 

On hym he gaped wide. 
The Lyoun bar that child with hym, 
Awei rennynge wroth and grym, 
The knyth was ney aswoune ; 
There he was in the water deep, 
It was no wonder thow he wep, 

Of Care hadde [he] inow. 
Sore he gan to sihhe and grone, 
Thei he ne seide wordes none, 

To loude he moste tee ; 
A wonder thyng he sey thar, 
A wolf hese other child away bar, 
He fel doun on swoune on kne. 
Tho that he aswouning ros, 
He loked abouten and hym agros, 

Hese wit was ney forlore ; 
But yet he thouthe on Ihu Crist, 
On his deth and on hese uprist, 

That for us was i-bore. 
Lord God Almythti, thou it wost, 
Fadir sone and holi gost, 

To thee i menene my mone ; 
For my spouse that was so trewe, 
Fadir hende brith of newe, 

Wol wo is me alone. 
For my sones that ben forlorn, 
That wilde bestes hath awei born, 

I not nouth where to wone ; 
To wheche lond mai i fle, 
How longe schal i on lyve be, 
Sorewes comen gret wone. 
Of Job i well bethenke me, 
That long in welthe hadde be, 

And fel sone in care ; 
Ihu Crist for love of The, 
To earful well i nevere be, 

How so it ever fare. 
I have wepte al my fille, 
I nele no more, i well be stille, 

Goddes helpe is us ney ; 
Thanne come an aungel from hevene, 
And spake to hym with mylde Stevene, 

Of God that woneth on hey. 
Be bold blithe, he seide, Eustace, 
For in hevene is maad thi place, 

There thou schal t myrie be ; 
Thi children and thi wif, 
Schal have longe lyf, 

And al that blisse i-se. 
Thus long he wente forth his wai, 
Biddynge his bedes on hase lai, 

Til beter tyme come ; 
To Swynke and swate he most, 
For hese spendyng was ney go, 
it under no -- 

With bowe and arwe and horn, 
For to kepe a lordis corn, 
Be day and eke be nyth ; 

knythes from fer i fare 
For to seeke here and thare 
After on manne 
The emperoures counceyler 
We han forth far and ner 
There can no man hym kenne : 
The wisest knyth of hese coort he was, 
He was i hoten Sire Placidas, 
On huntynge out he ferde ; 
And never after come he horn, 
Ne no tidyng of him com. 

On the mouthe is a wounde." 

The first of these fragments is obviously a portion 
)f a religious tale (similar to the French Contes Deuots, 
rom one of which it is probably borrowed). 

The second is a portion of the Legend of St. Eustace, 
otherwise named Placidas, which occurs in an earlier 
metrical English form among the Collections of Lives 
of Saints in MS. Laud. 108. art. 59. ; MS. Digby 86. ; 
MS. Bodl. 77J9. art. 64.; MS. Vernon, fol. 170.; 
MS. Ashm. 43. art. 73. ; and MS. Cott. Cal. A. II. 
It occurs as prose in the Golden Legend.] 


Medical Use of Mice. Seeing some Queries and 
Replies on this subject, I am induced to send you 
a few extracts from an old book in my possession 
(marked "very scarce"), published in 1661. Its 
title is Panzoologicomineralogia, or a Compleat 
History of Animals and Minerals. By Richard 
Lovell, St. C. C. Oxon. It treats chiefly of the 
medicinal uses of the various objects. I am tempted 
to tell you the use of a " unicorne," but confine 
myself to the mouse. 

" The flesh eaten causeth oblivion, and corrupteth 
the meat ; yet those of Chalecut eat them ; it is hot, 
soft, and fattish, and expel leth melancholy. ... A 
mouss dissected and applied, draweth out reeds, darts, 

and other things that stick in the flesh Mice 

bruised, and reduced to the consistence of an acopon 
{what's that?), with old wine, cause hair on the eye- 
brows Being eaten by children when rosted, 

they dry up the spittle. The magicians eat them twice 
a month against the pajnes of the teeth. The water in 
which they have been boiled helps against the quinsey. 
Being boiled and eaten, they help children's pissing 
in bed. The fresh blood kills warts. The ashes of 
the skinne, applied with vinegar, help the paines of the 
head. The head worn in a cloth, helps the headach 
.and epilepsy. The braine being steeped in wine, and 
applied to the forehead, helpeth the headach. Used 
with water, it cureth the phrensy. The heart, talen 
out of a mouse WHEN ALIVE, worne about the arme of a 
woman, causeth no conception. The fillet of the liver, 
drunk with austere wine, helpeth quartans. The liver, 
rosted in the new of the moon, trieth the epilepsy. The 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



dung is corrosive. Given in any liquor, it helpeth the 
collicke. It looseneth the body : therefore some 
nurses use it for children in suppositories (?). It helpeth 
hollow teeth, being put therein." 

There is more of the sort, to the extent of 2f 
closely printed pages. It should be added that 
the author quotes authorities, old and new, for the 
several facts he adduces. Pliny is a great authority 
with him, and Galen is often cited. J. K. 

Legend of Haydoris Gully. In the parish of 
Hinton-Blewett, North Somersetshire, or imme- 
diately adjoining it, in the direction of West 
Harptree, there is a wooded gorge in the hill-side, 
through which runs a small stream, and which is 
called " Haydon's Gully." I have lately heard the 
following tradition respecting it ; viz. that a gen- 
tleman named Colonel Haydon, who was accused 
of high treason, used to spend his nights under his 
brother's roof, somewhere in the neighbourhood, 
and every morning came and backed his horse into 
a hole in the bank, where he spent the day in order 
to evade his pursuers. You will perhaps agree 
with me, that this story, which, if it has any truth 
in improbably refers to Monmouth's days, is worth 
inquiring into. ARTHUR, WRIGHT. 

The Crow Charm and the Lady-bird Charm. 
The following charms are repeated by children 
throughout Yorkshire and Lancashire, and, I doubt 
not, in other parts of the kingdom also. They 
may be classed with the " Snail Charms " (Vol. iii., 
pp. 132. 179.) : 

Crow Charm. 

" Crow, crow, get out of my sight, 
Or else I'll eat thy liver and lights." 

Lady -bird Charm. 

11 Lady-bird, lady-bird, eigh thy way home j 
Thy house is on fire, thy children all roam, 
Except little Nan, who sits in her pan, 
Weaving gold-laces as fast as she can." 
I remember, as a child, sitting out of doors on 
an evening of a warm summer or autumn day, and 
repeating the crow charm to nights of rooks, as 
they winged home to their rookery. The charm 
was chaunted so long as a crow remained in 
si<rht, the final disappearance of them being to my 
mind proof" strong as Holy Writ" of the efficacy 
of the charm. 

The lady-bird charm is repeated to the insect 
(the Coccinella septempunctata of Linnaeus) the 
common seven-spotted lady-bird to be found in 
every field and garden during summer. 

The lady-bird is placed upon the child's open 
hand, and the charm is repeated until the insect 
takes to flight. The warmth and moisture of the 
hand no doubt facilitate this, although the child 
believes fully in the moving power of the charm. 

N. B. The lady-bird is also known as lady-cow, 
cow-lady, and is sometimes addressed as cusha-cow- 

School Superstitions. Several appear to exist m 
schools from generation to generation : do they 
exist anywhere else? and whence their origin? 
For instance : " a boy who could not span his own 
wrist was a bastard;" "if you said the Lord's 
Prayer backwards, the devil would come up," &c. 

A. C. 

The Nightmare. I recently observed a large 
stone, having a natural hole through it, suspended 
inside a Suffolk farmer's cow-house. Upon in- 
quiry of a labourer, I was informed this was in- 
tended as a preventive of nightmare in the cattle. 
My informant (who evidently 'placed great faith 
in its efficacy) added that a similar stone suspended 
in a bed-room, or a knife or steel laid under the 
foot of the bed, was of equal service to the sleeper, 
and that he had himself frequently made use of 
this charm. 

Is this practice common, and in what does it 
originate ? J. B. C. 


1. Cure for Fits. A similar superstition on this 
subject to the one mentioned by D. (VoLi., p. 11.) 
is prevalent in this vicinity. Nine or eleven young 
men or maidens (an odd number is indispensable) 
contribute each a silver coin for the manufacture 
of the ring. A friend of the sufferer gives out 
that he is making a collection for the purpose, and 
calls on the parties expected to contribute, and 
the coins must be given unasked;,, to ensure its 
efficacy. A watchmaker in my parish tells me 
that he has made ten or a dozen such rings within 
as many years, and that he has full faith in their 
curative properties. 

2. Cure for Ague. Being afflicted two years 
since with a severe tertian ague, I was solicited, 
after the usual medical treatment had failed, by a 
lady to take as much of the snuff' of a candle as 
would lie on a sixpence, made into an electuary 
with honey. I complied ; and, strange to say, a 
complete cure was effected. Whether the nausea 
consequent on such an unpleasant remedy had any 
effect on the spasmodic nature of the malady, I 
cannot say ; but the fact is certain, and it is 
esteemed a sovereign specific by the Norfolk 
rustics. E. S. TAYLOR. 

Martham, Norfolk. 

Extreme Ignorance and Superstition. In. a 
large village in Dorsetshire, not far from the 
county town, an intelligent man went recently 
into the house of a somewhat respectable woman 
who keeps a general shop in the village, and who 
is the mother of a numerous family ; and seeing 
her with a large family Bible open before her, and 
several of her children collected around, while she 
was cutting and paring their finger nails, and so 
holding their hands as that their cuttings might 
drop on the leaves of the Bible, he asked her why 



[No. 91. 

she did this. Suspecting, by her manner, that 
she had some object in view, judge of his surprise, 
when she replied : "I always, when I cut the 
nails of my children, let the cuttings fall on the 
open Bible, that they may grow up to be honest. 
They will never steal, if the nails are cut over the 
Bible ! ! " Do we not yet require the educator 
to be abroad ? T. WE. 

The Word ''Repudiate:' I cannot help fol- 
lowing DR. KENNEDY'S example, and calling at- 
tention to another word in our language which is 
now-a-days, on many occasions, used very erro- 
neously; I allude to the word repudiation, or 
rather the verb repudiate. 

How frequently does one hear at public meet- 
ings such phrases as these : " I utterly repudiate 
the idea," " I repudiate the sentiment," " I re- 
pudiate the insinuation." A page might be filled 
with phrases of this description occurring in re- 
ported speeches of recent date. The word, in fact, 
is made by public speakers of "unadorned elo- 
quence " and newspaper writers, to do duty for 
such words as to refuse, repel, reject, abandon, 
disown, cast off. 

Now, Sir, I humbly conceive that repudiation 
means simply a dissolving of the marriage contract, 
hence of any contract or obligation ; and I believe 
I may say with safety, that in no standard classical 
author, ancient or modern, is the term repudiation, 
or the verb repudiate, used, except in connexion 
with some obligation expressed, or in figurative 
allusion to such obligation. The term, when ap- 
plied to the " drab-coloured men of Pennsylvania," 
is undoubtedly proper ; they have indeed repu- 
diated their debt, and perhaps brought the word 
and the thing into vogue ; but to use such a phrase 
as " I repudiate the notion," is, I submit, surely to 
talk nonsense. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

The First Panorama (Vol. iii., p. 526.). E.N.W. 
must have made some mistake in his recollection. 
Girton was a painter, and may have worked at the 
Panorama of London ; but the " first Panorama" 
was by Mr. Robert Barker. The sketches were 
made by his son, Henry Aston Barker, when only 
a lad aged fifteen. They were taken from the top 
of the Albion Mills : they were also etched by 
H. A. Barker at the same age, and aqua-tinted by 
Birnie, and published in six sheets, 22 by 17, a set 
of which I possess, with a note of their history, as 
herein communicated, written in dorso, long ago, 
from Mr. B.'s own lips. H. T. E. 

E.N. W. is correct in saying, that a semicircular 
view of London from the top of the Albion Mills, 
near Blackfriar's bridge, preceded Barker's pano- 
ramas. It must have been painted about the year 

1 793. I saw it at the end of that year, or at the very 
beginning of 1794. But it was not exhibited in 
St. Martin's Lane, but in Castle Sti-eet, in a rough 
building not, I believe, erected for the purpose 
at the back of a small house on the eastern side of 
that street. Perhaps some other of your octo- 
genarian readers may recollect its being there, as 
well as mjself. The scene on the Thames was 
the water-procession on Lord Mayor's day. 


Chaucer and Gray (Vol. iii., p. 492.). MR. 
THOMS suggests a very interesting parallel between 
a line in Chaucer, and Gray's "Even in our ashes," 
&c. Gray himself refers to Petrarch as his ori- 
ginal, and the thought occurs in Shakspeare : 
" In me thou seest the glowing of such fire, 

That on the ashes of his youth doth lie." 
And Malone, in a note on the passage {Supplement 
to Shakspeare, 1780, vol. i. p. 640.), adduces the 
passage in Chaucer quoted by MR. THOMS as an 
illustration. Steevens has mentioned the following 
passage in Sir P. Sidney's Arcadia : " In ashes of 
despaire, though burnt, shall make thee live." 
Compare, also, Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. 
Sc. 2. J. O. H. 

To the verse, 

" Even in our ashes live their wonted fires," 
Gray has himself appended a note, indicating that 
it was suggested by Petrarch, sonnet 169. ; and 
" I will take the poet's word for a thousand 
pounds." It was originally written 

*' Awake and faithful to her wonted fires," 
which has but little to do with Chaucer. VARRO. 

Burns and Propertius. There is a strange in- 
clination to attribute similarity of sentiment to 
plagiarism; as if it were almost impossible for two 
men of genius to hit upon the same notions, inde- 
pendently of each other. In Propertius (II. i. 3, 4.) 
we find 

" Non hasc Calliope, non heec mihi cantat Apollo, 
Ingenium nohis ipsa puella facit." 

In Burns we read 

" O, were I on Parnassus' hill ! 
Or had of Helicon my fill ; 
That I might catch poetic skill, 

To sing how dear I love thee. 
But Nith maun be my Muse's well, 
My Muse maun be thy bonnie sel\" 
Had Burns been much of a Latin scholar, he 
would probably have been accused of stealing from 
Propertius. VARRO. 

Shakspeare in Sweden. The writings of Shak- 
speare would appear from the following fact to be 
read with as much avidity and delight in Sweden 
as in his native country. A translation of his 
plays by Hagberg, Professor of Greek in the 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



University of Lund, is now in course of pub- 
lication. Of this, twelve volumes have appeared ; 
and although the first edition consisted of no less 
than two thousand copies, the whole have been 
sold off, and a second edition is in preparation. 
Professor Hagberg's translation is most favourably 
spoken of by those who are qualified to judge of 
its merits. W. J. T. 


Through the medium of " NOTES AND QUERIES" 
I would be permitted to invite attention to a pe- 
culiar pronunciation that has extensively prevailed, 
though unnoticed I believe in print, of many 
words wherein the letter v occurs between two 

While resident in the country, when a boy, I 
was struck with the singular manner in which the 
names of certain places, having a v so circum- 
stanced, were pronounced, for the v was wholly 
silent, and occasionally the latter vowel also ; but 
as this was chiefly among uneducated people, I 
was led to regard it as a provincialism. However, 
as I became further acquainted with the names of 
places, I did not fail to observe, that it was by no 
means limited to any particular part of England. 
Thus, for example, the provincial pronunciation 
of Cavendish (Suffolk) is Ca'endish; of Daven- 
try, Da'entry ; of Staverton and Coverley (War- 
wickshire), Sta'erton and Co'erly ; of Evesham, 
E'esharn; of Davenham (Cheshire), Da'enham ; 
of Lavington (Lincolnshire), La'enton or Lenton ; 
of Avebury (Wilts), Abury; of Lavenham and 
Cavenham (Suffolk), Lanham and Canham ; of 
Overton (Leicestershire, Westmoreland, and 
Cumberland), Orton ; and the Principality gives 
us Aberga'enny for Abergavenny. Ivilchester 
hns become Ilchester, and Tovecester (now written 
Towcester) is pronounced To'ecester; while Hove- 
den (Yorkshire) is called Ho'eden, or Howden, 
as it is now commonly spelt. Similar examples 
might be multiplied. Sometimes a succeeding 
consonant has undergone a change, as Pe'emsey 
for Pevensey, and Rochester for Rovecester or 
Rofecester. Numerous as the instances are, there 
has been some apparent caprice in the matter, not 
easily explained. For though, as we have seen, 
Staverton and Coverley in Warwickshire, and 
Daventry on the borders of that county, undergo 
this change, yet, as far as I can learn, Coventry 
was ever free from it; and in like manner Twiver- 
ton in Devonshire is called Twerton, yet I believe 
Tiverton was never Terton. There may have 
been something in the original forms or meanings 
of Coventry, Tiverton, and the like, that occasioned 
the v to be retained. 

Many examples of the omission of this letter 

might be adduced from surnames, did space per- 
mit; indeed, several of those given above are 
surnames, as well as names of places ; and some 
readers may recollect the change noticed in Sel- 
den's Titles of Honour, of Roger Wendover into 
Roger of Windsor, the first step having been to 
write Roger of Windore. 

Nor is the practice confined to names. All are 
familiar with such contractions as e'er, we'er, o'er, 
e'en, and sennight. We have also ill for evil, and 
the Scotch have deil for devil, and evening for 
evening. In like manner have we derived lord from 
the old English loverd or louerd; lark from lave- 
rock (Anglo-Saxon lauerc) ; hawk from the 
Anglo-Saxon hafoc or hauoc ; and head from the 
Anglo-Saxon heafod or heauod; for the / or u 
in Anglo-Saxon, when representing our v, became 
subject to this elision. Time was, too, when 
shovel was pronounced sho'el, and rhymed with 
owl; as is exemplified in the nursery lay of the 
death and burial of poor Cock Robin. 

Without now attempting to account for this 
usage of speech, which seems to imply the preva- 
lence of a former pronunciation ofw very different 
from the present, I will briefly notice that the like 
elision is of frequent occurrence in Latin, chiefly 
in the perfect tenses and their derivatives, as 
amdrunt for amaverunt, and audisset for audivis- 
set ; occasionally, too, in nouns, as labrum for 
lavabrum ; and also in the compounds of versus, 
as retro 'rsum. It is found, I may add, in a few 
French words derived from the Latin, as oncle 
from avunculus, and cite from civitas. In the 
several languages above mentioned the v between 
two vowels is also found passing into w or u, 
especially after a or o, the second vowel being in 
such cases dropped, thus indicating the connexion 
that existed between v and v, which letters we 
know were in times past written indifferently for 
each other. The discussion, however, of this con- 
nexion is beside my present purpose. 

The Latin contractions that I have adverted to 
are well known, and often noticed ; and it is re- 
markable that the manner in which this treatment 
of the v has affected the pronunciation and ortho- 
graphy of our own language, should have almost 
escaped observation. An acquaintance with it 
has been found of service when consulting ancient 
writings and the published records; for those 
who would use such sources of information with 
advantage, should be prepared not only to recog- 
nise, but also to anticipate, the various changes 
which names of persons and places have under- 
gone. W. S. W*****D. 


A few weeks since some manuscripts were placed 
in my hands belonging to the Hon. E. M. L. 
Mostyn, M. P. (removed from the library at 



[No. 91. 

Mostyn Hall in Flintshire), in order that I might 
ascertain the contents ; and on looking at them, I 
discovered a play in the autograph of Anthony 
Mundy, with his signature at the end, and the date 
(supplied by another hand) of December, 1595. 
This play, entitled " A Booke of John a Kent and 
John a Cumber" seems to have been hitherto un- 
known to all the writers on the history of the 
stage ; and its plot and dialogue appearing to me 
sufficiently curious to deserve publication, I lost 
no time in communicating my discovery to Mr. 
J. Payne Collier, under whose able editorship I am 
happy to learn that the work (by permission of Mr. 
Mostyn) will shortly be printed by the Shakspeare 
Club. The object I now have in view in making 
these remarks, is to point out an error relative to 
MTJNDY (as he spells his own name) which, if not 
corrected, may acquire greater circulation than it 
possesses even at present. In Warton's History 
yf English Poetry, 4to. vol. iii. p. 292. n. (printed 
in 1781), at the close of his biographical account 
of Mundy, he makes the following statement : 
" He [Mundy] collected the arms of the county of 
Middlesex, lately transferred from Sir Simeon 
Stuart's library to the British Musenm;" and 
this paragraph is copied word for word by 
Chalmers (writing in 1812), and inserted in his 
Biographical Dictionary under the article MUNDAY 
(ANTONY). As no record exists in my depart- 
ment of any such transfer, I was desirous to 
trace the truth of this assertion, which the date of 
Chalmers could hardly have enabled me to do, 
had 1 not fortunately consulted Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, vol. viii. p. 645., where I found a letter 
from the Rev. Michael Tyson to Gough, dated 
June 10, 1777, in which he mentions the manu- 
scripts then recently sold at the seat of Sir Simeon 
Stuart, in Hampshire, and adds 

" A bookseller opposite "the Exchange bought an 
heraldical lot of eighteen volumes, big and little, for 
which he asks twenty guineas : among them is Hawes's 
[read Harvey's] original Suffolk Church Notes, and a 
beautiful Visitation of 'Cambridge." 
With this clue I had little difficulty in ascertaining 
that the eighteen volumes alluded to were pre- 
served among the Additional Manuscripts in the 
British Museum, Nos. 4960 4977., and were 
probably purchased of the bookseller named above. 
I can trace no copy of the sale catalogue of Sir 
Simeon Stuart's library ; but this library must 
have belonged to the third baronet of that name, 
of Hartley-Maudit, co. Hants, who succeeded to 
the title in 1761. The manuscripts in question 
all belonged in the reign of Charles II. to Samuel 
Waker, painter-stainer, in whose handwriting 
many of them are, among which is No. 4964., thus 
entitled: "Collections of Descents and Armes of the 
Gentry of Middlesex, whereof was noe visitation 
generall of the same County, before that made by 
Sir Henry St. George, Richmond Herald [in 1634], 

except 7 descents of these are entered in the old 
visitation of Hertfordshire made in a 1572 ; all 
the rest are the collections of mee, RICH. MUNDY." 
It is evident that this is the volume referred to 
by Warton and Chalmers ; and no less certain, 
that, by a careless blunder, the playwright Anthony 
Mundy has been confounded with his namesake 
Richard Mundy, the painter-stainer, whose volumi- 
nous heraldic labours are recorded in the Catalogue 
of the Harleian MSS., Nos. 15291534., 1536 
1566., 1570. 1571. and 1577. The Add. MS. 4964. 
is, in reality, only an incomplete copy by Waker 
of Mundy's original manuscript, p'reserved in 
MS. Harl. 1551. 

I beg leave to annex the three following Queries. 

1. Did any relationship exist between Anthony 
and Richard Mundy ? 

2. What is the name of the bookseller who lived 
"opposite the Exchange" in 1777? 

3. Can any copy of the sale catalogue of Sir 
Simeon Stuart's library be referred to in existence? 


1 7. Margaret Maidtasch Arms of Halle. In 
" Marcel de Serres' Journey in Bavaria and the 
Tyrol" (printed in Arliss's Pocket Mag. 1825), in 
describing the statues ranged round the mauso- 
leum of the Emperor Mathias in the Franciscan 
church at Innspruck, he says : 

" Amidst the Princesses, Margaret Maultasch may 
easily be discovered by the hideous conformation of 
her mouth, and her eyes which glow with sensual de- 
sires. The singular arms which may he seen over the 
gates of Halle, but too plainly betoken the shameful 
and licentious character of this insatiable female." 

Where can I read the life of this "hideous" 
personage ? And what are the arms alluded to ? 
She was Duchess of Tyrol, and her portrait is in 
the Chateau d'Eu; but I have never seen an 
engraving. Q. CR.EED. 

18. Test of Strength of a Bow, What is the 
test of the strength of a bow ? 

Does the distance the bow throws the arrow in- 
crease in ratio to its strength ? 

What was the length of the bows used in the 
good old times ? Were the bows then made of more 
than one piece ? Is there any advantage in having 
a bow of more than two pieces ? 

What wood were the arroivs made of? 


19. Vox Populi. I have a copper coin in my 
cabinet (halfpenny size) which I shall be glad to 
have explained. 

The obverse has a bust laureate in profile to the 
left, with the letter " P." close to the nose. The 
bust appears to be of some popular Irish leader in 
1760, as it is not like either to George II.'s or 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



George III.'s busts ; and the legend " Voce 

Reverse : The figure of Hibernia seated, with 
an olive branch in her right hand, and a spear in 
her left ; also a harp at her side. Legend : 
" Hibernia." Exergue, " 1760." J. N. C. 

20. Meaning of Whig and Tory. May I beg 
sufficient space in your journal to inquire for the 
exact etymology of the terras "Whig" and " Tory ?" 
We all know the exact time when these first came 
into use. We all understand precisely the mean- 
ing of the terms " Conservative," " Liberal," 
"Radical," "Peelite," "Protectionist," all of which, 
with the exception of Peelite, are equally appli- 
cable to things not political ; but Whig and Tory 
can only be used in this one sense. From whence 
then their derivation ? A CLERK OF THE HOUSE. 

21. " Fortune, In fortune, Fort une" In the 
church of Notre Dame de Brou, near the town of 
Bourg, in the department de 1'Ain, the following 
inscription is engraved on the tomb of Marguerite 
d'Autriche, the wife of Philibert le BeaUj'Prince 
of Savoy : 

" Fortune, Infortune, Fort une." 
In this epitaph, the first two words are intel- 
ligible enough, and allude to certain reverses of 
fortune which had chequered the life of the prin- 
cess ; but the expression fort une reads somewhat 
enigmatical, and I shall be obliged to any of your 
readers who can give the meaning of it. 

St. Lucia, June, 1851. 

22. Unde derivatur StoneJienge. Antiquaries 
and topographers generally (Stukeley and Sir 
R. C. Hoare included) have been hitherto content 
to consider this word as a compound of stan and 
henge, Anglo-Saxon ; that is, " hanging stone." 
Now this etymology of the word has always ap- 
peared to me very unsatisfactory. The cross 
stones do not hang ; they lie on the uprights, and 
are kept in their places by mortice holes. An 
ingenious friend of mine has, by what I consider 
a happy train of reasoning, arrived at another and 
a better conclusion. Every one knows that our 
German ancestors used the word horse adjectively. 
And we still have it so in use to designate many 
things as the largest of their kind ; as horse- 
chestnut, horse-daisey, horse-mushroom, horse-em- 
met, &c. ike. Horsa and hengst or hengist, are 
convertible terms; or, if any difference, the latter 
word is used for stallion. If so, then, is it not 
reasonable to suppose that the stones of this 
Druid temple would provoke the largest idea of 
magnitude, and thence be called Stone-Hengst, or 
more euphoniously, Stone-henge, stallion stones? 


23. Marriage of Bishops. I should feel obliged 
to any of your correspondents who would supply 

me with an example from early Church history of 
a bishop or priest marrying after ordination. 

Deacons were expressly allowed to marry by 
the Council of Ancyra ; but I should wish an 
example of either of the others. 

Marriage after priestly ordination is now for- 
bidden by the Greek church, and since the Council 
of Trullo bishops must be celibate or continent. 

Second Query What evidence is there that 
bishops in early times, if already married, were 
obliged to put away their wives ? It is said that 
St. Gregory Nazianzen's father had children after 
he was raised to the episcopate. Can this be 
proved, and are there other instances ? 

From the silence of early Church writers as to 
any difference between the clergy and laity on 
this point, I am much inclined to believe that the 
Roman requirement of celibacy was then confined 
to the bishopric of Rome itself, and the imme- 
diately adjoining country. 

St. Paul, in 1 Cor. ix. 5., says: 

" Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, 
as well as the other apostles, and as the brethren of 
the Lord and Cephas?" 

implying that he had power to marry even then ; 
and our Saviour speaks of continence as a gift 
given only to certain persons. (St. Matthew, 
chap. xix. ver. 11, 12.) A.B. C. 

Edinburgh, July 10. 1851. 

24. The Sign ^[. What is the meaning, and 
whence the origin of the sectional sign ^[, so much 
used in the Bible, and also at the head of the ru- 
brical instructions in the Book of Common Prayer? 


25. Early German Virgil. I should like to 
know if the following name is that of a well-known 
publisher ; and whether the book, from which I 
take the name, is known ? also, whether it is very 
rare, and of literary value ? " Gedruckt zu 
Frankfurt am Main durch David Zopffeln zum 
Eisern, Huth, 1559." 

I find this at the end of a curious German trans- 
lation of Virgil into verse short and easy flowing. 

There is a summary in verse, and a quaint 
engraving to every book. Bound in wood and 
leather. It has many odd peculiarities too long 
to mention. 

In the Preface, this is said to be the second 
edition, that the first was published " many years 
ago, by a learned man." It must have been pub- 
ished about the same time as Bishop Gawain (or 
Gawin) DQUglas's, and is something like it. 

26. Fairlight Church. InDiplock's New Guide 
[ o Hastings, St. Leonards, and the Neighbourhood, 
which, unfortunately, like most other works of 
ihis class, is worse than useless to the architec- 
tural visitor, it is stated that the old church at 

Vm, TV "NTri 01 



[No. 91. 

Fairlight, which was taken clown not very long 
since, " was a small but ancient structure, appa- 
rently of the early part of the thirteenth century : 
it consisted of a chancel, nave, and square tower, 
and was built of brick" 

Can any of your readers inform a visitor here 
whether this is a correct description ? ARUN. 

St. Leonard's on Sea. 

27. The Leman Baronetcy. I shall be extremely 
obliged by any account as to the succession of the 
disputed Leman Baronetcy or estates. Sir William 
Leman, of Northaw (or Northall), Herts, was, I 
believe, the last of that designation ; and up to 
the present time doubts exist as to the heir male 
or other descendants, although great property and 
possessions are in abeyance or at stake. II. M. 

28. Armorial Bearings. Gan any of your cor- 
respondents inform me to what family the follow- 
ing arms belonged : Sa. a lion ramp, or, betw. 
three fleur-de-lys ermine. Crest, a sea-horse. 
Motto, ** Fortior vi virtus." 

The above arms are painted on the portrait of a 
gentleman wearing a ruff, temp. James L, in the 
possession of my family, and I am anxious to 
ascertain who it represents. F. J. B. 


29. '''History of Magnetical Discovery."" In 
the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1840, I find 
the following notice : 

" Thomas Stephens -Davies, Esq., Fellow of the 
Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, Professor 
,of Mathematics in the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich, and Author of the History of Magnetieal 
Discovery, &c. &c." 

Being interested in all that concerns the late 
Mr. Davies, I shall feel much obliged to any one 
who will state where I can find the History here 
alluded to. I may add that I am acquainted with 
tis papers on " Terrestrial Magnetism," published 
in the London Philosophical Transactions for 
1835-6 ; but since they do not much partake of 
the character of " History," they can scarcely be 
the papers intended. T. T. W 

Burnley, Lancashire. 

30. George Chalmers. ^-Can any of your cor- 
respondents inform me what became of the MSS. 
of the late Mr. George Chalmers? 

On the titles of many of the older poets and 
dramatists of Scotland I have met with his notes 
referring evidently to some MS. list of the lives 
of such writers in his possession. My inquiry has 
reference, therefore, more particularly to the MS. 
in question, which has not, I think, been published. 

J. O. 

31. Mistake as to an Eclipse. 

" Some," says Merle Casaubon, " have been de 
ceived in the hour [of an eclipse], as in the eclipse that 
happened April 3, 160J; about which some very able 

artists are noted to have mistaken ; and the reason is 
sjiven by astronomers how such a mistake might 

Such is my "Note;" but I cannot just now 
give the reference. I will answer for its accuracy. 
Can any one give some account of that eclipse, 
and state the reasons ajleged why " such a mistake 
might happen ? " VARRO. 

32. Statue of Mrs. Jordan. In visiting Chan- 
trey's studio some years since, in company with a 
sculptor still living, we received from Mr. Allan 
Cunningham a similar account to that which 
MR. PETER CUNNINGHAM has given, that is to say, 
that the design was titodharfs, of which, indeed, it 
bore too certain evidence. 

Chantrey was engaged at that time upon a 
3olossal equestrian figure of Sir Thomas Picton, 
destined, I believe, for India. On that visit I was 
singularly impressed with the gracefulness and 
beauty of the statue of a female figure with three 
children ; one was at her breast, and in the curled 
head of another at her feet was the mother's hand 
enfolded. On the pedestal of the statue was this 
inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Norah Bland." 
I learnt from Mr. Cunningham that this was the 
statue of Mrs. Jordan, and was executed for 
William IV., and that there was some difficulty 
respecting its place of reception. What is become 
of this noble work of art ? The little boy amongst 
whose curls the mother's hand played, was the late 
Earl of Munster. JAMES CORNISH. 


33. "APosie of other Men's Flowers:' Can 
any of your readers refer me to the following pas- 
sage ? 

" I have culj'd me a posie of other men's flowers, 
and nothing, save the string that binds them, .is mine 
own. " 


34. Sir Edmund Playden or Plowden.-^-I am 
desirous of obtaining information respecting Sir 
Edmund Ployden or Plowden, who (according to a 
tract published at Middleburg in Holland, in 1648, 
by a writer signing himself " Beauchamp Planta- 
genet ") received a grant of land from the crown 
of England, covering portions of the present states 
of Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New York. Of this province, which 
was called New Albion, ths grantee was " Lord 
Proprietor," " Earl Palatine," " Governor," and 
" Captain General." Your assistance I venture 
to ask, as this is a matter of historical interest 

Philadelphia, July, 1851.. 

35. Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace 
(Vol. i., p. 230.). As you have, I hope, very 
largely increased the number of readers and 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



tributors since I asked the question above referred 
to, and as it has as yet received no answer, I hope 
you will allow me to repeat it, in the hope that 
some of your new correspondents may be able to 
tell me what satirical " Imitation of Horace " can j 
have been, so early as 1716, attributed to Pope? 

I would also, on the same grounds, beg leave to 
repeat another question, formerly proposed by 
P. C. S. S. and by myself (Vol. i., pp. 201. 246.) : 
What is the precise meaning of the last couplet of 
these lines of Pope : 

" The hero William, and the martyr Charles, 
One knighted Ulackmore and one pensioned Quarles, 
Which made old Ben and surly Dennis swear, 
1 No Lord's anointed, but a Russian bear.' " 
That Pope had a precise meaning cannot be 
doubted; but I have never heard a reasonable 
guess at what it might be. C. 

36. John Bodley. Among the Parker MSS. in 
Corpus Library at Cambridge is a patent of Queen 
Elizabeth to John Bodeleigh to print the English 
Bible for seven years. 

In the list of translators of the Bible in 1611, 
as given in the Introduction to Jameson's Glos- 
sary of the Holy Scriptures, appears the name 
" Burleigh, M.A.," but without any biographical 
notice, as in the other instances. 

In Burn's Livre des Anglois a Geneve, it is 
stated that John Bodleigh, the father of the cele- 
brated Sir Thomas Bodley, was one of the trans- 
lators of the Bible. 

Can any of your readers throw light on the 
history of either of these men, or kindly point to 
any sources of information respecting them ? 

S. S. S. 

37. Dr. Thomas Johnson. Can your readers 
give me any particulars of Dr. Thomas Johnson, 
the editor of Gerardes Herbal f I do not require 
such information as I can obtain concerning him 
in Wood's Athence Oxonienses, or Pulteney's 
Sketches of Botany; but I especially wish for 
some information relative to his place of burial, 
and whether there is any monumental or other 
record of its whereabout. He died from a wound 
he received during a sortie from Basing House on 
the 14th of September, 1644. GAMMA. 

38. " You Friend drink to me Friend.'" Can you 
inform me in what collection of glees I shall find 
an old one, the burden or chorus of which is 

" The more we love good liquor, the merrier we 
shall be ? " 

I think the first line is 

" You friend drink to me friend, and I friend drink 
to thee." 

AN M. D. 

39. The Latin Termination " aster."- Can any of 
your correspondents tell me why the termination 
aster is used in a depreciatory sense in Latin, as 

poetaster, a bad poet ; oleaster, the wild olive ; 
pinaster, the wild pine ? With regard to this latter 
substantive, I have seen the mistake made in a 
descriptive catalogue of the pine species, of calling 
this the star pine ; but I have no doubt that it 
was named pinaster, as inferior to the stone pine, 
or Pinus pinea, which embellishes the Italian 
gardens, while the pinaster flourishes on the 
mountains and the sea-coast. 

Probably other examples may be found where 
the terminal aster is used in a similar sense. 


40. Portrait of Dry den. C an any of your corre- 
spondents or readers inform me where any un- 
doubted original portrait of John Dryden is to be 
found ? Malone, Dryden's biographer, enume- 
rates seven or eight portraits, and he states where 
they were in 1800. I am aware that two are in 
the Bodleian Gallery at Oxford, the one stated by 
Malone "painter unknown;" and the other al- 
leged to be by Kneller ; but I do not consider the 
latter to be an original. I wish more particularly 
to know who has a half-length original portrait. 
Dryden was painted by Kneller, Closterman, and 
Riley. BEVILLE. 

41. Inscription on a Clayvwre out in 1745. On 
the retreat of the Highland army from England 
in 1746, Prince Charles Edward and his staff 
passed through Dumfries, and slept in a house 
now known as the Commercial Inn. 

After their departure there was found a light 
claymore, apparently the property of an officer ; 
and as it was never claimed, it remained in the 
house for some years, and ultimately came into 
my possession. It is formed of the finest tem- 
pered steel, and bears the following very curious 
inscription on one side, 

and on the other, 


Some of your learned correspondents will oblige 
by giving a translation, and a reason for such an 
inscription on a Scottish sword. T. M. W. 



A,t page 371. of Vol. iii. I addressed a Query as 
to the best mode of reaching Iceland. I have 
since ascertained that the principal communication 
with Iceland is from Copenhagen; whence during 
the season sail a monthly packet, sundry trading- 
vessels, and sometimes a Danish frigate. Danish 
vessels also call at Hull and Liverpool to load 
with salt for Iceland. The Norwegian trade 
thither has ceased since 1814, and it has now 
scarcely any intercourse except with Denmark. 



[No. 91. 

A few dirty smacks of fifty or sixty tons, from the 
Thames and another place or two, resort there to 
fish, but they do not go into port. There is no 
further mode of reaching that interesting and re- 
markable island, except per yacht, or by one of 
the steam- excursions which are occasionally ad- 
vertised in The Times. The Danish steamers 
mentioned in Murray's Guide-book have discon- 
tinued running. 

Murray gives but little respecting Iceland, but 
that little is good. The best book on it that I 
have met with is, An Historical and Descriptive 
Account of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe 
Islands, with Illustrations of their Natural History, 
by James Nicol : Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 
1844. It embodies the substance of all the best 
information in small space. The last published 
English visit to Iceland seems to be that of Barrow 
in 1835; but a much more recent account has 
been published in German by that enterprising 
lady Ida Pfeiffer, of a voyage she made there. 
An interesting statement of the diseases and 
sanatory condition of Iceland is found in the 
British and Foreign Medico- Chirurgical Review 
for 1850, vol v., being a notice of a work entitled, 
Island undersogt fra Icegevidenskabeligt Synspunct, 
by Dr. Schleisner, Fellow of the Royal Medical 
Society of Copenhagen, who went to Iceland pur- 
posely to examine into its medical condition. 

Of works on Norway, Murray's Hand-book is 
the best, and contains a list of books on Scandi- 
navia published up to 1848. Besides these, there 
are the following : 

1. Scandinavian Sketches; or, a Tour in Norway. 
By Lieutenant Breton, R.N. 

2. Wittich's Visit to the Western Coast of Nor- 
way: London, 1848. Contains accurate physical 
descriptions of the country. 

3. Forester's Norway in 1848 and 1849; London, 
1850. Conveys to the mind an excellent and very 
complete picture of Norwegian scenery, travelling, 
manners and customs, &c., and gives much va- 
luable information. The plates are very truthful 
and characteristic. 

4. Ross's Yacht Voyage to Norway is not worth 
much ; and 

5. Jones's Angler s Guide to Norway is worth 

6. Barrow's Visit to Iceland by way of Trond- 
hjem in 1834 contains much about some parts o] 

^ Written in Norwegian, and published in Chris- 
tiania, is a fine work entitled, Norge Frernstillet i 
Tcgninger, 1848. The " Tegninger " are litho- 
graphs, eighty-two in number, and well executed 
and the descriptions are highly interesting. There 
is also now publishing a series of coloured plates 
of the Norwegian costumes, denominated Norske 
Nationaldragter tegncde efter Naturen afforskjellige 
Norske kunstnere, og ledsagede med en oplysende 

Text: Christiania. 1850. The plates are highly 
coloured, and the letter-press is in Norsk, German, 
and English. Mr. Schirmer of Christiania is also 
publishing a series of magnificent architectural 
drawings of the old cathedrals of Norway. There 
are several excellent maps of Norway, of which 
Munch's is the best ; but the only geological map 
is a very large and complicated one in many 
sheets, I think by Professor Keilhau. On the 
botany of Norway there are, Hartmann, Handbok i 
Skandinaviens Flora: Stockholm, 1843; and Lund, 
Haandbog i Christianias phanerogame Flora : Chris- 
tiania, 1846. The Danish pharmacopoeia is still 
employed by the Norwegian apothecaries. On the 
dreadful disease found in the Bergen- Stift, called 
Elephantiasis Grcecorum, or Spedalskhed, Doctors 
Danielssen and Boeck have put forth a work 
in French and Norwegian, embodying an immense 
deal of research and information, accompanied 
with an Atlas of twenty-four coloured plates. 
They consider this disease to be identical with the 
leprosy of Scripture. Their book was published 
in 1847; and contains references to every known 
account of the disease up to that date, in a biblio- 
graphical list of great length. An article upon it, 
comprehending a short but complete account of 
the disease, may be found in the British and 
Foreign Med. Chir. Review for 1850, vol. v. 

Of Norwegian national songs and music, there 
are, besides Lindeman's Norske Field-Melodier, 
the following publications : 

1. Folke Sange og Melodier, F&drelandske og 
Fremmelse, udsalte for Pianoforte, 1844. 

2. Sangsamling for Norske Selskabskredse : ud- 
given 'of 'det Norske Studenter-samfund: Christiania, 
1839. The students of the Christiania University 
have much taste for music, and are very fond of 
singing in parts and choruses. 

3. Scandinaviske Folkesange udsalte for Piano- 
forte af Niels W. Gade. 

4. Norske Viser og Stev i Folkesproget. Anden 
Udgave : Christiania,, 1848. This contains forty- 
three national ballads, mostly in provincial dialects-, 
and consequently very difficult to translate ; but, 
in many respects, extremely curious, referring to 
the manners, customs, and superstitions of the 
peasantry. The new edition is edited by P. A. 
Munch, Professor of History in the University of 
Christiania. The notes of some national airs are 
added at the end. 

Professor Munch also published in 1850, Sym- 
bolce ad Historiam Antiquiorem Rerum Norvegi- 
carum. I. Breve Chronicon Norvegia. II. Ge- 
nealogia Comitum Orcadensium. III. Catalogus 
Regum Norvegice. E. Codice quoad magnam partem 
hactenus inedito, et in orcadibus, ut videtur, medio 
scBCido XV to conscripto. Appended to it is the 
following curious genealogy : 

JULY 26. 1851.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 61 

" Stemma, originem celsissimae principis LUDOVIC^E, futurae Principis nostri uxoris, nee non VICTORIES, 
augustissimce Britanniarum reginae, a Sancto Olao, patrono Norvegiae, illustrans." 

" SANCTUS OLAUS, rex Norveg., ob. 1030, pr. kal. Sept. Uxor Astrida, 

| filia Olai regis Svecia?. 

Wfhilda, mar. Ordulfus, dux Saxoniae, ob. 1074. 

Magnus, dux Sax. ob. 1106. 
Ulfhilda, mar. Henricus Niger, dux Bavariae. 
Henricus Superbus, dux Bavariae et Saxoniae, ob. 1130. 
Henricus Leo, id. ob. 1 1 95. 
Wilhelmus, dux, ob. 1213. 

Otto Puer, dux Brunsvico-Luneburgensis, ob. 1252. 
Albertus Magnus, dux Brunsv. ob. 1279. 
Albertus pinguis, dux Br. Gottlngen, ob. 1318. 
Magnus plus, dux Brunsv. ob. 1368. 
Magnus Torquatus, dux Brunsv. ob. 1373. 

BernJiardus, dux Lun. ob. 1434. Henricus, dux Br. ob. 1416. 

Fridericus pius, id. ob. 1478. Wilhelmus victoriosus, dux Br. ob. 1482. 

Otto Magnanimus, id. ob. 1471. Wilhelmus junior, dux Br. Guelferb. ob. c. 1500. 

Henricus junior, id. ob. 1532. Henricus malus, dux Br. Guelf. ob. 1514. 

Ernestus, d. Cellas, ob. 1546. Henricus junior, id. ob. 1575. 

Wilhelmus junior, d. Lun. ob. 1592. Julius, id. ob. 1589. 

Georgius, id. ob. 1641. Henricus Julius, id. ob. 1613. 

Ernestus Augustus, Elector Hannov. 1698. Sophia Hedviga, ob. 1642, .nupta Ernesto Casimiro, Com. de 

J Nassau- Dietz. 

lus I. rex Brit. ob. 1727. Wilhelmus Fridericus, com. de N.-D. vicerex Fresiae, ob. 1664. 

Georgius If. rex Br. ob. 1760. Henricus Casimirus, pr. de Nassau- Dietz, v. Fresiae, ob. 1696. 

Fridericus Ludovicus, princ. Brit. ob. 1751. Johannes Willelmus Friso, Nassau- Dietz, vie. her. Fresise, 
| | ob. 1711. 

Georgius II L rex Br. ob. 1820. Willelmus Carolus Henricus Friso, pr. Arausionensis, vie. her. 

| | Bat. ob. 1751. 

Edwardus Augustus, dux Cantiae, ob. 182O. Willelmus V. pr. Arausionensis, vie. her. Bat. ob. 1806. 

VICTORIA, regina Britanniarum. Willelmus L rex Bat. ob. 1843. 

Willelmus II. rex Bat. ob. 1 849. Willelmus Fridericus Carolus, pr. Bat. 


dovica, nata 5 Aug. 1828." 



[No. 91. 

Further elucidating the ancient history of 
Scandinavia are the following works: 

Fagskrinna. Kor tf alt et Norsk Konge-Sagafra 
slutningen of det 12 <e ctter begyndelsen af det 13 de 
aarliundrede. Udgivet af P. A. Munch, Professor 
i Historic, og C. R. Unger, Stipendiat i Nordisk 
Sprogvidenskab : Christiania, 1847. In Icelandic, 
with Norwegian introduction and notes. C. M. 
Falsen, Geograjisk Beshrivehe over Kongeriget 
Norge og Udsigt over dels celdre Historic, som 
Indledning til Norges udforlige Historic, 1821 ; 
and Norges Historic under Kong Harold Haarfager 
og hans mandlige Descendenter, 1824, by the same 

The various works and sources of information 
above mentioned will be found to lead on to 
many others, so that it will not be difficult for 
those who wish it, and can afford the time, to enter 
fully into the highly interesting and curious history 
of the North a subject which once entered upon 
is not easy to quit. The literature of Scandinavia 
is considerable : although that of Denmark and of 
Norway is less known, distinctively, in this coun- 
try, than the Swedish portion ; partly, no doubt, 
because the semi-barbarous Gothic character is 
still much used instead of the clearer Roman type. 
English literature is much liked in Norway, and 
they have translations of Scott, Bulwer, Laing, 
Washington Irving, and some others. 

I am very anxious to obtain information on the 
unanswered points referred to at page 370. 


Postscriptum. In enumerating recent works 
on Iceland and the North, I omitted to mention 
Dillon's Winter in Iceland and Lapland, 2 volumes, 
London, 1840 : an excellent work not sufficiently 

The trading vessels to Iceland are exceedingly 
ugh and dirty. The Dart, Madeira packet, a 
fine brig of 350 tons, will probably go thither this 
summer with passengers. W. E. C. N. 



(Vol. iii., p. 427.) 

ME. BOLTON CORNET having favoured your 
readers with " a notice of some of the statements" 
contained in my article above-named, I deem it a 
duty incumbent upon myself to make a few re- 
marks upon these " notices," which I shall do in 
the briefest manner possible. 

The object of my paper was to call attention to 
a forgotten poet, and to endeavour to obtain some 
information regarding the locality of his manu- 
scripts. Had I been writing the life of Hugh 
loliand, 1 should, of course, have investigated the 
dates of his biography and works more fully than 
it was necessary to do for a trifling article like 

that in question. But, as it is, the facts and dates 
which I have given are all derived from creditable 
arid well-known sources; and all the facts and 
dates in question are the facts and dates of older 
writers than myself, as will appear by the fol- 

1. "lie was born at Denbigh in 1558." He 
was born at Denbigh, but not in 1558. In 1625 
he thus expressed himself: 

" Why was the fatall spinster so vnthrifty? 
To draw ray third four yeares to tell and fifty !" 

Answer. Where are these lines taken from, and 
what do they mean? What is the proof that they 
relate to Hugh Holland ? " Hugh Holland, an 
esquire's son of Denbighshire," was matriculated, 
at Baliol College, Oxford, anno 1582, aged twenty- 
four. My authority is Wood's Athence, edit. Bliss, 
vol. ii. p. 560. 

2. He did not quit Westminster school till 1589. 
If ever he pursued his studies at Baliol College, it 
was some ten years afterwards. 

Answer. Who says he did not quit Westminster 
school till 1589? Joseph Welch, or MR. BOLTON 
CORNEY ? Allowing it to be the former, are all 
Welch's dates correct? I have Wood's authority 
that Hugh Holland matriculated at Baliol in 1582. 

3. "About 1590 he succeeded to a fellowship at 
Trinity College, Cambridge." In 1589 he was 
elected from Westminster to a scholarship in 
Trinity College, Cambridge not to a fellowship. 
At a later period of life he may have succeeded to 
a fellowship. 

Answer. My words are, " about 1 590 he suc- 
ceeded to a fellowship." MR. CORNET adds, " In 
1589" he was elected to a scholarship. I must 
again refer to honest old Wood, who expressly says 
that he was & fellow of Trinity College. 

4. " Holland published two works : 1 . Monumenta 
Sepulchralia Sancti Pauli, Lond. 1613, 4 to. 2. A 
Cypress Garland, &c., Lond. 1625, 4 to." Hugh 
Holland was not the compiler of the first-named 
work : the initials H. H. admit of another inter- 

Answer. Why does not MR. CORNET give your 
readers his interpretation of the mysterious 
" H. H. ? " One Henry Holland was the author of 
A Boohe of Kings, being the true Effigies of our 
English Kings, &c. : Lond. 1618, 4to. Is this the 
interpretation ? If so, I ask for the proof. 

5. The dates assigned to the Monumenta Sancti 
Pauli are " 1613, 1616, 1618, and 1633." Here 
are three errors in as many lines. The first edition 
is dated in 1614. The edition of 1633, which is 
entitled Ecclesia Sancti Pauli illustrata, is the 
second. No other editions exist. 

Answer. The edition of 1614 was certainly the 
first, and that of 1633 certainly the second. In the 
preface to the latter the author says, "My first 
collection of these Monumentall Epitaphs I pub- 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



lishcd anno 1614, full nineteen yeeres sithence." 
My authority, however, for the " three errors in 
as many lines " is Cole's Collections for an Athence 
Cantabrigenses* (See Brydges' Restituta, vol. iii. 
p. 215.) 

6. " Holland also printed a copy of Latin verses 
before Alexander's Roxana, 1632." No such work 
exists. He may have printed verses before the 
Roxana of W. Alabaster, who was his brother- 

Answer. My authority again is Cole's Collections 
in Restituta, vol. iii. p. 215., where, under the head 
of " Hugh Holland, Fellow of Trinity College," is 
this line: " Has a copy of Latin verses before 
Dr. Alexander's Roxana, 1632." I shall there- 
fore leave the shade of Cole and MR. BOLTON 
CORNETT ta settle the question as to whether any 
such work exists. 

I have now disposed of the six statements, and 
have only to add r that the authorities which I have 
consulted are those which I have named. 


(Vol. iii., p. 522.) 

The suggestion of primzie is too ingenious, and 
too apparently happy, ta be passed over without 
adducing some reason for refusing to give it the 
preference to Tieck's reading of precise.: 

The terminal adjuncts zie, sie, some, generally 
imply some playful diminutive variation of the 
original ward, certainly they never add force or 
gravity to it : prim, in itself, is a diminutive of 
primitive, and applies more to external appearance 
than to internal character. I do not think, there- 
fore,, that even prim would be a word sufficiently 
dignified for the situation and context; much less 
is its diminutive primsie. 

It seems to me that the character of Angela is 
generally mistaken ; he is too often looked upon as 
a mere hypocrite, whereas Shakspeare depicts him, 
before his fall, as a rigid but sincere ascetic. This 
view of his character accounts for his final con- 
demnation of Claudio: he has no mercy for the 
crime, even while committing it himself; and he 
was just the man who, had he escaped detection, 
would probably have passed the remainder of his 
life in the exercise of self-inflicted penance. 

Viewing Angelo, therefore, as a man proverbial 
for rigidly virtuous conduct ; who stood " at a 
guard with envy;" who challenged scrutiny; and 
who was above the tongue of slander ; I do not 
think that primsie can be looked upon as an appro- 
priate designation in the mouth of Claudio. He 
would use some word in the greatest possible con- 
trast to the infamous conduct Isabella was imput- 
ing to Angelo : primsie would be weak and almost 
unmeaning, and, as such, I will not receive it as 

Shakspeare's, so long as the choice of a better 

Does not Shakspeare, by his frequent repetition 
of precise, in this play, seem purposely to stamp it 
with that peculiar- signification necessary to his 
meaning, that is, rigidly virtuous ? Another 
example of it, not, I believe, before noticed, is 
where Elbow describes his " two notorious bene- 
factors" as "precise villains," "void of all pra- 
fanation that good Christians ought to have." 

The humour of this is in the contrast afforded by 
Elbow's association of incongruous and inconsis- 
tent terms, causing Escalus to exclaim, " Do you 
hear how he misplaces ?" Precise therefore in this 
place also requires a meaning as opposite as possible 
to villany, something more than formal, in order 
that the humour may be fully appreciated. 

With respect to Halliwell's quotation from 
Fletcher's poems, it certainly confers upon prin a 
very different meaning from any that prim is 
capable of receiving : the context requires prin to 
have some signification akin to fleshless ; like 
"bodyes at the resurrection, just rarifying into 
ayre." Prin, in this sense, would seem to have 
some relation to pine, since pin and prin were 
synonymous. A. E. B. 

Leeds, July, 1851. 


(Vol. iii., pp. 166. 230. 412.) 

The earliest divisions of the Decalogue are 
those of Josephus (Ant. Jud., lib. iii. c. v. s. 5.), the 
Chaldee Paraphrase of Jonathan, and Philo- 
Judceus de Decem Oraculis. According to the two 
former, the 3rd verse of Exod. xx., " Thou shalt 
have no other gods but me," contains the first 
commandment, the 4th, 5th, and 6th, the second. 
Philo makes the Preface or Introduction to be a 
distinct commandment, as do also St. Jerome 
and Hesychius. The two latter make what we 
call the first and second to be the second only ; 
but Philo does not recite the words " Thou 
shalt have no other gods but me ;" and whether 
he understood them in the first or the second, 
does not hence appear. The same uncertainty is 
found in Athanasius in Synopsi S. Scriptures. 

It may however be inferred, from these two 
writers giving the commencement only of the 
other commandments, that they made the pro- 
hibition, " Thou shalt not make," &c., in the same 
manner the commencement of the second ; and 
therefore joined the other, " Thou shalt have," &c., 
to the words, " I am the Lord thy God." 

Those which we call the first and second were 
united by St. Augustine. 

The distinction made by Josephus and the 
Chaldee Paraphrast, separating the two prohibi- 
tions, was adopted by the following early writers : 
Origen (Horn. viii. in. Exod.); Greg. Nazianzen 



[No. 91. 

(Carmina, Mosis Dccalogus) ; Irenaeus (lib. ii. 
c. xlii.) ; Ambrose (in Ep. ad Ephes. c. vi.). 
The Jews divide the Decalogue thus : 

1. I am .... 

2. Thou shalt not have .... 

3. Thou shalt not take .... 

But in the field of speculation, the Jews have 
followed a variety of systems for dissecting the 
Decalogue, as may be seen in Abarvanel in the 
Pericope " Jethro," and in Voisin's Procemium ad 
Martini Pugionem Fidei. 

The following authors may be consulted on the 
arguments which have been adduced to support 
their respective divisions by the Church of Rome 
and the Lutherans on the one side, and the Re- 
formers or Calvinists and the Church of England 
on the other. 

1. Church of Rome. Gother's Papist Misre- 
presented ; Godden's Catholics No Idolaters ; Gotti 

Vera Ecclesia Christi. 

2. Lutherans. Salmuthi Theses ; Winckel- 
manni Dissertatio, SfC. ; Crameri de distinguendo 
decalogo, Sfc. ; Franzii Disputatio ; Weimari De- 
monstratio ; Opitii Dissertatio de usu accentuationis 
gemince in genuina divisione decalogi ; Dasdorjii 
Dissertatio de decalogo, ex fundamento accentuum 
examinato ; Hackspanii Notes Philologicee in varia 
loca S. Scriptures ; Pfeifferi Opera (cent. 1.). 

3. Reformers. Sam. Bohlii vera dinisio deca- 
logi ex infallibili principio accentuationis. 

In reference to this argument, which is used by 
both parties, I have been favoured with the fol- 
lowing remarks by a learned professor of languages, 
of the Jewish faith : 

" On the subject of your inquiry, the accents do not 
appear to me to offer any decision. They show which 
words are to be connected with each other to make up 
one proposition ; but not how many propositions shall 
go to make up one commandment." 

4. The Church of England. Ussher's Answer 
to a Jesuit (Images), and his Sermon preached 
before the Commons House of Parliament, 1620 ; 
Taylor's Ductor Dubitantium (where, in connexion 
with the Romish controversy, this subject is ex- 
hausted) ; Stillingfleet's Replies to Gother and 
Godden; and Forbesii Theologia Christiana. 

T. J. 


(Vol. iii., pp. 32 1.376.) 

Though your correspondent MR. SYDNEY SMIRKE 
has brought to our notice the existence of the 
republic of San Marino, and informed us of many 
facts in connexion therewith, and though F. C. B. 
has enlightened us on several points of interest in 
the history of this state, still I do not find in either 
of these communications the following particulars 
of its foundation, which are in Addison's Remarks 

on Italy, pp. 62, 63. (ed. Talboys, 1830), and which 
may interest some of your readers. 

" San Marino was its founder, a Dalmatian by birth, 
and by trade a mason. He was employed above 
thirteen hundred years ago in the reparation of Rimini, 
and after he had finished his work, retired to this so- 
litary mountain, as finding it very proper for the life of 
a hermit, Avhich he led in the greatest rigours and aus- 
terities of religion. He had not been long here before 
he wrought a reputed miracle, which, joined with his 
extraordinary sanctity, gained him so great an esteem, 
that the princess of the country made him a present of 
the mountain, to dispose of at his own discretion. His 
reputation quickly peopled it, and gave rise to the re- 
public which calls itself after his name The 

best of their churches is dedicated to the saint, and 
holds his ashes. His statue stands over the high 
altar, with the figure of a mountain in its hands 
crowned with three castles, which is likewise the arms 
of the commonwealth. They attribute to his pro- 
tection the long duration of their state, and look on 
him as the greatest saint next the blessed Virgin. I 
saw in their statute book a law against such as speak 
disrespectfully of him, who are to be punished in the 
same manner as those who are convicted of blasphemy." 


(Vol. ii., pp. 241. 286. 329., &c. ; Vol. iii., pp. 66. 
119. 210., &c.) 

After so much has " been said on both sides," 
in the pages of " NOTES AND QUERIES," on the 
signification of eisill or esil in Hamlet, it appears 
to me that the evidence requires to be carefully 
summed up. This task I would willingly leave to 
other hands ; but since no correspondent attempts 
it, I will venture, if I may be allowed, to take it 
on myself, and will strive to perform it to the best 
of my ability. 

The question is, whether by the word under 
discussion we are to understand" vinegar (or some 
such liquid) or a river. It will be proper, in 
taking a view of the matter, to " begin from the 
beginning," and to see, in the first place, what the 
earlier commentators have said. 

1. What the critics before Theobald thought of 
the word, is not quite certain ; but Theobald states 
that it had, " through all the editions, been dis- 
tinguished by Italic characters, as if it were the 
proper name of a river ; and so," he adds, " I dare 
say all the editors have from time to time under- 
stood it to be." But not being able to satisfy 
himself what river could be meant, he preferred 
to understand it of vinegar, and interprets the 
passage, " Wilt thou swallow down large draughts 
of vinegar ? " 

2. Sir Thomas Hanmer, on the contrary, was so 
convinced that a river was signified, that he actually 
altered the passage, arbitrio suo, to 

'* Wilt drink up Nile ? or eat a crocodile ? " 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



3. Johnson was silent, and left the explanation 
of the word to Steevens, who, observing that 
Hamlet meant to rant (as he says he will), sup- 
posed him to defy Laertes " to drink up a river, 
or try his teeth on an animal whose scales are 
supposed to be impenetrable." The word, he 
thinks, may be irrecoverably corrupted, but he 
finds plenty of rivers in Denmark of a somewhat 
similar sound, any one of which would " serve 
Hamlet's turn." 

4. Malone, in his first edition, deeming that 
Hamlet was not speaking of " impossibilities," but 
merely of " difficult or painful exertions," decided 
on adhering to Theobald and his vinegar. But in 
his second edition he repented, and expressed his 
conviction that " Mr. Steevens's interpretation is 
the true one," remarking that " this kind of hyper- 
bole is common among our ancient poets." 

5. Steevens, before he published his second 
edition, read the observations in favour of vinegar 
given in Malone's first edition ; but, though he 
allowed them to be "acute," was not moved by 
anything advanced in them to depart from his 
opinion that a river was intended. 

6. Boswell followed Malone's second thoughts. 

7. Mr. Singer, in his edition printed in 1826, 
had so little notion that vinegar could be signified, 
that he does not even advert to a single argument 
in behalf of that opinion, attending only to the 
consideration "what river, lake, or firth, Shak- 
speare meant." 

8. Mr. Collier makes no decision, observing only 
that eyesel is certainly the old word for vinegar, 
but that there is considerable doubt whether that 
be meant here ; and that "some of the commenta- 
tors suppose Hamlet to challenge Laertes to drink 
up the river Yssell or Eisell." " 

9. Mr. Knight favoured the river, remarking 
that "there is little doubt that Shakspeare referred 
to the river Yssell, Issell, or Izel, the most northern 
branch of the Rhine, and that which is nearest to 

Thus we have, on the side of vinegar, Theobald, 
and Malone's first edition; on the side of the river, 
Sir T. Hanmer, Steevens, Malone's second edition, 
Boswell, Mr. Singer in 1826, and Mr. Knight; six 
against two. I say nothing of Johnson, whom, 
however, we may consider to have been favourable 
to Steevens ; or of the earlier editors, who, accor- 
ding to Theobald, printed the word in Italics as a 
proper name. 

So the matter remained ; most readers, as well 
as critics, being, I believe, of opinion that a river 
was intended, until MR. SINGER, in the 46th No. 
of " NOTES AND QUERIES," revived the notion that 
some kind of drink was signified. 

10. Let us now consider what testimonies are 
advanced by the various critics on behalf of each 
of these opinions. That eysell (the 4to., 1604, reads 
esil, and the folio esile) was used as synonymous 

with one kind of drink, viz. vinegar, is apparent 
from the following authorities. Malone observes 
that it occurs in Chaucer and Skelton, and also in 
Sir Thomas More, Works, p. 21., edit. 1557 : 

" with sowre pocion 

If thou paine thy taste, remember therewithal 
That Christ for thee tasted eisil and gall." 
He also remarks that it is found in Minsheu's 
Dictionary, 1617, and in Coles's Latin Dictionary, 

Shakspeare himself, as Farmer was the first to 
point out, has, in his lllth Sonnet, 

" like a willing patient I will drink 

Potions of eysell 'gainst my strong infection ; 
No bitterness that I will bitter think, 
Nor double penance to correct correction." 

From Chaucer, Richardson's Dictionary supplies, 
" She was like thing for hunger deed 
That lad her life only by breed 
Kneden with eisel strong and agre, 
And thereto she was lean and megre." 

Romaunt of the Rose. 
and another passage thus : 

" Then these wretches full of all frowardnesse 
Gave him to drink eiscl temp'red with gall." 

Lamentation of Mary Magdalen. 
Todd, also, in his edition of Johnson, says that 
the old English aysel for vinegar is used by 

11. Next comes the consideration whether, if 
vinegar were intended, the expression drink up 
could properly have been used in reference to it. 
On this point Theobald says nothing, except 
intimating that "drink up" is equivalent to 
" swallow down." Steevens denies that if Shak- 
speare had meant Hamlet to say, " Wilt thou drink 
vinegar ? " he would have used " the term drink 
MJO," which means " totally to exhaust. 1 ' 1 Malone, in 
his first edition, remarks on the subject as follows: 
" On the phrase drink up no stress can be laid, for 
our poet has employed the same expression in his 
1 14th Sonnet, without any idea of entirely exhausting, 
and merely as synonymous to drink : 
( Or whether doth my mind, being crowned with you, 
Drink up the monarch's plague, this flattery ? ' 
" Again, in the same Sonnet : 

' 'Tis flattery in my seeing, 

And my great mind most kingly drinks it up.' 
" Again, in Timon of Athens : 

' And how his silence drinks up his applause.' 
" In Shakspeare's time, as at present, to drink up often 
meant no more than simply to drink. So in Florio's 
Italian Dictionary, 1598 : ' Sorbire, to sip or sup up any 
drink.' In like manner we sometimes say, ' When you 
have swallowed down this potion,' though we mean no 
more than, ' When you have swallowed this potion.' " 

In his second edition, however, Malone aban- 
doned his first interpretation, and his remarks on 
drink up then went for nothing. 



[No. 91. 

Discussion on this point has occupied some 
paragraphs in " NOTES AND QUERIES." ME. 
SINGER, in his first paper (Vol. ii., p. 241.), asserts 
that " to drink up was commonly used for simply 
to drink."" MR. HICKSON, too (No. 51.), affirms 
that "drink up is synonymous with drink off, 
drink to the dregs" and observes that " a child 
taking medicine is urged to drink it up." But 
H. K. S. C., or MR. H. K. S. CAUSTON, as he after- 
wards signs himself, denies that drink up can be 
used of eysell, or any other liquid, unless a definite 
quantity of it be signified ; that is, you may say to 
any one, if you please, in allusion to a definite 
quantity of vinegar, "Drink it up;" but if you 
allude to vinegar in general, without limitation of 
quantity, you will say merely, " Drink vinegar." 
So if you would ask your friend whether he drinks 
wine or water, you would say, "Do you drink 
wine or water?" not "Do you drink up wine or 
water ? " which would be to ask him whether he 
drinks up all the wine or water in the world, or at 
least all the definite quantities of either that come 
within his reach. MR. SINGER professes not to 
understand this doctrine, and refers MR. CAUSTON 
to the nursery rhyme : 

" Eat up your cake, Jenny, 
Drink up your wine," 

" which," he says, " may perhaps afford him 
further apt illustration ;" but which supplies, MR. 
CAUSTON rejoins, only another example that drink 
up is applied to definite quantity ; a quantity 
which, in this case, is " neither more nor less than 
the identical glass of wine which Jenny had stand- 
ing before her." The line in Shakspeare's 114th 
Sonnet is, MR. CAUSTON adds, " a parallel passage." 
To drink up, therefore, he concludes, must be used 
of " a noun implying absolute entirety, which might 
be a river, but could not be grammatically applied 
to any unexpressed quantity." In these remarks 
there seems to be great justness of reasoning. 
MR. CAUSTON might also have instanced the lines : 
" Freely welcome to my cup, 

Couldst thou sip, and sip it up :" 
that is, " couldst thou go on sipping till thou hast 
sipped up, or entirely exhausted, the whole definite 
quantity in the cup." 

12. But MR. SINGER in 1850, differing so much 
from Mr. Singer in 1826 (who thought that a river 
was signified), supposes that though a sort of drink 
is intended, it is not vinegar, but wormwood-wine. 
To this purpose he cites the lines of Shakspeare's 
lllth Sonnet, which we have already transcribed : 
" Whilst like a willing patient I will drink 
Potions of eysell 'gainst my strong infection ; 
No bitterness that I will bitter think, 
Nor double penance to correct correction." 

"Here we see," he observes, "that it was a 
bitter potion which it was a penance to drink." 
This does not seem to be clearly apparent from the 

passage ; for it is not absolutely certain that the 
bitterness in the third line refers to the eysell in 
the second. But he adds another quotation from 
the Troy Boke of Lyclgate : 

Of bitter eysell, and of eager wine." 

After which he subjoins : 

" Numerous passages in our old dramatic writers 
show that it was a fashion with the gallants of the time 
to do some extravagant feat, as a proof of their loie, in 
honour of their mistresses ; and, among others, the 
swallowing some nauseous potion was one of the most 
frequent ; but vinegar would hardly have been con- 
sidered in this light, wormwood might. In Thomas's 
Italian Dictionary, 1562, we have ' Assentio, Eysell; 1 
and Florio renders that word [Assentio] by Wormwood. 
What is meant, however, is absinthites, or wormwood 
wine, a nauseously bitter medicament then much in 
use ; and this being evidently the bitter potion of eysell 
in the poet's sonnet, was certainly the nauseous 
draught proposed to be taken by Hamlet, among the 
other extravagant feats as tokens of love." 

The reader will judge with what justice the 
words " evidently" and " certainly" are used. 
MR. SINGER then cites Junius, but to little pur- 
pose ; Hutton's Dictionary, to prove that absinthites 
meant "wormwood-wine;" and Stuckius's Anti- 
quitates Convivales to show that absinthites was a 
propoma ; but Stuckius, be it observed, mentions 
this propoma only as a stomachic, quod vim habet 
stomachum corroborandi et extenuandi. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that LORD BRAY- 
BROOKE (Vol. ii., p. 286.) should quote against 
MR. SINGER'S theory the following paragraph : 

" If, as MR. SINGER supposes, ' Eisell was absin- 
thites, or wormwood-wine, a nauseously bitter medica- 
ment then much in use,' Pepys's friends must have had 
a very singular taste, for he records on the 24th of 
November, 1660 : 

' Creed, and Shepley, and I, to the Rhenish wine- 
house, and there I did give them two quarts of worm- 
wood wine.' 

" Perhaps the beverage was doctored for the English 
market, and rendered more palatable than it had been 
in the days of Stuckius." 

Two other correspondents of the " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " also, C. H. (Vol. iii., p. 508.) and.GoaiEB 
(ibid.), assert that eysell, if it means any potion 
at all, must mean vinegar; C. H. referring to a 
MS. at Cambridge (Dd. i. fol. 7.), date about 
1350, in which occurs, 

"t'e lewis herde Ms word wel alle, 

And anon eysel >ei mengid wi> galle : " 
and GOMER relying on the support of the Welsh 
word Aesell, which implies verjuice or vinegar. 
D. ROCK, too, adduces the "Festival" in the ser- 
mon for St. Michael's day : 

" And other angellis with hi (St. Michael) shall 
bring all the Instrumetis of our lordis passyon ; the 
crosse ; the crowne ; spere ; nayles ; hamer ; sponge ; 
gall, &c." 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



There is therefore, it appears, ample testimony 
to show that eysell was used for vinegar ; but to 
prove that it meant wormwood-wine, MR. SINGER'S 
instances seem insufficient. 

13. Before we proceed further, let us, supposing 
that no bitter or sour potion, but a river, is 
meant, advert to the consideration what river 
may be intended ? Theobald observed that there 
was no river of that name in Denmark, nor any 
resembling it in name but " Yssel, from which the 
province of Overyssel derives its name in the 
German Flanders." Steevens, however, is well 
content to take this Yssel as that which Hamlet 
had in his thoughts. " But," he adds, " in an old 
Latin account of Denmark, and the neighbouring 
provinces, I find the names of several rivers little 
differing from Esil or Eisill in spelling or pro- 
nunciation. Such are the Essa, the Oesil, and 
some others .... The poet," he further remarks, 
" might have written the Weisel ; a considerable 
river, which falls into the Baltic Ocean, and could 
not be unknown to any prince in Denmark." 
MR. SINGER of 1826 suggests that the Issel is 
perhaps meant, but that the firth of lyze is nearest 
to the scene of action. MR. KNIGHT has little 
doubt that the Yssell, Issell, or Izel, the most 
northern branch of the Rhine, and that which is 
nearest to Denmark, is signified. 

MR. HICKSON, indeed, who favours MR. SINGER'S 
worrnword-wine, says (Vol. iii., p. 119.), that the 
word cannot mean a river, because the definite 
article is omitted before it. But this is an asser- 
tion of very little weight. H. K. S. C. (Vol. iii., 
p. 68.) very justly observes, that we may as cor- 
rectly say, " WouFt drink up Thames ?" with- 
out the article, as " Woul't drink up Eisell?" 
without the article. Let MR. HICKSON call to 
mind Milton's lines on English rivers : 

' And sullen Mole, that runneth underneath 
And Severn swift, guilty of maiden's death," 

ending with 
" And Medway smooth, and royal-tower'd Thame," 

and ask himself whether the names of rivers are 
not with perfect propriety used without the article. 
Pope has 

" And sails far off, among the swans of Thames." 

And is not Sir Thomas Hanmer quite correct in 
expression, when he alters the hemistich into 
" Wilt drink up Nile f n But to multiply exam* 
pies on such a point would be idle. 

14. It is now to be considered whether, sup- 
posing that the word might mean a potion (whe- 
ther of vinegar or wormwood) of a river, the 
potion or the river is the more applicable to the 
passage in which it occurs. It cannot be denied 
that the whole passage is full of rant and extrava- 
gance. Laertes begins to rant, and Hamlet an- 
swers him in a similar strain : 

" Now pile your dust (says Laertes) upon quick and 


Till of this flat a mountain you have made, 
T' o'ertop old Pelion, or the skyish head 
Of blue Olympus." 

Tliis is surely extravagant enough. Hamlet re- 
torts, in correspondent tone, 

" What, is he whose grief 

Bears such an emphasis? whose phrase of sorrow 
Conjures the wand'ring stars, and makes them stand 
Like wonder-wounded hearers ? " 

Then comes the struggle, in which they are parted 
by the attendants ; after which Hamlet cries out 
with like " emphasis :" 

" Why I will fight with him upon this theme 
Until my eye -lids can no longer wag. 

I lov'd Ophelia ; forty thousand brothers 

Could not, with all their quantity of love, 

Make up my sum what wilt thou do for her ? " 

On which the king exclaims, with much reason, 

" O, he is mad, Laertes." 

Hamlet continues, as if to make his madness in- 
disputable : 

" Zounds ! show me what thoul't do : 
Woul't weep? woul't fight? woul't fast? woul't tear 


Woul't drink up Esil 9 eat a crocodile ? 
I'll do't. Dost thou come here to whine? 
To outface me with leaping in her grave ? 
Be buried quick with her, and so will I : 
And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw 
Millions of acres on us , till our ground, 
Singeing his pate against the burning zone, 
Make Ossa like a wart ! Nay, an thoul't mouth, 
III rant as well as thou" 

The queen justly observes : 

" This is mere madness." 

Hamlet goes off, but maintains his extravagance 
of language to the last : 

" Let Hercules himself do what he may, 
The cat will mew, and dog will have his day." 

If, then, a literary jury be required to decide 
this question, the point on which they have to 
give a verdict is> whether to drink vinegar (or 
wormwood-wine) or to drink up a river is more 
in consonance with the tenor of Hamlet's speech. 
Theobald indeed says, that " Hamlet is not pro- 
posing any impossibilities to Laertes, such as 
drinking up a river would be, but rather seems 
to mean, Wilt thou resolve to do things the most 
shocking and distasteful to human nature f" But 
on what ground does this assertion rest ? Laertes 
himself commences with what we may surely call 
an impossibility : 

" Till of this flat," &c. 

And Hamlet speaks of more impossibilities, when 
he talks of throwing up " millions of acres," to 



[No. 91. 

" make Ossa like a wart." The drinking up a 
river is certainly more in unison with these extra- 
vagant proposals than a defiance "to swallow 
down (as Theobald has it) large draughts of 
vinegar ;" or, as Malone gives it, " to drink a po- 
tion of vinegar." Such a proposition, Theobald 
admits, "is not very grand;" "a challenge to 
hazard a fit of the heartburn or the colic, is," says 
Steevens, " not very magnificent." But it is not 
only far from " grand " and " magnificent," but, 
what is worse, it is utterly tame and spiritless, in 
a place where anything but tameness is wanted, 
and where it is quite out of keeping with the rest 
of the speech. MR. HICKSON, it is true, says 
(Vol. ii., p. 329.), that " the notion of drinking up 
a river would be quite unmeaning and out of 
place ; " but this assertion is as groundless as 
Theobald's, and is somewhat surprising from a 
gentleman who exhorts those who would be critics 
"to master the grammatical construction of a 
passage, deducing therefrom its general sense," 
and, we may presume, its general drift, " before 
they attempt to fix the meaning of a doubtful 
word." Had ME. HICKSON looked to the general 
drift of this passage, before lie attempted to fix 
the meaning ofeisell, or to concur with MR. SINGER 
of 1850 in his attempt to fix it, he would, we may 
suppose, have been less ready to pronounce the 
notion of drinking up a river out of place. It 
would have been better for him to have adhered 
to the judgment of Archdeacon Nares, as cited by 
MR. SINGER (Vol. ii., p. 241.) : " The challenge 
to drink vinegar, in such a rant," says the Arch- 
deacon, "is so inconsistent, and even ridiculous, 
that we must decide for the river, whether its 
name be exactly found or not. To drink up a 
river, and eat a crocodile with his impenetrable 
scales, are two things equally impossible. There 
is no kind of comparison between the others." 

15. Though examples of similar rant are quite 
unnecessary to support this opinion, let us never- 
theless conclude by noticing those which the 
critics have adduced on this passage : 

" This sort of hyperbole," says Malone, in his second 
edition, " was common among our ancient poets. So, 
in Eastward Hoe, 1609 : 
' Come drink up Rhine, Thames, and Meander, dry.' 

" So also in Greene's Orlando Furioso, 1599 : 

' Else would I set my mouth to Tigris' streames, 
And drink up overflowing Euphrates.' 

" Again, in Marlowe's Jew of Malta : 

' As sooner shall thou drink the ocean dry, 
Than conquer Malta.'" 

To which Boswell adds : 

" Our author has a similar exaggeration in Troilus 
and Cressida, Act III. Scene 2. : 

When we (. e. lovers) vow to weep seas, live in fire, 
eat rocks, tame tigers,' &c. 

" In Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose, we find the 
following lines : 

' He underfongeth a grete paine, 
That undertaketh to drink up Seine.' " 

Steevens notices King Richard II., Act II. 
Scene 2. : 

" The task he undertakes, 
Is numb'ring sands, and drinking oceans dry." 

But enough. The majority of readers, like the 
majority of critics, will surely be for the river, in 
the proportion of at least six to two. Verbwn non 
amplius addam. J. S. W. 


Eisd Wormwood Scurvy Ale. Such of 
your readers who have not yet made up their 
minds whether " eisell" and "wormwood" are iden- 
tical, will not object to be reminded that Taylor, 
the Water Poet, in his Pennyless Pilgrimage, de- 
scribing his hospitable reception at Manchester, 
when speaking of the liquid cheer supplied to him, 
says : 

"... Eight several sorts of ale we had, 
All able to make one stark drunk, or mad. 

We had at one time set upon the table 

Good ale of hyssop ('twas no ^Esop fable) ; 

Then had we ale of sage, and ale of malt, 

And ale of wormwood that could make one halt ; 

With ale of rosemary, and of bettony, 

And two ales more, or else I needs must lie. 

But to conclude this drinking aley tale, 

We had a sort of ale called scurvy ale." 

It would seem that in most of these drinks, the 
chief object was to impart an exciting but not 
disagreeable bitterness to the beverage, groping 
as it were, by instinct, after that enduring and 
gratifying bitter now universally derived from the 
hop. Wormwood, hyssop, rosemary, sage, bet- 
tony, each furnished its peculiar temptation to the 
Manchester drinkers, who some two centuries ago 
wanted an " excuse for the glass." Can any of 
your correspondents state what were the compo- 
nents of the scurvy ale spoken of by Taylor ? This 
was, perhaps, a really medicated drink. 

It may not be generally known, that even at 
this day, in some of the gin shops and taverns of 
London, gin, in which the herb rue is infused, is a 
constant article of sale ; and many, who assume a 
most respectable blueness of physiognomy at the 
bare mention of "old Tom" in his undisguised 
state, scruple not to indulge in copious libations 
of the same popular spirit, provided it be poured 
from a bottle in which a few sprigs of rue are 
floating. But what was scurvy ale ? 


JULY 26. 1851.] 




(Vol. iii., p. 427.) 

In the following passage (extracted from the 
Quarterly Review, No. CLXXV., Dec. 1850, 
p. 143.) it is declared that the nation did "pay" 
for this "munificent present." The writer is 
understood to be Mr. 11. Ford ; and if his state- 
ment is not refuted, the business will henceforth 
take its place as a sale which the nation was 
duped into regarding' as a gift : 

" The secret history," says the reviewer, " was this : 
King George IV., having some pressing call for money, 
did not decline a proposition for selling the library to 
the Emperor of Russia. Mr. Heber, having ascertained 
that the books were actually booked for the Baltic, 
went to Lord Sidmouth, then Home Secretary, and 
stated the case ; observing what a shame it would be 
that such a collection should go out of the country : 
to which Lord Sidmouth replied : * Mr. Heber, it 
shall not !' and it did not. On the remonstrance of 
Lord Sidmouth, of whose manly and straightforward 
character George IV. was very properly in awe, the 
last of the grands monarques presented the books to the 
British Museum, on the condition that the value of the 
rubles they were to have fetched should be somehow 
or other made good to him by ministers in pounds 
sterling. This was done out of the surplus of certain 
funds furnished by France for the compensation of 
losses by the Revolution. But his ministers, on a hint 
from the House of Commons that it was necessary to 
refund those monies, had recourse, we are told, to the 
droits of the Admiralty." 

So that the books were not given, but paid for, 
out of public monies : which ministers could not 
have made the object of a bargain, had they been 
the king's, and not the nation's. And the inscrip- 
tion in the Museum like many others "lifts 
its head and lies," i. e. unless the Quarterly Review 
has been inventing a story, instead of telling a 
true bit of secret history, decidedly worth noting 
if true. V. 

[We believe the Quarterly Reviewer has been mis- 
informed as to the facts connected with the transfer of 
the Royal Library to the British Museum. We have 
reason to know that George IV., being unwilling to 
continue the expanse of maintaining the Library, which 
he claimed to treat, not as a heirloom of the crown, 
but as his own private inheritance, entertained a pro- 
posal for its purchase from the Russian Government. 
This having come to the knowledge of Lord Liverpool 
'through Dibdin, from Lady Spencer, to whom it had 
ieen mentioned by the Princess Lieven), the projected 
;ale was, on the remonstrance of the Minister, aban- 
lonecl, and the Library presented to the nation. The 
King thus got rid of the annual expenses ; and although 
I re do not believe that any bargain was made upon the 
ubject, it is not unlikely that the Ministry felt that 
his surrender of the Library to the country gave the 
ing some claim to assistance towards the liquidation 
>f his debts, and that such assistance was accordingly 
I tarnished. Even if this were so, though the result 

might be the same, the transaction is a very different 
one from the direct bargain and sale described in the 
Quarterly Iteview.~\ 

In justice to King George IV., the letter which 
he addressed to the late Earl of Liverpool, on 
presenting the books to his own subjects, should 
be printed in your columns. I saw the autograph 
letter soon after it was written, and a copy of it 
would be very easily met with. 

Would it not have been both desirable and very 
advantageous, to have converted the banqueting 
room at Whitehall into a receptacle for this mag- 
nificent collection, which would doubtless have 
been augmented from time to time ? 

Instead of concentrating such vast literary 
treasures at the Museum, might it not have been 
expedient to diffuse them partially over this im- 
mense metropolis ? 

To Peers and M. P.'s, especially, a fine library 
at Whitehall would be a great boon. The present 
chapel was never consecrated, and its beautiful 
ceiling is little suited to a house of prayer. 

J. H. M. 


(Vol. iv., p. 33.) 

For the information of your correspondent 
MR. BOLTON CORNEY, I beg to inform him that 
there was an intermediate meeting of the sub- 
scribers to the Caxton Memorial at the house of 
the Society of Arts between the first meeting to 
which he alludes, and the last, held at the same 
place the other day. Over that meeting I had 
the honour of presiding, and it was determined to 
persevere in the object of erecting a statue in 
Westminster to the memory of the first English 
printer ; but the report of the last meeting shows 
that the funds have not been so largely contri- 
buted as might have been expected, and are now 
far short of the sum, 500Z., required for the erec- 
tion of an iron statue of the illustrious typo- 
grapher. True it is that no authentic portrait of 
Caxton is known, but the truthful picture by 
Maclise might very well supply the deficiency; 
and I see the engraving to be made from that 
painting rather ostentatiously advertised 'as "the 
Caxton Memorial." The original design of the 
Dean of St. Paul's, for " a fountain by day, and a 
light by night," was abandoned as more poetical 
than practical ; my chief apprehension being either 
that the gas would spoil the water, or that the 
water would put out the light. The statue was 
therefore resolved upon as less costly and more 
appropriate than the fountain. 

The statue of Gutenberg at Mentz is a good 
example of what might be erected in Westminster; 
yet I very much doubt whether any likeness of the 



[No. 91. 

great printer has been preserved. The expense 
necessarily attendant upon MR. CORNET'S Literary 
Memorial appears to me to be fatal to its success ; 
for, however dear to the bibliographer, I fear but 
little public interest is now felt in the writings of 
Caxton. The Typographical Antiquities contain 
copious extracts from his works ; and the biogra- 
phies of Lewis and Knight appear to have satisfied 
public curiosity as to his life. Besides, a memorial 
of this nature would be hidden in a bookcase, not 
seen in a highway. I may add that the present 
state of the Caxton Memorial is this : the vener- 
able Dean of St. Paul's is anxious to be relieved 
from the charge of the funds already subscribed, 
and to place them in the hands of the Society of 
Arts, if that body will receive them, and undertake 
to promote the object of the original subscribers 
by all the means at its command. 



Medically, the word nervous has the following 
meanings : 

1. Of or belonging to the anatomical substance 
called nerve, e.g. the "nervous system," "nervous 
sheaths," " nervous particles," &c. 

2. A predomination of the nervous system, when 
it is unusually active or highly developed, which 
is what we mean in speaking of a " nervous tem- 
perament," " a nervous person," &c. 

3. Certain functional disorders of the nervous 
system are so termed, and in this sense we speak 
of "nervous people," "nervous complaints," and 
so forth. 

4. Nervous is also used, more poetically than 
correctly, to signify muscular, and as synonymous 
with brawny, sinewy, &c., thus conveying an idea 
of strength and vigour. But nerve is not muscle, 
therefore this inaccurate use of the word, though 
sanctioned by some good old writers, must cease. 

5. Nervous, in speaking of a part of the body, 
signifies a part in which there are many nerves, or 
much nervous matter, or which is endowed with 
extra sensibility. 

These are the various ideas commonly attached 
to the word nervous. They are too many for the 
word to be a closely accurate one, but we must 
take them, not make them. We can, however, 
avoid the future inaccurate use of the term al- 
luded to in explanation 4., and all the meta- 
phorical derivations thereof, such as a " nervous 
style of writing," &c., and adhere to those two 
significations which are physiologically and pa- 
thologically correct, and which are obviously de- 
rivable from the several meanings and explanations 
above enumerated, viz. 

1. Of or belonging to the natural structure or 
functions of nerve ; and 

2. The quality of functional disorder or weak- 
ness of the nervous system in certain respects. 


Every one knows that instances of catachresis 
occur in all languages ; but I think this case may 
be more satisfactorily explained by considering 
that the nerves consist of two very distinct and in- 
dependent classes of organs nerves of sensation, 
which conduct impressions to the sensorium ; and 
nerves of volition, which convey the mental im- 
pulse to the muscles. From this it necessarily 
follows that when the former class are over-active 
(and redundancy is decidedly the adjectival idea 
in the word nervous), a morbid excitability of 
temper, with a perturbable anxious state of mind, 
are produced (making the ** bad " sense of the 
word) ; while from a similar state of the nerves of 
volition results a powerful and vigorous system of 
muscular action and mental energy (making the 
" good " sense of the word). EDWIN J. JONES. 


(Vol. i., p. 198.; Vol. iv., p. 1.) 

I am anxious to acknowledge that SIR F. 
MADDEN has established, beyond all doubt, the 
facts that several manuscript books were found on 
the Duke of Monmouth when he was captured, 
and that the volume rescued from oblivion by 
Dr. Anster, and now placed in the British Museum, 
is one of these, and also in Monmouth's hand- 
writing. I take this opportunity of saying, that I, 
unfortunately, have not seen Dr. Anster's reply 
to my communication ; and it is to be regretted 
that it was not copied from the Dublin University 
Magazine into " NOTES AND QUERIES," so that 
we (the readers of " NOTES AND QUERIES ") might 
have had the whole subject before us. This is a 
course which I think our kind Editor may usefully 
adopt on similar occasions. 

Referring unsuccessfully to Lowndes' Manual 
for an answer to SIR F. MADDEN'S question as to 
the date of 'the first edition of Welwood's Memoirs, 
I was pleased, however, to find that my edition 
(the sixth, published in 1718) possesses a value 
which does not attach to previous editions, inas- 
much as it contains u A short introduction, giving 
an account how these memoirs came at first to be 
writ." From this it appears that there are spu- 
rious editions of the work, for Welwood writes : 

" I have given my bookseller leave to make a sixth 
impression of the following memoirs ; and the rather 
that some time ago one Baker printed more than one 
edition of them without my knowledge, very incorrect, 
and on bad paper." 

We may fairly assume, that the first edition 
was published at the beginning of 1699, for the 
"epistle dedicatory" to King William is dated 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



February of that year. If this be so, it must be 
taken as a proof of extraordinary popularity that 
the work should have reached a third edition as 
early as 1700, as stated by SIR F. MADDEN. The 
" account how these memoirs came at first to be 
writ" possesses some interest. It appears that 
Queen Mary used to hold frequent converse with 
the Doctor on the subject of her great-grand- 
father's and grandfather's history, and 

*' At last she fell to regret the insuperable difficul- 
ties she lay under (for J well remember that was her 
mind) of knowing truly the history of her grandfather's 
reign ; spying that most of the accounts she had read of 
it were either panegyrick or satire, not history. Then 
with an inimitable grace she told me, ' If I would in a 
few sheets give her a short sketch of the affairs of that 
reign, and of the causes that produced such dreadful 
effects, she would take it well of me.' Such com- 
mands were too sacred not to be obeyed } and when I 
was retiring from her presence, she stopt me to tell me 
she expected I would do what she had desired of me 
in such a manner, and with that freedom, as if I de- 
signed it for the information of a friend, and not one of 
i the blood of King Charles I., promising to show it to 
none living without my consent." 

Welwood further states, that after Mary's death, 
King William 

" Sent me, by the late Earl of Portland, the manu- 
script I had given his Queen, found in her cabinet 5 
where, upon the back of it, she had writ with her own 
hand the promise she had made me of showing it to 
nobody without my consent." 

In addition to the extract from Monmouth's 
Diary given in my former communication, Wel- 
wood publishes a letter of the Duke's to the brave 
and true Argyle, which is perhaps more credit- 
able to Monmouth than any other memorial he 
has left. The letter, as Welwood suggests, ap- 
pears to have been written shortly after the death 
of Charles II. I copy it ; but if you think this 
paper too long, omit it : . 

" T received both yours togefher this morning, and 
cannot delay you my answer longer than this post ; 
though 1 am afraid it will not please you so much as 
1 heartily wish it may. I have weighed all your 
reasons, and everything that you and my other friends 
have writ me upon that subject ; and have done it 
with the greatest inclination to follow your advice, and 
without prejudice. You may well believe I have had 
time enough to reflect sufficiently upon our present 
state, especially since I came hither. But whatever 
way I turn my thoughts, I find insuperable difficulties. 
Pray do not think it an effect of melancholy, for that 
was never my greatest fault, when I tell you that in 
these three weeks' retirement in this place I have not 
only looked back, but forward ; and the more I con- 
sider our present circumstances, I think them still the 
more desperate, unless some unforeseen accident fall 
out which I cannot divine nor hope for. [Here follow 
ixteen lines all in cyphers.] Judge then what we 
are to expect, in case we should venture upon any 

such attempt at this time. It's to me a vain argument 
that our enemies are scarce yet well settled, when you 
consider that fear in some, and ambition in others, 
have brought them to comply ; and that the Parlia- 
ment, being made up, for the most part, of members 
that formerly run our enemy down, they will be ready 
to make their peace as soon as they can, rather than 
hazard themselves upon an uncertain bottom. I give 
you but hints of what, if I had time, I would write 
you at more length. But that I may not seem ob- 
stinate in my own judgment, or neglect the advice of 
my friends, I will meet you at the time and place ap- 
pointed. But for God sake think in the mean time of 
the improbabilities that lie naturally in our way, and 
let us not by struggling with our chains make them 
straighter and heavier. For my part, I'll run the 
hazard of being thought anything rather than a rash 
inconsiderate man. And to tell you my thoughts 
without disguise, I am now so much in love with a 
retired life, that I am never like to be fond of making 
a bustle in the world again. I have much more to 
say, but the post cannot stay ; and I refer the rest till 
meeting, being entirely 

' Yours." 

Monmouth's ill-conoerted and ilNconducted 
expedition following, at no distant period, the 
prudent resolutions expressed in the above letter, 
places the instability of his character in a strong 
light. C. Boss. 

tn JHtnflr 

Pope's "honest Factor" (Vol. iv., p. 7.),The 

" Honest factor who stole a gem away," 
to whom Pope alludes, was Thomas Pitt, Esq., 
(ancestor of the Earl of Chatham), who was by 
Queen Anne appointed Governor of Fort St. 
George in the East Indies, and purchased there 
for the sum of 20,4007., or 48,000 pagodas, a 
diamond weighing 127 carats, which he sold to 
the King of France about 1717, and is now known 
as the Pitt diamond. I suppose it is at present 
in the possession of the Republic of France. 

D E H. 

Temple, July 5, 1851. 

Banks Family (Vol. iii., pp. 390. 458. 507. 524.). 
I am obliged by your inserting my note on this 
subject. I can inform L. H. that the present owner 
of the lead mines in Keswick is related, though 
distantly, to John Banks the philosopher, who was 
born at Grange in Borrowdale. Can any of your 
correspondents give any reason why the crest of 
this branch of the family should be exactly similar 
in every respect to that of the Earl of Lonsdale ? 


Dies Ira, Dies Ilia (Vol. ii., p. 72. ; Vol. iii., 
p. 468.). Although some time has elapsed since 
the Query on this hymn appeared, yet as no very 
definite reply has been given, I send the following. 

This hymn is one of the four "proses" or verses 



[No. 91. 

without measure, made use of in the services of 
the Roman Catholic Church. The invention of 
these proses is attributed to Nolker, a monk of 
the Convent of St. Gall, who wrote about the year 
880; and who says in his work that he had seen 
them in a book belonging to the Convent of St. 
Jumieges, which was destroyed bv the Normans 
in 841. Of the many proses which were com- 
posed, the Roman Catholic Church has retained 
but four, of which the above is one. Who the au- 
thor really was, is very uncertain; the majority of 
writers on the subject appear to concur in the 
opinion that Cardinal Frangipani, a Dominican, 
otherwise called Malabrancia, a Doctor of Paris, 
and who died at Perouse in 1294, was the com- 
poser ; but it has also been assigned to St. Gregory 
and St. Bernard. Bzovius, an. 1294, states the 
author to have been either Cardinal Orsino or 
Cardinal Frangipani, and other writers maintain 
it to have been the production of Agostino Biella, 
who died 1491 ; or of Humbertus, General of the 
Dominicans. The original consists of fifty-six 
lines, and may be found in almost every book of 
Catholic devotion. R. R. M. 

In No. 84, for June 9th, the Roman Catholic 
hymn "Dies Iras" is referred to, and works cited 
as to its author. To these may be added the 
39th No. of the Dublin Review, where it will be 
found that Latino Frangipani, nephew of Pope 
Nicholas III., and known under the name of the 
Cardinal Malabrancia, was more generally con- 
sidered the writer. The account there given of 
it is not uninteresting, and is preceded by a cur- 
sory advertence to the other hymns of the Middle 
Ages, including a Greek version of some of the 
stanzas of Thomas Aquinas, the " Angelic Doc- 
tor's," impressive " Lauda Sion." J. R. 

Equestrian Statues (Vol. iii., p. 494.). I should 
inform FM. that there is an equestrian statue of 
the Earl of Hopetown in front of the Royal Bank, 
St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. The earl, how- 
ever, is not mounted; he stands beside the horse. 


Monumental Symbolism (Vol. iii., p. 449.). 
I have seen no answer to READER'S inquiry. I 
have always understood that the kneeling figures 
were the children who died in the lifetime of their 
parents (sometimes they are even represented in 
the swaddling-bands of Chrysorn children), while 
those represented standing survived them. This 
of course is only when some are represented kneel- 
ing and others standing, as in some instances all 
are kneeling. I believe my supposition is grounded 
on some better authority than my own fancy, but I 
cannot refer to any at present. H. N. E. 

Bilton, July 3. 1851. 

Organs in Churches (Vol. iii., p. 518.). R. W.B. 
will find some information on the subject ofo?*gans 

in Staveley's History of Churches in England, 
pp. 203. 207., a work replete with much interesting 
matter connected with churches. 

Exeter, July 1. 1851. 

Tennyson: " The Princess" (Vol. iii., p. 493.). 
Does not the passage 
" Dare we dream of that, I asked, 
Which wrought us, as the workman and his work 
That practice betters" 

simply mean, " Dare we dream of" the God who 
made us as of a finite creature, who requires 
" practice" ere His work can be perfect, and whose 
skill shall be progressive ? In short, "dare we" 
think of Him as such an one as ourselves ? 


Information on this subject will be found in 
Hawkins's History of Music, vol. i. p. 398. et seq.; 
Burney's History of Music, vol. ii. p. 131. ; Busby's 
Dictionary of Music ; John Gregory's Works 
(" Discourse declaring what Time the Nicene 
Creed began to be Sung in the Church ") ; and in 
Staveley's History of Churches in England. 

T. J. 

" Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love " 
(Vol. iv., p. 24.). 


" When late I attempted your pity to move, 
Why seem'd you so deaf to my prayers ? 
Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love, 
But Why did you kick me down stairs? " 

From An Asylum for Fugitive Pieces, in 
Prose and Verse, not in any other Col- 
lection, vol. i. p. 1 5. London : Debrett, 

The above has been inquired for : of the author 
I know nothing. S. H. 

St. John's W T ood. 

Sardonic Smiles (Vol. iv., p. 18.). It is very 
difficult to strike out the verse in Homer's Odyssey 
(T, 302.). To suppose that in him the word is 
derived from Sardinia, is exceedingly improbable, 
if not, as Payne Knight says, quite absurd; because, 
not only is Sardinia not mentioned in Homer, but 
his geography, even where half- fabulous, and with 
other names than the modern ones, does not extend 
so far west. Payne Knight says the word is de- 
rived from ffafia'ivu, but where such a word is 
found I cannot learn. There is <rapc5a"w in Suidas, 
"to laugh bitterly;" but unluckily the very same 
words are given as the interpretation of <rpKa"a>, 
and a-apxdfa is a perfectly established word. Sar- 
casm, sarcastic, are derived from it ; and its own 
derivation from <rapt, " flesh," seems certain. This 
makes it highly probable that the first word in 
Suidas is a mistake for the other. All Greek 
writers borrowed so much from Homer that the 
occurrence of the word in them, where obviously 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



meaning Sardinian, seems to prove nothing but 
that they thought it had that meaning in him. 

C. B. 

Epitaph on Voltaire (Vol. iii., p. 518.). The 
question is asked, " Has the name of the lady of 
Lausanne, who wrote the epitaph on Voltaire, 

Ci git 1'eufant gate du monde qu'il gata,' 
been ascertained ? It has ; and the lady was 
Madame la Baronne de Montolieu, who wrote a 
great variety of novels, of which by far the best, 
and indeed one of the most interesting in the 
French language, is her Caroline de Lichtfield, 
first published at Lausanne in 1786, two volumes 
8vo. Her family name was de Bottens (Pauline- 
Isabelle), born at Lausanne in 1751, and there 
died in December, 1832. Her first husband was 
Benjamin de Crouzas, son to one of Montesquieu's 
adversaries, after whose death she married the 
Baron de Montolieu. It was Gibbon's most in- 
timate friend and literary collaborateur, Dey verdun, 
who published, and indeed corrected, her then 
anonymous Caroline de Lichtfield. 

Voltaire's friend and mistress, the learned 
Madame du Chatelet, had prepared an inscription 
for his portrait, which may be considered an anti- 
cipated epitaph : 

" Post-genitis Hie canis erit, nunc canis amicis; " 
but one of a very different tenor was written by 
J. J. Rousseau, we are told by Lord Brougham : 

" Plus bel esprit que grand genie, 
Sans loi, sans moeurs, et sans vertu ; 
11 est mort comme il a vecu, 
Couvert de gloire et d'infamie." 


Voltaire, where situated (Vol. ill, pp. 329. 433.). 
The inquiry, " Where is Voltaire situated ? " was 
answered in a late number, and reference made to 
the Essays of an Octogenarian, a privately-printed 
work, and therefore not generally accessible ; but 
the subject will be equally found elucidated in the 
Gentleman s Magazine for July, 1846, p. 25. No 
such place ever existed, as there made clear; 
for it is the simple anagram of his patronymic, 
Arouet 1 j (lejeune), framed by himself, though by 
Condorcet and other biographers, ignorant of the 
fact, supposed to be a landed property. Voltaire 
loved not his paternal name, as will be there found, 
and gladly changed it. The article embraces 
various particulars of Voltaire's life, in refutation 
of Lord Brougham's errors; some of them strange 
enough, and not inconsiderable in number, so as 
to excite surprise in so accomplished a person. 

J. R. 

Children at a Birth (Vol. iii., p. 347.). See 
Quarterly Review, No. xxix. vol. xv. p. 187., 
where Southey quotes HakewiWs Apology as 
authority for an epitaph in Dunstable Church to 
a woman who had, at three several times, three 

children at a birth ; and five at a birth two other 
times. A. C. 

Milkmaids (Vol. iii., p. 367.). 

" May 1. I was looking out of the parlour window 
this morning, and receiving the honours which Mar- 
gery, the milkmaid to our lane, was doing me, *by 
dancing before my door with the plate of half her cus- 
tomers on her head." Tatler for May 2, 1710. 

R. J. R. 

" Heu quanta minus,"" fyc. (Vol. iv., p. 21.). 
" Heu quanto minus est cum aliis versari quam tui 


is the end of an inscription at the Leasowes " to 
Miss Dolman, a beautiful and amiable relation of 
Mr. Shenstone's, who died of the small-pox, about 
twenty-one years of age," in the following words. 
On one side : 

" Peramabili suac consobrinae 

On the other side : 

" Ah Maria 

puellartim elegantissima 
Ah flore venustatis abrepta 


Heu quanto minus est," &c. 
Shenstone's Works, 1764, vol. ii. p. 356. 


This quotation is Shenstone's " Epitaph on his 

J. O. B., however, has given it incorrectly : it 
should be 

" Heu quanto minus est cum reliquis versari quam 
tui meminisse." 

Moore has done something towards giving the 
force of this strikingly concentrated sentence, 
thus : 

' Tho' many a gifted mind we meet, 

Tho' fairest forms we see, 
To live with them is far less sweet, 
Than to remember thee." 


The "Passellew" Family (Vol. i., p. 319.). I 
think there can be little doubt that the " Robert 
Passellew" of Waltham Abbey, and "John Paslew," 
the last abbot of Whalley, belong to the same 
family. A reference to Burke's General Armory 
proves the armorial bearings to be the same, and 
also that the family was connected with the county 
of Durham. The following extract from the His- 
torical, Antiquarian, and Picturesque Account of 
Kirkstall Abbey (Longmans, 1827), will show that 
a century later the Paslews had obtained a footing 
in Yorkshire, and had become benefactors of 
Kirkstall : 

" Robert Passelovve, with King Richard I I.'s licence, 
gave one toft, five acres of land, and an annual rent of 
2*. 6d. in Bramley, with the reversion of nine mes- 
suages, seven oxgangs, and six acres and a half of land, 



[No. 91. 

after the decease of the tenants, , 

all which premises were valued at 4 2s. 6d. per an- 
num." P. 208. 

T. T. W. 

Burnley, Lancashire. 

Lady Petre's Monument (Vol. iv., p. 22.). 
" A E I O U." Do not these letters stand for 
"a ou" non semper? alluding to the resurrection 
from the tomb. J. II. L. 

May not the five vowels at the end of the Latin 
epitaph of Lady Petre's monument mean, 
" AEternae lanua Obitus Uitae ? " 

F. A. 


Spenser's Age at his Death (Vol. i., p. 481.). 
Touching this subject I can state that I am well 
acquainted with an admirable portrait of the poet, 
bearing date 1593, in which he is represented as a 
man of not more than middle age ; so that, whether 
he died in 1596 or 1598, he may be said to have 
died prematurely immatura morte obiisse, as the 
monument testifies. VARRO. 

Blessing by the Hand (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 509.). 
The priest of the Greek church, in blessing with 
the hand, anciently held it with the thumb crossing 
the third finger, the first finger being held straight, 
the second and fourth curved, so as to represent 
altogether the Greek letters i c x c, the first and 
last letters of " Jesus Christ." The same letters 
are impressed on the bread used in their eucharist, 
the bread being marked with the Greek cross, 
similar to our cross-buns, with the letters i c and 
x c in the upper angles of the cross, and the let- 
ters N and K in the two lower angles. The N K 
is the abbreviation of vi/ca, and the whole phrase 
is " Jesus Christ conquers." This church derived 
the expression from the standard (labarum) of 
Constantine, tv rovrif viita in hoc signo vinces. 
In Goar's notes on the Greek rituals, especially 
that of Chrysostom's, much information may be 
obtained on the symbolisms of Christianity. 



Handel 's Occasional Oratorio (Vol. iii., p. 426.). 
This oratorio doubtless received its name from the 
special occasion when it was composed, viz. the 
suppression of the rebellion in 1745. It was 
published by Tonson in Feb. 1746, at the price of 
Is., together with various poems, &c. relating to 
the same important event. The Oratorio is 
divided into three parts : with the exception of the 
overture, four of the airs, and two of the choruses, 
it contains little that can be popular at the present 
day. J. H. M. 

Moore's Almanack (Vol. iii., pp.263. 339. 381. 
466.). Francis Moore was not a real personage, 
but a pseudonyme adopted by the author, Mr. 
Henry Andrews, who was born at Frieston, near 

Grantham, Lincolnshire, February 4, 1744, and 
died at lloyston, Herts, January 26, 1820. An- 
drews was astronomical calculator to the Board of 
Longitude, and for years corresponded with Mas- 
kelyne and other eminent men. A portrait of 
Andrews is extant ; one is in my possession : they 
are now extremely scarce. 

As to the date of the almanack's first ap- 
pearance I can afford no information ; but it can 
be obtained of Mr. W. H. Andrews, only son of 
the astronomer, who still resides at Royston, and 
is in possession of his MSS., consisting of astro- 
nomical and astrological calculations, notes of 
various phenomena, materials for a history of 
Royston, memoir of his own life, his correspond- 
ence, &c. FRANCIS. 

Kiss the Hares Foot (Vol. iv., p. 21.). This 
saying occurs in Browne's Britannia's Pastorals : 
" 'Tis supper lime with all, and we had need 
Make haste away, unless we mean to speed 
With those that kiss the hare's foot. Rheums are 


Some say. by going supperless to bed, 
And those 1 love not; therefore cease my rhyme 
And put my pipes up till another time." 

Brit. Past., Book 2., Song 2. 
This quotation may not be of much service as a 
clue to the discovery of the origin of the saying ; 
but it may be interesting to MR. BREEN as a proof 
that the saying itself must be considerably more 
than two hundred years old, the second part of 
the Pastorals having been first published in 1616. 


Derivation of the Word " Bummaree" or " Bu- 
maree" (Vol. iv., p. 39.). 

" BOMF.RIE, S. F. [terme de mer, pret a la grosse 
aventure] bottomry or bottomree." Boyer's Fr. and 
Engl Diet., ed. London, 1767. 

The leading idea in the term Bomerie, and its 
English equivalent, when applied to borrowing 
money " on a ship's keel/' is the hazarding all on 
a single venture : hence it is not difficult to see 
its application to other transactions, especially 
those connected with the sea ; such as wholesale 
purchases of fish, in which a large risk is run, with 
an uncertain prospect of return. 

The meaning of the word, if it be really the 
same, when adopted by confectioners, would pro- 
bably be assignable either to the shape of the 
pans, or the use to which they were applied. 

I know not whether this is to be classed among 
the " unsatisfactory " derivations already submit- 
ted to your correspondent, but should be glad to 
hear his opinion on its soundness. E. A. D. 

Sheridan and Vanbrugh (Vol. iv., p. 24.). 
Had O. O. consulted the " Life of Sheridan" which 
precedes Bohn's Collection of the Dramatic Works 
of Sheridan (which, having the volume in his hand, 

JULY 26. 1851.] 



he ought to have done), he would have seen that 
it is expressly mentioned (p. 51.) that Sheridan, 
having become part proprietor of Drury Lane 

" His first commencement as a manager was not of 
that brilliant kind to give any promise of great im- 
provement in the conduct of the theatre. An alteration 
of Vanbrugh's play the Relapse was the first production, 
under the name of a Trip to Scarborough. It was 
brought out on February 24, 1777. This was an un- 
fortunate commencement : neither the public nor the 
actors were satisfied." 

Further, it is printed at the end of Sheridan's 
Dramatic Works, followed by Pizarro, printed in 
smaller type, so as to make them appear like an 
appendix ; and hence it could hardly be expected 
that any one would think of attributing the Trip 
to Scarborough, altered from Vanbrugh's Relapse, 
to Sheridan, any more than it could be considered 
as intended to call him the author of Pizarro, be- 
cause he altered Kotzebue's Spaniards in Peru, 
and adapted it to, and had it represented on, the 

" Felix quern faciunt dliena pericula cautum " 
(Vol. iii., p. 482.). This line of Plautus is fol- 
lowed by parallel quotations from other writers. 
To these I may add the French version : 

" Heureux celui qui pour devenir sage, 
Du mal d'autrui fait son apprentisage." 

J. R. 

" Alterius Orbis Papa" (Vol. iii., p. 497.; 
Vol. iv., p. 11.). Fuller, in his Worthies of 
England, edit. London, 1662, " Staffordshire," 
p. 41., uses this expression, writing of Cardinal 
Pole. It is as follows : 

" Yet afterwards he (Pole) became 'Altering Orbis 
Papa,' when made Archbishop of Canterbury by Queen 

J. N. B. 
West Bromwich, June 28. 1851, 

Umbrella (Vol. iii., pp. 37. 60. 126. 482.). In 
Fynes Moryson's Itinerary, "printed by John 
Beale, 1617, part iii. booke i. chap. ii. p. 21.," is 
the following passage : 

" In hot regions, to auoide the beames of the sunne, 
in some places (as in Italy) they carry Vmbrels, or 
things like a little canopy, over their heads; but a 
learned Physician told me, that the use of them was 
dangerous, because they gather the heate into a pyra- 
niidall point, and thence cast it down perpendicularly 
vpon the head, except they know how to carry them 
for auoyding that danger." 

C. DE D. 

To learn by Heart, "Apprendre par Cceur" 
(Vol. iii., pp.425. 483.). Quitard, a French writer 
on Proverbs, says, 

" On a regarde le coeur comme le sie*ge de la Me- 
moire. De la les mots recorder, se recorder, recor- 

dance, recordation, en Latin recordari, recordatio ; de 
la aussi 1'expression apprendre par coeur. Rivarol 
dit que cette expression, si ordinaire et si energique, 
vient dti plaisir que nous prenons a ce qui nous 
touche et nous flatte. La memoire, en effet, est 
toujours aux ordres du coeur." 

J. M. 


"Suum cuique tribuere" (Vol. iii., p. 518.). I beg 
to refer your correspondent M. D. to Cicero's 
De Claris Oratoribus, which is the nearest parallel 
passage I can find : viz. 

" Erat omnius turn mos, ut in reliquis rebus melior, 
sic in hoc ipso humanior: ut faciles essent in suum 
cuique tribuendo. " 

In a note, an allusion to Justice is made : but my 
Cicero is a very old edition, and is divided into 
four tomes. The above is from tome i. p. 305. 
letter F. 

The only other parallel passage is from Liber II., 
" Ad Herennium," thus : 

" Justitia est habitus animi, communi utilitate con- 
servata, suam cuique tribuens dignitatem." 

J. N. C. 

King's Lynn, June 28. 1851. 

Frogs in Ireland Eound Towers (Vol. iii., 
pp.353. 428. 490.). I must take leave to doubt 
the fact, mentioned in Vol. iii., p. 490., of the in- 
troduction of frogs into Ireland first in the year 
1696. They are much too plentiful in the country 
districts, leaving out their abundance in the county 
Dublin, to warrant any such supposition. In the 
Queen's County, particularly, I have seen them in 
myriads. With regard to those gentlemen who 
are pleased to import snakes into Ireland, I can 
only wish them some worthier occupation. 

There are two birds, the occurrence of which 
about Dublin I do not find noticed by naturalists. 
One is the common skylark, the other is the 
Royston crow, which, strange to say, is not a 
migratory visitor, but is found there the whole 
year round. 

Concerning Round Towers, mentioned at pages 
353. and 428., I beg to refer W. R. M. to the works 
of Wilkinson, Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, and Moore's 
History of Ireland, in addition to Petrie, Keating, 
&c. When in Gahvay, in January, 1850, I no- 
ticed some remarkable instances of resemblance to 
Spaniards amongst the peasant women and girls. 
It was, however, by no means general ; but only 
observable here and there, in a few particular in- 
stances. Between Galvvay and Oughterard I 
passed a girl walking barefooted along the dirty 
road, whose features were strikingly beautiful, set 
off with long raven tresses and large dark eyes, 
signs apparently of her Spanish origin. The town 
of Gal way is full of interesting memorials of its 
connexion with Spain, and well repays a visit, 
Its ancient prosperity will now be probably re- 



[No. 91. 

vived again, and, with its singularly advantageous 
position, and its future intercourse with America, 
it cannot fail to rise once more from its ruins and 
its dirt, unless prevented by the prevalence of po- 
litical agitation. WILLIAM E. C. NOURSE. 

Lines on the Temple (Vol. iii., p. 450.). J. S. 
will find these lines in print, in the " Poetry " of 
the Annual Register for 1764, vol. vii. p. 247. They 
are said to have been stuck on the Temple gate. 

J. K. 

KUligrew Arms (Vol. i., pp. 204. 231. 283.). 
A more correct description will be found in 
Lysons' Cornwall: see "Town Seal of Falniouth." 

S. H. (2) 

Meaning of Hernshaw (Vol. iii., p. 450.). In 
Poulson's Beverlac; or History of the Antiquities 
of Beverley in Yorkshire, pp. 263, 264. et seq., 
is an account of the expenses of the "Twelve 
Governors of Beverley on a visit to the Earl of 
Northumberland at Leconfield Castle." Among 
the presents made to the Earl (Henry Algernon 
Percy, fifth earl, born Jan. 1477-8, died 1527) 
for so distinguished an honour are four heron- 
sewes, heronseu, hornsue, or hernshaw, for it is 
written in all these ways. Was a young heron 
formerly esteemed a choice delicacy ? Chaucer, 
describing the feast of Cambisscan, says : 
" I wol not tellen of hir strange sewes, 
Ne hir swannes, ne hir heronsewes." 

But even the full-grown bird was not too power- 
ful for the digestive organs in those days : it was 
termed viand royal, and heronries were main- 
tained for the purpose of food, as well as diversion. 
In the Northumberland Household Book, these 
birds, with many others, are named as then served 
up at table, but which are now discarded as little 
better than carrion. 

From hernshaw, still further corrupted, arose 
the proverbial expression introduced by Shak- 
speare into Hamlet, 

" I am but mad north-north-west ; when the wind 
is southerly, I know a hawk from a hand-saw." 


Theory of the Earth's Form (Vol. iii., pp. 331. 
508.). Do the following passages from the "Ver- 
sion of the Psalms" in the Booh of Common Prayer 
throw any light upon the subject? 

" And the foundations of the round world were dis- 
covered." Ps. xviii. 15. 

" The compass of the world, and they that dwell 
therein." Ps. xxiv. 1. 

" Thou hast laid the foundation of the round world, 
and all that therein is." Ps. Ixxxix. 12. 

" He hath made the round world so sure." Ps. 
xciii. 2. 

" And that it is he who hath made the round world 
so fast that it cannot be moved." Ps. xcvi. 10. 

" The round world, and they that dwell therein." 
Ps. xcviii. 8. 


Coke and Cowper, how pronounced (Vol. iv., 
p. 24.). Coke is by lawyers generally pronounced 
like the article which feeds our steam-engines ; 
but the late Earl of Leicester was generally, in 
Norfolk and elsewhere, called Cook. The pre- 
sumption is, that Cook was the ancient sound 
given to the word Coke. Cowper is a similar 
instance : I believe it has always been called 
Cooper. In an old electioneering squib by the late 
Lord John Townshend, Cowper is made to rhyme 
to Trooper. The passage alludes to an old county 
scandal, and I do not therefore quote it. 

J. H. L. 

There can be no doubt (as it seems to me) that 
the poet's name ought to be pronounced according 
to the spelling. I am enabled to state decidedly 
that he himself pronounced his name Cowper, and 
not Cooper. I venture to think that the same 
might also be said with respect to Lord Coke's 
name ; t. e. that the pronunciation Cook is only a 
" modern affectation." R. VINCENT. 

Registry of British Subjects Abroad (Vol. iv., 
p. 7.). All English chaplains on the Continent 
are licensed to their respective chaplaincies by the 
Bishop of London, and are within his ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction. This may have given rise to the 
notion of which your correspondent speaks. 


Hanging out the Broom at the Mast-heads, of 
Ships to be sold (Vol. ii., p. 226.). In reply to 
the question of your correspondent W. P., I beg 
to inform him that the custom originated from 
that period of our history when the Dutch admiral, 
Van Tromp, with his fleet appeared on our coasts 
in hostility against England. The broom was 
hoisted as indicative of his intention to sweep the 
ships of England from the sea. To repel this 
insolence the English admiral hoisted a horse- 
whip, equally indicative of his intention to chastise 
the Dutchman. The pennant which the horse- 
whip symbolised has ever since been the dis- 
tinguishing mark of English ships of war. 


William Godwin (Vol. i., pp. 415. 478.). Your 
correspondents N. and C. H. may find some inte- 
resting passages of Godwin's life in his Memoirs of 
Mary Wollstonecroft Godwin : Johnson, St. Paul's 
Church Yard, 1798. JAMES CORNISH. 

Family of Kyme (Vol. iv., p. 23.). BOLD may 
find some information which will assist him in a 
pedigree and account of this family, showing the 
descent of the manor of South and North Kyme 
in Lincolnshire, in Creasy 's History of Sleaford 
and the surrounding Neighbourhood, p. 274. The 
barony of Kyme appears to have passed into the 

JULY 26. 1851.] 


female line by the death of William de Kyme 
without issue in 12 Edward III. J. P. JUN. 

Plaids and Tartans (Vol. iv., p. 7.). 

" The belted plaid was the original dress. It is pre- 
cisely that of a savage, who, finding a web of cloth he 
had not skill to frame into a garment, wrapt one end 
round his middle, and threw the rest about his 
shoulders . . . And it is little to the honour of High- 
land ingenuity, that although the chiefs wore long pan- 
taloons called trews, the common gael never fell upon 
any substitute for the belted plaid, till an English 
officer, for the benefit of the labourers who worked 
under his direction on the military roads, invented the 
fileah leg, philabeg, or little petticoat, detached from 
the plaid, and fastened by a buckle round the waist." 

Although the above extract from the Quarterly 
Review, vol. i. p. 186., is not exactly a reply to 
the Query of A JUROR (Vol. iv., p. 7.), still it may 
be of some use to him. 

I would like also to learn how much of the re- 
viewer's story is founded upon fact, as I confess I 
am very much inclined to doubt the truth of it in 


Peace Illumination, 1802 (Vol. iv., p. 23.). The 
story referred to by MR. CAMPKIN does not ap- 
pear to be so apocryphal as he supposes. Southey, 
who was an eye-witness of the illuminations, gives 
it as an indisputed fact. His words are : 

" We entered the avenue immediately opposite to 
M. Otto's, and raising ourselves by the help of a gar- 
den wall, overlooked the crowd, and thus obtained a 
full and uninterrupted sight of what thousands and 
tens of thousands were vainly struggling to see. To 
describe it, splendid as it was, is impossible ; the 
whole building presented a front of light. The in- 
scription was ' Peace and Amity : ' it had been ' Peace 
and Concord,' but a party of soldiers in the morning, 
whose honest patriotism did not regard trifling differ- 
ences of orthography, insisted upon it that they were 
not conquered, and that no Frenchman should say so ; 
and so the word Amity, which can hardly be regarded 
as English, was substituted in its stead." * 


Basnet Family (Vol. iii., p. 495.). I can per- 
haps give D. X. some information respecting the 
ancient family of Basnet, being related to them 
through my mother. 

From papers in our possession, we have always 
considered ourselves descended from Edward 
Basnet, the first married Dean of St. Patrick's ; 
and I drew up a pedigree of the family, which is 
in Berry's Berkshire. But the proofs only go as 
far as Thomas Basnet, of Coventry, born in 1590. 
Lawrance Basset, otherwise Bassnet, of Bainton, 
in the fee of the hundred of Hatton, in the parish 
}f Budworth, in the palatine of Chester, living in 

* Letters from England, by Don Manuel Alvarez 
Espriella, translated from the Spanish (3 vols. 12 mo. 
London, 1 807), vol. i. lett. 8. p. 93. 

the 27th of Henry VIII., anno 1536, was descended 
of a younger house of Sir Philip Basset, knight, &c. 
of St. Hillane, in the county of Glamorgan. He 
had Piers Basnet, of Bainton aforesaid, lived in 
the time of Henry VIII., anno 1547, purchased 
land in Bainton of Edward Starkie, of Simonds- 
ton in Lancashire, married Ann, dau. of Robert 
Eaton, of Over Whitley, first wife, by whom he 
had two sons, Thomas and Henry. The second 

wife was dau. of Stretch, of Leigh, had one 

son Robert, of the city of Chester. 

The second son of Lawrance Basset, or Bassnet, 
was Hugh, of Leigh, living temp. Henry VIII., 
anno 1543. 

The third son was Thomas, temp. Henry VIII., 
1539, whose son (we suppose) was Edward Basnet, 
Dean of St. Patrick's ; whose grandson was an 
ensign in General Monk's own regiment, the Cold- 
stream Guards, 1660. He left the regiment in 

In the Egerton Papers, Camden Soc., vol. xii., 
is this account : 

" Amongst those appointed for the Privy Council 
for the better government of Ireland, in the year July 
1550, was Edward Basnet, clerk, late Dean of St. 
Patrick's, Dublin." 

The arms of the present family are Argent, a 
cheveron gules, between three helmets, close ppr. 
Crest : an arm, embowed, in armour, holding a 
cutlas, all proper. 

By applying to Charles Basnett, Esq., No. 3. 
Brock Street, Bath, D. X. may have a full account 
of this family. JULIA R. BOCKETT. 

Southcote Lodge, July 17. 1851. 


As we last week called attention to the Three Treatises 
by John Wickliffe just published by Dr. Todd of Dublin, 
we may very properly record the sale by Messrs. 
Puttick and Simpson on Tuesday the 8th of this month 
of a MS. volume containing twelve treatises (which are 
all said to be unpublished) written by John Wickliffe 
and Richard Hampole. The volume, a small 8vo., was 
of the fourteenth century, with a few leaves supplied 
by a hand of the sixteenth, and contained " A Tretis 
on the Ten Heeslis (i.e. Commandments), A Prologue 
of the Paternoster, Here suen dy verse chapitris ex- 
citynge men to hevenli desijr,' the Councell of Christ, 
Off vertuous pacience, Wickliffe's Chartre of Hevene, 
The Hors or Armour off Hevene, the Name off Jhesu, 
The Love of Jhesu, Off verri Mekenes, Off the Effect 
off Mannes Will, Of Actif Liif and Contemplatif Lyf, 
The Mirrour of Chastitee. " It was purchased by Bum- 
stead of Holborn for HZ. The next lot in the same 
sale was the original manuscript Diary, extending from 
October, 1675, to September, 1684, of Annesley Earl of 
Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal in the reign of Charles II., 
which was purchased by Boone, it is believed on 



[No. 91. 

commission for the British Museum, for the sum of 
121. 10s. 

The Athenaeum of Saturday last publishes some in- 
quiries from Mr. Payne Collier connected with the 
manuscript play by Anthony Muncly, which forms the 
subject of SIR F. MADDEN'S interesting communication 
in our present number. Mr. Collier is about to edit 
the drama in question for the Shakspeare Society ; and 
the object of his paper, which well deserves the at- 
tention of our readers, is to obtain information respect- 
ing two wizards or magicians who figure in it, the one 
named John a Kent, and the other John a Cumber, who 
must formerly have been popular heroes, and been re- 
corded in ballads and chapbooks which have now en- 
tirely disappeared. We call attention to these inquiries 
with the view of giving additional publicity to them, 
and in the hope of procuring from Mr. Collier some 
Notes respecting these old world heroes, of one of whom, 
John a Kent, some particulars are to be found, we be- 
lieve, in Coxe's Monmouthshire. 

The obituary of the past week contains the name of 
one of the most distinguished historical writers of the 
present day, the Rev. Dr. Lingard. An able and 
aealous champion of the Church of which he was so 
eminent a member, his tolerant spirit and independent 
principles show that of Dr. Lingard may be said, what 
was applied with admirable propriety to his co-reli- 
gionist, the late learned librarian at Stowe, by Sir 
James Macintosh, that he was 

" True to his faith, but not the slave of Rome." 

The sale of M. Donnadieu's valuable collection of 
Autographs will commence on Tuesday next, and 
occupy five days. The Catalogue, which has been pre- 
pared by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson with their 
usual care, is itself a very interesting document. Our 
limits will not of course admit of our specifying a tithe 
of the curious and valuable articles which are now to 
be brought to the hammer : but as specimens of the 
richness of the collection, we will point out a few 
which are of importance, as illustrative of English 
history. Lot 165, for instance, is Charles I.'s Mar- 
riage Contract with the Infanta of Spain, a document 
of the highest value, but which has not, we 
believe, as yet been printed either accurately or en- 
tirely. Lot 184 is a most interesting letter from 
Charles IL to his Sister the Duchess of Orleans, written 
from Canterbury the day after he landed at Dover; 
while Lot 661 is a most pathetic Letter from the Duke 
of Monmouth to the Earl of Rochester, entreating his 
intercession with James, and written five days before 
his execution. Lot 254 is The Original Warrant to 
the Lord Mayor of London, directing him to proclaim 
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Dominions thereto 
belonging ; and Lot 500, a Warrant of the Privy Council 
of Lady Jane Gray, is a document of the highest im- 
portance, as proving (what has been doubted) that the 
Council of Lady Jane Grey did actually perform 
official acts as a Council. These of course are among 
the gems of the collection ; but in the whole thousand 
lots there is not one but is of interest. 

CATALOGUES RECEIVED. J. Sage's (4. Newman's 
Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields) Miscellaneous List for 

July, 1851, of Valuable and Interesting Books; T. 
Kerslake's (3. Park Street, Bristol) Catalogue of 
Books lately bought. 



LIFE OP DR. AUNOLD. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

RAILWAY MAGAZINE or JOURNAL, 1844 and 1845. 




BRITISH POETS. Whittingha-n's Edition, boards or quires, with- 
out the Plates. 


prior to 1550. 










DOMESDAY BOOK. 4 Vols. Folio. 


Antewerpie per G. Leeu, 1492. 


8vo. 1705. 

2 Vols. 12mo. Two copies wanted. 



THE DEMON, &c., by James Hinton. London : J. Mason. 

HISTORIC SACR^E VET. TEST. Hafniae. 4to. 1652. 



Published by Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. 


MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition. 

JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI. 

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV. 

Vol. II. 



OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 to 1774, or any portion 
thereof. 4to. 

Vol. I. 12mo. Lond. 1755. 



Necessite, de 1'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des diflerentes 
Formes de la Souverainete, selon les Principes de PAuteur de 
Telemaque. 2 Vols. 12mo. La Have, without date, but 
printed in 1719. 

The same. Second Edition, under the title " Essai Philosophique 
sur le Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fenelon," 
12mo. Londres, 1721. 





ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849. 

BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6s. per Vol. Pilgrims 
of the Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni. 


** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

JULY 26. 1851.] 




LADY FLORA HASTINGS' BEQUEST. The communications we 
have received reiterating Miss Barber's claim to the authorship of 
this Poem shall appear in our next number. 

JARLTZBERG. Will this correspondent say how we may address 
a communication to him f 

The necessity of making up our Paper earlier than usual in 
consequence of issuing a DOUBLE NUMBER has compelled us to 
omit two or three Queries, to which, at the special request of the 
writers, we should otherwise have given immediate insertion. 
They shall appear next week. 

A. G. W. will find the proverbial saying : 

" Quern Deus vult perdere prius dementat," 
vei-y fully illustrated in "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. i., pp. 347. 

2EGROTUS is thanked. His communication has only been laid 
aside until we have time to separate the different articles. Our 
correspondents wou'd greatly oblige us if they would, when writing 
on several subjects, keep them separate and distinct. Are we at 
liberty to publish any of the anecdotes contained in lEgrotus 1 last 
letter ? 

REPLIES RECEIVED. .Km the Hare's Pool Family of Kyme 
Registry of British Subjects Abroad Coke and Cowper 
Dr. Elrington's Edition of Ussher Dunmore Castle Bum- 
war ee Notation by Coal-whippers William Hone Baronets 
of Ireland Dryden and Oldham Bellarmiit's Monstrous 
Paradox Book Plates Thread the Needl* Miss or Mistress 
Planets of the Month Theobald Anguilbert Hcu quanta minus 
Peace Illumination Salting the Dead Lady Flora Has- 
tings' Bequest P's and Q's Nervous Scandal against 

Elizabeth Mosaic "Rack" in the Tempest Jonah and the 

Whale Gooseberry Fool Spencer Perceval Sardonic Smiles. 

tuggestion of T. E. H., that by way of hastening the period when 
we shall be just/fled in permanently enlarging our Paper to 
24 pages, we should forward copies of our Prospectus to corre- 
spondents who would kindly enclose them to such friends as they 
think likely, from their love of literature, to become subscribers to 
" NOTES AND QUERIES," has already been acted upon by several 
friendly correspondents, to whom we are greatly indebted. We 
shall be most happy to forward Prospectuses for this purpose to 
any other of our friends able and willing thus to assist towards 
increasing our circulation. 

The commencement of a New Volume with our 88tfc Number 
affords a favourable opportunity to gentlemen resident in the country 
to commence the work. The Subscription for the Stamped Edition 
of " NOTES AND QUERIES" is ten shillings and twopence for six 
months, which may be paid by Post- Office Order, drawn in favour 
ofuur Publisher, MR. GEORGE BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 

VOL. III., neatly bound in cloth, and with very copious Index, 
is now ready, price 9s. Gd. VOLS. I. and II. may still be had, 
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NOTES AND QUERIES may be procured, by order, of all Book- 
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All communications for the Editor of NOTES AND QUERIES should 
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I New Dictionary, 2 vols. 4to., 1836, cloth, 2Z. 12s. Johnson's Dic- 
tionary, with Additions by Todd, 4 vols. 4to., 1818, calf, gilt, 47. Junu 
Etymologicum Anglicanum, Oxon., 1743, folio, calf, 17s. Crabb's 
English Synonyms, 8vo., 1818, bds., 9s. 6(7. _ Forby's Vocabulary of East 
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AWFUL DISCLOSURES ; preceded by a Reply to the Priests' Book. 
Second Edition. With Portrait of Herself and Child. By the Kev. 

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THE GEMS OF RAPHAEL, a Series of the 
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Pictures. Size, about 12 inches by 8, printed on Columbia paper. 

1. LE MARIAGE DE LA VIERGE . . (Milan). 
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6. LA VIERGE D'ALBE .... (St.Petersburg). 
7. LA VIERGE AU POISSON . . . (Madrid). 
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Now first printed from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, with. Notes and a Glossary. By JAMES HENTHORN TODD, 
D.D., Senior Fellow of Trinity Colleare, Professor of Hebrew in the 
University, and Treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. 


" The Tracts here collected are now, for the first time, printed. They 
are mterestmsr as beinz, perhaps, the latest of Wycklyffe's writings, and 
as expressing, it may be presumed, his matured opinions and judgment, 
on the important subjects of which they treat. One of them, the Trea- 
tise On the Church and its Members, contains internal evidence of having 
been composed within the last year of the Reformer's life : the others, 
from their close connexion with this, in style and subject-matter, were 
probably written at the same time." 
" It is scarcely necessary to say that the Editor, in printing these curious 
tracts, has no wish to recommend all the doctrines they advocate. Hia 
object is to make them known as documents essential to the right un- 
derstanding of the attempt made by Wycklyffe and his followers for 
the reformation of the Church. They are interesting also as monuments 
of the state of the English language in the fourteenth century, and they 
throw great light on the manners, customs, and religion of our ancestors 
at that period. 
" Some Fotes have been added explanatory of obscure allusions, and 
with verifications of the quotations from ancient writers, occurring in 
the Text. A copious Glossary has also been compiled, to assist the 
reader in understanding the obsolete words and spellings of the original. 
" The Editor is not without a hope that the publication of these Trea- 
tises may direct the attention of influential scholars to the importance 
of collecting and printing, under the care of competent Editors, all the 
existing writings which remain in our libraries, under the name of 
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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 92.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 2. 1851. 

Price Threepence. 
Stamped Edition, 4-d. 



Proverbial Philosophy - 

Paraphrase on the 137th Psalm by Churchill 

On the Description of the Medicean Venus in Childe 

Minor Notes : On the Word " raised" as used by the 
Americans Contradiction; D'Israeli and Hume 

A Ship's Berth 


John a Kent and John a Cumber, by J. Payne Collier - 

Swearing on the Horns at H'ghgate ... 

Minor Queries : Proverb of James I Mrs. Hutchinson 
Early Translation of Amadis de Gaule Hogarth 
and Cowper Latin Translation of Butler's Analogy 
" Non quid responderent," &c. " The Worm in the 
Bud of Youth," &.c. Queen Brunehaut Sculptured 
Stones in the North of Scotland Prophecies of 
Nostradamus Quaker Expurgated Bible Salmon 
Fishery in the Thames Cromwell Grants of Land in 
Monaghan Siege of Londonderry 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: The Twentieth of the 
Thirty-nine Articles J-Exons of the Guard Curious 
Monumental Inscription Meaning of Deal La Mer 
des Histoires " The noiseless Foot of Time " 

- 81 

- 85 

- 87 


Passage in Virgil, by T. Henry, &c. 

The Vine ofSt. Francis 

" Jusjurandum per Canem;" " Sedeni Animae in Digitis 
ponunt ; " " Fiat Justitia, ruat Ccelum" - 

Hugh Holland and his Works, by Bolton Corney 

Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest - 

Replies to Minor Queries : Coke and Cowper Dun- 
more Castle Gooseberry Fool Dryden and Oldham 
Theobald Anguilbert and Michael Scott Penn Fa- 
mily Bummaree Miss or Mistress Book Plates - 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &-c. - 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements - 

- 94 


The following "sententious truths'* are ex- 
tracted from Bishop Jewel's grand performance, 
A Defense of the Apologia of the Churche of 
Englcmde, fol. 1571, a work as remarkable for 
" the pomp and charms " of its eloquence, as for 
the profound erudition, and the consummate 
ability, with which its " good doctrine " is exhi- 
bited and enforced. In common, however, with 
the other productions of this illustrious champion 
of the Reformation, it has an additional and most 
attractive feature; one, indeed, which, less or 
more, characterises all the literary achievements 

of the gigantic geniuses of the Elizabethan period, 
the " very dust of whose writings is gold." * The 
" Defense " abounds with proverbial folk-lore of 
the rarest sort ; and this is so skilfully and appo- 
sitely introduced, that the subject-matter presents 
itself to the reader's mind rather as a corollary, 
naturally deduced from a self-evident proposition 
for who would think for a moment of question- 
ing the truth of what has the semblance of a po- 
pular adage ? f than as a nicely managed ar- 
gument, which receives no other help from the 
latter than that of illustration, employed for the 
simple and single purpose, not of strengthening 
such argument, but of rendering it comprehensible 
by the " meanest capacities." 

With this little bit of criticism, let me take the 
liberty of recommending to, such of your readers, 
and I trust they are manv, who seek for know- 
ledge and wisdom in the richly-stored tomes, es- 
pecially of the divines, whose appearance imparted 
a further glory to the days of our " good queen 
Bess," to note down the " wise saws and modern 
instances " which lie scattered along their glowing 
periods, like " dew-drops on the flow'ry lawn," 
for the purpose of transferring them to your very 
appropriate pages. 

* Bentley, of Bp. Pearson, in Dissert, on Phalaris. 

f I have somewhere met with an amusing instance 
of this. Itiseems that Dean Swift, with a party of 
friends, were invited to view the garden of a gentleman, 
the walls of which were laden with peaches of a most 
tempting ripeness, but which they were strictly for- 
bidden to touch. This injunction was followed, until 
Swift ('twas like him) at length put forth his hand 
and plucked, at the same time observing, with all be- 
coming gravity, As my deeply venerated grandmother 
used to say, 

' Never fail to pluck a peach, 
Whene'er you find one in your reach.' " 

'Twas enough. The authority of the adage was suffi- 
cient to overrule every other obligation ; and the rest 
of the company, much to the disgust of the master of 
the garden, immediately proceeded, with infinite gusto, 
to follow the Dean's example, not for a moment doubt- 
ing the propriety of the act. " The court awards it, 
and the law doth give it." 

VOL. IV. No. 92. 



[No. 92. 

The remark of our old lexicographer, Florio *, 
that " daily both new words are invented, and 
books still found that make a new supply of old," 
may, in its latter part, very fitly be applied to our 
proverbial philosophy ; for, great as is the light 
which has already been thrown upon the subject, 
it must be admitted that a more systematic ex- 
amination than they have yet received, of the 
works of the Elizabethan writers, would elucidate 
it to an extent that can scarcely be appreciated. 

With these observations I offer you my little 
string of pearls, under the hope that row after 
row may be added to it. 
"1. A contentious man wil never lacke wordes. 

2. A Judge must walke with feete of lead. 

3. An ignorante Judge was never indifferente. 

4. A simple eie is soone beguiled. 

5. By a smal draughte of sea-water, thou maiste ! 
judge the verdure of the whole. 

6. Error can not be defended, but by error. 

7. Evils must be cured by theire contraries. 

8. He is very doumbe, and. can speak but little, 
that cannot speake ill. 

9. He that cannot judge Golde by sounde, or in 
sight, yet may trie it by the poise. 

10. II wil is ever plentiful of il woordes. 

11. In the fairest rose thou maiste sopnest finde a 

12. It is a desperate cause, that with woordes and 
eloquence maie not be smoothed. 

13. It is very course woulle that will take no 

14. Let Reason leade thee ; let Authoritie move 
thee ; let Truthe enforce thee. 

15. Of an Impossibilitie yee maie conclude what yee 

16. Oftentimes he is hardiest man to speake, that 
hathe leaste to saie. 

17. One demanded this question of Zoilus the 
Railer : Why takest thou sutche pleasure in speaking 
il ? Zoilus made answere, Bicause, whereas I woulde 
doo it, I am not hable. 

18. Kashe judgemente argueth somme folie. 

19. The Heares of a mannes Bearde, or Heade, 
never ware white al togeather. 

20. The mouthe which speaketh untruth killeth the 

21. The report of an enimie maketh no proufe. 

22. The slowe paced horses kepe backe the chariot. 

23. The Truthe wilbe hable evermore to beare it 

24. To mainteine a fault knowne, is a double faulte. 

25. To spende woordes without cause, is affliction of 
the sprite, and losse of time. 

26. Vesselles never geve so great a sounde, as when 
they be emptie. 

27. Untruthe cannot be shielded, but by untruthe. 

28. Where the woulfe is broken in, it is beste for 
the poore sheepe to breake out." 

It is as well to remark that the above aphorisms 

* Worlde of Wordes, Ital. and Eng. Pr. 1598. 

are contained within the first 365 pages of the 
" Defense." Their orthography and punctuation 
have been carefully preserved, as they ought 
always to be in such like cases. Some of them I 
have not elsewhere met with, and others present 
vwice lectiones of an interesting character. They 
are all delivered in a quaint simplicity of style, 
which admirably illustrates the general tone of 
thought and language of the period. COWGILL. 


A paraphrase of the 137th psalm by Charles 
Churchill may, perhaps, be deemed not unworthy 
of a place amongst your Notes. It was originally 
sent to Mrs. Baily of Cadbury, who had remon- 
strated with him on his devoting his pen exclu- 
sively to satire. That lady gave them to my ma- 
ternal grandfather. Three lines of the last verse 
are lost. 11. C. H. H. 


" Our instruments untun'd, unsung, 

(Grief doth from musick fly) 

.Upon the willow trees were hung, 

The trees that grew thereby. 

" ' Raise, raise your voice,' the victors say, 

* Touch, touch the trembling string, 
In Sion's manner briskly play, 
In Sion's manner sing.' 

" Our voice, alas ! how should we raise 

lu Babylonish ground ? 
How should we sing Jehovah's praise 
In Pagan fetters bound ? 

" If ever, much lov'd Sion, thou 
Dost from my mind depart, 
May my right hand no longer know 
Soft musick's soothing art. 

" If when in jocund songs I smile, 

Thou'rt not my choicest theme, 
May my tongue lose her wonted skill, 
Nor drink at Siloa's stream. 

" When Babylon's unhallowed host, 

Flow'd in with hostile tide, 
* Down, down with Sion to the dust,' 
The sons of Edom cried. 

" Hear, hear O Lord these sons of spight, 

Nor let thy anger sleep, 
Let their own wishes on them light, 
In turn let Edom weep. 

" Blest is the man whose fated host 

Shall Babylon surround, 
Who shall destroy her impious boast, 
And raze her to the ground. 

" Blest is he, whose devouring hand," 

AUG. 2. 1851.] 





" Appear'dst tliou not to Paris in this guise ? 
Or to more deeply blest Anchises? or, 
In all thy perfect goddess-ship, when lies 
Before thee thy own vanquished Lord of War? 
And gazing in thy fece as toward a star 
Laid on thy lap, his eyes to thee upturn, 
Feeding on thy sweet cheek !* while thy lips are 
With lava kisses melting while they burn, 

Showered on his eyelids, brow, and mouth, as from 
an urn ! 


Glowing, and circumfused in speechless love, 
Their full divinity inadequate 
That feeling to express, or to improve, 
The gods become as mortals, and man's fate 

Has moments like their brightest " 

&c. &c. 

It seems to me that the noble poet has conde- 
scended to avail himself of a little ruse in refer- 
ring to this passage of Ovid. It would have been 
perhaps more honest to have referred his readers 
to those magnificent lines in the opening address 
to Venus, by Lucretius, "De Rerum Natura," 

" JEneadum genitrix, hominum divomque voluptas, 
Alma Venus !" &c. 

I subjoin the verses which Lord Byron really 
had in mind when he wrote the foregoing stanzas : 
" Nam tu sola potes tranquilla pace juvare 
Mortaleis : quoniain belli fera mcenera Mavors 
Armipotens regit, in gremium qui saepe tuum se 
Rejicit, zeterna devictus volnere Amoris : 
Atque ita, suspiciens tereti cervice reposta 
Pascit amore avidos, inliians in te, Dea, visus ; 
Eque tuo pendet resupini spiritus ore. 
Hunc tu, Diva, tuo recubantem corpore sancto 
Circumfusa super, suaveis ex ore loquelas 
Funde, petens placidam Romanis, incluta, pacem." 

Surely if the author of Childe Harold were in- 
debted to any ancient poet for some ideas em- 
bodied in the lines cited, it was to Lucretius and 
not to Ovid that he should have owned the obli- 
gation. A BORDERER. 

On the Word " raised" as used by the Americans. 

- An American, in answer to an inquiry as to 

the place of his birth, says, " I was raised in New 

* To these beautiful and glowing lines the author 
has appended the following : 

Atque oculos pascat uterque suos." 

OVID. Amor. lib. iii. 

York," &c. Was it ever an English phrase ? 
And if so, by what English writer of celebrity was 
it ever used ? Dr. Franklin, in a letter to John 
Alleyne, Esq., Aug. 9, 1768, says : 

" By these early marriages we are blest with more 
children ; and from the mode among us, founded in 
nature, of every mother suckling and nursing her own 
child, more of them are raised." 


Contradiction : D^Israeli and Hume. 

" Rousseau was remarkably trite in conversation." 
Essay on Literary Character, vol. i. p. 213. 

" Rousseau, in conversation, kindles often to a de- 
gree of heat which looks like inspiration." 

Quoted by D'Israeli in the same vol., p. 230. 


A Ship's Berth. Compilers of Dictionaries 
have attempted to show, but I think without suc- 
cess, that this word has been derived from one of 
the meanings of the verb to bear. I conjecture 
that it has been derived from the Welsh word 
porth, a port or harbour. This word is under 
certain, circumstances written borth, according to 
the rules of Welsh grammar. A ship's place in 
harbour (borth) is her berth. A sailor's place in 
his ship is his berth. S. S. S. (2) 



I am much obliged to v you, Mr. Editor, for giving 
additional circulation to my inquiry (through the 
medium of the Athenceum of the 19th ult.) re- 
garding the two ancient popular wizards, John a 
Kent and John a Cumber. I was aware, from a 
note received some time ago from my friend the 
Rev. John Webb of Tretire, that there are various 
current traditions in Monmouthshire, and that 
Coxe's history of that county contains some infor- 
mation regarding one of these worthies. That 
fact has since been repeated to me by a gentle- 
man of Newport, who wrote in consequence of 
what appeared in the Athenceum, and whose name 
I do not know that I am at liberty to mention. 
I may, however, take this opportunity of thanking 
him, as well as the transmitter of the curious par- 
ticulars printed in the Athenceum. of Saturday last. 

One point I wish to ascertain is, whence John a 
Kent derived his appellation ? This question has 
not been at all answered. Has his name any 
connexion, and what, with the village of Kent- 
church, in Monmouthshire ; and why was the place 
called Kentchurch ? To what saint is the church 
dedicated ? and has the name of that church any- 
thing to do with the name of the saint? Anthony 
Munday (or Mundy), in his MS. play (now in my 
hands by the favour of the Hon. Mr. Mostyn, and 
by the kind interposition of Sir F. Madden), does 



[No. 92. 

not give the slightest clue to the "birth, parentage, 
and education" of John a Kent. As to John a 
Cumber, all we learn is, that he was a Scottish 
conjuror, employed by a nobleman of the same 
country to counteract the proceedings of John a 
Kent, who is represented as in the service of Sir 
Gosselin Denville, a person who appears, from 
what Munday says, to have had power and influ- 
ence in South Wales. 

Now, the name of Sir Gosselin Denville itself 
suggests a Query; because I find in Johnson's 
Lives of Highwayman, Sfc., fol. 1734, p. 15. (I do 
not of course refer to it as a book of any autho- 
rity), that there was a celebrated collector of 
tribute from travellers who bore that name and 
rank. He, however, came from Yorkshire, and 
lived (according to the narrative of Johnson, who 
had it most likely from Capt. A. Smith, whose work 
I have not at hand) as long ago as the reign of 
Edward II. Let me ask, therefore, whether there 
exist any tidings respecting such a person as a 
native of Wales, and as the " master " (I use 
Munday's word) of John a Kent ? 

But this is not the principal object of my pre- 
sent communication, which relates to one of the 
heroines of Munday's drama a daughter of 
Llewellin, Prince of North Wales. To her the 
name of Sidanen is given, and she is constantly 
spoken of as "the fair Sidanen," with the additional 
information, in one place, that "sonnets" had been 
written in her praise. Every person who sends a 
Query must plead ignorance, and mine may be 
great as regards Welsh poetry, when I inquire, 
who was Sidanen, and where has she been cele- 
brated ? By the second volume of Extracts from 
the Registers of the Stationers' Company (printed 
for the Shakspeare Society), it is evident that 
she was well known about the middle of the reign 
of Elizabeth, for on p. 94. I read the following 
entry : 

"xiii Augusti [1580] 

" Rich. Jones. Rd. of him for printinge a ballat of 
brittishe Sidanen, applied by a courtier to the praise 
of the Queen." 

British Sidanen probably meant Sidanen of 
Ancient Britain, or Wales, to whom some un- 
named and adulatory courtier had compared 
Queen Elizabeth. I fancied also that I recol- 
lected, in Warners Albion's England, some allusion 
to Elizabeth under the name of Sidanen, but I 
cannot at present find it. 

As I have my pen in hand, may I add another 
word, quite upon a different subject : it is upon 
the nimium (pardon the word) vexata questio about 
esile, as it is spelt in the first and second folios of 
Hamlet. Have any of your correspondents, from 
MR. SINGER to MR. CAMPKIN, with all their 
learning and ingenuity, been able at all to settle 
the point? Surely, then, I cannot be blamed for 
not taking upon me dogmatically to decide it eight 

years ago. I stated the two positions assumed by 
adverse commentators, and what more could I do? 
What more have your friends done? The prin- 
ciple I went upon was to make my notes as short 
as possible; and after pages on pages have been 
employed in your miscellany, it seems, in my 
humble judgment, that the case is not one jot 
altered. Esile may still either mean vinegar 
(eyesel) or the river Eisell. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 


Can any of your readers give a satisfactory 
explanation of what Lord Byron, in the Lxxth 
stanza of the first canto of Childe Harold's Pil- 
grimage, calls the worship of the solemn horn ? The 
whole stanza is as follows : 

" Some o'er thy Thamis row the ribbon'd fair, 

Others along the safer turnpike fly ; 

Some Richmond Hill ascend, some scud to Ware, 

And many to the steep of High gate hie. 

Ask ye, Boeotian shades! the reason why? ( 15 ) 

'Tis to the worship of the solemn Horn, 

Grasp'd in the holy hand of mystery, 

In whose dread name both men and maids are sworn, 
And consecrate the oath with draught and dance till 
morn ! " 

And the note ( 15 ) merely refers to the poet's 
writing from Thebes, the capital of Bosotia. 

I have a faint recollection of a circumstance 
which occurred on a journey from York to town 
some forty years ago, and which I almost fancy 
may throw some distant light on Lord B.'s horn. 
Among the inside passengers by the stage was a 
middle-aged Yorkshireman, apparently a small 
farmer, who kept the rest in a continual titter 
with his account of various personal adventures, 
which he related in a style of quaint and ludicrous 
simplicity ; and as, in the course of conversation, 
it appeared that he had never visited the metro- 
polis before, it was suggested by a couple of wags, 
that on the arrival of the coach at Highgate he 
should be invited " to make himself free of the 
Horns." Accordingly, when in due time the 
vehicle halted at the above-mentioned place, and 
the inside passengers, with the exception of York, 
had quitted it, an ostler, having received his cue, 
appeared at the door with a pole, to which was 
attached a pair of gilded ram's horns ; and in- 
quired if the "genelman" from Yorkshire, who 
was on his first visit to London, wished to obtain 
his freedom by swearing on the horns, or would 
rather forego the ceremony by a payment of the 
customary fee. The Yorkshireman was evidently 
taken aback by the unexpected question ; but, 
after a moment's hesitation, intimated that he pre- 
ferred the horns to forking out the cash. He was 
thereupon directed with mock solemnity to place 
his right hand upon the horns, and to follow the 

AuOk & 1851.] 



ostler in reciting a ridiculous formula; which, if 
I remember right, consisted in his vowing, under 
certain penalties, to prefer wine to water, roast 
beef and ale to a dry crust and water gruel, the 
daughter to the mother, the sister to the brother, 
laughing to crying, and songs and glees to re- 
quiems and psalms, &c. 

Can you then oblige me with any information 
respecting the worship of the solemn horn alluded 
to by Lord Byron ; and, secondly, with any ac- 
count respecting the solemn farce of swearing in 
strangers on the horns when reaching Highgate 
on their first visit to the metropolis, which farce I 
presume has long since been exploded by the in- 
troduction of the railway. KE WEN sis. 

[Moore, in his edition of Byron's Works, has the 
following note on this passage : " Lord Byron alludes 
to a ridiculous custom which formerly prevailed at the 
public-houses inlHigbgate, of administering a burlesque 
oath to all travellers of the middling rank who stopped 
there. The party was sworn on a pair of horns, fas- 
tened, ' never to kiss the maid when he could kiss the 
mistress ; never to eat brown bread when he could get 
white ; never to drink small beer when he could get 
strong ;' with many other injunctions of the like kind, 
to all which was added the saving clause, ' unless you 
like it best.' " Our correspondent, W. S. GIBSON, Esq., 
in his Prize Essay on the History and Antiquities of 
Highgate, has preserved some curious notices of this 
burlesque oath. He says, '* All attempts to trace the 
once prevalent, but now obsolete, custom of ' swearing 
at Highgate' to any really probable source have proved 
unavailing, and the custom has fallen into disuse. The 
early identity of the site of the present hamlet with, the 
ancient forest, and the vicinity of Highgate to a park 
or chase, naturally suggests the possible connexion of 
these trophies with huntsmen and their h.orns : and it 
is not difficult to perceive that the spoils and emblems 
of the chase, and the hunter's joyous horn, may in time 
have acquired the character of household gods, and at 
length, become like the sword of the warrior, a sacred 
emblem upon which vows were taken, and the most 
binding engagements made. It is, however, less diffi- 
cult to imagine the reality of such an origin, than to 
account for the strange degeneracy exhibited in the 
modern aspect of the qustom. ' Swearing on the 
horns ' was an observance at all events more than a 
century old ; fpr a song which embodied a close para- 
phrase of the oath, according^ to the best authorised 
version yet extant, was introduced in a London, panto- 
mime at the Haymarket Theatre in the year 1742."] 

42. Proverl) of James /. In t.^ e miscellaneous 
State Papers (published 1.778), Tol< j t '4^ we 
Steen.e (theDr&e of Buckingham) wrltin" to 
his royal master as follows : 

Give my leave here to use your own proverb, For 
fie devil cone me rio thanks." 

At the risk of being thought very dull, I ask, 

what is cone, and what is the meaning of the 
proverb ? James was no ignoramus, after all. 


43. Mrs. Hutchinson. What became of the 
celebrated Lucy Hutchinson, who wrote the 
memoirs of her husband where did she die ? 
and from whence is all the information that can 
be got about her, subsequently to her autobio- 
graphy > to be obtained ? M. 

44. Amadis de Gaule, Early Translation of. I 
have lately purchased a black-letter volume, dated 
1595. The first part has no title, but the second 
is called, 

" The Second Booke of Amadis de Gaule, contain, 
ing the description, wonders, and conquest of the 
Firme-Island. The triumphes and troubles of Amadis. 
His manifold victories obtained, and sundry services 
done for King Lisuart. The kinges ingratitude, and 
first occasion of those broils and mortal wars, that no 
small time continued between him and Amadis. 
Englished by L. P. London : Printed for (X Burbie, 
and are to be sold at his shop at the Royal Exchange, 

The Epistle Dedicatory to " Master Walter 
Borough " is signed " Lazarus Pyott," which is 
perhaps an assumed name ; and, if I mistake 
not, I have seen it assigned to some known writer 
of the time. As I do not find this work noticed 
by Lowndes, perhaps MR. COURIER or some of 
your readers would kindly give me some informa- 
tion respecting its rarity, &c. J. M. S. 

45. Hogarth and Cowper. Which preceded the 
other, and who was the greater artist, Hogarth or 
Cowper, in the portrait and description of the 
stately and antiquated lady going to church on 
the winter's morning with her boy, who 

" Carries her Bible, tuck'd beneath his arm, 
And hides his hands to keep his ftngers warm ?" 


46. Latin Translation of Butler's Analogy. In 
Bartlett's Life of Bishop Butler mention is made 
(p. 62.), on the authority of a late Dean of Salis- 
bury (Dr. Pearson), of a translation of The 
Analogy into Latin, which had been executed with 
a view to its publication in, Germany,, and had 
been, submitted for revision to Professor Porsoru 

Was this translation ever published, or is any- 
thing now known of it ? THOS. MCCALMONT. 
HighBeld. n- r g outna mpton, July 22. 1851, 

"47 Non quid responderent," frc. - In the Life 
of tfishop Jewel prefixed to the edit.on of his ^orks 
1611, 24., there occurs a sentence attribute* 
Cicero in Verrem 3. : 

Like Verres in Tully, Non quid responderent, * 
quemadmodum non responderent laborabant." 
But are the words to be found teCice m at 
They give no bad representation of what is 



[No. 92- 

fencing, while unwillingly subjected to an examin- 
ation ; and the true authorship would oblige 


48. " The Worm in the Bud of Youth" ^c. With 
whom did the following idea originate, and where 
are the words to be found ? 

" The worm is in the bud of youth, and in the root 
of age." 

Can any similar expression be adduced from 
the ancient classics ? R. VINCENT 

49. Queen Brunehaut. I read in a French book 
of travels that the abbey of Saint Martin's, at Au- 
tun, contained the tomb of Queen Brunehaut, upon 
which was engraved the following inscription : 

" Ci-git la Reine Brunehaut, 
A qui le Saint Pape Gregoire 
Donna des eloges de gloire, 
Qui mettent sa vertu bien haul. 
Sa piete pour les saints mysteres 
Lui fit fonder trois monasteres, 
Sous la regie de Saint Benoit : 
Saint Martin, Saint Jean, Saint Andoche, 
Sont trois saints lieux ou Ton connoit 
Qu'elle est exempte de reproche." 

1. Who was the Saint Gregory mentioned in this 
inscription ? I believe there can be little doubt 
that it was Pope Gregory I., commonly known as 
Gregory the Great, and the cotemporary of Queen 
Brunehaut. The only other Pope of that name, 
that has been canonized, is Gregory VII., the 
famous Hildebrand ; but as his canonization did 

.not take place till the close of the' last century 
(700 years after his death), an inscription, which, 
from its obsolete rhymes of "Benoit" and "con- 
noit," bears internal evidence of having been 
made in the sixteenth or seventeenth century, 
could not have applied to him the epithet Saint. 

2. Brunehaut having been one of the most 
profligate queens that ever sat upon a throne, 
and Gregory the Great one of the most virtuous 
Popes that have shed lustre on the tiara, a second 
Query presents itself : Is it possible that such a 
Pope could have degraded himself and his office 
by eulogising such a queen? The bare idea is 
at variance with the known character of that 
Pope ; and the imputation, if substantiated, would 
materially detract from his established reputation 
for piety and wisdom. 

3. Is there any passage in the writings of 
Gregory the Great that can be cited in support of 
the allegations of this inscription ? 

St. Lucia, June, 1851. 

50. Sculptured Stones in the North of Scotland. 
Some time ago Patrick Chalmers, Esq., of Auldbar, 
in the county of Forfar, obtained drawings of all 
the sculptured stone obelisks in Angus, and got 
them lithographed for the members of the Banna- 

tyne Club. The work has excited considerable 
attention among historical students in this country 
as well as abroad, and certainly has laid a founda- 
tion for correct comparison of these with other 
similar remains of a symbolical nature in other 
parts of the country. In Aberdeenshire there is 
a considerable number of these obelisks, which, 
either from the more primitive state of the people, 
or the hardness of the granite, are much less elabo- 
rate than those in Angus. None, however, can 
exceed the obelisks in Easter Ross for beauty of 
execution. It is singular that no monument of 
this class has been found south of the Forth. The 
Spalding Club (Aberdeen) proposes to obtain 
drawings of all the stones of this description in the 
North of Scotland ; and the artist who depicted 
the Angus stones so accurately and well for Mr. 
Chalmers has commenced his labours. Circulars 
have been sent to the clergy of about 240 parishes 
in the North, asking for information as to the 
locality of any sculptured stones in their districts, 
but as yet answers have been obtained from only 
about 150. It is probable that where no return 
has been made, there is no stone of the description 
alluded to ; but it -would be desirable to know 
that the Spalding Club had exhausted the matter. 


51. Prophecies of Nostradamus. In a little 
work I am meditating on the subject of English 
Popular Prophecies, I shall have occasion to intro- 
duce a notice of this celebrated astrologer, whose 
successful prediction of the Great Rebellion, and 
consequent English popularity, almost entitle him 
to a place among our native vaticinating worthies. 
The curious prefiguration of the fate of Charles I. 
stands thus in the original edition of the Pro- 
pheties : Lyons, 1572, under the head, " A mes 
Imprimeurs de Hongrie : " 

" Senat de Londres mettront a mal leur Roy." 
In the only other edition to which I have the 
opportunity of referring, London, 1672, " Trans- 
lated and commented upon by Theophilus de 
Garencieres," it is much amplified : 

" XLIX. 

' Gand et Bruxelles marcheront contre Anvers. 
Senat de Londres mettront a mort leur Roy. 
Le sel et vin luy seront a 1'envers 
Pour eux avoir le Regne or desseroy." 
The more literal accuracy of this version, and 
the number of the quatrain (interpreted by the I 
commentator to refer to the year of Charles's 
death), induce doubts as to its authenticity. Col- 
lections of early editions of Nostradamus are not 
of frequent occurrence in England : but I am told 
that a fine series exists in the " Bibliotheque du i 
Roi ; " and as the subject is interesting, some one, 
perhaps, out of the many readers of " NOTES AND j 
QUERIES" who will visit Paris this holiday time j 
may be induced to examine them, and make a note 

AUG. 2. 1851.] 



of the earliest edition in which the latter form of 
the prediction occurs. SPERIEND. 

52. Quaker Expurgated BiUe. In an extremely 
curious and interesting volume entitled Quakerism, 
or the Storij of my Life, I meet with the following 
passage, p. 386. : 

" About four years ago, an English Friend waited 
on me, to request me to enter my name as a subscriber 
to an edition of the Bible, which a Committee of 
Friends were intending to publish. The printed pro- 
spectus stated that the work was designed to be one 
suited for daily perusal in Friends' families ; that from 
it would be carefully excluded every passage that was 
indelicate, and unfit for reading aloud ; and also those 
portions which might be called dangerous, which it 
was possible the unlearned and unstable might wrest to 
their own destruction." 

Can any of your readers tell whether this ex- 
purgated Bible was ever published, and where it 
is to be procured ? 

A copy of the prospectus alluded to would also 
be very acceptable. T. 

53. Salmon Fishery in the Thames. This was 
once of great importance to the inhabitants of the 
villages upon the banks of the Thames, who appear 
to have had each their assigned bounds for their 
fishery. In the Churchwardens' Book of Wands- 
worth, under date 1580, is the following entry : 

"M.D. that this yere in, somer the fishinge Rome 
of Wandesworthe was by certen of Putney denyed, and 
long sute before my L. Mayor of London continued, 
and at the last, accordinge to Right, restored by the 
Lord Mayor and the Councell of London. And in 
this sorrier the fysshers of Wandesworthe tooke betweene 
Monday and Saturday seven score salmons in the same 
fishinge, to the gret honor of God." 

I have heard my mother say, that Thames salmon 
was plentiful when she was a young woman, and 
that it was the most esteemed of any. She died 
recently, aged eighty-nine. 

Shall we ever have Thames salmon again ? 

R. J. R. 

54. Cromwell Grants of Land in Monaghan. 
Are there any records, and where, of grants of land 
in the county of Monaghan, Ireland, as made by 
Cromwell ? E. A. 

55. Siege of Londonderry . Are there any details 
of the siege of Londonderry, particularly as to the 
names of officers engaged on the Protestant side, 
other than those to be found in Walker, Mackensie, 
or Graham's account of it ? E. A. 


The Twentieth of the Thirty-nine Articles. 
In a note to a work entitled Sketches of the His- 
tory of Man, Dublin, 1779, at vol. i. p. 104. I 
observe the following statement : 

" In the Act 13th of Elizabeth, anno 1571, con- 

firming the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of 
England, these Articles are not engrossed, but referred 
to as comprised in a printed book, intitled ' Articles 
agreed to by the whole Clergy in Convocation hoi den 
at London, 1562.' The forged clause is, The Church 
has power to decree Rites and Ceremonies, and autho- 
rity in Controversies of Faith.' That clause is not in 
the Articles referred to ; nor the slightest hint of any 
authority with respect to matters of faith. In the 
same year, 1571, the Articles were printed both in 
Latin and English, precisely as in the year 1562. But 
soon after came out spurious editions, in which the 
said clause was foisted into the Twentieth Article, and 
continues so to this day," &c. 

This is a grave charge. Is it a true one ? I 
have not at hand the authorities by which to 
examine it, and therefore seek an answer from 
some of your readers who may be able to give it. 
My question refers to the imputation of a clause 
having been foisted into our Articles of Faith by a 
forgery, and still continuing in them ; not to the 
truth of any part of our Articles as they now stand. 
To this there is sufficient testimony. CM. 

London, July 25. 1851. 

[The following note from p. 131. of Mr. Hardwick's 
recently published History of the Articles will furnish a 
reply to this Query : 

" He (Laud) was accused of forging the contested 
clause in Art. XX. And after appealing to four 
printed copies of the Articles, one of them as early as 
1563, and all containing the passage which the Puri- 
tans disliked, he added, ' I shall make it yet plainer : 
for it is not fit_ concerning an Article of Religion, and 
an Article of such consequence for the order, truth, 
and peace of the Church, you should rely upon my 
copies, be they never so many or never so ancient. 
Therefore I sent to the public records in my office, and 
here under my officer's hand, who is a public notary, is 
returned to me the Twentieth Article with this affirmative 
clause in it, and there is also the whole body of the Articles 
to be seen.' Remains, ii. 83. (quoted by Bennet, 166.) 
The copy thus taken before the destruction of the re- 
cords is said to be still extant ; Bennet made use of 
it, and has printed it in his Essay, 167 169."] 

Exons of the Guard. Can any of your 
readers inform me what are the duties of these 
officers, and the derivation of their title ? I find, 
in the papers describing her Majesty's state ball, 
the following : " the exons or capitaines exempts 
de la garde du corps;" but that does not throw 
much light upon the subject. E. N". W. 


[The name of Exempts or Exons is manifestly bor- 
rowed from that of the officers in the old French Garde 
du Corps, who were styled in their commissions Capi- 
taines Exempts des Gardes du Corps. Richelet de- 
scribes the Exempt as the officer who commanded in 
the absence of the Lieutenant or Ensign, and who had 
charge of the night watch. In botli cases, the duties 
of the English and French officers are completely 



[No. 92. 

Curious Monumental Inscription : " Quos Anguis 
tristi." Have any of your readers seen Latin 
verses constructed in the following curious manner ? 
I copied these many years ago from an old maga- 
zine : 
' Qu an tris di c vul stra 

os guis ti ro um nere vit, 

H san Chris mi t mu la 
Quos anguis tristi diro cum vulnere stravit, 
Hos sanguis Christi miro tuna munere lavit." 

J. O. B. 

[The inscription quoted by our correspondent has 
been preserved by Stow, in his Survey of London, who, 
describing the monuments in the church of St. Anne 
in the Willows, says (p. 115. ed. 1842), "John He- 
renden, mercer, esquire, 1572 ; these verses on an old 

Meaning of " Deal" I shall feel greatly 
obliged to any of the readers of your entertaining 
and instructive miscellany, if they can explain the 
meaning of the word deal, as used in Exod.xxix. 40. 
A tenth of flour is the verbal rendering of the 
Hebrew, the Septuagint, and the Vulgate. It was 
introduced by Coverdale and Tyndale, and is, I 
believe, in all our English translations except the 
Puritan or Genevan, which has " a tenth part;" 
and Mr. John Ray of Glasgow, in his revised 
translation, who renders the word " the tenth of 
an ephah.*' Is this use of the word deal noticed 
in any dictionary ? GEORGE OFFOR. 

Hackney, July 13. 1851. 

[The word '* deal" in the passage referred to by our 
correspondent clearly signifies "part," and corresponds 
with the German " theil." It is from the A-S. ; and 
Chaucer uses the phrases " never a del" and "every 
del," for "never a bit" and "every bit." In the 
Vision of Piers Ploughman we have a nearly parallel 
phrase to that used in our Bibles : 

" That hevedes of 'holy church ben 
That han hir wil here 
Withouten travaille the tithe deel 
That trewe men biswynken." 

L. 10571. etseq., ed. Wright.] 

La Mer des Histoires. Who is the author 
of La Mer des Histoires ? I have seen the first 
volume in large folio; the type and paper are 
beautiful, the capital letters very fine. It is 
stated in the preface to be a translation from the 
Latin of Rudimentum Noviciorum, with the ad- 
dition of the French Chronicles, and made at the 
instance of Andre de la Haye, Seigneur de 
Chaumot, Paymaster of Sens. It is printed at 
Paris in the month of July, 1448, by Pierre le 
Rouge. In how many volumes is the work com- 
prised ? Is it very scarce ? R. C. H. H. 

[Greswell, in his Annah of Parisian Typography, 
p. 307., says, " The designation # 'Mer des Histoires 
seems, as a popular one, to havs 'been givtett to French 
chronicles of various descriptions. TWQ impressions 

thus entitled appeared Parisiis, post 1500, viz., 'Mer 
des Histoires et Chroniques de France: extrait en partis 
de tous les anciens chroniquers, &c. jusqu' au temps 
de Francois I.,' 2 voll. fol. Galliot du Pres, 1514, 16 : 
and more especially 'La Mer des Hystoires et Croniques 
de France: Extraict en partie de tous les anciens cro- 
niquers,' 4 voll. fol. ' Le premier volume,' Galliot du 
pre, 1517, 'Le second volume,' M. le Noir, 1517 ; 'Le 
tiers volume,' sine anno et impressoris nomine ; ' Le 
quatriesme liure,' Par. 1518. Panzer says that both 
these chronicles, of which the latter seems to be an 
improved edition of the former, are said to have been 
compiled by Johannes Descourtils, the French king's 

" The noiseless Foot of Time." Not having 
by me at present the means of ascertaining, will 
some one kindly inform me where the above words 
are to be found in Shakspeare, giving me the 
exact reference ? R. VINCENT. 

[" Let's take the instant by the forward top ; 
For we are old, and on our quick'st decrees 
The inaudible and noiseless foot of time 
Steals ere we can effect them." 

AWs Well that ends Well, Act V. Sc. 3.] 


(Vol. iv., p. 24.) 

Your correspondent ERYX inquires, in your 
paper of July 12, whether Servius's interpreta- 
tion of 

" Viridesque secant placido sequore silvas." 

Virg. JEn. viii. 96. 

be correct. I beg to reply that it is not. The 
interpretations of Servius are almost invariably 
incorrect; Servius was a very illiterate, ignorant, 
and narrow-minded man, and totally unable to 
understand the author whom he attempted to 
illustrate. His comments on Virgil resemble those 
which we might expect a hedge schoolmaster in 
Yorkshire now to make upon Milton. These 
comments, which are only valuable on account 
of the mythological traditions which are preserved 
in them, have been very injurious to the right 
understanding of Virgil. 

The meaning of the passage in question is, that 
the .ZEneadae row up the river among the green 
woods, or (literally) " secant silvas," travel the woods, 
"placido eequore," on the calm surface of the water, 
i. e. by rowing up the placid stream of the river. 
This, and not that assigned by Servius following 
Terentienus, is the true meaning. 1st. Because 
secare with the objective case means constantly in 
Virgil to travel along. Compare " viam secat 
ad naves," JEn. vi. 902.; " secuit sub nubibus ar- 
cum," v. 658., &c. 2ndly. Because the Tiber is 
described only as placid, not as clear ; and, as ap- 
pears from JEn. vii. 3L, was actually very muddy, 

AUG. 2. 1851.] 



" multa flavus arena." The immediately pre- 
ceding words, " variisque teguntur arboribus," have 
been pronounced by a very learned critic (one 
who has often deserved well of Virgil) to be idle, 
otiosa. (See Wagner ad JEn. i. 678.) And his 
opinion has been sanctioned by the usually ju- 
dicious Forbiger. But they are not idle ; on the 
contrary, they are necessary to convey the idea that 
the jEneadje passed up the river under the shade of 
the trees; and so are supplemental to the state- 
ment contained in the words cited by your corre- 
spondent, which inform us only that they went 
up the river. Hence a confirmation of the cor- 
rectness of the received interpretation. 

34. Westland Row, Dublin, July 14. 1851. 

Your correspondent ERYX wishes to know, 
whether in the passage (JEneid, viii. 96.) 
" Viridesque secant placido asquore silvas," 
the word secant can legitimately convey the same 
idea that is expressed in Tennyson's lines 

" my shallop .... clove 

The citron shadows in the blue." 
There can be little doubt that this well-known 
passage in the JEneid is the original of Tennyson's 
image; that, in fact, it is an excusable plagia- 
rism on the part of the latter, who, in introducing 
his image, has, I think, missed the appropriateness, 
and therefore increased beauty, belonging to it in 
the original passage of Virgil. 

When ^Eneas is journeying up the Tiber to visit 
Evander, the river, in order to.lessen his labours 

" refluens .... substitit unda ; " 
but notwithstanding this, the journey was arduous: 
as is shown in the whole of the three lines 94 96. 
" Olli remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, 

Et longos superant flex us, variisque teguntur 

Arboribus, viridesque secant placido aequore silvas." 
That is to say, " They labour at the oar till night 
is wearied out, and day also is obliged to give 
place in its turn ; they master one by one the long 
serpentine bends of the river, and, though covered 
I and inclosed by the varied foliage above them, 
they cut their way through the opposing woods, 
which lie, as it were, in their path in the shadowy 
surface of the clear, still water." 

The word placido is surely sufficient to prevent 
any one falling into the common-place interpre- 
tation alluded to by your correspondent as the 
one " usually given." H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford, July 14. 


(Vol. iii., p. 502.) 

I feel much obliged for the information afforded 
by your Dutch correspondent. When I sent you 
my Query on the subject more than a year ago, 

I wrote principally from memory ; but as I have 
now the work in question lying beside me as I 
write, and as it seems to be rarer and less known 
than I had imagined, you will perhaps find place 
for a more minute description of it. 

The Vine of St. Francis is a folio volume, con- 
taining 418 numbered leaves, a "Prologue" of one 
leaf (next to the title-page), and a " Tafel va dit 
boeck" at the end, of five leaves and a half un- 

The title-page contains a full-length picture of 
the saint, with a nimbus round his head, the 
knotted cord round his waist, and his palms ex- 
tended, displaying the sacred stigmata. Above 
the picture is the title in red and black. I have 
written in Italics the words printed in red : 

" Den wyngaert va Shite Franciscus vol schoonre 
historien legenden ende duechdelycke leerenghen alien 
menschen seer profytelych." 

And under the picture "Cum gratia etprivilegio" 
On the back of the title-page is printed as fol- 
lows : 

" Dit is die generael tafel va dese wyngaert dwelcke 
ghdeylt is in drie boecken. 

CE Dat eerste boeck inhout 

Sinte Franciscus grote legende 
Sinte Franciscus oude legende 
Den aflaet van portiunkel 
Sinte Franciscus souter. 

CE Dat ander boeck inhoude 

De legede va de. v. marte mind'brod's 

De legede va de seue mar. ooc mind'b. 

Sinte bonauentura legende 

Sinte lodewyc biscop legende 

Sinte anthonis va paduen legende 

Sinte bernardyns legende 

Sinte clara legende 

Sinte puo priesters legende 

Sinte lodewyc conincx legende 

Sinte elzearius graue legende 

Sinte elizabets legende. 

G, Dat derde boec inhout 

Een tractaet va S. Franciscus oorden 

Sinte Franciscus geselle leuen 

Die geleerde en edele va S. Fraciscus oorden 

Dat getal der broedere en prouintien 

De aflaet va rome mitte aflaet des oordes 

De kaledier mitte feeste des aflaets." 

Under these tables of contents occur two stanzas, 
the first containing five lines, the second con- 
taining seven lines. They commence : 

"CO salige wyngaert seer diep gheplant 

Groyende in duechden van vruchten playsant,' 1 &c. 

The preface to the Grote Legende informs us 
that it is Saint Bonaventura's life of Saint Francis, 
and mentions why it is called the Great Legend. 
This life ends at folio 47. 

The preface to the Oude Legende, which next 
follows, states that it is " gathered from the 



[No. 92. 

writings of his companions and the chronicles of the 
order of the Brothers Minor ; " and the " Prologue " 
(which succeeds the preface) mentions 

" Die legede van zyn drie gesellen den spiegel der 
volcomeheyts der minderbroeders. Breeder Thomas 
oude legende en de boeck der ghelycheden daer seer 
schoon bescreue is. Hoe ghelyck dat dese heylighe 
man Franciscus : Christo Jhesu." 

These lives, I suppose, are that joint narrative 
compiled by three intimate associates of the Saint, 
"zyn drie gesellen;" that composed by Thomas of 
Celano ; and the Liber Conformitatum. 

The 39th chap, of this Oude Legende, folio ciii,, 
relates, as the preface says 

" CC Hoe dat S. F. woude reysen in verre laden om 
dat vole te bekeren en te vermaenen ell va die grote 
tribulacie die hi leet int soldaes lant en hoe hi gerne 
martelaer hadde geworden en hoe die broeders te 
Antiochien syn oorde aenaemen." 

On which Jewish-converting martyrdom- seeking 
journey Dr. Geddes (in his curious little work 
on the Romish Orders of Monks and Friars, Lond. 
1714) quaintly remarks: 

" A Quaker's having gone from England to Rome 
to convert the pope to his religion, is a mighty jest 
with some people, who are very much edified with this 
story of Francis's going from Italy to Egypt to convert 
the sultan; but these two adventures do to me appear 
to be so much alike that I shall leave it to anatomists 
to tell whether good wits that prompt others, have not 
their brains either made of the same size, or much in 
the same posture." 

The Oude Legende ends folio 44. Next follows : 
" { Die historic van de aflaet van Sinte Maria van 
de enghelen dieme portiukel heet," 
as the preface hath it. Some of your readers 
may have seen an advertisement respecting a series 
of Franciscan works (to be published, I think, by 
Richardson of Derby), entitled the Portioncule 
Library; and seeing in the above table of contents 
" Die aflaet van Portiunkel," or the Indulgence 
of the Portiunkel, they may be at a loss to know 
its meaning, so I shall quote a note from Mrs. 
Jameson's highly interesting and valuable work on 
the Monastic Orders, which is to the purpose : 

" The term Porzioncula means literally * a small 
portion, share, or allotment.' The name was given to 
a slip of land, of a few acres in extent, at the foot of the 
hill of Assisi, and on which stood a little chapel ; both 
belonged to a community of Benedictines, who after- 
wards bestowed the land and the chapel on the brother- 
hood of S. Francis. This chapel was then familiarly 
known as the Capella della Porzioncula.' Whether 
the title by which it has since become famous as the 
S. Maria-degli- Angel i belonged to it originally, or 
because the angels were heard singing around and 
above it at the time of the birth of St. Francis, does 
not seem clear. At. all events this chapel became early 
sanctified as the scene of the ecstasies and visions of the 
saint; here also S. Clara made her profession. Par- 

ticular indulgences were granted to those who visited 
it for confession and repentance on the fifth of August, 
and it became a celebrated place of pilgrimage in the 
fourteenth century. Mr. Ford tells us, that in Spain 
the term Porzioncula is applied generally to distinguish 
the chapel or sanctuary dedicated to St. Francis within 
the Franciscan churches. The original chapel of the 
Porzioncula now stands in the centre of the magnificent 
church which has been erected over it." 

In the " Legende" of St. Anthony of Padua, 
chap. vii. fol. ccxx., we have that saint's " sermo 
ad pisces" in the city of Rimini, die vol betters was, 
and the conversion therefrom of the said ketters or 

The " Prologhe " to the narrative " van die vyf 
Martelaren T " fol. clxxviii., commences, " Ego quasi 
Vitis fructificavi suavitatem odoris alo eene 
wyngaert," &c. : here we learn why the work is 
called Den Wyngaert, or The Vine. 

In the "tractat va S. F. orden en reghele," 
at fol. cccxxix., we have an account of Brother 
Agnellus of Pisa his mission to England in 1224. 

In the " Getal der broedere en prouintien," at 
fol. cccci., we learn that at that time (1518) 
England had 7 convents and 200 friars; Ireland 
15 convents and 400 friars; and Scotland 8 con- 
vents and 120 friars. 

The "Kalendier" which follows this "Getal" is 
printed in red and black. 

" Den aflaet va rome" is the last tract in the 
book. Here is the finis : 

" (H Hier eyndt by d- gratie gods dat derde boec va 
desen wyngaert die mit groten arbeyt wt veel ducte- 
telycke scrifte wten laty'ne vergadert en mi eerst trans- 
latecrt is, ter eere des heylighe confessors Sinte Fran- 
ciscus en ten profyte va alien gueden kenten menschen. 

" CE Hier na volcht di tafeleV' 

After the " tafel " or index occur some verses 
containing seventy-three lines, eulogistic of the 

I forgot to mention that in the Oude Legende 
some of St. Francis's poems are given, translated 
from the Italian originals : at fol. cxxii. is given 
the " Canticum solis," part of which Sir James 
Stephen quotes in his sketch of the saint's life. 

I have a Query to make, but must defer it to 
another time, as I have already taken up enough 
of your paper. JARLTZBERG. 

" JUSJURANDUM PER CANEM " (Vol. iii., p. 192.). 

(Vol. ii., p. 494.). 

An extraordinary mode of swearing, akin to the 
oaths already noticed, is recorded by Ysbrant Ides 
in his Travels from Moscow to China (London, 
1705, and reprinted in the second volume of 
Harris's Collection) : 

AUG. 2. 1851.] 



" Two Tunguzian hostages falling out, one accused 
the other before the Way wode (or Viceroy) of having 
conjured his deceased brother to death. The Way- 
wode asked the accuser if he would, according to the 
Tunguzian custom, put the accused to his oath ? To 
this he answered in the affirmative; after which the 
accused took a live dog, laid him on the ground, and 
with a knife stuck him into the body, just under his 
left foot, and immediately clapped his mouth to the 
wound, and sucked out the dog's blood as long as he 
could come at it ; after which he lift him up, laid him 
on his shoulders, and clapped his mouth again to the 
wound in order to suck out the remaining blood. An 
excellent drink indeed! And this is the greatest oath 
and most solemn confirmation of the Truth amongst 
them ; so that on credit of this the accused was set 
free, and the accuser punished for his false accusation." 

The dog, designed, as Cicero observes, for man's 
use, was doubtless selected for his sagacity and 
faithfulness ; and by Loccenius, in his Leges W. 
Gothicce, " tria canum capita " are stated to have 
been " Hunnorum gentis insignia," the progenitors 
of the Tunguzians, p. 107. In Northern Europe 
" sanguine Decs placari creditum ; canibus etiam 
cum hominibus permiste in luco suspensis." (Ibid. 
p. 105.) 

Among the northern nations, not only their tes- 
timoniary oaths were thus sanctioned by blood, 
but their confederative also, in which their frater- 
nisation was symbolized by reciprocal transfusion 
of blood. 

" Dear as the blood that warms my heart." 

Gray's Bard. 

It was the custom of the Scythians " non dextras 
tan turn implicare, sed pollices mutuo vincire, 
nodoque perstringere ; mox sanguine in artus 
extremes se effundente levi ritu cruorem elicere, 
atque invicem lambere." (Hanseanius De Jureju- 
rando Veterum.) Quintus Curtius remarks that 
among the Hindoos (between whom and the 
Scythians Sir W. Jones and other ethnographers 
have observed various traces of affinity) the join- 
ing of right hands was their usual mode of saluta- 
tion ; " dextra fidei sedes." 

En passant, I have elsewhere seen the opinion 
quoted by a correspondent (Vol. ii., p. 464.), 
" Sedem anima3 in digitis ponunt," attributed to 
the Hindoos. Query, Has not the profession of 
&e\7]Tc (see Dr. Maitland on Mesmerism) prevailed 
among them? Their propensity to conjuring is so 
proverbial, that, according to a writer in the Asiatic 
Researches, that term is derived from one of their 
ribes. Sec also on their witchcrafts, Acosta's 
East and West Indies, chap. xxvi. 

Before I dismiss the subject of swearing, permit 
me to observe what appears to me to be the origin 
of the^ apothegm " Fiat Justitia, ruat Crelum " 
(Vol. ii., p. 494.), which, with a slight change, was 
afterwards adopted by Ferdinand, emperor of 

May it not, have originated in an oath similar to 
that of Chaganus, king of the Huns, recorded by 
Otrokocsi, in his Histories Hungarica? 

" Abarico ritu jusjurandum ad hunc modum prse- 
stitit. Ense educto et in altum sublato sibi et Aba- 
ricorum genti dira imprecatus si quid matt, &c. Cesium 
ex alto ipsis et Deus Ignis qui in ccelo est, irrueret." 

More sententiously he may have said : " Fiat [a 
me] justitia, [in me] ruat Coelura, [si non]. 

On the inviolability of oaths among the heathens, 
in addition to the works referred to in Vol. Hi., 
p. 192., see Gentleman's Magazine, vol. i. p. 415.; 
on the singular notion, in the fourteenth century, 
of the harmlessness of colloquial and affirmative 
oaths, see Archceologia, vol. xx. p. 43.^ and on the 
opposition made by the Lollards to this unchristian 
practice, Purvey's Remonstrance against the Cor- 
ruptions of the Church of Rome, edite^ b y the 
Rev. J. Forshall, London, 1851. T. J. 


(Vol. in., p. 427. ; Vol. iv., p. 62.) 
The querist on Hugh Holland and his works, 
must be content with a reply of unvarnished 

1. " Where are these lines taken from, and what 
do they mean ?" The lines are from the Cypress 
garland of Hugh Holland, 1625. 4to. The mean- 
ing is obvious. I assume that Holland may be 
trusted as to his own age, to which Wood gives no 

2. " Who says he did not quit Westminster 
school till 1589?" Wood says he was bred in 
Westminster school, and " elected in*o Trinity 
coll. in Cambridge, an. 1589." Welch, from offi- 
cial documents, gives the same date. Wood no- 
where states that he " matriculated at Baliol in 

3. "My words are, ' about 1590 he succeeded to 
a fellowship.'" Wood says he was elected to 
Trinity college in 1589, "of which he was after- 
wards fellow." It may have been some years 

4. "Why does not MR. CORNET give your 
readers his interpretation of the mysterious 
H. H.?" He reserved it for another occasion, 
but now consents to satisfy the curiosity of the 
querist and others. 

In 1632 Henry Holland dedicated to Charles I. 
an English version of the Cyrvpeedia of Xenophon, 
made by his father Philemon Holland. In the 
dedication, which is signed at length, he says : 

" Also, when my unworthy selfe (anno 1 620) offred 
mine owne collections, entituled Heruologia Anglica, 
unto his highnesse [James I.], he most graciously re- 
ceived it." 

In 1614 appeared, under the initials " H. H.," 
the Monvmenta sepvlchraria sancti Pavli, and in 
the address ad lectorem we read : 



[No. 92. 

"Et non solum nomine bonus appellatus est [sc. 
Alex. Nowel], sed etiam et in vita sua bonitas apparuit, 
et in morte bona sua opera ilium sunt sequuta, et 
uberiiis et fusius in Effigiebus nostris et vitis illustriwn 
Anglorum cum de Coleto turn de illo apparet : (quse 
nunc transmarino babitu vestiendae sunt) quare bic 
ilium pluribus prosequi verbis non est opus." 

Here is unanswerable evidence that Henry 
Holland was the compiler of both works. In the 
catalogue of the Grenville collection of books, now 
in the British Museum, both works are ascribed 
to Hugh Holland. 

5. " The edition of 1614 was certainly the first, 
and that of 1633 certainly the second." The 
querist adopts my correction of his threefold error, 
and calls it an answer ! 

6. " I shall therefore leave the shade of Cole 
and MR. BOLTON CORNET to settle the question as 
to whether any such work exists." The querist 
did not perceive that the Roxana of Alexander was 
an error for the Roxana of Alabaster so he en- 
deavours to draw off the attention of his readers 
from this proof of critical obtuseness by a common- 
place witticism. 

I must describe the facile process by which our 
querist has obtained his apparent triumph. Wood, 
at the close of his article on Hugh Holland the 
poet, which is chiefly derived from the Worthies 
of Fuller, mentions one Hugh Holland as ad- 
mitted B.A. in 1570, and another Plugh Holland 
as matriculated at Baliol college in 1582, aged 
twenty-four ; with others of that surname. He 
adds, " but whether any of them were authors, 1 
cannot yet tell, or whether the last was the same with 
the poet. ,Qu." Now, with regard to the first and 
second articles, our querist omits the sentence 
which proves the inapplicability of his quo- 
tations ! and with regard to the third article, he 
omits the word afterwards, which forms the gist 
of the argument. BOLTON CORNET. 


(Vol. iv., p. 44.) 

"Assertion is not proof," and it surely does 
require proof ere we consent to brand a writer of 
unimpeached character with the charge of " a 
shameless, heartless act of literary piracy." 

It rests with ERZA to bring ibrward his or her 
proof that the lines in dispute were written by 
Lady Flora. ERZA asserted that they were " never 
before printed." I have enabled him. or her to 
satisfy himself or herself that they were in print 
nearly twelve years ago. I am disposed to believe 
ERZA equally mistaken in the assertion as to the 
authorship of the lines. If this prove so, the im- 
putation cast upon Miss Barber will revert upon 
her accuser, and will demand the most ample 

I do not know Miss Barber; her writings I 
have long admired ; and having been the means 
of drawing down upon her such an accusation, I 
am not disposed to let the inquiry terminate hei'e. 
Nor can I believe the Editor of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " will desire that cither a literary error or 
a groundless slander should descend to posterity 
in his pages. L. H. K. 

ERZA cannot entertain a higher respect than I 
do for the memory of Lady Flora Hastings ; but 
I am sure no member of her family would coun- 
tenance any attempt to exalt her reputation at the 
expense of another's ; and I fear ERZA, however 
unintentionally, has fallen into this error. The 
stanzas she attributed to Lady Flora, as L. H. K. 
stated (Yol. iii., p. 522.), were published as Miss 
M. A. S. Barber's in The Christian Ladys Maga- 
zine for September, 1839, only two months after 
Lady Flora's death. In the preceding number, as 
L. H. K. also correctly stated, is a brief memoir of 
Lady Flora, in which it is said, that shortly before 
her death she " delivered to her fond brother a 
little Bible, the gift of her mother, requesting him 
to restore it to that beloved parent," &c. ERZA 
may be unacquainted with that publication, but I 
can assure her that Lady Flora's brother, my 
esteemed and lamented patron, was not ; for 
shortly after the number appeared, I found it lying 
on his table, in his own private room at Doning- 
ton Park, and, while waiting to see him, partly 
read it there myself for the first time. I know 
not whether he ever read the lines in question in 
the succeeding number, but I know the Magazine 
was regularly taken by some of Lady Flora's in- 
timate friends, and I cannot suppose they would 
allow any poem of hers to pass unnoticed for twelve 
years, with the signature of Miss Barber attached 
to it. Indeed the stanzas bear internal evidence 
of being written after Lady Flora's death, and 
founded on the account given by Charlotte Eliza- 
beth in the preceding number. If, however, ERZA 
still persists in attributing them, to Lady Flora 
Hastings, she is in duty bound to give her autho- 
rity, and not bring such a heavy accusation against 
Miss Barber on the bare assertion of an anony- 
mous correspondent. If Miss Barber really com- 
posed the stanzas, as I believe she did, she was 
doubtless actuated with a desire to honour the 
memory and character of Lady Flora ; and in such 
case nothing could be more cruel and unjust than 
the conduct imputed to her by ERZA. Unfortu- 
nately I do not know Miss Barber's address, or 
whether she is still living ; but if any of your 
readers do, I hope they will name this case to her, 
or her friends, that her reputation may be cleared 
from the imputation thus rashly cast on it. If the 
case cannot thus be satisfactorily settled, I will 
obtain the desired information from another quar- 
ter ; but I hope ERZA will also offer the assistance 
in her power towards this desirable object; and to 

AUG. 2. 1851.] 



set the example of candour and openness, I will 
subscribe my real name. W. HASTINGS KELKE- 
Drayton Beauchamp. 

to jffliiurr 

Coke and Cowper (Vol. iv., p. 24.). In reply 
to one of your correspondents, who inquires as 
to the correct pronunciation of the name of the 
poet Cowper, I may mention, that some years ago, 
being on a visit in the neighbourhood of Weston 
Underwood, I made particular inquiries on this 
point in the village, and found that there the poet 
had always been known as Mr. Cooper. The name 
of the noble family to which he was related will 
be the best criterion. 

By the way, was there not sometime since a 
proposal for erecting by subscription a worthy 
monument to a poet whose memory every Chris- 
tian must revere ? In whose hands was this pro- 
ject, and with whom does its execution rest ? 


Highfield, near Southampton, July 22. 1851. 

In my humble opinion, Coke is the old English 
form of writing cook, from A.-Sax. " coc." See 
Chaucer's Coke's Tale, and Cock LorreWs Bote, 
where we read " Drouers, Cokes, and pulters ; " 
and in this same poem occurs the line, " Carpen- 
ters, coupers, and ioyners." See also under 
Cooper in Pegge's Anecdotes of the English Lan- 
guage ; the names, as thus pronounced, are ren- 
dered significant. 

Should it be asked how we ought to pronounce 
the name of another poet, viz. Cowley, if Cowper 
be called Cooper, I answer that they are from 
different roots : that Cowley is from cow, and ley, 
signifying cow pasture, or place for cows ; and 
that Cowper is only another form of Cooper : not 
but that in the north they pronounce cow as coo, 
and, therefore, they would call him Cooley. 


Ashby de la Zouch. 

Dunmore Castle (Vol. iii., p. 495.). JAMES C. 
will find the subject of Vitrified Forts treated at 
considerable length in the fourth volume of the 
Archceologia Scotica, by S. Hibbert, Esq., M.D., 
Sir George Mackenzie, Bart., of Coul, and George 
Anderson, Esq., F.R.S., pp. 160195. T. B. J. 

Edinburgh, July 18. 1851. 

Gooseberry Fool (Vol. iii., p. 496.). The edi- 
torial note is sufficiently satisfactory ; but what is 
the etymology of gooseberry ? Clearly " gorse 
berry," the fruit of the prickly shrub or bush. 


Dryden and Oldham (Vol.iv., p. 36.). Whe- 
ther Oldham or Dryden had the prior claim to 
the thought, is a very interesting question, but 

very easily settled in favour of the much greater 
poet of the two, for 

;< The dedication to the Earl of Orrery was ad- 
dressed to him in the year 1664, when The Rival 
Ladies, which was Dryden's second play, was first 
printed." Malone's Dryden, vol. i. part 2. p. 3. 
Whereas the poem of Oldham states itself to have 
been written in July, 1678. C. B. 

Theobald Anguilbert and Michael Scott (Vol. iii., 

5. 518.). TYRO will find a notice of him in Sir 
ames Ware's Writers of Ireland, p. 92., Harris's 


Penn Family (Vol. iii., pp. 264. 409.). In No. 75. 
of "NOTES AND QUERIES" for April, 1851, inquiry 
is made " to whom William Penn, the eldest son 
of William Penn (the founder), was married, and 
also to whom the children of said son were mar- 
ried, as well as those of his daughter Letitia 
(Mrs. Aubrey), if she had any?" William Penn 
(the son) married Mary Jones, by whom he had 
three children, William, Springett (who died 
without issue), and Gul. Maria. William had 
two wives, Christiana Forbes, and Ann Vaux. 
By Miss Forbes he had a daughter, married to 
Peter Gaskell, Esq. ; and by Miss Vaux a son, 
Springett, who died without issue. Mrs. Aubrey 
(Letitia Penn) had no children. 


Philadelphia, July 4. 1851. 

Bummaree (Vol. iv., p. 39.). I have no doubt 
that this word is derived, as so many of our market 
terms are, from the French, bonne maree, fresh 

" Maree signifie toute sorte de poisson de mer qui 
n'est pas sale" ; bonne maree, maree fratche, vendeur de 
maree." Diet, de VAcad. Franc. , voce. 


Miss or Mistress (Vol. iv., p. 6.). The indis- 
criminate use of " Miss" and "Mrs." to unmarried 
ladies is often very perplexing. The " Mrs." was 
not, as M. S. supposes, always accompanied by the 
Christian name for unmarried ladies ; and the 
custom lasted at least as late as the reign of 
George II. Pope in his letters (about 1719) 
mentions "Mrs. Lepel" and "Mrs. Bellenden," 
maids of honour. The examples are innumerable, 
but the latest instance I remember is the Duchess 
of Queensbury addressing Patty Blount in 1756 as 
"Mrs. Blount;" though, no doubt, Patty was, by 
that time, entitled to what is called brevet rank. 


Book Plates (Vol. iii., p. 495. ; Vol. iv., p. 46.). 
MR. PARSONS, I observe, confines his inquiry 
to English book plates. On that point I cannot 
at present offer him any information ; but I can 
to a certain extent confirm his views with regard 
to the use of them in foreign countries, having 



[No. 92. 

now before me the plate (a woodcut) of Erhardus 
a Muckhenthall probably in modern German, 
Erhardt von Miickenthal dated 1634. It con- 
sists of bis armorial bearings, surmounted by a 
helmet, &c., apparently indicative of nobility ; but 
the tinctures not being expressed, I cannot give 
the blazon. The charge on his shield seems to be 
intended for a lamb salient. F. S. Q. 

In the Surrenden Collection there are several 
loose impressions of Sir Edward Dering's book 
plate, bearing date 1630. It is a very elaborate 
one, and of a size adapted only for a folio volume ; 
one of them is now before me, with the date most 
clearly and distinctly marked. L. B. L. 


Mr. Macaulay's vigorous sketch of the gallant cornet 
of horse who resigned his commission for the toga, and, 
after figuring during his life as a statesman than whom 
"none has left a more stainless, and none a more splen- 
did name," was stricken down in full council while 
straining his feeble voice to rouse the drooping spirit 
of his country, forms the fifth part of The Traveller's 
Library : and it would be difficult to find a volume of 
the same compass better calculated to furnish a couple 
of hours' amusing and instrjuctive reading than William 
Pitt, Earl of Chatham, ly Thomas Babington Macaulay. 

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell, on Tuesday 
next, an extensive collection of Autograph Letters, 
chiefly of distinguished Actors, Actresses, and Drama- 
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Charles II., addressed by him, after the Restoration, 
to the same zealous adherent. On the following day 
Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will be employed in 
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Letters and Historical Documents, including Letters 
aud Autographs of Queen Elizabeth, James I., King 
John of France (Jehan le Bon), Richard Duke of 
York, Philip II. of Spain, and many documents con- 
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Royal Houses of France and Normandy. 

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"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLJE. 

VOL. IV. No. 93.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 9. 1851. 

r Price Threepence. 
I Stamped Edition, 


NOTES : Page 

Lady Hopton 

Notes on Newspapers The Times, by H. M. Bealby - 98 
Folk Lore : Devonshire Superstitions - ^ 98 
Minor Notes : ; Curious Inscription Glass in Windows, 
formerly not a Fixture D'IsraelL: Pope and Gold- 
smith - " 99 


On a Song in Scott's Pirate" Fire on the Maintop " - S9 
Minor Queries : Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar ? 

Tale of a Tub Cleopatra's Needle Pair, of 
Curols Cowper Law Order of Greenwich House 
of Yvery Entomological Query Spenser's Por- 
traits Sorrow's Bible in Spain Dogmatism and 
Puppyism A Saxon Bell-house - 

Cocker's Arithmetic Sanskrit Elementary Books 
Townley MSS., &c. " Man is born to trouble," &c. - 

B.ellarmin's Monstrous Paradox - 
The Gookins of Kent, by Edward Armstrong - 
Curious Monumental Inscription, by S. W. Singer 
The late Mr. Wjlliam Hone, by Douglas Allport 
Plaids and Tartans ------ 

The Caxton Memorial, by Bolton Corney 
Lady Flora Hastings' Bquest, by the Marchioness of 
Bute ------ 

Replies to Minor Queries : Inscription on an old 
Board Churches decorated at Chrfstmas Royal 
Library Proof a Sword Dr. Young's " Narcissa" 

Circulation of the Blood Dr. Elrington's Edition 
of Ussher Was Stella Swift's Sister ? The Mistle- 
toeFamily of Kyme The Leman Baronetcy Cure 
for Ague ------- 


Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 

Notices to Correspondents - 

Advertisements ------ 



I have thought that the following old letter, 
relative to a family once of some distinction, and 
especially as describing a very remarkable indivi- 
dual, from whom a multitude of living persons are 
immediately descended, might be of sufficient in- 
terest to occupy a place in " NOTES AND QUERIES."" 
It has never, that I am aware of, been published; 
but it has long been preserved, amongst similar 
papers, with the accompanying endorsement: 
'' Though Mr. Ernie's letter relating to Lady 

Hopton and her family contains some fabulous 
accounts, and is in some parts a little unintelligible, 
yet it may be urged in confirmation of the truth of 
the several descents therein mentioned. He was 
the son of Sir John Ernie, and could not but have 
some general knowledge of his grandmother's 

This Mr. Ernie, afterwards knighted, died 
A.D. 1686. 

Sir Arthur Hopton lived at Witham Friary, 
co. Somerset, and the heroine of this document 
was, according to the pedigree in Sir R. C. Hoare's 
Monastic Remains of Witham, &c., Rachel, daugh- 
ter of Edmund Hall of Gretford, co. Lincoln, Esq. 
The date of Sir Arthur's death is not there given, 
but he was made a K.B. in 1603. C. W. B. 

" I will give you as good an account as I can re- 
member of our wise & good Grandmother Hopton, 
who I think was one Hall's daughter of Devonshire 
without title, & had an elder brother, without child, 
who said to his younger brother's wife, who was then 
with child, if she would come to his house, & lie in, he 
would give his estate to it if a daughter, & if a son it 
should fare never the worse: so she had my grand- 
mother,. & he bred her up & married her to Sir Arthur 
Hopton of Somerset : who had 4000 a year, & she as 

" By him she had 18 children ; 1O daughters married; 
whose names were : Lady Bacon, Lady Smith, Lady 
Morton, Lady Bannister, & Lady Fettiplace ; Bing- 
ham, Baskett, Cole, Thomas, & my Grandmother Ernie; 
these daughters & their children have made a numerous 
company of relations. The duke of Richmond, Lord 
Maynard married our Aunt Bannister's daughters & 
heirs (one to Rogers, the other to Bannister).* Fetti- 
place, which was also Lord Jones, his daughter & 
heiress married Lard Lumley, now Scarbro. 

" Cole's heir to Popham of Wilts : & Hungerford, & 
Warnford married Jones, & some Mackworth, & 
Wyndham in Wales ; some Morgan, & Cammish, & 
Kern, with many others that I have forgot. The sons 

(* " The Lady Bannister's first husband was Mr. 
Rogers, of Brenson (hodie Bryanston) near Blandford, 
in Dorsetshire: by him she had the Dutchess of 
Richmond, who was heiress to him : she had another 
daughter of Sir Robt. Bannister, who married Lord 
Mainard." Added in another Version. )^ 

VOL. IV. No. 93. 



[No. 93. 

were Mr Robt Hopton, Sir Thomas, Sir Arthur. 
Robt had one son, w ch was the Lord Hopton of great 
worth, who married the Lord Lewen's widow, and had 
no child : so the estate went to the daughters. But 
our Grandfather Hopton, having so good an estate, 
thought he might live as high as he pleased, & not 
run oufr: but one day he was going from home but c d 
not, but told his Lady she w d be left in great trouble, 
for the great debts he had made on his estate ; & that 
he knew he should live but few days, & c d not die in 
peace, to think what affliction he should leave her in: 
so she desired him to be no way concerned for his 
debts, for he owed not a penny to any one. So he died 
of a gangrene in his toe in a few days. Now she had 
set up an Iron- work, & paid all he owed, unknown to 
him. And she married all her daughters to great 
estates, & great families : her eldest, I think, to one 
Smith, who was a younger son, & went factor to a 
merchant into Spain; he had a very severe master & 
was very melancholy & walked one morning in Spain 
intending to go & sell himself a galley-slave to the 
Turks : but an old man met him, & asked him why he 
was so melancholy ; bid him cheer up himself, & not 
go about what he intended, for his elder brother was 
dead, letters were coming to him to return home to 
his estate ; bid him consider & believe what he said, 
& that when he went for England, the first house he 
entered, after his landing, he would marry the gentle- 
man's eldest daughter : which he did. The Lady 
Hopton's way of living was very great : she had 100 
in her family ; all sorts of trades ; and when good ser- 
vants married she kept the families, & bred them up to 
several trades. She rose at six of the Clock herself: 
went to the Iron- work, & came in about 9 ; went with 
all her family to prayers, & after dinner she & her 
children & grand-children went to their several works 
with her in the dining-room, where she spun the finest 
sheets that are. Every year she had all her children 
& grandchildren met together at her house ; & before 
they went away, would know -if any little or great 
animosities were between any of them ; if so, she would 
never let them go, till they were .reconciled." 


There were sold of The Times of Tuesday, Feb. 
10th, 1840, containing an account ot the Royal nup- 
tials, 30,000 copies, and the following curious cal- 
culations were afterwards made respecting this 
publication. The length of a column of The Ti:ncs 
is twenty-two inches. If every copy of The Times 
then printed could be cut into forty-eight single 
columns, and if those forty-eight columns were 
tacked to each other, they would extend 494 miles 
and 1,593 yards. To give some idea of the ex- 
tent of that distance, it may be sufficient to say 
that one of the wheels of the mail which runs 
from Falmouth to London, and again from London 
to Easingwold, a small town twelve miles beyond 
York, might run all the way on the letter-press so 
printed, except the last 167 yards. The same 
extent of letter-press would reach from London 

to Paris, and back again from Paris to Canter- 
bury, and a little further. The 30,000 papers, if 
opened out and joined together, would cover a 
length of twenty-two miles and 1,280 yards ; or, 
in other words, would reach from The Times office, 
in Printing-house Square, to the entrance hall 
in Windsor Castle, leaving a few yards for stair 
carpets. It is recorded that 20,000 copies were in 
the hands of the newsmen at eight o'clock in the 
morning. Since 1 840, the circulation of The Times 
has greatly increased ; and what was then deemed 
wonderful on an extraordinary occasion, is now 
exceeded daily by 8,000 copies the present daily 
circulation being about 38,000 copies, which are 
worked by greatly improved machinery at the 
rate of between 8,000 to 10,000 per hour. On the 
2nd of last May, The Times containing an account 
of the opening of the Great Exhibition by the 
Queen, circulated to the enormous number of 
52,000 copies, the largest number ever known of 
one daily newspaper publication. Nothing can 
illustrate more forcibly than these statements the 
great utility of the machinery employed in mul- 
tiplying with so miraculous a rapidity such an 
immense number of copies. When we look at the 
great talent the extensive arrangement the 
vast amount of information on a variety of topics 
the immense circulation the rapidity with 
which it is thrown off, and the correctness of the 
details of The Times paper we are constrained 
to pronounce it the most marvellous political 
journal the world has ever seen. What would our 
forefathers have said to this wonderful broad- 
sheet, which conveys information of the world's 
movements to the teeming population of the 
United Kingdom, and also to the people of other 
and distant climes. H. M. BEALBY. 

North Brixton. 


Devonshire Superstitions. Days of the week : 
" Born on a Sunday, a gentleman ; 
Monday, fair in face ; 
Tuesday, full of grace ; 
Wednesday, sour and grum ; 
Thursday, welcome home ; 
Friday, free in giving ; 
Saturday, work hard for your living." 
Tuesday and Wednesday are lucky days. 
Thursday has one lucky hour, viz. the hour 
before the sun rises. 
Friday is unlucky. 

It is very unlucky to turn a featherbed on a 
Sunday ; my housemaid says she would not turn 
my bed on a Sunday on any account. 

" To sneeze on Monday hastens anger, 
Tuesday, kiss a stranger. 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



" To sneeze on Friday, give a gift- 
Saturday, receive a gift. 
Sunday, before you break your fast. 
You'll see your true love before a week's past." 

My informant cannot recollect the consequences 
of sneezing on Wednesday and Thursday. 
" Sneeze on Sunday morning fasting, 
You'll enjoy your own true love to everlasting." 

If you sneeze on a Saturday night after the 
candle is lighted, you will next week see a stranger 
you never saw before. 

A new moon seen over the right shoulder is 
lucky, over the left shoulder unlucky, and straight 
before prognosticates good luck to the end of the 

Hair and nails should always be cut during the 
waning of the moon. 

Whatever you think of when you see a star 
shooting, you are sure to have. 

When you first see the new moon in the new 
year, take your stocking off from one foot, and 
run to the next style ; when you get there, be- 
tween the great toe and the next, you will find a 
hair, which will be the colour of your lover's. 

When you first see the new moon after mid- 
summer, go to a stile, turn your back to it, and 

" All hail, new moon, all hail to thee 1 
I prithee good moon, reveal to me 
This night who shall my true love be : 
Who he is, and what he wears, 
And what he does all months and years." 

To see a Lover in a Dream. Pluck yarrow 
from a young man's grave, saying as you do so 

" Yarrow, sweet yarrow, the first that I have found, 
And in the name of Jesus I pluck it from the ground. 
As Joseph loved sweet Mary, and took her for his 

So in a dream this night, I hope my true love will 


Sleep with the yarrow under the pillow. 


Some time ago I was in the neighbourhood of 
Camelford (a small town in Cornwall), and in- 
quiring the name of a church I saw in the dis- 
tance, was told that its name was Advent, though 
it was generally called Saint Teen. Now Teen in 
Cornish = to light. Can this name have been 
applied from, any peculiar ceremonies observed 
here during Advent ? J. M. (4) 

Curious Inscription. I obtained the following 
inscription from a person in the country, and 
if you wish to make a " note " of it, it is perfectly 

at your service. The arrangement of the letters 

s curous. 

" Bene. 

At. ht Hiss to 

Ne LI esca Theri 

Neg - Ray. C. Hanged. 

F ..... Roma bvs. y. L. 

if et oli ---- Fele SS. C. 

la. YB: year than. B.C. 

La Ys - he Go ..... th 

Erp - E. L F bvtn 

ows H e'st 

Urn E D T odv Sth 

E R 

An old Record. 

Birch Hill, May, 1844. 

J. H. W 


Glass in Windows formerly not a Fixture. In 
Brooke's Abridgement, tit. " Chatteles," it appears 
that in the 21st Hen. VII., A.D. 1505, it was held 
that though the frame-work of the windows be- 
longed to the heir, the glass was the property of 
the executors, and might therefore be removed by 
them, " quar le meason est perfite sauns le glasse." 
In A.D. 1599 Lord Coke informs us it was in the 
Common Pleas " resolved per totam curiam, that 
glass annexed to windows by nails, or in any other 
manner, could not be removed ; for without glass 
it is no perfect house." - J. O. M. 

D" Israeli : Pope and Goldsmith. Mr. D'Israeli 
congratulates himself with much satisfaction, in 
his Essay on the Literary Character, both in his 
Preface, p. xxix., and in the text, p. 187. vol. i., 
in having written this immortal sentence : 

" The defects of great men. are the consolation of the 

more particularly as it appears Lord Byron had 
" deeply underscored it." Perhaps he was un- 
aware that Pope, in a letter to Swift, Feb. 16, 
1733, had said : 

" A few loose things sometimes fall from men of wit, 
by which cen&orious fools judge as ill of them as they 
possibly can, for their own comfort." 
And that Goldsmith says : 

" The folly of others is ever most ridiculous to those 
who are themselves most foolish." Citizen of the 




In the 231st number of that excellent New York 
periodical, The Literary World, published on the 
5th of July, there is an article on " Steamboats 
and Steamboating in the South West," in which I 
find the following passage : 



[No. 93. 

" I mentioned the refrain of the firemen. Now as a 
particular one is almost invariably sung by Negroes 
when they have anything to do with or about a fire; 
whether it be while working at a New Orleans fire- 
engine, or crowding wood into the furnaces of a steam- 
boat ; whether they desire to make an extra racket at 
leaving, or evince their joy at returning to a port, it 
may be worth recording ; and here it is : 
* Fire on the quarter-deck, 

Fire on the bow, 
Fire on the gun-deck, 
Fire down below ! ' 

The last line is given by all hands with great vim 
(szc) and volume ; and as for the chorus itself, you will 
never meet or pass a boat, you will never behold the 
departure or arrival of one, and you will never witness 
a New Orleans fire, without hearing it." 

The writer says nothing about the origin of this 
Negro melody, and therefore he is, I presume, 
unaware of it. But many of your readers will at 
once recognise the spirited lines, which when once 
they are read in Walter Scott's Pirate, have some- 
how a strange pertinacity in ringing in one's ears, 
and creep into a nook of the memory, from which 
they ever and anon insist on emerging to the lips. 
The passage occurs at the end of the fifth chapter 
of the third volume, where the pirates recapture 
their runaway captain : 

" They gained their boat in safety, and jumped into 
it, carrying along with them Cleveland, to whom cir- 
cumstances seemed to offer no other refuge, and pushed 
off for their vessel, singing in chorus to their oars an 
old ditty, of which the natives of Kirkwall could only 
hear the first stanza : 

' Thus said the Rover 

To his gallant crew, 
Up with the black flag, 
Down with the blue! 
Fire on the main- top, 

Fire on the bow, 
Fire on the gun-deck, 
Fire down below !' " 

So run the lines in the original ecl't : on, but in 
the revised one of the collected novels in forty- 
eight volumes, and in all the subsequent ones, the 
first two stand thus : 

Robin Rover 

Said to his crew." 

This alteration strikes one as anything but an 
improvement, and it has suggested a doubt, which 
I beg to apply to the numerous and well-informed 
body of your readers to solve. Are these lines 
the production of Walter Scott, as they are gene- 
rally supposed to be ; or are they really the fragment 
of an old ditty? The alteration at the commence- 
ment does not seem one that would have found 
favour in the eyes of an author, but rather the 
effect of a prompting of memory. I believe, in- 
deed, the lines are inserted in the volume called 
The Poetry of the Author of the Waverley Novels 

(which I saw some years ago, but cannot refer to 
at this moment), but that is not decisive. 

There is a case in point, which is worth quoting 
on its own account. In Peveril of the Peak, in 
the celebrated scene of the interview between 
Buckingham and Fenella, where Fenella leaps 
from, the window, and Buckingham hesitates to 
follow, there is this passage; 

" From a neighbouring thicket of shrubs, amongst 
which his visitor had disappeared, he heard her chant a 
verse of a comic song, then much in fashion, concerning 
a despairing lover who had recourse to a precipice. 
' But when he came near, 

Beholding how steep 
The sides did appear, 

And the bottom how deep ; 
Though his suit was rejected 
He sadly reflected, 
That a lover forsaken 

A new love may get ; 
But a neck that's once broken 

Can never be set.' " 

This verse, also, if I mistake not, appears in 
The Poetry of the Author of Waverley, and is cer- 
tainly set down by almost every reader as the 
production of Sir Walter. But in the sixth 
volume of Anderson's Poets of Great Britain, at 
page 574. in the works of Walsh, occurs a song 
called " The Despairing Lover," in which we are 
told that 

" Distracted with care 
For Phyllis the fair, 
Since nothing could move her, 
Poor Damon, her lover, 
Resolves in despair 
No longer to languish, 
Nor bear so much anguish ; 
But, mad with his love, 
To a precipice goes, 
"Where a leap from above 
Would soon finish his woes. 

When in rage he came there, 

Beholding how steep 
The sides did appear, 

And the bottom how deep, 
His torments projecting, 
And sadly reflecting 
That a lover forsaken," 

&c. &c. &c. 

In this instance it is shown that Sir Walter was 
not indebted for the comic song to his wonderful 
genius, but to his stupendous memory ; and it is 
just possible that it may be so in the other, in 
which case one would be very glad to see the re- 
mainder of the " old ditty." T. W. 

56. Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar ? 
I have long been very curious to know whether 
Milton was an Anglo-Saxon scholar. He com- 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



piled a history of the Saxon period : had he the 
power of access to the original sources ? Is there 
any ground for supposing that he had read our 
Saxon Paradise Lost ; I mean the immortal poetry 
of Csedmon ? If he really knew nothing of this 
ancient relic, then it may well be said, that the 
poems of Caedmon and of Milton afford the most 
striking known example of coincident poetic 

I should be extremely obliged to any of your 
learned correspondents who would bring the 
faintest ray of evidence to bear upon this obscure 

The similarity of the two poems has been 
noticed long ago; e. g. by Sir F. Palgrave in The 
Archceologia, xxiv. I know not whether he was 
the first ; I think Conybeare was beforehand with 
him. J. E. 

Oxford, Aug. 2. 1851. 

57. Tale of a Tub. What is the origin of this 
popular phrase ? It dates anterior to the time of 
Sir Thomas More, an anecdote in whose chancel- 
lorship thus illustrates it. An attorney in his 
court, named Tubb, gave an account in court of a 
cause in which he was concerned, which the Chan- 
cellor (who, with all his gentleness, loved a joke) 
thought so rambling and incoherent, that he said 
at the end of Tubb's speech, " This is a tale of a 
Tubb ; " plainly showing that the phrase was then 
familiarly known. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

58. Cleopatra s Needle. When was the obe- 
lisk in Egypt first so called ? Why was it so 
called? What is the most popular work on Egypt 
for a full description of it ? J. B. J. 

Liverpool, July 28. 1851. 

59. Pair of Curols. In a list of the rating of 
the incumbents of the diocese of Ely, A.D. 1609, 
towards the support of the army, preserved by 
Cole> several are returned for " a pair of curols." 

" Mr. Deiiham. for his vicarage of Cherry Hinton to 
find (jointly with the Vicar of Impington and Calde- 
cote) a pair of Curols with- a pike furnished." 

What is the meaning of the word " Curol," 
supposing Cole to have used it aright ? E. V. 

60. Cowper Law. Lord Mahon, in his History 
of England, second edit. vol. ii. p. 66., in speaking 
of the death of the first Earl Cowper, after saying 
" His memory deserves high respect," &c., adds, 
" And though it seems that a by- word was cur- 
rent of ' Cowper law, to hang a man first and then 
judge him,' I believe that it proceeded from party 
resentment, rather than from any real fault;." 
and in a note refers to the evidence at Lord! 
Wintoun's trial. Is not Lord Mahon mistaken, .\h< 
supposing that this saying refers to Lord Cowper ? 
Should it not be " Cupar Law," meaning the town 
of that name ? I see in Lord Wintoun's trial, 
where his lordship uses the expression, he adds, 

as we used to say in our country." If my sup- 
position is correct, can any of your correspondents 
say how the proverb arose ? C. DE D. 

61. Order of Greenwich. I have an impression 
of an oval ecclesiastical seal, the matrix of which 
is said to have been found near Kilkenny. The 
device is the Ascension of the Virgin, beneath 
which is a shield charged with the royal arms ; 
the three fleur de lis in the first and fourth quar- 
terings showing the seal to be, comparatively 
speaking, modern. The legend, in Lombardic 
capitals, runs as follows : " + SGILLVM + G ARDIANI 
-f GRVWVCESIS + ." Query, Does " GRVWVCESIS" 
mean " of Greenwich ?" 

In the State Papers, temp. Hen. VIII., vol. iii. 
p. 285., an abbey in Ireland is said to be of the 
" order of Greenewich." Query, What order was 

Kilkenny, July 19. 1851. 

62. House of Yvery. This work is rarely to 
be met with in a perfect state ; but there is one 
plate about which there exists a doubt, viz. a 
folding plate or map of the estates of John Per- 
ceval, Earl of Egmont. 

It would be satisfactory perhaps to many of the 
readers of " NOTES AND QUERIES," as well as to 
myself, to know whether any gentleman possesses 
a copy of the work with such a plan. H. T. E. 

Clyst St. George. 

63^ Entomological Query. Can, any of your bo- 
tanical or entomological correspondents help me 
to the name of the grub that is apt to become a 
chrysalis on the Linaria minor {Antirrhinum minus 
of Linnaeus) ? For yesterday, in a chalky field in 
Berkshire, I found several cocoons of one particular 
kind on the above plant (itself not common in 
these parts), and I did not see it on any other 
plant in the field, although I spent some time in 
looking about. J. E. 

Oxford, July 29. 

64. Spenser's Portraits (Vol. iv., p. 74 .). VARRO 
states he is "well acquainted with an admirable 
portrait of the poet, bearing date 1593." Perhaps 
he could give a satisfactory answer to a Query 
relative to the engraved portraits of Spenser 
which appeared in one of the numbers of u NOTES 
AND QUERIES " for last April, and which has not 
been yet answered. E. M. B. 

65. Harrow's Bible in Spain. In the Athencsum 
for Aug. 17, 1850, in a review of Wallis's Glimpses 
of Spain, I find the following remark : 

" Mr. Wall is imputes a want of judgment and of 
'earnest desire' for the objects of his mission to Mr. 
Borrow personally, on the ground that he being, as all 
kr; ff., sent out by the Bible Society to circulate the 
P,< testant Scriptures did not, instead of attempting 
tc ' alfil that special object of his mission, employ him- 



[No. 93. 

self in diffusing the Roman Catholic version of the 
Vulgate set forth by the Spanish hierarchy." 

It is well known that the Bible Society keeps 
on its shelves both the Protestant and Roman 
Catholic versions in French, Italian, Portuguese, 
and Spanish. Its endeavours at present are, I 
believe, confined to attempting to circulate the 
Roman Catholic versions, on the ground that it is 
impossible to circulate the more correct Protestant 
ones. My Queries are : 

1. Was Mr. Borrow sent out by the Bible So- 
ciety to circulate the Protestant Scriptures ? 

2. Whose translation of the Vulgate was set 
forth by the Spanish hierarchy ? E. M. B. 

66. Dogmatism and Puppyism. 

" Dogmatism is nothing but puppyism come to its 
full growth." 

I find this quotation in a leader of The Times. 
Can you or any of your readers inform me of its 
origin ? ? 

67. A Saxon Bell-house. A reader of " NOTES 
AND QUERIES," who subscribes himself A LOVER 
OF BELLS, has kindly referred me to a passage in 
Hume's History of England, in which it is said 
that, according to a statute of Athelstan, " a ceorle 
or husbandman who had been able to purchase five 
hides of land, and had a chapel, a kitchen, a hall, 
and a &e//," was raised to the rank of a Thane. 
The marginal reference in Hume is to Selden's 
Titles of Honor; and in that work the statute is 
thus given : 

" If a churle or a countryman so thrived that hee had 
fully five hides of his owne land, a church, and a kitchen, 
a bel-house, a borough -gate with a seate, and any dis- 
tinct office in the king's court, then was he henceforth 
of equall honour or dignitie with a Thane." 

Selden considers that theZ><?Z-#0Msewasthedining- 
hall to which the guests and family were sum- 
moned by the ringing, of a bell. He thinks the 
word corresponds with tinello, tinelo, and tinel, the 
Italian, Spanish, and French words for a " public 
hall" or " dining-room," " so named, because the 
tin or tingling of a bell at the times of dinner or 
supper in it were signified by it." 

I beg to ask whether the existing knowledge of 
the details of Saxon architecture substantiates 
Selden's view ; and whether this bell was also the 
alarum-bell of the castle, hanging in an outside 
turret ? 

Many thanks to my correspondent, and to 
" NOTES AND QUERIES " for the introduction to his 
notice. ALFRED GATTY. 

Cycle of the Moon. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me in what year the new 
moon last fell on the 1st of January f I am no 
astronomer, but I believe the moon's cycle is a 

period of nineteen years, and that whenever the 
new moon falls on the 1st January, the cycle 
begins. BENBOW. 


[The above matter is made the more puzzling to all 
who are not astronomers, by the pertinacity with which 
popular writers persist in speaking of the moon's mo- 
tions as if they were regular. 

There is no particular beginning to the cycle of 
nineteen years : anybody may make it begin when he 
pleases. What it means is this : that in any set of 
nineteen years, the new and full moons generally (not 
always) fall on the same days as in the preceding nine- 
teen years. For instance, in 1831, the 14th of March 
was a day of new moon : go on nineteen years, that is, 
to the 14th of March, 1850; most probably, not cer- 
tainly, this must be a day of new moon. It happens, 
however, otherwise ; for in 1850 the new moon is on the 
13th. But in the Aprils of both years, the new moons 
are on the 1 2th ; in the Junes, on the 10th. All that 
can be said is, that where any day of any year is new 
moon, most probably that day nineteen years is new 
moon also, and certainly either the day before or the 
day after. In that cycle of nineteen years, which is 
called the cycle of the golden number, there is an arbi- 
trary beginning, which has something to do with the 
new moon falling near the 1st of January. The cycle 
in which we now are, began (that is, had the year 
marked 1) in 1843. 

To find the last time when the new moon fell on 
the 1st of January with certainty, would be no easy 
problem for any but an astronomer. The nearest 
which our correspondent can do is this. Take Mr. De 
Morgan's recently published Book of Almanacs, and 
turn to almanac 37. Take the day in question 
(Jan. 1), and from the first of the Roman numbers 
written opposite (xxx. ) subtract one (xxix.). Look 
back into the new style index (p. 7.), then any one 
year which has the epact 29 is very likely to have the 
new moon on the 1st of January ; epact 30 may also 
have it. Now, on looking, we find that we are not in 
that period of the world's existence at which epact 29 
makes its appearance ; no such thing has occurred since 
1699, nor will occur until 1900. We are then in a 
period in which new moons on the 1st of January are 
comparatively infrequent. Our best chance is when the 
epact is 30, as in 1 843 : here there is a narrow miss 
of what we want, for it was new moon on the day pre- 
vious, as late as seven in the evening. 

Our correspondent's notion that the moon's cycle 
begins with a new moon on the 1st of January, is 
probably derived from this, that the calendar is so con- 
trived that for a very long period the years which have 
1 for their golden number, have a new moon near the 
1st of January, either on it, or within a day of it.] 

Cocker's Arithmetic. At a sale of books by 
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, a copy of Cocker's 
Arithmetic was sold for 8/. 10s., date 1678, said 
to be one of the only two extant. It is stated that 
Dr. Dibdin had never seen any edition printed in 
the seventeenth century, and mentions the thirty- 
second as the earliest he had met with. I have in 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



my possession a copy bearing date 1694, seeming to 
be one of a further impression of the first edition, 
as it gives no edition, but simply has in the title 
page : 

" This impression is corrected and amended with 
many additions throughout the whole." 

" London : Printed by J. R. for T. P., and are to 
be sold by John Back, at the Black Boy on London 
Bridge, 1694." 

Perhaps you can give me some information on 
the edition, if you think it a fit subject for your 
valuable publication. E. K. JOTT. 

Frome, Somerset. 

[Mr. De Morgan, in his Arithmetical Books, says that 
the earliest edition he ever possessed is that of 1685 : 
and what edition was not stated. The fourth edition 
was of 1682, the twentieth of 1700. The matters cited 
by our correspondent, which we have omitted, are in 
all, or nearly all, editions. We have heard of three 
copies of l\\e first edition : one sold in Mr. Halliwell's 
sale, one in the library of the Roman Catholic College 
at Oscott, and one sold by Puttick and Simpson, as 
above, in April last : but we cannot say that these are 
three different copies, though we suspect it. Our cor- 
respondent's edition is not mentioned by any one. The 
fifty -second edition, by Geo. Fisher, appeared in 1748, 
according to the Catalogue of the Philosophical So- 
ciety of Newcastle.] 

Sanskrit Elementary Books. Will some one 
of your correspondents kindly inform me what 
are the elementary works necessary for gaining a 
knowledge of Sanskrit ? DELTA. 

[Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar (the 2nd edition), and 
the Hitopadesa, edited by Johnson, are the best ele- 
mentary works.] 

Townley MSS., Sfc. I request the favour to 
be informed where are the Townley MSS. ? They 
are quoted by Sir H. Nicolas in Scrope and Gros- 
venor Rolls. Also where are the MSS. formerly 
penes Earl of Egmont, often quoted in the History 
of the House of Yvery f And a folio of Pedigrees 
by Camden Russet ? S. S. 

[The Townley Heraldic Collections are in the 
British Museum, among the Additional MSS., Nos. 
14,829 14,832. 14,834. In the same collection, No, 
6,226. p. 100., are Bishop Clayton's Letters to Sir John 
Perceval, first Earl of Egmont.} 

" Man is born to trouble" Sfc. In an edition 
of The Holy Bible, with TWENTY THOUSAND EMEN- 
DATIONS: London, 1841, I read as follows, at 
Job v. 7. : " For man is NOT born to trouble as the 
sparks fly upwards." Query 1. Is there any 
authority from MSS., c. for the insertion of the 
word "not"? 2. Is this insertion occasioned by 
the oversight of the printer or of the editor? N". 

[There is no authority for the insertion of the word 
"not," that we can find, either in MSS. or commenta- 
tors. As to the oversight of the printer or editor we 
cannot speak : but are rather inclined to attribute that 

and other emendations to the second-sight of one of 
the parties concerned. Our correspondent will find 
Dr. Conquest's emendated Bible ably criticised by one of 
the best Hebrew scholars of the day in the Jewish 
Intelligencer, vol. ix. p. 84.] 

(Vol. iv., p. 45.) 

The defence of Cardinal Bellarmin set up by 
your correspondent J. W. CT. is not new, and is 
exceedingly plausible at first sight. Allow me, 
however, to direct the attention of your readers to 
the following reply to a similar defence, which I 
take from the Sequel to Letters to M. Gondon, 
by Dr. Wordsworth, Canon of Westminster, pp. 10. 

" I would first beg leave to observe that my three 
reviewers, in their zeal to speak for Cardinal Bel- 
larmine, have not allowed him to speak for himself. 
They seem not to have remembered that this very 
passage was severely censured in his life-time, and 
that in the Review which he wrote of his own works, by 
way of explanation, he endeavoured to set up a defence 
for it, which is wholly at variance with their apologies for 
him. He says, ' When I affirmed that, if the Pope 
commanded a vice or forbad a virtue, the church would 
be bound to believe virtue to be evil and vice good, I 
was speaking concerning doubtful acts of virtue or 
vice; for if he ordered a manifest vice, or forbad a 
manifest virtue, it would be necessary to say with St. 
Peter, We must obey God rather than man.' Re- 
cognitio Librorum omnium Robert! Bellarmini ab 
ipso edita, Ingolstad, 1608, p. 19; ' Ubi diximus quod 
si Papa praeciperet vitium aut prohiberet virtutem, 
Ecclesia teneretur credere virtutem esse malam et 
vitium esse bonum, locuti sumus de actibus duliis vir- 
tutum aut vitiorum ; nam si praeciperet manifestum 
vitium aut prohiberet manifestam virtutem, dicendum 
esset cum Petro obedire oportet magis Deo quam ho- 
minibus. ' 

This is his own defence ; let it be received for what 
it is worth : it differs entirely from that which the re- 
viewers make for him." 

It would occupy too much of your valuable 
space to insert the whole of Dr. Wordsworth^ 
observations, which, however, every one who is 
desirous of thoroughly investigating the subject, 
ought to read and consider. TYRO. 



(Vol. i., pp. 385. 492.) 

In the 1st volume of the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, pp. 345., c., and in 
subsequent volumes, an interesting account, by 
J. W. Thornton, Esq., of Boston, may be found 
of the " Gookins of America," who are descendants 



[No. 93. 

of Sir Vincent Gookin, Knt., to whom your corre- 
spondents refer. 

Mr. Thornton explains the omission of the de- 
scendants of Vincent and Daniel in the pedigree 
found in Berry's Kent, p. 113., and which is from 
the original visitation in Heralds' College, by the 
fact, that they probably went to the co. Cork, and 
Daniel from thence to Virginia. He cites un- 
doubted proof that Daniel arrived in Virginia in 
November, 1621, and was one of twenty-six 
patentees to whom, in 1620, King James granted 
a patent of land in that colony, they having 
"undertaken to transport great multitudes of 
persons and cattle to Virginia." In 1626 this 
Daniel is described in a deed as of " Carygoline, 
in the county of Cork, within the kingdom of 
Ireland, Esquire." In February 1630 a deed is 
recorded, made by " Daniel Gookin, of Newport 
Newes, Virginia, the younger, Gentleman." Upon 
the records of the Court of James City, held 
Nov. 22, 1642, Captain John Gookin is mentioned. 
Mr. Thornton infers that the elder Daniel returned 
to Ireland, and that Daniel the younger, and 
Captain John Gookin, were his sons. Daring the 
religious troubles which arose in Virginia, Daniel, 
junior, and Mary his wife, left for New England, 
where they arrived on May 10, 1644, and where he 
became, as he had been, a person of considerable 
influence. He was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General in the colony, and died March 19, 

1686-7, set. 75. For further mention of him, see 
Carlyle's Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 
Let. 143. and Note; Thuiioe's State Papers, vol. iv. 
pp. 6. 440. 449.; vol. v. p. 509.; vol. vi. p. 362. 
He is spoken of, says Mr. Thornton, by an authority 
of the time, as a "Kentish soldier." Colonel 
Charles Gookin, whom Penn sent as a governor to 
his colony, is described by the latter in a letter, 
dated London, Sept. 28, 1708, as " of years and 
experience," "and of what they call a good family, 
his grandfather Sir Vincent Gookin having been 
an early great planter in Ireland, in King James 
First's and the first Charles's days." Governor 
Gookin assumed his duties in Pennsylvania in 
1708, and was recalled in 1717. He was never 

In a letter dated Philadelphia, Nov. 28, 1709, 
Governor Gookin writes to a grandson of Major- 
General Daniel Gookin, of New England : " I 
assure you that the account you gave me of that 
part of our family settled in America was extremely 
satisfactory;" and again, Nov. 22, 1710, to the 
same he says : " By a letter from Ireland I am in- 
formed two of our relatives are lately dead, viz. 
Robert Gookin, son of my uncle Robert, and 
Augustine Gookin, eldest son of my uncle Charles." 
He subscribes himself " cousin," &c. 

From Mr. Thornton's account, and the remarks 
of your correspondent, I think I may venture to 
deduce the following table : 

Sia VINCENT G., Kt., married JUDITH, dau. of xx. Wood, 

Lived at High- 
field House, Bit- 
ton, Gloucester, 
which he pur- 
chased in 1627, 
d. 1637, and bu. 
at Bitton. 

d. 1642, bu. at Bitton. 

DANIEL, married xv. 
who went 
to Virgi- 


buried at 




publishes his 
pamphlet r 'm 
1634, left Bit- 
ton in 1646, 
living in 1655. 



at Bitton, 


conveys Bitton 
in 1646. 

married Mary 

d. 1710. eldest son, 
>d. 1710. 

Philadelphia, July 2. 1851. 

some of whose 
descendants still 
live in New 

Recording Secretary of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

AUG. 9. ,1851.] 




(Vol. iv., p. 20.) 

The inscription on the tombstone of Christ. 
Burraway, in Martham Church, copied by your 
correspondent E. S. T., singular as it is, and start- 
ling as the story attached to it seerns, is not with- 
out a parallel, for we have a similar inscription on 
another mysterious mother of the name of Marulla 
in ancient times, which is given by Boxhornius 
in his Monumenta Illustrium Virorum et Elogia, 
Amst. 1638, fol. 112. He appears to have found 
it on a ruined sarcophagus at Rome, of which 
he has given a representation, and in his Index 
thus refers to it : 

" Hersilus cum Marulla, qua? ei mater, soror, et 
sponsa fuit." 

Your correspondent has not mentioned the 
source of his explanation of the enigma : I pre- 
sume it is traditional. The ancient inscription, 
it will be seen, solves it in the last two lines. The 
coincidence of these two inscriptions is not a little 







In that entertaining volume La Sylva Curiosa 
de Julian de Medrano, Cavallero Navarro, first 
printed in 1583, and reprinted at Paris in 1608, a 
somewhat similar story is related, and the monu- 
mental inscription in French is given. Some of 
these stories must surely be apocryphal.* 

"Passing through the Bourbonnese country I was 
told, that many years since a young gentleman there 
had, by some fortuitous accident, lain with his own 
mother, who became pregnant by him. That some 
time after, a favourable opportunity offering, he went 
to the wars, and was absent from his home some four- 
teen or fifteen years. At the expiration of that time 
returning home, he found his mother well stricken in 
years, who had a few days previous taken into her ser- 
vice a handsome lass, who had been brought up from 
infancy in the mountains of Auvergne. This young 
woman being of a naturally affectionate disposition, 
seemed much attached to her mistress, and relieved her 
of all her household cares, without knowing how nearly 

Stories of the same nature are told in the Hepta- 
meron of the Queen of Navarre, 3me Journee, Nouvelle 
30?ne. where the scene is laid in Languedoc ; and by 
Jeremy Taylor in his Ductor Dubitantium, B. i. C. iii. 

. 3., who cites Comitolus as his authority : here 
the scene is laid in Venice. By others the scene has 
>een placed in London, and also in Scotland. Horace 
Walpole's Postscript to his Tragedy will of course be 
known to most of your readers. 

they were related ; for she was her daughter, the fruit 
of the intercourse with her son, now master of the 
house ; notwithstanding there was no one in those 
parts that knew it. The young man seeing her vir- 
tuous, graceful, and handsome, became enamoured of 
her, in so much that, although his relations wished him 
to marry a rich wife, and that all his friends endea- 
voured to divert his passion, and counselled him to be- 
stow his love elsewhere, it was all to no purpose, but, 
preferring her to all others he had seen, he married 
her. They lived together many years, had several 
children, and were buried in the same tomb, without 
either of them having ever known that they were 
father and daughter, brother and sister ! until after a 
lapse of time, a shepherd from Auvergne coming into the 
Bourbonnese country, told the history to the inhabitants 
of the place where this doubly incestuous couple lived. 
When I passed through the country I was shown the 
spot where they dwelt, and the church where they were 
interred ; and a copy of the epitaph which was placed 
upon their tomb was given me, which was as follows : 

Cy gist la fille, cy gist le pere, 
Cy gist la sceur, cy gist le frere, 
Cy gist la femme et le mary, 
Et si n'y a que deux corps ici.' " 

Mickleham, July 28. 1851. 


(Vol. iii., pp. 477. 508. ; Vol. iv., p. 25.) 

Having been acquainted with Mr. Hone, when 
a bookseller in the Strand (the firm, I think, was 
Hone and Bone), who published several catalogues 
of scarce works in poetry and the drama, I feel 
some interest in the question raised upon his reli- 
gious principles. It was no doubt this avocation 
which gave to Mr. Hone that extensive circle of 
information, which enabled him to conduct those 
amusing publications The ^very-day Book, The 
Year Booh, and The Table Booh. In what way 
my schoolfellow Charles Lamb became acquainted 
with Mr. Hone I know not; but I frequently 
heard him speak of his misfortunes, and I was 
witness to his endeavours to relieve his difficulties, 
by requesting his acquaintance to visit the coffee- 
house which Mrs. Hone opened in Gracechurch 
Street. I may communicate hereafter some in- 
formation upon the intimacy which existed between 
Charles Lamb and Mr. Hone ; my present note 
being confined to some more extensive and in- 
teresting pieces of information relative to Mr. 
Hone's conversion from infidelity to the pure 
principles of Christianity, than are furnished by 
MR. WILLIAM BARTON. For this purpose I tran- 
scribe a letter of Mr. Hone's, descriptive of his 
conversion, the cause which led to it, and his 
earnest desire to impress upon the public mind his 
sincerity in the change which had taken place. A 
more touching picture of real conviction, and of a 



[No. .93. 

renewed state of mind, is not perhaps upon record, 
and cannot too extensively be made known. The 
letter appeared a few years ago in the Churchman's 
Penny Magazine^ vol. ii. p. 154., with the initials 
" T. H." 

Dear Sir, 

" Your kindness towards me, and the desire you ex- 
press of becoming serviceable to me, require that I 
should be explicit as regards the circumstances under 
which we met, a little time ago, and have since con- 
versed on. I think my statement should be in writing, 
and hence this letter. 

" It has pleased the Almighty to have dealings with 
me for several years, until, by His Holy Spirit, I have 
been brought from darkness to light ; to know HIM, 
through faith in Christ ; to rest in His love, as in the 
cleft of a rock, safe from the storms and afflictions of 
the world. To acquaint all who ever heard of my 
name, with this mighty change of heart, has long been 
my desire; and it seems to me, that I ought not to 
exercise my restored faculties without tendering their 
first fruits as an humble offering to the promotion of 
His cause, by testifying of His great mercy. It has 
been my frequent and earnest prayer to God to enable 
me to do this, as His doing ; to seek nothing but 
honour to His holy name, and in the fear of Him, and 
Him only, without regard to the praise or dispraise of 
man come from what quarter it may to have my 
soul possessed in patience ; to wait and be still, as a 
mere instrument in His hands, made willing in the day 
of His power, to do His work. If it be His work, He 
will bless it : I pray that it may be. Now, in this 
matter, and in this view of it, self-seeking and personal 
gratification are out of the question. The desire to 
engage in it is the most earnest wish of my heart ; but 
my heart has submitted to God, and in submission to 
Him, it seeks to do His will, to do the will of my 
Saviour, as my Lord and my God, who has done all 
things for me, and will do all things well. I believe He 
lias put the desire into my heart to do this homage to 
His sovereignty, as a subject of His kingdom. To do it 
has been the ruling purpose of my mind : as an instance 
of it, let me mention, that I have been frequently asked 
by autograph collectors to write something in their 
albums. For the last two years I have done nothing 
in this way, till the 3rd of last month, a lady having 
brought in her album the night before, I remembered 
it was my birth-day, and wrote the following lines : 

' The proudest heart that ever beat 

Hath been subdued in me ; 
The wildest will that ever rose 
To scorn Thy cause, and aid Thy foes, 

Is quell'd, my God, by Thee. 

Thy will, and not my will, be done ; 

My heart be ever Thine : 
Confessing Thee, the mighty Word, 
My Saviour Christ, my God> my Lord, 

Thy Cross shall be my sign.' 

These lines, I thought, would be ill-placed among 
contributions of different import: I therefore wrote 
them at the end of my Bible, and put some others, of a 
religious and kindly admonitory tendency, in the lady's 

album. Not even in the albums can I write without 
manifesting, that to please is less my object than to 
acknowledge the goodness of God. Well, then, my 
dear Sir, in this respect you may gather, in some de- 
gree, how it is with me, and how God has wrought 
upon my mind, and operates upon it to the end I speak 
of. When His hand struck me as for death, it was in a 
house of prayer, and whilst being carried from the place 
in men's arms as for dead, He lifted my heart to His 
throne of grace. During the loneliness of what seemed 
to be my dying bed, and the discomfort of my awful 
infirmity, and the ruin of my house, and family, and 
property, He was with me, and comforted me ; and 
hitherto He has helped me, and I bless His holy name ; 
my faith in Him is unshaken, and He keeps me con- 
stantly to himself; and despite of worldly affections, 
arid nature's fear, I depend on Him and the workings 
of His providence, that He will never leave me nor for- 
sake me. It has never entered my mind, even as a 
shadow, that I can do anything for Him ; but what He 
enables me to do, I will do to His glory. In the dark 
seasons of the hidings of His face, I would wait on Him 
who waited for me while I resisted the drawings of His 
love; and when I sit in the light of His countenance, I 
would stand up and magnify His name before the 
people. And now, that He has wonderfully raised me 
up, after a long season of calamity, to the power of 
using my pen, I pray that He may direct it to tell of 
His mercy to me, and by what way He has brought 
me to acknowledge Him, ' the Lord our righteous- 
ness,' ' God blessed for ever,' at all times, and in all 
places, where there may be need of it. I trust I may 
never be ashamed to declare His name ; but readily 
exemplify, by His help, the courage and obedience of a 
Christian man, and, as a good soldier of Christ, fight 
the good fight with the sword of the Spirit. 

" May God grant me grace to do His will, is my 
humble supplication. I am, 

" Dear Sir, 

" Yours most sincerely, 


The foregoing letter may perhaps be considered 
too pharasaieal ; but when is added to it the fol- 
lowing note by Mr. Hone, relating the afflictions 
which had overtaken him, and well nigh over- 
whelmed him, it cannot appear surprising that 
when he sought comfort and relief from where 
alone they are to be found, his heart overflowed 
with thankfulness and praise. 

I find the subjoined notice to his readers in 
Hone's Table Book, vol. ii. p. 737. : 

" Note. 

" Under severe affliction I cannot make up this sheet 
as I wish. This day week my second son was brought 
home with his skull fractured. To-day intelligence 
has arrived to me of the death of my eldest son. 

" The necessity I have been under of submitting re- 
cently to a surgical operation on myself, with a long 
summer of sickness to every member of my family, and 
accumulated troubles of earlier origin, and of another 
nature, have prevented me too often from satisfying 
the wishes of readers, and the claims of correspon- 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



dents. I crave that they will be pleased to receive this 
as a general apology, in lieu of particular notices, and 
in the stead of promises to effect what I can no longer 
hope to accomplish, and forbear to attempt. 

"December 12. 1827." 

J. M. G. 

Mr. Hone, whose friendship I enjoyed for some 
years, became toward the latter part of his life a 
devout and humble Christian, and a member of 
the dissenting church under the pastorate of the 
Kev. Thomas Bkmey, to which also several mem- 
bers of his family* belonged. Meeting him acci- 
dentally, about ten years since, in Great Bell 
Alley, London Wall, he led me to a small book- 
shop, kept I think by one of his daughters, and 
showed me part of a pamphlet he was then en- 
gaged upon, relative to his own religious life and 
experience, as I understood him. This, I believe, 
has never appeared, though he published in 1841 
The early Life and Conversion of William Hone, 
of Ripleyf, his father. 

At p. 46. of this interesting narrative, he sub- 
joins an extract from a new edition of Simpson's 
Plea for Religion, printed for Jackson and Wai- 
ford, describing the happy change which had 
taken place in his own mind. To this account, 
written, as Mr. Hone says, " by a very dear friend 
who knows me intimately," he sets his affirmation ; 
so that there can be no doubt of its accuracy. 

A Life of William Hone, by one who could 
treat it philosophically, would be so deeply inte- 
resting, that I am surprised it has never been un- 
dertaken. " The history of my three days' trials 
in Guildhall," says he, " may be dug out from the 
journals of the period : the history of my mind 
and heart, my scepticism, my atheism, and God's 
final dealings with me, remains to be written. If 
my life be prolonged a few months, the work may 
appear in my lifetime." This was written June 3, 
1841. Was any progress, and what, made in it ? 

Who so fit to " gather up the fragments," as his 
late pastor, Mr. Binney, the deeply thoughtful 
author of one of our best biographies extant, the 
Life of Sir T. F. Buxton ? DOUGLAS ALLPOBT. 

[The concluding words of our correspondent are 
calculated to mislead our readers. The Life of Sir 
T. F. Buxton is by his son ; whereas Mr. Binney's is 
merely a sketch of his character, with that of other 
eminent individuals, published, we believe, in a small 


(Vol. iv., pp. 7. 77.) 

I can assure A LOWLANDER that the reviewer's 
story is quite true, it being gathered from Sir 

" His wife, four daughters, and a son-in-law." 
f London : T. Ward and Co. 8vo. pp. 48. 

John Sinclair, who, in a letter to Mr. Pinkerton, 
dated in May, 1796, says : 

" It is well known that the philibeg was invented by 
an Englishman in Lochabar, about sixty years ago, 
who naturally thought his workmen would be more 
active in that light petticoat than in the belted plaid; 
and that it was more decent to wear it than to have no 
clothing at all, which was the case with some of those 
employed by him in cutting down the woods in Loch- 
abar." See Pinkerton's Correspondence, vol. i. p. 404. 

I never understood that there was any presumed 
antiquity about the philibeg or kilt. In the En- 
cyclopedia Britaimica it is described as a "modern 
substitute" for the lower part of the plaid. 

Presuming that I have settled this point, I will 
pass to the original Query of a JUROR, p. 7., still 
quoting Pinkerton : 

" There is very little doubt but that the Tartan' 
passed from Flanders (whence all our articles came) to 
the Lowlands in the fifteenth century, and thence to the 
Highlands. It is never mentioned before the latter part 
of that century. It first occurs in the accompts of 
James III., 1474, and seems to have passed from 
England ; for the ' rouge tartarin' in the statutes of the 
Order of the Bath in the time of Edward IV. (apud 
Upton de Re Milit.) is surely red tartan, or cloth 
with red stripes of various shades." 

" As to the plaid, there is no reason to believe it 
more ancient than the philibeg. In the sixteenth 
century Fordun (lib. ii. cap. 9.) only mentions the 
Highland people as ' amictu deformis,' a term con- 
veying the idea of a vague savage dress of skins. 

" In the book of dress printed at Paris in 1562, the 
Highland chief is in the Irish dress wearing a mantle. 
The woman is dressed in sheep and deer skins. Lesley, 
in 1570, is the first who mentions the modern Highland 
dress, but represents the tartan as even then being ex- 
clusively confined to the use of people of rank. 

" Buchanan, 1580, mentions the plaids, but says 
they are brown; even as late as 1715 the remote 
Highlanders were only clothed in a long coat but- 
toned down to the mid-leg ; this information was 
derived from the minister of Mulmearn (father of the 
Professor Ferguson), who said 'that those Highlanders 
who joined the Pretender from the most remote parts, 
were not dressed in party-coloured tartans, and had 
neither plaid nor philibeg.' " 

So much for the assumed antiquity of the Scot- 
tish national costume. More interesting matter 
on this subject will be found in Pinkerton's Cor- 
respondence, vol. i. pp. 404 410. BLOWEN. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 33. 69.) 

Whatever be the fate of The Caxton Memorial, 
as suggested by myself, the proposition is clear of 
interested motives. I neither aspire to the honours 
of a patron, nor to the honours of editorship. To 



[No. 93. 

revive the memory of the man, and to illustrate 
the literature of the period, are my sole objects. 

I have to thank MR. BOTFIELD for his polite in- 
formation. I was aware of the meeting of the 
9th of July 1849, but not aware that the proposal of 
a statue ofCaxton had been entertained at so early a 
date. The proceedings of the meeting, as reported 
in The Times, were confined to the question of 
subscriptions : on the statue question there is not 
the slightest hint. 

The advocacy of & fictitious statue by so eminent 
an antiquary as ME. BOTFIELD, and the assurance 
which he gives that this object has been under con- 
sideration for at least two years, make it the more 
imperative on me to state my objections to it ; and 
this I shall do with reference to his own arguments. 

A maxim of the illustrious sir William Jones, 
very apposite to the point in dispute, has floated 
in ray memory from early life. It is this : " The 
best monument that can be erected to a man of 
literary talents is a good edition of his works." 
Such a man was William Caxton; and on this 
principle I would proceed. He would then owe 
the extension of his fame to the admirable art 
which he so successfully practised. 

In the opinion of MR. BOTFIELD, the expense 
attendant on my project would be " fatal to its 
success." Now, as the Shakespeare Society prints 
at the rate of four volumes for a subscription of 
I/., the committee of the Caxton Memorial could 
surely produce one volume for 10s. 6d. I should 
not advise any attempt at splendour. Paper such 
as Caxton would have chosen, a clear type, and 
extreme accuracy of text, are more important 
objects. Competent editors would soon offer their 
services ; and, proud to have their names asso- 
ciated with so desirable an enterprise, would per- 
form their parts with correspondent care and 
ability. Besides, it is easier to collect subscrip- 
tions, when you can promise a substantial return. 

To the other objections of MR. BOTFIELD, I 
shall reply more briefly. The biography of Caxton 
by Lewis is a very scarce book ; and, in the opinion 
of Dibdin, " among the dullest of all biographical 
memoirs." As to that by MR. KNIGHT, only one 
fourth part of it relates to Caxton. In the Typo- 
graphical antiquities we certainly have "copious 
extracts from his works;" but they are mixed up 
with much superfluity of disquisition. Whether 
such a memorial would be " hidden in a bookcase," 
must depend on the taste of the possessor. It 
would be accessible in the four quarters of the 
globe which is as much as can be said of other 
books, and more than can be said of a statue. 

I cannot admit the propriety of viewing Caxton 
as a mere printer. By continental writers he is 
more correctly appreciated. M. de la Serna calls 
him " homme de lettres, artiste renomme," etc. ; 
and M. Suard observes, " dans presque tous les 
ouvrages imprimes par lui, il a insere quelques 

lignes qui toujours attestent la purete des inten- 
tions dont il etait anime." 

The advocates of a fictitious statue of Caxton 
have been apprized of my intention ; and if certain 
estimable antiquaries should prove to be of the 
number, they must consider my opposition as the 
consequence of general principles. 

It should be the object of antiquaries to illus- 
trate " the history of former times " as we read 
in a royal charter not to substitute fiction for 
history. Now, it is admitted by MR. BOTFIELD 
that there is " no authentic portrait of Caxton." 
How then, he must allow me to ask, can it be 
assumed that the picture by Maclise is truthful? 
It may be much otherwise. Modern artists are 
no guides for antiquaries. 

It is with statues as it is with medals. The first 
and most obvious use of them, as Addison remarks 
of the latter objects, is " the showing us the faces" 
of eminent persons. Even Horace Walpole, who 
has misled so many with regard to Caxton, has 
expressed himself very forcibly on the value of 
real portraits. If a statue fail in that particular, 
it is worthless; and should my own project find no 
favour with the public a fountain by day or, 
a light by night or, an inscribed obelisk or, even 
an inscribed tablet would be far preferable as a 

If the dean of St. Paul's should resolve to place 
in other hands the sum which has been collected 
for this purpose, he may justly insist on the proper 
application of it ; and as the Society of Arts may 
be induced to take charge of it, I must remind 
them of the circumstance under which the sub- 
scriptions were formerly obtained. It was as- 
sumed that a likeness of Caxton had been pre- 
served. I transcribe from The Times : 

"The meeting [12 June, 1847] appeared to have 
been gratified with what they had seen and heard, and 
he [lord Morpeth] had only now to say to them, and 
to their fellow-countrymen in every part of the world, 
' Subscribe.' (Applause.) 

" A miniature portrait of Caxton, painted upon 
enamel by Mr. Bone, was handed to lord Morpeth, 
who stated that it had been copied from a likeness of 
Caxton, in an old illuminated MS." 

His lordship was misinformed as to the authen- 
ticity of the portrait, it being copied from the 
Lambeth Ms. but that circumstance does not 
affect the argument. 

It is manifest, therefore, that & fictitious statue of 
Caxton, objectionable as it would be on other 
accounts, would also be very like a breach of faith 
with the original subscribers. BOLTON CORNET. 


(Vol. iii., pp. 443. 522. ; Yol. iv., p. 44.) 

MR. E. P. RICHARDS presents his compliments 
to the Editor of " NOTES AND QUERIES," and will 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



thank him to insert the accompanying statement 
by the Marchioness of Bute, in respect to the lines 
said to have been written by her sister, Lady Flora 
Hastings, in the next number of his paper. 
Cardiff, Aug. 5. 1851. 

A friend has copied and sent to me a passage 
in the paper named " NOTES AND QUERIES," of 
Saturday, July 19. 1851, No. 90. page 44. 

The passage refers to my sister, Lady Flora 
Hastings, and a poem ascribed to her. If it were 
a matter solely of literary nature, I should not 
have interfered ; considering the point in debate 
may not be interesting to a very extended circle 
of persons. But I feel it is a duty not to allow an 
undeserved imputation to rest on any one, espe- 
cially on one styled a " Christian lady." Probably 
no person but myself can place the debated ques- 
tion beyond doubt. I do not know who the 
" Christian lady " or who ERZA may be ; but the 
lines entitled "Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest" 
are not by Lady Flora Hastings. She solemnly 
bequeathed all her papers and manuscripts to 
me, and those verses are not amongst them; 
else they should have been included in the 
volume of her poems which I published. More- 
over, Lady Flora Hastings never parted with her 
Bible till, by my brother's desire, I had warned 
her on the authority of the physicians that any 
hour might close her existence on earth. She 
was then unable to read it to herself. It was to 
me (not to my brother, as stated by CHARLOTTE 
ELIZABETH) that she confided the book and the 
message for our mother ; and when she did so, 
she was too weak in body to have committed the 
simple words of the message to paper. I was 
with her night and day for many days before she 
gave the gift and message to my care, and she 
died in my arms. She could not have composed 
any verses, or written a word, or dictated a sen- 
tence, without my knowledge, for more than a week 
before she died. 


Largo House, Fife, July 30. 1 851 . 

to JHtiT0r 

Inscription on an old Board (Vol. iii., p. 240.). 
I would suggest that the 31st chapter of Genesis 
may solve this riddle. We have in the latter part 
of that chapter the account of a covenant entered 
into between Jacob and Laban, and we are there 
told that a pillar was erected as a witness between 
them of this covenant ; Jacob calling it Galeed, 
also Mizpah. May not the inscription on the 
board be a token of some covenant of the same 
kind ; and may it not have been placed on a pillar, 
or on some conspicuous place on the exterior of 
the house, or over the mantel in some room of the 
house (this latter being suggested in the article 

describing the board) ? If I am correct, the name 
of the person who did " indite " the inscription 
should be one which, if not spelt exactly like 
Galeed or Mizpah, would in sound resemble the 
one or the other. H. H. B. 

Monte Cavallo, South Carolina. 

Churches decorated at Christmas (Vol. iii., p. 1 1 8.). 
In the Episcopal churches of our country this 
custom is religiously observed ; the foliage of the 
holly, cedar, and pine being chiefly used for this 
purpose at the south, together with artificial 
flowers. At Easter also most of the same churches 
are decorated, though some are not; and at that 
season natural flowers are also used for the pur- 
pose, mingled with the evergreen foliage of the 
trees mentioned above. H. H. B. 

Monte Cavallo, South Carolina. 

Royal Library (Vol. iv., p. 69.). The letter 
addressed by King George IV. to the Earl of 
Liverpool, referred to in the above page, will be 
found in the Gentleman's Magazine for February, 
1823, page 161. It is dated from the Pavilion, 
Brighton, on the 15th of the preceding month. 

The Committee, in their Parliamentary Report, 
state that the king had accompanied his munificent 
donation of this library to the public, " with the 
gift of a valuable selection of coins and medals ;" 
and they close their Report in the following words : 

" The Committee would not do justice to the senti- 
ments with which they are affected, if they failed to 
express in the strongest terms the gratitude they feel, 
in common with the nation, for the act of munificent 
liberality which has brought this subject under their 
consideration, and for the disposition which is so 
strongly evinced by that act, on the part of his Majesty, 
of promoting, by the best means, the science and litera- 
ture of the country." 

Would all this have been said, if the value of the 
library, in " pounds sterling " was, as has been 
alleged, to be made good by the country to its late 
owner ? 

When urging that this library, containing about 
65,000 volumes, might have been preserved at 
Whitehall, or in some other part of Westminster, 
as a distinct collection, it may be stated, that on its 
removal to the Museum, 21,000 duplicates were 
found in the united libraries, but that " it was not 
considered advisable to part with more than 12,000 ; 
which should be taken from books in the Museum." 
Why should not the Museum have retained its 
duplicates, leaving those in the royal library for 
the benefit of readers in another part of the metro- 
polis ? Was the expense of a separate establish- 
ment the great obstacle ? J. H. M. 

Proof of a Sword (Vol. iv., p. 39.). ENSIS 
asks, " What is the usual test of a good blade ?" 
The proof by striking on the surface of smooth 
water, is not uncommon in India ; though, in my 



[No. 93. 

opinion, it is a very inefficient one, and there is no 
doubt that "the Toledo blades in the Crystal 
Palace" would stand it as well as any others of 
moderate goodness. " The Toledo blades that 
roll up in a circle" can be as easily made in Eng- 
land as in Spain, but they are useless toys : there 
is an English one in the Exhibition, Class viii., 
Case 200.rwhich fits into the circular Toledo scab- 
bard placed above it ; but they are only curious to 
the uninitiated. What, then, is an efficient proof? 
I reply, first strike the flat side of the blade on an 
iron table (by means of a machine) with a force 
of 300 to 400 Ibs., and then on the edge and back 
over a round piece of hard wood with a force of 
400 to 500 Ibs. : after which thrust the point as 
hard as possible against a thick iron plate and 
through a cuirass, without turning or breaking it, 
and bend so as to reduce the length in the pro- 
portion of about one inch and a half to a foot. 
When thus proved, a sword may be relied on, and 
the operation may be seen every day at 27. Pall 

Dr. Young's "Narcissa" (Vol. iv., p. 22.). 
In reply to W. F. S. of Surditon, it appears, from 
the most authentic biographical accounts of Dr. 
Young, that he had not any daughters, and only 
one son ; and that the Narcissa of the Night 
Thoughts was a daughter of his wife (Lady Eliza- 
beth Lee), by her former husband, Colonel Lee. 
The writer in the Evangelical Magazine must 
therefore have written in ignorance of these facts 
when he termed JSTarcissa Dr. Young's daughter : 
or he may have spoken, in a loose way, of the 
daughter-in-law as the daughter. J. M. 

Circulation of the Blood (Vol. ii., p. 475.). 
Having recently had occasion to look into the 
works of Bede, I have found, in lib. iv., JDe 
Elementis Philosophic the passage which was the 
subject of my Query. Though not strictly in ac- 
cordance with the established fact of the circu- 
lation of the blood, it will yet be allowed to be a 
near approximation to it. It is as follows : 

" Sanguine in epate generate, per venas ad omnia 
transit membra, calore quorum digestus, in eorum si- 
militudinem transit : superfluitas, vero, partim per 
sudorem exit, alia vero pars ad epar revertitur, ibi 
decocta cum urina exit descendens, sedimenque vo- 
catur; sed si in fundo sit urinee dicitur hypostasis; 
si in medio, eneortim : si in summo nephile." Bedce 
Opera, vol. ii. p. 339., ed. Basilise, MDLXIII. 


Dr. jElringtorfs Edition of Ussher (Vol. iii., 
p. 496. ; Vol. iv., p. 10.). There is still some ob- 
scurity about the publication of the remaining 
volumes of this important work, notwithstanding 
DR. TODD'S prompt communication on the sub- 
ject. He speaks of the 14th volume half printed 
off, and asks for information which may assist 
him in completing it 5 and then announces that 

highly desirable addition, viz. an Index, which is 
to form the 17th volume; but of the projected 
contents of vols. xv. and xvi., he says nothing.* 

In spite of Dr. Elrington's rejection of the 
Body of Divinity (which is doubtless what DR. 
TODD refers to under the name of the System of 
Theology}, I would still venture to plead for at 
least an uniform edition of it ; for there is surely 
much force in the testimony of Dr. N. Bernard 
(as quoted by Mr. Goode), that, whilst the Arch- 
bishop was "indeed displeased at the publishing 
of it, without his knowledge, but hearing of some 
good fruit which hath been reaped by it, he hath 
permitted zY." 

" Several other editions, therefore," (Mr. Goode 
adds) "were published in his lifetime ; and being thus 
published with his permission, must of course be con- 
sidered as in all important points of doctrine represent- 
ing his views." Effects of Infant Baptism, pp. 312, 313. 

Possibly some of your correspondents might be 
able to throw light on this point. 

It will scarcely be travelling out of the record 
to entreat that the Index may be printed on any- 
thing but the dazzling milled paper, which every- 
body I should think must detest." C. W. B. 

Was Stella > Swiff s Sister? (Vol. iii., p. 450.). 
J. H. S. will find this question raised in The closing 
Years of Dean Swift's Life, by W. R. Wilde, 
M.R.I.A. : 

" That Stella was the daughter of Sir Wm. Temple 
appears more than probable ; but that Swift was his 
son, and consequently her half brother, remains to be 
proved. It has, it is true, been often surmised, from 
the date of Orrery's book to the present time, but we 
cannot discover in the supposition anything but vague 

Mr. Wilde, however, proceeds to quote in 
favour of the opinion from an article in The Gen- 
tleman's and London Magazine, pp. 555. to 560., 
Dublin. Printed for John Exshaw, Nov. 1757. 

It is signed C. M. P. G. N. S. T. N. S. f 

The Mistletoe (Vol. ii., pp. 163. 214.). The 
mistletoe is common on almost every tree of our 
Southern forests ; it is abundant on all the va- 
rieties of the oak, and grows most luxuriously on 
the trees near our watercourses. I have seen 
some of our deciduous trees looking almost as 
green in winter as when clothed in their own 
foliage in summer, in consequence of the quantity 
of mistletoe growing upon them. H. H. B. 

Monte Cavallo, South Carolina. 

Family of Kyme (Vol. iv., p. 23.). The match 
of Kyme with Cicely, second daughter of Edward 
the Fourth, and widow of John, Lord Welles, is 

* [Vols. xv. and xvi., consisting of Letters to and 
from Archbishop Ussher, were published early in 

AUG. 9. 1851.] 



mentioned by Anderson, Yorke, Brooke, and 
Vincent ; but these writers agree that she had no 
issue by this marriage. 

BOLD is probably aware that there are a few 
descents of the family of Kyme of Stickford, 
coming down to the latter end of the sixteenth 
century, to be found in a " Visitation of Lincoln- 
shire," Harl. MS. No. 1550., fo. 60. b. 

The following notice of some supposed descen- 
dants of the ancient family of Kyme, is given in 
Thompson's History of Boston, 4to. Lond. 1820, 
pp. 173. to 176. : 

" Richmond Rochford, or Kyme Tower. 

" At what time this estate passed from the Kyme 
family has not been ascertained : it fell into the hands 
of the crown by sequestration, in consequence of some 
political transgression of its owner, and is now the pro- 
perty of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The 
descendants of the ancient owners, however, continued 
to occupy the estate as tenants, until 1816.* 

" The tower is situated about two miles east of 

Boston An old house adjoining the Tower 

was taken down a few years since : in this house were 
several old portraits, said to be of the Kyme family : 
there were also three coats of arms, with different 
bearings, but with this same motto : ' In cruce nostra 
salus.' " 

If BOLD will communicate his address to the 
editor of " NOTES AND QUERIES," I will with much 
pleasure forward to him some further information 
respecting the descendants of the Kymes of Kyme 

The Leman Baronetcy (Vol. iv., p. 58.). In an- 
swer to your correspondent H. M., I beg to state 
that Sir Edward Leman, Baronet, resides at Not- 
tingham. He tried his right as to the baronetcy 
at the Canongate Court in Edinburgh, in the year 
1842, and was gazetted as the legal baronet and 
rightful descendant of Sir Tanfeild Leman, who 
succeeded Sir William Leman of Northaw. I 
have the original gazette and a certified court 
copy of the proceedings on the occasion, which I 
shall be happy to show your correspondent, with 
all other information and papers relative to the 
Leman family, if he will favour me with his 
address. J. R. 

39. Windmill Street, Haymarket. 

Cure for Ague (Vol. iv., p. 53.). The benefit 
j derived by your correspondent E. S. TAYLOR 
from the snuff of a candle, was owing to the 
minute quantity of creosote contained in each 
dose. Dr. Elliotson tried the same nauseous re- 
medy with partial success at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital, some years since. J. N. T. 

Adlard Kyme was tenant 1709." 








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Wfcen found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 94.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 16. 1851. 

f Price Threepence. 
( Stamped Edition, 


NOTES : Page 

Traditions from remote Periods through few Hands - 113 
Minor Notes: Nelson's Coat Strange Reason for 
keep : ng a Public-house Superstitions with regard to 
Glastonbury Thorn The miraculous Walnut-tree 
at Glastonbury The Three Estates of the Realm - 114 


Bensleys of Norwich - - - - - 115 

Minor Queries : Heraldic Figures at Tollbridge Castle 
English Translation of Nonnus Of Prayer in 
One Tongue Inscription in Ely Cathedral Cer- 
vantes : what was the Date of his Death ? Meaning 
of " Agla" Murderers buried in Cross Roads Wyle 

Cop The Devil's Knell Queries on Poem of 

Richard Rolle Did Bishop Gibson write a Life of 
Cromwell ? English Translation of Alcou - - 115 


John Bodley, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault and R. J. King - 117 

Wither's" Hallelujah" 118 

First Panorama - - - - - - 118 

John a Kent 119 

The British Sidanen ...... 

The y Word "Rack" in the Tempest. The Nebular 
Theory - - - - - - - 121 

Replies to Minor Queries : -Pseudo MSS. : The Devil, 
Cromwell and his Amours Anonymous Ravennas 
Margaret Maultasch Pope's Translation or Imi- 
tations of Horace Brother Jonathan Cromwell's 
Grants of Land in Monaghan Stanedge Pole Bas- 
kerville the Printer Inscription on a Claymore 
Burton Family Notation by Coalwhippers Statue 
of Charles II. Serins, where situated? Corpse 
passing makes a Right of Way The Petworth Register 
_ Holland's " Monumenta Sepulchralia Eccle.-iae S. 

p.xuli " Mistake as to an Eclipse " A Posie of other 

Men's Flowers," &c. ..... 122 



Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. - 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents - 
Advertisements - 

- 126 

- 127 

- 127 

- 127 


On two or three occasions in the " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " instances have been given of " Tra- 
ditions from remote periods through few hands," 
of which it would not be difficult to adduce 
numerous additional examples; but my present 
purpose is to mention some within my personal 
experience, or derived from authentic communi- 

In 1781, and my eleventh year, a schoolfellow 
took me to see his great-grandmother, a Mrs. 
Arthur, in Limerick, then aged one hundred and 

eight years, whose recollection of that city's siege 
in 1691, when she was eighteen, was perfectly 
fresh and unimpaired, as, indeed, she was fond of 
showing by frequent and even unsolicited recur- 
rence to its dread scenes, in which the women, 
history tells us, fearlessly participated. We are 
here then presented with an interval of one hun- 
dred and sixty years between a memorable event 
and my recollection of its narrative by a person 
actively engaged in it. The old lady's family had 
furnished a greater number of chief magistrates to 
Limerick than any other recorded in its annals. 

Again in 1784, on a visit to my grandfather in 
the county of Limerick, during a school vacation, 
I heard him, then in his eighty-sixth year, say, 
that in 1714, on the accession to the British 
throne of the present royal dynasty, he heard in 
Cork, where he was at school, a conversation be- 
tween several gentlemen on this change of the 
reigning family, when one of them, a Mr. Martin, 
said that he was born the same day as Charles II., 
on the 29th of May, 1631, and was present at the 
execution of Charles I., the 29th of January, 
1649. His family then resided in London, where 
he joined Cromwell's Ironsides, and thence ac- 
companied them to Ireland. The transfer to him 
of some forfeited property naturally induced him 
to settle there. Thus, between me and the eye- 
witness of the regicidal catastrophe, only one 
person intervenes. 

In 1830 there died in London, at the eastern 
extremity, called the World's End, an Irishman, 
aged one hundred and eleven, named Gibson, 
whose father, a Scotchman, he told me, served 
under the Duke of Monmouth at the battle of 
Sedgemore in July, 1685, and afterwards, in 
July, 1690, under William, at the Boyne. Sup- 
posing, as we well may, the father to have been 
born about 1660, in 1830, before the son's decease, 
the two successive lives thus embrace one hundred 
and seventy years. I had rendered the son some 
services which made him veny communicative to 
me. The father married and settled in Tipperary, 
where he became a Roman Catholic, and no adhe- 
rent of O'Connell could be more ardent in his 
cause than the son. This veteran had served full 
seventy years in the royal navy. 

VOL. IV. No. 94. 



[No. 94. 

In 1790 I recollect an old man of a hundred and 
twenty, who appeared before the French National 
Assembly, and gave clear answers to questions on 
events which he had witnessed one hundred and 
ten years before. 

Similar lengths of personal remembrance are 
related of old Parr, Lady Desmond, and others, 
whose ages exceeded one hundred and forty 
years. The daughter-in-law of the French king, 
Charles IX. (widow of his natural son, the Duke 
of Angouleme), survived that monarch by a 
hundred and thirty-nine years (1574 1713), a 
rare, if not an unexampled fact. The famous 
Cardan, in his singular work, De Vita Propria, 
states that his grandfather's birth anteceded his 
own by a hundred and fifty years (1351 1501). 
Franklin relates that his grandfather was born in 
the sixteenth century, and reign of Elizabeth, as 
Sir Stephen Fox, the grandfather of our contem- 
porary statesman, Charles, was born shortly after 
the death of James L, in 1627. A very near 
connexion of my own, though much younger, is 
the grandson of a gentleman whose birth retro- 
cedes to Charles II., in 1672. Niebuhr grounds 
one of his objections to the truth of the early 
Roman history on the very great improbability of 
the long period of two hundred and forty-five 
years assigned to the collective reigns of the seven 
kings. It does, indeed, exceed the average of 
enthroned life ; but the seven monarchs of Spain, 
from Ferdinand (the Catholic) to the French 
Bourbon, Philip V., inclusively, embraced a pe- 
riod of two hundred and sixty-seven years in their 
successive rule (1469, when Ferdinand obtained 
the crown of Arragon, and 1746, the date of 
Philip's death). The eminent German historian 
offers, however, much stronger arguments in dis- 
belief of the Roman annals ; but he had many 
predecessors in his views, though himself, unques- 
tionably, the most powerful writer on the subject. 
J. 11. (An Octogenarian.) 

P. S. In Vol. iv., p. 73., Madame du Chatelet's 
epitaph on Voltaire contains an error, where canis 
twice appears, but should be earns. The lady's 
object was certainly complimentary, not sarcastic. 
My crampt writing was of course the cause of the 
mistake, though, in the opinion of many, the sub- 
stituted word would not appear inapplicable to 
Voltaire. A subjoined article of the same page, 
" Children at a Birth," reminds me of something 
analogous in Mercier's Tableau de Paris, where 
reference is made to the Memoires de r Academic 
des Sciences for the fact, The wife of a baker, it 
is there stated, in .the short space of seven years, 
produced one-and-twenty children, or three at 
each annual birth ; and, to prove that the prolific 
faculty was exclusively his, he made a maid ser- 
vant similarly the mother of three children at a 
birth. The major portion, it appears, of this 

numerous progeny long survived. Bayle, in his 
article of Tiraqueau, a French advocate of the 
sixteenth century, quotes an epigram, which would 
make him the father of forty-five children, and, it 
is added, by one wife. If so, several must at least 
have been twins : 

" Fascundus facundus aquae Tiraquellus amator, \ 
Terquindecim librorum et liberum parens ; 3 
Q,ui nisi restinxisset aquis abstemius ignes, 
linplesset orbem prole animi atque corporis." 
? The accomplished authoress of A Residence on 
the Shores of the Baltic (1841, 2 volumes) was, 
it is well known, one of four congenital children 
in Norwich, where her father was an eminent 
physician. J. R. 

Cork, August, 1851. 

Nelson's Coat (Vol. iii., p. 517.). The recog- 
nition of the coat Nelson wore at Trafalgar depends 
on its fulfilling a detail in the following fact. The 
present Captain Sir George Westphal was a mid- 
shipman on board the Victory, and was wounded 
on the back of the head : he was taken into the 
cockpit, and placed by the side of Nelson. When 
Westphal's wound was dressed, nothing else being 
immediately available, Nelson's coat was rolled up 
and used as a support to Westphal's head. Blood 
flowed from the wound, and, coagulating, stuck 
the bullion of one of the epaulettes to the bandage ; 
it was deemed better to cut off some of the bullion 
curls to liberate the coat : so that the coat Nelson 
wore on that day will be found minus of bullion in 
one of the epaulettes. ^EGROTUS. 

Strange Reason for keeping a Public-house. 
A clergyman in the south-west of England, calling 
lately on one of his parishioners, who kept a public- 
house, remarked to her how sorry he was, when 
passing along the road, to hear such noises pro- 
ceeding from her house. "I wonder," said he, 
" that any woman can keep a public-house, espe- 
cially one where there is so much drunkenness 
and depravity as in yours." "Oh, Sir," she re- 
plied, " that is the very reason why I like to keep 
such a house, because I see every day so much of 
the worst part of human nature" T. W. 

Superstitions with regard to Glastonlury Thorn. 
It is handed down, that when Joseph of Ari- 
mathea, during his mission to England, arrived at ( 
Weary-all-hill, near Glastonbury, he struck his 
travelling staff into the earth, which immediately 
took root, and ever after put forth its leaves and 
blossoms on Christmas Day, being converted into 
a miraculous thorn. 

This tree, which had two trunks, was preserved 
until the time of Queen Elizabeth ; when one of 
the trunks was destroyed by a Puritan, and the 

AUG. 16. 1851.] 



other met with the same fate during the Great 

Throughout the reign of Henry VIII., its blos- 
soms were esteemed such great curiosities, and 
sovereign specifics, as to become an object of gain 
to the merchants of Bristol ; who not only dis- 
posed of them to the inhabitants of their own city, 
but exported these blossoms to different parts of 
Europe. There were, in addition to these, relics 
for rain, for avoiding the evil eye, for rooting out 
charlock, and all weeds in corn, with similar spe- 
cifics, which were considered, at this time, the best 
of all property ! T. W. 

The miraculous Walnut-tree at Glastonbury. 
This far-famed tree was at the north of St. Jo- 
seph's chapel, in the abbey churchyard. It was 
supposed to have been brought from Palestine by 
some of the pilgrims, and was visited in former 
days, and regarded as sacred by all ranks of peo- 
ple ; and, even so late as the time of King James, 
that monarch, as well as his ministers and nobility, 
paid large sums for sprigs of it, which were 
preserved as holy relics. T. W. 

The Three Estates of the Realm. Some, even 
educated persons of this day, if asked which are 
the three estates of the realm, will reply, the 
Queen, Lords, and Commons. That the three 
estates do not include the Queen, arid are there- 
fore the Lords, the Clergy in Convocation, and 
the Commons, is obvious from the title of the 
" Form of Prayer with Thanksgiving to be used 
yearly upon the 5th day of November, for the 
happy Deliverance of King James I. and the Three 
Estates of England from the most Traitorous," &c.; 
and also from the following passage of the Com- 
munion Collect for Gunpowder Treason : 

" Eternal God, and our most mighty Protector, we 
Thy unworthy servants do humbly present ourselves 
before Thy Majesty, acknowledging Thy power, wisdom, 
and goodness, in preserving the king, AND the three 
estates of the realm of England assembled in Parlia- 
ment, from the destruction this day intended against 



As I am much interested in the above family, 
which I know to have existed at Norwich, or 
the vicinity, for a century or more, and have 
reason to think was one of some consequence, 
will you, through the medium of your useful co- 
lumns, allow me to ask some of your intelligent 
correspondents who reside in that neighbourhood 
the following Queries ? 

1. Is anything known of the family of the late 
Sir William Bensley farther back than his father, 
Thomas Bensley ? Sir William was born in the 

county of Norfolk, and at an early age entered 
the navy ; transferred himself to the Honourable 
East India Company's service, made a large for- 
tune, was elected a Director of the Company 1 771, 
created a baronet 1801, and died without issue 

2. Was Mr. Richard Bensley, an actor of some 
celebrity, who made his " first appearance" in 
1765 (he had previously been an officer in the 
Marines, and, as I am informed, held the appoint- 
ment of barrack-master at Knightsbridge till his 
death in 1817), any connexion of the above, or at 
all connected with Norwich ? 

3. Cowper, in one of his letters [to Joseph Hill, 
Esq., dated Huntingdon, July 3, 1765], says : 

" The tragedies of Lloyd and Bensley are both very 
deep. If they are of no use to the surviving part of 
society, it is their own fault," &c. 

Any information as to who this Bensley was, 
will be very acceptable; or anything concerning 
the tragedies mentioned. 

4. Any intelligence respecting one " Isaac Ben- 
sley" of Norwich, weaver; who was alive in 1723, 
as his son was in that year baptized at the Octagon 
Chapel in that city. 

If any of your contributors, in their archaeo- 
logical researches among tombstones and parish 
registers, should have met with the name of Ben- 
sley, by addressing a "note" to you thereon they 
will confer a great obligation on your constant 
reader and occasional contributor. TEE BEE. 

68. Heraldic Figures at Tonbridge Castle. 
In the court of the castle of this place, there stands 
a colossal figure of what I take to be an heraldic 
panther gorged with a ducal crown, supporting a 
shield of the royal arms of France and England 
quarterly, as borne before the accession of James I. 

The corresponding supporter is gone, but the 
base and one claw remain, showing it to have been 
a beast of prey, and with it is a broken shield, 
thereon, "party per pale three lions rampant;" 
the arms, and probably the supporter of the 
Herberts, earls of Pembroke. The two figures 
have evidently capped the piers of a gateway. 

Can any of your readers account for the pre- 
sence of these figures here, where the Herberts 
are not recorded to have possessed any property ? 


Tonbridge, July 29. 1851. 

69. English Translation of Nonnus. I shall 
be obliged if any of your correspondents will in- 
form me if any translation of the poet Nonnus, 
which contains, perhaps, most that is known about 
Bacchus, has ever been made into English ; if so, 
by whom, and when ? 



[No. 94. 

70. Of Prayer in one Tongu*. Biehop Jewel, 
in his celebrated sermon preached at Paul's Cross, 
quotes the following argument as used by Gerson, 
sometime Chancellor of Paris : 

" There is but one only God ; ergo, all nations 
throughout the world must pray to Him in one tongue." 

The editor of the Parker Society's edition of 

Jewel cannot discover the argument in the works 

of Gerson; but if any of your readers can point 

out where it may be found, I shall be much obliged. 

N. E. 11. (a Subscriber). 

71. Inscription in Ely Cathedral. M. D. 
(Great Yarmouth) is anxious to have the meaning 
of the following inscription explained. It is on a 
tombstone in Ely Cathedral. 


.590 x 590 x 590 
Born Sara Watts 



GOO x 600 

00 x 33 


Y 30 x 00 x 33 

M 3 x d 31 3 

h 3 x 3 x 3 x 12 

Nations make fun of his 

S. M. E. 
Judgements begun on Earth. 

In memory of 


Died August 21, 1767. 

Aged 60 years. 

72. Cervantes what was the Date of his 
Death? In the Life prefixed to a corrected 
edition of Jarvis's translation, published by Miller, 
1801, it is stated to be April 23, 1616 ; and it is 
added : 

" It is a singular coincidence of circumstances, that 
the same day should deprive the world of two men of 
such transcendent abilities as Cervantes and Shakspeare, 
the latter of whom died in England on the very day 
that put an end to the life of the former in Spain." 

Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, in his Life of his 
uncle, the poet, remarks on his decease on the 
anniversary of the death of Shakspeare, but makes 
no allusion to the double anniversary ; and in the 
Life of Cervantes prefixed to Smollet's translation 
of Don Quixote, the day of Cervantes' death is 
somewhat differently stated. GEO. E. FRERE. 

73. " Agla" Meaning of. I have in my 
possession a silver ring, found some time since at 
a place called " Grungibane " in this neighbour- 
hood. The hoop is flat both inside and out, about 
a quarter of an inch broad. On the outside, occu- 

pying about half the length, is the following in- 
scription : " + AGLA." 

I should feel greatly obliged by some of your 
learned correspondents decyphering the above. 



74. Murderers buried in Cross Roads. Though 
the lines of Hood's, 

" So they buried him where the cross roads met 

With a stake in his inside." 

occur in one of his comic poems, I have often 
heard it gravely stated that it was formerly the 
custom to bury murderers with a stake driven 
through the body, where cross roads meet. Was 
this ever a custom, and when was " formerly ? " 
Are there many such tragic spots in England, 
and can I find them enumerated anywhere ? 

P. M. M. 

75. Wyle Cop. This is the name of a street, 
or rather bank in Shrewsbury, leading from the 
English Bridge to High Street. It has always 
struck me as being a curious name ; and I should 
feel obliged to any of your readers who could in- 
form me what is the origin of the place being so 
called, or if there is any meaning in the words, 
beyond being the name of a place. SALOPIAN. 

76. The DeviTs Knell. In the Collectanea 
Topographica, vol. i. p. 167., is the following note : 

" At Dewsbury, Yorkshire, there is a bell called 
< Black Tom of Sothill :' the tradition is, that it is an 
expiatory gift for a murder. One of the bells, per- 
haps this one, is tolled on Christmas-eve as at a funeral, 
or in the manner of a passing-bell : and any one asking 
whose bell it was, would be told that it was the devil's 
knell. The moral of it is, that the devil died when 
Christ was born. The custom was discontinued for 
many years, but was revived by the vicar in 1828." 

Is the gift of a bell a common expiatory gift 
for crime ? And does the custom of tolling the 
devil's knell on Christmas eve exist in any other 
place at the present time ? 


77. Queries on Poems of Richard Rolle (Vol. iv., 
p. 49.). I should be glad to ask a question or two 
of your Cambridge correspondent, touching his 
very interesting contribution from the MS. re- 
mains of Richard Rolle of Hampole. 

What language is meant by the deucnisch f 

What is a guystroun ? 

How does the word chaunsemlees come to mean 
shoes ? 

An expression very strange to English verse 
occurs in the line, 

" Hir cher was ay semand sori." 

I can think of nothing to throw light upon this 
intensive adverb, except the Danish saam&nd, 
which is generally used in that language (or rather 

AUG. 16. 1851.] 



was used, I. e. when Holberg wrote his comedies) 
as an affirmatory oath. Native authorities explain 
it to mean "so it is, by the holy men" or in other 
terms, " by the saints I swear." 

I have no doubt that the same kindness whieh 
led your correspondent to communicate those de- 
lightful extracts, will also make him willing to 
assist the understanding of them. J. E. 


78. Did Bishop Gibson write a Life of Crom- 
well? Mr. Carlyle, in treating on the biographies 
of Oliver Cromwell, says that the Short Critical 
Review of the Life of Oliver Cromwell, by a gen- 
tleman of the Middle Temple, was written by a 
certain " Mr. Banks, a kind of a lawyer and play- 
wright," and that the anonymous Life of Oliver 
Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, 
impartially collected, 8fc., London, 1724, which 
Noble ascribes to Bishop Gibson, was by " one 
Kember, a dissenting minister of London." 

On the other hand, Mr. Russell, in his Life of 
Oliver Cromwell^ 2 vols. 12mo. 1829, says: 

" There is an anonymous work deserving of some 
notice, entitled A Short Critical Review of the Political 
Life of Oliver Cromwell. The title professes that it 
was written by a gentleman of the Middle Temple, 
but there is reason to believe that it proceeded from 
the pen of the learned Bishop Gibson." 

It would seem, therefore, by these statements, 
that two different lives of the Great Protector 
have been ascribed to Gibson. Query, Did Gibson 
ever write a life of Cromwell; and if so, which is it ? 

It is well worth knowing which Gibson did 
write, if he wrote one at all, for he was connected 
with the Cromwell family, and, what is of more 
consequence, a learned, liberal man, not given 
to lying, so that his book probably contains more 
truth than any of the other Cromwell biographies 
of that time. DRYASDUST. 

79. English Translation of Alcon. Is there any 
translation of Alcon by Baldisare Castiglione ? 
The Lycidas of Milton is a splendid paraphrase of 
it. The parallel passages are to be found in (I 
think) No. 47. of the Classical Journal, published 
formerly by Valpy. The prototypes of L'Allegro 
and II Penseroso are at the beginning of Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy. Thus three of Milton's 
early poems cannot be termed wholly original. 


(Vol. iv., p. 59.) 

John Bodley is a name that ought not to be 
passed over without due reverence. He not only 
fostered the translation of the Genevan Bible, but 
was specially interested in its circulation through- 

out England. Neither Fox, Burnet, or Strype, 
Mr. Todd, or Mr. Whittaker give us any par- 
ticular information respecting him. Lewis glances 
at him as one John Bodley ; and Mr. Townley, 
in his valuable Biblical Literature, after some 
notice of Whittingham, Gil by, Sampson, &c., closes 
by saying, " Of John Bodleigh no account has 
been obtained." 

This good and pious man was the father of the 
celebrated Sir Thomas Bodley. He was born at 
Exeter, and, according to the statement of his son 
(Autobiography, 4to., Oxf. 1647), 

" In the time of Queen Mary, after being cruelly 
threatened and narrowly observed by those that maliced 
his religion, for the safety of himself and my mother 
(formerly Miss Joan Hone, an heiress in the hundred 
of Ottery St. Mary), who was wholly affected as my 
father, knew no way so secure as to fly into Germany; 
where, after a while, he found means to call over my 
mother, with all his children and family, when he 
settled for a while at Wesel, in Cleveland, and from 
thence we removed to the town of Frankfort* How- 
beit, we made no long tarriance in either of these 
towns, for that my father had resolved to fix his abode 
in the city of Geneva, where, as far as I remember, the 
English Church consisted of some hundred members." 

John Bodley returned to England in 1559, and 
on the 8th of January, 1560-61, a patent was 
granted to him by Queen Elizabeth, " to imprint, 
or cause to be imprinted, the English Bible, with 
annotations." This privilege was to last for the 
space of seven years. In 1565 Bodley was pre- 
paring for a new impression ; and by March the 
next year, a careful review and correction being 
finished, this zealous reformer wished to renew his 
patent beyond the seven years first granted. It 
does not appear, however, that his application to 
the authorities had the desired effect ; for it will 
be remembered that Archbishop Parker's Bible 
was now in the field, and the Queen's Secretary, 
Sir William Cecil, was compelled to act with 
caution. A curious letter, addressed by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London 
to Sir William Cecil, concerning the extension of 
Bodley 's privilege, is printed from the Lansdown 
MS. No. 8. (Art. 82.), in Letters of Eminent Lite- 
rary Men, edited by Sir Henry Ellis for the 
Camden Society. 

For a full history of the Geneva Bible, I beg to 
refer S. S. S. to the second volume of Anderson's 
Annals of the English Bible : Lond. 2 vols. 8vo. 

In the notice of Sir Thomas Bodley contained in 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, S. S. S. will find some 
particulars relating to his father. John Bodley. 
Prince's account of Sir Thomas is " from a MS. 
on probable grounds supposed to be his own 
handwriting, now in the custody of a neighbour 
gentleman," (Walter Bogan of Gatcornbe, near 



[No. 94. 

Totnes). From this it appears that John Bodley 
was long resident at Geneva 

" Where [says Sir Thomas], as far as I remember, 
the English church consisted of some hundred persons. 
I was at that time of twelve years of age, but through 
my father's cost and care sufficiently instructed to 
become an auditor of Chevalerius in Hebrew, of 
Beraldus in Greek, of Calvin and Beza in divinity, 
and of some other professors in the university, which 
was then newly erected : besides my domestical teachers 
in the house of Philibertus Saracenus, a famous phy- 
sician in that city, with whom I was boarded, where 
Robertus Constantinus, that made the Greek Lexicon, 
read Homer unto me." 

There is, however, no mention of John Bodley's 
having been one of the translators of the Bible. 

K. J. KING. 


(Vol. iii., p. 330.) 

A correspondent, S. S. S., inquires concerning 
one of the numberless, and now almost fameless, 
works of George Wither, a poet of the seventeenth 
century, famous in his generation, but unworthily 
disparaged in that which followed him ; the names 
of Quarles and Wither being proverbially classed 
with those of Bavius and Masvius in the Augustan 
age. The Hallelujah of the latter has become 
precious from its rarity. A copy of this volume 
(of nearly 500 pages) was lent to me several 
years ago, by a collector of such treasures. On 
the blank at the back of the cover, there was 
written a memorandum that it had been bought 
at Heber's sale by Thorpe the bookseller for 
sixteen guineas ; my friend, I had reason to be- 
lieve, paid a much higher price for it, when it fell 
into his hands. The contents consist of several 
hundreds of hymns for all sorts and conditions of 
men, on all the ordinary, and on many of the 
extraordinary circumstances of human life. Of 
course they are very heterogeneous, yet no small 
number are beyond the average of such compo- 
sitions in point of devotional and poetical excel- 

The author himself, with the consciousness of 
Horace, in his 

" Exegi monumentum sere perennius," 
crowns his labours at the 487th page with the 
following " lo triumphe" lines: 

" Although my Muse flies yet far short of those, 
Who perfect Hallelujahs can compose, 
Here to affirm I am not now afraid, 
What once in part a heathen prophet said, 
With slighter warrant, when to end was brought 
What he for meaner purposes had wrought ; 
The work is finished, which nor human power, 
Nor flames, nor time, nor envy shall devour, 
But with devotion to God's praise be sung ' 
As long as Britain speaks her English tongue, 

Or shall that Christian saving faith possess, 
Which will preserve these Isles in happiness ; 
And, if conjecture fail not, some, that speak 
In other languages, shall notice take 
Of what my humble musings have composed, 
And, by these helps, be often more disposed 
To celebrate His praises in their songs, 
To whom all honour and all praise belongs." 

How has this fond anticipation been fulfilled ? 
There are not known (says my authority) to be 
more than three or four copies in existence of this 
indestructible work ; and the price in gold which 
a solitary specimen can command, is no evidence 
of anything but its market value. Had its poetic 
worth been proportionate, its currency might have 
been as common as that of Milton's masterpiece, 
and its trade price as low as Paternoster Row 
could afford a cheap edition of the Pilgrim's 
Progress. J. M. G. 


P. S. Lowndes says : 

" Few books of a cotemporary date can more readily 
be procured than Wither's first Remembrancer in 1628 ; 
few, it is believed, can be more difficult of attainment 
than his second Remembrancer, licensed in 1640, of 
which latter Dalrymple observes, 'there are some things 
interspersed in it, nowhere, perhaps, to be surpassed.' " 
Bibliographer's Manual) p. 1971. 


(Vol. iv., p. 54.) 

I did not speak of my own recollection of Girtin's 
panorama ; my memory cannot reach so far back. 
It was my father who does perfectly remember 
Girtins semicircular panorama. I think the mistake 
must be with H. T. E. Some years back a large col- 
lection of Girtin's drawings and sketches were sold 
at Pimlico ; my father went to see them, and was 
delighted to find among them some of the original 
sketches for this panorama, which he immediately 
recognised and bought. He afterwards showed 
them to Girtin's son, now living in practice as a 
surgeon at Islington (I believe), who identified 
them as his father's work, and with whom I went 
to see the painting, when not many years back it 
was found in a carpenter's loft. Girtin certainly 
was a painter principally in water colour, and one 
who, with the present J. M. W. Turner, contri- 
buted much to the advancement of that branch of 
art ; but I do not see how that is a reason why he 
did not paint a panorama. I should think it not 
unlikely that two semicircular panoramas of the 
same subject were painted ; and, therefore, with all 
deference, believe that the mistake is with H.T. E. 
Girtin's son, if applied to, could, and I am sure 
would, give any information he possessed readily. 

E. N. W. 

AUG. 16. 1851.] 



We are not yet quite right about the first 
panorama, but perhaps the following will close the 

I have lately been sitting with Mr. Barker 
(getat 78), and he tells me that, when quite a boy, 
he sketched for his father the view of Edinburgh 
from the observatory on the Calton Hill : in the 
foreground was Holy rood House ; that that was a 
half circle, and was exhibited in Edinburgh. 

So much was thought of the discovery of its 
being possible to take a view beyond the old rule 
of sixty degrees, that they went to London, and 
then he took the view from the top of the Albion 
Mills, as was stated in Vol. iv., p. 54. 

That was three quarters of a circle, and was 
exhibited in Castle Street, Leicester Square. 
Afterwards the whole circle was attempted. The 
idea of painting a view more than sixty degrees, 
was suggested by his mother. His father did not 
work at them, he being a portrait painter ; but he 
did, young as he was. Mr. Robert Barker and 
his wife were both Irish; but Henry Aston the 
son was born in Glasgow. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George. 


(Vol. iv., p. 83.) 

As I have not seen the Athenaeum, I send the 
following notes, in uncertainty whether or not 
they may prove acceptable to MR. COLLIER. 

Sion y Cent, i. e. John a Kent, or John of Kent- 
church, is very generally believed in Wales to 
have been Owen Glendowr ; though some few 
unable to account for the mysterious disappear- 
ance of the hero are still firmly convinced that 
he sleeps, like Montezuma and various other 
mighty men, in some deep cavern, surrounded by 
his warriors, until the wrongs of his country shall 
call him forth once more to lead them on to battle. 

The following extracts are from notes appended 
[by the editors] to some poems of John a Kent 
which are published amongst the " lolo MSS." by 
the " Welsh MSS. Society/" 

" . . John of Kent, as he is called, is said to have 
been a priest at Kentchurch, in Herefordshire, on the 
confines of Wales, about the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. He still enjoys a high degree of popularity, 
in the legendary stories of the principality, as a power- 
ful magician. There is in the possession of Mr. Scuda- 
more, of Kentchurch, an ancient painting of a monk, 
supposed to be a portrait of John of Kent ; and as the 
family of Scudamore is descended from a daughter of 
Owen Glendowr, at whose house that chieftain is be- 
lieved to have passed in concealment a portion of the 
latter part of his life, it has been supposed that John of 
Kentchurch was no other than O\^bn Glendowr him- 
self," &c. &c. Page 676., note to the poem on The 
Names of God. 

" . . . . The author was a priest of Kentchurch in 

Herefordshire, on the confines of Monmouthshire and 
Breconshire, and is said to have lived in the time of 
Wickliffe, and to have been of his party. As the 
parish of Kentchurch is adjacent to that of Oldcastle, 
the residence of Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, it 
is by no means impossible that John of Kentchurch 
may also have favoured the same opinions ; and may 
in some measure sanction the idea." 

" . . The poet then proceeds to speak of the indig- 
nation of the well-robed bishops, the monks, friars, and 
priests ; and in the course of the composition he makes 
some strong animadversions on the luxurious living of 
the churchmen, stating that formerly the friars were 
preachers, who possessed no wealth, and went about 
on foot with nothing but a staff; but that they now pos- 
sessed horses, and frequented banquets," &c. &c. 
Page 687., notes to A Poem to another's Book, by John of 
Kentchurch ; from the collection of Thomas ap Jevan 
of Tre'r Bryn, made about 1670. 

The following words occur in this poem : 

" . . onid cof cwymp 
Olcastr, ti a gair ailcwyvnp." 

" rememberest thou not the fall 

Of Oldcastle? Thou shall have a repetition of the 

In addition to the two poems here mentioned, 
the collection contains one " Composed by John of 
Kent on his death-bed ; " in which are some lines of 
considerable beauty : and also one on The Age 
and Duration of Things. 

The parish church of Kentchurch is dedicated 
to St. Mary. I hope to be able to send you some 
further information on the subject, but I well 
know that quotations from memory are nearly 
valueless. Meanwhile, the following note on the 
mysterious disappearance to which I have already 
alluded may be not uninteresting : I give it as 
translated by the editors of the lolo MSS. 

" In 1415, Owen disappeared, so that neither sight 
nor tidings of him could be obtained in the country. 
It was rumoured that he escaped in the guise of a 

reaper ; bearing * according to the testimony 

of the last who saw and knew him ; after which little 
or no information transpired respecting him, nor of the 
place or manner of his concealment. The prevalent 
opinion was, that he died in a wood in Glamorgan ; 
but occult chroniclers assert that he and his men still 
live, and are asleep on their arms, in a cave called 
Govog y ddinas, in the Vale of Gwent, where they 
will continue, until England becomes self-debased ; but 
that then they will sally forth, and reconquer their 
country, privileges, and crown for the Welsh, who 
shall be dispossessed of them no more until the day of 
judgment, when the world shall be consumed with fire, 
and so reconstructed, that neither oppression nor de- 
vastation shall take place any more : and blessed will 
be he who shall see the time." Page 454. Historical 
Notices extracted from the Papers of the Rev. Evan 

* The manuscript is defective here. " A sickle " 
was probably the word. 



[No. 94. 

Evans, now in the Possession of Paul Panton, Esq., of 



(Vol. iv., p. 83.) 

MR. J. P. COLLIER will find all the information 
that Cambrian antiquaries can give him respecting 
Sidanen in Powell's Cambria, Matthew Paris, 
Wynne's Caradoc, and Warrington's History of 
Wales, under the year 1241. The history is given 
at most length in Warrington ; where the share 
which Sidanen had in an interesting episode in 
Cambrian history is fully developed. There were 
two Welsh princes named Llywelyn, who stood to 
each other in the following relation: 


(died in 1240). 

GRIFFITH, married to 
Senena, daughter 
of a Cambrian lord 
named Caradoc ab 







last Prince of Wales. 

The Prince of Wales mentioned by Munday is 
the first, Llywelyn ab Jorvverth, whose descent, as 
his father was not allowed to reign on account of 
personal deformity, we had better indicate: 
OWEN, king of North Wales. 

(Eldest son) JORWERTH, the Broken-nosed. 


Llywelyn, as has been shown, had two sons, 
Griffith and -David, the first and eldest of whom, 
being a turbulent prince, was set aside by his 
father at a solemn assembly of Cambrian lords, in 
1238, and David was elected to succeed his father. 
In 1240, David became king of North Wales, and 
one of his first acts was to apprehend his brother 
and his son Owen, and put them in prison. This 
was done with the connivance of a Bishop of 
Bangor: but that worthy, fearing that the scandal 
would spread abroad, intrigued with Senena, the 
daughter-in-law, and not the daughter of Prince 
Llywelyn, and wife of his son Griffith, for his re- 
lease. Overtures were made to Henry III. ; and 
certain lords having joined the confederacy, stipula- 
tions were entered into, and Henry marched against 
King David, David, who had married the king's 
daughter, now began to counterplot, in which he 
was quite successful ; for Henry, who had come to 
release Griffith, by special contract with his brother, 
took him, with his wife Senena, and his son Owen, 

with him to London, and imprisoned them in the 
Tower, in attempting to escape from whence, two 
years afterwards, Griffith lost his life. Such is a 
brief outline of all that is known of Senena, who is 
undoubtedly the Sidanen of Munday, and whose 
name is variously written Sina, Sanan, Sanant, and 
in the Latin chronicle Senena. The negotiations 
here alluded to, with the names of all the parties 
engaged in them, will be found in the authorities 
herein named; all of which being in English, 
MR. COLLIER can easily consult. 

John a Cumber is probably John y Kymro, or 
John the Cambrian ; but I know nothing of him. 

Respecting John of Kent there is but little else 
known than may be found in Coxe's Monmouth- 
shire, and Owen's Cambrian Biography, sub "Sion 
Cent." There is, however, a tradition in this 
neighbourhood that he was born at Eglwys Han, in 
the county of Glamorgan ; and the road is shown 
by which he went to Kentchurch, in Herefordshire. 
It was at Eglwys Ilan that he is reported to have 
pounded the crows by closing the park gates. As 
this story has not appeared in English print, I will 
endeavour to furnish you again with a more cir- 
cumstantial statement. Sion Kent, who lived 
about 1450, appears to have derived his name from 
Kent Chester, or Kent Church. He was a monk, 
holding Lollard opinions ; and a bard of consider- 
able talent and celebrity. As a matter of course, 
he was on good terms with his Satanic majesty; 
for he has a mighty reputation as a conjuror. 
MR. COLLIER may find a portion of one of his 
poems, translated in the lolo MSS., page 687. 
Should this, or any other authority herein named, 
not be accessible to MR. COLLIER, it would afford 
me great pleasure to send him transcripts. 

There is a very gross anachronism in making 
Sion, lege Shon Kent, to be the contemporary of 
Senena. T. STEPHENS. 

Merthyr Tydfil, Aug. 7. 1851. 


(Vol. iv., p. 24.) 

I believe that Petty Cury signifies the Little 
Cookery. See a note in my Annals of Cambridge, 
vol. i. p. 273. C. H. COOPER. 

Cambridge, July 12. 1851. 

To those who are familiar with the Form of 
Cury, edited by Dr. Pegge, no explanation can be 
necessary for the name of this street, or rather 
lane. It seems, indeed, strange that any one who 
calls himself a Cambridge man should have failed 
to discover that it was the peculiar quarter of the 
cooks of the town ; as we in London have our 
Poultry named from the Poulters (not Poulterers, 
as now corruptly designated) who there had their 
shops. F. S. Q. 

The Cambridge senate-house is called " Curia," 

AUG. 16.1851.] 



and therefore it may be supposed that "Petty 
Cury" means " parva curia" from some court-leet 
or court-baron formerly held there ; the town-hall 
is at the end of it to this day. The only objection 
to the above is, that in the Caius map of Cam- 
bridge, A.D. 1574, now in the British Museum, 
Petty Curie is a large street even then, whilst 
neither town-hall nor senate-house exist. 


Surely there can be little doubt that the name 
of this street at Cambridge is a corruption from 
the French " petite ccurie." We knew little 
enough about such matters when I was an under- 
graduate there ; but still, I think, we could have 
solved this mystery. Might I be permitted to 
suggest that as the court stables at Versailles were 
called "les petites ecuries," to distinguish them 
from the king's, which were styled "les grandes 
ecuries," although they exactly resembled them, 
and contained accommodation for five hundred 
horses ; so the street in question may have con- 
tained some of the fellows' stables, which were 
called "les petites ecuries," to distinguish them 
from the masters'. Should this supposition be 
correct, it would seem to imply that at one time 
the French language was not altogether ignored 
at Cambridge. H. C. 





(Vol. iil., p. 218. ; Vol. iv., p. 37.) 

MR. HICKSON seems to court opinion as to the 
justness of his interpretation of rack. I there- 
fore express my total and almost indignant dissent 
from it. 

Luckily, neither in the proposition itself, nor in 
the manner in which it is advocated, is there any- 
thing to disturb my previous conviction as to the 
true meaning of this word (which, in the well- 
known passage in the Tempest, is, beyond all 
doubt, "haze" or "vapour"), since few things 
would be more distasteful to me than to encounter 
any argument really capable of throwing doubt 
upon the reading of a passage I have long looked 
upon as one of the most marvellous instances of 
philosophical depth of thought to be met with, 
even in Shakspeare, one of those astonishing 
speculations, in advance of his age, that now and 
then drop from him as from the lips of a child 
inspired, wherein the grandeur of the sentiment 
is so out of all proportion to the simplicity and 
absence of pretension with which it is introduced, 
that the reader, not less surprised than delighted, 
is scarcely able to appreciate the full meaning until 
after long and careful consideration. 

It is only lately that the nebular theory of con- 
densation has been advanced, for the purpose of 

speculating upon the probable formation of pla- 
netary bodies. Yet it is a subject that possesses 
a strange coincidence with this passage of Shak- 
speare's Tempest. 

Perhaps the best elucidation I can give of it will 
be to cite a certain passage in Dr. Nichols' Archi- 
lecture of the Heavens, which happens to bear a 
rather remarkable, although I believe an acciden- 
tal, resemblance to Shakspeare's words : accidental, 
because if Dr. Nichols had this passage of the 
Tempest present to his mind, when writing in a 
professedly popular and familiar style, he would 
scarcely have omitted allusion to it, especially as 
it would have afforded a peculiarly happy illustra- 
tion of his subject. 

I shall now quote botli passages, in order that 
they may be conveniently compared : 

" Our revels now are ended these our actors 
As I foretold you, were all spirits, and 
Are melted into air INTO THIN AIR: 
And, like the baseless fabric of this vision, 
The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, the great globe itself, 
Yea, all that it inherit shall dissolve 
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, 
Leave not a rack behind." 

" in the laboratory of the chemist matter easily 

passes through all conditions, the solid, liquid, and 
gaseous, as if in a sort of phantasmagoria ; and his 
highest discoveries even now are pointing to the con- 
clusion, that the bodies which make up the solid por- 
tion of our earth may, simply by the dissolution of 
existing combinations, be ultimately resolved into a per- 
manently gaseous form." Nichols' Architecture of the 
Heavens, p. 147. 

Had we no other presumption to lead us to 
Shakspeare's true meaning but what is afforded by 
the expression, "into air thin air," it ought, in 
my opinion, to be amply sufficient ; for no rational 
person can entertain a doubt that Shakspeare in- 
tended the repetition, " thin air," to have reference 
to the simile that was to follow. The globe itself 
shall dissolve, and, like this vision, leave not a 
rack behind ! In what was the resemblance to the 
vision to consist, if not in melting, like it, into thin 
air ? into air unobscured by vapour, rarified from 
the slightest admixture of rack or cloud. 

Shakspeare knew that atmospheric rack is not 
insubstantial ; that it is corporeal like the globe 
itself, of which it is a part ; and that, so long as a 
particle of it remained, dissolution could not be 

And shall we reject this exquisite philosophy 
this profundity of thought to substitute our 
own mean and common-place ideas ? A. E. B. 

Leeds, July 22 

P. S. Apart from the philosophical beauty of 
this wonderful passage, there are other aspects in 
which it may be studied with not less interest. 

How true is the poetical image of the rack as 



[No. 94, 

the last object of dissipation ! the expiring evidence 
of combustion! the lingering cloudiness of solution ! 


Pseudo MSS. The Devil, Cromwell and his 
Amours. It is too bad ! In Vol. iii., p. 282., 
there is a good page and a half taken up with a 
verbatim extract from Echard, which has either 
been alluded to or quoted by every writer on 
Cromwell from Echard's time down to a few months 
ago, when it appeared in Chambers s Papers for 
the People, No. 11. Again, in Vol. iv., p. 19., 
there is another page and a half relating to Crom- 
well, which, I fearlessly assert, I have seen fre- 
quently in print, but cannot at present tell where ; 
and more important avocations forbid me to search. 
As if that was not enough, in Vol. iv., p. 50. there 
is another half page respecting the preservation of 
these precious MSS.! Is it not too bad? Do, 
worthy Mr. Editor, make the amende honorable 
by publishing the true characters of the MSS. 
forwarded by S. H. H., which you have so inad- 
vertently published as original. W. PINKERTON. 

[Our correspondent seems to doubt that the com- 
munications to which he refers were really printed from 
contemporary MSS. The Editor is able to vouch for 
that having been certainly the fact. They are not 
printed from transcripts from Echard, but from real 
MSS. of the time of Charles II., or thereabouts; 
while the fact of these early transcripts having been 
printed surely does not furnish any argument against 
the valuable suggestion of S. H. H. as to the preserva- 
tion of similar documents for the use of the public, and 
in the manner pointed out in his communication. ED.] 

Anonymous Ravennas (Vol. i., pp. 124. 220. 368. ; 
Vol. iii., p. 462.). Your correspondents have ne- 
glected to observe that this author's Chorography 
of Britain was published by Gale, " ad calcem 
Antonini Iter Britanniarum," viz., Britannia 
Chorograpliia cum Autographo Regis Gallice Ms . 
et Codice Vaticano collata; Adjiciuntur conjecture 
plurimcB cum nominibus locorum. Anglicis, quotquot 
Us assignari potuerint : Londini, 1709, 4to. 

A copy of the edition of Anonynd Ravennatis 
Geographies Libri Quinque (of the last of which 
the Chorography of Britain forms a part) noticed 
by J. I. (Vol. i., p. 220.) is now before me ; as also 
a later edition, published by the editor's son, 
Abram Gronovius : Lugduni Batavorum, 1722, 8vo. 

Horsley's Britannia Romana, book iii. chap, iv., 
contains " 1. Some account of this author and his 
work ; 2. The Latin text of this writer * ; 3. Re- 
marks upon many of the places mentioned by him, 
and more particularly of such as seem to be the 
same with the stations per lineam valli in the 
Notitia." His remarks are diametrically opposite 
to the conjectures of Camden and Gale. T. J. 

* The Chorography from Gale's edition. 

Margaret Maultasch (Vol. iv., p. 56.). Your 
correspondent who inquires where he can meet 
with the particulars of the life of Margaret, sur- 
named Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, will find 
them in the Supplement of the Biographic Uni- 
verselle, vol. Ixxiii. p. 136. 

The great heiress in question, though a monster 
of ugliness, was twice married: first to John 
Henry, son of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia 
(1331), from whom she procured a divorce on 
the plea of his incapacity; and, secondly (1341), 
to Eouis of Bavaria, eldest son of the Emperor 
Louis IV., by whom she had a son, Mainard, who 
died without issue during his mother's lifetime. 

I know not upon what authority rest the im- 
puted irregularities of her life, but her biographer, 
in the article above mentioned, casts no such slur 
upon her character. Nor can I discover that the 
armorial bearings of the town of Halle, in Tyrol, 
have any such significant meaning as has been 
hinted at. They are to be found in Matthew 
Merian's Topographia Provinciarum Austriacarum^ 
printed at Frankfort on the Maine in 1649, en- 
graved on the view of Halle, at p. 139., and ap- 
pear to be a cask or barrel, supported by two lions. 
There is no statue of Margaret Maultasch among 
those which surround the mausoleum of Emperor 
Maximilian (not Matthias') in the Franciscan 
church at Inspruck ; but her ludicrously hideous 
features may be found amongst the historical por- 
traits engraved in the magnificent work descrip- 
tive of the Museum of Versailles, published a few 
years ago at Paris, under the auspices of King 
Louis Philippe. W. S. 

Denton, July 28. 

Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace 
(Vol. i., p. 230. ; Vol. iv., p. 58.). Is your cor- 
respondent C. correct in attributing A true Cha- 
racter of Mr. Pope and his Writings, in a Letter to 
a Friend, printed for Popping, 1716, to Oldmixon? 
In the Testimonies of Authors, prefixed to the 
Dunciad, and the Appendix, and throughout the 
Notes, Dennis is uniformly quoted and attacked as 
the author. Oldmixon's feud with Pope was 
hardly, I think, so early. 

Assuming your correspondent's quotation from 
the pamphlet to be correct, the terms made use of 
will surely refer to Pope's Imitation of Horace 
(S. ii. L. i.), a fragment of which was published by 
Curll about this time (1716). It was afterwards 
republished in folio about 1734, printed for 
J. Boreman, under the title of Sober Advice from 
Horace to the young Gentlemen about Town, but in 
an enlarged state, and with some of the initials 
altered, and several new adaptations. Mrs. Old- 
field and Lady Mary are not introduced in the 
first edition. I have both, but at present can only 
refer to the second one in folio. From this the 
Imitation was transferred to the Supplement to 

AUG. 16. 1851.] 



Pope's Works, published by Cooper : London, 
1757, 12mo., and from thence to the Supplement- 
ary Volumes to the later editions. The publica- 
tion of it formed an article of impeachment against 
Dr. Jos. Warton, by the author of the Pursuits of 
Literature, as all who have read that satire will 
well remember. JAS. CBOSSJLEY. 

Brother Jonathan (Vol. iii., p. 495.). The 
origin of this term, as applied to the United States, 
5s given in a recent number of the Norwich 
Courier. The editor says it was communicated 
by a gentleman now upwards of eighty years of 
age, who was an active participator in the scenes 
of the revolution. The story is as follows : 

" When General Washington, after being appointed 
commander of the army of the revolutionary war, 
came to Massachusetts to organize it, and make pre- 
parations for the defence of the country, he found a 
great want of ammunition and other means necessary 
to meet the powerful foe he had to contend with, and 
great difficulty to obtain them. If attacked in such 
condition, the cause at once might be hopeless. On 
one occasion at that anxious period a consultation of 
the officers and others was had, when it seemed no 
way could be devised to make such preparations as were 
necessary. His Excellency Jonathan Trumbull the 
elder was then governor of the State of Connecticut, 
on whose judgment and aid the general placed the 
greatest reliance, and remarked, We must consult 
Brother Jonathan on the subject.' The general did 
so, and the governor was successful in supplying many 
of the wants of the army. When difficulties afterwards 
arose, and the army was spread over the country, it 
became a by-word, ' We must consult Brother Jo- 
nathan.' The term Yankee is still applied to a portion, 
but ' Brother Jonathan ' has now become a designation 
of the whole country, as John Bull has for England." 
Dictionary of Americanisms, by John Russell Bartlett, 


Cromwell's Grants of Land in Monaghan (Vol. 
iv., p. 87.). E. A. asks whether there are any 
grants of land in the county of Monaghan recorded 
as made by Cromwell, and where such records are 
preserved ? I fear I can give but a negative 
answer to the question : but among the stores of 
the State Paper Office are many books of orders, 
letters, &c. during the Commonwealth. Among 
them are two bundles dated in 1653, which relate 
to the lands granted by lot, to the adventurers who 
had advanced money for the army, in the different 
provinces of Ireland. Monaghan is not mentioned. 


Stanedge Pole (Vol. iii., p. 391.). In answer 
to your correspondent A. N., I beg to state that 
Stanedge Pole is between six and seven miles 
from Sheffield, on the boundary line between 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire, on a long causeway 
which was in former times the road from York- 
shire to Manchester. Its only antiquity consists in 

having been for centuries one of the meers marking 
the boundaries of Hallamshire. In Harrison's 
Survey of the Manor of Sheffield, 1637, appears 
an account of the boundaries as viewed and seen 
the 6th of August, 1574, from which the fol- 
lowing is an extract : 

" Item. From the said Hurkling Edge so forward 
after the Rock to Stannedge, which is a meer between 
the said Lordshipps (of Hallamshire and Hathersedge). 

" Item. From Stannedge after the same rock to a 
place called the Broad Rake, which is also a meer be- 
tween the said Lordshipps of Hallamshire and Ha- 

The situation is a very fine one, commanding a 
very beautiful and extensive view of the sur- 
rounding country.* H. J. 


Baskerville the Printer (Vol. iv., p. 40.). Bas- 
kerville was interred in the grounds attached to 
the house in which he lived, near Easy Row, Bir- 
mingham. The land becoming valuable for build- 
ing purposes, he was, after lying there about half 
a century, disinterred and removed to the work- 
shop of a lead merchant, named Marston, in Mon- 
mouth Street, Birmingham. While there I saw 
his remains. They were in a wooden coffin, which 
was enclosed in one of lead. How long they had 
been above ground I do not know, but certainly 
not long. This, as far as I can recollect, is about 
twenty-five years since. The person who showed 
me the body, and who was either one of the 
Marstons or a manager of the business, told me he 
had seen the coffins opened, and that the features 
were then perfect. When exhibited to me the 
nose and lips were gone, as were also two front 
teeth, which had been torn from the mouth sur- 
reptitiously and taken away. I understood that 
it was known who had them, and that they would 
be restored. The shroud was discoloured, I 
presume from natural causes, being of a dirty 
yellow colour, as though it had been drawn through 
a clay pit. The texture and strength of the cloth 
remained unaffected. Baskerville entertained pe- 
culiar opinions on religious subjects. There was 
a rumour of some efforts having been made to 
deposit his remains in one of the church burial 
grounds, but they were not successful. A year or 
two ago, while in Birmingham, a snuff-box was 
shown me, on the lid of which a portrait of Bas- 
kerville was painted, which fully agreed with a 
description of his person given me many years 
previously by one who had known him. This 
portrait had not, from its appearance, been painted 
very long. From its being there I infer that 
there is in existence at least one original portrait 
of this eminent printer. ST. JOHNS. 

* Its elevation is, according to the Ordnance 
Survey, 1463 feet. 



[No. 94. 

Inscription on a Claymore (Vol. iv., p. 59.). 
Is your correspondent " T. M. W., Liverpool," 
who inquires the translation of an " inscription on 
a claymore," certain that his quotation is correct ? 
To me it appears that it should run thus : 
or, "God preserve the righteous (or just) Scots;" 
referring, no doubt, to the undertaking in which 
they were then engaged. 

I believe that formerly, and probably at the 
present time, many of the finest sword blades 
were made abroad, and sent to England to be 
mounted, or even entirely finished on the Con- 
tinent. I have in my possession a heavy trooper's 
sword, bearing the name of a celebrated German 
maker, although the ornaments and devices are 
unquestionably English. Another way of account- 
ing for the inscription is, that it belonged to some 
of"' those foreign adventurers who are known to 
have joined Charles Edward. W. SHIRLEY. 

Burton Family (Vol. iv., p. 22.). In Hunter's 
History of Hattamshire, p. 236., is a pedigree of 
Burton of Royds Mill, near Sheffield, in which 
are the following remarks : 

" Richard Burton of Tutbury, Staffordshire, died 
May 9th, 8 Henry V. Married Maud, sister of Robert 
Gibson of Tutbury ; and had a son, Sir William Bur- 
ton of Falde and Tutbury, Knight ; slain at Towton- 
fk'ld, 1461, from whom descended the Burtons of 

" Thomas Burton of Fanshawgate, who died in 
1643, left three sons; Michael, Thomas, and Francis. 
Michael was of Mosborough, and had a numerous 
issue ; the names of his children appear on his monu- 
mental brass in the chancel of the church at Eckington. 
Thomas, the second son, was of London and Putney, 
married, and had issue. Francis, the youngest, was 
lord of the Manor of Dronfield, and served the office 
of High Sheriff of Derby in 1669. Was buried at 
Dronfield in 1687." 

I find no account of any Roger Burton ; but if 
your correspondent E. H. A. is not in possession 
of the above pedigree, and should wish for a copy, 
I shall be glad to send him it. JOHN ALGOB. 

Eldon Street, Sheffield. 

Notation by Coalwhippers (Vol. iv., p. 21.). 
The notation used by coalwhippers, &c., men- 
tioned by I. J. C., is, after all, I expect, but a part 
of a system which was probably the origin of the 
Horn an notation. The first four strokes or units 
were cut diagonally by the fifth, and taking the 
first and last of these strokes we readily obtain 
V, or the Roman five ; but as the natural systems of 
arithmetic are decimal, from the number of fingers, 
it is most probable that the tens were thus marked 
off, or by a stroke drawn across the last unit thus 
X, whence we obtain the Roman ten : these tens 
were repeated up to a hundred, or the second 
class of tens, which were probably connected by 

two parallel lines top and bottom C, which would 
be the sign of the second class of tens, or hundreds; 
this became afterwards rounded into C : the 
third class of tens, or thousands, was represented 
by four strokes M, and these symbols served by 
abbreviation for some intermediate numbers ; thus 
X divided became V, or 5, the half of 10; then 
L, half of C, represented 50, half of 100; and 
M becoming rounded thus CO was frequently ex- 
pressed in this manner CID? and this became ab- 
breviated into D, 500, half of C 13, or 1000: and 
thus, by variously combining these six symbols 
(though all derived from the one straight stroke), 
numbers to a very high amount could be ex- 
pressed. THOS. LAWRENCE. 
Ashby de la Zouch. 

Statue of Charles II. (Vol. iv., p. 40.). The 
following passage is from Hughson's History of 
London, vol. ii. p. 521. : 

" Among the adherents and sufferers in the cause of 
Charles II. was Sir Robert Viner, alderman of London. 
After the Restoration the worthy alderman, willing to 
show his loyalty and prudence, raised in this place 
[i. e. the Stock's Market] the statue above mentioned. 
The figure had been carved originally for John Sobieski, 
king of Poland, but by some accident was left upon the 
workman's hands. Finding the work ready carved to 
his hands, Sir Robert thought that, with some altera- 
tion, what was intended for a king of Poland might 
suit the monarch of Great Britain ; he therefore con- 
verted the Polander into an Englishman, and the Turk 
underneath his horse into Oliver Cromwell ; the turban 
on the last figure being an undeniable proof of the 
truth attached to the story. The compliment was so 
ridiculous and absurd, that no one who beheld it could 
avoid reflecting on the taste of those who had set it up ; 
but as its history developed the farce improved, and 
what was before esteemed contemptible, proved in the 
end entertaining. The poor mutilated figure stood 
neglected some years since among the rubbish in the 
purlieus of Guildhall ; and in 1779, it was bestowed 
by the common council on Robert Viner, Esq., who 
removed it to grace his country seat." 

The earliest engraving of " the King at the 
Stock's Market" may be seen in Thomas fielaune's 
Present State of London, 12mo. 1681. 


Serius, where situated ? (Vol. iii., p. 494.). The 
Serius, now Serio, rises in the chain of mountains 
in the south of the Valteline, between the lakes 
Como and Ixo : it flows through a valley called 
the Val Seria, passes near Bergamo and Cremona, 
and falls into the Adda a little before that river 
joins the Po. J. M. (4) 

Corpse passing makes a Right of Way (Vol. iii., 
pp. 477. 507. 519.). Some time ago, I buried in 
our churchyard a person from an adjoining parish ; 
but, instead of taking a pathway which led di- 
rectly from the house of the deceased to the 
church, they kept to the high-road, so going 

AUG. 16. 1851.] 



four miles instead of one. When I asked the 
reason, I was told that the pathway was not a 
lick-road, and therefore it was not lawful to bring 
a corpse along it. J. M. (4) 

The Petworth Register (Vol. iii., p. 510. ; Vol.iv., 
p. 27.). Your correspondents LLEWELLYN and 
J. S. B. do not appear to be acquainted with 
Heylyn's quotations from the book thus designated. 
In one place (p. 63., folio ; vol. i. p. 132., 8vo.) he 
refers to it for a statement 

"That many at this time [A. n. 1548] affirmed the 
most blessed Sacrament of the altar to be of little 
regard," &c. 

And in another place (p. 65., folio ; vol. i. p. 136., 
8vo.), he gives an extract relating to Day, Bishop 
of Chichester : 

" Sed Ricardus Cicestrensis, (ut ipse mihi dixit) non 

Hence the Register would seem to have been a 
sort of chronicle, kept by the rector of Petworth ; 
and it does not appear whether it was or was not 
in the same volume with the register of births, 
marriages, and deaths. In the latter case, it may 
possibly be still in the Petworth parish chest ; for 
the returns to which your correspondents refer, 
would probably not have mentioned any other 
registers than those of which the law takes cogni- 
zance. On the other hand, if the chronicle was 
attached to the register of births. &c., it may have 
shared the too common fate of early registers ; 
for, when an order of 1597 directed the clergy to 
transcribe on parchment the entries made in the 
proper registers since the beginning of Elizabeth's 
reign, they seem to have generally interpreted it 
as a permission to make away with the older 
registers, although there are cases in which the 
proper books are still preserved. (I am myself 
acquainted with two in this neighbourhood; and 
J. S. B., if I am right in identifying him with the 
author of the very curious and valuable History 
of Parish Registers, can no doubt mention many 
others.) But how did Heylyn, who collected 
most of his materials about 1638, get hold of the 
book ? J. C. ROBERTSON. 


Holland's " Monumenta Sepulchralia Ecclesice 
S. Pauli" (Vol. ii., p. 265. ; Vol. iii., p. 427.; Vol.iv., 
p. 62.). Sir Egerton Brydges, in his Censura 
Literaria, vol. i. p. 305., attributes this work to 
Henry Holland. In his notice of Heroologia 
Anglica, he says : 

" The author was Henry Holland, son of Philemon 
Holland, a physician and schoolmaster at Coventry, 
and the well-known translator of Camden, &c. Henry 
was born at Coventry, and travelled with John, Lord 
Harrington, into the Palatinate in 1613, and collected 
and wrote (besides the Heroologia} Monumenta Sepul- 
chralia Ecdesia S. Fault, Lond., 4to. ; and engraved 
and published A Book of Kinys, being a true and lively 

effigies of all our English Kings from the Conquest till 
this present, &c., 1618. He was not educated either in 
Oxford or Cambridge ; having been a member of the 
society of Stationers in London. I think it is most 
probable that he was brother to Abraham Holland, 
who subscribes his name as Abr. Holland alumnus 
S. S. Trin. Coll. Cantabr.' to some copies of Latin 
verses on the death of John, second Lord Harrington, 
of Exton, in the Heroologia; which Abraham was the 
author of a poem called Naumachia, or Holland's Sea- 
Fight, Lond. 1622, and died Feb. 18, 1625, when his 
Posthuma were edited by 'his brother H. Holland.' 
At this time, however, there were other writers of the 
name of Hen. Holland. (See Wood's Athence, i. 499.)" 

J. Y. 


Mistake as to an Eclipse (Vol. iv., p. 58.). 
From your correspondent's mention of it, I should 
have supposed Casaubon meant that the astrono- 
mers had been mistaken in the calculation of an 
eclipse. But the matter is of another kind. In 
the lunar eclipse of April 3, 1605, two observers, 
Wendelinus and Lansberg, in different longitudes, 
made the eclipse end at times far more different 
than their difference of longitudes would explain. 
The ending of a lunar eclipse, observed with the 
unassisted eye, is a very indefinite phenomenon. 

The allusion to this, made by Meric Casaubon, 
is only what the French call a plat de son metier. 
He was an upholder of the ancients in philosophy, 
and his bias would be to depreciate modern suc- 
cesses, and magnify modern failures. When he 
talks of the astronomer being "deceived in the 
hour," he probably uses the word hour for time, 
as done in French and old English. M. 

" A Posie of other Merfs Flowers'" (Vol. iv., 
p. 58.). D. Q. is referred to Montaigne, who is 
the author of the passage ; but not having access 
to his works, I am not able to give a paginal 
reference. H. T. E. 

Clyst St. George. 

Davies' History of Magnetical Discovery (Vol.iv., 
p. 58.). The History, #c., by T. S. Davies, is 
in the British Annual for 1837, published by 
Bailliere. M. 

Marriage of Bishops (Vol. iv., p. 57.). A. B.C. 
will find his questions fully answered in Henry 
Wharton's tract, entitled A Treatise of the Ce- 
libacy of the Clergy, wherein its Rise and Progress 
are historically considered, 1688, 4to.pp. 168. There 
is also another treatise on the same subject, en- 
titled An Answer to a Discourse concerning the 
Celibacy of the Clergy, by E. Tully, 1687, in reply 
to Abraham Woodhead. E. C. HARRINGTON. 

The Close, Exeter, July 28. 1851. 

" The Right divine of Kings to govern wrong " 
(Vol. iii., p. 494.). The same idea as that con- 
veyed in this line is frequently expressed, though 
not in precisely the same words, in Defoe's Jure 



[No. 94. 

Divino, a poem which contains many vigorous and 
spirited passages ; but I do not believe that Pope 
gave the line as a quotation at all, or that it is 
other, so far as he is concerned, than original. 
The inverted commas merely denote that this 
line is the termination of the goddess's speech. 
The punctuation is not very correct in any of the 
editions of the Dunciad; and sometimes inverted 
commas occur at the end of the last line of a speech, 
and sometimes both at the beginning and end of 
the line. JAMES CROSSLEY. 

Equestrian Statues (Vol. iii., p. 494.). In reply 
to F. M.'s Query respecting the Duke of Welling- 
ton's statue being the only equestrian one erected 
to a subject in her Majesty's dominions, I may 
mention that there is one erected in Cavendish 
Square to William Duke of Cumberland, who, 
though of the blood royal, was yet a subject. 

D. K. 


When Mr. Murray commenced that admirable series 
of Guides which form the indispensable companion of 
those restless spirits who delight with each recurring 

" To waft their size to Indus or the Pole," 
he first sent his Schoolmaster abroad ; with what suc- 
cess those who have examined, used, and trusted to his 
Continental Handbooks best can tell. Whether Mr. 
Murray is now actuated by a spirit of patriotism, or 
of moral responsibility under the remembrance that 
" chanty begins at home," we neither know nor care ; 
since our "home-staying" friends, as well as all who 
visit us, will benefit by the new direction which his 
energy has taken. Among the first fruits of this we 
have Murray's Handbook for Modern London, which 
did not need the name of our valued contributor MR. 
PETER CUNNINGHAM at the foot of its preliminary 
advertisement to show the mint in which it was 
coined ; for it is in every page marked with the same 
characteristics, the same laborious research the same 
scrupulous exactness the same clear and distinct ar- 
rangements, which won such deserved praise for that 
gentleman's Handbook for London, Past and Present. 
Any visitor to London, be he mere sight-seer, or be he 
artist, architect, statist, &c., will find in this neatly 
printed volume the most satisfactory replies to his in- 

The Handbook to the Antiquities in the British Museum, 
being a Description of the Remains of Greek, Assyrian, 
Egyptian and Etruscan Art, preserved there, by W. S. W. 
Vaux, Assistant in the Department of Antiquities, has 
been compiled for the purpose of laying before the 
public the contents of one department of the British 
Museum that of antiquities in a compendious and 
popular form. The attempt has been most successful. 
Mr. Vaux has not only the advantage of official po- 
sition, but of great practical knowledge of the subject, 
and abundant scholarship to do it justice; and the 

consequence is, that his Handbook to the Antiquities in 
the British Museum will be found not only most useful 
for the special object for which it has been written, but 
a valuable introduction to the study of Early Art. 

There are probably no objects in the Great Exhibi- 
tion which have attracted more general attention than 
the Stuffed Animals exhibited by Herrmann Ploucquet, 
of Stuttgart. Prince and peasant, old and young, the 
pale-faced student, deep in Goethe and Kaulbach, and 
the hard-handed agriculturist who picked up his know- 
ledge of nature and natural history while plying his 
daily task, have all gazed with delight on the produc- 
tions of this accomplished artist. That many of these 
admirers will be grateful to Mr. Bogue for having had 
daguerreotypes of some of the principal of these master- 
pieces taken by M. Claudet, and engravings made from 
them on wood as faithfully as possible, we cannot 
doubt : and to all such we heartily recommend The 
Comical Creatures from Wurtemburg ; including the 
Story of Reynard the Fox, with Twenty Illustrations. 
The letter-press by which the plates are accompanied 
is written in a right Reynardine spirit ; and whether 
as a memorial of the Exhibition of the peculiar talent 
of the artist or as a gift book for children this 
pretty volume deserves to be widely circulated. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Neander's General History of the 
Christian Religion and Church, vol. iv., is the new 
volume of Bonn's Standard Library; and it speaks 
very emphatically for the demand for cheap editions of 
works of learning and research that it can answer Mr. 
Bohn's purpose to issue a translation of such a book as 
this by the great ecclesiastical historian of Germany in 
its present form. 

The Stone Mason of Saint Pont, a Village Tale from 
the French of De Lamartine, a new volume of Bohn's 
cheap series, is a tale well calculated to stir the sym- 
pathy of the reader, and to waken in him thoughts too 
deep for tears. It must prove one of the most popular 
among the works of imagination included in the series ; 
as its companion volume, Monk's Contemporaries, Bio- 
graphic Studies on the English Revolution, by M. Guizot, 
must take a high place among the historical works. 
M. Guizot describes his Sketches as " constituting, 
together with Monk, a sort of gallery of portraits, in 
which persons of the most different character appear in 
juxtaposition;" and a most interesting study they 
make not the less, perhaps, because, as the author 
candidly avows, " in spite of the great diversity of 
manners, contemporary comparisons and applications 
will present themselves at every step, however careful 
we may be not to seek them." 

CATALOGUES RECEIVED. W. Dearden's (Carlton 
Street, Nottingham) Catalogue Part I. of Important 
Standard and Valuable Books; J. Petheram's (94. 
High Holborn) Catalogue Part 125., No. 6. for 1851, 
of Old and New Books ; Joseph Lilly's (7. Pall Mall) 
Catalogue of a very Valuable Collection of Fine and 
Useful Books ; F. Butsch's, at Augsburg, Catalogue 
(which may be had of D. Nutt, 270. Strand) of a 
Choice and Valuable Collection of Rare and Curious 
Books ; Edward Tyson's (55. Great Bridgewater 
Street, Manchester) Catalogue, No. 1. of 1851, of 
Books on Sale. 

AUG. 16. 1851.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 127 



BRITISH ESSAYISTS, by Chalmers. 45 Vols. Johnson and Co. 
Vols. VI. VII. VIII. IX. and XXIII. 


Account of Cantain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, 
bv Colonel Luke Lillingston, 1704. 
LORD, &c. By George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from 
p. 150. to the end. 


1663. Sm. 4to. Wanted from p. 90. to the end. 
TRISTRAM SHANDY. I2mo. Tenth Edition. Wanted Vol. VII. 
PUY DE DOMB. 1 Vol. folio. 51 Plates. 
which is added a Discourse thereon, as connected with the 
Mystic Theology of the Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By 
R. Payne Knight. 
APOCRYPHES, AUGMENTED &c. Leipsic, 1832. 
SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo. 
ENCYCLOP/EDIA BRITANNICA. The part of the 7th edition edited 
by Prof. Napier, containing the Art. MORTALITY. 
MORTALITY, by Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.) 
Published in 1849. 
THREE REPORTS, by Mr. Griffith Davies, Actuary to the Guardian, 
viz. : 
Renort on the Bombav Civil Fund, published 183G. 
, * , Bengal Medical Retirin- Fund published 1839 



Rt. Hon. Lord Brougham. 
Rt. Hon. the Lord Chief Baron. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Warren de Tabley. 
Rt. Hon. II. Tuffnell, M.P. 
Lord Lindsay. 
Hon. Francis Scott, M. P. 
Sir E. L. Bulwer-Lytton, Bart. 
Sir R. I. Murchisou, F.R.S. 
Sir Peter Laurie, Kt., Alderman. 
"W. Francis Ainsworth, Esq. 
J. Arden, Esq.,F.S.A., Treas. 
John Barrow, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Charles Barry, Esq., R.A. 
Win. Beattie, M.D. 
Robert Bell, Esq. 
Francis Bennoch, Esq. 
Joshua W. Butterworth, Esq. 
B. Bond Cabbell, Esq., M.P. 
Joseph Cauvin, Esq. 
R. Chambers, Esq., Edinburgh. 
James Colquhoun, Esq. 
Patrick Colquhoun, Esq., D.C.L. 
Walter Coulson, Esq. 
Rev. George Croly, D.D. 
George Cruikshank, Esq. 
Peter Cunningham, Esq., F.S.A. 
Rev. John Davis. 
J. C. Denham, Esq. 
Charles Dickens, Esq. 
Henry Drummond, Esq., M.P. 
Joseph Durham, Esq. 
Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 
Alfred Forrester, Esq. 
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found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 95.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 23. 1851. 

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NOTES : Page 

Tho Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation 129 
Minor Notes : The Day of the Month Foreign En- 
glishBirds' Care for the Dead Snake's Antipathy 
to Fire Aldgate, London Erroneous Scripture 
Quotations ,_... 130 


The Lady Elizabeth Homer or Montgomery - .131 

Pope and Flatman, by W. Barton - - - - 132 

Minor Queries : Southampton Brasses Borough- 
English Passage in St. Bernard Spenser's Faerie 
Queene Broad Halfpenny Down Roll Pedigree of 
Howard Rev. John Paget, of Amsterdam Visiting 

Cards Duke de Berwick and Alva The Earl of 

Derwentwater " But very few have seen the Devil" 
~ Anlus Gellius' Description of a Dimple Forgotten 
Authors of the 17th Century - - - - 132 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: Sundays, on what Days 

of the Month ?_ John Lilhnrne - - - 134 

REPLIES: ->-<T-.^ 

" Lay of the Last Minstrel " .... 134 

Meaning of " Prenzie," by Samuel Hickson - - 135 

House of Yvery - - - - - - 136 

Queen Brune'haut - 136 

Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor - - - 137 

Cowper or Cooper ..---- 137 

Replies to Minor Queries : Voce Populi Halfpenny 
Dog's Head in the Pot " O wearisome Condition of 
Humanity " Hunyan and the " Visions of Heaven 
and Hell" 1 Pope's Translations or Imitations of 

Horace Prophecies of Nostradamus Thread the 

Needle Salmon Fishery in the Thames Entomo- 
logical Query School of the Heart Fortune, Infor-. 
time, Fort une Ackev Trade Curious Omen at 
Marriage - - - - - - r38 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues,, &c. - 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents- 
Advertisements - 

-. 142 

- 143 

- 143 
, 144 


If the propounders of this theory had from the 
first explained that they do not claim, for the 
plane of oscillation, an exemption from the general 
rotation of the earth, but only the difference of 
rotation due to the excess of velocity with which 
one extremity of the line of oscillation may be 
affected more than the other, it would have saved 
a world of fruitless conjecture and misunder- 

For myself I can say that it is only recently I 
have become satisfied that this is the real extent 
of the claim ; and I confess that had I been aware 
of it sooner, I should have regarded the theory 
with greater respect than I have hitherto been 
disposed to do. Perhaps this avowal may render- 
more acceptable the present note, in which I shall 
endeavour to make plain to others that which so 
long remained obscure to myself. 

It is well known that the more we advance 
from the poles of the earth towards the equator, 
so much greater becomes the velocity with which 
the surface of the earth revolves just as any spot 
near the circumference of a revolving wheel travels 
farther in a given time, and consequently swifter, 
than a spot near the centre of the same wheel : 
hence, London being nearer to the equator than 
Edinburgh, the former must rotate with greater 
velocity than the latter. Now if we imagine a 
pendulum suspended from such an altitude, and 
in such a position, that, one extremity of its line of 
oscillation shall be supposed to reach to London 
and the other to Edinburgh ; and if we imagine 
the ball of such pendulum to be drawn towards, 
and retained over London, it is clear that, so long 
as it remains in that situation, it will share the 
velocity of London, and rotate with it. But if it 
be set at liberty it will immediately begin to oscil- 
late between London and Edinburgh, retaining, 
it is asserted, the velocity of the former place. 
Therefore during its first excursion towards Edin- 
burgh, it will be impressed with a velocity 
greater than that of the several points of the 
earth over which it has to traverse; so that when 
it arrives at Edinburgh it will be in advance of 
the rotation of that place ; and consequently its 
actual line of oscillation, instead of falling directly 
upon Edinburgh, will diverge, and fall somewhere 
to the east of it. 

Now it is clear that if the pendulum ball be 
supposed to retain the same velocity of rotation, 
undiminished, which was originally impressed upon 
it at London, it must, in its return from Edin- 
burgh, retrace the effects just described, and again 
return to coincidence with London, having alfthe 
time retained a velocity equal to that of London. 
If this were truly the case, the deviation in one 

VOL. IV. No. 95. 



[No. 95. 

direction would be restored in the opposite one, 
so that the only result would be a repetition of the 
same effects in every succeeding oscillation. 

It is this absence of an element of increase in 
the deviation that constitutes the first objection to 
this theory as a sufficient explanation of the pen- 
dulum phenomenon. It is answered (as I sup- 
pose, for I have nowhere seen it so stated in 
direct terms) that the velocity of rotation, ac- 
quired and retained by the pendulum ball, is not 
that of London, but of a point midway between 
the two extremes in fact, of that point of the 
earth's surface immediately beneath the centre of 

There is no doubt that, if this can be established, 
the line of oscillation would diverge in both di- 
rections the point of return, or of restored coin- 
cidence, which before was in one of the extremes, 
would then be in the central point ; consequently 
it would be of no effect in correcting the deviation, 
which would then go on increasing with every 

Therefore, in order to obtain credence for the 
theory, satisfactory .explanation must be given of 
this first difficulty by not only showing that the 
medium velocity is really that into which the ex- 
treme velocity first impressed upon the ball will 
ultimately be resolved ; but it must also be ex- 
plained when that effect will take place, whether 
all at once or gradually ; because, it must, be 
recollected, the oscillations of the experimental 
pendulum cannot practically commence from the 
central point, but always from one of the extremes, 
to which the ball must first be elevated. 

But this is not enough: there must also be shown 
reasonable ground to induce the belief that the 
ball is really free from the attraction of each suc- 
cessive point of the earth's surface over which it 
passes ; and that, although in motion, it is not as 
really and as effectually a partaker in the rotation 
of any given point, during its momentary passage 
over it, as though it were fixed and stationai-y at 
that point. Those who maintain that this is not 
the case are bound to state the duration of resi- 
dence which any substance must make at any 
point upon the earth's surface, in order to oblige 
it to conform to the exact amount of velocity with 
which that point revolves. 

Lastly, supposing these difficulties capable of 
removal, there yet remains a third, which consists 
in the undeniable absence of difference of velocity 
when the direction of oscillation is east and west. 
It has been shown that the difference before 
claimed was due to the nearer approach to the 
equator of ^ one of the extremities of the line of 
oscillation in consequence of its direction being 
north and south ; but when its direction is east 
and west both extremities are equally distant from 
the equator, arid therefore no difference of velocity 
can exist. 

I have directed these observations to the funda- 
mental truth and reality of the alleged pheno- 
menon ; it is quite clear that these must first be 
settled before the laws of its distribution on the 
surface of the globe can become of any interest. 


Leeds, Augusts. 1851. 

The Day of the Month. Many persons might 
help themselves, as some do, by remembering 
throughout the year on what day the 1st of Ja- 
nuary fell, and by permanently remembering the 
first day of each month, which agrees with the 
first day of the year. Thus, this present year 
began on Wednesday, and the 6th of August is 
therefore Wednesday, as are the 13th, 20th, 27th. 
By the following lines the key to the months may 
be kept in mind : 

Tiie first of October, you'll find if you try, 
The second of April, as well as July, 
The third of September, which rhymes to December, "| 
The fourth day of June, and no other, remember, > 
The fifth of the leap-month, of March, and November, J 
The sixth day of August, and seventh of May, 
Show i\\e first of the year in the name of the day ; 
But in leap-year, when leap-month has duly been 

These month-dates will show, not the first, but the 



Foreign English. The specimens given in 
"NOTES AND QUERIES" have reminded me of one 
which seems worthy to accompany them ; in fact, to 
have rather a peculiar claim. 

I believe the facts of the case to have been 
these. When it was known that Louis XVIII. 
was to be restored to the throne of France, a re- 
port was circulated (whether on any good autho- 
rity I do not know) that the then Duke of 
Clarence would take the command of the vessel 
which was to convey the returning monarch to 
Calais. At all events the people of Calais expected 
it ; and inferring that the English royal duke 
would pass at least one night in their town, and of 
course go to the play, they deemed that it would 
be proper to perform the English national anthem 
at their theatre. It was obvious, however, that 
" God save the King" was so very appropriate to 
their own circumstances, that, notwithstanding its 
Anglicism, it left less of compliment and con- 
gratulation for the illustrious foreigner than they 
really intended to offer. So that happy people, 
who "can do everything in no time, forthwith pre- 
pared an additional verse. This being quite new, 
and of course unknown, they printed on the play- 
bill, from which I learned it. If you give his 
lines a place in your pages, I will not say that the 
French poet's labour was thrown away ; but for 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



the time it was so, as the English duke did not 
accompany the French king. 1 believe that the 
additional verse was as follows : 

" God save noble Clarence 
Who brings our king to France, 

God save Clarence ; 
He maintains the glory 
Of the British navy, 
Oh 1 God, make him happy, 

God save Clarence." 

I am sorry that I can only speak from memory 
of the contents of a document which I have not 
seen for so many years ; but if I have made any 
mistake, perhaps some reader may be able to 
correct me. S. R. M. 

Birds Care for the Dead. It is not uncommon 
to find in poets of all ages some allusion to the 
pious care of particular birds for the bodies of the 
dead. Is there any truth in the idea? for certainly 
the old ballad of " The Children in the Wood" has 
made many a kind friend for the Robin Redbreast 
by the affecting lines : 

" No burial this pretty pair 

Of any man receives, 
Till Robin Redbreast piously 
Did cover them with leaves." 

Herrick also alludes to the same tradition in his 
verses " upon Mrs. Elizabeth Wheeler, under the 
name of Amarillis." (JVorks, vol. i. pp. 62-3. : 
Edin. 1823.) 

" Sweet Amarillis, by a spring's 
Soft and soule-melting murmurings, 
Slept ; and thus sleeping, thither flew, 
A Robin Redbreast; who at view, 
Not seeing her at all to stir, 
Brought leaves and moss to cover her ; 
But while he, perking, there did prie 
About the arch of either eye, 
The lid began to let out day, 
At which poor Robin flew away; 
And seeing her not dead, but all disleav'd, 
He chirpt for joy, to see himself disceav'd." 

In the earlier editions of Gray's Elegy, before 
the Epitaph, the following exquisite lines were 
inserted : 

" There scatter'd oft, the earliest of the year, 
By hands unseen, are showers of violets found : 
The Redbreast loves to build and warble there, 
And little footsteps lightly print the ground." 

And about the same time Collins's " Dirge in 
Cymbeline" had adorned the "fair Fidele's grassy 
tomb" with the same honour : 

' The Redbreast oft, at evening hours, 
Shall kindly lend his little aid, 
With hoary moss, and gather'd flowers, 
To deck the ground where thou art laid." 

Warmington, Aug. 9. 1851. 


Snake's Antipathy to Fire. There is in Brazil 
a very common poisonous snake, the Surucucu 
(Trigonocephalus rhombeatus), respecting which the 
Matutos and Sertanejos, the inhabitants of the 
interior, relate the following facts. They say that 
such is the antipathy of this reptile to fire, that 
when fires are made in the clearing away of woods, 
they rush into it, scattering it with their tails till 
it is extinguished, even becoming half roasted in 
the attempt ; and that when an individual is pass- 
ing at night with a torch, they pass and repass 
him, lashing him with their tales till he drop it, 
and the snake is immediately found closely coiled 
round the extinguished torch. The greatest enemy 
of this snake is an immense Lacertian, five and six 
feet long, the Tiju-aqu (the great lizard its name 
in the Lingoa geral) : it is said that when the snake 
succeeds in effecting a bite, the lizard rushes into 
the wood, eats some herb, and returns to the con- 
flict, which almost invariably terminates in its 
favour. JOHN MANLEY. 

Pernambueo, June 30. 1851. 

Aldgate, London. (A Note for London Anti- 
quaries.) After this gate was taken down in 1760, 
Sir Walter Blackett, of Wallington, Northumber- 
land, obtained some of the ornamental stones (part 
of the City arms, heads and wings of dragons, ap- 
parently cut in Portland stone, and probably set 
up when the gate was rebuilt in 1606), and used 
them in decorating Rothley Castle, an eye-trap 
which he erected -on the crags of that name, near 
Wallington. W. C. TREVELYAN. 

Wallington, Aug. 11. 1851. 

Erroneous Scripture Quotations. Some of your 
correspondents have done good service by draw- 
ing attention to these things. Has it ever 
occurred to you that the apple is a fruit never 
connected in Scripture with the fall of man ; 
that Eve was not Adam's helpmate, but merely a 
help meet for him ; and that Absalom's long hair, 
of which he was so proud, and which has conse- 
quently so often served " to point a moral and 
adorn a tale," had nothing to do with his death, 
his head itself, and not the hair upon it, having 
been caught in the boughs of the tree ? P. P. 


In some curious manuscript memoirs of the 
family of Horner of Mells, co. Somerset, written 
probably about the middle of the last century, I 
find the following statement : 

" The gentleman at Mel is last mentioned, whose 
name I don't know, had his eldest son George, who suc- 
ceeded him at Mells. He married the Countess of 
Montgomery, supposed to be the widow of that earl, 
who, in tilting with Henry II., King of Fiance, caused 



[No. 95, 

his death by a splinter of his spear running into the 
king's eye. But most probably she was the widow of 
that lord's son, which I conjecture from the distance of 
the time of that king's death to her death, which must 
needs be near seventy years, as she lived at Cloford to 
the year 1628. She must certainly be a considerable 
heiress, as several estates came with her into the family, 
and, among others, Postlebury-woods in particular, and, 
possibly, also the Puddimore estate ; as her son, Sir 
John Homer, was the first of the family that presented 
a clerk to that living in 1639, viz., William Kemp, 
who was afterwards one of the suffering clergy. Her 
jointure was 500/. a-year, which was very considerable 
at that time." 

Can any of your readers assist in elucidating 
this story, of which no existing family records 
afford any corroboration, and which the parochial 
registers of the neighbourhood appear rather to 
invalidate in some of its statements ? As far as 
we can gather from such sources, the gentleman 
alluded to in the extract was not George but 
Thomas Homer, born 1547, M.P. for Somerset- 
shire 1585, and sheriff 1607, who was buried 1612. 
He married three times: first, Elizabeth^ Pollard, 
who died, as well as her only son John, in 1573 ; 
secondly, Jane Popham, who died 1591, having 
had, amongst other issues, Sir John, born about 
1580; and thirdly, as it would seem, a person 
called " The Lady Elizabeth," who had issue 
Edward, born 1597, and who was buried at 
Cloford in 1599. Even allowing for the errors 
attendant upon a tradition, it is scarcely possible 
that this " Lady Elizabeth" should have been 
widow of Count Gabriel de Montgomery, 
Elizabeth de la Zouch, who married her first 
husband in 1549, and was left a widow in 1574. 
She might have been widow of one of his sons ; 
though the only two mentioned in the Biographie 
Universelle, Gabriel and Jacques, left issue, to 
whom their wives' property would have probably 

The whole matter, as far as I have been able to 
examine it, is a very obscure one, and yet can 
hardly, I should think, be without some foundation 
in fact. The title-deeds of Postlebury and Pud- 
dimore perhaps would throw light upon it. 


I possess a small volume entitled Manchester 
al Mondo ; Contemplations of Death and Immor- 
tality, by the Earl of Manchester: the 15th edit., 
1688. At the end are appended several short but 
quaint poems on the subject of mortality. One ol 
them is stated to be taken from the " incomparable 
Poems by the ingenious Mr. Thomas Flatman,'' 
and is entitled " A Thought of Death." I have 
transcribed it side by side with Pope's celebrated 
ode, " The Dying Christian to his Soul," in which 

some lines run remarkably parallel. Is it probable 
?ope borrowed his idea of the fine couplet, 
" Hark ! they whisper ; angels say, 

Sister Spirit, come away ! " 
from Flatman? If not, the coincidence is remark- 
able : has it been noticed before ? Perhaps some 
of your readers may be better able to enter into 
he subject than he who communicates this. 

19. Winchester Place, Southwark Bridge Road. 


" Vital spark of heavenly flame, 

Quit, oh quit this mortal frame ! 
* Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying ; 

Oh the pain, the bliss of dying ! 

Cease, fond Nature, cease thy strife. 

And let me languish into life ! 

j- Hark ! they whisper ; angels say, 
Sister Spirit, come away ! 
What is this absorbs me quite, 
Steals my senses, shuts my sight, 
Drowns my spirits, draws my breath ? 
Tell me, my soul, can this be death ? 
The world recedes ; it disappears ! 
Heaven opens on my eyes ; my ears 

With sounds seraphic ring ! 
Lend, lend your wings ! I mount ! I fly 1 
O Grave ! where is thy victory? 
O Death ! where is thy sting?" 


" When on my sick Bed I languish, 

Full of sorrow, full of anguish, 
* Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying, 
Panting, groaning, speechless, dying, 
My Soul just now about to take her flight 
Into the Regions of eternal night ; 
O tell me, you 
That have been long below, 
What shall I do ? 
What shall I think when cruel death appears, 

That may extenuate my fears ? 
f Methinks I hear some Gentle Spirit say, 

Be not fearful, come away ! 

Think with thyself that now thou shalt be free, 
And find thy long-expected liberty, 
Better thou mayest, but worse thou canst not be, 
Than in this vale of Tears and Misery. 
Like Caesar, with assurance then come on, 
And unamaz'd attempt the Laurel crown 
That lyes on th 1 other side Death's Rubicon." 


80. Southampton Brasses. French Church, 
otherwise God's House, Southampton. About 
eight or nine years ago, two monumental brasses 
were discovered, in making some alterations in 
this church. I should feel greatly obliged to any 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



correspondent who could give me a description of 
them, and inform me if they are still to be found 
there. W. W. KING. 

81. Borough-English. Which are the towns 
or districts in England in which Borough- English 
prevails or has prevailed ; and are there any in- 
stances on record of its being carried into effect in 
modern times ? W. FRASER. 

82. Passage in St. Bernard. Wordsworth's 
Ecclesiastical Sonnets,. Part II. 1. : 


" Here man more purely lives, less oft doth fall, 
More promptly rises, walks with nicer heed, 
More safely rests, dies happier, is freed 
Earlier from cleansing fires, and gains withal 
A brighter crown." 

Note. " Bonum est nos hie esse, quia homo vivit 
purius, cadit rarius, surgit velocius, incedit cautius, 
quiescit securius, moritur felicius, purgatur citius, praj- 
miatur copiosius." Bernard. 

" This sentence," says Dr. Whitaker, " is usually 
inscribed in some conspicuous part of the Cister- 
tian houses." I cannot find in St. Bernard's works 
the passage to which Wordsworth's sonnet alludes, 
though I often see it referred to : e. g. White- 
head's College Life, p. 44., 1845 ; and Mrs. Jame- 
son's Legends of the Monastic Orders, Preface. 
Can any of your correspondents direct me to it ? 


83. Spenser s Faerie Queene (b. ii. c. ix. st. 

" The frame thereof seemed partly circulate. 

And part triangulare," &c. 

Warton (Observations on the Fairy Queen, vol. i. 
p. 121.) says that the philosophy of this abstruse 
stanza describing the Castle of Alma is explained 
in a learned epistle of Sir Kenelm Digby addressed 
to Sir Edward Stradling. In a foot-note he states 
that this epistle was 

" First printed in a single pamphlet, viz., Observations 
on XXII. Stanza" r., Lond. 1644, 8vo. It is also 
published in Scrinia Sacra, 4to. pag. "244. London, 

Could any of your readers, acquainted with Sir 
Kenelm Digby's works, give his explanation of this 
stanza? There is no note on it in the one- volume 
edition of Spenser lately published by Moxon. 
The best explanation of it that I have "seen is in 
the Athenaum, August 12, 1848. E. M. B. 

84. Broad Halfpenny Down. There is a 
beautiful chalk down in the parish of Hambledon, 
Hants, which goes by the above name, pronounced, 
of course, ha'penny, like the coin. Can any of' 
your antiquarian readers give me the origin of 
this name ? I have no doubt that the present 
appellation is a corruption of some British or Saxon 
word, having, when spoken, a sound somewhat 
analogous to the modern word into which it has 

been converted. The "Broad Down" had a name 
of its own, I doubt not, before the existence of 
either a penny or halfpenny. EFFARESS. 

85. Roll Pedigree of Howard, of Great Howard, 
Co. Lancaster. In 1826 an elaborate pedigree on 
vellum of the family of Howard, of Great Howard, 
in Rochdale, deduced, authenticated, and sub- 
scribed by Sir William Dugdale, about the year 
1667, was in the possession of a gentleman in 
Rochdale, lately deceased. Pie is supposed to have 
lent it to some antiquarian friend, and its present 
locale is unknown. As no record of this singular 
document exists in the College of Arms, the writer 
of this note would feel obliged by being permitted 
to have a copy of the original for his Lancashire 
MS. Collections. F. R. R. 

86. Rev. John Paget, of Amsterdam. Of what 
family was John Paget, pastor of the Reformed 
English Church at Amsterdam for thirty years ? 
He died there 1639, and his works were published 
1641, being edited by Thomas Paget, who was, 
according to his own account, " called to the work 
of ministry many years ago in Chester diocese," 
and R. Paget, who writes a Preface " from Dort, 
1641." Perhaps the editors of the " NAVORSCHER " 
may be able to give some- information on the 
subject. CRANMORE. 

87. Visiting Cards. When did these social 
conveniences first come into use? OUTIS. 

88. Duke de Berwick and Aha. A sword 
amongst the Spanish jewels in the Great Exhi- 
bition is said to be ordered by " S. E. Jacques 
Stuart, Due de Berwick and Alva." Is this a 
descendant of James JI.'s illegitimate son, the 
Duke of Berwick ? and if so, can any of your 
correspondents give me any information as to his 
descent, &c. ? L. 

89. The Earl of Derwentwater. The first earl, 
Francis, had several sons Francis his successor, 
Edward died unmarried, Thomas a military officer, 
Arthur, &c. Can any of your readers inform me 
in which army this Thomas was an officer, whom 
he married, and where he died? The family 
name was Radcliffe. BROCTUNA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 

90. " But very few have seen the Devil." Can 
any of your readers inform me where some lines 
are to be found which run somewhat thus? I 
cannot remember the intermediate lines : 

" . . . 

But very few have seen the Devil, 
Except old Noll, as Echard tells us : 

But then old Noll was one in ten, 

And sought him more than other men." ; 

Horclley, near Ellesmere, Aug. 4. 1 85 1 . 



[No. 95. 

91. Aulus Gellius' Description of a Dimple. The 
poet Gray, writing to his friend Mr. West, asks 
him to guess where the following description of a 
dimple is found : 

" Sigilla in mento impressa Amoris digitulo 
Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinem." 

Lett. viii. sect. iii. vol. i. p. 261. Mason's 

edition. London, 1807. 
Mr. West replies in the following letter : 
" Your fragment is Aulus Gellius ; and both it and 
your Greek delicious." 

I have never met with it in Aulus Gellius, and 
should be glad to find it. RT. 

92. Forgotten Authors of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury. Can any of your correspondents point out 
any biographical particulars relative to the fol- 
lowing authors of the seventeenth century ? 

1. WILLIAM PARKES, Gentleman, and some- 
times student in Barnard's Inne ; author of The 
Curtaine -drawer of the World, 1612. 

2. PETER WOODHOUSK, author of The Flea ; 
sic parva componere magnis, 1605. 

3. ROWLAND WATKYNS, a native of Hereford- 
shire ; author of Flamma sine Fumo, or Poems 
without Fictions, 1662. 

4. RICHARD WEST, author of The Court of 
Conscience, or Dick Whipped s Sessions, 1607. 


Sundays, on what Days of the Month ? Is 
there any printed book which tells on what days 
of the several months the Sundays in each year 
occurred, during the last three or four centuries ? 

If there be more such books than one, which of 
them is the best and the most accessible ? H. C. 

[The most accessible works are Sir Harris Nicolas' 
Chronology of History, and Companion to the Almanack 
for 1830, pp. 32, 33. Consult also L? Art de Verifier 
les Dates ; and, above all, Professor De Morgan's 
Book of Almanacks.'] 

John Lilburne. A list of the pamphlets published 
by, or relating to, John Lilburne, or any facts re- 
specting his life or works, will be of service to one 
who is collecting for a biography of " Free-born 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey. 

[Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica contains a list of 
Lilburne's pamphlets, which would occupy two pages 
of " NOTES AND QUERIES!" A collection of tracts 
relating to Lilburne. 1646, 4to., 2 vols., will be found 
in the Towneley Catalogue, Part I. p. 636. Sold for 
II. 1 3s. Truth's Victory over Tyrants, being the Trial 
of John Lilburne, London, 1649, 4 to., contains a por- 
trait of him standing at the bar. Butler, in Hudibras, 
Part III., Canto ii., h^s vividly drawn his character in 
the paragraph comjnencing at line 421. : 

" To match this saint, there was another, 
As busy and perverse a brother, 
An haberdasher of small wares, 
In politics and state -affairs," &c. 

" This character," says Dr. Grey, exactly suits 
John Lilburne and no other. For it was said of him, 
when living, by Judge Jenkins, ' That if the world was 
emptied of all but himself, Lilburne would quarrel 
with John, and John with Lilburne;' which part of 
his character gave occasion for the following lines at 
his death : 

' Is John departed, and is Lilburne gone ? 
Farewell to both, to Lilburne and to John. 
Yet, being dead, take this advice from me, 
Let them not both in one grave buried be : 
Lay John here, and Lilburne thereabout, 
For, if they both should meet, they would fall out.' 
Lilburne died a Quaker, August 28, 1657. See 
Mercurius Politicus, No. 379. p. 1597.; Mr. Peck's 
Desiderata Curiosa, from Mr. Smith's Obituary, vol. ii. 
lib. xiv. p. 30. Also a character of Lilburne, in 
Thurloe's State Papers, vol. iii. p. 512. ; and an ac- 
count of his obstinacy, in his Trial, reprinted in the 
State Trials."] 

(Vol. iii., p. 464.) 

f I am obliged to M. for his notice of my paper 
upon this poem, and gratified by his concurrence 
with my remarks. 

Very likely M. may be right in his explanation 
of the "incuria" imputed by me to the great 
author ; and I may have made a mistake, without 
pleading guilty to the same charge : but if M. will 
refer to the 4th and two following Sections of the 
sixth canto of the Lay, he will find it thus written : 
" Me lists not at this tide declare 

The splendour of the spousal rite" &c. 
Again, Sec. V. : 

" Some bards have sung, the Ladye high 
Chapel or altar came not nigh ; 
Nor durst the rites of spousal grace 
So much she feared each holy place," &c. 

Again, Sec. VI. : 

" The spousal rites were ended soon." 
And again, in Sect. VIII. are these words : 
41 To quit them, on the English side, 
Red Roland Forster loudly cried, 
A deep carouse to yon fair bride ! ' " 
Now, in the ordinary acceptation of these words, 
the spousal rite means nuptials, and a bride means 
a newly married wife ; and as the ceremony of the 
spousal rite is described as taking place with much 
pomp in the chapel, and at the altar, it looks very 
like a wedding indeed. But if, after all, it were 
only a betrothal, I willingly withdraw the charge 
of " incuria" and subscribe to the propriety of the 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



" Minstrel's " information, that the bridal actually 
" befel in a short space ; " 

" And ho\v brave sons and daughters fair 

Blest Teviot's flower and Cranstoun's heir." 
And now a word touching M.'s hint of giving 
a corner in the " NOTES AND QUERIES " to the 
" Prophecy of Criticism." If he will forgive me 
the remark, I do not think the phrase a very happy 
one. Criticism does not prophecy, it pronounces, 
and is valuable only in proportion to the judgment, 
taste, and knowledge displayed in its sentence. 
Above all, the critic should be impartial, and by 
no means allow himself to be biassed by either 
prejudice or prepossession, whether personal or 
political. Still less should he sacrifice his subject 
in order to prove the acuteness and point of his 
own weapon, which is too often dipped in gall 
instead of honey. To what extent these qualifi- 
cations are found in our modern reviewers let each 
man answer according to his own experience : but 
as critics are not infallible, and as authors generally 
see more, feel more, and think more than the 
ordinary run of critics and readers give them credit 
for, I doubt not that a place will always be open 
in the " NOTES AND QUERIES," in answer to the 
fallacies of criticism, wherever they may be 
detected. A BORDERER. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 63, 64.) 

As your correspondent A. E. B. has endeavoured 
to strengthen the case in favour of the word precise 
being the proper reading of " prenzie," will you 
allow me to suggest a few further points for con- 
sideration in inquiring into the meaning of this 

I am afraid your etymological readers are in 
danger of being misled by the plausible theory 
that "prenzie" is not an error of the press or 
copyist, but a true word. In reference to this 
view of the case, as taken by your several corre- 
spondents, allow me to suggest, first : that Shak- 
speare was no word-coiner ; secondly, that, for 
application in a passage of such gravity, he would 
not have been guilty of the affectation of using a 
newly-imported Scotch word ; and, thirdly, that, 
as we may reasonably infer that he was essentially 
popular in the choice of words, so he used such as 
were intelligible to his audience. A word of force 
and weight sufficient to justify its use twice in the 
passage in question, if merely popular, would surely 
not so entirely have gone out of use; whereas if 
merely literary it would still be to be found in 

My greatest objection to the word precise is its 
inharmoniousness in the position it holds in the 
verse ; and this objection would not be removed 
by adopting MR. SINGER'S suggestion of accen- 

tuating the first syllable, which must then be 
short, and the word pronounced pressis ! How 
horrible ! Besides, if that were the case, as Shak- 
speare does not vary in his accent, the corrobora- 
tory passage on which the advocates of precise 
depend would read, then, thus : 

" Lord Angelo is pressis, 
Stands at a guard with envy, scarce confesses," &c. ; 

the double ending rhyme giving it the air of bur- 
lesque. The appropriateness of precise, moreover, 
depends chiefly upon its being assumed to express 
the quality of a precision, which has not only not 
been proved, but which I am inclined very much 
to doubt. 

Has it not been a true instinct that lias guided 
the early English commentators to the choice of 
words of the form of " prince^," " priest/y," and 
myself to " saintZy ; " and do not the two passages 
taken together require this form in reference to a 
character such as that of a prince, a priest, or a 
saint ? For instance, the term pious might be 
applied to Angelo, equally well with priestly or 
saintly ; but it could not correctly be applied ' to 
garb or vestments, while either of the latter could. 

In what respect is the "cunning" of the "livery 
of hell" shown, if "the damnedst body" be not 
invested in "guards" of the most opposite charac- 
ter ? Shakspeare never exactly repeats himself, 
though we frequently find the same idea varied 
in form and differently applied. The following 
passage from Othello, Act II. Sc. 3., appears to 
be intended to convey the same idea as the one in 
question, and thus strengthens the opinion that, if 
not saintly, one of like form and meaning was 
intended : 

" Divinity of hell! 

When devils will their blackest sins put on, 
They do suggest at first with heavenly shows, 
As I do now." 

Any of your readers who are acquainted with 
the common careless handwriting in use at the 
time, will greatly oblige by informing me if it be 
beyond likelihood that a word commencing with 
the letter s should have been read as though it 
began with p. 

I have no intention of continuing the contest on 
the meaning of " eisell," nor should I have felt it 
necessary to notice the remarks of J. S. W. in 
No. 91., had they been avowedly in opposition to 
mine and MR. SINGER'S. But when the advocate 
assumes the ermine, and proceeds to sum up the 
evidence and pass judgment, I feel it only right 
that those points in which he has misrepresented 
my argument should not be passed over. I did 
not say " that the word cannot mean a river be- 
cause the definite article is omitted before it." 
What I did say was, that " English idiom requires 
an article unless it be personified" Milton's lines 
merely confirm this, though I am willing to admit 



[No. 95. 

that the argument is of little weight. When, how- 
ever, J. S. W. expresses his surprise that " a 
gentleman who exhorts," &c., had not looked to 
the general drift of the passage, I fancy he cannot 
have read my first observations with regard to it, 
in which I say "the idea of the passage appears to 
be," &c. What is this but the " general drift ? " 
Before finally leaving this subject, allow me to 
explain, that, in objecting to the terms "mere 
verbiage" and " extravagant rant" of a corre- 
spondent, I took them together. I included the 
latter perhaps hastily. But, however " extrava- 
gant" .the "rant" of his real or assumed madmen 
may be, I am satisfied that there is no " mere 
verbiage" to be found in Shakspeare. 



(Vol. $., p. 101.) 

Some years ago, in the library of a noble earl in 
the north of England, I met with a " fair and 
perfect" copy of this rare book. The following 
is a list of the plates which it contained : 
Vol. i. 

1. View of the Manor of Weston, Somersetshire, 
p. 360. 

2. Monument of Richard Perceval, p. 406. 

Vol. ii. 

3. Manor of Sydenham, co. Somerset, p. 24. 

4. Portrait of Richard Perceval, p. 1 20. 

5. Another of the same, ib. 

6. Portrait of Alice Perceval, p. 138. 

7. Portrait of Sir Philip Perceval, p. 144. 

8. View of Loghart Castle, Ireland, p. 192. 

9. Castle Liscarrol, Cork, p. 215. 

10. Portrait of Catherine, wife of Sir Philip, p. 320. 

11. Portrait of George Perceval, p. 322. 

12. Portrait of Sir John Perceval, p. 325. 

13. View of Castle Kanturk, Cork, p. 335. 

14. Portrait of Catherine, wife of Sir John Perceval, 
p. 361. 

1 5. Portrait of Robert Perceval, p. 368. 

16. Portrait of Sir Philip Perceval, second Baronet, 
p. 376. 

17. Monument of ditto, p. 386. 

18. Portrait of Sir John Perceval, eighth Baronet, 
p. 389. 

] 9. Portrait of Catherine, wife to ditto, p. 396. 

20. Portrait of the Hon. Philip Perceval, p. 400. 

21. Portrait of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont, 
p. 403. 

22. Map of part of the estate of John Perceval, 
Earl of Egmont, p. 404. 

23. Portrait of Sir P. Parker, ancestor of the Coun- 
tess of Egmont, p. 451. 

24. Portrait of Catherine, wife of ditto, p. 452. 

25. Portrait of the Countess of Egmont, born 1680, 
p. 453. 

26. View of Mount Pleasant, near Tunbridge Wells, 
p. 461. 

27. Portrait of John Viscount Perceval, p. 467. 

28. Portrait of Catherine, wife of ditto, p. 467. 

29. View of Beverstan Castle, p. 496. 

The copy here described contains the " folding 
plate" mentioned by your correspondent; and as 
it was a presentation copy from the Earl of Eg- 
mont to Earl Ferrers, the presumption is that it 
is an unmutilated one. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

In answer to the Query of your correspondent 
H. T. E., I beg to state that the folding map of 
part of the estate of John Perceval, Earl of Eg- 
mont, does occur in my copy of The House of 
Yvery, at page 92. of the first volume. Lowndes, 
in his list of the plates, assigns this map to the 
second volume ; but its proper place is as above. 
Perhaps this mistake of Lowndes may have given 
rise to the doubt as to the existence of this map ; 
but I suppose any copy of the work without it 
must be considered imperfect. J. H. 


(Vol. iv., p. 86.) 

I am sure that you will not be sorry to hear 
that "NOTES AND QUERIES" is a great favourite 
with young people ; and I hope you will have no 
objection to encourage our "pursuits of litera- 
ture " by admitting into your delightful miscellany 
this little contribution. 

I have been reading Thierry's History of the 
Norman Conquest these holidays ; and when I saw 
MR. BREEN'S Queries respecting St. Gregory and 
Queen Brunehaut, I remembered that the historian 
had mentioned them. On referring to the passage, | 
at p. 1 1. of the translation published by Whittaker I 
and Co., 1843, I found tliat (1.) "" Le Saint Pape | 
Gregoire," who "donna des eloges de gloire" to 
Queen Brunehaut, was Gregory the Great ; that 
(2.) This illustrious Pope did actually degrade 
himself by nattering the bad queen ; and 
(3.) That the proof of his having done so is to be 
found in a passage of one of Gregory's letters, 
given by Thierry, and appearing in the foot-note 
" 12" at p. 11. of Messrs. Whittaker' s edition, as 
follows : 

" Excellentia ergo vestra qua? proba in bonis con- 
suevit esse operibus." " In ornnipotentis Dei timore, 
excellentise vestra? mens soliditate firmata." Epist. 
Grey. Papee, apud Script, rer. Gallic, et Frantic., 
torn. iv. p. 21. 


Preston, Aug. 1851, 

It is, I think, indisputable that the St. Gregory 
commemorated on the tomb of Brunehaut is Pope 
Gregory the Great. Among his Letters are several 
addressed to the Frankish queen, betokening the 
unqualified esteem in which she was held by the 
Roman pontiff. See Gregor. Opp. (torn, ii., edit. 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



Paris, 1586), Lib. v. Indict, xiv. ep. 5.; Lib. vii. 
Indict, i. ep. 5. ; Lib. ix. Indict, vi. ep. 8. ; Lib. xi. 
Indict, vi. ep. 8. I will give a short specimen from 
the first and last Letters : 

" Excellentiae vcstree praedicandam ac Deo placitam 
bonitatem et gubernacula regni testantur et educatio 
fidei raanifestat." Col. 766. 

" Inter alia bona hoc apud vos pros ceteris tenet 
principatum, quod in mediis hujus mundi fluctibits, 
qui regentis animos turbulenta solent vexatione con- 
fundere, ita cor ad Divini cultus amorem et venerabi- 
lium locorum disponendam quietam reducitis ac si 
vos nulla alia cura sollicitet." Col. 1061. 

Much of her merit, in the eyes of Gregory, 
arose from her abjuration of Arianism, and the 
patronage she extended to religious houses. At 
the same time, it is impossible to acquit her of the 
serious charges under which she labours. 

" Elle est diffamee," says Moreri, " dans les ecrits 
des autres auteurs, par sa cruaute, sa vengeance, son 
avarice, et son impudicite." 

C. H. 

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge. 


(Vol.iv., p. 9.) 

I entirely dissent from your correspondent's 
statements that " the Lord Mayor is no more a 
privy councillor than he is Archbishop of Can- 
terbury." First, as to the argument on which 
your correspondent's conclusion is founded. He 
assumes first that the title of Lord is a mere 
courtesy title ; and, secondly, that it is because of 
this courtesy title that the Mayor is deemed a 
privy councillor. The second assumption is the 
erroneous one. It is not necessary to have the 
courtesy title of Lord in order to be a privy coun- 
cillor ; nor are all courtesy lords styled Right 
Hpnorables. Your correspondent's assertion in 
this respect is a curious blunder, which every day's 
experience contradicts. No one styles a courtesy 
Lord " Right Honorable " except such persons as 
will persist in the equally absurd blunder of 
calling a Marquis " Most Noble." The Boards of 
the Treasury and Admiralty are not designated 
liight Honorable "merely because of the courtesy 
title of " Lord" being attached to their corporate 
name, but because these Boards are respectively 
the equivalents of the Lord High Treasurer and 
Lord High Admiral, each of whom was always a 
member of the sovereign's Council. No individual 
member of the Board is, by membership, " Right 
Hon." Your correspondent's precedent is equally 
inconclusive on the subject. He says, " Mr. Harley, 
then (1768) Lord Mayor of London, was sworn 
lis Majesty's most honorable Privy Council." 
This precedent does not prove the argument ; and 

for this simple reason, that the individual who 
holds the office is not " Right Honorable," but the 
officer is. Mr. Harley was not, as an individual, 
a privy councillor, till he was made one : he could 
only have appeared in council as " the Lord 
Mayor," and not as " Mr. Harley." The descrip- 
tion, therefore, of " The Right Honorable A. B., 
Lord Mayor," which has probably misled your 
correspondent, is, like the " Most Noble the Mar- 
quis," a blunder of ignorant flattery ; the correct 
description being " A. B., the Right Honorable 
the Lord Mayor:" or rather, the A. B. ought to 
be suppressed, except the individual, for a parti- 
cular reason, is to be personally designated, arid 
the style should be written, "The Right Honorable 
the Lord Mayor." This distinction between the 
officer and the man is almost universal in our 
system. Our Judges are Lords in court (yet, 
by-the-bye, this courtesy " Lord" does not give 
any one of them at any time the title of Right 
Honorable, another instance of the fallacy of your 
correspondent's reasoning), and they are Sirs in 
individual designation. In Scotland the Judges 
assume the titles of Baronies during their tenure 
of office, but become mere Esquires on surrender 
of it. The Lord Mayor is always summoned to 
the council on the accession of a new sovereign, 
and was formerly, when his office was of greater 
practical importance than at present, accustomed 
to put his name very high on the list of signatures 
attached to the declaration of accession. A com- 
moner might by the bare delivery of the great 
seal become "Lord" in the Court of Chancery, 
and be the President of the House of Lords, 
where he would sit by virtue of his office, without 
having any title to speak or vote. Mr. Henry 
Brougham did so for one if not two nights before 
his patent of peerage was completed. The same 
distinction between officer and individual applies 
to the Lord Mayor, who is Right Honorable as 
Lord Mayor, but in no other way whatever. 



(Yol. iv., pp. 24. 93.) 

The poet's family was originally of Stroode in 
Slinfold, Sussex, not Kent, as Lord Campbell 
(Lives of the Chan., vol. iv. p. 258.) states, and spelt 
their names Cooper. The first person who altered 
the spelling was John Cooper of London, father 
of the first baronet, and he probably adopted the 
spelling in affectation of the Norman spelling ; 
the family having in those days been styled Le 
Cupere, Cuper, and Coupre in Norman-French, 
and Cuparius in Latin, as may be seen by the 
grants made to Battle Abbey. The pronunciation 
was never changed. All the Sussex branches 
continued the spelling of Cooper until the time of 
Henry Cowper of Stroode, who died 1706. In 



[No. 95. 

Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors (p. 259.) 
the first letter is signed " William Cooper." 


Cowper. There is an affectation in the present 
day for pronouncing words, not only contrary to 
established usage, but in defiance of orthography. 
The Bar furnishes one example, and " polite 
society "the other. By the former, a judge on 
the bench is called, instead of "My Lord" and 
" His Lordship" " My Lud" and " His Ludship;" 
and in the latter, Cowper is metamorphosed into 
Cooper. Now, I fancy that " My Lord " is a vast 
deal more euphonious than "My Lud;" and 
Cowper, as Shakspeare has it, "becomes the 
mouth as well" as Cooper. We don't speak of 
getting milk from the coo, but from the cow ; and 
Cow being the first syllable of the poet's name, 
should not be tortured into Coo, in compliment to 
a nonsensical fastidiousness, whoever may have set 
the example. As Cowper the poet has been hitherto 
known, and by that name will be cherished by 
posterity. John Kemble, the great actor, I re-' 
member, tried to alter the pronunciation of Rome 
to room, and was laughed at for his pains, though 
he had the authority of a pun of the bard's own 
for the change : " Oh Rome and room enough." 
But Shakspeare was but an indifferent punster at 
the best, as is proved by Falstaff 's refusing to give 
a reason on compulsion, even though "reasons 
were as plentiful as blackberries;" corrupting 
raisin into reason, for his purpose, which is as far- 
fetched as any instance of the kind on record, I 
think. But I digress, and beg pardon for running 
so away from the cow. JOHN BULL. 

Lord Campbell, in his entertaining Lives of the 
Chief Justices, says, in a paragraph introductory 
to the life of Sir Edward Coke : 

" As the name does not correspond very aptly with the 
notion of their having come over with the Conqueror, 
it has been derived from the British word ' Cock ' or 
'Coke,' a ' Chief;' but, like * Butler,' ' Taylor,' and 
other names now ennobled, it much more probably 
took its origin from the occupation of the founder of 
the race at the period when surnames were first adopted 
in England. Even in Queen Elizabeth's reign, as well 
as that of James I., Sir Edward's name was frequently 
spelt ' Cook.' Lady Hatton, his second wife, who 
would not assume it, adopted this spelling in writing 
to him, and according to this spelling it has invariably 
been pronounced." 

Lord Campbell, who seems rather fond of such 
speculations, however, in the case of Lord Cowper 
does not give the etymology of the name. But he 
gives a letter written from school by the subse- 
quent chancellor, in which he signs his name 
" William Cooper." However, elsewhere, in a note 
he speaks of the propensity evinced by those who 
have risen to wealth and station to obliterate the 
trace of their origin by dropping, adding, or 

altering letters ; and among them he mentions 
" Cowper " as having its origin in " Cooper." Mr. 
Mark Antony Lower, too, in his Essay on English 
Surnames, classes Cowper among the surnames 
derived from trade. Possibly, therefore, notwith- 
standing the alteration, the original pronunciation 
has been continued. TEE BEE. 

to iHuwr 

Voce Populi Halfpenny (Vol. iv., pp. 19. 56.). 
I have/owr varieties of this coin : 

1. The one which J. N. C. describes, and which 
is engraved by Lindsay, in his work on the coinage 
of Ireland, and is considered the rarest type. 

2. A precisely similar type, with the exception 
that the " P " is beneath, instead of being on the 
side of the portrait. 

3. A more youthful portrait, and of smaller size 
than the preceding, and a trifle better executed. 
It wants the " P "^altogether, and has for "MM." 
a small quatrefoil. The engrailing also very 

4. A totally different, and older portrait than 
any of the preceding. "MM." and engrailing the 
same as No. 3., and it also wants the " P." 

The reverses of all four appear to differ only in 
very minute particulars. Pinkerton, in his Essay 
on Medals, vol. ii. p. 127., after stating that the 
Irish halfpence and farthings were all coined in 
the Tower, and then sent to Ireland, there being 
no mint in that country, remarks 

"In 1760, however, there was a great scarcity of 
copper coin in Ireland ; upon which a society of Irish 
gentlemen applied for leave, upon proper conditions, 
to coin halfpence ; which being granted, those appeared 
with a very bad portrait of George II., and 'VOCE 
POPULI' around it. The bust bears a much greater 
resemblance to the Pretender ; but whether this was a 
piece of waggery in the engraver, or only arose from 
his ignorance in drawing, must be left in doubt. Some 
say that these pieces were issued without any leave 
being asked or obtained." 


I would have referred J. N. C. to either Pin- 
kerton or Lindsay, where he would find a full 
account about his Irish halfpenny; but as he may 
not possess a numismatic library, perhaps you will 
allow me to trouble you with the extracts. Pin- 
kerton says : 

" In 1760 there was a great scarcity of copper coin 
in Ireland ; upon which a society of Irish gentlemen 
applied for leave, upon proper conditions, to coin half- 
pence ; which being granted, those appeared with a very 
bad portrait of George II., and 'VOCE POPULI' around 
it. The bust bears a much greater resemblance to the 
Pretender; but whether this was a piece of waggery 
in the engraver, or only arose from his ignorance in 
drawing, must be left to doubt." 

Pinkerton does not here specially refer to the 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



type, where " the letter P is close to the nose : " 
but if J. 1ST. C. can turn to Lindsay's Coinage of 
Ireland, 1839, he will find his coin engraved in 
the fifth supplementary plate, No. 16., and in 
the advertisement, p. 139., the following remarks 
on it : 

"This curious variety of the 'voce populi' halfpence 
exhibits a P before the face, and illustrates Pinkerton's 
remark that the portrait on these coins seems intended 
for that of the Pretender : it is a very neat coin, per- 
haps a pattern." 


Dogs Head in the Pot (Vol. iii., pp. 264. 463.). 
The sign is of greater antiquity than may be 
expected. See Cocke Lorrelles Bote : 
" Also Annys Angry with the croked buttocke 

That dwelled at y e synge of y e dogges hede in y* pot. 

By her crafte a breche maker." 


Ashby de la Zouch. 

" O wearisome Condition of Humanity " (Vol. iii., 
p. 241.). As no one has hitherto appropriated 
these fine lines, as to the author of which your 
correspondent inquires, 1 may mention that they 
are taken from the " Chorus Sacerdotum," at the 
end of Lord Brook's Mustapha. (See his Works, 
fol. 1633, p. 159.) The chorus is worth quoting 
entire : 

" O wearisome condition of humanity / 
Borne under one Law, to another bound : 
Vainely begot, and yet forbidden vanity ; 
Created sick, commanded to be sound : 
What meaneth Nature by these diverse Lawes? 
Passion and reason self division cause. 
Is it the mark or majesty of power 
To make offences that it may forgive? 
Nature herself doth her own self defloure 
To hate those Errors she herself doth give. 
For how should Man think that he may not do 
If Nature did not fail and punish too ? 
Tyrant to others, to herself unjust, 
Only commands things difficult and hard, 
Forbids us all things, which it knows is lust, 
Makes easy pains, impossible reward. 
If Nature did not take delight in blood, 
She would have made more easy ways to good. 
We that are bound by vows and by promotion, 
With pomp of holy sacrifice and rites, 
To teach belief in good and still devotion, 
To preach of Heaven's wonders and delights ; 
Yet when each of us in his own heart looks, 
He finds the God there far unlike his Books." 
I should like to see a collected edition of the 
works of the two noble Grevilles, Fulke and 
Robert, Lords Brook ; the first the friend of Sir 
Philip Sidney, the second the honoured of Milton. 
The little treatise on Truth of the latter, which 
Wallis answered in his Truth Tried, is amply suf- 
icient to prove that he possessed powers of no 
common order. JAMES CROSSLEY. 

Bunyan and the " Visions of Heaven and 
(Vol. iii., pp. 70. 89. 289. 467.). The work re- 
ferred to by your correspondents is so manifestly 
not the composition of John Bunyan that it is 
extraordinary that the title-page, which was evi- 
dently adopted to get off the book, should ever 
have imposed upon anybody. The question, how- 
ever, put by your correspondents F. R. A. and 
N". H., as to who Gr. L. Avas, has not yet been 
answered. The person referred to by these initials 
is the real author of the book, who was George 
Larkin, a printer and author, and great ally and 
friend of the redoubted John Dunton, who gives a 
long character of him, in his Life and Errors, in 
his enumeration of London printers. (See Life 
and Errors, edit. 1705, p. 326.) 

"Mr. Larkin, Senior He has been my acquaint- 
ance for Twenty years, and the first printer I had in 
London. He formerly writ a Vision of Heaven, &c. 
(which contains many nice and curious thoughts), and 
has lately published an ingenious Essay on the noble 
Art and Mystery of Printing. Mr. Larkin is my alter 
ego, or rather my very self in a better edition." 

The book itself was first published about 1690, 
and went through many editions in the early part 
of the last century. JAMES CROSSLEY. 

Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace 
(Vol. i., p. 230. ; Vol. iv., pp. 58. 122.). I am 
much obliged to MR. CROSSLEY for having cor- 
rected the error (for which I cannot account) 
in the title of the pamphlet in question, which was 
certainly not by " the author of the Critical History 
of England" and certainly was by Dennis, as is 
marked by Pope's own hand in the copy now 
before me. As MR. CROSSLEY puts hypothetically 
the correctness of my quotation, I subjoin the 
whole passages. 

'< After having been for fifteen years as it were an 
imitator, he has made no proficiency. His first imi- 
tations, though bad, are rather better than the suc- 
ceeding, and this last Imitation of HORACE the most 
execrable of them all." P. 7. 

Again : 

" An extravagant libel, ridiculously called an imi- 
tation of Horace." P. 1 1. 

And again : 

" Of all these libellers the present Imitator is the 
most impudent and incorrigible." P. 15. 

MR. CROSSLEY says he has a fragment of the 
" Imitation of the second satire of the first book 
of Horace," published by Curll in 1716. This, 
which I never saw, nor before heard of, would 
solve the difficulty; and I respectfully request 
MR. CROSSLEY to favour us with a transcript of the 
title-page, which is the more desirable, because 
all Pope's biographers, and indeed he himself (to 
Spence), have attributed his first imitation of 
Horace to a much later date, certainly subsequent 
to 1723. The imitation, therefore, of that satire 



[No. 95. 

of Horace, printed in 1716 by Curll, is valuable as 
to Tope's history, and a great curiosity; and as 
MR. CROSSLEY states that Lady Mary is not men- 
tioned in that edition, I am curious to know how 
Pope managed the rhyme now made by her name. 
MR. CROSSLEY adds that this imitation was re- 
produced in "folio, printed by J.Boreman about 
1734, with some alterations from the former 
edition." Would it be trespassing too much on 
your space and his kindness, to request him to 
give us a few specimens of the alterations, par- 
ticularly the "change of initials'" which MR. 
CROSSLEY mentions. MR. CROSSLEY seems to 
think that this poem was not reprinted after the 
folio in 1734, till it appeared in a supplement to 
Cooper's edition in 1756. This is a mistake. It 
was published by Pope himself, with his other 
imitations of Horace, in the collection of his works 
by Dodsley in 1738; and though only entitled 
" in the manner of Mr. Pope" excited very natural 
surprise and disgust. His having deliberately 
embodied it in the general collection of his works, 
is Warton's only excuse for having reproduced it. 


Prophecies of Nostradamus (Vol. iv., p. 86.). 
In accordance with the wish of your correspondent 
SPERIEND, I have examined the series of early 
editors of this celebrated astrologer in the Biblio- 
theque Rationale, and the following is the result 
of my inquiries. 

. The earliest edition orthe Prophecies of Nostra- 
damus is not to be found in any library in Paris, 
but was published in 1555 (so says the latest 
account of the prophet, by M. Eugene Bareste) 
but contains little more than three centuries (or 
cantos, as they might be called) of prophecies ; 
each century containing a hundred quatrains. 
The next edition, which before the French Revo- 
lution belonged to the Benedictines of St. Maur, 
is entitled : 

" Les Propheties de M. Michel Nostradamus, dont 
il y en a trois cens qui n'ont encore jamais est6 irn- 
primees. Adjoustees de nouveau par ledict Autheur. 
A Lyon, chez Pierre Rigaud, rue Merciere, au coing 
de rue Ferrandiere. Avec permission." 

It has, in MS., on the title-page, " 1555 et 
1558." M. Bareste says of this edition: 

" On pretend qu'elle est de 1558 ; mais nous ne le 
pensons pas, car elle a ete probablement faite 1'annee 
raeme de la mort de 1'auteur, c'est a dire, en 1566." 

However, as there is no known edition between 
1555, the date of the first, and 1566, this doubtless 
is the earliest containing the ninth century ; and 
at No. 49. of this century is to be seen the follow- 
ing quatrain : 

" Gand et Bruceles marclieront contre Anvers, 
Senat de Londres mettrbnt a mort leur Roy; 
Le sel et vin lay seront a 1'envers, 
Pour eux avoir le regne en desarroy." 

I can find no edition of Nostradamus dated 1572; 
but in the editions of 1605, 1629, 1649, and 1650, 
the prophecy is given as above, almost letter for 
letter, so that there can be no doubt it was not first 
known in that form in 1672. As to the number 
of this quatrain agreeing with the year of King 
Charles's death, it is most probably an accident ; 
for out of the nine hundred and odd quatrains 
composing the twelve centuries (the 7th, 1 1th, and 
12th being imperfect), and which are nearly all 
regularly numbered, it is, I believe, the only one 
in which this singularity occurs. On the fly-leaf 
of a copy of Nostradamus in the Bibliotheque de 
S te Genevieve (dated 1568, but really printed in 
1649), I found, in an old handwriting, a couplet 
that may be new to the English admirer of the 
astrologer : 

" Falsa damus cum Nostra damus, nam fallere nostrum 

Et cum nostra damus, non nisi Falsa damus." 

If SPERIEND wishes for more information on the 
subject of the life and works of Nostradamus, I 
should recommend him to look at the work I have 
quoted above, which treats very fully on all mat- 
ters connected with this " vaticinating worthy." 
It is entitled Nostradamus, par Eugene Bareste : 
Paris, 1840, and will doubtless be found in the 
British Museum. II. C. DE ST. CROIX. 

I have an edition of 1605 of these prophecies, 
Reveues et corrigees sur la coppie imprimee a Lyon, 
par Benoist Rigaud, 1586, but without place or 
printer's name. It contains (century nine, stanza 
49.), the quatrain quoted by SPERIEND. 

The following quatrain may be thought to apply 
to Cromwell (century eight, stanza 76.) : 
" Plus Macelin que Roy en Angleterre, 
Dieu obscur nay par force aura 1'empire : 
Lasche sans foy sans loy Seignera terre, 
Son temps s'aproche si pres que je souspire." 

The edition of 1605 does not contain the line 
quoted by SPERIEND, " Senat de Londres," &c. ; nor 
any address " A mes Imprimeurs de Hongrie ; " 
but, in addition to the ten centuries contained in 
the edition of 1568 (the original edition), it con- 
tains the eleventh and twelfth centuries ; also 141 
stanzas of additional " Presages, tirez de ceux 
faicts par M. Nostradamus en annees 1555 et 
suivantes jusques en 1567:" and 58 "Predictions 
Admirables pour les ans courans en ce Siecle, 
Recueillies des Memoires du feu M. Nostradamus, 
par Vincent Seve, de Beaucaire en Languedoc, 
des le 19 Mars, 1605, au Chateau de Chant illy." 

My edition is not mentioned by Brunet nor in 
any of the French Catalogues that I have been 
able to consult. R. J. R. 

Thread the Needle (Vol. iv., p. 39.). The fol- 
lowing is an extract from a review in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine of Dec. 1849, of the Life of 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



Shirley; it may be interesting as explaining some 
part of the verse in the game of " Thread the 
Needle :" 

" Lord Nugent, when at Hebron, was directed to go 
out by the needle's eye, that is, by the small gate of the 
city ; and in many parts of England, the old game of 
thread the needle is played to the following words : 
' How many miles to Hebron ? 

Three score and ten. 
Shall I be there by midnight ? 
Yes, and back again. 

Then thread the needle,' &c. 

" Now this explains and modifies one of the strongest 
and most startling passages of Scripture, on the sub- 
ject of riches ; for the camel can go through the 
needle's eye, but with difficulty, and hardly with a full 
load, nor without stooping." 

The above was copied out from the magazine 
on account of its explaining the camel and the 
needle's eye : it does not tell much upon the 
Query concerning the game of " Thread the 
Needle ; " but it may be interesting, and so is sent 
with pleasure by E. F. 

P. S. A friend suggests, could the game have 
corne from the Crusades ? 

A line of players, the longer the better, hold 
hands and one end of the line, which thus becomes 
almost a circle, runs and drags the rest of the line 
after it through the arch made by the uplifted 
arms of the first couple of the other end of the 
line a process nearly enough resembling thread- 
ing a needle. There are subsequent evolutions by 
which each couple becomes in succession the eye 
of the needle. C. 

Salmon Fishery in the Thames (Vol. iv., p. 87.). 
Those of your readers who know that I am con- 
nected with Billingsgate market would look to me 
for the reply to R. J. R.'s Query. I must therefore 
inform them that only thirty or forty years back 
salmon were taken in rather large quantities in 
the Thames ; but since the introduction of steam- 
boats and the increase of traffic, the fish have 
gradually, I might say suddenly, disappeared, for 
during the last twenty years very few salmon in- 
deed have been taken : those that found their 
way to market have realised high prices; not that 
Thames salmon was ever esteemed for its flavour, 
but only for its extreme rarity of late years. 

The hindrance to salmon taking the Thames is 
the steam-boat and other traffic, which, agitating 
the water, frightens them (they being a very 
timid fish), and stirs up the mud, which chokes 
them; for there is no doubt that ever after a salmon 
enters a river, it lives by suction. It is possible that 
one or two salmon a season even make up our 
river now, for becoming frightened, and rushing 
on having back and head nearly out of water, and 
the tide with them, they would get a long way in 
a night, and possibly reach clear water above 

bridge with life, but in a very weak state. I be- 
lieve that, under the most favourable circumstances, 
salmon would not again frequent the Thames in 
any large quantites, it being too southern ; and 
there is no doubt but that the fish have been fast 
decreasing of late years, for some of the best 
rivers in the north are now without salmon. 



Entomological Query (Vol. iv., p. 101.). The 
insect which J. E. found on the Linaria minor is 
probably either the Euphitecia Linariata or E. 
Pulchellata. The former species is known to 
feed on Toad flax, and there is little doubt that 
the latter does also. If J. E. found any of the 
caterpillars he may identify them by referring to 
Westvvood's British Moths, vol. ii. p. 59., where 
the caterpillar of Euphitecia Linariata is engraved 
and described as " yellow or greenish, with dark 
chesnut spots on the back and" sides." B. P. D. E. 

School of the Heart (Vol. iii., p. 390.). The 
editor of the Christian Poet referred to in a para- 
graph signed S. T. D. has not the School of the 
Heart by Quarles at hand, and cannot now 
examine whether the two small pieces quoted in 
the former volume under the name of Thomas 
Harvey from SCHOLA. CORDIS in forty-seven em- 
blems, 1647, belong to one or the other writer. 
The only authority, from which he recollects to 
have gathered them, he believes to be Sir Egerton 
Brydges' Censura Literaria, or his Restituta, which 
are very voluminous and miscellaneous, and are at 
present beyond his research. From internal evi- 
dence, he thinks the two poems are not by Quarles, 
though not unworthy of him in his best vein. 

J. M. G. 

Hall amsh ire. 

P. S. Since the foregoing note was written, I 
have found the copy of Sir E. Brydges' Restituta, 
from which I copied the extract of Schola Cordis, 
in the Christian Poet. 

" Schola Cordis : or the Heart of itself gone away 
from God, brought back again to Him, and instructed 
by Him. In 47 Emblems. 1647. 12tno. pp. 196." 
Inscribed, without a signature, 
" To the Divine Majestic of the onely-begotten, 
eternal), well-beloved Son of God and Saviour of the 
World, Christ Jesus, the King of Kings, the Lord of 
Lords ; the Maker, the Mender, .the Searcher, and the 
Teacher of 

The Heart : 

the Meanest of his most unworthy Servants 

offers up this poore Account of his Thoughts, 

humbly begging pardon for all that is 

amisse in them, and a gracious 
acceptance of these weak endeavours 

for the Advancement of his 
Honour in the Good of others." 

The third edition, dated 1675, ascribes these 



[No. 95. 

emblems to the author of The Synagogue, annexed 
to Herbert's Poems. This, according to Sir John 
Hawkins, in his notes on Walton's Angler, was 
Christopher Harvie : but Wood, in his Athena, 
positively affirms that the author of The Syna- 
gogue, in imitation of the divine Herbert, was 
Thomas Harvey. M.A., and first Master of King- 
ston School in Herefordshire. To him, therefore 
(adds Sir Egerton Brydges), we may presume to 
assign it, until a stronger testimony shall dispos- 
sess him of a tenure, which reflects honourable 
reputation on the copiousness of his fancy and the 
piety of his mind. 

Fortune, Infortune, Fort une (Vol. iv., p. 57.). 
I agree with MR. BREEN that this inscription on 
the tomb of Margaret of Austria, in the beautiful 
church of Brou, is " somewhat enigmatical," a 
literal translation failing entirely to make sense of 
it. But perhaps MR. BREEN may be willing to 
accept the interpretation offered by a writer in the 
Magasin Pittoresque for 1850, where, describing 
the monuments in the church of Notre Dame de 
Brou (p. 22.), he says : 

" Cette legende bizarre est assez difficile a expliquer, 
si Ton ne regarde pas le mot infortune comme un verbe. 
Arec cette hypothese, la devise signifierait : La for- 
tune a rendu une personne tres-malheureuse?' Cette 
explication est d'autant plus plausible que la vie de 
Marguerite d'Autriche fut affligee de bien de revers. 
Destinee a regner sur la France, elle est repudiee par 
Charles VIII., son fiance; elle epouse le fils du roi 
d'Aragon, qui la laisse bientot veuve avec un fils 
qu'elle a aussi la douleur de perdre pen apres ; enfin, 
remariee a Philibert le Beau, elle le voit mourir au 
priutemps de son age." 

There is little doubt, I think, that the inscrip- 
tion was meant to typify the misfortunes of Mar- 
garet; but the preceding solution is still, in a 
grammatical point of view, unsatisfactory. Effort 
could be transposed to fait, the reading would be 
simple enough ; but in these cases we are bound 
to take the inscriptions as we find them, and the 
Rebus in stone was the especial delight of the 
sculptors of the fifteenth century. D. C. 

St. John's Wood, July 28. 1851. 

Achey Trade (Vol. iv., p. 40.). Ackey weights 
were, and I believe are, used on the Guinea Coast 
for weighing gold dust : 1 ackey = 20^\ grains 
Troy. The Ackey Trade must be, I suppose, the 
African gold dust trade. W. T. 

Curious Omen at Marriage (Vol. iii., p. 406.) 
H. A. B. asks at the end of his Note, "Why a 
coruscation of joy, upon a wedding day, should 
forebode evil?" and "Whether any other in- 
stances are on record of its so doing ?" 

As these questions have remained unanswered 
for some weeks, I am tempted to suggest that your 
correspondent may have laid too much stress on 
the fact of the joy having been expressed at a 

wedding, and that the passage he quoted from Miss 
Benger's Memoirs of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, 
may be simply an allusion to the old belief (still 
more or less prevalent) of ''high spirits being a 
presage of impending calamity or of death" (See 
Vol. ii., pp. 84. 150.) 

The late Miss Landon, in one of her novels, 
furnishes an additional notice of this belief: 

" The ex-queen of Sweden has had one of the gentle- 
men of her suite put to death in a manner equally 
sudden and barbarous ; and what excites in me a strong 
personal feeling on the subject is, that Monaldeschi, the 
cavalier in question, dined with me the very day of his 
murder, as I must call it. Such a gay dinner as we 
had! for Monaldeschi lively, unscrupulous, and sar- 
castic was a most amusing companion. His spirits, 
far higher than his usual bearing, carried us all along 
with them: and I remember saying to him, ' I envy 
your gaiety: why, Monaldeschi, you are as joyous as 
if there were nothing but sunshine in the world.' He 
changed countenance, and becoming suddenly grave, 
exclaimed, ' Do not call me back to myself. I feel 
an unaccountable vivacity, which I know is the herald 
of disaster.' But again he became cheerful, and we 
rallied him on the belief, which he still gaily main- 
tained, that great spirits were the sure forerunners of 
misfortune." Francesca Carrara, vol. ii. chap. 6. 

Perhaps some of your readers may be able to 
say whether Miss Landon had the authority of 
any cotemporary writer for the anecdote. Is not 
the warning, " Sing before noon, and you'll sigh 
before night," also a proof of the dread with which 
" coruscations of joy " were looked upon by our 
forefathers ? C. FORBES. 



The very unsatisfactory condition of the present laws 
on the subject of international copyright has induced 
the eloquent author of The History of the Girondists, 
when giving to the world The History of the Restora- 
tion of Monarchy in France, to consent to write in 
English some of the most important passages of that 
history with the view of assisting his publishers in their 
endeavour to protect themselves against piracy. To 
this circumstance we are indebted for the appearance 
at the same moment of the English and French edi- 
tions ; and both at a much lower price than that at 
which we have hitherto been accustomed to receive 
original works. M. de Lamartine's present contribu- 
tion to the modern history of France cannot fail to 
excite great interest despite of the manifest preju- 
dices of the writer ; for it is written with marked 
earnestness not to say bitterness, and depicts in 
striking colours at once the military genius and the 
heartless selfishness of Napoleon. The history of the 
murder of Due D'Enghien is told with consummate 
dramatic effect ; and as the reader finishes the nar- 
rative he feels the force of the author's closing words, 
" The murderer has but his hour the victim has all 

AUG. 23. 1851.] 



eternity." The book will be read and re-read for its 
brilliancy and interest; it can however never be quoted 
as an authority, for its writer has disdained to quote 
those on which his own statements are based. M. de 
Lamartine in making this omission has done injustice 
both to himself and to his readers. 

Letters Historical and Botanical, relating chiefly to 
places in the Vale of Teign, 8fc., by Dr. Fraser Halle, is 
a small volume which we can conscientiously recom- 
mend as a desirable travelling companion to such of 
our friends as may be about to visit this beautiful dis- 
trict of 

"Lovely Devonia, land of flowers and songs." 

It is clearly the production of a thoughtful scholar ; 
and besides its botanical notices and historical illus- 
trations, contains many pleasant snatches of old song, 
and hints of by -gone legends. 

Lives of the most eminent Painters, Sculptors, and 
Architects, translated from the Italian of Giorgio Vasnri, 
Sfc., by Mrs. Foster, vol. iii., is another volume of Mr. 
Bonn's Standard Library. Vasari's work was one of 
the favourite books of the unfortunate Haydon; and 
now, when so much attention is being devoted by all 
classes to the fine arts, when our nobles are throwing 
open their galleries to the public, and admitting all to 
a free study of the exquisite works in their possession, 
an English version of such a series of biographies as 
Vasari has given us, and enriched as it is by notes and 
illustrations drawn from his best commentators, cannot 
but find an extensive and ready sale. 

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson (3. Wellington 
Street) will sell on Wednesday next a valuable col- 
lection of Engravings, the property of a distinguished 
collector, by whom it was formed thirty years since, 
chiefly from the Durand Collection ; and on Thursday 
next a most interesting collection of Manuscripts and 
Books of the poet Gray, the whole in beautiful con- 
dition, together with a collection of various editions of 
his works, a posthumous bust, and other items con- 
nected with the poet. On Friday the same auctioneers 
will be engaged in the sale of the interesting collection 
of Engraved British Portraits formed by the late 
Thomas Harrison, Esq. 

CATALOGUES RECEIVED J. Lilly's (19. King Street, 
Covent Garden) Very Cheap Clearance Catalogue of 
Five Thousand Volumes; B. Quaritch's (16. Castle 
Street, Leicester Square) Cheap Book Circular, 
No. 32., Catalogue of Books in all Languages. 




M.D. (Kay Society's Publications.) 

by Alfred the Great. 8vo. London, 1773. (An Imperfect 

Copy, containing only the Anglo- Saxon, from p. 1. to 242., would 

be sufficient. ) 
BRITISH ESSAYISTS, by Chalmers. 45 Vols. Johnson and Co. 

Vols. VI. VII. VIII. IX. and XXIII. 


Account of Captain Wilmot's Expedition to the West Indies, 
by Colonel Luke Lillingston, 1704. 



LORD, &c. By George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from 

p. 150. to the end. 


1663. Sm. 4to. Wanted from p. 90. to the end. 
TRISTRAM SHINDY. 12mo. Tenth Edition. Wanted Vol. VII. 

PUY DE DOME. 1 Vol. folio. 51 Plates. 

which is added a Discourse thereon, as connected with the 

Mystic Theology of the Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By 

R.Payne Knight. 

APOCRYPHES, AUGMENTS, &c. Leipsic, 1832. 
SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. Tiie part of the 7th edition edited 

by Prof. Napier, containing the Art. MORTALITY. 

MORTALITY, by Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.) 

Published in 1849. 
THREE REPORTS, by Mr. Griffith Davies, Actuary to the Guardian, 

viz. : 
Report on the Bombay Civil Fund, published 183G. 

. Bengal Medical Retiring Fund, published 1839. 

Bengal Military Fund, published 1844. 


OF CHILDREN, by Mr. Roberton, Surgton, London, 1827. 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be snt to MK. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

H. E. (a Subscriber from 1 to 94). If this correspondent will 
forward copies of the Queries referred to, they shall have imme- 
diate attention. 

R. H. : 

" Every one to their likins, 

As the old woman said when she kissed her cow 

Is not the picture striking," 

is the refrain of a song which was very popular some thirty or 
forty years since. 

LLAW GYFFES. The motto of the extinct Viscounts Mount 
Cashel, " Sustenta la Drechura, " is Spanish, and signifies " Main- 
tain the Right." The Davies Queries in an early number. 

G. CREED. The Newcastle Apothecary, of whom George Caiman 
records that he 

" Loved verse and took so much delight in it, 

That his directions he resolved to write in it," 
was, we believe, altogether an imaginary personage. 

REPLIES RECEIVED. Stonehenge English Sapphics St. Paul 

Collar of Esses On the Word " Rack" Suicides burned in 
Cross Roads Bensley Family Curious Inscription In Print 

Epitaph Thistle of Scotland Saint and Crosier, $c. 
Charles Lamb and William Hone Coke how pronounced 
Caxton Memorial Shakspcare and Cervantes Umbrella 
East Norfolk Folk Lore - Bells in Churches The Ten Com. 
mandtnen's Whale of Jonah The Tradescants George 
Steevens Sun stand thou still Remarks upon some recent 

Copies of our Prospectus, according to the i suggestion of T. E. H., 
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VOLS. I., II., and III , with very copious Indices, may still be 
had, price 9s. 6d. each, neatly bound in cloth. 

NOTES ANO QUERIES is published at noon on Friday, so that, our 
country Subscribers mat/ receive it on Saturday. The siibscrip* 
lion for the Slapped Edition is lO.v. Id. for Sir Months, which may 
be paid bi/ Pmt-office. Order drawn in favour of our Publisher, 
MR. GEOKGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street ; to whose care all commu- 
nications for the Editor should be addressed. 

Erratum. Page 125. col. 1. 1.33. and 37. for " prope r " read 



[No. 95. 

THE only Drawings that have been made of the 
Interior of the MOSQUE OF OMAR, standing on the site of the 
Temple of Solomou, were made by Messrs. Bonoini, Catherwood and 
Arurdale, in 1833 : from them lias been painted the view of the Interior 
of the Mosque of Omar, in the Diorama of the Holy Land. It is the 
only painting of the Interior yet executed, ;iii<i presents all the Archi- 
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RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place ; 

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Just published, Vols. III. and IV., 8vo. price 28s. cloth, 

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND : with Sketches 
of their Lives, and Miscellaneous Notices connected with the 
Courts at Westminster from the time of the Conquest. By EDWARD 
FOSS, F.S.A., of the Inner Temple. 

Lately published, Vols. I. and II. in 8vo, price 28s. cloth. 

" We spoke fully of the plan of this very able work on the appearance 
of the first and second volumes. The portion before us is in no respect 
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its complete state, will supply a regular and progressive account of 
English legal institutions, such as exists in no other equally accessible 

form in our language So completed, it will be a work of the 

highest merit original in research, careful and conscientious in detail, 
bringing forward much that is new in connexion with the subject, cor- 
recting much that was doubtful in previous writers who have handled 
it, and supplying the best general view of our strictly legal history 
which any historian or jurist has yet aimed or attempted to give." 


his publication, which promises to be the commencement of a larger 
, will well repay serious perusal." Ir. Eccl. Journ. 

Price 2s. 6d. ; by Post 3s. 

LATING TO MESMERISM. Part I. By the Rev. S. R. 
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" Thi 

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our readers to the pamphlet itself." Brit. Mag. 

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L OF THE CHURCH. The words selected by the Very Rev. 
H.H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for 
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
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Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, August 23. 1851. 





When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. IV. No. 96.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 30. 1851. 

f Price Threepence. 
( Stamped Edition, 4 d. 


The Caxton Memorial and Chaucer's Monument - 145 


Collar of SS., by Edward Foss - - - - 147 

Printing - 148 

Folk Lore: Bible Divination in Suffolk Mode of 
discovering Bodies of the Drowned Somersetshire 

Rhyme 148 

Dictionary of Hackneyed Quotations - - - 149 
Minor Notes : Cocker's Arithmetic The Duke of 
Normandy Anachronisms and Errors of Painters 
The Ring Finger The Od Force New Costume 
for Ladies 149 


Judges styled Reverend, "&c. - - - - 151 

Minor Queries: Frederick Egmont ; Peter (Egmont?) 

Unlucky for Pregnant Women to take an Oath 
Cockroach Felton Date of a Charter Thomas 
Tusser the " Husbandman" Godfrey Higgins' 
Works Noctes Templariae Commissioners on Offi- 
cers of Justice in England Marcus JElius Antoninus 

Derivation of Pic-nic Sir Thomas More's Knight- 
hood Portrait of Mandeville Early History of 
Dinule Language of Ancient Egypt Dr. Matthew 
Sutcliffe Names first given to Parishes German 
Testament The Man of Law The Termination 
" Ship" Nullus and Nemo The noblest Object 

of the Work of Art Poulster - - - - 151 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: Rev. Caesar de Missy ^ 
F. Beaumont and Jeremy Taylor " Carve out Dials '* 

Log Book Lord Clydesdale " Time is the Stuff 
of which Life is made" "Yet forty Days" The 
Empress Helen.i - 


Royal Library _.---- 

The " Eisell" Controversy - 

Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor - 

" House of Yvery "- - 

On " Rack " in the Tempest .... 
Richard Rolle of Hampole - 

Replies to Minor Queries : Lady Flora Hastings' Be- 
quest " The Right divine of Kings to govern wrong" 

Fairlight Church Dogmatism and Puppyism 
Was Stella Swift's Sister ? Charles Lamb's Epitaph 

Meaning of Carnaby Scandinavian Mythology, &c. 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. ... 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 

Notices to Correspondents 

Advertisements ...... 

- 153 






The result of the appeals which have recently been 
made to the sympathies of the present age for the 
purpose of erecting a Memorial to our first Printer, and 
of restoring the crumbling tomb of one of our earliest 
and greatest Poets, has gone near to prove that the 
admirers of Caxton and Chaucer are disposed to yield 

to the objects of their hero-worship little more than 
lip service. In short, the plan for the Caxton Me- 
morial, and that for the restoration of Chaucer's Mo- 
nument, have well nigh failed. 

The projectors of the former had, indeed, in the ne- 
cessity of settling what the Caxton Memorial should 
be, to encounter, at the very outset of their undertaking, 
one difficulty from which the Chaucer Committee was 
free ; and the uncertainty whether it should assume 
the form of the symbolical " lamp and fountain " so 
poetically suggested by the Dean of St. Paul's, or the 
ideal cast-iron statue of the Coalbrook Dale Company, 
may have had a sinister effect upon the Subscription 

Between the suggestive symbol and the fancy por- 
trait there would seem to be little room for hesitation, 
since the former would merely veil a truth, while 
the latter would perpetuate a falsehood. But our 
readers have had before them a third, and, as it seems 
to us, a far more reasonable proposal, in that made by 
MR. BOLTON CORNEY for a collective impression of 
Caxton's original compositions : and we cannot but 
think that if that gentleman will take the trouble to 
enter into the necessary details as to the extent of such 
compositions, and the expense of transcribing and 
printing them, his scheme may yet be realised, and that 
too to the satisfaction of all the subscribers to the 
Caxton Memorial. The following communication in- 
dicates the favour with which MR. CORNEY'S proposal 
will probably be received by the followers of Caxton's 
art in this country. 

I have just read with great pleasure the article 
on " A Caxton Memorial suggested " in your 
Number for the 19th of July. I was particularly 
pleased with the "proposed conditions ;" and as an 
humble follower of the art of which Caxton stands 
at the head, and as an enthusiastic admirer of that 
great and talented, and learned printer, I should 
feel great pleasure in becoming a subscriber, 
should anything of the kind be undertaken ; and 
have no doubt but that many, aye, as many as 
might be required to complete the subscription 
list, might be found among the printers of this 

VOL. IV.-No. 96. 



[No. 96. 

country, who would feel proud to subscribe to such 
a " Memorial." If anything of the kind should be 
undertaken, the projectors might depend upon me 
becoming a subscriber. HENRY RYLETT, 

Horncastle, Aug. 18. 1851. 

The following letter, on the other hand, from a cor- 
respondent whose smallest suggestion deserves, as it 
will be sure to receive, the respectful attention of all 
who have the pleasure of knowing his high personal 
character and great acquirements, although pointing at 
what might be a. fitting Memorial of one of the greatest 
of the Worthies of Westminster, clearly indicates that 
if MR. CORNEY'S scheme can be carried out it will have 
the benefit of the writer's encouragement and support : 

MR. BOLTON CORNEY'S letter is entitled to much 
attention. It is satisfactory to learn that the 
original design has been abandoned. The fountain 
and the illumination might be a very pretty idea, 
but it would have sorely puzzled some of our 
countrymen to connect that memorial in their 
minds with the name and services of the first 
English printer. 

Might not the funds that were raised be advan- 
tageously employed in founding a Caxton scholar- 
ship at Westminster School ; or in the building or 
enlarging some school bearing Caxton's name, con- 
nected with Westminster ? The spiritual wants 
of that city are great. 

If the statue be raised, which should not present 
a bond fide resemblance to our celebrated printer, 
it would be worse than valueless something like 
an imposture ; and it would have as little con- 
nexion with Caxton as the statue in St. Peter's 
bears to the great Apostle, though called by his 

MR. CORNEY'S proposal, of giving an impression 
of Caxton's original compositions, would unques- 
tionably be his most enduring and glorious monu- 
ment. These reprints would be dear, not only to 
the bibliographer, but to the philologist and men 
of letters generally. But the work would be an 
expensive one, and the editors should be far more 
liberally recompensed than by merely receiving a 
limited number of copies. As the subscription 
would probably be very limited, the work should 
be undertaken by the nation, and not by indivi- 
duals ; still, the funds already raised, if not other- 
wise expended for educational purposes, as before 
suggested, would serve as the foundation for ac- 
complishing MR. CORNEY'S excellent suggestion. 

J. H. M. 

Our present purpose, however, is to call attention to 
a hint thrown out not only in the following Note 
addressed to ourselves (which, be it observed, has been 
in type for several weeks), but also in the pages of 
our learned and able contemporary the GENTLEMAN'S 

MAGAZINE, in an article from which we extract the 
most important passage, namely, that in the event of 
the failure of the projected Caxton Memorial, the 
funds subscribed might with propriety and good effect 
be applied (the consent of the subscribers being of 
course first obtained) to an object with which Caxton 
himself would so surely have sympathised, namely, the 
restoration of the tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer: 

Chaucer and Caxton. " Not half" of the re- 
quired 100Z. '''has yet been subscribed" for the 
restoration of Chaucer's monument. Chaucer was 
an especial favourite of Caxton ; and as the first 
English printer seems for axvhile destined to re- 
main without " light and fountain," as once upon 
a time suggested by Dr. Milman, treasurer of 
the Caxton fund, possibly the subscribers to that 
fund would not object to the transmission of the 
sum required by the old monument of the poet, 
from the no monument of the printer ? Will the 
Dean of St. Paul's ask for suffrages on the matter? 


After alluding to the various proposals for the Cax- 
ton Memorial, and the correspondence between MR. 
AND QUERIES," Sylvanus Urban proceeds : 

" But the discussion will do good. If neither 
proposal can be carried out, we shall probably 
have a better suggestion than either. The money 
in hand is said to be far short of the sum necessary 
to erect a statue or to print the works ; if so, why 
not repair Chaucer's tomb with it? Nothing 
would be more agreeable to Caxton himself. He 
not only printed Chaucer's works, and re-im- 
printed them merely to get rid of errors ; but, 
feeling that the great poet * ought eternally to be 
remembered' in the place where he lies buried, 
he hung up an epitaph to his memory over that 
tomb which is now mouldering to decay. 
Post obitum Caxton voluit te vivere, cura 
Willelmi, Chaucer dare poeta, tui, 

Nam tua, non solum, compressit opuscula formis, 
Has quoque sed laudes jussit hie esse tuas.' 

" The epitaph, touching evidence of Caxton's 
affection for the poet, has disappeared. In a few 
years the tomb itself will have submitted to in- 
evitable fate. What better mode of keeping alive 
the memory of both Chaucer and Caxton, or of 
doing honour to the pious printer, than by showing 
that even after the lapse of centuries his wishes 
for the preservation of Chaucer's memory in that 
place are not forgotten ? If the fund is more than 
sufficient for the purpose, the surplus might be 
invested on trust to perform the wish of Caxton, 
by keeping Chaucer's monument in repair for ever." 
Gentleman's Magazine, August, p. 167. 

Here we leave the matter for the present ; not, how- 
ever, without the hope that the present age will do 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



honour to the memories of two of our Illustrious 
Dead, and that a few months will witness both a 
Caxton Memorial in the shape of a collective edition of 
his original writings, and the Restoration of the Monu- 
ment of the Father of English Poetry. 


(Vol. ii., pp. 89. 475.) 

No less than nine long months have elapsed 
since you adopted my suggestion of limiting your 
columns, on the disputed question relative to the 
collar of SS., to a record of the names of those 
persons who, either on their monumental effigies 
or brasses, or in their portraits or otherwise, are 
represented as wearing that ornament; together 
with a short statement of the position held by 
each of these individuals in the court of the then 
reigning monarch, seeming to warrant the as- 
sumption. How is it that the invitation has not 
produced more than a single response ? Is it that 
the combatants are more fond of discussing the 
probabilities of a disputed point, than of seeking 
for facts to aid in its illustration ? I hope that 
this is not so, in an age that prides itself in its an- 
tiquarian and historical investigations ; and I trust 
that, now the dismissal of the parliament has re- 
lieved many from onerous duties, your pages may 
benefit, not only on this but on other important 
subjects, by the vacational leisure of your learned 

That I may not myself be chargeable with a 
continuance of the silence of which I complain, I 
now offer to you no less than eleven of the earliest 
names, principally taken from Boutell's Monu- 
mental Brasses, but some suggested in your own 
pages, on whose monuments or otherwise the 
collar occurs. To most of these I have added a 
few particulars seeming to warrant the assumption ; 
and I doubt not that some of your correspondents 
will supply you with similar hints as to those of 
whom I nave as yet been unable to trace anything 
applicable to the subject of enquiry. 

1. The first of these is in 1382, seventeen years 
before the accession of Henry IV. It appears on 
the brass of Sir Thomas Burton, in Little Cas- 
treton Church, in Rutlandshire. This knight, we 
find, received letters of protection on accompany- 
ing the Duke of Lancaster to France in 1369, 
when Edward III. revived his claim to that 
kingdom.* Being thus one of the retainers of the 
duke, the assumption of his collar of livery may 
be at once accounted for. 

2. The next that we have is on the monument 
of John Gower in the church of St. Saviour, 

* N. Fcedera, iii. 870. 

South wark. The poet died in 1402, 4 Henry IY. 
It is more than doubtful whether he was a knight, 
and the only ground that I can suggest for his 
being represented with the collar of SS. is, that 
he was in some manner, perhaps as the court poet, 
attached to the household of the king. Of his 
transferred devotion to Henry IV. we have suffi- 
cient evidence in the revision of his Confessio 
Amantis, from which he excluded all that he had 
previously said in praise of his patron Richard II. 

3. Sir Thomas Massingberd died in 1406, and 
on his monument in Gunby Church" in Lincoln- 
shire, both he and his lady are represented with 
collars of SS. Why> I have still to seek. 

4. In 1407 there is a similar instance of a knight 
and his lady being so ornamented. These are Sir 
William and Lady Bagot, whose monument is in 
Baginton Church, Warwickshire. Boutell says 
that he was the first who received this decoration 
from the king. Be this as it may, the Patent 
Rolls contain sufficient to account for his and his 
wife's assuming King Henry's livery from gra- 
titude for the restoration of his lands, which he had 
forfeited as an adherent to Richard II.* 

5. Then follows Sir John Dray ton, whose mo- 
nument, dated in 1411, is in Dorchester Church, 
Oxfordshire. It may be presumed that he was in 
the king's household ; as in the beginning of the 
reign of Richard II. he was keeper of the royal 
swans ; and early in that of Henry IV., was ser- 
jeant of the king's pavilions and tents. Thomas 
Drayton, who was made Assayer of the Mint in 
the year of Sir John's death f, was probably his 

6. In the following year, 1412, we have the 
collar of SS. represented on the brass of Sir 
Thomas Swynborne in Little Horkeley Church, 
Essex. Two or three years before, and perhaps 
at the time of his death, the knight held the offices 
of Mayor of Bordeaux, and of the king's lieute- 
nant in those parts. 

The last five of these are in the reign of 
Henry IV. In the reign of Henry V., I am not 
aware of any examples ; but in that of Henry VI,, 
we find five other instances. 

7. In Trotton Church, Sussex, is the monument 
of Thomas Lord Camoys, who died in 1424, and 
of his wife; both of whom are distinguished by 
the collar. He was a Knight of the Garter, and 
commanded the left wing of the English army at 
the battle of Agincourt. 

8. A monument, supposed to be that of Sir 
John Segrave, dated in 1425, occurs in Dor- 
chester Church, Oxfordshire : of whom I can state 

9. On the brass of John Leventhorpe, Esq., in 
the church of Sawbridgeworth, in Hertfordshire, 

* Cal. Rot. Pat. 236. 243. 

f Cal. Rot. Pat. 196. 259.; Devon's Issue Roll, 286. 



[No. 96. 

the collar is also to be found. He died in 1433, 
and was one of the executors named in the will of 
King Henry IV.* 

10. The monument in Yatton Church, Somer- 
setshire, representing a judge in his robes, is 
traditionally ascribed to Sir Richard Newton, 
who .died Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 
1449. This is, I believe, the first example of a 
judge being represented with the collar of SS. 

11. The silver collars of the king's livery be- 
queathed by the will of John Baret of Bury, may 
be presumed, although he did not die till after the 
accession of Edward IV., to be of the livery of 
Henry VI. ; as he is not only represented on his 
tomb, which he had erected during Henry's reign, 
with the collar of SS. ; but the chantry,, also built 
by him, is profusely ornamented with the same 
collar, enclosing his monogram J. B. He pro- 
bably received the privilege of wearing it during 
Henry's visit to St. Edmondsbury in 1433.f 

I shall be glad to see a continuation of this list 
carried on through subsequent reigns, since it is 
only by the multiplication of examples that we 
shall be enabled to form a more correct conclu- 
sion on the various questions connected with this 
interesting subject. 

Will one of your correspondents kindly inform 
me where it appears that Richard II. ever wore 
the collar of SS, ? EDWARD Foss. 


This art .cannot be assigned to any single year, 
but must rather ,be referred to a decennium ; and 
the one in which we now are (1851 1860), is 
certainly the first decennium of the fifth century 
of the existence of the art. If anything were 
proposed in the way of celebration of this anni- 
versary, probably the year 1855 would be chosen, 
not only as the year which touches the middle of 
the decennium, but as being very probably the 
year in which the printing of the Bible was com- 
pleted. We have then a year or two to consider 
in what manner the spirit which anniversaries 
usually call up shall be turned to account. The 
following will probably be suggested. 

A feed. If we could call down Fust and Guten- 
berg to witness that within twelve hours after 
dessert and commonplaces are finished, an account 
of the dinner, as long as three epistles of St. Paul, 
would be about the world in something like a 
hundred thousand copies, such a celebration would 
have a strong point of interest about it. 

A monument in sculpture. That is to say, a lame 
subscription, a committee, five-and-twenty abusive 
paragraphs before the thing is done, one more 
when, ten years after, it is completed, and a short 

* Devon's Issue Roll, 334. 

f Bury Wills, Camden Soc. 15 44. 233. 

notice in the handbooks of London in all time to 

If these two modes are abandoned, many others 
would be proposed. Mine would be, a subscription 
to defray the expense of publishing, on a large 
scale, a book of fac-similes of early typography, 
to be sold at a cheap rate, with such prefatory 
matter as would form an accurate popular history 
of printing from 1450 to 1550. The great in- 
terest with which I saw plain working men looking 
at the treasures now exhibited in glass cases at 
the British Museum, made me think of this. 

Reference is frequently made upon the origin 
of printing, to the fasciculus temporum, or Cologne 
Chronicle, In one place I find a citation in sup- 
port of the Gutenberg Bible having been com- 
menced in 1450 ; in another citation it is only 
affirmed that printing was first done in that year. 
The only edition I have the means of consulting at 
this moment is that of Ratdolt, 1484. And here 
I find nothing about printing except that, of the 
year 1457 and thereabouts, it is said that 

" Artifices inira celeritate subtiliores solito fiunt. Et 
impressores librorum multiplicant in terra." 

In the preface Ratdolt says that he had printed 
the fasciculus three times already, of which Hain 
mentions two. He says, moreover, that this fourth 
(Venice) edition was cura el opera diligentiori. 
Did Ratdolt, after inquiry, abandon the more 
specific account above cited, and content himself 
with the above sentence, as expressing all that 
could be verified; or, as I have sometimes sup- 
posed, do different books circulate under the title 
of fasciculus temporurn ? Be this as it may, Rat- 
dolt expressly refers to the great impulse which 
the mechanical arts in general received just about 
the time when printing became common. Now 
we may hope the same thing of the decennium on 
which we are entering, the beginning of which is 
made conspicuous by the great forcing-house of 
art, which has not yet got the name it is to keep. 


Bible divination in Suffolk. In Suffolk it is a 
practice on New Year's Eve to open a Bible at 
midnight, and the passage upon which they stick 
a pin will be the luck (good or bad) that attends 
them the following year. R. J. S. 

Mode of Discovering the Bodies of the Drowned. 
What must we think of the following, transcribed 
from the Gentleman's Mag., vol. xxxvii. p. 189. ? 
Can such things be ? 


" An inquisition was taken at Newbery, Berks, on 
the body of a child near two years old, who fell into 
the river Kennet, and was drowned. The jury brought 
in their verdict accidental death. The body was dis- 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



covered by a very singular experiment, which was as 
follows : After diligent search had been made in the 
river for the child, to no purpose, a two-penny loaf, 
with a quantity of quicksilver put into it, was set 
floating from the place where the child it was supposed 
had fallen in, which steered its course down the river 
upwards of half a mile, before a great number of spec- 
tators, when the body happening to lay on the contrary 
side of the river, the loaf suddenly tacked about, and 
swam across, the river, and gradually sunk near the 
child, when both the child and loaf were immediately 
brought up, with grablers ready for that purpose." 

Is this experiment ever tried at the present 
time, and do there exist any authentic accounts of 
such trials and their results ? * & ? 

Man pad t House. 

Somersetshire Rhyme. In Vol. iii., p. 206. > there 
is mention of a traditional rhyme on Lynn and 
Rising. At Taunton, in Somersetshire, there is a 
similar tradition current : 

" Nertown was a market town 
When Taunton was a furzy down." 

This Nertown is a village adjoining Taunton, 
and lying on the north side of it. Its name is 
variously regarded as a corruption of Northtown, 
Near-town, and Nethertown, of which the last is 
doubtless the right derivation. R. D. H. 


Allow me to suggest the publication of a small 
work, which might be entitled "The Book of 
Hackneyed Quotations." Manifold would be its 
usefulness. Here information would be imparted 
to enquirers anxious to discover the source of such 
passages ; and the labours of other oracles, as well 
as of the editor of " NOTES AND QUERIES," would 
be thus in this department diminished. Reporters 
would by this means be enabled to correct mis- 
takes; for, owing either to blunders in the delivery, 
or errors in the short-hand notes, rarely are quo- 
tations faithfully printed. The gentleman " totally 
unaccustomed to public speaking," and the orator 
of " unadorned eloquence," might from hence 
cull some flowers wherewith to embellish their 
speeches ; while to the practised author and the 
accomplished speaker such a collection might 
serve as an index expurgatorius, teaching them 
what to avoid as common-place, and so the re- 
currence of old friends, " familiar in our mouths 
as household words," would be more "like angels' 
visits, few and far between." 

An index referring to the rhyming or important 
words should be appended, and it would be ad- 
visable to subjoin a translation of the few Latin 
and French citations. 

Surely it is " devoutly to be wished " that the 
proposed little work may find " a local habitation 
and a name," and that the idea may not vanish 

into thin air " like the baseless fabric of a vision." 
No doubt several of your correspondents who do 
not think that " ignorance is bliss," and that it is 
"folly to be wise," would gladly lend their aid, 
and the constant " cry " would be " they come." 
As to the title, " a rose by any other name would 
smell as sweet:" but " somewhat too much of this." 


Cockers Arithmetic. I have a copy of Cocker's 
Arithmetic, the 37th edition, 1720, with an en- 
graved portrait of the author; respecting which 
there is the following manuscript note on the fly- 

" Mr. Douce, of Bath, the literary antiquary and 
book-collector, showed me a copy of Cocker's Arith- 
metic, with the frontispiece cut of the author, which he 
said was very scarce. J. P., April, 1823." 

Mr. Douce's copy (the first edition, 1678) is 
now in the possession of Mr. Rainy, an upholsterer 
in Bath, and is for sale. He asks 81. 10s. for it. 


The Duke of Normandy. The question relative 
to the late Duke of Normandy being the individual 
who was Dauphin of France, the son of Louis XVI. 
and Marie Antoinette, and who was said to have 
died in the Temple, has never been as publicly 
and satisfactorily settled as it deserves. The high 
station and unquestionable integrity of the indivi- 
duals of the Perceval family who instituted the in- 
quiry, and in the most open manner laid the results 
of that inquiry before the public, constitute an 
unexceptionable guarantee for its genuineness and 
authenticity. The acute perception and accurate 
memory of Madame Tussaud carry great weight 
with them. She was asked by the writer of this 
paragraph, if she thought the person calling him- 
self the Duke of Normandy was the same indivi- 
dual she had modelled when a child. Madame 
Tussaud replied with great emphasis, " I would 
take my oath of it ; for he had a peculiar form- 
ation on the neck which still remains. Besides 
something transpired between us, which he referred 
to, which was never likely to be mentioned to any 
one." The late Mr. Jeremy, the active and highly 
intelligent magistrate who presided in the court of 
Greenwich, and whose long experience adds value 
to his judgment, was of opinion that there were no 
traces of the impostor discovered by him during 
several scrutinising examinations which were held 
in his office, and that the members of the old 
, French nobility who were present treated him 
with profound respect. He was supported through 
unknown channels, was twice shot at, and refused 
permission by the French government, though it 
was applied for by legal advocates of the highest 
standing, to bring the question before the legal 



[No. 96. 

tribunals. At first the Emperor of Russia and 
the King of Prussia, who knew that the Dauphin 
was alive, opposed the Duke of Wellington's 
proposal to reinstate Louis XVIII. The Empress 
Josephine is also said to have been aware, that 
the Dauphine did not die in the Temple, and is 
reported to have said, " Ah ! legitimacy is nearer 
than you suppose." It is an unsettled historical 
question worthy the attention of the historian 
who has time to bestow on it. ./EGROTUS. 

Anachronisms and JZrrors of Painters. Perhaps 
the commonest of all anachronisms of painters is 
that of representing St. John Baptist in a Holy 
Family, himself a child, adoring the infant Saviour, 
and carrying a slight cross or flag, with the motto 
" Ecce Agnus Dei." That John knew our Lord as 
an eminently holy man is clear from his expostu- 
lation, " I have need to be baptized of Thee," &c. ; 
but he himself most distinctly assures us that it 
was not till he saw the Spirit descending on Jesus 
like a dove that he knew him as the promised 
Messiah and Lamb of God. 

I have seen an engraving from an old Master 
(perhaps some of your correspondents may remem- 
ber the painting itself) in which the mother of 
Zebedee's children comes forward to beg the boon 
on their behalf, James and John being represented 
as boys of seven or eight, one on each side of her. 
These errors of painters are perhaps excusable 
when they occurred at a time when the Bible was 
not in everybody's hands : but what excuse can we 
make for artists' blunders now ? The Illustrated 
News has lately given us prints from paintings by 
living artists, in one of which, "Noah's Sacrifice," 
a couple of fat ducks figure as clean fowl at the 
foot of the altar ; and in the other, the Five Wise 
and Five Foolish Virgins have increased into two 
sevens; neither error being apparently noticed by 
the editor. It is said that no sea piece, however 
fine, is admitted to our exhibitions if the rigging 
is incorrect. Would it not be quite as advisable 
to exclude Scripture pieces with palpable blunders? 

P. P. 

The Ring Finger. Tine English Book of Com- 
mon Prayer orders that the ring should be put 
" upon the fourth finger of the woman's left hand;" 
and the spousal manuals of York and Salisbury 
assign this practical reason for the selection of the 
said finger: 

" Quia in illo digito est qusedam vena procedens 
usque ad cor." Maskell, Ancient Liturgy of the Church 
of England, 2nd edition, Preface, page civ. note: 
Lond. 1846. 

Aulus Gellius tells us 

" Veteres Grascos annulum habuisse in digito acce- 
pimus sinistrae manus, qui minimo est proximus. 
Romanes quoque homines aiunt, sic plerumque annulis 
usitatos. Causam esse hujus rei Appianus in lihris 
^Egyptiacis hanc dicit: quod insectis apertisque hu- 

manis corporibus, ut mos in ^Egypto fuit, quas Graeci 
avaro^as appellant, repertum est, nervum quendam tenu- 
issi/mim ab eo uno digito, de quo diximus, ad cor hominis 
peryere ac pervenire. Propterea non inscitum visum esse, 
eum potissimum digitum tali honore decorandum, qui 
continens et quasi connexus esse cum principatu cordis 
videretur." Noctes Attica:, lib. x. cap. 10. 

Other reasons are assigned by Macrobius; and the 
author of the Vulgar Errors (book iv. ch. 4.) has en- 
tirely overthrown the anatomical fiction mentioned 
above. Can any one give me any further informa- 
tion than that contained in L'Estrange or Wheat- 
ly, or in the authors to which they refer ? The 
fourth finger of the left hand is certainly "the 
least active finger of the hand least used, upon 
which, therefore, the ring may be always in view, 
and least subject to be worn out:" but this is a 
very unromantic and utilitarian idea. RT. 

Warmington, Aug. 9. 1851. 

The Od Force. As considerable interest apper- 
tains to the earlier manifestations of what is now 
termed Mesmerism, the following Note may not 
be altogether unworthy of a place. 

The experiment, upon which a subjective proof 
of the agency of the power of Od is founded, as 
described by Dr. Herbert Mayo in the supple- 
mentary chapter to the last edition of Letters on 
the Truths contained in Popular Superstitions, and 
alluded to by R. D. H. (Vol. iii., p. 5 17.), is another 
instance of there being "nothing new under the 
sun." In the Bigarrures du Seigneur des Accords, 
first published at Paris in 1582, in the chapter 
" Des faux Sorciers et de leur Impostures " occurs 
the following passage, which I copy verbatim et 
literatim : 

" Autres ont une ruse, qifils semblent d'attacher un 
anneau d'or ou d'argent a un petit filet, qu'on suspend 
dans un verre a demy plain d'eaue, et puis 1'ayant 
trempe pair trois fois, disent bellement ce verset du 
Psalme, autant de fois, ' Ecce enim veritatem dilexisti, 
incerta et occulta sapientiae tua? manifestasti mihi.' 
L'anneau bat centre le verre, et sonne autant d'heures 
qu'il en peut estre." 



Neiv Costume for Ladies. The following para- 
graph, extracted from a London paper (No- 
vember, 1794) would lead to the conclusion that 
the agitation regarding costume now going on in 
America, is not entirely novel ; the Turkish 
fashion having been introduced unsuccessfully into 
this metropolis in the last century : 

" The young ladies of haut ton, who have invented 
Turkish fashions, will not be surprised if their husbands 
should follow their example, and adopt the Turkish 

taste for variety No man of sense can be long attached 

to such absurdity I " 

G. R. 

Thanet Place, Temple Bar, Aug. 20. 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 




I read a Query not long ago as to the time when 
the title "Very Reverend "was first given to 
Deans. I would also offer a Query, When did the 
Judges lose the title of " Reverend " and " Very 
Reverend," and obtain that of " Honorable ? " 
In the second volume of The Year Books the ap- 
probation of the twelve judges to the publication 
of the reports is headed, " By the approbation of 
the Reverend Judges ; " and the following is copied 
from the title-page: " Le Premier Part de les 
Reports del Cases en Ley, que furent argues en le 
Temps de le tres Haut et Puissant Prince, Roy 
Edward le Tierce. Ore nouvelment Imprimes, 
Corriges et Amendes, avec les Notations and Refer- 
ences de V tres Reverend et tres Sage Juges de cest 
Royaulme, Brook et Fitzherbert. Printed, 1679." 

In the title-page of the sixth volume we find 
"Avec les Notations de le tres Reverend Juges, 
Brook et Fitzherbert." 

Was this title, " Reverend," derived from the 
address given to judges when ecclesiastics filled 
judicial offices, or is it simply a title of respect 
applied to all persons to whom, on account of their 
position in society, respectful address is due; of 
which we have an example in Othello's address to 
the Venetian senators : 

" Most potent, grave, and reverend seniors." 

When did the address, " The Honorable," now 
given to the judges, come into use ? 

How comes it that in Court the Puisne Judges 
are addressed by the title of " Lord," whereas the 
Master of the Rolls, who ranks before them, re- 
ceives the title of "Your Honor?" 

The use of the title " Honorable " to the House 
of Commons, and to members within its walls, is 
familiar to us all. 

The worthiness and antiquity of the title is 
proved by its being given to one of the Persons of 
the Eternal Trinity in the Te Deum. F. W. J. 

$3 mar 

93. Frederick Egmont ; Peter (Egmont f}. 
They appear as booksellers merely and only, so far 
as I can make out, because the promptorius pue- 
rorum, or medulla grammatics, printed by Pynson, 
in 1499, is said, in the colophon, to be at their 
expense. Neither Ames nor Dibdin gives any 
further evidence. The following is therefore 
worth a Note. It is from the ad lector em (or 
rather, the adolesce ntibus studiosis) of the Mul- 

orum Vocabulorum equivocorum interpretatio Ma- 
gistri Johannes de garlandia : Paris, 1502, 4to. 
' Sed nihil tarn arduum tamque difficile fuit quod 

bor improbus non vicerit. Ut videlicet mei amicis- 
simo Fredericho Egmont morein gererem optatissimus : 

qui cum in vestra excellentissima anglie patria. Et 
librorum sit fidelissimus mercator et amicorum suorum 
amantissimus, nullum unque librum ex officina sua 
nisi perquam castigatus emittet." 

Query, was F. Egmont a printer as well as a 
bookseller ? Granting that officina means a shop, 
how can a mere bookseller sell none but correctly 
printed works ? The writer of the above was 
himself a bookseller (Joh. Ant. Venetus). 

Of Peter above-mentioned, or rather of his 
name, the following is the history : The colophon 
of the promptorius, of which there is a copy in the 
Grenville Library, runs as follows : "... in ex- 
pensis virtuosorum virorum Frederici Egmont et 
Petri post pascha, anno domini MCCCC nonagessimo 
nono, decima v a die mensis Maii." Hence Hain 
and others have entered Peter post Pascha as an 
English bookseller, presuming that the words post 
pascha cannot belong to the date, because the more 
definite day, " May 15," follows. But surely, 
among the varieties of the time when every man 
did what seemed good in his own eyes as to titles, 
colophons, &c., it may easily have happened that 
a double description of a part of the date may 
have occurred, one description containing more 
than the other. Query, Can any other instance be 
produced of this hypei-tautology ? * At any rate, 
such a thing is more likely than that a bookseller 
should have been called Peter After-Easter. At 
the same time such whimsical things were done in 
the Latinization of names, both by their owners 
and by others for them, that no certain conclusion 
can be drawn. For example, more atrocious 
changes have been made than would be that of 
Easterby mto post pascha. M. 

94. Unlucky for pregnant Women to take an Oath. 
In a police case, reported in The Times of the 
28th of May, a woman was called as a witness who, 
however, upon the book being tendered to her, 
positively refused to be sworn, with the remark, 
that it must be evident to the magistrate that she 
could not take an oath. The usher of the court 
said that the woman was pregnant, and that low 
women who were in that situation, entertained an 
absurd belief that it was unlucky to take an oath. 
What is the origin of this superstition ? Is it 
common amongst the uneducated classes of so- 
ciety ? COWGILL. 

95. Cockroach (Vol. i., p. 194.). Having seen 
in *' NOTES AND QUERIES" some interesting parti- 
culars on the subject of beetle mythology, 1 am 
induced to put a Query as to the derivation of 
the word " cockroach." The common appellation 
for this insect in the French islands is ravet, but 

* [We are glad to supply our correspondent with 
another instance of hypertautology, and from a work in 
great demand during this part of the year. On the 
cover of Bradshaw's Railway Guide we read, " Eighth 
Month (August) 1st, 1851."] 



[No. 96. 

the more correct one is kakerlaque. Does the 
affinity in sound between this latter term and 
"cockroach," slight though it be, warrant the sup- 
position that the one may be derived from the 
other ? HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia, May, 1851. 

96. Felton. What has become of the letter 
said to have been found in Fel ton's hat when he 
stabbed the Duke of Buckingham? Upcott once 
had it, but it did not appear in the sale catalogue 
of his collection. ? ? 

97. Date of a Charier. Having been in the 
habit of making frequent consultations to the MSS. 
in the British Museum respecting the county of 
Wilts, I found a charter temp. Henry III., the 
date of which is given as " Thursday next after the 
day whereon the King sent his daughter into Sicily /" 

It is now three years since I last saw the original, 
and having mislaid my transcript, I quote from 
memory ; but I believe I am correct in my ren- 
dering from the Latin, 

Can you, through the medium of your valuable 
publication, fix with accuracy this date, as I have 
not been able to do so. J. T. HAND. 

29. Threadneedle Street, Aug. 13. 1851. 

98. Thomas Tusser the "Husbandman" Has 
any new evidence been discovered to prove the 
correct dates of the birth and decease of this " old 
English worthy ? " On his own authority we 
learn that Rivenhall, near Witham in Essex, was 
the place of his nativity, and his remains were 
interred (about 1580 ?) in St. Mildred's church in 
the Poultry. Are any particulars known of Sir 
Richard Southwell, one of Tusser's patrons ? 


99. Godfrey Higgins" 1 Works. Have the works 
of Godfrey Higgins (the Celtic Druids and the 
Anacalypsis} ever been reviewed, and where ? if 
not, can any of your readers inform me what is 
the opinion generally entertained of these pro- 
ductions ? OUTIS. 

100. Nodes Templarice. In turning over yes- 
terday a MS. volume in the University Library, I 
met with a tract of 8 pp., with the title, Noctcs 
Templarife: a Brief e Chronicle of the darke Eaigne 
of the bright Prince of burning Love. Stradilan is 
the name of the principal character in this most 
mad composition. As to the author, I shall be 
glad to receive information from those better 
acquainted with the fugitive literature of the 
seventeenth century than W. R. C. 


101. Commissioners on Officers of Justice in 
England. On July 27th, 1733, commissioners 
were appointed to survey the officers of justice in 
England and Wales, and to inquire into their fees. 
Will any of your learned readers inform me 

whether these commissioners made any report of 
the returns of fees which they received in pur- 
suance of their commission, and where is such re- 
port or returns deposited ? This inquiry may lead 
to some important results. INQUIRER. 

102. Marcus JElius Antoninus. Can you or any 
of your correspondents inform me what writer is 
concealed under the pseudonyme of Marcus -ZElius 
Antoninus, in the following title ? 

" De scripto quodam cleri secundarii et leguleorum 
coloniensium plane detestabili, adversus Evangel ii doc- 
trinam et ordines Imperil nuper edito Querela Marci 
JEVri Antonini Imperatoris, qui Philosophus a bonis 
literis magna laude cognominatus est. 1543." 



103. Derivation of Pic-nic. Can any of your 
subscribers inform me of the derivation of the 
word " Pic-nic ? " A. F. S. 

Nottingbam, Aug. 12. 

104. Sir Thomas More's Knighthood. I should 
be glad of the date when the honour of knighthood 
was conferred on this eminent man ; and also the 
date of his admission into the privy council. If I 
am rightly informed, the records of the privy 
council are preserved only since 1540. 


105. Portrait of Mandeville, author of the Fable 
of " The Bees" Could any of your numerous 
readers inform me whether there is in existence 
any authenticated portrait of Dr. Bernard de Man- 
deville, author of the fable of " The Bees ? " I 
have made a fruitless search for several years 
past. B. G. 

106. Dingle, early History of. 
to works, MS. or printed, containing notices of the 
early history of Dingle and its neighbourhood, in 
the county of Kerry, Ireland, will much oblige 

R. H. 

107. Ancient Egypt, Language of . What are 
the best standard works on the study of the lan- 
guage of ancient Egypt, as preserved in its monu- 
ments? What are the best works on its chro- 
nology ? What translations exist of its " Ritual 
of the Dead?" I am acquainted with Lepsius 
Todtenbuch. What MSS. of it, if any, are pre- 
served in British museums or libraries ? have they 
been collated ? I am acquainted with that in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin, formerly in 
possession of the late Lord Kingsborough, which, I 
believe, has never been even lithographed ; though 
among the members of that university are a 
Hincks, a Wall, and a Butcher. S. P. H. T. 

108. Dr. Matthew Sutclijfe.NonQ of the bio- 
graphers of the famous Dr. Matthew SutclifFe, 
Dean of Exeter, the controversial writer, and 
founder of Chelsea College, state where he was 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



born, or where interred. Faulkner, in his His- 
tory of Chelsea, observes that he was probably a 
native of Devonshire ; but there appears to be 
some ground for considering that he was of a 
family settled at Mayroyd, in the parish of Halifax 
in Yorkshire. In a conveyance of the estate, 
dated 29th January, 1581, the grantor is Matthew 
Sutcliffe, " Doctor of Civil Law, dwelling in Lon- 
don." He was of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and Doctor of Civil Law : he died in 1629. In his 
will he desires to be buried in Exeter Cathedral. 
Probably the inscription on his tombstone, if still 
existing, might settle this uncertainty. I shall 
feel obliged to any of your correspondents who 
can throw any light on the subject. 


109. Names first given to Parishes. Is there 
any means of ascertaining the time at which names 
were first given to parishes ? and can any reason 
be given for the recurrence of one termination in 
a particular locality ? Thus between Caistor and 
Brigg in Lincolnshire, a distance of about nine 
miles, there are, I understand, the several parishes 
or hamlets of Clixby, Fonaby, Grassby, Ownby, 
Searby, Bigby, Barnetby, Wrawby, and there are 
many others in the neighbourhood. Of course, I 
know the meaning of by, as a termination ; but I 
wish to know why it occurs so often in one locality, 
when perhaps a few miles off you have as many 
hams or thorpes. 

Can you suggest any probable derivation of 
Swinhop f F. B. 


110. German Testament. What is the most 
literal German translation of the New Testament ? 
Is the translation published by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in 1844 to be depended 
on ? A. G. 

111. The Man of Law. Who was the author 
of the following lines quoted by Mr. Serjeant Byles 
a short time since ? 

" The man of law, who never saw, 

The way to buy or sell, 
Shall never rise, by merchandise, 

Or ever speed him well." 

They may not be quite correct, as I write from 
memory. W. W. KING. 

112. The Termination "Ship." What is the 
origin of the termination ship, in such words as 
consulship, prsetorship, lordship, and others ? 

A. W. H. 

113. Nullus and Nemo. I have two old quarto 
tracts, of eight pages each, printed, as seems both 
by the type and by an allusion contained in one of 
them, between 1520 and 1530, or thereabouts. 
They are part of a satirical controversy, the sub- 
ject of which is very obscure, between Nemo of 
Wittemberg, .and Nullus of Leipsic. Though 

printed, we must suppose, at the two places, the 
opponents have evidently clubbed for a woodcut 
to be common to the two title-pages. 

In this cut an unfortunate householder stands 
in an attitude of despair, surrounded by what are 
as much in our day as in his the doings of nobody, 
as broken crockery, hardware, &c. In the dis- 
tance his kitchen is visible, in which two nobodies 
are busy with his meat and wine. A young wo- 
man is carrying an infant to the priest to be bap- 
tized ; and from the way in which the worthy man 
holds up his finger, we may fear she has just con- 
fessed that it is nobody's child. Can any of your 
readers give any information ? M. 

114. The noblest Object of the Work of Art. 
Can any of your readers discover the answer to 
the adjoining riddle, which I have met with, though 
I neither know its author nor answer ? 

" The noblest object of the work of art, 
The brightest gem that nature can impart, 
The point essential in the tenant's lease, 
The well-known signal in the time of peace, 
The farmer's comfort when he holds the plough, 
The soldier's duty and the lover's vow, 
The planet seen between the earth and sun, 
The prize that merit never yet hath won, 
The miser's idol and the badge of Jews, 
The wife's ambition and the parson's dues. 
If now your noble spirit can divine, 
A corresponding word for every line, 
By the first letters plainly will be shown, 
An ancient city of no small renown." 

A. W. H. 

115. Poulster. Can any one inform me if I am 
right in supposing that this word, used in the 
reign of George I. as an addition expressing trade, 
is the same as our upholsterer f D. X. 

Reverend Caesar de Missy. Can you furnish 
me with any particulars respecting the Rev. 
Caesar de Missy ? Bishop Middleton, in his work 
on the Greek article, quotes once or twice some 
MS. notes of his, now in the British Museum; 
and a rare edition of the Septuagint (Basil, 1545), 
now in my possession, contains his autograph 
under date Londini, 1745. I have not met with 
his name in any biographical work, and should 
therefore be obliged by any information respecting 
his life and works. QUIDAM. 

[Caesar de Missy, a learned Prussian divine, was born 
at Berlin, 1703. Having settled in England, he was 
appointed in 1762 to be one of the French chaplains to 
George III., and died 1773. His valuable library, 
which was sold by Baker and Leigh in 1778, consisted 
of many books enriched with his MS. notes, some of 
which were purchased for his Majesty's library, some 
for the British Museum, and some by Dr. Hunter, who 
also bought several of his manuscripts. A biographical 

VOL. IV. No. 9G. 



[No. 96. 

account of De Missy will be found in Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary, under De Missy ; and a list 
of his works in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica, art. 


F. Beaumont and Jeremy Taylor (Vol. ii., 
p. 263.). "An acre sown with royal seed," &c. 
Would M. W. kindly say where the passage in 
Beaumont is to be found? C. P. E. 

[The passage occurs in the poem entitled " On the 
Tombs in Westminster Abbey." See Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Works, vol. ii. p. 709. edit. 1840.] 

" Carve out Dials" 

" Carve out dials, quaintly, point by point, 

Thereby to set the minutes, how they run, 
How many make the Hour full, complete ; 
How many hours bring about the Day." 
Where is the above quotation from ? It heads 
an advertisement of the Sam Slick Clocks. 


[It will be found in Shakspeare's King Henry VI. t 
Part III. Act II. Sc. 5.] 

Log Book. What is the origin of Log Booh ? 


[The Log board no doubt gave rise to the Log book, 
as being more convenient for preserving a record of the 
ship's course, winds, and weather. Consult Falconer's 
Dictionary of the Marine.~\ 

Lord Clydesdale. Would you kindly inform 
me who was the "Lord Mar. Clydesdale," or 
" Clidsdale," whose name appears as a commoner 
of St. Mary's College, Winchester, in 1735 ; and 
in other Rolls about that date ? 


P. S. May I in your columns beg all Wyke- 
hamists to send to me, under care of my publisher, 
any information concerning their old school ? 

[James, Marquis of Clydesdale, was afterwards fifth 
Duke of Hamilton, and second Duke of Brandon. 
See Douglas' Peerage of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 473. 722.] 

" Time is the Stuff of which Life is made'' 
There is a phrase, " Time is the stuff that life is 
made of," which has been taken for a line of 
Shakspeare. A reference to Mrs. Clark's Con- 
cordance shows that that supposition is erroneous. 
Can any of your readers inform me where the 
phrase may be found ? H. 

[It occurs in Dr. Franklin's Works, vol. iii. p. 454., 
edit. 1806, in the article "The Way to Wealth, as 
clearly shown in the Preface of an old Pennsylvania 
Almanack, intitled, Poor Richard Improved." He 
says, " But dost thou love life, then do not squander 
time, for that is the stuff life is made of, as Poor 
Richard says." Franklin may have quoted it from 
some previous author.] 

" Yet forty Days" (Jonah iii. 4.). " Yet 
forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown." 

Septuagint (Baxter's edition): " v Eri rpeis rf,uepc," 
&c. : " Yet three days." How is this ? NEDLAM. 

[Tpely is the common reading of the LXX. as 
D^VnS of the Hebrew. We know of no variants. 
J. H. Michaelis' account of the matter is, " Perperam 
vero LXX. hunc quadragenarium dierum numerum in 
triduanum commutarunt."] 

The Empress Helena. Most readers of general 
history are aware that the parentage of the re- 
nowned mother of the still more renowned Con- 
stantine has been claimed for two widely different 
sources, a British king on the one hand, and an 
innkeeper of Bithynia on the other. In favour of 
the former, we have Geoffrey of Monmouth, Carte 
the English historian, and modern Welsh authors; 
for the latter, Gibbon and his authorities. The 
object of the present Query is threefold : 1. Will 
some one having access to Geoffrey be kind enough 
to favour me (in the original or a translation) 
with the exact statement of the chronicler to 
which Gibbon refers ? 2. Are writers of intel- 
ligence and credit quite agreed that the tradition 
which assigns to the wife of Constantius a royal 
British parentage was " invented in the darkness 
of monasteries?" 3. Where is the question one 
of interest in many ways fully and satisfactorily 
discussed ? H. 

[The statement will be found in Geoffrey's British 
History, book v. ch. 6. : " After the decease of Coel, 
a petty prince of Caercolvin [Colchester], Constantius 
himself was crowned, and married the daughter of 
Coel *, whose name was Helena. She surpassed all the 
ladies of the country in beauty, as she did all others of 
the time in her skill in music and the liberal arts. 
Her father had no other issue to succeed him on the 
throne; for which reason he was very careful about 
her education, that she might be better qualified to 
govern the kingdom. Constantius, therefore, having 
made her partner of his bed, had a son by her called 
Constantine." Thus far Geoffrey; and with him agree 
Baronius, Ussher, Stillingfleet, and Camden. The 
learned Lipsius' opinion of this tradition, in his letter to 
Mr. Camden, will be found in his Epistles, page 64. 
The tradition, however, is not mentioned by Gildas, 
Nennius, or Bede. Our correspondent will find a long 
discussion on this disputed point in Alban Butler's 
Lives of the Saints, August 18, Art. " S. Helen." See 
also Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, t. iv.] 


(Vol. iii., p. 427. ; Vol. iv., p. 69.) 
I have delayed contradicting the stories told 
about the Royal Library in the Quarterly Review 

* This petty king is probably the hero of the old 
popular ditty : 

" Old King Coel, 
Was a merry old soul," &c. 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



of last December, and repeated in the Illustrated 
Boswell, and, I am sorry to say, still more gravely 
and circumstantially reproduced by the Editor of 
" NOTES AND QUERIES." I have delayed, I say, 
until I was enabled to satisfy myself more com- 
pletely as to one of the allegations of your Note. 
I can now venture to assure you that the whole 
story of the projected sale to Russia is absolutely 
unfounded ; and that the Princess Lieven, whose 
supposed agency is the gist of the story, never 
heard a syllable about it, till my inquiry brought 
it to her notice, and that she has given it the most 
absolute contradiction. As there never was any 
such proposition, I need not say that the interfer- 
ence against it attributed to Mr. Heber and Lord 
Sidmouth is equally unfounded. The real history 
of the affair is this : Mr. Nash, the architect, had 
rendered himself very agreeable to George IV. by 
his alterations and additions to the Pavilion at 
Brighton, and he managed to obtain (somewhat 
irregularly, I believe) the job of altering old 
Buckingham House, which was originally intended, 
or at least proposed, to be only an extensive repair 
and more commodious arrangement of the existing 
edifice. Under that notion, Mr. Nash had little 
difficulty in persuading the king that the space 
occupied by so large a library could not be spared 
for that purpose, if the house was to be arranged 
as a palace both for private residence and for pur- 
poses of state; and as there was a very great 
jealousy in Parliament of the expense of Bucking- 
ham House, he was afraid to propose the erection 
of an additional building to receive the books. It 
was then that the scheme was hit on, I know not 
exactly by whom (but I believe by Mr. Nash), of 
giving the books to the British Museum. The 
principal part of the library occupied three large 
rooms, two oblong and one an octagon. The former 
were to have been absorbed into the living apart- 
ments, and the octagon was to be preserved as a 
chapel, which it was proposed to adorn with the 
seven cartoons of Raphael from Hampton Court. 
All these, and several other schemes, vanished 
before Mr. Nash's larger views and increased 
favour, which led by degrees to the total destruc- 
tion of the old house, and the erection of an en- 
tirely new palace, which however retains strong 
evidence of the occasional and piecemeal principle 
on which it was begun. But in the meanwhile 
the library was gone. / know that some members 
of the government were very averse to this, dis- 
posal of the library : they thought, and strongly 
represented, that a royal residence should not be 
without a library; ami that this particular collec- 
tion, made especially ad hoc, should not have been, 
on any pretence, and above all on one so occasional 
and trivial, diverted from its original destination. 
It is very possible that Mr. Heber may have ex- 
pressed this opinion ; and I think I may say that 
Lord Sidmouth certainly did so : but, on the other 

hand, some of the king's advisers were not sorry 
to see the collection added to the Museum pro 
bono publico; and so the affair concluded, very 
unsatisfactorily, as I thought and think, as regards 
the crown, to whom this library ought to have 
been an heirloom ; and indeed I doubt whether it 
was not so in point of law. It is likely enough 
that the gift of the library may have been partly 
prompted by a hope of putting the public in better 
humour as to the expenses of Buckingham House; 
but the idea of a sale to Russia never, I am sure, 
entered the head of any of the parties. C. 

(Vol. iv., pp.64. 135.) 

I can easily suppose, after the space you 
have given to J. S. W. (Vol. iv., p. 64.) to sum 
up on the long-protracted controversy of the 
Uisett interpretation, that you will scarcely permit 
it to be renewed. J. S. W.'s judgment, though 
given with much amenity and fulness, I cannot 
think satisfactory, as towards its close he evidently 
sinks into the advocate. 

Theobald, a most admirable annotator, has nar- 
rowed the controversy, very properly, to the con- 
sideration whether Hamlet was here proposing 
possibilities or impossibilities. J. S. W. dwells on 
the whole of the dialogue between Hamlet and 
Laertes as a rant ; and sinks all the lines and pas- 
sages that would bring it down to sanity. But 
this seems to me singularly unjust. Imprimis, 
Hamlet is not enraged like Laertes, " who hath a 
dear sister lost," and is a very choleric, impetuous, 
and arrogant young gentleman. It is this quality 
which irritates Hamlet, who is otherwise in the 
whole of this scene in a particularly moralising 
and philosophic mood, and is by no means " sple- 
netic and rash." Hamlet, a prince, is openly 
cursed by Laertes : he is even seized by him, and 
he still only remonstrates. There is anything but 
rant in what he (Hamlet) says ; he uses the most 
homely phrases; so homely that there is- something 
very like scorn in them : 

" What wilt thou do for her ?" 

is the quietude of contempt for Laertes' insulting 
rant ; and so, if my memory deceive me not, the 
elder Kean gave it ; " Do for her " being; j^ut in 
contrast with Laertes' braggadocio say. Then 
come the possibilities : 

" Woul?t weep, fight, fast, tear thyself,'* 
(All, be it noted, common lover's tricks), 

" Would drink up eisell, eat a crocodile^ 
I'll do V 

Now the eating a crocodile is the real difficulty, 
for that looks like an impossibility ; but then, no- 
doubt, the crocodile, like all other monstrous 
things, was in the pharmacopoeia of the time, and 



[No. 96. 

was considered the most revolting of eatables. 
Eat a crocodile, does not mean a whole raw one, 
but such as the alligator mentioned in the shop 
of Romeo's apothecary, probably preserved in 

Here we have possibilities put against the rant 
of Laertes ; the doing against the saying ; the 
quietude of the philosophic prince, against the 
ranting of the robustious Laertes ; things that 
could be done, for Hamlet ends with " I'll do it." 
That is, he will weep, fight, fast, tear himself, 
drink bitterness, and eat monstrosities : and this 
is his challenge of Laertes to the true testimony of 
his love, in contrast to his wordy lamentation. 
But his quick imagination has caught an impetus 
from its own motion, and he goes on, " Nay, I will 
even outprate you ;" and then follows his superior 
rant, not uttered with sincere vehemence, but with 

this dignified contempt is his final remonstrance 
and his exit speech of 

" I lov'd you ever ; but it is no matter ; 
Let Hercules himself," &c. 

We thus see that there is no real rant in Hamlet; 
he is not outbragging Laertes ; but institutes the 
possible, in contradiction to swagger and mouth- 
ing. The interpretation of eisett thus becomes a 
matter of character, and to a great degree would 
determine an actor's mode of rendering the whole 
scene. This result I do not see that any of your 
correspondents have taken notice of; and yet it 
really is the main thing wercth discussing. 

This interpretation too :has the advantage of 
coinciding with Shakspeare's perpetual love of 
contrast ; the hot, hasty, wordy Laertes being in 
strong contrast to the philosophic, meditating, and 
melancholy young prince ; always true to his 
character, and ever the first in every scene by his 
own calm dignity. He never rants at all, but rides 
over his antagonist by his cool reasoning and his 
own magnificent imagination. The adoption of 
Theobald and Hickson's interpretation of the word 
eisett becomes therefore of great importance as in- 
dicating the character of Hamlet. F. G* T. 

Many of your readers no doubt feel much in- 
debted to your correspondent for his able sum- 
mary of the eisett controversy ; an example which 
it is to be hoped will be followed in other cases. 
It has induced me to collect a few passages for the 
purpose of showing that Shakspeare was accus- 
tomed to make use of what may be termed local- 
isms, which were frequently as occult as in the 
instance of the eisett ; and that he was especially 
fond of establishing himself with the children of 
his brain in the particular country by means of 
allusion to the neighbouring seas and rivers. What 
appropriate signs are the Centaur and the Phoenix 

for the city of Ephesus, the scene of the Comedy 
of Errors! The Italian, lachimo, speaks of 

" lips as common as the stairs 

That mount the capitol," 

And Petruchio alludes to the bursting of " a chest- 
nut in a farmer's fire," an incident probably of 
common occurrence in the sunny south. In 
Hamlet, with which we are chiefly concerned, the 
king " gulps his draughts of Rhenish down ;" and 
the grave-digger talks of a flagon of Rhenish 
having been poured by the jester upon his head, 
the wine with which Denmark would naturally be 
supplied. His majesty inquires : 
" Where are the Stvitzers 9 let them guard the door." 
And the student Horatio is judiciously placed at 
the university of Wittenburg. Constant mention 
is made in The Merchant of Venice of the Rialto ; 
and Portia, not unmindful of the remarkable posi- 
tion of the city, thus directs Balthazar : 

" Bring them, I pray thee, with imagin'd speed 
Unto the tranect, to the common ferry 
Which trades to Venice." 

What a fine Hebraism (Hazlitt remarks) is that 
of Shyloek, where he declares, that he would not 
have given his ring "for a whole wilderness of 
monkeys ! " And so, if the subjoined passage in 
Othello relates to the ceremony of the Doge's 
union with the sea, may we not exclaim " What 
an admirable Venetianism ! " 

" I would not my unhoused free condition 
Put into circumscription and confine 
For the sea's worth." 

The Moor has not travelled far to find the fol- 
lowing simile : 

" Like to the Pontick sea, 
Whose icy current and compulsive course 
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on 
To the Propontick and the Hellespont," 
Petruchio asserts in respect to Catherine : 

" Were she as rough 

As are the swelling Adriatic waves, 
I come to wive it wealthily in Padua." 

In the Roman plays the Tiber is repeatedly 
noticed. The Thames occurs in Merry Wives of 
Windsor, and others. And in the Egyptian scenes 
of Antony and Cleopatra, the Nile is several 
times introduced, 

" Master Brook [says Falstaff ], I will be thrown into 
Etna, as I have been into Thames, ere I will leave her 
thus. 1 ' 

Antony exclaims : 

Let Rome in Tiber melt !" 

while Cleopatra gives utterance to the same senti- 

Melt Egypt into Nile ! And kindly creatures 
Turn all to serpents ! " 

In the last two passages it may be observed, 
that the hyperbolical treatment of the two rivers 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



bears some analogy to that of the eisell ; and it 
may also be pointed out, that although one of your 
correspondents has rashly maintained that the 
word cannot mean a river because the definite 
article is omitted before it, Thames, Tiber, and 
Nile here occur without. Upon the whole it must 
appear that there is some reason for adopting the 
motto : 

" Flow on, thou shining river." 


Eisell will, I think, if examples from our old 
writers decide, be at least acknowledged to mean 
in Shakspeare what we now (improperly?) call 
vinegar, and not any river. In The Goolden Le- 
tanye of the Lyf and Passion of our Lorde Jesu 
Criste, edited from a MS. (No. 546.) in the library 
at Lambeth, by Mr. Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia, 
ii. 252., comes this entreaty : 

" For thi thirste and tastyng of gall and eysyl, 
graunte us to tast the swetnes of thi spirite ; and have 
mercy on us." 

All through the sixteenth century, and ages 
before, eisell was not only a housewife's word, but 
in every one's mouth in the poet's as he sang, 
the preacher's as he preached, and the people's 
while they prayed. Surely, for this very reason, 
if Shakspeare meant Hamlet to rant about a river, 
the bard would never have made the king choose, 
before all others, that very one which bore the 
same name with the then commonest word in our 
tongue : a tiny stream, moreover, which, if hardly 
ever spoken of in these days of geographical know- 
ledge, must have been much less known then to 
Englishmen. DA. ROCK. 

Buckland, Faringdon. 

Your correspondent J. S. W. well deserves the 
thanks of all those of your readers who have taken 
an interest in the discussion on the meaning of 
eisell in Hamlet, for the able manner in which he 
has summed up the evidence put forward by the 
counsel on both sides. Perhaps he is correct in 
his conclusion, that, of twelve good men and true, 
nine would give their verdict for eisell being "a 
river ; " while but three would favour the " bitter 
potion." Nevertheless, I must say, I think the 
balance yet hangs pretty even, and I rather in- 
cline myself to the latter opinion, for these reasons : 

1. There is no objection whatever, even in the 
judgment of its enemies, against eisell meaning "a 
bitter potion," except that they prefer the river 
as more to their taste ; for the objection of 
MR. CAUSTON I conceive to have no weight at all, 
that " to drink up " can only be applied " to a 
definite quantity;" surely it may also mean, and 
very naturally, to drink "without stint." And 
eisell need not be taken as meaning nothing more 
than "vinegar;" it may be a potion or medica- 
ment of extreme bitterness, as in the lllth 

sonnet, and in Lydgate's Troy Poke quoted by 
MR. SINGER, such, that while it would be possible 
to sip or drink it in small quantities, or diluted, 
yet to swallow a quantity at a draught would be 
almost beyond endurance ; and hence, I submit, 
the appropriateness of " drink up." 

2. There is this objection against eisell meaning 
a river, Would the poet who took a world-wide 
illustration from Ossa, refer in the same passage 
to an obscure local river for another illustration ? 
Moreover it does not appear to be sufficient to 
find any mere river, whose name resembles the 
word in question, without showing also that there 
is a propriety in Hamlet's alluding to that parti- 
cular river, either on account of its volume of 
water, its rapid flow, &c., or from its being in sight 
at the time he spoke, or near at hand. 

Can any of your readers, who have Shakspeare 
more at their fingers' ends than myself, instance 
any exact parallel of this allusion of his to local 
scenery, which, being necessarily obscure, must 
more or less mar the universality, if I may so 
speak, of his dramas. Could such instances be 
pointed out (which I do not deny) or at least any 
one exactly parallel instance, it would go far to- 
wards reconciling myself at least to the notion 
that eisell is the river Essel. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford, July 28. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 9. 137.) 

I will not attempt to follow all the statements of 
L. M., because some of them are totally beside the 
question, and others contradict each other. I shall 
only observe that he totally mistakes my argument 
when he says, as if in reply to me, that it is not 
necessary to have the courtesy title of lord to be a 
privy councillor. No one ever said any such thing. 
What I said was this, that the Mayor of London, 
like those of Dublin and York, had the courtesy 
title of lord, and that this title of lord brought 
with it the other courtesy designation of right 
honorable, which latter being also (but not like- 
wise) the designation of privy councillors, had, as 
I suppose, occasioned the error now predicated of 
the Mayor of London being a privy councillor, 
which, I repeat, he is no more than any Lord 
John or Lady Jane, who have also the title of 
Right Honorable. 

L. M., however, states as a matter of fact, that 
" the Lord Mayor is always summoned to council 
on the accession of a new sovereign." Now I 
assert, and I think have proved in my former 
note, that the Lord Mayor never was so summoned 
to council. I now add that he never has on any 
occasion entered the council chamber, that he has 
never taken the oath nor performed any act of a 
privy councillor, and that in short there is not the 



[No. 96. 

smallest doubt with any one who knows anything 
about the Privy Council, that the Lord Mayor of 
London no more belongs to it than the Lord 
Mayors of York or Dublin, or the Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh, all of whom are equally styled 
Right Honorable, which title, I repeat, is the sole 
and silly pretence of this new-fangled hypothesis. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 101. 136.) 

Observing the imperfect knowledge which 
Lowndes and your correspondents apparently 
have of the work called Anderson's House of 
Yvery, I send you a few Notes to clear up some 

It may be said there were two editions of this 
work ; one, containing the censorious comments 
of (I presume) Lord Egmont on the degraded 
state of the peerage ; the second, that in which 
those comments were cancelled. To the first, no 
printer's name appeared in the title-page ; to 
the second is the name of " H. Woodfall, jun." 

Lowndes has entirely mistaken the origin of the 
different paging in vol. i. The fact is, the original 
edition of the Introduction contained 41 pages of 
text, but the cancels reduced that number to 37 ; 
which p. 37., as Lowndes correctly remarks, is in 
the second edition misprinted 29. I possess both 
copies, with and without the cancels. By Lowndes 
we are led to believe that only p. xxxvii. was de- 
stroyed ; but in truth they are p. xvi., and parts 
of pp. xv. and xvii., and nearly the whole of 
pp. xxxv. -vi., containing the anecdotes of the 
tailor's son and the apothecary's brother-in-law 
being sent, or intended to be sent, to foreign 
courts, as ambassadors from England. Another 
cancel occurs in vol. ii., of nearly the whole of 
pp. 444-5-6, which occasions Lowndes to say that 
pp. 446-7 are missing. The duplicate pages 453 
to 460 are peculiar to the second edition only. 
One of my copies contains two additional plates, 
one of Wardour Castle, the other of Acton Burnell, 
evidently engraved for the work. The map of the 
baronies of Duhallow, &c., is only in one copy, 
viz. the original edition. Unfortunately, this 
original edition wants all the portraits of Faber, 
but it has the tomb of Richard Percival of 1190, 
beginning " Orate," as in Lowndes. It contains 
also a duplicate portrait of Sir Philip Percival, 
engraved by Toms in 1738 (who also engraved the 
Wardour and Acton Burnell Castles) ; and this 
duplicate is also in the other copy. 

Were I to form any judgment when this work 
was commenced, I should say about 1738, and that 
all the engravings for it were done by Toms ; and 
the first edition was printed in 1742, without any 
printer's name, and that some copies were so 

bound up. The other copies remained in sheets 
until the next year, when Faber was employed to 
engrave the portraits, and till 1744 or 1747 ; 1747 
being the latest date of Faber's plates. There is 
some curious information in these volumes, and I 
would recommend your readers to observe how 
much the conduct of the Catholics of Ireland, re- 
corded in vol. ii. p. 271., resembles that of the 
Catholics of the present day. P. 


(Vol.iv., pp.37. 121.) 

I think A. E. B. has not understood MR. HICK- 
SON'S argument in reference to this word. Per- 
haps the latter may not have expressed himself 
very clearly ; and not having by me his original 
paper on the subject, I cannot cite his exact words ; 
but his argument I take to be to this effect : In 
the construction of the passage there is a double 
comparison, which, though perfectly clear to the 
intelligent reader, causes some confusion when a 
doubt is first raised as to the meaning of the word, 
and which can be cleared up only by a thorough 
analysis. " The eloud-capp'd towers," &c., are 
first compared with " the baseless fabric of this 
vision," like which they " shall dissolve," and after- 
wards with " this insubstantial pageant," like which 
(having "faded") they shall "leave not a rack 
behind." A given object can be said to " leave 
behind" only that which was originally of its ele- 
ments, and for this reason only a general term 
such as wreck or vestige will accord with the con- 
struction of the passage. 

I am sorry to find that any one should misquote 
Shakspeare for the purpose of obtaining a tem- 
porary triumph : probably, however, in the in- 
stance I am about to cite, A. E. B. has really 
fallen into the common error of regarding two 
similes as one. He says, giving the substance of 
Shakspeare's passage, " the globe itself shall dis- 
solve, and, like this vision, leave not a wreck be- 
hind." What Shakspeare in substance does say 
is, " The globe itself, like this vision, shall dissolve, 
and, like this faded pageant, shall leave not a rack 
behind." A. E. B.'s question, therefore, " in what 
was the resemblance to the vision to consist, if not 
in melting, like it, into thin air ?" is thus answered : 
The resemblance does consist in dissolving, or 
" melting" away. 

My object in making these remarks is not to 
express an opinion on one side or the other, but 
to draw the attention of your readers to the real 
question at issue. I therefore say nothing as to 
whether Shakspeare may or may not have had a 
prevision of the nebular theory ; though I cannot 
see that this would be in the least affected by our 
decision as to the meaning of this word, since the 
wrack or wreck of the world might well be repre- 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



sented by the "vapour" for which A. E. B. con- 
tends. As, however, this gentleman says such is 
its meaning " beyond all doubt," (a rather dog- 
matic way of settling the question, by the way, 
seeing that a doubt had been thrown upon it in 
the very paper he has engaged himself to answer,) 
I should like to be informed if there is any autho- 
rity for the use of the word in Shakspeare, or his 
cotemporaries, as mere "haze" or "vapour." I 
have generally understood it to mean a particular 
description of cloud, or, as some say, more pro- 
perly, the course of the clouds in motion. 

In fine, as Prospero did undoubtedly point to 
the dissolution of the globe and all that it con- 
tained, it is quite clear that it could in such case 
leave neither "cloud" nor "vapour," nor any- 
thing else behind it. The simple question then 
remains : Is the word rack, as elsewhere used by 
Shakspeare and his contemporaries, logically ap- 
plicable there ? A LOOKER-ON. 

Dawlish, Aug. 16. 1851. 

Wolken Zug, English Term corresponding to. 
Coleridge (Death of Wallenstein, Act V. Sc. 1.) 
gives the lines 

" Fast fly the clouds, the sickle of the moon 

Struggling, darts snatches of uncertain light." 
as a translation of 

" schnell geht 

Der Wolken Zug : die Mondes fichel wankt 
Und durch die Nacht zuckt ungewisse Helle." 

In a note on this passage he says : 

" The words wanken and schweben are not easily 
translated. The English words by which we attempt 
to render them are either vulgar or pedantic, or not of 
sufficiently general application. So ' der Wolken Zug,' 
the draft, the procession of clouds, the masses of the 
clouds sweep onward in swift stream." 

On reading this, it struck me that the English 
word rack exactly expresses the meaning of " der 
Wolken Zug." ' 

Malone, in his note on the Tempest, Act IV. 
Sc. 1., says : 

" Rack is generally used for a body of clouds, or 
rather for the course of clouds in motion." 

I add a few instances of the use of this word, 
many of which are collected in the note I have 
referred to. 

In Antony and Cleopatra 

" That which is now a horse, even with a thought 
The rack dislimns." 

In Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess 

" shall I stray 
In the middle air, and stay 
The sailing rack." 

In Dryden's tenth jEneid 

" the doubtful rack of heaven 
Stands without motion." 

The term scud, used by sailors, seems to express 
the same idea. X. Z. 


(Vol.iv., pp.49. 116.) 

The productions of the writer known by the 
name of the Hermit of Hampole have been 
hitherto much neglected : they afford copious 
illustrations of ancient manners, and are very 
valuable in a philological point of view. I would 
especially name the Speculum Vitce, or Mirrour of 
Life, of which I possess two MSS. in entirely dis- 
tinct dialects. 

Your Cambridge correspondent has shown that 
the Metrical Sermons contain interesting passages 
also illustrative of manners ; and as the extracts 
he has made have given occasion to some glossarial 
Queries from an Oxford correspondent, J. E., 
should they not be more satisfactorily answered 
by C. H., to whom they are addressed, perhaps the 
following attempt to resolve them may not be 

1. By the devenisch most probably the Danish 
is meant, which we find elsewhere written Deniske, 
Daniske, and Danshe. 

2. Guystroun should be quystroun, which is used 
by Chaucer in the Romaunt of the Rose, and sig- 
nifies a scullion, as is evident from this passage. 
It is from the O. Fr. quistron or cuistron. Thus in 
K. Alisaunder (Weber's Metr. Rom.), v. 2511.: 

" Ther n'as knave no quistron 
That he no hadde god wary son." 

3. By Chaunsemlees we may probably under- 
stand schoon-semeles, signifying, no doubt, sandals. 

4. " Hir chere was ay semand sori," which your 
correspondent says is " an expression very strange 
to English verse," is nothing more than the old 
form of seeming : her cheer was ever sorrowful or 
sad-seeming. The termination and or ande, as well 
as inde, was formerly used where we now have 
ing. Examples are numerous of this form ; as 
semand and semynd, spekand, strihinde, &c. &c. 

In Gawin Douglas, Eneados, we have glaid- 
sembland for an appearance of joy or gladness, a 
cheerful countenance; and in b. ii. v, 159.: 

" As that drery unarmyt wicht was sted 
And with eine* blent about semyn ful red." 

There are other words which appear in an un- 
common form in these extracts ; for instance, telid 
and telith, Mrched&nd hirching ; and the following 
plural form I do not recollect to have observed 
elsewhere : 

" For ser deyntes and many mes 
Make men falle in many sicknes." 

* Your correspondent's extract has ane; but eyes 
are evidently meant. 



[No. 96. 

In the last line of the first page, Salhanas should 
be Sathanas : 

" And so slew Jesu Sathanas," 

reminding us of the tradition mentioned by DR. 
RIMBAULT, " the Devil died when Christ suffered" 
not when he was born. S. W. SINGER. 

Mickleham, Aug. 18. 1851. 


Lady Flora Hastings Bequest (Vol. iii., pp. 443. 
522.; Vol. iv., pp. 44. 92. 108.). ERZA regrets 
extremely the mistake she has made with regard 
to the above poem. The person from whom, and 
the circumstances under which she received it, all 
tended to confirm her in her error till the last 
moment with which, if the authoress of this 
beautiful poem were acquainted, ERZA is sure she 
would be forgiven. 

[To these regrets on the part of EUZA we have to 
add the expression of our own that our columns should 
have been made the medium of a statement which it is 
obvious originated in error. We regret also that, after 
the contradictions given to the first statement, ERZA 
should, without a positive knowledge of the real facts 
of the case, have reiterated in such strong terms the 
claims of Lady Flora Hastings to the authorship of a 
poem which it is now quite clear is really the pro- 
duction of Miss Barber.] 

" The Right Divine of Kings to govern wrong " 
(Vol. iv., p. 125.). I cannot concur in MR. 
CROSSLEY'S conjecture that the marks of quotation 
affixed to this line in the eighteenth book of the 
Dunciad may have been a mere error of the press ; 
because, in the first place, I do not find that the 
Dunciad is more negligently printed than other 
works of the day. I should say rather less so ; but 
(which is more important) any one who will look 
at the successive editions will, I think, be satisfied 
that the remarkable typography of the line, care- 
fully reproduced in all, could not be accidental. 
This matter is less trifling than it at first sight 
may seem, because there are several lines in Pope's 
works similarly marked as quotations, on which 
questions have arisen ; and my belief is that 
everything so marked will turn out to have really 
been a quotation^ though in this case, and in that 

" No Lord's anointed but a Russian bear," 
we have, as yet, failed to find the original. C. 

Fairlight Church (Vol. iv., p. 57.). The old 
church was Early English ; the original windows 
were lancet-shaped. It was built, like all the 
adjoining churches, of stone ; but it had been re- 
paired with brick, and the roof of the tower had 
been covered with tiles instead of shingles. The 
earliest brick building in Sussex, after the Ro- 

man period, is Herstmonceux Castle, built by Sir 
Roger de Fynes, treasurer of the household to 
Henry VI. ' W. D. COOPER. 

Dogmatism and Puppyism (Vol. iv., p. 102.). 
The quotation your correspondent writes about is 
to be found in MR. DOUGLAS JERROLD'S A Man 
Made of Money, p. 252. : 

" ' Robert, my dear,' said Jenny, with the deferential 
air of a scholar, ' Robert, what did Mr. Carraways 
mean when he said he hated dog dogmatism?' Topps 
was puzzled. * Robert, my dear,' Jenny urged, 'what 
what in the world is dogmatism ? ' Now it was the 
weakness of Topps, never to confess ignorance of any- 
thing soever to his wife. * A man should never do it,' 
Topps had been known in convivial seasons to declare ; 
'it makes 'em conceited.' Whereupon Topps prepared 
himself, as was his wont, to make solemn, satisfying 
answer. Taking off his hat, and smoothing the 
wrinkles of his brow, Topps said, ' Humph ! what is 
dogmatism ? Why, it is this, of course : dogmatism 
is puppyism come to its full growth.' " 

Saffron Walden, Aug. 10. 

Was Stella Swiff s Sister f (Vol. iii., p. 450. ; 
Vol. iv., p. 110.). That Swift was the son of Sir 
William Temple seems to have been completely 
disproved by Mason. Swift was born in Dublin, 
30th November, 1667, in the house of his uncle 
Godwin Swift, who, after the death of his younger 
brother, Jonathan, in the preceding April, took 
charge of his widow. Sir William Temple appears 
from his letters to have been abroad in a public 
capacity from 1665 to 1670. If, therefore, there 
existed such consanguinity between Swift and 
Stella as to be a bar to their marriage, it must 
have arisen in some other way. Swift says that 
Stella " was born at Richmond in Surrey, on 
13th March, 1681 ; her father being the younger 
brother of a good family in Nottinghamshire [Qy* 
Sir Wm. Temple ? Sheen, where he resided, was 
close by], her mother of a lower degree." There 
can be little doubt that she was illegitimate. The 
question arises, who was her mother ? On this 
point the Richmond registry might perhaps throw 
some light. Has it ever been searched ? In order 
that the supposed consanguinity should have ex- 
isted, her mother must have been either Swift's 
mother, Abigail Swift (nee Erick) of Leicester- 
shire, or (what seems more probable) an illegiti- 
mate half-sister of Swift. It has been surmised, 
however, that an impediment to Swift's marriage 
of an entirely different nature from consanguinity 
may have existed ; or that, feeling himself to be 
labouring under an hereditary disease, he may 
have been unwilling to propagate it. I am much 
inclined to think that the objection to the mar- 
riage of Swift and Stella, which certainly must 
have existed, was of this last description ; and that 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



it would have been equally strong in the case of 
any other female. However this may be, I believe 
that full credit may be given to what Swift has 
stated respecting the perfect purity of his inter- 
course with Stella. 

" I knew her from six years old, and had some share 
in her education, by directing what books she should 
read, and perpetually instructing her in the principles 
of honour and virtue ; from which she never swerved 
in any one action or moment of her life." Swift's 
Works, vol ix. p. 489. (citante Mason). 


Charles Lamb's Epitaph (Vol. iii., pp. 322. 459.). 
It has been suggested to me by a lady who was 
an intimate friend of Lamb's, that Mr. Justice 
Talfourd was the author of this epitaph. The ob- 
servation, however, was made without, I believe, 
any certain knowledge on the subject. COWGILL. 

Meaning of Carnaby (Vol. iii., p. 495.). ARUN 
inquires as to the meaning of Carnaby as the name 
of a street. Carnaby is a surname probably de- 
riving from the parish of Carnaby in Yorkshire. 
It has become a Christian name in the family of 

Haggerston, Bart., since the marriage of an 
heiress of Carnaby's into that family. 

Streets are often called after proper names. f 

Scandinavian Mythology (Vol. ii., p. 141.). 
Your correspondent T. J. has called attention to 
the tradition-falsifying assertion of Mr. G. Pigott, 
that the custom with which the Scandinavians were 
long reproached, of drinking out of the skulls of 
their enemies, has no other foundation than a 
blunder of Olaus Wormius in translating a passage 
in the death- song of Regner Lodbrog. 

The following extracts from the curious and 
learned work of Bartholinus, De Causis Contemptce 
a Danis Adhuc Gentilibus Mortis, will, I think, 
show that the subject deserves further inquiry 
before we consent to place this ancient historical 
tradition in the category of vulgar errors. Speak- 
ing of the banquets of the beatified heroes in Val- 
halla, Bartholinus says : 

" Neque tamen ex communi animal ium cornu ela- 
borata pocula in Valhalla viserentur ; sacratiora de- 
nderabantur ex ca?sorum craniis inimicorum confecta, 
qua; apud Danos vel ex Dania oriundos, alias quoque 
gentes, in summo erant pretio." Lib. ii. cap. xii. p. 555. 

In proof of this assertion he quotes the fol- 
lowing authors ; Herodotus (lib. iv. cap. 65.) and 
Plato (Euthydemus), who attribute this custom to 
the Scythians. Aristotle is supposed to allude to 
it, De Repub. lib. vii. cap. 2. In the Historia 
Miscellanea, lib. vi., it is mentioned as a custom of 
the Scordisci ; and similar customs are recorded of 
the Panebi by Nicolaus Damascenus, of the Es- 
sedones by Solinus and Mela, of the Boii by Livy 
[lib. iii. cap. 24.), of the Celts by Silius Italicus 
(lib. ii.), of the Langobards by Paulus Diaconus 

(lib. i. cap. 27.). The last-mentioned author in- 
forms us that these skull cups were called " scahe ;" 
upon which Bartholinus remarks 

" Unde genus, undeqtie morem ejusmodi conficien- 
darum jpaterarum unde etiam nomen scales iis inditum, 
ex septentrione nempe traxerunt Langobardi mani- 
festum faciente Vaulundar qvidu. 
Enn peer skalar 
&c. &c. 

h. e. 

Crania autem ilia 
Qua? pericraniis suberant 
Argento obduxit et 
Nidado tradidit." 

W. B. R. 

Scandal against Queen Elizabeth (Vol. iii., 
pp. 225. 285. 393.). I do not recollect that 
either of your correspondents on this subject has 
brought forward the aspersion upon Queen Eliza- 
beth's fair fame in precisely the same form in 
which the Jesuit Sanders places it in the follow- 
ing passage : 

" Hac Ecclesize contra ipsam sententia, et Catholi- 
corum novis incrementis quotidianis, non mediocriter 
offensa Elizabetha, convocatis ordinibus, leges valde 
iracundas et cruentas contra veteris fidei cultores pro- 
mulgat : quibus primum cavetur, ne quis Elizabethan, 
htereticam, schismaticam, infidelem, usurpatricemve, sub 
pcend capitis vocet. Item. Ne quis aliam quamcunque 
certain personam nomhiet, cui regnum vel in vita, vel post 
mortem ipsiuf, deberi dicatur, exceptd Elizabethcc naturali 
prole. Ea enim sunt ipsa decreti verba. In earn enim 
homines vel adulationem vel necessitatem ita perduxit 
haeresis, ut quod illud nobilissimum regnum illegitimaj 
illius regis sui proli segre unquam concessit, nunc 
naturali, id est, spuria, soboli reginse in cujus sexu 
fornicationis peccatum est foedius, non denegarint : 
pariter et reipublicae, ex proximi successoris ignora- 
tione, extremum periculum, et Elizabethae incontinen- 
tiam prodentes." Nicolai Sanderi Hist. Schism. Angl. 
lib. iii. Novas leges lata) in Catholicos, ann. 1571, 
ed. 8vo. Col. Agr. 1628, p. 299. 

To some of your readers this passage may seem 
to indicate that the use of the equivocal word 
naturali may have given colour, not to say occasion, 
to the whole scandal against Queen Elizabeth. By 
many, I apprehend, it will be acknowledged that 
spurics is not the only, if an allowable, interpre- 
tation. J. SANSOM. 

Oxford, July 22. 1851. 

Meaning of " Deal" (Vol. iv., p. 88.). I think 
the following may help to throw a little light upon 
the use of the word deal as meaning divide. I was 
in Wensleydale about a month ago ; and on in- 
quiring where the boundary between the North and 
West Ridings of Yorkshire ran, was told, " On 
the top of Penhill, where God's water deals" (i. e. 
the rain divides). I may further add, on my own 
knowledge, that in the north-west corner of Suf- 
folk, where the country is almost entirely open, 



[No. 96. 

the boundaries of the different parishes are marked 
by earthen mounds, from three to six feet high, 
\vhichareknown in the neighbourhood as dools ; 
the word being probably derived from the same 
root. I have been told, however, that it should 
be spelled duals, and that the derivation of it was 
from the Latin duo, as marking two parishes ; but 
I am sure that it is always pronounced by the 
country-people as a monosyllable, and therefore 
the chances are in favour of the former derivation 
being the right one. 

\A propos to Suffolk, another of your corre- 
spondents (Vol. iv., p. 55.) lately mentioned the 
fashion the people there have of leaving out the 
ve in the middle of the names of places. In this I 
can bear him witness also ; but I do not think it is 
confined to those letters only: e.g. Eriswell, pro- 
nounced Asel; Wymondham (in Norfolk) Wynd- 
ham, &c. Among those names of places in which 
the ve is left out, your correspondent has omitted 
Elveden (commonly, though erroneously, Elvedon), 
which is always called and often spelled Elden. 


" The Worm in the Bud" frc. (Vol. iv., p. 86.). 
This quotation is from Cowper's lines appended to 
the Bill of Mortality for the parish of All Saints, 
Northampton, for 1787 : 

" Read, ye that run, the awful truth 
With which I charge my page ; 
A worm is in the bud of youth, 
And at the root of age." 

I know not with whom the idea originated. The 
imagery is frequently used by Shakspeare, but 
with him never indicates disease or death. 

I can call to mind no similar expression in the 
classics. H. E. H. 

Moore's Almanack (Vol. iv., p. 74.). Your 
correspondent FRANCIS is in error as to the MSS. 
and correspondence of Henry Andrews being in 
the possession of his son, Mr.Wm. Henry Andrews. 
Mr. W. H. Andrews some time ago sold to me 
the whole of his father's MSS. correspondence, 
astronomical and astrological calculations, with a 
mass of very curious letters from persons desirous 
of having their " nativities cast." I have also 
some copies of Andrews' portrait, one of which 
shall be much at your service. 

Moore's Almanack was known by that name 
long before Andrews had any connection with it, 
but he was for upwards of forty years its compiler 
for the Company of Stationers, whose liberal (?) 
treatment of Andrews may be collected from the 
following postscript to a letter addressed to me 
by his son : 

" My father's calculations, &c., for Moore's Alma- 
nack, continued during a period of forty-three years ; 
and although through his great talent and manage- 
ment he increased the sale of that work from 1 00,000 to 
500,000, yet, strange to say, all he received for his ser- 

vices was 257. per ann. ! ! Yet I never heard him mur- 
mur even once ahout it ; such was his delight in pur- 
suing his favourite studies, that his anxiety about 
remuneration was out of the question. Sir Richard 
Phillips, who at times visited him at Royston, once 
met him in London, and endeavoured to persuade 
him to go with him to Stationers' Hall, and he would 
get him 100Z. ; but he declined going, saying that he 
was satisfied." 

Andrews was also computer to the Board of 
Longitude, and Maskelyne's Letters evidence the 
value and correctness of his calculations. 

The only materials left by Andrews for a me- 
moir of his life I believe I possess, and some day I 
may find leisure to put them into order for pub- 
lication. EOBT. COLE. 

Scurvy Ale. The Query (Vol. iv., p. 68.) 
" What was scurvy ale ? " may perhaps be answered 
by an extract from a little work, The Polar Seas 
and Regions, published by Oliver and Boyd, 
Edinburgh. In the account of Baffin's voyage, 
in which he discovered the bay called after him 
Baffin's Bay, we are told that 

" Finding the health of his crew rather declining, he 
sailed across to Greenland, where an abundance of 
scurvy grass boiled in beer quickly restored them ; and 
the Lord then sent them a speedy and good passage 

Johnson explains scurvy-grass as spoonwort. 


Siege of Londonderry (Vol. iv., p. 87.). Will 
you have the goodness to inform your corre- 
spondent that I have a pamphlet, printed soon 
after the famous siege was over, giving a particu- 
lar account of it, though it altogether omits men- 
tioning the name of an ancestor of mine who dis- 
tinguished himself in the relief of that place. I 
shall be happy to afford E. A. any information or 
assistance he may require. B. G. 

Salting the Bodies of the Dead (Vol. iv., p. 6.), 
about which MR. M'CABE asks, is a very old cus- 
tom in England. Matt. Paris, in his description 
of Abbot William's funeral at St. Alban's, A.D. 1235, 
tells us how 

" Corpus apertum est, &c. Et quicquid in corpore 
repertum est, in quadam cur.a repositum est, sale con- 
spersum. Et in cremiterio, est humatum. Corpus 
autein interius, aceto lotum et imbutum et multo sale 
respersum et resutum. Et hoc sic factum est circum- 
specte et prudenter, ne corpus per triduum et amplius 
reservandum, tetrum aliquem odorem olfacientihus 
generaret et corpus tumulandum, contrectantibus ali- 
quod oflfendiculum praesentaret." Vitas S. Albani 
Abbatum, p. 87. ed. Wats, Paris, 1644. 


Buckland, July 24. 1851. 

In the 86th and two following sections of the 
Second Book of Herodotus is the description of 
the ancient Egyptian methods of preserving the 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



bodies of the dead. These were more or less em- 
balmed with aromatic spices, according to the con- 
dition of the person, and then corned with salt- 
petre (xirpov, nitre) for seventy days ; strictly, 
salted. Is it possible that the early Christians, in 
adopting this practice, may have been influenced 
by that very obscure passage, Mark ix. 49. : 
" Every one shall be salted with fire ?" 


The custom of placing a plate of salt on the body 
of the dead is very general in Wales. I remem- 
ber, when a child, inquiring the reason of the 
practice, and being told by an old woman that it 
was to prevent the body from swelling. My 
remark, that any weight might answer the same 
purpose, was met by the reply; "there's no weight 
so heavy as salt gets when it is on the dead." This 
proves that some feeling of superstition mingles 
with the custom. Has not the use of salt in 
baptism, amongst the Italians, &c., some allusion 
to the banishment of the evil spirit ? SELEUCUS. 

The Word "Repudiate" (Vol. iv.,' p. 54.). 
That the use of the word repudiate, in the sense of 
refuse, repel, reject, abandon, disown, cast off, is 
by no means modern ; and that such phrases as 
" I repudiate the idea," " I repudiate the senti- 
ment," "I repudiate the proposal," are strictly 
correct, is evident from the use of the word by 
"standard classical authors" in the original lan- 
guage from which it has come down to us. Sallust, 
for instance, in his History of Catiline 1 & Conspiracy , 
says that Lentulus advised him to seek assistance 
everywhere, even amongst the dregs of the popu- 
lace ; asking him at the same time, " Why, since 
the senate had already adjudged him to be an 
enemy to the republic, he should repudiate the 
slaves f" i. e., refuse to enrol them in his levies. 

" Cum ab senatu hostis judicatus sit, quo consilio 
servitia repudiet ?" Sail. Cat. 44. 

Cicero, in his Offices, in opposition to the opinion 
of the peripatetic school, that anger is implanted in 
us by nature for useful ends, lays it down as a 
principle, that " on all occasions anger ought to be 
repudiated;" that is, "cast out of the mind," and says 
that " it is to be wished that persons who are "at 
the head of the state should be like the laws, which 
inflict punishment not in anger but in justice." 

" Ilia (iracundia) vero omnibus in rebus repudianda 
est." Cic. de Off. I. xxv. 13. 

Cicero knew nothing of the Christian grace of 
"being angry and sinning not;" he knew nothing 
of the severity of love. In another place he tells 
us that on one occasion Themistocles declared in 
the Athenian assembly, that he had a plan to pro- 
pose which would be of great advantage to the 
state, but ought not to be made public. He was 
willing, however, to communicate it to any one 
person whom they might select. Aristides, rightly 

named the Just, being the person selected, The- 
mistocles disclosed his plan to him : which was, 
secretly to set fire to the Lacedaemonian fleet in 
the dockyard of Gytheum, by which means they 
would effectually crush the power of the Lacedae- 
monians. Aristides returned to the assembly, and 
at once declared that Themistocles' plan was 
certainly very advantageous, but by no means 
honourable ; whereupon the Athenians, rightly 
considering that what was not attended with 
honour, could not be attended even with advan- 
tage in reality, without hearing another word, 
" repudiated the whole affair ; " that is, utterly re- 
jected the proposal. 

" Itaque Athenienses, quod honestum non esset, id 
ne utile quidem putaverunt ; totamque earn rem, quam 
ne audierant quidem, auctore Aristide, repudiaverunt." 
Cic. de Off. III. xi. 12. 

In a third place, he relates that some persons 
forged a will of one Minucius Basilus, who had 
died in Greece ; and, in order that they might the 
more easily obtain their end, put down Marcus 
Crassus and Quintus Hortensius, two of the most 
influential men in Rome at that time, as co-legatees 
with themselves, who although they suspected the 
will to be forged, yet did not repudiate the little 
legacy coming to them through other persons' 
fraud, because forsooth they were not privy to the 
actual commission of the forgery. 

" Qui cum illud falsutn esse suspicarentur, sibi 
an ten i nullius essent .conscii culpae, alieni facinoris 
munusculum non repudiaverunt." Cic. de Off. III. 
xviii. 4. 

A little further research might easily multiply 
instances, but I think these are quite sufficient to 
prove that we moderns are but following the an- 
cients in using the word repudiate without refe- 
rence to any obligation expressed or implied. 

F. F. F. 

Repudiate, Ringlet, Outburst (Vol. iv., p. 54.). 
Your correspondent H. C. K. has dealt, I fear, 
somewhat too harshly with " repudiate." Surely 
" repudiare" is "to reject what one is ashamed of^ 
scorns, or disdains." Two instances immediately 
suggest themselves in Cicer. pro Plancio, 18 (44). 
20 (50). In the former 

" Respuerent aures, nemo agnosceret, repudiarent," 

perhaps the word is a gloss upon " respuerunt." 
The latter, however, is unexceptionable : 

" Nunquam enim fere nobilitas, Integra praesertim 
atque innocens, a Populo Romano supplex repudiata 

Why then should "repudiate" necessarily imply 
the notion of " obligation ? " and why should I, if 
I " repudiate" the criticism of H. C. K., be held 
to " talk nonsense ? " 

May I be allowed room for a couple of Queries ? 
1. Is our modern usage of "ringlet" found before 



[No. 96. 

the time of Milton ? 2. What is the earliest au- 
thority for " outburst ? " CHARLES THIRIOLD. 
Cambridge, July 29. 1851. 

On the Letter "0" (Vol. iv., p. 55.). I have 
read with pleasure the paragraphs in your " NOTES 
AND QUERIES " on " the letter w," and beg space 
for a further notice, with an especial reference to 
the patronymic of Ray or Wray. One family uses 
the motto, " Juste et Frai," whose name is Wray; 
and another the same motto, whose name is Ray. 
And it will be remembered that John Ray, the 
naturalist, changed the orthography of his name 
from Wray to Ray, as he concluded it had been 
formerly written ; and in one of the letters pub- 
lished by the Ray Society*, allusion is made to 
the adjective or substantive vrai, as if that distin- 
guished philosopher and divine had either derived 
his name thence, or it had the same signification 
as that French word. Are we then to take this as 
an instance of the silent v or double u or v ; and 
as any proof that families writing their names 
Wray and Ray were originally of one patronymic 
and one common root, and that presumptively 
Norman ? 

Under a separate heading, perhaps you will also 
indulge me with a Query as to the coat of arms, 
under the portrait by Bathon, 1760, after W. 
Hibbart, of Joannes Raj us, A.M., prefixed to 
Dr. Derham's Life of John Ray, published by 
George Scott, M.A. and F.R.S. : London, 1760. 
The shield is, gules, on a fesse, between three 
crescents, three cross crosslets. Is it inferable 
that that coat was ever borne by patent or admis- 
sible prescriptive right, by any of his ancestors ? 
Several families in the north of England, whence 
his father came, also have registered in respectable 
armories crescents against their names. The poor 
origin of John Ray is obviated, in some degree, by 
what is said in a Life of him, published in The 
Portrait Gallery of British Worthies, by Charles 
Knight. I suppose he himself used the armorials 
in question, and was related to the family of nearly 
the same name, bearing crescents, viz. Reay. 

The glasses of some of your correspondents may 
assist one more shortsighted than themselves. 
II. W. G. R., Presbyter, 
and Member of the Ray Society. 

1. Mead Place, Derby, Aug. 2. 1851. 

I beg leave to correct a remark of W. S. W ***. as 
to Tiverton, Devon, which was never pronounced 
Terton ; it is Twiverton, near Bath, which is pro- 
nounced Twcrton. S. S. 

" Whig" and " Tory" (Vol. iv., p. 57.). The 
name " Whig" is derived from the Celtic ugham, a 
sort of large saddle, with bags attached to it, in 

* Vide the Correspondence of John Ray. Edited by 
Edwin Lankester, M.D. London, 1848, pp. 65, 66. 

use among the freebooters of the borders of Scot- 
land : hence those robbers were known to the 
Highlanders by the name of Whig gam-more, or 
"big-saddle thieves;" and when the Civil War 
broke out, the Highlanders and Irish, who sup- 
ported the king, called themselves a taobh Righ, 
i. e. " the king's party," and gave the name of 
Whiggamore thieves to their opponents. Whig-gam- 
more and taobh Righ soon became shortened to 
Whig and Tory, and in aftertimes served to dis- 
tinguish the supporters of the rival houses of 
Hanover and Stuart. The modern signification of 
the terms is different, Whig being taken to mean 
" liberal," and Tory " exclusive." 


Planets of the Months (Vol. iv., p. 23,). I do 
not understand this Query. What is meant by 
"planets for the months?" There are twelve 
months, and in common parlance only seven 
planets. Nor do I see what is meant by " precious 
stones symbolizing those planets." In heraldry, 
the arms of sovereigns and royal personages are 
blazoned by the names of the sun, moon, and 
planets, for colours, as those of noblemen are by 
precious stones. If this is what is asked after, the 
following table will explain it : 

Colours. Pr. Stones. Planets. 

Or Topaz Sol 

Argent Pearl Luna 

Sable Diamond Saturn 

Gules Ruby Mars 

Azure Sapphire Jupiter 

Vert Emerald Venus 

Purpure Amethyst Mercury 


Baronets of Ireland' (Vol. iv., p. 44.). The 
two following extracts may throw some light upon 
the origin of the title of baronet. James I. probably 
adopted this title, which he found to have been so 
lon<* existing in Ireland, for the new order of 
nobility he was about to establish. And it should 
be remembered that the order of baronet was in- 
stituted for the purpose of promoting the planta- 
tion of Ulster. 

The names mentioned in the second extract are 
probably those of the baronets whom Spenser 
mentions as being in existence in his time. There 
was, thirty years ago, a "Baron of Galtrim;" per- 
haps there is still. 

Eunox : " You say well, for by the increase of Free- 
holders, their numbers hereby will be greatly augmented ; 
but how should it passe through the higher house, 
which still must consiste all of Irish ? " 

IREN : " Marry, that also may bee redressed by en- 
sample of that which I heard was done in the like case 
by King Edward III. (as I remember), who being 
greatly bearded and crossed by the Lords of the cleargie, 
they being there [i. e. in the Parliament of Ireland] 
by reason of the Lords Abbots, and others, too many 
and too strong for him, so as bee could not for their fro- 

AUG. 30. 1851.] 



wardnesse order and reforme things as hee desired, 
was advised to direct out his writts to certaine Gentle- 
men of the best ability and trust, entitling them 
therein Barons, to serve and sitt as Barons in the next 
Parlament. By which meanes hee had so many 
Barons in his Parlament, as were able to weigh down 
the Cleargie and their friends : the which Barons, they 
say, were not afterwards Lords, but onely Baronets, as 
sundry of them doe yet retayne the name." Spenser's 
" View of the State of Ireland," in the Ancient Irish 
Histories, Dublin Edition, 1809, pp. 223, 224. 


" Seint Leger, Baronet of Slemarge, meere Irish. 
Den, Baronet of Por man ston, waxing Irish. 
Fitz Gerald, Baronet of Burnchurch. 
Welleslye, Baronet of Narraghe. 

[Ancestor of the Duke of Wellington.] 
Husee, Baronet of Galtrim. 
S. Michell, Baronet of Reban. 
Marwarde, Baronet of Scryne. 
Nangle, Baronet of Navan." 

Campion's " Historic of Ireland," written in 
the yeare 1 57 1 , p. 1 2. (In the Ancient Irish 
Histories, Dublin edition, 1809.) 

T. J. 

Hopkins the Witchfinder (Vol. ii., pp. 392. 413.). 
Your correspondents will find some "curious 
memoirs" of this person in the Anthologia Hi- 
bernica for June, 1793, p. 424. The memoirs are 
embellished with a plate " correctly copied from an 
extreme rare print in the collection of J. Bindley, 
Esq." R. H. 

Plowden (Vol. iv., p. 58.). From Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 1846, under "Plowden of Plow- 
den" (A.D. 1194), it would appear that Edmund 
was of Wansted, Hampshire, and ancestor of the 
Plowdens of Lassam, Hants, and that he " was 
styled in his will, July 29, 1655, Sir Edmund, 
lord earl palatine, governor, and captain general, 
of the province of JSTew Albion." I would suggest 
to your Transatlantic readers the interest that 
would be derived from a compilation of surnames 
in the United States ; and in cases where it can 
be ascertained, the date of introduction, position 
of first immigrant, ancestry, and descendants. 
The names and subsequent history of those fa- 
milies who remained loyal during the American 
Revolution, are worthy of record; most of whom 
have, I believe, prospered in the world since the 
confiscation of their property. 

The names of the followers of William the 
Conqueror are often alluded to ; but the " comers 
over" at the conquest of Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland are but seldom thought of, though they 
lend to their descendants' pedigree a degree of 
historical interest. A. C. 

As lazy as Ludlam's Dog (Vol. i., pp. 382. 475.). 
This proverb is to be found in Ray's first edition 
(1670), and is quoted in a little book entitled 

Scarronides, et cet., a burlesque on the second 
book of Virgil's JEneid. JEneas, reposing on the 
" toro alto," is likened to " Ludlam's curr, on 
truckle lolling;" whilst a marginal note says: 
"'Tis a proverb, Ludlam's dog lean'd his head 
against a wall when he went to bark." Both here 
and in Ray the name is spelt Ludhm. 


Pope and Flatman (Vol. iv., p. 132.). The 
piece quoted by MR. BARTON had long since been 
pointed out by Warton (Essay on Pope), who has 
also collected many others which Pope may have 
known and made use of, some which he must. 


Spenser s Faerie Queene (Vol. iv., p. 133.). 
The explanation of the stanza in question would 
occupy more space than I think you would spare 
me. It will suffice to note that a very sufficient 
one will be found in Todd's edition of Spenser 
(1803), in vol. iii., at the close of canto ix. book ii. ; 
and that the letter of Sir K. Digby is given at full 
length, before the editor's own commentary and 
explanation, in that place. V. 


Bells in Churches (Vol. ii., p. 326.). In reply 
to the inquiry* whether there is still a law against 
the use of bells as a summons to divine services, 
except in churches, which has not been answered, 
permit me to quote the following sentences from a 
judgment of Lord Chief Justice Campbell, as re- 
ported in the Times of August 14. 

" First, with regard to the right of using bells at all. 
By the common law, churches of every denomination 
had a full right to use bells, and it was a vulgar error 
to suppose that there was any distinction at the present 
time in this respect. At the same time, those bells 
might undoubtedly be made use of in such a manner 
as to create a nuisance ; and in that case a Protestant 
church and a Roman Catholic one were equally 

The case (Soltan v. De Weld) from the judg- 
ment in which the above remarks are extracted 
was tried at the Croydon Assizes, and related to 
the use of bells by a Romanist community in such 
a manner as was alleged to be a nuisance. ARUN. 

Proverb of James I. (Vol. iv., p. 85.). The 
meaning of this proverb will be found in Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary, 4to. ed. : To "cowe" or 
" cunne " thanks, is " to give thanks ; to express a 
sense of obligation ; to have a sense of obligation." 



Many of our readers who take an interest in our 
Anglo-Saxon Language and Literature are aware that 
an accomplished German scholar, Dr. Pauli, has during 



[No. 96. 

a residence of considerable length in this country been 
devoting his attention to those subjects ; and we have 
just received some of the fruits of his labours in a 
volume entitled Konig JElfrcd und seine Stel/e in der 
Geschichte Englands. It is an interesting contribution 
to a very important period in the history of this 
country; and it is the more valuable from the use made 
in it of the labours of our own distinguished Saxonists, 
Kemble and Thorpe. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Letters on the Evidences, Doc- 
trines, and Duties of the Christian Religion, by Olinthus 
Gregory. The words Ninth Edition, on the title-pa^e 
of this new volume, sufficiently attest the value of this 
addition to Bohn's Standard Library. 

The Stranger in London, or Visitor s Companion to 
the Metropolis and its Environs, with an historical and 
descriptive Sketch of the Great Exhibition, by Cyrus 
Redding. This Guide claims the merit of being " not 
merely descriptive but pictorial ;" and it does well, for 
its woodcuts form the most valuable portion of the 

Address at the Anniversary Meeting <of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, by Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N., 
President, &c. This Address gives a concise yet most 
clear view of the progress of Geographical Discovery 
during the preceding year ; and is alike creditable to 
the learned and gallant Captain and the Society over 
which he presides. 

We desire to direct the attention of our readers, 
more especially those who are old enough to remember 
the first appearance of The Literary Gazette, to the 
Testimonial which the friends of the Editor, Mr. Jerdan, 
propose to present to that gentleman. The names of 
the Committee, and a statement of the Subscriptions in 
aid of the object, will be found in our advertising 

The Memorial which we mentioned some time since 
as having been addressed to the Master of the Rolls, 
requesting " that persons who are merely engaged in 
historical inquiry, antiquarian research, and other 
literary pursuits connected therewith, should have per- 
mission granted them to have access to the Public 
Records, with the Indices and Calendars, without pay- 
ment of Fees," has been very favourably responded to 
by Sir John Romilly ; and a meeting of the gentlemen 
by whom it was signed has been held at the apartments 
of the Society of Antiquaries, when certain resolutions 
were agreed to, acknowledging the obligations of anti- 
quarian literature to Sir John Romilly for the arrange- 
ments which he has at present determined upon, and 
for the further increased facilities for consulting the 
documents in question, which he has promised on the 
completion of the new Record Office. The thanks of 
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the movement originated. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith has issued proposals for pub- 
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CATALOGUES RECEIVED. William Nield's (46. Bur- 
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M.D. (Kay Society's Publications.) 

by Alfred the Great. 8vo. London, 1773. (An Imperfect 

Copy, containing only the Anglo- Saxon, from p. 1. to 242., would 

be sufficient.) 
BRITISH ESSAYISTS, by Chalmers. 45 Vols. Johnson and Co. 

Vols. VI. VII. VIII. IX. and XXIII. 



Account of Captain Wilmofs Expedition to the West Indies, 

by Colonel Luke Lillingston, 1704. 

LORD, &c. By George Bishope. 1661. 4to. Wanted from 

p. 150. to the end. 


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PUY DE DOME. 1 Vol. folio. 51 Plates. 

which is added a Discourse thereon, as connected with the 

Myst'c Theology of the Ancients. London, 1786. 4to. By 

R. Payne Knight. 

APOCRYPHES, AUGMENTE, &c. Leipsic, 1832. 
SOCIAL STATICS, by Herbert Spencer. 8vo. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. The part of the 7th edition edited 

by Prof. Napier, containing the Art. MORTALITY. 

MORTALITY, by Arthur S. Thomson, M.D. (A Prize Thesis.) 

Published in 1849. 
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OF CHILDREN, by Mr. Roberton, Surgeon, London, 1827. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carnage free, 
to be sent to MH. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


To account for the non-appearance of several letters which have 
been received, and to prevent others of a like nature from being 
sent, the Editor begs to state that as it is obviously impossible that 
veil-known controverted points in religion, politics, science, fyc., 
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we cannot insert letters which go directly to provoke the discussion 
of such points. Correspondents from whom they are received, we 
can only refer to the notorious sources of information ; inquirers 
to whom these are unknown, are probably not in a state to profit 
by any dispute which they might engender. 

J. B. or J. O. (Birmingham). The Editor believes that the 
portraits respecting which our correspondent inquires are mere 
impostures unworthy of notice. 

S. P. II. T. is thanked for his kind reminder. The subject has 
not been lost sight of; but postponed partly from the pressure of 
correspondence, and the consequent want of room partly from 
want of time. We hope however to lake some steps in it before the 
present volume is completed. 

T. LAWRENCE. The puzzling epitaph forwarded by our cor- 
respondent has already been recorded and explained in " NOTES 
AND QUERIES." See Vol. JL, pp. 311. 346. 

E. H. Y. The Query was inserted Vol. iii., p. 351. ; and the 
only satisfactory reply received is one not calculated for publication, 

AUG. 30. 1851.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 167 

but shall be forwarded to our correspondent, if he will kindly say 
how a tetter may be addressed to him. 

F. R. R.'s Query respecting the " Hanap Cup" has been anti- 
cipated in our 1st Vol. p. 477., and replied to at p. 492. 

REPLIES RECEIVED. Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor 
Thread the Needle Pope and Flatman Spenser's Faerie Quecne 
Men may live Fools Separation of Sexes in Church Bens- 
leys of Nont'/ch Coit'per or Cooper House of Yvert/ Span 
A Saxon BelLhouse The late William Hone Thistle of Scot- 
land Yankee, S(C. (from R.H.) John Bodley Double Names 
Anlus Gehius' Description of a Dimple Meaning of Rack 
Dogmatism and Puppyism Rorough -English Royal Library 
Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar f Heronsewe Decking 
Churches at Christinas Threadneedle Street Murderers 
buried in Cross Roads Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's 
Rotation The Tradescants Ten Commandments George 
Steevens Marriage of Bishops Leman Baronetcy Three 
Estates of the Realm Nelson's Coat Theory of the Earth's 
Form Agio, Curious Fact in Natural History, Sfc. (from 
St. Lucia). 

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When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. I\T. No. 97.] SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 1851. 

("Price Threepence. 
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NOTES : Page 

Notes on Books, No. II. Gabriel Harvey, by S. W. 

Singer 169 

The Antiquity of Kilts, by T. Stephens - - - 170 

Notes on Julin, No. I., by Kenneth R. II. Mackenzie - 

Minor Notes : Anecdote of Curran Difficulty of 

getting rid of a Name House of Lord Edward Fitz- 


gerald Fairy Dances JEl&op Nelson's Coat at 
Trafalgar - 173 


John Knox, by David Laing .... 174 

Minor Queries : " Fceda ministeria, atque minis absis- 
tite acerbis" Cornish Arms and Cornish Motto 
Gloucester saved from the King's Mines Milesian 
Horology Lanrentius Miiller Lines on a Bed 
Pirog "Lists of Plants, with their Provincial Names 

Print Cleaning Italian Writer on Political Eco- 
nomy Carli the Economist: Nightingale and Thorn 

Coleridge's Essays on Beauty Heiiryson and Ki- 
naston Oldys' Account of London Libraries A 
Sword-blade Note Abacot Princesses of Wales - 174 

dinal Wolsey Brunswick Muni Meaning of 

" Rasher " 176 


Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation - 177 
A Saxon Bell-house ..... 178 

The Whale of Jonah, by T. J. Buckton - - - 178 

St. Trunnian, by W. S. Hesleden - - - 179 

Replies to Minor Queries : Lord Mayor not a Privy 
Councillor Did Hishop Gibson write a Life of Crom- 
well? Lines on the Temple Henry Headley, B.A. 

Cycle of Cathay Proof of Sword Blades Was Mil- 
ton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar? English Sapphics 
The Tradescants Monumental Inscription Lady 
Petre's Monument - - - - 180 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &e. - 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents - 
Advertisements - 

- 182 

- 1S3 

- 183 


This learned friend of Spenser and Sir Philip 
Sydney (though better known from his quarrel 
with Tom Nashe) was in the habit of writing 
copious memoranda in his books, several of which 
were in the library of Mr. Lloyd, of Wygfair. 
Among them some miscellaneous volumes, which I 
believe afterwards passed into the collection of 
Mr. Ileber, contained remarkable specimens of 
his calligraphic skill. His name was written four 
or five times : " Gabriel Harveius, 1579," and 
with variation, u Gabrielis Harveij " and " di 
Gabriello Harveio." The volumes contained the 

Medea and Giocasta of Lodovico Dolce, in 
Italian ; the Hecuba and Iphigenia of Euripides 
in Latin, by Erasmus, the Comedies of Terence, 
&c. ; and the first Italian and English Grammar, 
by Henry Grantham, 1575. On the blank pages 
and spaces what follows was inscribed : 

" La Giocasta d* Euripide, Dolce, et Gascoigno. 
Senecas et Statii Thebais. Item Seneca? OEdipus. 
Quasi Synopsis Tragoediarum omnium. NON GIOCO, 

" Omne genus scripti, gravitate Tragocdia vincit." 

" Hae quatuor Tragcedia?, instar omnium TragcedU 
arum pro tempore : praesertim cum reliquarum non 
suppetit copia. Duae Euripidis placent in primis, et 
propter auctoris prudentissimam veram, et propter 
interpretis singularem delectum. Eadem in Sophoclis 
Antigonem . affectio, ab Episcopo Vatsono tralatam : 
cum propter interpretis accuratum judieium. Qui 
tanti fecit optimo Tragicos r ut eosdem soleret cum 
Checo et Aschamo, omnibus aliis poetis anteferre ; 
etiam Homero et Virgilio." 

" Questa Medea di Dolce non e Medea di Seneca. 
Ma Thieste di Dolce e ThLeste medesimo di Seneca. 
Solo coro nel fin e soperehievole." 

" Gascoigni Jocasta, magnifice acta solemne ritu, et 
vere tragico apparatu. Ut etiam Vatsoni Antigone; 
cuive pompae seria?, et exquisita. Usque adeo quidem 
utraque ut nihil in hoc tragico genere vel illustrius vel 

" Jam floruerant prudentissimi Attici, Pericles, 
Thucydides, Sophocles : jam ftorent Plato, Xenophon, 
Demosthenes, cum Euripides pangit Tragoedias. Nee 
excellentissimorum Atticorum, ullus vel prudentior 
Euripides, vel argutior, vel etiam elegantior. Nihil in 
eo nugarum, nihil affectation is, et tamen singula ubique 

" Erasmus talis Euripidis interpres, qualis Pindari 
Melanethon. Foelix utriusque ad interpretandum 
dexteritas et fluens elocutionis facilitas. Plus in 
Erasmo diligentiae ; in Melancthone perspicuitas. 
Quam persequebatur, Camerarius, nee tamen asseque- 
batur. " 

" Erasmi fere judieium acre, et serium nee dubium 
est, quin delectum adhibuerit in sapientissimis Tra- 
goediis eligendis exquisitum." 

" Ut fere fceminas ; sic Comcedias et Tragoedias ; 
qui unam omnimodo novit, omnes novit quodam modo. 
Saltern ex ungue, Leonem ; ex clave, Herculem." 

VOL, IV. No. 97. 



[No. 97. 

" Quattro Comedie del divino Pietro Aretino. 
Cioe II Marescalco o Pedante. La Cortigiana. La 
Talanta. Lo Hippocrito. 

" Habeo et legi : sed nondura comprare potui II 
Filosofo : qua? tamen ipsius, Comoedia dicitur etiara 

" Memorantur etiam dua? illius Trageediae, L'Hor- 
tensia. Tragoedia di Christo. 

" Comedie, Dialoghi capricciosi, Le Lettere, e 
Capitoli delP Unico : Historic del suo tempo. La 
quinta essenza del suo unico ingegno; e lo speech io 
di tutte 1'arti Cortegiane. 

" Due Comedie argutissime et facetissime di Mac- 
cbiavelli Politico : La Mandragola. La Clitia." 

" Suppositi d'Ariosto : Comoediam singulariter 
laudate a P. Jovio in Elogiis ; cum Plautinis facile 
contenders Inventionis, atque successus amenitate; si 
utriusque szeculi mores non inepte comparentur. 
Syncrisis aetatum necessaria, ad Comoediarum, Histori- 
arum, aliorumque Scriptorum excellentia in examinan- 
dam, atque judicandam solerti censura." 

" Arciprologo quasi di tutte le Comedie, il primo 
delP Aretino ; et il terzo e quarto dello' stesso." 

" Ut Comoedias, sic Tragoedias ; qui tres aut quatuor 
intime novit, novit fere omnes. Tanti valet hie aureus 
libellus. Meo tandem judicio, Poetarum sapientissi- 
mus, Euripides: vel ipse Sophocle magis Attice ner- 
vosus et profundus, ut Seneca LatLne." 

" Ecce reliquiae et fragrnenta Menandri, Epieharmi, 
Alexidis, reliquiorumque Graacorum Comicorum. 
Cum toto Aristopharie. Et fortasse senties nova 
veteribus non esse potiora. Nee usquam prudentiores 
Gnomas invenies, ne apud Theognidem quidem aut 

" Placent etiam Comcedias quas non sunt Comoedije ; 
et Tragcediae quae non sunt Tragoedias : Ut utriusque 
generis multae egregiae apud Homerum, et Virgilium 
in Heroicis; Frontinum et Polyaenum in Strategematis ; 
Stephanum in Apologia Hero^pti : Rabelesium in 
Heroicis Gargantuas: Sidneium in-novissima Arcadiaa: 
Domenicbiun in Facetiis. Quomodo antiquorum unus 
Graecorum dixit: Delicatissimos esse Pisces quas non 
sunt Pisces, et carnes lautissimas qua? non sunt carnes. 
Da mini Fabulas non Fabulas, Apologos non Apologos. 
Et sensi optima Apopbthegmata quae non sunt Apoph- 
thegmata : Optima Adagia quae non Adagia. 

u Inutiliter Tragoedias legit qui nescit pbilosophicas 
sententias a Tyrannicis distinguere. Alia scholarum 
doctrina, alia reguorum disciplina. Politico opus est 
judicio ad distinguendum prudentissimas sententias a 
rehquis. Nee semper Tyrannus barbarus: nee semper 
poeta, aut philosophus sapiens : solertis judiciis fuerit, 
non quis dicat, sed quia dicatur respicere, et undique 
optima seligere." 

" Euripidis Jocastae apud Gascoignum summa fere 
Tragoediarum omnium." 

" No finer or pithier Examples than in y e excellent 
Comedies and Tragedies following, full of sweet and 
wise discourse. A notable Dictionarie for the 
G rammer." 

" Ut de hac Terentii tralatione sentirem honorificen- 
tius ; fecit Aldus exquisita editio." 

I thought these notes worth transcribing, not 
only as showing the attention paid by the learned 
students of this time to the drama, as well ancient 
as modern, but more especially for the mention 
made of the Jocasta of George Gascoigne, and the 
Antigone of Sophocles, translated, as he says, by 
Watson, Bishop of Worcester, and not by Thomas 
Watson, as Warton supposed. It may be doubted 
whether this translation was into English; but j 
Harvey seems to imply that it was acted, as well 
as the Jocasta. Bishop Watson was celebrated for 
his dramatic skill, in his Latin tragedy of Absalon, 
by Roger Ascham, who says, 

" When M. Watson, in St. John's College at Cam- 
bridge, wrote his excellent Tragedie of Absalon, 
M. Cheke, he, and I, bad many pleasant talkes to- 
gither, iu comparing the preceptes of Aristotle and 
Horace with the examples of Euripides, Sophocles, and 

Seneca M. Watson had another maner of care of 

perfection, with a feare and reverence of the judgement 
of the best learned : who to this day would neuer suffer 
yet his Absalon to go abroad, and that onelie bicause 
(in locis paribus) Anapcestus is twise or thrise used in- 
stead of Iambus." 

In a volume in the Bodleian Library marked 
Z. 3., Art. "Selden," is " The Life of Howleglas," 
printed by Copland : at the bottom of the last 
page is the following MS. note : 

" This Howleglasse, with Scoggin, Skelton, and 
(L zario ?) given me at London of M. Spenser, 
xx Decembris, 1578, on condition y* I shoold bestowe 
y e readinge on them, on or before y e first day of Janu- 
ary immediately ensuinge : otherwise to forfeit unto 
him my Lucian in fower volumes. Whereupon I was 
y* rather induced to trifle away so many bowers as were 
idely overpassed in running through y" aforesaid foolish 
bookes ; wherein methought y* not all fower together 
seemed comparable for fine and crafty feates with Jon 
Miller, whose witty shiftes and practises are reported 
among Skelton's Tales." 

Mr. Malone, from whose memoranda I copy 
this, says, " I suspect it is Gabriel Harvey's hand- 

I have a copy of the Organon of Aristotle in 
Greek, which bears marks of Gabriel Harvey's 
diligent scholarship. It is copiously annotated 
and analysed by him when a student at Cambridge, 
and he has registered the periods at which he 
completed the study of each part. 


Mickleham, Aug. 15. 1851. 


This has been the subject of many discussions, 
and has recently found a place in the columns of 
" NOTES AND QUERIES." I do not propose to take 
any part in the present discussion, but it may be 
of some service to historical students for me to 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



introduce to public notice a much older authority 
than any that has yet been cited, 

It is known to but few antiquaries out of the 
principality, that the ancient poetry of Wales 
throws more light on the immediate post-Roman 
history of Britain than any documents in existence. 
These poems vividly pourtray the social condition 
of the period, and contain almost the only records 
of the great contest between the natives and the 
Saxon invaders ; they prove beyond a doubt that 
the Romans had left the province in an advanced 
stage of civilisation, and they supply us with the 
means of affirming decisively, that the vine was 
cultivated here to a very considerable extent. 

The antiquity of these poems admits of no rea- 
sonable doubt ; on that point the Vindication of 
Turner enables the antiquaries of Wales to make 
this assertion with confidence : and having recently 
translated most of our old poems, with a view to 
future publication, I feel myself warranted in as- 
suming them to belong to the sixth and seventh 
centuries of our era. One of these bards, Aneurin 
by name, belonged to the British tribe, described 
by the Romans as Ottadini, and by themselves as 
the people of Gododin. This people were situated 
at the junction of England and Scotland, and the 
poems of this bard chiefly refer to that district ; 
but as the barda were a rambling class, and as the 
bulk of the people from Chester to Dumbarton 
were the same race as the people of the princi- 
pality, we are not surprised when we find this 
bard sometimes among " the banks and braes of 
bonny Doon," and sometimes in North and South 
Wales. In one of his verses he thus describes the 
kilt of a British chief: 

" Pels dinogat e yreith vreith 
Q grwyn balaot ban ureith." 

These lines may be found in the Myvyrian Ar- 
chaeology, vol. i. p. 13. col. 1. ; and a most unwar- 
rantable translation of dinogat may be found in 
Davies' Mythology of the Druids ; but the literal 
rendering would be this : 

" Dinogad's kilt is stripy, stripy, 

Of the skins of front-streak'd wolf-cubs.** 

Peis or pais is the word now used for the 
article of female attire known as a petti-coat, 
which in form bears a sufficiently close resemblance 
to the male kilt to justify me in. using that word 
here. It also occurs in pais-arfau^ a coat of arms, 
and pais-ddur, a coat of mail. The words vreith 
vreith have been translated word for word ; in the 
Kymric language it is a very common form of 
emphatic expression to repeat the word on which 
the emphasis falls, as yn dda da for very good; but 
a more idiomatic translation would have been, 
very stripy. Vraith with us also stands for plaid, 
and in the Welsh Bible Joseph's " coat o.f many 
colours " is named siacced vraith,^ 

Now I will not attempt to determine what re- 

lation this kilt stands in to the kilts of the High- 
lands, whether the Gael borrowed it from the 
Briton, or the Briton from the Gael, or whether 
the dress was common to both at the time in which 
Dinogad lived ; but thus much appears to be clear, 
that we here have a kilt, and that that kilt was 
striped, if not a plaid; and it only remains for us 
to determine the period at which Dinogad lived. 
Most persoois are acquainted with the name of 
Brochmael, Prince of Powys, the British com- 
mander at the battle of Bangor in 613, on the 
occasion of the dispute between Augustine and 
the primitive British church ; Dinogad stood to 
him in the following relation : 



Of Dinogad himself there is but one fact on 
record, and that took place in 577. His brother 
Selyf fell at the battle of Bangor or Chester in 
613. If we take these facts together, we may 
form a pretty accurate idea respecting the period 
at which he lived. 

Viewing this matter from a Cambrian stand- 
point, I feel myself warranted in hazarding the 
following remarks. In the lines of Aneurin, the 
thing selected for special notice is the excess of 
stripe ; and therefore, whether it was the invention 
of Dinogad, or whether he borrowed the idea 
from the Scots or Picts when he was at Dum- 
barton in 577, it is quite clear, from the repetition 
of the word vreith, that his kilt had the attribute 
of stripyness to a greater extent than was usually 
the case; while it is also equally clear, that 
amongst the Britons of that period, kilts of a 
stripy character were so common as to excite no 
surprise. We may therefore affirm, 

1. That in the beginning of the seventh cen- 
tury the British chiefs were in the habit of wear- 
ing skin kilts. 

2. That striped kilts were common. 

3. That a chief named Dinogad was distinguished 
by an excess of this kind of ornament. And 

4. That as the Kymry of North Britain were on 
intimate terms with their neighbours, it is highly 
probable that the Scottish kilt is much older than 
1597. T. STEPHENS. 

Merthyr Tydfil. 


(Vol. ii., pp. 230. 282. 379. 443.) 

In approaching a subject set at rest so long 
since, I feel some apology due to you ; and that 
apology I will make by giving you the results of 
niy recent investigation of the question of Vineta 



[No. 97. 

v. Julin alias Wollin, made in Pomerania, and 
noted from personal testimony and Pomeranian 

But, first, to correct an erreur de plume of 
DR. BELL'S. He says, in stating the position of 
Vineta (Vol. ii., p. 283.), " opposite the small town 
of Demmin, in Pomerania" DR. BELL has mis- 
written the name : there is no such place on the 
Baltic. The real name is Damerow, on the Isle of 
Usedom. A little lower he remarks, speaking of 
Wollin, "No rudera, no vestiges of ancient gran- 
deur, now mark the spot ; not even a tradition of 
former greatness." In this I think DR. BELL will 
find (and, I am sure, will readily allow, in the 
same spirit of good faith in which I make my 
observations) that he is in error, from the follow- 
ing mm ative. 

The gentleman who has kindly given me, by 
word of mouth, the following particulars, is a 
native of Wollin, and of one of the most ancient 
and noble families in that island, a relative of that 
Baron Kaiserling who was the Cicero of Frederick 
the Great, but of an elder branch of that family, 
the Counts of Kaiserling. M. de Kaiserling states 
that, when a young man, in his native town, he 
took a delight in reading the records of its bygone 
glory, and in tracing out the ruins in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town, extending to the distance of 
about one English mile from its outskirts. The 
foundations of houses and tracks of streets * are 
still exposed in the operations of agriculture, and 
my informant has in his possession several Byzan- 
tine and Wendish coins which he at that time 
picked up. He has likewise seen a Persian coin, 
which was found in the same neighbourhood by a 
friend. Having been led by circumstances to 
examine the evidence pro and con. in this question., 
he has come to the conclusion that Wollin and 
Julin or Jumne are identical. He treats the 
story of Vineta as a nursery tale and a myth. 

From the recently-published work on Wollin 
(Die Insel Wollin und das Seebad Misdroy. His- 
torische Skizze von Georg Wilhelm von Raumer : 
Berlin, 1851) I extract the following account of 
Wollin in 1070, as I think it important to have all 
the best evidence attainable f: 

" Adam of Bremen, a contemporaneous historian, has 
left us a curious description of Wollin as it appeared at 
the time of its merchant greatness ; yet he was himself, 
most probahly, never there, hut compiled his account 
from the narratives of sailors, from whose mouth he, 
as he says, heard almost incredibilities about the splen- 
dour of the town. He describes the famous city as the 
chief staple place of the trade of the surrounding Sla- 
vonians and Russians: also as the largest of all towns 

* Particularly the Salmarks (Wendish for Fish- 
markets), as they were called. 

f Likewise, repetition must be excused, as it is here 
scarcely avoidable. 

at this end of Europe, and inhabited by Slavonians, 
Russians, and various pagan nations. Also many 
Germans from Lower Saxony had come to the town, 
yet it was not permitted them to appear openly as 
Christians ; though the political interests of a trading 
place, then as now, caused all nations to be allowed the 
liherty of incolation (Niederlassungsrecht) and toleration. 
The peculiar inhabitants of the place, particularly those 
who held the government, were mostly pagans, but of 
great hospitality, of liberal and humane customs, and 
great justice. The town had become very rich, by 
means of the trade of Northern Europe, of which they 
had almost the monopoly : every comfort and rarity of 
distant regions was to be found there. The most re- 
markable thing in Wollin was a pot of Vulcan, which 
the inhabitants called Greek fire. * Probably we 
should understand by this, a great beacon fire, which 
the Wolliners sustained by night on account of naviga- 
tion, and of which a report was among the sailors that 
it was Greek fire: hut it is also possible that in the 
trade with the Orient, which the discovered Arahie 
coins prove, real Greek fire was brought to Wollin in 
pots. A tricaputed idol of a sea-god, or Neptune, 
stood in Wollin, to denote that the island Wollin was 
surrounded by three different seas : that is to say, a 
green one, the Ostsee ; a white one, under which we 
should probably understand the Dievenow ; and one 
which was retained in raging motion by continual 
storms, the HafF. The navigation from Wollin to 
Dernmin, a trading place on the Peene, is short ; also 
from Wollin to Samland, in Prussia , eight days only 
were necessary to go by land from Hamburgh to 
Wollin, or by sea, across Schleswig ; and forty-three 
days was the time of sailing from Wollin to Ostragard 
in Russia. These notices point to the chief trade of 
Wollin by sea, that is, with Demmin, Hamburgh, 
Schleswig, and Holstein, Prussia, and Russia. 

" So magnificent was ancient Wollin, according to 
the narrative of the seamen ; yet it must not he con- 
sidered exactly a northern Venice, but a wide-circuited 
place, chiefly, however, of wooden houses, and sur- 
rounded by walls and palisades, in which (in compari- 
son with the then rudeness and poverty of the countries 
on the Ostsee) riches and merchandise were heaped up. 

" And now it is time to mention the fable of the 
drowned city Vineta. While an old chronicler, 
Helmold, follows Adam of Bremen in the description 
of the city Wollin, he puts, through an error of tran- 
scription f, in place of Julinum or Jumne, which name 
Adam of Bremen has, Vineta ; such a place could not 
he found, and it was concluded, therefore, that the sea 
had engulfed it. The celebrated Buggenhagen J first 
discovered, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
a great rock formation in the sea, at the foot of the 
Streckelberg, on the island of Usedom , and then the 

* " Olla Vulcani quae incolce Graecam vocant ignem 
de quo etiam meminit Solinus," adds Adam of Bremen. 
Solinus speaks of oil, or rather naphtha, from Mcesia; 
and it is not improbable that the Wolliners imported it 
for their beacons in pots. 

f The oldest MSS. are said not to have this error. 

I A native of Wollin, by the hye. 

Close by Damerow. 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



city Vincta was soon transplanted thither ; and it was 
absurdly considered that a rock reef (which has lately 
been used for the harbour of Swinemiinde, and has dis- 
appeared) was the ruins of a city destroyed by the 
waves a thousand years ago : indeed, people are not 
wanting at the present day, who hold fast to this fable, 
caused by the error of a transcriber. In the mean time 
it has become a folk tale, and as such retains its value. 
A Wolliner booth-keeper recounted me the interesting 
story, which may be read in Barthold's History of 
Pomerania (vol. i. p. 419.), a rough sterling Pome- 
ranian (cicht-pommersehis) fantastical picture of the 
overbearing of the trade-enriched inhabitants of Vineta, 
which God had so punished by sending the waves of 
the ocean over the city. The town of Wollin, to 
which alone this legend was applicable, is certainly 
not destroyed by the sea, nor wholly desert : but if 
they deserved punishment for their pride in their 
greatness, they had received it in that they had quite 
fallen from their former glory." Pp. 22 25.' 

As I wish thoroughly to dispose of the question, 
I shall divide my communication on Julin into 
two parts, of which the above is the first. I re- 
serve my own remarks till all the evidence has 
been heard. KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE. 


Anecdote of Curran. During one of the cir- 
cuits, Curran was dining with a brother advocate 
at a small inn kept by a respectable woman, who, 
to the well ordering of her establishment, added a 
reputation for that species of apt and keen reply, 
which sometimes supplies the place of wit. The 
dinner had been well served, the wine was pro- 
nounced excellent, and it was proposed that the 
hostess should be summoned to receive their com- 
pliments on her good fare. The Christian name 
of this purveyor was Honoria, a name of common 
occurrence in Ireland, but which is generally ab- 
breviated to that of Honor. Her attendance was 
prompt, and Curran, after a brief eulogium on the 
dinner, but especially the wine, filled a bumper, 
and, handing it, proposed as a toast, " Honor and 
Honesty." His auditor took the glass, and with 
a peculiarly arch smile, said, " Our absent friends," 
and having drank off her amended toast, she curt- 
seyed and withdrew. M. W. B. 

Difficulty of getting rid of a Name. The insti- 
tution founded in Gower Street under the name 
of the University of London, lived for ten years 
under that name, and, since, for fifteen years, under 
the name of University College, a new institution 
receiving the name of the University of London. 
A few years after the change of name, a donor left 
reversionary property to the London University in 
Gower Street, which made it necessary to obtain 
the assistance of the Court of Chancery in securing 
the reversion to its intended owners. A professor 
of the College in Gower Street received a letter, 

dated from Somerset House (where the University 
is), written by the Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity himself, and addressed, not to the Univer- 
sity College, but to the University of London. And 
in a public decision, by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, as Visitor of Dulwich College, which appears 
in The Times of July 21, it is directed that certain 
scholars are to proceed for instruction to some 
such place as " King's College or the London Uni- 
versity" This is all worthy of note, because we 
often appeal to old changes of name in the settle- 
ment of dates. When this decision becomes very 
old, it may happen that its date will be brought 
into doubt by appeal to the fact that the place of 
instruction (what is now the University giving no 
instruction but only granting degrees, and to 
students of King's College among others) ceased to 
have the title of University in 1837. What so 
natural as to argue that the Archbishop, himself a 
visitor of King's College, cannot have failed to re- 
member this. A reflected doubt may be thrown 
upon some arguments relating to dates in former 
times. M. 

House of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. The Note 
on his mother, in Vol. iii., p. 492., reminds me of 
making the following one on himself, which may 
be worth a place in your columns. When lately 
passing through the village of Harold's Cross, near 
Dublin, a friend pointed out to me a high anti- 
quated-looking house in the village, which he said 
had been occupied by Lord Edward Fitzgerald, 
and in which he had planned many of his designs. 
The house appears to be in good preservation, and 
is still occupied. K. H. 

Fairy Dances. It might perhaps throw some 
light on this fanciful subject, were we to view it 
in connexion with the operation of the phenome- 
non termed the " odylic light," emitted from mag- 
netic substances. The Baron von Riechenbach, in 
his Researches on Magnetism, SfC., explains the 
cause of somewhat similar extraordinary appear- 
ances in the following manner : 

" High on the Brocken there are rocky summits 
which are strongly magnetic, and cause the needle 
to deviate : these rocks contain disseminated magnetic 
iron ore ; . . . . the necessary consequence is that 

they send up odylic flames Who could 

blame persons imbued with the superstitious feelings of 
their age, if they saw, under these circumstances, the 
devil dancing with his whole train of ghosts, demons, 
and witches? The revels of the Walpurgisnacht must 
now, alas! vanish, and give place to the sobrieties of 
science science, which with her touch dissipates one 
by one all the beautiful but dim forms evoked by 

Should such a thing as the odylic light satis- 
factorily explain the phenomenon of ghosts, fairies, 
&c., we should happily be relieved from the 
awkward necessity of continuing to treat their 



[No. 97. 

existence as " old wives' fables," or the production 
of a disordered imagination. J. H. KERSHAW. 

JEsop. It may be said, at first sight, " Why, 
every body knows all about him." I answer, 
Perhaps about as much as modern painters and 
artists know about Bacchus, whom they always 
represent as a gross, vulgar, fat person : all the 
ancient poets, however (and surely they ought to 
know best), depict him an exquisitely beautiful 
youth. A similar vulgar error exists with regard 
to 2Esop, who in the Encyclopedia Britannica is 
pronounced a strikingly deformed personage. The 
exact opposite seems to have been the truth. 
Philostratus has left a description of a pictui'e of 
-^Esop, who was represented with a chorus of animals 
about him : he was painted smiling, and looking 
thoughtfully on the ground, but not a word is said 
of any deformity. Again, the Athenians erected a 
statue to his honour, " and," says Bentley, " a 
statue of him, if he were deformed, would only have 
been a monument of his ugliness : it would have 
been an indignity, rather than an honour to his 
memory, to have perpetuated his deformity." 

And, lastly, he was sold into Samos by a slave- 
dealer, and it is a well-known fact that these 
people bought up the handsomest youths they 
could procure. A. C. W. 


Nelsons Coat at Trafalgar (Vol. iv., p. 114.). 
Besides the loss of bullion from one of the epau- 
lettes of Lord Nelson's coat occasioned by the 
circumstance related by ^GROTUS, there was a 
similar defacement caused by the fatal bullet 
itself, which might render the identification sug- 
gested by JEGROTUS a little difficult. Sir W. 
Beatty says, in his Authentic Narrative of the 
Death of Lord Nelson, p. 70. : 

" The ball struck the fore part of his lordship's 

epaulette, and entered the left shoulder On 

removing the ball, a portion of the gold lace and pad 
of the epaulette, together with a small piece of his 
lordship's coat, was found firmly attached to it." 

The ball, with the adhering gold lace, &c., was 
set in a crystal locket, and worn by Sir W. Beatty. 
It is now, I believe, in the possession of Prince 

The intention of my note (Vol. iii., p. 517.) was 
to refute a common impression, probably derived 
from Harrison's work, that Lord Nelson had 
rashly adorned his admiral's uniform with extra 
insignia on the day of the battle, and thereby 
rendered himself a conspicuous object for the 
French riflemen. ALFRED GATTY. 


In completing the proposed series of Knox's 
writings, I should feel greatly indebted to DR. 

MAITLAND or any of your readers for answering the 
following Queries : 

1. In the Catalogue of writers on the Old and 
New Testament, p. 107. : London, 1663, a sermon 
on Ezechiel ix. 4., attributed to Knox, is said to 
have been printed anno 1580. Where is there a 
copy of this sermon preserved? 

2. Bale, and Melchior Adam, copying Verheiden, 
include in the list of Knox's writings, In Genesim 
Condones. Is such a book known to exist ? 

3. Bishop Tanner also ascribes to him Exposi- 
tion on Daniel : Malburg, 1529. This date is un- 
questionably erroneous, and probably the book 

4. Knox's elaborate treatise Against the Adver- 
saries of God's Predestination was first published 
at Geneva, 1560, by John Crespin. Toby Cooke, 
in 1580, had a license to print Knoxes Answere to 
the Cauillations of ane Anabaptist. (Herbert's 
Ames, p. 1263.) Is there any evidence that the 
work was reprinted earlier than 1591 ? 

5. The work itself professes to be in answer to 
a book entitled The Confutation of the Errors of 
the Careles by Necessitie , " which book," it is 
added, " written in the English tongue, doeth 
contain as well the lies and blasphemies imagined 
by Sebastian Castalio, .... as also the vane 
reasons of Pighius, Sadoletus, and Georgius Sicu- 
lus, pestilent Papistes, and expressed enemies of 
God's free mercies." When was this Confutation 
printed, and where is there a copy to be seen ? 


116. " Fceda minitlteria, atque minis absistite 
acerbis" (Vol. iii., p. 494.). Will any of your 
readers who may be metrical scholars, inform me 
whether there is any classical example of such an 
accent and csesura as in this verse of Vida ? C. B. 

117. Cornish Arms and Cornish Motto. The 
Cornish arms are a field sable with fifteen 
bezants, not balls as they are commonly called. 
5. 4. 3. 2. 1. in pale or. These arms were borne 
by Condurus, the last Earl of Cornwall of British 
blood, in the time of William I., and were so 
borne until Richard, Earl of Cornwall, on being 
created Earl of Poictou, took the arms of such. 
According to the custom of the French, these 
were a rampant lion gules crowned or, in a field 
argent ; but to show forth Cornwall, he threw the 
fifteen bezants into a bordour sable, round the 
bearing of the Earl of Poictou ; but the Cornish 
arms, those of Condurus, are unaltered, though 
the coins are often mistaken for balls, and painted 
on a field coloured to the painter's fancy. Can 
you tell me when the Cornish motto "one and 
fill" was adopted, and why? S. H. (2) 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



118. Gloucester saved from the King's Mines. 
In Sir Kenelm Digby's Treatise of Bodies, 
eh. xxviii. sec. 4., is this passage : 

" The trampling of men and horses in a quiet night, 
will be heard some miles off .... Most of all if one 
set a drum smooth upon the ground, and lay one's ear 
to the upper edge of it," &c. 

On which the copy in my possession (ed. 1669) 
has the following marginal note in a cotemporary 
hand : 

" Thus Gloucester was saved from the King's mines 
by y e drum of a drunken drumer." 

To what event does this refer, and where shall 
I find an account of it ? It evidently happened 
during the civil wars, but Clarendon lias no men- 
tion of it. T. H. KERSJLEY, A.B. 

119. Milesian. What is the origin of the terra 
Milesian as applied to certain races among the 
Irish ? W. FBASER. 

120. Horology. Can any of your numerous 
correspondents kindly inform me what is the best 
scientific work on Horology ? I do not want one 
containing mere mathematical work, but entering 
into all the details of the various movements, es- 
capements, &c. &c , of astronomical clocks, chro- 
nometers, pocket watches, with the latest improve- 
ments down to the present time. H. C. K, 

121. Laurentius Midler. Can any of your, 
readers mention a library which contains a copy 
of the Historia Septentrionalis, or History of 
Poland, of Laurentius Miiller, published about 
1580? A TB. 

122. Lines on a Bed. Can you tell me where 
I can find the antecedents of the following 
couplets ? They are a portion of some ex- 
quisite poetical " Lines on a Bed :" 

" To-day thy bosom may contain 
Exulting pleasure's fleeting train, 
Desponding grief to-morrow !" 

I once thought they were Prior's, but I cannot 
find them. Can you assist me ? R. W. B. 

123. Pirog. A^ custom, I believe, still exists 
in Russia for the mistress of a family to distribute 
on certain occasions bread or cake to her guests. 
Some particulars of this custom appeared either 
in the Globe or the Standard newspaper in 1837 or 
1838, during the months of October, November, 
or December. Having lost the reference to the 
precise date, and only recollecting that the cus- 
tom is known by the name of Pirog, I shall feel 
much obliged to any correspondent of the " NOTES 
AND QUERIES " if he can supply me with further 
information on the. subject. R. M. W. 

124. Lists of Plants with their Provincial Names. 
- In a biography that appeared of Dr. P. Brown 

in the Anthologia Hibernica for Jan. 7, 1793, we 

are informed that he prepared for the press a 
" Fasciculus Plantarum Hibernicarum," enume- 
rating chiefly those growing in the counties of 
Mayo and Galwuy, written in Latin, with the 
English and Irish names of each plant. See also 
Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, i. 
xxx. Where is this MS. ? 

Can any of your readers refer me to similar 
lists of plants indigenous to either England or 
Ireland, in which the provincial names are pre- 
served, with any notes on their use in medicine, or 
their connexion with the superstitions of the dis- 
trict to which the list refers ? Any information on 
this subject, however slight, will particularly 
oblige ' S. P. H. T. 

P. S. I should not be much surprised if the 
MS. of Dr. P. Brown existed in some of the col- 
lectanea in the Library of Trin. Coll. Dub. 

125. Print cleaning. How should prints be 
cleaned, so as not to injure the paper ? A. G. 

126. Italian Writer on Political Economy 
Carli the Economist. What was the first work 
by an Italian writer on any element of political 
economy ? and in what year did Carli, the cele- 
brated economist, die ? ALPHA. 

127. Nightingale and Thorn. Where is the 
earliest notice of the fable of the nightingale and 
the thorn ? that she sings because she has a thorn 
in her breast ? For obvious reasons, the fiction 
cannot be classical. 

It is noticed by Byron : 

* The nightingale that sings with the deep thorn, 
That fable places in her breast of wail, 
Is lighter far of heart and voice than those 
Whose headlong passions form their proper woes." 
But an earlier mention is found in Browne's 
poem on the death of Mr. Thomas Manwood : 
" Not for thee these briny tears are spent,. 

But as the nightingale against the breere, 
'Tis for myself I moan and do lament, 

Not that thou left'st the world, but left'st me here." 
He seems to interpret the fable to the same 
effect as Homer makes Achilles' women lament 
Patroclus narp6i<\ov Trp6$a.<riv, afy&v 5' O.VT&V KJjSe 
e/ccfo-TTj. It has been suggested that it rather 
implies that the spirit of music, like that of poetry 
and prophecy, visits chiefly the afflicted, a com- 
fortable doctrine to prosaic and unmusical people. 

A. W. H. 

128. Cjaleridge's Essays on Beauty. At pp. 300, 
301, of this , writer's Table Talk (3rd edition) 
there is the following paragraph : 

" I exceedingly regrejt the, loss of those essays on 
beauty, which I wrote in a .Bristol newspaper. I 
would give much to recover them." 

Can any of your readers afford information on 
this point? The publication of the essays in 
question (supposing that they have not yet been 



[No. 97. 

published) would be a most welcome addition to 
the works of so eminent and original an author as 
S. T. Coleridge. J. II. KERSHAW. 

129. Henry son and Kinaston. MB. SINGER 

y"ol. iii., p. 297.) refers to Sir Francis Kinaston's 
atin version of Chaucer's Troilus and Cresseid, 
and of Henryson's Testament of Cresseid. The 
first two books of the former are well known as 
i having ben printed at Oxford, 1635, 4to. ; and 
the entire version was announced for publication 
by F. G. Waldron, in a pamphlet printed as a 
specimen, in 1796. Query, Who is now the pos- 
sessor of Kinaston's manuscript, which MR. SINGER 
recommends as worthy of the attention of the 
Camden Society ? 

In the original table of contents of a manuscript 
collection, written about the year 1515, one article 
in that portion of the volume now lost is "Mr. 
Robert Henderson's dreme, On fut by Forth." 
Can any of your readers point out where a copy 
of this, or any other unpublished poems by Hen- 
ryson, are preserved ? D. L. 


1 30. Oldys" Account of London Libraries. In 
" A Catalogue of the Libraries of the late William 
Oldys, Esq., Norroy King at Arms (author of the 
Life of Sir Walter Raleigh), the Reverend Mr. 
Emms, of Yarmouth, and Mr. William Rush, which 
will begin to be sold on Monday, April 12, by 
Thomas Davies;" published without date, but 
supposed to be in 1764, I find amongst Mr. Oldys's 
manuscripts, lot 3613. : " Of London Libraries : 
with Anecdotes of Collectors of Books, Remarks 
on Booksellers, arid on the first Publishers of Ca- 
talogues." Can any of your readers inform me if 
the same is still in existence, and in whose posses- 
sion it is ? WILLIAM BROWJ*, Jun. 

Old Street. 

131. A Sword-Uade Note. I find in an 
account-book of a public company an entry 
dated Oct. 1720, directing the disposal of "A 
"Sword-blade Note for One hundred ninety-two 
pounds ten shillings seven pence." Can any of 
your numerous readers, especially those cognisant 
of monetary transactions, favour me with an ex- 
planation of the nature of this note, and the origin 
t)f its peculiar appellation ? R. J. 

Threadneedle Street, Aug. 28. 1851. 

132. Abacot. The word ABACOT, now in- 
serted in foreign as well as English dictionaries, was 
adopted by Spelman in his Glossary : the authority 
which he gives seems to be the passage (stating 
that King Henry VI.'s " high cap of estate, called 
Abacot, garnished with two rich crowns," was pre- 
sented to King Edward IV. after the battle of 
Hexharn) which is in Holinshed, (the third 
volume of Chronicles, fol. Lond. 1577, p. 666. 
col. 2. line 28.): but this appears to be copied 

from Grafton (A Chronicle, Sfc., fol. Lond. 1569), 
where the word stands Abococket. If this author 
took it from Hall (The Union, Sfc., fol. Lond. 
1549) I think it there stands the same: but in 
Fabyan's Chronicle, as edited by Ellis, it is printed 
Bycoket ; and in one black-letter copy in the 
British Museum, it may be seen Bicoket, corrected 
in the margin by a hand of the sixteenth century, 

Can any reader point out the right word, and 
give its derivation ? J. W. P. 

133. Princesses of Wales (Vol. iv., p. 24.). 
C. C. R. has clearly shown what is Hume's au- 
thority for the passage quoted by Mr. Christian in 
his edition of Blackstone, and referred to by me in 
my former communication, Vol. iii., p. 477. Can 
he point out where the passage in Hume is found ? 
Mr. Christian refers to Hume, iv. p. 113. ; but I 
have not ben able to find it at the place referred 
to in any edition of Hume which I have had the 
opportunity of consulting, G. 

A Kelso Convoy. What is the origin of a 
Kelso convoy, a Scotch phrase, used to express 
going a little way with a person ? B. 

[ Jamieson, in his Dictionary of the Scottish Language, 
Johnstone's Abridgment, thus explains the phrase: 

" KELSO CONVOY, an escort scarcely deserving the 
name south of Scotland. A step and a half ower the 
door stane.' (Antiquary.') This is rather farther than 
a Scotch Convoy, which, according to some, is only to 
the door. It is, however, explained by others as sig- 
nifying that one goes as far as the friend whom he 
accompanies has to go, although to his own door."] 

Cardinal Wolsey. In the life of Wolsey in 
the Penny Cyclopaedia is the following : 

" It is said that while he lived at Lymington, he got 
drunk at a neighbouring fair. For some such cause 
it is certain that Sir Amias Paulett put him into the 
stocks, a punishment for which we find that he sub- 
sequently revenged himself." 

I have been unable to find what was his re- 
venge. B. 

[Collins, in his Peerage of England, vol. iv. p. 3., 
says, " that in the reign of Henry VI I., when Car- 
dinal Wolsey was only a schoolmaster at Lymington, 
in Somersetshire, Sir Amias Paulett, for some misde- 
meanor committed by him, clapped him in the stocks; 
which the Cardinal, when he grew into favour with 
Henry VIII., so far resented, that he sought all 
manner of ways to give him trouble, and obliged him 
(as 'Godwin in his Annals, p. 28., observes) to dance 
attendance at London for some years, and by all manner 
of obsequiousness to curry favour with 'hrm. During 
the time of bis attendance, being commanded by the 
Cardinal not to depart Lojidou without licence, he took 
up his lodging in the great gate of the Temple towards 
Fleet Street.] 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



Brunswick Mum. Why was the beer called 
Brunswick Mum so named ? When I was young 
it used to be drunk in this country, and was, I 
am told, extensively exported to India, &c. Is it 
still manufactured ? G. CREED. 

[Skinner calls Mum a strong kind of beer, introduced 
by us from Brunswick, and derived either from 
German mummeln, to mumble, or from mum (silentii 
index), i.e. either drink that will (ut nos dicimus) 
make a cat speak, or drink that will take away the 
power of speech. 
" The clamorous crowd is hush'd with mugs of mum, 

Till all, tun'd equal, send a general hum." Pope. 

Brunswick Mum is now advertised for sale by many 
publicans in the metropolis.] 

Meaning of " Hasher." What is the derivation 
of the word rasher. " a rasher of bacon ? " 

J. H. C. 
Adelaide, South Australia. 

[Surely from the French raser, to shave a shaving 
of bacon. Our correspondent will probably recollect 
that vessels that have been cut down are commonly 
known as razees.] 


(Vol. iv., p. 129.) 

I beg to send you a few remarks on the note of 
A. E. B., concerning the "Pendulum Demon- 
stration of the Earth's Rotation." 

Your correspondent appears to consider that 
the only fact asserted by the propounders of the 
theory, is a variation in the plane of oscillation, 
caused by " the difference of rotation due to the 
excess of velocity with which one extremity of the 
line of oscillation may be affected more than the 
other ; " the probable existence of which he proves 
by imagining a pendulum suspended over a point 
half-way between London and Edinburgh, and 
set in motion by being drawn towards and re- 
tained over London, and thence dismissed on its 
course. It is clear that in such a case the pen- 
dulum would at starting be impressed with the 
same velocity of motion in an eastern direction 
which the retaining power in London had, and 
that its path would be the result of this force com- 
pounded with that given by gravity in its line of 
suspension, i. e. towards the north, and its course 
would therefore be one subject to easy calculation. 
I should imagine that this disturbing force arising 
from the excess of eastern velocity possessed by 
the starting point over that of suspension, would 
be inappreciable after a few oscillations ; but at 
all events it is evident that it might readily be 
avoided by setting the pendulum in motion by an 
impulse given beneath the point of suspension, by 

giving to it a direction east and west as suggested 
by A.E.B, or by several other expedients which 
must occur to a mathematician. 

Your correspondent proceeds by requiring that 
there should be shown " reasonable ground to in- 
duce the belief that the ball is really free from the 
attraction of each successive point of the earth's 
surface," and is not as " effectually a partaker in 
the rotation of any given point " as if it were fixed 
there; or that "the duration of residence" ne- 
cessary to cause such effect should be stated. 
Now I certainly am aware of no force by which a 
body unconnected with the earth would have any 
tendency to rotate with it ; gravity can only act 
in a direct line from the body affected to the 
centre of the attracting body, and the motion in 
the direction of the earth's rotation can only be 
gained by contact or connexion, however mo- 
mentary, with it. The onus of proving the ex- 
istence of such a force as A. E. B. alludes to, must 
surely rest with him, not that of disproving it with 
me. What the propounders of this theory claim 
to show is, I humbly conceive, this, that the 
direction in which a pendulum oscillates is constant, 
and not affected by the rotation of the earth be- 
neath it : that as when suspended above the pole 
(where the point of suspension would remain 
fixed) the plane of each oscillation would make a 
different angle with any given meridian of lon- 
gitude, returning to its original angle when the 
diurnal rotation of the earth was completed ; and 
as when suspended above the equator, where the 
point of suspension would be moved in a right 
line, or, to define more accurately, where the plane 
made by the motion of a line joining the point of 
suspension and the point directly under it (over 
which the ball would remain if at rest) would be 
a flat or right plane, the angle made by each suc- 
cessive oscillation with any one meridian would be 
the same, so, at all the intermediate stations be- 
tween the pole and the equator, where the point 
of suspension would move in a line, commencing 
near the pole with an infinitely small curve, and 
ending near the equator with one infinitely large 
(i. e. where the plane as described above would be 
thus curved), the angle of the plane of oscillatipn 
with a given meridian would, at each station, vary 
in a ratio diminishing from the variation at the 
pole until it became extinct at the equator, which 
variation they believe to be capable both of ma- 
thematical proof and of ocular demonstration. 

I do not profess to be one of the propounders of 
this theory, and it is very probable that you may 
have received from some other source a more 
lucid, and perhaps a more correct, explanation of 
it ; but in case you have not done so, I send you 
the foregoing rough "Note" of 
opinions of it. E. 

what are my 

;. H. Y. 



[No. 97. 


(Vol. iv., p. 102.) 

Your correspondent MR. GATTY, in a late num- 
ber, has quoted a passage of the historian Hume, 
which treats a certain Anglo-Saxon document as 
a statute of Athelstan. As your correspondent 
cites his author without a comment, he would ap- 
pear to give his own sanction to the date which 
Hume has imposed upon that document. In point 
of fact, it bears no express date, and therefore 
presents a good subject for a Query, whether that 
or any other era is by construction applicable to 
it. It is an extremely interesting Anglo-Saxon 
remain ; and as it bears for title, " be leodgethinc- 
thuin and lage," it purports to give legal informa- 
tion upon the secular dignities and ranks of the 
Anglo-Saxon period. This promises well to the 
archaeologist, but unfortunately, on a nearer in- 
spection, the document loses much of its worth ; 
for, independently of its lacking a date, its juris- 
prudence partakes more of theory than that dry 
law which we might imagine would proceed from 
the Anglo-Saxon bench. Notwithstanding this, 
however, its archa3ological interest is great. The 
language is pure and incorrupt West Saxon. 

It has been published by all its editors (except 
Professor Leo) as prose, when it is clearly not 
only rythmical but alliterative an obvious cha- 
racteristic of Anglo-Saxon poetry. And it is this 
mistake which has involved the further conse- 
quence of giving to the document a legal and 
historical value which it would never have had if 
its real garb had been seen through. This has led 
the critics into a belief of its veracity, when a 
knowledge of its real character would have in- 
spired doubts. I believe that its accidental posi- 
tion in the first printed edition at the end of the 
" Judicia" (whether it be so placed in the MS. I 
know not) has assisted in the delusion, and has 
supplied a date to the minds of those who prefer 
faith to disquisition. The internal evidence of 
the document also shows that it is not jurispru- 
dence, but only a vision spun from the writer's 
own brains, of what he dreamed to be constitu- 
tional and legal characteristics of an anterior age, 
when there were greater liberty of action and 
expansion of mind. The opening words of them- 
selves contain the character of the document : 
" Hit waes hwilum." It is not a narrative of the 
present, but a record of the past. 

The legal poet then breaks freely into the dar- 
ling ornament of Anglo-Saxon song, alliteration : 
" On Engla lagum thset leod and lagum," and so on 
to the end. As ks contents are so well known and 
accessible, I will not quote them, but will merely 
give a running comment upon parts. " Gif ceorl 
getheah," &c. It may be doubted whether, even 
in occasional instances, the ceorl at any time pos- 
sessed under the Anglo-Saxon system the power 

of equalising himself by means of the acquisition 
of property, with the class of theguas or gentils- 
honimes. But in the broad way in which the 
poet states it, it may be absolutely denied, inas- 
much as the acquisition of wealth is made of itself 
to transform the ceorl into a thegn : a singular 
coincidence of idea with the vulgar modern 
theory, but incompatible with fact in an age when 
a dominant caste of gentlemen obtained. 

It is not until the reign of Edward III. that 
any man, not born a gentleman, can be distinctly 
traced in possession of the honours and dignities 
of the country ; an air of improbability is thus 
given which is increased by a verbal scrutiny. In. 
the words " gif thegen getheah thajt be wearth to 
eorle," &c., the use of the word eorl is most sus- 
picious. This is not the eorl of antiquity the 
Teutonic nobilis ; it is the official eorl of the 
Danish and ^wasi-Danish periods. This ana- 
chronism betrays the real date of the production, 
and carries us to the times succeeding the reign 
of Ethelred II., when the disordered and trans- 
itional state of the country may have excited in 
the mind of the disquieted writer a fond aspiration 
which he clothed in the fanciful garb of his own 
wishes, rather than that of the gloomy reality 
which he saw before him. 

The use of the word craft, for a vessel, like the 
modern, is to be found in the Andreas (v. 500.), a 
composition probably of the eleventh century. 

The conclusion points to troubled and late 
times of the Anglo-Saxon rule, when the church 
missed the reverence which had been paid to it in 
periods of peace and prosperity. 

I have said enough to show that this document 
cannot rank in accuracy or truthful value with 
the Rectitudines or the LL. of Hen. I. 

One word more. What is the meaning of burh- 
geat? Burhlcnn understand; authorities abound 
for its use as expressing the manoir of the Anglo- 
Saxon thegn. The " geneates riht" (Rectitudines) 
is " bytlian and burh hegegian." The ceorls of 
Dyddanham were bound to dyke the hedge of their 
lords' burh (" Consuetudines in Dyddanharnme," 
Kemb., vol. iii. App. p. 450.) : " And dicie gyrde 
burh heges." HL G. C. 


Eichhorn (Einleitung in das Alte Testament, iii. 
249.) in a note refers to a passage of Miiller's 
translations of Linnaeus, narrating the following 
remarkable accident : 

" In the year 1758, a seaman, in consequence of 
stormy weather, unluckily fell overboard from a 
frigate into the Mediterranean. A seal ( Seehund, not 
Hai, a shark) immediately took the man, swimming 
and crying for help, into its wide jaws. Other seamen 
sprang into a boat to help their swimming comrade ; 
and their captain, noticing the accident, had the pre- 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



sonce of mind to direct a gun to be fired from the deck 
at the fish, whereby he was fortunately so far struck 
(so getroffen wurde) that he spit out directly the seaman 
previously seized in his jaws, who was taken into the 
boat alive, and apparently little hurt. 

" The seal was taken by harpoons and ropes, and 
hauled into the frigate, and hung to dry in the cross- 
trees (quaere). The captain gave the fish to the sea- 
man who, by God's providence, had been so wonder- 
fully preserved ; and he made the circuit of Europe 
with it as an exhibition, and from France it came to 
Erlangen, Nuremburg, and other places, where it was 
openly shown. The fish was twenty feet long, with 
fins nine feet broad, and weighed 3,924 Ibs., and is 
illustrated in tab. 9. fig. 5. ; from all which it is very 
probably concluded, that this kind was the true Jonas- 

Bochart concurs in this opinion. 

Herman de Hardt (Programma de rebus Jonce, 
Helmst. 1719) considers that Jonah stopt at a 
tavern bearing the sign of the whale. 

Lesz (Vermischte Schriften, Th. i. S. 16.) thinks 
that a ship with a figure-head (Zeichen) of a whale 
took Jonah on board, and in three days put him 
ashore ; from which it was reported that the ship- 
whale had vomited (discharged) him. 

Eichhorn has noticed the above in his Intro- 
duction to the Old Testament (iii. 250.). 

An anonymous writer says that dag means a 
fish- boat ; and that the word which is translated 
whale, should have been preserver ; a criticism in- 
consistent with itself, and void of authority. 

The above four instances are the only hypo- 
theses at variance with the received text and in- 
terpretation worthy of notice : if indeed the case 
of the shark can be deemed at all at variance, as 
the term K-/JTOS was used to designate many differ- 
ent fishes. 

Jebb (Sacred Literature, p. 178.) says that the 
whale's stomach is not a safe and practicable 
asylum ; but 

" The throat is large, and provided with a bag or 
intestine so considerable in size that whales frequently 
take into it two of their young, when weak, especially 
during a tempest. In this vessel there are two vents, 
which serve for inspiration and expiration ; there, in 
all probability, Jonas was preserved." 

John Hunter compares the whale's tongue to a 
feather bed ; and says that the baleen (whalebone) 
and tongue together fill up the whole space of the 

Josephus describes the fish of Jonah as a /cTjroy, 
and fixes on the Euxine for the locality as an on 
dit (6 \6yos). The same word in reference to the 
same event is used by Epiphanius, Cedrenus, Za- 
narus, and Nicephorus. 

The Arabic version has the word (; (choono}, 

translated in Walton's Polyglott cetus ; but the 
word, according to Castell, means " a tavern," or 

" merchants' office." This may have led to Her- 
man de Hardt' s whim. 

The Targum of Jonathan, and the Syriac of 
Jonah, have both the identical word which was 
most probably used by our Lord, Noono, fish, the 
root signifying to be prolific, for which fishes are 
eminently remarkable. Dag, the Hebrew word, 
has the same original signification. 

The word used by our Lord, in adverting to His 
descent to Hades, was most probably that of the 

Syriac version, ]jQJ (noono), which means fish 
in Chaldee and Arabic, as well as in Syriac ; and 
corresponds to the Hebrew word JT {dag), fish, 
in Jonah i. 17., ii. 1. 10. The Greek of Matthew 
xii. 40., instead of ixQvs, has KTJTOS, a whale. The 
Septuagint has the same word /OJTOS for (1) dag in 
Jonah, as well as for (2) leviathan in Job iii. 8., 
and for (3) tanninim in Genesis i. 21. The error 
appears to be in the Septuagint of Jonah, where 
the particular fish, the whale, is mentioned instead 
of the general term fish. Possibly the disciples of 
Christ knew that the fish was a /ojroy, and the 
habits of such of them as were fishermen might 
have familiarised them with its description or 
form. It is certain that the KTJTOS of Aristotle, and 
cetus of Pliny, was one of the genus Cetacea, with- 
out gills, but with blow-holes communicating with 
the lungs. The disciples may also have heard the 
mythological story of Hercules being three days 
in the belly of the KTJTOS, the word used by ^Eneas 
Gazaeus, although Lycophron describes the animal 
as a shark, icdpxapos KVUV. 

" Tpicffirepov \e6vTos, '6v TTOTS yvdOois 
Tptrwvos r^uaAcuJ/e Kdpxapos KVWV." 

The remarkable event recorded of Jonah oc- 
curred just about 300 years before Lycophron 
wrote ; who, having doubtless heard the true 
story, thought it right to attribute it to Hercules, 
to whom all other marvellous feats of power, 
strength, and dexterity were appropriated by the 
mythologists. T. J. BUCKTON. 



(Vol. iii., pp. 187. 252.) 

Your " NOTES AND QUERIES " form the best 
specimen of a Conversations-Lexicon that I have 
yet met with ; and I regret that it was not in 
existence some years ago, having long felt the 
want of some such special and ready medium of 

In the old enclosures to the west of the town of 
Barton we had a spring of clear water called 
St. Trunnian's Spring ; and in our open field we 
had an old thorn tree called St. Trunnian's Tree, 
names that imply a familiar acquaintance with 
St. Trunnian here ; but I find no indication to 



[No. 97. 

show who St. Trunnian was. I am happy, how- 
ever, to find that your indefatigable correspondent 
DR. RIMBAULT, like myself, has had his attention 
called to the same unsatisfied Query. 

Paulinus, the first Bishop of York, was the first 
who preached Christianity in Lindsey ; yet St. 
Chad was the patron saint of Bai'ton and its im- 
mediate neighbourhood, and at times I have 
fancied that St. Trunnian might have been one of 
his coadjutors ; at other times I have thought he 
may have been some sainted person, posted here 
with the allied force under Anlaff, previous to the 
great battle of Brunannburg, which was fought in 
the adjoining parish in the time of Athelstan : but 
I never could meet with any conclusive notice, 
of St. Trunnian, or any particular account of him. 
Some years ago 1 was dining with a clerical friend 
in London, and then made known my anxiety, 
when he at once referred to the quotation made by 
DR. RIMBAULT from Appius and Virginia, as in 
Vol. iii., p. 187.; and my friend has since referred 
me to Heywood s play of The Four P's (Collier's 
edition of Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. i. p. 55.), 
where the Palmer is introduced narrating his 
pilgrimage : 
" At Saynt Toncumber and Saynt Tronion, 

At Saynt Bothulph and Saynt Ann of Buckston ;" 
inferring a locality for St. Tronion as well as St. 
Botulph, in Lincolnshire : and subsequently my 
friend notes that 

" Mr. Stephens, in a letter to the printer of the 
St. James's Chronicle, points out the following mention 
of St. Tronion in Geoffrey Fenton's Tragical Discourses, 
4to., 1567, fol. 1 14. b. : ' He (referring to some one 
in his narrative not named) returned in Haste to his 
Lodgynge, where he attended the approche of his 
Hower of appointment wyth no lesse Devocyon than 
the papystes in France perform their ydolatrous Pil- 
grimage to the ydol Saynt Tronyon upon the Mount 
Avyon besides Roan.' " 

Should these minutes lead to further informa- 
tion, it will give me great pleasure, as I am anxious 
to elucidate, as far as I can, the antiquities of my 
native place. 

Mr. Jaques lives at a place called St. Trinnians, 
near to Richmond in Yorkshire ; but I have not 
the History of Richmondshire to refer to, so as to 
see whether any notice of our saint is there taken 
under this evident variation of the same appel- 
lation. WM. S. HESLEDEN. 

Barton-upon-H umber, Aug. 29. 1851. 


Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor (Vol. iv., 
pp.9. 137.). L. M. says that the precedent of 
Mr. Harley being sworn of the Privy Council 
does not prove the argument advanced by C., and 
" for this simple reason, that the individual who 

held the office is not Right Honorable, but the 
officer is" What he means by the office (of privy 
councillor) is not clear ; but surely he does not 
mean to say that it is not the rank of privy coun- 
cillor which gives the courtesy style of Right 
Honorable ? If so, can a man be a member of 
the Council till he is sworn at the board ? 

Is the Lord Mayor a member of the Board, not 
having been sworn ? Is he ever summoned to any 
Council ? When he attends a meeting on the 
occasion of the accession, is he summoned ? and if 
so, by whom, and in what manner? The Lord 
Mayor is certainly not a privy councillor by rea- 
son of his courtesy style of Lord, any more than 
the Lord Mayor of York. 

The question is, whether the style of Right 
Honorable was given to the Lord Mayor from 
the supposition that he was a privy councillor, or 
from the fact that formerly the Lord Mayor was 
considered as holding the rank of a Baron ; for if 
he died during his mayoralty, he was buried with 
the rank, state, and degree of Baron. 

When does it appear that the style of Right 
Honorable was first given to the Lord Mayor of 
London ? E. 

Did Bishop Gibson write a Life of Cromwell f 
(Vol. iv., p. 117.). In the Life of the Rev. Isaac 
Kimber, prefixed to his Sermons, London, 1756, 
8vo., it is stated that 

" One of the first productions he gave to the world 
was the Life of Oliver Cromwell in 8vo., printed for 
Messrs. Brotherton and Cox. This piece met with a 
very good reception from the public, and has passed 
through several editions, universally esteemed for its 
style and its impartiality ; and as the author's name 
was not made public, though it was always known to 
his friends, it was at first very confidently ascribed to 
Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London." P. 10. 

The Life of Kimber appears to have been writ- 
ten by Edward Kimber, his son, and therefore the 
claim of Bishop Gibson to this work may very 
fairly be set aside. 

The Short Critical Review of the Life of Oliver 
Cromwell, by a Gentleman of the Middle Temple, 
has always been attributed to John Bankes, an 
account of whom will be found in Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet., vol. iii. p. 422., where it is confidently 
stated to be his. It was first published in 1739, 
8vo. I have two copies of a third edition, Lond. 
1747. 12mo. " Carefully revised and greatly en- 
larged in every chapter by the author." In one 
of the copies the title-page states it to be " by a 
gentleman of the Middle Temple ; " and in the 
other " by Mr. Bankes." Bishop Gibson did not 
die till 1748, and there seems little probability 
that, if he were the author, another man's name 
would be put to it during his lifetime. 

I conclude therefore that neither of these two 
works are by Bishop Gibson. JAS. CROSSLEY. 

SEPT. 6. 1851.] 



Lines on the Temple (Vol. iii., pp. 450. 505.). 
In the Gentleman s Mag. (Suppl. for 1768, p. 621.), 
the reviewer of a work entitled " Cobleriana, or 
the Coblers Miscellany, being a choice collection 
of the miscellaneous pieces in prose and verse, 
serious and comic, by Jobson the Cobler, of Drury 
Lane, 2 vols.," gives the following extract ; but 
does not state whether it belongs to the " new " 
pieces, or to those which had been previously 
" published in the newspapers," the volume being 
avowedly composed of both sorts : 
" An Epigram on the Lamb and Horse, the two insignia 

of the Societies of the Temple. 
" The Lamb the Lawyers' innocence declares, 
The Horse their expedition in affairs ; 
Hail, happy men ! for clausing two such types 
As plainly shew they give the world no wipes ; 
For who dares say that suits are at a stand, 
When two such virtues both go hand in hand ? 
No more let Chanc'ry Lane he endless counted, 
Since they're by Lamb and Horse so nobly mounted." 
The Italics, which I have copied, were, I sup- 
pose, put in by the reviewer, who adds, " Q. Whether 
the Lamb and Horse are mounted upon Chancery 
Lane, or two virtues, or happy men ?" Poor man! 
I am afraid his Query has never been answered ; 
for that age was not adorned and illustrated by 
any work