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fum of Inttr-'Connmmftatfon 


" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 










" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 166.] 


Price Fourpence. 

1 Stamped Edition, 


Our Seventh Volume .... - 1 

NOTES : , 

Proclamations of the Society of Antiquaries, and their 

Value as Historical Evidences, by John Bruce - 3 

Curiosities of Advertising Literature, by Cuthbert Bede 4 
On a Passage in "King Henry VIII.," Act III. Sc. 2., 

by S. W. Singer 5 

Notes on Bacon's Essays, by P. J. F. Gantillon, B.A. - 6 
Latin Poems in connexion with Waterloo, by Lord 

Braybrooke .-..-. 6 

Sir Henry Wotton and Milton, by Bolton Corney - 7 
FOLK LORE: Unlucky to sell Eggs after Sunset Old 

Song Nursery Tale Legend of Change - 7 

Passage in Hamlet ------ 8 

Volcanic Influence on the Weather, by Rev. Wm. S. 

Hcsledon - ------9 

MIXOR NOTES: ValueofMSS Robert Hill English 

Orthography Bookselling in Glasgow in 1735 

Epitaph on a Sexton .... - 9 


Eustache de Saint Pierre, by Philip S. King - - 10 

Devizes, Origin of: a Question for the Heralds, by 
J. Waylen 11 

MINOR QUERIES : Gold Signet Ring Ecclesia Angli- 
cana Tangiers : English Army in 1684 Smith 
Termination " -itis " Loak Hen Etymological 
Traces of the Social Position of our Ancestors 
Locke's Writings Passage in Gdthe's "Faust" 
Schomberg's Epitaph by Swift The Burial Service 
said by Heart Shaw's Staffordshire MSS. "Ne'er 
to these chambers," &c. County History Societies- 
Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter The English Do- 
mestic Novel Dr. Young Bishop Hall's Medita- 
tions Chatterton Passage in Job Turner's View 
of Lambeth Palace Clarke's Essay on the Usefulness 
of Mathematical Learning " The General Pardon" - 12 

fessor's King The Bourbons - 

Emblems --.-..- 

Marriages en Chemise Mantelkinder Legitimation, by 
E. Smirke, &c. --._.. 

Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to 1G62, by Arch- 
deacon Cotton - 

fennant, &c. - 

Etymology of Pearl, by Sir J. Emerson Te 

" Martin "Drunk," by Dr. E. F. Rimbault 

Gdthe's Reply to Nicolai ----.- 


Paper Exhibition of Photography at the Society of 

Arts -__.__ 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Quotation in Locke 
Pir-mc Discovery at Nuneham Regis Door-head 
Inscriptions Cross and Pile Rhymes upon Places 
AfHM Who was the greatest General ? Beech- 
trees struck bv LightningPassase in TennysonIn- 
scriptions in Churches Dutensfana Early Phono- 
graphyKentish Local Names; Dray Monument 
at ModstenaBook.plates " World without end," c. 

Book? and Odd Volumes wanted - 

Notices to Correspondents - 

Advertisements ... 

- 15 





VOL. VII. No. 166. 


We might, without any offence against truth or 
modesty, begin our Seventh Volume by congratulating 
ourselves and our Readers on the continued success and 
increasing circulation of our work. As to Truth, our 
Readers can only judge in part, and must take our 
word for the rest ; but they may see enough in our 
pages to lead them to do so. Let them but look at 
the signatures which from time to time appear in our 
columns, and they will see enough to prove that we 
have the sanction of a list of names, high in literary 
reputation, such as it might seem ostentatious to 
parade in our columns on an occasion like the present. 
We abstain the more readily, because we have felt it 
our duty to do the thing so frequently and fully in our 
prospectuses. And as to Modesty, can there be any 
want of it in saying that with such or perhaps we 
should say .by such contributors we have produced a 
work which the public has found acceptable? With 
such contributors, and others whom we should be 
proud to name with them, if they had given names 
which we cannot but know, but do not feel authorised 
to decypher with such help, what sort of animal 
must an editor be who could fail to make a work 
worth reading ? In fact, if not our highest praise, it 
is the plainest proof of the value of our publication, 
that we have done little or nothing except to give the 
reader the greatest possible quantity of matter in a 
legible form, wholly unassisted by graphic ornament 
or artistic decoration of any kind without even the 
attraction of politics, scandal, or polemics. 

Our pride is that we are useful ; and that fact is 
proved by another to which it has given rise, namely, 
that we are favoured with many more contributions 
than we can. possibly find room for.; and therefore, in- 
stead of employing the occasion which offers for a few 
words with our Readers, by way of introduction to a 
new Volume, in any protracted remarks on what we 
have done, we would rather confer with them on the 
ways and means of doing more. 

In the first place, let us say explicitly that we do 
not mean by the most obvious method of increasing 
the bulk of our publication. It is quite clear that we 


[No. 166. 

could print twice as much on twice as many pages ; 
but this is not what we mean. Those who refer to 
our earliest Numbers will see "how we are grown," 
and we are perfectly convinced that we are now quite 
grown up that our quantity (to change the figure) 
is quite as much as our company wish to see set on the 
table at once, and our price quite as agreeable as if it 
were larger ; for to enlarge the work without enlarg- 
ing the price would be quite out of the question. 

But, in the course of what we may now call con- 
siderable experience, during which we have seen the 
work grow up into the form which it now wears, we 
have been led to think, that if our friends will allow us 
to offer a few suggestions (on which some of them may 
perhaps improve), we may be able, with the same space 
and cost, to oblige more Correspondents ; and not only 
by that means, but by rendering our information more 
select and valuable, increase the gratification of our 

Our name suggests the idea of a work consisting of 
two parts ; and, with regard to the first, we can only 
offer such obvious remarks as, that the more a writer 
condenses what he has to say, the less room his com- 
munication will occupy in print and the less room 
he occupies, the more he will leave for others, &c. 
These are weighty and important truths, but such as 
we need not insist on. 

But when we look at the other part, passing under 
the single name of " QUERIES," it becomes obvious that 
our work, instead of having, as its title would import, 
what Sir Thomas Browne calls a " bicapitous conform- 
ation," does in fact consist of three parts, which must 
be ranged under three different heads, and dealt with 
in three different ways. A little, modest, demure- 
looking QUERY slips into print, and by the time it has 
been in print a fortnight, we find that it has a large 
family of REPLIES, who all come about it, and claim a 
settlement on the ground of their parentage. 

Now, it is on this matter that we think some im- 
provement may be made. We would not on any 
account diminish our number of QUERIES, and would 
wish even our NOTES to be notes of interrogation as 
well as information. But between QUERIES and RE- 
FLIES, notwithstanding their family connexion, there is 
an essential difference. In every case the QUERY, in 
order to its answering the end for which it is proposed, 
must be public ; but in a great many cases the REPLY 
need not be so. The QUERY may be a very proper 
and curious one, and interesting in a high degree to 
the proposer and several other persons, but the REPLY 
to it may involve details not generally interesting.* 

* A valued Correspondent, who has strongly urged 
the adoption of the course which we are now recom- 
mending to our Readers, thus illustrates his position: 

We shall not be thought to discourage such inquiries 
(while we consider the opportunity which we afford for 
making them one of the most valuable features of our 
work) if we illustrate this by suggesting that A. wishes 
for genealogical or family history ; B. wants to know 
what the author of such or such a book which he is 
editing means by such or such a reference ; C., who is 
editing another, wants a collation of this or that edi- 
tion ; D., who is writing a third book, in order to 
correct and enrich it, wants as many things (and 
heartily glad should we be to help him to get them) 
as would occupy half-a-dozen of our Numbers ; and so 
we might go on, were it not quite unnecessary to 
pursue in detail the illustration of what is so plain. 
Now it has occurred to us, that if Correspondents who 
wish to make inquiries, the answers to which would 
obviously be of no general interest, would, with their 
Query, enclose a stamped envelope, directed in any way 
which they may think proper, it would often be in our 
power not only to transmit to them answers to their 
inquiries, but to put them in direct communication 
with those who could give them further information ; 
and who would in many cases communicate with indi- 
viduals of whose respectability and capacity they were 
satisfied, more freely than they would through a public 
channel. We shall be glad to know how far such a plan 
would be approved of. We must add, that it would 
enable us to make use of many REPLIES which it is 
impossible, under present circumstances, to insert ; and 
we believe that many Answerers would not only be as 
well pleased to learn that their REPLIES had been trans- 
mitted to the Querist, but that, with a knowledge that 
they would be so transmitted, they would write with 
more freedom and fulness than if they expected the 
REPLY to be published. One thing only we should 
bargain for and, having cut ourselves off from all 
hope of gain by desiring to have the envelopes directed, 
we think we have a right to ask it it is, that if in 
this correspondence, of which we are the medium, they 
come to any curious and generally interesting results, 
they will send them to us, pro bono publico. 

" It seems to be a very good thing to have a me- 
dium of genealogical inquiry ; but why should all the 
world be troubled with the answers to a man who 

' Sir, I shall be obliged to anybody who can give 
me a full account of my family. JOHN SMITH.' 

" Again, supposing X. Y. wants to borrow some not 
very common hook which one happens to have, I am 
not going to write (and if I did so write you would 
not print it), ' If X. Y., as soon as he sees this, will call 
on the Pump at Aldgate, he will find my copy of the 
book tied to the spout, if the charity-boys have not 
cribbed it ; and he can return it or not, according to 
his conscience, if he has any." 

JAX. 1. 1853.] 




The work that is now going on at the Society of 
Antiquaries in reference to the collection of royal 
proclamations in their library, is one in which not 
merely the Fellows of that Society, but all his- 
torical students, are deeply interested. The So- 
ciety possesses one of the three known largest 
collections of these public documents. They were 
formerly bound up in volumes of several different 
sizes, intermixed with a variety of fugitive pub- 
lications, such as ballads and broadsides, which 
formed altogether a very incongruous collection. 
A short time since it was found that the binding 
of many of the volumes was very much worn, and 
that some of the documents themselves had been 
considerably torn and damaged. Under these 
circumstances, Mr. Lemon, of the State Paper 
Office, offered his services to the Council to su- 
perintend an entire new arrangement, mounting, 
binding, and calendaring, of the whole series of 
proclamations. His offer was of course gratefully 
accepted, and the work is now in active progress. 

The collection is certainly the most important 
that is known, and is especially so in the reign of 
Elizabeth ; in reference to which there is no col- 
lection at all approaching to it, either in com- 
pleteness or value. Still there are many pro- 
clamations wanting : several of the Fellows of the 
Society have come forward most liberally to fill 
up gaps. MR. PAYNE COLLIER led the way in a 
contribution of great value ; MR. SALT followed 
MR. COLLIER with a munificent donation of a whole 
collection relating to Charles II. and James II. ; 
and upon Mr. Lemon's suggestion, and with the 
joint concurrence of Mr. Secretary Walpole and 
the Keeper of the State Paper Office, an inter- 
change of duplicates has been effected between 
that office and the Society of Antiquaries, which 
has added forty proclamations to the Society's 

My principal reason for addressing you upon 
this subject is to ask you to suggest to your 
readers that a similar interchange of duplicates 
might be effected between the Society and any 
persons who chance to have duplicate proclama- 
tions in their possession. 

It is of the very highest literary and historical 
importance that we should get together, in some 
accessible place, a collection of proclamations, 
which if not actually complete (a consummation 
hardly to be expected), shall yet approach to 
completeness. The collection at Somerset House 
offers the best opportunity for forming such a 
collection. It is by far the most nearly complete 
in existence, and is strong in that particular part 
of the series in which other collections are most 
defective, and in which missing proclamations are 

the most difficult to be supplied. At the Society 
of Antiquaries the collection will be accessible to 
all literary inquirers, and no doubt the Society 
will publish a proper catalogue, which is already 
in preparation by Mr. Lemon. 

It is obvious that any person who chooses to 
contribute such stray proclamations, or copies of 
proclamations, as he may chance, to have in his 
possession, will be helping forward a really good 
work, and the possessor of duplicates may not only 
do the same, but may benefit his own collection 
by an interchange. 

The value of proclamations as historical autho- 
rities, and especially as authorities for the history 
of manners, and of our national progress, is indis- 
putable. As I write, I have before me the Booke 
of Proclamations of James I. from 1603 to 1609; 
and the page lying open affords a striking illustra- 
tion of what I assert. It gives us A CHAPTER IN 


Immediately on the accession of James I., the 
high north road from London to Edinburgh was 
thronged with multitudes of pilgrims hastening to 
the worship of the newly risen sun. Robert Carey 
became, in the words of Cowper's enigma, " the 
parent of numbers that cannot be told." Scotland 
has never poured into the south more active or 
more anxious suppliants than then traversed the 
northward road through Berwick. All ordinary ac- 
commodation soon fell short of the demand. Mes- 
sengers riding post from the council to the king 
were stayed on the road for want of the ordinary 
supply of post-horses, all which were taken up by 
lords and gentry rushing northward in the fury 
of their new-born loyalty. As a remedy for these 
inconveniences, the lords of the council issued 
a proclamation, calling upon all magistrates to aid 
the postmasters " in this time so full of business," 
by seeing that they are supplied with " fresh and 
able horses as necessitie shall require." Of course 
the supply was merely of horses. Travellers could 
not in those days obtain carriages of any kind. 
The horses were directed to be " able and suffi- 
cient horses, and well furnished of saddles, bridles, 
girts and stirropes, with good guides to looke to 
them ; who for their said horses shall demand and 
receive of such as shall ride on them, the prices 

The new state of things became permanent. 
London, after James's removal from Edinburgh, 
being really the seat of government for the whole 
island, the intercourse both ways was continuous, 
and further general orders for its management 
were published by proclamation. There were 
at that time, on all the high roads through the 
country, two sorts of posts: 1. Special messen- 
gers or couriers who rode "thorough post," that is, 
themselves rode through the whole distance, " with 
horn and guide." Such persons carried with them 
an authentication of their employment in the 


[No. 166. 

public service. In 1603, they were charged " two- 
pence halfe-peny the mile" (raised in 1609 to 
threepence) for the hire of each horse, "besides 
the guide's groats." The hire was to be paid be- 
forehand. They were not to ride the horses more 
than one stage, except with the consent of " the 
post of the stage" at which they did not change. 
Nor were they to charge the horse " with any 
male or burden (besides his rider) that exceedeth 
the weight of thirtye pounds." Nor to ride more 
than seven miles an hour in summer or six in 
winter. 2. The other sort of post was what was 
termed the " post for the packet." For this ser- 
vice every postmaster was bound to keep horses 
ready ; and on receipt of a " packet" or parcel 
containing letters, he was to send it on towards 
the next stage within a quarter of an hour after 
its arrival, entering the transaction in " a large 
and faire ledger paper book." Two horses were 
to be kept constantly ready for this service, " with 
furniture convenient," and messengers "at hand 
in areadinesse." The postmaster was also to have 
ready " two bags of leather, at the least, well lined 
with bayes or cotton, to carry the packet in." He 
was also to have ready " homes to sound and blow, 
as oft as the post meets company, or foure times 
in every mile." 

The "post for the packet" was at first used 
only for the carriage of despatches for the govern- 
ment or for ambassadors, but a similar mode of 
conveyance soon began to be taken advantage of 
by merchants and private persons. Difficulty in 
obtaining posts and horses for the conveyance of 
private packets, led to the interference of " certain 
persons called hackney-men, tapsters, hostlers, and 
others, in hiring out their horses, to the hinderance 
of publique service, danger to our state, and wrong 
to our standing and settled postes in their several 
stages." The government of James I. thought, in 
its blindness, that it could put a stop to the dan- 
gerous practice of transmitting unofficial letters, 
by rendering it penal for private persons to carry 
them ; that of Charles I., wiser, in this respect, in 
its generation, settled a scheme for their general 
conveyance through the medium of " a letter 
office." But the " post for the packet," with his 
leathern bag and his twanging horn (the origin, of 
course, of our mail-coach horn), continued down 
to a late period, and probably still lingers in some 
parts of the kingdom. Cowper, it will be remem- 
bered, describes him admirably. JOHN BRUCE. 


We are all well acquainted with the ingenious 
artifices by which modern advertisers thrust their 
wares upon the attention of newspaper readers. We 
may, perhaps, have been betrayed into the expression 
of some rude Saxon expletive, when, in the columns 
devoted to news and general information, we have 

in our innocence been tempted with a paragraph 
that commenced with " a clever saying of the illus- 
trious Voltaire's," and dovetailed into a panegyric 
of Messrs. Aaron and Son's Reversible Paletots ; 
or we may have applauded the clever logician who 
so clearly demonstrates, that as Napoleon's bilious 
affection frequently clouded his judgment in times 
of greatest need, the events of the present century, 
and the fate of nations, would have been reversed, 
had that great man only been persuaded to take 
two boxes of Snooks's Aperient Pill, price 1*. l^d., 
with the Government stamp on a red ground (see 
Advt.). All these things we know very well ; but, 
of the fugitive literature that does not find a place 
in the advertising columns of The Times, but 
flashes into Fame only in the pages of some local 
oracle, or in some obscurer broad-sheet, how often 
must it remain unappreciated, and doomed to 
" waste its sweetness on the desert air." That this 
may not be said of the following burst of advertis- 
ing eloquence, I trust it may be found worthy a 
niche in the temple of " N. & Q." In its com- 
position the author was probably inspired by the 
grand scenery of the Cheviots, in a village near to 
which his shop was situate. It was one of those 
" generally-useful " shops where the grocer and 
draper held equal reign, and anything could be 
got, from silks and satins to butter and Bath bricks. 
The composition was printed and distributed 
among the neighbouring families ; but shortly after, 
when the author heard that it had not produced 
the exact effect he had wished, he, with the irrita- 
bility that often accompanies genius, resolved to 
get back and destroy every copy of his production, 
and deny to the world that which it could not 
appreciate. Fortunately for the world's welfare, I 
preserved a copy of his hand-bill, of which this, in 
its turn, is a faithful transcript : 

" To the Inhabitants of G. and its neighbourhood. 

" The present age is teeming with advantages which 
no preceding Era in the history of mankind has af- 
forded to the human family. New schemes are pro- 
jecting to enlighten and extend civilisation, Railways 
have been projected and carried out by an enterprising 
and spirited nation, while Science in its gigantic power 
(simple yet sublime) affords to the humane mind so 
many facilities to explore its rich resources, the Seasons 
roll on in their usual course producing light and heat, 
the vivifying rays of the Sun, and the fructifying in- 
fluences of nature producing food and happiness to the 
Sons of Toil ; while to the people of G. and its neigh- 
bourhood a rich and extensive variety of Fashionable 
Goods is to be found in my Warehouse, which have just 
been selected with the greatest care. The earliest visit 
is requested to convey to the mind an adequate idea oi" 
the great extent of his purchases, comprising as it does 
all that is elegant and useful, cheap and substantial, to 
the light-hearted votaries of Matrimony, the Matrons 
of Reflection, the Man of Industry, and the disconsolate 
Victims of Bereavement. J M ." 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 


The peroration certainly exhibits what Mrs. 
Malaprop calls "a nice derangement of epitaphs :" 
and, as for the rest, surely "the force of" bathos 
" could no further go." CUTHBERT BEDE, B. A. 


sc. 2. 

One of the most desperately unintelligible pas- 
sages in Shakspeare occurs in this play, in the scene 
between the King and the Cardinal, when the latter 
professes his devoted attachment to his service. 
It stands thus in the first folio : 

Car. " I do professe 

That for your Highnesse good, I euer labour'd 
More then mine owne : that am, haue, and will be 
(Though all the world should cracke their duty to you, 
And throw it from their Soule, though perils did 
Abound, as thicke as thought could make 'em, and 
Appeare in formes more horrid) yet my Duty, 
As doth a Rocke against the chiding Flood, 
Should the approach of this wilde Riuer breake, 
And stand vrishaken yours." 

Upon this Mason observes : 

" I can find no meaning in these words (that am, 
have, and will be), or see how they are connected with 
the rest of the sentence ; and should therefore strike 
them out." 

Malone says : 

" I suppose the meaning is, ' that or such a man, I 
am, have been, and will ever be.' Our author has many 
hard and forced expressions in his plays; but many of 
the hardnesses in the piece before us appear to me of a 
different colour from those of Shakspeare. Perhaps, 
however, a line following has been lost ; for in the old 
copy there is no stop at the end of this line ; and, in- 
deed, I have some doubt whether a comma ought not 
to be placed at it, rather than a fullpoint." 

Mr. Knight, however, places a fullpoint at will 
be, and says : 

" There is certainly some corruption in this passage ; 
for no ellipsis can have taken this very obscure form. 
Z. Jackson suggests 'that aim has and will be.' This 
is very harsh. We might read ' That aim I have and 
will,' will being a noun." 

Mr. Collier has the following note : 

" In this place we can do no more than reprint ex- 
actly the old text, with the old punctuation; as if 
Wolsey, following 'that am, have, and will be' by a 
long parenthesis, had forgotten how he commenced his 
sentence. Something may have been lost, which would 
have completed the meaning ; and the instances have 
not been unfrequent where lines, necessary to the sense, 
have been recovered from the quarto impressions. 
Here we have no quarto impressions to resort to, and 
the later folios afford us no assistance, as they reprint 
the passage as it stands iu the folio 16'J3, excepting 
that the two latest end the parenthesis at 'break.'" 

I cannot think that the poet would have put a 
short speech into Wolsey's mouth, making him 
forget how he commenced it! Nor do I believe 
that anything has been lost, except the slender 
letter / preceding am. The printer or transcriber 
made the easy mistake of taking the word true for 
haue, which as written of old would readily occur, 
and having thus confused the passage, had recourse 
to the unconscionable long mark of a parenthesis. 
The passage undoubtedly should stand thus : 

Car. " I do profess 

That for your highness' good I ever labour'd 
More than mine own ; that / am true, and will be 
Though all the world should lack their duty to you, 
And throw it from their soul : though perils did 
Abound, as thick as thought could make them, and 
Appear in forms more horrid ; yet my duty 
(As doth a rock against the chiding flood,) 
Should the approach of this wild river break, 
And stand unshaken yours." 

Here all is congruous and clear. This slight 
correction of a palpable printer's error redeems a 
fine passage hitherto entirely unintelligible. I do 
not insist upon the correction in the fourth line of 
lack for crack, yet what can be meant by cracking- 
a duty ? The duke, in the Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, speaks of his daughter as " lacking duty ; " 
and seeing how very negligently the whole passage 
has been given in the folio, I think there is good 
ground for its reception. With regard to the cor- 
rection in the second line, I feel confident, and 
doubt not that it will have the approbation of all 
who, like myself, feel assured that most of the 
difficulties in the text of our great poet are at- 
tributable to a careless printer or transcriber. 

When I proposed (Vol. vi., p. 468.) to read 
"raz7 at once," instead of "all at once," in As You 
Like It, Act III. Sc. 5., I thought the conjecture 
my own, having then only access to the editions of 
Mr. Collier and Mr. Knight ; I consequently said, 
" It is somewhat singular that the passage should 
hitherto have passed unquestioned." My surprise 
was therefore great, on turning to the passage in 
the Variorum Shakspeare, to find the following 
note by Warburton, which had escaped my notice : 

" If the speaker intended to accuse the person spoken 
to only for insulting and exulting, then, instead of all 
at once,' it ought to have been both at once. But, ex- 
amining the crime of the person accused, we shall dis- 
cover that the line is to be read thus : 

' That you insult, exult, and rail at once,' 
for these three things Phoebe was guilty of. But the 
Oxford editor improves it, and, for rail at once, reads 

I have no recollection of having ever read the 
note before, and certainly was not conscious of it. 
The coincidence, therefore, may be considered (as 
Mr. Collier observed in respect to the reading of 
palpable for capable) as much in favour of this 


[No. 16( 

That the most careful printers can misread, and 
consequently misprint, copy, is evident from the 
following error in my last Note: Vol. vi., p. 584., 
col. 1, for "in the edition which I gave of the 
part" read ''poet." This mistake, like most of 
those I have indicated in the first folio Shakspeare, 
might easily occur if the word was indistinctly 
written. S. W. SINGEK. 



As I find that the editor of Bacons Essays for 
Bonn's Standard Library has not verified the quo- 
tations, I venture to send you a few " N. & Q." on 
them, which I hope to continue from time to time, 
if they prove acceptable. In compliance with the 
recommendation of MR. SYDNEY SMIRKK and the 
REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE (Vol. vi., p. 558.), I ap- 
pend my name and address. 

N.B. The paging and notes of Bohn's edition 
are followed throughout. 

Preface, p. xiii. note *. " Speech on the Im- 
peachment of Warren Hastings." See Burke's 
Works, vol. viii. p. 15. [ed. 1827.] Speech on the 
first day of reply. 

Ditto, p. xv. Letter to Father Fulgentio. See 
Montagu's Bacon, vol. xi. pref, p. vii. ; vol. xii. 
p. 205. 

Ditto, ditto. Spenser's Faery Queene, $~c. See 
preface to Moxon's Spenser (1850), p. xxix., where 
this story is refuted, and Montagu, xvi., note x. 

Ditto, p. xvi. " It was like another man's fair 
ground," &c. Sec Montagu, xvi. p. xxvii. 

Ditto, ditto. " I shall die," &c. Ditto, xxxiv. 
and note ww. 

Ditto, p. xvii. note f . Dugald Stewart. Sup- 
plement to Encycl. Brit., vol. i. p. 54. [ed. 1 824.] 

Ditto, ditto. Hatton, not Button, as in Eliza 
CooKs Journal, vi. 235. 

Ditto, ditto. Love an ignoble passion. Essay x. 
ad init. 

Ditto, p. xviii. " Says Macaulay." Review of 
B. Montagu's Bacon Essays, p. 355. [ed. 1851.] 

Ditto, ditto. A pamphlet. Montagu, vi. 299. 

Ditto, p. xix. " A place in the Canticles." 
Cap. ii. 1. Bacon quotes, from memory it would 
appear, from the Vulgate, which has " Ego flos 
campi." By whom is the observation ? See, for 
the story, Montagu, xvi. p. xcviii. 

Ditto, ditto. " Books were announced." What ? 

Ditto, p. xx. " Cassar's compliment to Cicero." 
Where recorded ? 

Ditto, p. xxi. " The manufacture of particular 
articles of trade." Montagu, xvi. 306. 

Ditto, p. xxii. " Says Macaulay." Ut supra, 
p. 407. 

Ditto, ditto. Ben Jonson. See Underwood's, 
Ixix. Ixxviii. [pp. 711, 713. ed. Moxon, 1851.] 

Ditto, p. xxv. Marcus Lucius. Who is here 
alluded to ? 

Ditto, p. xxvii. "Which strangely parodies." 
The opening alluded to is " Franciscus de Veru- 
lain sic cogitavit." 

Ditto, p. xxviii. " One solitary line." Where 
is this to be found ? 

Ditto, ditto. " Ben Jonson after sketching." 
See Discoveries, p. 749. ut sup. 

Ditto, p. xxix. "Might have censured with 
Hume." Where ? 

Ditto, ditto. " Hobbes." Where does he 
praise Bacon? 

Ditto, ditto. "Bayle." In Bayle's Dictionary 
[English edition, 1710], s. v., we find but four- 
teen lines on Bacon. 

Ditto, ditto. " Tacitus." Vit. Agric., cap. 44. 

Ditto, p. xxxiii. note. Solomon's House. See 
p. 296. seqq. of the vol. of the Standard Library. 

Ditto, p. xxxiv. note. Paterculus, i. 17. 6. 

(To be continued.) 


26. Hill's Road, Cambridge. 


I send you two copies of Latin verses which 
have not, to my knowledge, appeared in print. 
They are however interesting, from the coinci- 
dence of their both relating to elm-trees, and in 
some measure belonging to the " Story of Water- 
loo," about which we never can hear too much. 
The lines themselves possess considerable merit; 
and, as their authors were respectively distin- 
guished alumni of Eton and Winchester, I hope to 
see both compositions placed in juxtaposition in 
the columns of " N. & Q." 

The first of these productions was written by 
Marquis Wellesley, as an inscription for a chair 
carved from the Wellington Elm (which stood near 
the centre of the British lines on the field of 
Waterloo), and presented to his Majesty King 
George IV., to whom the lines were addressed : 

Ampla inter spolia, et magni decora alta triumphi, 

Ulmus erit fastis commemoranda tuis, 
Quarn super exoriens fausta tibi gloria penna 

Palmam oleamque uno detulit alma die ; 
Inimortale decus maneat, famaque perenni 

Felicique geras sceptra paterna manu ; 
Et tua victrices dum cingunt tempora lauri, 

Materies solio digna sit ista tuo. 

For the other verses subjoined, we are indebted 
to the late Rev. William Crowe, Fellow of New 
College, Oxford, and many years public orator in 
that university. It seems that he had planted an 
elm at his parsonage, on the birth of his son, after- 
wards killed at Waterloo, which sad event was 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 


commemorated by his afflicted father in the fol- 
lowing touching monody, affixed to the same tree : 

Hanc Ego quarn felix annis melioribus Ulmum 
Ipse rnanu sevi, tibi dilectissime Fill 
Consecro in aeternum, Gulielme vocabitur Arbos 
Haec tua, servabitque tuum per secula nomen. 
Te generose Puer nil muneris hujus egentem 
Te jam perfunctum vitas bellique labore, 
Adscripsit Deus, et coelestibus intulit oris, 
Me tamen afflictum, me consolabitur aegrum 
Hoc tibi quod pono, quanquam leve pignus amoris, 
Hie Ego de vita meditans, de sorte futura, 
Ssepe tuam recolam formam, dulcemque loquelam, 
Verbaque tarn puro et sacrato foute profecta, 
Quam festiva quidem, et facili condita lepore. 
At Te, qui nostris quicunque accesseris hospes 
Sedibus, unum oro, moesti reverere Parentis, 
Nee tu sperne preces quas hac super Arbore fundo. 
Sit tibi non invisa, sit inviolata securi, 
Et quantum natura sinet, crescat monumentum 
Egregii Juvenis, qui saevo est Marte peremptus, 
Fortiter ob patriam pugnando, sic tibi constans 
Stet fortuna domus, sit nulli obnoxia damno, 
Nee videas unquam dilecti funera nati. 



The letter which sir Henry Wotton addressed 
to Milton, on receiving the Masks presented at 
Ludlow-castle, appears to admit of an interpreta- 
tion which has escaped the numerous editors of 
the works of Milton ; and I resolve to put this 
novel conjecture on its trial in the critical court of 
facts and inferences held at No. 186. Fleet Street. 

Sir Henry Wotton thus expresses himself on 
the circumstance which I conceive to have been 
misinterpreted : 

" For the work itself [a dainty piece of entertain- 
ment, by Milton] I had viewed some good while before 
with singular delight, having received it from our 
common friend Mr. R. in the very close of the late 
R.'s Poems, printed at Oxford ; whereunto [it] is added 
(as I now suppose) that the accessory might help out 
the principal, according to the art of stationers, and to 
leave the reader con la bocca dolce." ReliquLv Wot- 
tonianee, 1672. 

In the poems of Milton, as edited by himself in 
1645, the date of this letter is "13th April, 1638 ;" 
and as the Poems of " Thomas Randolph, master 
of arts, and late fellow of Trinity colledge in Cam- ' 
bridge," were printed at Oxford in that year, in 1 
small quarto, it may be assumed that the gift of : 
Mr. R. was a copy of that Tolume, with the addi- ' 
tion of the Maske, as printed in the same size in 
1637. Such was the conclusion of Warton, and 
such is mine. The question at issue is, Who was 
Mr f R. ? Warton says, " I believe Mr. R. to be 
John Rouse," the keeper of the Bodleian library. 

Is it not more probable that Mr. R. means Robert 
Randolph, master of arts, and student of Christ- 
church a younger brother of Thomas Randolph, 
and the editor of his poems ? 

I must first dispose of the assertion that the 
friendship between Rouse and Milton " appears to 
have subsisted in 1637." There is no evidence of 
their friendship till 1647 ; and that evidence is the 
ode to Rouse, to which this address is prefixed : 
"Jan. 23. 1646. Ad Joannem Rousium, Oxonien- 
sis academiae bibliothecarium. De libro poematum 
amisso, quern ille sibl denuo mitti postidabat, ut cum 
aliis nostris in bibliotheca publica reponeret, ode." 
It seems that Milton did not send the volume of 
1645 till a copy of it had been requested ; no evi- 
dence, certainly, of old friendship ! I admit the 
probability that Wotton and Rouse were friends ; 
but why should Rouse officiously stitch up, as 
Warton expresses it, the Mask of Milton with the 
Poems of Thomas Randolph, and present the 
volume to Wotton ? Hfid he give away that which 
is still wanting in the'-'Bodleian library? 

Admit my novel conjecture, and all the diffi- 
culties vanish. Thomas Randolph, says Phillips, 
was " one of the most pregnant young wits of his 
time ; " and Robert, who was also noted as a poet, 
could scarcely fail to offer the poems of his brother 
to so eminent a person as sir Henry Wotton. As 
sir Henry yearly went to Oxford, he may have 
made acquaintance with Robert ; and Robert may 
have been introduced to Milton by Thomas, who 
was for eight years his cotemporary at Cambridge, 
and in the enjoyment of much more celebrity. 
The Maske may have been added as an experi- 
ment in criticism. 

The rev. Thomas Warton was a man of exten- 
sive reading, an excellent critic, and a fascinating 
writer but too often inattentive to accuracy of 
statement. He says that Randolph died the 17th 
March, 1634 : Wood says he was buried the 17th 
March, 1634. He says it is so stated on his monu- 
ment : the monument has no date. He says the 
Poems of Randolph contain 114 pages: the volume 
contains 368 pages ! He says the Maske is a slight 

Juarto of 30 pages only : it contains 40 pages ! 
3 it not fit that such carelessness should be ex- 

posed ? 



Unlucky to sell Eggs after Sunset. The follow- 
ing paragraph is extracted from the Stamford 
Mercury of October 29, 1852 : 

" There exists a species of superstition in north Not- 
tinghamshire against letting eggs go out of a house 
after sunset. The other day a person in want of some 
eggs called at a farm-house in East Markhani, and 
inquired of the good woman of the house whether she 
had any eggs to sell, to which she replied that she had 
a few scores to dispose of. ' Then I'll take them home 



[No. 166. 

with me in the cart,' was his answer ; to which she 
somewhat indignantly replied, ' That you'll not ; don't 
you know the sun has gone down ? You are welcome 
to the eggs at a proper hour of the day ; but I would 
not let them go out of the house after the sun is set on 
any consideration whatever ! ' " 


Old Song. 

My father gave me an acre of land, 

Sing ivy, sing ivy. 
My father gave me an acre of land, 

Sing green bush, holly, and ivy. 
I plough'd it with a ram's horn, 

Sing ivy, &c. 
I harrow'd it with a bramble, 

Sing ivy, &c. 
I sow'd it with a peppercorn, 

Sing ivy, &c. 
I reap'd it with my penknife, 

Sing ivy, &c. 
I carried it to the mill upon the cat's back, 

Sing ivy, &c. 

Then follows some more which I forget, but I 
think it ends thus : 

I made a cake for all the king's men, 

Sing ivy, sing ivy. 
I made a cake for all the king's men, 

Sing green bush, hollv, and ivy. 


Nursery Tale. I saddled my sow with a sieve 
full of buttermilk, put my foot into the stirrup, 
and leaped nine miles beyond the moon into the 
land of temperance, where there was nothing but 
hammers and hatchets and candlesticks, and there 
lay bleeding Old Noles. I let him lie, and sent 
for Old Hippernoles, and asked him if he could 
grind green steel nine times finer than wheat 
flour. He said he could not. Gregory's wife was 
up in the pear-tree gathering nine corns of but- 
tered peas to pay Saint James' rent. Saint James 
was in the meadow mowing oat cakes ; he heard a 
noise, hung his scythe at his heels, stumbled at 
the battledore, tumbled over the barn-door ridge, 
and broke his shins against a bag of moonshine 
that stood behind the stairsfoot door, and if that 
isn't true you know as well as I. D. 

Legend of Change. In one of the Magazines for 
November, a legend, stated to be of oriental origin, 
is given, in which an immortal, visiting at distant 
intervals the same spot, finds it occupied by a city, 
an ocean, a forest, and a city again : the mortals 
whom he found there, on each occasion, believing 
that the present state had existed for ever. I have 
seen in the newspapers, at different times, a poem 
(or I rather think two poems) founded on this 
legend ; and I should like to know the author or 
authors, and whether it, or either of them, is to be 
found in any collection of poems. D. X. 


" Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, 
Unhousell'd, disappointed, unanel'd." 

Hamkt, Act I. Sc. 5. 

Boucher, in his Glossary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words (art. ANYEAL), has a note on this 
passage which seems to me to give so much better 
an idea of the word disappointed than any I have 
met with, that I am induced to send it you as a 
Note : 

" The last two words have occasioned considerable 
difficulty to the critics. The old copies, it is said, 
concur in giving disappointed, which Dr. Johnson is 
willing to understand as meaning unprepared; a sense 
that might very well suit the context, but will not 
be easily confirmed by any other instance of the use of 
the word disappointed. Dissatisfied, therefore, with 
this interpretation, some have read unanointed, and 
some unappointed. Not approving of either of these 
words, as connected with unanealed, Pope, no timid 
corrector of texts, reads ununeld, which he supposes to 
signify unknelled, or the having no knell rung. To these 
emendations and interpretations Mr. Theobald, whose 
merit as a commentator on Shakspeare Mr. Pope, with 
all his wit and all his poetry, could not bring into dis- 
pute, urged many strong objections. Skinner rightly 
explains anealed as meaning vnctus ; from the Teu- 
tonic preposition an, and ele, oil. As correction of the 
second word is admitted by all the commentators to 
be necessary, it is suggested that a clear and consistent 
meaning, consonant with Shakspeare's manner, will be 
given to the passage, if, instead of disappointed, unas- 
soiled, which signifies ' without absolution,' be sub- 

" The line 

' Unhousell'd, unassoil'd, unaneal'd," 

will then signify ' without receiving the sacrament: 
without confession and absolution: and without ex- 
treme unction." 

" That unassoiled was no less proper, will appear 
from due attention to the word assoile, which of course 
is derived from absolvo ; and the transition from absolve 
into assoyle is demonstrated in the following passage 
from Piers Plowman, Vision, p. 3. : 

' There preached a pardoner, as he a priest were, 
Brought forth a bul, with many a bishop's scales, 
And saide, that himself might absoyle hem alle, 
Of falshode, of fasting, and of vowes broken.' 

As a further confirmation of the propriety of substi- 
tuting a word signifying absolution, which pre-supposes 
confession, the following sentence from Prince Arthur 
may be adduced : ' She was confessed and honselled, 
and then she died,' part ii. p. 108. 

" It must be allowed that no instance can be given of 
the word unassoiled: but neither does any other instance 
occur to me of the word unhouscled except the line in 

B. J. S. 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 




The recent observations of your correspondent 
MR. NOAKE (Vol. vi., p. 531.) on the superstitions 
of the people of Worcestershire regarding the 
weather, have called my attention to the present 
extraordinary wet season, on which subject I have 
been asked many questions. Although I do not 
account myself any more weatherwise than my 
neighbours, yet I may note that, for many years 
past, I have remarked that whenever we have had 
any very serious volcanic disturbance in the Medi- 
terranean or its neighbourhood, or at Mount Heel a, 
we have always had some corresponding atmo- 
spheric agitation in this country, either in exces- 
sive heat or moisture, or both, and accompanied 
with very perceptible vibrations, at times so strong 
as to answer the name of earthquakes ; and these 
vibrating so generally in the direction from north- 
west to south-east, I have been convinced that 
underneath us there is a regular steam passage 
from Mount Hecla in Iceland to Mount Vesuvius 
in Italy. I have unfortunately mislaid my memo- 
randa on this subject, and have no regular roster 
of these occasional visitations to refer to, but. I 
think my attention to this effect was first impressed 
on me by the season which followed the destruc- 
tion at Lisbon in 1796. I recollect a friend of 
mine, the late Mr. Empson, of Bouley, while 
attending some drainage improvements in his carrs 
within the Level of Ancholme, was aroused by an 
extraordinary noise, which he thought was occa- 
sioned by some " drunken fools," as he called them, 
racing with their waggons upon the turnpike road 
above the hill, which was two miles off from where 
he then was in the carrs. His uphill shepherd, 
however, told him, when he got home, that there 
had been no such occurrence as he supposed on 
the turnpike, as, had such been the case, he must 
have heard and seen it. The next day, however, 
added fresh information, and better observers dis- 
covered that the noise heard across the carrs was 
underground ; and further intelligence confirmed 
the suspicion that it was occasioned by a species 
of earthquake that had been felt at different places 
with different intensities, through Yorkshire and 
Lancashire, and amongst the islands west of Scot- 
land ; and afterwards came the same kind of in- 
telligence across France, confirming me in my con- 
clusions before noted. And ever since this period 
of 1796 we have never had any extraordinary al- 
ternation of extreme heat or wet, without its being 
to me the result of some accompanying volcanic 
agitation in Mount Hecla, or Mount Vesuvius or 
its neighbourhood ; and the recurrence of the 
violent ebullition that has this year being going 
on at Mount Etna may therefore be considered as 
the electric cause not only of the extraordinary 
heat of our late summer, but also of the floods that 
have subsequently poured down upon us. It is 

only of late years that scientific men have paid 
due attention to these physical phenomena. Sir 
Humphrey Davy, I think, was the first who laid 
down their causes ; and if we recollect the account 
given by Sir Stamford Raffles of the appalling 
effects of the tremendous explosion of Tombora, 
in Sambowa, one of the islands east of Java, in the 
year 1815, described as so violent in its immediate 
neighbourhood as to cause men, and horses, and 
trees to be taken up into the air like chaff; and of 
its effects being perceptible in Sumatra, where, 
nearly at a thousand miles distance from it, they 
heard its thundering noisy explosions, thinking 
of this, we may well accede the comparatively 
small vibrations that we occasionally feel, as aris- 
ing from the interchange of civilities passing be- 
tween our volcanic neighbours Hecla and Vesu- 
vius, or Etna ; and glad we may be that we have 
them in no more inconvenient shape or degree 
than we have hitherto experienced them. I have 
some friends in Lancashire who have been a good 
deal alarmed by the vibrations they have lately 
experienced ; and I must confess that my good 
wife and myself were, on the morning of the 10th 
Dec., not a little startled in our bed by a shock 
that aroused us early to inquire after the cause of 
it, but for which we cannot account otherwise than 
that, from its sudden electric character, the Lan- 
cashire vibration had reached us. The chief pur- 
port, however, of my present communication is, to 
make inquiry amongst your readers, whether any 
of them, like myself, have observed and expe- 
rienced any recurrence of these concomitant and 
physical obtrusions. WM. S. HESLEDON. 

Barton upon Humber. 

Value of MSS. In the cause of Calvert . 
Sebright, a question arose as to the sale of a collec- 
tion of manuscript books by the late Sir John 
Sebright in the year 1807. In aid of the inquiry 
before the Master, as to the difference in value of 
the manuscripts in 1807 and the year 1849, Mr. 
Rodd made an affidavit, from which I have made 
the following extract, showing the prices at which 
five lots were sold in 1807, and the prices at which 
the same lots were sold at the late Mr. Heber's sale 
in 1836 : 

"No. in Catalogue, 1 185. Bracton de(Hen.) Con- 
suetudinibus et Legibus Anglicie. (In pergamena) 
literis deauratis. Sold in 1807 for 17. 13s. : produced 
at Heber's sale, 1836, 61. 6s. 

"Lot 1190. Gul. Malmesburiensis de Gestis Regum 
Anglorum. (In pergamena.) Sold in 1807 for 11. 7s. : 
produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 63 /. 

"Lot 1195. Chronica Gulielmi Thorn. (In mem- 
branis.) Sold in 1807 for 12*. : produced at Heber's 
sale, 1836, 85/. 



[No. 166. 

" Lot 1 1 98. Henrici Archid. Huntindoniensis de 
Gestis Anglorum et Gyr. Cambriensis expugnatio 
Hiberniae. (In pergamena.) Sold in 1807 for 21. ] j. : 
produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 78Z. 15*. 6d. 

"Lot 1206. Chronica Matt. Parisensis sine Historia 
Minor cum vita authoris, per Doctissimnm Virum 
Rog. Twysden Bar. (In papyro.) Sold in 1807 for 
21. 8s. : produced at Heber's sale, 1836, 51. 15s. 6d. 
Total produce in 1807, 81 Is. : in 1836, 2387. 17s." 

In the catalogue of Heber's books, &c., Nos. 447- 
1006. 498. 118. and 1016. correspond with the 
Nos. 1185. 1190. 1195. 1198. 1206. F. W. J. 

Robert Hill. I possess a Latin Bible which 
formerly belonged to this person, and contains 
many MS. notes in his handwriting. The follow- 
ing is by another hand : 

" This book formerly belonged to Mr. Robert Hill, 
a taylor of Buckingham, and an acquaintance of my 
cousin John Herbert, surgeon of that town. J. L." 

" In literature we find of this profession (i. e. that 
of a taylor) Jobn Speed, a native of Cheshire, whose 
merit as an historian and antiquary are indisputable 
to whom may be added the name of a man who in 
literature ought to have taken the lead, we mean John 
Stow. Benjamin Robins, the compiler of Lord Anson's 
Voyage, who united the powers of the sword and the 
pen, was professionally a taylor of Bath ; as was Robert 
Hill of Buckingham, who, in the midst of poverty and 
distress, while obliged to labour at his trade for the 
support of a large family, acquired a knowledge of the 
Hebrew, and other language*, such as has only been 
equalled by Magliabecchi, who studied in a cradle 
curtained by cobwebs and colonised by spiders." See 
"Vestiges Revived," No. XX. European Mag. for Mar. 

The above choice note is, I presume, an extract 
from the Europ. Mag., and may serve to show that 
although ordinarily it takes " nine tailors to make 
a man," it may occasionally require nine men to 
make such a tailor as R. Hill seems to have been. 

B. H. C. 

English Orthography. The agricultural news- 
papers and magazines in the United States have 
generally restored the spelling of plow in place of 
plough, which has crept in since the translation of 
the Bible into English. 

Could not cloke, the old spelling, be also restored, 
in place of cloak, which has nothing but oak to 
keep it in countenance ; whilst cloke is in analogy 
with smoke, spoke, broke, &c. ? 

There are two English words, in pronouncing 
which not a single letter of them is sounded; 
namely, ewe (yo !) and aye (I ! ) UNEDA. 


Bookselling in Glasgow in 1735. The following 
curious report of a law case appears in Morison's 
Dictionary of the Decisions of the Court of Session, 
p. 9455. It appears from, it that, so late as 1735, 

the city of Glasgow, now containing a population 
of nearly 400,000, was considered too limited a 
sphere for the support of only two booksellers. 

"1735, January 15. Stalker against Carmichael. 
Carmichael and Stalker entered into a co-partnery of 
bookselling within the City of Glasgow, to continue 
for three years ;, and because the place was judged too 
narrow for two booksellers at a time, it was stipulated 
that after the expiry of three years, either of them re- 
fusing to enter into a new contract upon the former 
terms, should be debarred from any concern in book- 
selling within the city of Glasgow. In a reduction of 
the contract, the Lords found the debarring clause in 
the contract is a lawful practice, and not contrary to 
the liberty of the subject." 



Epitaph on a Sexton. Epitaph on a sexton, 
who received a great blow by the clapper of a bell : 

" Here lyeth the body of honest John Capper, 
Who lived by the bell, and died by the clapper." 

Answer to the foregoing : 

" I am not dead indeed, but have good hope, 
To live by the bell when you die bv the rope." 



With the siege of Calais, and its surrender td 
Edward III. in 1347, is associated the name of 
Eustache de St. Pierre, whose loyalty and devoted- 
ness have been immortalised by the historian, and 
commemorated by the artist's pencil. The subject 
of Queen Philippa's intercessions on behalf of 
Eustache and his brave companions is, no doubt, 
familiar to most of your readers : the stern de- 
meanour of the king ; the tears and supplicating 
| attitude of the Queen Philippa ; and the humili- 
ating position of the burgesses of Calais, &c. But 
what if Eustache de St. Pierre had been bought 
over by King Edward? For without going the 
length of pronouncing the scenes of the worthy 
citizens, with halters round their necks, to have 
been a "got up" affair, there is, however, some 
reason to doubt whether the boasted loyalty of 
Eustache de St. Pierre was such as is represented, 
as will appear from the following notes. And 
however much the statements therein contained 
may detract from the cherished popular notions 
regarding Eustache de St. Pierre, yet the seeker 
after truth is inexorable, or, to use the words of 
Sir Francis Palgrave (Hist, of Norm, and Eng., 
i. 354.), he is expected " to uncramp or shatter 
the pedestals supporting the idols which have won 
the false worship of the multitude ; so that they 
may nod in their niches, or topple down." 

In one of the volumes forming part of that 
valuable collection published by the French go- 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



vernment, and commenced, I believe, under the 
auspices of M. Guizot, namely, the Documens ine- 
dits sur VHistoire de France, the following passage 
attracted my notice : 

"II (M. de Brequigny) a prouve par des titres 
authentiques et inconnus jusqu'a present, qu'Eustache 
de St. Pierre, dont on a si fort vante le devouement 
pour les habitans de Calais, fut seduit par Edouard, et 
qu'il recut de ce prince des pensions et des possessions 
fort peu de temps apres la prise de cette place, aux 
conditions d'y maintenir le bon ordre, et de la conserver 
a 1'Angleterre." See Lettres de Rois, Sfc., vol. i. Pre- 
face, p. cix. 

The above statement is founded on a memoir 
read before the Academic des Belles-Lettres by 
M. de Brequigny, respecting the researches made 
by him in London (see Mem. de EAcad. des Belles- 
Lettres, torn, xxxvii.). 

Lingard throws a doubt over the matter. He 
says : 

" Froissart has dramatised this incident with con- 
siderable effect ; but, I fear, with little attention to 
truth . . . Even in Froissart there is nothing to prove 
that Edward designed to put these men to death. On 
the contrary, he takes notice that the King's refusal of 
mercy was accompanied with a wink to his attendants, 
which, if it meant anything, must have meant that he 
was not acting seriously." Lingard, 3rd edit. 1825, 
vol. iv. p. 79., note 85. 

Again, in Hume : 

" The story of the six burgesses of Calais, like all 
extraordinary stories, is somewhat to be suspected ; and 
so much the more, as Avesbury, who is particular in 
his narrative of the surrender of Calais, says nothing of 
it, and, on the contrary, extols in general the King's 
generosity and lenity to the inhabitants." Hume, 8vo. 
1807, vol. ii., note H. 

Both Hume and Lingard mention that Edward 
expelled the natives of Calais, and repeopled the 
place with Englishmen ; but they say nothing as 
to Eustache de St. Pierre becoming a pensioner of 
the King's " aux conditions d'y maintenir le bon 
ordre, et de la conserver a 1'Angleterre." 

Chateaubriand (Etudes Hist, 1831, 8vo., tome 
iv. p. 104.) gives Froissart's narrative, by which 
he abides, at the same time complaining of the 
"esprit de denigrement" which he says prevailed 
towards the end of the last century in regard to 
heroic actions. 

Regarding Q.ueen Philippa's share in the trans- 
action above referred to, M. de Brequigny says : 

" La reine, qu'on suppose avoir ete si touchee du 
malheur des six bourgeois dont elle venait de sauver la 
vie, ne laissa pas d'obtenir, peu de jours apres, la con- 
fiscation des maisons que Jean d'Acre, 1'un d'eux, avail 
possedees dans Calais." 

Miss Strickland (Lives of Queens, 1st edit., vol.ii. 
p. 336.) likewise gives the story as related by 
Froissart, but mentions the fact of Queen Philippa 

taking possession of Jean d' Acre's property, and 
the doubt cast upon Eustache's loyalty ; but she 
would appear to justify him by reason of King 
Philip's abandoning the brave Calaisiens to their 
fate. However this may be, documents exist 
proving that the inhabitants of Calais were in- 
demnified for their losses ; and whether or not the 
family of Eustache de St. Pierre approved his 
conduct, so much is certain, that, on the death of 
the latter, the property which had been granted 
to him by King Edward was confiscated, because 
they would not acknowledge their allegiance to 
the English. 

I wish to ask whether this new light thrown on 
the subject, through M. de Brequigny' s labours, 
has been hitherto noticed, for it would appear the 
story should be re-written. PHILIP S. KINOK 


I will put the following case as briefly as I can. 

Throughout the mediaeval ages, the word devise 
formed the generic term for every species of em- 
blazonment. Thus we have " Devises Heroiques, 
par Claude Paradin, Lyons, 1557;" "Devises et 
Emblems d 1 Amour moralises, par Flamen ; " " The 
Paradise of Dainty Devices, 1576;" ''Minerva 
Britannica, or a Garden of Heroical Devices fur- 
nished and adorned with Emblems and Impresses 
of Sundry Natives, newly devised, moralised, and 
published by Henry Peachum, 1612 ;" and lastly, 
Henry Estienne's " discourse of hieroglyphs, sym- 
bols, gryphs, emblems, enigmas, sentences, para- 
bles, reverses of medals, arms, blazons, cimiers, 
cyphers, and rebus," which learned discourse, be 
it observed, is entitled The Art of making Devises, 
1646. As an additional proof that device included 
the motto, take the following : 

" Henry III. commanded to be written by way of 
device in his chamber at Woodstock, ' Qui non dat 
quod amat non aecipit ille quod optat ;' " 

quoted by Sir Eger. Brydges. Here I must stop, 
though I could add many illustrations ; and go on 
to observe, that whereas all the explanations which 
I have ever met with, of the unique appellation of 
" Castrum Divisarum," or the castle of Devises, are 
totally un-historic, if not ridiculous, I crave the 
attention of all whom it may concern to a new 
solution of the difficulty. 

First, then, in order to clear the way, I would 
observe, that if, as commonly stated, the name 
had signified a frontier fort, would it not have 
been called the castle of the division [singular] 
rather than the castle of the divided districts ? 
In other words, why make it a plural term ? 

Secondly. If, as I surmise, the Italian word 
divisa bore at the time of the Conquest its present 
meaning of " device," in greater force than the 



[No. 166. 

sense of divisions or partitions, is it unreasonable 
to suppose that Castrum Divisarum implied and 
constituted, at that early period, the deposit or 
fountain-head of the blazonry of the Norman 
leaders ? 

It was certainly not unsuited for such a species 
of heralds' college ; being central, inland, a royal 
treasury, and the frequent scene of a court. When 
in the ensuing age re-edified by Bishop Roger, 
the monkish historians, without a dissentient voice, 
proclaimed it the most splendid castle in the realm ; 
nnd though it may be objected that this observa- 
tion belongs to a date not to our purpose, yet the 
pre-existence of the fortress is proved by its 
having been the temporary prison of Duke Robert. 
I am aware that such a notion as Devizes having 
formed the nucleus of the tree heraldic in England 
is not countenanced, nor even suspected, by any of 
the popular writers on the art. I may add, that 
one gentleman, holding an important position 
therein, has signified his disapproval of so early an 
origin being assigned to the institution. But over- 
against this, I beg to parade a passage from a 
letter written by Thomas Blore in 1806 to Sir 
Egerton Brydges : 

" The heralds," says he, " seem originally not to have 
been instituted for the manufacturing of armorial en- 
signs, but for the recording those ensigns which had 
been borne." Censura Literaria, vol. iii. p. 254. 

My case is now stated. I shall be well content 
that some of your archaeological friends should 
scatter it to the winds, provided they will explain 
how it is that Devizes, in common with some of 
the ancient cities of Egypt and Greece, has so long 
rejoiced in a plural name. To aid this last endea- 
vour, I close with one more statement. The cattle 
stood nearly midway between two other adjoining 
towns or villa?, also bearing plural names : Pot- 
ternse=arum [Posternae ?] and Kan ingse= arum. 


P. S. I think I may plead the privilege of a 
postscript for the purpose of recording (what may 
be taken as) an indication, though perhaps not a 
proof, that the idea of devices or contrivances was 
implied in the name so recently as the period of 
the civil war. The Mercurius Civicus, a parlia- 
mentary paper, 1644, states that Devizes was being 
garrisoned for the king, in the following terms : 

" Hopton is fortifying amain at the Devises in Wilt- 
shire, but I fear greater fortifyings from the Devices in 


Gold Signet Ring. I possess an ancient gold 
signet ring, which was dug up a few years since 
not far from an old entrenchment in the borough 
of Leominster, in the county of Hereford, the de- 
vice thereon being a cock ; it is of very pure metal, 

and weighs 155 grains. It is in fine preservation : 
the device is rudely cut, but I beg to inclose an 
impression from which you may judge. Can any 
of your antiquarian readers throw any light on the 
subject to whom this device originally belonged ? 

In levelling the fortified entrenchment above 
referred to some half century ago, various utensils 
of pottery, burnt bones, spear and arrow heads, 
tesselated tiles, fragments of sculptured stones, 
and other relics of antiquity, were found. 


Ecclesia Anglicana. I observe, in an interesting 
letter published in the December Number of the 
Ecclesiologist, in an enumeration of Service Books 
belonging to the English Church before the Re- 
formation, and now existing in the Pepysian Li- 
brary, Cambridge, the following title : 

"No. 1198. Servicium de omni Officio Episcopali 
consernenta (sic) chorum .... secundum usum Ec- 
clesie Anglicane." 

Now I am anxious to know from any of your 
readers, who are better informed on these subjects 
than I am, or who have access to old libraries, 
whether Ecclesia Anglicana is a usual designation 
of the Catholic Church in England before the 

Service Books according to the use of some 
particular cathedral church are of course well 
known, as in this same list to which I have re- 
ferred we find " secundum usum insignis ecclesie 
Eboracensis," " ad insignis ecclesise Sarisburiensis 
usum," &c. : but I should be glad to learn, in these 
days of ultramontane pretensions, whether, even 
prior to the Reformation, the distinct nationality 
of the Anglican church was commonly asserted by 
the use of such a title in her Service Books. I 
need scarcely observe how many interesting cog- 
nate questions might be asked on this subject. 

G. R. M. 

Tangiers. English Army in 1684. A mer- 
chant in 1709 deposed that he knew not how long 
complainant had been a soldier, or beyond the 
seas before May, 1697, but that he has heretofore 
seen and knew him at Tomger, before and at the 
time of the demolishing thereof, being then a 
soldier ; and no doubt could prove that he was in 
England a considerable time next before May, 

Could the place be other than Tangiers, de- 
stroyed in 1684? 

Was complainant (a younger son of a well-con- 
nected family of gentry, but himself probably in 
poverty), who in deeds, and on his mon. tablet, is 
described as gent., likely to have been in 1684 
(aged twenty-seven) a private, a non-commis- 
sioned, or commissioned officer ? 

If the latter, would he not have been so de- 
scribed ? A. C. 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



Smith. Of what family was Smith, con- 
fessor of Katherine of Braganza, buried in York 
Minster ? and what are the arms on his tomb ? 
Where can information be obtained as to a Judge 
Smith, supposed to have been of the same family ? 

A. F. B. 


Termination " -itis." What is the derivation of 
the termination " -itis," used principally in medical 
words, and these signifying inflammation, as Pleu- 
ritis, vulgo pleurisy, inflammation of the pleura, 
&c. ? ADSUM. 

Look Hen. In two or more parishes in Nor- 
folk was a custom, or modus, of paying a look hen 
in lieu of tythes of fowls and eggs. I shall feel 
obliged to any of your correspondents who can 
inform me what constituted a look hen ? G. J. 

Etymological Traces of the Social Position of our 
Ancestors. I remember reading an account of the 
traces of the social position of our Saxon ancestors 
yet remaining in our English custom?, which in- 
terested me much at the time, and which I would 
gladly again refer to, as, Captain Cuttle's invalu- 
able maxim not being then extant, I neglected 
" making a note of it." 

It described the Norman derivation of the names 
of all kinds of meat, as beef, mutton, veal, venison, 
&c. ; while the corresponding animals still retained 
their original Saxon appellations, ox, sheep, calf, 
&c. : and it accounted for this by the fact, that ! 
while the animals were under the care of the Saxon 
thralls and herdsmen, they retained of course their 
Saxon names ; but when served up at the tables 
of their Norman lords, it became necessary to j 
name them afresh. 

I think the word heronsewes (cf. Vol. iii., pp.450, j 
207. ; Vol. iv., p. 76.) is another example, which : 
are called harnseys at this day in Norfolk ; as it is ! 
difficult, on any other supposition, to account for , 
an East- Anglian giving a French appellation to so j 
common a bird as the heron. E. S. TAYLOR. 

Locke s Writings. In an unpublished manu- 
script of Paley's Lectures on Locke's Essay, it is 
stated that so great was the antipathy against the 
writings of this eminent philosopher, at the time 
they were first issued, that they were " burnt at 
Oxford by the hands of the common hangman." 
Is this fact recorded in any Life of Locke ; or how 
may it be ascertained ? There is no notice of it, 
I believe, in either Law's Life, or in that of Lord 

East Winch. 

Passage in Gothe's " Faust." Has the following 
pnssnge from the second part of Faust ever been 
noticed in connexion with the fact that the clock 
in Gothe's chamber stopped at the moment that 

VOL. VII. No. 106. 

he himself expired ? If it has not, I shall con- 
gratulate myself on having been the first to point 
out this very curious coincidence : 

" Mephistophehs. Die Zeit wird Herr, der Gries bier 
liegt im Sand, 

Die Uhr steht still 

Chorus. Steht still ! Sie schweigt wie 

Der Zeiger fallt. 

Mephistophdes. Er fallt, es ist vollbracht." 

Faust, der Tragb'die Zweiter Theil, Fiinfter Act. 


Schomberg's Epitaph by Swift. A correspon- 
dent asks whether the epitaph alluded to in 
the following extract from the Daily Courant of 
July 17, 1731, is given in any edition of Swift's 

" The Latin Inscription, composed by the Rev. Dr. 
Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, and ordered by the Dean 
and Chapter to be fixed up in the Cathedral of the said 
Church, over the place where the body of the great 
Duke of Schomberg lies, has been with all possible 
care and elegance engraved on a beautiful tahle of 
black Kilkenny marble, about eight feet long and four 
or five broad ; the letters are gilded, and the whole is 
now finished with the utmost neatness. People of all 
ranks are continually crowding to see it, and the In- 
scription is universally admired." 

The Daily Gazetteer of Saturday, July 12, 1740, 
gives a detailed account of the rejoicings in Dublin 
on the Tuesday preceding, being the anniversary of 
the battle of the Boyne, and a particular account of 
the bonfire made by Dean Swift in St. Kevin's 
Street, near the watch-house. E. 

The Burial Service said by Heart. Bishop 
Sprat (in his Discourse to his Clergy, 1695, for 
which see Clergyman's Instructor, 1827, p. 245.) 
relates that, immediately after the Restoration, a 
noted ringleader of schism in the former times was 
interred in one of the principal churches of 
London, and that the minister of the parish, being 
a wise and regular conformist, and afterwards an 
eminent bishop, delivered thewhole Office of Burial 
by heart on that occasion. The friends of the de- 
ceased were greatly edified at first, but afterwards 
much surprised and confounded when they found 
that their fervent admiration had been bestowed 
on a portion of the Common Prayer. Southey 
{Common-Place Book, iii. 492.) conjectures that 
the minister was Bull. This cannot be, for Bull, 
I believe, never held a London cure. Was it 
Hackett ? And who was the noted ringleader of 
schism ? J. K. 

Shaw's Staffordshire MSS. Can any of your 
Staffordshire correspondents furnish information 
as to the present depository of the Rev. Stebbing 
Shaw's Staffordshire MSS., and the MS. notes 
of Dr. Thomas Harwood used in his two editions 



[No. 166. 

of Erdeswick's Staffordshire ? And can they refer 
to a pedigree of Thomas Wood, Esq., Lord Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, 1501 ; who is said 
to have built Hall O'Wood, in Batterley, near 
Botley, Staffordshire. N. C. L. 

" Ne'er to these chambers," Sfc. 

" Ne'er to these chambers where the mighty rest 
Since their foundation, came a nobler guest, 
Nor to th' immortal entrance e'er convey'd 
A loftier spirit, or more welcome shade." 

Where do these lines come from ? ARAM. 


County History Societies. I would suggest the 
idea whether County History Societies might not 
be formed with advantage, as there are so many 
counties which have never had their histories 
written. They are very expensive and laborious 
for individuals to undertake, and constantly require 
additions on account of the many changes which 
are taking place, to make them complete as works 
of reference for the present time : I think that by 
the means suggested they might be made very 
useful, particularly if complete statistical tables 
were annexed to the general and descriptive ac- 
count. With comparatively little expense, the 
history and statistics of every county could be 
brought down to the latest date, making a valu- 
able work of reference to which all could refer with 
confidence for the information which is constantly 
being sought for. G. H. 

Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter. Is any 
pedigree extant of the family of Hugh Oldliam? 
Baines speaks of him (Hist, of Lane., vol. ii. p. 579.) 
as " descended from an ancient family," born, 
" according to Wood and Godwin, at Manchester ; 
but, according to Dodsvvorth, at Oldhani." 

What arms did he adopt ? J. B. 

The English Domestic Novel. My first inten- 
tion was to ask whether Defoe was the founder of 
this pleasing class of literature, but have just recol- 
lected, that Mrs. Aphara Behn wrote something of 
the kind in the time of Charles II. My first ques- 
tion will be, therefore, who was the earliest writer 
of this description ? And, secondly, is not the 
matter of sufficient interest to ask your readers' 
assistance in the formation of a list, giving full 
titles, authors' names, and dates extending to 1730 
or 1750? JOHN MILAND. 

Dr. Young. In the most authentic biographical 
accounts we have of Dr. Young the poet, it is 
stated that he left in the hands of his housekeeper 
a collection of manuscript sermons, with an in- 
junction that after his death they should be de- 
stroyed ; it is also added, that this request was 
only complied with in part. Can any of your cor- 
respondents confirm the hope that these sermons 

may still be in existence ; and if so, in what quar- 
ter information may be obtained concerning them ? 
The housekeeper is said to have been the widow 
of a clergyman, and therefore was not regarded 
by the Doctor in the light of a servant. J. H. 

Bishop HalVs Meditations. I have an old copy 
before me, the title-page of which runs as follows : 

" Occasional! Meditations by Jos. Exon. Set forth 
by II. H. The Third Edition: with the Addition of 
Forty-nine Meditations not heretofore published : 
London, printed by M. F. for Nathaniel Butter, 1G33." 

It is edited by Bishop Hall's son (Robert). I 
should be glad to learn whether this is a scarce 
edition. BOSOTICUS. 

Edgmond, Salop. 

Chatterton. Dr. Gregory, in his Life of Chat- 
terton, p. 100. (reprinted by Southey in the first 
volume of his edition of Chattel-ton's Works, 
p. Ixx.), says : " Chatterton, as appears by the 
coroner's inquest, swallowed arsenick in water, 
on the 24th of August, 1770, and died in conse- 
quence thereof the next day." 

Mr. Barrett, the historian of Bristol, one of 
Chatterton's best friends and patrons, who, from 
his profession as a surgeon, was likely to have 
made, and seems to have made, inquiries as to the 
circumstances of his death, says, in his History of 
Bristol, not published before 1789, and therefore 
not misled by any false first report, that Chatter- 
ton's principles impelled him to become his own 
executioner. He took a large dose of opium, some 
of which was picked out from his teeth after his 
death, and he was found, the next morning a most 
horrid spectacle : with limbs and features distorted 
as after convulsions, a frightful and ghastly corpse" 
(p. 647.). I do not know whether this contradic- 
tion has ever been noticed, and shall be obliged 
to any correspondent who can give me information. 
I believe that Sir Hei'bert Croft's Love and Mad- 
ness was the authority followed by Dr. Gregory, 
but I have not the book. N. B. 

Passage in Job. The wonderful and sublime 
book of Job, authenticated by subsequent Divine 
records, and about 3400 years old, is very probably 
the most ancient writing in the world : and though 
life and immortality were especially reserved as 
the glorious gift and revelation of our Blessed 
Redeemer, the eternal Author and Finisher of our 
salvation, yet Job was permitted to declare his 
deep conviction, that he should rise from the dead 
and see God. This memorable declaration (chap. 
xix. ver. 25.) can be forgotten by none of your 
readers ; but some of them may not know that the 
Septuagint adds these words of life to chap. xlii. 
ver. 17.: " yeypairrai, (Teaurbv TrdXtv avaffrrjffeffOni 
jue0' &v 6 Kvpios a.v((rTr\ffiv." (But it is written that 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



he shall rise again with those whom the Lord 
raiseth up.) 

Our authorised and truly admirable translation 
of the Holy Scriptures omits this deeply important 
conclusion of Job's life, so properly noticed by the 
learned and excellent Parkhurst. 

Pray, can you or any of your readers explain 
the cause of this omission ? As your pages have 
not been silent on the grand consummation which 
cannot be too constantly before us, I do not apolo- 
gise for this very short addition to your Notes. 


Southsea, Hants. 

Turner's View of Lambeth Palace. In a news- 
paper memoir of the late Mr. Turner, R.A., pub- 
lished shortly after his death, it was stated that the 
first work exhibited by him at Somerset House 
was a "View of Lambeth Palace," I believe in 
water colours. I should be glad to ascertain, 
through your columns, if this picture be still in 
existence, and in what collection. L. E. X. 

Clarke's Essay on the Usefulness of Mathema- 
tical Learning. Can any of the readers of " N. & 
Q." assist me in obtaining a copy of this work ? 
In the same author's Rationale of Circulating 
Numbers (Murray, London, 1778) it is stated that 
the demonstrations of all the theorems and problems 
at the end of the Rev. John Lawson's Dissertation 
on the Geometrical Analysis of the Ancients " will 
be given at the latter end of An Essay on the 
Usefulness of Mathematical Learning, which will 
soon be published." In a subsequent portion of 
the work, a sketch of the contents of the Essay 
is given, which include " a Treatise on Magic 
Squares, translated from the French of Frenicle, 
as published in Les Ouvrages de Mathematique par 
Messieurs de V Academic lloyale des Sciences, with 
several Additions and Remarks." And in a list of 
" Tracts and Translations written and published by 
H. Clarke, LL.D.," which occurs at the end of my 
copy of the first volume of Leybourn's Mathema- 
tical Repository (London, 1805), the Essay appears 
as No. 10, and is stated to have been published in 
8vo. at six shillings. None of my friends are 
acquainted with the work ; but if the preceding 
description will enable any reader to help me to a 
copy, I shall esteem it a great favour. 


Burnley, Lancashire. 

" The General Pardon." An imperfect copy of 
a small tract (measuring five and a half inches by 
three and a half inches) has recently come into 
my hands, of which I much desire to obtain the 
wanting parts. It is entitled : 

" The general Pardon, geuen longe agone, and sythe 
newly confyrmed, by our Almightie Father, with many 
large Priuileges, Grauntes, and Bulles graunted for 
euer, as is to be seen hereafter : Drawne out of 

Frenche into English. By Wyllyam Hayward. Im- 
printed at London, by Wyllyam How, for Wyllyam 

There is no date, but it is believed to have been 
printed in or about 1571. It is in black letter, 
and is an imitation of the Roman Catholic pardons. 
It consists of twelve leaves. In my copy the last 
seven of these are torn through their middle ver- 

I have not been able to meet with this tract in 
the catalogues of any of the great libraries which 
I have consulted; e.g. the British Museum, Bod- 
leian, Cambridge University, Lambeth, and several 
of the college libraries at Cambridge. 

I want any information concerning it, or its 
original in French, which the readers of " N. & 
Q." can give : also access to a copy from which to 
transcribe the parts wanting in mine. 


St. John's Coll. Cambridge. 


Edward the Confessor s Ring. There is an 
old legend of a ring given to one of our early 
kings, I think Edward the Confessor, by some 
saintly or angelic messenger. If any of your 
readers could give me any of the details of this 
story, it would very much oblige your constant 
reader M. J. T. 

[The following extract from Taylor's Glory of Re- 
gality, pp. 74. et seq., will give our Correspondent the 
legend referred to. 

" The ring with which our kings are invested, called 
by some writers 'the wedding ring of England,' is 
illustrated, like the Ampulla, by a miraculous history, 
of which the following are the leading particulars : 
from the 'Golden Legende' (Julyan Notary, 1503), 
p. 187. : ' Edward the Confessor being one day askt 
for alms by a certain ' fayre olde man,' the king found 
nothing to give him except his ring, with which the 
poor man thankfully departed. Some time after, two 
English pilgrims in the Holy Land having lost their 
road, as they travelled at the close of the day, ' there 
came to them a fayre auncyent man wyth whyte heer 
for age.' Then the olde man axed them what they 
were and of what regyon. And they answerde that 
they were Pylgryms of Englond, and hadde lost their 
felyshyp and way also. Then this olde man comforted 
tbeym goodly, and brought theym into a fayre cytee } 
and whan thj had well refresshyd them, and rested 
theym alle nyght; on the morne, this fayre olde man 
wente with theym and brought theym in the ryght 
wflye agayne. And he was gladde to hear theym talke 
of the welfare and holynesse of theyr Kynge Saynt 
Edward. And whan he shold departe fro theym thenne 
he told theym what he was, and sayd I am Johan The- 
uangelyst, and saye ye unto Edward your king, that I 
grete hym well by the token that he gaaf to me thys 
rynge with his one hondes, whych rynge ye shalle de- 



[No. 166. 

lyuer to hym agayne : and whan he had delyuerde to 
theym the ringe, he departed from theym sodenly.' 

" This command, as may be supposed, was punc- 
tually obeyed by the messengers, who were furnisht 
with ample powers for authenticating their mission. 
The ring was received by the Royal Confessor, and in 
after times was preserved with due care at his shrine 
in the Abbey of Westminster."] 

The Bourbons. "What was tlie origin of the 
Bourbon family ? How did Henry IV. come to 
be the next heir to the throne on the extinction 
of the line of Valois ? E. H. A. 

[Henri IV., King of Navarre, succeeded to the throne 
on the extinction of the house of Valois, as the head of 
the house of Bourbon, which descends from Robert of 
France, Count de Clermont, the fifth son of St. Louis, 
and Seigneur de Bourbon. On the death of Louis I. 
in 1341, leaving two sons, this house was divided into 
the Bourbon, or elder branch (which became extinct on 
the death of the Constable of Bourbon, in 1527), and 
the younger branch, or that of the Counts de la Marche, 
afterwards Counts and Dukes of Vendome. Henri 
*as the son of Antoine de Bourbon, Due de Vendome.] 

(Vol. vi., p. 460.) 

Tlie Query confirms Professor De Morgan's 
excellent article in The Companion to the Almanack 
for 1853, " On the Difficulty of correct Descrip- 
tion of Books." The manuscript note cited by 
H. J., though curiously inaccurate, guided me to 
the book for which he inquires. I copy the title- 
page : " Die Betriibte Pegnesis, den Leben, Kunst, 
und Tugend- Wandel des Seelig-Edeln Floridans, 
H. Sigm. von Birken, Com. Pal. Cces. durch 24 Sinn- 
bilder in Kupfern, zur schiddigen nach-Ehre fur- 
stellend, und mit Gesprach und Reim- Gedichten er- 
hlcirend, durch ihre Blumen-Hirten. Niirnberg, 
1684, 12mo." I presume the annotntor, not under- 
standing German, and seeing " Floridans " the 
most conspicuous word on the title-page, cited him 
as tlie author ; but it is the pastoral academic 
name of the late Herr Sigmond von Birken, in 
whose honour the work is composed. The emblem, 
with the motto " Bis fracta relinquor," at p. 249. 
(not 240.), is a tree from which two boughs are 
broken. It illustrates the death of Floridan's 
second wife, and his determination not to take a 
third. The chess-board, plate xiv. p. 202., has the 
motto, " Per tot discrimina rerum," and comme- 
morates Floridan's safe return to Nuremberg after 
the multitudinous perils ("die Schaaren der Ge- 
fahren") of a journey through Lower Saxony. 
They must have been great, if typified by the state 
of the board, on which only a black king and a 
white bishop are left a chess problem ! 

I bought my copy at a book-sale many years 
ago, and, after reading a few pages, laid it aside as 
insufferably dull, although it was marked by its 
former possessor, the Hev. Henry White, of Lich- 
field, " Very rare, probably unique." On taking 
it up to answer H. J.'s Query, I found some matter 
relating to the German academies of the seven- 
teenth century, which I think may be interesting. 

Mr. Hallain (Literature of Europe, iv. v. 9.) 
says : 

" The Arcadians determined to assume every one 
a pastoral name and a Greek birthplace ; to hold their 
meetings in some verdant meadow, and to mingle with 
all their own compositions, as far as possible, images 
from pastoral life ; images always agreeable, because 
they recall the times of primitive innocence. The 
poetical tribe adopted as their device the pipe of seven 
reeds bound with laurel, and their president, or direc- 
tor, was denominated General Shepherd or Keeper 
Custode Generate." 

He slightly mentions the German academies of 
the sixteenth century (HI. ix. 30.), and says : 

" It is probable that religious animosities stood in 
the way of such institutions, or they may have flourished 
without obtaining much celebrity." 

The academy of Pegnitz-shepherds ("Pegnitz- 
shafer-orden") took its name from the little river 
Pegnitz which runs through Nuremberg. Herr 
Sigmond von Birken was elected a member in 
1645. He chose Floridan as his pastoral name, 
and the amaranth as his flower. In 1658 he was 
admitted to the Palm Academy ("Palmen-orden"), 
choosing the name Der Erwacsene (the adult ?), 
and the snowdrop. In 1659, a vacancy having 
occurred in the Pegnitz- Herdsmen (" Pegnitz- 
llirten ") he was thought worthy to fill it, and in 
1679 he received the diploma of the Venetian 
order of the liecuperati. He died in 1681. Tins, 
and what can be hung upon it, is Die Betriibte 
Pegnitz, a dialogue of 406 pages. It opens with 
a meeting of shepherds and shepherdesses, who go 
in and out of their cottages on the banks of the 
Pegnitz, and tell one another, what all seem equally 
well acquainted with, the entire life of their de- 
ceased friend. It would not be easy to find a 
work more clumsy in conception and tasteless in 
execution. Herr von Birken seems to have been 
a prosperous man, and to have enjoyed a high pas- 
toral reputation. His works are enumerated, but 
the catalogue looks ephemeral. There is, however, 
one with a promising title : Die Trockene TrunJien- 
heit, oder die Gebrauch und Missbrauch des Tabachs. 
His portrait, as " Der Erwachsene," is prefixed. 
It has not a shepherd-like look. He seems about 
fifty, with a fat face, laced cravat, and large flow- 
ing wig. There are twenty-four emblematical 
plates, rather below the average of their time. 

As so secondary a town as Nuremberg had at 
least three academies, we may infer that such in- 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



stitutions were abundant in Germany in the seven- 
teenth century : that of the Pegnitz shepherds 
lasted at least till the beginning of the eighteenth. 
In Der Thvrichte Pritsclimeister, a comedy printed 
at Coblenz, 1704, one of the characters is " Phan- 
tasirende, ein Pegnitz Schaffer," who talks fustian 
and is made ridiculous throughout. The comedy 
is " von Menantes." I have another work by the 
same author : Galante, Verliebte, und Satyrische 
Gedickte, Hamburg, 1704. I shall be very glad 
to be told who he was, as his versification is often 
very good, and his jokes, though not graceful, and 
not very laughable, are real. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



(, pp. 485. 561.) 

The popular error on the legal effect of marriage 
en chemise is, I think, noticed among other vulgar 
errors in law in a little book published some 
twenty years ago under the name of Westminster 
Hall, to which a deceased lawyer of eminence, 
then young at the bar, was a contributor. I believe 
the opinion to be still extensively prevalent, and to 
be probably founded, not exactly in total ignorance, 
but in a misconception, of the law. The text 
writers inform us that " the husband is liable for 
the wife's debts, because he acquires an absolute 
interest in the personal estate of the wife," &c. 
(Bacon's Abridgment, tit. "Baron and Feme.") 
Now an unlearned person, who hears this doctrine, 
might reasonably conclude, that if his bride has no 
estate at all, he will incur no liability ; and the 
future husband, more prudent than refined, might 
think it as well to notify to his neighbours, by an 
unequivocal symbol, that he took no pecuniary 
benefit with his wife, and therefore expected to be 
free from her pecuniary burdens. In this, as in 
most other popular errors, there is found a sub- 
stratum of reason. 

With- regard to the other vulgar error, noticed 
at the foot of MR. BROOKS' communication (p. 561.), 
that " all children under the girdle at the time of 
marriage are legitimate," the origin of it is more 
obvious. Every one knows of the " legitimatio 
per subsequens matrimonium " of the canonists, 
and how the barons assembled in parliament at 
Merton refused to engraft this law of the Church 
on the jurisprudence of England. But it is not 
perhaps so well known that, upon such a marriage, 
the premature offspring of the bride and bride- 
groom sometimes used to perform a part in the 
ceremony, and received the nuptial benediction 
under the veil or mantle of the bride or the pallium 
of the altar. Hence the children so legitimated 
are said to have been called by the Germans Mantel- \ 
kinder. The learning on this head is to be found ! 

in Rommel's Jurisprudentia Numismatibus Ulus- 
trata (Lipsise, 1763), pp. 214 218., where the 
reader will also find a pictorial illustration of the 
ceremony from a codex of the Novellce in the 
library of Christian Schwarz. The practice seems 
to have been borrowed from the form of adopting 
children, noticed in the same work and in Ducange, 
verb. " Pallium, Pallio cooperire;" and in Grimm's 
Deut. Rechts Alterth., p. 465. 

Let me add a word on the famous negative given 
to the demand of the clergy at Merton. No reason 
was assigned, or, at least, has been recorded, but a 
general unwillingness to change the laws of Eng- 
land. As the same barons did in fact consent to 
change them in other particulars, this can hardly 
have been the reason. Sir W. Blackstone speaks of 
the consequent uncertainty of heirship and dis- 
couragement of matrimony as among the causes of 
rejection, arguments of very questionable weight; 
Others (as Bishop Kurd, in his Dialogues) have 
attributed the rejection to the constitutional re- 
pugnance of the barons to the general principles 
of the canon and imperial law, which the proposed 
change might have tended to introduce, a degree 
of forethought and a range of political vision for 
which I can hardly give them credit, especially as 
the great legal authority of that day, Bracton, has 
borrowed the best part of his celebrated Treatise 
from the Corpus Juris. The most plausible motive 
which I have yet heard assigned for this famous 
parliamentary negative on the bishops' bill at 
Merton, is suggested (quod minime reris ! ) in an 
Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner's Report (vol. vi. 
of the 8vo. printed series), viz. that bastardy mul- 
tiplied the escheats which accrued to medieval 
lords of manors. E. SMIRKE. 

A venerable person whose mind is richly stored 
with "shreds and patches" of folk-lore and local 
antiquities, on seeing the "curious marriage entry" 
(p. 485.), has furnished me with the following 

It is the popular belief at Kirton in Lindsey 
that if a woman, who has contracted debts pre- 
vious to her marriage, leave her residence in a state 
of nudity, and go to that of her future husband, he 
the husband will not be liable for any such debts. 

A case of this kind actually occurred in that 
highly civilised town within my informant's me- 
mory ; the woman leaving her house from a bed- 
room window, and putting on some clothes as she 
stood on the top of the ladder by which she accom- 
plished her descent. K. P. D- E. 

In that amusing work, Burn's History of the 
Fleet Marriages, p. 77., occurs the following 
entry: "The woman ran across Ludgate Hill 
in her shift;" to Avhich the editor has added this 
note : " The Daily Journal of 8th November, 
1725, mentions a similar exhibition at Ulcomb in 



[No. 166. 

Kent. It was a vulgar error that a man was not 
liable to the bride's debts, if he took her in no 
other apparel than her shift." J. Y. 

Saffron Walden. 


(Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564.) 

As MR. SPARROW SIMPSON invites additions to 
his list from all quarters, I send him my contri- 
bution : and as I see that he has included trans- 
lations of our Liturgy into other languages, I do 
the same : 

1552. Worcester. Jo. Oswen. Folio. 
1560. London. Jugge and Cawood. 4to. 
1565. London. Jugge and Cawood. 8vo. 

1607. London. Folio. 
1629. London. Folio. 

1 629. Cambridge. Folio. 

1632. London. 4to. 

1633. London. 4to. 

1634. London. Folio. 

1635. London. 4to. 

1638. Cambridge. 4to. 

1639. London. Folio. 
1641. London. 4to. 
1660. Cambridge. Folio. 

1644. The Scotch, by Laud and the Scotch bishops. 

Printed by John Jones. 8vo. 

1551. Latine versa, per Alex. Absium. Lipsia;. 4to. 
1594. London. 8vo. 

s. A. by Reginald Wolfe. London. 4 to. 

1638. In Greek. London. 8vo. 

1616. In French. London. 4to. 

1608. In Irish. Dublin. Folio. 
1612. In Spanish. London. 4to. 
1621. In Welsh. London. 4to. 

All the foregoing editions are in the Bodleian 
Library. I may add to them the following three : 
1. 1551. Dublin, by Humfrey Powell. Folio. 
2. 1617 (?). Dublin. Company of Stationers. 4to. 
3. 1637. Dublin. 

of these, which is the first book printed 
in Ireland, is extremely rare. I believe only two 
copies are certainly known to exist ; one of which 
is in the library of Trinity College, Dublin ; and 
the other in that of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
Both are in very fine condition. 

The second is in my possession. The book is 
quite perfect ; but some wiseacre has carefully 
erased the date. The Almanac for xxvi Yeares 
tells nothing, being for the years 1603 to 1628. 
But the book contains a prayer for " Frederick, 
the Prince Elector Palatine, and the Lady Eliza- 
beth, his wife, with their hopeful issue." He 
married the princess in 1613 ; and in 1619 he was 
elected King of Bohemia, and thenceforward would 
be prayed for under his higher title. If the Sun- 
day letter in the calendar is to be trusted, the book 
was printed (according to De Morgan's Book of 

Almanacs) in 1617. The Dublin Society of Sta- 
tioners was established in that year; and it is not 
unlikely that they commenced their issues with a 
Prayer-Book. I have never seen nor heard of 
another copy, with which I might compare mine, 
and thus ascertain its date. 

The third, of 1637, is reported ; but I have 
never met with it. H. COTTON. 



(Vol. vi., p. 578.) 

The inquiry of your correspondent IFIGFOWL 
respecting the etymology of the word pearl does 
not admit of a simple answer. The word occurs 
in all the modern languages, both Romance and 
Teutonic : perla, Ital. and Span. ; perle, French 
and German, whence the English pearl. Adelung 
in v. believes the word to be of Teutonic origin, 
and considers it as the diminutive of beere, a 
berry. Others derive it from perna, the Latin 
name of a shell-fish (see Ducange in perlce ; Diez, 
Grammatik der Romanischen Sprachen, vol. i. 
p. 235.). Neither of these derivations is probable : 
it is not shown that beere had a diminutive form, 
and perna was a local and obscure name : see 
Pliny, N. H. xxxii. ad fin. Salmasius (Exercit. 
Plin., p. 40. ed. 1689) thinks that perla is formed 
from perula, for sperula, the diminutive of sphcera. 
A more probable origin is that the word is formed 
from the Latin pirum, as suggested by Diez, in 
allusion to the pear-shaped form of the pearl. 
Ducange in v. says that the extremity of the nose 
was called pirula nasi, from its resemblance to the 
form of a pear. But pirus was used to denote 
a boundary-stone, made in a pyramidal shape 
(Ducange in v.) ; and this seems to have been 
the origin of the singular expression pirula nasi, 
as being something at the extremity. Another 
supposition is, that the word perla is derived from 
the Latin perula, the diminutive of pera, a wallet. 
A wallet was a small bag hung round the neck ; 
and the word perula, in the sense of a small bag, 
occurs in Seneca and Apuleius. The analogy of 
shape and mode of wearing is sufficiently close to 
suggest the transfer of the name. Perula and 
perulus are used in Low Latin in the sense of pearl. 
Ducange cites a passage from a hagiographer, 
where perula means the white of the eye, evi- 
dently alluding to the colour of the pearl. 

The choice seems to lie between perula as the 
diminutive of pera or of pirum. Neither deriva- 
tion is improbable. It is to be observed that the 
modern Italian form of pirum, the fruit of the 
pear, is pera; the modern feminine noun being, 
as in numerous other cases, formed from the plural 
of the Latin neuter noun (see Diez, ib. vol. ii. 
p. 19.). The analogy of unio (to which I shall 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



advert presently) supports the derivation from 
the fruit. ; the derivation from pera, a wallet, is, 
on merely linguistical grounds, preferable. 

The Greek name of pearl is /j-apyapirris, origin- 
ally applied to a precious stone, and apparently 
moulded out of some oriental name, into a form 
suited to the Greek pronunciation. Scott and 
Liddell in v. derive it from the Persian murwari. 
Pliny, H. N. ix. 56., speaking of the pearl, says : 
" Apud Graecos non est, ne apud barbaros quidem 
inventores ejus, aliud quam margaritse." The 
Greek name Margarita was used by the Romans, 
but the proper Latin name for the pearl was 
unto. Pliny (ibid.) explains this word by say- 
ing that each pearl is unique, and unlike every 
other pearl. Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xxiii. 
ad fin.) thinks that pearls were called uniones, be- 
cause the best were found single in the shell ; 
Solinus (c. 53.) because they were always found 
single. The more homely explanation of Salma- 
sius seems, however, to be the true one ; namely, 
that the common word for an onion, growing in a 
single bulb, was transferred to the pearl (Exercit. 
Plin.,pp. 822-4.; Columella de R. R. xii. 10.). 
The ancient meaning of unio is still preserved in 
the French ognon. L. 

Your correspondent asks the " etymon of our 
English word pearl." It would not be uninte- 
resting to learn, at the same time, at what period 
pearl came into general use as an English word ? 
Burton, who wrote his Anatomy in the reign of 
James I., uses the word union (from the Latin 
unio) instead of pearl (Anat. Melanc., vol. ii. part 
2. sec. 3. mem. 3., and ib., p. 2. sec. 4. mem. 1. 
subs. 4.). In the latter passage he says : " Those 
smaller unions which are found in shells, amongst 
the Persians and Indians, are very cordial, and 
most part avail to the exhilaration of the heart." 

The Latin term unio differs from " margarita," 
in so far as it seems to have been applied by Pliny 
to distinguish the small and ill-shaped pearls, 
from the large round and perfect, which he calls 
" margarita3." And in his ninth book, c. 59., he 
defines the difference philologically, as well as 
philosophically. Philemon Holland, who published 
his translation of Pliny in 1634, about thirteen 
years after Burton published the first edition of 
his Anatomy, uses the word pearl indifferently as 
the equivalent both of margarita and unio. 

Query : Was the word union generally received 
in England instead of pearl in Burton's time, and 
when did it give place to it ? J. EMERSON TENNANT. 


(Vol. v., p. 587.) 

Has not the following song something to do with 
the expression "Martin drunk" ? It is certainly 
cotemporary with Thomas Nash the Elizabethan 

satirist, and was long a favourite " three man's " 
song. It is copied from Deuteromelia, or the Second 
Part of MusicKs Melodie, 4to., 1609 : 


" Martin said to his man, 

Fie 1 man, fie ! 

Martin said to his man, 

Who's the foole now ? 
Martin said to his man, 
Fill tlwu the cup, and I the can ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 
" I see a sheepe shering corne, 

Fie ! man, fie ! 

1 see a sheepe shering corne, 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a sheepe shering corne, 
And a cuckold blow his home; 
Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 

" I see a man in the moone, 

Fie ! man, fie ! 

I see a man in the moone ; 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a man in the moone, of St. Peter's shoone ; 

Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 

" I see a hare chase a hound, 

Fie ! man, fie 1 

I see a hare chase a hound, 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a hare chase a hound, 

Twenty mile above the ground ; 

Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 

" I see a goose ring a hog, 

Fie ! man, fie ! 

I see a goose ring a hog, 

Who's the foole now ? 

I see a goose ring a hog, 

And a snayle that did bite a dog ; 

Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now ? 

" t see a mouse catch the cat, 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I see a mouse catch the cat, 

Who's the foole now ? 
I see a mouse catch the cat, 
And the cheese to eate the rat ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man, 

Who's the foole now?" 



(Vol. vi., p. 434.). 

Had M. M. E. gone to the fountain-head, and 
consulted Gothe's own statement in his autobio- 
graphy, he would have seen in the Wcrhe, vol. xxvi. 



[No. 166. 

p. 229., that Mr. Hayward's note was not written 
with that writer's usual care. Gothe does not say 
that his reply to Nicolai's Joys of Werter, though 
circulated only in MS., destroyed N.'s literary repu- 
tation : on the contrary, he says that his squib (for 
it was no more) consisted of an epigram, not fit for 
communication, and a dialogue between Charlotte 
and Werter, which was never copied, and long lost; 
but that this dialogue, exposing N.'s impertinence, 
was written with a foreboding of his sad habit, after- 
wards developed, of treating of subjects out of his 
depth, which habit, notwithstanding his indisput- 
able merits of another kind, utterly destroyed his 
reputation. This was most true : and yet all such 
assertions must be taken in a qualified sense. 
Nearly thirty years after this was written I par- 
took of the hospitality of N. at Berlin. It was in 
1803, when he was at the head, not of the Berlin 
literati, but of the book-manufactory of Prussia. 
He was then what, afterwards and elsewhere, the 
Longmans, Murrays, Constables, Cottas, andBrock- 
hauses were, the great publisher of his age and 
country. The entrepreneur of the Neue Deutsche 
Bibliothek may be compared with the publishers 
of our and the French great Cyclopaedias, and our 
Quarterly Reviews. 

It was unfortunate for the posthumous reputa- 
tion of the great bibliopolist that he, patronising a 
school that was dying out, made war on the athletes 
of the rising school. He assailed nearly every great 
man, philosopher or poet, from Kant and Gothe 
downwards, especially of the schools of Saxony, 
Swabia, and the free imperial cities. No wonder 
that he became afterwards what Macfleckno and 
Colly Gibber had been to Dryden and Pope. In 
some dozen of the Xenien of Gothe and Schiller, 
in 1797, he was treated as the Arch-Philistine. 

M. M. E. characterises him as the " friend" and 
" fellow-labourer" of Lessing. Now Lessing was 
incomparably the most eminent litterateur of the 
earlier part of that age, the man who was the 
forerunner of the philosophers, and whose criti- 
cisms supplied the place of poetry. The satirists 
of the Xenien affect to compassionate Lessing, in 
having to endure a companion so forced on him as 
Nicolai was, whom they speak of as a " thorn in 
the crown of the martyr." The few who care for 
the literary controversies of the age of Gothe in 
Germany will be greatly assisted by an edition of 
the Xenien, with notes, published at Dantzig, 1833. 

H. C. R. 


Processes upon Paper. The favourable manner 
in which the account I have given of the Collo- 
dion process has been received, not only by your 
readers in general, as has been evinced by many 
private letters, but also by the numerous cor- 
respondents it has drawn forth, induces me, after 

some little delay, to request space for a descrip- 
tion of the following processes upon paper. In 
giving these I wish it to be understood that I 
may offer but little that is original, my object 
being to describe, as plainly as I possibly can, 
these easy methods, and to make no observation 
but what I have found to be successful in my own 
hands. I have had the good fortune to obtain 
the friendship of some of the most successful 
photographers of the day ; and taking three very 
eminent ones, I find they have each some pecu- 
liarities in his mode of manipulation, varying with 
each other in the strength of the solutions em- 
ployed, and producing results the most agreeable 
to their respective tastes. Reviewing these dif- 
ferent processes in my own mind, and trying with 
patience the various results, I conclude that the 
following quantities are calculated to produce an 
adequate degree of sensibility in the paper, and 
yet to allow it to be prepared for the action of 
light for many hours previous to its use, and yet 
with more certainty than any other I am ac- 
quainted with. I think I may always depend 
upon it for twenty-four to thirty-six hours after 
excitement, and I have seen good pictures pro- 
duced upon the third day. I believe it is a rule 
which admits of no contradiction, that the more 
you dilute your solution, the longer the excited 
paper will keep ; but in proportion to its dimi- 
nished sensibility, the time of exposure must be 
prolonged, and therefore I am, from this waste of 
time and other reasons, disposed to place much 
less value upon the wax-paper process than many 

The process I am about to describe is so simple, 
and I hope to make it so intelligible to your non- 
photographic readers, that a perfect novice, using 
ordinary care, must meet with success ; but should 
I fail doing so upon all points, any information 
sought through the medium of " N. & Q." shall 
meet with explanation from myself, if not from 
other of your experienced correspondents, whose 
indulgence I must beg should the communication 
be deemed too elementary, it being my earnest 
desire to point out to archaeologists who are de- 
sirous of acquiring this knowledge, how easily 
they themselves may practise this beautiful art, 
and possess those objects they would desire to 
preserve, in a far more truthful state than could 
be otherwise accomplished. 

I have not myself met that uniform success 
with any other paper that I have with Turner's 
photographic of Chaffbrd Mills : a sheet of this 
divided into two portions forms at the same time 
a useful and also a very easily-managed size, one 
adapted for most cameras, forming a picture of 
nine inches by seven, which is adequate for 
nearly every purpose. Each sheet being marked 
in its opposite corners with a plain pencil-mark on 
its smooth side (vide ante, p. 372.), the surface for 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



all future operations is in all lights easily dis- 
cerned. In my instructions for printing from 
collodion negatives, a form of iodized paper was 
given, which, although very good, is not, I think, 
equal to the following, which is more easily and 
quickly prepared, exhibits a saving of the iodide 
of potassium, and is upon the whole a neater 

Take sixty grains of nitrate of silver and sixty 
grains of iodide of potassium; dissolve each sepa- 
rately in an ounce of distilled water ; mix together 
and stir with a glass rod. The precipitate settling, 
the fluid is to be poured away ; then add distilled 
.water to the precipitate up to four ounces, and 
add to it 650 grains of iodide of potassium, which 
should re-dissolve the precipitated iodide of silver, 
and form a perfectly clear solution ; but if not, 
a little more must be carefully added, for this salt 
varies much, and I have found it to require 720 
grains to accomplish the desired object. 

The fluid being put into a porcelain or glass 
dish, the paper should be laid down upon its sur- 
face and immediately removed, and being laid 
upon a piece of blotting-paper with the wet sur- 
face uppermost, a glass rod then passed over it to 
and fro ensures the total expulsion of all particles 
of air, which will frequently remain when the mere 
dipping is resorted to. When dry, this paper 
should be soaked in common water for three 
hours, changing the water twice or thrice, so as to 
remove all the soluble salts. It should then be 
pinned up to dry, and, when so, kept in a folio 
for use. I have in this manner prepared from 
sixty to eighty sheets in an evening with the 
greatest ease. It keeps good for an indefinite 
time, and, as all experienced photographers are 
aware, unless you possess good iodized paper, 
which should be of a primrose colour, you cannot 
meet with success in your after-operations. Io- 
dized paper becomes sometimes of a bright brim- 
stone colour when first made ; it is then very apt 
to brown in its use, but tones down and improves 
by a little keeping. 

To excite this paper, dissolve thirty grains of 
nitrate of silver in one ounce of distilled water, and 
add a drachm and a half of glacial acetic acid; of 
this solution take one drachm, and add to it two 
ounces and a half of distilled water. The iodized 
surface of the paper may then be either floated 
on the surface of the aceto-nitrate of silver or 
exciting fluid, and afterwards a rod passed over, 
as was formerly done in the iodizing, or the aceto- 
nitrate may be applied evenly with a brush ; but 
in either instance the surface should be immedi- 
ately blotted off; and the same blotting-paper 
never used a second time for this, although it 
may be kept to develop on and for other pur- 
poses. It will be scarcely needful to observe that 
this process of exciting must be performed by the 
light of a candle or feeble yellow light, as must 

the subsequent development. The excited paper 
may be now placed for use between sheets of 
blotting-paper ; it seems to act equally well either 
when damp or when kept for many hours, and I 
have found it good for more than a week. 

The time for exposure must entirely depend 
upon the degree of light. In two minutes and a 
half a good picture may be produced ; but if left 
exposed for twenty minutes or more, little harm 
will arise ; the paper does not solarise, but upon 
the degree of image visible upon the paper de- 
pends the means of developing. When long ex- 
posed, a solvent solution of gallic acid only ap- 
plied to the exposed surfaces will be sufficient ; 
but if there is little appearance of an image, then 
a free undiluted solution of aceto-nitrate may be 
used, in conjunction with the gallic acid, the 
former never being in proportion more than one- 
third. If that quantity is exceeded, either a 
brownish or an unpleasant reddish tint is often ob- 
tained. These negatives should be fixed by im- 
mersing them in a solution of hyposulphate of 
soda, which may be of the strength of one ounce 
of salt to eight ounces of water the sufficiency 
of immersion being known by the disappearance of 
the yellow colour, and when they have been once 
immersed they may be taken to the daylight to 
ascertain this. The hyposulphate must now be 
perfectly removed by soaking in water, which may 
extend to several hours ; but this may be always 
ascertained by the tongue, for, if tasteless, it has 
been accomplished. If it is deemed advisable 
which I think is only required in very dark over- 
done pictures to wax the negative, it is easily 
managed by holding a piece of white wax or 
candle in front of a clean iron rather hot, and 
passing it frequently over the surface. The super- 
abundant wax being again removed by passing it 
between some clean pieces of blotting-paper. Al- 
though the minuter details can never be acquired 
by this mode which are obtained by the collodion 
process, it has the advantage of extreme simpli- 
city, and by the operator providing himself with 
a bag or square of yellow calico, which he can 
loosely peg down to the ground when no other 
shade is near, to contain spare prepared papers, 
he can at any future time obtain a sufficient 
number of views, which afterwards he can de- 
velop at his leisure. 

It requires no liquids to be carried about with 
you, nor is that nice manipulation required which 
attends die collodion process. 

The wax-paper process has been extolled by 
many, and very successful results have been ob- 
tained: the paper has the undoubted advantage of 
keeping after being excited much longer than any 
other; but, from my own experience, just so much 
the weaker it is made, and so as to safely rely upon 
its long remaining useful, so it is proportionally 
slower in its action. And I have rarely seen from 



[No. 16( 

wax negatives positives so satisfactory in depth of 
tone, as from those which have been waxed after 
being taken on ordinary paper. It is all very 
well for gentlemen to advocate a sort of photo- 
graphic tour, upon which you are to go on taking 
views day after day, and when you return home at 
leisure to develop your past proceedings : I never 
yet knew one so lukewarm in this pursuit as not to 
desire to know, at his earliest possible opportunity, 
the result of his labours ; indeed, were not this 
the case, I fear disappointment would more often 
result than at present, for I scarcely think any one 
can exactly decide upon the power of the light of 
any given day, without having made some little 
trial to guide him. I have myself, especially with 
collodion, found the action very rapid upon some 
apparently dull day ; whilst, from an unexplained 
cause, a comparatively brighter day has been less 
active in its photographic results. As in the pre- 
vious process, I would strongly advise Turner's 
paper to be used, and not the thin French papers 

Generally adopted, because I find all the high 
ghts so much better preserved in the English 
paper. It may be purchased ready waxed nearly 
as cheap as it may be done by one's self; but as 
many operators like to possess that which is entirely 
their own production, the following mode will be 
found a ready way of waxing: Procure a piece of 
thick smooth slate, a trifle larger than the paper 
to be used ; waste pieces of this description are 
always occurring at the slate works, and are of a 
trifling value. This should be made very hot by 
laying it close before a fire ; then, covered with one 
layer of thick blotting-paper, it will form a most 
admirable surface upon which to use the iron. 
Taking a piece of wax in the left hand, an iron 
well heated being pressed against it, it may 
rapidly be made to flow over the whole surface 
with much evenness, the surplus wax being 
afterwards removed by ironing between blotting- 
paper. When good, it should be colourless, free 
from gloss, and having the beautiful semi-trans- 
parent appearance of the Chinese rice-paper. To 
iodize the paper completely, immerse it in the fol- 
lowing solution : 

Iodide of potash - 

Cyanide of potash - 
Distilled water 

- 200 grains. 
6 drachms. 
5 grains. 
20 ounces. 

Allow it to remain three hours, taking care that 
air-particles are perfectly excluded, and once 
during the time turning over each sheet of paper, 
as many being inserted as the fluid will conve- 
niently cover, as it is not injured by after keeping. 
It should be then removed from the iodide bath, 
pinned up, and dried, ready for use. When re- 
quired to be excited, the paper should, by the light 
of a candle, be immersed in the following solution, 
where it should remain for five minutes : 

Nitrate of silver 
Glacial acetic acid - 
Distilled water 

- 4 drachms. 

- 4 drachms. 

- 8 ounces. 

Being removed from the aceto-nitrate bath, im- 
merse it into a pan of distilled water, where let it 
remain about a quarter of an hour. In order to 
make this paper keep a week or two, it must be 
immersed in a second water, which in point of fact 
is a mere reduction of the strength of the solutions 
already used ; but for ordinary purposes, and 
when the paper is to be used within three or four 
days, one immersion is quite sufficient, especially 
as it does not reduce its sensitiveness in a needless 
way. It may now be preserved between blotting- - 
paper, free from light, for future use. The time 
of exposure requisite for this paper will exceed 
that of the ordinary unwaxed, given in the pre- 
vious directions. The picture may be developed 
by a complete immersion also in a saturated 
solution of gallic acid ; but should it not have 
been exposed a sufficient time in the camera, a 
few drops of the aceto-nitrate solution added to 
the gallic acid greatly accelerates it. An excess 
of aceto-nitrate often produces an unpleasant red 
tint, which is to be avoided. Instead of complete 
immersion, the paper may be laid upon some waste 
blotting-paper, and the surface only wetted by 
means of the glass rod or brush. The picture may 
now be fixed by the use of the hyposulphate of 
soda, as in the preceding process. 

It is not actually necessary that this should be a 
wax-paper process, because ordinary paper treated 
in this way acts very beautifully, although it does 
not allow of so long keeping for use after excite- 
ment ; yet it has then the advantage, that a nega- 
tive may either be waxed or not, as shall be deemed 
advisable by its apparent depth of action. 


Exhibition of recent Specimens of Photography 
at the Society of Arts. This exhibition, to which 
all interested in the art have been invited to con- 
tribute, was inaugurated by a conversazione at the 
Society's rooms, on the evening of Wednesday, the 
22nd of December : the public have since been 
admitted at a charge of sixpence each, and it will 
continue open until the 8th of January. 

We strongly recommend all our friends to pay a 
visit to this most delightful collection. By our 
visit at the crowded conversazione, and another 
hasty view since, we do not feel justified to enter 
into a review and criticism of the specimens so 
fully as the subject requires; but in the mean 
time we can assure our archaeological readers that 
they will find there such interesting records of 
architectural detail, together with views of anti- 
quities from Egypt and Nubia, as will perfectly 
convince them of the value of this art with refer- 
ence to their own immediate pursuits. Those who 
feel less delight in mere antiquity will be gratified 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



to see, for the first time, that there are here 
shown photographs which aim at more than the 
bare copying of any particular spot ; for many of 
the pictures here exhibited may rank as fine works 
of art. We feel much delicacy and hesitation 
in mentioning any particular artist, where so many 
are entitled to praise, especially in some parti- 
cular departments. We could point out pictures 
having all the minute truthfulness of nature, com- 
bined with the beautiful effects of some of the 
greatest painters. We must, however, direct 
especial attention to the landscapes of Mr. Turner, 
the views in the Pyrenees by Mr. Stewart, and 
one splendid one of the same locality by Le Gray. 
Mr. Buckle's views in paper also exhibit a sharp- 
ness and detail almost equal to collodion ; as do 
the various productions of Mr. Fenton in wax 
paper. The effects obtained also by Mr. Owen of 
Bristol appear to be very satisfactory : why they 
are, with so much excellence, called experimental, 
we cannot tell. In collodion Mr. Berger has ex- 
hibited some effective portraits ; and we think the 
success of Mr. De la Motte has been so great, that 
in some of his productions little remains to be de- 
sired. We cannot conclude this brief notice without 
directing attention to the minuteness and pleasing 
effect of the views in Rome by M. Eugene Con- 
stant, which are also from collodion ; as also the 
specimens from albumen negatives of M. Ferrier ; 
and, lastly, to the pleasant fact that lady amateurs 
are now practising this art, very nice specimens 
being here exhibited by the Ladies Nevill, whose 
example we shall hope to see followed. 

ta iHtnor 

Quotation in Locke (Vol. vi., p. 386.). The 
words " Si non vis intelligi non debes legi " were, 
I believe, the exclamation of St. Jerome, as he 
threw his copy of Persius into the fire in a fit of 
testiness at being unable to construe some tough 
lines of that tough author. I set down this reply 
from memory, and am unable to give the authority 
for it. W. FKASEB. 

Pic-nic (, pp. 152. 518.). The Query 
of A. F. S. (p. 152.) as to the etymology ofpic-nic 
still remains unanswered. The Note of W. W. 
(p. 518.) merely refers to the time (1802) when 
pic-nic suppers first became fashionable in England. 
Under a French form, the word appears in a speech 
of Robespierre's, quoted in the British and Foreign 
Review for July, 1844, p. 620. : "C'est ici qu'il doit 
m' accuser, et non dans les piques-niques, dans les 
societes particulieres." An earlier instance occurs 
in one of Lord Chesterfield's letters (No. 167.), 
dated October 1748. JAYDEE. 

Discovery at Nuneham Regis (Vol. vi., pp. 386. 
488. 558.). Nuneham Regis was granted to John 
Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in the seventh 

year of King Edward VI. ; but as it was forfeited 
on his attainder, in the first year of Queen Mary, 
and immediately granted by her to Sir Rowland 
Hill, knight, and citizen of London, from whom 
Sir Thomas Leigh, knight, and alderman of Lon- 
don, almost immediately acquired it; and as he 
exercised the right of presentation to the vicarage 
in the first year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
there is no probability of the body of John, Duke 
of Northumberland, being removed from the Tower 
of L6ndon to Newnham. 

The letters T. B. on the clothes on the body at 
Nuneham are distinctly worked in Roman capitals, 
like those on a common sampler. I have seen 
them. J. S.s. 

Door-head Inscriptions (Vol. vi., p. 543.). 
" Sit mihi nee glis servus nee hospes hirudo." 
" From servant lazy as dormouse, 
Or leeching guest, God keep my house." 

MB. WOODWARD tells us that he quotes this in- 
scription " from memory : " it is so very pertinent 
that it seems a pity even to hint a correction, but, 
as I read it, it seemed partly familiar to me, and 
I find something so like the latter part of it in two 
ancient authors, that I am tempted to inquire 
whether he may not have omitted one letter, which 
alters the sense as given above, and yet gives a 
sense as good. 

Among the Symbols of Pythagoras, I read the 
following : 

" Domesticas hirundines ne habeto." 
To the same effect (but, strange to say, without 
nny reference to Pythagoras' dictum), we find it 
in the proverbia of Polydore Virgil (A.D. 1498) : 

" Hirundo suscipienda non est." 
and the exposition is the same in both : 

" Hirundo garrula semper, i. e. garruli et tumigeri 
homines recipiendi non sunt." 

I find no original for the former part of the in- 
scription. Probably MR. WOODWARD will agree 
with me, that it is difficult to decide whether a 
greedy or a gossipping guest would be the worst 
household infliction ; but as a careful householder 
might well deprecate either, as matter of curiosity 
perhaps he would refer to the original inscription 
again, and decide whether he has or has not omitted 
an " n." A. B. R. 


Stratford Parsonage, Wilts : 

" Parva sed apta Domino. 

Montacute House, Somerset : 

" Through this wide opening gate 
None come too s'jon, none go too late. 
And yours." 



[No. 166. 

Sudbury House, Derbyshire : 

" Omne Bonura Dei Donum." 
At Verona : 

" Patet Janua, Cor magis." 
The next I have seen somewhere : 
" Detur digniori." 


Clyst St. George. 

Cross and Pile (, pp. 386. 513.)- The 
pile is invariably on the obverse or head side of a 
coin ; and pile or poll both mean the head, from 
whence the "poll tax" and "poll groat" a tax 
paid by the head, or a personal tax, of which we 
have an historical example of its collector in the 
case of Wat Tyler. 

Ruding, in Annals of the Coinage, vol. ii. p. 119., 
8vo., edit. 1819, states that Ed. I. A.D. 1304, in the 
delivering out the stamps for the coinage, orders 
that three piles and six crosses shall be given. It 
is well known to all numismatists that all, or most 
early coins, both Saxon and English, had a head 
on the obverse and a cross on the reverse the 
latter being placed on the coins as symbolical of 

Pile also means the hair, or any filament : as the 
" pile of velvet, the nap of woollen cloth," &c. And 
Jamieson, in his Scotch Dictionary, says : 

" PILE. The soft hair which first appears on the 
chins of young men." 

Coles, Ashe, Webster, and others give the same 

The superstitious effect of the cross as a charm 
or amulet is well known ; from whence the saying : 

" I have never a cross in my purse to keep the Devil 

Again : 

" Priests were coin-proof against the Devil, they 
never being without money ; of course, always had a 
cross in their pocket." Gilpin's Beehive of the Romish 
Church, 1636, p. 251. 

And Nash, in the Supplication of Pierce Penni- 
less to the Devil, makes Pierce to say : 

" Whereas your impious excellence hath had the 
poore tenement of my purse anytime this half year for 
your dancing schole, and he, notwithstanding, hath re- 
ceived no penye nor crosse for farme," &c. 

And the poet Skelton says : 

" and in his pouche, 

The Devil might dance therein for any crouche." 

P. 71. 

Trusting the above will be satisfactory toD.W. S., 
I beg to conclude, thinking you will say I have 
already made " much ado about nothing." 


Rhymes upon Places (Vol. vi., p. 281.). Per- 
haps you will think the following rhymes upon 
places worth insertion : 

" I stood upon Eyemouth Fort, 
And guess ye what I saw? 
Fairmiside and Furmintong, j (J 

Neuhouses and Cocklaw, 
The fairy fouk o' Fosterland, 
The witches o* Edincran, 
The bly-rigs o' lleston; 
But Dunse dings a'." 

Near the seaside village of Eyeraouth, in Ber- 
wickshire, is a promontory marked with a succes- 
sion of grassy mounds, the remains of a fort built 
there in the regency of Mary of Lorraine. A 
number of places are represented as visible from 
the fort : but here fact is not strictly adhered to. 

Fosterland once existed in the parish of Bunkle 
as a small village ; but even its vestiges are not 
now visible on the brown moor where it once 
stood. Edincran, properly Auchinchran, is an 
estate in the vicinity of Fosterland, as is Reston 
also. There is a variation as follows : 

" The fairy fouk o' Fosterland, 
The witches o' Edincran, 
And the rye-kail o' Reston 
Gar'd a' the dogs die." 

The rye-kail alluded to must have been a broth 
chiefly made from rye, which grain, it is well 
known, is sometimes so much tainted as to be poi- 
sonous. C. BENSON. 


'Apvioi/ (Vol. vi., p. 509.). Probably your cor- 
respondent is aware of the explanation given by 
Dr. Wordsworth in his book on the Apocalypse, 
but does not think it satisfactory. Still, as he 
does not allude to it, I venture to transcribe it : 

" The Apocalypse abounds in contrasts. For example, 
the LAMB, who is always called 'A/j.vbs, never 'Apviov, 
in St. John's Gospel, is called 'Apviov, never 'Afj.vbs, in 
St. John's Apocalypse, in which 'Apvtov occurs twenty- 
nine times. And why does 6 Apvos here become rb 
'Apviovl To contrast Him more strongly with rb 
i]pioi>, that is, to mark the opposition between the 
LAMB and the Beast." 

To this a note is appended : 

" This contrast is even more striking in the original, 
where it is aided by an exact' correspondence of syl- 
lables and accents. On one side are 

' 'H iropvi] Kal rb Qrjpiov : ' 
On the other 

' 'H Nvfj.<pri Kal rb 'Apvlov.' 

See Rev. xxi. 2.9., xxii. 17." Is the Church of Rome 
Babylon? p. 58. : London, 1851. 

A. A. D. 

'Apviov and apvbs both denote a lamb. In John i. 
29. 36., the latter is applied to Jesus by John the 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



Baptist. In Acts viii. 32., and 1 Pet. i. 19., the term 
is manifestly derived from Isa. liii. 7., the Septua- 
gint translation. But, in the llevelation, the word 
selected by the apostle is simply to be viewed as 
characteristic of his style. Taken in connexion 
with John i. 29. 36., the difference presents one of 
those points which so strikingly attest the authen- 
ticity of the Scripture. If the writer had drawn 
upon his imagination, in all likelihood he would 
have used the word apviov in the Gospel ; but he 
employed another, because the Baptist actually 
made use of a different one, i. e. one different 
from that which he was in the habit of employing. 


Who was the greatest General (Vol. vi., p. 509.). 
In reply to the following Query, " Who was 
the greatest general, and why and wherefore did 
the Duke of Wellington give the palm to Han- 
nibal?" I think the following note appended to 
the eloquent sermon of Dr. Croly, preached on 
the death of the Duke, Sept. 1 9th, not only shows 
the humility of the Duke in giving preference to 
Hannibal over himself, but it contains so just a 
comparison between the two generals, that it de- 
serves recording in the valuable and useful pages 
of the " N. & Q.," as well as being a perfect and 
true answer to C. T. : 

" It has been usual," the note says, " to compare 
Wellington with Hannibal. But those who make the 
comparison seem to forget the facts : 

" Hannibal, descending from the Alps with a disci- 
plined force of 26,000 men, met the brave Roman 
Militia, commanded by brave blockheads, and beat 
them accordingly. But, as soon as he was met by a 
man of common sense, Fabius, he could do nothing 
with him ; when he met a manoeuvring officer, the 
Consul Nero, he was outmanoeuvred, and lost his 
brother Asdrubal's army, which was equivalent to his 
losing Italy ; and when he met an active officer, Scipio, 
he was beaten on his own ground. Finally, forced to 
take refuge with a foreign power, he was there a pri- 
soner, and there he died." 

" His administrative qualities seem to have been of 
the humblest, or of the most indolent, order. For 
fourteen years he was in possession of, or in influence 
with, all the powers of southern Italy, then the richest 
portion of the peninsula. Yet this possession was 
wrested from him without an effort ; and where he 
might have been a monarch, he was only a pensioner. 
His punic faith, his flight, his refuge, and his death in 
captivity, might find a more complete resemblance in 
the history of Napoleon." 

The following concluding sentence of Dr. Croly's 
note conveys a truer and far more just comparison 
with another great general : 

" The life of the first Ca;sar forms a much fairer 
comparison with that of Wellington. Both nobly born ; 
both forcing their way up through the gradations of 
service, outstripping all their age ; forming their cha- 
racters by warfare iu foreign countries ; always com- 

manding small armies, yet always invincible ( Caesar won 
the World at Pharsalia with only 25,000 men) : both 
alike courageous and clement, unfailing iu resources, 
and indefatigable in their objects ; receiving the highest 
rewards, and rising to the highest rank of their times ; 
never beaten : both of first-rate ability in council. The 
difference being in their objects : one to serve himself, 
the other to serve his country ; one impelled by ambi- 
tion, the other by duty ; one destroying the constitu- 
tion of his country, the other sustaining it. Wellington, 
too, has given the soldier and statesman his Commen- 
taries,' one of the noblest transcripts of a great admini- 
strative mind." 

J. M. G. 


Beech-trees struck by Lightning (Vol. vi., p. 129.). 
On Thinnigrove Common, near Nettlebed, 
Oxon, a beech-tree, one of three or four growing 
round a pit, was shattered by lightning about 
thirteen or fourteen years ago. A gentleman who 
has lived sixty years in the neighbourhood of the 
beech woods near Henly, tells me that he re- 
members three or four similar cases. Single beech- 
trees, which are very ornamental, generally grow 
very low and wide-spreading, which may be the 
reason why they often escape. On the other hand, 
in the woods, where they run up close and very 
high, they present so many points of attraction to 
the electric fluid, that probably for that cause it is 
not often the case that one tree in particular is 
struck. CORYLUS. 


Passage in Tennyson (Vol. vi., p. 272.). It 
appears to me that Tennyson has fallen into the 
error of a Latin construction. I call it an error, 
because in that language the varied terminations 
of the cases and numbers make that plain which 
we have no means of evidencing in English. I 
should translate it " Numenii strepitus volantis " 
" The call of the curlew dreary (drearily) gleams 
about the moorland, as lie flies o'er Locksley Hall." 
The summer note of the curlew is a shrill clear 
whistle, but in winter they sometimes indulge in a 
wild melancholy scream. CORYLUS. 


Inscriptions in Churches (Vol. vi., p. 510.). 
I differ from your reply to NORWOOD'S Query, in 
which you refer to the colloquy between Queen 
Elizabeth and Dean Nowell as the origin of these 
inscriptions. No doubt they were derived from 
the custom of our ante-Reformation ancestors, of 
painting figures and legends of saints upon the 
walls of churches ; but the following instance will 
suffice to prove that they originated in the reign 
of Edward VI., and not in Queen Elizabeth's. 

In the interesting paper by the Rev. E. Ve- 
nables in the Transactions of the Cambridge 
Camden Society, on " The Church of St. Mary the 
Great, Cambridge," he gives, under the year 



[No. 166. 

1550, the following extracts from the church- 
wardens' accounts : 

" For makyng of the wall where Saynt 

George stood in the chyrche - vj a 

It. payd for wythynge y e chyrch - xx s iiij d 

; It. payd for wryghtynge of y e chyrch 

walls with Scriptures - iiij lib iij' iiij a ." 

Shortly after the accession of Queen Mary in 
1553, the following entry occurs : 

" Payd to Barnes for mendyng over the rode 
and over the altar in the chapell, and for 
washing oute the Scriptures - - - 4* 4 a ." 

They do not appear to have been restored after 
this, for in the year 1840 some of the plaister 
between two of the windows of the south aisle 
peeling off, discovered traces of " wryghtynge " 
beneath ; and I and another member of the Cam- 
bridge Camden Society spent some time in laying 
it bare, and after much difficulty made out that it 
was the Lord's Prayer in English, headed, " The 
Lord's Prayer, called the Paternoster," and written 
in the church text of the period, the whole en- 
closed in a sort of arabesque border ; it was not 
merely whited over, but had evidently been par- 
tially effaced, or partly " washed oute," before 
being " concealed under its dreary shroud of 
whitewash." On examination there were traces 
of more of this writing between the other windows, 
but we had not time to make any further inves- 
tigation, for the church was then being cleaned, 
and in a few days all that we had laid bare was 
again concealed under a veil of whitewash. 

Thus, I think, we may assign to the reign of 
Edward VI., not merely the obliteration of the 
numerous frescoes of St. Christopher, the great 
dome, &c., which are now so constantly coining to 
light, but also the origin of " wryghtynge of y e 
chyrch walls with scriptures " in their stead, some 
ten or twelve years earlier than the remarkable 
colloquy between Queen Elizabeth and the worthy 
Dean of St. Paul's. NOBRIS DECK. 


Dutensiana (Vol. vi., p. 376.). Lowndes gives 
a list of Dutens' works, which does not include 
" Correspondence interceptee," of which he was 
the author ; and I have seen a presentation copy 
of it proving this. W. C. TBEVELYAN. 

Early Phonography (Vol. vi., p. 424.). " Have 
the modern phonographists ever owned their debt 
of gratitude to their predecessors in the phonetic 

The subjoined advertisement may perhaps be 
considered an answer to this Query : 

" Hart's Orthography, 1569; or, ' An Orthographic 
conteyning the due order and reason, howe to write or 
paint thimage of manne's voice, most like to the life or 
nature. Composed by J. H. [John Hart], Chester 

Heralt;' reprinted from a copy in the British Museum. 
Cloth, 2s. 

" An unanswerable defence of Phonetic Spelling, and 
one of the earliest schemes of Phonetic Orthography. 
A considerable portion of the book being printed in the 
author's Phonetic Alphabet (given in the present edition 
in Phonetic Longhand), we have thus exhibited the pro- 
nunciation of the age of Shakspeare." 


Kentish Local Names ; Dray (Vol. vi., p. 410.). 
In the low embanked land in the west of 
Somersetshire, between Bristol and Taunton, the 
word drove is used in the same acceptation ; and 
driftway, I think, is also a term for ancient British 
roads in some parts of the kingdom. 


Monument at Modstena (Vol. vi., p. 388.). This 
monument was first published in Archceologia 
JEliana. I believe it is an incised slab ; but I have 
written to a friend in the north to inquire whether 
I am correct. W. C. TKEVELYAN. 

. Book-plates (Vol. iii., p. 495.). MR. PARSONS, 
it appears, limits his inquiries to English book- 
plates, about which I cannot offer any inform- 
ation. It is certain, however, that book-plates 
were used on the Continent at a very early period. 
I remember to have seen one, from a wood-block, 
which was cut by Albert Diirer for his friend 
Pirkheimer. As it is sixteen years since I saw it 
at the Imperial Library at Vienna, I cannot be 
expected to give a precise description; but (as 
far as I recollect) the wording of it was as follows : 
" Bilibaldi Pirckheimeri et Amicorum." 

A copy which I possess of Vesalius's great 
anatomical work (Basil, 1555) has the book-plate 
of a former Duke of Mecklenburg pasted inside 
the cover. It is a woodcut, ten inches by six and 
a half, representing the ducal arms, surrounded by 
an ornamented border. Beneath are the date and 
inscription : 

15 E 75 

H. G. V. V. G. 



I do not know what the first six letters stand 
for, nor is it worth inquiring. The latter part of 
the inscription "Ulrich Herzog zu Mecklen- 
burg" identifies the former possessor of the 
volume. JAYDEE. 

" World without end" (Vol. vi., p. 434.). Be- 
sides the places named by F. A., this phrase occurs 
in the authorised version of the Bible, in Is. xlv. 17., 
Ep. iii. 21. There is no doubt it is idiomatic, and 
is even now occasionally used in conversation. 
Our translators render at least three Hebrew 
words " world," and as many Greek ones. One of 
the latter, and two of the former, properly refer 
to time, like the Latin (Bourn sceculum ; and this also 

JAN. 1. 1853.] 



appears to have been the original meaning of 
" world," as it is one which it certainly has fre- 
quently in the Scriptures. " World without end" 
is the idiomatic rendering, equivalent to " in ssecula 
sseculorum," which is a literal following of an idiom 
common in both the Hebrew and Greek Scrip- 
tures, and to be found in the Chaldee of the Book 
of Daniel. " World without end" does not occur, 
so far as I am aware, in the modern European 
languages, which generally either follow the Latin 
" in ssecula sseculorum ;" or the German, and say, 
" eternally to eternity." B. H. COWPEB. 

Gloucester Ballad* (Vol. iv., p. 311.). Since 
I inserted these ballads, I have been informed, 
that the one entitled a " Gloucester Ditty " was 
from the pen of Charles Dibdin, who, paying 
a visit to the " fair city," was pressed by some 
friends to leave them a memento of such. Of my 
own knowledge, I cannot vouch for the truth of 
this story ; my informant's veracity is, however, 
unquestionable. I have recently obtained another 
copy ; like the former, it is without a date, but 
bears the well-known imprint, " Raikes, South- 
gate Street." 

The "Old Harry" is intended for one "Harry 
Hudman, King of the Island," a low district in 
Gloucester, a mock officer chosen by the lower 
orders. Harry kept the throne many years, but 
was at length outvoted ; but resolving to retain by 
stratagem what he could not by free choice, in- 
vited his competitor to a glass ; and while the lat- 
ter was taking his draught, Harry jumped into 
his seat, was chaired through the island, and was 
thus king another year. There was a ballad re- 
lating to this worthy, commencing 
" There was a man of renown, 
In Gloucester's fani'd town." 

Another verse informs us that 
" Old coffins ne'er new, 

And old pulpits too, 
Can be bought at his shop in the island." 

The "Taylor's Tale" alluded to is a ballad, 
written by a person of that name, on the manners 
and customs of the island. I have not been able 
to obtain copies of either of these just noticed 
ballads ; and should any correspondent of " N. & 
Q." possess such, they would oblige me by their in- 
sertion. H. G. D. 

Satirical Prints; Pope (Vol. vi., p. 434.). I 
have never seen this print that your correspon- 
dent refers to. It will no doubt be found, how- 
ever, to be a plate illustrating a scene in the 
following tract : " A Letter from Mr. Gibber to 
Mr. Pope, Sfc. : London, printed and sold by W. 
Lewis in Russell Street, Covent Garden, 1742," 
see pp. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49., where is given rather a 
warm description of the whole scene. Should this 
tract not be had by GRIFFIN, he may turn to 

D'Israeli's Quarrels of Authors, article "Pope and 
Gibber," note p. 193., col. 2., edit. 8vo., Moxon, 
1840; where D'Israeli adds : 

" This story, by our comic writer, was accompanied 
by a print, that was seen by more persons, probably, 
than read the Dunciad." 


Raising the Wind (Vol. vi., p. 486.). We say 
" the wind rises," and this is common in Virgil 
(see^neid. iii. 130. 481.; v. 777. : Georgics, i. 
356. ; ii. 333. ; and iii. 134.). The transition from 
rising to raising is easy ; and as there is no sailing 
without a breeze, so there is no getting along 
without money : in both cases, the wind is essen- 
tial to progress. As to the mode of obtaining the 
" needful," I know not much, but probably whist- 
ling will be found as effectual in one case as in 
the other. B. H. COWPER. 

Milton in Prose (Vol. vi., p. 340.). I know of 
one performance in the French language, which 
answers the description of Milton in Prose : it is a 
rhapsody entitled Le Paradis Terrestre, Poeme 
imite de Milton, by Madame Dubocage : London, 
1748. The French themselves had so poor an 
opinion of it, that one of their wits, the Abbe Yart, 
has ridiculed it in the following epigram : 

" Sur cet e"crit, charmante Dubocage, 

Veux-tu savoir quel est mon sentiment ? 
Je compte pour perdus, en lisant ton ouvrage, 
Le Paradis, mon temps, ta peine, et mon argent. 

St. Lucia. 

The Arunclelian Marbles (Vol. iv., p. 361.). 
Ma. W. SIDNEY GIBSON, in his account of this 
celebrated collection, quotes portions of an inte- 
resting letter, from James Theobald to Lord Wil- 
loughby de Parham, but he does not say from 
whence he obtained it. I have now before me 
two copies, one in Historical Anecdotes of the 
Howard Family, a new edition, 1817, p. 101. ; the 
other in a work entitled Oxoniana (published by 
Richard Phillips, 4 vols. 12mo., no date), vol. in. 
p. 42. Now both these copies differ from MR. 
GIBSON'S, and all three are at variance respecting 
some of those minor details which are of so much 
importance in inquiries of this description. Where 
is a genuine copy of Mr. Theobald's letter to be 

Pambotanologia (Vol. vi., p. 462.). INIVRI will 
find a full account of this work in Pulteney's His- 
torical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress 
of Botany in England, vol. i. p. 181. 


East Winch. 

Can a Man baptize himself? (Vol. vi., pp. 36. 
110.). This question has not yet received any 



[No. 166. 

correct answer. The following quotation from the 
Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas will resolve it as 
far as your querist W. is concerned : 

" Similiter autem Forma mutaretur, si diceretur 
Ego baptizo me;' et ideo nullus potest baptizare 
seipsum propter quod et CHRISTUS a Joanne voluit 
baptizari." Summa, 3 tis Pars, Quasstio Ixvi. Art v. 
Arg. 4. 

The REV. A. GATTY, while right in the negative 
answer which he gives to the question of W. t is 
quite wrong in the reasons on which he founds it. 
" Christian fellowship " is not of necessity a re- 
quisite for administering the sacrament of holy 
baptism. I quote again from the Summa of St. 
Thomas : 

" Ad primum ergo dicendum, quod Baptismum a 
schismaticis recipere non licet, nisi in articulo neces- 
sitatis : quia raelius est de hac vita, cum signo CHRISTI 
exire, a quocumque detur, etiam si sit Judaeus vel Pa- 
ganus, quam sine hoc signo, quod per Baptismum con- 
fertur." Summa, 2 n< * Pars, Qu;cstio xxxix. Art. iv. 
Arg. 1. 

As our own Church apparently only recognises 
sacerdotal baptism in her formularies, in answer- 
ing such a question as that of W. we must have 
recourse to the schoolmen and casuists of earlier 
times. W. PHASER. 



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DONNE, Bx*0TOf, 4to. First Kdltion, 1644. 
Second Edition, 1648. 



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Of whom may be had, 

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Just published, price Sixpence, or sent Free on receipt of Eight Postage Stamps, 


Containing interesting Articles on the True Orthography and Etymology of Shakspcare's Name ; Rema-ks on his Bequest to his Wife ; Shakspeare 
considered as a Comic Writer ; Curi' us Account of a Great and Destructive Flood at Stratford-on-Avon in his Time ; The Government and 
Shakspeare's House ; Remarks on Shakspeare's Gallantry ; Notes on his Pedigree ; On Shakspea-e's Manuscripts ; Old London Theatres ; 
Some Account of his Mulberry Tree and Walnut Tree ; Ancient Verses on his coming to London, Set. &c. 
Published by JAMES H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, Lradcn. 



[No. 166. 




Historical and Literary Introduction by an Antiquary. Square post 8vo. 
with M Engravings, being the most accurate copies ever executed of 
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SURNAMES. 2 vols. post 8vo. Third Edition, greatly enlarged. 
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or Biography of Literary Characters of Great Britain and Ireland, 
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Published under the superintendence of the Royal Society of Literature . 
COINS. An Introduction to the Study of Ancient 

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BRITAIN, described and illustrated. By J. Y. AKERMAN, F.S.A. 
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logical Index to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, Romano-British, 
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LADS, srnthcred from Ancient Musick Books, MS. and Printed. By 
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Antique Ballads, snnsr to crowds of old. 

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Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, Janaary 1. 18SS. 




When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 167.] 


{Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, fjd. ' 



'- 35 



Autograph of Edward of Lancaster, Son of Henry VI., 

by Sir Frederic Madden - 

Robert Bloomfield, by George.Daniel - 
Note for London Topographers, by Lambert B. Larking 
Sermons by Parliamentary Chaplains, by R. C. Warde 
A Perspective View of Twelve Postage-stamps, by 

Cuthbert Bede, B.A. - 

MINOR NOTES : Cremona Violins Prices of Tea 
Coleridge a Prophet Lord Bacon's Advice peculiarly 
applicable to the Correspondents of "N. & Q." 
Etymology ofMolasses A Sounding Name - 36 


Roman Sepulchral Inscriptions, by Rev. E. S. Taylor - 37 
Chapel Plaster, by J. E. Jackson - - - - 37 

MINOB QUERIES: Martha Blount Degree of B.C. L. 
_ The Word " anywhen " Shoreditch Cross, &c 
Winchester and Huntingdon La Bruyere Sir John 
Davys or Davies Fleshier of Otley Letters U, V, 
W Heraldic Queries " Drengage " and " Berewich " 

Sidney as a Female Name " The Brazen Head" 

Portrait of Baron Lechmere " Essay for a New 
Translation of the Bible," and " Letters on Prejudice " 
David Garrick Aldiborontophoskophornio Quota- 
tions wanted Arago on the Weather "Les Veus 
du Hairon," or ' Le Vceu du Heron" Inscription on 

a Dagger-case Hallet and Dr. Saxby. - - 38 


Descent of the Queen from John of Gaunt, by W. Hardy 41 
Uncertain Etymologies : " Leader" - - 43 

Lines on Tipperary - - - - 43 

Shakspeare Emendations, by Thomas Keightley - 44 

Statues represented on Coins, by W. H. Scott - 45 

Judge Jeffreys, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault, &c. - - 45 
Dutch Allegorical Pictures, by Dr. J. H. Todd - 46 

The Reprint, in 1808, of the First Folio Edition of 
Shakspeare ...... 47 

Collodion Process Ready Mode of iodizing Paper 
After-dilution of Solutions Stereoscopic Pictures 
from one Camera Camera for Out.door Operations 47 
"'Twas on the Morn" - - - - - 49 

Alleged Reduction of English Subjects to Slavery, by 
Henry H. Breen - - . - - - - 49 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Royal Assent, &c Can 
Bishops vacate their Sees? " Genealogies of the 
Mordaunt Family," by the Earl of Peterborough 
Niagara, or Niagara ? Maudlin Spiritual Persons 
employed in Lay Offices Passage in Burke Ensake 
and Cradock Arms Sich House Americanisms so 
called The Folger Family Wake Family Shak- 
speare's "Twelfth Night" Electrical Phenomena 
Daubuz Family Lord Nelson Robes and Fees in 
the Days of Robin Hood Wray Irish Rhymes - 50 

Notes on Books, &c. . _ _ -53 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 53 

Notices to Correspondents . . - 54 

Advertisements - . . . .54 

VOL. VII. No. 167. 


In the Museum of Antiquities at Rouen is pre- 
served an original document, thus designated, 
" Lettre d'Edouard, Prince de Galles (1471)." It 
is kept under a glass case, and shown as "an un- 
doubted autograph of the Black Prince," accord- 
ing to the testimony of the gentleman who has 
very obligingly placed a transcript of this interest- 
ing relic at my disposal. It is as follows : 

" Chers et bons amis, nous avons entendu, que 
ung nostre homme lige subject, natif de nostre pays 
de Galles, est occupe et detenu es prisons de la 
ville de Diepe, pour la mort d'un homme d'icelle 
ville, dont pour le diet cas autres ont este executez. 
Et pour ce que nostre diet subject estoit clerc, a 
este et est encores en suspens, parce qu'il a este 
requis par les officiers de nostre tres cher et aime 
cousin 1'archevesque de Rouen, afin qu'il leur fut 
rendu, ainsi que de droict ; pourquoy nous vous 
prions, que icelui nostre homme et subject vous 
veuillez bailler et delivrer aux gens et officiers de 
mon diet cousin, sans en ce faire difficulte. Et 
nous vous en saurons un tres grant gre, et nous 
ferez ung essingulier plaisir. Car monseigneur le 
roy de France nous a autorisez faire grace en 
semblable cas que celui de mon diet subject, du- 
quel desirons fort la delivrance. Escript a Rouen, 
le onziesme jour de Janvier. 

(Signed) EDUARD. 
(Countersigned) MARTIN." 

The error of assigning this signature to Edward 
the Black Prince is sufficiently obvious, and some- 
what surprising, since we here have an undoubted, 
and, I believe, unique autograph of Edward of 
Lancaster, Prince of Wales, only son of Henry VI. 
by Margaret of Anjou. He was born at West- 
minster, October 13th, 1453, and was therefore, in 
January, 1471 (no doubt the true date of the 
document), in the eighteenth year of his age. He 
had sought refuge from the Yorkists, in France, 
with his mother, ever since the year 1462, and in 
the preceding July or August, 1470, had been 
affianced to Anne Neville, the youngest daughter of 
the Earl of Warwick. At the period when this 


[No. 167. 

letter was written at Rouen, Margaret of Anjou 
was meditating the descent into England which 
proved so fatal to herself and son, whose life was 
taken away with such barbarity on the field at 
Tewksbury, in the month of May following. The 
letter is addressed, apparently, to the magistrates 
of Rouen or Dieppe, to request the liberation of a 
native of Wales (imprisoned for the crime of having 
slain a man), and his delivery to the officers of the 
Archbishop of Rouen, on the plea of his being a 
clerk. The prince adds, that he was authorised by 
the King of France (Louis XI.) to grant grace in 
similar cases. As the signature of this unfortunate 
prince is at present quite unknown in the series of 
English royal autographs, it would be very desirable 
that an accurate fac-simile should be made of it 
by some competent artist ; and perhaps the art of 
photography might in this instance be most advan- 
tageously and successfully used to obtain a perfect 
copy of the entire document. F. MADDEN. 


Presuming that some of the many readers of 
" K. & Q." may feel an interest in the author 
of The Farmer's Boy, whom I knew intimately 
(a sickly-looking, retiring, and meditative man), 
and have often seen trimming his bright little 
flower-garden fronting his neat cottage in the 
City Road a pastry-cook's shop, an apple and 
oyster stall, and part of the Eagle Tavern (" To 
what base uses," &c.) now occupy its, to me, hal- 
lowed site, I send you a few extracts from his 
sale catalogue, an interesting and a rare document, 
as a mournful record of a genius as original and 
picturesque, as it was beautiful and holy. His 
books, prints, drawings (215 lots), and furniture 
(105 lots) were sold in the humble house in which 
he died, at Shefford, Beds, on the 28th and 29th 
May, 1824. The far greater number of his books 
had been presented to him by his friends, viz. 
the Duke of Grafton (a very liberal contributor), 
Dr. Drake, James Montgomery, Samuel Rogers, 
Mrs. Barbauld, Richard Cumberland, Sir James 
Bland Surges, Capel Lofft, &c. His autograph 
manuscript of The Farmer's Boy, elegantly bound, 
was sold for 14Z. ; of Rural Tales, boards, for 
4Z.; of Wild Flowers, for 31. 10*.; of Banks of 
the Wye, for 31. ; of May-day with the Muses 
(imperfect), for ten shillings ; and Description 
of the JEolian Harp (he was a maker of .ZEolian 
harps), for 15s. His few well-executed draw- 
ings by himself (views of his City Road cottage 
and garden, &c.) produced from 5s. to 18s. each. 
Among his furniture were " A handsome ink- 
stand, presented to him by the celebrated Dr. 
Jenner " (in return for his sweet poem of " Good 
Tidings "), and the " celebrated oak table, which 
Mr. Bloomfield may be said to have rendered 

immortal by the beautiful and pathetic poem in- 
scribed to it in his Wild Flowers. The first 
was sold for 61. 10s., the second for 141. I am 
happy in the possession of the original miniature 
(an admirable likeness, and finely painted) of 
Robert Bloomfield, by Edridge. It is the first and 
most authentic portrait of him that was engraved, 
and prefixed to his poems : 

" And long as Nature in her simplest guise, 
And virtuous sensibility we prize, 
Of well-earn 'd fame no poet shall enjoy 
A fairer tribute than The Farmer's Soy." 



I send you a note for London topographers. 
The charter is dateless, but, inasmuch as Walter 
de Langeton was appointed to the bishopric of 
Coventry and Lichfield in 1295, and Sir John le 
Bretun was " custos " of London 22 to 25 Edw. I., 
i. e. 1294 to 1297, we may fairly assign it to the 
years 1296 or 1297 : 

" Omnibus Christ! fidelibus ad quos presentes 
litere pervenerint, Johannes de Notlee salutem 
in domino. Noveritis me remisisse, et omnino 
quietum clamasse pro me et heredibus meis, Do- 
mino Waltero de Langeton, Coventrensi et Lich- 
feldensi episcopo, heredibus, vel assignatis suis, 
totum jus et clameum quod habui, vel aliquo modo 
habere potui, in quadam placea terre cum per- 
tinenciis in vico Westmonasterio sine ullo retene- 
mento, illam videlicet que jacet inter exitum curie 
et porte domini Walter! episcopi supradicti, ex 
una parte, et tenementum Henrici Coci ex altera, 
et inter altum stratam que ducit de Charryngg 
versus curiam Westmonasterii, ex parte una et 
tenementum domini Walteri episcopi supradicti, 
ex altera ; Ita quod ego predictus Johannes, aut 
heredes rnei, sive aliquis nomine nostro nuncquam 
durante seculo in predicta placea terre cum om- 
nibus suis pertinenciis, aliquod jus vel clameum 
habere, exigere, vel vendicare poterirnus quoquo 
modo in perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium, 
sigillum meum apposui huic scripto. His testibus, 
Dominis Johanne le Bretun tune custode civitatis 
Londonii ; Roberto de Basingg, militibus ; Johanne 
de Bankwelle ; Radulpho le Vynneter ; Adam de 
Kynggesheued ; Henrico Coco ; Reginaldo le Por- 
ter ; Henrico du Paleys ; Hugone le Mareschal, et 


Perhaps there is nothing in ecclesiastical writ- 
ings more ludicrously and rabidly solemn than the 
sermons preached before " The Honourable House 
of Commons" during the Protectorate, by that war- 
like race of saints who figure so extensively in the 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



history of those times. I possess some thirty of 
these, and extract from their pages the following 
morsels, which may be taken as a fair sample of 
the general strain : 


" ' Gemitus Columbse,' the Mournful Note of 
the Dove ; a Sermon preached," &c. : by John Lang- 
lev, Min. of West Tuperley in the Countie of South- 
ampton. 1644. 

" The oxen were plowing, the asses were feeding 
beside them ('twas in the relation of one of Job's mes- 
sengers). By the oxen wee are to vnderstand the 
laborious Clergie ; by the asses, that were feeding beside 
them, wee may vnderstande the Laity " ( ! ). P. 8. 

" The worde set on by the Spirit, as Scanderbags' 
sworde, by the arme of Scanderbags, will make a deepe 
impression." P. 16. 

Query, what is the allusion here ? 

" We came to the height, shall I saye, of our fever 
(or frenzie, rather), when wee began to catch Dotterills, 
when wee fell to cringing and complimenting in wor- 
ship, stretching out a wing to their wing, a legge to 
their legge." P. 18. 

" Time was when the Dove-cote was searched, the 
Pistolls were cockt; the Bloudie-birdes were shirring 
about : then the Lord withdrew the birds." P. 29. 

' When your ginnes and snares catch any of the 
Bloudie-birdes, dally not with them, blood will have blood; 
contracte not their bloude-guiltinesse vpon your owne 
soules, by an vnwarranted clemencie and mildnesse." 
P. 30. 

" (Note The 'Bloudie-birdes,' f. e. the cavaliers.)" 


" A Peace Offering to God : a Sermon preached," &c., 
by Stephen Marshall, B. D. 1641. 

" Not like tavernes, and alehouses, bowses of lewd 
and debauched persons, where Zim and Jim dwels, dole- 
ful 1 creatures, fitt only to be agents to Satan." P. 50. 

I conclude with a rather interesting scrap, which 
I do not remember to have met with elsewhere, 

" The Ruine of the Authors and Fomentors of 
Ciuill Warre ; a Sermon," &c., by Samuel Gibson. 

' ; There was a good motto written ouer the gates at 
Yorke, at King James the Firste his firste entraunce 
into that city : 

' Suavis Victoria amor populi.' 

i. e. the sweete victorie is the love of the people." 
P. 27. 




Ii. the advertising sheet of " N. & Q." for De- 
cember 18, 1852, its unartistic readers have the 
tempting offer placed before them of being taught 

" the art of drawing and copying portraits, views, 
steel or Avood engravings, with perfect accuracy, 
ease, and quickness, in one lesson!" And when 
the gentle reader of "N. & Q." has recovered from 
the shock of this startling announcement, he is 
further instructed that, " by sending a stamped 
directed envelope and twelve postage-stamps, the 
necessary articles will be forwarded with the in- 
structions." Who would not, thinks the gentle 
reader, be a Raphael, a Rubens, or a Claude, when 
the metamorphosis may be effected for twelve 
postage- stamps ? And then, delighted with the 
thought that no expensive residence in Italy, or 
laborious application through long years of study, 
will be required, but that the royal road to art 
may be traversed by paying the small toll of twelve 
postage-stamps, he forthwith gives them to " Mr. 
A. B. Cleveland, 13. Victoria Street, Brighton," 
and in due course of time Mr. A. B. C. forwards 
him "the necessary articles with the instructions," 
the former of which the gentle reader certainly 
finds to be "no expensive apparatus," but as 
simple as A, B, C. The articles consist of a small 
piece of black paper, and a small piece of common 
tissue paper, oiled in a manner very offensive to a 
susceptible nose. The instructions are printed, 
and are prefaced by a paragraph which truly de- 
clares them to be "most simple :" 

" The outlines must be sketched by the following 
means, and may be filled up according to pleasure. In 
the first place, lay what you intend to copy straight be- 
fore you ; then lay over it the transparent paper, and 
you will see the outlines most distinctly ; pencil them 
over lightly, taking care to keep the paper in the same 
position until you have finished the outlines ; after 
which, place the paper or card you intend the copy 
to appear on under the black tracing-paper, with 
the black side on it, and on which place the outlines 
you have previously taken, remembering to keep them 
all straight, and then, by passing a piece of wire (or 
anything brought to a point not sufficient to scratch) 
correctly over the said outlines, you will have an exact 
impression of the original upon the card intended, which 
must then be filled up. I would recommend a portrait 
for the ftrst attempt, which can be done in a few minutes, 
and you will soon see your success. Of course you can 
ink or paint the copy according to pleasure. " 

" Why, of course I can," probably exclaims the 
now un-gentle reader ; " of course I can, when I 
have the ability to do it, a consummation which 
I devoutly wish for, and which I am quite as far 
from as when I was weak-minded enough to send 
my twelve postage-stamps to Mr. A. B. C. ; and 
yet that individual encloses me a card along witli 
his nasty oiled paper and ' instructions,' which 
card he has the assurance to head ' scientific ! ' 
and says, ' the exquisite and beautiful art of draw- 
ing landscapes, &c. from nature, in true perspec- 
tive, with perfect accuracy, ease, and quickness, 
taught to the most inexperienced person in ONE 



[No. 167. 

" I should like to know how I am to lay the 
landscape straight before me, and put my oiled 
paper on the top of it, and trace its outlines in 
true perspective? I should like also to know, 
since Mr. A. B. C. recommends a portrait for the 
first attempt, how I am to lay the transparent paper 
over my wife's face, without her nose making a hole 
in the middle of it ? It is all very well for Mr. 
A. B. C. to say that he ' continues to receive very 
satisfactory testimonials respecting the RESULT of 
his instructions, which are remarkable for sim- 
plicity (I allow that), and invaluable for correct- 
ness ' (I deny that). But, although he prints 
' result ' in capital letters, all the testimonial that 
I can give him will be to testify to the (on his 
part) satisfactory result attending his 'art of draw- 
ing ' twelve postage-stamps out of my pocket." 

Thus, can I imagine, would the gentle reader 
soliloquise, on finding he had received two worth- 
less bits of paper in return for his investment of 
postage-stamps. My thoughts were somewhat the 
same ; for I, alas ! sent " twelve postage-stamps," 
which are now lost to view in the dim perspective, 
and I shall only be too happy to sell Mr. A. B. C. 
his instructions, &c. at half-price. In the mean 
time, however, I forward them for Mr. Editor's 
inspection. CUTHBEET BEDE, B.A. 

Cremona Violins. As many of your readers 
are no doubt curious about the prices given, in 
former times, for musical instruments, I transcribe 
an order of the time of Charles II. for the purchase 
of two Cremona violins. 

" [Audit Office Enrolments, vi. 359.] 
" These are to pray and require you to pay, or 
cause to be paid, to John Bannester, one of his 
Ma ties Musicians in Ordinary, the some of fourty 
pounds for two Cremona Violins by him bought 
and delivered for his Ma" Service, as may appeare 
by the Bill annexed, and also tenn pounds for 
stringes for two yeares ending June 24, 1662. 
And this shall be your warrant. Given under my 
hand, this 24th day of October, 1662, in the four- 
teenth year of his Majesty's reign. 

" To S r Edward Griffin, En 4 , 
Treasurer of his Ma"" Chamber." 


Prices of Tea. From Read's Weekly Journal 
or British Gazetteer, Saturday, April 27, 1734 : 

" Green Tea 
Bohea - 
Pekoe - 

9s. to 12s. per Ib. 

10s. to 12s. 

10s. to 12s. 

14s. to 16. 

9s. to 12s. 

20s. to 25s. 


Coleridge a Prophet. Among the political 
writers of the nineteenth century, who has shown 
such prophetic insight into the sad destinies of 
France as Coleridge ? It is the fashion with lite- 
rary sciolists to ignore the genius of this great man. 
Let the following extracts stand as evidences of 
his profound penetration. 

Friend, vol. i. p. 244. (1844) : 

" That man has reflected little on human nature who- 
does not perceive that the detestable maxims and cor- 
respondent 'crimes of the existing 'French despotism, 
have already dimmed the recollections of democratic 
phrenzy in the minds of men ; by little and little have 
drawn off to other objects the electric force of the feel- 
ings which had massed and upholden those recollec- 
tions ; and that a favourable concurrence of occasions, 
is alone wanting to awaken the thunder and precipitate 
the lightning from the opposite quarter of the political 

Let the events of 1830 and 1848 speak for them- 
selves as to the fulfilment of this forecast. 

Biographia Literaria, vol. i. p. 30. (1847), [after 
a most masterly analysis of practical genius] : 

" These, in tranquil times, are formed to exhibit a 
perfect poem in palace, or temple, or landscape-garden, 
&c. . . . But alas ! in times of tumult they are 
the men destined to come forth as the shaping spirit of 
ruin, to destroy the wisdom of ages in order to substi- 
tute the fancies of a day, and to change kings and king- 
doms, as the wind shifts and shapes the clouds." 

Let the present and the future witness the truth 
of this insight. We have (in Coleridge's words) 
"lights of admonition and warning;" and we may 
live to repent of our indifference, if they are 
thrown away upon us. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 


Lord Bacoris Advice peculiarly applicable to the 
Correspondents of " N. Sf Q." Lord Bacon has 
written that 

" A man would do well to carry a pencil in his 
pocket, and write down the thoughts of the moment. 
Those that come unsought for are generally the most 
valuable, and should be secured, because they seldom 

w. w. 


Etymology of Molasses. The affinity between 
the orthography of this word in Italian (melassa), 
Spanish (melaza), and French (mclasse), and our 
pronunciation of it (melasses), would seem to sug- 
gest a common origin. How comes it, then, that 
we write it with an o instead of an e ? Walker 
says it is derived from the Italian " mellazzo " 
(sic) ; and some French lexicographers trace their 
" melasse " from jueAas, with reference to the co- 
lour ; others from jueA., in allusion to the taste. 
But these Greek derivations are too recondite for- 
our early sugar manufacturers ; and the likelihood' 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



is, that they found the word nearer home, in some 
circumstance which had less to do with literary 
refinement than with the refining of sugar. 

There is an expression in French which is iden- 
tical in spelling with this word, namely, "molasse" 
(softish so to speak) ; and which describes the 
liquidity of molasses, as distinguished from the 
granulous substance of which they are the residue. 
As our first sugar establishment was formed in 
1643, in an island (St. Christopher) one half of 
which was then occupied by the French, it is pos- 
sible that we may have adopted the word from 
them ; and this conjecture is supported by the 
following passage in Pere Labat (vol. iii. p. 93.), 
where he uses the word " molasse " in the sense of 
soft, to describe a species of sugar that had not 
received, or had lost, the proper degree of con- 

" Je vis leur sucre qui me parut tres beau et bien 
grene, surtout lorsqu'il est nouvellement fait ; mais on 
m'assura qu'il devenait cendreux ou molasse, et qu'il se 
decuisait quand il etait garde quelques jours." 


St. Lucia. 

r A Sounding Name. At the church of Elmley 
Castle, Worcestershire, is a record of one John 
Chapman, whose name, it is alleged, " sounds in 
(or throughout) the world," but for my own part 
I have never been privileged to hear either the 
original blast or the echo. Perhaps some of the 
readers of " N. & Q." can inform me who and 
what was the owner of this high-sounding name. 
Was he related to Geo. Chapman, the translator 
of Homer ? The inscription is as follows : 
" Memorias defunctorum Sacrum 

Kai TiKptavia. 

Siste gradum, Viator, ac leges. In spe beatse Resur- 
rectionis hie requiescunt exuviae Johannis Chapmanni 
et Isabellas uxoris, filiae Gulielmi Allen de Wightford, 
in Comitat. War. ab antique Proavorum stemmate de- 
duxerunt genus. Variis miseriarum agitati procellis 
ab strenue succumbentis in arrescenti juventutis restate, 
pie ac peccatorum pcenitentia cxpirabant animas. 

Maij 10 Die Anno Domini 1677. 
Sistite Pierides Chapmannum plangere, cujus 
Spiritus in coelis, nomen in orbe sonat." 



In the year 1 847 I brought from the Columbaria, 
near the tomb of Scipio Africanus at Rome, a small 
collection of sepulchral fictile vessels, statuettes, 
&c., in terra cotta. Among these was a small 
figure, resembling the Athenian Hermae, consist- 
ing of a square pillar, surmounted by the bust of 
a female with a peculiar head-dress and close 

curled coiffure. The pillar bears the following 





; KHT 


a translation of which would oblige me much. 

Another, in the form of a small votive altar, 
bears the heads of the "Dii Majores" and their 
attributes, the thunderbolt, two-pronged spear, 
and trident, and the inscription 


VIVNTIS " (i.e. vivantis). 

Of the meaning of this I am by no means cer- 
tain ; and I have searched Montfaucon in vain, to 
discover anything similar. 

A third was a figure of the Egyptian Osiris, 
exactly resembling in every point (save the mate- 
rial) the little mummy-shaped figures in bluish- 
green porcelain, which are found in such numbers 
in the catacombs of Ghizeh and Abousir. As the 
Columbaria were probably the places of sepulture 
of the freedmen, these various traces of national 
worship would seem to indicate that they were 
still allowed to retain the deities peculiar to the 
countries from which they came, though their 
master might be of a different faith. 


Ormesby, St. Marg., Norfolk. 


In North Wilts, between Corsham and Bradford, 
and close to the meeting of five or six roads, there 
is a well-known public-house, contiguous to which 
is an ancient wayside chapel bearing this peculiar 
name. Some account of the place, with two views 
of the chapel, is given in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
February, 1835, page 143. The meaning of the 
word plaster has always been a puzzle to local 
antiquaries, and no satisfactory derivation of it has 
yet been given. The first and natural notion is, 
that some allusion is made to the material with 
which it may have been coated. But this is im- 
probable, the building being of good freestone, not 
requiring any such external addition. Some have 
interpreted it to be the chapel of the plas-trew, or 
" woody place." But this again is very unlikely ; 
as the place is not only as far as possible from 
being woody no>f , but can hardly ever have been 
otherwise than what it is. The rock comes close 
to the surface, and the general situation is on a 
bleak exposed hill, as unfavourable as can be for 
the growth of trees. Leland, indeed, as he rode 
by, took it for a hermitage, and does also say that 
the country beyond it " begins to be woody." But 



[No. 167. 

a point of meeting of five or six much frequented 
roads, a few miles only from Bath and other towns, 
would be an unsuitable spot for a hermit ; besides 
which, the country beyond a spot, is not the spot 
itself. Others have thought it may have been 
built by a person of the name of Plaister; one 
which, though uncommon, is still not entirely ex- 
tinct in the county. Of this, however, there is no 

A derivation has occurred to me from noticing 
a slight variety in the spelling and statement of 
tie name, as it is given by one of the ancient his- 
torians of Glastonbury. He calls it " the chapell 
ofplaysters" and says that, like one or two houses 
of a similar kind, it was built for the relief and 
entertainment of pilgrims resorting to the great 
shrine at that monastery. This indeed is the most 
reasonable and probable account of it, as it lies on 
the direct road between Malmesbury and Glaston- 
bury, and the prevailing tradition has always been 
that such was the purpose for which it was used. 
It is fair to presume that the name has some con- 
nexion with the use. 

Now, it is well known that pilgrimages were not 
in all respects very painful or self-denying exer- 
cises, but that, with the devotional feeling in 
which they took their origin, was combined, in 
course of time, a considerable admixture of jovial- 
ity and recreation. They were often, in short, 
looked upon as parties for merry-making, by people 
of every class of life, who would leave their busi- 
ness and duties, on pretence of these pious expe- 
ditions, but really for a holiday, and, as Chaucer 
himself describes it, ' to play a pilgrimage." ("The 
Shipmanne's Tale.") Many also were pilgrims by 
regular profession, as at this day in Italy, for the 
pleasure of an idle gad-about life at other people's 
expense. May not such " play-ers " of pilgrimages 
have been called, in the vernacular of the times, 
play-sters?" The termination -ster, said to be 
derived from a Saxon noun, seems in our language 
to signify a habit or constant employment. A malt- 
ster is one whose sole business it is to make malt ; 
a tap-ster, one whose duties are confined to the 
tap ; a road-ster is a horse exclusively used as a 
hack ; a game-ster, the devotee of the gaming-table. 
From these analogies it seems not unreasonable to 
suppose that the persons who made a constant 
habit of attending these pleasant jaunts to Glas- 
tonbury may have been called by the now-forgotten 
name of play-sters." If so, " the chapell of play- 
strers " becomes nothing more than " the chapel of 
pilgrims" according to the best tradition that we 
have of it. Perhaps some of your readers may 
have met with the word in this sense ? 


Leigh Delamere. 


Martha Blount. Is there any engraved por- 
trait of this lady ? and can any of your numerous 
correspondents give me reasonable hope of finding 
portraits of Mrs. Rackett and other connexions 
of Pope ? I would suggest, that when we are 
favoured with a new edition of the little great 
man's works, each volume should contain a por- 
trait, if procurable, of those who catch a reflected 
ray of greatness from association with the poet. 


Feltham House, Middlesex. 

Degree of B.C.L. In Vol. vi., p. 534., an 
Oxford B.C.L. asked the privileges to which a 
gentleman having taken this degree was entitled. 
Perhaps your correspondent will inform me what 
is the least time of actual residence required at 
the university, and the kind of examination a 
candidate for the honour has to be subjected to, 
before he becomes a B.C.L. ? also the way for a 
stranger to go about it, who wants to spend as 
little money and time in the matter as is possible ? 

J. F. 


The Word " anywhen." Why should not this 
adverb, which exists as a provincialism in some 
parts of England, be legitimatised, and made as 
generally useful as anywhere, or anyhow, or any- 
one ? If there be no classical precedent for it, will 
not some of the many authors who contribute to 
your pages take pity upon anywhen, and venture 
to introduce him to good society, where I am sure 
he would be appreciated ? "W. FRASER. 

Shoreditch Cross, $-c. Can any of your readers 
inform me where a model or picture of the Cross 
which formerly stood near the church of St. Leo- 
nard, Shoreditch, can be seen? Also, where a 
copy of any description can be seen of the painted 
window in the said church ? 

Sir Henry Ellis, in his History of the Parish, 
gives us no illustration of the above. J. W. B. 

Winchester and Huntingdon. I would with 
your permission ask, whether Winchester and 
Huntingdon have at any time been more populous 
than they are at present, and what may have been 
the largest number of inhabitants they are sup- 
posed to have contained ? G. H. 

La Bruyere. What is known concerning the 
family of Jean de la Bruyere, author of Les 
Caracteres ? Did he belong to the great French 
house of that name? One of the biographical 
dictionaries states that he was grandson of a Lieu- 
tenant Civil, engaged in the Fronde ; but M. Suard, 
in his " Notice " prefixed to Les Caracteres, says 
that nothing is known of the author except his 
birth, death, and office. His grand-daughter, Mag- 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



dalen Rachel de la Bruyere, married an officer of 
the name of Shrom, and died in 1780, at Morden 
in Surrey, where there is a handsome monument 
to her memory. Being one of her descendants in 
the female line, I should feel much obliged by any 
information respecting her father, the son of Jean 
de la Bruyere ; or tending to connect that writer 
with the family founded by Thibault de la Bruyere, 
the Crusader. URSULA. 

Sir John Davys or Dames. I am very anxious 
to get any information that can be procured about 
Sir John Davys or Davies, Knight Marshal of 
Connaught, temp. Elizabeth. What were his arms ? 
Any portions of his pedigree would be most de- 
sirable ; also any notices of the various grants of 
land given by him, particularly to members of his 
own family. I would also give any reasonable price 
for John Davies' Display of Heraldry of six Coun- 
ties of North Wales, published 1716 : or, if any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." have the book, and 
would favour me with a loan of it, I would return 
it carefully as soon as I had made some extracts 
from it. SEIVAD. 

Fleshier of Otley. What are the arms of 
Fleshier of Otley, Yorkshire ? They existed, not 
many years ago, in a window of a house built by 
one of the above-named family, in Otley. 

Bingley, Yorkshire. 

Letters U, V, W. Could any correspondent of 
the " N. & Q." give us any clear idea of the man- 
ner in which we ought to judge of those letters as 
they are printed from old MSS. or in old books. 
Is there any rule known by which their pronunci- 
ation can be determined ? For instance, how was 
the name of Wales supposed to have been pro- 
nounced four hundred years ago, or the name 
Walter ? How could two such different sounds as 
U and V now represent, come by the old printers 
both to be denoted by V ? And is it supposed 
that our present mode of pronouncing some words 
is taken from their spelling in books ? We see 
this done in foreign names every day by persons 
who have no means of ascertaining the correct 
pronunciation. Can it have been done exten- 
sively in the ordinary words of the language. Or 
can it be possible, that the confusion between the 
printed V and .W and U has produced the con- 
fusion in pronouncing such words now beginning 
with TF, which some classes of her Majesty's sub- 
jects are said to pronounce as if they commenced 
with V? I ask for information : and to know if 
the question has anywhere been discussed, in 
which case perhaps some one can refer me to it. 

A. F. II. 

Heraldic Query. I should be greatly indebted 
to any of your correspondents who will assist me 

in tracing the family to which the following arms 
belong. Last century they were borne by a gen- 
tleman of the name of Oakes : but I find no grant 
in the college, nor, in fact, can I discover any 
British arms like them. Argent, a pale per pale 
or, and gules : between two limbs of an oak 
fructed proper. On a chief barry of six of the 
second and third ; a rose between two leopards 
faces all of the last. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBT. 

"Drengage" and "Berewich" In Domesday 
certain tenants are described as drenches or drengs, 
holding by dr engage ; and some distinction is made 
between the drengs and another class of tenants, 
who are named berewites ; as, for instance, in 

" Huj' en alia t'ra xv hoes quos Drencht vocabant 
pro xv (n tenet sed huj' rf) lerewich erant." 

I shall be glad if any information as to these 
tenures, and also as to the derivation of the words 
" drengage " and " berewich," or berewite, both 
of which may be traced, I believe, to a Danish 
origin. JAMES CEOSBT. 


Sidney as a Female Name. In several families 
of our city the Christian name of Sidney is borne 
by females, and it is derived, directly or indirectly, 
from a traceable source. 

The object of the present inquiry is to ascertain 
whether the same name, and thus spelled, is simi- 
larly applied in any families of Great Britain? If 
at all, it should be found in the north of Ireland. 
But your correspondent would be pleased to 
learn, from any quarter, of such use of the name, 
together with the tradition of the reason for its 
adoption. R- D. B. 


" The Brazen Head" Will any reader of " N. 
& Q." be good enough to inform the undersigned 
where he can obtain, by purchase or by loan, the 
perusal of any part or parts of the above-men- 
tioned work ? It was published as a serial in 1828 
orM829. A. F.A. W. 


Portrait of Baron Lechmere. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me if there is any engraved 
portrait in existence of the celebrated Whig, Lord 
Lechmere, Baron of Evesham, who died at Camden 
House, London, in the year 1727, and lies buried 
in the church of Hanley Castle, near Upton-on- 
Severn, co. Worcester ? 

While on the subject of portraits, some of your 
correspondents may be glad to learn that an ex- 
cellent catalogue of engraved portraits is now pass- 
ing through the press, by Messrs. Evans and Sons, 
Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, of 
which forty-six numbers are issued. 




[No. 167. 

"Essay for a New Translation of the Bible" and 
"Letters on Prejudice." A friend of mine has 
requested me to inquire through " N. & Q." who 
are the authors of the undermentioned books, in 
his possession ? 

An Essay for a New Translation of the Bible, 
one volume 8vo. : " printed for R. Gosling, 1727." 
Dedicated to the Bishops : the dedication signed 
".H. R." Letters on Prejudice, two volumes 8vo. : 
" in which the nature, causes, and consequences of 
prejudice in religion are considered, with an appli- 
cation to the present times :" printed for Cadell in 
the Strand ; and Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1822. 


David Garrick. In the sale catalogue of Isaac 
Reed's books is a lot described as " Letter of 
David Garrick against Mr. Stevens, with Observ- 
ations by Mr. Reed, MS. and printed." Can any 
of your correspondents inform me in whose pos- 
session is this letter with Reed's observations ; 
whether Garrick's letter was published ; and, if so, 
what public library contains a copy ? G. D. 

Aldiborontophoskophornio. Will you or some 
of your readers inform me in what play, poem, or 
tale this hero, with so formidable a name, is to be 
found? F. R. S. 

Quotations wanted. Will you or some of your 
correspondents tell where this sentence occurs : 
" It requireth great cunning for a man to seem to 
know that which he knoweth not ?" Miss Edge- 
worth gives it as from Lord Bacon. I cannot find 
it. Also, where this very superior line : " Life is 
like a game of tables, the chances are not in our 
power, but the playing is ? " This I have seen 
quoted as from Jeremy Taylor, but where ? I 
have looked his works carefully through : it is so 
clever that it must be from a superior mind. And 
where, in Campbell, is " A world without a sun ? " 
This, I believe, is in Gertrude of Wyoming. 

Excuse this trouble, Mi 1 . Editor ; but you are 
now become the general referee in puzzles of this 
kind. A.'B. 

Arago on the Weather. I saw some of Arago's 
meteorological observations in an English ma- 
gazine some time ago, taken, I believe, from the 
Annuaire. Can any one give me a reference to 
them ? ELSNO. 

" Les Veus du Hairon," or " Le Vtsu du Heron" 
Is any more known of this curious historical ro- 
mance than Sainte Palaye tells us in the third 
volume of his Memoires sur lAncienne Chevalerie ? 
He gives the original text (I suspect not very cor- 
rectly) from, he says, a MS. in the public library 
at Berne. It is a poem in old French verse (some- 
thing like Chaucer's English), of about 500 lines, 
descriptive of a series of vows, by which Robert 

Comte d'Artois, then an exile in England, engaged 
Edward III., his queen and court, to the invasion 
of France : 

" Dont maint bon chevalier fu jete fort souvin ; 
Mainte dame fu vesve, et maint povre orfelin ; ' 
Et maint bon maronier accourchit son termin ; 
Et mainte preude femme raise a divers destin ; 
Et encore sera, si Jhesus n'i met fin." 

The first lines of the poem give the place and 
date of the transaction, " London, September, 
1338," in King Edward's " palais marbrin." The 
versification is as strange as the matter. The 
author has taken great pains to collect as many 
words rhyming together as possible. The first 
twenty-six lines rhyme to "in ;" the hundred next 
to "is;" then fifty to "ent,"and so on: but the 
lines have all their rhythm, and some are smooth and 
harmonious. Has any other MS. been discovered ? 
Has it been elsewhere printed? Has it been 
translated into English, or has any English author 
noticed it ? If these questions are answered in the 
negative, I would suggest that the Camden, or 
some such society, would do well to reprint it, 
with a translation, and Sainte Palaye's commen- 
tary, and whatever additional information can be 
gathered about it ; for although it evidently is a 
romance, it contains many particulars of the court 
of England, and of the manners of the time, which 
are extremely curious, and which must have a 
good deal of truth mixed up with the chivalrous 
fable. C. 

Inscriptions on a Dagger-case. I have in my 
possession a small dagger-case, very beautifully 
carved in box-wood, bearing the following in- 
scriptions on two narrow sides, and carved repre- 
sentations of Scripture subjects on the other two 
broad sides. 





On the other sides the carvings, nine in number, 
four on one side, one above another, represent the 
making of Eve, entitled " Scheppin;" the Tempt- 
ation, entitled " Paradis ; " the Expulsion, " En- 
gelde ; " David with the head of Goliath, " Da- 
vide." At the foot of this side the date " 1599," and 
a head with pointed beard, &c. beneath. On the 
other side are five subjects : the uppermost, entitled 
" Hesterine," represents Queen Esther kneeling 
before Ahasuerus. 2. " Vannatan," a kneeling 
figure, another stretching his arm over him, at- 
tendants following with offerings. 3. " Solomone," 
the judgment of Solomon. 4. " Susannen." 5. 
" Samson," the jaw-bone in his hand ; beneath 
" SLANG ; " and at the foot of all, a dragon. 
The case is handsomely mounted in silver. 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



May I ask you or some of your readers to give 
me an interpretation of the inscriptions ? 

G. T. H. 

Hallett and Dr. Saxby. In the Literary 
Journal, July, 1803, p. 257., in an article on "The 
Abuses of the Press," it is stated : 

" Hallett, to vex Dr. Saxby, published some dis- 
graceful verses, entitled ' An Ode to Virtue, by Doctor 
Morris Saxby ; ' but the Doctor on the day after the 
publication obliged the bookseller to give up the 
author, on whom he inflicted severe personal chastise- 
ment, and by threats of action and indictment obliged 
both author and bookseller to make affidavit before the 
Lord Mayor that they had destroyed every copy in 
their possession, and would endeavour to recover and 
destroy the eight that were sold." 

Can any of your readers throw a further light 
upon this summary proceeding, as to the time, the 
book, or the parties ? S. R. 



(Vol. vl, p. 432.) 

I have in my possession a pedigree, compiled 
from original sources, which will, I believe, fully 
support your correspondent's opinion that the year 
usually assigned for the death of Joan Beaufort's 
first husband (1410) is inaccurate. Two entries 
on the Patent Rolls respectively of the 21st and 
22d Richard II., as cited in the pedigree, prove 
that event to have taken place before Lord Neville 
of Raby's creation as Earl of Westmoreland ; and 
I am inclined to think that his creation was rather 
a consequence of his exalted alliance than, as the 
later and falsely assigned date would lead one to 
infer, that his creation preceded his marriage by 
twelve or thirteen years. 

Robert Ferrers son and heir of Robert, first 
Lord Ferrers of Wemme (second son of Robert, 
third Baron Ferrers of Chartley), and of Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of William Boteler of 
Wemme, was born circa 1372, being eight years 
old at his father's death in 1380 (Esc., 4 Ric. II., 
No. 25.). He married Joan Beaufort, only daugh- 
ter of John Duke of Lancaster by Catharine 
Swynford, who became the duke's third wife, 13th 
January, 1396; their issue before marriage having 
been made legitimate by a patent read in parlia- 
ment, and dated 9th February, 1397 (Pat, 20 
Ric. II. p. 2. m. 6.). It might almost be inferred 
from the description given to Joan, Lady Ferrers, 
in the patent of legitimation, " dilectae nolis no- 
bili mulieri Johanna Beauford, domicellce" that 
her first husband was not then living. We find, 
however, that she had certainly become the wife 
of the Lord Neville before the 16th of February 

following, and that Lord Ferrers was then dead 
(Johanne qui fuist femme de Monsieur Robert 
Ferrers que Dieu assoile) : Pat., 21 Ric. II. p. 2. 
m. 22. ; Pat., 22 Ric. II. p. 3. m. 23. The Lord 
Ferrers left by her only two daughters, his co- 
heirs, viz. Elizabeth, wife of John, sixth Baron 
Greystock, and Mary, wife of Ralph Neville, a 
younger son of Ralph, Lord Neville of Raby, by 
his first wife Margaret Stafford. The mistake in 
ascribing Lord Ferrers' death to the year 1410, 
has probably arisen from that being the year hi 
which his mother died, thus recorded in the pe- 
digrees : "Robert Ferrers, s. & h. ob l vita matris" 
who (i.e. the mother) died 1410 (.Esc., 12 Hen. IV., 
No. 21.). His widow remarried Ralph, Lord 
Neville of Raby, foUrth baron, who was created 
Earl of Westmoreland, 29th September, 1397 *, 

* There is amongst the Records of the Duchy of 
Lancaster an interesting grant from John, Duke of 
Lancaster, to his daughter Joan Beaufort, very soon 
after her marriage with Lord Neville of Raby. This 
document, of which the following is a translation, proves 
that Robert Ferrers died before 16th February, 1397. 

" John, son of the king of England, Duke of Guienne 
and of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, of Lincoln, and of 
Leicester, Steward of England, to all who these our 
letters shall see or hear, greeting. Know ye that, of 
our especial grace, and forasmuch as our very loved 
son, the Lord de Neville, and our very loved daughter, 
Joan, his wife (sa compaigne), who was the wife 
(femme) of Monsieur Robert Ferrers (whom God 
assoyl), have surrendered into our Chancery, to be 
cancelled, our other letters patent, whereby we formerly 
did grant unto the said Monsieur Robert and our afore- 
said daughter 400 marks a-year,'to be received annually, 
for the term of their two lives, out of the issues of our 
lands and lordships of our honour of Pontefract, pay- 
able, &c., as in our said other letters more fully it is 
contained : we, willing that our abovesaid son, the 
Lord de Neville, and our aforesaid daughter, his wife 
(sa compaigne), shall have of us, for the term of their 
two lives, 500 marks a-year, or other thing to the value 
thereof, have granted by these presents to the same, our 
son and daughter, all those our lordships, lands, and 
tenements in Easingwold and Huby, and our three 
wapentakes of Hang, Hallikeld, and Gilling, the which 
Monsieur John Marmyon (whom God assoyl) held of 
us in the county of York : to have and to hold our 
abovesaid lordships, tenements, and wapentakes, with 
their appurtenances, to our said son and daughter, for 
the term of their two lives, and the life of the survivor 
of them, in compensation for 1001. a-year, part of the 
abovesaid 500 marks yearly. And also, we have 
granted by these presents to the same, our son and 
daughter, the manor of Lydell, with appurtenances, to 
have and to hold for their lives, and the life of the sur- 
vivor, in compensation for 40 marks a-year of the 
abovesaid 500 marks yearly, during the wars or truces 
between our lord the king and his adversary of Scot- 
land : so, nevertheless, that if peace be made between 
our same lord the king and his said adversary of Scot- 
land, and on that account the said manor of Lydell, with 



[No. 167. 

and died 1425. The Countess of Westmoreland 
died 13th November, 1440. 

As regards the Queen's descent from John, Duke 
of Lancaster, in the strictly legitimate line, I may 
wish to say a word at another time. Allow me now, 
with reference to the same pedigree, to append a 
Query to this Reply : Can any of your learned ge- 
nealogical readers direct me to the authority which 
may have induced Miss A. Strickland, in her amus- 
ing Memoirs of the Lives of the English Queens, to 
five so strenuous a denial of Henry VIII.'s queen, 
ane Seymour's claim to a royal lineage ? Miss 
Strickland writes : 

"Through Margaret Wentwortb, the mother of Jane 
Seymour, a descent from the blood-royal of England 
was claimed, from an intermarriage with a Wentworth 
and a daughter of Hotspur and Lady Elizabeth Mor- 
timer, grand-daughter to Lionel, duke of Clarence. 

the appurtenances, shall be found lawfully to be of 
greater and better yearly value than the said 40 marks 
a-year, then our said son and daughter shall answer to 
us, during such peace as aforesaid, for the surplusage of 
the value of the said manor, beyond the said 40 marks 
a-year, and the yearly reprises of the said manor. And 
in full satisfaction of the aforesaid 500 marks a-year 
we have granted to our abovesaid son and daughter 
20SJ. 13s. 4d. yearly, to be received out of the issues 
of our honours of Pontefract and Pickering, by the 
hands of our receiver there for the time being. In 
witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be 
made patent. Given under our seal, at London, on the 
16th day of February, in the twentieth year of the reign 
of our most dread sovereign lord King Richard the 
Second after the Conquest" (A.D. 1397). 

The above grant was confirmed on the 10th of Sep- 
tember, in the twenty -second of Richard the Second, 
1398, by the eldest son of John of Gaunt, Henry of 
Lancaster, Duke of Hereford, a few weeks only before 
the duke's banishment, in the following words : " We, 
willing to perform and accomplish the good will and 
desires of our said very honoured lord and father, and 
in the confidence which we have in our said very loved 
brother, nowEarl of Westmoreland, that he will be a good 
and natural son to our said very dread lord and father, 
and that he will be to us in time to come a good and 
natural brother, and also because of the great affection 
which we bear towards our said very loved sister, the 
countess his wife (sa compaigne), do, for us and our 
heirs, as far as in us lies, ratify and confirm to our 
said brother and sister the aforesaid letters patent, &c. 
Given under our seal, at London, on the 10th day of 
September, in the twenty-second year of the reign of 
our most dread lord King Richard the Second after 
the Conquest." 

King Henry the Fifth, on his accession, by a patent 
under the seal of the ducliy of Lancaster, dated at 
Westminster, on the 1st of July, in the first year of his 
reign, confirmed the above letters " to the aforesaid 
earl and Joan his wife ; " and King Henry the Sixth in 
like manner confirmed his father's patent on the 13th 
of July, in the second year of his reign. Resist. Ducat. 
iMnc.'temp. Hen. F/.,'p. 2. fol. 41. 

This Lady Percy is stated by all ancient heralds to 
have died childless. Few persons, however, dared dis- 
pute a pedigree with Henry VIII.," &c. Lives of 
the Queens of England, by Agnes Strickland, vol. iv. 
p. 300. 

This is a question, I conceive, of sufficient his- 
torical importance to receive a fuller investigation, 
and fairly to be determined, if possible. 

The pedigree shows the following descent : 
Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, third son 
of King Edward III. and Philippa of Hainault, 
left by Elizabeth de Burgh (daughter of William 
de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, and Maud Plantagenet, 
second daughter of Henry, third Earl of Lan- 
caster) an only child, Philippa, married to Ed- 
mund Mortimer, third Earl of March (Esc., 
5 Ric. II., No. 43.). The eldest daughter of Phi- 
lippa Plantagenet by the Earl of March was 
Elizabeth Mortimer, who married the renowned 
Hotspur, Henry Lord Percy, son and heir ap- 
parent of Henry Lord Percy, created Earl of 
Northumberland, 16th July, 1377, K. G. Hot- 
spur was slain at the battle of Shrewsbury, 7th 
September, 1403, v.p. His widow experienced the 
revengeful persecution of King Henry (Ryrner, 
viii. 334., Oct. 8, 1403), and died, leaving by her 
said husband one son, Henry, who became second 
Earl of Northumberland, and an only daughter, 
Elizabeth de Percy, who married firstly, John, 
seventh Lord Clifford of Westmoreland, who died 
13th March, 1422 (Esc., 10 Henry V., No. 37.), 
and secondly, Ralph Neville, second Earl of West- 
moreland (Esc., 15 Hen. VI., No. 55.), by whom 
she left an only child, Sir John Neville, Knight, 
who died during his father's lifetime, 20th March, 
1451, s.p. (Will proved 30th March, 1451 .) Lady 
Elizabeth de Percy, who died in October, 1436, 
left by her first husband, the Lord Clifford, three 
children : Thomas, eighth Lord Clifford ; Henry, 
her second son ; and an only daughter, Mary, who 
became the wife of Sir Philip Wentworth, Knight. 
The Lady Mary Clifford, who must have been 
born before 1422 (her father having died in that 
year), was probably only a few years older than 
her husband Sir Philip, the issue of a marriage 
which took place in June, 1 Henry VI., 1423 
(Cott. MSS. Cleop., F. iv. f. 15.) ; she was buried 
in the church of the Friars Minor at Ipswich, 
where her mother-in-law directed a marble to be 
laid over her body. Sir Philip's father, Roger 
Wentworth, Esq. (second son of John Wentworth 
of North Elmsal, a scion of the house of Went- 
worth of the North), had married in 1423 Margery 
Lady de Roos, widow of John Lord de Roos, sole 
daughter and heiress of Elizabeth de Tibetot, or 
Tiptoft (third daughter and co-heir of Robert, 
Lord de Tibetot), and of Sir Philip le Despenser 
Chivaler (Esc., 18Edw.IV., No. 35.). By this 
marriage came, first, Sir Philip Wentworth, Knight, 
born circa 1424, and married when about twenty- 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



three years of age, in 1447 ; he was slain in 1461, 
and attainted of high treason in the parliament 
held 1 Edw. IV. ; second, Henry Wentworth of 
Codham, in the county of Essex ; third, Thomas 
Wentworth Chaplain ; and fourth, Agnes, wife of 
Sir Robert Constable of Flamborough (Harl. MSS., 
1560. 14491484, and will of Margery, Lady de 
Roos, proved in the Prerogative Court of Can- 
terbury, 28th May, 1478). Sir Philip, about the 
year 1447, as before stated, married the Lady 
Mary Clifford (Harl. MSS., 154. and 1484.), sister 
of Thomas Lord Clifford, who was slain at the 
battle of St. Alban's in 1454, and aunt of the Lord 
Clifford who stabbed the youthful Edmund Plan- 
tagenet at the battle of Wakefield, and was himself 
slain and attainted in parliament, 1st Edward IV. 
1461. The issue of this marriage was Sir Henry 
Wentworth of Nettlestead, in the county of 
Suffolk, Knight, his son and heir (will of Margery, 
Lady de Roos, proved as above), born circa 1448, 
being thirty years of age at his grandmother's 
death in 1478 (Esc., 18 Edward IV., No. 35.), 
and died in 1500. His will was proved in the 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 27th February, 
1501. Sir Henry, son of Sir Philip, was restored 
in blood by an act of parliament passed in the 
4th of Edward IV. (Parliament Bolls, v. 548.), 
and having married Anne, daughter of Sir John 
Say, Knight (Rot. Pat., 1 Ric. II., p. 2., No. 86., 
20th February, 1484), left by her several children, 
viz. Sir Richard Wentworth, Knight, son and 
heir, Edward Wentworth, and four daughters, the 
second of whom, Margery, was married to Sir 
John Seymour of Wolf Hall, in the county of 
Wilts, Knight (Harl. MSS., 14491484. 1560., 
&c.), of which marriage, among other children, 
were born Sir Edward Seymour, created Duke of 
Somerset, and Jane, third wife of King Henry VIII., 
mother of Edward VI. WM. HARDY. 


(VoLvi., p. 588.) 

I must differ from your correspondent C., in 
believing that the " N. & Q." have effected much 
good service to etymology. Even the exposure of 
error, and the showing up of crotchets, is of no 
inconsiderable use. I beg to submit that C. him- 
self (unless there are other Richmonds in the 
field) has done good service in this way. See 
Grummett, Slang Phrases, Martinet, Cockade, Ro- 
mane, Covey, Bummaree, &c. 

I do not, indeed, give implicit faith to his Steyne, 
and some more. He, however, would be a rash 
man who should write or help to write a Dic- 
tionary of the English language (a desideratum 
at present) without turning over the indices of 
the "N. & Q." Even in the first volume, the 
discussions on Pokership, Daysman, News, and a 

great many others, seem to me at least valuable 
contributions to general knowledge on etymology. 

As to my remark (Vol. vi., p. 462.) about the 
derivation of leader, C. has, perhaps excusably, for 
the sake of the pun, done me injustice. I hazarded 
it on the authority of one who has been in the 
trade, and, as I believe, in the cuicunque perito. 
I beg to inclose his own account. He says : 

' It is a fact, that when editorial articles are sent to 
the printer, written directions are generally sent with 
them denoting what type is to be used : thus, brevier 
leads, or bourgeois leads, signifying that the articles are 
to be set in brevier or bourgeois type with lead strips 
between the lines, to keep them further asunder. It 
is also a fact, that such articles are denominated in the 
printing-office ' leaded articles ' hence, leaders." 

I submit if this does not justify my Note. I 
grant, however, many of those articles are entitled 
also to be called leaden, as C. will have it. 

I do not think, however, that in tracing recent 
words, we should not give possible as well as cer- 
tain origins. Many words, if not a double, have 
at least several putative origins. 

Let me subscribe myself sen male sen bene 


P. S. I would like to suggest that this origin 
of the term "leading article" is the most fa- 
vourable to the modesty of any single writer for 
the Press, who should hardly pretend to lead 
public opinion. 


(Vol. vi., p. 578.) 

These lines were said to have been addressed to 
a Dr. Fitzgerald, on reading the following couplet 
in his apostrophe to his native village : 

" And thou ! dear Village, loveliest of the clime, 
Fain would I name thee, but I scant in rhyme." 

I subjoin a tolerably complete copy of this "rime 
doggrele : " 

" A Bard there was in sad quandary, 

To find a rhyme for Tipperary. 

Long labour'd he through January, 

Yet found no rhyme for Tipperary ; 

Toil'd every day in February, 

But toil'd in vain for Tipperary ; 

Search'd Hebrew text and commentary, 

But search'd in vain for Tipperary ; 

Bored all his friends at Inverary, 

To find a rhyme for Tipperary ; 

Implored the aid of ' Paddy Gary,' 

Yet still no rhyme for Tipperary ; 

He next besought his mother Mary, 

To tell him rhyme for Tipperary ; 

But she, good woman, was no fairy, 

Nor wjtch-f- though born in Tipperary ; 

Knew everything about her dairy, 

But not the rhyme for Tipperary ; 



[No. 167. 

The stubborn muse he could not vary, 
For still the lines would run contrary, 
Whene'er he thought on Tipperary ; 
And though of time he was not chary, 
'Twas thrown away on Tipperary ; 
Till of his wild-goose chase most weary, 
He vow'd to leave out Tipperary. 

But, no the theme he might not vary, 

His longing* was not temporary, 

To find meet rhyme for Tipperary. 

He sought among the gay and airy, 

He pester'd all the military, 

Committed many a strange vagary, j 

Bewitch'd, it seem'd, by Tipperary. 

He wrote post-haste to Darby Leary, 

Besought with tears his Auntie Sairie : 

But sought he far, or sought he near, he 

Ne'er found a rhyme for Tipperary. 

He travell'd sad through Cork and Kerry, 

He drove ' like mad ' through sweet Dunleary, 

Kick'd up a precious tantar-ara, 

But found no rhyme for Tipperary ; 

laved fourteen weeks at Stran-ar-ara, 

Was well nigh lost in Glenegary, 

Then started ' slick ' for Demerara, 

In search of rhyme for Tipperary. 

Through ' Yankee-land,' sick, solitary, 

He roam'd by forest, lake, and prairie, 

He went per terrain et per mare, 

But found no rhyme for Tipperary. 

Through orient climes on Dromedary, 

On camel's back through great Sahara ; 

His travels were extraordinary, 

In search of rhyme for Tipperary. 

Pierce as a gorgon or chimaera, 

Fierce as Alecto or Megaera, 

Fiercer than e'er a lovesick bear, he 

Raged through ' the londe ' of Tipperary. 

His cheeks grew thin and wond'rous hairy, 

His visage long, his aspect ' eerie," 

His tout ensemble, faith, would scare ye, g - 

Amidst the wilds of Tipperary. 

Becoming hypochon-dri-ary, 

He sent for his apothecary, 

Who ordered 'balm' and ' saponary,' 

Herbs rare to find in Tipperary. 

In his potations ever wary, 

His choicest drink was ' home gooseberry,' 

On 'swipes,' skim-milk, and smallest beer, he 

Scanted rhyme for his Tipperary. 

Had he imbibed good old Madeira, 

Drank ' pottle-deep ' of golden sherry, 

Of Falstaff's sack, or ripe canary, 

No rhyme had lacked for Tipperary. 

Or had his tastes been literary, 

He might have found extemporary, 

Without the aid of dictionary, 

Some fitting rhyme for Tipperary. 

Or had he been an antiquary. 

Burnt ' midnight oil ' in his library, 

Or been of temper less ' camsteary," 

Rhymes had not lack'd for Tipperary. 

He paced about his aviary, 

Blew up, sky-high, his secretary, 
And then in wrath and anger sware he, 
There was no rhyme for Tipperary." 

May we not say with Touchstone, " I'll rhyme 
you so, eight years together ; dinners, and suppers, 
and sleeping hours excepted : it is the right but- 
ter-woman's rank to market." J. M. B. 


(, p. 312.) 

I cannot receive MR. CORNISH'S substitution 
(p. 312.) of "chornmer" for clamour in the Win- 
ters Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3. In my opinion, clamour 
is nearly or altogether the right word, but wrongly 
spelt. We have a verb to clam, which, as con- 
nected with clammy, we use for sticking with glu- 
tinous matter ; but which originally must, like the 
kindred German klemmen, have signified to press, 
to squeeze ; for the kind of wooden vice used by 
harness-makers is, at least in some places, called 
a clams. I therefore suppose the clown to have 
said clam, or perhaps clammer (i. e. hold) your 

Highly plausible as is MR. C.'s other emendation 
in the same place of 2 Henry IV., Act III. Sc. 1., 
I cannot receive it either. In Shakspeare the word 
clown is almost always nearly equivalent to the 
Spanish gracioso, and denotes humour ; and surely 
we cannot suppose it to be used of the ship-boy. 
Besides, a verb is wanted, as the causal particle for 
is as usual to be understood before "Uneasy lies," 
&c. I see no objection whatever to the common 
reading, though possibly the poet wrote : 
" Then, happy boy, lie down." 

There never, in my opinion, was a happier 
emendation than that of guidon fo? guard; On, in 
Henry V., Act IV. Sc. 2. ; and its being made by 
two persons independently, gives it as MR. COL- 
LIER justly observes of palpable for capable in As 
You Like It additional weight. We are to 
recollect that a Frenchman is the speaker. I find 
guidon used for banner in the following lines of 
Clement Marot (Elcgie III.) : 

" De Fermete le grand guidon suivrons," 

" Cestuy guidon et triomphante enseigne, 
Nous devons suyvre : Amour le nous enseigne." 

The change of a sea of troubles to assay of 
troubles in Hamlet is very plausible, and ought 
perhaps to be received. So also is SIR F. MADDEN'S 
of face for case (which last is downright nonsense) 
in Twelfth Night, Act V. Sc. 1. But I would 
just hint that as all the rest of the Duke's speech is 
in rhyme, it is not impossible that the poet may 
have written 

" O thou dissembling cub ! what wilt thou be 
'" > When time hath sow'd a grizzle upon thee ? " 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 


Allow me now to put a question to the critics. 
In the two concluding lines of the Merchant of 
Venice (the speaker, observe, is the jesting Gra- 
tiano) : 

" Well, while I live, I'll fear no other thing 
So sore, as keeping safe Nerissa's ring." 

May there not be a covert allusion to the story 
first told by Poggio in his Facetiae, then by 
Ariosto, then by Rabelais, then by. La Fontaine, 
and, finally, by Prior, in his Hans Carvel f Ra- 
belais was greatly read at the time. 



(Vol. vi., p. 485.) 

Mr. Burgon (Inquiry into the Motive of the Re- 
presentations on Ancient Coins, p. 19.) says : 

" I do not believe that the types of coins are, on any 
occasion, original compositions ; but always copied from 
some sacred public monument . . . When we find Mi- 
nerva represented on coins, we are not to understand 
the type as a Minerva, but the Minerva of that place ; 
and in some cases which might be brought forward, the 
individual statues which are represented on coins, or 
ancient copies, will be found still to exist." 

This opinion is certainly borne out by a very 
great number of proofs, and may almost be con- 
sidered demonstrated. The Farnese Hercules is 
found on many coins, Roman and Greek. The com- 
monest among the Roman are those of Gordianus 
Pius, 1st and 2nd brass, with " VIRTVTI AVGVSTI." 
Three colonial coins of Corinth, of Severus, Cara- 
calla, and Geta (Vaillant, Num. Imp. Coloniis per- 
cuss., ii. 7. 32. 54.), exhibit the same figure. As 
an additional illustration of Mr. Burgon's view, I 
would advert to the Corinthian coin of Aurelius 
(Vaill. i. 182.), which has a Hercules in a differ- 
ent attitude ; and which Vaillant regards as a copy 
of the statue mentioned by Pausanias as existing 
at Corinth. Du Choul (Religio vet. Rom., 1685, 
pp. 158, 159.) gives a coin representing Hercules 
killing Antaeus ; and quotes Pliny for a statue 
representing this by Polycletus. Haym also (Te- 
soro, i. 248.) gives a coin with a reversed view 
of the same subject. The figures of Hercules on 
coins of Commodus are certainly copied from the 
statues of that Emperor. Baudelot de Dairval 
(De r Utilite des Voyages) gives a small silver sta- 
tuette of Commodus as Hercules, certainly copied 
from the larger statues, and corresponding with 
those on coins. 

I am not aware of any coins exhibiting exactly 
the Venus de Medici. It is possible, however, that 
they exist, though I cannot at present find them. 
Haym (Tesoro, ii. 246., tab. xvi. 3.) gives a coin 
of Cnidus, with a very similar representation, the 
Cnidian Venus, known to be copied from a statue 
by Praxiteles. _ 

I must say the same as to the Apollo Belvidere. 

I cannot at present refer to an engraving of the 
equestrian statue of Aurelius, but Mr. Akerman 
(Descr. Cat., i. 280. 12. u., 283. 10.) describes gold 
coins and a medallion of Aurelius, representing him 
on horseback ; and I find in the plates appended 
by De Bie to Augustini Antiquatum ex Nummis Dia- 
logi, Antw., 1617, plate ^fc, one of these coins 
engraved. I find the medallion engraved also by 
Erizzo (last edition, n. d., p. 335".), who explains it 
as referring to this statue. He says, however, that 
the attribution of the statue was uncertain ; and 
that on a medallion of Antoninus Pius, which he 
possessed, exactly the same representation was 
found, whence he was inclined to suppose it rather 
erected for Antoninus Pius. 

I suppose the coins of Domna, alluded to by 
MR. TAYLOR, are those with the legend " VENERI 
VICTRICI." In spite of the attitude, I can hardly 
think this intended for Venus Callipyge, from the 
fact that Venus Victrix is found in the same atti- 
tude on other coins, holding arms ; and sometimes 
again holding arms, but in a different attitude, and 
more or less clothed. The legend is opposed also 
to this idea. See the coins engraved by Ondaan, 
or Oiselius, Plate tn. The coin of Plantilla in 
Du Choul (I.e. p. 188.) is a stronger argument; 
for here is seen a partially clothed Venus Victrix, 
with the same emblems, leaning on a shield, as the 
Venus of Domna leans on a column, but turned 
towards the spectator instead of away : thus de- 
monstrating that no allusion to Callipyge is to be 
seen in either. 

Erizzo (1. c. p. 519.) mentions the discovery at 
Rome of a fragment of a marble statue inscribed 


In the British Museum (Townley Gallery, i. 95.) 
is a bas-relief representing the building of the 
ship Argo. There is described in the Thomas 
Catalogue, p. 22. lot 236., an unpublished (?) 
medallion of Aurelius, possibly copied from this 
very bas-relief. A very doubtful specimen exists 
in the Museum of the Scottish Antiquaries, which 
enables me to make this assertion, although it is 
not minutely described in the catalogue, and is 
otherwise explained. This is an additional con- 
firmation of the original statement, and many 
more might be added but for the narrow limits 
allowed, which I fear I have already transgressed. 




(, pp. 149. 432. 542.) 
This extraordinary and inhuman man was the 
sixth son of John Jeffreys, Esq., of Acton, near 
Wrexham, co. Denbigh, by Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Ireland, Knight, of Bewsey, and was 
born at his father s house about the year 1648. 



[No. 167. 

He died on the 19th of April, 1689, at thirty-five 
minutes past four in the morning. The tradition 
that his remains were deposited at Enfield is in- 
correct. He was first interred in the Tower pri- 
vately, and after three years, when the day of 
persecution was past, his friends petitioned that 
they might be allowed to remove the coffin. This 
was granted, and by a warrant dated the 30th of 
September, 1692, signed by the queen and directed 
to the governor of the Tower, the body of Lord 
Jeffreys was removed, and buried a second time 
in a vault under the communion-table of St. Mary, 
Aldermanbury. As regards the number of places 
pointed out as the residence of Judge Jeffreys, 
the following are mentioned in the bill that was 
brought in for the forfeiture of his honour and 

In Salop he had the manors of Wem and Lop- 
pington, with many other lands and tenements ; in 
Leicestershire the manors of Dalby and Brough- 
ton ; he bought Dalby of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, and after his death it passed to Sir Charles 
Duncombe, and descended to Anthony Duncombe, 
afterwards Lord Feversham. In Bucks he had 
the manor of Bulstrode, which he had purchased 
of Sir Koger Hill in 1686, and the manor of 
Fulmer, with other tenements. He built a man- 
sion at Bulstrode, which came afterwards to his 
son-in-law, Charles Dive, who sold it in the reign 
of Queen Anne, to William, Earl of Portland, in 
whose family, now aggrandised by a dukedom, it 
still continues. And he had an inclination at one 
time to have become the purchaser of another 
estate (Gunedon Park), but was outwitted by one 
of his legal brethren. Judge Jeffreys held his 
court in Duke Street, Westminster, and made the 
adjoining houses towards the park his residence. 
These houses were the property of Moses Pitt the 
bookseller (brother of the Western Martyrologist), 
who, in his Cry of the Oppressed, complains very 
strongly against his tenant, the chancellor. 
Jeffreys' s " large house," according to an adver- 
tisement in the London Gazette, was let to the 
three Dutch ambassadors who came from Holland 
to congratulate King William upon his accession 
in 1689. It was afterwards used for the Admi- 
ralty Office, until the middle of King William's 

" The house is easily known," says Pennant, " by a 
large flight of stone steps, which his royal master per- 
mitted to be made into the park adjacent, for the ac- 
commodation of his lordship. These steps terminate 
above in a small court, on three sides of which stands 
the house." 


The birthplace of Judge Jeffreys should not 
be a matter of doubt. The old house at Acton in 
which his father lived, was in the parish of Wrex- 
ham, and close to the confines of that parish and 

Gresford. It was pulled down about seventy 
years ago, about the time when the present man- 
sion bearing that same name was built. Twenty 
years ago there were several persons living in the 
neighbourhood who remembered that it stood in 
the parish of Wrexham. 

Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Lord Chan- 
cellors of England, vol. iii. p. 496., writes, 

" He (Judge Jeffreys) of whom such tales were to 
be told, was born in his father's lowly dwelling at 
Acton in the year 1648." 

And he subjoins the following note : 

" This is generally given as the year of his birth, but 
I have tried in vain to have it authenticated. There 
is no entry of his baptism, nor of the baptism of his 
brothers, in the register of Wrexham, the parish in 
which he was born, nor in /the adjoining parish of 
Gresford, in which part of the [family property lies. 
I have had accurate researches made in these registers 
by the kindness of my learned friend Serjeant Atcherley, 
who has estates in the neighbourhood. It is not im 
probable that, in spite of the'Chancellor's great horror 
of dissenters, he may have been baptized by ' a dis- 
senting teacher.'" 

The fact is, however, and it is a fact known 
certainly twenty years ago to several of the in- 
habitants of Gresford and Wrexham, that no re- 
gister has been preserved in the parish of Wrex- 
ham for a period extending from 1644 to 1662 ; 
and none in the parish of Gresford from 1630 to 
1660. I may add that no such registers have been 
discovered up to this time. TAFFY. 

When the family of Jeffreys became possessed 
of Acton is uncertain, probably at a very early 
period, being descended from Cynric ap Rhiwallon, 
great-grandson of Tudor Trevor. 

George Jeffreys, afterwards Chancellor, was 
born at Acton, and was sixth son of John Jeffreys 
and Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Ireland of 
Bewsey, near Warrington, in Lancashire. In 1708 
the estate passed into the family of the Robinsons 
of Gwersyllt by the marriage of the eldest daughter 
and heiress of Sir Griffith Jeffreys. Ellis Yonge, 
Esq., of Bryny Orchyn (in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood^ purchased the estate of Acton from 
the trustees of the said Robinson. The Yonges 
were in no way related to the Jeffreys, although 
bearing the same arms, as being also descended 
from the same tribe. GRESFORD. 


(, pp.458. 590.) 

In answer to the obliging notice which your 
correspondent CUTHBERT BEDE (, p. 590.) 
has taken of my description of the Dutch alle- 
gorical picture, I beg to say that I agree with him, 
and admit myself to be mistaken in supposing the 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 


middle picture described (Vol. vi., p. 458.) to 
represent St. John Baptist. On examining it 
again, I have no doubt it is intended to denote the 
Ascension of our Lord. The right hand is raised 
as in the act of benediction, and, as far as I can 
make it out (for the paint is here somewhat 
rubbed), the fingers are in the position of bene- 
diction described by your correspondent. I do 
not, however, concur in his suggestions as to the 
meaning of the figures on the frame of the picture ; 
which is not shaped as a vesica piscis, but is (as I 
described it) a lozenge. The female figure, hold- 
ing a flaming heart, is, I would say, certainly not 
the Virgin Mary. 

The appearance of my account of this picture 
in your pages has been the occasion of a very 
agreeable correspondence with the Editor of the 
Navorscher (the Dutch daughter of " N. & Q."). 
That gentleman has taken a 'great interest in the 
subject, and has enabled me to decypher the mottoes 
on the scrolls which run across the three pictures 
on the right-hand wall of the room, which, in my 
former communication, I said I was unable to 

The scroll on the picture nearest the fireplace 
contains these words : 

" Trouw moet blycken." 

That on the second picture, noticed by CDTHBERT 
BEDE, is, 

" Liefde boven al." 

And the scroll on .the third bears the inscription, 
as I stated in my former communication, 

" In Liefd' getrouwe ; " 
for so it ought to have been printed. 

These, as the editor of the Navorscher informs 
me, are the mottoes of three Haarlem Societies 
of Rhetoricians called, 1. " De Pelicaen," whose 
motto was, "Trouw moet Uycken:" 2. "DeWyn- 
gaertrancken," whose motto was, "Liefde boven 
al :" and, 3. " Witte Angiren," whose device was, 
" In Liefde getrouwe." 

I think you are entitled to have whatever in- 
formation I may glean respecting this picture, as 
you so kindly inserted my description of it in your 
columns ; and I have to thank you for procuring 
me the acquaintance and correspondence of the 
editor of the Navorscher. J. H. TODD, D.D. 

Trin. Coll. Dublin. 


(Vol. vi., p. 579.) 

In reply to the Query of VARRO, I beg to state 
that I possess the late Air. Upcott's collation of 
the reprint of the first folio edition of Shakspeare. 
It consists of twenty-six folio leaves, exclusive of 

the fly-leaves, on the first of which occur the fol- 
lowing notes in the handwriting of the collator : 

" London Institution, 

" Moorfields, Dec. 25, 1821. 

" Four months and twenty-three days were occupied, 
during my leisure moments, at the suggestion of our 
late Librarian, Professor Person, in reading and com- 
paring the pretended reprinted fac-simile First Edition 
of Shakspeare with the original First Edition of 1623. 
With what accuracy it passed through the Press, the 
following pages, noticing 368 typographical errors, will 
sufficiently show. WM. UPCOTT." 

" MS. note written in Mr. Dawson Turner's tran- 
script of these errors in the reprint of Shakspeare, 
edit. 1623. 

" The contents of the following pages are the result 
of 145 days' close attention by a very industrious man. 
The knowledge of such a task having been undertaken 
and completed, caused some alarm among the book- 
sellers, who had expended a considerable sum of money 
upon the reprint of Shakspeare, of which this MS. 
discloses the numerous errors. Fearful, therefore, lest 
this should be published, they made many overtures 
for the purchase of it, and at length Mr. Upcott was 
induced to part with it to John and Arthur Arch, 
Cornhill, from whom he expected a handsome remu- 
neration ; he received a single copy of th'e reprint, 
published at five guineas. 

" N. B. This copy, corrected by myself from the above 
MS., I sold to James Perry, proprietor of the Morning 
Chronicle, for six guineas : which at his sale (Part III.) 
produced 12/. 1. 6d. WM. UPCOTT." 

At the end of the volume is written : 

" Finished this collation Jan. 28, 1809, at three 
minutes past 12 o'clock. WM. UPCOTT." 

Upon comparing these remarks of Mr. Upcott 
with Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual, p. 1645., 
col. 1., it will be seen that the latter was not accu- 
rately informed as to Perry's copy ; Professor 
Porson having had no farther share in that labo- 
rious work than the recommending Mr. Upcott to 
undertake the collation, from which Perry's copy 
was subsequently corrected. F. C. B. 


Le Grey and the Collodion Process. As the 
claim to the invention of the collodion process is 
disputed, I think, in justice to MR. LE GREY, 
whom all will acknowledge as a talented man, and 
who has done much for photography, that the 
claims he puts forth, and which 1 give, should be 
known to your readers who have not got his work, 
as they are in direct contradiction to MR. ARCHER'S 
letter in your 165th N"o. In his last published 
work, page 89., he states : 

" I was the first to apply collodion to photography. 
My first experiments were made in 1849. I used that 
substance then principally to give more equality and 



[No. 167. 

fineness to the paper. I employed for that purpose a 
solution of iodide of potassium in alcohol of forty de- 
grees saturated with collodion. 

" In continuing these studies I was induced to 
apply this body upon glass, to obtain more fineness, 
and I was soon in possession of an extremely rapid 
proceeding, which I at last consigned to the pamphlet that 
I published in 1850, and which was translated into En- 
glish at the same time. 

" I had already at that time indicated the proto- 
sulphate of iron for developing the image, the am- 
monia and the fluorides as accelerating agents ; and I 
was the first to announce having obtained by these 
means portraits in five seconds in the shade. 

" The pyro-gallic acid is generally used now in place 
of the sulphate of iron that I had indicated ; but this 
is wrong, that last salt forming the image much more 
rapidly and better, it having to be left less time in the 

" I believe, then, I have a right to claim for my 
country and myself the invention of this would-be 
English process, and of having been the first to indicate 
the collodion, and of giving the best method that has been 
discovered up to the present time. 

" From the publication of my process, till my return 
from the voyage that I had made for the minister, I 
was little occupied in practising it, my labours on the 
dry paper having taken all my time. This has been 
used as a weapon against me, to make out that the first 
trials before setting out had been quite fruitless, as they 
had heard nothing more about it. 

" Nevertheless, I have made my discovery completely 
public ; and if I had practised it but little, leaving it 
to others to further develope, it has only been to oc- 
cupy myself upon other works of which the public 
has still profited. It is then much more ungenerous 
to wish to take from me the merit of its invention." 

G. C. 

Ready Mode of iodizing Paper. The readiest 
way I have found of iodizing the beautiful paper of 
Canson Freres, is the cyano-iodide of silver, made 
as follows : Twenty grains of nitrate of silver may 
be placed in half an ounce of distilled water, and 
half an ounce of solution of iodide of potassa, fifty 
grains to the ounce, added to the silver solution. 
Cyanide of potassa may then be added, drop by 
drop, till the precipitate is dissolved, and the whole 
filled up with four ounces of water. This solution 
requires but a very few minutes' floating upon water 
containing a small quantity of sulphuric acid ; and 
it is then ready, after a bath of nitrate of silver, 
for the camera, and will not present any of the dis- 
agreeable spots so noticed by most photographers. 
This paper is probably the best for negative pic- 
tures we have at present ; although, if very trans- 
parent paper is required, oiled paper may be used 
for negative pictures very successfully ; or paper 
varnished is equally good. The oiled paper may 
be prepared as follows : Take the best \yalnut oil, 
that oil having less tendency to darken paper of 
any other kind, and oil it thoroughly. It must 

then be hung up in the light for a few days, the 
longer the better, till quite dry. It may then be 
iodized with the ammonio-nitrate, the ammoniated 
solution passing more readily over greased surfaces. 
The varnished paper may be prepared by half an 
ounce of mastic varnish and three ounces of spirits 
of turpentine, hung up to dry, and treated as the 
oiled paper in iodwing ; but both are better for 
resting a short time previous to iodizing upon water 
containing a little isinglass in solution, but used 
very sparingly. 

As I have experienced the excellence of these 
preparations, I hope they may be useful to your 
photographic students. WELD TAYLOR. 


After-dilution of Solutions. There are in gene- 
ral use two methods of preparing sensitive paper.. 
In one, as in Mr. Talbot's, the iodide of silver is 
formed in a state of purity, before being rendered 
sensitive : and as, for this end, a small quantity 
only of nitrate of silver is necessary, a very dilute 
solution will answer the purpose as well, or even 
better, than a strong one ; but by the other method, 
the paper being prepared with iodide of potassium 
only, or with some other analogous salt, the iodide 
of silver has to be formed by the same solution 
that renders it sensitive. Now as for every 166'3 
parts of iodide of potassium 170'1 parts of nitrate 
of silver are required for this purpose, it is evident 
that a dilute solution could not be employed unless 
a very large bulk were taken, and the paper kept 
in a considerable time. 

The after-washing is to remove from the surface 
of the paper the great excess of silver, which is of 
but little service, and prevents the paper from 


Stereoscopic Pictures from one Camera. Your 
correspondent RAMUS will easily obtain stereo- 
scopic pictures by either of the following plans : 
After the first picture is taken, move the subject, 
as on a pivot, either to the right or left, through 
an angle of about 15; then take the second im- 
pression : this will do very well for an inanimate 
object, as a statue ; but, if a portrait is required, 
the camera, after taking the first picture, must be 
moved either to the right or left, a distance of not 
more than one-fifth of the distance it stands from 
the sitter ; that is, if the camera is twenty feet 
from the face of the sitter, the distance between 
its first and second position should not exceed 
four feet, otherwise the picture will appear dis- 
torted, and the stereosity unnaturally great. Of 
course it is absolutely necessary in this plan that 
the sitter do not move his position between the 
taking of the two impressions, and also that the 
distance between him and the camera be the same 
in both operations. 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



In reply to the very sensible inquiry of SIM- 
PLICITAS, there is an essential difference between 
the calotype of Talbot and the waxed-paper pro- 
cess, the picture in the first being almost entirely 
superficial, whilst in the latter it is much more in 
the body of the paper ; this causes the modifi- 
cation of the treatment. A tolerably -strong solu- 
tion of (A 9 O NO 5 ) nitrate of silver is required 
to decompose the (KI) iodide of potassium, with 
which the paper is saturated, in any reasonable 
time, but if this were allowed to dry on the sur- 
face, stains would be the inevitable result ; there- 
fore it is floated in distilled water, to remove this 
from the surface ; and it seems to rne that the 
keeping of the paper depends on the greater or 
less extent to which this surface-coating is re- 
moved. There can be no doubt that the paper 
would be far more sensitive, if used immediately, 
without the washing, simply blotting it off; but 
then the great advantage of the process would be 
lost, viz. its capability of being kept. 


Camera for Out-door Operations. I should be 
glad to see a clear description of a camera so con- 
structed as to supersede the necessity for a dark 
room. Such a description has been promised by 
DR. DIAMOND (Vol. vi., p. 277.) ; and if he could 
be induced to furnish it at an early period, I at 
least, amongst the readers of " N. & Q.," should 
feel much additionally indebted to him. E. S. 


(Vol. vi., p. 556.) 

This is a very celebrated Gloucestershire ballad, 
which though at one time popular, is, I believe, 
rarely heard now. I have before me an old and 
much mutilated broadside of it, which, at the con- 
clusion, has the initials " L. & B." I presume 
the words are wanted, and therefore send them ; 
and not knowing whether the tune has been pub- 
lished, will also forward it, if wished for by your 


" 'Twas on the morn of sweet May-day, 
When Nature painted all things gay, 
Taught birds to sing, and lambs to play, 

And gild the meadows fair; 
Young Jockey, early in the morn, 
Arose and tript across the lawn ; 
His Sunday clothes the youth put on, 
For Jenny had vow'd away to run 

With Jockey to the fair. 

For Jenny had vow'd away to run 

With Jockey to the fair. 


The cheerful parish bells had rung, 
With eager steps he trudg'd along, 
W'hile rosy garlands round him hung, 

Which shepherds us'd to wear; 
He tapt the window: Haste, my dear;' 
Jenny impatient cry'd, ' W T ho's there ? ' 
' 'Tis I, my love, and no one near ; 
Step gently down, you've nought to fear, 

With Jockey to the fair.' 
Step gently, &c. 


' My dad and mammy's fast asleep, 
My brother's up, and with the sheep ; 
And will you still your promise keep, 

Which I have heard you swear ? 
And will you ever constant prove ? ' 
' I will, by all the Powers above, 
And ne'er deceive my charming dove. 
Dispel those doubts, and haste, my love, 

With Jockey to the fair.' 
Dispel, &c. 


' Behold the ring,' the shepherd cry'd ; 
' Will Jenny be my charming bride ? 
Let Cupid be our happy guide, 

And Hymen meet us there." 
Then Jockey did his vows renew ; 
He would be constant, would be true. 
His word was pledg'd ; away she flew, 
With cowslips tipt with balmy dew, 

With Jockey to the fair. 
With cowslips, &c. 


In raptures meet the joyful train ; 
Their gay companions, blithe and young, ' 
Each -join the dance, each join the throng, 

To hail the happy pair. 
In turns there's none so fond as they, 
They bless the kind, propitious day, 
The smiling morn of blooming May, 
When lovely Jenny ran away 

With Jockey to the fair. 
When lovely, &c. 

H. G. D. 


(Vol.v., p. 510.) 

The crime imputed to the Dutch authorities 
(that of reducing English subjects to slavery) is 
of so atrocious a character, that any explanation 
that should place the matter in a less offensive 
light, would be but an act of justice to the parties 
implicated. With this view I venture to submit 
to URSULA and W. W. the following conclusions 
which I have arrived at, after a careful considera- 
tion of all the circumstances. 

I am of opinion that the writer of the letter in 
question (charging the Dutch Governor with the 
above mentioned offence) was the officer command- 
ing the troops in the English division of St. Chris- 
topher ; and, in that capacity, invested with the 
civil government. At that period, the admini- 



[No. 167. 

stratum of our West Indian possessions was gene- 
rally confided to the military commandants : our 
policy, in that respect, being different from that 
of the French, who have contrived at all times to 
maintain, in each of their colonies, an uninter- 
rupted succession of Governors appointed from 

The name of the Dutch Governor of St. Martin, 
to whom the letter was addressed, has not been 
ascertained. He was probably some buccaneering 
chief, who cared as little for the States- General as 
he did for the Governor of St. Christopher. If 
not actually engaged in the piratical enterprises of 
his countrymen, he certainly had no objection to 
receive, according to usage, the lion's share of the 
booty as a reward for his connivance. 

It is very doubtful whether the outrage imputed, 
in this instance, to the Dutch Governor, was per- 
petrated, or even attempted. The buccaneers, 
English, French, and Dutch, began by uniting 
their efforts against the Spaniards. After a time 
they " fell out" (as thieves will sometimes do), 
and, turning from the common enemy, they di- 
rected their marauding operations against each 
other. It was doubtless during one of these that 
the Dutch captured the English ship in question ; 
detaining the passengers and crew at St. Martin, 
in the hope of extorting some considerable ransom 
for their release. When, therefore, the English 
Governor threatened to complain to the States- 
General of the " reduction to slavery of English 
subjects," we must presume that, by the words 
"reducing to slavery," he meant to describe the 
forcible detention of the passengers and crew ; and 
that, in doing so, he merely resorted to the expe- 
dient of magnifying a common act of piracy into 
an outrage of a more heinous character, with the 
view of frightening the Dutch authorities into a 
compliance with his wishes, and obtaining the 
restitution of the property and subjects of his 
" dread Sovereigne Lord y e King." The annals of 
that period are replete with similar adventures ; 
and Labat relates several of them which he wit- 
nessed during a voyage to Guadaloupe in a vessel 
belonging to the French buccaneers. As to the 
English, the daring exploits of Sir Henry Morgan 
and his followers, and the encouragement which 
they received, both at home and in the colonies, 
show that we were not behind our neighbours in 
those days of marauding notoriety. 


St. Lucia. 

ta Elinor 

Royal Assent, Sfc. (Vol. vi., p. 556.). 

1. No such forms as those referred to by Claren- 
don are usual now. 

2. The last time the prerogative of rejecting a 
bill, after passing both Houses of Parliament, was 

exercised, was in 1692, when William III. refused 
his assent to the bill for Triennial Parliaments. 
Two years after, however, he was induced to allow 
the bill to become the law of the land. J. R. W. 

Can Bishops vacate their Sees? (Vol. v., p. 156.). 
R. C. C., in his reply to this Query of K. S., 
writes, that he has never heard of any but Dr. 
Pearce who wished so to do. 

There is another instance in the case of Berke- 
ley, Bishop of Cloyne, who, having failed in his 
attempt to exchange his bishopric for some 
canonry or headship at Oxford, applied to the 
Secretary of State for his majesty's permission to 
resign his bishopric. 

So extraordinary a petition excited his majesty's 
curiosity, and caused his inquiry from whence it 
came ; when, learning that the person was his old 
acquaintance, Dr. Berkeley, he declared that he 
should die a bishop in spite of himself, but gave him 
full power to choose his own place of residence. 
This was in 1753. 

The above is taken from Bp. Mant's History of 
the Church of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 534. RUBI. 

" Genealogies of the Morduunt Family" by the 
Earl of Peterborough (Vol. vi., p. 553.). Bridges, 
in his History of Northamptonshire, vol. ii. p. 252., 
states that twenty-four copies of the work were 
printed. There is a large paper copy of the work, 
in the library at Drayton House, the former seat 
of the Mordaunts, now the property of W. B. Stop- 
ford, Esq. J. B. 

Niagara, or Niagara? (Vol. vi., p. 555.). An 
enthusiastic person, of the name of Pemberton (who 
had spent much time at the Falls, and was so en- 
thusiastic in his admiration of them that he pro- 
tested he could not keep away from them, and went 
back and died there), informed me that the proper 
name was Ni-dgara or aghera, two Indian words 
signifying " Hark to the thunder." J. G. 

Maudlin (Vol. vi., p. 552.). Your Massachu- 
setts correspondent comes a long way for informa- 
tion which he might surely have obtained on his 
own side of the Atlantic. Dr. Johnson says, 
" Maudlin is the corrupt appellation of Magdalen, 
who is drawn by painters with swollen eyes and 
disordered look." And do we not know that 
Magdalene College is always called Maudlin, and 
that Madeleine is the French orthography ? very 
closely resembling our vernacular pronunciation ? 

J. G. 

Spiritual Persons employed in Lay Offices 
(Vol. vi., pp. 376. 567.). Your correspondents 
W. and E. H. A. seem to have overlooked the 
modern instances of this practice, which the 
London Gazette has recently recorded, in an- 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



nouncing the appointment of several clergymen as 
deputy-lieutenants. This is an office which is so 
far of a military character, that it is supposed to 
place the holder in the rank of lieutenant- colonel, 
and certainly entitles him to wear a military 
uniform. If these members of the " church mi- 
litant" should be presented at Her Majesty's 
Court in their new appointment, will they appear 
in their clerical or military habit ? fl. *. 

Passage in Burke (Vol. vi., p. 556.). The 
reply to QUANDO TANDEM'S Query is given, I 
imagine, by Burke himself, in a passage which 
occurs only a few lines after that which has been 
quoted : 

" Little did I dream that she should ever be obliged 
to carry the sharp antidote against disgrace concealed 
in that bosom." 

This means, I suppose, that Marie Antoinette 
carried a dagger, with which, more Romano, she 
would have committed suicide, had her brutal 
persecutors assaulted her. ALFRED GATTY. 

Ensake and Cradock Arms (Vol. vi., p. 533.). 
In a pedigree of the family of Barnwell, of Crans- 
ley in Northamptonshire, now before me, I find 
emblazoned the arms of Ensake : Paly of six azure 
and or, on a bend sable three mullets pierced. 
Cradock : Argent, three boars' heads couped sable 
armed or. G. A. C. 

Sick House (Vol. vi., pp. 363. 568.). Sike or 
syke, a word in common use in the south of Scot- 
land, and on the Border, meaning a small water 
run. In Jamieson's Dictionary it is spelt " Sike, 
syik, syk, a rill or rivulet ; one that is usually dry 
in summer ; a small stream or rill ; a marshy bottom 
with a small stream in it." J. S.s. 

Americanisms so called (Vol. vi., p. 554.). The 
word bottom, signifying a piece of low ground, 
whether upon a stream of water or not, is English. 
I recollect two places at this moment (both dry), 
in the county of Surrey, to which the word is ap- 
plied, viz. Smitham Bottom, to the north of Rei- 
Site, through which the railway runs ; and Boxhill 
ottom, a few miles to the westward, in the same 
range of chalk hills. 

Sparse and sparsely, it is said by UNEDA of 
Philadelphia, are Americanisms. This, however, 
is not so. There is a Query on the word sparse 
in Vol. i., p. 215. by C. FORBES : and on p. 251. of 
the same volume J. T. STANLEY supposes it to be 
an Americanism, on the authority of the Penny 

I have a strong conviction that I then wrote to 
" N. & Q." to claim the word sparse as aboriginal 
to the British Isles, for I find memoranda I had 
made at the time on the margin of my Jamieson's 
Dictionary on the subject ; but I do not find that 
what I then wrote had been printed in " N. & Q." 

In the Supplement to Jamieson's Dictionary is 
the following : " SPARS, SPARSE, adj. widely spread ; 
as, 'sparse writing' is wide open writing, occupy- 
ing a large space." The word is in common use 
throughout the south of Scotland. 

I have come to be of opinion that there are few, 
if any, words that are real Americanisms, but that 
(except where the substance or the subject is quite 
modern) almost every word and expression now in 
use among the Anglo-Americans may be traced to 
some one of the old provincial dialects of the 
British Isles. J. S.s. 

The Folger Family (Vol. vi., p. 583.). -I do not 
know whether there are any of that name in Wales, 
but there was a family of that name near Tregony 
in Cornwall some years ago, and may be now. I 
am not quite certain whether they spell it Folger 
or Fulger, but rather think the latter was the 
mode of spelling it. S. JENNINGS-G. 

Wake Family (, p. 290.). The Rev. 
Robert Wake was vicar of Ogbourne, St. Andrew, 
Wilts, from 1703 to 1715, N.S.,"during which time 
he had these children : Thomas, born the 17th of 
July, 1706, and baptized on the 28th of the same 
month; Elizabeth and Anne, both baptized on 
the 16th of July, 1711. ARTHUR R. CARTER. 

Cam den Town. 

Shakspeare's " Twelfth Night " (, p. 584.). 
Agreeing with MR. SINGER in his doubts re- 
garding the propriety of changing the word case 
into face, in the line, 

" When time hath sow'd a grizzle on thy case" 

I would instance a passage in Measure for 
Measure, where Angelo says 

" O place ! O form ! 

How often dost thou with thy case, thy habit, 

Wrench awe from fools," c. 

W. C. 

Electrical Phenomena (Vol. vi., p. 555.). The 
case recorded by ADSTJM is not at all an infrequent 
one, and the phenomena alluded to have been no- 
ticed for a very long period, and are of very com- 
mon occurrence in dry states of the atmosphere. 
The following, from Daniel's Introduction to Che- 
mical Philosophy (a most useful work for general 
readers), will probably explain all that ADSDM is 
desirous of knowing : 

" It was first observed by Otto de Guericke and 
Hawsbee, that the friction of glass and resinous sub- 
stances not only produced the phenomena which we 
have just described (those of vitreous and resinous 
electricity), but, under favourable circumstances, was 
accompanied by a rustling or crackling noise ; and, 
when the experiment was made in a dark room, by 
flashes and sparks of light upon their surfaces. When 
once the attention has been directed to the observation, 



[No. 167. 

most persons will find that such phenomena of electrical 
light are familiar occurrences, and often present them- 
selves in suddenly drawing off from the person a silk 
stocking, or a flannel waistcoat, or in the friction of long 
hair by combing. How small a degree of friction is 
sufficient to excite electricity in the human body, is 
shown in a striking way by placing a person upon an 
insulating stool (with glass legs). If in such a posi- 
tion he place his finger upon a gold-leaf electrometer, 
and another person flip him lightly with a silk hand- 
kerchief, the leaves will immediately repel each other" 
(resinous electricity has been excited). Page 205. 
par. 307/ 


Daubuz Family (Vol. vi., p. 527.). Where 
are the descendants of this worthy family (Dau- 
buz) ? It may possibly give ME. COESER a clue 
to the information he desires, if I tell him that 
there is a very respectable family of that name 
in Cornwall. One lives in the neighbourhood of 
Truro, and a brother is vicar of Creed, near 
Grampound, Cornwall. The father of these gen- 
tlemen was the .first of the family, I believe, who 
resided in Cornwall, where he amassed a large 
fortune from his connexion with mining specu-- 
lations. S. JENNINGS-G. 

Lord Nelson (Vol. vi., p. 576.). I am obliged 
to ME. KEESLEY for giving me an opportunity of 
reconciling my statement respecting Dr. Scott 
(Vol. vi., p. 438.) with the inscription on Mr. 
Burke's monument.' Both, I believe, are true. I 
quote from the Authentic Narrative of the Death 
of Lord Nelson, by William Beatty, M.D. &c. The 
copy of this work which is before me has the fol- 
lowing in Sir W. Beatty's own handwriting : " To 
the Rev. Doctor Scott, with every sentiment of 
regard, by his friend and messmate, the author." 
In this " narrative," Dr. Scott and Mr. Burke are 
generally described as personally attending on 
Lord Nelson from the time of his being brought 
down into the cockpit. And at p. 50. it is said : 
" Doctor Scott and Mr. Burke, who had all along 
sustained the bed under his shoulders," &c. : and 
again at p. 51.: " His- lordship breathed his last 
at thirty minutes past four o'clock : at which 
period Dr. Scott was in the act of rubbing his 
lordship's breast, and Mr. Burke supporting the 
bed under his shoulders." All this is represented 
in West's beautiful picture, which hangs, in a bad 
light, in the hall of Greenwich Hospital. 

There is another claimant for the honour of 
having been Nelson's last nurse, whose name I 
forget. His pretensions are recorded on a tablet 
to his memory in the chapel of Greenwich Hospital. 
Dr. Scott's daughter, who was with me there one 
day, remonstrated on the subject with old blue 
jacket who lionised us. And I put in the lady's 
right to speak with some authority. But " what 
is writ is writ," was enough for our guide : we 

could make nothing of him, for he fought our 
arguments as if they had been so many guns of 
the enemy. ALFBED GATTY. 

Robes and Fees in the Days of Robin Hood 
(Vol. vi., p. 479.). In translating the ordinances 
and statutes against maintainers and conspirators, 
ME. LEWELLYN CTJETIS more than once translates 
" gentz de pais" by " persons of peace" This is 
a material error : it should be " of the country ;" 
" pays," not " paix." For the subject referred to, 
Mr. Foss's Judges of England, vol. iii., should be 
consulted. J. Bx. 

Wray (Vol. iv., p. 164.). In one of the Wray 
pedigrees in Burke's Landed Gentry, it is stated 
that the Yorkshire family of that name originally 
resided in Coverdale in Richmondshire. 

In Clarkson's History of Richmond is a pedi- 
gree of the " Wrays," which commences (if I 
rightly recollect) with an ancestor (six or eight 
years before him) of Sir Christopher Wray, of 
whose fore-elders, some lived at St. Nicholas, 
near to Richmond. 

I have traced a family of the name of Wray or 
Wraye for three centuries back, in Wensleydale, 
and at Coverham in Coverdale (both in Richmond- 
shire), but am unable to connect it by direct 
evidence with either of the pedigrees above re- 
ferred to ; and should be much obliged for any 
information touching any part of the family in 
Richmondshire, particularly such as might aid in 
showing the relation of the several branches to 
one another. 

With reference to the origin of the name, I may 
mention, that there is a valley called Raydale, 
between Wensleydale and Craven, adjacent to 
Coverdale ; and also a village in Westmoreland, 
near to the western extremity of Wensleydale, 
called Wray or Ray. 

The arms of the Wensleydale Wrays are : azure, 
a chevron ermine between three helmets proper 
on a chief or, three martlets gules ; crest a martlet, 
and motto " Servabo fidem." 

I am informed that there is to be found, in the 
Heralds' College, an entry of a Wray pedigree 
with these arms ; and I should be glad to have 
particulars of such entry. 

The motto of the St. Nicholas family is, to the 
best of my recollection, "Et juste et vraye:" a 
canting motto, as is that of PAK-RAE. 


Irish Rhymes (Vol. vi., pp. 431. 539.605.). For 
the benefit of Irishmen, I beg to adduce Shak- 
speare as a writer of Irish Rhymes. In that ex- 
quisite little song called for by Queen Catharine, 
" to soothe her soul grown sad with troubles," we 
have : 

" Everything that heard him play, 
Even the billows of the sea." 

W. C. 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 




We have received a copy of Notes and Emendations 
on the Text of Shukspeare's Plays from Early Manuscript 

Corrections in a Copy of the Folio in the Possession of 
J. Payne Collier, Esq., F. S.A., forming a Supplemental 

Volume to the Works of Shakspeare, by the same Editor, 
in Eight Volumes, 8vo. With the nature of this volume 
the readers of " N. & Q." are already so fully ac- 
quainted, from the frequent references which have 
been made to it in these columns, that on this occa- 
sion we feel that we need do little more than re- 
cord its publication, and the fact that it appears to 
be edited with the same scrupulous care, for which all 
works which appeared under the superintendence of 
Mr. Collier are invariably distinguished. That all the 
critics will agree either with the MS. corrections, or with 
Mr. Collier in his estimate of the value of the emend- 
ations, is not to be expected ; but all will acknow- 
ledge that he has done good service to Shakspearian 
literature by their publication. 

" The New Year," observes The Athenaeum, " opens 
with some announcements of promise in our own lite- 
rary world. Mr. Bentley announces the Memorials 
and Correspondence of Charles James Fox, on which 
the late Lord Holland was understood to be so long 
engaged. The work, however, is now to be edited by 
Lord John Russell, and to extend to two volumes 
octavo. The same publisher promises a history, in 
one large volume, of' The Administration of the East 
India Company,* by Mr. Kaye, author of the ' History 
of the War in Afghanistan ; ' and a ' History (in two 
volumes octavo) of the Colonial Policy of the British 
Empire from 1847 to 1851,' by the present Earl Grey. 
The fifth and concluding volume of '.The Letters 
of the Earl of Chesterfield,' including some new letters 
now first published from the original MSS., under 
the editorship, as before, of Lord Mahon, will, we 
believe, shortly appear. Two volumes of 'Letters 
of the Poet Gray,' so often announced by Mr. Bent- 
ley, are to come out at last during the present 
season. They will be edited by the Rev. J. Mit- 
ford, author of 'The Life of Gray.' Nor is Mr. 
Murray without his usual attractive bill of fare for the 
literary appetite. The Lowe Papers, left in a mass of 
confusion at the death of Sir Harris Nicolas, are 
now nearly ready; and the St. Helena Life of Na- 
poleon will appear, it is said, for the first time, as far as 
Sir Hudson Lowe is concerned, in its true light. The 
Castlereagh Papers (now in Mr. Murray's hands) will 
include matter of moment connected with the Congress 
of Vienna, the Battle of Waterloo, and the occupation 
of Paris. The same publisher announces The Speeches 
of the Duke of Wellington (to which we called at- 
tention some time back) : also a work by Mr. George 
Campbell, called ' India as it may be,' and another 
by Captain Elphinstoae Erskine about the Western 
Pacific and Feejee Islands. The Messrs. Longman 
announce a Private Life of Daniel Webster, by his late 
Private Secretary, Mr. Charles Lanman and a new 
work by Signer Mariotti, ' An Historical Memoir of 
Fra Dolcino and his Times.' Mr. Bohn wjjl have 

ready in a few days ' Yule-Tide Legends,' a collection 
of Scandinavian Tales and Traditions, edited by 
B. Thorpe, Esq. Messrs. Hurst and Blackett -1 
whose names now take the place of Mr. Colburn's, as 
his successors are about to publish Memoirs of the 
Court and Cabinets of George the Third, to be com- 
piled from original family documents by the Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos." 

We need scarcely remind the Fellows of the Society 
of Antiquaries who may have in their minds su<r_ 
gestions for the improvement of the Society, how de- 
sirable it is that they should bring those suggestions at 
once under the consideration of the Committee just 
appointed. We are sure that all such as are submitted 
to Mr. Hawkins and his colleagues will receive every 
attention; and we trust that the Committee will at 
once proceed to their task, so that the Society may 
have time to well consider their Report before the 
Anniversary in April. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Geography, by various Writers. Edited by William 
Smith. Part V. The new issue of this most useful 
work extends from Campi Eaudii to Cimolus. Cyclo- 
pedia Bibliographica, a Library Manual of Theological 
and General Literature, Analytical, Bibliographical, and 
Biographical. Part IV. of this useful guide for au- 
thors, preachers, students, and literary men, extends 
from Henry Bull to Isaac Chauncy. The Journal of 
Sacred Literature. New Series. Edited by Dr. Kitto. 
No. VI. Swift and Richardson, by Lord Jeffrey, is 
the new Number of Longman's Traveller's Library. . 
The Goose Girl at the Well, &c., completes the interest- 
ing collection of Grimm's Household Stories. The 
Shakspeare Repository is the first Number of a work 
especially devoted to Shakspeare, containing a great 
variety of matter illustrative of his life and writings, by 
J. H. Fennel). The Chess Player's Chronicle, the first 
Number of which professes and appears to be an im- 
proved series of this indispensable Chess Player's 






BKN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. 

THE PURSUIT op KNOWLEDGE. (Original Edition.) Vol. I. 

RAPIN'S HISTORY OP ENGLAND, 8vo. Vol. I., III. and V. of 

SHARPE'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols. 1819. Piccadilly. 



DONNE, Bi6,i/ro<;, 4to. First Edition, 1644. 

Second Edition, 1648. 



ESSAYS IN DIVINITY. 12mo. 1651. 


POPE'S WORKS, by WARTON. Vol. IX. 1797. In boards. 


8vo. Boptley. 




[No. 16 


SMITH'S COLLECTANEA ANTIQUA. 2 vols. 8vo.; or Vol. I. 

Newcastle Grammar School. 
RELIGIO MILITIS; or Christianity for the Camp. Longmans, 1826. 

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Bookt Wanted are requested 
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nor the subject of the non-inserted communication. 

H. H. H.'s (Ashburton) letter has been forwarded to DR. 
DIAMOND. // if not the first by many which we have received 
expressive of the writer's thanks for his valuable Photographic 

ALPHA complains in so generous a spirit that we regret we cannot 
agree with him. We assure him that, on the first point on which 
he writes, he is the only one who has so written, white we have 
had dozens of letters of thanks; and he will see in the present No. 
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whose notice it would probably never have been brought in a purely 
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T. W. U. KBYB. Will our Correspondent favour us with par- 
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ENQUIRER cannot do better than follow the directions for the 
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THE INDEX AND TITLE-PAGE to o*r Sixth Volume will be 
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A neat case for holding the Numbers of " NOTES AND QUERIES," 
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ERRATUM. In the Number of last week the passage from the 
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y7TKt it, at/ran iraX/n a.ia.f^<riT^au f&tS ' uy o KCfio; cuieriny." 
Cambridge edition of 1G65. 




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low of Trinity College, Oxford. 

" Pleasant meadows, happy peasants, all holy 
monks, all holy priests, holy every body. Such 
charity and such unity, when every man was 
a Catholic. I once believed in this Utopia my- 
self, but when tested by stern facts, it all melts 
away like dream." A. Welby Puyin. 

" The revelations made by such writers as 
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" Two valuable works ... to the truthful- 
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mony : one, and the most important, is Mr. 
Meyrick's ' Practical Working of the Church 
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the experience of every Spanish traveller of a 
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of unchecked Romanism. Here is the solid 
substantial fact. Spain is divided between 
ultra-infidelity and what is so closely akin to 
actual idolatry, that it can only be controver- 
sially, not practically, distinguished from it : 
and over all hangs a lurid cloud of systematic 
immorality, simply frightful to contemplate. 
We can offer a direct, and even personal, testi- 
mony to all that Mr. Meyrick has to say." 

" I wish to recommend it strongly." T. K. 
Arnold's Theological Critic. 

" Manj; passing travellers have thrown more 
or less light upon the state of Romanism 
and Christianity in Spain, according to their 
objects and opportunities ; but we suspect these 
' workings ' are the fullest, the most natural, 
and the most trustworthy, of anything tha* 
has appeared upon the subject since the time 
of Blanco White's Confessions." Spectator. 

" This honest exposition of the practical 
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day effects, not its canons and theories, deserves 
the careful study of all, who, unable to test the 
question abroad, are dazzled by the distant 
mirage with which the Vatican mocks many a 
yearning soul that thirsts after water-brooks 
pure and full." Literary Gazette. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 

JAN. 8. 1853.] 



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[No. 167. 

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From the Original of the Four Masters, from the earliest Historic Period to the Conclusion in 1616; 
consisting of the Irish Text from the Original MSS., and an English Translation, with copious Explana- 
tory Notes, an Index of Names, and an Index of Places, by JOHN O'DONOVAN, Esq., LL.D., Barrister at 
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Extract from the DUBLIN REVIEW. 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 168.] 


C With Index, price IQd 
(_ Stamped Edition, J J| 





In edited Poem hy Pope - 

Southey's " Doctor :" St. Matthias' Day in Leap-year, by 
P. J. Yarrum ...-.- 
Oxfordshire Legend' an Stone, by B. H. Cowper 
Lady Novell's Music-book - 

Bishop Burnet, by Wrn. L. Nichols - 

A Monastic Kitchener's Account - 
The Fairies in New Ross, by Patrick Cody 

MINOR NOTES : The Duke of Wellington and Marshal 
Ney : Parallel Passage in the Life of Washington and 
Major Andre St. Bernard versus Fulke Greville " 
St. Munoki's Day Epitaph in Chesham Churchyard 

Gentlemen Pensioners Marlhorough : curious 

Case of Municipal Opposition to County Magistracy 
Wet Season in 1348 General Wolfe - - - 62 


Pope and the Marquis Maffei - - - 64 

The Church Catechism, by C. J. Armistead ' - 64 

A Countess of Southampton - - - 64 

MINOR QUERIES : Hardening Steel Bars Pierrepoint 

Ceylon Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting 

"To talk like a Dutch Uncle " Ecclesiastical 

Antiquities of Belgium Charter of Waterford 

Inscription on Penny of George III. " Shob " 
or " Snub," a Kentish Word Bishop Pursglove (Suf- , 
fragan) of Hull Stewarts of Holland Robert Wau- 
chope, Archbishop of Armagh, 1543 Plum-pudding 
" Whene'er I asked " Immoral Works Arms at 
Bristol Passage in Thomson " For God will be 
your King to-day" " See where the startled wild 
fowl " Ascension-day The Grogog of a Castle - G5 


Canongate Marriages - - - - 67 

Lady Katherine Grey - - - - -68 

Hewlett the Engraver, by B. Hudson - - - 69 

Chaucer ....... 69 

Stereoscopic Pictures with One Camera Mr. Crookes" 
Wax-paper Process India Rubber a 'Substitute for 
Yellow Glass- Dr. Diamond's Paper Processes - 70 

REPLIES TO MIXOR QUERIES : Ancient Timber Town- 
halls Magnetic Intensity Monument at Wadstena 
David Routh, R. C. Bishop of Ossory Cardinal 
Erskine "Ne'er to these chambers," &c. The 
Budget " Catching a Tartar" The Termination 
"-itis" 71 


Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - 73 

Notices to Correspondents . - - - 73 

Advertisements - - . . - 74 

VOL. VII. No. 168. 


In an original letter from James Boaden to 
Northcote the artist, I find the following passage ; 
and I add to it the verses to which allusion is 
therein made : 

" 60. Warren Street, Fitzroy Square. 

"28th August, 1827. 
" My dear friend, 

" The verses annexed are so fine, that you should 
put them into your copy of Pope, among the Mis- 
cellanies. Dr. Warburton received them too late 
for his edition of our poet, and I find them only in 
a letter from that prelate to Dr. Hurd, dated 
' Prior Park, June 24th, 1765.' 

" I have used the freedom to mark a few of the 
finest touches with a pencil, to show you my feel- 
ing. These you can rub out easily, and after- 
wards indulge your own. The style of interro- 
gation seems ]to have revived in Gray's Elegy. 
Hurd would send the verses to Mason as soon as 
he got them ; and Mason and Gray, as you know, 
were one in all their studies. 
" I do not forget the Fables. 

" Yours, my dear friend, always, 

" J. Northcote, Esq." 

Not having by me any modern edition of Pope's 
Works, may I ask whether these verses, thus 
transcribed for Northcote by his friend Boaden, 
have yet been introduced to the public ? 

Verses by Mr. Pope, on the late Dean of Carlislels 
(Dr. Bolton) having written and published a 
Paper to the Memory of Mrs. Butler, of Sussex, 
Mother to old Lady Blount of Twickenham. 

[They are supposed to be spoken by the deceased 
lady to the author of that paper, which drew her 

" Stript to the naked soul, escaped from clay, 
From doubts unfetter'd, and dissolved in day; 
Unwarm'd by vanity, unreach'd by strife, 
And all my hopes and fears thrown off with life; 
Why am I charm'd by Friendship's fond essays, 
And tho' unbodied, conscious of thy praise ? 



[No. 168. 

Has pride a portion in the parted soul ? 
Does passion still the formless mind control ? 
Can gratitude outpant the silent breath, 
Or a friend's sorrow pierce the glooms of death? 
No, 'tis a spirit's nobler taste of bliss, 
That feels the worth it left, in proofs like this ; 
That not its own applause but thine approves, 
Whose practice praises, and whose virtue loves ; 
Who Hv'st to crown departed friends with fame; 
Then dying, late, shalt all thou gav'st reclaim. 

A. F. W. 


In looking over the 1848 edition of Southey's 
book, The Doctor, I observe an error which has 
escaped the care and revision of the editor, the 
Rev. J. W. Warter, B.D. At p. 199., where 
Southey is referring to the advantages of alma- 
nacs, he writes : 

" Who is there that has not sometimes had occasion 
to consult the almanac? Maximilian I., by neglect- 
ing to do this, failed in an enterprise against Bruges. 
It had been concerted with his adherents in that tur- 
bulent city, that he should appear before it at a certain 
time, and they would be ready to rise in his behalf, 
and open the gates for him. He forgot that it was 
leap-year, and came a day too soon ; and this error on 
his part cost many of the most zealous of his friends 
their lives. It is remarkable that neither the historian 
who relates this, nor the writers who have followed 
him, should have looked into the almanac to guard 
against any inaccuracy in the relation ; for they have 
fixed the appointed day on the eve of St. Matthias, which 
being the '23rd of February, could not be put out of itt 
course by leap-year." 

The words in Italics show Southey's mistake. 
This historian was quite correct : as, according to 
the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, al- 
though the regular festival of St. Matthias is 
celebrated upon the 24th of February, yet, " in 
anno bissextili Februarius est dierum 29, et Fes- 
tum S. Mathiae celebratur 25 Februarii." Thus 
it will be seen, that the year when Maximilian 
was to have appeared before Bruges being leap- 
year, and the day appointed being the eve of St. 
Matthias, he should have come upon the 24th, not 
the 23rd of February : the leap-year making all 
the difference. P. J. YARRCM. 



A few miles from Chipping-Norton, by the side 
of a road which divides Oxfordshire from War- 
wickshire, and on the brow of a hill overlooking 
Long Compton, stand the remains of a Druidical 
temple. Leland speaks of them as "Rollright 

stones," from their being in the parish of Roll- 
right. The temple consists of a single circle of 
stones, from fifty to sixty in number, of various 
sizes and in different positions, but all of them 
rough, time-worn, and mutilated. The peasantry 
say that it is impossible to count these stones, and 
certainly it is a difficult task, though not because 
there is any witchcraft in the matter, but owing 
to the peculiar position of some of them. You 
will hear of a certain baker who resolved not to 
be outwitted, so hied to the spot with a basketful 
of small loaves, one of which he placed on every 
stone. In vain he tried ; either his loaves were 
not sufficiently numerous, or some sorcery dis- 
placed them, and he gave up in despair. Of 
course no one expects to succeed now. 

In a field adjoining are the remains of a crom- 
lech, the altar where, at a distance from the 
people, the priests performed their mystic rites. 
The superimposed stone has slipped off, and rests 
against the others. These are the " Whispering 
Knights," and this their history : In days of yore, 
when rival princes debated their claims to Eng- 
land's crown by dint of arms, the hostile forces 
were encamped hard by. Certain traitor-knights 
went forth to parley with others from the foe. 
While thus plotting, a great magician, whose 
power they unaccountably overlooked, trans- 
formed them all into stone, and there they stand 
to this day. 

Not far from the temple, but on the opposite 
side of the road, is a solitary stone, probably the 
last of two rows which flanked the approach to 
the sacred circle. This stone was once a prince 
who claimed the British throne. On this spot he 
inquired of the magician above named what would 
be his destiny : 

If Long Compton you can see, 
King of England you shall be," 

answered the wise man. But he could not see it, 
and at once shared the fate of the " Whispering 
Knights." This is called the " King's stone," and 
so stands that, while you cannot see Long Comp- 
ton from it, you can if you go forward a very 
little way. On some future day an armed war- 
rior will issue from this very stone, to conquer 
and govern our land ! 

It is said that a farmer, who wished to bridge 
over a small stream at the foot of the hill, resolved 
to press the " Whispering Knights " into the ser- 
vice ; but it was almost too much for all the 
horse power at his command to bring them down. 
At length they were placed, but all they could do 
was not sufficient to keep them in their place. It 
was therefore resolved to restore them to their 
original post, when, lo ! they who required so 
much to bring them down, and defied all attempts 
to keep them quiet, were taken back almost with- 
out an effort by a single horse ! So there they stand, 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



till they and the rest (for I believe the large circle 
was once composed of living men) shall return to 
their proper manhood. 

Other legends respecting this curious relic 
might, I doubt not, be obtained on the spot. I 
obtained the above in answer to inquiries, when 
making a pilgrimage to the place. B. H. COWPER. 


The following contents of the Lady Novell's 
music-book (1591) may be interesting to many of 
your readers : 

"1. My Ladye NevelTs Grownde. 

2. Qui passe, for my Ladye Nevell. 

3. The March before the Battell. 

4. The Battell. 

The March of Footemen. 

The March of Horsemen. 

The Trumpetts. 

The Irishe Marche. 

The Bagpipe and Drone. 

The Flute and Dromme. 
I The Marche to Fight. 
, Tantara. 

The Battells be ioyned. 

The Retreat. 

5. The Galliarde for the Victorie. 

6. The Barley Breake. 

7. The Galliarde Gygg. 

8. The Hunt's upp. 

9. Ut re mi fa sol la. 

10. The first Pauian. 

11. The Galliard to the same. 

12. The seconde Pauian. 

13. The Galliarde to the same. 

14. The third Pauian. 

15. The Galliarde to the same. 

16. The fourth Pauian. 

17. The Galliarde to the same. 

18. The fifte Pauian. 

19. The Galliarde to the same. 

20. The sixte Pauian. 

21. The Galliarde to the same. 

22. The seventh Pauian. 

23. The eighte Pauian. 
The passinge mesurs is, 

24. The nynthe Pauian. 

25. The Galliarde to the same. 

26. The Voluntarie Lesson. 

27. Will you walk the Woods soe wylde. 

28. The Mayden's Song. 

29. A Lesson of Voluntarie. 
SO. The seconde Grownde. 

31. Have w 4 you to Walsingame. 

32. All in a Garden greene. 

33. The lo. Willobie's welcome home. 

34. The Carman's Whistle. 

35. Hughe Ashton's Grownde. 

36. A Fancie, for my Ladye Nevell. 

37. Bellinger's Rownde. 

38. Munser's Almaine. 

39. The tenth Pauian, Mr. W. Peter. 

40. The Galliarde to the same. 

41. A Fancie. 

42. A Voluntarie. 


Ffinished and ended the Leveuth of September, in 
the yeare of our Lorde God 1591, and in the 33 yeare 
of the raigne of our sofferaine ladie Elizabeth, by the 
grace of God Queen of England, &c., by me, Jo. Bald- 
wine of Windsore. 

Laudes Deo." 

The songs have no words to them. Most of the 
airs are signed " Mr. William Birde." 

A modern MS. note in the book states that the 
book is "Lady Novell's Music-book," and that 
she seems "to have been the scholar of Birde, who 
professedly composed several of the pieces for her 
ladyship's use ;" and that sixteen of the forty-two 
pieces are " in the Virginal Book of Queen Eliza- 
beth," and that " Jo. Baldwine was a singing-man 
at Windsor." The music is written on four-staved 
paper of six lines, in large bold characters, with 
great neatness. The notes are lozenge-shape. Can 
any of your correspondents furnish rules for 
transposing these six-line staves into the five-line 
staves of modern notations ? L. B. L. 


Having but recently become acquainted with 
your useful and learned work (for scire ubi aliquid 
invenire possis^ magna pars eruditionis est), I have 
been much interested in looking over the earlier 
volumes. Allow me to add a couple of links to 
your catena on Bishop Burnet. The first is the 
opinion of Hampton, the translator of Polybius ; 
the other is especially valuable, it being nothing 
less than the portrait of Burnet drawn by himself, 
but certainly not with any idea of its being sus- 
pended beside the worthies of his " Own Time," 
for the edification of posterity. 

Hampton's testimony is as follows : 

" His personal resentments put him upon writing 
history. He relates the actions of a persecutor and 
benefactor ; and it is easy to believe that a man in such 
circumstances must violate the laws of truth. The re- 
membrance of his injuries is always present, and gives 
venom to his pen. Let us add to this, that intem- 
perate and malicious curiosity which penetrates into 
the most private recesses of vice. The greatest of his 
triumphs is to draw the veil of secret infamy, and ex- 
pose to view transactions that were before concealed 
from the world ; though they serve not in the least 
either to embellish the style or connect the series of 
his history, and will never obtain more credit than, 
perhaps, to suspend the judgment of the reader, since 
they are supported only by one single, suspected testi- 
mony." Reflections on Ancient and Modern History, 
4to. : Oxford, 1746. 

Let me now refer you to a document, written 
with his own hand, which sets the question of 



[No. 168. 

Burnet's truthfulness and impartiality in his deli- 
neations of character completely at rest. 

From the Napier charter-chest, " by a species of 
retributive j ustice," there has recently risen up in 
judgment against him a letter of his oivn, proving 
his own character. It is, I regret, too long for in- 
sertion in your pages in extenso, but no abstract 
can give an adequate idea of its contents. It is, in 
fact, so mean and abject as almost to overpass 
belief. I must refer your readers to Mr. Mark 
Napier's Montrose and the Covenanters, vol. i. 
pp. 13 21. All the reflections of the Whig his- 
torian Dalrymple, all the severe remarks of Swift 
and Lord Dartmouth, as to Burnet's dishonesty 
and malice, would now seem well bestowed upon 
a writer so despicable and faithless, and the credit 
of whose statements, when resting on his own sole 
authority, must be totally destroyed. This curious 
epistle was written, in an agony of fear, on a Sun- 
day morning, during the memorable crisis of the 
Rye-House plot, and while Lord Russell was on 
the eve of his execution. Addressed to Lord 
Halifax, it was intended to meet the eye of the 
King. It evidently proves the writer's want of 
veracity in divers subsequent statements in his 
history. The future bishop also protests that he 
never will accept of any preferment, promises 
never more to oppose the Court, and intimates an 
intention to paint the King in the fairest light 
" if I ever live to finish what I am about ; " i.e. the 
History of his Own Time, in which the villanous 
portrait of Charles afterwards appeared. 

" Here, then," says Mr. Napier, " is Burnet Redi- 
vivus; and now the bishop may call Montrose a coward 
or what he likes, and persuade the world of his own 
super-eminent moral courage, if he can. For our own 
part, after reading the above letter, we do not believe 
one malicious word of what Burnet has uttered in the 
History of his Own Time against Charles I. and Mon- 
trose ; and he ha_s therein said nothing about them that 
is not malicious. We do not believe that the apology 
for Hamilton, which he has given to the world in the 
memoirs of that House, is by any means so truthful an 
exposition of the character of that mysterious marquis 
as the letters and papers entrusted to the bishop en- 
abled him to give. We feel thoroughly persuaded 
that Bishop Burnet, in that work, as well as in the 
History of his Ou-n Time, reversed the golden maxim of 
Cicero, ' Ne quid falsi dicere atideat, ne quid veri non 
audeat.' The marvellous of himself, and the malicious 
of others, we henceforth altogether disbelieve, when 
resting on the sole authority of the bishop's historical 
record, and will never listen to when retailed tradition- 
ally and at second-hand from him. Finally, we do be- 
lieve the truth of the anecdote, that the bishop, ' after 
a debate in the House of Lords, usually went home 
and altered everybody's character as they had pleased 
or displeased him that day ; ' and that he kept weaving 
in secret this chronicle of his times, not to enlighten 
posterity or for the cause of truth, but as a means of 
indulging in safety bis own interested or malicious 

feelings towards the individuals that pleased or offended 
him. So much for Bishop Burnet, whose authority 
must henceforth always be received cum nota." 

Lansdown Place, Bath. 


(From a volume, of memoranda touching the 
monastery of Whalley, temp. Henry VIIL, among 
the records of the Court of Augmentation.) 

" Dyv'se somes of money leid oute by me Jamys 
More, monke and kechyner to the late Abbot of Whal- 
ley, for and conc'nynge dyv'se caitts bought by the scid 
Jamys of dyv'se psons, as hereaft' dothe pticlerly appirc 
by pcells whiche came to thuse of the seid house, and 
spent yn the seid house from the last daye of Decem- 
ber until the daye of Marche then next folow- 

ynge yn the xxviij th yere of the reign of Kynge Henry 
the viij th , whiche somes of money the said Jamys asketh 

First payde to Edmunde Taillor Fischer 

for salt salmons, spent in the seyd 

late abbott kechyn syns the tyme of his 
accompt - xxv* 

Itm. Payde to "the seid Edmunde for xj 
freshe salmons, bought of the said Ed- 
munde to thuse, &c. of the seid house, 
there spent by the seid tyme - - xxv" 

Itm. Payde to WilPm Newbbet for fresh 

fische .... iiji iJjjd 

Itm. Payde for vj capons, bought at Fas- 

tyngeseven of dyv'se psons - ij 

Itm. Payde for xxxv hennes, bought of 

dyv'se psons - v' x d 

Itm. Payde for eggs, butter, chese, bought 
of dyv'se psons betwixt Cristmas and 
Fastyngsevyn, spent yn the seid house - xxiiij* 

Itm. Payde for mustersede - v" 

Itm. Bought of WilPra Fische viij potts 

hony-pric - x 1 

Itm. Bought of Anthony Watson vij gal- 
lons bony -" - ix* iiij d 

Itm. Bought of John Colthirst ij gallons 

hony - ij 1 iiij d 

Itm. Payde to Richard Jackson for xvij c 

sparlyngs - - ix' viii 4 

Sum of the payments vj u xviij d (sic in orig.) 

Itm. The same Jamys askyth allowance of xiiij', whiche 
the seid late abbott dyd owe hym at the tyme of his 
last accompt, whiche endyd at Cristmas last past, as 
yt dothe appire by the accompt of the seid Jamys 

Itm. The late abbott of Whalley dyd owe unto the 
seid Jamys More, for a grey stagg that the seid 
late abbott dyd by of the same Jamys by the space 
of a yere syns - - - - - x". 

By me JAMES MOR." 

The advowson of the parish church of Whalley 
having been bequeathed to the White Monks of 
Stanlawe (Cheshire), they removed their abbey 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



there A.D. 1206 ; it being dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary (" Locus Benedictiis de Whalley"), and 
having about sixty indwellers. (Tanner's Notitia.') 



" When moonlight 

Near midnight 
Tips the rock and waving wood ; 

When moonlight 

Near midnight 
Silvers o'er the sleeping flood ; 

When yew tops 

With dew-drops 
Sparkle o'er deserted graves ; 

'Tis then we fly 

Through welkin high, 
Then we sail o'er yellow waves." 

Book of Irish Ballads. 

There lived, some thirty years since, in the 
eastern part of the suburbs of New Ross, in the 
county of Wexford, denominated the " Maudlins," 
a hedge carpenter named Davy Hanlan, better 
known to his neighbours by the sobriquet of 
" Milleadh Maide," or " Speilstick." Davy plied 
his trade with all the assiduity of an industrious 
man, "and laboured in all kinds of weather " to 
maintain his little family ; and as his art consisted 
principally in manufacturing carts, ploughs, and 
narrows (iron ploughs not being then in use) for 
the surrounding farmers, and doctoring their old 
ones, the sphere of Davy's avocations was confined 
to no mean limits. 

It was a dry, sharp night, in the month of No- 
vember, and darkness had set in long before Davy 
left Mount Hanover, two miles distant from his 
home. At length he started forward, and had 
already reached the bridge of the Maudlins, when 
he stopped to rest ; for besides his tools he carried 
a bundle of wheaten straw, which he intended for 
a more than usually comfortable " shake-down " 
for his dear rib Winny. The moon had by this 
time ascended above the horizon, and by its silvery 
radiance depicted in delicate outline the hills 
rising in the distance, while the tender rays mix- 
ing with, and faintly illumining the gloom of the 
intermediate valleys, formed a mass of light and 
shade so exquisitely blended as to appear the work 
of enchantment. As Davy leaned on the parapet 
of the bridge, a thrill of alarm involuntarily dis- 
turbed his feelings : he was about to depart when 
he heard a clamorous sound, as of voices, proceed- 
ing from that part of the valley on which he still 
gazed. Curiosity now tempted him to listen still 
longer, when suddenly he saw a group of dwarfish 
beings emerging from the gloom, and coming 
rapidly towards him, along the green marsh that 
borders the Maudlin stream. Poor Davy was 
terror-stricken at this unusual sight ; in vain he 

attempted to escape : he was, as it were, spell- 
bound. Instantly the whole company gained the 
road beside him, and after a moment's consultation 
they simultaneously cried out, " Where is my 
horse ? give me my horse ! " &c. In the twinkling 
of an eye they were all mounted. Davy's feelings 
may be more easily imagined than described, and 
in a fit of unconsciousness his tongue, as it were 
mechanically, articulated " Where is my horse ? " 
Immediately he found himself astride on a rude 
piece of timber, somewhat in shape of a plough- 
beam, by which he was raised aloft in the air. 
Away he went, as he himself related, at the rate of 
nine knots an hour, gliding smoothly through the 
liquid air. No aeronaut ever performed his ex- 
pedition with more intrepidity ; and after about 
two hours' journeying the whole cavalcade alighted 
in the midst of a large city, just as 

" The iron tongue of midnight had told twelve." 

One of the party, who appeared to be a leader, 
conducted them from door to door, Davy follow- 
ing in the rear; and at the first door he passed 
them the word, " We cannot enter, the dust of the 
floor lies not behind the door." * Other impedi- 
ments prevented their ingress to the next two or 
three doors. 

At length, having come to a door which was not 
guarded by any of these insuperable sentinels which 
defy the force of fairy assault, he joyfully cried 
out " We can enter here :" and immediately, as if 
by enchantment, the door flew open, the party en- 
tered, and Davy, much astonished, found himself 
within the walls of a spacious wine-store. In- 
stantly the heads of wine vessels were broken ; 
bungs flew out ; the carousing commenced ; each 
boon companion pledged his friend, as he bedewed 
his whiskers in the sparkling beverage ; and the 
wassail sounds float round the walls and hollow 
roof. Davy, not yet recovered from his surprise, 
stood looking on, but could not contrive to come 
at a drop : at length he asked a rather agreeable 
fairy who was close to him to help him to some. 
" When I shall have done," said the fairy, " I will 
give you this goblet, and you can drink." Very 

* Every good housewife is supposed to sweep the 
kitchen floor previously to her going to bed ; and the 
old women who are best skilled in " fairy lore" affirm, 
that if, through any inadvertence, she should leave the 
dust thus collected behind the door at night, this dust 
or sweepings will have the power of opening the door 
to the fairies, should they come the way. It is also 
believed that, if the broom should be left behind the 
door, without being placed standing on its handle, it 
will possess the power of admitting the fairies. Should 
the water in which the family had washed their feet, 
before going to bed, be left in the vessel, on the kitchen 
floor, without having a coal of fire put into it, if not 
thrown out in the yard, it will act as porter to the 
fairies or good people. 



[No. 168. 

soon after he handed the goblet to Davy, who was 
about to drink, when the leader gave the word of 
command : 

" Away, away, my good fairies, away ! 
Let's revel in moonlight, and shun the dull day." 

The horses were ready, the party mounted, and 
Davy was carried back to the Maudlin bridge, 
bearing in his hand the silver goblet, as witness of 
his exploit. Half dead he made his way home to 
Winny, who anxiously awaited him; got to bed 
about four in the morning, to which he was con- 
fined by illness for months afterwards. And as 
Davy " lived from hand to mouth," his means were 
soon exhausted. Winny took the goblet and 
pledged it with Mr. Alexander Whitney, the 
watchmaker, for five shillings. In a few days 
after a gentleman who lived not twenty miles from 
Creywell Cremony came in to Mr. Whitney's, saw 
the goblet, and recognised it as being once in his 
possession, and marked with the initials " M. R.," 
and on examining it found it to be the identical 
one which he had bestowed, some years before, on 
a Spanish merchant. Davy, when able to get out, 
deposed on oath before the Mayor of Ross (who 
is still living) to the facts narrated above. The 
Spanish gentleman was written to, and in reply 
corroborated Davy's statement, saying that on a 
certain night his wine-store was broken open, 
vessels much injured, and his wine spilled and 
drunk, and the silver goblet stolen. Davy was 
exonerated from any imputation of guilt in the 
affair, and was careful, during his life, never again 
to rest at night on the Maudlin bridge. 

Mullinavat, county of Kilkenny. 


The Duke of Wellington and Marshal Ney. 
Parallel Passage in the Life of Washington and 
Major Andre. J. R. of Cork (Vol. vi., p. 480.) 
tells how Wellington was in his youth smitten with 
the charms of a lady, who, in after-life having ap- 
pealed to him to save the life of Ney, was not 
simply unsuccessful in her object, but was ordered 
to quit Paris forthwith. J. B. Burke, in the 
Patrician, vol. vi. p. 372., tells how Washington 
endeavoured to win the love of Mary Phillipse, 
and how he failed : how years rolled on, and the 
rejected lover as Commander-in-Chief of the 
American forces was supplicated by the same 
Mary, then the wife of Roger Morris, to spare the 
life of Andre. The appeal failed, and one of the 
General's aides was ordered to conduct the lady 
beyond the lines. ST. JOHNS. 

St. Bernard versus Fulhe Greville. On lately 
reading over the fine philosophical poem Of Hu- 
mane Learning, by Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, 

I was struck at finding that the 144th stanza was 
a literal transcript from St. Bernard. Some of 
your readers may possibly be amused or interested 
by the discovery : 

" Yet some seeke knowledge, meerely to be knowne, 
And idle curiositie that is ; 
Some but to sell, not freely to bestow, 
These gaine and spend both time and health amisse; 
Embasing arts, by basely deeming so, 
Some to build others, which is charity, 
But those to build themselves, who wise men be." 
Workes, p. 50. : Lond. 1633, 8vo. 

" Sunt namque qui scire voluiit eo fine tantum, ut 
sciant : et turpis curiositas est. Et sunt item qui scire 
volunt, ut scientiam suain vendant, verbi causa pro 
pecunia, pro honoribus: et turpis quasstus est. Sed 
sunt quoque qui scire volunt, ut asdificent : et caritas 
est. Et item qui scire volunt, ut .-i-jdificentur : et pru- 
dentia est." S. Bernard! In Cantica Serm. xxxvi. 
Sect 3. Opp., vol. i. p. 1404. Parisiis, 1719, fol. 

It is no mean eulogy upon Lord Brooke's poem 
just referred to, to say that it stood high in the 
estimation of the late Rev. Hugh James Rose, and 
was quoted approvingly by him in his lectures 
before the Durham University. My acquaintance 
with it was first derived from that source, and I 
am confident that many others of your readers 
sympathise with the wishes of MR. CROSSLEY, for 
" a collected edition of the works of the two noble 
Grevilles" (" N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p. 139.). The 
facts upon which the tragedy of Mustapha is 
founded are graphically summed up by Knolles in 
his Historic of the Turkes, pp. 757-65.: London, 
1633, fol. RT. 


St. Munokfs Day. Professor Craik, in his 
Romance of the Peerage, vol. ii. p. 337., with 
reference to the date of the death of Margaret 
Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland, gives two 
authorities, namely, 24th November, 1541, from 
the Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents, and St. 
Munoki't Day, from the Chronicle of Perth, and 
then says : " I find no saint with a name resem- 
bling Munoh in the common lists." Now this 
Note of mine has originated in the belief that I 
have found such a name in the Calendar of Saints, 
or at any rate one very closely resembling it, if 
not the identical Munoh. " St. Marnok, B. patron 
of Killmarnock in Scotland, honoured on the 25th 
October in the Scots Calendar." Now " Marnok " 
is most probably Munoh, the latter, perhaps, mis- 
spelt by a careless scribe in the Chronicle of 
Perth. There is a discrepancy of a month cer- 
tainly in these two dates, 25th October and 24th 
November ; but that is not very wonderful, as a 
doubt of the exact day of Queen Margaret's de- 
cease evidently exists among historians, for Pin,- 
kerton (vol. ii. p. 371.) conjectures June. The 
above extract regarding St. Marnok is from a 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



curious old work in my possession, published in 
1761 in London, and entitled A Memorial of An- 
cient British Piety, or a British Martyrology. It 
gives also the names of St. Moroc, C., Nov. 8 ; 
St. Munnu, Ab., Oct. 21, both saints in the Scot- 
tish calendar. A. S. A. 

Epitaph in Chesham Churchyard, 

" As an 


to Regularity, Integrity, 

and good Conduct, 

This Stone 

was erected at the general Expense 

of the Inhabitants of 

this Town and Parish 

to perpetuate the Memory of 

who served the Office of Clerk with 
the utmost Punctuality and Decorum 

for upwards of Thirty Years. 
He died 15th December, 1793." 


Gentlemen Pensioners. 

" On Saturday last, the Secretary to the Band of 
Gentleman Pensioners did, by order of the Duke of 
Montague their Captain, dispatch circular letters to 
the said gentlemen, signifying his Grace's pleasure to 
revive the ancient rules and orders that were practised 
at the time of the first institution of the Band in the 
reign of King Henry VII., viz. that five of the said 
Gentleman Pensioners shall attend constantly every 
day in the antechamber of the palace where His Ma- 
jesty shall be resident, from ten in the forenoon till 
three in the afternoon, the usual time of His Majesty's 
retiring to go to dinner ; and on every Drawing Room 
night from eight to twelve." Weekly Journal, Jan. 4, 


Marlborough ; Curious Case of Municipal Op- 
position to County Magistracy. Shortly after the 
invasion of the elder Pretender, the corporation 
of Marlborough so far defied the royal authority 
as to drive the quarterly county sessions from the 
town ; and high legal opinions were not wanting 
to fortify the position thus assumed by the bo- 
rough, on the ground, namely, of its municipal 
charter, which secured to the town a court of its 

Now, we all know that in early times a bo- 
rough's court-leet exempted the burgesses from 
the jurisdiction of the sheriffs " tourn," and that 
up till the period of the Municipal Reform bill, 
many charters still existed, verbally sustaining 
such right of exemption ; but the Queries which I 
wish to put are the following. First, Though the 
crown's representative had no jurisdiction, had he 
not a right to enter, and sit on cases foreign to the 
borough? Secondly, What are the earliest in- 

stances of county quarter sessions sitting in inde- 
pendent boroughs ? Thirdly, Were the cases nu- 
merous of similar acts of resistance at the period 
alluded to, viz. the reign of George I. ? 

I take this occasion to state that I am drawing 
to conclusion a history of Silkely Hundred, which 
includes Marlborough and Lord Ailesbury's seat ; 
and shall feel grateful for any information relating 
to the Pretender's influence in that district. That 
it must have been considerable may be argued from 
the Ailesbury alliance by marriage with the young 
Pretender. J. WATLEW. 


Wet Season in 1348. Accidentally looking into 
Holinshed a few days ago, I found that our pre- 
sent unusually wet season is not without a pa- 
rellel, indeed much exceeded ; as on that occasion 
the harvest must have been a complete failure, 
and dearth and disease consequently ensued. Pro- 
vidence, however, has kindly blessed us with an 
average harvest; and, exclusive of the disasters 
attendant upon storms and floods, I trust we shall 
escape any further visitation. I annex an extract 
of the passage in Holinshed : 

" In this 22 yeare [of Edward III., A.D. 1348], from 
Midsummer to Christmasse, for the more part it con- 
tinuallie rained, so that there was not one day and night 
drie togither, by reason whereof great nouds insued, 
and the ground therewith was sore corrupted, and 
manie inconueniences insued, as great sickenes, and 
other, insomuch that in the yeare following, in France, 
the people died wonderfullie in diverse places. In 
Italic also, and in manie other countries, as well in 
the lands of the infidels as in Christendome, this 
grieuous mortalitie reigned, to the great destruction of 
people. About the end of August, the like dearth 
began in diuerse places of England, and especiallie 
in London, continuing so for the space of twelue 
moneths following. And vpon that insued great 
barrennesse, as well of the sea as the land, neither of 
them yielding such plentie of things as before they had 
done. Wherevpon vittels and come became scant and 
hard to come by." The Chronicles of Raphaell Holin- 
shed, fol., vol. iii. p. 378 (black letter). 


General Wolfe. It may interest many of your 
readers to know that a portrait of General Wolfe, 
by Ramsay, 1758, is to be sold by Messrs. Christie 
and Manson, at their rooms, 8. King Street, St. 
James's Square, on Saturday, February 12. 

The picture is marked No. 300 in the catalogue 
of the first two days' sale. It formed part of the 
collection of a gentleman lately deceased, whom 
I had the pleasure of knowing. C. FORBES. 




[No. 168. 


I would beg the insertion of the following Note, 
which occurs at p. 338. of Walker's Historical 
Memoir on Italian Tragedy ; with a view to ascer- 
taining whether any light has been thrown on the 
subject since the publication of the work in ques- 
tion. I fear there is little chance of such being 
the case, but still I would be glad to learn from 
any of your correspondents, whether there is other 
evidence than the passage given from the Mar- 
quis's letter to Voltaire, to prove that Pope was 
actually engaged in the translation of his tragedy ; 
or whether there is any allusion in the cotem- 
porary literature of the day, to such a work having 
been undertaken by the bard of Twickenham. 
~" It seems to have escaped the notice of all Pope's 
biographers, that when the Marquis Maffei visited 
Twickenham, in company with Lord Burlington and 
Dr. Mead, he found the English bard employed on a 
translation of his Merope : yet the public have been in 
possession of this anecdote above fifty years. The 
Marquis, in his answer to the celebrated letter ad- 
dressed to him by Voltaire, says : ' Avendomi Mylord 
Conte di Burlington, e il Sig. Dottore Mead, 1'uno e 
1' altro talenti rari, ed a quali quant' io debba non 
posso dire, condotto alia villa del Sig. Pope, ch' e il 
Voltaire dell Inghilterra, come voi siete il Pope della 
Francia, quel bravo Poeta mi fece vedere, che lavorava 
alia versione della mia Tragedia in versi Inglesi : se la 
terminasse, e che ne sia divenuto, non so.' La Merope, 
ver. 1745, p. 180. With the fate of this version we 
are, and probably shall ever remain, unacquainted : it 
may, however, be safely presumed, that it was never 
finished to the satisfaction of the translator, and there- 
fore committed to the flames." 

T. C. S. 


Allow me to make the following inquiries through 
the pages of " N. & Q.," which may possibly elicit 
valuable information from some of your many 
correspondents. In the Archbishop of York's 
questions put to candidates for Holy Orders, Feb. 
1850, occurred this Query: "The Church Cate- 
chism . . by whom was the latter part added and 
put into its present form ; and whence is it chiefly 
derived?" The former part of this is readily 
answered ; being, as any one at all read in the 
history of the Prayer-Book well knows, added at 
the Hampton Court Conference, 1603; and was 
drawn up by Bishop Overall, at that time Dean of 
St. Paul's : but whence is it chiefly derived ? That 
is the question for which I have hitherto sought 
in vain a satisfactory solution, and fear his grace, 
or his examining chaplain, must have looked in 
vain for a correct reply from any of his quasi 
clergymen, college education though they may 
have had. It is a point which seems to be passed 

over entirely unnoticed by all of our liturgical 
writers and church historians, as I have been at 
no little pains in 'searching works at all likely to 
clear it up, but, hitherto, without success. It may 
be conjectured that the part referred to, viz., on 
the Sacraments, was taken from Dean No well's 
Catechism ; or, at all events, that Overall bor- 
rowed some of the expressions while he changed 
its meaning, as Nowell's was purely Calvinistic in 
tendency. He may have had before him the 
fourth part of Peter Lombard's Liber Sententi- 
arum, or some such work. But all this is mere 
supposition ; and what I want to arrive at, is some 
correct data or authoritative statement which 
would settle the point. Another interesting mat- 
ter upon which I am desirous of information, is, 
as to the protestation after the rubrics at the end 
of the Communion Service. In OUT present Prayer- 
Book it is in marks of quotation, which we do not 
find in the second book of King Edward VI., 
where it originally appears and the expressions 
there admit the real presence. It was altogether 
left out in Elizabeth's Prayer-Book, but again 
inserted in the last review in 1661, when the in- 
verted commas first appear : the sense being some- 
what different, allowing the spiritual but not the 
actual or bodily presence of Christ. Why are the 
commas or marks of quotation, if such they be, 
then inserted ? I have written to a well-known 
Archdeacon, eminent for his works on the Sacra- 
ments, but his answer does not convey what is 
sought by C. J. ARMISTEAD. 

Springfield Mount, Leeds. 


I have just been reading, in the Revue des deux 
Mondes, an interesting article upon the recently- 
published Memoirs of Mademoiselle deKcenigsmark, 
in which I meet with the following passage : 

" Ce fut a Venise que Charles-Jean de Koenigsmark 
rencontra la belle Comtesse de Southampton, cette 
vaillante amoureuse qui, plantant la fortune et famille, 
le suivit desormais par le monde deguisee en page : 
romanesque anecdote que la princesse Palatine a con- 
signee dans ses memoires avec cette brusque rondeur 
de style qui ne marchande pas les expressions. ' II 
doit etre assez dans le caractere de quelques dames 
anglaises de suivre leurs amans. J'ai connu un Comte 
de Koenigsmark qu'une dame anglaise avail suivi en 
habit de page. Elle etait avec lui a Chambord, et 
comme, faute de place, il ne pouvait loger au Chateau, 
il avail fait dresser dans la foret une tente ou il logeat. 
II me raconta son aventure a la Masse ; j'eu la curiosite 
de voir le soi-disant page. Je n'ai jamais rien vu de 
plus beau que cette figure: les plus beaux yeux du 
monde, une bouche charmante, une prodigieuse quan- 
tite de cheyeux du plus beau brun, qui tomberent en 
grosses boucles sur ses epaules. Elle sourit en me 
voyant, se doutant bien que je savais son secret. Lors- 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



qu'il partit de Chambord pour 1'Italie, le Comte de K oc- 
nigsmark se trouva dans une auberge, et en sortil : le 
matin pour faire un tour de promenade. L'hotesse de 
cette maison courut apres lui et lui cria : ' Montez v ite 
la-haut, Monsieur, votre page accouche !' Le page a c- 
coucha en effet d'une fille : on mit la mere et 1'enfant 
dans un couvent a Paris." 

He afterwards went to England, where 

Les freres, cousins, et petits cousins de lady South- 
ampton 1'attendaient, et les duels se mirent a lui pleu- 
voir dessus. Comme son epee aimait assez a luire au 
soleil, il la tira volontiers, et avec une chance telle que 
ses ennemis, ne pouvant le vaincre par le fer, jugerent 
a propos d'essayer du poison. Degoute de perdre 
son temps a de pareilles miseres, &c. &c. Tant que le 
comte a vecu il en a eu grand soin ; rnais il mourut en. 
Moree, et le page fidele ne lui survecut pas long-temps. 
Elle est morte comme une sainte." 

Can you, or any of your correspondents, say 
who this interesting Countess of Southampton was? 
She lived at the end of the seventeenth century. 
In addition to these particulars, which are so 
nicely told that I would not venture to alter 
them, as Orsino asks Viola, " What was her his- 
tory?" W. R. 


Hardening Steel Bars. Can any of your 
readers inform me how thin, flat, steel bars (say 
three feet long) can be prevented from " running " 
crooked when hardened in water ? J. H. A. 

Pierrepont. Who was John Pierrepont of 
Wad worth, near Doncaster, who died July, 1653, 
aged 75. A. F. B. 


Ceylon. I should be much obliged to SIR 
JAMES TENNENT, if he would kindly inform me 
where the best map of Ceylon is to be got ? such 
as are to be found in the atlases within my reach 
are only good enough to try a man's temper, and 
no more. 

May I also take the liberty of asking how soon 
we may expect the appearance of SIR JAMES TEN- 
KENT'S book on the history, &c. of Ceylon? a work 
which will be a great work indeed, if we have at 
all a fair specimen of its author's learning and 
powers in the Christianity in Ceylon. AJAX. 

Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting. Would 
any of your correspondents direct me to some work 
giving me some information about the painters of 
the Dutch and Flemish schools, their biographers, 
their peculiarities, chefs-d'oeuvre, &c. ? AJAX. 

" To talk like a Dutch Uncle." In some parts 
of America, when a person has determined to give 
another a regular lecture, he will often be heard 

to say, " I will talk to him like a Dutch uncle ;" 
that is, he shall not escape this time. fjt, 

As the emigrants to America from different 
countries have brought their national sayings with 
them, and as the one I am. now writing about was 
doubtless introduced by the Knickerbockers, may 
I ask if a similar expression is now known or used 
in Holland ? "W. "\y t 


Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Belgium. I want 
some work on this subject : can any one tell me of 

N.B. A big book does not frighten me. 


Charter of Waterford. I have a copy of the 
English translation of this charter, published in 
Kilkenny, with the following note, written in an 
old hand, on the title-page : 

" This was first translated by William Cunningham 
Cunningham (sic), a native of Carrick-on-Suir, born 
on Bally richard Road: his father and brother were 
blacksmiths ; his grand-nephew Cunningham lives 
now a cowper (sic) in New Street in do. town." 

I wish to know if this note is worth anything, 
and if the statement contained in it is true ? 

R. H. 

Inscription on Penny of George III. On an 
old 'penny of George III., on the reverse, I find 
the following inscription : 


What does this precisely mean ; or why and when 
was it adopted ? J. M. A. 

" Shot" or " Shub" a Kentish Word. Your 
correspondent on the Kentish word sheets (, 
p. 338.) may possibly be able to give some 
account of another Kentish word, which I have 
met with in the country about Horton-Kirby, 
Dartford, Crayford, &c., and the which I cannot 
find in Halliwell, or any other dictionary in my 
possession, viz. to shob or shub. It is applied to 
the trimming up elm-trees in the hedge-rows, by 
cutting away all the branches except at the head : 
"to shob the trees" is the expression. Now, in 
German we have schaben, v. r. to shave ; but in 
the Anglo-Saxon I find nothing nearer than scaf, 
part, scof, to shave. A. C. M. 


Bishop Pursglove (Suffragan) of Hull. This 
prelate is buried in Tideswell Church, Devon- 
shire, and a copy of his monumental brass is given 
in Illustrations of Monumental Brasses, published 
in 1842 by the Cambridge Camden Society. Per- 
haps some reader of " N. & Q." who has access 
to that work will send the inscription for in- 
sertion in your columns. Any information also as 


[No. 16! 

to his consecration, character, and period of de- 
cease, would be acceptable. What is the 'best 
work on English Suffragan bishops? I believe 
Wharton's Suffragans (which, however, I do not 
possess to refer to) is far from being complete or 
correct. It would be interesting to have a com- 
plete list of such bishops, with the names of their 
sees, and dates of consecration and demise. I 
find no Suffragan bishop after Bishop John Sterne, 
consecrated for Colchester 12th November, 1592, 
and this from the valuable list in Pereival's Apol. 
for Ap. Sue. A..&A. 


Stewarts of Holland. In the year 1739> there-, 
lived in Holland a Lieutenant Dougal Stewart,, 
of the Dutch service, who was married to Susan,, 
daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Fairfowl, of Bra- 
cind'am. He was descended from the ancient 
Scottish family of Stewarts of Appin, in Argyle- 
shire ; and this Query is to inquire whether any~ 
thing is known regarding him or his descendants,, 
if he had such ? This might find a reply in De 
Navorscher perhaps. AvS.A^ 


Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh, 1543. 
Is there any detailed account of this prelate^ 
extant ? The few particulars I have been able to 
glean respecting him are merely that he was a 
native of Scotland, and Doctor in Divinity of the 
University of Paris, where he probably studied 
theology, as was common with Scottish ecclesiastics 
of that day. He arrived in Ireland about the 
year 1541, and is memorable for the glory, or 
shame, of being the first who introduced the Je- 
suit order into that country. Pope Paul III. no- 
minated him to the primatial see of Armagh, 
after the death of Archbishop Cromer in 1543, 
and during the lifetime of Archbishop Dowdal, 
who was a Catholic also, but being appointed 
Archbishop of Armagh in November 1543, by 
King Henry VIII., was not acknowledged at 
Rome as such. Waucup, as his name is also 
spelt, and Latinized " Venantius," never appears, 
however, to have been able to obtain regular 
possession of the see of Armagh and primacy of 
Ireland, being merely titular archbishop. Some 
accounts state that he was blind from his child- 
hood, but others say, and probably more cor- 
rectly, that he was only short-sighted. He was 
present at the Council of Trent in 1545-47, being 
one of the four Irish prelates who attended there ; 
and, in Hist, del Condi. Trid., 1. ii. p. 144., he is 
alluded to as having been esteemed the best at 
riding post in the world! " Huomo di brevissima 
vista era commendato di questa, di correr alia 
posta meglio d'huomo del mondo." I should like 
much to ascertain the date and place of his birth, 
consecration, and death. A. S. A. 

.Plum-pudding. Can any of your readers in- 
for m me of the origin of the following custom, 
an d whether the ceremony is still continued ? I 
ca n find no mention of it in any topographical 
di ctionary or history of Devon, but it was copied 
ft -om an old newspaper, bearing date June 7, 1809 : 

" At Paignton Fair, near Exeter, the ancient 
. custom of drawing through the town a plum-pudding 
. of an immense size, and afterwards distributing it to 
the populace, was revived on Tuesday last. The in- 
gredients which composed this enormous pudding were 
as follows: 400 Ibs. of flour, 170 Ibs. of beef suet, 
140 Ibs, of raisins, and 240 eggs. It was kept con- 
stantly boiling in a brewer's copper from Saturday 
morning to the Tuesday following, when it was placed 
on a car decorated with ribbons, evergreens, &c., and 
drawn along the street by eight oxen." 


" Whene'er 7 ashed" I shall be very glad to 
know the author and the exact whereabouts of the 
following lines, which I find quoted in a MS. letter 
written from London to America, and dated 22nd 
October, 1767 : 

' Whene'er I ask'd for blessings on your head, 
Nothing was cold or formal that I said ; 
My warmest vows to Heaven were made for thee, 
And love still mingled with my piety." 

W. B. R. 
Philadelphia, U. S. 

Immoral Works. What ought to be done with 
works of this class ? It is easy to answer, " de- 
stroy them:" but you and I know, and Mr. 
Macaulay has acknowledged, that it is often ne- 
cessary to rake into the filthiest channels for his- 
torical and biographical evidence. I, personally, 
doubt whether we are justified in destroying any 
evidence, however loathsome and offensive it may 
be. What, then, are we to do with it ? It is im- 
possible to keep such works in a private library, 
even under lock and key, for death opens locks 
more certainly than Mr. Hobbs himself. I think 
such ought to be preserved in the British Mu- 
seum, entered in its catalogue, but only per- 
mitted to be seen on good reasons formally as- 
signed in writing, and not then allowed to pass 
into the reading-room. What is the rule at the 
Museum ? 

I ask these questions because I have, by acci- 
dent, become possessed of a poem (about 1500 
lines) which professes to be written by Lord 
Byron, is addressed to Thomas Moore, and was 
printed abroad many years since. It begins, 
" Thou ermin'd judge, pull off that sable cap."j 

More specific reference will not be necessary for 
those who have seen the work. Is the writer 
known ? I am somewhat surprised that not 
one of Byron's friends has, so far as I know, 
hinted a denial of the authorship ; for, scarce as 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



the work may be, I suppose some of them must 
have seen it; and, under existing circumstances, 
it is possible that a copy might get into the hands 
of a desperate creature who would hope to make a 
profit, by republishing it with Byron's and Moore's 
names in the title-page. I. W. 

Arms at Bristol. In a window now repairing 
in Bristol Cathedral is this coat: Arg. on a 
chevron or (false heraldry), three stags' heads 
caboshed. Whose coat is this ? It is engraved in 
Lysons' 'Gloucestershire Antiquities without name. 


Passage in Thomson. In Thomson's "Hymn 
to the Seasons," line 28, occurs the following pas- 
sage : 

" But wandering oft, with brute, unconscious gaze, 
Man marks not Thee ; marks not the mighty hand 
That, ever busy, wheels the silent spheres ; 
Works in the secret deep ; shoots, steaming, thence 
The fair profusion that o'erspreads the spring," &c. 

Can any of your readers oblige by saying whether 
the word steaming, in the fourth line of the quo- 
tation, is the correct reading ? If so, in what sense 
it can be understood ? if not, whether teeming is 
not probably the correct word ? W. M. P. 

" For God witt be your King to-day." 

" For God will be your King to-day, 
And I'll be general under." 

My grandmother, who was a native of Somerset- 
shire, and born in 1750, used to recite a ballad to 
my mother, when a child, of which the above lines 
are the only ones remembered. 

Do they refer to the rising under the Duke of 
Monmouth ? And where can the whole of the 
ballad be found ? M. A. S. 

35. Dover Road. 

" See where the startled wildfowl" Where are 
the following lines to be found ? I copy them from 
the print of Landseer's, called " The Sanctuary." 

" See where the startled wild fowl screaming rise, 
{ And seek in martial flight those golden skies. 
Yon wearied swimmer scarce can win the land, 
His limbs yet falter on the wat'ry strand. 
Poor hunted hart ! the painful struggle o'er, 
How blest the shelter of that island shore ! 
There, while he sobs his panting heart to rest, 
Nor hound nor hunter shall his lair molest." 

G. B. W. 

Ascension- day. Was "Ascension-day" ever 
kept a close holiday, the same as Good Friday and 
Christmas-day ? And, if so, when was such cus- 
tom disused ? H. A. HAMMOND. 

The Grogog of a Castle. It appears by a 
record of the Irish Exchequer of 3 Edw. II., that 

one Walter Haket, constable of Maginnegan's 
Castle in the co. of Dublin, confined one of the 
King's officers in the Grogog thereof. Will you 
permit me to inquire, whether this term has been 
applied to the prison of castles in England ? 



(Vol. v., p. 320.) 

I had hoped that the inquiry of R. S. F. would 
have drawn out some of your Edinburgh corre- 
spondents ; but, as they are silent upon a subject 
they might have invested with interest, allow me 
to say a word upon these Canongate marriages. 
I need not, I think, tell R. S. F. how loosely our 
countrymen, at the period alluded to, and long 
subsequent thereto, looked upon the marriage 
tie ; as almost every one who has had occasion to 
touch upon our domestic manners and customs has 
pointed at, what appeared to them, and what 
really was, an anomaly in the character of a na- 
tion somewhat boastful of their better order and 
greater sense of propriety and decorum. 

Besides the incidental notices of travellers, the 
legal records of Scotland are rife with examples 
of litigation arising out of these irregular mar- 
riages ; and upon a review of the whole history of 
such in the north, it cannot be denied that, among 
our staid forefathers, " matrimony was more a 
matter of merriment"* than a solemn and reli- 
gious engagement. 

The Courts in Scotland usually frowned upon 
cases submitted to them where there was a strong 
presumption that either party had been victimised 
by the other; but, unfortunately, the require- 
ments were so simple, and the facility of procur- 
ing witnesses so great, that many a poor frolick- 
some fellow paid dearly for his joke by finding 
himself suddenly transformed, from a bachelor, 
to a spick and span Benedict ; and that too upon 
evidences which would not in these days have 
sent a fortune-telling impostor to the tread-mill : 
the lords of the justiciary being content that some 
one had heard him use the endearing term of wife 
to the pursuer, or had witnessed a mock form at 
an obscure public-house, or that the parties were 
by habit and repute man and wife. How truly 
then may it have been said, that a man in the 
Northern Capital, so open to imposition, scarcely 
knew whether he was married or not. 

In cases where the ceremony was performed, it 

* Letters from Edinburgh, London, 1776. See also, 
Letters from a Gentleman in Scotland to his Friend in 
England (commonly called Burfs Letters) : London, 



[No. 168. 

did not follow that the priest of Hymen should be 

of the clerical profession : 

" To tie the knot," says John Hope, " there needed 

none ; 

He'd find a clown, in brown, or gray, 
Booted and spurr'd, should preach and pray ; 
And, without stir, grimace, or docket, 
Lug out a pray'r-book from his pocket ; 
And tho' he blest in wond'rous haste, 
Should tie them most securely fast." 

Thoughts, 1780. 

In Chambers's Traditions of Edinburgh, there is 
a slight allusion to these Canongate marriages : 

" The White Horse Inn," says he, " in a close in 
the Canongate, is an exceedingly interesting old house 
of entertainment. It was also remarkable for the run- 
away couples from England, who were married in its 
large room." 

The White Hart, in the Grass-market, appears 
to have been another of these Gretna Green 

A curious fellow, well known in Edinburgh at 
the period referred to, was the high priest of the 
Canongate hymeneal altar. I need hardly say 
this was the famous " Claudero, the son of Nirn- 
rod the Mighty Hunter," as he grandiloquently 
styled himself: otherwise James Wilson, a dis- 
graced schoolmaster, and poet-laureate to the Edin- 
burgh canaille. In the large rooms of the above 
inns, this comical fellow usually presided, and 
administered relief to gallant swains and love-sick 
damsels, and a most lucrative trade he is said to 
have made of it : 

" Claudero's skull is ever dull, 
Without the sterling shilling :" 

in allusion to their being called half-merk or 
shilling marriages. 

Chambers gives an illustrative anecdote of our 
subjects' matrimonial practices in that of a soldier 
and a countryman seeking from Wilson a cast of 
his office : from the first Claudero took his shil- 
ling, but demanded from the last a fee of five, 

" I'll hae this sodger ance a week a' the times he's 
in Edinburgh, and you (the countryman) I winna see 

The Scottish poetical antiquary is familiar with 
this eccentric character ; but it may not be uninte- 
resting to your general readers to add, that when 
public excitement in Edinburgh ran high against 
the Kirk, the lawyers, meal-mongers, or other 
rogues in grain, Claudero was the vehicle through 
which the democratic voice found vent in squibs 
and broadsides fired at the offending party or 
obnoxious measure from his lair in the Canongate. 

In his Miscellanies, Edin. 1766, now before me, 
Claudero's cotemporary, Geordie Boick, in a poet- 
ical welcome to London, thus compliments Wilson, 

and bewails the condition of the modern Athens 
under its bereavement of the poet : 

" The ballad-singers and the printers, 
Must surely now have starving winters ; 
Their press they may break a' in splinters, 

I'm told they swear, 
Claudero's Muse, alas ! we've tint her 

For ever mair." 

For want of Claudero's lash, his eulogist goes on 
to say : 

" Now Vice may rear her hydra head, 
And strike defenceless Virtue dead ; 
Religion's heart may melt and bleed, 

With grief and sorrow, 
Since Satire from your streets is fled, 

Poor Edenburrow !" 

Claudero was, notwithstanding, a sorry poet, a 
lax moralist, and a sordid parson; but peace to 
the manes of the man, or his successor in the latter 
office, who gave me in that same long room of the 
White Horse in the Canongate of Edinburgh the 
best parents son was ever blest with ! J. O. 


(Vol. vi., p. 578.) 

There appears to be some doubt if the alleged 
marriage ever did take place, for I find, in Baker's 
Chronicles, p. 334., that in 1563 " divers great 
persons were questioned and condemned, but had 
their lives spared," and among them 

" Lady Katherine Grey, daughter to Henry Grey 
Duke of Suffolk, by the eldest daughter of Charles 
Brandon, having formerly been married to the Earl of 
Pembroke's eldest son, and from him soon after law- 
fully divorced, was some years after found to be with 
child by Edward Seymour Earl of Hartford, who, 
being at that time in France, was presently sent for : 
and being examined before the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and affirming they were lawfully married, but 
not being able within a limited time to produce wit- 
nesses of their marriage, they were both committed to 
the Tower." 

After some further particulars of the birth of a 
second child in the Tower, the discharge of the 
Lieutenant, Sir Edward Warner, and the fining 
of the Earl by the Star Chamber, to the extent of 
5000Z., the narrative proceeds : 

" Though in pleading of his case, one John Hales 
argued they were lawful man and wife by virtue of their 
own bare consent, without any ecclesiastical ceremony." 

Collins, in his Peerage (1735), states : 

" The validity of this marriage being afterwards tried 
at Common Law, the minister who married them being 
present, and other circumstances agreeing, the jury 
(whereof John Digby, Esq., was foreman) found it a 
good marriage." 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



Sharpe, in his Peerage (1833), under the title 
" Stamford," says : 

" The manner of her departing' in the Tower, which 
Mr. Ellis has printed from a MS. so entitled in the 
Harleian Collection, although less terrible, is scarcely 
less affecting than that of her heroic sister," &c. 

Perhaps your correspondent A. S. A. may be 
enabled to consult this work, and so ascertain 
further particulars. BKOCTUNA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 


(Vol. i., p. 321.) 

In your first Volume, an inquiry is made for 
information respecting the above person. As I 
find on referring to the subsequent volumes of 
" N. & Q." that the Query never received any 
reply, I beg to forward a cutting from the Obi- 
tuary of the New Monthly Magazine for June, 
1828, referring to Hewlett; concerning whom, 
however, I cannot give any further information. 


" Lately in Newington, Surrey, aged sixty, Mr. 
Bartholomew Hewlett, antiquarian, draughtsman, and 
engraver. This artist was a pupil of Mr. Heath, and 
for many years devoted his talents to the embellish- 
ment of works on topography and antiquities. His 
principal publication, and which will carry his name 
down to posterity with respect as an artist, was A 
Selection of Views in the County of Lincoln ; comprising 
the Principal Towns and Churches, the Remains of Cas- 
tles and Religious Houses, and Seats of the Nobility and 
Gentry ; with Topographical and Historical Accounts of 
each View. This handsome work was completed in 4to. 
in 1805. The drawings are chiefly by T. Girtin, 
Nattes, Nash, Corbould, &c., and the engravings are 
highly creditable to the burin of Mr. Howlett. Mr. 
Howlett was much employed by the late Mr. Wilkin- 
son on his Londina Illnstrata ; by Mr. Stevenson in his 
second edition of Bentham's Ely ; by Mr. Frost, in his 
recent Notices of Hull; and in numerous other topo- 
graphical works. He executed six plans and views 
for Major Anderson's Account of the Abbey of St. Denis ; 
and occasionally contributed to the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, and engraved several plates for it. In 1817, Mr. 
Howlett issued proposals for A Topographical Account 
of Clapham, in the County of Surrey, illustrated by En- 
gravings. These were to have been executed from 
drawings by himself, of which he made several, and 
also formed considerable collections ; but we believe 
he only published one number, consisting of three 
plates and no letter-press. We hope the manuscripts 
he has left may form a groundwork for a future topo- 
grapher. They form part of the large collections 
for Surrey, in the hands of Mr. Tytam. In 1826, 
whilst the Royal Hospital and Collegiate Church of 
St. Katharine, near the Tower, was pulling down, he 
made a series of drawings on the spot, which it was 
his intention to have engraved and published. But 

the greatest effort of his pencil was in the service of 
his kind patron and friend, John Caley, Esq., F.R. S., 
F.S. A., keeper of the records in the Augmentation 
Office. For this gentleman Mr. Howlett made finished 
drawings from upwards of a thousand original seals of 
the monastic and religious houses of this kingdom." 

Congleton, Cheshire. 

(, p. 603.) 

In reference to the question raised by J. N. B., 
what authority there is for asserting that Chaucer 
pursued the study of the law at the Temple, I 
send you the following extract from a sketch of 
his life by one of his latest biographers, Sir Harris 
Nicolas : 

" It has been said that Chaucer was originally in- 
tended for the law, and that, from some cause which 
has not reached vis, and on which it would be idle to 
speculate, the design was abandoned. The, acquaint- 
ance he possessed with the classics, with divinity, with 
astronomy, with so much as was then known of che- 
mistry, and indeed with every other branch of the 
scholastic learning of the age, proves that his education 
had been particularly attended to ; and his attainments 
render it impossible to believe that he quitted? college at 
the early period at which persons destined for a mili- 
tary life usually began their career. It was not then 
the custom for men to pursue learning for its own sake ; 
and the most rational manner of accounting for the 
extent of Chaucer's acquirements, is to suppose that he 
was educated for a learned profession. The knowledge 
he displays of divinity would make it more likely that 
he was intended for the church than for the bar, were 
it not that the writings of the Fathers were generally 
read by all classes of students. One writer says that 
Chaucer was a member of the Inner Temple, and that 
while there he was fined two shillings for beating a 
Franciscan friar in Fleet Street*; and another (Leland) 
observes, that after he had travelled in France, ' col- 
legia leguleiorum frequentavit.' Nothing, however, is 
positively known of Chaucer until the autumn of 1359, 
when he himself says he was in the army with which 
Edward III. invaded France, and that he served for 
the first time on that occasion." 

The following remarks are from the Life of 
Chaucer, by William Godwin, Lond. 1803, vol. i. 
p. 357.: 

" The authority which of late has been principally 
relied upon with respect to Chaucer's legal education is 
that of Mr. Speght, who, in his Life of Chaucer, says, 
' Not many yeeres since, Master Buckley did see a 
record in the same house [the Inner Temple], where 
Geoffrey Chaucer was fined two shillings for beating 
a Franciscane fryar in Fleet-streete." This certainly 

* " Speght, who states that a Mr. Buckley had seen 
a record of the Inner Temple to that effect." Note by 
Sir- H. N. 


[No. 168. 

would be excellent evidence, were it not for the dark 
and ambiguous manner in which it is produced. I 
should have been glad that Mr. Speght had himself 
seen the record, instead of Master Buckley, of whom I 
suppose no one knows who he is : why did he not ? 
I should have been better satisfied if the authority had 
not been introduced with so hesitating and questionable 
a phrase as ' not many yeeres since ;' and I also think 
that it would have been better if Master Buckley had 
given us the date annexed to the record ; as we should 
then at least have had the satisfaction of knowing 
whether it did not belong to some period before our 
author was born, or after he had been committed to the 
grave. Much stress, therefore, cannot be laid upon the 
supposition of Chaucer having belonged to the Society 
of the Inner Temple." 



Pyrogallic Acid (Vol. vi., p. 612.). In answer 
to the Query of your correspondent E. S., I beg 
to give the following method of preparing pyro- 
gallic acid (first published by Dr. Stenhouse), 
which I have tried and found perfectly successful. 

Make a strong aqueous infusion of powdered 
galls ; pour it off from the undissolved residue, and 
carefully evaporate to dryness by a gentle heat : 
towards the conclusion of the process the extract 
is very liable to burn ; this is best prevented by 
continued stirring with a glass or porcelain spatula. 
Next, procure a flat-bottomed iron pan, about ten 
inches diameter and five inches deep. Make a 
hat of cartridge paper pasted together, about 
seven inches high, to slip over and accurately fit 
the top of the iron pan. Strew the bottom of the 
pan with the gall extract to the depth of three- 
quarters of an inch ; over the top stretch and tie 
a piece of bibulous paper pierced with numerous 
pin-holes ; over this place the hat, and tie it also 
tightly round the top of the pan. 

The whole apparatus is now to be placed in a 
sand-bath, and heat cautiously applied. It is con- 
venient to place a glass thermometer in the sand- 
bath as near the iron pan as possible. The heat is 
to be continued about an hour, and to be kept as 
near 420 Fah. as possible ; on no account is it to 
exceed 450. The vapour of the acid condenses 
in the hat, and the crystals are prevented from 
falling back into the pan by the bibulous paper 
diaphragm. When it is supposed that the whole 
of the acid is sublimed, the strings are to be un- 
tied, and the hat and diaphragm cautiously taken 
off together ; the crystals will be found m con- 
siderable quantity, and should be removed into a 
stoppered bottle ; they should be very brilliant 
and perfectly white ; if there is any yellow tinge, 
the heat has been too great. 

I believe that close attention to the above 
details will ensure success to any one who chooses 

to try the process, but at the same time I must 
remind your correspondents that scarcely any 
operation in chemistry is perfectly successful the 
first time of trial. J. G. H. 


Stereoscopic Pictures with One Camera (Vol. vi., 
p. 587.). In reply to the inquiry of RAMUS, allow 
me to say the matter is not difficult. My plan is as 
follows : Suppose a piece of still-life to be the 
subject. Set up the camera at such a distance as 
will give a picture of the size intended, suppose it 
sixteen feet from the principal and central object ; 
by means of a measuring tape or a piece of string, 
measure the exact distance from the principal 
object to the front of the camera. Take and com- 
plete the first picture ; if it prove successful, re- 
move the camera about two feet either to the right 
or left of its first station (i. e. according to the 
judgment formed as to which will afford the most 
artistic view of the subject), taking care by help 
of the tape or string to preserve the same distance 
between the principal object and the camera, and 
that the adjustment of focus is not disturbed. In 
other words, the camera must be moved to an- 
other part of the arc of a circle, of which the 
principal object is the centre, and the measured 
distance the radius. If the arc through which the 
camera is moved to its second station be too large, 
the stereoscopic picture will be unnaturally and 
unpleasingly distorted. The second picture is 
now to be taken. 

If the subject be a sitter, it is of the utmost 
importance to proceed as quickly as possible, as 
the identical position must be retained movelessly 
till both pictures are completed. This (in my ex- 
perience) is scarcely practicable with collodion 
pictures, unless by the aid of an assistant and two 
levelled developing-stands in the dark closet ; for 
the time occupied by starting the first picture on 
its development, and preparing the second glass 
plate (scarcely less than three or four minutes), 
will be a heavy tax on the quiescent powers of the 
sitter. This difficulty is avoided by adopting the 
Daguerreotype process, as the plates can be pre- 
pared beforehand, and need not be developed 
before both pictures are taken. In this case the 
only delay between the pictures is in the shifting 
the position of the camera. This is readily done 
by providing a table of suitable height (instead of 
the ordinary tripod), on which an arc of a circle is 
painted, having for its centre the place of the sitter. 
If the sitter be at the distance of eleven or twelve 
feet (my usual distance with a 3^ inch Voight- 
lander), the camera need not be moved more than 
ten or twelve inches ; and even this distance pro- 
duces some visible distortion to an accurate ob- 

The second levelling stand is required when 
using the collodion process, because the second 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



picture will be ready for development before the 
developing and fixing of the first has set its stand 
at liberty. COKELY. 

Mr. Crookes* Wax-paper Process (Vol. vi., 
p. 613.)- R- E. wishes to know the exact mean- 
ing of the sentence, "With the addition of as much 
free iodine as will give it a sherry colour." After 
adding the iodide of potassium to the water, a 
small quantity of iodine (this can be procured at 
any operative chemist's) is to be dissolved in the 
mixture until it be of the proper colour. 

The paper is decidedly more sensitive if exposed 
wet, but it should not be washed ; and I think it 
is advisable to have a double quantity of nitrate of 
silver in the exciting bath. I have not yet tried 
any other salt than iodide of potassium for the first 
bath ; but I hope before the summer to lay before 
your readers a simpler, and I think superior wax- 
paper process, upon which I am at present experi- 


P.S. I see that in the tables R. E. has given, 
he has nearly doubled the strength of my iodine 
bath. It should be twenty-four grains to the 
ounce, instead of forty-four ; and he has entirely 
left out the iodine. 

India Rubber a Substitute for Yellow Glass. 
I think that I have made a discovery which may 
be useful to photographers. It is known that some 
kinds of yellow glass effectually obstruct the pas- 
sage of the chemical rays, and that other kinds do 
not, according to the manner in which the glass is 

I have never heard or read of India rubber 
being used for this purpose ; but I believe it will 
be found perfectly efficient, and will therefore 
state how I arrived at this conclusion. 

Having occasion to remove a slate from the side 
of my roof, to make an opening for my camera, I 
thought of a sheet of India rubber to supply the 
place of the slate, and thus obtain a flexible water- 
proof covering to exclude the wet, and to open 
and shut at pleasure. This succeeded admirably, 
but I found that I had also obtained a deep rich 
yellow window, which perfectly lighted a large 
closet, previously quite dark, and in which for the 
last ten days I have excited and developed the most 
sensitive iodized collodion on glass. I therefore 
simply announce the fact, as it may be of some 
importance, if verified by others and by further 
experiment. I have not yet tested it with a lens 
and the solution of sulphite of quinine, as I wished 
the sun to shine on the sheet of India rubber at 
the time, which would decide the question. How- 
ever, sheet India rubber can be obtained of any 
size and thickness required: mine is about one- 
sixteenth of an inch thick, and one foot square ; and 
the advantages over glass would be great in some 

cases), especially for a dark tent in the open air, 
as any amount of light might be obtained by 
stitching a sheet of India rubber into the side, 
which would fold up without injury. It is pos- 
sible that gutta percha windows would answer the 
same purpose. H. Y. W. N. 


Dr. Diamond's Paper Processes. We have been 
requested to call attention to, and to correct se- 
veral errors of the press overlooked by us in DR. 
DIAMOND'S article, in the hurry of preparing our 
enlarged Number (No. 166.). The most impor- 
tant is in the account of the exciting fluid, the 
omission, at p. 21. col. 1. 1.47. (after directions 
to take one drachm of aceto-nitrate of silver), of 
the words "one drachm of saturated solution of 
gallic acid" The passage should run thus : " Of 
this solution take one drachm, and one drachm of 
saturated solution of gallic acid, and add to it two 
ounces and a half of distilled water." 

In the same page, col. 2. 1. 13., " solvent" should 
be " saturated ; " and in the same article, passim, 
" hyposulphate " should be " hyposulphite," and 
" solarise " should be " solarize." 

ta itttnnr Queried. 

Ancient Timber Town-halls. Since my ac- 
count of ancient town-halls (Vol. v., p. 470.) was 
written, one of these fabrics of the olden time 
noticed therein has ceased to exist, that of 
Kington, co. Hereford, it having been taken down 
early in November last, but for what reason I 
have not learned. Another, formerly standing in 
the small town of Church Stretton, in the co. of 
Salop, which was erected upon wooden pillars, and 
constructed entirely of timber, must have been a 
truly picturesque building, was taken down in 
September, 1840. A woodcut of the latter is now 
before me. Of the old market-house at Leo- 
minster I possess a very beautiful original draw- 
ing, done by Mr. Carter upwards of half a cen- 
tury ago. J. B. WHITBOBNE. 

Magnetic Intensity (Vol. vi., p. 578.). The 
magnetic intensity is greatest at the poles ; the 
ratio may roughly be said to be T3, but more ac- 
curately 1 to 2-906. This is found by observation 
of the oscillations of a vertical or horizontal 
needle. A needle which made 245 oscillations in 
ten minutes at Paris, made only 211 at 7 1' south 
lat. in Peru. The intensity and variations to 
which it is subject is strictly noted at all the mag- 
netic observatories, and I believe the disturbances 
of intensity which sometimes occur have been 
found to be simultaneous by a comparison of ob- 
servations at different latitudes. 

For the fullest information on magnetic in- 
tensity, ADSUM is referred to Sabine's Report on 



[No. 168. 


Magnetic Intensity, also Sabine's Contributions to 
Terrestrial Magnetism, 1843, No. V. T. B. 

Monument at Wadstena (Vol. vi., pp. 388. 518.). 
I have received the following (which I trans- 
late) from my friend in Denmark, whom I men- 
tioned iu my last communication on this monu- 
ment : 

" It is only about a month since I saw Queen 
Philippa's tombstone in the church of Vadstena 
Monastery. It is a very large stone, on which the 
device and inscription are cut in outline, but there 
is no brass about it. King Erik Menved's and Queen 
Ingeberg's monument in Ringsted Church is the finest 
brass I ever saw, and I have seen many." 

There is a good engraving of the brass alluded 
to, which is a very rich one, in Antiquariske An- 
naler, vol. iii. : Copenhagen, 1820. The inscrip- 
tions are curious, and the date 1319. 



David Routh, R. C. Bishop of Ossory (Vol. iii., 
p. 169.). In the article on a Cardinal's Monu- 
ment, by MR. J. GRAVES, of Kilkenny, allusion is 
made to the monument of the above Catholic 
Bishop Routh or Rothe, as being in the Cathedral 
of St. Canice, Kilkenny, with his arms " sur- 
mounted by a cardinals hat" and that he died 
some years after 1643. If MR. GRAVES would 
give the date of this prelate's decease, or rather a 
copy of the full inscription on his monument, with 
a notice of the sculptured armorial bearings there- 
upon, he would be conferring a favour on a distant 
inquirer ; and as MR. GRAVES is, apparently, a re- 
sident at Kilkenny, no obstacle exists to prevent 
his complying with this request. 

Any notices procurable regarding Bishop Routh 
are well deserving of insertion in " N. & Q.," for 
he was a man of deep learning and research, and 
is well known to have assisted the celebrated 
Archbishop Ussher of Armagh in the compilation 
of his Primordia, for which he had high compli- 
ments paid him by that eminent prelate, notwith- 
standing their being of different religions. 

Bishop Routh was also himself the author of a 
work on Irish Ecclesiastical History, now very 
rare, and seldom procurable complete. He pub- 
lished it anonymously, in two volumes 8vo., in 
the year 1617, at "Colonise, apud Steph. Ro- 
linum," with the following rather long title : 

" Analecta Sacra, Nova, et Mira, de Rebus Catho- 
licorum in Hibernia : Divisa in tres partes, quarum I, 
Continet semestrem gravaminam relationem, secunda 
hac editione novis adauctam additamentis, et Notis il- 
lustratam. II. Parajnesin ad Marty res designates. 
III. Processuin Martyrialem quorundam Fidel Pu- 
gilium ; Collectore et Ilelatore, T. N. Pliiladelpho." 

I fear this has degenerated from a Note into a 
Query ; however, I may state in conclusion, that 

MR. GRAVES is in error in styling the hat on Bi- 
shop Routh's monument a cardinal's, for all Ca- 
tholic prelates, and abbots also, have their armo- 
rial bearings surmounted by a hat, exactly similar 
to a cardinal's hat, with this difference only, that 
the number of tassels depending from it varies 
according to the rank of the prelate, from the car- 
dinars with fifteen tassels in five rows, down to 
that of a prior with three only on each side in 
two rows. A. S. A. 


Cardinal Erskine (Vol. ii., p. 406. ; Vol. iii., p. 13.). 

Several notices of this ecclesiastic have ap- 
peared in "N. & Q.," but as none of them give the 
exact information required, I now do so, though 
perhaps tardily. He was born 13th February, 
1753, at Rome, where his father, Colin Erskine, a 
Jacobite, and exiled scion of the noble Scottish 
house of Erskine, Earls of Kellie, had taken up 
his residence. " Monsignor Charles Erskine," 
having embraced the ecclesiastical life at an early 
age, and passed through several gradations in the 
Church of Rome, was, in 1785, "Promotore della 
Fede," an office of the Congregation of Rites ; in 
1794 auditor to Pope Pius VI., and raised to the 
purple by Pope Pius VII., who created him a 
Cardinal-Deacon of the Holy Roman Church, 
25th February, 1801. Cardinal Erskine accom- 
panied the latter pontiff in his exile from Rome 
in the year 1809, and died at Paris, 19th March, 
1811, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, and 
eleventh of his cardinalate. A. S. A. 


" Ne'er to these chambers" ffc. (Vol. vii., p. 14.). 

In reply to ARAM'S Query : " Where do these 
lines come from ? " they come from Tickell's 
sublime and pathetic " Elegy on the Death of 
Addison." ARAM (" Wits have short memories," 
&c.) has misquoted them. In a poem of so high a 
mood, to displace a word is to destroy a beauty. 
ARAM has interpolated several words. The follow- 
ing is the true version : 

" Ne'er to these chambers, where the mighty rest, 
Since their foundation, came a nobler guest, 
Nor e'er was to the bowers of bliss convey'd 
A fairer spirit, or more welcome shade." 



These lines are taken from the " Elegy on the 
Death of Addison," written by Tickell. They are, 
if I remember rightly, inscribed on the gravestone 
recently placed over his remains by the Earl of 
Ellesmere, in the north aisle of Henry VII.'s 
Chapel. The last -two lines which your corre- 
spondent quotes should be as follows : 

" Nor e'er was to the bowers of bliss cnnvey'd 
A fairer spirit, or more welcome shade." 

J. K, R. W. 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 



The Budget (Vol. vi., p. 604.)- It may be 
useful to inform PKESTONIENSIS, that, in a recent 
work on political economy, M. Ch. Coc[uelin says, 
that the word budget, in its present signification, 
has passed into France from England : the latter 
country having first borrowed it from the old 
French language lougette signifying (and par- 
ticularly in old Norman) a leather purse. It was 
the custom in England to put into a leather bag 
the estimates of receipts and expenditure pre- 
sented to parliament : and hence, as Coquelin 
observes, the term passed from the containant to 
the contained, and, with this new signification, 
returned from this country into France ; where it 
was first used in an official manner in the arrctes 
of the Consul's 4th Thermidor, year X, and 17th 
Germinal, year XI. F. H. 

" Catching a Tartar''' (Vol. vi., p. 317.). This 
common and expressive saying is thus explained 
in Arvine's Cyclopedia : 

" In some battle between the Russians and the 
Tartars, who are a wild sort of people in the north of 
Asia, a private soldier called out, ' Captain, halloo 
there ! I've caught a Tartar ! ' ' Fetch him along 
then,' said the Captain. ' Ay, but he won't let me,' 
said the man. And the fact was the Tartar had 
caught him. So when a man thinks to take another 
in, and gets himself bit, they say he's caught a 

Grose says that this saying originated with an 
Irish soldier who was in the " Imperial," that is, I 
suppose he means the Austrian service. This is 
hardly probable ; the Irish are made to father 
many sayings which do not rightly belong to 
them, and this I think may be safely written as 
one among the number. 

EIRIONNACH has now two references before 
him, Grose's Glossary and Arvine's Cyclopedia, 
in which his Query is partly explained, if he can 
but find the dates of their publication. In this 
search I regret I cannot assist him, as neither of 
these works are to be found in the libraries of 
this island ; at least thus far I have not been able 
to meet with them. "W. W. 


The Termination "-itis" (Vol. vii., p. 13.). 
ADSUM asks : "What is the derivation of the term 
-itis, used principally in medical words, and these 
signifying inflammation ?" If " N. & Q." were a 
medical journal, the question might be answered 
at length, to the great advantage of the profession ; 
for, of late years, this termination has been tacked 
on by medical writers, especially foreigners, to 
words of all kinds, in utter defiance of the rules 
of language : as if a Greek affixjfavere quite a 
natural ending to a Latin or Frencri noun, -itis 
can with propriety be appended only to those 
Greek nouns whose adjectives end in -rn?s : e. g. 

irXevpa, TrAet/piTT/s ; Ktpas, KepcmTTjs, &c. ITAeupms 13 
used by Hippocrates, nxeupa means the mem- 
brane lining the side of the chest : irAevpms (j-oeroy 
understood) is morbus lateralis, the side-disease, 
or pleurisy. In the same manner keratitis is a 
very legitimate synonym for disease of the horny 
coat (cornea) of the eye. But medical writers, 
disregarding the rules of language, have, for some 
years past, revelled in the use of their favourite 
-itis to a most ludicrous extent. Thus, from 
cornea, they make " corneitis," and describe an 
inflammation of the crystalline lens as lentitis. Nay, 
some French and German writers on diseases of 
the eyes have coined the monstrous word " Des- 
cemetitis," on the ground that one Monsieur 
Descemet discovered a structure in the eye, which, 
out of compliment to him, was called " the mem- 
brane of Descemet." JAYDEE. 






by WM. WAKE. 1687. 
WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Lf tier to English Working Men, 

by a Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848. 


JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. 1. 
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FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 

12mo. 1808. 

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OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1768. 
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BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Voli.) Vol. II. 


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Owing to the necessity of infringing on tfie present Xumbi'rfor 
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B. H. C.'s communication on the subject of "Proclamations " 
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[No. 168. 

A. S. T. The line it from Prior : 

" Fine by degrees and beautifully less." 

T. M. G. (Worcester) is thanked. At the entire document 
would not occupy any great space, we shall be obliged by the oppor- 
tunity of inserting it. 

NOTES ON OLD LONDON have only been thrust aside. They are 
intended for early insertion. 

M. B. C. We fear this cannot be avoided. The only consolation 
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' N. C. L., who writes respecting Shaw's Stafford MSS., 's re- 
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A RBADBR, who writes respecting the " Arnold Family" the 

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NEW ORDINARY OF ARMS. The anonymous Correspondent on 
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reference to its Editor, Mr. J. W. Papworth, 14 A. Great Marl- 
borough Street, London. 

many Correspondents who have replied to these Queries are 

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REV. E. B. (B***) is requested to state the subject of his com- 
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this important piece of information. 

C. E. F., who complains of the disappearance of a portion of 
the collodion film at the spot where the hyposulphite of soda is 
applied, is informed that this is by no means an uncommon occur- 
rence, and indicates the feeble action of the light at the present lime 
of year. By using the glass a little larger than is required, as has 
been before recommended, and pouring the hyposulphite of soda 
on the portion which is to be cut off, and allowing it to flow over 
the picture, the defect will generally be avoided. A much stronger 
solution of the hyposulphite of soda may be usid say, one ounce 
to two ounces of water ; and then, by preserving the solution, and 
using it over and over again, a more agreeable picture is produced. 
The solution, when it becomes weak, may be refreshed by a few 
crystals of the fresh salt added to it. 

F. W. If the bath of nitrate of silver produces the semi- opaque 
appearance upon the collodion, in all probability there is no hypo- 
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iodine added to each ounce of the solution of nitrate of silver in the 
bath, often acts very beneficially. All doubtful solutions of nitrate 
of silver it is well to precipitate by means nf common salt, collect 
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London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

JAN. 15. 1853.] 


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No. 169.] 


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NOTES : Page 

Blackguard, ^y gj r j Emerson Tennent - 77 

Predictions of the Fire and Plague of London, No. I., 

by T. Sternberg ------ 79 

Notes and Queries on Bacon's Essays, No. II., by P. J. F. 

Gantillon, B.A. ------ 80 

FOLK LORE : Irish Superstitious Customs Charm for 

Warts The Devil -^" Winter Thunder," &c. - 81 

Malta the Burial-place of Hannibal - - 81 

MINOU NOTES : Waterloo " Tuch " The Dodo 
Francis I. - - - - - - - 82 


Dr. Anthony Marshall - - - - - 83 

Lindis, Meaning of - - - - - - 83 

MINOR QUERIES : Smock Marriage in New York The 
broken Astragalus -Penardo and Laissa St. Adulph 

St. Botulph Tennyson " Ma Ninette," &c 

Astronomical Query Chaplains to Ntoblemen 
" More " Queries "Heraldic Query " By Prudence 
guided." &c. Lawyers' Baps Master Family 
Passage in Wordsworth Govett Family Sir Kenelm 
Digby Riddles Straw Bail Wages in the West in 
16421- Literary Frauds of Modern Times - .84 

Whale " Wednc sday a Litany Day " Thy Spirit, 
Independence," &c. ' Hob and nob," Meaning of - 86 


Wellesley Pedigree, by John D'Alton - - - 87 

Consecrated Rings for Epilepsy - - - 88 

Turner's View of Lambeth Palace, by J. Walter, &c. - 89 
Etymological Traces of the social Position of our An- 
cestors, by C. Forbes, &c. - - - - 90 
Goldsmiths' Year-marks, by W. Chaffers, Jun., and 

H. T. Ellacombe - - ... 90 

Editions of the Prayer-Book prior to 1662, by W. Spar- 
row Simpson, B.A. - - - . 91 

Collodion Process Mr. Weld Taylor's Process 
Dr. Diamond's Services to Photography Simplifi- 
cation of the Wax-paper Process - - - 92 

The Burial Service said by Heart, by Mackenzie Wal- 
cott, M.A., &c. ...... f)4 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Mary Queen of Scots' 
Gold Cross Jennings Family Adamson's " Eng- 
land's Defence" Chief Justice Thomas Wood Aldi- 
borontiphoscophornio Statue of St. Peter at Rome- 
Old Silver Ornament " Plurima, pauca, nihil" 
" Pork-pisee " and " Wheale " Did the Carians use 
Heraldic Devices ? Herbert Family Children cry. 
ing at Baptism, &c. - . . . - 95 


Notes on Books, &c. - . . . - 97 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 98 

Notices to Correspondents . - - - 98 

Advertisements ...... 99 

VOL. VII. No. 169. 


In some of the earlier numbers of "N. & Q,," 
there occur disquisitions as to the origin of the term 
blachguard, and the time at which it came into use 
in England in its present sense. But the commu- 
nications of your correspondents have not been 
satisfactory upon either point they have not 
shown the period at which the word came to be 
accepted in its present sense ; and their quotations 
all apply to its use in a much more simple mean- 
ing, and one totally different from that which we 
now attach to it. 

One class of these quotations (Vol. ii., pp. 171. 
285.), such as the passages from BUTLER and 
FULLER, refer obviously to a popular superstition, 
during an age when the belief in witchcraft and 
hobgoblins was universal ; and when such crea- 
tures of fancy were assigned as Slack Guards to 
his Satanic majesty. " Who can conceive," says 
FULLER in the paragraph extracted, " but that 
such a Prince-principal of Darkness must be pro- 
portionally attended by a Black Guard of mon- 
strous opinions ?" (Church History, b. ix. c. xvi.) 
And in the verses of BUTLER referred to, Hudi- 
bras, when deceived by Ealpho counterfeiting a 
ghost in the dark, 

" Believed it was some drolling sprite 
That staid upon the guard at night :" 

and thereupon in his trepidation discourses with 
the Squire as follows : 

" Thought he, How does the Devil know 
What 'twas that I design'd to do ? 
His office of intelligence, 
His oracles, are ceas'd long since ; 
Arid he knows nothing of the Saints, 
But what some treach'rous spy acquaints. 
This is some petty-fogging fiend, 
Some under door-keeper's friend's friend, 
That undertakes to understand, 
And juggles at the second hand : 
And now would pass for spirit Po, 
And all men's dark concerns foreknow. 
I think I need not fear him for't ; 
These rallying devils do not hurt. 


[No. 169. 


With that he roused his drooping heart, 
And hastily cry'd out, What art? 
A wretch, quoth he, whom want of grace 
Hns brought to this unhappy place. 

I do believe thee, quoth the knight ; 
Thus far I'm sure thou'rt in the right, 
And know what 'tis that troubles thee, 
Better than thou hast guess'd of me. 
Thou art some paltry, blackguard sprite, 
Condemn'd to drudg'ry in the night ; 
Thou hast no work to do in tb' house, 
Nor half-penny to drop in shoes ; 
Without the raising of which sum 
You dare not be so troublesome ; 
To pinch the slatterns black and blue, 
For leaving you their work to do. 
This is your business, good Pug Robin, 
And your diversion, dull dry bobbing." 
Hudibras, Part III. Canto 1. line 1385, &c. 

It will be seen that BUTLER, like FULLER, uses the 
term in the simple sense as a guard of the Prince 
of Darkness. But the concluding lines of Hudi- 
bras's address to Ralpho explain the process by 
which, at a late period, this term of the Black 
Guard came to be applied to the lowest class of 
domestics in great establishments. 

The Black Guard of Satan was supposed to 
perform the domestic drudgery of the kitchen and 
servants' hall, in the infernal household. The 
extract from. HOBBES (Vol. ii., p. 134.) refers to 
this : 

" Since my Lady's decay, I am degraded from a 
cook ; and I fear the Devil himself will entertain me 
but for one of his black guard, and he shall be sure to 
have his roast burnt." 

Hence came the popular superstition that these 
goblin scullions, on their visits to the upper world, 
confined themselves to the servants' apartments of 
the houses which they favoured with their presence, 
and which at night they swept and garnished ; 
pinching those of the maids in their sleep who, by 
by their laziness, had imposed such toil on their 
elfin assistants ; but slipping money into the shoes 
of the more tidy and industrious servants, whose 
attention to their own duties before going to rest 
had spared the goblins the task of performing their 
share of the drudgery. Hudibras apostrophises 
the ghost as 

"... some paltry blackguard sprite 
Condemn'd to drudgery in the night ; 
Thou hast no work to do in th' house 
Nor half-penny to drop in shoes ; " 

and therefore, as the knight concluded "this 
devil full of malice" had found sufficient leisure 
to taunt and rally him in the dark upon his recent 

This belief in the visits of domestic spirits, who 
busy themselves at night in sweeping and arrang- 
ing the lower apartments, has prevailed in the 
North of Ireland and in Scotland from time im- 

memorial : and it is explained in SIR WALTER 
SCOTT'S notes to the Lay of the Last Minstrel, as his 
justification for introducing the goblin page Gilpin 
Horner amongst the domestics of Branksome Hall. 
Perhaps, from the association of these elves with 
the lower household duties, but more probably 
from a more obvious cause, came at a later period 
the practice described by GIFFORD in his note on 
BEN JONSON, as quoted by your correspondent 
(Vol. ii., p. 170.), by which 

" in all great houses, but particularly in the Royal 
Residences, there were a number of mean dirty depen- 
dents, whose office it was to attend the wool-yard, 
sculleries, &c. Of these, the most forlorn wretches 
seem to have been selected to carry coals to the kitchens, 
halls, &c. To this smutty regiment, who attended the 
progresses, and rode in the carts with the pots and 
kettles, the people, in derision, gave the name of the 
black guards" 

This is no doubt correct ; and hence the expres- 
sion of BEAUMONT and FLETCHER, quoted from the 
Elder Brother, that 

" from the black guard 

To the grim Sir in office, there are few 
Hold other tenets:" 

meaning from the lowest domestic to the highest 
functionary of a household. This too explains the 
force of the allusion, in Jardine's Criminal Trials, 
to the apartments of Euston House being " far 
unmeet for her Highness, but fitter for the Black 
Guard" that is, for the scullions and lowest ser- 
vants of an establishment. SWIFT employs the 
word in this sense when he says, in the extract 
quoted by Dr. Johnson in his Dictionary in illus- 
tration of the meaning of blackguard, 

" Let a black-guard boy be always about the house 
to send on your errands, and go to market for you on 
rainy days." 

It will thus be seen, that of the six authors quoted 
in " N. & Q." no one makes use of the term black 
guard in an opprobrious sense such as attaches to 
the more modern word "blackguard;" and that 
they all wrote within the first fifty years of the 
seventeenth century. It must therefore be subse- 
quent not only to that date, but to the reign of 
Queen Anne, that we are to look for its general ac- 
ceptance in its present contumelious sense. And I 
believe that its introduction may be traced to a 
recent period, and to a much more simple deriva- 
tion than that investigated by your correspondents. 

I apprehend that the present term, " a black- 
guard," is of French origin ; and that its import- 
ation into our language was subsequent to the 
Restoration of Charles II., A.D. 1660. There is a 
corresponding term in French, blugue, which, like 
our English adaptation, is not admissible in good 
society. It is defined by Bescherelles, in his great 
Dictionnaire National, to mean " fanfaronnade, 
hablerie, mensonge ; bourde, gasconade : " and to 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



be " un mot populaire et bas, dont les personnes 
bien clevees evitent de se servir." From blague 
domes the verb blaguer, which the same authority 
gays means " dire des blagues ; mentir pour le 
plaisir de mentir." And from blaguer comes the 
substantive blugueur, which is, I apprehend, the 
original of our English word blackguard. It is 
described by Bescherelles as a " diseur de sor- 
nettes et de faussetees; hableur, fanfaron. Un 
Uagueur est un menteur, mais un menteur qui a 
moing pour but de tromper que de se faire valoir." 
The English term has, it will be observed, a 
somewhat wider and more offensive import than 
the French : and the latter being rarely to be 
found amongst educated persons, or in dictionaries, 
it may have escaped the etymologists who were in 
search of a congener for its English derivative. Its 
pedigree is, however, to be sought in philological 
rather than archaeological records. Within the 
last two centuries, a number of words of honest 
origin have passed into an opprobrious sense ; for 
example, the oppressed tenants of Ireland are 
spoken of by SPENSER and SIR JOHN DAVIES as 
" villains" In our yersion of the Scriptures, 
" cunning " implies merely skill in music and in 
art. SHAKSPEARE employs the word " vagabond " 
as often to express pity as reproach ; and I think 
it will be found, that as a knave, prior to the reign of 
Elizabeth, meant merely a serving man, so a black- 
guard was the name for a pot-boy or scullion in 
the reign of Queen Anne. The transition into its 
more modern meaning took place at a later period, 
on the importation of a foreign word, to which, 
being already interchangeable in sound, it speedily 
became assimilated in sense. 



" It was a trim worke indeede, and a gay world no 
doubt for some idle cloister-man, mad merry friers, and 
lusty abbey-lubbers ; when themselves were well whit- 
tled, and their paunches pretily stuffed, to fall a pro- 
phesieingof the woeful! dearths, famines, plagues, wars, 
&c. of the dangerous days imminent." Harvey's 
Discottrsive Probleme, Lond. 1588. 

Among the sly hits at our nation, which abound 
in the lively pages of the Sieur d'Argenton, is one 
to the effect that an Englishman always has an 
old prophecy in his possession. The worthy Sieur 
is describing the meeting of Louis X. and our 
Henry II. near Picquini, where the Chancellor of 
England commenced his harangue by alluding to 
an ancient prophecy which predicted that the 
Plain of Picquini should be the scene of a memor- 
able and lasting- peace between the two nations. 
" The Bishop," says Commines, " commenc,a par 
une prophetic, dont," adds he, en parenthcse, " les 

Anglois ne sont jamais despourveus." * Even at 
this early period, we had thus acquired a reputa- 
tion for prophecies, and it must be confessed that 
our chronicles abound in passages which illustrate 
the justice of the Sieur's sarcasm. From the 
days of York and Lancaster, when, according to 
Lord Northampton " bookes of beasts and babyes 
were exceeding ryfe, and current in every quarter 
and corner of the realme,"f up to the time of 
Napoleon's projected invasion, when the presses of 
the Seven Dials were unusually prolific in visions 
and predictions, pandering to the popular fears of 
the country our national character for vaticin- 
ation has been amply sustained by a goodly array 
of prophets, real or pretended, whose lucubra- 
tions have not even yet entirely lost their influence 
upon the popular mind. To this day, the ravings 
of Nixon are " household words " in Cheshire ; 
and I am told that a bundle of " Dame Shipton's 
Sayings" still forms a very saleable addition to the 
pack of a Yorkshire pedlar. Kecent discoveries 
in biological science have given to the subject of 
popular prophecies a philosophical importance be- 
yond the mere curiosity or strangeness of the de- 
tails. Whether or not the human mind, under 
certain conditions, becomes endowed with the 
prescient faculty, is a question I do not wish to 
discuss in your pages : I merely wish to direct 
attention to a neglected and not uninteresting 
chapter in the curiosities of literature. 

In delving among what may be termed the 
popular religious literature of the latter years of 
the Commonwealth, and early part of the reign of 
Charles, we become aware of the existence of a kind 
of nightmare which the public of that age were 
evidently labouring under a strong and vivid im- 
pression that some terrible calamity was impend- 
ing over the metropolis. Puritanic tolerance was 
sorely tried by the licence of the new Court ; and 
the pulpits were soon filled with enthusiasts of all 
sects, who railed in no measured terms against the 
monster city the city Babylon the bloody city ! 
as they loved to term her : proclaiming with all 
the fervour of fanaticism that the measure of her 
iniquities was wellnigh full, and the day of her 
extinction at hand. The press echoed the cry ; 
and for some years before and after the Restora- 
tion, it teemed with " warnings" and " visions," in 
which the approaching destruction is often plainly 
predicted. One of the earliest of these prefigur- 
ations occurs in that Leviathan of Sermons, God's 
Pica for Nineveh, or London's Precedent, for Mercy, 
by Thomas Reeve : London, 1657. Speaking of 
London, he says : 

" It was Troy-hovant, it is Troy le grand, and it 
will be Troy 1'extinct." P. 217. 

* Memoires, p. 155. : Paris, 1649. 
f Defensative against the Poyson of supposed Pro- 
phecies, p. 116. 



[No. 16< 

And again : 

" Methinks I see you bringing pick-axes to dig 
downe your owne walls, and kindling sparks that will 
set all in a flame from one end of the city to the other." 
P. 214. 
And afterwards, in a strain of rough eloquence : 

" This goodly city of yours all in shreds, ye may seek 
for a threshold of your antient dwellings, for a pillar 
of your pleasant habitations, and not find them ; all your 
spacious mansions and sumptuous monuments are then 
gone . . . Wo unto us, our sins have pulled down our 
houses, shaken down our city ; we are the most har- 
bourlesse featlesse people in the world . . . Foxes 
have holes, and the fowls of the air nests, but we have 
neither ; our sins have deprived us both of couch and 
covert. What inventions shall ye then be put to, to 
secure yourselves, when your sins shall have shut up 
all the conduits of the city, and suffer only the Liver 
conduit to run*; when they allow you no showers of 
rain, but showers of blood ; when ye shall see no men 
of your incorporation, but the mangl'd citizen ; nor 
hear no noise in your streets but the crys, the shrieks, 
the yells and pangs of gasping, dying men ; when, 
amongst the throngs of associates, not a man will own 
you or come near you," &c. Pp. 221. et seq. 

After alluding to the epidemics of former ages, 
he thus alludes to the coming plague : 

" It will chase men out of their houses, as if there 
was some fierce enemy pursuing them, and shut up 
shop doors, as if execution after judgment was served 
upon the merchants ; there will then be no other music 
to be heard but doleful knells, nor no other wares to 
be born up and down but dead corpses ; it will change 
mansion houses into pest-houses, and gather congre- 
gations rather into churchyards than churches . . . The 
markets will be so empty, that scarce necessaries will 
be brought in, a new kind of brewers will set up, even 
apothecaries to prepare diet drinks." P. 255. 

The early Quakers, like most other religious en- 
thusiasts, claimed the gift of prophecy : and we are 
indebted to members of the sect for many contri- 
butions to this branch of literature. Humphrey 
Smith was one of the most celebrated of the vati- 
cinating Quakers. Little is known of his life and 
career. He appears to have joined the Quakers 
about 1654 ; and after enduring a long series of 
persecutions and imprisonments for the sake of his 
adopted creed, finally ended his days in Winches- 
ter gaol in 1662. The following passage, from a 
Vision which he saw concerning London (London, 
1660), is startling t : 

* " It was a great contributing to this misfortune 
that the Thames Water House was out of order, so 
that the conduits and pipes were almost all dry." 
Observations on the Burning of London: Lond. 1667, 
p. 34. 

f For a sight of this extremely scarce tract, I am 
indebted to the courtesy of the gentleman who has the 
care of the Friends' Library in Deronshire House, 

" And as for the city, herself and her suburbs, and 
all that belonged to her, a fire was kindled therein ; 
but she knew not how, even in all her goodly places, 
and the kindling of it was in the foundation of all her 
buildings, and there was none could quench it ... And 
the burning thereof was exceeding great, and it burned 
inward in a hidden manner which cannot be described. 
. . All the tall buildings fell, and it consumed all the 
lofty things therein, and the fire searched out all the 
hidden places, and burned most in the secret places. 
And as I passed through her streets I beheld her state 
to be very miserable, and very few were those who were 
left in her, who were but here and there one : and 
they feared not the fire, neither did the burning hurt 
them, but they walked as dejected mournful people . . 
And the fire continued, for, though all the lofty part 
was brought down, yet there was much old stufle, and 
parts of broken-down desolate walls, which the fire 
continued burning against . . . And the vision thereof 
remained in me as a thing that was showed me of the 

Daniel Baker, Will Lilly, and Nostradamus, I 
shall reserve for another paper. T. STERNBERG. 


(Vol. vii., p. 6.) 

Essay I. p. 2. " One of the fathers." Who, and 
where ? 

Ditto, ditto. The poet. Lucretius, ii., init. 
" Suave mari magno," &c. 

Ditto, p. 3. (note i). Plutarch. Does Montaigne 
allude to Plutarch, De Liberis educandis, vol. ii. 
(ed. Xyland.) 11 C. t " rb 7etp tyevSfffQai SovXoirptTrts 


Essay IT. p. 4. " You shall read in some of the 
friars' books," &c. Where ? 

Ditto, ditto. "Pompamagis,"&c. Does Bacon 
quote this from memory, referring to " Tolle 
istam pomparn, sub qua lates, et stultos territas " ? 
(Ep. XXIV. vol. ii. p. 92. : ed. Elzev. 1672.) 

Ditto, p. 5. " We read," &c. Tac. Hist., ii. 49. 
" Quidam milites juxta rogum interfecere se, non 
noxa neque ob metum, sed aemulatione decoris et 
caritate principis." Cf. Sueton. Vit. Oth., 12. 

Ditto, ditto. " Cogita quamdiu," &c. Whence 
is this ? 

Ditto, ditto. " Augustus Csesar died," &c. Suet. 
Vit. Octav., 99. 

Ditto, ditto. " Tiberius in dissimulation." Tac. 
Ann., vi. 50. 

Ditto, ditto. "Vespasian." Suet. Vit. Vespas., 23. 

Ditto, ditto. " Galba." Tac. Hist., i. 41. 

Ditto, ditto. "Septimus Severus." Whence is 

Ditto, p. 6. (notem). "In the tenth Satire of 
Juvenal." V. 357., seq. 

Ditto, ditto. " Extinctus amabitur idem." Hor. I 14. 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



Essay III. p. 8. "A master of scoffing." Rabe- 
lais, Pantagruel, book ii. cap. viii. (p 339. vol. i. 
ed. Bohn, 1849.) 

Ditto, p. 9. "As it is noted by one of the 
fathers." By whom, and where ? 

Ditto, p.)10. "Lucretius." i. 102. 

Ditto, p. 11. "It was a notable observation of 
a wise father." Of whom, and where ? 

Essay IV. p. 13. " For the death of Pertinax." 
See Hist. Aug. Script, vol. i. p. 578. (Lugd. Bat. 

Ditto, ditto, (note/). " The poet." Ovid, Ar. 
Am., i. 655. 

Essay V. ditto. " Bona rerum secundarum," 
&c. Does Bacon allude to Seneca (Ep. Ixvi. 
p. 238., ut sup.), where, after stating that "In 
sequo est moderate gaudere, et moderate dolere ; " 
he adds, " Ilia bona optabilia sunt, hsec mirabilia" ? 

Ditto, ditto. " Vere magnum habere," &c. 
Whence is this ? 

Ditto, ditto. " The strange fiction of the ancient 
poets." In note (a) we find " Stesichorus, Apol- 
lodorus, and others " named. Whereabouts ? 

Ditto, p. 11. (note c). "This fine passage has 
been quoted by Macaulay." Ut sup., p. 407. 

Essay VI. p. 15. "Tacitus saith." Ann., v. 1. 

Ditto, ditto. " And again, when Mucianus," &c. 
Ditto, Hist., ii. 76. 

Ditto, ditto. " Which indeed are arts, &c., as 
Tacitus well calleth them." Where ? 

Ditto, p. 17. "It is a good shrewd proverb of 
the Spaniard." What is the proverb ? 

Essay VII. p. 19. "The precept, 'Optimum 
elige,' &c." Whence ? though I am ashamed to ask. 

Essay VIII. p. 20. " The generals." See JEsch. 
Persce, 404. (Dindf.), and Blomfield inloc. (v.411. 
ed. suae). 

Ditto, ditto. " It was said of Ulysses," &c. By 
whom? Compare Od., v. 218. 

Ditto, p. 21. "He was reputed," &c. Who ? 
( To be continued.) 



Irish Superstitious Customs. The following 
strange practices of the Irish are described in a 
MS. of the sixteenth century, and seem to have a 
Pagan origin : 

" Upon Male Eve they will drive their cattell upon 
their neighbour's come, to eate the same up ; they 
were wont to begin from the rast, and this principally 
upon the English churl. Onlesse they do so upon 
Alaie dale, the witch hath power upon their cattell all 
the yere following." 

The next paragraph observes that " they spitt 
in the face ; Sir E,. Shee spat in Ladie face." 

Spenser alludes to spitting on a person for luck, 
and I have experienced the ceremony myself. H. 

Charm for Warts. I remember in Leicester- 
shire seeing the following charm employed for re- 
moval of a number of warts on my brother, then a 
child about five years old. In the month of April 
or May he was taken to an ash-tree by a lady, 
who carried also a paper of fresh pins ; one of 
these was first struck through the bark, and then 
pressed through the wart until it produced pain : 
it was then taken out and stuck into the tree. Each 
wart was thus treated, a separate pin being used 
for each. The warts certainly disappeared in 
about six weeks. I saw the same tree a year or 
two ago, when it was very thickly studded over 
with old pins, each the index of a cured wart. 

T. J. 


The Devil. 

" According to the superstition of the west countries 
if you meet the devil, you may either cut him in half 
with a straw, or force him to disappear by spitting over 
his horns." Essays on his own Times, by S. T. Cole- 
ridge, vol. iii. p. 967. 


If you sing before breakfast you will cry before 

If you wish to have luck, never shave on a 
Monday. J. M. B. 

" Winter Thunder" Sfc. I was conversing the 
other day with a very old farmer on the disastrous 
rains and storms of the present season, when he 
told me that he thought we had not yet seen the 
worst ; and gave as a reason the following proverb : 

" Winter thunder and summer flood 
Bode England no good." 

H. T. 

Ingatestone Hall, Essex. 


Malta affords a fine field for antiquarian re- 
search ; and in no part more so than in the neigh- 
bourhood of Citta Vecchia, where for some distance 
the ground is dotted with tombs which have al- 
ready been opened. 

Here, in ancient times, was the site of a burial- 
place, but for what people, or at what age, is 
now unknown ; and here it is that archaeologists 
should commence their labours, that in the result 
they may not be disappointed. In some of the 
tombs which have been recently entered in this 
vicinity, fragments of linen cloth have been seen, 
in which bodies were enveloped at the time of 
their burial ; in others glass, and earthen candle- 
sticks, and jars, hollow throughout and of a curious 
shape ; while in a few were earrings and finger- 
rings made of the purest gold, but they are rarely 



[No. 169. 

There cannot be a doubt that many valuable 
antiquities will yet be discovered, and in support 
of this presumption I would only refer to those 
now known to exist ; the Giant's Tower at Gozo, 
the huge tombs in the Bengemma Hills, and those 
extensive and remarkable ruins at Krendi, which 
were excavated by order of the late Sir Henry 
Bouverie, and remain as a lasting and honourable 
memento of his rule, being among the number. 

An antiquary, being at Malta, cannot pass a 
portion of an idle day more agreeably than in 
visiting some singular sepulchral chambers not far 
from Notabile, which are built in a rocky emi- 
nence, and with entrances several feet from the 
ground. These are very possibly the tombs of the 
earliest Christians, who tried in their erection " to 
imitate that of our Saviour, by building them in 
the form of caves, and closing their portals with 
marble or stone." When looking at these tombs 
from a terrace near the Cathedral, we were strongly 
reminded of those which were seen by our lately 
deceased friend Mr. John L. Stephens, and so well 
described by him in his Incidents of Travel in 
eastern lands. Had we time or space, we should 
more particularly refer to several other interest- 
ing remains now scattered over the island, and, 
among them, to that curious sepulchre not' a long 
time ago discovered in a garden at Rabato. We 
might write of the inscription on its walls, " In 
pace posita sunt," and of the figures of a dove 
and hare which were near it, to show that the 
ashes of those whom they buried there were left in 
peace. We might also make mention, more at 
length, of a tomb which was found at the point 
Beni Isa : in 1761, having on its face aThcenician 
inscription, which Sir William Drummond thus 
translates : 

" The interior room of the tomb of Mnnibal, illus- 
trious in the consummation of calamity. He was be- 
loved. The people, when they are drawn up in order 
of battle, weep for ./Ennibal the son of Bar Malek." 

Sir Grenville Temple remarks, that the great 
Carthaginian general is supposed, by the Maltese, 
to have been a native of their island, and one of 
the Barchina family, once known to have been 
established in Malta ; while some writers have 
stated that his remains were brought from Bi- 
tliynia to this island, to be placed in the tomb of 
his ancestors ; and this supposition, from what 
we have read, may be easily credited. 

Might I ask if there is any writer, ancient or 
modern, who has recorded that Malta was not the 
burial-place of Hannibal ? W. W. 



Waterloo. I do not know whether, in any of 
the numerous lives of the late Duke of Welling- 
ton, the following fact has been noticed. In 

Strada's History of the Belgian war (a work which 
deserves to be better known and appreciated than 
it is at present), there occurs a passage which 
shows that, about three hundred years since, 
Waterloo was the scene of a severe engagement ; 
so that the late sanguinary struggle was not the 
first this battle-ground had to boast of. The pass- 
age occurs in Famiana: Strada de Bella Belgico, 
Decas prima, lib. vi. p. 256., edit. Romse, 1653 ; 
where, after describing a scheme on the part of 
the insurgents for surprising Lille, and its dis- 
covery by the Royalists, he goes on : 

" Et Rassinghemius de Armerteriensi milite inaudi- 
erat : nihilqve moratvs selectis centvmqvinqvaginta 
peditibvs et equitibus sclopetariis ferine qvinqveginta 
prope Waterlocvm pagvm pvgnam committit." 

What makes this more curious is, that, like the 
later battle, neither of the contending parties on 
this occasion were natives of the country in which 
the battle was fought, they being the French Cal- 
vinists on one side and the Spaniards on the other. 


. - . . 

" Tuck." In " The Synagogue," attached to 
Herbert's Poems, but written by Chr. Harvie, 
M.A., is a piece entitled "The Communion Table," 
one verse of which is as follows : 

" And for the matter whereof it is made, 
The matter is not much, 
Although it be of tuch, 
Or wood, or mettal, what will last, or fade ; 

So vanitie 
And superstition avoided be." 

S. T. Coleridge, in a note on this passage, 
printed in Mr. Pickering's edition of Herbert, 
1850 (fcap. 8vo.), says : 

" Tuch rhyming to n^uch, from the German tuch, 
cloth : I never met with it before as an English word.. 
So I find platt, for foliage, in Stanley's Hist, of Philo- 
sophy, p.' 22."" 

Whether Coleridge rightly appreciated Stanley's 
use of the word platt, I shall not determine ; but 
with regard to touch, it is evident that he went (it 
was the tendency of his mind) to Germany for 
error, when truth might have been discovered 
nearer home. The context shows that cloth could 
not have been intended, for who ever heard of a 
table or altar made of cloth ? The truth is that 
the poet meant touchstone, which the author of the 
Glossary of Architecture (3rd edit., text and ap- 
pendix) rightly explains to be " the dark-coloured 
stone or marble, anciently used for tombstones. 
A musical sound" (it is added) "may be pro- 
duced by touching it sharply with a stick." And 
this is in fact the reason for its name. The author 
of the Glossary of Architecture cites Ben Jonson 
by Gifford, viii. 251,, and Archcsol^ xvi. 84. 


Lincoln's Inn. 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



The Dodo. Among the seals, or rather sulphur 
casts, in the British Museum, is one of Nicholas 
Saumares, anno 1400. It represents an esquire's 
helmet, from which depends obliquely a shield with 
the arms supporters dexter a unicorn, sinis- 
ter a greyhound ; crest, a bird, which from its un- 
wieldy body and disproportionate wings I take to 
be a Dodo : and the more probability attaches it- 
self to this conjecture, since Dodo seems to have 
been the surname of the Counts de Somery, or 
Somerie (query Saumarez), as mentioned in p. 2. 
of Add. MSS. 17,455. in the British Museum, and 
alluded to in a former No. of " N. & Q." This 
seal, like many others, is not in such a state of 
preservation as to warrant the assertion that we 
have found a veritable Dodo. I only offer it as 
a hint to MR. STRICKLAND and others, that have 
written so learnedly on this head. Burke gives a 
falcon for the crest of Saumarez ; but the clumsy 
form and figure of this bird does not in any way 
assimilate with any of the falcon tribe. 

Dodo seems also to have been used as a Christian 
name, as in the same volume of MSS. quoted above 
we find Dodo de Cisuris, &c. CLARENCE HOPPER. 

Francis I. Mention has been made in "N. & 
Q." of Francis I.'s celebrated " Tout est perdu 
hormis 1'honneur!" but the beauty of that phrase 
is lost in its real position, a long letter to Louisa 
of Savoy, his mother. The letter is given at full 
length in Sismondi's Histoire des Franqais. 

M A L. 


In 1662 Anthony Marshall, D.D., was Rector of 
Bottesford, in Leicestershire. Nichols adds a 
query after his name; whether he were of the 
Bishop of Exeter's family ? and a note, that An- 
thony Marshall was created D.D. at Cambridge in 
1661 by royal mandate (Hist. Leic., vol. ii. p. 77.) ; 
and ag^iin, Dr. Anthony Marshall preached a 
Visitation Sermon at Melton in 1667, Aug. 11. I 
do not find that any Bishop of Exeter bore the 
name of Marshall except Henry Marshall in 1191, 
of course too far back to suppose that the Query 
could refer to him ; but I have not introduced this 
Note to quarrel with Mr. Nichols, but to ask if 
this is all that is known of a man who must, in his 
day, have attained to considerable eminence. I 
more than suspect that this Dr. Marshall was a 
native of Staveley in Derbyshire. Sir Peter 
Frescheville, in his will, dated in 1632, gives to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 501. "for the buy- 
ing of bookes to furnish some one of the desks in 
the new library lately built and erected in the 
said college ; and expresses his desire that the said 
money shall be layed forth, and the bookes bought, 
provided, and placed in the said library by the 

paines, care, and discression of his two loveing 
friends, Mr. Robert Hitch, late Fellow of Trinity 
College in Cambridge ; and Mr. Robert Marshall, 
Fellow of St. John's College*; or the survivor of 
them," which last Robert, I suspect, should be 

In 1677 Anthony Marshall, D.D., Rector of 
Bottesford, was a subscriber of IOL towards a fund 
then raised for yearly distribution; and there is 
only one name precedes his, or subscribes a larger 
amount, and that is Dr. Hitch before named. 

Mr. Bagshaw, in his Spiritualibus Pecci, 1701, 
p. 61., referring to Thomas Stanley, one of the 
ejected ministers, says : 

" Mr. Stanley was born at Dackmonton, three miles 
from Chesterfield, where he had part of his education, 
as he had another part of it at Staley, not far from it. 
His noted schoolmaster was one Mr. Marshall, whose 
brother made a speech to King James I." 

Is there any means of corroborating this incident? 
In 1682 I observe the name of Dr. Marshall 
amongst the King's Chaplains in Ordinary, and a 
Dr. Marshall (perhaps the same individual) Dean 
of Gloucester ; but whether identified in the 
Doctor about whom I inquire, remains a Query. 

U. J. S. 



We are told by Bede that Lindisfarne, now Holy 
Island, derives the first part of its name from the 
small brook Limlis, which at high water is quite in- 
visible, being covered by the tide, but at low water 
is seen running briskly into the sea. Now I should 
be glad to know the precise meaning of Lindis. 
We are informed by etymologists, that Lyn or Lin, 
in names of places, signifies water in any shape, as 
lake, marsh, or stream : but what does the adjunct 
dis mean ? Some writers assert that Lindis sig- 
nifies the linden-tree ; thus making the sound an 
echo to the meaning : and hence they assume that 
Lindesey in Lincolnshire must signify an Isle of 
Linden-trees. But it is very doubtful that such a 
tree ever existed in Lincolnshire anterior to the 
Conquest. The linden is rather a rare tree in 
England ; and the two principal species, the Tilia 
Europea and the Tilia grandifolia, are said by 
botanists not to be indigenous to this country, but 
to have been introduced into our island at an early 
period to adorn the parks of the nobles, and cer- 
tainly not till after the Conquest. 

Dr. Henry, in his History of Britain, vol. iv., 
gives the meaning of " Marsh Isle" to Lindsey, 
and of " Lake Colony " to Lincolnia. This I con- 
sider the most probable signification to a district 

[* There is a Latin epigram, by R. Marshall of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, prefixed to John Hall's 
Poems, published in 1646. ED.] 



[No. 169. 

that abounded in marshes at that early period, 
when the rude Briton or the Saxon applied names 
to places the most consonant to the aspects they 
afforded them : nor is it likely they would give 
the name of Lindentree to a small brook, where 
such a tree never could have grown. 

As to the antiquity of the name of Lindes or 
Lindesey, I should say Lindentree must be of 
comparatively modern nomenclature. I should, 
however, be glad to have the opinion of some of 
your better-informed etymologists on the meaning 
of the word, as it may decide a point of some im- 
portance in genealogy. J. L. 


Smock Marriage in New York. In a curious 
old book, entitled The interesting Narrative of the 
Life of Oulandah Equiano, or Gustacus Vassa, the 
African, written by himself, and published in 
London, by subscription, in 1789, I find the fol- 
lowing passage : 

"While we lay here (New York, A.D. 1784) a cir- 
cumstance happened which I thought extremely sin- 
gular. One day a malefactor was to be executed on 
a gallows, but with a condition that if any woman, 
having nothing on but her shift, married the man 
under the gallows, his life was to be saved. This ex- 
traordinary privilege was claimed ; a woman presented 
herself, and the marriage ceremony was performed." 
Vol. ii. p. 224. 

Perhaps some of your New York correspondents 
can say whether the annals of that city furnish 
evidence of so extraordinary an occurrence. 


The broken Astragalus. Where was the broken 
astragalus, given by the host to his guest, first used 
as the symbol of hospitality ? C. H. HOWARD. 

Penardo and Laissa. Who is the author of a 
poem (the title-page of which is wanting) called 
The History e of Penardo and Laissa, unpaged, in 
seventeen caputs, with poems recommendatory, by 
Drummond of Hawthornden and others, small 4to., 
containing many Scotticisms ? E. D. 

St. Adulph (Vol. v., pp. 566, 567.). Capgrave, 
quoting John of Tynemouth (?), says : 

" Sanctum igitur Adulphum audita ejus fama ad 
trajecteasem ecclesiam in episcopum rex sublimavit." 

Query 1. Who is the "rex" here mentioned? 

Query 2. "Trajecteasem:" ought this to be 
applied to "Utrecht" or " Maestricht," or either? 
Literally, it is " on the other side of the water." 


St. Botulph (Vol. v., pp. 566, 567.). Your cor- 
respondent C. W. G. says : 

"His (St. Botulph's) life was first put into regular 

form by Fulcard . . . Fulcard tells us what his 
materials were . . . An early MS. of this life is 
in the Harleian Collection, No. 3097. It was printed 
by Capgrave in the Legenda Nova." 

Query : Fulcard" s life of the saint, or the life by 
some other person : John of Tynemouth to wit ? 


Tennyson. Mr. Gilfillan, in his Literary Gal- 
lery, speaking of that fine poem " The Two 
Voices," says that the following line 

" You scarce could see the grass for flowers" 
P. 308. 1. 18., 7th edit. 

is borrowed from one of the old dramatists. Could 
you or any of your correspondents tell me what 
the line is ? 

As also the Latin song referred to in " Edwin 
Morris :" 

" Shall not love to me, 
As in the Latin song I learnt at school, 
Sneeze out a full God-bless-you right and left?" 
P. 231. 1. 10., 7th edit. 

My last Tennyson Query is about the meaning 

" She to me 

Was proxy-wedded with a bootless calf, 
At eight years old." 

Princess, p. 15. 1. 18., 4th edit. 

H. J. J. 

" Ma Ninette" Sfc. Can any of your French 
readers tell me the continuation, if continuation 
there be, of the following charming verses ; as also 
where they come from ? 

" Ma Ninette a quatorze ans, 
Trois mois quelque chose ; 
Son teint est un printemps, 
Sa bouche une rose. " 

H. J. J. 

Astronomical Query. You style your paper a 
medium of communication between literary men, 
&c. I trust this does not exclude one of my 
sex from seeking information through the same 

We have had additions to our solar system by 
the discovery of four planets within the last few 
years. Supposing that these planets obey the 
same laws as the larger ones, they must be at all 
times apparently moving within the zodiac ; and 
considering the improvements in telescopes within 
the last seventy years, and the great number of 
scientific observers at all times engaged in the 
pursuit of astronomy both in Europe and North 
America, I am at a loss to understand why these 
planets were not discovered before. 

I suppose we may not consider them as new 
creations attached to our solar system, because the 
law of perturbations on which Air. ilerschel dis- 

22. 1853.] 



courses at length, in the eleventh chapter of his 
Treatise on Astronomy, would seem to demonstrate 
that they would interfere with the equilibrium of 
the solar system. 

Would some of your scientific contributors con- 
descend to explain this matter, so as to remove the 
ignorance under which I labour in common with, 
I believe, many others ? LEONORA. 


Chaplains to Noblemen. Under what statute, 
if any, do noblemen appoint their chaplains ? and 
is there any registry of such appointments in any 
archiepiscopal or episcopal registry ? X. 

"More" Queries. 
" When More some years had Chancellor been, 

No more suits did remain ; 
The same shall never more be seen, 
Till More be there again." 

I infer from the first lines of this epigram that 
Sir Thomas More, by his unremitting attention to 
the business of the Court of Chancery, had brought 
to a close, in his day, the litigation in that depart- 
ment. Is there any authentic record of this cir- 

Are there, at the present day, any male descen- 
dants of Sir Thomas More, so as to render possible 
the fulfilment of the prophecy contained in the 
last two lines ? HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Heraldic Query. To what families do the fol- 
lowing bearings belong ? 1. Two lions passant, on 
a chief three spheres (I think) mounted on pedes- 
tals ; a mullet for difference. The crest is very 
like a lily reversed. 2. Ermine, a bull passant ; 
crest, a bull passant : initials " C. G." U. J. S. 


" By Prudence guided" fyc. Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." supply me with the words 
deficient in the following lines, and inform me from 
what author they are quoted ? I met with them 
on an old decaying tomb in one of the churchyards 
in Sheffield : 

' By prudence guided, undefiled in mind, 
Of pride unconscious, and of soul refined, 

. . . conquest subdue 

With in view 

Here the heaven-born flame 

Which from whence it came." 

W. S. (Sheffield.) 

Lawyers' Sags. I find it stated by Colonel 
Landman, in his Memoirs, that prior to the trial 
of Queen Caroline, the colour of the bags carried 
by barristers was green ; and that the change to 
red took place at, or immediately after, the event 
in question. I shall be glad of any information 
both as to the fact of such change having taken 

place, and the circumstances by which it was 
brought about and accompanied. J. ST. J. Y. 

Master Family. Can you refer me to any one 
who may be able to give me information respect- 
ing the earlier history of the family of Master or 
Maistre, of Kent, prior to 1550 : and any sugges- 
tions as to its connexion with the French or Nor- 
man family of Maistre or De Maistre ? This being 
a Query of no public interest, I inclose a stamped 
envelope, according to the wish expressed by you 
in a recent Number. GEORGE S. MASTER. 

Welsh -Hampton, Salop. 

Passage in Wordsworth. Can any of your cor- 
respondents find an older original for Wordsworth's 
graceful conceit, in his sonnet on Walton's lines 

" There are no colours in the fairest sky 
As fair as these: the feather whence the pen 
Was shaped, that traced the lives of these good men, 
Dropt from an angel's wing " 

than the following : 

" whose noble praise 
Deserves a quill pluckt from an angel's wing." 

Dorothy Berry, in a Sonnet prefixed to Diana 
Primrose's Chain of Pearl, a Memorial of the 
peerless Graces, Sfc. of Queen Elizabeth: pub- 
lished London, 1639, a tract of twelve pages. 

M A L. 


Govett Family. Can you inform me for what 
town or county Sir Govett, Bart, was mem- 
ber of parliament in the year 1669, and what were 
his armorial bearings ? His name appears in the 
list of members given in page 496. of the Grand 
Duke Cosmo's Travels through England, published 
in 1821. Is the baronetcy extinct? If so, who 
was the last baronet, and in what year ? Where 
he lived, or any other particulars, will much oblige. 


Sir Kenelm Digby. Why is Sir Kenelm Digby 
represented, I believe always, with a sun-flower 
by his side ? VANDYKE. 

Riddles. It would take up too much of your 
valuable time and space to insert all the riddles 
for which correspondents cannot find answers ; 
but will you find means to ask, through your pages, 
if any clever CEdipus would allow me to commu- 
nicate to him certain enigmas which puzzle me 
greatly, and which I should very much like to have 
solved. RUBI. 

Straw Bail. Fielding, in his Life of Jonathan 
Wild, book i. chap, ii., relates that Jonathan's 

" Charity took to husband an eminent gentleman, 
whose name I cannot learn ; but who was famous for 



[No. 169. 

so friendly a disposition, that he was bail for above a 
hundred persons in one year. He had likewise the 
remarkable honour of walking in Westminster Hal] 
with a straw in his shoe." 

What was the practice here referred to, and 
what is the origin of the expression " a man ol 
straw," which is commonly applied to any one who 
appears, or pretends to be, but is not, a man oi 
property ? 

Straw bail is, I believe, a term still used by 
attorneys to distinguish insufficient bail from 
"justifiable" or sufficient bail. 


Wages in the West in 1642. The Marquis of 
Hertford and Lord Poulett were very active in the 
West in the year 1642. In the famous collection 
of pamphlets in the British Museum (113, 69.) 
is contained Lord Poulett's speech at Wells, 
Somerset : 

" His lordship, with many imprecations, oaths, and 
execrations (in the height of fury), said that it was not 
fit for any yeoman to have allowed him from his own 
labours any more than the poor moiety of ten pounds 
a-year; and when the power shall be totally on their 
side, they shall be compelled to live on that low allow- 
ance, notwithstanding their estates are gotten with a 
great deal of labour and industry. 

" Upon this the people attempted to lay violent 
hands upon Lord Poulett, who was saved by a regi- 
ment marching in or by at the moment." 

What was Lord Poulett's precise meaning ? Do 
we not clearly learn from the above, that the Civil 
War was due to more than a mere choosing between 
king and parliament among the humbler classes of 
the remote country districts ? GEORGE ROBERTS. 

Literary Frauds of Modern Times. In a work 
by Bishop (now Cardinal) Wiseman, entitled The 
Connexion between Science and Revealed Religion, 
3rd edition, vol. ii. p. 270., occurs the following 
remark : 

" The most celebrated literary frauds of modern 
times, the History of Formosa, or, still more, the Sicilian 
Code of Vella, for a time perplexed the world, but were 
in the end discovered." 

Will you, or any of your readers, kindly refer 
me to any published account of the frauds alluded 
to in this passage ? I have a faint remembrance 
of having read some remarks respecting the Code 
of Vella, but am unable to recall the circumstances. 

I was under the impression that Chatterton's 
forgery of the Rowley poems, Macpherson's of the 
Ossianic rhapsodies, and Count de Surville's of 
the poems of Madame de Surville, were " the most 
celebrated literary frauds of modern times." In 
what respect are those alluded to by Dr. Wiseman 
entitled to the unenviable distinction which he 
claims for them ? HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

terf foifi) 

" Very like a Whale." What is the origin of 
this expression ? It occurs in the following dog- 
gerel verses, supposed to be spoken by the driver 
of a cart laden with fish : 

" This salmon has got a tail ; 
It's very like a whale; 
It's a fish that's very merry ; 
They say its catch'd at Derry. 
It's a fish that's got a heart ; 
It's catch'd and put in Dugdale's cart." 


St. Lucia. 

[This expression occurs in Hamlet, Act III. Sc. 2.: 

" Hamlet. Do you see yonder cloud, that is almost 
in shape of a camel ? 

Polonius. By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed. 
Hamlet. Methinks it is like a weasel. 
Polonius. It is backed like a weasel. 
Hamlet. Or like a whale ? 
Polonius. Very like a whale." 

Since Shakspeare's time, it has been used as a pro- 
verb in reply to any remark partaking of the mar- 

Wednesday a Litany Day. Why is Wednesday 
made a Litany day by the Church ? We all know 
why Friday was made a fast; but why should 
Wednesday be sacred ? ANON. 

[Wednesdays and Fridays were kept as fasts in the 
primitive Church : because on the one our Lord was 
betrayed, on the other crucified. See Mant and 

" Thy Spirit, Independence" Sfc. Could you, 
or any of your readers, inform me where are the 
following lines? 

" Thy spirit, Independence, let me share, 
Lord of the lion heart and eagle eye ! 
Thy steps I'll follow with my bosom bare, 

Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky." 
I quote from memory. H. 

[In Smollett's Ode to Independence.'] 

"Hob and nob," Meaning of. What is the origin 
of these words as verbs, in the phrase "Hob or nob," 
which means, as I need not inform your readers, to 
spend an evening tippling with a jolly companion? 

What is the origin of " nob ? " And is either 
of these two words ever used alone ? 



[This phrase, according to Grose, " originated in the 
days of good Queen Bess. When great chimnies were 
n fashion, there was at each corner of the hearth, or 
rate, a small elevated projection, called hob, and be- 
lind it a seat. In winter-time the beer was placed on 
he hob to warm ; and the cold beer was set on a small 
able, said to have been called the 7206 . so that the 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



question, Will you -have hob or nob? seems only to 
have meant,: Will you have warm or cold beer? i.e. 
beer from, the hob^ or beer from the nob." But Nares, 
in his Glossary, s. v. Halle or Nalbe, with much greater 
reason, shows 'that hoi or nob, now only used convi- 
vially, to ask a person whether he will have a glass of 
wine or hot, is most evidently a corruption of the old 
Jiab-nab, from the Saxon habban, to have, and nalban, 
not to have; in proof of which, as Nares remarks, 
Shakspeare' has used it to mark an alternative of an- 
other kind : 

" And his incensement at this moment is so impla- 
cable, that satisfaction can be none but by pangs of 
death and sepulchre : hob, nob is his word ; give't or 
take't." Twelfth Night, Act III. Sc. 4.] 


(Vol. vi., pp. 508. 585.) 

There is an anxiety to obtain further particulars 
on this interesting subject, and I have searched 
my Genealogical MSS. Collections for such ; the 
result has extended farther than I could have 
wished, but, while I am able to furnish dates and 
authorities for hitherto naked statements, I have 
inserted two or three links of descent not before 
laid down. 

A member of the Somersetshire Wellesleighs is 
said to have accompanied Henry II. to Ireland. 

Walleran or Walter de Wellesley, living in 
Ireland in 1230 (Lynch, Feud. Dig.), witnessed a 
grant of certain townlands to the Priory of Christ 
Church about 1250 (Registry of Christ Church) ; 
while it is more effectively stated that he then 
" endowed the Priory of All Saints with 60 a. of 
land, within the manor of Cruagh, which then be- 
longed, with other estates, to his family, and that he 
gave to the said priory free common of pasture, 
of rvood and of turbary, over hit ivhole mountain 

His namesake and son (according to Lynch, 
feud. Dig.), "Walran de Wylesley," was in 1302 
required, as one of the " Fideles " of Ireland, by 
three several letters, to do service in the meditated 
war in Scotland (Purl. Writs, vol. i. p. 363.), and 
in the following year he was slain (MS. Book of 
Obits, T.C.D.). The peerage books merge these 
two Wallerans in one. 

William de Wellesley, who appears to have 
been son to AValleran, was in 1309 appointed 
Constable of the Castle of Kildare (Rot. Pat. Cane. 
Hib.), which he maintained when besieged by the 
Bruces in their memorable invasion of Ireland, 
and their foray over that county. For these and 
other services to the state he received many lu- 
crative and honourable grants from the crown, 
and was summoned to parliament in 1339. In 
1347 he was slain at the siege of Calais. (Obits, 

Sir John de Wellesly, Knight, son of William, 
having performed great actions against the 
0'Tooles and O'Byrnes of Wicklow, had grants 
of sundry wardships and other rewards from the 
year 1335. In 1343 he became one of the sureties 
for the appearance of the suspected Earl of Des- 
mond, on whose flight Sir John's estates were 
seised to the crown and withheld for some years. 
(Lynch's Feud. Dig.) 

His successor was another John de Wellesley, 
omitted in the peerage books, but whose existence 
is shown by Close Roll 29 & 30 Edw. III., C. H. 
He died about the year 1355. 

William Wellesley, son of John, was summoned 
to great councils and parliaments of Ireland from 
1372 ; he was also entrusted by the king with 
various important commissions , and custodies of 
castles, lands, and wards (Patent Rolls C. H.). 
In 1386 he was Sheriff of Kildare, and Henry IV. 
renewed his commission in ] 403. 

Richard, son and heir of William de Wellesley, as 
proved by Rot. Pat. 1 Henry IV., Cane. Hib., mar- 
ried Johanna, daughter and heiress of Sir Nicholas 
de Castlemartin, by whom the estates of Dangan, 
Mornington, &c. passed to the Wellesley family ; 
he and his said wife had confirmation of their 
estates in 1422. (Rot. Pat. 1 Henry VI., C. H.) 
He had a previous grant from the treasury by 
order of the Privy Council, in consideration of his 
long services as sheriff of the county of Kildare, and 
yet more actively " in the wars of Munster, Meath, 
and Leinster, with men and horses, arms and 
money." (Rot. Claus. 17 Ric. II., C. H.) In 1431 
he was specially commissioned to advise the crown 
on the state of Ireland, and was subsequently se- 
lected to take charge of the Castle of Athy, as 
" the fittest person to maintain that fortress and 
key of the country against the malice of the 
Irish enemy." (Rot. Pat. et Claus. 9 Henry VI., 
C. H.) In resisting that " malice " he fell soon 

The issue of Sir Richard de Wellesley by 
Johanna were, William Wellesley, who. married 
Katherine , and dying in 1441 was suc- 
ceeded by his next brother, Christopher Wellesley, 
whose recorded fealty in the same year proves all 
the latter links ; his succession to William as 
brother and heir, and the titles of Johanna as 
widow of his father Richard, and of Katherine as 
widow of William, to dower off said estates. (Ra 1 
Claus. 19 Henry VI., C.H.) At and previous to 
this time, another line of this family, connected as 
cousins with the house of Dangan, flourished in 
the co. Kildare, where they were recognised as 
Palatine Barons of Norragh to the close of the 
seventeenth century. William Wellesley of Dan- 
gan was the son and heir of Christopher. An (im- 
printed) act of Edward IV. was passed in 1472 in 
favour of this William ; and his two marriages are 
stated by Lynch (Feud. Dig.) : the first was to 



[No. 169. 

Ismay Plunkett ; the second, to Maud O'Toole, was 
contracted under peculiar circumstances. The 
law of Ireland at the time prohibited the inter- 
marriages of the English with the natives without 
royal licence therefor being previously obtained, 
and not even did the licence so obtained wash out 
the original sin of Irish birth ; for, as in this in- 
stance, Maud, having survived her first husband, 
on marrying her second, Patrick Hussey, had a 
fresh licence to legalise that marriage. It is of 
record (Rot. Pat. 21 Henry VII., C.H.), and proves 
the second marriage of Sir William clearly : yet it 
is not noticed in any of the peerage books, which 
derive his issue from the first wife, and not from 
the second, as Lynch gives it, that issue being 
Gerald the eldest son, Walter the second, and 
Alison a daughter. 

Gerald had a special livery of his estate in 1539; 
Walter the second son became Bishop of Kildare 
in 1531, and died its diocesan in 1539 (see Ware's 
Bishops) ; and the daughter Alison intermarried 
with John Cusack of Cushington, co. Meath. 
(Burke's Landed Gentry, Supp. p. 88.) 

Gerald, according to all the peerage books, 
married Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas 
Fitzgerald, who was Lord Chancellor of Ireland 
in 1483, and had issue William, his eldest son, 
Lord of Dangan, who married Elizabeth Cusack, 
of Portrane, co. Dublin, and died previous to 
1551 (as I believe is proveable by inquisitions of 
that year in the office of the Chief Remembrancer, 
Dublin), leaving Gerald, his eldest son and heir. 
An inquiry taken in 1579 as to the extent of the 
manor of Dangan, finds him then seised thereof 
(Inquis. in C. H. 23 Eliz.). Previous to this he 
appears a party in conveyances of record, as in 
1564, &c. He had a son Edward (not mentioned 
in the peerage books), who joined in a family 
conveyance of 1599, and soon after died, leaving a 
son, Valerian Wellesley. Gerald himself died in 
1603, leaving said Valerian, his grandson and heir, 
then aged ten {Inquis. 5 Jac. I. in Rolls Office), 
and married, adds the Inquisition ; and Lynch, in 
his Feudal Dignities, gives interesting particulars 
of the betrothal of this boy, and his public repu- 
diation of the intended match on his comino- to 
age. This Valerian is traced through Irish 
records to the time of the Restoration ; he mar- 
ried first, Maria Cusack (by whom he had AVilliam 
Wellesley, his eldest son), and, second, Anne 
Forth, otherwise Cusack, widow of Sir Ambrose 
Forth, as shown by an Inquisition of 1637, in the 
Rolls Office, Dublin. 

William Wellesley, son and heir of Valerian, 
married Margaret Kempe {Peerage Soaks'), and 
by her had Gerald Wellesley, who on the Re- 
storation petitioned to be restored to his estates, 
and a Decree of Innocence issued, which states 
the rights of himself, his father, and his grand- 
father in " Dingen." This Gerald married Eliza- 

beth, eldest daughter of Sir Dudley Colley, and 
their first daughter was baptized in 1663 by the 
name of Margaret, some evidence, in the courtesy 
of christenings, of Gerald's mother being Mar- 
garet. (Registry of St. Werburgh's.) Gerald was 
a suitor in the Court of Claims in 1703 : he left 
two sons ; William the eldest died s.p., and wa 
succeeded by Garrett, his next brother, who died 
also without issue in 1728, having bequeathed all 
the family estates to Richard Colley, second son 
of the aforesaid Sir Dudley Colley, and testator's 
uncle, enjoining upon said Richard and his heirs 
male to bear thenceforth, as they succeeded to the 
estates, the name and arms of Wellesley. 

This Richard Colley Wellesley married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Sale, LL.D. and M.P., bj 
whom he had issue Garrett Wellesley, born, as the 
Dublin and London Magazine for 1735 announces, 
" 19th July," when " the Lady of Richard Colley 
Westley was delivered of a son and heir, to the 
great joy of that family" This son was father of 
the Marquis Wellesley and of the DUKE or WEL- 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 


(Vol. vi., p. 603.) 

SIR W. C. T. has opened a very interesting 
field for inquiry regarding these blest rings. 

St. Edward, in his last illness (obiit January 5, 
1066), gave a ring which he wore to the Abbot 
of Westminster. The origin of this ring is sur- 
rounded by much mystery. A pilgrim is said to 
have brought it to the king, and to have informed 
him that St. John the Evangelist had made known 
to the donor that the king's decease was at hand. 
" St. Edward's ring " was kept for some time at 
Westminster Abbey, as a relic of the saint, and 
was applied for the cure of the falling sickness or 
epilepsy, and for the cramp. From this arose the 
custom of our English kings, who were believed 
to have inherited St. Edward's powers of cure, 
solemnly blessing every year rings for distribution. 

It is said, we know not on what authority, that 
the ring did not always remain at Westminster, 
but that in the chapel of Havering (so called from 
having the ring), in the parish of Hornchurch, near 
Rumford in Essex (once a hunting-seat of the 
kings), was kept, till the dissolution of religious 
houses, the identical ring given by the pilgrim to 
St. Edward. Weaver says he saw it represented 
in a window of Rumford Church. 

These rings seem to have been blessed for two 
different species of cure: first, against the falling 
sickness (comitialis morbus) ; and, secondly, against 
the cramp (contracta membra). For the cure of 
the king's evil the sovereign did not bless rings, 
but continued to touch the patient. 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



Good Friday was the day appointed for the bless- 
ing of the rings. They were often called " medij- 
cinable rings," and were made both of gold and 
silver ; and as we learn from the household books 
of Henry IV. and Edward IV., the metal they 
were composed of was what formed the king's 
offering to the cross on Good Friday. The follow- 
ing entry occurs in the accounts of the 7th and 
8th years of Henry IV. (1406) : " In oblacionibus 
Domini Regis factis adorando Crucem in capella 
infra manerium guum de Eltham, die Parascevis, 
in precio trium nobilium auri et v solidorum 
sterlyng, xxv *. 

"In denariis solutis pro eisdem oblacionibus 
reassumptis, pro aunulis medicinalibus inde faci- 
endis, xxv s." 

The prayers used at the ceremony of blessing 
the rings on Good Friday are published in Wal- 
dron's Literary Museum. Cardinal Wiseman has 
in his possession a MS. containing both the cere- 
mony for the blessing the cramp rings, and the 
ceremony for the touching for the king's evil. At 
the commencement of the MS. are emblazoned 
the arms of Philip and Mary : the first ceremony 
is headed, " Certain prayers to be used by the 
quenes heignes in the consecration of the crampe 
rynges." Accompanying it is an illumination re- 
presenting the queen kneeling, with a dish, con- 
taining the rings to be blessed, on each side of her. 
The second ceremony is entitled, " The ceremonye 
for y e heling of them that be diseased with the 
kynges evill ; " and has its illumination of Mary 
kneeling and placing her hands upon the neck of 
the diseased person, who is presented to her by 
the clerk ; while the chaplain, in alb and stole, 
kneels on the other side. The MS. was exhibited 
at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute on 
6th June, 1851. Hearne, in one of his manuscript 
diaries in the Bodleian, Iv. 190., mentions having 
seen certain prayers to be used by Queen Mary at 
the blessing of cramp rings. May not this be the 
identical MS. alluded to ? 

But, to come to W. C. T.'s immediate question, 
" When did the use of these blest rings by our 
sovereigns cease ?" The use never ceased till the 
change of religion. In addition to the evidence 
already given of the custom in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, may be added several testimonies of its 
continuance all through the sixteenth century. 
Lord Berners,' when ambassador to the Emperor 
Charles V., writing " to my Lord Cardinal's grace" 
from Saragossa, June 31, 1518, says, "If your 
grace remember me with some crampe ryngs, ye 
shall doo a thing muche looked for ; and I trust to 
bestowe thaym well with goddes grace." (Harl.MS. 
295. f. 1 19. See also Polydore Virgil, Hist. \. 8. ; 
and Harpsfield.) Andrew Boorde, in his Introduc- 
tion to Knowledge, mentions the blessing of these 
rings : " The kynges of England doth halow every 
yere crampe rynges, y e which rynges worne on 

one's finger doth helpe them whych hath the 
crampe : " and again, in his Breviary of Health^ 
1557, f. 166., mentions as a remedy against the 
cramp, " The kynge's majestic hath a great helpe 
in this matter, in nalowing crampe ringes, and so 
given without money or petition." 

A curious remnant or corruption of the use of 
cramp rings is given by Mr. G. Rokewode, who 
says that in Suffolk " the use of cramp rings, as a 
preservative against fits, is not entirely abandoned. 
Instances occur where nine young men of a parish 
each subscribe a crooked sixpence, to be moulded 
into a ring, for a young woman afflicted with this 
malady." (History, Sfc., 1838, Introd. p. xxvi.) 



(Vol.vii., p. 15.) 

L. E. X. inquires respecting the first work ex- 
hibited by the late J. M. W. Turner, R.A. The 
statement of the newspaper referred to was correct. 
The first work exhibited by Turner was a water- 
colour drawing of Lambeth Palace, and afterwards 
presented by him to a gentleman of this city, long 
since deceased. It is now in the possession of that 
gentleman's daughter, an elderly lady, who attaches 
no little importance to it. The fact is, that Mr. 
Turner, when young, was a frequent visitor at her 
father's house, and on such terms that her father 
lent Mr. Turner a horse to go on a sketching tour 
through South Wales. This lady has also three 
or four other drawings made at that time by 
Turner, one a view of Stoke Bishop, near Bristol, 
then the seat of Sir Henry Lippincott, Bart., which 
he made as a companion to the Lambeth Palace ; 
another is a small portrait of Turner by himself, of 
course when a youth. As the early indications of 
so great an artist, these drawings are very curious 
and interesting ; but no person that knows any- 
thing of the state of water-colour painting at that 
period, and previous to the era when Turner, 
Girtin, and others began to shine out in that new 
and glorious style, that has since brought water- 
colour works to their present style of splendour, 
excellence, and value, will expect anything ap- 
proaching the perfection of latter days. 

Marine Painter. 

28. Trinity Street, Bristol. 

Whether or not the work deemed by L. E. X. 
to be the first exhibited by Turner may have been 
in water-colours, or be still in existence, I leave 
to other replicants, availing myself of the occasion 
to ask him or you, whether in 1787 two works of 
W. Turner, at Mr. G. Turner's, Walthamstow, 
" No. 471. Dover Castle," " No. 601. Wanstead 
House," were not, in fact, his first tilt in that arena 
of which he was the champion at the hour of his 


[No. 169. 

death? Whether in the two following years he 
appeared at all in the ring; and, if not, why not? 
although in the succeeding 1790 he again threw 
down the glaive in the " No. 644. The Arch- 
bishop's Palace, Lambeth," being then set down as 
" T. W. Turner ;" reappearing in 1791 as " W. 
Turner, of Maiden Lane, Covent Garden," with 
" No. 494. King John's Palace, Eltham ;" " No. 
560. Sweakley, near Uxbridge." In the horizon 
of art (strange to say, and yet to be explained !) 
this luminary glows no more till 1808, when he 
had "on the line" (?) several views of Fon thill, 
as well as the "Tenth Plague of Egypt," pur- 
chased of course by the proprietor of that princely 
mansion, as it is found mentioned in Warner's Walks 
near Bath to be that same year adorning the walls 
of one of the saloons, J. H. A. 


(Vol. vii., p. 13.) 

I was preparing to answer your correspondent 
E. S. TAYLOR by a reference to the conversation 
between Gurth and Wamba, Ivanhoe, chap, i., 
when a friend promised to supply me with some 
additional and fuller information. I copy from a 
MS. note that he has placed in my hands : 

" Nee quidem temere contigisse puto quod animalia 
viva nominibus Germanics originis vocemus, quorum 
tamen camera in cibum paratam originis Gallic 
nominibus appellamus ; puta, bo vein, vaccam, vitu- 
lum, ovem, porcum, aprum, feram, etc. (an ox, a cow, 
a calf, a sheep, a hog, a boar, a deer, &c. ) ; sed carnem 
bubulam, vitulinam, ovinam, porcinam, aprugnam, feri- 
nam, etc. (beef, veal, mutton, pork, brawn, venison, &c.) 
Sed hinc id ortum putaverim, quod Normanni milites 
pascuis, caulis, haris, locisque quibus vivorum anima- 
lium cura agebatur, parcius se immiscuerunt (qua? 
itaque antiqua nomina retinuerunt) quam macellis, 
culinis, mensis, epulis, ubi vel parabantur vel habe- 
bantur cibi, qui itaque nova nomina ab illis sunt 
adepti." Preface to Dr. Wallis's Grammatica Lingua 
AnglicantK, 1653, quoted by Winning, Comparative 
Philology, p. 270. 


If your correspondent E. S. TAYLOR will refer 
to the romance of Ivanhoe, he will find in the first 
chapter a dialogue between Wamba the son of 
Witless, and Gurth the son of Beowulph, wherein 
the subject is fully discussed as to the change of 
names consequent on the transmutation of live 
stock, under the charge of Saxon herdsmen, into 
materials for satisfying the heroic appetites of 
their Norman rulers. It would be interesting to 
know the source from whence Sir Walter Scott 
derived his ideas on this subject : whether from 

some previous writer, or " some odd corner of the 

brain." A. R. X. 


See Trench On Study of Words (3rd edi 
p. 65. P. J. F. GANTILLON, 

MR. TAYLOR will find in Pegge's Anonymia 
Cent. i. 38., and Cent vii. 95., allusion to what 
he inquires after. THOS. LAWRENCE. 


(Vol. vi., p. 604.) 

In answer to MR. LIVETT'S Query, as to th 
marks or letters employed by the Goldsmiths' 
Company to denote the year in which the plate 
was "hall-marked," I subjoin a list of such as I 
am acquainted with, and which might with a little 
trouble be traced to an earlier period : I have also 
added a few notes relating to the subject generally, 
which may interest many of your readers. 

In the year 1596, the Roman capital A was 
used ; in 1597, B ; and so on alphabetically for 
twenty years, which would bring us to the letter 
U, denoting the year 1615 : the alphabet finishing 
every twenty years with the letter U or V. The 
next year, 1616, commences with the Old English 
letter &, and is continued for another twenty 
years in the Old English capitals. In 1636 is 
introduced another alphabet, called Court alpha- 
From 1656 to 1675 inclusive, Old English capitals. 

Small Roman letters. 
The Court alphabet. 
Roman capitals. 
Small Roman letters. 
Old English capitals. 
Small Roman letters. 
Roman capitals. 
Small Roman letters, 
Old English capitals. 

1676 to 1695 

1696 to 1715 

1716 to 1735 

1736 to 1755 

1756 to 1775 

1776 to 1795 

1796 to 1815 

1816 to 1835 

1836 to 1855 

The letter for the present year, 1853, being >. 
In this list it will appear difficult, at first sight, 
in looking at a piece of plate to ascertain its age, 
to determine whether it was manufactured be- 
tween the years 1636 and 1655, or between 1696 
and 1715, the Court hand being used in both 
these cycles : but (as will presently be mentioned) 
instead of the lion passant and leopard's head in 
the formei-, we shall find the lion's head erased, and 
Britannia, denoting the alteration of the standard 
during the latter period. 

The standard of gold, when first introduced into 
the coinage, was of 24 carats fine ; that is, pure 
gold. Subsequently, it was 23| and half alloy ; 
this, after an occasional debasement by Henry 
VIII., was fixed at 22 carats fine and 2 carats 
alloy by Charles I.; and still continues so, being 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 


called the old standard. In 1798 an act was 
passed allowing gold articles to be made of a lower 
or worse standard, viz., of 18 carats of fine gold 
out of 24 ; such articles were to be stamped with 
a crown and the figures 18, instead of the lion 

The standard of silver has always (with the 
exception of about twenty years) been 11 oz. 
2 dwts., and 18 dwts. alloy, in the pound : this 
.was termed sterling, but very much debased from 
the latter end of Henry VIII. to the beginning of 
Elizabeth's reiga. In the reign of William III., 
1697, an act was passed to alter the standard of 
silver to 10 oz. 10 dwts., and 10 dwts. alloy : and 
instead of the usual marks of the lion and leopard's 
head, the stamps of this better quality of silver 
were the figure of a lion's head erased, and the 
figure of Britannia : and the variable letter denot- 
ing the date as before. This act continued in 
operation for twenty-two years, being repealed in 
1719, when the standard was again restored. 

A duty of sixpence per ounce was imposed upon 
plate in 1719, which was taken ofF again in 1757 ; 
in lieu of which, a licence or duty of forty shillings 
was paid by every vendor of gold or silver. In 
1784, a duty of sixpence per ounce was again 
imposed, and the licence still continued : which in 
1797 was increased to one shilling, and in 1815 to 
eighteenpence at which it still remains. The 
payment of this duty is indicated by the stamp of 
the sovereign's head. 

All gold plate, with the exception of watch- 
cases, pays a duty of seventeen shillings per ounce ; 
and silver plate one shilling and sixpence; watch- 
cases, chains, and a few other articles being 

The letters used as dates in the foregoing list 
(it must be remembered) are only those of the 
Goldsmiths' Hall in London, as denoted by the 
leopard's head crowned. Other Halls, at York, 
Newcastle, Lincoln, Norwich, Bristol, Salisbury, 
and Coventry, had also marks of their own to 
show the year ; and have stamped gold and silver 
since the year 1423, perhaps earlier. Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Dublin have had the same privilege 
from a very early period : and, more recently, 
Chester, Birmingham, and Sheffield. Thus it will 
be seen that four marks or punches are used on 
gold and silver plate, independent of the makers' 
initials or symbol, viz. : 

The Standard Mark. For gold of the old 
standard of 22 carats, and silver of 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. : 

A lion passant for England. 
A thistle for Edinburgh. 
A lion rampant for Glasgow. 
A harp crowned for Ireland. 

For gold of 18 carats : 

A crown, and the figures 18. 

For silver of 11 oz. 10 dwts. : 

A lion's head erased, and Britannia. 

The Hall Mark. 
A leopard's head crowned for London. 
A castle for Edinburgh. 
Hibernia for Dublin. 
Five lions and a cross for York. 
A castle for Exeter. 

Three wheatsheaves and a dagger for Chester. 
Three castles for Newcastle. 
An anchor for Birmingham. 
A crown for Sheffield. 
A tree and fish for Glasgow. 

The Duty Mark. The head of the sovereign, 
to indicate that the duty has been paid : this mark 
is not placed on watch-cases, &c. 

The Date Mark, or variable letter, denoting 
the year as fixed by each Hall. 


Old Bond Street. 

The table inquired for by MR. LIVETT, with a 
most interesting historical paper on the subject, 
was published in the last Archceological Journal, 
October, 1852. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 


(Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564. ; Vol. vii., p. 18.) 

Since the publication of the professedly im- 
perfect list of various editions of the Prayer-Book, 
at page 564. of your last volume, which list was 
compiled chiefly from liturgical works in my own 
possession, I have had occasion to consult the 
Catalogue of the British Museum, from which I 
have gleaned materials for a more full and correct 
enumeration. All the editions in the following 
list are in the library of the British Museum ; and 
in order to increase its value and utility, I have 
appended to each article the press-mark by which 
it is now designated. In some of these press- 
marks a numeral is subscript, thus : 
C. 25. h. 7. 

In order to save space I have represented this in 
the following list thus, (C. 25. h. 7.) 1., putting the 
subscript numeral outside the parenthesis. 

1552. (?) 4to. B. L. N. Hyll for A. Veale. (3406. c.) 
1573. (?) fol. R. Jugge. (C. 24. m. 5.) 1. 
1580. (?) 8vo. Portion of Prayer-Book. (3406. a.) 
1584. 4to. Portion of Prayer-Book. (1274. b. 9.) 

1595. fol. Deputies of Ch. Barker. (C. 25. m. 5.) 2. 

1596. 4to. (C. 25. h. 7.) 1. 
1598. fol. (C. 25. 1.10.) 1. 

1603. (?) 4to. Imperfect. (1275. b. 11.) 1. 

1611. 4to. (1276. e. 4.) 1. 

1612. 8vo. (3406. a.) 

1613. 4to. (3406. c.) 



[Xo. 169. 

1614. 4to. Portion of Prayer- Book. (3406. c.) 1. 

1615. Fol. (3406. e.) 1. 
4to. (1276. e. 8.) 1. 

1616. Fol. (1276. k. 3.) 1. 
Fol. (1276. k. 4.) 1. 

1618. 4to. Portion of Prayer-Book. (34O7. c.) 

1619. Fol. (3406. e.) 1. 

1628. 8vo. (3050. a.) 1. 

1629. 4to. (1276. f. 3.) 1. 
1630-29. Fol. (3406. e.) 1. 
1631. 4to. (1276. f. 1.) 1. 

1633. 12mo. (34O5. a.) 1. 
8vo. (1276. b. 14.) 1. 

1633-34. Fol. (3406. f.) (With the "Form of 
Healing," two leaves.) 

1634. Svo. (3406. b.) 1. 
1636. 4to. (1276. f. 4.) 2. 
1639. Svo. (3050. b.) 1. 

Svo. (1274. a. 14.) 1. 
1642 (?) Svo. (1276. c.2.) 3. 
1642. 12mo. (3405. a.) 
1660. 12mo. (3406. b.) 1. 

In Latin we have an early copy in addition to 
those already noted, viz. : 

1560. Reg. Wolfe. 4to. (3406. c.) 

Of which the British Museum possesses two copies 
of the same press-mark, one of which is enriched 
with MS. notes and sixteen cancelled leaves. 
Besides the above we have also 
1689. Svo. London. In French. 
1599. 4to. London. Deputies of Ch. Barker. In 

Allow me to take this opportunity of thanking 
ARCHDEACON COTTON for his very valuable com- 
munication. I trust that he and others of your 
many learned readers will lend a helping hand to 
the correction of this list, and its ultimate com- 
pletion ; the notice of the editions of 1551 and 
1617 (Vol. vii., p. 18.) is as interesting as it is 
important. It will be perceived that editions of 
the Prayer-Book referred to in former lists are 
not enumerated in the present one. 



Originator of the Collodion Process. All those 
who take any interest in photography must agree 
with your correspondent G. C. that M. Le Gray is 
a talented man, and has done much for photo- 
graphy. G. C. has given a very good translation 
of M. Le Gray's last published work, p. 89., which 
work I have : but I must take leave to ob- 
serve, that it is no contradiction whatever to my 
statement. The translations to which M. Le Gray 
alludes, of 1850, appeared in Willat's publication, 
from which I gave him the credit of having first 
suggested the use of collodion in photography. 
The subject is there dismissed in three or four 

M. Le Gray gave no directions whatever for it 
application to glass in his work published in Julj 
1851, wherein he alludes to it only as an " encal- 
lage" for paper, classing it with amidou, the 
resins, &c., which he recommends in a simila 

I had, four months previous to this, publishe 
the process in detail in the Chemist. I neve 
asserted that he had not tried experiments wit 
collodion in 1849 ; but he did not give the public 
the advantage of following him : and I again repeat 
that the first time M. Le Gray published the col- 
lodion process was in September, 1852, a year 
and a half after my publication, and when it had 
become much used. 

It is obvious that if M. Le Gray had been in 
possession of any detailed process with collodion on 
glass in 1 850, he would not have omitted to pub- 
lish it in his work dated July, 1851. 


105. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury. 

G. C., claiming for Le Gray the merit of the first 
use of collodion upon glass, states that a pamphlet 
upon the subject was published in 1850, and which 
was translated into English at the same time. 
Will he oblige me by. stating who published this 
pamphlet, or where it may be obtained ? I have 
heard this statement before, and have used every 
endeavour to obtain a sight of the publication, but 
without success. Were the facts as stated by your 
correspondent, it would deprive MR. ARCHER un- 
doubtedly of the merit which he claims ; but from 
all I have been able to learn, Le Gray mentioned 
collodion as a mere agent for obtaining a smooth 
surface to paper, or other substance, having no 
idea of making it the sole sensitive substance to be 
employed. I have been informed that in Vienna, 
early in 1850, collodion was tried upon glass by 
being first immersed in a bath of iodide of potas- 
sium; and it was afterwards placed in a second 
bath of nitrate of silver. These experiments had 
very limited success, and were never published, and 
certainly were unknown to MR. ARCHER. 

H. W. D. 

Mr. Weld Taylor's Process. In your 167th 
Number (Vol. vii., p. 48.) is a communication from 
WELD TAYLOR on photographic manipulation, 
which, in its present form, is perfectly unintelli- 
gible. At p. 48. he says : " Twenty grains of nitrate 
of silver in half an ounce of water is to have half 
an ounce of solution of iodide of potassium of fifty 
grains to the ounce added." Now this is unneces- 
sarily mystifying. Why not say : " Take equal 
quantities of a forty-grain solution of nitrate of 
silver, and of a fifty-grain solution of iodide of po- 
tassium ;" though, in fact, an equal strength would 
do as well, and be quite as, if not more, economical. 

In the next place, he directs that cyanide of 
potassium should be added drop by drop, &c. It 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



is to be presumed that he means a solution of this 
salt, which is a solid substance as usually sold. 

What follows is so exceedingly droll, that I can 
do nothing more than guess at the meaning. How 
one solution is to be floated on another, and then, 
after a bath of nitrate of silver, is to be ready for 
the camera, surpasses my comprehension. 

Also, further on, he alludes to iodizing with the 
ammonio-nitrate (I presume of silver). What does 
he mean ? GEO. SHADBOLT. 

Dr. Diamond's Services to Photography. SIR, 
We, the undersigned amateurs of Photography in 
the city of Norwich, shall be obliged if you will 
(privately, or otherwise, at your own discretion) 
convey to DR. DIAMOND our grateful thanks for 
the frankness and liberality with which he has 
published the valuable results of his experiments 
m the pages of " N. & Q." We have profited 
largely by DR. DIAMOND'S instructions, and beg 
to express our conviction that he is entitled to 
the gratitude of every lover of the Art. 
We are, Sir, 

Your obedient servants, 
(Edingthorpe Rectory). HENRY PULLET. 





[Agreeing, as we do most entirely, with the Photo- 
graphers of Norwich in their estimate of the skill and 
perseverance exhibited by DR. DIAMOND in simplify- 
ing the collodion and paper processes, and of his 
liberality in making known the results of his experi- 
ments, we have great pleasure in giving publicity to 
this recognition of the services rendered by DR. DIA- 
MOND to this important Art.] 

Simplification of the Wax-paper Process. At a 
late meeting of the Chemical Discussion Society, 
Mr. J. How read the following paper on this 
subject : 

" The easiest way of waxing the paper is to 
take an iron (those termed box-irons ' are the 
cleanest and best for the purpose) moderately hot, 
in the one hand, and to pass it over the paper 
from side to side, following closely after it with a 
piece of white wax, held in the other hand, until 
the whole surface has been covered. By thus 
heating the paper, it readily imbibes the wax, and 
becomes rapidly saturated with it. The first sheet 
being finished, I place two more sheets of plain 
paper upon it, and repeat the operation upon the 
top one (the intermediate piece serving to absorb 
any excess of wax that may remain), and so on, 
sheet after sheet, until the number required is 

" The sheets, which now form a compact mass, 
are separated by passing the iron, moderately 

heated, over them ; then placed between folds of 
bibulous paper, and submitted to a further appli- 
cation of heat by the means just described, so as 
to remove all the superfluous wax from the surface, 
and render them perfectly transparent most es- 
sential points to be attended to in order to obtain 
fine negative proofs. 

" I will now endeavour to describe the method 
of preparing the iodizing solution. 

" Instead of being at the trouble of boiling rice, 
preparing isinglass, adding sugar of milk and the 
whites of eggs, &c., I simply take some milk quite 
fresh, say that milked the same day, and add to it, 
drop by drop, glacial acetic acid, in about the pro- 
portion of one, or one and a half drachm, fluid 
measure, to the quart, which will separate the 
caseine, keeping the mixture well stirred with a 
glass rod all the time ; I then boil it in a porcelain 
vessel to throw down the remaining caseine not 
previously coagulated, and also to drive off as 
much as possible of the superfluous acid it may 
contain. Of course any other acid would pre- 
cipitate the caseine ; still I give the preference to 
the acetic from the fact that it does not affect the 
after-process of rendering the paper sensitive, that 
acid entering into the composition of the sensitive 

" After boiling for five or ten minutes, the li- 
quid should be allowed to cool, and then be 
strained through a hair sieve or a piece of muslin, 
to collect the caseine : when quite cold, the che- 
micals are to be added. 

" The proportions I have found to yield the 
best results are those recommended by Vicomte 
Veguz, which I have somewhat modified, both as 
regard quantities and the number of chemicals 
employed. They are as follow : 

385 grains of iodide of potassium. 
60 of bromide. 


of cyanide. 

of fluoride. 

of chloride of sodium in crystals. 

of resublimed iodine. 

" The above are dissolved in thirty-five ounces 
of the strained liquid, and, after filtration through 
white bibulous paper, the resulting fluid should 
be perfectly clear and of a bright lemon colour. 

" The iodized solution is now ready for use, and 
may be preserved, in well-stopped bottles, for any 
length of time. 

" The waxed paper is laid in the solution, in a 
flat porcelain or gutta percha tray, in the manner 
described by M. Le Gray and others, and allowed 
to remain there for from half an hour to an hour, 
according to the thickness of the paper. It is 
then taken out and hung up to dry, when it should 
be of a light brown colour. All these operations 
may be carried on in a light room, taking care 
only that, during the latter part of the process, 



[No. 169. 

the paper be not exposed to the direct rays of the 

" The ' iodized paper,' which will keep for 
almost any length of time, should be placed in a 
portfolio, great care being taken to lay it perfectly 
flat, otherwise the wax is liable to crack, and thus 
spoil the beauty of the negative. The papers ma- 
nufactured by Canson Freres and Lacroix are far 
preferable, for this process, to any of the English 
kinds, being much thinner and of a very even 

" To render the paper sensitive, use the follow- 
ing solution : 

15Q grains nitrate of silver crystals. 

3 fluid drachms glacial acetic acid, crystallizable. 

5 ounces distilled water. 

" This solution is applied in the way described 
by Le Gray, the marked side of the paper being 
towards the exciting fluid. The paper is washed 
in distilled water and dried, as nearly as possible, 
between folds of bibulous paper. It should be 
kept, till required for the camera, in a portfolio, 
between sheets of stout blotting-paper, carefully 
protected from the slightest ray of light, and from 
the action of atmospheric air. If prepared with 
any degree of nicety, it will remain sensitive for 
two or three weeks : indeed I have seen some very 
beautiful results on paper which had been kept for 
a period of six weeks. At this time of year, an 
exposure in the camera of from ten to twenty 
minutes is requisite. 

" The picture may be developed with gallic acid, 
immediately after its removal from the camera; or, 
if more convenient, that part of the process may 
be delayed for several days. Whilst at this sec- 
tion of my paper, I may, perhaps, be allowed to 
describe a method of preparing the solution of 
gallic acid, whereby it may be kept, in a good state 
of preservation, for several months. I have kept 
it myself for four months, and have found it, after 
the lapse of that period, in6nitely superior to the 
newly-made solution. This process has, I am in- 
formed, been alluded to in photographic circles ; 
but not having seen it in print, and presuming the 
fact to be one of great practical importance, I trust 
I shall be excused for introducing it here, should 
it not possess that degree of novelty I attribute 
to it. 

" What is generally termed a saturated solution 
of gallic acid is, I am led to believe, nothing of the 
kind. In all the works on photography, the direc- 
tions given run generally as follow : ' Put an 
excess of gallic acid into distilled water, shake the 
mixture for about five minutes, allow it to deposit, 
and then pour off the supernatant fluid, which is 
found to be a saturated solution of the acid.' 

" Now I have found by constant experiment, 
that by keeping an excess of acid in water for 
several days, the strength of the solution is greatly 

increased, and its action as a developing agent 
materially improved. The method I have adopted 
is to put half an ounce of crystallized gallic acid 
into a stoppered quart bottle, and then so to fill it 
up with water as that, when the stopper is inserted, 
a little of the water is displaced, and, consequently, 
every particle of air excluded. 

" The solution thus prepared will keep for 
several months. When a portion of it is required, 
the bottle should be refilled with fresh distilled 
water, the same care being taken to exclude every 
portion of atmospheric air, to the presence of 
which, I am led to believe, is due the decompo- 
sition of the ordinary solution of gallic acid. 

"It will be needless to detain you further in 
explaining the after-processes, &c. to be found in 
any of the recent works on the Waxed-paper 
Process, the translation of the last edition of 
Le Gray being the one to which I give the pre- 


(Vol. vii., p. 13.) 

Southey has confounded two stories in conjec- 
turing that the anecdote mentioned by Bp. Sprat 
related to Bull. It was the baptismal and not the 
funeral service that Bull repeated from memory. 

I quote from his Life by Robert Nelson : 

" A particular instance of this happened to him 
while he was minister of St. George's (near Bristol); 
which, because it showeth how valuable the Liturgy is 
in itself, and what unreasonable prejudices are some- 
times taken up against it, the reader will not, I believe, 
think it unworthy to be related. 

" He was sent for to baptize the child of a Dissenter 
in his parish ; upon which occasion, he made use of the 
office of Baptism as prescribed by the Church of 
England, which he had got entirely by heart. And he 
went through it with so much readiness and freedom; 
and yet with so much gravity and devotion, and gave 
that life and spirit to all that he delivered, that the 
whole audience was extremely affected with his per- 
formance ; and, notwithstanding that he used the sign 
of the cross, yet they were so ignorant of the offices of 
the Church, that they did not thereby discover that it 
was the Common Prayer. But after that he had con- 
cluded that holy action, the father of the child returned 
him a great many thanks ; intimating at the same time 
with how much greater edification they prayed who 
entirely depended upon the Spirit of God for his assist- 
ance in their extempore effusions, than those did who 
tied themselves up to premeditated forms; and that, 
if he had not made the sign of the cross, that badge of 
Popery, as he called it, nobody could have formed the 
least objection against his excellent Prayers. Upon 
which, Mr. Bull, hoping to recover him from his ill- 
grounded prejudices, showed him the office of Baptism 
in the Liturgy, wherein was contained every prayer 
that was offered up to God on that occasion ; which, 
with farther arguments that he then urged, so effectually 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 


wrought upon the good man and his whole family, 
that they always after that time frequented the parish- 
church ; and never more absented themselves from 
Mr. Bull's communion." Pp.39 41., Loud. 1714, 

Some few dates will prove that Bull could not 
have been the person alluded to. Bp. Sprat's 
Discourse to the Clergy of his Diocese was delivered 
in the year 1695. And he speaks of the minister 
of the London parish as one who " was afterwards 
an eminent Bishop of our Church." We must 
therefore suppose him to have been dead at the 
time of Bp. Sprat's visitation. Now, in the first 
place (as J. K. remarks), " Bull never held a 
London cure." And, in the second place, he was 
not consecrated Bishop until the 29th of April, 
1705 (ten years after Bp. Sprat's visitation), and 
did not die until Feb. 1709-10. (Life, pp.410 

Southey's conjecture is therefore fatally wrong. 
And now as regards Bp. Hacket. The omission 
of the anecdote from the Life prefixed to his Ser- 
mons must, I think, do away with his claims also, 
though he was restored to his parish of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn, and was not consecrated Bishop 
of Lichfield until December, 1661. Unfortunately, 
I have not always followed Captain Cuttle's advice, 
or I should now be able to contribute some more 
decisive information. I have my own suspicions 
on the matter, but am afraid to guess in print. 


The prelate to whom your correspondent alludes 
was Dr. John Hacket, Rector of St. Andrews, 
Holborn, cons, to the see of Lichfield and Coven- 
try on December 22, 1661. The anecdote was 
first related by Granger. (Chalmers's Biog. Diet., 
vol. xvii. p. 7.) 

Bishop Bull, while rector of St. George's near 
Bristol, said the Baptismal Office by heart on one 
occasion. (Nelson's Life, i. ix. p. 34. ; Works, 
Oxford, 1827.) MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

to jftltturr 

Mary Queen of Scots" Gold Cross (Vol. vi., 
p. 486.). - 

" Would it not facilitate the identification of the 
Gold Cross of Mary Queen of Scotts, in the possession 
of Mr. Price of Glasgow, if a representation of it was 
sent to The Illustrated London News, as the publication 
of it by that Journal would lead antiquaries to the 
identification of a valuable historical relic ? " 

I hope you will insert the above in " N. & Q." 
in the hope it may meet the eye of MR. PRICE, 
and lead to a satisfactory result. W. H. C. 

Jennings Family (Vol. vi., p. 362.). This family 
is supposed to have continued for some time in 

Cornwall, after the Visitation of 1620 ; but the 
name is not now found there in any great respect- 
ability. William Jennings of Saltash was sheriff 
of Cornwall, 1678 ; but his arms differ from those 
of the Visitation : argent, a chevron gules between 
three mariners, plumets sable. 

Francis Jennings, who recorded the pedigree of 
1620, married the daughter ofSpoure of Trebartha; 
and in a MS. book of that family, compiled about 
the latter part of the seventeenth century, the 
same arms, strange to say, are stated to be his, 
and not the lion rampant of the Jennings of Shrop- 
shire. This seems to support the hypothesis that 
William Jennings, the sheriff, was of the same 
family. The Spoure MSS. also mention "Ursula t 
sister of Sir William Walrond of Bradfield, Devon, 
who married first, William Jennings of Plymouth 
(query, the sheriff?), and afterwards the Rev. 
William Croker, Rector of Wolfrey (Wolfardis- 
worthy ?) Devon." PERCURIOSUS. 

Adamson's " England's Defence" (Vol. vi., 
p. 580.) is well worth attention at the present 
time; as is also its synopsis before publication, 
annexed to Stratisticos, by John Digges, Muster 
Master, &c., 4to., 1590, and filling pp.369, to 380. 
of that curious work, showing the wisdom of our 
ancestors on the subject of invasion by foreigners. 

E. D. 

Chief Justice Thomas Wood (Vol. vii., p. 14.). 
In Berry's Hampshire Visitation (p. 71.), Thomas 
Wood is mentioned as having married a daughter 
of Sir Thomas de la More, and as having had 
a daughter named Elizabeth, who married Sir 
Thomas Stewkley of Aston, Devon, knight. 

I am as anxious as N. C. L. to know something 
about Thomas Wood's lineage ; and shall be 
obliged by his telling me where it is said that he 
built Hall O'Wood. EDWARD Foss. 

Aldiborontiphoscophornio (Vol. vii., p. 40.). 
This euphonious and formidable name will be found 
in The Most Tragical Tragedy that ever was Tragi- 
dized by any Company of Tragedians, viz., Chronon- 
hotonthologos, written by " Honest merry Harry 
Carey," who wrote also The Dragon of Wa?itley, a 
burlesque opera (founded on the old ballad of that 
name), The Dragoness (a sequel to The Dragon), 
&c. &c. While the public were applauding his 
dramatic drolleries and beautiful ballads (of which 
the most beautiful is " Sally in our Alley "), their 
unhappy author, in a fit of despondency, destroyed 
himself at his lodgings in Warner Street, Clerken- 
welL There is an engraving by Faber, in 1729, 
of Harry Carey, from a painting by Worsdale 
(the celebrated Jemmy !) ; which is rare. 


[We are indebted to several other correspondents for 
replies to the Query of F. R. S. J 



[No. 16< 

Statue nf St. Peter at Rome (Vol. vi., p. 604.). 
This well-known bronze statue is falsely stated to 
be a Jupiter converted. It is very far from being 
true, though popularly it passes as truth, that the 
statue in question is the ancient statue of Jupiter 
Capitolinus, with certain alterations. 

Another commonly-received opinion regarding 
this statue is, that it was cast for a St. Peter, but 
of the metal of the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. 
But this can scarcely be true, for Martial informs 
us that in his own time the statue of the Capitoline 
Jupiter was not of bronze but of gold. 

" Scriptus et aeterno nunc primum Jupiter auro." 

Lib. xi. Ep. iv. 

Undoubtedly the statue was cast for a St. Peter. 
It was cast in the time of St. Leo the Great (440 
461), and belonged to the ancient church of St. 
Peter's. St. Peter has the nimbus on his head ; 
the first two fingers of the right hand are raised 
in the act of benediction ; the left hand holds the 
keys, and the right foot projects from the pedestal. 
The statue is seated on a pontifical chair of white 
marble. CEYEEP. 

Old Silver Ornament (Vol. vi., p. 602.). This 
ornament is very probably what your correspondent 
infers it is, a portion of some military accoutre- 
ment : if so, it may have appertained to some 
Scotch regiment. It represents precisely the 
badge worn by the baronets of Nova Scotia, the 
device upon which was the saltier of St. Andrew, 
with the royal arms of Scotland on an escutcheon 
in the centre ; the whole surrounded by the motto, 
and ensigned with the royal crown. The insignia 
of the British orders of knighthood are frequently 
represented in the ornaments upon the military 
accoutrements of the present day. EBOE. 

" Plurima, pauca, nihil" (Vol. vi., p. 511.). -A 
correspondent asks for the first part of an epigram 
which ends with the words " plurima, pauca, 
nihil." He is referred to an epigram of Martial, 
which / cannot find. But I chance to remember 
two epigrams which were affixed to the statue of 
Pasquin at Rome, in the year 1820, upon two 
Cardinals who were candidates for the Popedom. 
They run as follows, and are smart enough to be 
worth preserving : 


" Sit bonus, et fortasse pius sed semper ineptus 
Vult, meditatur, agit, plurima, pauca, nihil." 


" Promittit, promissa negat, ploratque negata, 
Haec tria si junges, quis neget esse Petrum." 


"Pork-pisee" and " Wheale" (Vol. vi., p. 579.). 
Has not MR. WARDE, in his second quotation, 
copied the word wrongly "pork-pisee" for pork- 

pesse ? A porpoise is the creature alluded to ; or 
porpesse, as some modern naturalists spell it. 
"Wheale" evidently means whey: the former 
expression is probably a provincialism. JATDEE. 

Did the Carians use Heraldic Devices ? (Vol. vi., 
p. 556.). Perhaps the following, from an heraldic 
work of Dr. Bernd, professor at the University 
of Bonn, may serve to answer the Queries of ME. 

Herodotus ascribes the first use, or, as he ex- 
presses it, the invention of signs on shields, which 
we call arms, and of the supporter or handle of 
the shield, which till then had been suspended 
by straps from the neck, as well as of the tuft of 
feathers or horse-hair on the helmet, to the Carians; 
in which Strabo agrees with him, and, as far as 
regards the supporters and crest, JElian also : 

" Herodot schrieb den ersten Gebrauch, oder wie er 
sich ausdriickt, die Erfindung der Zeichen auf Schllden, 
die wir Wappen nennen, wie auch der Halter oder 
Handhaben an den Schilden, die bis dahin nur an 
Riemen urn den Nacken getragen wurden, und die 
Biische von Federn oder Rosshaaren auf den Helmen, 
den Cariern zu, worin ihm Strabo ( Geogr. 14. i. 27.), 
und was die Handhaben und Helmbiische betrifft, 
auch JElian (Hist. Animal. 12. 30.), beistimmen." 
Bernd's Wappenwissen der Griechen und Romer, p. 4. 
Bonn, 1841. 

On Thucydides i. 8., where mention is made of 
Carians disinterred by the Athenians in the island 
of Delos, the scholiast, evidently referring to the 
passage cited by ME. BOOKER, says : 

" Knpes irplaTOi evpov robs bfjupaXous rwv aairiScav, /cat 
rovs \6({>ovs. rois o$v airoBvfiffitovcn ffuviQatrrov affiri- 
SlffKiov lUKpbv Kal \6<pov, ff7]fifiov TTjy fvpefftias." 

From Plutarch's Artaxerxes (10.) may be in- 
ferred, that the Carian standard was a cock ; for 
the king presented the Carian who slew Cyrus 
with a golden one, to be thenceforth carried at the 
head of the troop. 

For full information on the heraldry of the 
ancients, your correspondent can scarcely do better 
than consult the above-quoted work of Dr. Bernd. 



Herbert Family (Vol. vi., p. 473.). The cele- 
brated picture of Lord Herbert of Cherbury by 
Isaac Oliver, at Penshurst, represents him with a 
small swarthy countenance, dark eyes, very dark 
black hair, and mustachios. All the Herberts 
whom I have seen are dark-complexioned and 
black-haired. This is the family badge, quite as 
much as the unmistakeable nose in the descendants 
of John of Gaunt. E. D. 

Children crying at Baptism (Vol. vi., p. 601.). 
I am inclined to suspect that the idea of its 
being lucky for a child to cry at baptism arose 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



from the custom of exorcism, which was retained 
in the Anglican Church in the First Prayer-Book 
of King Edward VI., and is still commonly ob- 
served in the baptismal services of the Church of 
Home. When the devil was going out of the pos- 
sessed person, he was supposed to do so with re- 
luctance : " The spirit cried, and rent him sore, 
and came out of him : and he was as one dead ; 
insomuch that many said, He is dead." (St. Mark, 
ix. 26.) The tears and struggles of the infant 
would therefore be a convincing proof that the 
Evil One had departed. In Ireland (as every 
clergyman knows) nurses will decide the matter 
by pinching the baby, rather than allow him to 
remain silent and unlachrymose. Rx. 


Americanisms (Vol. vi., p. 554.). The word 
bottom, applied as your correspondent UNEDA re- 
marks, is decidedly an English provincialism, of 
constant use now in the clothing districts of Glou- 
cestershire, which are called " The Bottoms," 
whether mills are situated there or not. E. D. 

Dutch Allegorical Picture (Vol. vi., p. 457.). 
In the account I gave you of this picture I 
omitted one of the inscriptions, which I but just 
discovered; and as the picture appears to have 
excited some interest in Holland (my account 
of it having been translated into Dutch * , in the 
Navorscher), I send you this further supplemental 

I described a table standing under the window, 
on the left-hand side of the room, containing on 
the end nearest to the spectator, not two pewter 
flagons, as I at first thought, but one glass and one 
pewter flagon. On the end of this table, which is 
presented to the spectator, is an inscription, which, 
as I have said, had hitherto escaped my notice, 
having been partially concealed by the frame a 
modern one, not originally intended for this pic- 
ture, and partly obscured by dirt which had ac- 
cumulated in the corner. I can now make out 
very distinctly the following words, with the date, 
which fixes beyond a question the age of the 
picture : 

" Hier moet men gissen t .. 

Glasen te wasser 

Daer in te pissen 

En sou niet passen. 

I may also mention, that the floor of the chamber 
represented in the picture is formed of large red 
and blue square tiles; and that the folio book 
standing on end, with another lying horizontally 
on the top of it, which I said in my former descrip- 
tion to be standing on the end of the table, under 

* With some corrections in the reading of the i 

the window, is, I now see, standing not on the 
table, but on the floor, next to the chair of the 
grave and studious figure who sits in the left-hand 
;orner of the room. 

These corrections of my first description have 
been in a great measure the result of a little soap 
and water applied with a sponge to the picture. 

Trin. Coll., Dublin. 

Myles Coverdale (Vol. vi., p. 552.). I have a 
print before me which is intended to represent 
the exhumation of Coverdale's body. The fol- 
lowing is engraved beneath : 

' The Remains of Myles Coverdale, Bishop of 
Exeter, as they appeared in the Chancel of the Church 
of St. Bartholomew, near the Exchange. Buried 
Feb. 1569. Exhumed 23d Sept. 1840. 

Chabot, Zinco., Skinner Street." 

If I am not mistaken, his remains were carried to 
the church of St. Magnus, near London Bridge, 
and re-interred. W. P. STOKER. 

Olney, Bucks. 


One of the most beautifully got up cheap publi- 
cations which we have seen for a long time, is the new 
edition of Byron's Poems, just issued by Mr. Murray. 
It consists of eight half-crown volumes, which may be 
separately purchased, viz. Childe Harold, one volume ; 
Tales and Poems, one volume ; and the Dramas, Mis- 
cellanies, and Don Juan, &c., severally in two volumes. 
Mr. Murray has also made another important contri- 
bution to the cheap literature of the day in the re- 
publication, in a cheap and compendious form, of the 
various Journals of Sir Charles Fellows, during those 
visits to the East to which we owe the acquisition of 
the Xanthian Marbles. The present edition of his 
Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, and more par- 
ticularly in the Province of Lycia, as it embraces the 
substance of all Sir Charles's various journals and 
pamphlets, and only omits the Greek and Lycian in- 
scriptions, and lists of plants and coins, and such plates 
as were not capable of being introduced into the present 
volume, will, we have no doubt, be acceptable to a very 
numerous class of readers, and takes its place among 
the most interesting of the various popular narratives 
of Eastern travel. 

Most of our readers will probably remember the 
memorable remark of Lord Chancellor King, that " if 
the ancient discipline of the Church were lost, it might 
be found in all its purity in the Isle of Man." Yet 
notwithstanding this high eulogium on the character 
of the saintly Bishop Wilson, it is painful to find that 
his celebrated work, Sacra Privata, has hitherto been 
most unjustifiably treated and mutilated, as was noticed 
in our last volume, p. 414. But here we have before 
us, in a beautifully printed edition of this valuable 
work, the good bishop himself, what he thought, and 



[No. 16< 

what he wrote, in his Private Meditations, Devotions, 
and Prayers, now for the first time printed from his 
original manuscripts preserved in the library of Sion 
College, London. Much praise is due to the editor for 
bringing this manuscript before the public, as well as 
for the careful superintendence of the press ; and we 
sincerely hope he will continue his labours of research 
i.n Sion College as well as in other libraries. 

There are doubtless many of our readers who echo 
Ben Jonson's wish that Shakspeare had blotted many 
a line, referring of course to those characteristic of the 
age, not of the man, which cannot be read aloud. To 
all such, the announcement that Messrs. Longman have 
commenced the publication in monthly volumes of a 
new edition of Bowdler's Family Shakspeare, in which 
nothing is added to the original text, but those words and 
expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety lie 
read in a family, will be welcome intelligence. The 
work is handsomely printed in Five-Shilling Volumes, 
of which the first three are already published. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Memoirs of James Logan, a dis- 
tinguished Scholar and Christian Legislator, (:., by 
Wilson Armistead. An interesting biography of a 
friend of William Penn, and one of the most learned of 
the early emigrants to the American Continent.- Yule- 
Tide Stories, a Collection of Scandinavian and North 
German Popular Tales and Traditions. The name of 
the editor, Mr. Benjamin Thorpe, is a sufficient gua- 
rantee for the value of this new volume of Bohn's 
Antiquarian Library. In his Philological Library, 
Mr. Bohn has published a new and enlarged edition 
of Mr. Dawson W. Turner's Notes on Herodotus : while 
in his Classical Library he has given The Pharsalia of 
Lucun literally translated into English Prose, with Copious 
Notes, by H. T. Riley, B.A. ; and has enriched his 
Scientific Library by the publication of Dr. Chalmers's 
Sridgewater Treatise on the Power, Wisdom, and Good- 
ness of God, as manifested in the Adaption of External 
Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man, 
with the author's last corrections, and a Biographical 
Preface by Dr. Gumming. 

Photographic Manipulation. The Wax-paper Process 
of Gustave Le Gray, translated from the French, pub- 
lished by Knight & Sons; and Hennah's Directions for 
obtaining both Positive and Negative Pictures upon Glass 
by means of the Collodion Process, -c., published by 
Delatouche & Co., are two little pamphlets which will 
repay the photographer for perusal, but are deficient in 
that simplicity of process which is so much to be de- 
sired if Photography is to be made more popular. 



TOWNSBND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 18311839. 



MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second 

Edition. 1813. 

SPECTATOR. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753. 


Christ. Plantin. 
GUARDIAN. 12mo. 


by WM. WKB. 1687. 
WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, 

by a Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848. 


JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I. 

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of " Amelii 

12rao. 1808. 

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789. 
OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 1708. 
EDMONDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780. 
BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. 

EAPIN'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 8vo. Vols. I., III. and V. of 


SHARPE'S PROSE WRITERS. Vol. IV. 21 Vols. 1819. Piccadilly. 

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Book* Wanted are requested 
to send their names. . 

** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

0ttce to 

BACK NUMBERS. Parties requiring Back Numbers are re- 
quested to make immediate application for them ; as the stock will 
shortly be made up into Sets, and the sale of separate copies of the 
EARLY NUMBERS will be discontinued. 

M. W. B.'i Note to J. B. has been forwarded. 

A. T. F. (Bristol.) Our Correspondent's kind offer is declined, 
with thanks. 

SIGMA is thanked : but he will see that toe could not now alter 
the size of our volumes. 

W. C. H. D. will find, in our 6th Vol., pp. 312, 313., his Query 
anticipated. The reading will be found in Knight's Pictorial 

H. E., who asks who, what, and when Captain Cuttle was? is 
informed that he is a relation of one of the most able writers of the 
day Mr. Charles Dickens. He was formerly in the Mercantile 
Marine, and a Skipper in the service of the well-known house of 
Dombey and Son. 

MISTLETOE ON OAKS. O. S. R. is referred to our 4th Volume, 
pp. 192. 226. 396. 462., for information upon this point. 

MR. SIMS is thanked for his communication, which we will en- 
deavour to make use of at some future time. 

IOTA i* informed that the Chloride of Barium, used in abortt 
tlie same proportion as common sail, wilt give the tint he desires. 
His second Query has already been answered in our preceding 
Numbers. As to the mode of altering his camera, fie must tax his 
own ingenuity as to the best mode of attaching to it the flexible 
sleeves, Sjc. 

We are unavoidably compelled to postpone until next week 
MR. LAWRENCE on the Albumen Process, and MR. DELAMOTTE'S 
notice of a Portable Camera. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. Particulars of this newly-formed 
Society in our next. 

We again repeat that we cannot undertake to recommend any 
particular houses for the purchase of photographic instruments, 
chemicals, ifc. We can only refer our Correspondents on such 
subjects to our advertising columns. 

OUR SIXTH VOLUME, strongly bound in cloth, with very copious 
Index, is now ready, price IDs. 6d. Arrangements are making 
for the publication of complete lets of " NOTES AND QUERIES," 
price Three Guineas for the Six Volumes. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

JAN. 22. 1853.] 



WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
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all Climates, may now he had nt the MAN U- 
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guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate (;eneva Levers, in Gold 
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Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
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guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
60 nuineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
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Founded A.D. 1842. 


H. Edseworth Bicknell, Esq. 
William Cabell, Esq. 
T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P. 
G. Henry Drew, Esq. 
William Evans, Esq. 
William Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. Henry Goodhart, Esq. 
T Grissell, Esq. 
James Hunt, Esq. 
J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
James Lys Seager, Esq. 
J. Basley White, Esq. 
Joseph Carter Wood, Esq. 


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C. 
L. C. Ilumfrey. Esq., Q.C. 
George Drew, Esq. 

Consulting Counsel. - Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P. 

Physician. William Rich. Bnsham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
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application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
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Age s. d. I Age s. d. 

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CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
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&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
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Work, giving Plain and Practical Direc- 
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Pictures upon Glass, by means of the Collodion 
Process, and a method for Printing from the 
Negative Glasses, in various colours, on to 
Paper. By T. H. HENNAH. Price Is., or by 
Post, Is. 6*. 

Published by DELATOUCHE & CO.. Manu- 
facturers of Pure Photographic Chemicals, 
Apparatus, Prepared Papers, and every Ar- 
ticle connected with Photography on Paper 
or Glass. 


PHOTOGRAPHY. A New | T OST. Two Water -coloured 

J Drawings by MR. DELAMOTTE [en- 
graved in 2nd volume of" Journal of Archaeo- 
logical Institute"] of distemper Paintings in 
Stanton Harcourt Church. Any person having 
them, is requested to return them to their 
owner, MR. DYKE, Jesus College, Oxford. 



LENSES. These lenses give correct definition 
at the centre and margin of the picture, and 
have their visual and chemical acting foci 

Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports, p. 274. 

" Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture 
having the greatest intensity yet produced, by 
procuring the coincidence of the chemical ac- 
tinic and visual rays. The spherical aberra- 
tion is also verycarefully corrected, both in the 
central and oblique pencils." 

" Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in 
the Exhibition. It is furnished with a double 
achromatic object-lens, about three inches , 
aperture. There is no stop, the field is flat, and ; 
the image very perfect up to the edge." 

A. R. invites those interested in the art to 
inspect the large Photog-aphs of Vienna, pro- 
duced by his Lenses and Apparatus. 

Catalogues sent upon Application. 

A. ROSS, 2. Featherstone Buildings, High 


JT TURES. A Selection of the above 
beautiful Productions may be seen at BLAND 
& LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also 
be procured Apparatus of every Description, 
and pure Chemicals for the practice ot Photo- 
graphy in all its Branches. 

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures 

for the Stereoscope. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical 
and Photographic^! Instrument Makers, and 
Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. 


X Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
man's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson 
Freres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's 
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every 
kind of Photography. 

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster 
Row, London. 

KERR & STRANG, Perfumers 
and Wig-Makers, 124.Leadenhall Street, 
London, respecttullv infoim the Nobility and 
Public that they have invented and brought to 
the greatest perfection the following leading 
articles, besides numerous others : Their 
Ventilating Natural Curl ; Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen's PERUKES, either Crops or Full 
Dress, with Partings and Crowns BO natural as 
to defy detection, and with or without their 
improved Metallic Springs; Ventilating Fronts, 
Bandeaux, Borders, Nattes, Bands ft la Reine, 
&c. ; also their instantaneous Liquid Hair 
Dye, the only dye that really answers for all 
colours, and never fades nor acquires that un- 
natural red or purple tint common to all other 
dyes ; it is permanent, free of any smell, and 
perfectly harmless. Any lady or gentleman, 
sceptical of its effects in dyeing any shade of 
colour, can have it applied, free of any charge, 
at KERB & STRANG'S, 121. Leadenhall 

Sold in Cases at 7s.6d.,los.,and 20s. Samples, 
3s. 6d., sent to all parts on reeipt of Post-office 
Order or Stamps. 

SILVER, prepared solely by R. W. 
THOMAS, has now obtained a European 
fame ; it supersedes the use of all other pre- 
parations of Collodion. Witness the subjoined 

" 122. Regent Street. 

"Dear Sir, In answer to your inquiry of 
this morning. I have no hesitation in saying 
that your preparation of Collodion is incom- 
parably better and more sensitive than all the 
advertised Collodio-Iodides, which, for my 
professional purposes, are quite useless when, 
compared to yours. 

" I remain, dear Sir, 

"Yours faithfully, 

Aug. 30, 1852. 
To Mr. R. W. Thomas." 

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to 
caution photographers against purchasing im- 
pure chemicals, which are now too frequently 
sold at very low prices. It is to this cause nearly 
always that their labours are unattended with 

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially pre- 
pared for this art, may be obtained from R. W. 
THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photo- 
graphy, 10. Pall Mall. 

N.B. The name of Mr. T.'s prenaration , 
Xylo-Iodide of Silver, is made use of by un- 
principled persons. To prevent imposition each 
bottle is stamped with a red label bearing the 
maker's signature. 


TRAITS and VIEWS by the Collodion 
and Waxed Paper Process. Apparatus, Ma- 
terials, and Pure Chemical Preparati >n for the 
above process's, Superior Iodized Collodion, 
known bv the name of Collodio-iodide orXylo- 
iodide of Silver, 9rf. per pz. Pyro-gallic Acid, 
4s. per drachm. Acetic Acid, su'ted for Collodion 
Pictures, 8(1. per oz. Crystallizable and per- 
fectly pure, on which the success of the Calo- 
typ st so much depends. Is. per oz. Cansou 
Freres' Negative Paper, 3s. ; Positive do., 4s. 6d.j 
LaCroix. 3s. ; Turner, 3s. Whatman's Nega- 
tive and Positive, 3s. per quire. Iodized Waxed 
Paper, IOs. 6rf. per quire. Sensitive Paper 
ready for the Camera, and warranted to keep 
from fourteen to twenty days, with directions 
for use, 1 1 X9, 9s. per doz. ; Iodized, only 6. per 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS (sole Agent a 
for Voightlander & Sons' celebrated Lenses), 
Foster Lane, London. 


above Processes supplied at the following 
prices, by JOHN J. GRIFFIN & CO., 53. 
Baker Street, Portman Square Superior Io- 
dized Collodion, in buttles at 2s. 6rf. ; Pyrogal- 
lic Acid, 4s. per drachm : Pure Crystallizable 
Acetic Acid, Sd. per oz. ; Iodide of Potassium, 
Is. 6d. per oz. ; Canson Freres' Negative Paper, 
3s. ; Positive Ditto, 4. per quire. 

Bromine, 3s. 6rf. per oz. : Iodine, 2s. Bd. per 
oz. ; Charcoal, Is. per bottle ; Rouge, Is. per 
oz. ; Tripoli, finely prepared, 6d. per oz. 

An Illustrated priced List of Photographic 
Apparatus and Materials, post free, 3d. 

Nearly Ready, the Third much enlarged 
Edition of Professor HUNT'S MANUAL OF 

JOHN J. GRIFFIN & CO , 53. Baker Street, 
London ; and RICHARD GRIFFIN & CO.. 



[No. 169., 

Just published, Sixth Edition, fcap. 8vo., 5s., of 


Also, by the some Author, 


being a Narrative of the Principal Events 
which led to Negro Slavery in the West Indies 
and America, vol. II., post 8vo., 7s. Just 

VOLUME I., post 8vo., 6s. 


Series of Readings, and Discourse thereon. A 
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TUDE. Fcap. 8vo., 6s. Third Edition. 


An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the 
Employed. Fcap. 8vo. Second Edition, with 
Additional Essay. 6s. 
WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly. 

Now ready. Third Edition, with considerable 
Additions, fcp. 8vo., 7s. 6d. 

tise on Pure and Applied Lotric. By the Rev. 
WILLIAM THOMSON. Fellow and Tutor of 
Queen's College, Oxford. With an Appendix on 
Indian Logic, by Professor MAX MULLER. 
WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly. 


On the 31st inst. will be published, in fcp. 8vo., 
Vol. IV. of 


.D SPEARE. In which nothing is added 
to the Original Text ; but those Words aud 
Expressions are omitted which cannot with 
propriety be read aloud in a Family. A New 
Edition, to be completed in Six Monthly 
Volumes, price 5s. each. 


GAZINE, one of the most popular, talented, 
and improvable of the present day, is to be 
pyright, very numerous Stereotype Plates 
(which are of permaitcnt value), and Stock of 
Sheets, will require from 30007. to 4000?., a 
portion of which may be taken on approved 

Applications by letter, and from principals 
only, to be addressed to X. Y., care of MR. 
HODGSON, Auctioneer, 192. Fleet Street, 
corner of Chancery Lane, London. 

i This approved Paper is particularly 
deserving the notice of the Clergy, as, from its 
particular form (each page measuring 5? by 9 
inches), it will contain more matter than the 
size in ordinary use ; and, from the width 
being narrower, is much more easy to read : 
adapted for expeditious writing with either the 
quill or metallic pen ; price 5s. per ream. 
Sample on application. 


identify the contents with the address and 
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it saves time and is more economical. Price 
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F. W. RALPH, Manufacturing Stationer, 
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In the Press, 


kj GAY, From the Writings, published and 
unpublished, of THOMAS DE QUINCEY, 
revised and enlarged by himself. 

Edinburzh : JAMES HOGG. 

No. CXCVIL, is just published, 




London : LONGMAN fe CO. Edinburgh : 
A. & C. BLACK. 



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. 

Of Saturday, January 15, contains Articles on 

Agricultural Societies 
Arithmetic, Rational, 


Botany, Cryptogamie 
Calendar, Horticul- 

Cattle, fat 
Chironia, the 
College, Cirencester 
Draining, Davis on 
England, climate of 
Estates, improvement 

of, settled 
Food, brewers' grains 

Fruit trees, oblique 

(with engraving) 
Grapes, red Hamburgh 
Hyacinth, hints on 

and liquid ma- 
nure, by Mr. Mechi 
Labourers, employ- 
ment of 

Larch, durability of 
Lime, to apply, by Mr. 

M anu re, liquid, by Mr. 

Mildew, effect of salt 
on, by Mr. Watson 

Montague, Dr. 

Narcissus, dormant, 
by Mr. George 

Pimelea, the 

Plant, Bed Mooshk 
Poultry, metropolitan 
show of 

weights of 

Rain at A rundel 
Roots, branch 
Saltr. Mildew.byMr. 

Season , mildness of, by 

Mr. George 
Seed trade 
Shamrock, the 
Smithfiehl Club, cattle 

Societies, agricultural 

proceedings of 

the Kirtling Agri- 
Temperature, our 


Tithe commutation, 

by Mr. Willich 
Trees, oblique fruit 

(with engraving) 
Vines, effect of soil on, 

by Mr. Urquhart 
Walls, ivy on 
spring protec- 
tion for 
Weather, the 

Zygopetalon Moc- 
kayii, by Mr. Wool- 

contains, in addition to the above, the Covent 
Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool 
prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, 
Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed Markets, 
and a complete X> impnpcr, with a condensed 
account of all the transactions of the week. 

ORDER of any Newsrender. OFFICE for 
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Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. 
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and the Courts at Westminster. By 

Volume Three, 1272 1377. 
Volume Four, 1377 1485. 

Lately published, price 28s. cloth, 
Volume One, 10661199. 
Volume Two, 1199 1272. 

"A book which is essentially sound and 
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the permanent literature of our country." 
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London : LONGMAN & CO. 

Now ready, Price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 


The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services, Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTINH, by J. B. 
SALE. Musical Instructor and Organist to 
Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 
price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. 
Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on 
the receipt of a Post Office Order for that 
amount : and by order, of the principal Book- 
sellers and Music Warehouses. 

"A great advance on the works we have 
hitherto had, connected with our Church and 
Cathedral Service." Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country." Literary Gazette. 

" One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears." 
Musical World. 

" A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
character to any which has hitherto appeared." 
John Bull. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Also, lately published, 


formed at the Chapel Royal St. James, price 2. 

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street. 

3 vols. 8vo. price 21. 8s. 

TURE. The Fifth Edition enlarged, exem- 
plified by 1700 Woodcuts. 

"In the Preparation of this the Fifth Edi- 
tion of the Glossary of Architecture, no paius 
have been spared to render it worthy of the 
continued patronage which the work has re- 
ceived from its first publication. 

" The Text has been considerably aug- 
mented, as well by the additions of many new 
Articles, as by the enlargement of the old ones, 
and the numoer of Illustrations has been in- 
creased from eleven hundred to seventeen 

"Several additional Foreign examples are 
given, for the purpose of comparison with 
English work, of the same periods. 

"In the present Edition, considerably more 
attention has been given to the subject of 
Mediaeval Carpentry, the number of Illustra- 
tions of ' Oi>en Timber Kooft ' has been much 
increased, and most of the Carpenter's terms 
in use at the period have been introduced with 
authorities." Preface to the. Fifth Edition. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London ; and 
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London , Publisher, at No. 166. 
Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, January 22, 1853. 





" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 170.] 


{Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 'rf. 



Robertson's " Index of Charters " 
Cowper or Cooper, by George Daniel - - - J)2 

Yankt-e, its Origin and Meaning, by Dr. William Bell - 10J 
Shakspeare's Bedside, or the Doctors enumerated: a 

new Ballad, by James Cornish - - - - 104 

FOLK LORE : Cures lor the Hooping Cough: Rubus 

Iruticosus, Gryphea incurva, Donkey - - - I 1 

MINOR NOTES: Epitaphs Nostradamus on the Gold- 
diggings Whimsical Bequest The Orkneysin Pawn 
Lord Duff's Toat - 


The Meteoric Stone of th? Thracian Chersonesus, by 
W. S. Gibson ------ 

Banbury Cakes and Zeal - 

MINOR QUERIES : Richardson or Murphy Legend 
attached to Creeper in the Samoan Isles Shearman 
Family American Fisheries Grindle A Gentleman 
executed for whipping a Slave to Death Brydone 
"Clear the Decks (or Bopnie's Carriage " London 
Queries Scarf worn by Clergyman Life of Queen 
Anne Erasmus Smith Croxtonor Crostin of Lan- 
cashire Grub Street Journal Chaplain to the 
1'rincess Elizabeth " The Snow-flake " 

- 105 


Lahoel Orte's Maps, Edition of 1570 Prayer for 
the Recovery of George III. 

- 107 

- 108 


Mrs. Mackey's Poems - 

Map of Ceylon, by Sir J. Emerson Tennent 

" Am. have, and will be: " Henry VIII., Act III. Sc. 2. 

Sir Henry Wotton's Letter to Milton - 

Skull-caps versus Skull-cups, by Thomas Lawrence 

Inedited Poem by Pope - 

Oihner's " Lives of the Poets," by W. L. Nichols 

English Comedians in the Netherlands - - - 

La Bruyere, by J. Sansom - 

Southey's Criticism upon St. Mathias' Day in Leap- 
year ...---- 

lor Travellers The Albumen Process Black Tints 
of French Photographers Originator of the Collodion 
Process Developing Paper Pictures with Pyrogallic 

REPLIES TO MLVOR QUERIES : Waterloo Irish Peerages 
Martha IJlount Quotations wanted Pepys's 
Morena Goldsmiths' Year-marks Turner's View 
of Lambeth Palace " For God will be your King to- 
day" JenninBS Family The Furze or Gorse in 
Sca'nuinavia Mistletoe Inscription on a Dagger 
Steevens "Life is like a Game of Tables," c. - 117 


Notes on Books, &c. - - - - - 120 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 12 

Notices to Correspondents - - - - 1 

Advertisements - - - - - 121 


VOL. VII. No. 170. 


This work, so often quoted, is familiar to every 
antiquary ; but as the name of the intelligent 
and laborious editor does not appear in any of our 
biographical dictionaries, a. short sketch may not 
be unacceptable to our readers. 

William Robertson was born at Fordyce, in the 
county of Banff, in the year 1740. Having gone 
through the usual course of elementary instruc- 
tion in reading and writing, he entered the Latin 
class at the grammar school of his native parish ; 
a seminary then, as now, of great celebrity in the 
North of Scotland. Among his schoolfellows he 
contracted a particular intimacy with Mr. George 
Chalmers, afterwards Secretary of the Board of 
Trade ; so well known by many elaborate and 
valuable commercial, historical, and biographical 
publications. The connexion between the school- 
boys, originating in a similarity of taste and pur- 
suits, was strengthened at a subsequent period of 
their lives by the contributions of the intelligent 
Deputy Keeper of the Records of Scotland lo the 
local and historical information of the author of 
Caledonia, so honourably recorded in that national 
work. He completed his academical studies at 
King's College, Aberdeen, where he was parti- 
cularly distinguished by his proficiency in (he 
Greek language, under Professor Leslie. Ik- was 
then apprenticed to Mr. Turner of, 
advocate in Aberdeen ; but had been little more 
than a year in that situation, when Mr. Hunictt 
of Monboddo applied to Professor Leslie to re- 
commend to him as his second clerk a young n:;.n 
who had a competent knowledge of the Greek 
language, and properly qualified to aid him in his 
literary pursuits. The Professor immediately men- 
tioned young Robertson ; and Mr. Turner, in the 
most handsome manner, cancelled his articles of 
apprenticeship. During his connexion with Mr. 
Burnett, he accompanied him in several visit? to 
France, on taking evidence as one of the counsel 
in the great Douglas cause. On his first visit 
there, he went with him to see the savage <jiil, 
who, at that time, was creating a great H-nj-aiion 
in Paris; and, at his request, made a translation 



[No. 170. 

of M. Condamines' account of her, to which Mr. 
Burnett wrote a preface. la the year 1766 he 
was appointed Chamberlain to James, Earl of 
Findlater and Seafield, on the recommendation of 
Lord Monboddo. In 1768 he published, at Edin- 
burgh, The History of Greece, from the Earliest 
Times till it became a Roman Province, being a 
concise and particular account of the civil govern- 
ment, religion, literature, and military affairs of 
the states of Greece, for the use of seminaries of 
education, and the general reader, in 1 vol. 12mo. 
At this period, having caught a portion of the 
jealous nationality of the multitude, he published 
a political jeu (Tesprit entitled A North Briton 
Extraordinary, by a young Scotsman in the Cor- 
sican service, 4to., 1769 : designed to repel the 
illiberal invectives of Mr. Wilkes against the peo- 
ple of Scotland. Some of the popular objections 
to the Union reiterated by the young Scotsman 
having been found in the characteristic discussion 
between Lieutenant Lesmahagon and Matthew- 
Bramble on the same subject, in The Expedition 
of Humphrey Clinker, the authorship was on that 
account erroneously attributed to Dr. Smollet, 
who had then discontinued an unsuccessful oppo- 
sition to Mr. Wilkes in The Briton. 

In 1773 Mr. Robertson married. Miss Donald, 
only child of Captain Alexander Donald, of the 
89th, or Gordon Highlanders. In the year 1777 
he received his commission from Lord Frederick, 
Campbell, the Lord Clerk Register of Scotland, 
as colleague of his brother, Mr. Alexander Robert- 
son, who had been appointed one of the Deputy 
Keepers of the Records of Scotland some years 
before. He was now in a situation completely 
suited to his wishes, and entered on the duties of 
his office with the utmost enthusiasm. It very 
early occurred to him, that many ancient records 
of Scotland, which had been removed by Edward I., 
might still be recovered ; and he suggested to Lord 
Frederick Campbell, who was as enthusiastic as 
himself in everything tending to throw light on the 
early history of Scotland, that searches ought to be 
made in the State Paper Office in London for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether some of the earlier 
records might yet be found. Lord Frederick 
Campbell entered warmly into his views, and the 
success with which the search was made may be 
ascertained by consulting the Preface to the Index 
of Charters. 

The Reports to the Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners appointed to inquire into the state of the 
records, with the suggestions made by him, and 
which have been so ably followed up since his 
death by the late Thomas Thomson, Esq., Deputy 
Clerk Register, were considered of such import- 
ance as to merit a vote of thanks of the Select 
Committee, which was transmitted to him along 
with a very friendly letter from Mr. Abbot, then 
Speaker of the House of Commons, afterwards 

Lord Colchester. He commenced the laborious 
work of printing The Records of the Parliament of 
Scotland, in which he made considerable progress, 
having, previous to his death, completed one very 
large folio volume. 

Between the years 1780 and 1790, in conse- 
quence of a strict investigation into the validity 
of the claims of several persons to peerages in 
Scotland, Mr. Robertson was much employed in 
inquiring into the state of the peerage, both by 
those who made and those who rejected such 
claims. This circumstance naturally led him to a 
minute acquaintance with the subject; and in- 
duced him to publish, in 1794, a quarto volume, 
entitled Proceedings relative to the Peerage of 
Scotland from \6thJanuary, 1707, to 2Qth April, 
178& : a work which has been found of the 
greatest service in conducting the elections of the 
representative peers of Scotland. 

In 1798, at the request of Lord Frederick 
Campbell, he published an 

" Index, drawn up in the Year 1629, ofinnny Records 
of Charters granted by the different Sovereigns of 
Scotland, between 1309 and 1413 (which bad been 
discovered by Mr. Astle in the Hritish Museum), most 
of which Records have been long missing; with an 
Introduction, giving a State, founded upon Authentic 
Documents still preserved, of the Ancient Records of 
Scotland, which were in that Kingdom in 1292." 

The object of this publication was to endeavour 
to recover many ancient records, which there was 
much reason to believe were still in existence. 
The labour which he underwent in preparing this 
volume for the press, and in transcribing a very 
ancient quarto manuscript, written on vellum, 
which was found in the State Paper Office, was 
very great. Every word of this ancient vellum 
MS. he copied with his own hand, and it is printed 
along with the volume of the Records of the Par- 
liament of Scotland. The preface, introduction, 
notes, and appendix to the Index of Charters, 
show, not only the great labour which this work 
required from him, but the extensive information 
also, on the subject of the ancient history of Scot- 
land, which he possessed. 

At a general meeting of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, held Jan. 28, 1799, he was elected a 
member, and placed in the literary class of the 
Society. He died March 4, 1803, at his house, 
St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh, in the sixty- 
third year of his age. ELGINEKSIS. 


In the midsummer holidays of 1799, being on a. 
visit to an old and opulent family of the name of 
Deverell, in Dereham, Norfolk, I was taken to the 
house of an ancient lady (a member of the afore- 
said family), to pay my respects to her, and to drink 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



tea. Two visitors were particularly expected. 
They soon arrived. The first, if I remember 
rightly (for my whole attention was singularly 
riveted to the second), was a pleasant-looking, 
lively young man very talkative and entertain- 
ing ; his companion was above the middle height, 
broadly made, but not stout, and advanced in 
years. His countenance had a peculiar charm, 
that I could not resist. It alternately exhibited 
a deep sadness, a thoughtful repose, a fearful and 
an intellectual fire, that surprised and held me 
captive. His manner was embarrassed and re- 
served. He spoke but little. Yet once he was 
roused to animation ; then his voice was full and 
olear. I have a faint recollection that I saw his 
face lighted up with a momentary smile. His 
hostess kindly welcomed him as "Mr. Cooper." 
After tea, we walked for a while in the garden. 
I kept close to his side, and once he addressed me 
.as " My little master." I returned to school ; but 
that variable, expressive, and interesting coun- 
tenance I did not forget. In after years, standing, 
as was my wont, before the shop windows of the 
London booksellers (I have not quite left off this 
old habit!), reading the title-pages of tomes that 
I intensely longed, but had not then the money, 
to purchase, I recognised at a shop in St. Paul's 
Churchyard that well-remembered face, prefixed 
to a volume of poems, " written by William Cow- 
per, of the Inner Temple, Esq." The cap (for 
when I saw "Mr. Cooper" he wore a wig, or his 
hair, for his age, was unusually luxuriant) was 
the only thing that puzzled me. To make " assur- 
ance doubly sure," I hastened to the house of a 
near relation hard by, and I soon learnt that "Mr. 
Cooper" was William Cowper. The welcome pre- 
sent of a few shillings put me in immediate posses- 
sion of the coveted volumes. I will only just add, 
that I read, and re-read them ; that the man 
Avhom, in my early boyhood, I had so mysteriously 
reverenced, in my youth I deeply and devotedly 
admired and loved! Many, many years have 
since passed away : but that reverence, that ad- 
miration, and that love have experienced neither 
diminution nor change. 

It was something, said Washington Irving, to 
have seen even the dust of Shakspeare. It is some- 
thing too, good Mr. Editor, to have beheld the 
face and to have heard the voice of Cowper. 



The meaning of the term Yankee, which our 
transatlantic brethren now willingly adopt as their 
collective name, has acquired more notoriety than 
it deserved from the unlucky and far-fetched de- 
rivations which it has received in so many different 
publications. The term is of Anglo-Saxon origin, 
and of home-growth. We all know, from the 

veritable Diedricht Knickerbocker's History of New 
York, that its earliest settlers were exclusively 
Dutchmen, who naturally named it, though from 
anything but similarity in local situation, New 
Amsterdam. We may, of course, suppose that 
in the multitude of these Dutch settlers the names 
they carried over would be pretty nearly in the 
same proportion as at home. Both then and now 
the Dutch Jan (the a sounded very broad and 
long), abbreviated from the German Johann, our 
John, was the prevailing Christian appellative ; and 
it even furnished, in Jansen, &c. (like our John- 
son), frequent patronymics, particularly with the 
favourite diminutive eke, Jancke : and so common 
does it still remain as such, that it would be diffi- 
cult to open the Directory of any decent-sized 
Dutch or Northern German town without finding 
numerous instances, as Jancke, Jaancke, Jahncke, 
c., according as custom has settled the ortho- 
graphy in each family. It is scarcely necessary to 
say that the soft 7is frequently rendered by Fin 
our English reading and speaking foreign words 
(as the Scandinavian and German Jule becomes 
our Yule), to show how easily and naturally the 
above names were transformed into Yalinkee. So 
much for the name as an appellative ; now for its 
appropriation as a generic. The prominent names 
of individuals are frequently seized upon by the 
vulgar as a designation of the people or party in 
which it most prevails. We have Paddies for 
Irishmen, Taffies for Welshmen, and Sawnies (ab- 
breviated Alexander) for our Scotch brethren : so, 
therefore, when English interests gained the upper 
hand, and the name of New Amsterdam succumbed 
to that of New York, the fresh comers, the English 
settlers, seized upon the most prominent name by 
which to designate its former masters, which ex- 
tended to the whole of North America, as far as 
Canada : and the addition of doodle, twin brother 
to noodle, was intended to mark more strongly the 
contempt and mockery by the dominant party; 
just as a Sawney is, in most of the northern 
counties, a term next door to a fool. It is, how- 
ever, to the credit of our transatlantic brethren, 
and the best sign of their practical good sense, that 
they have turned the tables on the innuendo, and 
by adopting, carried the term into repute by sheer 
resolution and determinate perseverance. 

The term slave is only the misappropriation, by 
malevolent neighbours, of the Slavonic term slaus 
or laus, so frequent in the proper names of that 
people ; Ladislaus, Stanislaus, Wratislaus, &c., 
meaning, in their vernacular tongue, glory or 
praise, like the Latin laus, with which it is no 
doubt cognate : and so servi and servants is but a 
derivative from the Serbs, Sorbs, or Servians, 
whose glorious feats in arms against their Turkish 
oppressors have proved that there is nothing servile 
in their character. WILLIAM BELL, Phil. Dr. 

17. Gower Place, Euston Square. 



[No. 170. 


On looking over a collection of MSS. which has 
lain untouched for many years, I have lighted on 
the accompanying ballad. Of its source I know 
nothing; nor do I recollect how it fell into my 
hands. I have never seen it in print. The author, 
fancifully enough, imagines the various editions of 
Shakspeare brought in succession to the sick-bed 
of the immortal bard, and has curiously detailed 
the result of their several prescriptions. 

If you do me the favour of jriving it insertion in 
your valuable " N. & Q." I shall feel obliged ; and 
I think that your numerous Shakspeare corre- 
spondents, to some of whom it may be unknown, 
will not be displeased at seeing it in the columns 
of your interesting journal. The editorial period 
to which the ballad is brought down will tolerably 
fix its date : 

Old Shakspeare was sick for a doctor he sent 
! But 'twas long before any one came ; 
Yet at length his assistance Nic Row did present; 
Sure all men have heard of his name. 

As he found that the poet had tumbled his bed ; 

He smooth'd it as well as he could ; 
He gave him an anodyne, comb'd out his head, 

But did his complaint little good. 

Doctor Pope to incision at once did proceed, 
And the Bard for the simples he cut ; 

For his regular practice was always to bleed, 
Ere the fees in his pocket he put. 

Next Theobald advanced, who at best was a quack, 
And dealt but in old women's stuff; 

Yet he caused the physician of Twick'nam to pack, 
And the patient grew cheerful enough. 

Next Hanme'r, who fees ne'er descended to crave, 

In gloves lily-white did advance ; 
To the Poet the gentlest of purges he gave, 

And, for exercise, taught him to dance. 

One Warburton, then, tho' allied to the Church, 

Produced his alterative stores ; 
But his med'cines the case so oft left in the lurch 

That Edwards * kick'd him out of doors. 

Next Johnson arrived to the patient's relief, 
And ten years he had him in hand ; 

But, tired of his task, 'tis the gen'ral belief, 
He left him before he could stand. 

Now Capel drew near, not a Quaker more prim, 
And number'd each hair in his pate ; 

By styptics, call'd stops, he contracted each limb, 
And crippled for ever his gait. 

* One Edwards, an apothecary, who seems to have 
known [more] of the poet's case than some of the 
regular physicians who undertook to cure him. 

From Gopsal then strutted a formal old goose, 
And he'd cure him by inches, he swore ; 

But when the poor Poet had taken one dose, 
He vow'd he would swallow no more. 

But Johnson, determined to save him or kill, 

A second prescription display'd ; 
And, that none might find fault with his drop 
his pill, 

Fresh doctors he call'd to his aid. 

First, Steevens came loaded with black-lett 

Of fame more desirous than pelf ; 
Such reading, observers might read in his looks, 

As no one e'er read but himself. 

Then Warner, by Plautus and Glossary known, 
And Hawkins, historian of sound* ; 

Then Warton and Collins together came on, 
For Greek and potatoes renown'd. 

With songs on his pontificalibus pinn'd, 

Next, Percy the Great did appear ; 
And Farmer, who twice in a pamphlet had sinn'd r 

Brought up the empirical rear. 

" The cooks the more num'rous the worse is the 

Says a proverb I well can believe ; 
And yet to condemn them untried I am loth, 

So at present shall laugh in my sleeve. 



[This ballad originally appeared in the Gentleman's; 
May. for 1797, p. 912. ; and at p. 1108. of the same 
volume will be found the following reply : 


How could you assert, when the Poet was sick, 

None hit off' a method of cure ; 
When Montagu's pen, like a magical stick, 

His health did for ever ensure?"] 


Cures for the Hooping Cough (Itubus frutieosus), 
The following is said to prevail in the counties 
of Warwick, Worcester, and Stafford, as a remedy 
for this harrowing disorder in children : that if a 
child is put to walk beneath a common bramble 
(Itubus fruticosus), having rooted in the ground at 
both extremities (which may be very commonly 
met with where they grow luxuriantly), a certain 
number of times, a perfect cure would be the 

* From the abilities and application of Sir J. Haw- 
kins, the publick is now furnished with a compleat 
history of the science of musick. 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



Gryphea incurva. In the course of conversation 
with an old man in the county of Warwick, relative 
to ancient customs, he related to me as a fact 
within his own knowledge, that the pretty round 
stone shell, as he termed it (picking one up at the 
same time), a specimen of the Gryphea incurva, or 
Devil's Thumb, as it is frequently called, which is 
found in considerable quantities in the gravel beds 
of that county, when prepared in a certain manner 
calcined, I believe is a certain specific for this 
complaint in its most obstinate form. Indeed, he 
related to me some very extraordinary cures which 
he had himself witnessed. 

Donkey. A certain number of hairs taken from 
the black cross on the shoulders of a donkey, and 
put into a small bag made of black silk, and worn 
round a child's neck afflicted with the complaint, 
is a never-failing remedy. T. B. WHITBORNE. 

Epitaph in Tynemouth churchyard : 
" Wha lies here ? 
Pate Watt, gin ye speer. 
Poor Pate ! is that thou 9 
Ay, by my soul, is 't ; 
But 1's dead now." 

J. MN. 

Epitaph composed by an old gardener at Ilder- 
*on, Northumberland, for his own tombstone : 

" Under this stone lies Bobbity John, 
Who, when alive, to the world was a wonder ; 
And would have been so yet, had not Death in a fit 
Cut his soul and his body asunder." 

J. MN. 

Nostradamus on the Gold-diggings. Nostra- 
damus (physician to Henry II. of France) has the 
following among his prophecies (p. 33.) : 

" Las, qu'on verra grand peuple tourmente 

Et la loy sainte en totale ruine, 
Par autres Loix toute la Christianite, 

Quand d'or, d'argent trouve nouvelle mine." 

Garencieres translates thus : 

*' Alas ! how a great people shall be tormented, 
And the holy law in an utter ruin ; 
By other laws all Christendom be troubled, 
When new mines of gold and silver shall be found." 


Whimsical Bequest. Is the following cutting 
from the Ipswich Journal of January 8th, 1853, 
worth preserving in your pages ? 

" WHIMSICAL BEQUEST. On Saturday last, the un- 
married of whatever age and sex, numbering between 
800 and 90O residents in the parish of St. Leonard's, 
Colchester, received their new year's gift in the shape 
of ' a penny roll,' bequeathed to them in days of yore, 

under the following singular circumstances : Many 
years ago, a piece of waste land, called ' Knave's 
Acre,' in the parish of St. Leonard's, was used as a play- 
ground by the boys of this and the adjacent parish of 
St. Mary Magdalen ; but one day, the young gentle- 
men falling out, the affair ended in a regular 'fight;' 
and the result was that the boys of St. Leonard's van- 
quished their opponents, and ever after remained victors 
of the field. The ground was subsequently let for 
gardening purposes; but the owner, in perpetual re- 
membrance of the juvenile victory, whimsically be- 
queathed its annual rent of 41. to be appropriated ill 
the manner above mentioned." 


The Orkneys in Pawn. Dr. Clarke mentions a 
curious circumstance, which was related to him in 
Norway, by Bernard Auker, of Christiana. He 
stated that Great Britain had the Orkney Islands 
only in pawn. Looking over some old deeds and 
records, belonging to the Danish crown, at Copen- 
hagen, Mr. Auker found that these islands were 
consigned to England, in lieu of a dowry for a 
Danish princess, married to one of our English 
kings, upon condition that these islands should be 
restored to Denmark whenever the debt for which 
they were pledged should be discharged. There- 
fore, as the price of land, and the value of money, 
have undergone such considerable alteration since 
this period, it is in the power of Denmark, for a 
very small sum, to claim possession of the Orkneys. 


Lord Duff's Toast. Having made a consider- 
able collection of old Scots almanacks, I find occa- 
sionally on the waste papers at the beginnings and 
ends some curious notes : they, however, chiefly 
refer to the weather, crops, fairs, and prices of 
corn, starting-hours of coaches, &c. I find the 
following toast noted on the New Scots Almanack 
for 1802 : I send it to " N. & Q.," not knowing if 
it ever has been in print : 


- A Blessed Change. 

- Down Every Foreigner. ^ 

- God Help James. 

- Keep Lord Marr. 

- Nohle Ormond Preserve. 

- Quickly Resolve Stewart. 

- Truss Up Vile Whigs. 

- 'Xert Your Zeal." 


A. B. C. - 

D. E. F. - 

G. H. J. - 

K. L. M. - 

N. O. P. - 

Q. R. S. - 
T. U. V. W. 

X. Y. Z. - 


In the Quarterly Review just published, the 
reviewer, in the course of an interesting article 011 
" Meteors, Aerolites, and Shooting Stars," makes a 
suggestion which, if admitted into " N. Q.," may 



[No. 170. 

meet the eye of some English resident or traveller 
in the East, who will give to it the attention it 

A great degree of interest is attached to the 
recorded fall of aerolites in times past, and the 
most remarkable and authentic record of antiquity 
on this subject is that of the massive stone which 
fell in the 78th Olympiad (about the time of the 
birth of Socrates), at jEgospotamos (the goat's 
river), on the Hellespont, the place soon after- 
wards the scene of that naval victory of Lysander, 
in the last year of the Peloponnesian war, which 
subjected Athens and Greece for a time to the 
Spartan power. The fall of this stone, says the 
reviewer, is expressly mentioned by Aristotle ; by 
the author of the Parian Chronicle ; by Diogenes of 
Apollonia ; and most fully by Plutarch and Pliny, 
both of whom distinctly state it to be shown in 
their time the sixth century after its fall. Pliny's 
description is well marked : " Qui lapis etiam nunc 
ostenditur, magnitudine vehis, colore adusto;" and 
he adds the fact that a burning comet (meteor) 
accompanied its descent. Plutarch explicitly states 
that it was still held in much veneration by the 
inhabitants of the Chersonesus. He also speaks of 
its vast size. If the mass remained visible, and of 
such magnitude as described, down to Pliny's time, 
it is far from impossible (remarks the reviewer) 
that it may even now be re-discovered, with the 
aid, perchance, of some stray tradition attached to 
the place, surviving, as often happens, the lapse of 
ages, the changes of human dominion, and even 
the change of race itself, upon the spot. The 
locality, indeed, is not further indicated than by 
the statement of its fall at JEgospotamos ; but the 
invariable manner in which it is thus described 
defines tolerably well the district to be examined. 
We learn (he adds) from the old geographers, 
that there was a town called /Egospotami on the 
Thracian side of the Hellespont, and we may infer 
a stream from which its name was derived. The 
description of the naval fight, and the situation 
relatively to Lampsacus (the modern Lamsaki), 
further define the locality within certain limits. 
The reviewer then adds some practical suggestions 
of importance. The traveller devoting himself to 
this research should make his head-quarters at 
various places near the spot in question. He 
should render himself previously familiar with the 
aspect of meteoric stones, as now seen in European 
cabinets, and should study the character of rocks 
and fragmentary masses in the vicinity, to appre- 
ciate the differences of aspect. A small part only 
of the mass may now appear above the surface, 
and may even be wholly concealed by alluvial 
deposits, in which case the research would, of 
course, be in vain, unless happily aided by local 
tradition, which at the outset should be sedulously 
sought for. The research, if successful, would be 
of interest enough, both for history and science, to 

perpetuate a man's name. In the hope that some 
of the correspondents of "N. & Q.," now sojourn- 
ing in, or likely to visit the locality, may be tempted 
to undertake it, I send you these suggestions, ex- 
tracted from an article of no small scientific interest 
and value; and I will conclude witli the Query, 
whether the " sacred black stone," which is men- 
tioned by Colonel Williams (the British Commis- 
sioner for the settlement of the Turkish boundary 
question) to be regarded by the Seids inhabiting 
Despool as their palladium, has any legend of 
meteoric origin connected with its history? 

Newcastle on Tvne. 


The Taller, No. 220., in describing his " Eccle- 
siastical Thermometer," which gave indication of 
the changes and revolutions in the Church, and of 
the different degrees of heat in religion through- 
out the country, says : 

" To complete the experiment, I prevailed upon a 
friend of mine, who works under me in the occult 
sciences, to make a progress with my glass through the 
whole island of Great Britain ; and, after his return, 
to present me with a register of his observations. I 
guessed beforehand at the temper of several places he 
passed through by the characters they have had time 
out of mind. Thus that facetious divine, Dr. Fuller, 
speaking of the town of Banbury near a hundred years 
ago, tells us, it was a place famous for cakes and zeal, 
which I find by my glass is true to this day as to the 
latter part of this description ; though I must confess- 
it is not in the same reputation for cakes that it was in 
the time of that learned author." 

In Gough's Camden, vol. 5. p. 298., there is 
rather an amusing account of the manner in which 
the town of Banbury gained a proverbial reputa- 
tion for zeal ; and the following note by Mr. Cam- 
den, in his MS. supplement to the Britannia, is 
added : 

" Put out the word zeale in Banbury, where some 
think it a disgrace, when as zeale with knowledge is 
the greater grace among good Christians ; for it was. 
first foysted in by some compositor or pressman, neither 
is it in my Latin copie, which I desire the reader to 
hold as authentic." 

And Ray gives as a proverbial saying : 
" Banbury veal, cheese, and cakes." 
and refers to the mistake in Camden.* Now it is 

[* The following note respecting this misprint is 
given in Gibson's Camden, vol. i. p. 296., edit. 1772 : 
" There is a credible story, that while Philemon Hol- 
land was carrying on his English edition of the Bri- 
tannia, Mr. Camden came accidentally to the press, 
when this sheet was working off; and, looking on, he 
found, that to his own observation of Banbury being 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



possible, that Dr. Fuller derived his estimation of 
the town of Banbury from Camden ; still, as we 
know that Banbury in the seventeenth century 
had a character for Puritanism, he may have in- 
tended by the word zeal to refer to the sectarian 
spirit of the inhabitants. But what I would ask 
is, whether any events occurred in Banbury in the 
eighteenth century, which justify The Taller in 
classing it among those places which were hot in 
the cause of the Church ; and giving to the words 
of the " facetious divine," whom he quotes, a signi- 
fication entirely different to that which must have 
been intended ? 

Also, where is the first mention of Banbury 
cakes ? Did their reputation decline in the 
eighteenth century, and revive again afterwards ; 
or had they a celebrity in early days to which the 
present age can present no parallel ? The Bnn- 
bury people would hardly assent to The Taller s 
disparaging remark. ERICA. 



"Richardson or Murphy. I have in my col- 
lection a portrait, purporting to be that of "Jo- 
seph Richardson, Esq., Barrister, and Member 
for Newport in Cornwall," engraved in line by 
W. J. Newton, from a picture by the late pre- 
sident, M. A. Shee, Esq., R.A. ; and another im- 
pression, from the same plate, inscribed "James 
Murphy, Esq., Architect." Will any of your readers 
be good enough to inform me which of those gen- 
tlemen was the real Simon Pure, and what in- 
duced the alteration of name, &c. ? 

I could cite numerous instances of the same 
kind of trick having been practised, and may 
trouble you with further inquiries on a future 
occasion. At present I am anxious to ascertain 
whether I have got a genuine or spurious por- 
trait in my portfolio of artists. J. BURTON. 

38. Avenham Lane, Preston. 

Legend attached to Creeper in the Samoan Isles. 
Walpole, in his Pour Years in the Pacific, men- 
tions a creeper of most singular toughness, to 
which the natives attach a legend, which makes it 
the material employed by some fabulous ancestor 
to bind the sun, and which they term facehere, or 
Itiis cord, affirming that it cannot be broken " even 
by the white man, clever as he is." Mr. Walpole 
certainly failed in his attempts to clear a way 
through it. Will any of your botanical readers 
give me the proper name of the plant ? and also of 

famous for cheese, the translator had added cakes and 
ale. But Mr. Camden, thinking it too light an ex- 
pression, changed the word ah into zeal ; and so it 
passed, to the great indignation of the Puritans, who 
abounded in this town." ED.] 

the " Giant Arum," which the same people call 
the king or chief of plants ? SELKUCUS. 

Shearman Family. Is there a family named 
either Shearman or Spearman in Yorkshire or in 
Wales ? What are their arms ? Is there any re- 
cord of a member of this family settling in Ireland, 
county of Kilkenny, about the middle of ihe 
seventeenth century; his name, &c. ? Are tiers 
any genealogical records concerning them ? 



American Fisheries. Almost from the first set- 
tlement of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, this 
has been a troublesome question ; and now that it 
is under the consideration of the English and 
American governments, it is to be hoped that it 
may be finally settled. 

In June, 1623, a vessel arrived at Plymouth, 
Cape Cod, commanded by Admiral West, who had 
been sent from England for the sole purpose of 
preventing all persons, whether subjects of Great 
Britain or foreigners, from fishing on the coast, 
unless they had previously obtained permission for 
that purpose from the Council of New England. 
The admiral meeting with much opposition, and 
finding he could not settle the question in an 
amicable manner, left Plymouth in disgust, and 
sailed for southern Virginia. The colonists then 
appealed to Parliament, and an act was passed that 
the fisheries should be free. 

Query, In what year was this act passed, and has 
the permission then granted ever been annulled ? 



Grindle. What is the true meaning of this 
word, and are any other parts of the kingdom 
called thus ? The one I allude to is still called 
"The Grindle," close adjoining the town of Bury 
St. Edmund's ; and consists of an encampment 
and earthworks, very similar to several mentioned 
before in " N. & Q." under the articles " Grims- 
dyke" (Vol. iv., pp. 152. 331. 454. ; Vol. v., p. 43. 
&c.). A local guide to the town (Gillingwater, 
p. 5.) gives the word Grim, a fortress =GrinneaL, 
depths in the ground. 

Can any reader of your valuable Notes give 
any further explanation of the word, or of its 
origin at Bury ? C. G. 

A Gentleman executed for whipping a Slave to 
Death. In the first volume of Eastern Europe, 
published in London by T. C. New by, in 1846, it 
is thus recorded : 

" During the administration of Spencer Perceval, 
on the 8th of May, 1811, the Honourable A. W. Hodge, 
a member of his Britannic Majesty's council at Tortola, 
was executed for the murder of one of his negroes by 
excessive flogging." 



[No. 170. 

Might I ask if there is any other instance known 
of a gentleman's having suffered a similar punish- 
ment for the same crime, during the period the 
West India islands were held as slave colonies of 
England ? W. W. 


Brydone. A. J. C. would be glad to be informed 
of the birthplace of Mr.' Brydone, the tourist and 
author. The biographies state that he was the 
son of a clergyman, and born in Scotland ; but do 
not give the exact locus in quo. 

" Clear the Decks for Bognies Carriage." The 
announcement, in Punch, that the Lords of the 
Admiralty had ordered a large supply of arm-chairs 
(of course on castors) for the use of our veteran 
commanders, has recalled to my recollection the 
above, which used to pass current in Banffshire, as 
a call for a clear stage. Can any of your readers 
tell us who was " Bognie ; " what was his " carriage," 
and what the connexion between it and "decks?" 

London Queries. Answers to the following 
Queries would very much oblige me. 

The date when chains and bars were first 
erected for levying toll into the City of London. 

The date of the erection of the first Temple 
Bar, its architect's name, and when pulled down 
or destroyed, and if burnt during the Great Fire. 

The authority for the present crate having been 
built after designs of Sir Christopher Wren. 

J. N. G. G. 

Scarf worn by Clergymen. By what authority 
do clergymen, who are neither chaplains to any 
member of the royal family, or to any peer or 
peeress, or have not taken the degree of D.D., 
wear a scarf either over the surplice or the black 
gown ? C J. T. P. 

W Rectory. 

Life of Queen Anne. Who is the author of 
" The History of the Life and Reign of her late 
Majesty Queen Anne : wherein all the Transactions 
of that Memorable Reign are faithfully compiled from 
the best authorities, and impartially related. Illus- 
trated with a regular Series of all the Medals that were 
struck to commemorate the great Events of this Reign; 
with a Variety of other useful and ornamental Plates. 
London, printed and sold by the Booksellers in Town 
and Country. 1740." 

The size is small folio. E. S. JACKSON. 

Erasmus Smith. The undersigned is much 
interested in learning something of the life and 
history of Erasmus Smith, the founder of the 
numerous schools in Ireland that still go under 
his name, and are governed by a chartered incor- 
poration. If it was a great act to found and 

endow so many schools, assuredly Erasmus Smith 
gives additional authority to the dictum, that 
" The world knows nothing of its greatest men." 

D. C. L. 

Croxton or Crostin of Lancashire. Can any of 
the readers of "N. & Q." furnish me with any 
particulars of this family; whether they bore arms, 
and what they were ? They are, I believe, of 
Lancashire origin, the name frequently occurring 
in the history of that county. Where is also the 
ancient (and formerly very extensive) parish of 
Crostin ? W. H. COLLES. 

Grub Street Journal. Can any of your readers 
give me information as to the parties by whom 
this journal was conducted ; or who formed the 
Grub Street Society, shortly before, and for a few 
years after 1730 ; or what this society was: or refer 
me to the best sources of information on the sub- 
ject ? My reason for asking the question is, that 
I have lately found a manuscript book a common 
thickish square account-book in a vellum bnck 
containing at one end, as it seems, the minutes of 
the meetings of the Grub Street Society, signed 
by the members at each meeting : at the other end, 
the accounts of the funds of the association. If it 
should prove that the entries are genuine, and they 
should prove to be of any interest, I should send 
you some extracts from the book. REGINENSIS. 

Chaplain to the Princess Elizabeth. What 
was the surname of the person who officiated as 
chaplain to the Princess Elizabeth during her im- 
prisonment at Woodstock in 1554 ? His Christian 
name was William. C. R,. M. 

" The Snow-flake." In a comparatively obscure 
poem, The Snow-flake, not very long published, 
occurs the line : 

" When Kola's mild blue eyes shall weep." 
Pray, to what is allusion made ? A. S. T. 

Leamhuil or Lalioel. Can you, or any of your 
readers, give me a description of the place, abbey, 
or other ancient building, called Leamhuil or 
Lahoel, or refer me to some work where I may find 
the history of the same ? In Lewis's Topographical 
Dictionarij it is said to be somewhere in Queen's 
County, Ireland. Also, inform me whether there 
has been any family of that name ? 



[Leamchuill is in the barony of Portnehinch, Queen's 
County. Archdale, in his Monasticon Hibernicwn, 
p. 595., states, that "St. Fintan-Chorach was abbot 
here towards the close of the sixth century. By some 
writers he is said to have been interred here ; and from 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



others we learn that Cluatnednach, or Clonfert Bren- 
dan, was the place of his sepulture. St. Mochonna 
was abbot or bishop here, but at what period is un- 
known." Stevens, however, says this abbey was in 
Leiuster. " St. .bintan, otherwise called St. Munnu, 
in the sixth century, founded the abbey of Cluian 
JEdnach ; those of Achad-Arglass, Achad-Finglass, 
and Lane/toil in Leinster, and those of Dumbleske and 
Ross-Coerach in Munster." (Monasticon Hibernicum, 
p. 377., edit. 1722.) Consult also the authorities 
quoted in Butler's Lives of the Saints, art. St. Fintan, 
October 22nd.] 

Ortes Maps, Edition of 1570. I have in my 
possession a quarto volume of fifty-three coloured 
maps, by Abraham Orte, and printed at Antwerp 
in 1570. 

Almost all the maps are ornamented with some 
miniature paintings, representing the ships or gal- 
leys used in the country which the map describes. 
On many of these there are also the figures of 
whales and flat-fish. On the map of Russia, in 
one part, there are three large tents, with three 
men, clothed in coloured garments, at the entrance 
of them ; and near by some camels are grazing. 
In another part is seen a cluster of trees, and 
seated in the branches of the first and largest 
there is the figure of a saint, to whom it would 
appear five men, or priests, are kneeling and 
praying, with their heads uplifted and hands out- 
stretched. On the branches of the trees in the 
background several persons are hanging. 

On the twenty-eighth map there is a large town 
represented at the foot of a hill, and above it these 
words: "Urbis Salis Burgensis genuina Descrip- 
tio." Can any of your correspondents inform me 
if there is another copy of this work known to be 
extant ; and, if so, whether the maps are like those 
I have briefly described ? In a catalogue of rare 
books, I have seen no mention made of this edition 
of 1570, though reference is made to one of twenty 
years a later date. W. W. 


[This edition is in the British Museum, and agrees 
in every respect with the one possessed by our corre- 
spondent, except that it is in folio. It appears ex- 
tremely rare.] 

Prayer for the Recovery of George III. In 
1815, vjhen I first went to school, one of my 
schoolfellows had (I think in manuscript in the 
fly-leaf of his Prayer-Book) a prayer for the king's 
recovery, of which I remember only two detached 
portions : " Restore, we implore Thee, our be- 
loved sovereign to his family and his people" 
" and whether it shall seem fit to Thine unerring 
wisdom, presently to remove from us this great 
calamity, or still to suspend it over us, dispose 
us, under every dispensation of Thy Providence, 
patiently to adore Thine inscrutable goodness." 
The rest I forget. Can any of your correspon- 

dents supply the remainder of the prayer; or tell 
me where it is to be found, or who was the author ? 

LAIC us. 

[This prayer was composed by Dr. Sutton, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and will be found in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine of November 1810, p. 484.] 

(Vol. vi., p. 578.) 

Mrs. Mary Mackey was " a real person," and 
the widow of a conveyancer in good practice. Of 
him she says (Scraps of Nature, p. 362.) : 

" The husband of poor Nature was a gentleman and 
an honest man, made a fortune and spent it nearly, in 
which his wife had no share, for that he governed and 
ruled the roast is well known to many: he had a noble 
and generous soul, but always kept poor Nature's 
talents under a bushel, where they shall never go 
again. He was old enough to be her father, and ever 
treated her like a child." 

He left only enough to purchase for her a small 
annuity. She was uneducated, as she says, p. 274. : 

" I never learned to write or spell, 
Although I read and write so well ; " 

but laboured under the illusion that she was a 
poetess. She sought an interview with Hewson 
Clarke by inviting him to meet a lady who ad- 
mired his writings in White Conduit Fields. He 
went, and was somewhat mortified to find a matron 
of about forty-five, who placed her MS. in his 
hand, and requested his candid opinion on a future 
day. She was lady-like and sensible upon all 
matters except her own poems. Of course his 
opinion was easily formed ; but he assured her 
that, though the poems were very good, they 
would not suit the public taste, and that she 
would be rash in publishing. She took his advice, 
but unfortunately happened to know Peter Pindar, 
who had been one of her husband's friends. She 
devotes a " scrap " to a kiss which he gave her 
(p. 215.). He was blind, but on hearing some of 
her poems read, he exclaimed, " Oh, my God, 
madam, there is nothing like this in Shakspeare ! " 
Such a compliment turned her head ; she sold her 
annuity to publish her book, and was reduced to 
extreme distress and misery. This is stated in a 
notice of the book in The British Stage, Sept. 1817, 
p. 210. The article, which is signed K., was written 
by the editor, Mr. James Broughton of the India 
House, a friend of Hewson Clarke, and once editor 
of The Theatrical Inquisitor. 

I agree with G. C. that the " scraps " are 
niaiseries ; as literature nothing can be worse; 
but they are curious and, I think, deeply interest- 
ing as genuine expressions of feeling. Mary 
Mackey was vain and weak, but true-hearted, 



[No. 170. 

generous, and affectionate ; she conceals nothing, 
and lays bare her poverty and her wish to marry 
again. She advertises herself under the form of a 
pony for sale : 

" For since she lias been free by the death of her 
Late owner, the poor thing has been a scamperer, 
And has often known the want of a good meal ; 
For she was highly fed in tier old master's lifetime. 
But he, alas ! sleeps in peace, and peace be to his 


He was a good master and a real gentleman, 
And left his little trotter to a merciless world : 
She is gentle by Nature ; but the poor thing's heart 
Is now breaking yet by kind treatment she might 
Be made one of the most valuable and amusing 
Things in Nature. She is a little foundered, but not 

to hurt 

Or retard her movements; she is of some mettle and 
High spirit, notwithstanding her hard fate, 
She will even kick if roughly handled, 
Nor would she suffer a dirty hand to touch her." 

P. 105. 
Again, she says : 

" I wish I had an only friend, 

To shield me from the winter's blast, 
For should I live to see another, 

He may cut keener than the last ; 
And I shall never wish to feel 
A keener winter than the past." 

P. 288. 

She complains of a refusal from one to whom 
she wrote " to beg or solicit ^some bacon," and 
says : 

" To him she has given, she never did lend, 
For her plan is to give to the foe or the friend." 

P. 180. 

Some one, probably Clarke, wrote an anony- 
mous letter to dissuade her from publishing. This 
she answers indignantly in prose, concluding : 

" Should he be tempted to write again, let him sign 
his name, or where a letter may find the kind-hearted 
creature, who has such a love for Nature. His sting- 
ing advice was to run down the widow's soul's delight, 
her dear scraps, which not a block in Nature can 
suppress." P. 366. 

Throughout the silliness run veins of feeling, 
respect for her husband, gratitude for the smallest 
acts of kindness, and cheerfulness under want. 
In some lines to a cat, apparently written during 
her husband's sickness, she says : 

" Now Grimalkin each day on her throne takes a seat, 
With a smile on her face when her master can eat ; 
But, alas ! he eats little:' P. 309. 

Truly Mary Mackey must have been a good 
wife and friend, and I hope I may claim some 
credit for extracting evidence thereof from perhaps 
the weakest verses ever written. Her own opinion 
was different, and is thus expressed in her 

" PREFACE OR. NO PREFACE. No preface can be to 
the Scraps of Nature, for God gave none when He 

formed creation, nor was there ever a book sent into 
the world like the volume of Nature, since the creation 
of the world, nor ever so bold an undertaking. It has 
never been seen by any eye, nor corrected by any hand, 
but the eye and hand of the writer. No volume has 
more humour," &c. 

G. C.'s copy is defective. Mine has a portrait 
of Mrs. Mary Mackey, which indicates considerable 
beauty, despite of very poor drawing and engrav- 
ing, and the execrable thin curls and short waist 
of 1809. The " falling tear is visible;" but, had 
not the authoress told us what it was, it might be 
taken for a mole or a wart. As the face is per- 
fectly cheerful, and the " scrap " is headed " Com- 
pliment to the Engraver," I hazard the con- 
jecture that he was instructed to add the tear to a 
miniature painted before she had been compelled 
to shed tears on her own account. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 


(Vol. vii., p. 65.) 

Your correspondent AJAX asks information of 
me as to the best, or even a tolerable, map of 
Ceylon. I am not surprised at the inquiry, as no 
satisfactory map of that island exists to my know- 
ledge. It may illustrate this assertion to mention, 
that in 1849 I travelled through the vast and in- 
teresting district of Neura Kalawa, to the north of 
the Kandyan range ; and I carried with me the 
map of " India and Ceylon," then published, and 
since reprinted in 1852, by the Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. In that map the 
country I was passing through appears as a large 
blank, 'with the words " Unknown mountainous 
region." But I found it abounding in prosperous 
villages, and tracts of land cultivated both for rice 
and dry grain. So far from being "unknown," its 
forests have a numerous though scattered popula- 
tion ; and as to its being " mountainous," there is 
scarcely a hill in the entire " region." There is a 
meagre map of Ceylon, drawn by George Atkin- 
son, who was civil engineer and surveyor-general 
of the colony, and published by Wylde in 1836. 
It is more correct than others, but sadly deficient 
in information. 

Mr. Arrowsmith, of Soho Square, published in 
1845 an admirable map of what is called the Kandy 
Zone, being the central province of the island, 
prepared by the Deputy Quarter -Master- General, 
Colonel Frazer ; assisted by Captain Galiwey and 
Major Skinner, of the Ceylon Civil Service. 
Col. Frazer has since placed in Mr. Arrowsmith's 
hands a map of the entire island : it has not yet 
appeared; but when published it will be found 
to be as nearly perfect in its details as any map 
can be. 

In reply to the inquiry of AJAX as to the pub- 
lication of my own work on the history and topo- 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



graphy of Ceylon, it is still in hand; but the 
pressure of official and parliamentary duties has 
sadlv retarded its preparation for the press. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

SC. 2. 

(Vol. vii., p. 5.) 

Independently of the obvious probability that 
Shakspeare, in these three words, intended to em- 
body the present, the past, and the future, there 
is another reason why we can by no means part 
with have, or suffer it to be changed into any 
other word ; and that is, because it is open to one 
of those parallel analogies which I have so often 
upheld as sure guides to the true reading. Only 
a few lines before, in a previous speech of Wolsey's, 
he makes use of a precisely similar elliptical 
coupling together of the verbs have and be : 

" My loyalty, 
Which ever has, and ever sfiall be, growing." 

Here we have, in "has and shall be," the identical 
combination which, in the case of " have and will 
be," has given rise to so much doubt ; so that we 
have only to understand the one phrase as we do 
the other, and make the slight addition of the per- 
sonal pronoun I (not before, but after am), to 
render Wolsey's exclamation not only intelligible, 
but full of emphasis and meaning. 

But in the first place the King's speech to 
Wolsey might be more intelligibly pointed if the 
words " your bond of duty " were made a paren- 
thetical explanation of that. The " bond of duty " 
is the mere matter-of-course duty to be expected 
from every subject ; but the King says that, over 
and above that, Wolsey ought, " as 'twere in loves 
particular," to be more ! Thereupon Wolsey ex- 

" I do profess 

That for your highness' good I ever labour'd 

More than mine own." 

Here he pauses, and then immediately continues 
his protestation in the fine passage, the meaning 
of which has been so much disputed ; suddenly 
reverting to what the King had just said he ought 
to be, he exclaims : 

" That, am I, have, and will be, 

Though all the world should crack their duty to you, 
And throw it from their soul," &c. 

Still less can it be permitted to change " crack 
their duty" into "lack their duty." Setting 
aside all consideration of the comparative force of 
the two words, and the circumstance that crack 
is frequently used by Shakspeare in the sense of 
sever by violence the adoption of lack would be to 

attribute to Shakspeare an absolute blunder, for 
how could "all the world" throw from their soid 
that which they lacked? 

With reference to another alteration ("capa- 
ble " into " palpable," in As You Like It, Act III. 
Sc. 5.), notwithstanding that it seems so obvious, 
and has been declared so self-evident, " as to be 
lauded needs but to be seen" I, for one, enter my 
protest against it, being of opinion that the con- 
servation of capable is absolutely essential to the 

Capable may be, and has been, defended upon 
various grounds ; but there is one consideration 
which, with me, is all-sufficient, viz., it is necessary 
for the explanation and defence of the accom- 
panying word " cicatrice." Capable is concave, 
and has reference to the lipped shape of the im- 
pression, and cicatrice is a lipped scar ; therefore 
one word supports and explains the other. And 
it is not a little singular that cicatrice should, in 
its turn, have been condemned as an improper 
expression by the very critic (Dr. Johnson) who, 
without perceiving this very cogent reason for so 
doing, nevertheless explains " capable impressure " 
as a hollow mark. A. E. B. 



(Vol. vi., p. 5. ; Vol. vii., p. 7.) 

I desire to speak with the greatest deference to 
MR. BOLTON CORNET'S superior judgment, but 
still I cannot help saying that Thomas Warton's 
remarks upon " our common friend Mr. R." and 
" the late li.'s poems " do not seem to be sup- 
ported by facts. Randolph's poems were printed 
at Oxford in 1638, but in what month we are not 
told. The first question then is this, Were they 
printed before or after the 13th of April, when. 
Wotton's letter was written ? If after the 13th, 
or even the 6th of April, when Milton's present- 
ation copy of Comus was forwarded, of course the 
matter is decided. But, allowing for the present 
that they were printed before the 13th of April in 
the year 1638, I must ask, in the second place, 
Could Sir H. Wotton predicate of any volume 
printed in that year before that date (or rather of 
Comus stitched up with that volume), that he had 
viewed it some long time before with singular 
delight? I certainly think not, but shall be very 
happy to have my objections overruled. 

Then, again, if we admit MR. BOLTON CORNET'S 
"novel conjecture" (which I freely allow to be 
a great improvement upon that of Thomas 
Warton), how comes it that Sir II. Wotton knew 
nothing of " the true artificer " of Comus until he 
was let into the secret by Milton himself? If 
Robert Randolph was the "common friend" of 
Wottou and Milton, was he not likely to have 



[No. 170. 

known something of the authorship of Comus, and 
to have enlightened Sir Henry thereon? My 
principal objection remains. Thomas Randolph 
was far too popular a poet to have been con- 
temptuously alluded to by Wotton or any one else 
in that age, and, making all due allowance for 
laudation and compliment, Wotton does disparage 
the poems to which Milton's Masque was ap- 

I think that quaint old Winstanley gives the 
general opinion of Randolph. He says : 

" He was one of such a pregnant wit that the Muses 
may seem not only to have smiled, but to have been 
tickled at his nativity, such the festivity of his poems 
of all sorts." Lives of English Poets, p. 142., Lond. 

We must therefore, perhaps, look out for some 
more obscure and worthless poet, whose "prin- 
cipal " Milton's " accessory " was to " help out." 

When writing on this subject before, I said that 
Samuel Hartlib had not settled in England at the 
time of Sir H. Wotton's letter to Milton (Vol. vi., 
p. 5.). I am indebted to Warton for that mistake. 
He fixes the date of his coming hither to " about 
the year 1640." {Illustrations of Milton s Minor 
Poems, p. 596. : Lond. 1775.) 

Samuel Hartlib figures amongst the corre- 
spondents of Joseph Meile in March, 1634, and 
even then dated from London. (Mede's Works, 
vol. ii. lib. iv. p. 1058. : Lond. 1664, fol.) 

Amongst the Letters and Despatches of Lord 
Strafforde are two letters from Sir Henry Wotton, 
which do not appear in the Reliquiae (vide vol. i. 
pp.45 48.: Dublin, 1740, fol.), though some sen- 
tences in the former of the two may be found at 
p. 373. of said work. I often find it a pleasant 
employment to fill up the gaps and trace out the 
allusions in Wotton's correspondence. 

May I give a short specimen of one of his 
letters filled up ? It was written, I suppose, to 
Nicholas Pey : 

" My dear Nic, 

" More than a voluntary motion doth now carry me 
towards Suffolk, especially that I may confer by the 
way with an excellent physician at 13., whom I brought 
myself from Venice." Reliquie, p. 359. 

By " B." is meant St. Edmund's Bury, and by the 
" excellent physician " no less than Gaspero Des- 
potine, who, together with Mark Anthony de 
Dominis, accompanied Sir H. Wotton and his 
chaplain Bedell from Italy. 

However, he was very unlike the archbishop of 
whom Dr. Crakanthorp used to say, that he was 
well called "De Dominis in the plural, for he 
could serve two masters, or twenty if they would 
all pay him wages." (Racket's Life of Williams, 
part i. p. 103. : Lond. 1693, fol.) Despotine left 
Italy that he might at the same time leave the 
communion of the Church of Rome, and when 

Bedell was appointed to the living of St. Ed- 
mund's Bury, he accompanied him thither. One 
of Wotton's very interesting letters announces the 
event. (Reliquiae, p. 400.) Under the fostering 
care of the saintly Bedell, Despotine rose to emi- 
nence in his profession at St. Edmund's Bury, and 
kept up a kind correspondence with his guide and 
patron after his promotion to the Provostship of 
Trinity College, Dublin, and the sees of Ardagh 
and Kilmore. (Burnet's Life of Bishop Bedell 9 
ad init.) 

In another letter (Reliquiae, p. 356.) Wotton 
speaks of having given also to Michael Brain- 
thwaite and the young Lord Scudamore the 
advice of Alberto Scipioni to himself, to "keep- 
his eyes open and his mouth shut," which Milton, 
sadly disregarded. RT_ 



(Vol. vi., pp. 441. 565.) 

Your correspondent JAMES GRAVES seems to 
consider cooking in a skull impossible. I certainly 
have never tried it, nor do I wish to express an 
opinion as to the taste of the Irish or their in- 
vaders, A.D. 1315, though methinks those who re- 
lished the " flesh " need not have demurred to the 
pot. But as to the possibility, in Ewbank on- 
Hydraulic Machines, book i. cap. 3., I find the 
following mention of 

" PRIMITIVE BOILERS. The gourd is probably the 
original vessel for heating water, &c. &c., its exterior 
being kept moistened by water while on the fire, as 
still practised by some people, while others apply & 
coating of clay to protect it from the effects of flame." 
He then quotes Kotzebue as finding " the Radack 
Islanders boiling something in cocoa-shells." A 
primitive Sumatran vessel for boiling rice is the 
bamboo, which is still used ; by the time the rice 
is dressed the vessel is nearly destroyed by the 
fire. This destructibility needs hardly to be con- 
sidered an objection to the " starving fugitives," 
as plenty of the same kind must have been at 
hand, and even an Irishman's skull is probably 
as little inflammable as gourds, cocoa-shells, or 
bamboos. J. P. O. 

Should the following extract not be considered 
as bearing on the question, we must admit that it 
is a remarkable bit of folk lore. 

The quotation is second-hand, being taken from 
the Chronicles of London Bridge, Family Library, 
p. 436. ; the authority is, however, there given. 
The passage refers to some parties engaged 
refine the coinage, and who were taken ill, affecte 
probably by the fumes of arsenic. 

" the mooste of them in meltinge fell sycke- 

to deathe, w th the sauoure, so as they were advised to 
drvnke in a dead man's skull for thevre recure. 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



" Whereupon he w th others who had thovergyght of 
that worke, procured a warrant from the Counsaile to 
take of the heades vppon London Bridge and make 
cuppes thereof, whereof they dranke and founde some 
reliefe, althoughe the moost of them dyed." 

This is supposed to have been about 1560 or 

Ashby-de-la- Zouch. 


(VoLvii., p. 57.) 

This, which is headed "Note," ought to have 
been headed Query : and it affords an instance of 
ignorance on the part of some of our correspon- 
dents ; and of, I fear I must add, inattention on 
that of our worthy Editor, which I think it right 
to notice as a warning to all parties for the future : 
and I appeal to the candour of our Editor himself 
to give my protest a place. 

The first step in this curious affair is to be found 
in " N. & Q.," Vol. ii., p. 7., where " the Editor of 
Bishop War burtons Literary Remains" produced, 
as attributed to Mr. Charles Yorke, a kind of 
epitaph of sixteen lines, beginning 

" Stript to the naked soul, escaped from clay." 

That the " editor of Bishop Warburton's Lite- 
rary Remains" and his friend " an eminent 
critic," should have been at a loss to know where 
these well-known verses were to be found, and 
should have countenanced their having been 
Charles Yorke's, seems the more wonderful : for 
the verses are given in Warburton's own letters as 
Pope's, and were printed near a hundred years 
ago in Ruff head's Life of Pope, as Pope's ; and 
in the MS. copy furnished by Mr. Yorke, they are 
marked as " Mr. Pope's." 

The next error is, that this mention of Mr. 
Yorke's name though bis MS. bore the name of 
Pope seems to have given rise to the idea that 
he was the author, which Lord Campbell has so 
fully adopted as to have reprinted, in his Lives of 
the Chancellors (vol. v. p. 428.), the verses as the 
composition of Charles Yorke. 

We next find in " N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 43., a 
reply of W. S. to the Query of Warburton's 
editor, stating " that the verses were by Pope" 
and lately republished in a miscellany by James 
Tayler, with a statement that they were not inserted 
in any edition of Pope's works. The fact being, 
that they have been inserted in Warton's edition, 
1797 ; and in Bowies', and in all subsequent edi- 
tions that I have seen : and it seems strange that 
W. S. did not take the trouble of verifying, by a 
reference to any edition of Pope, the statement 
that he quoted. 

Next we have, in the same (3rd) volume of 
" N. & Q.," a communication from MB. CROSSLEY, 

which states correctly all the foregoing circum- 
stances, with the addition, that the verses appeared 
as Aaron Hill's in an edition of his works as early 
as 1753. Thence arises another discussion; were 
they Pope's or Hill's ? Roscoe thought they were 
Hill's ; MR. CROSSI.EY thinks they were Pope's. 
I think, both from external and internal evidence, 
that they were not Pope's. But that has little to 
do with my present object, which is to show how 
often the matter has been already discussed in 
" N. & Q." I must observe, however, that MR. 
CROSSLEY has fallen into a slight anachronism. 
He says that the verses were " transferred from 
Ruffhead into Bowies' edition ; " whereas they, 
as I have stated, were transferred into Warton's 
many years earlier. 

After all this disquisition comes a recent Num- 
ber of " N. & Q.," of which a column and a quarter 
is wasted by a correspondent A. T. W., who con- 
fosses that he (or she) has not a modern edition 
of Pope within reach, and begs to know whether 
these verses (repeated in extenso) " have been yet 
introduced to the public?" 

Surely " N. & Q." should beware of correspon- 
dents that write to inquire about Pope, without 
having an edition of his works ; and I cannot but 
wonder that this crambe, which had been served 
up thrice before, and so fully by MR. CROSSLEY, 
should have been recocta, and introduced as a new 
theme, entitled to a special attention. C. 

(Vol.v., p. 161.) 

Allow me to draw your attention to a curious 
letter which I transcribe, with reference to the 
above. It appears to have escaped the notice of 
MR. CROKER, although it corroborates his state- 
ments. It was written by the bookseller himself 
who published the Lives, and would seem to set 
the matter as to their authorship completely at 
rest. Griffiths appears to have been also the editor 
of the Monthly Review ; and Cartwright, the in- 
ventor of the power-loom, to whom the letter is 
addressed, to have been one of his contributors. 


" Turnham Green, 16th June [1781 ?]. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I have sent you a feast ! Johnson's new volumes 
of the Lives of the Poets. You will observe that 
Savajje's Life is one of the volumes. I suppose it is 
the same which he published about thirty years ago, 
and therefore you will not be obliged to notice it 
otherwise than in the course of enumeration. In the 
account of Hammond, my good friend Samuel has 
stumbled on a material circumstance in the publication 
of Gibber's Lives of the Poets. He intimates that 
Gibber never saw the work. This is a reflection on 
the bookseller, your humble servant. The bookseller 



[No. 170. 

has now in his possession Theophilus Gibber's receipt 
for twenty guineas (Johnson says tea), in consideration 
of which he engaged to 'revise, correct, and improve 
tbe work, and also to affix his name in the title-page.' 
Mr. Cibber did accordingly very punctually revise 
very sheet ; he made numerous corrections, and added 
many improvements: particularly in those lives which 
came down to his own times, and brought him within 
the circle of his own and his father's literary acquaint- 
ance, especially in the dramatic line. To the best of 
my recollection, he gave some entire lives, besides in- 
serting abundance or' paragraphs, of notes, anecdotes, 
and remarks, in those which were compiled by Shiells 
and other writers. I say other, because many of the 
best pieces of biography in that collection were not 
written by Shiells, but by superior hands. In short, 
the engagement of Cibber, or some other Enylislnnun, 
to superintend what Shiells in particular should offer, 
was a measure absolutely necessary, not only to guard 
against his Scotticisms, and other defects of expression, 
but his virulent Jacobitism, which inclined him to 
abuse every Whig character that came in his way. 
This, indeed, ha would have done ; but Cibber (a 
stanch Williamite) opposed and prevented him, inso- 
much that a violent quarrel arose on the subject. By 
the way, it seems to me, that Shiell's Jacobitism has 
been the only circumstance that has procured him the 
regard of Mr. Johnson, and the favourable mention 
that he has made of Shiell's 'virtuous life and pious 
nd' expressions that must draw a smile from every 
one who knows, as I did, the real character of Robert 
Shiells. And now, what think you of noticing this 
matter in regard to truth, and the fair fame of the 
honest bookseller?" Memoir of the Life, Writings, and 
Mechanical Inventions of Edmund CartwriglU, D.D., 
F. R. S. .- Saunders & Otley. 

Lansdown Place, Bath. 


(Vol. ii., pp. 184. 459. ; Vol. iii., p. 21.) 
From the following extract from the Thes. Rek. 
(Treasury Accounts) of Utrecht, it appears that 
English actors performed there : 

" Schenkelwyn, 31 July, 1597. Sekere Engelsche 
Comcdianten, voor hore speelen op ten Stadhuyse, 8 q. 
Fransche wyns." (To certain English Comedians, for 
their playing at the town-hall, eight quarts of French 
wine. ) 

In the Gerccldsdagboecken (Minutes of the 
Council) of Leyden appear several requests of 
English comedians to perform there in 1614; 
these I hope soon to have in hand. I can now 
ijive the decision of the Council on the request of 
the Englishman W. Pedel : 

" Op te Itequeste daerby den voorn. Willem Pedel, 
versochte aen die van de Gerechte der st;dt Leyden 
omme te mogen speelen verscheyde fraeye ende eeriicke 
spelen inettet lichaem, sonder eenige woorden te ge- 
bruyeken, stont geappostileert : Die van de Gerechte 

dessr stadt Leyden hebben voor zoe veel in hem es, 
den thoonder toegelaten ende geconsenteert, laten toe 
ende consentereu mits desen binnen dezer stede inde 
Kercke vant Bagynhoff te mogen spelen voor de ge- 
meente ende syne speelen verthoonen, mils dat hy hem 
daervan zalt onthouden geduyrende tdoen van de pre- 
dicatien van Gods woorts, en dat de arme Weesen 
alhier zullen genieten de gerechte helfte van de in- 
comende proffyten, en dat zulcx int geheel zullen werden 
ontfangen en gecollecteert by een persoon daertoe bij 
M ren van de Arme Weesen te stellen ende commit- 

" Aldus gedaea op ten xviij Nov. 1608." 

( Translation.') 

On the request by which the aforesaid W. Pedel 
petitioned the authorities of the city of Leyden to 
allow him to exhibit various beautiful and chaste per- 
formances with his body, without using any words, was 
determined : The authorities of this city of Leyden 
have consented and allowed the exhibitor to perform in 
the church of the Bagynhoff within this city, provided 
he cease during the preaching of God's word, and that 
the poor orphans here have half the profits, and that 
they be received and collected by a person appointed 
by the masters of the poor orphans. 

Done on the 18th November, 1608. 

In 1G;>6 English comedians came to Dordrecht, 
but were soon obliged to withdraw. About 1600 
souse appeared in Germany, who considerably di- 
minished the taste for biblical and moral pieces. 
See Dr. Schotel, Blik in de Gesch. v. h. tooneel. ; 
Gervinus, Neuere Geschichte der poetischen Na- 
tionalliteratur der Deutschen, vol. iii. pp. 96 100. 
From the Navorscher. W. D. V. 


(Vol. vii., p. 38.) 

1 am unable to reply to URSULA'S questions ; 
but I would ask permission to solicit from such 
of your better-informed correspondents as may 
become votaries to URSULA, that they would ex- 
tend the range of their genealogical pilgrimage so 
fur as to pay a visit to the ruins of Tor Abbey. I 
should be glad to learn whether either William 
Lord Briewere or William de la Bruere (both of 
whom were connected with the foundation of that 
religious house) were of the same family as Thi- 
bault de la Bruyiire, the Crusader, who is one of 
the subjects of URSULA'S inquiry. Dr. Oliver 
(Monast. Exon., note at p. 179.) thinks that these 
two William Brewers may have represented fami- 
lies originally distinct from each other : 

"There is some doubt," he says, "whether the family 
De Brueria or Brueru, which was settled in Devon at 
the time of the Domesday, and then held some of the 
lands afterwards given by W. Briwerc to Torr Abbey, 
was the same as that of the founder. In this cartulary 
the two names are spelt differently, and liriwere seems 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



to have been a purchaser of De Br'iera. See, upon 
this subject, Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 700., and 
Lysons' Devonshire, vol. i. p. 106. The names of Brie- 
guerre and De Bruera existed contemporaneously in 
Normandy. See Hot. Scacc. Norm. Indices." 

Whether these two William Brewers represented 
distinct families or not, it appears that they be- 
came closely allied by marriage. At fol.81. of an 
" Abstract of the Tor Cartulary, at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin," given by Oliver, p. 1S7., the follow- 
ing grants occur ; viz. : 

" Grant from William Briewere to William de la 
Brueria, of four librates of land in Wodeberi, with 
Engelesia his sister, in liberum maritagium, &c. 

" Grant from said William de la Bruera, with the 
assent of Engelesia his wife, of all their land in 
Grendle to William Briewere, brother of the said 
Engelesia, &c. 

" Confirmation thereof by said Engelesia." 

Both families appear to have given the name of 
Brewer to their places of residence. 

"The tything of Teign Grace" says Risdon, "an- 
ciently Teign Brewer, was in the time of King Henry 
the Second the laud of Anthony de la Brewer, whom 
divers knights of that race succeeded. Sir William de 
la Brewer, the last of the male line, left this inherit- 
ance among co-heirs, Eva, wife of Thomas le Grace, 

and Isabel, &e Concerning which lands these 

lines I found in the leger-book of the Abbey of Torr; 
' Galfridus de Breweria dominus de Teigne pro saint, 
anhnce Will, de Breweria $ Argalesia uxor tjus cone, 
abbat. de Torr liberum transitum in Teigne.' " P. 135. 

Buckland Brewer, on the other hand, derived 
Its name (according to the same authority) from 
the family of which William Lord Brewer was 
the representative. 

The Brewers appear to have founded other reli- 
gious houses, and to have held possessions in other 
parts of England. It was from Welbeck Abbey, 
in Nottinghamshire, that William Lord Briwere 
obtained subjects for his abbey at Tor ; and 
Bruern, or Temple Bruer, in Lincolnshire, be- 
longing to the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 
Clerkenwell (see Dugdale's Mouast., new edition, 
vol. vi. par. ii. p. 801.), would seem to owe its 
name to some connexion with the Brewer family, 
as did also, perhaps, Bruera in Chester, &c. 

Mention is made of a William de la Bruera 
in the History of Northamptonshire (edit. Oxon., 
1791, torn. i. p. 233.), in connexion with the town- 
ship of Grafton, to which manor Joane, his wife, 
and her sister Bruna, appear to have been co- 
heirs, as daughters of Ralph de S. Samson, temp. 
Henry III. 

William Brewer, Bishop of Exeter (brother of 
the William Lord Briewere already mentioned), 
was " put in trust " by King Henry III. " to con- 
duct his sister, the Lady Isabella,, into Germany, 
to her intended marriage with the Emperor Fre- 

deric." See Jenkins's History of Exeter, 1806, 
p. 252. 

" This Bishop Brewer also went into the Holy Land 
(transfretavit, cruce sipnat.) the eleventh of Henry the 
Third." Risdon, edit. Lond., 1811, p. 1ST. 

There was another William Brewer, a son of 
William Lord Brewer ; but he died without male 

I fear these few notices bear no very precise 
relation to URSULA'S inquiries. Still I send them, 
in the hope of discovering, by the kindness of 
some of your erudite contributors, what is the 
difference (if any) between the names La Bruyere, 
De la Bruere, and Briewere; and also whether, 
originally, these names belonged to two or three 
distinct families, or only to so many different 
branches of the same family. J. SANSOM. 

P. S. The name Bruere is probably not yet 
extinct, either in France or in England. In the 
Bodleian Library there is a letter, addressed by 
John Bruere to the clergy of the diocese of Ox- 
ford, written within the last century, and bearing 
date "May 19, 1793," " Odington, near Islip," of 
which place the author was probably the rector. 
And in the British Museum Catalogue, under the 
name of (M. de la) Bruere, is mentioned Histoire du 
Rtigne de Charlemagne, 2 torn. 12 ; Paris, 1745. 


(Vol. vii., p. 58.) 

Ma. YARRCM'S expose of Southey's singular 
blunder is perfectly just ; but it does not include 
the whole truth, a consideration of which renders 
the Inpsus even more notable and unaccountable 
than if it arose only from a want of acquaintance 
with the distribution of Roman Catholic Feria?. 

The allegation of error against the historians, 
because they had " fixed the appointed day on the 
eve of Mathias," would seem to imply that they 
might have fixed upon some other least-day with 
more correctness ; whereas there is no other in 
the calendar which could by any possibility be 
affected by leap-year : but the most extraordinary 
part of the mistake is, the ignorance it displays 
(scarcely credible in Southey) of the origin and 
etymology of the bissextile institution the very- 
subject he was criticising. 

Because the name " bissextile," as every body 
knows, arose from the repetition in leap-year of 
the identical day in question : the sixth of the 
kalends of March ; the 24th of February ; the 
feast of the Regifugium amongst the Romans ; 
and of its substitute, that of St. Mathias, amongst 
the Christians. 

It is clear, that since the Regifugium was held 
upon the sixth day before the 1st of March (both 
inclusive), that day must, according to our reckon- 



[No. 170. 

in" 1 , be the 24th of February in common years, 
and the 25th in leap-years : therefore, the super- 
numerary or superfluous day, added on account 
of leap-year, was considered to be the 24th of 
February, and not the 25th ; which latter, in those 
years, became the true " Sixth before the Kalends." 
Indeed, it is highly probable, although it cannot 
be supported by direct evidence, that the first day 
of the double sextile was distinguished from its 
name-fellow of the following day by having the 
word "bis" prefixed to sextum; so that, in leap- 
years, the 24th of February would be expressed 
as follows : " Ante diem bis-Vl Calend. Martias;" 
while the following day, or the 25th of February 
(being considered the real Simon Pure), would 
retain the usual designation of " A.D. VI Calend. 
Mar." Such an hypothesis offers a reasonable 
explanation of the seeming reversal in terms of 
calling the day which first arrived posterior, and 
that which succeeded it prior. 

Although the Church of England Calendar now 
places the feast of Saint Mathias invariably on the 
24th of February in all years, yet the earlier copies 
of the Book of Common Prayer allocated it to 
" The Sixth of the Kalends of March," without 
any direction as to which of the two days, bearing 
that name in leap-years, it should be appropriated. 
The modern Reformed Church Calendar therefore 
repudiates the usage of the Romans themselves, 
rather than that of the Roman Catholics. A. E. B. 



Portable Camera for Travellers. Your corre- 
spondent E. S. asks for a clear description of a 
camera that will supersede the necessity of a dark 
room. Mr. Stokes has invented one ; and in the 
early part of the photographic exhibition at the 
Society of Arts it was exhibited. The weight of 
the camera is only nine pounds, including focus- 
sing-glass, lens, shutter, &c. The shutter is so ar- 
ranged that it will contain from twelve to twenty 
pieces of prepared paper, each piece between 
separate sheets of blotting-paper. Light and air 
are completely excluded, by the paper being 
pressed by the front portion of the shutter. When 
required for use, the first piece of paper is placed 
at the back of the glass. By the assistance of a 
small hood, the impression is then taken ; and, by 
removing the millboard, the paper will fall back 
into its place. At the same time another piece can 
be brought forward, ready for a second picture, 
before focussing, and so on to the end. The hood 
is made of India rubber cloth, and answers the 
purpose of a focussing cloth, without the trouble 
of removing it from the camera throughout the 
day. The size of the pictures that can be taken 
by it is 9 by 12 inches. It has been tried during 

the latter part of the last year, and proved most 
successful. PHILIP H. DELAMOTTE. 


The Albumen Process. I shall be greatly 
obliged to DR. DIAMOND, or any other photo- 
grapher, by their kindly communicating through 
your medium their experience with albumenized 
glass. I have Thornthwaite's Guide to Photography. 

I should like answers to the following Queries : 

Must the albumen be poured off from the plate 
after it is spread over the surface, in the same 
manner as collodion ? 

Is the plate (while roasting, according to the 
process of Messrs. Thompson and Ross) nearly 
perpendicular in the process ? 

Will the iodized albumen, for giving the film,, 
keep ; and how long ? 

How long will the plate retain its sensitiveness 
after exciting ? 

May the same sensitive bath be used for a 
number of plates without renewing, in the same 
way as silver bath for collodion ? 

In conclusion, what is the average time with 
single achromatic lens, six or seven inch focus, ta 
allow to get a good picture ? 

Will photographers who are chemists turn their 
attention to obtain sensitive dry glass plates ? for 
I think there can scarcely be any doubt of the 
advantage of glass over paper for small pictures- 
(weight, expense, &c., are perhaps drawbacks for 
pictures larger than 5x4 inches) ; but the desi- 
deratum is a sensitiveness nearly equal to collo- 
dion, and a plate that can be used dry. 



Slack Tints of French Photographers. Can 
you inform me, through the medium of your valu- 
able periodical, how those beautiful black tints, so 
much prized in the French prints from photo- 
graphic negatives, are obtained? By so doing 
you will give great pleasure to several excellent 
amateur photographers, and especially your con- 
stant reader, PHILOPHOTOG. 

Originator of the Collodion Process. As some 
think the credit of the invention of the collodion 
process a matter of dispute, will you allow me to 
remind your correspondents that the truth will be 
much easier to discover if they will confine them- 
selves to actual facts? 

In No. 167., p. 47., G. C. first recklessly accuses 
MR. ARCHER of untruth, and then tests his own 
claim to truth by quoting from Le Gray's edition 
of 1852, to prove Le Gray's edition of 1850. Why 
did he not go back at once to the 1850 edition; 
and if that contains anything like an intelligible 
process, why is it altogether omitted from Le 
Gray's edition of 1851, which was the one MR. 
ARCHER spoke of, and correctly ? 

JAN. 2 9/1 853.] 



The history of collodion is (as far as I know) 
this. In September, 1850, DR. DIAMOND invited 
me to meet MR. ARCHER at his house, and for the 
first time MR. ARCHER produced some prepared 
collodion, a portion of which identical sample DR. 
DIAMOND now has in his possession. 

MR. ARCHER had then been trying it some five 
or six weeks. His experiments then went on, and 
in March, 1851, he published it in the Chemist 
Let any of your readers procure that Number, 
and compare MR. ARCHER'S claim with Le Gray's, 
who, in 1852, states that he published it in 1850, 
and gave " the best method that has been dis- 
covered up to the present time ;" and yet, singu- 
larly enough, in his edition of 1851, leaves out this 
lest method entirely. W. BROWN. 


Developing Paper Pictures with Pyrogallic Acid, 
Sfc. Have any of your photographic correspon- 
dents tried developing their paper negatives with 
pyrogallic acid ? If so, perhaps he would favour 
the readers of "N. & Q." with the result of his 

In DR. DIAMOND'S process for paper negatives, 
he says the paper, after the iodizing solution has 
been applied, must be dried before soaking in 
water. I wish to ask whether it may be dried 
quickly by the fire, or must it be dried sponta- 
neously by suspension, &c. ? Again, how long 
must the paper remain on the sensitive mixture : 
must it be placed on the sensitive solution, and 
immediately taken off and blotted, or placed on 
the sensitive solution, and after some time (what 
time ?) taken off and immediately blotted ? 

Have any of your readers substituted iodide of 
ammonium for iodide of potassium, in preparing 
paper, collodion, &c., and with what success ? 
And have they substituted nitrate of zinc for 
glacial acetic acid, as recommended in a French 
work, with any success ? 11. J. F. 

to iHtnor 

Waterloo (Vol. vii., p. 82.). P. C. S. S. con- 
ceives that it may be interesting to PHILOBIBLION 
to learn that the greatest man in the world was not 
ignorant of the passage in Strada regarding Water- 
loo, to which PIIILOUIDLION refers. From a diary 
kept for some years, it appears that on Saturday, 
the 30th of October, 1843, P. C. S. S., who was 
then on a visit at Walmer Castle, had the pleasure 
of directing the Duke of Wellington's attention to 
the passage in question, as translated by Du llyer 
(Paris, 1665). He well remembers that the Duke 
seemed to be greatly struck with it ; that he more 
than once referred to it, in subsequent conversa- 
tions ; and that on the following day he requested 
P. C. S. S. to furnish him with a transcript, which 

he doubts not might still be found among the 
Duke's papers. P. C. S. S. 

Your correspondent PHILOBIBLION has been led 
into a double error by a similarity of name. The 
pagus Waterloeus mentioned by Strada is the 
French village of Wattrelo, in the modern De- 
partement du Nord, about six miles to the north- 
east of Lille. J. S. 


Irish Peerages (, p. 604.). The book 
alluded to by D. X. as professing to give pedigrees 
of ennobled Irish families, may be the contempt- 
ible Letters to George IV., by Captain Rock, a 
miserable attempt at a continuation of Moore's 
Memoirs of that mystic personage. Some half of 
the former book contains libellous notices of the 
"low origin" of the Irish nobility. Can your 
correspondent refer me to the play in which there 
is some sneer that " the housemaid is cousin to an 
Irish peer ? " H. 

Martha Blount (Vol. vii., p. 38.). An engrav- 
ing of this lady, from " an original picture, in the 
collection of 'Michael Blount, Esq., at Maple- 
Darham," is prefixed to the tenth volume of 
Pope's Works by Bowles, 1806. W. A. 

In reply to MR. A. F. WESTMACOTT (Vol. vii., 
p. 38.), I have, in my collection of engraved por- 
traits, one of the subject of his inquiry, " Martha 
Blount." It is in stipple, by Picart, after a picture 
by Gardner. I have no idea the portrait is rare, 
and think your correspondent may easily procure 
it among the printsellers in London. J. BURTON. 

Quotations wanted (Vol. vii., p. 40.). Bacon, in 
his Essay " Of Studies," has this sentence : 

" And if he read little, he had need have much cun- 
ning, to seem to know that he doth not." 
which is perhaps the reference Miss Edgeworth 

" A world without a sun," is from Campbell's 
Pleasures of Hope, Part II. line 24. : 
" And say, without our hopes, without our fears, 
Without the home that plighted love endears, 
Without the smile from partial heauty won, 
Oh ! what were man? a world without a sun." 

I beg to add a parallel from Burns : 

" What is life, when wanting love ? 

Night without a morning : 
Love's the cloudless summer sun, 
Nature gay adorning." 

See the song beginning : 

" Thine am I, my faithful fair." 

East Sheen, Surrey. 


[No. 17 


Pepyss Moreno. (Vol. vi., pp. 342. 373.). In 
the note on this word in the last edition of the 
Diary, it is stated that it may be read either 
"Morma" or "Morena." There is little doubt 
but the latter is the correct reading. " Morena" 
is good Portuguese for a brunette, and may have 
been used by Pepys as a term of endearment for 
Miss Dickens, like the "Colleen dhas dhun " of 
the Irish, which has much the same meaning. 
The marriage of the king to Catherine of Bra- 
ganza in the previous year would have caused her 
language to be more studied at this time, espe- 
cially by persons about the court. Morma has no 
meaning whatever. J. S. WARDEN. 

Goldsmiths Year-marks (Vol. vi., p. 604. ; 
Vol. vii., p. 90.). I observe that, a, few weeks 
ago, in the "N. Q..," one of your correspondents 
made inquiries respecting the publication of my 

giper on plate-marks, which was read at the 
ristol meeting of the Archasological Institute. 

In reply, I beg to inform him that he will find, 
in the last two Numbers of the Journal of the 
Institute, the first and second parts of the paper, 
and that the concluding portion of it, and I hope 
also the table of annual letters, will appear in the 
forthcoming Number. Should it not be possible 
to get the table in a fit state for printing in that 
Number, it will appear in the next ; and the whole 
subject of the assay marks of British plate will then 
be complete. OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 

The Friars. 

Turners View of Lambeth Palace (Vol. vii., 

B3. 15. 89.). In reply to your correspondent 
. E. X., respecting Mr. Turner's picture of Lam- 
beth Palace (which is in water-colours), I beg leave 
to say that it is in the possession of a lady residing 
in Bristol, to whose father it was given by the 
artist after its exhibition at Somerset House, and 
it has never been in any other hands. The same 
lady has also a small portrait of Mr. Turner, done 
by himself when visiting her family about the year 
1791 or 1792 : further particulars respecting these 
pictures (if desired) may be known by a line ad- 
dressed to Miss N , 8. St. James' Square, 

Bristol. ANON. 

J. II. A., after referring to the exhibition at the 
Royal Academy in 1791, by Mr. Turner, of " King 
John's Palace, Eltham " (No. 494.), and " Sweak- 
ley, near Uxbridgc " (No. 560.), adds : 

" In the horizon of art (strange to say, and yet to he 
explained!) this luminary glows no more till 1808, 
when he had 'on the line' (?) several views of Font- 
hill, as well as ' The Tenth .Plague of Egypt.'" 

A reference to the catalogues of the Royal 
Academy exhibitions will prove that Mr. Turner's 
name appears as an exhibitor there every year 
between 1790 and 1850, excepting the years 1821, 

1 824, and 1 848. Several views of Fonthill Abbey, 
and " The Fifth (not the Tenth) Plague of Egypt," 
were exhibited in 1800, and "The Tenth Plague 
of Egypt "in 1802. G. B. 

" For God will be your King to-day " (Vol. vii., 
p. 67.). In reply to your querist H. A. S. with 
respect to the above line, I believe that it belongs 
not to Somersetshire, but to Ireland ; not to Moil- 
mouth's rebellion, but to the civil wars of 1690. 

It is the closing couplet of a stanza in the po- 
pular ballad on the " Battle of the Boyne." 

A very perfect copy of this ballad will be found 
in Wilde's Beauties of the Boyne, p. 271., beginning 

"July the first, of a morning clear, 

One thousand six hundred and ninety, 

King William did his men prepare 
Of thousands he had thirty, 

To fight King James and all his host, 
Encamp'd near the Boyne water," &c. 

The passage from which the lines in question 
are taken is as follows : 

" When that King William he observed, 
The brave Duke Schomberg falling, 
He rein'd his horse with a heavy heart, 
On the Enniskilleners calling. 

" What will you do for me, brave boys? 

See yonder men retreating ; 
Our enemies encouraged are, 
And English drums are beating.' 

" He says, ' My boys feel no dismay, 
At the losing of one commander, 
For God shall be our King this day, 
And I'll be general under.' " 

W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

The lines here referred to occur in the old 
ballad of Boyne. Water, some fragments of which 
are given in Duffy's Ballad Poetry of Ireland, 
5th edition, p. 248. They are supposed to have 
been spoken by William 111. on the death of the 
Duke Schomberg. 
" Both horse and foot they marched on, intending them 

to batter, 
But the brave Duke Schomberg he was shot, as he 

crossed over the watf r. 
When that King William he observed the brave Duke 

Schomberg falling, 

He rein'd his horse, with a heavy heart, on the Ennis- 
killeners calling: 
' What will you do for me, brave boys ? See yonder 

men retreating ; 
Our enemies encouraged are, and English drums are 

He says, ' My boys, feel no dismay at the losing of 

one commander, 

For God shall be our King this day, and I'll he 
general under.' " 

JAX. 29. 1853.] 



The lines quoted "by your correspondent also 
occur in the more modern song of The Battle of 
the Boy?ie, -which may be found at p. 144. of Mr. 
Duffy's work. THOMPSON COOPER. 


[We are indebted to many other correspondents for 
similar Replies to tbis Query.] 

Jennings Family (Vol. vii., p. 95.). I am much 
obliged to PERCURIOSUS for his reply to my Query. 
The William Jennings, who was Sheriff of Corn- 
wall in 1678, an admiral, and knighted by King 
James II. (see Le Neve's Knights, Harleian MS. 
5801.), was most probably descended from the 
Yorkshire family of that name, his escutcheon 
being the same. The Francis who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Henry Spoure of Trebartha, was 
descended from the Shropshire family, whose arms 
were Ermine, a lion rampant, gules quartered 
with those of Jay, as recorded in the Visitation by 
Henry, the son of Francis. This Francis died 
about 1610-11. His will (the executor being 
Henry Spoure) was proved at Doctors' Commons 
in 1611. But what I particularly wanted to ascer- 
tain was, whether Rowland, who is the first that 
occurs in the Cornish Visitation, was the first who 
settled in Cornwall. I have inquired at the He- 
ralds' College, but can gain no further information 
than that to be found in the Visitations of Salop 
and Cornwall in the British Museum. PERCURI- 
osus would gratify my curiosity, if he would 
kindly inform me where the Spoure MSS. are to 
be seen. They are not to be found in the British 
Museum. I have always thought that they were 
in the hands of some member of the llodd family, 
whose ancestor (a Life Guardsman) was about to 
be married to the heiress of all the Spoures, but 
she, dying before the marriage, left him all her 
. estates, Trebartha among the rest which is in the 
possession of the family to this day. 


P. S. I inclose my card, in order that PERCU- 
mosus (who evidently knows something of the 
family) may communicate personally or by letter. 
I think that I might possibly be able to give him 
some information in return 1'or his kindness. 

The Furze or Gorse in Scandinavia (Vol. vi., 
pp. 127. 377.). Henfrey, in his Vegetation of 
Europe, states that the furze ( Ulex Europaus) 
occurs, but not abundantly, in the south-western 
parts of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is well 
known that in Central Germany it is a greenhouse 
plant. SEJ.EUCUS. 

Mistletoe (Vol. ii., p. 418. ; Vol. iii., pp. 192. 226. 
396. 462.). There is in the parish of Staveley, 
Derbyshire, a solitary mansion called the Ha<g, 
erected by Sir Peter Frescheville, in what wasat 
that time a park of considerable extent, for a 

hunting lodge, when age and infirmity prevented 
him from otherwise enjoying the pleasures of the 
chase. In one of Colepeper's MSS. at the British 
Museum, there is the following curious notice of 
this house : 

" This is the Parke House which Sir Peter Fres- 
cheville, in his will, 16th March, 1632, calls my new- 
Lodge in Staveley Parke. Heare my Lord Fresche- 
ville did live, and heare grou-es the famous mis/leto 
tree, the only oake in England that bears mistleto, which 
florished at my deare Wife's birth, who was born 

I presume it is the same which is referred to in 
the following letter addressed by the Countess of 
Danby to Mrs. Colepeper ; it is without date, but 
was written between 1663 and 1682 : 

" Dear Cosen. Pray if you have any of the miselto 
of yo r father's oke, oblidge me so far as to send sum of 
it to 

Yo r most affectionat servant, BRIDGET D.VNBT.'* 

The oak tree still exists, and in 1803 it con- 
tained mistletoe, but there is none to be seen now. 
About a quarter of a mile from this locality I ob- 
served the mistletoe in a large crab-tree, and I 
recently found it in a venerable yew of many cen- 
turies' growth near Sheffield. W. S. (Sheffield.) 

Inscription on a Dagger (Vol. vii., p. 40.). 
These lines form a Dutch proverb, and, if thus 
written, rhyme : 

" Die een peninck wint ende behovt 
Die macht verteren als hi wort owt. 
Had ick dat bedocht in min ionge dagen 
Dorst ick het in min ovtheit niel beklagen." 

Which being interpreted inform us that, He who- 
gains a penny, and saves it, may live on it when 
he becomes old. Had I minded this in my youth- 
ful days, I should not have to complain in my old 
age. J. S. 


Steevens (Vol. ii., p. 476. ; Vol. iii., p. 230. ; 
Vol. vi., pp. 412. 531.). Steevens's will contains 
no mention of any portrait of himself, nor any 
other except his picture of " Mr. Garriek and 
Mrs. Gibber, in the characters of Jaffier and Bel- 
videra, painted by Zottanij," which he bequeaths 
to George Keate, Esq. He gives to Miss Char- 
lotte Collins of Graffham, near Midhurst, daughter 
of the late Christopher and Margaret Collins of 
Midhurst, 5001. To his cousin Mary Collinson 
(late Mary Steevens), wife of William Collinson 
of Narrow Street, llatcliffe Cross, Middlesex, 
300Z. for a ring (so in my copy). The residue of 
his property he gives to his dearest cousin Eliza- 
beth Steevens of Poplar, spinster, and appoints 
her sole executrix of his will. A copy of the will 
can be met with in the ninth volume of the 
Monthly Mirror for 1800. W. S. (Sheffield.) 



[No. 170. 

"Life is like a Game of Tables" Sfc. (Vol. vii., 
p. 40.). The sentiment is very possibly "from 
Jeremy Taylor," but it is not his own. It occurs 
in Terence's Adelphi and Plato's Commonwealth. 

A. A. D. 


The issue by the Shakspeare Society of an edition of 
the Notes and Emendations to the Text of Shakspeare's 
Plays from early MS. Corrections in a Copy of the Folio 
1632, in the Possession of J. Payne Cottier, Esq., affords 
an opportunity, of which we gladly avail ourselves, to 
recall attention to a volume which is unquestionably 
the most important contribution to Shakspearian lite- 
rature which has issued from the press for many years. 
Although we have no evidence of the authority upon 
which these Notes and Emendations were made, an ex- 
amination of them must, we think, convince even the 
most sceptical, that they were made upon authority, 
and are not the result of clever criticism and happy 
conjecture. The readers of " N. & Q." know well 
what discussions have been raised upon such phrases as 
" Prenzie Angelo," " Whose mother was her painting," 
" Kibaudred nag," " Most busy, least when I do it," 
&c. The writer of the Notes and Emendations, now 
first published, has given in these, and hundreds of 
other difficult and disputed passages, corrections which 
are consistent with Shakspeare's character as the poet 
of common sense. He converts the "prenzie Angelo" 
into the "priestly," and the "prenzie guards'" into 
" priestly garb." So that the passage now reads 

" Claud. The priestly Angelo. 

hob. O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell, 
The damned'st body to invest and cover 
In priestly garb." 

In the passages to which we have referred above, 
" whose mother was her painting," is changed into 
*' who smothers her with painting ; " " rihraudred nag " 
into " ribald hag ; " and the passage from The Tempest 
is made plain 

" Most busy blest when I do it." 

We think these examples are sufficient to make all 
lovers of Shakspeare anxious not only to examine the 
present volume, but to see the promised new edition 
of his works, in which Mr. Collier proposes to give the 
text as corrected by this great, although unknown au- 

The meeting for the establishment of the Photo- 
graphic Society, held on Thursday week at the Society 
of Arts, was most numerously attended. The Society 
was formed, Sir Charles Eastlake elected president for 
the first year, Mr. Fenton honorary secretary, and Mr. 
Roslyn treasurer. The subscription was fixed at one 
guinea, with an admission fee of the same amount. 

At a recent meeting of the Surtees Society, it was 
announced that the works in progress for this year are 
the Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York (to be 
edited by the Rev. W. Greenwell), and a volume of 
Wills and Inventories from the Registry at Richmond, by 

Mr. Raine, Jun. The books for 1854 are to be the 
Northumbro-Saxon translation of The Gospel of St. 
Matthew, to be edited by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, 
and the Inventories and Account Rolls of the Monasteries 
of Monkw ear mouth and Jarrow until the Dissolution, 
which will appear under the editorship of the Rev. 
James Raine. 

The Corporation of London Library is being thrown 
open to all literary men ; the tickets of admission 
being accompanied by letters expressive of a wish that 
the holders should make frequent use of them. This is 
an act of becoming liberality, worthy of imitation in 
other quarters. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. History of England from the 
Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713 1783, 
by Lord Mahon, vol. i. This is the first volume of 
a new and revised edition of this history of a most 
important period in our national annals, by the noble 
President of the Society of Antiquaries. The Ethno- 
logy of the British Islands, by 11. G. Latham, M. D. 
The value of all Dr. Latham's researches, whether into 
the history of our language, or of the races by which 
these islands have been successively inhabited, is so 
fully recognised, that we may content ourselves by 
merely calling attention to the publication of this able 
little volume. On the Lessons in Proverbs : Five Lec- 
tures, -c., by the Rev. 11. C. Trench. Those who 
know the value of Mr. Trench's admirable lectures 
On the Study of Words, will find in this companion 
volume, in which he attempts to sound the depths and 
measure the real significance of National Proverbs, a 
book which will give them a pleasant hour's reading, 
and subjects for many pleasant hours' meditation. 




HILDKOP. Lond. 1751. 

DE LA CKOIX'S CONNUBIA FLOHUM. Bathoniae, 1791. 8vo. 
REID'S HISTORICAL BOTANY. Windsor, 182G. 3 vols. 12mo. 


TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 18311839. 

MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second 

Edition. 1813. 

SPHCTATOH. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753. 


Christ. Plantin. ; or any of the works of Costerus in any lan- 


GUARDIAN. l'2mo. 

WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Lftter to English Working Men, 
by a Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 184A 





JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. I. 

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol.1. Macrone, 

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 
12mo. 1808. 

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789. j 

JAN. 29. 1853.] 



OTWAY. VoU. I. and II. 8vo. 17R8. 

EDMOXDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780. 



BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vol.) Vol. II. 

RAPIN'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 8vo. Vols. I., III. and V. of 


** Correspondents sending Lists of Book* Wanted are requested 
to send their names. 

, Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MIL BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


DICK THE TREBLE will find the Gloucestershire Ballad George 
Ridler's Oven in our 4th Volume, p. 311. 

HOGMANAY. Our Correspondent 3. BD., who inquires the ety- 
mology of this word, is referred to Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary 
and Brand's Popular Antiquities (ed. Bonn, 1849), vol.i. p. 400., 
Jor the very numerous and contradictory derivations which the 
teamed have given of it. 

W. W. (Stilton.) The stone of which our Correspondent has 
forwarded an impression appears to be one of those gems called 
Abraxas, vsed by the Gnostic and Basilidian heretics. On it is a 
double serpent, and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet, 
A E H I O T f!, which constantly appear on their engraved stones, 
and to which they referred certain mystical ideas. These were 
worn as amulets : sometimes used as love charms ; and our Cor- 
respondent will find some curious facts about them in an old Greek 
papyrus just published by Mr. Godwin, in the Proceedings or 
Transactions of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

C. E. F. is informed that Mr. Eaton's proportion of ten grains 
of salt to the pint is quite correct y and he will find it produce a 
most agreeable tint. 

G. S. " The Cataract of Lodore" trill 6? found in Longman's 
one-volume edition (1850) ofSouthey's Poetical Works, p. 1<>4. 

Rum. We have several communications for this Correspondent. 
How may they beforu-arded ? 

ROSA, who asks about Men of Kent and Kentish Men, it referred" 
to our 5th Vol., p. 322. 

I. N. (Leicester.) There mitst be somel/ifng wrong in the pre- 
paration of your chemicals. Consult the directions given in our 
A'ox. 151, 152. We have seen some glass negatives of landscapes 
taken by Dn. DIAMOND during the past week, which have all the 
intensity which can be desired. The time of exposure in these 
cases has varied from fifteen to sixty seconds, the lens used being 
a single meniscus. 

AMBER VARNISH. Our Correspondent LITTLELENS will find the 
directions for making this in No. 153. p. 320. // will be reprinted 
in the Photographic Notes announced in our advertising columns. 

mind writers on Photograph!/ that, DR. DIAMOND being about to 
republish his Photographic Notes, the reprinting of them by any 
other parties would be uncouricousnot to say piratical. 

SIR W. NEWTON'S Calotype Process in our next. His first 
communication wai in type before the amended copy reached us. 

Errata. P. 90. col. 1. for "immiscuernt" read "immiR- 
ciien'nt." P. 86. col. 1. for "honour" read "humour." P. 84. 
col. 1. lines 46. and 48., for " Trajecteasem" read " Trajec- 

We again repeat that we cannot undertake to recommend any 
particular houses for the purchase of photographic instruments, 
chemicals, Sfc. We can only refer our Correspondents on suck 
subjects to our advertising columns. 

OUR. SIXTH VOLUME, strongly bound in cloth, with very copious 
Index, is now ready, price 10. 6d. Arrangements are makinir 
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" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so thnt 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

Just published, fcp. 8vo., iv*., 

jj with the Mad Pranks and Comical Con- 
ceits of Motley and Robin Goodfellow : to 
which are added Notes Festivous, &c. By 
GEORGE DANIEL, Author of" Merrie Eng- 
land in the Olden Time," " The Modern Dun- 
ciad," &c. 

"An exquisite metrical conceit, sparkling 
with wit and humour, in the true spirit of 
Aristophanes, in which Democritus guides his 
brilliant and merry muse through every fan- 
tastic measure, evincing grace in the most gro- 
tesque attitudes. As a relief to his cutting 
sarcasm and fun, the laughing philosopher has 
introduced some fine descriptive scenes, and 
passages of deep pathos, eloquence, and beauty. 
Not the least remarkable feature in this very 
remarkable book are the recondite and curious 
notes, at once so critical and philosophical, so 
varied and so amusing, so full of interesting 
anecdote and racy reminiscences. See -4 the- 
iiaeum. Critic, &c. 

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly. 

newly arranged by JOHN BISHOP, of 
Itenham, from his large folio edition, in- 
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tion contains the Appendix, and is printed on 
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Also, their MUSICAL ALMANACK for 
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This approved Paper is particularly 
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JL ANGLICAN CHURCH ; illustrated 
with Brief Accounts of the Saints who have 
Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose 
Images are most frequently met with in Eng- 
land ; also the Early Christian and Mediaeval 
Symbols, and an Index of Emblems. 

" It is perhaps hardly necessary to observe, 
that this work is of an Archajological, and not 
a Theological character. The Editor has not 
considered it his business to examine into the 
truth or falsehood of the legends of which he 
narrates the substance ; he gives them merely 
as legends, and, in general, so much of them, 
only as is necessary to explain why particular 
emblems were used with a particular Saint, or 
why Churches in a given locality are named 
after this or that Saint." I'ref ace. 

" The latter part of the book, on the early 
Christian and medieval symbols, and on eccle- 
siastical emblems, is of great historical and 
architectural value. A copious Index of em- 
blems is added, as well as a general Index to. 
the volume with its numerous illustrations. 
The work is an important contribution to 
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ment of ecclesiastical iconography." Literary 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 




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Lists of Prices to be had on application. 
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[No. 170: 




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When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 171.] 


C Price Foiirpence. 
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Jacob Grimm on the Genius and Vocation of the English 
Language - - - - * 

Preservation of valuable Papers from Damp ; Drying 
Closets - - - - ",_ 

Position of the Clergy in the Seventeenth Century, by 
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General Wolfe .----- 

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FOLK LORE : Baptismal Custom Subterranean Bells 
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Ethnology of England Pitt of Pimperne- " The 
Bottle Department " of the Beer-trade - - 134 


Bishop Pursglove (Suffragan) of Hull, by John I. 

Dredge, &c. ------ 135 

The Gregorian Tones, by Dr. E.F. Rimbault - - 13fi 

Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. Sc. 2., by Thos. Keightley 1 

Niagara or Niagara, by Robert Wright - - - 137 

Drengase, by Wm. Sidney Gibson - - - 137 

Chatterton - - - -.- - -138 

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VOL. VII. No. 171. 


I send you a very eloquent tribute to the genius, 
and power of the English language by Jacob 
Grimm, extracted from a paper entitled " Ueber 
den Ursprung der Sprache," read before the Royal 
Academy of Berlin, January 9, 1851, and con- 
tained in the Transactions of that Society, "Section 
of Philology and History for 1851," p. 135. : Ber- 
lin, 4to., 1-852 : 
" Jacob Grimm Ueber den Urspruny der Sprache. Ab- 

handlungen der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften 

zu Berlin, 1851. 

" Keine, unter alien neueren Sprachen, hat geradc 
durch das Aufgeben und Zemitten alter Lautgesetze, 
(lurch den Wegfall beinahe sammtlicher FJexionen, 
eine grbssere Kraft und Starke empfangen, als die 
Englische, und von ihrer nicht einmal lekrbaren, nur 
lernbaren Fiille freier Mitteltbne ist eine wesentliche 
Gewalt des Ausdrucks abhangig geworden, wie sic 
vielleicht noch nie einer andern menschlichen Zunge 
zu Gebote stand. Ihre ganze iiberaus geistige, wun- 
derbar gegliickte Anlage und Durchbildung war her- 
vorgegangen aus einer uberraschenden Vermahlung 
der beiden edelsten Sprachen des spateren Europas, der 
Germanischen und Roinanischen, und bekannt ist, wie 
im Englischen sich beide zu einander veihalten, indem 
jene bei weitem die sinnliche Grundlage hergab, diese 
die geistigen Begriffe zufiihrte. Ja, die Englische 
Sprache, von der nicht umsonst auch der grbsste und 
uberlegenste Dichter der neuen Zeit im Gegens.itz 
zur classischen alien Poesie, ich kann natiirlich nur 
Shakespeare meinen, gezeugt und getragen worden ist, 
sie dart' mit vollem Recht eine Weltsprache heissen, 
und scheint gleich dem Englischen Volke ausersehn 
kiinftig noch in hbherem Masse an alien Enden der 
Erde zu walten. Denn an Reichthum, Vernunft und 
gedrangter Fiige lasst sich keine aller noch lebenden 
Sprachen ihr an die Seite sctzen, auch unsere Deutsche 
nicht, die zerrissen ist, wie wir selbst zerrissen sind, 
und erst manche Gebrechen von sich abschiitteln 
miisste, ehe sie kiihn mit in die Laufbahn trate." 

( Translation.) 

Of all modern languages, not one has acquired such 
great strength and vigour as the English. It has 
accomplished this by simply freeing itself from the 
ancient phonetic laws, and casting off almost all inflee- 



[No. 171. 

tions; whilst, from its abundance of intermediate sounds 
[Mitteltone*], tones not even to be taught, but only to 
be learned, it has derived a characteristic power of 
expression such as perhaps was never yet the property 
of any other human tongue. Its highly spiritual genius, 
and wonderfully happy development, have proceeded 
from a surprisingly intimate alliance of the two oldest 
languages of modern Europe the Germanic and Ro- 
manesque, "j" It is well known in what relation these 
stand to one another in the English language. The 
former supplies the material groundwork, the latter 
the higher mental conceptions. Indeed, the English 
language, which has not in vain produced and sup- 
ported the greatest, the most prominent of all modern 
poets (I allude, of course, to Shakspeare), in contra- 
distinction to the ancient classical poetry, may be called 
justly a LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD : and seems, like the 
English nation, to be destined to reign in future with 
still more extensive sway over all parts of the globe. 
For none of all the living languages can be compared 
with it as to richness, rationality, and close con- 
struction [Vernunft und gedrangter Fiige], not even 
the German which has many discrepancies like our 
nation, and from which it would be first obliged to free 
itself, before it could boldly enter the lists with the 
English. . 

I transmit the text, as many of your readers 
may prefer the extract as most "foreign extracts" 
are preferred "neat as imported:" although, 
owing to the kindness of a friend, it is fairly repre- 
sented in the translation. It is however very 
difficult to find words which precisely express the 
meaning of German scientific terms. S. H. 


The desiccative powers of lime are familiar to 
chemists, and, I believe, to many practical men ; 
but I do not know of lime having been used for 
the above purpose. 

A strong chest, in my possession, containing im- 
portant " papers (title-deeds, marriage certificates, 
&c.), gradually became damp, and subjected its 
contents to a slow process of decay. This arose, I 
found, from a defect in its construction, wood 
having been improperly introduced into the latter, 
and concealed ; so that some singular chemical 
compounds would appear to have been formed. 
The papers were gradually injured to an extent 
enforcing attention ; and the process continued in 
them after their removal into a well-constructed 
chest, giving me the impression of a process re- 
sembling the action of a ferment. Several attempts 

* MitteJtone are those sounds which stand between 
the three fundamental vowels, a , i , n, as pronounced 
by the continental nations. 

f Romanesque. Those languages \vhieh have de- 
scended from the Latin, as the Spanish, Frank, or 
French, &c. 

were made to dry them by fires, the rays of the 
sun, &c.; but the damp was always renewed. 

They were thoroughly dried in a very few days, 
and permanently kept dry, by placing and keeping 
in the chest a box containing a little quicklime. 

At a later period, a large closet, so damp as to 
render articles mouldy, was thoroughly dried, and 
kept dry, by a box containing lime. 

The chest was about 2 feet 6 inches, by 2 feet 
1 inch, and 1 foot 8 inches; and the box placed 
in it for several months was about 1 foot 2J- 
inches, by 8| inches, and 3 inches. After about a 
year, although no very perceptible damp was dis- 
covered, yet, in consequence of the value of the 
papers, and the beauty of some of them as manu- 
scripts, I introduced two such boxes. These pro- 
portions were selected to enable the boxes to stand 
conveniently on a shelf -with account-books and 
packages of papers. 

The closet is about 11 feet 4 inches, by 2, irre- 
gular dimensions, which I estimate at about 6 feet, 
and 2 feet 4 inches. The box used in this case is 
1 foot 4 inches, by 1 1 inches, and 7 inches. 

The lime should be in pieces of a suitable size. 
For the chest, I prefer pieces about the size of a 
large English walnut ; for the closet, of an orange. 

It is necessary either that the box should be 
strongly made, or be formed of tin, or other metal, 
on account of the lateral expansive force of the 
lime. Room for expansion upwards is not suffi- 
cient protection. The same expansion renders it 
necessary that the box should not be more than 
two-fifths filled with fresh lime. 

I leave the tops open. If covered, they must be 
so disposed that the air within the boxes shall freely 
communicate with that of the chest or closet. 

I have used these boxes several years, and only 
changed the lime once a year. B. H. C. 



The Proceedings and Papers of the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Session IV., 
1851-2, include a paper contributed by Thomas 
Doming Hibbert, of the Middle Temple, Esq., 
being the second of a series of " Letters relating 
to Lancashire and Cheshire, temp. James I., 
Charles I., and Charles II." 

One of these letters, written in or about the 
year 1605, by the Rev. William Batemanne, from 
Ludgarsall (Ludgar's Hall), "a parish which lies 
in the counties of Oxford and Bucks," and ad- 
dressed " to his louinge father Ihon Batemanne, 
alderman at Maxfelde" (Macclesfield), contains, 
as the learned contributor remarks, " strong con- 
firmation of Mr. Macaulay's controverted state- 
ment, that the country clergy occupied a very 
humble position in the sixteenth and seventeenth 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



centuries." He adds, that " no clergyman could 
now be found who would think of sending his 
sister to an inn to learn household matters." 

The Rev. William Batemanne, " who appears to 
Lave been educated at Oxford," writes thus : 

" . . . . My sister Katren is placed in a verie good 
house in Bissiter [Bicester], wher shea shall learne to 
doe all manner of thinges that belongc to a good hus- 
wyfe. It is a vitailinge house greatlie occupied. Shea 
shall not learne onelie to dresse meate and drinke ex- 
-cellent well, but allso bruinge, bakinge, winnowinge, 
with all other thinges theirunto appertaininge, for they 
are verie rich folkes, and verie sharpe and quicke both 
of them. The cause why my Ant received her not, as 
shea answered us, was because all this winter shea in- 
tendeth to have but one servant woman, and shea 
thought my sister was not able to doe all her worke, 
because shea imagined her to be verie raw in theire 
countrey worke, w ch thinge trewlie shea that hath her 
now did thinke, and theirefore her wage is the slen- 
derer, but xvj 8 [16s.], w ch in this place is counted no- 
thinge in effecte for such a strong woman as shea is; 
but I bringinge her to Bissiter uppon Wednesday, 
beinng Michaelmas even, told her dame the wage was 
verie small, and said I trusted shea would mend it if 
shea proved a good girle, as I had good hope shea 
would. Quoth I, it will scarce bye her hose and 
shooes. Nay, saith shea, I will warrant her have so 
much given her before the yeare be expyred, and by 
God's helpe that w ch wants I myselfe will fill upp as 

much as I am able " 



I copy the following interesting Note from the 
London Chronicle, August 19, 1788 ; 

" It is a circumstance not generally known, but be- 
lieved by the army which served under General Wolfe, 
that his death-wound was not received by the common 
chance of war, but given by a deserter from his own 
regiment. The circumstances are thus related : The 
General perceived one of the sergeants of his regiment 
strike a man under arms (an act against which he had 
given particular orders), and knowing the man to be a 
: good soldier, reprehended the aggressor with much 
warmth, and threatened to reduce him to the ranks. 
This so far incensed the sergeant, that he took the first 
opportunity of deserting to the enemy, where he medi- 
tated the means of destroying the General, which he 
effected by being placed in the enemy's left wing, which 
was directly opposite the right of the British line, where 
Wolfe commanded in person, and where he was marked 
out by the miscreant, who was provided with a rifle 
piece, and, unfortunately for this country, effected his 
purpose. After the defeat of the French army, the 
deserters were all removed to Crown Point, which being 
afterwards suddenly invested and taken by the British 
army, the whole of the garrison fell into the hands of 
the captors ; when the sergeant of whom we have been 
speaking was banged for desertion, but before the 

execution of his sentence confessed the facts above 

In Smith's Marylebone, p. 272., is a notice of 
Lieutenant M'Culloch, according to whose plan 
Wolfe attacked Quebec. M'Culloch became desti- 
tute, and died in Marylebone workhouse in 1793. 
A letter from Wolfe to Admiral Saunders is in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1801 ; and one addressed 
by him to Barre was sold by Puttick and Simpson 
about three years since. 

A portrait of Wolfe by Sir Joshua Reynolds is 
in possession of Mr. Cole of Worcester. 

Since my last notice, I have heard that Mr. Henry 
George, proprietor of the Westerham Journal, made 
some collections towards a life of Wolfe : if so, it 
is not improbable that Mr. Streatfield obtained 
them at his sale in 1844. In conclusion, I beg 
to inquire, whence come the lines quoted by the 
Marquis of Lansdowne ? 

" Enough for him 

That Chatham's language was his mother-tongue, 

And Wolfe's great name compatriot with his own." 

H. G. D. 



It occurs to me that an interesting collection 
might be formed of the various forms and methods 
by which the ownership of books is sometimes 
found to be asserted on their fly-leaves. Sor- 
rowers are exhorted to faithful restitution ; and 
consequences are threatened to those who misuse, 
or fail to return, or absolutely steal the valued 
literary treasure. 

I forward a few such Notes as have fallen in my 
way, thinking they may interest your readers, and 
shall be obliged by any additions. The first is an 
admonition to borrowers, by no means a super- 
fluous one, as I know to my cost. It is printed on 
a small paper, about the size of an ordinary book- 
plate, with blank for the owner's name, to be filled 
up in manuscript : 

Belongs to 

" If thou art borrow'd by a friend, 

Right welcome shall he be 
To read, to study not to lend, 
But to return to me. 

[* The incident related above has been preserved by- 
Sir William Musgrave, in his Biographical Adversaria 
(Additional MSS., No. 5723., British Museum), who 
has added the following note : " This account was had 
from a gentleman who heard the confession." For some 
further notices of Mrs. Henrietta Wolfe, the mother of 
the General, relative to her death and the disposal of 
her property, see the Addit. MSS., No. 5832., p. 7 1 -'. 



[No. 171. 

r Not that imparted knowledge doth 

Diminish learning's store ; 
But books, I find, if often lent, 
Return to me no more. 

" Give your attention as you read, 

And frequent pauses take ; 
Think seriously ; and take good heed 
That you no dog's-ears make. 

" Don't wet the fingers, as you turn 

The pages, one by one. 
Never touch prints, observe : and learn 
Each idle gait to shun." 

On the fly-leaf of a Bible I find the following, 
which, however, is taken from The Weekly Pacquet 
of Advice from Rome, vol. ii. p. 198. No. 15., dated 
Friday, Dec. 26, 1679 : 

" Sancte Liber 1 venerande Liber ! Liber optime, salve ! 
O Animae nostrae, Biblia dimidium !" 

A very common formula, in works of a devo- 
tional nature, is as follows : 

" This is Giles Wilkinson his book. 
God give him grace therein to look." 

We now come to some of a menacing descrip- 

" Si quis Wiinc furto rapiet libellum, 
Reddat : aut collo dabitur capistrum, 
Carnifex ejus tunicas habebit, 

Terra cadaver. " 
And again : 

" Si quis hunc librum rapiat scelestus, 
Atque furtivis manibus prehendat, 
Pergat ad tetras Acherontis undas 
Non rediturus." 

These last partake somewhat of the character 
of the dirse and anathemas which are sometimes 
found at the end of old MSS., and were prompted, 
doubtless, by the great scarcity and consequent 
value of books before the invention of printing. 



Baptismal Custom. In many country parishes 
the child is invariably called by the name of the 
saint on whose day he happens to have been born. 

I know one called Valentine, because he appeared 
in the world upon the 14th of February ; and 
lately baptized a child myself by the name of 
Benjamin Simon Jude. Subsequently, on express- 
ing some surprise at the strange conjunction, I 
was informed that he was born on the festival of 
SS. Simon and Jude, and that it was always very 
unlucky to take the day from a child. RT. 


Subterranean Bells. Hone, in his Year-Book, 
gives a letter from a correspondent in relation to a 

tradition in Raleigh, Nottinghamshire, which states 
that many centuries since the church and a whole 
village were swallowed up by an earthquake. 
Many villages and towns have certainly shared a 
similar fate, and we have never heard of then* 

" The times have been 

When the brains were out the man would die, 

That there an end." 

But at Raleigh, they say, the old church-bell* 
still ring at Christmas time, deep, deep in earth ; 
and that it was a Christmas-morning custom for 
the people to go out into the valley, and put their 
ears to the ground to listen to the mysterious 
chimes of the subterranean temple. Is this a tra- 
dition peculiar to this locality? I fancy not, and 
seem to have a faint remembrance of a similar 
belief in other parts. Can any of your correspon- 
dents favour " N. & Q." with information hereon ? 

J. J. S. 

Leicestershire Custom. A custom exists in the 
town of Leicester, of rather a singular nature. 
The first time a new-born child pays a visit, it is 
presented with an egg, a pound of salt, and a 
bundle of matches. Can any of your correspon- 
dents explain this custom ? W. A. 

Hooping Cough: Hedera Helix. In addition 
to my former communications on this subject, I 
beg to forward the following : 

Drinking-cups made from the wood of the com- 
mon ivy, and used by children affected with this 
complaint, for taking therefrom all they require to 
drink, is current in the county of Salop as an in- 
fallible remedy ; and I once knew an old gentleman 
(now no more) who being fond of turning as aa 
amusement, was accustomed to supply his neigh- 
bours with them, and whose brother always sup- 
plied him with the wood, cut from his own plant- 
ations. It is necessary, in order to be effective, 
that the ivy from which the cups are made should 
be cut at some particular change of the moon, or 
hour of the night, c., which I am now unable to 
ascertain : but perhaps some of your readers could 
give you the exact period. J. B. WHITBOKNE, 

The Aught and Forty Dough. The lordship of 
Strathbogie, now the property of his Grace the 
Duke of Richmond, was anciently known by this 
name. It is one of the toasts always drunk at the 
meetings of agricultural associations, the anni- 
versary of his Grace's birthday, &c., in the district. 
The meaning has often puzzled newspaper readers 
at a distance. It was the original estate of the 
powerful family of Gordon in the north of Scot- 
land. A daugh, or davach, contains 32 oxgates 
of 13 acres each, or 416 acres of arable land. At 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



this rate, the whole lordship was anciently esti- 
mated at 20,000 acres of arable land, and compre- 
hends 120 square miles in whole. 


Alliterative Pasquinade. The following allite- 
rative pasquinade on Convocation, which I have 
cut from one of the newspapers, is, I think, suffi- 
ciently clever to deserve preservation in the pages 
of'N. &Q. :" 

" The Earl of Shaftesbury has given notice that he 
will call the attention of the House to the subject of 
Convocation after the recess. The exact terms of his 
lordship's motion have not as yet been announced ; but 
it is understood that it will be in the form of an ab- 
stract resolution, somewhat to the following effect : 

" ' That this House, considering the consanguinity 
and concordant consociation of Gog and Magog to be 
ooncludent to, and confirmatory of, a consimilar con- 
natural conjunction and concatenation between Con- 
vocation and Confession with its concomitant contami- 
nations, and conceiving the congregating, confabulating, 
and consulting of Convocation to be conducive to con- 
troversy and contention, and consequent conflicts, 
confusion and convulsion, concurs in the conviction 
that to convene, and to continue Convocation, is a 
contumacious contravention of the Constitution, and a 
contrivance for constraint of conscience, and that the 
contemptible conspiracy, concocted for concerting the 
constituting and conserving of the continuous concor- 
poral consession and conciliar conference of Convoca- 
tion, is to be contumeliously conculcated by the con- 
sentient and condign condemnation of this House.' " 


The Names " Bonaparte " and " Napoleon" 
Among the many fabulous tales that have been 
published respecting the origin of the name of 
Bonaparte, there is one which, from its ingenious- 
ness and romantic character, seems deserving of 

It is said that the " Man in the Iron Mask" was 
no other than the twin (and elder) brother of 
Louis XIV.; that his keeper's name was Bonpart; 
that that keeper had a daughter, with whom the 
Man in the Mask fell in love, and to whom he was 
privately married; that their children received 
their mother's name, and were secretly conveyed 
to Corsica, where the name was converted into 
Bonaparte or Buonaparte ; and that one of those 
children was the ancestor of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
rho was thus entitled to be recognised not only as 
of French origin, but as the direct descendant of 
the rightful heir to the throne of France. 

The Bonapartes are said to have adopted the 
name of Napoleon from Napoleon des Ursins, a 
distinguished character in Italian story, with one 
of whose descendants they became connected by 
marriage ; and the first of the family to whom it 
was -riven was a brother of Joseph Bonaparte, the 
grandfather of Napoleon I. Many are thejeux de 
mots that have been made on this name ; but the 

following, which I have just met with in Litterature 
Franqaise Contemporaine, vol. ii. p. 266., is per- 
haps the most remarkable. 

The word Napoleon, being written in Greek 
characters, will form seven different words, by 
dropping the first letter of each in succession, 
namely, NoTroAecuv, A.iro\fuv, Po\fwv, O\e(ov, hf<av, 
Eon/, Q.V. These words make a complete sentence, 
and are thus translated into French : " Napoleon, 
etant le lion des peuples, allait detruisant les cites." 


St. Lucia. 

A Parish Kettle. In the accounts of the church- , 
wardens of Chudleigh in Devonshire, during a 
period extending from 1565 to 1651, occasional 
mention is made of " the church chyttel," " parish 
chettle," " parish chetell or furnace," " parish 
crock ;" and charges are made for malt and hops 
for brewing ale ; and the money received for ale 
sold is accounted for. There may also have been 
provided, for the use of the parish, a vessel of 
smaller dimensions than the crock, for in the year 
1581 there is an entry of Is. Id. received "for 
the lone of the parish panne." As cyder must 
have been at that time, as it is now, the common 
drink of the working- classes, the parish "crock" 
must have been provided for the use of the occu- 
piers of the land. I suppose that the term crock, 
for a pot made of brass or copper, had its origin 
in times when our cooking-vessels were made of 

I have never seen, in the ancient accounts of 
churchwardens, any mention made of a " town 
plough," which GASTROS notices (Vol. vi., p. 462.). 

S. S. S. (2.) 

Pepys's Diary ; Battle of St. Gothard. LORD 
BRAYBROOKE, in a note on 9th August, 1664, on 
which day Pepys mentions a great battle fought in 
Hungary, observes, "This was the battle of St. 
Gothard, fought 1st August, so that the news 
reached England in eight days." This would 
scarcely be possible even in these days of railways. 
The difference of styles must have been over- 
looked, which would make the intelligence arrive 
in eighteen days, instead of eight. J. S. WARDEN. 

First Folio Shakspeare. It would be extremely 
desirable that every one who possesses, or knows 
of a copy of the first folio, would send to " N. 
& Q." a note of the existence of such copy ; its 
present owner's name ; date of acquisition ; last 
owner's name; the price paid; its present condi- 
tion ; and any other circumstances peculiar to the 
copy. When the editor should receive an adequate 
number of replies to this suggestion, he might pub- 
lish a list in some methodised form, and subsequent 
lists as occasion might require. I have examined 
the libraries of several great country-houses, and 
have never found a first folio ; not even at Wilton, 



[No. 171 

where, of all the houses in England, we are most 
sure that it must have been. C. 

An ancient Tombstone. In the month of De- 
cember, 1851, a tombstone was found at the quay 
of Aberdeen, near Weigh House Square, in ex- 
cavating for a common sewer. On it is carved a 
cross, and a shield containing the initials " G. M.," 
a nameless instrument, or a couple of instruments, 
placed crosswise, and a heart with a cross in the 
centre. Round the edge is cut exquisitely, in Old 
English letters, with contractions such as we see in 
old MSS., the following inscription, " Hie jacet 
Jionorabilis Vir Georgius Manzs (Menzies ?), civis 
de Abirden, cum uxore eius Anneta Scherar, qui 
obiit xxvn die mensis Septembris, anno D. N. I. 
MIIIIXX." In former times, the Menzieses, the Col- 
lisons, and the Rutherfords held ruling power in 
Aberdeen, as in more recent times did the Gib- 
bons, Bannermans, and Hogarths. 



The following quotation induces me to put a 
Query to the numerous scientific readers of your 
widely-circulated publication : 

" It is a remarkable circumstance that an unprece- 
dented quantity of rain has fallen during the last year 
(1852) all over the world, England, Ireland, Europe 
generally, Africa, India, and even in Australia." 

Query, Is it anywhere recorded that so wide- 
spread a rainfall has been previously noticed? 
It is said that excessive rainfall has been general 
all over the world ; and it would appear to have 
been general over a great portion of the land. 
This, however, does not constitute the whole world. 
The area of our globe is composed of about four- 
fifths water to one-fifth land ; so that an excess of 
rain might fall upon every square mile of land, 
and yet the average rainfall of the whole world not 
be exceeded. This is an important truth, and 
should be generally understood. Taking the sur- 
face of the whole world, there is probably, year by 
yeai> the same amount of sunshine and heat, the 
same quantity of evaporation, and the same volume 
of rainfall ; but there is inequality of distribution. 
We find a dry summer in America, and a wet one 
in Europe ; excessive wet in the south of Europe, 
with excessive drought in the north ; with similar 
excesses over much more limited areas. This case 
holds good even for the extraordinary year of 
1852. Excess of rain has fallen on most of the 
land over the earth's surface; but there has been 
a minimum on the great oceans ; as see the accounts 
of the fine weather, light winds, and calms, expe- 
rienced in the voyages to Australia. 

The question of general equality nnd local ex- 
cesses may now, through our commerce, have that 

attention given to it which has hitherto been im- 
possible. It is well worthy of study. 



I have in my possession a mamiscript of about 
six hundred pages, entitled " Lavall's Tour across 
the American Continent, from the North Pacific 
to the Atlantic Ocean, in a more southern Lati- 
tude than any yet attempted : performed in the 
Years 1809 and 1810." A map of the route ac- 
companies it. 

The accounts of the country, and of the Indian 
tribes, correspond with what we learn from other 
sources ; and gentlemen of information in Indian 
affairs believe the work to be the genuine produc- 
tion of a person who has been vover the ground 

According to this work, Lavall was a native of 
Philadelphia, and born in 1774. His father, who 
was a royalist, settled in Upper Canada, and en- 
gaged in the fur trade. In 1809 Baptist Vincent 
Lavall visited England to receive a legacy left him 
by a relation. Here he was persuaded to join a 
vessel fitting out for the purpose of trading in the 
North Pacific. It was a schooner of about two 
hundred tons, called the Sea Otter, commanded by 
Captain Niles. This vessel was lost upon the 
coast of Oregon, on the 15th of August, 1809, 
whilst Lavall and three of the crew were on shore- 
hunting. They made their way across the con- 
tinent to New Orleans. 

Can any information be furnished from any 
custom-house in England as to the Sea Otter,. 
Captain Niles ? WILLIAM DUANE. 



There are three portraits engraved by Vertue, 
which give the pedigree of this family thus far : 
John Graves of York,= 
born 1515, ob. 1616. 

Graves = 

= Richard Graves of Mickleton, Esq.,= 
ob. 1669. 

Graves = 

Richard Graves of Mickleton, Esq. = 

ob. 1731. 

The title engraved on the plate states that the 
first Richard Graves given above, was twice 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



married, and had six sons and thirteen daughters. 
It does not give the Christian names of any of 
the children, and leaves it uncertain whether the 
Kichard Graves who died in 1731 was a child of 
the first or second marriage. This last-mentioned 
Richard was an antiquary of some note, and a 
correspondent of Hearne, who calls him " Grave- 
gius noster." 

Query 1. Is the full pedigree of this family 
anywhere to be had ? 2. Is there a record of any 
of the six sons of the Richard who died in 1669 
having settled in Ireland, as .a soldier or other- 
wise, in the time of the Commonwealth? Ac- 
cording to Mr. Editor's excellent arrangement, I 
transmit to him a stamped envelope, and shall 
feel much obliged to any correspondent of 
" N. & Q." who will give me the desired inform- 
ation. In the life of the Rev. Richard Graves, a 
younger son of Richard the antiquary (Public 
Characters, Dublin, 1800, p. 291.), it is stated 
that his collections for the History of the Vale of 
Gresham came, after his death, into the hands of 
James West, Esq., President of the Royal Society, 
at whose death they were purchased by the Earl 
of Shelburne, A.D. 1772. Query, Are they still in 
existence ? JAMES GRAVES. 



The Query of G. C. (Vol. vi., p. 578.) relative 
to Mrs. Mackey's Poems, has induced me to 
trouble you with a similar one respecting the 
author of a volume in my possession. It is en- 
titled Mount Vernon, a Poem, &c. &c., by John 
Searson, formerly of Philadelphia, Merchant ; 
Philadelphia, printed for the author by Folwell. 
After the title-page (which is too long to be given 
in extenso) follows a dedication to General Wash- 
ington, in which the author, after recording that 
he last returned to America from Ireland in 1796, 
and that having been established for several years 
at Philadelphia as a merchant, he had been sub- 
jected to unforeseen losses in trade and mer- 
chandize, proceeds as follows : 

' Having a pretty good education in my youth, 
from an uncle, a clergyman of the Church of England, 
1 published two poems in Ireland, was well received, 
and two publications since my last arrival in America, 
having disposed of the last copy of one thousand, Art 
of Contentment, and did myself the honour to visit your 
Excellency 15th May last [1799], so as to obtain an 
adequate idea of Mount Vernon, wishing to compose a 
poem on that beautiful seat, which I now most humbly 
dedicate to your Excellency, with your likeness," &c. 

Next follows a "Preface to the readers of 
Mount Vernon, a Poem," in which he says : 

" I published a rural, romantic, and descriptive poem 
of Down Hill, the seat of the Earl of Bristol, Bishop 
of Londonderry, in Ireland ; for which the gentlemen 

of that country actually gave me a guinea per copy, 
and Sir George Hill, from Dublin, gave me five 
guineas in the city of Londonderry ; more, I am as- 
sured, as feeling from my having seen better days, 
than from the intrinsic value of it." 

Besides Mount Vernon, the book contains se- 
veral other poems, &c., and extends to eighty - 
three pages, 8vo., with four pages subsequently 
inserted at the end. It is, I believe, a very scarce 
book in America, and the copy I possess is pro- 
bably unique in this country. Like Mrs. Mackey's 
poems, it seems to have been written in earnest, 
and it is impossible within the limits of an article 
of this nature to give an adequate idea of the 
vein of self-complacency which pervades the 
book, or of the high estimation in which the 
author evidently held his own productions both in 
prose and verse. 

A few quotations illustrative of his descriptive 
powers must suffice : 
" Mount Vernon ! I have often heard of thee, 

And often wish'd thy beauties for to see." P. 9. 

" The house itself is elegant and neat, 
And is two stories high, neat and complete." P. 10. 

" A thought now strikes my mind, of Mount Vernon, 
That happiness may ever shine thereon ; 
For, Nature form'd it pleasing to the mind ; 
Therefore, true earthly bliss we here might find : 
Or, in a cottage, if our God be there, 
For He is omnipresent, everywhere. 
A garden was the first habitation 
Of our parents, and near relat'on," (sic) &c. P. 14. 

Of Alexandria he informs us that 
" The buildings here are generally neat, 

The streets well pav'd, which makes walking com- 

I've seen their houses, where they preach and pray, 

But th' congregation small on stormy day." P. 38. 

Of George Town he says : 
" A pleasing rural prospect rises here, 

To please th' enquiring mind as we draw near. 

The building in George Town is very neat ; 

But paving of the streets not yet complete. 

Some rural seats near to the town is fine, 

Which please the fancy aud amuse the mind." 

P. 39. 

And lastly, from his Valedictory, we learn that 
" Poets, like grasshoppers, sing till they die, 

Yet, in this life, some laugh, some sing, some cry." 

P. 83. 

These extracts are not given as the worst spe- 
cimens. Is anything more known of John Searson, 
and of his other valuable productions, either in 
Ireland or America? As I perceive you have 
correspondents at Philadelphia, they will perhaps 
kindly afford me some information on the subject. 


[Another work by this author may be found in some 
of our public libraries, entitled Poems on various Sub- 



[No. 171. 

jects and different Occasions, chiefly adapted to Rural 
Entertainment in the United States of America. 8vo. 
1797. The Preface to this work also gives some ac- 
count of Searson's residence in Ireland, where, he says, 
" I lived happily for fifteen years, till another king (or 
agent) arose, who knew not Joseph, who, in the most 
inhuman, cruel, and tyrannical manner, made use of 
3iis interest to have me put out of my place." The 
work concludes with the following advertisement re- 
specting himself: "Being unemployed at present, 
should any of my kind subscribers know of any vacancy 
as tutor in some gentleman's family, a place in some 
public office, genteel compting-house, or vacancy for a 
schoolmaster, the author will be grateful for the favour 
of acquainting him of it. He may be heard of by 
applying to Mr. Mathew Carey, of Market Street, 
bookseller. "J 


Haberdon, or Habyrdon. A manor now Belong- 
ing to the school at Bury St. Edmund's bears this 
name. Can any meaning be given to the word ? 

The land formerly belonging to the Abbey of 
St. Edmund, several registers of that monastery, 
A.D. 1520 and 1533, let the said manor of Habyr- 
don, on condition the tenant should yearly find one 
white bull, &c. The leases all describe this manor of 
Habyrdon, and make it specially necessary to find 
a white bull. The land is contiguous to the town 
of Bury, and is called Haberdon at the present 
time, presents a hilly appearance, and remains of 
ancient intrenchments. I have not heard of any 
other place by this name. C. G. 


Holies Family. I am very desirous of obtaining 
any information that can be procured concerning 
the Holies family prior to the time of Sir William, 
who was Lord Mayor of London in 1540. I should 
.also be obliged if any of your numerous correspon- 
dents can inform me, whether that member of the 
'family who married a lady named Gelks, I think 
since 1700, left any posterity; from whom he was 
descended, and in what county he lived ? Also, 
who the Gelkses were, and whether the family is 
represented now ; and, if so, of what county they 

The arms of the Holleses were Ermine, two 
piles conjoining in the points sable. The crest was 
a boar's head erased, azure, langued gules, pierced 
with a pheon. 

The Gelks bore Ermine, three chevrons azure, 
charged with nine bezents inter nine annulets 
gules. M. T. P. 


" To lie at the Catch " (Vol. vi., p. 56.). From 
accidental circumstances I have only lately seen 
-the notice of my Query. Will you excuse my 
saying that I do not yet understand the meaning 

of the phrase " To lie at the catch," and that I 
shall be greatly obliged if you or any of your 
correspondents will explain it further, or, in other 
words, give me a paraphrase that will suit the two 
passages I have quoted. M. D. 

Names of Planets Spade. Would any of 
your correspondents give me some information 
respecting the names of the different planets of our 
system, whether their titles are coeval with the 
apotheosis of the various denizens of Olympus 
whose names they bear ; or whether such names 
were bestowed upon the heavenly bodies at some 
later date in honour of those divinities ? 

I should also like to hear explained, how the 
word spade, which from its affinities in other lan- 
guages would appear to have originally meant 
sword, ever came to be transferred from a weapon 
of war to the useful and harmless implement it 
now designates. OuSsy. 

Arms in painted Glass. The following arms 
have recently been found in some decorated win- 
dows of the early part of the fourteenth century. 
Information as to whom belonging would be 
esteemed a favour. 

1. Gnles, a chevron, or. 

2. Quarterly, first and fourth gules, a mullet, 
or, second and third sable, a cross, or. 

3. Argent, on a chevron, or, three bucks' heads 
caboshed, tincture indistinct, probably sable. 


The Sign of " The Two Chances." An inn, at 
Clun, in this county, bears the unusual sign of 
" The Two Chances." What can this mean ? 
Mine host is also Registrar of Births and Deaths 
for the district. Does it refer to these two 
chances ? GEORGE S. MASTER. 

Welsh-Hampton, Salop. 

Consecrators of English Bishops. It may 
appear a waste of space to insert in your columns 
my Queries on this subject ; but when you consider 
that I have been an exile in India for the last 
eleven years, and consequently unable to refer, in 
this country, to authorises, which are easily ac- 
cessible at home, I venture to hope that you will 
not only give a place to this, but also that you, or 
some clerical reader of " N. & Q.," will afford me 
the required information. 

I have continued Mr. Perceval's list of English 
consecrations, given in his able work, An Apology 
for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession, 2nd 
edition of 1841, but have been unable to complete 
it with the names of the consecrators of the fol- 
lowing prelates, the objects of my Query ; viz. 
1. Bishop Gilbert, of Chichester, on 27th Fe- 
bruary, 1842; 2. Bishop Field, of Newfoundland, 
28th April, 1844 ; 3, 4, & 5. Bishops Turton of 
Ely, Medley of Fredericton, and Chapman of 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



Colombo, on 4th May, 1845; 6. Bishop Gobat, 
5th July, 1846 ; 7 & 8. Bishops Smith of Victoria, 
and Anderson of Rupert's Land, on 29th May, 
1849; 9. Bishop Fulford of Montreal, 25th July, 
1850; and 10. Bishop Harding of Bombay, on 
12th August, 1851. The dates are, I believe, 
correct, but if not, of course I should like the mis- 
takes to be pointed out. I also desiderate the date 
of Bishop Binney's (of Nova Scotia) consecration, 
in March or April, 1851, with names of his con- 
secrators ; and finally, the place of Bishop Lons- 
dale's (of Lichfield) consecration, on 3rd De- 
cember, 1843. If these data are supplied, the 
lacunas in my supplemental list of English conse- 
crations, from the Reformation to the present day, 
will be complete. A. S. A. 


A nunting Table. What is it? The word 
occurs in a quotation from Dr. Newman in the 
Irish Ecclesiastical Journal for December, 1852, 
describing a modern English church. I suppose 
I shall be snubbed for not giving the passage; but 
my copy of the journal has vanished. A. A. D. 

John Pictones. Is anything known of John 
Pictones, or Pyctones, a person mentioned in a 
MS. as having taught languages to Queen Eliza- 
beth when she was young ? C. R. M. 

Gospel Place. In a definition of the bound- 
aries of Bordesley Abbey, dated 1645, given in 
Nasli's Worcestershire, there frequently occurs 
the term " Gospel place," thus : 

" And so to a Cross or Gospel Place near to Brown's 
cottage, and from thence to a Gospel Place under a 
tree near to a mill . . . thence to the old Gospel 
Place oak that standeth on the common." 

I have heard that at each one of these " Gospel 
places " there was kept up a mound on which it 
was usual to rest a corpse on its way to the 
churchyard, during which time some portion of 
the gospel was read. Can any of your corre- 
spondents say if such a practice was observed in 
any other part of the country, its origin, its in- 
tention, and the period of its discontinuance? 
And if not, can give any other explanation of the 
term? G R. 

York Mint. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me of the names of the officers of the local 
mint at York, instituted about 1696 ? O. O. O. 

Chipchase of Chipchase. I should be glad to 
learn if any pedigree exists of the ancient family 
of Chipchase, or De Chipches (as the name is spelt 
in pleadings and deeds of the fourteenth century). 
A family bearing that name appears to have occu- 
pied or dwelt near the " Turris de Chipches," co. 
Northumberland, so early as Edward I. ; at which 
time the manor of Prudhoe, of which Chipchase is 

a member, was held by the Umfravilles. The fact 
of the principal charges in the armorial bearings 
of both families being similar, seems to have led. 
to the suggestion that the Chipchases were cadets 
of the former; but this opinion is without suffi- 
cient foundation. A. G. W- 

Newspapers. Which is the oldest newspaper,, 
town or country, daily or weekly, now published? 
The Lincoln, Rutland, and Stamford Mercury 
(weekly), published at Stamford, is the oldest 
paper 1 am acquainted with. The paper for the 
21st January, 1853, is numbered "Vol. 158. 
No. 8231." This gives the year 1695 as the com- 
mencement of the paper. Perhaps other readers 
of " N. & Q." will follow up this interesting sub- 
ject. Vide Vol. ii., p. 375., and Vol. iii., pp. 164. 
and 248. L. L. L. 

On alleged historical Facts. 

" During the troubles in the reign of Charles L, * 
country girl came up to London in search of a place 
as a servant-maid ; but not succeeding, she applied her- 
self to carrying out beer from a brewhouse, and was 
one of those then called ' tub-women.' The brewer 
observing a well-looking girl in this low occupation, 
took her into his family as a servant, and, after a little 
while, she behaving herself with so much prudence and 
decorum, he married her ; but he died when she was yet 
a young woman, and left her a large fortune. The busi- 
ness of the brewery was dropped, and the young woman, 
was recommended to Mr. Hyde, as a gentleman of skill 
in the law, to settle her affairs. Hyde (who was after- 
wards the great Earl of Clarendon), finding the widow's 
fortune very considerable, married her. Of this mar- 
riage there was no other issue than a daughter, who 
was afterwards the wife of James II., and mother of 
Mary and Anne, queens of England." Newspaper 

What truth is there in the foregoing statement ; 
and if in any degree true, what further is known, 
of the fortunate " tub-woman ?" Is her existence 
ignored in the Hyde pedigree ? J. B_ 

Costume of Spanish Physicians. I have been 
informed that the Spanish physicians for a very 
considerable period, and even until about forty 
years ago, wore a dress peculiar to their profession. 
Can any of your readers inform me where I can 
find a representation or a description of this dress ;. 
and also whether it would be the one worn by a 
Flemish physician residing in Spain about the 
middle of the sixteenth century ? Z_ 

Genoveua. Can any of your readers inform me 
what history or legend is illustrated by a fine en- 
graving in line, by Felsing after Steinbruck (size 
13 X 11 inches), which has no other clue to its sub- 
ject than the word Genoveva, in the lower border. 
It represents a beautiful maiden, with a sleeping 
child in her lap, at the foot of a beech-tree ia 



[No. 171. 

a forest, and a hind or fawn in the background 
approaching from a cavern. It was published 
some years ago at Darmstadt, and is not common : 
but beyond a guess that it is meant for St. Gene- 
vieve, the printsellers can tell me nothing about 
it ; and I do not find in her history, as given by 
Alban Butler, any such incident. SILURIAN. 

Quotation. In the Miscellaneous Writings of 
the celebrated Franklin (Chambers's People's 
Edition) I find the following anecdote, in an article 
on "The Art of procuring Pleasant Dreams." 
Franklin says : 

" It is recorded of Methusaletn, who, being tlie 
longest liver, may be supposed to have best preserved 
liis health, that he slept always in the open air ; for 
when he had lived five hundred years, an angel said to 
htm, 'Arise, Methusalem, and build thee an house; 
for thou shalt live yet five hundred years longer.' But 
Methusalem answered and said, ' If I am to live but 
five hundred years longer, it is not worth while to build 
me an house : I will sleep in the open air as I have 
been used to do.' " 

From what source did Franklin derive this in- 
formation ? CHRISTOPHOROS. 

" God and the World" I shall be obliged by 
being informed from what poet are the following 
lines : 

" God and the world we worship both together, 
Draw not our laws to Him, but His to ours; 

Untrue to both, so prosperous in neither, 

TV imperfect will brings forth but barren flowers; 

Unwise as all distracted interests be, 

Strangers to God, fools in humanity ; 

Too good for great things, and too great for good, 

While still ' I dare not ' waits upon ' I would.' " 

W. H. 

"Solid Men of Boston." Where are the verses to 
be found of which the following were part ? I have 
an indistinct recollection that they were quoted in 
parliament during the American revolution : 

" Solid men of Boston, make no long orations; 
Solid men of Boston, drink no strong potations ; 
Solid men of Boston, go to bed at sundown, 
Never lose your way like the loggerheads of London. 

Bow, wow, wow. 
" Sit down neighbours all, and I'll tell you a merry 


About a disappointed Whig that wish'd to be a Tory, 
I had it piping hot from Ebenezer Barber, 
Who sail'd from Old England, and lies in Boston 

Bow, wow, wow." 

Lost MS. by Alexander Pennecuik. In the 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, is preserved a 
MS. in 4to., called The whole Works of Alexander 
Pennecuik, Gent., vol. ii. It commences at p. 215. 

jHt'nor $=htcrie foil!) 

Hutters Polyglott. Can any one inform me 
whether the following work was ever completed, 
or give me any particulars respecting it ? Biblia 
Sacra, Ebraice, Chaldaice, Greece, Latine, Ger- 
manice, Saxonice ; Studio et Lahore Elise Hutteri, 
Germani, Noribergae, 1599. Of this work I have 
the first volume a splendid book, which recently 
came from abroad ; but I cannot hear of the other 
volumes : this includes the Pentateuch. A reply to 
this Query will be thankfully received. B. II. C. 

[We have an edition before us, printed at Noriberga?, 
1 599, to the end of the Book of Ruth, but without the 
Sclavonic column. According to Ebert ( Bibliog. Diet.) 
there is " a fourfold edition, differing only in the last 
column, and goes only as far as the Book of Ruth. 
Scarce, but of no value. The edition with the Scla- 

Upon the boards is written " Edinburgh, January 
1759. Ex dono viduse J. Graham, Bibliopegi, cum 
altero volumine." It is not known in what way 
the Faculty of Advocates became possessed of this 
volume. Query, Where is the first ? 


" The Percy Anecdotes.'' 1 Who were the com- 
pilers of this excellent collection, published about 
thirty years ago ? UNEDA. 

Norman Song. In the year 1198 there was a 
song current in Normandy, which ran that the 
arrow was being made in Limousin by which 
Richard Coeur de Lion was to be slain. Can any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." inform me where the 
ballad is to be found, or if MS., give me a copy ? 


God's Marks. In Roper's Life of More there is 
an account of Margaret Roper's recovery from ail 
attack of the sweating sickness. The belief of the 
writer was, that the recovery was miraculous ; and 
to enforce that opinion he asserts, that the patient 
did not begin to recover until after " God's marks 
(an evident undoubted token of death) plainly ap- 
peared upon her." (Roper's More, p. 29., Singer's 
edition.) Pray what is meant by " God's marks ? " 


The Bronze Statue of Charles /., Charing' 
Cross. What is known of the life and history of 
John Rivers*, to whose loyalty the good people 
of London are now indebted for the preservation 
of this bust, which the Parliament in the time of 
Cromwell had ordered to be destroyed ? That he 
was a brazier, and a handy workman, is all that I 
know of him. W. W. 


_* John Rivett, a brazier living at the Dial, near Hoi- 
born Conduit. See Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting 
vol. ii. p. 319. ED.] 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



vonic column is the most scarce." In 160O, Hutter 
published a Polyglott of the New Testament, in twelve 
languages, viz. the Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
German, Bohemian, Italian, Spanish, French, English, 
Danish, and Polish ; which, in an edition printed in 
1603, were reduced to the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and 
German. He died at Nuremberg, about 1603.] 

Ethnology of England. Will any of your 
readers favour me with a, reference to the best 
work or works which refer to the ethnology of 
this island, more particularly in reference to the 
craniology of the different races which have set- 
tled in it ? 

I beg to ask whether it is yet clearly settled 
that there are types of the heads of Ancient 
Britons, Saxons, Danes, and other races, to be 
referred to as standards or examples of the re- 
spective crania of those people ? If so, will any 
of your readers be kind enough to direct me to 
any work which contains engraved outlines of 
such crania ? ETHNOLOGICUS. 

[ETHNOLOGICUS is referred to the works of Dr. 
Prichard and Dr. Latham ; more especially to The 
Ethnology of the British Islands, by the last-named 
writer, noticed in our 170th Number, p. 120. That 
types of the heads of the Ancient Britons, Saxons, 
Danes, &c. are to be found, there can be no doubt, 
though they have never hitherto been brought together 
for comparison. To do this is the object of the pro- 
jected Crania Britannica, about to be published by Dr. 
Thurnam of Devizes, and Mr. J. B. Davis, of which 
some particulars will be found at p. 497. of our Sixth 

Pitt of Pimperne. Can any of your readers 
tell me what works of Mr. Pitt, formerly Rector 
of Pimperne, Dorset, and translator of Virgil's 
&neid, &c., have been printed ? W. BARNES. 


[In addition to the JEndd, Christopher Pitt trans- 
lated Veda's Art of Poetry, about 1724; and subse- 
quently published a volume of Poems and Translations, 
Svo. 1727. His Poems will be found in the twelfth 
volume of Chalmers's Collection.] 

" The Bottle Department" of the Beer-trade 
was evidently terra incognita in those days : 
" He that buys land buys many stones ; 
He that buys flesh buys many bones ; 
He that buys eggs buys many shells ; 
But he that buys good ALE buys nothing else." 
" A favourite proverbial rhyme among topers," 
quoth that most amusing of lexicographers, old 
N. Bailey, 4>iAo'\o7os, who inserts it under the 
word " Buy," folio edition. 

Query, What was his Christian name ? 


[Nathan Bailey. A short account of him will be 
found in Chalmers's Biog. Diet.'] 



(Vol. vii., p. 65.) 

Some time since, when at Tideswell (which is in 
Derbyshire, not Devonshire), I made a rubbing 
from the brass of Bishop Pursglove, from which I 
have copied the inscription asked for by A. S. A., 
on a plate of brass underneath the figure. 

" Under this stone as here doth ly, a corps sumtime of 

In Tiddeswall bred and born truely, ROBERT PURS- 
GLOVE by name ; 

And there brought up by parents' care, at schoole and 
learning trad ; 

Till afterwards, by UNCLE dear, to London he was 

Who, WILLIAM BRADSHAW hight by name, in pauls 
w ch did him place, 

And \ r at schoole did him maintain full thrice three 
whole years' space ; 

And then into the Abberye was placed as I wish, 

In Southwarke call'd, where it doth ly, Saint MARY 

To Oxford then, who did him send, into that Col- 
ledge right, 

And there fourteen years did him find wh. Corpus 
Christi hight ; 

From thence at length away he went, a Clerke of 
learning great, 

To GISBURN ABBEV streight was sent, and plac'd in 
PRIOR'S seat. 

BISHOP of HULL he was also, ARCHDEACON of NOT- 


Two GRAMER Schooles he did ordain with LAND for 
to endure, 

One HOSPITAL for to maintain twelve impotent and 

O GISBURNE, thou, with TIDDESWALL TOWN, lement 
and mourn for may, 

For this said CLERK of great renoun lyeth here com- 
pact in clay. 

Though cruell DEATH hath now down brought this 
body w c here doth ly, 

Yet trump of Fame stay can he nought to sound his 
praise on high." 

" Qui legis hunc versum crebro reliquum memoreris 
Vile cadaver sum, tuque cadaver eris. " 

The inscription is in black letter, except the words 
which are in small capitals. 

On a fillet round the slab, with the evangelistic 
symbols at the corners, 

" >-I< Christ is to me as life on earth, and death to me is 


Because I trust through Him alone saluation to 
obtaine ; 



[No. 171. 

So brittle is the state of man, so soon it doth 

. So all the glory of this world must pas and fade 


" This Robert Pursglove, sometyme Bishoppe of Hull, 
deceased the 2 day of Maii, in the year of our Lord 
God, 1579." 

Wood says (Atk. Oxon., edit. Bliss, 5i. c. 820.), 
that about the beginning of Queen Mary's reign 
he was made Archdeacon of Nottingham, and suf- 
fragan Bishop of Hull ; but Dr. Brett, in a letter 
printed in Drake's Eboracum, 1736, fol., p. 539., 
says he was appointed in 1552, the last year of the 
reign of Edward VI. JOHN I. DREDGE. 

In Wharton's List of Suffragan Bishops, the fol- 
lowing entry occurs : 

" Rohertus Silvester, alias Pursglove, epus Hullen- 
sis, 1537, 38." 

But this is probably a mistake, as, in a short ac- 
count of his life by Anthony a Wood (vol. ii. 
col. 820., Athen. Oxon., edited by Bliss), I find it 
stated, that " on the death of Rob. Sylvester 
about the beginning of Queen Mary's reign, he 
was made Archdeacon of Nottingham, and suffra- 
gan Bishop of Hull, under the Archbishop of 
York." Wood afterwards adds : 

" After Queen Elizabeth had been settled in the 
throne for some time, the oath of supremacy was of- 
fered to him, but he denying to take it, was deprived 
of his archdeaconry and other spiritualities." 


It appears, from Dugdale's Warwickshire, that 
Pursglove assented to the suppression of Gisburne 
in December, 1540, and became a commissioner 
for persuading other abbots and priors to do the 
same. It is doubtful at what time he was ap- 
pointed to the see of Hull; whether in the last 
year of Edward VI. or in Queen Mary's reign, 
though it is certain, in 1559, lie refused to take 
the oath of supremacy to Elizabeth. 

The hospital and schools mentioned in the epi- 
taph are Gisborough and Tideswell. R. J. SHAW. 


(Vol. vi., pp.99. 178.) 

I have neither time nor inclination to expose all 
the errors and fallacies of MR. MATTHEW COOKE'S 
article on " Gregorian Tones ; " but I cannot 
resist pointing out certain statements which are 
calculated to mislead the readers of " N. & Q." in 
no trifling degree. The writer says : 

" The most ancient account we have is, that St. Am- 
brose of Milan knew of four tones in his day, and that 
he added four others to them ; the former being those 
termed authentic, the latter the plagal modes." 

Now the fact is, that St. Ambrose, Bishop of 
Milan (A.D. 374 to 397), chose from the ancient 

Greek modes four series or successions of notes, 
and called them simply the first, second, third, 
and fourth tones; laying completely aside the 
ancient heathen names of Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, 
Ionic, &c. St. Gregory the Great, who governed 
the Christian Church from A.D. 591 to 604, added 
the four additional tones. These eight ecclesias- 
tical successions or scales, which still exist as such 
in the music of the Roman Liturgy, are called 
Gregorian after their founder. Thus the old 
Ambrosian chant is known at present only through 
the medium of the Gregorian. 

The writer continues his statement in these 

" Some years since, the renowned French theorist, 
Mons. Fetis, went to Milan for the express purpose of 
consulting the celebrated Hook of Offices, written by 
St. Ambrose in his own handwriting, which is there pre- 
served [the Italics are added] ; and in his work, pub- 
lished in Belgium, he says that he collated them with 
those known and received amongst us; and that the 
variations were of the slightest possible character, the 
tones being ostensibly the same." 

This extraordinary statement cannot be accepted 
without the title of M. Fetis' work, and the pas- 
sage upon which it rests, verbatim in the author's 
own words. But I have no hesitation in saying 
that it is founded in error. 

Thibaut (Ueber der Reinheit dcr Tonkumt, 
pp. 28 30.) speaks of a MS. of the Gregorian 
chants at St. Gall, in Switzerland, as old as the 
ninth century. This is believed, by all accredited 
modern writers upon music, to be the oldest MS. 
of the tones extant. EDWARD F. RIMBATJLT. 

(Vol. vi., pp. 268. 296.) 

Of this passage we might almost say conclama- 
tum est ; for really no good sense has yet been 
made of it, except by bold alterations. For my 
own part, I agree with A. E. B., that no alteration 
is required except in the punctuation, and not 
much even then. The text of the folios is given 
by MR. SINGER (Vol. vi., p. 268.), and I would 
read it thus : 
" Nay, my good lord, let me o'errule you now. 
That sport best pleases that doth least know how, 
Where zeal strives to content, and the contents 
Dies with the zeal of that which it presents. 
Their form confounded makes most form in mirth, 
When great things labouring perish in the birth." 

The whole difficulty seems to lie in the word 
dies in the fourth line, and that I think may be 
removed by merely changing i into y, and reading 
dyes. The meaning then will be : That sport will 
yield most pleasure in which, though the actors 
are devoid of skill, they are zealous and anxious 
to give pleasure for their zeal in the endeavour, 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



dyes, or tinges (i. e. communicates its own hue to) 
the contents or satisfaction of the spectators (i. e. 
makes them sympathise with the actors). While 
on the other hand : My good lord, when, as in 
your lute attempt, great things labouring perish 
in the birth, their confusion causes laughter and 
derision instead of pleasure, like the former simple 

I take, as will be seen, contents, in the third line, 
as the substantive of the preceding verb content, 
and not, with MR. KNIGHT and A. E. B., as " things 
contained." The poet put it in the plural evi- 
dently for the sake of the rhyme. In the next 
line, zeal may not be the word actually written by 
the poet, but it makes a very fair sense ; and I 
know no word that could be substituted for it 
with certainty we still use the phrase, to dye in. 
In understanding the last two lines of the remark 
of the king and his lords, I think I am justified by 
the remark of Byron : 

" A right description of our sport, my Lord." 

Perhaps it is needless to add, that labouring is 
i. q. travailing ; and that most form in mirth means 
the highest form in (i. e. the greatest degree of) 

In these, and any other remarks on Shakspeare 
with which I may happen to trouble you at any 
time, I beg to be regarded as a mere guerilla as 
compared with regularly trained and disciplined 
Shakspearians like ME. SINGER, MR. COLLIER, and 
others. I have never read the folios of 1623 or 
1632. I do not even possess a variorum edition 
of the poet ; my only copy being Mr. Collier's ex- 
cellent edition. Finally, my studies have lain most 
about the sunny shores of the Mediterranean ; and 
I am most at home in the literature of its three 
peninsulas, and the coasts of Asia. 



(Vol. vi., p. 552. ; Vol. vii., p. 50.) 

As I consider J. G.'s apology for the popular, 
though undoubtedly erroneous, pronunciation of 
this word to be far from satisfactory, may I trouble 
you with some evidence in favour of Niagara, 
which MR. W. FRASER truly says is the Huron 
pronunciation ? I also agree with him, that it is 
" unquestionably the most musical." For my own 
part, the sound of Niagara is painful to my ear; 
even Moore himself could not knock music out of 
it. Witness the following lines : 

" Take, instead of a bowl, or a dagger, a 

Desperate dash down the Falls of Niagara."* 

How very different is the measured, solemn 
sound, which the word bears in the noble lines of 

I quote these lines from memory. They occur, 
I believe, in the Fudge Family. 

Goldsmith, who, it is reasonable to suppose, was 
as well informed of its proper pronunciation as of 
its correct interpretation. 

Travelling a few years since in Canada, I was 
assured by an old gentleman, who for many years 
held constant intercourse with the aborigines, that 
they invariably place the accent upon the penult. 
If this be true, as I doubt not, it is conclusive : 
and in order to testify to the correctness of the 
assertion, I could cite numberless aboriginal names 
of places in " The States," as well as in Canada : 
a few, however, will here suffice : 

Stadacona. Allegheny. Narraganset. 

Hochelaga. Apalachicola. Oswego. 
Toronto. Saratoga. Canandaigua. 

Mississippi. Ticonderoga. Tuscaloosa. 

Now, I am aware that there are other Indian 
words which would seem, at first sight, if not to 
contradict, to be at least exceptions to the rule, 
but upon investigation they, I conceive, rather 
strengthen my argument : for instance, Connec- 
ticut the original of which is, Quonehtacut, the 
long river. 

In conclusion, we should bear in mind that we 
have the prevalent pronunciation of such words 
through either of two channels, the French or 
the American ; consequently, in Canada, we find 
them Frenchified, and in "The States" Yankeefied. 

I therefore hold that Niagara is a most inhar- 
monious Yankeefication of the melodious abori- 
ginal word Niagara. ROBERT WRIGHT. 

10. Tavistock Street, Covent Garden. 


(Vol. vii., p. 39.) 

The tenure in drengage was common in, if it was 
not confined to, the .territory which was comprised 
in the ancient kingdom of Northumbria. Drenghs 
are mentioned in Domesday on the lands between 
the Kibble and the Mersey, which then formed 
part of Northumbria. They occur in Yorkshire ; 
and they are mentioned in the survey, called the 
Boldon Book, compiled in A.D. 1183, by order of 
Hugh Pudsey, the great Bishop of Durham, which 
may be termed the Domesday of the palatinate. 
Sir Henry Ellis, in his General Introd. to Domes- 
day, says, " The drenchs or drenghs were of the de- 
scription of allodial tenants . . . and from the 
few entries in which they occur, it certainly ap- 
pears that the allotments of territory they pos- 
sessed were held as manors." (Domesd., torn. i. 
fo. 269.) But as menial services (to be rendered, 
nevertheless, by the villans of the tenant in dren- 
gage) were attached to the tenure, at all events in 
the county of Durham, it was inferior to military 
tenure ; and the instance in the Pipe llolls of 
Westmoreland, '25 Henry II., of the enfranchise- 
ment of drenghs, together with the particulars 



[No, 171. 

given in records of the palatinate of Durham and 
the county of Northumberland, as to the services 
attached to drengage, show that it was far from 
being a free tenure. Yet Spelman (Gloss^ ed. 
1687, p. 184.) speaks of drenges as " tenantes per 
servitium militare;" and Coke calls them "free 
tenants of a manor." * From the Boldon Book we 
learn, however, that the services of the drengh 
were to plough, sow, and harrow a portion of the 
bishop's land, to keep a dog and horse for the 
bishop's use, and a cart to convey his wine ; to 
attend the chase with dogs and ropes; and perform 
certain " precaria," or harvest works. To take 
an example from the roll of Bishop de Bury in 
1336 : We find Nicholas deOxenhale held of the 
bishop in capite the manor of Oxenhale, perform- 
ing, amongst other services, " the fourth part of a 
drengage ; to wit, he was to plough four acres, and 
sow the land with seed of the bishop's, and harrow 
it, and do four days' work in autumn." And in 
the Pipe Roll for Westmoreland, already men- 
tioned, we find eighteen drenghs in the honour 
held by Hugh de Morvill, who had not been en- 
franchised by him, and who remained paying a fine 
to be exempt from foreign service. In Northum- 
berland the tenants in drengage paid a fixed money- 
rent, and were subject to tallage, heriots, merchet, 
&c. So, in the palatinate, in 25th Bishop Hatfield 
(A. . 1369), John Warde, of Hoton, died seised 
in his demesne of a messuage and sixty acres which 
were held of the bishop in capite, by homage and 
fealty in drengage^ rendering six bushels of oats 
and three bushels of barley, at the manor of Middle- 
ham. But the agricultural and menial services 
were lighter than those of the villan, and, as already 
stated, were not performed by the tenant in per- 
son, or by those of his household. This tenure 
existed in Tynedale at the close of the thirteenth 
century, as appears from Rot. Orig. 20 Edw. I., 
vol. i. p. 70., where the " consuetudinem partium 
prgedictarum" are mentioned. " A drengage" says 
Blount, in his Fragmenta Antiquitatis, " seems to 
have consisted of sixteen acres, to be ploughed, 
sown, and harrowed." The word drengage is de- 
rived, by the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, in the glossary 
to his recent valuable edition of Boldon Book, 
from the Anglo-Saxon dreogan, to do, work, bear ; 
the root, according to Tooke, of our English word 
drudge. Drengage is, in Kelham's Norman- French 
Dictionary, explained to be " the tenure by which 
the drenges held their lands." In Lye's Saxon 
Dictionary I find " Dreng, miles, vir fortis." 

Newcastle- tipon-Tyne. 

* Spelman says they were " E genere vassallorum 
non ignobilium," and such as, being at the Conquest 
put out of their estate, were afterwards restored. 


(Vol. vii., p. 14.) 

The following account of the whole of the pro- 
ceedings at the inquest which was held at the 
Three Crows, Brook Street, Holborn, on Friday, 
Aug. 27, 1770, before Swinson Carter, Esq., and 
ten jurymen, whose names are mentioned, is from 
a MS. copy in my possession. 

I am not acquainted with any printed work 
which contains a report of the inquest. It is not 
in the large collection of Chatterton's Works and 
Lives, and the innumerable newspaper and maga- 
zine cuttings, which fill several volumes, and which, 
belonged to Mr. Haslewood ; nor is it in Barrett's 
Bristol, or Herbert Croft's Love and Madness. 

" Account of the Inquest held on the body of 
THOMAS CHATTERTON, deceased, at the Three 
Crows, Brook Street, Holborn, on Friday, the 
27th August, 1770, before Swinson Carter, 
Esq., and the following jury : Charles Skin- 
ner, Meres, John Hollier, John Park, 

S. G. Doran, Henry Dugdale, G. J. Hillsley, 
C. Sheen, E. Manley, C.^Moore, Nevett. 

" MART ANGELL, sack maker, of No. 17. Brook 
Street, Holborn, deposed, that the deceased came 
to lodge at her house about nine or ten weeks ago ; 
he took the room below the garret; he always 
slept in the same room ; he was always very exact, 
in his payments to her ; and at one time, when she 
knew that he had paid her all the money he had in. 
the world, she offered him sixpence back, which he 
refused to take, saying : ' I have that here (point- 
ing to his forehead) which will get me more.' 
He used to sit up nearly all night, and she fre- 
quently found his bed untouched in the morning, 
when she went to make it. She knew that he 
always bought his loaves one of which lasted him 
for a week as stale as possible, that they might 
last the longer : and, two days before his death, 
he came home in a great passion with the baker's 
wife, who had refused to let him have another loaf 
until he paid her 3.v. 6d. which he owed her pre- 
viously. He, the deceased, appeared unusually 
grave on the 28th August; and, on her asking him 
what ailed him, he answered pettishly : ' Nothing, 
nothing why do you ask ?' On the morning of 
the 24th August, he lay in bed longer than usual ; 
got up about ten o'clock, and went out with a bun- 
dle of paper under his arm, winch he said ' was a 
treasure to any one, but there were so many fools 
in the world that he would put them in a place of 
safety, lest they should meet with accident.' He 
returned about seven in the evening, looking very 
pale and dejected ; and would not eat anything, 
but sat moping by the fire with his chin on his 
knees, and muttering rhymes in some old language 
to her. Witness saw him for the last time when 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



lie got up to go to bed ; he then kissed her (a thing 
he had never done in his life before), and then 
went upstairs, stamping on every stair as he went 
slowly up, as if he would break it. Witness stated 
that he did not come down next morning, but she 
was not alarmed, as he had lain longer than usual on 
the day before ; but at eleven o'clock, Mrs. Wolfe, 
a neighbour's wife, coming in, they went and lis- 
tened at the door, and tried to open it, but it was 
locked. At last, they got a man who was near to 
break it open ; and they found him lying on the 
bed with his legs hanging over, quite dead : (he 
bed had not been lain on. The floor was covered 
all over with little bits of paper ; and on one piece 
the man read, in deceased's handwriting, ' I leave 
my soul to its Maker, my body to my mother and 
sister, and my curse to Bristol. If Mr. Ca . . .' 
The rest was torn off. The man then said he must 
have killed himself, which we did not think till 
then, not having seen the poison till an hour after. 
Deceased was very proud, but never unkind to 
any one. I do not think he was quite right in his 
mind lately. The man took away the paper, and 
I have not been able to find him out. 

"FREDERICK ANGELL deposed to the fact of 
deceased lodging at their house ; was from home 
when deceased was found. Always considered him 
something wonderful, and was sometimes afraid 
he would go out of his mind. Deceased often came 
home very melancholy : and, on his once asking 
him the reason, he said, ' Hamilton has deceived 
me ;' but could get no more from him. Deceased 
was always writing to his mother or sister, of whom 
he appeared to be very fond. I never knew him 
in liquor, and never saw him drink anything but 

" EDWIN CROSS, apothecary, Brook Street, 
Holborn. Knew the deceased well, from the time 
he came to live with Mrs. Angell in the same 
street. Deceased used generally to call on him 
every time he went by his door, which was usually 
two or three times in a day. Deceased used to 
talk a great deal about physic, and was very in- 
quisitive about the nature of different poisons. I 
often asked him to take a meal with us, but he 
was so proud that I could never but once prevail j 
on him, though I knew he was half-starving. One I 
evening he did stay, when I unusually pressed him. 
He talked a great deal, but all at once became ! 
silent, and looked quite vacant. He used to go 
very often to Falcon Court, Fleet Street, to a Mr. 
Hamilton, who printed a magazine ; but who, he 
said, was using him very badly. I once recom- 
mended him to return to Bristol, but he only 
heaved a deep sigh ; and begged me, with tears in 
his eyes, never to mention the hated name again. 
He called on me on the 24th August about half- 
past eleven in the morning, and bought some 
arsenic, which he said was for ah experiment. 
About the same time next day, Mrs. Wolfe ran in 

for me, saying deceased had killed himself. I 
went to his room, and found him quite dead. On 
his window was a bottle containing arsenic and 
water ; some of the little bits of arsenic were be- 
tween his teeth. I believe if he had not killed 
himself, he would soon have died of starvation ; 
for he was too proud to ask of any one. Witness 
always considered deceased as an astonishing 

" ANNE WOLFE, of Brook Street. Witness lived 
three doors from Mrs. Angell's ; knew the de- 
ceased well ; always thought him very proud and 
haughty. She sometimes thought him crazed. She 
saw him one night walking up and down the street 
at twelve o'clock, talking loud, and occasionally 
stopping, as if to think on something. One day 
he came in to buy some curls, which he said he 
wanted to send to his sister ; but he could not pay 
the price, and went away seemingly much morti- 
fied. On the 2oth August, Mrs. Angell asked her 
to go upstairs with her to Thomas's room : they 
could make no one hear. And, at last, being 
frightened, they got a man who was going by to 
break open the door, when they found him dead 
on the bed. The floor was covered with little bits 
of paper, and the man who was with them picked 
up several and took away with him. 

" Verdict. Felo de se." 

J. M. G. 



(Vol. vii., p. 86.) 

It is not for P. C. S. S. to explain the grounds 
on which Cardinal AViseman considers the History 
of Formosa, and the Sicilian Code of Vella, as the 
most celebrated literary frauds of modern times. 
But he thinks that before he penned the Query, 
MR. BREEN might have recollected the well-known 
name of George P Salmanazar, and the extraordi- 
nary imposture so successfully practised in 1704 
by that good and learned person ; a fraud scarcely 
redeemed by the virtue and merits of a man of 
whom Dr. Johnson said, that " he had never seen 
the close of the life of any one that he so much 
wished his own to resemble, as that of Psalma- 
nazar, for its purity and devotion." 

With respect to the Sicilian Code of Vella, MR. 
BREEN will find, on a very little inquiry, that the 
work to which the Cardinal adverts (entitled 
Lihro del Consiglio di Egitto, tradotto da Giuseppe 
Vella) was printed at Palermo in 1793 ; that the 
book, from beginning to end, is an entire fiction 
of the learned canon ; that the forgery was de- 
tected before the publication of the second part 
which, consequently, never saw the light ; that 
the detection was due to the celebrated orientalist 
Hager, whose account thereof (a masterpiece of 



[No. 171. 

analytical reasoning) was published in 1799 by 
Palm, the bookseller of Erlang (murdered in 1806 
by order of the uncle of the present French em- 
peror). But this was not the only imposture of 
the kind of which Vella was the author, and 
which his profound knowledge of Arabic enabled 
him to execute in a way which it would scarcely 
have been possible for any other European to have 
accomplished. He had published, 1791, at the 
Royal Press at Palermo, under the name of 
Alfonso Airoldi, a fictitious Codex Diplomaticus 
Sicilies, sub Saracenorum Imperio, to the discovery 
of which ingenious fraud we are also indebted to 
the acute Pyrrhonism of M. Hager. P. C. S. S. 


(Vol. vi., p. 5. ; Vol. vii., pp. 7. 111.) 

I am obliged to apologise for having made Sir 
Henry Wotton use the words " some long time 
before," instead of " some good while before," 
and therefore take the opportunity of saying 
that I think Sir Henry's allusion to " the art of 
stationers," in binding a good and a bad book 
up together, almost proves "our common friend 
Mr. R." to have been a bookseller. Notwith- 
standing the very high authorities against me, 
I will then venture to insinuate, that instead of 
John Rouse, or Robert Randolph, plain Humphrey 
Robinson is meant, by whom Comus was printed in 
1 637, " at the signe of the Three Pidgeons, in Paul's 

Once grant the probability of this being the case, 
and we have no further difficulty in understanding 
why Comus should be stitched up " with the late 
Rd. poems," or Wotton be left in ignorance of the 
author's name. Lawes tells us in the dedication 
to Comus, that it was " not openly acknowledged 
by the author ;" and the publisher would naturally 
keep the secret : but why Rouse or Robert Ran- 
dolph should do so, appears to me inexplicable. I 
hope soon to have access to some public libraries, 
and also to return to this very interesting question 
again. Meanwhile, may I beg the forbearance of 
your more learned correspondents ? RT. 



Sir W. Newtoris Process. Having been re- 
quested by several friends to give them a state- 
ment of my mode of proceeding with reference to 
the calotypic art, and as I am of opinion that we 
ought to assist each other as much as possible in 
the pursuit of this important branch of photo- 
graphy, I beg therefore to ofi'er the following for 
insertion in your " N. & Q.," if you should deem 
them worth your acceptance. 

To iodize the Paper. 1st. Brush your paper 
over with muriate of barytes (half an ounce, dis- 
solved in nearly a wine-bottle of distilled water) : 
lay it flat to dry. 2nd. Dissolve sixty grains of 
nitrate of silver in about an ounce of distilled 
water. Ditto sixty grains of iodide of potassium 
in another bottle with the like quantity of water. 
Mix them together and shake well : let it subside : 
pour off the water, and then add hot water : shake 
it well : let subside : pour off the water, and then 
add three ounces of distilled water, and afterwards 
as much iodide of potassium as will redissolve the 
iodide of silver. 

Brush your previously-prepared paper well with 
this, and let dry ; then place them in water, one 
by one, for about one hour and a half or two hours, 
constantly agitating the water. As many as a dozen 
pieces may be put into the water, one after the 
other, taking care that there are no air-bubbles : 
take them out, and pin to the edge of a board at 
one corner. 

When dry they will be ready for exciting for 
the camera by the following process : 

(These are supposed to be in six 1 -ounce bottles with 
glass stoppers. ) 




1 drachm of No. 4., 
6 drachms of dis- 

20 min. of No. 3., 
6 drachms of dis- 

A saturated 
solution of 

tilled water. 

tilled water. 

gallic acid. 




25 grains of ni- 
trate of silver to 

2 drachms of 
No. 4., 6 drs. 

Equal parts of 
Nos. J. and 2. 

half an ounce of 
water. Add 45 
minims of glacial 
acetic acid. 

of water. 

N.B. This must 
be mixed just be- 
fore using, and the 
bottle cleaned af- 


To excite for the Camera. Mix equal parts of 
Nos. 1. and 2., and with a glass rod excite the 
iodized paper and blot off; and it may be put in 
the slide at once, or the number you require may 
be excited, and put into a blotting-paper book, 
one between each leaf, and allowed to remain until 
required to be placed in the slide. 

Time of Exposure. The time varies from 
three minutes to a quarter of an hour, according 
to the nature of the subject and the power of the 
sun ; but live minutes is generally the proper time. 

To bring out. Bring out with No. 3., and 
when the subject begins to appear, add No. 5. ; 
and when sufficiently developed hold it up, and 
pour water upon it; and then put it into hypo- 
sulphite of soda to fix it, for about half an hour 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



or more, and then into water : this is merely to 
fix it for the after process at your leisure. 

To clean the Negative. Get a zinc tray about 
three or four inches deep, with another tray to 
fit in at the top, about one inch deep ; fill the 
lower tray with boiling water, so that the upper 
tray may touch the water ; put your solution of 
hyposulphite of soda, not strong, in the upper 
tray, and then your negatives one by one, watch- 
ing them with care until the iodine is removed ; 
then put them in hot water, containing a small 
piece of common soda (the size of a nutmeg to 
about two. quarts of water), for about ten minutes ; 
pour off the dirty water, and then add more hot 
water, shaking them gently for a short time ; pour 
off the water again, and then add fresh hot water, 
and let it remain until it is cold, after which take 
them out CAREFULLY one by one, and put them in 
clean cold water for an hour or two ; then take 
them all out together, and hold up to drain for 
a short time, and then put them between three or 
four thicknesses of linen, and press as much of the 
water out as you can ; then carefully (for now all 
the size is removed) lay them out flat upon linen 
to dry. 

Mode of Waxing the Negatives. Melt the 
pure white wax over a lamp of moderate heat, 
just merely to keep it in a liquid state ; then fill 
the same deep tray as above described with boiling 
water, and with another similar to the upper one 
before described (which must be kept for this 
purpose only) ; put a clean piece of blotting-paper 
in this tray, and lay your negative face downwards, 
and with a soft flat hog's hair-brush, about an inch 
wide, dip it into the liquid wax, and brush the 
negative over, when it will be immediately trans- 
parent, and it can be done so that there is very 
little redundant wax, after which it may be put 
between two or three thicknesses of blotting-paper 
and ironed, if necessary, which, however, should 
not be very hot, when it is ready to take positives 

Positives on Negative Paper. Take one part 
of the iodide of silver before described, and add 
two parts of water ; then add as much iodide of 
potassium as will redissolve it. Brush your paper 
with the foregoing, let dry, put into water, and 
proceed, in all respects, as above described for the 

Excite for Positives. Excite with No. 1.: 
blot off: lay it in your press, place the negative 
face downwards: expose to the light from ten 
seconds to half a minute, or more, according to the 
light (not in the sun), and bring out with No. 3. ; 
and when it is nearly developed add No. 1.; then 
take it up and pour water upon it, and then place 
it in hyposulphite of soda (cold) until the iodine 
is removed ; after whicli put it into allum water, 
about half a teaspoonful of powdered allum in two 
quarts of water; this will readily remove the hy- 

posulphite, and also fix the positive more parti- 
cularly ; it will also take away any impurities 
which there may be in the paper, after which put 
it into clean cold water, and change two or three 

I have been thus particular in describing the 
process which I have adopted, more especially for 
beginners ; and with great cleanliness and care in 
each process, and especially in keeping all the 
bottles with the chemicals free from dirt of every 
kind, the foregoing will lead to favourable results. 


I have been making some experiments in pre- 
paring the iodized paper in the following manner, 
more especially in consideration of the present 
j price of iodide of potassium : 60 grains of nitrate 
i of silver; 60 ditto of iodide of potassium, cleaned 
I and prepared as before described, by the addition 
! of three ounces of water, that is 3 oz. altogether; 
', 60 grains of cyanide of potassium ; add a little of 
j this at a time, and shake it up ; and I generally 
I find that this quantity is sufficient to redissolve 
! the 60 grains of iodide of silver. Brush the paper 
j over with the above, and when the wet surface dis- 
! appears, dip it into cold water containing one 
j drachm of dilute sulphuric acid to one quart of 
I water; and then into water for half an hour, 
| changing the water once : pin up to dry. I have 
not had an opportunity of trying this for negatives, 
but I have taken some good positives with the 
paper so prepared. 

N.B. I find that if the paper is allowed to dry 
with the cyanide of potassium, or that it is allowed 
to remain in the dilute sulphuric acid water too 
long, it weakens the paper so much as to be very 
absorbent. I would therefore wish to know from 
any of your correspondents whether this arises 
from taking away the size, or injuring the fibres 
of the paper ? and, if so, whether a paper prepared 
with starch, instead of size, would be better ? as it 
appears to me that this mode of iodizing might be 
an improvement. At all events, it is an enormous 
saving of iodide of potassium ; as, for instance, to 
redissolve the 60 grains, it would take 1 oz. of 
iodide of potassium (about four shillings) ; whereas 
60 grains of cyanide would not cost more than one 
penny or twopence. W. J. N. 

Collodion Film on Copper Plates. Would any 
of your correspondents kindly describe the manner 
in which the collodion film may be transferred to 
prepared copper plates ? 

It was noticed by your correspondent H. "W. D. 
in Vol. vi., p. 470. J. M. S. 

Treatment of the Paper Positive after fixing. 
1. Is it absolutely necessary for the preservation 
of the picture, that the size should be wholly re- 
moved from the paper ? It seems to me that the 

i hot-water treatment materially injures the tone. 




[No. 171. 

2. In re-sizing, what is the kind of size and 
degree of strength generally made use of, and 
mode of application ? I have tried gelatine and 
isinglass size, of various degrees of strength, with- 
out satisfactory results. 

3. Should the hot iron, used for improvement 
of tone, be applied previous to the picture being 
re-sized, or as a finishing operation ? I find much 
difficulty from the liability of the paper to shrivel 
under it. 

4. Is the glossy appearance, observed in finished 
photographs, attained solely by use of the bur- 
nisher ? 

5. What is albumenized paper ? used, I believe, 
by some in printing ; and the mode of its pre- 
paration ? H. B. B. 

P.S. If I am not presuming too much upon 
your kindness, I should feel greatly indebted for 
information upon the above points, either privately 
or through the medium of " N. & Q.," according 
to the importance you may attach to them. 

tn jHtnor 

Essay for a New Translation of the Bible 
(Vol. vii., p. 40.). This work was written by 
Charles Le Gene, a French Protestant minister, 
who, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
sought refuge in England, and died at London in 
1703. The translation was made by Hugh Ross, 
a Scotchman and sea-chaplain, but who was not 
sufficiently ingenuous to tell his readers that it 
was a translation. Orme says : " The essay con- 
tains a good deal of valuable information ; points 
out many erroneous renderings of passages of 
Scripture ; and suggests better meanings,, and the 
means of correcting the modern translations gene- 
rally." Bibliotheca Biblica, p. 94. A short ac- 
count of Le Gene will be found in Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet. See also Lewis's Translations of the 
Bible, 8vo. 1818, p. 338. JOHN I. DREDGE. 

I have a copy of the Essay for a New Trans- 
lation of the Bible, second edition, 17'27 (not 1717), 
which your correspondent W. W. T. inquires 
about (Vol. vii., p. 40.). It is the translation of a 
work of the Huguenot refugee, Charles Le Gene, 
Projet (Tune nouvelle version franqoise de la Bible. 
H. R., who signs the dedication, was Hugh Ross, 
according to a note in my copy, which my father 
made on the authority of one of the clenry of 
Norwich about twenty years ago, I believe of Dr. 
Charles Sutton. I have been unable to ascertain 
anything about him, his name not appearing in 
any biographical dictionary I have seen, and the 
book not being in the Museum library. The 
Biog. Unieerselle charges Le Gene with a ten- 
dency to Pelagian or Socinian errors, both in his 
Projet, and in the Version he actually made, and 

which was printed at Amsterdam. This was a 
great curiosity in its way, the ancient Oriental 
titles, &c. being rendered in their corresponding 
modern analogues. B. B. WOODWARD. 

Touchstone (Vol. vii., p. 82.). I think your 
correspondent ALPHAGE is mistaken in alleging 
that the word touchstone is so called because it 
" gives a musical sound when touched with a 

The touchstone is the dark-coloured flinty slate 
or schistus (the Lapis Lydius of the ancients), 
which has been used from the remotest ages, down 
even to our own days, for testing gold. By touch- 
ing the black stone with the metal, it leaves behind 
a clear mark, the colour of which indicates the 
distinction between the pure and alloyed. Pliny 
describes it (lib. xxxiii. cap. 43.) : 

" Auri argentique mentionem comitatur lapis, quern 
coticulam appellant, quondam non solitus inveniri, nisi 
in flutnine Tmolo, ut auctor est Theophrastus : nunc 
vero passim ; quern alii Heraclium, alii Lydium 
vocant. His coticulis periti, cum e vena ut lima 
rapuerint experimentum, protinus dicunt quantum auri 
sit in ea, quantum argenti vel a^ris, scripulari differentia, 
mirabili ratione, non fallente." 

This is the substance referred to in the apo- 
thegms of Lord Bacon, that "gold is tried by the 
touchstone, and men by gold." 

The French, from the same practice, know the 
same substance by the name of Pierre de louche. 
The use of the touchstone, at the present day, is 
thus described by Ure in his Dictionary of Arts 
and Mines, under the head of " Assay : " 

" In such small work as cannot be assayed, by scrap- 
ing off a part and cupelling it, the assayers endeavour 
to ascertain its fineness or quality by the touch. This 
is a method of comparing the colour and other pro- 
perties of a minute portion of the metal, with those of 
small bars, the composition of which is known. These 
bars are called touch needles, and they are rubbed upon 
a smooth piece of black basaltes, or pottery, which for 
this reason is called the touchstone." 

W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

Early Edition of Solinus (Vol. vi., p. 435.). 
" Solinus de Situ ct Memor. Orbis, editio princeps, 
folio, Venet. 1473." My copy was described as 
above in the catalogue of the bookseller of whom 
I purchased it. It contains a very fine illuminated 
initial letter, red, blue, and gold. It has no pagin- 
ation. At the end, in capitals : 


Should any gentleman wish to see it, I shall be 
happy to oblige him. Mine is marked " 6*.," and 
below this price, " sold 10s." A. DUXKIN. 


FEB. 5. 1853.] 



Straw Bail (Vol. vii., p. 85.)- Part of this 
Query may be answered by the, following extract : 

" For the bribery and perjury so painfully frequent 
in Attic testimony, the editor contents himself with 
quoting from an article in the Quarterly Review 
(vol. xxxiii. p. 344.), in which the Greek courts of 
justice are treated of. ' We have all heard of a race of 
men who used, in former days, to ply about our own 
courts of law, and who, from their manner of making 
known their occupation, were recognised by the name 
of Straw-shoes. An advocate, or lawyer, who wanted a 
convenient witness, knew by these signs where to find 
one, and the colloquy betwee the parties was brief. 
' Don't you remember ? ' said the advocate (the party 
looked at the fee and gave no sign ; but the fee in- 
creased, and the powers of memory increased with it). 
4 To be sure I do.' ' Then come into the court and 
swear it.' And Straw-shoes went into the court and 
swore it. Athens abounded in Straw-shoes." 

See Mitchell's Wasps of Aristophanes, note on 
line 945. C. FORBES. 


Doctor Young (Vol. vii., p. 14.). J. H. will find 
an account of Mrs. Hallows, the lady meant as 
Young's housekeeper, in Boswell's Johnson, p. 35 1 ., 
ed. 1848 ; and I can add to Anderson's note, that 
in the Duchess of Portland's correspondence with 
Young, of .which I have seen the originals, Mrs. 
Hallows is always mentioned by her Grace with 
civility and kindness. C. 

Scarfs worn by Clergymen (Vol. vii., p. 108.). 
Your correspondent will find the subject of his 
Query fully discussed in the Quarterly Review for 
June, 1851 (vol. l.xxxix. p. 222.), the result being 
that the use of the scarf, except by chaplains of 
peers, dignitaries, &c., is a wholly unauthorised 
usurpation of very recent date. C. 

Gibber's- Line* of the Poets (Vol. v., p. 161. ; 
Vol. vii., p. 113.). MR. W. L. NICHOLS has 
transmitted to " N. & Q." what he calls a " curious 
letter which appears to have escaped the notice of 
MR. CROKER, though it corroborates his state- 
ment," relative to Dr. Johnson's mistake as to the 
authorship of those Lives. MR. NICHOLS is in- 
formed that he will find this "curious letter" in 
extenso in Mr. Croker's last edition of Boswell, 
p. 504., with the date of 1846; the letter itself 
having been published in 1843. It is again re- 
ferred to in p. 818. as decisive of the question. 


"Letters on Prejudice'" (Vol. vii., p. 40.). I have 
always understood from private and family sources, 
that Letters on Prejudice, inquired after by 
"W". W. T., were written by a Miss Mary Kenny, 
an Irishwoman of great worth and ability. If I 
am right in this assertion, her brother, who was 
some time a fellow of the Irish University, and, if 

not lately dead, rector of one of the London 
churches, should be able to confirm it. A. B. R. 


Statue of St. Peter (Vol. vi., p. 604. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 96.). On what authority does CEYREP rest the 
confident statement, that this statue was undoubt- 
edly cast for a St. Peter " in the time of St. Leo 
the Great?" I have always understood that it 
was an ancient statue which had been found in 
the Tiber ; but here is a distinct assertion as to 
the period of its origin, for which some good 
authority would be very acceptable. B. H. C. 

Lord Goring (Vol. ii., pp. 22. 65.). I see him 
mentioned (in the Herstelde Leeuw, fol. 1 22.) as 
having been present at the baptism of William III. 
in 1651. He escorted Madam van Dhona, by 
whom the young prince was carried to church. 
From the Navorscher. W. D. V. 

Revolutionary Calendar (Vol. vi., pp. 199. 305.). 
The lines to which C. refers may be seen in 
Brady's Clavis Calendtiria, vol. i. p. 38. He gives, 
them as the lines of an English wit, thus : 
" Autumn, wheezy, sneezy, freezy, 
Winter, slippy, drippy, nippy ; 
Spring showery, flowery, bowery ; 
Summer hoppy, croppy, poppy." 

A shby-de-la- Zouch. 

Scanderbags' Sword (Vol. vii., p. 35.). This 
alludes to a proverb given by Fuller, " Scan- 
derbags' sword must have Scanderbags' arm." 


Rhymes upon Places (Vol. vii., p. 24.). Lin- 
colnshire : 

" Gosberton church is very high, 
Surfleet church is all awry ; 
Pinchbeck church is in a hole, 
And Spalding church is big with foal." 


Nicknames (Vol. vi., p. 198.). If your corre- 
spondent will look at Mr. Bellenden Ker's Ar- 
chcEology of Popular Phrases, vol. i. p. 184., he 
will find an attempt to show the origin of nick- 
name ; but, whether we agree or not with Mr. Ker, 
the whole paragraph is worth reading for its com- 
parative philology : it may, perhaps, bear out that 
the "nic " in "pic-nic" is also allied. 



Nvgget (Vol. vi., pp. 171. 281.). E. N. W- 
inquires the meaning of the word nugget; and 
W. S. replies that in Persian nuqud signifies 
" ready money." This may have satisfied E. N. \\ ., 
but it reminds me of Jonathan Oldbuck and 



[No. 171. 

A. D. L. L. I should have thought that any one 
who had the slightest skill in etymology would 
have seen at once that a nugget is nothing more 
than a Yankee (?) corruption of an ingot. As 
many may be in the case of E. N. W., you may as 
well, perhaps, give this a place in " N. & Q." 


Lawyers' Sags (Vol. vii., p. 85.). I think the 
statement that " prior to the trial of Queen Ca- 
roline, the colour of the bags carried by barristers 
was green" will surprise some legal readers. I 
had been a barrister several years when that trial 
took place, and cannot think that I had ever seen 
(indeed that I have yet seen) a barrister or a 
barrister's clerk carrying a green bag. I suspect 
it is a mere blunder arising out of the talk about 
the "green bag" which was said to contain the 
charges against the Queen. That, however, I ap- 
prehend was not a lawyer's bag, whatever some 
lawyers might have to do with it. A TEMPLAR. 

J. ST. J. Y. may assure himself that Colonel 
Landman is mistaken. I have been an attendant 
upon the Courts for fifty years, and therefore long 
before the terrible green bag containing the 
charges against Queen Caroline was brought into 
the House of Commons; and I can confidently 
assert that I never saw a green bag borne by a 
barrister or solicitor during that time. The only 
colours that were ever paraded in my experience 
by those legal functionaries, were purple and 
crimson ; and they have so continued till the 
present time I will not say without interruption, 
because I have been grieved to see that tailors 
and small London pedlars have invaded the pri- 
vilege. CAUSIDICUS. 

Catherine Barton (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 434.). 
My attention has been drawn to some questions 
in your early Numbers respecting this lafly. She 
was the daughter of Robert Barton of Brigstock, 
Northamptonshire, and Hannah Smith, half-sister 
of Sir Isaac Newton. The Colonel Barton of 
whom she is said to be the widow, was her cousin, 
Colonel Noel Barton, who served with distinction 
under Marlborough, and died at the age of forty. 
He was son of Thomas, eldest son of Thomas 
Barton of Brigstock. 

The Lieutenant Matthew Barton mentioned by 
DE CAMERA was the son of Jeffery Barton, Rector 
of Rashden, Northamptonshire, afterwards Ad- 
miral Barton. Jeffery was the youngest son of 
Thomas Barton of Brigstock. O. O. O. 

Bells and Storms (Vol. iv., p. 508.). TVynkin 
de Worde, one of the earliest of the English 
printers, in The Golden Legend, observes : 

" It is said, the evil spirytes that ben in the region 
of th 1 ay re, double moche when they here the belles 
ringen whan it thondreth, and when grete tempeste 

and rages of wether happen, to the ende that the feinds 
and wycked spirytes should ben abashed and flee, and 
cease of the movynge of tempeste." 

"We have, in Sir John Sinclair's statistical ac- 
count of Scotland, an account given of a bell 
belonging to the old chapel of St. Fillan, in the 
parish of Killin, Perthshire, which usually lay on 
a gravestone in the churchyard. Mad people 
were brought hither to be dipped in the saint's 
pool ; the maniac was then confined all night in 
the chapel, bound with ropes, and in the morning 
the bell was set on his head with great solemnity. 
This was the Highland cure for mania. It was 
the popular superstition of the district, that this 
bell would, if stolen, extricate itself out of the 
thief's hands, and return to its original place, 
ringing all the way. RUSSELL GOLE. 

Latin Poem (Vol. vii., pp. 6, 7.). LORD BRAY- 
BROOKE does not appear to be so correct as usual 
in his belief, that neither of the two Latin poems, 
which he quotes, have been previously in print. 
Crowe's beautiful monody will be found at p. 234. 
of his collected poems, published by Murray, 1827. 
The printed copy, however, which is headed 

" Inscriptio in horto Auctoris apud Alton in Com. 

M. S. 

Gulielmi Crowe, 

Signif. Leg. iv. 

Qui cecidit in aeie, 

8 die Jan. A.D. 1815. JEt. s. 21." 

has the following differences : line 7., "respexit" 
for "ascripsit;" 1. 9., "solvo" for "pono." L. 10. 
and the following lines stand thus : 

" Quinetiam assidue hie veniam, lentaeque senectas, 
De Te, dulce Caput, meditando, tempora ducara : 
S;epe Tuam recolens formam, moresque decentes, 
Dictaque, turn sancto, et sapienti corde protecta, 
Turn festiva quidem, et vario condita lepore. 
Id mihi nunc solamen erit, dum vita manebit. 
Tu vero, quicunque olim successoris Haeres, 
Sedibus his oro, nicest! reverere parentis," 

and so on to the end, with one or two alterations ; 
except in the penultimate line, "sit" for "stet;" 
and, in the last, "jucundi" for "dilecti." 


[Loan BRAYBROOKK was certainly not aware that 
Crowe's monody had been published with his Poems. 
LORD BIIAYBROOKK'S version was copied, about thirty 
years ago, verbatim et literatim, from a manuscript in 
the handwriting of the late Lord Glastonbury, who 
died in 1825.] 

Daubuz (Vol. vi., p. 527.). An interesting 
notice of the Rev. Charles Daubuz occurs in 
Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 175. It is unnecessary 
to quote the whole, and I shall content myself 
with merely observing that if the dates in the 

FEB. 5. 1853.] 



Hallamshire are to be depended upon, and I have 
almost invariably found them correct, there is a 
slight inaccuracy in the note copied from the 
commentary. Mr. Hunter writes 

" He (Daubuz) was a native of Guienne, but at 
twelve years of age was driven from his native country, 
with his only surviving parent Julia Daubuz, by tbe 
religious persecution of 1686. In 1689 he was ad- 
mitted of Queen's College, Cambridge, and remained 
in college till 1696, when he accepted the situation of 
head master of the (Grammar) School of Sheffield. 
He left Sheffield in 1699 on being presented to the 
Vicarage of Brotherton near Ferry-Bridge, where he 
was much loved and respected. He died there on the 
14th of June, 1717," &c. 

W. S. (Sheffield.) 

When the Levant Company surrendered their 
charter to the crown in the year 1826, Mr. J. T. 
Daubuz was treasurer to the Company. He was 
a highly respected merchant in the city of London, 
and had purchased the estate of Offington, near 
Worthing in Sussex, an estate formerly belonging 
to the Lords De la Warr. Mr. Daubuz still re- 
sides at Offington. J. B. 

The Brides Seat in Church (Vol. vi., p. 424.). 
One of the sermons mentioned in Surtees' 
note, and inquired after by J. R. M., M.A., was 
written by William Whately, the learned and ce- 
lebrated Pui'itan, who was vicar of Banbury in 
Oxfordshire. It is entitled 

" A Bride Bush, or a Wedding Sermon, compen- 
diously describing the duties of married persons. By 
performing whereof, marriage shall be to them a great 
helpe, which now find it a little hell. London, 1617. 
4to. On Eph. v. 23." 

I believe a copy of the sermon may be found 
in the Bodleian Library. Two propositions con- 
tained in this sermon led to Whately's being con- 
vened before the High Commission, when he ac- 
knowledged that he was unable to justify them, 
and recanted May 4, 1621. (See Wood's Ath. 
Oxon. by Bliss, vol. ii. col. 638.) 


Louis Napoleon, President of France (Vol. vi., 
p. 435.). Modern history furnishes more than 
one instance of the anomaly adverted to by 
MR. HELTON. After the murder of Louis XVI., 
his son, though he never ascended the throne, 
was recognised by the legitimists of the day as 
Louis XVII. ; and on the restoration of the family 
in 1815, the Comte d'Artois assumed the title of 
Louis XVIII. In this way the revolutionary chasm 
was, as it were, bridged over, and the dynasty of 
the elder Bourbons exhibited on an uninterrupted 

So it is as regards the Napoleon dynasty. The 
Duke de Reichstadt, Napoleon's son, was in the 
same predicament as the 'son of Louis XVI. He 

received from the Bonapartists the title of Napo- 
leon II. ; and Louis Napoleon therefore becomes 
Napoleon III. 

A similar case might have occurred to the House 
of Stuart, if the Pretender's son, who began by 
taking the title of Henry IX., had not extin- 
guished the hopes and pretensions of his ill-fated 
race, by exchanging his " crown " for a cardinal's 
hat. And to-morrow (though that is perhaps a 
little too soon) the same thing may happen again 
to the elder branch of the Bourbons, should the 
Comte de Chambord (Henry V.) leave a son of 
that name to ascend the throne as Henry VI. 


St. Lucia. 

Chapel Plaster (Vol. vii., p. 37.). For an ex- 
planation of the word plaster, on which your cor- 
respondent has offered so elaborate a commentary, 
I would beg to refer him to White's Selborne 
(vol. i. p. 5. ; vol. ii. p. 340., 4to. edit.) : 

" In the centre of the village, and near the church, 
is a square piece of ground surrounded by houses, and 
vulgarly called The Plestor. In the midst of this spot 
stood, in old times, a vast oak . . . This venerable tree, 
surrounded with stone steps, and seats above them, was 
the delight of old and young, and a place of much 
resort in summer evenings ; where the former sat in 
grave debate, while the latter frolicked and danced 
before them. 

" This Pleystow (Saxon, Plegstow), locus ludorum, or 
play-place, continues still, as in old times, to be the 
scene of recreation for the youths and children of the 
neighbourhood. " 

Chapel Plaster is, I believe, an outlying hamlet 
belonging to the parish of Box ; and the name 
imports merely what in Scotland would be called 
" the Kirk on the Green " the chapel built on, 
or near to, the playground of the villagers. 

The fascinating volumes above named will afford 
a reply to an unanswered Query in your second 
volume (Vol. ii., p. 266.), the meaning of the local 
word Hanger : 

" The high part to the S.W. consists of a vast hill 
of chalk, rising 300 feet above the village ; and is 
divided into a sheep down, the high wood, and a long 
hanging wood, called The Hanger." Vol. i. p. 1. 

Lansdown Place, Bath. 

Passage in Thomson (Vol. vii., p. 67.). Steam- 
ing is clearly the true reading, and means that the 
exhalations which steam from the waters are sent 
down again in the showers of spring. This will 
appear still clearer by reference to a similar pas- 
sage in Milton's Morning Hymn, which Thomson 
was evidently copying : 

" Ye mists and exhalations that now rise 
From hill or steaming lake, dusky or grey," &c. 




[No. 171. 

Passage in Locksley Hall (Vol. vii., p. 25.). If 
Tennyson really meant his readers to gather from 
the lines in question, that the curlew's call gleams 
about the moorland, he used a very bold figure of 
speech, yet one not uncommon in the vivid lan- 
guage of Greece. For example : 

"Tlcukv Se \afiirei ffr6vof<ro-d re vrjpvs 8ficiv\os." 
And again, 

""EXo/iipe ap-rius (pavelffa 0a/i." (So- 
So also, 

"Boa irpe'iret." (Pindar and JEschylus.) 

May it not, however, be just possible that Ten- 
nyson did not mean anything ? A. A. D. 



NEWMAN'S FERNS. Large Edition. 

ENIGMATICAL ENTERTAINER. Nos. I. and II. 1827 and 1828. 

Sherwood & Co. 

NORTHUMBRIAN MIRROR. New Series. 1841, &c. 
LEEDS CORRESPONDENT. Vol. V., Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
T)E LA CROIX'S CONNUBIA FLORUM. Bathoniae, 1791. 8vo. 
REID'S HISTORICAL BOTANY. Windsor, 1826. 3 vols. 12mo. 
LADERCHII ANNALES ECCLESIASTIC!, 3 torn. fol. Romae, 1728 


TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 18311839. 

MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second 

Edition. 1813. 

SPECTATOR. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753. 


Christ. Plantin. ; or any of the works of Costerus in any lan- 

GUARDIAN. 12mo. 

WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Letter to English Working Men, 
by a Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 1848. 





JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). Vol. 1. 


FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 
12mo. 1808. 

HOLCBOFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789. 

OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 17<>8. 

EDMONDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780. 



BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. 

RAPIN'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 8vo. Vols. I., III. and V. of 


*** Correspondents sending Lists of Book* Wanted are requested 
to send their names. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent, to MR. BELL. Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 


NOTES ON BOOKS, Sec. In consequence of the number of REPLIES 
waiting for insertion, we have thought it right this week to omit our 
usual NOTES ON BOOKS, Sfc. 

J. L. (Islington). The ordinary Spirits of Wine, sixty over 
proof, is that referred to. The Ether is to be common rectified 
Ether, and not the washed Ether. 

A CONSTANT READER is informed that Stereoscopic views mat/ 
be taken in any Camera. We must refer him for answers to his 
other Queries to any of the numerous dealers in such objects. 

INQUIRER (Edinburgh)'* Photographic difficulty shall be solved 
next week. 

H. H. H. (Ashburton). It is only some specimens of Gutta 
Percha that can be acted upon by Collodion, which then takes up a 
very minute portion of a waxy substance which occurs in some 
Gutta Percha, and some other eastern products. The advantages 
derived from its use are very questionable. 

T. N. B.'i offer is accepted with thanks. 

T. K. G. The enigma 

" Twas whisper'd in heaven " 

was certainly written by Miss Catherine Fanshawe. Another 
enigma from her pen, " On the Letter I," will be found in our 
5th Vol., p. 427. 

W. H. L. The line 

" To err is human, to forgive divine," 
ii the 525/A of Pope's Essay on Criticism. 

H. G. D. We should be glad to see the Notes referred to. 

VARRO. We have a letter on the subject of the Reprint of the 
First Folio Shakspeare for this Correspondent. Shall it be for- 
warded, or left at our Publisher's f 

SHAKSPEARE. We have in type, or in the printer's hands, two 
or three articles on the text of Shakspeare, to which we propose to 
give immediate insertion. After which we would suggest the pro- 
priety of our Correspondents suspending their labour on this sub- 
ject until the appearance o/MR. COLLIER'S promised edition, which 
is to contain all the MS. emendations in his copy of the Folio of 1632. 

PRESTONIENSIS. A Tandem was so named from some University 
wag, because he drove his two horses not abreast, but at length. 

W. L. C. (Preston). A common brass medal, of no pecuniary 

J. G. T. (near Eden Bridge)., The word Quarantine is from 
the Italian Qtiaranto, and refers to the forty days, after which it 
was supposed there was no further danger of infection. The hymn 
" Buck of Ages " teas written by Toplady ; and " Lo, he comes, in 
clouds descending ! " by Oliver. 

T. F. (Taunton) is thanked for his suggestions. The first and 
second shall have due consideration. As to the third, the taking of 
it is in no case intended to be compulsory. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, 
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J. TURES. A Selection of the above 
Ijeautif'ul Productions may be seen at BLAND 
& LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also 
be procured Apparatus of every Description, 
and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photo- 
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FEB. 5. 1853.] 



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advertised Collodio-Iodides, which, for my 
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compared to yours. 

" I remain, dear Sir, 

" Yours faithfully, 

Aug. 30, 1852. 
To Mr. R. W.Thomas." 
MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to 
caution photographers against purchasing im- 
pure chemicals, which are now too frequently 
sold at very low prices. It is to this cause nearly 
always that their labours are unattended with 

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially pre- 
pared for this art, may he obtained from R. W. 
THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photo- 
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N.B. The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, 
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maker's signature. 

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(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF 

Of Saturday, January 29, contains Articles on 

Agricultural Commis- 

College, Ciren- 

cester, Sessional Ex- 
amination at 

prize essays 

Allamanda neiiifolia 

Apple trees, to graft 

Bee, cure for sting of, 
by M. Gumprecht 

Beet, sugar 

Birds, predatory 

Bird skins 

Butter, to make 

Cabbage Weevil (with 

Calendar, horticultu- 


Chemical works 

Cherry trees, to root- 

College, Cirencester, 
Agricultural Ses- 
sional Examination 

Copings for walls 

Cottages, labourers' 

Cucumber, Hunter's 

Draining, experience 

Drip, to prevent 

Dwyer on Engineer- 
ing, rev. 

Euphjrbia jaequini- 
flora, by Mr.Bennett 

Farming, year's expe- 
rience in, by the 
Rev. G. Wilkins 

Fern, new British 


Floriculture, past and 

Grapes, red Ham- 
burgh, by Mr. 


tion of 

Gutters, zinc 

Henderson's (Messrs.) 

Larch, rot in 

Lotus of ancients 

Manures, town 

Melons, Simla, by 
Lieut. Lowther 

Orchids, guano-water 

Pigs, greaves for 

Pleuropneumonia, by 
Mr. Maruell 

Poppies, to sow 

Potatoes, luminous, by 

Poultry dealers 

Rail], fail of 

Reviews, miscellane- 

Roses in Derbyshire 

Season, mildness, of 

Shows, reports of the 
Cornwall and Tor- 
quay Poultry 

Societies, proceedings 

Sugar beet 


Walls, coping for 

Wall trees, badly 

Weather in Scotland 

Weevil, cabbage (with 

Wheat, system of 
growing at Lois 

culture of 

Willow, weeping 

Woodland question, 
by Mr. Baiiey Den- 

Wool, wood 


contains, in addition to the above, the Covent 
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ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for 
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Lists of Prices to be had on application. 
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[No. 171, 





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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

Xo. 172.] 


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NOTES : Page 

Italian English - - - - - - 149 

St. Nicholas Church, Brighton .... 150 

Key to Dibdin's Bibliomania - 151 

Parallel Passages, by Harry Leroy Temple - - 151 

Antiquity of the Polka: a Note for the Ladies - - 152 

Seven Score Superstitious Sayings, by J. Westby Gibson 152 

MINOR NOTES : Mormon Etymologies Bandalore 
and Tommy Moore Electric Clock Desirable Re- 
prints The Earldom of Oxford Literary Attain- 
ments of the Scottish Clergy in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury ....... 153 


Queries as to Mr. Collier's " Notes and Emendations " 153 
Hone's " History of Parody," by James B. Murdoch - 154 
The Countess of Pembroke's Letter to Sir Joseph Wil- 
liamson - ...... 154 

MIXOR QUERIES : Mediaval Parchment " Mater ait 
P natse " Fox of Whittlebury Forest Names and 
Numbers of British Regiments Daughters of St. 
Mark Kentish Fire Optical Phenomenon Cardi- 
nal Bentivoglio's Description of England Remarkable 
Signs Old Fable Tide Tables Passage in Ovid 
Roger Pele, Abbot of Furness Curtseys and Bows 
Historical Proverb Bishop Patrick's "Parable of a 
Pilgrim "Dr. Parr's Dedications " Konigl. Schwe- 
discher in Teutschland gefiihrter Krieg " " Officium 
Birgittinum Anglice " Campbell's Hymn on the Na- 
tivity ---.-.- 155 

falls in Our Lady's Lap " Hobnail-counting in the 
Court of Exchequer A Race for Canterbury Nose 
of Wax " Praise from Sir Hubert Stanley ! "Rosary 157 


The Rod : a Poem ---..- 158 

The Dutch East-India Company ... - 159 
",lts," by Thomas Keightley - - - 1GO 

Commencement of the Year - 161 

" Pi-nardo and Laissa" - - - - - 161 

Robin Hood, by John D'Alton and J. Lewelyn Curtis - 102 

Collodion Process The Soiling of the Fingers Sir 
W. Newton's Process : Chloride of Bromium The 
Collodion Process Portable Camera - - - 162 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: Chaplains to Noblemen 

Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger 
Brydone the Tourist Yankee Miniature Ring of 
Charles I Bishop of Ossory : Cardinal's Hat Hugh 
Oldhani, Bishop ol Exeter ' Sic transit gloriamu'idi" 

Wnke " Words given to Man to conceal his 

Thoughts" Inscription on Penny of George III 

" Nine Tailors make a Man " On Quotations 
Rhymes on Places Coins in Foundations Fleshed, 
Meaning of Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Ar- 
maghFlemish and Dutch Schools of Painting- 
Furmety or Frumenty Etymology of Pearl, &c. - 1C3 


Notes on Books, &c. - . . . - ]fiS 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 1GS 

Notices to Correspondents - . . 109 

Advertisements - - - . - - 169 

Vor,. VII. No. 172. 


I have been favoured by a friend, who visited 
Italy last year, with the perusal of a small guide- 
book, which has afforded me much amusement, and 
from which I send you a few extracts for the grati- 
fication of your readers. The title runs thus : 

" Description of the front and interior of the Cathe- 
dral of Milan the first edition corrected, and increased 
with interesting things Milan by the printer Luigi di 
Giacorao Pirola M.DCCC." 

The Preface is as follows : 

" In presenting to the learned and intelligent Pub- 
lick this new and brief Description of the Cathedral of 
Milan, i must apprise that i do not- mean to emulate 
with the works already existing of infinite merit for the 
notions they contain, and the perspicuity with which 
they are exposed. My idea only was to make an ex- 
tract of them, not forgetting the principal things of 
observation, with the names of the most distinguished 
artists, and not to deprive them of all the digressions 
and explanations required by the Scientificals, or those 
skilled in the art, so that it might be contained in a 
Pamphlet, and of little expence, to be offered to the 
amateurs of fine arts, who come to visit this unique and 
magnificent Edifice. Therefore i have not failed to 
include in it, all that has been done subsequently to the 
publishment of the above works, with some other little 
trifles worthy to be seen,- and in them not mentioned. 
Such has been my sole design, no other pretention has 
induced me to it, and with a similar premise, i hope to 
be pardoned by the indulgent Reader for all the errors 
in which i might have involuntarily incurred. G. P." 

In the introductory portion, giving a general 
account of the building, " G. P." says : 

" Under the direction of honest, intelligent and active 
Administrators, and by the pious munificence of our 
Gracious Sovereign, who bestowes an annual generous 
donation for completing the building of the Cathedral 
of Milan, one perceives tending with the greatest celerity 
to the perfection of this magnificent Edifice, founded by 
a special vow in 1386 by the duke of Milan Giovanni 
Galeazzo Visconti. It is of fine white statuary marble, 
extracted from the quarry of mount Gandolia, which 
among many gifts was expressly regaled for the build- 
ing by its generous founder the duke Visconti above 



[No. 172. 

In describing the " fore-front " he gives a cata- 
logue of the " bass-riliefs," from which a few ex- 
tracts are made : 

" 1st. the Tobiolo assisted by the Angel in his 
jounrey to Rages, . . . the second is the Angel that 
expells Adam and Eve from the Eden, by Carlo Maria 
Giudici. The two in the second order are : Daniel in 
the lake of the lions by the above Carabelli, and Job on 
the dunghill, by the above Giudici. The two upper 
Statues that figure Saint Bartholomew and Saint James 
Junior, are works by Buzzi Donelli and Buzzi Giu- 
seppe. The Bass-Riliefs that follow aside of the 
Pilaster is God appearing to Moses in the ardent- 
brambles Over the great windout the Bass- 

Rilief representing Samuel while he oints Saul king of 
Israel is by Carlo Maria Giudici, and Angelo Pizzi a 
milanese, carved the vision of Jacob on the side of the 
following Pilaster. In sight of the same Moses who 
makes the water gush from the mountain is by Giuseppe 
Buzzi, and the other Bass-Rilief that is placed above, 
represents the prophet Elia presenting to the afflicted 
mother the resurrection of her Son, by Grazioso Rusca. 
By Canaillo Pacetti is the Statue of Saint James 
senior. . . . The Bass-Rilief over the great window 
represents the prophetess Debora providing captain 
Barach with arms. . . . Ornamented is the rest of 
the front with a great number of Statues managed with 
skill by intelligent Authors, and aside of the door are 
the Apostles Peter and Paul of ancient work and un- 
known Author ... as also of unknown chisel is 
Saul who tempts to kill David. . . . The Angel 
who assures Sampson's Father that his Wife, believed 
to be sterile, will generate the strongest of Israel's 
sons. . . . On reaching the fourth door one per- 
ceives in the frontispiece the Bass-Rilief that adorns 
it, which is by Lasagni ; representing Givele that with 
a nail kills captain Sisara. . . . Esau renouncing the 
primogeniture to his brother Jacob. . . . Over the 
great window is painted Agar dying with thirst, with 
the son of Ismael in the desert, while an Angel appears 
indicating a fountain to her. . . . The first of the 
other four Bass-Riliefs in view figure Gedeone prepar- 
ing to fight the Madianites, and the second Sampson 
suffocating the lion. . . . The Saints Philip and 
Thomas placed upwards are by the egregious Pompeo 
Marches!. . . . the second is by Ribossi, represent- 
ing Absatom suspended by his hair to a tree and pierced 
through by Jacob." 

In describing the interior, "G. P." is rather 
more instructive, but not quite so entertaining : 
howe.ver, a number of the peculiar expressions 
already quoted are repeated with the same confid- 
ing simplicity. A few extracts will suffice for this 
portion : 

" The ornaments of the five doors are the designment 
of Fabio Mangone, . . . the surprising vault a 
chiaro-scuro, drawn and painted in part by our milanese 
Felice Alberti, who in the year 1827 was ravished from 
the living by a fatal misfortune in the flower of his age. 
. . . in the inward columns on both sides are two 
very fine Statues sitting in a very melancholy action, 
which represent military Peace and Virtue. . . . 

under the tomb-stone is another small and genteel Bass- 
Rilief representing the Saviour afflicted, sustained by 
two little Angels. . . . The Altar of Santa Tecla, 
which is part of the left arm of the cross, or form of 
the Church, as is mentioned above, representing the 
Saint in a seraglio of wild beasts, is by the Sculptor 
Carlo Beretta." 

Lest I should have exhausted your patience, as 
well as that of your readers, I will close with one 
more quotation, which displays what Mrs. Malaprop 
calls " a nice derangement of epitaphs : " 

" The last altar that was seen not long since on this 
side was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, whose image 
carved in wood dated a remote antiquity, but as to the 
remnant nothing was found to be appreciable in sort of 

A. R. X. 



In matters touching the public weal, the Editor 
of "N. & Q." always finds space for his corre- 
spondents : a few lines are asked for the present 
subject, as being one on which his pages have 
already been earnestly devoted. 

The rebuilding of Brighton old church has been 
announced, and those who have frequented the 
salubrious breezes of that unequalled marine resi- 
dence have often enjoyed the commanding view 
of the town and noble sea, which is obtained from 
the hill on which this venerable fabric stands, and 
which is about to disappear and perhaps "leave 
not a wreck behind." 

The church is literally lined and flagged with 
monuments of the dead, more or less noted ; but 
all of whom have passed through the stage of this 
life away from their native localities, and many 
falling where they went to seek in vain renovated 

The tombs in the churchyard, immediately ad- 
joining the church, of Capt. Tettersell, who con- 
veyed King Charles to France after the battle of 
Worcester ; and Phoebe Hassell, who fought under 
the Duke of Cumberland at Fontenoy, are con- 
tinually surveyed by the old visitors. In a few 
months it may be too late to suggest to your 
friends interested in the preservation of monu- 
mental remains, and their inscriptions, to prevent 
such a similar removal and destruction as has 
taken place at Lambeth, under the walls of the 
Archbishop's residence, by the rector, church- 
wardens, and architects of Lambeth new church. 

A notice to those interested in the history of the 
county of Sussex may be the means of preserving 
at least the inscriptions, and calling attention of 
the amiable and respected vicar of Brighton to a 
consideration of the subject. K. "~ 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 




The following key to the characters in the 
Bibliomania (edit. 1811) has been collected with 
care, and will no doubt prove acceptable to some 
of the readers of "N. & Q.": 

Archimedes - 
Coriolanus - 
Eumenius - 
(I.) Gonzalo 

Hortensius - 


Hippolyto - 





Lavinia's Husband 



Marcel 1 us 

Mustapha - 

Menander - 



Mercurii (III.) - 

Nicas - 
Narcottus - 
(2.) Phormio 
Philelphus - 
Pontevallo - 
Quisquilius - 
Sir Tristram 

<1.) Attributed to 

Page 164. 

Right-hand neighbour 

Left-hand ditto 

Opposite ditto 
Page 249. 

Literary friend 

Richard Heber, Esq. 
George Chalmers, Esq. 
Home Tooke ? 
John Rennie, Esq. 
Joseph Haslewood, Esq. 
James Boswell, Esq. ? 
John Ph. Kemble, Esq. 
Watson Taylor, Esq. 
J. D. Phelps, Esq. 
John Dent, Esq. 
W. Bolland, Esq. 
George Hibbert, Esq. 
Samuel Weller Singer, Esq. 
James Bindley, Esq. 
Dr. Cosset. 
Rev. T. F. Dibdin. 
Sir Mark Sykes. 
J. Harrison, Esq. 
R. Heathcote, Esq. ' 
Francis Freeling, Esq. 
Edmond Malone, Esq. 
W. Gardiner of Pall Mall. 
Tom. Warton. 
Payne Knight or Townley ? 
Rev. Henry Drury. 
Mr. Henry Foss, Mr. Trip- 
hook, and Mr. Griffiths. 
R. Lang, Esq. 
G. Shepherd, Esq. 
Rev. J. Jones. 
Michael Woodhull, Esq. 
Francis Douce, Esq. 
J. Barwise, Esq. 
Rev. H. Vernon. 
Mr. John Cuthill. 
Robert Southey, Esq. 
Geo. Henry Freeling, Esq. 
John North, Esq. 
Duke of Bridgewater ? 
George Baker, Esq. 
J. Edwards, Esq. 
Rev. T. F. Dibdin. 
Walter Scott, Esq. 
Joseph Ritson. 
Edw. Vernon Utterson, Esq. 

Birt 7 In Sir Francis 
Churton $ Freeling's copy. 

Mr. George Nicol. 
Mr. R. H. Evans. 
Mr. Thomas Payne. 

Sir Henry Ellis. 

W. P. 

1. " In a drear-nighted December, 

Too happy, happy tree, 
Thy branches ne'er remember 

Their green felicity," &c. Keats. 

"What would be the heart of an old weather-beaten 
hollow stump, if the leaves and blossoms of its youth 
were suddenly to spring up out of the mould around it, 
and to remind it how bright and blissful summer was 
in the years of its prime?" Hare's Guesses at Truth, 
1st series, p. 244. 

2. " Spake full well, in language quaint and olden, 

One who dwelleth by the castled Rhine, 

When he call'd the flowers, so blue and golden, 

Stars that on earth's firmament do shine." 

Longfellow, Flowers. 

u And daisy-stars, whose firmament is green." 
Hood, Plea of the Midsummer Fairies, xxxvi. 

[And see the converse thought, 

" Stars are the daisies that begem 

The blue fields of the sky." 
D. M. Moir, quoted in Dull. Univ. Mag., Oct. 1852.] 

3. " But she is vanish'd to her shady home 

Under the deep, inscrutable ; and there 
Weeps in a midnight made of her own hair." 

Hood, Hero and Leander, cxvi. ,' 
" Within the midnight of her hair, 
Half-hidden in its deepest deeps," &c. 

Barry Cornwall, The Pearl Wearer. 

" But, rising up, 

Robed in the long night of her deep hair, so 
To the open window moved." 

Tennyson, Princess, p. 89. 

4. " He who for love hath undergone 

The worst that can befall, 
Is happier thousandfold than one 
Who never loved at all." 

M. Milnes, To Myrzha, on returning. 

" I hold it true, whate'er befall, 

I feel it when I sorrow most, 
'Tis better to have loved and lost, 
Than never to have loved at all." 

Tennyson, In Memoriam, xxvii. 

5. Boileau, speaking of himself, when set in his 
youth to study the law, says that his family 

" Palit, e.t vit en fremissant 

Dans la poudre du greffe un poete naissant." 

While Pope, in his Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, 
speaks of 

" Some clerk, foredoom'd his father's soul to cross, 
Who pens a stanza when he should engross." 


P.S. At p. 123. of Vol. vi. are inserted some 
other parallels, noted by me in the course of my 
reading. For one of these so inserted, that relating 

* Continued from Vol. iv., p. 435. ; Vol. vi., p. 123. 



[No. 172. 

to Sylla, I was taken to task (see Vol. vi., p. 208.) 
by P. C. S. S. Now, the parallel between the two 
passages (" Parallel, resemblance, conformity con- 
tinued through many particulars, likeness," John- 
son's Dictionary) is this : Both verses endeavour 
to picture the mingled red and white of the 
"human face divine" (one satirically, the other 
eulogistically), by comparing their combined effect 
to that of the red hue of fruit seen through a par- 
tially superfused white medium meal over mul- 
berries, cream over strawberries. If there is not 
sufficient " resemblance " or " likeness " in the 
two (in the opinion of P. C. S. S.) to justify me 
in placing them alongside of one another (vapd\- 
A.j7A.a), I really cannot help it. 

I have now ascertained that the words 

" Sylla's a mulberry sprinkled with meal " 
are to be found in Langhorne's Plutarch, as a 
translation of the original Greek quoted by 
P. C. S. S. 


The description of the lavolta in Sir John 
Davies's poem on dancing, The Orchestra (1 />96), 
shows that it must have closely resembled the 
dance which we fondly boast of as one of the great 
inventions of the nineteenth century. It runs as 
follows : 

" Yet is there one, the most delightful kind, 
A lofty jumping, or a leaping round, 
Where arm in arm two dancers are entwined, 
And whirl themselves with strict embracements 

bound ; 

And still their feet an anapaest do sound ; 
An anapaest is all their music's song, 
Whose first two feet are short, and third is long." 
The "anapaest" is conclusive; it points exactly 
to the peculiar nature of the polka, the pause on 
the third step. Moreover, it appears, that as there 
is no especial figure for the polka, so there was 
none for the lavolta ; for it is classed among those 

" Wherein that dancer greatest praise has won, 
Which, with best order, can all orders shun ; 
For everywhere he wantonly must range, 
And turn and wind with unexpected change." 
Who can doubt after that ? The polka was cer- 
tainly danced before Queen Elizabeth ! 

To this valuable historical parallel I may add 
that the galliard and coranto also were apparently 
danced ad libitum (observing only a particular 
measure), just as our waltz and galop also are : 
" For more diverse and more pleasing show, 
A swift, a wandering dance, he [Love] did invent, 
With passages uncertain to and t'ro, 
Yet with a certain answer and consent, 
'To the quick music of the instrument." 



My common-place books contain a goodly num- 
ber of superstitious sayings, noted down as heard 
at different times and in various places, chiefly 
during the last ten or twelve years. I have made 
a selection from them, the greater portion of which 
will probably come under the printer's eye for the 
first time, should they be considered a fitting 
addition to the interesting records of Folk Lore 
in the pages of "N. & Q." I reserve my com- 
ment or attempted illustration for future oppor- 

First Score. 

1 . Adder. " Look under the deaf adder's belly> 
and you'll find marked, in mottled colours, these 
words : 

' If I could hear as well as see, 
No man of life {sic} should master me ! ' " 

(This saying was related to me by a friend, a 
native of Lewes, Sussex, where it is common.) 

2. Adder-shin. " It' 11 bring you good luck to 
hang an ether-skin o'er the chimbly [chimney- 
piece]." (Heard in Leicestershire.) 

3. Beanfield. " Sleep in a beanfield all night 
if you want to have awful dreams, or go crazy." 
(In Leicestershire.) 

4. Chime-hours. " A child born in chime-hours 
will have the power to see spirits." (A Somerset 

5. Egg-shells. "Always poke a hole through 
your egg-shell before you throw it away." Why? 
" If you don't, the fairies will put to sea to wreck 
the ships." (Somerset. Query, For fairies, read 
witches ?) 

6. Eyebrows. " It's a good thing to have meet- 
ing eyebrows. You '11 never know trouble.'* 
(Various places.) 

7. Fern-root. " Cut a fern-root slantwise, and 
you'll see a picture of an oak-tree : the more per- 
fect, the luckier chance for you." (Croydon and 

8. Flowering Myrtle. " That's the luckiest 
plant to have in your window. Water it every 
morning, and be proud of it." (Somerset.) 

9. Harvest Spider. " The harvest-man has got 
four things on its back, the scythe, the rake, the 
sickle, and [Query the fourth ?] It's most un- 
lucky for the reaper to kill it on purpose." (From 
an Essex man.) 

10. Holly, Ivy, Sfc. " All your Christmas should 
be burnt on Twelfth-day morning." (London, &c.) 

11. Lettuce. " O'er-much lettuce in the garden 
will stop a young wife's bearing." (Richmond, 

12. May-baby. " A May-baby's always sickly. 
You may try, but you'll never rear it." (Various.) 

13. May-kitten. "You should drown a May- 
kitten. It 's unlucky to keep it." (Somerset.) 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



14. New Moon. " You may see as many new 
moons at once through a silk handkerchief, as there 
are years before you will marry." (Leicestershire.) 

15. Onions. "In buying onions always go in 
by one door of the shop, and come out by another. 
Select a shop with two doorways. These onions, 
placed under your pillow on St. Thomas's Eve, are 
sure to bring visions of your true-love, your future 
husband." (London, &c.) 

16. Parsley. "Where parsley's grown in the 
garden, there'll be a death before the year's out. 
(London and Surrey.) 

17. Ring-finger. " The ring-finger, stroked 
along any sore or wound, will soon heal it. All 
the other fingers are poisonous, especially the 
fore-finger." (Somerset.) 

18. Salt. " Help to salt, help to sorrow." 

19. Three Dogs. " If three dogs chase a rabbit 
or a hare, they can't kill it." (Surrey.) 

20. White Cow. " A child that sucks a white 
cow will thrive better." (Wilts.) 

12. Catherine Street, Strand. 

Mormon Etymologies. W. Richards, " His- 
torian and General Church Recorder" of the Mor- 
mons, says : 

" Mormon is the name of an ancient prophet, and 
signifies more good. ' Mormonism,' a new coined word 
by the enemy, signifies ALL TRUTH, PRESENT, PAST, AND 
PUTURE ; and the 'Mormon's' creed is the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth. And this creed 
is what the devil and all his imps are eternally fighting 
against, and not against the believers of that creed only, 
so far as the truth influences their actions." Mittenial 
Star, 1850, p. 341. 

This certainly displays the wisdom of the ser- 
pent, if not the meekness of wisdom. Pray pre- 
serve it in your cabinet of literary curiosities. 

B. H. C. 

Bandalore and Tommy Moore. 

" What this toy was, we have no means of knowing," 
&c. Fraser's Mag., January, p. 5. 

Had our reviewer stepped in at Dunnett's toy- 
shop, instead of searching all his French diction- 
aries, he would have learned, I doubt not, that 
bandalore is still a living toy, just as it was when 
Moore was young. 

At Tunbridge it is still made in their pretty 
ware; and sufficiently portable for any kind- 
hearted grandpapa to carry in his pocket. J. J. 11. 

Electric Clock. It is said that the electric tele- 
graph will annihilate time and space. Of the 
former we have visible proof. Look at the new 
clock in West Strand. The minute-hand moves 

only once in each minute, and then it jumps a 
whole minute at once, and occupies a second of 
time in doing so. Now, supposing the clock to 
indicate true time at the instant of each movement, 
it is obvious that it must indicate untrue time at 
every other instant : hence it only indicates true 
time during one second in each minute, twenty- 
four minutes in each day, and six days and two 
hours in the whole year, or less than two years in 
a century ; whilst, during the remaining ninety- 
eight years and more, it is annihilating true time, 
by imposing upon an unwary public that which is 
false ! J. J. R. 

Desirable Reprints. Will you allow me to com- 
mence a series of Notes, which your readers can 
easily amplify, viz. suggestions of old books de- 
serving to be reprinted, with the authorities quoted 
recommending them. 

1. Glanvil's Scepis Scientifica. 

" Few books, I think, are more deserving of being 
reprinted." Hallam's Literature of Europe. 


The Earldom of Oxford. The following is so 
remarkable a coincidence, that I am sure many of 
your readers will be obliged to me for bringing it 
under their notice, particularly those who are in- 
terested in heraldry. 

The same individual who has been for many 
years the nearest heir male to Aubery de Vere, 
twentieth and last earl of Oxford of that family, 
who died in 1702, has become, by the recent death 
of Alfred, sixth Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, the 
nearest heir male to that race also, which title is 
likewise extinct. AN M. D. 

Literary Attainments of the Scottish Clergy in 
the Seventeenth Century. In a deed granted by 
Andro Andersone, minister of Loth, in Suther- 
landshire, anno 1618, wherein he is designated 
" Ministro veriti Dei apud Loithe," the instrument 
is signed with his mark, after which is added, 
" Cannot wreitt myself." KIBKWALXENSIS. 


Query 1. Does MB. COLLIER claim a copyright 
in the Emendations on the Text of Shakspeare lately 
published by him, and derived from MS. correc- 
tions in his old copy of the folio of 1632 ? He 
seems to intimate as much in what he says at p. 13. 
of his Introduction, when he speaks of a certain 
phrase never being again seen in any edition of 
Shakspeare, " unless it be reproduced by some 
one who, having no right to use the emendations of 
our folio 1632, adheres of necessity to the auti- 



[No. 172. 

quated blunder, and pertinaciously attempts to 
justify it." 

I doubt much whether he is entitled to any such 
privilege. If the words as restored were really 
those of Shakspeare, as is alleged, I do not see 
how the writer of the MS. corrections could him- 
self claim any property in them ; and if he had 
none, much less can MR. COLLIER have. It would 
be a pity were the public to be deprived of the 
benefit of the corrections by the use of them 
being exclusively confined to ME. COLLIER'S 

Query 2. Does the writer of the MS. correc- 
tions occasionally give reasons in support of the 
changes proposed? At p. 306., MR. COLLIER 
says : " The manuscript corrector assures us that 
although the intention of the dramatist is evident, 
a decided misprint has crept into the line." 

Again, at p. 305., MR. COLLIER says : " For 
'senseless obstinate,' the corrector of the folio 
]632 states that we must substitute words," &c. 
Again, at p. 352. : "A note in the folio 1632, in- 
duces us to believe that Shakspeare did not use 
the term," &c. The MS. corrector is also some- 
times made to tell us, that a certain error is the 
printer's ; and another that of the copyist. Per- 
haps these are only rhetorical forms of expression, 
to intimate that certain corrections appeared on 
the margin of the folio 1632, and MR. COLLIER'S 
own opinion of their propriety. SCOTDS. 



A small collection of the political squibs and 
pamphlets published by Wm. Hone about 1820, 
has lately come into my possession. An advertise- 
ment in several of these announces that the large 
material collected for his defence had induced him 
to prepare, and "very speedily" to publish, A com- 
plete History of Parody, " with extensive graphic 
illustrations." This on March 20. Again, on 
October 2, same year, he says : " I take this op- 
portunity of announcing that the work will appear 
in monthly parts, each containing at least five en- 
gravings, and that it will probably be completed 
in eight deliveries at 5s. each. I pledge myself that 
the First Part shall be published, without fail, on 
the 1st January next, and respectfully invite the 
names of subscribers. The money to be paid on 
the delivery of each Part." 

Lastly, in an " Explanatory Address," appended 
to No. 1. of his Every-Day Book, dated 31st Dec., 
1824, Hone says : " The History of Parody, with 
enlarged reports of my three trials, a royal 8vo. 
volume of 600 pages, handsomely printed, and 
illustrated by numerous engravings on copper 
and wood, plain and coloured, is in considerable 
forwardness. The price will be 21. 2s., in extra 
cloth boards," &c. 

Thus, though advertised more than four years 
previously, this work had not yet come out, and 
indeed, if not mistaken, I think it never appeared 
at all. Will some of your bibliographical corre- 
spondents inform me if my surmise is correct ? 
and if so, what has become of Hone's MSS., and 
the large collection he made on the subject of 
parody ? JAMES B. MURDOCH. 

162. Hope Street, Glasgow. 


Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of State to 
Charles II., having presumed to recommend a 
candidate for her borough of Appleby, she wrote 
him the following spirited and well-known reply : 

" I have been bullied by an usurper : I have been 
neglected by a court : hut I will not be dictated to by 
a subject. Your man sha'n't stand. 


This statement is taken from A Sermon preached 
at the Funeral of Anne, Countess of Pembroke, fyc., 
by Bishop Rainbow ; with Biographical Memoirs 
(1839), page of the Memoir xiii. In a note, it is 
observed that 

" Mr. Lodge questions the genuineness of this letter, 
which appears to have been first published in The 
World in 1753." 

I concur with Mr. Lodge. The style of the 
letter is quite modern : the verb " bully" seems also 
quite a modern coinage and the signature varies 
from the usual setting forth and sequence of titles 
contained in the inscriptions which the Countess 
placed over the gateways of her castles, as she 
repaired them, and which ran thus, the peerages 
being placed in the order of their creation, viz. : 
" Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and 
Montgomery." In support of the genuineness of the 
letter, it may be urged that Sir Joseph Williamson, 
from an early period after the Restoration until 
1674, when he became Secretary of State, held 
various offices about the Court that might have thus 
brought him into collision with the Countess ; that 
he was not a very scrupulous man ; that he was 
the "son of a clergyman somewhere in Cumber- 
land;" and that his highest promotion took place 
before the death of the Countess in 1675. (For 
some account of him, see Evelyn's Memoirs, In- 
dex.) To this it may be added, that the letter 
accords with her courageous spirit. Can no earlier 
authority be given for it than that of The World 
in 1753 ? J. K. 

[Although this subject has been already briefly dis- 
cussed in our columns (see Vol. i., pp. 28. 1 19. 154.), 
we think it of sufficient interest to be renewed, now 
that our increased circulation will bring it under the 
notice of so many more readers ; among whom, per- 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



haps one may be found in a position to solve the mys- 
tery in which the authenticity of this oft-quoted letter 
is at present involved.] 


MedifBoal Parchment. In what way did me- 
diaeval illuminators prepare their parchment ? For 
our modern parchment is so ill prepared, that it 
gets crumpled as soon as wet chalk for gilding, or 
any colour, is laid on it ; whilst the parchment in 
mediaeval MSS. is quite smooth and level, as if it 
had not been moistened at all. 

Should a full answer to this Query take up too 
much of your valuable space, I should be satisfied 
with the titles of any works on the art of " illumin- 
ation," in which special mention is made of the 
way of preparing parchment. F. M. (A Maltese.) 

"Mater ait natce" Where can the following 
lines, thus " Englished by Hakewill," be found ? 

" Mater ait natae, die natae, filia, natam 
Ut moneat natae piangere filiolam." 

" The aged mother to her daughter spake, 

Daughter, said she, arise ; 
Thy daughter to her daughter take, 
Whose daughter's daughter cries." 

My object in asking the above question is for 

the purpose of discovering if such a relationship 

ever existed. W. W. 


Fox of Whittlebury Forest. In Mr. Jessie's 
Life of Beau Brummel, I met with a passage 
which spoke about the " well-known fox of Whit- 
tlebury Forest." Can any of your readers kindly 
inform me in what the celebrity of this animal 
consists, that Mr. Jessie takes for granted is so 
well known ? A Fox HUNTER. 

Names and Numbers of British Regiments 
(Vol. iv., p. 368. ; Vol. vi., p. 37.). I feel disap- 
pointed that none of your numerous and well- 
informed readers have responded to my inquiries 
on this subject. Hoping, however, that answers 
may still be obtained, I venture to repeat the 
questions for the third time, viz. : 

1. What was the origin of giving British regi- 
ments the name of a certain officer, instead of 
numbering them as at present ? 

2. If in honour of an officer commanding the 
corps, was the name changed when that officer 
died or removed to another regiment ; or what 
was the rule ? 

3. When did the present mode of numbering 
regiments begin ; and by whom was it introduced ? 

_ 4. What was the rule or principle laid down in 
giving any regiment a certain number 9 Was it 
according to the length of time it had been em- 
bodied ? 

5. What is the guide now, in identifying a 
named with a numbered regiment ? For example, 
at the battle of Culloden, in 1746, " Wolfe's," 
"Barrell's," and "Howard's Foot" were engaged. 
Now, what is the rule for ascertaining the numbers 
of these, and other old regiments, in the British 
army at the present day ? 

I shall feel greatly obliged by the above inform- 
ation. Z. 


Daughters of St. Mark. How many were 
adopted as daughters of the Republic of St. Mark? 
Catherine Cornaro was one, and, I believe, Bianca 
Capello another. I think there were but one or 
two more : but who were they ? ROSA. 

Kentish Fire. What is the origin of the term 
" Kentish fire," signifying energetic applause ? 


Optical Phenomenon. On the afternoon of the 
20th January, at one o'clock, as I stood on the 
beach of Llandudno Bay, North Wales, I observed 
a rainbow, from the circumference of which passed 
a number of bright pencils of light, apparently 
converging to a point near the invisible centre of 
the rainbow. What is the explanation of this 
phenomenon ? C. MANSFIELD INGLEBT. 


Cardinal Bentivoglio's Description of England. 
A MS. of this interesting work exists among 
Bishop Tanner's MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 
Has it ever been printed ? The account is said to 
have been drawn up with great care and accuracy, 
and betrays no sinister views. 

Did Cardinal Bentivoglio visit England in 
person, or how did he collect his information ? 


Remarkable Signs. Can any of the learned 
contributors of the " N. & Q." oblige a CONSTANT 
READER with the probable meanings or origins of 
the following signs, all of which are to be found in 
the London Directories : 

Anti-Gallican (four taverns of this name). 
Bombay Grab. 
Essex Serpent. 
Fortune of War (five). 
George and Guy (two). 
Moonrakers (two). 
Grave Maurice (two). 

Sun and 'Ihirteen Cantons (two). J. E. 

Fleet Street. 

Old Fable. There is a fable in the Vicar of 
Wakefield of two brothers, a dwarf and giant, going 
out to battle, and sharing the victory but not the 

There is another, perhaps a sequel to it, which 
relates that the dwarf, "totbellorum superstitem," 



[No. 172. 

was choked in the fraternal embrace, with the sorry 
consolation that it was "the giant's nature to 
squeeze hard." 

Are these fables wholly modern or not ? I have 
thought that some such are the key to Juvenal's 
meaning : 

" Malim fraterculus esse gigantis ; " 

to the ordinary construing of which there are 
positive objections. J. E. G. 

Tide Tables. Can you, or any of your sub- 
scribers, give me a rule for ascertaining the heights 
of tides and times of high water, the establishment 
of the port, and rise of springs and neaps, being 
known ? One divested of algebraic formulae would 
be preferred : say 

Establishment - - - - 10 h. 58m. 
Springs' rise - - - - - 8i feet. 
Neaps'' - - - - - 2 "feet. 


Passage in Ovid. In speaking of the rude and 
unscientific state of the early Romans, in the third 
book of his Fasti, Ovid has the following verses : 

" Libera currebant, et inobservata per annum 

Sidera : constabat sed tamen esse Deos. 
Non illi coelo labentia signa tenebant ; 

Sed sua : quae magnum perdere crimen erat." 
V. 111114. 

The idea expressed in this passage is that the 
primitive Romans cared more about war than 
astronomy. They did not observe the stars, though 
they believed them to be deities. The pun upon 
the word signa constellations and military stan- 
dards is worthy of notice. But what is the 
meaning of libera, in the first verse ? Is it nearly 
equivalent to inobservata, and does it denote the 
absence of the prying curiosity of men ? It can- 
not be intended that the courses of the stars were 
less regular before they were the subjects of ob- 
servation, than after the birth of astronomy. L. 

Roger Pels, Abbot of Furness. Is anything 
known of the antecedents of Roger Pele, last abbot 
of Furness, who, after years of trouble and perse- 
cution, was at length constrained to execute a deed, 
dated 5th April, 28 Hen. VIII., whereby he did 
" freely and hollie surrender, giff, and graunt unto 
the Kynges highnes and to his heyres and assignes 
for evermore . . .all his interest and titill in 
the said monasterie of ifurness, and of and in the 
landes, rentes, possessions, revenous, servyce, both 
spirituall and temporall," &c.? This deed is, I be- 
lieve, given at length in the Cotton MSS., Cleo- 
patra E. IV. fol. 244. 

Roger Pele was elevated about 1532, and became 
rector of Dalton, a village near his old abbey, 
9th Nov., 29 Hen. VIII. This rectory he held, I 

believe, during the remainder of his life, in spite of 
all the efforts made to dispossess him. (See Beck's 
Annales Furnessienses, p. 346. et seq.) 

What was the origin and early history of this 
man, remarkable for the firmness and ability 
which so long baffled all the power and might of 
Henry, whose vengeance pursued him even into 
obscurity ? ABBATI. 

Curtseys and Bows. Why do ladies curtsey 
instead of bow ? Is the distinction one which 
obtains generally ; and what is the earliest men- 
tion of curtseys in any writer on English affairs ? 

E. S. 

Hampton Court. 

Historical Proverb. I have frequently in youth 
heard the proverb, " You may change Norman for 
a worser (worse) horse." This sounds like the wise 
saying of some unpatriotic Saxon, when urged to 
revolt against the conquering invaders. If so, it is 
an interesting relic of the days when " Englishrie," 
though suppressed, yet became peacefully vic- 
torious in transmuting the intruders into its own 
excellent metal. J. R. P. 

Bishop Patrick's "Parable of a Pilgrim." Can 
any of your contributors inform me of any biblio- 
graphical notice of Bishop Patrick's Parable of a 
Pilgrim? Its singular title, and the suggested 
plagiarism of Bunyan, lately attracted my atten- 
tion ; but I incline to the belief that we may still 
regard the Pilgrim's Progress to be as original as 
it is extraordinary. Patrick's work appears to 
have been written in 1663, while Bunyan was not 
committed to prison until 1660, and was released 
in 1673 : having written, or at least composed, his 
extraordinary work during the interval. Bunyan 
might therefore have seen and read Patrick's book ; 
but, from a careful comparison of the two works, I 
am satisfied in my own mind that such a suppo- 
sition is unnecessary, and probably erroneous. I 
may add that Patrick honestly confesses, that not 
even his own work is entirely original, but was 
suggested by an elder " Parable of the Pilgrim" 
in Baker's Sancta Sophia. GEORGE WAI. BELL. 

Dr. Parr's Dedications. Dr. Parr has dedi- 
cated the three parts of Bellendenccs de Statu 
respectively to Burke, Lord North, and Fox, sub- 
scribing each dedication with the letters A. E. A. O. 
Can any of your correspondents explain them ? 


" Konigl. Schwedischer in Teutschland gefiihrter 
Krieg, 16321648, von B. Ph. v. Chemnitz." 
As is known, the first two parts of this important 
work weie printed in 1648 and 1653. The con- 
tinuation of the original manuscript exists now in 
the Swedii-h Record Office, with the exception, 
unfortunately, of the third part. The Curator of 
the Royal Library in Hanover, however, J. Dan, 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



Grueber, testifies, in his Commercium Epistolare 
Leibnitianium, Pars l ma , p. 119., Hanovia?, 1745, in 
8vo., that the missing part was then in that library : 
" Tertius tomus excusus non est, quippe imperfectus; 
Manuscriptum tamen quoad absolutus est, inter alia 
septentrionis cimelia nuper repertura, Bibliothecas 
Regias vindicavimus." 

But this manuscript is no longer to be found there. 
Is it possible it may have been removed to Eng- 
land, and still to be found in one of the public 
collections ? An answer to any of the above 
questions would deeply oblige 

Librarian in the Royal Library at Stockholm. 

" Officium Birgittinum Anglice." 

" Integrum Beats Virginis Officium quod a S. Bir- 
gitta concinnatum, monialibus sui ordinis in usu pub- 
lico fecit, Anglice ab anonymo quodam conversum, 
Londini prodiit ante annum 1500 in folio, ex Caxtoni, 
uti videtur, praelo editum." 

is the notice of the above translation occurring in 
an old Swedish author. Information is requested 
as to whether any more detailed account can be 
obtained of the book referred to.* For any such 
the Querist will be especially thankful : if it should 
be possible to procure a copy of the same, his 
boldest hopes would be exceeded. If no English 
translation of S. Birgitta's revelations, or of the 
prayers and prophecies extracted therefrom the 
latter known under the name of Onus Mundi, 
should exist, either in print or in old manuscript, 
this, in consideration of the very general circu- 
lation which these writings obtained in the Middle 
Ages, would be a very peculiar exception. The 
book named at the head of this Query would 
appear to be a translation of the Breviarium S. 
Birgittcs. G. E. KLEMMING, 

Librarian in the Royal Library at Stockholm. 

Campbells Hymn on the Nativity. The hymn, 
of which the following are the first two verses, is 
said to have been written by Campbell. Can any 
correspondent of " N". & Q." say which Campbell 
is the author, and when and where the hymn was 
first printed ? 

" When Jordan hush'd his waters still, 
And silence slept on Zion's hill, 
When Bethlehem's shepherds thro' the night 
Watch'd o'er their flocks by starry light, 
" Hark ! from the midnight hills around, 
A voice of more than mortal sound 
In distant hallelujahs stole, 
Wild murmuring o'er the raptur'd soul." 

H. S. S. 

[* See Wharton, in his Supplement to Usher, De 
Scripturis et Sacris Vernaculis, p. 447., edit. 1690. 



When Our Lord falls in Our Lady's Lap. See- 
ing that Good Friday in this year falls on Lady 
Day, may I beg to ask if any of your contributors 
could inform me where the following old saying is 
to be met with, viz. : 

" When Good Friday falls in a Lady's lap, 
To England will happen some mishap," 

or to whom the prophecy (I hope a false one) may 
be attributed ? I have seen it some years since, 
and have lately been asked the origin of the saying. 

J. N. C. 

[Our correspondent has not quoted this old proverb 
correctly. It is thus given by Fuller ( Worthies of 
England, vol. i. p. 115. ed. 1840): 

" When Our Lady falls in Our Lord's lap 

Then let England beware a sad j 

Then let the clergyman look to his cap." 

But Fuller shows that it refers to Easter Day, not 
Good Friday, falling on the 25th March, when he re- 
marks : " I behold this proverbial prophecy, or this 
prophetical menace, to be not above six score years old, 
and of Popish extraction since the Reformation. It 
whispercth more than it dares speak out, and points at 
more than it dares whisper ; and fain would intimate 
to credulous persons as if the Blessed Virgin, offended 
with the English for abolishing her adoration, watcheth 
an opportunity of revenge on this nation. And when 
her day (being the five-and-twentieth of March, and 
first of the Gregorian year) chanceth to fall on the day 
of Christ's resurrection, then being, as it were, fortified 
by her Son's assistance, some signal judgment is in- 
tended to our state, and churchmen especially." 

He then gives a list of the years on which the coin- 
cidences had happened since the Conquest, to which, if 
our correspondent is curious on the subject, we must 
refer him. Can he, or any other of our readers, furnish 
any proof of the existence of this proverb before the 
Reformation, or the existence of a similar proverb on 
the Continent?] 

Hobnail-counting in the Court of Exchequer. 
I shall feel obliged by your informing me from 
what circumstance originates the yearly custom of 
the lord mayor of London counting six hor ie-shoes 
and sixty-one hobnails at the swearing in of the 


[The best explanation of this custom will be found 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1 804, where we read : 
" The ceremony on this occasion in the Court of Ex- 
chequer, which vulgar error supposed to be an unmean- 
ing farce, is solemn and impressive, nor have the new 
sheriffs the least connexion either with chopping of 
sticks, or counting of hobnails. The tenants of a manor 
in Shropshire are directed to come forth and do their 
suit and service ; on which the senior alderman below 




the chair steps forward and chops a single stick, in 
token of its having been customary for the tenants oi 
that manor to supply their lord with fuel. The owners 
of a forge in the parish of St. Clement (which formerly 
belonged to the city, and stood in the high road from 
the Temple to Westminster, but now no longer exists) 
are then called forth to do their suit and service ; when 
an officer of the court, in the presence of the senior 
alderman, produces six horse-shoes and sixty-one hob- 
nails, which he counts over in form before the cursitor 
baron, who on this particular occasion is the immediate 
representative of the sovereign."] 

A Race for Canterbury. I have just met with 
a little volume of sixteen pages entitled A Race 
for Canterbury or Lambeth, Ho ! It is dated 1747, 
and was evidently written on the death of Arch- 
bishop Potter ; and describes four aspirants to the 
see of Canterbury as four rowers on the Thames : 

" No sooner Death had seized the seer, 
Just in the middle of his prayer, 
But instantly on Thames appear'd 
Four wherries rowing very hard." 
&c. &c. &c. 

The first is thus introduced : 

" Sh , though old, has got the start, 

And vigorously plays his part." 

The second : 

" H in order next advances, 

And full of hopes he strangely fancies, 

That he by dint of merit shall 

Get first to land by Lambeth wall." 

The third : 

" M s n moves on a sober pace, 
And sits and rows with easy grace. 
No ruffling passion's in him seen, 
Indifferent if he lose or win." 

The fourth : 

" Next Codex comes with lab'ring oar, 
And, envious, sees the three before ; 
Yet luggs and tuggs with every joint, 
In hopes at length to gain the point." 

Having no list of the bishops by me, of the 
above-mentioned date, to which I can refer, I 
should be glad if any of your correspondents can 
tell me who these four bishops are. May I ask 
likewise, if it is known who was the author of this 
not very refined or elegant composition ? 



[The four aspirants probably were, 1. Sherlock of 
Salisbury ; 2. Herring of York, the next primate ; 
3. Mawson of Chichester ; 4. Gibson of London.] 

Nose of Wax. In so famous a public docu- 
ment as the Nottingham Declaration of the Nobles, 
Gentry, and Commons, in November, 1688, against 
the Papistical inroads of the infatuated King 
James, I find in the Ninth Resolution that he is 

accused of " rendering the laws a nose of wax" in 
order to further arbitrary ends. I have often 
heard the phrase familiarly in my youthful days ; 
may I ask of you to inform me of its origin? 
Its import is plain enough, a silly bugbear, of 
none effect but to be laughed at. W. J. 

[Nares explains it more correctly as a proverbial 
phrase for anything very mutable and accommodating; 
chiefly applied to flexibility of faith. He adds, " It 
should be noticed, however, that the similitude was 
originally borrowed from the Roman Catholic writers, 
who applied it to the Holy Scriptures, on account of 
their being liable to various interpretations."] 

" Praise from Sir Hubert Stanley ! " I have 
somewhere heard or read this, or a very similar 
phrase, ironically expressive of surprise at appro- 
bation from an unexpected quarter. I would 
much like a clue to its source and correct shape. 


Hong Kong. 

[This is from Morton's Cure for the Heart Ache, 
Act V. Sc. 2. : " Approbation from Sir Hubert 
Stanley is praise indeed."] 

Rosary. What is the origin of the term rosary f 
Is it derived from the Latin rogare ? G. C. C. 

[Richardson derives it from Fr. Rosaire ; Ital. and 
Sp. Rosario ; Low Lat. Rosarium, corona rosacea, a 
garland or chaplet of roses. The definition of it by the 
Abbe Prevost is this: "It consists," he says, "of 
fifteen tens, said to be in honour of the fifteen mysteries 
in which the Blessed Virgin bore a part. Five Joyous, 
viz. the annunciation, the visit to St Elizabeth, the 
birth of our Saviour, the purification, and the disputa- 
tion of Christ in the temple. Five Sorrowful : our 
Saviour's agony in the garden, his flagellation, crown- 
ing with thorns, bearing his cross, and crucifixion. Five 
Glorious : his resurrection, ascension, the descent of 
the Holy Ghost, his glorification in heaven, and the 
assumption of the Virgin herself." Manutl Lexique. 
Nares, quoting this passage, adds, " This is good au- 
thority ; but why each of the fives is multiplied by ten 
the Abbe does not explain ; probably to make the 
chaplet of a sufficient length."] 


(Vol. vi., p. 493.) 

My copy of this poem bears date 1754, and is not 
stated to be a second edition. It has " an adver- 
tisement" of three pages, deprecatory of the im- 
putation of any personal allusions, or design to 
encourage school rebellions. It has also a frontis- 
piece (" Jas. Green, sculp., Oxon."), representing 
two youths, one standing, the other sitting, on a 
form ; and before them the figure of an ass, erect 
on his hind legs, clothed in a pallium. A birch, 
doctorial hat, and books, lettered Priscian and 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



Lycophron, form the base ; and on a ribbon 
above is the legend, " An ass in the Greek pal- 
lium teaching." In other respects my copy agrees 
with MR. CROSSLET'S description of his, except 
that the argument (p. 7.) commences, " The great 
and good King Alfred," &c. 

Perhaps the following lines (though I doubt 
their having been written at the age of thirteen) 
may be received as germane to the subject : 

Written by a Youth of thirteen. 

Though the Oak be the prince and the pride of 

the grove, 

The emblem of power and the fav'rite of Jove ; 
Though Phoebus his temples with Laurel has bound, 
And with chaplets of Poplar Alcides is crown'd; 
Though Pallas the Olive has graced with her choice, 
And old mother Cybel in Pines may rejoice, 
Yet the Muses declare, after diligent search, 
That no tree can be found to compare with the 


The Birch, they affirm, is the true tree of know- 

Revered at each school and remember'd at college. 
Though Virgil's famed tree might produce, as its 

A crop of vain dreams, and strange whims on each 

Yet the Birch on each bough, on the top of each 

Bears the essence of grammar and eight parts of 

^Mongst the leaves are conceal'd more than mem'ry 

can mention, 

All cases, all genders, all forms of declension. 
Nine branches, when cropp'd by the hands of 

the Nine, 

And duly arranged in a parallel line, 
Tied up in nine folds of a mystical string, 
And soak'd for nine days in cold Helicon spring, 
Form a sceptre composed for a pedagogue's hand, 
Like the Fasces of Rome, a true badge of com- 

The sceptre thus finish'd, like Moses's rod, 
From flints could draw tears, and give life to a 


Should darkness Egyptian, or ignorance, spread 
Their clouds o'er the mind, or envelope the head, 
The rod, thrice applied, puts the darkness to flight, 
Disperses the clouds, and restores us to light. 
Like the Virga Divina, 'twill find out the vein 
Where lurks the rich metal, the ore of the brain. 
Should Genius a captive in sloth be confined, 
Or the witchcraft of Pleasure prevail o'er the 


This magical wand but apply with a stroke 
The spell is dissolved, the enchantment is broke. 
Like Hermes' caduceus, these switches inspire 
Rhetorical thunder, poetical fire : 

And if Morpheus our temples in Lethe should 


Their touch will untie all the fetters of sleep. 
Here dwells strong conviction of Logic the 


When applied with precision a posteriori. 
I've known a short lecture most strangely prevail, 
When duly convey'd to the head through the tail ; 
Like an electrical shock, in an instant 'tis spread, 
And flies with a jerk from the tail to the head ; 
Promotes circulation, and thrills through each vein, 
The faculties quickens, and purges the brain. 
By sympathy thus, and consent of the parts, 
We are taught, fundamentally, classics and arts. 

The Birch, a priori, applied to the palm, 
Can settle disputes and a passion becalm. 
Whatever disorders prevail in the blood 
The birch can correct them, like guaiacum wood : 
It sweetens the juices, corrects our ill humours, 
Bad habits removes, and disperses foul tumours. 
When applied to the hand it can cure with a 


Like the salve of old Molyneux, used in the itch! 
As the famed rod of Circe to brutes could turn 


So the twigs of the Birch can unbrute them again. 
Like the wand of the Sybil, that branch of pure 


These sprays can the gates of Elysium unfold 
The Elysium of learning, where pleasures abound, 
Those sweets that still flourish on classical ground. 
Prometheus's rod, which, mythologists say, 
Fetch'd fire from the sun to give life to his clay, 
Was a rod well applied his men to inspire 
With a taste for the arts, and their genius to fire. 
This bundle of rods may suggest one reflection, 
That the arts with each other maintain a con- 

Another good moral this bundle of switches 
Points out to our notice and silently teaches ; 
Of peace and good fellowship these are a token, 
For the twigs, well united, can scarcely be broken. 
Then, if such are its virtues, we'll bow to the 

And THE BIRCH, like the Muses, immortal shall be. 

I copy from a MS. extract-book, and shall be 
glad of a reference to any place in which these 
lines have appeared in print. BAXLIOLENSIS. 


(Vol. vi., p. 316.) 

These folio volumes appeared in 1646, without 
name or place of either author or printer, under 
the title 

" Begin ende Voortgang van de Vereenighde Ne- 
dcrlandsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie, 
vervattende de voornaemste Reysen, by de inwoonderen 
derselver provincien derwaerts gedaen, alles nevens de 



[No. 172. 

besehryvinghen der Rycken, Eylanden, Hovenen, Ri- 
vieren, Stroomen, Rheden, winden, diepten, ondiepten, 
mitsgaders religien, manieren, aerdt, politie, ende re- 
geeringhe der volckeren, oock mede haerder Speceryen, 
drooghen, geldt ende andere koopmanschappen ; met 
veele discoursen verryck.t, nevens eenighe koopere 
platen verciert. Nut ende dienstig alle curieuse ende 
andere zee-varende. Met dry besondere tafels ofte re- 
gisters ; in twee Delen verdeelt, waer het eerste begrypt 
veerttien voyagien den meerendeelen voor desen noyt 
in 't licht geweest. Gedrukt in den jaere 1646." 

( Translation.) 

Commencement and progress of the United Dutch 
Chartered East-India Company, containing the prin- 
cipal travels made among the inhabitants of the pro- 
vinces there, together with a description of the king- 
doms, courts, islands, rivers, roadsteads, winds, deeps, 
shallows, as well as religions, manners, character, 
police, and governments of the people ; also their 
spices, drugs, money, and other merchandise, enriched 
with many discourses, and adorned with copperplates. 
Useful and profitable to all curious and seafaring vir- 
tuosi. With three separate tables or registers ; divided 
into two parts, of which the first contains fourteen 
voyages, the most part never before published. Printed 
in the year 1646. 

The compiler, however, goes too far in asserting 
that the greatest part of these voyages had never 
been printed. The contrary appears when we 
open the folio catalogue of the Leyden Library, 
containing a fine collection of these early voyages 
of our ancestors. 

These voyages were printed consecutively in 
small folio before 1646; as also the Oost Indische 
en West Indische Voyagien, Amsterdam, by Mi- 
chel Colyn, boekverkooper (East Indian and West 
Indian Voyages, Amsterdam, by Michel Colyn, 
bookseller), anno 1619, one volume, in the same 
form and thickness as those of 1646 : some of the 
plates also in this volume are similar to those of 

This work was dedicated, 28th February, 1619, 
to the Heeren Gecommitteerde Raden ter Admi- 
raliteit residerende te Amsterdam (Advising Com- 
mittee to the Admiralty residing at Amsterdam), 
and begins with the Reis naar Nova Sembla 
( Voyage to Nova Zembla), printed at Enkhuizen 
in 1617, by Jacob Lenaertsz Meijn, at the Ver- 
gulde Schryfboek (Gilt Writing-book), so that it 
is not improbable that the whole work was printed 
at Enkhuizen. Michel Colyn also published other 
Dutch voyages in 1622. 

Concerning Cornelis Claesz (i. q. son of Ni- 
cholas), printer at Amsterdam, I have to observe 
that he died before 1610, but that the late Lucas 
Jansz. Wagenaer had bought all his plates, maps, 
privileges, &c. 

By a notarial act passed 16th August, 1610, at 
Enkhuizen, Tryn Haickesdr., widow of the above- 
named Wagenaer, declared that the widow of 

Cornelis Claesz might make over to Jacob Le- 
naertsz all the above-mentioned maps, privileges, 
&c. See a resolution of the States-General of 
13th September, 1610, in Dodt's Kerkeli/k en 
Wereldlyk Archief, p. 23. (Ecclesiastical and Civil 
Archives). From the Navorscher. ELSEVIEB. 

J. A. de Chalmot, in his Biographical Dictionary 
of the Netherlands, vol. vii. p. 251., names as au- 
thor, or rather as compiler of this work, Isaak 
Commelin, born at Amsterdam 19th October, 
1598, died 3rd Jan. 1676, and quotes Kasp. Com- 
melin's Description of Amsterdam, which I have 
not at hand to refer to. The work was printed at 
Amsterdam without printer's name : each voyagie 
or description is separately paged; some places 
have a French text. In the second volume is a 
Generate beschryvinghe van Indien, -c., naer de 
copye ghedruckt tot Batavia in de druckerye van 
Gansenpen, anno 1638 (General Description of 
India, fyc., according to the copy printed at Ba- 
tavia at the office of the Goose Quill). Whether 
any other pieces which Commelin compiled had 
been earlier printed, I have not been able to dis- 
cover. From the Navorscher. J. C. K. 

(Vol. vi., p. 509.) 

The following are earlier instances of the em- 
ployment of its by the poets, than any that your 
correspondent seems to have met with : 

" How sometimes nature will betray its folly, 
Its tenderness, and makes itself a pastime 
To harder bosoms ! 

Winter's Tale, Act I. Sc. 2. 

" Each following day 

Became the next day's master, till the last 
Made former wonders its." 

Henry VII I., Act I. Sc. 1. 

" On the green banks which that fair stream in-bound. 
Flowers and odours sweetly smiled and smell'd, 
Which, reaching out its stretched arms around, 
All the large desert in its bosom held." 

Fairefax, Godfrey of Buttoigne, xviii. 20., 1600. 

I doubt if there are any earlier instances 
among the poets. I have had no opportunity of 
examining the prose writers of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, but think they must have employed its earlier 
than the poets. As we may see in the version of 
the Bible, and other works of the time, the English, 
like the Anglo-Saxon, long continued to use the 
genitive his for neuters as well as for masculines ; 
and thereof for our present of it, its. 

Its leads me to reflect how ignorant people were 
of the old languages in the last century. If ever 
there was a palpable forgery, it is the Poems of 
Rowley : yet, if my memory does not deceive me, 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



Tyrwhitt regarded them as genuine ; and Malone 
authoritatively affirmed that " no one except the 
nicest judges of English poetry, from Chaucer to 
Pope, was competent to test their genuineness." 
Why, this little word its might have tested it. You 
see we have not been able to trace it in poetry 
higher up than the end of the sixteenth century ; 
and I am quite sure that it is not to be found in 
either Chaucer or Spenser : and yet, in the very 
first page of Rowley, we meet with the following 
instances of it : 
" The whyche in yttes felle use doe make moke dere." 

" The thynge yttes (ytle is ?) moste bee yttes owne 

But there is a still surer test. We can hardly 
read a line of Chaucer, Gower, or any other poet 
of the time, without meeting with what the French 
term the feminine e, and which must be pro- 
nounced as a syllable to make the metre. From 
one end to the other of the Poems of Rowley, there 
is not a single instance of it ! THOS. KEIGHTLEY. 


(Vol. vi., p. 563.) 

It may be of service to the inquirer as to the 
commencement of the year, to call his attention to 
the note appended to the " Table of moveable 
Feasts " in editions prior to 1752. As given by 
Keeling, from the editions antecedent and sub- 
sequent to the last review, in 1662, they are as 
follows : 

"Note. That the supputation of the year of our 
Lord in the Church of England beginneth the xxvth 
day of March, the same day supposed to be the first 
day upon which the world was created, and the day 
when Christ was conceived in the womb of the Virgin 
Mary" [1604]. 

"Note. That the supputation of the year of our 
Lord in the Church of England beginneth the xxvth 
day of March" [1662]. 

Of course, after the act for alteration of the 
style (24 Geo. II. c. 23.) was passed, this note 
was omitted. But up to that date the old sup- 
putation was authoritative and legal. Reference 
to Hampson's Medii JEvi Kalendariwn might fur- 
ther illustrate the point. 

To this Note allow me to append a Query. 
After the collect for St. Stephen's Day follows 
this rubric : 

" Then shall follow the collect of the Nativity, 
which shall be said continually until New Year's 

Query, Was this collect to be repeated from De- 
cember 25 to March 24? for, according to the 
above supputation, that would be New Year's 

The following note, from the preface to Gran- 
ger's Biographical History, may not be out of 
place : 

" The following absurdities, among many others, 
were occasioned by these different computations. In 
1667 there were two Easters, the first on the 25th of 
April, and the second on the 22nd of March following; 
and there were three different denominations of the 
year of our Lord affixed to three state papers which 
were published in one week, viz. his Majesty's Speech, 
dated 1732-3; the Address of the House of Lords, 
1732 ; the Address of the House of Commons, 1733." 
Page xxiii., edit. 1824. 



(Vol. vii., p. 84.) 

Your correspondent E. D. is fortunate in the 
possession of a rare book, worth a "Jew's eye " in 
the good old days of the Bibliomania. It formed 
a part of the Heber Collection, where (see Part iv. 
p. 111.) it figures under the following quaint 
title : 

" The First Booke of the Famous Historye of 
Penardo and Laissa, other-ways called the Warres of 
Love and Ambitione, wherein is described Penardo his 
most admirable deeds of Arms, his ambition of glore, 
his contempt of love, with loves mighte assalts and 
ammorous temptations, Laissa's feareful inchantment, 
hir relief, hir travells, and lastly, loves admirabel force 
in hir releiving Penardo from the fire. Doone in 
Heroik Verse by Patrik Gordon. 

Printed at Dort by George Waters, 1615." 

This copy, which was originally John Pinkerton's, 
cost Mr. Heber 2 1/., and was resold at his sale for 
12/. 5s., for the library of Mr. Miller, of Craigen- 
tenny ; another is in the possession of Dr. Keith, 
Edinburgh. Pinkerton, in his Ancient Scottish 
Poems, London, 1792, thus describes Penardo and 
Laissa : 

" Rare to excess ; nor can more than two copies be 
discovered, one in the editor's possession, another in 
that of an anonymous correspondent in Scotland. The 
author was probably so ashamed of it as to quash the 
edition, for it is the most puerile mixture of all times, 
manners, and religions that ever was published ; for 
instance, the Christian religion is put as that of Ancient 

Of the author, Patrick Gordon, little or nothing 
seems to be known beyond the fact of his styling 
himself " gentleman," probably the only ground 
for Pinkerton calling him " a man of property." 
The fame of Gordon, however, rests upon a better 
foundation than the above work, he having also 
" doone in heroik verse The Famous Historic of 
the Henouned and Valiant Prince Robert, surnamed 
the Bruce, King of Scotland" " a tolerable poem," 
says the same critic, " but not worth reprinting, 
although it had that compliment twice paid to it." 



[No. 172. 

The " Bruce " of our author is a concoction from 
Barbour and a certain Book of Virgin Parchment, 
upon the same subject, by Peter Fenton, known 
only to Gordon, and, like Penardo, sets propriety 
at defiance, " Christ and Jupiter being with match- 
less indecorum grouped together :" * it, too, came 
originally from the press of Dort, 1615; again from 
that of James Watson, Edinburgh, 1718; and a 
third time, Glasgow, by Hall, 1753. J. O. 


(VoLvi., p. 597.) 

Ireland, too, is associated with the fame of this 
renowned wood-ranger. This "joen-ultima Thule," 
whieh received and protected the refugees of Ro- 
man oppression and the victims of Saxon exter- 
mination, was looked to in later times as a sanctuary 
where crime might evade punishment ; and in the 
Annals of Robin Hood this national commiseration 
was evinced. 

" In the year 1 189," writes Holinshed, " there 
ranged three robbers and outlaws in England, among 
which ' Robert ' Hood and Little John were chieftains, 
of all thieves doubtless the most courteous. Robert, 
being betrayed at a nunnery in Scotland, called 
Bricklies, the remnant of the ' crue' was scattered, and 
every man forced to shift for himself; whereupon 
Little John was fain to flee the realm bv sailing into 
Ireland, where he sojourned for a few days at Dublin. 
The citizens being 'doone' to understand the wander- 
ing outcast to be an excellent archer, requested him 
heartily to try how far he could shoot at random, who, 
yielding to their behest, stood on the bridge of Dublin 
and shot to a hillock in Oxmantown (thereafter called 
Little John's shot), leaving behind him a monument, 
rather by posterity to be wondered than possibly by 
any man living to be counterscored." Description of 
Ireland, fol., p. 24. 

The danger, however, of being taken drove 
Little John thence to Scotland, where, adds the 
annalist, " he died at a town or village called Mo- 
ravie." JOHN ' 

I may perhaps be allowed to subscribe to the 
opinion expressed by H. K., that " though men of 
the name of Robin Hood may have existed in 
England, that of itself could afford no ground for 
inferring that some one of them was the Robin 
Hood of romantic tradition;" and at the same 
time to express my dissent from the conclusion, 
that " any pretence for such a supposition is taken 
away by the strong evidence, both Scotch and 
French," which H. K. has " adduced in support of 
the opposite view." 

The inferences which I draw from the facts ad- 
duced by H. K. are, that the fame of the hero of 
English ballads probably extended to France and 

* Irving's Scottish Poets. 

Scotland, and that the people of Scotland pro- 
bably sympathised with this disturber of the peace 
of the kingdom of their " aulde ennemies." 

I must, however, confess that I have not met 
with any portion of " the discussion about the 
nature of Robin Hood," excepting that contained 
in Ritson's Notes and Hunter's Tract, and that 
the evidence adduced in the latter publication, in 
support of the tradition handed down to us in the 
ballad entitled A Lyttel Geste of Robyn Hode, 
seems to me to satisfactorily show that " the 
Robin Hood of romantic tradition really existed 
in England in the time of Edward II." 



Originator of Collodion Process (Vol. vii., 
pp. 47. 92. 116.). The fairest way of deciding 
M. Le Gray's claims would be, to quote what he 
really says. 

Willat's pamphlet, published in 1850, entitled 
A Practical Treatise, fyc., by Gustave Le Gray, 
translated by Thomas Cousins, ends with an ap- 
pendix, which runs thus : 

" I have just discovered a process upon glass by 
hydrofluoric ether, the fluoride of potassium, and soda 
dissolved in alcohol 40, mixed with sulphuric ether, 
and afterwards saturated with collodion ; I afterwards 
re-act with aceto-nitrate of silver, and thus obtain 
proofs in the camera in five seconds in the shade. I 
develope the image by a very weak solution of sulphate 
of iron, and fix with hyposulphite of soda. I hope by 
this process to arrive at great rapidity. Ammonia 
and bromide of potassium give great variations of 
promptitude. As soon as my experiments are com- 
plete I will publish the result in an appendix. This 
application upon glass is very easy : the same agents 
employed with albumen and dextrine, give also ex- 
cellent results and very quick. I have also expe- 
rimented with a mucilage produced by a fucus, a kind 
of sea-weed, which promises future success. I hope 
by some of these means to succeed in taking portraits 
in three or four seconds." 

I know not at what time of the year the 
pamphlet came out, nor whether the appendix 
was subsequently added ; but my copy containing 
it was bought about the middle of August, 1850. 


[We have much pleasure in inserting this commu- 
nication, as it may be the means of drawing fresh 
attention to the other substances mentioned by Le 
Gray ; for we are strongly of opinion that, notwith- 
standing the advantages of collodion, there are other 
media which may prove preferable. ED.] 

The Soiling of the Fingers may be entirely 
avoided by a simple expedient. Use a slightly 
concave horizontal dish for sensitizing, and a depth 
of solution not sufficient to wet the back of the 
collodionized plate, and after the impressed plate 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



has been placed on the levelled stand and deve- 
loped, proceed thus : instead of holding the plate 
by the fingers to perform the subsequent processes, 
take a strip of glass (say five inches long and one 
and a half wide for the ordinary portrait size), put 
a single drop of water on it, and carefully pass it 
beneath the developed plate ; lift the glass thereby ; 
the adhesion is sufficiently firm to sustain the plate 
in any required position for the remaining ma- 
nipulations till it is washed and finished. 


Sir W. Newton's Process. Chloride of Bro- 
mium May I ask, through the medium of your 
very excellent journal, what purpose SIR W. 
NEWTON intends to meet by the application of 
his wash of chloride of barium previous to iodiz- 

The Collodion Process. Absence from London 
has prevented my seeing your Numbers regularly ; 
but in one for December I see MR. ARCHER has 
used my name in connexion with the collodion 
process. He states that he called several times, 
and made me familiar with the process ; by which 
he would lead persons to suppose that he taught 
me in fact to take pictures. Now I beg most dis- 
tinctly to state that this is incorrect. MR. ARCHER 
made, it is true, several attempts in my glass room 
to take a picture, but totally failed. And why ? 
Because he attempted to follow out the process as 
he himself had published it. From that time I 
worked it out by myself, assisted by hints from 
Mr. Fry, who at the time I allude to was a success- 
ful manipulator, and had produced and exhibited 
many beautiful pictures, and at whose suggestion 
I commenced it in the first instance. 

There is also another portion of MR. ARCHER'S 
letter incorrect ; but as this relates to the sale of 
collodion, I will let it pass, trusting, as you have 
given insertion to his, you will not refuse space for 
mine. F. HORNE. 

123. Newgate Street. 

Portable Camera (Vol. vii., p. 71.). If India 
rubber should turn out to be what H. Y. W. N. 
thinks he has found it to be, it would be capable 
of being turned to excellent account. For in- 
stance, instead of having a single " portable ca- 
mera," which is on many accounts very awkward 
to use, why should not the tourist have a light 
framework constructed, and covered entirely with 
thin India rubber : in fact, an India rubber box, 
inwhich his camera, and a petitioned shelf con- 
taining his collodion, developing fluid, hypo-soda 
solution, &c., might be easily packed, and in which, 
by the aid of sleeves, &c., he might coat his plates, 
and develop and fix them, quite apart from his 
camera? He must have something to pack his 
camera, &c. in ; and the above-described packing- 
case would be very light, and also waterproof. 

J. L. S. 


Chaplains to Noblemen (Vol. vii., p. 85.). The 
statute in which chaplains to noblemen are first 
named is 21 Henry VIII. c. 13. (1529) ; in which, 
by sect. 1 1 ., it is enacted, " that every Archbysshop 
and Duke may have vj chapleyns ;" ' every Markes 
and Erie may have fyve chapleyns ;" " every vyce- 
count and other Byshop may have foure chap- 
leyns ;" and "the Chancellour of England for the 
tyme beying and every Baron or Knyght of the 
Garter may have thre chapleyns :" and one chaplain 
of each order, whether Duke, Marquess, Earl, Vis- 
count,' or Baron, is thereby authorised to purchase 
"lycence or dispensacion to take, receyve, and 
kepe two parsonages or benefices with cure of 
souls" (Stat. of the Realm, vol. iii. p. 294.). I be- 
lieve that X. will find a regular registry of these 
appointments in Doctors' Commons. 

It may be interesting to add, that among the 
other persons named in this statute are the Master 
of the Rolls, who may have " two chapleyns ;" and 
the " Chefe Justice of the Kinges Benche," who 
may have "one chapleyn." By another statute, 
25 Henry VIII. c. 16. (1533-4), this last power 
to have one chaplain is extended to " every Jugge 
of the seid high courtes" (King's Bench and Com- 
mon Pleas), " the Chaunceller and Chefie Baron 
of the Exchequer, the kynges general! attorney 
and generall solicitor " (Ibid. p. 457.) 


Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger 
(Vol. vi., p. 614.). I have been and still am in- 
quiring into the two cases of mitigation, intending 
to send the result, when I have found satisfactory 
evidence, or exhausted my sources of inquiry. 
The communication of WHUNSIDE is the first 
direct testimony, and may settle the Fawcett case. 
As he was " resident at Mr. Fawcett's when the 
circumstances occurred," perhaps he will be so 
kind as to state the date and place of the con- 
viction, and the name of the convict. By adding 
his own name, the facts will stand upon his au- 
thority. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Brydojie the Tourist (Vol. vii., p. 108.). A. B.C. 
inquires the birthplace of Brydone, " the tourist 
and author." 1 presume he refers to Patrick 
Brydone, who wrote Travels in Sicily and Malta, 
and who held, I believe, an appointment under the 
Commissioners of Stamps, and died about thirty 
years ago. Some four-and-twenty years back, I 
arrived, late in the evening, at the hospitable 
cottage of Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, at Altrieve, 
in the vale of Yarrow. It happened to be, as it 
often was, too full of guests to afford me a bed; 
and I was transferred by my host to the house of 
a neighbouring gentleman, where I slept. That 
gentleman was Mr. Brydone, of Mount Benger, 



[No. 172. 

who I found was a near relative of Brydone the 
tourist, whose birthplace was in the Forest of 
Ettrick. M. R SON. 

Yankee (Vol. vii., p. 103.). I am afraid MR. 
BELL'S ingenious speculations must give way to 
facts. Our transatlantic brethren do not, either 
willingly or unwillingly, adopt Yankee as their 
" collective name." Yankee was, and is, a name 
given exclusively to the natives of the New 
England States, and was never therefore applied, 
by an American, to the people of New Amsterdam 
or New York. Here, in England, indeed, we are 
accustomed to call all Americans Yankees ; which 
is about the same thing as to call all Englishmen 
Devonians or Lancastrians. Y. A. 

Miniature Ring of Charles I. (, p. 578.). 
One of the four rings inquired for is in the pos- 
session of Mrs. Andrew Henderson, of 102. Glou- 
cester Place, Portman Square, formerly Miss 
Adolphus. It came to her in the female line, 
through her mother's family. The unfortunate 
Charles I. presented it to Sir Lionel Walden, on 
the morning on which he lost his life. It bears 
(as the other one alluded to in Hulbert's History 
of Salop) a miniature likeness of the king, set in 
small brilliants. Inside the ring are the words, 
" Sic transit gloria regum." Mrs. Henderson 
understood the four rings to have been presented 
as follows: Bishop Juxon, Sir Lionel Walden, 
Colonel Ashburnham, and Herbert his secretary. 
Which of the four is now in the possession of the 
Misses Pigott is not mentioned. ANON. 

Bishop of Ossory Cardinal's Hat (Vol. vii., 
p. 72.). A. S. A. is quite correct, that the hat is 
common to all prelates, and that the distinction is 
only in the number of the tassels to the hat-strings; 
but I think he is wrong in attributing the hat to 
priors. I believe it only belonged to abbots, who 
had black hats and tassels ; while the colour of the 
prelatical hats and tassels was green. (See Pere 
Anselme's Palais cTHonneur, chap. xxii. and plate.) 


Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter (Vol. vii., 
p. 14.). Hugh Oldham bore for his arms, Sa. 
a chevron or, between three owls proper on a 
chief of the second, three roses gu. (See Isaacke's 
Memorials of the City of Exeter; and also Burke's 
Armory, under the name Oldom.) I have endea- 
voured to find some pedigree or particulars of his 
family, but as yet without success. The following 
Notes from what I have collected may, however, 
assist J. B. in his inquiries. He was of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, and chaplain to the Countess 
of Richmond (King Henry VII.'s mother), and by 
her interest was installed Bp. of Exeter, April 3, 
1507. He was a great benefactor to Brazenose 
College, Oxford, and joint founder (with Richard 

Fox, Bishop of Winchester) of Corpus Christ 
He also founded and endowed a school at Man- 
chester, for educating boys in good and useful 
literature. He died June 25, 1523, under sen- 
tence of excommunication, in consequence of an 
action at law then pending between him and the 
Abbot of Tavistock ; but the Pope's sanction being 
obtained, he was buried in a chapel built expressly 
for the purpose, at the upper end of the south aisle 
of his own cathedral. J. T T. 

" Sic transit gloria mundi " (Vol. vi., pp. 100. 

183.). I have lately found two additional pas- 

| sages, which speak of this line being used at the 

Pope's inauguration. The first is amongst the 

writings of Cornelius a Lapide : 

" Datus est tnihi stimulus carnis mete Angelas Satana, 
qui me colap/iizet." ..." Datus cst non a Diabolo sed 
a Deo ; non quod Deus tentationis sit auctor, sed quia 
diabolo tentare Paulum parato, id pennisit, idque tan- 
turn in specie et materia libidinisad eum humiliandum. 
Ita August, de Natura et Grat., c. 27. Hie monitor, 
ait Hieron., Epist. 25., ad Paulum de obitu Blassilla?, 
Paulo datus est, ad premendam svperbiam, uti in currit 
trittmphali triumphant! datur Monitor suggerens : homi- 
nem te esse memento. Uti et Pontifici cum inauguratur, 
stupa accensa et mox extincta accinitur : 

" Pater sancte sic transit gloria mundi." 

Commentaria in 2nd. Epist. ad Cor. cap. xii. 7. 
vol. ix. p. 404.: Antwerp!, 1705, fol. 

The second passage is merely a repetition of the 
above- quoted words of A Lapide, but I may as 
well subjoin a reference to it : Ursini Paralipomena, 
lib.ii., Meletematum, p. 315. : NorimbergEe, 1667, 
12mo. RT. 


Wake (Vol. vi., p. 532.). In a Wake pedigree 
in my possession, the name of the wife of Sir 
! Hugh Wake, Knight, Lord of Blisworth, who died 
! May 4, 1315, is stated to be " Joane, daughter 
and co-heiress of John de Wolverton." I am un- 
able to say now on what authority. 

W. S. (Sheffield.) 

Sir Hugh Wake, Lord of Deeping in Lincoln- 
shire and Blyseworth in Northamptonshire, married 
; Joane, daughter and co-heiress of John de Wolver- 
ton. (See Kimber and Johnson's Baronetage, 3 vols. 
1771.) BROCTANA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 

" Words are given to man to conceal his thoughts" 
(, p. 575.). This saying may be anterior 
to Dr. South's time, as the first number of The 
World, under the assumed name of Adam Fitz- 
Adam, Thursday, January 4, 1753, begins with the 
following : 

" At the village of Arouche, in the province of Estre- 
madura (says an old Spanish author), lived Gonzales 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



de Castro, who from the age of twelve to fifty-two 
years was deaf, dumb, and blind." 

After relating the sudden restoration of his 
faculties, "Fitz-Adam" proceeds: 

" But, as if the blessings of this life were only given 
us for afflictions, he began in a few weeks to lose the 
relish of his enjoyments, and to repine at the possession 
of those faculties, which served only to discover to him 
the follies and disorders of his neighbours, and to teach 
him that the intent of speech was too often to deceive." 

It may serve to probe the matter of age to ask, 
Who was " the old Spanish author " alluded to ? 
Also, where may be found the hexameter line 

" us x' fTtpov /J.ev Kevda tV2 tppefflv a\\o 8e /6d." 

equivalent to the common expression, "He says 
one thing and means another," and of which the 
maxim attributed to Goldsmith, Talleyrand, the 
Morning Chronicle, and South, seems only a 
stronger form ? FUBVUS. 

St. James's. 

Inscription on Penny of George III. (Vol. vii., 
p. 65.). " Stabit quocunque jeceris" (it will stand 
in whatever way you throw it) is the well-known 
motto of the Isle of Mann, and has reference to 
the arms of the island, which are Gules, three 
armed legs argent, flexed in triangle, garnished 
and spurred or. I venture to conjecture that 
the three legs of Mann were also on the penny 
J. M. A. mentioned. 

Some curious lines about this motto are to be 
found in The Isle of Mann Guide, by James 
Brotherston Laughton, B.A. (Douglas, 1850) : one 
verse is 

" With spurs and bright cuishes, to make them look 


He rigg'd out the legs ; then to make them complete, 
He surrounded the whole with four fine Roman feet. 
They were ' Quocunque jeceris stabit,' 
A thorough-paced Roman Iamb." 

The fore-mentioned work also contains a song 
entitled " The Copper Row," referring to the dis- 
turbances occasioned by the coinage of 1840. 


This is, I suppose, a Manx penny, with the re- 
verse of three legs, and the motto, which is usually 
read " Quocunque jeceris stabit." C. 

"Nine Tailors make a Man" (, pp.390. 
563.). I extract the following humorous account 
of the origin of this saying from The British 
Apollo (12mo., reprint of 1726, vol. i. p. 236.) : 

" It happen'd ('tis no great malter in what year) that 
eight taylors, having finish'd considerable pieces of 
work at a certain person of quality's house (whose 
name authors have thought fit to conceal), and receiv- 
ing all the money due for the same, a virago servant 

maid of the house observing them to be but slender. 
built animals, and in their mathematical postures on 
their shop-board appearing but so many pieces of men, 
resolv'd to encounter and pillage them on the road. 
The better to compass her design, she procured a very 
terrible great black-pudding, which (having waylaid 
them) she presented at the breast of the foremost : 
they, mistaking this prop of life for an instrument of 
death, at least a blunder-buss, readily yielded up their 
money ; but she, not contented with that, severely 
disciplin'd them with a cudgel she carry'd in the other 
hand, all which they bore with a philosophical resigna- 
tion. Thus, eight not being able to deal with one 
woman, by consequence could not make a man, on 
which account a ninth is added. 'Tis the opinion of 
our curious virtuosos, that this want of courage ariseth 
from their immoderate eating of cucumbers, which too 
much refrigerates their blood. However, to their 
eternal honour be it spoke, they have been often known 
to encounter a sort of cannibals, to whose assaults they 
are often subject, not fictitious, but real man-eaters, 
and that with a lance but two inches long ; nay, and 
although they go arm'd no further than their middle- 
finger. " 


On Quotations (Vol. vi., p. 408.). There can 
be no doubt that quotations have frequently been 
altered, to make them more apt to the quoter's 
purpose, of which I believe the following to be an 
instance. We frequently meet with the quotation, 
" Nullum numen abest, si sit prudentia," with a re- 
ference to Juvenal. I have not been able to find 
the passage in this shape, and presume it is an 
alteration from the address to Fortune, which 
occurs twice in his Satires, Sat. x. v. 365, 366., 
and Sat. xiv. v. 315, 316. : 

" Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia : nos te 
Nos t'acimus, Fortuna, Deam, coeloque locamus." 

The alteration is evidently not a mere verbal one, 
but changes entirely the meaning and allusion of 
the passage. J. S. WARDEN. 

Rhymes on Places (Vol. v., pp. 293. 374. 500.). 
In addition to the local rhymes given in your 
pages, I call to mind the following, not inserted in 
Grose. They are peculiar to the Xorth of Eng- 
land : 

" Rothbury for goats' milk, 

And the Cheviots for mutton ; 
Cheswick for its cheese and bread, 
And Tyuemouth for a glutton." 

" Harnham was headless, Bradford breadless, 

And Shaftoe pick'd at the craw ; 
Capheaton was a wee bonny place, 
But Wallington bang'd them a'." 

The craw, in the second rhyme, alludes to the 
Crasters, anciently Crancester, an old family in the 
parish of Hartburn, who succeeded to the estates 
of the Shaftoe family. EDWARD F. RIMBADI.T. 



[No. 172. 

Coins in Foundations (Vol. vi., p. 270.). I have 
a manuscript notice of an early example of this 
custom. It is in a hand of the earlier half of the 
seventeenth century. The Bostonians knew better, 
however, than to bury their "great gifts;" and all 
who travel the Great Northern Railway will be 
glad to preserve the names of the great givers, 
who afforded so noble a relief to the tedium of 
Boston station. 

" The buylding of Boston Steeple. 
"Md. That in the yeere of o r Lord God 1309, the 
steeple of Boston, on the Monday next following 
Palme Sunday, was digged wt many myners till Myd- 
soraer ; and by that time they were deeper than the 
botham of the haven by fyve fote, and there they found 
a ball of sande nigh a fote thick, and that dyd lye 
uppon a spring of sand neere three fote thick, and that 
dyd lye uppon a bed of clay, the thicknesse thereof 
could not be known. And there, uppon Monday 
nexte after the feast of St. John Baptist, was layd the 
first stone, and that stone layd Dame Margaret Tyl- 
ney, and thereuppon layd she \l. sterling. The nexte 
stone was layd by S r John Tattersall, prson of Boston, 
who layd down thereuppon vZ. sterling. And Richard 
Stevenson, merchant of the Staple, layd the third 
stone, and thereuppon vl. sterling. And these were 
all the great guifts that at that time were given there- 
unto. Remaining amongst the records at Lincolne. 


H. T. H. 


Fleshed, Meaning of (Vol. vi., p. 578.). John- 
son (edit. 1823) glosses to flesh (from Sidney), to 
harden in any practice. An old author, in a pas- 
sage which I have lately read, though I cannot 
now refer to it, talks of vice being fleshed (i. e. in- 
grown) in a man. W. BARNES. 


Robert Wauchope, Archbishop of Armagh, 1543 
(Vol. vii., p. 66.). I know of no detailed account 
of this prelate, and am unable to furnish any par- 
ticulars in addition to those stated by A. S. A., 
except that " he died in a convent of Jesuits at 
Paris, on the 10th of November, 1551," as stated 
by Ware, vol. i. p. 94. of his Works, Dublin, 1739. 
I may also add the following remark, which I find 
in a note, by M. Le Courayer, to his French trans- 
lation of Fra- Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council 
of Trent (London, 1736), tome i. p. 221. : 

" La raillerie que fait de lui Fra- Paolo, en le louant 
de bien courir la poste, et qu'il a tiree de Sleidan, vient 
apparemment du nombre de voyages qu'il fit en Alle- 
magne, en France, et ailleurs, pour executer ditferentes 
commissions, dont il fut charge par les Papes." 



Flemish and Dutch Schools of Painting (Vol. vii., 
p. 65.). Karelvan Glander, Leven der beroemdste 

Schilders, Hollandsche en Vlaamsche (Lives of the 
most celebrated Dutch and Flemish Painters). 
This work is of the beginning of the seventeen! 
century. A better work is the Levens der bt 
roemdste Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Schilders, bj 
Immerzeel, published in 1836. H. v. 

Furmety or Frumenty (Vol. vi., p. 604.). 
ERICA asks if furmety can claim descent from tl 
once popular dish plum-porridge, mentioned ir 
the Tatler and Spectator. 

Though not a direct answer, the following quc 
tation from Washington Irving's Sketch Book wil 
show that it was in request at the season when 
plum-pudding abounds, notwithstanding the or- 
thodoxy of its use on Mid-Lent Sunday. In h' 
account of the Christmas festivities at Bracebridf 
Hall, speaking of the supper on Christmas Eve, 
says : 

" The table was abundantly spread with substantia 
fare, but the Squire made his supper of frumenty, a dish 
made of wheat cakes boiled in milk, with rich spices, 
being a standing dish in old times for Christmas Eve." 


Etymology of Pearl (Vol. vi., p. 578. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 18.). SIR EMERSON TENNENT inquires as to 
the antiquity of the word pearl in the English 
language. Pcerl occurs in Anglo-Saxon (Bos- 
worth in v.), and corresponding forms are found 
in the Scandinavian languages, as well as in the 
Welsh and Irish. The old German form of the 
word is berille. Richardson in v. quotes an in- 
stance of the adjective pearled from Govver, who 
belongs to the fourteenth century. The use of 
union for pearl, cited by SIR E. TENNENT from 
Burton, is a learned application of the word, and 
never was popular in our language. 

I may add that Muratori inserts the word perla 
in the Italian Glossary, in his 33rd Dissertation 
on Italian Mediaeval Antiquities. He believes 
the origin of the word to be Teutonic, but 
throws no light on the subject. It appears from 
HalliweU's Arch, and Prov. Dictionary, that 
white spots in the eyes were anciently called 
pearls. M'Culloch, Commercial Dictionary in v., 
particularly speaks of the pear-shaped form of the 
pearl ; and, on the whole, the supposition that 
perula is equivalent to pear-ling, seems the most 
probable. L. 

Folkestone (Vol. vi., p. 507.). Various etymo- 
logies have been given with a view of arriving at 
the right one for this town. I have to inform you 
that the places of that part of Kent where Folkes- 
ton, so properly spelt on the seal of the ancient 
priory, is situated, receive their etymologies from 
local or geological distinctions. Folkeston forms 
no exception to the general rule. The soil con- 
sists of a most beautiful yellow sand, such as the 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



Romans distinguished by the word Fulvus. This 
the Saxons contracted into Fulk, which word has 
become a family prenomen, as in Fulke-Greville, 
Fulke-Brooke ; in other terms, the yellow Greville 
or yellow Brooke ; and Folkeston is nothing more 
than the yellow town, so called from the nature of 
the soil on which it is built. S. 

The Curfew Bell (Vol. vi., p. 53.). 
" During the last 700 years, the curfew bell has been 
regularly tolled in the town 'of Sandwich : but now it 
is said it is to be discontinued, in consequence of the 
corporation funds being at so low an ebb as not to 
allow of the payment of the paltry sum of some 4L or 
51. per annum." Kentish Observer, j 


Confirmation Superstition (Vol. vi., p. 601.). 
It is singular, that though the office is called " the 
laying on of hands" the rubric says, " the bishop 
shall lay his hand on the head of every one seve- 
rally." When was the &ri0e<n? x fl P^" (Heb. vi. 2.) 
changed into an em'0e<m x f 'P*> s ? A. A. D. 

Degree of B.C.L. (Vol. vii., p. 38.). On Feb. 
25, 1851, a statute was passed at Oxford, by Con- 
vocation, which requires that the candidate for 
the degree of B.C.L. should have passed his exa- 
mination for the degree of B.A., and attended one 
colirse of lectures with the Regius Professor of 
Civil Law. In the case of particular colleges, 
twenty terms must have been kept : by members 
of other colleges, twenty-four terms must have 
been completed. The examination is upon the 
four books, or any part of them, of the Institutes 
of Justinian, or works which serve to illustrate 
them in the science of civil law, of which six 
months' notice is previously given by the Regius 

At Cambridge, a B.A. of four years' standing 
can be admitted LL.B. The candidate must have 

Eassed the previous examination ; attended the 
;ctures of the professor for three terms ; be ex- 
amined ; and after four years' standing, and resi- 
dence of three terms, keep his act. 


Robert Heron (Vol. vi., p. 389.). The literary 
career of this individual in London is selected by 
D'Israeli as an illustration of his Calamities of 
Authors. Some farther particulars of him, in an 
editorial capacity, will be found in Fraser's Maga- 
zine, vol. xx. p. 747. WILLIAM BATES. 


Shakspeare's " Twelfth Night" (Vol. vii., p. 51.). 
If the term "case," as applied to apparel, re- 
quires any further elucidation, it may be found in 
the " Certaine opening and drawing Distiches," 
prefixed to Coryat's Crudities, 4to., 1611. And 
the engraved title, which the verses are intended 

to explain, places before the eye, in a most un- 
mistakeable form, the articles which compose a 
man's " case." F. S. Q. 

CatcaUs (Vol. vi., pp. 460. 559.). For a long 
and humorous dissertation upon this instrument, I 
beg to refer your sceptical correspondent M. M.E. 
to page 130. of a scarce and amusing little work, 
entitled A Taste of the Town, or a Guide to all 
Publick Diversions, 8fc. ; London, printed and sold 
by the booksellers of London and Westminster, 
1731, 12mo. The passages are not unworthy of 
transcription ; but, I fear, would be too long for 
insertion in your columns. WILLIAM BATES. 


" Plurima, pauca, nihil" (Vol. vi., p. 511. ; 
Vol. vii., p. 96.). The following couplet will be 
found in Jo. Burch. Menckenii De Charlataneria 
Eruditorum Declamationes, page 181. of the edit. 
Amst. 1727. The lines are there given as a spe- 
cimen of " versus quos Galli vocant rapportcz :" 

" Vir simplex, fortasse bonus, sed Pastor ineptus, 
Vult, tentat, peragit, plurima, pauca, nihil." 


I have met with the following metrical proverb, 
which may afford satisfaction to your correspon- 
dent, which dates certainly before 1604 : 
" Modus retinendorum amicorum. 

Temporibus nostris quicunque placere laborat, 
Det, capiat, quasrat, plurima, pauca, nihil." 

Also this : 

" Plurima des, perpauca petas, nil accipe : si nil 
Accipias, et pauca petas, et plurima dones, 
Gratus eris populo, te mille sequentur ainici. 
Si nihilum trades, cito eris privatus amico : 
Plurima si quares, multam patiere repulsam : 
Si multa accipias, populus te dicet avarum. 
Nil cape, pauca petas, des plurima, habebis amicos." 

W. C. H. 

Sen Jonson's adopted Sons (Vol. v., pp. 537. 
588.). I had made some Notes on this subject, 
but have never seen stated that their number was 
limited to twelve. I have got ten on my list, but 
am unable at present to give my authorities ; but 
I can assure your INQUIRER, at p. 537., that their 
names are honestly come by : 

" Thomas Randolph, Richard Brome, William Cart- 
wright, Sir Henry Morrison, James Howell, Joseph 
Rutter, Robert Herrick, Lord Falkland, Sir John 
Suckling, Shackerly Marmion." 


Mistletoe (Vol. vi., p. 589.). Mistletoe grows 
on one oak in Hackwood Park, near Basingstoke, 
where it is extremely plentiful on hawthorns. 

J. P. O. 



[No. 17S 


The Camden Society has, after a long silence, just 
issued a volume, The Camden Miscellany, Volume the 
Second, which from the variety and ititerest of its 
contents, cannot but be acceptable to all the members. 
These contents are, I. Account of the Expenses of John 
of Brabant, and Henry and Thomas of Lancaster, 
1292-93. II. Household Account of the Princess Eli- 
zabeth, 1551-52. III. The Bequeste and Suite of a 
True-hearted Englishman, written by William Cholmeky, 
1553. IV. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerk- 
enieell in March, 1 627-28. V. Trelawny Papers. 
VI. Autobiography of William Taswell, D. D. This, 
which is the first book for the year 1852-53, will be 
immediately followed by a volume of Verney Papers, 
editing by Mr. Bruce; and this probably by The 
Domesday of St. PauFs, editing by Archdeacon Hale, 
or The Correspondence of Lady Brilliana Harley, editing 
by the Rev. T. T. Lewis. Early in the ensuing 
Camden year, which commences on the 1st of May, 
two volumes of considerable interest may be looked for, 
namely, The Roll of the Household Expenses. of Richard 
Swinfield, Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289-90, 
with illustrations from other and coeval Documents, by 
the Rev. John Webb ; and Regulte Indusarum, The 
Ancren Rewle, A Treatise on the Rules and Duties of 
Monastic Life, addressed to a Society of Anchorites by 
Simon of Ghent, a work valuable for philology, for it 
is written in the semi- Saxon dialect of the thirteenth 
century, and curious for its illustration of ancient 
manners. It will be accompanied by a translation by 
the Rev. James Morton, the editor. 

The Architectural, Archaeological, and Historic So- 
ciety for the County, City, and Neighbourhood of Chester, 
has just published the Second Part of its Journal, in 
which objects of local interest are made available for 
much instructive information ; and to accomplish which 
the conductors have, and as we think wisely, preferred 
a great number of apt illustrations, executed without 
any pretence to artistic skill, to a few expensive and 
highly-finished engravings. 

Our Dutch neighbours seem to enjoy as much as 
ourselves the humour of Charles Dickens. Not only 
is Bleak House regularly translated as it appears, but 
in a bookseller's circular which has just reached us, we 
see announced translations of the Sketches by Boz, and 
of a Selection from Household Words. 

There is much tact required in writing for children, 
and no small share of this is exhibited in a History of 
France for Children, which Viscount Cranborne has 
just compiled for the use of his nieces. The principal 
events are brought forward in succession, and related 
in a plain, unaffected style, well calculated for youthful 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Joan of Arc, by Lord Mahon, 
the new number of Murray's Railway Library, is a re- 
print, from the noble author's Historical Essays, of his 
careful summary of Joan's extraordinary history. 
Cyclopaedia Bibliographica, a Library Manual of Theo- 
logical and General Literature, the fifth part of Mr. 
Darling's most useful guide for authors, preachers, 
students, and literary men. Synodalia, a Journal of 

Convocation, Nos. 1. to 4. ; four parts of a monthly 
periodical, instituted not so much for the purpose of 
securing immediately synodical action in the Church, 
as with the view of preparing the public mind for its 
reception. Ferdinand I. and Maximilian II. of Aus- 
tria, or a view of the Religion and Political State of 
Germany after the Reformation. An able and in- 
structive essay by Professor Von Ranke, well trans- 
lated for Longman's Traveller's Library by Sir A. and 
Lady Duff Gordon. Kidd's Own Journal fur January, 
1853. The new number of a journal which deserves 
the notice of all lovers of natural history and keepers 
of pets. Remains of Pagan Saxondom, principally 
from Tumidiin England, by J. Y. Akerman ; Part III., 
containing Beads, Crystal Ball, and Bu.Ua from Breach 
Down, and Glass Vase from Cuddesden, drawn of their 
original size and coloured. 




13 Parts (Original Edition). 

HAYVVARD'S BRITISH MUSEUM. 3 Vols. 12mo. 1738. 

Vol. I. 1840. Knight. 


MENAGERIES QUADRUPEDS: "Library of Entertaining Know- 
ledge," Vol. II. 
PETER SIMPLE. Illustrated Edition. Saunders and Otley. 

Vois. II. and III. 


INGRAM'S SAXON CHRONICLE. 4to. London, 1823. 
NEWMAN'S FERNS. Large Edition. 
ENIGMATICAL ENTERTAINER. Nos. I. and II. 1827 and 1823. 

Sherwood & Co. 

NORTHUMBRIAN MIRROR. New Series. 1841, &c. 
LEEDS CORRESPONDENT. Vol. V., Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
DE LA CROIX'S CONXUBIA FLORUM Bathoniae, 1791. 8vo. 
REID'S HISTORICAL BOTANY. Windsor, 1826. 3 Vols. 12mo. 


TOWNSEND'S PARISIAN COSTUMES. 3 Vols. 4to. 18311839. 

MASSINGER'S PLAYS, by GIFFORD. Vol. IV. 8vo. Second 

Edition. 1813. 

SPECTATOR. Vols. V. and VII. 12mo. London, 1753. 


Christ. Plantin. ; or any of the works of Costerus in any lan- 

GUAUDIAN. 12mo. 

WHAT THE CHARTISTS ARE. A Lptter to English Working Men, 
by a Fellow-Labourer. 12mo. London, 184S. 




JOHNSON'S LIVES (Walker's Classics). VoL I. 

TITMARSH'S PARIS SKETCH-BOOK. Post 8vo. Vol.1. Macrone, 

FIELDING'S WORKS. Vol. XI. (being second of "Amelia.") 
12mo. 1808. 

HOLCUOFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 8vo. 1789. j 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 



OTWAY. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. 17^8. 

EDMONDSON'S HERALDRY. Vol. II. Folio, 1780. 


BEN JONSON'S WORKS. (London, 1716. 6 Vols.) Vol. II. 


* Correspondents sending Lists of Bookt Wanted are requested 
to send their names. 

, Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to he sent, to MR. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street. 


J. F. (Halifax). How cnn a letter be addressed to this Corre- 
spondent ? 

J. O., who inquired respecting Johanna Southcote. How can 
we forward a letter to him f 

MOUSEY. A cat is called Grimalkin, or more properly Gray 

Malkin./rom the name of a Fiend supposed to assume the shape of 

a cat. Shakspeare, in his Macbeth, makes the First Witch exclaim, 

" I come, Graymalkin." 

E. J. G. We must refer our Correspondent to the critical com- 
mentators on the passage: Lowth or Wintle,for instance. 

INQUISITOR, who writes respecting. Rotten Row, it referred to 
our 1st Vol., p. 441. ; 2nd Vol., p. 235. ; andour 5th Vol., pp. 40. 

F. K. D. (Dublin). The arms on the impression of the seal 
forwarded by our Correspondent are obviously Ge rman, from the 
helmet, the style of lambrequin, and more particularly from the 
charges or bearings of which the coat is composed. It is probably 
of the date assigned to it by F. R. D. 

SHAW'S STAFFORD MSS. We have a note for our Correspondent 
on this subject, N. C. L. Where shall it be sent ? 

O. G. Will our Correspondent kindly favour us with the notices 
of Dr. Deacon contained in Townshend's Common-Place Book, 
for the benefit of another member of the literary brotherhood, who, 
we know, has been for some time past making collections for a Life 
of that remarkable Nonjuring bishop f 


AN ANXIOUS INQUIRER should state more precisely what branch 
of Photography he intends to pursue. Professor Hunt's Manual 
of Photography, of which the Third Edition has just been published, 
is the fullest which has yet appeared in this country. He will 
obtain Lists of Prices of Lenses, Cameras, $c. from any of the 
Photographic Houses whose Advertisements appear in our columns. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. All communications respecting this 
Society should be addressed to the Honorary Secretary, " Roger 
Fenton, Esq., 2. Albert Terrace, Albert Road, Regent's Park." 

Errata. No. 171. p. 136. col. 2. line 48. for "with" read 
"in;" and p. 137. col. 1. 1. 18., for "remark" read " mask." 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcel, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 


Now ready, medium STO., cloth extra, price 14s. 

detailed Criticisms on Certain Pictures of the 
Italian and French Schools. By M. GUIZOT. 
Translated from the French, with the assist- 
ance of the Author, by GEORGE GROVE. 
With 17 Illustrations, drawn on Wood by 

215. Regent Street. 

To Members of Learned Societies, Authors, &c. 


MEN, AND PRINTERS, 18. Broad Court, 
Long Acre. 

A. & D. respectfully beg to announce that 
they devote particular attention to the exe- 
SIMILES, comprising Autograph Letters, 
Deeds, Charters. Title-pages. Engravings, 
Woodcuts, &c., which they produce from any 
description of copies with the utmost accuracy, 
and without the slightest injury to the originals. 

Among the many purposes to which the art 
of Lithography is most successfully applied, 
may be specified, ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
DRAWINGS, Architecture, Landscapes, Ma- 
rine Views, Portraits from Life or Copies, Il- 
luminated MSS., Monumental Brasses, Deco- 
rations, Stained Glass Whidows, Maps, Plans, 
Diagrams, and every variety of illustrations 
requisite for Scientific and Artistic Publi- 

graphed with the greatest care and exactness. 
Court, Long Acre, London. 

WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in rive qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 1", 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Coses, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold. 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
60 trnineai ; Silver. 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 2J.,3/., and 4i. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT. Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 

I This day is published, 8vo., sewed, price 2s. 6d., 
or by Post, 3s. 

the Author of the celebrated " Letters " 
by this Anonymous Writer identified with 
Lieut.-General Sir Robert Rich, Bart. By 

" Look, my Lord, it comes ! " 

Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 4. 

215. Regent Street. 

In 8vo., price 6s. 6d., the Third Edition of 


Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and 
Waterloo Place ; 

Of whom may be had, by the same Author, 

ANDRIA. 8vo. 10s. Grf. 


Edition. 11s. 6d. 


CJF.A, in Connexion with the LIFE of 
ATJHANASIUS. (Nearly ready .) 

This day, fcap. 8vo., 3s. 

VERBS. Five Lectures. By RICHARD 
Chaplain to thu Lord Bishop of Oxford ; and 
Professor of Divinity, King's College, London. 

By the same Author. 


Six Lectures. Fourth Edition. 3s. Gd. 


Fifth Edition. 12s. 


Third Edition. 12s. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 

On 1st of February, price Is., No. II. New- 




The Religion of the Fine Arts. 

Master on the Occasional Services of the 


Bishops, Patrons, and Presentees. 
The New Editions of Bishop Wilson. 
Greek Hymnology. 
Cambridge Edition of Minucius Felix. 
Religious Opinions in Ireland. 
Reviews and Notices. 

Also, price is. 6d. No. XCIV. (LYm. New- 
Series) of 


Published under the Superintendence of the 
Ecclesiological, late Cambridge Camden So- 

CONTENTS : _ Ely Cathedral ; The Rood- 
Screeu and the Iconostasis (No. 1.1 ; Mr. Beck- 
man on Swedish Churches and Church Offices; 
"Godwin's History in Ruins;" The Depart- 
ment of Practical Art and the Architectural 
Museum ; The Ecclesiological Motett Society ; 
Messrs. Bowman and Crowther ; " Churches of 
the Middle Ages;" English Service Books at 
Cambiidge ; The Munich Glass in Kilndown 
Church ; ArchitiCtural Institute of Scotland ; 
Transactions of the E.xettr Diocesan Architec- 
tural Society j New Churches and Restora- 
tions ; Mr. Helmore's Lecture at Brighton ; 
Wells Cathedral ; Reports, &c. 

London : J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street, 
and New Bond Street. 


ENSIS : being a Collection of Records and 
Instruments illustrating the Ancient Conven- 
tual, Collegiate, and Eleemosynary Found- 
ations in Devon and Cornwall. Folio, cloth 
boards 'published at4M,now reduced to H. 16s. 
1846. The same, half bound in morocco, tops 
gilt, 21. 6s. 1846. 

Just published, gratis, and post free, 


Catalogue of Second-hand Books, of all classes, 
in good condition. 

Exeter : A. IIOLDEN. 
London : NATTALI & BOND. 



[No. 172. 


LENSES. These lenses give correct definition 
at the centre and margin of the picture, and 
have their visual and chemical acting foci 

Great Exhibition Jurors' Reports, p. 274. 

" Mr. Ross prepares lenses for Portraiture 
having the greatest intensity yet produced, by 
procuring the coincidence of the chemical ac- 
tinic ana visual rays. The spherical aberra- 
tion is also very carefully corrected, both in the 
central and oblique pencils." 

" Mr. Ross has exhibited the best Camera in 
the Exhibition. It is furnished with a double 
achromatic object-lens, about three inches 
aperture. There is no stop, the field is flat, and 
the image very perfect up to the edge." 

Catalogues sent upon Application. 

A. BOSS 2. Featherstone Buildings, High 

Just published, price Is., free by Post la. id., 

LE GRAY. New Edition. Translated from 
the last Edition of the French. 

GEORGE KNIGHT at SONS., Foster Lane, 


Manufacturers of Photographic Apparatus 
and Materials, consisting of Cameras, Stands, 
Coating Boxes, Pressure Frames, Glass and 
Porcelain Dishes. &c., and pure Photographic 
Chemicals, suited for practising the Daguer- 
reotype. Talbotype, Waxed-Paper, Albumen 
and Conodion Processes, adapted to stand any 
Climate, and fitted for the Requirements of 
the Tourist or Professional Artist. 

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for 
VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated 
Lenses for Portraits and Views. 

General Depot for Turner's, Whatman's, 
Canson Freres', La Croix, and other Talbotype 

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch 
of the Art. 


X IODIDE OF SILVER, prepared solely 
by R. W. THOMAS, has now obtained an 
European fame ; it supersedes the use of all 
other preparations of Collodion. Witness the 
subjoined Testimonial. 

" 122. Regent Street. 

"Dear Sir, In answer to your inquiry of 
this morning. I have no hesitation in saying 
that your preparation of Collodion is incom- 
parably better and more sensitive than all the 
advertised Collodio-Iodides, which, for my 
professional purposes, are quite useless when 
compared to yours. 

" I remain, dear Sir, 

" Yours faithfully, 

Aug. 30. 1852. 
To Mr. R. W. Thomas." 

MR. R. W. THOMAS begs most earnestly to 
caution photographers against purchasing im- 
pure chemicals, which are now too frequently 
sold at very low prices. It is to this cause nearly 
always that their labours are unattended with 

Chemicals of absolute purity, especially pre- 
pared for this art, may be obtained from R. W. 
THOMAS, Chemist and Professor of Photo- 
graphy, 10. Pall Mall. 

N.B. The name of Mr. T.'s preparation, 
Xylojlodide of Silver, is made use of by un- 
principled persons. To prevent imposition each 
bottle is stamped with a red label bearing the 
maker's signature. 

Pure Chemicals, with every requisite for 
the practice of Photography, accordine to the 
instructions of Hunt. Le Gray. Brehisson, &c. 
&c., maybe obtained of WILLIAM UOLTON, 
Manufacturer of pure chemicals for Photogra- 
phic and other purposes. 

Lists of Prices to be had on application. 
146. Uolboru Burs. 


L (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of 
Silver) J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. 
Strand, were the first in England who pub- 
lished the application of this agent (see Athe- 
nteum, Aug. 14th). Their Collodion (price 
9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitive- 
ness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for 
months : it may be exported to any climate, 
and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. 
J. B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE 
the latest Improvements adapted for all the 
Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. 
Cameras for Developing in the open Country. 
GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. 
Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and 
Iodized Papers, &c. 

announce that he has now made arrangements 
for printing Calotypes in large or small quan- 
tities, either from Paper or Glass Negatives. 
Gentlemen who are desirous of having good im- 
pressions of their works, may see specimens of 
Mr. Delamotte's Printing at his own residence, 
38. Chepstow Place, Bayswater, or at 
MR. GEORGE BELL'S, 186. Fleet Street. 


L & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art. 
123. and 121. Newgate Street. 

by Act of Parliament in 1834. _ 8. Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, London. 


Earl of Courtown 
Earl Leven and Mel- 

Earl of Norbury 
Earl of Stair 
Viscount Falkland 

Lord Elphinstone 
Lord Belhaven and 

Wm. Campbell, Esq., 



Chairman. Charles Graham, Esq. 

Deputy- Chairman Charles Downes, Esq. 

H. Blair Avame, Esq. D. Q. Henriques, Esq. 

E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., J. G. Henriques, Esq. 

F.S.A., Resident. F. C. Maitland, Esq. 

C. Berwick Curtis, William Railton, Esq. 

Esq. F. H. Thomson, Esq. 

William Fairlie, Esq.. Thomas Thorby, Esq. 

Physician. Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 

8. Bennett Street, St. James's. 
Surgeon. F. H. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners 


The Bonus added to Policies from March, 
1834, to December 31. 184', is as follows : _ 



14 years 
7 years 
1 year 

Sum added to 

In 1841. In 1848. 

*. d. 
683 6 8 

at Death. 

s.d.l s.d. 
7*7 100 6470 16 8 
157 100 1157 10 

11 50 ! 511 50 

* EXAMPLE. At the commencement of the 
year 1841, a person aged thirty took out a Policy 
for IflonZ., the annual payment for which is 
24/. Is. 8</. ; in 1847 he had paid in premiums 
168Z. 11s. Sd. ; but the profits being 2} per cent, 
per annum on the sum insured (which is 
Kl. 10s. per annum for each 1000J.) he had 
1571. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much 
as the premiums paid. 

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most 
moderate scale, and only one-half need be paid 
for the first five years, when the Insurance is 
for Life. Every information will be afforded 
on application to the Resident Director. 

- MR. EGESTORFF, translator of 
Mopstock s Messiah, respectfully announces 
that he is forming Classes for reading the 
German Drama, his own English versions, and 
the German original. The Headings may take 
place either at his Lodging, No. 8. Gillin<'ham 
Street, Pimlico, or at the residence of one of 
the members. 

!* l bta !?. ed 9P application 

Poems, &c. &c. 

To be sold, a splendid Achromatic Double 
Combination Lens. The apertures, seven and 
eight inches, applicable for portraits, or one of 
the Lenses for views ; the Proprietor leaving 
England. Apply immediately to A.B.,3. Jewui 
Crescent, Aldersgate Street. To save trouble, 
price 601. 


JL TURES. A Selection of the above 
beautiful Productions may be seen at BLAND 
& LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also 
be procured Apparatus of every Description, 
and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photo- 
graphy in all its Branches. 

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures 
for the Stereoscope. 
BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical 

and Photographical Instrument Makers, and. 

Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. 


JL Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
man's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson 
Freres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's 
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every 
kind of Photography. 

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster 
Row, London. 




Founded A.D. 1842. 


H. E. Bicknell, Esq. 
W. Cabell, Esq. 

. , . 

T. S. Cocks, Juu. Esq. 


G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 

J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 
T Grissell, Esq. 

, . 

J. Hunt, Esq. 
J. A. Lethbndge.Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
J. Lys Seager, Esq. 
J. B. White, Esq. 
J. Carter Wood, Esq. 

W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C. ; L. C. Humfrey, 

Esq., Q.C ; George Drew, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co. 

Charing Cross. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
loot., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 


17 - 
22 - 

s. d. 

- 1 14 4 

- 1 18 8 

- 2 4 5 

s. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 

- 3 8 2 



Now ready, price 10s. 6<7., Second Edition, 
with material additions. INDUSTRIAL IN- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies. Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. Bv AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 

FEB. 12. 1853.] 







Vice-Presidents, i 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bristol, &c. 
The Kight Hon. the Lord Justice Knight 

Bruce. &c. 

The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, M.P., &c. \ 
laeut.-General Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, , 


The Right Hon. Viscount Goderich, M.P., &c. 
The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Monck, M.P. ; 
Sir George Thomas Staunton, Bart., D.C.L., 

F.R.S..M.P., &c. 

Honorary Directors. 
The Hon. J. Master Owen Byng. 
William Coningham, Esq. 
William Ewart, Esq., M.P. 
Charles Kemble, Esq. 
Edward Miall, Esq., M.P. 
Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., MJ?. 
Apsley Pellatt, Esq., M.P. 
Henry Pownall, Esq. 
Wm. Scholefield, Esq., M.P. 
The Hon. C. Pelham Villiers, M.P. 
James Wyld, Esq. 

Sir John Dean Paul, Bart. 


Thomas J. Arnold, Esq. 
Herbert Ingram, Esq. 

F. G. P. Nelson, Esq., F.L.S. 


Alexander Richmond, Esq. 
William Smalley, Esq. 

Business Directors. 

Chairman. Lieut.-General Palby, C.B. 
Deputy-Chairman J. Stirling Coyne, Esq. 

Bayle Bernard, Esq. 
Shirley Brooks, Esq. 
W. Downing Bruce, Esq. 
J. B. Buckstone, Esq. 
Thornton Hunt, Esq. 

G. H. Lewes, Esq. 
Cyrus Redding, Esq. 
Angus B. Reach, Esq. 

Managing Director. 

F. G. Tomlins, Esq. 

Wm. Dalton, Esq. 


G. E.Dennes, Esq., F.L.S. 

Consulting Actuary. 
R. Thompson Jopling, Esq., F.S.S. 

Messrs. Strahan, Paul, Paul, and Bates, 217. 


Mr. C. Mitchell, Newspaper Press Directory 
Office, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 


The Athenaeum Institute is legally incorporated as a Mutual Benefit 
Society, and the rank and public status of its Vice- Presidents, Honorary 
Directors, Trustees, and Treasurer, and the well-known character of its 
business Directors, present a security to Authors, Journalists, and all 
connected with Literature, that it is based on sound principles, and will 
be conducted with fidelity and honour. 

It consists of two classes of Supporters. 

yon-Participating or Honorary Subscribers, who, it is hoped, may in- 
clude THE KOVAL FAMILY and great Officers of the state, on account 
of the political and moral influence of Authors ; NOBLEMEN and MEN 
OF FORTUNE who have manifested a marked predilection for Litera- 
ture ; AUTHORS OF FORTUNE and others sympathising with, and in- 
terested in the labours of literary men. 

Participating Subscribers, consisting of PROFESSIONAL AUTHORS, and that 
large mass of writers who produce the current literature of the age 
in Works of Science, Imagination, Education, and the Periodical 
and Newspaper Press of the Empire. 

The Constitution of the Society is such that the general body of its 
members hold the directing power. The Board of Business Directors is 
elected by it, and their powers and duties, as well as those of the officers, 
are clearly denned by the laws and rules of the Institute, which are in 
strict conformity with the elaborate requirements of the Friendly So- 
cieties' Act (14th and 15th Victoria, chap. 115.). 

THE QUALIFICATION OF MEMBERSHIP is authorship in some shape, 
but a large and liberal will be the most just interpretation of the term. 
As close a definition as can be given perhaps is, that it intends to include 
all who use the pen with an intellectual aim, women as well as men. 
The printed forms (which can be had on application) will show more 
minutely what is required to constitute membership. 


The distinguishing feature of the Institute is its applying the prin- 
ciple of Life Assurance in all its transactions. 

The Subscriptions of the Honorary Subscribers are applied to an 
Assurance on the Life of the Donors. 

For instance, The Right Honourable Benjamin Disraeli, Esq., 
sends a Donation of Twenty-five Pounds, which is immediately in- 
vested on an Assurance on his life, and will ultimately produce to the 
Institute au Endowment of 42?. Or to take another instance. The 
L- i ' rd vis count Goderich subscribes Two Guineas per year, 
which is invested in like manner on an Assurance on his life, and 
will ultimately Endow the Institute with 100?. And thus the Hono- 
rary (subscriptions, instead of being spent as eoon as received, are 
made to form a Capital Fund, which will be ultimately available, 
SV-u lves fal1 in ' to the Provident Members and Participating 

The application of the subscriptions of the Honorary Members to 
assuring their lives, has these advantages : It tends to create a large 
capital fund _ It enables the Honorary subscribers to see that the un- 

_ - 

dertakmg is successful, before their money is expended It transforms 
alms-giving for personal purposes, into 

such subscri: turns from being an aims-giving lor personal purposes, into 
an Endowment ior the general benefit of Literature It is not like most 
alms subscriptions to go in casual relief, but to produce a permanent ' 
result ; such as the foundation 9f a Hall and chambers, and ultimately 
the complete organisation of Literature as a recognised profession ; to 
endow permanent annuities, and otherwise aid Literature by succouring 

By this arrangement a very strong inducement is given to the 
Working Literary Men to subscribe to this Institute anil Society beyond 
all others ; as they will not only have all the benefits und profits arising 
from their own subscriptions, but participate in the Capital Fund whicl' 
tnere can be no doubt, will be augmented by Donations, Legacies, and 

Endowments. There is also the special advantage peculiar to such an 
Institution, of NOMINATING A WIFE OR CHILD to receive immediately the 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 173.] 


C Price Fourpence. 
I Stamped Edition, 


NOTES: Page 

Predictions of the Fire and Plague of London, No. II., by 

Vincent T. Sternberg - - - - - 173 

Examples of the French Sizain, by W. Pinkerton - 174 

Epigrams - - - - - - - 174 

" Goe, soule, the bodies guest," by George Daniel - 175 

Petitions from the County of Nottingham - - 175 

FOLK LORE: Lancashire Fairy Tale Teeth, Supersti- 
tion respecting New Moon Divination The Hyena 
an Ingredient in Love Potions The Elder Tree - 177 

MINOR NOTES: The Word "Party" Epitaphs 
Campbell's "Pleasures of Hope" Palindromical 
Lines "Derrick" and "Ship's Painter" Lord 
Reay's Country ------ 177 


Unanswered Queries - - - - - 178 

Mr. John Munro, by Dan. Wilson ... 179 

MINOR QUERIES : Song in Praise of the Marquess of 
Granby Venda The Georgiad R. S. Townshend 
of Manchester " Mala malae malo" " Dimidium 
Scie tiae " Portrait Painters "An Impartial In- 
quiry," &c. " As poor as Job's Turkey " Fuss 
Suicide encouraged in Marseilles Fabulous Bird 
Segantiorum Portus Stamping on Current Coinage 
_Rhvme: Dryden The Cadenham Oak St. 
Mary's Church, Beverley The Rev. Joshua Mnrsden 

Bentley's Examination Derivation of" Lowbell " 

Meaning of Assassin Punishment for exercising 
the Roman Catholic Religion Hogarth's Pictures 
Lines in a Snuff-box Rosa Mystica Old-Shoe 
throwing at Weddings Herbe's Costumes Fran^ais - 179 

Meaning and Etymology of " Conyngers " or " Conni- 
gries " Letters U, V, W, and St. Ives - - 182 


The Orkney Islands in Pawn 

The Passage in King Henry VIII., Act III. Sc. 2, by 

S W. Singer 183 

Miniature Ring of Charles I., by C. Ley - - 184 

Chantry Chapels - - - - - - 185 

Process Mr. Weld Taylor's Iodizing Process Sir 
William Newton's Process : Further Explanations - 185 

book Tuch Eva, Princess of Leinster Whipping 
Post The Dodo" Then comes the reckoning," &c. 
Sir J. Covert, not Govett Cliatterton Tennyson 
Llandudno on the Great Orme's Head Oldham, 
Bishop of Exeter Arms of Bristol The Cross and 
the Crucifix Sir Kenelm Digby Martin Drunk 
The Church Catechism _ Sham Epitaphs and 
Quotations Door-head Inscription Pot guns 
" Pompey the Little" Eagles supporting Lecterns- 
Lady Day in Harvest Inscriptions in Churches 
Macaulay's Young Levite, &c. - 


Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements .... 

- 183 

- 187 



VOL. VII. No. 173. 

NO. II. 

One of the most striking predictions occurs in 
Daniel Baker's Certaine Warning for a Naked 
Heart, Lond. 1659. After much invective against 
the evil ways of the metropolis, he proceeds : 

" A fire, a consuming fire, shall be kindled in the 
bowels of the earth, which will scorch with burning 
heat all hypocrites, unstable, double-minded workers of 
iniquity. ... A great and large slaughter shall be 
throughout the land of darkness where the unrighteous 
decrees and laws have been founded. Yea, a great 
effusion of blood, fire, and smoke shall encrease up in 
the dark habitations of cruelty; howling. and 'great 
wailing shall be on every hand in all her streets." 

Thomas Ellwood disposes of the city in a very 
summary manner : 

" For this shall be judgment of Babylon (saith the 
Lord); in one day shall her plagues come upon her, 
death, and mourning, and famine, and she shall be utterly 
burnt with fire ; for great is the Lord who judgeth 
her." Alarm to the Priests, Lond. 1662. 

George Fox also claims to have had a distinct 
prevision of the fire. (See Journal, p. 386., 
ed. 1765.) He also relates the story of a Quaker 
who was moved to come out of Huntingdonshire 
a little before the fire, and to 

" Scatter his money up and down the streets, turn his 
horse loose, untie the knees of his breeches, and let his 
stockings fall down, and to tell the people ' so they 
should run up and down scattering their money and 
goods, half undressed, like mad people, as he was 
a sign to them,' which they did when the city was 

Lilly's celebrated book of Hieroglyphickx, which 
procured the author the dubious honour of an 
examination before the committee appointed to 
inquire into the origin of the fire, is well known. 
In one of the plates, a large city, understood to 
denote London, is enveloped in flames; and another 
rude woodcut, containing a large amount of graves 
and corpses, was afterwards interpreted to bear 
reference to the Plague. Aubrey seems to be a 



[No. 173. 

little jealous of the renown which Lilly acquired 
by these productions; for he asserts that 
" Mr. Thomas Flatman (poet) did affirm that he had 
seen those Hieroglyphichs in an old parchment manu- 
script, writ in the time of the monks." Misc., p. 125. 
ed. 1721. 

Nostradamus also, more than a century before, 
is said to have foretold the very year of the burn- 
ing. In the edition, or reputed edition, of 1577, 
cent. ii. quatrain 51., is the following: 

" Le sang du jusse a Londres fera faute 
Bruslez par foudres de vingt trois les six 
La dame anticque cherra de place haute 
De mesme secte plusieurs seront occis." 

Those of your readers who incline to dubiety on 
this subject, I refer to the copy from whence it 
was taken, in the Museum Library, press-mark 
718. a 14. If it is a forgery (and such I take it 
to be), it is decidedly the best I ever met with. 
Some time ago the Queries of your correspondent 
SPEEIEND elicited some interesting particulars 
relative to Nostradamus and his prophecies; but I 
do not think the question of his claim to having 
predicted the death of Charles I. was finally 

I should be glad if any of your correspondents 
could tell me whether the quatrain above, or any- 
thing like it, occurs in any of the genuine early 
editions. Dugdale, by the way, evidently believed 
in its authenticity, and has inserted a version in 
his History of St. PauTs. 

Such a promising theme as the destruction of 
London was, of course, too good a thing to escape 
the. chap-book makers. During the period of the 
Civil Wars, we find many allusions to it. In a 
little quarto brochure, published in 1648, entitled 
Twelve Strange Prophecies, the following is placed 
in the mouth of the much maligned and carica- 
tured Mrs. Ann Shipton. The characteristic ter- 
mination I consider a fine stroke of the art vati- 

" A ship shall come sayling up the Thames till it 
come to London, and the master of the ship shall weep, 
and the mariners shall ask him why he weepeth, and he 
shall say, ' Ah, what a goodly city was this ! none in 
the world comparable to it ! and now there is scarce 
left any house that can let us have drinke for our money.' " 

This string of notes, turned up at different times, 
and while in search of more important matter, can 
no doubt be materially increased from the collec- 
tions of your correspondents. If my researches 
prove interesting, I may trouble you with another 
paper : at present I leave the facts brought to- 
gether above to the candid investigation of your 


The epigram (if it may with propriety receive 
that appellation) printed in Yol. vi., p. 603., re- 
minded me of some similar pieces of composition 
stored in my note-book ; and as they are not de- 
void of a certain degree of curious interest, I now 
forward themjsro bono publico. 

On Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII., the 
leaders of the Reformation : 

" Vous, dont le sens est encore sain, 
Fuyez Luther, Henri, Calvin. 
Vous, dont le cosur n'est point fletri, ] 
Fuyez Calvin, Luther, Henri. 
Vous, a qui le salut est cher, 
Fuyez Henri, Calvin, Luther." 

On the death of Francis II. : 

" Par 1'oeil, par 1'oreille, et 1'epaule, 
Trois rois sont morts naguere en Gaule ; 
Par 1'epaule, 1'oreille, et 1'ceil, 
Trois rois son entres au cercueil ; 
Par 1'epaule, 1'ceil, et 1'oreille, 
Dieu a montre grande merveille." 

By Beaumarchais : 

" Connaissez-vous rien de plus sot 
Que Merlin, Bazire, et Chabot? 
Non, certes, il n'est rien de pire 
Que Chabot, Merlin, et Bazire; 
Et nul ne vit-on plus coquin 
Que Chabot, Bazire, et Merlin." 

A more modern one still, date 1842 : 

" L'Etat est fort mal attele 
Avec Thiers, Guizot, ou Mole ; 
L'Etat marche tout de travers, 
Avec Mole, Guizot, ou Thiers ; 
Vers 1'abime il court a galop, 
Avec Mole, Thiers, ou Guizot." 

The prophecy in the last two lines has been un- 
fortunately fulfilled. W. PINKEBTOW. 


The two epigrams which follow were com- 
municated to me many years ago by the Rev. 
George Loggin, M.A., of Hertford College, long 
one of the masters of Rugby School. He died 
July 15, 1824, at the age of forty; and this re- 
miniscence of their old tutor's name will be wel- 
comed by many a Rugbasan. They were repre- 
sented to have proceeded from the pen of Thomas 
Dunbar of Brasenose, who, from 1815 to 1822, 
was keeper of the Ashmolean Museum. I have 
never seen them in print, or even in writing. 
They were recited memoriter, and from memory 
I write them down ; and hence, no doubt, there 
will be some deviations from the true text. But 
they seem too good to be lost ; and I am not with- 

FEB. 19. 1853.] 



out hope that a correct copy may eventually be 
elicited from some of your correspondents. 

With regard to the first, whether the lines were 
really made on the occasion stated, or the occasion 
was invented (as I am inclined to suspect) to suit 
the lines, is perhaps not very material : 

" Reply to Miss Charlotte Ness, who inquired the meaning 
of the logical terms ABSTRACT and CONCRETE. 

'' ' Say what is Abstract, what Concrete ? 

Their difference define.' 
' They both in one fair person meet, 
And that, dear maid, is thine.' 

' How so ? The riddle pray undo.' 

' I thus your wish express ; 
For when I lovely Charlotte view, 

I then view 

On a certain D.D. (who, from a peculiarity in 
bis walk, had acquired the sobriquet of Dr. Toe) 
being jilted by Miss H - , who eloped with her 
father's footman : 

" 'Twixt Footman Sam and Doctor Toe 

A controversy fell, 
Which should prevail against his foe, 

And bear away the belle. 
The lady chose the footman's heart. 

Say, who can wonder ? no man : 
The whole prevail'd above the part, 

'Twas Foot-man versus Toe-man." 

I should like to ascertain the author of the fol- 
lowing : 

Tlie Parson versus Physician. 

" How D.D. swaggers M. D. rolls ! 

I dub them both a brace of noddies : 
Old D. D. takes the cure of souls, 

And M. D. takes the care of bodies. 
Between them both what treatment rare 

Our souls and bodies must endure ! 
One takes the cure without the care, 

T'other the care without the cure" 



I have a cotemporaneous MS. of this wonder- 
fully-fine poem, that came into my possession with 
a certain rare bunch of black-letter ballads, printed 
between the years 1559 and 1597, and all of them 
unique (of the said bunch, Mr. Editor, more here- 
after), which contains two additional verses not 
to be found in A Poetical Rhapsodic, compiled 
by Francis Davison, and "printed by William 
Stansby for Roger Jackson, dwelling in Fleet 
Street, neere the great Conduit, 1611 ;" nor in 
Poems by Sir Henry Wotton, Sir Walter Raleigh, 
and others, carefully edited by the Rev. John 
Hannah, M.A., and published by my friend Wil- 
liam Pickering in 1845. They are prefaced by the 
word " Additions." They are written on the same 

leaf, and in the same quaint hand, and are as 
follow : 

Tell London of their stewes, 

Tell marchants of their usury ; 
And, though it be no nevves, 

Tell courtyers of theyr lechery ; 
And if they will reply, 
They best deserve the lye. 

Let cuckolds be remembred, 

I will not dye theyr debtor ; 
Theire heads beying armed, 

Theyl beare the brunt the better ; 
And if they chaunce reply, 

Theyr wives know best they lye. 

Having compared this MS. with the poem as it 
is printed in the above-mentioned volumes (both of 
which are in my library), I find it contains several 
variations, not however very important. Though 
these " Additions," in good taste, expression, and 
power, do not equal the noble verses that precede 
them, they are interesting and curious, and well 
worthy of preservation. After much inspection 
and inquiry, I have not discovered that they have 
ever yet appeared in print. The cabinet in which 
they slept, and the company they kept (undis- 
turbed, it would appear) for more than two cen- 
turies, assure me that they have not been pub- 

If you, Mr. Editor, or any of your many friends 
desire to see this MS., say so, and you and they 
shall be welcome. It has been in my possession 
(unseen) twenty years. GEOBGE DANIEI- 



The documents, copies of which I inclose, are 
written on the blank leaves in a copy of Willett's 
Hexapla, edit. 1611. I should be glad to know if 
the petitions, of which they are drafts, or rather 
copies, were presented, and when ? There is no 
date to the petitions ; but the copy of a letter, on 
another blank page, which seems to be in the 
same handwriting (signed "William Middleton"), 
is dated February 5th, 1658. Any information 
regarding the parties whose names are appended 
to the petitions would be acceptable. 

" To his Highness the Lord Protector of the Common- 
wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the 
dominions and territories thereunto belonging, the 
humble Address and Petition of diuers Justices of 
the Peace, Gentlemen, Ministers of the Gospell, 
and others, wel-affected persons, inhabitants in the 
County of Nottingham. 

" Upon consideration of the signall and glorious ap- 
pearances of God on the behalfe of his people and in- 
terest, wherein he hath pleased to make great use of 
your Highness, we account ourselues deeply engaged 
to acknowledge the wonderfull power, wisdome, and 



[No. 173. 

goodness of God, and to ascribe the glory to him alone, 
yet would we not be found ingratefull to your High- 
ness, as an eminent instrument under God of the peace 
and liberty we have injoyed, with a continued series of 
manifold mercies from the Lord, under your Highness' 
gouernment (notwithstanding all our declensions and 
unworthynesses), together with the influence it hath 
had upon the nations abroad to the promoteing of the 
Protestant interest, we judge it alsoe exceedingly re- 
markable that the Lord hath so signally blasted the 
pernicious designes of the common enemy against your 
Highness' person and gouernment, and against the 
common interest of the people of God and of these 
nations, for which we desire unfeignedly to bless the 

" These things premised, we humbly pray, 

" That the Lord would please to stir up the heart 
and strengthen the hands of your Highness, in carry- 
ing on what yet remains for the reforming of these na- 
tions (according to the word of God) and the secureing 
of the interest of godlyness and righteousness for the 
future, that such as are found in the faith and of holy 
conversation may live peaceably, and receive encourage- 
ment to persevere in that upon which the Lord may 
delight to doe your Highness and these nations good ; 
in order whereunto we humbly propose these following 
particulars to your Highness' consideration : 

" 1. First, that a stop may be put to the spreading 
infection of damnable errors and heresies, by a lively 
and due suppressing of them according to the mind of 
the Lord. 

" 2. That an efFectuall course may be taken for the 
curbeing of all profaneness and libertineisme by the 
sword of justice, which the Lord hath put into your 
magistrates' hands. 

" 3. That your Highness would haue an eye upon 
the designes of the common enemy in general!, and 
particularly on this (vid. ), their traininge up a young 
generation in the old destructive principles, as also on 
the designes of any persons whatsoeuer that indeauour 
to disturb your Highness' gouernment and the peace of 
these nations. 

" 4. That the lawes of the nation may be reuised, 
that for what in them is agreeable to the rules of right- 
eousness may be continued and executed, and whatever 
corruption is crept into, or may grow up in, courts of 
judicature may be duly purged away. 

" 5. That in your Highness' lifetime such prouision 
be made for the future gouernment of the common- 
wealth, as may secure the interest of good people of 
these nations for succeeding generations, that they may 
call you blessed. 

" And in the prosecution of such ends we shall be 
ready, as the Lord shall help us, with all that is dear 
to us, to defend your Highness' person and gouernment, 
with the true interest of religion and the lawes, and 
shall ever pray, &c. 


CHRYSTOPHER SANDERSON, Minister of Annesley. 

ABRAHAM" f.Torn off]. 

" To the honourable the Parliament of England. 

" The humble Petition of diuers Gentlemen, Ministers 
of the Gospell, and others, inhabiteing in the County 
of Nottingham, 

" Sheweth, 

" That your petitioners, haueing seriously considered 
how much a thorough reformation of religion and pure 
administration of the ordinances of Christianity would 
tend to the honour of God, the good of soules, and the 
abundant satisfaction of the truly godly in this nation, 
who have long waited for these mercies as the return of 
their prayers, and the fruit of their expense both of 
blood and treasure, and being alsoe very sensible that 
the duty we owe to Go