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of Jnter-Cmnmum'iation 


'When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CLTTIE. 














" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. V. No. 114.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 3. 1852. 

C Price Fourpence. 
I Stamped Edition 


Our Fifth Volume . 

- 1 

Stops, when first introduced, by Sir Henry Ellis - - 1 

Preaching from Texts in Cornwall, by E. Smirke - 2 

On the Expression " Richly deserved," by D. Jardine - 3 
The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney, &c. - -3 

Admonition to the Parliament, by J. Payne Collier - 4 
Folk Lore : New Year's Rain ; Saxon Spell Fisher- 
men's Superstitions - - - - - 5 
The Author of Hudibras at Ludlow Castle, by Peter 

Cunningham - - - - - 5 

Dr. Franklin's Tract on Liberty and Necessity, by Jas. 

Crossley -____._6 
Early Flemish Illustrations of Early English Literature, 

by William J. Thorns - - - - G 

Minor Notes : Family Likenesses Bloomerism in the 
Sixteenth Century Inscriptions at Much Wenlock 
and on Statue of Queen Anne at Windsor - - 7 


The Age of Trees The Great Elm at Hampstead, bv 

John Bruce --.__"_ g 

&L Minor Queries: " Invent portum ; " " For they, 'twas 
they " _ Matthew Walker Aleclenegate Smother- 
ing Hydrophobic Patients Philip Twisden, Bishop of 
Raphoe " Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative," edited 
by Miss Jane Porter Clerical Members of Parliament- 
Aliens of Rossull Number of the Children of Israel 
Computatio Eccles. Anglic Martinique, &c. - 
MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED : Mutabilitie of France 
Caldoriana Societas Millers of Meath Kissing 
under the Mistletoe Trinity Chapel, Knightsbride 

"Please the Pigs " Meaning of Barnacles The 
Game of Curling - - _ _ . - 12 

REPLIES : ^ -.-"-^fC^M-j 

Saint Irene and the Island r m of Santorin, by Sir J. E. 

Tennent - _ _ . 1. .14 

The Old Countess of Desmond Who was she? No II. 14 
Collar of SS., by Edward Foss, &c. - - -16 

, Replies to Minor Queries : Trcgonwel! Frampton 
Longueville MSS. Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell 

Pope and Flatman Voltaire Tudur Aled Latin 
Verse on Franklin,.,. - . . _ . jg 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. - - - J8 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - -i is 
Notices to Correspondents 

Advertisements - .... 19 

- 10 


Although We cannot commence our Fifth Volume, 
and the First of our enlarged Series, without some re- 
ference to so important an event in the history of 
" NOTES AND QUERIES," our address shall be as brief 
as the posey of a ring." We heartily and earnestly 
express our thanks to all our friends, whether Con- 
tibutors or Readers, for the favour they have shown 
us, and the encouragement and support which have 
rendered the enlargement of our paper necessary. We 
VoL.V. No. 11 4. 

entered upon our course with the support of many dis- 
tinguished friends, whose varied acquirements stamped 
an immediate value on " NOTES AND QUERIES," and 
gave it a character which raised it to its present po- 
sition among the periodicals of the country. The 
present number bears witness for us, that whilst we 
have retained our old friends, which we acknowledge 
with pride and thankfulness, we have added to the 
number many new ones. We have striven, and shall 
ever continue to strive, to unite them together into one 
goodly band, feeling assured that by that union we 
bring into the pages of " NOTES AND QUERIES" the 
learning, kindliness, aptitude, and diversity of talent 
and subject, which are necessary to ensure its useful- 
ness, and therefore its success. To all our Friends and 
Contributors, both old and new, we offer in their se- 
veral degrees the tribute of our grateful thanks, and 
our heartiest wishes that we may pass together MANT 



In casually looking into a little work entitled 
The Tablet of Memory, I found an entry which 
informed me that " stops in literature were intro- 
duced in 1520: the colon, 1580; semicolon, 1599." 

Upon what authority the dates here quoted may 
have been supposed to rest, I have no notion. 

The comma, beyond question I believe, has been 
derived from the short oblique line which, both in 
manuscripts and in early printed books, is con- 
tinually seen to divide portions of sentences. 

The colon is of very old date, derived from the 
Kca\ov of the Greeks, the part of a period. In 
printing, we find it in the Mazarine Bible soon 
after 1450 ; and in the block books, believed to be 
of still earlier date. 

Herbert, in his edition of Ames's Typographical 
Antiquities, p. 512., notices the first semicolon 
he had met with in an edition of Myles Cover- 
dale's New Testament, printed in 1538 by 
Richard Grafton. It was in the Dedication, and, 
he says, a solitary instance in the book. The only 


[No. 114. 

semicolon he subsequently met with, was in a book 
printed by Thomas Marshe in 1568, on Chess. 
Ibid. p. 358. 

Herbert says, both seem to have been used 

Puttenham, in his Arte of English Poesie, 4to., 
1589, in his chapter of " Cesure," says : 

" The ancient reformers of language invented these 
names of pauses, one of lesse leasure than another, and 
such several intermissions of sound, to serve (besides 
easement to the breath) for a treble distinction of sen- 
tences or parts of speach, as they happened to be more 
or lesse perfect in sense. The shortest pause, or inter- 
mission, they called comma, as who would say a piece 
of a speech cut off. The second they called colon, not 
a piece, but as it were a member, for his larger length, 
because it occupied twice as much time as the comma. 
The third they called periodus, for a complement or 
full pause, and as a resting place and perfection of so 
much former speech as had been uttered, and from 
whence they needed not to passe any further, unless it 
were to renew more matter to enlarge the tale." 

The " three pauses, comma, colon, and periode," 
with the interrogative point, appear to have been 
all which were known to Puttenham. 

Puttenham's Arte of Poesie has been already 
mentioned as printed in 1589. In the Countess of 
Pembroke's Arcadia, printed by W. Ponsonby in 
the very next year, 1590, the semicolon may be 
seen in the first page. 

A book printed at Edinburgh in 1594 has not 
the semicolon ; the use of it had not, apparently, 
arrived in Scotland. 

That an earlier use of the semicolon had been 
made upon the Continent is probable. It occurs 
in the Sermone di Beato Leone Papa, 4to., Flor. 
1485, the last point in the book. 

The interrogative point, or note of interroga- 
tion, probably derived from the Greek, occurs 
frequently in Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique, 4to. 

Some reader of your " NOTES AND QUERIES," 
better informed than myself, may possibly throw 
further light upon the English adoption of stops 
in literature. HENRY ELLIS. 


Your correspondents have already pointed out 
the very early prevalence of this usage, but the 
inquiry has brought to my recollection an instance 
which incidentally affords some curious informa- 
tion respecting the several languages formerly 
current in the western parts of this island. It 
was lately published, among numerous other ex- 
tracts, from the registers of the see of Exeter, in 
the valuable Monasticon Dicscesis Exoniensis of 
Dr. Oliver, pp.11, 12. 

In 1336, Grandison, then Bishop of Exeter, 
made a visitation of his diocese. At the western 

extremity of it, is situate the deanery or collegiate 
church of St.. Burian, which has always claimed 
to be exempt from episcopal visitation, or at least 
from ordinary jurisdiction. It is probable that, 
on one occasion of this disputed exemption, the 
parishioners of this remote district at the Land's 
End had given offence to the Bishop or his func- 

In company with the Lords Mortimer, D' Awney, 
and Bloyhon (probably an ancestor of your corre- 
spondent BLOWEN), and a large staff of archdea- 
cons, chancellors, canons, chaplains, and familiars, 
the Bishop visited the church of St. Burian, and 
obtained from the parishioners a solemn promise 
of future obedience to his spiritual authority. 
The promise was made by the greater parishioners 
in English and French, and by the rest in Cornish, 
which the rector of St. Just (a parish which has 
lately obtained some celebrity by the Gorham 
controversy) interpreted to his lordship. Having 
absolved them, he then preached a long sermon 
on the text, " Eratis sicut oves errantes conversi 

pastorem episcopum animarum vestrarum" which 
the rector of St. Just then interpreted in Cornish. 

It is not stated in the record what language was 
used by the Bishop in his sermon ; but if he 
preached, as one of his successors, Bishop Lacy, is 
known to have done, in the language of his text, 
the business of explanation must have been rather 
troublesome. As he is said to have "successively" 
preached this sermon there, "successive ibidem 
publice prcedicavit supra sumpto themate" it is 
possible that he had to repeat his sermon in more 
languages than one. It is at all events certain, 
that three languages at least were employed, and 
that the Bishop did not understand Cornish, nor 
the Cornish men the Bishop. The names of the 
" major parishioners," that is, of the gentlemen of 
the district, are appended to the document, and 
are all (except perhaps one) genuine Cornish 
families, including the Boscawens and Vyvyans of 
the present day. They gave in their adhesion to 
the Bishop in English "and French, and must 
therefore have understood one or both of those 
languages. Of the Bishop's chaplains, only one 
has a Cornish name ; and the interpreter and 
rector of the adjacent parish of St. Just, Henry 
Marseley, was also probably not a Cornubian. 

I may mention that the penitent parishioners 
very prudently reserved the king's rights. As 
the king claimed the deanery of St. Burian as a 
royal peculiar exempt from ordinary jurisdiction, 
and eventually made good his claim, it is plain 
that neither the promises of the parishioners nor 
the polyglot sermon of the Bishop, could have had 
any lasting effect. The patronage was soon after 
conferred on the Black Prince, and through him 
transmitted to the present Duke of Cornwall, by 
whose spontaneous act this obnoxious exemption 
from episcopal control was wholly and for ever 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 


renounced within the last two years. The suc- 
cessor of Grandison may now, therefore, visit the 
churches of the deanery, excommunicate the 
ministers and parishioners, and interrogate pre- 
sentees, without let or hindrance ; and, since the 
language of Cornwall died with old Dolly Pen- 
treath, his lordship will not require the herme- 
neutic services either of the present or the late 
incumbent of St. Just. E. SMIRKE. 


I was a few days ago induced to consider whence 
the common expression "richly deserved" could 
be derived. It is used by Addison and his con- 
temporaries, but I have not been able to find it in 
writers of an earlier period. Possibly the reading 
of some of your contributors may supply instances 
of its occurrence which may prove more precisely 
its origin and history. 

The phrase, in its literal sense, is anomalous and 
unmeaning. We may properly say that a reward 
or punishment has been "fullv deserved;" or, by 
a common mode of exaggeration, we may say that 
a thing has been "abundantly deserved :" but 
" richly deserved " seems a false figure of speech, 
and presents to the mind an obvious incongruity 
of ideas. Dr. Johnson cites a passage from Addi- 
son, in which chastisement is said to have been 
" richly deserved," and says that it is used ironi- 
cally to signify " truly " or " abundantly." 

Of the meaning of the expression now by 
usage become trivial there can, of course, be no 
<loubt; but how came so inappropriate a thought 
as wealth to be applied to desert ? The inaptitude 
of the expression suggests the presumption that it 
is a corruption of some more correct phrase ; and 
I venture to throw out a conjecture, for confirma- 
tion or refutation by the more extensive reading 
of some of your philological contributors, that it 
is corrupted through the medium of oral pronun- 
ciation from " righteously deserved." 

In one of the prayers of the Litany, in our Book 
of Common Prayer, is the expression, " Turn from 
us all those evils which we most righteously have 
deserved." " Righteously " is itself a barbarous 
corruption of an excellent English word, " right- 
wisely," which is used by Bishop Fisher and other 
old writers. Our ancient kings were said to be 
" rightwise " kings of England, and to hold their 
prerogatives and titles " rightwisely ;" and in 
the Liturgies of Edward VI. the word " right- 
wisely" is found, instead of "righteously," inthe 
prayer of the Litany above-mentioned. Now 
" rightwisely deserved " is an expression as strictly 
logical and correct, as " richly deserved " is the 
contrary; and as " righteously " is clearly a cor- 
ruption of "rightwisely," may" not "richly." when 
applied to desert, be corrupted immediatelv from 
righteously," and ultimately from "rijjht wisely?" 



If I were to print the explanation which follows 
without also producing evidence that it had 
escaped the notice of those to whose works all 
students in early English bibliography have re- 
course, it would seem like advancing a claim to 
discovery on very slight grounds. I must there- 
fore quote Ames, Herbert, and Dibdin. 

" Tke history of Lombardy, translated from the Latin 
[by William Carton], is mentioned by Pitts." J. 
AMES, 1749. 

" I take this History of Lonibardy to be no other 
than ' the gestis of the Lombardes and of Machomet 
wyth other cronycles,' added to the life of St. Pelagyen 
in the Golden legend, and printed separately for the 
use of the commonality [sic], who could not purchase so 
large a folio." W. HERBERT, 1785; T. F. DIBDIK, 1810. 

Both Bale and Pits ascribe to Caxton the 
translation of a work entitled Historia Lumhardiea. 
Ames, as we have seen, states the fact with regard 
to Pits, but had met with no such work ; Herbert, 
by way of explanation, assumes the existence of a 
publication of which no one had before heard ; 
and Dibdin, who had fur superior means of in- 
formation, repeats the observations of Herbert 
without the addition of one word expressive of 
assent or dissent. May we not infer their inability 
to solve the problem ? 

The conjecture of Herbert is very plausible. 
One fact, however, is worth a score of conjectures ; 
and the fact, in this case, is that in the earlier 
editions of the Latin legend the title is Legenda 
sanctorum sine historia Longobardica. Jacques de 
Voragine, the author of the work in question, was a 
Lombard by birth, and archbishop of Genoa. Now 
Lombardi and Longobardi were synonymous terms 
as we see in Du Fresne ; and so were their de- 
rivatives. With this explanation, it must be admit- 
ted that the Historia Lumbardica of Bale and Pits is 
no other than the Golden legend! BOLTOX COBKHT. 

Since my last communication, I have ascer- 
tained that "Caxton" in Cambridgeshire was also 
designated "Causton." 

In the Abbrev. Rot. Origin., 41 E. 3., Rot. 42., 
we have 

" Cantabr Johes Freville dat viginti marcas p lie 
feoffandi Johem de Carleton et Johem de Selvle de 
man'io de Causton" &c. 

And in Col. Inq., p. m., 4 R. 2., No. 23., we have 
" Elena uxor Johes Frevill Chr. Caxton maner 3 a 
pars Cantabr. " 

We have, then, in Cambridgeshire "Causton" 
and " Caxton" used indifferently for the same 
manor. There need be no difficulty, therefore, in 
identifying the name of "Caxton" with "Causton" 
manor in Hadlow. 

We have advanced, then, one step further in 
our investigation, and the case at present stands 
thus : Caxton says of himself that he was born in 


[No. 114 

the Weald of Kent. Fuller, as cited by MR. 
BOLTON COBNEY, says, " William Caxton was born 
in that town [sc. Caxton]." 

In the Weald of Kent is a manor called Causton 
(to which we may now add) alias Caxton, which 
manor was owned in the middle of the fourteenth 
century by a family of the same name (from whom 
it had passed a century later), and held of the 
honour of Clare, the lords of which honour, in the 
fifteenth century, were that ducal and royal house, 
by which William Caxton was warmly patronised. 

From these data we will hope that some of your 
correspondents may deduce materials for satisfac- 
torily fixing the place of Caxton's birth. Is there 
upon record any note of armorial bearings, or of 
any badge used by Caxton ? Should there be, 
and we find such to be at all connected with the 
bearings of the lords of Causton, it will be additional 
evidence in our favour. LAMBERT B. LARKING^ 

In the body of St. Alphege Church, Canterbury, 
is the following monumental inscription : 

" Pray for the sawlys of John Caxtou and of Jone 

And Isabel that to this church great good hath done 

In making new in the chancell 

Of Dexkys and Setys aswell 

An Antiphon the which did bye 

With a table of the martyrdome of St. Alphye 

Forthing much which did pay 

And departed out of this life of October the 12 day 

And Isabel his second wiff 

Passed to blisse where is no strife 

The xij 1 day to tell the trowth 

Of the same moneth as our Lord knoweth 

In the yeare of our Lord God a thousand fower 
hundred fowerscore and five." 

What relation (if any) was the above to the 
typographer ? They must have been co-existent, 
and the " Note " may perhaps be a step in the 
ri<rht direction for arriving at the true "stock" of 

the Caxton Coffer. 



I never had the good fortune to see a copy of 
the book called An Admonition to the Parliament, 
but I find a full description of it in Herbert's 
Ames, iii. 1631, under the date of 1572, from 
which I gather that it had been printed four 
times anterior to that year. It was written by 
two puritanical divines, Field and Wilcox, and 
contained such an attack upon the bishops, that 
they did their utmost to suppress it ; but Whitgift, 
nevertheless, gave it additional notoriety by pub- 
lishing an answer to it, which came out originally 
in 15*71, and was reprinted in 1572 and 1573 
(Herbert's Ames, ii. 934.). I have not Strype 
at hand to see what he says about the Admonition, 
an 1 the reply to it ; but some time ago I met with 
a letter among the Lansdown MSS. (No. 27.) 
wliich relates to the Admonition, and shows that 

Thomas Woodcock, a well known stationer, had 
been confined in Newgate by the Bishop of 
London (Aylmer) for selling it. It is dated 9th 
Dec. 1578, and is subscribed by five of the most 
distinguished and respectable printers and pub- 
lishers of that day, soliciting Lord Burghley (to 
whom it is addressed) to interfere on behalf of 
the poor prisoner. It runs precisely in the follow- 
ing form : 

" Our humble duties unto your good L. pre- 
mised. May it please the same to be advertised, 
that one Thomas Woodcock, an honest young man, 
and one of our Company, hathe bin imprisoned in 
Newgate by the L. Bishopp of London theis six 
dayes, for sellinge of certaine bookes called the 
Admonition to the Parliament. Dy vers of the poore 
mans frendes have bin earnest suitors unto the 
Bishopp of London for his libertie : his L. 
aunswere unto them is, that he neither can nor 
will do any thinge without your L. consent, sig- 
nified by your letters or warrant. It may ther- 
fore please your honor, in consideration of the 
premisses and our humble request, either to direct 
your L. warrant for his enlargment, or els to 
signifie your pleasure unto the L. Bishopp of 
London to take order herein accordingly, the said 
poore man first puttinge in sufficient bond to 
appeare at all tymes when he shalbe called, and 
readdy to aunswere to any matters whatsoever 
shalbe objected against him. Thus prayinge, 
accordinge to our duties, for your good L. long 
and prosperous health with encrease of honor, we 
commyt the same for this tyme to the protection 
of the Almightie. At London, 9 Decemb. 1578. 

" Your L. most humble at Command the Mr. 
and Wardens with others of the Company of 



From the above we may perhaps conclude, that 
an edition of the Admonition to Parliament had 
been printed not long before the date of Thomas 
Woodcock's imprisonment for selling it ; but I do 
not find that any historian or bibliographer men- 
tions such an edition. Excepting in the letter of 
the five stationers, Tottyll, Bysshop, Haryson, 
Seres, and Daye, there seems to be no authority 
for connecting Woodcock with the publication, and 
his confinement did not take place until Dec. 6, 
1578 ; whereas Neal, in his History of the Puritans, 
as cited by Herbert, informs us that Field and 
Wilcox, on presenting the Admonition to the 
House of Commons in 1572, were immediately 
committed to Newgate. 

Unless there were two puritanical ministers of 
the name of Field, he, who was imprisoned with 
Wilcox, was the John Field, who, I apprehend, was 
the father of Nathaniel Field, the actor in Shak- 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 


speare's plays, and of Theophilus Field, who (in 
spite of his father's hostility to the church and 
bishops, and in spite of his brother's devotion to 
the stage,) was afterwards Bishop of Llandaff from 
1619 to 1627, Bishop of St. David's from 1627 to 
1635, and Bishop of Hereford from 1635 to 1636, 
when he died. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 



New Years Rain Saxon Spell I have just 
read a good-natured notice * in The Athenaeum of 
December 6th, in which your contemporary sug- 

Sjsts that communications on the subject of Folk 
ore should be addressed to you. The perusal of 
it has reminded me of two Queries upon the sub- 
ject, which I had originally intended to address 
to the editor of that paper, as they refer to articles 
which appeared in his own pages. On his hint, 
however, I will transfer them to your columns ; 
and avail myself of the opportunity of thanking 
the editor of The Athenaum for having for so long 
a period and so effectually directed the attention 
of the readers of that influential journal to a sub- 
ject of great interest to many, and of considerable 
historical value. The first relates to a song sung 
by the children in South Wales on New Year's 
morning, when carrying a jug full of water newly 
drawn from the well. It is given in The Athe- 
nceum, No. 1058., for the 5th Feb., 1848, and there 
several references will be found to cognate super- 
stitions. My object is to ask if the song is known 
elsewhere ; and if so, whether with any such va- 
rieties of readings as would clear some of the ob- 
scurities of the present version : 

" Here we bring new water 

From the well so clear, 

For to worship God with 

This happy New Year. 

Sing levez devr, sing levez dew, 

The water and the wine ; 
The seven bright gold wires 

And the bugles they do shine. 
"Sing reign of Fair Maid 

With gold upon her toe, 
Open you the West Door, 

And let the Old Year go. 
Sing reign of Fair Maid, 

With gold upon her chin, 
Open you the East Door, 

And let the New Year in." 

The second is from The Athenaeum's very able 
review of Mr. Kemble's Saxons in England, a 

* We should not be doing justice either to our own 
feelings or to the kindness and liberality of our able 
and most influential contemporary, if we did not take 
this opportunity of acknowledging not only his kindness 
upon the present occasion, but also the encouragement 
which The Athenaeum has taken every opportunity of 
affording to "NOTES AND QUERIES." ED. N. & Q. 

work of learning and genius not yet nearly so 
well known as it deserves. The reviewer says : 

" In one of the Saxon spells, which Mr. Kemble 
has inserted in his appendix, we at once recognized a 
rhyme which we have heard an old woman in our 
childhood use and in which many Saxon words, un- 
intelligible to her, were probably retained." 

If my communication should meet the eye of 
the gentleman who wrote this, I hope he will let 
the readers of " NOTES AND QUERIES " become 
acquainted with the rhyme in question. For it 
is obvious that among them will be found many 
who agree with him that " a very curious and 
useful compilation might be made of the various 
spells in use in different parts of England, classed 
according to their localities, more especially if 
the collectors would give them verbatim," and 
who would therefore be willing to assist towards 
its formation. A FoLK-LoRisx. 

Fishermen's Superstitions. A friend recently 
informed me that at Preston Pans the two follow- 
ing superstitious observances exist among the 
fishermen of that place. If, on their way to their 
boats, they meet a pi^, they at once turn back and 
defer their embarkation. The event is an omen 
that bodes ill for their fishery. 

It is a favourite custom to set sail on the Sun- 
day for the fishing grounds. A clergyman of 
the town is said to pray against their sabbath- 
breaking ; and to prevent any injury accruing 
from his prayers, the fishermen make a small 
image of rags, and burn it on the top of their 
chimneys. U. 


So little is known of Butler, his life, as his 
biographers have given it to us, is made up of so 
very few anecdotes and dates, that I have 
thought any Note which contained afact about him, 
would be an acceptable addition to "N. Q." 
(I shall value your space, you see, in future con- 
tributions). The following entries are copied 
from Lord Carbery's Account of the Expense 
incurred in making Ludlow Castle habitable after 
Clarendon's "Great Rebellion" (query, Civil War) ; 
and the entries are valuable as specifying the 
period of Butler's services as steward of Ludlow 
Castle, and the nature of the services performed 
by the great wit : 
" For sundry supplyes of furniture 

paid for by Mr. Samuell Butler, 

late Steward, from January, 1661, 

to January, 1662, ix u . ij s . v d ., and 

more by him paid to sundry Bra- 

siers, Pewterers, and Coopers, vj u . 

vij s . iij d . In both - xv 1 '. ix*. viij d . 

" For sundry other supplyes of fur- 
niture paid for by Mr. Edward Lloyd 


[No. 114. 

clx 11 . xiiij 8 . x 

x ix s . ix d . 

d " 

the succeeding Steward, from Jan- 
uary, 1662, to January, 1667 
" For several Bottles,' Corkes, and 
Glasses, bought by Mr. Butler, late 
Steward, from January, 1661, to 
January, 1662, vj". x"iij s . j d ., and 
for two Saddles and furniture for 
the Caterer and Slaughterman, xxvj*. 
viij d . In both - 

"" I was at Ludlow Castle last autumn, and thought 
(of course) of Comas and Ifudibras. I bought at 
the same time the three parts of my friend Mr. 
Wright's excellent History of Ludlow Castle, and 
paid in advance for the concluding part. Pray let 
me ask Mr. Wright (through " N. & Q.") by 
what time (I am a hungry antiquary) we may 
hope the concluding part will be published? 
I will gladly show Mr. Wright Lord Carbery's 





In Dr. Franklin's Autobiography, he mentions as 
his first work a pamphlet printed in London in 
1725 on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. 
It was written by him when he was eighteen years 
of age, and partly in answer to Wollaston's 
Religion of Nature. The object was to prove, 
from the attributes of God, his infinite wisdom, 
goodness, and power, that nothing could possibly 
be wrong in the world ; and that vice and virtue 
were empty distinctions, no such things existing. 
He printed, he says, only a hundred copies, of 
which he gave a few to his friends; and after- 
wards disliking the piece, as conceiving it might 
have an ill tendency, he burnt the rest except one 
copy. This tract, most curious as the first publi- 
cation of this extraordinary man, seems to have 
eluded hitherto every search. In Jared Sparks's 
elaborate edition of Dr. Franklin's Works in 
10 vols., it is of course not to be found. In a 
note (vol. viii., p. 405.), the editor observes, " No 
copy of this tract is now known to bi 1 in existence." 
Nor do I find that any writer on the subject of 
Franklin, or the history of metaphysics, or moral 
philosophy, appears to have seen it. Sir Jas. 
Mackintosh was long in search of it, but was com- 
pelled ultimately to give it up in despair. 

I am happy to inform those who may take an 
interest in Dr. Franklin's first performance and 
what is there in literary history more attractive 
than to compare the earliest Avorks of great men 
with their maturer efforts? that I fortunately pos- 
sess a copy of this tract. It is bound up in a 
volume of tracts, and came from the library of the 
Rev. S. Harper. The title is, " A Dissertation on 
Liberty 'and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, in a 
Letter to a Friend: 

1 Whatever is, is in its causes just, 
Since all things are by fate; but purblind man 
Sees but a part o' th' chain, the nearest link, 
His eyes not carrying to the equal beam, 
That poises all above.' DBYD." 

It is addressed to Mr. J(ames) R(alph), and 
commences : " Sir, I have here, according to your 
request, given you my present thoughts on the 
general state of things in the universe ;" and con- 
cludes, " Truth will be truth, though it sometimes 
proves mortifying and distasteful." The pamphlet 
contains sixteen very closely printed pages in 
octavo ; and the author proceeds by laying down 
his propositions, and then enlarging upon them, 
so as to form, in his opinion, a regular chain of 
consequences. It displays, as might be anticipated, 
considerable acuteness, though the reasonings, as 
he admits in his Autobiography, were such as to his- 
maturer intellect appeared inconclusive. He sub- 
sequently wrote another pamphlet, in which he 
took the other side of the question ; but it was 
never published, and I suppose is not now in 
existence. JAS. CROSSLEY- 


The commencement of a new volume of " 
AND QUERIES" affords a favourable opportunity 
for " tapping " (to use an expressive phrase of 
Horace Walpole's) a subject, on which it is rea- 
sonable to suppose much light may be thrown by 
some of your learned correspondents. I allude to- 
the connection which formerly subsisted between 
the literature of England, and that of the Low 
Countries. Fortunate, indeed, would it be if any 
communication to " NOTES AND QUERIES" might 
be the means of drawing some illustration from 
one qualified beyond all others to treat every 
branch of this most interesting subject. Those of 
your readers who had the pleasure of hearing the 
admirable speech of a distinguished diplomatist at 
the Centenary Dinner of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, will probably understand to whom I refer. 

Reserving for a future occasion some observa- 
tions on the manner in which our English anti- 
quaries have hitherto overlooked the materials 
illustrative of our popular literature, our popular 
superstitions, our early drama, our legends, and 
our traditions, which may be had for the gather- 
ing, from the popular literature, the popular 
superstitions, the early drama, the legends and 
traditions of the Low Countries those Low 
Countries from which Chaucer married his wife 
those Low Countries from which Caxton brought us 
his printing-press, and its long train of blessings 
those Low Countries, in which, as I believe, and 
hope one day to prove, Shakspeare himself added 
to his vast stores of knowledge I shall for the 
present content myself with one example, and 



that shall be a seasonable one, namely, of the 
similarity between the old Flemish carols, and 
those with which, at this happy season, the nights 
were whilom blest here in Old England. 

Hoffman von Fallersleben, in the second part 
of his Horcs Belgicce, that great storehouse of 
materials for illustrating the early literature of 
the Netherlands (and which second part, by the 
bye, was separately published under the title of 
Holldndische Volkslieder}, after showing that the 
sacred songs of the Low Countries are, like our 
own, separable into Christmas carols, Easter 
hymns, songs in praise of the Virgin, and songs 
of Christian doctrine, proceeds to characterise the 
former in terms in which one might well describe 
many of those which were formerly most popular 
in our country. " The carols," he remarks, " are 
especially deserving of our attention. In them is 
most clearly shown the child-like religious spirit of 
the olden times, when men were not content merely 
to relate in the simple ballad form the story of 
Our Saviour's birth as recorded in Holy Scripture, 
but sought, by the introduction of little touches 
drawn from social and country life, to make that 
story more attractive and more instructive, and so 
to bring it home more directly to the hearts of 
their pious hearers." How truly applicable these 
remarks are to many of our own carols, must be 
obvious to all who know Mr. Sandys' valuable 
Collection; and the following instances, which 
Hoffman adduces in support of his views, will, I 
trust, satisfy your readers that I am right in 
maintaining the great resemblance between the 
carols of Old Flanders and those of Old England. 

" Many of the descriptions in these carols," he 
remarks, "bear a strong resemblance to some of 
the Bible pictures of the old masters;" and he gives, 
as an instance, the following simple picture of the 
Infant Jesus in the bath : 

" ' The mother she made the child a bath, 
How lovely then therein it sate ; 
The childling so platched with its hand 
That the water out of the beaker sprang.'* 

" But sometimes these religious poetical feelings 
impress themselves so deeply in their subject, 
that the descriptions verge closely upon the 
ludicrous : 
" ' Mary did not herself prepare 

With cradle-clothes to her hand there, 
In which her dear child to wind. 
Soon as Joseph this did find, 
His hosen from his legs he drew, 
Which to this day at Aix thev show, 
And with them those holy clothes did make 
In which God first man's form did take.' 
" It is true that we look upon these descriptions 
with modern eyes, not taking into consideration 

* The version is, of course, as nearly literal as possible. 

that our manners and customs, that our general 
views, in short, are not at all times in unison with 
those of the fifteenth century. But even if we 
are always right in these and similar cases, still 
we cannot deny that there often lies in these old 
poems what we, notwithstanding we are in the 
possession of the most exquisite skill, cannot at all 
reach, an infinite naivete, a touching simplicity. 
Especially rich in this respect are the songs which 
describe the night of the Holy Family into Egypt : 

" * Joseph he did leap and run, 
Until an ass's foal he won, 
Whereon he set the maiden mild, 
And with her that most blessed child.' 

" The whole idyllic life which they led in that 
country is told to us in a few unpretending traits : 

" * Joseph he led the ass, 
The bridle held he ; 
What found they by the way, 
But a date tree ? 

Oh ! ass's foal thou must stand still, 
To gather dates it is our will, 

So weary are we. 
The date tree bowed to the earth, 

To Mary's knee ; 
Mary would fill her lap 

From the date tree. 
Joseph was an old man, 
And wearied was he ; 
Mary, let the date tree bide, 
We have yet forty miles to ride, 

And late it will be. 
Let us pray this blessed child 

Grant, us merck .' 

" Nay, these simple songs even inform us how 
the Holy Family laboured for their subsistence in 
this 'strange countree :' 

" ' Mary, that maiden dear. 

Well could she spin ; 
Joseph as a carpenter, 
Could his bread win. 
When Joseph was grown old, 
That no longer work he could, 

The thread he wound, 
And Jesus to rich and poor 
Carried it round.' " 


Family Likenesses. I believe that a likeness 
always exists in members of the same family, 
though it may not always be seen, arid, even then, 
not by everybody. I have seen at times a striking 
likeness in a pretty face to that of a plain one in 
the same family. 

In one of the Edinburgh Journals (Chambers') 
a stranger is said to have remarked the likeness 



[No. 114. 

to the portraits of Sir William Wallace'of a passer- 
by, and was then informed by his companion that 
he was a descendant. 

I am witness of a strong likeness in a young 
man, born in 1832, to the portrait of his great- 
great-uncle, born in 1736, which carries back 
the inherited likeness to the latter's father, who 
was born in 1707, and married 1730. It is no 
mere fancy of my own, but has been noticed by 
several on seeing the portrait. A. C. 

Bloomerism in the Sixteenth Century. Hap- 
pening to pitch upon the following extract, I forward 
it to you in the belief that it may, at the present 
time, have an interest for some of your readers : 

" I have met with some of these trulles in London 
so disguised that it hath passed my skille to discerne 
whether they were men or women." Hollinshed, 
Description of England. 

X. X. X. 

Inscriptions at Much Wenloch and on Statue of 
Queen Anne at Windsor. Carved in a beam over 
the town hall of Much Wenlock, in Shropshire, 
stands (or perhaps stood, for the building was 
very old thirty years since) the following curious 
verses : 

" Hie locus odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat, 
Nequitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos." 

I am not aw are if they have appeared previously 
in your publication ; but they are worthy of pre- 
servation, I think, if for nothing else, for the 
oddity of linking one line with another. 

There is also a couple of lines on the town hall, 
Windsor, underneath a miserable statue of Queen 

" Arte tua, sculptor, non est imitabilis Anna, 
Annae vis similem sculpere? sculpe Deam." 

The unintentional satire conveyed in the first 
line is very appropriate, as the statue is a thing of 
wood, and forcibly reminds one of the charming 
statue of George IV. formerly at King's Cross. 



The question of the age of trees, introduced to 
your notice by your very able correspondent L. 
(Vol. iv., p. 401.), and touched upon by several 
others, is a subject of peculiar interest, and yet I 
scarcely know any ancient memorials which have 
been so much neglected by antiquarian inquirers. 
How seldom has any systematic attempt been 
made to collect the existing historical evidence 
relating to them, and of the few weak efforts 
which have been put forth in that direction, how 
insignificant have been the results ! Such evi- 
dence exists in a great variety of quarters, and if 
your correspondents could be persuaded to adopt 

L.'s suggestion, and take up the matter in a really 
serious spirit, the nature of your publication, and 
the wide extent of your circulation, render your 
pages^ singularly well adapted for doing really 
effective service in a cause which is equally in- 
teresting to the naturalist and the antiquary. 
What is wanted is, that antiquarian students 
should bring forward the facts respecting his- 
torical trees which are to be found in ancient evi- 
dences of all kinds, and that local knowledge 
should be applied to the identification of such 
trees wherever it is possible. If this were done 
done, that is, thoroughly and carefully I cannot 
doubt that an antiquity would be satisfactorily 
established in reference to many trees and clumps 
of trees still existing throughout the kingdom, 
which it would now be thought supremely wild 
and fanciful even to imagine. I would not go the 
length of anticipating that we might establish the 
identity of some grove in which druidical mys- 
teries have been celebrated, or (to adopt the 
words of Sir Walter Scott) of some "broad- 
headed, short-stemmed, wide-branched " monarchs 
of the forest, " which had witnessed the march of 
the Roman soldiery;" I should almost despair 
even of identifying the thorns on Ash Down (a 
place itself named from some celebrated tree), 
around which the battle raged between Alfred 
and the Danes : but every one at all acquainted 
with ancient documents knows how frequently 
they contain allusions to celebrated trees ; and it 
is perfectly possible that trees which sheltered 
King John in his continual wild, impulsive, Arab- 
like flights from place to place, or under which 
the Edwards halted in their marches to Scotland 
or Wales, may yet be pointed out. I have no 
doubt that Evelyn saw evidence that the Tort- 
worth Great Chesnut was a boundary tree in the 
days of King Stephen ; and if such evidence is 
not now forthcoming, I by no means despair of 
its re-discovery, if any one will set himself seri- 
ously to search for it. We learn in Pepys *, that 
in his time, in the forest of Dean, there were still 
standing the old " Vorbid " or " forbid " trees of 
the time of Edward III. ; that is (I presume), the 
trees which were left standing as marks or boun- 
daries when there was a great felling of timber in 
the reign of Edward III. Perhaps some of your 
correspondents can tell us whether there are any 
such trees known in the forest of Dean now. 

The recurrence of the mention of celebrated 
trees in early charters, is far more frequent than 
any one who has not examined the subject would 
suppose. There was no kind of "mark" or 
" bound " more common amongst ancient people, 
or more frequently mentioned in their written 
evidences, than large or celebrated trees. Any 
one may satisfy himself upon this point by a 

* Pepys's Diary, ii. 18. 

JAN. 3. 1852.1 


simple reference to Mr. Kemble's invaluable Codex 
Diplomaticus. I have just taken down the third 
volume of that work, and, dipping into it at 
random, at p. 448. I find the following, in the 
enumeration of the bounds of some lands at 
Brokenborough, in Wilts : 

" From thence to the mark which is called the 
Apple- Thorn, and from the same apple-bearing tree 
by the public street, to Woubourne, and along the 
same water by a straight course to Geresbourne, and 
along the same stream in a straight course to Ord- 
woldes wood, which is now called Bradene, and 
through the same wood for about three miles to the 
boundary mark, which is called holehoke " [Holy Oak]. 

Here are intimations which must have been 
recognizable in the spot for centuries afterwards. 

At p. 343. of the same volume, we read of 
"Kentwines Tree" at Shipford, and "Adulfes 
Tree" and " Hysemannes Thorn " at Mickleton. 
At p. 336. is mention of " the single thorn " by 
Ellenford, and the " Kolan Tree " and " Huredes 
Tree," near the same place. At p. 328. we read of 
" the Hundred Tree " at Winchendon. At p. 174. 
of " Dunemannes Tree " at Bladen. 

In vol. v. at p. 297. we have a remarkable 
description of boundaries at Blewbury, in Berk- 
shire, in which we read, if I interpret correctly : 

" From Hawkthorn [now Hackthorn] to the Long 
Thorn on the Ikenild way ; thence to the Third 
Thorn at Wirhangran; thence to the Fourth Thorn 
which stands forward on Wrangan Hill ; thence to the 
Fifth Thorn; thence to the Olive Tree; thence west 
along the bye road to the Thorn " and so forth. 

In the same description we read of several 
" Treowstealls," which mean, I suppose, clumps 
of trees, and amongst them of " Athelstanes 

In vol. vi. at p. 8. we read of *' Frigedseges 
Tree," at Ginge, in Berkshire ; at p. 60., of " Wig- 
gerdes Tree," at Plush, in Dorsetshire ; and innu- 
merable other instances may be found throughout 
the book. These have occurred to me on just 
opening the volumes here and there, and are ad- 
duced merely to explain to persons unacquainted 
with the Codex Diplomaticus, the nature of the 
information upon this subject which it contains ; 
and there are many other books from which simi- 
lar facts may be derived. 

The examples I have given exhibit the various 
parts which conspicuous trees were made to play 
in ancient times. The Holy Oak and Frigedasges 
Tree had, no doubt, been consecrated to supersti- 
tion ; the Hundred Tree marked a place for the 
general assembly of the people of a district; the 
trees distinguished by the prefixed names of indi- 
viduals, indicated that they stood on the properties 
of private owners, on lands, that is, which the 
owners had " called after their own names." The 
memory of many historical trees is probably pre- 

served to the present day in the names of the 
fields in which they stood. How many Mickle 
Thorn coppices, and Broad Ouk pastures, and 
| Long Tree meadows, and Old Yew pieces are 
scattered over the country. How many hundreds, 
and other larger divisions of counties, are named 
after ancient trees. ' How many of the old Saxon 
names of our towns and hamlets indicate t.Lfii; they 
grew up around a well-known oak, or ash, or 
thorn, or yew ; in like manner as, in later periods, 
when strength rather than law was the ruler, the 
people crowded together their hovels under the 
protective shadow of the castle of some powerful 
chieftain, or within the privileged precincts of 
some consecrated fane. 

Having thus indicated, or rather enforced, a 
subject which I think well deserves the attention 
of your correspondents all over the world, allow 
me to conclude with a Query relating to a cele- 
brated tree, of a comparatively modern date, which 
once existed in the neighbourhood of the metro- 

it stand ? What was its ultimate fate ? When 
and how was it compelled to yield to the great 
leveller? It is delineated in a very scarce en- 
graving by Hollar, which bears the date of 1653, 
and which is found on a poetical commemorative 
broadside, printed in that year. This tree, al- 
though then in full leaf, or so represented in 
Hollar's engraving, was entirely hollow. A stair- 
case of forty-two steps had been contrived within 
its stem, by means of which visitors ascended to a 
turret erected on the top, which was capacious 
enough to give seats to six persons, and to contain 
twenty persons in the whole. The stem of the 
tree was twenty-eight feet in compass on the 
ground, and the ascent to the turret was thirty- 
three feet. The tree must have stood on some of 
the highest ground at Hampstead, for it is 'said 
that six neighbouring counties could be seen from 
the top of it. The Thames is mentioned as visible 
from it, with its shipping ; and the following lines 
indicate the wide expanse which it commanded. 
The lines were written just at the time when 
Cromwell was about to assume the Protectorate. 

Those stately structures where the court 

Had late their mansions, when our kings would sport ; 

Of whom deprived they mourn, and, desolate, 

Like widows, look on their forlorn estate : 

'Tis not smooth Richmond's streams, nor Acton's mill, 

Nor Windsor Castle, nor yet Shooter's Hill, 

Nor groves, nor plains, which further off do stand, 

Like landscapes portray 'd by some happy hand : 

But a swift view, which most delightful shows, 

And doth them all, and all at once, disclose."* 

* These lines are by Robert Codrington, respecting 
yhom a reference may be made to Wood's Athenee, 
ii. 699. Bliss's ed. 



[Kb. 114. 

Such was the entire command of the country 
which this tree enjoyed, that it is said that 

" Only Harro\v on the Hill plays Ilex, 
And will have none more high in Middlesex." 

"Essex Broad Oak" [where did that stand?] 
from which more than twenty miles could be seen, 
is poetically declared to have been "but a twig" 
in comparison with his relative at Hampstead ; to 
find whose equal it is stated that 

" You must as far as unto Bordeaux go." 

There are oilier things worth remembering in 
connexion with this wonder of Hampstead : but I 
have occupied already more than enough of your 
space, and will only express my hope that some 
one will tell us where the Hampstead tree stood, 
and what was its fate ; and what is known about 
the Essex Broad Oak ; and what also about the 
Bordeaux compeer of the tree monarch of Hamp- 
stead. JOHN BRUCK. 

"Invent portum" "For they, ''turns they" 
You will much oblige me by permitting me to 
ask, through the medium of your entertaining pub- 
lication, from, whence the two following quotations 
were cited : 

*' Inveni portum. Spes et fortuna valete : 
Sat me lusistis; ludite nunc alios." 

" For they, 'twas they, unsheath'd the ruthless hlade, 
And Heav'n shall ask the havock it has made." 

The first will be found in Gil Bias, livre lOieme, 
chapitre lOieme ; and the second is used by the 
renegade Paul Jones in his mock-heroic epistle to 
the Countess of Selkirk, in extenuation of his 
having plundered the family seat in Scotland of 
the plate, on the 23rd April, 1778. 

I should not trouble you, but I have asked 
many, of extensive reading and retentive memo- 
ries, for solution of these Queries ineffectually. 


Matthew Walker. Can any of your cor- 
respondents, learned in naval antiquities and bio- 
graphies, give any account of Matthew Walker, 
whose knot (described and figured in Darcy 
Lever's Sheet Anchor) is known by his name all 
over the world ; and truly said to be " a handsome 
knot for the end of a Lanyard ? " REGEDONUM. 

Aleclenegate. The east gate of the town of 
Bury St. Edmund's, which was always under the 
exclusive control of the abbot, is sometimes men- 
tioned as " the Aleclenegate." What is the origin 
of the word? BURIENSIS. 

Smothering Hydropholic Patients. I can re- 
collect, when I was a boy, to have been much 
surprised and horrified with the accounts that old 
people gave me, that it was the practice in decided 

cases of rubies canina to suffocate the unfortunate 

I patient between leather beds. The disease being 
so suddenly and so invariably fatal, where it ap- 
peared unequivocally to attack the sufferer, might 
dispose the world to ascribe the death to what 
surely may be termed foul play; but perhaps 
some of your readers may be able to state where 

| mention is made of such treatment, or what could 
give rise to such an opinion in the public mind. 

Philip Twisden, Bishop of Raphoe. In Haydn's 

Booh of Dignities, p. 475., there is the following 

; note on the name of this prelate : 

" Sir James Ware, or, more properly, the subse- 

I quent editors of his works, narrate some very extraor- 

i dinary circumstances that rendered the close of the 
life of this prelate very rernarkahle and unfortunate ; 

I but we feol unwilling to transcribe them, though there 
seems to be no doubt of their truth." 

As Sir James Ware died in 1666, and the latest 
edition of his work on the Bishops of Ireland (by 
Walter Harris) was published in 1736, it is im- 
possible that either he, or his subsequent editors, 
could have recorded anything of the last days of a 
prelate who died Nov. '2, 1752. 

Mr. Haydn, however, speaks as if he had ac- 
tually before him the mysterious narrative which 
he has gone so far out of his way to allude to, and 
which for some equally mysterious reason he was 
"unwilling to transcribe," although he thought it 
necessary to call attention to it, and to express his 
inclination to believe in its truth. 

If this should meet his eye, would Mr. Haydn 
have the kinclness to say where he found the story 
in question, as it is certainly not in Ware ? I 
know of two stories, one of which is probably that 
to which Mr. Haydn has called the attention of 
his readers ; but I have never seen them stated 
with such clearness, or on such authority, as would 
lead me to the conclusion that " there seemed no 
doubt of their truth." JAMES H. TODD. 

Trinity College, Dublin. 

" Sir Edward Seaward' s Narrative," edited by 
Miss Jane Porter. I am in possession of a copy 
of the above work, presented to my father by the 
late amiable authoress, Miss Porter. It is, as you 
are no doubt aware, a journal of adventure in the 
Carribean Sea and its islands, between 1733 and 
1749; but on the publication of the first edition 
its authenticity was questioned, and a suggestion 
made by some of the critics that the editor was 
also the author. This, Miss Porter assured me was 
not the fact, and that the work is a genuine diary, 
| placed in her hands for publication by the family, 
I still existing, of the original writer. " The name I 
I think she intimated was not Seaward, but she 
i expressed some hesitation to detail the circum- 
stances of its coming into her possession. She 
makes, in a preface to the second edition, an assu- 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 



ranee to the same effect as to the genuineness of 
the Narrative, and says the author died at his seat 
in Gloucestershire in the year 1774. 

Can any of your readers throw further light on 
this story, or inform who the hero of the Narra- 
tive really was ? W. W. E. T. 

Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

Clerical Members of Parliament. In a note 
in p. 4. of The Lexington Papers, recently pub- 
lished, mention is made of a Mr. Robert Sutton, 
who, after having taken deacon's orders, and 
having accompanied his relative, Lord Lexington, 
to Vienna, in the joint capacity of chaplain and 
secretary, was, on his recall in 1697, appointed 
resident minister at the Imperial Court ; was sub- 
sequently sent as envoy extraordinary to the 
Ottoman Porte ; in 1720, succeeded Lord Stair as 
British minister at Paris; in 1721, was elected 
M. P. for Notts; and in 1725, was created Knight 
of the Bath. The editor adds this remark : 

" It is well known that holy orders were not at that 
time considered any disqualification for civil employ- 
ments, but I do not recollect any other instance of a 
clerical Knight of the Bath." 

Do you, Mr. Editor, or any of your readers, 
recollect any other instance since the Reformation, 
of a clerical member of parliament, before the 
celebrated one of Home Tooke ? Were any such 
instances quoted in the debates on the bill for 
excluding clergymen from Parliament ? CLERICUS. 

Aliens of Rossull. Can any of you cor- 
respondents furnish me with the arms borne by 
the Aliens of Rossull and Redivales, Lancashire ? 
Of this family was the celebrated Cardinal Allen. 
Also the arms borne by the Pendleburys, another 
Lancashire family ? J. C. 

Number of the Children of Israel. In Exod. 
xii. 37. it is stated that the numbers of the 
children of Israel constituting the Exodus was 
*' 600,000 men," "besides children." No specific 
mention is made of women : it will be diminishing 
the difficulty if the 600,000 are considered the 
aggregate of the adults of both sexes. It is said 
that the time the Israelites remained in Egypt 
was 430 years (Ex. xii. 40.). The number who 
were located in Egypt was seventy (Gen. xlvi. 27.). 
I wish to ascertain from some competent statician 
"what, under the most favourable circumstances, 
woiild be the increase of seventy people in 430 
years? I am aware that Professor Lee, in his 
invaluable translation of the Book of Job, is of 
opinion that 215 years is the time the Israelites 
actually remained in Egypt ; and the remainder 
must be considered the previous time they were in 
Canaan. If the Professor's calculation be adopted, 
the statician could easily show the difference at 
215 and 430 years. ./EGROTUS. 

Computatio Eccles. Anglic. In Bishop Bur- 
net's u Hist, of the Reform.," vol. ii. of first folio 
edition, London, 1679, Coll. of Records, b. ii. 
p. 100. No. XL. is " An instrument of the speech 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury (Chicheley) made 
to the House of Commons about it," scilicet, Sta- 
tute of Provisors. It begins as follows : 

" Die Veneris, penultimo mensis Januarii, A.D. secun- 
dum cursuin et computationem Ecclesice Anglicancc mil- 
lesimo quadringentesimo decimo septimo, indictione 

sexta, pontificatus Martini Papae quinti anno 


Now as Martin V. was chosen Pope by the Coun- 
cil of Constance, November 11, 1417, his eleventh 
year would extend over January, 1428, and the 
sixth indiction answers to the same year, which 
would, however, be styled 1427 in ecclesiastical 
documents till March 25. Can the Computatio 
Eccles. Anglic, mean anything more than a refer- 
ence to the distinction between the ecclesiastical 
and historical times of commencing the year ? If 
it does not, decimo septimo must be an error for 
vicesimo septimo, made in transferring the nu- 
meral letters into words. Has this error been 
corrected in subsequent editions of Burnet ? 


Martinique. "Will any of your correspon- 
dents, acquainted with the history of the French 
islands, inform me why was the island of Mar- 
tinique so called ? English writers style the island 
Martinico, but none have gone so far as to give the 
derivation or meaning of the word. W. J. C. 

St. Lucia. 

Objective and Subjective. Will some of 
your intelligent readers deign to enlighten a 
merely physical ignoramus as to the precise mean- 
ing (always supposing there be a meaning) of 
the oft-recurring words " objective" and "sub- 
jective" ("omjective" and " sumjective," accord- 
ing to Mr. Carlyle) in the Highgate " talk," sup- 
posed by sundry transcendental sages of our day 
to be the expression of an almost inspired wisdom. 
Is this exoteric jargon trandateable into intelligible 
English ? or is it not (as Chalmers called it, speak- 
ing Scottice) " all buff? " Most assuredly he who 
really understands it (not affects to understand it) 
need not, as South ey used to say, be afraid of 
cracking peach-stones. X. 

Quarter Waggoner. The master of a ship of 
war has the charge of navigating her from port to 
port, under the direction of the captain ; and he is 
moreover charged to make what improvements he 
can in the charts. Now the masters were some- 
times rather slack in the latter department, in 
which case they procured certificates from their 
captains to the Navy Board, stating that they had 
seen nothing but what was already in the general 
" Quarter Waggoner." 



[No, 114. 

Can any of your correspondents describe this 
Quarter Waggoner ? And, as the master keeps the 
official log-book, can you kindly tell me how that 
recondite volume came to be so designated ? 


Sir Roger Wilcock. Can any of your anti- 
quarian readers favour me with the armorial en- 
signs of Sir Roger Wilcock, knight, whose daugh- 
ter and heiress, Agnes, was wife to Sir Richard 
Turberville, of Coyty Castle, in Glamorganshire, 
and by him mother of two sons, Sir Payn, after- 
wards Lord of Coyty, and Wilcock Turbervilie, 
who by his wife Maud, heiress of Tythegstone, in 
the same county, was ancestor of the Turbervilles 
of that place, and of Penlline Castle. 

The lineage of this ancient and knightly family 
of Turberville is not given correctly in "Burke's 
Dictionary of the Landed Gentry for the year 1847. 
The marriage of Christopher Turberville of Pen- 
lline (sheriff for Glamorgan in 1549 and 1568) with 
Agnes Gwyn*, heiress of Ryderweu in the county 
of Caermarthen, and widow of Henry Vaughan, 
Esq., is altogether omitted in Burke, and for the 
correctness of which see Lewis Dwnn's Heraldic 
Visitation into Wales and its Marches, vol. ii. (near 
the commencement) title " Ryderwen ; " and in 
vol. i. of the same work, p. 140., title "Ystrad- 
corwg," Catherine, the issue of that marriage, and 
one of the daughters and coheiresses of Christopher 
Turberville, is mentioned as the wife of David 
Lloyd of that place, in the parish of Llanllawddog, 
co. Caermarthen, sheriff in 1590 and 1601. In 
further corroboration of this, we find that the 
Lloyds of Glunguelly and Ystradcorwg, descen- 
dants of the said marriage, ever afterwards quar- 
tered the arms of Turberville, viz. " chequy or and 
gu. a fesse ermine," with their own paternal 
shield. It is not improbable that the marriage of 
Christopher Turberville with the aforementioned 
Agnes, kinswoman of the Rices, may have had some 
influence in allaying the deadly animosity which 
had previously existed between the rival houses of 
Dynevor and Penlline. 

Again, in vol. iv. of Burke's History of the Com- 
moners for the year 1838, Jenkyn Turberville of 
Tythegstone, fourth in descent from Wilcock 
Turberville, is stated to have wedded Florence, 
daughter of Watkyn ab Rasser Vaughan, and to 

* According to Lewis Dwnn, this Agnes Gwyn was 
daughter and coheiress (by Margaret his wife, daughter 
of Sir Rhys ab Thomas. K.G. ) of Henry ab John of 
Ryderwen, son and heir (by Mabli, or Eva, his wife, 
daughter and coheiress of Henry ab Guilym, of Curt 
Henri and Llanlais, in the vale of Llangathen, Caer- 
marthenshire) of John ab Henry (otherwise Penry), 
kinsman to the aforesaid Sir Rhys ab Thomas, and a 
branch of j;he Penrys of Llanelli," derived from a com- 
mon origin with the ancient and noble house of 

have had issue by her two sons, Richard *, who 
continued the line at Tythegstone, and Jenkyn, 
father of the said Christopher, of Penlline Castle, 
Glamorgan. By reference to Lewis Dwnn's work, 
edited by the late talented and much lamented 
antiquary, Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, article 
"Vaughan of Bretwardine, co. Hereford, and 
Pembrey Court, Caermarthenshire," we find that 
Jenkyn Turberville married Denis, daughter of 
Watkyn ab Sir Roger Vaughan, knight, with the 
following remark in Welsh : " Ag ni bu dim plant 
o Derbil iddi ag wedi guraig Morgan ab Jenkyn 
gur Tre Dineg;" that is to say,"" She had no 
children by Turberville, and she afterwards became 
the wife of Morgan ab Jenkyn," I presume, of 
Tredegar, in Monmouthshire. Is it not, there- 
fore, likely that he married twice ; that his first 
wife was Cecil Herbert, and the mother of his two 

A correct lineage of the Turbervilles, with the 
ensigns they were entitled to quarter, down to 
Christopher Turberville's co-heiress Catherine, the 
wife of David Lloyd, would greatly oblige 

W. G. T. T. 


Ruffles, when worn. At what time did the 
fashion of wearing ruffles come in ? and when did 
it go out ? 

Many persons living at the present time remem- 
ber their being generally worn in respectable, and 
occasionally in what may be called minor life. 

The clergy did not wear them. 

So general was their use in the early part of the 
reign of George III., that the Rev. William Cole, 
of Milton, in the account of his Journey to France, 
in 1765, says he was taken for an English clergy- 
man because he did not wear them, and in conse- 
quence addressed " M. 1'Abbe." 

Dr. John Ash. I should feel exceedingly 
obliged by information respecting the birth-place 
and early history of Dr. John Ash. formerly an 
eminent physician practising in Birmingham, and 
the founder of the General Hospital in that town. 
He was a graduate of Trinity College, Oxford ; his 
doctor's degree was taken in 1764. He died at 
Brompton, Knightsbridge, in 1798. Every avail- 
able source has been searched in vain for in- 
formation on this subject. It is required for 
literary purposes. F. RUSSELL. 


Mutabilitie of France. Upon the books at 
Stationers' Hull, Lib. C., under the year 1597, 
20th April, Thomas Creed entered A Treatise of 
the Mutabilitie of Fraunce from the yeare of our 

* This gentleman had an ode addressed to him by 
the celebrated Welsh bard, Lewis of Glyn Cothi. Vide 
Burke's work. 

JAN. 3. 1852.1 



Lorde 1460 untill the yeare of our Lorde 1595. 
Can any of your readers say in what library a copy 
of this treatise can be found ? INDAGATOR. 

[A copy is in the Bodleian library. The full title is, 
" The Mutable and Wavering Estate of France, from 
1460 to 1595 ; together with an Account of the Great 
Battles of the French Nation both at Home and 
Abroad. 4to. Lond. Tho. Creede, 1597."] 

Caldorinna Societas, A copy of the Latin 
Bible of Junius and Tremellius, now in my pos- 
session, has on the title : 

" Sancti Gervasii, 1607. 

" Sumptibus Caldoriana? Societatis." 

Will you kindly inform me who constituted this 

body, and why they were so called ? QUIDAM 

[Cotton, in his Typographical Gazetteer, has given 
the following notices of this body : 

" Caldoriana Societas, qu. at Basle or Geneva? An 
edition of Calepine's Lexicon, fol. 1609, bears for im- 
print Sumptibus Caldoriana; Societatis." " An edition 
of the controversies between Pope Paul V. and the 
Venetians, bears for imprint, ' In Villa Sanvincentiana 
apud Paulum Marcellum, sumptibus Caldoriana? So- 
cietatis, anno 1607,' but is by no means of Spanish 
workmanship. I rather judge that the whole of the 
tracts connected with this business, which profess to 
have been printed at various places, as Augsburg, 
Saumur, Rome, Venice, &c., have their origin in the 
Low Countries, and proceeded from the presses of 
Antwerp, Rotterdam, or the Hague."] 

Millers of Meath. The millers of the county 
of Meath, in Ireland, keep St. Martin's day as a 
holiday. Why ? G. 

[Because of the honour paid to St. Martin in the 
Western Church, whose festival had an octave. Formerly 
it was denominated Martinalia, and was held with as 
much festivity as the Vinalia of the Romans. Among 
old ecclesiastical writers, it usually obtained the title 
of the Second Bacchanal : 

" Altera Martinus dein Bacchanalia pragbet ; 
Quern colit anseribus populus multoque Lyaso." 

Thomas Naogeorgus, De Regno Pont. 
Thus translated by Barnabie Googe : 
" To belly cheare yet once again doth Martin more 


Whom all the people worshippeth with rosted geese 
and wine."] 

Kissing under the Mistletoe. What is the 
origin of kissing under the mistletoe ? AN M. D < 

[Why Roger claims the privilege to kiss Margery 
under the mistletoe at Christmas, appears to have 
baffled our antiquaries. Brand states, that this druidic 
plant never entered our sacred edifices but by mistake, 
and consequently assigns it a place in the kitchen, 
where, says he, " it was hung up in great state, with its 
white berries ; and whatever female chanced to stand 
under it, the young man present either had a right, or 
claimed one, of saluting her, and of plucking off a 
berry at each kiss." Nares, however, makes it rather 

ominous for the fair sex not to be saluted under the 
famed Viscum album. He says, " The custom longest 
preserved was the hanging up of a bush of mistletoe in 
the kitchen, or servants' hall, with the charm attached 
to it, that the maid who was not kissed under it at 
Christmas, would not be married in that year."] 

Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge. Was Tri- 
nity Chapel, Knightsbridge, which has been re- 
built several times, ever parochial ? Can I be 

referred to any memoir of the Rev. Gamble, 

Chaplain to H. R. H. the Duke of York, who in 
the early part of the present century was minister 
of it? " H. G.D. 

[The chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, belonged 
originally to an ancient hospital, or lazar-house, under 
the patronage of the abbot and convent of Westminster. 
It was rebuilt in 1629, at the cost of the inhabitants, 
by a license from Dr. Laud, then Bishop of London, as 
a chapel of ease to St. Martin's-in- the- Fields, within the 
precincts of which parish it was situated ; but the site 
was subsequently assigned to the parish of St. George, 
Hanover Square, and at present forms a part of that of 
Kensington. The Rev. J. Gamble was minister ot 
this chapel in 1794-5 ; in 1796 he was appointed 
chaplain of the forces, and in 1799 rector of Alpham- 
stone, and also of Bradwell-juxta-Mare, in Essex. In 
1 805 he was married to Miss Lathom of Madras, by 
whom he had a son. His death took place at Knights- 
bridge, July 27, 1811.] 

"Please the Pigs" Whence have we this 
VQryfree translation of Deo Voleifcte ? PORCUS. 

[This colloquial phrase is generally supposed to be 
a corruption of " Please the Pyx," a vessel in which 
the Host is kept. By an easy metonymy, the vessel 
is substituted for the Host itself, in the same manner 
as when we speak, in parliamentary language, of " the 
sense of the House," we refer not to the bricks and 
stones, but to the opinion of its honourable members.] 

Meaning of Barnacles. Can any of your readers 
throw any light on the term " barnacles," which 
is constantly used for " spectacles " ? I need not 
say that the word in the singular number is the 
name of a shell-fish. PISCATOR. 

[Phillips, in his World of Words, tells us that 
" among farriers, barnacles, horse-twitchers, or brakes, 
are tools put on the nostrils of horses when they will 
not stand still to be shoed," &c. ; and the figure of the 
barnacle borne in heraldry (not barnacle goose, which 
is a distinct bearing), as engraved in Parker's Glossary 
of Heraldry, sufficiently shows why the term has been 
transferred to spectacles, which it must be remembered 
were formerly only kept on by the manner in which 
they clipped the nose.] 

The Game of Curling. As an enthusiastic 
lover of curling, I have been trying for some time 
past to discover any traces of the origin of the 
game, and the earliest mention made of it ; but, I 
am sorry to say, without success. 

I should therefore feel much obliged to any of 



[No. 114. 

your correspondents who could inform me con- 
cerning the origin of this game, and also any works 
which may treat of it. " JOHN FROST." 


[Appended to Dr. Brewster's account of curling, 
quoted in the Encyclopedia Metropolitana, vol. xvii. 
p. 469., occurs the following historical notice of this 
winter amusement : " Curling is a comparatively 
modern amusement in Scotland, and does not appear 
to have been introduced till the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, when it probably was brought over 
by the emigrant Flemings. It was originally known 
under the name of kuting, which perhaps is a corrup- 
tion of the Teutonic kleuyten, kalluyten, rendered by 
Kilian in his Dictionary, ludere massis sive globulis 
glaciatis, certare discis in <equore glacintd. In Canada 
it has become a favourite amusement, on account of 
the great length of the winters."] 


(Vol. iv., p. 475.) 

Your correspondent 2 asks for information 
about St. Irene or St. Erini, from whom he thinks 
the Island of Santorin in the Grecian Archipelago 
acquired its name ; and in reply, you have re- 
ferred him to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Biography, for particulars of the canonized 
Empress Irene. 

But 2 is, I sulpect, mistaken in supposing San- 
torin to be indebted either to saint or empress 
for its present appellation ; although he errs in 
company with Tournefort and a succession of 
later geographical etymologists, who in this in- 
stance have trusted too much to their ear as an 
authority. Another correspondent in the same 
number, F. W. S. (p. 470.), has directed attention 
to a peculiarity in the formation of the modern 
names of places in Greece, the theory of which 
will guide 2 to the real derivation of the word 
Santorin. F. W. S. states truly that many of the 
recent names have been constructed by prefixing 
the preposition els to the ancient one ; thus 
ATHENS, els T&S 'Afl^as, became Satines, and Cos, 
ty TT]v KWJ/, Stanco. Lord Byron has explained 
this origin of the alteration in one of the notes to 
Childe Harold, I think ; but I apprehend that the 
barbarism is to be charged less upon the modern 
Greeks themselves, than upon the European 
races, Sclavonians, Normans, and Venetians, and 
later still the Turks, who seized upon their 
country on the dismemberment of the Lower 
Empire. The Greeks themselves no doubt con- 
tinued to spell their proper names correctly ; but 
their invaders, ignorant of their orthography, and 
even of their letters, were forced to write the 
names of places in characters of their own, and 
guided solely by the sound. Negropont, the 

modern name of Euboea, is a notable instance of 
this. In the desolation which followed the Roman 
conquest, Eubcea, as described by Pausanias and 
Dion, had become almost deserted, and, on its 
partial revival under the Eastern Empire, the old 
name of Euboea was abandoned, and the whole 
island took the name of Euripus, from a new town 
built on the shore of that remarkable strait. 
This, pronounced by the Greeks, Evripos, the Ve- 
netians, on their arrival in the thirteenth century, 
first changed into Egripo and Negripo, and next 
into Jsegro-ponte, after they had built a bridge 
across the Euripus. This last name, the island 
retains to the present time. Another familiar ex- 
ample is the modern name of Byzantium, Stamboul, 
by which both Greeks and Turks now speak of 
Constantinople. The Romans called their capital 
par excellence " the city " (in which, by the way, 
we ourselves imitate them when speaking of 
London). Among the ancient Jews, in like 
manner, to " go to the city," virdyere etc T^V ir6\iv, 
meant to go to Jerusalem (Matt. xxvi. 18., xxviii. 
11.; Mark, xiv. 13. ; Luke, xxii.10.; John, iv. 18. ; 
Acts, ix. 16.). The Greeks of the Lower Empire 
followed the example in speaking of Constanti- 
nople ; and the Turks, on their conquest in the 
fifteenth century, adopting the provincialism, wrote 
etc rriv ir6\iv, Istampoli, and thence followed Is- 
tambol and Stamboul. The same theory will ex- 
plain the modern word Santorin, about which your 
correspondent 2 requests information. The an- 
cient name was Thera, and by this the island is 
described both by Herodotus and Strabo, and 
later still by Pliny. Thera, submitted to the usual 
process, became, from etc ^V &hpav, Stantheran, 
Santeran, and finally Santorin. In the latter form 
it almost invited a saintly pedigree, and accord- 
ingly " Richard," a Jesuit, whose work I have seen, 
but cannot now consult, wrote, about two cen- 
turies ago, his Relation de TIsle de St. Erini, in 
which, for the glory of the Church, he explains 
that the island obtained its name, not from the 
Empress Irene, but from a Saint Erine, whom he 
describes as the daughter of a Macedonian prefect, 
and from whom he says it was called Nfjo-oc TT?C 
*A7toc Et>//j/7?y. I incline, however, to etymology 
rather than hagiology for the real derivation. 



NO. II. 

(Vol. iv., pp. 305. 426.) 

My "NOTES AND QUERIES" coming to me 
monthly, I am as yet in ignorance whether any of 
your numerous correspondents have answered my 
inquiry (Vol. iv., p. 306.) : " Whether the por- 
traits of ' the old Countess of Desmond, ' at Knowle, 
Bedgebury, or Penshurst, correspond with my 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 



description of that in the possession of the Knight 
of Kerry?" I have since met a painter of 
eminence, who assures me that Horace Walpole's 
criticism is correct, and that the portraits com- 
monly known as those of the Countess are really 
the likeness of" Rembrandt's mother." If they be 
identified with that I have described, the idea that 
we possess a "counterfeit presentment" of this 
ancient lady, must, I fear, be given up as a 

But the lady herself remains a " great fact," and 
a physiological curiosity ; and there is yet a sub- 
ject for inquiry respecting her. We may identify 
her on the herald's tree, if not on the painter's 
board or canvas. Who was she? In attempting 
to discuss this question, I must not take a merit 
which does not belong to me in any thing. I may 
say I arn but following out the original research 
of" an accurate and accomplished antiquary, Mr. 
Samthell of Cork, of whose curious Olla Podrida 
(privately printed) I possess, by his favour, a copy, 
which contains a paper on this subject originally 
read before " The Cork Cuvierian Society." This 
paper, together with some MSS. notes of Sir 
William Betham, Ulster king-at-arms, furnish 
my text-book ; and I have little more to do than 
correct some mistakes, which appear to me so 
obvious, that I think they must arise from slips of 
the pen, or slops of that most teasing confounder 
of dates and figures, the printer, who can so often, 
by merely dipping into a wrong cell of type, set 
us wrong by a century or two in a calculation. 

All authorities are agreed in fixing on " Margret 
O'Bryen, wife of James, 9th Earl of Desmond," as 
the long-lived individual in question. Sir Walter 
Raleigh, by calling her " The old Countess of 
Desmond, of Inchiguin" determines the fact of her 
being of the O'Bryen race, Inchiquin being the 
feudal territory of the O'Bryens. There was more 
than one intermarriage between the Desmond 
earls and the O'Bryeir family ; but none of them 
include all the conditions for identifying the "old 
Countess," except that I have specified. 

We now come to dates : and here it is that I 
have the presumption to question the conclusions 
of the two eminent antiquaries on whose researches 
I am remarking. 

" James Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Desmond, 
was murdered by John Montagh Fitzgerald, of 
Clenglish, A.D. 1467, setat 29," says one of my 
authorities. "The old Countess bore the title 
only for a few months, for she became dowager on 
the murder of her husband in 1467 (not 1487)," 
adds my second authority. These are formidable 
dicta, coining from such sources ; and if I venture 
to question them, it is only under pressure of such 
circumstances and authorities, as at least demand 
a hearing. 

I think both these gentlemen confound the 
murder of James, the ninth Earl of Desmond, with 

the execution of his father, Thomas, the eighth Earl, 
who, according to all annals and authorities, was 
beheaded at Drogheda in the year 1467- Of this 
fact there can be no question. Ware gives it in his 
Annals, stating that " John Tiptoft, Earl of Wor- 
cester, called a parliament at Drogheda, and 
passed a certain enactment, in virtue of which 
" the great Earl of Desmond was beheaded, 15th 
of February, 1467." We find the very act itself 
(in the Cotton MSS. Titus, B. xi. 373.) headed 
and running as follows: "VII. Edw. Quarti" 
(1467). "Pur diverses causes, horribles treisons 
et felonies prepensez, et faitez per Thomas Count 
de Desmond, et Thomas Count de Kildar," &c. &c. 

We now proceed with Ware to the date 1487, 
and he writes thus : " On the 7th of December, 
James Fitz-Thomas, a Geraldine, and Earl of 
Desmond, who, for almost twenty -eight (?) years 
flourished in wealth and power, was suddenly and 
cruelly murdered by his servants in his house at 
Rathkeale in the county of Limerick." " This 
James dying without issue, at least issue male, his 
brother JVIorrish succeeded him ; by whom, John 
Mantagh, the chief contriver of that murder, was 
soon after taken and slain." Here is a distinct 
statement from an annalist which may be contra- 
dicted by facts, but cannot be misunderstood as to 

The more I look at Mr. Samtheli's account, the 
more I am disposed to consider the date he gives 
as a slip of the pen, or the result of that kind of 
confusion into which the most accurate mind will 
sometimes fall, from too long and intense considera- 
tion of the same point. I say this, because his own 
statements furnish at every step matter to confute 
his own conclusions : thus, he says, " Supposing 
the old Countess to have been eighteen at her 
husband's death (and the Irish marry young), she 
would have been 140 years old in 1589." This 
calculation plainly assumes the death to have taken 
place in 1467 ; but in a passage further on he says, 
" It will be remembered, that Thomas, eighth Earl 
of Desmond, father to Margret O^Bryens hus- 
band, was Lord Deputy of Ireland for the Duke 
of Clarence, brother to Edw. IY., from 1462 to 
1467 !" And again, giving some brief notices of 
the earls from " A Pedigree of Sir William Be- 
tham's," he sets down, " 8th earl, Thomas, be- 
headed A.D. 1467 ; 9th earl, James (son of 
Thomas), murdered A.D. 1467;" overlooking the 
fact, which would have been in itself memorable^ 
that he makes the beheading of the father, and 
the murder of the son, to have taken place in the 
same year ! Although I cannot ascertain whence 
Mr. Pelham took the dates which he has given in 
his print, I have no hesitation in adopting them, 
as agreeing best with all the probable circum- 
stances of the case ; he places Margret O'Bryen's 
birth in 1464, her death somewhere from 1620 to 
1626; this would sufficiently tally with the 



[Xo. 114. 

opinion, that she was left a young widow at her 
husband's death in 1487, and agree with Sir 
Walter Raleigh's statement, that she " was living 
in 1589," and '''many years afterwards:' Lord 
Bacon's express words are, " Certainly they report 
that within these few years the Countess of Desmond 
lived to an hundred and forty years of age." These 
words occur in his History of Life and Death, 
published in 1623, and add to the probability 
that the old lady was either lately dead, or that 
possibly, in the little intercourse between London 
and remote parts of the empire at that period, she 
might be even then alive, without his knowledge. 

I submit these speculations to correction ; and 
in venturing to dispute the conclusions of the au- 
thorities I have named, I feel myself somewhat in 
the position of a dwarf, who, climbing on the 
shoulder of a giant, should assume the airs of a 
tall man ; but for the encouragement and assistance 
of the gentlemen I have named, I should probably 
never have known how even to state a genea- 
logical or antiquarian question. I shall conclude 
by committing myself to your printer's mercy, 
trusting that he will be too magnanimous to take 
notice of my remarks on the "slip-slop" printing 
of figures, which will sometimes occur in the best 
offices ; if he should misprint my figures, all my 
facts will fall to the ground. A. B. R. 


In the Birch Collections at the British Museum 
there is a transcript of a Table-Book of Robert 
Sydney, second Earl of Leicester, made by Birch 
(Add. MSS. 4161.), the following extract from 
which, P. C. S. S. believes will not be unacceptable 
to the readers of " NOTES AND QUERIES : " 

" The olde Countess of Desmond was a marryed 
woman in Edward IV.'s time, of England, and lived 
till towards the end of Queen Elizabeth, soe as she 
needes must be 1 40 yeares old : shee had a newe sett 
of teeth not long before her death, and might have 
lived much longer, had shee not mett with a kind of 
violent death ; for she must needes climb a nutt-tree 
to gather nutts, soe falling downe, shee hurt her 
thigh, which brought a fever, and that fever brought 
death. This my cosen Walter Fitzwilliam told me. 
This olde lady, Mr. Harnet told me, came to petition 
the Queen, and landing at Bristol, shee came on foote 
to London, being then soe olde that her doughter was 
decrepit, and not able to come with her, but was 
brought in a little cart, their poverty not allowing 
them better provision of meanes. As I remember, Sir 
Walter Rowleigh, in some part of his History, speakes 
of her, and says that he saw her in England, anno 1589. 
Her death was as strange and remarkable as her long life 
was, having seene the deaths of so many descended 
from her ; and both her own and her husband's house 
ruined in the rebellion and wars." 



(Vol.ii., p. 140.; Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236. 456.) 

In my communication to you in August, 1850, 
and inserted as above, I stated that I was uncer- 
tain whether the collar of SS. was worn by the 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer previously to the 
reign of George I., as I had no portrait of that 
functionary of an earlier date. 

I have since found, and I ought to have sent 
you the fact before, that the Chief Baron, as well 
as the two Chief Justices, was decorated with this 
collar in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the 
church of St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, is the 
monument of Sir Roger Manwood, who died Lord 
Chief Baron on December 14, 1592, on which his 
bust appears in full judicial robes (coloured 
proper), over which he wears the collar in . its 
modern form. EDWARD Foss. 

Was the collar of SS. worn by persons under 
a vow to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, or 
to join a crusade, the S. being the initial letter 
of Sepulcre, or SS. for Saint Sepulcre? The 
appearance of the above-mentioned collar on the 
effigy of a person in the habit of a pilgrim in the 
church of Ashby-de-la-Zouch (see " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," Vol. iv., p. 345.), so strongly confirms 
the idea, that I beg leave to offer it to the consider- 
ation of any readers of the " NOTES AND QUERIES " 
who may be interested in the question. E. J. M. 

&j)Ife to ;$U'n0r <!Rum'crf. 

Tregonwell Frampton (Vol. iv., p. 474.). Noble 
mentions two engravings of this gentleman in the 
Continuation to Granger, vol. ii. p. 387., from a 
portrait by J. Wootton ; the oldest, by J. Faber, 
describes him as "Royal Studkeeper at New- 
market;" the other, dated 1791, by J. Jones, 
styles him "the Father of the Turf;" and his 
death in 1728, set. eighty- six, is recorded on a 
monument in the parish church of All Saints, 
Newmarket, as well as the circumstance of his 
having been keeper of the running horses to 
King William III. and his three royal successors. 
Frampton, according to Noble, who quotes from 
some other author, was a thorough good groom 
only, yet would have made a good minister of 
state had he been trained to it, and no one in his 
day was so well acquainted with the pedigrees of 
race-horses. I am not aware of there being any 
reference to Tregonwell Frampton in the Rambler^ 
jut he has frequently been denounced as the au- 
hor of an unparalleled act of barbarity to a race- 
lorse, which is detailed in the Adventurer, No. 37., 
as delicately as such a subject would permit. In 
ustice to the accused I must say, that I always 
considered the story as physically impossible; and 
lad this not been the case, it cannot be credited 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 



that the author of so great an enormity could 
have been continued in the service of the Crown. 
Still the essayist, who wrote nearly a century ago, 
thus closes his recital : 

" When I had heard this horrid narrative, which indeed 
I remembered to be true, I turned about in honest con- 
fusion, and blushed that I was a man." 

I hope some of your correspondents may be 
able to clear Frampton from the dreadful impu- 
tation. B. 

Lpngueville MSS. (Vol. iii., p. 449.). This col- 
lection (of 187 volumes) is better known by the 
name of the Yelverton MSS., from having belonged 
to Sir Christopher Yelverton, Bart., who died in 
1654, and whose son Henry (by Susan, Baroness 
Grey of Ruthin) was created Viscount Longue- 
ville in 1690. From him (who died in 1704) 
these MSS. descended to his grandson, Henry, 
third Earl of Sussex, who deceased in 1799 without 
male issue. In April, 1781, this collection of MSS. 
(then stated to consist of 179 volumes, and eight 
wanting to complete the series) was offered for 
purchase to the trustees of the British Museum for 
3000 guineas, and declined. The loss of these eight 
volumes is accounted for by a note of Gough 
(written in 1788), in Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, 
vol. iii. p. 622., by which it appears, that in 1784 
the collection was submitted to sale by public 
auction ; but " after the sale of a few lots, the sale 
was stopped." Gough adds, " They were all given 
by Lord Sussex to Lord Calthorpe, whose mother 
was of that family [Barbara, eldest daughter of 
Henry, Viscount Longueville], and at his death 
had not been opened, nor perhaps since." These 
MSS. are now, I believe, in the possession of the 
present Lord Calthorpe. F. MADDEN. 

Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell (Vol. iv., p. 
368.). The miniature of Oliver Cromwell, in- 
quired for by LORD BEAYBROOKE, I think was 
shown to me at a party in London, about five or 
six years since, by Mr. Macgregor, M. P., at least I 
suppose it to be the same, though I had forgotten 
the name of the painter ; but Mr. Macgregor prized 
it very highly, as being the only original miniature 
of Cromwell, and I think he said it was the one 
that had belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds. This 
slight recollection of having seen it, is almost too 
vague to be worth alluding to, but as no one 
appears 'to have replied to the inquiry, it may 
lead to connecting the true history to the minia- 
ture, and thereby enhance its value. R. N". 

Pope and Flatman (Vol. iv., p. 505.). Your 
readers will probably be tired of the subject, still 
MR. BREEN may like to know that the resembling 
passages in the two copies in question, are quoted 
with the names of the authors in the sixty-third 
number of The Adventurer, dated June 12, 1753, 
and Pope is directly accused of having copied from 

one of the vilest Pindaric writers, in the time of 
Charles II. 

The same paper, and a subsequent one, No. 95., 
contain some excellent remarks upon the allega- 
tion of resemblance between authors, and the 
charge of plagiarism so frequently raised upon it, 
but not always to be allowed with equal readiness. 

In conclusion, let me express a wish, that the 
essays which I have pointed out could be perused 
by some of your correspondents, because I am 
convinced that we should in future have fewer 
discussions on parallel passages, which seldom 
possess much real interest, and frequently have a 
tendency to injure the fair fame of our most gifted 
writers, by calling in question their literary 
honesty without establishing the charge brought 
against them. B. 

Voltaire (Vol. iv., p. 457.). Your correspon- 
dent J. R. is quite correct as to the name " Vol- 
taire" being an anagram of " Arouet L. J." The 
fact, however, was first made public by M. Lepan 
in the Details Preliminaires sur les Biographies de 
Voltaire, prefixed to his Vie Politique, Litteraire et 
Morale de Voltaire, many years before the com- 
munications to the Gentlemaris Magazine and the 
Dublin Review, referred to by your correspondent. 

Your correspondent states that " Voltaire was a 
little partial to his paternal name," * and oddly 
enough gives two extracts from his letters to 
L'Abbe Moussinot, which prove the very contrary. 
Those extracts are also to be found in M. Lepan's 
work, who has adduced them to show " son mepris 
pour son nom de famille." Vie de Voltaire, p. 11. 
edit. 1817. JAMES CORNISH. 

TudurAled (Vol. iv., p. 384.). Your correspon- 
dent A STUDENT will find nine poems by Tudur 
Aled, including the famous description of the 
Horse, in a 4to. collection of ancient Kymric poetry, 
published at Amwythig, in 1773, by Rhys Jones. 
It is entitled Gorchestion Beirdd Cymrit. Should 
A STUDENT wish to extend his acquaintance with 
this old bard, he will find other poems of his 
among the Welsh MSS. in the British Museum, in 
vols. 14,866. et seq. T. S. 

Latin Verse on Franklin (Vol. iv., p. 443.). 
The verse "Eripuit coelo," &c., seems to be a 
parody of the following line of Manilius (Astronom. 

" Eripuitque Jovi fulmen, viresque tonanti." 

I am unable, however, to say who adapted these 
words to Franklin's career. Was it Condorcet ? 

R. D. H. 

The inscription 

"Eripuit ccelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis" 
under Franklin's portrait, was written by Mirabeau. 


This was a misprint for "so little partial." ED. 



[No. 114. 


When Mr. Wilkin, in the year 1836, gave to the 
world an edition of the works of his illustrious towns- 
man, Sir Thomas Browne, the critics were unanimous 
in their praise both of the undertaking and of the 
manner in which the editor had executed his task. It 
was felt that the writings of so great a man of one 
on whose style Johnson is supposed to have formed 
his own and whose Rellgio Medici he eulogized for 
" the novelty of the paradoxes, the dignity of sentiment, 
the quick succession of images, the multitude of ab- 
struse allusions, the subtlety of disquisition, and the 
strength of language " to be found in it, ought to be 
made better known ; and Mr. Wilkin's endeavour to 
make them so was lauded as it deserved. That 
attempt, however, was but feeble compared with the 
one now making by Mr. Bohn, who has undertaken to 
reproduce Mr. Wilkin's excellent edition of The Works 
of Sir Thomas jBroume in his Antiquarian Library. 
The first volume, containing Four Books of his En- 
quiries into Common and Vulgar Errors, has been issued; 
and, we need scarcely add, forms one which is not 
surpassed for learning, interest, or instruction, by any 
other in the very cheap and useful series to which it 

One of the most popular branches of botanical study 
at the present day is that of our British Ferns, from 
the very obvious causes that they are objects of 
exquisite elegance not very numerous, nor difficult 
to be procured and, lastly, which may well account 
for their popularity with the dwellers in towns, who 
yet love to " babble of green fields" and be reminded 
of them they are for the most part easily cultivated, 
and of all others are perhaps best adapted to parlour 
or window culture. Who then can doubt that, in pre- 
paring A Popular History of the British Ferns and the 
allied Plants, comprising the Club- Mosses, Pepperworts, 
and Horse Tails (with its fifty admirable coloured 
representations of the most interesting species), Mr. 
Moore has done good service to the numerous fern 
growers already existing, "and much to promote the 
further study of this highly interesting division of the 
vegetable world. Messrs. Reeve and Benham deserve 
great credit for the way in which they have seconded 
Mr. Moore's efforts, by the admirable manner in which 
the book has been got up. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Traveller's Library, Part 13., 
containing two more of Mr.Macaulay's brilliant Essays, 
namely, those On the Life and Writings ofAddison, and on 
Horace Walpole. Travels in Tartar y, Thibet, and China 
during the Years 1844, '45, and '46, by M. Hue: trans- 
lated from the French, by W. Hazlitt. Vol. I. Pictures 
of Travels in the South of France, by Alexandre Dumas. 
These are two new volumes of the National Illustrated 
Library, and very interesting ones. The value of 
M. Hue's Travels in China may be judged of from 
the fact, that Sir John Davis having received some 
notes of them, considered them so interesting that he 
thought it right to embody them in a despatch to Lord 
Palmersjton. The Mother's Legacie to her Unborne 
Childe. By Elizabeth Joceline. Reprinted from the 
Edition of 1625, with a Biographical and Historical 

Introduction. We may content ourselves with acknow- 
ledging the receipt of this handsome reprint, by the 
Messrs. Blackwood, as it forms the subject of a com- 
munication from the correspondent who first drew at- 
tention to this interesting volume in N. & Q,., 
which we hope to print next week. Archceologia 
Cambrensis for January, 1852. This is an excellent 
number ; and if this record of the antiquities of Wales 
and its Marches does not m-jet with the support not 
only of the antiquaries, but also of the gentry of the 
principality, it will be a national reproach to them. 



A SERMON preached at Fnlham in 1810 by the RF,V. JOHN OWEN 

of Paglesharn, on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Park, 

Northamptonshire (Hatchard). 


5 Vols. Zurich, 1741. 

* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MK. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Among other improvements which we have made in N. & Q.. in 
compliance with the suggestions of many correspondents, is doing 
awai/ with the rules round our pages, so as to afford more room 
to our friends who indulge in Marginalia. Having tkus sacrificed 
to their wishes our own views, which were in favour of these old- 
fashioned typographical ornaments. We must be permitted once 
more to remind our correspondents that brevity in their communi- 
cations is a merit which we shall never overlook ; and that by 
compressing their articles within as small a compass as possible, 
they will enable us not only to give such communications m>re 
ready insertion, but also to increase the interest of every number 
of N. & Q. by treating in it of a greater variety of topics. 

Full price will be given for clean copies of No. 19. upon applica- 
tion to our Publisher. 

C. W. N. B., who writes respecting " Supporters borne by 
Baronets," is referred to our 3rd Vol. p. 224. 

ALPHA (Oxford), is referred to our 1st Vol. p. 476. for informa- 
tion respecting the letters M. and N. in certain of the services of 
the Church. 

W. H. K. We plead guilty to having " nodded" on the occasion 
referred to. It is due to the number of ladies who patronize us, 
that such an oversight should not occur again and it shall not. 

If P. H. (q. 364. p. 502. of No. 113.) will give his name and 
address, the Editor thinks that he can obtain for him some infor- 
mation on the subject of his inquiry. 

JARLTZBERG. We have not the opportunity of using the type in 

REPLIES RECEIVED. John Hofywood the Mathematician 
Barrister Tripos Papers of Perjury Passage in Goldsmith 
Dido andlEneas " England expects every Man," SfC. Dial 
Mottoes Age of Trees Racked by Pain, $c. Moravian 
Hymns Cockney Meaning of Hernshaw Ducks and Drakes 
Death of Pitt, and oilier Replies from Este Crosses and Cru- 
cifixes Sinaitic Inscriptions Robin Redbreast Nightingale 

and Thorn Singing of Swans Bishop Trelawncy Lines on, 

the Bible Hobbe*' Leviathan Derivation cf London Collar 


Among other interesting communications, which, in spite of our 
enlarged siz>; we have been compelled to postpone for want of 
space, are MR. CROSSLEY on Gibber and Johnson's Lives of the 

Poets some fresh particulars respecting General Wolfe MR. 

CHADWICK, " Right of Search of Parish Registers " MR. Ross, 
on the Duke's saying, ' There is no mistake" DR. TODD, on 
Wady Mokatteb Index Expurgatorius " Boilirg to Death " 
and many other interesting articles which are in type. 

Copies of our Prospectus, according to the suggestion of T. E . H. , 
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culating them. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers 0:1 the Saturday. 

JAN. 3. 1852.] 




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[No. 114. 

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It is rather extraordinary that none of Dr. 
Johnson's biographers appear to have been aware 
that the prospectus of Gibber's Lives was furnished 
by Johnson. In Mr. Croker's last edition of Boswcll 
there is a long note (see Edit. 1848. p. 818.) on the 
claim of Theophilus Gibber to the authorship of the 
Lives, or a participation in it : but though he re- 
marks that the plan on which these Lives are written 
VOL. V. No. 115. 

is substantially the same as that which Johnson long 
after adopted in his own work, his attention does 
not seem to have been directed to the prospectus 
of Gibber's Lives. As, however, this prospectus 
was not adopted as a preface to the work, but. 
merely appeared in the newspapers and periodicals 
of the day, it is the less surprising that it has 
hitherto remained unnoticed. The internal evi- 
dence is decisive ; and, as it has never, that I am 
aware of, been reprinted, and is of great interest 
in connexion with Johnson's own Lives of the, Poets^ 
of which admirable work it may be considered to 
have " cast the shadows before," at the distance of 
nearly thirty years, I trust, though rather long, it 
may claim insertion in " N. & Q." It is extracted 
from a London newspaper of the 20th February, 

"This Day [20th Feb. 1753] is published, 
" In Twelves (Price Six pence), 


The LIVES of the POETS, of Great-Britain 
and Ireland, to the present Time. 

" Compiled from ample Materials scattered in a 
Variety of Books, and especially from the MS. Notes 
of the late ingenious Mr. COXETEH, and others, col- 
lected for this Design. 

" By Mr. CIBBER. 

" Printed for R. Griffiths, at the Dunciad, in St. Paul's 

" Where may be had, No. I. and II. 

" This Work is published on the following Terms, 

" I. That it shall consist of Four neat Pocket 
Volumes, handsomely printed. 

" II. That it shall be published in Numbers, at 
Six-pence each, every Number containing Three 
Sheets, or Seventy-two Pages; the Numbers to be 
printed every Saturday without Intermission, till the 
Whole is finished. 

"III. That Five Numbers shall make a Volume; 
so that the whole Work will not exceed the Price of 
Ten Shillings unbound. 

To the PUBLIC. 

" The Professors of no Art have conferred more 
Honour on our Nation than the Poets. All Countries 
have been diligent in preserving the Memoirs of those 



[No. 115. 

who have, erher by their Actions or Writings, drawn 
the Attention of the World upon them : it is a Tribute 
due to the illustrious Dead ; and has a Tendency to 
awaken, in the Minds of the Living, the laudalde 
Principle of Emulation. As there is no Reading at 
once so entertaining ani instructive, as that of Bio- 
graphy, so none ought to have the Preference to it : 
it yields the most striking Pictures of Life, and shews 
us the many Vicissitudes to which we are exposed in i 
the Course of that important Journey. It has hap- i 
pened that the Lives of the Literati have been k'ss j 
attended to than those of Men of Action, whether in 
the Field or Senate; possibly because Accounts of; 
them are more difficult to be attained, as tliL-y move in | 
a retired Sphere, and may therefore be thought in- 
capable of exciting so much Curiosity, or affecting the 
Mind with equal Force ; but certain it is, that familiar 
Life, the Knowledge of which is of the highest Im- 
portance, might often be strikingly exhibited, were its 
various Scenes but sufficiently known, and properly 
illustrated. Of this, the most affecting Instances will 
be found in the Lives of the Poets, whose Indigence 
has so often subjected them to experience Variety of 
Fortune, and whose Parts and Genius have been so 
much concerned in furnishing Entertainment to the 
Public. As the Poets generally converse more at l.irge, 
than other men, their Lives must naturally be produc- 
tive of such Incidents as cannot but please those who 
deem the Study of Human. Nature, and Lessons of 
Life, the most important. 

" The Lives of the Poets have been less perfectly 
given to the World, than the Figure they have made in 
it, and the Share they have in our Admiration, natu- 
rally demand. The Dramatic Authors indeed have 
had some Writers who have transmitted Accounts of 
their works to Posterity : Of these Langbain is by- 
far the most considerable. He was a Man of extensive 
Reading, and has taken a great deal of Pains to trace 
the Sources from which our Poets have derived their 
Plots; he has given a Catalogue of their Plays, and, 
as far as his Reading served him, very accurately: He 
has much improved upon Winstanley and Philips, and 
his Account of the Poets is certainly the best now 
extant. Jacob's Performance is a most contemptible 
one; he has given himself no Trouble to gain Intelli- 
gence, and has scarcely transcribed Langbain with 
Accuracy. Mis. Cooper, Author of The Muses Li- 
brary, has been industrious in collecting the Works and 
some Memoirs of the Poets who preceded Spenser : 
But her Plan did not admit of enlarging, and she has 
furnished but little Intelligence concerning them. 

" The general Error into which Langbain, Mrs. 
Cooper, and all the other Biographers have fallen, is 
this : They have considered the Poets merely as such, 
without tracing their Connexions in civil Life, the 
various Circumstances they have been in, their Patron- 
age, their Employments, and in short, the Figure they 
made as Members of the Community ; which Omission 
has rendered their Accounts less interesting ; and while 
they have shewn us the Poet, they have quite neglected 
the Man. Many of the Poets, besides their Excellency 
in that Profession, were held in Esteem by Men in 
Power, and filled civil Employments with Honour and 
Reputation ; various Part'culars of their Lives are to 

be found in the Annals of the Age in which they lived, 
and which were connected with those of their Patron. 

" But these Particulars lie scattered in a Variety of 
Books, and the collecting them together and pro; erly 
arranging them, is as yet unattempted, and is no easy 
task to accomplish. This however, we have end a- 
voured to do, and if we are able to execute our Plan, 
their Lives will prove entertaining, and mary Articles 
of Intelligence, omitted by others, w 11 be brought :o 
Light. Another Advantage we imagine our Plan ha;, 
over those who have gone before us in the same 
Attempt is, that we have not confined ourselves to 
Dramatic Writers only, but have taken in all who have 
had any Name as Poet, of whatsoever Class : and have 
besides given some Account of their other Writings : 
So that if they had any Excellence independant of 
Poetry, it will appear in full View to the Reader. We 
have likewise considered the Poets, not as they rise 
Alphabetically, but Chronologically, from Chaucer, the 
Morning Star of English Poetry, to the present Times : 
And we promise in the Course of this work, to make 
short Quotations by Way of Specimen from every 
Author, so that the Readers will be able to discern the 
Progress of Poetry from its Origin in Chaucer to its 
Consummation in Dryden. He will discover the 
gradual Improvements made in Versification, its Rise 
and Fall ; and in a Word, the compleat History of 
Poetry will appear before him. In the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth for Instance, Numbers and Harmony were 
carried to a great Perfection by the Earl of Surry, 
Spenser, and Fairfax ; in the Reign of James and 
Charles the First, they grew harsher ; at the Restora- 
tion, when Taste and Politeness began again to revive, 
Waller restored them to the Smoothness they had lost: 
Dryden reached the highest Excellence of Numbers, 
and compleated the Power of Poetry. 

" In the Course of this Work we shall be particular 
in quoting Authorities for every Fact advanced, as it is 
fit the Reader should not be left at an Uncertainty ; 
and where we find judicious Criticisms on the Works 
of our Authors, we shall take care to insert them, and 
shall seldom give our Opinion in the Decision of what 
Degree of Merit is due to them. We may venture, 
however, in order to enliven the Narration as much as 
possible, sometimes to throw in a Reflection, and in 
Facts that are disputed, to sum up the Evidence on 
both Sides. But though the Poets were often involved 
in 'Parties, and engaged in the vicissitudes of State, we 
shall endeavour to illustrate their Conduct, without any 
satirical -Remarks, or favourable Colouring; never de- 
tracting from the Merit of one, or raising the Reputa- 
tion of another, on Account of political Principles." 


ARABIC C >*.^ 


" This celebrated Patriarch has been represented I y 
some sacred writers as imaginary, and his book as a 
fictitious dramat'c composition." Dr. Hales : See 
D'Oyly and Mant's Bible. 

But Hales <joes on to prove from the sacred 
writings that Job was a real character, and that 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



his history is entitled to credit. That such a 
person as Job was a real character, and that he 
lived about the time asserted of him, I am about ! 
to give a very remarkable proof, quite inde- 
pendent of Scripture testimony. 

In Kasmpfer's Amcenitates Exotica, there is a 
plate describing two processions, one after the 
other : of the first but little mention is made ; of 
the second, the place from which the procession 
set out is not mentioned, but the place of its final 
destination is Persepolis. It is separated, in 
Ksempfer, from the interpretation thereof, by a 
few leaves ; but as I have not his Exotica by me, 
I cannot give an exact reference as to pages ; it 
will, however, be easily found, since the inscription 
contains twenty-four lines, and the plate, I think, 
precedes it It is called " Inscriptio Persepolitana," 
and is evidently among the most ancient of Cu- 
neiform inscriptions. As neither the inscription, 
nor the word I am about to point out, could pro- 
bably be inserted in the " N. & Q ," I must be 
content to describe the word in the clearest 
manner possible. 

The lines, if I mistake not, measure about 5f 
inches in length, and at about l\ inches from the 
beginning of the second line (beginning at the left 
hand, and measuring towards the right) is a word 
compounded of four letters (five wedges), and 
reading a i u b. Take a wedge and form them 
thus, sharp point to the right, near the top of 
the group, is a ; sharp point downwards is i ; sharp 
point to the left is u ; the two under wedges joined, 
'viz. sharp point to the blunt part of the second, 
is b. 

It is remarkable that the Hebrew, Arabic, and 
Persian-Cuneiform should have precisely the same 
letters for the name of Job. It may lead to some 
conclusion with which I shall not meddle. See 
a?ain D'Oyly and Mant, and the comment of 
Bishop Sanderson ori'ch. i. v. 3., "and not impro- 
bably he was a king.' 1 

Refer again to the plate, and behold him in two 
places, i.e. in both processions, crowned. And 
now examine the word following Aiub ; it is com- 
pounded of four letters, easily distinguishable. 
The first is a T, scil. the Coptic ^J>, the mystic 
cross, as may be shown in the Chinese language ; 
the second is a, compounded of the horizontal 
wedge and the following perpendicular one ; the I 
third, or perpendicular line, isi; and the last two, \ 
one under the other, isj, or the Persian ^ or ,j; 
making altogether _A; taij, being crowned. These 
two words, therefore, represent the patriarch as 
being a king, " Aiub taij," " Job crowned." 


bouthwick, near Oundle,* 


The following legend was related to me by a 
gentleman when discoursing upon the customs of 
the New Zealanders. It is their account of the 
origin of their land, and illustrates the absurdities 
which they believe. 

" Old Morm (Query, rightly spelt) was a great 
fisherman, and being at one time in want of fish- 
hooks, he quietly killed his two sons, and took 
their jaw bones for hooks. As a requital to them 
for the loss of their lives, he made the right eye of 
his eldest son the morning star, and the right eye 
of his youngest son the evening star. One day he 
was sitting on a rock fishing with one of the jaw- 
bones, when he hooked, something extraordinarily 
heavy, whales were nothing to him. However, 
this resisted all his endeavours, and at length he 
was obliged to resort to other means to land this 
monster. He caught a dove, and tying the line 
to its leg, he filled it with his spirit, and com- 
manded it to fly upwards. It did so, and without 
the least difficulty raised New Zealand! Old 
Morm looked at this prodigy with wonder, but 
thinking it very pretty he stepped ashore, where 
he saw men and fire. The first thing he did was 
to burn his fingers, and then to cool them he 
jumped into the sea ; when the sulphur which 
arose from him was so great, that the Sulphur 
Island was formed. After this things went on 
smoothly, till the New Zealanders began to get 
refractory, and so offended the sun, that his ma- 
jesty refused to shine. So old Morm got up one 
day early and chased after the sun, but it was not 
till after three days' hard hunting he managed to 
catch him. A good deal of parleying then took 
place, and at last the sun consented to shine for 
half the day only. Old Morm, to remedy this 
evil, immediately made the moon, and tied it by a 
string to the sun, so that when one went down it 
pulled the other up." 

I did not hear on what authority this was given, 
but I dare say some of your learned correspondents 
may have met with it, and will be kind enough to 
give it, and say whether this fable was believed 
by all the tribes of New Zealand. UNICORN. 

A Dutch Commentary on Pope. 

" As what a Dutchman plumps into the lakes, 
One circle first, and then a second makes." 

Dnnciad, b. ii. 4CO. 

" It may be asked," says Bilderdyk in a note to his 
imitation of the Essay on Man*, "why the little stone 
is thrown into the water by a Dutchman in particular. 
The reason is, that the Du'ch sailors, when lying idle 

* De Mensch. Pope's Essay on Man gevolgd door 
Mr. W. Bilderdyk. Amsterd. 1803. 



[No. 115. 

in the Thames, often amuse themselves in calm weather 
by throwing little stones along the surface of the water, 
so as to make ducks and drakes, as it is called. This 
practice the English look at with great astonishment, 
and wonder at a use of the hands so different from that 
whicli they make of their own in boxing." 

Bilderdyk speaks contemptuously of Pope : yet 
it may be surmised, from the above commentary, 
that he was but ill qualified to criticise him, other- 
wise he would not have supposed that "plump" 
could have the remotest allusion to the light skim- 
ming amusement of "ducks and drakes;" not to 
mention that lie would have suspected that it was 
no " steentje " that plumped into the lakes. 

Satirical Verses on the Chancellor Clarendon's 
Downfall In MS. Add. 4968., British Museum, 
a duodecimo volume containing a collection of 
arms and achievements tricked by a painter-stainer 
in the reign of Charles II., at fol. 62. is the fol- 
lowing poem "On the Chancellor's Downfall," 
which, if not already printed, may be worth pre- 
serving : 

Pride, lust, ambitions, and the kingdom's hate, 
The Nation's broker, ruin of the State ; 
Dunkirke's sad loss, divider of the fleet, 
Tangier's compounder for a barren sheet ; 
The Shrub of Gentry married to the Crowne, 
And's daughter to the heir, is tumbled downe. 
The grand contemner of the Nobles lies 
Groveling in dust, as a just sacrifice, 
T' appease the injured King, abused Nation, 
Who could beleeve this suddaine alteration ! 
God is revenged to, for stones he tooke 
From aged Paules to build a house forth' Rooke. 
Goe on, great Prince, thy People doe rejoyce, 
Meethinks I heare the Nation's total I voyce 
Applauding this day's action to bee such, 
As rosting Rump, or beating of the Dutch. 
More cormorants of State as well as hee, 
"Wee shortly hope in the same plight to see. 
Looke now upon thy withered Cavaliers, 
Who for reward hath nothing had but teres. 
Thankes to this Wiltshire hogge, son of y e spittle, 
Had they beene lookt on, hee had had but little. 
Breake up the coffers of this hording theefe, 
There monies will be found for there reliefe. 
I've said enough of lynsey woolsey hide, 
His sacriledge, ambition, lust, and pride. 


Execution of Charles I. In a letter which is 
preserved in the State Paper Office, addressed to 
Secretary Bennet, by Lord Ormonde and the 
Council of Ireland, and dated the 29th of April, 
1663, their Lordships request the Secretary to 
move his Majesty that " Henry Porter, then known 
as Martial General Porter, standing charged as 
being the person by whose hand the head of our 
1 ate Sovereign King Charles the First, of blessed 

memory, was cutt off, and now two years impn- 
I soned in Dublin, should be brought to tri;d in, 
England." J. F. F. 


Born ivithin the Sound of Bow Bell. In his 
edition of Stow's Survey of London, Mr. Thorns 
appends the subjoined note to the account whicli 
is given of Bow Church and its bells: 

" From the absence of every allusion on the part o 
Stow to the common definition of a cockney, a person 
born within the sound of Bow Bells, the saying would 
appear to be of somewhat more recent date." 

Stow's work was first published in 1598, and 
the author died in 1605. Fuller, author of the 
Worthies of England, was born in 1608 : and it 
would seem that during his lifetime the definition 
of a cockney was well-known ; for thus does 
Fuller speak : 

" [He was born within the sound of Bow Bdl~\ 
This is the periphrasis of a Londoner at large, horn, 
within the suburbs thereof; the sound of this beVi 
e xceeding the extent of the Lord Mayor's mace." 

Can any correspondent of U N. & Q." refer 
me to an earlier writer than Fuller for the same- 
definition ? ALFRED GATTY. 


It must have often occurred to students of En- 
glish history that the current and usual lists of 
English sovereigns somewhat arbitrarily reject all 
mention of some who, though for short periods, 
have enjoyed the regal position and power in 
this country. There will at once occur to every 
reader the names (first) of the Empress Maud, 
who, in a charter, dated Oxford in 1141, styled 
herself " Matilda Imperatrix, Henrici regis filia, et 
Anglorum, Domina ;" (secondly) the young King 
Henry, the crowned son of Henry II. ; and 
(thirdly) 'Lady Jane Grey, who, in a few public 
and private documents, is cited as " Jane, Queens 
of England, Domina Jana, Dei Gratia Angliae, 
Franciae et Hibernian Regina," &c. 

I am desirous now of calling the attention of 
your historical readers to the second case, my at- 
tention to the subject having been specially di- 
rected thereto by recently consulting the Chronicon 
Petroburgense (edited for the Caimlen Society by 
Mr. Stapleton), in which occur various notices of 
Henry, the crowned son of Henry II., as Henry///. 
I beg to quote these passages. Under the year 
MCLXIX. the chronicler records that 

" Hie fecit Henricus Rex coronare filium suum al> 
archiepiscopo Eborum." 

Sir Harris Nicholas, in his Chronology of His- 
tory, states that he was crowned on Sunday the 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



14th June, 1170. Benedictus Albus Roger, of 
Wendover (Flowers of History'}, says that " A.D. 
1170, on the 13th of July," the king's eldest son 
was crowned by Ro^er, Archbishop of York. 

His wife Marguerite, of France, was also after- 
wards crowned in England, in consequence of her 
father's complaint that she had not been included 
In the former coronation of her husband, Henry 
the younger (Rex Henricus junior), as he was 
commonly styled in this country ; li reys Josves 
in the Norman language, and lo reis Joves in the 
dialect of the southern provinces of France. He 
himself afterwards assumed the title of Henry III. 
regarding his father as virtually dead, owing to 
the fond, but thoughtless, assertion of his indulgent 
sire, at the period of the son's coronation, that 
" from that day forward the royalty ceased to 
belong to him," " se regem non esse protestari." 
\Vit. ^B. Thomce, lib. ii. cap. 31.) 

The Chronicon Petroburgense, again, under the 
year 1183, records the death of the younger king 
in these words, " Obiit Henricus tertius rex, filius 
Henrici regis; 1 ' and afterwards notices the monarch 
usually styled Henry ///. as "Henricus rex iiii tus .," 
Henry IV. Sir Harris Nicholas says, that Henry 
the younger is also " called by chroniclers Henry 

It is a curious point, because such a distinction 
must often surely have been made in the days of 
the jointly reigning Henrys, and immediately 
after that time. The father and son certainly 
seemed to have been regarded as for years jointly 
reigning. For example, Roger of Wendover re- 
cords that, in 1175, William of Scotland declared 
himself the liegeman of Henry, for the kingdom of 
Scotland and all his dominions, and did homage 
and allegiance to him as his especial lord, " and to 
Henry the king's son, saving his faith to his father." 
In the following year both went through England, 
** promising justice to every one, both clergy and 
iaity, which promise they afterwards fully per- 
formed." (Roger of Wendover.) Surely, then, 
for distinction sake, if not as a matter of right and 
custom, the younger Henry should have been al- 
ways styled Henry III. ; and if so, while he (not 
to mention the Empress Maud and Queen Jane) 
shall remain excluded, therefore, may I not again 
with some show of reason ask, are our lists of 
English sovereigns complete ? J. J. S. 

The Cloisters, Temple. 

Marriage Tithe in Wales. Has Tithe of Mar- 
riage Goods (called in Welsh " Degwm Priodas ") 
been ever demanded or paid in recent times? 
This appears to have often been the custom since 
the act of parliament (about 1549) declaring such 
tithe to be illegal : but will the custom of three 

centuries (if such a custom has anywhere con- 
tinued) confer a right to this peculiar tithe, in 
spite of the act of parliament? What was the 
nature of this tithe? and was it paid by either 
party in case of widowhood ? H. H. H. V. 

" Preached in a Pulpit rather than a Tub." The 
following couplet is all that I remember of a 
poem which was the subject of a violent news- 
paper controversy, I think about 1818. Can any 
one tell me where to find the rest ? 

" Preached in a pulpit rather than a tub, 
And gave no guinea to the, Bible club." 

H. B. C. 
U. U. C. 

Lord Whartons Bibles. In some parishes there 
are given away, as a reward for learning, certain 
Psalms and Prayers, Bibles bearing the inscription 
" The gift of Philip Lord Wharton." How are these 
Bibles to be obtained for any particular parish? 


Reed Family. In A Perfect Diurnall of some 
Passages in Parliament and the dayly Proceedings 
of the Army under his Excellency the Lord Fairfax, 
April 20, 1649, No. 298., mention is made of one 
Lieut.- Col. John Reed, governor, under Fairfax, of 
the town and county of Poole, the first town 
making a public " demonstration of adhesion to 
the present Parliament sitting at Westminster." 
A note by Sir James Mackintosh, to whom this 
volume belonged, leads me to inquire whether any 
of your readers can afford information as to the 
subsequent career of this John Reed, and whether 
he can be identified by any local history as con- 
nected with either the Dorset or Devon families of 
that name. F. S. A. 

Paternoster Row. 

Slavery in Scotland. In the Scottish Antiqua- 
rian Society's Museum in Edinburgh there is a 
brass collar with the following inscription : 

Alexander Stewart, found guilty of death for theft, 
at Perth, December 5, 1701 gifted by the Justi- 
ciaries as a perpetual servant to Sir John Areskine of 

When was this custom done away with ? 

E. F. L. 

Leslie, Bishop of Down. Can any of your cor- 
respondents give any information as to the father 
of Henry Leslie, some time Bishop of Down and 
Connor, and who was promoted at the Restoration 
to the bishopric of Meath, where he died ? 

E. F. L. 

Chaplains to the Forces. When was this ap- 
pointment first made ? nnd where is any list of the 
successive chaplains to be found ? G. 

John of Horsill. Could either of your cor- 
respondents favour me with an account of this 

worthy ? Tradition states he held the manors of 



[No. 115. 

Ribbesford and Highlington, near Bevvdley (Wor- 
cestershire), about the twelfth century. Several 
legends, approaching very near to facts, are extant 
in this neighbourhood concerning him ; one of the 
best authenticated is as follows : 

Hunting one day near the Severn, he started a 
fine buck, which took the direction of the river ; 
fearing to lose it, he discharged an arrow, which, 
piercing it through, continued its flight, and struck 
a salmon, which had (as is customary with such 
fish in shallow streams) leaped from the surface of 
the water, with so much force as to transfix it. 
This being thought a very extraordinary shot (as 
indeed it was), a stone carving representing it was 
fixed over the west door of Ribbesford Church, 
then in course of erection. A description of this 
carving is, I believe, in Nash's History of Wor- 
cestershire, but without any mention of the legend 
The carving merely shows a rude human figure 
with a bow, and a salmon transfixed with an arrow 
before it. A few facts concerning this " John of 
Horsill " would be hailed with much pleasure by 
your well wisher, II. COBVILLE WARDE. 


St. Crispins Day. In the parishes of Cuck- 
field and Hurst-a-point in Sussex, it is still the 
custom to observe St. Crispin's day, and it is 
kept with much rejoicing. The boys go round 
asking for money in the name of St. Crispin, bon- 
fires are lighted, and it passes off very much in 
the same way as the fifth of November does. It 
appears, from an inscription on a monument to one 
of the ancient family of Bunell in the parish church 
of Cuckfield, that a Sir John Bunell attended 
Henry V. to France in the year 1415, with one 
ship, twenty men-at-arms, and forty archers ; and 
it is probable* that the observance of this day in 
that neighbourhood is connected with that fact. 
If so, though the names of 

" Harry the king, Bedford, and Exeter, 
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloster," 

Lave ceased to be "familiar as household words" 
in the mouths of the people,, yet it is a curious proof 
for what length of time a usage may be trans- 
mitted, though the origin of it may be lost. 

If any of your correspondents can inform me 
whether St. Crispin's Day is observed in their 
neighbourhood, and, if so, whether such cases can 
be connected, as in the present instance, with some 
old warrior of Agincourt, they will much oblige 


Poniatowski Gems. When were these gems 
sold in London, and where can I get particulars 
of the prices, purchasers' names, &c., and any 
critical remarks upon them that may have ap- 
peared on the time of the sale ? A. O. 0. D. 

Why Cold Pudding settles one's Love f At a 
Christmas party, recently, the question occurred 

" Whence the origin of the supposed attribute of 
cold plum pudding of settling one's love?" No 
one present being able to give a satisfactory solu- 
tion, it was agreed that I should take your opinion 
on the subject. I therefore ask, How old is the 
saying ? and to what part of England or Great 
Britain may it be traced ? 


Poem ly Camden. Where is the Latin poem by 
Camden, De Connubio Thamce et Isis, to be found ? 

Camden (in Britannia, sive Regnorum Angliee 
Chorograpliica Descriptio, folio, London, 1607) 
quotes very largely from this poem, of which he 
is the reputed author, viz., page 215, 19 lines ; 
page 272-3, 64 lines ; page 302, 12 lines. 

Dr. Kippis, Biographia Britannica, article 
"Camden," in vol. iii., assigns the poem to Camden; 
and Dr. Robert Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica^ 
speaks of it under Isis, and refers to a translation 
of it by Basil Kennet, the brother of White Ken- 
net, Bishop of Peterborough. 

These authorities induce me to think either the 
Latin poem, or the translation, must be in exis- 
tence, though, I regret to say, I cannot find either. 


[A query relating to this poem has already appeared, 
see " N. & Q." Vol. ii., p. 392. Having investigated 
it, we are inclined to think, that only those portions of 
it which appear in the Britannia have been published. 
Mr. Salmon, in his Hertfordshire, p. 3., speaking of the 
word Tamesis being a compound of the two rivers 
Tame and Isis, says, " Of this Mr. Camden was so 
assured, that he hath left us an elejrant poem upon the 
marriage of these two streams in his Britannia" As 
to Dr. Basil Kennet's translation, it is clear from 
Bishop Gibson's Preface, p. xiv., that he only trans- 
lated what has been given in this work. The Bishop 
says, "The ver*:s which occur in Mr. Camden's text 
were translated by Mr. Kennet, of Corpus Christi 
College in Oxford."] 

Marches of Wales and Lords Marchers. Can 
any of your correspondents define briefly the 
Marches of Wales, what localities were com- 
prehended within the Marches, the meaning of the 
word, as also the term Lords Marchers? Is 
there any work in which the explanation sought 
can be found ? G. 

[Consult Camden's Britannia, by Gibson, vol. i. 
p. 470., vol. ii. p. 199. ; Warrington's History of Wales, 
vol. i. pp. 369 384. ; and Penny Cyclopadia, art. 


(Vol.iv., p. 502.) 

I offer P. H. the best information I have. It is 
scanty, but as a few years ago there was much 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 


competition for Moravian hymn-books, probably 
some fortunate possessor of an editio princeps may 
be induced to tell us more about them. 

Of the editions which I have seen, the later is 
always tamer than its predecessors. I have one 
entitled A Collection of Hymns, consisting chiefly 
of Translations from the German. Part 3. The 
Second Edition. London : printed for James 
Hatton, Bookseller in fetter Lane, over against 
West Harding Street, MDCCXLIX. After the man- 
ner of German hymn-books, though in verse, it is 
printed as prose. I have never seen Part I. or 
If. ; and though a book which had reached a 
second edition only a century ago cannot, under 
ordinary circumstances, be scarce, several book- 
sellers and book- fanciers, who have seen mine, 
declare that they think it unique. It is probable 
that ridicule and misconstruction induced the 
heads of the congregation to make great alter- 
ations and omissions in fresh editions, and to re- 
commend the destruction of the old, as a means of 
avoiding scandal. Very good reason they had for 
so doing, as the meaning of spiritual love is often 
so corporeally expressed as to make Tabitha's 
dream, in the New Bath Guide, fall far short of the 
intensity of the serious work. I cannot find the 
"chicken blessed," as cited by Anstey, but have 
no doubt that it is genuine, as' well as those in the 
Oxford Magazine. At page 86. of my copy is a 
different version of that given by P. H. 'it is 
called the " Single Sister's Hymn." Tune : " How 
is my heart," &c. 

" To you ye Jesu's Wounds ! We pay A Thousand 
thankful tears this day, That you have us presented 
With many happy Virgin- Ro-.vs, Who without nun- 
nery, are clo-e to Jesu's heart cemented. This is a 
bliss which is sure To secure Virgin-carriage, In the 
state itself of marriage." 

It is obvious that this is an amended version. 
I believe these hymns were translated by persons 
not very familiar with the English language. The 
versification is occasionally good and harmonious, 
but generally lame, and the language abounding 
with Hebraisms and Germanisms. The matter is 
often indescribably puerile; and, though composed 
bond fide, would look profane and licentious in 

I have another edition, " chiefly extracted from 
the Larger Hymn-book," London, 1769. It has 
bad English, bad verse, and puerility ; but is not 
indelicate. JJ. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 


(Vol. iv., p. 481.) 

^ MR. MARGOLIOUTH, in his communication on 
this subject, has not dealt fairly with the text 
which he quotes. It is as follows : 

" But there remained two of the men in the camp, 
the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the 
other was Medad ; and the Spirit rested upon them, 
and they were of them that were written, but they went 

\ not out unto the tabernacle : and they prophesied in the 

* camp." 

The concluding clause, which I have printed in 
j italics, has been omitted by MR. MARGOLIOUTH, 
I although it is plainly an essential part of the 
j passage, and necessary to the complete statement 
! of the facts narrated. 

Ma. MARGOMOUTH would translate the passage 

| thus : " And the Spirit rested upon them, and 

they were in The Cethubrin (i.e. in Wady Mo- 

katteb), but they went not out unto the tabernacle : 

and they prophesied in the camp." 

He does not, however, explain how Eldad and 
Mudad were in Wady Mokatteb, more than Moses 
and the rest of the seventy. The camp itself was 
in Wady Mokatteb, according to MR. MARGOL.I- 
OUTH'S hypothesis, and therefore there is no oppo- 
sition between Eldad and Medad being there, and 
yet remaining in the camp. But assuredly some 
opposition is evidently intended between Eldad 
and Medad being D'OirDD amongst them that 
were written, and the clause (omitted by MR. 
MARGOLIOUTH) " but they went not out unto the 

The authorized English version is in accordance 
with all the ancient versions, the Chaldee para- 
phrase, and the commentators, Jewish as well as 
Christian. And I think it gives also the common 
sense view of the passage. 

Moses had complained of the great burden 
which rested upon him. " I am not able (he says) 
to bear all this people alone, because it is too 
heavy for me." He was directed, therefore, to 
choose seventy men of the elders of Israel ; and 
God promised him " I will take of the spirit which 
is upon thee, and will put it upon them, and they 
shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that 
thou bear it not alone." 

Accordingly Moses brought out the seventy 
chosen elders, and station e< I them round the ta- 
bernacle, and they there received the spirit of 
prophecy in some visible manner, so as to make 
their divine commission publicly known among 
the people; but two of them, na ned Eldad and 
Medad (the text goes on to say) remained in the 
camp, and nevertheless they also received the 
spirit of prophecy, for they were of them that were 
written D*lin33 (i. e. they were of the number 
of the seventy whom Moses had selected), although 
they went not out to the tabernacle with the 
Others: " KOU olroi ^ffav e/c rcav Kartr/f) pa.Ujueww, 
nam et ij>si descripti fuerant," are the versions of 
the LXX. and Latin Vulgate. And this is evi- 
dently the meaning of the passage ; for if Eldad 
and Medad had not been of the chosen seventy, 
they would have had no right to go out with the 



[No. 115. 

others to the tabernacle, and the remark of the 
historian, "that they remained in the camp and 
went not out unto the tabernacle," would have been 
without point or meaning. MR, MARGOLIOUTH, 
therefore, was quite right to omit these words, as 
they completely overturn his hypothesis. 

Why these two elders remained in the camp is 
not expressly stated in the inspired narrative. 
Raschi says, 

:nrn r&vw& \SHD ws ps no** nrajp IHWD 

** They were of those who were chosen, but they said, 
we are not sufficient for this great thing." 

He goes on to tell us that Moses being per- 
plexed how to choose seventy elders out of the 
twelve tribes, without giving offence to some one 
tribe by choosing a smaller number out of it, se- 
lected six out of each tribe, which made seventy- 
two, and determined by lot the two who were to 
be omitted. Raschi does not say (as Lightfoot, 
and after him, Bishop Patrick, seem to have 
imagined) that the two rejected elders were Eldad 
and Medad, for this would be inconsistent with the 
words just quoted, where he ascribes their re- 
maining behind to their humility and sense of 
insufficiency for so great a work ; and I need 
scarcely say that the text of the Scripture gives 
no authority for the story of the seventy-two 
chosen, and the two rejected by lot. But even 
this story sufficiently proves that the ancient Jewish 
commentators understood the words D^IDD J"1?.3!T) 
as they are rendered by our English translators. 

MR. MARGOL.IOU TII'S conjecture, therefore, is 
totally without foundation ; it is not supported by 
any authority, and is even inconsistent with the 
plain words of the text. I should be sorry to see 
" N. & Q." made the vehicle of such rash and 
unsound criticisms, and therefore I send you this 
refutation of it. 

With respect to Wady Mokatteb, it would be 
Tery desirable to have the singular inscriptions 
there extant carefully copied by competent 
scholars. Hitherto we have been forced to con- 
tent ourselves with the drawings sent home by 
chance travellers ; would it not be possible to or- 
ganize a caravan of competent persons, having 
some knowledge of oriental tongues and alphabets, 
to explore these interesting valleys, and bring 
home correct transcripts of their inscriptions? 
Many noblemen and gentlemen spend annually on 
travelling and yachting much more money than 
would be necessary to organize such an expedition 
&3 I am suggesting ; and if a party put their funds 
together, and took with them artists to make the 
drawings, with a couple of well qualified scholars 
to assist in deciphering them, I think they might 
spend as pleasant, and certainly a much more pro- 
fitable, summer, than in ascending Mont Blanc, 
or drinking sack in the Rhine steam-boats. 
Perhaps, also, the improvements in the daguerreo- 

type and talbotype processes might be made 

available for securing absolute accuracy in the 

fac-similes of the inscriptions. JAMES H. TODD. 
Trinity Coll. Dublin. 

In reference to these celebrated inscriptions, a 
remarkable statement occurs in the Journal Asia- 
tique for 1836, torn. ii. p. 182., of which I annex 
a translation : 

"M. Fraehn has discovered in an Arabian author, 
lbn-abi-Yakoub-el-Nedim, who wrote in 987, a pas- 
sage stating that at that period the Russians already 
possessed the art of writing. This author has even 
preserved a specimen of Russian writing of the tenth 
century, which, he says, he received from an ambas- 
sador sent to Russia by one of the Princes of the 
Caucasus. These characters do not resemble the 
Greek alphabet, or the runes of the Scandinavian 
races. 1 1 would appear, therefore, that the first germ 
of civilisation in Russia preceded the establishment of 
Rurik and the Varangi in this country, instead of 
having been introduced by them. A circumstance of 
peculiar interest is, that these ancient Russian letters, 
so different from any other alphabet, have the greatest 
analogy with those inscriptions, yet unexplained, sculp- 
tured on the rocks of the desert between Suez and 
Mount Sinai, and noticed there in the sixth" century of 
our aera. The analogy existing between these in- 
scriptions placed on the confines of Africa and Asia, 
and others found in Siberia, had already been demon- 
strated by Tychsen. M. Fraehn is about to publish 
this interesting discovery." 

Query, what ground is there for the above 
assertions, and what has been since published in 
support of such a statement ? /x. 


(Vol. ii., p. 519.) 

L. H. K. gives an extract from Howe's Chro- 
nicle, detailing the punishment of one Richard 
Rose (as also of another person) in the above 
manner for the crime of poisoning, and inquires 
if this was a peculiar mode of punishing of cooks. 
No reply to this having yet appeared, and the 
subject being only incidentally mentioned at 
Vol. iii., p. 153., I venture to submit to you the 
following Notes I have made upon it. 

The crime of poisoning was always considered 
as most detestable, " because it can, of all other?, 
be the least prevented either by manhood or fore- 
thought." Nevertheless, prior to the statute of 
22 Hen. VIII. c. 9. there was no peculiarity in the 
mode of punishment. The occurrence to which 
Howe refers, appears to have excited considerable 
attention, probably on account of the supposition 
that the life of the bishop was aimed at ; so much 
so, that the extraordinary step was taken of pass- 
ing an Act of Parliament, retrospective in its en- 
actments as against the culprit (who is variously 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



described as Rose, Roose, otherwise Cooke, and 
Rouse), prescribing the mode of punishment as 
above, and declaring the crime of poisoning to be 
treason for the future. The occurrence is thus 
relate 1 in a foot-note to Rapin, 2nd edit. vol. i. 
p. 792. : 

"Daring this Session of Parliament [1531] one 
Richard Rouse, a cook, on the 16th February poisoned 
some soop in the Bishop of Rochester's kitchen, with 
which seventeen persons were mortally infected ; and 
one of the gentlemen died of it, and some poor people 
that were charitably fed with the remainder were also 
infected, one woman dying. The person was appre- 
hended ; and by Act of Parliament poisoning was 
declared treason, and Rouse was attainted and sentenced 
to be boiled to death, which was to be the punishment 
of poisoning for all times to come. The sentence was 
executed in Smith field soon after." 

This horrible punishment did not remain on the 
Statute Books for any very lengthened period, the 
above statute of Henry being repealed by statutes 
1 Edw. VI. c. 12., and 1 Mary, stat. 1. c. 1., by which 
all new treasons were abolished, since which the 
punishment has been the same as in other cases of 
murder. If within the reach of any correspon- 
dent, an extract from, the statute of Henry would 
bo interesting. J. B. COLMAN. 

Eye, Dec. 16. 1851. 


[The Act of 22 Hen. VIII. c. 9. recites, tha s 
" nowe in the tyme of this presente parliament, that i 
to save, in the xviij th daye of Februarye in the xxij* 
yere of his moste victorious reygn, one Richard Roose 
late of Rouchester in the countie of Kent, coke, other- 
wyse called Richard Coke, of his moste wyked and 
datnpnable dysposicyon dyd caste a certyne venym or 
poyson into a vessell replenysshed with yeste or barme 
stondyng in the kechyn of the Reverende Father in 
God John Bysshopp of Rochester at his place in 
Lamebyth Marsshe, wyth whych yeste or barme and 
other thynges convenyent porrage or gruell was forth- 
wyth made for his famylye there beyng, wherby nat 
only the nombre of xvij persons of his said famylie 
whyc.h dyd eate of that porrage were mortally enfected 
and poysoned, and one of them, that is to say, Benett 
Cur wen gentylman therof is deceassed, but also certeyne 
pore people which resorted to the sayde Bysshops 
place and were there charytably fedde wyth the remayne 
of the saide porrage and other vytayles, were in lyke 
wyse infected, and one pore woman of them, that is to 
saye, Alyce Tryppytt wydowe, is also thereof now de- 
ceassed : our sayde Sovereign Lorde the Kynge of hys 
blessed disposicion inwardly abhorryng all such ab- 
homynable offences because that in maner no persone 
can lyve in suertye out of daunger of death by that 
meane yf practyse therof should not be exchued, hath 
ordeyncd and enacted by auctorytie of thys presente 
parlyament that the sayde poysonyng be adjudged and 
demed as high treason. And that the sayde Richard 
[Rose or Roose] for the sayd murder and povsonynge 
of the said two persones as is aforesayde by auctoritie 
of this presente parlyament shall stande and be attaynted 

of highe treason : And by cause that detestable offence 
nowe newly practysed and comytted requyreth condigne 
punysshemente for the same; It is ordeyned and en- 
acted by auctoritie of this present parlyament that the 
said Richard Roose shalbe therfore boyled to deathe 
withoute havynge any advauntage of his clargie. And 
that from hensfbrth every wylfull murder of any per- 
sone or persones by any whatsoever persone or persones 
herafter to be comytted and done by meane or waye of 
poysonyng shalbe reputed, demed, and juged in the 
lawe to be highe treason; And that all and every per- 
sone or persones which hereafter shalbe lawfully indyted 
appeled and attaynted or condemned of such treson 
for any maner poysonyng shall not be admyttecl to the 
benefyte of hys or theyre clargye, but shalbe imine- 
dyatly committed to execucion of deth by boylynge for 
the same.] 


(Vol. iv., p. 440.) 

U. U. will be extremely sorry to hear that he 
has not any reason for persuading himself that 
his copy of this Index belongs to the original 
edition. On account of the difference of spaces 
observed in the reprint, each page, though con- 
taining only the same matter that appears in the 
earlier impression, has been elongated to the extent 
required for three lines. The Ratisbon octavo is 
generally about an inch taller, and a third part 
thicker, than the Roman volume. The woodcuts 
are totally distinct, and are better in the authentic 
book ; and the beau papier, of which Clement 
speaks, at once eliminates the modern pretender. 

I have been able to obtain two copies of the 
genuine Vatican Index as well as its Serpilian 
rival ; and with respect to what your correspond- 
ent calls "the Bergomi" (more properly the 
Bergamo} " edition" of 1608, I beg to assure him 
that there is an "undoubted" exemplar likewise 
producible, and that I have dispersed a thousand 
facsimiles of it since the year 1837. 

U. U. has charged Mr. Mendham with having 
imagined that "Brasichellen" was a "complete" 
word. I happen to know very well, and many of 
your readers also know, that my excellent friend 
is not altogether such a simpleton ; but he will 
most probably not take the trouble on this occa- 
sion to defend himself. The fact is, that the Ser- 
pilian counterfeit alone is without the full stop in 
the case of this word, which in the Bergamo title- 
page ends at " Brasichell." The master of the 
sacred palace, with whom we are now concerned, 
is very rarely mentioned as Giovanni Maria da 
Brisighella, the designation which he rightly gives 
to himself in his Italian edicts ; and the Latinized 
forms Brasichcllanus and Brasicliellensis easily 
arrive at English abridgments. In 1607, when 
the Vatican Expurgatory Index was first published, 
the Commissary-General of the Roman Inquisition 
was Agostino Galamini da Brisighella, and his 



[No. 115. 

name is sometimes found recorded, unstopped, as 
" Augustinus G-alaminius Brasichellen" R G. 


(Vol.iv., pp.314. 487.) 

I am surprised that your correspondent II. A. B., 
who appears by his expressions to be an admirer 
of the Leviathan, should think the frontispiece an 
absurd conceit, very unworthy of its author. The 
de.^ig.i maybe regarded, I think, as a very re- 
markable embodiment of the thought expressed in 
the passage where the term Leviathan is first used. 
The civil body or commonwealth, derived from 
the union of individuals, is represented by Hobbes 
as the origin of all rights and duties. And this 
combination of men is (Leviathan, p. 87.) some- 
thing more than consent and concord. It is the 
real unity of them all in one and the same person. 
The multitude, so united in one person, is called a 
Commonwealth. " This is the generation," he 
says, " of that great Leviathan, or, to speak more 
reverently" (that is, with the reverence due to it), 
"of that mortal God to which we owe (under the 
Immortal God) our peace and defence." This 
** mortal God," thus constituted, may very fitly be 
represented by the giant image, made up of thou- 
sands of individual forms, wielding the mighty 
sword and the magnificent crosier, and spreading 
its arms, with an air of sovereignty, over castles 
and churches, rivers and ports, fields and villages. 
The emblems then represent, as H. A. B. observes, 
the manifestations of civil and of ecclesiastical 
power; and the parallelisms there exhibited appear 
to me to be curious : the castle, with a piece of 
ordnance discharged from the walls; the church, 
with a figure of Faith on its roof; the coronet and 
the mitre; tho cannon, the thunderbolt of war; 
and the spirit ual fulmination, represented 1 y the 
mythological thunderbolts ; the arms of Logic, Syl- 
logism, and Dilemma, and the like ; and the arms 
of war, pikes, and swords, and muskets ; and 
finally, the judiciary tribunal, and the tribunal of 
the battle field, the ultima ratio regum. 

The frontispiece in the edition of 1651 is a much 
better print than that of 1 750 ; and in the former, 
I think, the resemblance to Cromwell is undeniable. 
In this edition the tablet at the bottom has the 
words, " London ; Printed for Andrew Crooke, 
1651." In the edition of 1750 there are on the 
tablet the words, " Written by Thos. Hobbs, 
1651," as C. J. W. states. W. W. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 271. 322. 438. 503.) 

If the following remarkable lines, described 
to me as having been placed many years ago 

under a bust of General Wolfe, in the Old 
Castle at Quebec, should not be well known, 
I think they merit a place in your pages. My 
friend who sent the verses could not supply the 
author's name, nor state whether they still remain 
in situ quo, though I have some idea that the Old 
Castle was burnt : 

" Let no sad tear upon his tomb be shed, 
A common tribute to the common dead, 
But let the Good, the Generous, and the Prave, 
With godlike envy, sigh Tor such a grave." 

I may as well add, in reply to the Query in your 
113th No., page 504., that my worthy friend and 
neighbour, Mr. Richard Birch Wolfe, the present 
representative of the Wolfes of North Essex, upon 
inquiry at the College of Arms, was unable to trace 
any relationship between his family and that oi* 
the General. BRAYBROOKB. 

Audley End. 

Mrs. Wolfe's maiden name was Henrietta 
Thompson ; she was of a Yorkshire family, and 
;t own sister to my sister Apthorp," says Cole, 
" the wife of the Reverend Dr. Apthorp, Fellow 
of Eton College, so that my nieces Frances and 
Anne Apthorp were first cousins to the General." 
This lady died on Wednesday, Sept. 26, 1764, at 
her house in Greenwich, and is described as " the 
relict of Col. Edward Wolfe, and mother to the 
late heroic General Wolfe." (Public Advertiser, 
Sept. 28, 1764.) The official letter from General 
Wolfe, dated Sept. 9, 1759, is in print. On 
Nov. 18, in that year, his body was landed from 
the ** Royal William" at Portsmouth. Three affect- 
ing letters of the bereaved mother to William Pitt, 
dated Nov. 6th, 27th, 30th, are likewise published. 
On March 26, 1759, she had been left a widow by 
her husband Edward, who was in 1745 Colonel of 
H. M. 8th regiment of infantry, and appointed 
Lieutenant-General in 1747. In 1758, General 
James Wolfe was Colonel of H.M. 67th regiment 
of foot. By her will, Mrs. Wolfe devised 5007. to 
the maintenance and repairs of Bromley Gollegc 
(Cambridge Chronicle, Sat. April 27, 1765) ; and, 
her debts and legacies being first paid, bequeathed 
the residue of her property to poor and deserving 
persons, with preference to the widows and fami- 
lies of soldiers who had served tinder her gallant 
son. The applicants were to send in their names 
to Jas. Gunter, attorney, of Tooley Street, South- 
wark, before Jan. 1, 1766 (Whitehall Even. Post, 
Thursday, Aug. 22, 1765). The monument to 
Gen. Wolfe's memory, in Westerham Church, is 
of white marble, and set up over the south door. 
The inscription has been given already in Vol. iv., 
p. 322. ; but with the omission of any mention of 
a black tablet beneath, inscribed " I, decus, I, 
nostrum." He was baptized on Jan. 11, 1727. 
I subjoin an obituary, and other notices of persons 
of his name : 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



1764. " Wednesday, at Westminster, Dec. 28, Lady 
Anne Wolfe, aunt to the late General, a 
maiden lady." The Gazetteer, Friday, Jan. 4. 

1677. Oct. 14. Thomas Wolfe, D.M. Oxon, 1653. 

1703. April 6. Sir John Wolfe, Knt., Aid. London. 

1711.' Dec. 10. Sir Joseph Wolfe, Knt, Aid. London. 

1748. May 27. John Wolfe, Secretary to the Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

1755. Nov. 12. Mrs. Wolfe, of Queen's Square. 

1759. Sept. 21. Jacob Wolfe, Consul at St. Petersburg. 

1791. Feb. 25. Mrs. , wife of Lewis Wolfe, Esq., 

Compt. at the Stationer's Office. 

1 793. Dec. Rev. Thos. Wolfe of Howick, Nor- 


1794. Aug. 2. Mrs. , relict of the above, at Saf- 

fron Walden. 

1795. Jan. 27. Robert Wolfe, of Cork. 

May 18. Rev. B. Wolfe, Schoolmaster of Dillon. 

. June 25. Thomas Wolfe. 

William Twenslow of Arclyd, co. Chester, born 
1666, married Anne, sister of Edward Wolfe, Esq., of 
Hath er ton. 

Robert French, married Anne, daughter of Richard 
Wolfe, and niece of Theobald Wolfe of Baronsrath, 
co. Kildare. 

Rev. James Jones, of Merrion Square, married 
Lydia, d. of Mr. Theobald Wolfe ; she died in 1793. 

Jermyn Street. 

In Vol. iv., p. 271., inquiry is made for the parent- 
ageof the motherof Gen. Wolfe. Ihave accidentally 
discovered, in turning over Burke's Landed Gentry 
(p. 1389.), that she was a Thompson. Sir Henry 
Thompson, who was three times married, had, by 
his first wife, Henry, M.P. for York, the grand- 
father of Jane, married to Sir Robert Lawley, by 
whom she was mother of Paul Beilby Thompson, 
.late Lord Wenlock. By his third wife, Susanna 
Lovel, Sir Henry had a son Edward, who mar- 
ried a lady named Tindal, and had issue, Edward, 
also M.P. for York ; Francin, a lieut.-colonel ; 
Bradwarden, a captain ; Mary, married to General 
Whetham ; and " Henrietta, mar. Colonel Wolfe, 
and was mother of General Wolfe, killed at 
Quebec." N". 

Will it serve your correspondent $, to state that 
.at Inversnaid, on the borders of Loch Lomond, 
where Wordsworth met his immortalised " High- 
land Girl," there is a ruined fort, erected in 1716 
to keep the clan Gregor in order, and which was 
taken and retaken, repaired and dismantled, but 
which, after the rebellion of '45, was occupied 
by the king's troops ? There is a tradition that 
General James Wolfe was, for a time, stationed 
here. This tradition is referred to in all the Guide 
Books, but no precise date is given. G. W. 

In the United Service Institution there is a 
pencil profile of General Wolfe. It was presented 
to that collection by the Duke of Northumberland 
(when Lord Prudhoe). 

On the back of the sketch itself are written 
these words : 

" This sketch belonged to Lieut.-Col. Gwillim, A.D. 
Camp to Genl. Wolfe when he was killed. It is sup- 
posed to have been sketched by Harvey Smith." 

On the back of the frame there is a paper, with 
the following inscription : 

" This portrait of General Wolfe, from which his 
bust was principally taken, was hastily sketched by 
Harvey Smith, one of his aid-de-camps, a very short 
time before that distinguished officer was killed on the 
plains of Abraham. It then came into the possession 
of Colonel Gwillim, another of the General's aid-de- 
camps, who died afterwards at Gibraltar; and from 
him to Mrs. Simcoe, the Colonel's only daughter and 
heiress ; then to Major- General Darling (who was on 
General Simcoe's staff) ; and is now presented by him 
to his Grace the Duke of Northumberland. 

" Alnwick, Jan. 23, 1832." 

This interesting sketch hangs near the case 
containing the sword worn by Wolfe when lie 
fell. L. II. J. T. 

(Vol. iv., p. 471.) 

It may, perhaps, have puzzled others of your 
reader?, as for some time it did myself, to account 
for your correspondent F. W. J. having undertaken 
to prove that the Duke of Wellington did not first 
use " those celebrated words " there is no mistake, 
in his " reply to Mr. Huskisson." F. W. J. shows 
that the Duke wrote "the sentence now so well 
known" in 1812. No doubt he did : and it may 
not unreasonably be assumed that he had used it 
many hundred times before under similar cir- 
cumstances. F. W. J. evidently confounds those 
words used by the Duke in their natural sense 
with the slang phrase which has been current for 
some years, and owes its origin, I believe, to a 
character in a farce, " and no mistake." The 
slang phrase is used by way of binding or confirm- 
ing ; a?, for instance, " I will be there at two 
o'clock, and no mistake" the latter words being 
equivalent to " You may depend on it : " if, in- 
deed, it be possible to fix a precise meaning to 
words so improperly applied. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say, that in both the instances referred to 
by your correspondent, the Duke used the words 
in their natural and proper sense. F. W. J. is 
wrong in supposing that the Duke used the phrase 
in his "reply to Mr. Huskisson ;" it was to Lord 
Dudley his Grace addressed the words. Mr. Hus- 
kisson having voted against his colleagues on the 
question of transferring the franchise from East 
Retford to Birmingham, wont straight from the 
House of Commons to his office in Downing Street, 
and wrote a letter to the Duke, then Prime 
Minister, announcing that he lost no time in afford- 



[No. 115. 

ing his Grace an opportunity of placing his (Mr. 
Huskisson's) office in other hands, as the only means 
In his power of preventing the injury to the King's 
service which might ensue from the appearance of 
disunion in His Majesty's councils, &c. On receipt 
of Mr. Huskisson's note, the Duke wrote to that 
gentleman stating that he had deemed it his duty 
to lay his note before the King. It happened that 
the Duke's note reached Mr. Huskisson whilst he 
was engaged in conversation with Lord Dudley, to 
whom he had been describing his own note to the 
Duke, and speaking of it (strange enough) as if it 
had not been a tender of resignation. When Mr. 
Huskisson showed Lord Dudley the Duke's letter, 
which showed that his Grace took a different view 
of the matter, his Lordship, knowing what Mr. 
Huskisson had been telling him, naturally enough 
said that the Duke must be labouring under a mis- 
take. But this incident was narrated with so much 
naivete by Mr. Huskisson himself, that I am 
tempted to quote his words (spoken in the House 
of Commons) as they were reported in the Times, 
June 3, 1828 : 

" Upon showing this (the Duke's) letter to Lord 
Dudley, so struck was he with the different import 
which the Duke of Wellington attached to the matter 
from that which was impressed on himself hy the pre- 
vious conversation, that he remarked, Oh, I see the 
Duke has entirely mistaken your meaning: I will go 
and see him, and set the matter right.' (A laugh.) 
Lord Dudley returned shortly after seeing the Duke, 
and said, * I am sorry to say I have not been success- 
ful. He (the Duke) says it is no mistake ; it can be 
uo mistake ; and (if Mr. Huskisson's relation of the 
words were not imperfectly heard, for he let his voice 
drop repeatedly) it shall be no mistake." (Loud 
laughter. ) 

C. Ross. 


(Vol. iv., p. 388.) 

I am greatly obliged by the communication of 
your correspondent relative to the Gays connected 
with Sidney College. It was from that quarter I ex- 
pected light. The passage in Paley's Life of Law, 
which is to me of considerable interest, long ago 
attracted my attention, although it escaped notice 
at the moment when I ventured to send my first 
inquiry. It runs as follows : 

" Our Bishop always spoke of this gentleman in 
terms of the greatest respect. In the Bible, and in 
the writings of Mr. Locke, no man, he used to say, was 
so well versed." 

Thus I find the passage quoted from Paley in 
Nichols' Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth 
Century, vol. ii. p. 66. Bishop Law also mentions 
him iiv a letter to Dr. Zach. Grey, editor of 
Hadibras : " Respects to honest Mr. Gay, and all 
riends in St. John's." The letter was written 

from Graystock, May 31, 1743. The full address 
of Dr. Grey unfortunately is not given where I 
find the letter, in the same vol. of Nichols, p. 535. 
But we may safely gather from it, that at that 
time " honest Mr. Gay " was at Cambridge, and iu 
esteem ; whether a resident, as should seem most 
likely from the manner of the notice, or a casual 
visitor, does not certainly appear. If a resident, 
this is not consistent with the idea of your cor- 
respondent, that he became vicar of Wilshamstead, 
Bedfordshire, and vacated his fellowship before 
1732. I wish that the identity of the author of 
the Dissertation with the John Gay first in the 
list of your correspondent an identity to which 
my mind also inclines, could be more clearly 
made out. He was born, and partly educated, in. 

A private correspondent has very kindly fur- 
nished me with a few particulars relative to 
Nicholas Gay, the second mentioned in your cor- 
respondent's list, and father of the fourth, which 
Nicholas was vicar of Newton St. Gyres, near 
Exeter, and died, a3t. seventy-five, in 1775 ; and to- 
another, Richard Gay, rector of St. Leonard, near 
Exeter, who died in 1 755. Of this Richard Gay, 
on a stone in the church of Frithelstock, near 
Torrington, it is said that 

" To great learning, he added a most exemplary life 
in constant faithful endeavours to support religion, to 
glorify God, and to do good to man. He was equalled 
by few, surpassed by none of the age he lived in." 

To such a character, one would gladly attach 
the Dissertation in question, but no Richard Gay, 
it appears, is mentioned in the records of Sidney 
College. There were many Gays in Devonshire 
of the family of John Gay the poet. 

Permit me to make another inquiry : Is there 
any tolerably good account in existence of the 
private or domestic life of the celebrated Lord, 
North, minister arid favourite of George III. ? 
Of his political career, a pleasing sketch is given 
by Lord Brougham, in his Historical Sketches of 
Statesmen, and many delightful anecdotes of his 
incomparable temper and playful wit are known; 
but of his domestic history I cannot find a trace. 


Wildwood, Hampstead. 


(Vol.iv., p. 473.) 

As the Query herein appears to be one which it 
is more the province of the lawyer to answer, I 
take the liberty of submitting the following for 
your correspondent's consideration. 

The ecclesiastical mode of registration appears 
now to be regulated by 52 Geo. III. c. 146., which 
still remains in force (except with regard to mar- 
riages, which was repealed on the introduction of 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



the civil method) as far as regards baptisms and 
burials ; and by the 16th section of that act, a 
proviso is enacted, that nothing in that act should 
diminish or increase the fees theretofore payable, 
or of right due, to any minister for the performance 
of the fo/bre-mentioned duties, &c. 

The before-mentioned duties here referred to 
were, that they (the officiating ministers) should 
keep the registers of public and private bap- 
tisms, marriages, and burials in books for that 
purpose provided by the parish, that they should 
as soon after the solemnisation of the ceremony 
as possible enter it in the register. That such 
Register Books should be kept in the custody of 
the minister in an iron chest, which was to be kept 
locked, except for the purpose of making the 
entries as above, or for the inspection of persons 
desirous to make search therein, or to obtain copies, 
or for production as evidence, or for inspection as 
to their condition, or for the purposes of that act. 
That, within a stated period, the ministers should 
make copies (annually) of the registers, verify 
them, and transmit the copies to the registrar of 
the diocese. Now these just mentioned are the 
duties referred to in the act, so far as they con- 
cern our inquiry ; and the fees payable have been 
the fee of one guinea for keeping the registers, 
a fee allowed by the parish for sending copies of 
them to the registrar of the diocese ; but I do not 
observe any fee for any person searching, or even 
obtaining copies of any entry of baptism or burial, 
if they feel so disposed. 

The civil method of registration is regulated by 
the 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 86. ; and by the 35th 
section it is enacted : 

" That every rector, vicar, or curate, and every 
registrar, registering officer, and secretary who shall 
have the keeping for the time being of any Register 
Books of births, deaths, or marriages, shall at all 
reasonable times allow searches to be made of any 
Register Book in his keeping, and shall give a copy 
certified under his hand of any entry or entries in the 
same on payment of .... for every 
search extending over a period not more than one year, 
the sum of one shilling, and sixpence additional for 
every additional year ; and the sum of two shillings 
and sixpence for every single certificate." 

This will be seen to comprehend such Register 
Books as apply to births and deaths only, and 
not to those containing baptisms and burials 
(which latter are only in the custody of the offici- 
ating ministers) ; and although some doubts may 
irise from the words " allow searches to be made 
f any Register Book in his keeping," I am of 
pinion that " the Register Book" here meant "in 
h keeping" only applies to the description just 
Feeding, viz. of u births and deaths." I am 
in ined to think that no fee is payable legally to 
""minister for searching' the Register Books of 
vupwis or burials, nor even for making a copy of 

an entry therein by any persons if they feel dis- 
posed to take a copy themselves. 

In the same act, sec. 49., a provision is enacted 
that nothing in that act shall affect the registration 
of baptisms or burials as then by law established, 
or the right of any officiating minister to receive 
the usual fees for the performance or registration 
of any baptism, burial, or marriage : so that there 
is nothing even in this controlling clause last 
quoted, that at all affects the right of persons to 
search without fee the registers of baptisms or 
burials, or even of making copies ; for that clause 
simply refers to the fact of registering, and the 
fees payable for solemnising the same, and the 
registration, although I am not aware that there 
is a fee for registering a baptism, although it was 
so in William III.'s reign. 

By the 12th sect, of the 52 Geo.III. c. 146. 
(the latter part of it), I find that the copies of the 
registers which are transmitted by the minister 
annually to the registrar of the diocese, are to be 
arranged, and an alphabetical list of names to be 
made by the registrar ; and such copies and list to 
be open to public search at all reasonable times 
upon payment of their usual fees. This of course 
does not apply to the baptismal or burial registers 
in the custody of the minister ; but it is quoted 
that your correspondent may be in possession of 
the whole facts, for it is undoubtedly most im- 
portant to the genealogical or archaeological in- 
quirer. If I am wrong, I shall be glad to stand 
corrected on the error being pointed out. 


King's Lynn, Dec. 15. 1851. 

to iHtnar 

Proverbs (Vol. iv., p. 239.). A proverb has 
been well defined (it is said by Lord John Russell) 
to be " the wisdom of many, and the wit of one." 


Infantry Firing (Vol. iv., p. 407.). The fol- 
lowing short paragraph on this subject may be ac- 
ceptable to your correspondent H. Y. W. N. I 
found it among a small collection of newspaper 
cuttings; but I cannot give either the name or 
date of the paper from which it was taken. 

" MUSKET BALLS. Marshal Saxc computed that, in 
a battle, only one ball of eighty-five takes effect. 
Others, that only one in forty strikes, and no more than 
one in four hundred is fatal. At the battle of Tournay, 
in Flanders, fought on the 22nd of May, 1 794, it is 
calculated that two hundred and thirty-six musket- 
shot were expended in disabling each soldier who suf- 
fered." C. FORBES. 


Jocelines Legacy (Vol. iv., pp. 367.410. 454.). 
Having at length obtained a copy of the edition of 
this excellent manual, which your correspondent 



[No. 115. 

J. S. (Vol. iv., p. 410.), in reply to my Query, in- 
formed me had passed through the press of Messrs. 
Blackwood and Sons, "with a preface or dis- 
sertation containing many particulars relating to 
the authoress and her relatives," my object in 
mentioning the subject in "N. & Q." has been 
satisfactorily answered. I am also obliged to 
J. S. (the editor, I apprehend, of this new edition) 
for having corrected the errors into which I had 
unintentionally fallen ; nor will my neighbour, the 
Rev. C. H. Crauford, I am sure, feel less obliged. 

It now appears that this new reprint is copied 
verbatim et literatim from the third impression 
printed at London, by John Haviland for Hanna 
Barres, 1625. My Query also has been the means 
of ascertaining from another correspondent, P. B. 
(the initials, I believe, of one of the most correcf 
of bibliographers in names and dates), a notice ot 
what he believes to be the first edition printed by 
John Haviland for William Barret, 1624. But, as 
Black wood's edition is dated 1625, and is called 
the third edition, is it not very probable that an 
earlier one appeared than even that of 1624 ? 

Should the notice I have attracted to Mrs. 
Joceline's Mothers Legacie, and the letter accom- 
panying it, addressed, " in the immediate prospect 
of death, to her truly loving and most dearly be- 
loved husband," be the means of extending the 
sale and the perusal of this beautiful little pocket 
volume, " replete with practical wisdom and hal- 
lowed principles, that no human being who is not 
past feeling can read without deep emotion," I 
shall be truly gratified : and it will be another in- 
stance of the utility and value of u N. & Q." being 
the medium of bringing such books before the 
public eye. J. M. G-. 


Winifreda; Stevens "Rural Felicity" (Vol. iv., 
p. 277.). For a repetition of the sentiment by 
Stevens, vide also his " Parent : " 
" A fond father's bliss is to number his race, 
And exult on the bloom that just buds on their face, 
With their prattle he'll dearly himself entertain, 
And read in their smiles their loved mother again ; 
Men of pleasure be mute, this is life's lovely view, 
When we look on our young ones our youth we renew." 
Stevens' Songs, Tolly's ed. 1823. p. 223. 

Eye, Nov. 17. 1851. 

"Posie of other Meris Flowers'" (Vol. iv., 
p. 58.). A literary friend of mine has found 
the passage in Montaigne, book iii. chapter 12., 
about three-fourths of the way through it : 

" We invest ourselves with the faculties of others, 
and let our own lie idle : as some one may say to me 
that J have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, 
and have brought nothing of my own but the thread 
that ties them together." 


Abigail (Vol. iv., p. 424.). I have always sup- 
posed that the term " Abigail" had reference to 
the handmaid, who is described in sacred history 
as coming before David, and appeasing his wrath. 
I am far from wishing, as I am certain all your 
readers are, together with yourself, to tamper with 
holy things. With this understanding, let me 
therefore suggest, that other names recorded in 
the Bible have been used much in the same way 
as marking distinctive character. Witness Joseph, 
Solomon, Jehu, Job. C. I. R. 

Legend of St. Molaisse (Vol ii., p. 79. ; Vol. iii., 
p. 478.). This manuscript was purchased for the 
British Museum, and is MS. Add. 18,205. In- 
stead of being of the eleventh, it is probably of the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century. p. 

Collars of SS. (Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236.). In 
compliance with the wish of MR. E. Foss, that all 
information bearing on this subject might be sent 
to you, I beg to state that I have carefully 
examined two monuments in this neighbourhood 
on which this ornament appears. 

The first is in Macclesfield church. In the 
north aisle is an altar-tomb, with the effigies of a 
knight in plate armour, with a collar of SS. At 
his feet is a ball ; and under his head, which is 
uncovered, a helmet with crest and lambrequin. 
The crest is too much defaced to be made out, 
but in a sketch made in 1584 is figured as a stag's 
head. Tradition assigns this tomb to one of the 
family of Downes ; but it is surrounded by the 
monumental effigies of the Savages (one being 
that of the hero of Bosworth), and bears the 
arms of Archbishop Savage, who is said to have 
repaired it. 

The other, which is an exceedingly beautiful 
monument, and in excellent preservation, is in the 
chancel of Barthomley church. It is an embattled 
altar-tomb : on the sides are figures, somewhat 
mutilated, of knights and ladies, sculptured in bas- 
relief, under richly crocketted gothic canopies. 
The knight is in plate armour, with a coif de 
mailles and pointed helmet (exactly of the same 
character as the effigy of Edward the Black Prince 
in Canterbury Cathedral), and wears a collar of 
SS. most elaborately carved. It is known as the 
tomb of Sir Robert Fulleshurst, one of the four 
esquires of the gallant James Lord Audley at the 
battle of Poictiers, who died in 13 Rich. II. (Ir 
Bunbury church, there is an alabaster altar-tonV 
to Sir Hugh Calveley, the famous Captain 
" Companions" at the battle of Najara, who dii 
1394. It is so exactly similar in every respft, 
with the exception of the collar of SS., to thaof 
Sir Robert Fulleshurst, that of the sketches I>ve 
made of both you could not distinguish one 'om 
the other.) 

There are also said to be effigies beam tne 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



collar of SS. in the churches of Cheadle, Mottram, 
Over Peover, and Malpas, of which I will send 
you some notice as soon as I have seen them. 

Sandbach, Cheshire. 

Pronunciation of Coke (Vol. iv., p. 244.). 
In confirmation of the opinion that his name was 
pronounced Cook, I beg to send you an extract 
from the Life of Sir Edward Coke, by C. W. 
Johnson, 1845, vol. i. p. 336. : 

" When Coke was sent to the Tower they punned 
against him in English. An unpublished letter of the 
day has this curious anecdote. The room in which he 
lodged in the Tower had formerly been a kitchen ; on 
his entrance the Lord Chief Justice read upon the 
door, ' This room wants a Cook.' " 

E. N. W. 


Use of Misereres (Vol. iv., p. 307.). The fol- 
lowing facts may serve towards deciding the use 
of "miserere" chairs in old churches. In the 
Greek church, near London Wall, every seat is 
. on the miserere construction. During those parts 
of the service (and they are very frequent) where 
the rubric requires a standing posture, the wor- 
shipper raises the stall to support the person, 
which it does in a very sufficient manner. 

In the parish church of Mere, in Wiltshire, the 
"misereres" are furnished with hooks, to prevent 
their falling down again when once elevated. 


Inscription on a Pair of Spectacles (Vol. iv., 
p. 407.). The words are evidently all proper 
names except the third and fourth, Seel. Erb. 
I imagine the words to be German. Seel, a con- 
traction for the genitive (sing, or plur.) of Selig, a 
German euphemism for late (lit. blessed, happy), 
and the other word a contraction for Erbe or Erben, 
heir or heirs. I interpret it, " Peter Conrad 
Wiegel, heir of the late John May." So. 


John Lord Frescheville (Vol. iv., p. 441.). I n 
answer to D.'s enquiry whether there is any proof 
of this cavalier having been engaged in Kineton 
fight, he may be referred to the patent of his 
peerage, which refers to his having been present 
at the first erection of the king's standard at 
Nottingham, and to his " many eminent services 
against the rebels, as well in the first happy defeate 
given to the best of their cavalrye in the fight 
near Worcester, as at Kineton, Braynford, Marie- 
borough, Newbery, and many other places, where 
he hath received severall wounds." D. is probably 
not aware of the very copious memoirs of this 
family communicated by Sir Frederick Madden 
(from Wolley's Derbyshire Collections), and by 
the Rev. Joseph Hunter to the Collectanea Topo- 
graphica et Genealogica, vol. iv. 1837. N. 

Nightingale and Thorn (Vol. iv., pp. 175.242.). 

" Edw. Lorrain, behold the sharpness of this steel : 

[Drawing his sword.} 

Fervent desire, that sits against my heart, 
Is far more thorny-pricking than this blade ; 
That, like the nightingale, I shall be scar'd, 
As oft as I dispose myself to rest, 
Until my colours be disploy'd in France : 
This is my final answer, so be gone." 

Edward Iff., a Play, thought to be writ by 
Shakspeare, Act I. Sc. 1. 

Of the two editions of The Raigne of King 
Edward the Third, consulted by Capell before 
publishing the play iu his Prolusions, the first 
was printed in 1596, the second in 1599. 



Godfrey Higgins's Works (Vol. iv., p. 152.). 
Perhaps it may not be uninteresting to OUTJS to 
know that one of the works of Mr. Higgins called 
forth one, whose title I send : 

" Animadversions on a Work entitled ' An Apology 
for the Life and Character of the celebrated Prophet of 
Arabia called Mohamed or the Illustrious, by God- 
frey Higgins, Esq.;' with Annotations, by the Rev. 
P. Inchbald, LL.D., formerly of University College, 

li Tavra ^v ovv irpbs TO.S fi\a(r<t>ir)pias. 

" Published at Doncaster, 1830." 

H. J. 

Ancient Egypt (Vol. iv., p. 152.). This Query, 
although partially answered in Vol. iv., pp. 240. 
302., has hitherto received no reply on the subject 
of the " Ritual of the Dead." Brugsch has just 
published the Sai an Sinsin, sive Liber Metem- 
psychosis, Sfc., from a papyrus in the Museum at 
Berlin, with an interlinear Latin translation, and 
a transcript of the original in modern characters, 
in conformity with the plan which he adopted in 
his interpretation of the hieroglyphic portion of 
the Rosetta Inscription, published in the early 
part of the present year. S. P. H. T. will find 
some of the information he requires in the/brwier, 
if not in both of these volumes. P. Z. 

Crosses and Crucifixes (Vol. iv., pp. 422. 485.). 
Your correspondent SIR J. E. TENNENT, in 
extracting from his volume on Modern Greece 
(vol. ii. p. 266.), has given fresh currency to a 
singular error. The Council of Trullo was cited 
by him in 1830, and is again quoted as ordering 
" that thenceforth fiction and allegory should 
cease, and the reed figure of the Saviour be de- 
picted on the tree;" and we are referred to Can. 82. 
Act. Condi. Paris, 1714, v. iii. col. 1691, 1692. 
But should your readers turn to the canons of 
that council they would be disappointed at finding 
nothing about the cross, and one is curious to 
know how an historian could have been led into 
so singular a mistake. Johnson (see Clergyman^ 



[No. 115. 

Vade Mecum, Part II. p. 283. third edit.) thus 
gives the substance of the canon : 

" 82. Whereas, among the venerable pictures, the 
Lamb is represented as pointed at by the finger of his 
forerunner [John the Baptist], which is only a symbol 
or shadow; we, having due regard to the type, but pre- 
ferring the anti-type, determine that he be for the future 
described more perfectly, and that the portraicture of a 
man be made instead of the old Lamb : that by this 
we may be reminded of His incarnation, life, and death." 

And though I have not the precise edition at 
hand to which SIR J. E. TENNENT refers, yet on 
turning to Labbe, I find that Johnson has cor- 
rectly epitomized the canon in question. 

" In nonnullis venerabilium imaginum picturis, 
agnus qui digito prrecursoris monstratur, depingitur, 
qui ad gratia figuram assumptus est, verum nobis 
agnum per legetn Christum Detim nostrum prasmon- 
strans. Antiquas ergo figuras et umbras, ut veritatis 
signa et characteres ecclesiae traditos, amplectentes, 
gratiam et veritatem praeponimus, eum ut legis im- 
plementum suscipientes. Ut ergo quod perfectum est, 
vel colorum expressionibus omnium oculis subjiciatur, 
ejus qui tollit peccata mundi, Christi Dei nostri hu- 
mana forma characterem etiam in imaginibus deinceps 
pro veteri agno erigi ac depingi jubemus : ut per 
ipsum Dei verbi humiliationis celsitudinem mente 
comprehendentes, ad memoriam quoque ejus in carne 
conversationis, ejus passionis et salutaris mortis dedu- 
camur, ejusque qua? ex eo facta est mundo redemp- 
tionis." Lubbe, Sacros. Condi, t. vi. p. 1177. Paris, 

Rotten How (Vol. i., p. 441.; Vol. ii., 
p. 235.). May I be allowed to re-open the ques- 
tion as to the origin of this name, by suggesting 
that it may arise from the woollen stuff called 
rateen ? A " Rateenrowe" occurs in 1437 in Bury 
St. Edmund's, which was the great cloth mart of 
the north-eastern parts of the kingdom ; and 
where, at the same time, were a number of rows 
named after trades, as " Lyndraper Row," " Mer- 
cer's Row," " Skynner Rowe," " Spycer's Rowe," 
&c. What is the earliest known instance of the 

word ? 


Borough- English (Vol. iv., pp. 133. 214. 235. 
259.). Watkins' Copyholds furnishes in its ap- 
pendix a list of the customs of different manors, 
and therein specifies those which are subject to the 
custom of Borough-English. With regard to there 
being any instance on record of its being carried 
into effect in modern times, there must not be a 
mistake between the custom which now exists, 
and that which some authors assert was the origin 
of it. The custom is, that the youngest son in- 
herits in exclusion of his eldest brothers ; this is 
exercised, or it could not exist. But the custom 
to which reference has been made, as having been 
stated by some authors to be the origin of the 
existing custom of Borough-Euglish, is not men- 

tioned by Littleton as such. He gives a different 
reason, namely : 

" Because the younger son, by reason of his tender 
age, is not so capable as the rest of his brethren to 
provide for himself." 

And Blackstone adduces a third from the practice 
of the Tartars, among whom, on the authority of 
Father Duhalde, he states that this custom of 
descent to the youngest son also prevails, and 
gives it in these words : 

" That nation is composed totally of shepherds and 
herdsmen ; and the elder sons, as soon as they are 
capable of leading a pastoral life, migrate from their 
father with a certain allotment of cattle, and go to seek 
a new habitation. The youngest son, therefore, who 
continues latest with the father, is naturally the heir of 
his house, the rest being already provided for. And 
thus we find that among many other northern nations, it 
was the custom for all the sons but one to migrate 
from the father, which one became his heir. So that 
possibly this custom, wherever it prevails, may be the 
remnant of that pastoral state of our British and Ger- 
man ancestors, which Caesar and Tacitus describe." 


Aylsham, Norfolk. 

Tonge of Tonge (Vol. iv., p. 384.). This very 
ancient family did not become extinct, as conjec- 
tured by your correspondent J. B. (Manchester). 
Jonathan Tonge of Tonge, gent., by will, dated 
Sept. 7, 1725, devised his estate "to be sold to the 
best purchaser," and appointed his brother Thomas 
Tonge, gent., who had a family, one of his execu- 
tors. In the year following, the whole estate 
was purchased for 4350/. by Mr. John Starky of 
Rochdale, a successful attorney, in whose repre- 
sentative it is now vested. The Tonges deduced 
their descent from Thomas de Tonge, probably a 
natural son of Alice de Wolveley (herself the 
heiress of the family of Prestwich of Prestwich) , 
living 7 Edw. II. 1314, as appears by an elaborate 
pedigree of the family (sustained by original evi- 
dences), in my possession, and at the service of 
J. B. F. R. R. 

Milnrow Parsonage. 

Queen Brunehaut ^(Vol. iv., p. 193.). "That 
monster queen Brunehaut!" For these two cen- 
turies there have been writers, beginning with 
Pasquier, and apparently gathering weight and 
influence, who are by no means disposed to be- 
stow that epithet upon Brunehaut, whose execu- 
tioners were monsters certainly at any rate. C. B. 

" Essex Broad Oak" (Vol.v., p. 10.). In " the 
Forest," two or three miles from Bishop Stortford, 
is the ruin of an old oak, from which the parish 
no doubt takes its name of Hatfield Broad Oak. 
There is a print of this tree in Arthur Young's 
Survey of Essex. 

If the rural readers of " X. & Q." will observe 
whether the finest specimens of oaks have their 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



acorns growing on long or short stalks (quercus 
sessiliflora or pedunculatd), they might throw 
much light on the questions, Have we two distinct 
English oaks ? and, if so, Which makes the largest 
and best timber? The timber used inside old 
buildings, and erroneously often called chesnut, 
is supposed to be the sessiliflora variety of oak, 
placed inside because it is not so durable as the 
quercus pedunculata. But I have been lately in- 
formed this variety is in Sussex selected, as the 
best, for Portsmouth Dockyard ! 

In the year 1783 my grandfather first drew 
attention to the two varieties of English oaks, in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, p. 653. He was brother 
of Gilbert White of Selborne, and an equally 
acute observer of Nature. Loudon, in his Arbo- 
retum, has collected much information, but has 
left the question pretty much where it was seventy 
years since. Surely it is time we knew precisely 
what is the tree of which our wooden walls are 
made. A. HOLT WHITE. 


Frozen Sounds and Sir John Mandeville (Vol. iii-' 
pp. 25. 71.). Your correspondent M. A. LOWER 
says with truth, that the passage about frozen 
voices was not to be found in the knight's published 
work ; but neither he nor any other of your contri- 
butors seems to have found the original of it. In 
the Taller, No. 254., the illustrious Isaac Bicker- 
staff informs us that some manuscripts of Man- 
deville's and of Ferdinand Mendis Pinto's, not 
hitherto included in their published works, had 
come into his hands, from which he purposed 
making extracts from time to time ; and then 
proceeds to give us the identical story which 
your correspondent J. M. G. appears to have taken 
for a real bit of Mandeville, in ignorance or for- 
getfulness of its origin : for I cannot suppose any 
one so dull as to take the passage in the Toiler 
in sober earnest. Steele no doubt took the story 
from Rabelais or Plutarch, and fathered it upon 
one whose name (much better known than his 
works) had become proverbial as that of a liar. 



Separation of Sexes in Church (Yol. ii., p. 94.). 
In Christ Church, Birmingham, the males are 
(or were) separated from the females, which gave 
rise to the following lines, which I quote from 
Allen's Guide to Birmingham : 
' The churches and chapels we generally find, 
Are the places where men unto women are join'd ; 
But at Christ Church, it seems, they are more cruel- 

For men and their wives are brought there to be 


Deep Wells (Vol. iv., p. 492.). Besides streams 
aud sunk wells, there is of course another source 

of water arising from natural springs ; and there 
are some on both sides of the Banstead Down, 
which are very considerable. The chief, probably, 
is the source of the River Wandle, at Carshalton, 
pronounced (with the same omission of the r which 
P. M. M. notices) as if it was spelt Case-, or Cays- 

But there is a very strong one at Merstham. 
These are both at the foot of the Chalk hills. 
P. M. M. does not mention the geological causes 
on which the relations between wells or springs 
depend. About thirty-five years ago the spring 
at Merstham, which feeds a considerable spring, 
failed, and there was a great dispute whether It 
was owing to excavations in the neighbourhood. 
An action was brought, which decided that it was 
not attributable to them ; upon which I believe 
Mr. Webster and Mr. Phillips, eminent geological 
authorities, were examined, and which led, per- 
haps, to their respective accounts, in the Geological 
Transactions, of the structure of that valley. The 
story was, that, after having gained the cause, the 
proprietor of the quarries said, " I think we may- 
let them have their water back again." Certain it 
is that after some time the water did return. 

The Gait clay almost everywhere underlies 
chalk: this at Merstham is 200 feet thick, and 
upon the pitch and situation of it many apparently 
strange phenomena of wells would depend, as is 
noticed with regard to another clay stratum at 
Norton St. Philips, near Bath, in Conybeare and 
Phillips' Geology. 

There are very deep wells through the Lon- 
don clay, and other beds below it, perhaps, at 
Wimbledon and at Richmond Park. The deep 
well at Carisbrook Castle is well known. That is 
in the chalk ; and where, the chalk being thrown 
into a vertical position, it may be still farther to 
the bottom of it. C. B. 

Dictionary of Hackneyed Quotations (Vol. iv., 
p.405.). I am glad to find, from the communication 
by H. A. B., that a book of the above description 
is appear. The want of such a book has 
long been felt, and its appearance will fill up a gap 
in literature : how it could so long have escaped 
the notice of publishers is a mystery. " Though 
lost to sight, to memory dear," the author of which 
H. A. B. inquires for, is, I think, not likely to be 
found in any author. My impression is, that it 
cannot be traced up to any definite source : I re- 
member it only as a motto on a seal which was in 
my possession nearly thirty years ago. 



Macaulay's Ballad of Naselty (Vol. iv., p. 485.). 
It was reprinted by Charles Knight in the 
last (or octavo) series of the Penny Magazine, 
vol. ii. p. 223. With it is the companion called 
" The Cavalier's March to London." It will not 



[No. 115. 

be very easy for authors to shake off' their juvenile 
productions, while "N. & Q." is in existence: 
nor need Mr. Macaulay be ashamed of these 
ballads. They are spirited, and pleasant to read. 


Ducks and Drakes (Vol. iv., p. 502.). An 
extract from Mr. Bellenden Ker's account of the 
origin and meaning of these words, will answer 
M. W. B.'s question in the affirmative. 


" As the boys play by skrnming a flat stone along 
the surface of the water ; so as to cause it to make as 
many bounds or richochets as the skimmer's strength 
and dexterity can enforce. The superiority, in the 
play, is decided by the greatest number of times the 
stone touches and bounds upon the surface, in conse- 
quence of the way it is slung from the hand of the per- 
former. D'hactis aen der reyckes, q. e. the hazard 
[event] is upon the touches; the issue of the game depends 
upon the number of bounds [separate touchings] m ide 
on the surface of the water. When we say, he has 
made ducks and drakes of his money, it is merely in the 
sense of, he has thrown it away childishly and hope- 
lessly ; and the stone is the boy's throw for a childish 
purpose, and sinks at the end of its career, to be lost in 
the water." Essuy on the Archaeology of our Popular 
Phrases and Nursery Rhymes, vol. ii. p. HO. 



John Holywood, the Mathematician (Vol. iii. 
p. 389.). I do not observe that any one has 
replied to the Query of DR. RIMBAUI/T, as to the 
birth-place of John Holywood, the Mathematician. 
I presume he means Johannes a Sacrobosco, who 
died in Paris A.D. 1244, and was the author of the 
treatise De Sphcerd and other works. In Harris's 
History of the County of Down: Dublin, 1744., 
p. 260., a claim to the honour of his birth is made 
on behalf of the town of Holywood, about four 
miles from Belfast, where he is said to have been 
a brother of the order of the Franciscans, who had 
a friary there. Some of the sculptured stones of 
the building may still be seen in the walls of the 
ruined church which stands upon its site ; ' and its 
lands form part of the estate of Lord Dufferin and 


Objective and Subjective (Vol. v., p. 11.) 
From the tone of X.'s inquiry into the meaning 
of this antithesis, it is tolerably plain that no an- 
swer will make him confess that it is intelligible ; 
yet it was familiar in the best times of our philo- 
sophical literature, and the words, according to 
this, their philosophical opposition, occur in 
Johnson's Dictionary. I think it is desirable to 
avoid this phraseology, but the meaning of it may 
be made clear enough to any one who wishes to 
understand it. The object on which man employs 
his senses or his thoughts, are distinct enough 

from the man himself, the subject in which the 
senses^and the thoughts exist. 'Several years ago 
an Edinburgh Reviewer complained that Germans, 
and Germanized Englishmen, were beginning to 
use objective and subjective for external and internal. 
This is a sort of rough approximation to the 
meaning of the terms. But perhaps the distinction 
is better illustrated by examples. We call Homer 
an objective, Lucan a subjective, poet, because the 
former tells his story about external objects and 
wants, interposing little which belongs to himself. 
Lucan, on the other hand, is perpetually intro- 
ducing reflections arising from the internal cha- 
racter of his own mind. Objective truth is lan- 
guage which agrees with the facts, correctness. 
Subjective truth is language which agrees with 
the convictions of the speaker, veracity. 

Perhaps X. will allow me to ask in turn, what 
is " a physical ignoramus," the character in which 
he begs some of your intelligent readers to en- 
lighten him. 

I have said above that I think this mode of ex- 
pressing the antithesis better avoided ; 1 will state / 
why. It puts the man who thinks, and the ob- 
jects about which he thinks, side by side, as if 
they were alike and co-ordinate. It implies the 
view of some one who can look at both of them ; 
whereas, the thing to be implied is the opposition 
between being looked at and looking. Hence sub- 
jective is a bad word ; a man is not, in ordinary 
language, the subject of his own senses or of his 
own thoughts, merely because they are in him. 
The antithesis would be better expressed in many 
cases, by the words objective and mental, or 06- 
jective and cogitative. But different words would 
be eligible in different cases. W. W. 

Plant in Texas (Vol. iv., pp. 208. 332.). In 
turning over some papers I found the following 
paragraph : 

" Major Alvord has discovered a singular plant of 
the Western Prairies, said to possess the peculiarity of 
pointing north and south, and to which he has given 
the name of Silphium Laciniatum. No trace of iron 
has been discovered in the plant ; but, as it is full of 
resinous matter, Major Alvord suggests that its po- 
larity may be due to electric currents." 


Lord Say and Printing (Vol. iv., p. 344.). In 
Milman's edition of Gibbons Autobiography, there 
occurs a passage respecting his ancestor, Lord 
Treasurer Say, from which it appears that the 
great historian doubted the accuracy of Shaks- 
peare's allusion (which he quotes). I have not 
the book with me, or 1 would refer MR. FRAZER 
to the page. I think Gibbon would not have 
rested content with a mere assertion of his opinion, 
if a fact so creditable to his ancestor's under- 
standing were capable of proof. 

JAX. 10. 1852.] 



Ae of Trees (Vol. iv., pp.401. 448.). Since 
the note on the age of trees appeared, my atten- 
tion has been called to a discussion of the subject 
in an article on Decandolle's Vegetable Physiology, 
written I believe by Prof. Henslow, in the Foreign 
Quarterly Review, vol. xi. p. 368-71. With respect 
to the yew near Fountains Abbey, he remarks as 
follows : 

" In the first of these examples, we have the testimony 
of history for knowing that this tree was in existence, 
and must have been of considerable size, in the year 
1133, it being recorded that the monks took shelter 
under it whilst they were rebuilding Fountains Abbey." 
p. 369. 

Query : Where is this historical testimony to be 
found? Nothing is said on the subject in the 
account of Fountains Abbey in Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon, vol. v. p. 286. ed. 1825. 

With respect to the Shelton Oak (Vol. iv., 
p. 402.) the movements of Owen Glendower, at 
the time of the battle of Shrewsbury, are accu- 
rately detailed in the life of him inserted in 
Pennant's Tours in Wales, vol. iii. p. 355. (ed. 
1810); and the account there given is inconsist- 
ent with the story of his having ascended a tree 
in order to count Percy's troops. It appears that 
at the time of the battle he was at Oswestry, at 
the head of 12,000 men. 

Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Chief Jus- 
tices, describes the suicide of Sir William Hank- 
ford, Chief Justice in the reigns of Henry V. and 
VI., who is said to have contrived to get himself 
shot at night by his own keeper. Lord Campbell 
quotes Prince, the author of the Worthies of 
Devon, p. 362. as stating that 

" This story is authenticated by several writers, and 
the constant traditions of the neighbourhood ; and I, 
myself, have been shown the rotten stump of an old 
oak under which he is said to have fallen, and it is 
called Hankfords Oak to this day." See Lives of the 
Chief Justices, vol. i. c. 4. p. 140. 


Grimes-dyke (Vol. iv. p. 454.) Your corre- 
spondents appear to have overlooked Offandic, 
Wodnesdic (so often mentioned in the Saxon char- 
ters), and Esendihe doubtless so named in 
memory of Esa, the progenitor of the kings of 
Bernicia and Gugedihe, which I suspect is an 
old British form for Gog's dike (Fr. Yagiouge}, 
as well as Grimanledh (Wood of Horrors), and 
Grimanhyl. It is true we find the Grimsetane- 
gemaero in Worcestershire (Cod. DipL, No. 561.) ; 
but we also find Wudnesbeorg (Id. No. 1035.). 
Allow me to give you the substance of a remark of 
Professor H. Leo of Halle on this subject. (Ang. 
Such. Ortsnamen, p. 5.) 

" Wild, dismal places are coupled with the names oi 
grim, fabulous creatures : thus, in Charter 957, King 
Eadwig presented to Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

a territorial property at ' Hel-ig ' (on the Islet o* 
Helas). A morass is cited which is called, after the 
ancient mythological hero, Grindles-mere ; a pit*. 
Grindles-pytt ; a small islet surrounded with water 
which was to an Anglo-Saxon a "locus terribilis " 
was called Thorn-ei (the thorn tree being of ill omen). 
And thus, in order to express the ordinary associations 
connected with neighbourhood, recourse was had rather 
to mythic personages, than to abstract expressions." 

I would here observe that the Ortsnamen has 
been for some time in course of translation, with 
the Professor's sanction and assistance, with a view 
to its publication in England. B. WILLIAMS. 


Petition respecting the Duke of Wellington 
(Vol. iv., pp. 233. 477.). E. N. W. is assured that 
the petition for the recall of the Duke of Wel- 
lington was presented. Being too ill to travel 
several miles to a public library, I can only refer 
to works in which a reference to it will be found. 
In No. XIX. of the late British and Foreign 
Quarterly, published by Messrs. Taylor, Red Lion 
Court, Fleet Street, is an extract from the ad- 
mirable letter of his Grace to Lord Liverpool on 
the subject ; and in Colonel Gurwood's edition of 
the Wellington Dispatches, on which the article 
alluded to is written, and which contains much 
interesting matter relating to his Grace not to be 
found any where else, is the whole dispatch. I 
asked for information relative to the petition, be- 
cause I had heard that it had been destroyed, and 
it was too droll a document to be allowed to be 

lost. JEGROTUS. 

Countess of Desmond (Vol. iv., pp. 305. 426.). - 
Tour in Scotland, fourth edition of Pennant's works. 
Mine was Dr. Latham's copy. 

Description of print of Catherine, Countess 
of Desmond, quite correct as to face, hair, and 
cloak. There is no button, but over the breast 
it is laced. In the inside of the black hood is a 
damask pattern waved with flowers. C. J. W. 

Woman torn to pieces by Wild Cats as a Punish- 
ment for Infanticide (Vol. iii., p. 91.). In the 
Wonders of the Universe, or Curiosities of Nature 
and Art, vol. ii. p. 555., will be found the account 
of this affair. The culprit was named Louise 
Mabree, a midwife in Paris ; the corpses of no less 
than sixty-two infants were found in and about 
her house : she was sentenced to be shut up in an 
iron cage with sixteen wild cats, and suspended 
over a slow fire. When the cats became infuriated 
with heat and pain, they turned their rage upon 
her ; and after thirty-five minutes of the most 
horrible sufferings, put an end to her existence, 
the whole of the cats dying at the same time, or 
within two minutes after. This occurred in 1673. 


Balica, Oct. 1851. 



[No. 115. 

"Racked by pain, by shame confounded" (Vol.iv., 
p. 7.). These are the commencing lines of a short 
original poem called " The Negro's Triumph." 
It is to be found in the Parent's Poetical Anthology, 
edited by Mrs. Mant, p. 231. 5th edition, 1849. 


Blessing by Hand (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 509.). 
Some drawings and descriptions of the modes of 
blessing by the hand are to be found, in the 
" Dictionary of Terms of Art," published in one 
of the early numbers of the Art Journal for this 
year. ESTE. 

Verses in Latin Prose (Vol.iv., p. 382.). 
A. A. D. will surely thank me, if his Note on the 
subject do not contain it, for the rationale, which 
Sir Thomas Brown gives, Religio Medici, Part ii. 
p. 9., of the occurrence of verses in Latin prose : 

" I will not say with Plato, the soul is an harmony, 
but harmonical, and hath its nearest sympathy unto 
music : thus some, whose temper of body agrees, and 
humours the constitution of their souls, are horn poets, 
though indeed all are naturally inclined unto rhythm. 
This made Tacitus, in the very first lines of his story, 
fall upon a verse ( Urbem Romam in principle regis 
hdbuere) ; and Cicero, the worst of poets, but declaim- 
ing for a poet, falls, in the very first sentence, upon a 
perfect hexameter ; In qua me non inficior mediocriter 

C. W. B. 

BlakloancB Hceresis (Vol. iv., pp. 193. 239. 240.). 
As I was the querist concerning this work and 
its author, and wanted the information, I was very 
thankful for the satisfactory answers given. The 
books referred to by R. G. are not inaccessible : 
whether then it be needful to occupy your co- 
lumns with the " particulars" required by E. A.M. 
(Vol. iv., p. 458.) may be a query too. The 
first word of the title is as above (not Blackloanas, 
as your correspondents have it). E. A. M. will 
find that Blacklow, or Blakloe, is a soubriquet, as 
well as Lominus. 

P. S. On examining the book, however, I am 
not convinced that Peter Talbot was its "real 
author," though extensive use is made of what he 
had written ; or that " Lominus" is an " imaginary 
divine," even if the name be a feigned one. On 
what ground do these assertions rest ? S. W. Rix. 


Quaker Bible (Vol. iv., pp. 87. 412.). A 
on the subject of a Quaker Expurgated Bible, ap- 
pears to be unaware of the existence of a work 
once (I believe) well known in that body. This 
was an epitome or compendium of the Bible by 
John Kendall ; it contained the greater portion of 
the Word of God, such parts being excluded as 

the editor did not consider profitable. It is pro- 
bably to this book that the authoress of Quakerism 
refers ; I have, however, never seen her work. 
This mutilated Bible of John Kendall was fre- 
quently to be met with formerly in the houses of 
members of the Society of Friends ; as I have not 
seen it for more than twenty years, I cannot tell 
what its exact date may be; it was, however, 
published in the days when all religious publica- 
tions of the Society of Friends were subject to the 
approval of a committee. In 1830, George Witley 
published a list of those chapters in the Bible which 
were "suitable" for reading in "Friends'" families ; 
amongst other portions he excluded (I believe) the 
16th of Leviticus and Psalm xxii. In private he 
thought the whole might be read; but he says that 
he prepared this index because of having heard 
very unsuitable matter read aloud ! This informa- 
tion, may be new to your correspondent. 


Wyle Cop (Vol. iv., pp. 116. 243. 509.). E. H. 
D. D. is in error ; the Wyle Cop at Shrewsbury is 
not an artificial bank, but a natural eminence over- 
looking the Severn ; and I cannot agree with him 
in the immateriality of the meaning attached to 
Wyle. The associations connected with names are 
frequently of great topographical and historical 
value. There are many singular names of streets, 
&c., in Shrewsbury, which I should be glad if any 
of your correspondents can interpret, such as " Mar- 
dol," " Shop latch," " Bispestanes," and " Dog- 
pole;" also the derivation of " Shut" in the sense 
of passage or entry, a synonym with the Liverpool 
" Wient," which seems equally uncertain. 


If it be true, as we are inclined to believe, that there 
is no one subject in the whole wide range of speculative 
studies, to which the well-worn saying of Hamlet, that 
there are more things true than are dreamt of in our 
philosophy, may he applied with so much propriety as 
Animal Magnetism, so we are also inclined to believe 
that a perusal of the two volumes recently published 
by Mr. Colquhoun under the title of An History of 
Magic, Witchcraft, and Animal Magnetism, will tend to 
convince our readers that to the same subject may be 
applied the yet older saying, that there is nothing new 
under the sun. Mr. Colquhoun, who many years 
since published his Isis Revdata, has long been a dili- 
gent inquirer into the nature and origin of the different 
phenomena of animal magnetism ; and it would appear 
from the work before us, he has also been a persevering 
reader of all the various accounts of magic, witchcraft, 
and other so-called popular delusions, recorded by the 
writers of antiquity, and the chroniclers of the middle 
ages; as well as of those more modern mysteries (such as 

JAN. 10. 1852.] 



he Gustavus Adolphus Story, the Death of Ganganelli, 
&c.) which seem to increase in interest just in pro- 
portion as they approach to our own more enlightened 
days. As in all the extraordinary tales which he 
brings forward, our author sees only manifestations of 
well-known mesmeric phenomena, it may well be 
imagined that, in recording the result of these exami- 
nations and studies, he has produced two volumes 
which, if they do not satisfy all our requirements upon 
the subject, will be found of most considerable interest, 
not only to all who believe in Animal Magnetism, but 
to all who care to investigate the nature of the human 
mind, its organization, and the laws which govern its 

The success which has attended the publication of 
Mr. Buckley's translation of The Canons and Decrees 
of the Council of Trent, and the approbation bestowed 
upon that work by several of the highest dignitaries 
of the English Church, have led him to publish The 
Catechism of the Council of Trent translated into En- 
glish with Notes; and there can be little doubt, from 
the anxiety which now exists to learn, from sources 
which cannot be disputed, both the points on which we 
differ from Rome, and those on which we agree with 
Rome, that the success which followed Mr. Buckley's 
translation of the Decrees will be extended to his 
English version of the Catechism of the Council of 

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[No. 115. 

T 1 



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[No. 115. 





LEADING CONTEXTS : 1. The Great High 
Priest ; or, Christ's Presence iu his Church. 
2. The Sealed Book : or, Prophetic History 
of the Church. - 3. The Book eaten by St. 
John ; or. Mysteries of the Church. 4. The 
Vials ; or, Judgments of God. 5. The Vision 
of Babylon ; or, the Unfaithful Church. 
G. Scenes in Heaven ; or, Christ with his 
Elect. 7. The Heavenly Jerusalem ; or, the 
Church Triumphant. In small 8vo. 8s. 6d. 
By the Rev. ISAAC WILLIAMS, B.D., late 
Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford ; Author of 
a " Harmony of the Gospels," in 8 volumes. 


PRAYER, in a Series of Plain Lectures. 
By JO UN JAMES, D.D., Canon of Peter- 
borough, Author of a " Comment on the 
Collects." Iu 2 vols. 12mo. 15*.] 


TION; a Selection of POEMS in Illustration 
of the SERVICE. Edited by the Author of 
" Aids to Development," "Memorials of Two 
Sisters," " Governess Life," &c. In a Pocket 
Volume. 6s. 


Schneidewin, translated from the German by 
the Rev. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Preben- 
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Also, edited by the Rev. T. K. ARNOLD, with 
English Notes (uniformly printed), 


CLES, 3s. -2. The PHILOCTETES, 3s. -3. 
Book I. 



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in the Ninth Volume of " Plain Sermons." 
By the Rev. ISAAC WILLIAMS, B.D., late 
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6s. M. 
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CATECHISM may be had in one volume. 

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on the Plan of "Henry's First Latin Book." 
NOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late 
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12mo. 7s. 6d. 


II., containing Selections from the META- 
ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late 
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or, Suggestions for the Practical Management 
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a Quarterly Journal. Edited by the Rev. 
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LETTERS on some of the 

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a Tale. By the Hon. Mrs. ANDERSON. In 

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CIIARLTON SCHOOL : a Tale for Youth ; 
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containing THE ILIAD, Books I. III., 
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RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place, Pall Mall. 

Printed by THOMAS CI.ARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London : ar 
published by GFOROK BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunutan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 18 
Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, January 10. 1852. 





" Vrtien found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. Y. No. 116.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 17. 1852. 

CWith Index, Price Tcnpence. 
I Stamped Edition, Hd. 


NOTES : Page 

Mechanical Arrangements of Books - - 49 

Caxton Memorial, by Beriah Botfield - - - 51 

Settle's Female Prelate, or Pope Joan ; a Tragedy, by 

James Crossley - - - - - - 52 

Historical Bibliography - - - . -52 

Calamities of Authors - - - - - 55 

Folk Lore : Valentine's Day ; Superstition in Devon- 
shire Fairies - - - - - - 55 

Minor Notes : Lines in Whispering Gallery at Glouces- 
ter Cathedral Definition of Th under Greek Epi- 
gram by an uncertain Author - - - 56 

Burning of the Jesuitical Books at Paris, by H. Merivale 56 
Grantham Altar Case - - - - - 56 

Meaning of Groom, by E. Davis Protheroe - - 57 

. Minor Queries: Gregentius and the Jews in Arabia 
Felix King Street Theatre Lesteras and Emencin 
Epigram on Franklin and Wedderburn Plenius 
and his Lyrichord Epigram on Burnet Dutch 
Chronicle of the World " Arborei foetus alibi, atqne 
iniussa virescunt Gramina" (Virgil G. i. 55.) History 
of Brittany Serjeants' Rings The Duchess of Cleve- 
land's Cow-pox Arms of Manchester Heraldical 
MSS. of Sir Henry St. George Garter - 
Mmou QtiEitiES ANSWERED: The Pelican, as a Symbol 
of the Saviour Bishop Coverdale's Bible Age of the 
Oak Olivarius Vincent Bourne's F.pilogus in Eunu* 
chum Tercntii Burton, Bp., Founder of Schools, 
at Loughborough, co. Leicester Hoo - 

Modern Names of Places - - . . .61 

Proverbial Philosophy ; Parochial Library at Maidstoiie, 

by John Branfill Harrison - - . - 61 

" A Breath can make them as a Breath has made " - 62 

Bogatzky --..'... 63 
Moravian Hymns - . . . . - 63 

Renlies to Minor Queries: Invent portum Quarter 
Waggoner Cibber's Lives of the Poets Poniatowski 
Gems Dial Motto at Karlsbad Passage in Jeremy 
Taylor Aue Trici and Gheez Ysenoudi Hev. John 
Pajret Lines on the Bible Dial Mottoes Martial's 
Distribution of Hours Nelson's Signal Cooper's 
Miniature, &c. Roman Funeral Pile Barrister 
Meaning of Dray Trcgonwell Frampton Vermin, 
Parish Payments of, &c. Alterius Orbis Papa Dido 
and JEneas Compositions during the Protectorate - 64 

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements ... 

- 58 

- 59 


^ All persons who, whatever miojht be their mo- 
tive, have followed any subject of literary research, 
must be aware of the extent to which their labours 
are facilitated or retarded by the mechanical ar- 
rangements of books, such as the goodness of 
paper, the legibility of type, the size of volumes, 
VOL. V. No. 116. 

the presence or absence of tables of contents, in- 
dexes, and other means of reference. It is in the 
possession of these conveniences that the capa- 
bilities of typography, and its superiority over 
manuscript, mainly consist. I propose now to set 
down a few remarks on this subject, in the hope 
that any means, however trifling they may seem, 
by which literary knowledge is rendered more 
commodious and accessible, will not be deemed 
unworthy of attention by your readers. 

With regard to the form of printed letters, it is 
difficult to conceive any improvement in modern 
typography, as practised in Italy, France, and 
England. This is equally true of Roman and 
Greek characters. The Greek types introduced 
by Porson leave nothing to be desired. The 
Germans still to a great extent retain the old 
black-letter type for native works, which was 
universal over all the north of Europe in the 
early period of printing, and is not a national type, 
as some persons seem to imagine. These letters 
being imitated from the manuscript characters of 
the fifteenth century, are essentially more indis- 
tinct than the Roman type, and have for that 
reason been disused by the rest of Europe, Hol- 
land and Denmark not excepted. In England 
this antiquated mode of printing was long retained 
for law-books, and, till a comparatively recent 
date, for the statutes. The Anglo-Saxon letters 
are in like manner nothing but a barbarous imi- 
tation of old manuscript characters, and have no 
real connexion with the Anglo-Saxon language. 
Their use ought to be wholly abandoned (with 
the exception of those which are wanting in modern 
English). Roman numerals, likewise, as being less 
clear and concise than Arabic numerals, especially 
for large numbers, ought to be discarded, except 
in cases where it is convenient to distinguish the 
volume from the page, and the book from the 
chapter. English lawyers, indeed, who in general 
have only occasion to cite the volume and page, 
invariably make their quotations with Arabic 
figures, by prefixing the number of the volume, 
and subjoining the number of the page. Thus, if 
it were wished to refer to the 100th page of the 
second volume of B arneivall and Alder soris Reports^ 
they would write 2 B. fr C. 100. Roman nu- 



[No. 116. 

merals are still retained for the sections of the 

Akin to the retention of antiquated forms of 
letters is the retention of antiquated orthography, 
Editors of works of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries sometimes retain the spelling of the period, 
of which Evelyn's Diary is an example ; but this 
practice is unpleasant, to the modern reader, and 
sometimes, particularly in proper names, per- 
plexes and misleads him. The modern editions of j 
the classical writers of that period, such as Shak- 
speare, Bacon, Milton, Clarendon, &c., are very 
properly reduced to the modern standard of or- 
thography, as is done by Italian editors with the 
works of Dante, Boccaccio, &c. The attempt to 
introduce the native orthography of foreign proper 
names naturalised in English, is likewise unsuc- 
cessful, and merely offends the eye of the render, 
without giving any real information. Mr. Lane and 
other Orientalists will never succeed in banishing 
such forms as vizier, caliph, cadi, &c. ; nor will 
even Mr. Grote's authority alter the spelling of 
the well-known Greek names. Names of ancient 
persons and places which are enshrined in the verses j 
of Milton and other great poets, cannot be altered. 

The old unmeaning practice of printing every 
noun substantive with a capital letter (still retained 
in German) has been abandoned by every English 
printer, except the printer of parliamentary papers j 
for the House of Lords. Proper names used to | 
be printed in italics ; and generally, the use of 
italics was much greater than at present. In 
modern reprints, these ancient flowers of typo- 
graphy ought to be removed. The convenient 
edition of Hobbes 1 Works, for which we are in- 
debted to Sir W. Molesworth, would be more 
agreeable to read if the italics were less abundant. 

The- use of the folio and quarto size is now 
generally restrcted to such books as could scarcely 
be printed in octavo, as dictionaries and similar 
books of reference. The parliamentary blue book, 
which long resisted the progress of octavo civiliz- 
ation, is now beginning to shrink into a more 
manageable size. With regard to separate vo- 
lumes, the most convenient practice is to consider 
them as a mere printer's division, which may vary 
in different editions ; and to number them con- 
secutively, without reference to their contents. 
The Germans have a very inconvenient practice 
of dividing a volume into parts, each of which is a 
volume in the ordinary meaning of the word ; so 
that a work consisting of nine volumes, for ex- 
ample, may be divided into four volumes, one of 
which consists of throe parts, and the other three 
of two parts each. The result is, that every refer- 
ence must specify both the volume and the part : 
thus, Band IL Abtheilung III. S. 108. Fre- 
quently, too, this mode of numbering misleads the 
bookbinder, who (unless properly cautioned) num- 
bers the volumes in the jordinary manner. 

Volumes, as I have remarked, are merely a 
printer's division. Every literary composition 
ought, however, to have an organic division of its 
own. The early Greeks seem indeed to have 
composed both their poems and prose works as one 
continuous discourse. The rhapsodies of Homer 
and the muses of Herodotus were subsequent 
divisions introduced by editors and grammarians. 
But literary experience pointed out the cornmo- 
diousness of such breaks in a long work ; and the 
books of the JEneid and of the History of Livy 
were the divisions of the authors themselves. 
Since the invention of printing, the books of the 
prose works of the classical writers have been 
subdivided into chapters; while for the books of 
poems, as well as for the dramas, the verses have 
been numbered. The books of the Old and New 
Testament have likewise been portioned, into 
chapters, and into a late typographical division of 

In making a division of his work, an author 
ought to number its parts consecutively, without 
reference to volumes. The novels of Walter 
Scott are divided into chapters, the numbering of 
which is dependent on the volume ; so that it is 
impossible to quote them without referring to the 
edition, or to find a reference to them in any 
other edition than that cited. For the same 
reason, an author ought not to quote his own book 
in the text by a reference to volumes. 

The division most convenient for purposes of 
reference is that which renders a quotation simple 
to note, and easy to verify. Divisions which run 
through an entire work (such as the chapters of 
Gibbon's History) are easy to quote, and the 
quotation can be easily verified when the chapter 
is not long. The numbering of paragraphs in one 
series through an entire work, as in the French 
codes, in Cobbett's writings, and in the state 
papers of the Indian government, is the simplest 
and most effectual division for purposes of refer- 
ence. The Digest can now be referred to by 
book, title, and paragraph ; nevertheless the Ger- 
mans (who, notwithstanding their vast experience 
in the work of quoting, seem to have a predilection 
for cumbrous and antiquated methods) still adhere 
to the old circuitous mode of quotation, against 
which Gibbon long ago raised his voice (Dec/, and 
Fall, c. 44. n. !.) 

Some works have been divided by their authors 
into chapters, but the chapters have been left 
unnumbered. Niebuhr's Roman History is in this 
state. . 

The division of a work by its author is 
not, hov.-over, merely for purposes of reference. 
It may likewise be a logical division; it may fol- 
low the distribution of the subject, and assist the 
reader by visibly separating its several parts. 
! This process, however, may be carried so far as to 
| defeat its purpose (viz. perspicuity of arrange- 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



ment) by the intricacy of its divisions. Here 
a<n\in we must recur for an example to the Ger- 
mans, who sometimes make the compartments of 
their writings as numerous as a series of Chinese 
boxes all fitted into each other. First, there is 
the part, then the book, then the chapter, then the 
section, then the article, and then the paragraph, 
which is itself subdivided into paragraphs with 
Roman numerals and Arabic numerals ; and these 
a<min are further subdivided into paragraphs with 
Roman letters, and Greek letters, and sometimes 
Hebrew letters. To refer to a work divided in 
this manner by any other means than the volume 
and page, is a labour of as hopeless intricacy as it 
is to follow the logical cascade down its successive 

It is a considerable convenience where the book 
or chapter is marked at the head or margin of the 
page ; and in histories, or historical memoirs, 
chronological notation is very convenient. 

In general no book (not being a book arranged 
in alphabetical order, as a dictionary, encyclopedia, 
&c.) ought to be printed without a table of contents. 
The trouble to the author of making a table of 
contents is very small, and the expense to the 
publisher in printing it is in general imperceptible. 
Modern English books rarely sin in this respect ; 
foreign books, however, both French and German, 
are frequently wanting in a table of contents. The 
invaluable collection of the fragments of Greek 
historians lately published in Didot's Series a 
work indispensable to every critical student of 
ancient history has no table of contents, referring 
to the pnges, prefixed to each volume. The Poetcc 
Scenici Greed of Dindorf is without a table of 
contents ; and a similar want is a serious drawback 
to the use of the cheap and portable edition of the 
Greek and Latin classics published by Tauchnitz 
at Leipsic. 

Lastly, an index adds materially to the value of 
every work which contains numerous and miscel- 
laneous facts. The preparation of a good index 
is a laborious and sometimes costly tusk ; 'the 
printing of it, moreover, adds to the price of the 
book. Many of the indexes to the English law- 
books are models of this species of labour; the in- 
dexes to the Parliamentary Reports are likewise 
prepared with great care and intelligence. Even 
a meagre index, however, is better than no 
index at all ; and where the publisher's means, 
and the demand for the book, do not admit of the 
preparation of a copious index of subjects, an 
alphabetical list of names of persons and places 
would often be an acceptable present to the reader 
of an historical or scientific work. L. 


The inquiries addressed to me by Mr. BOLTON 
CORNEY in your paper of the 15th of November 

appear to amount to this : Whether the whole or 
part of the expense of his proposed volume will 
be defrayed out of the fund appropriated to the 
Caxton Memorial ? To this question, so far as 
my own information extends, I can only give a 
negative reply. The Society of Arts, in com- 
pliance with a request preferred to them by the 
subscribers at their last meeting, have accepted 
the charge of the Caxton Fund ; and it is sufficient, 
for my present purpose, to state that negotiations 
are now in progress between the Council and the 
Dean and Chapter, for liberty to erect a suitable 
memorial within the precincts of Westminster to 
the memory of William Caxton. This is as it 
should be ; the memorial, be it what it may, statue, 
obelisk or fountain, or even a niche in a wall, 
should be substantial and enduring, calculated to 
remind the passing stranger that within the pre- 
cincts of Westminster, William Caxton first exer- 
cised in England the art of printing. This cir- 
cumstance forms one of those epochs in the history 
of civilisation which deserve public commemora- 
tion ; and any memorial of Caxton should be 
placed as near as possible to the scene of his 
literary labours. 

Mr. BOLTON CORNEY says, that I seem to regard 
his project with somewhat less of disfavour. Now 
I do not wish to be misunderstood. As a substi- 
tute for the Caxton Memorial, originally proposed 
at the great meeting over which the Earl of Car- 
lisle presided, I am disposed to reject it altogether, 
for reasons which I have already stated in your 
columns. But as a literary undertaking I am 
willing to give it a fair consideration upon its 
own merits. The apothegm that a man's best 
monument consists in his own works, is capable of 
considerable modification from the nature of the 
works themselves. In the case before us, I believe 
the interest felt by the public in the works of 
Caxton to be too limited to justify the republica- 
tion of his collected works. The proposal which 
Mr. CORNEY makes for a selection from those 
works, with a new life of the author, and a glos- 
sary, the latter proving how much they are out of 
date, is much more feasible than his original plan. 
There is a Caxton Society which has already issued 
several publications, and whose usefulness would 
be materially increased by such a publication as 
that suggested by Mr. CORNEY, if the Society to 
which he alludes (the Camden, I presume) should 
not be disposed to undertake it. The true object 
of these and similar societies is the production of 
books of interest and value, which are not suf- 
ficiently popular to justify a bookseller, or an 
individual, in incurring the pecuniary risk of their 
separate publication. Mr. CORNEY'S literary me- 
morial of Caxton appears to me to come under 
this head, and as such might, be properly under- 
taken by any of the clubs or societies formed for the 
cultivation of early English literature. He might 


[No. 116. 

perhaps more easily attain the object of his wishes 
in this manner than by that which he has hitherto 
pursued. When a selection is to be made from 
the works of any author, much will depend upon 
the taste and discretion of the editor. Now I 
gather from Mr. CORNET'S letter, that he is fully 
prepared to undertake that office himself; and I 
may be permitted to add that his scrupulous ac- 
curacy and unwearied diligence afford the best 
guarantee that the work will be executed in such 
a manner as to fully satisfy the public interest in 
Caxton, and to form a graceful and appropriate 
tribute to the illustrious father of the English 

Norton Hall, Jan. 3. 1852. 


I have not seen it anywhere noticed that 
this play, printed under Elkanah Settle's name, 
with a long dedication by him to the Earl of 
Shaftsbury, in 1680, 4to., was certainly a mere 
alteration of an old play on the same subject. It 
is impossible for any one to read many pages of it, 
without seeing everywhere traces of a much more 
powerful hand than u poor Elkanah's," although he 
needed no assistance in managing the ceremony of 
pope-burning. Take at random the following 
quotation, which is much more like Middleton's 
or Decker's than the debased style after the 
Restoration : 

" Saxony. And art thou then in earnest? 
Come, prithee, speak : I was to blame to chide thee ; 
Be not afraid ; speak but the fatal truth, 
And by my hopes of heav'n I will forgive thee. 
Out with it, come ; now wouldst thou tell me all, 
But art ashamed to own thyself a bawd : 
'Las, that might be thy father's fault, not thine. 
Perhaps some honest humble cottage bred thee, 
And thy ambitious parents, poorly proud, 
For a gay coat made thee a page at court. 
And for a plume of feathers sold thy soul ; 
But 'tis not yet, not yet too late to save it. 

Amir. Oh, my sad heart ! 

Sax. Come, prithee, speak ; let but 
A true confession plead thy penitence, 
And Heaven will then forgive thee as I do. 

Amir. But, Sir, can you resolve to lend an ear 
To sounds so terrible, so full of fate, 
As will not only act a single tragedy, 
But even disjoint all Nature's harmony, 
And quite untune the world ? for such, such are 
The notes that I must breathe. 

Sax. Oh, my dear murderer, 
Breathe 'em as cheerfully as the soaring lark 
Wakes the gay morn. Those dear sweet airs that 

kill me 

Are my new nuptial songs. My Angeline 
Has been my first, and Death's my second bride." 

Fern. Prel. p. 58. 

Or the following : 

" Sax. Carlo, she must die ; 
The softest heart that yon celestial fire 
Could ever animate, must break and die. 
We are both too wretched to outlive this day ; 
And I but send thee as her executioner. 

Carlo. I flie to obey you, Sir. 

Sao.: Stay, Carlo, stay ; 

Why all this haste to murder so much innocence ? 
Yet, thou must go. And since thy tongue must kill 
The brightest form th' enamoured stars can e'er 
Receive, or the impoverisht world can lose. 
Go, Carlo, go ; but prithee wound her soul 
As gently as thou canst ; and when thou seest 
A flowing shower from her twin-orbs of light 
All drown the faded roses of her cheeks ; 
When thou beholdst, 'midst her distracted groan?, 
Her furious hand, that feeble, fair revenger, 
Rend all the mangled beauties of her face, 
Tear her bright locks, and their dishevell'd pride 
On her pale neck, that ravisht whiteness, fall ; 
Guard, guard thy eyes : for, Carlo, 'tis a sight 
Will strike spectators dead." Fern. Prel. p. 61. 

In the Biog. Dram. (vol. iii. p. 237.), it is stated 
that the same play, with the same title, was printed 
in 4to., 1689, except that it was there said to be 
written by a person of quality. The play is, how- 
ever, claimed by Settle in his dedication to Lord 
Shaftsbury, prefixed to the edition of 1680, now 
before me. I do not, however, believe he had more 
to do with it than in adapting it, as he did 
Philastes, for representation. The only question, 
seems to be by whom the original play was written ? 
This I will not at present attempt to decide, 
though I entertain a strong opinion on the subject, 
but will leave it to be resolved by the critical 
acumen of your readers. JAS. CROSSLET. 


(Eustache Ic Nolle.) 

Having been favoured by Mr. Gancia, of 73, 
King's Road, Brighton, with an opportunity of 
examining the following work, I venture to send 
you a notice of its contents, with some account of 
the author. Such books have, I conceive, their 
utility to historians and historical readers. We 
gain through them an accurate idea of party 
spirit,' are brought into more immediate com- 
munion with the opinions of the times to which 
they refer, and can thus trace more closely the 
means by which parties worked, were consolidated, 
and advanced their schemes. Even from their 
personalities, we gain some gleams of truth. In 
this case, I am assured that perfect copies of the 
work are very scarce. I cannot find that any 
other copy has recently been offered for sale. 
This appeared to me an additional reason for 
submitting a notice of it to your readers. 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 




By Eustache le Noble. Romp. (Paris), Octo- 
bre, 1G88; Novembre, 1691. 5 vols. 12mo. 
Each of the twenty-eight pieces which compose 
the work should have an engraved title, and a 
separate pagination. The place of publication is 
fictitious, and in general satirical. The first 
volume has a portrait. 

The following is a collation from what is under- 
stood to form a'perfect copy : 

" Tome 1. Rome, chez Francophile Aletophile. Oc- 

tobre, 1691. 
Le Cibisme, Le Songe de Pasquin. Lon- 

dres, Jean Benn, 1689. 
Le Couronnement de Guillemot et de la 
Reine Guillemette, avec le Sermon du 
grand Doctenr Burnet. Londres, 1689. 
Le Festin de Guillemot, 1689. 
La Chambre des Comptes d' Innocent XT. 
Rome, F. Aletophile, 1689, with por- 

" ' These five dialogues have for interlocutors Pas- 
quin and Marforio, under which names the dialogues 
are sometimes introduced, as also under the title of 
Pasquinades.' (Querard, art. Le Noble.") 

" Tome 2. Title (no engraved title), Janvier, 1690. 

Janvier. La Bibliotheque du Roi Guillemot. Lon- 
dres, Jean Benn, 1690. 

Fevrier. La Fable du Rcnard. Leyde, 1690. 

Mars. La Diete d'Augsbourg. Vienne, Peter 

Hansgood, 1690. 

Avril. La Lotterie de Pasquin. Basle, Eugene 

Tyrannomostix, 1690. 

Mai. L'Ombre de Monmouth. Oxford, James 

Good King, 1690. 

.Tuin. Les Medaillez. Amsterdam, Eugene Philo- 

lethe, 1690. 
" Tome 3. Title. 

Juillet. La Clef du Cabinet de Neufbourg. Heidel- 
berg, Neopolo Palatino, 1690. 

Aout. Le Triomphe. Fleuruz, chez Valdekin 

Bienbattu, 1690. 

Septembre. Les Ombres de Schomberg et de Lorraine. 
Dublin, chez Le Vieux, Belle Montaigne. 

Octobre. La Lanterne de Diogene. Whitehall, chez 
La Veuve Guillemot, 1690. 

Novembre. Les Mercures, ou la Tabatiere des Etats 
d'Hollande. Hermstadt, chez Emeric 
Hospodar, 1690. 

Decembre. Le Roy des Fleurs. A Bride, chez Leopol 
la Dupe. 

" Tome 4. Title. 

Janvier. Les Estrennes d'Esope ( burnt at Amster- 
dam, by the hand of the hangman, by 
order of the States- General. The dialogue 
had its origin, probably, in the proscrip- 
tion of the History of the Republic of 
Holland by the same author, which was 
seized wherever it was found.' Peignot.). 
Bruxelles, chez Jean Gobbin, 1691. 

Fevrier. L'Ombre du Due d'Albe, with illustra- 
tion. Anvers, Antoine Maugouverne, 

Mars. Le Carnaval de la Have, with illustration. 

A la Haye, chez Guillaume 1'Embal- 
leur, 1691. 

Avril. Le Tabouret des Electeurs, with illustra- 

tion. Honslar diik, Gutllemin Tabouret, 

Mai. Le Reveille Matin des Alliez, with illus- 

tration. A Monts, Guillaume le Chas- 
seur, 1691. 

Juin. Les Lunettes pour les Quinze Vingts. 

Turin, Jean sans Terre, 1691. 
" Tome 5. Title. 

Juillet. Nostradamus, ou les Oracles, with illustra- 

tion. A Liege, Lambert Bonnefoi, 1691. 
La Fable du Baudet Extraordinaire, with 
illustration. A Asnieres, chez Jeau le 
Singe, 1691. 

Aout. L'Anneau des Giges, with illustration. A 

Venise, Penetrante Penetranti, 1691. 

Septembre. L'Avortement, with illustration. Gerpines, 
chez Guillaume Desloge s>ur le Quai des 
Morfondus au Pistolet qui prend un 
Rat, 1691. 

Octobre. Le Jean de Retour, with illustration. A 
Loo, chez Guillaume Pie de Nez, rue 
Perdue au Bien Revenu, 1691. 

Novembre. Le Prothee, with illustration. Chez Pedre 
1'Endormy, 1691." 

Eustache le Noble, Baron of St. George and of 
Teneliere, the author of this work, was" born at 
Troyes in 1643, of a good and ancient family. 
His natural abilities and attainments, combined 
with political influence, readily obtained for him, at 
an early age, the post of Procureur-General to the 
Parliament at Metz. But a dissolute life soon 
brought on its consequent evils duties neglected 
and discreditable debts and he was compelled to 
sell his appointment. The proceeds were insuffi- 
cient, and he had recourse to forgery to satisfy 
his creditors. To be successful in such a case, 
more than ability is required. Le Noble was 
suspected, arrested, confined in the Chatelet, and 
condemned to nine years' imprisonment. Upon 
his appeal, he was removed to the Conciergerie, 
a place destined to become another scene in his 
life of uniform villany. Gabrielle Perreau, known 
under the name of "La Belle Epiciere," was con- 
fined here at the instigation of her husband, who 
indulged in the hope of thus reforming her dis- 
orderly conduct. But a prison is hardly a school 
of reformation, and La Belle Epiciere and Le 
Noble were not characters to receive, even in 
monastic seclusion, any such impression. He Avon 
her affections, or the mastery over her passions : 
the husband, frantic with jealous rage, obtained 
for himself the satisfaction of immuring her in a 
convent of his own selection. From this she 
escaped, and joined Le Noble, who had similarlv 


[No. 116. 

evaded the vigilance of his keepers. By living in 
the vilest and least frequented quarters of Paris, 
by disguises, false names, and constant changes of 
residence, they succeeded in baffling the pursuit 
of the police for three years, when Le Noble was 
accidentally discovered ; the judgment of the 
Chatelet was confirmed, and he was recondiicted 
to prison, ft was then that his great resources 
were displayed. He retained his gaiety, and as- 
sured his friends he still enjoyed " une parfaite 
tranquillite d'esprit, inseparable de 1'innocence ! " 
A man of this kind, with a venal and capacious 
intellect, and a heart utterly unconscious of the 
slightest moral feeling, could not with advantage 
be suffered to remain unemployed. There was 
work to be done for James II., and the hireling 
was worthy of his hire. It was simply to lie and 
libel with ability, with caution, with the appear- 
ance of loyalty, and an ardent zeal for religion. 
Le Noble was equal to the task. He had written 
histories burnt by the hangman ; Bayle had praised 
him for his skill in judicial astrology ; he had 
composed treatises on money, and on Catholic 
doctrine ; compiled historical romances, and trans- 
lated the Psalms of David! In poetry he had 
attempted to rival La Fontaine ; written the 
Eulogy of the Revocation of the Edict, of Nantes, 
and translated Persius, substituting French cus- 
toms for the Roman, and praising or censuring 
his contemporaries as though he were the Roman 
poet and not the Paris scribe ! An ability so 
various was at least well paid. He received from 
the booksellers, and others by whom he was re- 
tained, a hundred pistoles a month; Peignot 
states, in all, about one hundred thousand crowns. 
There cannot be the least doubt this was but a 
portion of his earnings, or that the work I have 
described was not written for the Jacobite inte- 
rest of James II. But no success in such characters 
is ever accompanied with prudence. Although 
the penalty of banishment from France was sus- 
pended, that his venal abilities mi.^ht assist the 
designs of others, he was always living between 
luxury and the direst want. As he advanced in 
years, he was less useful, and was consequently 
driven from doors where he had formerly been 
welcomed. D'Argenson allowed him a louis-d'or 
for charity per week ; but all other resources 
failed, until, in his sixty-eighth year, after a long 
period of misery, and of the uttermost mental and 
bodily degradation, he died on the 31st January, 
1711, and was buried at the communal expense. 
It cannot be denied that Le Noble united many 
pleasing qualities as a writer. He had read much, 
could condense ably, and united to a strong 
memory a rare facility in employing its resources. 
He touched with light ridicule the weaker points 
of a case, and could wield both reason, sarcasm, 
and polished inuenda in misstating facts, or 
damaging the argument of his adversaries. Such 

a man was well adapted to the French advisers of 
James. Public attention was to be engaged and 
won by falsehoods in the disguise of truth ; bad 
designs were to be cloaked under moral purposes ; 
and the revolution was to be discredited in the 
name of loyalty and religion. All this Le Noble 
did with infinite ability, and infinite obliquity. 
I can give but a slight sketch of his work. The 
Couronnement de Guillemot is a violent tirade 
against William. Marforio and Pasquin converse 
about his coronation, and the king is described as 
one " qui vouloit estre le bourreau du Prince de 
Galles." Churchill is " 1'infame comble de tant de 
bienfaitz par son bon maitre, et qui 1'a vendu, 
trahi et livre." In the decorations of the abbey, 
consisting of tapestry, &c., there is stated to be a 
representation of Pilate placing Jesus Christ and 
Barabbas before the people, and the choice of 
Barabbas by the latter ; James occupying, in Le 
Noble's opinion, the place of the former. The 
people he describes as preferring even " ce voleur 
public, ce scelerat, ce seditieux de Barabbas, ce 
meurtrier qui a poignarde les Withs (Witts), a cet 
aimable maistre qui n'a jamais eu pour eux que de 
la douceur et de la bonte." The Sermon du grand 
Docteur Burnet is very clever, light, pungent, and 
satirical, especially against the king : the text 
being " Dominus regnavit, exultet terra*, lastentur 
insulae." In the L 1 Ombre de Monmouth, William 
is described as wishing to be " le singe du glorieux 
Cromwell;" Portland, Shrewsbury, Burnet, and 
Dykvelt, are "ses quatre Evangelistes ;" and the 
king is made to utter violent complaints against 
the Parliament, which he calls " une etrange 
beste," and adds : " Si je n'avois pas casse celui 
que j'aiVompu pour en convoquer un autre, toutes 
mes affaires s'en alloient sens dessus dessous." In 
the Estrennes iFEsope, which was burnt by order 
of the States-General, there is the following de- 
scription of England : 

" L'Angleterre sous son Roi logitime et ne lui.don- 
nant qu'avec epargne comme elle faisoit le necessaire 
pour son entretien, estoit justement comme ces sages et 
vertueuses femmes qui, fideles a leurs epoux, gouvernen 
avec un prudent economic leur menage regie, et cette 
mesme Angleterre, qui s'epuise pour satisfaire a 1'avi- 
dite d'un tyran, est aujourd'hui comme une de ces 
infames debauchees qui, emportee de fureur pour une 
adultere qui 1'enleve a son mari, lui fait une profusion 
criminelle de son bien." 

In illustrations such as these, Le Noble was 
most happy, as with the vice he was most familiar. 
The length of this paper precludes my sending 
to you a pasquinade, in the epitaph written for 
Innocent XL, which, considering its purport, is of 
value as indicating the opinions of the Jacobites 
against the policy of the Pope. This I will do in 
another paper. S. H. 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 




The miseries and disappointments of the literary 
life are proverbial : 

" Toil, envy, want, the patron and the gaol." 

To these " calamities of authors," I wish to add 
a new, and as yet unrecorded trial, incidental to 
this age of cheap postage and extravagant puffs. 
I am myself a small author, and have written on 
theology and antiquananism ; and my publisher's 
shelves know the weight of my labours. Conceive 
then my delight, a few weeks ago, at receiving a 
" confidential"" letter from B. D., requesting the 
immediate transmission of my theological tomes to 
a country address ; on the representation that, 

of my little work, so kind and courtly in its tone, 
that I do not even yet quite despair of one day 
reading the promised " handsome and elaborate 
review." A SMALL AUTHOR. 


journals to which he had reviewing access during 
the parliamentary recess, would prove of essential 
service." I wrote to my publisher, who coolly 
answered that it was "no go;" and I even stood 
the tempting shock of a second application from 
B. D., remonstratively hinting that, but for the 
non-arrival of the volumes, a notice would have 
appeared that very week in an " import ant quar- 
ter." The hopeful mind lias difficulty in settling 
down into a belief that men deceive. 

Not a month had elapsed before I received 
another letter, sealed with such a signet as in size 
would rival the jewel sometimes seen pendent 
from the waistcoat pocket of a Jew broker on 
Saturday, and engraven with evidence of illus- 
trious lineage, if quartering be only half true. I 
did not break this magnificent seal, but I tore 
open the envelope, and I found that my antiqua- 
rian researches had been most flatteringly esti- 
mated by a gentleman with a double surname, 
which happened to be familiar to me. The com- 
munication was, of course, "private;" and it 
expressed the writer's knowledge, from hearsay, of 
the " value, merit, and ability " of my book, and 
the satisfaction it would afford my correspondent, 
to give it a " handsome and elaborate review in 
both the widely circulating and reviewing publi- 
cations with which he had the honour of being 
connected." A copy of my work was to be sent 
to his own address, or to that of his bookseller : 
or, even a third course was obligingly opened to 
me "he would send his man-servant to my 
publisher for the volume!" I sent the book, 
and the same day communicated with the head 
of the family who legally bore the very hand- 
some name used by my correspondent, and he 
told me that he had just received. 51. worth of 
books from a great house in " the Row," which 
were obviously designed to be the response to an 
application from the gentleman with a large seal, 
who was " an impostor." This may be so ; but I 
have received an acknowledgment for the receipt 

Valentine's Day Superstition in Devonshire. 
The peasants and others believe that if they 20 to 
the porch of a church, waiting there till half- past 
twelve o'clock on the eve of St. Valentine's day, 
with some hempseed in his or her hand, and at the 
time above-named then proceed homewards, scat- 
tering the seed on either side, repeating these 

" Hempseed I sow, hempseed I mow. 
She (or he) that will my true love be, 
Come rake this hempseed after me ; " 

his or her true love will be seen behind, raking 
up the seed just sown, in a winding-sheet. Do 
any of your readers know the origin of this super- 
stitious custom ? J. S. A. 
Old Broad Street. 

Fairies. An Irish servant of mine, a native of 
Galway, gave me the following relations : Her 
father was a blacksmith, and for his many acts of 
benevolence to benighted travellers became a great 
favourite with the fairies, who paid him many 
visits. It was customary for the fairies to visit 
his forge at night, after the family had retired to 
rest, and here go to work in such right good ear- 
nest, as to complete, on all occasions, the work which 
had been left overnight unfinished. The family 
were on these occasions awoke from their slumber 
by the vigorous puffing of bellows, and hammering 
on anvil, consequent upon these industrious habits 
of the fairie, and it was an invariable rule for the 
fairies to replace all the tools they had used during 
the night; and, moreover, if the smithy had been 
left in confusion the previous evening, the "good 
people " always arranged it, swept the floor, and 
restored everything to order before the morning. 
I never could glean from her any detailed instances 
of the labour accomplished in this way, or indeed 
anything which might aid in the formation of an 
estimate of the relative skill of the fairies in manual 
labour ; and I must confess that on these subjects 
I never question too closely, the reader will know 

On one occasion, one of the family happening to 
be unwell, the father went back to the i-mithy at 
midnight for some medicine which had been left 
there on the shelf, and put the "good people" to 
flight, just as they had begun their industrial 
orgies. To disturb the fairies is at any time a 
perilous thing ; and so it proved to him : for a fat 
pig died the following day, little Tike had the 
measles, too, after, and no end of misfortunes fol- 
lowed. In addition to this occult revenge, the 
inmates of the house were kept awake for several 



[No. 116. 

nights by a noise similar to that which would be 
produced by peas being pelted at the windows. 
The statement was made with an earnestness of 
manner which betrayed a faith without scruples. 



Lines in Whispering Gallery at Gloucester Cathe- 
dral. The following verse is inscribed in the Whis- 
pering Gallery of Gloucester Cathedral ; to pre- 
serve it, and as a "Note" to the fourth stanza of 
the "Ditty" I inserted in Vol iv., p. 311., I copied 
it for " N. & Q." 

" Doubt not but God who sits on high, 

Thy secret prayers can hear ; 
When a dead wall thus cunningly 
Conveys soft whispers to the ear." 

H. G. D. 

. Definition of Thunder. The following singular 
definition of thunder occurs in Bailey's Dictionary, 
vol. i. ]7th edit., 1759: 

" Thunder [Dunder, Sax. &c.], a noise known by 
persons not deif." 

In Bailey's 2nd vol. 2nd edition, 1731 (twenty- 
ei<rht years previous to the edition of vol. i. above 
cited), the word is much more scientifically treated. 


Greek Epigram by an uncertain Author. 

T6ff<rov fJLi TT/i^eiTjy, OGGOV eyw (76 <f>i\a. 

" Shouldst thou, O Daphne! for my sake, 

An equal pain endure, 
A sense of gratitude will make 
The bond of love secure. 

But shouldst thou, reckless of my fate, 

Unkind and cruel prove, 
Sweet maid, thou'lt never learn to hate 

So truly as I love." 


The Quarterly Reviewer who endeavours in the 
number just published to establish the claim of 
Thomas Lord Lyttelton to the authorship of Ju- 
nius, instances the following coincidence in sup- 
port of his theory : 

" Junins tells us directly, * I remember seeing 
Busenbaum, Suarez, Molina, and a score of other Je- 
suitical books, burnt at Paris, for their sound casuistry, 
by the'hands of the common hangman.' We may as- 
sume that this took place in 1764, as it was in that year 
that Choiseul suppressed the Jesuits. Thomas Lyt- 

telton was on the continent during the whole of 1764, 
and for part of that time resided at Paris."* 

But the orders of the parliament of Paris against 
the Jesuits, one of which condemned some thirty 
of their books to be burnt, were issued three 
years before the suppression of their order in 
France, viz., in the early part and summer of 
1761. That Thomas Lyttelton could then have 
been in Paris is highly improbable ; he was only 
seventeen, and it was a time of war. Will any 
one take the trouble to ascertain where Francis 
was ? I believe he was appointed secretary to 
the Portuguese embassy in 1760, and returned to 
London in 1763. II. MERIVALE. 


An old book now lies before me, intituled 
England's Reformation from the time of King 
Henry VIII. to the end of Gates' s Plot, a Poem in 
four Cantos, with large Marginal Notes according 
to the Original. By Thomas Ward. London : 
Printed for W. B. and sold by Thomas Bicherton, 
in Little Britain. 1716. 

In Canto IV., and beginning at p. 353., there is 
an account of a brawl in the parish church of 
Grantham, anno 1627, arising, as appears by a 
marginal note, out of circumstances connected with 
the " removal of the Communion table from the 
upper part of the quire to the altar place." A 
master alderman Wheat ley, assisted by " an inn- 
keeper fat as brawn," and " a bow-legged tailor 
that was there," appears to have taken an active 
part in the scuffle which ensued upon the vicar's 
persisting in his determination. The alderman 
and his mob seem to have been triumphant on this 
occasion, for we read, p. 3o6. : 

" The alderman, by help of rabble, 
Brought from the wall communion table ; 
Below the steps he plac'd it, where 
It stood before, in midst of quire." 
A pamphlet war followed ; for there was imme- 
diately A Letter to the Vicar of Grantham about 
setting his Table altarwise. In answer to this 
came A Coal from the Altar; which was in its 
turn assailed by The Quench Coal out, and The 
Holy Table, Name and Thing (said to have been 
written by AVilliams, Bishop of Lincoln.) A Dr. 
Pocklington (who was he?) espoused the side of the 
Altar party, and published his Altare Christianum. 
During this literary contest the vicar appears to 
have died, and, some twelve months after his death, 
out comes The Dead Vicar s Plea. 

The affair seems to have created what we should 

* [The burning of the books referred to by BIFKONS, 
not Junius (unless it be proved that JUNIUS and Bi- 
FRONS are one, which is not yet universally admitted), 
took place on 7th August, 1761. See a very curious 
note on the subject in Bonn's recently published 
edition of Junius, vol. ii. pp. 175-6. Ei>. " N. & Q."J 

JAX. 17. 1852.] 


now call a great sensation in the "religious world :" 
for, says our author : 

" Scarce was a pen but what was try'd, 
And books flew out on every side, 
Till ev'ry fop set up for wit, 
And Laud, and Hall, and Heylin writ, 
And so did White and Montague, 
And Sh el ford, Cousins, Watts, and Dow, 
Lawrence and Forbis, and a crew 

Whose names would " 

Master Ward did not like these men, and there- 
fore I omit his rather uncharitable conclusion. 

Is there any record left of this notable quarrel, 
which appears to have engaged the attention and 
pens of some of the learned men of the age ? 
Perhaps some of your correspondents at Grantham 
could throw some light upon this question. 

L L. L. 

[This celebrated altar controversy occurred during 
the reign of Charles L, and its origin will be found in 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion. The Puritans 
contended that the proper place for the table, when 
the eucharist was administered, was in the body of the 
church before the chancel door, and to be placed table- 
wise, and not altarwise ; that is, that one of the ends of 
the table was to be placed towards the east, so that one 
of the larger sides might be to the north, the priest 
being directed to stand at the north side, and not 
at the north end of the table. The Church party, 
on the contrary, contended that as the Injunctions 
ordered that the table should stand where the altar 
used to stand, it should consequently be placed as the 
altar was. This matter was the source of much violent 
contention, and tracts were published neither remark- 
able for courtesy of language nor for accurate state- 
ments of facts. It appears to have originated in a dis- 
pute between Mr. Titly, the Vicar of Grantham, and 
his parishioners, respecting the proper place for the 
table. The vicar insisted that it ought to stand at the 
upper end of the chancel, against the east wall. Some 
of the parishioners contended that it should stand in 
the body of the church. The vicar removed it from 
that situation, and placed it in the chancel. The alder- 
man of the borough and others replaced it in its former 
situation, when a formal complaint was made to the 
bishop (Williams). In 1627 the bishop published his 
judgment on the question, in A Letter to the Vicar of 
Grantluun. The visitation of 1634 tempted Peter 
Heylyn to republish this Letter, together with an 
answer under the title of A Coal from the Altar, &c. 
Williams replied in 1637 by a treatise entitled The 
Holy Table, Name and Thing, more anciently and 
literally used under the New Testament than that of 
Altar. Heylyn rejoined by his Antidotum Lincolniense ; 
or an Answer to a Book entitled " The Holy Altar, Name 
and Thing," fr c . The bishop was preparing for his 
further vindication, when he was prevented by his 
troubles in the Star Chamber, in consequence of which 
his library was seized. And how," says Hacket, 
"could he fight without his arms? or, how could the 
ball ring when they had stolen away the clapper ? " 

During the controversy Dr. Pocklington, Chaplain in 
Ordinary to the King, published his Altare Chris- 
tian um ; or, the Dead Vicar's Plea, wherein the Vicar of 
Grantham being dead yet speaketh, and pleadeth out of 
Antiquity ayainst him that hath broken down his Altar. 
4to. 1637. The best historical notice of this contro- 
versy is given in Hacket's Life of Arcltbishop Williams, 
pt. ii. pp.99 109., and was particularly referred to 
by the counsel on the Cambridge stone altar case, 
1844-1845, as well as by Sir Herbert Jenner Fust in 
his judgment on it.] 


Tn investigating the descent of two Devonshire 
families, I have met with four instances of persons 
designating themselves as groom. They were 
certainly well connected, and in fortune appa- 
rently much above the class of people who accept 
the care of horses in this present day. 

If they were grooms of horses, society was in a 
very different state from that in which it is at the 
present day ; if they were not such grooms, what 
then were they? I believe they were unmarried 
persons. First, there is Samuel Weeks, of South 
Taw ton, groom ; will proved in the Archdeacon 
of Exeter's Court, 1639. His father was Richard 
Weeks, styled gentleman in the parish register ; 
and Samuel Weeks signs his name in a peculiarly 
fine Italian hand, that I do not remember to have 
seen in any instance of that time except in that of 
a thorough gentleman. 

Francis Kingwell, of Crediton, groom. His will 
was proved in the Bishop's Court in 1639 ; his 
sister married a Richard Hole, of South Taw ton, 
a yeoman of substance ; her second husband was 
John Weeks, of South Taw ton, gentleman, and 
his sons were gentlemen. These Weekses were, I 
doubt not, nearly related to the Wykes or Weeks, 
of North Wyke, in the same parish, a family of 
great antiquity. 

Thirdly, here is John Hole, of South Tawton, 
groom, 1640. His inventory is ISO/., of which 41. 
was for liis clothes, whereas a gentleman in one 
case in this neighbourhood has his clothes valued 
at ten shillings ; Kingwell's inventory was the 

Robert Hole, of Zeal Monachorum, groom, is 
the fourth instance. His will was proved at West- 
minster in 1654; he was the son of a wealthy 
yeoman, and his brother, Thomas Hole, was a 

I trouble you that I may learn, through your 
kindness, whether groom, in these instances, was 
used with the meaning which we attach to it; or at 
that time, or in the English language, or the ver- 
nacular tongue of central Devonshire, meant any- 
thing else. E. DAVIS PROTHEROE. 



[No. 116. 


Gregentius and the Jews in Arabia Felix. 
" We have a remarkable instance to this purpose in 
ecclesiastical history, winch is attested by many and 
great authors. It seems, about 400 years after our 
Saviours ascension, one Gregentius, a bishop, endea- 
voured the conversion of those Jews which lived in 
Arabia Felix. After a tedious disputation of three 
days' continuance some of the Jews desired the bishop 
to show them Jesus alive, and it would convince them. 
Immediately upon this the earth began to tremble, and 
the sky to shine and echo with lightnings and thunder. 
After these ceased, the gates of the celestial palace 
opened, and a bright serene cloud appeared, darting 
forth beams of an extraordinary lustre. At last our 
blessed Saviour showed himself walking on this bright 
cloud, and a voice was heard from this excellent glory 
saying, * I am He who was crucified by your fathers.' 
This glorious appearance cast all the Jews prostrate on 
the ground, and, beating their breasts, they cried with 
a loud voice, 'Lord have mercy on u>!' and after- 
wards were baptized into the faith of Christ." Ser- 
mons by John March, B. D., late Vicar of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 2nd ed. 1699, p. 235. 

Who are the "many and great authors" who 
have attested this extraordinary apparition ? 

E. H. A. 

King Street Theatre. Among a large collection 
of medallic tickets of admission to theatres, I am 
unable to fix. the precise attribution of the fol- 
lowing : 

Ob.: A group of dramatic emblems, mask, sword, 
mirror, scourge, and a legend : 

" Spectas et tu spectabere. King Street Theatre." 


" Admit Mr. Cooper, or bearer, to any part of the 
house before the curtain." 

The ticket is of silver, and is evidently of the 
time of Garrick ; it cannot therefore apply to the 
theatre in King Street, St. James's, which is of 
recent erection; nor am I aware of any other 
King Street in London which contained a theatre. 
Its situation will most probably be found in some 
provincial town. 

If any of your obliging correspondents could 
furnish information as to its locality, they would 
confer a favour on the writer. B. N. 

Lesteras and Emencin. In an old MS. I meet 
with the following words : 

" One (a pillar) was made of Lefteras(\ do not know 
whether the third letter is an s or an f in the original) 
which would not burn." 

" After they came to the land of Emencin, which is 
the country of Jerusalem." 

Can any of your readers give me any information 
as to either of the words Lesteras or Emencin ? 



Epigram on Franklin and Wedderburn. Will 
any of your correspondents acquaint me with the 
name of the author of the following lines, written 
shortly after Dr. Franklin's attendance at the 
Privy Council in January, 1774, in allusion to 
Wedderburn's severe remarks upon him ? 
" Sarcastic Sawney, full of spite and hate, 
On modest Franklin poured his venal prate ; 
The calm philosopher without reply 
Withdrew and gave his country liberty." 
The lines were repeated to me by the Lite 
Francis Masere.s, Esq., Cursitor Baron of the 
Court of Exchequer. \Y. S. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

Ph'iiius and his Lyrichord. May I hope to 
ascertain, through the medium of your journal, 
where to look for information on the subject of the 
" lyrichord of Plenius," referred to in Ilees' En- 
cyclopcedia, art. " Basse Fondamentale," as having 
been " tuned by weights instead of tension? " The 
point left in doubt by this, is whether a single 
weight was substituted for tension, or whether the 
different notes in the musical scale were produced 
by altering the weight according to the rules for 
that purpose. 

Was Plenius an ancient, a Middle- Age man, or 
was he Herr Plen, who latinized his name, as was 
the fashion a century or two ago ? T. 

Epigram on Burnet. A friend of mine across 
the Atlantic wishes to ask, whether any one knows 
where the following epigram, which he remembers 
in MS. in an old /olio copy of Burnet's History, 
comes from : 

** If Heaven is pleas'd when sinners cease to sin, 
]f Hell is pleas'd when sinners enter in, 
If men are pleas'd at parting with a knave, 
Then all are pleas'd for Burnet's in his grave." 


Dutch Chronicle of the World. Will any of 
your readers oblige me with information respecting 
a Dutch work, professing to be an historical chro- 
nicle of the world from the creation to the time in 
which it was printed, which was in the days of 
Merian, the celebrated engraver, father to the 
naturalist Madame Merian, who was also an artist 
of some repute. The work I allude to was illus- 
trated by numerous spirited engravings (supposed 
to have been executed on j0iPH>fer), and of which I 
possess several hundred, which had been cut out 
of the letter-press which surrounded the prints, 
and bought at a stall in London many years back. 
I question whether there is a copy of the work to 
be found in England, except it be in the British 
Museum. JOHN 

" Arborei foetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt 
Gramma" (Virgil G. i. 55.). Amongst my school 
reminiscences, I retain very distinctly the remem- 
brance of the surprise we felt in the sixth form, 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



when we were desired by our revered and excel- 
lent master to construe the above words as follows : 
'* ' Arborei foetus,' flourish unbidden in one situation, 
grass in another. " 

Or, more literally : 

" ' Arborei foetus,' flourish unbidden in situations dif- 
ferent from those in which grass (flourishes unbidden)." 

I well remember too, that some of us, while we 
admired the ingenuity, ventured to doubt the 
correctness of the translation. Will some of 
your learned correspondents kindly favour me 
with their opinions ? W. S. 

History of Brittany. I shall feel obliged to any 
one who can refer me to a good history or histories 
of Brittany ; more especially to those which relate 
to the genealogies and heraldry of the Breton 
families, or which contain pedigrees. 


Serjeants Rings. T. P. would be obliged to 
any of your antiquarian readers who could inform 
him, through the medium of your paper, whether 
the custom of serjeants-at-law presenting rings 
with mottoes, on taking the coif, prevailed so long 
back as A.D. 1670-80, and, if so, whether there 
are any records, or other sources, from which he 
could ascertain the motto used by an individual who 
was admitted to that degree about that period ? 

The Duchess of Cleveland's Cow-pox. In 
Baron's Life of Jenner, vol. i. p. 123., there occurs 
the following note, extracted from one of Dr. 
Jenner's note-books of 1799 : 

" I know of no direct allusion to the disease in any 
ancient author, yet the following seems not very dis- 
tantly to bear upon it. When the Duchess of Cleve- 
land was taunted by her companions, Moll Davis (Lady 
Mary Davis) and others, that she might soon have to 
deplore the loss of that beauty which was then her i 
boast, the small-pox at that time raging in London, i 
she made a reply to this effect, that she had no fear j 
about the matter, for she had had a disorder which 
would prevent her from ever catching the small-pox. 
This was lately communicated by a gentleman in this 
county, but unfortunately he could not recollect from 
what author he gained his intelligence." 

Can any reader of " 1ST. & Q." supply this miss- 
ing authority for a fact which is very important in 
the history of medicine if true ? 


Arms of Manchester. What are the arms of 
Manchester ? and are they of ancient usage ? or 
only assigned to the town since its incorporation ? 
and if the latter, whence did the bearings originate ? 

ll. II. H. V. 

Heraldlcal^ MSS. of Sir Henry St. George 
Garter. AVhat has become of these valuable 
MSS. ? and if the place of their deposit is known, 
can access be obtained to them for literal* v pur- 

poses ? They were, as Noble relates, originally 
sold into the Egmont family, and descended to 
John James, the third Earl ; but some time after 
his death, about the year 1831, all the personal 
property of the family was disposed of; the effects 
at Enmore Castle were sold by auction on the spot ; 
and the writer of this well remembers seeing the 
old family pictures preparing for the same fate in 
a sales-room in Conduit Street, he thinks of Mr. 
Abbots. Mr. Braithwaite, of Great Russell Street, 
was the auctioneer employed at Enmore, and an 
inquiry was made of him at the time relative to 
these MSS , and the answer was, that they also 
were destined to the hammer. A catalogue also 
was promised whenever it should come out. The 
writer was subsequently informed that the MSS. 
were withdrawn, and he could never learn what 
became of them. M N. 

The Pelican, as a Symbol of the Saviour. Is the 
pelican now, or was it formerly considered as a 
symbol of Our Saviour? I have seen it used in the 
ancient decorations of churches, but never looked 
on it as such; nor can I remember ever having 
seen it mentioned as an emblem of the Saviour, 
with the exception of one passage in Dante's Vision 
(Canto xxv.) of Paradise. KOBERT NELSON. 

[In the Cnkndar of the Anglican Church Illustrated, 
p. 328., will be found an engraving of "a pelican feed- 
ing her young with blood from her own breast, signify- 
ing the Saviour giving Himself up for the redemption 
of mankind ; " and in the foot-note references to 
Aringhi's Roma Subterranea, and other works, in which 
other representations of the same symbol are to be 
found. Our correspondent may also be referred to 
Alt's Heiligenbilder, s. 56.] 

Bishop Coverdale's Bible. When did Bishop 
Coverdale commence his translation of the Bible ? 
Where was the first edition printed ? Is any copy 
in existence which possesses the original title-page, 
i. e. not the one added in England, stating that it 
is translated from the " Douche and Latyn?" 

H.H. H.V. 

[We have submitted H. H. H. V.'s Query to our 
obliging correspondent, GEORGE OFFOR, ESQ., whose 
library is particularly rich in early English versions of 
the Bible, and who has kindly favoured us with the 
following communication] : 

In reply to your correspondent H. H. H. V.'s 
very curious question to know when Myles Co- 
verdale commenced his translation, I beg to state 
that he was born in 1488, and that it has not yet 
been discovered when his mind was first led to 
contemplate the translation of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, nor whether he commenced with the New or 
the Old Testament. The facts known are, that 
he finished the translation or the printing of it on 



[No. 116. 

the 4th day of October, 1535, probably at Co- 
logne, because other books printed there about 
that time have the same initials, wood-cuts, and 
type. A copy, with the original title-page, is in 
the Holkham library, having, on the reverse, part 
of the list of books, showing that originally it was 
without a dedication ; this has the words, "Douche 
and Latyn." When the dedication was printed, 
this title was cancelled and a new one printed, 
still with the words "Douche and Latyn," with 
the reverse blank. A fine copy of this is in the pos- 
session of Earl Jersey, and one with the title-page 
repaired is in the British Museum. Perfect copies 
have a map of Palestine. In 1537, this book was 
reprinted, both in folio and quarto, probably at 
Antwerp, and in these the words " from the 
Douche and Latyn" were very properly omitted, 
Coverdale being still living to see them through 
the press ; these are ornamented with large initial 
letters with a dance of death, and are the rarest 
volumes in the English language. In these the 
dedication is altered from Queen Anne to Queen 
Jane, as the wife of Henry VJII. They were all 
dedicated to the king and to the queen ; the two 
latter are all in Old English type. These were 
followed by an edition dedicated to Edward VI. 
in a Swiss type, 4to., printed at Zurich by Chr. 
Froschover, and published under three titles 
1st, as the translation of Thos. Matthewe; 2nd, as 
the translation of Myles Coverdale, London, by 
Andrew Hester, 1550; and 3rd, London, by Jugge, 
1553. These are books of great rarity, and may 
be all seen in my library by any of your readers, 
sanctioned by a note from you or any minister of 
religion. My first edition has several uncut leaves. 

The introduction of the words "from the Douche 
(meaning Luther's German) and Latyn " has never 
been accounted for ; they probably were inserted 
by the German printer to make the volume more 
popular, so as to interest reformers by the German 
of Luther, and Romanists by the Vulgate Latin 
The translation is certainly from the Hebrew and 
Greek, compared with Luther's and the Vulgate. 


Grove Street, Victoria Park. 

Age of the Oak. The late Queries respecting 
the age of trees, remind me of some lines of which 
I have been long in search 

" The monarch oak, the patriarch of the trees, 
Shoots rising up, and spreads by slow degrees: 
Three centuries he grows, and three he stays 
Supreme in state; and in three more decays." 
I think it probable that they are from a play of 
Dryden or Otway ; but some of your readers may 
probably be able to answer this Query. T. C. 


[In Richardson's Dictionary, as well as in the En- 
cyclopaedia Metropolitana, these lines are quoted under 
the word Patriarch, as from The Cock and the Fox, by 

Dryden ; v,-hereas Bysshe, in his Art of English Poetry, 
under the word Oak, refers us to Dryden's Ovid. In 
neither of these pieces do they occur ; our correspon- 
dent, however, will find them in Dryden's Palamon and 
Arcite, or the Knight's Tale, line 2:334.] 

Olivarius. Can any of your readers inform me 
what is the title of a book written by Olivarius, a 
French astrologer, 1542, in which there is a pro- 
phecy relative to France, and somewhat similar to 
that of St. Cajsarius (p. 471.) ? What was his 
Christian name, and in what library is the work to 
be found? CLERICDS D. 


[Maittaire, in his Annales Typography torn. v. pt. ii. 
p. 102., notices the following work : " Olivarius ( Petrus 
Joannes) Valentinus de Prophetia. Basilea? ex officina 
Joannis Oporini, 1543, mense Augusto." From the 
catalogues of the British Museum and the Bodleian, it 
does not appear to be in either of these libraries.] 

Vincent Bourne's Epilogus in Eunuchum Te- 
rentii. Will any of your readers inform me 
whether an Epilogue to the Eunuch of Terence,, 
written by V. Bourne, and spoken in 1746, has 
ever been printed in any, and what, edition of 
Bourne's Poems? Gnatho appears on the stage,, 
dressed as a recruiting sergeant, with several re- 
cruits, and thus begins : 
" Siste tace Gnatho sum Miles, cum gloria cive& 

Evocat ad Martem, quis parasitus erit? 
Aut quis venari coenas et prandia malit, 

Nobile cui stimulet pectus honoris amor?" 
And the concluding lines are : 
" Arma viros facient Vosmet simul arma geratis, 
Scribatis, jubeo, protinus armigeros : 

Hac lege, ut conclametis, Rex Vivat ; idemque 
Tu repetas, Stentor noster, utraque manu." 

This epilogue is in my possession in MS., the 
handwriting of my father, who was, in 1746, a 
scholar of Westminster College. It should seem, 
from a letter written to the Gentleman s Magazine 
by the late Archdeacon Nares, in April, 1826, 
and reprinted in Nichols's Illustrations, vol. vii. 
p. 656., that he was in possession of a copy, 
as he there tenders it to the editor of the sixth 
edition of Bourne, which had then (1826) recently 
issued from the Oxford press. W. S. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

[The Epilogue referred to will be found in the 
beautiful edition of Vinny Bourne's Poems, published 
by Pickering in 1840, and in the Gc.ntlemaiCs Maga- 
zine, May, 1826, p. 450, where, however, the first line 
Siste, tace; Gnatho sum Miles, cum gloria pw/c/tra,'&c.} 

Burton, Bp., Founder of Schools, &fc., at 
Loughborough, co. Leicester. Can any of your 
genealogical readers give a clue to his family, and 
their armorial bearings ? J. K. 

[Thomas Burton was a French merchant, not a pre- 
late. A short notice of him and his gifts will be found 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



in the Reports of Commissioners of Inquiry into Charities, 
and in Carlisle's Endowed Charities; but no account 
of his family has been given by his namesake, William 
Burton, in his History of Leicestershire, or by Nichols 
in his History.] 

Hao. What is the meaning of this word ? In 
Bedfordshire there are two houses and estates 
called by this name, Luton Hoo and Pertenhall 
Hoo ; and in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Kent are 
villages so called. ARUN. 

f Luton Hoo, in Bedfordshire, was the manor of the 
family of Hoo, or De Hoo. who are said by Sir Henry 
Chauncy to have been settled there before the Norman 
Conquest. Hasted, in his Kent, says, " Hoo comes 
from the Saxon hou, a hill." Jhre derives the word 
from hoeg, high. Spelman, vo. Hoga, observes that ho, 
how, signifies mons, collis. Jamieson says " How is 
certainly no other than Isl. haug, Suio-Gothic hoeg, 
the name given to sepulchral mounds." See also 
Lemon's English Etymology, s. v. Hough, how. ] 


(Vol. iv., p. 470.) 

Your correspondent L. H. J. T. has noticed the 
corruption of Greek topographical names, arising 
from the use of the definite article, which the ear 
of a traveller not skilled in the language supposes 
to be a part of the name, and so makes Statines 
or Satines from Athens, Stives from Thebes, &c. 

It may be interesting to some readers of " NOTES 
AND QUERIES " to know that exactly the same 
thing has happened in Ireland, and that the recog- 
nised Anglicised forms of several proper names, 
now stereotyped, are a combination of the definite 
article an, of the Gaelic or Irish language, with 
the name of the place. 

For instance, Nenagh in the co. Tipperary is 
properly Aonach [pron. eenagh~\, but generally 
spoken of by the people with the definite article 
an Aonach, the Aonach, i.e. fair, place of a fair or 
assembly ; and hence by the English made Nenagh. 

So also the river Aingc [pron. nearly as Anuy\ 
is usually called an Ainge, the Ainge ; and there- 
fore is now Nanny, the Nanny, or Nanny water, in 
the co. Meath. 

In like manner, the island Aondruim in Loch 
Cuan, on which stood once a celebrated monastery, 
is in Irish always called an Aondruim, the Aon- 
druim, and is now Nandrum or Nantrim Island. 

The town of Newry is another instance. It has 
its name from an ancient yew tree [in Irish lub- 
hair, pron. nearly as the word your] which stood 
near it, and was said to have been planted by 
St. Patrick. Hence the town is always called 
an lubhair, the yew tree ; which, by incorporating 
the article, has been Anglicised Newry. 

The river Nore in Ossory, is properly an Eoir, 
the Eoir [pron. Ore~\. 

So also the Navan fort near Armagh, is an 
Eamhain, the Eamliain [pron. nearly as Avail]. 

I might fill a page with other instances, but I 
shall only mention another similar corruption in 
proper names, where after dropping the Mac the 
c is retained, in cases where the patronymic begins 
with a vowel. Thus the descendants of the Danish 
family of Ottar became Mac Ottar, and are now 
Cotter. So Mac Etigan became Oettigan; Mac 
Eeoghegan, Geoghegan; the c being further trans- 
muted into g. And hundreds of similar instances 
could be given. 

It may also be observed that the English very 
generally caught the genitive, or oblique case, of 
the Irish proper names, and from it formed the 
name which is now in use amongst the English 
speaking population. Thus they heard the Irish 
speak of the isles Araun, i.e. the isles of Ara, 
for Araun is the genitive ; and hence they are now 
the Aran Isles. So also the ford Trim or Druim y 
in Irish Ath-Druim (the ford of the long low hill, 
vadum Dorsi), where Druim [pron. nearly Trim\ 
is the genitive of Drom or Drum, a long low hill, 
a back. 

The names given to Ireland by medieval writers, 
after the ancient name of Scotia had been trans- 
ferred to Allan (which, by the way, is itself a 
genitive, from Alia), afford instances of the same 

One of the native names of Ireland is Eri, or 
Eire, genitive Erinn. From this the Greeks and 
Romans formed the name lerne, from the old word 
/, an island I-Erinn, the island of Eri. And so 
we now have also the genitive Erin, as a poetical 
name of the island.; The Danes, however, retained 
the absolute form, and called it Eri-landt, Ireland. 

So also from the old word llh, or Hilh, a tribe, 
or country, we have Hilh-Erinn, the tribe, or 
people of Eri, and hence evidently Hilernia ami 
Ivemia. T. D. 


(Vol. iv., p. 92.) 

As some of your readers may be aware, there is 
an old and somewhat valuable library in the vestry 
of All Saints Church, Maidstone, which was partly 
purchased by the parishioners of the executors of 
Dr. Bray (who bequeathed his books to any parish 
which would advance fifty pounds as a consider- 
ation for the value of them), and was afterwards 
increased by the munificence of several benefactors. 

Up to the year 1810, when the present cata- 
logue was made, it would appear that but little, or 
at any rate very insufficient, care was taken of 
these books ; for Mr. Finch, who re-arranged the 
library and wrote the catalogue, carefully cor- 
recting the inaccuracies in the former one, de- 



[No. 116. 

clares, in a note that he has placed at the com- 
mencement, dated October 1, 1810, that he "found 
many valuable books missing, and a still larger 
number irretrievably damaged by the incursions 
of worms and damp." 

The number of volumes missing and decayed 
amounted to about 100, whilst the number re- 
maining in the library appears to have been 710, 
and their gross value about 165Z. 

Since 1810 far greater care seems to have been 
bestowed on them, for but few, very few, volumes 
mentioned in the catalogue then made are missing, 
and a daily fire during the winter months tends 
greatly to prevent their further injury by damp. 

I will not, however, trouble you with any 
further remarks about the library itself, but pro- 
ceed at once to the subject of my note, which is 
to offer for your acceptance three proverbs (which 
I have met with in reading one of the books) as an 
addition to the valuable collection lately sent by 
your correspondent COWGILL. 

The book from which I have derived them is a 
small quarto, containing the following tracts or 
treatises ; but whether any or all of them are now 
but rarely to be met with, I know not. 

1st. " The Heresiography, or a description of the 
Hereticks and Sectaries of these latter times, by E. 
Pagitt. 5th edit. London, 1654." 

2nd. "An apologie for our publick ministerie and 
infant baptism, by William Lyford, B. D. and Minister 
of the Gospel at Sherborn in Dorcetshire. London, 

3rd. " The Font guarded with XX arguments, con- 
taining a compendium of that great controversie of 
Infant Baptism, proving the lawfulness thereof; as 
being grounded on the word of God, agreeable to the 
Practice of all Reformed churches : together with the 
concurrent consent of a whole jury of judicious and 
pious divines. With a word to one Collier and an- 
other to Mr. Tombs, in the end of the Book. Bir- 
mingham, 1651." 

4th. " Vindicia? Paedo-Baptismi, or A Vindication 
of Infant Baptism in a Full Answer to Mr. Tombs 
his twelve arguments alleaged against it in his exer- 
citation, and whatsoever is rational or material in 
his answer to Mr. Marshall's sermon. By John Geree, 
M.A. and Preacher of the Word sometime at Tewks- 
bury, but now at St. Albanes. London, 1646." 

5th. [Title-page wanting, but it appears to have been 
this:] " The Gangrene of Heresie, or A catalogue of 
many of the Errours, Blasphemies, and Practices of 
the Sectaries of the time, with some observations upon 
them. By Thomas Edwards, 1650." 

6th. " The Patrimony of Christian Children, or A 
defence of Infants Baptisme prooved to be consonant 
to the Scriptures and will of God against the erroneous 
positions of the Anabaptists. By Robert Cleaver, with 
the joypt consent of Mr. John Dod. London, 1624." 

These six treatises contain from 80 to 220 pages 
each, and in reading them I have noted the three 

following " sententious truths," which I hope may 
be thought worthy to be added to the much larger 
number contributed by COWGILL. The first is 
from the lines of Beriah Philophylax to his friend 
Mr. Thomas Hall, which is prefixed to his "Font 
Guarded;" and the other two from Edwards' 
" Grangrene of Heresie," 

1st. " Answers are Honours to a Scold, 

And make her spirit much more bold." 

2nd. u A spark not quenched may burn down a 
whole house." 

3rd. " Little sins make way for great, and one 
brings in all." 



(Vol. iv., p. 482.) 

With reference to the observations of HENRY 
H. BREEN upon a well-known passage in Gold- 
smith's Deserted Village, a little consideration will 
convince him that the view taken by DTsraeli and 
himself is not only extremely superficial, but that 
the proposed emendation would entirely destroy 
the poet's meaning. 

The antithesis is not between flourishing and 
fading, but between the difficult restoration of a 
bold peasantry and the easy reproduction of 
princes and lords. 

The first branch of the antithesis is between 
wealth and men : 

" Where wealth accumulates and men decay." 
It then proceeds to set forth that it matters little 
whether nobles nourish or fade, because a breath 
can make them as easily as it has originally made 
them : but not so with a bold peasantry. When 
once they are destroyed, they can never be replaced. 

In fact, so far from the sense requiring the alte- 
ration of "makes" into "wnmakes," the substitu- 
tion, if we would preserve the author's meaning, 
should be " remakes : " 

" Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, 
A breath remakes them, as a breath has made." 

I only put this in illustration : Heaven forbid 
I should recommend it as an improvement ! 

As for the cited " parallel passages," the best 
answer that can be given to them is, that they cease 
to be parallel passages! 

I shall therefore take the liberty to repeat a 
sentence from MR. BREEN, with a slight alteration : 

" That Goldsmith wrote the line in question with the 
word ' unmakes,' there seems (every) reason to doubt." 

A. E. B. 


P. S. As a mere matter of fact, apart from other 
considerations, although a breath from the fountain 

JAX. 17. 1852.] 



of honour may create a noble, it may be ques- 
tioned whether it would not require something 
more than a breath to unmake him ? 

[We h:ive received many other excellent defences of 
the original reading of this passage in Goldsmith. We 
have selected the present as one of the shortest among 
those which first reached us. We will add to it a post- 
script from the communication of another correspondent, 
J. S. W., showing a curious typographical error which 
has crept into the recent editions of Goldsmith.] 

Passage in the Traveller. There is a line in 
the Traveller, I may observe, into which an error 
of the press, or of some unlucky critic, has in- 
truded. Goldsmith, speaking of the Swiss, says 
that he 

" Breasts the keen air, and carols as he goes." 
In some editions it is given 

" Breathes the keen air," &c. 

Breasts was doubtless the original word, for it is 
quoted in Johnson's Dictionary, under the word 
Breast. This alteration, however, does not, like 
the supposed change of unmakes into cart make, 
affect the sense. J. S. W. 



(Vol. iii., pp. 478. 526. ; Vol. iv., p. 44.) 
Perhaps the following Note may prove interest- 
ing, as a contribution to the literary history of 
Bogatzky's popular work, and as explanatory of 
the statement of R. D. H. (Vol. iii., p. 526.), that 
the book was almost entirely re-written by the 
Rev. H. Venn. 

The Golden Treasury was introduced to English 
readers through the late excellent John Thornton, 
Esq. This gentleman having met with a copy of 
the German work, caused it to be translated into 
English. Of this translation (in which many of 
Bogatzsky's papers are exchanged for extracts 
from English writers) a single copy was printed, 
interleaved, and sent to the Rev. John Berridge, 
of Everton, for final revision. This copy is now 
before me. The title runs thus : A Golden Trea- 
sury for the Children of God, whose Treasure is in 
Heaven; consisting of select Texts of the Bible, 
with practical Observations in Prose and Verse, for 
every Day in the Year. By C. H. v. Bogutzsky : 
with some Alterations and Improvements by various 
Hands. Also a Preface on the right Use of this 
Book. Together with a few Forms of Prayer for 
private Use. " Where your Treasure is, there will 
your Heart be also" Matt. vi. 21. London: 
Printed in the Year MDCCLXXV. Then follows the 
-Preface (pp. iii. xvi.), written by Mr. Thornton. 
The rest of the book extends to 374 pages of a 
small oblong form. The whole is very copiously 
annotated by Mr. Berridge, whose corrections are 

most important and judicious. He greatly im- 
proved and simplified the language, his chief aim 
evidently being to accommodate the book to the 
use of as large a number of readers as possible. 
The humour of the man breaks out ever and anon 
in cutting rebukes and sarcasms directed against 
unsound doctrine : neither Calvinist nor Arminian, 
Pharisee nor Antinomian, escape his lash. A con- 
siderable number of papers are either entirely re- 
written, or very largely altered; e.g. Jan. 29 (by 
J. Thornton);" Feb. 10, 19; April 8, 26; May 2, 
3, 16, 20; June 19, 22 ; Sept. 9, 17, 18, 21, 25; 
Oct. 10; Nov. 18; Dec. 1, &c. About forty- 
three papers are left untouched, and twenty others 
have only some verses added by Mr. Berridge. 
Next, as to the extracts from English authors : in 
the interleaved copy the sources are indicated in 
Mr. Thornton's handwriting for the first six 
months ; beyond which there is no indication of 
the kind. I subjoin a list of the authors from 
whom extracts have been made : 

Aberdeen Bible, Feb. 17, 22, April 1, 18, 
June 8 ; Mr. Adams, March 28 ; Mr. Bentley, 
Jan. 1, 12, April 21; Mr. Brewer, April 15; 
Darracofs Scripture Marks, March 5, April 3 ; 
Mr. De Coetlogon, June 5 ; Mr. Fletcher, May 4, 
5 ; Mr.Forster, Feb. 10, 20; Dr. Guise, June 11; 
Bishop Hall, Feb. 12, 26, March 12, May 3, 
June 9 ; Mr. Howe, March 1, April 6 ; Mr. 
Keash (?), Feb. 1 ; Mr. King, Jan. 31, Feb. 8; 
Mr. Law, June 4 ; Mr. Mason, March 29, 30 ; 
Mr. Newton, April 17 ; Dr. Otven, Feb. 21, 
March 15, 21; Mr. Romaine, Jan. 29 ; Spencers 
Storehouse, Feb. 16, March 19, 31, April 20, 30, 
May 29, June 14,17; Mrs. Thornton, March 10; 
Mrs. Wills, April 19. 

I will only add that most of the corrections of 
Mr. Berridge were adopted by Mr. Thornton, and 
have consequently appeared in the London editions 
in current use. C. P. PH***. 


(Vol. iv., p. 502.) 

John Wesley was at one time of his life a pupil of 
the Moravians, and Southey's Life of that remark- 
able man, like most of his works, pregnant with in- 
terest and erudition, affords a satisfactory answer to 
your correspondent's Query. I quote from the 
3rd edition of the Life, 2 vols., 1846. Of the 
Moravians he says : 

** Madness never gave birth to combinations of more 
monstrous and blasphemous obscenity than they did in 
their fantastic allegories and spiritualizations. In such 
freaks of perverted fancy the abominations of the 
Phallus and the Lingam have unquestionably origi- 
nated ; and in some such abominations Moravianism 
might have ended, had it been instituted among the 
Mingrelian or Malabar Christians, where there was no 
antiseptic influence of surrounding circumstances to 



[No. 116. 

preserve it from putrescence. Fortunately for them- 
selves, and for that part of the heathen world among 
whom they have laboured, and still are labouring with 
exemplary devotion, the Moravians were taught by 
their assailants to correct this perilous error in time." 
Vol. i. p. 1 73. 

He adds in a note : 

" The reader who may have perused Rimius's Nar- 
rative of the Itise and Progress of the Herrnhuters, and 
the ' Responsorial Letters of the Theological Faculty 
of Tubingen ' annexed to it [the 2nd edition was 
published London, 1753], will not think this language 
too strong." 

In the Appendix, p. 481., Southey farther says : 
" The most characteristic parts of the Moravian 
hymns are too shocking to be inserted here : even in the 
humours and extravagances of the Spanish religious 
poets there is nothing which approaches to the mon- 
strous perversion of religious feeling in these astonish- 
ing productions. The copy which I possess is of the 
third edition printed for James Hutton, 1746. An 
interesting account of James Hutton, who published 
the Moravian Hymns, may be seen in the great collection 
of Literary Anecdotes by Mr. Nichols, vol. iii. p. 435. 
Of their silliness I subjoin only such a specimen as may 
be read without offence : 

* What is now to children the dearest thing here ? 
To be the Lamb's lambkins and chickens most dear ; 
Such lambkins are nourished with food which is best, 
Such chickens sit safelv and warm in the nest.' 
* * ' * * #* 

* And when Satan at an hour 
Comes our chickens to devour, 
Let the children's angels say, 
These are Christ's chicks go thy way.* 
" Yet even the Moravian Hymns are equalled by a 
poem of Manchester manufacture. in the Gospel Maga- 
zine for August, 1808, entitled the * Believer's Mar- 
riage in Christ.'" Southey's Life of Wesley. 

See also Crantz's History of the Brethren, trans- 
lated by Latrobe, 8vo. London, 1780; A True and 
Authentic Account of Andrew Frey, translated 
from the German, London, 1753, an extremely 
curious work ; also A Solemn Call on Count Zin- 
zendorf, by Henry llimius, London, 1754. 

December 30th, 1851. 


Invent portum (Vol. v., p. 10.). This couplet, 
which occurs at the close of the second volume of 
Gil Bias, is a version of the following Greek epi- 
gram among those of uncertain authors in the 
Anthologia : 


Eh rvxn 

It is a slight alteration of the translation given 
by William Lilly, Sir Thomas More's friend and 

schoolfellow, and occurs, with Sir Thomas More's 
version, in the Progymnasmata prefixed to the- 
first edition of More's Epigrams, a very elegant 
volume, printed under the care of Beatus Rhinanus 
by Frobenius, at Basle, in 1520 : small 4to. The 
frontispiece is by Holbein : 


"Jam portum inveni, Spes et Fortuna valete. 
Nil mihi vobiscum est, ludite mine alios." 

" G. Lirn. 

" Inveni portum. Spes et Fortuna valete. 
Nil mihi vobiscum, ludite nunc alios." 

There is a longer epigram, also by an uncertain 
author, in the First Book of the Anthologia, the- 
first lines of which differ but slightly. It runs 
thus : 

'EAirls Kal (TV TU^TJ, fJieya xoi'peTt* r^]V 6$bi> eupov 

OVK fn yap fftyfTfpois eViTt'pTro/' epperc &fj. f }><i), 

OijvtKev cv p.epoTeO'a'i iroA.u7rAavees jua\a ccrre. 

K. r. A. 

The epigram lias been very frequently translated. 
We have Latin versions by W. Morel, Grotius, 
and others ; and several Italian and French ver- 
sions. Mr. Merivale has thus rendered it : 
" Fortune and Hope farewell ! I've found the port: 

You've done with me : go now, with others sport ! " 

Thomas Moore has given us a spirited para- 
phrase of it. S. W. SINGER. 
Manor Place, South Lambeth. 

Quarter Wag-goner (Vol. v., p. -11.). As the 
editor, in the exercise of his official functions, may 
class this scrap with the Replies, it cannot be 
amiss to state that I offer its contents as mere 

In the Sea grammar of captain John Smith, 
which was published in 1627, we have a list of 
books adapted to the use of those who would leant 
to observe the attitude, to prick their card, or say 
their compass. It is as follows : 

"Master Wrights Errours of nauigation. Master 

Tapps Sea-mans kalender. The art of nauigation. 
The sea regiment. The sea-mans secret. Waggoner, 
Master Gunters workes. The sea-mans glasse for the 
scale. The new attracter for variation. Master 

Wright for vse of the globe. Master Hewes for the 

It thus appears that Waggoner was either the 
title of a book, or the name of an author ; and we 
may infer, from the absence of particulars, that it 
was quite familiar to the seamen of that period 
as much so as Charles -wain. May it not indicate 
Lucas Jansz Wagenaer of Enchuisen, author of 
the Spieghel der zeevaerdt, or mirror of navigation, 
published at Leyden in 1585. The Spieghel 
became a standard work ; and a translation of it 
by Anthony Ashley was printed at London, with 
a dedication to sir Christopher Hatton, about the 
year 1588. Mr. Joseph Ames, who gives the title 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



of this translation, observes : " Perhaps the sailors 
from this book call their sea charts Wagenars." 
He was the son of a merchant-captain, and passed 
his life as a ship chandler in Wapplng : I need not 
search for a better witness. With regard to the 
word Quarter, it seems to be an abbreviation 
of quarter-deck ; and if so, Quarter Waggoner 
would mean the quarter-deck charts, or the charts 
which were supplied to the commander of a ship 
for the use of himself and the other officers. 


Gibbers Lives of the Poets (Vol. v., p. 25.). MR. 
CROSSLEY says that none of Johnson's biographers 
appear to have known that the prospectus which he 
has sent you was furnished by Dr. Johnson ; but of 
this fact he gives no other proof than his own opinion 
that " the internal evidence is decisive." Now I 
really must say, that to my poor judgment nothing 
can be less like Johnson's peculiar style ; and, more- 
over, MR. CROSSLEY, who quotes Mr. Croker's 
note (p. 818., ed. 1848) on this subject, has cer- 
tainly not read that note accurately, for the object 
of that note was to endeavour to account for 
Johnson's having frequently and positively asserted 
that Gibber had nothing to do with these lives, of 
which MR. CROSSLEY would have us suppose he 
wrote the prospectus for Gibber. If MR. CROSSLEY 
will read more carefully the note referred to, which 
is half Boswell's and half Croker's, and also ano- 
ther note (also referred to), p. 504., he will see 
that it is impossible that Johnson could have 
written this prospectus. 

As I happen to be addressing MR. CROSSLEY, I 
take the liberty of asking whether he has yet been 
able to lay his hands on Pope's Imitation of Horace, 
printed by Curll in 1716 (see " N. & Q.," Vol. iv., 
pp. 122. 139.), and which he tells us he possesses. 
I wonder and should be sorry that such a curiosity 
should be lost or even mislaid. C. 

Poniatowshi Gems (Vol. v., p. 30.). A.O.O.D. is 
informed that a portion of these gems were sold 
by Christie and Manson about the second week in 
June of last year, under an order of the Court of 
Chancery, on account of the estate of the late Lord 
Monson. The contents of one cabinet were alone 
put up, and the auctioneers can, no doubt, supply 
the particulars that A. O. O. D. requires ; or more 
general information might possibly be obtained 
from the solicitors, Messrs. Pooley and Beisly, 

1. Lincoln's Inn Fields. M "s. 

Dial Motto at Karlsbad (Vol. iv., pp. 471. 507.). 
I do not think it difficult to throw light upon 
the Karlsbad inscription sent to you by HERMES. 
I believe that there is a mistake either by the 
inscriber or the transcriber, and that the word 
- GEdlt ought to be written CeDIt. The chrono- 
grammatic letters or numerals would then be 
Mccvvvviiiiiiiin=MDCcxxx = 1730. There are, 
however, as you have printed it, three other capital 

letters, but If observe they are not in the same 
type as the numerals. The question then arises, 
how do they appear in the original inscription? 
do they all appear there, or only the first two. 
It is possible that they, i.e. H. H. T., may be the 
initials of the name of the then owner of the house. 
I should like this explanation better if the only 
capitals, not numerals, were H. H., the initials of 
the first two words of the inscription, and un- 
mingled with the numerals. It would then be 
H. H. MDCCXXX, or as it would appear upon a house 
of the present day : 

II. H. 


It is probable that by inquiry at Karlsbad, if it 
were worth while, the name of the owner and date 
of the house might afford a certain solution of his 
difficulty. The doubtful letters may be the initials 
of the maker of the dial. GRIFFIN. 

P.S. Upon what authority does vour correspon- 
dent E. H. D. D. (Vol. iv., p. 507.) assert that 
"E in such compositions stands for 250?" 

Passage in Jeremy Taylor (Vol. iv., p. 435.). 
I have to thank your correspondent F. A. for call- 
ing my attention to a passage in the present edition 
of Jeremy Taylor, in which the bishop cites a 
" common saying" concerning Repentance. I had 
already discovered the error which F. A. alludes 
to, my attention having been called to the words 
in question, by finding them quoted by Jackson 
(Sermon on Luke, xiii. G.etseq.) ; and a MS. note 
in the margin by a former possessor of the volume 
gave me the true account of the sentence. 

I am living at a distance from libraries, and 
without the opportunity of examining questions ; 
but I believe F. A. will find that he has slightly 
misunderstood L'Estrange ; the sentence in ques- 
tion not being found in Coverdale's translation of 
the Bible. C. P. E. 

Aue Trici and Gheeze Ysenoudi (Vol. i., pp. 215. 
267.). These two nuns belonged to the convent 
of St. Margaret attGouda. In '.1714 there still 
existed in the library of that city a book entitled 
ColltZtarius (Commentarius) supra Psalmos* This 
work, written by Peter Por of Floref, and dedi- 
cated to John of Arckel, bishop of Utrecht, was 
transcribed on parchment in the year 1454 by 
seven nuns of the above convent, these were : 

Maria Joannis, 

Geza Yzenoude, 

Aua Trici, 

Jacoba Gerardi, 

Agatha Nicolai, 

Maria Martini, 
en Maria Gerardi. 
On the back of the MS. is a list of the books 

Sic in MSS. Legendumnc comtarius ? 



[No. 116. 

belonging to the convent : these were then seventy 
in number. 

Lambertus Wilhelmi, a monk of Sion Abbey, 
and director of these nuns, composed in the year 
1452 a History of the Convent of St. Margaret at 
Gouda, by order of its superintendent, Hevmanus 
Florentii, a monk of 'S. Gravezande. This con- 
vent was burnt in 1572 by one of Lumey's cap- 
tains, Hans Aulterman, who for his many crimes 
was condemned on the llth of April. 1573, and 
burnt alive at the gates of Gouda. 

The Nicholas de Wit mentioned in the Query 
was prior of the monastery of St. Michael, near 
Schoonhoven. (See further T. Walvisch, Beschry- 
ving van Gouda, II. pp. 123 172.) ELSEVIER. 

Leyden, Navorscher, Jan. 1852. 

Rev. John Paget (Vol. iv., p. 133.). Of this 
clergyman the following mention is made in the 
Resolutions of the States General: 

" 9 January, 1607. Op te requeste van John Paget, 
predikand van de Enjjelsche regimenten, is geordon- 
neert de selve te stellen in handen van den Ovesten 
Horace Vere, Ridder, omme ordre te stellen, dat den 
suppl. van syn tractament mach worden betaelt." 

9 January, 1607. Touching the request of John 
Paget, chaplain of the' English regiments, is ordained 
that the same be placed in the hands of the Colonel 
Horace Vere, Knight, that provision may be made for 
the payment of the suppliant's salary. 

From the register of a marriage celebrated at 
Leyden the 7th of January, 1649, between Mathys 
Paget, smith, and Maria Picters Del Tombe, both 
of that city, it would appear that other members 
of the Paget family have resided there. ELSEVIER. 

Leyden, Navorscher, Jan. 1852. 

The Rev. John Paget doubtless belonged to an 
English or Scotch family, sometimes also called 
Pagett, or Pagetius. John Paget, who was the 
first minister of the English church in Amsterdam, 
came there in 1607, and preached his introductory 
sermon on the 5th of February, in the chapel pre- 
pared for that purpose : his formal induction took 
place in the month of April, in the same year, and 
here he remained twenty-nine years. Thomas 
Paget, invited from Blackeley in England, was in- 
ducted in November 1639, and departed the 29th 
of August 1646, for Shrewsbury. Robert Paget, 
or Pagetius, minister of the Scotch congregation 
at Dordrecht from 1638 to 1685, "was a man of 
extensive biblical knowledge, but of extreme 
modesty." When the English church in Amster- 
dam was offered him, he could not be prevailed 
upon to accept it. With Jacob Borstius he lived 
on terms of close intimacy. 

Consult the Kerkelyh Alphabetic of Veeris, 
Wagehaar, Beschrijving van Amsterdam, and Balen 
Beschrijving van Dordt; also The History of the 
Scottish Church at Rotterdam, by the Rev. William 

I Steven, M.A., Edinburgh and Rotterdam, 1832, 
I and Schotel, Kerkelyk Dordrecht, vol. i. p. 457., 
j and the note (2), vol. ii. p. 217., where many par- 
ticulars concerning the Pagets, especially Robert, 
! are found. It is, however, probable that CRAN- 
MORE may obtain more information touching his 
family in England than in this country. In 
Tocher's Gelehrten Lexicon mention is made of 
Ephraim, Eusebius, and Wilhelmus Paget, all of 
whom resided in England. 

We also read in the Lyste van de Namen der 

Predihanten in de Provincie van Utrecht, by H. van 

Rhenen, 1705, p. 66., that Robert Paget, an 

' Englishman, and English preacher at Dordt, 

nephew of Thomas Paget, was invited to Utrecht 

in 1655, but declined. He remained at Dordrecht, 

and died there in 1684. V. D. N. 

Rotterdam, Navorscher, Jan. 1852. 

Lines on the Bible (Vol. iv., p. 473.). " Within 
that awful volume lies," &c. These lines are 
Walter Scott's. They are spoken by the White 
Lady of Avenel, in The Monastery. It appears 
that they were copied by Lord Byron into his 
Bible, for they are inserted at the end of Galig- 
nani's 1 -vol. edition of Byron's Works (Paris, 1826), 
among the " attributed pieces," as " lines found in 
Lord Byron's Bible." This I believe is the only 
authority on which the compiler of the volume 
referred to by your correspondent can have sup- 
posed his lordship to have been the author. In 
Murray's editions they have no place, nor even in. 
Galignani's later editions. B. R. I. 

[We are indebted to many other correspondents for 
similar replies.] 

Dial Mottoes (Vol. iv., p. 471.). The following 
is an inscription which I copied from a dial-plate 
in the churchyard of Kirk- Arbory, Isle of Man : 
" Thomas Kirkall de 

Bolton Fecit. 

Horula dum quota sit 

Quasritur hora fugit. 


There is a coat of arms also, but the tinctures 
are not marked; viz. Quarterly of three coats: 
first and fourth, three roundels in fess, between 
two barrulets ; second, on a bend three mullets ; 
third, a chevron between three lozenges. 


MartiaTs Distribution of Hours (Vol. iv., 
pp. 273. 332.). I ought perhaps to thank THEO- 
PHYLACT for good intention in answering, not the 
question I did ask, but that which he thinks I 
" might have asked." 

My real question was based upon an assump- 
tion, the truth of which THEOPHYLACT denies : 
his reply therefore is rather a challenge to the 
premiss, than an answer to the question. 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



I totally dissent from him in understanding 
" qtiies lassis" in any sense short of absolute re- 
cumbent repose : " finis," which he takes as the 
real commencement of the siesta, I understand as 
its conclusion: nor am I aware of any, except 
the last final quies, to which the term finis would 
be applicable. 

Neither can I admit, upon the authority of 
THEOPHYLACT, that there was any gradual or 
partial cessation of business in Rome during the 
hour which we call " between eleven and twelve 
o'clock in the forenoon." Julius Caesar left home, 
commenced the business of the senate, was sur- 
rounded by thronging applicants, and was assassi- 
nated all during that hour: and, unless THEO- 
PHYLACT can show that therefore, and on that 
account, it became distasteful to succeeding em- 
perors, he must excuse me from admitting his 
interpretation. A. E. B. 

Nelsons Signal (Vol. iv., p. 473.). I send you 
Nelson's exact words as conveyed by signal at 
Trafalgar, as noted down by several ships in the 
fleet : 

r* < 

253 269 863 261 471 958 220 370 4 21 19 24 

Let me add, that the refrain of the best song on 
the Battle of Trafalgar, gives the exact words of 
the signal : 

" From line to line the signal ran, 
England expects that every man 
This day will do his duty." 

You should have heard this chanted in the 
singing-days of W. H. S. 

Cooper's Miniature, frc. (Vol. v., p. 17.). I have 
a painting on copper of Oliver Cromwell. It is 
oval, and about six inches by four. It resembles 
the engravings of him which have Cooper's name 
attached to them. In the distance is a " white 
horse," faintly sketched in. My father, in whose 
possession it long was, set a very great value upon 
it. I have not had sufficient opportunity to in- 
quireDid ever Cooper paint in oil ? B. G. 

Roman Funeral Pile (Vol. iv., p. 381.). The 
ceremony of a Roman funeral concluded with a 
feast, which was usually a supper given to the 
friends and relatives of the deceased ; and some- 
times provisions were distributed to the people. 
(Vid. Adams' Roman Hist., 3rd edit. p. 283.) Basil 
Kennett, in his Antiquities of Rome, published ' 

1776, further observes (p. 361.) that 

" The feasts, celebrated to the honour of the de- 

. ceased, were either private or publick. The private 

:easts were termed silicernia, from siVe.r and ccena, as if 

we should say suppers made on a stone. These were 

prepared both for the dead and the living. The repast 

designed for the dead consisting commonly of beans, 
lettuces, bread and eggs, or the like, was laid on the 
tomb for the ghosts to come out and eat, as they 
fancied they would ; and what was left they burnt on 
the stone." 

No authority is cited either by Adams or Ken- 
nett for the custom, but your correspondent John 
ap William ap John might perhaps refer to Petri 
Morestelli Pompa Feralis, sive justa Funebria 
Veterum," with some probability of success in 
finding the subject there treated at large. 


Barrister (Vol. iv., p. 472.). The derivation 
of this word proposed by W. Y. can only be looked 
upon as a joke, as he himself seems to regard it. 
"Roister" can have no more to do with it than 
" oyster " has with such words as " songster, 
spinster, maltster, punster, tapster, webster," &c., 
in which " ster" is^the A.S. termination to^denote 
one whose business is " song or spinning," &c. 
Thus from the Mediaeval Latin "barra" we get 
" barraster, one whose business is at the bar ; " 
this is confirmed by the old mode of spelling the 
word, viz., " barrester and barraster." See ISpel- 
inan's Glossary, v. Cancellarius 

" Dicuntur etiam cancdli septa curiarum quse barras 
vocant ; atque inde Juris candidati causas illic agentes, 
Budaso Cancdlarii, ut nobiscum fiarrestarii." 
And again 

" Barrasterius, Repagularis Causidicus." 


Meaning of Dray (Vol. iv., p. 209.). Dray is 
a squirrel's nest. 

" A boy has taken three little young squirrels in 
their nest or drey" White's Selborne, p. 333. Bohn's 
To which is appended the following note : 

" The squirrel's nest is not only called a drey in 
Hampshire, but also in other counties; in Suffolk 
it is called a bay. The word drey, though now pro* 
vincial, I have met with in some of our old writers." 


Tregonwell Frampton (Vol. iv., p. 474. ; Vol. v., 
p. 16.). In the History of the British Turf, by 
James Christie Whyte, Esq. (London, Colburn, 
2 vols. 8vo. 1840), T. 11. W. will meet with a 
sketch of the life of Mr. Frampton, together with 
an inquiry into the truth of the well-known anec- 
dote respecting his cruelty to his horse Dragon. 
Mr. Chafin, in his Anecdotes of Cranbourne Chase 
(London, 1818), p. 47., refers to him, and prints 
one or two curious original letters from him. 
Mr. Whyte illustrates his first volume by a por- 
trait of Mr. Frampton. CRANMORE. 

Vermin, Parish Payments of, $*e. (Vol. iv., 
p. 208.). There is no doubt but that nearly all 
country parishes paid at one time for the destruc- 



[No. 116. 

tion of different kinds of vermin ; but this practice 
is now entirely discontinued. The following are 
the prices paid twenty-five years ago by the parish 
of Corsham, Wilts : 

Vipers, Qd. each ; slowworms or blindworms, 3d. 
each ; rats, Id. each (the tails only were required 
to be brought) ; sparrows' heads, 6d. per dozen, 
(meaning the old birds) ; sparrows' eggs and 
young birds, 4d. per dozen. 

I shall never forget, when a boy, and my father 
was churchwarden, the tricks the young lads 
and boys used to play in order to palm off other 
birds' eggs and young birds for sparrows. One 
young rascal actually painted the eggs very 
cleverly to imitate the sparrows, till I discovered 
it. Young birds of all kinds were brought, and 
many dozens paid for that "were not sparrows ; as 
it was impossible to tell the young birds of many 
of the hard billed kinds from the sparrow. At 
last the parish gave up paying for the eggs or 
young birds, but gave 1*. per dozen for the heads 
of old sparrows, and vast numbers were brought 
throughout the winter ; and then attempts were 
made to substitute other birds' heads, which were 
in many cases paid for. The next year the parish 
agreed only to pay for the whole birds, so that 
no deception could be practised. When the New 
Poor Law came into operation, all these payments 
were stopped. Glead was a provincial term for 
the kite and buzzard, the ringtail for the hen 
harrier hawk, and greashead or greyhead for the 
female kestrel or greyheaded falcon. In most of 
the Wiltshire parishes 6d. per head was paid for 
the hedgehog, as the farmers always believed they 
sucked the teats of cows when laid down in the 
fields. The badger was also paid for in some 
places. J. K. 

North Wilts. 

Altering Orlis Papa (Vol. iii., p. 497.)- The 
origin of this title is, I think, still open to explan- 
ation, and in offering one which I find recorded in 
Lambard's Perambulation of Kent, 1596, pp.80, 81. 
I trust the quaint but interesting style of that 
learned antiQuary and historian will be a sufficient 
excuse to your readers for its insertion at length 
verbatim et literatim : 

*' The whole Province of this Bishoprlcke of Canter- 
bury, was at the first divided by Theodorus (the 
seventh Bishop) into live Dioceses only : howbeit, in 
processe of time it grew to twentie and one, besides 
itselfe, leaving to Yorke (which by the first institution 
should have had as many as it) but Durham, Carleil, 
and Chester only. And whereas by the same ordinance 
of Gregorie, neither of these Archbishops ought to be 
inferiour to other, save onely in respect of the priority 
of their consecration, Lanfranc (thinking it good reason 
that he should make a conquest of the English clergie, 
since his maister, King William, had vanquished the 
whole nation), contended at Windsor with Thomas 
Norman (Archbishop of Yorke) for the primacie, and 

there (by judgement before Hugo, the Pope's Legate) 
recovered it from him : so that ever since the one is 
called Totius Angliaz primus, and the other Anglicc 
primas, without any further addition. Of which judge- 
ment, one (forsooth) hath yielded this great reason : 
that even as the Kentish people, by an auncient prero- 
gative of manhood, do challenge the first front in each 
battel, from the Inhabitants of other countries; so the 
Archbishop of their Shyre, ought by good congruence 
to be preferred before the rest of the Bishops of the 
whole Realme. Moreover, whereas before time, the 
place of this Archbishop in the generall Councell was 
to sit next to the Bishop of Sainct Iluffines, Anselmus, 
the successor of this Lanfranc (for recompence of the 
good service that hee had done, in ruffling against 
Priests' wives, and resisting the King for the investi- 
ture of clerks) was by Pope Urbane endowed with this 
accession of honour, that he and his Successours should 
from thencefoorth have place in all generall councels, at 
the Pope's right foote, who then said withall,- ' In- 
cludamus hunc in orbe nostro, tanquam alterius orbis 
Papam.' " 


Dido and JEneas (Vol. iv., p. 423.). I beg 
leave to transcribe for A. A. D. the following pas- 
sage from the Facetia Cantabrigiensis, p. 95. 
(London, Charles Mason, 1836): 

" Person observing that he could pun on any subject, 
a person present defied him to do so on the Latin 
gerunds, which however he immediately did in the 
following admirable couplet : 

' When Dido found ^Eneas would not come, 
She mourned in silence, and was DI-DO-DUM.' " 

I have also seen these lines attributed to Person 
in an old volume of The Mirror. Of any other 
authorities I have no knowledge. J. S. W. 


Compositions during the Protectorate (Vol. iv., 
pp. 406. 490.). W. H. L. suspects that there is an 
error in the list of these compositions for Lincoln- 
shire, as given in Oldfield's History of Wainfleet, 
and asks, " Where is there any account or list of 
these ? " H. F. refers W. H. L. to a small volume 
entitled A Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and 
Gentlemen that have compounded for their Estates. 
London, 1655. I have compared Oldfield's list 
with the reprint of the Catalogue (Chester, 1733), 
and find that, with some slight exceptions, they 
agree. Oldfield, however, omits the following 
compositions for Lincolnshire : 

s. d. 
" Benson, Clement, of North Kelsey, 

Gent. - - - 120 O 

Burcroft, Thomas, late of Waltham, 

pro Frances and Jane, his sisters - 70 O 
Dalton, John, late of Barton on 

Humbcr - - - 46 O O 

Fines, Morris, of Christhead (Kirk- 
stead) - - 50 O O 
Leesing, Thomas, of North Somer- 

cotes - - - - 12 7 6 

JAN. 17. 1852.] 



s. d. 

Monson, Sir John, of South Carleton 2642 

Moore, Alexander, of Grantham - 350 

Manson, Sir John, Jun., of North 

Thorpe - - 133 O 

Thorold, Joseph, of Boston, Gent. - 96 O 

Whichcoat, Edward, of Bishop's Nor- 
ton, Esq., with 50/. per annum 
settled - - - - 513 0." 

There are also a few discrepancies in the 
amounts of the compositions, but none of any im- 

Roger Adams, the publisher of the edition of 
the Catalogue printed at Chester in 1733, says, in 
the preliminary address to his subscribers, that 

" The Catalogue was printed five years before the 
miserable scene of oppression (by sequestration) closed. 
To supply the defects of it, I apply'd many ways, first 
to Goldsmith's Hall, where I was told the latter seques- 
trations were generally imposed ; but the haste my 
friend was in, and some discouragements he met with, 
rendered this application unsuccessful." 

The error which W. H. L. suspects in Old field's 
list, may probably be corrected by application at 
Goldsmith's Hall. P. T. 

I was aware of the work, A Catalogue, Sfc., 
which contains also the error alluded to at p. 406. 
"Will H. F. be so obliging as to say from what 
materials that work was compiled, and how the 
whole business of the compositions was managed ? 
Some part of it was carried on at Goldsmith's 
Hall. Evelyn probably alludes to the composi- 
tions at p. 311. of vol. i. of his Diary, edition of 
1850. W. H. L. 


When we consider how many indications are still 
discoverable, by those who know how to look for them, 
of the influence which the incursions of the Danes 
and Northmen into Britain have exercised upon our 
language, customs, and social and political condition ; 
and that even the most cursory glance at the map of 
these islands will show in so many local names indis- 
putable evidence of Danish occupation evidence which 
is amply confirmed by many of our archaisms or pro- 
vincialisms, our popular customs and observances, 
when these things are considered, it is obvious that a 
work which should give us the result of these incur- 
sions, if written by a competent hand, must prove of 
great and general interest. Just such a book has been 
issued by Mr. Murray, under the title of An Account of 
the Danes and Norwegians in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, by J. J. A. Worsaae. All who had the plea- 
sure of making Mr. Worsaae's acquaintance when he 
visited this country in 1846-47, were aware that he 
-possessed two qualifications essentially necessary for 
the proper execution of the task which he had under- 
taken. For his archaeological acquirements were made 
patent (even to those who were unable to study his 

various antiquarian publications in Danish and Ger- 
man) by the English version of his Primaeval Anti- 
quities of Denmark ; while his thorough mastery over 
our language was such as to enable him to pursue his 
researches into the period of our country's history 
which he proposed to illustrate, without the slightest 
let or hindrance. With a theme, then, which may be 
considered as novel as it is interesting (for it is the 
first attempt to view the subject from the Danish side), 
and with such abilities to do it justice, it is no won- 
der that Mr. Worsaae has produced a work which will, 
we are sure, be found to possess the double merit of not 
only gratifying the antiquary, but also of interesting, 
instructing, and amusing the general reader. 

To form a complete Encyclopedia of Classical Anti- 
quity, it was necessary that to the Dictionaries of Greek 
and Roman Antiquities, and of Greek and Roman Bio- 
graphy and Mythology, should be added a Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Geography. That want is in the 
course of being supplied. The first Quarterly Part of 
such a Dictionary, called, for the sake of uniformity, 
"of Greek and Roman Geography" but including even 
Scriptural names, and so being in reality a Dictionary 
of Ancient Geography, edited by Dr. Smith, written by 
the principal contributors to the former works, and 
illustrated by numerous woodcuts, has just been issued. 
It equals its predecessors in its claims to the support 
of all students and lovers of classical learning; and 
we know no higher praise. 

We learn from The Athenaeum that Mr. George 
Stephens, the translator of Tegner's beautiful epic 
Frithiofs Saga, and whose intimate acquaintance with 
the early literature of Sweden has been shown by 
the collection of legends of that country which he has 
edited in conjunction with Hylten-Cavallius, and by 
the various works superintended by him for the Svensha 
Fornskrift- Salskapet, a sort of Stockholm Camdeu 
Society, has removed to Copenhagen in consequence of. 
his having been appointed Professor of the English 
Language and Literature in the University there. 
The subject of his first course of lectures to be de- 
livered in the present month is, Chaucer's Canter- 
bury Tales. After this we shall be quite prepared to 
hear of a Danish translation of this masterpiece of the 
Father of English Poetry, as a companion to the re- 
cently published Swedish translation of Shakspeare. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Rhymed Chronicle of Edward 
Manlovc concerning the Liberties and Customs of the Lead 
Mines within the IVapentake of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 
c., edited by Thomas Tapping, Esq. This little 
tract (which with its valuable Glossary, List of Cases, 
&c., occupies but forty pages) is an extremely curious 
book ; and the manner in which it has been edited re- 
flects great credit upon Mr. Tapping.. Neander's 
General History of the Christian Religion and Church, 
vol. vi., forms the new volume of Bohn's Standard 
Library. The same indefatigable publisher has issued, 
as the new volume of his Classical Library, The Odes 
of Pindar, literally translated into English Prose, by 
Dawson W. Turner, M. A. ; and, as if this was not 
sufficient, he has added the Metrical Version by the late 
Abraham Moore a translation which he pronounces, 
and with great justice, to be distinguished for " poetry, 
scholarship, and taste." 



[No. 118, 




(Several Copies are wanting, and it is believed that many are 

lying in London or Dublin.) 

CRYPHES. I>ipsic, 1*32. 

A SERMON preached at Fulham in 1810 by the REV. JOHN OWEN 

of Paglesham, on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Paik, 

Northamptonshire (Hatchard). 


5 Vols. Zurich, 1741. 

* fc * Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free 
to be s-nt to MB. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


We have to regret being compelled to postpone until next week a 
valuable communication from the REV. JOSEPH MENDHAM on the 

W. F. S. vill find the subject of MORGANATIC MARRIAGES treated 
in our 2nd VOL., pp. 72. 123. 231. 261. 

WILHELM, FRANZ ADOLPH, GERMANUS. A letter will reach the 
accomplished lady to whom our correspondents refer, if addressed 
to 69. Dean Street, Soho ; or Craven Hill Cottage, Bayswater. 

D. E. N. will find the lines : 

" Her voice was ever soft, gentle, and low, 

An excellent thing in woman." 
in King Lear, Act V. sc. 3. 

G. S. M. ( Dublin) will, we think, find all the information of which 
he is in search, in the Rev.J. C. Robertson's How sh:ill we Con- 
form to the L : tany, of waich a new edition lias, we believe, recently 
been published by Pickering. 

ED. S. JACKSON. We hope to write privately to this correspon- 

SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT'S Reply to DN. reached us at too late a 
period for insertion in this Number. 

JOHN N. BAGNALL will find his Query replied to in our last 
No. p. 39. 

W. P. A. We hope to be able to give a very satisfactory Reply 
in a short time. 

REPLIES RECEIVED Damasked Linen Cabal Planets of the 

Month Apple Pie Order Wyle Cop Quarter Waggoner 
Priori/ of Hertford Epigram on Erasmus, %c.,from J. R., CorR 
Number of the Children of Israel Lowey of Tonbridge Three 
Estates of the Realm Richly deserved Parish Registers 
Obj.-ctive and Subjective Passage in Goldsmith Conjunction of 
Planets Sic., from A. A. D. Lines on the Bible Many Children 
at a Birlh Meaning of Stickle Head of the Saviour, and 
others, from CLERICUS, Dublin John of Halifax Portraits of 
Wolfe Introduction of Stops, and Lives of the Poets Preached 
in a Pulpit Royal Library, 8fc.,from our valued correspondent 
C. They that touch pitch, 8$c., from ESTE Marriage Tithe in 
Wales Cockney Smothering Hi/drophobic Patients Moravian 
Hymns Old Morm Age of Trees New Zealand Legend 
Chattes of Hazelle, $c., from J. K. Dictionary of Quotations 
Dr. Johnson and Cibber's Lives Praed's Charade Verses on 

Neat Cases for holding the Numbers of " N. & Q." until the 
completion of each Volume are now ready, price Is. 6d., and may 
be had by order of all booksellers and newsmen. 

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In fcp. 8vo. price Is. 6tl. with a New Map of the 
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The Journal herein recorded occupied nine 
months, and was performed mostly in a waggon 
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VERSES for 1851 ; in Comme- 
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Edited by the Rev. ERNEST HAWKINS. 

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[No. 116. 




logical Index to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, Romano-British, 
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VOL. V. No. 117.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 24. 1852. 

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NOTES : Page 

The Pantheon at Paris - - - - 73 

Churchill the Poet ...... 74 

English Medals: William III. and Grandval, by W. D. 

Haggard ....... 75 

Readings in Shakspeare, No. I. - - - 75 

Folk Lore : Salting a New-born Infant Lent Crock- 

ing Devonshire Superstition respecting Still-born 

Children ....... 7G 

Goldsmith's Pamphlet on the Cock Lane Ghost, by Jas. 

Crossley - - - - - - -77 

Minor Notes : Traditions of remote Periods through 

few Links Preservation of Life at Sea Epigram - 77 


Minor Queries: Count Konigsmark " O Leoline ! 
be absolutely just" Lyte Family Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh's Snuff-box " Poets beware " Guanahani, or 
Cat Island Wiggan, or Utiggan, an Oxford Student 

Prayers for the Fire of London Donkey French 
and Italian Degrees The Shadow of the Tree of 
Life Sun-dials Nouns always printed with Capital 
Initials John of Padua St. Kene'm Church - 78 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED : Hieroglyphics of Vagrants 
and Criminals Muggleton and Reeve Rev. T. Adams 

The Archbishop of Spalatro Bishop Bridgeman 
Rouse, the Scottish Psalmist " Count Cagliostro. or 
the Charlatan, a Tale of the Reigu of Louis XVI." 
Churchyard Well and Bath - - _. - - 79 


Collars of SS. 

On the First, Final, and Suppressed Volume of the only 

Expurgatory Index of Rome, by the Rev. J. Mendham 82 
The First Paper-mill in England, and Paper-mill near 

Stevenage, by A. Grayan - .... 

The Pendulum Demonstration - - - - . 

The Cross and the Crucifix, bv Sir J. Emerson Tennent 85 
Yankee Doodle, by C. H. Cooper - 
Perpetual Lamp ---___ 
Kibroth Hattavah and Wady Mokatteb : Num. xi. 26. 

critically examined, by Moses Margoliouth - - 87 

Replies to Minor Queries : " Theophania" Royal 

Library Reichenbach's Ghosts Marriage Tithe in 

Wales Paul Hoste John of Halifax Age ofTrees 

" Mirabilis Liber" Cssarius, &c. Tripos 
' Please the Pigs "Basnet Family Serjeants' Rings 

" Crowns have their Compass" Hell paved with the 
Skulls of Priests Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell 
King Street Theatre Groom, Meaning of Schola 
Cordis, &c. ---_.. 


Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. . - - 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - . . 

Notices to Correspondents ... 

Advertisements - .... 95 

- 81 


- 87 





Among the circumstances which have attracted 

e in the remarkable events of the present 

trench revolution, the restoration of the Pantheon 

to its primitive ecclesiastical name and destination 

VOL.V. No. 117. 

has been specially adverted to, and certainly not 
without reason from its implied indeed, its ob- 
vious purpose, that of propitiating the feelings 
and courting the adhesion at least of the agricul- 
tural population of the country to the new order 
of things ; for, indifferent as Paris, with other 
cities, may be to religious sentiments or practice, 
the unsophisticated inhabitants of the provinces 
still conscientiously pursue the forms and exercise 
the duties of their long- established worship. No 
surer means of obtaining their suffrages could 
have been adopted by the French President than 
by gaining the favour of the parish priests, whose 
influence is necessarily paramount on such occa- 
sions over their flocks. 

In the accounts which have appeared in our 
journals of the Pantheon and its varied fate, 
several errors and deficiencies having struck me, 
I beg leave briefly to correct and supply both, with 
your permission, by a general history of the beau- 
tiful edifice. 

The church dedicated to St. Genevieve, pa- 
troness of Paris, originally begun by Clovis, and 
finished by his widow, St. Clotilda, in the sixth 
century (see Butler's Lives of Saints, January 3rd, 
and June 3rd), had fallen into decay, when Louis 
XV. determined to construct one near it, upon 
a large and magnificent scale. Designs presented 
by the eminent architect Soufflot were adopted, 
and on the 6th of September, 1764, the king, as 
stated by Galignani and others, laid the first 
stone. But scarcely had it emerged from the 
foundation, when the wide-spreading impiety of 
the age made it probable that it would eventually 
be diverted to uses wholly at variance with its- 
destined purpose, and so the following lines fore- 
told so long since as 1777 ; and never has a pre- 
diction been more literally in many respects, and 
for a considerable time more completely, fulfilled : 
" Templum augustum, ingens, regina assurgit in urbe, 

Urbe et patrona virgine digna domus, 
Tarda nimis pietas vanos moliris honores ! 
Non sunt ha?c, Virgo, factis digna tuis. 
Ante Deo summa quam templum extruxeris urbe, 
Impietas templis toilet et urbe Deum." 

The French translation thus impressively ren- 
ders the sense : 



[No. 117. 

" II s'eleve a Paris un temple auguste, immense, 
Digne de Genevieve et des voeux de la France. 
Tardive piete ! dans ce siecle pervers, 
Tu prepares en vain des monumens divers. 
Avant qu'il soit fini ce temple magnifique, 
Les saints et Dieu seront proscrits, 
Par la secte philosophique 
Et des temples et de Paris." 

In the original pediment, since altered by the 
sculptor David (of Angers), abas-relief represented 
a cross in the midst of clouds ; and on the plinth 
was the following inscription : 


which, in 1791, when a decree of the National | 
Assembly appropriated this monument of religion 
to the reception of the remains of illustrious 
Frenchmen, was changed to 


On the restoration of the Bourbons, and of the 
edifice to its first purpose, the Latin inscription 
resumed its place, with the addition of "LUD. xvin. 
KESTITUIT," which, however, again gave way to the 
French epigraph after the revolution of 1 830, still 
probably to be retained, while accompanied with a 
due reference to the sanctified patroness of the 

The French inscription was the happy thought 
of M. Pastoret, one of the few Academicians that 
embraced at its origin the principles of the Revo- 
lution, which he followed through its varying 
phases, until he attained an advanced age. The 
first mortuary deposit in the Pantheon was that of 
Mirabeau, in August, 1791 ; and, on the 30th May 
ensuing, the anniversary of the death of Voltaire, 
" L'Assemblee Nationale declara cet ecrivain le 
liberateur de la pensee, et digne de recevoir les 
honneurs decernees aux grands hommes," &c. On 
the 27th August following, a similar distinction 
was decreed to J. J. Rousseau ; but in January, 
1822, the tombs of these apostles of incredulity 
were removed, until replaced in 1830. In July, 
1793, the monster Marat was inhumed there, 
"amidst the deepest lamentations and mournful 
expressions of regret for the loss sustained by the 
country in the death of the most valued of her 
citizens," whose corpse, however, on the 8th Feb- 
ruary, 1795, was torn from its cerements and 
flung, with every mark of ignominy, into the filth 
of the sewer of Montmartre. In the vicissitudes 
of popular favour even Mirabeau's effigy was 
burned in 1793. Such have been the alternations 
and ever-recurring contests in the feelings and 
principles of the ascendant parties 

" Et velut asterno certamine praelia pugnasque 
Edere, turmatim certantia ; nee dare pausam, 
Conciliis et discidiis exercita crebris. " 

Lucret. ii. 117. 

The cost of this beautiful edifice may be esti- 
mated at about a million sterling, or, taking into 

consideration the difference in the value of money 
at the periods, one-third of what was expended on 
our cathedral of St. Paul. The architect of this 
and other noble monuments of art, Jean Germain 
Soufflot, born in 1704, died in August, 1781, the 
victim, it is said, of the jealousy of his rival artists, 
whose malignant attacks on his works and fame 
made too deep an impression on his sensitive feel- 
ings, though supported in this trial of his moral 
fortitude by his most intimate friend and director, 
that genuine philanthropist, the father and insti- 
tutor of the Deaf and dumb> the Abbe de TEpee, 
in whose arms he died. jSTo one, it has been ob- 
served, was more justly entitled to have the 
achievement of his genius invoked, as our Wren's 
has been, and indicated to the inquirer, as the fit 
repository of his mortal remains. He did not, how- 
ver, live to contemplate the completed structure. 
The sculptor David, who has embellished the 
pediment with numerous statues, is now a refugee 
in Brussels, possibly the relative, but certainly 
the political inheritor of his great namesake's ultra- 
revolutionary sentiments, the eminent painter, I 
mean, and ame damnee, as he was called, of Robes- 
pierre, an exile, too, in Belgium for many years. 

The epitaph above referred to of Sir Christopher 
Wren, under the hoir of St. Paul, celebrated, as 
it rightly is, for its appropriate application (" Sub- 
tus conditur hujus Ecclesise Conditor Lec- 
tor, si monumentum quaeris, circumspice "), does 
not appear, I may add, to have been a primary, or 
original thought, for it was long preceded by one 
of somewhat suggestive and similar tenor in the 
old church of the Jesuits, now in ruins, at Lisbon 
(St. Jose). " Hoc mausolaeo condita est Illustris- 
sima D.D. Philippa D. Comes (Countess) de Lin- 
hares Cujus, si .... pietatem et munificientiam 
quaris, hoc Templum aspice" Obiit MDCIII. This 
date is long anterior to our great architect's birth 
(1631), and above a century prior to his death in 
1723, while, again, the epitaph was not inscribed 
for several subsequent years. J. R. (Cork.) 


Mr. Tooke, in the biographical notice prefixed 
to the new edition, says that Churchill was edu- 
cated at Westminster school, and at the age of 

" Became a candidate for admission [on the found- 
ation], and went in head of the election At the 

age of eighteen he stood for a fellowship at Merton 
College .... when being opposed by candidates of su- 
perior age, he was not chosen. ... He quitted Westmin- 
ster school ; and there is a story current, that about 
this period he incurred a repulse at Oxford on account 
of alleged deficiency in the classics, which is obviously* 
incorrect, as there is no such examination or matricu- 
lation in our Universities as could lead to his rejection* 
In point of fact, long before he was nineteen, he wasl 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



admitted of Trinity College, Cambridge. It is equally 
certain that he met with some slight or indignity at 
Cambridge, from whence he returned immediately after 
his admission, disgusted at the treatment he experienced, 
which he afterwards visited on both universities." 
There is an obvious confusion here which perhaps 
I can clear up. 

I need not say, to those who know anything of 
Westminster, and of the old system of examination 
at our Universities, that a youth who entered 
college, as it is called, head of an election was 
qualified, at the time, not merely to have entered 
the University, but to have taken a degree, had 
age and circumstances permitted ; and this opinion 
is confirmed in Churchill's case, by his standing 
for a fellowship at Merton when only in his 
" second election" second year on the foundation 
at Westminster. How to reconcile this with 
the stories current is the apparent difficulty, and 
yet a few words will, I think, make it all clear. 
There is what is called an "election" every year, 
from the senior boys on the foundation at West- 
minster, to scholarships at Christchurch, Oxford, 
and Trinity, Cambridge. As the scholarships at 
Oxford are understood to be worth three or four 
times as much as those at Cambridge, all are 
anxious to obtain an Oxford scholarship. The 
election is professedly made after examination ; 
but \vhile I knew anything of the school it was 
selection according to interest, and it must have 
been rare scholarship indeed that obtained the 
reward against private interest. Herein, I take it, 
was the repulse Churchill met with, not at Oxford, 
but as a candidate for Oxford. I have little 
doubt that with all his merit, proved by the prior 
election into college, he was put off with a Trinity 
scholarship; and it was not, probably, until he 
arrived at Cambridge that he clearly understood 
its exact no-value. He then saw that it was im- 
possible to maintain himself there for three years 
he had already imprudently married, and there- 
fore resolved to struggle for himself, and rely on 
his father s interest to get ordained, and at the 
proper age he succeeded in getting ordained. 



In " N. & Q." (Vol. iv., p. 497.), S. H. alludes to 
the case of Grandval, who was to attempt the life 
of King William, and likewise to the plot to 
assassinate him four years afterwards. In my 
collection of medals relating to English history, 
I have two silver medals struck to commemorate 
these events. I beg to send you a description of 
them for insertion, if you consider them of suffi- 
cient interest. 

No. I. Bust to the right ; flowing hair and 
ample drapery : legend, " WILHELMINUS in., D. G. 
MAG. BRIT. FRANC. ET HID. REX." Reverse, a monu- 

ment, or pedestal, on the top of which is the 
naked body of Grandval, and a man about to dis- 
sect it ; on each side is a fire-pot, to burn the 
entrails, and pikes, on which the head and four 
quarters are stuck; between two pikes, on the 
right, is a gibbet. An inscription in Latin is on 
the pedestal to this effect : 

" Bartholomew de Grandval, a murderer, bribed by 
the money of Louis, convicted of parricide, and suffered 
the most severe punishment for having attempted to 
assassinate William III., King of Great Britain; his 
head and quarters exposed to be a frightful monument 
of his sacrilege, and of the perfidy of the French." 

Exergue: "xm. Aug* 1692." 

No. II. Bust to the right; flowing hair: 
legend, " WILHELMUS in., D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. 
ET HIB. REX ;" the breast and shoulders covered by 
half of a shield, on which is written in Hebrew 
characters the name " Jehovah," and round it, in 
Latin, thus : " He whom I shield is safe." Re- 
verse : Six women, emblematical of Conspiracy, 
armed with daggers, snakes, and torches, in dan- 
cing attitudes, ready to attempt the king's life, and 
are withheld by cords issuing from a cloud, held 
by an invisible hand, which encircle their necks 
and faces. The legend is to this effect : " An in- 
visible hand withholds them." Exergue : " 1696, 
Boskam F." W. D. HAGGARD. 

Bullion Office, Bank of England. 


" In the most high and palmy state of Rome, 
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, 
The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead 
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets ; 
As stars with trains of fire and dews of blood, 
Disasters in the sun ; and the moist star, 
Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands, 
Was pale almost to dooms-day with eclipse." 

Hamlet, Act I. Sc. I. 

Such is the present state of the text ; and not- 
withstanding its evident corruption, it has been 
judiciously preferred by modern editors to the 
various emendations and additions which, even to 
the manufacture of a complete line alleged to be 
deficient, had been unscrupulously made in it. 

But the slight change I now wish to propose, in 
the substance of one word, and in the received 
sense of another, carries such entire conviction to 
my own mind of accordance with the genuine 
intention of Shakspeare, that I may perhaps be 
pardoned if I speak of it with less hesitation than 
generally ought to accompany such suggestions, 
particularly as I do not arrogate to myself its sole 
merit, but freely relinquish to Mai one so much of 
it as is his due. 

With Malone however the suggestion, such as 
it was, appears to have been but a random guess, 


! No. 117. 

abandoned as soon an formo 
prompted bv very dill'erent e> 
thoso that have aetnatevl me. 
havo been on tho > % rv brink, 

the i 

true veadin:'. and > < 
or' I 

(derations from 

Let us bo thankful wo havo fallen to better 
It is only by the occurrence of sneh dii 

In order t 

transoribo his sn 

v f~~ r fsj 

ly to obsenre, are at last only resolvable bv presnp- 
ion to that be- posing in Shaksnoaro a depth of knowledge tiir 
1 ' OL - 1 veiling that of his tritlors, that his wonderful 

, , 

inont by whieh Steevons appears to ha\e stilled it 

what ho ini",ht 

to bo appreciated. 

In t 
with tho com- known that tho fundamental moan 

e beginning 

in tho birth 

The disa^ 
the sooond lin 


that whioh precedes, is a corruption. IVrhfips Sluik- 

speare wrote 

Astrf* with trains of tiro 

and dews of blood 
DiMUfrroN* dimm'd the sun. 

The word <nrfr is ued in an old collection of poems 

ontitled />:.:,:. addressed to the Kai I of Oxonforilc. <i 
Vook of "Inch 1 know not tlie date, but believe it was 

printed about 1580. In OtMh we havo antrtt, a word 
of exactly a similar formation." Vofoat. 
The word tutr* (which is nowhere else to bo tomuh 

was .itleoledU taken tVoni the IVcncli by John Southern. 

author of the poems cited by Mr. Malone. Tins 
wretched plagiarist stands indebted both for his ver- 

bu, K 'o uiul his imagery to Konsard." Stttrt**. 
Hence, according to Malonc's own account, tho 
consideration by which h? was led to the surest ion 
of M astres" was "the disagreeable recurrence of 
ttar* in the second line." 

He did not perceive the analogy between aster 
and disaster, which renders a verbal antithesis of 
those two words so extremely probable with Shak- 
apearo! ho did not apparently think of " asters* 1 
at all, although that word is so close to the text 
that it may be almost said to be identical with it ; 
mid, notwithstanding that "aster" had boon so 
loui; familiarised in' ovorv Kn^lish pmlon as to 

bo literally under his nose, he must search out 
"astre M in obscure and contemptible ballads, in 

order that Shakspearo mi^ht bo sanctioned in the 

But it is absolutely incredible that any person 
to whom astr* suggested itself should not also be 

reminded of tistcr. Tho conclusion therefore is 

almost unavoidable, that Malone and Steevens 

considered the latter word as too learned for poor 
ShaUpearo's small acquirements. They would 
* not trust him, even for a synonyme to star, unless 
under tho patronage of John Southern! 

At least such was the spirit in whieh too many 
of tho commentators of that day presumed to treat 
Shakspoaro, him to whom, if to any mortal, his 
own beautiful language is applicable 

How noble in reason ! how infinite in faculty I 
In apprehension how like a god ! M 

i ! which it may be prefixed. 'I hus, 

i . . T 

benefit, disjifri'ict' is an injury, while i.-;sfrricf 
^did such a word exist) would be a iiouativc mean 
between the two extremes. Similarly, if <;\/<T 
signify a spot of li^ht, a name singularly ap- 
propriate to a comet, .. v.v I must, by reversal, 
be a */'<>/ <>f' i /,!''. '.v.v.v, and " </:.v,:\/<v.v //; Me 1 snn" 
no other than what we should call spots or macuhr 
upon his disk. 

r.m there remain a doubt, therefore, that Shak- 
spearo intoiulod tho passa",e t*> read as follows, 
whieh. roipiirin; 1 , neither addition nor alteration of 
tho text as transmitted to us savin", one sli^hf 
change ot' " a-; stars" into " astiM's, ' must ho 
pert'eetly inti'lliiMble to every reader, especially if 
accompanied bv the simple note of explanation 
which! subjoin to it: 

" In tho most hi:-,h ami palmy state ol" Kvuno, 
A little ere the mightiest .Julius fell. 
The -laves stood t'enantless. and the sheeted dead 
Did squeak and gibber in the Koman streets ; 
Asters with trains of fue ami dews of blood. 
Disasters in the sun 1 ; and tho moist star. 
I'pon whoso intlneiu-e Neptune's empire stands, 
'NYas sick uhnost to dooms-day with eclipse." 

1 Spots or blotches. 



Salting a New-lorn Infant. In Eieiiol x\i i. 
we read, "Inthe day thou wast born tin navel 

was not CUt, neither wast thou washed in water to 

supple thee; thou wast not sailed at all, nor swad- 
dled at all." Salting seems to bo spoken of as a 

nodular part of the proeess whioh a new-born 

child underwent amongst tho .lows in the days of 

K.-ekiel. Tan any one LMVO me information on this 
point? Can the salt in baptism alluded to by 

SBLSUCUS (Vol. iv., p. HUM have 
with this passage P A \ 


t ' 

, obscurus. 

24. U 


bOBJJKKKJ hav; a COftOflft of gO*0 JWBftd 

lu OB tW Honda y be- 


*BrJ r;hai;tir^' tU Hfl**fclf ver*A, bj wa/ of ^X- 

^^v, fl-r.r, butter, hdMMaee, ie^ to f>. 

,<;k, give 


Tbe abort if the n 
MM bilfflMW li Ifcf ; 


part of tb* eowBly, 

^r,*- OMHI 

C si.. RMrOMmfcYr4j 
Wtwbicb M/ 

ivith Oki^iit tMMM&iv f 

by .V:wU/-v, at: i.: haO 

iM ml tm*+,b +*Aj 

to OoWwitb. It 

gtret s AH ttmrtto of <W 

J v : "-- V J;r.'J 

of ^ ' ld*u !}' b*-r ' ur '1 rJfcvf"! /rr fr -/ 
amount paid *M;.fc to *yr-.j w'i'h !<f.*t,*-,/9 



il pariA driti for tie gr 
w A^k UA f 

**. *Vvm mb* &*<A 

g pfgdh j KM ; *m ^ t M^ -/? 
or fertatem, old eww^b to uroofft 

Vttt OOi to IttLt 

I ':',?' ':*. 



[No. 117. 

Preservation of Life at Sea. On the road be- 
tween Yarmouth and Gorleston is a small obelisk 
or monument, with a device of a ship in a storm, a 
rocket with a rope attached just passing over it. 
The inscription on it may interest some of your 
readers : 

" In commemoration of the 

12th Feb. 180S, on which DAY, 

directly eastward of this spot, 

the FIRST LIFE was saved from 

SHIPWRECK, by means of a rope 

attach'd to a shot propelled 

by the force of gunpowder 

over the stranded vessel. 

A method now universally 

adopted, and to which at least 

1000 sailors of different nations 

owe their preservation. 



Epigram written in consequence of Queen 
Elizabeth having dined on board Sir Francis 
Drake's ship, on his return from circumnavigating 
the globe : 

" Oh Nature ! to old England still 

Continue these mistakes ; 
Give us for all our Kings such Queens, 
And for our Dux such Drakes" 


Count Konigsmark. Horace "Walpole, in his 
Reminiscences, says distinctly that Count Konigs- 
mark, the admirer of the ill-fated Princess Sophia 
Dorothea of Zelle, was the same person as the insti- 
gator of Mr.Thynne's assassination. Sir E.Brydges, 
in his edition of Collins's Peerage, on the other 
hand, calls them brothers. Which of these writers 
is correct ? The fact may not be important other- 
wise than as giving us an instance (if Walpole be 
correct) of the righteous judgment of heaven in 
visiting a murderer with such fearful retribution. 
I cannot find what became of Konigsmark, after 
the murder of Mr. Thynne, in 1681-2. It is said 
in the Harleian Miscellany, that he was taken by 
one of Monmouth's attendants, who seized him as 
he was going on ship-board. The three actual 
assassins were, we know, executed; but it is added, 
" by some foul play, Konigsmark, who had em- 
ployed them, and came over to England expressly 
to see they executed their bloody commission, was 
acquitted." What was this foul play, and how 
came the greatest villain of the four to escape ? 
I have not the State Trials to refer to : that work 
may give some explanation. 

Walpole, who was familiar from childhood with 
the events of the courts of the first three Georges, 
is likely to have been accurate as to the identity 
of Konigsmark ; but his occasional mistakes and 

misrepresentations, as we are aware, have been 
frequently exposed by Mr. Croker. 


" O Leoline I be absolutely just." 

" O Leoline ! be absolutely just, 
Indulge no passion and betray no trust. 
Never let man be bold enough to say 
Thus and no farther shall my passion stray. 
The first step past still leads us on to more, 
And guilt proves fate which was but choice before." 

Who is the author of the above ? H. B. C. 

Lyte Family. When did the Lyte family 
first settle at Lytes Carey, Somersetshire? On 
what occasion, and by whom, was the fleur de Us 
added to their crest ? And when did a part of 
the family alter the spelling of the name from 
Lyte to Light ? 

The family is an ancient one, and in the r"eign 
of Elizabeth of considerable literary distinction. 


Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuff-box. What has be- 
come of Sir Walter Raleigh's snuff-box ? It was 
a favourite box, in constant use by the late Duke 
of Sussex, and was knocked down at his sale for 
61. It is the box out of which Raleigh took a 
pinch of snuff on the scaffold. L. H. L. T. 

" Poets beware" Where are the following lines 
to be found : 

" Poets be ware ; never compare 
Women to aught in earth or in air," &c. 

E. F. L. 

Guanahani, or Cat Island. Why is this small 
island, one of the Bahama group, so called? 
It is supposed that cats of large size, and quite 
wild, used to be shot on this island ; but none of 
the many writers on theWest Indies have touched 
on Guanahani, or Cat Island. W. J. C. 

St. Lucia. 

Wiggan, or Utiggan, an Oxford Student. To 
assist m deciphering a MS. I should be glad to 
know the name of a senior student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, April, 1721, which seems to be Wiggan, 
Utiggan, or some such like name. W. DN. 

Prayers for the Fire of London. When were 
the "Prayers for the Fire of London" first intro- 
duced into the Book of Common Prayer, and when 
were they discontinued ? 

I have never seen them except in the Prayer 
Book prefixed to the Bibles " Printed at the 
Theater, Oxford; and are to be sold by Peter 
Parker at the Leg and Star in Cornhil. London, 
MDCLXXXII." The Prayer Book bears the same 
colophon. W. E. 

Donkey. An omission in our dictionaries of a 
curious kind is that of the word donkey, which is not 
to be found in any that I know of. There may, how- 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



ever, be doubts as to the antiquity of this term ; I 
have heard ancient men say that it has been intro- 
duced within their recollection. What is its origin ? 
Whence also the name "moke," commonly ap- 
plied to donkeys in and about London ? Is the 
word used in other parts of England ? C. W. G. 

French and Italian Degrees. Can you inform 
a young Englishman (of good general knowledge, 
and possessing a thorough knowledge of the French 
and Italian languages), who is desirous of obtaining 
a French or Italian degree as inexpensively as pos- 
sible, how to proceed in order to obtain the same, 
the expense, &c. ? SEPTIMUS. 

Buntingford, Hertfordshire. 

The Shadow of the Tree of Life. Can any 
of your readers oblige me with information re- 
specting the author of a little book, the title of 
which runs as follows : 

' *ap/xoa ovpavoOev : The Shadow of the Tree of 
Life ; or a Discourse of the Divine Institution and 
most Effectual Application of Medicinal Remedies, 
in order to the Preservation and Restoration of Health, 
by J. M. London, 1673." 

S. (An Original Subscriber.) 

Sun-dials. The following is an inscription 
on a sun-dial on the wall of a monastery, now 
suppressed, near Florence. I copied it on the 
spot in 1841. 

A. D. S. 

Mia vita e il sol : Dell' uom la vita e Dio, 

Senza esso e 1' uom, qual senza sol son' io." 

What signification has A. D. S. ? L, S. 

Nouns always printed with Capital Initials. 
P. C. S. S. is desirous of information respecting 
the origin and subsequent disuse of the practice 
which appears to have prevailed among printers in 
the last, and towards the end of the preceding cen- 
tury, of beginning every noun-substantive with a 
capital letter. It prevailed also, to a certain ex- 
tent, in books published in France and Holland 
during the same period ; but P. C. S. S. is not 
aware of any other European language in which 
it was adopted. p. C. S. S. 

John of Padua. Who was this person, who 
in various accounts of Henry VIII.'s time is 
styled " Deviser of his majesty's buildings ? " 
Where was he educated? and what were his 
works previous to his arrival in England? He 
survived his royal master, and enjoyed the favour 
of the Protector Somerset, who employed him to 
build his famous palace in the Strand. 

From a warrant dated 1544, printed in Rymer's 
Foedera, it appears that Johannes de Padua was a 
" musician " as well as an architect. 


St. Kenelm. Can any of your readers inform 
me where the life or legend of St. Kenelm, spoken 

of by Leland, in his Itinerary and Collectanea, may 
be seen, if it is now in existence. Leland says, in 
speaking of the murder of Kenelm, in Clinte in 
Cowbage, near Winchelcumb (now Winchcomb), 
Gloucestershire : 

" He (Averey parson of Dene) tolde me that it is 
in S. Kenelme's Lyfe that Ascaperius was married to 
Quendreda, &c. &c." 

" He say th that it aperithe by Seint Kenelme's Legend 
that Winchelcombe was oppidum muro cinctum." 

What does Clinthe or Clent in Cowbage mean 
in the Anglo-Saxon ? E. T. B. 


Church. What is the derivation of this word ? 
and if from the Greek, how is it that it prevails 
only in the Teutonic countries (England, Scan- 
dinavia, the Netherlands, and Germany), while the 
Latin Ecclesia prevails in. the rest of Europe? 



Hieroglyphics of Vagrants and Criminals. In- 
one of the recent deeply interesting Sanitary 
Reports of Mr. Rawlinson to the General Board 
of Health reports which frequently contain 
scraps of antiquarian, among a mass of more 
directly utilitarian information there is a passage 
which opens up a curious subject, upon which, pos- 
sibly, some of your readers may be able to furnish 
illustrations from their literary stores. I allude 
to that portion of his Report on the Parish of 
Havant (Southamptonshire), in which he states : 

" There is a sort of blackguard's literature, and the 
initiated understand each other by slang terms, by 
pantomimic signs, and by hieroglyphics. The vagrant's 
mark may be seen in Havant, on corners of streets, on 
door-posts, and on house-steps. Simple as these chalk 
lines appear, they inform the succeeding vagrants of all 
they require to know ; and a few white scratches may 
say 'be importunate,' or 'pass on.' The murderer's 
signal is even exhibited from the gallows ; as, a red 
handkerchief held in the hand of the felon about to be 
executed, is a token that he dies without having be- 
trayed any professional secrets." 

This is a curious subject ; and I think it would 
prove interestino; to many readers, if any illustra- 
tion could be afforded of the above strange and 
somewhat startling statements. J. J. S. 

[Beloe, in his Anecdotes of Literature, vol. ii. 
pp. 146-157., has left us some curious notices of this 
kind of vulgar literature, of English pure and undefiled 
from the " knowledge box" of Thomas Decker. But 
the most complete Lexicon Balatronicum et Macaroni- 
cum was published in 1754, enriched with many "a 
word not in Johnson," and which leaves at a respectful 
distance the glossorial labours of Spelman, Ducange, 
Junius, and even the renowned Francis Grose and his 
Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. It is en- 



[No. 117. 

titled The Scoundrel's Dictionary ; or, an Explanation 
of the Cant Words used by Thieves, Housebreakers 
Street Robbers, and Pickpockets. To which are pre- 
fixed some Curious Dissertations on the Art of Wheed- 
ling ; and a Collection of Flash Songs, with a proper 
Glossary, 8vo., London, 1754.") 

Muggleton and Reeve. I wish to obtain some 
accurate information as to John Reeve and Ro- 
dowick Muggleton, the founders of the sect called 
Muggletonians, which appears to have been in 
existence up to the end of the last century. Mr. 
Macaulay calls Muggleton " a drunken tailor," 
but gives no reference. The article " Muggle- 
tonians" in the Encyclopedia Britannica is ex- 
tremely meagre, both in matter and length. Is 
there any authentic portrait of Reeve or Muggle- 
ton? Any information on these points, or in- 
dication as to where it may be found, will greatly 

, . T> O 

oblige -K" fc. 


[Our correspondent will find the information he re- 
quires in the following works : " The New Witnesses 
proved Old Hereticks," by William Penn, 4to. 1672. 
'* A True Representation of the Absurd and Mis- 
chievous Principles of the Sect commonly known by 
the name of Muggletonians," 4to. 1694. Muggleton's 
Works, with his portrait, 1756. " A Complete Collec- 
tion of the Works of Reeve and Muggleton, together 
with other Muggletonian Tracts," 3 vols. 4to. 1832. 
See also Leslie's Snake in the Grass ; Collier's His- 
torical Dictionary, Supplement ; and Gentleman's Mag., 
vol. Ixii. pt. i. p. 218.] 

Rev. T. Adams. Can any particulars be noted 
of the Rev. Thomas Adams, a preacher at Paul's 
Cross in 1612, besides those mentioned by the 
editor of a Selection from his Sermons, published 
in 1847 the Rev. W. H. Stowell. His works 
were printed in 1630 in a thick folio volume, but 
some of them had previously appeared in small 
4to., one such is in the British Museum, and 
another I recollect seeing at a bookseller's. I 
should much like to have a list and some account 
of these 4to. editions. S. FY. 

[Thomas Adams, D. D., was minister at Willington, 
in Bedfordshire, and afterwards rector of St. Bennet's, 
Paul's Wharf. According to Newcourt (Repertorium, 
\. 302.), " he was sequestered for his loyalty in the 
late rebellion, and was esteemed an excellent preacher ; 
but died before the Restoration." The following Ser- 
mons by him were all published in 4to. : those dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk are in the British Museum, 
the others in the Bodleian. 1. The Gallant's Burden ; 
a Sermon on Isa. xxi. 11, 12., 1612. 2. Heaven and 
Earth Reconciled : on Dan. xii. 3., preached at Bedford 
at the Visitation of M. Eland, Archdeacon, 1613. 
*3. The Diuell's Banquet, described in Six Sermons, 
1614. 4. England's Sickness comparatively conferred 
with Israel's ; in Two Sermons on Jer. viii. 22., 1615. 
5. The Two Sonnes; or the Dissolute conferred with the 
Hypocrite; on Matt. xxi. 28., 1615. 6. The Leaven, 

or a Direction to Heaven, on Matt. xiii. 33. p. 97. ibid. 
*7. The Spiritual Navigator bound for the Holy Land, 
preached at Cripplegate on Trinity Sunday, 1615. 
8. The Sacrifice of Thankfulness, on Ps. cxviii. 27., 
whereunto are annexed five other Sermons never before 
printed, 1616. 9. Diseases of the Sovle : a Discourse 
Divine, Morall, and Physical!, 1616. *10. The Hap- 
piness of the Church : being the Summe of Diverse 
Sermons preached at St. Gregorie's, 1618.] 

The Archbishop of Spalatro (Vol. iv., pp. 257. 
295.). Who were the English bishops, at whose 
consecration Antonius de Dominis assisted in 
Lambeth Chapel ? AGRIPPA. 

[On December 14, 1617, Mark Spalatro assisted as 
a prelate at the consecration of Nicholas Felton, Bishop 
of Bristol, and George Monteigne, Bishop of Lincoln. 
See a list of the consecrations from the Lambeth Re- 
gisters in Perceval's Apology for the Doctrine of Apo- 
stolical Succession, Appendix, p. 183.] 

Bishop Bridgeman. Will you direct me to the 
best means of obtaining answers to the following 
questions : 

John Bridgeman, fellow and tutor of Magdalen 
Coll. Camb., was admitted ad eundem at Oxford, 
July 4, 1600 ; and consecrated Bishop of Chester, 
May, 1619. The points of inquiry are 

1. When was the said John Bridgeman entered 
at Cambridge ? 

2. When and where was he born ? 

3. Who and what were his parents ? 

C. J. CLAY, B. A. (Trin. Coll. Camb.) 

[Leycester, in his Cheshire, says, " Bishop Bridgeman 
was the son of Thomas Bridgeman of Greenway in 
Devonshire," but other authorities make him a native of 
Exeter. Prince ( Worthies of Devon, p. 99.) says, " He 
was born in the city of Exeter, not far from the palace- 
gate there, of honest and gentile parentage. His 
father was Edmund Bridgeman, sometime high-sheriff 
of that city and county, A. p. 1578. Who his mother 
was I do not find." In Wood's Fasti, vol. i. p. 286. 
Mr. Bliss has the following note: "John Bridgman, 
natus erat Exoniae. Vid. Izaak's Antiq. of Exeter, 
p. 156. S. T. P. Cant. Coll. Magd. an. 1612. Vid. 
Prynne's Antipathy, p. 290., and Worthies of Devon, 
BAKER." Ormerod (Hist, of Cheshire, i. 79.) says, 
" He was the compiler of a valuable work relating to 
the ecclesiastical history of the diocese, now deposited 
in the episcopal registry, and usually denominated 
Bishop Bridgeman's Leger." For other particulars 
respecting him, consult Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 
Part II. p. 10. ; Ackermann's Cambridge, vol. ii. p. 160.; 
Prynne's New Discovery of the Prelate's Tyranny, 
pp. 91. 108. 218. ; and Cole's MSS. vol. xxvii. p. 218.] 

Rouse, the Scottish Psalmist. Can any of your 
readers favour me with some particulars of the life 
of Rouse, the author of the Scottish metrical version 
of the Psalms ? His name does not appear in any of 
the biographical dictionaries I have had an oppor- 
tunity of consulting. From some historical scraps 
this version had come into the hands of the West- 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



minster Assembly of Divines was afterwards 
transmitted by them to the General Assembly of 
the Kirk of Scotland, who appointed commis- 
sioners, &c., for consideration and was, on 23rd 
Nov. 1649, sanctioned by the General Assembly, 
and any other version discharged from being used 
in the Kirk or its families. Notwithstanding some 
doggerel interspersed, the version is allowed to be 
distinguished for a sweet easy simplicity, and well 
suited to the devotional purpose intended. Rouse 
evidently was considerably endowed with the vis 
poetica ; and it is to be regretted, that he who has 
rendered such important service to our national 
church, should not be known more than by name ; 
at least, this is the predicament in which I stand, 
along with a few i'riends, whose notice has been 
incidentally drawn to the subject. G. N. 

Glasgow, Jan. 9. 1852. 

[Our correspondent will find an interesting account 
of Francis Rouse and his metrical version in Holland's 
Psalmists of Britain, vol. ii. pp.31 38.] 

" Count Cagliostro, or the Charlatan, a tale of 
the Reign of Louis XVI." I remember of having 
read, somewhere about the year 1838-9, a novel 
of this name; and having inquired frequently 
for it since, never heard of one. Can any of your 
correspondents tell me who wrote it ? 


[This work is in three volumes. We have seen it 
attributed to T. A. James.] 

Churchyard Well and Bath. Whilst making a 
short antiquarian excursion in the county of Nor- 
folk last autumn, I visited the ancient church at 
East Dereham. Amongst other features of in- 
terest which this fine church displays, may be 
enumerated its massive bell tower, detached from 
the sacred edifice, on the S.E. of the chancel; and 
a rude building, to the west of the building, also 
detached^ on the western front of which is the 
following inscription : 

" This bath 
was erected in the year 


in part by voluntary subscriptions, for public benefit, 
on the ruins of a tomb which contained the remains of 


youngest daughter of 

king of the East Angles, 

who died A. D. 654. 
The abbot and monks of Ely 

stole this precious relique 

and translated it to Ely Cathedral, 

vrhere it was interred near her three royal sisters, 

A.D. 974." 

The sexton informed me that the abbot and 
monks of Ely made this bath, or well, to recom- 
pense the good people of Dereham for the loss 
they had sustained by the removal of the bones. 

It is yet used as a bath, both by residents and 
strangers, the supply of water being very plentiful, 
and delightfully clear. The water rises under an 
arch of the Early English, or Early Decorated 
period. I shall be glad of any notes upon this, or 
similar baths, in any other churchyards. 


[This bath appears to have been formerly used as a 
baptistery, which in the early British churches was 
erected outside of the western entrance, where it con- 
tinued until the sixth century, if not later (Bingham, 
book viii. c. vii. ). Blomefield, in his History of Nor- 
folk, vol. v. p. 1190. fol. 1775., has the following notices 
of this building: " At the west end of the churchyard 
are the ruins of a very ancient baptistery, over which 
was formerly a small chapel, dedicated to St. With- 
burga. At the east end of the baptistery there is now 
remaining a curious old Gothic arch, from which runs 
a spring of clear water, formerly said to have had many 
medicinal and healing qualities. The fabulous account 
is, that this spring took its rise in the churchyard from 
the place where St. Withburga was first buried. In 
the year 1752 it was arched over, and converted into a 
cold bath." In the notices of the early churches of 
Cornwall, Wales, and Ireland, frequent mention is 
made of these baptisteries or holy wells, which we do 
not remember to have seen fully discussed in any work, 
and of which some account would be interesting alike 
to the divine, the topographer, and the antiquary. The 
learned Leland, in his Itinerary, iii. 30., in a descrip- 
tion of Falmouth harbour, says, " there is a praty 
village or fishar town with a pere, cawlid S. Maws 
[Machutus], and there is a chapelle of hym, and his 
chaire of stone, and his welle." Again, speaking of the 
church of St. Germochus in Cornwall, he says, "it is 
three miles from S. Michael's Mont by est south est, 
and a mile from the se ; his tomb is yet scene ther. 
S. Germoke ther buried. S. Germoke's chair in the 
chirch-yard. S. Germoke's welle a little without the 
chirch-yard." (/ft'n. iii. 16.) Some further notices of 
these holy wells will be found in The Chronicles of the 
Ancient British Church, pp. 136 140.] 


(Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236. 456.) 

I communicate the following names and dates of 
the death, and in some instances bare notices of 
the monumental effigies, of bearers of the various 
collars of SS., which may be found in Bloxam's 
Monumental Architecture, Boutell's Monumental 
Brasses, Cotman's Sepulchral Brasses, Gough's 
Sepulchral Monuments, and Hollis's Monumental 

I trust that the excellent example set by G. J. 
R. G., in making known the existence of two of 
these collars on a tomb in his own neighbourhood 
will be extensively followed by the readers of 

1. An effigy on a tomb in Tanfield church, co. 



[No. 117. 

York, commonly ascribed to Robert of Marmion, 
who probably died in the time of Henry III. or 
Edward I. 

2. An effigy on a tomb in Gloucester cathedral, 
vulgarly called that of Humphrey Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, who died in 1367. 

3. The effigy of William Wilcotes, in North- 
leigh church, co. Oxon, who died in 1411. 

4. and 5. Sir Thomas Peryent and his wife, in 
Digswell church, co. Herts. He was esquire-at- 
arms to Richard II., Henry IV. and V., and 
Master of the Horse to Joan of Navarre, 1415. 

6. Sir William Calthorpe, in Burnham church, 
co. Norfolk, 1420. 

7. Edwardus de la Hale, in Oakwood chapel, 
near Shene, in co. Surrey, died in 1421. 

8. Sir Humphrey Stafford, at Bromsgrove, co. 
Worcester. He was slain by Cade, at Seven- 
Oaks, 28 Henry VI., 1450. 

9. An effigy of a man, in plated armour, in 
Bakewell church, co. Derby. 

]LO. An effigy of a woman at Dudley, co. Wor- 

1 1 . An effigy of a man in Selby abbey, co. York. 


Collar of SS. (Vol. iv., p. 147.). In answer to 
the request of MR. E. Foss, respecting effigies 
having a collar of SS., I beg to inform you that 
in the church of St. Lawrence, Isle of Thanet, 
is a brass of Nicholas Manston, Esq., A.D. 1444, 
who wears the above decoration. Near St. Law- 
rence, is the hamlet of Manston, in which is an 
old farmhouse called Manston Court, attached to 
which are the ruins of a chapel. 

Query : Who was Nicholas Manston ? CANTOR. 


(Vol. iv., p. 440. ; Vol. v., p. 33.) 
Receiving the " N. & Q." only in monthly parts, 
I was, till last week, unacquainted with the article 
of your correspondent U. U., from Baltimore. 
This ignorance, however, has been attended with 
the advantage of the very decisive information on 
the matter of inquiry by B. B., as far as the Bod- 
leian Library, Oxford, is concerned. I am relieved 
by it from the necessity of describing more particu- 
larly the copy of the first, and Roman, Expurga- 
tory of 1607 ; for the copy in my possession agrees 
exactly in title with that of the Bodleian. Of the 
genuineness of the latter, the proof is as demon- 
strative as anything historical can be. I have 
the same assurance of the genuineness of mine. 
It was in the possession of the celebrated and 
intelligent collector, J. G. Michiels, as his auto- 
graph, with the year 1755 attached, testifies. The 
title, as given in my Literary Policy, has indeed 
a trifling error in punctuation, whether my own 
or the printer's, but from simple oversight, as in 

some cases fas est obrepere somnum. There was, 
however, and could be, no error as to the meaning 
of Brasichellen., of which Catalani, besides others, 
had given me information sufficiently correct in 
his De Magistro S. Pal. 

These observations will not, however, satisfy 
the want of your transatlantic correspondent so 
completely as I trust I am enabled, and shall be 
much pleased to do; for I have likewise the cele- 
brated counterfeit, of which I have given an ample 
account in my forecited volume ; and the differ- 
ence between it and the original is sensibly evident 
on a synoptical comparison. But other marks, 
where this is impracticable, may be adduced ; and, 
in the title itself, without depending upon the 
minutice of punctuation, and without any reference 
to ike figures in the frontispiece, which are plainly 
not the same impression, in both copies, the last 
line, SVPERIORVM PERMISSV, which, in the genuine 
book measures 2 inches, in the counterfeit mea- 
sures 2 ; therefore, shorter by T V In the body of 
the work, in the counterfeit the letter-press occu- 
pies more space than the genuine. Taken at a 
venture (and a right-hand page is preferred, be- 
cause the number of the page, and the catchword, 
come in one perpendicular line), I examined 
p. 163. The height in the genuine is 5^ inches; 
in the counterfeit, 5| ; the increase, J. The width 
of the page appears to be in proportion. In the 
preliminary matter of the genuine copy the De 
Correctione ends with the line, " eos corrigere, 
atque purgare." The counterfeit varies. The last 
unnumbered page, Indeed, the terminating line, of 
what is prefatory, is, " Palatio Apostolico anno 
salutis 1607." The counterfeit here likewise varies. 
I have another volume closely identical ; ^ of 
which, because it is far from common, I will give 
the title entire. It is well known, but not easily 
detected : 




In quo 

Quinquaginta Authorum Libri prae 
caeteris desiderati emendantur. 


Sacri Palatii Apostolici Magistrum in unum Corpus 

& publicae Commoditati 


Multorum desiderio juxta Exemplare 

Romanum Typis mandata. 




>tattt am $0f 

Sumptibus JOANN1S GASTL, Bibliopole 
Anno 1745. 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



Previously it may be as well to observe, that 
Stadfc am Hof is a town bordering on the imperial 
city of Ratisbon, at or near the court, and Latin- 
ized Pedepons as being at the foot of the bridge 
over the Danube at that part. This book is evi- 
dently the identical counterfeit before described, 
with the mask cast aside by a new title-page, and 
newly printed prefatory matter, in consequence of 
a proposal fairly and literally to reprint the first 
^enuine Roman edition. I will just mention one 
proof of the identity of this and the previous copy 
in the body of the book. It occurs in the last 
line of p. 239., where the word lunij has a stroke, 
by fault of the type, immediately after the word, 
thus lunij) ; and this is found in both. This ^ is 
an accidental coincidence, not to be classed with 
the purposed retention of false spelling. 

The Bergomi edition of 1608 is not in my pos- 
session ; but I am well acquainted with it by actual 
inspection. My first sight of it was afforded by my 
friend the Rev. Richard (ribbings, who has published 
a new edition of it, with an elaborate and very 
finished preface, in 1837.* I have likewise seen 
it at Mr. Pickering's, a copy which I presume 
came from the dispersed library of the late Rev. 
H. F. Lyte. That in the Bodleian I did not feel it 
necessary to examine. I do, however, possess, 
though not the original, a very correct, as appears, 
fac-simile of that volume, whether it was intended 
as a counterfeit or not. The title, without any 
addition, agrees exactly with that of the original, 
as given by your Oxford correspondent. I con- 
clude it to be not the original, from a distinct re- 
collection that the engraving on the title-page there 
is more rude and broken than in my copy ; and, 
in the body of the work, some parts do not per- 
fectly agree with Mr. Gibbings's reprint, not in 
the contents of the pages, in some instances in the 
middle portion, and in the frequent substitution 
of the m and n for the superscript bar, signifying 
one or other of those letters. My copy likewise 
is bound together in vellum, with the Notitia Ind. 
Lib. Expurg. of Zobelius, Altorfii, 1745. And, by 
the bye, I should like to know whether, and 
where, there is another copy of that treatise of 
eighty pages in England ? 

I am happy in the present opportunity of recom- 
mending to the attention of such students as U. U. 
in the New World, a work of so much real value 
and interest as Mr. Gibbings's edition of the Ber- 
gomi edition of the Brasichellian Index; and 
natter myself that, by their aid and example, an 
end will be put in the mother country to the 
incorrigible though simple practice of calling 
every catalogue of condemned books expurgatory, 
when the accuracy of the title, as far as Rome is 
concerned, hangs upon the single thread of one 

* Copies may be had at Mr. Petheram's, 94. High 
Holborn, London. 

mperfect and withdrawn instance ; the not easily 
numbered remainder being exclusively and ex 
pressly prohibitory. 

The reason for the suppression of the work here 
examined is, in part at least, correctly expressed 
t>y Papebrochius : 

" Nee porro processum in opere reliquo, quod mox 
apparuit futurum seminarium litium infinitarum, qui- 
jus sustinendis nee unus, nee plures forent pares, quan- 
tavis auctoritate subnixi." 



(Vol. ii., p. 473. ; Vol. iii., p. 187.) 

DR. RIMBAULT, in his Note "On the First 
Paper-Mill in England," after alluding to the 
errors of various writers on the subject, adds, " In 
Bartholomew de Proprietatibus Rerum, printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1495, mention is made of 
a paper-mill near Stevenage, in the county of 
Hertford, belonging to John Tate the younger, 
which was undoubtedly the 'mylne' visited by 
Henry VII." Now this statement itself needs 
correction. The English translation of the work 
of Bartholomews (De Glanvilla) informs us merely 
of the fact of John Tate the younger having lately 
in England made the paper which was used for 
the printing of this book. The lines, which occur 
at the end of the volume, are as follows : 
" And also of your charyte call to remembraunce 
The soule of William Caxton, first prynter of this boke 
la Laten tonge at Coleyn [Cologne] hysself to 


That every well-disposed man may theron loke : 
And JOHN TATE the younger joye mote [may] he 

Which late hathe in Englond doo make this paper 

That now in our Englysshe this boke is printed 


A rare poem, an early specimen of blank verse, 
entitled A Tale of Two Swannes, written by 
William Vallans (who was, I believe, a native of 
Ware), and printed in 1590, supplies us with the 
information that the mill belonging to John Tate 
was situated at Hertford. One of the notes in 
the poem states that, " in the time of Henry VIII., 
viz. 1507, there was a paper-mill at Hertford, and 
belonged to John Tate, whose father was Mayor 
of London." The author t however, is here mis- 
taken in his chronology, as Henry VIII. did not 
begin to reign till 1509. The extract from the 
privy purse expenses of Henry VII., under the 
date of May 25, 1498, " for a rewarde geven at 
the Paper Mylne, 16* 8 d ," most clearly has refer- 
ence to this particular mill, as the entry imme- 
diately preceding shows that the king went to 



[No. 117- 

Hertford two days before, viz. on the 23rd of 

In answer to HERTFORDIENSIS, who asks for 
information as to its site, I quote a passage from 
Herbert's edition of Ames's Typographical Anti- 
quities, under the description of the work of 
Bartholomew, printed by Wynkyn de Worde. 
Herbert says, vol. i. p. 201. : 

" I have been informed that this mill was where 
Seel, or Seal Mill is now, at the end of Hertford town, 
towards Stevenage ; and that an adjoining meadow is 
still called Paper-mill Mead. This Seel Mill, so de- 
nominated from the adjoining hamlet, was erected in 
the year 1 700 ; and is noted for being the first that 
made the finest flour, known by the name of Hertford- 
shire White. It stands upon the river Bean, in the 
middle of three acres of meadow land, called Paper- 
mill Mead, so denominated in the charter of King 
Charles I. to the town of Hertford for the fishery of a 
certain part of that river. Hence, perhaps, some have 
thought it was at Stevenage, but there is no water for 
a mill at or even near that place." 

The French authorities are particularly unhappy 
on the subject of the introduction of the art of 
paper-making in England. According to the 
Dictionnaire de la Conversation, " la premiere 
manufacture, etablie a Gertford en Angleterre, 
est de 1588 ;" while the Encyclopedic des Gens du 
Monde asserts that "la premiere patererie de 
chiffons qu'eu notre pays fut etablie en 1312 ; 
celle d'Andeterre en 1388." A. GKAYAN. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 129. 177. 235. 277.) 

Since my last communication on this subject 
(Vol. iv., p. 235.) I have been engaged in examin- 
ing the theory, and the experiments connected 
with it, somewhat, more closely ; and, in the mean- 
while, I abstain from replying to the last observa- 
tions of A. E. B. (Vol. iv., p. 277.) 

A. E. B. says it was " uncourteous" in me to 
call the theory which he put forward his theory. 
I beg pardon for the offence. I intended by the 
expression merely to indicate the particular theory 
which he advocated. I believe its author is 
M. Chesles. The theory in question is : 

" That the variation of the pendulum's plane is due 
to the excess of velocity with which one extremity of 
the line of oscillation may be affected more than the 

I ventured to pronounce this to be untenable, 
and begged A. E. B. to " reduce it to paper." 
Upon this he remarked : 

* H. C. K. is surely not so unphilosophical as to 
imagine that a theory, to be true, must be palpable to 
the senses. If the element of increase exist at all, 
however imperceptible in a single oscillation, repetition 
of effect must eventually make it observable. But I 
shall even gratify H. C. K., and inform him, that the 

difference in linear circumference between two such 
parallels in the latitude of London, would be about 
50 feet; so that the northern end of a 10 feet rod, 
placed horizontally in the meridian, would travel less 
by that number of feet in twenty- four hours, than the 
southern end. This, so far from being inadequate, is 
greatly in excess of the alleged apparent motion in the 
place of the pendulum's vibration." 

I think, if A. E. B. will reconsider this opinion, 
he will find that, so far from being "greatly in 
excess," it is inadequate to account for the amount 
of apparent motion of the plane of the pendulum. 
For the onward motion of the plane of a 2 sec. pen- 
dulum, describing a circle of 10 feet diameter in 
twenty-four hours, amounts to *0087 inch at each 
beat ; 50 feet will be the difference in the distance 
the two extremities of the arc of vibration will 
travel in twenty-four hours; that is, '0138 inch in 
2 seconds of time : but this is for a difference of 
10 feet; therefore, for 5 feet, the distance from 
the centre, it is -0069 inch ; whereas the arc de- 
scribed is '0087 inch, which is absurd. 

However, there is another equally fatal objec- 
tion to this theory, founded on experiment; to- 
make which objection good, I will not merely 
adduce the result of my own, but that of certain 
experiments carried out at Paris, which place the 
matter beyond a doubt. In the Pantheon, at 
Paris, there is a pendulum of the length of 230- 
feet, by means of which experiments can be made 
under the most favourable conditions possible a 
regards suspension, exclusion of currents of air, 
&c. &c. While witnessing the trials that were 
being made, a relation of mine requested that the 
pendulum might be set to oscillate east and west ; 
and the result was, that the arc described after an 
interval of ten minutes, was the same as that de- 
scribed when the pendulum was oscillating north 
and south. 

To return to the original theory. I stated 
formerly that I had no faith in the experiments 
which had been published. I now repeat that I 
believe all the experiments that have been made, 
with the view of showing the rotation of the earth, 
and the independence of the pendulum of that 
rotation, are inconclusive; and for the following 
reason, the impossibility of obtaining perfect sus- 
pension. Even in a still atmosphere, and with a 
pendulum formed of the rigid rod and a " bob," 
the axis of both of which shall be precisely in a 
line with the point of suspension ; yet, until sus- 
pension can be effected on a mathematical point, 
and all torsion and local attraction got rid of, the 
pendulum will not continue to swing in the same 
plane for many consecutive beats ; because the 
slightest disturbance will cause the " bob " to de- 
scribe an ellipse ; and, by a well-known law, the 
major axis of that ellipse will go on advancing in 
the direction of the revolution. This advance is 
by regular intervals ; and my belief, founded on 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



my own experiments, is, that the astonished spec- 
tators at the Polytechnic Institution, while intently 
watching, as they believed, the rotation of the earth 
made visible, were watching merely a weight sus- 
pended by a cord, which, disturbed from the plane 
in which it was set to oscillate, was describing a 
series of ellipses on the table, very pretty to look 
at, but having no more to do with the rotation of 
the earth than the benches on which they were 

At the same time, however, that I assert the 
inefficacy of any experiments with the pendulum 
as tending to show the earth's rotation, I admit 
that, provided a pendulum could be made to pre- 
serve its plane of oscillation for twenty-four hours, 
it would oscillate independently of the rotation of 
the earth, and actually describe a circle round a 
fixed table in that interval. The mathematical proof 
of this proposition is of a most abstruse nature ; so 
much so, indeed, that it is understood to have 
been relinquished by one of our ablest mathema- 
ticians. But that it is likely to be true, and one 
not difficult to comprehend, I think I can show to 
A. E. B.'s satisfaction in a few lines. 

If a pendulum be placed at one of the poles of 
the earth, it is obvious, that while it swings in one 
plane, the revolution of the earth beneath it will 
cause it to appear to describe a complete circle in 
twenty-four hours. This position is simple enough, 
but it is true also in any latitude, excepting near 
the equator. For there is no doubt, that, as gravity 
acts on the pendulum, only in the line which joins 
the point of suspension and the centre of the earth 
(thereby merely drawing the "bobs" towards 
that line) it can have no effect on the plane of 
oscillation ; for the line of gravitation remains 
unchanged with respect to the pendulum, during 
a whole revolution of the earth on its axis. Take 
a map of a, hemisphere, and on any parallel, say 
60 of latitude, draw three pendulums, extended 
as in motion, with their centres of gravity directed 
toward the earth's centre, one on each extremity 
of the parallel of latitude, and one midway be- 
tween the two ; extend the " bobs" of the first two 
north and south, and those of the middle one east 
and west. Number them 1, 2, and 3, from the 
westward. It will then be observed that the plane 
of oscillation of the three pendulums, thus placed, 
is one and the same that of the plane of the 
paper; and moreover, that the lower "bob," 
which is south at No. 1., is west at No. 2., and 
north at No. 3. By this it will be evident, that 
the revolution of the pendulum will be through 
the whole circle, or 360 in twenty-four hours, at 
all points of the earth's surface, excepting near the 
equator; the line joining the "bobs" remaining in 
a parallel plane. 

I say, excepting near the equator ; for it will be 
seen on looking closely at the above illustration 
(which would be better on a globe) that the three 

pendulums are not strictly in the same, or even a 
parallel plane ; inasmuch as the plane of oscilla- 
tion must pass through the point of suspension, 
and the centre of the earth. But still the pendulum 
has a tendency to remain in a parallel plane, as 
nearly as the figure of the earth will allow, the 
chord of the arc of oscillation remaining in a 
plane parallel to itself. It will be seen that, as 
we approach the equator, the plane of oscillation 
is forced from its parallelism more and more, until, 
on the equator, it has no tendency to return, as 
all planes are there the same with reference to the 
centre of the earth. 

I may add that there is a variation of the above 
theory, which has found many advocates, viz. that 
the pendulum will make the complete revolution 
in a period varying from twenty -four hours at the 
poles, to infinity at the equator ; varying, that is, 
as the sine of the latitude. This seems, a priori, 
not so likely as the former, while it equally wants- 
mathematical proof. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 


(Vol.v., p. 39.) 

Your space precludes controversy : but the 
communication in Number 115. from W. Dw. 
requires an explanation from me ; which I give 
the more readily as it may perhaps serve to throw 
further light on a curious inquiry. A correspon- 
dent in a former Number (Vol. iv., p. 422.) ques- 
tioned the correctness of an assertion by the Hon. 
MR. CURZON, that " the crucifix was not known 
before the fourth or fifth century, though the cross 
was always the emblem of the Christian faith." 
I ventured to sustain MR. CURZON'S view (Vol. iv. r 
p. 485.) by referring to authorities for the fact, 
that the idea of ignominy associated with that 
peculiar form of execution had long prevented the 
cross from being adopted as a symbol of Christ'* 
passion; that the actual representation of the 
crucifixion itself was still more repulsive, and 
much later in its admission into the early churches ; 
that allegory was in consequence resorted to, in 
order to evade the literal delineation of the 
Saviour's death, which was typified by a lamb 
bleeding at the foot of a cross ; and that when 
invention had become exhausted, and inert in the 
production of these emblems, the Church, in the 
seventh century at the Quini-sextile, or Council in 
Trullo, had "ordered that fiction and allegory 
should cease, and the real figure of the Saviour be 
depicted on the tree" (The words in Italics are 
my own, and were not given as a quotation.) 

W. DN. in Number 115. (Vol. v., p. 39.) 
does not question the main conclusion sought to 
be established, but takes exception to my refer- 
ence to the Council in Trullo as irrelevant, and 



[No. 117. 

says, " should your readers turn to the canons of 
that council, they would be disappointed at find- 
ing nothing about the cross ;" whence he infers, 
that I have been "led into a singular mistake." 
But the mistake, I apprehend, is on the part of 
W. DN. himself, who evidently has not read the 
council in question, else he would have found, so 
far from its canons containing " nothing about the 
cross," one, the 73rd, is devoted exclusively to the 
cross, whilst the 82nd is given to the crucifix. 
The 73rd canon of the Council inTrullo directs all 
veneration to be paid to the cross, and prohibits 
its being any longer depicted in the tesserae of 
the floors where this " trophy of our victory," as 
it is called in the canon, was exposed to desecra- 
tion from the feet of the congregation. The 82nd 
canon, in like manner, has direct reference to the 
crucifix, and its 'style of design. It alludes to the 
practice which had theretofore prevailed, of re- 
presenting Christ as the lamb, pointed to by St. 
John, which was to take away the sins of the world 
(John, i. 29.) ; but as that great work has been 
accomplished, the council declares that the Church 
now prefers the grace and truth of him who had 
fulfilled the law, to those ancient forms and 
shadows which had been handed down as types 
and symbols only ; and it continues : 

" In order, therefore, that what has come to pass 
should be exhibited before the sight of all by the skill 
of the artist in colours, we direct that the repre- 
sentation of Christ the Lamb of God, wh'ich taketh 
away the sins of the worldi shall henceforth be elevated 
in his human character ; and no longer under the old 
form of a lamb." 

The words are these : 

"us &i/ ovv 

TOIS airdvTwv fytffiv viroypd(f)7iTcu, riv TOV atpovTOS rrjv 
a/iaprtop TOV KOfff'.ov O.U.VQV XpiffTov TOV eov rj/J-uy, KOT& 
rbv avGooi-jrivov xapa/CT%a /col Iv TCUS flitoffiv airo TOV vvv 
avT\ TOV TraAcuoi) OLU.VOV avaffTrjXovffdat opi^ofjifv." 
Concilium Quinisextum, Can. Ixxxii. CONCIL.COLLECTIO, 
J, B. MANSI, vol. xi. p. 978. ; Floren. 1765. 

W. DN. has quoted this canon, not from the 
original Greek of the council, which I copy above, 
but from the Latin version given in Labbe, and 
which is much less close and literal than that of 
Carranza; and the words "erigi et depingi" 
which it employs, are a very incorrect rendering 
of the Greek<rrr)\ovo-Qcu, a term peculiarly 
appropriate to the elevation of a crucifix. 

But that the whole canon has immediate refer- 
ence to the literal delineation of the mode and 
manner of Christ's passion, will be apparent from 
the concluding sentences, which expressly set out 
that the object of the change which it enjoins 
is to bring more vividly before our minds the in- 
carnation, suffering, and death of the Saviour, by 
the full contemplation of the depth of humiliation 
attendant on it : 

*' At' aurow T"O TTJS TttiffivcaffftDs fyos TOV fov \6yov 
KcvravoovvTes, KO! irpbs nrfi/Jiriv Trjs ev ffapK\ TroAirctay TOW 
re iraflous avrov KOI TOV tfwTrjpiov &avoTou > 

fftus, K. T. A." 76. MANSI, v. xi. p. 979. 

How this impression of the " humiliation " and 
"suffering" of Christ's death could be conveyed 
otherwise than by a literal delineation of its inci- 
dents, I cannot well see. And, indeed, of many 
authorities who have recorded their opinion on 
the effect of this canon of the Quini-sextile coun- 
cil, W. DN. is the only one who expresses a doubt 
as to its direct reference to the cross and the 
crucifix. Both the historians of the church, and 
those who have treated of the history of the 
Arts in the Middle Ages, are concurrent in their 
testimony, that it was not till immediately after 
the promulgation of the canons of the Council in 
Trullo that the use of the crucifix became com- 
mon in the early churches. This fact is recorded 
with some particularity by Gieseler, in his 
Compendium of Ecclesiastical History, sect. 99. 
note 51. ; and Emeric-David, the most laborious 
and successful explorer of historical art of our 
time, in describing the effect upon the Fine Arts 
produced by the edict of the council, adverts to 
the 82nd canon more than once, as directing the 
delineation of the Saviour on the cross : 

"La fin du 7 me siecle et le commencement du S" 10 
presentent deux venements de la plus haute impor- 
tance dans Vhistoire de la peinture. Le premier est la 
revolution operee par le decret du concile de Constan- 
tinople appele le concile quinisexte ou in Trullo, et 
celebre en 692 A.D., qui ordonna de preferer la pein- 
ture historique aux emblemes, et notamment d'aban- 
dormer 1'allegorie dans la representation du crucifiement 
de Jesus Christ . . . Ce fut apres ce concile que les 
images de Jesus Christ sur la croix commencerent a 
se multiplier." (Histoire de- la Peinture au Moyen Age, 
par T. B. Emeric-David, Paris, 1842, p. 59.) " Lors- 
que le concile quinisexte ordonna de prefe'rer la rea- 
lite aux images, et de montrer le Christ sur la croix, 
1'esprit d'allegorie, malgre' ce decret, ne s'aneantit pas 
entierement." (/6. p. 32.) 




(Vol.^iv., p. 344.) 

The subjoined song is copied from a Collection 
of English Songs in the British Museum (G. 310 
163.). The Catalogue gives the conjectural date of 
1775. In the History of the American Revolution 
(published by the Society for Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge), p. 22., is an anecdote referring to 
Lord Percy having, in 1775, caused his band to 
play "Yankee Doodle" in derision of the Ameri- 
cans : but I infer, from the Earl of Carlisle's Lec- 
ture on his Travels in America, that it is now used 
by the Americans as their national tune. 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 





The Words and Music by T. L. 


* Now farewell, my Massa, my Missey, adieu ! 
More blows or more stripes will me e'er take from you, 
Or will me come hither or thither me go, 
No help make you rich by de sweat of my brow. 

Yankee doodle, yankee doodle dandy, I vow, 
Yankee doodle, yankee doodle, bow wow wow. 


" Farewell all de yams, and farewell de salt fish, 
De bran and spruce beer, at you all me cry, Pish ! 
Me feed upon pudding, roast beef, and strong beer, 
In Englan', old Englan', when me do get dere. 
Yankee doodle, c. 


" Farewell de musketo, farewell de black fly, 
And rattle-snake too, who may sting me to dye ; 
Den Negroe go 'ome to his friends in Guinee, 
Before dat old Englan' he 'ave a seen'e. 

Yankee doodle, c. 

" Farewell de cold winter, de frost and de snow, 
Which cover high hills and de valleys so low, 
And dangling and canting, swearing and drinking, 
Taring and feath'ring for ser'ously thinking. 
Yankee doodle, &c. 


' Den hey ! for old Englan' where Liberty reigns, 
Where Negroe no beaten or loaded with chains; 
And if Negroe return, O! may he be bang'd, 
Chain'd,tortur'd,and drowned, orlethimbehang'd ! 
Yankee doodle," c. 



(Vol. iv., p. 501.) 

The reported discovery at the dissolution of 
monasteries of a lamp that had burned in a tomb 
nearly 1200 years, to which your correspondent 
B. B. adverts, is, I presume, the discovery referred 
to by Camden (Gough's ed. vol. iii. p. 242.), where 
he says : 

" I have been informed by persons of good credit, 
that upon the dissolution of monasteries in the last age, 
a lamp was found burning in a secret vault of a little 
chapel, where, according to tradition, Constantius was 
buried. For Lazius writes that the ancients had the 
art of reducing gold to a consistent fluid, by which 
they kept fire burning in vaults for a long time, and 
even for many ages." 

The lamp of the alleged tomb of Constantius 
Chlorus was the subject of a communication by 
Mr. Albert Way to the York meeting of the Ar- 
chjeological Institute in 1846, in which he com- 
pared the ignited lamp said to have been found 
therein, with the story of a similar sepulchral 
lamp in a Roman family tomb, beneath the site of 

the ancient Castellum Priscum in the province of 
Cordova, as communicated to the Institute by 
Mr. Wetherell of Seville. It seems well worthy 
the attention of modern archaeologists to ascertain 
vrhat foundation in fact exists for the statements 
advanced by ancient writers as to the possibility 
of preparing a lamp that would burn for centuries 
in the tomb. Mr. Way remarks that the curious 
discovery communicated from Seville is unfortu- 
nately not authenticated by the observation at the 
time of any person skilled either in natural history 
or archaeology. Some, however, may consider the 
tale of the sepulchre of Chlorus, though rejected 
by Drake and others, as not wholly unworthy of 
consideration ; and Mr. Way suggests the possi- 
bility of a substance having been compounded 
which, on the admission of purer air to the tomb, 
became for a short time ignited. An abstract of 
his interesting communication is in the Athenceum 
for 8th August, 1846. The prince whose tomb is 
said to have been discovered near the church of 
St. Helen's on the Walls, in York, was the H. 
Valerius Constantius who came to York about a 
century after the death of Severus, and was father 
of Constantine the Great. 

Let me now ask where the story may be found 

" The bright lamp that lay in Kildare's holy fane, 
And burned through long ages of darkness and storm ? " 

W. S. G. 


(Vol. iv., p. 481. ; Vol. v., p. 31.) 

In order that the readers of " IS. & Q." may 
have an opportunity of judging for themselves of 
the question between DR.^TODD and myself, as 
to the identity of Kibroth Hattavah and W r ady 
Mokatteb, it will be necessary, in the first place, 
that a more comprehensive view should be taken 
of the camp of Israel than DR. TODD'S criticism 
seems to imply. A population of six hundred 
thousand, besides women and children, must have 
occupied a larger extent of ground than a single 
valley ; and the valley which is called par excellence 
Wady Mokatteb would by no means suffice for 
the accommodation of half the multitude, were it 
not joined to many other valleys, both sides, by 
means of narrow windings. 

In the second place, it must be borne in mind 
that the "Tabernacle was pitched without the 
camp, afar off from the camp" (Exod. xxxiii. 7.) ; 
a circumstance which DR. TODD overlooked, which 
made him hazard the strange statement that I " did 
not explain how Eldad and Medad were in Wady 
Mokatteb, more than Moses and the rest of the 



[No. 117. 

In the third place, it must be observable to 
every intelligent reader, that there is not the least 
shadow of warrant for supposing that Eldad and 
Medad were two of the seventy elders "gathered" 
by Moses ; on the contrary, there is unmistake- 
able evidence against the notion. We are ex- 
pressly told by inspired authority, that the seventy 
elders not sixty- eight were set round about 
the tabernacle ; and there and then did Jehovah 
take of the spirit that was upon Moses, " and gave 
it unto the seventy elders," not to sixty-eight 
only. Another* proof that Eldad and Medad 
cannot be considered as two of the seventy elders, 
but as persons belonging to the mass of the laity, is 
derivable from Moses' answer to Joshua, " Would 
God that all the Lord's people were prophets " 
(ver. 29.). If they were of the seventy, what 
cause was there for surprise and consternation ? 
Would Joshua have asked for a prohibition ? and 
would Moses have given such an answer ? 

But what is to be done with the statements, 
" And they were of them that were written, but 
went not out unto the tabernacle, and they pro- 
phesied in the camp ? " How are these statements 
to be explained ? Very easily, by a reference to 
the original Hebrew. The words DUirOl HDiTl 
do not mean "and they were of them ttat 
were written," but "and they were amongst 
the writings " or inscriptions, that is Wady Mo- 
katteb, i. e. in that part of the encampment 
which was pitched there. If the inspired nar- 
rator had meant to convey the idea that Eldad 
and Medad were two of "the seventy elders, he 
would have employed the proper word for it, 
which 0*01 rD3 is certainly not. The proper word 
would have been either D^DIDSHft, " of them that 
were gathered," or D>:ptHD, " of the elders." We 
have no account of Moses writing down the names 
of the seventy, to authorise such a translation. 
Besides, even if we had such an account, and the 
sacred historian wished to intimate as much in the 
verse under review, he would assuredly have used 
the word D'QlJ'Dnp, and not D'OirDS- It appears 
that the 3 was a difficulty to the LXX, as well as 
to the author or authors of the Vulgate, to Rashi 
and the translators of the English version. The 
Greek particle IK and the Latin de are literal 
translations of the equivalent Hebrew particle }D or 
O, and not of 3. It would appear, moreover, that 
DR. TODD himself found the 3 insurmountable, 
and therefore omitted it in his last Hebrew quota- 
tion. Again, in the Pentateuch, wherever the word 
DOirG occurs, it implies written records, but not 
written names of persons. 

But do not all the ancient paraphrasts sanction 
the translation of the authorised version ? What 
of that, if they happen to be wrong! Such a 
consideration will never interfere with my own 
judgment, founded on a thorough knowledge of 
the meaning of the Hebrew word. I have lon<* 

since learned that opinions are not necessarily 
true, because they are old ones, nor doctrines 
undeniably infallible, because we may have be- 
lieved in them from our cradles. I am positive, 
however, that had the LXX, the authors of 
the Vulgate, Rashi, and the translators of the 
authorised version, known the locality of Wady 
Mokatteb, they would have hesitated before they 
put so unnatural a construction on the word. 
Aye, and DE. TODD too, if he were in the valley, 
and traced, with his generally correct mind, the 
wanderings of the people of Israel, would have 
exclaimed, " Surely this is none other than the 
Kibrot.h Hattavah of Scripture, and rightly named 

Onkelos, however, in his Clialdee Paraphrase 
DR. TODD evidently overlooked that, for he grouped 
the Clialdee Paraphrase amongst the mistranslators 
renders the words D'OirOl HDni literally and 
grammatically by the Clialdee words jfc^'QTDn { 1 3 N1 
" And they were amongst the inscriptions." 

But do not the words " but they went not out 
into the tabernacle, and they prophesied in the 
camp," " completely overturn my hypothesis ? " 
They may according to DR. TODD'S criticisms, but 
not according to the correct sense of that interest- 
ing portion of Scripture. The people in the camp 
were evidently under the impression that it was 
not right for any one but the seventy to prophesy, 
nor was it lawful to prophesy any where else but 
at the tabernacle, as they were accustomed to hear 
Moses do ; the fact, therefore, that two men, who 
were not of the seventy, and far away from the 
tabernacle, probably in the very centre of the 
camp of Israel, which I conceive Wady Mokatteb 
to have been, being gifted with a spirit of prophecy, 
seemed so astounding and unprecedented in the 
history of Israel's wanderings, that the inspired 
writer is induced to make a particular note of the 
few circumstances connected with that extraordi- 
nary event. 

The above is afair, sound, and well-digested view 
of the passage in question. Adding to it the 
stubborn fact which DR. TODD ignores that 
where the ancient maps have Kibroth Hattavah, 
the modern maps have Wady Mokatteb, the con- 
clusion is inevitable that Wady Mohatteb is men- 
tioned in Num. xi. 26. MOSES MARGOLIOUTH. 


" Theophania" (Vol. i., p. 174.). An inquiry 
is made by your correspondent as to the author of 
this romance, printed in 4to. in 1655, to which no 
answer has yet been returned. In my copy, under 
" By an English Person of Quality," in the title- 
page, is written, in a contemporary handwriting, 
" S r . W. Sales." In the same handwriting is a 
MS. key, annexed to the book, to all the names. 
This is too long to copy here, but if your corre- 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



spondent wishes for a transcript I shall be happy 
to supply him with one. JAS. CROSSLEY. 

Royal Library (Vol. iv., p. 446.). I cannot 
let GRIFFIN'S observation on my contradiction of 
the fable about an intended sale of the library to 
Russia pass unanswered, as it might seem as if I 
acquiesced in his criticism, and so leave a doubt 
on the point. He asks, " Must the story be false 
because the Princess de Lieven never heard of it ? 
that is, must a whole story be untrue if a part of 
it is?" To which I answer, Yes, when the part 
refuted is the sole evidence for the rest. The 
story of the sale to Russia stood on the sole al- 
leged evidence of the Princess de Lieven. I had 
myself good reason to believe that the story was 
false, but I delayed contradicting it on general 
grounds, till I had obtained the direct testimony 
of the Princess that she had not only not said or 
done what had been imputed to her, but that she 
had never before heard of arty such proposition. 
Those who know anything of the English Court 
and Russian Embassy of those days, will acknow- 
ledge that this is also a complete refutation of 
GRIFFIN'S new, but still more vague, version, that 
perhaps it was " the Russian ambassador, or some 
distinguished Russian" that was engaged in the 
matter. I believe that I know as much about it 
as any one now alive, and though I cannot trust 
my memory to state all the details, I can venture 
to assert that I never heard of any Russian pro- 
position, and that I am confident that there never 
was one. C. 

Reichenbach's Ghosts (Vol. iv., p. 5.). DR. 
MAITLAND asked what "thousands of ghost-stories" 
Reichenbach thought he had disproved. Certainly 
those by which it is said " the spirits of the de- 
parted wander over their graves" (Ashburner's 
Reichenbach, p. 177.). He shows that superstition 
to be popular in Germany. The weakness of the 
Baron's tirade (a bad style, in which he rarely 
indulges,) lies in this, that the best class of ghosts 
is an entirely different class. So that enlighten- 
ment and freedom, superstition and ignorance, 
have not yet wound up their accounts. See 
Gregory's Letters to a Candid Enquirer, p. 277., 
where enlightenment and freedom get a slap on 
the face. He maintains that even grave-lio-hts are 
(probably) humaniform apparitions ; and that all 
other ghost-stories, not connected with the place 
of interment, equally belong to bi-od or animal 
magnetism. ^ ^ 

Marriage Tithe in Wales (Vol. v., p. 29.). It 
is well known to your readers that the whole of the ' 
:ithes m England and Wales have recently been 
. commuted for rent-charges ; and the present writer 
3an confidently affirm that, throughout the com- 
mutation, no tithe of marriage goods has been 
admitted to be valid, nor does he believe that any 

such tithe has been claimed. Tithes in Wales 
have not differed in any material respect from 
those payable in England : an excessive subdivision 
of ownership being the only circumstance which is 
remarkable in regard to them. As each article of 
titheable produce is capable of becoming a separate 
property, and this property may again become 
divided amongst an indefinite number of owners, 
the complexity occasioned by such minute interests 
may be imagined. The bee, for instance, produces 
three distinct titheable articles, honey, wax, and 
swarms, and a case actually occurred in Wales, 
in which the honey belonged to one class of owners, 
and the wax and swarms to another class, one of 
the classes owning in undivided eighty-eighth parts. 
There have also been some curious cases of modus 
in Wales, of which the following may be taken as 
a specimen : In a parish on the sea-coast in Pem- 
brokeshire, an estate was exempt from tithes by a 
modus of a cup of ale and an egg, rendered by 
way of refreshment to the parson, whenever, in 
consequence of the state of the tide, he was com- 
pelled to pass the house of the landowner on his 
way to perform divine service in the parish church. 


Paul Hoste (Vol. iv., p. 474.). I would recom- 
mend your correspondent ^EGROTUS to examine the 
new edition of P. Paul Hoste's Treatise on Naval 
Tactics, translated with Notes and Illustrations, by 
Captain J. Donaldson Boswall, a 4to. vol. pub- 
lished in 1834, when, I have no doubt, he -will 
there find the information he is in quest of. 

T. G. S. 


John of Halifax (Vol. iii., p. 389. ; Vol. v., p. 42.). 
Since every country has its Holywood, and de 
Sacrobosco does not distinguish ttolyivood from 
Hali/kr, John of Halifax has been claimed both 
by Ireland and Scotland, and, if I remember right, 
by some foreign countries. The manuscripts of his 
works, as well as the earlier printed editions, call 
him Anglus or Anglicus ; and he lived in a time at 
which the natives of the three countries were as 
distinct as Frenchmen, Spaniards, and Italians. 
Bale, quoting Leland, calls him Halifax ; as does 
Tanner : Pits gives his birth to Halifax. He was 
buried in the Maturin convent at Paris, where his 
epitaph existed in the sixteenth century. Pits 
implies that it appears from the epitaph that he 
died in 1256 : Maestlinus expressly affirms that it 
can be collected from the epitaph, in the Ad Lec- 
torem of his Epitome Astronomies. All the autho- 
rities believe him to be English ; and Leland 
thought he traced him as a student at Oxford. 
But had the manuscripts called him anything but 
English, the other evidence would not have weighed 
them down ; for there are plenty of Holywoods, 
and there was, notoriously, a press of foreign 
students to Oxford in the thirteenth century 


[No. 117. 

But name and residence in England may come in 
aid of the manuscripts. 

The statement that he died in 1244 probably 
arises as follows. In the epitaph, according to 
Pits, are the following lines : 

M. Christi bis C quarto deno quater anno 
De Sacrobosco discrevit tempera Ramus 
Gratia cui nomen dederat divina Johannis, 

meaning that in 1244 a bough from the holy 
wood discrevit tempora. This Pits calls an obscure 
reference to the time of his death, in the same 
sentence in which he places that time in 1256. 
Very obscure indeed, if a reference to his death in 
1256 be intended. But if discrevit tempora refer, 
not to death, but to the matter of his celebrated 
work de anni ratione, sen . . . computus Eccle- 
siasticus, there is no obscurity at all. And at the 
end of a Merton manuscript of this computus, 
Tanner found the preceding lines inserted; the 
copyist taking them to allude, of course, to the date 
of the book. M. 

Age of Trees (Vol. iv., p. 401.). Your corre- 
spondent L. inquires after authentic evidence 
respecting the age of ancient trees : 

" In the 12th vol. of Loudon's Gardener's Magazine, 
p. 588., the Cowthorpe Oak [standing at the extremity 
of the village of Cowthorpe, near Wetherby in York- 
shire], is said to be undoubtedly the largest tree at 
present known in the kingdom.' 

" Professor Burnet says, * the Cowthorpe Oak is 
sixteen hundred years old. We may ask, how is this 
ascertained? From tradition, or calculated on bota- 
nical data ? If the latter, it is possibly far removed 
from truth. The method of calculating the age of 
dicotyledonous trees, with hollow trunks ' [and he else- 
where says, so large is the hollow of the Cowthorpe 
Oak, that it is reported to have had upwards of seventy 
persons at one time therein assembled], ' is by multiply- 
ing the number of rings comprised in a given portion 
of the remaining wood, by the proportion which half 
the entire diameter of the trunk bears to the selected 
portion .... It is evident, however, that this calcu- 
lation proceeds on the assumption of two circumstances, 
whose probable variations may seriously affect the 

" 1st. That all the rings are of equal width. 
. " ' 2nd. That each ring is of uniform width on both 
sides of the tree. 

" * It is known that the width of the rings diminishes 
with the age of the tree, until, at the latter part of its 
life, they are of very inconsiderable width, compared 
with those near the centre of the trunk .... Again, 
it is also known that the width of the rings differs 
according to season, being of course wider in those 
seasons most favourable to the action of the leaves, and 
the general processes of growth ; but greatly dimi- 
nished in seasons affected by blight, cold, or other 
causes of injury to the leaves. It also happens that 
the rings are often of unequal width on opposite sides 
of the trunk .... While, if the tree be so hollow as 
to have no portion of its centre remaining . . . will 

expose the calculation to ... error. In reference, 
therefore, to the Cowthorpe Oak, we abandon all 
scientific pretension.'" 

The foregoing is extracted from an account of 
the Cowthorpe Oak by C. Empson, Esq., 1842 : 
Ackerman, Strand. COKELT. 

" Mir a bilis Liber " (Vol. iv., p. 474.). I have 
a copy of this book, from which a " prophecy" is 
quoted in " N. & Q." p. 474., but the translation 
there given differs from the prophecy, as given in 
my book. I have therefore copied it out at 
length, and exactly as given in the original, with all 
the faults of barbarous Latin and want of stops. 

My book is a small 8vo. without date : the first 
part in Latin, and the second in French, in Gothic 
characters. The colophon runs thus : " On les 
vend au roy David en la rue St. Jacques." * 

The " prophet " is S. Severus not S. Ccesario. 


" Propter incohabitationem doni tertii reviviscet 
scisma in ecclesia Dei tune erunt duo sponsi unus 
verus alter adulter. Adulter vero videlicet pars dia- 
bolica quae ecclesia appellatur erit tanta strages et san- 
guinis effusio quanta nunquam fuit ex quo gigantes 
fuerunt. Legitimus sponsus fugiet, ecce leo surget et 
aquila nigra veniens ex liguria et quasi fulgens eradi- 
cabit nido suos sexatioribus pennis et tune incipient 
tribulationes et praelia terrena et marina et clamabitur 
pax et non invenietur : blasphemabitur nomen domini 
et non erit ratio in terra unusquisque opprimabitur 
potentiam suam. Vae tibi civitas gentium et divitiarurn 
in principio. Sed gaudebis in fine. Vsc tibi civitas 
philosophorum gaudeas. O terra filii Noe edificata quia 
prefatum habebis gaudium et totam dominaberis ro- 
mandiolam. Vae tibi civitas philosophorum subdita 
erit. Va3 tibi lombardia? gens turres etiam gaudii tui 
dirimentur. Ecce leo magnus et gallicus obviabit 
aquilce: et feriet caput ejus eritque bellum immensum 
et mors valida unus eorum amittet fugietque in thu- 
ciam illic reassumet vires. 

' Et Romandiolam quae tune caput italia? erit in 
eurola civitate coronam accipiet ecce praelia et mortali- 
tatis qua? non fuerunt a,b origine mundi neque erunt 
usque in finem quia illic congregabuntur ab omni 

" Unus eorum vincet et ibit in elephantem : et ibi 
ponet sedem antiquam et declarabitur quia fiet postea 
unus pastor in ecclesia Deirecipiet utramque ecclesiam 
cardinalium cum maxima pace et praedictus sponsus de 
dignitate columbinarum assumetur .' . Tune temperance 
ecclesie et civitatis et dignitati columbinarum in roman- 
diola dabuntur et sua operatione fiet concorditer pax et 
unitas praedictorum. Et praedictus rex diu regnabit in 
regno suo : et deponentur omnes tyranni de ecclesia Dei 
et sub nomine regis gubernabuntur omnia : et univer- 
sitas sanctorum credet in eligendum tanquam verum 
sponsum et pastorem praedictum. Et non erit amplius 
scisma usque ad tempora antichristi. Et fiet passagium 

[* For a notice of the various editions of this work, 
see Brunei, Manuel du Libraire, s.v. Mirabilis, tome 
iii. p. 401. En.] 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



per prsedictum regem et gentes armorum quas secum 
ducet : et tune fiet quasi conversio generalis ad fidem 
Christi per leonem magnum et regem prasdictum quam 
qui tune in romandiola: et semper gaudebunt quia 
erunt amici et perpetui." 


Casarius, $*e. No facts have yet occurred to 
convince me but that all prophecies are stuff; 
by no means excepting those which Dr. Gregory 
printed in Blackwood for 1850, and from which 
(more strange) he is unweaned in 1851. Seeing 
that you have reprinted (Vol. iv., p. 471.) the 
prophecy falsely ascribed to that ancient Latin 
father, Caesarius Arelatensis, I beg leave to men- 
tion that I published in the British Magazine for 
1846 an historical and chronological explanation 
of that modern forgery, as well as of the far more 
ancient predictions ascribed to Queen Basina. 
Thomas of Erciidoun was anterior in date to the 
pseudo-Caesarius, and borrowed the idea of his 
French revolution from Basina's, if, indeed, that 
prophecy be authentically from his pen, of which 
the proofs are very slender. See it quoted in 
Walter Scott's Poet. Works, vi. p. 236., ed. 1820. 

I wish to be informed in what sense, and for 
what reason, Walter Scott in the same page calls 
the prophecy-man Robert Fleming, "Mass Robert 
Fleming." A. 1ST. 

Tripos (Vol. iv., p. 484.). The original tripos, 
from which the Cambridge class lists have derived 
their names, was a three-legged stool, on which on 
Ash Wednesday a Bachelor of one or two years' 
standing (called therefrom the Bachelor of the 
Stool) used formerly to take his seat, and play the 
part of public disputant in the quaint proceedings 
which accompanied admission to the degree of 
B. A. In course of time the name was transferred 
from the stool to him that sat on it, and the dis- 
putant was called the Tripos; and thence by 
successive steps it passed to the day when the 
three-legged stool became "for the nonce" a post 
of honour; then to the lists published on that day, 
containing the seniority of commencing B. A.s 
arranged according to the pleasure of the Proc- 
tors ; and ultimately it obtained the enlarged 
meaning now universally recognised, according to 
which it stands for the examination whether in 
mathematics, classics, moral or physical science, as 
well as the list by which the result of that ex- 
amination is made known. 

^ The Latin verses which do, or till very lately 
did, accompany the printed lists, and which it was 
expected were to partake more or less of a bur- 
lesque character, are the only existing relics of the 
functions of the Bachelor of the Stool (performed 
in 155f by Abp. Whitgift), to whom, as to the 
Prevaricator at commencements, or the Terra 
Filius at Oxford, considerable license of language 

was allowed; a privilege which, in spite of the 
exhortation of the Father (see Bedle Buck's book) 
" to be witty but modest withal," was not unfre- 
quently abused. 

Those who desire further information on this 
subject may consult the appendixes to Dean Pea- 
cock's admirable work On the Statutes of the 
University, pp. ix. x. Ixx. E. V. 

" Please the Pigs" (Vol. v., p. 13.). The edi- 
torial reply to my query about the origin of this 
expression is very ingenious, and appears at first 
sight to be very probable ; and, of course, if it can 
be shown to rest upon authority, it will be ac- 
counted satisfactory. But [and here let me say, 
how conscious I am that it savours something of 
presumption to be butting my buts against edi- 
torial sapience which has been brought to the aid 
of my own confessed ignorance; yet, as that "purry 
furry creature with a tail yclept a cat" may with 
impunity cast its feline glances at a king, I am 
emboldened to hope that " a pig without a tail" 
may enjoy the immunity of projecting just one 
porcine squint at an editor. And so to my but 
right boldly, though perhaps as blunderingly as 
pigs are wont] the sound of the word "pyx" has 
suggested to my mind another solution which, 
while it is much less ingenious, appears to me to be 
much more probable. May not the saying be a 
simple corruption, air allegria, of " please the 
pixies?" This would save the metonymy, and 
would also avoid what I conceive to be a more 
formidable difficulty attaching to the idea of 
" please the Host" viz., the fact that, although I 
have travelled and resided not a little in Roman 
Catholic countries, in France, Italy, Spain, and 
the Mediterranean Islands, I never yet have heard 
any expression which could be supposed to involve 
the idea of favour or disfavour from the Host ; 
albeit such expressions applying to the several 
persons of the blessed Trinity, and to every saint 
in the calendar, are rife in every mouth. 

Having no authority, however, for my conjec- 
ture, I put it in the form of a Query, in the hope 
of provoking an authoritative decision. PORCUS. 

Basnet Family (Vol. iii., p. 495. ; Vol.iv., p. 77.). 
My attention has been directed to the inquiries 
made touching this family, and I have looked into 
my Manuscript Collections for such as related to 
the name. I find them distinguished by me into 
Bassenet and Basnet, though the latter writer on 
the subject identifies them as one and the same. 
The classification in my books subdivides the 
notices I possess (as in the instance of other pedi- 
grees, 3000 surnames, for which I have gathered 
illustrations), according to the localities where 
they fix the name. These references are numerous 
in Ireland, and far more in England ; especially 
in Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Essex, 
Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Nottingham- 



[No. 117. 

shire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and 
Surrey; as well as in MSS. of rare access. These 
various notices would be too numerous, and, to 
the many, too uninteresting, to engross your 
pages, or I would gladly draw them out. Those 
who feel interested may receive further informa- 
tion on communicating their wishes to me by 
letter. JOHN D' ALTON. 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin, New Year's Day, 1852. 

Serjeants' Rings (Vol. v., p. 59.). T. P. asks 
if the custom of serjeants-at-law presenting rings 
on taking the coif prevailed so long back as 
1670-80; and in C. W. Johnson's Life of Sir 
Edward Coke, 1845 (vol. i. p. 217.), he will find 
as follows : 

" On the rings given by Coke were inscribed, ' Lex 
est tutissima cassis ' the law is the safest helmet a 
motto which has been thought very well to apply to 
his future fortunes. 

- " This custom of giving rings is of very old standing. 
Chancellor Fortescue, who wrote about 1465, tells us 
that all Serjeants, at their appointment, ' shall give rings 
of gold to the value of forty pounds at the least ; and 
your Chancellor well remembereth that at the time he 
received this state and degree, the rings which he then 
gave stood him in fifty pounds.' (Laud. Leg., c. 59.) 
Dugdale also gives an account of the Serjeants' rings 
in 1556. Some rings given in 1669 were objected to 
as wanting weight." 

I do not know where to refer T. P. for any re- 
cord of the rings ; but I think if the mottoes and 
names of donors could be obtained, a very amusing 
paper might be furnished : the variety would be 
great, some, as Coke's, alluding to the importance 
of law; some, as Serjeant Onslow's "Festina lente," 
punning on the name, &c. E. N. W. 


[We should be obliged by our correspondents fur- 
nishing any such particulars of the mottoes and donors 
of Serjeants' rings as they may meet with in their 

" Crowns have their Compass" (Vol. iv., p. 428.). 
The author of these lines was Kobert Barker, 
as is ascertained from a MS. in the Ashmolean 
Museum, quoted inHalliwell's Life of Shakspeare, 
p. 207., where they are entitled, " Certayne verses 
wrighten by Mr. Robert Barker, his Majestis 
printer, under his Majestis picture." This is quite 
confirmatory of, and is confirmed by, MARGARET 
OATTY'S communication. R. 

[A. GRAY AN, who refers us to Dibdin's Ames, vol. ii. 
p. 1090., for the foregoing information, adds, that the 
last line in the MS. reads 

' That knowledge makes the Kinge most like his 

Hell, paved with the Skulls of Priests (Vol. iv., 
p. 484.). The French priest referred to in this 
Query had most probably quoted, at second or 

third hand, and with rhetorical embellishment 
certainly not from the original direct an ex- 
pression of St. Chrysostom, in his third homily on 
the Acts of the Apostles : 

" OVK oJu.aL flvai ir6x\ovs v ro7s Icptvfft rovs (rwfojue- 
vovs, &AAo 7ToAA< ir\(ious TOVS airo\\v^fovs." 

' I know not if there be many in the priesthood who 
are saved, but I know that many more perish." 

Gibbon has also quoted this passage at second 
hand (v. 399. note z.), for he says : 

" Chrysostom declares his free opinion (torn. ix. 
horn. iii. in Act. Apostol. p. 29.) that the number of 
bishops who might be saved, bore a very small pro- 
portion to those who would be damned." 

It may be safely asserted that the above ex- 
pression of Chrysostom is the strongest against the 
priesthood to be found in any of the Christian 
Fathers of authority in the Church. 



Coopers Miniature of Cromwell (Vol. v., p. 17.). 

The writer saw a beautiful miniature of this 
elebrated man by Cooper in the possession of 

Monckton Milnes, Esq., M.P. W. A. 

King Street Theatre (Vol. v., p. 58.). For the 
information of your correspondent B. N., I beg to 
suggest the " Bristol Theatre " as the one referred 
to on the silver ticket of admission ; it having 
been situated in King Street in that city long 
before the days of Garrick, and there it now 
stands. And although, silver is still the medium 
of admission to it, silver counters have ceased to 
exist in connexion with it. In its palmy days I 
doubt not it possessed such luxuries, it having 
been considered one of the best schools for actors 
out of London. J- H. 

Groom, Meaning of (Vol. v., p. 57.). Guma 
in Anglo-Saxon, and the Codex Argenteus, means 
simply man. Home Tooke derives bridegroom 
from it. 

" Consider groom of the chambers, groom-porter." 


Herd grooms, in Spenser's Pastorals, and a 
passage in Massinger : Gifford, vol. iii. p. 435. 
Grome is quoted by Halliwell, as meaning a 

man. Also gome, which he says lasted till the 

... n T* 

civil wars. v. J5. 

Schola Cordis (Vol. iv., p. 404.). MARICONDA 
asks for Mr. Tegg's authority for attributing the 
Schola Cordis to^Quarles in his edition of 1845. 

The following extract from a very interesting 
and characteristic note, dated November 24, 1845, 
that I received from Mr. Tegg in reply to my 
query of a similar description, will afford the in- 
formation : 

" Quarles' works were originally printed for me by 
Mr. Whittingham of Chiswick, who, with my appro- 

JAN. 24. 1852.] 



bation, engaged the Rev. Mr. Singer to edit the works. 
It was from this edition I printed my books," [. e. the 
edition of 1845]. 

To show the energy of the publisher, and in 
justice to all the parties concerned, I may add, 
that four days later he wrote me word, that he 
" had begun to make inquiry and collate the va- 
rious editions of Quarles" with his own; and adds, 
" I have the great satisfaction of saying that my 
editor has not omitted any article, however trivial, 
that was inserted in the original editions." He 
afterwards says that he has " seen seventeen 
editions ; and concludes by remarking, " that I 
consider no time or money lost when in pursuit of 

Will you allow me to suggest that few of your 
readers would regret to see some of your pages 
occupied with a correct bibliographical account 
of the various productions of both Quarles and 
Withers. MATERRE. 

Greek Names of Fishes (Vol. iv., p. 501.). 
The 6p<pbs may perhaps be recognised by the 
zoologist from the following characteristics given 
by Aristotle in his history of animals : 

"1. It is of speedy growth (b. v. c. 9.). 2. Keeps 
close in shore (b. viii. c. 13.). 3. Burrows in holes, 
as the lamprey and conger (b. viii. c. 15.)- 4. Lives 
only on animal food like other cartilaginous fishes 
(b. viii. c. 2.)." 

It is therefore of Cuvier's series, chondropterigii, 
of which the sturgeon is facile princeps. 

The fj.efji.pas is classed by Aristotle (b. vi. c. 15.) 
under the general term aQvrj, which appears to 
correspond well with Cuvier's genius clupea (in- 
cluding the herring, pilchard, sprat, white-bait, 
&c.), and was taken, Aristotle says, all the year, 
except from autumn to spring, which corresponds 
with the migrations of this genus ; the shad coming 
in May and departing in July, the anchovy ap- 
pearing from May to July, the pilchard in July, 
the herring in October and beginning of No- 
vember, and the sprat in November. The a^vrj, 
he also says, were salted for keeping. The fie/*- 
Spas was obtained in the Phaleric harbour (b. vi. 
c. 15.), close to the marsh and street of the same 
name at Athens.* Aristotle also represents the 
rpixtai as coming from the rpix^es, and the latter 
from the fj.efj.6pd.8es ; hence it is to be inferred that 
the fishermen called this fish at different stages of 
its growth by different names, in mistake. The 
Tp^x'Ses appear also to have been as abundant at 
Athens as sprats are with us, the latter selling 
sometimes at sixpence the bushel, and being used 
for manure, whilst Aristophanes mentions the price 
of five farthings (one obolus) the hundred of 
-rpixfcs (Knights, 662.). The d^-n was obtained 
from the Attic shores of Salamine and Marathon 

* Not from a fish called Phahrica, as stated in 
scapula's lexicon. 

(Aristot. H. A. b. vi. c. 15.), and the supply was 
stopped or much diminished by war (Knights, 
644.). The opfos was a more valuable fish than 
the /jif/j.pas, as the refusing the latter and buying 
the former furnished the next stallman with the 
opportunity of insinuating that the purchaser was 
forgetful of liberty, equality, &c. ( Wasps, 494. ; 
Knights, 851.). Theodore Gaza, the Latin trans- 
lator of Aristotle's History of Animals, renders 
bptybQ by cernua. Amongst his various banquets, 
Homer never mentions fish, afterwards admitted 
as a delicacy of the costliest kind at Grecian and 
Roman feasts. T. J. BUCKTON. 


Dutch Commentary on Pope (Vol. v., p. 27.). 
The passage in Pope has nothing to do with ducks 
and drakes. 

" Verbum quo utitur Popius, monstrat, cogitasse 
eum de quodam quod cadit, non quod jacitur. Sed 
neque est lapis. Cur de Hollandico loquitur? quia 
ut puto, latrnue in Hollandia pedita? sunt aliquando 
super aquam, ibi abundantem, circuli sunt ii, quos 
omne quod cadit in aquam, natura facit." 

There is the same idea, as Warburton observes, 
in the Essay on Man, ep. iv. 364. C. B. 

Sir William Hanhford (Vol. v., p. 43.). I see 
that MR. Foss (Judges of England, vol. iv. p. 325.) 
disbelieves the story of the suicide of Sir William 
Hankford, as told by Prince in his Worthies of 
Devon, because there was then nothing in the po- 
litical horizon to justify the " direful apprehension 
of dangerous approaching evils," assigned by Prince 
as the judge's inducement for wishing to die. 
His death, however it occurred, happened in 1422. 

MR. Foss's doubts seem in some measure to be 
warranted by the fact that Holinshed places the 
incident about half a century later, in 1470 or 
1471 ; and he thinks it more probable (Ibid. 
p. 427.) that the suicidal story may apply to Sir 
Robert Danby, Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas, because that judge disappeared in the 
latter year; and the circumstances of the time 
were really such as were likely to excite the fears 
described as the cause of the catastrophe. Sir 
Robert Danby, who had been a judge of the 
Common Pleas under Henry VI., was made chief 
justice of that court by Edward IV. in 1461, the 
first year of that king's reign. On the restoration 
of Henry VI. in 1470, he was continued in his 
office, and the sudden return of Edward IV. in the 
following year might occasion an apprehension in 
a weak mind sufficiently strong to lead to the 
tragical result. Certain it is that a new chief 
justice, Sir Thomas Brian, was then appointed, 
and nothing more is told of Sir Robert Danby. 

The Hankford's Oak at Annery, the remains of 
which were seen by Prince, was as likely to have 
received its name from its having been planted by 
Hankford, as from its being the spot where he died. 



[No. 117. 

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be 
able to throw more light on the transaction, and 
assist in deciding which is the correct version. 

R. S. V. P. 

Abigail (Vol. iv., p. 424. ; Vol. v., p. 38.). We 
are told in N"o. 115. that Abigail was a handmaid. 
The Bible, however, tells us, that she was the wife 
of Nabal, a rich man, as I pointed out in a letter 
which has not been printed. Speaking to David, 
no doubt, she repeatedly uses the common phrase 
in the Bible, " thine handmaid," which would 
equally prove that the Virgin Mary was a servant. 


Moravian Hymns (Vol. iv., p. 502.; Vol. v., 
pp. 30. 63.). With regard to Moravian hymns, it 
would be very valuable to know whether the little 
book by Rimius, London, 1753, is really honest, 
which contains such shocking and inconceivable 
extracts from them. It is a translation from a 
Dutch book by Stinstra. C. B. 


When we consider the popularity attached to the 
illustrious name of Humboldt, and the great interest 
excited by the publication of his travels, we scarcely 
think Mr. Bohn is doing himself j ustice by including 
the Personal Narrative of Travels in the Equinoctial 
Regions of America during the Years 1799 1804, by 
Alexander von Humboldt and Aime Bonpland ; written 
in French by Alexander von Humboldt : translated and 
edited by Thomasina Ross, of which the first volume is 
now before us, in his Scientific Library. His doing so 
will have a tendency to discourage its perusal by many 
readers who, having no claim to be considered scien- 
tific, will be deterred from opening the pages of a 
book which, had they met with it in the Standard 
Library, they wouM have read and re-read with all the 
interest which Humboldt's power of contemplating 
nature in all her grandeur and variety, and of record- 
ing the impressions produced by such contemplations, 
can never fail to excite. We hope this brief notice 
may be the means of recommending this valuable work 
to the general reader ; to the scientific one it has been 
so long known, as to render any such recommendation 
not at all necessary. 

We spoke so favourably of The Woman's Journey 
round the World, when noticing the translation of it 
issued by Messrs. Longman in their Traveller's Library, 
that we have now only to record the appearance of 
another translation in the Illustrated National Library, 
which differs from the former in being given in an 
unabridged form; and accompanied by some dozen 
clever illustrations. 



GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 


ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. London, 1829. In 2 vols. Vol.11. 

SPENSER'S WOKKS. Pickering's edition, 1839. Sm. 8vo. Vol.V. 


LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROGE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.) 

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. 1835. 

THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Button. 8vo. 1793. (Original 

edition, not the fac-simile.) 

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CONTENTS : Miscellaneous Poems ; Criticism 
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London : GEORGE BELL, 186, Fleet Street. 



[No. 117. 


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J_ from the Archives at Stowe ; being the Pri- 
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NIC^E, Part I.; Selections from the 
GLISH NOTES, by Professor FELTON. 
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Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, January 24. 1852. 





" Wfcen found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. V. No. 118.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 31. 1852. 

f Price Fourpence. 
I Stamped Edition, 



Calamities of Authors - - - -97 


Portraits of Wolfe, by Edw. Auchmuty Glover - - 98 

Notes on Homer, No. I., by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie 99 
French Revolutions foretold - 100 

Idees Napoleoniennes, by Henry H. Breen - - 100 

Dr. Johnson's Contributions to Baretti's Introduction, 

by James Crossley - - - - - 101 

Minor Notes: Bishop Bedell Foreign Guide-books 

Wearing Gloves in Presence of Royalty Errors 

of Poets 101 


The Poet Collins - - - - - - 102 

Portraits of Henry Purcell, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault - 103 
Query on the Controversy about Fluxions, by Professor 
De Morgan ______ 

Minor Queries: Madrigal, Meaning of " Experto 
crede Roberto " Chronological Institute Buzz 
The Old Scots March Hans Holbein Ivory Medal- 
lion of Lord Byron Trumpington Church" Car- 
men Perpetuum," &c " The Retired Christian" 
The Garrote Monastic Establishments in Scotland 

Bonds of Ciearwell and Redbrook Eliza Penning 

" Character of a True Churchman " "A Roaring 
Meg " Cardinal Pole Theoloneum Sterne in 
Paris King Robert Bruce's Watch - 

MINOR Qi'Eiuts ANSWERED: Hornchurch; Wrestling 
for the Boar's Head Spectacles Stoke Author of 
Psalm Tune " Doncaster " Dr. Henry Sacheverell - 

Meaning and Origin of Era - 106 

Singing of Swans - - - - - 107 

Queen Brunehilda, by Samuel Hickson - - - 103 

Coverdale's Bible, by the Rev. Henry Walter - - 109 

' m Serjeants' Rings and Mottoes - - - - 110 

Extermination of Early Christians in Orkney - - 111 

The Crime of Poisoning punished by Boiling, by John 

Gough Nichols, &c. - - - - - 112 

Replies to Minor Queries : _ List of English Sovereigns 
_ Moravian Hymns Age of Trees ; " Essex Broad 
Oak" Arrangement of Books The Ring-finger 
Count Konigsmark Petition respecting the Duke of 
Wellington Reichenbach's Ghosts The Broad 
Arrow Quarter Waggoner, &c. 


- 104 


- 113 

Notes on Books, &c. 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 

Notices to Correspondents 


- 117 

- 117 

- 118 

- 118 


In N. & Q." of the 1 7th of this month a corre- 
spondent, under the signature of A SMALL AUTHOR, 
pointed out, with much humour, and good humour, 
the manner in which he had been applied to and in- 
duced to part with certain "theological tomes" to some 
mysterious but most "influential" critic. Since that 
article appeared we have received information, which 
shows that the practice complained of is one which is 
VOL. V. No. 118. 

being carried on to a considerable extent ; and we 
therefore think we shall be doing some service, both to 
authors and publishers, by reprinting in our columns the 
following correspondence between Messrs. Buttervvorth 
and Sir J. E. Eardley Wilmot on the subject. 

( Copies. ) 
Fleet Street, January 2nd, 1852. 

Dear Sir, Authors with whom we have transactions, 
as well as ourselves, have recently been frequently ap- 
plied to for publications " for the purpose of review in 
the daily, and other journals," by a person signing 
himself " JOHN B. EARDLEY WILMOT ; " and as we 
happen to know, in an instance that has just occurred, 
we have been directed by one of our authors to send his 
works to the individual making application for the 
same under the impression that you were the party 
who did so, we write therefore in the first instance, as 
we have our doubts on the subject, to inquire if we are 
correct in presuming it is yourself who proffer the 
services of a reviewer, as in such case we shall be happy 
in sending the publications applied for, to be noticed 
accordingly. In the event of the letter alluded to 
(and which we send for your inspection) not having 
emanated from you, we beg you will further oblige us 
by stating if you know anything of the party who signs 
his name in a manner so similar to yourself. 

Waiting your reply, 

We are, dear Sir, 

Yours very respectfully, 
(Signed) H. BUTTERWORTH & Co. 
To Sir J. E. Eardley Wilmot, Bart, 

Barrister at Law, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

Sessions, Warwick, January 5th, 1852. 

Dear Sirs, I have the honour of acknowledging 
your letter of the 2nd inst., which has been forwarded 
to me here. 

I have already on more than one occasion been ap- 
plied to, to know if I am the individual who signs 
himself " J. B. BARDLET WILMOT," and who it seems 
is in the habit of writing to publishers, to ask for copies 
of new works, for the alleged purpose of getting them 
reviewed. Not three weeks ago I found on my table 
at my chambers in the Temple three very expensive 
books, which had been sent to me by Messrs. Long- 
man & Co., supposing that I had offered to review 
them. I am very glad of the opportunity your letter 
affords me of stating that the individual who thus 



[No. 118. 

.signs himself and I myself are totally different persons; 
I have no connection or influence whatever with any 
literary journal, nor have I ever been a writer in any, 
and I need scarcely assure you I have never asked any 
publisher in my life for a copy of any new work in the 
manner adopted by the individual to whom you allude. 

I may as well add, that there is no member of my 
family whose initials are J. B. Eardley Wilmot, nor is 
there, to the best of my knowledge, any family in 
England, except my own, which combines the two 
surnames of Eardley Wilmot. I must therefore pre- 
sume that the signature of J. B. Eardley Wilmot is 
entirely a fictitious one, and adopted for sinister pur- 

I beg to express my acknowledgments to you, for 
enabling me to set myself right with the literary world, 
more especially as I have lately brought out a little 
\vork of my own on a subject entirely professional. 
J am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 
To Messrs. Butterworth, 

Law Booksellers and Publishers, 
Fleet Street, London. 

We will but add one small fact. An author who 
had been applied to by another influential reviewer, 
the Rev. A. B. Clerk, directed his publisher to forward 
a copy of his book by post to the place specified. The 
publisher sent it by rail. The consequence was that 
the reverend reviewer complained that the book had 
not reached him : while the railway people returned it 
because no such person, could be found in the place at 
which he professed to reside. 


As the readers of " N". & Q." seem to take an 
interest in everything connected with the cele- 
brated and heroic Wolfe, I may mention that my 
family possess two small paintings of that distin- 
guished general, but by whom painted is un- 
known, though they are supposed to have been 
executed by some officer present with him at the 
taking of Quebec. A description of them may not 
be unacceptable to your readers. One represents 
Wolfe in the act of tying a handkerchief round his 
wrist, after he had been wounded at the commence- 
ment of the battle on the Heights of Abraham ; 
and, from its unfinished appearance, seems to have 
been but a premiere pensee of the artist, Wolfe's 
figure being the only one finished. The other 
represents him leaning on a soldier, just after re- 
ceiving the fatal ball which deprived him of life, 
and his country of one of her greatest heroes. The 
family tradition connected with both these paint- 
ings is that they were painted immediately after 
his death by one of his aide-de-camps, or by an 
officer in the forces under his command. On the 
panels of the latter painting is the following in- 

scription, some of the words being partially 
effaced : 

" This painting represents the death of my [here the 
words are effaced, but, as far as I can make them out, they 
are] friend General Wolfe, who fell on the Heights of 

nearly effaced 

Abraham on [the 13th day of September] 1759, before 
he could rejoice in the victory gained that day over the 

" II. C." or " G." are the initials attached to this 
inscription, and under it are written, in old- 
fashioned style, and in old paper, pasted to the 
panels, the following lines, which I transcribe, as I 
have never seen them elsewhere : 

" In the thick of the Fight. Wolfe's plume was display 'd, 

And his [effaced] coat was dusty and gory, 
As flash'd on high his sabre's blade 

O'er that Field where he 

r fcii I 

< or > wi 

with such glory. 

" On Abraham's Heights he fought that day 
With his soldiers side by side, 

fmov'd ~j 
or \ along thro' that dreadful fray 
led them J 
As Old England's Hope and Pride. 

" But short was the Hero's immortal career, 

For as the battle was nearly o'er 
He fell by a ball from a French musketeer, 
Which bath'd his breast with gore. 

" When wounded he leant on a soldier nigh, 

And the victory just was won, 
For he heard aloud the cheering cry, 
' They run ! they run ! they run ! ' 

" He faintly ask'd from whence that sound, 
And being answer'd, ' The Enemy fly,' 
He exclaim'd, as he slowly sunk to the ground, 
* Oh God ! in peace I die.' 

" And there stretch'd he lay on the blood -stain'd green, 

Which a warrior's death-bed should be, 
And as in Life victorious Wolfe had been, 
So in Death triumphant was he." 

There appear to have been initials affixed to 
these lines, but they are effaced, as well as many 
words and letters which I have rather guessed at. 
than read. These paintings belonged to a great- 
uncle of mine;, Malborough Parsons Stirling, 
Colonel of the 36th Foot, who died Governor of 
the Island of Pondicherry, and who, it is believed, 
received them from his friend, Sir Samuel Auch- 
muty ; but nothing positive is known of their his- 
tory, farther than that they are believed to have 
been the work of some personal friend or aide-de- 
camp of Wolfe's, present with him at the battle of 
Quebec. A portion of the sash said to have been 
worn by him at the time of his death, and saturated 
with his blood, also accompanied these paintings 
This description may enable some of your readers 
to discover by whom these paintings were exe- 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



cuted ; to whom they originally belonged ; and if 
there are duplicates of them in existence, where 
they may be seen. EDW. AUCHMUTY GLOVER. 


Homeric Literature. 

There has been a very great difficulty in the 
world of literature, which it were almost vain to 
think of removing. This difficulty is that usually 
known as "the Homeric question." After the 
folios and quartos of the grand old scholars of an- 
tiquity ; after the octavos of Wolf, Heyne, and 
Knight ; after the able chapters of Grote, and the 
eloquent volumes of Mure ; after the Alexandrian 
Chorizontes ; and after the incidental reflections 
on the subject scattered through thousands of 
volumes, it seems almost hazardous, and indeed 
useless, to offer any more conjectures on " the 
bard of ages," and (to use the phrase of the no- 
velists) "his birth, education, and adventures." 
On a consideration of the question, however, it 
will be seen that (strange fact!) the_ subject is not 
yet exhausted ; I shall therefore, with your kind 
assistance, submit a retrospective view of the 
matter to the readers of " N. Q.," and after- 
wards attempt to show what results may be drawn 
from the united labour of so many minds. I shall 
then give a resume, first, of the ancient history 
bearing on Homer, and, continuing the sketch to the 
late volumes of Mure, draw my own conclusions, 
which, after much patient consideration, I must 
say, appear to be nearer an approximation to the 
truth, than any theory which has yet been pro- 

feet us cast our eyes on antiquity. This very 
much misunderstood period of the earth's progress 
offers to us the proofs of an appreciation of Homer 
to which literary history affords but one parallel. 
The magnificent flights of thought, which the 
Hellenes could so well accompany, the tone of 
colouring at once so subdued and so glorious, 
gained for the unknown poet a reputation ever- 
lasting and world and age- wide. But as time fled 
by, there arose a race of men who wrote poetry as 
schoolboys do Latin, by judiciously arranging (or 
vice versa} appropriate lines from the earlier 
poets, called Cyclic poets, or cento-makers. The 
men who wrote thus were, probably, persons 
either engaged in itinerant vocal pursuits, or 
regular verse makers, who wrote " on a sub- 
ject," as our own street writers on the present 
day. Indeed, I may say, that the state of the 
rhapsodists of Greece resembles much that of our 
own " itinerant violinists," as an eminent counsel 
once apostrophized the class which the excellent 
judge on the bench named, according to general 
custom, "blin' fiddlers." The probable reason 
for the introduction of passages into the original 

Homeric compositions was the necessity of a 
novelty. The Cyclic poems are to Homer what 
the letters of Poplicola, Anti-Sejanus, Correggio, 
Moderator, and the rest, were to Junius. How- 
ever, they prove in a remarkable manner how 
great the excitement regarding " the poet," as 
Aristoteles calls him, ever continued to be in 

These gentlemen, whose object was not to dis- 
grace Homer by their puling compositions, but 
only to practically observe the maxims subse- 
quently instilled by lago into Roderigo's mind 
(viz., to "put money in their purse"), were 
the precursors of another race of writers. In 
ancient times, we are informed by Tatian*, there 
were many writers on Homer, whose works, it is 
to be lamented, have perished with the nominal 
exception of a few fragments, though, perhaps, 
scholars will once learn to use those as a clue, and 
find, as Burges did in the case of Thucydidesf, that 
many valuable passages are lying hid in the pages 
of the lexicographers, who spared themselves the 
trouble of writing fresh matter, by merely slightly 
changing the expressions of their sources, and not 
" bothering " their lexicographical brains by at- 
tempting original composition. It is thus, that 
even the weaknesses of the human mind benefit 
after ages ! 

The names furnished us by Tatian are these : 
Theagenes of Khegium (the earliest writer of 
whom we are cognizant, contemporary with 
Cambyses) ; Stesimbrotos of Thasos (contem- 
porary with Pericles |); Antimachos of Claros; 
Herouotos, Dionysios of Olynthos, Ephoros of 
Cyme ; Philochoros of Athens, Metacleides, Cha- 
maeleon of Heracleia ; Zenodotos of Ephesus, 
(B.C. 280) ; Aristophanes of Byzantium (B.C. 264) ; 
Callimachus, whose poetry, by the way, is dryer 
and more vapid than his prose, if the little we have 
left of him allows us to form an opinion ; Crates 
of Malfus (B. c. 157) ; Eratosthenes of Cyrene ; 
Aristarchos of Samothrace, and Apollodoros of 
Athens. The minds or pens of these men in Hellas 
alone, were occupied with this grand subject ; and 
in Home, that city of translations and " crib," we 
find the pens of the scribes were at work, and pro- 
lific in prolixity. Besides these authors, there are 
others whose attempts at illustrating the text of 
the writers of antiquity have been met in a most 

Fabr. Bibl Grate. II. 1. iii. 

f Journ. of the Royal Soc. of Literature, vol. ii., New- 
Series, and afterwards in a pamphlet in 1845. 

J Plato, Ion, p. 550. c. ; Xenoph. Mem. iv. 2. 10. ; 
Sympos. iii. 5. ; Plutarch, T/iemist. 2. 24. ; dm. 4. 14. 
16. ; Per. 8. 10. 13. 26. 36. ; Strabo, x. p. 472. ; Athen. 
xiii. p. 598. e. 

Quoted by Athenasus (ix. p. 374. a.) under the 
title of Ilepl TTJS a.pxaio.3 icwfj-wtiias, which, however, is 
also the name of a work by Eumelus. 



[No. 118. 

illiberal manner ; I mean the Scholiasts, who have 
been treated most unjustly. A goodly host of 
scribblers looks forth from the grave of antiquity. 
And here, before proceeding to speak of the 
theories of later times, it may be permitted me 
to suggest that casual allusions by writers who 
write not expressly on the subject, and who are 
sufficiently accurate on those points to which 
they have directed their attention, are often 
more valuable than the folios of writers who go 
on the principle of book-making. 

To enumerate the modern works of Homeric 
controversy, would be an endless and tedious task, 
nay, even useless, when so able and full an account 
exists in Engelmann's Bibliotheca Classica. The 
chief works, however, are Wolf's Prolegomena, 
Wood's Essay on the Original Genius of Homer ; 
Creuzer, Symbolik und Mythologie ; Hermann, 
BriefwecJisel mit Creuzer uber Homer und Hesiod ; 
Welckar, Der Epuche Cyclus ; Lange, Ueber die 
Kyklischen Dichter und den sogenannten Epischen 
Kyklus der Griechen; Lachmann, Fern'ere Betrach- 
tungen uber die llias (Abhandl. Berlin. Acad. 
1841); Voss, Nitzsch, O. Miiller, Thirlwall (Hist, 
of Greece, vol. i. appendix 1 . p. 500. foil.), Quarterly 
Revieiu, No. Ixxxvii., Grote (Hist, of Greece, pt. i. 
chapter xxi. vol. ii.), Mure's Critical History of 
the Language and Literature of Antient Greece, the 
article in Smith's Dictionary, vol. ii. p. 500., and 
Giovanni Battista Vico (Principi di Scienza nuova). 

The foregoing writers are the principal who have 
occupied themselves with the subject. I will, 
in my next paper, pass on to a review of the ques- 
tion itself. KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE. 

January 26. 1852. 


It seems strange to find in Dr. Jackson's Worhs 
a prophecy which, if then thought applicable to 
the French nation, is much more so now. I 
have no opportunity of verifying his reference, 
but will extract all verbatim, giving the Italics as 
I find them : 

" And without prejudice to many noble patriots and 
worthy members of Christ this day living in that fa- 
mous kingdom of France, I should interpret that dream 
of Bassina (see Aimoinus, aliter Annonius) de Gestis 
Francorum, lib. i. c. 7. # 8. in the Corpus Francics Histor., 
Printed in folio, 1613, Hanavia), Queen unto Childerick 
the First, of the present state of France : in which the 
last part of that threefold vision is more truly verified 
than it was even in the lineal succession of Childerick 
and Bastina, or any of the Merovingian or Carlovingian 
families. The vision was of three sorts of beasts : the 
first, lions and leopards ; the second, bears and wolves ; 
the third, of dogs, or lesser creatures, biting and devour- 
ing one another. 

" The interpretation which Bassina made of it was 
registered certain hundred years ago. That these 
troups of vermin or lesser creatures did signifie a 

people without fear or reverence of their princes, so 
pliable and devoutly obsequious to follow the peers or 
potentates of that nation in their factious quarrels, that 
they should involve themselves in inextricable tumults 
to their own destruction. Had this vision been painted 
only with this general notification, that it was to be 
emblematically understood of some state in Europe : who 
is he that can discern a picture by the known party 
whom it represents, but could have known as easily 
that this was a map of those miseries that lately have 
befallne France, whose bowels were almost rent and 
torn with civil and domestic broyls? God grant her 
closed mounds fall not to bleed afresh again. And that 
her people be not so eagerly set to bite and tear one another 
{like dogs or other testie creatures) until all become a 
prey to wolves and bears, or other great ravenous beasts, 
which seek not so much to tear or rent in heat of re- 
venge, as lie in wait continually to devour and swallow 
with insatiate greediness the whole bodies of mighty 
kingdoms, and to die her robes, that rides as queen of 
monsters upon that many headed beast, with streams- 
of bloud that issue from the bodies squeezed and 
crushed between their violent teeth ; yea, even with 
the royal bloud of kings and princes." Works, book i. 
cap. xiii. lib. i. pp. 46-7. : Lond. 1673, fol. 



We hear a vast deal in these ages of what are 
called " Idees Napoleoniennes," the wisdom of 
Napoleon, and so forth. Some of this is invented 
by the writers, and ascribed to Napoleon ; some 
of it is no wisdom at all ; and some is what may be 
called second-hand wisdom, an old familiar face 
with a new dress. Of the latter sort is the famous- 
saying : 

" From the sublime to the ridiculous there is but 
a step." 

For this remark Napoleon has obtained consider- 
able notice : but the truth is, he borrowed it from 
Tom Paine ; Tom Paine borrowed it from Hugh 
Blair, and Hugh Blair from Longinus. Napoleon's- 
words are : 

" Du sublime au ridicule il n'y a qu'un pas." 
The passage in Tom Paine, whose writings were 
translated into French as early as 1791, stands- 
thus : 

" The sublime and the ridiculous are often so nearly 
related, that it is difficult to class them separately;, 
one step above the sublime makes the ridiculous, and 
one step above the ridiculous makes the sublime 

Blair has a remark akin to this : 

" It is indeed extremely difficult to hit the precise 
point where true wit ends and buffoonery begins." 
But the passage in Blair, from which Tom Paine 
adopted his notion of the sublime and the ridicu- 
lous, is that in which Blair, commenting on Lu- 
can's style, remarks : 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



" It frequently happens that where the second line is | 
sublime, the third, in which he meant to rise still 
higher, is perfectly bombast." 

Lastly, this saying was borrowed by Blair from 
his brother rhetorician, Longinus, who, in his 
Treatise on the Sublime, has the following sentence 
at the beginning of section iii. : 

" TefloAwTcu yap rrj <f>pdffei, KO). Tedopv^rai TCUS <pav- 
Taviais fjiuX\ov, T) SeSeiVojTcu, KV.V eKaarov avruv irphs i 
abyas avaffKOTrfjs, e/c TOV tyofiepov /car' oXiyov virovoarei \ 
irpbs rb evKaTa<pp6yr]Tov" 

This is referred to by Warton in his comments ! 
on Pope's translation of the Thebais of Statius ; \ 
and Dr. Croly, apparently unacquainted with the 
passages in Paine and Blair, describes it, in his 
edition of Pope, as the anticipation of Napoleon's 
celebrated remark. It will be seen that the ori- 
ginal saying, in its various peregrinations, has un- 
dergone a slight modification, Longinus making the 
transition a gradual one, "/car 5 o\iyov" while Blair, 
Paine, and Napoleon make it but " a step." Yet, 
notwithstanding this disguise, the marks of its 
paternity are sufficiently traceable. 
So much for this celebrated " mot." And, after 
all, there is very little wit or wisdom in it, that is 
not expressed or suggested by La Rochefoucauld's 
Maxims : 

" La plus subtile folie se fait de la plus subtile 

" Plus on aime une inaitresse, plus on est pres de la 
hair ; " 

or by Rousseau's remark 

" Tout etat qui brille est sur son declin ; " 
or by Beaumarchais' exclamation 

" Que les gens d'esprit sont betes !" 
or by the old French proverb 

" Les extremes se touchent ; " 
or by the English adage 

" The darkest hour is nearest the dawn ; " 

or, lastly, by any of the following passages in our 
own poets : 

Evils that take leave, 

On their departure most of all show evil." 


" Wit, like tierce claret, when't begins to pall, 
Neglected lies, and 's of no use at all ; 
But in its full perfection of decay 
Turns vinegar, and comes again in play." 


*' Great wits are sure to madness near allied, 
And thiu partitions do their bounds divide." 

" There's but the twinkling of a star 

Between a man of peace and war." Butler. 
" For men as resolute appear 
With too much as too little fear." Puller. 

" Th' extremes of glory and of shame, 
Like east and west become the same: 
No Indian prince has to his palace 
More followers, than a thief to the gallows." 


" For as extremes are short of ill or good, 
And tides at highest mark regorge the flood ; 
So fate, that could no more improve their joy, 
Took a malicious pleasure to destroy." Dryden. 

" Extremes in nature equal ends produce, 
And oft so mix, the difference is too nice 
Where ends the virtue or begins the vice." Pope. 

I might adduce other instances, but these are 
sufficient to show that the sentiment owes nothing 
to Napoleon but the sanction of his great name, 
and the pithy sentence in which he has embodied 

St. Lucia, Nov. 1851. 


Bosweli notices Dr. Johnson having in 1775 
written the preface to Baretti's Easy Lessons 
in Italian and English ; but neither he nor his 
editors appear to have been aware of the preface 
which Dr. Johnson contributed to an earlier work 
by Baretti, his Introduction to the Italian Language, 
London, 1775, 8vo. It is accompanied by an 
Italian translation, and is written with all his 
usual vigour, and commences : 

" Unjust objections commonly proceed from unrea- 
sonable expectation ; writers are often censured for 
omitting what they never intended to perform." 

The note, p. 48. : 

" Though the design of these notes is rather to teach 
grammar than morality, yet, as I think nothing a 
deviation that can serve the cause of virtue," &c., 
and the excellent remarks, p. 198., on Machiavel's 
Life of Castruccio Castracani, have every internal 
evidence of Johnson's style, and were no doubt 
dictated by him to Baretti, for whom Johnson in 
the same year, 1755, endeavours to obtain the loan 
of Crescimbeni from Thomas Warton (Croker's 
Bosweli, edit. 1848, p. 91.). 

Nothing is more wanted than a good and com- 
plete edition of Johnson's Works, in which omis- 
sions similar to the above, of which I have a long 
list when required, may be supplied. His prefaces 
and dedications to the works of other writers are 
all models in their way, and not one of them ought 
to be lost. JAS. CROSSLEY. 

Bishop Bedell. This divine, to remind him of 
the need he had of being cleansed and purified in 
heart by the Spirit, chose an ingenious device, 



[No. 118. 

consisting of a naming crucible, with a Hebrew 
motto, signifying, " Take from me all my tin," in 
allusion to Isaiah i. 25. The reason for selecting 
these particular words was, that the Hebrew word 
for tin is bedil. CLERICUS (D.) 

Foreign Guide-books. The samples of foreign 
English preserved in your pages are nearly equalled 
in ludicrous effect by the novel information often 
found in guide-books and manuals published on 
the continent for the use of strangers in England. 
Our metropolis is an inexhaustible subject of 
blunders on the part of the compilers of these 
works, of whom not a few deserve to rank with 
the Frenchman who, having heard something of a 
coal duty in connexion with St. Paul's, gravely 
told his readers that the cathedral was built on 

The following extract is from a work entitled 
Londres et ses Environs, Paris, 2 vols. with plates: 
the compiler states that, having resided fifteen 
years in London, " il est, plus que tout autre, en 
e"tat d'en parler avec certitude." 

*' Ce gouffre majestueux a englouti la ville de West- 
minster, le bourg de South wark, et quarante-cinq vil- 
lages, dont les noms, conserves dans les differens quar- 
tiers qu'ils occupoient, sont 

Mora Lambeth math Newington Butts 

Islington The Grange Rotherhite 

Falgate Finsbury Clerkemvell 

Mile End New Hoxton Norton 

Town The Spital Mile End Old 

Ratcliffe Poplar Town 

The Hermitage Shadwell Limehouse 

The Strand S. Catherine's East Smith Field 

Shoreditch Charing Cross S. Clement Danes 

White Chapel S. Giles in the Knightsbridge 

Stepney Fields Portpool 

Wapping Holborn Lambeth 

The Minories Kennington Bermondsey 

S. James Horsley Down Paddington, et 

Bloomsbury Wenlaxbarn Mary-le-Bone." 

Soho Wauxhall Vol. i. pp. 3 9, 40. 

Saffron Hill 

We have here a strange admixture of the names 
of parishes, streets, and prebends ; amongst the 
last are Portpool, Mora, and Wenlake's Barn, the 
precise locality of which many old Londoners 
would be puzzled to state. 

I think the following specimen of foreigners' 
English, which appeared as the address of a huge 
package received at the Exhibition, is worth adding 
to your collection : 

" Sir Vyat and Sir Fox Henderson Esqvire 
Grate Exposition 

Pare of Hide 

at London. 
to be posid upright." 


Wearing Gloves in Presence of Royalty (Vol. i., 
p. 366. ; Vol. ii., pp. 165. 467.)- Hull, in his 
History of the Glove Trade, says that Charles IV., 
King of Spain, was so much under the influence 
of any lady who wore white kid gloves, that the 
use of them at Court was strictly prohibited. He 
refers the reader to the Memoires de la Duchesse 
d'Abrantes, tome viii. p. 35. PHILIP S. KING. 

Errors of Poets. In Vol. iv., p. 150., amongst 
the " Errors of Painters " a picture is noticed, in 
which " the five wise and five foolish virgins have 
increased into two sevens." A similar mistnke is 
made by Longfellow in his last poem, The Golden 
Legend, p. 219., where one of the characters says: 

" Here we stand as the Virgins Seven, 
For our celestial bridegroom yearning ; 
[Our hearts are lamps for ever burning, 
With a steady and unwavering flame, 
Pointing upward for ever the same, 
Steadily upward toward the Heaven." 



The deeply interesting additions lately made in 
your pages to our knowledge of General Wolfe, 
induces me to hope, if not quite to expect, that 
something, however small, may be done in the 
same joint-stock manner for the memory of the 
poet Collins. Sir Egerton Brydges asserts that 
" new facts regarding Collins are not to be had," 
and I am deeply sensible of the value of Mr. 
Dyce's labours, as well as of those of the editor of 
Mr. Pickering's Aldine edition of his works. No 
pains, trouble, or expense, have been spared in 
collecting and arranging the " dulces exuvias " of 
the highly gifted poet ; and the memoir prefixed 
to Pickering's edition reflects no small credit upon 
the good taste and feeling of the editor. 

Still may I not ask, through the medium of the 
" N". & Q.," whether some further discoveries may 
not possibly be made ? Cannot any one connected 
with the town of Chichester, where Collins was 
born and died any one brought up at Win- 
chester College, where he was educated, lentj a 
helping hand ? Are there no additional traces of 
him as directly or indirectly associated with the 
Wartons, Johnson, Quin, Garrick, Foote, ^ and 
Thomson ? Cannot some of his letters be disco- 
vered ? Some fragments of his poetry, however 
disjointed? Some portions of his prose? There 
seems a mystery about Collins himself, as strange 
as that about his own weird compositions. Though 
beloved and admired by all, no one ever picked 
up accurate information respecting him. He has 
been blamed for waywardness and want of perse- 
verance, as if these were not symptoms of the 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 




fearful visitation that wrecked his noble mind ; or 
as if perseverance and concentration of energies in 
any pursuit were not natural gifts as much as 
acquired, and gifts of a high and most valuable 
kind too. Collins did not want perseverance 
whilst at school : he came off first on the roll of j 
which Joseph Warton was second ; and his Oriental 
Eclogues, written before his eighteenth year, are 
not unworthy of the boyhood of any of our 
greatest poets. Besides, he was a highly accom- 
plished classical scholar, an accurate linguist, was 
well read in early English poetry and black-letter | 
books, was passionately fond of music ; and some 
of his poems, if nothing else, prove him to have 
vie\ved nature with a painter's eye. In his own 
line of poetry, the personification of abstract 
qualities, Collins stands unrivalled. Let us but 
compare him with all or any of his numerous 
imitators, and we ever find him in the calm 
dignity of genius, 

" Sitting where they durst not soar." 
Amidst such a number of book-learned cor- 
respondents as you have, surely I may " lay the 
flattering unction to my soul " that some in- 
teresting discoveries could be made. 

Collins is well worthy of all that can be done 
for his memory, for if his Ode on the Passions and 
his Ode to Evening be not true poetry, I fear that 
the English language has not much poetry to 
produce. RT. 


' 5. An original portrait by Closterman. In his 
hand is a miniature of Queen Mary. Formerly 
in the collection of Charles Barney, Mas. Doc., at 
whose sale it was sold, in 1814, for 18Z. 186-. I 
cannot trace this picture. 

6. Crayon drawing, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
from the first-mentioned painting. Formerly in 
Mr. Bartlenian's collection. 


1. An engraving by T. Cross, prefixed as fron- 
tispiece to his Twelve Sonatas, 1683. 

2. Ditto, by R. White, from a painting by Clos- 
terman. Frontispiece to the Orpheus Britannicus. 

3. Ditto, engraved by W. N. Gardiner, from a 
drawing by S. Harding, taken from the original 
picture in Dulwich College, 1794. 

4. Ditto, by T. Holloway, from the crayon 
drawing by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

5. An etching inscribed " Henry Purcell," but 
without the name of painter or engraver. 

6. A small engraving, by Grignion, in Sir John 
Hawkins's History of Music. 

7. An engraving by W. Humphries, after Sir 
Godfrey Kneller. Frontispiece to Novello's edit, 
of Purcell's Sacred Music. 


Being employed upon an entirely new biography 
of Henry Purcell, I am most anxious to procure 
all the information in my power relative to the 
various portraits extant of this "famous musician." 
Granger's list is very imperfect, but having by my 
own researches considerably extended it, I submit 
it to your readers for perusal, in the hope that 
those who are versed in the lore of "print" or 
< ; picture collecting" may correct errors, or point 
out omissions. 

Paintings and Drawings. 

1. Head of Purcell, painted by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller. Lately in the possession of E. Bates, 
Esq., of Somerset House. 

2. Half-length, said (but evidently erroneously) 
to have been painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Xow in the meeting-room of the Royal Society of j 
Musicians, Lisle St;eet, Soho. 

3. Half-length, originally used as a sign at the 
tavern known by the name of " The*" Purcell's 
Head," in Wych Street, Strand. Query, where 
is it at present ? 

4. Portrait of Purcell when a very young man, 
formerly among Cartwright's pictures "in Dulwich 
College. Query, what lias become of it ? 


In the report made by the Committee of the Royal 
Society, it is stated that the Committee had "con- 
sulted the Letters and Letter-books in the custody 
of the Royal Society, and those found among the 
Papers of Mr. John Collins ....;" thus leaving it 
doubtful whether Collins's papers then belonged to 
the Society, or, it may be, meaning to distinguish 
them as not so belonging. 

In the preface to the Analysis per Quantitatum 
Series . . . by William Jones (father of his more 
celebrated namesake), London, 1711,4to., which 
contains some of the matter published in 1712 in 
the Commerciuin Epistolicum, occurs the following 
passage : 

" Etenim secundus jam agitur annus ex quo Scrinia 
D. Collinsii (qui, uti notum est, amplissimum cum sui 
sseculi Mathematicis commercium habuit) meas in 
manus inciderint ; et in illis plurima reperi a cunctis 
fere totius Europce eruditis ipsi communicata ; et 
inter ea non pauca, qua? a Viro Cl. D. Newtono scripta 

This is hardly language which could be used 
with reference to papers lodged in the custody of 
the Society : it would seem as if Jones, in 1709 or * 
1710, became the owner or borrower of papers, 
till then in private hands exclusively. Can any 
evidence be brought forward as to the manner in 
which Jones and the Royal Society, or either, ob- 
tained these papers ? I believe the Royal Society 
itself can give no information. A. DE MORGAN. 



[No. 118. 

Madrigal, Meaning of. What is the deriva- 
tion of the word madrigal ? NEMO. 

" Experto crede Roberto." Can any of your 
correspondents inform me what is the origin of 
the expression so frequently quoted, " Experto 
crede Roberto ? " W. L. 

Chronological Institute. I understand a Chro- 
nological Institute has been formed in London. 
Can you inform ma where a prospectus can be 
obtained ? F. B. RELTON. 

Buzz. What is the derivation of the word 
"buzz, i. e. empty the bottle ; and how came it to 
have that extraordinary meaning ? W. 

The Old Scots March. Can any of your cor- 
respondents throw light on the measure of the 
" Old Scots March," which appears to have been 
beat with triumphant success as to many of the 
onslaughts, infalls, and other martial progresses 
of Gustavus's valiant brigades ? 

Grose has given what he styles " The English 
March," as ordered to be beat by Prince Henry. 
And as a pendant, the recovery of " The Scots 
March" would be very desirable. J. M. 

Hans Holbein. Is the place of this eminent 
artist's sepulture now known ? His death (by 
the plague) in 1554 was probably a release from 
neglect and poverty. When he was compelled to 
give up his painting-rooms at the palace, after 
Henry's decease, he is conjectured to have resided 
in Bishopsgate street. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Ivory Medallion of Lord Byron. In the cata- 
logue which Mr. Cole, of Scarborough, printed in 
1829, of books in his private collection, he men- 
tions a copy of Lord Byron's Marino Faliero, 1821, 
bound in a unique style, and having, inserted in a 
recess, on the front cover, a finely finished head of 
the noble poet, on ivory, in high relief, of beautiful 
Italian carving. Can any of your correspondents 
tell me who is now the possessor of this work of 
art? W.S.G. 

Newcastle-on- Tyne. 

Trumpington Church. On the north side of the 
tower of Trumpington Church, Cambridgeshire, 
there is a curious "recess in the basement story, 
which I have not met with anywhere else, or seen 
fully accounted for. It is sufficiently capacious 
for a man to stand in, having an arched entrance 
six feet in height, with a turning to the westward 
' of about two feet, and is formed completely within 
the thickness of the wall. The village tradition, 
that it was formerly used as a confessional, 
founded on the existence of an opening into the 
interior, part of the tower, now blocked up, has 
Jong been disesteemed. In the volume by the 
Cambridge Camden Society, on the Churches in 

Cambridgeshire, it is said to have been made for 
an ecclesiastic to stand in, to ring the Sanctus 
bell. A round hole, lined with wood, in the roof 
of the niche, evidently intended for a bell-rope, 
and chafings upon the upper part of the little aper- 
ture, such as the friction of one would produce, 
are very convincive of its having been used for 
some such purpose. But when we consider that 
the Sanctus bell, except when a hand one, was 
" suspended on the outside of the church, in a 
small turret over the archway leading from the 
nave into the chancel," * the probability that it was 
made for the purpose above-mentioned seems very 
much weakened. I shall feel obliged for a re- 
ference to any other instance, or a more satisfac- 
tory explanation. R. W. ELLIOT. 

" Carmen Perpetwim" fyc. Upon the title-page 
of a Bible which I have had some years in my 
possession, I have just discovered, in my own 
handwriting, the following very beautiful and 
apposite quotation : 

" Carmen perpetuum primaque ab origine mundi ad 
tempora nostra." 

I have lost all remembrance of the source from 
which I borrowed this happy thought, so happily 
expressed ; and shall feel much obliged to any 
one whose better memory can direct me to the 
mine from which I formerly dug the gem. HAM. 

" The Retired Christian." Who was the author 
of The Retired Christian, so generally, but I be- 
lieve erroneously, attributed to Bishop Ken ? 

S. FY. 

The Garrote. The West India newspapers are 
filled with the details of General Lopez's second 
attempt on Cuba, and his subsequent capture and 
execution. The latter event took place at Ha- 
vannah on the 1st September, in presence of 8000 
troops, and the manner of it is said to have been 
the Garrote, which is thus described in a Jamaica 
journal : 

" The prisoner is made to sit in a kind of chair with 
a high back, to which his head is fastened by means of 
an iron clasp, which encloses his neck, and is attached 
to the back by a screw. When the signal is given, the 
screw is turned several times, which strangles the 
victim, and breaks his neck." 

The word Garrote being Spanish (derived pro- 
bably from the French "garrotter"), and the 
punishment having been inflicted in a Spanish 
colony, it is to be presumed that we are indebted 
to the latter nation for the invention of it. Can 
any of your readers give any information as to the 
origin and use of this mode of punishment ? 


Monastic Establishments in Scotland. Will any 
of your correspondents be kind enough to furnish 

* Glossary of Architecture. 

*. 31. 1852.] 



me with a list of the ancient monastic establish- 
ments of Scotland ? Having communicated with 
many learned antiquaries, both in England and 
Scotland, and having failed in obtaining what I 
desired, I conclude that no complete list exists. 
Spottiswoode's list, now appended to Keith's Ca- 
talogue of Scottish Bishops, is very imperfect. 
But there are great facilities now for compiling a 
perfect list from such works as the publications of 
the Roxburgh, Bannatyne, and Maitland Clubs, 
Innes's Origines, Parochiales, &c. I would like 
the list to be classed either according to the dif- 
ferent counties, or by the respective orders of 
the religious houses, with a separate list of the 
mitred houses that had seats in parliament. The 
list is wanted for publication. Perhaps the writer 
of " Scottish Abbeys and Cathedrals " in the 
Quarterly may have compiled such a list. 


Bonds of Clearwell and Redbrooh. Can you 
inform me where I can find the pedigree of the 
Bonds of Clearwell and Redbrook, in the county 
of Gloucester ? f 

JZliza Penning. Pray, what has become of the 
collection of documents relating to Eliza Fenning, 
which was formerly in the possession of Mr. 
Upcott ? 

Is it true that some years after the execution of 
Eliza Fenning a person confessed that he had 
committed the offence of which she was found 
guilty ? ONETWOTHREE. 

"Character of a True Churchman.'" In 1711 a 
valuable essay was published anonymously, en- 
titled The Character of a True Churchman, in a 
letter from a gentleman in the city to his friend 
in the country : London, printed for John Baker, 
at the Black Boy, in Paternoster Row, 1711. Who 
is the writer of it ? J. Y. 

"A Roaring Meg." What is the origin of 

calling any huge piece of ordnance " a roaring 


Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says : 
" Musica est mentis medecina ma?ste, a roaring meg 

against melancholy, to rear and revive the languishing 


The earliest edition of the Anatomy of Melan- 
choly is, I believe, the Oxford one of 1624.* 

The large old-fashioned piece of artillery, called 
Mom Meg, in the castle of Edinburgh, which is 
so great a favourite with the Scottish common 
people, is said by Sir Walter Scott to have been 
" fabricated at Mons in Flanders, in the reign of 
James IV. or V. of Scotland;" that is, between 
A.D. 1508 and 1514 (note to Rob Roy, vol. ii. 
ch. 10.). 

[* The first edition was published in 1621, 4to. 

This accounts for the Mons; but whence comes 
the Meg f The tradition of the Edinburgh people 
is different from that of Sir Walter : and Black, 
in his Tourist of Scotland, pp. 51. 341., says, it 
was forged at Threave Castle, a stronghold of 
the Black Douglases ; was used by James II. in 
1455 ; and that it was called Mons Meg after "the 
man who cast it and his wife." The date in the 
above must be a mistake, as I believe James II. 
was killed in A.D. 1437. 

There is another cannon of similar caliber, and 
bearing the name of Roaring Meg, presented by 
the Fishmongers' Company of London to the city 
of Londonderry in 1642 (Simpson's Annals of 
Derry, chap. vii. p. 41.). 

Can any of your readers explain the origin of 
the name, and say whether the phrase " A rearing 
Meg" occurs in any English author earlier than 
Burton? W. W. E. T. 

Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

Cardinal Pole. In 1513 Sir Richard Pole, a 
Welsh knight, married Margaret, daughter of 
George Duke of Clarence, who was drowned in 
the butt of Malmsey. Can any of your readers 
assist me in tracing his pedigree ? If of Welsh 
extraction, the name was probably Powell, that is, 
ap Howel. Or can a connexion be shown with 
the old family of Pole, Poole, or Pull, of Cheshire? 

I. J. H. H. 

Theoloneum. In an agreement made A.D. 1103, 
before Henry I., between the Abbot of Fecamp, in 
Normandy, and Philip de Braiosfi, the Lord of 
Bramber, mention is made of a " theoloneum, quod 
injuste recipiebant homines Philippi, de honiinibus 
de Staningis." What is a theoloneum ? M. T. 

Sterne in Paris. I should feel extremely obliged 
to any of your correspondents who would refer 
me to any contemporary notices of Sterne's resi- 
dence at Paris in 1762. The author of Tristram 
Shandy must have been somewat lionized by the 
Parisian circles, and allusions to his wit probably 
occur among the many memoirs of the period. 


King Robert Bruce s Watch. In Daly ell's 
Fragments of Scottish History, I find the follow- 
ing : 

'* The oldest known English watch was made, it is 
said, in the sixteenth century. There exists a watch, 
which, antiquarians allow, belonged to King Robert 
Bruce." Preface, p. 3. 

Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." give in- 
formation regarding such an interesting relic of 
antiquity ? R. S. F. 




[No. 118. 


Hornchurcli ; VS resiling for the Soar's Head. 
I have extracted from the Daily Neivs of the 5th 
instant, the following paragraph, which appears to 
have been quoted from the Chelmsford Chronicle, 
relative to this custom : 

" By ancient charter or usage in Hornchurch, a 
boar's head is wrestled for in a field adjoining the 
church; a boar, the property of the parish, having 
been slaughtered for the purpose. The boar's head, 
elevated on a pole, and decorated with ribbons, was 
brought into the ring, where the competitors entered 
and the prize awarded." 

The paragraph goes on further to observe that 
if the prize be taken by a champion out of the 
parish, the charter is lost. And I shall be glad to 
know the origin of the custom, and of the notion 
of the charter or usage, as it is called, being lost 
if the prize be taken'away as before alluded to. 
I observe that it is noticed in the Gentlemaris 
Magazine for April, 1828, p. 305. 


[It may be as well to state, as a clue to the discovery 
of this ancient custom, that the tithes of Hornchurch 
belong to New College, Oxford ; the warden and 
fellows of which society are ordinaries of the place, and 
appoint a commissary, who holds an annual visitation. 
The lessee of the tithes supplies the boar's head, 
dressed and garnished with bay leaves, &c. Several 
curious notices are given by Hone in his works of the 
custom observed at Christmas at Queen's College, 
Oxford, of serving up at the first course at dinner, "a 
fair and large boreshead upon a silver platter with 
minstralsye; " but he has omitted to furnish the origin 
of the custom at Horuchurch. Perhaps some Oxonian 
connected with New College will favour us with a 

Spectacles. In recent numbers of " N. & Q." 
there have been several allusions to spectacles, 
and as I am not aware of any clear and satisfactory 
data relative to the origin or antiquity of this most 
important auxiliary to the extension and useful- 
ness of that sense upon which the enjoyment and 
value of life so much depend^, I beg to submit 
the Query, What is the earliest form in which 
evidence of the existence of th^s invaluable optical 
aid to the human eye presents itself? H. 

[Dr. Johnson expressed his surprise that the inven- 
tor of spectacles was regarded with indifference, and 
had found no biographer to celebrate his deeds. Most 
authorities give the latter part of the thirteenth century 
as the period of their invention, and popular opinion 
has pronounced in favour of Alexander de Spina, a 
native of 1'isa, who died in the year 1313. In the 
Italian Dictionary, Delia Crusca, under the head of 
" Occhiale," or Spectacles, it is stated that Friar Jordan 
de Rivalto tells his audience, in a sermon published in 
1305, that "it is not twenty years since the art of! 
making spectacles was found out, and is indeed one of 

the best and most necessary inventions in the world." 
This would place the invention in the year 1 285. On 
the other hand, Dominic Maria Manni, an eminent 
Italian writer, attributes the invention to Salvino 
Armati, who flourished about 1315. (See his Treatise, 
Degli Occhiali da Naso, invtntati da Sahino Arntati, 
4to. 1738.) On the authority of various passages in 
the writings of Friar Bacon, Mr. Molyneux is of 
opinion that he was acquainted with the use of spec- 
tacles ; and when Bacon ( Opus Majus} says, that " this 
instrument (a plano-convex glass, or large segment of 
a sphere) is useful to old men, and to those who have 
weak eyes; for they may see the smallest letters suffi- 
ciently magnified,'' we may conclude that the parti- 
cular way of assisting decayed sight was known to him. 
It is quite certain that they were known and used about 
the time of his death, A.D. 1292.] 

Stoke. What is the meaning of the word 
stoke, with regard to the names of places, as 
Bishopstoke, Ulverstoke, Stoke-on-Trent, &c.? 

W. B. 

[Bosworth (Anglo-Saxon Diet.) derives it from 
" sloe, a place ; hence stoke, a termination of the names 
of places ; locus : Wude stoc syharum locus, Sim. 
Dunelm. anno 1123."] 

Author of Psalm Tune " Doncaster. " Our 
organist is about to add another selection of psalm 
tunes to the large number already existing. He 
has been able to assign all the tunes which it com- 
prises to their proper composers, with one excep- 
tion the tune called " Doncaster," the author 
of which he has failed to discover. Will any of 
your correspondents kindly supply this deside- 
ratum ? W r . SPARROW SIMPSON, B. A. 

[The well-known tune called " Doncaster" was 
composed by Dr. Edward Miller, for fifty-one years 
organist of Doncaster Church, but better known as the 
author of The History and Antiquities of Doncaster. 
See his Collection of Psalm Tunes for the Use of Parish 
Churches, 4to. 1790, pp. 32. 46. 106.] 

Dr. Henry Sacheverell. Can any of your cor- 
respondents refer me to a copy of the Assize Ser- 
mon preached at Derby by Dr. Sacheverell, and 
which formed part of the charge against him? 

L. J. 

[We can favour L. J. with the loan of a co y of this 
sermon for a week or two. It shall be left for him at 
our publisher's.] 


(Vol. iv., pp. 383. 454.) 

It would greatly assist the elucidation of this 
word, if the earliest instances extant of its use, in 
a chronological sense, could be ascertained. 

The dictionary of Facciolatus goes no further 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



"back than Isidorus the younger, at the end of the 
sixth century ; who perhaps was the first who gave 
to era the meaning of a cursus of years : before his 
time, as well as afterwards, it is certain that era 
was a synonyme of annus. 

In recording dates, the Spanish account made 
no use of annus either expressed or understood 
era was an independent word, having numerals 
in concord with itself: thus it was prima era, 
secunda era, tertia era, &c. Spelman therefore 
had sufficient reason to contend that the origin 
of era might be Gothic and not Roman, and that 
it is but a variation of our own word year. He 
says that Isidorus, when dating from the Roman 
epoch, used the Roman word, but that when dating 
from the Gothic epoch, he conformed to the idiom 
of the Goths, " apud quos," he adds, " eram annum 
significasse ex eo liqueat, quod prisci Saxones 
(quibus magna Gothis sermonis affinitas) annum 
6 Sean' dicebant Angli hodie 'year' Belgi 'iaer.'" 

The absence of the diphthong in era is attributed 
by Facciolatus to the barbarism of the age ; but 
it is at least equally probable that the diphthong 
never did really belong to era, but that its claim to 
it originated in the fanciful derivation from ges, as 
imagined by Isidorus or rather from es, as he 
would spell it, the real corruption being in the 
latter word : thus, when the diphthong was restored 
to ass, it would, as a matter of course, be also ap- 
plied to its supposed affinitive. 

The Spaniards, who have the best right to the 
word, have never adopted the diphthong. With 
them it is still era, and Scaliger asserts that there 
is not in all Spain a single inscription in which the 
diphthong is recognised. Alluding to Scpulveda, 
he says, 

" Mirum raihi visum hominem doctissimum ac pne- 
terea Hispanum, cum tot monimenta extent in Hispania 
in quibus hujus rei memoria sculpta est, ne unum 
vidisse In illis, ut diximus, nunquam cera, semper era, 
scriptum est." 

The practical institution of the Spanish, or era 
account, was probably, like the Dionysian, lonjj 
subsequent to its nominal commencement; so that 
an enquiry into its earliest known record would 
possess the additional interest of determining 
whether sucli were the case or not. 

Censprinus, in his comparative enumeration of 
the various accounts of years the Julian the 
Augustan the Olympiad and the Palilian, 
makes no mention of the Era, which he would 
scarcely have omitted, had it been then in exist- 
ence and of imperial institution. Between his 
time, therefore, which was towards the middle of 
the third century, and that of Isidorus, the practice 
of computation by eras most probably arose. 

As for its institution by Cajsar Augustus, which 
rests on the authority of Isidorus ; that suggestion, 
even if free from anachronism, had probably no 
better foundation than an accidental similitude in 

sound, and a wish to compliment the bishop of 
CLESARAUGUSTA, to whom the epistle containing it 
was addressed by him of Hispalis. The latter ap- 
pears to have dealt largely in conjecture in framing 
his Origines as, for example, in hora, 

" Hora enim finis est temporis sic et orae sunt fines 
maris, fluminorum, et vestimentorum " 
an analogy which reminds one of the cockney 
hedge from edge, because it edges the field. 

With respect to the initial-letter method of de- 
rivation, of which, in the case of era, there are 
three or four different versions, something has 
been already said upon that subject, with reference 
to the alleged derivation of N. E. W. S. in the 
first volume of " N. & Q." Scaliger called such 
suggestions puerile and ridiculous, and doubtless 
they are little better ; his castigation of Sepul- 
veda's version was so complete that it may well 
serve for its modern imitations. 

The original meaning of era has been, like our 
own word day, expanded into a period of indefinite 
duration ; in that sense it is particularly useful as 
a general denomination for a running account of 
years. It is an elegant and convenient expression, 
and its service to chronological and historical lan- 
guage could be ill dispensed with it has, more- 
over, the prescription of long usage in its favour. 

But a modern and far more indefensible attempt 
has been made in the opposite extreme, to deprive 
era of all duration, and to restrict its meaning to 
that of a mere initial point such a meaning, 
already well supplied by the word epoch, is, in the 
case of era, opposed alike to reason, analogy, use- 
fulness, and usage. 

Leeds. A. E. B. 


(Vol.ii., p. 475.) 

Amongst the Egyptians, the SWAN was an em- 
blem of music and musicians : Cygnus with the 
Latins was a common synonym for poeta, and we 
sometimes use the expression ourselves ; thus, 
Shakspeare is called " the swan of Avon." 

This bird was sacred to Apollo, as being endued 
with DIVINATION, " because, foreseeing his happi- 
ness in death, he dies with singing and pleasure :" 

" Cygoni non sine causa Apolini dicati sint, quod 
ab eo divinationem habere videantur, qua providentes 
quid in morte boni sit, cum cantu et voluptate mori- 
antur." Tull. Qucest. Tusc. 1. c. SO. 
The dying swan, when years her temples pierce, 
In music-strains breathes out her life and verse, 
And, chanting her own dirge, tides on her wat'ry 

Phineas Fletcher's Purple Island, Canto r. * 

Giles Fletcher, in his Temptation and Victory of 
Christ, speaks of 

" The immortal swan that did her life deplore." 



[No. 118. 

An American poet has the following beautiful 
lines : 

" What is that, mother ?' 

' The swan, my love ; 

He is floating down from his native grove, 
No lov'd one now, no nestling nigh : 
He is floating down hy himself to die. 
Death darkens his eyes, and unplumes his wings, 
Yet the sweetest song is the last he sings : 

Live so, my love, that when death shall come, 

Swan-like and sweet it may waft thee home.' " 

G. W. DOANE.* 

Tennyson, with all that luxury of dreariness, 
sadness, and weariness, which characterises his 
masterpieces, has also sung of " The Dying Swan." 
I subjoin an extract, wishing your limits would 
admit of the entire : 

" The plain was grassy, wild and bare, 
Wide, wild, and open to the air, 
Which had built up everywhere 

An under-roof of doleful gray. 
With an inner voice the river ran, 
Adown it floated a dying swan, 
Which loudly did lament. 
It was the middle of the day. 
Ever the weary wind went on, 

And took the reed-tops as it went. 

The wild swan's death-hymn took the soul 
Of that waste place with joy 
Hidden in sorrow : at first to the ear 
The warble was low, and full, and clear : 
And floating about the under-sky, 
Prevailing in weakness, the coronach stole 
Sometimes afar, and sometimes anear : 
But anon her jarful jubilant voice, 
With a music strange and manifold 
Flow'd forth on a carol free and bold." 

So much for the melody of the dying swan. 
That of the living swan also requires consideration. 
Mr. Nicol, in his valuable Iceland, Greenland, Sfc. y 
thus describes the Cygnus musicus which frequents 
the lakes and rivers of Iceland : 

" The largest and noblest of this class [the natatorial] 
is undoubtedly THE WILD OR WHISTLING SWAN, with 
pure white plumage, slightly tinged on the head with 
orange-yellow. This majestic bird is five feet long, 
and, with extended xvings, eight broad. It is rarely 
seen in Greenland, and appears merely to rest in Faroe," 
on its journeys to and from Iceland in the spring and 
autumn. Some of them, however, remain all the 
winter in the latter, AND DURING THE LONG DARK 
passing in troops from one place to another. It ap- 
pears to be a kind of signal or watchword to prevent 
the dispersion of the party, and is described as remark- 
THOUGH SOMEWHAT HIGHER, each note occurring after a 

* I am not sure whether this gentleman be the 
American Bishop of New Jersey, or a namesake only. 

distinct interval. THIS MUSIC is SAID TO PRESAGE A 
THAW, and hence the Icelanders are well pleased when, 
in long-continued frosts, it breaks their repose." 

He adds in a note, "The account of the MIDNIGHT 
SONG OF THE SWAN is from' Olafsen, who says it 
' das allerangenehrnste zu horen ist,' is very de- 
lightful to hear." 

Henderson says of the river N/ordura in Iceland, 
near its confluence with the Hrita : 

" The bleakness of the surrounding rocks was greatly 
enlivened by the number of SWANS that were swimming 
and SINGING MELODIOUSLY in the river." Iceland^ 
2nd ed. p. 277. 

In the Edda we find Njord, god of the winds 
and waves, when he came back to the mountains 
to please his wife, thus singing : 

" How do I hate the abode of the mountains ! There 
one hears nothing but the howling of wolves, instead 
of the SWEET SINGING OF THE SWANS who d\yell on the 

Waterton gives an account of the last moments 
of a favourite swan which he watched, in hopes of 
catching " some plaintive sound or other, some soft 
inflection of the voice," but was " disappointed." 



(Vol. v., p. 40.) 

I am glad that C. B. has questioned the pro- 
priety of the epithet "female monster," which 
some of your correspondents have applied to 
Queen Brunehilda. Knowing how the passion 
and prejudice that characterise party spirit have 
under our own observation been able to distort 
facts and blacken characters, we should receive 
with the greater caution the statements of those 
who, if they were free, which is hardly possible, 
from a strong bias, lived in an age when exact 
information was hardly possible to obtain, and 
when the most odious calumnies could defy refu- 
tation. From the success with which Brunehilda 
maintained the sovereignty of her husband's 
kingdom through a long life, I should conclude 
that she was a woman of great abilities as well as 
energy; and the terms in which Gregory the 
Great addresses her, tend to confirm this opinion. 
And in reference to this it seems somewhat sur- 
prising that it should not have struck those wha 
first raised this question, that the evidence of the 
"wise and virtuous pontiff" was at least as good 
as that of the historian who might be neither wise 
nor virtuous. Gregory is surely as powerful to 
raise Brunehilda, as Brunehilda to pull down 
Gregory. But the plain fact is, that there is a 

* Why do your correspondents adopt the barbarous 
French corrupted form of this name, " Brunehaut? " 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



tendency to be hyperbolical in our estimation of 
crowned heads ; in all probability, if one was no 
monster the other was no saint. 

The circumstances in favour of the more fa- 
vourable view of Brunehilda' s character, are suffi- 
ciently well attested. That she was the superior 
in every respect to Fredegunda probably she felt 
herself, and as probably the latter was made to 
feel. Gregory of Tours was not merely struck by 
the beauty of her person and her engaging manner, 
but he has also remarked upon her good sense and 
her agreeable conversation. Sisterly affection 
appears in the first instance to have precipitated 
her into a conflict that ended but with her life. 
Her sister's murder was followed by those of 
Sigebert and Merowig ; and it is not a little re- 
markable that though it is not doubted who was 
the instigator of these crimes, the name of 
"monster" is never applied to Fredegunda, but 
reserved for the familiar appellation of her victim. 
When we consider how generally vague are the 
charges against Brunehilda, and,"regarding what 
is ^ otherwise known of her, how improbable, I 
think some suspicion of an undue leaning on the 
part of the Frankish historians will not be al- 
together misplaced. My own opinion is that she 
was one of those remarkable women who from 
time to time astonish the world ; one, whom for 
her superior knowledge and acquirements, the ru- 
mour of a rude age gifted with supernatural 
powers. And I am farther inclined to think that 
in the course of time the characters reported of 
her from opposite sources became finally so an- 
tagonistic, that they came to be considered as 
those of two distinct persons ; and with a reference 
to the eternal enmity between Fredegunda and 
herself, she became more world- wide famous than 
has been hitherto supposed, as both the Criemhilda 
and Brunehilda of the Nibelungen Noth. Many 
circumstances may be brought forward to support 
this latter view. SAMUEL HICKSON. 

St. John's Wood. 


(Vol. v.. p. 59.) 

The answer of our friend MR. OFFOR to the 
inquiry of your correspondent H. H. H. V., Vol. v., 
p. 59., would have required no remarks but for 
the paragraph which follows his description of the 
copies of Coverdale's Bible in his valuable col- 
ion. That paragraph was as follows : 
The introduction of the words from the Douche and 
J^atyn has never been accounted for ; they probably 
rere inserted by the German printer to make the vo- 
e more popular, so as to interest reformers by the 
nan of Luther, and Romanists by the Vulgate 
tin. The translation is certainly from the Hebrew 
eek, compared with Luther's and the Vulgate " 

If MR. OFFOR will look at " the Prologue to the 
Translation of the Bible Myles Coverdale unto 
the Christian Reader," in that copy of his, which 
he describes with the delight of an amateur of rare 
editions as having " several uncut leaves," he 
may read in its first page, how Coverdale confesses, 
with that humility which especially adorned his 
character, that "his insufficiency in the tongues" 
made him loath to undertake the task. He then 
touchingly alludes to Tyndale's adversity, sup- 
pressing his name, while he speaks of his " ripe 
knowledge," and laments the hindrances to his 
completing the translation of the Scriptures. But 
" to help me herein," he proceeds, " I have had 
sundry translations, not only in Latin, but also of 
the Dutch [i.e. German] interpreters, whom Be- 
cause of their singular gifts and special diligence 
in the Bible, I have been the more glad to follow 
for the most part, according as I was required." 
And again he says, " Lowly and faithfully have I 
followed mine interpreters." 

My attention was drawn to this subject nearly 
thirty years ago by the strange inaccuracies in 
Bishop Marsh's account of the sources of our 
authorised version ; in which he had assumed that 
Tyndale could not translate from the Hebrew, 
which there is the clearest evidence that he knew 
well; and that he therefore translated from the 
German, of which language it is almost equally 
certain that he was ignorant. 

I saw, on the other hand, that Coverdale ho- 
nestly confessed that his own translation was a 
secondary one, from the German and the Vulgate. 
He named the language, but not the translator, 
Luther, for the same reason that in two references 
to Tyndale's ability he desisted from naming him, 
viz., that his translation was to be dedicated to 
Henry VIII., who hated both their names. 

To test the different sources from which Tyndale 
and Coverdale formed their respective translations, 
nothing more is necessary than to open any 
chapter in the Hebrew and German Bibles ; and 
whilst the translators from either will of course 
be found to agree in the broad meaning of any 
verse, there will be delicate distinctions in render- 
ing idiomatic forms of speech, which will be de- 
cisive of the question. Having preserved my 
collation of some verses in Genesis xli., I find the 
following : 

Ver. 1. First word, VT1, literally, And it was. 
An introductory expression fairly represented by 
the Greek Eyevero 5e. Tyndale, And it fortuned. 
Luther and the Vulgate have omitted it, and 
therefore so has Coverdale. 

rum, lit. And behold; Luther, SSte ; Coverdale, 
How that. 

nwrrij;, LXX, ETH y TTOTOMOV; Tyndale, By 
a rivers side ; Luther, 3l"m SSSafiet ; Coverdale, By a 
water side. Here the Greek preserves the emphatic 
article n, which pointed to the Nile ; the Latin ne- 



[No. 118. 

cessarily loses it, Tyndale neglects it, Coverdale 
copies Luther's vague expression. Our authorised 
version has correctly, By the river. 

Ver. 2. roip.'?1Mitt r |Dj literally, Out of the river 
ascending ; LXX, E/c rov si-ora^ou avefiaivov ; Vulg., 
Dequoascendebant; Luther, 2Cu6 bem Staffer fteigen; 
Coverdale, Out of the water there came ; Tyndale, 
There came out of the river. 

Ver. 3. nJlOXJJTN Tyndale, And stode, which is 
quite literal; Vulg., Et pascebantur ; Luther, llnb 
traten ; Coverdale, And went. 

Ver. 7. D^n il^ni, lit. And behold a dream; 
Vulg., Post quietem ; Tyndale, And see, here is his 
dream; Luther, Unb merctte bajj eg ein Sraumrcar; 
Coverdale, And saw that it was a dream. 

Such instances might be multiplied to any ex- 
tent. Their effect upon my mind was to convince 
me that Coverdale did not even know the Hebrew 
letters when he published his version of the Bible. 
In fact, the Jews being then expelled from Eng- 
land, and the only Hebrew Lexicon, that of 
Xantes Pagninus, having probably not arrived 
here, it was scarcely possible for an Englishman to 
master the Hebrew tongue, without going abroad 
to obtain access to learned Jews, as Tyndale did, 
and as Coverdale himself did after the appear- 
ance of his Bible; and then, as I think Mr. 
Pearson has afforded some evidence, he may have 
become acquainted with Hebrew. 

If H. H. H. V. desires to know more of Cover- 
dale, he can find all that late researches have been 
able to discover in the first volume of Mr. C. An- 
derson's Annah of the English Bible, and in the 
biographical notice of Coverdale prefixed to the 
Parker Society's edition of his Remains, by the 
Rev. G. Pearson. But when that gentleman de- 
scribes Coverdale's portion of Matthew's Bible, 
and says that tb3 book of Jonah is of Tyndale's 
version, he has made a mistake. Perhaps I may 
be allowed to say, that the question, whether 
Tyndale put forth any version of Jonah, is adhuc 
subjudice. At any rate, I can say, from collation, 
that the Jonah in Matthew's Bible is identical 
with that which Coverdale put forth in his own 

The account of our early versions in Macknight's 
Introduction to the Epistles is very erroneous ; and 
that prefixed to D'Oyley and Mant's Bible, pub- 
lished by the Christian Knowledge Society, is far 
from being correct. HENRY WALTER. 


(Vol. v., pp. 59. 92.) 

For much curious information upon these sub- 
jects, I would refer your correspondents to a rather 
scarce and privately printed tract or volume, en- 
titled Observations touching the Antiquity and Dig- 
nity of Serjeant- at- Law, 1765. I am not sure that 

it was not subsequently reprinted and published. 
The author was Mr. Serjeant Wynne. He says : 

" The first introduction of rings themselves on this 
occasion (of making Serjeants) is as doubtful as that of 
mottoes. They are taken notice of by Fortescue in the 
time of Hen. VI., and in the several regulations for 
general calls in Hen. VIII. and Queen Elizabeth's time. 
The antiquity of them, therefore, though not to be 
strictly ascertained, yet being thus far indisputable, 
makes Sir H. Spelman's account rather extraordinary 
(see Gloss, tit. Serv. ad Legem) ; but whatever is the 
antiquity of these rings, that of mottoes seems to fall 
short of them at least a century. That in the 1 9 & 20 
Eliz. (1576-77) may perhaps be the first; because, 
till that time, they are nowhere mentioned. 

" When Dugdale speaks (p. 136.) of the posies ' that 
were usual,' he must be understood to speak of the 
usage of his own time." 

The motto which Serj. Wynne notices as of the 
earliest occurrence in 19 & 20 Eliz., was Lex regis 
presidium. The earliest of subsequent date appear 
to be as follow : 

13 Car. II. Adest Carolus Magnus. 

2 Jac. II. Deus, rex, lex, (at the call of Chris- 
topher Milton, the poet's brother, John Powell, 
and others). 

3 Jac. II. Rege lege. 

1 Wm. & Mary. Veniendo restituit rem. 
12 Wm. Imperium et libertas. 

2 Anne. Deo et regina. 

5 Anne. Moribus, armis, legibus. 

9 Anne. Unit et imperat. 

1 Geo. Plus quam speravimus. 

10 Gco. Salva libertate potens. 

20 & 21 Geo. II. Mens bona, fama, fides. 

Serjeant Wynne brings his list of the Serjeants 
called down to the year 1765, and gives in most 
cases the mottoes, which were not confined, it 
would seem, to individuals, but adopted by the 
whole call. He remarks, that in late years they 
have been strictly classical in their phrase and 
often elegant in their application, whether in 
expressing the just idea of regal liberty in a 
wish for the preservation of the family or in a 
happy allusion to some public event, and, at the 
same time, a kind of prophetic declaration of its 
success. At p. 1 1 7. will be found an account of the 
expense and weight of the rings, which, upon the 
occasion referred to, were 1,409 in number, and 
the expense 773/. I will not occupy further space, 
but refer your correspondents to the work of 
Serjeant Wynne. G. 

The custom of Serjeants-at-law presenting 
rings on their creation was used in (and pro- 
bably before) the reign of Henry VI. (See For- 
tescue De Laudibus Legum Anglice, cap. 50. ; and 
see instances and particulars in the reigns of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., Philip and Mary, and 
Elizabeth in Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales, 2nd 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



edit, pp. 116. 118. 122. 123. 124. 130.) Mottoes 
were used as early as 1606, but I am not pre- 
pared to say they originated at that pariod, 
though I do not observe any mention of them 
in Dugdale's accounts of the ceremonies at ^ the 
creation of Serjeants of an earlier date. The 
following mottoes may interest some of your 
readers : 

Sir Edward Coke, 1606. Lex est tutissima cassis. 

Sir John Walter and Sir Thomas Trevor, 1625. 
Regi legi servire libertas. 

Sir Henry Yelverton, 1625. Stat lege corona. 

Sir Robert Berkeley, 1627. Lege Dem et rex. 

Robert Callis, 1627. Regis oracula legis. 

Sir George Vernon, 1627. Rex legis regnique 

Sir James Weston, 1631. Servus regi serviens 

Sir Robert Heath, 1631. Lex regis vis regis. 

Sir George Jeffreys, 1680. A Deo rex a rege 

Sir Michael Foster, 1736. Nunquam libertas 

Sir William Blackstone, 1770. Secundis dubi- 
isque rectus. 

Sir Alexander Thomson, 1787. Reverentia le- 

William Cockell, 1787. Stat lege corona. 

On Serjeant Cockell's call, " in consequence of 
a late regulation no rings were given to the judges, 
the bar, or to the attornies." 

Some of the older, and most of the modern, law 
reporters, mention the mottoes on the rings given 
by the Serjeants. C. H. COOPER. 


T. P. is informed that the custom of Serjeants- 
at-law presenting rings with mottoes prevailed 
long before A.D. 1670. In the Journal of the 
Arch. Institute, vol. vii. p. 196., he will find men- 
tion of a mediaeval ring of the kind, described as 
*' A Serjeant-at-law's gold ring, the hoop -| of an 
inch in width, and of equal thickness, inscribed 
Lex regis presidium" CEYREP. 

On June 8, 1705, fifteen Serjeants-at-law took 
the customary oaths at the Chancery Bar, and 
delivered to the Lord Keeper a ring for the 
Queen, and another for his H. R. H. Prince George 
of Denmark, each ring being worth 61. 13s. 4d. \ 
The Lord Keeper, Lord Treasurer, Lord Steward, 
Lord Privy Seal, Lord High Chamberlain, Master 
of the Household, Lord Chamberlain, and the two 
Chief Justices, received each a ring of the value of 
1 8,9. ; the Lord Chief Baron, Master of the Rolls, the 
Justices of either Bench, and two Chief Secretaries 
each one worth 16s. ; the Chief Steward and 
Comptroller each a ring valued at I/.; the Mar- 
shal, Warden of the Fleet, every Serjeant-at-Law, 
the Attorney-General, and Solicitor-General, each 
a ring worth 12s. ; the three Barons of Exchequer 

a ring worth 105. ; the two Clerks of the Crown, 
the three Prothonotaries, the Clerks of the War- 
rants, the Prothonotary of Queen's Bench, and 
the Chirographer, each a ring worth 5s. ; each 
Filazer and Exigenter, the Clerk of the Council, 
and the Gustos Brevium, each a ring that cost 
2.9. Qd. The motto on the rings was this, " Mo- 
ribus, armis, legibus" MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 
48. Jermvn Street. 


(Vol. iv., p. 439.) 

It is capable of demonstration that Christianity 
was introduced into the Orkney Islands, or at 
least that missionaries were sent there, long pre- 
vious to the invasion of Harold Harfagre. Your 
correspondent W. H. F. mentions that Depping, in 
the Histoire des Expeditions Maritimes dcs Nor- 
mands, states that Sigurd, the second nominally, 
though really the first earl, expelled the Christians 
from Orkney, and he requests to know Depping's 
authority ; as the circumstance is not alluded to 
by Torfaeus, the Orkney inga- Saga, or Snorro Stur- 
leson, and has been " either overlooked by Barry, 
or unknown to him." 

The well-known " Diploma or Genealogical 
Deduction of the Earls of Orkney," written by 
the bishop of that diocese in the year 1406, and 
printed in Wallace's Account of Orkney, and in 
the appendices to Barry's History, and the Ork- 
neyinga-Saga, is generally looked upon, from the 
circumstances under which it was drawn up, as 
an authentic document of considerable historical 
value. It is there mentioned, that the Norsemen 
found the islands inhabited by the Peti and the 
Pape, whom they exterminated. But I transcribe 
the words of the Diploma : 

" Haec terra sive insularum patria Orcadie fuit in- 
habitata et culta, duabus nacionibus scilicet Peti et 
Pape, que due genera naciones fuerant destructe radi- 
citus, ac penitus per Norwegenses de stirpe sive de- 
tribu strenuissimi principis Rognaldi, qui sic sunt 
ipsias naciones a^gressi, quod posteritas ipsarum nacio- 
num Peti et Pape non remansit." 

Though Chalmers (Caledonia, vol. i. p. 261.) is 
rather inclined to discredit the above account, it 
seems probable that those Pape were missionaries 
or priests, who were also found, under precisely 
the same name, in Iceland when that island was 
colonised by the Norsemen (Pinkerton's Enquiry, 
vol. ii. p. 297.). I have not my copy of Depping 
at present by me, and therefore am unable to say 
whether he explains his use of the word Christians 
in his mention of their expulsion. It may be that, 
without going into detail, he accepted, as proved, 
the identity of the Pape and the priests, and be- 
lieved himself warranted in making the assertion. 
But perhaps he might have had some other 



[No. 118. 

authority of which I am ignorant, as he attributes 
the expulsion (according to W. H. F.) to Sigurd, 
whereas the words of the Diploma are, "per Nor- 
wegenses de stirpe sive de tribu strenuissimi prin- 
cipis Rognaldi," by no means limiting the deed to 
his (Rognald's) immediate successor, though in- 
ferentially accusing Sigurd of participation. A 
careful consideration of the entire passage in 
Depping, and of his general style, may tend to 
show whether he relied merely on the Diploma, 
or whether he had some more definite authority. 

I may mention, that though it has escaped 
W. H. F.'s observation, he will find, by referring 
to pp. 87. 116. 133., Headrick's edition, that Barry 
did not overlook the early Christianising of the 
Orkneys, and the extirpation of the Pape ; 
although, seeing that the former is matter of his- 
tory, and the latter was not a mere tradition in 
1406, but derived from a more trustworthy source 
(" sicut cronice nostre clare demonstrant"), he is 
scarcely distinct enough, or decided in his infer- 
ences. It would be interesting to know what 
were those "cronice" appealed to by the bishop. 

A. H. R. 



(Vol. v., p. 32.) 

MR. J. B. COLMAN has directed attention to the 
special act of attainder passed in 22 Hen. VIII. 
in order to punish Richard Roose for poisoning 
the family of the Bishop of Rochester ; but I 
have reason to believe that he is wrong in his 
assertion that, prior to that statute, " there was 
no peculiarity in the mode of punishment" for 
the crime in question. In the Chronicle of the 
Grey Friars of London, which I am now engaged 
in editing for the Camden Society, 1 find an in- 
stance of the like punishment being inflicted for 
the same crime in the 13th Hen. VIII. : 

" And this yere was a man soddyne in a cautherne 
(sc. a cauldron) in Smythfelde, and lett up and downe 
dyvers tymes tyll he was dede, for because he wold a 
poyssynd dyvers persons." 

I would therefore beg to inquire whether MR. 
COLMAN has taken a correct view of the statute of 
22 Hen. VIII. as prescribing a new punishment, 
retrospective to the case of Richard Roose ; and 
whether the act was not, so far as he was con- 
cerned, simply one of attainder, to deprive the 
culprit of the " advantage of his clargie," whereby 
he might otherwise have escaped the legal punish- 
ment already provided for the crime. Having de- 
clared Roose attainted of high treason, the statute 
proceeds- to enact that all future poisoners shall 
also be debarred of the benefit of clergy, and im- 
mediately committed to death by boiling. Roose's 

own case is recorded in the Grey Friars' Chronicle 
with the same horrible circumstances as those re- 
lated in the former instance, of his life being 
gradually destroyed: 

" He was lockyd in a chayne and pullyd up and 
downe with a gybbyt at dyvers tymes tyll he was 
A third instance occurs in 1542, when 

" The x day of March was a mayde boyllyd in 
Smythfelde for poysynyng of dyvers persons." 

This last is the same case which is cited by L. H.K. 
in your Vol. ii., p. 519. If my view of the statute 
of 22 Hen. VIII. be the right one, it still remains 
to be ascertained when this barbarous punishment 
was first adopted ; and is it certain that it ceased 
with the reign of Hen. VIII. ? 


There appears to have occurred in Scotland 
one instance at least of this barbarous mode of 
executing justice. In his Notes to Ley den's 
Ballad of Lord Soulis (in the Minstrelsy of the 
Border), Sir Walter Scott says : 

" The tradition regarding the death of Lord Soulis, 
however singular, is not without a parallel in the real 
history of Scotland. The same extraordinary mode of 
cookery was actually practised (liorresco referens) upon 
the body of a Sheriff of the Mearns. This person, 
whose name was Melville of Glenbervie, bore his facul- 
ties so harshly, that he became detested by the Barons 
of the country. Reiterated complaints of his conduct 
having been made to James I. (or, as others say, to the 
Duke of Albany), the monarch answered, in a moment 
of unguarded impatience, ' Sorrow gin the Sheriff* 
were sodden, and supped in broo !' The complainers 
retired, perfectly satisfied. Shortly after, the Lairds of 
Arbuthnot, Mather, Laureston, and Pattaraw, de- 
coyed Melville to the top of the hill of Garvock, 
above Lawrencekirk, under pretence of a grand hunt- 
ing party. Upon this place (still called the Sheriff's 
Pot), the Barons had prepared a fire and a boiling 
cauldron, into which they plunged the unlucky Sheriff! 
After he was sodden (as the king termed it) for a suf- 
ficient time, the savages, that they might literally 
observe the royal mandate, concluded the scene of 
abomination by actually partaking of the hell-broth. 

" The three Lairds were outlawed for this offence ; 
and Barclay, one of their number, to screen himself 
from justice, erected the kaim (i. e. the camp, or for- 
tress) of Mathers, which stands upon a rocky and 
almost inaccessible peninsula, overhanging the German 
Ocean. The Laird of Arbuthnot is said to have eluded 
the royal vengeance, by claiming the benefit of the law 
of clan Macduff. A pardon, or perhaps a deed of re- 
plegiation, founded upon that law, is said to be still 
extant upon the records of the Viscount of Arbuthnot. 

" The punishment of boiling," adds Sir Walter, 
" seems to have been in use among the English at a very 
late period, as appears from the following passage in 
Stowe's Chronicle : ' The 17th March (1524) Mar- 
garet Davy, a maid, was boiled at Smithfield for 
poisoning of three households that she had dwelled in.' '* 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



. According to tradition, however, the boiling, or 
broiling rather, of the Wizard-Earl Soulis, was 
still more frightful : 
' " On a circle of stones they placed the pot, 
On a circle of stones but barely nine ; 
They heated it red and fiery hot, 

Till the burnished brass did glimmer and shine. 

" They rolled him up in a sheet of lead, 
A sheet of lead for a funeral pall ; 
They plunged him in the cauldron red, 
And melted him, lead, and bones, and all." 

II. S. F. 


ta iHtiior 

List of English Sovereigns (Vol. v., p. 28.). 
The principal reason why the names of the Em- 
press Matilda, King Henry junior, and Queen 
Jane (Grey or Dudley), are not inserted in the 
lists of English sovereigns, as J. J. S. suggests 
they should be, arises from the fact of the periods 
of their supposed reigns being concurrent with 
those of other monarchs, and our constitution 
recognising one only at a time. The name of 
Queen Jane has, however, found a place in some 
recent lists ; following that given in Sir Harris 
Nicolas's Chronology of History (edit. 1833, 
p. 330.), where he states that her nominal reign 
extended from the 6th to the 17th July, 1553. 
Appended to The Chronicle of Queen Jane and 
Queen Mary (printed for the Camden Society), I 
have given a list of all the public documents or 
state papers known to be extant which bear date 
in the reign of Queen Jane, and the last is a letter 
of the Privy Council to Lord Rich, dated the 19th 
July ; this extends the period two days longer 
than in the Chronology of History, and was cer- 
tainly the last public document that recognised 
Jane's authority. Only one private document so 
dated has been discovered. It is a deed relating 
to the parish of St.Dunstan's in Kent (dated 15th 
July), which was communicated by Mr. Hunter 
to the Retrospective Review, N". S. vol. i. p. 505. 
But an act of parliament of the 1st March, 1553-4, 
legalised all documents that might be so dated from 
the 6th of July to the last day of the same month 
(Nicolas, p. 316.). Among our historians, Heylin, 
in his History^ of the Reformation, has apportioned 
a distinct division of his narrative to " The Reign 
of Queen Jane." JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS. 

Moravian Hymns (Vol. v., p. 30.). I cannot 
tell H. B. C. what is the editio princeps of these 
hymns ; but as he appears to know of no edition 
anterior to 1749, I beg to observe that an edition 
of Psalms and Hymns for the use of the Moravians 
was published by the Rev. John Gambold, one of 
their bishops, at London, in 1738. It is in 12mo. 
without the name of any printer. There is a copy 

of this book in the archiepiscopal library at Lam- 
beth. But as it is fi ve-and-twenty years, or more, 
since I saw it, I have no recollection of the parti- 
culars of its contents. H. C. 

In 1801 a Moravian Hymn-book was issued, 
which, being out of print, was reprinted in 1809. 
I should suppose the book a great improvement 
upon the old Moravian hymn-books. I have a 
copy of the edition of 1809 : about half the hymns 
are translations from the German, and the rest 
selected from Watts, Wesley, Steel, Robinson, and 
others. The hymn "To you, ye Jesus' wounds" 
is not in it. The book contains also their simple 
and beautiful liturgy, offices for baptism, burial, 
ordination of bishops, priests, and deacons, &c. 



The following is the title of a book, printed 
in 1749, for James Hutton, Fetter Lane: 
Hymns composed for the Use of the Brethren by the 
Right Rev. and most Illustrious C. Z. (Count 
Zinzendorf ?) I transcribe some specimens. 

" God's side hole, hear my prayer, 

Accept my meditation ; 
On thee I cast my care, 

With childlike adoration. 

While days and ages pass, and endless periods roll, 
An everlasting blaze shall sparkle from that hole. 

Lovely side hole, dearest side hole ! 

Sweetest side hole, made for me ; 
O my most beloved side hole ! 

I wish to be lost in thee. 
O my dearest side hole ! 

Thou art to my bride soul 
The most dear and loveliest place; 
Pleura's space ! 
Soul and body in the pass. 

The daughters reverence do, 

Christess and praise thee too, 

Thou happy Kyria, daughter of Abijah ; 

We reach each sister of Jehovah, 

Manness of the man Jeshuah, 

Out of the pleura Hosannah." 


Age of Trees "Essex Broad Oak" (Vol. v., 
pp. to. 40.). Was not the "Essex Broad Oak" 
identical with the " Fairlop Oak ? " The Fairlop 
Oak is thus described in Excursions through Essex 
(Longman, 1818, vol. ii. p. 56.) : 

" In Hainault Forest, about one mile from Barking- 
side, stands an oak which has been known through 
many centuries by the name of Fairlop. For an 
account of this celebrated tree (which seems to have 
escaped the attention of the laborious Camden, and his 
indefatigable continuator, Mr. Gough) we are indebted 



[No. 118. 

to the Rev. Mr. Gilpin. The tradition of this tree,' 
says this ingenious writer in his Remarks on Forest 
Scenery and other Woodland Views, 'traces it half way 
up the Christian sera. It is still a noble tree, though 
it has suffered greatly from the depredations of time. 
About a yard from the ground, where its rough fluted 
stem is 36 feet in circumference, it divides into 
eleven vast arms ; yet not in the horizontal manner 
of an oak, but rather in that of a beach. Beneath its 
shade, which overspreads an area of 300 feet in circuit, 
an annual fair has long been held on the first Friday in 
July.' This celebrated tree was for some time fenced 
round with a close paling about five feet high. Almost 
all the extremities of its branches have been sawed off, 
and Mr. Forsyth's composition applied to them, to pre- 
serve them from deciy ; and the injury which the 
trunk of the tree had sustained from the lighting of 
fires have been repaired, as much as possible, with the 
same composition. On one of the branches a board 
was fixed, with this inscription, All good foresters are 
requested not to hurt this old tree, a plaister having 
been lately applied to its wounds.' " 

If my recollection serves me correctly, a draw- 
ing and description of this old tree is contained in 
one of Hone's publications, I think his Table 

Another large tree is mentioned in the same 
volume (p. 87.) as being called " Doodle [Query, 
dole or boundary'] Oke." 

To conclude (if I have not already trespassed 
too much upon your space), Is the Fairlop Oak 
still standing; and, if so, what is its present con- 
dition? J. B. COLMAN. 


Cypress trees on the continent of America grow 
to immense ages. By counting the concentric 
rings observed in the wood, on sawing a trunk 
across, it appears that 400 years is a common age. 
There is a gigantic trunk near Santa Maria del 
Tula, in the province of Oaxaca, in Mexico, 
whose circumference at the dilated base is no less 
than 200 feet. Of this, taking 1-6 line as the 

* [The drawing and description of this venerable 
oak'is given in the Mirror- vol. ii. p. 81., where it is 
stated that Mr. Forsyth's precautions were insufficient 
to protect it from an injurious custom practised by 
many of its thoughtless visitors, of making a fire within 
the cavities to cook their provisions ; for, in the month 
of June, 1805, it was set on fire, and continued burn- 
ing until the following day, by which the trunk was 
considerably injured. The high winds of February, 
1820, at last stretched its massy trunk and limbs on 
that turf which it had for so many ages overshadowed 
with its verdant foliage. The wood of which the 
pulpit and reading-desk of St. Pancras new church are 
composed was a portion of the Fairlop Oak ; and are 
looked upon as matters of greater curiosity perhaps, 
on that account, than even the beautiful grained and 
highly polished material and the splendid carvings. 

average growth of a year, the age would be 3512 
years. (Lyell's Second Visit to United States, vol. ii. 
pp. 254, 255. Prescott's Peru, vol. ii. p. 315. 
4th edition.) Adanson, the celebrated botanist* 
calculated the age of one of the famous Boabab 
trees of Senegal to be 5150 years. (Marquis of 
Ormonde's Sicily, p. 76.) A tamarind tree in the 
Mahometan burial-ground at Putelam, in Ceylon, 
is 39 feet in diameter, or upwards of 117 feet in 
circumference, from which the age may be cal- 
culated on the above scale. (Sirr's Ceylon, vol. i. 
p. 85.) T.G. 

Arrangement of Books (Vol. v., p. 49.) Your 
correspondent L.'s letter is very valuable. May I 
add a few contributions? 

There is a mode of printing used in Cuvier's 
Regne Animal, which is exceedingly useful for 
books of classification, that is, to print those sen- 
tences which relate to the primary divisions in a 
larger type, and full up to the side ; the subdi- 
visions to be printed short, as sums are entered in 
an account book, and in a smaller type. I be- 
lieve I had the fortune to introduce a slight im- 
provement in indexes. For instance, in your 
index the subordinate items are arranged accord- 
ing to time, but that gives a great deal of trouble. 
Under MR. BREEN'S name there are fifteen items ; 
they should be arranged alphabetically, like the 
principal items, as is done in the same index in 
the case of notices of books, unavoidably. But 
such subordinate items had better, in general, 
have the word on which the alphabetical arrange- 
ment turns printed in Italics to catch the eye, 
rather than invert the order of the words, as must 
be done in the principal items. 

In what books the old spelling should be re- 
tained is a matter of individual question, upon 
which no rules can be laid down. Walpole com- 
plained that the Paxton Letters were printed with 
the old spelling, and that, though a version is on 
the opposite page ; but few persons will agree with 
him in that. In such books we have a right to 
see the old spelling in order to judge whether the 
version is right, as well as for general information. 

The Ring-finger (Vol. iv., pp. 150. 198. 261.). 
The two questions mooted concerning the ring- 
finger, i. e. why the third finger is the ring-finger, 
and why the wedding-ring is worn on the third 
finger of the left band ? have not yet been satis- 
factorily answered. 

The third finger is the only recognised ring-finger. 
Hence all who wear rings ex ojfficio, wear them on 
that finger. Cardinals," bishops, doctors, abbots, 
&c., wear their ring on the third finger. The 
reason is that it is the first vacant finger. The 
thumb and the first two fingers have always been 
reserved as symbols of the three persons of the 
Blessed Trinity. When a bishop gives his blessing, 

JAN. 31. 1852.] 



he blesses with the thumb arid first two fingers. 
Our brasses and sepulchral slabs bear witness to 
this fact. And at the marriage ceremony, the 
ring is put on to the thumb and the first two 
fingers, whilst the names of " The Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost" are pronounced. Thus 
the third is the first vacant finger, and the ring- 
finger. The wedding-ring is worn on the left hand 
to signify the subjection of the wife to her husband. 
The right hand signifies power, independence, 
authority ; according to the words : 

" The salvation of his right hand is in powers." 
Psalm xx. 6. 

" The change of the right hand of the Most High. " 
Psalm Ixxvii. 10. 

The left hand signifies dependence or subjection. 
Married women, then, wear the wedding-ring on 
the third finger of the left hand, because they are 
subject to their husbands. 

Bishops, because they have ecclesiastical autho- 
rity, and doctors, because they have authority to 
teach, wear the ring on the ring-finger of the right 
hand. CEYREP. 

Count Konigsmark (Vol.v., p. 78.). The Queries 
put by MR. MARKLAND will be found solved in 
that excellent book, The English Causes Celebres, 
edited by Mr.Craik, and published in 1840. It is 
a great pity that Mr. Craik's undertaking was not 
prosecuted beyond vol. i. 

Walpole was wrong, and Sir Egerton Brydges 
right. Charles John Count Konigsmark was the 
instigator of the assassination of Mr. Thynnc. 
Philip Christopher von Konigsmark, the younger 
brother of Charles John, was the presumed lover 
of Sophia of Zell. 

Charles John von Konigsmark was mortally 
wounded at the battle of Argos, on the 29th Au- 
gust, 1686. 

The presumed "foul play" in the Konigsmark 
case consisted, I suppose, in Chief Justice Pem- 
berton summing up strongly, in accordance with 
the known wish of the king, that the Count should 
be acquitted. JOHN BRUCE. 

MR. MARKLAND will find his inquiries as to the 
two Konigsmarks answered in a late number of 
the Quarterly Review (I think that for October, 
1851), in an article on the Lexington Papers. C. 

Petition respecting the Duke of Wellington 
(Vol. iv., pp.233. 477. ; Vol. v., p. 43.). I thank 
^EGROTUS for the clue he has afforded me, as to 
the date of the document he inquired for, and can 
now give him some further particulars. At a 
Court of Common Council held Feb. 23, 1810, in 
consequence of a proposition in the House of 
.Commons to settle upon Lord Wellington 2000/. 
per ann. for three lives, a motion was'made, and 
carried by sixty-five to fifty-eight, to petition the 
House against it. The petition is very long, but 

it is to the following tenor : it commences by ob- 
jecting to the grant on the ground of economy, and 
that his services have not deserved it ; " that his 
gallant efforts in Portugal have lead only to the 
disgraceful and scandalous Convention of Cintr^, 
signed by his own hand;" that the result of the 
battle of Talavera was a retreat, with the aban- 
donment of sick and wounded ; that as yet they 
have seen no inquiry into either of these cam- 
paigns ; that he and his family have held lucrative 
appointments in the East Indies ; that no provi- 
sion has been made for the family of the highly 
deserving Sir John Moore. It then goes on to 
say, " that it appears a high aggravation of the 
misconduct of his Majesty's incapable and unprin- 
cipled advisers ; " that they advised his Majesty 
to refuse to receive from the Lord Mayor and 
Sheriffs, either at a levee, or personal audience, a 
petition from the livery praying an inquiry into 
the conduct of the commanders of the late cam- 
paign. This is the substance of the petition which 
I should think might be readily seen in extenso by 
a reference to a file of newspapers of the date. 

E. X. W. 

P.S. The petition from the Livery, doubtless 
agreed to in Common Hall, which the king refused 
to receive, and which is referred to above, is most 
probably the one which ^EGROTUS inquires about, 
and of which the Duke complains in his dispatch 
of Jan. 1810. I have not been able to see it ; but 
if I can find it, will send you notes of it : the mem. 
I have sent establishes the fact of its having been 

Reichenbach" s Ghosts (Vol. iv , p. 5. ; Vol. v., 
p. 89.). If A. N. will do me the favour to refer 
to my question, he will see that his remarks do 
not furnish a reply. Reichenbach says, that 
"thousands of ghost stories will now receive a 
natural explanation," from his discovery that the 
decomposition of animal matter is accompanied by 
light, or luminous vapour, which is visible to cer- 
tain sensitive persons. As I originally stated, " my 
Query is, where to find the ' thousands of ghost 
stories ' which are explained by it." I now repeat 
that Query in unaffected ignorance. I have read 
a good many ghost stories, British and foreign ; 
but I know that some of the writers in " N. & Q." 
are much better acquainted with German litera- 
ture and superstitions than I am; and I ask them 
if they can tell me where to find such stories, 
that is, ghost stories explained by Reichenbach' s 
discovery ? I do not ask for " thousands," nor 
even hundreds a score or two will be quite 
enough ; or even a dozen, if they are good ones. 



The Broad Arrow. -I can only offer the follow- 
ing note on the above subject as a conjecture, 



[No. 118. 

probably most of your readers will think a very 
wild one. 

It has sometimes occurred to me that the origin 
of the symbol now generally known as the " broad 
arrow" might be traced back to the mysteries of 
Mithras. At all events, it is known that the same 
figure occurs on coins, gems, &c. as the symbol of 
Mithras as the Sun. Now, so widely was the 
worship of Mithras spread throughout the Roman 
empire, that I believe no one would feel any sur- 
prise at the adoption of a Mithraic symbol even in 
the remotest parts of the empire ; and indeed the 
fact that Carausius, during his usurpation of the 
imperial authority in Britain, issued coins with the 
inscription 'HAioo Miflpa. ai/i/nfjep, brings the worship 
of Mithras, as it were, home to our own doors. 
Whether the symbol of the sun was ever employed 
for any such purpose as our modern broad arrow, 
is a question on which I hope some of your readers 
may be able to throw some light. Meanwhile, 
being quite ignorant as to the antiquity of our 
Ordnance mark, the above is merely thrown out 
as a conjecture. It is perhaps, to some extent, 
confirmed by a statement of Grimm's (Deutsche 
Mythologie), that the symbol of the Moon was 
used by the ancient Germans precisely as our 
broad arrow, viz. on boundary stones, &c. 

I think there is more probability in another con- 
jecture of mine, that the same symbol occurs else- 
where, and for a very different purpose, viz. in 
our churches, and as symbolical of the Sun of 
Righteousness. Our painted windows and our 
altar-cloths contain the symbol /J\, which I be- 
lieve generally goes by the name of the " three 
sacred nails," an explanation which I always 
thought ridiculous, even at a time when I could 
give no other. Is it not far more in accordance 
with the principles of symbolism, and the practice 
of the early Christians, to believe it to be the 
adoption of a heathen symbol, and its application 
to Christian purposes ? J. M. (4). 

St. Mary Tavy, Tavistock. 

Quarter Waggoner (Vol. v., p. 11.). I have 
met with a gentleman in the navy who informs 
me that thes^words should be " Quarter Wagner," 
and was so called from the publisher's name, 
" Wagner," who published the charts in four parts 
answering to the four quarters of the globe. 
These charts so called have been disused for near 
thirty years ; and it was commonly observed that 
they who did not make alteration by improvement 
in the charts, or who knew not of anything beyond 
what was then known in maritime affairs, did not 
know anything beyond what was noted on the then 
existing charts by Wagner. Hence the phrase, f 

In connexion with the notes of BOLTON CORNET, 
I would mention that I have a ponderous folio 
volume, with thick oak backs, covered with canvas, 

on which is the name of the book, The Dutch 
Waggoner : the printed title is 

" The Lightning Columne, or Sea-Mirrour, contain- 
ing the Sea- Coasts of the Northern, Eastern, and 
"Western Navigation; Setting forth in divers necessarie 
Sea- Cards, all the Ports, Rivers, Bay es, Roads, Depths 
and Sands, very curiously placed on its due Polus heigt 
furnished, With the discoveries of the chief Countries, 
and on what cours and distance they lay one from 
another. Never theretofore so clearly laid open, and 
here and there very diligently bettered and augmented 
for the use of all Seamen. As also the Situation of 
the Northernly Countries, as Islands, the Strate Davids, 
the Isle of Jan Mayen, Bear's Island, Old Greenland, 
Spitsbergen and Nova Zenobla : Adorned with many 
Sea-Cards and Discoveries, gathered out of the Expe- 
rience and Practice of divers Pilots and Lovers of the 
famous Art of Navigation. Whereunto is added a 
brief Instruction of the Art of Navigation, together 
with New Tables of the Sun's Declination, wit an New 
Almanach. At Amsterdam. Printed by Casparus 
Loots-man, Bookseller upon the Water in the Loots- 
man, 1689. With previledge for fiftheen lears." 

The " priviledge " is signed " Arent Baron van 
Waggenaer. By the appointment of the States, 
Symon van Beaumont." The book is full of very 
curious charts, sections, and headlands, and other 
engravings, and is very rare ; but I merely mention 
it to show that books of charts, &c. were known as 
waggoners. L. JEWITT. 

MR. BOLTON CORNET has traced the " Wag- 
goner " to Wagenaer's work satisfactorily ; but 
surely the Quarter is merely Quarto. I believe 
the term is not now used in the navy, and appa- 
rently was never officially recognised : at least it 
does not occur in the Admiralty Instructions for 
the Navy of 1747, 1790, or 1808. I may add a 
reference to Falconer's Marine Dictionary, where 
"Waggoner" is explained to be a "book of 
charts, describing the coasts, rocks, &c. ; " and to, 
Dairy in pie's Charts and Memoirs (1772), where a 
work called The English Waggoner is mentioned. 

Log-book is so called because the rate of sail- 
ing of the ship, as ascertained by heaving the log, 
is one of the most frequent and important entries. 

B. R. I. 

Gibber's Lives of the Poets (Vol. v., p. 25.). - 
I have not Croker's last edition of Boswell's Life 
of Johnson to refer to, to see what is there said re- 
specting Gibber's title to the authorship of this 
book ; but I find the following MS. note on the 
fly-leaf of the first volume of my copy of the 
Lives of the Poets : 

" Steevens says that not the smallest part of the work 
called Cibber's Lives of the Poets ' was the compilation 
of Gibber ; being entirely written by Mr. Shiells, 
amanuensis to Dr. Johnson, when his Dictionary was 
preparing for the press. T. Cibber was in the King's 
Bench, and accepted of ten guineas from the booksellers 

JAX. 31. 1852.] 



for leave to prefix his name to the work, and it was 
purposely so prefixed as to leave the reader in doubt 
whether he or his father was the person designed." 

The American edition of the German Conversa- 
tions-Lexicon, at vol. iii. p. 190. makes the same 
statement, bnt without giving any authority. The 
name of Robert Shiells, a Scotchman, is here given 
as the author of the Lives of the Poets. P. T. 

Shakspere and the English Press (Vol. iv., 
p. 344.)- The Second part of Henry the Sixt, 
ascribed to Shakspere by Heminge and Condell, 
is founded on a play entitled The first part of the 
contention betwixt the two famous houses of Yorhe 
and Lancaster, which was first printed anony- 
mously in 1594. It was reprinted anonymously 
in 1600; and, as the work of Shakspere, about 
1619. The amended play first appeared in the 
folio of 1623. The passage in which Jack Cade 
reproaches lord Say with having promoted educa- 
tion, stands thus in the editions of 1594 and 1623 : 

" Thou hast most traitorously erected a grammer 
schoole, to infect the youth of the realme, and against 
the kings crowne and dignitie, thou hast built vp a 
paper-mill." 1594. (J. O. H.) 

" Thou hast most traitorously corrupted the youth 
of the realm in erecting a grammar-school : and 
whereas, before, our forefathers had no other books but 
the score and the tally, thou hast caused printing to be 
used ; and, contrary to the king, his crown, and dig- 
nity, thou hast built a paper-mill." 1623. (J. P. C.) 

Fabian gives no information on the charges 
made against lord Say ; nor do the subsequent 
chroniclers. The received text contains two un- 
doubted anachronisms to what extent, it would 
require a volume to decide. On comparing the 
extracts, it appears that we must ascribe the 
anachronism on paper-making to the earlier dra- 
matist, and that on printing to William Shakspere 
who also borrowed the allusion to the score and 
the tally from a former speech in the work of his 
unknown precursor. 

Malone, when he edited The plays and poems of 
William Shakspere, undertook to distinguish by 
inverted commas the lines of this play which the 
poet ^ retouched and greatly improved," and by 
asterisks, those which were " his own original pro- 
duction." The design was commendable, but in 
the execution of it he committed numerous over- 


The Book of Familiar Quotations ; being a Collection 
of Popular Extracts and Aphorisms selected from the 
Works of the best Authors, is a little volume of such 
extracts from Shakspeare, Pope, and others of our 
'greatest poets as most frequently fall on the ear in con- 
versation, or meet the eye in the columns of the press 
and periodicals of the country. The present selection 

is a very good one, as far as it goes, and has the advan- 
tage over its predecessors of not only giving us the 
name of the author of each passage quoted, but also its 
precise place in his works. 

Shall we Register our Deeds 9 answered by Sir Edward 
Sugden. This clever pamphlet proposes an important 
Query, and replies to it thus : " Let us therefore to 
the question proposed, Shall we register our deeds? 
answer with one voice, No ! " 

If the study of Natural History be one which may 
with advantage be introduced into the family circle 
(and who can doubt it?) we know no better medium 
than the clever and well-conducted little weekly paper 
which has just been commenced under the title of 
Kidd's London Journal, of which the first five numbers 
are before us. 

Mr. Tymms, the active and zealous Secretary of the 
Bury and West Suffolk Archaeological Institute, and 
Editor of the volume of Bury Wills, printed by the 
Camden Society, is about to publish a Handbook of 
Bury, on the plan of Cunningham's Handbook of Lon- 
don, and would be glad to receive any notes upon the 
subject : more especially with respect "to its remarkable 

We have to call the attention of our readers interested 
in the history of our Constitution and Constitutional 
Law to a preliminary Essay on the History of the 
Law of Habeas Corpus recently published by Dr. Mar- 
quardsen, under the title Ueber Haft und Biirgschaft 
lei den Angelsachsen. It is but a small pamphlet, but 
will repay the time spent in its perusal. This mention 
of the Anglo-Saxon polity reminds us, that the Second 
Part of The Jubilee Edition of the Complete Works of 
King Alfred has been issued, and, in addition to a con- 
tinuation of the Harmony of the Chronicles, contains a 
Sketch of the Anglo-Saxon Mint, and a Description of 
all the Coins of King Alfred now remaining. 



FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1808. Vol. XI. [Being 2nd or 

SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720. 


BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720. 

Ditto. Vols. I. and II. ]?27. 

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHAKONNIDA. (Reprint.) Vols. I. and II. 1820. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. Vol. 1. Third edition, published 
in 1794, Edinburgh, for A. Bell. 


GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 

ELSLEY ON THE GOSPF.L AND ACTS. London. 1833. Vol. I. 

SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edirion, 1839. Sra. 8vo. Vol.V. 


ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. (5 Vols. edit.) Vol.11. London, 1829. 

LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROYE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.) 

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. "1835. 

THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original 
edition, not the fac-simile.) 

REPRESENTED, by Edw. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, edited 
by William Cunningham, Min. Edinburgh. 

TICES OY THE CHURCH OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by 
John Williams, M.A. 

Eminent Writers, Catholics and Protestants, since the Refor- 
mation. 1724. 



[No. 118 

5 Vols. Zurich, 1741. 

&c., with Appendix, by David Stokes. Oxford, 1GG8. 

*** Letters, stilting particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be s*nt to Mu. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUEPiIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


EXECUTIONER OF CHARLES I. The passage from Lilly sent us by 
R. S. F. A/i* already appeared in " N. & Q. ;" see Vol. II., p. 268. 
The story of Lord Stair being the executioner, forwarded by 
R. F. M. and C., is obviously a fiction. It was printed by Htme 
in his Cecil's Sixty Curious and Authentic Narratives, where it is 
given as a quotation Jrom The Recreations of a Man of Feeling. 

R. GLENN will find a list of Englishman who have been Cardinals 
in our 2nd Vol., p. 41,6. 

our 1st Vol., p. 42. 

T. B. H. Does not our division of REPLIES TO MINOR QCERIES 
answer the purpose suggested ? 

H. G. D. is thanked for his private note. The ballad is intended 
f.n- insertion. We will make inquiries respecting the old tablets. 
Many of our early Numbers are out of print again. 

J. J. D. shall receive a note from us shortly, not only with 
reference to the specimen enclosed, but to his former communica- 
tion, which has not been lost s-ght of. 

O. T. D. ( Hull) is thanked. His wishes shall be attended to. 
M. W. B. ( Bruges;. The order has been duly received. 

REPLIES RECEIVED. Moravian Hi/mns Clerical M.P.'s 

Serjeants' Rings Salting Children Bishop Bridgeman Hiero- 
glyphics of Vagrants Slang Dictionaries Gospel Oaks 

Readings on Shakspeare London Dutch Chronicle Church, 
meaning of Ring-finger Oh! Leolme Petition of Common 
Council Ducks and Drakes Meaning of Groom Count 
Konigsmark Sir W. Raleigh's Snuff-box Anagrams Poets 
beware Souling Cross-legged Effigies Donkey Hellrakc ; 
and many others which we are obliged to omit the acknowledg- 
ments of, from the early period at which we are compelled this 
week to go to press. From the same cause we have omitted several 
Replies to Correspondents and Notes on Books. 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. V. No. 119.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 7. 1852. 

f Price Fourpence. 
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NOTES : Page 

Stonr-Pillar Worship still existing in Ireland, by Sir 

J. Emerson Tennent - - - - -121 

The Invasion of Britain 123 

Hermits. Ornamental and Experimental - 123 

David Mallet, his Character and Biography, by Dr. E. 

F. Rimbault - 124 

Minor Notes : _ The Hyphen Old Books and New 
Titles Eugene Aram Inscription at Hardwicke 

Hall 124 


Junius Queries _-__-_ 123 
What is the Derivation of " Garsecg?" - - - 126 

Minor Queries : Commemoration of Benefactors 
Pedigree of Richard, Earl of Chepstow Twenty- 
seven Children Esquires of the Martyred King 
Braem's " Memoires tmchant le Commerce" News- 
papers Serjeant Trumpeter Lunhunter Family 
of Bullen Burnomania Rent of Assize White 
Livers Welsh Names Blaen Jesuits " The right 
divine of Kings to govern wrong " Valentines, when 
first introduced - - - - - - 126 

Andrew A Baron's Hearse Saint Bartholomew 
Moravian Hymns; Talritha's Dream Story of Gi- 
nevra Play'of" Pompey the Great " - - 128 


The Three Estates of the Realm - - - - 129 

Legend of St. Kenelm ; in Clent cou Bache, by S. W. 

Sinser, &c. -___.. 131 

Isabel, Queen of the Isle of Man, by W. Sidney Gibson 132 
Long Meg of Westminster, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault - 133 
The Introduction of Stops, &c. - 133 

Papers of Perjury - - - - - - 134 

Replies to Minor Queries : Rev. Thomas Adams, D.D. 

John Wiggan " Poets beware !" Traditions of 
Remote Periods, &c. Heraldical MSS. of Sir Henry 
St. George Garter Dr. John Ash Inveni Hortum 
Goldsmith Lords Marchers Foreign Ambassadors 

Church, whence derived Cross-legged Effigies 
Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuffbox Epigram on Eras- 
musGeneral \Vo!fc Ghost Stories Epigram on 
Burnet "Son of the Morning," &c. - - - 134 


Notes on Books, &c. . . _ - 142 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted .... 142 
Notices to Correspondents .... 142 

Advertisements ---.. 143 


In a work recently published by the Earl of 
Roden, entitled Progress of the Reformation in 
Ireland, there occurs a curious account of a rem- 
. nant of this ancient form of fetichism still existing 
in Inniskea, an island off the coast of Mayo, with 
about 380 inhabitants ; amongst whom, he says 
VOL.V. No. 119. 

" A stone carefully wrapped up in flannel is brought 
out at certain periods to be adored ; and when a storm 
arises, this god is supplicated to send a wreck on their 
coast." P. 51. 

A correspondent in the same volume writes to 
Lord Roden that 

" They all speak the Irish language, and among 
them is a trace of that government by chiefs, which in 
former times prevailed in Ireland : the present chief or 
king of Inniskea is an intelligent peasant called CAIN", 
whose authority is acknowledged, and the settlement 
of all disputes is referred to his decision. Though 
nominally Roman Catholics, these islanders have no 
priest resident among them ; they know nothing of 
the tenets of that church, and their worship consists in 
occasional meetings at their chief's house, with visits to 
a holy well called Derhla. The absence of religion is 
supplied by the open practice of pagan idolatry. In 
the south island a stone idol called in the Irish Neevougi, 
has been from time immemorial religiously preserved 
and worshipped. This god resembles in appearance a 
thick roll of homespun flannel, which arises from the 
custom of dedicating to it a dress of that material 
whenever its aid is sought ; this is sewed on by an old 
woman, its priestess. Of the early history of this idol 
no authentic information can be procured, but its 
power is believed to be immense ; they pray to it in 
time of sickness, it is invoked when a storm is desired 
to dash some hapless ship upon their coast, and again 
it is solicited to calm the waves to admit of the islanders 
fishing or visiting the main land." 76. pp. 53, 54. 

This statement, irrespective of graver reflec- 
tions, is suggestive of a curious inquiry, whether 
this point of Ireland, on the utmost western verge 
of Europe, be not the last spot in Christendom in 
which a trace can now be found of stone-pillar 
worship ? the most ancient of all forms of idolatry 
known to the records of the human race ; and the 
most widely extended, since at one time or another 
it has prevailed in every nation of the old world, 
from the shores of Lapland to the confines of India ; 
and, I apprehend, vestiges of its former existence 
are to be traced on the continent of America. 

Before men discovered the use of metals, or the 
method of cutting rocks, they worshipped unhewn 
stones ; and if the authenticity of Sanchoniathon is 
to be accepted, they consecrated pillars to the fire 
and the wind before they had learned to hunt, to 



[No. 119. 

fish, or to harden bricks in the sun. (Sanchon. in 
Cory's Ancient Fragments, pp. 7, 8.) From Chna, 
' the first Phoenician" as he is called by the same 
remote authority, the Canaanites acquired the 
practice of stone-pillar worship, which prevailed 
amongst them long before : 

" Jacob took ths stone that he had put for his pillow, 
and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top 
of it ; and called the name of the place Bethel, saying, 
this stone which I have set up for a pillar shall be 
God's housed Gen. xxviii. 18. 22. 

The Israelites were repeatedly ordered to destroy 
these stone idols of the Canaanites, to overthrow 
their altars, and "break their pillars" (Deut. vii. 
5. ; xii. 3.). And when the Jews themselves, in 
their aberrations, were tempted to imitate their 
customs, Moses points a sarcasm at their de- 
lusion : 

" Where are their gods, their rock in whom they 
trusted! How should one chase a thousand, and two 
put ten thousand to flight, except their rock had sold 
them?" Ib. xxxii. 30. 37. 

From Jacob's consecration of his stone pillar, 
and the name Bethel which he conferred upon it 
(which, in Phoenician, signified the house of God), 
were derived the Bastylia, BcuTi$A:a or BarryAoj, 
the black stones worshipped in Syria and Asia 
Minor, in Egypt, and in Greece before the time of 
Cecrops, under the names of Cybele and of Saturn, 
who is i'abled to have swallowed one of them when 
he intended to have devoured his son Jupiter. 
Even in the refined period of Grecian philosophy, 
the common people could not divest themselves of 
the influence of the ancient belief; andTheophrastus 
gives it as the characteristic of the " superstitious 
man," that he could not resist the impulse to bow 
to these mysterious stones, which served to mark 
the confluence of the highways. From Asia Minor 
pillar worship was carried to Italy and Gaul, and 
eventually extended to Germany, where the trunks 
of trees occasionally became the substitute for 
stone. From the same original the Arabs bor- 
rowed the Kaaba, the black stone, which is still 
revered at Mecca ; and the Brahmans a more re- 
pulsive form, under which the worship now exists 
in Ilindostan. Even in early times the reverence 
of these stones took a variety of forms, as they 
were applied to mark the burial-place of saints 
and persons of distinction,, to define contested 
boundaries, and to commemorate great events 
(vide Joshua iv. 5. ; xxiv. 26.) ; and perhaps 
many of the stones which have now a traditional, 
and even historical celebrity in Great Britain, 
such as the " Lia Fail " of Tara, the great " Stone 
of Scoon," on which the Scottish kings were 
crowned ; the " King's Stone " in Surrey, which 
served a similar office to the Saxons ; the " Charter 
Stone" 'of Inverness; the "Leper's Stone" of 
Ayr; the "Blue Stone" of Carrick; the "Black 

Stone " of lona, and others, may have acquired 
their later respect from their earlier sanctity. < 

There appear to be few countries in the old 
world which do not possess some monuments of 
this most remote idolatry; but there is none in 
which they would seem to be so abundant as on 
the western extremity of Europe, in Cornwall, and 
especially in the islands and promontories from the 
Land's End to Caithness and the Orkneys. In the 
latter the worship of stone pillars continued to so 
recent a period, that one is curious to know when 
it actually disappeared, and whether there still 
exist traces of it in any other locality, similar to 
that pointed out by the Earl of lloden at Inniskea. 

My own acquaintance with the subject is very 
imperfect ; but, so far as my recollection serves?, 
the following references may direct attention to 
interesting quarters. 

Scheffer, who published his Description of Lap- 
land in 1673, states that the practice of stone-pillar 
worship then existed there, and that Storjunkar, 
one of the deities of Scandinavian mythology, 

" Represented by a stone. Neither do they use any 
art in polishing it ; but take it as they find it upon the 
banks of lakes and rivers. In this shape they worship 
it as his image, and call it Kied kie jubmal, that is, the 
stone god" Scheffer, Lapponia. Engl. London, 1751. 

He adds that they select the unhewn stone, be- 
cause it is in the form in which it was shaped by 
the hand of the Creator himself. The incident 
suggests a curious coincidence with the expressions 
of Isaiah (ch. Ivii. v. 6.) : 

" Among the smooth stones of the stream is thy 
portion ; they, they are thy lot : even to them hast thou 
poured a drink-offering ; thou hast offered a meat- 
offering. Should I receive comfort in these ? " 

Joshua, too, selected the twelve stones with 
which he commemorated the passage of the Jordan 
from the midst of the river, where the priests' feet 
stood when they bore the ark across. 

Martin, in his account of the Western Islands 
of Scotland in 1703 A.D., describes repeatedly the 
numerous pillar-stones which were then objects of 
respect in the several localities. And in one in- 
stance he states that an image which was held in 
veneration in one of the islands was swathed in 
flannel, a^practice which would thus seem to have 
served as a precedent for the priestess of Inniskea, 
as detailed by Lord Roden. In speaking of the 
island of Eriska, to the north of Barra, Martin 

" There is a stone set up, near a mile to the south of 
St. Columbus's church, ahout eight foot high and two 
broad. It is called by the natives the bowing stone ; 
for when the inhabitants had the first sight of the 
church, they set up this stone, and then bowed, and 
said the Lord's Prayer." A Description of the Western 
Islands, p. 88. 

But Boiiase, who notices this passage in his 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



Antiquities of Cornwall, gives a much more learned 
derivation of the name. He says : 
" They call them lowing stones, as it seems to me, from 
the reverence shown them ; for the Even Maschith, which 
the Jews were forbade to worship (Leviticus xxvi. 1. 
* neither shall ye set up any image of stone ') signifies 
i-eally a bowing stone, and was doubtless so called be- 
cause worshipped by the Canaanites." Borlase, Anti- 
quities of Cornwall, book iii. c. 2. 

I fancy the word which Martin rendered a bow- 
ing stone, is cromlech, or crom liagli. 

As regards the ancient monuments of stone 
worship m Cornwall, the most learned and the 
most ample information is contained in Borlase's 
Antiquitifis of that county ; but there their worship 
ceased, though not till several centuries after the 
introduction of Christianity. Borlase says : 

" After Christianity took place, many continued to 
worship these stones ; coming thither with lighted 
torches, and praying for safety and success : and this 
custom we can trace through the fifth and sixth 
centuries ; and even into the seventh, as will appear from 
the prohibitions of several Councils." Borlase, Antiq. 
Corn., b. iii. c. ii. p. 162. 

In all parts of Ireland these stone pillars are to 
be found in comparative frequency. Accounts of 
them will be found in The Ancient and Present 
State of the County Down, A.D. 1744; in Wake- 
inan's Handbook of Irish Antiquities, and in various 
similar authorities. A writer in the Archceologia 
for A.D. 1800 says that many of the stone crosses 
which form so interesting and beautiful a feature 
in Irish antiquities were originally pagan pillar- 
stones, on which the cross was sculptured subse- 
quent to the introduction of Christianity, in order 

" The common people, who were not easily to be 
diverted from their superstitious reverence for these 
stones, might pay a kind of justifiable adoration to 
them when thus appropriated to the use of Christian 
memorials by the sign of the cross." Arch&ol. vol. xiii. 
p. 203. 

The tenacity of the Irish people to this ancient 
superstition is established by the fact of its con- 
tinuance to the present day in the sequestered 
island of Inniskea. And it seems to me that it 
would be an object of curious inquiry, if your cor- 
respondents could ascertain whether this be the 
last remnant of pillar worship now remaining in 
Europe ; and especially whether any further trace 
of it is to be found in any other portion of the 
British dominions. J. EMERSON TENNENT. 


(Not by Julius Cczsar.) 

A great many correspondents of the daily press 
are directing the attention, I suppose, of the Go- 

vernment to what they call the " defenceless state 
of Great Britain." Will you allow me, on account, 
as I think, of its rarity, to submit to you the fol- 
lowing extract from the Macaronea, par Octave 
Delepierre (Gancia, Brighton, 1852), attributed to 
Person. The lines were composed on occasion of 
the projected French invasion under Napoleon. 


" Ego nunquam audivi such terrible news, 
At this present tempus my sensus confuse ; 
I'm drawn for a miles, I must go cum marte, 
And, concinus ense, engage Bonaparte. 

" Such tempora nunquam videbant majores, 
For then their opponents had different mores ; 
But we will soon prove to the Corsican vaunter, 
Though Times may be changed, Britons never 

" Meherde ! this Consul non potest be quiet, 
His word must be lex, and where he says Fiat, 
Quasi Deus, he thinks we must run at his nod, 
But Britons were ne'er good at running, by ! 

" Per mare, I rather am led to opine, 
To meet British naves he would not incline ; 
Lest he should in mare profundum ba drown'd, 
Et cum alga, non laurd, his caput be crown'd. 

" But allow that this boaster in Britain could land, 
Multis cum aliis at his command : 
Here are lads who will meet, aye, and properly 

work 'em, 
And speedily send 'em, nifallor, in orcum. 

" Nunc, let us, amid, join corda et manus, 
And use well the vires Di Boni afford us ; 
Then let nations combine, Britain never can fall, 
She's, multum in parvo, a match for them all." 

These verses are quoted by M. Delepierre, from 
Stephen Collet's Relics of Literature, 8vo. 1823. 



Keeping a poet is a luxury enjoyed by many, 
from the Queen down to Messrs. Moses, Hyarn. 
and Co. ; but the refinement of keeping an hermit 
would appear to be a more recherche and less or- 
dinary appendage of wealth and taste. 

I send you an advertisement for, and two actual 
instances of going a hermiting, from my scrap- 
book : 

" A young man, who wishes to retire from the world 
and live as an hermit in some convenient spot in 
England, is willing to engage with any nobleman or 
gentleman who may be desirous of having one. Any 
letter directed to S. Lawrence (post paid) to be left at 
Mr. Otton's, No. 6. Col man's Lane, Plymouth, men- 
tioning what gratuity will be given, and all other par- 
ticulars, will be duly attended to." Courier, Jan. llth, 

Can any one tell me whether this retiring young 



[No. 119. 

man was engaged in the above capacity ? I do 
not think so : for soon after an advertisement ap- 
peared in the papers which I have reasons for 
thinking was by the same hand. 

" Wants a situation in a pious regular family, in a 
place where the Gospel is preached, a young man of 
serious mind, who can wait at table and milk a cow." 

The immortal Dr. Busby asks 

" When energising objects men pursue. 
What are the prodigies they cannot do?" 

Whether it is because going a hermiting does 
not come under the Doctor's " energising objects" 
I know not; but this is clear, that the two follow- 
ing instances proved unsuccessful : 

" M. Hamilton, once the proprietor of Payne's Hill, 
near Cobhatn, Surrey, advertised fora person who was 
willing to become a hermit in that beautiful retreat of 
his. The conditions were, that he was to continue in 
the hermitage seven years, where he should be provided 
with a Bible, optical glasses, a mat for his bed, a has- 
sock for his pillow, an hour-glass for his timepiece, 
water for his beverage, food from the house, but never 
to exchange a syllable with the servant. He was to 
wear a camlet robe, never to cut his beard or nails, nor 
ever to stray beyond the limits of the grounds. If he 
lived there, under all these restrictions, till the end of 
the term, he was to receive seven hundred guineas. 
But on breach of any of them, or if he quitted the 
place any time previous to that term, the whole was to 
be forfeited. One person attempted it, but a three 
weeks' trial cured him. 

" Mr. Powyss.of Marcham, near Preston, Lancashire, 
was more successful in this singularity : he advertised 
a reward of 50Z. a-year for life, to any man who would 
undertake to live seven years under ground, without 
seeing anything human : and to let his toe and finger 
nails grow, with his hair and beard, during the whole 
time. Apartments were prepared under ground, very 
commodious, with a cold bath, a chamber organ, as 
many books as the occupier pleased, and provisions 
served from his own table. Whenever the recluse 
wanted any convenience, he was to ring a bell, and it 
was provided for him. Singular as this residence may 
appear, an occupier offered himself, and actually staid in 
it, observing the required conditions for four years." 



may choose to look into his doings will find him 
j full as " black " as he is painted. 

Southey, in his Specimens of the Later English 
Poets, vol. ii. p. 342., does not mince the matter. 
His words are these : 

" A man of more talents than honesty, who was al- 
ways ready to perform any dirty work for interest ; to 
blast the character either of the dead or the living, and 
to destroy life as well as reputation. Mallet was 'first 
assassin' in the tragedy of Admiral Byng's murder." 

In a copy of Gascoigne's Works, sold in Heber's 
sale, was the following MS. note by George 

" This volume was bought for 17. 13s. at Mr. Mal- 
let's, alias Malloch's, sale, March 14, 1776. He was 
the only Scotchman who died in my memory unla- 
mented by an individual of his own nation." 

David Malloch, or Mallet, is said to have been 
born about the year 1700, at Crieff, in Perthshire,, 
at which place his father was an innkeeper. A 
search has been made in the parochial registers of 
Crieff, from 1692 to 1730, but his baptism is not 

The names of various children of Charles and 
Donald Malloch's in the neighbourhood of Crieff 
occur, including a David, in 1712. This obviously 
was not the poet ; but it appears that his father 
"James Malloch, and Beatrix Clark his wife," 
were brought before the Kirk Session of Crieff in 
October and November, 1704, for profanation of 
the Lord's day, " by some strangers drinking and 
fighting in their house on the Sabbath immediately 
following Michaelmas." On the 12th of November,, 
" they being both rebuked for giving entertain- 
ment to such folks on the sabbath-day, and pro- 
mising never to do the like, were dismissed." 

Some of Mallet's letters are printed in the 
Edinburgh Magazine, a literary miscellany, for 
1793. They contain a number of curious literary 
notices, including some particulars of the writer's, 
life not generally known. 

Much interesting matter concerning the literary 
career and character of David Mallet may also be 
found in the recent Life of David Hume by John 
Hill Burton, Esq., Advocate. 



When an editor selects a favourite ballad for 
notes and illustrations, he may be supposed, na- 
turally, to have a sort of respect, not to say 
veneration, for its author. Such is the case with 
the recent editor of Edwin and Emma (Dr. Dins- 
dale), when, in his brief biography of David Mallet, 
he glosses over the vices of this man's character in 
the quietest and most inoffensive manner possible. 
If he was a "heartless villain" I do not see that 
\ve ou^ht to screen him ; and I think those who 

The Hyphen. Dr. Dobbin, lecturing some time 
back on physical education in Hull, condemned 
the practice of tight lacing as extremely injurious 
to the symmetry and health of the female sex, and 
jocularly proposed the formation of an "Anti- 
killing - young - women - by- a-lingering - death-So- 
ciety." This was gravely reproduced in other 
parts of this country and on the continent as a 
sober matter of fact, the Germans giving the hy- 
phenated title thus : Jungefrauenzimmerdurch- 
achwindsuchttoedtungs-gegenverein. I. C. 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



Old Books and New Titles. Permit me to say 
that it is in the power of your London corre- 
spondents to do a real service to your country 
readers, and at the same time serve the cause 
of honest bibliopoly, by pointing out in the pages 
of " 1ST. & Q." current instances of what I beg 
leave to call the fraudulent advertisement of pub- 
lished books under a new title, or one so altered as 
to produce the impression of novelty in the mind 
of a reader like myself. For example, being an 
admirer of Sam Slick's Avorks and who is not ? 
I purchased, on its first appearance, his English 
in America ; and seeing lately advertised, as a new 
work, Rule and Misrule of the English in America, 
by the same author, I obtained it, and found it 
the identical work before named, the title-page 
alone being altered ! I mention another instance. 
I perceive an advertisement of the Letters of^ Gray 
the Poet, published from the original MSS. in two 
volumes, by the llev. J. Mitford. Now, I should 
like to know whether this is, as it is called, really 
a "new work," or merely a part, or at most a 
revival, of Mitford's Letters, fyc. of Gray, pub- 
lished in 4 vols., 1830. J. H. 

Eugene Aram. Until the year 1834, when con- 
siderable reforms took place in the Court of Ex- 
chequer with respect to sheriffs' accounts, a pro- 
cess called "the Summons of the Pipe" issued into 
each county, charging the sheriff with the levy of 
divers old rents. In that of Yorkshire I noticed 
the following entry, which I communicated to Mr. 
Scatcherd. I am not aware that it has ever been 
published. By inserting it you will relieve me 
from the necessity of preserving my "note." 

" Of the same Sheriff for the issues of waste building 
in Knaresbrough, in the said county, in the tenure of 
Daniel Clarke, of the yearly value of uui and one 
tmdivided moiety or fifth part of the whole, to be 
divided into five equal parts of and in a certain farm 
called Moat House farm, situate at Wickersley in the 
said County, which consists [here followed particulars^, 
in the occupation of Samuel Chipchase, of the yearly 
value of \\ii of the lands and tenements of Daniel 
Clarke, aforesaid, shoemaker, outlaiced at the suit of 
Philip Coates, gentleman, in a plea of trespass on the 
case vmt m and vi c xxxvmi v" arrears." 

" Philip Coates," says Mr. Scatcherd {Gleanings, 
p. 26.), " attorney-at-law, a very respectable man, 
married Clarke's wife's sister." It is singular that 
a murdered man should be outlawed after death, 
and that he should continue to haunt the Exche- 
quer for near a century afterwards. It is a com- 
plete confirmation of the statement that Clarke 
was supposed to have absconded, and that no sus- 
picion of foul play arose at the time of his disap- 
pearance. W. G. 

Inscription at Hardwiclte Hall The following 
inscription, from a banqueting-room in Hardwicke 
Hull, Derbyshire, may be worthy of a place by 

the side of those quoted by PROCURATOR (Vol. v., 
p. 8.): 

" Sanguine, cornu, corde, oculo, pede, cervus et aure 
Nobilis, at claro sanguine nobilior." 

H. T. 


Junius Rumours. Some months since there 
was a story whispered in certain circles, or rather 
two stories, which, when taken together, went to 
show that this great mystery of modern times was 
on the eve of solution. The first stated that the 
Grenville Papers, about to be published by Murray, 
would prove the identity of Junius with the cor- 
respondent of Woodfall under one of the signa- 
tures Atticus or Brutus, whose letters had been 
already, and, as it would thereby appear, very 
properly, attributed to Junius himself. The second 
rumour was to the effect that an eminent book- 
seller, whose attention had been drawn to the 
Junius question by the circumstance of his having 
recently published an edition of the letters, c., 
on being called in to estimate the value of certain 
historical papers for some legal purposes, was 
startled by discovering, in the course of his ex- 
amination of them, who this Atticus or Brutus 
was and, consequently, who Junius himself 
was. On the announcement of an article on 
Junius in the Quarterly Review, those who had 
heard these stories expected to find in the article 
in question the solution of what has been called 
the " great political enigma of the eighteenth cen- 
tury." As this hope has not been realised, may 
I ask, through the medium of " N. Q.," whether 
there is any foundation for the rumours I have 
referred to ; and, if so, how much of truth there 
is in both or either of them. Such information 
will be acceptable to every one of your readers 
who is not satisfied with any of the THIRTY-NINE 
theories on the subject which have been already 
propounded, and who is therefore like myself still a 


" To Commit' 1 '' in the Sense used by Junius. On 
looking into Walker's Dictionary, a short time 
since, I found the following remark, which seems 
to have escaped every inquirer into the authorship 
of the letters of Junius : 

" To COMMIT. This word \vasjirst used in Junius's 
letters in a sense unknown to our former English 
writers, namely, to expose, to venture, to hazard; this 
sense is borrowed from the French, and has been 
generally adopted by subsequent writers." 

Can any of your readers produce an instance of 

the use of this word in the sense here applied to 

it, prior to the appearance of Junius ? Such a 

I parallel would carry more weight with it than the 

| countless examples of verbal singularities with 



[No. 119. 

which almost every discoverer of Junius has en- 
cumbered his essay. D. J. 

Junius Letters to Willies. Would MR. HALLAM 
kindly inform your readers whether the Junius 
Letters, to which he refers in " N. & Q." Vol. iii., 
p. 241., were inserted in books or not? And in 
the former case, whether they were in a separate 
collection, or mixed with the other correspondence 
ofMr.Wilkes? I.J.M. 


This Anglo-Saxon word is used in the poetry 
of Beowulf and Ca3dmon, and in the prose of 
Orosius and Bede, &c. The a in gar is twice 
accented in Csedmon ; and Mr. Kemble has always 
accented it in Beowulf. In the Lauderdale MS. 
of Orosius it is written garscecg and garsecg; and 
in the Cotton MS. garsegc and garsecg, without 
any accent. Grimm, Kemble, and Ettmiiller make 
the first part of the word to lie gar, a spear, jave- 
lin, the Goth., gairu ; Ohd., her; O. Sax., ger ; 
O. Nor., geir : and the latter, secg, a soldier, man. 
Thus garsecg would be literally " a spear-man," 
homo jaculo armatus. Mr. Kemble adds, it is "a 
name for the ocean, which is probably derived from 
some ancient myth, and is now quite unintelligible." 
Ettmiiller gives it, " Garsecg, es, m. Carex jacu- 
lorum, vel vir hastatus, i.e. oceanus. Grymm's 
Mythol., p. xxvii." 

Dahlmann, in his Forschungen der Geschichte, 
p. 414., divides the word thus: Gars-ecg, and 
says, gar is very expressive, and denotes " what is 
enclosed," and is allied to the Ger. garten, a garden, 
like the A.-S. geard, a garden, region, earth. 
Ecg, Icl. egg; Ger. egge, eche, a border, an outward 
part ; that is, what borders or encircles the earth, 
the ocean. What authority is there for dividing 
the word into gars-ecg, and for the meaning he 
gives to gar ? 

Barrington, in his edition of Orosius, p. xxiii., 
gives " M. H. The Hatton MS." among the tran- 
scripts. I cannot find any Hatton MS. of Orosius. 
Can he refer to the transcript of Junius ? 



Commemoration of Benefactors. I shall be glad 
to learn by what authority an office for the Com- 
memoration of Founders and Benefactors is used 
in our college chapels, since this office in not found 
in our Book of Common Prayer. And, farther, 
whether the office is the same in all places, mutatis 
mutandis. In my own college (Queen's, Cam- 
bridge), the order of service was as follows : The 
Lesson, Ecclus. xliv. (read by a scholar) : th*e ser- 
mon : the list of foundresses and benefactors : Te 

Deum laudamus : proper Psalms, viz. cxlviii.,. 
cxlix., cl. : the following versicles and responses : 

" V. The memory of the righteous shall remain for 

R. And shall not be afraid of any evil report. 

V. The Lord be with you. 

R* And with thy spirit." 

Then followed an appropriate collect, introduced 
by the words "Let us pray;" and the office was 
concluded by the Benediction. 


Pedigree of Richard, Earl of Chepstoiv. At a 
recent meeting of the Kilkenny Archreological So- 
ciety, there was exhibited, by permission of the 
Marquis of Ormonde, an original charter, under 
seal, of Richard, Earl of Chepstow, surnamed 
Strongbow, whereby he granted certain lands in 
his newly acquired territory of Leinster, to Adam 
de Hereford. The charter, which is beautifully 
and clearly written on a small piece of vellum, 
commences thus : 

*' Comes Ric' fil 1 com' Ric' Gisleb'ti omnihus amicis 
suis," &c. 

As the usually given pedigrees (see Sir R. Colt 
Hoare's Tour in Ireland, Introd. p. Ixxv.) make- 
Richard Strongbow the son of Gilbert, the second 
son, and not Richard, the eldest son, of Gilbert de 
Tonbrige ; query, Are we to supply " nT " before 
" Gisleberti " in the charter, or are we to suppose 
that the second " Ric' " is a slip of the pen, a 
thing, however, not likely to occur in a legal deed 
of so important a nature. JAMES GRAVES. 


Twenty-seven Children. In Colonel James- 
Turner's defence (English Causes Celebres, vol. i. 
p. 1 11.) he says, speaking of his wife, who was then 
also on trial for her life : 

" She sat down, being somewhat fat and weary, poor 
heart ! I have had twenty-seven children by her ; 
fifteen sons and twelve daughters." 

Is there any well authenticated instance of a 
woman having had more than twenty-five children ? 

E. D. 

Esquires of the Martyred King. In the Smith 
MSS. in the Bodleian Library, there are copies of 
certain petitions addressed to King Charles II., 
relating to a proposed Order of Esquires of the 
Martyred King. These forms of petition appear 
to have been derived ex MSS. Asm. 837. 

Where is a full account of these proceedings to 
be found in print ? J. SANSOM. 

Braems " Memoires touchant le Commerce" 
Having lately seen a MS., of which I subjoin the 
title, and not being able to discover any further 
account of the writer of it than what is briefly 

fiven in the volume itself, I submit my wish to 
now something more about the author, and his, 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



perhaps, still inedited work, to you and to your 
numerous readers, both in England and in Hol- 
land (where you have an able imitator), in the 
hope of gaining some further information about 
him. The MS. is a foolscap folio, containing about 
340 pages, written in a bold, open hand, and bears 
the following title : Memoires touchant le Com- 
merce que les Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas font 
Hans les divers Endroits da Monde. At page 306. 
this part of the MS. ends, and is signed by 
" Daniel Braems," who says of himself, that he left 
the Dutch possessions in the East Indies in 1686, 
and made his Report to the States-General of what 
he had seen, and delivered in a written copy. 
Mr. Braems says further, that he was " derniere- 
ment Teneur-General des Livres a Batavie, et a 
ramene en qualite de Commandeur la derniere 
Flotte des Indes en ce pays ; " and that his Report, 
us regards East India affairs, was made " touchant 
la constitution des affaires dans les Indes Orientales, 
ainsi qu'elle estoit lorsque la ditte llotte est partie 
de Batavie," and was delivered in May 26, 1688. 
The remaining pages of the MS. are taken up with 
a detailed account of the ecclesiastical and civil 
revenues of France for 1692, and also the "estat 
des affaires extraordinaires" for the years 1689, 
1690, 1691, 1692. J. M. 

Newspapers. Can any of your readers obli- 
gingly inform me when The Suffolk Mercury or St. 
Edmund's Bury Post commenced ? The earliest 
number I have seen is that of " Monday, Feb. 3, 
1717, to be continued weekly, No. 43. Price 
Three Half-pence." The next is that of " Mon- 
day, May 2, 1726, Vol. xvi., No. 52." And the 
Litest tha't of "Monday, October 4, 1731, Vol. xxii., 
!N"o. 40." When did it cease ? Were there any 
other papers before 1782 printed in Bury ; or in- 
cluding the name of that town in its title ? 


Serjeant Trumpeter. What are the privileges 
of persons holding this appointment? 


Lunhunter. What is the etymology of this sur- 
name ; or rather, what is a lun ? We have the 
analogous names Wolfhnnter and Todhunter (i.e. 
a hunter of foxes). I am not satisfied with the 
origin assigned to this designation in my English 
Surnames. Is there any beast of prey, or of the 
chase, bearing the provincial name ol lun? 


Family of Bidlen. Could any of your readers 
inform me what branch of the Bullen family it was 
that emigrated to Ireland in the fifteenth or six- 
teenth century, and settled at Kinsale in the 
county of Cork ? Their genealogical history I 
find it difficult, almost impossible, to discover. It 
is thought that the first of the family who settled 
in Ireland was nearly allied to the lovely but un- 

! fortunate queen of Henry VIII. ; and the family 
consequently claim kindred with our famous Queen 
Elizabeth, though they seem unable to trace their 
pedigree so as to prove it. The present repre- 
sentative of this old family resides at Bally Thomas, 
! in the neighbourhood of Mallow ; but, singular to 
| say, though proud of his name and race, can give 
no correct history of his pedigree ; in fact, nothing 
more than a traditionary account of it. I find, in 
! turning over the pages of Burke' s Landed Gentry, 
\ the following note appended to the pedigree of 
j the Glovers of Mount Glover : 

" This Abigail Bullen was daughter of Robert 
Bullen, of Kinsale, descended from the Bullen family, 
who came and settled in Ireland in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, and who are stated to have been not remotely 
related to that queen," 

Any information connected with this family I 
am most anxious to obtain. E. A. G. 


Burnomania. I should be glad if any of your 
correspondents could favour me with the name of 
the author of this work: it is entitled Burnomania, 
or the Celebrity of Robert Burns considered, 
Edinburgh, 1811, 12mo., pp.103. In his adver- 
tisement to the reader, the author says : 

"Who is the author? Is he a poor man ? Is he 
employed by the booksellers ? Is he a young student ? 
Does he write for fame? For gain? Does he wish 
to irritate, to offend, to indulge in a sarcastic humour? 
To all these questions, the answer is ' No.' " 


Rent of Assize. Can you or any of your corre- 
spondents explain certain difficulties I find in a 
schedule of the revenues of the bishopric of Win- 
ton, sent by Thomas Cooper, the Bishop of Winton, 
1587, to the Lord Treasurer : Strype's Annals, 
vol. iii. part 2. p. 263. Oxon, 1824 ? 

In the first place, there appears to be some 
misprint, as "the whole charge or value" ifc put 
at 3114Z. Os. 5d., and "ordinary reprizes and al- 
lowances deducted" 33S9Z. Os. lid., and then 
" remain of rent of assize of the same bishopric" 
2773Z. 10s. 6d, which appears afterwards to be a 
misprint, for 2775Z., &c. What is " rent of assize? " 
is it the assessment of the bishopric for dues, rates, 
&c. ? Also what is the meaning of " ob. q.," which 
is added after certain items ? 

Lastlv, what is to be understood by the item 

"For ingrossing the great pipe," &c. ? I should 

i be much obliged by any explanation of these 

TLT O \ r 

accounts. Jbt. O. Iv. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

White Livers. Can any correspondent give 
I some information as to the popular superstition of 
white livers, or refer to any author that alludes to 
it in any way. In a recent account of poisonings 
in France, by a woman named llelene Jagado, it 



[No. 119. 

is stated that though for a long time she was not 
suspected to be an actual murderess, yet "the 
frequency of deaths in the families by whom she 
was engaged excited a suspicion among the pea- 
santry that there was something in her nature 
fatal to those who were near her ; and they said 
that her liver was white, it being believed, in that 
part of France, that persons who are dangerous 
have white livers.'" In the midland counties there 
is a similar saying among the lower classes, and I 
have heard it said of ah individual who had married 
and lost several wives by death, that he had a 
white liver. A young woman once told me that 
she had been advised not to marry a certain suitor, 
because he had a white liver, and she would be 
dead within a year. " White-livered rascal " is a 
common term of reproach in Gloucestershire. What 
is the origin and explanation of the supposed white 


Welsh Names Blaen. Can any of your cor- 
respondents tell the meaning of the word Blaen* 
which occurs so frequently in the names of places 
in Pembrokeshire, and perhaps other parts of 
Wales? Thus, there is Blaen-awen, near Mon- 
ington ; Blaen-argy, Blaen-pant, and Blaen- 
hafren, to the south of Hantwood ; Blaen-yr-angell; 
Blaen-y-foss and Blaen-nefern near Penrydd ; 
Blaen-dyffryn ; and a great many more. It seems 
generally to be applied to farms. a. 

Jesuits. Can you give me any clue to the fol- 
lowing line : 

*' Haud cum Jesu itis qui itis cum Jesuitis ? " 
A similar play on words was made a few years ago 
by an Italian professor in the university of Pisa. 
A large number of Jesuits made their appearance 
one day in his lecture room, as they believed that 
lie was about to assail some favourite dogma of 
theirs. He commenced his lecture with the fol- 
lowing words 

" Quanti Gesuiti sono all' inferno !" 
When remonstrated with, he said that his words 

" Quanti Gesu ! iti sono all' inferno ! " 

L. H. J. T. 

" The right divine of Kings to govern wrong." 
Can any of your correspondents inform me 
the origin of the line "The right divine of 
kings to govern wrong ? " It is in the Dunciad, 
book iv., placed in inverted commas. Is it there 
used as a quotation? and, if so, whence is it taken, 
or was Pope the original author of the lines ? 


[Our correspondent is clearly not aware that this 
line has already been the subject of much discussion in 
our columns. (See Vol. iii., p. 494. ; Vol. iv., pp. 125. 
160.) But as the Query has not yet been solved, and 
many curious points may depend upon its solution, we 

avail ourselves of SARPEDON'S inquiry to bring the 
matter again under the consideration of our readers.] 

Valentines, ivhen first introduced. The quantity 
and variety of Valentines which now occupy our 
stationers' windows suggest the Query as to their 
first introduction ; whether originally so orna- 
mental, and if by hand ; when they first became 
printed, and what early specimens exist ? EXON. 

The Bed of Ware. In Shakspeare's comedy 
of Twelfth Night, the following words are used by 
Sir Toby, Act III. Sc. 2. : 

"... Although the sheet were big enough for the 
Bed of Ware in England." 

Query : W r hat is the history of Bed of Ware ?. f 

[Nares, in his Glossary, says, " This curious piece of 
furniture is said to be still in being, and visible at the 
Crown or at the Bull in Ware. It is reported to be 
twelve feet square, and to be capable of holding twenty 
or twenty-four persons." And he refers to Chauncy's 
Hertfordshire for an account of its receiving at once 
twelve men and their wives, who lay at top and bottom 
in this mode of arrangement ; first two men, then two 
women, and so on alternately ; so that no man was near 
to any woman but his wife.] 

Merry Andrew. W r hen did the term Merry 
Andrew first come into use, and what was the 
occasion of it ? % 

[Although Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, he 
several allusions to Merry Andrews, he does not attempt 
to explain the origin of the term. Hearne, in his 
Benedictus Albas (torn. i. Prsef. p. 50. ed. Oxon. 1735, 
as quoted by Warton in his English Poetry, vol. iii. 
p. 74. ed. 1840), speaking of the well-known Andrew 
Borde, gives it as his opinion that this facetious physi- 
cian gave rise to the name of MERRY ANDREW, the fool 
on the mountebank's stage: "'Twas from the Doctor's 
method of using such speeches at markets and fairs, 
that in aftertimes those that imitated the like humorous, 
jocose language, were styled MERRY ANDREWS, a term 
much in vogue on our stages."] 

A Barons Hearse. In reading a curious old 
book, entitled the Statesmen and Favourites of 
England since the Reformation, which was written 
by David Lloyd, and published in 1665, I was at 
a loss to know what a laroris hearse might be, 
and hope therefore that some of your readers may 
be able to give me some information respecting it. 
It occurs at page 448., in his observations on the 
life of Sir Henry Umpton, who, he says, " had 
allowed him a barons hearse, because he died 
ambassadour leiger." JOHN BRANFILL HARRISON. 


[Although a "baron s hearse" is not particularly speci- 
fied in the very curious Note upon Funerals prefixed by 
Mr. J. G. Nichols to the Diary of Henry Machyn, edited 
by him for the Camden Society, we refer our correspon- 
dent to it, as furnishing much curious illustration of the 

.FEB. 7. 1852.] 



time and expense formerly bestowed upon these ceremo- 
nials. The word "herse," it may be remarked, was not 
then applied in its modern sense, but to a frame of timber 
" covered with black, and armes upon the black, ready 
to receive the corpse when it had arrived within the 
church," which corresponds to what our French neigh- 
bours designate the Catafalque.'] 

Saint Bartholomew. Can you favour me with 
a reference to any works in which any further 
account is given of this saint, than is contained in 
the four passages of the New Testament in which 
his name is mentioned ? 

What representations are there of him in pic- 
ture, tapestry, or window, in England or on the 
continent ? REGEDONUM. 

[For further particulars we would refer our corre- 
spondent to Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art 
(1st edit.), vol. i. pp. 222. etseq. ; and Parker's Calen- 
dar of the Anglican Church illustrated, p. 1 00. ] 

Moravian Hymns Tabithds Dream (Vol. iv., 
p. 502.). Are the following lines from Walsh's 
Aristophanes original ; and was the translation 
ever completed ? I quote from memory. 

" Audi masstum, Eliza, questum, 

Nuntium audi horridum; 
It devota domus tota, 

Barathrum orci torridum. 

Simkin Prater desperatur, 

Ludit, salit, turpiter ; 
Ridet Jana sacra fana ; 

Tabitha Runt deperditur. 

Ego, ut ovis, errans quovis 
Scomma nuper omnium, 
Ter beata, qua? vocata 

Mane sum per somnium ; 
Nam procero par Rogero 

Spectrum venit ccelitus : 
Dicens, Ego am ore implebo 
Te divino penitus." 

J. H. L. 

[These lines are by Christopher Anstey, Esq., and 
will be found in his New Bath Guide, letter xiv., where 
" Miss Prudence B-n-r-d informs Lady Betty that she 
has been elected to Methodism by a Vision." This 
metrical epistle consists of five more verses, to which 
the author has subjoined a Latin translation. See 
Anstey's Works, p. 82. 4to. 1808. Only Vol. I. of 
Walsh's translation of The Comedies of Aristophanes has 
been published.] 

Story of Ginevra. Mr. Rogers, in his beautiful 
poem of Italy, has a story which is headed "Gi- 
nevra," and which he lays the scene of at Modena. 
It narrates that a young bride on the day of her 
wedding, to entertain her young friends, proposes 
that they should amuse themselves at " hide-and- 
seek;" and thinking to conceal herself where her 
companions could not discover her, bethought her- 
self of an old oaken chest in the garret of the house. 

The lid of this chest unfortunately had a clasp 
lock, which occasioned her to be completely en- 
shrined ; and not being discovered at the time, 
she must have perished miserably. Many years 
after, upon pulling the house down the chest was 
forced open, and the skeleton of the unfortunate 
lady was, to the consternation of all present, 
brought to light. 

Mr. Rogers, in a note, says, " I believe this 
story to be founded on fact, though I cannot tell 
when and where it happened;" and adds, "many 
old houses in this country lay claim to it." 

I should be much obliged to any reader of the 
" N. & Q." to point out any old seat in England 
where the above is stated to have happened ; if 
there be any memorial or legend concerning it, or 
any particulars relating to it. i^ F. 

P. S. I have, some years ago, read the counter- 
part of this story in French, when the bride pro- 
poses jouer au cache-cache, with exactly the same 
melancholy result, but I have not any recollection 
in what work. 

[Two versions of the dramatic narrative of " Gi- 
nevra, the Lady buried alive," are given by Collet in 
his Relics of Literature, p. 186., in neither of which is 
there any notice of the hide-and-seek game, or of the 
chest with the clasp-lock. The French account is ex- 
tracted from the Causes Celebres ; and the Italian, 
which differs in some particulars, from a work by 
Dominico Maria Manrii.] 

Play of " Pompey the Great" Can any of 
your readers inform me where the entire transla- 
tion of this play, from the French of Corneille into 
English, is to be found ? the first act only, which 
was translated by Waller, being found in some 
editions of his works. Also, whether I am right 
in supposing that this play contains a scene where 
the dead body of Pompey is discovered on the sea- 
shore, and a passage discussing what tomb should 
be erected to his honour, in deprecation of any 
monument at all, and ending with : " The eternal 
substance of his greatness ; to that I leave him." 


[The title of the play is, Pompey the Great; a Tra- 
gedy, as it was acted by the Servants of his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York. Translated out of French 
by certain Persons of Honour, 4to. 1664. It consists 
of five acts. Waller translated the first ; the others 
were translated by the Earl of Dorset, Sir C. Sedley, 
and Mr. Godolphin. It will be found in the British 
Museum and the Bodleian.] 


(Vol. iv., p. 278.) 

MR. ERASER'S erudite researches ore well worth 
the space which they occupy. The conclusions to 



[No. 119. 

be drawn from them appear quite to support my 
positions : 

1. The Three Estates of the Realm are, the 
Spiritualti', the Nobility, and the Commonalty : on 
this fact there is no dispute. The last is as cer- j 
tainly the third estate (tiers etat). But MR. : 
FRASER demurs to my ranking the Spiritual j 
Estate as the first, quoting the Collect in the 
Service for the fifth of November, which runs, i 
" the Nobility, Clergy, and Commonalty." On 
this point I am not prepared with a decisive au- 
thority ; but certainly the language and practice 
of Parliament is with me. The Lords Spiritual 
are always named before the Lords Temporal, and 
precedence is allotted to them accordingly ; the 
Archbishops ranking above the Earls (with the 
more recent distinctions of Marquess and Duke), 
and the Bishops above the Temporal Barons [Qy. 
What was the relative rank of the other " prelates" 
who were formerly in Parliament ?]. To the 
same effect is the language of the celebrated pre- 
amble to the act 24 Henry VIII. c. 12. : 

" This realm of England is an empire .... governed 
by one supreme head and King .... unto whom a body 
politic compact of all sorts and degrees of people di- 
vided in terms and by names of Spiritualty and Tempo- 
ralty, be bounden and ovven." 

2. The Convocations of the Clergy (which are 
two synods sitting in three houses) are no part of 
the Parliament. MR. FRASER thinks " this point 
was settled somewhat late in our history ; " but it 
is proved (I submit) in the very extracts which 
he produces from ancient statutes. Since there 
is no doubt that the Clergy sat regularly in Con- 
vocation, we should not hear of their occasional 
presence in the House of Commons had the Con- 
vocation been deemed a part of Parliament. It 
is certain that Convocation never exercised the 
powers which belong to a chamber of Parliament ; 
even their own subsidies to the Crown were ra- 
tified and passed in Parliament before they became 
legally binding. [See on the whole of this subject, 
Burn's Eccl. Law (Phillimore's ed.), tit. "Con- 
vocation," vol. ii. pp. 19 23.] MR. FRASER has 
certainly adduced instances in which- the assent of 
the Clergy was given to particular statutes ; he 
might have added the recital of their submission 
to the Crown, in the Act of Supremacy, 26 Henry 
VIII. c. 1. He has shown also that clerical 
proctors were occasionally intro luced into the 
House of Commons, like the judges (he says) 
in the House of Lords. But this is far from 
making those proctors, or the Convocation which 
sent them, & part of the Parliament. Indeed it is 
shown that they were not by the petition of the 
Lower House of Convocation (cited by MR. 
FRASER),' in which they desire " to be admitted to 
sit in Parliament with the House of Commons, 
according to antient usage." It is clear that they 
who so petitioned did not esteem themselves to 

be, as a Convocation, already part of the Par- 
liament. The Convocation would indeed have 
become the Spiritual Estate in Parliament, if the 
Clergy had acceded to the wise and patriotic 
design of King Edward I. But they, affecting an 
imperium in iinperio, refused to assemble at the 
King's writ as a portion of the Parliament of their 
country, and chose to tax themselves apart in 
their Provincial Synods, where they used the 
forms of a separate Parliament for the Church. 

3. Hence the Spiritual Estate was, and still is, 
represented in Parliament by the Spiritual Lords. 
William the Conqueror having converted their 
sees into baronies, they were obliged, like other 
tenants in capite, to obey the royal summons to 
Parliament. When I called it a mistake to sup- 
pose that our Bishops sit in the Upper House 
only as Barons, I did not mean that they are not 
so, in the present constitution of Parliament, but 
that such was not the origin of the prelates being 
called to share in the legislation of the realm. 
The other clergy, however, retained their tenure 
of frankalmoigne, and stood aloof alike from the 
councils and from the burdens of the state. 
Attendance in Parliament being chiefly given for 
the purpose of voting taxes, the Commons, as well as 
the Clergy, looked upon it as a burden more than 
a privilege. But while the Clergy were quickly 
compelled to bear their share of the public bur- 
dens, their short-sighted policy deprived them of 
the voice which is now enjoyed by other degrees 
of Englishmen in the affairs of the country. 
While Convocation was sitting, the Clergy could 
make their sentiments known by the Bishops who 
represented their Estate in Parliament ; and we 
often find the Lower House of Convocation pe- 
titioning their lordships to make statements of this 
kind in their places in Parliament. But in the 
present suspension of Convocation and the disuse 
of diocesan synods, the Clergy have lost their 
weight with the Bishops themselves ; and that 
once formidable Estate of the Realm retains but 
the shadow of a representation in Parliament. 

MR. FRASER will find this account of the matter 
fully borne out by the extract he has given from 
Bennet's Narrative. " The King in full Parlia- 
ment charged the Prelates, Earls, Barons, and 
other great men, and the Knights of the shire, and 
the Commons," to give him counsel. Here we 
have a description ^Parliament precisely as it is 
constituted at this day, and the " Prelates " are 
the only members of the Spiritualty. Then we 
read " the Prelates deliberated ' with the clergy by 
themselves' (i.e. in Convocation}, and the Earls 
and Barons by themselves, and the Knights and 
others of the Commons by themselves ; and then, 
'in full Parliament' (as before), each by them- 
selves, and afterwards all in common answered," 
i.e. the Clergy deliberated in Convocation, but 
answered in Parliament by their Prelates. 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



It is true, as MR. FRASER observes, that the 
majority of the Upper House of Parliament binds 
the Clergy though all the Bishops should be dis- 
sentient, as in Queen Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity. 
This is the result of the Spiritual Estate voting in 
the same chamber with the Nobility ; and to avoid 
such a result the Commons very early demanded 
a chamber to themselves. The Spiritualty is thus 
yet further reduced under the power of the Tem- 
poralty ; for " the authority of Parliament " (as 
Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity words it) is and 
must be supreme, however defective its repre- 
sentative constitution. It were certainly to be 
wished that those liberal reformers who were so 
shocked at burgage tenures and rotten boroughs, 
would extend their compassion to the disfranchised 
clergy, some five or six hundred of whom are 
" represented," without their consent or opinion 
asked, by a prelate appointed by the Crown. 

On the whole, the Convocation is "the true 
Church of England by representation" (Canon 139) 
in such matters as belong to the Church as dis- 
tinguished from the State; but in Parliament, 
which is the State, the Spiritualty is represented 
by the Bishops alone. 

I am astonished that MR. FRASER should stumble 
at my remark, that the Three Estates still assemble 
in common for the final passing of every act. I 
had thought that the ceremony of giving the 'royal 
assent in full Parliament to bills previously de- 
liberated upon in the two Houses apart, had been 
sufficiently well known. CANON EBOR. 

P.S. Since writing the above I have lighted 
upon the following authorities, confirming the po- 
sition that the Spiritual Estate is represented in 
Parliament by the Bishops, and also that it is 
ranked as the " First Estate of the Realm." Can 
MR. FRASER adduce any authority whatever for 
applying that designation to the Clergy in Convo- 
cation ? 

I. In An Account of the Ceremonies observed at 
the Coronation of George III. (London, Kearsley, 
1791, 4to.), I read that immediately after the en- 

" The bishops performed their homage, and then the 
temporal lords, first H. R. H. the Duke of York, and 
H. 11. H. the Duke of Cumberland, each for himself;" 

the Prelates thus taking precedence even of the 
blood royal. The same fact is distinctly stated 
in the accounts appended of the coronations of j 
James II., William and Mary (when the Bishops j 
did homage before Prince George) ; and I pre- ' 
sume that this is the regular order in which the 
Estates of the Realm do homage to the Sovereign 
upon that most solemn occasion. 

II. When the royal assent is given to any act of 
grace (which emanates from the Crown in the first 
instance), the form is for the clerk of parliament 
to acknowledge the royal favour in these words : 

III. " Les prelats, seigneurs, et commons, en ce present 
parliament assembles au nom de tout vous autre sub- 
jects remercient tres humblement votre Majeste, et 
prient a Dieu vous donner en sante bonne vie et 

" Strictly speaking, the ' Three Estates of the Realm* 
consist of, 1st, the Lords Spiritual ; 2nd, the Lords 
Temporal ; 3rd, the Commons. Parliament fully as- 
sembled consists of the King, with the two estates of 
the Peerage sitting in one house, and the Commons by 
their representatives standing below the bar." Dodd's 
Manual of Dignities, fyc., tit. " Parliament," p. 266. 


(Vol.v., p. 79.) 

Your correspondent will find the ample story in 
the Golden Legend. It is related more succinctly 
by Roger of Wendover, who has been followed by 
later chroniclers. In the legend, as related by 
Roger of Wendover, the murder of Kenelm is said 
to have been miraculously notified at Rome by a 
white dove alighting on the altar of St. Peter's 
church, bearing a scroll in her bill, which she let 
fall. The scroll contained, among other things, 
the following lines : 

" In Clente cou bache 
Kenelm kine-bearn, 
Lith under thorne 
Havedes bereaved." 

" Qui Latine sonat (says the Chronicler) in pastum 
vaccarum Kenelmius regis films jacet sub spina capite 
privatus." MS. Douce, fo. 66. b. 

And afterwards he says : 

" De hujus quoque sancte martyris quidam sic ait : j 
In Clent, sub spina, jacet in convalle bovina, 
Vertice privatus, Kenelmus rege creatus." 

" Cou bache" has been erroneously printed " eou 
baflie ; " and travestied sometimes into coubage. 

Clent is the name of the place, a wood accord- 
ing to the Golden Legend. Bach, or Bache, is a 
word that had long escaped the glossarists, with 
the exception of Dr. Whitaker, who says it is " a 
Mereno- Saxon word, signifying a bottom, and that 
it enters into the composition of several local 
names in the midland counties." 

The passage in Piers Ploughman, upon which 
this is a gloss, occurs at p. 119. of Whitaker's 
edition : 

" Ac ther was weye non so wys (that the way thider 

Bote blostred forth as bestes) over baches and hulles." 

The word occurs several times in Layamon, and 
on two occasions the later text reads slade ; in one 
passage we have it thus : 

" Of dalen and of dunen 
And of bcecclien deopen." 



[No. 119. 

The cognate languages would have led us to 
a different interpretation of Bache. In Suevo- 
Gothic, Backe is "an ascent or descent, extremitas 
montes, alias crepido vel ora." Wacliter has Backe ; 
collis, tumulus ; of which Bilhel, collis clivus, is the 
diminutive still in use. In Swedish Backe, and in 
Danish Bakke, is a hill or rising ground ; and Ray, 
in his Travels, has " a baich, or languet of land." 
There has probably been some confusion here, as 
well as in the two similar words dune and dene, for 
hill and valley. S. W. SINGER. 

The legend of the sainted King Kenelm is re- 
lated at great length, and with very precise re- 
ferences to the various chroniclers in which it 
is to be found, in the 1st vol. (pp. 721-4.) of 
!MacCabe's Catholic History of England. The Saxon 
couplet in which his death was announced at 
Home is very neatly rendered in Butler's Lives 
of the Saints: 

" In Clent cow pasture under a thorn, 
Of head bereft, lies Kenelm king-born." 



(Vol. iv., p. 423.) 

The lady about whom FANNY inquires, was the 
wife of William Lord Fitz-Warine, who died in 
35 Edward III. (1361), as to whom see Dugd. 
Bar. i. 447. The register of interments and sepul- 
chral inscriptions in the church of the Grey Friars, 
tondoM, printed in the fifth volume of Collectanea 
Topogr. et Geneal. (the entry is at p. 278.), which 
I presume to be the authority for the statement in 
Knight's London, does not afford further informa- 
tion as to this lady, who is reckoned amongst the 
four queens said by Weever (following Stowe) to 
have been interred in this church. Mr. J. G. 
Nichols, in his note to the entry referred to, does 
not add any information about the lady Isabel. 

There was a Sybil, who was daughter of William 
Montacute, Earl of Salisbury and King of Man 
and Derby, one of the most distinguished cha- 
racters in the heroic age of Edward III. She 
married Edmund, the younger of the two sons of 
Edmund Earl of Arundel, by Alice, sister and 
heir of John, last Earl of Warren and Surrey, who 
died in 1347 (Dugd. Bar. i. 82.). William Mon- 
tacute was created Earl of Salisbury 16th March, 
1337, and died in 1343, and was entombed in the 
church of the Friars Carmelites, London ( Weever, 
437.). He was connected with the family of John 
Earl of Surrey, for it appears from a grant made 
by the king in 1 1 Edward III. to William Earl of 
Salisbury, that he was entitled in reversion to cer- 
tain hereditaments then held by John de Warren, 
Earl of Surrey, and Joan his wife (Collect. Top. 
et Gen. vii. 379.) The valiant Montacute, lord of 
Man, did not die without heirs male, for his son 

William was his heir ; otherwise we might have 
supposed the dominion of the isle to have devolved 
on his daughter S}A>il or Isabel, who, surviving 
Edmund her husband, may have married the Lord 
Fitz-Warine. Can evidence of such connexion be 
found ? I have not met with anything to connect 
his family with the lordship of the Isle of Man, 
and am not aware that " Isabel Queen of Man " is 
mentioned in any record save the sepulchral re- 
gister of the Grey Friars. I wish some clue could 
be found to a satisfactory answer. 

The other branch of the question proposed by 
FANNY, viz., when did the Isle of Man cease to 
be an independent kingdom ? can be answered by 
a short historical statement. So early as the reign 
of John, its sovereigns rendered fealty and homage 
to the kings of England. Reginald, styled King 
of Man, did homage to Henry III., as appears by 
the extract given from the Rot. Pat. 3 Hen. III., 
by Selden. During a series of years previously, 
the kings of Man, who seem to have held this isle 
together with the Hebrides, had done homage to 
the kings of Norway, and its bishops went to Dron- 
theim for consecration. Magnus, last sovereign 
of Man of the Norwegian dynasty, died in 1265. 
From that period the shadowy crown of Man is 
seen from time to time resting on lords of different 
races, and its descent is in many periods involved 
in great obscurity. After the death of Magnus, 
the island was seized by Alexander III. of Scot- 
land. A daughter and heiress of Reginald sued 
for it against John Balioi before Edward I. of 
England as lord paramount of Man (Rot. Parl. 
31 Edw. I.). In 35 Edw. I., we find Anthony Bek, 
the warlike Bishop and Count Palatine of Durham,, 
in possession of the isle ; but the king of England 
then claimed to resume it into his own hands, 
as of the ancient right of the crown. Accordingly, 
from sundry records it appears that Edw. II. and 
Edw. III. committed its custody to various per- 
sons, and the latter king at length conferred his 
right to it upon William Montacute, Earl of Salis- 
bury, in consideration, probably, of that valiant 
Earl having by his arms regained the island from 
the Scots, who had resumed possession, and of the 
circumstance that his grandmother, the wife of 
Simon de Montacute, was sister and heiress of one 
of the former kin^s of Man, and related to the lady 
who had claimed it as her inheritance on the death 
of Magnus. The son and heir of the grantee 
sold the isle to Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire, about 
16 Rich. II. In the time of Hen. IV., Sir William 
Scrope forfeited his possessions (Dugd. Bar. ii. 
250.) ; and the isle again <jame to the crown. It 
was granted to Percy, Earl of Northumberland, by 
the service of bearing the Lancaster sword on the 
left shoulder of the king on the day of coronation ; 
was forfeited by Percy ; and was thereupon granted 
by the same king to Sir John Stanley and his 
heirs, under which grant the Earls of Derby sue- 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



ceeded during many years. It was a subject of a 
grant to the Stanleys by Queen Elizabeth, and 
of an act of parliament in the reign of James I., 
nnder which the isle became vested in the Duchess 
Dowager of Athol, as heir of the body of James, 
seventh Earl of Derby, artd ultimately became 
vested by purchase in the crown. It may be said 
that during the time of authentic history, the Isle 
of Man was not an independent kingdom, until the 
regality was granted by the crown, as already 
mentioned. WM. SIDNEY GIBSON. 



(Vol. ii., pp. 131. 172.) 

When I wrote my note upon Long Meg of 
Westminster, I was not aware of the following pas- 
sage in Fuller's Worthies (Westminster, edit. 1662, 
p. 236.) : 

" As long as Megg of Westminster. This is applyed 
to persons very tall, especially if they have hop-pole- 
heiyhi, wanting breadth proportionable thereunto. That 
such a gyant-woman ever was in Westminster, cannot 
be proved by any good witness (I pass not for a late 
lying pamphlet), though some in proof thereof produce 
her gravestone on the south-side of the doistures, which 
(I confess) is as long, and large, and entire marble as 
ever I beheld. But be it known, that no woman in 
that age was interred in the doistures, appropriated to 
the sepultures of the abbot and his monkes. Besides, I 
have read in the records of that Abby of an infectious 
year, wherein many monkes dyed of the plague, and 
were all buried in one grave ; probably in this place, 
tinder this marble monument. If there be any truth in 
the proverb, it rather relateth to a great gun, lying in 
the tower, commonly call'd Long Megg ; and in trouble- 
some times (perchance upon ill May day in the raigne 
of King Henry the eighth), brought to Westminster, 
where for a good time it continued. But this Nut 
(perchance) deserves not the cracking." 

Grose, in his Provincial Glossary, inserts among 
the Local Proverbs, " As Long as Megg of West- 
minster," with the following note : 

" This is applied to very tall slender persons. Some 
think it alluded to a long gun, called Megg, in trouble- 
some times brought from the tower to Westminster, 
where it long remained. Others suppose it to refer to 
an old fictitious story of a monstrous tall virago called 
Long Megg of Westminster, of whom there is a small 
penny history, well known to school-boys of the lesser 
sort. In it there are many relations of her prowess. 
Whether there ever was such a woman or not, is im- 
material ; the story is sufficiently ancient to have 
occasioned the saying. Megg is there described as 
having breadth in proportion to her height. Fuller 
says, that the large grave-stone shown on the south 
side of the cloister in Westminster Abbey, said to 
cover her body, was, as he has read in an ancient 
record, placed over a number of monks who died of 
the plague, and were all buried in one grave ; that 

being the place appointed for the sepulture of the 
abbots and monks, in which no woman was permitted 
to be interred." Edit. 1811, p. 207. 

I shall not enter into the question, as to whether 
any "tall woman" of "bad repute" was or was 
not buried in the cloisters of Westminster, as it is 
very likely to turn out, upon a little inquiry, that 
the original "long Meg" was a "great gun," and 
not a creature of flesh and blood. 

" Long Meg " is also the name of a large gun 
preserved in the castle of Edinburgh ; and, what 
is somewhat extraordinary, the great bombard 
forged for the siege of Oudenarde, in 1382, now 
in the city of Ghent, is called by the towns-people 
" Mad Meg." 

A series of stones, situated upon an eminence 
on the east side of the river Eden, near the village 
of Little Salkeld, are commonly known as " Long 
Meg and her Daughters." 

These notices, at any rate, are suggestive, and 
may be the means of elucidating something per- 
haps more worth the knowing. 



(Vol. v., p. 1.) 

My enquiry into the use of stops in the early 
days of typography will, if it prove nothing else, 
show that the Tablet of Memory is not an authority 
to be depended upon on that subject. I have ar- 
ranged the authorities which I have consulted in 
chronological order. 
1480. Epistola F. Philelphi ad Sextum IV., printed 

at Rome. 

1493. Politian's Latin translation of Herodian y 
printed at Bologna. 

In both these books the colon and period are 
used, but neither the comma nor semicolon. 
1523. Dialogi Platonis, printed at Nuremberg. 

Here I find the comma and period, and also the 
note of interrogation, but not the colon or semi- 

1523. Ascensius declynsons, with the playne Ex- 
positor, without date, place, or printer's 

This publication is ascribed by Johnson to 

Wynkyn de Worde, and therefore printed between 

1493 and 1534. I find in it the following amusing 

passage relative to the ancient art of punctuation : 

" Of the Craft of Toyntlng. 

*' There be fiue maner poynts, and divisions most uside 
with cunnyng men : the which, if they be wel usid, 
make the sentens very light, and esy to understond 
both to the reder and the herer, and they be these; 
virgil, come, parenthesis, playne poynt, and interrogatif. 
A virgil is a sclender stryke : lenynge forwarde this 
wyse, betokynynge a lytyl, short rest without any per- 
fetnes yet of sentens : as betwene the five poyntis a fore 



[No. 119. 

rehersid. A come is with tway tittels this wyse : be- 
tokynynge a longer reste : and the sentens yet either is 
imperfet : or els, if it be perfet : ther cummith more 
after, longyng to it : the which more comynly cannot 
be perfet by itself without at the lest summat of it: 
that gothe a fore. A parenthesis is with tway crokyd 
virgils : as an olde mone, and a new bely to bely : the 
whyche be set theton afore the begynyng," and thetother 
after the latyr ende of a clause; comyng within an other 
clause : that may be perfet : thof the clause, so comyng 
betwene : wer awey, and therfore it is sowndyde comynly 
a note lower, than the utter clause, yf the sentens can- 
not be perfet without the ynner clause, then stede of 
the first crokyde virgil a streght virgil woi do very 
wel ; and stede of the later must nedis be a come. A 
playne poynt is with won tittel this wyse . and it cumeth 
after the ende of al the whole sentens betokynynge a 
longe reste. An interrogate/ is with tway tittels, the 
upper rysing this wyse ? and it cumeth after the ende 
of a whole reason : wheryn ther is sum question axside. 
the whiche ende of the reson, triyng as it were for an 
answere : risyth upwarde. we have these rulis in englishe : 
by cause they be as profy table, and necessary to be kepte 
in every mother tonge, as in latyn. Sethyn we (as we 
wolde to god : every precher wolde do) have kept owre 
rulis both in owre englishe, and latyn : what nede we, 
sethyn owre own be sufficient unogh : to put any 
other exemplis." 

It is evident that what the writer of this book 
<;alls the virgil, is our comma : and his come, our 
colon. There is nothing, however, allusive to our 
1541. Cranmer's Bible. Here we find the comma, 

colon, and period, and also the note of 

interrogation, but not the semicolon. 
1597. Gerard's Herbal contains the comma, colon, 

semicolon, and period. 
J604. First part of Shakspeare's Henry IV., 4to. 

Here the comma, colon, and period are 

used, but not the semicolon. 
1631. Baker's Well-spring of Science also uses 

the comma, colon, and period, but not 

the semicolon. 
1636. Record's Ground of Arts. Here all the stops 

now in use are found. 
1639. Cockeram's English Dictionary defines the 

comma, colon, and period, but not the 

semicolon. The latter, however, is used 

in the preface. 
1650. Moore's Arithmetic employs all the four 

common stops. 
1670. Blount's Glossographia defines the four 

common stops. 

Generally speaking, the stops now in use may be 
found in books from about 1630. So much con- 
cerning punctuation. P. T. 


(Vol. ii., pp. 182. 316.) 

Your correspondent S. R. will find that in Ire- 
land, as well as in England, the custom prevailed, 

during the reign of Elizabeth, of inflicting a pun- 
ishment for various crimes, by the public expo- 
sure of the delinquents with papers about their 
heads. The following "sentence" for adultery, 
which has been transcribed from the Book of the 
Commissioners of Ecclesiastical Causes (deposited 
amongst the records of the Court of Exchequer 
in Ireland, 15701574, p. 22.), goes so fully into 
detail, that it may supply to S. R. the graphic 
account which he requires : 

" First, that he (Henry Hunchcliffe) shall not come 
into, nor kepe, nor use the company of Constance 
Kyng hereafter, and shalbe bounde to the same eflfecte 
in a bond of recognizance of a 100/., otherwise to be 
committed to prison ; there to be kept in such sort 
that neyther he to hir, nor she to him, shall have access 
in anywise. Secondlie, that upon Saterdaie next en- 
seweing at ix of the clocke in the mornyng, he, 'the 
said Eyland, alias Hunchcliffe, shall come unto the 
crosse in the highe strete of Dublin, having on a white 
shete from his sholders downe to the ground, rounde 
aboute him, and a paper about his head whereupon 
shalbe written for adultery leavyng his wyfe in England 
alyve and marryeng w th an other here, and a white wande 
in his hand, and then and there goe up unto the highest 
staire of the crosse, and there sitte duryng all the time 
of the markette untill yt be ended ; and furder decreed 
that Constance Kyng shall not hereafter in anywise 
resort or have accesse unto him, or kepe him company, 
and to performe the same they toke hir othe w ch she 
gave upon the holie evangelists ; and furder, after y* 
Hunchcliffe hath done his penance as above they dc 
creed he shold goe to prison againe, there to remayr 
and abide untill y 4 shall please the commissioners 
take furder order in this cause." 

The book contains other entries of a simili 
kind. J. F. F. 



Rev. Thomas Adams, D.D. (Vol. v., p. 80.). 
In addition to the sermons enumerated, I possess 
two more in small quarto : 1. " Preached at the 
triennial visitation of the R. R. father in God, the 
Lord Bishop of London, in Christchurch : text, 
15 Actes 36 : London, 1625." 2. " The holy choice. 
at the chappell by Guildhall, at the solenmitie of 
the election of the Rt. Hon ble the Lord Maior of 
London : text, 1 Actes 24. 1625." E. D. 

Wiggan, John (Vol. v., p. 78.). John Wiggan, 
M.D., the editor of Aretceus (Oxon. fol. 1723), 
was in 1721 a student of Christ Church. M. D. 

"Poets beware!" (Vol. v., p. 78.). The words 
" Poets beware ! never compare 
Women to aught in earth or in air," &c. 

are the first of a song by Thomas Haynes Bayly, 
written for and arranged to music by T. A. Raw- 
lings, in The Musical Bijou for 1830, edited by 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



F. II. Burney, published by Gouldin* 
maine, 20. Soho Square. 

and d'Al- handwriting in the Admission Book of Trinity 
E. B. R. j College. It is to the following effect : 

Traditions of Remote Periods, Sf-c. (Vol.v., p. 7 7.). 
It is a well-known fact that the proud Duke of j 
Somerset, and Prince George, his successor as a 
Knight of the Garter, occupied the space between 
1684 and 1820. The anecdote, however, related 
of George IV. by your intelligent correspondent 
C. cannot be correct, because the blue ribbon was 
conferred upon Lord Moira by the Prince Regent 
in June, 1812, who advanced him in 1816 to the 
Marquisate of Hastings, and George III. did not 
die till 1820. The story, therefore, must belong to 
the period of the Regency, and not to the com- 
mencement of the reign of George IV. 


Audley End. 

There is some error in the statement of C. 
George IV. succeeded to the throne 29th Janunry, 
1820, and the vacancy in the Order of the Garter 
occasioned by his accession he save to the Mar- 

" Ego Joannes Ash, Fil Joseph! Ash, gen. (generosi) 
de Coventria in Com. Warwick : natus ibidem annos 

circiter 16 admissus 

=;um com. n 

fer. ordinis (commer- 

quess of Buckingham, who was elected 12th June 
that year. The Earl of Moira was elected and 
invested in 1812, upon the vacancy created by the 
death of William, fifth Duke of "Devonshire, and 
was the third knight made during the Regency. 
(See Beltz's Succession of the Knights, pp. ccxi. 
and ccxiv.) Lord Moira never occupied the stall 
of George IV., which before his accession was that 
of Prince of Wales. 

At the time of the death of the Duke of Somer- 
set, in 1748, there were several vacancies; and on 
the 22d June, 1749, George Prince of Brunswick, 
afterwards King George III., was elected in the 
room of John Earl Powlett, and John Earl Gran- 
ville was elected in the room of the Duke of 
Somerset. (See Beltz, cciii.) G. 

Heraldical MSS. of Sir Henry St. George 
Garter (Vol. v., p. 59.). M N, in " N. & Q." of 
the 17th ultimo, wishes to know what became of 
these valuable MSS. I understand that, just 
before the auction atEnmore Castle in 1831, these 
MSS. passed into the possession of the late Sir 
Matthew Tierney, Bart., by private contract, or 
some arrangement of the kind. Ami most likely 
they now are in the possession of his brother, Sir 
Edward Tierney, Bart., who for a long period 
was the confidential friend, as well as the land 
and law agent of the fourth Earl of Egmont : in 
any case, he is the only person who can give M N 
the information he requires respecting them : and, 
if written to on the subject, I have no doubt will 
communicate all he knows about him. E. A. G. 


Dr. John Ash (Vol. v., p. 12.). I am able to 
afford your correspondent P. RUSSELL but little 
information respecting Dr. John Ash ; but that is 
authentic, being taken from an entry in his own 

salis inferioris ordinis) sub tutamine magistri Geering 
4 Die Martii, 1739-40." 

There is no other John Ash admitted between 
1737 and 1764; therefore it may be presumed 
this is the same person. T. W. 

Trin. Coll. Oxon. 

P.S. I find by the corrected list of Oxford 
graduates, just published, that Dr. Ash took his 
degrees ofB.A. Oct. 21, 1743; M.A. Oct. 17, 1746 ; 
B.M. Dec. 6, 1750; D.M. July 3, 1754. 

Inveni Portum (Vol. v., p. 64.). The words 
" Inveni portum" remind me of Byron's answer 
to a friend, who claimed his congratulations upon, 
receiving a valuable appointment; u for," said he, 
" I may now say with truth, ' Portum inveni.' " 
" I am very glad to hear it," replied Byron, " for 
you have finished many bottles of mine." NOTE. 

Goldsmith (Vol. v., p. 63.). Thanks to your 
i sensible correspondent A. E. B. ! A true poet 
I always puts the right word in the right place, and 
I A. E. B.'s good taste assured him of Goldsmith's 
| propriety. 

We have it upon record, that Burke asked 
Goldsmith what he meant by the word " slow," in 
the first line of his Traveller 

" Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow." 

" Do you mean, Dr. Goldsmith, tardiness of 
locomotion ? " " Yes," said Goldsmith. " No ! " 
said Johnson, " you mean no such thing, Sir. You 
mean vacuity of action." 

A true poet ever puts the right word in the right 
place. A. E. B. has put the argument rightly, and 
it is to be regretted that he has been obliged to do 

rT'- -1i__ 1 _/ /~^,.1,1 til,',, 4-n. mlrl 

a word of Goldsmith's, is to gild 

so. To alter 
refined gold. 

Lords Marchers (Vol. v., p. 30.). See His- 
torical Account of the Principality of Wales, by Sir 
J. Dodridge, Kt. Discourse against the Juris- 
diction of the King's Bench over Wales ; printed 
among Margrave's Law Tracts. The author was 
Charles Pratt, Esq., afterwards Lord Chancellor 
Camden : see Ilargr. Jurisc. Exerc., vol. ii. p. 301. 
Coke, 4 List. 244. Coke's Entries, 549. 
Harl MSS. 141. 1220. contain copies of A Treatise 
of Lordships Marchers in Wales. H. S. M. 

Foreign Ambassadors (Vol. iv., p. 442.). The 
information solicited in p. 442. has, in some de- 
gree, been subsequently given at page 477. ; but, I 
believe, much more distinctly in the Gentlemaris 
Magazine for November and December, 1840, so 
far, at least, as embracing the French ambassadors 
to the English court from the fourteenth to the 



[No. 119. 

eighteenth century. A personal account of each 
is there given in reply to the inquiry of Mr. John 
Holmes of the British Museum, and under the 
signature of J. R. (Cork.) 

Church, whence derived (Vol. v., p. 79.). Jfteo- 
philus Anglicanus supplies a sufficient answer to 
MR. GEORGE STEPHENS' inquiries respecting the 
word church. 

There can be no doubt about its etymology. 
The only question of difficulty seems to be, why 
did the church of Rome adopt the word eKK\-n<ria 
from the Greeks, and not KvpiaK^ ? Was it that 
they had a word of their own, viz. Dominica ? or 
was it, that ccclesia was already a naturalised 
word ? However this may be, Dr. Wordsworth 
bases upon the fact an important argument, tend- 
ing to show that the Britons did not receive their 
Christianity in the first instance from Rome : 

" We may appeal," he says ( Part n. chap. ii. ), " to 
the English word church, which is derived, as has been 
before said, from the Greek Kvpia^j, a term which no 
Roman ever applied to the church (which he called 
ecclesia, and by no other name) ; and it is not credible, 
that, if the British church had been derived from 
Rome, it should have been designated by a title alike 
foreign to Romans and to Britons themselves." 

If this argument be of any value in relation to 
Britain, it (of course) would not be without its 
worth to those who ascribe the primary conversion 
of the Teutonic countries, which MR. STEPHENS 
mentions, to the early British and Irish mis- 
sionaries. J. SANSOM. 

Cross-legged Effigies (Vol. iv., p. 382.). 
W. H. K. inquires for the latest known example 
of a cross-legged effigy. The latest I have met 
with is the very beautiful slab at Norton-Brize, 
Oxfordshire, to Sir John Daubi^ne. He appears 
in plate armour of the earliest kind, and wears the 
camail, and is surrounded by an inscription, with 
the date 1346. It is engraved by Skelton, and 
there is also an admirable woodcut of it in Boutell's 
Christian Monuments, part ii. p. 141., a work of 
which the continuation is much to be desired. That 
this monument was not put down in Sir John 
Daubigne's lifetime, and the date of his death filled 
up afterwards, is evident from the perfect cor- 
respondence of the costume with the date of 1346. 
But it is probably the last example left us of the 
cross-legged position, and even then out of 
fashion. C. R. M. 

Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuffbox (Vol. v., p. 78.). 
In answer to your question from your corre- 
spondent L. H. L. T., I have to inform you that 
Sir Walter Raleigh's snuffbox is in my possession. 
It was bought when the Duke of Sussex's collec- 
tion was, sold at Messrs. Christie's, in 1843, by a 
gentleman of the name of Lake. Mr. Lake having 
died, his effects were sold by Messrs. Christie, 
either 1849 or 1850, when it was purchased by me. 

Should your correspondent wish to see it, he can 
have the opportunity by applying as below. 


8. Queen's Row, Pimlico. 

Epigram on Erasmus (Vol. iv., p. 437.). I 
well remember to have seen this before, in one of 
the multiplied editions of his Colloquies which I 
cannot directly indicate. M. Menage could not 
recollect, he says, the name of the author* of the 
following singular epigram on the same celebrated 
writer's character and name: 
" Hie jacet Erasmus, qui quondam bonus erat mus : 

Rodere qui solitus, roditur a vermibus." 
This distich, it has been remarked, presents two 
obvious faults of prosodial quantity ; the first 
syllable of bonus being made long, and the first of 
vermibus short, which the author explained by 
maintaining that the one nullified and compensated 
for the other, thus redeeming both. 

The best epitaph on Erasmus has always ap- 
peared to me to be that of Julius Caesar Scaliger, 
expressive of his regret for their long personal 
hostility, and then rendering ample justice to his 
deceased adversary. It begins thus : 
* Tune etiam moreris? ah quid me linquis, Erasme? 

Ante meus quam sit conciliatus amor !" 
To which may be aptly applied the sentiment ex- 
pressed by Corneille (Mort de Pompee, Acte V. 
Sc. 1.): 

" Ah 1 qu'il est doux de plaindre 

La mort d'un ennemi, quand il n'est plus a craindre." 

To the portrait of Erasmus have been subscribed 

these characteristic words, " Vidit, pervidit, risit." 

J. R. (Cork.) 

General Wolfe (Vol. iv., p. 439.). To the in- 
quiries of 5 relative to General Wolfe, I can only 
answer that the northern English county to which 
his ancestor, Captain George Woulfe, made his 
escape in 1651 from Ireton's proscription, was 
understood to be Yorkshire. After his expatri- 
ation and change of religion, the family in Clare 
lost, in a great measure, sight of him and of his 
descendants, until, like Epaminondas and Nelson, 
crowned with victory and glory at his death. 

I may be here permitted to observe that your 
correspondent distinguishes me as J. R. (of Cork) ; 
but, whether with the single initials, or the local 
addition, the signature is mine, though latterly, to 
avoid all mistake, I append my locality. 

J. R. (Cork.) 

Ghost Stories (Vol. iv., p. 5.; Vol. v., p. 89.). 
Baron Reichenbnch has evidently overrated 
the importance of his discovery, but his system 
may be advantageously applied to the explana- 

[* The author of the Critique de Marsollier says it 
was Philip Labbe. See Burigni, torn. ii. pp. 428, 429. 
Jortin's Life of Erasmus. ED. ] 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



tion of corpse-candles, illuminated church-yards, 
and other articles of Welsh and English super- 
stition. Aubrey tells us, that " when any Chris- 
tian is drowned in the river Dee, there will appear 
over the water where the corpse is a light, by 
which means they do find the body." The Welsh 
also to this day believe that the body of a secretly 
buried person may be discovered by the lambent 
blue flame which hovers round the grave at night. 
I would also refer DR. MAITLAND to Baxter's 
Certainty of the World of Spirits, and the chapter 
on " Spectral Lights" in Mrs. Crowe's Night-side 
of Nature. T. STERNBERG. 

Epigram on Burnet (Vol. v., p. 58.). Odd 
enough! at the moment when your No. 116. 
reached me, a volume of the State Poems was 
before me, in which I read the very epigram to 
which your correspondent alludes, where it thus 
stands : 


" If heaven be pleased, when sinners cease to sin, 
If hell be pleased, when souls are damned therein, 
If earth be pleased, when its rid of a knave, 
Then all are pleased, for Coleman's in his grave." 
State Poems, vol. iii. 1704. 
V, Who was Coleman ? JAMES CORNISH. 

[We are indebted to another correspondent, LOUISA 
JULIA NORM A v, for pointing out the same epigram on 
Coleman in The Panorama of Wit (1809). Coleman, 
on whom the epigram appears to have been originally 
written, is obviously the Jesuit of that name executed 
in the reign of Charles II.] 

" Son of the Morning " (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 330. 
391.). As none of your correspondents have been 
able to explain the meaning of this passage in 
Childe Harold, I may now tell you that the phrase 
is an orientalism for "traveller," in allusion to 
their early rising to avoid the heat of the mid-day 
sun. Lord Byron invites the traveller to visit I 
the ruins of Greece, but not to molest them as j 
some former travellers had done; then he turns 
upon Lord Elgin, and attacks him for his misdeeds | 

Haberdasher (Vol. ii., pp. 167. 253.). In Todd's 
edition ^of Johnson's Dictionary, the word haber- 
dasher is derived from berdash, which is said " to 
have been a name formerly used in England for a 
certain kind of neck-dress, whence the maker or 
seller of such clothes was called a berdasher; and 
thence comes haberdashers." This etymology is 
hardly admissible. Can an early reference be 
given to the use of the term berdash, as an article 
of dress ? Minsheu, Todd remarks, ingeniously 
deduces it from Habt ihr dass, German, Have you 
this ? the expression of a shopkeeper offering his 
wares to sell. But the derivation of the term 
haberdasher furnished by your correspondent (Vol. 
ii., p. 253.) is certainly the most satisfactory. 

At the end of the sixteenth century (about 
1580) the shopkeepers that went under this desig- 
nation dealt largely in most of the minor articles 
of foreign manufacture ; and among the "haber- 
dashery " of that period were " daggers, swords, 
owches, broaches, aiglets, Spanish girdles, French 
cloths, Milan caps, glasses, painted cruizes, dials, 
tables, cards, balls, puppets, ink-horns, tooth-picks, 
fine earthen pots, pins and points, hawks' bells, 
salt-cellars, spoons, knives, and tin dishes." A yet 
more curious list of goods vended by the " millo- 
ners or haberdashers" who dwelt at the Royal 
Exchange within two or three years after it had 
been built, occurs in Stow's Annals by Howe 
(p. 869.), where Ave are informed that they " sould 
mouse-trappes, bird-cages, shooing-hornes, Ian- 
thornes, and Jew's trumpes." 

The author of that curious tract, Maroccus Ex- 
taticus, 1595 (which I reprinted in the Percy 
Society) speaks of a "felow" loading his sleeve 
with " fuel from the haberdashers.''' 

The more ancient name of these traders was 
milainers, an appellation derived from their dealing 
in merchandize chiefly imported from the city of 
Milan. They were also, 1 believe, called liurrers, 
from dealing in hats and caps. 

It is evident, from the above, that " a retailer 
of goods, a dealer in small wares," is the true 
meaning of the word haberdasher. 


Vincent Kidder (Vol. iv., p. 502.). The ances- 
tors of this personage resided at a house called the 
" Hole," in the parish of Maresfield. In the time 
of Henry VII., and earlier, they held the office of 
bailiffs of the Forest of Ashdown, otherwise called 
Lancaster Great Park. I believe that most of the 
existing families of Kidder are branches of this 
parent stock. From a branch long settled at 
Lewes sprang Dr. Kidder, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, who lost his life in the great storm of 1703. 
I believe that the Irish branch had previously been 
settled in London. A third branch settled in the 
American colonies in the seventeenth century, and 
has produced a highly respectable and wealthy 
progeny still resident in the New England states, 
and elsewhere. I have at hand materials for a 
complete pedigree of the Sussex or elder line of 
the family, down to the time of its extinction. 
Perhaps your correspondent will communicate 
with me on this subject by a private letter. 


Tripos, What is the Origin of the Term? 
(Vol. iv., p. 4S4.). Tripos, a long piece of white 
and brown paper, like that on which the com- 
monest ballads are printed, containing Latin hexa- 
meter verses, with the author's name, &c. The 
Cambridge tripos, it has been conjectured, was 
probably in old time delivered, like the Teme 



[No. 119. 

Filius, from a tripod, a three-legged stool, in I 
bumble imitation of the Delphic oracle. It is men- j 
tioned in the statute De tollendis ineptiis in pub- 
licis disputationibus*, an 1626 ut praevaricatores, 
tripodes, alii que omnes disputantes veterum aca- 
demia forrnam, c. JAMES CORNISH. 

Monody on the Death of Sir John Moore (Vol. i., 
p. 445.). If any person entertains a doubt that 
the Rev. Charles Wolfe was the author, I trust 
that the following statement will have the effect of 
removing it. In the October number of the Dub- \ 
lin University Magazine, 1851, there is a short \ 
biographical notice of the late much lamented 
Rev. Samuel O'Sullivan, which contains the fol- , 
lowing passage : 

" One of his intimate acquaintances was Charles ! 
Wolfe. The exquisite lines on the burial of Sir John i 
Moore were suggested by O'Sullivan reading to him j 
the description m the Annual Register of the retreat 
from Corunna. Immediately after, the two friends went 
out to wander in the fields. During their ramble 
Wolfe was silent and moody. On their return to their 
College chambers he repeated the first and last stanzas 
of the ode that has made his name immortal." 

Knowing the source from which this assertion 
emanates, I have no reason to suspect the veracity 
of the writer. 

There is an additional proof, which is well j 
worthy of being recorded in your pages, and of 
which I have had ocular demonstration. In the 
Moyal Irish Academy there is an original letter, 
framed, in the handwriting of Wolfe, of which I 
send you an exact fac-simile. You will perceive 
that it contains a copy of the poem, and that his 
signature is attached to it. I need not add any 
more. CLERICUS. 


* The following, from the facetious Fuller, will serve 
to show to what lengths they went formerly in ineptiis 
(See his Worthies, edit. 1684): "When Morton, 
afterwards Bishop of Durham, stood for the degree of 
D. D. at Cambridge, he advanced something which was 
displeasing to the professor, who exclaimed, with some 
warmth, ' Commosti mihi stomachum.' To whom Mor- 
ton replied, Gratulor tibi, Reverende Professor, de 
bono tuo stomacho, coenabis apud me hac nocte.' The 
English word stomach formerly signified ' passion, 
indignation.' Archbishop Cranmer appointed one 
Travers to a fellowship at Trinity College, who had 
been before rejected (says my author) on account of 
his ' intolerable stomach.' This would be thought a 
singular discommendation in the present day.". To add 
another story from Fuller relating to Publicis Disputa- 
tionibus : "When a professor of logic pressed an 
answerer with a hard argument, ' Reverende Professor,' 
said he, ' ingenue confiteor me non posse respondere 
huic argumento.' To whom the Professor, * Recte 
respondis.' " Holy and Profane State. Vide Gradus 
ad Cantabrigiam, a little book published by VV. J. and 
J. Richardson, 1803. 

Many Children at a Birth (Vol. iii., pp. 64. 
347.). In The Natural History of Wiltshire : by 
John Aubrey, F.R.S., edited by John Britton, 
Esq., is the following passage : 

" At Wishford Magna is an inscription to Thomas 
Bonham and Edith his wife, who died 1473 and 1469. 
Mrs. Bonham had two children at one birth the first 
time ; and he beiny troubled at it, travelled, and was 
absent seven years. After his returne, she was deli- 
vered of seven children at one birth. In this parish is a 
confident tradition that these seven children were all 
baptized at the font in this church, and that they were 
brought thither in a kind of chardger, which was dedi- 
cated to this church, and hung on two nailes, which 
are to be seen there yet, neer the belfree on the south 
side. Some old men are yet living that doe remember 
the chardger. This tradition is entred into the Regis- 
ter-booke there, from whence I have taken this nar- 
rative," 1659. See Hoare's Modern Wilts, p. 49. 
J. B. 

The following is also from the same book : 
" Dr. Win. Harvey, author of The Circulation of the 
Blood, told me that one Mr. Palmer's wife, in Kent, 
did beare a child every day for five daies together." 

C. DE D. 

" O Leoline" frc. (Vol. v., p. 78.). If no one 
sends in better information, I beg to inform 
H. B. C. that I have had the lines he alludes to 
for many years in MS. as the composition of 
Aaron Hill. He was a dramatist, but I observe 
that the Cyclopaedia says only two of his dramatic 
pieces are now remembered, Algira and Zara, 
both of them adaptations from Voltaire. He was 
born 1684, and died 1750. My verses differ 
slightly from the version of H. B. C. 
" Let never man be bold enough to say, 

Thus, and no farther, shall my footsteps stray. 

The first crime past compels us into more, 

And guilt grows fate, that was but choice before." 


[O. P. W. has forwarded a similar reference to 
Aaron Hill.] 

The Ballad on the Rising of the Vendee (Vol.iv., 
p. 473.). It is by Smythe, the member for Can- 
terbury, and was published in his Historic Fancies. 

R. D. H. 

House at Welling (Vol. iv., p. 502.). Your 
correspondent appears to have made a confusion 
between Welling in Kent and Welwyn in Herts. 
Of this latter place Young, the author of the 
Night Thoughts, was rector, and the house in 
which he resided is now standing. A. W. II. 

Pharetram dc. Tutesbit (Vol. iv., p. 316.). 
Fharetram de Tutesbit must be a quiver manu- 
factured by a person of the name of Tutesbit. 
This indeed is conjecture, as I have not been able 
to find any allusion to the word ; but it does not 
appear that there is any place of that name. 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



Flectatas sagittas may be translated arrows 
ready dressed, or fetched. A flecker is one who 
fashions and prepares arrows ; hence the common 
use of the word as a proper name now-a-days. 

H. G. R. 


Ruffles, when worn (Vol. v., p. 12.). These ap- 
pendages to our ancient costume were originally 
termed handrujfs. They may be traced in some 
of our early monumental effigies. The earliest 
written notice of them, that I remember, is in 
the following extract from an inventory of 
Henry VIII.'s apparel Quoted by Strutt : 

" One payer of sieves, passed over the arme with 
gold and silver, quilted with black silk, and ruffled at 
the hand with strawberry leaves and flowers of gold, 
embroidered with black silk." 

In the reign of Elizabeth, the handruffs are 
seen pleated and edged with rich lace ; and in the 
three succeeding reigns, they were generally worn 
of fine lawn or cambric. When the Hanoverian 
race ascended the English throne, many changes 
took place in the national costume ; but the ruffle 
was retained, and continued during the century. 

Some of your readers may recollect the print of 
Garrick's Macbeth, with cocked hat of the last 
London cut, bag-wig, full court dress and ruffles I 

In 1762, the rage for large ruffles was beginning 
to decline. A writer in the London Chronicle for 
that year (p. 167.) says (speaking of the gentle- 
men's dress) : 

" Their cuffs cover entirely their wrists, and only 
the edge of their ruffles are to be seen ; as if they lived 
in the slovenly days of Lycurgus, when every one was 
ashamed to show clean linen." 

The French Revolution of 1789 very much 
influenced the English fashions in costume ; the 
cocked-hat and ruffles were discarded to make 
room for the ugly " round hat" and "small cuffs" 
of the Parisian butchers. 

It would be difficult to fix upon the period for 
the total disuse of any particular fashion. Fashions 
of a "hundred years ago" may still be seen in 
some of our country churches ; and I should not 
be surprised to find ruffles among their number. 

Allen ofEossutt (Vol. v., p. 11.). There seems 
some little doubt about the arms of Allen of Rossull. 
A MS. at Burton Constable, Yorkshire, gives the 
following as the arms of the family : Allen, Rosso/Z 
(not ROSSM//, though sometimes Rushall, Rossal, 
&c.) : argent, a chevron engrailed azure, between 
three griffins' heads erased ; on a chief of the se- 
cond an anchor, or, between two bezants. 

The windows of Ushaw College, Durham, how- 
eve^ frequently present a coat "far different from 
this, surmounted by a cardinal's hat. The arms 
there are Argent, a cross gules for the college of 
Douay ; impaling for the founder, William Allen, 

argent, three conies in pale sejant, sable. The 
first seems to have belonged to the family ; the 
last if assumed by the cardinal himself seem 
singularly indicative of his peculiar propensity for 
endeavouring to undermine sound doctrine by his 
heretical works and acts. G. S. A. 

Serjeants' Rings (Vol. v., pp. 59. 92. 110.). 
The happiest motto which comes to my recollection 
is that adopted by the first Serjeants who were 
called after the decision of the Court of Common 
Pleas in January, 1840, overturning the warrant 
issued by King William IV., which opened the 
court to all members of the bar. Five new ser- 
jeants were then called, who gave rings with this 
motto, in allusion to the restoration of their 
rights : 

" Honor nomenque manebunt." 

Is your correspondent E. N. W. right as to 
Serjeant Onslow's motto? As all the Serjeants 
called at the same time have the same motto in- 
scribed on the rings they respectively give, it is 
not likely, if others were joined in the same call x 
with him, that a motto should have been adopted 
which applied only to one of the number. If in- 
deed he happened to be called alone, it is possible 
he may have used it ; but I am inclined to think 
E. N. W. has confounded the motto of the family 
with that of the serjeant. EDWARD Foss. 

Clerical Members of Parliament (Vol. v., p. 11.). 
John Home Tooke, the reformer, who was in 
priest's orders, having been presented to the 
borough of Old Sarum by Lord Camelford, in 
February, 1801, an act was passed (41 Geo. III. 
c. 73.) to exclude the clergy from parliament ; but 
as it did not vacate the seat of any member then 
elected, Mr. Tooke remained in the house till the 
dissolution in June, 1802. In the course of the 
debate, the case of Mr. Edward Rushworth, 
member for Newport, in the Isle of Wight, in 
1784, was referred to. He was in deacon's orders, 
and a petition presented against his return, but 
was allowed to retain his seat. He is supposed to 
have been one of the two ministers of the Church 
of England alluded to by Sir James Johnstone in 
his speech in the debate on the Test and Corpora- 
tion Acts, 8th May, 1789, as then being members 
of the House. W. S. S. 

Cabal (Vol. iv., pp. 443. 507.). The following 
extract from a curious book in my possession, 
entitled Theophania; or severall Modern His- 
tories represented by way of Romance (see " N. 
& Q." Vol. i., p. 174.), shows a much earlier use 
of this word than that of Burnet's. The date of 
Theophania is 1655 : 

" He was at length taken prisoner, and, as a sure 
token of an entire victory, sent with a strong guard into 
Sicily ; \vbere Glaucus and Pansanias, fearing time might 
mitigate the queen's indignation, caused his process to 



[No. 119. 

be presently dispatched ; and the judges, being all of 
the same Cabal, without consideration of his many 
glorious achievements, they condemned him to an 
ignominious death." Theophania, p. 147. 


Latin Verse on Franklin (Vol. iv., p. 443. ; Vol. v., 
p. 17.). The line on Franklin 

" Eripuit ccelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis," 

was written by Turgot, Louis XVI.'s minister 
and controller-general of finance. This verse, 
however, so happily applied to the American 
philosopher and statesman's double title to re- 
nown, is merely the modification of one in the 
Anti- Lucretius of Cardinal Polignac, the 37th of 
the first book, " Eripuitque Jovi fulmen, Phoeboque 
sagittas," which again had for its model that of 
Marcus Manilius, a poet of the Augustan age. 
It is the 104th of his Astronomicon, where he 
says of Epicurus (lib. v.), " Eripuitque Jovi ful- 
men, viresque Tonanti." This appears to be the 
original source of the phrase, so far as I could 
trace it. Turgot, though highly appreciated by 
his sovereign, and promoted to the prime ministry 
in consequence, was only suffered to hold the 
responsible situation for a short time, from August, 
1774, to May, 1776, when he fell a sacrifice to 
court intrigues, which the weak king had not the 
energy to resist, while emphatically saying, "II 
n'y a que Turgot et moi qui aimions le peuple." 
This eminent statesman's advocacy of the freedom 
of commerce, state economy, and general liberty 
of the subject, exposed him not only to courtly 
but to popular hostility. The French were cer- 
tainly ill prepared for such innovations on their 
policy or habits, nor, I may add, even now, not- 
withstanding the constantly alternating schemes 
of government, from despotic to constitutional, in 
the long interposed period, do they appear fully 
to appreciate, or anxious to introduce these de- 
sirable improvements. J. R. (Cork.) 

Job (Vol. v., p. 26.). The Rev. T. R. BROWNE 
interprets one of the Persepolitan inscriptions as 
representing the coronation and titles of Tob. As 
no previous commentator had supposed Job to be 
a Persian prince, and as (among other unexpected 
results) it would follow that the poem bearing his 
name was a translation into Hebrew by some un- 
known hand, I hastened at once to the Bodleian 
to examine the authorities on which MR. BROWNE 
bases his interpretation. 

On one glance at the work cited (Kaempferi 
Amcenitatum Exoticarum Fasciculi F.) it was plain 
enough that Kaempfer had made his transcrip- 
tion so carelessly, that barely one letter in a hun- 
dred was correct ; and, on turning to Niebuhr's 
copy of the same inscription (plate xxiv. A.), and 
to Porter's (vol. i. plate xliv. p. 631.), my suspi- 
cions were amply confirmed. But the most sin- 

gular part was to come. Aided by the minute 
identifications which MR. BROWNE gives of the 
words which he translates, Aiub taij\ I discovered 
that the reverend gentleman had mistaken two 
letters for two words. His whole theory, there- 
fore, falls to the ground. 

As some of your readers may like to know the 
real interpretation of this inscription, I give the 
translation of Rawlinson as amended from YVester- 
' gaard's notes, and which is undoubtedly correct : 

" The great God Ormazd, who has given this world, 
who has given that heaven, who has given mankind, 
who has given life to mankin^ ; who has made Xerxes 
king, both the king of the people, and the law-giver of 
the people. I am Xerxes the king, the great king, 
the king of kings, the king of many-peopled countries, 
the supporter also of this great world, the son of King 
Darius the Achaemenian," &c. 


Poniatowski Gems (Vol. v., pp. 30. 65.). I thank 
M N for his note, but it does not at all afford 
the information I seek. My Query referred to 
the original sale in London of the gems. Lord 
Monson's collection, to which M N refers, was, 
I believe, purchased by his lordship from a dealer 
who bought them at the original sale, the date of 
which I seek. A. O. O. D. 

Sleek Stone, Meaning of (Vol. iii., p. 241. ; 
Vol. iv., p. 394.). The expression sleek-stone has, 
I think twice, been spoken of in " N. & Q." as 
equivalent to whet-stone : this is a mistake. The 
first word is possibly misprinted in the work in 
which it is found, but at all events the thing in- 
tended is a sleek-stone (Old Fr. Calendrine) an 
implement formerly used by calendrers ; often, 
if not always, made of glass, and in shape much 
like a large mushroom : it is used reversed, the 
stalk forming the handle. Those which I have 
seen were about four inches in diameter, some 
more and some less. Sleek-stones are now, I 
believe, entirely superseded by machinery. 

R. C. H. 

.Bishop Bridgeman (Vol. v., p. 80.). The matri- 
culation registers of the University of Cambridge, 
could MR. CLAY ascertain the year Bridgeman en- 
tered (and this might be found by searching them), 
will give his age at that time, the Christian names 
of his parents, and their place of residence. I do 
not know whether it is the case at Cambridge, but 
at Oxford one has to pay half a guinea for an ex- 
tract from the archives. Surely these important 
records should be more accessible to the student 
in this respect. CRANMORE. 

Bow Bell (Vol. v., p. 28.). In Eastward Hoe, 
by Ben Jonson, John Murston, and George Chap- 
man, printed 1605, Girtred, the proud daughter 
of the citizen Touchstone (Act I. Sc. 1.), taunts 
her modest sister Mildred, who is endeavouring to 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



check her arrogant manner, with the scornful ex- 
pression " Bow Bell ! " evidently intending to re- 
proach her as a Cockney. She afterwards asks 
her intended husband, Sir Petronel Flash, to 
carry her out of the scent of Newcastle coal and 
the hearing of Bow Bell. W. S. S. 

Fees for Inoculation (Vol. iv., p. 231.). For 
the information of R. W. B. I beg to send you the 
following extract from the vestry-book of this 
parish : 

"22 Jan. 1772. 

" It is further ordered that such of the poor persons 
belonging to this parish who like to be inoculated for 
the small-pox may be inoculated at the expence of this 
parish, not exceeding five shillings and threepence each 
person, provided it is done within six weeks of the date 
hereof. And that each person to be inoculated shall 
first produce a certificate under the hands of one 
justice and one church warden to the inoculating sur- 
geon, and that the parish shall not pay for any one 
inoculated without such certificate of the person be- 
longing to Maidstone." 



Salting of Infants (Vol. v., p. 76.). 

" Thou wast not salted at all." 

" Et saliendo non salita eras." 

" Tenera infantium corpora dum adhuc uteri calorem 
tenent, et primo vagitu laboriosfe vita? testantur exordia, 
solent ab obstetricibus sale contingi, ut sicciora sint et 
restringantur." Hieronymus. 

" Observat et Galenus De Sanit., i. 7. : Sale 
modico insperso cutem infantis densiorem solidioremque 
reddi* " Rosenmuller ad locum. 


Age of Trees (Vol. v., p. 8.). Living near 
the Forest of Dean, I wish to state that it is not 
known that any trees exist there which can pos- 
sibly be of anything approaching to the age of 
Edward III.; that the word forbid savours of a 
reservation of timber for the use of the mines, if 
the privileges of the free-miners can really be car- 
ried back to that time. The intelligence in Pepys 
was derived from Sir John Winter, the person 
who bought the whole forest in perpetuity from 
Charles I., but was allowed by Charles II. only to 
make the most of it he could in his own time. 
Some trees may have survived the smash which he 
made, but they must either have been young, or 
worthless from age or decay. C. B. 

Objective and Subjective (Vol. v., p. 11.). I 
would beg to refer X. to the first of the five Ser- 
mons by W. H. Mill, D.D., preached before the 
University of Cambridge, in Lent, 1844. When 
he has carefully perused it, he will be enlightened 
as to the precise meaning of the terms objective 
and subjective; being made aware that there is one 
great object of faith, though, with some writers, the 
subject, man, may be made the most prominent. 

X. will there find that what he styles " exoteric 
jargon" has, in the hands of so judicious a writer 
and so excellent a divine as Dr. Mill, been 
" translated into intelligible English. 1 ' J. H. M. 

Parish Registers (Vol. v., p. 36.). I am sorry 
not to be able to agree with MR. CHADWICK in 
thinking " that'no fee is legally payable for search- 
ing the register-books of baptisms and burials, nor 
even for making a copy," &c. It is quite certain 
that even parishioners have no right to inspect the 
parish books, except for ordinary parochial pur- 
poses. In the case of Rex v. Smallpiece, 2 Chitt. 
Rep. 288., Lord Tenterden said, " I know of no 
rule of law which requires the parish officers to 
show the books, in order to gratify the curiosity of 
a private individual." Therefore the " genealo- 
gical or archaeological inquirer " has in general no 
right to inspect, much less copy the register- 
books : consequently he must pay the fees de- 
manded for being allowed to do so. J. G. 


"'Z T w Tuppence now" frc. (Vol. iv., pp. 314. 
372.). The lines quoted by FANNY I immediately 
recognised as Thomas Ingoldsby's. On the ap- 
pearance of REMIGIUS' Query, I looked through 
the Ingoldsby Legends as the most likely place to 
find the lines in, but failed, in consequence of an 
alteration of the last stanza, which in my edition 
(the third, 1842) runs thus : 

" I thought on Naseby, Marston Moor, on Worcester's 

crowning fight;' 
When on mine ear a sound there fell, it chill'd me 

with affright, 

As thus in low unearthly tones I heard a voice begin, 
' This here's the cap of Giniral Monk ! Sir, please 

put summut in 1' " 

" Ccetera. desidcrantur," Ingoldsby Legends, 2nd 
Series, pp, 119, 120. 

Saffron Walden. 

Chatterbox (Vol. iv., p. 344.). I doubt whether 
your correspondent J. M. will succeed in limiting 
the term chatter-box to the female sex. His ren- 
dering biixom by womanly will hardly stand the 
test of criticism. In the old matrimonial service, 
as elsewhere, it originally signified obedient, com- 
pliant, and was equivalent to the German biegsam. 
It was applied indifferently to men and women. 
Thus, in Chaucer's Shipmanne's Tale 

* They wolden that hir husbondes shulden be 
Hardy and wise and riche, and thereto free, 
And buxom to his wife, and fresh a-bed." 

And in the Clerkes Tale, speaking of the vassals, 
" And they with humble heart ful buxomly, 
Kneeling upon hir knees ful reverently, 
Him thonken all." 

The peasantry in Cheshire, instead of chatter- 
Soar, say ehatter-fajfeR E. A. 



[No. 119. 

Churchill the Poet (Vol. v., p. 74.). If Churchill 
was, as C. R. states, " already imprudently mar- 
ried," how could he be eligible to a scholarship in 
Trinity ? I believe, in Churchill's days, a West- 
minster scholar was entitled, as of course, to a 
Fellowship in Trinity. Married men, as under- 
graduates, are, I suspect, of recent date in the 
universities, even as Fellow Commoners or Pen- 
sioners. J. H. L. 

Hieroglyphics of Vagrants and Criminals (Vol.v., 
p. 79.). Consult Mayhew's London Labour and 
London Poor for an elucidation of these signs. 


Paring the Nails (Vol. iii., p. 462.). The fol- 
lowing Rabbinical quotation on the subject of 
paring the nails, is certainly curious as bearing on 
the superstitions connected with the nails : 

" Ungues comburit sanctus ; Justus sepelit eos ; 
impius vero spargit in publicum, ut maleficae iis abu- 
tantur." Nidda, 17. 1. 



Murray's Official Handbook of Church and State, 
containing the Names, Duties, and Powers of the prin- 
cipal Civil, Military, Judicial, and Ecclesiastical Autho- 
rities of the United Kingdom and Colonies ; with Lists of 
the Members of the Legislature, Peers, Baronets, *c., is, 
as to its objects, sufficiently described by its ample 
title-page. An examination of its pages will show the 
great amount of information illustrative of the rise, 
nature, and peculiar duties of the numerous branches 
of the executive government of this vast empire, which 
the editor justly claims the credit of having sought 
for from various sources, and now for the first time 
gathered together. It must soon, therefore, find its 
way on to the desks of all men in office not indeed as 
superseding the old Red Books and Official Calendars 
but as an indispensable companion to them. 

When speaking of the translation of Hue's Travels 
in Tartary, Thibet, and China, which we noticed some 
few weeks since, we gave our readers the best possible 
evidence of the value of the work. That Messrs. 
Longman have done wisely in including a condensed 
translation of these interesting Recollections of a Journey 
through Tartary, Thibet, and China, from the practised 
pen of Mrs. Percy Sinnett, in their Traveller's Library, 
we cannot therefore doubt ; and we shall be much 
surprised if the book does not prove to be one of the 
most popular in the admirable series of which it forms 
the 14th and 15th Parts. 

By way of answering the inquiry of a correspondent, 
and for the purpose of forwarding the very admirable 
and important objects of The Chronological Institute, we 
have procured a copy of the prospectus which has been 
circulated by its projectors, and have inserted it in full 
in our advertising columns. 



FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1803. Vol. XI. [Being 2nd of 


SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720. 
BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720. 

Ditto. Vols. I. and II. 1727. 

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHARONNIDA. (Reprint.) V^ols. I. and II. 1820. 
ENCYCLOP/F.DIA BRITANNICA. Vol. I. Third edition, published 

in 1794, Edinburgh, for A. Bell. 
GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 


SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edition, 1839. Sra. 8vo. Vol.V. 

ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. (5 Vols. edit.) Vol. II. London, 1829. 
LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROYE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.) 
COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. 1835. 
THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original 

edition, not the fac-simile.) 

REPRESENTED, by Edw. Stillingrteet, Bishop of Worcester, edited 

bv William Cunningham, Min. Edinburgh. 
TICES OF THE CHURCH OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by 

John Williams, M.A. 
DODD'S CSRTAMEN UTRIUSQUE EccLEsuE ; or a List of .nil the 

Eminent Writers, Catholics and Protestants, since the Refor- 
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THE SALE CATALOGUE of J. T. Brockett's Library of British and 

Foreign History, &c. 1823. 


1741. 12mo. 

(Several Copies are wanting, and it is believed that many are 

lying in London or Dublin.) 

CRYPHE3. Leipsic, 1832. 

A SERMON preached at Fulham in 1810 by the REV. JOHN OWEN 

of Paglesham, on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Park, 

Northamptonshire (Hatchard). 


5 Vols. Zurich, 1741. 

&c., with Appendix, by David Stokes. Oxford, 1668. 
*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to M. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

A. W. H. Bishop Jewel's well-known Apology is no doubt the 
work referred to. 

N. J. B. We cannot undertake to insert Queries on points of 

X. G. X., who inquires how the word " premises " came to be 
used of a house and its adjuncts, is referred to our 4th Vol. p. 487. 

~S. K. (North Wilts). Lord Stair not the executioner of 
Charles I. See Answer to Correspondents last week. 

R. D. H. We are not aware of any cheap ANNUAL REGISTER, 
unless The Household Narrative of Current Events (published 
monthly in twopenny numbers, and in annual volumes at three 
shillings) may be so considered. It is a work executed with great 
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G. P. P. We cannot trace the queries respecting De Pratelli's 
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A. A. D. The book referred to ws Whitaker't. 

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and Sons, Fetter Lane, and noticed by us in our Notes on Books, 
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Books would convert such notices into advertisements, and render 
them liable to the duty. 

EVANS' BALLADS may be had on application to the publisher. 

FEB. 7. 1852.] 



J. B. HARRISON. The writer of the tract, The Holy Table, 
Name and Thing, has clearly mistaken, Dover for Canterbury, 
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tine's Abbey was originally consecrated to St. Peter and St. Paul. 

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Experto crede Roberto Brand Arrow London Salting a 
new-born Infant Souiing Madrigal Mons Meg Cabal 

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Demonstration Portrait* of Wolfe Era Hieroglyphics of 
Vagrants Number of the Children of Israel Bellman at Ox- 
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'when, introduced Admonition to the Parliament Serjeants' 
Rings and Mottoes. 

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ZINE for FEBRUARY 1852. contains : 
1. Alfred and his place in the History of Eng- 
land. 2. Wanderings of an Antiquary, by 
Thomas Wright, F.S.'A. Roman Cities on the 
Welsh Border (with Engraving*). 3. A Paper 
on Puppets. 4. Letters of Mrs. Piozzi, on her 
Anecdotes- of Johnson. 5. Ulrich von Hutten, 
Part VI. 6. Skirmish at Penri'h in \ 7 '.:>. 
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CONTENTS : Miscellaneous Poems ; Criticism 
on the style of Lord Byron, in a Letter to the 
Editor of ''Notes and Queries ; " Specimen of 
Virgilian Commentaries; Specimen of a Ne-,v 
Metrical Translation of the Eneis. 
London : GEORGE BELJw, 186. Fleet Street. 




Founded A.D. 1842. 


H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq. 
William Cabell, Esq. 
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[No. 119. 




In the present state of human knowledge, 
there are few sciences in which so great diffi- 
culties appear, or so great differences of opinion 
prevail, among the principal author* who have 
treated of it, as in Chronology. It hath been 
justly styled "one of the eyes ' ' of History : yet 
its vision is indistinct, with regard to many of 
its most important objects. So far as it is a 
mathematical .science, 'it is capable of the ut- 
most exactness ; but the historical data, on 
which its calculations must depend, are not 
yet sufficiently ascertained and collected for 
that purpose. Hence the imperfect and un- 
satisfactory state of this useful science. 

The application of the principle of the division 
of. labour hath caused the establishment of va- 
rious societies, for the special cultivation and 
promotion of distinct branches of science. 
Among these, Geography, " the other eye" of 
History, hath long enjoyed the advantage of 
a public institution. Astronomy also, which 
more than any other science, except History, is 
connected with Chronology, hath obtained the 
like distinction ; notwithstanding the fact that 
the most important discoveries of modern as- 
tronomers had been, as by a peculiar preroga- 
tive, communicated to the Royal Society, the 
noble parent of literary and scientific societies 
in this country. Chronology indeed, if re- 
garded as a branch of historical science, finds 
a home in the institutions which are devoted 
to archaeology : but so far as it may be con- 
sidered mathematical, it meets with little or 
no attention among associated antiquaries. 

Although there exist numerous works, in 
every department of Chronological inquiry, 
and in various lanzuages, yet some few only 
of them are generally known to chronological 
students. To collect, arrange, and describe 
them is highly desirable : for the world hath 
not, as yet, been presented with the biblio- 
graphy of this science. Hence the imperfections 
and errors which exist in the greater part ot 
modern publications on this subject. 

To promote, therefore, a more comprehensive 
acquaintance with chronological literature, 
and a more exact study of this science, both 
historically and mathematically, as well, as to 
establish a medium of intercommunication 
among Chronologers and other studious and 
learned persons throughout the world, and by 
such means to enlarge the compass of compa- 
rative Chronology, this Institute hatli been 
founded ; and the friendly co-opertaion is in- 
vited of all persons who are interested in this 
science, whether their predilections be in fa- 
vour of its astronomical, or its antiquarian de- 
partments ; in short, wh ;ther they be Biblio- 
graphers, Critics, Historians, or Philosophers. 

The Chronological Institute was founded at 
the winter solstice of 1850, and already numbers 
among its Members, several Antiquaries, As- 
tronomers, Archivists, and Authors. The an- 
nual subscription is five shillings, without at 
present any admission fee. 

Ladies and gentlemen, desirous of becoming 
Ordinary Members, are requested to send their 
names and address, with their literary, scien- 
tific, or official descriptions, to any one of the 
officers, by whom they will be duly laid before 
the council : and, if approved, their election 
will be notified to them. 

Eminent foreign scholars, and men of 
science, known to be conversant with Chrono- 
logy, will be requested to accept diplomas, and 
to render their valuable aid by correspondence 
with the Institute. 


I. That the Chronological Institute of Lon- 
don shall consist of a Treasurer, Secretary, and 
Registrar, and (when deemed expedient) of a . 
President ; also of a Council, and other ! 

II. That the Members shall be either Ordi- 
nary or Honorary ; the former contributing to 
the support, and having a voice in the govern- 

ment of the Institute ; the latter not having 
such obligation. 

III. That the object of the Institute shall be 
to promote Chronological Science, by literary 
contributions, by collecting and diffusing in- 
formation, by iiiterchanae of correspondence, 
by lectures on Chronology and its various 
branches and applications, and by the publica- 
tion or encouragement of Chronological works. 

London, 22d December, 1851. 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. V. No. 120.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 14. 1852. 

f Price Fourpence. 
I Stamped Edition, 



The Old Countess of Desmond 

The Imperial Eagle of France .... 

Folk Lore : Valentine's Day Nottingham Horn- 
blowing Bee Superstitions; Blessing Apple-trees; 
" A Neck ! a Neck !" Hooping Cough 

Note on the Coins of Vabalathus - 

The Agnomen of " Brother Jonathan," of Masonic 

Minor Notes: Hippopotamus, Behemoth Curious 
Inscription Coins of Edward III. struck at Antwerp 
in 1337 ------- 149 


Is the Walrus found in the Baltic ? 
English Free Towns, by J. H. Parker - 
Minor Queries : Bishop Hall's Resolutions Mother 
Huff and Mother Damnable Sir Samuel Garth 
German's Lips Richard Leveridge Thomas Durfey 

Audley Family Ink Mistletoe excluded from 
Churches Blind taught to read Hyrne, Meaning of 

The fairest Attendant of the Scottish Queen 
" Soud, soud, soud, soud ! " Key Experiments 
Shield of Hercules " Sum Liber, et non sum," &c. - 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: Whipping a Husband; 
Hudibras Aldus "The last links are broken " 
Under Weigh or Way The Pope's Eye " History 
is Philosophy " - 


Coverdale's Bible, by George Offor ... 

" As Stars with Trains of Fire," &c., by Samuel Hickson 

Dials, Dial Mottoes, &c. - 

Can Bishops vacate their Sees ? . 

Character of a True Churchman .... 

Wearing Gloves in Presence of Royalty ... 

Gospel Oaks 

The Pendulum Demonstration - '< - 

Expurgated Quaker Bible, by Archdeacon Cotton 

Junius Rumours ..._-. 

Wady Mokattebnot mentioned in Num. xi.26., by Rev. 
Dr. Todd _ 

Replies to Minor Queries : Rotten Row " Preached 
from a Pulpit rather than a Tub " Olivarius 
Slavery in Scotland Gibber's Lives of the Poets 
Theoloneum John of Padua Stoke Eliza Pen- 
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Fuller Lines on the Bible _ Hell-rake Family 
Likenesses Grimsdyke Portraits of Wolfe, &c. - 

Notes on Books, &c. .... 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted ... 



- 149 



- 152 


- 159 


Notices to Correspondents 



(Continued from Vol. iv., p. 426.) 
I feel much obliged to J. H. M., who writes from 
Bath, and has directed my attention to Horace 
Walpole's " minute inquiry " respecting the " Old 
Countess of Desmond," as also to "Pennant's 
VOL.V. No. 120. 

Tours," all which I have had opportunity of exa- 
mining since I wrote to you last. The references 
do not incline me to alter one word of the opinion 
I have ventured as to the identity of this lady ; 
on the contrary, with the utmost respect for his 
name and services to the cause of antiquarian re- 
search, I propose to show that Horace Walpole 
(whose interest in the question was, by his own 
confession, but incidental, and ancillary to his 
historic inquiries into the case of Richard III., 
and who had no direct data to go on) knew 
nothing of the matter, and was quite mistaken as 
to the individual. 

Before I proceed on this daring undertaking, I 
beg to say, that an inspection of Pennant's print, 
called " The Old Countess of Desmond," satisfies 
me that it is not taken from a duplicate picture of 
that in possession of the Knight of Kerry : though 
there certainly is a resemblance in the faces of the 
two portraits, yet the differences are many and 
decisive. Pennant says that there are " four other 
pictures in Great Britain in the same dress, and 
without any difference of feature," besides that at 
Dupplin Castle, from which his print was copied ; 
but that of the Knight of Kerry must be reckoned 
as a sixth portrait, taken at a much more advanced 
period of life : in it the wrinkles and features 
denote extreme old age. The head-dresses are 
markedly different, that of Pennant being a cloth 
hood lying back from the face in folds ; in the 
Knight of Kerry's, the head-dress is more like a 
beaver bonnet standing forward from the head, 
and throwing the face somewhat into shade. In 
Pennant's, the cloak is plainly fastened by a 
leathern strap, somewhat after the manner of a 
laced shoe ; in the other, the fastening is a single 
button : but the difference most marked is this, 
that the persons originally sitting for these pic- 
tures, looked opposite ways, and, of course, pre- 
sented different sides to the painter. So that, in 
Pennant's plate, the right side-face is forward ; and 
in the other, the left : therefore, these pictures are 
markedly and manifestly neither the same, nor 
copies either of the other. 

It does not concern us, in order to maintain the 
authority of our Irish picture, to follow up the 
question at issue between Pennant and Walpole 



[No. 120. 

but I may here observe, that either must be 
wrong in an important matter of fact. Walpole, 
in a note to his " Fugitive Pieces" (Lord Orford's 
Works, vol. i. p. 210-17.), writes thus: "Having 
by permission of the Lord Chamberlain obtained a 
copy of the picture at Windsor Castle, called The 
Countess of Desmond, I discovered that it is not 
her portrait ; on the back is written in an old hand, 
4 The Mother of Rembrandt! " He then proceeds 
to prove the identity of this picture with one given 
to King Charles I. by Sir Robert Car, " My Lord 
Ankromi" (after Duke of Roxburg), and set down 
in the Windsor Catalogue as " Portrait of an old 
icoman, with a great scarf on her head, by Rem- 
brandt." Pennant's note differs from this in an 
essential particular ; he mentions this picture at 
Windsor Castle thus : " This was a present from 
Sir Robert Car, Earl of Roxburg, as is signified 
on the back ; above it is written with a pen, 4 REM- 
BRANDT' (not a word of his mother), which must be 
a mistake, for Rembrandt was not fourteen years 
of age in 1614, at a time when it is certain (?) that 
the Countess was not living, and . ... it does not 
appear that he ever visited England" 

The discrepancy of these two accounts is ob- 
vious if it " be written in an old hand, ' The 
Mother of Rembrandt,' " on the back of the picture, 
it seems strange that Pennant should omit the 
first three words ; if they be not so written, it 
seems equally strange that Walpole should ven- 
ture to add them. I presume the picture at Wind- 
sor is still extant; ad probably some reader of 
" N. & Q." having access to it, will be so good as 
to settle the question of accuracy and veracity 
between two gentlemen, of whom one must be 
guilty of suppressio veri, or the other of suggestio 

Horace Walpole, or his editor, must have cor- 
rected his " Fugitive Pieces" since the " Straw- 
berry Hill edition," to which J. H. M. refers, was 
printed ; for in the edition I have consulted, instead 
of saying " I can make no sense of the word noie" 
the meaning is correctly given in a foot-note to 
the inscription ; and the passage given by J. H. M. 
is altogether omitted from the text. 

I must now proceed in my bold attempt to show 
that Horace Walpole knew nothing of a matter, 
into which he made a " minute inquiry. " This may 
seem presumptuous in a tyro towards one of the 
old masters of antiquarian lore and research ; but 
I plead in apology the great advance of the 
science since Horace Walpole's days, and the 
greater plenty of materials for forming or correct- 
ing a judgment. It has been well said, that a single 
chapter of Mr. Charles Knight's Old England 
would full furnish and set up an antiquarian of 
the last century ; and this is true, such and so 
many are the advantages for obtaining informa- 
tion, which we modern antiquaries possess over 
those who are gone before us ; and lastly, to quote 

old Fuller's quaintness, I would say that " a dwarf 
on a giant's shoulders can see farther than he who 
carries him:" thus do I explain and excuse my 
attempt to impugn the conclusion of Horace 

Walpole's first conjectures applied to a Countess 
of Desmond, whose tomb is at Sligo in Ireland, 
and who was widow to that Gerald, the sixteenth 
earl, ingens rebellibus exemplar, who was outlawed, 
and killed in the wood of Glanagynty, in the 
county of Kerry, A.D. 1583. Walpole applied to 
an Irish correspondent for copies of the inscrip- 
tions on her tornb ; but we need not follow or dis- 
cuss the supposition of her identity with " the old 
Countess " further, for he himself abandons it, and 
writes to his Irish correspondent thus : " The 
inscriptions you have sent me have not cleared 
away the difficulties relating to the Countess of 
Desmond; on the contrary, they make me doubt 
whether the lady interred at Sligo was the person 
reported to have lived to such an immense age" 

Well might he doubt it, for in no one particular 
could they be identified : e. g. the lady buried at 
Sligo made her will in 1636, and survived to 1656, 
a date long beyond the latest assigned for the 
demise of " the old Countess." Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh expressly says, " the old Countess had held 
her jointure from all the Earls of Desmond 
since the time of Edward IV.? a description which 
could not apply to the widow of a person who did 
not die until 1583, in the reign of Elizabeth. 
There are many other impossibilities in the case, 
discussed by Walpole, into which it is unnecessary 
to follow him. 

Walpole then reverts to the issue of Thomas, 
the sixth Earl of Desmond, who was compelled to 
surrender his earldom, A.D. 1418, for making an 
"inferior marriage;" and conjectures that "the 
old Countess" might have been the wife of a 
grandson of his born 1452, or thereabouts, who 
would be, as Walpole states, "a titular earl :" but 
this absurd supposition is met by the fact of our 
"old Countess" enjoying a jointure from all the 
earls de facto in another line ; a provision which 
the widow of an adverse claimant to the earldom 
could hardly have made good. 

Walpole's last conjecture, following the sug- 
gestion of Smith's History of Cork, fixes on the 
widow of Thomas (the twelfth earl, according to 
the careful pedigree of Sir William Betham, 
though Smith erroneously calls him the thirteenth 
earl), and asserts the identity of the " old Coun- 
tess" with a second wife, called " Catherine Fitz- 
gerald of Dromana" (the Dacres branch of the 
Geraldines) : for this assertion Smith, in a foot- 
note, quotes "the Russet MSS.," and Walpole 
calls this "the most positive evidence we have." 
Of the MSS. referred to, I can find no further 
trace, and this "positive evidence" is weakened 
by the silence of Lodge's Peerage as to any 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



second marriage of the earl in question, while, on 
the contrary, he gives many probabilities against it. 
Thomas (moyle, or bald), twelfth earl, succeeded 
to his nephew James, the eleventh earl, in 1529, 
being then in, extreme age, and died in five years 
after ; he was the second brother of James, ninth 
earl, murdered in 1587 whose widow I affirm 
the old Countess to have been. Let us not lose 
sight of the fact, that the "old Countess," by 
general consent, was married in the reign of 
Edward IV., who died 1483. And I would ask, 
what probability is there that a younger brother 
would be already married to a second wife, in the 
lifetime of his elder brother, who is described as 
murdered " while nourishing in wealth and power 
at the age of twenty-nine years?" The suppo- 
sition carries improbability on the face of it ; none 
of the genealogies mention this second marriage at 
all ; and Dr. Smith, whose county histories I have 
had particular occasion to examine, was, though a 
diligent collector of reports, no antiquarian autho- 
rity to rely on. Above all, it is to be remembered, 
that Sir Walter Raleigh calls her " The old Coun- 
tess of Desmond of INCHEQUIN : " this is in itself 
proof, all but positive, that the lady was an 
O'Bryen, for none other could have "part or lot" 
in the hereditary designation of that family : hence 
I have no hesitation in adhering to the conclusion, 
which, with slight correction of dates, I have 
adopted from accurate authorities, that " MAR- 
only point on which I venture to correct my 
authority, namely, as to the date of the earl's 
death, I find, on reference to an older authority 
than any to which we have hitherto referred, that 
my emendation is confirmed. In the Annals of the 
Four Masters, compiled from more ancient docu- 
ments still, in the year 1636, I find, under the 
date 1487, the following : " The Earl of Desmond, 
James Fitzgerald, was treacherously killed by his 
own people at Rathgeola (Rathkeale, co. Limerick), 
Sit the instigation of his brother John." A. B. R. 


On reading the Times of the 7th ult. at our city 
library, in which the following translation of a 
paragraph in the French journal, Le Constitutionnel, 
appeared, application was made to me for an ex- 
planation of that part where the Emperor Ka- 
poleon is represented as stating, among other 
advantages of preferring an eagle to a cock as 
the national emblem or ensign, which, during the 
ancient dynasty of France, the latter had been 
" that it owes its origin to a pun. I will not have 
the cock, said the Emperor; it lives on the dunghill, 
and allows itself to have its throat twisted by the fox. 

I will take the eagle, which bears the thunderbolt, and 
which can gaze on the sun. The French eagles shall 
make themselves respected, like the Roman eagles. 
The cock, besides, has the disadvantage of owing its 
origin to a pun," &c. 

Premising that the French journalist's object is 
to authorise the present ruler of France's similar 
adoption and restoration of the noble bird on the 
French standard by the example of his uncle, I 
briefly stated the circumstance to which Napoleon, 
on this occasion, referred ; and as not unsuited, I 
should think, to your miscellany, I beg leave to 
repeat it here. 

In 1545, during the sitting of the Council of 
Trent, Peter Danes, one of the most eminent ec- 
clesiastics of France, who had been professor of 
Greek, and filled several other consonant stations, 
appeared at the memorable council as one of the 
French representatives. While there, his col- 
league, Nicholas Pseaume, Bishop of Verdun, in 
a vehement oration, denounced the relaxed dis- 
cipline of the Italians, when Sebastian Vancius 
de Arimino (so named in the " Canones et De- 
creta" of the Council), Bishop of Orvietto (Urbe- 
vetanus), sneeringly exclaimed " Gallus cantat," 
dwelling on the double sense of the word Gallus 
a Frenchman or a cock, and intending to ex- 
press "the cock crows;" to which Danes promptly 
and pointedly responded, " Utinani et Galli cantum 
Petrus resipisceret," which excited, as it deserved, 
the general applause of the assembly, thus turning 
the insult into a triumph. The apt allusion will 
be made clear by a reference to the words of the 
Gospels : St. Matthew, xxvi. 75. ; St. Mark, xiv. 
68. 72. ; St. Luke, xxii. 61-2. ; and St. John, xviii. 
27., where the a\eKTopo(puvia of the original is the 
"cantus galli" of the Vulgate, and where Petrus 
represents the pope, who is aroused to resipiscere 
by the example of his predecessor St. Peter. 

This incident in the memorable assembly is ad- 
verted to in the French contemporary letters and 
memoirs, but more particularly in the subsequent 
publication of a learned member of Danes's family, 
La Vie, Eloges et Opuscules de Pierre Danes, par 
P. Hilaire Danes, Paris, 1731, 4to., with the 
portrait of the Tridentine deputy, who became 
Bishop of Lavaur, in Languedoc (now departe- 
ment du Saone), and preceptor to Francis, the 
short-lived husband of Mary Stuart, before that 
prince's ascent to the throne. So high altogether 
was he held in public estimation, that he was 
supposed well entitled to the laudatory anagram, 
formed of his name (Petrus Danesius), " De 
superis natus." 

In the Council of Trent there only appeared 
two Englishmen, Cardinal Pole and Francis Gad- 
well *, Bishop of St. Asaph, with three Irish prelates, 
(1) Thomas Herliky, Bishop of Ross, called 

[* Query, Thomas Goldwell.] 



[No. 120. 

Thomas Overlaithe in the records of the Council ; 
(2) Eugenius CVHarte, there named Ohairte, a 
Dominican friar, Bishop of Ardagh ; and (3) 
Donagh MacCongal, Bishop of Raphoe : Sir 
James Ware adds a fourth, Robert Waucup, or 
Vincentius, of whom, however, I find no mention 
in the official catalogue of the assisting prelates. 
Deprived of sight, according to Ware, from his 
childhood, he yet made such proficiency in learn- 
ing, that, after attaining the high degree of Doctor 
of Sorbonne in France, he was appointed Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, or Primate of Ireland ; but of 
this arch-see he never took possession, it being 
held by a reformed occupant, Dr. George Dowdall, 
appointed by Henry VIII. in 1543. 

J. R. (Cork.) 


Valentine's Day (Vol. v., p. 55.). Your corre- 
spondent J. S. A. will find the following notice of 
a similar custom to the one he alludes to in Mr. 
L. Jewitt's paper on the Customs of the County of 
Derby, in the last number of the Journal of the 
British Archaeological Association : 

" Of the latter (divinations) there is a curious in- 
stance at Ashborne, where a young woman who wishes 
to divine who her future husband is to be, goes into the 
church-yard at midnight, and as the clock strikes 
twelve, commences running round the church, repeating 
without intermission 

I sow hemp-seed, hemp-seed I sow, 
He that loves me best 
Come after me and mow.' 

Having thus performed the circuit of the church twelve 
times without stopping, the figure of her lover is sup- 
posed to appear and follow her." 


Nottingham Hornblowing. About the begin- 
ning of December the boys in and around Not- 
tingham amuse themselves, to the annoyance of 
the more peaceable inhabitants, by parading the 
streets and blowing horns. I have noticed this 
for several years, and therefore do not think it is 
any whim or caprice which causes them to act 
thus ; on the contrary, I think it must be the relic 
of some ancient custom. If any of your corre- 
spondents could elucidate this, it would particularly 

Bee Superstitions Blessing Apple-trees '* A 
Neck ! a Neck /" The superstition concerning 
the bees is common among the smaller farmers in 
the rural districts of Devon. I once knew an 
apprentice boy sent back from the funeral cortege 
by the nurse, to tell the bees of it, as it had been 
forgotten. They usually put some wine and honey 
for them 'before the hives on that day. A man 
whose ideas have been confused frequently says 
his "head has been among the bees" (buzzing). 

The custom is still very prevalent in Devonshire 
of "hollowing to the apple-trees "on Old Christmas 
Eve. Toasted bread and sugar is soaked in new 
cider made hot for the farmer's family, and the 
boys take some out to pour on the oldest tree, and 

" Here's to thee, 
Old apple-tree, 
From every bough 
Give us apples enough, 
Hat fulls, cap fulls 
Bushel, bushel boss fulls. 
Hurrah, hurrah ! " 

The village boys go round also for the purpose, 
and get some halfpence given them for their 
" hollering," as they call it. I believe this to be 
derived from a Pagan custom of offering to Ceres. 

The farmer's men have also a custom,"on cutting 
the last sheaf of wheat on the farm, of shouting 
out " A neck ! a neck ! " as they select a handful 
of the finest ears of corn, which they bind up, and 
plait the straw of it, often very prettily, which they 
present to the master, who hangs it up in the 
farm kitchen till the following harvest. I do not 
know whence this custom arises. 



Hooping Cough. In Cornwall, a slice of bread 
and butter or cake belonging to a married couple 
whose Christian names are John and Joan, if eaten 
by the sufferer under this disorder, is considered 
an efficacious remedy, though of course not always 
readily found. W. S. S. 


(Vol. iv., pp. 255. 427. 491.) 
Since the publication of my last note on the- 
coins of Vabalathus, I have obtained the Lettres* 
Numismatiques du Baron Marchant, 1850. The- 
original edition being very rare, and I believe 
only three hundred of this one having been printed;, 
I have thought it might be as well to record some 
additional information from it in your pages. 
Marchant reads, "Vabalathus Veremla Conees- 
sione Romanorum Imperatore Medis datus Rex." 
It is needless to remark on this, further than on 
the more ancient interpretations. He points out 
that the Greek letters, or rather numerals, show 
the coins to have been struck in a country where 
Greek, if not the popular language, was that of 
the government, along with Latin. This country 
was necessarily an Oriental one, and I think this 
observation would rather lead to the inference- 
that the word VCRIMDR, occupying the place 
usually filled by Caesar, Augustus, CCBACUJC, &c. T 
might be an Oriental title, though expressed in 
Latin letters. Millin, to whom he had commu- 
nicated his view, thought correctly "que c.a 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



sentait im peu le pere Harduin," ant} it was only 

eiblished in the posthumous edition of his works. 
e Gauley has published coins struck by the 
Arabs in Africa, which have Latin legends, in 
some of which the Arabic titles are given in Latin 
letters. The Emir Musa Ben Nasir appears 
thus, MVSE . F .NASIR . AMIRA. The coins of Va- 
balathus offer a more ancient example of the same, 
I have given what appears to me the clue, and I 
hope it will be followed out by Orientalists. 
M. de Longperier, in his annotations to the 28th 
letter, shows that the name 'Aftjf is derived from 
"A9jv3*. and appears to think AQHNOY or AOHNT 
the genitive of AQHNAC. The difficulty, he says, is, 
that names in ,- have, in the Alexandrian dialect, 
the genitive S.TOS. He does not appear to have 
noticed the reading as TIC (or or as o Tic ?), 
which appears to me to remove the difficulty, but 
.also to obviate the necessity of the name 'Aft^a? at 
all. He remarks on the similarity of name be- 
tween A8r,,;, ABw*nt 9 and Odenathus. 

correct. But it is of the same size as the other 
letters, on my specimens at least. I need not say 
that there is no trace of the central stroke. 

W. H. S. 



" If," he says, " we examine comparatively Vabalath 
(OYABAAA0) and Odenath, or rather Odanath, as in 
Zosimus, we see an analogous formation ; Ou-baalat, 
Ou-tanat, the feminine of Baal or Bel, and of Tan, 
li.\m, or Zan, preceded by the same syllable. Baalat 
is a Scripture form (Jos. xix. 44. ; ] Kings, ix. 48. ; 
Paral. ii. viii. 6. ). De Gauley has found the name of 
Tanat in a Phoenician inscription, and Lenormant re- 
marks that this feminine form of Zan, or Jupiter, cor- 
responds to Athene. Thus Ou-tanat is the equivalent 
of Athenas, consequently of Athenodorus." 

Vabalathus is thus, if these etymological con- 
siderations be correct, the son of Odenathus. 
Longperier proposes to read EPUJTAC for CPOIIAC, 
and to consider this the equivalent of Herodes, 
mentioned by Trebellius Pollio. With all de- 
ference to M. de Longperier, I venture to oppose 
the following objections. First, Some coins read 
CPIAC, which would read CPTAC on his principle. 
Since, in the coins of Zenobia, Vabalathus, and 
those bearing the name of Athenodorus, whether 
struck by Vabalathus or not, is not material at 
present, we find the names at full length, not 
omitting the vowels, it is natural to suppose that 
the same would here take place, if the word really 
were the name of Herodes. To explain, if we 
A0NAPOC, or similar contractions, we might con- 
sider ePuuTAC and GPTAC identical. Secondly, On 
my specimens of this coin I find the i in this word 
distinctly formed, and the T in the next word ATT 
as distinct. All authors have read this letter i, 
although varying in the rest. Thirdly, On the 
obverse of these specimens the e is larger and 
more open than the c, as may be seen in the con- 
clusion . . . NOC . CGB, where it is preceded by two 
sigmas, and is easy to compare with them. We 
should naturally expect to find it having the same 
form on the reverse, if the reading ei'CDTAC were 

George Washington, commander-in-chief of 
the American army in the revolution, was a 
mason, as were all the other generals, with the 
j solitary exception of Arnold the traitor, who at- 
tempted to deliver West Point, a most important 
position, into the hands of the enemy. It was this 
treasonable act on the part of Arnold which caused 
the gallant Andre's death, and ultimately placed a 
monument over his remains in Westminster Abbey. 
On one occasion, when the American army had 
met with some serious reverses, General Washing- 
ton called his brother officers together, to consult 
in what manner their effects could be the best 
counteracted. Differing as they did in opinion, 
the commander-in-chief postponed any action oh 
the subject, by remarking, " Let us consult brother 
Jonathan," referring to Jonathan Trumbull, who 
was a well-known mason, and particularly dis- 
tinguished "for his sound judgment, strict morals, 
and having the tongue of good report." 

George Washington was initiated a mason in 
Federicksburg, Virginia, Lodge No. 4, on the 4th of 
November, 1752, was passed a fellow craft on the 
3rd of March, 1753, and raised to the sublime 
degree of a master mason on the 4th day of Au- 
gust, 1753. The hundredth anniversary of this 
distinguished mason's initiation is to be celebrated 
in America throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. W. W. 

La Valetta, Malta. 

Hippopotamus, Behemoth. The young animal 
which has drawn so much attention hitherto, will 
increase in attractiveness as he acquires his voice, 
for which the zoologist may now arectis auribus 
await the development. It has appeared singular 
to many who knew the Greek name of this animal 
to signify river-horse, that he should be so unlike 
a horse. Nevertheless, the Greeks who knew him 
only at a distance, as we did formerly, named him 
from his voice and ears after an animal which he 
so little resembles in other respects. The Egyptian 
words from which the Behemoth of Job (chap. xl. 
v. 10.) are derived, more fitly designate him as 
water-ox, B-ehe-mout~ literatim, the aquatic ox. 

T. W. B. 


Curious Inscription (Vol. iv., pp.88. 182.). My 
ecclesiological note-book supplies two additional 



[No. 120. 

examples of the curious kind of inscription com- 
municated by your correspondents J. O. B. and 
MR. E. S. TAYLOR (by the way, the one men- 
tioned by J. O. B. was found also at St. Olave's, 
Hart Street; see Weever, Fun. Man.'). These 
both occur at Winchester Cathedral: the first 
near a door in the north aisle, at the south-west 
anle : 

The other on the south side : 

QVA FAS. 1632. 



[This curious inscription, with a translation, is given 
by Milner, in his History of Winchester, vol. ii. p. 90.] 

Coins of Edward III. struck at Antwerp in 1337. 
Ruding, in his Annals of the Coinage of Great 
Britain (3rd ed. p. 212.), describing the coins of 
Edward III. (who often resided on the Continent, 
and whose sister Eleanor was married to Rai- 
mond III., Duke of Guelder), says : 

" In November A.D. 1337, according to Grafton, the 
king was made vicar-general and lieutenant to the 
emperor, with power to coin money of gold and silver. 
He kept his winter at the castle of Louvain, and 
caused great sums of money, both of gold and silver, 
to be coined at Antwerp." 

And in the note : 

" Chronicle [of Grafton ?] sub anno. Froissart also 
mentions this fact. The silver coins were probably 
struck with English dies, and consequently are not now 
to be distinguished." 

Now, you will oblige me by informing your 
English readers, that though these may have been 
struck with English dies, they can readily be dis- 
tinguished from other English coins by the legends. 
They are represented on PI. viii., Nos. 19. and 20., 
in my Munten der voormalige Hertogdommen Bra- 
band en Limburg, van de vroeyste Tijden tot aan 
de Pacificatie van Gend. The type is wholly 
English, and agrees with the coins of Edward III., 
as I have remarked in the text. The Moneta nostra 
indicates a joint coin (i. e. common to the emperor 
and to the king) ; as Coin No. 3. PI. xxxiii. was 
probably a joint coin of Edward III. and Philip 
VI., King of France. P. O. VAN DER CHYS. 

Leiden. , 


Is the Walrus, or Sea- Horse, ever found in the 
Baltic, or in the ocean near Norway or Lapland ? 

Mr. J. R. Forster, in his Notes on the Geography 
of Europe by King Alfred^ appended to the edition 
of Orosius by Daines Harrington, says, at p. 243. : 

" In the country of the Beormas he ( Ohthere) found 
the horse-whales or the Walrus, animals which he dis- 
tinguishes carefully from the whales and the seals, of 
whose teeth he brought a present to King Alfred, and 
which are found nowhere but in the White Sea, near 
Archangel, and the other seas to the north of Siberia. 
In all the ocean near Norway and Lapland, no walruses 
are ever seen, but still less in the Baltic." 

I wish to know if the walrus is found in the 
Baltic, and where it most abounds, with a reference 
to voyages or written works of authority where it 
is mentioned. Personal testimony would be va- 
luable. THROW- 


A great many of your readers are doubtless 
aware that there are in France a number of 
towns commonly known by the name of Vittes 
Anglaises, or the English towns, and also called 
JBastides. Many of these were certainly founded 
by Edward I., and important privileges were 
granted to these Free Towns from motives of 
sound policy. These towns are all built on a 
regular plan, the principal streets wide, open, and 
straight, and crossing each other at right angles, 
with a large market-place, usually in the centre of 
the town. I have seen several of these towns, 
which preserve their original ground plan to the 
present time. I could mention other peculiarities 
about them ; but it is not necessary for my pur- 
pose, which is to inquire whether we have any 
towns in England corresponding with them, or 
the same regular plan and arrangement. The 
only one I have been able to hear of is the ruined 
town of Winchelsea, which corresponds closely 
with them, and was also founded by Edward JL 
If any of your readers can inform me of any other 
town in England of the same plan, I shall be- 
greatly obliged to them. J. 11. PARKER. 


Bishop HalPs Resolutions. A .small edition of 
Bishop Hall's Resolutions and Decisions of Cases 
of Conscience, printed in 1650, and consequently 
in the author's lifetime, has, as its frontispiece, a 
" vera effigies" of the venerable writer. On a fly- 
leaf there is, in the handwriting of the former 
possessor, a man of much literary information, 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



this note : " The following portrait of Bishop Hall 
is rare and valuable." I should esteem it a favour 
if some one of your correspondents would inform 
me how far this is a correct estimate of the print. 

S. S. S. 

Mother Huff and Mother Damnable. Can any 
of your correspondents favour me with an account 
of Mother Huff? She is mentioned in Bishop 
Gibson's edition of the Britannia, in a list of wild 
plants found in Middlesex. In Park's Hampstead, 
p. 245., is the following extract from Baker's 
comedy of Hampstcad Heath, 4to. 1706, Act II. 
Sc. 1. : 

" Arabella. Well, this Hampstead's a charming place: 
to dance all night at the Wells, and be treated at 
Mother Huff's," &c. 

The place designated as " Mother Huff's " was, 
I think, the same as that known as " Mother 
Damnable's." The latter personage is mentioned 
in Caulfield's Remarkable Characters. Who was 
Mother Damnable ? Can any of your correspon- 
dents furnish any additions to Caulfield's account 
of Mother Damnable? S. WISWOULD. 

Sir Samuel Garth. Can any of your numerous 
correspondents inform me when and where Sir 
Samuel Garth the poet was born, or favour me 
with a copy of the inscription on his tomb in Har- 
row Church ? Some say he was born in York- 
shire ; others that he was born at Bolam, in 
Durham. S. WISVVOULD. 

Germans Lips. In Fulke's Defence of the 
English Translations of the Bible (Parker Society, 
1843, p. 267.) he speaks thus : 

" Beza's words agree to us, as well as German's lips, 
that were nine miles asunder." 

Can you inform me who German was, and where 
his lips were situated ? H. T. 

[In our first Vol. p. 157. will be found a similar 
Query, founded on passages in Calfhill and Latimer, in 
which the same allusion occurs, but which has not as 
yet received any satisfactory reply.] 

Richard Leveridge. Some years ago, I saw 
an oil-painting of this celebrated singer at an 
auction-room in Leicester Street. Can any of 
your readers give me a clue to its discovery ? 


Thomas Durfey. Is there any other engraved 
portrait of this "distinguished" wit, besides the 
one prefixed to his pills ? EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Audley Family. Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform me whether there are any male 
representatives still existing of the family of 
Audley (or Awdeley} of Gransden, in Hunting- 
donshire ; or, if not, when it became extinct ? 

Thomas Audley, created Lord Audley of Wai- 
den, Lord High Chancellor, and K. G. by Henry 
V III., had an only daughter and heiress, married 

to the Duke of Norfolk. He had also two bro- 
thers, Robert and Henry. Robert was of Bcre- 
church, in Essex ; and, on the chancellor's death 
without male issue, inherited from him large 
landed property. His line nourished for several 
j generations, and ended in Henry Audley a weak 
and vicious spendthrift, who ruined himself, and 
died (without issue) in the Fleet Prison, in 1714, 
having married a daughter of Philip, Viscount 
Strangford. Henry, the chancellor's youngest 
brother, had the manor of Great Gransden, in 
Huntingdonshire, by a grant from Henry VIII., 
where his descendants were fixed for several 
generations. In the Visitation of Hunts, made in 

1613, under the authority of William Camden 
(Clarencieux), there is a pedigree of the Audleys 
of Gransden, which comes down to Robert Aud- 
ley, married to Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Marbury, who had two sons then living, Robert 
and Francis, of the respective ages of three and 
two (in 1613) : a daughter, Elizabeth, was born in 

1614, and married William Sneyd, Esq., of Keele, 
co. Stafford ; she had issue, and died 1686, aged 

Gransden must have passed from the possession 
of that family not long after this visitation ; for, 
in Charles II.'s time, it belonged to Sir Julius 
Csesar : and in the catalogue of lords and gentle- 
men who compounded for their estates (1655), 
the only Audleys of Hunts who were mentioned, 
are, Whealehill Audley, ofWoodhurst; and Moli- 
neux Audley, of St. Ives (both in Hunts). The 
parish registers of Gransden throw no light on 
the fate of the family. The church contains no 
memorials, and local tradition is silent. 

Can any of your correspondents supply any 
information ? My object is to ascertain whether 
the above-mentioned Elizabeth, married to Wm. 
Sneyd, did, or did not, become the representative 
of the family, by the death, without issue, of her 
brothers. W.S. 


Ink. Can any of your correspondents enlighten 
me as to the nature of the ink used in the ancient 
MSS. ; its delightful blackness, even in examples of 
great antiquity, is most refreshing to the eye. 


Mistletoe excluded from Churches. Is mistletoe 
excluded now from any church in the mistletoe- 
producing counties at Christmas ? And was it 
ever admitted in Roman Catholic times ? 


Blind taught to read. Burnet, in the postscript 
of his Letter from Milan, dated Oct. 1, 1685 (ed. 
Rotterdam, 1687, p. 114.), speaking of Mistress 
Walkier, who hnd been accidentally blinded in 
infancy, states, that her father " ordered letters to 
be carved in wood;" and that "she, by feeling 



[No. 120. 

the characters, formed such an idea of them, that 
she writes with a crayon so distinctly, that her 
writing can be well read." What is the earliest 
known instance of the blind being taught to read 
or write by the instrumentality of raised letters ? 


Hyrne, Meaning of . During my recent inves- 
tigations into our local history, I met with three 
places in this town with this word affixed such 
as North Hirne, now called North Street; also 
Cold Hyrne, now called All Saints' Street, in 
South Lynn ; and a place called Clink's Heven, in 
North Lynn. 

I have also met with another village, "GuyfaVw," 
in Cambridgeshire, of which most of your readers 
are aware; and my present object is to learn the 
meaning of this word ? JOHN NURSE CHADWICK. 

King's Lynn. 

The fairest Attendant of the Scottish Queen. 
Mary (of Guise), Dowager Queen of Scots, passed 
through England, on returning from a ^leit to 
France, in November 1551 : she was lodged at 
the Bishop's Palace in London, and on her de- 
parture " divers lords and ladies brought her on 
her way ; and when she came without Bishopsgate, 
the fairest lady that she had with her of her country 
was stolen away from her ; and so she went forth 
on her journey." This passage is from The 
Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, now print- 
ing for the Camden Society. Can any one tell me 
whether " the fairest lady's " elopement has been 
elsewhere recorded ? JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS. 

" Soud, soud, soud, soud!" In the Taming of 
the Shrew, Act IV. Sc. 1., Petruchio, on arriving 
at his house, says to his bride : 

" Sit down, Kate, and welcome. Soud, soud, soud, 
soud I" 

The word soud puzzles the commentators. 

Johnson takes it for soot or sooth, sweet. Mason 
supposes it to denote the humming of a tune, or 
an ejaculation, for which it is not necessary to find 
out a meaning. Malone conjectures it to be a 
word coined to express the noise made by a person 
heated and fatigued. 

This seems a proper subject for a Query. T. C. 

Key Experiments. Can some one of your cor- 
respondents afford me an explanation of the prin- 
ciples controlling the following experiment : Two 
persons, taking a large key, hold it balanced by 
the handle upon the forefinger of their opposite 
hands ; the key should be tied in a thin book, with 
fie handle projecting so far that the finger may 
easily pass between the book and the handle ; the 
book serves to balance the key by its weight, and 
exhibits more plainly any movement of the key ; 
both persons then wish the key to turn to the 
right or left, and, after a few moments, the key 
will take the desired direction. The earnest and 

united wish of the operators appears to be the 
motive power. The divination by " the Bible and 
key," given in your Vol. i., p. 413., and Vol. ii. 
p. 5., is evidently based on the same principles ; 
and the mention of that superstition will be an 
apology for my making your pages the medium of 
the present inquiry, which is perhaps scarcely 
fitted for a publication designed for literary pur- 
poses. J. P. Jun. 

Shield of Hercules. In which of the English 
periodicals can I have met with a drawing of the 
Shield of Hercules, as described by Hesiod ? 



" Sum Liber, et non sum," frc. 

" Sum Liber, et non sum liber, quia servio Servo. 
Sum Servus Servo, Servus et ille Deo." 

The above lines are written in the fly-leaf of a 
copy of the Iliad, Greek and Latin, which for- 
merly belonged to Sir Isaac Newton, and bears 
his autograph. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me whence they are taken ? or may they 
be considered as the original composition of 
Newton ? The autograph is " Isaac Newton. 
Trin. Coll. Cant. 1661." G. E. T. 

Whipping a Husband Hudibras. In the first 
canto of Hudibras, part ii. 1. 885., are these lines : 
*' Did not a certain lady whip 
Of late her husband's own lordship ? 
And though a grandee of the house 
Claw'd him with fundamental blows; 
Ty'd him uncover'd to a bed-post, 
And firk'd his hide, as if sh' had rid post. 
And after in the Sessions Court, 
Where whipping's judg'd, had honor for't? " 
My copy of the poem, with Hogarth's plates, has 
no note on this passage. To whom does it refer ? 
A Bury Guide, published in 1833, states that it 
occurred in that town in 1650 to a nobleman who 
had discovered an inclination to desert the Hano- 
verian cause. BURIENSIS. 
[Zachary Grey has given a long note on this passage, 
and states that it was William Lord M-n-n, residing at 
Bury St. Edmunds, whose lady, possessing the true 
disciplinarian spirit, tied his lordship to a bed-post by 
the help of her maids, and punished him for showing 
favours to the unsanctified Cavaliers ; for which salu- 
tary discipline she had thanks given her in open court] 

Aldus. What was the inscription on his print- 
ing-house, requesting his friends to dispatch their 
business with him as soon as possible, and then 
go about their business? A. D. F. R. S. 

[Over the door of his sanctum Aldus placed the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

" Whoever you are, ALDUS earnestly entreats you to 
dispatch your business as soon as possible, and then 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



depart ; unless ydu come hither, like another Hercules, 
to lend him some friendly assistance ; for here will be 
work sufficient to employ you, and as many as enter 
this place." 

This inscription was afterwards adopted, for a similar 
purpose, by the learned Oporinus, a printer of Basil.] 

" The last links are broken:' Who is the 
author of " The last links are broken ? " If they 
are by Moore, in what part of his works are they 
to be found ? M. C. 

[This ballad was written by Miss Fanny Steers.] 

Under Weigh or Way. Does a ship on sailing 
get under " weigh," or under " way ? " 

E. S.T.T. 

[Webster and Falconer are in favour of way. The 
latter says, " The way of a ship is the course or pro- 
gress which she makes on the water under sail. Thus, 
when she begins her motion, she is said to be under 
way ; and when that motion increases, she is said to 
have fresh way through the water ; whereas, to weigh 
(lever Vancre, appareiller) is to heave up the anchor of 
a ship from the ground, in order to prepare her for 

The Pope's Eye. Why is it that the piece of 
fat in the middle of a leg of mutton is called the 
" Pope's eye ? " J. D. G. 

[Boyer, in his French Dictionary, explains it: " Le 
morceau gras d'une eclanche ou d'un gigot de mouton." 
Others have derived it from popa, which seems ori- 
ginally to have denoted that part of the fat of the 
victim separated from the thigh in sacrificing ; and in 
process of time, the priest who sacrificed.] 

"History is Philosophy" frc. What is the 
exact source of the often repeated passage, 

" History is philosophy teaching by examples ? " 
I am aware that it is commonly attributed to Bo- 
lingbroke, but a distinguished literary friend tells 
me that he cannot find it in Bolingbroke's writings, 
and suspects that, as is the case with some other 
well-known sayings, its paternity is unknown. T. 

[In the Encyclopedia Metropolitan, vol. ix. p. 13., 
this passage is attributed to Dionysius of Halicar- 

(Vol. v., pp. 59. 109.) 

Learned disputes about the translation of Bib- 
lical words might occupy the pages of " N. & Q." 
to the discomfort of some of its readers. In fact 
its numbers might be all swallowed up in the 
important inquiry after those original texts which 
our eminent translators used when they supplied 
England with the water of life, by furnishing the 
country with a faithful translation of the Holy 

Oracles. To the martyr Tyndale, and the vener- 
able servant of Christ, Coverdale, this natioa and 
the world are indebted to an extent that no honour 
to their memory can ever repay. Tyndale, fear- 
less, learned, and devoted, was sacrificed in the 
prime of life; while Coverdale, more cautious, 
went on to old age constantly energetic in pro- 
moting the Reformation. 

Words and sentences can be produced in which 
Coverdale claims superiority over Tyndale. While 
Tyndale's is more suited to this day of fearless 
enquiry and meridian light, Coverdale's may be 
preferred as a gentler clearing away of the morning 
clouds which obscured the horizon after Wickliffe 
had introduced the day spring from on high. 

It has become too much the fashion in our day 
to exalt Tyndale at the expense of Coverdale. 
This is ungenerous and unjust : they were both 
of them great and shining lights in the hemisphere 
of the Reformation. Tyndale's learning and de- 
cision of character gave him great advantages as a 
translator from languages then but little known ; 
while Coverdale's cautious, pains-taking perse- 
verance enabled him to render most essential ser- 
vice to the sacred cause of Divine Truth. Our 
inquiry commenced with the question, why the 
words " translated out of Douche and Latyn into 
Englyshe" appeared upon the title-page to some 
copies of Coverdale's Bible, 1535. I must remind 
my excellent friend, the Rev. HENRY WALTER, 
that while the copy in the British Museum, and 
that at Holkham, has those words, a finer and un- 
sophisticated copy in the library of Earl Jersey of 
the same edition has no such words ; and that the 
four editions subsequently published by Coverdale 
all omit the words " Douche and Latyn," and in- 
sert in their place, " faythfuliy translated in 
English." My decided impression is, that the in- 
sertion of those words on the first title-page was 
not with Coverdale's knowledge, and that, lest they 
should mislead the reader, they were omitted when, 
the title was reprinted ; and a dedication and pro- 
logue were added when the copies arrived in 
England, the dedication and preface being from a 
very different fount of type to that used in print- 
ing the text. 

It must also be recollected that Coverdale 
altered his prologue to the reader in the copies 
dedicated to Edward VI. Instead of " To helpe 
me herein I have had sondrye translacyons, not 
onely in Latyn but also of the Douche interpreters" 
the last four words are omitted, and he has in- 
serted, " in other languages." Coverdale, with 
indefatigable zeal, made use of every translation 
in his power. Tyndale's Pentateuch had been for 
several years published, and had passed through 
two editions. His translation of Jonah, with a long 
prologue, was printed in 1530 and 1537, and re- 
published in Matthew's (Tyndale's) Bible in 1549. 
The prologue is inserted in The Works of Tyndale^ 



[No. 120. 

Frith, and Barnes, and the translation of Jonah by 
Tyndale is denounced by Sir Thomas More. Why 
]\1 R.WALTER doubts its existence I cannot imagine. 
The title-page is given at full length by Herbert 
in his Typographical Antiquities ,- and it is a fact 
that Henry Walter, in 1828, in his Second Letter 
to the Bishop of Peterborough, clearly states that 
which in 1852 he says is " adhuc sub judice." 
Coverdale rejected from the canon all apocryphal 
chapters and books, and placed them together as a 
distinct part, in four of his editions, between the 
Old and ]STew Testaments, and in one between 
Esther and Job. In this he neither copied from 
the Latin nor the German. 

No subject connected with English history has 
been more confused and misrepresented than the 
history of the English Bible. Mr. Anderson's 
errors in quotation are most remarkable, a fact 
much to be regretted in so laborious a com- 
pilation. In his selection of passages to prove 
the superiority of Tyndale over Coverdale (Annals, 
vol. i. pp. 587, 588.), in copying forty-six lines he 
has made two hundred and sixty-one errors; viz. 
191 literal errors in spelling, 5 words omitted, 1 
added, 2 words exchanged for others, 11 capitals 
put for small letters, 47 words in Italics which 
ought to be Roman, 3 words joined, and 1 divided. 
These extracts ought to have been correct, for 
accurate reprints were within his reach ; it pro- 
bably exhibits the most extraordinary number of 
blunders in as short a space as could be found in 
the annals of literature. Mr. Anderson is equally 
unfortunate in nearly all his extracts from written 
documents and printed books : let one more in- 
stance suffice. He quotes the just and memorable 
words of Dr. Geddes in eulogy of our translations 
made in the reign of Henry VIII. It is astonish- 
ing how little obsolete the language of it is, even 
at this day, and " in point of perspicuity and noble 
simplicity, propriety of idiom, and purity of style, 
no English version has yet surpassed it." To this 
extract Mr. Anderson adds a note (vol. i. p. 586.) : 
" These words are applied by Geddes, by way of 
distinction, to Tyndale, and not to Coverdale, as 
smietiraes quoted." They occur in Dr. Geddes' s 
Prospectus for a New Translation of the Holy Bible, 
4to. 1786, p. 88. His words are : " The first com- 
pleat edition of an English version of the whole 
Bible, from the originals, is that of Tyndale's and 
Coverdale's together." It is to the united labours 
of these two great men that Dr. Geddes applies his 
just, and, for a Roman Catholic, liberal eulogium. 
Amidst a mass of errors Mr. Anderson com- 
plains, in a note on p. 569., that Lewis's History 
of the English Bible is " grievously in want of 
correction ! " Mr. Anderson's Annals are en- 
cumbered with a heavy disquisition on the origin 
of printing, which reminds us of Knickerbocker's 
History of New York, in which we find to a con- 
siderable extent learned accounts of the cos- 

mogony of creation, because, if the world had 
not been created, in all probability New York 
would not have existed : the same probability con- 
nects the origin of printing with the history of the 
English Bible. Why the annalist should have 
omitted any notice of those important Roman 
Catholic translations at Rheims and Douay, after 
a long account of Wickliife's, which was from the 
same source, is as difficult to account for as is 
his total silence with regard to a most important 
revision of the New Testament made in the reign 
of Edward VI., called by the Company of Sta- 
tioners " the most vendible volume in English," 
and which was introduced into Parker's, or the 
Bishop's Bible, in 1568. A good historical work 
on this subject is greatly needed, showing not only 
the editions and gradual improvement, but also 
the sources whence our translation was derived, 
and its faithfulness and imperishable renown. 

GEORGE Orron. 


(Vol. v., p. 75.) 

Your correspondent A. E. B. has shown on more 
than one occasion so high an appreciation of the 
wonderful powers of Shakspeare, and his specula- 
tions in connexion therewith are so ingenious, that 
I feel considerable regret when I am compelled to 
dissent from his conclusions. I believe with him, 
that Shakspeare's learning has been very much 
underrated ; but at the same time it must be con- 
fessed, that so soon as we abandon the intuition, 
which some would substitute for learning, by 
which his knowledge was acquired, the latter 
ceases to be " mysterious." I regret, however, 
to say that, if it could be shown that he wrote 
<; asters," and with the intention which A. E. B. 
claims for him, my conclusion would be against 
that misuse of learning which left the meaning of 
a passage dependent on the antithesis between two 
words used each in a sense different from the 
usual one, and not understood by the audience to 
whom they were addressed. 

Let us now take another view of the question. 
The purpose of the passage is to record the occur- 
rence of a series of omens, the harbingers of 
"fierce events." "The graves stood tenantless;" 
" the sheeted dead did squeak and gibber ; " " the 
moist star was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse :" 
each circumstance is distinct. But what did "asters 
with trains of fire," and " disasters in the sun" do? 
Mr. Knight says that Malone's proposal to substi- 
tute " astres" for " as stars," appears to get rid of 
the difficulty ; but not until the English language 
admits of the formation of a perfect sentence 
without a verb will it do so. In short, there is 
nothing gained by the substitution, as Malone 

PEB. 14. 1852.] 



saw when be proposed to turn "disasters" into 
" disasterous" and to supply the verb. 

I have no alteration of my own to propose ; but 
I think possibly a suggestion as to the directions 
to be taken in search of the right text may be of 
service. In the case of a line or lines being lost, 
nothing can be done ; but I discern a gleam of 
hope in two other directions. In the first place it 
is to be observed, that the thoughts of the speaker 
would in all probability be turned to night-pot- 
tents. There is a reference to the same circum- 
stances in Julius Ccesar, Act II. Sc. 2., as having 
occurred in the night, and been seen by the watch. 
Now, though there is certainly no reason why 
Horatio might not have enumerated spots in the 
sun as one of the omens preceding terrible events, 
it seems scarcely probable that it was in the order 
of his allusions to the events of the " fearful night" 
preceding the death of Caesar. Let the corrup- 
tion then be sought for here. Or look for a verb 
in the place of "disasters" that shall intelligibly 
connect "the sun" with what precedes. "As 
stars" must not be changed into " asters" until it 
can be shown that such change is necessary to a 
better constructed sentence than any which has 
yet been suggested. SAMUEL HICKSON. 

St. John's Wood. 


(Vol. iv., p. 471., &c.) 

Perhaps the following will be of use to your 
-correspondent HERMES (Vol. iv., p. 471.), referring 
to dials, which I take to mean sun-dials. 

Lately there was rather an interesting object of 
that kind to be seen upon the south wall of Glas- 
gow Cathedral, with this motto or inscription: 

" Our life's a flying shadow, God's the pole, 
The index pointing at Him is our soul ; 
Death the horizon, when our sun is set, 
Which will through Christ a resurrection get." 

That the above cannot now be classed among 
living inscriptions is entirely to be ascribed to the 
zeal for clean walls exhibited by Her Majesty's 
Commissioners of Woods and Forests, under 
whose auspices the renovation of our cathedral 
has been accomplished. I regret to mention some 
other memorials have also disappeared, long fa- 
miliar to the eye of the antiquary not granting 
but that these gentlemen have a power to do what 
they please ; however, en passant, we would en- 
treat, if they can, to lay on their hands as charily 
as possible when such innocent matters come in 
their way. Though the following well-known 

" Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, 
To dig the dust inclosed here ; 
Blest be the man that spares these stones, 
And curst be he that moves my bones" 

be not literally applicable in the present case, they 
breathe such a spirit as would almost make any 
one " nervous" in tampering with revered and 
time-honoured relics nearly become sacred. 

Glasgow does not appear at all rich in dial 
erections ; the only one I know of is in our old street 
the Gallowgate (or Gallon? s Gate; as you would say, 
the road to Tyburn), on the south front of a tene- 
ment, with no motto, but date 1708. Our long 
fame for numerous public clocks and excellent 
bells, according to the ancient adage 

" Glasgoiv for bells, 
Linlithgow for wells, 
Falkirk for beans and pease, 
Edinburgh for wh s and thieves," 

together with our frequent wet murky atmosphere, 
may all have contributed to the unfavourableness 
of endeavouring to mark the flight of Time 
through the medium of the solar rays. 

The cities and villages under the sunny skies of 
southern climates, and where also appears a better 
taste generally than with us for inscriptions on 
public and private monuments, would, I think, be 
the richest field for HERMES to explore. I speak 
from some little observation in a tour of France 
and Italy, &.c., in the year 1846. Sun-dials were 
to me objects of curiosity, but not of that im- 
portance as to be engrossing. On a loose memo- 
randum I have the two following mottoes which, 
particularly struck me, but have not preserved a 
note of the places, that I think lay on the route 
from Florence to Bologna : 

(Latin Englished) " This dial indicates every hour 
to man but his last." 

" Se il Sol benigno, mi concede il raggio, 

L'ora ti mostra, e il ciel ti dia buon viaggio." 
On a building near the Cathedral of Geneva, 
there is rather a novel and curious example of 
the sun-dial, in a perpendicular line bisected on 
each side by two curves, the curve on the one 
side black, the other gilded, with the following : 
" Fait en 1778 Restaure en 1824, 
La Courbe noire Indique le Midi du 21 Juin au 21 

Courbe doree du 21 Decembre au 21 Juin." 

Meridian lines, though not, properly speaking, 
coming under the order of sun-dials, may be reck- 
oned so far cognate ; fine specimens of these may 
be seen in the cathedrals of Milan, Bologna, &c. 

Public clocks occasionally become objects of 
considerable interest, as at Berne, &c., not to 
mention the monster of Strasbourg, which all the 
world has heard of. 

Quaint allegorising on such subjects as the 
foregoing, as presenting different stages in the life 
of man and the fleeting nature of times and things, 
were not unusual among our old Scotch divines, 
as in the subsequent quotation from The Last 



[No. 120. 

Battell of the Soule in Death, by Mr. Zachary 
Boyd, Glasgow, 1629: 

" Men's dayes are distributed vnto them like houres 
upon the Horologe : some must Hue but till one ; ano- 
ther vnto two; another vnto three. The Palme turneth 
about, and with its finger pointeth at the houre. So 
soone as man's appointed houre. is come, whether it bee 
the first, second, or third, there is no more biding 
(abiding) for him. Nee prece nee precio, neither by 
pryce nor prayer can Death be moued to spare him but 
an houre ; no, not, As the sound of the cloche bell ring- 
ing, his last houre passeth away with all speede, and 
turneth not againe, so must the poor man at death 
packe him out of sight, and no more be scene upon the 
land of the living." 



(Vol. iv., p. 293.) 

In answer to your correspondent K. S.'s Query, 
" Can bishops vacate their sees ? " I have little 
hesitation in saying that they can ; though I know 
of no instance (in modern times) of such an occur- 
rence (except colonial bishops) ; nor have I ever 
heard of any one but Dr. Pearce who wished so to 
do. Lord Dover is, however, mistaken in suppos- 
ing that " his resignation could not be received, 
on the ground that a bishopric, as being a peerage, 
is inalienable." The bishop's own account of the 
matter (see his Life, prefixed to his Commentary 
on the Gospels and Acts} is as follows : Feeling 
himself unable, from his age and other infirmities, 
to perform any longer his duties as Bishop of 
Rochester, and wishing like Charles V. to retire 
from the world, he requested his friend Lord Bath 
to apply to the king for permission to resign. He 
was soon after sent for by the king, who told him 
that he had consulted Lord Mansfield and Lord 
Northington, and that neither of them saw any ob- 
jection. In the mean time, however, Lord Bath 
asked the king to appoint, as his successor in the 
see of Rochester, Dr. Newton, then Bishop of 
Bristol. On this the ministry, not wishing any 
ecclesiastical dignities to be granted except through 
their hands, interfered so as to prevent the resig- 
nation from being effected ; Dr. Pearce being told 
by the king that his resignation could not be ac- 
cepted, but that he should have all the credit of it. 

Lord Dover's mistake is, I think, to be attri- 
buted to his assumption that bishops are peers of 
the realm. This is, however, by no means the case. 
A bishop is simply a Lord of Parliament, and pos- 
sesses none of the privileges of the peerage ; not 
those, among others, of freedom from arrest, and 
trial by their peers. A peer can only be deprived 
of his peerage by a special act of parliament, and 
after a trial by the House of Lords ; while a bishop 
can be deprived of his see, and, of consequence, of 

his seat in the House of Lords, by the sentence of 
the archbishop of the province, assisted by such of 
his suffragans as he may summon. The two last 
instances of deprivation were those of Bishop 
Watson, of St. David's, by Archbishop Tenison, 
and of the Bishop of Clogher, in 1822. 

A bishop so deprived does not cease to be a 
bishop, but only ceases from having jurisdiction 
over a diocese. Whether a bishop can be deposed 
from his episcopal office altogether is a matter of 
doubt, though it is held by most of those who are 
learned in the canon law, that there is not suffi- 
cient authority in any ecclesiastical person, or 
body of persons, to degrade from the office of 
bishop any one who has once received episcopal 
consecration. R, C. C. 



(Vol. v., p. 105.) 

J. Y. makes an inquiry as to the author 
of the Character of a True Churchman, printed 
1711. Your correspondent will do me good ser- 
vice by stating the size, and giving the first few 
words, of his tract. In 1702, or perhaps in the 
preceding year, Richard West, D.D., Fellow of 
Magd. Coll. Oxford, and prebendary of Winches- 
ter, published The True Character of a Church- 
man, showing the False Pretences to that Name, one 
sheet in quarto, no date, of which I have two 
editions ; and it was reprinted in the Somers' 
Tracts : " It is commonly observed," &c. Th/s 
was answered by Sacheverell in The Character of 
a Low Churchman, 4to. 1702 : " It cannot but be 
visible," &c. And in the same year there was an 
edition of both these characters printed, paragraph 
by paragraph, the original character and the reply : 
London, for A. Baldwin. 

I have also The Character of a True Church of 
England Man, a single sheet in 4to. : London, by 
D. Edwards for N. C. 1702 : "Next to the name 
Christian." And The True Churchman and Loyal 
Subject: London, for J. Morphew, 1710, 8vo. 
pp.168.: "The name of the church in whose 
communion I am," &c. Is this the same with 
J. Y.'s book with another title ? P. B. 

[We have submitted the above to J. Y., who states 
that " neither of the tracts mentioned by P. B. is the 
one noticed in his Query. It commences with the 
following words : ' He \i. e. the True Churchman] is 
one who is not only called a Christian, but is in truth 
and reality such.' Prefixed is a short letter from the 
author to his friend in the country ; and the edition of 
1711 appears to have been the first. It makes sixteen 
pages of octavo, and consists of short sententious para- 
graphs, more practical and devotional than contro- 
versial. J. Y. discovered it in the British Museum, 
bound up with Dr. Hickes' Seasonable and Modest 
Apology, and other tracts."] 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 




(Vol.i., p. 366.; Vol. ii., pp. 165. 467.; Vol. v., 
p. 102.). 

MR. SINGER'S explanation (Vol. ii., p. 165.) is 
simple, and, I believe, correct. The covered hands 
might be considered as discourteous as a covered 
head : but why should uncovering either be a 
mark of respect? The solution of this question 
seems to me of some curiosity, and may perhaps 
be to many of your readers of some novelty. 
These and most other modern forms of salutation 
and civility are derived from chivalry, or at least 
from war, and they all betoken some deference, 
as from a conquered person to the conqueror; just 
as in private life we still continue to sign ourselves 
the " very humble servants" of our correspondent. 

The uncovered head was simply the head un- 
armed; the helmet being removed, the party was 
at mercy. So the hand ungloved was the hand 
ungauntleted, and to this day it is an incivility to 
shake hands with gloves on. Shaking hands itself 
was but a token of truce, in which the parties took 
hold each of the other's weapon-hand, to make sure 
against treachery. So also a gentleman's bow is 
but an offer of the neck to the stroke of the ad- 
versary : so the lady's curtsey is but the form of 
going on her knees for mercy. This general prin- 
ciple is marked, as it ought naturally to be, still 
more strongly in the case of military salutes. 
Why is a discharge of guns a salute ? Because it 
leaves the guns empty, and at the mercy of the 
opponent. And this is so true, that the saluting 
with blank cartridge is a modern invention. For- 
merly salutes were fired by discharging the cannon- 
balls, and there have been instances in which the 
compliment has been nearly fatal to the-visiter 
whom it meant to honour. When the officer 
salutes, he points his drawn sword to the ground ; 
and the salute of the troops is, even at this day, 
called " presenting arms? that is, presenting 
them to be taken. 

There are several other details both of social 
ind military salutation of all countries which might 
>e produced ; but I have said enough to indicate 
tie principle. C. 


(Vol. ii., p. 407.) 

Te inquiry of STEPHEN into the origin of " this 
delijnful name," applied to some fine old oak trees 
in dferent parts of the country, has not elicited 
one aswer, nor an additional note of other trees 
so de.gnated. Oaks are not the only trees so 
7 n ?, U ? d ' for * rem ember reading of a " gospel 
elm, bt where situate I do not recollect. Had 
your viable publication been then in existence, 

shoukmost probably have made a note of it. 

It would be desirable to elucidate this interesting 
subject ; and if your correspondents would send 
you a note of such as may be in their neighbour- 
hoods, with the traditions attached to them, much 
curious and interesting information would be accu- 
mulated ; and it is possible that some approxima- 
tion to their date and origin might be arrived at. 
The Rev. A. G. H. Hollingsworth, in his History 
of Stowmarket, gives an account of a very fine one 
still remaining in the park of Polstead Hall, Essex, 
the seat of Charles Tyrell, Esq. : 

" It stands (he writes) almost in front of the house, 
at a distance of about 150 yards, and close to the ad- 
joining early Norman church. It rises like a small 
feudal tower out of the green field, to the height of 
twenty feet, and still possesses vigorous remains of the 
three enormous stems into which it was divided above. 
This earth-born giant is forty- three feet in circum- 
ference four feet from the ground, and the base slopes 
gradually outwards as the sides bury themselves in the 
earth, giving one the idea of a skilful architect's hand 
having systematically planted an enormous foundation 
for that stupendous mass of wood, with which 1000 or 
1500 years must have loaded its shoulders. It is hollow 
within, and could seat eight or ten persons. The bark 
is generally gone, except in one or two places, where it 
winds like a stream of rough verdure to supply the 
branches, which still drop their acorns into your face as 
you gaze upwards, and are thus reminded of the pass- 
ing seasons. Its wood is seared, knotted, and in some 
places looks like a piece of sculpture smoothed and 
wrought by hand into waving channels. By its side, 
and at a distance of some eight feet, is a tall oak of 
eighty years' growth, a scion, no doubt, of such a 
mighty tree. But it looks puerile, and a child, when 
compared with its parent. And some idea may be 
formed of this, perhaps one of the last fast departing 
memorials of Roman and Saxon times, when on com- 
parison it would take twenty or more such trunks of a 
hundred years' growth, to make up the bulk of the 
glorious size of this mighty pillar, thus erected by the 
hand of nature to the memory of past generations." 

Mr. Hollingsworth appears to consider them 
relics of Druidism : 

" When Christianity was first introduced into 
England, it was customary for the missionaries to select 
some one known gigantic tree as their place of assem- 
blage. These leafy tabernacles were generally oaks of 
vast size and stature. Nor is it at all unlikely that 
some of them were thus chosen because from their 
gigantic bosoms the sacred mistletoe of the Druids had 
been cut, and they were consecrated by superstitious 
veneration in the minds of the people as sacred places. 
Nor were they inappropriate pulpits for the apostolic 
bishops and priests, who thus, in making their shades 
vocal with the gospel words, proclaimed by their voice 
and presence the victory of Christ over darkness and 
idolatry." P. 18. 

Can the following item in the will of John Cole, 
of Thelnetham, dated May 8, 1527, be considered 
as throwing any light upon their origin and use ? 

" Item, I will have a newe crosse made according to 



[No. 120. 

Trappett's crosse at the Hawelanesende, and sett vp at 
Short Groves end, ichere the gospell is sayd vpon Ascen- 
sion Even, for ye w ch I assigne xs." Bury Wills, p. 118. 



(Vol.v., p. 84.) 

A few lines will suffice for my rejoinder to 
H. C. K.'s further observations on this subject. 

Since he and I are substantially of the same 
opinion as to the reality of the phenomenon, it 
would be bootless to discuss the comparative merits 
of the considerations that have led us to it. But 
inasmuch as I am very careful in making asser- 
tions, so am I proportionately impatient when 
their correctness is wrongfully impugned. 

H. C. K., in remarking upon a statement of 
mine, enters into a calculation to show that it is 
absurd. At least such I suppose to be the mean- 
ing of the paragraph concluding with the words 
** which is absurd." 

My assertion was, that the difference alluded to 
was "greatly in excess of the alleged apparent 

Now "the difference" was fifty feet in twenty- 
four hours, or upwards of two feet in the hour; 
and " the alleged apparent motion" had been stated 
over and over again to be a complete revolution 
in about thirty hours (for the latitude of London). 
Hence, the circumference of a ten-feet circle 
bein<* about thirty feet, it requires no great pro- 
fundity to discover that "the alleged apparent 
motion" is one foot in the hour; but the "differ- 
ence" in velocity is two feet in the hour, which 
surely justifies the assertion that the latter is 
"greatly in excess" of the former. 

It would occupy too much space to show H.C.K. 
where it is that his calculation has gone astray ; 
but if he will reconsider it, he will perceive, 
firstly, that he has no authority, except his own, 
for assuming a revolution (of the line of oscilla- 
tion) in twenty-four hours ; and secondly, that five 
feet on either side of the centre is equal to ten feet 

But, above all, he must recollect that his own 
original assertion (Vol. iv., p. 236.), to which mine 
was but an answer, was, that "the difference" 
would be "practically nothing :" of this even his ; 
own calculation is a sufficient refutation. A. E. B. 



(Vol. iv., pp. 87. 412. ; Vol. v., p. 44.) 

By favour of an intelligent and respected friend, i 
I am enabled to send some kind of answer to the 
inquiries made on this subject in your Numbers. 

The Society of Friends have never published ! 

nor authorised a mutilated edition of the Holy 
Scriptures. The Bible in common use with them 
is the authorised version of King James. The 
translation published in 1764, by Antony Purver, 
a member of the Society, contains several altera- 
tions from the received version, but it does not 
omit any part. Besides, this edition never came 
into general use. It was too expensive, and too 
bulky, being in two large folio volumes. It never 
was reprinted, and in fact is seldom found except 
in public libraries. It is quite true, that many of 
the Friends, as well as other Christians, have felt 
that there are parts of the sacred volume, which 
at this time are ill suited for being read aloud and 
discussed in a family circle : and some of them 
have devised expedients for a ready selection of 
the most edifying portions of Holy Writ for such, 
occasions. One of their ministers, Mr. George 
Withy, published a small tract in 1846, which he 
named An Index to the Holy Scriptures, intended 
to facilitate the Audible Reading thereof in Families 
and in Schools. His tract enumerates those chap- 
ters of the Old and New Testaments, which he 
judged most suitable for that purpose. 

In 1830, John Kendall (to whom one of your 
correspondents alludes) published in 2 vols. 12mo. 
The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, by way of Abstract ; containing what is more 
especially Instructive in the Historical Parts, fyc. fyc. 
He designed this for the special use of young per- 
sons, and expressly states that "it was not in- 
tended to supersede the reading of the Scriptures 
at large by those who are come to an age of dis- 
cernment." He adheres mostly, but not entirely, 
to the words of the authorised version. 

Twenty or thirty years later, the same feeling of 
the want of an edition of the Bible entirely fit for 
audible reading in the presence of a mixed family, 
induced Mr. William Alexander, a printer of York, 
to endeavour to supply the deficiency : and after 
fourteen years of earnest attention to the subject, 
he issued proposals for publishing a Bible sf 
arranged. It was designed to be in three (perhaps 
four) volumes, imperial octavo size : but, for wait 
of sufficient encouragement, only the first volur.e 
appeared, containing the Pentateuch. This cd- 
sists of 792 pages ; has foot-notes, side-notes, fid 
marginal references ; together with introduces 
to the several books, and dissertations upon suidry 
interesting subjects. It is evident, that the \oole 
work, if completed in the same manner, -<ould 
have been far too cumbrous for general us, and 
could not have been sold for less than fifty sittings 
or three pounds ; so that we need not be suprised 
at its remaining unfinished, as it would hae been 
little likely to find its way into many f those 
families for whose benefit it was kindly irended. 

The author explains his views and pinner of 
proceeding in his preface. I cannot ater into 
them at length here. Where a singl word or 

FEB. 14.1852.] 



expression in the authorised version appeared to 
him objectionable, he has removed or changed it. 
Where entire verses, or a whole chapter, seemed 
little fitted for family reading, he has placed such 
portions in the lower part of the page, and has 
printed them in Italics by way of distinction. He 
has also added a lineal arrangement of numerous 
passages which seemed peculiarly fitted to exhibit 
the characteristic features of Hebrew poetry. 

Altogether, it appears that Mr. Alexander's 
object was most praiseworthy, his learning con- 
siderable, and his diligence very great ; and it is 
to be hoped that the remaining portions of his 
work are not lost, but that they may yet be made 
available in some manner for the pious purpose 
which the author had in view. H. COTTON. 

Thurles, Ireland. 


(Vol.v., p. 125.) 

The experience of a pretty long life has taught 
me never to believe a Junius " rumour ; " never to 
believe in any story of a coming Junius, no matter 
tow confidently or circumstantially told, which is 
not proved ; and I think the short experience of 
the Editor of " N. & Q." must have convinced him 
that what is asserted on men's personal knowledge 
the evidence of their own eyes and ears (see 
case of ^EGROTUS, Vol. Hi., p. 378.), may possibly 
be untrue, on the proof that it was impossible. 
Out of respect, however, to " N. & Q.," I will say 
a few words on the rumours to which JUNIUS 
QUERIST refers. 

One of your correspondent's rumours is to this 
effect, that an eminent bookseller was lately called 
in to value certain MSS., and thus accidentally 
discovered who " Atticus or Brutus was, and 
consequently who Junius himself was." This con- 
sequently is certainly a most astounding non-sequitur 
to those who are reasonably well-informed as to 
the present state of the Junius question. But let 
that pass. ^ Still I must observe that your corre- 
spondent is dealing with a rumour"; that the 
rumour does not tell us whether the discovery is 
inferential or positive relates to Atticus or 
Brutus : nothing can well be more vague. Now my 
*' rumour " said the discovery was of the writer of 
the letters of Lucius. Under these circumstances 
it would be idle to waste another line in specula- 
tion : enough for the information of your corre- 
spondent, if I add, that in one case the discovery 
might help us to a conjecture who Junius was ; in 
another, might prove who he was not. 

As to the " rumours " about the scents contained 
in the Grenville Papers, they would fill a volume. 
They have been buzzing about for more than a 
quarter of a century. The nonsense of one-half 
was demonstrable by any intelligent person who 

would have taken the trouble to examine and test 
them : but nobody did take such trouble. " N". & 
Q." was not then in existence. The most plausible, 
and seemingly, from its circumstantiality, best 
authenticated version, was given by Mr. Barker, 
in 1828, to the effect that three letters had been 
discovered, one of which had a fictitious signature; 
another asked legal advice of Mr. Grenville as to 
publishing the letter to the King ; and the third 
enclosed a copy of Junius's letter to Lord Mans- 
field, signed with the author's initials, and with 
a reference therein to a letter received from 
Mr. Grenville. 

The publication of the letters will soon put an 
end to " rumour." Meanwhile the few following 
facts will dispose of Mr. Barker's circumstantial 
fictions, and perhaps satisfy your correspondent. 

There are amongst the Grenville Papers three 
letters, dated Feb., Sept., and Nov., 1768; the 
last therefore before \hzfirst Junius was published. 

Two of these letters are signed with the initial 
C. ; and, on the similarity of the handwriting, it is 
assumed that the three letters came from the same 
person. The writer of the unsigned letter claims 
to have written many of the letters which had 
latterly appeared in the newspapers, and, amongst 
others, a letter signed Atticus, a copy of which he 
encloses. This is according to my recollection ; 
but I will not say positively that he does not claim, 
to be the writer of the letters signed Atticus. The 
question, therefore, at present stands thus : The 
connexion of these letters with the writer of 
Junius's letters is an inference or assumption, not 
a fact. It remains to be proved : and, for any- 
thing I know to the contrary, it may hereafter be 
proved by the editor of the Grenville Papers, a 
diligent and careful man, that the unknown writer 
of the unsigned letter is worthy of belief ; that he 
was the same person who wrote the two letters 
signed C. ; that Mr. Grenville's correspondent C. 
in 1768, was Woodfall's correspondent C. in 1769 ; 
and then, whether Mr. Grenville's Atticus was the 
same Atticus whose four letters were published as 
written by Junius, by Mr. George Woodfall ^ in 
the edition of 1812. Simple as this last question 
may appear, and naturally as most persons would 
come to a conclusion on the subject, I think it well 
to mention as a warning, that there were, as ad- 
mitted in the Public Advertiser, two persons who 
about the same time wrote under that signature, 
and I think clear evidence of a third writer. 



(Vol. iv., p. 481. ; Vol. v., pp. 31. 87.) 
Your pages are not suited to the discussion of 
opics like this : I mean, that to enter fully into all 
;he points raised by Ma. MARGOLIOUTH, would 



[NO. 120. 

occupy more space than you could afford. I 
therefore write only a few general remarks, lest 
my silence should be interpreted as an acqui- 
escence in MR. M.'s arguments. The difficulty 
MR. M. has to contend with is evidently this : ho\v 
came the eminent Hebrew scholars, who were the 
authors of the ancient versions how came the 
whole body of Jewish Rabbis who have written 
upon the law, to be ignorant of what seems so 
clear to MR. M., that D*3irDn in the passage in 
question was in fact a proper name, denoting the 
place in which Eldad and Medad were? How 
came it that they all took it in the sense expressed 
in our English version? [I do not admit the 
Chaldee paraphrase as an exception (notwith- 
standing what MR. M. remarks), because the 
words KVJTO2 JUKI are an exact rendering of the 
Hebrew text, and partake of the same ambiguity, 
if there be any ambiguity.] The legend which I 
quoted from Rashi clearly proves that the Jews of 
his time understood the passage as our English 
translators have done. This is MR. M.'s difficulty : 
and how does he meet it ? He says, " What of 
that, if they happen to be wron^ ? Such a con- 
sideration will never interfere with my own judg- 
ment, founded on a thorough knowledge of the 
meaning of the Hebrew word." 

What is this but to say that the Septua^int 
translators, the authors of the other ancient 
versions, the Jewish Rabbis, had not the same 
"thorough knowledge of the meaning of the He- 
brew word" which MR. M. "in his own judg- 
ment" believes himself to possess? I do not, 
however, suppose that MR. M. really intends to 
set up his own judgment against these authorities, 
as if he was better acquainted with Hebrew than 
those who lived when the language was ver- 
nacular ; but when he tells us " that he has long 
since learned that opinions are not necessarily true 
because they are old, nor doctrines undeniably 
infallible because we have believed them from our 
cradles," it becomes necessary to remind him that 
I never asserted any such thing, and that my ar- 
gument, from authority, amounted simply to this, 
that the judgment of the LXX, and other ancient 
translators, with that of all the Jewish Rabbis of 
later date, was a better authority, in my judgment, 
as to the meaning of a Hebrew word, than the un- 
supported opinion of MR. MARGOLIOUTH, which 
(as it seems to me) is also inconsistent with the 
context of the passage. If MR. M. will produce 
the judgment of any other authority, especially of 
those who lived near the time when Hebrew was 
a vernacular language (for this is what makes the 
age of the authority valuable), his opinion will be 
more worthy of attention. 

MR. M. says, as one of his arguments, "It 
would appear that DR. TODD himself found the l 
insurmountable, and therefore omitted it in his 
last Hebrew quotation." 

This omission was the error of your printer, not 
mine ; and I think any one who did not greatly 
need such an argument, must have seen that it 
was a mistake of the press. In my own defence I 
must say that I had not the advantage of being 
allowed to correct the press. 

I do not deny that MR. M.'s interpretation ig 
ingenious and clever, but it is for this reason es- 
pecially that I object to it ; Holy Scripture is too 
s&cred a thing to be trifled with by ingenious con- 
jectures : it is easy for a man of talent like MR. M. 
to gain a reputation with the unlearned by af- 
fecting to correct our English version on a " tho- 
rough knowledge of Hebrew words." This is a 
rock upon which many have foundered; the 
temptation is very great to a man like MR. M., 
who has been brought up with a verbal knowledge 
of the Hebrew Scriptures : and it is in no un- 
kindly spirit towards him, but very much the 
reverse, that I venture to give him this warning. 

J. H. TODD. 


Rotten Row. I cannot agree with any of the 
etymologies of this phrase, as given at p. 441. of 
Vol. i., p. 235. of Vol. ii., or at p. 40. of Vol. v. of 
" N. & Q.," because I have found the same applied 
to many places with which such etymologies could 
not, by any possibility, have the remotest con- 
nexion. In my examination of the Hundred Rolls 
or Acre Books of the various parishes in the hun- 
dred of Skirbeck in Lincolnshire, I found that a 
portion of several of those parishes was named 
Rotten Row: I will instance two, Freiston and 
Bennington. Upon consulting the best authorities 
I could meet with, I found that Camden derives 
the name from Rotteran, to muster ; and we know 
that the Barons de Croun and their descendants, 
the Lords Rous, who formerly held the manor of 
Freiston, were in the habit of mustering their 
vassals under arms. "William Lord Ros, then 
residing at Ros Hall, Freiston, received a com- 
mand to attend Edward II. at Coventry ; and 
hastened to him with all his men at arms, divers 
Hollers, and some foot soldiers accordingly." (See 
Dugdale's Baronage.) That the term Rotten Row 
has this military origin receives additional corro- 
boration from the fact, that in Blount's Glosso- 
graphia, 1670, the word ROT is defined to be "a 
term of war; six men (be they pikes or mus- 
keteers) make a Rot or file." Under the word 
BRIGADE in the same dictionary, I find it stated 
that " six men make a Rot, and three Rots of 
Pikes make a corporalship, but the musqueteers 
have four Rots to a corporalship. Nine Rots of 
pikes and twelve Rots of musqueteers, or 126 men, 
make a complete company." In Cole's Dictionary, 
1685, I find " ROT, a file of six soldiers." 

From these authorities I am led to infer that 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



the term Rotten Row is a corruption of the name 
originally applied to the place where the feudal 
lord of a town or village held his Rather or 
muster, and where the Rots, into which his 
vassals were divided, assembled for the purpose of 
military exercise. P. T. 

Stoke Newington. 

" Preached from a Pulpit rather than a Tub " 
(Vol. v., p. 29.) is from the conclusion of Religio 
Clerici;a Churchman's First Epistle, 3rd edition 
Murray, 1819. The author thus dictates his ow 
epitaph : 

" This be my record : Sober, not austere, 
A Churchman, honest to his Church, lies here ; 
Content to tread where wiser feet had trod, 
He loved established modes of serving God ; 
Preached from a pulpit rather than a tub, 
And gave no guinea to a Bible Club." 


Olivarius (Vol. v., p. 60.). CLERICUS D. may 
be informed that the work of Petrus Joannes Oli 
rnirius de prophetid; Basilea, 1543, is in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin. TYRO 


Slavery in Scotland (Vol. v., p. 29.). To the 
question of E. F. L., as to what time the custom 
of mitigating the punishment of condemned Scot- 
tish criminals to perpetual servitude was done 
away with, I cannot at present give a definite 
answer ; but perhaps the following curious extract 
from the Decisions of Fountainhall may be inte- 
resting to enquirers on this subject : 

" Reid, the Mountebank, pursues Scot of Harden and 
his Lady, for stealing away from him a little Girl, 
called the Tumbling Lassie, that danced upon his stage; 
and he claimed damages, and produced a contract', 
whereby he bought her from her mother, for 30 Scots. 
But we have no Slaves in Scotland, and mothers cannot 
sell their bairns; and physicians attested the employ- 
ment of tumbling would kill her ; and her joints were 
now grown stiff, and she declined to return ; thouo-h she 
was at least a 'prentice, and so could not run away from 
her master ; yet some cited Moses's Law, that if a servant 
shelter himself with thee, against his master's cruelty, 
thou shalt surely not deliver him up. The lords, 
renitente cancellario, assoilzied Harden, on the 27th 
January (1687>" Vol. i. p. 439. R S. F 


Gibber's Lives of the Poets (Vol. v., pp. 25. 1 1 6 ) 
P. T. says that " he has not Croker's last edition 
of Boswell s Life of Johnson," to which MR. CROSS- 
LEY had referred him as to Shiells' share in Cib- 
ber s Lives. He has printed " last " in Italics ; but 
1 see reason to suspect that he has not seen any of 
Mr.Orokers editions, nor even Boswell's own; 
tor the MS. note which he quotes from a fly-leaf 
t his (P. T.'s) copy of the Lives of the Poets, is 
thing but a verbal repetition of what Boswell 

had stated on Dr. Johnson's authority in his text, 
but of which he had added a refutation in a note; 
which note, with some corroborative circumstances, 
was repeated in both Mr. Croker's editions. 

There can be no doubt that Shiells misled John- 
son, and that Johnson misled Stevens, into the 
statement which P. T. has copied at some third or 
fourth hand, after it had been twice or thrice 

It is a little hard that your valuable space should 
be taken up by gentlemen who will not even take 
the trouble of referring to the authorities where 
you tell them that they will find an answer, and 
then begin questioning again, as if you had not 
already settled the matter. C. 

Theoloneum (Vol. v., p. 105.). Theoloneum is 
the Latin law term for toll, corrupted from the 
Greek Telonium. I am surprised that I cannot 
find it either in Du Cange or Spelman. C. B. 

John of Padua (Vol. v., p. 78.). I have often 
endeavoured without success to obtain some cor- 
rect particulars about John of Padua, and also to 
ascertain whether he was the same person as "John 
Thorpe." I hope, therefore, that the inquiry in 
your last number may lead to a satisfactory result ; 
for we ought to know more of these worthies. 


Audley End. 

Stoke (Vol. v., p. 106.). W. B. asks the mean- 
ing of the word stoke in the names of places; as 
Bishopstoke, Ulverstoke, &c. (Ulverstoke being, I 
presume, a miscopying or misprint of Alverstoke). 
I cannot at all concur in the derivation you quote 
from Bosworth, from stoc, "a place;" for then 
every place might be called stoke without distinc- 
tion. But in all the stokes that I remember in 
England there is always and actually a kind of 
stockade or sluice, which dams up some water- 
course to a certain level. Whether this explana- 
tion will apply to the local circumstances of all the 
stokes, I know not ; but it certainly does to the 
cases of Bishopstoke and Alverstoke, and of at 
least half a dozen other stokes within my own ob- 
servation. C. 

Eliza Penning (Vol.'v., p. 105.). Eliza Fenning 
was a maid servant convicted and executed for 
joisoning her master's family. I happened to 
DC very intimate with some charitable and dis- 
tinguished persons who had doubts of her guilt. 
r . myself did not partake those doubts, but I 
Assisted my friends in their benevolent inquiries, 
nd was so frequently in communication with 
_hem both at the time, and long after, that I think 
may venture to say that there can be no found- 
tion for the statement that another person had 
onfessed to the crime for which she suffered. C. 

On or about Christmas Day, 1833, there may be 
ound in The Times newspaper a notice of the 



[No. 120. 

death of a man, who, after leading a dissolute life, 
ended his days in the workhouse of some town 
either in Suffolk or Essex. On his death-bed he 
confessed that he was the brother of the law- 
stationer, and that he had put the poison into the 
pudding, by the eating of which his brother and 
family died, and for which crime Eliza Fenning 
had suffered innocently. F. HH. 

With reference to the inquirer respecting Eliza- 
beth Fenning, I would remark, that I well remem- 
ber that it was inserted in a provincial paper, 
many years ago, that Turner, in whose family the 

Soisoning took place, had confessed before his 
eath that he himself was the guilty person. My 
impression is, that it was inserted in an Ipswich 
newspaper. There was great excitement in Lon- 
don at the time of Eliza Fenning's execution, and 
the house of Turner had to be protected from the 
fury of the populace. Mr. Hone had several 
pamphlets at his shop window on the circumstance. 
I have heard Mr. Richard Taylor say she was the 
last person condemned by Sir John Sylvester. 

X. Y. Z. 

Ghost Stories (Vol. iv., p. 5.; Vol.v., pp. 89. 
136.). I hope it will not be thought that I mean 
to vouch for the truth of the stories after which I 
am inquiring, if it should turn out that there really 
are any; and also that I shall not be thought 
captious if I am not satisfied with the substitutes 
which are proposed. When your correspondent 
says that Reichenbach's " system may be advan- 
tageously applied to the explanation of corpse- 
candles, illuminated churchyards, and other articles 
of Welsh and English superstition," I can only 
say that, as far as I understand the superstitions 
referred to, nobody ever thought of connecting 
them with ghosts. There may be stories of " illu- 
minated churchyards," with ghosts in them, of 
which I have not heard ; but no ghosts are men- 
tioned by your correspondent. I am not laying 
undue stress on a word. If the word ghost means 
anything, it means a spirit; and I apprehend 
that the enlightened Baron will not thank any 
friend who would sink, or explain away, that 
meaning. So, I presume, his translator Dr. Ash- 
burner understood him, when he triumphantly ex- 
claimed, "The glorious Reichenbach has, in this 
treatise, done good service against the vile demon 
of superstition" p. 180. These words would have 
been too grand for the celebration of such a petty 
triumph as snuffing out Welsh candles, and ex- 
plaining one or two small superstitions of the 
vulgar. I must therefore again, if you will allow 
me, ask whether anybody knows of such stories as 
would really meet what appears to be the meaning 
of the author and translator. S. R. MAITLAND. 
a Gloucester. 

Autographs of Weever and Fuller (Vol. iv., 
pp. 474. 507.). Upon reading the Query of 

A. E. C., I remembered to have seen some of 
Weever's handwriting a year or two since, in the 
copy of his Funerall Monuments in the library of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, of which I was then 
librarian. . I have since written to a resident 
member of the college, who has kindly sent me a. 
careful tracing of the MS. note ; it is as follows : 
" To the learned and judicious View of 

the Maister and Fellowes of 
Queenes Colledge in Cambridge 

John Weever 

Presents these his imperfect labours." 
The tracing, the accuracy of which may be 
relied upon, I shall be very happy to lend to 
A. E. C., if it will be of any service to him. Ful- 
ler's autograph has not yet been discovered in the 
library, but, I have reason to believe, will be 
found in the President's lodge. 

14. Grove Road, North Brixton, Surrey. 

Lines on the Bible (Vol. iv., p. 473. ; Vol.v., 
p. 66.). It has been already shown that these 
lines are not Byron's, but are to be found in the 
12th chapter of Sir W. Scott's Monastery. I write 
now for the purpose of noting, that in a similar 
collection, almost exclusively of the Evangelical 
school, called Sacred Poetry, and published by 
Oliphant of (I think) Edinburgh, Byron's lines 
from The Giaour, beginning 

" Yes ! Love indeed is light from heaven ; 

A spark of that immortal fire, 
With angels shared, by Allah given, 

To lift from Earth each low desire," &c. 
are printed with the "Allah" of the third line 
simply changed into " Jesus ! " And so a passage, 
applicable solely to the earthly Eros, is made to 
do duty as descriptive of another love of which 
the noble poet had, I fear, remarkably little notion . 
The editors have had the grace not to append 
Byron's name as the author. How far is this 
mode of " improving" a passage honest ? 


Hell-rake (Vol. iv., pp. 192. 260.). T cannot 
dispossess my mind of the impression that, like 
the theological word hell, so the agricultural term 
hell-rake is derived from the well-known Saxon 
word signifying to cover. 

Every Devonshire vestryman or mason well 
enough knows what is meant by the " helling," or 
"heleing," or " heeling," of a church, viz. the co- 
vering of the roof; and every farmer or labourer 
in the west will tell you, that the second-helling of 
potatoes is the covering them with earth a second 
time. Query : Was not the hell-rake originally 
an implement used in husbandry for the purpose 
of covering the broad-cast seed, and for other 
kindred purposes ? J. SANSOM. 

Family Likenesses (Vol. v., p. 7.). The remark- 
able preservation of a family likeness is the subject 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



of one of your " Minor Notes." It has been often 
observed, 1 believe, that in the continuation of such 
resemblance, a generation is not unfrequently 
passed over, and the son is not like the father, but 
the grandfather. The Note recalled to my mind j 
some powerful lines in a poem, printed more than 
forty years ago, for private circulation only, which 
I transcribe, thinking that perhaps you may con- 
sider them not unsuited to your pages. To esta- j 
blish the relationship of one who claims kindred 
with another, several proofs are offered, viz. a ! 
bracelet, a ring, a letter : but the satisfactory evi- 
dence is afforded by the family resemblance : 

" That bracelet with Elmina's hair, 
That bridal ring which join'd the pair, 
From Geoffrey, or from Geoffrey's son, 
By craft or outrage might be won. 
That letter, where I seem to view 
Sir Endo's lines precise and true, 
Of forger's hands the fruit may be, 
Or penn'd for others, not for thee. 
But the mild lustre of her eye, 
Soft as the tint of noontide sky, 
The grace that once her lips array'd, 
Nor force nor fraud could thine have made. 
The semblance of Etmina dead 
Thus o'er thy every feature spread, 
No finger on thy front could trace, 
'2Ys God's handwriting on thy face." 

s. s. s. 

Grimsdyke (Vol. iv. passiin). Your correspon- 
dent NAUTILUS asks if there are any ancient en- 
trenchments in England known by the name of 
Grimsdyke, besides the one he mentions in Hants. 
I have to inform him. that one of .the most remark- 
able of the many Celtic and Druidical remains on 
Dartmoor, in the county of Devon, is Grimspound, 
with its dyke or ditch, a small stream running 
through, or just outside, its circumvallation. He 
will find two very good accounts of it lately pub- 
lished, one in A Perambulation of the Ancient and 
Royal Forest of Dartmoor : by Samuel Howe, 
M.A., Vicar of Crediton (published by Hamilton, 
Adams & Co.); and another, in a Guide to the 
Eastern Encampment of Dartmoor, with a Descrip- 
tive Map (published by Dr. Croker, of South 

There is a good print of Grimspound in Mr. 
Howe's book, who describes it as by far the finest 
and most extraordinary of all the relics of this 
class. Its situation is on the N.W. slope of 
Hamel Down, on the borders of the parishes of 
Manaton (Colonel Hamilton says, Maen-y-dun, 
the fort or inclosure of erect stones), North 
Bovey, and Widdecombe. Dr. Croker says Grims- 
pound is about 400 feet diameter; the wall in- 
closing the area is formed of loose stones (granite), 

* The Guide is published by Holden, Exeter; and 
Kirkman and Thackray, London. 

several of which are of immense size : when first 
erected it appears to have been about twelve feet 
in height. There are two entrances, N. and S., 
with evident marks of a pavement. Within are 
many smaller circles formed by erect stones three 
feet high, and in general twelve feet in diameter. 

WM, COL.LYNS, Surgeon. 
Kenton, Devon. 

Portraits of Wolfe. I have by me a print well 
known by "hearsay" to all the admirers of Ho- 
garth (though evidently none of his performance), 
the print of " A living dog is better than a dead 
lion." It shows a profile likeness of Wolfe, which 
certainly corresponds with every other likeness I 
have seen of him. I never saw any other print of 
it but that in my possession. 

Now we are upon the subject of Wolfe's por- 
traits, it may not be amiss to state that in the 
celebrated print by Woollett, every face there 
was engraved by the celebrated Ryland ; for this 
I had the authority of my father, who was ac- 
quainted with him. B. G. 

Jenings or Jennings Family (Vol. iv., p. 424.). 
Mr. Jennings or Jennens (William), of Acton Place, 
Suffolk, who died at the close of the last century, 
was a son of Robert Jennens, who served as aide- 
de-camp to the great Duke of Marlborough. His 
grandfather Humphrey was settled in Warwick- 
shire, became an eminent iron manufacturer in 
Birmingham, and afterwards purchased extensively 
in Leicestershire. The father of Humphrey was 
settled for some time at Hales Owen in Shropshire ; 
but I have reason to believe his family came from 
Yorkshire, as suggested by A. B. C. of Brighton. 
The will of Humphrey was dated Feb. 25th, 165 L ; 
and, as it was proved, may throw some light on 
his kindred. Various works touching on the pedi- 
grees of Yorkshire may also give the querist 
information, especially Whitaker's Ducatus Leo- 
diensis and his Leodis and Elmete, Surtees' publi- 
cations, Part I. for 1836 ; Cleveland's Cleveland; 
Davis's York Records ; Hunter's South Yorkshire ; 
Nichols's Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, 
vols. iv. and viii. &c. &c. Doubtless, too, there are 
local histories of Craven and Ripon which might 
aid his object ; but if it would justify expense, he 
should examine the diocesan and parochial regis- 
tries of York in regard to those localities. Mr. 
Jennens died at a very advanced age, having been 
the godson of William III., and afterwards page 
of George I. He amassed an immense property 
in lands and stock, much of which is, 1 believe,, 
unappropriated and yet unclaimed. 


48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 

The Father of Cardinal Pole (Vol. v., p. 105.). 
I. J. H. H. does not state by what authority Sir 
Richard Pole is styled "a Welsh knight :" and the 
surmise that this name was a corruption of Powell 



[No. 120. 

is clearly unfounded. The not uncommon names 
of De la Pole, Atte Pole, and Poole, are of English 
origin ; belonging to the minor class of local cog- 
nomina, like Brook, Gate, Wood, &c. The family 
from which the cardinal sprang was wholly distinct 
from the De la Poles, earls and dukes of Suffolk, 
and can only be traced for three generations : but 
the series of " Pedigrees of Noble Families related 
to the Blood Royal," made, it is believed, by 
Wriothesley Garter, and printed in the first volume 
of the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica, throws 
some light upon it. It appears that Sir Richard 
Pole and Alianor, who was married to Ralph 
Verney, Esq., and had issue, were the children 
of Geoffrey Pole of Buckinghamshire by Edith, 
daughter of Sir Oliver St. John, and half-sister to 
Margaret, Countess of Richmond, the mother of 
King Henry VII. Sir Harris Nicolas, who edited 
the pedigrees in question, remarks upon this 
alliance : 

" It has been a subject of surprise that Sir Richard 
Pole, of whom, or of whose family, little was known, 
should have married Margaret Countess of Salisbury, 
the last descendant of the Plantagenets. One of these 
pedigrees proves that Sir Richard Pole was nearly 
related to the king, which accounts for the fact." 

Sir Harris Nicolas further remarks, that where, 
in another page of the same manuscript, the arms 
of Sir Geoffrey Pole (for he was, it seems, a 
knight) ought to have been inserted, the shield is 
left blank ; and that the coat which is engraved on 
the garter-plate of Sir Richard Pole at Windsor, 
being Party per pale argent and sable, a saltire 
engrailed counterchanged, appears as if it may 
have been formed upon the saltire of the Nevilles, 
in allusion to the great inheritance of his wife, the 
Lady Margaret of Clarence. J. G. N. 

Sir Gammer Vangs (Vol. ii., pp. 89. 280. 396.). 
I have just found some account of this absurd 
story in Swift's Correspondence, Scott's edition, 
vol. xvi. p. 306. It seems to have been printed in 
a pamphlet, a copy of which was sent to the Dean 
by his friend Mr. Ludlow (Sept. 10, 1718), under 
the name of Sir Politic Would-be, who gives it 
sportively (as I always thought it really had) a 
political meaning, and there seems to have been 
some allusion in it to the Dean himself. The 
pamphlet may, perhaps, be found in some of the 
Irish libraries. C. 

Delighted, Meaning o/ (Vol. ii., pp. 113. 329.). 
A discussion was, some time ago, carried on in the 
pages of " N. & Q." relative to the signification of 
the word delighted as used by Shakspeare. The 
same word occurs in a sense very different from 
that which it now bears in the "Epistle Dedicatory" 
(dated 1667) to The City and Country Purchaser 
and Builder, by Stephen Primatt. The book is 
dedicated to Sir Orlando Bridgman and ' the rest 
of the Justices and Barons appointed for 

Determination of Differences touching Houses 
burnt down or demolished by reason of the late 
Fire in London," and the following is the passage 
alluded to : 

" The truely merited reputation by your Honours 
equal ballancing the Scales of Justice, hath, and is the 
daily cause of so many Petitioners to you for the same, 
especially in the late wisely-erected Court of Judica- 
ture ; wherein your Honours, by your quick and 
delighted equitable dispatch of such differences as have 
come before you, hath sufficiently testified your un- 
doubted loyalty to our Sovereign Lord the KING, and 
amity to his people," &c. 

R. C. H. 

Stops, when first introduced (Vol. v., p. 1.). 
The semicolon had been freely used in England 
some years before the date (1589) of Puttenham's 
Arte of English Poesie. If Sir Henry Ellis will 
turn to the first edition of Archbishop Sandys' 
Sermons, Sermons made by the most reuerende 
Father in God, Edwin, Archbishop of Yorke : At 
London, printed by Henrie Midleton, for Thomas 
Charde, 1585, he will find semicolons in abundance. 
I see that the note of interrogation occurs in A 
Compendiovs and very frvtefvl treatyse teachynge 
the waye of Dyenge well, by Thomas Lupsete; 
London, 1541. It is no doubt to be found at an 
earlier date, but my poor library does not afford an 
older English book. The same mark, I may add, 
was used as a note both of interrogation and of 
exclamation. A. J. H. 

Force of Conscience (Vol. iii., p. 38.). -The 
relation given by your correspondent J. K. is also 
to be found in a volume entitled The Providence 
of God illustrated, 12mo., London, 1836, pp.386, 
387., in very similar words, but no authority is 
given. Many anecdotes equally extraordinary are 
to be found in this work ; it would be very desir- 
able to authenticate them. 


Monton in Pembroke (Vol. iv., p. 371.). I have 
to remark that this mountain, or monton (the 
meaning of which B. B. finds it difficult to explain), 
is situated outside the walls of Pembroke on the 
adjoining hill ; and there is now the remains of a 
priory in or about the midst to which this village 
belonged, and that in old deeds it is written 
Monkton, or Moncton. Perhaps this may solve 
his difficulty. J- !> 

Catterickfor Cattraeth (Vol. iv., p. 453.). I 
understand MR. STEPHENS to insinuate that Cat- 
traeth means Catterick, or vice versa. That both 
names begin with cat, and so much only, I am 
able to concede. 

Catterick was Cataractonium, or Cataracta, a 
Latin word of Greek derivation, alluding to the 
rapids of the Swale. No man can dispute that 
Cat-traeth is a compound of regular and truly 
idiomatic formation. Therefore the best meaning 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



I can surmise is this : that Aneurin, wishing to 
play upon the syllable cat, the battle, and disre- 
garding the falsehood and inapplicability of traeth, 
therefore travestied Cataracta into Cattraeth. For 
the meaning of traeth, in topography, see Giraldus, 
Ilin. Cambr. lib.ii. cap. 6., and the common sources 
of information. 

But that meaning was not one tolerated by 
Aneurin, maugre its untruth, in order to avail 
himself of the other and appropriate word. It was 
one on which he leant heavily and with emphasis, 
reproducing and multiplying it in several forms. 
For he calls the scene of contest not only Cat- 
traeth, seabeach of battle, but also Gall-traeth, sea- 
beach of prowess ; and Mordai, the sea-shore : 
" Gododin ar llawr mordai : Gododin whose 
ground-plot is on the sea-shore." Again, the scene 
of "outcry and slaughter" is called Uffin; but 
Tiffin was situate on " y mordai ymmoroedd Go- 
dodin," on the sea-shore of the sea of Gododin. 

Catterick is remote from the sea, and inconsis- 
tent with all that Aneurin says. And though 
Sigston should mean in Anglo-Saxon town of 
victory, from some ancient occurrence, Catterick 
is assuredly not derived from cat, a battle, in 
British. Bilingual* etymology, of the same date, 
and from the same event, would be suspicious, 
even if facts did not confute it. A. N. 

Biographical Dictionary (Vol. iv., p. 483.)- It 
is almost unnecessary to direct Z. Z. Z. to the 
Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, inasmuch as it is 
but a splendid fragment, comprising only the 
letter A, in seven half-volumes. But it may be 
of use to call attention to this work ; and as, from 
an examination of the plan, the names of the con- 
tributors, and that of the editor, no one can have 
any doubt of its worth and superiority, so one 
would imagine that an enterprising publisher might 
take up the continuation of it without risk. 


Saffron Walden. 

Martinique (Vol. v., p. 11.). One of your cor- 
respondents from St. Lucia asks why the Island of 
Martinique was so called. It is from the circum- 
stance of its having been discovered on St. Martins 
Day, 1502, by Christopher Columbus. 


A Regular Mull (Vol. iii., pp. 449. 508.). The 
suggestions of W. E. W. and M. as to the origin of 
this expression are amusing, and show, however 
farfetched the derivations, their authors have not 
gone so far as " Malabar or Deccan." Had either 
of these gentlemen been from the land of the 
wise, they would have known that the residents 
'of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras are, in Eastern 
parlance, designated " Qui Hies," " Ducks," and 
"Mulls." Madras not hitherto having been so 
highly favoured by " Kumpanie Jehan," is in a 

comparatively less advanced stage of civilisation 
than its sister presidencies. The Qui Hies and 
Ducks, attributing this to the inertness and want 
of go-a-headness of the Mulls, hold them (though 
most unjustly) in cheap estimation; hence they 
say of a person deficient in skill and cleverness, 
that he is " a regular Mull." TAPROBANE. 

The Pelican as a Symbol of the Saviour (Vol. v., 
p. 59.). In Lord Lindsay's Christian Art, vol. i. 
xx. xxi., we find, in the text : " God the Son (is 
symbolised) by a Pelican" (Psalm cii. 6.), to which 
is added the following note : 

" The mediaeval interpretation of this symbol is given 
as follows by Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, Lion 
King (nephew of the poet), in his MS. Collectanea, 
preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh : 

" The Pellican is ane foule in Egipt, of the quhilkis 
auld men sayis that the litill birdis straikis thair fader 
in the face with thair wingis, and crabis him quhill 
(till) he slayis thame. And quhen the moder seis 
thame slane, scho greitis (weeps) and makis grit dule 
thre dayis lang, quhill scho streikis hirself in the breist 
with hir neb (beak), and garris the blude skayle (flow) 
vpone hir birdis, quhairthrow thai restoir and turnis 
to lyf agane. Bot sum iblkis sayis thai ar clekkit 
swownand (hatched swooning), lyk as thai war bot 
(without) life, and that thair fader haillis (heals) thame 
agane with his blude. And this maner haly kirk 
beiris witnes, quhair our Lord sayis that he is maid 
lyk the Pelican.'" 

I wish Lord L. had translated " crabis." 

F. W. J. 

Church (Vol. v., p. 79.). Can it be that MR. 
STEPHENS is not aware that there is a long dis- 
sertation on the subject of his Query in Hire's 
Glossarium Suio- Gothicnm, voce " Kyrka ? " The 
Welsh still retain the derivative from the Latin, 
Eglwys. B. WILLIAMS. 

Donkey (Vol. v., p. 78.). C. W. G. asks, 
" What is the origin of donkey ? " Perhaps he may 
consider the following (from the great authority) 
as satisfactory. Porson was introduced to a 
Danish archaeologist of celebrity, who, thinking 
it necessary to say something to Porson, rather 
abruptly addressed him thus : " I dink, Mr. 
Porson, that you vil agree wid me, that asses 
is derived from Asia." Porson eyed the learned 
Dane, and observed : " Yes, Sir, about as much as 
that donkey is derived from Denmark : and that is 
a thouht that never struck me till now." 

Moravian Hymns (Vol. v., p. 113.). Dr. Pusey's 
Letter to the Bishop of London (Epiphany, 1851), 
vi,, forms a curious comment on the almost blas- 
phemous lines quoted on this page. A. A. D. 



[No. 120. 


A Note on the coins of Edward III. by PROFESSOR 
VAN DER CHYS, director of the cabinet of coins and 
medals in the University of Leyden, in a former part 
of this Number, reminds us to inform our readers that 
the Teyler's Society in Haarlem have just published 
the treatise on the coins of the ancient duchies of 
Brabant and Limberg from the earliest times to the 
pacification of Ghent, referred to by the professor, who 
has been several years occupied in making drawings 
and descriptions of coins in his own collection, in the 
cabinet under his care, and in other public and private 
collections in the Netherlands and neighbouring coun- 
tries. His work, comprising more than 400 quarto 
pages of description and historical research, with 36 
well-executed plates containing 470 specimens of 
coirs "from original drawings, supplies a want long 
felt, an I will be equally welcomed by the lover of coins 
and ths student of history. It is not less remarkable 
for its cheapness than for its beauty. 

Since the days when Teofilo Folengo, who has with 
some propriety been regarded as the forerunner of 
Rabelais, gave to the world, under the name of Mer- 
linus Cocaius, the " Libriculum ludicrum et curiosum, 
partim latino, partim italiano sermone compositum," 
which may be said to have called into existence that 
burlesque style of composition which is now understood 
by the term Macaronic, not only has he found many 
imitators, but his and their works have always found a 
numerous class of purchasers at least, if not of readers. 
In 1829, Genthe gave to the literary world of Ger- 
many an excellent history of the works of this peculiar 
class. He was followed in this country in 1831 by 
Mr. Sandys, who then gave us his interesting Specimens 
of Macaronic Poetry; and we have now to thank M. 
Octave Delepierre for his Macaroneana, ou Melanges de 
Litterature Macaronique des differents Peuples de V Eu- 
rope an agreeable and amusing work upon the 
same subject. M. Delepierre, while busied in its 
preparation, has had the advantage .of consulting the 
library of M. Van de Weyer, which appears to be as 
rich in this peculiar branch of bibliography, as it is 
known to be not only in every department of the litera- 
ture of the Low Countries, but in everything that 
relates to the general history of literature. 

When we consider the unwearied zeal and well- 
directed perseverance manifested by Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke in her admirable Concordance to Shukspeare, 
and the unvarying good taste and great ability with 
which she has shadowed forth the infant life of those 
female characters which Shakspeare has drawn with 
such mastery, we feel that we have scarcely done 
justice to The Girlhood of Shakspeare's Heroines in 
allowing this graceful and interesting series of Tales to 
draw to the close, to which it has now been brought by 
the publication of Viola the Twin and Imogen the Peer- 
less, without having directed the attention of our 
readers to the various tales, as they were from time to 
time presented to the world. The press has been 
unanimous in commending the plan proposed to herself 
by Mrs. Clarke, as well as her execution of it ; and 
although at the eleventh hour, we join most heartily 

in a commendation as well deserved as it has been 
universally bestowed. 

If Authors have their peculiar calamities, they may 
console themselves by the reflection that Editors have 
also some which are peculiarly their own. Is it a 
small matter to receive a book (with a title which alone 
would occupy nearly a column) containing upwards of 
a thousand closely-printed pages, and be expected to 
give, in the short space which we can allot to such 
notes, an account of its objects, merits, &c. ? And yet, 
when one reads in the opening of The Grammar of 
English Grammars, with an Introduction, Historical and 
Critical ; the whole methodically arranged and amply 
illustrated, &c., by Goold Brown, that it is the fulfil- 
ment of a design formed upwards of a quarter of a 
century since, one feels pained at being merely enabled 
to announce that it is a work obviously the fruit of 
much reflection on the part of its author, and as ob- 
viously deserving of the attention of all whose duty it 
is to discover the most advantageous system of incul- 
cating the rules of English Grammar. 

We understand that several very important publica- 
tions will shortly be issued from the Oxford University 
Press. We may first mention the Fasti Catholici, or 
Universal Chronology, by the Rev. Edward Greswell, 
author of the Harmony of the Gospels, the Parables, &c. 
It is stated that the present work, which contains the 
result of the indefatigable labour and research of the 
Editor for several years, is a still more learned and 
elaborate production than any of his previous pub- 
lications. Another, which will excite great attention, 
is a Catalogue of the Manuscripts contained in the 
Libraries of the Twenty-four Colleges and Halls of the 
University of Oxford, which has been prepared by the 
Rev. Henry Octavius Coxe, one of the sub-librarians 
of the Bodleian Library, editor of Roger of Wendover's 
Chronicle, and of Lewis's Collection of Forms of Bidding 
Prayer, from the manuscript in the Bodleian Library. 
And, lastly, we may mention a reprint of Bishop Bur- 
net's Lives of the Dukes of Hamilton, which is usually 
considered as a supplement to Spottiswoode's History of 
the Church of Scotland. 




Jenae, 1650. 
TILLOTSON'S SERMONS. Vol I. First Edition. ; 1670 SO. 

Edited by Parker, his Chaplain. 
CRESCENT AND THE CKOSS. Vol. I. Third Edition. 
LITE'S DODOENS' HERBAL. First Edition. (An imperfect copy to 

complete another.) 

ENGLAND. 1568. (An imperfect ropy to complete another.) 

(An imperfect copy to complete another.) 
TURNER'S A NEW HERBALL. (An imperfect copy to complete 

FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1808. Vol. XI. [Being 2nd of 


SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720. 
BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720. 

Dirto. Vols. I. and II. 1727- 

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHARONNIDA. (Reprint.) Vols. I. and II. 1820. 

FEB. 14. 1852.] 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA. Vol. I. Third edition, published 

in 1794, Edinburgh, for A. Bell. 
GIBBON'S DECLINS AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 


SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edii ion. 1839. Sm. 8vo. Vol.V. 

ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. (5 Vols. edit.) Vol.11. London, 1829. 
LYDGATE'S BOKE OP THOYE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.; 
COLERIDGE s TABLE TALK. V >1. I. Murray. 1835. 
THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original 

edition, not the fac-simile.) 

REPRESENTED, by Edw. Stillingfleet, B ; shop of Worcester, edited 

bv William Cunningham, Min. Edinburgh. 

TICES OF THE CHURCH OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by 

John Williams, M.A. 

Eminent Writers, Catholics and Protestants, since the Refor- 
mation. 1724. 
THE SALE CATALOGUE of J. T. Brockett's Library of British and 

Foreign History, &c. 1823. 


1741. 12mo. 

(Several Copies are wanting, and it is believed th*t many are 

lying in London or Dublin.) 

CRYPHES. Leipsic, 1832. 

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[No. 120. 


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Readings in Shakspe.ire, No. II. - - - - 

National Defences - - - - - - 

Notes on Homer, No. II., by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie 
Folk Lore : Fernseed Cornish Folk Lore - - 

Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words - - 

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Minor Notes : Sobriquet Origin of Paper Per- 
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- 174 

Did St. Paul quote Aristotle ? by Thomas IT. Gill - 175 
Elinor Queries: Silver Royal Font L'Homme de 
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VOL. V,- No. 121. 


Hamlet, Act I. So. 4. 

" The dram of eale 

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt 
To his own scandal." Quarto of 1604. 

" The dram of eafe." 

Quarto of 1605. 
" The dram of ill 

Doth all the noble substance often dout, 
To his own scandal." Knight and Collier. 

I cannot look upon this emendation, although 
sanctioned by the two latest editors of Shakspeare, 
as by any means a happy one. The original word 
in the second quarto, " ease," so nearly resembles 
" eale " in the first quarto (especially when printed 
with the old-fashioned long " f") ; and the subse- 
quent transition from ease to base is so extremely 
obvious, and at the same time so thoroughly con- 
sistent with the sense, that it is difficult to imagine 
any plausible ground for the rejection of base in 
favour of ill. Dram was formerly used (as grain 
is at present) to signify an indefinitely small quan- 
tity ; so that " the dram of base " presents as in- 
telligible an expression as can be desired. 

But in addition to its easy deduction from the 
original, base possesses other recommendations, in 
being the natural antagonist of noble in the line 
following, and in the capability of being under- 
stood either in a moral or physical sense. 

If the whole passage be understood as merely 
assertive, then base may have, in common with ill, 
a moral signification; but if it be understood as 
a metaphorical allusion to substantial matter, in 
illustration of the moral reflections that have gone 
before, then base must be taken (which ill cannot) 
in the physical sense, as a base substance, and, as 
such, in still more direct antagonism to the noble 
substance opposed to it. 

In a former paper I had occasion to notice the 
intimate knowledge possessed by Shakspeare in 
the arcana of the several arts ; and I now recog- 
nise, in this .passage, a metaphorical allusion to the 
degradation of gold by the admixture of baser 
metal. Gold and lead have always been in poet- 
ical opposition as types of the noble and the base ; 



[No. 121. 

and we are assured by metallurgists, that if lead 
be added to gold, even in the small proportion of | 
one part in two thousand, the whole mass is ren- 
dered completely brittle. 

The question then is, in what way " the dram 
of base' 1 affects " all the noble substance ?" Shak- 
speare says it renders it doubtful or suspicious ; 
his commentators make him say that it douts or 
extinguishes it altogether! And this they do 
without even the excuse of an originally imperfect 
word to exercise conjecture upon. The original 
word is doubt, the amended one dout; and yet the 
first has been rejected, and the latter adopted, in 
editions whose peculiar boast it is to have restored, 
in every practicable instance, the original text. 

Now, in my opinion, Shakspeare did not intend 
doubt in this place, to be a verb at all, but a noun 
substantive : and it is the more necessary that this 
point should be discussed, because the amended 
passage has already crept into our dictionaries as 
authority for the verb dout; thus giving to a very 
questionable emendation the weight of an acknow- 
ledged text. (Vide Todd's Johnson.} 

Any person who takes the amended passage, as 
quoted at the head of this article, and restores 
u dout," to its original spelling, will find that the 
chief hindrance to a perfect meaning consists in the 
restriction of doth to the value of a mere expletive. 
Let this restriction be removed, by conferring 
upon doth the value of an effective verb, and it will 
be seen that the difficulty no longer remains. The 
sense then becomes, " the base doth doubt to the 
noble," i. e. imparts doubt to it, or renders it 
doubtful. We say, a man's good actions do him 
9 credit ; why not also, his bad ones do him doubt f 
One phrase may be less familiar than the other, 
but they are in strict analogy as well with them- 
selves as with the following example from the 
Twelfth Night, which is exactly in point : 

" Thou hast, Sebastian, done good feature shame." 

Hence, since the original word is capable of 
giving a clear and distinct meaning, there can be 
no possible excuse for displacing it, even if the 
word to be substituted were as faultless as it is 
certainly the reverse. 

For not only is dout an apocryphal word, but 
it is inelegant when placed, as it must be in this 
instance, in connexion with the expletive doth, 
being at the same time in itself a verb compounded 
of do. Neither is the meaning it confers so clear 
and unobjectionable as to render it desirable ; for 
in what way can a very small quantity be said to 
dout, or expel, a very large quantity ? To justify 
such an expression, the entire identity of the 
larger must be extinguished, leaving no part of it 
to which the scandal mentioned in the third line 
could apply. 

But an examination of the various places wherein 
scandal is mentioned by Shakspeare, shows that 

the meaning attached by him to that word was 
false imputation, or loss of character : therefore, 
in the contact of the base and the noble, the scan- 
dal must apply to the noble substance a consi- 
deration that must not be lost sight of in any 
attempt to arrive at the true meaning of the 
whole passage. 

So far, 1 have assumed that " often " (the third 
substitution in the amended quotation) is the best 
representative that can be found for the " of a" of 
the original ; and inasmuch as it is confirmed by 
general consent, and is moreover so redundant, in 
this place, that its absence or presence scarcely 
makes any difference in the sense, it is not easily 

The best way, perhaps, to attempt to supplant it 
s to suggest a better word one that shall still 
more closely resemble the original letters in sound 
nd formation, and that shall, in addition, confer 
upon the sense not a redundant but an effective 
assistance. Such a word is offer : it is almost 
dentical (in sound at least) with the original, and 
it materially assists in giving a much clearer appli- 
cation to the last line. 

For these reasons, but especially for the last, I 
adopt offer, as a verb in the infinitive ruled by 
doth, in the sense of causing or compelling ; a sense 
that must have been in familiar use in Shakspeare' s 
time, or it would not have been introduced into 
the translation of Scripture. 

In this view the meaning of the passage becomes, 
" The base doth the noble offer doubt, to his own 
scandal " that is, causes the noble to excite sus- 
picion, to the injury of its own character. 

Examples of do in this sense are very numerous 
in Spenser ; of which one is (F. Q., iii. 2. 34.) : 

" To doe the frozen cold away to fly " 
And in Chaucer (Story of Ugolino) : 

" That they for hunger wolden do him dien" 
And in Scripture (2 Cor. viii. 1.) : 

" We do you to wit of the grace of God." 
By this reading a very perfect and intelligible 
meaning is obtained, and that too by the slightest 
deviation from the original yet proposed. 

By throwing the action of offering doubt upon 
" the noble substance," it becomes the natural refer- 
ence to " his own scandal" in the third line. 

Hamlet is moralising upon the tendency of the 
" noblest virtues," " be they as pure as grace, as 
infinite as man may undergo," to take, from " the 
stamp of one defect," "corruption in the general 
censure" (a very close definition of scandal) ; and 
he illustrates it by the metaphor : 

" The dram of base 

Doth all the noble substance offer doubt, 
To his own scandal." 

A. E. B. 

FEB. 21. 1852.] 




Collet, in his Relics of Literature, has furnished 
some curious notices of a work on national de- 
fences, which perhaps ought to be consulted at the 
present time, now that this matter is again exciting 
such general interest among all classes. It was 
compiled when the gigantic power of France, 
under Buonaparte, had enabled him to overrun 
and humble every continental state, and even to 
threaten Great Britain ; and when the spirit of 
this country was roused to exertion by a sense of 
the danger, and by the fervour of patriotism. 
The government of that day neglected no means to 
keep this spirit alive in the nation ; and George III. 
conceiving the situation of his dominions to re- 
semble, in many respects, that which terminated 
so fortunately for England in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth, directed proper researches to be made 
for ascertaining the principles and preparations 
adopted at that eventful period. The records of 
the Tower were accordingly consulted; and a 
selection of papers, apparently of the greatest con- 
sequence, was formed and printed, but not pub- 
lished. This work, which contained 420. pages in 
octavo, was entitled, A Report of the Arrangements 
which were made for the Internal Defence of these 
Kingdoms, when Spain, by its Armada, projected 
the Invasion and Conquest of England; and Appli- 
cation of the Wise Proceedings of our Ancestors to 
the Present Crisis of Public Safety. The papers 
in this work are classed in the order of external 
alliance, internal defence, military arrangements, 
and naval equipments. They are preceded by a 
statement of facts, in the history of Europe, at the 
period of the Spanish Armada ; and a sketch of 
events, showing the effects of the Queen's mea- 
sures at home and abroad. As a collection of 
historical documents, narrating an important event 
in British history, this work is invaluable ; and, as 
showing the relative strength of this country in 
population and other resources in the sixteenth 
century, it is curious and interesting. J. Y. 


{Continued from Vol. v., p. 100.) 

The Wolfian Theory. 

The most important consideration concerning 
Homer is the hypothesis of Wolf, which has been 
contested so hotly ; but before entering on the 
consideration of this revolution, as it may be 
called, I shall lay before your readers the follow- 
ing quotation from the introduction of Fauriel to 
the old Provencal poem, " Histoire de la Croisade 
contre les Albigeois," in the Collection des Docu- 
' mens Inedits sur V Histoire de France. He ob- 
serves : 

"The romances collectively designated by the title 
of Carlovingian, are, it would seem, the most ancient 

of all in the Prover^al literature. They were not, 
originally, more than very short and simple poems, 
popular songs destined to be recited with more or less 
musical intonation, and susceptible, consequently on 
their shortness, of preservation without the aid of 
writing, and simply by oral tradition among the jon- 
gleurs, whose profession it was to sing them. Almost 
insensibly these songs developed themselves, and as- 
sumed a complex character ; they attained a fixed 
length, and their re-composition required more in- 
vention and more design. In another point of view, 
they had increased in number in the same ratio as they 
had acquired greater extent and complexity; and things 
naturally attained such a position, that it became im- 
possible to chant them from beginning to end by the 
aid of memory alone, nor could they be preserved any 
longer without the assistance of a written medium. 
They might be still occasionally sung in detached 
portions ; but there exists scarcely a doubt, that from, 
that period they began to be read ; and it was only 
necessary to read them, in order to seize and appreciate 
their contents."* 

These remarks, though applied to another litera- 
ture, contain the essentials of the theory developed 
by Wolf in regard to Homer. Before the time of 
Wolf, the popularly accepted opinion on this sub- 
ject was as follows : That Homer, a poet of ancient 
date, wrote the Iliad and Odyssea in their present 
form ; and that the rhapsodists having corrupted and 
interpolated the poems, Peisistratos, and Hippar- 
chos, his son, corrected, revised, and restored these 
poems to their original condition. 

Such was the general opinion, when at the end 
of the seventeenth century doubts began to be 
thrown upon it, and the question began to be 
placed in a new light. The critics of the time 
were Casaubon, Perizon, Bentley, Hedelin, and 
Perrault, who, more or less, rejected the established 
opinion. Giambattista Vico made the first attempt 
to embody their speculations into one methodical 
work. His Principi di Scienza nuova contain the 
germ of the theory reproduced by Wolf with so 
much scholarship. Wolf, founding his theory on 
the investigations of Vico and Wood, extended or 
modified their views, and assumed that the poems 
were never written clown at all until the time of 
Peisistratos, their arranger. In 1778, the famous 
Venetian Scholia were discovered by Villoison, 
throwing open to the world the investigations of 
the Alexandrian critics ; and by showing what the 
ideas of the Chorizontes were (on whom it were 
madness to write after Mure), strengthening the 
views of Wolf. In 1795, then, were published his 
famous Prolegomena, containing the theory 

" That the Iliad and Odyssey were not two complete 
poems, but small, separate, independent epic songs, 
celebrating single exploits of the heroes ; and that 

* P. xxx., quoted in Thirl wall's History of Greece 
(Appendix I.), vol. i. p. 506., where it is given in 



[No. 121. 

these lays were, for the first time, written down and 
united as the Iliad and Odyssey by Peisistratus, tyrant 
of Athens."* 

The former critics (Hedelin and Perrault) had 
been overruled, derided, and quashed by the force 
of public opinion ; but Wolf brought so many 
arguments to support his view?, collected so 
formidable a mass of authorities, both traditional, 
internal, and written, that the classical world was 
obliged to meet him with fresh arguments, as ridi- 
cule would not again succeed. Thus arose the 
formidable Wolfian controversy, which "scotched," 
though not " killed," the belief of the critical 
world in Homer. The principal arguments he 
adduces are from the poems themselves, in his 
attempt to establish the non-being of writing at the 
time of their composition. 

Thus, in the Odyssea-\, a master of a vessel has 
to remember his cargo, not having a list of his 
goods ; in the Iliad J, Bellerophon carries a folded 
tablet containing writing or signs toPraetos in Lycia. 
This Wolf interprets to signify conventional marks, 
like the picture writing of the otherwise civilised 
Mexicans. Again, in the Iliad (vn. 175.), the 
chiefs are represented as throwing lots in a helmet, 
and the herald afterwards handing the lots round 
for recognition, as each of the lots bore a mark 
known only to the person who made it. From 
this Wolf argues that writing was unknown at 
the time, or the herald would have immediately 
read the names aloud. But do we not even now 
make use of such marks without confounding them 
with writing ? This is nothing at all ; and it must 
be remembered, firstly, that this does not apply to 
the Homeric time, but to the period of Troy ; 
secondly, that if it had applied to that time, it 
would be absurd to expect from illiterate warrior 
chiefs, education superior to the mediaeval cru- 
saders, their counterparts at a later period of the 
world's progress. These are the principal argu- 
ments that Wolf adduces to prove the non-exist- 
ence of writing at the Homeric period ; whereas, 
far from proving anything, they are self-contra- 
dictory and incorrect. 

To prove that the Peisistratidce first wrote down 
the poems of Homer, he cites Josephus (Orat. 
contr. Apion, i. 2.), who observes that 

" No writing, the authenticity of which is acknow- 
ledged, is found among the Greeks earlier than the 
poetry of Homer; and, it is said, that even he did not 
commit his works to writing, but that, having been 
preserved in the memory of men, the songs were after- 
wards connected." 

I Pausanias, in the Tour in Greece (vii. 26. 6.), has 
the following observation : 

" A village called Donussa, between JEgira and 
Pellene, belonging to the Sicyonians, was destroyed by 
that people. Homer, say they, remembered this town- 
in his epic, in the enumeration of the people of Aga- 
memnon, * Hyperesia then, ar.d Donoessa, rocky town f 
(IA.. j8. 573.) ; but when Peisistrntos collected the torn 

I and widely scattered songs of Homer, either he himself, 

I or one of his friends, altered the name through igno- 

! ranee." 

Wolf also makes use of this report, liable to the 
same objections as the above, as one of his proofs* 
It is even doubtful whether Peisistratos did edit 
Homer at all ; but, under any circumstances, it 
was not the first edition * ; for is not Solon repre- 
sented as the reviser of the Homeric poems ? 
Cicero (de Oratore, in. 34.) says : 
" Who is traditionally reported to have had more 
learning at that time, or whose eloquence received 
greater ornaments from polite literature than that of 
Peisistratos? who is said to have been the first that ar- 
ranged the books of Homer, from their confused state,, 
into that order in which we at present enjoy them." 

This also is produced as a proof by Wolf, though,. 
for the same reason, it is doubtful. But see Wolf's 
principal inaccuracies ably enumerated and ex- 
posed by Clinton (F. //., i. p. 370.). 

Such is the far-famed theory of Wolf, which, as 
most modern scholars agree, is only calculated 
"to conduct us to most preposterous conclusions."f - 
And this last dictum of Othello's, Mr. Editor, re- 
minds me, that here it would not be preposterous 
to come to a conclusion for the present, and to close 
my observations in another paper, where I shall a 
theory "unfold," which, after the most patient con- 
sideration and reconsideration, I am inclined to 
think the most approximative to the truth. 


Feb. 16. 1852. 


Femseed. I find in Dr. Jackson's works allu- 
sions to a superstition which may interest some of 
your readers : 

*' It was my hap," he writes, " since I undertook 
the ministery, to question an ignorant soul (whom by 
undoubted report I had known to have been seduced 
by a teacher of unhallowed arts, to make a dangerous 
experiment) what he saw or heard, when he watcht the 
falling of the Fernseed at an unseasonable and sus- 
picious hour. Why (quoth he), fearing (as his brief 

reply occasioned me to conjecture) lest I should press 
Josephus had merely heard this reported, as is | him to tell before compan v, what he had voluntarily 
evident from his use of the words " it is said. confessed unto a friend in secret some fourteen years 

before) do you think that the devil hath aught to do 

* Smith, ii. p. 50i. f Lib. viii. 163. * 168. 

See Mure, vol. iii., Appendix L., p. 507. foil. ; and 
Appendix M. vol. iii. p. 512. foil.; and see chap. vii. 
book in. vol. iii. p. 397. passim. 

* Granville Penn, On the primary Arrangement of the 
Iliad; and Appendix B to Mure, vol. i. 
t Othello, Act I. Sc. 3. 

FEB. 21. 1852.] 



with that good seed ? No ; it is in the keeping of the j 
king of Fayries, and he, I know, will do me no harm, j 
although I should watch it again; yet had he utterly j 
forgotten this king's name, upon whose kindness he so | 
presumed, until I remembered it unto him out of my 
reading in Huon of Burdcaux. 

" And having made this answer, he began to pose me 
thus ; S r , you are a scholar, and I am none : Tell me 
what said the angel to our Lady? or what conference 
had our Lady with her cousin Elizabeth concerning 
the birth of St. John the Baptist ? 

" As if his intention had been to make bystanders 
believe that he knew somewhat more on this point 
than was written in such books as I use to read. 

" Howbeit the meaning of his riddle I quickly con- 
ceived, and he confessed to be this ; that the angel did 
ibretell John Baptist should be born at that very in- 
stant, in which the Ftrnseed, at other times invisible, 
did fall : intimating further (as far as I could then 
perceive) that this saint of God had some extraordinary 
vertue from the time or circumstance of his birth." 
Jackson's Works, book v. cap. xix. 8. vol. i. p. 916. 
Lond. 1673, fol. 

In the sixth and seventh sections of the same 
chapter and book I find allusions to a maiden over 
whom Satan had no power " so long as she had 
vervine and St. John's grass about her;" to the 
danger of " robbing a swallow's nest built in a 
fire "house ;" and to the virtues of " south-running 
water." Delrius also is referred to as having col- 
lected many similar instances. 

I have not access to Delrius, nor yet to Huon 
of Bordeaux, and so am compelled deeply to regret 
that the good doctor did not leave on record the 
name of the " king of the Fayries." * RT. 

Cornish Folk Lore. A recent old cottage 
tenant at Poliphant, near Launceston, when asked 
why he allowed a hole in the wall of his house to 
remain unrepaired, answered that he would not 
have it stopped up on any account, as he left it on 
purpose for the piskies (Cornish for pixies) to come 
in and out as they had done for many years. This 
is only a sample of the current belief and action. 


will then soon become in this department of litera- 
ture, as it is already in many others, a rich mine 
from which future authors will draw precious store 
of knowledge. I will begin by giving one or two 

Earth-burn. An intermittent land-spring, which 
may not show itself for several years. There is 
such a spring, and so named, near to Epsom. 

Lavant. A land-spring, according to Halliwell. 
But this also is an intermittent spring. The word 
is probably from lava, to flow. 

Pick. (Lancashire.) To push with the hand. 
" I gen her a pick ; " that is, " I pushed her iroui 
me ; " or, " I gave her a violent push forward." 

Pick is also the instrument colliers get coals 
with; or an excavator gets earth with; or a 
stonemason uses to take the " rough " off a stone. 
He may also finish the face of ashlar by " fine- 
picking" it. 

Gen. (Lancashire.) A contraction of the word 

P.S. I have seen, in a court of justice in Lan- 
cashire, judge and counsel fairly set fast with a 
broad spoken county person ; and many of the 
words in common use are not to be found in any 
dictionary or glossary. Again, I have spoken to 
reporters as to 'technical words used at such meet- 
! ings, for instance, as those of the mechanical en- 
! gineers in Birmingham, and I have been informed 
! that they are frequently bewildered and surprised 
j at the numbers of words in use having the same 
I meaning, but which are not to be found in any 
dictionary. It would be of the utmost value to 
seize and fix these words. 11. R. 

[The proposal of our correspondent jumps so com- 
pletely with the object of " N. & Q,.," as announced in 
our original Prospectus, that we not only insert it, but 
hope that his invitation will be responded to by all who 
meet with archaisms either in their reading or in their 
intercourse with natives of those various districts of 
England which are richest in provincialisms. ED.] 


Will you allow me to suggest that, under the 
above, or some such heading, " N. & Q." should 
receive any words not to be found in any well- 
known dictionary; such, for instance, as Halli- 
well's or Webster's, which do not by any means 
contain all the words belonging to the class of 
which they profess to be the repositories. You 
may also invite barristers, reporters, professional 
men generally, and others, to send such waifs of 
this description as they meet with. "N. Q." 

* [Otmm is his name, which Mr. Keightley shows 
to be identical with Elberich. See Fairy Mythology, 
p. 208. (ed. 1850). ED.] 


In Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, vol. xvii. p. 24., 
there is a very interesting article, bearing the 
above heading, in which it is shown that Theo- 
1 dore Palasologus, the fourth in direct descent from 
Thomas, the younger brother of Constantine, the 
last Christian Emperor of Greece, lies buried in 
the church of Landulph in Cornwall. This Theo- 
dore married Mary, the daughter of William Balls, 
of Hadley in Suffolk, gentleman ; by whom he 
had issue' five children, Theodore, John, Ferdi- 
nando, Maria, and Dorothy. Theodore, the first 
son, died in or about 1693, without issue. Of John 
and Ferdinando there is no trace in this country. 
Maria died unmarried ; and Dorothy was married 
at Landulph to William Arundell in 1636, and 
died in 1681. 



[No. 121. 

Ferdinando Palseologus appears to have died in 
the island of Barbadoes in 1678, and was buried 
in the church of St. John. 

These researches are extremely interesting, and 
it is only to be regretted that they are not more 
frequently made and left on record. Allow me to 
suggest that such of your readers as have time, 
inclination, and opportunity for making inquiries 
of this nature, should, through the medium of 
" N. & Q-," place on record any striking illustra- 
tions similar to the above. Your own publication, 
Vol. Hi., p. 350., contains a list of names of the 
poor of St. Albans, several of which are borne still 
by noble families. Possibly there may be still 
existing descendants of the Dorothy Palaeologus 
who married William Arundell at Landulph. 

To mention another instance : I believe there 
now lives at Rugby a member of the legal pro- 
fession, who is directly descended from one of the 
most renowned Polish families. Particulars of 
this case, if furnished by or with the consent of 
the head of the familj', would, I have no doubt, 
prove exceedingly interesting. L. L. L. 


In the year 1820 I saw the following Latin 
verse inscribed under the skeleton of a cat in one 
of the rooms of Petrarch's favourite villa at Arqua, 
near Padua. If you choose to print them, with 
or without the accompanying English version, 
they are at your service : 

Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore : 

Maximus ignis ego ; Laura secundus erat. 
Quid rides ? divinae illarn si gratia forinse, 

Me dignam eximio fecit amante fides. 
Si numeros geniumque sacris dedit ilia libellis 

Causa ego ne saevis muribus esca forent. 
Arcebam sacro vivens a limine mures, 

Ne domini exitio scripta diserta forent ; 
Incutio trepidis eadem defuncta pavorem, 

Et viget exanimi in corpore prisca fides. 

The Tuscan bard of deathless fame 
Nursed in his breast a double flame, 

Unequally divided ; 
And when I say I had his heart, 
While Laura play'd the second part, 

I must not be derided. 

For my fidelity was such, 
It merited regard as much 

As Laura's grace and beauty; 
She first inspired the poet's lay, 
But since I drove the mice away, 

His love repaid my duty. 

Through all my exemplary life, 
So well did I in constant strife 

Employ my claws and curses, 
That even now, though I am dead, 
Those nibbling wretches dare not tread 

On one of Petrarch's verses. 


Sobriquet. As this word is now pretty ge- 
nerally adopted in our language, I send you this 
Note to say that the word is not soubriquet, as 
some of your correspondents write it, but sobriquet; 
the former being what the French term a locution 
vicieuse, and only used by the illiterate. Menage 
derives the word from rulridiculum. 


Origin of Paper. Whether a product is in- 
digenous or foreign may generally be determined 
by the rule in linguistics, that similarity of name 
in different languages denotes foreign extraction, 
and variety of name indigenous production. The 
dog, whose name is different in most languages, 
shows that he is indigenous to most countries. The 
cat, on the contrary, having almost the same name 
in many languages, is therefore of foreign extrac- 
tion in nearly all countries. The word paper is 
common to many tongues, the moderns having 
adopted it from the Greek ; in which language, 
however, the root of the word is not significant. 
In Coptic (ai GUPTIC) the word bavir means a 
plant suitable for weaving: and is derived from 
the Egyptian roots foz, fit, proper; and ir, to 
weave. The art of paper-making may therefore 
be inferred to be the invention of the Egyptians ; 
and further, that paper was made by them as by 
us, from materials previously woven. This infer- 
ence would be either confirmatory or corrective of 
history, in case the history were doubtful, which 
it is not. T. J. B. 


Persistency of Proper Names. The village of 
Boscastle, originally founded by the Norman 
Botreaux, still contains, amongst other French 
names, the following: Moise, Amy, Benoke, Gard, 
Avery (Query, Yvery), all old family names; 
and places still called Palais, Jardin, and a brook 
called Valency. S. R. P. 


Cheap Maps. This is the age of cheap maps 
and atlases, yet the public is miserably supplied. 
We have maps advertised from Id. to 5s., and 
atlases from 10s. Gd. to 10 guineas. Yet they are 
generally impressions from old plates, or copies 
of old plates, with a few places of later notoriety 
marked, without taking the entire chart from the 
latest books of voyages and travels. Look at 

FEB. 21. 1852.] 



the maps of Afghanistan, Scinde, Indian Isles, 
American Isthmus, c. 

On inquiry at all our shops here for a mode- 
rately priced map of the new railway across South 
America to Panama, and for maps of California 
and Borneo, not one could be got. 

Have any of your chart-wrights in London got 
up such maps for youth and emigrants ? If not, 
let them take the hint now given by 




Throughout the writings of St. Paul, his exactly 
cultivated mind is scarcely less visible than his 
divinely inspired soul. Notwithstanding his mag- 
nificent rebukes of human learning and philosophy, 
and his sublime exaltation of the foolishness of 
God above the wisdom of men, the Apostle of the 
Gentiles was no mean master of Gentile learning. 
His three well-known quotations from Greek poets 
furnish direct evidence of his acquaintance with 
Greek literature. He proclaimed the fatherhood 
of God to the Athenians in the words of his coun- 
tryman the poet Aratus (Acts, xvii. 28.). He 
warns the Corinthians by a moral common-place 
borrowed from the dramatist Menander (1 Cor. 
xv. 33.). He brings an hexameter verse of a 
Cretan poet as a testimony to the bad character 
of the Cretan people (Titus, i. 12.). I do not 
positively assert that I have discovered a fourth 
quotation ; I would merely inquire whether the 
appearance in a Pauline epistle of a sentence 
Avhich occurs in a treatise of Aristotle, is to be 
regarded as a quotation, or as an accidental and 
most singular identity of expression. In the 
Politics (lib. in. cap. 8.), Aristotle, in speaking of 
very powerful members of a community, says, 
" Kara 8e ruv TOIOVTWV OVK cffri VOJJLOS" (" but against 
such there is no law"). In the Epistle to the 
Galatians (v. 23.), Paul, after enumerating the 
fruits of the Spirit, adds, "against such there is 
HO law" (ara TQOV TOIOVTWV OVK f<m j/ojuos"). The 
very same words which the philosopher uses to 
express the exceptional character of certain over- 
powerful citizens, the apostle borrows, or, at least, 
employs, to signify the transcendent nature of 
divine graces. According to Aristotle, mighty in- 
dividuals are above legal restraint, against such 
the general laws of a state do not avail : according 
to Paul, the fruits of the Spirit are too glorious 
and divine for legal restraint; they dwell in a 
region far above the regulation of the moral law. 

While there is no possibility of demonstrating 
'that this identity of expression is a quotation, 
there is nothing to forbid the idea of this sen- 
tence being a loan from the philosopher to the 
apostle. Paul was as likely to be at home in the 

great philosophers, as in the second and third-rate 
poets of Greece. The circumstance of Aratus 
being of his own birth-place, Tarsus, might spe- 
cially commend the Phenomena to his perusal ; 
but the great luminary of Grecian science was 
much more likely to fall within his perusal than 
an obscure versifier of Crete ; and if he thought it 
not unseemly to quote from a comic writer, he 
surely would not disdain to borrow a sentence 
from the mighty master of Stagira. The very 
different employment which he and Aristotle find 
for the same words makes nothing against the 
probability of quotation. The sentence is re- 
markable, not in form, but in meaning. There 
is nothing in the mere expression peculiarly to 
commend it to the memory, or give it proverbial 
currency. I cannot say that it is a quotation; 
I cannot say that it is not. 

I am not aware that this quotation or identity 
of expression has been pointed out before. Wet- 
stein, who above all editors of the Greek Testa- 
ment abounds in illustrations and parallel pas- 
sages from the classics, takes no notice of this 
identical one. It is surely worth the noting; and 
should anything occur to any of your correspond- 
ents either to confirm or demolish the idea of 
quotation, I would gladly be delivered out of my 
doubt. I should not think less reverently of St. 
Paul in believing him indebted to Aristotle; I 
should rather rejoice in being assured that one of 
the greatest spiritual benefactors of mankind was 
acquainted with one of its chief intellectual bene- 
factors. THOMAS H. GILL. 


Silver Royal Font. I remember having read of 
a very ancient silver font, long preserved among 
the treasures of the British crown, in which the 
infants of our royal families were commonly bap- 
tized. Is this relic still in existence ? where may 
it be seen ? what is its history ? have any cuts or 
engravings of it been published ? where may any 
particulars respecting it be found ? NOCAB. 

L'Homme de 1400 Ans. In that very extra- 
ordinary part of a very extraordinary transaction, 
the statement of Cagliostro, in the matter of the 
Collier (Paris, 1786, pp. 20. 36.), mention is twice 
made of an imaginary personage called Thomme 
de 1400 ans. Cagliostro complains that he was 
said to be that personage, or the W r andering 
Jew, or Antichrist. He is not, therefore, the same 
as the Wandering Jew. I should be very curious 
to learn where this notion is derived from. C. B. 

Llandudno, on the Great Orme's Head. Having 
occasion to visit the above interesting place last 
summer, among other objects of curiosity, I was 
induced to visit a " cavern," which the inhabitants 
said had been lately discovered, and which they 



[No. 121. 

said had been used by the "Romans" (Roman 
Catholics) as a place of worship. A party of five 
hired a boat for the purpose of visiting the place, 
which is about two miles from the little bay of 
Llandudno ; for it is quite inaccessible by land. 
We arrived in about an hour ; and were quite 
surprised at the appearance of the " cavern." which 
seems to have been made as private as possible, 
and as inaccessible, by large stones being piled 
carelessly upon each other, so as to hide the en- 
trance, and which we could not have found with- 
out the assistance of the sailors. The " cavern " 
is about ten feet high, lined with smooth and well- 
jointed stone work, with a plain but nicely exe- 
cuted cornice at the height of seven or eight feet. 
The shape is heptagonal, and the fronts 011 each 
side are faced with smooth stone ; the space from 
front to back, and from side to side, is equal, 
about six feet six inches. On the right, close to 
the entrance, is a font, sixteen inches across in- 
side, twenty-two outside, and eight or nine inches 
deep. There is a seat round, except at the en- 
trance ; and there has been a stone table or altar 
in the centre, but a small portion of it and the 
pillar only remain. The floor has been flagged, 
but it is in a very dilapidated state. That it was 
used for worship, there is little doubt ; but how 
and when it was fitted up, seems marvellous. It 
is not mentioned by Pennant, or any Welsh tourist. 
Will any of your correspondents obl'ga me and 
the public with the history of this " cavern," as it 
is called, at Llandudno ? L. G. T. 

Johnsons House, Bolt Court. Can any of your 
readers inform me whether the house in which Dr. 
Johnson resided, and in which he died, situate in 
Bolt Court, Fleet Street, is yet in existence ? You 
are probably aware that an engraving of it ap- 
peared in the Graphic Illustrations edited by Mr. 
Croker, and prefixed to this engraving was an 
announcement that it was destroyed by fire. 

There is reason, however, to believe that this is a 
mistake, and that the house so destroyed by fire 
belonged not to Johnson, but to Johnson's friend, 
Allen the printer. 

You are probably aware that the house which 
stands opposite the Johnson's Head Tavern, is 
shown as the residence of the great moralist ; and 
on comparing another engraving by Smith of the 
Doctor's study with the room now claimed to have 
been occupied by Johnson, the likeness is exact. 
Cobbett, too, who afterwards lived here, boasted 
in one of his publications that he was writing in 
the same room where Johnson compiled his Dic- 
tionary. At any rate it is an interesting question, 
and probably can be set at rest by some of your 
literary friends, especially as I have reason to be- 
lieve tnat there is one gentleman still living who 
visited the Doctor in Bolt Court. Madame D'Ar- 
blay, I think, once said, that the author of the 
Pleasures of Memory arrived at the door at the 

same moment with herself during Johnson's last 

Bishop Mossom. Robert Mossom, D.D., was 
prebendary of Knaresboro' in Yorkshire, 1662, 
and Bishop of Derry, 1666. In dedicating his 
Zioiis Prospect (1651) to Henry (Pierrepont) 
Marquess of Dorchester and Earl of Kingston, 
towards the end he says, "Besides this, mine 
relation to your late deceased uncle ; " then re- 
ferring to the margin he has "Ds. T. G., Equeit 
felicis memorial 

Zions Prospect (a copy of which, with several 
of his other works, is in the library of the British 
Museum) has on the title-page, " By R. M., quon- 
dam e coll S. P. C." 

His grandson, Robert Mossom, D.D. (son of 
Robert Mossom, LL.D., Master in the French 
Court of Chancery), was Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and subsequently Dean of Ossory 
from 1701 to 1747 ; he married Rebecca, daughter 
and coheir of Robert Mason of Dublin, and grand- 
daughter, / believe, of Jonathan Alaud of Water- 
ford. Dean Mosbom was one of the oldest friends 
of Dean Swift ; Sir Walter Scott has but one 
letter to him in Swiff s Correspondence (2nd ed. 
Edin. 1824, vol. xix. p. 275.). Are there any 
other letters that passed between them in exist- 
ence ? 

Can any of your readers refer me to a pedigree 
of the Masons of Dublin, and also any pedigree 
that connects the Mossom. with the Elaud family 
of Yorkshire ? 

What college was that of S. P. C. ? and who was 

Sir T. G , Knt. ; and how was he related to 

Bishop Mossom ? T. C. M. M. 

Inner Temple. 

Orlando Gibbons. Hawkins, in his History of 
Music, gives " a head " of this musician. Is there 
any other engraved portrait ? 


Portraits. What is the most correct catalogue 
of all the engraved portraits which are known to 
exist? S. S. 

Barnard* s Church Music. Can any of your 
readers point out where John Barnard's first 
book of selected church music, folio, ten parts, 1641, 
is to be found ? The writer knows of the imperfect 
set at Hereford Cathedral, a tenor part at Can- 
terbury, and a bass part in private hands. Dr. 
Burney makes mention, in his Historij of Music, of 
having sought diligently throughout the kingdom, 
but could not find an entire copy. Perhaps some 
of your correspondents may kindly favour the 
writer with a list of its contents. AMANUENSIS. 

The Nelson Family. In Burke's Commoners, 
under the head of " Nelson of Chuddleworth," it 
appears that William Nelson of Chuddleworth, 
born in 1611, had by his second wife, the daughter 

FEB. 21. 1852.] 



of John Pococke, gentleman, of Woolley, among 
other children, a son named William ; but of whom 
DO further mention is made. 

Can any of your Norfolk or Berkshire friends 
state whether this son William ever settled at 
Dunham Parva, in Norfolk? as, by so doing, an 
obligation will be conferred on your occasional 
correspondent FRANCISCUS. 

Letters to the Clergy. In the Diary of Walter 
Yonge (published by the Camden Society), p. 24., 
is the following : 

"16 Dec. 1614. This day the Ministers of this 
Diocese (Exon) were called before the Bishop of 
Exon, who read letters from the Archbishop, the effects 
of which were, that every minister should exhort his 
parishioners to continue together the Sabbath Day, 
and not to wander to other preachers who have better 
gifts than their own pastors, but should content them- 
selves with the Word of God read and Homilies. 
2. That all should kneel at the receiving of the Sacra- 
ment. 3. To declare unto their parishioners that it is 
not necessary to have the Word preached at the Sacra- 
ments. Dictu Magistri Knowles, Vicarii de Axmin- 
ster, at that time present." 

Query, Can any of your readers say to what 
letter, and on what occasion such orders were issued 
by the archbishop, and also whether they have been 
published in any volume on ecclesiastical matters ? 

H. T. E. 

Margaret Burr. It is related in Allan Cun- 
ningham's Life of Gainsborough, that he marr