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I V,6 




'When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





V, <o 







"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. VI. No. 140.] 

SATUKDAY, JULY 3. 1852. 

("Price Fonrpence. 
I Stamped Edition, 




Our Sixth Volume ------ 


On the Editorship of Shakspeare, by Bolton Corney 
John Asgill, by James Crossley .... 
Lines on the Earl of Crawford - 
Sir Henry Wotton's Letter to Milton ... 
Folk Lore : Cure for the Ague Weather Prophecy - 
Printer's Errors in the Inseparable Particles in Shak- 

speare,-by S. W. Singer ----- 6 
Dr. Gumming on Romans viii., by J. C. Robertson - 6 
Progressive Development and Transmutation of Species, 

by C. Mansfield Ingleby 7 

Minor Notes : Apuleius on Mesmerism The Domi- 
ciliary Clause Transmission of Ancient Usages 
Inscription on an Oak Chest The Raising of 
Charles I.'s Standard at Nottingham 8 


Remarkable Experiments - - - . - 8 

Minor Queries : De Sancta Cruce Etymology of 
" Aghindle " or "Aghendole" Pictures of Queen 
Elizabeth's Tomb Spanish " Veiwe Bowes" Old 
English Divines Lord Viscount Dover, Colonel of 
the First Troop of Guards in the Service of James II. 

I in Ireland, 1689- 1690 Lines on Woman's Will 
Celebrated Fly Battle of Alfred the Great with the 
Danes Old Satchells " Pretty Peggy of Derby, O !" 

" Noose as I was " " La Garde meurt,"&c Coral 

Charms Maturin Laurent Mons. Cahagnet James 
Murray, titular Earl of Dunbar - - - 9 

Book censured in the Pulpit, in the Time of Queen 
Anne Legend respecting the Isle of Ely - - 11 


The Trusty Servant at Winchester, by Sir F. Madden - 

The Earl of Erroll 

Inscription at Persepolis 

Monody on the Death of Sir John Mcore," by J. R. 
Walbran - - - _ . 

Coke and Cowper, how pronounced - 

Replies to Minor Queries : - Use of Slings by the Early 
3ntons Burial in Unconsecrated Ground Etymo- 
logy of Fetch and Haberdasher _ Baxter's " Heavy 
Shove," &c "We three" Age of Trees The 
Diphthong " ai " The Symbol of the Pelican John 
lope Stoup Flanagan on the Round Towers of 
reland Giving the Sack The Bells of Limerick 
Cathedral Mexican, &c. Grammar Bishop Merri- 
nun Birthplace of Andrew Marvell Anstis on 
Seals-Foundation Stones Milton indebted to Tacitus 
-Plague Stones Algernon Sidney Edmund Bohun 
'eclaration of Two Thousand Clergymen - 

Notes on Books, &c. 

ooks arid Odd Volumes wanted "- 

Notices to Correspondents - 

Advertisements - 


Voi. VI No. 140. 

Milton describes the active and industrious emmet as 

" provident 

Of future ; in small room large heart inclos'd." 
What authority there may be for the asserted physio- 
logical fact in reference to the emmet, is a Query we 
submit to our readers, merely reminding them that 
Virgil has said the same thing of bees : at present we 
quote the words of our great poet as descriptive of the 
function and purpose which we have carried on through- 
out Five Volumes, and which we shall keep steadily 
before us in that new Volume on which we are this dav 
entering, and in the numberless remainder which we 
trust will follow. " Provident of future," we shall lay up 
good store of valuable materials for all inquirers ; and 
within the " small room " of our hebdomadal sheet 
shall strive to inclose a mass of matter more directly 
useful to literary men than has ever been crowded into 
such space before. 

The continued kindness of our " increased and still 
increasing" band of contributors and correspondents 
enables us, volume by volume, to perform our office 
more perfectly. The number of important questions 
which we answer immediately, and the number cleared 
up by the friendly discussions in our pages, are both 
continually on the increase. Some day we shall (in 
Parliamentary phrase) present a Return upon this sub- 
ject which will excite no little surprise : at present 
we will merely express our warmest thanks to all 
our contributing friends, and assure them of our 
constant endeavour to insert their papers in the way 
which will be most useful, and at the same time most 
agreeable to themselves. Slight curtailment, and some 
delay, are occasionally unavoidable ; but we studiously 
endeavour to do the most entire justice to every paper 
that is sent to us, and that as quickly as possible. 
Such shall ever continue to be our aim : our only 
" strife " being how to please you all readers, corre- 
spondents, note-makers, and querists " day exceeding 
day, 1 ' 


[No. 140. 


" The work that has been done, is to be done again, 
and no single edition will supply the reader with a text 
on which he can rely as the best copy of the works of 
Shakspeare." Samuel JOHNSON, 1756. 

The course of Shaksperean editorship, with 
regard to the dramatic portion of his works, ex- 
hibits four distinct phases : I. The separate pub- 
lication of sixteen plays, in the quarto form, in the 
years 1597-1622 ; II. The publication of thirty- 
six plays in a folio volume, under the editorial 
.care of Heminge and Condell, in 1623 ; III. The 
republication of the folio volume with the addi- 
tion of " seven pl'ayes never before printed in 
folio," in 1664 ; and IV. The republication of the 
thirty-six plays by Nicholas Rowe, by Pope, by 
Theobald, by Hanmer and others, with the addi- 
tion of memoirs, critical essays, emendations of the 
text, annotations, glossaries, etc. 

The early quarto plays have become of such 
extreme rarity as to defy acquisition, and the 
folio of 1623, which should be the cynosure of 
future editors, is almost as rare in a PERFECT state. 
.Recourse must be had, in both instances, to public 
and private collections. The later folios carry no 
authority, and the seven additional plays are held 
to be spurious. As all the above volumes are 
elsewhere described with more or less exactness, 
it is on the annotated editions only, and on the 
spirit of annotation which has prevailed for near a 
century-and-a-half, that I propose to comment. 

Reflecting on the events of this latter period, 
and assuming that new editions of the plays of 
Shakspere must always be in request, I come to 
the conclusion that those which are now most in 
repute on the score of documents and annotations 
would fye too voluminous if reprinted on the 
former plan of successive accumulation. The 
editions to which I allude are those of Johnson 
and Steevens, and Mulone with the corrections 
and illustrations of various commentators. Both 
those celebrated publications were formerly in ten 
octavo volumes; but in the last augmented im- 
pressions which were given to the public, by Reed 
and Boswell respectively, they both form twenty- 
one volumes. This increase of bulk was the 
growth of only thirty years, and more than thirty, 
years have since elapsed. Is the accumulative 
system to be continued ? Are we always to ap- 
proach Shakspere through a crowd of preface- 
writers? Are we to accept memoirs and col- 
lections which have been superseded by the works 
of more fortunate inquirers ? Are we to be sa- 
tiated with the notes, the confutations of notes, 
the replies, and the rejoinders of former times? 
with historical facts misapplied to fiction? with 
parallel passages devoid of parallelism ? with for- 

geries, and perversions of the text under fictitious 
names ? Whatever admiration may be due to 
many of the commentators, the expediency of re- 
form is unquestionable. It is manifest that other 
plans must be devised. 

As a step in the path of improvement, I would 
suggest a bold and searching re-examination of 
the principles of editorship with reference to the 
plays of Shakspere, and the formation of such a 
series of rules as may accord with facts and com- 
mon sense, and satisfy the majority of the best 
critics. Important hints on those points occur in 
the prefaces to his dramatic works, but they are 
sometimes much at variance with each other, and 
they nowhere appear collectively. Now, it is unde- 
niable that such a code of rules, even if not the 
best that could be framed, would tend to the pre- 
servation of consistency ; and, if unobjectionable 
in its main features, it might be productive of 
much of the benefit which new editions can be 
expected- to derive from learned supervision. In 
re-editing a monographic volume, which had been 
committed to the press by its author, we encounter 
no serious difficulties, and therefore need only a 
few plain rules. It is much otherwise in the 
case of Shakspere. The folio volume of 1623 
contains thirty-six separate compositions, of very 
uncertain dates. It embraces a boundless variety 
of theme; it displays almost every variety of 
style ; and it was set forth by men of whose li- 
terary qualifications we have not an atom of evi- 
dence! Thence arise NUMBERLESS QUERIES, the 
solution of which calls for much research and 
critical sagacity ; so that without the establishment 
of just principles, and the formation of correspon- 
dent rules, there can neither be justness nor uni- 
formity of editorial execution. 

An attempt to frame such a series of rules is 
now submitted to public criticism. A rash attempt 
it may seem, but it is the result of deliberation ; 
called into visible existence by the signs of the 
times. If the proposed rules should be condemned, 
or in part contested, I shall hold myself in readi- 
ness to come forward in their defence. If improve- 
ments should be suggested for which, doubtless, 
there is scope I shall receive the suggestions 
thankfully. If the publication of the series should 
be pronounced superfluous, I engage to prove that 
almost all the rules which it contains have been 
violated, even in the course of one play, by the 
best editors of our dramatist and that some of 
the most important of them have been violated 
within the space of twenty lines. 


Canon I. The preliminary matter, the number and 
order of the plays, and their respective titles, shall be 
the. same as in the edition which was set forth by t 
minge and Condell in 1623. 

JULY 3. 1852.] 


Canon II. The text of the plays, errors excepted, 
shall be that of 1623, collated with that of such of the 
plays as had been published in a finished state. The 
deficient lists of characters shall be supplied on the: 
same plan as that of The tempest, and the current divi-, 
sions into acts and scenes shall be adopted. 

Canon III. No emendations shall be admitted into 
the text but such as are requisite to give it the pro- 
bable sense, or a more correct rhythm ; nor shall any 
other circumstance than the defective state of the text itself 
be held to justify such emendations. 

Canon IV. No additions shall be made to the plays, 
either in the shape of prefaces, or of lists of the charac- 
ters, or of emendations of the text, or of divisions into 
acts and scenes or otherwise, without being indicated 
as such by brackets. 

Canon V. No omission, or transposition, or other 
alteration shall be made, either in the text or in its 
accompaniments, without a note describing it, and 
stating the evidence in favour of its adoption. 

Canon VI. The orthography shall be modern, when 
not required to be otherwise for the sake of the mea- 
sure, or the rhyme, or to preserve a play upon words ; 
but the preliminary matter of 1623 shall be printed 

Canon VII. In the use of capitals, and in other 
typographical particulars, there shall be a strict uni- 
formity of plan, which plan shall be described and ex- 
emplified. The punctuation shall be inserted as the 
context requires, and without regard to the early or 
late editions. 

Canon VIII. The preface of eaph play shall record 
the evidence of its authorship, the presumed date of its 
composition, the peculiarities of all the editions of it 
previous to 1623, and the sources of its \.lot. The 
notes shall be as CONCISE as possible, and limited to the 
establishment of the text, and the illustration of its 
obscurities; rejecting all criticism on former commentators. 

Canon IX. A glossarial index shall comprise the 
titles of the plays, the names of the characters, the obso- 
lete words and phrases, and the words used in an un- 
common sense, or with a peculiar accent, or which 
otherwise seemed to require notes. 



It is much to be regretted that the materials for 
a Life of this most original writer, whose wit is 
frequently as brilliant and effective as Swift's, are 
so scanty. Dr. Campbell, who wrote the account 
of Asgill in the first edition of the Biographia Bri- 
tannica, makes several references to a MS. Memoir 
by his intimate friend Mr. A. N. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me if this memoir is still in 
existence ? Dr. Kippis, who seems to have been 
in a blissful state of ignorance as to Asgill's real 
character, and the meaning of his writings, has 
added no fresh facts to the account of his prede- 

Asgill was the executor of a man whose charac- 

ter was as extraordinary as his own, Dr. Barebbne, 
the great builder and projector, of whom Roger 
North, in his yet unpublished Autobiography, has 
given one of those speaking portraits which place 
before us the living man beyond the possibility of 
a mistake. Barebone was one of the sons of 
Praise-God Barebone, and was christened at his 
baptism " If- Jesus-Christ -had-not-died-for-thee- 
thou-had-been- damned" Barebone ; but Roger 
North informs us it was customary to omit all the 
syllables of the name except the last, " Damned 
Barebone " or " Damned Dr. Barebone " being his 
ordinary appellation ; which, as his morals were 
none of the best, appeared to suit him better than 
his entire baptismal prefix. Dr. Barebone who as 
the author of two of the ablest of our early com- 
mercial tracts, and as one of the most enterprising 
men this country ever produced, deserves a notice 
in an English biographical dictionary, when we shall 
have one which is worthy of the name died deeply 
involved in debt, and in appointing Mr. Asgill as 
his executor, made it a request in his will that he 
should never pay his debts. What a scene it must 
have been in Lincoln's Inn Hall, deserving all the 
graphic powers of Hogarth or Cruikshank, when to 
the " monster " meeting of creditors whom he had 
summoned to hear the will read, the executor, 
after producing the will, and reading it through, 
and giving due emphasis to the request it con- 
tained, subjoined with the greatest gravity, " You 
have heard, gentlemen, the Doctor's testament, and I 
will religiously fulfil the will of the dead." As the 
writer of the MS. memoir justly observes, "There 
was not perhaps such another pair as the doctor 
and the counsellor in the three kingdoms." 

As some contribution to a future Life of Asgill, 
no complete list having yet been given of his 
writings, I inclose the following, which is as cor- 
rect as I can at present make it. All the Tracts 
are in my own possession. If any of your corre- 
spondents can add to it, I shall be glad to see ifc 
rendered more complete : 

1. " Several Assertions proved in order to create 
another Species of Money than Gold and Silver." 1696, 
8vo. p. 85. 2nd edit. 1720, 8vo. p. 46. 

2. "Essay on a Registry for Titles of Lands." 
Lond. 1698, 8vo. p. 43. 4th edit. 1758, Svo. p. 44. 

It is reprinted in State Tracts (Will. HI.), vol. ii. 
p. 693. 

3. "Reply to some Reflections on Mr. Asgill's 
Essay on a Registry." 1699, 8vo. p. 39. 

This has never been reprinted. The Tract pub- 
lished in State Tracts (Will. III.), vol. ii. p. 704., 
attributed to Asgill in the Biog. Brit, (title 
" Asgill"), is evidently not written by him. 

4. " An Argument proving that Man may be 
translated." 1700, Svo. p. 103. 

5. " De Jure Divino, or the Assertion is that the 
Title of the House of Hanover is a Title Hereditary." 
1710, 8vo. p, 38. 


[No. 140. 

6. " Essay for the Press." 1712, 8vo. p. 8. 

7. " Mr. Asgill's Defence upon his Expulsion." 
1712, 8vo. p. 87. 

8. " Mr. Asgill's Extract of Ihe several Acts of Par- 
liament for settling the Succession of the Crown." 
1714, 8vo. p. 24. Published also with another title- 
page : " Mr. Asgill's Apology." 

9. The Pretender's Declaration abstracted." 1714, 
8vo. p. 46. Published also with a new title-page : 
" History of Three Pretenders." 1714, 8vo. 

10. "Succession of the House of Hanover vindi- 
cated." 1714,8vo. p. 75. 

11. " Pretender's Declaration englished." 1715, 
8vo. p. 24. 

1 '>" Pretender's Declaration transposed." 1716, 
8vo. p. 19. 

13. "A Question upon Divorce." 1717, 8vo. p. 20. 

14. " An Abstract of the Public Funds." 1716, 4to. 
p. 32. 

15. " Essay on the Nature of the Kingdom of God 
within us." 1718, 8vo. p. 24. 

16. " The complicated Question divided upon the 
Bill relating to Peerage." 1719, 8vo. p. 18. 

17. " Brief Answer to a brief State of the Question 
between the printed and painted Calicoes and the 
Woollen and Silk Manufactures." 1719, 8vo. p. 22. 

18. "The British Merchant; or a Review of the 
Trade of Great Britain." Published in Numbers. 
No. I., Nov. 1O, 1719. 

1 9. " Computation of the Advantages saved to the 
Public by the South Sea Scheme." 1721, 8vo. p. 24. 

20. " Extract of the Act passed 1 1 Geo. I., for the 
Relief of Insolvent Debtors; with Remarks, and a 
Postscript concerning Taxes." 1729, 8vo. p. 32. 

21. "The Metamorphosis of Man. Part I." 2nd 
edit. 1729, 8vo. p. 288. 

22. " Asgill upon Woolston." 8vo. 1730, p. 36. 

23. " Essay upon Charity." 8vo. 1731, p. 18. 

24. " Mr. Asgill's Case." Broadside, N. D. Folio. 

25. " Mr. Holland's Answer to Mr. Asgill's Case 
replied to." Broadside folio. N. D. 

The last two were issued in 1707, and were re- 
. plied to in two broadsides : Reasons humbly offered 
ly Mr. Holland against Mr. Asgill; and Mr. Hol- 
lands Answer to Mr. Asgill's Case. 

Of the Tracts enumerated only Nos. 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, and 11. are included in the 8vo. with the 
title : A Collection of Tracts written by John As- 
gill, Esq. 1715, 8vo. 

. Mr. AsgiWs Congratulatory Letter to the Lord 
Bishop of Sarum (Burnet), 1713, 8vo., is not 
; written by him. 

The two best imitations of Asgill's style which 
I have seen are, A Letter to the People, to be left 
for them at the Booksellers ; with a Word or Two 
of the Sandbox Plot. 1712, 8vo. p. 15. Written 
by Tom. Burnet. And that in the Examiner, 
vol iii. No. 6., probably by Oldisworth. 

To the list of Asgill's writings may, I think, also 
be added, though his name does not appear to it, 
Dr. Davenanfs Prophecies, 1713, 8vo.; in the in- 
troduction to which, which bears all the marks 

of Asgill's style, Dr. Davenant is severely ridi- 


These lines on the Earl of Crawford occur in a 
volume of poems by W- Bewick, B.A., the second 
edition of which was printed at Newcastle-on-Tyne 
in 1752. I have copied them in case the editor 
may think them worthy of insertion in " N. & Q." 
They may perhaps be interesting to the noble 
author of Lives of the Lindsays. 


" Descended from a family as good 
As Scotland boasts, and from right ancient blood : 
You are the ornament of all your race, 
The splendour, and the glory, and their praise : 
What courage you have shown, illustrious Scot ! 
In future ages will not be forgot : 
When wicked infidels came crowding on 
With horsetails mov'd, and crescents of the moon j 
With frightful regiments of foot and horse, 
In dreadful numbers, and with mighty force; 
With proud Bashaws, by Sultan's high command, 
With flaming scimiters in nervous hand, 
In Hungar plains against the Christian host, 
At Grotzka, when the fatal day was lost, 
You stood undaunted in the bloody field, 
Withstood their fury, and disdain'd to yield, 
Amidst the clouds of smoke, when bullets shower'd,. 
Amidst loud thunders, when dread cannons roar'd,. 
You with a courage like a Lindsay fought, 
Shunn'd not the enemy, but danger sought ; 
Till crowding numbers overpowering you, 
And fainting with your wounds, you weary grew ; 
When wounded much, and ready to be kill'd, 
Amidst your foes, they forced you off the field. 

Who can the hero blame, when he has done 
His best in battle, and is left alone : 
Whose noble courage had sustain'd the test, "L 

By crowding numbers of the foe opprest, 
Choked in his blood, wounds flaming in his breast. J 
Thus when the news came spreading through the main, 
The dismal news of noble Crawford slain 
When such unhappy tidings touch'd our ears 
How pallid were our looks, with sudden fears. 
How much did we suspect the doubtful truth, 
Believing we had lost the warlike youth ; 
Whose peerless loss would Britons nearly touch,. 
The loss of one whom George affects so much : 
Which to his country had much dearer been, 
Than if a thousand others had been slain. 
But Providence the wounded much did save r 
And back again our noble Crawford gave ; 
But not without returning deadly blows, 
And that with justice on his wicked foes. 
Such was the courage of our British lord ; 
He pistol'd or he cut them down with sword, 
And had but others equal courage shown, 
The day which fatal was had been their own." 


JULY 3. 1852.] 



Most lovers of Comus have often read with 
interest Sir H. Wotton's " Letter to Milton," which 
is in many editions prefixed. The initials M. B. 
refer to Michael Brainthwaite, who succeeded 
Wotton at Venice ; and S. refers to the young 
Lord Scudamore, whose father resided at Paris as 
ambassador for King Charles I. Todd rightly 
suggests, from an old MS. note, that H. must have 
been John Hales of Eton (the "memorable"), and 
not Samuel Hartlib, as Thomas Warton had sup- 

It is strange that I too possess a copy of the 
third edition of Wotton's Reliquiae (London, 
1672), with many MS. notes in an old and scholar- 
like hand. 

In said volume, H. is likewise filled up Hales ; 
and we know that Wotton speaks of Hales as a 
Bibliotheca Ambulans (ReL, p. 475.) ; that he re- 
joiced when Archbishop Laud preferred him to a 
prebendaryship of Windsor (Ib. p. 369.) ; that 
they lived together on most intimate terms ; and 
that, finally, Hales attended Wotton in his dying 
moments (Walton's Life of Sir H. W. ad calcem). 
Indeed (unless I mistake) Samuel Hartlib had not 
settled in England at this time, so that we may 
put him out of the question for ever. 

To me the mysterious part of Wotton's " Letter 
to Milton," seems to lie in the initials " R " and 
" the late R s poems." And I should be very glad 
to know how far Thomas Warton' s observations 
upon them could stand the lynx-eyed scrutiny of 
MR. CROSSLEY, or some of your other correspon- 
dents. Why the first R. must necessarily mean 
John Rouse of the Bodleian (though Milton did 
honour him at a later period with some Latin verses), 
or the second R. Thomas Randolph, the adopted 
son of Ben. Jonson, I am unable to perceive. 

Warton is wrong in saying that it appears from 
his monument, which he had seen in Blatherwycke 
Church, Northamptonshire, that Randolph had 
died on the 17th of March, 1634. His monument 
contains no date whatsoever. I visited the above- 
mentioned church on the 17th of June uit., with 
the express purpose of seeing the last resting- 
place, or the last memorial, of one who, however 
unfortunate himself, was, in Warton's note at all 
events, associated with Milton's Comus, and send 
the inscription verbatim. 

Wood tells us that Randolph died in March 
1634, at the house of William Stafford of Blather- 
wycke, and that he was buried on the 17th day of 
the same month " in an ile joining to B. Church, 
among the Stafford family." In this he is followed 
by the Biographia Britannica, from whence, as 
well as from Wood, I learn that the author of the 
inscription was Randolph's friend Peter Hanstead 
of Cambridge. The tablet on which it is written 
is of white marble, erected at the expense of Sir 

Christopher Hatton, and attached to one of the 
pillars ; and the inscription is given, but not very 
accurately, in Bridge's Northamptonshire (vol. ii. 
p. 280., Oxford, 1791, fol.). I transcribed for 
myself as follows : 

" Memoriae Sacrum 

Thome Randolph! (dum inter pauciores) Faelicissimi 
et facillimi ingenii Juvenis necnon raajora promit- 
tentis si fata virum non invidissent saeculo. 
Here sleepe thirteene 
Together in one tombe, 

And all these greate, yet quarrell not for rome : 
The Muses and y e Graces teares did meete 
And grav'd these letters on y e churlish sheete, 
Who having wept their fountaines drye 
Through the conduit of the eye, 
For their freind who here does lye, 
Crept into his grave and dy.ed, 
And soe the Riddle is untyed. 
For w oh this Church, proud y* the Fates bequeath 
Unto her ever honour'd trust 
Soe much and that soe precious dust, 
Hath crown'd her Temples with an luye wreath, 

W ch should have Laurelle beene 
But y* the grieved plant to see him dead 
Tooke pet and withered. 

Cujus cineres brevi hac (qua potuit) imortalitate 
donat Christopherus Hatton, Miles de Balneo et Mu- 
sarii amator, illius vero (quern deflemus) supplenda 
carminibus qua? mar m or is et aeris .scandal urn mane- 
bunt perpetuum." 




Cure for the Ague. About a mile from Berk- 
hampstead, in Hertfordshire, on a spot where two 
roads cross each other, are a few oak trees called 
cross oaks. Here aguish patients used to resort, 
and peg a lock of their hair into one of these oaks, 
then, by a sudden wrench, transfer the lock from 
their heads to the tree, and return home with the 
full conviction that the ague had departed with 
the severed lock. Persons now living affirm they 
have often seen hair thus left pegged into the oak, 
for one of these trees only was endowed with the 
healing power. The frequency of failure, how- 
ever, to cure the disease, and the unpleasantness 
of the operation, have entirely destroyed the po- 
pular faith in this remedy; but that expedients 
quite as absurd and superstitious, and even more 
disgusting, are still practised to remove diseases, is 
fully proved by several instances recorded in 

And here I must express, what will be con- 
sidered by some of its readers an extraordinary 
opinion, that education alone has not, and will not, 
expel superstition. It may change its character, 
but it will not rid the mind of its baneful in- 



[No. 140. 

fluence. Superstition, I believe, may be proved 
to be perfectly independent of education, as it 
exists almost equally among the highly educated 
and the most ignorant, while persons from both 
these classes may be found equally free from its 
degrading trammels. A work designed to illus- 
trate this fact or opinion would be extremely in- 
teresting and instructive, and I shall be glad to 
hear that some able person has entered on such an 
undertaking. The folk lore of " N. & Q." will be 
very useful, and may be made more so towards 
the accomplishment of this object, if instances of 
superstitious notions and practices among the 
higher classes, and they abound, be also included. 
I am prepared to contribute some instances, and I 
shall do it the more readily when a definite and 
useful object is known to be in view. W. H. K. 

Weather Prophecy (Yol. v., p. 534.). I have 
heard the very same prophecy in Sweden, where 
it is said never to fail. This summer the oak has 
come out before the ash in Aberdeenshiro, which 
I beg thus to place on record. G. J. R. G. 

Ellen Castle, Aberdeenshire. 


Among the most frequent causes of obscurity in 
the text of the old editions, this stands pre-eminent. 
The instances are many and manif6ld. Two pas- 
sages in the play of King Lear have occurred to 
me, which need, I think, only be pointed out to 
carry conviction even to the most rigid stickler 
for the integrity of the old copies. 

In Act II. Sc. 1., where Edmund misrepresents 
to his father his encounter with his brother Edgar, 
he says : " Full suddenly he fled." On which 
Gloucester exclaims : 

" Let him fly far : 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught, 
And found ; dispatch, the noble Duke my master 
. 'i ti'.-i vu . . comes to-night." 
Thus the passage stands in the first folio. The 
Variorum Edit., which is followed by MR. COLLIER 
and MR. KNIGHT, prints it as if the sense was 
interrupted, and entirely departs from the punc- 
tuation of the old copy, thus : 

" Let him fly far : 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught ; 
And found Dispatch The noble Duke my master 
..... conies to-night." 

We have not a word to tell us of the innovation, 
which was certainly uncalled for. The context 
plainly shows that we should read, preserving the 
punctuation of the folio : 

" Let him fly far ; 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught, 
J7found ;" &c, 

The printer has, singularly enough, committed 
the same mistake in the first line of Act IV. A 
passage from which, as it stands in all the late 
editions, it would be vain to try to extract a 

Edgar enters in his disguise, and is made to say : 
** Yet better thus and known to be contemn'd 
Than still contemn'd and flatter'd." 

Now it must be evident to common sense, that he 
alludes to his disguised condition; and that to 
make sense of the passage, we must read, as John- 
son suggested : 

" Yet better thus unknown," &c. 
Edgar could not mean to say that he was known 
in his disguise ! The plain meaning must be, " It 
is better to be contemned in this beggarly disguise 
unknown, than in my true rank and character to 
be flattered though secretly contemned." 

From a similar lapse of the printer, a passage in 
King John, Act III. Sc. 1., has been made the 
subject of much unnecessary comment, some or 
which, from its pseudo-Collins character, might; 
well have been spared. Constance says : 

" O Lewis, stand fast ; the devil tempts thee here 
In likeness of a new untrimmed bride." 

Theobald proposed to read, " a new and trimmed 
bride." And Dr. Richardson, in his excellent 
Dictionary, suggests that untrimmed was a mere cor- 
ruption of entrimmed. MR. DYCE, to whom every 
reader of our early drama is so much indebted, 
informs me that he hastily fell into the views of" 
the commentators regarding the meaning of untrim- 
med, but that he is now convinced it is here simply 
an error of the printer for uptrimmed; a mistake 
easily made at press. Trimmed up, and decked up, 
were the current phrases applied to a bride dressed 
for her nuptials. We have both phrases in Romeo 
and Juliet: Capulet says to the nurse, 

" Go waken Juliet, go and trim her up." 
He had previously said to his wife : 

"Go thou to Juliet, help to deck her up" 

It is satisfactory, by such a simple and un- 
doubted correction, to get rid of heaps of idle 
babble and verbiage about a word that the poet 
certainly never wrote, and certainly never con- 
ceived, with the meaning that some of the com- 
mentators would give to it. This will be evident 
from a passage in his eighteenth sonnet : 
" And every fair from fair sometimes declines, 

By chance, on Nature's changing course, untrimni'd." 



I cannot pretend to any acquaintance with 
Dr. Cummir.g's works, which appear to be at pre- 
sent very popular, and am therefore unable to say 

JULY 3. 1852.] 


whether a passage in one of them, which has just 
been brought under my notice, be a fair sample of 
the whole ; but it is, at all events, so curious in a 
literary point of view as to deserve some public 

The volume is entitled, Voices of the Night, 
Seventh Thousand, 1852 ; and the subject of the 
sermon or chapter in which the passage occurs is, 
"Nature's Travail and Expectancy" (Rom. viii. 
19 22.). On this, then, Dr. Gumming discourses 
as follows (pp. 158-9.) : 

" The celebrated German poet and philosopher 
Goethe, who lived and died a sceptic, and whose testi- 
mony, therefore, was not meant to confirm that of the 
Bible, has said, ' When I stand all alone at night in 
open nature, I feel as though nature were a spirit, and 
begged redemption of me.' . . . . And again, he 
says, 'Often, often have I had the sensation as if 
nature, in wailing sadness, entreated something of me ; 
so that not to understand what she longed for, has cut 
me to the very heart.' . . . . But I present another 
witness that of a great and good man. Martin 
Luther says : Albeit the creature hath not speech 
such as we have, it hath a language still, which God 
the Holy Spirit heareth and understandeth. How 
nature groaneth for the wrong it must endure from 
those who so misuse and abuse it ! ' Here we have the 
sceptic Goethe and the eminent Christian Luther 
concurring in the same thing. And the poet who is 
supposed to tread nearest to the inspired, says very 
beautifully : 

* To me they seem, 

Those fair [far] sad streaks that reach along the west 
Like strains of song still [long, full] 'yearning [,] from 

the chords 

Of nature's orchestra. Weary [,] yet still 
She sinks with longing to her winter-sleep, 
Dreams ever of that birth from whose bright dawn 
The whole creation groans. Fair, sad companion! 
I join my sighs [sigh] with thine; yet none can be 
Oar sighs' [sigh's] interpreter, but that great God 


Who breathes eternal wisdom, made, redeemed, 
Arid [O,] loves us both ; and ever moves as erst 
On thy dark water's [waters'] face.' 

To begin with the latter part of this extract. 
The reader may perhaps ask, Who is " the poet 
who is supposed to tread nearest to the inspired ? " 
I cannot tell who may have been in Dr. Gumming' s 
mind ; but the verses were really written by an 
excellent friend of mine, quite unknown to the 
world as a poet ; and are to be found at p. 298. of 
a translation of Olshausen On the Epistle to the 
Romans, which was published by Messrs. Clark, of 
Edinburgh, in 1849. I do not think that Dr. 
Gumming has improved them by substituting the 
words in Italics for those which I have restored 
within brackets, or by his changes in the punctu- 
ation, one of which turns the substantive yearning 
into a participle, while. another makes an adjective 

of the adverb still. And I am unable to .imagine 
how he can have been led to attribute them to any 
celebrated writer, since the translator of Olshausen 
very sufficiently intimates that they are of his own 

Next, I have to remark that for the quotations 
from " the sceptic Goethe and the eminent Chris- 
tian Luther," as also for another quotation from, 
the latter (p. 145.), and for very much besides, 
Dr. Gumming is indebted to Olshausen, whose 
name he never condescends to mention, although 
at pp. 134-5. he parades a host of other commen- 
tators, including " Chrysostom, Jerome, Theo- 
doret, and almost all the ancient fathers, with 
scarcely a single exception." 

Lastly, the words which are fathered on Goethe 
are not his. Olshausen (Germ. iii. 3 1 4., Eng. 284.) 
gives a reference to Goethe's Brief wechsel miteinem 
Kinde, and introduces them as something which 
" Bettina writes." Dr. Gumming would seem, 
never to have heard of the Correspondence, and to 
have mistaken Bettina for a creature of the poet's 
imagination ; but, if so, was it quite fair to tell 
his hearers and readers that the words supposed to 
be put into her mouth were the expression of 
Goethe's personal feeling ? J. C. ROBERTSON. 




I think it is high time that experiments, con- 
ducted on scientific principles, should be made on 
the transmutation of species in the vegetable king- 
dom. The fact of such transmutation, if not cer- 
tain, appears to be the only solution of several 
remarkable phenomena already brought to light. 
It is now a matter of fact, capable of easy experi- 
ment, that if oats be sown in the spring, and be 
kept topped during the summer and autumn 
(without wounding the leaves), a crop of rye 
makes its appearance at the close of the summer of 
the following year. An analogous fact, equally 
well known, though not so significant, is the seeds 
of an immense number of flowers and trees in- 
variably give birth to varieties apparently distinct 
from their parent plants. (For instance, the dahlia, 
laburnum, and fuchsia.) But the fact I wish to 
introduce U> your pages is one quite as remark- 
able as the first I have mentioned. It is this. If 
a stock of yellow laburnum (Cytisus laburnum) be 
grafted upon the common purple laburnum (Cy- 
tisus Alpinus), the resulting tree frequently bears 
three distinct species of Cytisus, viz. : 

I. And abundantly, the purple laburnum. 

II. More sparely, the yellow laburnum. 

III. Still more sparingly, a beautiful plant, 
known by the name of the purple Cytisus, but 
specifically distinct, and in appearance totally 
different from a laburnum. 



[No. 140. 

I beg to give you three references as a voucher 
of the fact. Mr. Cowdrey, the florist, who has 
large nursery gardens at Edgbaston, near Birming- 
ham, has one specimen, with the history of which 
he is personally acquainted : no graft of the pur- 
ple Cytisus has touched this tree. Mr. Holcombe 
of Valentines, near Ilford, has another specimen ; 
and in my father's plantations at Kingsheath, near 
Birmingham, there are four trees of purple labur- 
num grafted on stocks of yellow laburnum ; and 
of these, two have put forth the purple Cytisus in 

Let no one imagine that the purple Cytisus is 
merely a variety of the purple laburnum. It is, 
as I have said, specifically distinct. Its flowers do 
not grow in racemes, as in the two laburnums, but 
are on short footstalks all along the branch, with 
a very peculiar and small foliage springing from 
the same points of the branch. This fact can leave 
the problem of changes of species into species no 
longer of doubtful solution. Perhaps this note 
may lead to others of more scientific research. 
Surely a series of well-digested experiments would 
not merely confirm the facts already known, but 
lead to a rationale of the presumed transmutation. 

Apuleius on Mesmerism. I transcribe the fol- 
owing passage, which I have just met with in 
Apuleius, as a very early allusion to Mesmerism : 

" Quin et illud mecum reputo, posse animum huma- 
num, praesertim puerilem et simplicem seu carminum 
avocamento, sive cdorum delenimento, soporari, et ad 
oblivionem praesentium externari ; et paulisper remota 
corporis memoria, redigi ac redire ad naturam suam, 
qua? est immortalis scilicet et divina : atque ita, veluti 
quodum sopore, futura return praesagire." Apuleius, 
Apol. 475, Delph. ed. 


The Domiciliary Clause. In 1547 a proclama- 
tion was issued by Henry VIII., " that all women 
should not meet together to babble and talk, and 
that all men should keep their wives in their 
houses." ALIQUIS. 

Transmission of Ancient Usages. To the deri- 
vation of certain customs and usage* from the 
East via Gades or Cadiz, as in the case of the 
address " uncle" in Andalusia and Cornwall, and 
the clouted cream in Syria and Cornwall, may be 
added the use, in the same county, of a lock with- 
out wards actually now to be seen sculptured on 
the great temple of Karnac, in Egypt, too plainly 
to be mistaken. The principle is similar to that in 
one of Bramah's locks. Mr. Trevelyan some years 
ago brought this fact to the notice of the Royal 
Institution. The principle is not easily explained 
without an engraving. The voyages of Hamilcar 

and others to this part of England for tin is in 
this way remarkably corroborated, independently 
of that resemblance in domestic implements, and 
those of personal use, both in ancient and modern 
times, which may be traced in the antiquities col- 
lected in the British Museum. C. REDDING. 

Inscription on an Oak Chest. I copy the fol- 
lowing inscription from the lid of an old oak chest, 
measuring four feet eight inches and a half long, 
and two feet three inches and a half broad. The 
words are taken from Isaiah, chap. i. ver. 16, 17. ; 


The letters, it may be observed, are formed by 
brass-headed nails driven into the wood, in exactly 
the same manner as trunkmakers do at the present 
day, to ornament their boxes. It is the property 
of the Coopers' Company, and, from the spirit of 
the legend, I should say that it was formerly used 'i 
to hold the documents relating to the various 
charities of which the Company are trustees. 



The Raising of Charles L's Standard at Not- 
tingham. The frontispiece to Cattermole's Civil 
War represents a forlorn group of men, women, 
and children, watching the fixing into the ground 
of a large flag, which a soldier is seeking to 
strengthen by stakes driven round the base of the 
flagstaff. Surely this is not a correct delineation 
of that event? Rushworth, it is true, says the 
standard was fixed in an open field at the back side 
of the castle wall ; but the common opinion, that 
its position was rather the summit of one of the 
old turrets of the castle, receives confirmation from 
a source little known to the public, viz. the me- 
moranda of the antiquary, John Aubrey. In a 
letter sent to him by Sherrington Talbot (of 
Laycock ?), who was present at the " raising," the 
writer says that he saw the flag " lyin horizontally 
on the tower ; " this horizontal position being oc- 
casioned by the tempest which, it need hardly be 
added, cast the standard down almost as soon as 
erected. J. "W . 


A living man, lying on a bench, extended as a 
corpse, can be lifted with ease by the forefingers 
of two persons standing on each side, provided the 
lifters and the liftee inhale at the moment the 
effort is being made. If the liftee do not inhale, 
he cannot be moved off the bench at all ; but the 
inhalation of the lifters, although not essential, 
seems to give additional power. 

The fact is undeniable, I have never met with 

JULY 3. 1852.] 


any one who could explain it. 
or can it be, accounted for ? 

Has it ever been, 
W. CL. 

[This curious fact was first recorded by Pepys, who, 
in his Diary, under the date 31st July, 1665 (vol. iii. 
p. 60. ) writes as follows : 

" This evening with Mr, Brisband, speaking of en- 
chantments and spells, I telling him some of my 
charmes; he told me this of his own knowledge, at 
Bourdeaux, in France. 

" The words were these : 
" * Voyci un Corps mort. 
Royde come un Baston, 
Froid comme Martre, 
Leger come un Esprit, 
Levons te au nom de Jesus Christ.' 
" He saw four little girls, very young ones, all 
kneeling each of them, upon one knee ; and one begun 
the first line, whispering in the eare of the next, and 
the second to the third, and the third to the fourth, 
and she to the first. 

"Then the first begun the second line, and so round 
quite through ; and putting each one finger only to a 
boy that lay flat upon his back on the ground, as if he 
was dead : at the end of the words, they did with their 
four fingers raise this boy as high as they could reach. 
And Mr. Brisband, being there, and wondering at it, 
as also being afraid to see it, for they would have had 
him to have bore a part in saying the words, in the 
room of one of the little girls that was so young that 
they could hardly make her learn to repeat the words, 
did, for fear there might be some slight used in it by 
the boy, or that the boy might be light, call the cook 
of the house, a very lusty fellow, as Sir G. Carteiret's 
cook, who is very big : and they did raise him just in 
the same manner. This is one of the strangest things 
JL ever heard, but he tells it me of his own knowledge, 
and I do. heartily believe it to be true. I inquired of 
him whether they were Protestant or Catholique 
girles ; and he told me they were Protestant, which 
made it the more strange to me." 

In illustration of this passage LORD BRAYBROOKE 
adds, at vol. v. p. 245., the following note, which we 
insert, as it serves to bring before our readers evidence 
of this, at present, inexplicable fact on the authority of 
one of the most accomplished philosophers of our day : 
" The secret is now well known, and is described by 
Sir David Brewster, in his Natural Magic, p. 256. 
One -of the most remarkable and inexplicable experi- 
ments relative to the strength of the human frame is 
that in which a heavy man is raised up the instant that 
his own lungs, and those of the persons who raise him, 
are inflated with air. This experiment was, I believe, 
first shown in England a few years ago by Major H., 
who saw it performed in a large party at Venice, under 
the direction of an officer of the American navy. As 
Major H. performed it more than once in my presence, 
I shall describe as nearly as possible the method which 
he prescribed. The heaviest person in the company 
lies down upon two chairs, his legs being supported by 
the one, and his back by the other. Four persons, 
one at each leg, and one at each shoulder, then try to 
raise him ; and they find his dead weight to be very 
great, from the difficulty they experience in supporting 

him. When he is replaced in the chair, each of- the 
four persons takes hold of the body as before ; and the 
person to be lifted gives two signals, by clapping his 
hands. At the first signal, he himself, and the four 
lifters, begin to draw a long full breatli ; and when the 
inhalation is completed, or the lungs filled, the second 
signal is given for raising the person from the chair. 
To his own surprise, and that of his bearers, he rises 
with the greatest facility, as if he were no heavier than 
a feather. On several occasions, I have observed, that 
when one of the bearers performs his part ill by making 
the inhalation out of time, the part of the body which 
he tries to raise is left as it were behind. As you 
have repeatedly seen this experiment, and performed 
the part both of the load and of the bearer, you can 
testify how remarkable the effects appear to all parties, 
and how complete is the conviction, either that the load 
has been lightened, or the bearer strengthened, by the 
prescribed process. At Venice the experiment was 
performed in a much more imposing manner. The 
heaviest man in the party was raised and sustained 
upon the points of the forefingers of six persons. 
Major H. declared that the experiment would not 
succeed, if the person lifted were placed upon a board, 
and the strength of the individuals applied to the board. 
He conceived it necessary that the bearers should com- 
municate directly with the body to be raised. 

" I have not had an opportunity of making any ex- 
periments relative to these curious facts : but whether 
the general effect is an illusion, or the result of known 
principles, the subject merits a careful investigation."] 

De Sanctd Cruce. Can you inform me who is 
the author of a book entitled De Sanctd Cruce ; 
and what is the size and date ? Are there not 
more than one under that title ? I rather think 
that Gretser the Jesuit wrote such a book, but I 
have not been able to meet with it among the 
London booksellers. HUGO. 

Etymology of " Aghindle " or " Aghendole ? " 
This is a small wooden measure containing eight 
pounds and a half, being the fourth part of the old 
peck of thirty-four pounds; and its use is now 
almost obsolete in those parts of Lancashire where 
it was formerly known. It is alluded to in the 
Notes of Pott's Discovery of Witches, edited by 
James Crossley, Esq., for the Chetham Society. 

F. R. R. 

Pictures of Queen Elizabeth's Tomb. Fuller, in 
his account of Queen Elizabeth, Church History, 
lib. x., says : 

" Her corpse was solemnly interred under a fair 
tomb in Westminster, the lively draught whereof is 
pictured in most London, and many country churches, 
every parish being proud of the shadow of her tomb." 

Can any of your correspondents point out in- 
stances where these are still preserved ? 




[No. 140. 

Spanish " Veiwe Bowes" Attached to a com- 
mission I find the following, dated March 10, 1622 : 

" Nottingham. An Inventory of the goods and 
Chattells of S r John Byron the elder, knight, taken at 

Item foure Spanishe veiwe bowes w th a quiver \ , $ 
and arrowes at - - - } X 

Can you inform me if these "veiwe bowes" were 
Cross-bows; or, if not, what other bows they were? 

J. O. B. 

Old English Divines. It has been said of our 
late king, George III,, that in a conversation with 
a learned man of the day respecting the English 
divines of the seventeenth century, he made a 
happy and correct application of the first clause of 
Genesis vi. 4., by observing that " there were 
giants in the earth in those days." 

To whom did the king make this observation? 
and on what occasion ? 

The eminent and accomplished editor of Bos- 
well's Johnson asked this question some years ago 
of his literary friends, but, I believe, did not re- 
ceive a satisfactory answer. H. 

Lord Viscount Dover, Colonel of the First Troop 
of Guards in the Service of James II. in Ireland, 
1689-1690. I am engaged in displaying, with 
genealogical illustrations, the titles and names of 
the officers of all the regiments of this ex-monarch, 
having in my possession a full copy of his Army 
List, classified in regiments, with columnar rolls of 
their several officers, according to their rank. The 
importance of publishing these memorials in aid of 
pedigree searches must be apparent from the fact, 
that this list comprises members of all the old 
aristocracy of Ireland up to that day, to the rank 
and estates of whom the accession of King William 
introduced more adventurous, but long less re- 
spected successors. 

In the .opening list of colonels the first I en- 
counter is styled as above : now, what was the 
name and lineage of this Viscount Dover ? Henry, 
Lord Dover, was appointed one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury to that king in 1686; and 
again, in 1688, a short time before his abdication, 
was especially chosen to advise the queen. In 
168-9 the '''Earl of Dover" was one of those re- 
corded as having fled with the royal exile to 
France, and afterwards accompanied him to 
Ireland. On James' arrival there Lord Viscount 
Dover appears as above, and was a Privy Coun- 
cillor, but did not sit in the Parliament of Dublin. 
In July 1689 he was joined in Commission for 
the Treasury with the Duke of Tyrconnel, Lord 
Riverston, and Sir Stephen llice. Norris says 
(Life of King William, p. 281.) that this Viscount 
applied in 1690 for a pass out of the country : on 
which he retired to the Continent. He was after- 
wards, with his joint commissioners, outlawed. 

Now, according to the Peerage Books, the earldom 
of Dover became extinct on the death, in 1671, 
of John Gary, the second Earl, son of Henry, the 
first Earl, without issue male ; and I am not aware 
of any recognised or otherwise mentioned Vis- 
count Dover. JOHN D'Ai/row. 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 

Lines on Woman's Will. 

" That man's a fool who tries by art and skill, 
To stem the torrent of a woman's will, 
For if she will, she'will, you may depend on't, 
And if she won't, she won't, and there's an end on't.'' 

Can any of your correspondents inform me who 
is the author of the above lines ? I am not certain 
that I have quoted them quite correctly. My im- 
pression is that they are of considerable antiquity. 


Celebrated Fly. In Curzon's Monasteries of 
the Levant, p. 183., occurs the following passage : 

" The prophet Mahomet's camel performed the whole 
journey from Jerusalem to Mecca in four bounds, for 
which .remarkable service he is to have a place in 
heaven, where he will enjoy the society of Borak, the 
prophet's horse, Balaam's ass, Tobit's dog, and the dog 
of the Seven Sleepers, whose name was Ketmir^ and 
also the companionship of a certain celebrated fly, with 
whose merits I am unacquainted." 

Will some of your readers supply the inform- 
ation ? AGMOND. 
59. Egerton Street, Liverpool. 

Battle of Alfred the Great with the Danes. 
Can any of your readers inform me the name of 
the place in Hampshire where the memorable en- 
counter of Alfred the Great with the Danes took 
place, as different historians .call it by various 
names ? also in what part of the county it is 
situate, and (if still existing) its present name ? 

J. S. 


Old Satchells. In Lockhart's Life of Scoff, 
vol. i. p. 63., there occurs the following passage : 

" He owed much to the influence exerted over his 
juvenile mind by the rude but enthusiastic clan-poetry 
of old Satchdh, who describes himself on his title-page 
as ' Captain Walter Scott, an old souldier and no 
scholler.' " 

Can any of your readers inform me why this 
ancestor of Sir Walter's was called old Satchells ? 
Whether, as. is most probable, from his residence, 
some house or hamlet bearing that name, or from 
some family, should there be any of that surname. 
What editions have there been of his "true 
history," &c. ? SIGMA. 

"Pretty Peggy of Derby, O!" Who was the 
author of this ballad, and where shall I meet with 
a copy of it, my copy being imperfect ? 

JULY 3. 1852.] 



" Noose as I was" and " Noose the same" were 
frequent replies, in my younger ^days, to inquiries 
from persons relative to another's state of health ; 
.and occasionally I have heard, in answer to a 
general inquiry of "How do you do f" or, " How 
do you find yourself ?" the reply " Tightish in a 
noose" Now, this not having been confined to 
one particular locality, I should be much pleased 
if any of your correspondents would throw a light 
on the iinde derivatur of the phrase. W. R. 


"La Garde meurt? frc. (Vol. v., p. 425.). In a 
late number of " 1ST. & Q." reference is made to 
the famous saying ascribed to the Duke of Wel- 
lington at Waterloo : " Up guards, and at them ! " 
I beg to call the attention of your readers to the 
equally famous words said to have been uttered 
by the brave Murat, who, when summoned to sur- 
render, is reported to have answered, " La garde 
meurt, et ne se rend pas." 

I have heard it stated on good authority that 
these were not the words of Murat, but that he 
merely answered the summons with the emphatic 
monosyllable " Merde ! " a response which, 
though no wise so elegant, conveys the same idea 
as the commonly received version, and is much 
more characteristic of the man. I shall be de- 
lighted to receive some light as to the historical 
fact, what Murat's answer really was ? R. C. B. 

Coral Charms. On the little bunches of coral 
charms, imported from Italy, amid hands to avert 
the evil eye, &c., there generally hangs a rather 
unmeaning-looking one. like a single finger. Is 
not this neither more nor less than the veritable 
fascinumf If not, what is it ? A. A. D. 

Maturin Laurent. I wish to learn where, when, 
and what, Maturin or Mathurin Laurent was. He 
was the author of a work rather indecent and 
irreligious, somewhat learned, and not altogether 
undull, entitled Le Compere Muthieu. It is an 
imitation of the manner of Rabelais. I can find 
his name in no biographical dictionary. A. N. 

Mows. Cahagnet. Dr. Gregory, in his Letters 
on Animal Magnetism, p. 222., says : 

" Mr. Cahagnet is since dead, or I should have en- 
deavoured to see his experiments." 
But I am credibly assured he has just published 
a new work of the most extreme Cahagnetism. 
Which of the two is the truth ? Or, does he (like 
Hermotimus of old) divide his time between this 
world and the next slipping away to his country- 
house in Paradise when he apprehends a visit from 
a Scotch philosopher ? A. N. 

James Murray, titular Earl of Dunbar. Lord 
Albemarle, at p. 161. vol. i. of his Memoirs of the 
Marquis of Rockingham and his Contemporaries, 
speaks of James Murray of Broughton, titular 

Earl of Dunbar, secretary to Prince Charles Ed- 
ward, and who afterwards became approver in the 
State Trials of 1746, as the brother of the first 
Lord Mansfield. 

Is not this a mistake ? The great Chief Justice, 
as all the world knows, was the younger son of a 
Perthshire peer, Viscount Stormont. 

Was not James Murray of Broughton the re- 
presentative of a family in Kirkcudbright, which 
was either not at all, or very remotely, connected 
with the Storinont-Mansfield Murrays ? C. (2.) 


Lanthorns. Where is this passage to be found, 
which I have copied from a IMS. Place-book, rela- 
tive to the origin of lanthorns ? 

^ " The inventor of lanthorns was one King Alured, 
in whose days the churches were of so poor a struc- 
ture that the candles were blown out set before the 
relics, the wind getting in not only ostia ecclesiarum, 
but per frequentes parietum rimulas : insomuch that the 
ingenious prince was put to the practice of his dexterity, 
and by the occasions of this lanternam ex lignis et bovinis 
cornibus pulcherrime construere imperavit ; or by an apt 
composure of their horns and wood he taught us the 
mystery of making lanthorns." 

I do not remember ever to have met with this 
origin of those useful articles before. 


[The substance of the passage will be found towards 
the close of Asser's Life of Alfred.'] 

A Popular Book censured in the Pulpit, in the 
time of Queen Anne. 

" The face of a Book in vogue, looks indeed with a 
sowre aspect against the Priesthood only, but intends (if 
we may turn aside its disguise) a wound and stab to the 
Revelation that orice settled and still upholds it. Nor 
would it fare so ill, I verily believe, with the characters 
of Priests either among the Authors or Admirers of 
that Treatise, if it were not for Tithes and Offerings, 
the Lands and Revenues, which the Law and Gospel 
both allow for the support of that Order." Pp. 24, 25. 
of A Sermon preached by Rev. Richard Barker, M.A., 
Fellow of Winchester College, before Jonathan, Lord 
Bishop of Winchester, Sept. 22, 1707. 

What is the book alluded to, and who was the 
author? F.R.R. 

[Most probably Matthew Tindal's treatise, The 
Rights of the Christian Church Asserted, against the 
Romish and all other Priests who claim an independent 
Power over it, published in 1706. The work, which is 
an elaborate attack upon what are commonly called 
High- Church principles, caused a great commotion. 
It is related that, to a friend who found Tindal one 
day engaged upon it, pen in hand, he said that he was 
writing a book which would make the clergy mad. 
Replies to it were published by the celebrated William 
Wotton, Dr. Hickes, and others.] 


[No. 140. 

Legend respecting the Isle of Ely. Can any 
reader of " N. & Q." inform me which of the 
Popes it waa who, according to a legend I have 
somewhere met with, effected the unique meta- 
morphosis of changing the wives and children of 
the clergy of the Isle of Ely into eels, and thus 
gave it its present name, as a punishment for re- 
fusing to comply with his edict for the celibacy of 
the clergy ? I think the legend is referred to in 
some part of Dr. Prideaux's works, but I have no 
means of certifying the fact. J. R. C. 


[According to Prideaux, the edict was issued by 
St.'Dunstan. He says, "From Heli some think the 
Isle of Ely took its name ; others say no, but from a 
multitude of eels, into which the married priests with 
their wives were transformed, that refused to obey 
St. Dunstan's ordinance that priests should live single." 
Mathias Prideaux's Introduction for Reading all 
Sorts of Histories, p. 276. edit. 1672.] 



(Vol. v., p. 417.) 

The author inquired for by M. Y. R. W. is 
Gilbert Cousin, of Nozeroy, in Franche Comte 
(better known under his Latin name of Cognatus), 
whose collected works were published at Basle in 
3 vols. folio, 1562. He was one of the restorers 
of literature in the sixteenth century, and having 
filled the office of secretary to Erasmus, acquired 
such enlightened sentiments in regard to religion, 
as to render him at a later period of life suspected 
of a tendency to Protestantism ; in consequence 
of which a Bull was obtained from Pius V. for his 
imprisonment, and he died in the course of his trial 
before the Inquisition in 1567, another victim 
to the merciless system of the papal creed. In 
his treatise entitled " OiKerrjs, sive de Officio Famu- 
lorum," composed at Freiburg in Brisgau (a city 
of the Grand Duchy of Baden, in the upper circle 
of the Rhine), in the year 1535, and addressed to 
Ludovicus a Vero, Abbot of the Convent of Mons 
S. Marias et Charitatis, he thus writes on the sub- 
ject of painted figures of the Trusty Servant 
(Opp. vol. i. p. 223.): 

" De famulo dicendi finem faciam, vener^nde Me- 
cacnas, si pro coronide adjecero Probi Famuli imagi- 
nem, quern Galli quidam effingunt conclavibus siiis. 
Ha?c ad hunc habet modum. Pileum rubrum et eleqans 
erat in capite, nee inelegans interula tegebat corpus ; 'ros- 
trum erat suiUum, aures asinina, pedes cervini. Dextra 
manus erecta, et in palmam explicata ; humero sinistro 
pertica librabat duas aquae situlas, quarum altera pendebat 
a tergo, altera a fronte. Sinistra palam gestabat plenam 
vivis pruinis. Addita erat singulorum interpretatio. 
Bono famulo debetur elegans cultus. Suillum ros- 
trum admonebat, non decere famulum esse 

ac fastidiosi palati, sed quovis cibo oportere contentum 
esse. Auriculae designabant, famulum oportere patien- 
tibus esse auribus, si quid forte dominus durius dixerit. 
Dextra erecta admonebat fidei in contrectandis rebus 
herilibus. Cervini pedes, significabant celeritatem in 
peragendis mandatis. Situlaj et ignis, industriam ac 
celeritatem in multis negotiis simul peragendis." 

The description here given is quoted, nearly in 
the same words, by Laur. Beyerlinck, in his 
Magnum Theatrum Vitce Humana, torn, iii., Venet. 
1707, p. 525., under the title of " Famuli Probi 
Schema ;" and it will, I think, readily be admitted, 
that the figure at Winchester College, although 
differing in some respects from the one described 
by Cousin, yet in its general features and purport 
is the same. It is therefore highly probable that 
the figure was originally painted in the sixteenth 
century, and the design borrowed from our Gallic 
neighbours. The costume in which this figure at 
present appears, would not give it an antiquity of 
much more than a century and a quarter ; but in 
the Memorials of Winchester College, published 
by D. Nutt in 1846, an entry is quoted from a 
Compotus of the year 1637 in the following words, 
" Pictori pingenti Servum et Carmina, 13s. Qd. ;" 
and the writer justly remarks, w It may be con- 
sidered doubtful whether this entry accounts for 
the original execution, or only a restoration of the 
work." A more diligent examination of the old 
College accounts would probably throw further 
light on the subject, and also show at what periods 
the figure had been repainted, and, no doubt, al- 
tered according to the fashion and ideas of the 
time. This view is borne out by the earliest en- 
graving of the figure in my possession, entitled, 
" A Piece of Antiquity painted on the wall ad- 
joining to the kitchen of Winchester College, 
which has been long preserved, and as oft as 
occasion requires, is repaired." This print is in 
folio, and was published in 1749, and has the verses 
both in Latin and English. In one corner may be 
read the faint traces of the engraver's name, Mosley 
sculp. It has been recently republished from the 
original plate, with the addition of the name 
" H. C. Brown, Winchester." The next en- 
graving, in point of date, is inserted in the History 
and Antiquities of Winchester, 12mo. 1773, vol. i. 
p. 91., entitled " The Trusty Servant," W. Cave 
del. Winton, without the verses. I have also an 
8vo. print of rather later date, badly engraved, in 
which the English verses only are given, and the 
scoop or dustpan omitted in the left hand of the 
figure (as it is seen in the earlier copies). Subse- 
quent to this is a small and very incorrect repre- 
sentation in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1812, 
vol. i. p. 114.; and more recently (but before 
1842) is a large and handsome engraving (both 
plain and coloured) published by James Robins 
and D. E. Gilmour, at Winchester, in which a 
background of landscape and cottages is intro- 

JULY 3. 1852.] 


duced, and, in the upper left-hand corner, the 
arms of William of Wykeham, the founder of the 
college, surmounted by the episcopal mitre. Be- 
low are the Latin and English verses engraved in 
capitals. In this engraving, in addition to the 
shovel, pitch-fork, and broom held in the left 
hand of the figure, is inserted a square instrument 
with bars, the use of which is not very obvious, 
and which appears joined on to the shield sus- 
pended from the arm. The coat, also, has the 
addition of a collar, not seen in the earlier prints. 
The coloured figure, as represented in this last en- 
graving, has been copied and prefixed to the Polka 
composed in 1850 by William Patten, and entitled 
The Trusty Servant. I might here close my reply 
to the Query of M. Y. K. W., but must entreat 
the patience of your readers a little longer, in 
order to introduce a counter-Query on the subject. 
In Hoffman's Lexicon Universale, published at 
Ley den in 1698, under the word Asinine, occurs 
the following curious comment : 

" Asininas aures digitis formata?, stupidum aliquem 
et asinum denotabant. Salmas. in Teriullian. de Pattio, 
ubi de variis digitorum ad aliquem deridendum forma- 
tionibus, p. 338. Sed et asinincB aures attentionis ac 
obedientis? symbolum, in celebri Apellis pictura, qua 
officia servorum auribus hujusmodi, naribus porcinis, 
manibus omni instrumentorum genere refertis, humeris 
patulis, ventre macilento, pedibus cervinis, labiisque obse- 
ratis, reprcesentavit, etc." 

The words in Italics would seem to be a quo- 
tation, and I would fain inquire from what author 
they are taken, and also the authority for ascribing 
this famous picture to Apelles, and the writers 
by whom it is mentioned ? It is remarkable that 
in this, as in the Winchester figure, the lips are 
locked, a peculiarity that is unnoticed by Cousin 
in his account of the French usage of depicting 
such representations. I should likewise be glad 
to receive information, whether any traces of this 
usage still exist in France, or whether it is men- 
tioned or^alluded to by any other writers of that 
country in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies ? 

Before I conclude, I am bound to acknowledge 
that the references to the works of Cognatus, Bey- 
rlinck, and Hoffman were given to me by the 
late C. F. Barnwell, Esq., of the British Museum, 
a gentleman gifted with a large amount of in- 
formation on curious topics connected with early 
literature, and whose urbanity and readiness to 
impart his knowledge to others will ever cause his 
memory to be deeply respected by his friends. 
He is, perhaps, the individual alluded to by your 
querist M. Y. R. W. F. MADDEN. 

British Museum, June 29. 


(Vol. v., pp. 297. 398.) 

I saw, with some interest, the observations made 
by your correspondents PETROPROMONTORIENSIS 
and INVERURIENSIS on the position and status of the 
Earl of Erroll, who, with his peerage, holds the 
office of Great Constable of Scotland, conferred 
upon his ancestor by King Robert the Bruce in 
1314. But I cannot come to the same conclusion 
which they appear to have arrived at. This matter 
is worthy of further elucidation. 

That the present Earl of Erroll holds the 
honours of his house undoubtedly and without 
dispute, is clear from the decision of the House of 
Lords, given in favour of George Earl of Erroll, 
the grand-uncle of the present Earl, in 1797. The 
then Earl of Lauderdale had questioned Earl 
George's right to vote at an election of the peers 
of Scotland; and the House of Lords, after a 
full inquiry, decided in favour of the right so 

One of the objections made to the title was, that 
it was claimed through a nomination, which Gilbert 
Earl of Erroll, who died without issue in 1674, 
had made in favour of his kinsman Sir John Hay, 
a short time before his death. This was one of 
the peculiarities in the Scottish law of Peerage, 
that a party might, by a resignation to the Crowe, 
and a charter following upon such resignation, 
obtain power to nominate the heirs to succeed him 
in his honours and dignities. Some of the highest 
of the Scottish peerages are held under such 
nominations, at the present day. It was decided 
in the case of the earldom of Stair (in 1748) that 
this power of nomination could not be validly 
exercised after the Union. 

It is true that the Earl of Erroll is the heir 
(though barred by attainders) of the earldoms of 
Kilmarnock, Linlithgow, and Calendar, which have 
been held by his direct ancestors. * 

But none of these facts and circumstances, nor 
all of them together, could (as stated by your cor- 
respondents) make " the Earl of Erroll, by birth, 
the first subject in Great Britain after the blood 
royal, and, as such, having the right to take place 
of every hereditary honour." We have higher 
authority upon this subject than " Dr. Anderson, 
the learned and laborious editor of The See" to 
whom one of your correspondents refers. 

There was nothing in the Scottish peerage to 
which its members were more anxiously and tena- 
ciously attached than to their rights of precedency. 
This often produced among them the most un- 
seemly contentions at Parliaments and Conventions. 
For avoiding of these contentions King James VI., 
in 1606, granted a royal commission to certain of 
the Scottish nobility to call their brethren before 
them, and " according to their productions and ve- 
rifications to set down every man's rank and place." 



[No. 140. 

The then Earl of Erroll was one of the Commis- 
sioners : he made no claim, as in right of birth, to 
be the first subject in Scotland. He is set down 
and ranked as the fourth among the Earls. 

In the roll which was called daily in the Scottish 
Parliament, at the time of the Union, termed the 
Union Roll, the Earl of Erroll is marked second of 
the earls, one of those who had stood before him in 
1606 (Argyle) having been created a duke, and 
the other earldom (Angus) having become merged 
in a dukedom ; and he stands ranked in the same 
way, as the second of the earls, in the roll which 
has been called at all elections of peers since 1746. 

But upon the subject which has been mooted in 
this case by your correspondents, we are not left 
in any doubt. On the 13th of March, 1542, it is 
thus stated in the minutes of the Parliament of 
Scotland : 

" The quhilk day the Lordis spiritual, temporale, 
and Commissars of burrowis representand the thre 
estatis of Parliament hes declarit and declaris James 
Erie of Arrane, Lord Hamiltoun, secund persoun of this 
real me, and narrest to succeed to the Crone of the 
samin, falzemg of our Sovirane Lady and the barnis 
lauchfullie to be gottin of hir bodie, and nane utheris, 
and be resoun thereof tutour lauchful to the Queenes 
Grace, and Govnour of this Realme." 

This James Earl of Arran, and Governor of the 
Realm, was grandson of Margaret Countess of 
Arran, eldest daughter of King James II. : thence 
arose his relationship to Queen Mary, and to the 
royal family. 

James, the Regent, was created Duke of Chatel- 
heraud in France ; his grandson, John, was created 
Marquis of Hamilton in 1599 ; James, the grand- 
son of this Marquis John, was created Duke of 
Hamilton in 1643, with a limitation to him and the 
heirs male of his body; which failing, to his brother 
and the heirs male of his body ; which failing, to 
th^ eldest heir female of the duke's body, without 
division, and the heirs male of the body of such heir 
female. He left no issue male. 

On the death of William, his brother, the second 
duke (who also died without issue male), he was 
succeeded in the honours and estates by Anne, the 
daughter of the first duke, who thus became 
Duchess of Hamilton, and was the lineal heiress 
of the Regent Earl of Arran, who was declared 
to have been the nearest heir to the crown in 

James, the eldest son of Anne, fell in the well- ; 
known duel with Lord Mohun in 1712. 

Her grandson James, and her great-grandson 
<if the same name, were successively Dukes of 
Hamilton. The last-mentioned James, sixth 
Duke of Hamilton, married Miss Gunning, in her 
day a lady of great beauty and celebrity ; and was 
by her father of two sons, James-George and 
Douglas, who were successively seventh and eighth 
Dukes of Hamilton. They had also one daughter, 

Elizabeth, who was married to Edward, the twelfth 
Earl of Derby, in 1774. 

When the Commissioners for settling the prece- 
dency of the Scottish nobility made their decree in 
1606, the Duke of Lennox was the peer first named. 
He was then a duke, while the head of the Hamil- 
ton family was only a marquis : but the honours 
of Lennox became vested in King James VI., 
through his father Lord Derneley, and were thus 
merged in the crown. King James VI. granted 
these honours anew to members of the Lennox; 
family whom he selected. The whole of these new 
creations had disappeared before the union of the 

Accordingly, in the Union Roll, the Duke of 
Hamilton's appears as the first name; and the same 
has so appeared in every list used since the Union. 
There appears thus to be no reason to doubt that 
the head of the Hamilton family is the first subject I 
in Scotland after the blood royal. 

It has been mentioned that James, sixth Duke 
of Hamilton, and Elizabeth his wife, had two sons, 
who were successively Dukes of Hamilton ; and 
that they had also a daughter, Elizabeth Countess 
of Derby.* 

When Douglas Duke of Hamilton died, the 
Countess of Derby, his sister, came to be heiress of 
line to Anne Duchess of Hamilton, who had suc- 
ceeded to the honours and estates in the preceding 
century : but these honours and estates had been, 
limited to the heirs male of the body of the Duchess 
Anne ; and, upon the death of Douglas Duke of 
Hamilton without issue, they became vested in his 
uncle Archibald, the ninth Duke of Hamilton, the 
father of the Duke that now is. 

Elizabeth Countess of Derby was the grand- 
mother of the Earl of Derby, our present Premier, 
to whom her rights, whatever they were, have 

Most persons conversant with subjects of this 
nature are aware of the high position which the 
Earl of Derby holds ; but, it is believed, there are 
few who are fully aware of the high position in 
which he stands in the Peerage of Scotland to 
the illustrious family of Hamilton, as heir of line 
to Anne Duchess of Hamilton, whose issue male 
now enjoy the honours and estates. SCRUTATOR. 


(Vol. v., p. 560.) 

Premising that I know nothing of this inscrip 
tion excepting from the communication of you 
. . 

* Elizabeth Duchess of Hamilton married, as he 
second husband, John, fifth Duke of Argyle, and b 
him had two sons, George- William and John-Douglas 
Edward, who were successively Dukes of Argylt 
Thus she was mother of four dukes, perhaps, out c 
the royal family, an unprecedented occurrence. 

JULY 3. 1852.] 



Querist, I should say that the spirit of the thing 
(a sort of verbal magic square) seems to require 
the repetition of the same words in all three pairs 
of parallel' columns. Therefore the last two 
columns might have consisted of precisely the same 
words as the two middle ones (excepting of course 
the bottom row), without injury to the sense : a 
circumstance that appears to have been lost sight 
of by whoever framed the Latin version. At all 
events, the fifth and sixth words in the top line 
ought to be dicit and scit, instead of audit and 
cxpedit. These, and some others, are perhaps mis- 

The key consists in taking the words of the bot- 
tom row alternately with those of any of the upper 

rows in the same pair of columns: Thus, the 
first sentence is, "Non dicas quoddamque sciSj 
nam qui dicit quodcunque scit, saepe dicit quod non 
sczY." I trust your correspondent did not intend 
this as a sly hit at contributors, its meaning being, 
" Thou must not talk of all that thou knowest, for 
he who talks of everything he knows, often talks 
of what he knoweth not." 

The following English version in which the 
bottom line is transposed to the top, for the sake 
of clearness will give some idea of the arrange- 
ment. The last word sees, in the last column, 
must be understood as sees into or comprehends. 

A. E. B. 






































^ This enigmatical inscription seems capable of a 
simple solution. It appears to consist of five Arab 
maxims inculcating prudence in thought, word, 
and deed. Each line is to be read with the addi- 
tion of the words of the last line, e. g. : 

" Non dicas quoddamque scis, nam qui dicit quod- 
cunque scit, saepe audit quod non expedit." 

The original appears to have suffered in the 
translation. H. C. K. 

[We are also indebted to Sc. R. M'C. T. J. B. 

B. R. J L. X. R., &c., for similar Replies.] 


(Vol. i., pp. 320. 445.) 

As I have always coincided in the common 
opinion that this beautiful poem was, unquestion- 
ably, written by Wolfe, and hoped that MR. 
COOPER'S communication in Vol. i., p. 445. of 
J N. & Q." had settled any doubt that might still 
linger in sceptical minds, I was not a little sur- 
prised, a few days ago, on accidentally glancing 
over The Courier newspaper for Wednesday, 

Nov. 3, 1824 (No. 10,288), to find the authorship 
claimed by Dr. Marshall of Durham. I am nofc 
aware that his letter received any reply, either afc 
the time or subsequently ; but as it might possibly 
escape the attention of those who could have 
vindicated Wolfe's claim, and the "incontestable 
evidence" to which it alludes may yet be capable 
of production, I trust you will not think this copy 
unworthy of being noted in your widely circulated 
and useful publication. J. R. WALBRAN. 

Fall Croft, Ripon. 


To the Editor of the Courier. 

SIR, Permit me through the medium of your 
highly respectable journal (which I have chosen as the 
channel of this communication, from my having been 
a subscriber to it for the last fifteen years) to observe, 
that the statement lately published in the Morning 
Chronicle, the writer of which ascribes the lines on the 
burial of Sir John Moore to Woolf, is FALSE, and as 
barefaced a FABRICATION as ever was foisted on the 
public. The lines in question were not written by 
Woolf, nor by Hailey, nor is Deacoll the author, but 
they were composed by me. I published them origin- 
ally some years ago in the Durham County Advertiser, 


[No. 140. 

a journal in which I have at different times inserted 
several poetical trifles, as the Prisoner's Prayer to 
Sleep ; ' ' Lines on the Lamented Death of Benjamin 
Galley, Esq.,' and some other little effusions. 

" I should not, sir, have thought the lines on Sir 
John Moore's funeral worth owning, had not the false 
statement of the Chronicle met my eye. I can prove, 
by the most incontestable evidence, the truth of what 
I have asserted. The first copy of my lines was given 
"by me to my friend and relation Captain Bell, and it 
is in his possession at present : it agrees perfectly with 
the copy now in circulation, with this exception, it 
does not contain the stanzas commencing with * Few 
and short,' which I added afterwards at the suggestion 
.of the Rev. Dr. Alderson, of Butterby. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 


South Street, Durham, Nov. 1. 1824." 


(Vol. v., passim?) 

Notwithstanding the able treatment these ques- 
tions have already received, I would venture 
to suggest that they may yet be discussed sci- 
entifically, if taken in an analogical point of view. 
Whatever the difference of opinion, or rather usage, 
that may exist on the correct pronunciation of 
either name, we can, I think, arrive at no certain 
result without tracing the foundation on which 
opinion or usage may rest, and the fixed laws that 
must inevitably govern their adoption. Heraldry, 
it seems to me, supplies the basis for those laws, if 
not the laws themselves ; for by it our modern 
nomenclature is to a great extent supported, its 
errors modified or expunged, and anarchy and 
ruin diverted from sapping the bulwarks of 
English identity and English pride the good old 
names, still rife among us, in many instances the 
stainless records of ancestral worth. 

By a reference to the coat-armour of the various 
families of Cooper, Couper, and Cowper, as gathered 
from the pages of Burke, it will at once be seen 
that the same bearings are interchangeably used 
by all of them, with only slight variations, the re- 
semblance being sufficiently distinct to mark a 
common origin. The paternal coat of the en- 
nobled name of Cowper, I would further remark, 
bears in some of its features a strong affinity with 
the arms of the "Coopers' Company" of London. 
The foregoing remark will also apply so Coke, Cook, 
and Cooke, the arms of Coke of Holkham (the 
present Earl of Leicester), being borne by several 
families of Cooke, with one or two differences of 
tincture ; yet on the testimony of Wotton it would 
seem that the uniform spelling of the former name 
has been Coke from before the time of Edw. III. 
" Sir Thomas Coke, of Munteby, Lord of Dudling- 
ton " (a lineal ancestor of the great Sir Edward 
Coke, and also of the Leicester family), being the 

first on record of that name in the pedigree given 
by Wotton of the Longford family, now extinct. 
I concur in the suggestion of MR. LAWRENCE 
(Vol. iv., p. 93.) that " Coke is the old English 
form of writing Cook, from the Anglo-Saxon Coc," 
or perhaps from the Norman-French Le Coq (a 
name still common in the Channel Islands ; where, 
by the way, MR. LOWER may still find many com- 
pounds of Le (Vol. v., pp. 509. 592.) in almost 
pristine purity, such as Le Quesne, Le Bas, Le 
Febvre, Le Conteur, &c.), the primitive sound 
of o being perhaps short, and since softened into 
oo. Some confirmation of this may be traced in 
the fact that Burke gives Cock, Cocke, or Koke 
(alias Coke), as bearing for crest " an ostrich, in 
the beak a horse-hoe;" which is also borne by 
the Earl of Leicester, differenced on a chapeau. 
That the spelling of both Coke and Cowper was 
left very much to discretion has been shown by 
previous correspondents, and is further confirmed 
by Gwillim and other old writers. The former 
testifies in his usually quaint style : 

" He beareth parted per pale gu. and az. 3 eaglets 
displayed argent by the name of Cooke of Norfolk. 
These were the armes of that great man and eminent 
lawyer, Sir Edward Cooke (or Coke), Knt., Lord Chief 
Justice of King's Bench temp. Jac. I. He was the 
only son of Robert Coke, of Milleham, in the said co." 
&c. &c Vide Kent's Abridgment, p. 772. 

And again (Ib. p. 476.) : 

" He beareth azure, a tortoise erect (or) by the 
name of Cooper (alias Cowper) * sic ' of Nottingham- 
shire. Borne by Thomas Cowper, Esq., High Sheriff 
of that county lOEliz." 

Sir Richard Baker, the " chronicler," speaks of 
Sir Edward Cook and Mr. Clement Coke, reversing 
the names in the index, and using each indiscri- 
minately throughout the body of his (I am aware) 
usually inaccurate work; but being the testi- 
mony of a cotemporary, I thought it, on that 
account only, worth noting. 

Glancing at the Peerage list of family names, I 
cannot forbear the thought that much of the con- 
fusion and irregularity attendant on the various 
spellings of one name may have arisen, in some 
cases at least, from a morbid propensity evinced 
in the desire to aristocratify (if I may be allowed 
the term) names of somewhat plebeian origin, so 
as to render them strictly admissible to patrician 
circles, witness Smythe, Taylour, Tumour*, 
and others ; while many, such as Butler, Carpen- 
ter, Cooper, Smith, Gardiner, &c., still remain in 
almost primitive simplicity, and innocent of specious 

* I have somewhere seen the plea that this family 
derive their name from some Norman valiant yclept 
" De Tour Noir ; " but the resemblance of both name 
and arms to the commonplace " Turner " is too appa- 
rent to escape observation. 

JULY 3. 1852.] 



At the risk, then, of offending good taste, out- 
raging early and fond associations, and perhaps 
incurring the charge of " affectation," I cannot 
but think that the variations of Cooper, Couper, 
and Cowper are correctly pronounced Cooler, and 
that Coke and Cooke should be regarded as two 
ways only of spelling one modernised pronunci- 
ation ; though, at the same time, I can have no 
sympathy with the drawing-room "slang" of the 
present day, the ridiculous perversions patronised 
by it (as Broom for Brougham, Darby for Derby) 
having justly afforded scope for the current wit of 
the day, and pointed the keenest satires of our 
humorous friend Punch. H. W. S. T. 


to iHtuor dlucrtaf. 

Use of Slings by the Early Britons (Vol. v., p. 
537.). Similar discoveries to that on Weston 
Hill have been made on the fortified positions in 
the south-east of Devon. Among the means 
adopted by the Romans for the defence of their 
camps and stations, stones were used, the larger 
being thrown from engines, and the smaller from 
slings (Caesar, Bell. Gall, J. ii. s. 11. 19. 24., 
iv. 23. ; v. 35., &c.) ; and we learn from Vegetius 
that they were in the practice of collecting round 
stones in their fortified places, to be ready for use 
in case of an attack : 

" Saxa rotunda de fluviis, quia pro soliditate graviora 
sunt et aptiora mittentibus, diligentissime colliguntur, 
ex quibus muri replentur." Lib. iv. c. 8. 

Heaps of stones collected for this purpose were 
found in the hill fortress, now partially destroyed, 
called Stockland Castle, and others in the neigh- 
bourhood of Membury Castle ; for particulars re- 
specting which, see a little work entitled The 
British and Roman Remains in the Vicinity of 
Axminster, in the County of Devon, p. 82. For an 
account of similar stones found in the camp at 
Camalet, see also Dr. Stukeiey's Itinerary, p. 142. 


Burialin Unconsecrated Ground (Vol. v., p. 596.). 
-The name of Thomas Hollis ought not to be 
omitted in the list of those persons who have 
chosen to be buried in unconsecrated ground. 
He was healthy, rich, learned, and liberal. He 
was honoured as a patriot, and was anxious to 
promote the welfare and happiness of his fellow- 
creatures. It might be expected that, with all 
these advantages, he was a happy man ; but many 
of the nine hundred pages in which his Memoirs 
are enshrined (4to. 1780) demonstrate that he was 
far from happy. 

He had ordered that 

" In the middle of one of these fields, not far from his 
house [Corscombe, Dorsetshire], his corpse was to be 

deposited in a grave ten feet deep, and that the field 
should be immediately ploughed over, that no trace of 
his burial-place should remain." 

As he was walking in these fields, Jan. 1, 1774, 
he suddenly fell down and expired, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His burial took place as 
he had ordered. T. D. P. 

Etymology of Fetch and Haberdasher (Vol. v., 
pp. 402. 557.). A correspondent in a late Number 
inquires respecting the etymology of the Irish fetch, 
an apparition supposed to warn a person of ap- 
proaching death. The superstition is by no means 
confined to Ireland, and in Pembrokeshire appears 
in the shape of the fetch-candle, a light seen 
moving in the air at night, and supposed to be in 
attendance on a ghostly funeral, portending the 
speedy death of the party who sees it. The name 
might be plausibly explained as if the apparition 
were commissioned to fetch the fated seer to the 
other world, but probably erroneously. The su- 
perstition is, I believe, of Scandinavian origin, 
taking its rise in the Va3tt of those regions, a kind 
of goblin of dwarfish stature, supposed to dwell 
in mounds, whence vcette-lys, literally the Vaett's 
candle, a name given in Norway to the Will-o'-the- 
wisp, affording both a physical and etymological 
explanation of the fetch-candle, that can hardly be 
doubted. See VAET, V^TTK-LTS, Molbech's Dia- 
lects- Lexikon. 

Another word that has lately been made the 
subject of inquiry is haberdasher, and the specu- 
lations offered with respect to the origin of this 
singular word are so wholly unsatisfactory, that it 
may be worth while to add' one that has at least a 
solid foundation, though it certainly leaves a con- 
siderable slip to be cleared by conjecture at the 

A word of so complex a structure, not apparently 
reducible to significant elements, must be strongly 
suspected of corruption, and the origin would na- 
turally be looked for in France, from whence we 
derive the names of so many of our tradesmen, as 
butchers, tailors, cutlers, chandlers, mercers, &c. 
Now the Dictionnaire de Languedoc has " Debas- 
saire, bonnetier, chaussetier, fabricant de bas," from 
debasses, stockings. With us "The haberdasher 
heapeth wealth by hats," but he usually joins with 
that business the trade of hosier; and possibly, 
when the meaning of the French term was not 
generally understood in this country, the name of 
the article dealt in might have been added to give 
significance to the word, and thus might have 
formed hat-debasser, or hat-debasher, haberdasher. 


Baxters " Heavy Shove," &c. (Vol. v., pp. 416. 
594.). From all lean learn, and I have carefully 
searched for evidence, the Rev. Richard Baxter is 
not the author of the Heavy Shove, referred to by 
some of your correspondents. Had such a work 



[No. 140. 

been written by Baxter, some reference would 
have been made to it in His own Life and Times, 
where he refers to the history of the whole of 
his publications, including even those of a mere 
pamphlet form, consisting only of a few sheets. 
It is very possible' that such a work was written 
by a Mr. Baxter ; but not Richard, or that Richard 
Baxter may have contributed the preface to such 
a book, a thing he was very much in the habit of 
doing. I have in my possession a small work en- 

The Doctrine of Self- Posing, or a Christian's Duty 
of putting Cases of Difficulty to Himself, being the 
Sum of some Sermons Preached at Upton-on-Severn, in 
the County of Worcester, by B. Baxter, late Minister 
of the Gospel there, but now removed, with a Preface 
by Richard Baxter, 1666." 

It is not improbable that the Rev. B. Baxter was 
the author of the Heavy Shove. That such a 
title was ever given to the Call to the Unconverted, 
is very improbable. Baxter gives a particular ac- 
count of the circumstances under which this work, 
as well as the Saints' Rest, were written, but not a 
word does he state about any alteration in their 
titles. I can find nothing in the first edition of the 
Saints' Rest that will warrant the supposition that 
Baxter ever intended any other titles to these 
works than those by which they are universally 
known. If any alteration has ever taken place in 
the titles of some of Baxter's publications, it must 
have been made by other hands. H. H. BEALBY. 

North Brixton. 

"We Three'' (Vol. v., p. 338.). The Logger- 
heads as an inn sign is not so uncommon as your 
correspondent fancies. That at Pentre, near Mold, 
is of considerable age, and one can only perceive 
the outline of human heads on the board. The 
exact date I could not discover. In Liverpool 
there is one called the " Loggerheads Revived," 
where the figures are painted with considerable 
force. The prevailing characteristic is two men of 
stout and jovial aspect grinning at the spectator. 


Age of Trees (Vol. iv., pp. 401. 488.). I may 
remind your correspondent of the curious old 
linden tree at Freyburg, in Switzerland, planted 
in _ remembrance of the battle of Morat, by a 
citizen who returned safely. The battle was fought 
June 22, 1476. AGMOKD. 

^ The Diphthong ai" (Vol. v., p. 581.). I be- 
lieve ypur correspondent R. PRICE is in error in 
attributing inconsistency to Walker in respect of 
the sound at in pail, aiid the sound aye. It'ap- 
pears to me that Walker's opinion is that the 
former is a simple vowel, "formed by one con- 
formation of the organs;" and the latter a com- 
pound vowel, in pronouncing which " the organs 
alter their position." This opinion involves no in- 
consistency, though it may be erroneous. Spurrell, 

in his English-Welsh Pronouncing Dictionary, 
asserts the contrary opinion, namely, that at, a, ay+ 
&c., are merely different ways of writing the same 
sound, which he considers a diphthong, composed 
of e Welsh and e English, the Welsh e being 
identical with a in mare, e in there, ea in pear, and 
other words, as pronounced by the generality of 
Englishmen. He also treats o in note as a diph- 
thong, which Walker considers simple. The Welsh 
o is simple, and differs from the diphthongal 
English. There does not appear to be any reason 
for distinguishing between the pronunciation of 
pail and pale, as the pronunciation of words ought 
to regulate their spelling, rather than the spelling 
govern their pronunciation. AP RHISIART. 

The Symbol of the Pelican (Vol. v., pp. 211, 
212.). I should be glad if your correspondent 
MARICONDA will favour me with the title of a 
book or books printed by Rocco Bernabo, in which 
the device may be seen. In George Wither' s Col-- 
lection of JSmblemes*, book iii. p. 154., there is a 
representation of this symbol surrounded by the 
motto "Pro lege et pro grege;" but although thej 
page is headed 

" Our Pelican, by bleeding, thus, 

Fulfill'd the Law, and cured us ; " 
the representation (both of the bird and its young) 
is that of an eagle. A. M., 

John Hope (Vol. v., p. 582.). In 1768 he suc- 
ceeded his father as member for Linlithgow, as- 
the nominee of his relation the Earl of Hopetoun,, 
who, it appears, allowed him an annuity I infer* 
of200/. a year towards defraying his expenses- 
when attending parliament. He appears to have 
been somewhat more liberal in his political opir 
nions than the earl approved, and in consequence 
of his voting against government on the question. 
of giving Luttrell the seat for Middlesex, the. 
earl withdrew his support, and John Hope was 
declared on petition " not duly elected." I collect, 
the above few particulars from a pamphlet which 
he published in 1772, entitled Letters on Certain: 
Proceedings in Parliament during the Sessions 
1769, 1770, written by John Hope, Esq., late 
representative for the county of Linlithgow. 

If your correspondent has any wish to see the 
pamphlet, I will forward it to you. N. J. ' 

Stoup (Vol. v., p. 560.). As a contribution 
towards the list of examples of exterior holy water 
stoups requested by MR. CUTHBERT BEDE, I beg 
to inform him that one exists outside the south 
porch of the church of Hungarton in this county. 

* " A collection of Emblemes, ancient and moderne, 
quickened with Metricall Illustrations, and disposed 
into Lotteries both Morall and Divine, that instruction 
and good Counsell may bee furthered by an honest and 
pleasant recreation. By George Wither, London: 
printed by Augustine Matthewes, 1634." 

JULY 3. 1852.] 


It adjoins the eastern jamb of the archway, and 
has a stone canopy above it. I am not aware of 
there being any other example in this neighbour- 

A perfect holy water basin or stoup exists at 
the church of Ixworth, St. Mary, on the exterior 
of the chancel entrance, south side of the church ; 
also one on the exterior of the church at Paken- 
ham, at the porch entrance, on the north side of 
the church : both in Suffolk. These observations 
were made in my visits to those churches in Aug. 
1849, and I believe the stoups are still to be found 
there. C. G. 

There is an exterior holy water stoup at Win- 
chester Cathedral ; I think on the south wall. 


Flanagan on the Hound Towers of Ireland (Yol. 
v., p. 584.). That this announcement may not 
hazard the standing of those who have laboured 
to expound the mystery which the Cambrian 
bishop of King John's day could not, I can testify 
that, having been allured by the title set forth in 
R. H.'s late communication, I examined the little 
pamphlet, and cannot think its author could for a 
moment be considered other than a literary wag, 
a caricaturist of antiquities, as Father Print has 
been of poetry. I yet remember that the compo- 
sition was at the time attributed to a prelate of 
very high rank on the Irish bench of bishops. 
" Stat nominis umbra." J. D. 

Giving the Sack (Vol. v., p. 585.). A querist 
in a late Number seems to have confounded two 
expressions of essentially different import, viz. the 
German " Einem einen Korb geben," to give one 
the basket, and the widely -spread expression of 
"giving one the sack." Of these the former is 
used when speaking of a lady refusing an offer of 
marriage ; and, in a secondary sense, any one re- 
ceiving a refusal in general is said to " get the 
basket." Nothing but guesses, and very unsatis- 
factory ones, have been given as to the origin of 
this expression. They may be seen in Adelung, 
under the word Korb. The import of the other 
expression may be accounted for in a more satis- 
factory manner. To tell a person in English to 
*' pack up his prts," is to send him about his busi- 
ness, to desire him to clear away even his orts 
or crumbs, and to leave no traces of himself 
behind. In French the word quilles, or ninepins 
(probably used as a type of the property least worth 
carrying away a person could have) takes the 
place of our orts ; and "trousser leurs quilles" is 
explained by Cotgrave, " to pack up or prepare 
for their departure." Hence, " donner son sac et 
ses quilles " to a workman, or person in our em- 
ploy, is to pack him off; to hand him his traps; 
and thus to give him the clearest intimation of our 
desire of his immediate departure. The import is 

a little obscured in the English version of " giving 
one the sack." H. WEDGWOOD. 

42. Chester Terrace, Regent's Park. 

The country beggars in Ireland and Scotland 
formerly received the alms of the charitable in 
meal, potatoes, and other farming produce, which 
they carried off in sacks and bags, suspended round 
their bodies. In the North of Ireland, in my 
youthful days, the phrase was well understood to 
imply that a person, when he had got the sack (was 
discharged from his situation), had no other re- 
source than to become a mendicant, and carry a 
bag, the well-known emblem of his profession. 
" The world may wag 

Since I've got the bag, 
For thousands have had it before me : " 

was the chorus, and all I recollect, of a very com.- 
mon Irish beggars' song, about thirty years ago. 
The expression, however, is much older, and is 
plainly alluded to, with the same signification, in 
the following extract from the violent satire on 
Cardinal Wolsey, which is, I believe, erroneously 
attributed to Dr. Bull : 

" The cloubbe signifieth playne his tiranny, 
Covered over with a Cardinal's hatt, 
Wherein shall be fulfilled the prophecy, 
Aryse up Jacke, and put on thy salatt, 
For the tyme is come of bagge and walatt" 


The Bells of Limerick Cathedral (Vol. i., p. 382; ; 
;Vol. ii., p. 348.). It would tend, no doubt, much 
to the illustration of one of the most beautiful 
traditions of Ireland, if any one would contribute 
a note of the tone, workmanship, or decoration of 
these celebrated bells. Mr. N. P. Willis, before 
narrating the legend printed in " N. & Q.," merely 
observes (Scenery and Antiquities of Ireland, voL i. 
p. 106.) that his guide to the belfry called on him 
." to admire the size of the bells." If neither in- 
scriptions nor peculiarities of decoration or con- 
struction is observable, probably the accounts of 
the bursar of the cathedral, or some of the other 
records of the chapter, might afford evidence of 
the substantial truth of the tradition, and of the 
period when its incidents occurred. 


Fall Croft, Ripon. 

Mexican, Sfc, Grammar (Vol. v., p. 585.). In 
reply to the Query of W. B. D. respecting gram- 
mars of the South American languages compiled 
by the Spanish missionaries, I would inform him 
that such an one was drawn up and printed by 
the Jesuits in their missions in Paraguay of the 
Guarani language, which is, I believe, the most 
diffused of the South American native tongues, 
and forms the basis of very many of the other 
numerous dialects of that continent. When in 



[No. 140, 

Paraguay in 1842, 1 procured, with great difficulty, 
a copy of this work, which, unfortunately, I have 
not by me so as to describe it exactly ; but, to the 
best of my recollection, it is a very small quarto, 
and was printed about the end of the seventeenth 
century at one of the Misiones de Paraguay. The 
work is doubtless, as W. B. D. surmises, very 
scarce even in South America or Spain. 

G.J.R. G. 

Bishop Merriman (Vol. v., p. 584.). According 
to Harris's edition of Ware's Irish Bishops, p. 205., 
John Merriman was consecrated Bishop of Down 
in St. Patrick's church, Dublin, on the 19th Jan. 
1568-9, by Thomas Lancaster, Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, assisted by the Bishops of Kildare, Meath, and 
Ossory ; and we find from the Ulster Inquisitions, 
published by the Irish Record Commissioners in 
1829, that the family existed in the county of 
Down (in which county the diocese of Down is 
situate) long after the bishop's death in 1572, and 
there occupying a highly respectable position in 
society. In 1606 William Merryman was living 
in Bishop's Court (part of the episcopal lands of 
Down), in the barony of Lecale ; in 1622 Robert 
Merryman of Sheepland, another portion of the 
same episcopal lands in same barony, was one of the 
trustees of the estates of Arthur Magenis, Viscount 
Ivea^h ; and Nic. Maryman, of same place, is also 
mentioned as having obtained the lands of Gly vett, 
ih same barony, from George Russell, previous to 
1663. The name frequently occurs for some years 
later in the local history of the same district, but 
seems subsequently to have declined, and to 
have been called Merryment, latterly spelling it 
Marmion ; a few farmers of which name are still 
to be found in the baronies of Lecale and Mourne. 


Birthplace of Andrew Marvell (Vol. v., p. 597.). 
If it be " again and again stated that he was 
born at Hull," which MB. KIDD is " reluctantly 
compelled to believe" was not the case, having in 
his possession "authorised documents" proving 
where the patriot really was born, but which place 
has not hitherto been disclosed, it may be well to 
refer your correspondent and others to Poulson's 
History of the Seigniory of Holderness, vol. ii. 
p. 480. 4to. 1841, where it is stated that the entry 
of his birth in the Parish Register of Winestead, 
of which place his father, Andrew Marvell, became 
rector, on the presentation of Sir Christopher 
Hildyard, Knight, on the 16th April, 1614, and 
resigned the living in 1624 for the Readership of 
the Holy Trinity Church, Hull, proves that the 
village of Winestead claims the honour of having 
been his birthplace. F. R. R. 

Anstis on Seals (Vol.v., p. 610.). The MS. in 
question was in the Stowe Collection, and passed, 
with all the other MSS., to the Earl of Ashburn- 
ham in 1849. 

It was No. 289. in the Sale Catalogue prepared 
by Leigh and Sotheby, but which was not gene- 
rally circulated : Aspilogia, 2 vols. folio ; the first 
of 267 pages, and the second 233 pages. G. 

Foundation Stones (Vol. v., p. 585.). There 
appeared in a weekly periodical, the Leisure Hour, 
of May 21, 1852, the following account of the 
foundation of Blackfriars Bridge : 

" The first stone of Blackfriars Bridge, the work of 
Robert Mylne, a Scotch architect, was laid on the 
31st October, 1760. It was originally called Pitt's 
Bridge, in honour of William Pitt, the great Earl of 
Chatham. If the foundations are ever disturbed, there 
will be found beneath them a metal tablet, on which is 
inscribed in Latin the following grateful tribute of the 
citizens of London to the genius and patriotism of that 
illustrious statesman. ' On the last day of October, in 
the year 1760, and in the beginning of the most aus- 
picious reign of George III., Sir Thomas Chitty, Knt., 
Lord Mayor, laid the first stone of this bridge, under- 
taken by the Common Council of London, during the 
progress of a raging war (flagrante bello), for the or- 
nament and convenience of the city; Robert Mylne 
being the architect. In order that there might be 
handed down to posterity a monument of the affection 
of the City of London for the man who, by the power 
of his genius, by his high-mindedness and courage 
(under the Divine favour and happy auspices of 
George II.), restored, increased, and secured the 
British Empire, in Asia, Africa, and America, and 
restored the ancient reputation and power of his 
country amongst the nations of Europe, the citizens of 
London have unanimously voted this bridge to be in- 
scribed with the name of William Pitt.' " 

As it was not stated in the above-mentioned 
periodical whence this account was obtained, may 
I be permitted to make the Query, Where the 
original account of the ceremony is to be found, 
and also the copy, in Latin, of the inscription on 
the said tablet? WILLOW. 

Milton indebted to Tacitus (Vol. v., p. 606.). 
I need not remind your correspondent ME. GILL 
in how very many instances the illustrious author 
of the Paradise Lost has " borrowed" the thoughts 
of foregone classics, and, as MB. GILL well says, 
with " more than returned favour, lending them a 
heightened expression." 

Warton's edition of the Minor Poems of Milton, 
with its formidable array of parallel passages from 
other and elder poets, furnishes an abounding 
example of a prevailing characteristic of Milton's 
mind, that of reflecting (perhaps unconsciously) 
the axioms and bright sayings of all ages of lite- 
rature, stored in his capacious brain-treasury. 

No writer of the same rank in genius has, I 
should suppose, to a greater extent re-fused the 
sentences of other authors which were worth pre- 
serving. Warton, I have heard, produced his 
edition in no friendly spirit towards the old re- 
publican, whom he hated for his politics, but to 

JULY 3. 1852.] 



manifest the abundance of the poet's obligations 
to his predecessors. There is no question that 
Milton "borrowed," and unscrupulously; but it 
was not an Israelitish "borrowing" of the 
Egyptians ; he returned the thoughts he had ap- 
propriated with added lustre, or, to preserve the 
image in its integrity, with compound interest. 
As I remember, Leigh Hunt, when we were 
speaking on this very subject, acknowledged in his 
fanciful and humorous vein of language : " Oh, 
yes ! Milton * borrowed ' other poets' thoughts, but 
he did not * borrow* as gipsies borrow children, 
spoiling their features that they may not be re- 
cognised. No, he returned them improved. Had 
he 4 borrowed ' your coat, he would have restored 
it, with a new nap upon it I" COWDEN CLARKE. 

Plague Stones (Vol. v., p. 226.). There was 
some time ago, and I believe is still in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dorchester, co. Dorset, one of these 
rare stones ; it is situated on the east side of a 
public road, not far from the first milestone from 
Dorchester, on the London turnpike road; it 
stands near a tree close to the hedge, a few feet 
beyond the gate leading to Stinsford House, on the 
road just branched off to Moreton, &c. This stone 
has not been heretofore noticed, that I am aware 
of, as a plague stone ; it has been commonly con- 
sidered as a boundary stone, which its position 
cannot warrant : it is circular in shape, and near 
four feet high, having a round hollow of dishlike 
shape excavated on the top of it, and no doubt of 
the class above alluded to. It has been in the same 
place beyond the memory of man. G. F. 

Algernon Sidney (Vol. v., p. 318.). Niebuhr, 
when a youth of eighteen, made quite a hero of 
Algernon Sidney : 

" This day," said he, writing from Kiel, Dec. 6th, 
1794, "is the anniversary of Algernon Sidney's death 
III years ago, and hence it is in my eyes a consecrated 
day, especially as I have just been studying his noble 
life again. May God preserve me from a death like 
his ; yet even with such a death the virtue and holiness 
of his life would not be dearly purchased. And now 
he is forgotten almost throughout the world, and per- 
haps there are not fifty persons in all Germany who 
have taken the pains to inform themselves accurately 
about his life and fortunes. Many may know his 
name, many know him from his brilliant talents, but 
they formed the least part of his true greatness." 

In 1813, the late George Wilson Meadley, Esq., 
of Bishopwearmouth, the biographer of Dr. Paley, 
published Memoirs of Algernon Sidney. 

E. H. A. 

Edmund Bohun (Vol. v., pp. 539. 599.). MR. 
Kix has been inquiring about this writer. Has it 
been noticed that he was licenser of the press in 
1692? The book entitled 

" Observations historical and genealogical, in which 
teongmalsof the emperors, kings, electors, and other 

sovereign princes of Europe, with a series of their 
births, matches, more remarkable actions, and deaths, 
and also the augmentations, decreasings, and pretences 
of each family, are drawn down to the year 1690. 
Written in Latin by Anthony William Schowart, His- 
tory-professor at Frankfort, and now made English ; 
with seme enlargements relating to England. 8vo. 
1693. London." 

bears the "imprimatur" of Edmund Bohun, with 
the date of "Decemb. 12, 1692 ;" and at the close 
of the preface the translator states that, 

" In the Latin copy, amongst King James II. 's 
children there is one mentioned and called The Prince 
of Wales; but the late licenser, Mr. Bohun, having ex- 
punged him, the translator could not, by the warrant 
of the Latin original, presume to insert him." 


Declaration of Two Thousand Clergymen (Vol. v., 
p. 610.). I do not think the names of the two 
thousand clergymen that signed the declaration 
supposed to call in question the Queen's Supre- 
macy were ever published. The declaration is 
too long for insertion in " N. & Q,.," but RUSTICTJS 
will find it in the English Churchman, No. 400, 
August 29, 1850, pp. 587, 588. G. A. T. 


Those who, from knowing the active share always 
taken by Mr. Wright in the proceedings of the Archaeo- 
logical Association, and in the investigations carried 
on under its auspices in various parts of the country, 
and who, being aware that with such practical know- 
ledge Mr. Wright combines a very general acquaintance 
with the antiquarian literature of the Continent ge- 
nerally, have consequently anticipated that his new 
book The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon : a His- 
tory of the early Inhabitants of Britain, down to the 
Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity: illus- 
trated by the Ancient Remains brought to Light by 
recent Research would be a volume full of inform- 
ation, pleasantly served up on that recondite sub- 
ject the primeval antiquities of this country 
will not be disappointed. The work has been under- 
taken, as Mr. Wright informs us, for the purpose of 
supplying a Manual of British Archaeology ; of render- 
ing that science more popular ; and of calling the atten- 
tion of Englishmen more generally to the past history 
of their country : and, with this latter view more par- 
ticularly, is plentifully studded with engravings of all 
such objects as represent the classes or peculiar types 
with which it is necessary the student should make 
himself acquainted. Mr. Wright discards altogether 
the system of archaeological periods which has been 
adopted by the antiquaries of the North, and has treated 
antiquarian objects simply according to the races to 
which they belonged ; in fact, to use his own words, 
' has attempted to make archaeology walk hand in hand 
with history." We do not agree with Mr. Wright in 
this entire rejection of the systems which have been ad- 
vanced by Worsaae, Thomsen, and others j but we are 


[No. 140. 

bound to admit that in carrying out his own views he 
has produced a most instructive and readable volume, 
and one well calculated to assist the student in his 
apparently dry, but really attractive search into the 
primeval antiquities of these islands. 

Miss Callow's abilities as a naturalist, and her tact 
in popularising any subject she undertakes, are too well 
known to need reiteration on this occasion. We have 
taerely alluded to her possession of those excellent 
qualities, because our doing so enables us most briefly 
and most effectually to point out the characteristics of 
her Popular Scripture Zoology, containing a Familiar 
History of the Animals mentioned in the Bible, which, got 
up in the attractive style for which the natural history 
publications of Messrs. Reeve are always distinguished, 
forms a volume which at this prize-giving season well 
deserves the attention of parents and teachers. 

The two new parts of Longman's Traveller's Library 
are little books of great interest and importance. Mr. 
Hope's Britanny and the Bible with Remarks on the 
French People and their Affairs, consists of Notes 
written at the moment during several years' residence 
.in different parts of that country, and treat principally 
of the spread of the Scriptures in Britanny, effected as 
it is chiefly by the labours of Englishmen, and by 
English aid although that portion of the book which 
contains his observations on the late Revolution in 
France will probably be read with the greatest interest. 
Mr. Hope is somewhat of an alarmist : but his advice 
to us, " In fine, trust in Providence, and keep your 
powder dry, very dry, and the flask in order," is too full 
of common sense to be neglected. Mr. T. Lindley 
Kemp's Natural History of Creation is an ably written 
attempt to describe the laws by which Chaos became 
gradually fit for the occupation of plants and animals ; 
to show the Creation that is daily going on around 
us, and the causes of disease upon living bodies. The 
impressions left by this little book upon the mind will 
far outlast the railway trip during which it may be 



SHAKSPBARE'S JULIUS CAESAR, by D'Avenant and Dryden, 1719. 



London : Printed for Hodges, by Crowder and Woodgate. 




The original 4to. editions in boards. 


London, Griffin, 8vo. 1767. 
CLARE'S POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. Last edition. 
MAGNA CHARTA ; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell bv 

George Newton. London, 1661. 
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NOTES : Page 

Historical Value of South's Sermons - - 25 
Shakspeare Readings, No. V. " Coriolanus," Act III. 

Sc. 1 . - - - '- - - - 26 

Ruby Glass -------28 

Folk Lore : Springs and Wells Paganism in the Six- 
teenth Century - - - - - ?8 

False Spellings arising out of Sound, by J. Waylen - 29 

Cathedrals in Norway, by William E. C. Nourse - 29 

The true Maiden-hair Fern - - - - 30 

Cranes in Storms; Credibility of the Ancient Naturalists 31 

Queen Elizabeth's Prayer-book - - - 32 

Whimsical Book-plate - - - - - 32 

Minor Notes : Lord Goring Banquo's Ghost Reve- 
rence to the Altar Woman executed by Burning at 
Dublin " The proper study of mankind is man " - 33 


The Royal New England Regiment, by T. Wesrcott - 33 
Wilton Castle and the Bridges Family, by J. Lawelyn 
Curtis -------34 

Why was the Dodo called a Dronte ? by Richard Hooper 34 
Minor Queries : Similitude of an Eagle in a Braken 
Stalk Dictionnaire Biblioxraphique Continental 
Writers on Popular Antiquities Was William the 
Conqueror buried without a Coffin ? Comitissa 
Ysabel Etymology and Meaning of the Word 
" Snike?" "Sacrum pingite dabo, ' &c. Can a Man 
baptize Himself ? Seal of Mary Queen of Scots 
Portraits of Mary Queen of Scots Death, a Bill of 
EN change The Flemish Clothiers in Wales Six 
Thousand Years Sir lioger de Coverley The 
Names and Numbers of British Regiments A Delec- 
table Discourse on Fishing" I'm the Laird of Windy 
Walls" Mrs. Philarmonica Admiral Sir Richard 
I. Strachan, K.C.B. The Ogden and Westcott 
Families Licenser of the Press - - - 35 


Bertram, Editor of Richard of Cirencester, by J. J. A. 

Worsaae -- - - - -37 

Robert Forbes - - - - - - P8 

The "Heavy Shove" 38 

John Hope -------39 

Optical Phenomenon - - - - 40 

Origin of the Stars and Stripes, by T. Westcott - 41 

One or two Passages in " King Lear," by J. Payne Collier 41 

Replies to Minor Queries : The Chevalier St. George 
" Like a fair Lily," Ac." Roses all that's fair adorn" 

Frebord Ireland's Freedom from Reptiles Por- 
trsitof George Fox Punch and Judy " Hostages to 
Fortune" Docking Horses How the Ancient Irish 
crowned their Kings Hoax on Sir Walter Scott 
American Loyalists Spanish Vessels wrecked on the 
Coast of Ireland Suicides buried in Cross Roads 
Dr. Klizabeth Black well American Degrees Note 
by Warton on Aristotle's Poets Meaning of Whit 
" Possession is nine points of the law "Age of Trees 

Market Crosses 42 


Notes on Books, &c. - - - - - 45 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 46 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 46 

Advertisements - 46 

17T ' 


I seldom take up the Sermons of the eloquent 
and witty Dr. South without feeling much sur- 
prised that so little use is made of them in illus- 
trating the History of England from the martyr- 
dom of King Charles I. to the death of Queen Anr.e. 
And I now venture to offer this hint through the 
medium of the "N. & Q, ;" for I feel confident 
that any one who reads them wifh a historical, as 
well as a theological view, will be well repaid for 
his trouble. South passed a long and active life 
in the service of the Church of England ; and 
amongst her worthies she can scarcely reckon a 
more able or undaunted son. He was born in 
1633, and lived on, through the most eventful 
period of English history, until July 8th, 1716. 
He likewise retained the full possession of all h;s 
faculties to the last, and was more than eighty-one 
years old when he dedicated to the Right Hon, 
Wra. Bromley the fourth volume of his inimitable 
Sermons : 
"Jam senior; sed cruda Deo viridisque senectus." 

In the year 1647, South was entered one of the 
king's scholars at Westminster ; and signalised 
himself the following year by reading the Latin 
prayers in the school on the day of King 
Charles I.'s martyrdom, and praying for his sacred 
majesty by name about an hour or two before he 
was beheaded. This anecdote I take partly froia 
the memoirs prefixed to South's Posthumous Works* 
p. 4., Lond. 1717, 8vo., and partly from his own 
most valuable sermon upon Proverbs xxii. 6., 
vol. ii. p. 188., Dublin, 1720, fol. I do wish we 
could make out the names of the youthful heroes 
who were South's companions upon this interest- 
ing occasion ; but the good Dr. Busby was their 
tutor, which will account for their being " really 
king's scholars as well as called so." 

In 1651 South was elected student of Christ's 
Church, Oxford, together with the notable John 
Locke, and graduated Bachelor of Arts 3 65. In 
the same year a thin little quarto volume was pub- 
lished by the University of Oxford to congratulate 
Oliver Cromwell upon the peace then concluded! 
with the Dutch, and some Latin verses were coa- 



[No. 141. 

tributed by South. I have read them in the 
above-mentioned volume, though not very lately, 
and also in Burton's Cromwellian Diary, where 
they form the subject of triumph. Very little, 
I think, can be made of them, and they seem a 
"forced compliment upon the usurper" (Memoirs, 
p. 5.), imposed most probably upon South by the 
head of his college, the notorious John Owen, who 
had been appointed to the deanery of Christ's 
Church, Oxford, by Cromwell's interest in 1651. 
At all events he was no favourite of Owen's, who 
opposed him severely when he was proceeding to 
the degree of Master of Arts in 1657, for which he 
was wittily rebuked by South, as also for repri- 
manding him for worshipping God according to 
the prescribed Liturgy of the Church of England. 
Indeed, "there was no love lost between them;" 
and when Owen, who was Vice- Chancellor, set up 
to represent the University of Oxford in parlia- 
ment, he met a most manly and vigorous opposi- 
tion, which was chiefly attributable to South. In 
the year 1658, South was admitted to holy orders 
by a regular though deprived bishop of the 
Church of England ; and in 1659 preached at 
Oxford his memorable assize sermon, Interest 
deposed, and Truth restored. In 1660 he was 
appointed University orator. At last came the 
Restoration. South was nominated chaplain to 
Edward Earl of Clarendon; and in 1663 was 
installed prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster. 
Then followed, in 1670, a canonry of Christ's 
Church, Oxford ; and in 1678, the rectory of Islip, 
in Oxfordshire. He was chaplain in ordinary to 
King Charles II. ; and refused several bishoprics 
during his reign. He afterwards refused an Irish 
archbishopric when James II. was king, and 
Lord Clarendon, the brother of his great patron 
Lord Rochester, was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
He did not sign the document inviting over 
William of Orange, for he held the doctrine of 
passive obedience. Yet, subsequently, when King 
< James had left England, he did not become a 
f. Nonjutfor ; but, with a memorable compliment upon 
' the deprived bishops, he refused to accept any of 
then' vacant sees. 

When Bishop Sprat died, South was offered the 
$ee of Rochester and Deanery of Westminster, 
but refused upon the plea of his advanced age. 
(Posthumous Works, p. 137.) In fact, he was a great 
and good man, and his witticisms must not make 
us forgetful of his true-hearted allegiance to the 
Church of England. When the Socinians were 
gaining ground in consequence of the Act of Tole- 
ration, the voice of South was raised most warmly 
against them. And if we want to know Puritan- 
. ism in its rampant state, we must read South as 
well as Cleveland's Poems or Hudibras. 
* Has any one ever described more vividly than 
. South the apparent sanctity and real profligacy of 
the Puritanical leaders ; or the mixture of papal 

emissaries amongst the rebels ; or Cromwell's first 
appearance in parliament "a bankrupt beggarly 
fellow, with a thread-bare torn cloak and a greasy 
hat, and perhaps neither of them paid for ; " or 
Hugh Peters ; or John Owen ; or the " Preaching 
Colonels ; " or the Puritanical fasts commenced 
" after dinner ; " or " the saving-way of preaching, 
which saved much labour, but nothing else that he 
knew of;" or the artizan preachers who "could 
make a pulpit before they preached in it," and had 
" all the confusion of Babel amongst them without 
the diversity of tongues ; " or " that great mufti 
John Calvin, the father of the faithful;" or the 
Socinianising tendency of Grotius' writings; or 
the " right worshiped right honourable sinners " 
of the day ? 

There are also in his Sermons sly allusions to 
King James ll.'s breach of faith and intolerance ; 
and the real cause of his popery, as well as that of 
Charles IL, is stated to have been the kindness 
they had received from Romanists, and the injus- 
tice they themselves, as well as their fathers, had 
undergone from their ultra-protestant subjects. 
In fact, Dr. South's Sermons are not merely un- 
rivalled for force of diction, masterly argument, 
and purity of style ; but I could soon prove that 
they are li'kewise most valuable as historical docu- 
ments were I not fearful of trespassing too much 
upon the columns of the " JST. & Q." RT. 



ACT III. SC. 1 . 

" Bosom multiplied" versus " Bisson multitude." 
Dissenting from the general acclaim with which 
the proposed substitution of this latter phrase has 
been received, it is due to the notoriety of the 
emendation, as well as to the distinguished names 
by which it is advocated, to explain the grounds 
upon which I declare my adhesion to the old reading. 
But, in the first place, I wish to observe that I 
cannot perceive anything in the proposed altera- 
tion to exalt it above the common herd of conjec- 
tural guesses : on the contrary, -with the example 
of bisson conspectuities in the same play, nothing 
appears more obvious than the extension of the same 
correction to any other suspected place to which 
it might seem applicable. Dealing with it, there- 
fore, merely as conjectural, I reject it, 

1. Because the apologue of " the belly and the 
members," in the first scene, gives its tone to the 
prevailing metaphor throughout the whole play. 
Hence the frequent recurrence of such images as 
" the many-headed multitude," " the beast with 
many heads butts me away," "the horn and noise 
of the monster," " the tongues of the common 
mouth" &c. ; and hence a strong probability that, 
in any given place, the same metaphor will prevail. 

2. Because in Coriolanus there are three several 

JULY 10. 1852.] 


expressions having a remarkable resemblance in 
common, viz. : 

" multiplying spawn," 
" multitudinous tongue," 

" bosom multiplied," 

and the concurrence of these three is strongly pre- 
sumptive of the authenticity of any one of them. 

3. Because, in the speech wherein bosom multi- 
plied occurs the matter in discussion being the 
policy of having given corn to the people gratis 
when Coriolanus exclaims, "Whoever gave that 
counsel, nourished disobedience, fed the ruin of 
the state ;" these two words, of themselves, seem 
intended to be metaphorical to the subject: but 
when he goes on to inquire, " how shnll this bosom 
multiplied digest the senate's courtesy," it becomes 
manifest that digest continues the metaphor which 
nourished and fed had begun. And if, in addition, 
it can be shown that bosom was commonly used as 
the seat of digestion, then the inference appears to 
be irresistible, that bosom multiplied is a phrase ex- 
pressly introduced to complete the metaphor. Now, 
that bosom was so used, and by Shakspeare, is easily 
proved. Here is one example, from the Second 
P&rtof Henry IV., Sc. 1. : 

" Thou beastly feeder . . . . . . 

.... disgorge thy glutton bosom." 

But I shall go still further : I assert that Shak- 
speare nowhere has used digest in the purely mental 
sense ; that is, without some reference, real or 
figurative, to the animal function of the stomach. 
Certainly there is one seeming exception ; but even 
that, when examined into, arises from a palpable 
misinterpretation, which, when corrected, returns 
with redoubled force in favour of the assertion. 

I refer to the apologue of w the belly and the 
members," already alluded to, in which the follow- 
ing passage is, in all the editions, as far as I am 
-aware, pointed in this way : 
" The senators of Rome are this good belly, 
And you the mutinous members : For examine 
Their counsels and their cares; digest things rightly, 
Touching the weal o' the common ; you shall find 
No public benefit, which you receive, 
But it proceeds, or comes, from them to you, 
And no way from yourselves." 
If this reading were correct, it would doubtless 
afford an example of the use of digest in the ab- 
stract sense ; but it is in reality a gross misprision 
of the true meaning of the passage, and is only 
another proof of how far we are still from possess- 
ing a correctly printed edition of Shakspeare. The 
proper punctuation would be this : 

The senators of Rome are this good belly, 
And you the mutinous members ! For examine 
Their counsels, and their cares digest things rightly 
Touching the weal o'the common'! you shall find" 

" For examine " is introduced merely to diversify 
the discourse, and to fix the attention of the lis- 

teners ; it might be wholly omitted without injury 
to the sense : but in the passage as it now stands, 
examine is made an effective verb, having for its 
objects the counsels and cares of the senators; 
while digest is made auxiliary to and synonymous 
with examine, and, like it, is in the imperative 
mood, as though addressed to the people, instead 
of being, as it ought to be, in the indicative, with 
counsels and cares for its agents. It is a curious 
instance of how completely the true sense of a 
passage may be distorted by the misapplication of 
a few commas. 

Digest, therefore, in this passage, as elsewhere, 
is in direct allusion to the animal function. The 
very essence and pith of the parable of " the telly 
and the members " is to place in opposition the 
digestive function of the belly with the more active 
offices of the members ; and the application of the 
parable is, that " the senators are this good belly," 
their counsels and their cares digest for the general 
good, and distribute the resulting benefits through- 
out the whole community. This is the true read- 
ing ; and no person who duly considers it, or who 
has compared it with the original in Plutarch, but 
must be satisfied that it is so. 

4. Because, since digest is thus shown to have 
been invariably used by Shakspeare with reference 
to the animal function, bosom multiplied, having 
close relation with that function, is in strict analogy 
with the prevailing metaphor of the play ; while, 
on the other hand, bisson multitude has no relation 
with it at all; and therefore, had the latter been 
the genuine expression, it would have been asso- 
ciated, not with digest, but with some verb bearing 
more reference to the function of sight, than to 
that of deglutition or concoction. 

5. Because I cannot perceive why there should 
be any greater difficulty in the metaphorical allu- 
sion to the bosom multiplied digesting the senate's 
courtesy, than to the multitudinous tongue licking 
the sweet which is their poison. There is, in fact, 
such a close metaphorical resemblance between 'the 
two expressions, that one can scarcely be doubted 
so long as the other is received as genuine. 

The foregoing arguments in favour of the old 
reading may seem to be unnecessarily elaborate ; 
the more especially so that none of the early com- 
mentators appear to have suspected anything wrong 
in it; not even Monk Mason, although he was 
meddling with the very passage in question when 
he proposed to substitute motive for native. But 
when a sort of superconjectural authority is claimed 
for a questionable and unnecessary innovation, on 
the score of presumed internal evidence of authen- 
ticity (" N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 485.), it is time for 
every true conservative of Shakspeare's text to 
bestir himself in its defence. A. E. B. 


P.S. Since writing the foregoing, the following 
passage has occurred to me as furnishing an ex- 



[No. 141. 

pression almost identical with " bosom multiplied. 

There are few disputed phrases of Shakspeare to 

which so happy a parallel, from his own text, could 

be cited. 

" the old and miserable king 

Whose age has charms in it, whose title more, 
To pluck the COMMON BOSOM on his side, 
And turn our impressed lances in our eyes 
Which do command them." 

King Lear, Act V. Sc. 3. 


Many of your readers and writers being earnest 
admirers of ancient painted glass, and interested 
in the revival of the art, it is much to be desired 
that some method should be devised, through the 
medium of your publication, for its encouragement. 
The reform must commence at the glass-house, 
and happily a movement in the right direction has 
been already made. The grand desideratum is a 
good ruby ; for perhaps there is little or no infe- 
riority in other colours, the difference of effect 
being attributable to corrosion, lichens, texture, 
dust, and other causes. Early ruby is of exquisite 
brilliancy, and can only be represented in drawings 
by vermilion. The intensity was "well described 
oy the remark on a fragment, that " it was like a 
soldier's jacket ! " The later ruby generally bears 
more resemblance to the gem, and is copied on 
paper by carmine. The best of both sorts is 
usually streaked or mottled, sometimes showing a 
large portion of the white, on which it forms a thin 
coating, this glass being, as it is technically called, 
"flashed" or "overlaid." This appearance has 
been lately well imitated ; but the colour contains 
a fatal degree of orange, although the manufac- 
turers unfortunately protest that it equals the 
finest of mediaeval times. 

The modern ruby in comparison is commonly, in 
the opinion of connoisseurs, more or less heavy, 
dull, and muddy, with an injurious tinge of yellow. 
So long as it is assumed that perfection is already 
attained, there is a bar to all improvement ; and I 
would therefore propose that some plan be adopted 
for the exhibition of specimens, and the award of 
prizes. Probably the authorities at the Museum 
of Practical Geology, or at the Polytechnic Insti- 
tution, would obligingly consent to admit the 
specimens, a competent jury being appointed. If 
some patriotic persons would present or lend pieces 
of the finest old ruby as a challenge to the manu- 
facturers, the object would be facilitated ; for it is 
only by juxtaposition that the comparative merits 
can be ascertained. Another difficulty to be sur- 
mounted, is to convince the public, as well as the 
makers and glass painters, that uniformity of tint 
and thickness, purity, and transparency, are not 
equalities which render the material most suitable 

for ecclesiastical windows ; and that uneven, streaky, 
clouded ruby is the most to be admired. Such 
assurances are requisite, for instances are known 
of the employer insisting upon the removal of such 
" imperfect and offensive glass ! " Strange, indeed, 
must it be if, with our superior scientific know- 
ledge, " with all appliances and means to boot,'* 
modern skill should long fail in reaching the depth, 
richness, and splendour of the ancient reds. 

Surely if there was an eager demand for the 
most appropriate sort, if its excellence was duly 
appreciated, and if emulation was excited, che- 
mistry would be brought to bear more effectually 
upon the subject, exertions would be redoubled, 
and success fully achieved. 

The important Query, as a preparatory step, is 
this, Will some public spirited individuals present 
specimens of the best old ruby to the Museum of 
Geology (Jermyn Street), where modern potmetal 
is already displayed, or to another similar insti- 
tution ? And it is hoped that it will receive a 
satisfactory practical answer. C. T. 


Springs and Wells. Near to Wooler, in Nor- 
thumberland, on the flanks of the Cheviots, there 
is a spring of water locally known as Pin Well. 
The country maids, in passing this spring, drop 
a crooked pin into the water. 

In Westmoreland there is also a Pin Well t 
into the waters of which rich and poor drop a pin 
in passing. 

The superstition, in both cases, consists in a 
belief that the well is under the charge of a fairy, 
and that it is necessary to propitiate the little 
lady by a present of some sort ; hence the pin as 
most convenient. The crooked pin of Northum- 
berland may be explained upon the received 
hypothesis, in folk-lore, that crooked things are 
lucky things, as a " crooked sixpence," &c. 

There are many interesting superstitions con- 
nected with springs and wells, and, like most 
superstition, there is a basis of truth when under- 
stood. There were sacred wells in ancient days 
and there are numerous holy wells in Christiai 
times. One well is reputed as "good for sprains,' 
another spring is " good for sore eyes." There 
a spring about five miles from Alnwick in Nor- 
thumberland, known as Senna Well, and mani 
other medicinal springs and wells may be em 
merated. There are the world-renowned wat< 
of Bath, of Buxton, of Matlock, of Harrowgate, 

heltenham, of Malvern,&c., in England; but ther 
are also springs and wells in the by-ways, having oh 
egends connected with them, and it is to these 1 
wish to draw attention through the pages of " N. 
Q." The larger wells on the highways may be 
eft to the puffing guide books, and to their day 

JOLT 10. 1852.] 


light fame ; but T, for one, should like to be made 
acquainted with the springs and wells which, from 
time to time beyond the memory of man, have 
been held to make sound the lame, to cure dis- 
eases, to brew good beer, and, in more modern 
times, to make good tea. Should there be any 
fairy tale attached, I trust the writer will reveal 
it. Folk-lore is of more use than the unreflecting 

Paganism in the Sixteenth Century. The fol- 
lowing curious passage from Pemble's Sermon on 
the Mischief e of Ignorance (Oxford, ed. 1659), 
affords a lively illustration of popular education 
in his time : 

" Let me tell you a story that I have heard from a 
reverend man out of the pulpit, a place where none 
should dare to tell a lye, of an old man above sixty, 
who lived and died in a parish where there had bin 
preaching almost all his time, and for the greatest part 
twice on the Lord's day, besides at extraordinary times. 
This man was a constant hearer as any might be, and 
seemed forward in the love of the word : on his death- 
bed being questioned by a minister touching his faith 
and hope in God: you would wonder to hear what 
answer he made ; being demanded what he thought of 
God, he answers that he was a good old man ; and 
what of Christ, that he was a towardly youth ; and of 
his soule, that it was a greate bone in his body ; and 
. what should become of his soule after he was dead, 
that if he had done well he should be put into a 
pleasant green meadow." 

The resemblance of the old heathen's heaven 
to the sacred fields " where souls do couch on 
flowers" of Hellenic mythology is curious. Had 
lie derived his notions of futurity from a miracle- 
play, or is it a genuine relic of Saxon heathendom ? 



A curious list might be compiled of English 
words conveying in their present form meanings 
totally in discordance with their derivatives 
What I mea i is this. The sound of such words 
Las given birth to a new idea, and this new idea 
has become confirmed by a corresponding, but of 
course erroneous, mode of spelling. Such are the 
following, some of which have been already noticed 
by Dr. Lathom in his large grammar. Many of 
your readers could doubtless supply additional 

Dent de lion has been corrupted to dandylion, 
from an idea of the bold and flaunting aspect of 
the flower, whereas its name has reference to the 

Contre-danse is spelled country -dance, as im- 
plying rural or common life pastime, instead of 
the position of the dancers. 

Shamefastness, altered by our modern printers 
of the authorised version of the New Testament 

to shamefacedncss, though the connexion of the 
passage shows it to have reference to the attire 
and not to the countenance. Query, has not 
Miss Strickland, in her life of Mary of Lorraine, 
fallen into the same error, in a quotation which 
states that while the court ladies were dressing 
gaily on one occasion, the princess (afterwards 
queen) Elizabeth preferred keeping to her own 
shamcfacedness ? This must surely be an alteration 
from shamefastness. 

_ Cap-a-pie, armed from head to foot : this has 
given rise to the homely term of apple-pie order. 

Folio-capo (Italian), first size sheet, suggestive 
of foolscap. 

Asparagus, popularised into sparrow-grass. La- 

Chateau-vert hill, near Oxford, well known a 
Shotover hill. Lathom. 

| Girasole artichohe, Jerusalem artichoke. La- 

Farced-meat balls. The notion of their con- 
taining essence artificially concentrated has occa- 
sioned the spelling forced, whereas the meaning is 
simply chopped. 

Spar-hawk (or rock-hawk), sparrow-hawk. 
Satyr and Bacchanals, a public-house sign, 
Satan and the Bag of Nails. 

Double-dore, double-gilt ; from his bright yellow- 
spot, the bee called in the west of England the 
dumbledoor, still further softened into humble-bee. 
Gut-cord, cat-gut. 

Engleford, or the Englishman's ford, modernised, 
into Hungerford; but the corruption in the names 
of places is a very wide field. 

Laak (Ang.-Sax.), play, has been turned into 
lark, and even tortured into sky-lark. Lathom. 

Sambuca, altered (through a French medium), 
though certainly not euphonised, into sachbut r 
treated by Miss Strickland in the work above 
mentioned as a Scottish bagpipe. Her version is 
not positively disputed, but merely the doubt 
raised whether or not the original chronicler in- 
tended to suggest the mode of inflation. Further- 
more, is it likely that, as Miss Strickland sur- 
mises, the bagpipe was used at church? The 
meanings of ancient musical terms are doubtless 
very obscure. In some parts of England the 
sackbut is even identified with the trombone. 



Persons acquainted with Norway will remember 
the two towns of Stor Hammer and Lillehammer, 
both anciently bishoprics, which stand on the bor- 
ders of the Miosen Lake. Stor and Lille are ob- 
viously great and small; but what is the meaning 
of Hammer ? Has it the same derivation as the 
terminations of such names as Clapkam, Twicken- 
ham, Wickkarn, &c.? Stor Hammer is often called 



[No. 141. 

simply Hammer, and there is manifestly some sort 
of relation between the two names, though I can- 
not make out what. I have full and curious 
accounts of the ancient cathedral of Stor Hammer, 
but should be glad to know whether there was 
ever a cathedral at Lillehammer? and, if so. 
where it stood, and whether any vestiges of it 
remain, and where any account of it can be met 
with ? 

The towers and spire of Hammer Cathedral in 
the days of its glory were profusely decorated with 
gilded vanes, a fact which may interest your cor- 
respondent B, B. (Yol. v., p. 490.), who inquires 
about the antiquity of vanes. This must have 
been many centuries ago, but I have not at this 
moment access to the date. It was, at all events, 
in Catholic times, when this fine old church was 
richly ornamented with all manner of costly aids 
to spiritual devotion ; among the rest with a mira- 
culous crucifix, which had in its head a cavity big 
enough to contain a quart of water, and conduits 
of porous wood from thence to the eyes. Was any 
similar contrivance ever known to exist elsewhere 
in the North, or was it that the pious construc- 
tiveness of the monks of Hammer was stimulated to 
such ingenuity by a more than commonly devo- 
tional turn of mind ? 

The length of the cathedral at Drontheim is 
variously stated. Mr. Laing says, 346 feet ; and 
the author of the Norge fremstittet i Tegninger 
says, 350 Norwegian feet, which is equal to 360 
feet English within a fraction, Which of the two 
is -right ? And can any of your correspondents 
inform me whether any and what steps are being 
taken for the restoration of this beautiful cathedral, 
and how it is purposed to proceed in so doing ? 


28. Bryanston Street. 


Of the sixty-three species contained under the 
genus Adiantum (aS/cw ros), perhaps the most beau- 
tiful is the Capillus Veneris, or True Maiden-hair 
Fern, with its fan-shaped, serrated leaflets of deep 
green, and its long black stems, shining and wiry, 
from four to eighteen inches high. This plant has 
been found at Port Kerig, Glamorganshire (veri- 
fied 1834) ; on, the banks of the Carron, a rivulet in 
Kincardineshire (Professor Beattie) ; in a small 
cave on the east side of Carrach Gladden ; a cove 
on the north coast of Cornwall, between Hayle 
and St. Ives (Prof. Henslow) ; in South Europe : 
Isles of Bourbon, Teneriffe, Jamaica, and His- 
paniola ; and, I have also heard, on the Andes. 

In Ireland it has been found, though not abun- 
dantly, on Erris-beg (one of the fine mountains* 

* These are covered with beautiful masses, 
and heaths ; here Mr. Mackay found the Erica Medi- 
terranea, not indigenous to the sister kingdoms. 

of Roundstone, Connamara, which overhangs Bu- 
lard Lake,) by Messrs. M'Calla and Babington ; 
and on Cahir Couree Mountain, near Tralee, by 
Mr. Andrews. 

Dr. Caleb Threlkeld, who wrote Synopsis Stir-* 
pium Hibernicarum . . . with their Latin- English 
and Irish Names . . . the First Essay of this kind 
in the Kingdom of Ireland, 1726, 12mo., does not 
mention this fern, but the Trichomanes only. I 
find it first noticed in the Bolanologia Universalis 
Hibernica, authore Job. K'Eogh, A.B., Corke, 1735, 
sin. 4to., where the writer says : 

" The best in this kingdom is brought from the 
rocky mountains of Burrin, in the co. of Clare, where 
it grows plentifully ; from thence it is brought in sacks 
to Dublin, and sold there : it is pulmonic, lithontriptic 
. . . and it wonderfully helps those afflicted with 
asthmas, shortness of breath, and coughs, occasioning a 
free expectoration ; it is also good against the jaundice,, 
dropsy, diarrhoea, haemoptysis, and the bitings of mad 
dogs." P. 74. 

Dr. Wade says 

" This is the plant which gave name to the syrup 
called capillaire ; but I may venture to assert that it 
never has any of this plant in its composition, being 
usually made with sugar and water only, and some- 
times with the addition of a little orange-flower water." 
Plants Rariores in Hibernia inventce. Dubl. , 1 804, 
8vo. p. 92. 

I doubt that Dr. Wade has given the true re- 
ceipt for capillaire, even though he be right as to 
the Adiantum's not being one of the ingredients, 
In the Transactions of the Medico- Philosophical 
Society of Dublin, in the middle of the last century, 
Dr. Rutty says, that this fern was exported in- 
large quantities to London, whilst its use was 
unknown in Dublin. And Mr. Bride, a druggist, 
informed Dr. Smith (author of the Hist, of Water- 
ford, Kerry, and Cork) that he had at that time 
shipped two hogsheads to London from Arran. 
The wild isles of Arran form a favourite habitat 
of this beautiful fern : they lie about forty miles 
from Galway Bay, and nine from the nearest 
mainland. Ara Mor, as the largest is culled, 
abounds in flat table rocks, or fields of stone, 
which are intersected occasionally by deep fissures 
or rifts : in these the Adiantum grows ; the natives 
call it Dubh-chosach, or " Black- footed." These 
isles abound in botanical treasures : samphire 
(Crithmum maritimum), for instance, grows more 
abundantly there than I have ever seen it else- 
where, and may be gathered in most accessible- 
places. It is called Grylig (Grioloigin, O'R.) in 
other places Geirgin, Greigin, Greineog, Greim- 
hric, Luo-na-canamh, &c. Dr. Threlkeld, who in 
his amusing little work indulges in religious and 
political gossip, often most irrelevant, praises the- 
Herba S. Petri or S. Pierre, and adds : 

" That whoever gave it the name of sampire, seemed 
to have reason on his side if he believed one apostle 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



to have a primacy over the rest, and that he was Peter 
who had the pre-eminence." 

The Irish language is rich in names of plants, 
yet Threlkeld and K'Eogh alone make use of the 
native terms. The two latest works are deficient 
in this respect : The Irish Flora, comprising the 
Phcenogamous Plants and Ferns, Dublin, 1833, 
12mo., and the valuable Flora Hibernica, Dublin, 
1836, 8vo. ; the former, I beliere, by Sir Robert 
Kane's lady (born Miss Baillie), the latter by 
Dr. Mackay. For a full technical description of 
the Maiden-hair, see Francis's Analysis of the 
British Ferns and their Allies, 3rd edit., 1847, to 
which I am indebted for its British and foreign 
habitats. EIRIONNACH. 


(Vol. v., p. 582.) 

The Query of your correspondent RT. respect- 
ing- the " Custom of Cranes in Storms " might have 
been better worded "The Custom attributed by. 
the Ancients to Cranes in Storms." It cannot be 
necessary to inform your readers, that almost every 
bird, beast, and iish mentioned by ancient natural- 
ists has some marvellous story appended to its 
history ; and in this respect the crane is by no 
means deficient. To pass over its famous battles 
with the Pygmaei, so beautifully described by the 
Prince of Poets, who tells us 
" That when inclement winters vex the plain 
With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain, 
To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly, 
With noise, and order, through the mid-way sky : 
To Pygmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." 

Iliad, libi iii. 6. 

Philemon Holland, in his translation of Pliny's 
Natural History, renders his author's account of the 
migrations of these birds in these words : 

" They put not themselves in their journey, nor set 
forward without a counsel! called before, and a generall 
consent. They flie aloft, because they would have a 
better prospect to see before them : and for this purpose a 
captain they chuse to guide them, whom the rest follow. 
In the rereward behind these he certaine of them set and 
disposed to give signall by their manner of crie, for to 
range orderly in ranks, and keep close together in array : 
and this they doe by turnes, each one in his course. They 
maintaine a set watdi all night long, and have their 
sentinels. These stand on one foot, and hold a little 
stone within the other, which falling from it, if they 
should chance to sleep might awaken them, and reprove 
them for their negligence. Whiles these watch all the 
rest sleep, couching their heads under their wings : and 
one while they rest on one foot, and otherwhiles they 
shift to the other. The captaine beareth up his head 
aloft, and giveth signall to the rest what is to be done. 
These cranes, if they be made tame and gentle, are very 
playful and wanton birds : and they will one by one 

dance (as it were), and run the round^ with their long 
shankes stalking full untowardly. This is surely 
known, that when they mind to take a flight over the 
sea Pontus, they will fly directly at the first to the 
narrow streights of the sayd sea, lying between the two 
Capes Criu-Metopon and Carambis, and then presently 
they ballaise themselves with stones in their feet, and 
sand in their throats, that they flie more steadie and 
endure the wind. When they be halfe way over, down 
they fling these stones : but when they are come to the 
continent, the sand also they disgorge out of their craw." 

The historian Ammianus Marccllinus tells us, 
that in imitation of the ingenuity of this bird in 
ensuring its vigilance, Alexander the Great was 
accustomed to rest with a silver ball in his hand, 
suspended over a brass basin, which if he began to 
sleep might fall and awake him. 

The circumstance related by Nonnus, in your 
correspondent's communication, is without doubt 
taken from Pliny's account of the passage of these 
j birds over the Pontus ; but not having ^Elian's 
History of Animals at hand, nor the works of any 
other ancient naturalist, except Pliny, I am unable 
to trace the reference of Bishops Andrews and 
Jeremy Taylor. 

It is only due to Aristotle, and the other ancient 
naturalists, to observe that most of their .legends 
respecting animals arose from the necessarily im- 
perfect knowledge they possessed of the habits and 
faculties of the animal creation, and from their in- 
ability to distinguish one species from another : 
this led them frequently to attribute to one. the 
properties which in reality belonged to another, a? 
well as to mistake the motive of the particular 
action they were desirous of describing. A re- 
markable instance of this kind occurs in the 
mention of the hive-bee by Pliny (lib. xi. cap: x.) : 

" If haply there do arise a tempest or a storm whiles 
they be ahroad, they catch up some little stony greet to 
baliance and poise themselves against the wind. Some 
say that they take it and lay it upon their shoulders. 
And withall, they flie low by the ground, under the 
wind, when it is against them, and keep along the 
bushes, to breake the force thereof." 

This notion was first entertained by Aristotle, 
and repeated by Virgil, to whose poetic imagin- 
ation such a trait in the habits of his favourite 
insects would be highly grateful : 

1 *i\ ..v~ . . "srcpe lapillos, 
Ut cymba; instahiles fluctu jactante saburram, 
Tollunt : his sese per inania nuhila librant." 

Georg. iv. 194. 

This fable has also been frequently found in later 

dissertations on the natural history of the bee, and 

adduced as a surprising instance of bee-instinct, 

notwithstanding the corrections of Swammerdam 

and Reaumur and later naturalists, all of whom 

have shown that the mason-bee has been mistaken 

i for the honey-bee ; the former being often seen 

! hastening through the air, loaded with sand and 


[No. 141. 

gravel, the materials of its nest. Sec Note in the 
Naturalist's Library. 

Still, notwithstanding the marvellous legends 
with which the ancients have loaded their accounts 
of the animals they have described, it is wonderful 
with what correctness and precision they have 
given us the history of many with which they were 
better acquainted. Dr. Kidd, at the end of his 
Bridgewater Treatise, has drawn up a very curious 
parallel between the writings of Aristotle and 
Cuvier, in which we see with astonishment the 
nearness with which these two great naturalists 
approached each other. 

An interesting series of papers might be written 
on the mistakes of Aristotle, and other ancient 
naturalists, and on the numerous instances which 
have hitherto been considered as mistakes, but 
which the light of modern science has shown to be 
perfectly correct. G. M. 

East- Winch. 


Queen Elizabeth's Prayer-boolt, as it is com- 
monly called, or, as it runs in the title-page, A 
Booke of Christian Praiers, collected out of the 
ancient Writers, &c. (ed. of 1608), of which I have 
a very clean and good copy, of course abounds 
with antiquated ideas and expressions. One idea 
I "make a Note of (according to Captain Cuttle's 
advice) when found." At p. 76. occurs " A 
Prayer vpon the minding of Christ's passion." 
The first paragraph contains an assertion of the 
force with which the crown of thorns, &c. was 
placed on the head of the great Redeemer, which, 
I presume, can have no warrant in fact, and only 
be regarded as used to round the period : 

" What man is this who I behold all bloody, with 
skin al to torn with knubs and wales of stripes, hanging 
downe his head for weaknesse towards his shoulders, 
crowned with a garland of thorns pricking through his 
skull to the hard braine, and nailed to a Crosse ? What 
so hainous fault conlde he do to deserve it ? What 
Judge could be so cruell as to put him to it ? What 
hangman could haue so butcherly mind as to deale so 
outragiously with him ? Now I bethink myselfe, I 
kno\v him: it is Christ." 

It is true that the spikes of thorns in Syria are 
far stronger than anything we know of in the 
north of Europe. M'Cheyne calls them " gigan- 
tic." But the evident idea of the stubborn and 
cruel Jews was to insult the Lord of life and glory, 
mocking Him with royal insignia. Dr. Kitto says 
Herod suggested the mockery, which, after all, was 
more conformable to Oriental than Roman prac- 
tice, This learned writer quotes a remarkable 
illustration from Philo occurring about that period. 
Caligula conferred on Herod's nephew the title of 
king, and permission to wear a diadem. On arriv- 
ing at Alexandria, the inhabitants felt hatred and 

envy at the idea of a Jew's being called a king, 
and by way of insult and scorn, took hold of a poor 
idiot, who wandered about the streets, the laugh- 
ing-stock of boys and idlers. They set him on a 
lofty seat in the theatre, put a paper crown on his 
head, covered his body with a mat, to represent 
the regal robe, and put a reed in his hand for a 
sceptre. The crowd uttered loud exclamations of 
" Maris ! Maris ! " the Syriac word for " Lord." 
The same mockery was always common in Persia. 
I send this Note not by way of underrating the 
sufferings of " the holy, harmless Son of God," 
who " when He was reviled, reviled not again," 
but as a caution against adopting exaggerated 
statements ; and not without a desire to be in- 
formed whether or not it is possible the spikes of 
these terrible thorns could penetrate so hard a 
substance as a human skull. B. B. 


Attached as a book-plate to each of the volumes 
and MSS. forming a portion of the extensive and 
singularly curious library at Great Totham Hall, 
near Witham, Essex, the property of that inde- 
fatigable collector, Mr. Charles Clark, is found the 
annexed ingenious piece of poetical pleasantry, 
entitled : 


" As all, my friend, through wily knaves, full often 

suffer wrongs, 
Forget not, pray, when it you've read, to whom this 

book belongs. 

to 't a right hath better, 
A wight, that same, more read than some in the lore 

of old 6/cA--letter ! 
And as C. C. in Essex dwells a shire at which all 

His books must, sure, less fit seem drest, if they're 

not hound in calf! 
Care take, my friend, this book you ne'er with 

grease or dirt besmear it ; 
While none but awkward puppies will continue to 

* dog's-ear ' it ! 
And o'er my books when book-ziw/iis ( grub,' I'd 

have them understand, 
No marks the margins must de-/ace from any busy 

Marks, as re-marks, in books of CLARK'S, whene'er 

some critic spy leaves, 
It always him so wasp-ish makes, though they're 

on thej%- leaves ! 
Yes, if so they're used, he'd not de-fer to deal a 

most meet 
He'd have the soiler of his quires do penance in 

sheet ! 
The Ettrick Hogg ne'er deem'd a lore his 

did mind revealing, 
Declares, to beg * a copy ' now's a mere pve-tcxt for 

stealing ! 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



So, as some knave to grant the loan of this my Book 

may wish me, 
I thus my book-plate here display, lest some such 

fry ' should ' dish ' me ! 
But hold, though I again declare wrm-holding 

I'll not brook) 
And ' a sea of trouble ' still shall take to bring 

book -worms ' to book ! ' " 


Lord Goring. The memory of his wild warfare 
still survives in Cornwall, where a rude rough 
roisterer is called to this day a Goring. 


Banquets Ghost. It is said, I know not on what 
authority, that John Kemble attempted to play 
the banquet scene in Macbeth without the visible 
appearance of the ghost of Banquo ; but the gal- 
leries took offence, and roared " Ghost ! ghost ! " 
till Banquo was obliged to come on, and take the 
chair. I have heard the late " Thomas Ingoldsby" 
praise Kemble highly for the improvement, and 
regret that he was not allowed to free the stage 
from Banquo's ghost, as Garrick did from those of 
Jaffier and Pierre. In his own tale of Hamilton 
Tighe " Ingoldsby " made the ghost a phantom of 
the mind, with good effect : 
" 'Tis ever the same, in hall or bower, 
Wherever the place, whatever the hour, 
The lady mutters, and talks to the air, 
And her eye is fixed on an empty chair, 
And the mealy-faced boy still whispers with dread, 
' She talks to a man with never a head.' " 

No man was less disposed than Ingoldsby to 
borrow a thought without acknowledgment : but 
though the omission of the ghost might have been 
suggested by Kemble, I think the peculiar epithet 
mealy-faced traces it back to Lloyd : 
'When chilling horrors shake th' affrighted king, 
And guilt torments him with her scorpion's sting; 
When keenest feelings at his bosom pull, 
And fancy tells him that the seat is full ; 
Why need the ghost usurp the monarch's place, 
To frighten children with his mealy face, 
The king alone should form the phantom there, 
And talk and tremble at the vacant chair." 

The Poetical Works of Robert Lloyd, A. M. 
London, 1774. 

II. B. C. 

Garrick Club, 

Reverence to the Altar. '!\IQ Huntingdonshire 
country-folks in this neighbourhood have the fol- 
lowing custom^ When they come into church, if 
the clergyman is already in the desk, they curtsey 
or bow, as they turn from the aisle into their 
places. They thus bow towards the east; and 
when I first saw this done, I imagined them to be 
keeping up the ancient ceremony of "reverence 

to the altar." I soon discovered, however, that 
their obeisance was meant for the clergyman alone, 
and was made only by those that entered the 
church after the service had commenced. But 
may not this mark of respect have been transferred 
to the clergyman, and be a trace of that originally 
paid to the altar ? CUTIIBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Woman executed by Burning at Dublin. A 
gentleman is still alive, or was so very recently, 
who saw the last woman who was burned in Dub- 
lin at the place of public execution, which was 
where^the handsome and fashionable street called 
Fitzwilliam Street now is; and I am acquainted 
with a gentleman whose kitchen fireplace was as 
nearly as possible on the spot. GINIETA. 

" The proper study of mankind is man." This 
sentiment is fairly due to Socrates, being his cha- 
racteristic doctrine. Mr. Grote says (History of 
Greece, vol. ix. p. 573.), " That the proper study 
of mankind is man' Socrates was the first to pro- 
claim," referring especially to Xenophon, who in 
Memor. i. 1. says, " Man, and what related to 
man, were the only subjects on which he chose to 
employ himself," as distinguished from the other 
philosophers of his day, who engaged in fruitless 
physical speculations. J. P. 


The father of a neighbour of mine, who was an 
officer under General \Vinfield Scott, of the Ame- 
rican army upon the Canadian frontier, during 
what we call in the United States " the last war 
with Great Britain," or "the war of 1812," as- 
sisted at the battle of Brandywine, or some other 
of the engagements of that contest, in capturing 
an English officer of rank. The latter had a con- 
siderable quantity of plate among his baggage, 
which was taken possession of by his captors. This 
spoil was not held long, for the American officer 
to whom I refer was himself taken prisoner, and 
the plate taken from him. One silver mustard 
spoon, however, escaped the search to which "he 
was subjected, and remained in his possession, and 
is now preserved as a trophy. It is concerning 
that spoon that I make tin's Query. It is rather 
heavy, the bowl gilt upon the inside. There is 
engraved upon it a crown surmounting a garter, 
encircling a lion's head passant gardant ; upon the 
garter is engraved "ROYAL N E (here the rim of 
the crown interferes with letters, as I suppose) 
LAND REGT.," being according to my notion an 
abbreviation of the words " Royal New England 
Regiment." The Goldsmiths' Hall marks upon 
the back are u lion passant, the letter I, a head, 
the hair in a bag-wig, and bust, which though small 
bears a resemblance to those of George II. or III., 
and the letters J. B. I have given these mark?, 



[No. 141. 

because they may furnish a clue to the time the 
spoon was mnnufactured. I presume that the 
spoon originally belonged to the mess of the Royal 
Nesv England Regiment, and was perhaps trans- 
ferred to some other British regiment ; and I send 
this Query in hope that some of your readers may 
furnish information upon the subject. There 
were several regiments raised in the American 
colonies before the revolutionary war. In 1744 
Massachusetts and the New England colonies 
raised a regiment which was commanded by Col. 
Win. Pepperell, an American, and the troops 
under his direction succeeded in capturing Louis- 
burgh or Cape Breton in 1745. After the peace 
negotiated at Aix-la-Chapelle, Cape Breton was 
surrendered to the French, and in 1758 again 
captured by forces of which New England troops 
were a part. Regiments from the same colonies 
assisted in taking Carthagena, in the attack upon 
Havanna, and in the capture of Canada. Notices 
and references to the "King's American Regi- 
ment" are frequently to be met with during this 
war, but I have seen none bearing the name con- 
cerning which this Query is made. In Sabine's 
History of the American Loyalists, the titles of the 
various provincial regiments and companies which 
took the part of the mother-country during the 
revolution are given : there is none bearing the 
title in question. I conjecture that the " Royal 
New England Regiment" was that of Colonel 
Pepperell raised in 1744, because subsequently 
each colony raised its own regiment ; and in 
hopes that some of your readers may be able to 
throw light on the subject, I ask for information 
of its history, and should like to know to what 
modern British regiment the mess service of the 
N. E. Regiment was transferred. 

Philadelphia, U. S. A., June 5, 1852. 


In Rees 1 Cyclopcedia, article "Ross," is the fol- 
lowing passage : 

" The ruins of Wilton Castle above mentioned stand 

on the Western bank of the Wye Its present 

ruinous condition is to be attributed to the royalist 
governors of Hereford, by whose orders the whole ol 
the interior was destroyed by fire." 

If it be true that this castle was destroyed by 
the royalists, it would seem probable that it was 
burnt during the siege of Hereford in 1645, and 
that the then inhabitants of the castle were Par- 

George, sixth lord Chandos of Sudeley, the head 
of the noble .family of Bridges during" tli3 grea 
rebellion, was an active royalist. He" was buried 
at Sudeley in the year 1654. His uncle, Sir 
Giles Bridges, in his will dated 1624, mentions his 

own brother William Bridges, of London, Esq., 
and that the said William had then two sons living. 
Another Sir Giles Bridges, of Wilton Castle, 
Bart., to whom, the above-mentioned William was 
irst cousin once removed, mentions, in his will 
dated 1634, Robert and William Bridges, of Wil- 
son, gentlemen, brothers. 

The late Mr. Beltz, Lancaster Herald, in his 
Review of the Chandos Peerage Case, states these 
genealogical facts, and inquires 

'Who were these Robert and William, and what 
became of them ? Were they the two sons of William 
of London mentioned in 1624?" 

I would inquire further 

1. Is anything known respecting William 
Bridges, who was a lieutenant in the Lord Brook's 
regiment in the army under the Earl of Essex in. 

2. What were the political opinions of Sir John 
Brydges, of Wilton Castle, Bart., who died in 
Brydges Street, Covent Garden, in February, 

3. Whence is the statement in Rees derived, 
and where may be found a full account of the 
circumstances which led to the destruction of 
Wilton Castle? 

An old chair, said to have been saved from the 
fire at Wilton Castle, was in the possession of the 
housekeeper at Thornbury Castle, in Gloucester- 
shire, five-and-twenty years since. Is this chair 
still in existence, and is any tradition preserved 
respecting it at Thornbury ? 



Naturalists must all be much indebted to 
Messrs. Strickland and Melville's excellent (I 
might, almost say, perfect) monograph on The 
Dodo and its Kindred. In that charming and 
scientific volume the authors have given us almost 
all the information that could be collected relative 
to that curious extinct bird. I had the pleasure, 
however, subsequent to its publication, of com- 
munioatinn: to Mr. Strickland a passage from 
Randle Holme's Acadernie of Armory (p. 289., 
Chester, 1688), which he had overlooked. Mr. 
Strickland published this as a Supplementary Note 
in the Annals of Natural History (Second Series, 
No. 16., for April, 1849). Holme says: 
beareth sable a Dodo or Dronte, proper, by the 
name of Dronte," and then gives an account of the 

Now it has always puzzled naturalists why tl 
Dodo was called a Dronte. MR. STRICKLAND asb 
in an early Number of your publication whether 
any family of this name was known to exist ; and, 
if so, where ; and what were their arms : as much 
light might be thrown upon the subject in this 
w*ay. I am afraid that it only existed in Holme's 

JULY 10. 1852.] 


brain ; but still further research may bring curious 
matter forward. It is not probable, I think, that 
any English family of that name existed. Perhaps 
some of your foreign heraldic readers may clear up 
the question. In the meanwhile, allow me to 
make the following conjecture: It is by no 
means clear why the bird was called a " Dodo." 
Most people think from his dull stupid look and 
behaviour. Hence he was styled Dodo or fool, 
and Dodaers, an epithet which would seem to im- 


ly he was one of those Christians to whom old 

Licliard Baxter would have applied a " Shove." 
However, be this as it may, it is clear there were 
several persons who bore this name. The witty 
writer of a review of MR. STRICKLAND'S work in 
Blackwood (January, 1849) mentions two ; a third 
founded Tewkesbury Abbey; a fourth was Bishop 
of Angers in 837. From these it is evident the 
Dodos were decidedly a church family. I find a 
fifth gentleman of this name: "Athelstan Dodo, 
ills du Comte Dodo, -fut au temps de la Conqueste 
Comte d'Ardene et de Someril, et Sieur de Dudley, 
-ou il fut inhume porte or 2 lions passans azur." 
{Add. MSS. 17,455. British Museum.) A sixth 
worthy Dodo I made acquaintance with in Moreri's 
great Dictionary, and it is to this excellent gentle- 
man (also ecclesiastical) I would call the attention 
of your readers. '"'Dodo (Augustin), natif de la 
province de Frise, dans les Pays Bas, et Chanoine 
de S. Leonard a Basle." He was the first collec- 
tor of St. Augustine's works. He was carried off 
"par une maladie contagieuse" in 1501 ; and thus 
perished the last human Dodo I have been able to 
trace. Whether his cranium and legs are -pre- 
served anywhere, I cannot say. Now, what were 
Mr. Augustin Dodo's armorial be irings I know 
not. He was a native, however, of Friesland. On 
the east of this country is the small province of 
Drenthe. Was Drenthe ever included in Fries- 
land ; or, at all events, would not all come perhaps 
tinder the denomination " Frisia ? " Here, then, 
at the commencement of the sixteenth century, 
was living a family of the name of Dodo. Were 
they Dodos of Drenthe? When +he Dutch 
discovered Mauritius, might 'they not have named 
the new bird in honour, or otherwise, of Mr. 
Dodo of Drenthe, to whom perhaps some of 
the discoverers might have been related? Has 
Dronte any affinity to Drenthe? Perhaps the 
herald painters, in blazoning the arms of Dodo, 
had figured a queer-looking bird, and the Dutch 
voyagers named their unwieldy, unpalatable, 
walgh-vogeh after him, for want of a better de- 
scription. Heraldry might throw some light upon 
the subject. My own family, in contradistinction 
to other Hoopers, have for some generations borne 
a Hooper, or wild swan, for their crest; and verily 
upon some of the more ancient family spoons he 
looketh more like a Dodo than a Hooper ; and 
some future Handle Holme may describe him as a 

" Dronthe proper," as he is most decidedly a 
Hooper improper. Pray, then, Mr. Editor, do try 
and settle the question (if you can) why was the 
Dodo called a Dronte ? RICHARD HOOPER. 

St. Stephen's, Westminster. 

Similitude of an Eagle in a Broken Stalk. It is 
well known that if the stem of a braken or female 
fern be cut across near the root, the veins or ves- 
sels present the appearance of a spreading oak tree. 
Linne likened them to a spread eagle, and called 
the fern Pteris Aquilina. In Erasmus's famous 
colloquy, The Religious Pilgrimage, the same idea 
occurs : 

" Perhaps people may fancy the likeness of a toad ia 
the stone, as they do that of an eagle in the stalk of a 
brake or fern." Sir Roger L'Estrange's Trans., 1725. 

Or, as an older translation gives it : 

" Peradventure they ymagyne the symylytude of a 

tode to be there : even as we suppose when we cntte the 

fearne stalke there to be an egle." 

What is the earliest mention of this idea of re- 
semblance to an eagle? I have not a Pliny by me, 
but, as well as I remember, he does not mention it. 
The resemblance to an oak is very striking ; to an 
eagle, very fanciful. I never could hit on the latter 
in any fern I ever cut, MARICONDA. 

Dictionnaire BibliograpMque. Who is the 
author of Dictionnaire BibliograpMque, ou, Nouveaw 
Manuel du Libraire et de V Amateur de Liores, par 
M.'P**** *, printed at Paris in 1 824 ? Is it by 
M.Peignot? W.J.B. 

Continental Writers on Popular Antiquities. 
Are there any works in German, Italian, French, 
Spanish, or Portuguese, which treat of popular 
superstitious agricultural customs in the several 
countries of Europe ; like Brande's Popular Anti- 
quities, and a book by Wright in two vols. ? 

F. O. W. 

Was William the Conqueror buried without a. 
Coffin. ? The words of Ordericus Vitalis are 
(lib. vii. sub fin., ad ann. 1087 ; ap. Gesta Nor- 
mannorum, p. 662.) : 

" Porrd, dum corpus in sarcofagum mitteretur, et 
violenter, quia vets per imprudentiam coementariorum 
breve structum erat, complicaretur, pinguissimus venter 
crepuit," &c. 

How should the word vas be interpreted ? 


Comitissa Ysabel. In Madox's Formulare An- 
gVcarum, n. cccc., among the witnesses to a dona- 
tion of tithes from Baderon de Monmouth to the 
Priory of Monmouth, occur the names of Odo 
Striguiliensis Prior, and Comitissa Ysabel. Can 
any one kindly inform me who the latter person 



[No. 141. 

was ? Can she be the same who is mentioned by 
Beziers (Sommaire Histoire de la Ville de Bayeux, 
ed. a Caen, 1773, p. 218.) as Isabelle de Dovre? 


Etymology and Meaning of Hie Word "Snike ? " 
" After Christ's doctrine prevail'd, and Satan's king- 
dom began to snike, and Paganism and Idolatry were 
growing into contempt." P. 17. of A Sermon preached 
by Rev. Charles Hawys, Vicar of Chebsey, near Stafford, 
before John, Lord Bishop of Lielifield and Coventry, 
-4pril 26, 1705. 


" Sacrum plague dabo" 8fC. Can any of your 
contributors inform me who is the author of that 
remarkably clever line : 

" Sacrum pingue dabo non macruni sacriucabo." 
Thus written it is an hexameter, and refers to 
Abel's sacrifice. But read backwards, thus : 

" Sacrificabo macrura non dabo pingue sacrum," 
it is a pentameter, and refers to that of Cain. n$. 

Can a Man baptize Himself? The question 
which has been mooted in " N. & Q ," as to 
whether a clergyman can marry himself? and 
which I am inclined to answer in the affirmative, 
recalls one of a more doubtful nature, which sug- 
gested itself to me under certain circumstances, 
viz., whether or not a person avouching that he 
had solemnly baptized himself with water, " in the 
name," &c., would not be in the same position, 
relatively to the church, as if he had been bap- 
tized by another layman ? Of course I merely 
put the case hypothetical ly, and not to defend it. 
And, query, what is the authority or propriety of 
a practice common at the administration of the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper in our churches, 
that when a minister and his curate are both 
present at the communion table, the former not 
only receives the bread and the wine from his own 
hand, but addresses himself, altering the words 
from " keep thy bod) 7 ," &c., to " keep my body," 
&c., his brother clergyman standing or kneeling 
close beside him meanwhile ? W. 

Seal of Mary Queen of Scots. I have recently 
obtained possession of a white crystal seal, said to 
be the stone of a signet ring belonging to Mary 
Queen of Scots ; it was sold at the death of the 
late Earl of Buchan, in whose family it is said to 
have begn since the death of Queen Mary : and is 
curious as quartering the arms of England with 
those of France, Ireland, and Scotland, showing 
that the unfortunate queen laid claim to this 
country, in spite of her disclaiming it. E. A. S. 

Portraits of Mary Queen of Scots. What authen- 
tic prints and portraits give the best idea of Mary's 
great beauty? The small portrait at Ilolyrood, 
and one in Dibdin's Bibliomania (whence did he 

get it ?), are more beautiful than most I have seen. 
That of Amias Orwood, at Abbotsford, is very 
painful, and, making allowance for the circum- 
stances under which it was taken, age, and many 
troublous years of captivity, it retains no traces of 
that once fascinating beauty. Sir Walter Scott 

" I observe that both these great connoisseurs (appa- 
rently Horace Walpole and C. K. Sharpe) were very 
nearly, if not quite agreed, that there are no absolutely 
undoubted originals of Queen Mary. But how, then, 
should we be so very distinctly informed as to her 
features ! What has become of all the originals which 
suggested these innumerable copies? Surely Mary 
must have been as unfortunate in this as in other parti- 
culars of her life." Life, chap. Ixv. 

What became of the " curious and original por- 
trait on panel " of Mary, in the Strawberry Hil! 
collection ? 

Let me ask also who composed the air to which 
"Mary Queen of Scots' Lament" is generally 
sung ? I may remark here that what Mr. Coxe 
has translated as the "Lament" is her "Prayer." 


I Death, a Bill of Exchange. Our expression, 
"to pay the debt of nature," in the sense of " to 
die," has been fancifully improved upon by the 
French in the following adage : 

" La mort est tine lettre de change que Ton signe en 
naissant, et qu'on ne laisse jamais protester le jour de 

I have searched for this among the Moralistes 
Franqais (Pascal, Larochefoucauld, &c.), where it 
was most likely to be met with, but in vain. Who 
is the author ? HENRY H. BREBN. 

St. Lucia. 

The Flemish Clothiers in Wales. , 

" The Seltce Comuni, a small German colony esta- 
blished, beyond the reach of historical documents, in 
the North of Italy, the Greeks of Piana dei Greci, near 
Palermo, the Flemish clotJiiers in Wales, settled there for 
many centuries, all retain dialects, more or less impure, 
of their mother tongue, and afford some of the many 
proofs which might be brought, how difficult it is to 
root out any language." Cardinal Wiseman's Lectures, 
p. 201. 

Can any of your Welsh readers inform me *n 
what part of Wales the Flemish clothiers esta- 
blished themselves, and when ? And do their de- 
scendants still inhabit that locality ? If they do, is 
their language or dialect distinct from the Welsh, 
or is it mixed with it, and yet distinguishable ? 

F. M. 

Six Thousand Years. The idea that 6000 
years are to form the world's duration, appears to 
be very widely spread. In addition to " Elijah's 
(?) prophecy" (Vol. v., p. 441.), the Etrurian ac- 
count of the Creation, recorded by Suidas, con- 

JULY 10. 1852.] 


tains the same tradition : " The Creator spent 
6000 years in creation ; 6000 more are allotted to 
the earth" (Quoted in Fausset's Livy). And ] 
have met with the notion elsewhere. Where is it 
traced to have originated ? Have any modern 
divines adopted it ? A. A. D 

Sir Roger de Comrley (Vol. v., p. 467.)- 
When did this dance first receive the name of Sir 
Roger de Coverley? "My Aunt Margery" is 
the name under which it is performed in Virginia, 
U. S. Which is the earlier name ? 


The Names and Numbers of British Regiments. 
Under the above title I made some inquiries 
through the " N. & Q. " so far back as November 
last (Vol. iv., p. 368.), with the view of eliciting 
certain information; but I regret the questions 
then put have not been responded to. Hoping 
that some of your military, or other readers, may 
yet be able to supply answers, I beg again to 

1. When did the present mode of numbering 
regiments begin ; and by whom and under what 
circumstances was it introduced ; the former prac- 
tice having been to distinguish regiments by par- 
ticular names, such as Barrell's, Howard's, Ligo- 
nier's, &c., without any number ? 

2. What is the guide now in identifying a 
named with a numbered regiment; and is there 
any particular book where this information may 
be had ? Z. 


A Delectable Discourse on Fishing. In Dyer's 
Privileges of the University of Cambridge, vol. i. 
p. 576., is mentioned a manuscript entitled A De- 
lectable Discourse on Fishing. What is this work ? 
Has it ever been republished amongst any of the 
numerous angling reprints ? BONSALL. 

" Fm the Laird of Windy Walls:' 1 In a copy of 
Sir Francis Drake Revival (London, 1653), on 
the back of the portrait of Drake are a few lines 
in an old hand, beginning 

" I'm the Laird of Windy Walls, I came here not with- 
out a cause, 

And waile I gotten many fawes, and yett I am not 
slain, Jo." 

They are signed " Bartholomew Rouse." 
^ Are these the beginning of any ballad of the 
time, or do they in any way refer to Sir Francis 


^. Philarmonica. Can any musical reader 
give me information respecting a set of trios en- 
titled Sonate a due Violini col Violoncello obbli- 
gato (sic) o Violone o Cimbalo di Mrs. Philar- 
monica. Partfi Prima. A Londre Imprime per 
R. Mearcs, a L'enseigne de la Base Viole Dor, dans 
le Cometeire (sic) de St. Paul. T. Cross sculpsit. 
'1 his first part consists of six sonatas : then a fresh 

title-page introduces six more in these words, 
Diuertimente da Camera a due Violini Violoncello 
o Cembalo. Parte Seconda. T. Cross sculpsit. 


Admiral Sir Richard I. Strachan, K.C.B. 
Being a kinsman of this excellent and ill-used 
officer, and being engaged in collecting information 
regarding his life, may I request the assistance of 
any of the numerous readers of the " N. & Q.'* 
that can give any information on the subject? 
Beyond the parliamentary papers, the meagre 
and unsatisfactory notice in Marshall's Naval 
Biography, and Allan's Battles of the British 
Navy, I have been disappointed in my search ; 
and can neither procure a portrait nor an engrav- 
ing of one so distinguished, and who so lately 
passed away. T. W. 


The Ogden and Westcott Families (Vol. ii., pp. 73. 
105, 106.). TWYFORD says that a member 01 the 
Ogden family settled in America about the year 
1 790. I am a lineal descendant of an Ogden of 
New Jersey, who settled there about the year 
mentioned. If TWYFORD can give any particulars 
concerning the Ogden who emigrated to America, 
he would oblige me much. 

Can any of your readers give me any inform- 
ation as to the family history of Stukely Westcott, 
who settled in Salem, New Jersey, in 1639, and 
afterwards went to Rhode Island? There are 
many Westcotts now about Providence, Rhode 
Island : and the southern part of New Jersey 
abounds with them. There is a legend that the 
Jersey Westcotts are all descendants of three 
brothers. Stukely Westcott may have been one 
of the three : but it would be a matter of interest; 
to their descendants to know from what English 
stock they are descended. 2)23, 

Philadelphia, U.S. A., June, 1852. 

Licenser of the Press. Where will be found any 
list of persons filling this office ? When did it 
commence, and when did it cease ? Gr. 


(Vol. v., p. 491.) 

I do not myself know anything of Mr. Bertram, 
the editor of Richard of Cirencester De Situ Bri- 
tannia; but one of the most learned men in the 
north, Mr. E. C. Werlauff, the chief librarian of 
the Royal Library here, and Professor of History 
at our University, has communicated to me the 
'ollowing Notes containing some particulars of the 
ife and writings of Mr. Bertram : 

" C. J. Bertram was, according to Worm, For- 
fatter Lexicon (Dictionary of Authors}, born in 
1723. In 1747, he petitioned the consistorium, or 



[No. 141. 

the Senate at the University of Copenhagen, to be 
made a student, notwithstanding his belonging to 
the Church of England. He declared his inten- 
tion to study especially history, antiquities, philo- 
sophy, and mathematics. In 1748, he petitioned 
the 'King of Denmark for permission to give public 
lectures upon the English language; he had at 
that time been ten years in Denmark, and had 
indirectly been called to this country by King 
Christian VI. He died the 8th of January, 1765. 
In the years 1749 1753, he published some papers 
on the subject of the English grammar. In the 
last of these, Grundig Anviisning tit det engelshe 
Sprogs Kundskab, 1753 (True directions for a per- 
fect knowledge of the English language), he gives 
several favorable opinions of the professors Hoi- 
berg, Mollmann, Anchersen, &c., as well of this 
work as of his literary essays in general. 

" Of his English Scriptores no manuscript exists 
at the Royal Library of Copenhagen. Neither 
are any testamentary dispositions as to his manu- 
scripts known. But at the said Royal Library 
is .preserved an English MS. containing critical 
notes and observations to the history of Canute 
the Great, taken from Old English and Icelandic 
writings. This fragment must have been copied 
by some one who did not know English. The 
Catalogue, however, supposes that it originally has 
been written by Mr. Bertram. 

" The historian Suhm mentions Bertram's Ri- 
cardus Corinensis among the works he has 
made use of for his book upon the origin of the 
Scandinavian people Om de Nordiske Folks Oprin- 
delse, 1770 ; but perhaps it must be regarded as 
more important that Lappenberg, in his Geschichte 
Englan'ls, pp. 16. 41. 57., quotes the books as 
genuine." J. J. A. WORSAAE. 

Copenhagen. ! 


(Vol. v., p. 510.) 

The Query of HYPADIDASCULUS reminds me of 
one of my own, viz. : What had become of the 
Bib. Scot. Poetica of Chalmers and Ritson ? When 
Ritson's MS. fell into the hands of the former, 
there were great hopes that a work worthy the 
fame of both these eminent bibliographers would 
be the result : but whatever were the plans enter-* 
tained by either, they did not live to carry them 
out. If it however be true, that theso precious 
MSS. have got into the good hands of a gentle- 
man on the other side the Tweed, remarkable for 
his enthusiasm for all that appertains to the Antient 
Popular Poetry of his country, we may probably 
yet look for a standard work of reference upon all 
subjects connected with the poetical or dramatic 
literature of Scotland. 

With respect to Robert Forbes, it appears to 
me that your correspondent has asked for the 

wrong person at Peterculter's, the Tower Hill 
shopkeeper, instead of the "Dominie." The 
"Dominie Deposed" I have in a variety of forms, 
but it is uniformly ascribed on the title to " Willm. 
Forbes, M.A., late schoolmaster at Peterculter;'* 
while " Ajax His Speech," also often printed, is as 
distinctly assigned, on similar authority, to " R. F. 
Gent. !" extended in the " Shop-bill,'* which forms 
part of the book, to " Robert Forbes." 

Campbell, in his History of Scottish Poetry, a 
work both of limited impression and information, 
speaks of Win. Forbes as a man of ingenuity and 
learning, whose story is told in his loose produc- 
tion, namely, that a love for illicit amours, and 
the " wee drap drink," had brought to the condi- 
tion significantly described in the "sequel:" 

' Which makes me now wear reddish wool 
Instead of black." 

Narrating as it does, not very decently, the 
" intrigues," " drouthy habits," and their conse- 
quence to the hero, the "Dominie Deposed'* 
had a good circulation as a kind of Scot's Chap 
until a better species of literature for the million 
sprang up. 

Peter Buchan, the Aberdeenshire ballad collec- 
tor, notices another poet of this name, the Rev. 
Jno. Forbes, A.M., of Pitnacalder, and minister of 
Deer ; who is, curiously enough, the author of a 
piece bearing some resemblance both in name and 
style to that of the Peterculter schoolmaster. The 
"Dominie Deposed" shows how severely the 
Kirk-session handled its author, but we do not 
hear what ecclesiastical censure the minister of 
Deer was subjected to for such improprieties as 
the following extract from " Nae Dominies for me 
Laddie " exhibits : 
" But for your sake [sings the Rev. John] I'll fleece 

the flock, 
Grow rich as I grow auld, lassie; 

If I be spared, I'll be a laird, 

And thou be Madam called, lassie." 

I ought, however, to note that these were the 
sentiments of the minister before he took orders ; 
and, although one would think the Presbytery 
should have paused before entrusting " the flock" 
to a shepherd with such antecedents, the pastor of 
Deer turned out a very worthy character. J. O. 

(Vol. v., pp. 416. 594.) 

I possess the copy of the above work mentioned 
at p. 416., purchased at Rodd's sale. The title is 
as follows : 

" An Effectual Shove to the Heavy-arse Christian 
. . . Prepare to meet thy Gad ... by Willian Bunyan, 
Minister of the Gospel in South Wales. London: 
printed for the Author, and sold by J. Roson, St. 
Martin's-le- Grand, 1768." 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



This startling title is succeeded by an excellent 
sermon, in no wise alluding to the announcement 
by hint or innuendo. This sermon, or sermons, is 
simply an earnest call to repentance for sin, and a 
declaration of the better grounds for happiness, 
both in this world and the next, for those who live 
a godly life here. The " Epistle to the Reader " 
begins as follows : 

" Reader, when I preached the following sermons, I 
had not the least thought of publishing them ; they 
were taken from my mouth by a dexterous and nimble 
hand, that wrote almost every word I uttered : I was 
very much solicited to print them, and the notes being 
written out fair, and brought to me, I have looked 
them over, and now they are presented to thee, with a 
design that they may be beneficial, and not without 
hope they will be so. The subjects here handled are 
awakening ; and in this secure age, what need is there 
of startling sermons," &c. 

I do not see (from a hasty glance) that either 
Lowndes or Watt allude to this work. 

In my copy there is a loose print inserted of the 
following character : a long bodied dragon, whose 
carcase is shaped like a cannon, is discharging 
serpents, daggers, scourges, &c., at a divine of the 
Church of England, who holds in his hand an open 
Bible, on which is the text : " On this rock I will 
build my church," &c. On the forked tail of this 
monster is seated a female figure playing on a 
fiddle, and inscribed "the whore of Babylon." 
The beast has seven heads, with a label on each ; 
on one of which is written, " A Shove to y e Heavy 
Arst Christian." A devil is applying (with evi- 
dent caution against the recoil) a long red-hot 
rod to the touch-hole. Underneath this precious 
print are twenty-one lines of verse. The print is 
headed " Faction display U" BONSALL. 


(Vol.v., p. 581.; Vol. vi., p. 18.) 
Your interesting Notes tend greatly to bring 
one better acquainted with his own library. 

On reading that of your correspondent F. R. A. 
(p. 581.) I reached me down my copy of Hope's 
Thoughts, and began to turn it over with increased 
interest; coming upon his "Northern Pastoral," 
it occurred to me that I had seen it elsewhere, 
and drawing forth another volume from my shelf 
of " Anonymes," I found it to be the original stem 
of Mr. H.'s Thoughts, under the title of Occasional 
Attempts at Sentimental Poetry, by a Man in 
Business; with some Miscellaneous Compositions 
by his Friends, 8vo., London, 1769.* Besides 

* The discovery, if one at all, is unimportant, except 
in so far as it affords an example of the practical appli- 
cation of the capital hint of your correspondent M. 
("Vol. v., p. 271.), that you may sometimes find at 
home what you may seek for in vain farther a.field. 

these, Mr. H. wrote The New Brighthelmstone 
Guide; or, Sketches in Miniature of the British 
Shore, London, 1770, in the style of Anstey; and 
Watt assigns him Letters on Certain Proceedings 
in Parliament during the Session of 1769 and 70, 
London, 1772. 

The bibliography of Hope's Thoughts is curious, 
inasmuch as the same publication seems to have 
issued from three different places, with new titles, 
the same year ; that of F. R. A. bearing London ; 
another Edinburgh, C. Elliott, 1780; while mine 
has the following title and imprint, viz., Thoughts 
in Prose and Verse, started in his Walks, by J. H. 

" Together let us beat this ample field," &c. 
Stockton, printed by R. Christopher, and sold at 
Lon Ion by W. Goldsmith, &c., 1780, 8vo., pp. 349, 
dedicated to "the officers of the Northampton- 
shire militia," by way of 7'eturn for the " infinite 
pleasure" he had enjoyed in their company. As 
the London publishers have few friends at the 
moment, one hit at them, more or less, will do no 
harm; here, then, is Mr. H.'s opinion of them 
seventy years ago, in explanation of his provincial 
imprint : 

" If my book should not meet with a ready sale, I 
have, to those of the critics, two reasons to add, which 
will save my vanity some little pain. The .first is, 
that my printer could not provide me with as good a 
paper as I wished for, without waiting a longer time 
for it than I meant to remain at Stockton. Th&secorcc? 
deserves to be generally known: there is in London 
a certain combination of booksellers who discourage 
everything that comes from a country press, and would 
willingly make a monopoly of their own. But though 
I would always show a proper respect to polite com- 
pany by introducing myself to them in my best suit, I 
am never displeased at obtruding myself on a-pareel of 
purse-proud fellows with my rusty coat on." 

As an extract from the poetical part of Mr. H.'s 
amusing volume will afford at once a sample 
thereof, and a peg upon which to hang a biogra- 
phical note for F. R. A., allow me to introduce 
to your readers the following " Picture of my 
Family in 1767:" 
"When daubd and bespatter'd with rnud and with 


In riding from town to my own country fire, 
I enter the house (in like dirty condition 
As was fatty Slop, the Shandyan physician, 
When he fell from his poney, with projectile force, ; 
At the terrible sight of Ob'cliah's coach- horse) 
My two stoutest lads, with a thundering din, 
Come galloping to me, to welcome me in. 
In each hand a prattler, I march to the parlour ; 
There Madam sits suckling her dear little snarler ; 
The youngest, I mean, who s got snuffling his nose, 
Where I my dull noddle would gladly repose. 
Tho' dirty I look'd as the Doctor 'foresaid, 
Pray, let not the simile farther be read ; 
Foi\ in grandeur, I seem'd as the arms of this land, 
That tween two supporters illustriously stand : 



[No. 141* 

A fierce, noble lion, and his unicorn mate, 
Prance, proudly erect, and attend them in state. 
A kind kiss having had (a sweet welcome to home !) 
I forthwith begin to disorder the room. 
I pull off my boots ; but not such as sly Trim, 
To please uncle Toby, in humorous whim, 
Converted to mortars ; but such as he might 
Make field-pieces of, full as dread in a fight. 
Yet not such as Hudibras stuff 'd bread and cheese 

The rats and the mice with the scent so -well 


That oft they their noses attempted to squeeze in ; 
But, not with comparisons longer to tire, 
These boots, as they are, I set up at the fire. 
Quick, arch-looking John pops the dog into one, 
As the dwarf thrust Gulliver into the bone; 
And Charles, who is ever as keen at a joke, 
With matter combustible makes t'other smoke. 
Having, farther, my surtout thrown down on a chair, 
And haul'd out my slippers from under the stair, 
I'm challeng'd by Madam to walk out and play 
With the sweet little Cupids, while yet it is day. 
Then out we all sally, with loud-shouting noise, 
And joyful acclaim from the two elder boys ; 
With her suckling Maria trips lightly along ; 
Leads, smiling, the van, as she hums us a song. 
Next follows the kitten, pursu'd by the dog 
( For teazing poor kitten there's ne'er such a rogue), 
She squalling and mewing, he barking before us, 
Assist in our music, to fill up the chorus. 
But how you would laugh, to behold in the rear, 
The scene we exhibit (a scene the most queer !) 
In Holland, I doubt not, with wonder you've seen, 
Trail'd on by one nag, needy doctor's machine ; 
A carriage have we, full as light to the feel, 
That runs without horse, and that has but one wheel ; 
With pompous big phrase I e'er scorn to beguile, 
A barrow 'tis call'd in plain, vulgar style ; 
In which having stowed my two shouting boys, 
And fill'd up the bottom with hay and with toys, 
I put to my hand, and on wheeling the barrow, 
Cry, ' Who'll buy my puddings ? nice puddings of 

marrow ! ' 

As the children then chuckle, I surely am pleas'd : 
Thus see by how little from care I am eas'd ; 
Hence learn to contain, in a space full as narrow, 
And carry your wishes all in a wheel-barrow." 
The actors in this pleasant domestic sketch were 
John Hope, our author, nephew of the Earl of 
Hopetoun, and Marq. of Annandale, being the 
son of the Honourable Charles Hope and Lady 
Henrietta Johnstone, and born in 1739 ; a London 
merchant, and M.P. at one period for West Lo- 
thian. The lady his " lov'd Maria," the daugh- 
ter of E. Breton, Esq., of Forty Hill, Enfield, who, 
the same year this happy picture was drawn by 
the fond husband and father, and then only twenty- 
five, committed suicide ! her death, on the 25th of 
June, 1767, is recorded on a marble slab in West- 
minster Abbey. The contents of the barrow, 
Charles and John Hope, were the future Lord 
President of the Court of Session, and General 

Sir John Hope ; and the third, the " suckling,''' 
the last of this distinguished group, the late Vice- 
Admiral Sir William Johnstone Hope, for many 
years one of the Lords of the Admiralty. The 
obituary of 1785 records, under " Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne," the sudden death of our author, 
John Hope, there at the early age of forty- six. 



(Vol. v., pp. 441. 523.) 

Your correspondent C. B. (Vol. v., p. 523.) in j 
reply to a question (Vol. v., p. 441.) relating to 
an " optical phenomenon," gives a solution which 
is partly satisfactory. The screen, used to inter- ; 
cept a portion of the rays, doubtless assists visipaj 
on that account, but not to the extent we have inj 
this instance. 

In the first place, the phenomenon in question ! 
can happen only to a short-sighted person, whereas 
intercepting the unnecessary rays by a diaphragm,' 
assists all varieties of vision equally, or nearly so. ' 

The cause of the phenomenon I believe to be 
the following : 

Every spherical lens produces, as is well known, 
a certain amount of " aberration," on its bringing; 
rays to a focus after passing through it, i. e. thai 
rays passing through, near its outside edges, are' 
brought to a shorter focus than those which pass 
through nearer to the centre of the lens. Thej 
interval between the two extreme foci, measured 
on the axis of the lens, is the amount of aberration J 
It will be obvious that the formation of so many! 
images at so many distinct foci must produce con-J 

Now it is well known also that the lens in a.1 
short-sighted eye, being too convex, or having too j 
great refractive power, brings its rays to a focus 
too soon, ' i. e. Before they reach the retina ; it is 
also (being a spherical lens) subject to the " aber- 
ration " above mentioned ; if then you cut off the 
outside rays, which are brought to the shorter 
focus, and allow only the centre rays to pass, 
which converge to the more distant focus, you 
thereby destroy the indistinct images ; leaving only 
that one which is formed nearest the retina, t ; 
which the short-sighted eye can more readily adapt 
itself, and, consequently, vision is rendered more-i 

Another instance of the very same phenomenon 
is the practice of cutting oif the outside rays from 
the aperture of an astronomical telescope, by an 
opaque rin<* placed before the object-glass ; a 
practice which is familiar to those accustomed t< 
use telescopes of large apertures on difficult double 

If in a brass plate a hole be made of the dia- 
meter of *033 in., a short-sighted person will on 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



Jooking through it, find his vision greatly assisted. 
If another be made '025 in., the advantage will 
be still greater ; and with one '0166 in. greater 
still, indeed almost equal to that derived from a 
concave lens. Beyond this there does not appear 
to be any advantage, on account of the loss of 

Now this circumstance leads us to infer, either 
that " aberration " is destroyed by limiting the 
aperture of vision to so small a point in the centre 
of the lens of the eye, or that the diffraction of the 
rays, as they pass the edges of the hole, assists 
short-sighted vision on the principle of the con- 
cave lens, i. e. by changing parallel rays into 
divergent; but, as far as we know anything of 
diffraction, its effect is the direct opposite. 

I do not, therefore, see how we can avoid ac- 
cepting the former as the preferable solution of 
this phenomenon, though, on so difficult a subject, 
it behoves one to speak with great diffidence. 


Rectory, Hereford. 


(Vol. ii., p. 135.) 

JARLTZBERG wishes to know the origin of the 
stars and stripes in the American flag. His Query 
might be answered briefly by stating that the 
American Congress, on the 14th of June, 1777, 
" Resolved that the flag of the thirteen United 
States be thirteen stripes, alternately red and 
white ; that the Union be thirteen stars, white in 
a blue field, representing a new constellation." 
But your correspondent wishes to know the 
origin of the combination, and who first suggested 
the idea. Some have supposed that it might 
have been derived from the arms of General 
Washington, which contains three stars in the 
upper portion, and three bars running across the 
escutcheon. There is no means of knowing at 
this day whether this conjecture is correct, but 
the coincidence is rather striking. There were 
several flags used before the striped flag by the 
Americans.^ In March 1775 "a union flag with 
a red field" was hoisted at New York upon the 
Liberty pole, bearing the inscription " George Rex 
and the liberties of America," and upon the re- 
verse "No Popery." On the 18th of July, 1778, 
Gen. Putnam raised, at Prospect Hill, a flag bear- 
ing on one side the Massachusetts motto " Qui 
franstulit^sustinet" on the other "An appeal to 
tleaven." In October of the same year the float- 
ing batteries at Boston had a flag with the latter 
motto, the field white with a pine-tree upon it. 
Ihis was the Massachusetts emblem. Another 
flag, used during 1775 in some of the colonies, 
aad upon it a rattlesnake coiled as if about to 
Jtnke, with the motto " Don't tread oa me." The 

grand union flag of thirteen stripes was raised on 
the heights near Boston, January 2, 1776. Letters 
from there say that the regulars in Boston did not 
understand it ; and as the king's speech had just 
been sent to the Americans, they thought the new 
flag was a token of submission. The British 
Annual Register of 1776 says: "They burnt the 
king's speech and changed their colours from a 
plain red ground, which they had hitherto used, 
to a flag with thirteen stripes, as a symbol of the 
number and union of the colonies." A letter from 
Boston about the same time, published in the 
Penna Gazette for January, 1776, says: "The 
grand union flag was raised on the 2nd, in com- 
pliment to the united colonies." The idea of 
making each stripe for a state was adopted from 
the first; and the fact goes far to negative the 
j supposition that the private arms of General 
I Washington had anything to do with the subject. 
The pine-tree, rattlesnake, and striped flag were 
used indiscriminately until July, 1777, when the 
blue union with the stars was added to the stripes, 
and the flag established by law. Formerly a new 
stripe was added for each new state admitted to 
the union, until the flag became too large, when 
by act of Congress the stripes were reduced to the 
old thirteen ; and now a star is added to the union 
at the accession of each new state. 

Philadelphia, U. S. A., June 5, 1852. 


In the last " N. & Q.," in an article on " Prin- 
ter's Errors in the Inseparable Particles in Shak- 
speare," MR. SINGER, unconsciously I am sure, 
does me a slight injustice, when he states that in 
a passage which he quotes from King Lear, Act II. 
Sc. 1., I have followed the Variorum Edit. I 
certainly print it " as if the sense was interrupted," 
but I do not begin the word "dispatch" with a 
capital letter, as he erroneously represents, and I 
put a period after it, which he omits, circum- 
stances which render it clear, that I was of opinion 
that "dispatch" had reference rather to what went 
before it than to what came after it. You must 
allow me to subjoin the very words in the very 
way they appear in my edition : 
" Glo. Let him fly far : 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught ; 

And found dispatch. The noble Duke my mas- 
ter," &c. 

To print " Dispatch" with a capital letter, and to 
omit the period after it, makes some difference, 
though I am as far as any body from pretending 
that I fully conveyed the meaning of the poet by 
my mode of giving the quotation. I apprehend 
that MR. SINGER supposes that "Dispatch" refers 
to what follows it, and that Gloster wishes to im- 



[No. 141. 

press the necessity of making speed with prepara- 
tions for the reception of u the noble duke his 
master." I may mistake ME. SINGER'S notion, 
and I should, of course, be most unwilling to mis- 
represent him. My opinion is, and was when I 
printed the passage in question, that " dispatch," 
with a period after it, related to what was to be 
done with Edgar, if he were captured that if 
caught and found he should be executed ; for 
what otherwise can be the meaning of the line in 
a subsequent part of Gloster's speech, about 
" Bringing the murderous coward to the stake." 
I cannot at all concur in MR SINGER'S proposal 
to-read "And found" unfound '.; for, as I humbly 
conceive, what Gloster intends to say is, that 
Edgar should not remain uncaught ; and that 
when found he should be dispatched. If "Dis- 
patch" applied to preparations for the .reception 
of the Duke of Cornwall, how happens it that we 
hear no more of them, and th?t he and Regan 
walk in just afterwards without ceremony ? Be- 
sides, we may easily imagine that Gloster, at the 
moment he hears of Edgar's parricidal purpose, 
would be in no mood to think of preparations. 

It will be observed that, according to my inter- 
pretation of Gloster's language, the word " dis- 
patch" ought rather to be dispatch" d : 

" Let him fly far ; 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught ; 
And found, dispatch 'd." 

If I am right, I have no merit in this suggestion, 
because the preceding quotation is given precisely 
in that form, and with that punctuation, in my 
manuscript- corrected folio of 1632; and it is one 
of the emendations in King Lear, which tends to 
clear away difficulties, and to render our great 
dramatist's meaning indisputable. 

I have the highest respect for MR. SINGER'S 
judgment on such questions, and I hope he will 
coincide with me in the above reading, as well as 
in many others to be contained in the volume I 
am at this moment busily engaged in preparing. 
I may be allowed to add, that my corrected folio 
confirms the change he has proposed in the first 
line of Act IV. of King Lear : 
" Yet better thus unknown to be contemn'd, 
Than still contemu'd and flatter'd. To be worst," &<J. 

My folio, however, makes a further emendation, 
by substituting yes for " yet :" as if Edgar entered 
continuing a soliloquy he had commenced before 
he made his appearance : 

" Yes; better thus unknown to be contemn'd," &c. 

Such appears to me to be the true text ; but if 
I am in error, I shall at any time be happy to be 
set-right, especially by MR. SINGER. 




The Chevalier St. George (Vol. v., p. 610.). 
J. \V. H. does not mention among the printed 
works which he has consulted, The Decline of the 
Last Stuarts^ Extracts from the Despatches of 
British Envoys to Jie Secretary of State, printed 
for the Roxburghe Club, London, 1843. The 
volume is elited by Lord Mahon from the ori-- 
ginals at the State Paper Oifice. SPES. 

" Like a fair Lily;' frc. (Vol. v., p. 539.). 
" Like a lily on a river floating, 

She floats upon the river of his thoughts." 
This quotation is from Longfellow's Spanish 
Student, Act II. Sc. 3. In a note the author says 
this expression is from Dante : 

" Si che chiaro 

Per esser soenda della mente il fiume." 
Byron has also used the expression, though the 
author does not recollect in which of his poems. 


"Roses all thafs fair adorn" (Vol. v., p. 611.). 

Permit me to inform W. S. where he may find 

" Roses all that's fair adorn, 

Rosy-finger'd is the morn ; 

Rosy-arm'd the nymphs are seen, 

Rosy-skinn'd is Beauty's queen," &c. 

I have it in dewberry's small volume of t 

Art of Poetry ; it is an almost literal translati 

of an ode of Anacreon by Charles Wesley, of 

which I possess two copies; one of which is at 

W.'s service, a line from whom will be immediately 

attended to. ROUT. BROWNING. 

28. Chepstow Place, Bayswater. 

Frebord (Vol. v., pp. 595. 620.). There 
several estates in this county which were former! 
parks; they have for many years been broken u^ 
and cultivated: the proprietors of these old parks 
claim a space extending eight feet six inches ^ in 
width on the outside of the boundary fences, which 
space is locally called a deer-leap. Whether the 
explanation of this term given by your corre- 
spondent KT. is the correct one, 1 am unable to 
say; but here it. 'is generally understood to be a 
space left on the outside of the boundary, to en- 
able the proprietor to repair his fences without 
trespassin nr on his neighbour's lands. 



Ireland's Freedom from Reptiles (Vol. iii., 
p. 490.). A pamphlet of Dean Swift's, Considera- 
tions about maintaining the Poor, without date, 
but assigned to 1726, amongst other grievances 
complains of the practice of insuring houses ii 
English offices : 

" A third [abuse] is the Insurance Office against 
fire, by which several thousand pounds are yearly re- 
mitted to England (a trifle it seems we can easily 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



spare), and will gradually increase till it comes to a 
good national tax ; for the society-marks upon our 
houses (under which might properly be written ' The 
Lord have mercy upon us ! ') spread faster than a 
colony of frogs ." 

One of Swift's editors thus explains the allu- 
sion : 

About the beginning of the eighteenth century 
Dr. Gwythers, a Physician and Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, brought over with him a parcel of 
frogs from England to Ireland, in order to propagate 
the species in that kingdom, and threw them into the 
ditches of the University Park, but they all perished. 
Whereupon he sent to England for some bottles of the 
frogspawn, which he threw into those ditches, by which 
he succeeded in his design. However, their number 
was so small in the year 1720 that a frog was nowhere 
to be seen, except in the neighbourhood of the Uni- 
versity Park. But within six or seven years after, 
they spread thirty, forty, or fifty miles over the country, 
and so at last over the whole nation." 

This seems to be the true origin of the intro- 
duction of frogs, though some have ascribed it to 
the troops which the Prince of Orange brought to 
Ireland with him. Losgdn and Cnaddn are the 
Irish words for this animal. Mr. Cleland was the 
gentleman whom I alluded to as having introduced 
the six snakes. Mr. Bell (Hist, of Brit. Rept., 
Lond. 1839), asserts that the Lacerta agilis is to 
be found in Ireland. EIRIONNACH. 

Portrait of George Fox (Vol. v., p. 464.). I 
possess an engraving of George Fox's portrait, in- 
serted in his Journal,with the following inscription : 

" George Fox, setat. 30, founder of the sect of 
peaple called Quakers, from the original painting by 
Honthorst, done in the year 1654, now in the possession 
of Thomas Clio Rickman." 

He has a broad- brimmed felt hat and a cloak. 
His eyes and hands are turned upwards. 


Punch and Judy (Vol. v., p. 610.). I am a 
reader of " N. & Q." certainly " not aware that 
Punch and Judy is a corruption " of Pontius cum 
Judceis; and I should be glad to know on what 
ground BCBOTICTJS represents it as such. I had 
supposed that Judy was derived from Judas. 


" Hostages to Fortune" (Vol. v., p. 607.)." The 
Cambridge D.D." who, according to your corre- 
spondent, " attributed to Paley the following 
passage of Lord Bacon's (Essay, viii.), ' He that 
hath a wife and children hath given hostages to 
fortune,' " would have had his mistake rectified, had 
he during the present year attended at the Lyceum 
Theatre, to witness the performance of The Game 
of Speculation. Supposing the Cambridge D.D. to 
have left for a while " the theatre of the Greeks " 
for- that of the moderns, he would have heard Mr. 
Charles Muthews in his matchless delineation of 

the hero of the above-mentioned piece (Mr. Affable 
Hawk) say as follows : 

" Hawk. An ambitious bachelor may get on ; but 
married, he has no chance. The great Bacon said, 
' The man who has a wife and children, has given hos- 
tages to fortune.' Tn other words, has pawned his 
whole existence." Act I. 

The Game of Speculation has been admirably 
adapted to the English stage by Mr. Slingsby 
Lawrence, from the French of De Balzac. It was 
performed at the Lyceum Theatre, together with 
the spectacular burlesque of The Prince of Happy 
Land, every night from Christmas 1851 to Easter 
1852 ; the play-bill during that period requiring 
no change. This circumstance has been stated, in 
one of our leading monthly magazines, to be un- 
paralleled in theatrical annals ; and on this account 
is perhaps worthy of a note. 


Docking Horses (Vol. v., p. 611.). Youatt, in 
his history of the Horse, describes the way in which 
the operation of docking is performed, but gives no 
clue whatever as to the time when the practice 
was first introduced. It is, however, believed that 
it came into vogue in the early part of the last 
century, as its strangeness provoked the observa- 
tion of Voltaire, when he was in England about 
1725, and produced the following epigram from 
his satirical pen : 
" Vous, fiers Anglois, et barbares que vous etes, 

Coupent les tetes a vos rois,et les queues a vos betes; 

Mais les Fran9ois plus polis, et aimant les loix, 

Laissent les queues a leurs betes, et les tetes a leurs 

The fifth edition of Bailey's Dictionary (1731), 
which is the earliest to which I have access, men- 
tions the practice ; but if your Querist TAIL would 
consult the earliest editions, and should find it 
omitted, he may fairly conclude that he has made 
some approximation to the period when it was 
first introduced. 

The reason for the operation was probably only 
the convenience of the rider, and to save him from 
the mud and dirt which a long tail, in the then 
state of the public roads, would necessarily pick 
up and plentifully distribute. Geoffrey Gambado 
gives another reason, for which see his Academy for 
Grown Horsemen. F. B w. 

How the Ancient Irish crowned their Kings 
(Vol. v., p. 582.). In these days, when most an- 
tiquities are judgmatically examined into, it is a 
pity that such silly and impossible tales should be 
sent to you in order to their reproduction in type. 
In this particular instance, the fable, before con- 
fined to the " Kings of Tyrconnell," an ancient ter- 
ritory of Ulster, is extended to the whole of " the 
ancient Irish," and " their king." Not having by 
me O'Donovan's Annals of the Four Masters, the 



[No. 141. 

notes to which, whether they deign to notice the 
absurd fable or not, no doubt amply refute it by 
descriptions of the ancient inauguration-ceremonies 
of Tyrconnell and other territories from authentic 
Irish MSS., I send you the remarks made upon it 
in the " insigne seel insanum opus" of Dr. Keating, 
as translated by Halliday ; the author's long preface 
to the history, from which the following extract is 
taken, deserving the former but not the latter 
qualification : 

" This," says Keating, when he has repeated the 
bathing -in-broth story, "is evidently an impudent fiction 
of CAMSRENSIS,- for the annals of Ireland expressly 
mention, that the ceremony of inaugurating the kings 
of Tirconnell was this ; the king being seated on an 
eminence (the Rock of Kilmacrennan) surrounded by 
the nobility and gentry (i mease uasal agus oireachta) 
of his own country, one of the chiefs of his nobles 
stood before him, with a straight white wand in his 
hand, and on presenting it to the king of Tirconnell, 
used to desire him ' to receive the sovereignty of his 
country, and to preserve equal and impartial justice in 
every part of his dominions ; ' the reason that the 
tvand was straight and white, was to put him in mind 
that he should be unbiassed in his judgment, and pure 
and upright in all his actions." Halliday 's Keating, 
Preface, p. xxxiiS. 


Hoax on Sir Walter Scott (Vol. v., p. 438.). 
A ballad, written in 1824 by the present Vicar of 
Morwenstow, adapted to the legendary chorus of 
"Twenty thousand Cornish men will know the 
reason why," was hailed by Sir Walter (see Lock- 
hart's Zz/e) as a " spirited ballad of the seventeenth 
century!" E. S. H. 

American Loyalists (Vol. iv., p. 165.). A. C. 
will find the best information in regard to the his- 
tory of the American loyalists, after the American 
Revolution, in ;t The American Loyalists, or Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Adherents to the British 
Crown in the War of the Revolution. By Lorenzo 
Sabine. Boston, Mass. Charles C. Little and 
James Brown, Publishers, 1847. 738pp." In this 
work Mr. Sabine has recorded the names of about 
six hundred loyalists (called in this country Tories\ 
with such circumstances connected with their lives, 
after their declared adherence to the British cause, 
as. he was able to glean. A. C. is very much mis- 
taken in supposing that the loyalists " prospered in 
the world after the confiscation of their property." 
Their estates in this country were very generally 
forfeited, and the remunerations they received from 
the Crown were mere pittances in comparison to 
the amounts of their real sacrifices. Their letters 
to this country, after their flight to England, are 
filled with complaints of the coldness with which 
their attachment to the king was repaid by the 
ministry. Many of them died in want, and others, 
accepting the small donations accorded to them 
after weary years of waiting, learned bitterly the 

value of the admonition, " Put not your trust in 
princes." T. WESTCOTT. 

Philadelphia, U.S.A., June 5, 1852. 

Spanish Vessels wrecked on the Coast of Ireland 
(Vol. v., pp. 491.598.). On the magnificent iron- 
bound coast of Miltown Malbay, in the west of 
Ireland, is a point running out into the sea called 
" Spanish Point," on which one at least, if not 
more, of the ships belonging to the Spanish ar- 
mada was wrecked. Some of the peasantry also 
had ancient carved coffers and chests in their 
houses, which had been handed down from father 
to son, and which had been saved from the wreck; 
and there were traditions that many objects of 
value might have been found which had been 
derived from the same source ; but as more than 
twenty years have elapsed since I was in that 
country, I cannot say whether any now remain to 
reward the inquiries of antiquaries. PEREDUR. 

Suicides buried in Cross Roads (Vol. iv., p. 116.). 
In Plato's Laws (Burges' transl., book ix. c. 12.) 
the murderer of any of his near kin, after being 
put to death, is to be " cast out of the city, naked, 
in an appointed place where three roads meet ; and 
let all the magistrates, in behalf of the whole state, 
carry each a stone, and hurl it at the head of the 
dead body," &c. J. P. 

Dr. Elizabeth Blachwett (Vol. v., p. 394.). 
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell formerly resided in this 
city ; she now lives in the city of New York. She 
determined to study medicine some years since, 
in order to fit herself for practice. She had con- 
siderable difficulty in obtaining admission as a 
medical student, but was finally entered at Geneva 
Medical College, New York, where she graduated 
in 1849. She afterwards went to London and 
Paris. These are about all the particulars in 
reference to this lady which have been made 
public in this country. In consequence of her 
example, the subject of educating females as 
doctors was much discussed in the United States. 
The propriety of employing them in obstetrical 
cases, and many complaints to which females are 
subject, has in its favour common sense and de- 
cency, and against it nought but professional 
prejudice. In this state a college for the instruc- 
tion of females was chartered in 1849 ; it is called 
" The Female Medical College of Pennsylvania." 
At the last commencement eight young ladies 
received their diplomas. There are fifty-two 
students entered for the next course, commencing 
in September of this year. There are eight pro- 
fessorships in this institution, which are at present 
filled by men, but which will be awarded to 
female professors as soon as experience will fit 
the graduates for them. The demonstrator of 
anatomy, Hannah E. Longshore, is a graduate. 
The prospects of the institution are favourable, 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



and the graduates are winning for themselves con- 
fidence. T. WESTCOTT. 

Philadelphia, U. S. A., June 5, 1852. 
American Degrees (Vol. v., p. 177.). Collegiate 
honours in the United States are generally con- 
ferred by the trustees of the institutions, with the 
advice and consent of the professors. If J. W. 
had stated what college conferred the " cargo of 
diplomas " he speaks of, some estimate might be 
made of the value of the honours. This is ac- 
knowledged (by ourselves) to be " a great coun- 
try," comprising in its area 2,280,000 square 
miles. We have colleges and seminaries of learn- 
ing authorised to confer the degrees in nearly all 
the states. Some of them will compare with the 
best European colleges in the reputation, and 
skill, and learning of the professors ; and some are 
but little better than large- sized boarding-schools. 
The oldest institutions, and the best among us, are 
Harvard University in Massachusetts, Yale Col- 
lege in Connecticut, Princeton College in New 
Jersey, the University of Pennsylvania at Phi- 
ladelphia, and Virginia University at Charlot- 
tesburg. There are others of equal reputation, 
and many of second, third, and even fourth-rate 
importance. It is very probable that the "cargo" 
sent to the Brougham Institute of Liverpool ema- 
nated from an inferior institution, as our first- 
class universities do not usually confer many 
honorary degrees. T. WESTCOTT. 

Philadelphia, U. S. A., Feb. 5, 1852. 

Note oy Warton on Aristotle's Poets (Vol. v., 
p. 606.). The passage quoted by J. M. is in 
Joseph Warton's Essay on the Genius and Writings 
of Pope, London, 1773, p. 171. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Meaning of Whit (Vol. v., p. 610.). The jug 
referred to by your correspondent is a Whit-sun 
ale jug. I have an engraving of one inscribed 
W H I T. 


It is described as of white earthenware, with a 
blue inscription. These jugs were used in the 
(now obsolete) Whitsun, or church-ale festivals. 


" Possession is nine points of the law " (Vol. iv., 
p. 23.). In _ Swift's Works, vol. xvii. p. 270., I 
find " Possession, they say, is eleven points of the 
law." J. P. 

Age of Trees (Vol. iv., pp. 401. 488.). Allow 
me, in addition to my former communication on 
this subject, to give the following instances of 
trees proved to have existed many years. Near 
Mont Blanc there is a fir-tree called by the in- 
habitants of that district the Chamois Stable, on 
account of its affording shelter to the wild goats 
during the winter. Its vegetation is extremely 

beautiful, and its trunk enormous, which, coupled 
with the fact that it has been ascertained by M. 
Berthelet to be more than 1200 years old, make it 
a very interesting object. At a short distance 
from this venerable fir exists, in the forest of 
Ferre, a tree called the Meleye, whose age cannot 
be less than 800 years. The forest of Parey, 
Saint Ouen, canton de Bulgneville, in the depart- 
ment of the Vosges, is celebrated for a tree called 
The Oak of the Partizans. Its branches extend 
over a space of 100 feet, and its height is 107. It 
has lived during a period of 650 years, and was 
known at the time when the Cothereaux, the 
Carriers, and Routiers devastated France in the 
days of Philip Augustus. A chesnut tree, near 
the village of Vernet, of ordinary size and height, 
is supposed to have been planted in the time of 
Calvin, at the dawn of the great religious struggle 
in Switzerland. 

Thus these wondrous natural monuments of 
antiquity speak forcibly to the mind ; and the 
erections built by man, which we term ancient, 
dwindle into insignificancy when compared with 
the stupendous and veteran trees of the forest. 


Market Crosses (Vol. v., p. 594.). The market 
cross at Bury, rebuilt after the Great Fire of 
1608, was converted into a playhouse in 1734, 
and in 1774 gave place to the present town hall, 
which was built for a theatre from the designs of 
Robert Adams. Views of the market cross have 
been several times engraved. There was no re- 
ligious edifice at or near the cross in 1655. The 
marriage referred to took place agreeably to the 
Act of 14th August, 1653, which required mar- 
riages to be published "three several Lord's Days, 
or three several weeks," and then to be celebrated 
in the presence of a justice. The registers of the 
parish of St. Mary, Bury, contain entries of mar- 
riages so solemnized ; whence it appears that some 
were published at the market cross on ** three 
several market days in three several weeks." 



The second volume of Messrs. Rivington's handsome 
library edition of The Works and Correspondence of the 
Right Honorable Edmund Burke, which had been kept 
back for the purpose of enabling the editors to insert 
in the correspondence some new letters of Mr. Burke 
from original MSS., has now been issued. The cor- 
respondence in this volume commences in the year 
1791, and proceeds to the death of the distinguished 
writer ; and it contains in addition Burke's Vindica- 
tion of Natural Society, and his world- renowned Philo- 
sophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the 
Sublime and Beautiful. 

Although, as a general rule, we abstain from noticing 
all theological works which can be considered as of a 



[No. 141. 

controversial nature, we have been so interested in a 
little volume which has recently come before us that 
we cannot refrain from bringing it under the notice of 
our readers ; it is entitled Sympathies of the Continent, 
or Proposals for a New Reformation, by John Baptist 
von Hirscher, D.D., Dean of the Metropolitan Church 
of Freiburg, Breisgau, and Professor of Theology in the 
Roman Catholic University in that city ; Translated and 
Edited ivith Notes and Introduction by the Rev. Arthur 
Cleveland Coxe. The great interest of this work, 
which might more properly have been called The 
Working of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany, is 
to be found in the fact that it is written by a learned 
and eminent dignitary of that Church, and advocates 
those practical reforms in her system which our own 
Church introduced three centuries since. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. " Some people," said Dr. John- 
son, " have a foolish way of not minding, or pretending 
not to mind, what they eat." This fooiish way is not 
ours, and therefore we have enjoyed to the full the 
pleasant humour and anecdotical learning enshrined in 
the last number of Murray's Railway Library. The 
Art of Dining, or Gastronomy and Gastronomers, with 
its hints and directions as to ensuring a successful din- 
ner party, is so full of its subjects that it would go far 
to create an appetite under the ribs of death.- A De- 
scriptive Account of the Antiquities in the Grounds and 
the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. By 
the Curator of the Antiquities. Undertaken by the 
venerable author (the Rev. C. Wellbeloved) when he 
was somewhat more than an octogenarian. This very 
excellent Guide to the York Museum is as creditable 
to its compiler as it will be found of service to the 
visitors of the interesting collection which it describes. 
The Golden Bird and other Stories, the third part of 
the translation of Grimm's Household Stories, publish- 
ing by Messrs. Addey, is a fresh instalment of amuse- 
ment for juvenile readers. 



Printed for Hodges, by Crowder and Woodgate. 

XIV. and XV. Stourport, 1812. 

SHAKSPBAHE'S JULIUS CJSSAR, by D'Avenant and Dryden, 1719, 



London : Printed for Hodges, by Crowder and Woodgate. 

The original 4to. editions in boards. 


London, Griffin, 8vo. 1767. 
CLARE'S POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. Last Edition. 
MAGNA CHARTA ; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell, by 

George Newton. London, 1601. 
BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia. 

THE COMEDIES OF SHADWELL may be had on application to the 
Publisher of " N. & Q." 

a* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage ffee, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


REPLIES RECEIVED Royal Arms in Churches Inscription at 
Persepolis Animn Magis Old Countess of Desmond Author- 
ship of Monody on Sir John Moore Charms Mu'my Wheat-- 
Celebrated Fly Wyle Cop Emaciated Monumental Fffigies 
Seth's Pillars Hogs Norton Algernon Sydney "La Garde 
mewl" Devil as a Proper Name lihy wes on Places Ex- 
terior Stoup Bronze Medals Etymology of Mushroom Coral 
Charms Spanish Viewe Bows The Diphthong "of' Book of 
Jasher Text of Shakspeare St. Christopher. 

SHAKSPEARE. We are aware that the large space occasionally 
occupied in our columns by Shakspcarian criticism lay < us open 
to complaints on the part of some of our Readers, who do not share 
the anxiety of our Correspondents for an immaculate text oj the 
writings of the Great Dramatist. Bui if proof were required how 
wide-spread an interest is still abroad upon the suhject, and how 
much attention is still paying to the Illustration of the Life and 
Writings of Shakspeare, we would point to the announcement in 
our advertising columns of Mr. Halliu'dl's projected edition in 
Twenty Folio Volumes. We have by us several communicatims 
by Mr. Hickson, A. E. II., and others, which shall appear asoppor- 
tunities present themselves. 

M. will find that the insertion of the letter E will give him the 
following couplet ; 

" Persevere, ye perfect men, 

Ever keep these precepts ten." 
DRYDEN. No. A.-H. W. 

ETCER. The assertion that " Luther tras married in London," 
teas a misprint for What Lord Campbell really did say, viz. 
" Luther married a nun." 

A. SPG.'* Query respecting the Bean Feast has been overlooked. 
It shall be attended to very shortly. 

G. C. Mrs. Mary Mackey's poetry. The same remark applies 
to this Query. 

H. B. C. is thanked for his kind and very considerate Note. 

E. S. JACKSON. The promised Letters of John Wesley will be 
most welcome. 

The Index and Title-page to Volume the Fifth will be ready 
with our next Number. 

JULY, (being the First Number of a New 
Volume) contains : 1 . Thorpe's Northern 
Mythology. 2. Pope's Imitations of the Let- 
ters of Eloisa. 3. Godfrey William Leibnitz. 
4. The Ironmongers of London (with Two 
Plates). 5. The Ungracious Rood of Grace. 
6. Oxford and the Royal Commission. 7. 
Rugge's Notes on English History, temp. 
Charles II. 8. Sonnet on Coleridge, by the 
Rev. C. V. Le Grice. 9. Correspondence, on 
the Abbotsford Library, Architectural Nomen- 
clature, Quakers' Burial Grounds, Anchorages 
in Churches, &c. &c. 10. Notes of the Month. 
With Historical Reviews, Reports of Archaeo- 
logical Societies, and OBITUARY ; including 
Memoirs of Capt. Allen Gardner (of the Pata- 
gonian Mission), Hon. Mr. Talbot, Q. C., Mr. 
Humfrey, Q. C., Rev. John Jones (Tegid), Rev. 
T. Theyre Smith, George Dolland, Esq., F.R.S., 
General Arthur O'Connor, &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d. 
(A Specimen Number sent by Post.) 

NICHOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street. 


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remind families whose bereavements compel 
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article of the very best description, requisite 
for a complete outfit of Mourning, may be had 
at this Establishment at a moment's notice. 

ing a prreat saving to families, are furnished ; 
whilst the habitual attendance of experienced 
assistants (including dressmakers and milli- 
ners), enables them to suggest or supply every 
necessary for the occasion, and suited to any 
grade or condition of the community. WIDOWS' 
AND FAMILY MOURNING is always kept made 
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required, will insure its being sent forthwith, 
either in Town or into the Country, and on. the 
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Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. 
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JL and the Courts at Westminster. By 

Volume Three, 1272 1377. 

Volume Four, 13771485. 

Lately published, price 28s. cloth, 
Volume One, 10661199. 
Volume Two, 1199 1272. 
"A book which is essentially sound ami 
truthful, and must therefore take its stand^n 
the permanent literature of our country." - 

London ; LONGMAN & CO. 

JULY 10. 1852.] 



Prospectus of a new Edition of Shakspeare 
sponding in size with the convenient firs* 
collective edition of 1623. to suit numeroui 
facsimiles to be made from that work. 
Privately printed for Subscribers only. 


L SHAKESPEARE, with a New Collation 
of the early Editions, all the Original Novels 
and Tales on which the plays are founded; 
copious Archaeological Illustra'ions to each 
play, and a Life of the poet. By JAMES u. 
1IALLIWELL, Esq.,F.R.S.,Honorarj Mem- 
ber of the Royal Irisn Academy ; the Royal 
Society of Literature; the Newcastle Anti- 
quarian Socieiy ; the Ashmolean Society, and 
of the Society for the Study of Gothic Aichi- 
tecture ; Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries ; 
Corresponding Member of the Antiquarian 
Societies of Scotland, Poictiers, Picardie, and 
Caeu (Academic des Sciences), and of the 
Comite des Arts et Monuments, &c. The Illus- 
trations by and under the direction of 1 . W. 
FAIRHOLT, Esq., F.S.A., author of " Cos- 
tume in England," &c. 

The preparation of this work has occupied 
my earnest attention for nearly twelve years ; 
my object being to bring together, from the 
stores of Elizabethan literature, art. or science, 
whatever really tends to illustrate the pases of 
the great poet of the world, in the full convic- 
tion there yet remains room for one compre- 
hensive edition which shall answer the re- 
quirements of the student and zealous inquirer. 
Granting that the general spirit of Shakespeare 
maybe appreciated without the as-istanee of 
lengthened commentary, it cannot be denied 
there is much which is obscure to the modern 
reader, _ numerous allusions to the lit rature, 
manners, and phraseology of the times which 
require explanation and careful discussion. 

This is a labour which has never yet been 
attempted on a large scale. In the preface to 
the translation of Karl Simrock's " Remarks," 
8vo , l&M), I have shown there are upwards of 
two thousand obsolete words and phrases in 
Shakespeare left without any KCpJanation in 
the editions of Mr. Knight and Mr. Collier. 
Here is, undoubtedly, a field ofcrit cism. which 
deserves the labour of the student : and w ithout 
attempti g to supply all these deficiencies, it 
may still be allowed me, without presumption, 
to promise an extensive advance on what has 
.been accomplished by my predecessors. 

Each play will be accompanied by every 
kind of useful literary and antiquarian illus- 
tration, extending to complete copies of all 
novels, tales, or dramas on which it is founded, 
and entire impression* of the first sketches, in 
the cases of the Merry Wives of Windsor, 
Hamlet, &c. In fact, no pains will be spared 
to render this edition the most complete in 
every respect that has yet been produced ; su- 
perseding entirely the Variorum edition of 
1821, with the addition of all Shakespearian 
discoveries of any importance which have been 
made since that period. The work will be 
copiously illustrated by facsimiles and wood- 
cuts, the direction of which has been under- 
taken by Mr. Fairholt, who has also most 
kindly promised to assist me in the selection. 
It is unnecessary to enlarge on the import .nee 
of such assistance, nnd the valuable aid to be 
expected from Mr. Fairholt'sextensive reading 
m Elizabethan literature and intimate ac- 
quaintance with every department of ancient 

One of the early volumes will be illustrated 
by an entirely new engraving of t>>e monument 

btratford-on-Avon, executed with n inute 
a S e ^iT a ? v ; and by an exact copy of the portrait 
of Shakespeare which is prefixed to the first 
dition of his works. It is almost unnecessary 
to say these are the only representations of the 
poet which are imdoitbtedlu authentic. 
. The s r ze of the first folio, after much con- 
sideration, has been adopted, not only because 
it is the most convenient folio form (barely 

asurmg fourteen inches by nine\ nd suits 
the size of the facsimiles, most of which would 
otherwise have to be folded, but the magnitude 
of the undertaking precludes any other, were 
t intended to complete it in any reasonable 

' " 

Ve now proceed to speak of the mode of 

1 n ; 1 nd In anxi ?usly cons : dering this 

subject, have been c refui to bear in mind the 

bhgations due to the original subscribers of so 

expensive a work as well as the necessity of 

the large expenditure being reimbursed, to say 

nothing of an adequate return for the liter.iry 

labour ,-tlie attainment of which is more than 

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wi h any arrangement which secured the pe~- 
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1. The imnression of this edition of Shake- 
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2. The work will be completed in abcut 
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3. All the plates and woodcuts used for this 
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The original subscription price of each vo- 
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possessed by a very limited number. 

The Editor has been anxious thus to state at 
some len th the considerations which have 
urged him t<> limit th<- impression of the work 
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<or support without taking every means to 
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in the ord nary way ; and he was, therefore, 
compelled either to abandon the hope of print- 
ing his materials, or to appeal to the select few 
likely to und rstand the merits of the design. 

To those few, the Editor hopes he m-ty, 
without arrogance, av w the design of offeririf 
the most copious edition of Shakespeare ever 
nrinte , and one of the handsomest nd most 
important series of volumes that could be 
placed in an Enelish library. 

Nor let it be thought such an edition will 
coiitfim merely dry annotations en disnnted 
passages. Particular reirard will be paid to 
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viceable, the aid of the arti>t will be solicited 
There is much of this kind which has never 
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the satisfaction to state that, amongst others, 
.Ljord Londesborongh's noble collection of 
Kn^hsh antiquities will be accessible to me for 
copies of anv specimens that may help to e.u- the au'hor's meaning. 

In every kind of literary illustration of 
Shakespeare, my own library is, perha s, richer 
than any o: her. For man. years, no expense 
has been eared to procure rare works likely to 
be useful for this undertaking ; an'', in one 
instance, I have given upwards of sixty pounds 
lor a single tract. on account of its ffordin- an 
unique illustration of one play. The reader 
may hence conclude how much continued 
labour and nxi?t have been incurred in the 
collection of m- materials. 

In conclusion, I am sanguine this long- 
cherished design should not, will not. fail for 
want of appreciation. The works of Shake- 
speare, the greatest of all uninspi-eH -authors, 
should surely be surrounded, in one edition at 
leas by the reading of the student and the 
p-ncil of the arclweo logical draughtsman. In 
one edition let every source of useful illust' a- 
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student and th future editor ; and even if 
;h>re be something redundant, much will re- 
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[No, 141 . 



This day is published, Part I. (to be completed 
in Four Parts) of 


TIES of ST. DAVID'S. By the Kev. 
University College, Oxford ; General Secretary 
of the Cambrian Archaeological Association ; 
and EDWARD A. FREEMAN, M.A., late 
Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford ; Author of 
the " History of Architecture," " Llandaff 
Cathedral," &c. 


Coast Scenery; (1.) Poith-y-Rhaw to 
Porth-clais; (2.) Porthclais ; to Whitesand 
Bay ; (3.) Aberithy to Whitesand Bay 
Islands Natural History and Botany. 
Hocking Stone - Meini Hirion Cromlechs at 

St. David's Head, Porth-trewen, Pwllcaerog 
and Abercastell " the old (Jhurcii "Roads ; 
Ff5s y Myneich (a British trackway) ; Meidr 
Dywyll, or Meidr Saint. 


General effect Nave and Aisles, Exterior 
Nave, Interior Triforium and Clerestory 
Nave Roof Nave Aisles - Tower and Lan- 
ternTranseptsChoir and Aisles Chapels 
east of the Cnoir Chapter- house, &c. Di- 
mensions Stone. 




Ritual arrangements Nave Font Gower's 
Rood-screen Choir and Presbytery 
Changes in the arrangements Chapels and 
Chantries Shrines Tombs Polychrome 
and Painted Glass Tiles Heraldry. 


First period, Transitional, 1180 Second period, 
1220 Third period, Early English, 1218 
Fourth period, Early Decorated, circ. 1293 
Fifth period, Decorated, 1328 1347 Sixth 
period, Early Perpendicular, 13611388 
Seventh pe iod, Late Perpendicular, 1460 
1522 Subsequent alterations. 


St. Mary's College Cloister The Chapel 
The College Buildings. 

Bishop's Palace Parapet Crypts Great 
Hall, &c Great Chapel West side -Gate- 
waySmall Chapel Bishop's Hall.&c. 
Kitchen Remarks on the Decorated Style 
as exemplified in the works of Bishop (lower. 
Close Wall and Gateways - Prebendal 
Houses, &c. 

Outlying Chapels Domestic Remains 
Wells Crosses. 


First period, from the sixth to the twelfth cen- 
tury Second period, from the twelfth to the 
sixteenth century - Third period, from the 
sixteenth to the nineteenth century. 


Containing Documents, Lists of Bishops, and 

The letter-press will be copiously illustrated 
With steel-engravings by Le Keux, and wood- 
cuts by Jewitt, from drawings taken on the 
pot by the latter eminent architects al artist. 

Price, in royal 4to., India proofs, to Sub- 
scribers, complete in 1 vol. cloth, 21. 8s. ; to 
Non-Subscribers, 3i. In demy 4to., to Sub- 
scribers, in 1 vol. cloth, ll. 10s. ; to Non-Sub- 
acnbers, 21. Delivered Free. 

*** Subscribers' Names will be received at 
the Subscription price till the publication of 
the Second Part. 

and J. PETHERAM.-Tenby : R. MASON. 

3 vols. 8vo. price 2?. 8s. 

TURE. The Fifth Edition enlaiged, exem- 
plified by 1700 Woodcuts. 

. " In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edi- 
tion of the Glossary of Architecture, no pains 
nave been spared to render it worthy of the 
continued patronage which the work has re- 
ceived from its first publication. 

"The Text has been considerably aug- 
men-ed, as well by the additions of many new 
Articles, as by the enlargment of the old ones, 
and the number of Illustrations has been in- 
crease i from eleven hundred to seventeen 

/'Several additional Foreign examples are 
given, for the purpose of comparison with 
English work, of the same periods. 

" In the present Edition, considerably more 
attention has been given to the subject of 
Mediaeval Carpentry, the number of Illustra- 
tions of ' Open Timber Roofs,' has been much 
increased, and most of the Carpenter's terms 
in use at the period have been introduced with 
authorities." Preface to the Filth Edition. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 


i next ^* CXCV-> wil1 be Pushed on Friday 




Foolscap 8vo., 10s. 6cf. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH; illustrated 
with Brief Accounts of the Saints who have 
Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose 
Images are most frequently met with in Eng- 
land ; also the Early Christi in and Medieval 
Symbols, and an Index of Emblems. 

" It is perhaps hardly necessary to observe, 
that this work is of an ArcluEolosical, and not 
a Theolosical character. The Editor Has not 
considered it his business to examine into the 
truth or falsehood of the legends of which he 
narrates the substance ; he gives them merely 
as legends, and, in general, so much of them 
only as is necessary to explain why particular 
emblems were used with a particular Saint, or 
why Churches in a given locality are named 
after this or that Saint." Preface. 

" The latter part of the book, on the early 
Christian and mediaeval symbols, and on eccle- 
siastical emblems, is of great historical and 
architectural value. A copious Index of em- 
blems is added, as well as a general Index to 
the volume with its numerous illustrations. 
The work is an important contribution to 
English Archaeology, especially in the depart- 
ment of ecclesiastical iconography." Literary 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 



Head Master. --Rev. J. G. GORDON, M. A., 

Cambridge, late Classical Master in Chelten- 
ham College. 

This School has been lately reconstituted 
under a new scheme, and will be re-opened on 
MONDAY, Aug. 2nd. It is intende to com- 
bine domestic habits and comforts with the 
advantages of a Public School ; and to furnish 
a sound moral, jreligious, and useful education, 
at a moderate charge. 

In the subjects taught, are included the 
Ancient and Modern Languages, Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy and an extensive 
Practical Course of English. 

The Building is large, handsome, and com- 
modious, lately erected for the purpose, at an 
expense of about soooj. It is well situated in 
ornamental grounds, within half a mile of the 
town, and has attached to it a playground of 
three acres and a half. 

The School has two Exhibitions of 30Z. a-year 
each, at Jesus College. Cambridge. The Head 
Master takes a limited number of Boarders. A 
considerable reduction in terms will be made 
to those who join in the first quarter, especially 
in the case of brothers For Prospectuses, apply 
to Rev. J. G. GORDON, M.A., Lougnborough. 


J: l?^ ls ^ A ^^S^ll N ^ 


London : LONGMAN & CO. 
Edinburgh: A. & C. BLACK. 

Just published, with Twenty-four Plates, 
price 21s. 

ANIMALCULES, living and fossil; 
Abstracts of the Systems of Ehrenberc, 
Dujardin, Kutzing, Siebold, and others, and 
Descriptions ..fall the Species. By ANDREW 
PRITCHARD, Esq., M. R. I., Author of the 
" Microscopic Illustrations," &c. 

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria 


JL No. CLXXXI., is published THIS DAY. 








AND ' 




JOHN MURRAY, Albercarle Street. 



TEES, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Author rf 
History of 'the County Palatine of 

8vo. 16s. 

BOLDEN BUKE, a Survey oi 

the Possessions of the See of Durham, made by 
order of Bishop Hugh Pudsey in the year 1183, 
with a Translation, Appendix, and Glossary, 
M. A.. Fellow of Univ. Coll., Durham. STO. 
10s. 65. 

Published for the Surtees Society by 

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Strct t Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London ; aj 
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of 8t.Dumt.ia in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 1 
Fleet Street aforesaid,- Saturday, July 10. 1652. 





" Wlien found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. YL No. 142.] SATURDAY, JULY 17. 1852. 

f With Index, price l~rf. 
I Stamped Edition, fid. 


NOTES: 3' .. Pa " e 

Francis Davison and Dr. Donne ~- - - 49 

Folk Lore: Sites of Buildings changed Folk Lore of ; 

lacouss People Charms Weather Prophecy - 50 
Poem by Edward Bedingfield, by Edward Peacock, Jan. 50 
Minor Notes : Curious Mistranslation Street Cross- 
ings Travelling Expenses at the Close of the Seven- 
teenth Century " The Bore " in the Severn - - 51 


Prints 52 

King Magnus' Burial-place at Downpatrick, by John W. 

Hanna ..-.---52 
Curfew, by J. Sansom - - - - 53 

Minor Queries : Fishing by Electricity _ As salt as - 
Fire " There were three ladies," Kc. Prophecies 
fulfilled The Chase Family Mummies of Eccle- 
siastics in Germany The Merry-thought, or Wish- 
boneBells on Horses' Necks Dissertation on a 
Salt Box Meaning of Alcohol " Hip, hip, hurrah ! " 

Armorial Bearings of Cities and Towns Hands 
in the Pockets John de Huderesfield John, King 
of France, at Somerton Tapestry from Richmond 
Palace "Prayer moves the hand," &c. Portrait 
of Oliver Cromwell Birthplace of Wickliffe 
Reverend applied to the Clergy Foubert Family 
Cambridge Disputations Tenure of Land - - 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED : "To lie at the catch" 
Words printed in Italics in the Bible Bays's Troops 

Courtier and learned Writer - - - . - 


Yankee and YankeelDoodle, by T. Westcott 
Plague Stones - 

Burials in Woollen .... 
"Merchant of Venice," Act III. Sc. 2. - 
Hannah Woolly, by T. Westcott - 
Etymology of the Word " Devil," by Richard F. Little- 
<lale _...__. 59 

Ancient American Languages, by Kenneth R. H. Mac- 
kenzie ... ... CO 

Replies to Minor Queries : Royal " We " " Tho Man 

in the Moon" Anima Masris, &c De Laudibus 

Sanctse Crucis O'uva7<ri xSiffi Seventh Daughter 
of a Seventh Daughter A strange Cow Royal Arms 
in Churches 'St. Christopher Oasis Lord Bacon 
as a Poet Longevity Grinning like a Cheshire Cat 

Spanish Vessels wrecked on the Irish Coast Boy 
Bishop at Eton Descendants of John Rogers John 
llojrers, the Protomartyr Restive-Apple Sauce with 
Pork Spanish " Veiwe Bowes " " Cane Decane " 
&c The Moon and her Influences Bronze Medals 

Wyle Cop Celebrated Fly Mummy Wheat 
Squire Brown's Fox Chase Seth's Pillars Edmund 
Bohun Etymology of Mushroom The Plant 
Haemony Shakspeare, Tennyson, &c. - - 61 


Notes on Books, &c. - . . - -65 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 66 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 6/> 

Advertisements - .... 67 

VOL. VI. No. 142. 


The editor of Select Poetry, chiefly devotional, of 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, collected for the 
Parker Society, ascribes to Francis Davison (and I 
dare say rightly) a translation of Psalm cxxxvii., 
which is likewise attributed to Dr. Donne, and if 
I mistake not to others. It is found in vol. ii. 
p. 328., and I should be very glad to know who 
was really the author, as it does not seem the 
worst of the " Geneva Jigs : " 

" By Euphrates' flowry side 

We did bide, 

From deare Judah far absented, 
Tearing th' aire with mournful cries, 

And our eies 
With their streames the streame augmented : 

When poor Sion's doleful state, 


Sacked, burned, and enthralled, 
And Thy temple spoil'd, which we 

Ne'er should see 
To our mirthless mind recalled. 

" Our mute harps, untun'd, unstrung, 

Up we hoong 

On greene willowes neare beside us, 
When, we sitting so forlorne, 

Thus in scorne 
Our proud spoilers 'gan deride us : 

** Come, sad captives, leave your groanes, 

And your moanes 
Under Sion's ruynes bury; 
To your harps sing us some laies 

In the praise 
Of our God, and let's be merry. 

** Can, ah, can we leave our groanes, 

And our moanes 
Under Sion's ruynes bury ? . 
Can we in this land sing laies 

To the praise 
Of our Gocl, and here be merry ? 

No, deare Salem ! if I fails 

To bewaile 

Thine affliction miserable, 
Let my nimble joynts become 

Stifle and nombe; 
To touch warbling harp unable. 



[No. 142, 

" Let my tongue lose singing skill ; 

Let it still 

To my parched rooffe be glewed, 
If in either harpe or voice 

I rejoyce, 
Till thy joys shall be renewed. 

" Lord, plague Edom's traitrous kind ; 

Beare in mind 

In our ruyne how they revell'd : 
Kill, sack, burne ! they cride out still, 

Sack, burne, kill ; 
Downe with all, let all be levell'd I 

" And thou, Babel, when the tide 

Of thy pride, 

Now a flowing, falls to turning, 
Victor now, shall then be thrall, 

And shalt fall 
To as lowe an ebb of mourning. 

" Happie man, who shall thee wast 

As thou hast 

Us without all mercy wasted, 
And shall make thee taste and see 

What by thee 
Wee, poor Wee, have seen and tasted ! 

" Happie, who thy tender barnes 

From the armes 

Of their wayling mothers tearing, 
'Gainst the walls shall dash their bones, 

Rutheless stones 
With their brayns and blood besmearing." 

What an imperfect idea any jingling version can 
give us of any Psalm of the inspired writers ; and 
how signally this has been proved by the metrical 
attempts at Psalm cxxxvii. f The most successful 
version of it in any language is, I fancy, that by 
Camoens. RT. 



Sites of Buildings changed (Vol.v., pp. 436. 524.). 
In the Traditions of Lancashire, edited by John 
Roby, Esq., First Series, vol. i. p. 23., there is a tale 
entitled The Goblin Builders, showing how " Gamel 
the Saxon Thane, Lord of Recedham or Racked 
(now Rochdale) intended to build a chapel unto St. 
Chadde, nigh to the banks of the Eache or Roach" 
It seems a level, convenient situation was chosen for 
the edifice ; but thrice were the foundations there 
laid, and thrice were all the building materials 
conveyed by invisible agency from this flat spot 
to a more airy and elevated situation. At last the 
Thane, ceasing to strive against fate, gave up his 
original design, and the present church was, built 
on the locality designated by these unseen work- 
men. The ascent was high, and one hundred and 
twenty-four steps had to be laid to help the 
natives up to the chapel of St. Chadde. 


Folk Lore ofKacouss People (Vol. v., p. 413.). 
Does not the expression " under the bells " mean 
the lower part of the belfry tower, in which the 
people could attend divine service, and yet not 
be in the body of the church ? J. B. RELTON. 

Charms. The following charm was practised a 
few weeks since in the village of Newport, Essex, 
on a poor lad subject to epileptic fits. Nine six- 
pences were procured from nine virgins (" for 
which they were to be neither asked nor thanked") ; 
the money was then made into a ring, which the 
child wore ; but with no satisfactory result, pos- 
sibly from some^aw in the primary condition. 


Weather Prophecy. (Vol. v., p. 534.). It is a 
common opinion in the midland counties that if 
the oak comes into leaf before the ash, a dry sum- 
mer may be expected, and a wet summer if the 
ash is the first. A wet spring is generally, I be- 
lieve, favourable to the earlier leaves of the ash, 
which are retarded by a dry one. This year the 
oak was very much earlier than the ash. H. N. E. 


In a copy of Funerali Antichi di diuersi Popoli r 
et Natiom, Sec., Descritti in Dialogo da Thomaso 
Porcacchi, in Venetia, MDLXXIIII., which was pre- 
sented to the Hull Subscription Library by the 
executors of Sir Thomas Coltman, Kt., there i 
written on a fly-leaf the following poem. The 
title-page bears the signature of Edward Beding- 
field, and the poem is probably in the same hand. 
I have retained the old spelling and capital letters. 


" Though I be poore yet will I make hard shift, 
But J will send my God a new yeares gift, 
Nor Myrrhe nor frankincense 
Can I dispense, 
Nor'gold of Ophir 
Is in my cofer ; 

With wealth I haue so small acquaintance as 
I scarce know tinne from siluer, gold from brasse. 


" Orientall rubyes, emeralds greene, 
Blew saphires, sparkling diamonds I haue seene, 
Yet never yet did touch 
Or gemme or ouche, 
Nor pearle nor Amber 
Are in my chamber ; 

These things are in my mind, but neuer yet 
Vouchsafe! to lodge within my cabinet. 


" My euer lieuing euer louing King 
Yet shall from me receiue a better thing ; 
For Princes diademes, 
. Flaming with gemmes, 
With richesse drest 
Of east and west, 

Match not this gift, wch if my God shall owne, 
I'll not change lots with him that weares a crowne. 

JULY 17. 1852.] 




" An heart with penitence made new and cleane, 
Fill'd with faith, hope, and loue, must be my strane. 
My God y* didst not slight 
The widowes mite, 
Accept of this 
Poore sacrifice, 

Though I nere give but what before was Thine, 
A treasure taken out of Thine owne mine." 

Bottesford Moors. 

Curious Mistranslation. In Dickens' Household 
Words, in No. 113. (May 22), there is an article 
entitled " The Eights of French Women," in 
which, at p. 221., a Frenchman is made to say, 
that, in consequence of a promenade in the coun- 
try, he and his child " shall sleep like two wooden 
shoes." Now this raised a Query in my mind, 
for I had never before heard "wooden shoes" 
taxed with any drowsy qualities, although un- 
doubtedly heavy ; and I could not call to mind 
any authority for the ascription. Upon turning 
to a French dictionary, I find that the word 
sabot, which means a wooden shoe, means also a 
top : my Query was therefore turned into a Note ; 
that Note being, that the writer of the article had 
wrongfully used the former meaning instead of 
the latter; and that the Frenchman had really 
said, he and his child should " sleep like two tops." 
Is this Note worth your notice ? P. T. 

Stoke Newington. 

Street Crossing. A writer in The Builder has 
cleverly suggested that bridges might be erected in 
the crowded thoroughfares of London for the con- 
venience of foot passengers, who lose so much valu- 
able time in crossing. As the stairs would occupy 
a considerable space, and occasion much fatigue, I 
beg to propose an amendment: Might not the 
ascending pedestrians be raised up by the descend- 
ing ? The bridge would then resemble the letter 
H, and occupy but little room. Three or four at 
a time, stepping into an iron framework, would be 
gently elevated, walk across, and perform by their 
weight the same friendly office for others rising on 
the opposite side. Surely no obstacles can arise 
which might not be surmounted by ingenuity. If 
a temporary bridge were erected in one of the 
parks the experiment might be tried at little cost, 
and, at any rate, some amusement would be 
afforded. (^ T;. 

Travelling Expenses at the Close of the Seven- 
teenth Century. I beg to send, for the information 
>i your correspondent A. A. (Vol. iii., p. 143.), 
the following transcript of a MS. entry on a fly- 
leaf at the end of a Jewish calendar for the year 

5458 now in my possession. The book is a thin 
12mo., printed "at the Theater, Oxford," A.D. 
" 1698," with which year the Jewish date corre- 
sponds, and it contains the Christian and Jewish 
calendars in parallel pages. It appears from the 
autograph of " Wm. Stukeley, M.D., 1736," which 
is written on the inside of the cover of the book, 
that it once belonged to that antiquary. The 
handwriting of the entries resembles that of 
Thomas Hearne. 

" A. D. 1698. ,. d. 

Post-chaise from Oxford to London - 7 6 
Post-boy - - - - - -OQI 

Expences at the Red Lion : Dinner, 

Wine, one bottle of old Port, and fruit 019 
Waiter - - - - - -001 

Expences at Half Moon Tavern : Sal- 
mon, lobster sauce, a bottle of Port - 1 6 
Bed and Chamberlain - - - 3| 

Post-chaise to Oxford, and Dinner 
Shoulder and leg of House Lamb, and 
two bottles of Wine, with asparagrass Oil 2 

1 2 4$ 
Play House Exps. - 9 

1 3 1 

" N. B. It was decided by a great Majority of 
Civilians that the Cause was clear from the evidence of 
Mrs. Barlow." 

R. M. W. 

" The Sore" in the Severn. In the following 
passages found in the second text of Lazamon's 
Brut, which Sir F. Madden considers to have been 
written about fifty years after the earlier text, the 
probable date of which he fixes at the commence- 
ment of the thirteenth century, occur the three 
forms of " beares" " beres" " bieres" denoting 
waves 1 viz. 

" passi over bieres. 

(to) pass over waves." Lazam., ed. Madden, Lond- 
1846, vol. i. p. 57. 

" J>e beares me hire bi-nome. 
the waves took her from me." Vol. iii. p. 121. 

'< wandri mid \> . . beres. 
floating with the waves." Vol. iii. p. 144. 

Sir F. Madden observes, in his Glossarial Re- 
marks, Lazam., vol. iii. p. 451. v. 1341.: 

" This word has not been met with in A.-S. It is no 
doubt the same with the Isl. bdra : Old Germ, bare ; 
Dutch baar, wave or billow. Perhaps the bar of a 
harbour is hence derived." 

May we not also trace to this source the term 
bore, popularly used to express the tidal wave of 
the Severn? R. M. W. 



[No. 142. 


I will be much obliged if any of your readers 
can tell me the name of the engraver of a favourite 
old print in my collection, it being a proof before 
letters, without, consequently, the names of the 
engraver and painter, which latter I should also 
wish to know. Nor ain I certain what to call the 
subject, though I think it is probably Sterne's 
Maria. The print is an upright about sixteen 
inches by ten, consisting of a single figure in the 
foreground, reaching nearly the whole height of 
the plate, of a pensive young maid in simple 
attire, standing on the ground in sandals, a sort of 
mantle covering the back of her head, and falling 
around her, forming a train at her feet ; the right 
arms and part of the breast and neck exposed, the 
left arm round the neck of a kid or lamb lying 
down on a flowing bank by her side at the root 
of a tree. The background consists of a pretty 
little distant landscape with a uniform roofed cot, 
u shepherd and flock of sheep. The work seems 
A good deal like Sir Robt. Strange's the St. 
Agnes, for instance ; but I do not see anything 
answering this description in any of Strange's 
catalogues in my possession. 

I have another print I should also be glad to be 
informed about, a much older one than the above, 
probably a Roman Catholic altar-piece. It con- 
sists of groups of figures in the clouds, the Madonna 
in the centre of the upper compartment, sur- 
mounted with a number of little angels ; a female 
in the centre of the lower compartment, kneeling 
before a child and angel ; and on both sides, below 
and above, a number of large figures, angels, 
monks, and friars, a pope, and a bishop, &c. 
What appears curious, one of the ecclesiastics, in 
the lower compartment, left-hand side, holds a 
carbine or large pistol, having a crucifix on the 
end of the barrel, instead of the usual sight ; above 
his left shoulder is an angel with a bunch of keys, 
and a monk on the opposite side holds a cross in 
a wreath of flowers. The print is a good deal 
mutilated, and no margin left to show the exact 
dimensions, or the names .of engraver or painter. 
It is upright, about twenty-five inches by seven- 
teen. The execution is something like that of 
Caracci, but rather a coarse line engraving. 

I would ascertain the subject of another fine 
old print, which I will describe. It is an upright, 
twenty-one inches by sixteen and a half, dated 
1566 in the right low corner, and in the left is 
the name "Titianus;" but I cannot say whether 
he is the engraver, as the paper is blotted where 
the fecit should be looked for. Near the middle 
at the bottom are two letters like M. R. or H. R., 
and also at a distance " Cum privilegio." In the 
upper part of this print, in the centre, is a bird 
with expanded wings surmounted with rays or a 

glory ; and a little lower on each side a bearded 
figure with a glory round the head, seated in the' 
clouds, each holding a globe (apparently) in the 
left hand, and a pencil or little ferule in the right, 
pointing upwards. On each side of these, inthe 
background, a host of little heads and faces are 
seen ; and the lower compartment is filled up 
with large figures, chiefly of men, also seated in 
the clouds ; the one in the centre holds up with 
both hands, towards the figures at the top, a kind 
of close vessel, perhaps the ark, and a woman is 
standing by him with outstretched arms, pointing 
upwards with the right ; others in the lower group 
hold different things, and one in the right corner 
seems to rest his arm, with a scroll in his hand, on 
the back of an eagle. There is a slight sketch of 
a landscape at the bottom, with two little arched 
buildings among ti*ees. 

On turning up Bryan's Dictionary, new edition,, 
for Titian's etchings, all he says is that Bartsch has 
described eight prints attributed to him. CN. CL. . 


In the course of last December I was induced, 
at the request of the committee of our mechanics' 
institute here, to deliver before the members a- 
lecture on the " History and Antiquities of the 
Town and its Neighbourhood." It is a subject 
which, from the former importance of the place 
as an episcopal see, and being one of the strong- 
holds of the English pale, required considerable re- 
search, much more, indeed, than I had then either 
opportunity or time to afford for its proper illus- 
tration. Not least amongst the interesting series 
of events in its history was its frequent invasions 
by the Danes or Northmen, and the death and 
burial of Magnus, king of Norway, early in the 
twelfth century, either beside the cathedral church 
or in its immediate vicinity. To ascertain the 
place of that king's sepulture formed a subject of 
constant investigation ; but, as there was no tra- 
dition pointing it out, nor any place now called 
Slat-Manus, or any similar designation, I was 
obliged to abandon the inquiry without any certain 
conclusion, the authorities bearing on the subject 
being so much at variance both in the description 
of the scene of the battle and place of burial. 

I had, indeed, heard that M. WORSAAE, the 
author of several works on Danish antiquities, 
had some years past been in this neighbourhood, 
and had pointed out a spot adjacent to the town, 
remote from the cathedral, as the place of burial, 
and which report I introduced into the lecture. 

As I perceive M. WORSAAE is a correspondent 
of "N. & Q.," the object of this letter is to ascer- 
tain whether he could afford any information as 
to this matter, or the other visits of the Northmen 
to the county of Down, and whether he is aware 

JULY 17. 1852.] 



of any other information than that contained in the 
Chronicle of Man, Torfseus, Snorro, in Johnson's 
Scandinavian Antiquities, Giraldus' Canibrensis, 
and Dr. Hanmer. If he had any ancient Danish 
maps of this neighbourhood, doubtless they would 
be of vast importance on this subject. I should 
say that a very hurried and imperfect report of 
the lecture appeared in the columns of our local 
paper, extending through four successive numbers. 
I should feel much gratification in forwarding you 
or M. WORSAAE such portions thereof as I can 
now lay my hands on, particularly that relating to 
King Magnus, should any desire to that effect be 
expressed. JOHN W. HANNA. 

Saul Street, Downpatrick, Ireland. 

(Vol. iv., p. 240.) 

In Noake's Worcester in Olden Times, London, 
1849, p. 121., under the head of "Bells," I find 
the following passage : 

" The popular notion of the curfew having originated 
in the odious tyranny of the Conqueror has been nega- 
tived by modern research. Du Cange says that the 
ringing of the couvre-feu prevailed generally in Europe 
during the middle ages as a precaution against fire. 
Voltaire also takes the same view of the custom. 
Henry I. abolished his father's enactment, but the 
custom has survived to the present day, probably as 
one of general convenience. So late as about 150 
years ago a fire-bell was rung every evening at Vienna, 
as a signal to the inhabitants to extinguish their fires, 
and to hang up lanterns in front of their houses. A 
few specimens of the couvre-feu are still in existence, 
some of them bearing marks of having covered the fire." 

Upon this passage I would ask permission to 
put two Queries : 

1. What historical notices are there of a curfew 
prior to the Conquest ? 

2. At what places on the continent of Europe, 
besides Vienna, has the custom been ascertained 
to prevail ? Your correspondent H. H. B. (Vol. 
iv., p. 240.) produces an instance of the curfew- 
bell being rung at Charlestown, South Carolina, 
where, however, it is manifestly a custom intro- 
duced from the " mother-country." J. SANSOM. 



Fishing ly Electricity. It is a well-known 
fact that the discharge of gunpowder under water 
is more powerful in its effects than when it is ex- 
ploded in the atmosphere, and that a small dis- 
charge will kill all the fish in the vicinity. I have 
a curiosity to ascertain whether it is possible to 
make practical use of this fact in deep sea fishing. 
By means of the gutta percha wire and the electric 
fluid, it is extremely easy to convey and discharge 

gunpowder at any depth, and I cannot help think- 
ing that in some kinds of fishing a moderate quan- 
tity of powder exploded in the vicinity of the bait, 
which might be at a small distance from it, would 
"astonish the natives" of the deep, and bring 
them to the surface much more rapidly than could 
be accomplished by any method now in use. 


As salt as Fire. Whence this saying ? R. H. 

" There were three ladies," Sec. My paternal 
grandmother, who was a native of county Kerry 
in Ireland, was in the habit of singing a song set 
to a sweet and plaintive air, which thus com- 
menced : 
" There were three ladies playing at ball, 

Farin-dan-dan and farin-dan-dee ; 
There came a white knight, and he wooed them all, 
With adieu, sweet honey, wherever you be. 

He courted the eldest with golden rings, 

Farin, &c. &c. 
And the others with many fine things, 

And adieu," &c. &c. 

The rest has been forgotten. Can any of your 
readers furnish the remaining words ? UNEDA. 

Prophecies fulfilled. A very interesting col- 
lection might be made of apparently well authen- 
ticated prophecies fulfilled, concerning modern 
kingdoms and families of rank. That quoted by 
your correspondent in Vol. iii., p. 194., wants 
dates and details. Some curious instances might 
be gathered from a true believer Sir W. Scott 
in his Works, and in Lockhart's Life of him. Has 
any collection of this kind ever been published ? 


The Chase Family. Having observed in " !N". 
& Q." various requests concerning families, I 
would like to ask some information respecting the 
"Chase" family, three brothers of which emigrated 
to America about the year 1630, and settled in 
the vicinity of Newbury port, in Massachusetts ; 
their names were Aquila, Thomas, and William. 
Tradition says they came from Cornwall, and also 
that the name was originally spelled " La Chasse,'* 
and that they were of .Norman extraction, having 
settled in England about the time of the Conquest. 
As their descendants in the United States now 
number about 30,000 individuals, if those who 
remained in England have been equally prolific, 
there must be many of the same name who per- 
haps can give their trans-Atlantic cousins some 
knowledge of their ancestry. QUASCACTJNQUEN. 

Philadelphia, June 14. 

Mummies of Ecclesiastics in Germany. I re- 
member having some conversation with a friend a 
few years ago respecting some bodies which he 
had seen preserved in the church of some town, 



[No. 142 

of which I forget the name, on (I think) the 
Rhine. They consisted of about twenty bodies of 
monks ranged side by side, in a vault which was 
open to the air ; and it was alleged that the pe- 
culiar character of the atmosphere had alone pre- 
served them in their then state, namely, as soft to 
the touch as in life, the only peculiarity being the 
brownish hue of the face, which caused my friend 
to suspect that they had been baked. Can any of 
your correspondents refer me to any information 
on the subject ? A. A. 

Abridge, Essex. 

The Merry -thought, or Wish-bone. Whence 
conies the custom of breaking the wish-bone or 
merry-thought, with the attendant ceremony ? 


Bells on Horses' Necks. Does this custom 
exist in any county but Kent or Sussex ? A. C. 

Dissertation on a Salt Sox. Where can I 
find a " Dissertation on a Salt Box," or " The 
Logical Salt Box ? " I remember seeing it in a 
magazine some thirty-five years ago; and,although 
I have made many inquires, I have not been en- 
abled to obtain a reference to it. J. WN. 

Meaning of Alcohol. Can you enlighten me as 
to the derivation of the word "alcohol; " or rather, 
I should say, as the first syllable almost of itself 
proclaims it to be Arabic, what is the meaning of 
the word or words whence it is derived ? 

A.E. S 

^ Hip, hip, hurrah /" What was the origin of 
this bacchanalian exclamation, and what does it 
mean ? I make the inquiry, although I annex an 
attempt to define it, which was cut from the 
columns of the Edinburgh Scotsman newspaper 
some years ago : 

" It is said that Hip, hip, hurrah !' originated in 
the Crusades, it being a corruption of H. E. P., the 
initials of ' Hierosolyma est perdita " (Jerusalem is 
lost !), the motto on the banner of Peter the Hermit, 
whose followers hunted the Jews down with the cry 
of ' Hip, hip, hurrah 1 ' " 

I never read elsewhere of such a motto being 
upon the standards of the first Crusaders. Had 
they any other motto than Dieu le volt f R. S. F 


Armorial Bearings of Cities and Towns. It 
will doubtless be in the memory of most of your 
correspondents that a meeting of the mayors of 
every town in England was held in London about 
the time of the Exhibition, and that at such meet- 
ing were displayed flags with the armorial bear- 
ings of each town represented by their mayor ; 
and I shall be glad if any of your correspondents 
can ii f jrm me whether there was published an 
account of such meeting, with the engraving of 
each town's armorial bearings ; and, if so, where 

it is to be seen, as such a work would be highly 
useful to all who feel an interest in heraldry ? 

King's Lynn. 

Hands in the Pockets. On looking over some 
transcripts I found the following, but without a 
reference as to what book it had been copied from. 
Can you, or any of your correspondents, give me 
information where it can be found, or whether 
you ever heard of such an observation ? 

" Whoever has passed through Braintree and Bock- 
ing in Essex, must have observed that the inhabitants 
have a custom of standing with their hands in their 
pockets. Not only men and boys, but even womeh 
are generally seen in that attitude. This seems to be 
an old subject of observation, for I remember forty 
years ago, when walking with my hands in my pockets, 
I was asked by a friend whether I had been staying at 

C. DE D. 

John de Huderesfield. Does the fame of John 
de Huderesfield, a civil engineer or architect of the 
time of Richard II., enable any correspondent to 
point to any great work of his, or account of him ? 

G. R. L. 

Lyme Regis. 

John, King of France, at Somerton (Vol. v., 
p. 505.). In an interesting article, "A Journal 
of the Expenses of John, King of France, in Eng- 
land, 1359-60," the following places of confinement 
of the monarch are mentioned: 1. Hertford Castle; 
2. Somerton Castle, in Lincolnshire ; and, lastly, 
the Tower of London. 

I have a view of Somerton, in Somersetshire, 
which I put with other antiquities, as it contains a 
view of the Bear Inn, built, as Somerset history 
has it, upon the site of Somerton Castle, where 
King John of France was confined, and from 
which he was removed owing to the supposed con- 
nexion of some landings of the French upon the 
south-western coast. Am I to understand that 
King John never was confined at Somerton in 
Somersetshire ? G. R. L. 

Lyme Regis. 

Tapestry from Richmond Palace. In an inven- 
tory of the goods at Richmond Palace belonging 
to Charles L, in the custody of Mr. Theobald 
Pierce, which were viewed and appraised on the 
5th October, 1649, and sold by order of the Council 
of State, there is marked No. 1. : 

" Ten pieces of Arras hangings of the Old and New 
Law, containing 727 ells at 2/. 10s. per ell. 1817/. 10s." 

These were sold, on Thursday, October 23, 1651, 
to Mr. Grinder, according to the appraisement. ] 
believe they were of the manufacture of Sir Francis 
Klein, at Mortlake; and I beg to be informed, 
through the medium of the " N. & Q.," where the 
above tapestry is at the present time. AMICUS. 

JULY 17. 1852.] 



" Prayer moves the hand" Sfc. Where are 
these lines to be found ? 

" Prayer moves the hand 
That moves the universe." 

C. G. L. 

Portrait of Oliver Cromwell. I have lately seen 
a fine three-quarter length painting of Oliver 
Cromwell. It had been neglected for many years, 
and become covered with dirt and quite obscured ; 
it was at last cleaned, and found to be a portrait 
of Oliver. I understand it was formerly in the 
possession of Lord Torrington, and bought amongst 
some lumber at a sale of his. 

Can any of your readers give me any information 
with respect to the painter and history of this 
portrait; and whether it be true, as I am in- 
formed, that one portrait of Cromwell is missing ? 


Birthplace of Wickliffe. Whitaker, in [his 
History of Richmondshire, quoting Leland's asser- 
tion that Wickliffe was born at Spreswell, near 
Richmond, in Yorkshire, supposes the place meant 
to be Hipswell in that locality, and supports his 
view by the fact of the existence there of a 
" Whitcliff," whilst there never has been known a 
place called " Spreswell," near Richmond. Query, 
What authority is there to support the statement 
in the Biographical Dictionary (Chalmers) that 
the Reformer was born at Wickliffe, a village near 
Richmond, in 1324 ? and does the biographer mean 
the place of that name on the Tees ? The pedi- 
gree of Wycliffe of Wycliffe is given by Whitaker, 
but does not mention the Reformer. Whitaker 
inclines to the Whitcliff on the Swale, but his 
reasons do not seem to be conclusive. It would 
be interesting to have this question settled ; and 
I am sure there cannot be a more effectual way of 
gaining this end than to have the attention of the 
readers of " N. & Q." called thereto. SEVAEG. 


Reverend applied to the Clergy. What is the 
antiquity of and authority for the prefix of Eeve- 
rend to the clergy? Is it not a mere term of 
courtesy (as Honourable applied to the children 
of nobility), being an epithet unconnected with a 
title ? One singularity is found in the usage that 
clergymen employ it when speaking of themselves, 
placing it on their cards ; but is not this a modern 
practice? After searching many early sermon 
books and works written by divines, I find 
Reverend is not usually placed before the name 
of the author on the title-page. It will be under- 
stood that there is no doubt as to the propriety of 
the appellation; but is it a title conferred by 
authority, or only what Selden would call an 
" honorary attribute ? " M N. 

Foubert Family. Evelyn mentions in his 
Diary, Sept. 17, 1681, that he "went with Mons r . 
Foubert about takeing y e Countesse of Bristoll's 

house for an academic," &c. ; and Dec. 17, 1684, 
he speaks of " Mons r . Foubert and his sonn, pro- 
vost masters of y e academie :" this academy was 
between King Street and Swallow Street, now 
Regent Street, where "Major Foubert's passage", 
commemorates it. In 1702 one Henry Foubert 
was Equerry to Wm. III.; and Bromley gives 
account of a portrait of " Henry Foubert, Major 
and Equerry," and adds that he "died 1743." 
In 1764 there was one Augustus Faubert, or 
Foubert, resident in St. James's parish, West- 
minster ; can any of your readers tell me whether 
the Henry Foubert, Equerry, 1702, is identical 
with Henry Foubert, Major and Equerry, who 
died 1743, and in what relationship (if any) he or 
they and Augustus Faubert or Foubert stood to 
Mons. Foubert, and who Augustus married ? 


Cambridge Disputations. In the public dispu- 
tations held in the schools at Cambridge by can- 
didates for degrees (which disputations are now 
partially abolished), a species of syllogistic form 
was adopted, of the origin of which no account 
was ever given. In the only work I know of, 
which professes to guide the student, Wesley's- 
Guide to Syllogism, London, 1832, small 8vo., not 
a word is said on the meaning and origin of the 
form, which is as follows : 

Suppose that the two propositions, "A is B'.' 
and "c is D," lead to "E is r," which contradicts 
what the respondent is maintaining. The oppo- 
nent then shaped his argument into three con- 
ditional syllogisms, thus : 

" Si A sit B ; cadit quaestio : 
Sed A est B ; ergo cadit quaestio. 

" Si c sit D ; valet consequentia : 
Sed c est D ; ergo valet consequentia. 

" Si igitur E sit F j valent consequentia et argu- 

mentum : 

Sed igitur E ist F ; ergo valent consequentia et ar- 

What is the meaning of this form ? What are 
the meanings of the terms qucestio, consequentia, 
argumentum? Was this form common to scho- 
lastic disputations, or was it confined to Cam- 
bridge? If the former, has it been correctly 
preserved, or has the disuse of technical logic at 
Cambridge allowed it to become corrupt ? In 
what books has it been described ? M. 

Tenure of Land. Montholon, in his Memoirs 
of Napoleon at Elba, records an observation of 
that great man, that, whenever the question of 
the Tenure of Land shall be settled in England, 
she would become the greatest country in the 
world. Can any reader refer to that book, and 
give the exact words used ? H. 


[No. 142. 

" To lie at the Catch" In the discourse between 
Faithful and Talkative, in Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress, Talkative says, " You lie at the catch, I 
perceive ; " to which Faithful replies, " No, not I : 
I am only for setting things right." And again, in 
the same conversation, Faithful says, " You lie at 
the catch again. This is not for edification." Can 
any of your readers kindly tell me what is the 
meaning of the expression, to lie at the catch ? 


[In the Jerusalem Sinner Saved, Bunyan explains the 
meaning of the phrase, where he refers to those who 
are living in sin, and yet expect to be saved by grace. 
" Of this sort are they that build up Zion with blood 
and Jerusalem with iniquity ; that judge for reward, 
and teach for hire, and divine for money, and lean upon 
the Lord. This is doing things with a high hand 
against the Lord our God, and a taking Him as it were 
at the catch ! This is, as we say among men, to seek 
to put a trick upon God, as if He had not sufficiently 
fortified His proposals of grace by His Holy Word 
against all such kind of fools as these."] 

Words printed in Italics in the Bible. I may 
be only showing my ignorance if I ask, Why are 
numerous words printed in Italics in the Bible ? 

K. II. 

[" With regard to the words in the Bible printed in 
Italic characters, Dr. Myles Smyth, one of the two 
appointed Revisers of the authorized version, in the 
Preface to the first edition, published in 1611, gives 
the following reason for their use : 

' Moreouer, whereas the necessitie of the sentence 
required any thing to be added (for such is the grace 
and propricte of the Ebrewe and Greeke tongues that 
t cannot, but either by circumlocution, or by adding 
the verbe or some word, be vnderstood of them that are 
not well practised therein), wee haue put it in the text 
with an other kinde of letter, that it may easily bee 
discerned from the common letter.'" Savage's Dic- 
tionary of Printing, p. 3 9. J 

JBays's Troops. In a curious collection of 
essays entitled Something New, London, 1772, 
occurs the following passage. The essayist is 
describing a case of reanimation : 

" For dead men, as it seems, may rise again, like 
Bays's troops, or the savages in the Fantocini." 

Who was Bays, and what was the incident al- 
luded to ? T. STERNBERG. 

[The allusion is to a scene in the Fifth Act of The 
Rehearsal, by G. Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, A. D. 
1 672, where ' a battle is fought between foot and great 
hobby-horses. At last Drawcansir comes in, and kills 
'em all on both sides." Smith then gravely asks, 

" But, Mr. Bayes, how shall all these dead men go 
off? for I see none alive to help them. 

" Bayes. Go oif! why, as they came on ; upon their 
legs : how should they go off? Why, do you think 
ll.e people do not know they are not dead ?"] 

Courtier and learned Writer. In an old devo- 
tional work, entitled The Christian's Duty, pub- 
lished originally in 1730, and lately republislied at 
Rivingtons, I find the following passage at page 68. 
of the older edition, and page 72. of the more recent 

" Ah, my friends ! while we laugh all things am 
serious round about us. God is serious, who exer- 
ciseth patience towards us ; Christ is serious, who shed 
His blood for us; the Holy Ghost is serious, who 
striveth against the obstinacy of our hearts ; the Holy 
Scriptures bring to our ears the most serious things in 
the world ; the Holy Sacraments represent the most 
serious and awful matters ; the whole creation is serious 
in serving God and us ; all that are in heaven or hell 
are serious ; how then can we be gay ? " 

The author, or, I should rather say, compiler pl> 
the work which I first mentioned then proceeds in 
the following terms : 

" To give these excellent words their full force (as a 
learned writer says of them) it should be known that 
they came not from the priesthood, but the court, and 
from a courtier as eminent as England ever boasted." 

Perhaps some of your numerous correspondents 
can inform you, and, through you, myself and 
some friends who are interested in the success of 
the work, 1. Who "the courtier mentioned as the 
author" was? 2. Who the "learned writer" who 
makes the remark was ? T. BD* 

[The "learned writer" is Dr. Edward Young, author 
of the Night Thoughts, who has quoted the passage in 
his Sermon on " A True Estimate of Human Life," 
Worhs, vol. v. p. 19., edit. 1774. The name of thfr 
courtier is not given.] 


(Vol. iii. } pp. 260. 437. 461.; Vol. iv., pp. 13. 344. 
392.; Vol.v., pp. 8G. 258.) 

There never was any difference of opinion in the 
United States, among those who have paid any 
attention to the subject, concerning the origin of 
the word Yankee. It is believed to have been de- 
rived from the manner in which the Indians en- 
deavoured to pronounce the word English, which 
they rendered Yenghces, whence the word Yankee. 
The statement in Irv ing's Knickerbocker's Histovy 
of New York, concerning the tribe of Yankoos, is a 
mere joke : and the suggestion of your correspon- 
dent K. H., in the present volume of " N. & Q. r " 
from the New York Gazetteer, that the Yankoos 
were so indomitable that the Puritans of New 
England, after subduing them, adopted their name, 
according to an Indian custom which gave the 
name of the conquered to the conquerors, is not 
to be relied upon, as no history of New England 
makes any mention of that redoubtable tribe j nor 

JULY 17. 1852.] 


can there be found any authority for a belief that 
the custom spoken of ever existed among the 
aborigines of America. Equally wide of the mark 
is the attempt to trace Yankee Doodle from Yenghi 
Dounia, which is said to be very good Persian for 
America, though how such an insular and sta- 
tionary people as the Persians should ever hear of 
America, and coin a word specially to express the 
name of the country, and to suit their vocabulary, 
does not seem to have been considered by those 
who suggested that fanciful derivation. The word 
Yankee undoubtedly had the Yengliees origin re- 
ferred to above, but it does not seem to have been 
very common until the time of the Revolutionary 
war. I have not met with it in any writings pre- 
vious to that time; and in letters in which the 
word occurs, written in 1775, it is referred to in a 
manner which shows that the writer considered it 
something new, and intended to be contemptuous, 
used as it was by their then enemies, the British 
soldiers. Noah Webster, in his Dictionary, gives the 
Yenghees origin of the word, upon the authority of 
Heckewelder ; and that fact may account for its 
being looked upon in New England as something 
novel. Heckewelder is excellent authority upon 
Indian subjects ; but he spent his time principally 
trmong the Delawares and the Six Nations, and was 
not likely to be well acquainted with the Massa- 
chusetts Indians, who spoke a different dialect. 
Several of the regiments of British regulars who 
were transferred to Boston after the beginning of 
fhe troubles, had been stationed in the middle 
colonies, and had considerable experience in Indian 
warfare, and may have thus acquired a knowledge 
of the word. The 1 8th, or Royal Irish, for instance, 
tad been engaged in nearly all the battles which 
had taken place in the colonies during two French 
wars, and they had acquired much familiarity with 
American affairs. That the word was rather un- 
common in New England, is shown by various 
letters written from them. One from the Rev. 
Win. Gordon, published in the Penna Gazette, 
May 10, 1775, giving an account of the skirmishes 
at Concord and Lexington, says, "They (the 
British troops) were roughly handled by the 
Yankees, a term of reproach for the New Eng- 
landers, when applied by the regulars." Another 
letter, published in the same paper a few weeks 
afterwards, dated " Hartford, Connecticut," gives 
an account of the capture of several letters from 
English officers in Boston, to their friends in 
England, and says, " some of them are full of in- 
vectives against the poor Yankees, as they call us." 
From these facts it seems probable that the word 
was so unusual in New England that the writers 
thought themselves obliged to explain it. It was 
soon adopted, however. In a few months there- 
after the citizens of Newbury fitted out a privateer 
called the Yankee Hero ; and the name was used 
when speaking of the New Englanders, being spelt 

at times Yankie, Yanko, Yankoo, Yanku t 'sm& Yankee, 
as if its orthography was not settled. At this day 
it is only applied in the United States to the in- 
habitants of New England ; but foreigners use it 
to designate all Americans. 

The origin of Yankee Doodle is by no means as 
clear as American antiquaries desire. The reply 
given by MB. MACKENZIE WALCOTT (Vol. iv., 
p. 393.), which states that the air was composed 
by Dr. Shuckburg, in 1755, when the Colonial 
troops united with the British regulars near Al- 
bany for the conquest of Canada, and that it was 
produced in derision of the old-fashioned manners 
of the provincial soldiers, when contrasted with 
the neat and dandified appearance of the regulars, 
was published some years ago in a musical maga- 
zine printed in Boston. The authority for ME. 
WALCOTT'S statement is not given ; and if it is any 
other than that in the periodical referred to, he 
would much oblige American readers by stating 
it. MB. SAMPSON WALKER asks (Vol. iv., p. 344.) 
for " the origin of the song, or if the tune is older 
than the song;" and in giving him another version 
of the history of the air than Dr. Shuckburg's 
account, I shall have to refer him to authority 
which he and all your readers have better means 
of consulting than the citizens of the United States. 
MB. WALKER asks " for the words of the song. 1 * 
There is no song : the tune in the United States- 
is a march ; there are no words to it of a national 
character. The only words ever affixed to the air 
in this country is the following doggerel quatrain: 

" Yankee Doodle came to town 
Upon a little pony, 
He stuck a feather in his hat 
And called it macaroni." 

It has been asserted by writers in this country, 
that the air and words of these lines arc as old^ as 
Cromwell's time. The only alteration is in making 
Yankee Doodle of what was Nankee Doodle. It is 
asserted that the tune will be found in the Musical 
Antiquities of England, and that Nankee Doodle 
was intended to apply to Cromwell, and the other 
lines were designed to " allude to his going into 
Oxford with a single plume, fastened in a knot 
called a macaroni." The tune was known in New- 
England before the Revolution as Lydia Fisher's 
Jig; and there were verses to it commencing : 

" Lucy Locket lost her pocket, 
Lydia Fisher found it, _ 
Not a bit of money in it, 
Only binding round it." 

The regulars in Boston in 1775 and 1776 are 
said to have sung verses to the same air : 

" Yankee Doodle came to town, 
For to buy a firelock ; 
We will tar and feather him, 
And so we will John Hancock," &c. 



[No. 142. 

The manner in which the tune came to be 
adopted by the Americans is shown in the follow- 
ing letter of the Rev. W. Gordon. Describing the 
battles of Lexington and Concord, before alluded 
to, he says : 

"The brigade under Lord Percy marched out [of 
Boston] playing, by way of contempt, Yankee Doodle .- 
they were afterwards told they had been made to dance 
to it." 

The air thus intended as a slur upon the Ame- 
ricans was immediately adopted by them, used 
throughout the Revolutionary war, and ever since. 

I have taken up a good deal of room with this 
Yankee matter ; but as the subject is one which 
has engaged the attention of your readers, I trust 
I will be excused for giving all the American in- 
formation upon a topic which has somewhat engaged 
my attention. I hope that this note may attract 
the notice of some of your readers who are able to 
throw some light upon the following questions : 

1. Is there a book called the Musical Antiquities 
of England? 

2. If so, does that work contain the tune i Nankee 
Doodle ? 

3. If so, what is the origin of .the air ? J does it 
refer to Cromwell or not ? 

4. Do any of your readers know a tune called 
Lydia Fisher's Jig, or one to which is sung the 
words Lucy Lockett, &c. 

5. Who was Dr. Shuckburg, and on what 
authority is the composition of Yankee Doodle 
ascribed to him ? T. WESTCOTT. 

Philadelphia, U.S.A., June 5, 1852. 


(Yol. v., passim.) 

I have inclosed some impressions of a 
stone" in my collection, which you will oblige me 
by distributing, so far as lies in your power, 
amongst such of your correspondents as have 
shown an interest in the subject. I shall be glad 
to supply more if required. 

I have been led to have it drawn upon stone, 
and printed, by the many notices which have ap- 
peared in " N. & Q." during the past few months, 
all tending rather to discountenance the idea of 
any special provision of this kind. Two or more 
instances have been enumerated in which so- 
termed "plague- stones" have with more or less 
probability formed the sockets of way-side crosses. 
My specimen, however, clearly testifies that such 
special provision was occasionally made. The 
depth and size of the dish, being only four and a 
half inches square, and two inches deep, are wholly 
insufficient to afford the requisite support to any 
upright pillars. It likewise stood within the 
bounds of private property, fifty or sixty yards 
from the road, which is one of little traffic. More 

than all, the anti-popish date of the house itself 
(1650) precludes the possibility of such an origin. 
The stone formed part of the inward coping of 
the garden or court-yard wall of a house in the 
Wash Dam, at Latchford, near Warrington. From 
time immemorial it has been known as the Plague 
Stone; and tradition asserts that in former days 
several cases of plague occurred in this house. 
All direct communication with the neighbourhood 
being cut off, the square dish seen in the stone 
was made for the express purpose of holding a 
mixture of vinegar and water to disinfect the 
money paid for provisions and other necessaries, 
which were brought and laid down at a distance. 
The story went that the victims of the pestilence 
were buried in a field or croft near the house ; and 
in the year 1843, on this precise spot, some farm 
labourers came upon a large flat stone, beneath 
which lay three entire human skeletons. K. 


(Vol.v., pp.414. 542.) 

Your correspondent MR. BOOKER may be in- 
formed that parochial registers afford evidence 
that certificates of burial in woollen were required 
to a considerably later date, March, 1681. la, 
that of Hasilbury Bryan, the burials for 1730, 
beginning the ecclesiastical year from March 25th 
as "still usual, are headed, " Buried in woollen only 
as made by affidavit." But no less than four out 
of the seven names of persons buried in that year 
are followed by the words no affidavit. It farther 
appears to have been usual for the clergyman to 
affix his name, with "ito esse test. A. B., rector;'* 
and then to send the book to the Lady- day Ses- 
sions for the magistrates' inspection. And in this 
instance, instead of their writing " allowed by us," 
a lawyer's hand has inserted the following notice : 

" The rector or his curate ought to get a warrant,, 
or warrants, to levy the penalty, according to the aet 
for burying in woollen." 

The last entry of the kind in the Hasilbury 
Register is for the year 1733-4 (so written for the 
first time, as comprehending January and Feb- 
ruary of what we should style 1734), and it haft 
the magistrates approving signatures in the fol- 
lowing form : 

"May y 18th. 1734. 

Allowed by us, Ric. Bingham, Thos. Gundrey.' 

The topic recalls to one's mind Pope's light- 
minded, yet severe, exemplifications of the ruling 
passion strong in death ; amongst which he has 
introduced the exclamation : 

Odious ! in woollen ! 'Twould a saint provoke ! 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke." 


JULY 17. 1852.] 




(Vol. v., p. 605.) 

MR. SINGER must permit me to set him right as 
to a matter of fact, in which he has made a slight 

My argument was not, as he says, " to show that 
beautie in the third line may be the true reading," 
but it was to defend the text from that punctu- 
ation which would detach beauty from its proper 
clause in the sentence. Beauty is in possession of 
the text already, and is not in the least likely to be 
dislodged from it by either Hanmer's dowdy or 
Walker's gypsey. It would be the judgment of 
Paris over again, in which beauty would be certain 
" to have it hollow." 

With respect to the substitution of stale for pale 
(originally proposed by Farmer), so far from acced- 
ing to it, I am, on the contrary, convinced that 
Warburton's suggestion of plainness, instead of 
paleness, is right ; and I am only surprised that it 
has not been forced into general adoption by its 
own intrinsic evidence of truth ? There is no re- 
lation between paleness and eloquence, in the sense 
required by the context. Paleness can only move 
"more than eloquence" when the feeling to be 
excited is compassion: but plainness has just that 
sort of opposition to eloquence which the tenour of 
the passage requires. Moreover, plainness has an 
obvious reference which paleness has not to 
the preceding line : 
" Which rather threat'nest than doth promise aught." 

And it is also an appropriate continuation of 
meagre, in the sense of poor, barren, unassuming ! 

Altogether, although I am by no means an ad- 
vocate for rash interference with the text, yet, in 
this instance, plainness adds so greatly to the har- 
mony and consistency of the whole passage, that I 
have no hesitation in avowing my conviction that it 
is the true word. 

With respect to guiled and guilded, there seems 
to be sufficient authority for the word in either 
form ; but it is rather singular that Mr. Lettsom's 
question respecting it, addressed directly to Mr. 
Collier in the Athenceum of the 17th of April last, 
should not, as yet, have been replied to. A. E. B. 



(Vol. v., p. 225.) 

J. MT. refers to a curious autobiographical 
sketch of Hannah Woolly, prefixed to her Gentle- 
woman's Companion, 1682, and asks further inform- 
ation concerning her. I have never seen that book, 
but as J. MT. mentions that she states she had 
suffered "by loss of husband, children, friend, 
estate," he will probably find some information in 
a work by the same writer of an earlier date. It 
is entitled 

A Supplement to the Queen-like Closet, or a little 
of every thing, presented to all ingenious ladies and 
gentlewomen, by Hanna Wooley. London, printed by 
T. R. for Rich. Lownds, and are to be sold at the sign 
of the White Lion in Duck Lane, 1674." 
In this work, which contains receipts in medicine 
and housewifery, the authoress says, in explanation 
of the manner in which she became a practitioner 
of physic, 

" First take notice, that my mother and my elder 
sisters were very well skilled in physick and chirur- 
gery, from whom I learned a little, and at the age of 
seventeen I had the fortune to belong to a noble lady 
in this kingdom till I married, which was at twenty- 
four years of age." 

She then states that she studied by leave of that 
lady, who provided her with drugs and simples, 
and permitted her to try her skill upon the poor 
neighbours. She goes on to say : 

" When I was married to Mr. Woolly, we lived to- 
gether at Newport Pond in Essex, near Saffron Wai- 
den, seven years ; my husband having been master of 
that free school for fourteen years before. We having 
many boarders, my skill was often exercised amongst 

She then gives a long account of various sur- 
prising cures which she made, and continues 

" After these seven years were passed, we lived at 
Hackney, near London, where we had above three 
score boarders, and there I had many more trials of my 
skill both at home and abroad. I cured my own son 
of an impostume in the head, and of a consumption, 
after the physicians had given him up," &c. 

She continues 

** If any person desire to speak with me, they may 
find me at Mr. Richard Woolley's (c) house in the 
Old Bailey, in Golden Cup Court. He is Master of 
Arts and Reader at St. Martin's, Ludgate. 

In another part of the book she complains that 
Mr. Newman had printed the second edition of 
her work, The Young Ladies' Guide, without her 
knowledge, and had employed another hand upon 
it, whereby it was so much altered that she felt it 
due to herself to disclaim the authorship. The 
remedies mentioned in The Supplement to the 
Queen-like Closet recommend a liberal use of burnt 
snails, mashed toads, and other like ingredients of 
the barbarous pharmacopeia of that age. 


Philadelphia, U. S. A., June 5, 1852. 


(Vol. v., pp. 508. 595.) 

Of the two correspondents of " N". & Q." who 
have undertaken to answer my Query regarding 
the etymology of the word Devil, C. appears not 
to have read my argument, and A. N. not to have 
clearly comprehended it. 



[No. 142. 

I acknowledge the great plausibility of the ordi- 
nary derivation from 8iafid\\eiv, but it is this ap- 
parent correctness which makes the search for a 
more satisfactory etymon unusually difficult. The 
application of a word in a sense foreign to the 
language in which it is employed, especially when 
that meaning is so peculiar and limited as that of 
the word dtdfioXos in the Greek Testament, neces- 
sarily excites a doubt respecting its origin, which | 
is what I implied by the phrase " in the case of 
ecclesiastical usage," which has occasioned such 
perplexity in the mind of A. N". 

How he can feel surprised at my assertion, that 
the Septuagint and Greek Testament are replete 
with words of oriental origin, I do not understand ; 
it would be a much more remarkable fact if the 
polity, religion, and literature of a distinct people 
like the Hebrews could be transplanted into a 
foreign language without the occurrence of such a 

I am at present at a distance from my library, 
and must trust to memory for arguments to main- 
tain my position ; in furtherance of which object 
I shall adduce a few words, Greek in their form 
and analogy, but undoubtedly oriental. Some of 
them, I know, occur in the Greek Bible, but it is 
from Herodotus and Xenophon that I have im- 
mediately borrowed them. They are as follows : 
TropaSewroy, axwditris, avd^vpis, Kvpoy. On some of 
these I shall exert a little fancy etymology, to 
show how easily a Greek origin might be claimed 
for them as well as form and inflection. In the 
first place, it is a fact known to all philologists, 
that Tooke, in the Diversions of Parley, derives 
the word town from the Anglo-Saxon tynan, " to 
enclose," and the Greek Sfoos has a similar root 
5w. Now the word irapafeia-os means a park 
attached to a summer palace, and might be derived 
from trap*, "beside," and Sew, " to bind ;" and thus 
be denned as a tract of land set apart beside a dwell- 
ing. Unfortunately the word is Persian, and will 
not admit of this derivation, which is to the full 
as plausible as 8ia&d\\eiv for 8id&o\os. Again, the 
word uturduaisj " a dagger," might be derived from 
ttK^s, " a point," and mean a pointed weapon ; the 
reduplication being no more remarkable than that 
in the Latin preterits cecidi and momordi. This 
word too is Persian, and probably from the same 
root as the words hack, hatchet, axe, &c., viz., if 
my memory does not deceive me, the Chaldee 
pH, " secare." Kvpos again, being the name of a 
prince, might be considered the substantive root 
of the adjective Kvpios, " lordly, legal, ratified," 
&c. (Kvpta vtKX'fiffia, and similar phrases, being com- 
mon in classical authors), were it not simply the 
Median " Khoresh," which means the sun. The 
habit of the Greeks in altering words to suit the 
genius of their own language, forms a marked 
feature in their literature, a number of Persian, 
Hebrew, and Egyptian words having thus become 

incorporated and naturalised. The abuse of this 
custom Lucian satirises in his treatise De Historia 
Conscribenda, where he says that a writer of his 
day altered the Latin Saturnianus into Kpoviuvos, 
Titianus into TIT'IVOS, Fronto into &p 6vris, and so on. 

If A. N. cannot see the connexion between Un- 
debel and 5idfio\os, how can he acknowledge, as 
every divinity student does, that eirla-Koiros and 
bishop, 7rpe<rj8uTpos and priest, are identical words ; 
the history of whose changes is lucid and distinct. 
Income now to that part of his reply which he 
himself says is not relevant, but which, in my 
opinion, is the only argument of any weight which 
he has adduced. I understand him to say, that 
the introduction of a new religion was usually 
attended with the condemnation of the old divini- 
ties as evil spirits. This is true as far as regards 
their individual appellations, but does not apply 
to the abstract words denoting deity. In Scandi- 
navia, after the introduction of Christianity by 
King Oluf the Saint, Odin, Thor, Balder, and the 
rest of the northern Olympus, were anathematised 
as demons ; but the appellation " Alfadir," and the 
like, were merely directed to their proper channel. 
No Christian writer has ever used 0e'as or divus 
to denote the evil spirits, though the old pos- 
sessors of these names, Jupiter, Apollo, and 
Athena, were hurled to that Tartarus, where they 
were believed to have incarcerated the Titans. 
The word Div, in its diabolic sense, was undoubt- 
edly long antecedent to the composition of the 
Shah-nameh, as the combats of the llustan and 
Tahmuras Shah with the Dios are amongst the 
most ancient legends of Persia. If I do not mis- 
take, the latter was a monarch of the Pishdadian 
dynasty, which had died out ages before the intro- 
duction of Islamisin. 

The chief objection to the parallels I have 
brought forward is, that one word in each case is 
in a dead, and one in a living language ; but an 
instance occurs to me where both are found in 
living tongues, namely, the Slavonic Bogud, God, 
and the Scotch bogie, a ghost or evil spirit. The 
euphonisms of the Celtic Daoine Shie, or men of 
peace, and the Icelandic Jdtun, or God-men, both 
applied to evil and malignant races, might likewise 
serve to show the extent and spread of the Yezidi 

Having thus answered A. N.'s objections, I beg 
leave to submit my interrogation again to your 
notice, and once more to ask the etymology of the 


(Vol. v., p. 585.) 

If the following remarks be of any service to 
your correspondent W. B. D., they* are .quite at 

his disposal. _^ 

JULY 17. 1852.] 



The Aztec language was spoken in the valley of 
Mexico, and in the country immediately in its 
neighbourhood, as far as Meztitlan, about twenty- 
five leagues north of Mexico. Here, however, 
according to Gabriel de Chaves (1579), it was cor- 
rupt. The south-eastern limit was the river 
Guacacualco. The due southern extent is not pre- 
cisely ascertained. 

Humboldt informs us that the Tlapanec was 
spoken in and near Tlapa. The Mixtec and the 
Zapotec were the dialects of Oaxaca ; the Tarasca, 
that of Michoacan. The shores of the Gulf oi 
Mexico due east of the capital were inhabited 
by tribes speaking the Totonac. Huasteca was 
spoken in the state of that name. Matlazincan 
was spoken sixty miles distant from Mexico. 
North of the valley of Mexico the Tarahumaran 
was spoken. Juarros gives seven languages as 
spoken in Guatemala the Quiche, the best of 
the South American dialects, but not to be con- 
founded with Peruvian, Kachiguel, Subtugil, Mam 
Pocoman, Sinca, and Chorti. The following is the 
best list I can offer : 

MEXICAN. Paredes' Abridgment of Horatio 
Carochfs Grammar, Mexico, 1759. Carlos de 
Tapia Zenteno's Grammar, Mexico, 1753. 

TARASCA. Diego Basalenque's Grammar, pub- 
lished by Father Nicolas de Quixas, Mexico, 1714. 

MAYA. Beltran's Grammar, Mexico, 1746. 

POCONCHI, or POCOMAN. Grammar annexed 
by Thomas Gage to his Travels, London, 1648. 
The Lord's Prayer in Poconchi is thus given by 

" Our Father heaven art thou 

Catat taxah vilcat ; 

Great may it extolled be thy name 

Nimta incahargihi avi ; 

It come may thy kingdom upon our heads 

Inchalita avihauri pan cana. 

It be done may thou wilt here face earth as 

Invanivita nava yahvir vetch acdl, he 

it is done heaven 
invan taxah" &c. 

HUASTECA. Grammar of Tapia Zenteno. 

OTOMI. Dictionary and Grammar, by Louis de 
Neve y Molina, Mexico, 1767; Emanuel Naxera's 
Dissertation, Philadelphia, 1835. 

PERUVIAN. Father D. G. Holquin's Grammar 
of the Qquichua. 

W. B. D. will also find ample details in Hum- 
boldt's Nouvelle Espagne, livre ii. chap. vi. vol. i. 
p. 377., and Mr. Albert Gallatin's Memoir in the 
first volume of the Journal of the American Eth- 
nological Society, New York, 1845. Ternaux- 
Compans has had a translation made of Oviedo's 
Nicaragua, which contains much valuable matter. 
Adelung, in Mithridates, has likewise discussed the 
subject. Duponceaux's Prize Essay on the Al- 
gonkia Languages, 1835. Pickering, in the "Col- 

lections of the Massachusetts Historical Society," 
and in the Appendix to the sixth volume of the 
" Conversations-Lexicon" (Encyclopedia Ameri- 
cana), Essay on the Indian Languages. 

If, however, these should not be sufficient, I 
shall be happy to supply the querist with all the 
information that I can, particularly as regards 
Mexican symbolism, if he will address a note to 
me, to the care of the Editor of " N. & Q." 


July 13. 1852. 

to ffiinav 

Royal "We" (Vol. y., p. 489.). MR. GRUBB 
will find the following in 2 Coke's Institutes, p. 2. 
Coke here makes these observations on the Magna 
Charta of Henry III. : 

" Here, in this Charta, both in the title and in divers 
parts of the body of the Charta, the King speaketh in 
the plural number, concessimus , the first King that I 
read of before him that in his graunts wrote in tha 
plural number, was King John, father of our King 
H. 3.: other Kings before him wrote in the singular 
number ; they used Ego, and King John, and all the 
Kings after him, Nos." 

H. M. 

" The Man in the Moon" (Vol. v., p. 468.). 
In the Journal of the Archaeological Institute for 
March, 1848 (p. 66-67.), W. H. will find an ac- 
count and engraving of a remarkable personal 
seal of the 14th century, of which the late Mr. 
Hudson Turner exhibited a drawing. The seal 
represents a man carrying a bundle of stolen 
thorns in the moon, whither he had been sent as 
a punishment of his theft. The legend is " Te 
Waltere docebo cur spinas Phebo gero." Allu- 
sion is made to the comments made by Alexander 
Necham, a writer of the twelfth century, to the 
popular belief upon the subject. J. Bx. 

Anima Magis, Sfc. (Vol. ii., p. 480.). Dr. 
Pusey, in one of his Sermons, quotes the passage 
as S. Augustine's ; and renders it very happily r 
" the soul is much more where it loveth than where 
it liveth" BOZOTICUS, 

Edgmond, Salop. 

De Laudibus Sanctcs Crucis (Vol. vi., p. 9.). 
The book alluded to by HUGO is, I suppose, that 
entitled De Laudibus Sanctce Crucis, written by 
Rabanus Maurus, and first printed ^ by Tho. 
Anselinus Badensis, at Phorca (Pfortzeim), 1503. 
Books printed at Pfortzeim are of rare occurrence, 
for the printer removed to Tubingen in 1511. 
There was a second edition of Rabanus Maurus, 
printed at Augsburg (Augustae Vindelicorum), 
1605, but the execution is very inferior to the 
original. I believe it has been reprinted within. 
;he last few years, but this I have not seen. 



[No. 142. 

Olwvoiffi re Train. Your correspondent KENNETH 
R. H. MACKENZIE, in his last communication on 
the Homer question, says (Vol. v., p. 223.) : " But 
that this (sc. revision of Homer) was of no great 
avail, is evident from the corruption, olwouri re 
Train, in the opening. All birds are not carnivorous, 
and therefore the passage must be wrong." Now 
m<v6s, as everybody knows, is not the generic word 
for a bird, but means a bird of prey, and thence a 
bird of omen. ZEUS. 

Seventh Daughter of a Seventh Daughter. The 
Scotch spaewife (fortune-teller) generally sets up 
the pretension that she is the seventh daughter of 
a seventh daughter ; and is supposed, in conse- 
quence, by the lower orders, to be possessed of 
second sight. 

I have never heard of any medical knowledge 
being professed by these impostors. T. R. K. 

Camden Town. 

A strange Cow (Vol. v., p. 285.). It is re- 
marked by C., that no other language can afford 
such anomalies as are to be found for instance in 
rough, cough, plough, dough, and through. The 
story of the Frenchman may not be generally 
known, who declared that he had been disturbed 
by a cow all night. However, after the anxious 
host had inquired whether the troublesome cow 
had trespassed in the garden, or whether her calf 
had been removed, he discovered that his guest had 
been deprived of his night's rest by a bad cough. 

C. T. 

Royal Arms in Churches (Vol. v., p. 559.). 
It will be seen by a correspondence in the Gentle - 
man's Magazine, 1841, in which I was somewhat 
engaged (vol. xv. New Series, pp. 338. 450. 603. ; 
vol. xvi. pp. 19, 20. 338. 452. 584.; vol. xvii. 
p. 496.), that the authority for setting up the royal 
arms in churches is out of respect " to the powers 
that be." At the last reference will be found a 
woodcut of the arms of Henry VII., from a Bench 
end in Cornwall. Royal arms in glass may be 
frequently met with in churches. I will append a 
note as to the habitat of a few : 
St. Decumant, Somerset, very early : Arms, three 


Bristol Cathedral (East Window), Edw. II. 
Portslade, Sussex, Ric. II. 
Bodenham, Hereford, Ric. II. 
Madron, Cornwall (Bench end), Hen. VII. 
Milverton, Somerset (Bench end), Hen. VIII. 
Checkly, Stafford (East Window), Edw. VI. 
St. Martin's, Sarum (Tablet), Elizabeth. 
St. James's, Bristol (Tablet), Elizabeth. 
Winscombe, Somerset (Tablet), Car. II. 
Mells, Somerset (Tablet), Anne. 

I would request Notes of any early arms to be 
made known through " K & Q." 


Clyst St. George. 

St. Christopher (Vol. v., pp. 295. 334. 372. 494.). 
He is represented in one of the windows of the 
north aisle of the church of Doddiscombleigh, near 
Exeter, a drawing of which may be seen in the 
2nd volume of the Transactions of the Exeter 
Architectural Society. The church is rich in re- 
mains of ancient stained glass. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Oasis (Vol. v., p. 465.). The two Universities 
are at variance on the quantity. Let us first hear 
Oxford. Thus, in 1829, spoke the present Pro- 
fessor of Poetry : 

" Like green oases in the Libyan wild." 

Oxford Prize Poems, p. 194. 

And thus, in 1830, the present Professor of 
Political Economy : 

" That green oasis, in whose verdant vale." 

Ib. p. 203. 

But hear Cambridge. Some twelve or fifteen 
years ago, the following line occurred in the prize 
poem by the present head-master of Oakham 
School : 

" A sunny o&sis in memory's waste." 
Of course I quote these gentlemen rather as 
scholars than as " English poets." R. 

Lord Bacon a Poet (Vol. iv., p. 474.). I think 
no one has given the proper answer to this ques- 
tion. Lord Bacon not only " wrote verses " (see 
Mr. Hannah's edit, of Poems by Wotton, Raleigh, 
8fc., p. 77.), but, as should be sufficiently notorious, 
wrote those particular verses. The poem in which 
they occur was printed as Bacon's by Farnaby in 
1629 ; and Bacon's name is appended to it in all 
the editions of Reliquiae Wottoniance after the first 
(viz. in 1654, 1672, and 1685), as well as in 
several MS. copies still extant. R. 


" My Lord Bacon says that the Countess of Desmond 
was 140 years of age. Mrs. Eckelston, who lived at 
Philipstown in the King's co. f was born in the year 
1548, and died 1691, so she was 143 years old." 
Boate and Molyneux's Nat. Hist, of Ireland, p. 181. 

In Silliman's Tour between Hartford and Quebec 
in 1819, we have a minute account of an old man 
of 134 years, Henry Francisco by name, a native 
of France. An advocate of vegetable diet ad- 
duces the Norwegian and Russian peasantry as 
the most remarkable instances of extreme lon- 
gevity : 

" The late returns of the Greek Church population 
of the Russian empire give (in the table of the deaths 
of the male sex) more than one thousand above 100 

years of age, many between 14O and 150 Slaves 

in the West Indies are recorded from 130 to 150 
years of age." Smith's Fruits and Farinacea. 


Grinning like a Cheshire Cat (Vol. v., p. 402.). 
The form in which I have heard this expression 

JULY 17. 1852.] 



used is "Grinning like a Cheshire cat chewing 
gravel^ Are the last two words merely the ad- 
dition of some enterprising genius, or are they part 
of the original simile ? JUVENIS. 

Spanish Vessels wrecked on the Irish Coast 
(Vol. v., p. 491.). The vessels alluded to by 
CYRUS REDDING formed a part of Philip's navy, 
which was cast away upon the Irish coast at the 
end of the year 1588 : 

" When the country people massacred most of the 
soldiers and sailors who escaped the fury of the tem- 
pest; and the lord lieut, Fitz William, caused the 
rest to be hanged." See Mortimer, vol. ii. p. 417., 
col. 2, commencing about 20 lines from the bottom, 
and continued ; see also note on p. 418. 

Mortimer, who was vice-consul for the Austrian 
Netherlands, mentions in an appended note to the 
above the account of the loss, transmitted to the 
court of Spain : 

" In the counties of Tyrconnel and Connaught at 
Lochfoile - I ship - 1000 men and others y* escaped. 




Sligo - - 3 

Tyrawley - 1 

Kere Island I 

Ophally - 1 

Irrisse - - 2 

Galway bay 1 

Shannon - 2 

- 1 

Trayle- - 1 

Dingle- - 1 

Desmond - 1 

the men fled. 


burnt, men escaped. 



17 ships 5394 men.' 
Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 


Boy Bishop at Eton (Vol. v., p. 557.). Your 
correspondent upon this interesting subject is in 
error when he says that Holy Innocents' Day is 
that "on which the boy bishop was usually ap- 
pointed." The election generally took place on 
St. Nicholas's day, and the office and authority 
appears to have lasted from that time till St. Inno- 
cents' day, i.e. from the 6th to the 28th of Dec. 
Certain days during this period were set apart for 
particular ceremonies ; but, as fa.r as I can learn, 
they invariably concluded with the celebration of 
41 the whole service," on the Feast of the Innocents. 

In a proclamation of the 33rd of Henry VIII. 
(1542) the concluding clause of the ordinance 
runs thus : 

"And whereas heretofore dyvers and many super- 
ititious and chyldysh observances have been used, and 
yet to this day are observed and kept, in many and 
sundry partes of this realm, as upon saint Nicholas, 
saint Catherine, saint Clement, the holie Innocents, and 
such like," &c. 

The practice of electing a boy bishop appears 
to have existed in cathedrals, in parish churches, 

and in grammar schools. St. Nicholas, says War- 
ton, was the patron of scholars, and hence, at Eton 
College, St. Nicholas has a double feast, i. e. one 
on account of the college, the other of the schools. 

With regard to your correspondent's first Query, 
I find that Brand (Popular Antiq., edit. 1849, i. 
431.) quotes from the Status Scholce Etonensis, 
A.D. 1560. Probably this is the Corpus Christi, or 
the Harleian MS. ' 

"Pope St. Hugo's day" was on the 17th of 
November. St. Hugh was a real boy bishop at 

As to L. C. B.'s last Query, " Whether any 
reason can be assigned why Holy Innocents' Day" 
should have been expressly excluded from the 
boy bishop's reign at Eton College, I fancy it has 
something to do with the double celebration of the 
chorister's feast. Hone, in his Ancient Mysteries 
(p. 198.), says: 

" St. Nicholas as the patron of scholars has a double 
feast at Eton College, where, in the papal times, the 
scholars (to avoid interfering, as it would seem, with 
the boy bishop of the college on St. Nicholas day) 
elected their boy bishop on St. Hugh's day, in the 
month of November." 

The Eton Montem was evidently derived from 
the ceremony of the boy bishop. Even within 
the memory of persons alive when Brand wrote, 
the Montem was kept in the winter time, a little 
before Christmas, although the time was after- 
wards changed to Whitsuntide. 


Descendants of John Rogers. MR. KNIGHT, at 
p. 522. of your last Volume, makes an inquiry 
respecting them. There is no doubt that some of 
Rogers' immediate descendants emigrated to the 
colonies which now form the New England states 
of the North American confederacy. The name 
of John Rogers is early ingrafted upon the me- 
mory of the New England children of the present 
day, from the circumstance that a rude represen- 
tation of the " Martyr at the Stake " forms one 
of the embellishments of the New England Primer ; 
and it can be traced back, through the earlier 
editions of that publication, for more than a hun- 
dred and fifty years. Round the stake are assem- 
bled " the wife and nine children, and a tenth at 
the breast," as a note informs the reader, witness- 
ing the horrid scene. 

The National Intelligencer of April 27th last 
(published at Washington, U. S.), announces the 
death of Professor Walter R. Johnson, of the 
American National Institute, and states, as an 
interesting fact, that he was a descendant of the 
celebrated John Rogers who was burnt at Smith* 
field for heresy, in the reign of Queen Mary. No 
doubt information could be procured from Mr. 
Johnson's family .which might aid MR. KNIGHT in 
his inquiries. P. T. 

Stoke Newington. 



[No. 142. 

John Rogers, Protomartyr (Vol. v., p. 522.). 
MB. KNIGHT will find some of the information he 
requires, and perhaps be put on the trace of more, 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1849, 
p. 656. t 

Restive (Vol.v., p. 535.). Your correspondent 
J. R. is surely quite beside the mark, in his ob- 
servations upon the word restive. He says, " We 
find it defined in our dictionaries, " unwilling to 
stir, inclined or determined to rest." I would ask 
in what dictionary he has seen the last interpreta- 
tion ? Johnson prefers spelling the word restiff; 
as more resembling the cognate words restivus in 
low Latin, restif in French, and restivo in Italian. 
Now those languages know nothing of rest, in the 
sense of " repose," but only as a derivative from 
the Latin resto ; which is not merely to "stand 
still," but is occasionally equivalent to resisto. 
See Gesner's Thesaurus for authorities. That rest 
has two such unconnected meanings as "repose" 
or " remainder" in our language, is owing to its 
having come down to us from two unconnected 
sources : viz. from the Saxon word for rest " sleep," 
or " repose ; " and from the French reste, whose 
source is resto. Restive neither means " deter- 
mined to rest," nor "restless," but " reluctant ;" 
if this last word be understood in its original sense, 
and not merely as something passing in the mind. 
" He felt rather restive " would mean, in the pas- 
sage cited by J. R., " He felt rather disposed to 
make resistance." H. W. 

Apple Sauce with Pork (Vol. v., p. 395.). 
BONIFACE inquires why and when the custom of 
eating apple sauce with pork was first introduced ? 
It is hoped that the following observation will 
cause him to enjoy the viands with more relish. A 
physician having been lately asked whether it was 
advisable to take cod liver oil in lemon juice, re- 
marked that the acid would assist its digestion, 
and that our forefathers must have been acquainted 
with the theory, in eating green gooseberries with 
mackerel, and apple sauce with pork and goose. 

Spanish " Veiwe Bowes " (Vol. vi., p. 10.). The 
" veiwe bowes " in the inventory quoted by your 
correspondent J. O. B., no doubt were long bows 
made of yew, of which wood that which came from 
Spain was considered best for the purpose. Thus 
Drayton (Polyolb. 26.) says : 
" All made of Spanish yew, their bows are wondrous 


" View " is the common name for " yew " in these 
parts ; only yesterday a man was speaking to me 
of the " view tree " in my garden : so also in the 
churchwardens' accounts : 

1593. " Itm. for leadinge of earthe to > benche about 

the vewe tree, &c. - - ij s iiij d ." 



" Cane Decane," SfC. (Vol.v., p. 523.). I am 
sorry to find BAVIUS has given to the couplet 
beginning with these words an indelicate meaning 
which the original does not require or even justify. 
Canis cannot be applied to a woman but in the 
very worst sense, but every one knows that a dog 
has been used as an emblem of field sports from 
the earliest ages. Talbots and greyhounds in 
heraldry generally allude to sporting characters or 
offices ; and the punning couplet in question was 
doubtless composed to reprove the sporting dis- 
position of some aged dignitary. The " free trans- 
lation" by BAVIUS appears to me no translation at 
all, and is devoid of the pun and the reproof of 
the original. Perhaps the following gives the 
sense more truly, yet so imperfectly, that it is 
scarcely worth inserting : 


Good Dean Grey, the sportman's lay 

111 becomes thy tresses grey ; 
Grey-hatred Grey ! thy theme be then, 

Not greyhounds, but grey-hair'd men." 

W. H. K. 

The Moon and her Influences (Vol. v., p. 400.). 
W. H. will find information on the subject by 
referring as follows : Chambers s Edinburgh 
Journal, Old Series, No. 360., New Series, Nos. 
124. 208. 310.; Monthly Chronicle, vol. i. p. 60., 
vol. ii. p. 209. : the Annuaire for 1833 contains 
an article on the subject by Arago ; and facts and 
fictions may be gathered from Maurice's Indian 
Antiquities, p. 205. ; The Celestial Worlds Dis- 
covered ; or, Conjectures concerning the Inhabitants, 
Plants, and Productions of the Worlds in the Pla- 
nets, by Christianus Huggens, London, MDCXCVIII. 
and " Lake's Moon Story," which appeared in the 
American newspapers about fifteen years since, 
and which may be easily found with the aid of 
some one familiar with the files. 


Bronze Medals (Vol. v., p. 608.). MR. BOASE 
will find his medal of Martinus de Hanna en- 
graved in Bergmann's Medaillen auf leruhmsten 
und ausgezeigneten Manner des Konigthums 
Oesterreichs, plate xiv. No. 69. I have only an 
odd number of the work containing the engraving 
but not the letter-press description, so that it is 
possible it may contain information respecting 
some of the other medals. It was published about 

The medal of D. Maria Aragonia Is engraved 
amono- the "Medailles coulees et ciselees en Italic 
aux XV e et XVI e Siecles," in the Tresor de Nu- 
-mismatique et de Glyptique, plate xxix. No. 4. 1 
description and a note upon it is given at p. 25., 
where it is considered as struck in honour of 
Blanche-Marie Sforza, daughter of Galeas Marie, 
Duke of Milan, and of Bonne of Savoy, of whom 

JULY 17. 1852.] 



some particulars will be found in the Archceologia, 
vol. xxxiv. p. 17. JOHN EVANS. 

Wyle Cop (Vol. v., p. 44.). Dr. Plot, in bis 
Natural History of Staffordshire, p. 110., says cop 
is one of the names used in that county for a 
mountain, and he lays down on his map " Mole 
Ccp," on the borders of Cheshire, and " Stile Cop," 
near Rugeley. And here allow me, with all re- 
spect, to point out an error which Mr. Halliwell 
has fallen into in his Archaic and Provincial Dic- 
tionary. At p. xxviii. of the Preface he gives 
White Kennett the merit of preserving many Staf- 
fordshire words " probably now obsolete." I have 
gone carefully through Kennett's MS. Glossary 
(Lansd. MSS. 1033.), and find about a hundred 
words assigned to that county ; but I have traced 
them all (and many more not assigned) to Dr. 
Plot's work published in 1686, from whence I 
have no doubt Kennett derived them. 

Nor must Plot have more praise than he de- 
serves, for inasmuch as many of the words relate 
either to iron works or coal mines, they occur in the 
extracts which he gives from Dud Dudley's Metal- 
lum Martis, 1665, a small work till lately very 
rare, but which has recently been accurately re- 
printed by a gentleman intimately connected with 
the iron trade of South Staffordshire. 


SO. Clarence Street, Islington. 

Celebrated Fly (Vol. vi., p. 10.). I think there 
is little doubt but that this refers to the honeybee; 
the prophet declaring in the Koran that " all flies 
shall perish in hell fire except the bee." I forget 
the reference, but could procure it if wanted. 


Mummy Wheat (Vol. v., p. 538.). In the Il- 
lustrated^ London News for Sept. 22, 1849, is a 
description of mummy wheat (with an engraving) 
grown by R. Enoch, of Stow-on-theWold, raised 
from grains brought from Thebes by the family of 
Sir Willium Symonds. 

I believe wheat of this description may be pro- 
cured of any first-rate London seedsman. Some 
was exhibited in the Crystal Palace. METAOUO. 

Squire Brown's Fox Chase (Vol. v., p. 537.). 
[f I am not mistaken in the ballad referred to by 
R. S., he will find some account of it in Edwards's 
Tour of the Dove, stanza xvi., with the notes 011 
the stanza. H. N. E. 

Seth's Pillars (Vol. v., p. 609.)- ANON, will find 
the legend of Seth's pillars treated of in Stilling- 
fleet's Origines Sacrce, lib. i. R. F. L. 

Edmund Bohun (Vol. v., p. 539.; Vol. vi., 
p. 21.). I have reason to believe, what indeed 
the answer to my Query plainly shows, that the 
"Collections, 16751692" are not identical with 
the "five years' collections" mentioned in the 
title of the Great Historical Dictionary. These 

were made with the express object there men- 
tioned : the others appear to have been of a more 
miscellaneous character. The copies of Bright's 
Catalogue in the British Museum have not the 
purchasers' names. May I hope that some kind 
notist will yet answer the Query again ? 

S. W. Rix. 

Etymology of Mushroom (Vol. iii., p. 166.; 
Vol. v., p. 598.). There appears no reason for 
going to the Welsh for the root of this word, when 
we have the French mousseron, " a white kind of 
mushroom," as the obvious source. This was 
pointed out in Thomson's Etymons of English 
Words, though mousseron is there not very 
happily derived from HVKTIS and fy>jua. 


The Plant Hamony (Vol. ii., pp. 88. 141. 173. 
410.). Milton, in the passage here referred to, 
appears to allude to the opinion of those critics 
who, dissatisfied with the annihilation of the plant 
Moly by the allegorisers (see Pope's Odyssey, b. 10. 
v. 361., Aschara's Works, 4to. p. 251., Richard- 
son's Dictionary, art. Moly), identify it with the 
Nymphsea lutea which grows in Thessaly or Hce- 
monia (v. Apollon. Rhod. 1. iii. v. 1089.). There is 
a dissertation on the subject in Wedelii Exercita- 
tiones Medico- Philologies. A ROSICRUCIAN. 

Shahspeare, Tennyson, frc. (Vol. v., p. 618.). 
In connexion with A. A. D.'s quotation, " Cinerem 
in flores mutari, idque contingere non nisi probis 
ac pulchris," let me quote Sir John Mandevilie's 
origin of roses (cap. vi.) : 

" And betwene the citye (Bethlehem) and the 
chirche, is the Felde Floridus ; that is to seyne, the 
Feld florisched ; for als moche as a fayre mayden was 
blamed with wrong, and sclaundred ; that sche had 
don fornycacioun ; for whiche cause sche was denied 
to the dethe, and to be brent in that place, to the 
whiche sche was ladd. And as the fyre began to 
brenne about hire, sche made hire preyres to oure 
Lord, that als wissely as sche was not gylty of that 
synne, that he wold helpe hire, and make it to be 
knowen to alle men, of his mercyfulle grace. And 
whan sche hadde thus seyd,sche entred into the fuyer; 
and anon was the fuyr quenched and oute ; and the. 
brondes that weren brennynge, becomen red roseres ; 
and the brondes that weren not kymlled, becomen 
white roseres, fulle of roses. And theise weren the 
first roseres and roses, both white and rede, that evere 
ony man saughe." P. S3., ed. 1727. 




The members of the Surtees Society have just received 
two books, with which if they are not well content, 



[No. 142. 

they must indeed be hard to please. The first of these, 
JBoldon Buke, a Survey of the Possessions of the See of 
Durham, made by Order of Bishop Hugh Pudsey, in the 
Year 1183. With a Translation, an Appendix of Ori- 
ginal Documents, and a Glossary, by the Rev. W. Green- 
well, is by the Editor very justly described as " the 
Domesday of the Palatinate ; " and its importance to the 
historical inquirer, whether he be interested in the 
nature of early tenures, the descent of property, or the 
social conditions of the tenants, in whatever rank, of 
that day, can indeed scarcely be overrated. It was com- 
piled at the Feast of St. Cuthbert, in Lent in the year 
1183, by order of Hugh Pudsey, the then Bishop of 
Durham, and is a description of the revenues of the 
bishopric, and an enumeration of the settled rents and 
customs renderable to the bishop, as they stood fixed at 
the time of its compilation. The original MS. is not 
now known to exist, and the work before us has been 
printed from a copy preserved in the Auditors' Office 
in the Exchequer at Durham, compared with one in 
the Registrum Primum of the Dean and Chapter, and 
another in the Bodleian. The work has been edited 
with great care, and been rendered doubly useful by 
its translation and carefully compiled Glossary. The 
second book is altogether of a different character, being 
a Biography of the learned and accomplished gentle- 
man in honour of whose memory the society was 
founded. It is entitled A Memoir of Robert Surtees, 
Esq., M.A., F. S.A., Author of the History of the County 
Palatine of Durham ; by George Taylor, Esq. : a new 
edition, with Additions, by the Rev. James Raine, &c., 
and exhibits a delightful picture of the life of an anti- 
quary of the right sort. With the true feelings of a 
gentleman, and the education of a scholar, imagination 
and fancy enough for a poet, a hearty relish for old 
English humour, and all these good qualities leavened 
throughout by the genuine spirit of real Christian 
benevolence, it is little wonder that Robert Surtees 
gained the love and esteem of all who knew him from 
Reginald Heber and Walter Scott, down to every hard- 
handed husbandman who dwelt round Mainsforth. 
Mr. Surtees' magnificent history of his native county 
sufficiently attests his zeal, industry, and historical 
acquirements ; but the present volume, in giving us 
the picture of the author of that work, paints the man, 
and in so doing explains why the Surtees Society was 
called into existence. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Bonn's Standard Library has 
this month been enriched by two volumes. The first 
Memorials of Christian Life in the Early and Middle 
Ages, including his Lights in Dark Places, by Dr. Au- 
gustus Neander is a further translation by Mr. 
Ryland of the writings of this eminent continental 
divine. The second is Frederika JBremer's Works The 
Neighbours, a Story of Every -day Life, and other Tales, 
viz. Hopes, The Twins, The Solitary, The Comforter, 
A Letter about Suppers, Tralinnan, translated by Mary 
Howitt, who has carefully corrected them by the latest 
Swedish edition, and must be well pleased at the 
success which has attended her introduction of Fre- 
derika Bremer to the reading public of England. The 
second and concluding volume of Kirby's Bridgewater 
Treatise On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, 
at manifested in the Creation of Animals, and in their 

History, Habits, and Instincts, edited with notes by 
Professor Rymer Jones is the new volume of the- 
Scientific Library ; and it would be difficult to find a 
book more fit to be a country companion during this 
season of sea-shore rambling and country musings. 
All who are about to sojourn for a while far from the 
busy haunts of men will do well to adopt our advice, 
and put these two volumes into their portmanteau ; 
we shall be sure of their thanks. Mr. Bohn has also 
added two volumes to his Classical Library : namely, 
a fourth volume of Cicero's Orations, translated by 
Mr. Younge; and the first volume of The Comedies of 
Plautus literally translated into English Prose, with Notes 
by Mr. Riley, a work which promises to be of con- 
siderable interest and merit. 





ni. ix xm, 

XIV. and XV. Stourport, 1812. 
SHAKSPBARE'S JULIUS CAESAR, by D'Avenant and Dryden, 1719. 


The original 4to. editions in boards. 


London, Griffin, 8vo. 1767. 
CLARE'S POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. Last Edition. 
MAONA CHARTA ; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell, by 

George Newton. London, 1661. 

BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia. 
V Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


REPLIES RECEIVED. Veiwe Bowes Carrsor Calves Phelps* 
Gloucestershire Collections Royal Arms in Churches Blind- 
man's Holiday Milton and Tacitus Inscription at Persepolis 

Meaning of Whit Carmarthen Blaen Brogue, Sfc. 
History of Commerce Exeter Controversy Lines on Cravjurd 
of Kilbirnie Can Bishops vacate their Sees Meaning of Restijf 

On the Patronymics Wray or Ray Lifting Charm William 
Abbot of St. Albans St. Augustine De Musica Giving the 
Sack'Death-vatch- Snike Foolscap, $c. Seth's Pillars- 
Physiologus Meaning of Roy Foundation Stones Epigram 
on Dr. Fell True Maiden Hair Fern Cranes in Storms 
Muffs worn by Gentlemen Mexican Grammar Superstitions, 
among the higher Classes Plague Stones Andrew Marvel- 
Weather Prophecy, and many others which are in type. 

C. W. (Bradford), who inquired in No. 138., p. 586., respecting 
Sir E. K. Williams, is requested to say how a letter may be ai 
dressed to him. 

We are compelled to postpone until our next No., A. E . B. on Two 
Passages in King Lear, and MR. SINGER'* paper on some D 
puted Passages in Shakspeare. 

We have to request the indulgence of many correspondents to 
whom to reply next week. 

The great length of the Index to our Fijth Volume has compelled 
us at the last moment to appropriate to it four pages of the presen 
Number. We will take an early opportunity of supplying th 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so th 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night s parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscriber son the Saturday. 

Errata. Vol.v., p. 60fi. col. 2. 1. 43., for of rend ap ; p. 611- 
col. 2. 1. 30., after Evidence insert "of." 

JULY 17. 1852.] 


'the same Editor 

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tackle Manufacturer, 191. Strand, opposite St. 
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of Salmon and Trout Rods, and all other Gear, 
for the sure capture of River Fish, at moderate 
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"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. VI. No. 143.] SATURDAY, JULY 24. 1852. 

C Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5<f. 

NOTES : * Page 

Ordeals -G9 

Poetical Similarities, by C. Mansfield Ingleby - - 70 

Folk Lore : Northumberland Tradition Weather 
Prophecy St. Mark's Eve Children's Nails 
Cheshire Cure for Hooping Cough Sites of Build- 
ings changed, &c. ------ 70 

Buchanan and Theodore Zuinger - - - 71 

Minor Notes : The Word Handbook Bitter Beer 
Slaves in Ireland not a Century ago Book Margins 
Lord Derby or Darby - - - - 72 


Lunar Occultations - - - - 73 

" The Good Old Cause," by Thomas H. Gill - 74 

Minor Queries : Winchfield, Hants "Balnea, vina, 
Venus " " Kicking up Mag's or Meg's Diversion " 
Shan-dra-dam Kentish Fire Incantations at Cross 
Roads Odyllic Light Trochilus and Crocodile 
Pickigni Heywood Arms Memoires d'une Con- 
temporaine Drawbridge Saul's Seven Days 

Coudray Family "Oh, go from the window!" 

The Fiirneaux Family Personators of Edward VI. 

Barlaam's Commentary on Euclid Venice Glasses 

Styles of Dukes and Marquises Who was Colonel 
Bodens? " Who sent the Messengers?" - - 74 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: St. Margaret and the 
Dragon Montebourg, Abbey of Virgilian Lots 
Newspaper Extracts - - - - 70 


Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, by James Spedding - 78 
A Passage in " As You Like It," by Samuel Hickson - 79 
Lifting Experiment, by Sir David Brewster, &c. - 79 

Monody on the Death of Sir John Moore, by C. H. 
Cooper, &c. - - - - - 80 

Way of indicating Time in Music, by Dr. Edward F. 
Rimbault -------81 

The Two Passajes in " King Lear " 82 

Amber Witch - 82 

Lines on Succession of the Kings of England - 83 

Dodo Queries, by W. Pinkerton ... 83 

Burials ...... 84 

Dr. Gumming on Romans viil., by J. C. Robertson 84 

On some disputed Passages in Shakspeare, by S. W 

Singer - 84 

Replies to Minor Queries: Milton and Tacitus 
Emaciated Monumental Effigies La Garde meurt 

Baxter's " Saints' Rest " The Bright Lamp that 
shone in Kildare's holy Fane " Exterior Stoup 

! Henry, Lord Viscount Dover Government of St. 
Christopher in 166:2 De Sancta Cruce History of 
Commerce Physiologus " Veiwe Bowes " The 
Death-watchWilliam, Abbot of St. Albans Lines 
on Crawford of Kilbirnie Can Bishops vacate their 
Sees? Lines on Franklin St. Augustinus " De 
Musica " Giving the Sack, &c. - - - 85 


Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 89 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 90 

Advertisements - .... 90 

VOL. VI. No. 143. 


Ordeals, as the test of innocence or guilt, are of 
great antiquity. In the Book of Numbers v. 14 
31., the rite of the "waters of jealousy" appears 
to give them a Divine sanction. The idea was, 
however, common to the ignorance and supersti- 
tion of all countries. Gaseous springs were among 
some tribes supposed to possess the power of de- 
tecting truth, either by increasing or mitigating 
bodily afflictions upon immersion. In the case of 
guilt, their beneficent effects were turned into a 
curse ; as the wine of Mephistopheles becomes a 
consuming fire to the drunken student. Ordeal 
by fire was known to the Greeks : nine others of 
various kinds were sanctioned by the Brahmins. 
Fire is also mentioned in early Scandinavian songs. 
This custom, mingled with other orientalisms, 
passed probably into Europe during the migration 
of those northern hordes by which it was succes- 
sively overrun. Some interesting literary anec- 
dotes relative to the ordeals of the Middle Ages 
will be found in the article under that heading in 
the Encyclopaedia Metropolitans The object of 
these Notes is merely to refute, by an extract, the 
opinion sometimes entertained, that the Church 
invented and encouraged this method of trial. The 
worst that can be said is, that the Church adopted, 
that it might control for its own ends, as it did 
other cases, that blind faith it could not purify : 

"L'esprit de parti a quelquefois accuse TEglise 
d'avoir imagine ces moyens barbares et insensss de 
connaitre la ve'rite; jamais accusation ne fut plus 

This is the opinion of M. Ampere, Histoire Lit- 
teraire, tome iii. p. 180. : 

"L'Eglise, au contraire, des le 9* siecle, protestait 
par la voix d'Agobard contre des abus dont elle ne fut 
jamais le principe; elle tolera quelquefois des institu- 
tions qu'elle n'avait pas fondees, elle cut le tort de les 
consacrer par ses rites, mais il faut voir dans de telles 
concessions le triomphe des prejuges du Moyen Age 
sur 1'esprit de 1'Eglise, et non une consequence de cet 

As evidence of this he quotes at full the opinion 
of Agobard, bishop of Lyons in 816. Reference 



[No. 143. 

to the Histoire Litteraire de la France, tome x. 
page 450., shows the continuance of this policy, 
and that whilst the Church condemned, it still em- 
ployed the ordeal in the twelfth century : 

"Un fameux voleur nomme Ansel, ayant pris des 
croix, des calices d'or, porta son vol chez un marchand 
de Soissons pour le lui vendre, et lui fit promettre 
avec serment qu'il ne le declareroit point. Le mar- 
chand ayant ensuite entendu prononcer 1'excommuni- 
cation duns 1'eglise de Soissons contre les complices 
de ce vol, vint a Laon et decouvrit la chose au clerge. 
Ansel nie le fait: le marchand propose de se battre 
pour en decider. Ansel 1'accepte, et tue le marchand. 
II faut, dit sur cela Guibert Abbe de Nogent, ou, que 
le marchand ait mal fait de decouvrir un secret qu'il 
avait promis avec serment de garder, ou, ce qui est 
Jbeaucoup plus vrai, que la loi de se battre pour decider 
de 1'innocence et de la verite est injuste. Car il est cer- 
tain, ajoute-t-ilf qu'il ny a aucune canon qui autorise une 
telle loi." 

Nevertheless, it was employed in the case of 
some Paulician heretics, in the diocese of Soissous. 
Clementius and Evrard were examined 

"Mais 1'eveque ne pouvant tirer la confession de leurs 
erreurs, et les temoiiis etant absens, il les condamna au 
jugement de 1'eau exorcisee. Le prelat dit Je messe, a 
laquelle il communia les accuses, en disant : Que le 
corps et le sang de notre Seigneur soit ajourd'hui une 
epreuve pour vous !" 

Clementius was thrown in ; but 

"Loin d'aller au fonds de 1'eau, il surnagea comme un 
roseau, et fut tenu pour convaincu !" 

I was assured a miracle of this description was 
lately witnessed in the person of a very fat lady, 
who floated on the surface of the National Bath at 
Holborn, in spite of the repeated efforts of the 
bath-woman to keep her down. Clementius, un- 
fortunately, only fulfilled the proverb " of falling 
out of the fire-pan into the fire." Whilst the 
bishop hesitated as to his orthodoxy, the mob 
determined that question, broke into the prison, 
and burnt him and his brother. The ordeal died 
away as civilisation spread and legal institutions 
were established. It has been said, indeed, it was 
abolished in England in the 3rd of Henry III., 
A.D. 1219, by an ordinance of the King in Council, 
~as given in Rymer, vol. i. p. 228. This seems, 
however, an "ad interim" order, made because 
that the ordeal of fire and water was condemned 
by the Church. I may add, that in the Bibl. Max. 
Patrum, tome xiii., two very interesting tracts by 
S. Agobard will be found; one, p. 429., "Ad- 
versus legem Gundobaldi ;" the other at p. 476., 
contra " Judicium Dei;" upon which J. Grimm, 
Deutsche Recliis Alterthilmer, vol. ii. p. 909., should 
be consulted. S. H. 



I beg to send you a few odds and ends in 
illustration of what seems to be an inevitable 
consequence of writing poetry, viz. unconscious 
imitation : 

1 . Pope's line, in his Essay on Man : 

" What thin partitions sense from thought divide ! " 

is merely a verbal echo of Dryden's line in his 
Absalom and Achitophel : 

11 And thin partitions do their bounds divide. " 

2. Milton's expression of orient pearl, at the 
beginning of the second book of Paradise Lost, is 
probably taken from Shakspeare, Richard ///., 
Act IV. Sc.4. : 

" The liquid drops of tears that you have shed 
Shall come again transform'd to orient pearl." 

I have never seen this resemblance noted. 

3. And while I am on the subject of tears, I 
will mention a similarity between Tennyson and 
Milton. In the Miller's Daughter we have : 

" And dews that would have fallen in tears 
I kiss'd away before they fell." 

Very pretty, no doubt, but to my mind evidently 
suggested by a most exquisite passage in the fifth 
book of the Paradise Lost, which is in every one's 
mouth : 

" Two other precious drops that ready stood 
Each in their crystal sluice, he ere they fell 

4. What a wholesale imitation of Thomson's 
Castle of Indolence do we find in Campbell's Ger- 
trude of Wyoming. Thus, Gertrude of Wyoming, 
Part II. St. xii. : 

" But stock -doves plaining through its gloom profound." 

Evidently imitated from Castle of Indolence, 
Cant. I. St. iv. : 

" Or stock-doves ^plain amid the forest deep." 
Again,' Gertrude of Wyoming, Part II. St. xxm. : 
" . . . . . . . beyond 

Expression's power to paint, all languishingly fond." 

Which is very similar to Castle of Indolence, 

Cant I. St. XLIV. : 

" As loose on flow'ry beds all languishingly lay." 
With your permission, I will send you a few 

Notes on Milton's Lycidas, which appear to me to 

be worthy of attention. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 


Northumberland Tradition. Joaney or Johnny 
Reed, the parish clerk of a village nearNewcastl 
was- returning home one evening, and in passinir 
gate by the roadside marvelled much to sec nine 
cats about it. His wonder was changed to horror 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



wben one of the cats addressed him, " Joaney Reed, 
Joaney Reed, tell Dan Ratcliffe that Peg Powson 
is dead." Joaney hurried home to his wife, and 
instantly informed her of the circumstance, won- 
dering at the same time who Dan Ratcliffe might 
be ; when up sprang the cat from the hearth, and 
exclaiming " If Peg Powson's dead, it's no time for 
me to be here," rushed out of the house and was 
seen no more. P. P. 

Weather Prophecy. G.E. G. has not yet had 
the answer to his inquiry about " oaks and ashes." 
The proverb is, 

" If the oak's before the ash, 
Then you'll only get a splash. 
If the ash precedes the oak, 
Then you may expect a soak." 
The present wet summer gives the lie to the adage, 
for the oaks were out first. P. P. 

St. Mark's Em (Vol. iv., p. 470.). Your cor- 
respondent MR. PEACOCK has alluded to a popular 
superstition respecting St. Mark's Eve which has 
interested me very much. I cannot help quoting 
Collins' lines upon the same subject, and shall 
much thank ME. PEACOCK, or any of your other 
correspondents learned in Folk Lore, to adduce 
some additional instances : 

" Be mine to read the visions old 
Which thy awakening bards have told ; 
And, lest thou meet my blasted view, 
Hold each strange tale devoutly true; 
Ne'er be I found, by thee o'eraw'd, 
On that thrice-hallow'd eve, abroad, 
When ghosts, as cottage maids believe, 
Their pebbled beds permitted leave ; 
And goblins haunt, from fire, or fen, 
Or mine, or flood, the walks of men !" 

Ode to Fear. 


Children's Nails. It is a general belief among 
the common people in this neighbourhood (Bot- 
tesford Moors;, that if a child's finger nails are cut 
before it is a year old, it will be a thief. Before 
that time they must be bitten off when they re- 
quire shortening. EDWARD PEACOCK, Jun. 

Cheshire Cure for Hooping Cough. Whilst 
passing a short time in the neighbourhood of 
Alderley in Cheshire, I found, among other in- 
stances of Folk Lore prevailing there, the propriety 
of communicating to the bees the death of any of 
the family keeping hives. I learnt also another 
case, that of a speedy and efficacious cure for the 
troublesome complaint the hooping cough, which 
I think ought to be put on record for the comfort 
of all mothers and children. The remedy consists 
in a plain currant cake, to be eaten by the afflicted 
child, the main virtue of which cake is, however, 
in its being made by a woman whose maiden name 
was the same as that of the man she married ; and 

on no account whatever is any payment or com- 
pensation to be made directly or indirectly for the 
cake. My informant has the firmest belief in this 
specific, he himself having witnessed, in the case of 
his own child, the beneficial result ; but he took 
care to mention, as probably an advantage, that 
the cake which cured his child was made by a 
woman whose mother had also married her name- 
sake. F. R. A. 
Sites of Buildings changed, frc. There are other 
churches in Lancashire besides Winwick whose 
sites have been changed by the Devil, and he has 
also built some bridges ; that at Kirkby Lonsdale 
owes much of its beauty to the string of his apron 
giving way when he was carrying stones in it. 
The stones may be seen yet in the picturesque 
groups of rock below the bridge. Old cross or 
boundary stones, with a hole full of water, are so 
common that nobody honours them with a plague 
story; but we abound in other traditions. Ac- 
cording to some a priest, according to others the 
Devil, stamped his foot into the church wall at 
Brindle, to prove the truth of Popery ; and 
"George Marsh the Martyr" did the same at 
Smithells Hall to prove the truth of Protestantism r 
the foot-marks still remain on the wall and the 
flag. There is unfortunately such a wearisome 
sameness in these traditions, one story doing for so 
many different places (except that at Winwick it 
was as a pig, at Leyland as a cat, somewhere else 
as a fish, that Satan played his pranks), that any 
attempt to gather them together for " N. & Q.'" 
would only tire out the editor and all his readers. 


Bishop Home, in his Commentary upon Psalm 
cxxii., involves me in rather a dilemma. He says : 

" Theodore Zuinger, of whom some account may be 
found in Thuanus, when he lay on his death-bed, took 
his leave of the world, in a paraphrase on the foregoing 
psalm ; giving it the same turn with that given to it 
above. It may serve as a finished specimen of the 
noble and exalted use which a Christian may, and 
ought to, make of the Psalms of David." 

And in the note he says : 

" A learned friend has obliged me with a copy of 
these Latin verses of Zuinger, transcribed from the 
303rd page of Vita Germanonim Medicorum, by Mel- 
chior Adamus. They are as follow : 


" O Lux Candida, lux mihi 
La?ti conscia transitus ! 
Pro Christi merituin patet 
Vita porta beatae. 


" Me status revocat dies 
Augustam Domini ad domum ; 
Jam sacra aetherii premam 
Laetus limina templi. 



[No. 143. 

" Jam visam Solymne edita 
Coelo culmina, et asdium, 
Caettis Angelicos, suo et 

Augustam populo urbem 


' Urbem, quam procul infimis 
Terrac finibus cxciti 
Petunt Christiadse, ut Deum 
Laudent voce perenni : 


" Jussam coelitus oppidis 
Urbem jus dare caeteris, 
Et sedem fore Davidis 
Cuncta in saecla. beati. 

" Mater nobilis urbium ! 
Semper to bona pax amat : 
Et te semper amantibus 
Cedunt omnia recte. 


*' Semper pax tua mcenia 
Colit ; semper in atriis 
Tuis copia dextera 

Larga munera fundit. 

vi i r. 

" Dulcis Christiadum domus, 
Civem adscribe novitium : 
Sola comitata Caritas 

Spesque Fidesque valete." 

I need not oiFer any apology for quoting these 
beautiful lines, or for referring to Merrick's spirited 
translation given by Bishop Home ; but I have often 
thought that Theodore Zuinger only adopted them 
from Buchanan, and gave them a more Christian 
turn. I have no opportunity of consulting De 
Thou, or Melchior Adamus, and know little more 
of Theodore Zuinger than that his Theatrum Vita 
Humance, Basil, 1586, received a severe castigation 
in the Vatican Index Expurgatorius, Romas, 1608 ; 
and that he died in March 1588, aged fifty -four 
years. Six years before that time, Buchanan had 
died, in 1582. And I should be obliged to any of 
your correspondents that will mention any just 
cause or impediment why Buchanan should not 
have been the author rather than Zuinger. He 
shall speak for himself: I copy from a 12mo. 
edition : Amstelcedami, apud Henricum Wetstenium, 

" O Lux Candida, lux mihi 

Lseti conscia nuncii : 

Jam pleno stata tempora 
Reddit circulus anno : 


" Jam festi revocant dies 
Augustam Domini ad domum : 
Jam sacri pedibus premam 
Laetus limina templi. 

" Jam visam Solymae edita 
Ccelo culmina, et tedium 
Moles nobilium, et suo 

Augustam populo urbem : 


" Urbem, quam procul ultimis 
Terrae finibus exciti, 
Petunt Isacida?, ut Deum 
Placent more parentum. 


" Jussam coelitus oppidis 
Urbem jus dare caeteris : 
Et sedem fore Davidis 

Cuncta in secula proli. 


" Mater nobilis urbium, 
Semper te bona pax arret : 
Et te semper amantibus 
Cedant omnia recte. 


" Semper pax tua moenia 
Colat : semper in asdibus 
Tuis copia dextera 

Larga munera fundat. 


" Dulcis Isacidum domus, 
Te pax incola sospitet : 
Sedes Numinis, omnia 

Succedant tibi fauste." 



The Word Handbook. The following is a 
striking instance of the rapidity with which a 
newly coined word becomes adopted as current 
English, provided it be framed in real accordance 
witli the nature of the language. "Handbook" is 
now a household word, and yet it is but nineteen 
years ago that Sir Harris Nicolas, in the preface 
o his Chronology of History (Lardner's Cab. 
Cyclopaedia, 1833), regretted that he could not 
venture to use the term. The fittest title for the 
work, he says, " if our language admitted of the 
expression, would have been the Handbook of 
History" JAYDEE. 

Bitter Beer. The origin and antiquity of bitter 
Deer certainly deserves further elucidation than it 
las yet received. Beer was the beverage of our 
German progenitors, Tacitus tells us, in a tone 
lowever of contempt, with which the readers of 
' N. & Q." will certainly not sympathise : 

" Potui humor ex hordeo aut frumento in quandam 
;imilitudinem vini corruptus ; proximi ripa; et vinum 
mercantur." De Germ, xxiii. 

A.nd this ale and mum was, we learn, bittereJ 
vith hops : 
" Lupo salictario germani suarn condiunt cervisiam." 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



But bitter beer was not confined to northern 
Europe. That the Egyptians also used to brew 
beer we know, on the authority of Herodotus : 

( Ofay 5' CK KptQewv irfiroLiJi.Uv(f Siaxpeo^ra:' ov jap ff(j>i 
fieri fv rrj XPy &/J.irf\oi." 

And we have it on Rabbinical tradition, that the 
Babylonian bitter beer with the good sallets they 
had, like the Stogumber ale, preserved the Jews 
from the leprosy, which had so much afflicted 

" In Babylonia non erant ulcerosi quia ibi edebant 
blittim vel betam, et bibebant siceram veprium, id est, ex 
iapulis confectum (de la biere)." Ketubhot, fol. 77. 2. 

What other early evidences have we of the use 
of hops ? and was the "Q> (sicera) of the Hebrews 
beer ? W. ERASER. 

Slaves in Ireland not a Century ago. The 
Dublin Mercury, No. 283., Aug. 16, 1768, con- 
tains the following matter-of-fact advertisement : 

" A neat beautiful black Negro girl, just brought 
from Carolina, aged eleven or twelve years, who under- 
stands and speaks English, very fit to wait on a lady, 
to be disposed of. Application to be made to James 
Carolan, Carrickmacross, or to Mr. Gavan in Bridge 
Street, Dublin." 



Book Margins. Let me call attention to a 
defect which mars most books that issue from our 
home press, the scantiness of margin, and especially 
of bach margin. The continental press retains far 
more of that ample margin which enhanced the 
beauty of early printed books. Now, many valu- 
able works, and from the hands of our best 
printers, are so cropped as to be hardly readable, 
even in boards, and absolutely incapable of binding. 
It is a matter not merely of taste, but of use and 
comfort; and the ordinary reader, as well as the 
bibliomaniac, would gladly pay a higher price for 
a book he could read before and after binding. 
In a thick volume this often amounts to a serious 
inconvenience. MARICONDA. 

Lord Derby or Darby (Vol. v., p. 567.). 
H. W. S. T. does not know that the earl takes his 
title not from the county of Derby, but the hun- 
dred of West Derby in Lancashire, where both 
place and title are by gentle and simple always 
pronounced Darby. Why should not Lancashire 
pe-o-ple say Darby, when Londoners say Marrybun 

fiTir! T*/>11 IV't z>l 1 v/^ /.oil *!,,, t-,, t>t,,^.-., 4-1^ rt f r^ o 

and Pell Mell, and call their river the Terns ?" 



There is a singular phenomenon, sometimes ob- 
served at the time of the occultation of fixed stars 

by the moon, of which no satisfactory explanation 
has yet been given. Though conjectures have 
been made as to the cause of it, by most of those 
best qualified to make them, still nothing conclu- 
sive has been published or generally received on 
the subject. 

The phenomenon in question is this : when the 
moon approaches a star, at the time of an occulta- 
tion, instead of an instant of contact with the limb 
of the moon, and then the sudden disappearance of 
the star, the latter is sometimes observed to hang 
on the edge of the disc, and even to pass on to the 
disc itself, as if about to cross it, and when fairly 
on the disc to disappear. 

Some ascribe this phenomenon to an atmosphere 
surrounding the moon, which reflects the sun's 
light, and appears opaque like the moon's surface, 
but is sufficiently transparent to allow the stars to 
appear through it. Others refer it to the eye of 
the observer, and suppose the impression of the 
star to remain on the retina after the star itself has 
disappeared. Sir John Herschel say?, " It is barely 
possible that a star may shine on such occasions 
through deep fissures in the substance of the moon." 
A good many letters on the subject appeared in 
The Times newspaper in March or April, 1845, 
from Sir James South and others ; who suggested 
a great variety of explanations, but with no satis- 
factory result. 

The solution I am now about to offer appears to 
me so obvious, and so unlikely on that account to 
have escaped those better qualified than myself to 
give an opinion on the subject, that I give it with 
considerable hesitation. I conceive that this phe- 
nomenon is a third proof of the gradual transmis- 
sion of light : in other words, when the star itself 
is actually hidden by. the moon's limb, I apprehend 
that the light, which proceeded from it at the 
moment before actual contact, is still on its way to 
the earth, and remains visible therefore after the 
star itself has disappeared. The interval that 
light occupies in travelling from the moon to the 
earth is, as near as may be, T25 seconds, which, 
combined with the angular velocity of the moon in 
her orbit, is amply sufficient to project the star 
visibly on her disc. 

A singular circumstance connected with this 
phenomenon is, that stars of a red hue exhibit it 
more generally than others ; and the bright star 
Aldebaran, whose light is reddish, has been much 
oftener observed to do so than any other. I my- 
self saw the phenomenon for the first time with 
Aldebaran, on the 15th of April, 1850, very dis- 
tinctly ; and nothing occurred on that occasion but 
what is satisfactorily and fully met by the preced- 
ing explanation. 

The red rays, we know, are at the least refran- 
gible end of the spectrum : can we infer from this 
peculiar phenomenon that they are also the slowest 
in transmission ? 


The explanation which I offer satisfies every one 
of the various peculiarities observed and recorded 
with regard to this phenomenon ; and moreover it 
is the only one which will satisfy them all. I shall 
be thankful to any of your readers who may be 
able either to confirm it, or to show its fallacy, if 
such exists. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Characterized, in a Sermon (not preached, nor needful 
be preached, in any place so properly as in a Camp}, by 
Edmund Hickeringill, Rector of the Rectory of All- 
Saints in Colchester. The "good old cause" of this 
divine is that of monarchy, and " the guard of his Ma- 
jesty's sacred person, the darling of Heaven as well as 
of mankind," is set in battle array against " Gebal, and 
Ammon, and Amalek, with the Philistines also."! 


.It would greatly interest me to ascertain the 
precise birthplace and early history of that noble 
watchword, " The good old Cause " in what 
speech, or in what book that expression, so full of 
deep and lofty meaning, and so dear to the lips 
of Puritan England, made its first appearance. 
Preachers and pamphleteers are full of " the 
Cause ;" the fighting saints had ever " the Cause" 
upon their lips ; it entered into their battle-cry : 
" God and the Cause ! " were the words that led 
them to victory at Marston Moor and Naseby. 
I would fain know the Englishman who so 
deepened, beautified, and heightened the expres- 
sion by these two epithets, who elevated "the 
Cause " into " The good old Cause." The honour, 
I think, scarcely belongs to Milton. A tolerably 
intimate and constantly sustained acquaintance 
with his prose works has not revealed to me the 
existence of the expression there. I do not re- 
collect it in the letters or speeches of Cromwell. 
Algernon Sidney, at the end of that noble dying 
prayer of his, where he makes such tender mention 
of the Cause, associated therewith one only of the 
two attendant epithets : " Grant' that I may die 
glorifying Thee for all Thy mercies, and that at the 
last Thou hast permitted me to be singled out as a 
witness of Thy truth, and even by the confession of 
my opposers, for that Old Cause in which I was 
from my youth engaged, and for which Thou hast 
often and wonderfully declared Thyself." We 
may not then congratulate the full expression upon 
so noble a birthplace as the Sidneian prayer. 
Perhaps some among the learned contributors to 
" N. & Q." may assist my search for the speech or 
book honoured by the first appearance of that noble 
watchword " The good old Cause." 


[We have before us a quarto pamphlet, published 
February 16, 1658-9, entitled, The Good Old Cause 
dress'd in its Primitive Lustre, and set forth to the View 
of all Men ; being a Short and Sober Narrative of the 
Great Revolutions of Affairs in these Later Times, by 
R. Fitz-Brian, an affectionate Lover of his Country. 
" The good old cause," commended by the writer, is 
that of the " Commonwealth of England, purged from 
those dregs and defilements which in time it had con- 
tracted." The celebrated John Dunton also published, 
in 1692, The Good Old Cause-, or, the Divine Captain 


Winchfield, Hants. Can any of your correspon- 
dents give me any information respecting this 
parish ? are there any notes respecting it preserved 
among the MSS. of the British Museum ? How 
can I ascertain when the manor passed out of the 
hands of the abbey of Chertsey (Surrey) ? In 
the list of possessions at the dissolution given in 
Dugdale, it is not mentioned. Was the manor 
possessed at one time by the Kiddwelly family of 
Hartley, Hants ? THE WHITE ROSE. 


" Balnea, vina, Venus." Who is tbe author o 
the following epigram ? 

" Balnea, vina, Venus corrumpunt corpora nostra : 
Quid faciunt vitam? balnea, vina, Venus." 

R. F. L. 

"Kicking up Mag's or Meg's Diversion"- 
What is the meaning of this saving ? It may have 
some connexion with " A rparing Meg." H. PT. 

Shan- dr a- dam. 

" Now, landlord, out with the Shan-dra-dam."- 
The Moor and the Loch, p. 17. 

What is the correct spelling of this word, and 
whence its etymology ? W. R. D. S. 

Kentish Fire. When did the "Kentish Fire" 
originate ? A. A. D. 

Incantations at Cross Roads. Plato, in the Laws, 
while speaking of "incantations" and "poisonings," 

" It is neither easy to know how they exist in na- 
ture, nor, if any one did know, to persuade others. 
But upon the minds of men, who look with suspicion 
on each other in things of this kind, it is not worth 
while to make an attack, if perchance they see repre- 
sentations moulded in wax, either in the house door, 
or where three cross roads meet, or on the tombs of their 
parents ; and to exhort those who have no clear notions 
ahout them, to hold all things of that kind cheap. "- 
Burges' Trans., book xi. c. 12. 

In the apocryphal " First Gospel of the Infancy 
of Jesus," it is said : 

There was a woman possessed with a devil ... she 
went out into desert places, and sometimes standing 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



yhere roads crossed, and in churchyards, would throw 
stones at men." 

Can any of your correspondents elucidate these 
illusions to cross roads ? J- P. 

Odyllic Light. While reading Gregory's trans- 
ation of Reichenbach, the following question was 
;uggested to my mind, which perhaps some one 
imong your readers may be able to answer, which 
vill be esteemed by me a favour. 

Heat being a constituent of light, and in^ pro- 
portion to its intensity, though light is not in all 
cases a visible constituent of heat, as may be ex- 
emplified by a voltaic battery in darkness, I wish 
o know, if any substance easy of combustion at a 
ow comparative temperature, as nitrate of silver, 
r fine carburetted hydrogen, has been tried in 
he odyllic light f ^GROTUS. 

Trochilus and Crocodile. Herodotus (n. 68.) 
gives the well-known story of the trochilus enter- 
ing into the mouth of the crocodile to pick 
rom his teeth the bdettce that adhere to them. 
The same account is to be found (apparently 
opied from the above-referred-to passage) in 
Aristotle, Hist. An. ix. 6. 6., and Pliny H.N.^ vm. 
o. I wish to know whether this fact (if it be 
one) has ever been confirmed by modern writers. 
What traveller has seen the trochilus perform the 
part of a living toothpick, and what species of 
bird is it? S.L.P. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club. 

Pichigni. In an old dictionary, which wants 
title-page and some pages at the end, and of which 
I therefore can tell nothing, I find the following : 

" Pickigni f. a word used (like Shibboleth) to dis- 
tinguish aliens from the native French, as bread and 
cheese did the English from the Flemings in Wat Ty- 
ler's rebellion." 

What is the meaning of this word, and what the 
truth of the alleged use ? F. A. 

Heywood Arm.s. Can any one refer me to an 
authority for the following arms as borne by a 
family of the name of Haywood or Heywood : 
Si chevron between three martlets. R. W. C. 

Memoires d'une Contemporaine. Who was the 
authoress of this work, published some years since? 
Is she still living ? Has it been translated into 
English ? UNEDA. 


Drawbridge. If any of your correspondents 
can refer to a perfect mediaeval " drawbridge," it 
will greatly oblige 


Saul's Seven Days. There appears to me a 
chronological difficulty, which I cannot solve, in 
the First Lesson in yesterday's Evening Service. 
It is clear enough that Saul, at the very beginning 

of his reign (1 Sam. x. 1. 8.), was charged by 
Samuel to go down before him to Gilgal, and 
"tarry seven days" there, till Samuel himself 
should come to him. Accordingly, " he tarried 
seven days, according to the set time that Samuel 
had appointed" (1 Sam. xiii. 8.). How is the 
former chronology to be reconciled with verse 1. 
of this latter chapter, where it is said that Saul 
"had reigned two years" before the events con- 
nected with the seven days? Is the former 
passage an anticipation of the latter one ? 

Edgmond, Salop, July 5. 1852. 

Coudray Family. I should feel obliged by any 
of your readers furnishing information as to this 
family, whose name first appears in the Battle 
Abbey Roll, in Leland's copy probably as " Souche- 
ville Coudrey" or " Coubray " (I am quoting 
from the lists attached to Lower's Surnames)^ and 
in Holinshead's copy as " Couderay." I have not 
referred to Domesday Book for Hants and Berks ; 
but we find different members of the family men- 
tioned in the Testa de Nevill ; also in the four 
volumes of the Calend. Inq. Post Mart, from 
Henry III. to Edward IV. After which period I 
have not been able to find any traces of them, nor 
at any time of their alliances. In Lipscomb's 
Bucks there is a slight pedigree drawn from the 
above sources alone, merely repeating the Chris- 
tian names of the ladies. They appear to have 
been a knightly family of some consideration, 
particularly in Berks, where their principal manor 
of Padworth is situate, which they held by the ser- 
vice of finding a man to manage the ropes of the 
ship in which the queen should cross the sea. 
Fulk de Coudray is mentioned in one of Sir H. 
Nicolas' s " Roll of Arms." 

When did the principal line expire ; and what . 
family now represents it ? 

There is a family still extant in Berks which, 
under the corrupted name of Cordery, claims to 
represent the ancient family, and uses the arms. 

Is there any evidence of this claim ? Any in- 
formation respecting the family will be acceptable, 
to W. H. L. 

" Oh, go from the window!" Will any corre- 
spondent favour a septuagenarian by informing 
him where the old song can be found, of which the 
following words are all that he can recollect : 
" Oh, go from the window, my dear, O my dear ! 
Oh, go from the window, my dear : 
For the wind is in the west, 
And the cuckoo's in its nest, 
And you cannot be lodged here. 

The wind and the rain 
Hath driven him back again ; 
But he cannot be lodged here." 



[No. 143. 

The Furneaux Family. I shall be thankful to 
any of your readers who will enable me to trace 
the pedigree of the Furneaux family, either up- 
ward or downward, during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. I have hitherto succeeded in 
tracing the line from Forneus, or Furnieueus, of 
the Battle Abbey Roll, through Sir Alan de Fur- 
neaux, to whom the manor of Fen-Ottery, Devon, 
was granted by Henry I. circa 1100, down through 
six generations, to Sir John de Furneaux, who in 
1343 alienated the above manor to his brother 
Richard, who was dead in 1344. The intermediate 
links are Sir Galfrede, the son of Sir Alan ; then 
another Sir Alan, then Sir John, Sir Philip, a 
second Sir John, a third Sir John, who alienated 
the manor. The last account I can get of the 
Furneaux, in connexion with Fen-Ottery, is of a 
Sir John de F., dead in 1413. 

The Furneaux now resident in Devon I can 
trace no further back than to Henry, the son of 
Matthew Furneaux, baptized at Paignton Church 
in 1560. Still the frequent allusions and refer- 
ences made to them, argue them to be of the same 
stock. Any information, therefore, connecting the 
links broken at 1344 and 1560, will oblige 


Personators of Edward VI. Harvey, in his 
Discoursive Probleme concerning Prophecies, Lond. 
1588, writes : 

" Alas ! what fond and vaine expectation hath a long 
time rested in the minds, not of one, or two, or a few ; 
but of great multitudes of the simpler sort in England 
about K. Edward Sixt, as though they were sure 
either of his arising from death, or his returne from I 
know not what, Jerusalem or other strange land." 

He then goes on to speak of " suborned mar- 
chants of base parentage" who have " sithence 
ranged abroade in the countrie, presuming to 
terme themselves by the roiale name of K. Ed- 
ward." Where can I find an account of these 
impostors ? T. STERNBERG. 

JSarlaarns Commentary on Euclid. The article 
in the Penny Cyclopaedia, under the word "BAR- 
:LAAM," refers to a work of his in the catalogue of 
De Thou's library, under the title Arithmetica 
Demonstratio eorum qua; Euclides Libro II. in 
lineis demonstravit (no date or place). This work 
was, however, printed by Christian Mylius at 
Strasburgh in 1564, 16mo., as an appendix to the 
second book of Euclid's Elements, with a Latin 
translation by Conrad Dasypodius (=Rauchfuss), 
with the usual title of Euclid prefixed : 

" 'E/c TUV rov euvos avvovffiGiv. Kal BapAactjU, fiovaxov 

eV r 

This is an algebraical* rather than arithmetical 

application or proof of the first ten propositions of 
| Euclid's second book ; for no numerals are used, 
| but lines and parts of lines having certain ratios 
and resulting equations : each irp6ra<ns, proposi- 
tion, being divided into ticOevis, explanation given; 
SiopiffiJibs, explanation sought; Koroo-eu^, delineation or 
construction ; airoS^is, demonstration ; and ffvfnrepcuFfu^ 
conclusion, in the strict form of Euclid. Barlaam 
lived in the first half of the fourteenth century, 
before the introduction of the Arabic numerals 
into Europe. His name was Bernard before he 
changed it to Barlaam (son of the people) on 
taking the vows of St. Basil in the Greek church, 
which he deserted for the Latin. He was well 
known to Boccacio and Petrarch. T. J. BUCKTON. 
Bristol Road, Birmingham. 

Venice Glasses. Could you kindly give me 

I some information on the subject of Venice glasses? 

| They appear to have possessed the valuable pro- 

| perty of splitting in pieces as soon as poison was 

! put into them, and to have been used as a safe- 

j guard almost in modern times ? Who invented 

them? And how did they differ in composition, 

! from ordinary glasses ? RT. 


Styles of Dukes and Marquises. Have not these 
peers different styles Most Noble and Most Ho- 
norable ? How is it that the style Most Noble is 
applied to marquises, and even the sons of mar- 
quises, in official notices ? For instance, in the 
Gazette on the 18th of June, the Duke of Beau- 
fort's son is announced as the Most Noble Henry 
Charles Fitzroy Somerset, commonly called Mar- 
quis of Worcester, which is only a courtesy title ! 

L. T. 

2. New Square, Line. Inn. 

Who was Colonel Bodens f A late Quarterly 
asks this question. A brief account of the habits, 
associates, and career of this once well-known 
character would be acceptable to more than one 
of your readers. 

" What sent the Messengers?" 

" What sent the messengers to hell, 
But asking what they knew full well?" 

Where the above lines are quoted is forgotten. 
(Query, Redgauntlct?) But that is not the pur- 
port of the Query, which is, To what event da 
they refer ? Who were the messengers ? J. E. 

St. Margaret and the Dragon. One of the old 
churches in Canterbury is dedicated to St. Mar- 
garet, and the parishioners have a confused notion 
that some legend is attached thereto. They talk 
of " St. Margaret and the Dragon." Can you 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



help me in my difficulty, and inform me what 
foundation there is for this legend ? 


[The legend of St. Margaret is " singularly wild," 
says Mrs. Jameson. It appears that the Governor of 
Antioch was captivated with her beauty : but Margaret 
rejected his offers with scorn. He endeavoured to sub- 
due her constancy by the keenest torments, and she was 
dragged to a dungeon, where the devil, in the shape of 
a terrible dragon, came upon her with his inflamed and 
hideous mouth, and sought to terrify her : but she held 
up the cross, and he fled before it. In some of the old 
illuminations the dragon is seen rent and burst, and St. 
Margaret stands upon him, or near him, unharmed.] 

Montelourg, Abbey of. Where is any account 
of the great abbey of Montebourg, near Valognes, 
now destroyed ? G. li. L. 

Lyme Regis. 

[Dugdale (vol. vi. p. 1097.) has given two charters 
of confirmation to it; and a list of thirty-three abbots 
of this house will be found in Neustria Pia, pp. 674 

Virgilian Lots. What is the meaning of "The 
Virgilian lots P'^ 

Johnson, in his " Life of Cowley " (Lives of the 
Poets, vol. i. p. 17.), says, 

" . . . . But the manners of that time were so tinged 
with superstition, that I cannot but suspect Cowley of 
having consulted on this great occasion the Virgilian 
lots, and to have given some credit to the answer of his 


[A very curious illustration of Johnson's meaning 
will be found in Aubrey's Remains of Gentilism and 
Judaism, from which it has been printed in the volume 
of Anecdotes and Traditions published by the Camden 
Society, where we read as follows : 

" In December 1648, King Charles the First, being 
in great trouble, and prisoner at Caersbroke, or to be 
brought to London to his triall ; Charles, Prince of 
Wales, being then in Paris, and in profound sorrow for 
his father, Mr. Abraham Cowley went to wayte on him. 
His Highnesse asked him whether he would play at 
cards to divert his sad thoughts; Mr. Cowley replied he 
did not care to play at cards, but if his Highness 
pleased they would use Sortes Virgiliance. Mr. Cowley 
alwaies had a Virgil in his pocket. The Prince ac- 
cepted the proposal, and prickt his pin in the fourth 
booke of the jEneid, at this place (iv. 615. et seq.), 

( At hello audacis populi vexatus et armis,' &c. 

The Prince understood not Latin well, and desired Mr. 
Cowley to translate the verses, which he did admirably 
well ; and Mr. George Ent (who lived in his house at 
Chertsey in the great plague, 1665) showed me Mr. 
Cowley 's own handwriting 

, ' By a bold people's stubborn arms opprest, 
Forced to forsake the land he once possesst, 
Torn from his dearest Sonne, let him in vain 
Seeke help, and see his friends unjustly slain. 

Let him to base unequal termes submit, 
In hope to save his crown, yet loose both it 
And life at once, untimely let him dy, 
And on an open stage unburied ly.'" 

Aubrey, who had not at first recovered Cowley's 
translation, having inserted an extract from Ogilby's 
Virgil, observes on the last line of the passage he 

" ' But die before his day, the sand his grave.' 
Now as to the last part, ' the sand his grave,' I well re- 
member it was frequently and soberly affirmed by 
officers of the army and grandees, that the body of 
King Charles the First was privately putt into the 
sand about Whitehall ; and the coffin, which was car- 
ried to Windsor, and layd in King Henry VII I. 's 
vault, was filled with rubbish or brickbatts. Mr. 
Fabrian Philips, who adventured his life before the 
king's trial by printing, assures me that the king's 
coffin did cost but six shillings, a plain deale coffin. 

Aubrey, fo. 157 and 158." 

On which the editor has this further note : 

" A very different account of the incident related by 
Aubrey is given by Welwood in his Memoirs, pp. 93, 
94. ed. 1820, where it is said that it was the King him- 
self who, being at Oxford and viewing the Public Li- 
brary, was shown a magnificent Virgil, and induced by 
Lord Falkland to make a trial of his Fortune by the 
Sortes FirgiliancB, and opened the book at the passage 
just referred to. Weldon adds ' It is said King Charles 
seemed concerned at this accident, and that the Lord 
Falkland observing it, would also try his own Fortune 
in the same manner, hoping he might fall upon some 
passage that could have no relation to his case, and 
thereby divert the King's thoughts from any impression 
that the other might have made upon him ; but the 
place that Falkland stumbled upon was yet more suited 
to his destiny than the other had been to the King's : 
being the following expressions of Evander upon the 
untimely death of his son Pallas, as they are translated 
by Dryden : 

O Pallas ! thou hast fail'd thy plighted word 
To fight with caution, not to tempt the sword ; 
I warn'd thee, but in vain; for well I knew 
What perils youthful ardour would pursue ; 
That boiling blood would carry thee too far ; 
Young as thou wert in dangers, raw to war ! 
O curst essay of arms, disastrous doom, 
Prelude of bloody fields and fights to come ! ' " 

Newspaper Extracts. Some years since a vo- 
lume of Newspaper Extracts a curious compilation 

was published. Can you give me the title, 
date, and publisher ? J. P. 

[Perhaps the following is the work wanted by our 
correspondent : More Mornings at Bow Street ; a New 
Collection of Humorous and Entertaining Reports, by 
John Wight, of the Morning Herald: London, 1824 
and 1827.] 



(Vol. vi., p. 36.) 

I would meet MARICONDA'S first Query by 
another. What reason is there for attributing 
" fascinating beauty " of face to Mary ? No doubt 
she was a handsome woman ; and so all the por- 
traits which I have seen represent her. Is there 
any description of her face made by, or derived 
directly from, any one who had seen her, which 
would lead us to expect anything more ? Those 
which I have happened to meet with do not speak 
so much of personal beauty, as of charms of another 
kind, far more potent than personal beauty ever 
carried with it. 

In May, 1568, when she was in her twenty-sixth 
year, Lord Scrope and Sir F. Knollys reported 
their first interview with .her to Elizabeth : 

" We found the Quene of Skottes in her chamber of 
presence, ready to receive us ; where, after salutations 
made, and our declaration also of your Highness' sor- 
rowfulness, &c. &c., we found her in her answers to 
have an eloquent tonge and a discrete head; and it 
seemeth by her doinges that she hath stout courage and 
liberall harte adjoined thereunto." Wright's Elizabeth, 
vol. i. p. 277. 

On the llth of June, Sir F. Knollys writes to 

" And yet this lady and pryncess is a notable woman. 
She seemeth to regard no ceremonious honor besyde the ac- 
knowledging of her estate regalle. She sheweth a dis- 
position to speake much, to be bold, to be pleasant, and to 
be very famylyar. She sheweth a great desyre to be 
avenged of her enemyes; she sheweth a readines to 
expose herselfe to all perytts in hope of victorie ; she 
delyteth much to hear of hardines and valiancye, com- 
mending by name all approved hardy men of her 
cuntrye, altho they be her enemyes; and she com- 
mendeth no cowardnes even in her frendes. The thyng 
she most thirsteth after is victory," &c. Id. p. 281. 

On the 28th of February, 1568-9, Nicholas 
White reports to Cecil his impressions upon a first 
interview with her at Tutbury : 

"But if I, which in the sight of God beare the 
Queen's majestie a iiaturall love besyde my bounden 
dutie, might give advisa, there should be very few 
subjects in this land have accesse to or conference with 
this lady. For beside that she is a goodly personage, and 
yet in truth not comparable to our Soverain, she hath 
withall an alluring grace, a prety Scotishe accente, and a 
searching wit, clouded with myldness. Fame might move 
some to relieve her, and glory joyned to gayn might 
stir others to adventure much for her sake. Then joy 
[qy. the ey] is a lively infective sense, and carieth 
many persuasions to the heart, which ruleth all the 
reste. Myne owne affection, by seeing the Quene's 
majestie our Soverain, is doubled, and thereby I guess 
what sight mjght worke in others. Her hair of itself 
is black; and yet Mr. Knollys told me that she wears 
hair of sundry colors." Id. p. 311. 

Here we have quite enough to account for 
extraordinary powers of fascination, without sup- 
posing any extraordinary personal beauty. 

With regard to that, I should like to see a com- ; 
plete collection of the testimonies of eye-witnesses, 
especially such as were recorded before her death j 
for I suspect that, by a comparison of them, the 
question concerning her portraits would be much i 
simplified. Among the portraits under which her 
name is written, I seem to recognise two distinct i 
types of face, each handsome in its kind, but of 
opposite kinds. Most of those which I have seen 
represent a long face, with a high nose inclining 
to the Roman. The others represent a short 
round face, with a nose elegantly shaped, but 
rather short than long ; rather depressed than 
rising in the middle ; and rather swelling than 
falling towards the end. Now, the only particular 
description of iier face which I remember to have 
seen (I speak of descriptions made from the life) 
agrees with the last, and is not compatible with 
the first. It relates, indeed, to her appearance the 
day of her execution, when she was turned forty- 
five; but it describes such a face as the other 
never could have grown into. 

" The 8th of February being come, at the time and 
place appointed for the execution, the said Queen of 
Scots, being of stature tall, of body corpulent, round- 
shouldered, her face fat and broad, double-chinned, with 
hazle eyes, her borrowed hair [qy. her hair borrowed? 
her attire on her head, was in this manner," &c. 
Strype's Annals, vol. v. p. 558. 

An account in the Cotton MSS. (Calig. B. V. 
175. b.) of her appearance a few months before 
at her trial, describes her as "a very tall and bigge 
woman, being lame, and supported by one arme by 
one of her gentlemen named Melwin, and by her 
other her physicon." So these two agree well 
enough with each other. Is there any other,, 
equally authentic, which contradicts them ? 

One portrait I have seen which represents pre- 
cisely such a face as this might have been when in 
the prime of womanhood. It is an engraving 
"from an original portrait in the possession of 
the Hon. William Maule of Panmure," made in 
February, 1809, for Sir W. Scott's edition of the 
Sadler Papers. But if this be her true likeness,. 
whence come the others, which represent evidently 
a different woman ? I do not know whether the 
question has been considered by more competent 
judges ; but my conjecture is, that all the long- 
faced Maries are in fact portraits, or copies of 
portraits, of her mother, who, being Mary the wife- 
of the King of Scots, might easily be confounded 
with Mary Queen of Scots. This solution of the 
problem occurred to me only the other day, on 
*oing up to examine what I took to be an old 
tainting of Mary Stuart, and being told that it 
was Mary of Guise. The truth of it could be 



JULY 24. 1852.1 


easily tested, by placing side by side whatever 
authentic descriptions remain of the mother and 
daughter ; and perhaps some of your readers will 
refer me to the books where they are to be found. 
But they must be descriptions drawn from the 
life. For in the case of Mary Queen of Scots, 
traditions are of no value. A woman who met 
with such a fortune and such a fate must have 
been plain indeed if history did not represent her 
as beautiful. JAMES SPEEDING. 


(Vol. r., pp. 554. 587.) 

As A. E. B., in his reply to my " objections," 
addresses some questions to me which seem to 
demand an answer, and lest he should imagine 
again that what I have left unanswered I therefore 
think unanswerable, I must beg space for a few 
further remarks. Your correspondent may ima- 
gine, if he pleases, a " physical interpretation" of 
the passage in As You Like It ; but as he admits 
it to be " a matter of opinion," I am content. As 
a matter of taste, however, I may say that " bugle 
eye-balls" are not included in my catalogue of 
beauty; though it is not improbable that a 
child of two or three years old might think her 
doll, which exactly answered the description of 
Phebe, perfection. Undoubtedly " Rosalind's 
depreciation of Phebe's beauty was assumed for 
the purpose of humbling her;" and, if I might 
offer a suggestion, it would be that it is simply 
what it was Rosalind's cue to represent her that 
is in question. 

I now come to the more important portion of 
your correspondent's reply ; and in dealing with 
this, I must first dispose of a question of fact in 
relation to which he disputes my correctness. If 
we do say to a messenger " take that to," &c., the 
words indicate that they accompany the act of 
transferring the missive, and whoever should not 
accompany the words with such act would use 
them improperly. But now comes the grand 
question : " Do I seriously mean to say that Shak- 
speare's language is to be scanned by cur present 
ideas of correctness?" Seriously, then, I do. 
Your correspondent's question is simply a repe- 
tition of the objection taken by Mr. Halliwell 
some time ago. It was, however, not so easy to 
reply to Mr. Halliwell as to your correspondent, 
as the words instanced by the former were not in 
very common use. My answer, once for all, is 
this. The structure of the English language was 
as perfect in^Shakspeare's time as in our own ; but 
the conventional sense of words is subject to 
change. In deciding questions of this kind, there- 
fore, we must consider whether words are simply 
structural, or whether they are such as are ca- 
pable of conventional or accidental meanings. I 

deny the indiscriminate use of the passive and 
active participles, believing that on the form in 
each case depends the sense ; and for the use of 
such words as this and that, and for the nicest ap- 
plication of the structural rules of the language, 
I should say that from no writer would you obtain 
such happy illustrations as from Shakspeare. See, 
for instance, in the Two Gentlemen of Verona 
(Act V. Sc. 4.) the following dialogue : 
" Pro. Where is that ring, boy ? 
Jul Here 'tis ! this is it. 

Pro. How ! let me see : why this is the ring I gave 
to Julia." 

The same fatal objection to A. E. B.'s " demon- 
strative pronoun that" does not apply to "there 
is our commission : " the words indicate so clearly 
the act of presenting it that no direction is needed. 
Had here been used, it would have been doubtful 
(so far) whether the duke intended to give it then ; 
and in the passage above extracted from the Two 
Gentlemen of Verona, it will be evident that Julia 
merely produces the ring which Proteus takes from 

I cannot conclude without saying that I feel 
strongly confirmed in my opinion of a line having 
been lost, by the concurrence of a gentleman who 
has himself made valuable contributions to your 
columns, and who points out that the line 
" But that to your sufficiency, as your worth is able" 

is correct in expression so far as it goes, and quite 
Shakspearian ; the that, however, being not the 
demonstrative pronoun, but the conjunction, and 
the words between commas being parenthetical. 
The missing line, therefore, should complete the 
expression of something to be added "to your 
sufficiency," and which together with it should 
" work." It would be much more satisfactory to 
find the " commission " in this missing line than in 
"that;" and though there is nothing more easy 
than to conjure up a " magician's wand " to get 
over all these difficulties, I think it should be 
sparingly used, especially in defence of mistakes put 
upon Shakspeare by his commentators. Finally, 
let me observe that if the commonest words are 
to lose their obvious meanings on the ground 
that Shakspeare could do as he pleased with them 
whenever a gentleman wishes to strain a point, 
we shall have no ground to stand upon : we can 
only deal with the language as we find it. 



(Vol. vi., p. 8.) 

In reference to the observation of your corre- 
spondent W. CL. on the experiment of lifting great 
living weights, that it is essential that the liftee 
should inhale at the moment the effort is made, but 



[No. 143. 

not essential that the lifters should, I think it right 
to state that I believe the very reverse to be the 
truth. I have seen the experiment repeatedly 
made, but never with such success as to make me 
believe for a moment that the " two very young 
and little girls " could with a finger each raise Sir 
O. Carteret's big cook. 

The inhalation of the lifters the moment the 
effort is made is doubtless essential, and for this 
reason : When we make a great effort, either in 
pulling or lifting, we always fill the chest with air 
previous to the effort ; and when the inhalation is 
completed we close the rima glottidis to keep the 
air in the lungs. The chest being thus kept ex- 
panded, the pulling or lifting muscles have re- 
ceived, as it were, a fulcrum round which their 
power is exerted, and we can thus lift the greatest 
weight which the muscles are capable of doing. 
When the chest collapses by the escape of the air, 
the lifters lose their muscular power. The inha- 
lation of air by the liftee can certainly add nothing 
to the power of the lifters, or diminish his own 
weight, which is only increased by the weight of 
the air which he inhales. Those who are not satis- 
fied with this view of the subject, we must hand 
over to the Mesmerists. D. BREWSTER. 

St. Andrews. 

Your correspondent W. CL. will find in the Zoist 
for January an article entitled, " A Suggestion to 
explain certain Phenomena of Levity," in which the 
subject of his Query is discussed. The writer throws 
out a hint that a clue may be found to the hitherto 
inexplicable experiment, in the Odic fluid of Baron 
Reichenbach suspending or neutralising the law 
of gravitation, in a way similar to that of mag- 
netism in the instance of the iron rod in the electro- 
magnetic helix. The subject is certainly one which, 
as Sir David Brewster, who testifies to the reality 
of the fact, remarks, merits a careful investigation. 

G. S. 


(Vol. i., pp. 320. 445. ; Vol. vi., p. 15.) 

The letter of H. Marshall, M.D., was a first-rate 
literary hoax. 

There was (perhaps still is) in Durham a horse- 
doctor named Henry Marshall, but he had of 
course nothing to do with the letter. Benjamin 
Galley, who is termed esquire in the letter, was a 
poor Durham idiot ; and by the Rev. Dr. Alderson, 
of Butterby, was meant Hutchinson Alderson, the 
bellman of Durham. 

The paragraph in the Morning Chronicle, to 
which Doctor Marshall's letter refers, had been 
inserted by John Sidney Taylor, a bosom-friend 
of the Rev. Charles Woolf, the author of the 

monody. Mr. Taylor replied to the Doctor's 
letter in an angry philippic ; wherein, after allu- 
sions to Celsus and Galen, he informs the Doctor 
he is not ambitious of taking his medicine, and 
advises him, instead of claiming verses which do 
not belong to him, to content himself with writing 
verses on the tombstones of his patients. Mr; 
Taylor evidently thought he was dealing with the 
genuine letter of a real M.D., though he insinuates 
that he was a quack. 

It will be seen by the Doctor's letter that he not 
only claimed the authorship of the " Monody on 
the Death of Sir John Moore," but also of " The 
Prisoner's Prayer to Sleep." Professor Wilson, of 
Edinburgh, thereupon avowed himself the author 
of the latter poem, and was probably as much 
deceived by the Doctor's letter as Mr. Taylor had 

These particulars are derived from an amusing 
article entitled " The Wags of Durham," in Rich- 
ardson's Borderer's Table Book, vii. 199205.; 
but in that article the Doctor's letter is stated to 
have appeared in the Courier of December 30th, 
1824; I think it probable, however, that the date 
given by your correspondent (November 3, 1824) 
is correct. 

The name you print " Deacoll " should, I con- 
ceive, be " Deacon," as it appears that the monody 
had been attributed to Mr. Deacon, the author of 
the Innkee'pers Album. 

May I add that in and about 1824 many hoax- 
ing letters (some displaying much humour) ap- 
peared in the Courier : the late Dr. Chaffy, master 
of Sidney College, and Mr. Goulburn were, if I 
mistake not, the subjects of some of these letters. 

The article on the Durham Wags appears to me 
defective in not containing any allusion to a once 
popular parody on the monody, which was pro- 
bably from the same pen or pens as the Doctor's 
letter. The subject of this parody was a Doctor 
picked up drunk in the street : it contained these 
lines : 

" We took him home, and put him to bed, 

And told his wife and daughter, 
To give him next morning a couple of red 
Herrings and soda water." 

There was also an allusion to his Marshall 
cloak, whence it is pretty plain that the hero of 
the parody was Doctor Marshall. C. H. COOPER. 


The letter in the Courier was a hoax, which 
was exposed (I think in the Morning Chronicle), 
two or three days after its publication, by an au- 
thenticated statement that "Dr. Marshall, of South 
Street, Durham," was a horse-doctor of dissipated 
rather than literary habits, and not even a graduate 
of the Veterinary College. Shortly after appeared 
a clever parody on the monody, ascribed, whether 
truly or not I cannot say, to Praed. It described 

JULY 24. 1852.] 


the state of Dr. Marshall on leaving the public- 
house : 

" Not a sou was left, not a guinea or note, 

And he look'd exceedingly flurried, 
As he bolted away without paying the shot, 
And the landlady after him hurried." 

His friends found him : 

" As he lay like a farrier with drink oppress'd, 
With his Marshall cloak around him." 

The wits of that age indulged in hoaxes. One of 
the ablest was a letter from Dr. Chaffey, the 
master of Sidney, to The Times, followed by ano- 
ther declaring it to be a forgery which could 
hardly require denial, as " everybody must be 
aware that the Chaffys of Lincolnshire spell their 
name without the e." Notwithstanding this ex- 
quisite piece of internal evidence, the second letter 
was as fictitious as the first. H. B. C. 

U. U. Cluh. 

The claim of Dr. Marshall to the authorship of 
this poem was not allowed to pass without notice, 
as the following clever parody will prove. I copied 
it several years since, from some defunct periodical 
whose name I do not remember. 

Parody on The Burial of Sir John Moore.' 
" Not a sous had he got not a guinea or note ; 

And he look'd most confoundedly flurried, 
As he bolted away without paying his shot, 

And the landlady after him hurried. 

*' We saw him again at dead of night, 

When home from the club returning ; 
We twigg'd the Doctor beneath the light 
Of the gas-lamps brilliantly burning. 

" All bare and exposed to the midnight dews, 

Keclin'd in the gutter we found him ; 
And he look'd like a gentleman taking a snooze, 
With his Marshall* cloak around him. 

" The Doctor was drunk as the devil,' we said, 

And we managed a shutter to borrow ; 
We rais'd him, and sigh'd at the thought that his 


Would consumedly ache on the morrow. 
" We bore him home, and we put him to bed, 

And we told his wife and his daughter 
To give him next morning a couple of red 

Herrings and soda-water. 
" Loudly they talk of his money that's gone, 

And his lady began to upbraid him ; 
But little he reck'd, so they let him snore on, 
'Neath the counterpane just as we laid him. 
" We tuck'd him in, and had hardly done, 

When under the window calling, 
We heard the rough voice of a son of a gun 
Of a watchman one o'clock ' bawling. 

* A letter, genuine or fictitious, which appeared in 
the newspapers, signed by a Dr. Marshall, claimed for 
him the authorship of the original stanzas. 

Slowly and sadly we all walked down 
From his room in the uppermost story ; 

A rush-light we placed on the cold hearth -stone, 
And we left him alone in his glory." 



(Vol.v., p. 507.) 

Your correspondent upon this subject is, I pre- 
sume, no musician, or he would not have written 
the article inserted in " N. & Q." 

The symbols of ancient music which he brings 
forward relate to three things Mode, Time, and 
I Prolation. But as the matter is difficult to explain 
in a brief communication like the present, I beg 
leave to introduce it by the following very familiar 
figure, extracted from the 2nd volume of Sir John 
Hawkins' History of Music (p. 156.) : 

" A cantus of four parts may be resembled to a tree, 
and the similitude will hold if we suppose the funda- 
mental, or bass part, to answer to the root, or rather 
the bole or stem; the tenor to the branches; the contra- 
tenor to the lesser ramifications ; and the altus to the 
leaves. We must further suppose the bass part to con- 
sist of the greater simple measures, which are those 
called longs, the tenor of breves, the contra-tenor of 
semibreves, and the altus of minims. In this situation 
of the parts, the first admeasurement, viz. that which is 
made by the breaking of the longs into breves, acquires 
the name of Mode ; the second, in which the breves are 
measured by semibreves, is called Time; and the third, 
in which the semibreves are broken into minims, is 
termed Prolation, of which it seems there were two 
kinds, the greater and the lesser. In the former the 
division into minims was by three, in the latter by two; 
answering to perfection and imperfection in the greater 
measures of the long, the breve, and the scmibreve." 

As to the Modes themselves, they were of two 
kinds, the greater and the lesser ; in the one the 
large was measured by longs, in the other the long 
was measured by breves. The characters invented 
for distinguishing the modes, such as the circle, the 
semicircle, &c., are so well explained by old Thomas 
Morley, that I need not apologise for the following 
extract from his valuable Plaine and Easie Intro- 
duction to Practicall Musicke, folio, Peter Short, 
1597 (Annotations on Book I.) : 

" The auncient Musytians did commonlie sette downe 
a particular signe for every degree of musycke in the 
songe ; so that they having no more degrees than three, 
that is, the two modes and time (prolation not being 
yet invented), set down three signes for them : so that, 
if the great mode were perfect, it was signified by a 
whole circle, which is a perfect figure ; if it were 
imperfect, it was marked with a halfe circle. There- 
fore, wheresoever these signes O 33 were set before any 
songe, there was the great mode perfect signified by the 
circle, the small mode perfect signified by the first 
figure of three, and time perfect signified by the last 
figure of three. If the songe were marked thus, C 33, 



[No. 143. 

then was the great mode imperfect, and the small mode 
and time perfect. But if the first figure were a figure 
of two, thus C 23, then were both modes unperfect, and 
time perfect. But if it were thus, C 22, then were all 
unperfect. But, if in al the songe there were no Large, 
then did they set downe the signes of such notes as 
were in the song ; so that if the circle or semicircle were 
set before one onelie cifer, as O 2, then did it signifie 
the lesse mode : and by that reason, that circle now last 
set downe, with the binarie cifer following it, signified 
the lesse mode perfect, and time unperfect. If thus, 
C 3, then was the lesse mode unperfect and time per- 
fect. If thus, C 2, then was both the lesse mood and 
time unperfect, and so of others. But since the prola- 
tion was invented, they have set a pointe in the circle or 
halfe circle, to show the more prolation, which notwith- 
standing altereth nothing in the mode nor time." 

Our modern binary and ternary times were 
formerly reversed. The ancients called the binary 
measure imperfect, and the ternary perfect time. 
For this reason they expressed the latter by a 
circle, as the most perfect of all figures. Binary, 
as we have seen, was expressed by a demi or im- 
perfect circle, which is our sign for common time. 
The reason why the ternary or triple time was 
called perfect may perhaps be traced back to very 
ancient opinions among the Pythagoreans, who held 
the number three to be perfect, while they con- 
sidered the number two to be connected with the 
evil principle, and as the indication of mischief and 
confusion : hence the second month of the year 
dedicated to Pluto by the Romans. 

The signs thus invented for musical purposes, 
were afterwards applied to a different use. In all 
the old dance-books (vide Playford's English 
Dancing Master, 1651, &c.), men and women are 
distinguished by the circle, with the central point, 
and the demi or half circle. This use of the early 
musical character was evidently founded upon the 
ideas of perfection and imperfection above alluded 
to ; the circle, which is a perfect figure, denoting 
the man, and the semicircle, which is imperfect, 
the woman. 

Your correspondent's suggestion as to the origin 
of the crossed C is entirely wrong, as I shall now 
proceed to show. The " vertical line impaling the 
two lozenges, with a third lozenge between them, but 
on one side," which is found in old (not the oldest) 
church music, relates to the pitch, and has nothing 
whatever to do with the time. It is the old F clef, 
a compound character, formed of three notes, 
one placed on the line, and two others in the ad- 
joining spaces. The vertical line may be added or 
not. The C clef was distinguished from the F by 
having only the two notes in the spaces. These 
clefs are common to the Gregorian music. A full 
account of them may be found in Gafurius, Practica 
Musica, lib. i. cap. iii. fol. 4. b, edit. 1496. The 
G clef, a compound character of the letters G and 
S, for the syllable Sol, was invented by Lampadius 
about the year 1530. 

Allow me to add, in conclusion, that Alsted and 
Solomon de Caus are no authorities in musical 
matters. If your correspondent wishes to know 
more about our early musical symbols, I beg to 
refer him to Thomas Ravenscroft's Briefe Dis- 
course of the true but neglected use of charactring 
the Degrees by their Perfection, Imperfection, and 
Diminution in Measurable Musicke, 4to. Printed 
by E. Allde, 1614. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 


(Vol. vi., pp. 6.42.) 

In the passage from Act II. Sc. 1., MR. SINGER 
would change and found into unfound ; but he 
makes no remark upon the object of the word 
dispatch. MR. COURIER, on the other hand, would 
retain and found, but he understands the object of 
" dispatch " to be Edgar, who is to be first caught 
and then dispatched I 

In such a dilemma, it is surely excusable, in this 
case at least, to be a " rigid stickler for the inte- 
grity of the old copies" I, and doubtless nine- 
tenths of the readers of Shakspeare, understand 
the passage in this way : 

" Let him fly far ; 

Not in this land shall he remain uncaught ; 
And found, ! Dispatch The noble Duke," &c. 

Here there is an expressive pause after found> 
as though the punishment consequent upon Edgar's 
capture were too terrible and indeterminate for 
immediate utterance. Dispatch is addressed to 
Edmond, and simply means, " Get on with your 
story," which in fact he does at the conclusion of 
Gloster's speech. 

As to the second proposed correction (first line 
in Act IV.), I protest against it also. It would be 
injurious to the true sense, which requires the 
opposition of known (or open) contempt, to con- 
tempt concealed by flattery. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds has so well explained this 
passage that to say anything more would be to 
repeat him. A. E. B. 



(Vol.v., pp.510. 569.) 

Your inquirer on this subject will find his 
doubts resolved by referring to a review of the 
books, in question in vol. Ixxiv. of the Quarterly ; 
where (p. 223.) it is stated, that in consequence of 
a controversy respecting its authenticity, which 
had arisen in the German newspapers, the editor, 
Dr. Meinhold, published in the Allgemeine Zeitung 
a letter claiming the authorship; and it appears 
that his design in practising this deception was to 
mystify the " school of Strauss and Co.," in which 
he seems amply to have succeeded. E. H. Y. 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



Dr. Meinhold, the professed editor of the 
"Amber Witch," is himself the author. Some 
controversy in the German newspapers as to whe- 
ther it was an authentic history or not was put an 
end to by a letter from Dr. Meinhold (which ap- 
peared in the Allgemeine Zeilung) distinctly avow- 
ing himself as the author. I have heard that Dr. 
Meinhold, being dissatisfied with the peremptory 
manner with which the Tubingen reviewers, 
Strauss and his followers, professed the unerring 
certainty with which they could discover, from 
internal evidence, the degree of credulity to be 
attached to any narrative whatever, determined to 
put their infallibility to the test, by writing the 
" Amber Witch." His success was complete. The 
Straussites were completely taken in, and pro- 
nounced in favour of the authenticity of the 
"Amber Witch" with as little hesitation as they 
had previously shown in deciding against the au- 
thenticity of great portions of the sacred writings. 

R. C. C. 















(Vol. iii., p. 168.) 

William the Norman conquers England's state ; 
In his own forest, Rufus meets his fate ; 
Though elder Robert lives, Henry succeeds ; 
Stephen usurps the throne, and Albion bleeds ; 
Great Second Henry bows at Becket's shrine ; 
Brave Richard's doom'd in foreign bonds to 

pine ; 

Perfidious John submits his crown to Rome ; 
A long and troubled reign's third Henry's 

doom ; 

Edward the first, her king to Scotland gives ; 
Edward the second cruel death receives ; 
Two captive monarchs grace third Edward's 

train ; 

His grandson Richard is depos'd and slain ; 
Domestic foes, fourth Henry's arms engage ; 
France feels at Agincourt, fifth Henry's rage ; 
The sixth good Henry, realms and son must 

lose ; 

"While the fourth Edward love and fame pur- 
Yet o'er his children's heads, the trembling 


Uncertain hangs, till Richard pulls it down ; 
Stain'd with their blood, the fell usurper reigns, 
Till the seventh Henry, Bosworth's battle gains, 
Unites the Roses, and dire faction quells; 
Henry the eighth both monks and Pope expels ; 
England laments sixth Edward's short liv'd 

bloom ; 

Mary's short reign restores the faith of Rome ; 
Eliza forms the church and humbles Spain ; 
The crowns unite in James's peaceful reign ; 
Charles, by the axe, his errors must atone; 





Cromwell, without the title, mounts the throne ; 
False power, false pleasure flatter Charles re- 

stor'd : 
'Gainst James the second, freedom draws her 

sword ; 

The sceptre given to William's patriot hand j 
A bloodless revolution saves the land ; 
William and Mary dead, Anne mounts the> 

throne ; 

To her, first George succeeds, Sophia's son ; V- 
Next George the second wore his father's I 

crown ; J 

His grandson George now Britain's sceptre 

Whom God preserve, and bless with length of 




(Vol. i., p. 261.) 

MR. STRICKLAND will find in UUnivers Pit- 
toresque, under the head " lies de L'Afrique," the 
question of the discovery of the Mauritius, and ad- 
jacent islands, by the Portuguese, ably, and perhaps 
as fully discussed as can be at present, until the 
archives containing the hydrographical records of 
the early Portuguese voyagers are opened to the 
savans of Europe. A collection of old Portuguese 
and other charts edited by Eugene de Froberville, 
and published at Paris a few years ago, are well 
worthy of the attention of those curious on the 
subject. They are in the British Museum, may 
be found under " Africa, East Coasts," and their 
press or table mark is 

" 69295. T. 20. 
700. S. l7" 

Froberville, in his account of Rodriguez, in the 
lies de L'Afrique (ut supra), quotes freely from a 
MS. written by Pingre, which contained " longues 
descriptions des animaux et des plantes de Rod- 
riguez ; " and also states, apparently on the autho- 
rity of this MS., that the Solitaire was in existence 
as late as the year 1761. 

MR. STRICKLAND, in his valuable work, The 
.Dodo and its Kindred, speaking of the MS. journal 
of Sieur D. B., hopes it " will not be allowed to 
remain much longer unpublished. As MR. S. 
("N. & Q.," Vol.i., p. 411.) again alludes to the 
MS. of D. B., I beg leave to mention that it was 
published at Paris, in 1694, under the following 
title, Les Voyages fails par le Sieur D. B. aux 
Isles Dauphine, ou Madagascar, f Bourbon, ou 
Mascarenne, es annees 1669, 70, 71, # 72. The 
dedication of this work is signed Dubois; and 
in the Bibliotheque Universelle des Voyages, by 
Richarderie, Paris, 1808, the author's name is 
stated to be Dubois. W. PINKERTON. 




[No. 143. 


(Vol. v., pp. 320. 549. 596. 613.) 

Will your correspondent ALFRED GATTY kindly 
point out any authority for his position, p. 613., 
" that a clergyman would render himself liable to 
suspension by his bishop, who either allowed in- 
terments to take place in the churchyard without 
the burial service, or, on the other hand, used the 
service in unconsecrated or unlicensed ground ? " 

The question of the use of the burial service by 
a clergyman in unconsecrated ground has become 
of great local interest in Birmingham, in conse- 
quence of the rector of St. Martin's having re- 
cently attended the funeral of a member of his 
congregation in the " unconsecrated and unlicensed 
ground 1 ' of a joint-stock cemetery in the town, 
and there officiated in his canonicals, using the 
whole Church of England service for the burial of 
the dead ; although there is a Church of England 
cemetery, duly consecrated and established at great 
expense, immediately adjoining. 

The irregularity and impropriety of such conduct 
is indeed very glaring (Vol. v., p. 549.) ; but I can 
find neither canon, rubric, nor law of the church 
that makes it illegal. 

The 71st and 72nd appear to be the only canons 
bearing on the point; the rubrics for the Com- 
munion of the Sick and the Private Baptism of 
Children contain a stringent caution as to their 
use out of church, except in cases of sudden danger 
or inability to leave home ; the Conventicle Act 
(22 Geo. II. c. 1.) only refers to the " exercise of 
religion in other manner than according to the 
Liturgy and practice of the Church of England;" 
and finally, the statutes of Elizabeth respecting at- 
tendance at church speak only of "their parish 
church or chapel accustomed, or upon reasonable 
let thereof, some usual place of common prayer" 

The whole matter, therefore, seems to resolve 

itself into a question of good taste and consistent 

churchmanship. It would be a great favour to 

obtain an early answer. BENBOW. 



(Vol. vi., pp. 6, 7.) 

On the publication of my remarks, I thought it 
Tight to call Dr. Cumming's attention to them, and 
in reply I have received a private letter from him, 
with a request that I would communicate the sub- 
stance of it to " N. & Q." 

1. In speaking of "the poet who is supposed to 
tread nearest to the inspired," Dr. Cumming did 
not intend to point to any individual, but to the 
whole class of poets. The meaning, therefore, is 
not, as I supposed, " that poet who is generally 
regarded as approaching nearest to the inspirec 
poets," but " a poet, a writer of that class whose 

genius is considered to approach nearer to in- 
piration than any other human talent or endow- 
ment." I have to beg pardon for my mistake, 
and can only plead in excuse my want of acquaint- 
ance with the writer's style. 

2. As to the quotations from Goethe and Luther, 
Dr. Cumming considers that, since they are avow- 
dly quotations, it was needless to mention the 
rork from which they were immediately derived. 

e states that the chapter on Romans viii. is the 
nly part of his Voices of the Night in which he 
las made any use of Olshausen, and that in others 
)f his works he has amply acknowledged his obli- 
gations to that commentator. He disavows all 
ntention of " parading " the names of other com- 
mentators, and states that his acquaintance with 
the Fathers is derived from their own writings, 
lot from secondary sources. And, generally, he 
is of opinion that express references are not re- 
quired in religious books of a popular and prac- 
tical character. 

3. " It is perfectly true," writes Dr. Cumming, 
that I did mistake Bettina for a creature of 

_ oethe's imagination, and therefore supposed the 
noble and beautiful thought to be Goethe's own, 
and Bettina merely to be the organ of it." 

I am bound to acknowledge the candour and 
the good temper with which my remarks have been 
received ; and having, as I trust, now fairly stated 
Dr. Cumming's side of the question, I shall not 
add any comment on those parts of it as to which 
I am unable to agree with him. 

N.B. In the sixth line of the poetry, page 7, 
from has been printed instead of for. 



(Vol. vi., pp. 8. 26.) 

After the apology which you have deemed it 
necessary to make to your readers for the large 
space occasionally occupied by Shakspearian criti- 
cism, I should have scrupled again to trespass in 
this way, but that I feel called upon to notice 
MR. COLLIER'S very courteous appeal to me re- 
specting my note on two passages in King Lear 
(Vol. vi., p. 8.), in which I have unwittingly mis- 
represented his reading of one of them. 

It is true that the absence of the capital letter at 
the word " dispatch," and the period after it, escaped 
my observation ; but I must confess that I do not feel 
satisfied with the view MR. COLLIER takes of the 
passage, " that Gloster intends to say when Ed^ar 
is found he should be dispatched." The pointing 
of the old copies, in which a semicolon occurs afte 
the words " And found," is in my mind decisively 
against it. It may be that Gloster merely is meant 
to say, that all possible dispatch shall be used i 
having the fugitive Edgar pursued. 

Being one of those who received with acclaim 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



the emendation in Coriolanus found in MR. COL- 
LIER'S second folio, of bisson multitude for bosom 
multiplied, perhaps I may be allowed to add a few 
words in reply to your correspondent A. E. B. 
(Vol. vi., p. 26.), who, as he once designated him- 
self " a charmed listener " to Shakspeare, will not 
listen approvingly to annotators "charm they never 
so wisely." On this occasion he dissents from 
the " general acclaim " with which this excellent 
conjectural emendation has been received, in a 
very elaborate and ingenious argument, which I 
regret to say has failed to convince me. I still 
think that had MR. COLLIER'S second folio only 
afforded this one very happy correction, it would 
have done good service to the text of a play in 
which the printer's errors are numerous. 

To the argument of your excellent correspon- 
dent, it seems to me, one fatal objection offers 
itself: the context requires a plural noun to be in 
concord with they and their, and therefore " this 
bosome multiplied " cannot be right ; for dare we 
say the poet was wrong ? Think of the greatest 
master of language the world ever saw writing 

" this bosome multiplied . . . 
What's like to be their words : We did request it : ' " &c. 

I submit that we may confidently read the pas- 
sage thus : 

" Th' accusation 

Which they have often made against the senate, 
All cause unborn, could never be the motive 
Of our so frank donation. Well, what then? 
How shall this bisson-multitude digest 
The senate's courtesy ? Let deeds express 
What's like to be their words:" &c. 

Your correspondent will see that I adopt 
Mason's correction of motive for native, which he, 
I think unjustly, treats as "meddling." At the 
risk of being placed in the same category, I will 
add that in the very next speech of Coriolanus we 
have another absurd printer's error. The first 
folio gives us 

" To iumpe a. body with a dangerous physic." 

The second folio improves this mtojumpe. 

I read (meo periculo), To impe a body, i. e. re- 
store or increase its power. This term from fal- 
conry was familiar to the poet. 

We have all the same object in view, I trust; 
that is, to restore, as far as it is possible, the text 
from the fatal injuries inflicted on it by careless 
printing and imprudent " meddling." I yield to 
no one in awful reverence for its integrity, but 
cannot persuade myself that the printers, or the 
player-editors of the old copy, have infallibly given 
what Shakspeare wrote, especially when it leads to 
absurdity or nonsense. 

" Oh ! mighty poet ! Thy works are not as those of 
other men, simply and merely great works of art ; but 
are also like the phenomena of nature, like the sun ami 
the sea, the stars and the flowers, like frost and 

snow, rain and dew, hail-storm and thunder, which are 
to be studied with entire submission of our own facili- 
ties, and in the perfect faith that in them there can be 
no too much or too little, nothing useless or inert but 
that, the farther we press in our discoveries, the more 
we shall see proofs of design and self-supporting 
arrangement, where the careless eye had seen nothing 
but accident." * 

I Conclude with these eloquent words, after the 
dry bones of our verbal disputes, that the acces- 
sory, as Sir Henry Wotton says, may help out the 
principal, according to the art of stationers, and tO- 
leave the reader con la bocca dolce. 




Milton and Tacitus (Vol. v., p. 606.). There 
is an oft- quoted line expressing the same senti- 
ment : 

" Ambition is the vice of noble minds." 
Who is the proprietor of it? author one can 
hardly call him ? A. A. D. 

Emaciated Monumental Effigies (Vol. v., p. 497.). 
There is in Lichfield Cathedral an emaciated 
figure shown as part of the monument of Dean 
Hey wood, who died October 25, 1492. Shaw 
(Staffordshire, vol. i. p. 249.) quotes the following 
account of the monument from Dugdale's Visita- 
tion in the Herald's College : 

" In a south wall opposite the choir is a very elegant 
monument of a man in full proportion, with a red 
gown and white hood, and over that a red one : his 
hands are elevated as in prayer, and his head reclines 
upon a blue cushion, and under that is placed a red 
one. In the bottom of the monument immediately 
under him is the figure of a corpse laid out in its- 
winding sheet, his arms crossed over his gown. The 
sheet is tied at the top, and the head is laid upon a 
blue pillow." 

Shaw gives an engraving of it in its complete 
state taken from Dugdale's Visitation; but I be- 
lieve the bottom part is all that now remains. 


30. Clarence Street, Islington. 

"Za Garde meurt" (Vol. v., p. 425.; Vol. vi. r 
p. 11.). A note to A Voice from Waterloo, one 
of the most interesting and authentic and carefully 
compiled accounts of the battle which has yet ap- 
peared, written by Serjeant- Major Cotton of the 
7th Hussars, who was orderly to Sir Hussey 
Vivian in the battle, tells us 

" It was Halkett himself who marked out Cam- 
bronne, and, having ridden forward at full gallop, was 
on the point of cutting down the French general, when 

* Note " On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth," 
by Mr. De Quincey, in the London Magazine, vol. viii. 
1823, p. 356. 



[No. 143. 

the latter cried out for quarter and received it. This 
fact does not well agree with the words popularly as- 
cribed to Cambronne, La garde meurt, et ne se rend 
pas." After having surrendered, Cambronne tried to 
escape from Halkett, whose horse fell wounded to the 
ground. But, in a few seconds, Halkett overtook his 
prisoner, and seizing him by the aiguillette, hurried 
him to the Osnabruckers, and sent him in charge of a 
sergeant to the Duke of Wellington. Cambronne was 
subsequently sent to Ostend with Count Lobau and 
other prisoners. It was only the old guard that wore 
the aiguillette. 

" The words ascribed to Cambronne, ' the guard 
dies, it never surrenders,' of which we see such num- 
bers of engravings, and which illustrates so many 
pocket handkerchiefs and ornaments so much of their 
crockery, &c., have, notwithstanding they were never 
uttered, made a fortune ; all French historians repeat 
them. I am in possession of a letter, written to me by 
a friend of Cambronne's, and who asked the general 
whether it was true that he had uttered the words in 
question ; the reply was (I quote Mr. E. G. Dickson's 
own words), 'Monsieur, on m'a debite cette reponse.' " 

The gallant Sir Colin Halkett, I believe, still 
survives, and, if he be a reader of " N. & Q.," 
may perhaps condescend to correct any misstate- 
ments that there may be in the above tale. L. 

I am surprised that two Numbers have appeared 
without R. C. B.'s having been apprised of his 
strange mistake of attributing to Murat the noto- 
rious myth which was invented for General Cam- 
bronne at Waterloo, and which have been, with 
true French modesty and veracity, inscribed on a 
monument erected to him (Cambronne) at Nantes, 
the fact being that he surrendered without resist- 
ance, and was taken to the village of Waterloo. 
The French, imagining that he was killed, invented 
this fine saying for him, while he himself was at 
the Duke of Wellington's quarters, making him- 
self meanly remarkable by endeavouring to intrude 
himself at the duke's dinner table. C. 

Baxters "Saints' Rest" (Vol. vi.,p. 18.). MR. 
BEALBY having spoken of the first impression of 
this work, may perhaps be able to verify the fol- 
lowing severe criticism : 

" Mr. Baxter, in the two editions of his Saints' Ever- 
lasting Rest, printed before the year 1 660, instead of the 
* kingdom of heaven,' as it is in the Scripture, calls it 
'parliament of heaven' (and, if like their own, it must 
have been a parliament without a king) ; and into this 
parliament he puts some of the regicides, and other 
like saints, who were then dead. But in the editions 
after the Restoration, he drops them all out of heaven 
again, and restores the kingdom of God to its place." 
The Scholar armed against the Errors of the Time, vol. ii. 
pp. 51-2., Lond. 1795. 

R. G. 

The Bright Lamp that shone in Kildares holy 
Fane (Vol. v., pp. 87. 211.).-'- This suggests the 
Query, Who was St. Bridget, or St. Bride ? and 

was there not an Irish goddess, with the attributes 
of Vesta, named Bridget, whose pyreum was trans- 
formed by Christianity into the fire of St. Bridget? 
The following account is given by Giraldus (Topog. 

" In Kildare of Leinster, which the glorious Bridget 
made illustrious, there are many wonders worthy of 
mention. Foremost among which is the Fire of 
Bridget, which they call unextinguishable ; not that 
it cannot be extinguished, but because the nuns and 
holy women so anxiously and accurately cherish and 
nurse the fire with a supply of fuel, that during so 
many centuries from the time of the Virgin it has ever 
remained unextinguished, and the ashes have never 
accumulated, although in so long a time so vast a pile 
of wood hath here been consumed. Whereas, in the 
time of Bridget, twenty nuns here served the Lord, 
she herself being the twentieth, there have been only 
nineteen from the time of her glorious departure, and 
they have not added to their number. But as each 
nun in her turn tends the fire for one night, when the 
twentieth night comes, the last virgin having placed 
the wood ready, saith, ' Bridget, tend that fire of thine, 
for this is thy night.' And the fire being so left, in the 
morning they find it unextinguished, and the fuel con- 
sumed in the usual way. That fire is surrounded by a 
circular hedge of bushes, within which a male does not 
enter ; and if he should presume to enter, as some rash 
men have attempted, he does not escape divine ven- 


Exterior Stonp (Vol. v., p. 560.). There is an 
exterior holy water stoup at the north side of the 
great western entrance of Walsingham Abbey. 


Henry, Lord Viscount Dover (Vol. vi., p. 10.). 
The following Notes may clear up MR. D'ALTON'S 
doubts as to this peer. The obscurity seems to 
have arisen from a confusion of titles. 

Henry Jermyn, younger brother of Thomas, 
Lord Jermyn of Bury, was created in 1683 (or 
1685) Lord Jermyn of Dover ; and, out of defer- 
ence to his elder brother's title of Jermyn, he 
seems to have been called Lord DOVER, by which 
name he was sworn of the English Privy Council 
in 1686, and next year appointed a Lord of the 
English Treasury. He seems to have left England 
with James II., and accompanied him in 1689 to 
Ireland, where we find him. under the title of Lord 
Dover, a Privy Councillor and Commissioner of 
the Treasury in Ireland ; and some time after he 
appears as Earl of Dover. (King's S'ate of the 
Protestants.} I presume that he was also created 
Viscount Dover ; but the viscounty and earldom, 
Irish creations, after the Abdication, are nowhere 
recognised. This explanation, I think, clears up 
all MR. D'ALTON'S difficulties, except that I do 
not find his name in the list of officers in King 
James's Guards, or even army. He seems to have 
been employed as a civilian. 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



Government of St. Christopher in 1662 (Vol. v., 
p. 510.). The following notices of the Bailiff De 
Poincy, and his successor the Chevalier De Sales, 
which we have found recorded in the Chronology 
of St. Christopher, may give URSULA that inform- 
ation he wishes : 

"In 1641 De Poiney arrived at St. Christopher as 
governor from France. 

" In 1651 M. De Poiney buys of the French West 
India Company their share of the Island of St. Kitts. 

"In 1653 the King of France makes a bequest of 
the Island of St. Kitts to the Knights of the Order of 

In 1660, April llth, De Poiney dies, aged seventy- 
seven, and is succeeded by the Chevalier De Sales." 

The Grand Master, Nicholas Cotona, on the 5th 
of May, 1673, made over all the titles of his West 
India possessions to Monsieur Colbert, the prime 
minister of France. At the time of this cession 
the Chevalier De Sales, "nephew of that great 
saint, Francis De Sales," was governor of St. 

Any information with reference to the islands 
of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, St. Christopher, 
and Santa Cruz, when held by the Order of St. 
John, will be most acceptable. I would like to 
know for what amount they were purchased by the 
Knights of Malta, for whatjperiod they were held, 
what tribute was paid, and when and for what 
sum they were disposed of. The disposal of these 
islands caused much dissension among the knights, 
as I have some interesting testamentary evidence 
to prove.. W. W. 

La Valetta, Malta. 

De Sancta Cruce (Vol. vi., pp. 9. 61.). Father 
Gretser's works were published in seventeen folio 
volumes, Ratisbon, 1734 ; the first three treat De 
Sancta Cruce. Your correspondent may see a fine 
copy at Nutt's in the Strand. Lipsius has written 
on the same subject. Martial, a student at Lou- 
vain, wrote A Treatise on the Cross, which he 
dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. Cruciana, by John 
Holland, Liverpool, 1835, is a useful little work 
with numerous illustrations. Mr. Alger has drawn 
largely from it in a work he published last year 
in America ; History of the Cross of Christ, by the 
Rev. W. Alger, Cambridge and Boston, James 
Munroe & Co. Mr. Haslam's The Cross and the 
Serpent, Parker, 1849, is doubtless well known to 
your readers. MABICONDA. 

HUGO is right in his belief that Gretser, the 
Jesuit, wrote a treatise entitled De Sancta Cruce. 
The best edition is said to be that in folio, 1616. 
See Biog. Univ. J. M. 


History of Commerce (Vol. v., pp. 276. 309. 
329.). Your correspondent X. Y. Z., who asked 
for a work relating to the courses of commerce 

between Europe and the East, in ancient and 
modern times, will find ample information in the 
second volume of The Expedition for the Survey of 
the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris, by Lieut.-Col. 

Gower Street. 

Physiologus (Vol. ii., p. 205.). The work of 
Theobald, called Physiologus, supposed by Sharon 
Turner to be the same as that so often quoted by 
Phillippe de Thaun, supplies, according to your 
correspondent B. F. (Vol. ii., p. 205.), the fable 
and application of the Lion, with very trifling 
variations from Philippe de Thaun's fabulous ac- 
count of the Lion. 

Mr. Wright*, on the other hand, is of opinion 
that the Physiologus of Thetbaldus is not the same 
as that quoted by Philippe de Thaun. I have 
much pleasure in expressing my concurrence with 
Mr. Wright's conclusion, on the testimony of 
Vincent of Beauvais, in whose Speculum Naturale 
are quoted several passages from Physiologus, 
which, as will appear from a comparison, are very 
different from the Latin poem of Thetbaldus, 
printed among the works of Hildebert, p. 1174. : 
Paris, 1708, a translation of which appears in 
Halliwell and Wright's Reliquice Antiquce, vol. i. 
p. 208., whilst they precisely correspond with 
Philippe de Thaun's quotations. A ROSICRUCIAN. 

" Viewe Bowes" (, p. 10.). I believe 
" viewe bowes " to be simply yew bows. In my native 
town, in South Lancashire, such used to be the 
vernacular pronunciation of yew, and probably is 
still. I remember it with particular distinctness 
in the name of a farm-house, which was called by 
the " natives " the " View-tree House," with re* 
ference to a remarkable yew, which has withered 
within my recollection. G. T. D. 

The Death- watch (Vol. v., pp. 537. 597.). I 
read in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, 
Vol. Insect Miscellanies, the following : 

" Sir Thomas Browne considered the subject of the 
death-watch of great importance, and remarks that the 
man ' who could eradicate this error from the minds 
of the people, would save from many a cold sweat the 
meticulous heads of nurses and grandmothers,' as such 
persons are firm in the belief that 

The solemn death-watch clicks the hour of death.' 

" Swift endeavoured to perform this useful task by 
means of ridicule. His description, suggested, it would 
appear, by the old song of A cobbler there was, and 
lived in a stall,' runs thus" 

Then follow the lines already quoted by Mr. 
Yarrell. H. W. G. 


* See Popular Treatises on Science, written during 
the Middle Ages, published by the Historical Society 
of Science. 



[No. 143. 

William, Abbot of St. Albans (Vol. v., p. 611.). 
At pp.213, 214. of Massingberd's History of the 
English Reformation a solution is offered of the 
difficulty arising from the hiatus in the list of the 
Abbots of St. Albans, by supposing that the^ame 
of the wicked abbot was erased or omitted from the 
records of the abbey. It seems probable that the 
practice of such omissions might be copied from 
the example of the omission, in St. Matthew's 
genealogy of our Lord, of those sinful kings, who 
are passed over as if they had never been, accord- 
ing to the sentence of fiim who visits the sins of 
the fathers unto the third or fourth generation. I 
believe that there are other instances of similar 
omissions in other monasteries : such a case was 
stated at a late meeting of the Lincolnshire Archi- 
tectural Society, in regard to Thornton Abbey in 
that county. 

It would be grievous to think that the high 
character of Ramridge (see Stephens' Supplement, 
i. 264.), who wrote The Lives of the Abbots, Monks, 
and Benefactors of St. Albans, and whose noble 
tomb remains in the Abbey Church, was altogether 
fictitious : besides that his name was Thomas ; and 
the dates of his election, and of the death of Wil- 
liam Wallingford, seem to be equally authentic. 

Lines on Crawford of Kilbirnie, frc. (Vol. v., 
p. 546.). These lines are evidently merely an 
adaptation of the well-known epigram on Austria : 
" Bella gerant alii tu felix Austria nube ; 
Nam quae Mars aliis dat tibi regna Venus." 

But this epigram is again only an adaptation of 
Helen's exhortation to Paris, in Ovid's Epistles, 
lines 253-4. : 

" Apta magis Veneri, quam sint tua corpora Marti ; 
Bella gerant fortes : tu, Pari, semper ama." 


Can Bishops vacate their Sees? (Vol.v., p. 548.). 
Many examples may be produced from the Church 
of Rome. So recently as the early years of this 
century, on establishing the Concordatum between 
Pius VII. and Bonaparte, several bishops resigned 
their sees; and a century before, the learned Huet, 
bishop of Avranches, did so, in exchange for the 
Abbey of Fontenay, near Caen, in Normandy. I 
am acquainted with an ex-bishop, returned from 
the East Indies, now in holy retirement at Dublin, 
from ill health. J. R- 


Lines on Franklin, Vol. v., p. 549., and again at 
p. 571., where, in explanation of its origin, we 
read, that it was lately reproduced, having been 
first cited in the " Correspondance de Grimm et de 
Diderto" (Diderot), in the Quarterly Review for 
June 1850, with the addition that it was from the 

pen of Turgot, on the authority, I presume, of the 
Life in the Biographic Universelle, art. " Turgot." 
On this I beg leave to observe, that I think I 
have already addressed you, Mr. Editor, on the 
subject, though I cannot refer to the time, nor 
have I preserved a copy of what I wrote ; but I 
may now add, that in the Dublin Review for March 
1847, p. 212., I distinctly traced the line from 
Turgot to the Anti- Lucretius of Cardinal de Poli- 
gnac, as mentioned by Grimm, who, however, does 
not quote the book and line of that poem, ivhich I 
did, viz. lib. i. v. 37. ; as I equally did those of 
Manilius, lib. i. v. 104., where he says of his hero, 

" Eripuitque lovi fulmen, viresque Tonauti." 

The Biographie merely notes that, of Turgot, 
" On connait 1'epigraphe qu'ii fit pour le portrait 
de Franklin ' Eripuit,' " &c., without further ex- 
planation. It will thus be seen that my article 
preceded that of the Quarterly by three years ; and 
I may add, that long before I furnished these par- 
ticulars to the Gentlemans Magazine, though I 
cannot now go in search of the article, thinking it 
sufficient to refer to the Dublin Review in claim of 
priority. I am not in the habit of keeping copies 
of what I consign to the press, which, I own, is 
wrong, and am sometimes made to feel it so. 


St. Augustinus "De Musica" (Vol. v., p. 584.) is 
enumerated as being in vol. i. of the Benedictine 
edition of his Works: 4to. Bassano, 1807. J. M.- 

Giving the Sack (Vol. v., p. 585.). 

" Donner a quelqu'un son sac ; c'est le congeJier 
brusquement, le rnettre dehors, le casser aux gages." 
See Dictionnaire dcs Proverbes, par Quitard : 8vo. Paris, 

In the same work it is said that the origin of the 
phrase was traced by Goropius (who was rather 
fanciful in his etymologies) to the Confusion of 
Tongues at Babel, the word sack being the same in 
all languages : sakkos, Greek ; saccus, Latin ; sakk, 
Gothic ; sac, Anglo-Saxon ; sack, in English, Ger- 
man, Danish, and Dutch ; sacqo, in Italian ; saco, 
in Spanish ; sak, in Hebrew, Chaldee, and Turkish ; 
sac, in Celtic, &c. ; and the reason given by Goro- 
pius for this uniformity is, that when the workmen 
dispersed at Babel, none of them forgot, in going 
away, to take his sack with him. 


Royal Arms in Churches (Vol.v., p. 559.).- 
As these can hardly be intended to excite devo- 
tional feelings, we must imagine them to denote 
the royal supremacy. The origin may of course 
be traced to the Roman eagle placed on the Temple 
at Jerusalem ! A. A. I 

JULY 24. 1852.] 



Meaning of Royd (Vol. v., pp. 489. 571. 620.). 
Not at all differing with your correspondent 
LANCASTRIENSIS in tbe meaning to be applied to 
Eoyd in Huntroyd, &c., as explained, p. 571., I 
must express a doubt if " Ormerod" should be 
referred to " Royd," as the derivative of its last 
syllable. I apprehend od means old, and is now 
pronounced oud, in the East Riding dialect. Thus, 
in the reign of Edward I., two places stood at the 
mouth of the Plumber, spoken of in old charters 
and deeds respectively as " Ravenser" and " Ra- 
venserod," that is, Old Ravenser. I fancy or/, 
affixed to Ormer, means Old Ormer, and not 
Ormer in the clearing. T. THOMPSON. 

Foundation- Stones (Vol. vi., p. 20.). Founda- 
tion of Blackfriar's Bridge, from Noorthouck's 
History of London, 1773, p. 404. : 

" The first stone of the new bridge at Blackfriars 
was laid with great ceremony on the last day of October 
(1760), by the Lord Mayor and Bridge Committee. 
Several gold, silver, and copper coins of the late King 
were deposited under the stone, together with the silver 
medal given to Mr. Mylne by the Roman Academy. 
By order of Common Council, a plate with the follow- 
ing inscription on it was placed there likewise, the 
cla.'sical Latinity of which was much burlesqued by the 
wits at the time : 

* Ultimo die Octobris, Anno ab Incarnatione 

Auspicatissimo principe Georgio Tertio 

Regninn jam ineunte, 
Ponds hujus, in Reipublicae Commodum 

Urbisque Majestatem, 
(Late turn flagrante Bello) 

a S. P. Q, L., suscepti, 

Primum Lapidem Posuit 



Roberto Mylne, Architecto. 
Utque apud posteras extet Monumentum 

Voluntatis suse erga Virum, 

Qui Vigore Ingenii, Animi Constantia, 

Piobitatis et Virtutis suae felici quadam Contagione, 

(favente Deo 

faustisque Georgii secundi auspiciis) 
Imperium Britannicum 


Asia, Africa, et America, 
Restituit, auxit, & stabilivit, 

Nccnon Patrias antiquum Honorem & Auctoritatem 

Inter Europae gentes instauravit, 

Gives Londinenses, uno Conscnsu, 

Huic Ponti inscribi voluerunt nomen 


There is added to the above a translation, which 
you already have. As there is a great probability 
that the present bridge will be taken down, the 
first stone, with the inscription, &c. as above, may 
perhnps be found. E. N. W, 


Meaning of " Whit " (Vol. v., p. 610. ; Vol. vi., 
p. 45.). Your correspondent J. B. COLMAN re- 
peats an error I noticed in an Illustrated Almanack 
a year or two ago. Our forefathers would never 
have been content with the quantity of ale one of 
these small earthen bottles contained. They were 
used for wine. Two exactly alike in form and 
material are now in the Norwich Museum ; one is 
inscribed " WHIT, 1648," and the other " CLARET, 
1648." Another of the same form, but much 
smaller, has "SACK, 1650 "upon it. The larger 
bottles would hold about half a pint, the small one 
about a quarter. HENRY HARROD. 

Plague Stones (Vol.v., p. 571.). On the three 
main roads leading out of Beverley, about a mile 
each from the Minster, are three crosses, each of 
which, according to the reputation of the country- 
people, was erected in the time of the plague, as a 
substitute for the market cross in the town of Be- 
verley ; and tradition states that on market days 
during the plague, the country people brought 
their goods (marked with the price demanded) 
and left them at one or other of those crosses: 
afterwards the townspeople came there, took away 
the goods and left their money in their place, 
which afterwards the owners of the goods came and 
took away; the parties thus never coming into 

Finding this tradition current on three different 
sides of the town, I cannot doubt it being in the 
main correct ; but it is certain those crosses were 
not erected for any such purpose, for from ancient 
documents it is well known they are the boundary 
crosses, showing the limits of the sanctuary for 
criminals belonging to the Church of St. John of 
Beverley in ancient times; and no doubt being 
existing in the times of the plague, formed a very 
convenient point on each road for the sort of fetch 
and carry market above alluded to. May not 
other plague stones also have had their origin 
(since forgotten) prior to the times of the plague, 
their latter use only being remembered ? 



Custom of Cranes in Storms (Vol. v., p. 582. ; 
Vol. vi., p. 31.). The crest of " Cranstoun " is a 
crane, holding a stone in his foot. 







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u When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

IVoL. VI. No. 144.] SATURDAY, JULY 31. 1852. 

("Price Fourp-nce. 
1 Stamped Edition, 


NOTES : Page 

The Electric Telegraph anticipated *- - - 03 

Notes on B,ooks and Bindings - - - - 94 

Meteorological Observations in Greece - - - 95 
A Note upon some recent Corruptions of the English 

Language - - - - - - 95 

Inscription on the Shrine of Edward the Confessor - 96 
Folk Lore : Superstitions of the Higher Classes 

Springs and Wells ..... 96 

Surnames assumed - - . - - 97 
Minor Notes : Chronogram at Winchester Cathedral 

Cardinals in England Robin Hood - 97 

A Riddle - -97 

Was Dante ever at Oxford ? - - ... 93 

Coaches - - - - - . -98 

Minor Queries : Rev. Thomas Watson, of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, London >Vas West the first pre- 
Raphaelite ? Dictionary of Proper Names Inscrip- 
tion on a Bell Benjamin Lincoln of Massachusetts- 
Gregorian Chants Dress of the Clergy Arrange- 
ment of Shakspeare's Plays " Sic transit Gloria 
Mundi " " Jack " Celebrated Trees Wickliffe 
MSS. Moroni's Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots 
Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, 1070 1101 English 
Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth in June, 1559 
English Bishops deprived, Feb. 1. 1691 William 
Stafford Sinking Fund - - _ - 99 

Stone Coffins "Conspicit urbem " Old English 
Names of Flowers Meaning of Slype Hunchback 
styled " My Lord " Boscovich ... 


" Ballad of the Three Sisters " - 
Lambert the " Arch-Rebell," by J. Lewelyn Curtis 
Early Manuscript Emendations of the -Text of Shak- 
speare, by J. Payne Collier .... 
Etymology of the Word " Devil " ... 

Numerous Families, by Philip S. King ... 
"Surnames - _ m 

On a Passage in <; The Merchant of Venice," Act III 

Sc. 2., by Samuel Hickson - . . 1 106 

Replies to Minor Queries : Experto crede Roberto" 
Prielps s Gloucestershire Collect ons Andrew Marvel 
Mexican Grammar Burial without St-rvice The 
True Maiden-hair Fern Royal Arms in Churches 
Governor of St. Christopher in 1662- Reverence to 
the Altar Docking Horses' Tails _ Apple-pie Order 
-Seths Pillars -Paget Family- Dictionnaire Bib- 
licgraplnque- Bund an's Holiday _'< De Laudibus 
Sanctte Crum- - The Woodruff- Hydrophobia- 

-le of Alfred the Grer.t with the Danes, &c. - 107 


- 102 


Notes on Books, &c. - 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents - 


- 113 

- 113 

- 114 

- 114 

VOL. VI. No. 144. 


On looking over the other day some early num- 
bers of The Spectator, my eye rested on a paper 
by Addison, in which he introduces, in his excel- 
lent and playful manner, a quotation from S trad a, 
a learned Italian Jesuit, in one of his Prolusiones 
Academicce; and though, it is true, the story aims at 
nothing farther than a chimerical supposition of 
the instantaneous transmission of thoughts and ivords 
between two individuals, over an indefinite space, 
and which, when Strada wrote and Addison quoted, 
never entered into the minds of either as to its 
almost ultimate realisation; yet, as perhaps there 
may be some persons who may not have particu- 
larly noticed this apparently prophetic forewarning, 
I cannot help thinking that the story is worth re- 
cording in " N. & Q." for the benefit of those who 
have never seen or thought on the subject. It 
should be observed that Strada tells this story 
about 250 years ago, and Addison relates it 140 
years afterwards. 

Addison tells us, in the 241st number of The 
Spectator, that 

" Strada, in one of his Prolusions, gives an account of 
a chimerical correspondence between two friends by the 
help of a certain loadstone, which had such virtue in it, 
that if it touched two several needles, when one of the 
needles so touched began to move, the other, though at 
never so great a distance, moved at the same time and 
in the same manner. He tells us that the two friends 
being each of them possessed of one of these needles, 
made a kind of dial plate, inscribing it with the four- 
and-twenty letters, in the same manner as the hours of 
the day are marked upon the ordinary dial plate. They 
then fixed one of the needles on each of these plates in 
such a manner that it could move round without im- 
pediment, so as to touch any of the four-and-twenty 
letters. Upon their separating from one another into 
distant countries, they agreed to withdraw themselves 
punctually into their closets at a certain hour of the 
day, and to converse with one another by means of this 
their invention. Accordingly, when they were some 
hundred miles asunder, each of them shut himself up in 
his closet at the time appointed, and immediately cast 
his eye upon his dial plate ; if he had a mind to write 
anything to his friend, he directed his needle to every 
letter tliat formed the words which he had occasion for, 



[No. 144. 

making a little pause at the end of every word or sen- 
tence, to avoid confusion. The friend in the mean- 
while saw his own sympathetic needle moving of itself 
to every letter which that of his correspondent pointed 
at. By this means they talked together across a whole 
continent, and conveyed their thoughts to one another 
in an instant over cities, or mountains, seas, or deserts," 

Addison goes on to say, 

" That in the meanwhile, if ever this invention should 
be revived or put in practice, I would propose that 
upon the lover's dial plate there should he written not 
only the four-and-twenty letters, but several entire 
words, which have always a place in passionate epistles, 
as flames, darts, die, language, absence, Cupid, heart, eyes, 
hang, drown, and the like. This would very much 
abridge the lover's pains in this way of writing a letter, 
as it would enable him to express the most useful and 
significant words with a single touch of the needle." 

Now it appears very probable that so close a 
prediction, though taken under a playful and 
falsetto view, might in the darker ages have given 
the character of a prophet to good Mr. Strada, to 
say nothing of our friend Addison, who has thus 
brought the story before our eyes. W. R. 


(A Card to suspend in the Library.') 

1. Never cut up a book with your finger, or 
divide a printed sheet if it be ill folded, or one page 
will rob the other of margin. 

2. Never lend a book without some acknowledg- 
ment from the borrower ; as " I O U. L. S. D. 
* Ten Thousand a Year ' L. L. D." 

3. Never bind a book wet from the press, as it 
cannot with certainty be made solid without risk- 
ing the transfer of ink from one page to the other. 

4. Never compress a book of plates in binding, 
as it injures the texture of the " impressions." 

5. Never brand books in unseemly places, or 
deface them with inappropriate stamps ; for to mar 
the beautiful is to rob after generations. 

6. Never destroy an antique binding, if it be in 
moderate condition ; for no other dress will so well 
suit its complexion. To rebind a rare book, for 
any other purpose than its preservation, is a con- 
ceit. When an old binding has been characteristic, 
let the new one be a restoration. Never^ put 
modern books in antique jackets, or vice versa. 

7. Never destroy old writings or autographs upon 
fly-leaves, or otherwise, unless trivial; nor cast 
away the book-plates of a former owner, for they 
become matters of history, often in themselves ex- 
tremely curious. It is a graceful act on the part 
of a second possessor, in re-binding, to remove the 
arms of the first to the end board of the volume, 
that it may pass down to after ages with their own. 
In destroying old covers take care to examine their 
linings, for on some ancient boards are pasted rare 

leaves, woodcuts, and other matters, of little value 
in their day, but worthy of preservation now. 

8. Never allow the binder (as he is wont) to 
remove the " bastard," or half-title ; for it is a 
part of the book. 

9. Never permit him to place oblong plates in 
ordinary books other than that the inscriptions 
beneath them read from the bottom of the page to 
the top, face they odd or even numbers. 

10. Never bind a Lirge map with a little volume, 
for it will most likely tear away: it also injures 
the solidity of the book. Maps are better separate, 
both for reference and preservation. When a map 
is the size of two pages, it may be guarded at the 
back, so as to form two leaves of the book. Maps 
and plans may be thrown quite out of the volume, 
by affixing them to blank leaves at the end ; the 
student having the whole plan before him during 

11. Never allow sheets to be pierced sideways 
at the back ; serials and pamphlets are much 
damaged by this method : and if a plate be turned 
in binding, the holes appear at the fore-edge. 

12. Never bind up twelve volumes in one ; it is 
bad taste : nor tether a giant quarto to a dwarf 
duodecimo, as they are sure to fall out. 

13. Never permit a volume to be cut down at 
the edges, as it injures its proportion and dete- 
riorates its value. 

14. Never have a book "finished" without the 
date at the tail on the back ; as it will save the 
student much trouble, and the book wear in and 
out of the shelves. 

15. Never have registers or strings in your books 
of reference, as they are apt to tear the leaves. 
Single slips of paper are the best registers, if too 
many be not inserted. 

16. Never destroy all the covers of a serial 
work : if it contain an engraving not to be found 
in the book, bind one in at the eud. It will show 
the method of publication, and prove of interest. 

17. Never in binding patronise "shams" as 
imitation bands and false headbands, spurious 
russia or mock morocco if you desire durability 
and truth. 

18. Never allow books to be near damp, ever so 
little, for they mildew very soon. 

19. Never permit books to be very long in a 
warm, dry place, as they decay in time from that 
cause. Gas affects bindings, and russia leather 
(erroneously supposed to be the strongest) in par- 
ticular. Morocco is the most durable leather. 

20. Never stand books with roughly cut tops 
upon dusty shelves, ns dirt falling upon their ends 
insinuates there. Gilt edges are the most safe, as 
dust may be removed from the metal without 

21. Never put books with clasps or carved sides 
into the shelves ; or they are apt to damage their 
neighbours. Books with raised sides may be kept 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



in the drawers of the library table with glass tops, 
the volumes being visible. Reading cushions pre- 
vent wear and tear of bands. 

22. Never, in reading, fold down the corners of 
the leaves, or wet your fingers ; but pass the fore- 
finger of the right hand from the top of the page to 
the bottom in turning over. 

23. Never permit foreign substances, as crumbs, 
snuff, &<;., to intrude into the backs of your books; 
nor make them a receptacle for botanical speci- 
mens, cards, or a spectacle case, as it is like to 
injure them. 

24. Never pin torn sheets together, or sew them, 
as a little paste and care will join severed edges. 

25. Never leave a book face downwards, on 
pretext of keeping the place ; for if it continue 
long in that position, it will ever after be disposed 
to open at the same page, whether you desire it or 

26. Never stand a book long on the fore-edge, 
or the beautiful bevel at the front may sink in. 

27. Never wrench a book open, if the back be 
stiff, or the edges will resemble steps ever after ; 
but open it gently, a few pages at a time. 

28. Never lift tomes by the boards, but entire, 
or they may fail in the joints. 

29. Never pull books out of the shelves by the 
headbands, nor toast them over the fire, or sit upon 
them; for " Books are kind friends, we benefit by 
their advice, and they exact no confessions." 



Meteorological observations taken at the Ob- 

servatory of Athens (Greece) on the Hill of the 

Nymphs, west of the Acropolis, and at an elevation 

of 120 French metres above the surface of the sea. 

Mean Temperature during the Month of 

January, 1851 





+ 6 Reaumur. 

+ 7 -6 
+ S-8 
+ 12-9 
+ 1 9'9 
+ 21-1 
+ 20'8 
+ 18-4 
+ 14-3 
4- 9 '5 
+ 7-l 

Mean temperature throughout the year -r-13 0< 7 

During winter, Reaumur's thermometer rarely 
falls below 3 ; and during the period of the 
greatest heats of summer, it rises to + 29 in the 
shade ; and to -f 45 in the sun. 

The mean state of the barometer (at a tempera- 
ture of of the mercury) is 753'02 (thousandth 
parts of a metre). The highest and lowest ex- 

tremes observed, are respectively 765-00, and 

Mean degree of humidity 66'67 F. 

The prevailing winds are southerly, north- 
easterly, and north. The latter known as the 
" Etesian winds," during the mouths of June, 
July, and August, come in gusts, and are very 
hot. The rains generally fall in heavy showers (i. e. 
torrents), but they rarely last long. Rain, in 
summer, and snow in winter, are seldom known. 

Thunder and lightning; loud, vivid, but un- 

The sky is generally without clouds ; and in 
winter, very bright. W. W. 

La Valetta, Malta. 


Different to. Things which are unlike were 
formerly considered to differ from each other : 
some recent living authors make them differ to each 
other. Here are some examples of this incorrect 
mode of writing : 

" Who, she foresaw, would regard Mr. Pen's marriage 
in a manner very different to that simple, romantic, 
honest, and utterly absurd way." Pendennis, chap. vii. 

" Helen Pendennis was a country-bred woman ; and 
the book of life, as she interpreted it, told her a different 
story to that page which is read in cities." Ibid. 
chap. vii. 

" How different to Lady Rockingham, who is always 
saying ill-natured things." The Three Paths, vol. i. 
p. 66. 

" In a different sense to that in which our Saviour 
applied it." Ibid. vol. i. p. 144. 

" Appearing under such very different auspices to 
her Jane." Ibid. vol. i. p. 173. 

Directly. This word, and its synonym imme- 
diately, are often used in the sense of as soon as ; 

" And directly (he doctor was gone, Louisa ordered 
fires to be lighted in Mr. Arthur's room." Pendennis, 
chap. xxii. 

Had the writer written " directly after the doc- 
tor was gone," his sentence would have been good 

The Comparative and Superlative Degrees of 
short Adjectives. Many living writers form these 
by using more and most, instead of the terminations 
er and est; for instance : 

" Above all, pray for God's grace, and you will find 
it much more easy to bear what is unpleasant." The 
Two Paths, vol. i. p. 88. 

Easier is good English ; more easy is not 


Philadelphia, Pa., June 15. 1852. 



[No. 144. 




Being in Westminster Abbey last week, in com- 
pany with two ladies, I or rather, we (for I 
know not which of us was foremost in the dis- 
covery) noticed a circumstance of such extreme 
interest, that I shall trouble you with the particu- 
lars of it. 

All round the four sides of the shrine of Edward 
the Confessor, at the height of about seven feet 
from the floor, there runs or rather, there ran 
till lately a modern inscription in gilt letters, on 
a black ground. On the eastern side this inscrip- 
tion has been almost entirely removed, aud the 
hard bed of cement beneath has been brought to 
light, indented, as it seems, with the marks of the 
Byzantine mosaic which may have once adorned 
that part of the shrine. But, besides these traces, 
I noticed other indentations, of quite a different 
character, letters made, as it seemed to me, with 
a flat tool ; and perhaps (indeed, probably) with- 
out any external inscription to correspond. The 
letters are easily decypherable, when once atten- 
tion has been called to them, and are as follows : 


A small quantity of modern plaster conceals the 
first letter, and the last two or three of the inscrip- 
tion. But the first letter can only be a " D." So 
that we do but desiderate the end of the last word, 
in order to know who the " Romanus civis " was, 
who in the year 1269 " duxit in actuin" the shrine 
of Edward the Confessor. 

Between the first " I" and " T" comes an archi- 
tectural ornament ; which recurs between the last 
" S" and the initial " H " of the last word. There 
are also two stops, of a lozenge shape, which 
separate the first, second, third, and fourth words 
of the legend. 

If you will take the trouble to go and examine 
this inscription which I pointed out, by the way, 
to the wondering verger, and which he kept on 
describing " with a difference," in heraldic phrase, 
to every one he met you will easily convince 
yourself that it certainly does not begin on the 
south side of the shrine. Nor, if I am correct in 
supposing that " HO " are the first two letters of 
a proper name, is it likely that it extends any 
further, but is contained entirely on the eastern 
side. J. W. B. 

Houghton Conquest. 

Some notices of this inscription will be found in 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, vol. i. p. 31., edit. 
1826 ; Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, vol. i. p. 5.; and 
Neale's Westminster Abbey, vol. ii. p. 69. It is thought 
by some writers that the artist was Pietro Cavallini.] 


Superstitions of the Higher Classes (Vol. vi., 
p. 6.). As your correspondent W. H. K. sug- 
gests the insertion in " N. & Q." of superstitious 
notions and practices among the higher classes, I 
be<* leave to mention a very superstitious practice 
which I have frequently submitted to when what 
is commonly called a stye in the eye first makes its 
appearance ; viz. drawing a wedding-ring nine 
times across the part affected. This is supposed to 
prevent all further irritation, &c. of the organ in 
question, and, " wonderful to relate," has generally 
proved efficacious. 

I have often wondered why and when this ab- 
surd custom was introduced, when receiving the 
mysterious nine strokes from the maternal ring. 

Springs and Wells (Vol. vi., p. 28.). On this 
part of the coast of Pembrokeshire, between Tenby 
and the entrance to Milford Haven, is a small bay, 
steep in its sides, and so lashed by surf as rarely to 
permit a boat to land. Here is the hermitage (or 
chapel) of St. Gawen, or Goven, in which there is 
a well, the water of which, and the clay near, is 
used for sore eyes. Besides this, a little below the 
chapel, is another well, with steps leading down to 
it, which is visited by persons from distant parts of 
the principality, for the cure of scrofula, paralysis, 
dropsy, and other complaints. Nor is: it the poor 
alone who make this pilgrimage : a case came more 
immediately under my notice, where a lady, a per- 
son of some fortune, having been for some time a 
sufferer from a severe attack of paralysis, which 
prevented her putting her hand in her pocket, 
took up her quarters at a farm-house near the 
well, and after visiting it for some weeks daily, 
returned home perfectly cured. From the cliff 
the descent to the chapel is by fifty -two steps, 
which are said never to appear the same number 
in the ascent ; which might very easily be traced 
to their broken character. The building itself is 
old, about sixteen feet long by eleven wide, hns 
three doors, and a primitive stone altar, under 
which the saint is said to be buried. The roof is 
rudely vaulted, and there is a small belfry, where, 
as tradition says, there was once a silver bell; and 
there is a legend attached, that some Danish or 
French pirates came by night, and having stolen 
the bell from its place, in carrying it down to their 
boat, rested it for a moment on a stone, which im- 
mediately opened and received it. This stone is 
still shown, and emits a metallic sound when struck 
by a stone or other hard substance. One of the 
doors out of the chapel leads by a flight of six 
steps to a recess in the rock, open at the top, on 
one side of which is the Wishing Corner, a fissure 
in the limestone rock, with indentations believed 
to resemble the marks which the ribs of a man 
forced into this nook would make, if the rock were 

fuLT 31. 1852.] 



lay. To this crevice many of the country people 
ay our Saviour fled from the persecutions of the 
Tews. Others deem it more likely that St. Gawen, 
nfluenced by religious mortifications, squeezed 
imself daily into it, as a penance for his transgres- 
ions, until at length the print of the ribs became 
mpressed on the rock. Here the pilgrim, stand- 
ng upon a stone rendered smooth by the operation 
f the feet, is to turn round nine times and wish 
ccording to his fancy. If the saint be propitious, 
be wish will be duly gratified within a year, a 
oonth, and a day. Another marvellous quality of 
be fissure is, that it will receive the largest man, 
nd be only just of sufficient size to receive the 
mallest. This may be accounted for by its pecu- 
ar shape. Perhaps you may deem the above 
r orthy of insertion in " N. & Q.," and it may in- 
terest your correspondent MR. ROBERT RAWLIN- 


Bosherston, Pembroke. 


Surely in a country like this, where such regard 
is paid to male descent, and where the use and 
advantage of hereditary names has been so long 
understood, the custom of assuming, and leaving 
posterity with, the name of a family extinct in the 
male line is a great mistake, and leads to much 
error and confusion : much greater is that of con- 
tinuing the name of a family from whom the 
assiimer does not even descend in the female line ? 

If Burke's Peerage is correct, perhaps no greater 
instance can be pointed out than the name of 
Weliesley ; for though at foot of his account of 
Mornington he calls this family "the Marquis's 
maternal family," yet, from the pedigree, it is clear 
that he does not descend from them. 

Now, if I do not misunderstand Burke, and if 
(as I presume will be the case) Alison's History of 
Europe will be the study of future ages, what will 
readers believe from the following (chap. xlix. 1.) ? 

" The Wcllesleys were an old Saxon family long 
settled in Sussex, and the ancestor of the Irish branch 

had come over with Hen. II. in 1172, &c 

Wellington's elder brother, &c. &c So that one 

family enjoyed the rare felicity of giving birth, &c." 

The natural desire of preserving an old name 
and old arms, might easily be gratified, without 
flying false colours. Thus, in the case noticed, 
Richard Colley, instead of assuming "Wesley," 
:ould have called himself " Richard Wesley Col- 
ley ; " and his descendants have become " Wesley 
Solley." So the Pagets should be " Paget Bayly ;" 
:he Pakington's " Pakington Russell." One of 
rcy noted instances appears under " Fountains : " 
acre an heiress marries a Clent, their heiress mar- 
ics a Price, their heir assumes surname and arms 
)f Fountaine. Now, according to my suggestion 
jmd common sense), the latter, if desirous of pre- 

serving the old name, should have handed down 
the name of Fountaine, Clent, Price, or Fountaine 
Price. In every county, the natives generally 
believe that such families are of the old male blood. 
I am not aware whether the Americans ever 
adopt this false system (probably not) ; but they 
some years since passed an admirable law that no 
firm should trade with the name of extinct part- 
ners. Different families having taken the same 
title, is much less confusing ; though many readers 
probably imagine every Earl of Northumberland 
to have been a Percy, and would be surprised to 
hear that the present Duke is not a male Percy. 

A. C. 

Chronogram at Winchester Cathedral (Vol. v., 
p. 585.). Your correspondent W. A. J. may be 
gratified by becoming acquainted with another 
chronogram existing in Winchester Cathedral, 
being an adaptation of a well-known and beautiful 
passage of Scripture, recording the date and cir- 
cumstances of the construction of the roof on 
which it is inscribed, viz. that which conceals the 
old lantern tower from the choir. It is to this 

S NT DoMVs HViVs." 

And gives the date 1635 thus : 
M =. 1000 
D = 500 

c = 100 

VVVVV = 25 

mmim = 10 



Cardinals in England. " Master Hugh Lati- 
mer " observes in his second sermon before King, 
Edward VI., in reference to Cardinal Beauforr r 
" These Romish hats never brought good into 
England." W. H. L. 

Robin Hood. In Latimer's sixth sermon before 
Edward VI., Latimer tells a story about wishing., 
to preach at a country church, when he found the 
door locked, and the people gone abroad to gather 
for Robin Hood. He then adds, " Under the pre- 
tence of gathering for Robin Hood, a traitor and 
a thief, to put out a preacher." This may corro- 
borate Mr. Hunter's view of that renowned per- 
sonage. W. H. L. 


Having on a former occasion received in your 
pages a satisfactory solution of a Query I for- 
warded to you, 1 am induced to send you the 
following : 



[No. 144. 

I have in my library a folio copy of the Historic 
of the Church, by "the famous and worthy Preacher 
of God's word, Master Patrick Symson, late 
Minister of Stirling in Scotland, 1634." This 
book has formerly been possessed by two individuals 
who have read it with great care, as is evident 
from the numerous annotations with which the 
margin and blank pages are filled. The writers of 
these notes seem, from the character of the hand- 
writing, to have lived, the former about 1650, the 
other a hundred years later. The notes them- 
selves, though generally short, display a very com- 
petent knowledge of classical learning ; quota- 
tions from Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, &c. being 
frequent : but they are chiefly remarkable for 
their anti-papistical and anti-prelatical spirit, 
which would satisfy the most devoted adherent of 
Exeter Hall theology. But among all this abuse 
of Popes and Bishops there occurs, singularly 
enough, the following " Riddle," copied, as I con- 
ceive, from some well-known work then in vogue. 
The Riddle bears the date " Sept. y e 30. 1744 :" 
" Before creating Nature will'd 

That attorns into form should jar, 
The boundless space by me was fill'd, 
On me was built y e first made star. 
For me a Saint will break his word, 
By y e proud Atheist I am rever'd, 
At me the Coward draws his sword, 

And by the Hero I am fear'd. 
Than Wisdom's sacred self I'm wiser, 

And yet by every blockhead known, 
I'm freely given by y e Miser, 
Kept by y e Prodigal alone. 
Scorn'd by y e meek and humble mind, 

But often by y e vain possest, 

Heard by y e deaf, seen by y e blind, 

And to the troubled Conscience rest. 
The King, God bless him, as 'tis said, 

Is seldom with me in a passion, 
Tho' him I often can persuade 

To act against his inclination. 
Deform'd as vice, as virtue fair, 

The Courtier's loss, the Patriot's gains, 
The Poet's purse, the Coxcomb's care, 
Read, you'll have me for your pains." 

The answer, which is plain enough, is then 
given in Greek thus, ovfcv. My Query is, who is 
the author of the foregoing ? I am strongly im- 
pressed that I have seen the riddle before, for its 
language seems familiar to my mind, but I cannot 
recall where. Perhaps some of your correspon- 
dents will kindly inform me. R. BN. 

Ashington Rectory, Sussex. 


Giovanni di Serravalle, prince and bishop of 
Fermo says, in his Latin version of the Divina 
Commedia, that Dante went also to Oxford, to 

pursue his studies in that celebrated school. 
A MS. copy of this version (which has never 
been printed), with a commentary, is in the 
Vatican Library. As Serravalle lived in the 
century in which Dante died, he might have heard 
from some contemporary that Dante had been 
at Oxford ; and in fact, Tiraboschi says it was at 
the request of Cardinal Amadeo di Saluzzo, and 
two English bishops, Nicholas Bubwich, bishop 
of Bath, and Robert Halm, bishop of Salisbury, 
who were at the Council of Constance with Serra- 
valle, that he undertook the translation, and after- 
wards wrote a commentary upon Dante. It is not 
improbable that these English bishops knew that 
Dante had studied at Oxford, and communicated 
the fact to their fellow-bishop at the Council. 
Boccaccio, in the Latin poem which he sent to 
Petrarch, when he presented that poet with a copy 
of the Divina Commedia, states that Dante visited 
Britain. Tiraboschi mentions the statement of 
Serravalle, as deserving of being recorded, but 
seems to doubt the sufficiency of his evidence. 
Dante certainly studied at Paris ; and to a mind 
so eager in the pursuit of all the divine and human 
knowledge of his time, it seems natural that he 
should have been desirous of visiting the great 
rival of Paris, the University of Oxford, then so 
renowned through the fame of Roger Bacon and 
Duns Scotus, not to mention a host of other names, 
of lesser but enduring celebrity. J. M. 


At what period was a regular system of tra- 
velling by public vehicles first established be- 
tween London and the provinces ? when did 
such vehicles first obtain the popular denomina- 
tion of stage-coach ? and when did the practice of 
placing the luggage on the roof, instead of in a 
basket fastened behind, commence ? The incon- 
venience and delay of the latter system gave rise 
to a well-known saying : " If the coach starts at 
six, when starts the basket? " 

Beckman's History of Inventions, vol. i. p. 81., 
edition 1846, gives a detailed history of hackney 
carriages, fiacres, berlins, and cabriolets ; but his 
work has no particulars relative to the establish- 
ment of public vehicles between the metropolis and 
the country. 

The term coach appears to be of modern date. 
In the Hereford Journal of January, 1775, I find 
two advertisements from which it appears that 
stages were then known as machines, which^did not 
ply, but fly on their journeys. If we consider the 
state of the roads, the size of the vehicles, and the 
pace at which they travelled, the word flying (lucus 
a non lucendo) seems singularly inappropriate. 
When travelling by coaches had "reached a state 
of perfection, proprietors modestly announced their 
vehicles to run. 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



1775, Jan. 12: 

In a day and half, twice a week, continues flying 
from the Swan and Falcon in Hereford, Monday anc 
Thursday mornings, and from the Bolt in Tun, Monday 
and Thursday evenings. Fare 1 9 shillings : outsides, 

1775, Jan. 5 : 

" For the conveniency of sending presents at this 
season of the year, and for the quick conveyance of 
Passengers to and from London, 

will begin flying as follows : 

In a day and half, twice a week, sets out from the 
Redstreak-tree Inn in Hereford, Tuesday and Thurs 
day mornings at 7 o'clock ; and from the Swan with 
Two Necks, Lad Lane, London, every Monday and 
Wednesday evenings. Insides, l ; outsides, half 

In 1778 a similar vehicle is styled the diligence: 

3 times a week, 

Leaves at 7 in the morning ; reaches London next day 
to dinner time. 

Fares: l 12s., with 10 Ibs. of luggage." 

W. H. C. 

Rev. Thomas Watson, of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, 
London. The advertisement to the edition of the 
Body of Divinity of this divine (London, printed 
for Thomas Parkhurst, at the Bible and Three 
Crowns, Cheapside, near Mercers' Chapel, 1692), 
occurs the following passage : 

<c There are many single sermons on a variety of 
occasions, as at fasts, thanksgivings, sacrament dis- 
courses, besides several subjects handled in many ser- 
mons on each text of Scripture, left under Mr. Thomas 
Watson's own handwriting: if these find acceptance, 
in due time (after their being perused by some learned 
divine) they may be published." 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." inform me 
if these MSS. be still in existence ? and, if so, where 
are they ? or if any of them have been printed ? 
Also, where can copies be seen, if not purchased, 
of the treatises by this divine enumerated among 
the "Books Wanted" of No. 143. NORTHMAN. 

Was West the first pre-Raphaelite f Can any 
of your contributors inform me whether there is 
any truth in the story, that Benjamin West plucked 
up a pre-Raphaelitish spirit, and determined to 
paint one of his historical pictures (I have heard, 
the Death of Wolfe) with the figures in their pro- 
per costume, and not as ancient Romans, and that 
he was the first heretic in this direction of the 
English painters ? C. G. SMALT. 

Dictionary of Proper Names. I should much 
desire to obtain through your columns some in- 
formation as to whether or not there are any dic- 
tionaries exclusively of proper names. R. C. B. 

Inscription on a Bell. Will any of your readers 
give me the literal reading of the following inscrip- 
tion, which I copied from an old bell some years 

"Henrick*TER*Horst*Me* Fecit* Davetice*1654." 

D. H. E. 

Benjamin Lincoln of Massachusetts. Possibly 
some of the American correspondents of " N". & Q." 
can inform me if Benjamin Lincoln, of Massachu- 
setts, who was appointed a Major- General in the 
American army in 1777, was descended from a 
family named Lincoln, which was resident in North 
Lincolnshire as early as 1461, and as late as 1651. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey. 

Gregorian Chants. Can any of your correspon- 
dents give a real satisfactory answer to the ques- 
tion, What is a Gregorian chant ? Now-a-days 
we are pepetually hearing them talked off, played, 
chanted, but no one seems to know what they are, 
or whence they come. The most definite idea 
any one seems to have is, that they formed portions 
of the liturgy of Gregory the Great : but did he 
compose them? or did he only arrange them? 
Is there any ground for thinking they were known 
to the Jews, and that they are amongst the good 
things we have inherited from them ? or is " the 
glorious and heavenly beauty " of their harmonies 
" the gift of God" to the Christian Church ? 

What were the seven tones which are said to be 
original number ? 

If I am asking too many questions, or such as 
would require too long an answer for your pages, 
and there exists any book which would satisfy me, 
I should be glad to hear of it ; for what 1 want is 
to know all there is known about them, their ori- 
gin, their history, their laws. f 

Papworth St. Agnes. 

Dress of the Clergy. Pray, what was the usual 
dress of our clergy (before the Reformation), when 
they preached, and in their ordinary occupations ? 
From Erasmus we learn that Dr. Colet wore black 
owns, though clergy of his rank generally wore 
yurpura, which probably means scarlet ; and in 
Rome the preachers always wear black, which 
evidently did not come from Geneva. 


Arrangement of Shahspeare's Plays. Is there 
any reason why the plays of Shakspeare are ar- 
ranged as they appear to have been, ever since 
the publication of the first folio ? The division 
;hen adopted, into comedies, histories, and tra- 



[No. 144. 

gedies, is well to be understood ; but it is the 
order in which the several plays are arranged 
under those heads which I cannot understand. 
For instance, the comedies begin with the Tempest, 
which was the last play written by him, namely in 
1612; while among the tragedies nearly the last 
is Titus Andronicus, his first, 1588 (if his at all). 
I have examined all the five first folios (including 
the two-thirds), and find the order in each the 
same, except that the first does not contain Troilus 
and Cressida, which in the second comes in be- 
tween Henry the Eighth and Coriolanus. 

E. N. TV. 

"Sic transit gloria mundi" Can anyone tell 
me from whence this phrase is derived ? R. H. 

11 Jack." It has probably occurred to many 
of your readers that the nickname of Jaclt, as ap- 
plied to John, is peculiarly inappropriate ; the 
term of course is an abbreviation of the French 
Jaques. Can any one inform me at what period, 
and for what reasons, the name of Jack was trans- 
ferred from James to John ? ORILLENNIS. 

Celebrated Trees. 

' Henry VIII. went out with his hounds, and break- 
fasted under a great tree in Epping Forest the very day 
his once-loved wife (Anne Boleyn). was to perish in the 
.Tower." Fisher's Companion to History of England. 
Is this tree known to exist at the present time? 


Wichliffe MSS. Dugdale says that Francis, 
fourth Earl of Bedford, bequeathed to the " Lord 
Burleigh, high treasurer of England, all his ancient 
MSS. of Wickliffe's works." Are these MSS. in 

existence ? 

TV. A. 

Moroni's Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. 
Can any of your correspondents inform me what 
is become of the beautiful full-length portrait of 
Mary Queen of Scots, painted by Moroni just pre- 
vious to her marriage with the Dauphin ? As 
Moroni was a friend of Titian's, and as that great 
artist was in the habit of sending his supernumerary 
sitters to him, it is probably a very superior work 
of art. About thirty years since I believe it was 
in Paris, and was said to have been stolen, during 
the Revolution, from the Trianon. 

Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, 10701101. 
This earl is called nephew of William I. (by whom 
he was created earl), and his sister Maude de 
Abrincis, who married Ralf de Mischines, was 
mother to Ranulph, afterwards Earl of Chester, 
111928. I wish to ascertain who Ralf de Mes- 
chines was, and also through what sister Hugh and 
Maud were nephew and niece to the Conqueror. 
The exact relationship is not given in any work I 
have had access to ; and the only sister recorded is 

Adeliza, married to Odo, Earl of Champagne (who 
was created Earl of Albemarlc by his brother-in- 
law-uterine, and died 1096), and she, with her 
brothers, Robert, Earl of Mortaigne, and Odo, the 
celebrated Bishop of Bayeux, I have always con- 
sidered the sole issue of the Conqueror's mother, 
Arlotta of Falaise, by her husband Odo de Con- 
teville, a Norman knight. William I. was only 
child, and that illegitimate, of Duke Robert of 
Normandy, consequently this other sister, with her 
descendants, Earls of Chester, has always puzzled 
me, and as unfortunately I have not Dugdale, or 
similar works to refer to here, I now throw rny- 
self on your mercy, and trust that some of your 
antiquarian subscribers may enlighten my ig- 
norance. A. S. A, 

English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth, 
in June, 1559. Can any of your ecclesiastica 
readers furnish me with the date and place of 
death, also age if known, and any other brief 
notices, of the following prelates, who were de- 
prived of their sees for refusing to take the " oath 
of supremacy" to Queen Elizabeth: viz. John 
White, Bishop of Winchester; Owen Oglethorpe, 
Bishop of Carlisle ; Cuthbert Scott, Bishop of Ches- 
ter; James Turberville, Bishop of Exeter; Thomas 
Reynolds, Bishop elect of Hereford ; Ralph Bayne^ 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry ; Francis Mallet t 
Bishop elect of Salisbury ; Thomas Goldwell, Bi- 
shop of St. Asaph ; Henry Morgan, Bishop of St. 
Davids ; and Richard Pate, Bishop of Worcester ? 
Of the following I possess some scanty notitia, 
but should like to obtain further information as to 
their place of death, age, and exact date (of month, 
even) : of Archbishop Heath of York, and Bishops 
Bourne of Bath and Wells, Pole of Peterborough, 
and Watson of Lincoln. Regarding the last, I 
have both 1582 and 1584 as date of death, the 
place Wisbech Castle, Cambridgeshire, and he is 
called "the last of the diocesan Catholic bishops in 
England ;" yet I find Bishop Thomas Goldwell of 
St. Asaph mentioned in 1584 as being then alive 
at Rome, and " Suffragan to Cardinal Savellr, 
Vicegerent of Rome," under Pope Gregory XIII. 
Perhaps both these bishops, Watson and Goldwell, 
died in the same year, 1584. The latter is also 
mentioned as having been present at the Council 
of Trent, among the " Bishops of Pope Paul IV. ;" 
and in the records of that council he is styled, 
" Th. Goduellus : anglus : episc : Asaphen," being 
the only English prelate present there, with the 
exception of Cardinal Reginald Pole. A. S. A. 

English Bishops deprived, Feb. 1. 1691. Si- 
milar information regarding Bishops Ken of Bath 
and Wells, Turner of Ely, Frampton of Gloucester, 
Lloyd of Norwich, and White of Peterborough ? 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



This is doubtless information easily procurable ; but 
I fear that respecting the Marian Bishops, my 
Queries will not be all answered fully, if indeed at 
all. A. S. A. 


William Stafford. Perhaps some of your ge- 
nealogical readers may be able to supply inform- 
ation respecting William Stafford, Esq., who mar- 
ried Elizabeth/ daughter of Sir Richard Guldeford, 
K. G., of Kent, and widow of Thomas Isley, Esq., 
of the same county. The third husband of this 
lady was Sir Richard Shirley, of Sussex. Thomas 
Isley died 8th February, 1518, but when Stafford 
and Shirley, I am unable to say. 

There was a William Stafford, Esq., who on the 
25th September, 1 Henry VII. 1485, was appointed 
by patent keeper of the exchange within the 
Tower of London, keeper of the coinage of gold 
and silver within the said Tower, and elsewhere 
within the realm of England. (Vide Harl. MS. 
98. f. 70.) 

Agnes, daughter of the above Thomas and Eliza- 
beth Isley, married to her second husband Sir 
Francis Sydney, Lieutenant of the Tower, and a 
younger son of Nicholas Sydney, Esq., ancestor of 
the Sydneys of Penshurst. Can any one inform 
me when he died ? G. STEINMAN STEINMAN. 

Sinking Fund. 

" Hence the sinking fund has been a costly, as well 
as a most delusive, piece of quackery. The loss it 
entailed on the country during the war has been esti- 
mated, apparently on reasonable grounds, at above 
00,0007." M'Culloch, Brit. Empire, ii. 427. 

" In 1813 it was producing more than half the in- 
terest of the debt, and, if it had been let alone, would 
have extinguished the whole debt existing at the end 
of the war, before the year 1840." Alison's History 
of Europe, chap, xxxvi. 93. 

Will some correspondent inform me which of 
these stated facts is true ? A. C 

TheBoirdPig:'.W*9 the poem called The 
Boil'dPig" ever printed, and who was the author 
<>f it ? It used to be recited as a speech at Harrow 
School, half a century ago. JACK. 

This poem, we believe, was privately printed about 
thirty years ago, by Thomas Jonathan Wooler, the 
editor of the Slack Dwarf, in a small collection of 
poems for distribution among his friends.] 

Stone Coffins. Where can I obtain information 
as to the history of stone coffins ? Is there any 
work on the subject ? J. LARCOIUBE. 

[Consult Cough's Sepulchral Monuments in Great 
Britain, Part I.; also the Indices to the Archaologia, 
for various papers on this subject.] 

" Conspicit urbem" Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me who is the author of the fol- 
lowing quotation ? 

" Conspicit urbem, 

Divitiis, opibus, et festa pace revirens ; 

Vixque tenet lacrymas, quia nil lacrymabile videt." 

I give it as it was very happily quoted in a colo- 
nial legislature, by a well read man *, who was, 
however, ignorant where it came from. It cannot 
be quite correct, as the prosody is faulty. S. N. 

[The passage occurs in Ovid, Metamorph., lib. ii. 
v. 794. : 

" Conspicit arcem, 

Ingeniis, opibusque, et festa pace virentem : 
Vixque tenet lacrymas : quia nil lacrymabile cernit."] 

Old English Names of Flowers. Is there any 
book on natural history from which I could make 
myself acquainted with the old familiar English 
names of plants and wild flowers ? C. G. S. 

[The names will be found in any of the old Herbals: 
but, perhaps, the best to consult is, The Herbal of 
William Turner, in Three Parts, lately gathered, and now 
set oute with the names of the Herbes, in Greek, Latin, 
English, Dutch, French, and in the Apothecaries and 
Herbaries Latin, with the Properties, Degrees, and 
habitual Places of the same. Collen, 1568. fol.] 

Meaning of Slype. I shall be glad if any of 
your correspondents can inform me of the meaning 
of the term slype^ applied to a passage pierced 
through the buttress at the S. W. corner of the 
south aisle of Winchester Cathedral ; and also of 
the real purport of an inscription on one of the 
walls of the " slype " to this effect : 

QVA FAS. 1632. 


TKe popular account refers it to a time antecedent 
to the piercing of the buttress, when the road to 
the market-place lay through the nave of the ca- 
thedral. The difficulty consists in its application 
to such a state of things. Could it be referred to 
the same date as the cutting of the "slype," it 
would be more intelligible. G. H. 

[Britton, in his Architectural Dictionary, says, " A 
Slyp is a passage between two walls." Milner states, 
that "in 1G32, when Curie was bishop of Winchester, 
it being judged indecent that the church should be left 
open as a common thoroughfare into the close and the 
southern suburbs of the city, the passage called the 
Slype was opened, where certain houses had stood, and 

* Sir H. E. F. Young, now Governor of South 



[No. 144. 

also under the south wall of the cathedral, not, however, 
without perforating the great buttress on that side." 
This event is commemorated by the anagram quoted 
above, and in " N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 150. See Mil- 
ner's Survey of Winchester, vol. ii. p. 89.] 

Hunchback styled "My Lord" Why is a hunch- 
back called " My Lord." J. BEATELEY. 

[Grose states that " in the British Apollo it is said, 
that the title of Lord ' was first given to deformed per- 
sons in the reign of Richard III., from several persons 
labouring under that misfortune being created peers by 
him ; but it is more probably derived from the Greek 
word AopSos, crooked." Classical Dictionary of the 
Vulgar Tongue.] 

BoscovicJi. What is the title of the work in 
which this philosopher impugned the doctrine of 
matter and substituted that of forces, or points of 
repulsion? This is not meant for a correct ac- 
count of his philosophy, but merely an inquiry 
after the book. A. N. 

[Philosophies Naturalis Theoria, 4to, 1759. For an 
account of the system developed in this work, see the 
article " Physics " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica.] 


(Vol. v., pp. 316. 591.) 

The following Lancashire ballad, although quite 
different in its termination and story from those 
given by your correspondents, has not only similar 
circumstances, but begins in very nearly the same 
words. I suspect it to be the oldest of the several 
versions. It is supposed to be sung by the second 
sister : 

There was a King of the north countree, 

Bow down, bow down, bow down ! 
There was a King of the north countree, 
And he had daughters one, two, three. 

I'll be true to my love, and my love '11 be 

true to me ! 
To the eldest he gave a beavor hat, 

Bow down, &c. 
To the eldest, &c. 
And the youngest she thought much of that. 

I'll be true, &c. 
To the youngest he gave a gay gold chain, 

Bow down, &c. 
To the youngest, &c. 
And the eldest she thought much of the same. 

I'll be true, &c. 
These sisters were walking on the bryn [shore], 

Bow down, &c. 
These sisters, &c. 
And the elder pushed the younger in. 

I'll be true, &c. 

Oh, sister ! oh, sister ! oh, lend me your hand ! 

Bow down, &c. 
Oh, sister ! &c. 
And I will give you both houses and land. 

I'll be true, c. 
I'll neither give you my hand nor glove, 

Bow down, &c. 
I'll neither, &c. 
Unless you give me your true love. 

I'll be true, &c. 
Away she sank, away she swam, 

Bow down, &c. 
Away, &c. 
Until she came to a miller's dam. 

I'll be true, &c. 
The miller and daughter stood at the door, 

Bow down, &c. 
The miller, &c. 
And watched her floating down the shore. 

I'll be true, &c. 
Oh, father ! oh, father ! I see a white swan, ] 

Bow down, &c. 
Oh, father ! &c. 
Or else it is a fair wo-man. 

I'll be true, &c. 
The miller he took up his long crook, 

Bow down, &c. 
The miller, &c. 
And the maiden up from the stream he took. 

I'll be true, &c. 
I'll give to thee this gay gold chain, 

Bow down, &c. 
I'll give to thee, &c. 
If you'll take me back to my father again. 

I'll be true, &c. 
The~miller he took the gay gold chain, 

Bow down, &c. 
The miller he took, &c. 
And he pushed her into the water again. 

I'll be true, &c. 
The miller was hanged on his high gate,, 

Bow down, &c. 
The miller was hanged, &c. 
For drowning our poor sister Kate. 

I'll be true, &c. 
The cat's behind the buttery shelf, 

Bow down, &c. 

The cat's behind the buttery shelf; 
If you want any more, you may sing it yourself f 
I'll be true to my love, and my love '11 be 

true to me ! 

It will be remembered that MR. HALLIWELL 
gives a nursery rhyme, 

" John Cook had a little grey mare," &c. 
Which ends, 

" The bridle and saddle were laid on the shelf, 

He, haw, hum. 

If you want any more, you may sing it yourself, 
He, haw, hum." 


JULY 31. 1852.] 




(Vol. iv., p. 339.) 

Myles Halhead, as member of the Society of 
Friends, being at Plymouth in the year 1673, 
conceived that it was his duty to pay a visit to 
Lambert, who was then a prisoner on the island of 
St. Nicholas in Plymouth Sound. Myles' own 
account of this visit and of his conversation with 
Lambert may interest the readers of " N. & Q.," 
not only inasmuch as it illustrates the valuable 
Note made by MR. RICHARD JOHN KING, but also 
because it places the character of the unfortunate 
old general in a favorable light. The account 
runs thus : 

" So I went to a Friend to desire him to procure a 
vessel that I might pass over to a little island near the 
King's great fort in Plymouth, that I might speak to 
John Lambert, who was a prisoner in that island, and 
a vessel we procured and passed to the island the same 
day, and there we found a strong guard of soldiers. 
A lieutenant asked me, What was my business to the 
island? I said I desire to speak to John Lambert: 
and then he asked me, If I was ever a captain under 
his command? And I said, No. The soldiers were 
very quiet and moderate : I desired the lieutenant to 
bring me to John Lambert ; and so he did ; and when 
I came before him I said, Friend, is thy name John 
Lambert? And he said, Yea : then said I unto him, 
Friend, I pray thee hear what the servant of the Lord 
hath to say to thee. 

" Friend, the Lord God made use of thee and others 
for the deliverance of His people ; and when you cryed 
to Him He delivered you in your distresses, as at Dun- 
bar and other places, and gave you an opportunity into 
your hands to do good, and you promised what great 
things you would do for the Lord's people ; but truly 
John Lambert you soon forget your promises you 
made to the Lord in that day and time of your great 
distress, and turned the edge of your sword against the 
Lord's servants and hand-maids whom He sent forth to 
declare His eternal truth ; and made laws, and con- 
sented to laws, and suffered and permitted laws to be 
made against the Lord's people. 

" Then John Lambert answered and said, Friend, I 
would have you to know, that some of us never made nor 
consented to laws to persecute you nor none of your friends, 
for persecution we ever were against. 

" I answered and said, John Lambert, it may be so; 
but the Scripture of truth is fulfilled by the best of 
ycu ; for although that thee and some others have not 
given your consent to make laws against the Lord's 
people, yet ye suffered and permitted it to be made 
and done by others ; and when power and authority 
was in your hands, you might but have spoken the 
word and the servants and hand-maids of the Lord 
might have been delivered out of the devourer's hands; 
but none was found amongst you that would be seen to 
plead the cause of the innocent , so the Lord God of life 
was grieved with you, because you sleighted the Lord 
and His servants, and began to set up your self-interest, 
and lay field to field, and house to house, and make 
your names great in the earth ; then the Lord took 

away your power and authority, your manhood and 
your boldness, and caused you to flee before your 
enemies, and your hearts fainted for fear, and some 
ended their days in grief and sorrow, and some lie in 
holes and caves to this day ; so the Lord God of 
Heaven and Earth will give a just reward to every one 
according to his works : so my dear Friend, prize the 
great love of God to thee, who hath not given thy life 
into the hands of the devourers, but hath given thee 
thy life for a prey, and time to prepare thyself, that 
thou mayst end thy days in peace .... 

Glory and honour, and living eternal praises be given 
and returned to the Lord God and the Lamb for ever. 

" So when I had cleared myself, he desired me to 
sit down, and so I did ; and he called for beer, and 
gave me to drink ; and when he had done, he said to 
me, Friend, I do believe thou speakest to me in love, 
and so I take it. Then he asked me, If I was at 
Dunbar fight ? I answered, No. Then he said to me, 
How do you know what great danger we were in at 
that time ? I answered, A little time after the fight 
I came that way and laid me down on the side of the 
mountain for the space of two hours, and viewed the 
town of Dunbar and the ground about it, where the 
English army lay ; how the great ocean sea was on the 
one hand of them, and the hills and mountains on the 
other hand, and the great Scotch army before and 
behind them : then I took it into a serious considera- 
tion the great danger the English were in, and thought 
within myself, how greatly Englishmen were engaged 
to the great Lord of life for their deliverance, to serve 
Him in truth and uprightness of heart all the days of 
their appointed time. Truly, John, I never saw thy 
face before that I knew thee, although I have been 
brought before many of our English commanders in 
the time of Oliver Cromwell. 

" Then John said, I pray you what commanders did 
you know ? I knew Fleetwood, and have been before 
him when he was deputy in Ireland, and I knew 
General Disborrow, and have often been before him ; 
and I knew Collonel Phenick, and hath been before 
him wlien he was governour of Edenbrough and the 
town of Leeth, in Scotland, and many more. 

" John Lambert said, I knew the most of these men 
to be very moderate, and ever were against persecution. 

'* And I said, Indeed they were very moderate, and 
would not be much seen to persecute or be severe with 
the Lord's people : but truly John, they could suffer 
and permit others to do it, and took little notice of the 
suffering of the people of God ; so none were found to 
plead our cause, but the Lord God of life and love. 
Glory be given and returned to His name for evermore. 

" Then Lambert answered and said, Altho' you and 
your friends suffered persecution, and some hardship 
in that time, your cause therein is never the worse for 
that. I answered and said, That was very true, but 
let me tell thee John, in the plainness of my heart, 
that's no thank to you, but glory to the Lord for ever. 

" So he, and his wife, and two of his daughters, and 
myself, and a Friend of Plimouth, discoursed two 
hours or more in love and plainness of heart; for my 
heart was full of love to him, his wife, and children ; and 
when I was free, I took my leave of them, and parted 



[No. 144. 

with them in love." Sufferings and Passages of Myles 
Hothead, 1690. 

It is not easy to understand Myles' assertion 
that " none was found amongst you that would be 
,seen to plead the cause of the innocent :" for it 
must be acknowledged to the credit of the parlia- 
mentarians, that several of their leading men did 
sometimes interfere openly and successfully to 
.restrain the persecution which the early "Friends" 
Continually drew upon themselves by their bold 
.and frequent denunciations of a hireling clergy, 
sometimes uttered in the market-place, sometimes 
in the very parish church. 

William Penn gratefully records 

li the tender and singular indulgence of Judge 
Biadshaw and Judge Fell . . . . . 
especially Judge Fell, who was not only a check to 
their [the clergy's] rage in the course of legal proceed- 
ings, but otherwise upon occasion, and finally coun- 
tenanced this people ; for his wife receiving the truth 
with the first, it had that influence upon his spirit, 
"being a just and wise man, and seeing in his own wife and 
family a full confutation to all the popular clamours 
against the way of truth, that he covered them what he 
could, and freely opened his doors and gave up his 
house to his wife and her Friends." 

George Fox also mentions that 

" the said Judge Fell was very serviceable in his day 
and time, to stop the rage of the priests, justices, and 
rude multitude." 

And he relates further that, upon one occasion in 
the year 1652, when 

" Many priests appeared against me and Friends ; 
Judge Fell, and Justice West, stood up nobly for us 
and the truth ; and our adversaries were confounded ; 
so that he was as a wall for God's people against them. 
And afterwards he came to see beyond the priests, and 
at his latter end seldom went to hear them in that 
[Ulverston] parish." 

Moreover the Protector himself, on being in- 
formed in the year 1656 that George Fox, and 
others, were ill-used in Cornwall, sent down an 
order to the governour of Pendeimis Castle to 
examine the matter ; and Fox says : 

" This was of great service in the country : for after- 
wards Friends might have spoken in any market-place 
or steeple- house thereabouts, and none would meddle 
with them." 

To this may be added, that after the deaths of the 
lord president Bradshaw, Judge Fell, and Oliver 
Cromwell, the soldiers being rude and troublesome 
at Friends' meetings, General Monk gave forth an 
order, dated 9th March, 1659, requiring 
" All officers and soldiers to forbear to disturb the 
peaceable meetings of the Quakers, they doing nothing 
prejudicial to the parliament or commonwealth." 



(Vol. vi., p. 59.) 

In my turn I am rather surprised at the surprise 
expressed by your Leeds correspondent, A. E. B., 
that I have not yet answered " Mr. Lettsom's 
question," addressed "directly" to me in the 
Athenceum of the 17th April last. I find no 
question addressed "directly" to me there, but 
merely a speculative inquiry in this form : " If MR. 
COLLIER'S copy reads guiled, the different copies of 
the second folio vary among themselves; if it reads 
guilded, not merely MR. HALLIWELL'S argument 
falls to the ground, but we have an additional 
reason," &c. Owing to an accident, I did not see 
Mr. Lettsom's paper on Mr. Walker's emendations 
until some time after it was published, and I cer- 
tainly did not understand him to put any direct 
question to me, whether my copy of the folio 1632 
read guiled or guilded, in the place referred to in 
The Merchant of Venice, more especially as I had 
said in my letter in the Athenceum, on the passage 
regarding " an Indian beauty," that in the folio 
1623 the word was 'guiled, and in the folio 1632 
guilded. Moreover, I said that in my folio, 1632, 
guilded was altered to gulling, a circumstance that 
by no means satisfies me (as I stated) that Shak- 
speare's word was not guiled, as we find it in the 
folio 1623. At the same time, guiling, in the sense 
of beguiling, appears to me preferable in some 
points of view to guiled, and it might seem so, par- 
ticularly to more modern ears than those our great 
dramatist addressed. 

Your correspondent A. E. B. will see, therefore, 
that I gave no hint that my copy of the folio, 1632, 
read, unlike others, guiled instead of guilded, and 
all the copies of that edition I have ever seen have 
uniformly guilded and not guiled. If I have been 
guilty of any want of courtesy in not taking Mr. 
Lettsom's language to mean a direct question, I 
assure him and A. E. B. that I never meant it. In 
my copy of the folio 1632, guilded is altered in 
manuscript to guiling, by striking out the three 
last letters and inserting three others in the 
margin. Whether this change make for or against 
the supposition that other emendations in my folio 
1632 are conjectural, I do not pretend to decide; 
I dare say there are many such : some that I could 
readily point out, and that will be found pointed 
out in my forthcoming volume, bear that aspect ; 
others confirm in a remarkable manner the spe- 
culative proposals of Theobald, Pope, &c., but the 
great majority are not only entirely new, but, 
as I think, self-evident. It is astonishing that 
during the last century and a half (to go no farther 
back) these plays should have passed through so 
many hands, not a few of them the most acute 
critics of any age, and yet the strangest blunders 
remain undetected. If the corrections in the copy 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



of the folio 1632, now lying before me, be the re- 
sult of mere guess-work, the person who made 
them has displayed a degree of sagacity superior 
to that of all the commentators put together. 

Although I am so far anticipating my book, I 
cannot refrain from taking an instance from a page 
of my folio, 1632, that happens to lie open. The 
play is Coriolanus, and in Act I. Sc. 4. the hero 
thus addresses the cowardly Romans who had been 
beaten back to their trenches ; I quote from the 
Variorum edition, from which my own does not 
differ, excepting in a letter and a point : 
" All the contagion of the south light on you, 

You shames of Rome ! you herd of boils and 


Plaster you o'er ; that you may be abhorr'd 

Farther than seen, and one infect another 

Against the wind a mile." 

Here the difficulty has arisen out of the words, 

" You herd of boils and plagues 

Plaster you o'er ; " 

And it is to be observed that in the first and 
second folios the spelling is " You Heard of Byles 
and Plagues," without any line between "of" and 
" byles, " which line was introduced by Malone, in 
order to show that the sentence was broken and 
interrupted by the impetuosity of the speaker. 
"This passage (says Malone), like almost every 
other abrupt sentence in these plays, was rendered 
unintelligible in the old copy by inaccurate punc- 
tuation." Thence he proceeds to attempt to es- 
tablish that the poet applies the word "herd" to 
the soldiery ; in fact, from the first this passage has 
been a stumbling-block, although Howe repre- 
sented " herd " as applying to " boils and plagues," 
printing it, however, in the plural. Now, see how 
easily and naturally the old corrector of my folio 
1632 makes the passage run, by remedying a com- 
paratively small misprint : 
' All the contagion of the south light on you, 
You shames of Rome ! unheard of boils and plagues 
Plaster you o'er," &c. 

This must be right : how the egregious error of 
the press came to be committed, or in what way 
the corrector arrived at the knowledge of it, 
whether by guess or otherwise, we are without in- 
formation, and must remain so, being content that 
the strange blunder has been detected, and that 
the text of Shakspeare will not hereafter be thus 
disfigured. As we are not yet able to authenticate 
the new readings in any other way than by the 
evidence they themselves carry about them, it 
seems to me that the setting right of such compa- 
tiyely small, but still highly important, errors, 
that above pointed out, warrants us in givin" 
considerable credence to more extensive char-gel 
and additions which are elsewhere contained in my 
I have an inquiry to make respecting real or 

supposed variations between different copies of the 
folio 1632, because I have discovered that mine, 
in two not unimportant passages, is unlike others 
that I have seen. This inquiry I will reserve 
until next week. Everybody is aware that copies 
of the folio 1623 in particular places vary ma- 
terially, and it may be the same with copies of the 
folio 1632. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

July 25. 1852. 


(Vol. v., pp. 508. 595. ; Vol. vi., p. 59.) 

As you have allowed MR. LITTLEDALE to expa- 
tiate so largely on his most absurd (as I think it) 
speculation on this point, and as you have also 
allowed him to say that / had been so disrespect 
ful to you and your readers, as to have attempted 
" to answer what I had not so much as read," I 
trust you will allow me to state my share of this 

MR. LITTLEDALE chose to assert that the "usual 
etymology of Devil, from Aia/3o\os, could not be 
accurate ; because the Hebrew word translated 
A(3#oA.os, meant adversarius, an adversary : " to 
which I replied that "I thought the Hebrew- 
words representing both &.id&o\os and adversarius, 
was rather a confirmation of the old derivation. 
Had MR. LITTLEDALE forgotten that * the adver- 
sary ' is often technically used for ' the Devil.' " 

To this remark MR. LITTLEDALE makes no other 
answer, than that " / had not read his arguments ;" 
and he does not, in the three columns of his 
rejoinders, make the slightest allusion to his original 
thesis that is, his original blunder about "the 
adversary." It appears then that I had not only 
read his argument, but demolished it ; for he has 
dropped it altogether, and galloped off in another 
direction; discharging upon us, as a Parthian 
shaft, a repetition of the question "what is the 
etymology of the word Devil?" to which I shall 
only reply by the old phrase, "Aut Diabolus, 
aut ;" leaving MR. LITTLEDALE, when he gets 
back to his books, to make a better guess at 
filling the blank than such "fancy etymology" as 
he is now puzzling himself with. C. 

The Devil and Mr. Litdedale. Perhaps your 
correspondent may not have met with the follow- 
ing speculations on a subject to which he appears 
to have devoted no ordinary research ? 

" Appel, abel, afel, is common to the Saxon, Danish* 
and other northern languages, and by universal consent 
hath been appropriated to particularise the forbidden 
fruit. Abel, or as the Hebrews soften it, avel, signifies 
sorrow, mourning, and woe ; and it is exactly agreeable 
to the figurativeness of that language to transfer the 
word to the fruit. Our English-Saxon word evil 
seems to spring from the same source, and a doer of 
evil is contracted into devil. Malum, to signify an 



[No. 144. 

apple, may possibly have been received into the Latin 
tongue from the like cause." Nicholson and Burn's 
Westmoreland, quoted in Southey's Commonplace Hook, 
vol. ii. 

This appears an uncommonly original view of the 
apple ; I trust MR. LITTLEDALE will endeavour to 
swallow and digest it ! A. A. D. 


(Vol. v., pp. 357. 548. &c.) 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for December, 
1837, is a letter from Dr. Bathurst, Bishop of 
Norwich, in which he says :, 

" My father was the youngest brother of the first 
Lord Bathurst : he had thirty-six children, of whom I 
was the twenty-fifth." 

C. DE D. 

I latterly made a Note of the following para- 
graph : 

" At the back of the cellar of Lincoln Cathedral 
lies the body of Michael Honeywood, one of 367 
persons, whom Mary, wife of the late Robert 
Honeywood of Kent, ancestor of the late M. P. for the 
county, lived to see lawfully descended from her, viz. : 
16 of her own body, 114 grandchildren, 228 great, 
grandchildren. In all, 367 persons; 313 of whom 
followed her to the grave." 

Can any of your correspondents supply any 
information respecting this statement, for, singu- 
larly enough, a similar case is mentioned in a late 
Paris paper (Siecle of May 11. 1852), wherein the 
numbers mentioned are exactly the same as those 
above alluded to ; indeed, they are more correct, 
for, " according to Cocker," the three numbers 16, 
114, and 228 do not make up the total of 367 ; it 
requires the nine great-great-grandchildren to 
complete it. The French paragraph runs thus : 

" L'extrait suivant d'une cpitaphe que Ton peut lire 

dans le cimetiere de C constate un fait assez rare 

pour devenir 1'objet d'un souvenir particulier : 

" Ci-git Dame, &c. 
(Suivent les noms & qualites.) 

Elle avait a sa mort, 

Trois cent soixante-sept enfans, 

Provenant de son legitime mariage 

Avec Monsieur X , &c. 

Elle etait mere de - 16 enfans. 
Grandmere de - - 114 
Bisaieule de - - 228 
Trisaieulede - 9 

Lignee Sgale - 367 enfans." 

Unfortunately, the names of the place and of 
the persons themselves are not here given. 



(Vol. v., passim.} 

Many observations have been made about sur- 
names in " N. & Q." lately, but I have not seen 
any doubt expressed as to which of a man's names 
the word applies to. Contrary, however, to the 
use of the word which prevails elsewhere, I find 
Bishop Nicholson, in his Exposition of the Cate- 
chism, takes it to be the same as the Christian 
name. He says (p. 8., Angl. Cath. edit.) : 

" Every Christian bearing two names ; the one of 
nature, which is the name of his house, family, or kin- 
dred, and this he brings into the world with him ; the 
other of grace, of favour, being his sirname, that is over 
and above added unto him." 

On this the editor has a note, in which he quotes 
Skinner as saying, 

*' Surname, q. d. supernomen, i. e. nomen addititium, 
scilicet respectu nominis baptismo inditi." 

But this agrees with common usage ; so also, in 
the folio Johnson's Dictionary, "surname" is de- 
fined to be 

" The name of the family ; the name which one has 
over and above the Christian name." 

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents 
who will explain Nicholson's peculiar use of the 
word. F. A, 

Every one is aware of the whimsical causes of 
many surnames. They frequently were due to 
some striking circumstance in the lives of the 
first bearers of them, but still much more often 
to personal or habitual peculiarities ; and this was 
at no period so common as between the age of 
Charlemagne and the Crusades. In the history of 
France we ,fiiid, " Charlemagne avait donne 
1'Aquitaine, avec le titre de roi, a son fils Louis, 
sous la tutelle de Guillaume au Court Nez, due de 
Voulcuse." Now, who knows but that the great 
French family of the Courtenays, the Greek em- 
perors of that name, and the illustrious Courtenays 
of Devonshire, may owe their name to this defi- 
ciency of nose in William of Toulouse ? Though 
he does not pretend to get at the root, Gibbon 
only traces the family to 1020, when it was esta- 
blished at Courtenay : but the sobriquet was given 
about 790, and might have conferred a name upon 
the castle William inhabited, and from that the 
country round it. SHORTNOSE.. 

ACT III. SC. 2. 

(Vol. v., p. 605.) 

There are two points in MR. SINGER'S remarks 
on the above-named passage that call for some 
notice, and to which, with your permission, I 
will briefly refer. First, I should like to ask him 
if, on consideration, he thinks that "gilded shore "" 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



gives any meaning whatever? In asking this 
question, I know that he will not plead the bold 
sweep of the master's hand, or the magician's wand 
to make sense of nonsense, or to justify bad logic 
He thinks with me that Shakspeare "needs no 
defence," and therefore I appeal to him with con- 
fidence. " Gilded " then is not an epithet in any 
way applicable to " shore : " the sense clearly re- 
quired is deceitful; "in a word, the seeming truth 
which cunning times put on to entrap the wisest:" 
all showing that guile was meant, whether expressed 
or not. Observe, too, that this passage is but an 
illustration ; and an illustration must be true in 
itself, or you can draw no just comparison. The 
gilding of the casket might deceive Bassanio ; a 
gilded shore was not likely to deceive any one : 
and admitting the expression to be allowable, the 
illustration would be weaker than the subject 

In the second place, I should ask MR. SINGER 
with some confidence if, supposing the word in 
place of " beauty " to be correctly " gipsy," and 
the word in doubt had been the epithet, he would 
have adopted the suggestion of Indian as one at all 
appropriate, adding/brce to the subject (in which 
case only would an epithet be allowable), or at all 
likely to have been used by Shakspeare. The term 
gipsy is not applied depreciatingly to Cleopatra. 
Indian, on the other hand, was much less suscept- 
ible of association with beauty than now. Indeed 
I think A. E. B.'s remarks are so just that they 
must go far to decide the question in favour of the 
oldest reading ; " beauty," as he so clearly points 
o^ut, implying sex, and the expression meaning 
simply, "a woman who would be considered a 
beauty among Indians." 

I quite agree with MR. SINGER in the substitu- 
tion of "stale" for "pale;" and I will take the 
occasion to remark that as, in his opinion, there are 
in Shakspeare at least two instances of this parti- 
cular error, I think it strengthens the case in favour 
of the unintelligible word "prenzie" being also a 
misprint for a word beginning with the letter " s." 


Experto crede Roberto (Vol. iii., p. 353.). Dr. 
John Prideaux, Rector of Exeter College (1612 
1642), appears during these years to have lost 
three sons. On the gravestone of the second, in 
the chapel of the college, was inscribed the follow- 
ing epitaph : 

" Quam subito, quam certo, experto crede, ROBERTO 
PRIDEAUX, fratri Matthiae minori, qui veneno infeliciter 
comesto, intra decem horas misere expiravit, Sept. 14. 

Is it possible that the words experto crede Ro- 
berto (especially when connected with the unhappy 
death of the poor boy above-mentioned) became a 

familiar phrase with the Oxford men of that ge- 
neration, and has thus been transmitted to the 
present day ? 

When Dr. Prideaux, afterwards Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinity, and Bishop of Worcester, was a 
very young man, he was a candidate, being of 
humble origin, for the place of parish clerk of the 
church of Ugborow, near Hereford ; but which he 
lost, as he says, to "his very great grief and trouble." 
The reflection which he afterwards made, " If I 
could have been clerk of Ugborow, I had never 
been Bishop of Worcester," may be no useless 
lesson to those who are disposed to repine under 
early disappointments. J. H. M 

Phelps's Gloucestershire Collections (Vol. v. r 

& 346.)- The Gloucestershire Collections of the 
te John Delafield Phelps, Esq., which form the 
subject of DELTA'S inquiry, I believe descended to 
his nephew, William Phelps, Esq., of Dursley, and 
remain in his possession. The catalogue is entitled 
Collectanea Glocestriensia, by John Delqfield Phelps^ 
Esq. : London, privately printed by Wm. Nicol, 
1842, royal 8vo., pp. 284. It is in the library of 
the Athenaeum Club ; but, from some inadver- 
tency in the Club Catalogue, Mr. Phelps's name 
has been wholly omitted, and it simply appears 
under the name of Delafield. It is to be regretted 
that no other than the most succinct biography of 
this gentleman (which was given in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for February 1843, p. 219.) is to be 
found. He was of a very old Gloucestershire 
family, was lord of the manor of Dursley, and his 
father was also lord of the manor of Rangeworthy ; 
and the property of the old family of the Fields of 
Pagan Hill, near Stroudwater, had descended to 
them. His contribution to the Roxburghe Club 
was a reprint in 1817 of The Glutton's Feaver, by 
Thomas Bancroft. Mr. Phelps died at Chavenage 
House, Tetbury, on Dec. 19, 1842, aged seventy- 
eight years. Mr. Phelps was a barrister, but 
having^ a good private fortune, I believe he did 
not practise latterly ; he was a man of much charity 
and amiable disposition. A SUBSCRIBER. 

Andrew Marvel (Vol. v., p. 597.). Jos. A. 
KIDD only half corrects the mistake often made 
when he says that Andrew Marvel was not born 
in Hull ; he should have proceeded to state, as the 
fact is, that he was born at Winestead in Holder- 
ness, where the Rev. Andrew Marvel, his father, 
resided, prior to coming to reside at Hull : his 
baptismal register exists there in the parish books. 
There are several families in the neighbourhood of 
Hull still, which are descended from the Rev. An- 
drew Marvel, viz. the present generation of Peases 
of Hesslewood, through their mother ; the Ha- 
worths of Hull Bank ; the Popples of Wetton, and 
my own family ; also the Blaydes, late of Paul. 





[No. 144. 

Mexican Grammar (Vol. v., p. 585.). The 
only person likely to have grammars of South 
American languages for sale is the well-known 
bookseller Asher (Berlin, under den Linden). 
Should, however, the prices at which Asher ge- 
nerally offers such very scarce books appear to 
TV. B. D. too exorbitant, he will get any of those 
Mexican &c. grammars, which in Jiilg's edition of 
Vater's Grammatiken, frc., are marked with an 
asterisk, cheaply transcribed for him from the 
original copies in the royal public library of Berlin. 
Otherwise \V. B. D. must take the chance to wait 
till the great work on the American langunges, 
begun many years ago by the late W. Von Hum- 
boldt, and long since completed by Prof. Busch- 
mann, will at last come out. 11. R. 


Burial without Service (Vol. v., p. 613.). This, 
whether legal or not, is with respect to Roman 
Catholics continually practised, at least in Lanca- 
shire, where the common sense of both parties 
easily gets over the difficulty. The priest knows 
he cannot celebrate his service in the church, and 
therefore performs it ere the body leaves the house. 
The clergyman knows the English service would 
not be acceptable, and does not offer to perform it. 
The bell tolls as usual, and the coffin being taken 
straight to the grave, is buried by the sexton and 
his attendants. If (as is often the case with the 
Roman Catholic gentry) the family vault is inside 
the church, the organist sometimes plays solemn 
music during the interment. If the Protestant 
clergyman desires to show respect to the character 
or station of the deceased, he either joins the pro- 
cession, or awaits it (without surplice) in the 
church. There is no secret made of the matter, 
and until the last ten or fifteen years it was usual 
to ring a merry peal on the bells as the mourners 
were leaving the churchyard. P. P. 

The True Maiden-hair Fern (Vol. vi., p. 30.). 
Allow me to add to EIRIONNACH'S list of the lo- 
calities of the lovely Adiantum (Capilhu Veneris), 
that of Ilfracombe, Devon, in England, where, 
though rare, it exhibits the greatest luxuriance of 
growth ; but I have never seen its beauty so con- 
spicuous as in Italy. It flourishes at Massa and 
at Carrara; but the extremity of the Grotto of 
Egeria, near the Eternal City, is adorned with a 
curtain of its beautiful fronds, which will not be 
easily forgotten by those who have even but once 
visited the haunts of the fair inspirer of Numa. 



Royal Arms in Churches (Vol. v., p. 559.)- 
In the accounts of the churchwardens of Mellis, 
printed in the Proceedings of the Bury and West 
Suffolk Archaeological Institute, there is a charge in 
1617 for painting the King's arms, and for making 

a frame for them, upon which the Rev. Mr. Creed, 
the contributor of the paper to the Institute, re- 
marks that it does not clearly appear that the 
setting up of the king's arms in churches was done 
by any express law or injunction, and submits that 
it was probably ordered by episcopal or archidi- 
aconnl authority. He mentions, however, one or 
two instances prior to the Reformation, of the 
arms of the sovereign being placed in churches. 
In reference to this subject, Mr. King, York 
Herald, in his interesting remarks on a series of 
the royal arms existing in Yarmouth Church (vide 
vol. ii. of Norfolk Archceology, published by the 
Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society), 
states that the practice of placing the arms of the 
sovereign and his family in churches, appears in 
the Middle Ages to have been in a great measure 
uniform in architectural and other decorations, 
and suggests that the modern exhibition of the 
arms of the sovereign had its origin in that prac- 
tice. Both suggestions are entitled to respect, and 
as the custom may have originated from a combin- 
ation of both causes, I have placed them in juxta* 
position, trusting, through your justly increasing 
and unassuming periodical, to elicit something 
more decisive upon these points. Z. Z. Z. 

I have seen the royal arms, carved, affixed in some 
conspicuous place in several churches commonly, 
I think, over the western door : but I have also 
seen large hatchments of the royal arms in country 
churches ; for instance, those of George I. and II. ; 
but I have always suspected that they were only 
given to churches near royal residences, or where 
there was some royal property. The Lord Cham- 
berlain's office (the records of which are I believe 
very curious) might explain this point. C. 

Governor of St. Christopher in 1662 (Vol. v., 
p. 510.). At the period referred to the Island of 
St. Christopher was formed into two divisions, one 
of which belonged to the English, the other to the 
French. This partition took place in 1627, and 
continued till the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. The 
governors of the principal islands in 1662 were as 
follows : 

St. Christopher 
St. Lucia 
Guadaloupe - 
Martinique - 

- Lord Windsor. 

- Lord Willoughby. 

- Count de Cerillac. 

- The Chevalier de Sales. 

- M. Bonnard. 

- M. Hubert de Beveren. 

- M. Houel. 

- M. de Vaudroque. 

Dominica and St. Vincent were then in the 
possession of the Caribs ; while the islands of St. 
Bartholomew, St. Croix, and St. Martin were 
under the proprietary rule of the Knights of 
Malta. I have not been able to ascertain the 
name of the English governor of St. Christopher 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



in 1662, nor of the governor of St. Martin's, who 
is alleged to have "reduced to slavery the crew 
and passengers of an English ship." From the 
character of the inhabitants of the latter island 
(at that period little better than a handful of free- 
booters), and their avowed hostility to the British, 
such a circumstance is barely possible; but no 
account of it occurs in any history of these islands 
that I have had an opportunity of consulting. 

St. Lucia. 

Reverence to the Altar (Vol. vi., p. 33.). The 
country folks in this part of Pembrokeshire bow 
to the clergyman as they go to their seats from 
the aisle, in the same way as those in Huntingdon- 
shire. R. J. A. 

Docking Horses' Tails (Vol. vi., p. 43.). The 
practice of docking the tails of horses is of an 
earlier date than F. B w supposes, as the follow- 
ing extract from Markham's Masterpiece, tenth 
edition, 1668, will show : 

" Of the making of Curtals, or cutting off of the Tails of 


" The curtailing of horses is used in no nation what- 
soever, so much as in this kingdom of ours, by reason 
of much carriage, and heavy burthens which our horses 
continually are exercised and imployed withall ; and 
the rather, sith, we are strongly opinionated, that the 
taking away of those joynts doth make the horses chine 
or back a great deal stronger, and more able to sup- 
port a burthen, as in truth it doth ; and we daily find 
it by continual experience." P. 539. 

Bottesford Moors, Messingham, 
Kirton Lindsey. 

Apple-pie Order (Vol. iii,, pp. 330. 468. 485.). 
There is a children's story beginning, "A was an 
apple-pie ; B bit it ; C cut it ; D divided it ; F 
fought for it ; G got it ; H had it," &c., to the end 
of the^ alphabet. Some years since I met with the 
assertion that this was the origin of the expression 
" apple-pie order," reference being had to the 
regular order in which the letters follow each 
other. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia, Pa., June 15. 1852. 

SetKs Pillars (Vol. v., p. 609.). In reply to 
the Query of ANON., I beg to inform him that this 
is a well-known oriental tradition, noticed by many 
writers. I may, in the first instance, refer him to 
Josephus's Jewish Antiq., bk. i. ch. ii. 3. 

Mention is also made of these pillars in some of 
the extracts from oriental writers contained in the 
appendix to the second volume of Colonel Vyse's 
valuable work on the Pyramids of Egypt. 

In two ancient MSS. in the British Museum 
(Lansd. 98. No. 48., and Harl. 1942.), purport- 
ing to be a history of The Beginning and Found- 
ation of the worthy Craft of Masonry, an account 

of the legend connected with these pillars will be 

I possess a copy of the latter of these documents, 
written in a hand of the last century, but refrain 
from trespassing upon your valuable space with any 
lengthy extracts. It may be sufficient to state that 
the erection of the pillars (which Josephus attri- 
butes to the children of Seth) is here ascribed to 
the four children of Larnech, viz. Jabal, Jubal, 
Tubal-Cain, and Naamah. It then proceeds : 

" These children knew well that God would take 
vengeance for sin, either by fire or water ; wherefore 
they wrote their sciences that they had found out on 
two pillars, that they might be found after Noah's 

" One of the pillars was marble, which will not burn 
with any fire, and the other pillar or stone was called 
Laternes [in the other MS. Latres^, which will not 
drown in any water." 

The discovery of one of the pillars by Hermes 
Trismegistus after the Deluge is then narrated, 
together with an account of his supposed inventions. 

Your correspondent will also find the contents of 
this MS. noticed in the preface to Mr. Halliwell's 
curious work on The Early History of Freemasonry 
in England. 

Allow me to conclude with a Query. What is 
the meaning and derivation of the word latres or 
latemes, of which material one of the pillars is said 
to have been formed ? LEICESTRIENSIS. 

Paget Family (Vol. iv., p. 133.; Vol. v. pp. 66. 
280. 327. 381.). The following extract from Harl. 
MSS., 1476, p. 178., may be interesting to your 
correspondents CRANMORE and EDWARD Foss : 

" Godfrye Maydwell = Anne, d. of Jzmes 

of Londo.,3 son, 
liuing a 1634. 

Paget, one of the 
Barons of the 

I I I 

Katherine. Anne Mary." 

The above is " Under the hand of W m . Camden, 
Clar. King of Armes." TEE BEE. 

Dictionnaire Bibliographique (Vol. vi., p. 35.). 
The authorship of the Dictionnaire Bibliographique t 
ou Nouveau Manuel du Libraire et de V Amateur de 
Livres, par M. P * * * * *., printed at Paris in 
1824, is assigned by Brunet (in his Manuel du 
Libraire) torn. v. p. 686., Paris, 1844) to M. 
Psaume. TYRO. 


Blindmarfs Holiday (Vol. v., p. 587.). Has 
not Dr. Pegge made a mountain of a molehill ? At 
" the hour when one can no longer see " every one 
is pro temp, a blind man, and keeps holiday 
accordingly. A. A. D 

" De Laudilus Sancta Crucis " (Vol. vi., pp. 9. 
61.). P. B. is correct in his answer to HUGO con- 
cerning this work, but seems not to be acquainted 



[No. 144. 

with the last reprint of it. Rhabanus Maurus was 
archbishop of Mayence in 847. The editions of 
his work De Laudibus Sanctce Cruets of 1503 and 
1606 are mentioned by P. B. : a third edition of 
the archbishop's poem may be found in his com- 
plete works, in folio, published at Cologne, A.I>. 
1626, vol. i. pp. 273337. The latest edition of 
the poem is one that has just issued from the 
press of Pb'nicke and Son, of Leipsic, under the 
editorship of Adolphus Henze. It is now on sale 
by Franz Thimm, New Bond Street. 

The work consists of a series of anagrams, 
acrostics, and other literary puzzles of most intri- 
cate character, forming the shape of the cross in 
every possible variety of pattern, wrought, without 
injury to the sense, into the framework of a num- 
ber of poems. The work is a curiosity of literary 
ingenuity and typographical excellence; so much 
so, that no one can appreciate the difficulty of the 
task without an examination of the work. 


The Woodruff (Vol. v., p. 469.). The " small 
Woodruff" here alluded to, and called Asperula 
cynanchica, must be the sweet Woodruff, Asperula 
odorata. The former has no particular smell, and 
the flowers and leaves are both so very diminutive, 
that it would be of no use in adorning churches. 
The English name is not Woodruff, but " Quinsy- 
wort." E.J.M. 

Hydrophobia (Vol. v., p. 10.). Your corre- 
spondent INDAG.VTOR is not the only boy who has 
been horrified at the accounts related of the smo- 
thering of hydrophobic patients. Is there such a 
disease clearly deducible from the bite of a dog ? 
We know that lock-jaw following wounds in the 
tendons is not uncommon, and I think it probable 
that may have been mistaken for it. Be it as it 
may, I spent 1810 12 at Guy's Hospital, and 
never heard the disease of hydrophobia mentioned. 
Drs. Babington and James Curry never alluded to 
it in their lectures ; nor was there even a report 
during that period of the admission of any patient 
so suffering. I have been since forty years in 
practice ; I have never seen nor heard of a case, nor, 
in spite of persevering inquiry, have I found any 
person who could adduce an instance of it. I have 
long looked at it as a fabulous tale. In the con- 
vulsions consequent upon traumatic tetanus it is 
possible that, in the restraint to which patients may 
have been subjected, smothering has occurred. I 
have met with no case of deliberate suffocation in 
my medical reading. JAMES CORNISH. 

Battle of Alfred the Great with the Danes 
(Vol. vi., p. 10.). If your correspondent J. S. 
will refer to Lingard (History of England, vol. i. 
p. 249.), he will find that this battle did not take 
place in Hampshire, but at Icglea ("grata salicis 
planities juxta silvam," St. Neofs Life, p. 335.), 

supposed to be Leigh, not far from Westbury, 
Wilts, or, as the position was afterwards changed, 
on the eminence of Ethandune, supposed to be 
Bratton Hill, near Eddingdon, in the same county. 

R. J. A. 
Bosherston, Pembroke. 

Mummies of Ecclesiastics (Vol. vi., p. 53.). 
These mummies are to be seen in the church at 
Kreutzberg, about a mile and a half from Bonn, on 
the Rhine. The church was formerly attached 
to a convent of Servites. VIATOB. 

There are some forty or fifty dry bodies, such as 
A. A. refers to, under the church of St. Michael at 
Bordeaux. (See Murray's Handbook for France.} 


Can a Man baptize himself? (Vol. vi., p. 36.). 
Surely the obvious reply to this question is, that 
he cannot do so. Not being in Christian fellow- 
ship before baptism, he would not be in a condition 
to administer a Christian sacrament. 

The habit of altering the words when the mi- 
nister receives the bread and wine at the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper from his own hands, is not 
universal, nor practised, perhaps, by those of the 
clergy whose example would be most looked to. 
There would not seem to be any authority for such 
alteration. ALFRED GATTF. 

Eton Montem (Vol. vi., p. 63.). I agree with 
DR. RIMBAULT, that the Eton Montem may have 
been derived from the ceremony of the Boy- 
Bishop ; but we possess no certain data as to their 
identity. Perhaps some of your readers may be 
able to throw more light on the subject; and I 
would suggest the expediency of a reference to 
the indices of Cole's MSS. in the British Museum, 
and Cambridge University libraries, it being highly 
probable that from his long connexion with Eton 
and King's Colleges, he may have recorded some 
particulars as to the origin of these celebrities. 
Meanwhile, I am enabled to fix the exact date of 
the alteration of the time for holding the Montem 
from the winter to the summer season. The 
change took place on Whit Tuesday, 1758 ; and is 
pointedly alluded to in a copy of Latin verses 
preserved in the Musa Etonenses, vol. i. p. 60., 
edition 1795, and written by Benjamin Heath, 
afterwards Fellow of the College. As captain of 
the school, he was entitled to the proceeds of the 
Montem, or the salt, as it was called ; he was also 
expected to produce an exercise, the subject of 
which has always been " Pro More et Monte." The 
following lines will be sufficient to prove my asser- 
tion, but the whole poem is well worth perusal. 
" Ut mihi more novo Montis celebrare triumphum, 

Fas sit, et optato figere signa jugo, 
Te supplex te rite colo, quo prasside nostra, 

Lagtior cestivo tempore pompa nitet." 


JULY 31. 1852.] 



Haberdasher (, p. 17.)- Minshew de- 
rives it from Habt ihr das, Teut. Possibly the real 
derivation is berdash, an old English neck-dress, 
whence a seller of this article was called a ber- 
dasher or haberdasher. R- J- A. 

Burials in Woollen (Vol. v., pp. 414. 542.,, 
p. 58.). H. W.'s quotation of Pope's distich, 
" Odious! in woollen! 'twould a saint provoke, 
Were the last words which poor Narcissa spoke," 

seems to require the addition of the date. Nar- 
cissa (Mrs. Oldfield the actress), died in 1731, and 
Pope's Essay was published in 1734. Mrs. Old- 
field escaped the " woollen," and was really " buried 
in Westminster Abbey in a Brussels lace head- 
dress ; a Holland shift with tucker, and double 
ruffles of the same lace ; and a pair of new kid 
gloves." Gent. Mag., March, 1731. C. 

In reference to this subject, the parish register 
of Bretforton, Worcestershire, has the following 
ntry : 

" Here begins the register book of all and every 
person that have been buried in the parish of Bret- 
forton, according to act of parliament entitled ' An 
Act for burying in woollen only since the 1st of 
August, 1678.' " 

I have seen many of the parochial registers in 
this county, but none of them contain the affi- 
davits alluded to. J. NOAKE. 


Slums (Vol. iii., pp. 224. 284.). Your corre- 
spondent D. Q. is certainly in error in supposing 
that slums is an Americanism. I never heard the 
word used in this country, either in the Atlantic 
or the Western States. Not one American in ten 
thousand could form any idea what back slums 
meant, were he to hear it in conversation. We 
occasionally meet with the expression in English 
books, but know not what it means. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia, Pa., June 15. 1852. 

Fairfax Family Mansion (Vol. v., p. 490.). 
There is probably no family reason for the disuse 
of the strait old-fashioned entrance. I have seen 
the same practice in twenty other places. When 
the strait avenue went out of fashion, a winding, 
and, as it was thought, more natural and park- like 
line of approach was adopted. Sometimes the old 
gates were removed altogether ; sometimes they 
remained, but were never opened. I think this 
style of strait avenues and iron gates is rather 
coming in again, with the terraces and parterres. C. 

Gospel Trees (Vol. v., pp. 157. 209. 306. 444. 
570.). I have a venerable silver fir-tree (west 
coast of Argyleshire), which, although not called 
a " Gospel tree," was, before the existence of the 
parish church, hallowed by having its large bole 
used as a pulpit for the minister, and its extensive 

shade, as a canopy under which the people listened 
to the preaching of the Gospel. There is nothing 
apocryphal about this : it was done in my father's 
time. On wet Sundays the people assembled in 
the mansion house. 

I may mention that tradition assigns a less holy 
ancient (possibly apocryphal) history to this tree, 
whose shape, by the way, is exquisitely adapted to 
the alleged purpose. The lairds, so it is said, 
were wont to suspend their refractory vassals on 
the branches. Hence it is affectionately called 
"the Lairds' tree." You are no doubt aware, 
that, in the glorious feudal times, the lairds exer- 
cised the power of life and death over their own 
people, as well as over all others under their ban, 
and within their reach : a noble privilege which, 
alas ! has long ago yielded to the baying of the 
many-mouthed novarum rerum cupidi. W. C. 

Maturin Laurent (, p. 11.). The anony- 
mous but too well-known author of the Compere 
Mathieu, and several other publications of the 
same loose class, was Henry Joseph, Abbe du 
Laurens of whom, and of his works, the less said 
the better. C. 

Flemish Clothiers in Wales (Vol.v., p. 36). 
Your correspondent may wish to learn, that the 
Flemish Clothiers, or such traces as are left, are to 
be found in Pembrokeshire : a colony of Flemings 
landed there in the reign of Henry I., and brought 
over their woollen manufactures; that the Castle 
of Haverford West is said to have been inhabited 
by them ; there is also a road called the " Flemish 
Way," yet existing; that here as well as in the 
neighbourhood of Milford Haven, and throughout 
a great part of this county (Pembroke), traces of 
the manners and appearances yet remain : both 
sexes wore a short cloak called by them a " Gawr 
Wittle," similar to that worn by the early Fle- 
mings ; that the customs of some of these Welsh 
to the Flemish, is also noticed in a work entitled 
Barber's Tour through South Wales, 8vo. 1803. 

> C. G. 


Curious Mistranslation (Vol. vi., p. 51.). P. T. 
misses the point of Mr. Dickens's humour. The 
Frenchman is designedly made to mistranslate 
" sabots." Quiz. 

Seal of Mary Queen of Scots (Vol. vi., p. 36.). 
E. A. S. is mistaken in supposing his seal " the ori- 
ginal," I have one answering his description in a 
box with a printed label, " Queen Mary's Signet 
Ring, from the Collection of the late Earl of 
Buchan." Device, quarterly, the arms of Eng- 
land, France, Ireland, and Scotland; the shield 
surmounted by a crown, and between the initials 
M. R. Surely the original (judging from arms 
and initials) belonged to Mary of Modena, wife of 



[No. 144. 

Transmutation of Species (Vol. vi., p. 7.). On 
ground where sheep have been folded in Australia, 
a shrubby plant, unknown elsewhere in the 
country, as far as my observation and inquiries 
have extended, springs up luxuriantly. I have 
also remarked that in a gum-tree (Eucalyptus) 
forest, after a severe bush fire, mimosas appear in 
abundance where there were none before. On a 
Scotch moor, too, after a fire sufficiently strong to 
destroy the roots of the heather, clover invariably 

Transmutation of species, if it be a fact as re- 
corded by MANSFIELD INGLEBY in " N. & Q.," or 
some analogous principle, might account for these 

I wish to know if it would be possible to place 
seeds in the earth sufficiently near the surface to 
be acted upon by manure in the way I have al- 
luded to, so that they shall neither germinate nor 
die. W. C. 

Trochilus and Crocodile (Vol. vi., p. 75.) In 
reply to the Query of S. L. P., I beg to quote the 
following extract from a very interesting little work, 
the Book of Zoology, by James H. Fennell (1839) : 

" The tongue of the crocodile is not sufficiently 
moveable to allow of its removing anything which may 
stick against the roof of its mouth ; and its front legs 
are too stiff, and much too short, to be used for that 
purpose. At St. Domingo, and in Egypt, the crocodile 
is greatly annoyed by swarms of muskitoes, or gnats, 
which enter its mouth in such numbers that the roof of 
it, which is of a bright yellow throughout, is covered 
with them, arranged side by side. All these sucking 
insects thrust their trunks into the orifices of the 
numerous glands in its mouth, and torment it so much 
that it would die in consequence, if God had not or- 
dained that another creature should assist it. The 
crocodile opens its immense mouth, and a little bird of 
the plover kind, very common by the water side, hops 
fearlessly into it, and devours the insects sticking to its 
roof. The crocodile is grateful for the services of the 
bird, and is careful to do it no harm. Herodotus, more 
than two thousand years ago, and Pliny, about seven- 
teen hundred years ago, mentioned this singular fact, 
which in modern times has been observed by Hassel- 
quist and Descourtils." 



" Salt as Fire" (Vol. vi., p. 53.). Probably 
from the Roman custom of throwing meal and salt 
(the mold) into the fire at sacrifices : 

" Cum farre pio et saliente mica." 


Dutch Chronicle of the World (Vol. v., p. 58.). 
I possess the work referred to by Ma. JOHN 
FENTON, which is not Dutch, but German. The 
engravings are very spirited. The engraved title 
is, Joh. Lud. Gottfridi Historische Chronica der 
Vier Monarchien von Erschaffung der Welt biss 
uff unsere Zeiten, mitt Kupjferstucker gezieret 

durch Matthceum Merianum. It is printed at 
Frankfort, 1632. W. G. 

Aldress (Vol.v., p. 582.). In lledon Church, 
Yorkshire, is an inscription announcing that a par- 
ticular seat is set apart for the alderwomen. W. G. 

Oh! go from the Window (Vol. vi., p. 75.). 
If your correspondent, a septuagenarian, will refer 
to Dyce's edition of Beaumont and Fletcher, vol. ii. 
p. 193., " The Knight of the Burning Pestle," 
Act III. Scene 5., he will probably learn as much 
on the subject of his inquiry, as from any other 
source, though the information will perhaps be 
deemed very unsatisfactory. F. B-w. 

Heywood Arms (Vol. vi., p. 75.). R. W. C. 
inquires what authority there is for attributing to 
the family of Heywood the following coat : a 
chevion between three martlets. He should have 
given the blazoning, which would have admitted 
of a more positive answer ; as it is, however, I can 
inform him that, of the numerous coats belonging 
to that name, not one bears the remotest resem- 
blance to that given above; but az. a chevron en- 
grailed between three martlets or belongs to the 
name of Holy wood. II. C. K. 

Curfew (Vol. vi., p. 53.). In your last, ME. 
SANSOM quotes from my Worcester in Olden 
Times, a passage to the effect that the institution 
of the curfew did not originate with the Con- 
queror ; and thereupon inquires : " What historical 
notices are there of a curfew prior to the Con- 
quest;" and "At what places on the continent, 
besides Vienna, has the custom been ascertained 
to prevail ? " 

There is no evidence to show that the custom 
originated with the Conqueror ; but that it was 
not a badge of infamy is clear from the fact that the 
law was of equal obligation upon the foreign nobles 
of the court as upon the Saxon serfs. Henry, in 
his History of Britain, says there is sufficient 
evidence that the custom prevailed in most of the 
countries of Europe at the time of the Conquest, 
the intent being merely to prevent the great num- 
ber of fires which were constantly occurring when 
the houses were built of wood. (See also Bohn's 
edition of Brand, vol. ii., p. 220.) J. NOAKE. 


Burial on the North Side of Churches (Vol. iv. t 
passim). Should not the alleged custom of 
avoiding burial on the north side of a church be 
rather attributed to the dislike to lie alone in 
death ; to the wish to sleep near the accustomed 
path to church ; to rest where the eyes of those 
who have been loved in life shall fall upon our 
tombs as they move to their accustomed seats in 
the house of prayer ? 

In small churches, where there is but one en- 
trance, we usually, though by no means invaria- 
bly, find the door in the south side ; and thus the 

JULY 31. 1852.] 



north becomes the " back of the church,'' a portion 
of the sacred ground which is rarely visited, and 
which is therefore shunned. In the church of 
Oyster-mouth, in Gower, the entrance is in the 
north side, and "on that side the graves lie thickly 
gathered. A very few besprinkle the ground to 
the east and west, and on the south there is not 
one. In the -chapel-of-ease of Taliaris, in the 
parish of Llandilo Vawr, in Carmarthenshire, the 
entrance is in the west side of the church. The 
greater number of the graves are on the west side 
and north sides, a few lie to the south, but not 
one is on the eastern side. I could name similar 
cases, but prefer not speaking from memory where 
I cannot be certain that there are not any graves 
on the side without an entrance. 

In town churches we very usually find several 
entrances, and I cannot think that the tombs 
found on every side of such churches are to be 
entirely attributed to the greater demand for room. 



The Rev. T. K. Arnold has added another to the 
many excellent educational works for which he has 
earned the gratitude both of teachers and learners. 
The Anticleptic Gradus, founded on QuicJieraf s The- 
saurus Poeticus Lingua Latince, has for its main object 
the giving the pupil all the help, and more than the 
help, that the old Gradus afforded him ; but to supply 
this help in the form of materials to be worked up by 
himself, not in the concrete state of ready made lines 
and portions of lines, but in the shape of various ex- 
pressions and phrases from the best authors ; which, re- 
quiring the student to exercise his taste and add to his 
stock of poetical ideas, oblige him at the same time to 
use his own powers more or less upon the matter pre- 
sented to him. It is in this that the anticleptic (or 
anti-pilfcring) character of this new Gradus consists. 
The old one is a regular crib, to use a well-known term. 
We may add, that while the careful selection which has 
been made by the editor, not only of words, which 
though not really synonymous, are so nearly related in 
meaning that one may occasionally be used for the 
other, but also of epithets, the judicious use of which 
s so great a feature in Latin poetry, makes the Anti- 
cleptic Gradus one of peculiar value, the separate notice 
which is given in it of each meaning of the word 
treated, makes the work a sufficient Latin Dictionary 
for the best Latin poets. 

The Artificial Production of Fish, by Piscarius, nar- 
rates in twenty-four pages the remarkable success which 
has attended the endeavours of two humble fishermen, 
named Gehin and Remy, of an obscure village called 
La Bresse, in the Department of the Vosges in France, 
in stocking^ the rivers of that country with 'millions of 



en we remember how many of our own 
rivers have been thinned of fish, and see how simple 
are the means necessary to refill them, and so supply 
abundance of wholesome food, we cannot too strongly 
recommend this little tract to general attention. 

The Gold Colonies of Australia, comprising their His- 
tory, Territorial Divisions, Produce, and Capabilities; 
also ample Notices of the Gold Mines, and how to get to 
them, with every Advice to Emigrants, by G. Butler Earp. 
With a Map. What wonder it is that with the present 
excitement on the subject of the Gold Fields, the pub- 
lisher of this useful little volume is enabled to announce 
the fact of sixteen thousand copies having been sold 
within ten days of publication 

Amis et Amiles und Jourdains de Blaivies, Zeoei alt- 
franzosische Hddengedichte des Kerkingischen Sagen- 
kreises. Nach der Pariser Handschrift zum ersten Male 
herausgegeben von Dr. Conrad Hofmann. Such of our 
readers as are interested in the History of Fiction, or 
of the Literature of the Middle Ages, will thank us for 
calling their attention to this very ably edited work. 
The story of Amis and Amiles is one of the most po- 
pular of its class, and exists in almost all the languages 
of Europe. The English version is preserved, in 
Weber, and the entire French text is here presented to 
us for the first time. The Chanson of Jourdains de 
Blaivies, which Dr. Hofmann regards as a work of 
higher poetical character, is printed by him from the 
same MS. 

We have received from Messrs. Williams and Norgafe 
a prospectus of the long looked for work of the late 
M. Langlois on the Danses des Marts. The work, 
which was left unfinished by this accomplished artist 
and antiquary, has been completed by the labours of 
MM. Andre Pottier and A. Baudry, and is rendered 
still more valuable by a letter upon the subject from 
M. C. Leber, and another by Depping. 




by Rev. J. J. Blunt. 

LUNA, hv Michael Geddes, LL.D. 1715. 


Print d for Hodges, by Crowder and Woodgate. 

XIV. and XV. Stourport, 1812. 
SHAKSPBARE'S JULIUS CAESAR, by D'Avenant and Dryden, 1719. 


The original 4to. editions in boards. 


London, Griffin, 8vo. 1767. 
CLARE'S POEM?. F-ap. 8vo. Last Edition. 
MAONA CHARTA ; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell, by 

George Newton. London, 1601. 
BLACK'S (DR.) LECTURES ON CHEMISTRY, by Robison, 2 vols. 

The following Treatises by the REV. THOMAS WATSON, of St. 
Stephen's, Wallbrook. 

RELIGION OUR TRUE INTEREST, or Notes on Mai. Hi. 16, 17, 18. 
THE MISCHIEF OF ^m ; it brings a Person Low. 
A PLEA FOR THE GODLY, wherein is shown the Excellency of a 

Righteous Person. 

THE DUTY OF SELF-DENIAL briefly opened and urged. 
SERMON ON PSALM cxxxvm. to end. 

BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia. 
*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 



[No. 144. 


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.T1L VIEW. Which is intended to comprise 
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Works of Living Authors will be excluded). 
One Divisi' n of each Part will be devoted to 
the Printing (for the first time) of -'hort Manu- 
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[No. 144. 

PROSPECTUS of a new Edition of Shakespeare, in TWENTY FOLIO VOLUMES, corresponding in size with the convenient first 
collective edition of 1623, to suit numerous fac-similes to be made from that work. Privately printed for Subscribers only. 




j^eto Collation of tfte earlp Outturns, 






Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy, and of the Royal Society of Literature, &c. 


THE preparation of this work has occupied 
my earnest attention for nearly twelve years ; 
my object being to bring together, from the 
stores of Elizabethan literature, art, or science, 
whatever really tends to illustrate the pares of 
the great poet of the world, in the full convic- 
tion there yet remains room for one compre- 
hensive edition which shall ans ver the re- 
quirements of the student and zeal HIS inquirer. 
Granting that the general spirit of Shakespeare 
may be appreciated without the assistance of 
lengthened commantary, it cannot be denied 
there is much wnich is obscure to the modern 
reader, numerous allusions to the literature, 
manners, and phraseology of the times which 
require explanation and careful discussion. 

Etch play will be accompanied by every 
kind of useful literary and antiquarian illus- 
tration, extending to complete copies of all 
novels, tales, or dramas on which it is founded, 
and entire impressions of the first sketches, 
some of which will be new to the student, and 
others carefully collated with the originals. 
In fact, no pains will be spared to render this 
edition the most complete in every respect that 
ha* yet been oroduced ; suoerseding entirely the 
Variorum edition of 1921, with the addition of 
all Shakesperian discoveries of any importance 
which have been made sine 3 that period. The 
wor'< will be copiously illustrated by fac-similes 
and wood-cuts, the direction of which has been 
undertaken by Mr. Fairholt, who has also most 
kindly promised to assist me in the selection . 
It is unnecessary to enlarge on the importance 
of such assistance, and the valuable aid to be 
expected fro n Mr. Fairholt's extensive reading 
in Rlizabethan literature and intimate ac- 
quaintance with every department of ancient 

The engravings throughout will bg rigidly 
restricted to subjects which really elucidate 
the text, giving representations of articles 
mentioned by Shakespeare. or to which he may 
refer, however slightly, thus serving as pic- 
torial notes to his works. In the case of the 
historic plays, monumental effides of the prin- 
cipal characters, nersonal raliques, or antiiue 
views of places alluded to, will be admissible : 
but in no case will truthfulness be sacrificed, 
or a false taste for meretricious picture-making 
allowed. The engravings will be -rigid fac- 
similes of the original subjects in all cases, and 
will depend ion their own intrinsic merit as 
Shakesperian illustrations. There is much in 
public and private museums which has never 
yet been used in this wav, and which it will ba 
our care to investigate, searching far and wide 
for objects which may secure to (jar re iders a 
correct idea of thsir form and character, as 
thev were present to the mini of the great 
dramat'ut. For such purposss, w may observe 
we have already full acaess to Lord Londes- 
borough's collection, and have availed our- 
selves of others at home and abroad. 

The size of the first folio, after much con- 
sideration, has been adopted, not only because 

it is the most convenient folio form (barely 
measuring fourteen inches by nine), and suits 
the size of the fac-similes, most of which would 
otherwise have to be folde 1, but the magnitude 
of the undertaking precludes any other, were 
it intende I to complete it in any reasonable 
number of volum 's. 

We now proceed to speak of the mode of 
circulation ; and in anxiously considering this 
subject, have been c r^fui to bear in mind the 
obligations due to the original subscribers of so 
expensive a wo-k, as well as^the necessity of 
the large expsn lituve being reimbursed, to say 
nothing of an adequate return for the literary 
labour, the attainment of which is more than 
problematical, as it would be incompatibls 
with any arrangement which secured the per- 
manency of a high price. Now, it is a well- 
known fact that no literary or artistic work 
maintains its original value unless the impres- 
sion is strictly limited ; and it is proposed to 
adopt this course on the present occasion. The 
Editor, therefore, pledges himself to limit the 
number of copies to " one hundred and fifty," 
under the following conditions : 

1. The impression of this edition of Shake- 
speare will be most strictly limited to one hun- 
dred and fifty copies, and each copy will have 
the printer's autograph certificate that that 
limit has been preserved. 

2. The work will be completed in about 
twenty folio volumes ; but any volumes in 
excess of that number will be presented to the 
original subsc -ibers. 

3. All the p ates and woodcuts used for this 
work will be destroyed, and no separate im- 
pression of any of them will be taken off. 

The original subscrin'ion price of each vo- 
lume (a thick folio, copiously illustrated) will 
be Two Guine s ; and bearing in mind the 
above restrictions, and the expenditure requi- 
ite for such a work, the Editor is confident 
will not only be retained, but, in all 

probability, grsatly raised within a <ew yea-s. 
The whole will be completed (D.V.) in six 
years; so that for a comparatively small an- 
nual expenditure (about six zuineas') during 
that period, the subscriber will possess the most 
complete monograph edition of the works of 
the greatest poet of all ages. Nor can it be 
ant'cinated he will be purchasing what, is likely 
to fall in value. He w 11 pos ess a work that 
can never co ne into the market, but, in its 
pecuniary relations, will stand somewhat in 
the position of a proof engraving, only to be 
possessed by a very limited number. 

The Editor has been anxious thus to state at 
some length the considerations which have 
urged him to limit thu impression of the work 
so strictly ; for however willing, on many^ac- 
counts, to seek a more ext -ns've circulation, 
he could not, bring himself personally to ask 
f or support without taking every means to 
ensure, in their fullest extent, the interests of 
those \rho are i iclined to encourage an ardu- 
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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

YOL. VI. No. 145.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 7. 18-52. 

f Price Fourpence. 
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NOTES : ' Page 

Coleridge: Letters to Lamb, and Notes on Samuel 
Daniel's Poems - - - - - - 117 

Shropshire Ballad, by R. C. Warde - - - 118 

Cowley and Gray, No. IV. - - - - 119 

Qu^nt Lines by Alain Chartier, by Gustave Masson - 122 
Parallel Passages, by Harry Leroy Temple - - 123 

Folk Lore : Hertfordshire Folk Lore, by Henry 
Campkin ....... 123 

Minor Notes : Curious Epitaph Verses written on 
the first Leaf of Lady Meath's Bible by Sir Compton 
Domville " Blue Bells of Scotland" Ancient Mark 
of Emphasis A Suggestion to Publishers - - 124 


Dr. Cosin and Fuller, by J. Sansom - - - 124 
English Catholic Vicars Apostolic, 16251689 - - 125 

Morell's Book-plate - - . - -125 

Conundrums - - - - - - 126 

Pagan Observance on the West Coast of Ireland - 126 
Minor Queries : " Nobilis antique veniens," &c 
Volume of French Poetry St. Mary Overy's painted 
Windows The Host Epigram on the Monastic 
Orders Greville's Ode to Indifference Clock Motto 
Does the Furze Bush grow in Scandinavia? Duke 
of Orleans Ferdinando Conde D' Adda Constables 
of France Lady Mary Grey and Thomas Keyes, 1568 
Frances, Duchess of Suffolk, and Adrian Stokes 
Queen Mary de Conci, Widow of Alexander II., King 
of Scots Milan Author of the Gradus Mutability 
I of the Substance of the Human Body Beech Tree 
never struck by Lightning Derivation of Knights- 
bridge 127 

Stanley, Bishop of Man, 1510 Thomas Watson, 
Bishop of St.David's, 1687 to 1699 J.M, Turner, fourth 
Bishop of Calcutta, 1829 to 1831 S. Gobat, Bishop in 
Jerusalem, 1 846 Distemper Wright's Louthiana - 1 29 

Government of St. Christopher's "- 131 

On the World lasting Six Thousand Years, by William 

Dodge - - . . . _ 131 

Trochilus and Crocodile, by George Munford - - 132 
Saul's Seven Days - - - . . - 132 

Venice Glasses, by William Bates, &c. - - -133 

Replies to Minor Queries : Styles of Dukes and Mar- 
quises Burials Shakspeare' Emendations Bronze 
Medals Baxter Meaning of "slow " in Goldsmith's 
" Traveller " Bells on Horses' Necks Burial in 
tinconsecrated Ground Canongate Marriages Fou- 
bert Family Andrews the Astronomer Portrait of 
Cromwell Foundation Stones The Word " Hand- 
book " Dissertation on a Salt-box All Fours, &c. 134 

Notes on Books, &c. ..... 138 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - . - 138 

Notices to Correspondents - . - - 138 

Advertisements - . 139 

VOL. VI. No. 145. 


[We are indebted to the kindness of Mr. William 
Hazlitt for the loan of a copy of The Poetical Works 
of Mr. Samuel Daniel, Author of the English History 
(2 vols. 12mo. 1718), which had formerly belonged to 
Charles Lamb : and from the second volume of which 
we transcribe the following characteristic Letters from 
Coleridge to Lamb ; and his admirable and interesting 
notes upon a poet who is not nearly so well known as 
he deserves to be.] 

The first is written on the first fly-leaf of vol. ii. : 

" Tuesday, Feb. 10th, 1808 (10th or 9th). 
" Dear Charles, 

" I think more highly, far more, of the * Civil 
Wars' than You seemed to do on Monday night, 
Feb. 9th, 1808. The verse does not tease me ; and 
all the while I am reading it, I cannot but fancy 
a plain England-loving English Country Gentle- 
man, with only some dozen books in his whole 
library, and at a 'time when a 'Mercury* or 
'Intelligencer' was seen by him once in a month 
or two, making this his newspaper and political 
Bible at the same time, and reading it so often as 
to store his memory with its aphorisms. Conceive 
a good man of that kind, diffident and passive, yet 
rather inclined to Jacobitism ; seeing the reasons 
of the Revolutionary Party, yet by disposition and 
old principles leaning, in quiet nods and sighs, at 
his own parlour fire, to the hereditary right (and 
of these characters there must have been many) 
and then read this poem, assuming in your heart 
his character conceive how grave he would look, 
and what pleasure there would be, what uncon- 
scious, harmless, humble self-conceit, self-compli- 
ment in his gravity; how wise he would feel 
himself, and yet after all how forbearing. How 
much calmed by that most calming reflection 
(when it is really the mind's own reflection). 
Ay, it was just so in Henry VI.'s time, always 
the same passions at work, &c. Have I improved 
thy Book or wilt thou like it the better there- 
fore ? But I have done as I would gladly be 
done by thee at least. 




[No. 145. 

On second fly-leaf Coleridge has noted, "Vol. v. 
p. 217., a fine stanza." 
The following is the stanza referred to : 

" Whilst Talbot (whose fresh Ardor having got 

A marvellous Advantage of his Years), 
Carries his unfelt Age as if forgot, 

Whirling about where any Need appears. 
His Hand, his Eye, his Wits all present, wrought 
The Function of the Glorious Part he bears : 
Now urging here, now cheering there, he flies : 
Unlocks the thickest Troops, where most 
Force lies." 

And to it Coleridge has appended the following 
note : 

" What is there in description superior even in 
Shakspeare? Only that Shakspeare would have 
given one of his Glows to the first line, and flat- 
tered the mountain Top with his surer Eye in- 
tead of that poor 

" A marvellous advantage of his years." 

But this, however, is Daniel and he must not be 
read piecemeal. Even by leaving off", and looking 
at a stanza by itself, I find the loss. 


" O Charles ! I am very, very ill. Vixi." 

" Second Letter five hours after the first. 

" Dear Charles, 

"You must read over these 'Civil Wars' 
again. We both know what a mood is. And the 
genial mood will, it shall, come for my sober- 
minded Daniel. He was a Tutor and a sort of 
Steward in a noble Family in which Form was 
religiously observed, and Religion formally ; and 
yet there was such warm blood and mighty muscle 
of substance within, that the moulding Irons did 
not dispel, tho' they stiffened the vital man within. 
Daniel caught and recommunicated the Spirit of the 
great Countess of Pembroke, the glory of the North ; 
he formed her mind, and her mind inspirited him. 
Gravely sober in all ordinary affairs, and not easily 
excited by any yet there is one, on which his 
Blood boils whenever he speaks of English valour 
exerted against a foreign Enemy. Do read over 
but some evening when we are quite comfortable 
at your fire-side and oh ! where shall I ever be, 
if I am not so there that is the last Altar on the 
horns of which my old Feelings hang, but alas ! 
listen and tremble. Nonsense ! well ! I will 
read it to You and Mary. The 205, 206, and 
207th page ; and above all, that 93rd stanza ; and 
in a different style the 98th stanza, p. 208. ; and 
what an image in 107, p. 211. Thousands even of 
educated men would become more sensible, fitter 
to be members of Parliament or ministers, by 
reading Daniel and even those few who, quoad 
intellection, only gain refreshment of notions al- 
ready their own, must become better English- 

men. O, if it be not too late, write a kind note 
about him. S. T. COLERIDGE." 

On the fourth fly-leaf he has written, 

"Is it from any hobby-horsical love of our old 
writers (and of such a passion respecting Chaucer, 
Spenser, and Ben Jonson, I have occasionally 
seen glaring proofs in one the string of whose shoe 
I am not worthy to unloose), or is it a real 
Beauty, the interspersion I mean (in stanza poems) 
of rhymes from polysyllables such as Eminence, 
Obedience, Reverence. To my ear they convey 
not only a relief from variety, but a sweetness as 
of repose and the Understanding they gratify by 
reconciling Verse with the whole wide extent of 
good Sense. Without being distinctly conscious 
of such a notion, having it rather than reflecting 
it, (for one may think in the same way as one may 
see and hear), I seem to be made to know that I 
need have no fear ; that there is nothing excellent 
in itself which the Poet cannot express accurately 
and naturally, nay no good word." 


In no collection of ballads to which I have 
access does the following appear. It exists in 
my memory only in a mutilated state. I forward 
it with the hope that some one among your nu- 
merous readers may be able to supply the missing 
part, which is evidently the commencement of it. 

The hero is supposed to have been a journey : 
on his return the following scene occurs : 

" I went into the stable, 
To see what I could see ; 
I saw three gentlemen's horses, 
By one, by two, by three ; 
I called to my loving wife, 
' Coming, sir,' says she. 
' What meaneth these three horses here, 
Without the leave of me?' 
' You old fool 1 you blind fool ! 
Can't you won't you see? 
They are three milking-cows, that 
My mother sent to me.' 
Odds bobs ! here's fun ! 
Milking-cows with saddles on ! 
The likes I never see : 
I cannot go a mile from home, 
But a cuckold I must be !' 

" I went into the parlour, 
To see what I could see ; 
I saw there three gentlemen, 
By one r by two, by three ; 
I called to my loving wife, 
' Coming, sir,' said she. 
' What bringeth these three gentlemen here, 
Without the leave of me?' 
You old fool ! you blind fool ! 
Can't you won't you see? 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



They are three milking-maids, that 
My mother sent to me.' 
' Odds bobs ! here's fun ! 
Milking-maids with breeches on ! 
The likes I never see. 
I cannot go a mile from home, 
But a cuckold I must be !' " 
The unhappy husband next wanders into ^ the 
pantry, and discovers "three pairs of hunting- 
boots," which his spouse declares are 
" Milking-churns, which 
My mother sent to me.' 
Odds bobs ! here's fun ! 
Milking-churns with spurs on ! 
The likes I never see. 
I cannot go a mile from home, 
But a cuckold I must be !'" 

The gentlemen's coats, discovered in the kitchen, 
are next disposed of; but here my memory fails 
me. I have a dim recollection of a winding-up 
verse, in which the " Milking-cows with saddles 
on," the " Milking-maids with breeches on," and 
all the other bones of contention mentioned in the 
ballad, are figured. I should feel obliged by a re- 
ference to where this ancient ballad may be found. 
Has any collection of Shropshire songs and ballads 
ever been printed ? Many are the curious " tales 
of warlike deeds" shrined in verse, with which the 
long nights are whiled away in this county. A 
rich harvest yet remains to be gathered, particu- 
larly on Folk Lore. I may, perhaps, send you 
shortly extracts from my " Note Book" upon this 





(Vol. iv., pp. 204. 252. 465.) 
The three former communications received from 
me on the subject of "Gray and Cowley" were 
written in complete unconsciousness of the amount 
of learned labour and research ably and judiciously 
expended upon Gray's Poems by Mr. Mitford. I 
therefore most gladly withdraw any remarks I 
may have made as to the necessity of another 
edition, with parallel passages ; for I do not think 
we have a better and more satisfactorily executed 
volume in our language than Mr. Pickering's 
Aldine edition of Gray. And I must also thank 
your correspondent K. S. for reminding me of the 
Eton edition, which I will get as speedily as pos- 
sible. However, as the few unconnected remarks 
I have already made, or am now about to make, do 
not appear to have been anticipated, I will still 
ramble on in my own incoherent way, and not 
hold myself responsible for anything that the 
learning and diligence of others may have col- 
lected. ^ Indeed, I set out with the intention of 
comparing Gray with Cowley, in some few pas- 
sages, and with Cowley alone; for I never could 

have entered upon the wide field of Gray's simi- 
larities to other poets in general, within the nar- 
row and otherwise well- occupied columns of the 
" K & Q." 

Disraeli, in his Curiosities of Literature, "Poet- 
ical Imitations and Similarities," vol. ii., London, 
1824, seems to think the connexion between the 
sublime and the ridiculous to be so close, that Gray 
borrowed his description of the hair and beard of 
his bard from the memorable description of Hudi- 
bras : 

" This hairy meteor did denounce 
The fall of sceptres and of crowns," &c. 

Part i. cant. i. 247. 

Butler used the same comparison again in the 
Cobler and Vicar of Bray, to which the learned 
notes of Dr. Zachary Grey's edition refer me : 
" A grisly meteor on his face," &c. 

I do not know whether any one has ever sug- 
gested Thomas Tickell's "Imitation of the Pro- 
phecy of Nereus," from Horace, as something not 
quite unknown to Gray : 

" On Perth's bleak hills he chanc'd to spy 
An aged wizard six foot high, 
With bristled hair and visage blighted, 
Wall-eyed, bare-haunched, and second- sighted. 
The grisly sage, in thought profound, 
Beheld the chief with back so round, 
Then roll'd his eye-balls to and fro 
O'er his paternal hills of snow, 
And into these tremendous speeches 
Broke forth the prophet without breeches," &c. 

However, I feel quite justified in my former 
assertion, that Gray was alluding to hair, and not 
to a standard, and in having given a reference or 
two which any one who doubted the fact of such 
an allusion being common might investigate for 
himself.. The occurrence of the word loose in the 
couplet of Gray, and also in that of Cowley, seems 
at least singular, if Gray knew nothing of Cowley's 

The same idea is found in a passage of Nonnus 
(Diony slacks, lib. ii. p. 43., Antverpiae, 1569), but 
it is too long to give at full length ; and we must 
not forget the seventh book of Tasso's Jerusalem 
Delivered, even as translated by Hoole, line 581 : 
" As shaking terrors from his blazing hair, 
A sanguine comet gleams through dusky air 
To ruin states and dire diseases spread, 
And baleful light on purple tyrants shed. 
Soflam'd the chief in arms, and sparkling ire 
He roll'd his eyes, suffus'd with blood and fire." 

I will now only add the Poet-Bishop to a list 
which .might be indefinitely multiplied, by refer- 
ring from one book to another : 

" The stars shall be rent into threds of light, 

And scatter'd like the beards of comets." 
J. Taylor, Sermon i., Christ's Advent to Judgment. 



[No. 145. 

*' The first regular production of Gray's muse " 
was a Sapphic ode addressed to Mr. West. The 
Sapphics were followed in the same letter by some 
Latin prose and an Alcaic stanza. 

We will pass over the Sapphics, for they bear a 
faint resemblance to some passages already referred 
to, and extract part of the prose from Mason's 
edition, vol. i. 134 : 

" Quicquid enim nugarum eir\ (t%o\^y inter ambu- 
landum in palimpsesto scriptitavi, hisce te maxume 
impertiri visum est, quippe quern probare, quod meum 
est, aut certe ignoscere solitum probe novi." 

A very natural idea, which Cowley had very 
naturally expressed : 

" To him my muse made haste with every strain, 

Whilst it was new, and warm yet from the brain. 

He lov'd my worthless rhymes, and, like a friend, 

Would find out something to commend." 

On the Death of Mr. W. Hervey. 

Indeed, any one who will read our Cowley's 
lines on Crashaw and Harvey, will unite with me 
in the firm conviction that Gray reproduced them 
both, either in his poems to Mr. West or upon 

The Alcaic stanza contains the words " Fons 
lacrymarum," which reminds us of " the sacred 
source of sympathetic tears " in The Progress of 
Poesy, and which Mr. Wakefield adduces from 
some imaginary irrjy^ 5a/>iW in JEschylus. Mr. 
Mi (ford more correctly refers to Sophocles, Antiq. 
803.; but at Jeremiah ix. 1. we have, in the 
Greek, Latin, and English respectively, " ir-ny^ 
Saicpvcav," "Fons lacrymarum," and "Fountains of 
tears." JEschylus uses " K\av/j.dT<av Triiyal," Agam. 
861.; and Nonnus, "ir/5a;ca 5aitpv6e(rffav" Diony- 
siackS) lib. xlvi. ad fin em. The idea is common in 
English poetry. Gray also speaks of " The soft 
springs of pity " in his Agrippina. 

Let us now wander in another direction ; and 
in quoting from Cowley's Latin Poems I use 
Bishop Sprat's edition, London, 1688, 8vo., men- 
tioning the pages, as the lines are not marked : 

" The bloom of young desire, and purple light of love." 
The Progress of Poesy, 

Mr. Mitford has adduced some really beautiful 
parallels. I shall only venture upon one or two : 
" Per me purpurei formosum lumen honoris 
Et niveam illustrat gratia viva cutem." 

Cowley, p. 10. 
Again : 

" Dat vegetum membris habitum, t /?ore?ng r we venustat 
Purpureum majestatis, dat dulcia cordi 
Lumina Isetitiae." Id., p. 300. 

Human passions. Gray, Ode on the Installation. 
Humana mollitie. Cowley, Plantarum, p. 42. 
Humanos mores. Ditto, p. 48. 
Humana pietatis. Ditto, p. 216. 
Humani laboris. Ditto, p. 337. 

" Felices animae gens jam defuncta periclis 
Humanis. " Vida's Christiad. lib. vi. 270. 

" The laughing flowers that round them blow- 
Drink life and fragrance as they flow." 

Ode on the Progress of Poesy. 

It seems almost a pity to dissect these marvel- 
lously beautiful lines. " Laughing flowers ;" 
"Quid faciat Icetas segetes." Virg. Georgia, i. 1. 
"The valleys shall stand so thick with corn that 
they shall laugh and sing." Psalm Ixv. 14. "As- 
trum, quo segetes gauderunt frugibus." Virg. Ed. 
ix. 48. 

" Auram nectaream undequaque fundens, 
Nullam prajposuisse fertur olim, 
Ridenti mihi dulce, dulce olenti." 

Cowley, Plantarum, p. 178. 

" Drink life and fragrance as they flow." 
" Que Fontes Fluviosque bibunt." 

Cowley, p. 1. 

" Dulcia Flumina libo." Id. p. 12. 

*' Perpetuumque bibunt folia insatiata liquorem." 

Id. p. 31. 

" Deque venenato flumine vita bibit." Id. p. 34. 

" In quibus ipse animus vitam animamque bibit." 

Id. p. 45. 

Also in the very bold figure : 

" O ver ! O pulchra? ductor pulcherrime gentis ! 

O Florum Xerxes innumerabilium ? 
Quos ego (nam gens est non aversata liquores) 
Epotare etiam Flumina posse reor." 

Id. 152. 

" So does a thirsty land drink all the dew of heaven 
that wets its face." Bp. J. Taylor, Sermon vi., The 
Return of Prayers, Part. III. 

" The earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh 
oft upon it." Hebr. vi. 7. 

I cannot refrain from quoting Anacreon : 

" 'H yy /ue \aiva irivfi, 
Tlivci 8e SevSpe' avrrjv, 
Hive i Se 6d\acro~a o" a&pas, 
'O 8' j/i\ios Od\aa-ffav, 
Tbv 5' if)\iov o-eATjj/rj." Ode xix. 

Which is thus translated by Buchanan : 

" Et terra sicca potat, 
Terrasque silva, et aura 
Sylvas, et sequor auras, 
Et sol repotat aequor, 
Et luna solem." 

Epigramm., lib. i. ad calcem. 

Barnes, in his Life of Anacreon, adduces the 
following from Maximilianus Virentius, Epigr. 
lib. iv. : 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



" Terra parens venis sitientibus imbibit imbres ; 
Tellurem atque imbres arbor alumna bibit; 
Oceanus salso sparsos bibit aequore ventos; 

Sol avido oceanum flammeus ore bibit. 
Solis inardentis radios bibit ebria luna ; 

Rursus et hanc euri, terra, sal unique bibunt : 
Cuncta bibunt sursum spirantia, sive deorsum ; 

Dis Styga, Dii pleno nectar ab ore bibunt." 
Prefixed to Barnes' edit, of Anac. p. Ix. : Lond. 1734. 

Nonnus too, in his Dionysiacks, has a passage 
quite to our purpose : 
""HSrj yap fctyvpoto irpodyychos tyyvos &prj 

/col \iyvp)) fjitp6irT<n cruvea-Tios ffapi icfipv 
opOpiov VTTVOV &fj.(pffe AoAoj Tpuovo~a X ( AtSaw, 
apri<f)av))s /cat yvfj.vbv oar' tu6Sfj.oio Ka\virrpijs 
flapivcus iye \ao-ffe \\ovfj.(vov &vQos iepffais 
uoy6vois." Lib. iii. 10. 
Let us now come to Gray's " Ode on the Spring," 
which will abundantly occupy our time for the 
present : 

" Lo ! where the rosy bosom'd Hours, 

Fair Venus' train, appear, 
Disclose the long-expecting flowers, 

And wake the purple year ! 
The Attick warbler pours her throat, 
Responsive to the cuckoo's note, 
The untaught harmony of spring ; 

While, whisp'ring pleasure as they fly, 
Cool zephyrs through the clear blue sky 
Their gather'd fragrance fling." 

A hymn by Orpheus thus describes the Hours : 
"*lpai Qvydrfpcs e'^iSos /col Zrjvbs uvaicros, 
rt t AI/CT; TC, Kal Elp"f)vrj Tro\vo\e, 

s, TToX.vdv6fi.ioi, ay vat, 

In representing the Hours as " Venus' train," 
Gray had, most probably, the "Homeric Hymn to 
Aphrodite " in mind (Hymn E.). It was they who 
had received Venus as she issued from the foam of 
the sea, and had introduced her to the immortal 
gods. Indeed, these graceful beings were her 
constant attendants ; and Theocritus represents 
them as bringing Adonis also to her. (See Id. 
xv. 102.; and the notes in Ringwood's charming 
edition : Dublin, 1846.) 

In the same passage Theocritus also calls them 
* l fiaXaicaliroSes &pai" and describes them in a manner 
which will exactly illustrate the "long expectin^ " 
flowers of Gray : 

' Bap8rrot fiaKapuv, "Clpai <pl\ai, a\\a iroOfival 
"Epxovrai, irdvreaffi pporo'is aid n (pfpourai" 

Where Mr. Ringwood gives us this comfortable 

" The impatience of expectation explains the epithet 
Ba'pSitrrar in the text, as the nox longa,' ' dies lenta,' 
and 'piger annus' of Hor. i. epist. 1. 20, 21." 

So in Romeo and Juliet, Act III. Sc. 2. ; 

*' So tedious is this day, 
As is the night before some festival 
To an impatient child, that hath new robes, 
And may not wear them." 

Compare, too, " tardis ..... mensibus," Virg. 
Georg., i. 32. It cannot be wrong also to com- 
pare with this first part of Gray's "Ode" some 
verses in the most beautiful of all pastorals, the 
" Song of Solomon : " 

" Lo, the winter is past ; the rain is over and gone ; 
the flowers appear on the earth ; the time of the sing- 
ing of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle is 
heard in our land," &c. Chap. ii. v. 11. 

And again : 

" Awake, O north wind, and come, thou south ; blow 
upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out." 
Chap. iv. v. 16. 

Nonnus calls the Hours poSuirfies &pai, lib. xi. 
p. 210. : Antverpise, 1569. But I suppose Gray's 
epithet is borrowed from Milton. (See Mr. Mit- 
ford's note.) Anacreon asks, 

" Tt 5' &vcv p65ov 7eVojr' &v ; 
'Po5oSo/cTt/Aos 'Hws, 

Uapa, rwv 

Ode 53. LiRosam. 

Cowley is still closer to the point : 
" Quicquid hoc mundo superoque pulchrum est 
Optat et gaudet Roseum vocari, 
Hec puellarum prope summa laus est, 

Summa dearum. 
Me colit princeps orientis alti 
Memnonis mater, similesque nobis 
Vel sibi tantum digitos habere 
Ducit honori. 

Cum dies portu bipatente coeli, 
Prodit aurato nitidus triumpho, 
Caerulam nimbis Roseis plateam 
Mol liter Hor a 
Divites spargunt." Cowley, p. 185-6. 

" Avertens Rosea cervice refulsit." 

JZneid, i. 406. 

Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi 
Cervicem Roseam" &c. 

Hor. Carm. lib. i. 13. 

Now morn her Rosy steps in the eastern clime 
Advancing, sowed the earth with orient pearl." 
Par. Lost, iv. 1. 

" To whom the angel with a smile that glow'd 
Celestial Rosy red love's proper hue." 

Id. viii. 618. 

" Crinibus et Roseis tenebras aurora fugarat." 

Virgil, Cukx, 43. 

" Pulchrae Cypridi sacra Rosa." 

Milton's Elegy on Bishop Andrews, 1. 20. 



[No. 145. 

" Roseam posthabitara Cypron." 

Milton's Eleg. i. 84. 

" As those smiling things, 
Those Rosal blushes which her portal strew." 
Beaumont's Psyche, cant. viii. 154. 

We might accumulate similar references ad in- 

In Buchanan's Majce Calenda, which may very 
well be compared with Gray's " Ode on the Spring," 
we find, 

<; Hunc jocus, hunc tenera mensem cum matre Cupido 

Vendicat : hunc risus, et sine felle sales : 
Hunc hilaris genius, genii et germana voluptas, 
Et pellucentes gratia picta sinus" Eleg., lib. i. 

Wakefield has some very appropriate remarks 
and parallels in support of Gray's conformity to 
ancient mythology in employing Venus, the source 
of creation and beauty, at the commencement of 
the spring. I need only refer to his volume, and 
also to a noble fragment attributed to Sophocles, 
which is quite too long to transcribe in full, but 
may be found in thie editions of his collected works. 
Cowley also has many of the same thoughts in his 
grand exordium to the second book of the Davideis. 

The expression " Attick warbler" has been traced 
to its source by Mr. Mitford, for so is " Attica 
aedon" exactly translated. Milton similarly calls 
the nightingale "chaun tress ;" and Nonnus "'Arreis 
cbjScSv." Diony siacks, lib. xlvii. ad init. 

" Pours her throat" belongs to Pope's " Essay on 
Man." As Disraeli and Mr. Mitford observe, the 
word "throat," for the song of a bird, is quite 

" And heedless, while they strain 
Their tuneful throats."" 

Philips's Cider, lib. ii. 

The nightingale and cuckoo are likewise con- 
nected together in Milton's beautiful " Sonnet to 
the Nightingale," which Wakefield gives in part ; 
and yet, strange to say, while he eulogises thsffth 
verse in particular as " exquisitely beautiful," he 
omits said verse altogether, and jumps from the 
fourth to the sixth. It is this : 

" Thy liquid notes that close the eye of day." 

The word "untaught" belongs to Cowley, as I 
before remarked in my first letter : 

" You curious chanters of the wood, 
That warble forth Dame Nature's lays." 

Sir H. Wotton On the Queen of Bohemia. 

" While, whisp'ring pleasure as they fly," &c. 
Wakefield quotes Milton's glorious description : 

" Now gentle gales, 

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense 
Native perfumes," &c. 

Par. Lost, iv. 156., &c. 

but does not point out that Milton was indebted 

to the opening of the Homeric Hymn to Ceres. 

" Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles," 
is not far removed from 

"KrjcoSet 5' o5jj.^ iras r' ovpavos evpvs virepQev 
Tcwa re iraa' yeAaff<re /cal oA/xupbj/ oTSfta 
6a\dff 0-775." 

" What, though the spicy breezes 
Slow soft o'er Ceylon's isle ? " 

Bp. Heber. 

I must particularly refer to Milton's " Elegy on 
the Death of Bishop Andrewes," line 40, and to a 
famous collection of illustrations given in War- 
ton's Notes. We must also remember the old 
fable of the " Loves of Zephyrus and Flora or 
Chloris," to which Milton so often alludes. And 
Cowley : 

" Nupsit odorato Chloris formosa marito, 

Nupsit, et ex illo tempore facta Dea est. 
Tune et Terra ferax, et Coelum, et Pontus, et Aer, 

Publica Icetitice signa dedere suae. 
Nutta erat in toto nubes circumvaga coelo, 

Vel si forsan erat, picta decenter erat. 
Nullus composito spirabat in aere ventus, 

Aut hilares flatu solicitabat aquas. 
Vel si forsan erat, dulces spirabat odores, 

Mulcebatque hilares officiosus aquas." 

Plantarum, lib. iii. pp. 137-8. 

The passage with which I conclude rather re- 
minds me of the first and third verses of this 
delightful " Ode to Spring : " 

" So have I seen the sun kiss the frozen earth, which 
was bound up with the images of death, and the colder 
breath of the north ; and then the waters break from 
their inclosures, and melt with joy, and run in useful 
channels; and the flies do rise again from their little 
graves in walls, and dance awhile in the air, to tell that 
there is joy within, and that the great mother of crea- 
tures will open the stock of her new refreshment, become 
useful to mankind, and sing praises to her Redeemer." 
Bp. J. Taylor, Sermon xxv., The Duties of the 




Some years ago the Athenceum printed, if I re- 
member correctly, the following French doggerel : 

" Quand un cordier cordant 
Veut corder une corde, 
Trois cordons accordant 
A sa corde il accorde ; 
Si 1'un des trois cordons 
De la corde de'corde, 
Le cordon decordant 
Fait decorder la corde." 

In reading, a few weeks ago, the works of Alain 
Chartier, I found out the same curious jew d 'esprit 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



with two or three minor differences. Here you 
have it : 

" Quant ung cordant 

Veult corder une corde, 

En cordant trois cordons 

En une corde accorde. 

Et si lung des cordons 

De la corde descorde, 

Le cordon qui descorde 

Fait descorder la corde." 

The reader who would refer to Alain Chartier's 
compositions, will find the above lines in the edi- 
tion of Galliot du Tre, 1529, small 8vo., fo. 340. 


" And many an ante-natal tomb 

Where butterflies dream of the life to come." 

Shelley's Sensitive Plant. 

" The sense of flying in our sleep might, he thought, 
probably be the anticipation or forefeeling of an un- 
evolved power, like an Aurelia's dream of butterfly 
motion." Sou they, The Doctor, vi. 158. 


" E'en from out thy slime 
The monsters of the deep are form'd." 

Byron (to the Ocean), Childe Harold. 

" Yet monsters from thy large increase we find, 
Engender'd in the slime thou leav'st behind." 

Dryden, The Medal. 


<l Her lips are like roses, and her mouth much the same, 
Like a dish of fresh strawberries smother'd in cream." 
" The Boys of Kilkenny," Songs of Ireland. 
Duffy, 1846. 

** Sylla's a mulberry covered with meal." 

Quoted (as far as the quoter could recollect) 
from Mrs. H. Gray's Etruria. 


Things not to be trusted : 
" A bright sky, 
A smiling master, 
The cry of a dog, 
A harlot's sorrow." 

Howitt's Literature and Romance of Northern 

" Grant I may never be so fond 
To trust man in his oath or bond, 
Or a harlot for her weeping, 
Or a dog that seems a-sleeping." 

Apemantus' Grace. Timon of Athens. 

The collocation of dogs and harlots in both pas- 
sages is remarkable. 


" Thou must either soar or stoop, 
Fall or triumph, stand or droop ; 

Thou must either serve or govern, 
Must be slave or must be sovereign ; 
Must, in fine, be block or wedge, 
Must be anvil or be sledge." 

Extracted from a Magazine (Eraser's?) before 1838. 
In this world a man must be either anvil or hammer." 
Longfellow's Hyperion, b. iv. c. vi. 


Hertfordshire Folk Lore. Hertfordshire, not- 
withstanding its proximity to the metropolis, still 
contains some localities where as yet the school- 
master is known by tradition only. Consequently, 
whilst there may be much ignorance to deplore, 
there is also in those sequestered nooks as trusting 
a belief in many harmless scientific heresies as 
Primate Cullen himself could well desire. 

For instance ; from as true an example of un- 
sophisticated humanity as one might hope to meet 
with in this prosaic age, a good-natured, garrulous 
old Benedick, I gathered a fact not perhaps known 
to every gardener. I was admiring what seemed 
to me to be a very fine specimen of a herb, with 
which I was cockney enough not to be very fa- 
miliar. " That be rosemary, sir," said the worthy 
cottager; "and they do say that it only grows 
where the missis is master, and it do grow here 
like wildfire." 

Strolling in the garden of another villager, I 
saw a mouse, not one of the little devouring ani- 
mals so abhorred by clean and careful housewives, 
but u pretty taper-snouted out-door resident, 
quite as destructive *in his habits, lying dead upon 
one of the paths. No marks of violence were 
visible upon it, and I was earnestly assured that 
these mice, whenever they attempt to cross a foot- 
path, always die in the effort. Putting a credu- 
lous face upon this piece of information, I was met 
by the reply, "Ah! you Lunnuners doant know 
everything ; why I've found 'em dead upon the 
paths scores o 1 times, and I know they can't get 
across alive." 

During a short visit on Easter Sunday in last 
year at the house of an aged relative, a widow 
farmer, close upon her eightieth year, the rain fell 
copiously for some hours ; remarking upon which, 
the old dame exclaimed, "They do say in these 

" 'A good deal of rain on Easter-day 

Gives a crop of good grass, but little good hay;' 

and I'm much afear'd it'll be so to-year." 

Parallels to the above may have a place in the 
recollection of some of your correspondents in 
other parts of England. HENRY CAMPKIN. 

Reform Club. 



[No. 145. 

Curious Epitaph. Of the many absurd epitaphs 
that a person curious in such matters may meet 
with, the following is not among the least : 

" To the Memory of JAMES BARKER, 

Who died January the 22nd, 1781, 

Aged 30 Years : 

*' O, cruel Death, how cou'd you be so unkind, 
To take him before, and leave me behind ; 
You should have taken both of us if either, 
Which would have been more pleasing to the sur- 

St. Philip's churchyard, Birmingham, is the 
liappy place that boasts the possession of this gem 
of an inscription. T. H. KERSLEY, B.A. 

Verses written on the first Leaf of Lady Heath's 
Bible by Sir Compton Domville : 

" My Lady's too wise to study this Libel, 
Or lose all the day in reading the Bible, 
But dull hours to pass, when my lord drinks his fill, 
She Comedys reads, or plays at Quadrille ; 
And, if censur'd by us, she may lawfully say, 
She is taught to live thus by the Vicar of Bray."* 

J. F. F. 

" Blue Bells of Scotland'' It is not generally 
known that this beautiful melody was composed by 
Mrs. Jordan. I have now before me an original 
printed copy with the following title : 

" The Blue Bell of Scotland, a Favorite Ballad as 
composed and sung by Mrs. Jordan, at the Theatre 
Royal, Drury Lane. Printed for Rd. Birchall, at his 
Musical Circulating Library, HO. New Bond Street." 

It has no date,. but from other sources I find 
that it may be correctly assigned to the year 1801. 
The words, which are very nonsensical, relate to 
the Marquis of Huntly's departure for Holland 
with the British forces under the command of the 
gallant Sir Ralph Abercrombie in 1799. In The 
New Whim of the Night, or the Town and Coun- 
try Songster for 1801, London, C. Sheppard, 
occurs, p. 74., " Blue Bell of Scotland, sung by 
Mrs. Jordan," and p. 75., a parody upon it called 
" Blue Bell of Tothill Fields," whose hero is a 
convict "gone to Botany Bay." Ritson, in his 
North- Country Chorister, 1803, p. 12., prints a 
version entitled " The New Highland Lad," with 
this note : 

" This song has been lately introduced upon the 
stage by Mrs. Jordan, who knew neither the words nor 
the tune !" 

What can we now think of Ritson's criticism ? 

Ancient Mark of Emphasis. The following 
note, extracted from The English Churchman of 

* Mr. John Bushe, 1730. 

Sept. 19, 1851, may not inappropriately be trans- 
ferred to the " N. & Q." : 

" In a toll case, tried at Bedford, Mr. Devon, who 
was brought from the Record Office to produce some 
translations from Domesday Book, stated in his evidence 
the singular fact, that in many old manuscripts, when 
particular emphasis was given to a word, it was cus- 
tomary, instead of underlining it as at the present day, 
to run the pen completely across the word, in the same 
manner as we now erase them." 


A Suggestion to Publishers. I beg to suggest 
to those who publish reprints of books, that it 
would add very much to their use if the pagination- 
of the standard editions were retained in the 
margins of the reprints. If a reader meets with a 
reference to the volume and page of a work ori- 
ginally published in several volumes, it costs some- 
times much time and trouble to hunt out the same 
in a one-volumed edition. E. STEANE JACKSON- 


A letter was originally published in the Appen- 
dix of Dr. Peter Heylin's Examen Historicum r 
wherein Dr. Cosin defends himself from certain 
charges brought against him by Fuller in his- 
Church History. 

In this letter (dated "Paris, April 6, 1658"> 
Cosin thanks his friends in England for their in- 
tention to "vindicate him from the injury done,' r 
by Mr. Fuller, " no less to truth than to himself,"' 
by the passage in his History : 

" Which," Cosin adds, " I believe he inserted there, 
as he doth many things besides, upon the false reports 
and informations of other men ; . . . . whereof he 
is so sensible already himself, that by his own letter 
directed to me (more than a year since) he offered to 
make me amends in the next book he writes ; but h& 
hath not done it yet. Having never been acquainted 
with him more than by his books, which have many 
petulant, light, and indiscreet passages in them, I know 
not how to trust him ; and therefore, if the authors of 
the intended Animadversions, which you mention, will 
be pleased to do me right, you may assure them there- 
is nothing but truth in this ensuing relation," &c. 

Heylin, in his preface to Cosin's letter, takes 1 
notice of a rumour, to the effect that the Church* 
historian had a review of his work in hand, " in 
which he was resolved to make some fair amends to 
truth, to correct the errors of his pen, and to make 
reparation to the injured clergy;'' but he adds, that 
these reports were " thought at last to have some- 
what in them of design or artifice, to stave off the 
business " of the Animadversions. 

It seems not only due to Cosin, but also desirable 
for Fuller's credit, that it should be better known 
than I suppose it to be, that in a subsequent book 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



(though not, as Heylin had been led to expect, in 
a revised edition of the Church History), Fuller 
did actually retract what he had so injuriously said 
of Dr. Cosin. 

In his Worthies of England (ed. Lond. 1652, 
p. 265.) Fuller writes of Cosin, then Bishop of 
.Durham, as follows : 

" I must not pass over his constancy in his religion, 
which rendereth him amiable in the eyes, not of good 
men only, but with that God with whom there is no 
-variableness nor shadow of changing. It must be con- 
fessed that a sort of fond people surmised as if he had 
/once been declining to the Popish persuasion. Thus 
the dim-sighted complain of the darkness of the room, 
ivhen, alas! the fault is in their own eyes; and the 
lame of the unevenness of the floor, when indeed it 
lieth in their unsound legs. Such were the silly folk 
(their understandings, the eyes of their mind, being 
darkened, and their affections, the feet of their soul, 
made lame by prejudice), who have thus falsely con- 
ceited of this worthy Doctor. However, if anything 
'that I delivered in my Church History (relating therein 
a charge drawn up against him for urging of some 
^ceremonies, without inserting his purgation, which he 
effectually made, clearing himself from the least im- 
putation of any fault), hath any way augmented this 
opinion, I humbly crave pardon of him, for the same. 
JSure I am, were his enemies now his judges (had they 
the least spark of ingenuity), they must acquit him, if 
proceeding according to the evidence of his writing, 
living, disputing." 

Fuller then goes on to say how Cosin, while he 
remained in France, was the " Atlas " of the Church 
of England, " supporting her doctrines " with his 
piety and learning, confirming the wavering therein, 
yea, daily adding proselytes (not of the meanest 
rank) thereunto, &c. 

Has this'retractation of Fuller's been noticed in 
any recent edition of the Church History ? 


[This retractation has been noticed in an edition of 
Fuller's Church History, published in 1837, and edited 
1)y Mr. James Nichols, author of Arminianism and 
Calvinism Compared ; who has also subjoined Fuller's 
retractation to Bishop Cosin's letter in the new edition 
of The Appeal of Injured Innocence ; at the end of which 
Mr. Nichols adds, " One might have expected a more 
ample apology than this from such a candid and up- 
right mind as Fuller's : but when it is recollected that 
Jiis History of the Worthies of ^England was a posthu- 
.mous work, and that his death was somewhat sudden, 
we shall cease to blame the worthy old historian." 


^Any information as to age, family, or education, 
-with dates, if known, of consecration and death ; 
also ^ names of consecrators and place of conse- 
cration, with place of death or burial, of the fol- 
lowing : Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcis ; John 

Leyburn, V. S. D., Bishop of Adrumetum ; Bona- 
venture Giffard, Bishop of Madaura ; James Smith, 
Bishop of Callipolis ; and Fr. Philip Ellis, V. S. B., 
Bishop of Aureliopolis. The names of what dis- 
tricts in England the three latter, Bishops Giffard, 
Smith, and Ellis, presided over, also solicited. I 
may mention that my notitia contain the following 
scanty data : " R. Smith, appointed Bishop of 
Chalcis, and V. A. of England, by brief of Feb. 4, 
1625, banished the realm 1629, and died 1658 in 
France, where he had taken refuge (probably at 
Douay College). Bishop Leyburn, nominated V. A. 
for all the kingdom of England, and consecrated 
1685, subsequently appointed to London District, 
1688, and sent to Newgate in December of that 
year. Bishop Giffard, nominated V. A. 30th Ja- 
nuary, 1688, installed President of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, on death of Bishop Samuel Parker, 
also sent to Newgate at Revolution, but after- 
wards liberated, and survived till beginning of 
1734, when he died, upwards of ninety years of 
age, at Hammersmith, and his heart was, accord- 
ing to his directions, sent to Douay College, where 
he had received his education : he was a Doctor of 
the Sorbonne, and consecrated in the banqueting- 
house at Whitehall, probably by Bishop Leyburn." 
" Father Ellis, Monk of the Holy Order of St. Be- 
nedict, and of the English Congregation, was also 
consecrated, as well as Bishop J. Smith (of whom, 
however, I have no particulars), in the year 1688, 
and sent to Newgate with Bishop Leyburn in 
December, 1688 ; he was brother to Welbore 
Ellis, who died Bishop of Meath in Ireland, 1733 
(having been previously Bishop of Kildare, 1705 
1731), and also to Sir William Ellis, Knt., who 
went to Ireland as 'secretary to Richard, Earl of 
Tyrconnel, Lord-Lieutenant, in 1686, having been 
previously a puisne judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas in 1672, afterwards removed, but re-ap- 
pointed 1679. The family of Ellis had been 
seated for centuries at Kiddall in Yorkshire." I 
believe Philip Ellis is mentioned in Wood's Athen. 
Oxon., but I have not that work to refer to. 

What vicars apostolic were nominated after the 
above four mentioned, or till the year 1750? since 
when a list of them is given in the " General 
Clerical Obituary," published in the Catholic An- 
nual Register, for the year ended June 30, 1850, 
of Dolman, London. A. S. A. 



(Yol. v., p. 604.) 


Your correspondent MR. HOOPER gives an in- 
teresting account of his acquisition of a copy of 
JEschylus, once the property of Dr. Thomas Morell, 
and having his book-plate and autograph. 

Allow me, as a fellow book-collector, to convey 



[No. 145. 

to him my hearty congratulations as well on his 
prize as on the price at which he secured it : 

" Non equidem invideo, miror ihagis." 

It is not my purpose to observe on the important 
critica supellex furnished by the annotated margins 
of the copy which MR. H. possesses ; but, taking 
humbler ground, to call attention to the book-plate. 
I myself possess an impression of the plate, and 
have been struck with the great superiority of its 
execution over similar works of ordinary engravers. 
Now, I have somewhere seen or heard it stated 
that Hogarth, in one instance, condescended to 
engrave a book-plate for a friend ; and the impres- 
sion on my mind has been, ever since I saw that 
of Dr. Morell, that he might be that favoured 
friend, and his the single book-plate. Will MB. H. 
so far oblige your readers in general, and myself in 
particular, as to examine, or submit to the exarnin- 
tion of those competent judges, with whom his 
residence in the metropolis must place him in com- 
munication, that impression of the plate contained 
in his JEschylus, in order to ascertain whether it 
shall be pronounced worthy of the burin of our 
great national artist ? 

I have no doubt that MR. H. will feel, if it 
should prove to be the case, that his acquisition, 
already so precious, has been invested with some 
additional value, if it shall be determined that it 
contains an impression necessarily extremely 
rare of an engraving by Hogarth. Certain it is 
that Hogarth did engrave the portrait of Morell 
prefixed to the first edition of his Thesaurus, and 
that his armorial bearings are given in the upper 
corner of the print. BAULIOLENSIS. 


I shall be much obliged to any reader of " N. & 
Q." who will tell me how to designate a species of 
conundrum, or play on words, which consists in 
dividing a word in some manner contrary to its 
composition, or syllabic formation, or in adding or 
subtracting certain letters. I subjoin a specimen 
of the former description which may illustrate my 
Query : 

"Let's look more closely at it 'tis a very ugly 

word ; 
One that should make men shudder whenever it 

is heard. 
It mayn't be always wicked, but it must be 

always bad, 
And tell of sin and suffering enough to make 

one sad. 
Let's see if we can't mend it 'tis possible we 


If only we divide it in some new-fashioned way. 
Folks tell us it's a compound word, and that is 

very true ; 

And then they decompound it, which of course 

they're free to do. 
But why, of its twelve letters, should they take 

the first three, 
And leave the nine remaining as bad as they can 

(For while they seem to make it less, in fact they 

make it more, 
And bring the brute creation in, who were shut 

out before). 
You'd think 'twould make no difference at 

least none very great 
Suppose, instead of three and nine, they made it 

four and eight. 
Yet only see the consequence that's all that 

need be done 
To change this mass of sadness to unmitigated 

It clears off swords and pistols, prescriptions, 

bowie knives, 
And all the horrid implements by which men 

lose their lives. 
The spell has waken'd Nature's voice, and cheerily 

'tis heard, 
The native tongue of merriment compressed into 

that word. 
Yes, 4 and 8's the way, my friend may that 

be yours and mine, 
Though tigers, turks, and termagants rejoice in 

3 and 9." RUFUS. 


About nineteen years ago I spent some time with 
a connexion by marriage at a lodge which he had 
built at Lahinch, a small village at the bottom of 
the Bay of Liscannor, and while there, on two 
separate occasions, I was witness to the following 
most extraordinary proceeding. I must premise 
that the house was situated on the very verge of 
sea, within reach of the spray at high tides, and 
that, in accordance with the primitive manners of 
the natives, the bathing-place for all females was 
under the windows, while the men's bathing-place 
was not ten yards distant. And now to my tale : 
About the time of high water, one fine hot day, I 
was sitting in the window, when I heard a consi- 
derable bustle, and the sound of many voices 
talking loudly in the vernacular approaching. On 
looking out I saw a crowd of men and boys coming 
along towards the sea, not directly from the village, 
which lay behind my friend's house, but down the 
road which ran along the bay. At their head 
walked two middle-aged men, holding each by one 
of his hands a lad of about nineteen years of age, 
perfectly naked; while immediately behind him 
walked an elderly man (either his father or uncle, 
as I afterwards found out), holding a hatchet and a 
saw. They walked along, attended by the crowd, 

AUG. 7. 1852.1 



by the row of villas that fronted the bay, and, I 
heard afterwards, had come about a mile along the 
road that runs round the southern angle of the bay. 
On reaching the usual bathing-place, a circle was 
formed, and the principal performers were en- 
closed in it. After a time the young man was led 
out by another, who had undressed himself, and 
bathed in the sea ; after which they were again 
received into the circle, and in a few moments a 
loud shout proclaimed that the "mystery" was 
proceeding successfully ; and as soon as the man 
who had bathed the boy was dressed, the crowd 
set forward into the village with loud shouts, the 
two men leading the naked youth as before, and 
the man with the saw and hatchet following. I 
endeavoured to find out what was the meaning of 
such an extraordinary exhibition, but in vain : all 
that I could discover was, that it was in some way 
connected with the worship of Priapus, while I was 
strictly cautioned not to ask questions about it. 
A sort of horror seemed to hang over everything 
until the bathing ceremony was completed; and 
every one, particularly the women, appeared 
anxious to keep out of the line of procession, till 
the shouts announced that all was well, when all 
the " rabble rout," both male and female, of the 
village seemed flocking about them, and for some 
time the shouts of the mob could be heard as they 
passed up the village street. About two years 
afterwards I witnessed a precisely similar per- 
formance ; and when I anxiously inquired into 
the meaning of it, was refused all information, and 
cautioned most earnestly not to inquire. When 
the boy was received into the circle, after his bath, 
some ceremony was gone through, in which the 
hatchet and saw were used ; but this was strictly 
guarded from the observation of the "profane." 
Have any of your readers witnessed a similar oc- 
currence, and can any one give more information 

" Nobilis antiquo veniens" tyc. Who is the 
author of 

" Nobilis antiquo veniens de germine patrum, 
Sed magis in Christo nobilior merito ? " 

I think it is part of an epitaph. K. P. D. E. 

Volume of French Poetry. Many years since I 
saw, in the possession of a distinguished miniature 
painter, a duodecimo volume of French poetry, in 
which were vignettes. One of them represented 
the " Infant Academy," attributed to Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. As the date of the book was long in- 
terior to the exhibition of that picture, I should be 
obliged to any of your correspondents to inform me 
of the title and date of the book ; and if there are 
any variations in the composition. 

St. Mary Overy's painted Windows. Can any 
of your readers inform me what has become of 
the three painted windows which were at the east 
end of St. Mary Overy's church, or St. Saviour's, 
before the restoration of it ? A SUBSCRIBER* 

The Host. Having no access to an anonymous 
work entitled Histoire des Hosties Miraculeuses, I 
should feel favoured by information as to the 
earliest instance alleged of a consecrated wafer 
shedding blood. My question includes the earliest 
date at which it is stated to have so happened, and 
also the earliest date of an author so stating it. 

A. K, 

Epigram on the Monastic Orders. Who is the 
author of the following distich : 

" O garachi, vestri stomachi sunt amphora Bacchi ; 

Vos estis, Deus est testis, teterrima pestis"? 
It is of the species called " Leonine," of which 
some samples have already appeared in " N. & Q." 

St. Lucia. 

Gremlins Ode to Indifference. The readers of 
" N". & Q." are familiar with the lines in Mrs. 
Greville's Ode to Indifference : 

" Nor peace nor ease that heart can know 

Which, like the needle true, 
Turns at the touch of joy or woe, 
But turning trembles too." 

Archbishop Leighton, in his Twelfth Sermon, 
The Believer a Hero, when speaking of our " re- 
joicing with trembling," adds : 

" The heart, touched by the Spirit of God, as the 
needle touched witfi the loadstone, looks straight and 
speedily to God, yet still with trembling, being filled 
with holy fear." 

The poetess is, probably, not to be accused of 
plagiarism, as in this case the remark in the Critic 
may be applicable, that "two people have hap- 
pened to hit on the same thought :" Leighton may 
have made use of it first. Some of your corre- 
spondents can tell me whether any earlier writer 
than the archbishop may not'also have employed 
this beautiful simile ? J. H. M. 

Clock Motto. In the market-town of Tetbury, 
about forty years ago, there was a very ancient 
market-house, in front of which there was a clock 
with a very curious and elaborately carved oaken 
dial plate, with this motto : 


I shall be very much obliged to any reader of the 
" N. & Q." who can inform me in what author I 
can find the sentence. I expected to have found 
it in Prudentius, but have not succeeded. *. 

Does the Furze Bush grow in Scandinavia ? 
This Query is submitted from the fact that " whins" 
and " furze bushes " are repeatedly mentioned in 



[No. 145. 

Mr. Hamilton's entertaining narrative of A Visit 
to the Danish Isles ; while one cannot but recollect 
the anecdote which attributes to Linnaeus the en- 
thusiastic act of falling on his face and thanking 
God, who had permitted him to see so glorious a 
sight as a plot of "yellow-blossomed" furze in 
England. The question is this, Does the Scan- 
dinavian Flora present such a difference on the 
soil on either side of the Sound, that the Ulex 
Europceus abounds in Denmark, while it is un- 
"known in Sweden, the native country of the ce- 
lebrated botanist above named ? D. 

Duke of Orleans (Vol. vi., p. 57.). Like King 
John, the Duke of Orleans appears to have been 
confined in several places. In addition to those 
named in Nicolas' Agincourt, Pontefract is named 
by Henry V. (History of England and France, 
" House of Lancaster," 1852.) Nicolas has, " It is 
said that Sir R. Waller took him prisoner;" but 
whence comes the statement in Lower's Curiosities 
of Heraldry, p. 173., of the twenty-nine years' cap- 
tivity at Groombridge, arms at Speldhurst, &c. ? 

A. C. 

Ferdinando Conde If Adda. Sen. D'Adda, as 
he was generally styled, was accredited to the 
Court of England as Papal Nuncio, and publicly 
received as such by King James II. at Windsor, 
July 3, 1687, and had been consecrated Arch- 
bishop of Amasia, in partibus, in May preceding, 
in the chapel at St. James's Palace, by Bishop 
Leyburn, assisted by two Irish prelates. Query, 
Who were they? Count Adda made his escape 
from England on the breaking out of the revo- 
lution in December of the following year, in the 
train of the Duke of Savoy's ambassador, and I 
possess no further information about him. I wish 
therefore to ascertain the period and place of his 
decease, with any particulars of his previous and 
subsequent history. A. S. A. 


Constables of France. Who succeeded in this 
office Annas de Mojitmorency, killed in the battle 
of St. Denis, 1567 ; or was the dignity then abo- 
lished? I am aware that Henri, Due d'Anjou, 
was appointed lieutenant-general of the kingdom 
of France, after Montmorency's death, but I have 
somewhere met with a Lesdiguieres, Governor of 
Dauphine, called Constable, temp. Henry IV. 



Lady Mary Grey and Thomas Keyes, 1568 
1571. Who was the first wife of Thomas Keyes, 
who by his second marriage became allied to the 
blood-royal of England ? On his death in Sep- 
tember 1571, his widow, Mary Keyes, or the Lady 
Mary Grey, asked for Queen Elizabeth's permis- 
sion " to keep and bring up his children," of whom 
it appears that Mr. Keyes had several by his 

former wife. Is it known what became of them 
afterwards, or of what family Keyes himself was? 
Burgon's Life and Times of Sir T. Gresham has 
shown that his name was Thomas, and not Martin, 
as all previous writers had stated. A. S. A. 


Frances, Duchess of Suffolk, and Adrian Stokes. 
Another obscure marriage of a royally de- 
scended lady requires elucidation. Who was 
Stokes, when and where did this mesalliance 
occur, and is the period of his death recorded, or 
indeed any particulars of him or his origin, familv 

&C.P 3 A.S.I: 


Queen Marie de Conci, Widow of Alexander II. 
King of Scots. This lady is stated to have mar- 
ried secondly John of Acre, son of the King of 
Jerusalem. Is the date of this marriage recorded, 
or what became subsequently of her and her hus- 
band, and whether they had any family? Was 
this John, son of John de Brienne, King of Je- 
rusalem, 1210, and Emperor of Constantinople, 
1228, till his death, 1237 ? For if so, why did not 
he, and not his sister Violante, inherit the claims 
to the titular dignity of Jerusalem? John of 
Acre must have been alive long after that crown 
was assumed by the Emperor Frederic II. in right 
of his wife Queen Violante. A. S. A. 


Milan. The German name for this town is 
" Mailand," which means " Land of May." This 
is probably a corruption of Mediolanum, the Ro- 
man name ; or possibly the ancient Germans had 
given "Mailand" or some name of the sort to this 
town previously to the possession of it by the Ro- 
mans, and they, on coming into possession of it, 
Latinised the native name into Mediolanum in 
much the same way as the native name of the 
place now called London, which was Lundyn, was 
Latinised by its conquerors into Londinium. My 
Query is, What is the derivation of the English 
and Italian names for the town, viz., Milan and 
Milano ? Is it a corruption of the Roman, or the 
still more ancient name, if any existed ? It does 
not appear to me to bear much similarity to the 
name Mediolanum. ARTHUR C. WILSON. 

Author of the Gradus. I have very often heard 
it asked, and wished myself to know, who was the 
mysterious Jesuit who wrote that well-known school 
book, the Gradus ad Parnasswn. The authorship 
of this book is, as all know who have availed them- 
selves of its aid, ascribed on the title-page thus : 
" Ab uno e Societate Jesu." Perhaps "N. & Q." can 
throw some light on the subject ; for it is only by 
reminding eome of its learned correspondents of 
these subjects that we (I mean those who, like 
myself, do not know how to set about the solution) 
can hope to be enlightened. ARTHUR C. WILSON. 

AUG. V. 1852.] 



Mutability of the Substance of the Human Body. 
In Cowley's Poems are the following ingenious 
ines, part of a short piece entitled "Inconstancy :" 

" Five years ago (says Story) I lov'd you, 
For which you call me most Inconstant now ; 
Pardon me, Madam ! you mistake the man, 
For I am not the same that I was then ; 
No flesh is now the same 'twas then in me," &c. 

Vol. ii. p. 14. edit. Svols. 12mo. London, 1806. 

On turning to a little volume entitled Electrical- 
Psychology, by Dr. Darling, the electro-biological 
ecturer, I find the following statements : 

" Our bodies are continually wasting away, and by 
bod and drink are continually repaired. We lose the 
leshly particles of our bodies about once a year, and 
he bones in about seven years. Hence, in seven years 
ve have possessed seven bodies of flesh and blood, and 
me frame of bones. We have not now, in all proba- 
tility, a particle of flesh and bones we had seven years 
go." P. 60. edit. 1851. 

Where is this interesting question best discussed : 
md what term of years is most generally believed 
o be the period in which a total change of bodily 
ubstance takes place? Any information upon this 
ubject will be very acceptable. 


Beech Tree never struck by Lightning. I have 
leard it frequently and confidently asserted that a 
icech tree is never struck by lightning ; and there- 
c>re, if a beech tree be at hand, I may securely 
ake refuge under it, if unexpectedly overtaken by 

thunderstorm. But I wish, first of all, to ascer- 
ain the truth of the assertion. If indeed it be 
rue, how is the fact to be accounted for ? 


Derivation of Knightsbridge.i should be greatly 
bliged by a correct derivation of this name. I do 
ot know the chronicler from whom Mr. Walcott's 
ote, as to its origin, is derived; but from its 
omposition, I think dates are against him. In a 
harter of the twelfth century, it is called 
^nyghtsbrygg. I am aware of the traditional 
ccount, and its truth or not is worth testing now 

N. & Q." is in existence. 

An allusion to a place called " Spring Gardens"- 
ppears in No. 134. Will the owner of the MS. 
icntioned explain that Note ? Spring Gardens 
tood on the site of the present William Street. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." give me a copy of 
song, relating to and sung by the Knightsbrido-e 
olunteers ? The burden of the chorus was : 
" Then with Major Ayres we'll go, my boys, 
Then with Major Ayres we'll go." 

The Major was their commander; and from 
leir allusions to the leading men in the regiment, 
icy are interesting to Knightsbridgites. H. G. D. 

Henrie Smith. I have in my possession the 
following sermons by one Henrie Smith. Can you 
or any of your correspondents inform me who he 
was, or refer me to any work containing a bio- 
graphical notice of him and his writings ? 

The Benefite of Contestation, by H. Smith, taken 
by Characterie, and examined after. (Black 
letter.) London, 1590. 

The Examination of Usury, in two Sermons. 
London, 1591. 

The Affinitie of the Faithfull; being a verie 
Godlie and Fruitful Sermon, made upon part of 
the Eighth Chapter of the Gospel of St. Luke, by 
Henrie Smith, 1591. 

The Christian Sacrifice. Scene and allowed. 

A Fruitfull Sermon, upon part of the 5th chap- 
ter of the 1st Epist. of Paul to the Thessalonians, 
by Henrie Smith, 1591. 

Three Prayers, a Godly Letter to a Sicke 
Freend, &c., by Henrie Smith, 1591. 

A Treatise of the Lord's Supper, in Two Ser- 
mons, 1591. 

Seven Godly and Learned Sermons upon Seven 
divers Texts of Scripture,^ perused by the author 
before his death, by Henrie Smith, 1591. 

The Wedding Garment, by Henrie Smith, 1591.' 

G. R. VINE. 


[Henry Smith was one of the most popular preachers 
of his age. He was born at Withcock, in Leicester- 
shire, and, after pursuing his studies at Oxford, became 
lecturer at the church o St. Clement Danes, Strand. 
Wood (Athena; Oxon., vol. i. p. 603., Bliss) says, that 
he was "in great renown among men in 1593," in 
which year he thinks he died. Smith's Sermons, toge- 
ther with other his learned Treatises, were published in 
1675 in 4to., to which Fuller prefixed a Life of the 
Author. That Wood has dated the death of Henry 
Smith somewhat after its occurrence is proved by the 
following Encomium Henrici Smithi, by Thomas Nash, 
which is not only curious on account of the source 
whence it is derived, but as referring to metrical com- 
positions nowhere to be found. Speaking of the supe- 
riority of those preachers whose minds are imbued 
with poetical feeling " over those dulheaded divines 
who deem it no more cunning to write an exquisite 
poem, than to preach pure Calvin, or distil the juice of 
a commentary into a quarto sermon," Nash exclaims, 
" Silver-tongu'd Smith, whose well tun'd stile hath 
made thy death the generall teares of the Muses, 
queintlie couldst thou deuise heauenly ditties to Apol- 
loe's lute, and teach stately verse to trip it as smoothly, 
as if Ovid and thou had but one soule. Hence along 
did it proceede, that thou wert such a plausible pulpit- 
man ; before thou entredst into the wonderfull waies 
of theologie, thou refinedst, preparedst, and purifiedst 
thy wings with sweete poetrie. If a simple man's cen- 
sure may be admitted to speake in such an open theater 
of opinions, I neuer saw aboundant reading better 



[No. 145. 

mixt with delight, or sentences which no man can 
challenge of prophane affectation sounding more melo- 
dious to the eare, or piercing more deep to the heart." 
Piers Penilesse : his Supplication to the Diuell, from 
whence this extract is taken, was entered in the Sta- 
tioners' registers for Richard Jones, on the 8th of 
Aug. 1592, being licensed by the archbishop. For a 
list of Smith's Sermons and Treatises, see Watt's Bib- 
liotheca Britannica.] 

Thomas Stanley, Bishop of Man, 15 10. There 
seems to be great uncertainty respecting those who 
filled this insular diocese during the first half of 
the sixteenth century. Bishop Stanley is said to 
have been " deprived by Queen Mary," but after- 
wards restored on accession of Queen Elizabeth, 
and died in 1570. While R. Farrer is made Bi- 
shop of Man, 1548, and translated the same year 
to St. David's, and H.Man is called Bishop of 
Man, 1546, till death in 1556, how can these dates 
be reconciled ? And also Bishop Stanley's death 
as taking place at the unusually long period of 
sixty years from his first appointment to the epis- 
copacy, which would make him upwards of ninety 
years of age, at the lowest estimation of the ca- 
nonical age of thirty years for a bishop on conse- 
cration? I offer these Queries to you for elu- 
cidation, if such is possible at this day. A. S. A. 

Wuzzeerabad, in the Punjaub. * **|V 

[We suspect our correspondent has been misled by 
Le Neve, who, though generally correct, in this instance 
contradicts himself. From a MS. of Bishop Hildesley's 
in the British Museum, Sloane Collection, No. 4828, 
we learn that " Thomas Stanley, 1542, in his time, by 
statute Henry VIII., the new erected See of Chester 
and Bishopric of Man were dissevered from Canter- 
bury's jurisdiction, and annexed to York. But Bishop 
Stanley, not complying with Henry VIII.'s measures, 
was deprived anno 1545, and was succeeded by R. 
Farrer, translated to St. David's. Henry Man ap- 
pointed 1546: upon his death Stanley, who had been 
deprived by Henry VIII., was restored by Queen 
Mary, 1556; he died 1568." Or, to give a tabular 
view of these statements, it appears that 

In the reign of Henry VIIL, A. D. 

Stanley was Bishop of Man - - - 1542 

was deprived by Henry - - 1545 

Bishop Farrer translated the same year to St. 

Bishop Man appointed - 1546 

Henry VIIL died - - - 1547 

Edward VI. died - - - 1553 

Mary did not deprive. 
Bishop Man, who died in possession, when 
Stanley was restored - - - 1556 

Mary died - - - - 1 558 

Elizabeth did not deprive. 
Bishop Stanley died in possession - - 1568] 

Thomas Watson, Bishop of St. David's, 1687 
1699. Why was he deprived, and by whom was 

;he sentence pronounced ; also date and place of his 
death, with age, family, or any other particulars ? 
[t is believed that he is the only instance of de- 
privation amongst the English episcopacy for a 
century and a half, as Bishop Joceylin of Clogher 
was, in the Irish church, for a similar period, or 
since the year 1700. A. S. A. 


[Dr. Thomas Watson was born at Kingston-upon 
Hull, entered St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1655, 
elected Fellow in 1660, took his degree of D.D. in 
1675, and was consecrated Bishop of St. David's on 
June 26, 1687. He had an estate at Burrow Green 
in Cambridgeshire, where he resided at the time of the 
Revolution. Dr. Watson was deprived in 1699 by 
Archbishop Tenison for simony, whose sentence was 
afterwards confirmed by the Court of Delegates, and 
eventually by the House of Lords. See Birch's Life 
of Tillotson, p. 230. edit. 1753; and Wood's Athens 
Oxon., vol. iv. p. 870., Bliss.] 

J. M. Turner, Fourth Bishop of Calcutta, 1829 
1831. Place and date of birth, parentage, and 
university ? A. S. A. 


[Dr. Turner was a native of Oxford, where his 
father died while he was young, leaving a family but 
ill provided for. He was entered by his friends as a 
scholar of Christ Church," and at the examinations in 
1804 was placed in the first class. He took his degree 
of M. A. Dec. 3, 1807 ; and D.D. by diploma, March 
26, 1829, soon after he was appointed Bishop of Cal- 
cutta. Immediately after taking his degree of B.A., 
Dr. Turner became private tutor in the Marquis of 
Donegal's family, and was afterwards at Eton for many 
years with Lord Belfast, Lord Chichester, and Lord 
Castlereagh. In 1823, he was presented to the vicar- 
age of Abingdon, whence he removed in 1824 to the 
rectory of Wilmslow in Cheshire. On settling there, 
he married Miss Robertson, sister-in-law to the present 
Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1829 he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Calcutta, and died at his episcopal 
residence, Chowringhee, July 7, 1831. An interesting 
account of this amiable prelate will be found in The 
Christian Observer for 1831 and 1832, and in Arch- 
deacon Corrie's Funeral Sermon.] 

S. Gobat, Bishop in Jerusalem, 1846. Any 
notices of him and his antecedents ? A. S. A. 


[Bishop Gobat is a native of Switzerland, and re- 
ceived his missionary education, first at Basle, and 
subsequently at the Church Missionary Institution at 
Islington. He was appointed Vice-principal of tl 
Protestant College at Malta, and laboured for some 
time as missionary in Abyssinia, Syria, and Egypt, 
under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. 
On the death of Bishop Alexander, the King of Prus: 
nominated M. Gobat as his successor, and he was conse- 
crated at Lambeth on July 5, 1846, as Bishop of t: 
United Church of England and Ireland at Jerusalem, 
by his Grace the Primate, assisted by the Bishops c 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



London, Calcutta, and Lichfield. Many documents 
relating to this appointment, as well as to the decease 
of Bishop Alexander, will be found in The Jewish 
Intelligence for 1846, vol. xii.] 

Distemper. Why is the word distemper applied 
to a process of colour- compounding ? 


[Richardson says, " Distemper, in painting, appears 
originally to have been applied, when the simple tern - 
perature, or admixture of colours with water (for lim- 
ning), or with oil (for oil-painting), was altered by the 
substitution of one or more ingredients ; as of size, to 
render the whole composition more adhesive, of galls 
for marbling paper," &c.] 

Wright's Louthiana. I have lately purchased a 
copy of this work, " the Second Edition revised 
and corrected, with some few additions by the 
author," 4to., London, 1758, dedicated "to the 
Right Honourable James, Earl of Clanbrassele ;" 
after which follows " the Preface." On comparing 
my edition with that of 1748, also 4to., I find that 
this is dedicated " to the Right Honourable James, 
Lord Yiscount Limerick ; " and has, besides the 
Preface, " a List of Subscribers' Names," occupy- 
ing two leaves, which my edition wants. 

Can any one tell me why the " List" is omitted 
in my edition, or is it an imperfection in my copy ? 


[We presume that the second edition was not pub- 
lished by subscription : and therefore, although it was 
perfectly right to insert the List of Subscribers in the 
first edition, it was obviously unnecessary to repeat it 
in any subsequent ones.] 


(Vol. vi., p. 87.) 

^ I am much obliged to W. W., La Valette, for 
his kind communication respecting the govern- 
ment of this island ; from which it appears that it 
belonged t France till 1653 ; then to the Knights 
of Malta till 1673, when it was again made over to 
France. Singular to say, the document in my 
hands distinctly refers to the King of England as 
its master in 1662. There can be no doubt of the 
authenticity of the letter in question. It formed 
one oi ? a bundle of family papers, consisting of a cor- 
respondence between Fairfax and his cousin James 
Chaloner, letters of Monk, Charlotte Countess of 
Derby, &c. ; and though the writing is in a differ- 
ent hand (apparently that of a secretary), it is 
evidently no less ancient. The following quota- 
tions may, perhaps, enable W. W. to throw some 
light on the subject : 

" St. Christopher's, Sept. 7th, 1662. 
"Sin,-_I have received information from severall 
hands, y* you surprised a small vessell w* h 22 persons, 
as also others y' by a storm was forced upon your 

shore, made prize of by you. And not onely soe, but 
you designe his sacred Ma ts of Englands subiects and 
leidg people to perpetuall servitude .... which strikes 
me into admiration how you dare doe things of this 
nature soe much ag st the law of nationes, civility, and 
humanity. If your commands be from your master y* 
States- Generall, then I shall acquainte our dread Sove- 
reigne Lord y a King thereof." 

The letter goes on to exhort the Governor of 
St. Martin's to restore those whom he had seized 
to the messengers sent by the writer. 

Surely this must prove that St. Christopher be- 
longed to England, and St. Martin's to the Dutch, 
during the period in which W. W. attributes them 
to the Knights of Malta ? The Governor of St. 
Christopher must also have been an Englishman, 
endorsing his private papers in English, " A coppie 
of my letter to y e Governor of S*' Martin's." The 
families to whom the other letters in the packet 
belonged, and to whom there is every probability 
he was allied, were Fairfax, Chaloner, Norton, 
Cobbe, and Godolphin. 

I shall be happy to send a complete copy of the 
letter to W. W. if he desires it. May I ask, What 
is the Chronology of St. Christopher, to which he 
refers ? URSULA. 


(, p. 37.) 

One of your correspondents in Number 141. 
of the "N. & Q.," who signs himself A. A. D., 
wishes to know where the opinion that the world 
was to last for 6000 years originated, and also 
whether any modern divines have adopted it. The 
last question I think I may positively answer in the 
affirmative. At least the opinion has been adopted 
by the Rev. J. W. Brooks, Vicar of St. Mary's, 
Nottingham, a prophetical writer, "multi nomi- 
nis ;" by the Rev. E. B. Elliott, the learned author 
of the HorcR Apocalypticce ; by the Rev. T. R. 
Birks, author of Elements of Prophecy, a work 
highly commended by Archdeacon Browne ; and, 
doubtless, by many more. The last-named writer 
calls it " an opinion that commends itself to our 
minds by its simplicity." Mr. Elliott and Mr. 
Brooks inform us that this opinion was very 
generally held by the Jews, the primitive fathers, 
and the reformers. And Mr. E. names two re- 
formers, Osiander and Melancthon, who held it ; 
and they distinctly call it the tradition or opinion 
of Elias ; " dictum Elise," says Melancthon. Then 
with regard to its origin : it originated not with 
Elijah, the eminent prophet of the Lord, but, as 
Messrs. Elliott and Brooks inform us, with Elias, 
an eminent rabbi, who lived before the birth of 
Christ. And hence it is called " A tradition of 
the house of Elias." 

It may not be amiss also just to add, that Mr. 
Clinton, in his learned work on chronology, makes 



[No. 145. 

the date of the creation to be about 4138 B.C.; 
and, consequently, the end of the 6000 years of 
the world, and opening of the seventh millennium, 
ty approximation, about A.D. 1862. For this piece 
of information, I am also indebted to Mr. Elliott. 

Hazelbury Bryan, Blandford. 


(Vol. vi., p. 75.) 

I am pleased to see the Query of your corre- 
spondent S. L. P. respecting these animals in a re- 
cent Number, as it may possibly have arisen from 
a remark made by myself in the concluding para- 
graph of some brief observations on the credibility 
of the ancient naturalists, which you have done me 
the favour to admit into your 141st Number. 

Although the statement of Herodotus is con- 
firmed by Aristotle and Pliny, and other ancient 
writers, it has been very generally discredited in 
modern times. Recent inquiries, however, show 
that in this, as in most of his relations, the Father 
of History is justified by the fact. 

The term bdella has hitherto been translated 
leech, as from jSSaAAw, to suck ; but, in the opinion 
of Bahr, Herodotus intended to describe flies, or 
rather gnats, which also live by suction, and not 
leeches. And M. Geoffrey St. Hilaire has 
adopted the opinion that the word /35eA7u corre- 
sponds to culex, that is, a gnat, myriads of which 
insects swarm on the banks of the Nile, and attack 
the crocodile when he comes to repose on the sand. 
His mouth is not so hermetically closed but that 
they can enter, which they do in such numbers, 
that the interior of his palate, which is naturally 
of a bright yellow, appears covered with a darkish 
brown crust. The insects strike their trunks into 
the orifices of the glands, which abound in the 
mouth of the crocodile ; and the tongue of the 
animal being immoveable, it cannot get rid of 
them. It is then that the trochilus, a kind of 
plover, closely allied to the Charadrius minor of 
Meyer, or, in the opinion of M. St. Hilaire, C. 
Egyptiacus, but which Pliny, confounding with 
another bird of the same name, calls " the king of 
birds," in its pursuit of the gnats, hastens to his 
relief; the crocodile always taking care, when he 
is about to shut his mouth, to make certain move- 
ments which warn the bird to fly away. Thus the 
ancient story is not so unreasonable as might be 
thought. It is matter of every-day observation, 
that gnats will attack bulls and other large ter- 
restrial animals of the fiercest nature, and that 
wagtails and other, insectivorous birds will peck 
the insects from the muzzles of the quadrupeds ; 
while in India it is common to see the ox ap- 
proaching its eye deliberately to the ground, by 
holding its head on one side, to enable the Mina, a 
species of starling, to take an insect from the hairs 

of the eyelid. There appears, therefore, no reason 
why the crocodile should not have recourse to 
similar aid in similar necessity. 

East Winch. 

^ only modern traveller, I believe, who has 
witnessed anything approaching to the story told 
by Herodotus of the "Trochilus and Crocodile," is 
Mr. Curzon : he describes it as of the plover species, 
and as large as a small pigeon. In his Monasteries 
of the Levant, he says he was out crocodile shooting 
one day, and having espied one asleep on a bank, he 
approached cautiously to get a shot at him ; when 
he observed that he was attended by a ziczac (the 
common name for the Trochilus). He goes on to 

" The bird was walking up and down close to the 
crocodile's nose. I suppose I moved, for it suddenly 
saw me, and instead of flying away, as any respectable 
bird would have done, he jumped up a foot from the 
ground, screamed Ziczac ! ziczac ! with all the powers 
of his voice, and dashed himself against the crocodile's 
face two or three times. The great beast started up, 
and immediately spying his danger, made a jump into 
the air, and, dashing into the water with a splash which 
covered me with mud, he dived into the river and dis- 

The above account is to be found in p. 150. 
chap. xii. of Mr. Curzon's book. P. W. 


(, p. 75.) 

Perhaps the following explanation may render 
the passage in 1 Sam. xiii. 8. more intelligible to 
your correspondent BCEOTICUS. 

Gilgal was one of those places to which Samuel 
used to go in circuit to judge Israel ; the others 
being Bethel and Mizpeh, and his dwelling was at 
Ramah, and at each of them there was an altar 
unto the Lord. Of these places Gilgal seems to 
have been chief in importance, for the first altar 
was erected there after the passage of the Jordan, 
and the entrance of the Israelites into the pro- 
mised land, when " the Lord rolled away the re- 
proach of Egypt." Saul went on his errand to the 
prophet to Ramah, and there Samuel anointed him, 
and gave him a prophetic charge, chap. x. 8., viz. : 

" Thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal, and be- 
hold, I will come down unto thee to offer burnt offer- 
ings, &c. : seven days shalt thou tarry till I come to 
thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do." 

It appears from other parts of Saul's history that 
this was no passing injunction for a particular oc- 
casion, that of his proclamation as king, for in- 
stance; but that on all occasions of difficulty or 
danger Saul was to go down to Gilgal, and there 
wait seven days for Samuel, to learn from him the 
will of the Lord. 

The first time we hear of his going down to 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



Gilgal was to "renew the kingdom," 1 Sam. xi. 14. 
The next occasion was after he had " reigned two 
years over Israel," when the Philistines threatened 
him, and then he disobeyed the commandment. 
The last time he was met by Samuel at Gilgal, 
was after the slaughter of the Amalekites, when he 
"came to Carmel and set him up a place," i.e. 
pitched his camp preparatory to dividing the spoil ; 
but his heart misgave him, for it was told Samuel, 
" he is gone about, and passed on, and gone down 
to Gilgal. " He must make some excuse for the 
booty he had brought away, it was to be for sa- 
crifice. Samuel then came to him as at other 
times, but refused to offer sacrifice until Saul be- 
sought him ; and then it is said he " came no more 
to see Saul until the day of his death," i. e. came no 
more down to Gilgal to meet him. 

It is clear, then, that the charge which was given 
to Saul, chap. x. 8., was one of great moment ; that 
it informed him of the manner in which he was to 
worship the Lord and learn His will ; and that on 
his due observance of it the stability of his kingdom 
was to depend. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 


(Vol. vi., p. 76.) 

The popular error, current in the Middle Ages, 
that drinking-glasses manufactured at Venice pos- 
sessed the valuable property of shivering to pieces 
upon a poisoned liquid being poured into them, 
may probably have arisen partly from the extreme 
desirability of some such detective instrument in 
that "age of poisons," and partly from an ex- 
aggerated idea of the excellence of the Venetian 
manufacture. Sir Thomas Browne discourses 
upon the fallacy (Vulgar Errors, b. vii. c. 17.) : 

" Though it be said that poison will break a Venice 
glass, yet have we not met with any of that nature." 
And says further : 

" Though the best of China dishes, and such as the 
Emperor doth use, be thought by some of infallible 
virtue to this effect ; yet will they not, I fear, be able 
to elude the mischief of such intentions." 
Lord Byron (The Two Foscari, Act V. Sc. 1.) 
makes the Doge, in alluding to the ascribed pro- 
perty, disclaim his own belief in it : 

" Doge. 'Tis said that our Venetian crystal has 
Such pure antipathy to poisons, as 
To burst if aught of venom touches it. 
Lor. Well, Sir? 
Doge. Then it is false, or you are true ; 

For my own part, I credit neither: 'tis 
An idle legend." 

Mrs. Radcliffe, too, has made use of the same 
ct.ion m that fine imaginative work The Mysteries 
of Udolpho; and W. Harrison Ains worth has done 
the like in his Crichton. 

Another property was also ascribed to Venetian 
glass, that of sustaining violent blows or shocks 
with impunity. This quality is alluded to in the 
Miscellanies, p. 132., of credulous old Aubrey. A 
certain Lady Hony wood entertained doubts as to 
her salvation, and her spiritual adviser, Dr. Bolton, 
was endeavouring to reassure her : 

" ' I shall as certainly be damned,' said she, holding 
a Venetian glass in her hand, ' as this glass will be 
broken,' and at that word threw it hard upon the 
ground, and the glass remained sound, which did give 
her great comfort. The glass is yet preserved among 
the cimelia of the family." 

How ell, however (Epistolce Ho-Eliance, p. 310.), 
entertained a different opinion of its tenacity : 

" A good name is like Venice glass, quickly cracked, 
never to be amended, patched it may be. " 

We may note from this that the excellence of 
Venice glass was such that it had become pro- 
verbial as an illustration of perfection. 

It may not be considered irrelevant to remind 
your correspondent that similar virtues have been 
attributed from the earliest ages to the horn of the 
rhinoceros. This opinion obtained in India when 
the English made their first voyage thither in 
1591, and the horns of this animal were carefully 
preserved by the native monarchs on account of 
their reputed efficacy. Calmet, in his Dictionary 
of the Bible, also alludes to this belief, and says 
that drinking-cups were made of this horn, and 
used by Oriental monarchs at table because it was 
believed that "it sweats at the approach of any 
kind of poison whatever." 

According to Thunberg, the same belief pre- 
vailed in Africa. He states in his Journey to Kaf- 
fraria, that 

" The horns of the rhinoceros were kept by some 
people both in town and country, not only as rarities, 
but also as useful in diseases and for the purpose of de- 
tecting poisons. As to the former of these intentions, 
the fine shavings were supposed to cure convulsions and 
spasms in children. With respect to the latter, it was 
generally believed that goblets made of these horns 
would discover a poisonous draught that was poured 
into them, by making the liquor ferment till it ran 
quite out of the goblet. Of these horns goblets are 
made which are set in gold and silver and presented to 
kings, persons of distinction, and particular friends, or 
else sold at a high price, sometimes at the rate of fifty 
rix- dollars each." 

Our traveller made the matter a subject of ex- 
periment : 

" When I tried these horns," says he, " both wrought 
and unwrought, both old and young, with several sorts 
of poisons, weak as well as strong, I observed not the 
least motion or effervescence ; but when a solution of 
corrosive sublimate or other similar substance was 
poured into one of these horns, there arose only a few 
bubbles, produced by the air which had been enclosed 



[No. 145. 

in the pores of the horn, and which were now disen- 

A writer in The Menageries (vol. iii. pp. 19 22.) 
thinks that the great value set upon the horn of 
this animal, on account of its imaginary virtues, 
suggested the image to the Psalmist, " My horn 
shalt thou exalt like the horn of the unicorn," and 
that consequently this animal and the rhinoceros 
are identical. 

I hope that my discursive and desultory remarks 
may afford your correspondent RT. some part of 
the information he desires. WILLIAM BATES. 


These glasses, as their name implies, were ma- 
nufactured at Venice, or rather at Murano, one of 
her isles. At the time these glasses were in the 
greatest repute, Venice was the only European 
city possessing a glass manufactory. No orna- 
mental glass vessels, which can positively be as- 
cribed to Germany, are known of an earlier date 
than 1553. The earliest English glass-houses for 
the manufacture of fine glass, those of the Savoy 
and Crutched Friars, were not established until 
the middle of the sixteenth century, and they ap- 
parently were for a considerable time much in- 
ferior to the Venetian ; for in 1635, nearly a 
hundred years later, Sir Robert Mansel obtained 
a monopoly for importing fine Venetian drinking- 
glasses. Probably Venice owes the introduction 
of her glass manufacture to her share in the con- 
quest of Constantinople in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. The glass bowls, salvers, 
bottles, &c., painted in enamel, and vessels with 
coloured threads or " canes " enclosed in the stems, 
for which Venice became so celebrated, were the 
immediate effects of this participation, which were 
further stimulated by the immigration of Greek 
artists into Italy 250 years later, on the breaking 
up of the Empire of the East. The peculiarity of 
the Venice workmanship consists in its exceeding 
lightness, no lead being employed in its material. 
I was not aware that the superstition of the power 
of a Venice glass to detect poison had ever ob- 
tained in modern times. Sir Thomas Browne, 
in his work on Vulgar Errors, published in 1646, 

" Though it be said that poison will break a Venice 
glass, yet have we not met any of that nature." 

Might not this superstition arise from these glasses 
being sometimes used in alchemical processes? 
When made for this purpose they were grotesque 
in shape, and frequently in the form of the signs 
of the zodiac. Some amusing information of Mu- 
rano and her glass manufacture may be obtained 
from Howell's Familiar Letters, Nos. 28 & 29. He 
was sent to Venice by Sir Robert Mansel to 
obtain information concerning the art. Your cor- 
respondent, if really interested in this beautiful 

fabric, must have lost much if he did not witness 
the magnificent collection of Venetian glass brought 
together and exhibited by the Society of Arts in 
1850. Possessing one or two specimens of the 
art, and having but little knowledge concerning it 
except what I have stated, I shall be very glad if 
my Reply and Query elicit any further information 
on the subject. EMABEE. 

&qplte to jHtnor <um'*rf. 

Styles of Dukes and Marquises (Vol. vi., p. 76.). 
The proper style of a duke is Most Noble, that 
of a marquis Most Honourable. The style Most 
Noble has of late been constantly misapplied to 
marquises ; most improperly, if there be any utility 
in distinctions, and in being correct. The official 
notices in the London Gazette, from many public 
departments, are, in respect to the styles of people, 
frequently wrong ; so much so, at times, as to be 
of no authority, as in the instance referred to by 
L. T. (J. 

Burials (Vol. vi., p. 84.). It is quite possible 
that I may have spoken too positively, yet I can- 
not help thinking that his bishop could 'catch the 
clergyman whose irregularity is described, if the 
bishop chose to try. Such conduct is a violation 
of the rubric of the burial service, and, I should 
have thought, a breach of the Act of Uniformity. 
If a clergyman be at liberty to use the rites and 
ceremonies of the church just as he likes, so long 
as he keeps outside the consecrated boundary, per- 
haps the profanation of the Lord's Supper by ad- 
ministering the elements to a monkey was not 
punishable. I have heard that this was done at 
the instigation of the notorious Lord Sandwich, 
when at the head of the Navy, and that the priest, 
who " made himself vile," was rewarded with a 
valuable benefice. ALFRED GATTY. 

If BENBOW will look into the Act of Uniformity 
prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer, he will 
soon discover that "the whole matter" of burials, 
about which he writes, does not " resolve itself into 
a question of good taste and eminent churchman- 
ship," but of heavy pains and penalties, to which 
every clergyman is liable, if he uses any of the 
"open prayers" otherwise than is "set forth in 
the said book." 

BENBOW seems to be a feigned name : if he 
desired an early answer for the authority of the 
Rev. ALFRED GATTY'S position, he might no doubt 
have easily obtained it, through Her Majesty's 
Post Office messengers, by addressing his Query 
direct, and under his own proper signature. 

As to burial in unconsecrated ground, if any 
one prefers some other spot than " God's Acre," 
or other consecrated ground, where he wishes his 
remains to be deposited, in that he may certainly 
have his own choice ; but he thereby excommuni- 

7. 1852.] 



jates himself from the services of the church and the 
iiinistrations of her ministers. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 
Clyst St. George. 

Shakspeare Emendations (Vol.v., pp.410. 436. 
>54.). In the passage discussed (but not to my 
nind satisfactorily settled) by MR. SINGER and 
L E. B., there is another difficulty. " I am put 
;o know " seems an awkward phrase for " I must 
leeds know," which, as A. E. B. justly says, must 
>e the meaning. Would it not be somewhat 
ilearer if read, " I am not to know," f. e. " I am 
lot now to learn ? " This emendation is so much 
n the style of those in Mr. Collier's folio, that I 
hink it worth offering. 

I wish I could offer anything as plausible in- 
tead of " all at once," in the passage in As You 
Like It (discussed Vol. v., p. 554.), which I believe 
VSLS originally some single word, a climax to 
' insult and excite." All at once seems to me not 
aerely surplusage, but almost nonsense; but it 
ias' hitherto passed unquestioned, except by a 
r ery slight quere of Steevens. C. 

Bronze Medals (Vol.v., p. 608.). 6. Laura 
3orsi was the wife of Jean Vincent Salviati, Mar- 
mis of Montieri, who died November 26, 1693. 
she was the mother of several sons ; Salviati is one 
if the oldest Florentine families. It appears in 
listory as far back as A.D. 1200. 

4. As to Aragonia, I have no doubt this alludes 
o the celebrated Mary of Aragon, sister of the no 
ess famous Joan of Aragon, who was the mother 
>f that Marc Antony Colonna whose name is bound 
ip with the battle of Lepanto. They were both 
laughters of Ferdinand of Aragon, Duke of Mon- 
alto, third natural son of Ferdinand King of 
Naples. Mary became the wife of Alphonso 
I'Avalos, one of Charles V.'s best generals. Brau- 
ome says he met her when she was near sixty, and 
sven then her autumn surpassed all the springs 
ind summers in the room. Thuan (ad ann. 1552) 
peaks of the island of Ischia as chiefly remarkable 
or her retreat : " Maxime Mariae Arragoniae 
\.vali Vastii vidua3 secessu nobilem." Jerome 
:iuscelli collected together all the pieces of poetry 
written on her by the wits of the day. It was 
>rinted at Venice in 1552, 4to., by Griffins. He 
;alls her the archetype of beauty. 

2. MR. BOASE appears to be right in his conjec- 
ure about Conestagius. There is another work by 
.he same author, Historia della Guerre della Ger- 
nanice inferiori di Jeronimo Conestagio Gentilhuomo 
3enovese, published at Venice, 1614, and at 
-.eyden, 1634. C. K. W. 

Baxter (Vol. vi., p. 86.)- If my memory serves 
ne, R. G. will find extracts of Baxter's blasphemies 
jpncerning Christ's Long Parliament, and the regi- 
:ides sitting with Him therein, in Sikes on Paro- 
chial Communion. I do not remember having read 

there, that he expunged the passages after the 
Restoration ; but Leslie, in his Snake in the Grass, 
charges the Quakers, Fox and Burrough, with ex- 
punging the fierce and warlike language from their 
books, in the editions printed after 1660, when the 
sword was taken away from the saints, and using, 
from thenceforth, a language of peace. The 
editions printed between 1650 and 1660 are the 
valuable ones. A. N. 

Meaning of "slow" in Goldsmith's " Traveller" 
(Vol.v., p. 135.). MR. CORNISK has given a wrong 
version of the .anecdote relative to the above word, 
putting a piece of nonsense into Johnson's mouth 
which he never uttered. Johnson thus tells the 
story himself in Boswell : 

" Chamier once asked him what he meant by ' slow, 
the last word in the first line of The Traveller : 

* Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow : ' 

Did he mean tardiness of locomotion ? Goldsmith, 
who would say something, without consideration 
answered, ' Yes.' I was sitting by, and said, ' No, sir; 
you do not mean tardiness of locomotion : you mean 
that sluggishness of mind which comes upon a man in soli- 
tude.' Chamier believed then that I had written the 
line as much as if he had seen me write it." 

This affords a curious illustration of the saying, 
that poets, like prophets and the utterers of oracles, 
often do not understand their own words. 

A "slow fellow," in school phrase, means a, 
mopish unsocial person ; and " slow " is applied to 
anything stupid or tiresome. JARLTZBEEG. 

Bells on Horses' Necks (Vol. vi., p. 54.). This, 
custom still exists in parts of Worcestershire and 
Herefordshire, where the two counties join. Four 
or five bells of good size are suspended under a 
frame of wood, which is covered with worsted 
fringe, and carried by the leader horse. 

This practice is of use to denote the approach of' 
a team in any of the numerous winding lanes, 
which, though adding to the beauty of the land- 
scape by their thick hedges and lofty elms, yet, 
being narrow and thus shut in, do not allow of 
two waggons passing at every part. J. D. A. 

Bells on horses' necks are seen occasionally in 
North Lincolnshire. In bygone times they were 
fastened to the harness of horses, to give notice : 
of their approach, as the roads were at that time 
without stone, and consequently so bad that the 
drivers could not turn upon the side with much 
expedition. K.P.D.E. 

The custom of hanging bells on the necks of 
horses, inquired after by A. C., obtains in most of 
the counties of England. I have notes of having 
observed it in Derbyshire, Cheshire, Nottingham- 
shire. Leicestershire, Yorkshire, Shropshire, Lan- 
cashire, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, 
Devonshire, Cornwall, Cambridgeshire, Northamp- 



[No. 145. 

tonshire, and other counties. The form of the bell 
is much the same in most of the counties enume- 
rated ; and it may interest A. C. to know that 
bells of similar form have been found on Roman 
sites during the progress of excavations. 


Burial in unconsecrated Ground (Vol. v., pp. 320. 
404.). Your numerous correspondents who have 
written on this subject, seem to have overlooked 
two notable cases in point, which occurred some 
time ago in this neighbourhood: the one that of 
John Trigg, whose eccentric will is given p. 1325. 
of Hone's Every Day Book, whose coffin is now 
to be seen placed on the beams of a barn at 
Stevenage ; the other that of Richard Tristram, 
who was buried in a field in the parish of Ippolitts. 
The gravestone marking the resting-place of Tris- 
tram was, till quite lately, a lion of the neighbour- 
hood; but a sacrilegious farmer, annoyed at the 
injury done to his hedges by the visitors to the 
tomb, has either removed the stone, or sunk it 
below the level of the ground. Local tradition 
assigns a singular cause to their burial in these 
spots. It is stated that thev were shocked at the 
unceremonious way in which the sexton in a 
neighbouring churchyard treated the remains dis- 
interred whilst digging a tomb, and therefore they 
left the most stringent injunctions that their burial 
might place them beyond the reach of similar 
usage. L. W. 


I beg to add to your list of bodies deposited 
in unconsecrated places, 1. "The Miller's Tomb," 
on Highdown Hill, near Worthing, some no- 
tice of which may be seen in Hone's Every Day 
Book, vol. iv. p. 1392. 2. The leaden coffin en- 
closing the body of one Thomas Trigg, a farmer, 
of Stevenage, Herts, which is deposited (according 
to his will) on a tie-beam of the roof of a building 
which was once his barn, but now belongs to a 
public-house in the above place. It is still exhi- 
bited to the curious by the hostler. 3. The coffin 
with the corpse (unless both are utterly decayed) 
of another eccentric character (whose name I for- 
get), which lies on a table in a summer house in 
Northamptonshire, somewhere between Towcester 
and Green's Norton. J. R. M., M. A. 

Canongate Marriages (Vol. v., p. 370.). In 
the first volume of the Grenville Papers is a letter 
from Mr. Jenkinson to Mr. Grenville, which de- 
serves the attention of R. S. F. of Perth. Mr. 
Jenkinson informs his friend that, love getting the 
better of duty, Lord George Lennox had set out 
with Lady Louisa Ker, to be married at Edinburgh. 
The letter bears date 1759. Your correspondent's 
Query refers to "about the year 1745." 


Foubert Family (Vol. vi., p. 55.). A Treatise 
composed by Thos. Foubert, Author of several 
curious Performances of Mechanism, London, 1757. 
This notice of the works of Foubert is in the 
centre of a highly embellished frontispiece, at the 
foot of which are two elegant female figures : one 
seated with compasses fixed across the globe ; the 
other carries a scroll and pencils, while portraits 
and books strew the ground. At the head of all 
this, standing on a plinth, is a foot-soldier in a 
cocked hat, with musket, and in marching order, 
sword as well as bayonet. The plinth carries, 
" Pro Aris et Focis ;" the whole surmounted and 
surrounded by emblematical devices, the arts and 
sciences, with a great display of drums, guns, flags, 
and all the " pride, pomp, and circumstance " of 
war ; and a graceful festoon of fiddles and French 
horns. At the foot of the print we may presume 
the artist insisted upon the addition of a line in 
French, thus : 

" Traite compose par Th . Foubert, Londres, 1757. 
A. Walker, delin. et sculp." 

J. H. A. 

Andrews the Astronomer (Vol. iv., pp. 74. 162.). 
For the sake of its preservation, and as an addition 
to the notices that have already appeared, I send 
the epitaph inscribed to the memory of Mr. An- 
drews, from the New Burial Ground, Royston, 
where he was interred : 

" In memory of Mr. Henry Andrews, who, from a 
limited education, made great progress in the Liberal 
Sciences, and was justly esteemed one of the best Astro- 
nomers of the Age. He departed this life, in full assur- 
ance of a better, January 26th, 1820, aged 76 years." 

Andrews built a house in the High Street, Roy- 
ston, in 1805, and in it he spent the remainder of 
his life. He paid the builders for the work as they 
progressed in it, they being in poor circumstances. 
One of their receipts, penned by Andrews, is in 
my possession. 

For the information of the curious in portraits, 
I may add that Mr. W. H. Andrews of Royston 
has recently caused a fresh impression of his 
father's portrait to be struck off. 


Portrait of Cromwell (Vol. vi., p. 55.). 
of your Correspondents lately asked whether "one 
of the portraits of Cromwell were not missing ?_" 
There is a remarkably good half-length, attri- 
buted by connoisseurs to Walker, at Newbridge 
House, co. Dublin, among a collection made by 
Pilkington. Can this be the one for which he in- 
quires? Is it known how many likenesses < 
Cromwell were taken by Walker ? URSULA. 

Foundation Stones (Vol. v., p. 585. ; Vol. vi., 
p. 20.). As a Note upon this subject, permit me 
to send you the inscription which (according t< 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



Blomefield, Collectanea Cantab.'} was placed upon 
the foundation stone of the chapel of my own col- 
lege the College of SS. Margaret and Bernard, 
commonly called Queens' College, Cambridge : 

" Erit Dominae nostrae Margarettae Dominus in Re- 
ugium et Lapis iste in Signum." 

This stone was laid by Sir John ^ Wenlock, 
April 15, 1448. The Margaret, of the inscription 
is, of course, Margaret of Anjou, consort ^of 
Henry VI. And here let me note, that we claim 
the title of Queens' College, not Queen's College : 
Margaret of Anjou, in 1446, and Elizabeth Wid- 
ville, consort of Edward IV., in 1465, being our 
foundresses. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A. 

The Word " Handbook" (Vol. vi., p. 72.). This 
word must be much older than " nineteen years," 
and perhaps than Sir Harris Nicolas' s whole life. 

In "1825" Murray published a Handbook, or 
concise Dictionary of Terms used in the Arts and 
Sciences, and a most useful book it is. The author, 
Mr. Hamilton, in the preface uses the word as if 
then of well-known meaning. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Dissertation on a Salt-box (Vol. vi., p. 54.). The 
jeu desprit to which your correspondent J. WN. 
alludes may be found in a small volume entitled 
Faceti<B Cantabrigienses. It is there ascribed to 
the late Professor Porson, and is said to have been 
written as a satire on the mode of examination 
pursued at Oxford. JOHN BOOKER. 


All-fours (Vol. v., p. 441.). In Tristram Shandy, 
vol. i. c. 12., is the following passage : 

" The mortgager and mortgages, differ the one from 
the other, not more in length of purse, than the jester 
andjestee do in that of memory. But in this the com- 
parison between them runs, as the scholiasts call it, 
upon all-fours , which, by the by, is upon one or two 
legs more than some of the best of Homer's can pre- 
tend to." 

^ It would seem then that this use of the expres- 
sion * on all-fours " is to be found in some of the 
scholia to the Iliad or Odyssey. Its origin, I con- 
ceive, is not difficult of explanation. As we find 
among the old commentators on Greek poets, an 
irregular line described as " metro claudicante" so 
also an imperfect simile might easily be said to 
limp upon threejegs, and a perfect one to run upon 
four. But this is merely conjecture. ERICA. 


Francis Davison and Dr. Donne (Vol. vi., p. 49.). 
The editor of Select Poetry, chiefly Devotional, 
of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, printed a sup- 
plementary volume, entitled Select Poetry, chiefly 
Sacred, of the Reign of King James I. (Cambridge, 
Deighton, 1847). Here, on p. 15., he prints the 
fine nervous version of the 137th Psalm, correctly, 

as the composition of Dr. Donne. He appears to 
have forgotten that he had inserted it in his first 
series as the production of Francis Davison. 

I do not see that Dr. Donne's claim to this 
Psalm ought to be disturbed. I have several well 
edited selections of sacred poetry before me, in all 
of which it is given to that author. Furthermore, 
it is contained among the " Divine Poems" (p. 345.) 
in a small volume entitled Poems by 7[ohn] 
Z)[onne], with Elegies on the Author's Death, 
London, printed by M. F. for John Marriot, &c., 

Cromwell Family (Vol. v., p. 489.). No answer 
has as yet been given to J. G. C. ; permit me to 
inform him, that persons of that name were rather 
numerous in Hammersmith and Kensington in the 
last century, but I cannot say whether the person 
mentioned resided there or not. A note to Mr. 
Faulkner, in whose local histories many notices of 
the name occur, would doubtless elicit the neces- 
sary information. This venerable topographer 
still lives (I am happy to say) in Smith Street, 
Chelsea. H. G. D. 

Royal " We " (Vol. v., p. 489.). Bishop Nicol- 
son, in his English Historical Library, informs us 

The first of our kings that wrote in the plural 
number was King John ; his predecessors writing in 
the singular. They used Ego in ^heir grants; and this 
king, with those that followed him, Nos." 

It is believed that King John was the first 
European sovereign that adopted this usage ; but 
his example was soon followed by the other princes. 


St. Lucia. 

Mother Damnable (Vol. v., p. 151.). 
" I have had the curiosity to see Mother Damnable, 
whose rhetoric was honey to the passion with which 
the Quaker books are stuffed." See " Defence of the 
Snake in the Grass" quoted by Southey, Common-Place 
Book, p. 47., about " Quaker Railing." 


Incantations at Cross Roads (Vol. vi., p. 74.). 
The sign of the cross has ever been considered in 
early times as the best preservative against " in- 
cantation," witchcraft, and all Satanic influence. 
The passage from Plato alludes probably to the 
form of incantation used by the Greeks, and thence 
derived to the students of the black art even so 
late as the seventeenth century, as may be seen in 
Scott, Glanville, and others; where mention is 
made of "waxen images stuck with pins," or 
placed before a slow fire ; and as the pins were 
moved in any part of the image, pain was felt in 
that part by the person represented, or, as the 
wax melted, the person pined away. As to their 
being placed " where three roads meet," it must 



[No. 145. 

have been as a counter-charm, being the form of a 
cross (although how three roads could form a cross 
is not easily discovered). Those on tombs might 
be supposed to have a similar effect, since the 
church or churchyard were consecrated ground. 

The quotation from the " First Gospel of the 
Infant Jesus " has the same meaning. The pos- 
sessing spirit urged his victim to deeds of mischief 
and violence when in the neighbourhood of the 
cross, represented by the cross-roads. E. G. B. 


Soon after the publication of the first two volumes of 
Mr. Kemble's invaluable collection of Anglo-Saxon 
Charters, Professor Leo, of Halle, who had paid great 
attention to tracing private life (whether social or 
family) in Germanic communities as far back as pos- 
sible, and consequently to the mode of life and stamp 
of thought of the Anglo-Saxons, as shown in their laws ; 
finding in these charters much elucidation of what was 
before obscure to him, republished the Rectitudines 
Singularum Personarum from Mr. Thorpe's admirable 
edition of Anglo-Saxon Laws and Institutes, and pre- 
fixed to it some most valuable preliminary dissertations. 
Of these the one dedicated to the names of places among 
the Anglo-Saxons is of peculiar interest to the English 
reader, who must therefore be under great obligations 
to Mr. Benjamin Williams for undertaking, with the 
concurrence of Professor Leo, to prepare an English 
translation of it. This has just been issued under the 
title of a Treatise on the Local Nomenclature of the An- 
glo- Saxons, as exhibited in the Codex Diplomatics JEvi 
Saxonici, translated from the German of Professor H. 
Leo, of Halle, with additional Examples and Explanatory 
Notes ; and all who are interested in the local history 
of their respective neighbourhoods will find much to 
amuse and instruct them in this unpretending little 

Messrs. Rivington have completed their valuable, 
handsome, and complete edition of The Works and Cor- 
respondence of the Eight Honorable Edmund Burke, by 
the publication of the seventh and eighth volumes, 
which contain the articles of charge against Warren 
Hastings, and Burke's speeches on his impeachment. 
The last volume has in addition, what is too much ne- 
glected in the present day, a very complete index to 
the collection. The work, as we have before observed, 
is peculiarly well timed, and we should be glad to see 
proof in the coming parliament that the writings of 
this great man have been read and re-read by many 
Honorable Members. 



GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURE, Vols. I. and II. of original edition. 



by Rev. J. J. Blunt. 


XIV. and XV. Stourport, 1812. 
SHAKSPEARE'S JULIUS CJSSAR, by D'Avenant and Dryden, 1719. 


The original 4to. editions in boards. 

MAGNA CHARTA ; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell, by 

George Newton. London, 1661. 
BLACK'S (DR.) LECTURES ON CHEMISTRY, by Robison, 2 vols. 

The following Treatises by the REV. THOMAS WATSON, of St 
Stephen's, WaUbrook. 

RELIGION OUR TRUE INTEREST, or Notes on Mai. iii. 16, 17, 18. 
THE MISCHIEF OF SIN ; it brings a Person Low. 
A PLEA FOR THE GODLY, wherein is shown the Excellency of a 

Righteous Person. 

THE DUTY OF SELF-DENIAL briefly opened and urged. 
SERMON ON PSALM cxxxvin. to end. 
SERMON ON REV. n. 10. 
BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia. 

GEDDES' TRACTS AGAINST POPERY, &c., 4 Vols. 8vo. calf, neat, 
can be had on application to the Publisher. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

$atte*rf ta 

REPLIES RECEIVED. Government of St. Christopher's Por- 
traits of Cromwell Muffs worn by Gentlemen Venice Glasses 
Styles of Dukes and Marquises The Word " Handbook " - 
Burials Cowdray Family Lunar Occupations Hereditary 
Standard Bearer Old Satchells,$c. " There were three Ladies," 
fyc. Lines on the Succession of English Kings Rhymes upon 
Places Monody on Death of Sir John Moore Bells on Horses' 
Necks Trochilus and Crocodile " The Good Old Cause" - 
Serpent-eating Ths Man in the Almanack Incantations at 
Cross Roads Cromwell Family Andrews the Astronomer 
Coral Charms Vellum-bound Books Francis Davison and 
Dr. Donne " Oh ! go from the window." 

W. S. M. We do not see any immediate prospect of reprinting 
our 19th No. or the Index to the First Volume. // must of course 
depend upon the demand for them. 

H. Does our Correspondent mean " Schabod" or " \chabodf" 
If the latter , the allusion is obvious; if the former, he should fur- 
nish the passage in which the word occurs. 

H. N. willfind the Acts regulating the King's Duty on Christen- 
ings, Marriages, Burials, fyc. specified in our 2nd Vol., p. 60. 

W. E. M.'s Query as to the meaning of Ploydes or Ploids, in 
the Lancashire rhyme, 

" Prescot for mugs, Heyton for ploydes," 
was put by S. JOHNS, in our 113th No., but has not been answered. 

W. C. T. f* thanked for his explanation of the Man in the 
Almanack : he will find, however, that his Reply has been anti- 
cipated by MR. SINGER, " N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 378. 

YANEM. Our Correspondent will find, on reference to our 1st 
Vol., p. 446., that mention has been already made of Father 
Prout's clever translation of " Not a drum was heard," which he 
passed off in Bentley's Magazine as written on the Death of L ally 
Tollendal, and the original of Wolfe's beautiful Monody. 

A. F., who inquired in No. 142., p. 55. respecting the FOUBERT 
FAMILY is informed that we have a letter for him, which shall be 
forwarded to him on his telling us where to direct it to him. 

Our Fifth Volume, strongly bound in cloth, and with a very 
copious Index, is now ready, price 10s. Gd. Copies of some of our 
earlier Volumes may still be had. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so th 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscriber son the Saturday. 

Errata. Vol. vi., p. 30. col. 2. 1. 56., for Lun-na-cznamh read 
Lus-na-ccnamh ; p. 36. col. 2. 1. 2., for Orwood read Cat/wag; 
p. 64. col. 3. 1. 35., for Huggens read Huygens; p. 58. col. 1. 1.4b., 
for two read ten; 1.55., for piKars read pillar; col. 2. 1., 
"inward" read "rounded;" and L 5., for "Dam 

AUG. 7. 1852.] 



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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

OL. VI. No. 146.] SA/TURDAY, AUGUST 14. 1852. 

C Price Fourpence. 
t Stamped Edition, 


OTES : - 

Differences between Copies of the Folio 1632 of Shak- 

speare's Plays, by J. Payne Collier - - " 

Cant or Slang Language, by Thomas Lawrence - 

Inedited Letters of Nelson, by Kenneth R. H. Mac- 

kenzie, &c. ...... 

Passage in Lycidas ------ 

Folk Lore : The Spirit at Bolingbroke Castle Folk 

Lore in the Fifteenth Century Weather Prophecy 

_ Folk Lore from an old Newspaper (1759) Super- 

stition in the Nineteenth Century Cure for Wens - 

Notes on Madeira, by James Yate Johnson - - 

Liveries in the Time of James I., by J. Lewelyn Curtis 

Minor Notes : Inscription over Plato's Door Cock 

and Bull Story Etymology of the Word " Apron " 

Use of Coal as Fuel' Saints who destroyed Serpents 



Dr. Mesmer in England, by D. J. Latzky - - 117 

Repeating Clocks, and Barlow their Inventor, by George 
Barlow - - - - - - -.147 

" The British Apollo " ..... H8 

Sir Thomas Parr's or Sir William Pelham's Tomb at 

Kendal, by William S. Hesleden ... 118 

Minor Queries : Portraits of Wolsey Was Bossuet 
married? Nottingham Goose Fair " I bide my 
Time " Biting the Thumb Camden's Definition of 
Cockney Judge Jeffries Robert Stanser, Second 
Bishop of Nova Scotia, 1810 to 1824 Colonial News- 
papersChurch Brasses subsequent to IfiSS The Old 
Roson Queries on Popular Phrases Etymology of 
Llewellyn Voydinge Knife Sir John Mason 
Yolante de Dreux, Widow of Alexander III., King of 
Scots Mary Queen of Scots' Daughter by Earl of 
Bothwell Lightning Was Pcnn ever a Slave- 
holder ? ....... 149 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED: Authorship of " Voiage 
du Monde de Descartes " Etymology of Sycophant 

Taboo Shaston, where ? Etymology of Devon, 
c. Charles Inglis, First Bishop of Nova Scotia, 1787 150 


The Flemish Clothiers in Wales - 151 

Springs and Wells, Monkish Burials, &c. - 152 

" Oh, go from the window ! " by Dr. E. F. Rimhault 153 
Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger, by lv 

A.Gatty ...... 153 

"Bosom multiplied" - 154 

On the Patronymics Ray or Wray - - 154 

The Demonstrative " that " in the Opening of " Measure 

for Measure" - - - _ - 155 

Rhymes upon Places, by William Bates - 156 

Portrait of George Fox, by J. Lewelyn Curtis - - 156 

St. Margaret, by Thomas L. Walker, &c. - - 156 

Replies to Minor Queries : Donne versus Francis Davi- 

son Henry Lord Dover " Experto crede Roberto' ' 

Vellum-bound Books Monody on the Death of Sir 
John Moore The Hereditary' Standard Bearer 
Baxter's ' Saint's Rest " The Name of Dodo 
" Sacrum pingue dabo," &c. Age of Trees Scot of 
Satchells Exterior Stoups " Royd " Pickigni, &c. lf>7 


Notes on Books, &c. - - . . - 161 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 162 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 162 

Advertisements - . . . 1C3 

VOL. VI. No. 14G. 


I have examined as many copies of the folio 
edition of Shakspeare which came out in 1632 as I 
could conveniently lay my hands upon, and I find 
that my manuscript-corrected copy, in the printed 
portion of it, differs from them in two not unim- 
portant passages ; it may differ in other places, but 
I have not yet discovered them ; and what I wish 
to learn is, whether any of your readers possess, Gl- 
are acquainted with, copies similarly circumstanced 
to that now lying before me ? 

The first variation occurs in the Duke's well-re- 
membered speech in Measure for Measure, Act III. 
Sc. 1., beginning "Be absolute for death," &c., 
where he says : 

" Friend hast thou none, 

For thine own bowels, which do call thee fire, 
The mere effusion of thy proper loins, 
Do curse the gout," &c. 

The above is as the passage is given in every other 
copy of the folio 1632 I have "inspected, but that 
in my hands with early manuscript corrections ; 
there the second of the above lines stands as fol- 
lows : 

" For thine own bowels, which do call thee sire" 

most clearly and unmistakeably printed. Is any 
other copy known with the same peculiarity ? 
There can be no doubt that " sire " and not fire is 
the true reading ; and all editors subsequent to 
1635, the date of the last of the four folios, have 
adopted it. 

The other instance of variation is, in some 
respects, under similar circumstances, as will be 
seen presently. It is met with in Richard II., 
Act I. Sc. 3., where, as far as my knowledge ex- 
tends, according to all copies of the folio 1632, 
excepting mine, the King, banishing Norfolk, tells 

" The sly slow hours shall not determinate 
The dateless limit of thy dear exile." 

It has been customary, I believe, to print " sly 
slow," fly-slow, on the example and recommend- 
ation of Pope ; but Steevens questions the pro- 
priety of doing so, and I, hastily perhaps, adopted 



[No. 146. 

his opinion, from an anxiety to adhere to the old 
impressions in all cases where it was possible to 
make sense out of the original reading. My folio 
1632 did not come into my possession until long 
afterwards, and there to my surprise I found " sly 
slow " printed fly slow, the old manuscript-cor- 
rector having, moreover, placed a hyphen between 
the two words, so as to make the line read 
" The fly-slow hours shall not determinate." 

Here again I beg to ask whether any of your 
readers and correspondents happen to know of the 
existence of any other copies of the folio 1632 
similarly corrected ? It is clear that the two 
errors (arising in both cases from the ordinary 
confusion of they* and the long s) must .have been 
detected as the sheets were passing through the 
press, and the objectionable letters picked out of 
what, 1 believe, printers call the form, and others 
substituted. The folio 1623 has fire in one play, 
and sly slow in the other, so that the changes in 
these words in the folio 1632 must have been 
made in order to set right two blunders, after 
many copies containing them had been struck off. 
Other copies with the corrections must also have 
been struck off, and I wish to be informed whether 
any such are known. 

As I have said, I have not yet found any other 
places in which the printed portion of my folio 
1632 differs from others, and I doubt if I shall 
meet with such ; but these two are remarkable, 
especially as I cannot observe that they have been 
occasioned by any defects in the letters themselves, 
although the cross-stroke from the f to the I in 
"fly-slow" is rather faint. The manuscript-cor- 
rector seems to have bestowed his pains upon a 
copy that was peculiar, however ill it happens to 
have been since used, and however shabby its 
present condition. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 


Will you kindly allow me to make a few hasty 
remarks on cant, or slang language; for though 
the parties amongst whom it is chiefly in use are 
those of the lowest and most abandoned, yet the 
investigation of its origin and principles opens a 
curious field of inquiry, replete with considerable 
interest to the philologist and the philosopher ? It 
affords a remarkable instance of lingual contriv- 
ance, which, without the introduction of any ar- 
bitrary matter, has developed a system of commu- 
nicating ideas, having all the advantages of a 
foreign language, and which has all been accom- 
plished simply by the employment of metaphor 
and allegory grafted on the older forms of the 
vernacular, or its cognate dialects ; and what 
foreign expressions may occur have arisen mostly 
from the mutual intercourse of native and foreign 
mendicants and wanderers. 

Harman, in his Caveat (1566), states that the 

cant language was the invention of an individual 
in the early part of the sixteenth century : 

" As far as I can learn or understand by the ex- 
amination of a number of them, their language, which' 
they term Pedler's- French, or canting, began but j 
within these thirty years, or little above that : the first 
inventor thereof was hanged all save the head" 

Will any reader of " N. & Q." be kind enough to 
explain, if possible, the last words? Rowlands, in 
his Martin Mark-All, states that this language 
was introduced in the time of a certain king of the 
beggars, called Cock Lorrell, and that it is nn om- 
nium gatherum. But from the fact of the French 
having their Argot, a vocabulary of which ap- 
peared in the middle of the sixteenth century ; the 
Spanish their Germania, -of which a vocabulary 
was published in 1609; the Germans their Roth- 
w'dlsch, or Red Italian ; the Italians their Gergo; 
and even the Hottentots their Cuze-cat, a question 
will very naturally arise with us which was the 
original ? They mostly agree in principle me- 
taphor mixed with obsolete expression ; and 
Burrow, in his Gypsies in Spain, inclines to Italy 
as being the originator : I do not now stop to in- 
quire farther into this point. Confining ourselves 
to the English slang, we find it is composed to a 
great extent of common household words, con- 
verted into slang by the use of metaphor, allegory, 
or burlesque antithesis, of much Anglo-Saxon, of 
many words obtained from the rommany, or gypsy 
tongue (which is not slang, but a proper language, 
closely allied to the Sanskrit and other eastern 
dialects, though it is frequently confounded with 
the thieves' jargon), of corrupted forms of Latin, 
of some Hebrew words derived from the connexion 
of the Jewish receivers of stolen property with the 
thieves, &c., aud of several German, Dutch, French, 
and Italian words, derived probably from an in- 
tercourse with foreign itinerants. 

The following are a few familiar words taken 
promiscuously from a cant or slang vocabulary, 
etymological and comparative, on which I have 
been engaged for some time past : 

Having a lark (A.-S. lac, sport, play). 

Gammon (A.-S. samcn, game, sport, scoff). 

Just the cheese (A.-S. ceoran, to choose), hence 
= just my choice. 

Dodge and dodger (A.-S. beosian, to colour, con- 

Nix my Dolly (A.-S. bal, part, dole). 

Stir, a prison (A.-S. jryn, correction, punish- 

Blunt (money), from Fr. blond, llwid, or Hunt, 
and applied to money from its colour ; compare 
the word Browns which = copper money. 

Patter, to talk (Lat., from the mumbling and 
hurried way of saying the pater-noster before the 

Toggery, clothing (Lat. toga). 

LUG. 14. 1852.] 



He likes his wlmcli ("his whack" corrupted 
:>rm of his " sweg " or " swack," Scotch = quan- 

Tanner, sixpence (from Gypsy tawno, little ; or 
,at. tener}. 

Thafs the ticket (corruption of "that is eti- 
uette," or what is proper and required). 

Cheat, cozen, though not now considered as 
lang words, were so originally. (" Cheat," me- 
aphor from the legal term " chetes, " from escheat ; 
nd " cozen " metaphor for cousin, as the gamblers 
f the sixteenth century called all the uninitiated 
cousins," and treated them as of their kin, in 
rder to fleece them.) See Use of Dice Play, 
p. 17. 26. 

In conclusion, the phrase "going the whole 

tog " is by some said to be taken from the Irish 

hilling. I should like to know why it was ^so 

ailed : did it ever bear the impress of a swinish 

nimal ? and hence derived, like " pecunia " from 

\vecu, or the slang term " dragons " for sovereigns. 




A friend of mine has the following letter framed 
and hanging by the side of a portrait of the great 
sailor. With his permission I have sent it to 
U N. & Q." for preservation. H. G. D. 

Vang d at Sea, Aug. 28 th 1798. 
" Sir, 

" I have just received, thro' the hands of my 

.agent, a letter of yours of -, respecting a 

Oenoese vessel, which I am required to bring be- 
fore the Judge of the Court of Admiralty, &c. As 
I have never been informed that the Judge of the 
High Court of Admiralty had any authority over 
my political conduct as an officer, of course I did 
not consider it my duty to inform him of it. If 
the Judge has that right, I shall, of course, be 
ready to answer any question he may put to me ; 
in the meantime I believe it is sufficient to say, 
that my conduct respecting Genoa, and the seizing 
of their vessels, has received the approbation of 
the King, through Lord Grenville, and my Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, to whom only I 
have hitherto felt myself bound to render an 
account of my conduct. 

" I am, Sir, 
" Your most obedient servant, 


Perceiving by your "Notices to Correspondents" 
that inedited letters of Nelson are acceptable to 
you, I send you one that I transcribed from the 
Additional MSS. (No. 17,024.) in the British 
Museum, some months since, and which I cannot 
find anywhere published. It seems to have been 
purchased by the Trustees in 1847, on the 27th of 

July, of W. G. Davis, Esq. Allow me to add 
that I have several more inedited letters tran- 
scribed for you, if you like to have them : one of 
them is from Finch the antiquary, and contains 
some interesting remarks on some coins which 
had been submitted to him. One of these epistles 
is very amusing, as letters from " hard up" gentle- 
men usually are. It is written by James Moleer. 
But I must not occupy more space. 


" Dec r . 8. 1800, London. 
" Sir, 

" I have received your letter of the 5th, con- 
veying the great honour intended me by the city 
of New Sarum. I beg, Sir, that you will assure 
the Mayor and Corporation how sensible I am 
of their kindness towards me, and that I shall 
have great pleasure in receiving the freedom in 
the Council Chamber, or wheresoever else they 
may please to appoint. 

" I am, Sir, with ' 

" Great respect, 
" Your most obedient servant, 

" John Hodding, Esq. 

" The time of my going thro' Salisbury is very 
uncertain, no time being yet absolutely fixd [s/c], 
but of which I will *" take care you shall be 


On lately renewing my acquaintance with the 
First Eclogue of Sannazarius, I came upon a pas- 
sage which seemed rather a good illustration of 
Milton's meaning in a part of Lycidas which 
Thomas Warton has confused : 

" At tu sive altum felix colis eethera, seu jam 
Elysios inter manes, coetusque verendos 
JLethaeos sequeris per stagna liquentia pisces, 
Seu legis aeternos formoso pollice flores, 
Narcissumque, crocumque, et vivaceis amaranthos, 
Et violis teneras misces pallentibus algas : 
. Adspice nos, mitisque veni : tu numen aquarum 
Semper eris, semper letum piscantibus omen." 

Opp. p. 56. Amstehedami, 1728, 8vo. 

The line in Milton is this : 

"Look homeward, angel, now, and melt with ruth." 

JLycidas, 163. 

For my part I feel quite convinced that Thomas 
Warton is wrong in supposing that " angel" meant 
" the great vision of the guarded mount," the 
archangel Michael, and not Lycidas himself, trans- 
lated by death to a higher state of purity and 
blessedness in another world. Milton had been, 
preparing a " laureat verse " for his Lycidas in 
some lines of deep beauty, which remind one 
strongly of Vida : 



[No. 146. 

" Hue volucres pucri, ccelique affusa juventus 
Ferte pedem . zeterni largum date veris honorem : 
Pallentem violam calathis diffundite plenis, 
Narcissique comas ac moerentes hyacinthos, 
Et florum nimbo divinum involuite corpus." 

Christiados, lib. vi. 72. 

All tills, however, was but "dallying with false 
surmise," for the remains of Edward King had not 
been discovered. The poet therefore implores 
him, wheresoever his body might happen to be, to 
grant it to the prayers of his afflicted friends; 
though now an angel himself, to " look homeward " 
upon the scenes of his human life, and to " melt 
into ruth," as far as such sympathy could exist in 
an angelic mind to sympathise with his sorrowing 
companions. The beautiful fiction of Arion, and 
the amiable habits ascribed to Dolphins by Pliny, 
Appian, Theophrastus, and Aulus Gellius (Nodes 
Atticce, lib. vii. cap. 8.), will sufficiently account 
for the pious office assigned by Milton to them : 
" And, O ye Dolphins, waft the hapless youth." 

Milton is supposed to have borrowed the name 
Lycidas from some of the Idylls of Theocritus. 
So is named one of the characters in the Eclogue 
of Sannazarius, which I have already alluded to, 
but it was Phyllis and not Lycidas who had met 
with a fate similar to that of Milton's friend. 
Warton appears to me to have created difficulties 
where none had existed previously, as I think the 
subsequent lines of Milton prove : 

" Now, Lycidas, the shepherds weep no more ; 
Henceforth thou art the Genius of the shore, 
In thy large recompense, and shalt be good 
To all that wander in that perilous flood." 

The " Fable of Belerus old " refers to the le- 
gends connected with the Land's End of Cornwall, 
and the promontory of Bellerium. I remember 
that Cow.ley has the line 

" Belerii extremis a cornibus Orcadas usque." 
Plantarum, lib. vi. p. 344. Londini, 1668, 8vo. 

Dr. Donne, in a poetical epistle to Sir H. Wot- 
ton, speaks of St. Michael's Mount and the fables 
for which it was celebrated. I quote from Alford's 
edition : 
" Here's no more news, than virtue ; I may as well 

Tell you Calais', or St. Michael's tale for news, as tell 

That vice doth here habitually dwell." 

Works, vol. vi. p. 459. Lond. 1839, 8vo. 

There is also an interesting account of the his- 
torical changes which befel St. Michael's Mount in 
Collins's Rambles beyond Railways, cap. ix. Lond. 
1851, 8vo. KT. 



The Spirit at Bolingbroke Castle. The follow- 
ing may not be without interest to some of the 

readers of " N. & Q." I copied it from Harl. MS. 
6829., which is a volume of notes on Lincolnshire 
churches, containing much of great value : 

" One thinge is not to be passed by, affirmed as a 
certain trueth by many of y e Inhabitants of the towne 
upon their own knowledge, which is, that y c Castle is 
Haunted by a certain spirit in the Likeness of a Hare, 
which at y e meeting of y Auditors doeth usually runne 
between their legs, and sometymes overthrows them, 
and so passes away. They have pursued it downe into 
y e Castle yard, and scene it take in at a grate into a 
low Cellar, and have followed it thither with a light, 
where notwithstanding that they did most narrowly 
observe it [and that there was noe other passage out, 
but by y e doore, or windowe, y c room being all above 
framed of stones within, not having y least Chinke 01: 
Creuice], yet they could never find it. And at other 
tymes it hath beene seene run in at the Iron- Grates 
below into other of y e Grottos [as thir be many of 
them], and they have watched the place and sent for 
Houndes and put in after it, but after a while they have 
come crying out." 162. 


Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey. 

Folk Lore in the Fifteenth Century. In the 
Account Roll of Cardinal Thomas Langley, Bishop 
of Durham, the entry which I translate as follows 
is contained : 

" Paid to Thomas Egliston for marking sixteen of 
my Lord's oxen with the mark of S l . Wilfrid, to the 
intent that they may escape a certain infirmity called 
the moryn (murrain), ix a ." [A.D. 1426-1427.] Hist* 
Dunelm. Script. Tres., p. ccccxl. 



Weather Prophecy (Vol. vi., p. 71.). P. P. hasr 
favoured us with the exact words of the prophecy, 
but he has unfortunately cut before the point in 
giving " the lie to the adage." 

I must for the sake of posterity vindicate both 
the correctness of the observation and the credit 
of the season. 

The oaks were certainly this year out before the- 
ashes, but instead of the present summer being 
wet, as P. P. has prematurely asserted, it has been 
on the whole, and (with the exception of partial 
thunder showers) is at this moment one of the 
driest within the recollection of a long life. 

The rivers and springs are smaller at this mo- 
ment than they were almost ever known to be in 
most places, and in many there is a difficulty in 
getting water for the cattle ; so that the truth of 
the observation recorded in the proverb (which is 
no doubt the result of experience) was never more 
apparent than at this moment. J. Ss. 

Aug. 2. 

Folk Lore from an old Newspaper (1759). "The 
dregs of superstition, it seems, are stiil remaining 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



amongst us, a remarkable instance of which ap- 
peared last Wednesday at the gallows. A young 
woman, who had a wen on her neck, was held up 
In a man's arms, and the hand of one of the hang- 
ing malefactors was several times rubbed over it 
with much ceremony, so that if it should please 
God to remove the complaint, a miracle will be 
imputed to the wonder-working hand of a dead 
thief." E. H. A. 

Superstition in the Nineteenth Century. The 
following story is only curious as showing the 
lingering belief in witchcraft, in a county tra- 
versed by railroads. 

I was visiting in a cottage last February, in the 

parish of B , in the diocese of Peterborough ; 

and in casual conversation heard the inmates speak 
of " the Wise Man." Upon inquiry I discovered 
they meant " a sort of witch " living at Stamford, 
who is supposed to have supernatural powers, both 
in the way of foretelling future events, and also of 
Inflicting evil upon persons and things. 

Two cases were related to me of the exercise of 
these powers, both of which my informants (one 
an old, the other a young, woman) positively be- 

1. Some years ago a flitch of bacon was stolen. 
The owner of the lost property went to " the Wise 
Man," and was told his bacon should be restored 
on a certain day in a certain place, which hap- 
pened. " The Wise Man " also drew an exact 
likeness of the thief, by which he was recognised. 
Of course I only relate as I was told. 

2. A servant girl stole some money from a fel- 
low-servant's coffer. The latter went off (nearly 
twenty miles) to " the Wise Man," and the thief 
was afflicted until her death with a most painful 
disease. My informants firmly believed this to 
have been caused by " the Wise Man." They 
could not say whether he is still living. " Proba- 
bly not," they added ; as they had " not recently 
heard of any one consulting him." G. E. M. 

Cure for Wens. Calling, a few days ago, at a 
cottage in the adjoining village (Cuddesden, in 
Oxfordshire), I inquired of its occupant, a woman 
who is afflicted with a large goitre, or external 
swelling of the throat, whether she suffered much 
inconvenience from its increasing size, and whe- 
ther the doctors gave her much hope of relief? 
She answered, that as yet it did not cause her 
much inconvenience ; that the doctors gave her 
no hope of its diminution ; but that there was one 
certain remedy which she should have tried, but 
for lack of the opportunity, viz. stroking the swol- 
len neck with the dead hand of a man who had 
been hanged ! On my expressing disbelief in the 
efficacy of this singular application, she assured me 
that her o-,vn father had been afflicted with a simi- 
lar disease ; that he had tried this remedy, and had 

been completely cured by it, the swelling decreas- 
ing gradually, as the hand of the man mouldered 
away ; and that from that time until his death he 
had had no return of the disease. W. SNEYD. 



(Vol. v., p. 501.) 

A Number of "N. & Q." sometimes reaches me in 
Madeira, and I always see it with pleasure. The 
Number for May 22nd last has just fallen in my 
way ; and as there is an opportunity for sending a 
letter to England to-morrow, I hasten to correct 
two or three mistakes into which MR. YARRELL 
has fallen, in a communication printed on p. 501. 

1. The Portuguese word fay a, though derived 
from the Latin fagus, does not at the Azores, and 
in Madeira at least, signify a beech, a tree which, 
except as a garden curiosity, is not found at either 
of those places. It is the name of an evergreen 
tree (Myrica fayci) belonging to a family of which 
our Gale or Dutch myrtle is (as far as I know) the 
only British representative. 

2. I know of no Portuguese word like ceira sig- 
nifying a bank ; but, whether any such exist or 
not, it takes no part in the composition of Terceira, 
the name of one of the Azores, which is nothing 
more than the Portuguese form of tertia, third. 

3. Pico derives its name from an elevated peak 
which rises from it. All the mountain summits, 
both in the Azores and the Madeiras, are termed 

4. The raven is not an inhabitant of Madeira, 
nor did I ever hear of its being found here. 

Whilst I am on the subject of corrections, let 
me turn to another matter, which, though it has 
nothing to do with your publication, may do some 
good to those whom it may concern if noticed in 
your pages. The series of penny maps possesses 
at any rate the merit of cheapness, and, I trust, 
the more desirable merit of accuracy to a greater 
degree, on the whole, than the chart of Madeira 
attached to the map of Africa, No. 71. On that 
chart are nineteen names, and of these five are 
misspelled and one misplaced. Of the remainder 
I observe that insignificant places have been se- 
lected in preference to important ones. 


May I add in a postscript a correction of a mis- 
take which Mr. Ford has fallen into in his Gather- 
ings from Spain ? That gentleman tells us that 
aguardiente, the name of a Spanish drink, signifies 
in plain English tooth-water, referring the last 
member of the word to the Spanish form of the 
Latin dens. Its true origin, however, is in the 
Latin ardere, to burn; and the Spanish aguar- 
diente has correlatives in our ardent spirits, and 
the Indian fire- water. Here, in Funchal, one can- 



[No. 146. 

not move five yards in the streets without meeting 
with little boards suspended at shop-doors, whereon 
are painted the letters " P.," " V.," " A.," repre- 
sentatives of the words Pdo, Vinho, Aguardiente, 
which being interpreted signify, bread, wine, 
spirits. Considering Mr. Ford's habitual accu- 
racy, and his intimate knowledge of the Spanish 
language, it is singular that he should have made 
this mistake. J. Y. J. 

Funchal, Madeira. 


The following passages in The Journal of Nicholas 
Assheton, of Downham, in the County of Lancaster^ 
Esq., edited by the Rev. F. it. Raines, M. A., F.R.S., 
for the Chetham Society, exhibit a curious exam- 
ple of the use of liveries, and of the mean services 
performed by country gentlemen in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. 

"1617, Aug. 11. My brother Sherborne his taylor 
brought him a suit of appa'll, and us two others, and a 
live'y cloake, from Sir Hie. Houghton, that we should 
attend him at the King's coming, rather for his grace 
and reput n , shoeing his neibors love, then anie exacting 
of mean service. 

" Aug. 12 .... To Mirescough. Sir Ric. 

gone to meet the King; wee aft r him to . . . . 
Ther the King slipt into the forest another way, and we 
after and overtook him, and went past to the Yate : 
then Sir Ric. light ; and when the King came in his 
coach, Sir Ric. slept to his side, and tould him ther 
his Maj 1 forrest began : and went some ten roodes to 
the left, and then to the lodge. The King hunted and 
killed a buck. 

" Aug. 13. To Mirescough ; the court. Cooz 
Assheton came w th his gentlemanlie servants as anie 
was there, and himself excellently well appointed. The 
King killed five bucks. The Kinges speche ab 1 lib'tie 
to pipeing and honest recreation. Wee that were in 
Sir Ric 8 liv? had nothing to do but riding upp and 

"Aug. 14. Us three to Preston .... Wee 
were desyred to be merrie, and at nyght were soe. . . 

" Aug 15. The King came to Preston : ther at the 
crosse Mr. Breares the lawyer made a speche, and the 
corpor" presented him with a bowle ; and then the 
King went to a banquet in the townhall, and soe away 
to Houghton : ther a speche made. Hunted and 
killed a stagg. Wee attend on the lords' table. 

" Aug. 16. Houghton. The King hunting: a 
great companie : killed affore dinner a brace of staggs. 
Verie hott : soe hee went in to dinner. We attend the 
lords' table. 

"Aug. 17 Houghton. Wee served the lords with 

biskett, wyne, andjellie. 

" Aug. 18. The King went away ab* 12 to Lathome. 

Wee back with Sir Hie. Hee to seller 

and drunk with us, and used us kindlie in all man r of 
friendlie speche. Preston: as merrie as Robin Hoode 
and all his fellowes. 

" Aug. 19. All this morning wee plaid the bac- 

Esquires and gentlemen, in the present day r 
would be somewhat astonished by a message re- 
questing them to don the livery of a relation, 
friend, or neighbour, even although it might be 
" rather for " a worthy knight's " grace and re- 
putation, showing his neighbours' love, than any 
exacting of mean service." J. LEWELYN CURTIS. 


Inscription over Plato's Door. The inscription,, 
said to have been fixed over Plato's door, dycw/ie- 
rprjTos jUTjSfls eiV/rw, has not, I believe, been traced 
higher than Tzetzes (Chil. viii. 972.), and is 
often incorrectly given 017. ou5ei x s eur. Following 
up a hint of Fabricius, 1 have found the inscrip- 
tion in Philoponus (Comm. in Aristot. de Arnrn., 
reverse of sign. D 1 1 1, near the top of the page,, 
ed. Venet. 1535). This carries it up to a date 
earlier, by more than 500 years, than that ordi- 
narily given. As some distinguished writers have 
been mistaken in this matter, your readers may be- 
pleased to have the mistake corrected, and some of 
them may perhaps be able to trace the passage to 
a still earlier authority. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 

Cock and Bull Story. The following extract 
may be interesting to some of your readers. It is 
found in The Universal Character, by which all the 
Nations in the World may understand one another's 
Conceptions, reading out of one Common Writing' 
their own Mother Tongues, Sfc. By Cave Beck,. 
M.A. Lond: 1657. 

" The Egyptians of old had a symbolical way of 
writing by emblems and pictures, which might be read 
by other nations instructed in their wisdom, but was so 
hard to learn, and tedious in the practice, that letters- 
soon justled them out of the world. Besides, most ot 
their hieroglyphicks were so catachrestical (the picture 
showing one thing to the eye, and a quite different 
sense imposed upon it), that they justifi'd the painter 
who drew a misshapen cock upon a sign-board, and 
wrote under it This is a bull.' " 

H. T. WROTH.. 


Etymology of the Word " Apron." Napery is 
defined by Skinner, Linteaminta domestica; and 
the word apron, notes Whitaker (Craven, p. 232.), 
has plainly lost a letter, probably by a mistake in 
dividing it from the prefix A Naperoun, or an 

In 1388, the Prior and Convent of Durham 
made a life-grant of the office of Keeper of the 
Napry in the Hostillar's Hall (Hist. Dunelm. Scrip. 
Tres. p. clviii.) WM. SIDNEY GIBSON. 


AUG. 14. 1852.] 



Use of Coal as Fuel. The prejudices, if we 
can call them so, against the general use of sea- 
coal for the above purpose, which led to the 
stringent measures enforced against offenders 
(referred to in a Query of mine in a late number, 
and by MR. MERRYWEATHER, Vol. v., p. 568.), 
were 1 believe various. Besides the notion that 
the products of its combustion were (as no doubt 
they are) injurious to health, they were also con- 
sidered hurtful to vegetation, especially that of 
fruit-trees ; and I have heard that the ladies of 
the period considered it bad for their complexions, 
and refused to enter a room in which the combus- 
tion of sea-coal was going on ! This prejudice 
probably arose from such circumstances as the 
following, which is extracted from Parke's Che- 
mical Catechism (edit. 1808, p. 411. note ) : 

" It is related of a lady of fashion, who had incau- 
tiously seated herself too near the fire at a quadrille 
table, that her countenance changed suddenly from a 
delicate white to a dark tawny, as though by magic. 
The surprise and confusion of the whole party had 
such an effect upon the (shall we say) fair one, that 
she was actually dying with apprehension, when the 
physician dispelled their fears by informing his patient 
that she need, only wash her face, and to trust in future 
not to mineral cosmetics, but to those charms which 
nature had bestowed upon her." 


Saints ivho destroyed Serpents. As I before re- 
marked in the case of St. Patrick, we often find 
in Christian legends the conquest of sin or hea- 
thenism represented by the obvious symbol of a 
vanquished dragon. Thus, St. Philip the apostle 
is said to have destroyed a huge serpent at Hiera- 
polis, in Phrygia, as also did St. Martha the ter- 
rible dragon called the Tarasque, which infested 
the Bhone at Aix. The same service St. Florent 
performed for the Loire. (The latter saint is said 
to have lived from A.D. 237 to 3GO.) The Breton 
saints, Cado, Maudet, and Paull, performed like 
feats : nor is the famous St. Keyne of Cornwall to 
be omitted. The dragon is also the well-known 
attribute of the archangel St. Michael, St. George, 
St. Margaret, and the saintly Pope Sylvester. 
St. llomain, Bishop of Rouen in the seventh cen- 
tury, and predecessor of St. Ouen, destroyed a 
huge dragon called La Gurgouille, which ravaged 
the shores of the Seine. He was assisted by a felon 
who had committed murder; whence the chapter 
of Rouen acquired the annual privilege of pardon- 
ing a condemned prisoner. This curious ceremony, 
called Levee de la Fierte, took place at the monu- 
ment of St. llomain, near the linen mart. See 
M. Floquet's Histoire da Privilege de Saint-Romain, 
frc., Rouen, 1833, 2 vols. 8vo. 

The stained glass windows in the cathedral, the 
church of St. llomain, and other churches in Rouen, 
have the history of St. llomain, and the ceremony 
of the Levee de la Fierte, depicted in brilliant 

colours. The word Gurgoyle, or Gurgouille, is 
now used to denote the hideous forms which serve 
as rain-spouts outside of some churches. 

" How are we to understand these things," asks 
M. de Penhouet, " if we do not look upon them as 
a transparent veil, through which we perceive the 
efficacy of baptism administered to the followers of 
serpent-worship [or idolatry in general], who upon 
their conversion were plunged into the water?" 



During my early residence at Berlin, I was in 
constant communication with Professor Walfartb, 
who may be considered the testamentary executor 
of the above renowned man, as he stayed with him 
for a considerable time at Frauenfeld (Switzer- 
land), a short time previous to Mesmer's death, 
and gathered ab ore ipsius all that information 
which he subsequently published in his work. As 
Dr. Mesmer had been closely connected in Paris 
with men like Lafayette, D'Espremenil, and others, 
at the outbreak of the French Revolution, he con- 
sidered it prudent to leave France, and then re- 
tired to England, where he lived under an assumed 
name up to the year 1799, when he again went to 
Germany. Although there were pamphlets pub- 
lished in England from 1786 to 1792 on Mes- 
merism, such as those by C. Peart, Martin, .And 
Bell ; yet, strange to say, they seemed not to know- 
even that Mesmer resided with them in the same 
land. It is equally curious to observe, that 
Mesmer did neither exercise his profession while 
here, nor even publish anything on his discovery, 
which at that time excited some attention. 

Although this period lies now far behind us, yet, 
I think, that some people may live who might give 
some information on " Mesmer in England," which 
would fill up a gap in the biography of this in- 
teresting man. As Mesmer was then already rich, 
it is not likely that he lived in a back third floor, 
as did Chateaubriand at that very same time, in 
London. While on this subject I may add, that 
so far as the year 1775, Mesmer had addressed a 
memoir and some theses to the Royal Society of 
London, which also, as far as I am aware of,_ have 
never been published. Amongst the missing 
MSS. of Mesmer, is A System of Cosmogony, and 
An Essay on truly Democratic Government, of 
which also traces might be found amongst the 
family papers of those persons with whom he re- 
sided while in England. "^ TT 



A Mr. Barlow was, in 1676, the inventor of re- 
peating clocks, and, in 1688, of repeating watches. 
In Rees's Cyclopaedia he is called "a London clock- 



[No. 146. 

maker;" in Reid's Treatise on Clock-making, "a 
clergyman." Other authors describe him as "Mr. 
Barlow," or " our Bra-low," but in no case have I 
met with any Christian name. Can you, or any of 
your correspondents, give any definite information 
respecting him ? 

I have a spring repeating table-clock, evidently 
of great age, which I believe to have been coeval 
with the original inventor; it has neither name 
nor date on it ; but, as an act of parliament was 
passed in 1698, forbidding, under heavy penalties, 
any clock to be made without the maker's name 
being engraved on the dial, the fair presumption 
is that this clock is of a date prior thereto. 

It has the old vertical escapement, and strikes 
the hour in full, without any chimes ; but when 
wanted to repeat, on pulling a string, say at 25 
minutes to 8, it will chime twice for the two quar- 
tern, and then strike seven times. 

This clock was much prized by my father, as a 
sort of heir-loom, having been the property of his 
father and grandfather. He probably could, when 
living, have given me its history, but, unfortu- 
nately, he did not " make a note of it." 

My great-grandfather (Edward Barlow) was a 
clockmaker at Oldham about fifty years, say from 
1726 to 1776; and I believe him to have been a 
grandson of the inventor, by whom, if a clock- 
maker, this clock was most probably made. 




Can any of your readers inform me of the birth, 
parentage, and end of a paper called the British 
Apollo, performed by a Society of Gentlemen, which 
was published twice a week, and of which I have 
the second volume ; containing the numbers from 
March 30, 1709, to March 24, 1710 ? It seems to 
be an ancient, but by no means worthy prede- 
cessor of the " N. & Q.," as the principal part is 
occupied by questions and replies, to which is 
added a page of very indifferent poetry ; a short 
letter concerning foreign news (in one number, 
commencing: "Feb. 22, 1710. Sir, yesterday we 
received a male from Holland, by which we have 
confirmation from Warsaw," &c.) ; and a few ad- 
vertisements of "good Bohee at 24s. per Ib. ;" 
quack doctors ; a reward for a runaway negro in a 
suit of grey livery, &c. &c. The questions and 
answers are somewhat of a miscellaneous character, 
some on deep religious subjects ; as on free will, 
election, &c. : one begins, " Resplendent sages, 
pray oblige your adorer with an exposition of 
Matt, xxiii. 35." Some on medical topics, and ap- 
parently from those who have a personal interest. 
in the reply, as, " whether thin people are most 
liable to consumption ;" " whether three half-pints 
of good punch per diem is good for that com- 

plaint ;" " on the wholesomeness of cyder ;" " on 
the properties of crabs' eyes;" "respecting the 
virtues of raisons of the sun." One is : " Gentle- 
men, I being very willing to keep my carcass in 
health as much as I can, I would fain know which 
is the best for me to drink in a morning, tea or 
chocolate?" Another, "Gentlemen, pray give 
your opinion of mushrooms." Of the miscella- 
neous ones, the following may serve as specimens : 
What sort of a person was Xenophon ? What 
were the Carpocratians ? Whether music has any 
virtue to drive away devils ? Is a person who has 
just eaten his breakfast heavier than before? 
How ancient is the use of rattles for children ? 
Answer, attributing the invention to Archytas of 
Tarentum, the tutor of Plato. Whence came the 
proverb, As bold as a Beauchamp ? Answer, from 
Thos. Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who in 1346, 
with one squire and six archers, encountered and 
repulsed 100 armed men in Normandy. Why 
several couples of hounds are called a pack ? 
Answer, derived from TTVKVOS, confertus. Why are 
those who have lost their love said to wear willow 
garlands ? What is the meaning of the words 
" Fear God and honour the King " being written 
upon the sign of the Bell always ? Why are 
thieves more sharp towards Christmas than at other 
times ? And one probably of personal interest : 
Whether a house and shop well situated will let 
sooner by being shut up, or the contrary ? Another 
is, " What mark can you give me to know a fool 
by ?" And the appropriate answer, " The sending 
such a wise question." E. H. Y. 

[The first number of The British Apollo was issued ou 
February 13, 1708, and it was published twice a-\veek. 
It completed its career in March, 1711, having attained 
the bulk of three volumes folio. An abridgment of 
this curious periodical, " containing 20CO Answers to 
Questions in most Arts and Sciences," was published 
in 1726 and 1740, 3 vols. 12mo.] 


Some years ago I made the following extract 
from Nicholson and Burns' History of Westmore- 
land, vol. i. p. 75., and which I have had mislaid, 
or I should have sent it you sooner : 

" In the isle called Parr's (alluding to the old 
church at Kendal), which belonged to the Parrs of 
Kendal Castle, Sir Thomas Parr, Knight, is commonly 
supposed to have been interred under a large tomb- 
stone without any inscription ; there having been in 
the glass window over it, until demolished by Crom- 
well's soldiers, the following distich : 

' Pray for the soul of Sir Thomas Parr, Knight, 
Who was Squire cf the Body to King Henry the Sth.' 

But it hath evidently appeared before that he was not 
buried here, but in the Blackfriars Church in London ; 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



therefore, most probably, that inscription was in 
memory only of his having caused that window to be 
made of painted glass. 

" Most probably under this stone lies interred the 
body of Sir William Parr, father of the said Sir 
Thomas : for the arms of the tombstone are encircled 
with the Garter, and no other of the family besides 
this Sir William, and his grandson, William Marquis 
of Northampton, was dignified with that honour : and 
the latter, we have found, was buried at Warwick." 

I made the above extract under an intention, if 
ever again I paid a visit to Kendal, that I would 
examine this tomb ; for it has struck me that it 
may refer to the third and last Sir William Pelham, 
Knight, of Brocklesby, one of the ancestors of the 
present Earl of Yarborough. Sir William Pelham 
was a strong and warm adherent to the cause of 
his sovereign, Charles L, on whose behalf he raised 
a troop of cavaliers, whom he commanded at the 
great battle fought at Marston Moor, when the 
Royal forces were so signally defeated by Crom- 
well. This repulse had such an effect on Sir 
William Pelham's feelings that he fell sick under 
it at Kendal, and a prey to chagrin and disappoint- 
ment. He actually died there of a broken heart, 
.and according to the family records he was there 

This is not the first tomb that I have met with, 
of the period of Cromwell's usurpation, that is 
without an inscription ; and it would be a satisfac- 
tion to me if any of your correspondents at Kendal 
would inspect it, and note whether or not there is 
any indication of the buckle and belt of the Pelham 
family on the arms, or upon the tomb, so as to 
corroborate my surmise. If I recollect right, the 
present incumbent of Kendal was formerly resi- 
dent in Lincolnshire, and he may perhaps feel an 
interest in the inquiry. WILLIAM S. HESLEDEN. 

Portraits of Wolsey.I shall be much obliged 
if you, or any of your numerous correspondents, 
can inform me if there is any authority for the 
reason commonly alleged for the portraits of Car- 
dinal Wolsey having been taken in profile, namely, 
that he had but one eye ? or if there is any por- 
trait that is not so taken ? SEMLOH. 

Was Bossuet married f There is good reason 
for believing that Bossuet, the renowned champion 
of Romanism, was himself privately married. (See 
Memoires et Anecdotes de la Cour et du Clerge de 
France: Londres, 1712.) Can any of your corre- 
spondents throw light upon this point ? 


Goose Fair. Can any one inform me of the 
origin of the Nottingham Goose Fair, and why so 
called ? It was formerly a fair of some repute, 
and of three weeks 1 duration. L. J. 

"I Bide my Timer With whom, and under 
what circumstances, did the saying "I bide 1117 
time " originate ? H. M. 

Biting the Thumb. Can any of your readers- 
inform me what is the origin of biting the thumb 
at any one, to show contempt, &c., as in Romeo 
and Juliet, Act I. Sc. 1. : 

" I will bite my thumb at them, which is a disgrace- 
to them if they bear it ?" 

I cannot find any satisfactory note to it anywhere. 

Camdeiis Definition of Cockney (Vol. iv., p. 237.). 
Blount, in his Glossographia, 1670, says: 

" Cambden takes the etymology of cockney from the 
river Thamesis, which runs by London, and was of old 
time called Cockney. Others say the little brook which 
runs by Turnbole or Turnmill Street was anciently so- 

Where does Camden give this etymology ? I do 
not find it in his Britannia. J. LEVVELYN CURTIS. 

Judge Jeffries. What is the origin of so 
many places being pointed out as the residence of 
Judge Jeffries ? Mumfords, a manor house oppo- 
site Bulstrode Park, has always since 1814 been 
named as one, and I have seen it stated that he 
lived at Bulstrode. I have never within that 
time heard in the neighbourhood the story as to the 
camp, given in Lower'p Curiosities of Heraldry, 
p. 166. (See Vol. i., p. 470.) A. C. 

Robert Stanser, Second Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
18161824. He resigned his see in 1824 ; but I 
cannot find when or where he died, or what pre- 
ferments he held in the church previously to being 
elevated to the colonial see of Nova Scotia. Any 
information on these points will be acceptable; 
also atlwhat university educated (Oxford appa- 
rently) ? A. S. A. 


Colonial Newspapers. When was the first 
West India newspaper printed? What was its 
title, and in what language was it printed ? D. X. 

St. Lucia. 

Church Brasses subsequent to 1688. In the 
parish church at Pimperne, Dorsetshire, there is 
on the south wall a brass, eighteen inches square, 
to the memory of Mrs. Dorothy Williams, A. D. 
1698. It represents a female figure, in the costume 
of the period, rising from a skeleton, which lies 
stretched upon a mattress. At the corner is 
" Edmund Colepeper fecit." 

Can any correspondent inform me of the exist- 
ence of brasses later than the Revolution of 1688? 


Pimperne, Blandford. 



[No. 146- 

The Old Roson an inn sign between St. Albans 
and Harpenden. What is the meaning ? A. C. 

Queries on Popular Phrases. In The Four 
Knaves, published by the Percy Society, p. 54. : 
" Bring in a quart of maligo, right true ; 
And looke, you rogue, that it be pee and hew." 

P. 81.: 
' " The fierce and crewell warre-God at the. sharped 

P. 83. (with reference to the dress of the knaves 
on the cards), it is said : 

"I think before the Conquest many yeares." 

Is this opinion of the antiquity of playing cards 
warranted ? 

P. 95. : 

" Deafe eares, blind eyes, the palsie, goute, and mur." 
P. 97. : 
" And let spice-conscience fellows talke their fill." 

In Ballads on Great Frost of 1683-4 (Percy 
Society), p. 15. : 

" He'll print for a sice, 

(For that is his price)." 
P. 27.: 

" The rocks (Qy. rooks') at nine-holes here do flock 

" A game at marbles, I remember when a boy." 
Can it be illustrated ? 

P. 32. : 

" Shall we Moreclctck make ? " 
Query, the old spelling of Mortlock f 

P. 32. : 

" And a tire or more, 

Of Potguns four." 
What does this mean ? J. R. R. 

Etymology of Llewellyn. What is the etymo- 
logy of my name ? LLEWELLYN. 

Voydinge Knife. I find in an inventory of the 
Earl of Leicester's goods, taken after his decease 
in the time of Elizabeth : " One Yoydinge knife of 
silver." Can you inform, me what a "voydinge 
knife" was used for ? 

I see, in a first edition of Johnson which I have 
by me, that a voiders was a basket in which broken 
meat was carried from the table. SKEP. 

Newport, Essex. 

Sir John Mason. Anthony a Wood says of 
Sir John Mason, of whom I have before put a 
Query (Vol. v., p. 537.), that he was born at 
Abingdon, Berks, son of a cowherd by his wife, 
the sister of a monk of that place (see Ath. Ox. by 
Bliss, ii. f. 54.) 

In MS. Cott. Claud, c. iii. f. . . the arms of the 
said Sir John Mason are given as here set out : 

" Quarterly 1. or a lion ramp, with two heads azure, 
guttee de sang. 

2. quarterly gules and azure a lion 

ramp, counterchanged. 

3. argent on a chevron, gules between 

three snakes coiled, sable a crescent 
. . . for difference. 

4. as the first." 

The second quarter is noted " Langston," the 
third " Radley," but both incorrectly. 

The same arms impaling Isley were on his tomb 
in old St. Paul's (see Dugdale's St. Paul's, by 
Ellis, f. 65.). 

Can any of your heraldic readers inform me, 
who the cowherd of gentle lineage was ? His 
widow remarried oneWykes. (See Sir John Mason's 

Yolunte de Dreux, Widow of Alexander III. 
King of Scots. Is it known what became of this 
French princess, daughter and heiress of Ro- 
bert IV. Count of Dreux, married 15th of April, 
1285, and left a young widow, by her husband's 
sudden death, witljin a year afterwards ? A. S. A. 


Mary, Queen of Scots' Daughter, by Earl of 
Bothwell. This unfortunate child's existence 
seems now generally acknowledged (vide Lingard, 
Labanoff, and Castelnaii), and she is said to have 
been eventually " veiled as a nun in the convent of 
Our Lady," at Soissons, near Paris. Do records 
exist to show the period of her profession or death ? 
Any notices of her history would be most inter- 
esting and affecting ; born in captivity (at Loch- 
leven Castle, in February 1568), cradled in ad- 
versity, obscurity, and mystery, and died in exile, 
and probably neglect. A. S. A. 


Lightning. Is there such a thing as sheet- 
lightning; or is that which is so called merely the 
reflection of linear lightning, so distant that the 
Hash itself is invisible ? G. T. H. 

Was Penn ever a Slaveholder ? Did William 
Penn ever make use of Negro slaves ? The asser- 
tion is made in Bancroft's History of America, 
that it is said that he did. Now, as I never have 
seen such a thing hinted at in any work relating 
to William Penn, and as here it is only put in an 
inexcusably loose manner, I should feel better 
satisfied if the calumny could be entirely refuted ; 
as such a charge was entirely inconsistent with the 
whole tenor of his life. THOS. CROSFIELP. 


Authorship of " Voiage du Monde de Descartes." 
May I request your aid in determining the 
authorship of an old French book which I have 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



recently picked up, bearing the title of Voiage du 
Monde de Descartes: chez la Veuve de Simon 

[Par le P. Daniel. Barbier adds, " On a insere le 
second volume, L'Histoire de la Conjuration faite a Stock- 
holm contre Descartes, par Gervaise de Montpellier."] 

Etymology of Sycophant. Will one of your 
learned correspondents give us the origin of the 
word " sycophant" ? M. S. M. 

[In Brande's Dictionary of Science, &c., we read, 
'*' Sycophant (Gr. avKofyavrys ; from GVKOV, a jig, tyaivu), 
I disclose'). It was forbidden by the laws of Athens, at 
one time, to export figs. The public informers who 
gave notice of delinquencies against this fiscal law were 
extremely unpopular, and hence the word came into 
use to signify an informer or false accuser generally, in 
which sense it is constantly used by Aristophanes and 
the orators. In modern languages it has acquired the 
sense of a mean flatterer. "J 

Taboo. What is the meaning, and what the 
'derivation of this word ? It is often met with in 
newspaper writing. D. X. 

St. Lucia. 

[Dr. Ogilvie, in The Imperial Dictionary, has given 
"the following derivation : 

" TABOO, v. t. To forbid, or to forbid the vise of; to 
interdict, approach, or use ; as to taboo the ground set 
apart as a sanctuary for criminals. Tabooed ground is 
held sacred and inviolable. In the isles of the Pacific 
it is of great force among the inhabitants, as denoting 
prohibition or religious interdict."] 

Shaston, where f I have recently met with a 
tradesman's token, issued by one " Edward Burd" 
-of Shaston, during the middle of the seventeenth 
century, but I have not been successful in finding 
in what county this place is situated, although I 
have searched the Gazetteer ; and I shall be glad 
if any correspondent can supply the information. 


[In Langdale's Topographical History of Yorkshire, 
there is a place in the West Riding called Shafton 
(spelt Sharston in Adams' Index Villaris) in the parish 
of Felkirk, wapentake of Staincross, five miles from 
Barnsley, seven from Wakefield, and nine from Ponte- 

Etymology of Devon, frc. What is the etymo- 
logy of the word Devon ? and of the word Wor- 
cestershire ? I have heard or read the derivation 
of the latter from Wig, and ceaster, the Anglo- 
Saxon words for war and city. But why should 
it have been thus named ? Also the etymology of 
Dorsetshire and Somerset ? ARTHUR C. WILSON. 

[Devon. The earliest inhabitants of this county 
-were the Damnonii or Dumnonii, derived by some 
i'rom two Phoenician words, dan, or dun, a hill, and 
tnoina, mines. The Cornish Britons named the county 
Dunan ; the Welsh Deuftheynt, defined by Camdeu to 

mean "deep valleys." By the Saxons it was called 
Devenascyre and Devnascyre, or Devonshire. 

Worcester. The etymology of Worcester is with 
some plausibility adduced from "Wyre-Cestre," the 
Camp or Castle of Wyre, under which name a forest 
still exists in the neighbourhood of Burdley. 

Dorset. This county was anciently inhabited by a 
people whom Ptolemy calls Durotriges, a name which 
Mr. Hutchins (after Camden) derives from the British 
words Dwr, water, and Trig, an inhabitant, or dwellers 
by the water side. The Saxons called them Dorsettan, 
whence the modern name. 

Somerset, says the Magna Britannia, is called by the 
Saxons Sumertun, from the " summer-like temperature 
of the air." The Welsh for the same reason call it 

Charles Inglis, First Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
1787. Preferments in church, university, date 
and place of death, with age, &c., of this prelate 
are solicited. A. S. A. 


[During the years 1755-58, Mr. Inglis conducted a 
free school at Lancaster, U. S., where he became favour- 
ably known to the clergy of the neighbourhood, who 
recommended him to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to succeed Mr. Neill 
as minister to Dover Mission. With these testimonials 
he came to England, was admitted by the Bishop of 
London to holy orders, and arrived at his mission sta- 
tion, Dover, on the 1st July, 1759, where he laboured 
for six years. In 1765, Mr. Inglis obtained permis- 
sion of the Society to accept the appointment of assist- 
ant to Dr. Auchmuty, and catechist to the negroes at 
New York. On the death of Dr. Auchmuty, he was 
elected by the churchwardens and vestry to succeed 
him as rector of Trinity Church. On the breaking out 
of the war, none suffered greater pecuniary loss than 
Mr. Inglis ; for not only was his private estate confis- 
cated, but he was compelled also to abandon his rectory, 
and to accompany some loyalists of his congregation to 
Annapolis in Nova Scotia. In 1783 he was obliged to 
fly to England for his life, where he was consecrated 
bishop of Nova Scotia on the 12th of August, 1787. 
He departed this life in February, 1816, having la*- 
boured in the service of religion for more than fifty 
years in the North American colonies.] 


(Vol. vi., p. 36.) 

F. M. may be referred, for an account of the 
Flemish colonies established in the district of Ros, 
in Pembrokeshire, and Gower, in Glamorganshire, 
to different extracts which I gave in Vol. iv., p. 4. 
To this I may add, that both colonies speak the 
English language, to the u'ter exclusion of Welsh, 
retaining, however, several words quite pecu- 
liar to themselves, and apparently of a Flemish 
origin. A very few of these I give, as they occur 



[No. 146. 

to me; but I have been informed that the distin- 
guished ethnologist Dr. Latham had commenced 
collecting them with a view to publication : 

Semct, a sieve. 
Wieste, dreary, desolate. 
. Eddish, stubble. 

JMabsant, a marriage feast. 
Vlaithens, a species of porridge, 
Perch, to sit down. 
Toit, free, gay, untrammelled. 
Film, dust. 

Drownd, a greyhound. 
Vorion, the headlands of a ploughed field. 
Nummet, anything eaten in the hand, equivalent 
to luncheon in English. &c. &c. 

The names also which prevail amongst them are 
very different from those of their Welsh neighbours : 
as Holland, Hullin (perhaps a corruption of the last), 
Guy, Clement, Givelin, c. They keep carefully 
apart from the Welsh, who also regard them with 
contempt, and who still designate them by the name 
of "The Flemings." Intermarriages are of the 
rarest occurrence, and, ethnologically speaking, 
the differences of the two races are most striking. 
The Flemings are taller, and less finely knit, 
than the Cyrnry ; yet they have fine independent 
upright figures, the expression of which is made 
more emphatic by their large clear blue eyes, 
their placid perhaps almost phlegmatic coun- 
tenances, and the quietude of their movements. 
The most striking trait, however, of the physiog- 
nomy is the great length from the inner corner of 
the eye to the nostril. 

If they were indeed, as is generally affirmed. 
planted by Henry L, for the purpose of instructing 
the Welsh in the weaving of woollens, they have 
admirably fulfilled their task ; and even yet their 
whittles, scarfs, &c., are celebrated for their fine 
texture and brilliant scarlet colour. SELEUCUS. 

Your correspondent F. M. will find many parti- 
culars on this subject in Fuller's Worthies, article 
"Pembrokeshire;" and in Norris's Etchings of 
Tertby, &c., 4to. : London, 1812. S. S. S. 

See " N. & Q.," Vol. iv., pp. 370, 371. and 453. 


(Vol. vi., p. 28.) 

The Note of MR. RAWLINSON respecting cele- 
brated springs and wells, is one calculated to draw 
forth much curious and interesting information on 
a pleasing subject, and I beg to send you the fol- 
lowing particulars in aid of this result ; although, 
as far as I am aware, no lingering belief exists that 
" fairy elves their watch are keeping " over any of 
the wells in this locality. 

In the western suburbs of the town of Leicester, 
by the side of the ancient via vicinalis, leading 
from the Roman Ratce to the Vosse Road, and 
about seventy yards beyond the old Bow Bridge 
(so romantically associated with the closing scenes 
in the eventful life of Richard III.), rises a con- 
stant spring of beautifully limpid water, and known 
as St. Augustine's, or, more commonly, St. Austin's 
Well. It derived its designation from its vicinity 
to the Augustine monastery, situated immediately 
on the opposite side of the river Soar. The well 
is now covered and enclosed ; but within the me- 
mory of persons still living it was in the state thus 
described by Nichols (Hist. Leic. vol. i. p. 300.) 

" The well is three quarters of a yard broad, and the 
same in length within its enclosure, the depth of its 
water from the lip, or back-edging on the earth, where 
it commonly overflows, is half a yard. It is covered 
with a millstone, and enclosed with brick on three 
sides ; that towards the Bow Bridge and the town, is 

This well will come under the list of those men- 
tioned by MR. RAWLINSON as " good for sore eyes,'* 
if having been formerly in great repute as a re- 
medy in these cases ; and even since the enclosure 
of the well, many applications for water from the 
pump erected in the adjoining ground have, I 
know, been made for the same purpose- Permit 
me to record, as a further instance of the strange 
metamorphoses which proper names undergo in the 
oral traditions of the people (see the articles on the 
"Tanthony Bell" in "N. & Q.," Vol.iii., pp. 428. 
484.), that on making some inquiries a few years 
ago of " the oldest inhabitant " of the neighbour- 
hood, respecting St. Augustine's Well, he at first 
pleaded ignorance of it, but at length, suddenly 
enlightened, exclaimed " Oh ! you mean Tostingss 
Well ! " Nor may it be uninteresting to mention, 
as an illustration of the modes of burial anciently 
practised by some of the religious orders*, that in 
the year 1842, on making some excavations in the 
ground lyin^ between the well and the river Soar 
(which is said to have been the burial ground of 
the monastery, and in which now moulders all that, 
remains of " the last of the Plantagenets "), several 
skeletons were discovered. They had evidently 
been interred without coffins, and one, which was 
carefully uncovered, was found lying with the arms 
crossed, not over the breast, but over the abdomen, 
in a similar manner to that delineated on the rare 
brass of a priest at Fulbourn, Cambridge. 

In addition to this holy well, we have also an- 
other in the town called St. James's Well, but I 
am not aware that there is any legend connected 
with it, except that it had a hermitage adjoining 

* " The xxvj day of July (15.56) was bered at the 
Sayvoy a whyt monke of the Charterhowsse, and l?rc<i 
in ys monkeys) wede with grett lyght." Machyn's 
Diary, p. 110. 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



it, or that any particular virtue was attributed to 
it : whilst in the county we have on Charnwood 
Forest the well giving its name to Holy- Well-Haw, 
and the spring on Bosworth Field, rendered famous 
by the tradition of Richard III. having drunk at 
it during the battle, and which is surmounted by 
an inscription to that effect from the pen of the 
learned Dr. Parr. LEICESTRIENSIS. 

(, p. 75.) 

The following stanzas of this old ballad occur in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning 
Pestle, 1611 (Act III. Sc. 5.) : 

" Go from my window, love, go ; 
Go from my window, my dear ! 
The wind and the rain 
Will drive you back again ; 
You cannot be lodged here. 

, " Begone, begone, my juggy, my puggy, 
Begone, my love, my dear ! 
The weather is warm, 
'Twill do thee no harm ; 
Thou canst not be lodged here." 

Fragments are again quoted in The Woman's 
Prize (Act I. Sc. 3.) ; and in Monsieur Thomas 
(Act III. Sc. 3.). But the song is much older 
than the seventeenth century. The tune is pre- 
served in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in 
Barley's New Buohe of Tallature, 1596; and in 
Morley's First Booke of Consort Lessons, 1598. 
It is also one of those ballads that received the 
honour of " moralisation," in Andro Hart's Com- 
pendious Bookc of Godly and Spirituall Songs. In 
the latter shape it is so curious that I subjoin it, 
for the especial benefit of those readers who may 
not have met with a "godly" version of one of 
Old England's sinful ditties : 

" Quho [who] is at my windo, who, who ? 
Goe from my windo, goe, goe, 
Quho calls there, so like ane strange re ? 

Goe from my windo, goe, goe. 
" Lord, I am here, ane wrached mortal, 
That for thy mercie dois crie and call 
Unto thee, my Lord celestiall ; 

See who is at my windo, who ? 
" O gracious Lord celestiall, 
As thou art Lord and King eternal! ; 
Grant us grace that we may enter all, 
And in at thy doore let me goe. 

" Quho is at my windo, quho ? 
Goe from my windo, goe ; 
Cry no more there, like ane strangere, 
But in at my doore thou goe !" 

In Hey wood's Rape of Lucrece, ed. 1620, is a 
sort of paraphrase or companion song to this, but 
it is far too contemptible to be worth' transcribing. 
It is inserted with some variations (not for the 

better) in the fourth volume of Durfey's Pills to 
Purge Melancholy, 1719. 

" Go from my window," retained its popularity 
until a late period. It is mentioned in Otway's 
Soldiers Fortune, and several other plays of about 
the same time. 

Traditional versions are probably still floating 
about the country. The late Mr. Bacon of Nor- 
wich used to sing one, which, to judge from the 
first stanza (the only one that could be recalled to 
memory) promised an improvement upon the 
ancient copy : 

" Go from my window, my love, my dove, 
Go from my window, my dear ! 
For the wind is in the west, 
And the cuckoo's in his nest, 
And you can't have a lodging here." 



(Yol. v., p. 444.) 

After an interval of several years from the time 
of my hearing the story referred to by H. B. C., 
and of which I made no note at the time, I met 
my informant last week, and had an opportunity 
of correcting certain failures of memory. I find 
that it was only said in the neighbourhood where 
he had lived, that the forger had escaped from the 
hulks by counterfeiting a government order for 
his own release. What, therefore, was stated by 
me as a fact, had been only a report. The peti- 
tion was presented to the judges as they descended 
the steps of the "Judges' Lodgings" at York, 
which is a considerable edifice. A Yorkshire par- 
son may be excused for unwittingly allowing the 
minster to obtrude itself into a good story. I 
cannot now divest myself of the first impression ; 
but, of course, I submit. The obdurate judge 
was Baron Graham. The trial took place about 
thirty-five years ago. 

In order to put II. B. C. still more closely on 
the trail, I will mention, whilst my information 
is fresh, that my friend also told me that it was 
about the second known instance of the royal 
clemency being extended to a condemned forger. 
The previous case was scarcely less interesting. 
A forger was sentenced to be hanged ; but there 
were extenuating circumstances, and a petition to 
the crown in his favour was circulated for signa- 
ture. One person who signed it was a dissenting 
minister named Fawcett, who sometime before 
iiad published a Commentary on the Bible, with 
which George III. had been so well pleased, that 
le sent for him, and told him he should be glad to 
serve him. Mr. Fawcett, however, replied, that 
lis majesty could give him nothing in this life 
which he valued. The king then told him, that 



[No. 146. 

he might call upon him if he ever stood in need of 
a favour. Mr. Fawcett now resolved to put royal 
favours to the test. He therefore undertook to 
present the petition, and claim a fulfilment of the 
king's word. He did so, and succeeded : for the 
capital punishment was remitted by royal mandate. 



(Vol/vi., p. 85.) 

In MR. SINGER'S remarks upon my defence of 
this expression, I can only find one tangible point 
admitting of reply. Against the mere assertion of 
adverse opinion, without argument, I have no 
desire to contend. 

The alleged "fatal objection," in the present 
instance, is this : 

" The context requires a plural noun to be in concord 
with they and their t and therefore ' this bosom multi- 
plied ' cannot be right." 

Now, I can scarcely believe it possible that 
MR. SINGER could have overlooked the parallel 
metaphor to which I directed attention in the fifth 
clause of my original argument ; and yet in that 
metaphor this very same peculiarity of expression 
(which MR. SINGER is pleased to call error) is 
much more prominent, viz. : 

" At once pluck out 

The multitudinous tongue, let them not lick 
The sweet which is their poison." 

This passage is, I presume, of undoubted 
genuineness ; and yet, in it them and their are in 
much closer apparent connexion with the singular 
noun, than in the case objected to ; consequently, 
with such a palpable example, within a few lines, 
of a repetition of the very difficulty he was animad- 
verting upon, I cannot conceive how MR. SINGER 
could indulge in the vein he has respecting it. 

But the truth is, that no real difficulty exists at 
all ; because it is quite plain that the dominant 
antecedent throughout the whole speech, to such 
words as they, them, their, &c., is " the people" in 
this question of Brutus which occurs a few lines 
previously : 

" Why shall the people give 
One that speaks thus, their voice ? " 




(Yol. iv., p. 164.) 

As no one has replied to the Query of your 
correspondent H. W. G. R. respecting the origin, 
arms, and motto of these families, may I be per- 
mitted to offer a few remarks thereupon ? What- 
ever obscurity may rest on the original of Kay or 
Wray, and their numerous variations, certain it is 

the armorial ensigns attributed to each by Burke 
n his Armorie bear striking affinity not only with 
each other, but even, to some extent, with the 
obviously (at first sight) distinct families of Rees, 
Reid, or Rede. On the kindred name Wrey 
Wotton remarks (vol. iii. p. 362.) : 

' From an old pedigree of this family I find Robert 
Le Wrey living 2nd King Stephen (A. n. 1136); and 
by the prefixed adjunct they seem to take their name 
from some office. Others denominate them from their 
habitation of Wrey, co. Devon." 

The halberds in the coat of arms, and the old 
crest of the family (an arm holding a commander's 
truncheon), seem to confirm the idea of their 
official origin. The old word to ree or ray, ac- 
cording to Bailey, signifies " to agitate corn in a 
sieve, that the chaffy or lighter parts may gather 
together." Might Le Wrey have had originally 
some such signification, adopted, like the patronymic 
Malleus or Mallet, from the bruising propensities 
of the first bearer of the name ? 

The connexion (if Burke can be depended on) 
between this name and some of its numerous 
affinities (supposing the variations to have been 
adopted at pleasure, as in the case of the great 
naturalist), may be inferred from the subjoined 
tabular view which (if not trespassing too much on 
your space) may perhaps interest some of your 
philological or antiquarian readers : 
Az. on a chief or, 3 martlets gules, 

borne by Wray and Ray', 

Sa. a fess between 3 poleaxes arg. 

helved gu., borne by - - Wrey and Ray 
(To this last name (Ray) Burke 

assigns the " Bourchier " crest 

only as that of the family, as 

borne by Sir Bourchier Wrey, 

Bart., in conjunction with his 

paternal crest.) 
Az. a chevron ermine between 3 

battleaxes or, handled gu., on a 

chief of the last 3 martlets gu., 

borne by Wrey 

(This coat, it will be seen, is formed 

on the blending of the two shields 

above given.) 

Azure 3 crescents or, borne by - RayandRythee 

(Barons Ry thee 
temp. Edw. I.) 
The same 'coat with roundles (for 

cadency ?) borne by - - Wray and Reay 
The same between 4 crescents, 

borne by - - Rea and Ree 

Azure 6 crescents or, borne by - Rye 
Per pale wavy argent and sable 3 

crescents counterchanged, borne 

by Reed ; 

Argent, on a bend sable, between 

3 crescents, as many annulets 

or, borne by - - - - 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



Gu. a bend ermine, a label or, 

borne by Ray, Rey, and 


Gu. a fess ermine in chief, a label 
or, borne by - - - - Rees 

Quarterly arg. and azure a bend 
gules, borne by Do. 

The same, the bend charged with 
3 fleurs-de-lis of the first (some- 
times or), borne by Ray and Rae 

Per pale gu. and sab. a cross 
bottonee (sometimes crosslet) 
fitchee between 4 fleurs-de-lis 
or, borne by - - Reed and Rythe 

The same coat, varying the tinc- 
tures and the cross, borne by - Reade and Rede 

Vert a stag couchant argent attired 
or, borne by - - - - Ray 

Vert 3 stags courant argent, borne 

by ..... Hae and Reay 

(See Burke's 

Gu. (sometimes az.) a fess between 
3 ostriches' heads, with horse- 
shoes in the beak, or, borne by Rved or Ryede 

(The crest of the family of Wray 
and Ray is an ostrich, in the 
beak a horseshoe.) 

These instances may suffice to show the seem- 
ingly kindred origin of several branches of each 
family. It will be seen none exactly resemble the 
coat given by your correspondent as that adopted 
by John Ray. 

The adoption of the family motto, I am more 
inclined to think, must be looked on as a mere 
jeu-de-mot an heraldic pun (of which many in- 
stances may be adduced*) originating in the simple 
choice, but more often the whimsical caprice, of 
the adopter. The family of Homfray bear for 
motto, " L'homme vrai aime son pays :" on which 
Burke has the following (Vide Commoners, vol. i. 
p. 236.): 

" The name of ' Homfray ' is derived from the 

* " Vero nihil verius" is the family motto of Vere. 
Vernon bears " Ver non semper viret," capable of a 
double signification ; " Sapere aude " for Wyse ; and 
" Vows should be respected " for Vowe ; " Quod dixi, 
dixi " for Dixie ; " Vincenti dabitur " for Vincent ; 
' Ne vile velis " for Neville : and many others may be 
added, each having some peculiarity to recommend 
them : for quaintness some, as " Do no yll, quoth 
Doyle," D'Oyley. Wykeham and Curzon' are other 
specimens : but the most remarkable for applicability 
is the motto borne by the family of Dymoke, Here- 
ditary Champions of England, viz. " Pro rege Dimico," 
assumed probably at the time of the alliance of the 
family with the great house of Marmyon ; or at all 
events in allusion to the tenure of Scrivelsby, from 
which the office of champion was derived. 

French words * Homme vrai,' and the several families 
of Humfrey, various as the spelling may be, claim a 
common progenitor. The branch Homfray of Landaff, 
&c. is the only one, however, which has preserved the 
correct (?) orthography." 

If this argument, ingenious as it is, be capable 
of proof, whence, may I ask, arises the far more 
frequent use of the terminate phrey or phry, and 
their variations ? Bailey gives the etymon of 
Humfrey (only) from " Home, Eng." and the Saxon 
for " peace," " q.d. one who makes peace at home," 
a very domesticated original, truly, and a most 
worthy and becoming commentary on the pre- 
nomen Homme vrai. Have we not received this 
name, like Godfrey, from the German ; or may not 
th ph be derived from the Greek perhaps from 
'O^b^pojj/, or some other compound of 4>pV? f like 
signification ? unanimity, concord, &c., being 
implied in this, as in the other "peace-loving" 
derivative. H. W. S. S. 



(Vol. vi., p. 79.) 

The only point upon which I wish to prolong the 
discussion with MR. HICKSON relates to Measure for 
Measure; being the "question of fact" respecting 
which he now makes the following admission : 

" If we do say to a messenger ' take that to,' &c., the 
words indicate that they accompany the act of trans- 
ferring the missive ; and whoever should not accom- 
pany the words with such acts, would use them 

This admission is all that I contend for. It is 
the precise hypothesis upon which I have all along 
based my interpretation of the passage in the 
opening of Measure for Measure ; but I under- 
stood MR. HICKSON, in his first communication, 
to deny it. 

If he will refer to my original statement, he will 
find that my hypothesis was this : that the abso- 
lute act of transfer commences with " Then no 
more remains;" and ends with "there is your 

MR. HICKSON will surely not deny that there 
may be such a thing as a protracted presentation ! 
Particularly when we have its exact counterpart 
in the equally protracted presentation subse- 
quently made to Angelo, commencing with "Hold, 
therefore, Angelo," and ending with " take your 
commission ! " 

These parallels are of frequent occurrence with 
Shakspeare, and seem to proceed from design. At 
all events, when carefully studied, they become 
extremely useful as corroborative analogies in 
cases of doubt. A- J2. B. 




[No. 146. 


(Vol.v., p.618.,&c.) 

Observing, from the number of references in 
your Index to Vol. v., that this subject possesses 
interest for some of your readers, I transcribe a 
few more local rhymes not to be found in Grose's 
Provincial Glossary : 


" York was, London is, but Lincoln shall be 
The greatest city of all the three." 


" English lord, German count, and French Marquis, 
A yeoman of Kent is worth them all three." 


Blest is the eye 
Betwixt Severn and Wye." 


( " I, John of Gaunt, 
Do give and grant, 
To Roger Burgoyne 
And the heirs of his loin, 
Both Sutton and Potton 
Until the world's rotten.** 


" Tring, Wing, and Ivinghoe, all these three did go 
For striking the Black Prince a blow." 


" Except old saws be vain 
And wits of wizards blind, 
The Scots in place must reign 
Where they this stone shall find." 


It is singular that none of your correspondents 
have yet cited Shakspeare's memorable lines : 
" Piping Tebworth, Dancing Marston, 
Haunted Hillbro', Hungry Grafton, 
Dudging Exhall, Papist Wicksford, 
Beggarly Broom, and Drunken Bedford." 


" Pars Corinea datur Corineo, de duce nomen 
Patria; deque viro gens Corinensis habet." 



(Vol. v., p. 164.; Vol. vi., p. 43.) 
Thomas Clio Rickman was a stationer in Upper 
Marylebone Street within the last twenty years ; 
presuming, therefore, that the original portrait of 
Fox, supposed to be painted by Honthorst, is still 
in existence, I shall be glad to know in whose pos- 
session it now is: and as I am editing for the 
Chetham Society a collection of papers, chiefly 
consisting of the private correspondence of the 
immediate family connexions of George Fox, I 
shall b<i much obliged to the present possessor of 
this portrait if he will permit me to see it.. 

I am not aware that an engraving after this 
painting was published in any edition of Fox's 
Journal; and in the absence of more explicit in- 
formation from your correspondent BONSALL, I 
conclude, partly from the occurrence of the word 
" sect" in the inscription, that the engraving did 
not originally form a part of the book in which it 
is inserted. 

An impression of this engraving may be found 
in the portfolio of Joseph Smith, Bookseller, in 
Oxford Street, New Road, Whitechapel, who pos- 
sesses several representations of Fox, but no other 
in a devotional attitude. 

One of these, well engraved in line by Samuel 
Allen, after a painting by S. Chinn, was published 
in 1838 ; another, lithographed by T. Stackhouse 
from a drawing by W. Dance, was published in 
1824 ; and a third is a small dotted engraving, 
without the name of painter or engraver, published 
by W. Darton in 1822. Mr. Smitl^ believes that 
none of these three representations is copied from 
any authentic portrait: but he possesses also a 
very small oval plate-engraving printed in folio, 
without date ; it is a fac- simile of a rude woodcut, 
which Mr. Smith believes was printed in some 
publication contemporaneous with Fox ; and he 
understands that with the assistance of this wood- 
cut, the above-mentioned three portraits were 

The only other portrait of Fox, which I have 
seen or heard of, is an etching by Sawyer, Jun., 
published by Rodd of Little Newport Street ; 
Mr. Rodd informs me that this etching was 
founded on the before-mentioned woodcut, which 
was printed, with George Fox's name attached, on 
an advertisement sheet, issued by the proprietors 
of a quack medicine of very old standing, called 
the Anodyne Necklace. J. LEWELYN CURTIS. 


(Vol. vi., p. 76.) 

Your correspondent may like to know that there 
are several metrical legends touching St. Margaret. 
One given by Hickes from a MS. in Trin. Coll. 
Cambr. : 

" Olde ant yonge i preit our folies for to lete." 

Another in the Vernon MS. at Oxford : 

" Seinte Margarete was an holi maid and good." 
And one printed, of which no mention has yet 
been made ; neither Ames, Herbert, nor Dibdin 
having recorded it : 

" Here begynneth the lyfe of Saynte Margarete." 
Woodcut of a saint, holding the cross between 
both hands, and standing on the dragon crouching 
beneath her, as subdued. The cut repeated at 
the back of the title. Colophon : 

<( d Enprynted at London wihtin Teple barre in 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



Saynt Dounstones paryshe at the Syne of the George, 
by me Robert Redman." 

On the last page Redman's device : 4to., containing 
three sheets. 

Without regarding Margaret's troubles, the 
miraculous assistance rendered by an angel bring, 
ing her 

" Parte of the crosse that God was on done," 
which had the effect not only of slaying the 
dragon, but enabling her to come " out hole and 
sounde," after having been swallowed " body and 
bone" by the aforesaid monster, I will transcribe 
ilie first few lines, in order to identify the work, 
should any other copy come to light : 

" Here begynneth of Saynt Margarete 
The blessed lyfe that is so swete. 
To Jesu Christ she is full dere, 
If ye will lysten ye shall here ; 
Herken nowe unto my spell, 
Of her lyfe I wyll you tell, 
Olde and yonge that here be, 
Lysten a whyle unto me." 

The dragon, concerning whom your correspon- 
dent more particularly inquires, is thus shortly 
described : 

" She loked a lytell her besyde, 
And sawe a fowle dragon by her glyde, 
That was of coloure grasse grene, 
With flamynge fyre on to sene, 
Out of his mouthe brenynge bryght, 
She was a frayde of that syght." 
&c. &c. 

The copy here described was found in a volume 
of tracts at a farmhouse in Somersetshire, and is 
now in my possession. P. B. 

The church at Stoke- Golding, in this county, is 
also dedicated to St. Margaret the Virgin ; and 
while prosecuting my researches for an historical 
account of the fabric, I fell in with the following 
notice of the legend in Brady's Clavis Calendaria, 
London, 1813, 2nd edit., vol. ii. pp. 103-105. : 

" Saint Margaret, whose festival (20lh July) has 
been restored to our calendar, after having been once 
expunged, was the daughter of an idolatrous priest at 
Antioch, in Syria, a person distinguished as having 
been one of the greatest enemies to the Christian doc- 
trine. Being remarkahle for personal charms, Olybius, 
the president of the east, became enamoured of our 
saint, and used every effort in his power, supported by 
the authority of her father, to make her abjure the 
Christian religion, to which she had recently been 
converted ; but not being able either to induce or to 
terrify her into such renunciation, he caused her to be 
put to the most cruel torments, and afterwards to be 
decapitated, about the year 275. The history of St. 
Margaret, in the earliest breviaries of the Romish 
Church, was fraught with such impious and absurd 
anecdotes, that they have been from time to time so 
much altered and amended as scarcely to retain any 

part of her original legend ; though, as she has been 
worshipped with extreme fervour by both the Eastern 
and Western Churches, for a supposed power in assisting 
females in child-birth, one miracle was necessarily 
preserved, until nearly the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, as an explanation of the cause of that peculiar 
province having been assigned to this saint. Neither 
Olybius, nor her father, having been capable of divert- 
ing her from a steady adherence to the Christian faith, 
recourse was had, say her monkish historians, to the 
assistance of Satan himself, who, in the shape of a 
dragon, swallowed her alive ; though she speedily burst 
from that horrid confinement, and effected her escape. 
So miraculous a circumstance naturally pointed out 
the peculiar powers over which Providence designed 
her to have empire ; for who could so well be capable 
of aiding the struggle of the yet unborn infant, as one 
who had extricated herself even from the body of the 
arch enemy. The girdle of this virgin saint was long 
stated to have been kept in pious custody at St. Ger- 
main's Abbey at Paris ; and being girt with it, was 
universally esteemed of the utmost service to ladies 
who were likely soon to require the assistance of the 
obstetric art ; but the holy friars were obliged to super- 
intend the ceremony : ' a piece of charity,' says an old 
author, ' to give them their due, they were seldom 
wanting in.' 

" The Eastern Church records this saint under the 
appellations of St. Pelagia and St. Marina, while the 
Western Church pays reverence to her by the name of 
St. Geruma, or, as our calendar retains it, St. Margaret. 1 ' 

There is a representation of this virgin saint in 
stained glass in the north aisle of the choir in 
Winchester Cathedral ; she is represented tread- 
ing a blue dragon, spotted yellow, under her feet. 
There is also a representation of her on the font 
at Stoke-Golding in the same attitude, with a 
small female figure praying to her. On the com- 
partment on the left is a representation of St. 
Nicholas ; and on that of the right, one of St. 
Catherine. See Papers on Architecture published 
by J. Weale, 1844, Plate VI., -art. "An His- 
torical Account of the Church of Saint Margaret, 
Stoke-Golding, Leicestershire." 

At the time I took my sketches of the church, 
on a boss in the centre of the ceiling-beani in the 
south aisle, a little eastward of the south entrance, 
was a rude carving representing a female in the 
act of self-delivery, but whether it now exists I 
cannot tell. THOS. L. WALKER. 


I happen to have a cast from a small oval seal 
representing St. Margaret standing on a dragon, 
surrounded by the legend, " Margareta . ora . pro 
nobis." I believe the original matrix is in tho 
possession of Mr. Chalmers of Auldbar. E. T. 

ta ifEHnor 

Donne versus Francis Davison (Vol. vi., p. 49.). 
The translation of Psalm cxxxvii., as inserted in 
Select poetry of the reign of Elizabeth, seems to have 



[No. 146. 

been ascribed to Francis Davison on the authority 
of Sir Harris Nicolas, who printed it from the 
Harleian MS. 6930., with many others by Francis 
and Christopher Davison, as an appendix to the 
Poetical rhapsody which he edited in 1826. He 
admits that the signatures in that manuscript " are 
not in the same autograph as the manuscript itself, 
but appear to have been added some time after- 
wards." It is therefore very questionable evi- 

The Poems of Donne were first collectively pub- 
lished in 1633, 4to. On that edition much reliance 
cannot be placed, as it includes An epitaph upon 
Shakespeare which was certainly written by 
William Basse. The editions of 1635 and 1639, 
both in octavo, are not much superior to it, except 
in the omission of that epitaph. It was in 1650 
and not in 1635, as Malone asserts that John 
Donne, the civilian, gave the first complete edition 
of the poems of his father ; and as that edition 
contains the psalm in question, the claim made for 
Francis Davison must be set aside. The edition 
of 1650 is dedicated "To the right honourable 
William lord Craven, baron of Hamsted-Mar- 
sham." It was reprinted in 1669. 


Henry Lord Dover (Vol. vi., pp. 10. 86.). It 
may be interesting to your correspondent whose 
inquiries relate to Henry Jermyn, first Baron 
Jermyn of Dover, third Baron Jermyn .of St. 
Edmund's Bury and Earl of Dover by creation of 
James II. after his abdication, to be informed that 
a description of that nobleman's tomb (formerly i 
in the church of the Carmelite monks at Bruges) 
will be found in a forthcoming number of The ' 
Topographer and Genealogist. He died April 6, j 
1708, at Cheveley in Cambridgeshire, and his re- 
mains were, by his desire, carried to Bruges for 

A drawing of the monument alluded to is pre- 
served in the MS. " Sepultur der Stadt Brugge," j 
in the Bibliotheque Publique at Bruges, vol. vi. 
f. 206., whence my description of it. 

Among the archives of Bruges in the Hotel de 
Ville is a commission signed by James II., dated I 
Dublin Castle, December 17, 1689, appointing \ 
Darby Morphy, Esq., Captain-Lieut, to Lord \ 
Hunsdon's regime'nt of foot. His name may, ! 
therefore, occur in your correspondent's list of the j 
dethroned monarch's officers. A family of De 
Morphy had previously to this date become located 

"Experto crede Roberto" (, p. 107.)- 
The fact mentioned by J. H. M. is much too 
modern. Before I asked for the origin of the phrase 
(Vol. in., p. 353.), I had seen an adaptation of it 
to himself, in his own handwriting, by James I., 
"Experto crede Jacobo;" and had also made a i 
note of it as occurring in a discourse of Ulricus 

Molitor, which he intituled De Laniis et Phitonicis 
Mulieribus, and addressed to Sigismund, Archduke 
of Austria, in a letter dated 10th January, 1489. 
Pie says in his first chapter : 

" Profecto experientia in decidendis causis con- 
temptibilis non est . . . uncle tritum est apud po- 
pulares proverbium experto crede ruberto." 

It was then a trite proverb. N. B. 

Vellum-bound Boohs (Vol. v., p. 607.). In 
answer to MR. CORNEY (although not " in search 
of a vellum-bound Junius "), I beg to say that the 
phrase " vellum manner " is in common use with 
us bookbinders ; it is used to describe a particular 
method of sewing and forming the back of a book, 
without the hard projecting joints, which are 
formed by hammering the book while in the press. 
The vellum manner is very strong and free in 
opening ; account books are bound upon this prin- 
ciple, it is also extensively used by the British and 
Foreign Bible Society: the book is sewed upon 
strips of vellum or tape, or on thongs as of old. 
Books bound in vellum style are also much less 
injured for rebinding than when the back is cut in 
for cords and hammered into joints ; perhaps the 
advertiser had an eye to this point, he having been 
guilty of joining together that which the. author 
had intended should have been kept asunder. 


40. Brewer Street. 

Monody on the Death of Sir John Moore (Vol. vi., 
p. 80.). The parody on the monody referred to 
by your correspondents C. II. COOPER and T. H. 
KEBSLET is to be found in the first volume of In- 
goldsby Legends, p. 111., where the author, the 
Rev. Thomas Barham, says : 

" In the autumn of 1824, Captain Medwin having 
hinted that certain beautiful lines on the burial of this 
gallant officer might have been the production of Lord 
Byron's muse, the late Mr. Sydney Taylor, somewhat 
indignantly, claimed them for their rightful owner, the 
late Rev. Charles Wolfe. During the controversy a 
third claimant started up in the person of a soi-disant 
Doctor Marshall, who turned out to be a Durham 
blacksmith, and his pretensions a hoax. It was then 
that a certain Doctor Peppercorn put forth his pre- 
tensions to what he averred was the only ' true and 
original ' version, viz. (here follows the parody as given 
by MR. KERSLEY) : 
' Hos ego versiculos feci, tulit alter honores. 1 Virgil. 

' I wrote the lines M 1 owned them he told 

stories!"' Thomas Ingoldsby. 

The production of the parody had been ascribed 
to Praed and others, until the admission of Barham 
was made that he was its author, as given above. 


The Hereditary Standard Bearer (Vol. v., 
p. 609.). The present " Hereditary Royal Stan- 
dard Bearer," Frederick Lewis Scrymgeour-Wed- 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



derburn, of Wedderburn and Birkhill, is pater 
nally a Scrymgeour, the surname of Wedderburi 
having been first assumed by his uncle (to whon 
his father succeeded) on inheriting the estate o 
the same name in 1778. In the account of th 
Maitland family, in Douglas's Peerage, I can fine 
no mention of the office of " Hereditary Standar( 
Bearer," which is assigned to the Earl of Lauder- 
dale in modern Peerages, and also in the list o: 
the "Royal Household" (Scotland) contained in 
Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh Almanack. In th( 
course of the proceedings before the Privy Council 
in 1823, on the dispute between the Duke o: 
Hamilton and Lord Douglas relative to the righl 
of bearing the Scottish crown at royal processions, 
it was stated by Mr. Warren (one of Lord Douglas 
counsel) that "the office of Standard Bearer in 
Scotland had been seized by creditors, and sold, 
under a judgment of the Scotch Courts." Per- 
haps some reader of "N. & Q." may be able to 
communicate the case to which the learned counsel 
referred, which I have hitherto failed to discover 
and which in all probability will throw some light 
upon the subject of your correspondent's inquiry. 

E. N 

Baxter's "Saint's Rest" (, p. 86.). I 
have before me a copy of this admirable book, 
which proves that the author of the Scholar Armed 
was wrong in speaking of " the two editions printed 
before the year 1660 ;" seeing that my copy pur- 
ports to be " the seventh edition," and was printed 
in 1658. I have no opportunity of comparing it 
with any later impression, but it certainly contains 
a passage, Part I. chap. 7. sec. 4., which bears out 
to a great extent the criticism quoted by your 
correspondent R. G-. Before coming to it, I will 
transcribe as a somewhat curious matter, the 
assemblage of divines whom he brings together 
amongst " the spirits of the just men made 
perfect : " 

"Will it be nothing conducible (he says) to the 
compleating of our comforts, to live eternally with 
Peter, Paul, Austin, Chrysostom, Jerom, Wickliffe, 
Luther, Zuinglius, Calvin, Beza, Bullinger, Zancliius, 
Pareus, Piscator, Camero, with Hooper, Bradford, 
Latimer, Glover, Saunders, Philpot, with Reignolds, 
Whitaker, Cartwright, Brightman, Bayne, Bradshaw, 
Bolton, Ball, Hildersham, Pemble, Twisse, Ames, 
Preston, Sibbs?" 

And, after some further remarks, he proceeds : 
" I think, Christian, this will be a more honorable 
assembly than you ever here beheld : and a more 
happy society than you were ever of before. Surely 
Brook, and Pirn, and Hampden, and White, &c., are now 
members of a more knowing, unerring, well-ordered, 
right -ayming, self-denying, unanimous, honorable, 
triumphant senate, than this from whence they were 
taken is, or ever Parliament will be. It is better to be 
door-keeper to that Assembly, whither Twisse, &c. are 
translated, than to have continued here the Moderator 

of this. That is the true Parliamentum Beatum, the 
blessed Parliament ; and that is the only Church that 
cannot err." 

C. W. B. 

The Name of Dodo (Yol. vi., p. 35.). As MR. 
HOOPER would no doubt be glad to know of other 
instances of persons of this name, besides those 
mentioned by him, I subjoin a note taken from an 
Issue Roll of the Exchequer, temp. Edw. IV. : 

" Jacobo Dodo et sociis suis mercatoribus de Venisia 
in denariis eis Hberatis (in part repayment of loan), 

J. BT. 

" Sacrum pingue dabo," SfC. (Vol. vi., p. 36.). 
Bayle, in his Dictionary, under the word " Cain," 
attributes this distich to Politian. Father Mabillon 
also attributes it to him. It is, however, commonly 
supposed to have a higher antiquity. 

There is another distich equally curious : 

" Patrum dicta probo, nee sacris belligerabo 
Belligerabo sacris, nee probo dicta patrum." 

The first verse is from a Catholic, the second 
from a Huguenot. 
Again, a third : 

" Retro mente labo, non metro continuabo ; 
Continuabo metro ; non labo mente retro." 

A tutor. explaining one of the odes of Horace to 
his scholars, after the explanation of each ode 
dictated in hexameter verses the ode he had ex- 
plained. He did this, he said, as an exercise. It. 
cost him some trouble : he hesitated sometimes in 
his dictation, and substituted other words occa- 
sionally. His pupils thought the composition had 
been prepared. Some thought he would not 
succeed in his effort : and others maintained that, 
having begun, it was a point of honour to complete 
his task. The context gave rise to the distich. 


Age of Trees (Vol. vi., pp. 18. 45.). Your 
correspondents AGMOND and UNICORN would con- 
fer a favour on me and other readers, if they 
would have the kindness to state the evidence for 
the age of the five remarkable trees, in Switzerland 
and France, to which they advert. As has been 
shown in former Numbers, an impression often 
prevails that a tree of unusual size is likewise of 
^reat antiquity. It rarely happens, however, that 
:he age of a tree can be determined by any satis- 
'actory evidence. When, for instance, it is said 
;hat a certain fir-tree near Mont Blanc has been 
ascertained by M. Berthelet to be more than 120O 
years old, it would be interesting to know the 
nethod by which this result has been obtained, and 
io\v he has proved that this tree began growing 
>efore 650 A.D. It is clear that he cannot have 
ounted the rings, as the tree is still standing. 
Again, if it is a historical fact that a colossal oak 



[No. 146. 

in the department of the Vosges was known in the 
time of Philip Augustus, and has lived during a 
period of 650 years, the grounds on which this 
assertion is made admit of explanation. L. 

Scot ofSatcMl (Vol. vi., p. 10.). In reply to 
your correspondent SIGMA 1 beg to acquaint him 
that there are three editions of Scot's True Histoi'y 
of the Families of Scot, viz. : 

1. Edinburgh: 1688, small 4to. 

2. Edinburgh: 1776, small 4to. And, 

3. Hawick: 1786, small 8vo. 

Satchell was the name of his residence in Rox- 
burghshire. He was one of the Sinton and Harden 
branches of the numerous families of Scot. I may 
mention that all of the editions are now scarce, 
particularly the^r-stf one, a copy of which was sold 
at the Roxburghe Sale for 21. 4s. In Blackwood's 
and also in Laing's Catalogues for 1812 and 1819, 
copies are marked at II. Us. Gel. T. G. S. 


At p. 162. of a curious catalogue of books pub- 
lished in 1850 by the well-known antiquarian 
bookseller, Mr. Stevenson of Edinburgh, I find 
the following : 

" Captain Walter Scot's True History of the Families 
of the Name of Scot and Elliot, in the Shires of Rox- 
burgh and Selkirk, gathered out of Ancient Chronicles, 
Histories, and Traditions of our Fathers. Quarto, 
1688 : Reprint, 1766." 

I am sorry that I cannot answer the other part 
of SIGMA' s Query as to the reason why the Captain 
was called " Old Satchells." E. N. 

Exterior Stoups (Vol. vi., p. 19.). I think your 
correspondent who stated that there was an ex- 
terior holy-water stoup at Winchester Cathedral 
must have made only a cursory examination, and 
have mistaken for stoups two projections from 
the south wall of the nave. These, however, are 
about six feet from the ground, and would be com- 
pletely out of the reach of those forming a large 
part of a Catholic congregation, namely, females. 
They are, moreover, perfectly flat on their upper 
surface. They are placed on the right side, on 
entering, of two doors, one of which is at the angle 
formed by the nave with the south transept, the 
other midway between the transept and the west 
front. There is no other projection at all resem- 
bling a stoup on the exterior of the building that 
I can discover. HOLDE TASTE FAYTHE. 


In answer to CUTHBERT BEDE'S inquiry (Vol. v., 

E. 560.), I have much pleasure in pointing out to 
im a solitary example in this county of a holy- 
water stoup on the exterior of the south wall of 
the south porch at Hungarton. It grows out, as 
it were, of the basement moulding, and has a 
canopy over it. The porch is itself a beautiful 

example of the Perpendicular Period ; and, should 
your correspondent desire it, I will gladly exchange 
sketches with him. THOMAS L. WALKER. 


There is an exterior holy-water stoup still 
remaining, if I remember rightly, at Badge- 
worth Church in Gloucestershire. I may pos- 
sibly be mistaken in the church ; but any cor- 
respondent residing at Cheltenham could easily 
ascertain the fact. There is also one, much re- 
sembling a small font, outside the door of the 
chapel at Haddon Hall in Derbyshire. 


There is an exterior holy-water stoup at the 
south side of the west door of the church at West 
Ham, near Pevensey, Sussex. E. H. Y. 

"Royd," frc. (Vol.v., p. 620.). May not the 
common root of all be root, to root out, to clear ; 
going beyond the backwoods fashion of cutting 
down the trees knee high, and leaving the stumps 
and roots to rot out at leisure ? And yet the back- 
woodsmen call this a clearing. J. Ss. 

PicTiigni (Vol. vi., p. 75.). In the Dictionary 
of T. B. (Blount), published in London, 1670, is 
the following notice of Picliigni : 

" PICKIGNI (Fr. ), by the pronunciation of this word 
in France, aliens were discerned from the native French : 
as Shibboleth among the Hebrews (Judges xii. 6.). So 
likewise (in Sands his Travels, fol. 239.) you may 
read how the Genoese were distinguished from the 
Venetians by naming a sheep. And in our own history, 
the Flemings (in Wat Tyler's Rebellion) were dis- 
tinguished from English by pronouncing bread and 
cheese, &c." Stows Survey, fol. 51. 

C. B. C. 

Cowdray Family (Vol. vi., p. 75.). In answer 
to W. H. L. I beg to state, that a family named 
Cowdery resided some twenty-five years ago at 
Godstone in Surrey. Some of the females of the 
family are still resident there, and represent them- 
selves as having been in former times in much 
higher circumstances. The head of the family 
whom I remember there was a brush-maker in the 
Strand, having his country-house at Godstone. 

G. T. H. 

James Murray, titular Earl of Durilar (Vol. vi., 
p. 11.). Mungo Murray, of Broughton, who got a 
charter of the lands of Egernes and Ballinteir in 
1508, ancestor of the Murray s of Broughton in 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, was second son 
of Cuthbert Murray, of Cockpool, whose lineal 
descendant was created Earl of Annandale in 1624. 
That title became extinct in 1658, but the present 
heir of line of the family is the Earl of Mansfield, 
in consequence of the marriage of David, fifth 
Viscount Stormont, to the lineal representative of 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 



Sir James Murray of Cockpool, elder brother of 
the first Earl of Annandale. See Douglas's 
Peerage, i. 66. and ii.539. E. N. 

Armorial 13 ear ings of Cities and Towns (Vol. vi., 
p. 54.). The arms of the principal cities and towns 
in England will be found curiously engraved in 
Bickham's British Monarchy, published in the 
year 1743. E. K 

The Black Eood of Scotland (Vol. v., p. 440.). 
The inventory made at Burgh-upon- Sands, July 
17, 35 Edw. I. (A.D. 1307), contains an important 
notice of this famous 'historical relique : 

" In Coffro signato supius signo Crucis. Videlt', 
crux Neygli' ornata auro et lapid' p'cios' una cum pede 
ejusd' crucis de auro et gemis in quada casula de corr' 
ex a coffr' dco pedi aptata. It'. La Blakerode de Scot' 
fabricata in auro cu cathena aur' in teca int'i' lignea et 
ext'i' de arg' deaur'. 

"If Crux Sue Elene de Scot', [etc.]." See the 
Proceedings of the Record Comm., p. 550. 

Having recently met with the above entries, I 
am glad to ask you to add them to what has been 
written on this point. WM. SIDNEY GIBSON. 

Ne wcas tl e-on- Ty ne. 

Birthplace of Wijcliffe (Vol. vi., p. 55.). In the 
Rev. Dr. Vaughan's Life of Wyclijfe, vol. i. p. 230., 
it is proved almost to a certainty that the venerable 
reformer was born at a humble village of the name 
of Wycliffe, about six miles from the town of Rich- 
mond in Yorkshire. Your correspondent SEVARG 
is referred to the interesting Life of Wycliffe 
quoted above. JOHN ALGOR. 

Eldon Street, Sheffield. 


Every day, every hour, does the interest in that great 
discovery, which more than realises Puck's boast 
" I'll put a girdle round about the earth 

In forty minutes '' 

grow with the increased application of it. A popular, 
but at the same time, a clear, distinct, and scientific 
account of its origin and progress, cannot, therefore, be 
otherwise than welcome, and such will be found in the 
newly published part of the Traveller's Library, en- 
titled Electricity and the Electric Telegraph, to which is 
added the Chemistry of the Stars, by Dr. George Wilson. 
The other part published by Messrs. Longman for the 
present month is Lord Bacon, in which Mr. Macaulay 
presents us with a brilliant portrait of 

" England's high chancellor, the destined heir, 

In his soft cradle, to his father's chair." 
_ Mr. Darling, the proprietor of the well-known Cle- 
rical Library and Reading Rooms, has just commenced 
what promises to be a most useful work ; it is entitled 
Cyclopedia Bibliographica, a Library Manual of Theo- 

logical and General Literature, and Guide for Authors, 
Preachers, Students, and Literary Men; Analytical, 
Bibliographical, and Biographical, and cannot be better 
described than in the words of the prospectus, which 
states that it " is founded chiefly on the books con- 
tained in the Metropolitan Library (Clerical and 
General),' and will comprise nearly all authors of note, 
ancient and modern, in Theology, Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, Moral Philosophy, and the various departments 
connected therewith, including a selection in most 
branches of Literature, with short Biographical Notices 
and Catalogue of each Author's works, which will be 
complete in regard to those whose works are published 
collectively ; and the contents of each volume will be 
minutely described. To which will be added a sci- 
entific as well as alphabetical Arrangement of Subjects, 
by which a ready reference may be made to Books, 
Treatises, Sermons, and Dissertations, on nearly all 
heads of Divinity ; the Books, Chapters, and Verses of 
Holy Scripture; the Festivals, Fasts, &c., observed 
throughout the year ; and useful Topics in Literature, 
Philosophy, and History, on a more complete system 
than has yet been attempted in any language, and 
forming an Index to the Contents of all similar Li- 
braries, both public and private, and a Cyclopedia of 
the sources of Information and Discussion in Theology, 
and, to a great extent, in Universal Knowledge." The 
work will be published in monthly parts of eighty 
pages, and be complete in two volumes. The first, 
which will be complete in itself, will be finished iu 
twenty parts. It appears to be very carefully compiled, 
and is replete with useful information. 

" Judging," says The Athenaum, " by the number of 
new books which we see announced, or which we hear 
of in our immediate circles, the literary prospects of the 
coming season are not below the usual promise of the 
autumn. The activity seems to pervade all spheres, 
' from grave to gay from lively to severe.' In His- 
tory, we expect an early appearance of four volumes 
by the Chevalier Bunsen on Hippolytus and his Age, 
a History of the Ionian Islands, by Mr. Bowen, and 
some portion of a History of Europe from the Fall of 
Napoleon in 1815 to the Re-establishment of Military Go-- 
vernment in France in 1851, by Sir A. Alison. Some- 
what later in the season may be expected the Hon. 
Capt. Devereux's Lives of the Earls of Essex, Mr. 
Hepworth Dixon's Domestic Story of the Civil War, 
the seventh and concluding volume of Lord Mahon's 
History of England, and a new historical work from 
the pen of Mr. Carlyle. In the semi-historical de- 
partment of literature we shall have two volumes of 
Fresh Discoveries at Nineveh and Researches at Babylon, 
from Dr. Layard, Leaves from my Journal during the 
year 1851, by a Member of the late Parliament, the 
Hon. Mr. Neville's Anglo-Saxon Remains, and a 
new volume of Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of 
Scotland. Among books of travel, or books recording 
the results of travel, we shall have Mr. Mansfield Per- 
kin's Personal Narrative of an Englishman resident in 
Abyssinia, Isis ; an Egyptian Pilgrimage, by Mr. J. 
A. St. John, Village Life in Egypt, by Mr. Bayle St. 
John, Mr. Palliser's Solitary Rambles and Adventures 
of a Hunter in the Prairies, and Dr. Sunderland's 
Journal of a Voyage in Baffin's Bay and Barrow's Straits 



[No. 146. 

in 1850 and 1851, in search of the missing Crews. In 
Biography, the ten volumes of Memoir, Journal, and 
Correspondence of Thomas Moore, edited by Lord John 
Russell, will be expected with more than usual interest, 
and in this department we may mention also the 
forthcoming Memoirs of the Baroness cT Oberkirch, 
written by herself and edited by her grandson, the 
Count de Monthison. There is also good news for 
the novel reader. The author of Zanoni, it is true, 
lias retired into Parliament, so that for a while the 
muse of romance may be voiceless at Knebworth ; but 
others of the craft are in the field. The long-talked-of 
novel by the author of Vanity Fair, is, we believe, in 
course of being printed. The author of the Falcon 
Family has a new story ready for the season, with the 
title of Reuben Medlicot. Mr. Douglas Jerrold and the 
authoress of Mary Barton are severally contemplating 
new adventures among the social wastes and prairies of 
English daily life. Intelligence from Parnassus is 
somewhat scanty, but good of its kind. We hear that 
Mr. Sydney Yendys, the author of The Roman, has a 
new poem in the press ; and Mr. Tennyson has com- 
posed some battalions of stanzas, but whether they will 
be put under review this season is not yet certain." 

We beg for two reasons to call attention to the fol- 
lowing paragraph in Mr. Halliwell's prospectus of his 
projected twenty folio volume edition of Shakspeare, 
the subscription list to which, we understand, is filling 
most rapidly. We do so, first, because it is omitted 
from the advertisement which appeared in our columns ; 
and secondly and chiefly, because it alludes to that 
point to which we believe the readers of " N. & Q,." 
attach most interest, namely, the Literary Illustration 
of the Great Poet. 

" It is difficult to enter at length into a prospective 
account of the literary department of the work, without 
some risk of misleading the reader. This much, how- 
ever, I may safely be allowed to promise, that the 
value of this edition will mainly depend on its anti- 
quarian notes and collections of facts. Whatever is to 
be found in contemporary and early technical works, 
bearing on technical allusions, whatever real illus- 
trations can be collected from the numerous Eliza- 
bethan tracts which exhibit popular life and manners 
as they are delineated by Shakespeare, wherever a 
long course of reading will assist in developing the 
generally hidden meaning of the colloquial phraseology 
used by the poet, there will the chief labour be be- 
stowed. In short, from every source of archaeological 
matter-of-fact commentary, it will be my endeavour to 
collect that which shall be really useful to those who 
desire to have the best information on the many ob- 
solete subjects alluded to by the poet. All adverse 
criticism on the labours of others will be carefully 
avoided, and, where the true interpretation is still a 
matter of dispute, the best opinions will be honestly 
reproduced and commented upon, in the hope of the 
discovery of Truth, not in the spirit of controversy. " 

We have received from Mr. Walesby a copy of his 
Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Paintings, Ob- 
jects of Art, Rarities, fyc., now for sale by contract, and 
on view at his new gallery, 5. Waterloo Place. His- 
torical Portraits form a very important feature in 
Mr. Walesby's Collection, but it contains many other 

objects of taste of high value from their historical asso- 
ciations, as well as their intrinsic excellence. 



107o, with Life by Fuller. 

MITFORD'S GREECE. Cadell, 1818. 8vo. Vol. I. 

VIRGIL'S WORKS in Latin and English, translated by Rev. C. 
Pitt. With Notes by Rev. Joseph Whartoa. Dodaley, 1753. 
8vo. Vol. I. 



GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURE, Vols. I. and II. of original edition. 


by Rev. J. J. Blunt. 


GEDDES' TRACTS AGAINST POPERY, &c., 4 Vols. 8vo. calf, neat- 
can be had on application to the Publisher. 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent, to Mu. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


REPLIES RECEIVED. Legend of St. Margaret Emaciated 
Monumsntal Effigies General Lambert More recent Corrup- 
tions Lunar Occupations Exterior Stoup Aghindle 
Gregorian Tones Boscovich Surnames assumed Rhymes on 
Places 1 ' Sic transit Gloria Mundi " Cowper or CooperRoyal 

Arms in Churches Fishing by Electricity Punch and Judy 

Wedgwood Family Henry Lord Dover Sacrum pingue dabo 

Sinking Fund Smothering Hydrophobia Patients As Salt as 
Fire Dress of the Clergy Etymology of Alcohol Reverence 
to the Altar Spanish Vessels wrecked on Coast of Ireland 
Virgilian Lots Names of Places Dissertation on a Salt Box 

Fell Family Bishops deprived Venice Glasses Cromwell 
Family Knightsbridge Shropshire Ballads Mummies of Ec- 
clesiastics Six Thousand Years, fyc. 

A. A. D. is thanked. The paper enclosed shall be carefully re- 
turned if not printed. 

E. M. R. The communication was duly received, but its pub- 
lication postponed. 

EMMA. The name Panopticon, which is taken from two Greek 
words, signifying to see all, was originally applied by Jeremy 
Bentham to a prison so constructed (like the Millbank Peniten- 
tiary) that the keepers could overlook all the prisoners. 

We have just received the following: 


" You will much oblige me by inserting as soon as possible 
this brief note of apology for a false quotation from Nonnus. 

"I mistook the meaning of the passage I have referred to 
(Vol. vi., p. 119.), and can only plead haste or a very uncomfort- 
able text in excuse. RT. 

" Warmhigton, Aug. 10, 1852." 

W., of Liverpool, who complains that he cannot get unstamped 
copies from his bookseller in, Liverpool until the Wednesday or 
Thursday in the following ireek, is assured that the fault must be 
either in the Liverpool bookseller, or that bookseller' 1 s London 
agent, as " N. & Q." is ahvays ready at Noon on Friday. //"VV, 
will put himself in communication with our Publisher, Mr. Bell, 
he may receive the stamped edition on Saturday morning ; or he, 
may get the unstamped edition earlier by applying to some other 
bookseller or news agent. 

CUTHBERT BEDE. Will this Correspondent again favour us by 
saying how we may address a book which has been forwarded to 
our care for him? 

A. F. The Querist respecting the Foubert Family, and C. W. 
of Bradford, are again informed that we have letters for theni 
'hich we shall be glad to forward if they will inform us how we 
may address them. 

Our Fifth Volume, strongly bound in cloth, and with a very 
copious Index, is now ready, price 10s. 6d. Copies of some of our 
earlier Volumes may still be had. 

NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels^ 
and deliver (hem to their Subscriber son the Saturday. 

AUG. 14. 1852.] 





sented in the Fine Arts. Containing: St. Bene- 
dict and the early Benedictines in Italy, France, 
Spain, and Flanders; the Benedictines in Eng- 
land and in Germany ; the Reformed Bene- 
dictines ; early Royal Saints connected with 
the Benedictine Order ; the Augustines ; Or- 
ders derived from the Augustine Rule : the 
Mendicant Orders ; ihe Jesuits ; and the Order 
of the Visitation of St. Mary. Forming the 
Second Seiies of" Sncred and Legendary Art. 
With Eleven Etchings by the Author, and 
34 Woodcuts. Square crown 8vo., price 28s. 


AND LEGENDARY ART ; or. Legends of 
the Saints and Martyrs. First Series. Con- 
taining Legends of the Angels and Archangels ; 
the Evangelists and Apostles ; the Greek and 
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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

VOL. VI. No. 147.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 21. 1852. 

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NOTES : Page 

Music of the Spheres - - - - - 165 

Origin of various Books - - - - - 167 

Monumental Brasses abroad, by W. Sparrow Simpson - 1G7 

Notes on Old London - - - - - 1G8 

Proverbs from Fuller - 169 

Misprint in Prayer-books, by W. Sparrow Simpson - 170 
Minor Notes : Remarkable Epitaph Deferred Exe- 
cution in Spain More Gold : Meaning of " Nugget " 

Acrostic on the Napoleon Family LiteratiNames 

of Places 170 


Heraldic Queries, by Reginald de Melmerby - - 171 

Passages in Bingham, by Richard Bingham, Jr. - 172 

Two Full Moons in July ----- 172 

Another Dodo Query, by W. Pinkerton - - - 172 

Minor Queries : Etymology of " Quarrel " Relics of 

Charles I Lady Gerrard's second Marriage " To 

be in the wrong Box " Sir Kenelm Digby Was 
Sir Kenelm Digby a Painter ? St.' Mary of the Lowes, 
or De Lacubus Peleg in Germany Public Whip- 
ping of Women in England Henry Mortimer 
Passage in Jeremy Taylor Locke on Romanism 
Lancashire Sayings Passage in the Somnium Sci- 
pionisWalter Parsons, Porter to James I Furye 
Family 173 

MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED : Barefooted Friar Lord 
Delamer British Critic or Theological Review 
Psalm-singing at Paul's Cross George Thomason 
Thomas Goffe Beef eaters - - - - 175 


A Passrge in the " Merchant of Venice," Act III. Sc. 2., 

by S. W. Singer - - - - - - 176 

Lunar Occultations ------ 176 

Serpent Eating ---.__ 177 
Cowper or Cooper - - - . - - 177 

Royal Arms in Churches, by Wm. Sydney Gibson, &c. 178 
The Gregorian Tones, by Matthew Cooke and William 

Sparrow Simpson, B.A. ----- 178 
The True Maiden-hair Fern - - - - 180 

' The Good Old Cause " - - - - - 180 

Mcmoires d'une Contemporaine - - - - 181 

Fishing by Electricity, by W. Fraser - - - 181 

Maturin Laurent, by James Cornish - - - 181 

Replies to Minor Queries : The Man in the Moon 

Collar of SS. Reverence to the Altar Spanish 

Vessels wrecked on Irish Coast Dress of the Clergy 

Virgilian Lots General Lambert "Sic transit 
gloria mundi " Lines on the Succession of the Kings 
of England Aghindle or Aghendole Sinking Fund 

Punch and Judy Rhymes on Places Sleep like 
a Top More recent Corruptions Knightsbridge 
Wedgwood Family" Vox populi, vox Dei " " Dieu 

et mon Droit " Coral Charms, &c. - - - 182 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 186 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 18G 

Advertisements - - 187 

VOL. VI. No. 147. 


" How sweet tlie moon-light sleeps upon this bank ! 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music 
Creep in our ears ; soft stillness, and the night, 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. 
Sit, Jessica : Look how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold ; 
There's not the smallest orb, which thou behold'st, 
But in his motion like an angel sings, 
Still quiring to the young -eyed cherubins : 
Such harmony is in immortal souls ; 
But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it." 

Merchant of Venice, Act V. Sc. 1 . 
For anything I know to the contrary, Pytha- 
goras was the first who advanced this doctrine of 
the music of the spheres ; and Fenton, in his ob- 
servations appended to Tonson's edition of Waller's 
Poems (page xcii. Lond. 1730), supposes him to 
have grounded his belief on the words of Job 
literally understood: "When the morning stars 
sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for. 
joy," chap, xxxviii. 7. I shall have to refer to 
Milton more than once ; but his " Christmas 
Hymn " is here quite to my purpose : 


" Such music (as 'tis said) 

Before was never made, 
But when of old the sons of morning sung, 
While the Creator great 
His constellations set, 

And the well-balanc'd world on hinges hung, 
And cast the dark foundations deep, 
And bid the welt'ring waves their oozy channel keep. 


" Ring out ye crystal spheres, 
Once bless our human ears, 
(If ye have pow'r to touch our senses so ;) 
And let your silver chime 
Move in melodious time, 

And let the base of Heaven's deep organ blow ; 
And with your ninefold harmony 
Make up full consort to th' angelic symphony." 

Milton speaks also of the " mystical dance 
the spheres, and further adds : 
" And in their motions harmony divine 
So smooths her charming tones, that God's own ear 
Listens delighted." Par. Lost, lib. v. 620. 




[No, 147. 

I remember also a passage in Buchanan : 

" Quid solem loqu;ir aut lunam ? quid coctera cceli 
Sidera, qua? peragunt non jequo tramite cursum, 
Inque chori ludunt speciem, et nunc luraine juncto 
Mutun conspirant, spatiis nunc dissita longis, 
Quasque suum servant diversa lege tenorem?" 

I)e Sphcera, lib. i. p. 420. 
AmstelEedami, 1687, 12mo. 

Cowley also sings : 

" Quales (crediderim) divum edidit auribus olim 
Concentus mundi sacer, et dulcissimus ordo, 
Cum lites elementorum Natura diremit, 
Disposuitque modis divinitus omnia justis." 

Plantarum, lib. v. page 306. Lond. 16S8, 8vo. 

And though in the notes to his Pindaric " Ode 
on the Resurrection" he seems to think such 
Pythagorean ideas as more befitting poetry than 
sound philosophy, I must adduce a very quaint 
passage from his Davideis likewise : 

" Til' ungovern'd parts no correspondence knew, 
An artless war from thwarting motions grew ; 
Till they to number and fist rules were brought 
By the Eternal Mind's poetique thought : 
Water and Air he for the Tenor chose, 
Earth made the Base, the Treble Flame arose, 
To th' active Moon a quick brisk stroke he gave, 
To Saturn's string a touch more soft and grave. 
The motions strait, and round, and swift, and slow, 
And short and long, were mixt and woven so, 
Did in such artful Figures smoothly fall, 
As made this decent measur'd Dance of all. 
And this is Musick." Lib. i. p. 13. 1668, folio. 

In the notes to Grey's edition of Hudibras there 
is some learning collected in a short compass, and 
some references are given on the subject. The 
reason assigned by Butler for our not hearing the 
music of the spheres is this : 

" Her voice, the music of the spheres, 
So loud, it deafens mortals' ears : 
As wise philosophers have thought, 
And that's the cause we hear it not." 
Part II. canto i. 1.617. vol. i. pp. 316-7. 
Dublin, 1744. 

Sliakspeare, as already quoted, has assigned a 
different reason ; and Milton closely follows him 
in the " Arcades." 

" After the heavenly tune, which none can hear 
Of human mould, with gross unpurged ear." 

Indeed Milton had written an academic exercise 
at ^Cambridge, " De Concentu Sphaerorum," in 
which he 'explains the theory of Plato. Thomas 
Warton gives much additional information in his 
notes upon the " Arcades," and illustrates Milton 
by himself: he gave some further description of 
this music, Par. Lost, lib. vii. 558. And as 
Beaumont's Psyche is less known, I may as well 
extract a passage from it : 


" With that the musbk of the spheres burst out, 
Pouring a deluge of soul-ravishing layes : 
With which a while tho' David's fingers fought, 
His mortal strings so high he could not raise; 
* My harp must yield,' he cry'd, but yet my heart 
Shall in your loftiest accents bear her part.' 


" Indeed those airs are so refin'd, that none 
But purest hearts' spiritual strings can be 
Stretch'd to their chords' full compass; this alone 
That consort is, to which the melody 
You with the name of musick honour here 
Is only learned gratings of the ear." 

Page 241. Cambridge, 1702, folio. 

I have one quotation more to make, but it must 
be a long one, as it seems to contain almost all that 
can be said upon the subject. It is from Bishop 
Martin Fotherby, and includes the opinions of the 
more ancient writers, as well as of Bede, St. An- 
selm, Boethius, and Du Bartas. It is strange to 
find such an argument pressed into the controversy 
with atheists: but the whole chapter is worth 
reading. He says : 

" And therefore, divers of them, as they ascribe a 
rythmical motion unto the starres ; so doe they an 
harmonicall unto the heavens; ymagining that their 
moving produceth the melodie of an excellent sweete 
tune. So that they make the starres to be dancers, 
and the heavens to be musitians. An opinion which 
of old hath hung in the heads, and troubled the braines 
of many learned men : yea, and that not onely among 
the heathen philosophers, but also even among our 
Christian divines. The first author and inventor of 
which conceited imagination was the philosopher 
Pythagoras. Who broched his opinion with such 
felicitie and happinesse, that he wonne unto his part 
divers of the most ancient and best learned philosophers, 
as Plutarch reporteth. Plato, whose learning Tullie 
so much admireth, that hee calleth him The God of all 
Philosophers, Deum Philosophorum, he affirmeth of the 
heavens, that every one of them hath sitting upon it a 
sweet-singing syren, caro ling out a most pleasant and 
melodious song, agreeing with the motion of her own 
peculiar heaven. Which syren, though it sing of itselfe 
but one single part, yet all of them together, being 
eight in number (for so many heavens were onely held 
by the ancients) doe make an excellent song, consisting 
of eight parts: wherein they still modulate their songs, 
agreeable unto the motions of the eight celestial 
spheres. Arist, 1. ii. De Ccelo, c. ix. to. i. p. 588.; 
Cic., 1. iii. De Nat. Deor., p. 229. ; Plut., 1. De Mttsica, 
to. ii. p. 707. ; Cic., 1. ii. De Nat. Deor., p. 205.; 
Plato, 1. x. De Rep., p. 670. Which opinion of 
Platoes is not only allowed by Macrobius (lib. ii. 
De Som. Scip. t c. iii. p. 90.), but he also affirmeth of 
this syren's song, that it is a psalme composed in the 
praise of God. Yea, and he proveth his assertion out 
of the very name of a syren: which" signifieth (as he 
saith) as much as Deo canens, A singer unto God. But 
Maximus Tyrius (Serm. xxi. p. 256.) he affirmeth of 
the heavens, that (without any such helpe of these 

AUG. 21. 1852.] 



'celestial syrens) they make a most sweete harmonie, 
.even by their proper motions, wherein they doe omnes 
symmetrice numeros implere ; contrarwq; nisu, divinum 
sonura perficere: They by their contrary moving doe fill 
vp a'l the parts of a most divine and heavenly song. 
Which hee affirmeth to be most pleasant unto the 
eares of God, though it cannot be heard by the eares 
of men. Yea, and the sages of the Greekes (Lucian, 
lib. De Astrologia, p. 166. B.) insinuate also as much, 
by placing of Orpheus his harpe in heaven : implying, 
in the seaven strings of his well turned harpe, that 
sweete tune and harmonie which is made in heaven by 
the divers motions of the seaven planets, as Lucian 
interprets it. Unto which his opinion there may seeme 
to be a kinde of allusion in the Booke of Job, as the 
text in the vulgar translation is rendered (xxxviii. 37.) : 
Concentum cceti quis dor mire faciet ? Who shall make 
.the harmony of the heavens to s eepe ? For so, likewise, 
the divines of Doway translate it." Atheomastix, 
|>p. 315, 316 : London, 1622, fol. 

The lovers of Milton will be reminded of the 

" celestial Syrens' harmony, 
That sit upon the nine enfolded spheres." 

Arcades, 63. 
Or of 

" That undisturbed song of pure concent 
Aye sung before the saphire-colour'd throne, 
To him that sits thereon." 

At a Solemn Music, v. G. 

But I have already referred to Warton for illustra- 
tions ; and the readers of old English poetry will 
be familiar with many other allusions to the music 
of the spheres. KT. 



The incidents and thoughts which have induced 
various authors to commence their works are, in 
many cases, somewhat interesting, and I think a 
Note on this subject may be well adapted for 
*' N". & Q." And if I may be allowed to throw 
out a suggestion, I would say that it would be far 
from useless if correspondents were to embody in 
a note what they might know of the immediate 
motives and circumstances which may have in- 
duced various authors to write certain works. 

^ Thus, Milton's Comus was suggested by the 
circumstance of Lady Egerton losing herself in a 
\vood. The origin of Paradise Lost has been as- 
scribed by one to the poet having read Andreini's 
drama of L'Adamo Sacra Representatione, Milan, 
1633; by another, to his perusal of Theramo's 
Das Buck Belial, g-c., 1472. Dunster says that 
the prima stamina of Paradise Lost is to be found 
in Sylvester's translation of Du Bartas's Divine 
Weekes and Workes. It is said that Milton him- 
self owned that he owed much of his work to 
Phineas Fletcher's Locusts or Appolyonists. Pa- 
radise Regained is attributable to the poet having 

been asked by Elwood the Quaker, what he could 
say on the subject. Gower's Confessio Amantis 
was written at the command of Richard II., who, 
meeting Gower rowing on the Thames, invited 
him into the royal barge, and after much con- 
versation, requested him to " book some new 
thing." Chaucer, it is generally agreed, intended, 
in his Canterbury Tales, to imitate the Decameron 
of Boccaccio. When Cowper was forty-five he was 
induced by Mrs. Unwin to write a poem, that 
lady giving him for a subject The Progress of 
Error. The author of The Castle of Otranto says 
in a letter, now in the British Museum, that it was 
suggested to him by a dream, in which he thought 
himself in an ancient castle, and that he saw a gi- 
gantic hand in armour on the uppermost banister 
of the great staircase. Defoe is supposed to have 
obtained his idea of Robinson Crusoe by reading 
Captain Rogers' Account of Alexander Selkirk in 
Juan Fernandez. Dr. Beddoes' Alexander s Ex- 
pedition down the Hydaspes and the Indus to the 
Ocean originated in a conversation in which it 
was contended that Darwin could not be imitated. 
Dr. Beddoes, some time afterwards, produced the 
MS. of the above poem as Darwin's, and com- 
pletely succeeded in the deception. UNICOKN. 


A list of all the brasses existing on the continent 
has long been a great desideratum to the archaeo- 
logist : if you will devote some little space in your 
columns to notices of any examples which may 
fall under the observation of your correspondents, 
I have no doubt but that a complete list might 
soon be formed ; foreign brasses being compara- 
tively few in number. During a recent tour in 
France and Belgium, I added rubbings of the 
following memorials to my own collection : 

France. Amiens Cathedral. 

Bishop John A vantage, 14 ... 
Belgium; Ghent. St. Bavon. 

Franchoys Van Wychhuus, 1599 (with the 

arms of the family connexions coloured). 
Belgium; Bruges. St. Sauveur. 

Ma<nstr. Bernardinus de Curia, and others, 

Bruges ; St. Jacques. 

Sir Francisco de Lapuebla, and Marie his 

lady, 1577. 

An angel with a coloured shield. 
Kateline fa. Colaert and brother, 1466. 
Katheline and Barbeie Foelandts, 1515. 
Anthoninefa. Cornells Willebaert, and genea- 
logical inscription, 1522, 1601. 

Besides these there are other brasses, I believe, 
in Bruges ; at the churches of Notre Dame, 
St. Giles, and St. Donatus : in addition to others 
(of which I have no note) at St. Sauveur and 



[No. 147. 

St. Jacques. At Constance is a brass to Robert 
Hallum, Bishop of Sarum, of English workman- 
ship, 1416 (see Archceologia, vol. xxx.) 

At Meissen and Aix-la-Chapelle are others, of 
which I shall be glad to learn the names. The 
following list is taken from a German literary 
gazette, containing a review by M. Kugler of the 
liev. C. Boutell's Man. Brasses and Slabs : 

Altenliirg, 1475. 

Bronweiler. An Abbot, fifteenth century. 
Cues. In Chapel of Hospital. Cardinal Cusanus. 
Lubeck. Cathedral. Two Bishops on one plate, 

St. Mary. Beck, Mayor, 1521. 

Stralsund. St. Nicholas, 1357. 

Thorn. Knight and Lady, fourteenth century. 

This list was sent me by a friend, who omitted 
to state the name of the magazine from which he 
derived it. Other brasses worthy of note are : 

Sweden. Upsala Cathedral. St. Henry in epi- 
scopal vestments, with a bishop kneeling at his 
feet. Engraved in Perings-kiold, Mon. Suio- 
Gothorum, lib. i. (Stockholm, 1710). 

Seville. Don Perafau de Ribera, 1517. 

Funchal. Madeira. 

Doubtless, your correspondent who dates from 
Bruges will kindly complete the list for that in- 
teresting city. And I hope, ere long, that all the 
existing memorials may be duly registered in your 
columns. Query, Who are commemorated by 
the brasses at Dublin and Glasgow ? It is sup- 
posed that no others exist in Ireland and Scotland 
than these three, two of which are at the former 


The reading public are much indebted to 
Mr. Cunningham for his valuable and most 
entertaining Handbook for London, in which he 
has collected a multitude of records of persons 
and localities, which but for his diligence and 
perseverance must have been lost to posterity. 
Nevertheless, some facts and incidents have 
escaped his inquiries, which an old inhabitant of 
this metropolis, during the latter end of the last 
and beginning of the present century, is able to 
supply ; and which may interest such as are still 
cotemporaries with the writer. If the following 
notices be found worthy of insertion in your pages, 
they may occasionally be succeeded by others of a 
similar nature. 

Pall Matt. On the south side, a few doors 
from Marlborough House, is that which was occu- 
pied by the bookseller Edwards, the Murray of 
his day ; and where all the wits and notabilities of 
that period used to assemble, to discuss literature 
and the arts. 

Schomberg House. The centre part, which 
is stated to have been fitted up by Astley, was 
subsequently occupied by a celebrated empyrie, 
Dr. Graham, who there delivered his philoso- 
phical lectures, in which he introduced as the 
goddess of health a lady named Prescott. The 
doctor fitted up the attics of the house for his pri- 
vate residence, which could only be approached by 
a moveable staircase. It contained a bed-room, 
study, kitchen, and the usual appendages; and 
here he withdrew when not inclined to be dis- 
turbed: the staircase being removed, prevented 
all access. The same house was subsequently 
occupied by R. Cosway, R.A., the fashionable 
miniature painter of his day ; and here his accom- 
plished wife, Maria Cosway, was accustomed to 
receive the taste and talent of the day, including 
the nobles of the land and the representatives of 
foreign powers ; the young and gay Prince of 
Wales, afterwards George IV., being frequently 
among the visitors of her musical parties, which 
were rendered attractive by the combined talents 
of the best performers of the day. These were, 
Schroeter, Dussek, Clement i, Tenducci, Marches?, 
&c. Mrs. Cosway, who was herself an able artist, 
converted Dr. Graham's study into a painting 
room, from the large window of which she en- 
joyed the beautiful prospect of St. James's Park, 
Westminster Abbey, &c. The kitchen was con- 
verted into a green-house, filled with rare plants-, 
and adorned with a fountain in the middle: This 
lady afterwards made a pilgrimage to the shrine 
of the Virgin, at Loretto, in pursuance of a vow 
made that she would do so, if blessed with a living 
child. After she left England, Mr. Cosway re- 
moved to the western corner of Stratford Place, 
Oxford Street ; and two or three years after to a 
house two doors higher, where he resided till the 
time of his death, which took place suddenly 
while in a carriage with his friend Mrs. Udney. 

Towards the end of last century, the E. wing of 
Schomberg House was converted into fashionable 
millinery rooms by Dyde and Scribe, which are 
now occupied by their successors, Harding and Co-. 

In a house nearly adjoining was the original 
establishment of Mr. Christie the auctioneer 
(father to the present Mr. C.), who was the origi- 
nator of what may be termed the puffing system 
of auction ; and who was remarkable for the 
elegance of language and manner, which far sur- 
pased that of his imitators in later times. 

Next door to the residence of the Duke of 
Buckingham was the Golden Bull, well known as 
a shop for all kinds of articles for ladies' work. 

A few doors still farther on was the residence 
of Mr. Angerstein, where was deposited the fine 
collection of pictures by the ancient masters, which 
after his death was purchased by government, 
and formed the nucleus of the present National 
Gallery. X - 

AUG. 21. 1852.] 



Lambert's Mews. The name of Lambert was 
accidentally recalled to my memory this morning 

ory II 
f * 

by seeing in Field's Memoirs of the Botanical 
Garden at Chelsea, 1820, that in 1732, he had 
made an agreement, with the Apothecaries' Society, 
to build a green-house and two hot-houses at the 
gardens for 15507. 

Lambert and Phillips took a plot of ground in 
May Fair, many years ago, upon a building lease ; 
some of the houses were in Queen Street, many in 
Clurges Street ; an intermediate strip of ground 
reached from Queen Street to Clarges Street, in 
which were Lambert's workshops : and this vacant 
ground was long known by the name of " Lam- 
bert's Mews," and these words were painted upon 
the crown of the arch which forms the entrance 
into the Mews from Queen Street. 

Possibly this was the only memorial of a man, 
who in his day had covered many an acre of 
ground with brick and mortar ; and there seems 
to be no reason why the appropriate name of 
Lambert should have been changed after his death 
to " Lambeth," which, as there placed, has no 
meaning at all. The change was probably made 
by a superficial reasoner, who thought that Lam- 
bert must be wrong, and Lambeth might be right. 

S. M. 
Brook Street. 


On glancing over the Collection of Proverbs by 
Thomas Fuller, M.D., a number of them relate to 
persons and places all seemingly of English ex- 
traction, and in many points not quite so edifying 
to Scotch readers. Take the following as ex" 
amples, in connexion with whose spirit it may be 
Observed, that each appears to have had an origin 
in some particular incident, circumstance, or fhct 
which might now be curious as far as possible to 
trace out ; and such investigations might also elicit 
other glimpses, in reference to local and personal 
history of a past and present character, not alto- 
gether uninteresting. In the collector's Preface 
(London, 1732), he says : 

" AH of us forget more than we remember, and there- 
fore it hath been my constant custom to note down and 
record (a good rule still to be practised) whatever I 
thought of myself, or received from men or books, 
worth preserving." 

And further : 

" I picked up these sentences and sayings at several 
times, according as they casually occurred, and most of 
them so long ago that I cannot remember the parti- 
culars, and am now (by reason of great age and ill 
sight) utterly unable to review them," &c. 

What this indefatigable collector, through in- 
ability, was prevented from "reviewing" and elu- 
cidating at the rather affecting close of a literary 

life, may yet to some extent be supplied in respect 


" A Burston horse and a Cambridge Master of Arts 

will give the way to nobody. 
As crooked as Crawley Brook. 
As hasty as Hopkins, that came to jail overnight, and 

was harTged the next morning. 
As lame as St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 
As lazy as Ludlam's dog, that leaned his head against 

the wall to bark. 
As long as Meg of Westminster. 
As mad as the baited bull at Stamford. 
As much as York excels foul Sutton. 
As true steel as Ripon spurs. 
As wise as Waltham's calf, that ran nine miles to suck 

a bull. 

Among the people Scoggin's a doctor. 
Bate me an ace, quoth Bolton. 
Carry coals to Newcastle. 
Canterbury's the higher rack, but Winchester's the 

better manger. 
Dine with Duke Humfrey. 
Ducks fare well in the Thames. 
God help the fool, quoth Pedley. 
Great doings at Gregory's ; heat the oven twice for 

a custard. 
He came safe from the East Indies, and was drowned 

in the Thames. 

He cannot demand a flitch of bacon at Dunmow. 
He claws it as Clayton clawed the pudding, when he 

eat bag and all. 

He looks like the devil over Lincoln. 
He sailed into Cornwall without a bark. 
He sendeth to the East Indies for Kentish pippins. 
He that takes a wife at Shrewsbury must carry her to 

Staffordshire, else she will drive him to Cumber- 

He travelled with Mandevile. 
He was born within the sound of Bow-bell. 
He's like Garby, whose soul neither God nor the 

Devil would have. 
Hell and Chancery are always open. 
Hertfordshire kindness. 
Hope well and have well, quoth Hick well. 
It is a good knife ; it was made at Dull-edge. 
It is as long a-coming as Cotswold barley. 
Like Banbury tinkers, that mend one hole and make 

Like Wood's dog ; he will neither go to the church 

nor stay at home. 

Manners make a man, quoth Will of Wickham. 
My name is Twyford, I know nothing of the matter. 
Nay, stay, quoth Stringer, when his neck was in the 


Neither in Kent nor Christendom. 
Pigs play on the organ at Hogs-Norton. 
Right, Roger, your sow's good mutton. 
Shake a Leicestershire man by the collar, and you 

shall hear the beans rattle in his belly. 
She simpers like a Frumenty kettle. 
Slow and sure, like Pedley's mare. 
Tenterden steeple was the cause of Goodwin's Sands. 
The Isle of Wight hath no monks, lawyers, or foxes. 
The vicar of Bray will be vicar of Bray still. 



[No. 147. 

They agree like London clocks. 

Then I'll thatch Grooly-Pool with pancakes. 

'Tis height that makes Grantham steeple stam 

What have I to do with Bradshaw's windmill ? 

What ! would he be greater than Sir John ? 

When Dover and Calais meet. 

When the devil is dead, there is a widow for Hum- 

Who robs a Cambridge scholar robs twenty. 

Who so bold as blind Baynard ? 

You are in the highway to Needham. 

You will have as much courtesy at Billingsgate. 

Blessed is the eye ~| 

That is between Severn and Wye. / 

By Tre, Pol, and Pen, ' 1 

You may know the Cornish men. J 

A knight of Cales 

A gentleman of Wales, 

And a laird of the North country ; 
There's a yeoman of Kent, 
That with one year's rent, 
Will buy them all three." 



Amongst the misprints which occasionally creep 
into the various editions of our Prayer Book, I 
have noticed one which obtains very generally. 
It is found in Psalm xc. 12. In some editions this 
verse reads : " O teach us to number our days," 
c, ; in others, " So teach us," &c. I have col- 
lated a few copies of various editions taken at 
random from niy book-shelves, and the result is as 
follows : 

" O teach us." 8vo., Oxford, 1818 ; 8vo., London, 
1847; 8vo., London, 1850. 

The last edition is that with notes by Bishop 
Mant : in the margin of the verse we read, " So 
teach us," Sib. Trans. 

" So teach us." 16mo., London, 1809 ; 8vo., Cam- 
bridge, 1818 (stereotype edit.) ; 24mo., Oxford, 1849; 
8vo., London, 1850; 24mo., London, 1852. 

It appears that the word " So" has been substi- 
tuted for " O," from the Psalms in the authorised 
version of the Bible. 

I have seen an edition of the Prayer Book (in 
4to. I think, but unfortunately I have no note of 
it), in which a rubric, similar to that in the Prayer 
*' For all Sorts and Conditions of Men," was intro- 
duced into that sentence of the " Litany :" " That 
it may please thee to preserve all that travel," &c. 

All such deviations from the authoritative text 
of the sealed books should I think be noted, in 
order to be avoided in all future editions. The 
JBook of Common Prayer, with Notes Legal and 
Historical, published by the Ecclesiastical History 
Society, contains the results of the laborious col- 
lation of (I think) eighteen various editions of the 

Prayer Book; in addition to which, its text, a 
strict reprint of the sealed books, will render it 
very valuable to any future editor of the Book of 
Common Prayer. The work at present extends 
only to the end of the office for the " Baptism of 
such as are of riper years." The third and con- 
cluding volume is, I believe, in course of prepara- 


Remarkable Epitaph. The following epitapb 
may be found on an old gravestone in the burying- 
ground of the parish church of Brighton : 

" In Memory of 


who was born at Stepney 

in the year 1713. 

She served for many years as a private- 
Soldier in the 5th Regiment of foot 

in different parts of Europe, 
and in the year 1745 fought under 

the command of the 
Duke of Cumberland 

at the battle of Fontenoy, where she received as 
bayonet wound in her arm. Her long life, which 
commenced in the time of Queen Anne, extended 
to the reign of George IV., by whose munificence 
she received comfort and support in her latter 

She died at Brighton, where she had 

long resided, Dec. 12th, 1821. 

Aged 108 years. 

I should feel obliged if some of your correspon- 
dents would furnish me with farther particulars 
:-espectinor the history of this remarkable woman. 
I am anxious to collect, beyond what this epitaph 
will afford me, a few facts relative to her singular 
career. H. M. BEALBY. 

North Brixton. 

Deferred Execution in Spain. The following, 

hich I extract from The Practical Working of 

he Church in Spain, by the llev. Frederick Mey- 

rick, bears such a remarkable likeness to several 

anecdotes which have been much discussed in 

' N. Q.," that your readers who are unacquainted 

with the book from which it is copied may like to- 

ee it transferred to your pages : 

" Murder is not thought much more of herfr 
Malaga), than pocket picking in England. A young- 
ad committed a murder, was taken immediately, and 
ent to gaol, where he was two years, and the affair 
assed from people's minds. Meantime the lad behaved 
o very well, that the Governor of the gaol gave him 
lermission to go out every day to his family, and return 
o the gaol at night. It was supposed that, his youth 
>eing considered, he would soon be set at liberty, 
leanwhile the friends of the murdered man were 
naking up a purse, which they took to the chief 
uthorities living at Grenada, and an order came down 

AUG. 21. 1852.] 



fo his execution the following morning. The governor 
was so shocked, that he could not see the boy, hut 
threw up his office : the boy, on returning from his 
mother's house in the evening, was taken to the con- 
demned cell, and garotted the next morning." P. 64. 

K. P. D. E. 

More Gold Meaning of "Nugget" I have 
received by last mail a letter from George Town, 
Demerary, in which my friend says : 

" Gold has been discovered in a state of great purity 
in one of the tributaries to the Cayenne. I have seen 
sixteen ounces in grains and nuggets." 

Is Sir Walter Raleigh's El Dorado to be at 
length discovered ? May I ask, whence comes the 
word nugget ? E. N. W. 


Acrostic on the Napoleon Family. The names 
of the male crowned heads of the extinct Napo- 
leon dynasty form a remarkable acrostic : 
N-apoleon, Emperor of the French. 
I-oseph, King of Spain. 
H-ieronymus, King of Westphalia. 
I-oachim, King of Naples. 
L-ouis, King of Holland. 


Literati. The word which now confers honour, 
had at one time a very different signification. 
Among the Romans it was usual to affix some brand- 
ing or ignominious letter on the criminal, when 
the crime was infamous in its nature ; and persons 
so branded were called inscripti, or stigmatici, or 
by a more equivocal term, literati. The same ex- 
pression is likewise adopted in stat. 4 Henry VII L, 
which recites " that diverse persons lettered had 
been more bold to commit mischievous deeds," &c. 


Names of Places (Vol. v., pp. 196. 375., &c.). 
At the end of A Guide to Woburn Abbey, London, 
8vo., 1850, is a table of the "various ways of 
spelling Woburn, collected from letters and pa:- 
cels by the Postmaster." It seems almost incre- 
dible, but yet it is the fact, that no less than two 
hundred and forty-four different modes of spelling, 
or rather misspelling, the simple word Woburn, are 
there recorded. It is worth noting that this place 
is always called Wooburn. The following are a 
few of the ingenious struggles of .the unlearned in 
their endeavours to commit to paper the name of 
this delightful spot : 

" Houboun Hourbon Houhone Hawhurn, 
Holbourn Hooben Noburn Owburn, 

Oohurn Uburn Whrbourn Woubon, 

Woabbern Wubawrn Wolarn Woswrin, 

"WBun Whoobowen Wouboarene Wwoo Burn." 
Sixty-one examples have H as the initial letter, 
and twenty-two have O. 



I should feel very much obliged to any of you.r 
heraldic readers who would be so kind as to 
supply the names of the families to whom the 
following arms and crests belong. 

1. Gu. a chev., ar. three pheons reversed. 
Crest, a pheon within a wreath of olive or laurel. 

2. Ar. on a fesse, az. three cinquefoils. Crest, 
a cornucopia. Motto, " Impendo." 

3. Ar. on a fesse, az. three pelicans vulning 
themselves on a canton . . . two ragged staves in 
saltire surmounted by a coronet. Crest, a ragged 
stave encircled by a coronet. 

4. Or on a fesse dancette, az. three ermine 
spots, in chief three crescents, all within a bordure 
engr. gu. Crest, a hand and arm erect, habited 
chequy and charged with a fesse dancette, in the 
hand a crescent. Motto, " Donee totum impleat 

5. Az. a fesse dancette, or between three mart- 
lets, on a canton, gu. a lion pass, guard. . . [Page?] 

6. Per pale or, and gu. two lions ramp. atFrontee. 
Crest, a dove. Motto, " Fide et fortitudine." 

7. A foreign shield, a fesse chequy az. and gu., 
the upper portion of the shield tenne or sanguine 
in the base, ar. a fleur-de-lis. . . . Crest, a cat's 
head erased, round its neck a collar, apparently 

8. Erm. on a bend, gu. three spread eagles. 
Crest, a spread eagle. "Motto, "Par nier par 

9. Az. a chev. erm. between three martlets. ... 
Crest, a cock. 

10. Gu. a cross or, between four birds (un- 
known). . . . Quartering, 1. or on a bend, gu. 
three crosses pattee fitchee ; 2. ar. on a fesse, gu. 
three wolves' heads; 3. ar. a cross patonce az. be- 
tween four spread eagles . . . . ; 4. az. on a bend, 
or between six lozenges or fusils, three escallops 
. . .; 5. ar. on a bend sa. three annulets. . . . Im- 
paling, sa. on a bend, ar. three cross crosslets. 
Motto, " In alta tendo." 

11. Or a griffin segreant. Crest, a dcmi-griffin. 
Motto, " Esto quod esse videris." 

12. Ar. a chev., gu. surmounted by another erm. 
between three slips of some shrub with lerries. 

13. ... a chev. chequy . . . between three foxes' 
heads erased. Crest, a fox's head erased. 

14. Az. on a chev. ar. between three bucks' 
heads erased, four roses. Crest, a buck's head 

15. Ga. a lion ramp. . . . double-queued within 
a bordure engr. or. Crest, a lion as in the arms. 
Motto, " Vive ut vivas." 

16. Az. a chev. ar., in base a spur rowel pierced 
of the field. 

17. Or on a fesse engr. az. between three 
horses' heads erased ... as many fleurs-de-lis. . . . 



[No. 147. 

Crest, a goat's head couped charged with three 

18. Per fesse gu. and az., on the dexter side a 
tree, on the sinister a lion ramp. Crest, a dragon's 
head holding in its mouth a hand. 

19. Crest, a griffin segreant holding a flower and 
stalk, apparently a rose. 

20. Crest, a sea-lion's head erased charged with 
a rose. 

21. Crest, between two antlers an eagle rising. 

22. Crest, per fesse erra. and gu. a lion's head 
erased, ducally crowned. 

23. A demi-spread eagle. Motto, "Nee ge- 
nerant aquilse columbam." . 

24. Anns, az. three arrows. To what family 
whose name begins with a Gr does this coat be- 
long ? 

25. Arms, ar. a fret . . . quartering Middleton 
of Yorkshire, and impaling gu. a chev. .ar. be- 
tween three birds, a chief erm. 



Having at length almost entirely completed the 
bond fide verification of the 15,000 citations and 
upwards in the whole works of my learned an- 
cestor, I am at a loss only for about twenty pas- 
sages, which lie in a very few scarce works, with 
which I am unable to meet at any of the great 
libraries to which I have hitherto had access. 

It occurs to me that some of your numerous 
readers may be able to inform me where I may be 
more successful in finding the very few authors I 
still need. 

I have given the titles and dates, and shall feel 
very grateful for any resolution of my difficulty. 

1. Cyprianus Gallus s. Tolonensis, Vita Ccesarii 
Arelatensis. Lugduni, 1613, 4to. 

2. Marc. Ant. de Dominis s. Spalatensis, De 
Communione Peregrina. Paris, 1645, 4 to. 

3. Hallier Fr., De Hierarchia Ecclesiastlca 
con'ra Cellotrum. Paris, 1646, 4to. or 8vo. ? 

4. Henao Gabriel, De Sacrificio Missce. Lugd., 
1655, fol. 

5. Milletot Barthol., De Legitima Indicum Scecu- 
lurium Potestate in Personce Ecclesiasticas. Fran- 
cofurt, 1613. 

6. Itdbanus Maurus, De Proprietate Sermonis, 
$r., lib. i. cap. 10. 

7. Radulphus Ardens, Sermones de Tempore, 
Antwerp, 1576, 8vo. 

8. Vedelius (Nicolas), Exercitationes in Irenceum 
[Ignatium .?]. Genev., 1623, 4to. 

9. Homerus Tortora, Historia Francice s. 
Francorum [?]. 

10. Catechismus Ursini, cum Epist Dedicator. 
David. ParceL Hanoviae, 1651, 8vo. 

Hampstead, Aug. 11. 1852. 


Perhaps many of your readers are aware that 
some months ago a paragraph appeared in the 
daily papers, stating that in the present year 
occurred a remarkable instance of two full moons 
in the same month, July ; and that it was found, 
on referring to the Annual Register, that the last 
year on which the same occurrence took place, 
which, if my memory serves me correctly, was 
1765, was remarkable for the number of thunder- 
storms and extraordinary falls of rain that visited 
this country as well as the Continent of Europe ,* 
implying a kind of prediction that we were to ex- 
pect much the same visitations during the present 
year. I need hardly say how accurately the weather 
during the last month or so has verified this con- 

On referring to Strype (Ann., vol. i. part i. 
p. 404.: Oxon. 1824) it will be found that the year 
1561 was famous for the thunderstorms and heavy 
falls of rain which took place. He says : 

" The 30th (July), about eight or nine, was a great 
thundering and lightning as any man had ever heard, 
till past ten. After that great rain till midnight, inso- 
much that the people thought the world was at an end, 
and the day of doom was come, it was so terrible. This 
tempestuous weather was much this summer. Thus 
the 21st of this July it rained sore, beginning on Sun- 
day night and lasting till Monday night ; and the 5th 
and 6th of the same month were great rains and thun- 
derinjrs in London. What mischief was done by the 
dreadful thundering and lightning, June 4th, was 
told beforehand before this April 20th were great 
thunder, lightning, rain, and hailstones, for bigness the 
like whereof had scarce ever been seen." 

The storm on the 4th June, alluded to above, is 
recorded by Strype to have injured " the steeple 
of St. Martin's church by Ludgate ; " and 

" The same day, about four or five of the clock at after- 
noon, the lightning took St. Paul's Church, and set the 
steeple on fire ; and never left till the steeple and bells, 
and top of the church, were all consumed unto the 
arches . . . and in divers other places of England 
great hurt was done with lightning." 

Can any of your readers inform me whether there 
were two full moons in one month during the year 
1561 ? I am a complete sceptic in the matter of 
the moon's influence on the weather, but still 
curious about this matter. H. C. K. 

. Rectory, Hereford. 


The following Query is proposed suggestively, 
not with the view of provoking fruitless discussion ; 
and as the subject is, I presume, interesting only 
to a few, who are well acquainted with all the 
evidence bearing upon it, I shall avoid all unne- 
cessary explanations and quotations. The Query, 

AUG. 21. 1852.] 



then, is this : Was the " strange fowle," seen by 
Sir Hamon L'Estrange in London " about 1 638," 
a Dodo ? 

With respect to its name, Sir Hamon merely 
states that " the keeper called it a Dodo :" I need 
not waste a word on the vagueness of such nomen- 
clature ; we all know the value of a showman's 
nuncupation. Besides, it must be recollected that 
the apterous birds of Bourbon and Rodriguez were 
at that period termed Dodos. Now for Sir Ha- 
inon's description : 

" It was somewhat bigger than the largest turky- 
cock, and so legged and footed, but stouter and thicker, 
and of a more erect shape, coloured before like the 
breast of a young cock-fesan, and on the back of a 
duwne or deare colour." 

I humbly submit that any person who had seen 
a Dodo, would naturally, when describing it, pro- 
pose the swan (the Dutch and Gauche did) as an 
estimate or standard of comparison rather than 
the turkey ; the contour of the Dodo resembling 
the former much more than the latter. The ex- 
pression, " a more erect shape " (than the turkey), 
most decidedly could not be applicable to the 
figure of the Dodo; and though the worthy 
knight's " young cock-fesan " of uncertain age is 
ambiguous enough, the colour as well as the form 
does not indicate the Dodo, but both point most 
significantly to the Solitaire (Didus solitarius). 
Let us see how Leguat's independent evidence, in 
his description of the Solitaire, accords with Sir 
Hamon's account of the " strange fowle : " 

" The feathers of the male are of a brown grey 
colour ; the feet and beak are like a turkey's, but a 
little more crooked. They are taller than turkeys ; 
the neck is straight, and a little longer in proportion 
than a turkey's when it lifts up his head." 

This remarkable concordance between L'Estrange 
and Leguat requires no comment. Before pro- 
ceeding farther, however, it may perhaps be ne- 
cessary, for the purpose of avoiding vain con- 
jectures, to inquire whether the " strange fowle " 
really were one of the Dididce. Most indisputably 
it was. Its size and stone-swallowing habit con- 
fined it to that family and the Struthiones, but 
being " turkey-footed," its hind toe kicked it out 
of the pale of the latter, and consequently the only 
question now is, which of the Dididce it was. Ac- 
cording to Sir Hamon's description, I deferentially 
submit it was not a Dodo *, nor was it one of those 
brevi-pennate birds of Bourbon that, Bontekoe 
quaintly said, " Als sie liepen sleepte haer iteers 
langhs de aerde ; " nor that other brevi-pennate of 
the same island, which the Sieur Dubois tells us 
had a bill like a woodcock's ; in short, the only 
bird whose description at all tallies with it, was 

* If a Dodo, how could L'Estrange avoid observing, 
or omit to notice, its remarkable head. 

the Solitaire of Rodriguez. Here, I must ac- 
knowledge, I am confronted by the paradoxical 
assertion of Leguat, that 

" Though these birds would sometimes familiarly 
come up to one, when we did not run after them, yet 
they would never grow tame ; as soon as caught they 
shed tears, and refused sustenance until they died." 

It is evident that Leguat and his companions knew 
nothing about taming animals : if they had had the 
slightest knowledge of that art, the Solitaires, in a 
week's time, would most probably have followed 
them like lapdogs. 

After such distinguished naturalists as Mr. 
Strickland, Dr. Hamel, and Mr. Broderip have 
recognised the " strange fowle " as a Dodo, it is 
with the utmost deference that I call attention to 
my conviction of its identity with the Solitaire ; 
and for this reason, instead of making the as- 
sertion, I still ask the question, Was the " strange 
fowle," seen by Sir Hamcn L'Estrange in London 
about 1 638, a Dodo ? W. PINKERTON. 


Etymology of " Quarrel" What is the etymo- 
logy of the word quarrel, meaning a dispute ? Is 
it from the Latin querela ? If so, how does it 
come to be spelt with a double r f Has it any 
connexion with quarel, the lozenge-shaped head of 
a cross-bow bolt, and which has given name to 
panes of glass of that form ? I write the word, in 
the latter sense, with one r, conceiving it to be a 
modification of some of the derivatives of quatuor : 
but why should it have two r's in the former sense? 


Relics of Charles I. In Hone's Every Day 
Book, vol. i. col. 187., we read the following ex- 
tract from the Brighton Herald: 

" The sheet which received the head of Charles I. 
after its decapitation, is carefully preserved along with 
the Communion plate, in the church of Ashburnham 
in this county : the blood, with which it has been 
almost entirely covered, now appears nearly black. 
The watch of the unfortunate monarch is also deposited 
with the linen, the movements of which are still perfect. 
These relics came into the possession of Lord Ash- 
burnham immediately after the death of the king." 

The object of my Query is .to ascertain whether 
these relics are still in existence, and preserved in 
the church at Ashburnham. 


Lady Gerrard's second Marriage. Elizabeth 
Woodford of Burnham, Buckinghamshire, relic of 
the Lord Gerrard of Bromley, President of Wales, 
became a widow in the year 1618; and married, 
secondly, Patrick Ruthven, last surviving son and 
representative of William, first Earl of Gowrie. 



[No. 147. 

The marriage is supposed to have taken place be- 
tween the years 1618 and 1624; perhaps during 
Patrick's confinement as state prisoner in the 
tower, from which he regained his liberty in 1622. 
This lady was mother of Lady Van Dyck, who 
was married to the great painter in 1639-40. 

Any notice or particulars concerning Lady 
Gerrard's second marriage with P. Ruthven will 
be most acceptable to Q. 

" To be in the wrong box." What is the origin 
of this phrase ? It is of old standing. In the 
" Communication in the Tower between Dr. Rid- 
ley and Secretary Bourn," Foxe, vol. vi. p. 438. 
(edit. 1838), Ridley says: 

" Sir, If you will hear how St. Augustine expoundeth 
that place, you shall perceive that you are in a. wrong 

W. G. 

Sir Kenelm Digby. When Gothurst, Bucks, 
\vas sold to the descendant of the lord-keeper 
Wright, in 1704, portraits of Sir Kenelm Digby 
And his wife Yenetia Stanley were, according to 
Pennant, left in the mansion. Can any reader of 
*' N. & Q." inform me where those remarkable 
portraits are now ? T. R. POTTER. 

Was Sir Kenelm Digby a Painter? At the 
monastery of Mount St. Bernard, on Charnwood 
Forest, is a fine painting of St. Francis, with a label 
inscribed " Kenelmus Digbaeus pinxit, 1643." Is 
there any evidence that this celebrated man excelled 
in painting as he did in the other arts ? T. R. P. 

St. Mary of the Lowes, or De Lacubus. Can 
any of your correspondents ' furnish me with j 
Scott's authority for translating " St. Mary of the | 
Lowes'" "St. Mary de Laeubus" ? (Martnion, note 
to introduction to second canto.) 

Should " Lowes " be proved to signify " Lake," 
then I think we have the etymology of Lowestoft, 
" the toft of the lakes," to distinguish it from Toft 
Monks, a village a few miles off. Lowestoft adjoins 
Lake Lothing, and the sheet of water called Mut- 
ibrd Broad. 

Lowestoft is colloquially pronounced Laystoft. 
In Forby's Vocab. of East Anglia, "lay" is ex- 
plained " a large pond." The interchange of 

ow " into " ay " frequently takes place : " bow 
..indow for "bay" wine 1 "'"' " ntn a " f~P*"> #< 
liques) for " may," &c. 

E. G. R. 

Peleg in Germany. Can any of your readers 
give me information as to a tradition that Peleg, 
the architect of Babel, having lost his speech, fled 
from Shinar after the dispersion, and found his 
way to some part of Germany, where he erected a 
triangular building, in which he dwelt, and which 
was discovered in the year 553? A. F. B. 


Public Whipping of Women in England. I 
should like to know to how late a period the public 
whipping of female offenders was continued in 
England. Among some highly interesting old 
newspaper cuttings I lately purchased of Mr. James 
Fennell, I find the following on this subject : 

" On Wednesday the 14th, a woman (an old offender) 
was conveyed in a cart from Clerkenwell Bridewell to 
Entiejd, and publickly whipped at the cart's-tail, by 
the common hangman, for cutting down and destroying 
wood in En field Chace. She is to undergo the same 
discipline twice more" Public Ledger, 1764. 

Thank goodness we are not so barbarous at the 
present day as to tolerate the flogging of a woman 
at the cart's-tail by the common hangman. 


High Wycombe. 

Henry Mortimer. Can any of your readers in- 
form me who was Henry Mortimer, who married 
Lucia, daughter of Bernabo Visconti, and widow 
of Edmund Holland, Earl of Kent ? Also, who 
was Sir Walter Mortimer, whose heiress, Elinor, 
married Thomas Hopton of Shropshire some time 
about 1400 ? Also, where I can find a pedigree of 
Sir Giles Daubeny, who by his first wife, Mary 
Leeke, left an heiress, Jane, who married Sir 
Robert Markham, and seems by his third wife to 
have been grandfather to Giles Lord Daubeny ? 

E. H. Y. 

Passage in Jeremy Taylor. Can any of your 
readers explain the following passage in Jeremy 
Taylor's Life of Christ f 

" I do not say that a sin against human laws is 
greater than a prevarication against a Divine com- 
mandment; as the instances may b?, the distance is 
next to infinite, and to touch the earth with our foot 
within the octaves of Easter, or to taste flesh upon days 
of abstinence," &c Buckley's edition, p. 122. 

To what custom do the words in Italics allude ? 

W. M. K 

Locke on Romanism. 

" Popery is not a religion at all, but a conspiracy 
against the liberties of mankind." 
This is attributed to John Locke. In what vo- 
lume and page of Locke's works will the above 
extract be found ? T. L. 

Lancashire Sayings. I should be glad to learn 
the meaning and derivation of the vulgar reply to 
a common enough question : " What have you got 
there ? " " Layoers (lay-overs ?) for meddlers." 

There is another tantalising reply to a question, 
" Where did you get it?" 

" Where Kester (Christopher) bought his coat." 

" Where was that ? " 

" Where it was to be had." 

I believe this last to be very ancient, and shall 
be glad to learn if it exists elsewhere than in 
Lancashire. K. 

AUG. 21. 1852.] 



Passage in the Somnium Scipionis. In the Som- 
nium Scipionis of Cicero there occurs this passage, 
" Quaeso, inquit, ne me e somno excitetis, et parum 
rebus : audite castera." The phrase " et parum 
rebus " offers a difficulty which the. various classi- 
cal men to whom I have applied have been unable 
to surmount. I am aware there are different 
readings, but all, I believe, equally devoid of 
meaning. Any attempt at a translation or ex- 
planation is anxiously looked for. It is a Query 
with me whether you would insert purely classical 
questions, and has kept me back from sending 
many which lam sure would interest the majority 
of your readers. This point I would fain know. 


Walter Parsons, Porter to James I. Can any of 
the readers of " N. & Q." inform me where in- 
formation regarding Parsons, who was renowned 
for his vast muscular power, may be found ? J. J. 

Furye Family. At the latter end of last cen- 
tury a Captain Furye was living in the neighbour- 
hood of Stamford. He was an intimate friend of 
Thomas Noel, Esq., of Exton. Would any one of 
your readers, who knows anything of the Furye 
family, oblige me by saying who this Captain Furye 
married ? JAYTEE. 


Barefooted Friar. Where are the following 
lines to be found ? 

" He's expected at night, and the pasty's made hot, 
They hroach the brown ale, and they fill the black pot ; 
And the good wife would wish the good man in the 

'Ere he lack'd a soft pillow, the Barefooted Friar. 

" Long flourish the sandal, the cord, and the cope, 
The dread of the devil, and trust of the Pope ; 
For to gather life's roses, unscath'd by the briar, 
Is granted alone to the Barefooted Friar." 


[These lines are the last two verses of a song, en- 
titled The Barefooted Friar," in Sir Walter Scott's 
Ivanhoe, ch. xviii.j 

Lord Delamer. I should be greatly obliged to 
any reader of " K & Q." who can refer me to a 
memoir or notice of the Lord Delamer, who at the 
period of the Revolution took a part in the demo- 
lition of some religious houses in the midland 
counties. J. J. 

[There is a well-written account of Henry Booth, 
Lord Delamer, in Kippis' Biographia Britannica, 
vol. ii. p. 408., containing numerous references to other 
authorities. His lordship's Works were published in 
1694, in one volume 8vo., noticed by Walpole in his 
Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors.'] 

British Critic or Theological Review. Can 
any of your correspondents furnish the names of 
the editors and contributors of The British Critic 
from the year 1827? n. 

[The last series of The British Critic commenced in 
December, 1824, and we believe at this time was under 
the superintendence of a London clergyman. In 1837, 
however, a new element was introduced ; for a certain 
portion of each number was placed at the disposal of 
the Oxford Tract writers, who engaged to supply 
articles gratuitously. At the end of 1837 the editor 
resigned, and eventually Mr. Newman became editor, 
a position which he held till the middle of 1841, when, 
circumstances occurred which occasioned it subse- 
quently to pass from under his superintendence. Its 
last editor was the Rev. T. Mozley, Rector of Chol- 
derton, and late Fellow of Oriel, assisted occasionally 
by Mr. Newman.] 

Psalm-singing at PauTs Cross. Where is a de- 
scription of the people singing psalms aloud at 
Paul's Cross, in the early part of the Reformation, 
to the annoyance of the bishops and clergy ? S. P. 


[Bishop Jewel, in a letter written March, 1560, 
seems to allude to this circumstance. His words are, 
" The singing of psalms was begun in one church in, 
London, and did quickly spread itself, not only through 
the city, but in the neighbouring places ; sometimes at 
Paul's Cross there will be 6000 people singing toge- 
ther. This was very grievous to the Papists : the 
children began to laugh at the priests as they passed 
in the streets ; and the bishops were called hangmen 
to their faces. It was said White died of rage. He 
commends Cecyl much." Quoted in Burnet's Hist, of 
the Reformation, Part III. book vi.] 

George Thomason. Can any of your readers 
inform me where the Rev. Geo. Thomason was 
matriculated, and to which University he be- 
longed ? He was the collector of the collection of 
pamphlets now in the British Museum under the 
title of the " King's Pamphlets." He is noticed 
as such in Gent. Mag., 1816, Part II. p. 319., but 
there erroneously called Tomlinson. I have sought 
for him in vain in Gutch's Oxford, Wood's 
Athena, and Cole's Athcnce Cantab, in MS. I 
should also much wish to know whether the above 
collection was purchased by Geo. I. II. or III. ? 
It was presented to the Museum by Geo. III. 

E. G. B. 

[In The Obituary of Richard Smyth, published by 
the Camden Society, occurs the following notice of 
him: " April 10, 1666, Geo. Thomason, bookseller, 
buried out of Station" Hall (a poore man)." To which 
Sir Henry Ellis has added the following note: "This 
was George Thomason, who formed the singular col- 
lection of books, tracts, and single sheets, from 1 640 to 
1660; now preserved in the British Museum, and 
known by the name of ' The King's Pamphlets.' 
They were purchased, and presented to the British 
Museum, by His Majesty King Geo. III. in 1762."] 



[No. 147. 

Thomas Goffe. Who was Thos. Goffe, author 
of three tragedies, the second edition of which 
appeared in 1656 ? J. R. HELTON. 

[Thomas Goffe, a divine and dramatic writer, was 
born in Essex about 1592, and educated at the West- 
minster School, and at Christ Church, Oxford. In 
1623 he was preferred to the living of East Clandon, 
in Surrey, where he died in 1629. He wrote sermons 
and tragedies, and two Latin funeral orations (see 
Watt's Biblioth. Britan.) Consult also Baker's Bio- 
graphia Dramalica.] 

Beef-eaters. Can any subscriber to "N. & Q." 
give the origin of the name of beef-eaters ? 

W. M. M. 

[The Yeomen of the Guard are so called from its 
having been formerly one of their duties to watch the 
beauffet ; and heuce they were called leaiiffetiers, vulgo, 

ACT III. SC. 2. 

(Vol. vi., pp. 59. 106.) 

To the appeal of MR. HICKSON respecting the 
suggested readings of the above passage, I feel that 
I am in courtesy bound to reply. It is pleasant 
when such controversies are conducted in a con- 
ciliatory spirit, manifesting that the disputants 
contend for truth and not for victory. 

Much as I respect his authority, and that of 
your Leeds correspondent A. E. B., I regret that 
I cannot fully subscribe to the objections taken by 
either of them on this occasion to the readings I 
advocate, for be it remembered that none of them 
originate with me. 

To MR. HICKSON' s first question, "Do I think 
that gilded shore gives any meaning whatever ? " 
I answer confidently that I do, and even the very 
sense which he himself says is clearly required, 
deceitful. That the poet may have used it in this 
sense will appear from the following passage in 
A Lover's Complaint : 

" For further could I say this man's untrue, 
And knew the patternes of his foule beguiling, 
Heard where his plants in other orchards grew, 
Saw how deceits were guilded in his smiling." 
I have not forgotten that two years since I fur- 
nished a quotation from Tarquin and Lucrece, 
which seemed to countenance the reading guiled 
shore, and MR. HICKSON'S interpretation of it as 
guile-covered, or charactered shore ; and I now 
only prefer gilded-shore, the reading of the second 
folio, as giving, in my mind, a clearer and less 
equivocal sense. 

In regard to the reading Indian gipsie, sug- 
gested by the late Mr. Sidney Walker, instead of 
the old reading, Indian beautie, I am not wedded 
to it, and admit that perhaps the epithet Indian 

makes against it; but I cannot concede to MR. 
HICKSON that the term gipsie, as applied to Cleo- 
patra, " is not applied depreciatingly," when I re- 
collect Mercutio's "Laura to his lady was a 
kitchen-wench ; Dido a dowdie ; Cleopatra a 
gipsie; Helen and Hero hildings and harlots. 1 * 
Notwithstanding the reasons adduced by A. E. B. 
in favour of beautie, which MR. HICKSON thinks 
decisive, I am still of opinion that it was not the 
poet's word. 

I am much gratified to find that MR. HICKSON 
agrees with me in the substitution of stale for pale, 
about which I never had the slightest hesitation. 
Confident that pale and common could not be right, 
I sought confirmation from Shakspeare himself, and 
found it. With regard to the epithet paleness ap- 
plied to lead, it is supported by such numerous 
examples as to leave no doubt. Dr. Farmer ob- 
serves that we have the same antithesis in Mid- 
summer Nighfs Dream, in which Theseus says : 

" Where I have seen great clerks look pale 
I read as much, as from the rattling tongue 
Of saucy and audacious eloquence." 



(Vol. vi., p. 73.) 

Your correspondent H. C. K. says he will bo 
thankful to any one who will show the fallacy of 
his explanation of the phenomenon o