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80UN v ff.HFLSON. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



of intercommunication 



FOB 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



VOLUME EIGHTH. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1853. 



LONDON: 

GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET. 
1853. 



AC 



, \ 



V. 



LIBRARY 

728048 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



" Wben found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 192.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 2. 1853. 



? Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Page 

Oblation of a white Bull ----- 1 
Newst-ad Abbey, by W. S. Hasleden - - - 2 

On a celebrated P.issage in " Romeo and Juliet," 

Act III. Sc. 2., by S. W. Singer ... 3 

On the Passage fiom " King Lear" - 1 

Manners of the Irish, by H. T. Ellacombe, &c. - - 4 

MINOR NOTES: Burial in an Erect Posture 'The 
Archbishop of Armagh's Cure for the Gout, 1571 
The last known Survivor of General Wolfe's Army 
in Cana'ia National Methods of applauding Curious 
Posthumous Occurrence .... 5 

^QUERIES : 

Did Captain Cook first discover the Sandwich Islands? 
by J. S. Warden ------ 6 

Superstition of the Cornish Miners - - 7 

MINOR QUERIES: Clerical Duel Pistol Council of 
Laodicea, Canon 35. Peiinycomequick, adjoining 
Plymouth Park the Antiquary Honorary D.C.L.'s 

Battle of Villers en Couche Dr. Misaubin 
Kemble, Willet. and Forbes Pinealvly Post-Office 
about 1770 " Carefully examined and well-authenti- 
cated" Sir Heister Ryley Effigies with folded 
Hands ----- . - 7 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Passage in Bishop 
Horsley ' Marry come up ! " Dover Court 
Porter Dr. Whltaker's ingenious Earl Dissimulate 9 

REPLIES : 

Bishop Ken, by the Rev. J. H. Markland - - 10 

Bohn's Edition of Hoveden, hy James Graves - - 11 

Coleridge's Christabel, by J. S. Warden - - -11 

Its 12 

Family of Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes - - 12 

Books of Emblems Jacob Behmen, by C. Mansfield 

Ingleby ....... 13 

Raffkclle's Sposalizio - - - - - 14 

Windfall 14 

Mr. Justice Newton, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe and 

F. Kyffin Lenthall ..... 15 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. T.yte's Treat- 
ment of Positives Stereoscopic Angles Query re- 
specting Mr. Pollock's Process Gallo-nitrate of 
Silver -._-.-. 15. 

^REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Verney Note decyphered 

Emblems by John Hunyan Mr. Cobb's Diary 
" Sat cito si s it bene " _ Mythe versus Myth _ The 
Gilbert Family Alexander Clark Christ's Crtiss : 

The Rebellious Prayer " To the Lords of Con- 
vention" Wooden Tombs and Eltuies _ Lord 
Clarendon and the Tubwoman Hmse-mirks 
" Amentium haud amaniiiim " The Megatherium 
in the British Museum Pictorial Proverbs " Hur- 
rah," and other War-cries - - - - 17 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Rooks. Arc. - . - . - 20 

Book*- and Odd Volumes wanted - - - - 21 

Notices to Correspondents . . _ - 21 

Advertisements - - . . . - 21 



VOL. VIII. No. 192. 



OBLATION OF A WHITE BULL. 

By lease dated 28th April, 1533, the Abbat of 
St. Edmund's Bury demised to John Wright, 
glazier, and John Anable, pewterer, of Bury, the 
manor of Haberdon appurtenant to the office of 
Sacrist in that monastery, with four acres in the 
Vynefeld, for twenty yeurs, at the rent of 51. 4s. to 
the Sacrist ; the tenants also to find a white bull 
every year of their term, as often as it should 
happen that any gentlewoman, or any other 
woman, should, out of devotion, visit the shrine of 
the glorious king and martyr St. Edmund, and 
wish to mnke the oblation of a white bull. (Dodsw. 
Coll. in Bill. Bodl, vol. Ixxi. f. 72.) 

If we are to understand a white bull of the an- 
cient race of wild white cattle, it may be inferred, 
I suppose, that in some forest in the vicinity of 
Bury St. Edmund's they had not disappeared in. 
the first half of the sixteenth century. The wild 
cattle, probably indigenous to the great Caledonian 
forest, seem to have become extinct in a wild state 
before the time of Leland, excepting where pre- 
served in certain ancient parks, as Chillingham 
Park, Northumberland, Gisburne Park in Craven, 
&c., where they were, and in the former at all 
events still are, maintained in their original purity 
of breed. They were preserved on the lands of 
some abbeys ; for instance, by the Abbats of 
Whalley, Lancashire. 

Whi taker (History of Craven, p. 34.) mentions 
Gisburne Park as chiefly remarkable for a herd of 
wild cattle, descendants of that indigenous race 
which once roamed in the great forests of Lanca- 
shire, and they are said by some other writer to 
have been originally brought to Gisburne from 
Whalley after the dissolution. One of the de- 
scendants of Robert de Brus, the founder of Gains- 
borough Priorv, is stated by Matthew Paris to 
have conciliated King John with a present of 
white cattle. The woods of Chillingham Castle 
are celebrated at tliis day for the breed of this 
remarkable race, by which they are inhabited; and 
I believe there are three or lour other places in 
which they are preserved. 

In the form and direction of the horns, these 
famous wild white oxen seem to be living repre- 



' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



sentatives of the race whose bones are found in a 
fossil state in England and some parts of the Con- 
tinent in the " diluvium" bone-caves, mixed with 
the bones of bears, hyenas, and other wild ani- 
mals, now the cotemporaries of the Bos Gour, or 
Asiatic Ox, upon mountainous slopes of Western 
India. I have read that white cattle resembling 
the wild cattle of Chillingham exist in Italy, and 
that it has been doubted whether our British wild 
cattle are descendants of an aboriginal race, or 
were imported by ecclesiastics from Italy. But 
this seems unlikely, because they were not so easily 
brought over as the Pope's bulls (the pun is quite 
unavoidable), and were undoubtedly inhabitants 
of our ancient forests at a very early period. 

However, my present object is only to inquire 
for any other instances of the custom of offering a 
white bull in honour of a Christian saint. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents would elucidate this 
singular oblation. 

I am not able to refer to Col. Hamilton Smith's 
work on the mythology and ancient history of the 
ox, which may possibly notice this kind of offering. 

W. S. G. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



NEWSTEAD ABBEY. 

The descent of property, like the family pedi- 
gree, occasionally exhibits the most extraordinary 
disruptions ; and to those who may be ignorant of 
the cause, the effect may appear as romance. I 
have been particularly struck with the two inte- 
resting papers contained in the April number of 
the Archaeological Journal, having reference to the 
Newstead Abbey estate, formerly the property of 
Lord Byron's family, which, amongst other mat- 
ters, contain some severe remarks on the conduct 
of one of its proprietors, the great uncle and pre- 
decessor of our great poet, and having reference 
to dilapidation. Mr. Pettigrew, in his paper, states 
that 

" Family differences, particularly during the time of 
the fifth Lord Byron, of eccentric and unsocial manners, 
suffered and even aided the dilapidations of time. 
The castellated stables and offices are, however, yet to 
be seen." 

And Mr, Ashpitel adds that 

" The state of Newstead at the time the poet suc- 
ceeded to the estate is not generally known: 'the 
wicked lord' had felled all the noble oaks, destroyed the 
finest herds of deer, and, in short, had denuded the 
estate of everything he could. The hirelings of the 
attorney did the rest : they stripped away all the fur- 
niture, and everything the law would permit them to 
remove. The buildings on the east side were unroofed ; 
the old Xenodochium, and the grand refectory, were 
full of hay ; and the entrance-hall and monks' parlour 
were stable for cattle. In the only habitable part of 
the building, a place then used as a sort of scullery, 



under the only roof that kept out wet of all 'this vast 
pile, the fifth Lord Byron breathed his last ; and to 
this inheritance the poet succeeded." 

It is not necessary for me to refer to the lofty 
expression of the poet's feelings on such his- in- 
heritance, nor to the necessity of his parting from 
the estate, which appears now to be happily re- 
stored to its former splendour ; but possessing 
some knowledge of a lamentable fact, that neither 
Mr. Pettigrew nor Mr. Ashpitel appears to be 
aware of, I feel inclined to soften the asperity of 
the reflections quoted ; and palliate, although I 
may not justify, the apparently reckless proceed- 
ings of the eccentric fifth Lord, as he is called. 
In the years 1796 and 1797, after finishing my 
clerkship, I had a seat in the chambers of the late 
Jas. Hanson, Esq., an eminent conveyancer of 
Lincoln's Inn ; and while with him, amongst other 
peers of the realm who came to consult Mr. 
Hanson regarding their property, we had this 
eccentric fifth Lord Byron, who apparently came 
up to town for the purpose, and under the most 
painful and pitiable load of distress, and I must 
confess that I felt for him exceedingly ; but his case 
was past remedy, and, after some daily attendance, 
pouring forth his lamentations, he appears to have 
returned home to subside into the reckless opera- 
tions reported of him. His case was this : Upon 
the marriage of his son, he, as any other father 
would do, granted a settlement of his property, 
including the Newstead Abbey estate ; but by 
some unaccountable inadvertence or negligence of 
the lawyers employed, the ultimate reversion of the 
fee-simple of the property, instead of being left, as 
it ought to have been, in the father as the owner of 
the estates, was limited to the heirs of the son. 
And upon his death, and failure of the issue of the 
marriage, the unfortunate father, this eccentric lord, 
found himself robbed of the fee-simple of his own 
inheritance, and left merely the naked tenant for 
life, without any legal power of raising money upon 
it, or even of cutting down a tree. It is so many 
years ago, that I now do not remember the detail 
of what passed on these consultations ; but it would 
appear, that if the lawyers were aware of the effect 
of the final limitation, neither father nor son ap- 
pear to have been informed of it, or the result 
might have been corrected, and his lordship would 
probably have kept up the estate in its proper 
order. Whether this case was at all a promoting 
cause of the alteration of the law, I do not know ; 
but, as the law now stands, the estate would revert 
back to the father as heir of this son. This case, 
made a lasting impression on me, and I once had 
to correct a similar erroneous proposition^ in a 
large intended settlement; and I quoted this un- 
fortunate accident as an authority. Now, although 
this relation may not fully justify the reckless 
waste that appears to have been committed, it cer- 
tainly is a palliative. I do not recollect whether 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



our fifth lord had any surviving daughter to pro- 
vide for ; but if he had, his situation would be a 
still more aggravated position. W. S. HASLEDEN. 



ON A CELEBRATED PASSAGE IN " ROMEO AND 
JULIET," ACT III. SC. 2. 

Few passages in Shakspeare have so often and 
so ineffectually been " winnowed" as the opening 
of the beautiful and passionate soliloquy of Juliet, 
when ardently and impatiently invoking night's 
return, which was to bring her newly betrothed 
lover to her arms. It stands thus in the first folio, 
from which the best quarto differs only in a few 
unimportant points of orthography : 
" Gallop apace, you fiery footed steedes, 
Towards Phoebus' lodging, such a wagoner 
As Phaeton would whip you to the wish, 
And bring in cloudie night immediately. 
Spred thy close curtaine, Loue-performing night, 
That run-awayes eyes may wincke, and Romeo 
Leape to these armes, untalkt of and unseene," &c. 

The older commentators do not attempt to 
change the word run-awayes, but seek to explain 
it. Warburton says Phoebus is the runaway. 
Steevens has a long argument to prove that Night 
is the runaway. Douce thought Juliet herself was 
the runaway ; and at a later period the Rev. Mr. 
Halpin, in a very elegant and ingenious essay, 
attempts to prove that by the runaway we must 
understand Cupid. 

MR. KNIGHT and MR. COLLIER have both of 
them adopted Jackson's conjecture of unawares, 
and have admitted it to the honour of a place in 
the text, but MR. DTCE has pronounced it to be 
"villainous;" and it must be confessed that it has 
nothing but a slight similarity to the old word to 
recommend it. MR. DYCE himself has favoured 
us with three suggestions ; the first two in his 
Remarks on Cottier and Knighfs Shakspeare, in 
1844, where he says 

" That ways (the last syllable of run-away s) ought to 
be days, 1 feel next to certain ; but what word ori- 
ginally preceded it I do not pretend to determine : 

' Spread thy close curtain, love-performing Night ! 

That (?) Day's eyes mav wink, and Romeo 

soon ' 

Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen,' &c." 

The correctors of MR. COLLIER'S folio having 
substituted 

" That enemies eyes may wink," 
MR. DYCE, in his recent Few Notes, properly re- 
jects that reading, and submits another conjecture 
of his own, founded on the supposition that the 
word roving having been written illegibly, roamnge 
was mistaken for run-awayes, and proposes to 
read 

" That roving eyes may wink." 



Every suggestion of MR. DYCE, certainly the 
most competent of living commentators on Shak- 
speare, merits attention ; but I cannot say that I 
think he has succeeded in either of his proposed 
readings. 

Monck Mason seerns to have had the clearest 
notion of the requirements of the passage. He 
saw that " the word, whatever the meaning of it 
might be, was intended as a proper name ;" but he 
was not happy in suggesting renomy, a French 
word with an English termination. 

In the course of his note he mentions that 
Heath, " the author of the Revisal, reads ' Rumour's 
eyes may wink;' which agrees in sense with the 
rest of the passage, but differs widely from run- 
aways in the trace of the letters." 

I was not conscious of having seen this sugges- 
tion of Heath's, when, in consequence of a question 
put to me by a gentleman of distinguished taste 
and learning, I turned my thoughts to the passage, 
and at length came to the conclusion that the 
word must have been rumourers, and that from its 
unfrequent occurrence (the only other example of 
it at present known to me being one afforded by 
the poet) the printer mistook it for runawayes ; 
which, when written indistinctly, it may have 
strongly resembled. I therefore think that we 
may read with some confidence : 

" Spread thy close curtains, love-performing Night, 
That rumourers' eyes may wink, and Romeo 
Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen." 

It fulfils the requirements of both metre and 
sense, and the words untalk'd of and unseen make 
it nearly indisputable. I had at first thought it 
might be " rumorous eyes;" but the personifica- 
tion would then be wanting. Shakspeare has per-- 
sonified Rumour in the Introduction to the Second 
Part of King Henry IV. ; and in Coriolanus, 
Act IV. Sc. 6., we have 

" Go see this rumour er whipp'd." 

I am gratified by seeing that I have anticipated 
your able correspondent, the REV. MR. ARROW- 
SMITH, in his elucidation of "clamour your tongues," 
by citing the same passage from Udall's Apoph- 
thegmes, in my Vindication of the Text of Shak- 
speare, p. 79. It is a pleasure which must console 
me for having subjected myself to his just animad- 
version on another occasion. If those who so 
egregiously blunder are to be spared the castigation 
justly merited, we see by late occurrences to what 
it may lead; and your correspondent, in my judg- 
ment, is conferring a favour on all true lovers of 
our great poet by exposing pretension and error, 
from whatever quarter it may come, a duty which 
has been sadly neglected in some late partial re- 
views of MR. COLLIER'S " clever" corrector. MR. 
ARROWSMITH'S communications have been so truly 
ad rem, that I think I shall be expressing the sen- 
timents of all your readers interested in such 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



matters, in expressing an earnest desire for their 
continuance. S. W. SINGER. 

Mickleham. 



ON THE PASSAGE FROM "KING LEAR. 

(Vol. vii., p. 592.) 

Will you allow me to suggest to your ingenious 
Leeds correspondent (whose communications 
would be read with only the more pleasure if they 
evinced a little more respect for the opinions of 
others) that before he asserts the existence of a 
certain error which he points out in a passage in 
King Lear to be " undeniable," it would be de- 
sirable that he should support his improved 
reading by other passages from Shakspeare, or 
from cotemporary writers, in which the word he 
proposes occurs ? For my own part, I think 
A. E. B.'s suggestion well worthy of consideration, 
but I cannot admit that it " demonstrates itself," 
or " that any attempt to support it by argument 
would be absurd," for it would unquestionably 
strengthen his case to show that the verb " re- 
cuse " was not entirely obsolete in Shakspeare's 
time. Neither can I admit that there is an " ob- 
vious opposition between means and defects" the 
two words having no relation to each other. The 
question is, which of two words must be altered ; 
and at present I must own I am inclined to put 
more faith in the authority of " the old corrector " 
than in A. E. B. 

Having taken up my pen on this subject, allow 
me to remark upon the manner in which MR. 
COLLIER'S folio is referred to by your corre- 
spondent. I have carefully considered many of 
the emendations proposed, and feel in my own 
mind satisfied that so great a number that, in the 
words of your correspondent, ^demonstrate them- 
selves, could not have been otherwise than adopted 
from some authority. Even in the instance of the 
passage from Henry V., " on a table of green 
friese," which A. E. B. selects, I presume, as being 
especially absurd, I think " the old corrector " 
right ; although I had frequently cited Theobald's 
correction as particularly happy, and therefore 
the new version was at first to me very distasteful. 
But, whatever opinion may be held as to the value 
of the book, it is surely unbecoming to the dis- 
cussion of a literary question to indulge in the 
unsparing insinuations that have been thrown out 
on all sides respecting it. I leave out of question 
the circumstance, that the long and great services 
of MR. COLLIER ought to protect him at least from 
such unworthy treatment. SAMUEL HICKSON. 

P.S. Since writing the above, I have seen 
MR. KEIGHTLEY'S letter. I hope he will not de- 
prive the readers of " N". & Q." of the benefit of 
his valuable communications for the offences of 



one or two. He might consider, first, that his 
own dignity would suffer least by letting them 
pass by him " as the idle wind ; " and, secondly, 
that some allowance should be made for gentle- 
men who engage in controversy on a subject 
which, strangely enough, next to religion, seems 
to be most productive of discord. S. H. 



" I have no way, and therefore want no eyes ; 
I stumbled when I saw. Full oft 'tis seen 
Our means secure us ; and our mere defects 
Prove our commodities." 

Does not Shakspeare here use secure as a verb, 
in the sense "to mnke careless ?" If so, the pas- 
sage would mean, "Our means," that is, our power, 
our strength, make us wanting in care and vigi- 
lance, and too self-confident. Gloucester says, 
"I stumbled when I saw ;" meaning, When I had 
eyes I walked carelessly; when I had the "means" 
of seeing and avoiding stumbling-blocks, I stum- 
bled and fell, because I walked without care and 
watchfulness. Then he adds, " And our mere de- 
fects prove our commodities." Our deficiencies, 
our weaknesses (the sense of them), make us use 
such care and exertions as to prove advantages to 
us. Thus the antithesis is preserved. 

How scriptural is the first part of the passage ! 

" Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest 
he fall." 1 Cor. x. 12. 

" He hath said in his heart, Tush, I shall never be 
cast down : there shall no harm happen unto me." 
Ps. x. 6. 

The second part is also scriptural : 

" My strength is made perfect in weakness." 
2 Cor. xii. 9. 

" When I am weak then am I strong." 2 Cor. xii. 
10. 

In Timon of Athens we find secure used as a 
verb : "Secure thy heart." Act II. Sc. 2. 
Again, in Othello : 

" I do not so secure me in the error." Act I. Sc. 3. 

In Du Gauge's Gloss, is the verb "Securare 
nude pro securum reddere." In the " Alter Index 
sive Glossariutn" of Ainsworth's Dictionary is the 

verb "Securo, as to live carelessly." In 

the " Verba partim Gra3ca Latine scripta, partim 
barbara," &o., is "Securo, as securum reildo." 

The means of the hare in the fable for the race 
(that is, her swiftness) secured her ; the defects of 
the tortoise (her slowness) proved her commodity. 

F. W. J. 



MANNERS OF THE IRISH. 



The following are extracts from a MS. volume 
of the sixteenth century, containing, inter alia, 
notes of the Manners and Superstitions of the 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Celtic Irish. Some of our readers may be able to 
elucidate the obscure references : 

" The Irish men they have a farme, 
They kepp the bread, 

And make boyranne. 
They make butter and eatt molchan. 
And when they haue donne 

They have noe shamm. 
They burne the stra\ve and make loisbran. 
They eatt the flesh and drinke the broth, 
And when they have done they say 
Deo gracias is smar in Doieagh." 

The next appears to be a scrap of a woman's 
song: 
" Birch and keyre 'tis wal veyre a spyunyng deye a 

tow me. 
I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer 

houme. 

Justice Deyruse in my lopp, and senscal in my 
roatne," &c. 

John Devereux was Justiciary of the Pala- 
tinate Liberty of Wexford in the early part of 
Henry VHL's reign. That Palatinate was then 
governed by a seneschal or " senscal." The jus- 
tice would seem to have been a gallant and sensual 
man, and the song may have been a little satirical. 
Among the notes of the " Manners " of the Irish, 
it is declared that 

"Sett them a farme the grandfather, father, son, 
and they clay me it as their own : if not, they goe to 
rebellion." 

Will any antiquary versed in Celtic customs 
explain whether this claim of possession grew out 
of any Celtic usnge of tenancy ? And also point 
out authorities bearing upon the customs of Celtic 
agricultural tenancy ? 

The next extract bears upon the communication 
at Vol. vii., p. 332. : 

" An Ultagh hath three purses. He runneth behind 
dore to draw his money : one cutteth the throte of 
another." 

Now, was an Ultagh an Irish usurer or money- 
lender ? Your correspondent at page 332. re- 
quests information respecting Roger Outlaw. Sir 
William Betham, in a note to the "Proceedings 
against Dame Alice Ugteler," the famous pseudo- 
Kilkenny witch, remarks that "the family of Ut- 
lagh were seated in Dublin, and filled several 
situations in the corporation." Utlagh and Out- 
law are the same surnames. The named Utlagh 
also occurs in the Calendar of Printed Irish Patent 
Rolls. William Utlagh, or Outlaw, was a banker 
and money-lender in Kilkenny, in the days of 
Edward I. He was the first husband of the witch, 
and brother of Friar Roger Outlaw. In favour of 
the latter, who was Prior of Kilmainham, near 
Dublin, a mandamus, dated 10 Edw. II., was issued 
for arrears due to him since he was " justice and 



chancellor, and even lieutenant of the justiciary, 
as well in the late king's time as of the present 
king's." He was appointed Lord Justice, or deputy 
to the Lord Lieutenant, by patent dated Mar. 15, 
9 Edw. III. 

Many of the Irish records having been lost, your 
correspondent will do an obliging service in point- 
ing out the repository of the discovered roll. Per- 
haps steps might be taken for its restoration. H. 

[The following communication from our valued 
correspondent, the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE, affords at 
once a satisfactory reply to H.'s Query, and a proof of 
the utility of " N. & Q,."] 

Eager Outlawe (Vol. vii., p. 559.). Thanks to 
ANON, and others for their information. 

As for " in viiij mense," I cannot understand it : 
I copied it as it was sent to me. B. Etii was an 
error of the press for R. Etii, but I purposely 
avoided noticing it, because my very first commu- 
nication on the subject to " N. & Q.," under my 
own name and address, opened a very pleasing 
correspondence, which has since led to the re- 
storation of these Irish documents to their con- 
geners among the public records in Dublin ; a 
gentleman having set out most chivalrously from 
that city at his own cost to recover them, and I 
am happy to say he has succeeded ; and in the 
English Quarterly Magazine there will soon 
appear, I believe, an account of the documents in 
question. It would not, therefore, become me to 

five in this place the explanation which has been 
indly communicated to me as to the meaning of 
the last conquest of Ireland ; but I have no doubt 
it will be explained in the English Quarterly. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 
Rectory, Clyst St. George. 



ifttttDr fiateS. 

Burial in an erect Posture. In the north transept 
of Stanton Harcourt Church, Oxon, the burial- 
place of the Harcourt family, is a circular slab of 
blue marble in the pavement, in which is inlaid a 
shield of brass bearing the arms of Harcourt, two 
bars, dimidiated with those of Beke ; the latter, 
when entire, forming a cros ancree. The brass is 
not engraved, but forms the outline of the shield 
and arms. It is supposed to be the monument of 
Sir John, son of Sir Richard Harcourt and Mar- 
garet Beke, who died 1330. (See extracts from 
Lord Harcourt's " Account," in the Oxford Archi- 
tectural Guide, p. 178.) Tradition relates, if my 
memory does not mislead me, that the knight was 
buried beneath this stone in an erect posture, but 
assigns no reason for this peculiarity. Is the pro- 
bability of this being the case supported by any, 
and what instances ? Or does the legend merely 
owe its existence to the circular form of the stone? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



I think that its diameter is about two feet. If 
MB. FRASER has not met with the information 
already, he may be interested, with reference to his 
Query on "Dimidiation" (Vol. vii., p. 548.), in 
learning that the above-mentioned Margaret was 
daughter and coheiress of John Lord Beke of 
Eresby, who by his will, made the 29th of Edw. I., 
-devised the remainder of his arms to be divided 
between Sir Robert de Willoughby and Sir John 
de Harcourt. And this may lead to the farther 
Query, whether dimidiation was originally or uni- 
versally resorted to in the case of coheiresses ? 

CHEVEREL.LS. 

The Archbishop of Armagh's Cure for the Gout, 
1571. Extracted from a letter from Thomas 
Lancaster, Archbishop of Armagh, to Lord 
Burghley, dated from Dublin, March 25, 1571 : 

" I am sorofull for that yo r honor is greved w th the 
goute, from the w ch I beseche Almighty God deliver 
you, and send you health; and yf (it) shall please y r 
honor to prove a medicen for the same w ch I brought 
owt of Duchland, and have eased many w th it, I trust in 
God it shall also do you good ; and this it is. Take 
jj spaniel whelpes of ij dayes olde, scald them, and 
cause the entrells betaken out, but wash them not. 
Take 4 ounces brymstone, 4 ounces torpentyn, 1 ounce 
parmacete, a handful] nettells, and a quantyte of oyle 
of balme, and putt all the aforesayd in them stamped, 
and sowe them up and rost them, and take the dropes 
and anoynt you wheare your grefe is, and by God's 
grace yo r honor shall fynd helpe." From the Original 
in the State Paper Office. 

SPES. 

The last known Survivor of General Wolfe s 
Army in Canada. In a recent number of the 
Montreal Herald, mention is made of more than 
twenty persons whose ages exceed one hundred 
years. The editor remarks that 

" The most venerable patriarch now in Canada 
is Abraham Miller, who resides in the township of 
Grey, and is 115 years old. In 1758 he scaled the 
cliffs of Quebec with General Wolfe, so that his resi- 
dence in Canada is coincident with British rule in the 
province. He is attached to the Indians, and lives in 
all respects like them." 

w.w. 

Malta. 

National Methods of Applauding. Clapping 
with the hands is going out of use in the United 
States, and stamping with the feet is taking its 
place. When Mr. Combe was lecturing on phre- 
nology at the Museum building in Philadelphia 
twelve or thirteen years ago, he and his auditors 
were much annoyed by the pedal applause of a 
company in the room above, who were listening to 
the concerts of a negro band. Complaint was 
made to the authorities of the Museum Society ; 
but the answer was, that nothing could be done, as 



stamping of the feet was " the national method of 
applauding." 

The crying of " hear him ! hear him ! " during 
the delivery of a speech, is not in use in the United 
States, as an English gentleman discovered who 
settled here a few years ago. He attended a meet- 
ing of the members of the church to which he had 
attached himself, and hearing something said that 
pleased him, he cried out " hear him ! hear him ! " 
Upon which the sexton came over to him, and 
told him that, unless he kept himself quiet, he 
would be under the necessity of turning him out 
of church. M. E. 

Philadelphia. 

Curious Posthumous Occurrence. If the follow- 
ing be true, though in ever so limited a manner, 
it deserves investigation. Notwithstanding his 
twenty-three years' experience, the worthy grave- 
digger must have been mistaken, unless there is 
something peculiar in the bodies of Bath people ! 
But if the face turns down in any instance, as 
asserted, it would be right to ascertain the cause, 
and why this change is not general. It is now 
above twenty years since the paragraph appeared 
in the London papers : 

" A correspondent in the Bath Herald states the 
following singular circumstance : ' Having occasion 
last week to inspect a grave in one of the parishes of 
this city, in which two or three members of a family 
had been buried some years since, and which lay in 
very wet ground, I observed that the upper part of the 
coffin was rotted away, and had left the head and 
bones of the skull exposed to view. On inquiring of 
the grave-digger how it came to pass that I did not 
observe the usual sockets of the eyes in the skull, he 
replied that what I saw was the hind part of the head 
(termed the occiput, I believe, by anatomists), and that 
the face was turned, as usual, to the earth ! ! Not 
exactly understanding his phrase 'as usual,' I inquired 
if the body had been buried with the face upwards, as 
in the ordinary way ; to which he replied to my 
astonishment, in the affirmative, adding, that in the 
course of decomposition the face of every individual 
turns to the earth ! ! and that, in the experience of 
three-and-twenty years in his situation, he had never 
known more than one instance to the contrary.' " 

A. B. C. 



DID CAPTAIN COOK FIRST DISCOVER THE SANDWICH 
ISLANDS ? 

In a French atlas, dated 1762, in my pos- 
session, amongst the numerous non-existing 
islands laid down in the map of the Pacific, and 
the still more numerous cases of omission in- 
evitable at so early a period of Polynesian dis- 
covery, there is inserted an island styled "I. St. 
Fran9ois," or "I. S. Francisco," which lies in 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



about 20 N. and 224 E. from the meridian of 
JFerro, and, of course, almost exactly in the situ- 
ation of Owhyhee. That this large and lofty group 
may have been seen by some other voyager long 
before, is far from improbable ; but, beyond a 
question, Cook was the first to visit, describe, and 
lay them down correctly in our maps. Professor 
Meyen, however, as quoted in Johnston's Physical 
Atlas, mentions these islands in terms which would 
almost lead one to suppose that he, the Professor, 
considered them to have been known to the 
Spaniards in Anson's time or earlier, and that 
they had been regular calling places for the gal- 
leons in those days ! It is difficult to conceive 
such a man capable of such a mistake ; but if he 
did not suppose them to have been discovered 
before Cook's voyage in 1778, his words are sin- 
gularly calculated to deceive the reader on that 
point. J. S. WARDEN. 



Celtic Lexicon. By the Rev. Robert Williams, M.A., 
Oxon., to be published in one vol. 4to., price 31s. 6<i." 
When shall we see this desirable lexicon ? I 
was reminded of it the other day by hearing of 
the subscriptions on foot for the publication of the 
great Irish dictionary, which the eminent Irish 
scholars Messrs. O'Donovan and Curry have had 
in hand for many years. EIRIONNACH. 



SUPERSTITION OF THE CORNISH MINERS. 

. MR. KINGSLEY records a superstition of the 
Cornish miners, which I have not seen noted else- 
where. In reply to the question, " What are the 
Knockers ? " Tregarva answers : 

" They are the ghosts, the miners hold, of the Old 
Jews that crucified our Lord, and were sent for slaves by 
the Roman emperors to work the mines: and we find 
their old smelting-houses, which \ve call Jews' houses, 
and their blocks of the bottom of the great bogs, which 
we call Jews' tin : and then, a town among us, too, 
which we call Market Jew, but the old name was Ma~ 
razion, that means the Bitterness of Zion, they tell me ; 
and bitter work it was for them no doubt, poor souls ! 
We used to break into the old shafts and adits which 
they had made, and find old stags-horn pickaxes, that 
crumbled to pieces when we brought them to grass. 
And they say that if a man will listen of a still night 
about those old shafts, he may hear the ghosts of them 
at working, knocking, and picking, as clear as if there 
was a man at work in the next level." Feast; a 
Problem: Lend. 1851, p. 255. 

Miners, as a class, are peculiarly susceptible of 
impressions of the unseen world, and the super- 
stitions entertained by them in different parts of 
the world would form a curious volume. Is there 
any work on Cornish folk lore which alludes to 
this superstition respecting the Jews ? It would 
be useless, I dare say, to consult Carew, or Borlase ; 
besides, I have not them by me. 

Apropos to Cornish matters, a dictionary with 
a very tempting title was advertised for publication 
two or three years ago : 

" Geslevar Cernewac, a Dictionary of the Cornish 
Dialect of the Cymraeg or ancient British Language, 
in which the words are elucidated by numerous ex- 
amples from the Cornish works now remaining, witli 
translations in English : and the synonyms in Welsh, 
Annoric, Irish, Gaelic, and Manx, so as to form a 



Clerical Duel. I shall be obliged to any cor- 
respondent who will supply the name of the 
courtier referred to in the following anecdote, 
which is to be found in Burckhardt's Kirchen- 
Geschichte der Deutschen Gemeinden in London, 
Tub. 1798, p. 77. 

Anton Wilhelm Bohme, who came over as 
chaplain with Prince George of Denmark, officiated 
at the German Chapel, St. James's, from the year 
1705 to 1722. He was a favourite of Queen Anne, 
and a friend of Isaac Watts. On one occasion he 
preached against adultery in a way which gave 
great offence to one of the courtiers present, who 
conceived that a personal attack on himself was 
intended. He accordingly sent a challenge to the 
preacher, which was without hesitation accepted ; 
and at the time and place appointed the chaplain 
made his appearance in full canonicals, with his 
Bible in his hand, and gave the challenger a lec- 
ture which led to their reconciliation and friend- 
ship. 

I should like also to know whether there is any 
other authority for the story than that which I 



have quoted. 
Gloucester. 



S. R. MAITLAND. 



Pistol. What is the date of the original intro- 
duction of this word into our vocabulary in either 
of the senses in which it is equivocally used by 
Falstaff in 1 Henry IV., Act V. Sc. 3. ? In the 
sense of fire- arms, pistols seem to have been un- 
known by that name as late as the year 1541 ; for 
the stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 6., after reciting the 
murders, &c. committed " with cross-bows, little 
short hand-guns, and little hagbuts," prohibits the 
possession of " any hand-gun other than such as 
shall be in the stock and gun of the length of one 
whole yard, or any hagbut or demihake other than 
such as shall be in the stock and gun of the 
length of three quarters of one yard." But 
throughout the act there is no mention of the 
word " pistol." J. F. M. 

Council of Laodicea, Canon 35. Can any of 
your readers inform me whether, in any early 
work on the Councils, the word angelon is in the 
text, without having angulos in the margin ? If 
so, oblige me by stating the editions. 

CLEBICUS (D). 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



Pennycomequich, adjoining Plymouth. The Bath 
and West of England Agricultural Society held 
their recent annual meeting here. Will any of 
your correspondents oblige me with the derivation 
of this remarkable word ? R. H. B. 

Park the Antiquary. In a note to the third 
volume (p. Ixxiii.) of the Grenville Correspondence 
is the following passage : " Barker has printed a 
second note, which Junius is supposed to have 
written to Garrick, upon the authority of Park 
the antiquary, who states that he found it in a co- 
temporary newspaper" &c. This is not strictly 
correct. Barker says (p. 190.), "The letter was 
found in a copy of Junius belonging to [Query, 
which had belonged to ?] T. Park, &c. He had 
[Query, it is presumed ?] cut it out of a news- 
paper ; but unfortunately has omitted to furnish 
the date of the newspaper." [Query, How then 
known to be cotemporary ?] The difference is 
important; but where is the copy containing this 
letter ? By whom has it been seen ? By whom 
and when first discovered ? Where did Barker 
find the story recorded ? When and where first 
printed? P. T. A. 

Honorary D.C.L.'s. It was mentioned in a 
report of proceedings at the late Installation, that 
the two royal personages honoured with degrees, 
having been doctored by diploma, would be en- 
titled to vote in Convocation, a privilege not 
possessed by the common tribe of honorary 
D.C.L.'s. 

Can you inform me whether Dr. Johnson had, 
or ever exercised, the right referred to in virtue 
of his M.A. degree (conferred on the publication 
of the Dictionary), or of the higher academical 
dignity to which his name has given such a world- 
wide celebrity ? CANTABRIGIENSIS. 

Battle of Villers en Couche. Some of your cor- 
respondents, better versed than myself in military 
matters, will doubtless render me assistance by 
replying to this Query. Where can I find a 
copious and accurate account of the battle, or per- 
haps I should rather say skirmish, of Villers en 
Couche ? If I am rightly informed, it must be one 
of the most remarkable actions on record, when 
the comparative numbers of the troops engaged 
are taken into consideration. We have, as an heir- 
loom in our family, a medal worn by an officer on 
that occasion : it is suspended from a red and 
white ribbon, and is inscribed thus : 

" FORTiTUDINE 

VILLERS EN COUCHE. 

24TH APRIL, 

1794." 

I do not remember to have read any account of 
the battle ; but, as I have heard from the lips of 
one who gained his information from the officer 



before alluded to, the particulars were these : 
General Mansell, with a force consisting of two- 
squadrons of the 15th Hussars, and one squadron 
of the German Legion, two hundred and seventy- 
two in all, charged a body of the French army, ten 
thousand strong. The French were formed in a 
hollow square : but five times, as I am informed, 
did our gallant troops charge into and out of the 
square, till the French, struck with a sudden panic, 
retreated with a loss of twelve hundred men. I 
am desirous of authenticating this almost incredible 
account, and shall be thankful for such information 
as may guide me to an authoritative record of the 
action in question. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A. 

Dr. Misaubin. Will any of your numerous 
correspondents give me any information, or refer 
me to any work where I can find it, respecting 
Dr. Misaubin, who appears to have practised in. 
London during the first half of the last century ? 
What was the peculiarity of his practice ? 

GRIFFIN. 

Kemble, Willet, and Forbes. What are the 
two concluding lines of an epigram published tea 
or twelve years ago, beginning, 

" The case of Kemble, Willet, and Forbes, 
Much of the Chancellor's time absorbs ; 
If I were the Chancellor I should tremble 
At the mention of Willet, Forbes, and Kemble " ? 

UKEDA. 
Philadelphia. 

Piccalyly. The ornament, somewhat between, 
a hood, a scarf, and an armlet, worn hanging over 
the right shoulder of judges and Serjeants at law, 
is called a piccalyly. What is the origin of this 
peculiarity of judicial costume, what are the 
earliest examples of it, and what its etymology ? 

No JUDGE, 

Post-Office about 1770. Mr. Smith, in the notes 
prefixed to the Grenville Correspondence, says 
several of Junius's letters appear to have been 
sent from the same post-office " as the post-mark 
is ' peny post payd,' " a peculiarity of spelling 
not likely to occur often. Have any of your cor- 
respondents letters of that date with a like post- 
mark ? and, if so, can they tell us where posted ? 

P. A. O. 

" Carefully examined and well-authenticated." 
I agree with MR. CRAMP (Vol. vii., p. 569.) that 
" the undecided question of the authorship of 
Junius requires that every statement should be 
carefully examined, and (as far as possible) only 
well-authenticated facts be admitted as evidence." 
I take leave, therefore, to remind him that my 
question (Vol. iii., p. 262.) remains unanswered ; 
that I am anxious that he should authenticate his 
statement (p. 63.), and name some of the " many" 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



persons in whose libraries vellum-bound copies of 
Junius have been found. V. B. 

Sir Heister Ryley. Who was the author of the 
Visions of Sir Heister Ryley, and whence did it 
derive its name? It was published in 1710, and 
consists of papers periodically published on serious 
subjects. It was one of the many short-lived 
periodicals that sprung up in imitation of the 
Taller, and appears to have died a natural death 
at the end of the so-called first volume. 

H. T. RlLEY. 

Effigies with folded Hands. On the south side 
of Llangathen Church, Carmarthenshire, is a huge 
monument (of the style well designated as bed- 
stead) for Dr. Anthony Rudd, Bishop of St. 
David's, and Anne Dalton, his wife, 1616, with 
their recumbent effigies, and those of four sons 
kneeling at their head and feet. From all these 
figures the iconoclasts had smitten the hands up- 
raised in prayer, and they have been replaced by 
plaister hands folded on the bosom. The effect is 
singular. Is there any other instance of such re- 
storation ? E. D. 



tcjS foiflj 

Passage in Bishop Horsley . In the Introduction 
to Utrum Horum, a rather curious work by Henry 
Care, being a comparison of the Thirty-nine Ar- 
ticles with the doctrines of Presbyterians on the 
one hand, and the tenets of the Church of Rome 
on the other, is an extract from Dr. Hakewill's 
Answer (1616) to Dr. Carier, "an apostate to 
Popery." In it occurs the following passage : 
"And so, through Calvin's sides, you strike at the 
throat and heart of our religion." Will you allow 
me to ask if a similar expression is not used by 
Bishop Horsley in some one of his Charges ? 

S. S. S. 

[The following passage occurs in the bishop's Charge 
to the clergy of St. Asaph in 1806, p. 26.: " Take es- 
pecial care, before you aim your shafts at Calvinism, 
that you know what is Calvinism, and what is not : 
that in that mass of doctrine, which it is of late be- 
come the fashion to abuse under the name of Calvinism, 
you can distinguish with certainty that part of it which 
is nothing better than Calvinism, and that which be- 
longs to our common Christianity, and the general 
faith of the Reformed Churches ; lest, when you mean 
only to fall foul of Calvinism, you should unwarily attack 
something more sacred and of higher origin ."] 

" Marry come up ! " What is the origin of this 
expression, found in the old novelists ? It perhaps 
originates in an adjuration of the Virgin Mary. 
If so, how did it gain its present form ? 

H. T. RlLEY. 

[Halliwell explains it as an interjection equivalent 
to indeed ! Marry on us, marry come up, Marry come 



out, interjections given by Brockett. Marry and shall, 
that I will ! Marry come up, my dirty cousin, a saying 
addressed to any one who affects excessive delicacy.] 

Dover Court. What is the origin of the ex- 
pression of a " Dover Court, where all are talkers 
and none are hearers?" There is a place called 
by this name in the vicinity of Harwich ? 

H. T. RILEY. 

[There is a legend, that Dover-Court Church in 
Essex once possessed a miraculous cross which spoke, 
thus noticed in the Collier of Croydon : 

" And how the rood of Dovercot did speak, 
Confirming his opinions to be true." 

So that it is possible, as Nares suggests, that this 
church was the scene of confusion alluded to in the 
proverb : " Dover Court ; all speakers and no hearers." 
Fox, in his Martyralogy, vol. ii. p. S02., states, that 
" a rumour was spread that no man could shut the 
door, which therefore stood open night and day ; and 
that the resort of people to it was much and very 
great."] 

Porter. In what book is the word porter, 
meaning the malt liquor so called, first found ? 
I have an impression that the earliest use of it that 
I have seen is in Nicholas Amherst's Terras Filius, 
about 1726. H. T. RIUSY. 

[We doubt whether an earlier use of this word, as 
descriptive of a malt liquor, will be found than the one 
noticed by our correspondent ; for it was only about 
1722 that Harwood, a London brewer, commenced 
brewing this liquor, which he called " entire," or " en- 
tire butt," implying that it was drawn from one cask 
or butt. It subsequently obtained the name of porter, 
from its consumption by porters and labourers.] 

Dr. Whitaker's Ingenious Earl. 

" To our equal surprise and vexation at times, we 
find the ancients possessed of degrees of physical know- 
ledge with which we were mostly or entirely unac- 
quainted ourselves. I need not appeal in proof of this 
to that extraordinary operation of chemistry, by which 
Moses reduced the golden calf to powder, and then 
give it mingled with water as a drink to the Israelites ; 
an operation the most difficult in all the processes of 
chemistry, and concerning which it is a sufficient 
honour for the moderns to -say, that they have once or 
twice practised it. I need not appeal to the mummies 
of Egypt, in which the art of embalming bodies is so 
eminently displayed, that all attempts at imitation have 
only showed the infinite superiority of the original to 
the copy. I need not appeal to the gilding upon those- 
mummies so fresh in its lustre; to the stained silk of 
them, so vivid in its colours after a lapse of SOOO years ; 
to the ductility and malleability of glass, discovered by 
an artist of Rome in the days of Tiberius, but instantly- 
lost by the immediate murder of the man under the 
orders of the emperor, and just now boasted vainly to 
be re-discovered by the wildly e.rcentric, yet vividly 
vigorous, genius of that earl who professes to teach law 
to my lord chancellor, and divinity to my lords the 



10 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 192. 



bishops, who proposes to send a ship, by the force of 
steam, with all the velocity of a ball from the mouth of 
a cannon, and who pretends by the power of his steam- 
impelled oars to beat the waters of the ocean into the 
hardness of adamant ; or to the burning-glasses of 
Archimedes, recorded in their effects by credible 
writers, actually imitated by Proclus at the siege of 
Constantinople with Archimedes' own success, yet 
boldly pronounced by some of our best judges, demon- 
strably impracticable in themselves, and lately de- 
monstrated by some faint experiments to be very prac- 
ticable, the skill of the moderns only going so far as to 
render credible the practices of the ancients." The 
Course of Hannibal, by John Whitaker, B. D., 1794, 
vol. ii. p. 142. 

Who was the earl whose universality of genius 
is described above by this " laudator temporis 
acti ? " H. J. 

[Charles Earl Stanhope, whose versatility of talent 
succeeded in abolishing the old wooden printing-press, 
with its double pulls, and substituting in its place the 
beautiful iron one, called after him the " Stanhope 
Press." His lordship's inventive genius, however, 
failed in the composing-room ; for his transmogrified 
letter-cases, with his eight logotypes, once attempted 
at The Times' office, were soon abandoned, and the old 
process of single letters preferred.] 

Dissimulate. Where is the earliest use of this 
word to be found ? It is to be met with in Ber- 
nard Mandeville's Fable of the Bees, 1723 ; but is 
not to be found, I think, in any dictionary. I was 
once heavily censured at school for using it in my 
theme ; but I have more than once of late seen it 
used in a leading article of The Times. 

H. T. RlLEY. 

[Dissimulate occurs in Richardson's Dictionary, with 
the two following examples : 

" Under smiling she was dissimulate, 
Prouocatiue with blinkes amorous." 

Chaucer, The Testament of Creseide. 

" We commaunde as kynges, and pray as men, that 
al thyng be forgiuen to theitn that be olde and broken, 
and to theim that be yonge and lusty, to dissimulate for 
a time, and nothyng to be forgiuen to very yong chil- 
dren." Golden Boke, c. ix.] 



BISHOP KEN. 

(Vol.vii., p. 526.) 

By converting a noun into a surname, Dodsley 
has led J. J. J. into a natural, but somewhat 
amusing mistake. The lines quoted are in Horace 
Walpole' s well-known epistle, from Florence, ad- 
dressed to his college friend T[homas] A[shton,] 
tutor of the Earl of Plymouth]. 

In Wnlpole's Fugitive Pieces, printed at Straw- 
berry Hill, 1758 (the copy of which, now before 



me, was given by Walpole to Cole in 1762, and 
contains several notes by the latter), the passage 
stands correctly thus : 

" Or, with wise ken, judiciously define, 
When Pius marks the honorary coin, 
Of Caracalla, or of Antonine." 

Your correspondent refers to an edition of the 
Collection of Poems of 1758. In a much later 
edition of that work, viz. 1782, the line is again 
printed 

" Or with wise KEN," &c. 

It is strange that the mistake was not corrected, 
at the instance of Walpole himself, during this long 
interval. 

Turning to Bishop Ken, I would observe that in 
his excellent Life of this prelate, Mr. Anderdon 
has given the three well-known hymns " word for 
word," as first penned. These, Mr. A. tells us, are 
found, for the first time, in a copy of the Manual 
of Prayers for the Use of the Winchester Scholars, 
printed in 1700. The bishop's versions vary so 
very materially from those to which we have been 
accustomed from childhood, that these original 
copies are very interesting. Indeed, within five 
years after their first appearance, and during the 
author's life, material changes were made, several 
of which are retained to the present hour. It must 
be admitted that some of the stanzas, as they first 
came from the bishop's pen, are singularly rugged 
and inharmonious, almost justifying the request 
made by the lady to Byrom (as I have stated else- 
where *), "to revise and polish the bishop's poems." 
How came these hymns, so far the most popular of 
his poetical works, to be omitted by Hawkins in 
the collected edition of the poems, printed in 
4 vols., 1721? 

]My present object is, to call your attention to a 
" Midnight Hymn," by Sir Thomas Browne, which 
will be found in his works (vol. ii. p. 113., edit. 
Wilkin). Can there be a question that to it Ken 
is indebted for some of the thoughts and expres- 
sions in two of his own hymns? 

The good bishop's fame will not be lessened by 
his adopting what was good in the works of the 
learned physician. He doubtless thought far more 
of the benefit which he could render to the youth- 
ful Wykehamists, than of either the originality or 
smoothness of his own verses. 

Sir Thomas Browne. 

" While I do rest, my soul advance ; 
Make my sleep a holy trance : 
That I may, my rest being wrought, 
Awake into some holy thought, 
And with as active vigour run 
My course as doth the nimble sun. 

" Sleep is a death : O make me try, 
By sleeping, what it is to die ! 

* Sketch of Bishop Ken's Life, p. 107. 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



And as gently lay my head 
On my grave, as now my bed. 

" These are my drowsy days ; in vain 
I do now wake to sleep again. 
O come that hour when I shall never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever ! 

" Guard me 'gainst those watchful foes, 
Whose eyes are open while mine close ; 
Let no dreams my head infest, 
But such as Jacob's temples blest." 

Bishop Ken. 

" Awake, my soul, and with the sun 
Thy daily stage of duty run. 

" Teach me to live that I may dread 
The grave as little as my bed. 

" O when shall I in endless day 
For ever chase dark sleep away, 
And endless praise with th' Heavenly choir, 
Incessant sing and never tire. 

" You, my blest Guardian, whilst I sleep, 
Close to my bed your vigils keep ; 
Divine love into me instil, 
Stop all the avenues of ill. 

" Thought to thought, with my soul converse 
Celestial joys to me rehearse ; 
And in my stead, all the night long, 
Sing to my God a grateful song." 

In the work referred to one of the most 
valuable and best edited of modern days Mr. 
Wilkin, when speaking of a fine passage on music 
in the Religio Medici (vol. ii. p. 106.), asks whe- 
ther it may not have suggested to Addison the 
beautiful conclusion of his Hymn on the Glories of 
Creation : 

" What tho' in solemn silence, all," &c. 

This passage in Sir Thomas Browne appears for- 
cibly to have struck the gifted author of Confes- 
sions of an English. Opium-eater (see p. 106. of 
that work). J. H. MARKLAND. 



BOHS S EDITION OF HOVEDEN. 

(Vol. vii., p. 579.) 

MR. RILEY mistakes my purpose if he thinks 
that my object was to make a personal attack on 
him ; and for anything in my last communication 
which may have appeared to possess that ten- 
dency, I hereby freely express my regret. Still I 
cannot allow that he has explained away the mis- 
takes of which I complained, and of which I still 
have to complain. The kingdom of Cork never 
"extended to within a short distance of Waterford;" 
and the territory of Desmond was necer co-exten- 
sive with Cork, having been always confined to 
the county of Kerry. MR. RILEY, therefore, is in 
error when he uses " Cork " and " Desmond " as 
synonymous. Again, he falls into the same mis- 



take by assuming " Crook, Hook Point, or The 
Crook," to be synonyms. I never heard that 
Henry II. landed at Hook Point, which is in the 
county of Wexford, and from which a land journey 
to Waterford would be very circuitous. At Crook, 
however, on the opposite side of Waterford 
Harbour, and within the shelter of Creden Head, 
he is said to have done so; and as that point 
answers pretty exactly to the Crock of Hoveden, 
why assume some indefinite point of the " Kingdom 
of Cork " as the locality, even supposing that its 
boundary did approach Waterford city ? Really 
MR. RILEY'S explanations but make matters worse. 
With regard to " Erupolensis " being an alias 
of Ossoriensis, I may quote the authority of the 
learned De Burgo, who, speaking of the diocese 
of Ossory, observes : 

" Quandoque tamen nuncupata erat Eyrupolensis 
ab Eyro Flumine, vulgo Neoro, quod Kilkenniam al- 
luit." Hibernia Dominicana, p. 205. note i. 

I maintain that the reading public has just cause 
to complain, not (as I said on a former occasion) 
because the editor of such a book as Hoveden's 
Annals does not know everything necessary to 
elucidate his author, but because baseless con- 
jectures are put forward as elucidations of the 
text. JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 



COLERIDGE S CHRISTABEL. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 206. 292.) 

It is difficult to believe that the third part of 
Christabel, published in Blackwood for June, 1819, 
vol. v. p. 286., could have either " perplexed the 
public," or " pleased Coleridge." In the first place, 
it was avowedly written by " Morgan Odoherty ; " 
and in the next, it is too palpable a parody to have 
pleased the original author, who could hardly 
have been satisfied with the raving rhapsodies put 
into his mouth, or with the treatment of his inno- 
cent and virtuous heroine. This will readily be 
supposed when it is known that the Lady Ge- 
raldine is made out to have been a man in woman's 
attire, and that " the mark of Christabel's shame, 
the seal of her sorrow," is neither more nor less 
than the natural consequence of her having shared 
her chamber with such a visitor. 

Is your correspondent A. B. R. correct in stating 
this parody to have been the composition of Dr. 
Maginn ? In the biography of this brilliant writer 
in the twenty-third volume of the Dublin Uni- 
versity Magazine, Dr. Moir, who had undoubtedly 
good opportunities of knowing, mentions that his 
first contribution to Blackwood was the Latin 
translation of " Chevy Chase," in the number for 
November 1819 ; if this be correct, many of the 
cleverest papers that appeared under the name of 
Odoherty, and which are all popularly attributed 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



to Maginn, must have been the work of other 
authors, a circumstance which I had been already- 
led to suspect from the frequent local allusions to 
Scotland in general, and to Edinburgh in par- 
ticular, which could have scarcely proceeded from 
the pen of a native of Cork, who had then never 
visited Scotland. Since Dr. Moir's own death, it 
appears that the Eve of St. Jerry, and the Rhyme 
of the Auncient Waggoner e, have been claimed for 
him, as well as some other similar pieces ; and I 
believe that the series of Boxiana, which also ap- 
peared under the name of the renowned ensign 
and adjutant, was written by Professor Wilson. 
Maginn's contributions were at first under various 
signatures, and some time elapsed before he made 
use of the nom de guerre of Morgan Odoherty, 
which eventually became so identified with him. 

J. S. WARDEN. 
Paternoster Row. 



ITS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 578.) 

I am sorry to intrude upon your valuable space 
again in reference to this little word, but the in- 
quiry of MR. RYE (p. 578.), and other reasons, 
render it desirable. The truth is that ME. 
KEIGHTLEY, MR. RYE, and myself, are more or 
less mistaken. 1. MR. KEIGHTLEY, in his quo- 
tation from Fairfax's Tasso (MR. SINGER'S ac- 
curate reprint, 1817), has his in both lines. 2. MR. 
RYE, in understanding me to refer to any trans- 
lation proper ; unless Sternhold and Hopkins are 
to be considered as having produced one. 3. My- 
self, in supposing the old metrical version in the 
Book of Common Prayer originally had the word 
its. I copied from the Oxford edition in fol. of 
1770; but a 4to. edition, " printed by lohn Daye, 
dwelling over Aldersgate, anno 1574," doss not 
exhibit the word in the places specified ; we have 
instead her in both places. 

Hitherto, then, the oldest examples of the use 
of this word have been adduced from Shakspeare. 
These are to be found in the first folio, but are in 
each case printed with the apostrophe after the 
t y ifs. This method of writing the word, how- 
ever, soon disappeared, for in a treatise of Pemble's, 
printed 1635 (the author died in 1623), it appears 
as we write it now : 

" If faith alone by its own virtue and force." Works, 
fol. p. 171. 

I have not observed the fact remarked, that be- 
sides the use of his, her, hereof, thereof, of it, and 
the, it was customary to employ the unchanged 
word it for the possessive case. I will give an 
example or two. In the Genevan version, at 
Rom. viii. 20., we read " Not of it owne wille." 
This passage is thus quoted in 1611 and in 1622, 
but in a later edition of the same work, 1656, its 



is substituted for it. I have a note of one other 
instance from Perkins on Rev. ii. 28. (ed. 1606): 
" For as the sunne in the spring time quickeneth 
by it warme beames." 

In conclusion, may I request that if any genuine 
instance of the use of this word its, is observed by 
any of your many contributors, they will commu- 
nicate the fact to you ? At present we can only 
go back to Shakspeare, in his Winter's Tale and 
Henry VIII. B. H. C. 



FAMILY OP MILTON S WIDOW. 

(Vol. vii., p. 596.) 

As your correspondent CRANMORE has long been 
a deserter from the ranks of " N. & Q.," f may 
perhaps, without presumption, for once " stand in 
his shoes," and reply to the challenge addressed to 
him by V. M. 

Much obscurity has all along prevailed among 
the many biographers of Milton, in reference to 
the family of Elizabeth Minshull, his third wife, 
and eventually, for more than fifty years, his 
widow. Philips, Warton, Todd, and numerous 
others, state her to have been " the daughter of 
Mr. Minshull, of Cheshire," a very vague asser- 
tion when we consider that there were at least 
three or four different families of that name then 
existing in the county. Pennant, who delighted 
in particularities, sometimes even at the expense 
of historical fact, tells us, for the first time, in 1782, 
that she was the daughter of Mr. (or Sir) Edward 
Minshull, of Stoke, near Nantwich, and that she 
died at the latter town in March, 1726, at an ad- 
vanced age. Mr. Ormerod, again, whose splendid 
History of Cheshire will be the standard authority 
of the county for ages after he himself is carried 
to his fathers, has unfortunately adopted the same 
conclusion, and so given a colour, as it were, to 
this erroneous statement of our Cambrian anti- 
quary. The Rev. Benjamin Mardon's paper, 
printed in the Journal of the British Archaological 
Association for 1849, is another and more recent 
instance of the way in which such errors as this 
may become perpetuated. Another writer (Palmer) 
conjectures her to have been the daughter of Min- 
shull of Manchester; but this also has been proved 
to be entirely destitute of foundation. 

The truth of the matter is (and I am indebted 
to Mr. Fitchett Marsh's clear and succinct disser- 
tation in the Miscellany of the Chetham Society 
for the information), the poet's widow was 
daughter of Mr. Randle Minshull, of Wistaston, 
in the county of Chester, whose great-great- 
grandfather, a younger son of Minshull of Min- 
shull, settled on a small estate there in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and so founded "the house ot 
Minshull of Wistaston. Milton was introduced 
to his Cheshire wife by his friend Dr. Paget ; and 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



it was by his advice that the author of Paradise 
Lost once more entered into the bonds of wedlock. 
Mr. Marsh, to clear up all doubt upon the subject, 
and having previously established the identity of 
the familyexamined the parish register at Wist- 
aston, and there found that " Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Randolph Mynshull, was baptized the 
30th day of December, 1638;" so that, if baptized 
shortly after birth, she must have been about 
twenty-six years old when united to Milton in 
1664, and about eighty-nine at her death, which 
occurred in 1727. 

V. M., and all others who desire farther en- 
lightenment on the subject, will do well to refer 
to the volume before mentioned, which forms the 
twenty-fourth of the series published by the 
Chetham Society. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 



BOOKS OF EMBLEMS JACOB BEHMEN. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 469. 579.) 

Perhaps you will allow poor old Jacob Behmen, 
the inspired cobbler of Gorlitz, a niche in your 
temple of writers of emblems. I think he is legi- 
timately entitled to that distinction. His works 
are nearly all couched in emblems ; and, besides 
his own figures, his principles were pictorially illus- 
trated by his disciple William Law (the author of 
The Way to Divine Knowledge, The Serious Call, I 
&c.), in some seventeen simple, and four com- 
pound emblematic drawings. Of these the most i 
remarkable, and in fact the most intelligible, are j 
three compound emblems representing the Crea- ' 
tion, Apostasy, and Redemption of Man. Every I 
phase of each stage in the soul's history is dis- I 
closed to view by means of double and single ! 
doors. We are now concerned only with such of 
Behinen's emblematic works as have been trans- 
lated into English. The following list contains 
only those in my own library. I am acquainted 
with no others : 

(1.) "The Works of Jacob Behmen, the Teutonic 
Theosopher, to which is prefixed the Life of the 
Author, with Figures illustrating his Principles, 
left by the Rev. William Law, M.A. In four 
thick Volumes, royal 4to. London : printed for 
M. Richardson in Paternoster Row, MDCCLXIV." 
With a fine portrait of Behmen facing the title- 
page of the first volume. This edition contains 
the following works : 

1. Aurora: the Day-spring, or Dawning of the Day 
in the East ; or Morning-redness in the Rising of the 
Sun: that is, the Root or Mother of Philosophy, 
Astrology, and Theology, from the True Ground ; or, 
A Description of Nature. 

2. The Three Principles of the Divine Essence of 
the Eternal : Dark, Light, and Temporary World. 

3. Mysterium Magnum : or an Explanation of the 
First Book of Moses called Genesis. 



4. Four Tables of Divine Revelation. 

5. The High and Deep-Searching of the Threefold 
Life of Man, through or according to the Three Prin- 
ciples. 

6. Forty Questions concerning the Soul, proposed 
by Dr. Balthasar Walter, and answered by Jacob 
Behmen. 

7. The Treatise ot the Incarnation. 

8. The Clavis, or an Explanation of some Principal 
Points and Expressions. 

9. Signatura Rerum. 

10. Of the Election of Grace; or of God's Will to- 
wards Man, commonly called Predestination. 

11. The Way to Christ discovered in the following 
Treatises : I. Of True Repentance. II. Of True 
Resignation. III. Of Regeneration. IV. Of Super- 
natural Life. 

12. A Discourse between a Soul hungry and 
thirsty after the Fountain of Life, the sweet Love of 
Jesus Christ, and a Soul enlightened. 

13. A Treatise of the Four Complexions, or a Con- 
solatory Instruction for a Sad and Assaulted Heart in. 
the Time of Temptation. 

14. A Treatise of Christ's Testament, Baptism, and 
the Supper. 

(2.) " Theosophic Letters, or Epistles of the Man 
from God enlightened in Grace, Jacob Behmen, 
of Old Seidenburgh, wherein everywhere [are ?] 
Divine Blessed Exhortations to true Repentance 
and Amendment, as also Plaine Instructions con- 
cerning the highly worthy and precious Know- 
ledge of the Divine and Natural Wisdome ; toge- 
ther with a Right Touchstone or Triall of these 
Times, for an Introduction to the Author's other 
Writings : published in English for the good of 
the sincere Lovers of true Christianitie, by I. S.*" 
(I have only a MS. copy of this publication.) 

(3.) A beautiful MS. translation of " The Way 
to Christ." This is hardly so accurate as the one 
already referred to, though some of the expres- 
sions are better chosen. The date of this MS. is 
about 1730, or earlier. 

(4.) A fair MS. translation of Jacob Behmen's 
treatise called " A Fundamental Instruction con- 
cerning the Earthly and concerning the Heavenly 
Mystery ; how they two stand in one another, and 
how in the Earthly the Heavenly becometh mani- 
fested or revealed, wherein then you shall see 
Babell the great citty upon Earth stand with its 
Forms and Wonders ; and wherefore, or out of 
what, Babell is generated, and where Antichrist 
will stand quite naked. Comprised in Nine Texts. 
Written May 8, 1620, in High Dutch." (I have 
seen no printed translation of this treatise.) 

(5.) MS. translation of the fourth treatise of 
" The Way to Christ," viz. " of the Supersensual 
Life." This is a less accurate rendering than 
either of the others above mentioned. 

Perhaps your mystic correspondents will kindly 
furnish lists of other publications and MSS. of 

[* J. Sparrow ED.] 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



" the Teutonick Theosopher." There are sixteen 
more of his works, of which fifteen are now extant 
in High Dutch. As old Behmen is but little known 
in this country, save by ill-repute, as having led 
astray William Law in his old age, and, through 
him, having tinctured the religious philosophy of 
Coleridge, it way be worth noting, that no less a 
philosopher than Schelling (to whom, as we know, 
Coleridge stood so greatly indebted) stole from 
the Lusatian shoemaker the corner-stones of his 
Philosophy of Nature. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 



RAFFAELLE 3 SPOSAXIZIO. 

(Vol. vii., p. 595.) 

With regard to your correspondent MR. G. 
BRINDLET ACKWORTH'S Query respecting Raf- 
faettes Sposalizio, I am induced to think that the 
custode at the church of the Santa Croce at Flo- 
rence was right as to his information. In the 
copy which I have of the "Ordo ad faciendum 
Sponsalia," according to the ancient use of Salis- 
bury, the ring is undoubtedly to be placed on the 
bride's right hand. Wheatly indeed says, that 
" when the man espouses his wife with it (i. e. the 
ring), he is to put it upon the fourth finger of her 
left hand ; " and then refers, for the reason of this, 
to the rubric of Salisbury Manual, which speaks of 
the vein going from this finger directly to the heart. 

Now, what are the precise words of this rubric ? 
After giving directions for the benediction of the 
ring, provided it has not previously been blessed, 
the rubric goes on thus : 

" Si autem antea fuerit annulus ille benedictus tune 
statim postquam vir posuerit annulum super librum, 
accipiens sacerdos annulum tradat ipsum viro : quern 
vir accipiat manu sua dextera cum tribus principali- 
onibus digitis, et manu sua sinistra tenens dexteram 
sponsae docente sacerdote dicat." 

The man is to receive the ring from the priest 
with the three principal fingers of the right hand ; 
and then, holding the right hand of the bride with 
his own left hand, he shall say, " With this ring," 
&c. He is then to place the ring on her thumb, 
saying " In nomine Patris ; " then on her second 
finger, saying " et Filii ; " then on the third finger, 
saying " et Spiritus Sancti;" then on the fourth 
finger, saying "Amen;" and there he is to leave 
it. There is not a word said about the bride's 
left hand, the right is alone mentioned ; and why 
should the man hold her right hand with his left, 
but that with his right hand he may the more 
easily place the ring, first on the thumb, then on 
the other fingers of her right hand, until it arrives 
at its final destination ? 

While I am upon this subject, allow me to point 
out another singular direction given in a rubric in 
this same " Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia." When 



the woman is, as we term it, given away, if she be 
a spinster, she is to have her hand uncovered; if a 
widow, covered : the words are 

" Deinde detur femina a patre suo, vel ab amicis 
ejus : quod si puella sit, discoopertam habeat manum, si 
vidua, tectam." 

There is no reason given for this distinction, 
nor do I ever remember to have seen it noticed. 

F. B. W. 

The Sposalizio, or "espousals," or betrothing, 
is certainly a different ceremony from the mar- 
riage. Is not the fact of young ladies popularly 
considering and calling the third finger of the 
right hand the engaged finger, and wearing a ring 
on that finger when engaged, a confirmation of 
your correspondent's idea, that at this "betrothal" 
or " espousals " (compare the phrase " his espoused 
wife " of Mary before her marriage with Joseph) 
the ring was placed in the right hand ; at the 
marriage ceremony on the left ? Sc. 



WINDFALL. 



(Vol. vii., p. 285.) 

W. W. is desirous of interpreting windfall, as 
necessarily from its origin denoting a gain. He 
is, perhaps, expecting a handsome bequest ; I wish 
he may get it ; but he may rely on it that the 
windfall of the bequest will be accompanied by the 
windfall of the " Succession Act." Let us hear 
what our great Doctor says ; his first explanation 
is, " Fruit blown down from the tree." 

W. W.'s little boys and girls would deem a 
windfall of unripe apples, at this time of the year, 
a good ; they will make a pie for dinner. W. W. 
himself would call it an evil ; the ripe crop is 
ruined. 

But let us see how Johnson illustrates his ex- 
planation : 

" Their boughs were too great for their stem, they 
became a windfall upon the sudden." Bacon, Essay 29. 

Webster copies this for his first explanation, as 
he does also our Dr's. second for his second ; but 
as it is not his plan to illustrate by examples, he 
is saved from the eccentricity of his original. 

If we refer to Bacon we shall be reminded of 
Johnson's warning, that by " hasty detruncation 
the general tendency of a sentence may be 
changed." The sentence here so hastily detrun- 
cated, stands thus in the Essay : 

" The Spartans were a nice people in point of natu- 
ralisation, whereby while they kept their compasse, 
they stood firme. But when they did spread, and 
their bougfies were becommen too great for their stemrne, 
they became a windfall upon the suddaine. ' Potentia 
eorum subito corruit.'" 

They, in Johnson's mutilated sentence, refers to 
the loughs ; in Bacon, to the Spartans ; so that, in 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



the first place, the Spartans are transformed into 
boughs, and, in the next place, the boughs into 
fruit. Detruncation, however, had nothing to do 
with this latter metamorphosis ; and I am afraid 
this is not a solitary instance of lexicographical 
incongruity. 

W. W. may assure himself that a windfall is 
" whatever falls by the wind, or with similar sud- 
denness or unexpectedness, whether bringing good 
or ill." 

And if he will take the trouble to refer to " The 
Case of Impeachment of Waste," quoted by MB. 
ARKOWSMITH, Vol. vii., p. 375., he will find, only a 
few lines before that gentleman's quotation begins, 
a legal question at issue as to the right of property 
in windfalls. Q. 

Bloomsbury. 



MB. JUSTICE NEWTON. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 528. 600.) 

It would greatly enhance the value of contribu- 
tions to " N. & Q.," save much trouble, and often 
lead to a more direct intercourse between persons of 
similar pursuits, if contributors would drop initials, 
and sign their own proper name and habitat; and 
in saying this, I believe the Editor will second me. 
If C. S. G. had done this, I should have been 
happy to send him an envelope full of proofs that 
Mr. Justice Newton did not die in 1444, for that 
a fine was levied before him in 1448 ; that he is 
not buried in Bristol Cathedral, but in the Wyke 
Aisle in Yatton Church, Somerset, where may be 
seen his effigies beautifully carved in alabaster, in 
his judge's robes, and his head resting on a wheat- 
sheaf or garb ; that there was no relationship be- 
tween the second baronet of Hather, his arms 
being cross bones, c., and those of the judge, who 
was truly a Cradoch, were three garbs, &c. I 
would now beg leave to refer C. S. G. to my former 
communications in "N. & Q." about Cradock 
Newton, particularly Vol. ii., pp. 248. 427. ; Chro- 
nica Judicialia, 1635 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges; 
and a paper of mine in the forthcoming volume of 
the Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute at 
Bristol. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Rectory, Clyst St. George. 

From C. S. G.'s reply to my inquiry respecting 
Mr. Justice Newton I conclude that at least two 
individuals of this name have, at different periods, 
and at a considerable interval apart, occupied the 
judicial bench. 

The portrait I wish to trace is of a well-known 
character of the Commonwealth era, and could not, 
of course, have belonged to a judge then some two 
centuries deceased. My omission to state this cir- 
cumstance, in the first, instance, has very naturally 
occasioned complete misapprehension throughout. 



Since my Query was written, a duplicate of the 
drawing in tlie Bodleian (minus the inscription), 
out of the Strawberry Hill collection, has, curiously 
enough, appeared in an extensive public sale. It 
was likewise said to be by Bulfinch ; and farther 
examination leads me to infer that both this and 
the Oxford copy were, in respect of artist, in all 
probability not incorrectly described. As Bulfinch 
lived temp. Charles II., and the Bodleian inscrip- 
tion points to his original painting as "in the hands 
of Mr. Justice Newton," it may fairly be presumed 
that a second judge of the name nourished in this 
reign. 

Substantially, then, my original Query yet re- 
mains unanswered, notwithstanding C. S. G.'s 
obliging reply. F. KYFFIN LENTHALL. 

36. Mount Street, Grosvenor Square. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Lyte's Treatment of Positives. It would 
be quite superfluous, after the very excellent 
communication of MB. POLLOCK, were I to give a 
detailed account of my method of printing albumen 
positives, as, in the main, we both follow the process 
of Mr. Le Gray. But as we both have our own 
improvements on the original process, I will ask 
for space in which to record our differences in 
manipulation. 

First, in regard to the chloride of gold, I 
always find, and I believe such is the experience 
of many photographers, that all salts of gold, 
though they heighten the effect at first, have a 
slow, but sure, destructive action on the picture. 

Next, I find that acetic acid, by generating 
sulphurous acid, has a similar effect, and my care 
was to try and make a solution which should be 
free from these defects. I first take my positive, 
which, as a general rule, I print at least half as 
dark again as the shade required. This done, I 
wash it well with water, and next with salt and 
water in the proportion of about half a grain per 
gallon, or quite a tasteless solution ; this removes 
all the nitrate of silver from the paper, or if there 
is any left, the bath of salt decomposes it, leaving 
none in the texture of the paper to unite with the 
hypo., which otherwise forms a sticky substance, 
difficult to remove, which may be readily seen on 
looking through a positive which has been too 
hastily finished in the usual way, giving a dark 
shade, and a want of transparency to the lights. 
I then place the picture in a bath composed as 
follows : 

Sodas hyposul. - - - 3 oz. 

Argent, chlorid. - - 70 grs. 

Potassii iodidi - - - 5 grs. 

Pyrogallic acid - - - ] to 2 grs. 

The iodide of potassium I add on the same prin- 
ciple as MB. POLLOCK'S iodide of silver, but as being 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



more convenient, as immediately on being added 
it decomposes some of the chloride of silver, and 
forms iodide of silver. I am happy to find that 
MR. POLLOCK confirms me in the use of this salt, 
which I had long thought to improve the tone of 
my pictures. The liquid, which will become ra- 
pidly very dark coloured, must be set aside in an 
open vessel in a warm place for some weeks, e.g. 
till, when a positive is placed in it, left for a short 
time, and then washed with water, it shows clean 
and not mottled in the light. The solution may 
be kept always exposed, and much improves by 
this : if much used, it should be replenished with 
a simple solution of hypo, three ounces or two 
ounces to the pint ; if little used, it may be filled 
up as much as evaporates with pure water. 

The positive is left in this solution till the re- 
quired tint is obtained, when it is to be placed in 
plain hypo, two ounces to the pint, and in about 
a quarter of an hour transferred to a basin of pure 
water, and well washed in several waters. The 
other detail of MR. POLLOCK'S process is so ad- 
mirably and clearly given, and so like that I 
pursue, that I will not trouble your columns with 
it again. 

The after-bath of pure hypo, is not absolutely 
necessary ; and where it is desired to obtain fine 
olive, and dark sepia, and black tints, a better 
tone results from washing well, long, and fre- 
quently, with water alone. 

This bath also gives very rich tints with paper, 
prepared without albumen : viz. 

Chloride of ammonium - - 5 grs. 

Water - - - - 1 oz. 

Lay the paper on this, and then hang it up to dry, 
and excite with ammonio-nitrate containing seventy 
grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce of water. 
Should the above solution not give the requisite 
tints soon after being made, add more chloride of 
silver ; but bear in mind that the solution will 
then soon become saturated when setting posi- 
tives, and when this occurs it must be rectified 
by the addition of a small portion of fresh hypo, 
alone. F. MAXWELL LTTE. 

P. S. I may add that I have only lately tried 
the addition of the iodide of potassium to my 
setting liquid, and so must qualify my recom- 
mendation of it by saying so. 

Florian, Torquay. 

Stereoscopic Anyles. I am obliged to MESSRS. 
SHADBOLT and WILKINSON for the information 
given in reply to my Queries (Vol. vii., p. 505.). 
My mode of operation is precisely that of Ma. 
WILKINSON : " I obtain all the information I can 
from every source; then try, and judge for myself." 
Hence the present letter. 

I regret to be obliged to differ from MR. SHAD- 
BOLT, but there is a point in his communication 



which appears to me to arise from a misconception 
of the stereoscopic problem. He says (p. 557.), 
" for distant views there is in nature scarcely any 
stereoscopic effect." Now, surely visual distance 
is merely visual stereosity ; for, to see an object 
solid is merely to see its parts in relief, some of 
them appearing to project or recede from the 
others. It is the difficulty of producing this effect 
in landscapes, by the ordinary camera process, that 
renders views taken by such means so deficient in 
air, or, as the artists term it, aerial perspective, 
most distant objects seeming almost as near as 
those in the foreground. This indeed is the main 
defect of all photographs : they are true repre- 
sentations of nature to one eye cyclopean pic- 
tures, as it were appearing perfectly stereoscopic 
with one eye closed, but seeming absolutely flat- 
tened when viewed by the two eyes. I remem- 
ber being shown a huge photograph of the city of 
Berlin, taken from an eminence; and a more 
violent caricature of nature I never set eyes upon. 
It was almost Chinese in its perspective : the 
house-tops appeared to have been mangled. It 
was a wonderful work of art, photographically con- 
sidered ; but artistically it was positively hideous. 
But the same defect exists in all monophotogra- 
phic representations, though in a less degree, and 
consequently 'less apparent than in views to which 
a sense of distance is essential. In portraits, the 
features appear slightly flattened ; and until photo- 
graphers are able to overcome this, the chief of all 
obstacles to perfection, it is idle to talk of the art 
giving a correct rendering of nature. This is what 
is wanted, more than colour, diactinic lenses, mul- 
tiplication of impressions, or anything else. And 
when it is remembered that the law of an ordinary 
convex lens is, the farther the object from the lens 
the nearer the focus, and, vice versa, the nearer 
the object the farther the focus, it becomes evident 
that by such an instrument distant objects must 
be made to appear near, and near objects distant, 
and nature consequently mangled. 

The stereoscope gives us the only demonstrably 
correct representation of nature ; and when that 
instrument is rendered more simple, and the 
peep-show character of the apparatus discon- 
nected from it, the art of photography will tran- 
scend the productions of the painter but not 
till then. 

I am anxious to obtain all the information I 
can from such of your photographic readers as are 
practically acquainted with the stereoscopic portion 
of the art relative to the angles under which they 
find it best to take their pictures for given dis- 
tances. 

Mr. Fenton, the secretary of the Photographic 
Society, takes his stereoscopic pictures, when the 
objects are 50 feet and upwards from the camera, 
at 1 in 25. This is, as MR. SHADBOLT states, Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone's rule for distances. 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



MR. WILKINSON, on the other hand, asserts that 
3 feet in 300 yards is sufficient separation for the 
cameras : this is only 1 in 300, a vast difference 
truly. 

" For views across the Thames," says the editor 
of the Photographic Journal, " the cameras should 
be placed 12 feet apart, and with this separation 
the effect is declared to be astonishing." 

MR. WILKINSON, however, asserts that from 4 
to 6 feet in a mile will do well enough ! 

Farther, Mr. Latimer Clark (the inventor of an 
ingenious stereoscopic camera) states that with 
regard to the distance between the two positions 
of the cameras, he knows no good reason why the 
natural distance of the eyes, viz. 2 inches, should 
be much exceeded. " A little extra relief is ob- 
tained," he adds, " without visible distortion, by 
increasing the separation to about 4 or 5 inches ; 
but if this distance be greatly exceeded, especially 
for near objects (I give the gentleman's own 
words), they become apparently diminished in 
size, and have the appearance of models and dolls 
rather than natural objects." 

The reason for making the separation between 
the cameras greater than that between the two 
eyes, is exceedingly simple. The stereograph is 
to be looked at much nearer than the object itself, 
and consequently is to be seen under a much 
larger angle than it is viewed by the two eyes in 
nature. Hence the two pictures should be taken 
at the angle under which they are to be observed 
in the stereoscope. Suppose the object to be 50 
feet distant, then of course it is seen by the two 
eyes under an angle of 2* inches in 50 feet, or 1 
in 240. But it is intended that the stereograph 
should be seen by the two eyes when but a few 
inches removed from them, or generally under an 
angle of 2J in 12 inches, or nearly 1 in 5. Hence 
it is self-evident that the stereoscopic angle should 
be considerably larger than that formed by the 
optic axes of the two eyes when directed to the 
object itself. 

But there is great diversity of opinion as to the 
extent of the angles requisite for producing the 
precise stereoscopic or distantial effect of nature. 
For myself I prefer Professor Wheatstone's rule, 
1 in 25 for objects beyond 50 feet distant. For 
portraits I find the best angle 1 in 10 when the 
sitter is 10 feet off, and for busts about 1 in 5 
when placed about 5 or 6 feet from the cameras. 
But I should be happy to receive information from 
any of your readers concerning this important 
branch of the photographic art. For months past 
I have been engaged in a series of experiments in 
connexion with the subject, and wish for larger 
experience than it is possible for any single operator 
to acquire for himself. 

Mr. Fenton, I may observe, does not keep the 
cameras parallel in taking landscapes, but in- 
clines them so that the same object may occupy 



as nearly as possible the centre of the ground glass 
plate. 

Nor is it essential that perfect horizontality or 
parallelism of the cameras should be maintained 
in copying trees. For buildings, however, it is 
absolutely necessary . that the cameras be kept 
straight. 

I am sorry thus to trespass on your space, but 
being anxious, as MR. WILKINSON says, to collect 
information from every source, and your periodical 
being a happy medium for conveying and re- 
ceiving instruction, I am glad to avail myself of 
such a channel. *. (2) 

P. S. Mr. Claudet has, I perceive, been 
awarded the prize given by the Society of Arts 
for the best essay on the stereoscope. Can you, 
or any of your readers, inform me whether this is 
likely to be published, and when and at what 
price ? 

Query respecting Mr. Pollock's Process. In 
MR. POLLOCK'S directions for obtaining positives, 
which appeared in "N. & Q." (Vol. vii., p. 581.), 
iodide of silver is to be dissolved in a saturated so- 
lution of hypo. Can you give me the quantity of 
iodide of silver to be dissolved, and the quantity 
of the saturated solution of hypo, in which it is to 
be dissolved? N. T. B. 

Gallo-nitrate of Silver. Can you inform, me 
what the true nature of the decomposition is 
which takes place after a short time in the gallo- 
nitrate solution of silver ? and if there be any 
ready means of rendering the silver it contains 
again available for photographic use ? 

SIR W. NEWTON, in the description of his calo- 
type process, says : " Bring out with the saturated 
solution of gallic acid, and when the subject 
begins to appear, add the aceto-nitrate of silver 
solution." Which way of doing this is the best, 
mixing the two solutions together and applying 
them to the paper ; or applying the paper, when 
wetted with the gallic acid, to the silver solution ? 

T. L. 



to 



gtucrferf. 



Verney Note decyphered (Vol. vii., p. 568.). 
I am extremely obliged to MR. THOMPSON COOPER 
for his decyphered rendering of Sir Ralph Ver- 
ney's note of a speech or proceeding in parliament. 
The note itself is not now in my possession, but I 
have requested the owner to be good enough to 
re-collate it with the original, and if any mistakes 
should appear in the copy, or the printing (which 
is very likely), I will give you notice of the fact, 
that the doubtful words in MR. COOPER'S version 
may, if possible, be set right. 

Students in the art of decyphering may be 
pleased to have the key to the cypher recorded in 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



your pages. I therefore give it you as discovered 
by MR. COOPER, and beg, in the strongest way, to 
reiterate my thanks to that gentleman. 

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
f, r, k, t, b, h, s, w, c, g, p, d, a, e, i, o, u, 

20, 22, 27, 28. 
1, x, m, n. 

The cyphers (if any) for j, q, y, z have not 
been discovered, and the numbers 1, 19, 21, 23, 
24, 25, 26 remain unappropriated. JOHN BRUCE. 

Emblems by John Bunyan (Vol. vii., p. 470.). 
This work, which MR. CORSER has not met with, 
is in the folio edition of his works, forming pp. 849. 
to 868. of vol. ii. (1768). The plates are small 
woodcuts of very indifferent execution. E. D. 

Mr. CobVs Diary (Vol. vii., p. 477.). This 
volume was printed solely for private distribution 
by the family, who also presented their relatives 
and friends (amongst whom the writer was 
reckoned) with another volume compiled on the 
decease of Francis Cobb, Esq., the husband of 
Mrs. Cobb, and entitled, Memoir of the late 
Francis Cobb, Esq., of Margate, compiled from 
his Journals and Letters : Maidstone, printed by 
J. V. Hall and Son, Journal Office, 1835. Both 
of these are at the service for perusal of your in- 
quiring correspondent, JOHN MARTIN. E. D. 

11 Sat cito si sat bene" (Vol. vii., p. 594.). I 
have not Twiss at hand ; but I think F. W. J. is 
mistaken in calling it a " favourite maxim " of 
Lord Eldon. I remember to have heard Lord 
Eldon tell the story, which was, that the New- 
castle Fly, in which he came up to town, in I forget 
how many days, had on its panel the motto, " Sat, 
cito si sat bene:" he applied it jocularly in defence 
of his own habits in Chancery. C. 

Myfhe versus Myth (Vol. vii., pp. 326. 575.). 
It gives me much pleasure to have aiforded MR. 
THIRIOLD an opportunity for displaying so much 
learning and sagacity; but I hope he does not 
imagine that he has confuted me. As I only spoke 
of words which, like JJLV&OS, had a single consonant 
between two vowels, such words as plinth, laby- 
rinth, &c. have nothing to do with the question. 
If mythe, differing from the other examples which 
are to be found, happens to have the for its ter- 
mination, and thus resembles words of Anglo- 
Saxon origin, I cannot help it, but it was formed 
secundum artem. As to MR. THIRIOLD'S myth, un- 
less so written and printed, it will always be pro- 
nounced myth, like the French mythe. 

As to the hybrid adjectives, I only wished to 
avoid increasing the number of them. The French, 
I believe, have only one, musical; for though, like 
ourselves, they have made substantives of the 
Greek ftovffiKij (sc. TfXfn)i (pwiKr], &c., in all other 



cases they retain the Greek form of the adjective, 
as in physique, substantive and adjective, while we 
generally have pairs of adjectives, as philosophic, 
philosophical; extatic, extatical; &c. Some may 
think this an advantage ; I do not. 

THOS. KEIGHT.LEY. 

The Gilbert Family (Vol. vii., p. 259.). If your 
correspondent seeking genealogical information in 
reference to my ancestors, calls on me, I will show 
him a presentation copy of A Genealogical Me- 
moir of the Gilbert Family in Old and New Eng- 
land, by J. W. Thornton, LL.B., Boston, U. S., 
1850, 8vo. pp. 24, onlyfifty printed. 

JAMES GILBERT. 

Alexander Clark (Vol. vii., p. 580.). I should 
feel obliged if J. O. could find leisure to commu- 
nicate to " N. & Q." some particulars relative to 
Clark. He is supposed to have been the author 
of a curious poem : The Institution and Progress 
of the Buttery College of Slains, in the Parish of 
Cruden, A berdeenshire ; with a Catalogue of the 
Books and MSS. in the Library of that Uni- 
versity : Aberdeen, 1700. Mr. Peter Buchan thus 
mentions him in his Gleanings of Scarce Old 
Ballads : 

" Clark, a 'drunken dominie at Slains, author of a 
poetical dialogue between the gardeners and tailors on 
the origin of their crafts, and a most curious Latin and 
English poem called the 'Buttery College of Slains,' 
which resembled much in language and style Drum- 
motid of Hawthornden's ' Polemo Middino.'" 

This poem is printed in Watson's Collection of 
Scottish Poems, Edin. 1711 ; and also noticed in 
the Edinburgh Topographical and Antiquarian 
Magazine, 1848, last page. I am anxious to ascer- 
tain if the emblem writer, and the burlesque poet, 
be one and the same person. The dates, I con- 
fess, are somewhat against this conclusion ; but 
there may have been a previous edition of the 
Emblematical Representation (1779). The Uni- 
versity Clark is supposed to have been an Aber- 
deenshire man. Possibly J. O. may be able to 
throw some light on the subject. PERTHENSIS. 

Chrisfs Cross (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.). In 
Morley's Introduction to Practical Music, originally 
printed in 1597, and which I quote from a reprint 
by William Randall, in 4to., in 1771, eighteen 
mortal pages (42 59), which, in my musical 
ignorance, I humbly confess to be wholly out of 
my line, are occupied with the " Cantus," " Tenor," 
and " Bassus," to the following words : 

" Christes Crosse be my speed in all vertue to pro- 
ceede, A, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, & 
t, double w, v, x, with y, ezod, & per se, con per se, 
tittle tittle est Amen, When you haue done begin 
again, begin again." 

J. F. M. 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



The Rebellious Prayer (Vol. vii., p. 286.)- 
J. A. may find the poem, of which he quotes the 
opening lines, in the Churchman's Monthly Penny 
Magazine, October, 1851, with the signature 
L. E. P. The magazine is published by Wertheim 
& Macintosh, 24. Paternoster Row. M. E. 

" To the Lords of Convention" (Vol. vii., p.596.). 
L. EVANS will find the whole of the ballad of 
" Bonnie Dundee," the first line of which he 
quotes, in Sir Walter Scott's Doom of Devorgoil, 
where it is introduced as a song. Singularly 
enough, his best ballad is thus found in his worst 
play. FICULNUS. 

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 
607.). In a chapel adjoining the church of He- 
venirigham in Suffolk, are (or rather were in 
1832) the remains of a good altar tomb, with re- 
cumbent effigies carved in chesnut, of a knight and 
his lady : it appeared to be, from the armour and 
architecture, of the early part of the fifteenth 
century ; and from the arms, Quarterly or and gules 
within a border engrailed sable, charged with es- 
callops argent, no doubt belonged to the ancient 
family of Heveningham of that place ; probably 
Sir John Heveningham, knight of the shire for the 
county of Suffolk in the 1st of Henry IV. 

When I visited this tomb in 1832, it was in a 
most dilapidated condition : the slab on which the 
effigy of the knight once rested was broken in ; 
within the head of the lady, which was separated 
from the body, a thrush had built its nest : not- 
withstanding, however, the neglect and damp to 
which the chapel was exposed, these chesnut 
effigies remained wonderfully sound and perfect. 

SPES. 

The monument to Sir Walter Traylli and his 
ladj', in Woodford Church in Northamptonshire, 
is of wood. 

There is a wooden effigy in Gayton Church, 
Northamptonshire, of a knight templar, recum- 
bent, in a cross-legged position, his feet resting 
on an animal : over the armour is a surcoat ; the 
helmet is close fitted to the head, his right hand 
is on the hilt of his sword, a shield is on the left 
arm. 

There is also a fine wooden effigy of Sir Hugh 
Bardolph in Burnham Church in Norfolk. J. B. 

In Fersfield Church, in Norfolk, there is a 
wooden figure to the memory of Sir Robert Du 
Bois, Kt., ob. 1311. See Bloomfield's Norfolk, 
vol. i. p. 68. J.B. 

Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman (Vol. vii., 
pp. 133. 211. 634.). Upon reference to the story 
of the " tubwoman" in p. 133., it will be seen that 
Mr. Hyde is distinctly stated to have himself mar- 
ried the brewer's widow, and to have married her 



for her money. It is farther said that Ann Hyde, 
the mother of Queen Mary and Queen Ann, was 
the only issue of this marriage ; whereas Ann 
Hyde had four brothers and a sister. No allusion 
is made in this account to Sir Thomas Ailesbury. 
Your correspondent MR. WARDEN says, that "the 
story has usually been told of the wife of Sir 
Thomas Ailesbury," and that it may be true of 
her. Will he have the kindness to furnish a re- 
ference to the version of the story in which Sir 
Thomas Ailesbury is said to have married the tub- 
woman ? L. 

House -marks (Vol. vii., p. 594.). I do not 
know whether a. recollects the frequent occur- 
rence of marks upon sheep in this country. Al- 
though I have often seen them, I cannot just now 
describe one accurately. Some sheep passed my 
house yesterday which were marked with a cross 
within a circle. 

Riding with a friend, a miller, in Essex, about 
thirteen years ago, he jumped out of the gig and 
over a gate, to seize a sack which was lying in a 
field. Seeing no initials upon it, I asked how he 
knew that it was his ; when he pointed out to me 
a fish marked upon it, which he told me had been 
his own and his father's mark for many years. 
He also said that most of the millers in the neigh- 
bourhood had a peculiar mark (not their names or 
initials), each a different one for his own sacks. 

A. J. N. 

Birmingham. 

" Amentium hand amantium" (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
Your correspondent's Query sent me at once to 
a queer old Terence in English, together with the 
text, " opera ac industria R. B., in Axholmensi in- 
suld, LincolnsheriiEpwortheatis. [London, Printed 
by John Legatt, and are to be sold by Andrew 
Crooke, at the sign of the Green-Dragon, in Paul's 
Church Yard. 1641.] 6th Edition." 

Here, as I expected, I found an alliterative 
translation of the phrase in question : " For they 
are fare as they were lunatickc, and not love-sicke." 

The translation, I may add, is in prose. 

OXONIENSIS. 

Walthamstow. 

The Megatherium in the British Museum 
(Vol. vii., p. 590.). It is much to be regretted 
that A FOREIGN SURGEON should not have 
examined the contents of the room which contains 
the cast of the skeleton of this animal with a little 
more attention, before be penned the above article. 
Had he done so, he would have found many of the 
original bones, from casts of which the restored 
skeleton has been constructed, in Wall Cases 9 
and 10, and would not have fallen into the error 
of supposing that it is a fac-simile of the original 
skeleton at Madrid. That specimen was exhumed 
near Buenos Ayres in 1789; whilst our restoration 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



has been made from bones of another individual, 
many of which are, as I have stated, to be found 
in the British Museum itself, and others in that of 
the Royal College of Surgeons. I am not about 
to defend the propriety of putting the trunk of a 
palm-tree into the claws of the Megatherium, 
though I do not suppose that the restorer ever 
expected, when he did so, that any one would 
entertain the idea that this gigantic beast was in 
the habit of climbing trees ; but I would fain ask 
your correspondent on what grounds he makes the 
dogmatic assertion that " Palms there were none, 
at that period of telluric formation." I will 
simply remind him of the vast numbers of fossil 
fruits, and other remains of palms, in the London 
clay of the Isle of Sheppey. 

W. J. BERNHABD SMITH. 
Temple. 

Pictorial Proverbs (Vol. v., p. 559.). Perhaps 
the book here mentioned is one of the old Ger- 
man Narrenbuchs, or Book of Fools, which were 
generally illustrated with pictures, of which I have 
a curious set in my possession. 

Can any of your correspondents give some 
account of the nature and merits of these books ? 
Are any of them worth translating at the present 
day ? The one from which my pictures were taken 
has the title Mala Gallina, malum Ovum, and was 
published at Vienna and Nuremburg. It seems 
to have been a satire on the female sex ; but the 
text, I am sorry to say, is not in my possession. 

H. T. RlLEY. 

' "Hurrah" and otherWar-cries (Vol.vii., p.596.). 
The following passage (which I find in my notes 
with the reference Menagiana, vol. ii. p. 328.) may 
partially assist your correspondent CAPE : 

" Le cri des anciens Comtes d'Anjou etoit RalUe. 
En voici 1'origine. Eude II., Comtede Blois, marchant 
avec une armee considerable contre Foulke Nerra, 
Comte d'Anjou, ces deux princes se rencontrerent a 
Pontlevoi sur le Cher, oii ils se livrerent bataille le 
6 Juillet, 1016. Foulke cut d'abord quelque desavan- 
tage ; mais Herbert, Comte du Maine (dit Eveillechien}, 
etant venu a son secours, il rallia ses troupes, and defit 
absolument, &c. Depuis ce temps-la le cri des anciens 
Comtes d'Anjou etoit Rallie. Et a ce propos je vous 
rapporterai ce qu'en dit Maitre Vace, surnomme le 
Clerc de Caen, dans son Roman de Normandie : 

' Fran9ois crie Montjoye, et Normans Dex-aye : 
Flamands crie Aras, et Angevin Rallie : 
Et li cuens Thiebaut Chartre et Passavant crie.' " 

" This last cry is not unlike the Irish " Faugh- 
a-Ballagh" in signification. J. H. LERESCHE. 
Manchester. 

The following extracts from Sir Francis Pal- 
grave's History of Normandy and England, vol. i. 
p. 696., explain the origin of the word " Hurrah," 
respecting which one of your correspondents in- 
quires : 



" It was a 'wise custom' in Normandy, established 
by Hollo's decree, that whoever sustained, or feared to 
sustain, any damage of goods or chattels, life or limb, 
was entitled to raise the country by the cry of haro, or 
haron, upon which cry all the lieges were bound to 
join in pursuit of the offender, Haron! Ha Raoul! 
justice invoked in Duke Hollo's name. Whoever failed 
to aid, made fine to the sovereign ; whilst a heavier 
mulct was consistently inflicted upon the mocker who 
raised the clameur de haro without due and sufficient 
cause, a disturber of the commonwealth's tranquillity. 

" The clameur de haro is the English system of ' hue 
and cry.' The old English exclamation Harrow I our 
national vernacular Hurrah ! being only a variation 
thereof, is identical with the supposed invocation of 
the Norman chieftain ; and the usage, suggested by 
common sense, prevailed under various modifications 
throughout the greater part of the Pays Couturnier of 
France." 

A. M. S. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Among the books which we have for some time in- 
tended to bring under the notice of our readers is a 
new and cheaper edition of The Coin Collector's Manual, 
or Guide to the Numismatic Student in the Formation 
of a Cabinet of Coins : comprising an Historical and 
Critical Account of the Origin and Progress of Coinage, 
from the Earliest Period to the Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire ; with some Account of the Coinages of Modern 
Europe, more especially of Great Britain, by H. Noel 
Humphreys : and we have been the more anxious to 
do this, because, except among professed collectors, 
greater ignorance probably exists on the subject of coins, 
their date, value, &c., than upon any other subject with 
which educated people are supposed to possess some 
acquaintance. Yet there are few numismatic ques- 
tions likely to occur which ordinary readers would not 
be enabled to solve by a reference to these two little 
volumes, enriched as it is with numerous illustrations; 
especially if they would place beside them Akerman's 
most useful Nttmismatic Manual. 

We are indebted to Mr. Murray for two volumes 
which will be among the pleasant additions to the 
cheap books of the month, namely, the new volume, 
being the fourth of the reprint, of Lord Mahon's His- 
tory of England to the Peace of Versailles, which com- 
prises the interval between the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 
and that of Hubertsburg; and in the Railway Reading, 
for half-a-crown ! the fourth edition of Lockhart's 
spirited translations of Ancient Spanish Ballads, His- 
torical and Romantic. Thanks, Mr. Murray, thanks ! 

That Mr. De la Motte, who is so well known as an 
accomplished draughtsman, should turn his attention 
to photography, is no slight testimony to the value of 
the art. That he has become a master in it, may be 
seen by one glance at his own works on the walls of his 
Photographic Gallery. The beginner may therefore 
receive with confidence the results of that gentleman's 
experience; and The Practice of Photography, a Manual 
for Students and Amateurs, just published by him, will 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



be found a most useful and instructive companion to 
every one who is now contemplating an excursion, 
armed with a camera, for the purpose of securing for 
the gratification of his friends truthful records of h%s 
wanderings. Mr. De la Motte wisely confines his in- 
struction to the paper and glass processes ; his details 
on these are clear and minute, and the book is well 
worth the money for those pages of it alone which are 
devoted to the " Chemicals used in Photography." 

BOOKS RECEIVED. On the Archaic Mode of express- 
Ing Numbers in English, Saxon, Friesic, Sfc., by E. 
Thomson, Esq. ; a learned and ingenious tract, written 
originally for insertion in " N. & Q.," but which fact 
ought not to prevent our speaking of it in the terms 
which it deserves. A Few Words in Reply to the Ani- 
madversions of the Rev. Mr. Dyce on Mr. Hunter's "Dis- 
quisition on the Tempest," 1839, and his " New Illus- 
trations of the Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakspeare" 
1845, Sfc. A short but interesting contribution to 
Shakspearian criticism, by one who has already done 
good service in the same cause. If we cannot agree 
with Mr. Hunter in all that he seeks to establish, we 
can admire his knowledge of Elizabethan literature, 
and appreciate the spirit in which he writes. The 
Antiquary. This is the first number of a small work 
consisting of reprints of proclamations, curious adver- 
tisements from early newspapers, and such odd matters 
as paint more forcibly than the gravest historian, the 
colours of the times. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

THB COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in 15 vols.8vo. 1739. 

CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. London, 1828. (Two Copies.) 
JONES' ACCOUNT OF ABERYSTWITH. Trevecka, 8vo. 1779. 
M. C. H. BROEMEL'S FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. 

Jena, 1705. 

COOPER'S ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 8vo. 1832. Vol. I. 
PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LEVKNT DER HKILIGEN. Basil, 1522. 
LORD LANSDOWNE'S WORKS. Vol. I. Tonson, 1736. 
JAMES BAKER'S PICTURESQUE GUIDE TO THE LOCAL BEAUTIES 

OF WALES. Vol. I. 4to. 1794. 
WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY. Vol. II. 4to. 1832. 
WALKKR'S PARTICLES. 8vo. old calf, 1683. 
WARNER'S SERMONS. 2 Vols. Longman, about 1818. 
AUTHOR'S PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ASSISTANT. 12mo., cloth, 

J842. 



SANDERS' HISTORY OF SHENSTONE IN STAFFORDSHIRE. J. Nichols, 

London, 1794. Two Copies. 
HERBERT'S CAROLINA THRENODIA. 8vo. 1702. 
THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARB RESTORED. 4lo. 1726. 

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Rook* Wanted are requested 
to send their names. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street. 



to 

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME. We avail ourselves of the opportunity 
afforded by the commencement of a new Volume, to state thnt our 
attention has been called to the sft'irp and somewhat personal tone 
of several of the recent contributions to ' N. & Q.," and which, we 
are reminded, is the more striking from the marked absence of 
anything of thnt character in our earlier 'Solumes. We are per- 
haps ourselves somewhat to bl'imefor this, from our strong inttis- 



outtirs oj trie inconvenience wnicn must result to menuefff* as wen 
as to us from the indulgence in too great license of the pen. We 
know that when men write currente c^lamo, words and phrases 



one would willingly write anything with design to give offence, we 
shall in future >l play the tyrant " on all such occasions with more 
vigilance than we have done. 

L. K. The lints 

" Worth makes the man, the want of it the fellow ; 

The rest is all but leather and p-unello." 

are from Pope's Essay on Man, Ep. IV. 203. See some curious 
illustrations of them in our First Volume, pp. 246. 362. &c. 

BLACKAMOOR will find the Cya'iosen Soap, manufactured by 
Thomas, excellent for removing Photographic stains. It is, how- 
ever, to be used with care, being pois' nous. 

ALBEB.T. The history of the phrase ', 

" Quern Deus vult perdere," 

will be seen in our First Volume, pp. 347. 351. 421. 476. ; anS 
Second Volume, p. 317. 

I. G. T. Gooseberry Fool is the same a? pressed or crushed 
gooseberries, from the French fouler, to press, tread, ifc. 

SIR F. MADDEN'S paper, W as Thomas Lord Lyttelton the Author 
of Junius's Letters ? is unavoidably postponed until next w< ek. 

lieplies to our numerous PHOTOGRAPHIC QUERISTS in our next. 

The Index to our SEVENTH VOLUME will be ready on Saturday 
the IGtft. 

A few complete sets of " NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vi., 
price Three Guineas, may now be had ; for which early appli- 
cation is desirable. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Frirfny. $o that 
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and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



This day is published, price 5>. ; or, post free, 
bs. Gel. 

DTCKSON AND MOWBRAY 
ON POULTRY, edited by MRS. LOU- 
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DABD Li: 



JULY 



MILTON'S PROSE WORKS, 
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THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRIXK, translated 
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2 vols. post 8vo. 3s. Gd. per volume. 

HENRY G. BOIIN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, 
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post 8vo. cloth. 5s. per volume. 

HENRY G. BOT:N\ 4, 5, & 6. York Street, 
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22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



THE NEW AND IMPROVED EDITION 

BURSE'S PEERAGE: AND 
BARONETAGE FOR 1853 

IS NOW READY, 

In 1 vol. royal 8vo., comprising as much matter 
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addition, great improvements have been made 
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Also just published, 

BURBLE'S XiANDED GEN- 
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In 2 large vols., including the Supplement, 
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EVEX,YN'S DIARY AND 
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New Edition, with numerous Additions and 
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Edited by ELIOT WARBURTON. Cheaper 
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FREEMASON'S QUAR- 
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Helen's ; On Symbols and Symbolism ; A 
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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
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"VTEUROTONICS, or the Art of 

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MURRAY'S MODERN COOKERY BOOK. 
NEW AND CHEAPER EDITION. 



Now ready, an entirely New, Revised, and 
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MODERN DOMESTIC 
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' A new edition, with a great many new 
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CONVICTS and COLONIES; 

Thoughts on Transportation and Colonisation, 
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one of Her Majesty's Chaplains in the island of 
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Works intrusted to their charge. Estimates 
and every particular furnished gratuitously in 
course ot post. 



JULY 2. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PIC- 

JL TURKS. A Selection of the above 
beautiful Productions (comprising Views in 
VENICE, PAKIS, RUSSIA. NUBIA, &c.) 
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet 
Street, where may also be procured Appara- 
tus of every Description, and pure Chemicals 
for the practice of Photography in all its 
Branches. 

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures 
for the Stereoscope. 

*** Catalogues may be had on application. 
BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical 
and Photographical Instrument Makers, and 
Operative Chemists, 153. Heet Street. 



Just published, price Is., free by Post Is. 4rf. , 

THE WAXED -PAPER PHO- 
TOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE 
LE GRAY'S NEW EDITION. Translated 
from the French. 

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for 
VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated 
Lenses for Portraits and Views. 

General Depot for Turner's, Whatman's, 
Canson Frerea i\La Croix, and other Talbotype 
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Pure Photographic Chemicals. 



GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. collodion 

JL (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of 
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months : it may be exported to any climate, 
and the TodizingCompound mixed as required. 
J. B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE 
CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with 
the latest Improvements adapted for all the 
Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. 
Cameras for Developing in the open Country. 
GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. 
Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and 
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PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 

JL Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
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Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
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PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARA- 

JL TUS MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Ter- 
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T. OTTEWILL (from Home & Co.'s) begs 
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superiority of his newly registered DOUBLE- 
BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing 
the efficiency and ready adjustment of the 
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Every description of Apparatus to order. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

JL & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
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Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
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123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



CLERICAL, 
LIFE 



MEDICAL, AND GENERAL 
ASSURANCE SOCIETY. 

Established 1824. 



FIVE BONUSES have been declared ; at the last in January, 1852, the sum of 131,125?. was 
added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the different ages from 24J to 55 per cent, 
on the Premiums paid during the five years, or from bl. to 121. Ids. per cent, on the Sum 
Assured. 

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being now provided for, 
the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT 
ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF PARTNERSHIP. 

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next Division, to one 
year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers. 

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be paid for the first 
five years. 

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk. 

Claims paid thirty days after proof of death, and all Policies are Imlisputable except in cases 
of fraud. 

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the Society's Agents, or of 



9. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London. 



GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary. 



TTfESTERN LIFE ASSU- 

Yf RANGE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 

Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 
H. E.Bicknell.Esq. T Grisnell, Esq. 



T. S. Cocks, Juu. Esq. 



J. Hunt, Esq. 



J. A. Lethbndge.Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
J. Lys Seager. Esq 
J. B. White, Esq. 
J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



M.P. 

G. II. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. , 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustees. 
W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. : George Drew, Esq. ; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
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application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100Z.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits: 



Age 
17- 

22 - 

27 - 



s. d. 

- 1 14 4 | 

- 1 18 8 
-245 



32- 
37- 
43- 



s. d. 

- 2 10 8 
-2186 

- 3 8 2 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. 6rf., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Laud Societies, Building Companies, 
Stc. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



GILBERT J. FRENCH, 

BOLTON, LANCASHIRE, 

RESPECTFULLY informs the 

_IAi Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, 
that he replies immediately to all applications 
by letter, for information respecting his Manu- 
facturesin CHUKCII FURMTURE. ROBES, 
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&c. 

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. 
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ESTABLISHED 1841. 

INVALID, 



GENEXtAX. X.XFE OFFICE, 

25. PALL MALL. 

During the last Ten Years, this Society has 
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Covering Assurances to the extent of One 
Million Six Hundred and Eighty-seven Thou- 
sand Pounds, and upwards 

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to 
Seventy-three Thousand Pounds. 

This Society is the only one possessing Tables 
for the Assurance of Diseased Lives. 

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad 
at lower rates than at most other Offices. 

A Bonus of 50 per cent, on the premiums paid 
was added to the policies at last Division of 
Profits. 

Next Division in 1853 in which aU Policies 
effected before 30th June, 1853, will participate. 

Agents wanted for vacant places. 
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F. O. P. NEISON. Actuary. 
C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary. 



HEAL & SON'S ILLUS- 
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And their new warerooms contain an extensive 
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render their Establishment complete for the 
general furnishing of Bed-rooms. 
HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Ma- 
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BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
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Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CIIEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 

guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
ases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Geld, 
50 uuineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, '21. ,31., and il. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 192. 



THIS DAY ARE PUBLISHED, 

TEASER'S MAGAZINE FOR 

_T July, priee 2s. 6d., or by Post, 3s., con- 
taining : 

The Navy of France. 

Cayley's Las Alforjas. 

The Tables Turned. 

"Wanted an Owner. Some Account of cer- 
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well Church. 

History of the Prussian Court and Anstocracy. 

Bertha's Love. 

Carpiana. 

Lorenzo Benomi. 

Chimney Pots. By a Grumbler. 

Emily Orford. Part I. 

Mahomet's Song. 

Belgium, Leopold, and the Duke of Brabant. 



Dedicated by Special Permission to Her 
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MELTORA; or. Better Times 

to Come. Edited by VISCOUNT INGESTRE. 
The SECOND SEKIES, 5s., containing Contribu- 
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Rev. T. Beames. 

Dr. cf Bell. 
>:arl of Carlisle. 



Kev. J. Field. 
Montagu Gore. 
Dr. Guy. 
John Leigh. 



Viscount Lewisham, 

M.P. 

Kev. H. Mackenzie. 
Hon. and Rev. S. G. 

Osborne. 
Rev. T. F. Stooks. 
Lord Teignmouth. 
Alex. Thomson. 



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BACON'S ESSAYS ; or, Coun- 
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By the same Editor, 

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HOOKER'S ECCLESIASTI- 
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ANALYSTS OF GRECIAN 

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ANALYSIS OF ROMAN 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 193.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 9. 1853. 



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CONTENTS. 
NOTES: Page 

The Eye: its primary Idea - - - 25 

Gossiping History De Quincey's Account of Hatfield 20 
Notes upon the Names of some of the Early Inhabitants 

of HP lias 27 

Shakspcare Readings, No. IX. - - - 28 

Gb'the's Author- Remuneration - - - 29 

MINOR NOTES : Parallel Passages Unpublished 
Epitaphs The Colour of Ink in Writings Literary 
Parallels Latin Verses prefixed to Parish Registers 
Napoleon's Bees - - - - 30 

QUERIES : 

Was Thomas Lord Lyttelton the Author of Junius's 
Letters ? by Sir F. Madden - - - - 31 

MINOR QUERIES: Lord Chatham Slow-worm Super- 
stition Tangiers Snail Gardens Naples and the 
Campagna Felice " The Land of Green Ginger " 
Mugger Snail-eating Mysterious Personage 
George Wood of Chester A Scale of Vowel Sounds 
Seven Oaks and Nine Elms Murder of Monal- 
deschi Governor Dameram Ancient Arms of the 
See of York Hupt'eld Inscription on a Tomb in 
Finland Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway 
Travelling Tom Thumb's House at Gonerby, Lin- 
colnshire Mr. Payne Collier's Monovolume Shak- 
speare .......33 

REPLIES : 

Wild Plants and their Names - . - 35 

Jacob Bobart, by H. T. Bobart - - - - 37 

Heraldic Queries ...... 37 

Door-head Inscriptions - - - - 38 

Consecrated Roses - - - - - - 38 

Notes on Serpents - - - . - 39 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Early Notice of the 
Camera Obscura Queries on Dr. Diamond's Collo- 
dion Process Baths for the Collodion Process - 41 

REPLIES TO Mmon QUERIES: Mitigation of Capital 
Punishment to a Forger Chronograms and Ana- 
grams Abigail Burial in unconsecrated Ground 
"Cob" and " Couriers" Coleridge's Unpublished 
MSS. Selling a Wife Life Passage of Thucy- 
dides on the Greek Factions Archbishop King 
Devonianisms Perseverant, Perseverance " The 
Good Old Cause " Saying of Pascal Paint taken 
off of old Oak Passage in the "Tempest" - - 42 

MISCELLANEOUS : . 

Notes on Books, &-c. - . - . - 45 
Books and Odd Volusnes wanted - - 45 

Notices to Correspondents - - _ -40 

Advertisements - .... 40 



VOL. VIII. No. 193. 



THE EYE : ITS PRIMARY IDEA. 

I do not remember to have remarked that any 
writer notices how uniformly, in almost all lan- 
guages, the same primary idea has been attached 
to the eye. This universal consent is the more 
remarkable, inasmuch as the connexion in ques- 
tion, though of course most appropriate and sig- 
nificant in itself, hardly seems to indicate the most 
prominent characteristic, or what we should deem, 
to be par excellence the obvious qualities of the 
eye ; in a word, we should scarcely expect a term 
derived from a physical attribute or property. 

The eye is suggestive of life, of divinity, of in- 
tellect, piercing acuteness (acies) ; and again, of 
truth, of joy, of love: but these seem to have been 
disregarded, as being mere indistinctive accidents, 
and the primary idea which, by the common con- 
sent of almost all nations, has been thought most 
properly to symbolise this organ is a spring fans, 



Thus, from TV, manare, scatere, a word not in 
use, according to Fuerst, we have the Hebrew T)J^ 
fans aquarum et lacrimarum, h. e. oculus. Thia 
word however, in its simple form, seems to have 
almost lost its primary signification, being used 
most generally in its secondary oculus. (Old 
Testament Hebrew version, passim.) In the sense 
offons, its derivative TV^ is usually substituted. 

Precisely the same connexion of ideas is to be 
found in the Syriac, the Ethiopic, and the Arabic. 

Again, in the Greek we find the rarely-used 
word on-/;, a fountain, or more properly the eye, 
whence it wells out, the same form as oTrij, oculus ; 
&\l/, mj"s, <jTTTo/-ia.i. Thus, in St. James his Epistle, 

Cap. iii. 11. : fj^n r) nlfy^l e ' K i"*) 5 airrfjy oirijs )3puet T& 
y\VKv Kal rb iriKp6v. 

In the Welsh, likewise, a parallel case occurs : 
Llygad, an eye, signifies also the spring from 
which water flows, as in the same passage of St. 
James : a ydyw ffynnon or un llygad (from one 
spring or eye) yn rhoi divfr melus a chwerw ? 

On arriving at the Teutonic or old German 
tongue, we find the same connexion still existing : 
Avg, auga, oculus; whence ougen ostendere 
Gothis aiigo ; and azw, auge, ave, campres ad am- 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



nem. (Vid. Schilteri, Thes., vol. iii. ad voc.) And 
here we cannot help noticing the similarity between 
these words and the Hebrew ~)tf', which (as well 
as the Coptic iars) means primarily a river or 
stream from a spring ; but, according to Professor 
Lee, is allied to litf, light, the enlightenment of 
the mind, the opening of the eyes ; and he adds, 
" the application of the term to water, as running, 
translucid, &c., is easy." Here, then, is a similar 
connexion of ideas with a change in the metaphor. 

In the dialects which descended from the Teu- 
tonic in the Saxon branch, the connexion between 
these two distinct objects is also singularly pre- 
served. It is to be found in the Low German, 
the Friesic, and the Anglo-Saxon. In the latter 
we have ed, eah, eagor, a welling, flowing stream ; 
and can, agh, eage, an eye, which might be abun- 
dantly illustrated. 

We could hardly fail to find in Shakspeare some 
allusion to these connected images in the old 
tongue ; no speck of beauty could exist and es- 
cape his ken. Thus : 

" In that respect, too, like a loving child, 
Shed yet some small drops from thy tender spring, 
Because kind Nature doth require it so." 

Tit. And., Act V. Sc. 3. 

" Back, foolish tears, back to your native spring ; 
Your tributary drops belong to woe, 
Which you, mistaking, offer up for joy." 

Rom. and Jul., Act III. Sc. 2. 

Many of the phrases of the ancient tongues, in 
which the eye bears a part, have been handed 
down to us, and are still preserved in our own. 
My space, however, forbids me to do more than 
allude to them ; but there is one very forcible 
expression in the Hebrew rV2, T?J7, literally, eye in 
eye, which we render much less forcibly face to 
face. The Welsh have preserved it exactly in 
their llygad yn llygud. Indeed,- this is not the 
only instance in which they are proud of having 
handed down the Hebrew idiom in all its purity. 
Shakspeare twice uses the old phrase : 

" Since then my office bath so far prevailed, 
That face to face, and royal eye to eye, 
You have congreeted." Hen. V., Act V. Sc. 2. 

And in Tro. and Ores., Act III. Sc. 3 ; but it ap- 
pears now to be obsolete. 

Before concluding, I cannot help noticing, in 
connexion with this subject, the Old English term 
" the apple of the eye." I am unable to trace it 
beyond the Anglo-Saxon. The Teutonic sehandes 
ougen, pupilla oculi, is totally distinct ; seha being 
merely medius punctus oculi, whence sehan, videre. 
In the Semitic languages, as well as in the Greek 
and Latin, the origin of the term is the same, and 
gives no clue to the meaning of the Saxon term. 
Thus, in the Hebrew T1C"X, dim. of K*K, homun- 
culus, the small image of a person seen in the eye. 



In Arabic it is the man or daughter of the eye. In 
Greek we have Kopr), Kopcunov, KopaffiSov, and in 
Latin, pupa, pupula, pupilla. 

Has any light been thrown on the Anglo-Saxon 
term ? Can it be that iris, not the pupil, is taken 
to represent an apple ? The pupil itself would 
then be the eye of the apple of the eye. 

H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 



GOSSIPING HISTORY DE QUINCEY S ACCOUNT OP 
HATFIELD. 

In proof of the severity with which the Ia\vs 
against forgery were enforced, I have been re- 
ferred to the case of Hatfield, hanged in 1803 for 
forging franks. It is given very fully in Mr. De 
Quincey's "Literary Kecollections of Coleridge" 
in the first volume of the Boston edition of his 
Works. 

The story has some romance in it, and excited 
great interest fifty years ago. Hatfield had lived 
by swindling ; and, though he underwent an im- 
prisonment for debt, had, upon the whole, a long 
career of success. The last scene of his depreda- 
tions was thp Lakes, where he married a barmaid, 
who was called " The Beauty of Buttermere." 
Shortly after the marriage he was arrested, tried, 
and executed. Mr. De Quincey afterwards lived 
in the neighbourhood, dined at the 1 public-house 
kept by Mary's father, and was waited upon by 
her. He had the fullest opportunities of getting 
correct information : and his version of the story 
is so truthlike, that I should have accepted it 
without hesitation but for the hanging for forging 
a frank. As that offence never was capital, and 
was made a felony punishable with transportation 
for seven years by 42 Geo. III. c. 63., I was im- 
pelled to compare the statement founded on gossip 
with more formal accounts ; and I send the result 
in illustration of the small reliance which is to be 
placed on tradition in such matters. The arrival 
of Hatfield in a carriage is graphically described. 
He called himself the Hon. Augustus Hope, brother 
of the Earl of Hopetoun. Some doubts were felt 
at first, but 

" To remove suspicion, he not only received letters 
addressed to him under this assumed name, but he 
continually franked letters by that name. Now, that 
being a capital offence, being not only a forgery, but (as 
a forgery on the Post-office) sure to be prosecuted, 
nobody presumed to question his pretensions any longer ; 
and henceforward he went to ajl places with the con- 
sideration due to an earl's brother." P. 196. 

The marriage with Mary Robinson, and the 
way in which they passed the honeymoon, are 
described : 

" They continued to move backwards and forwards, 
until at length, with the startling of u thunderclap to the 



JULY 9. 1853.], 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



affrighted mountaineers, the bubble burst ; officers of 
justice appeared, the stranger was easily intercepted 
from flight, and, upon a capital charge, he was borne 
away to Carlisle. At the ensuing assizes he was tried 
for forgery on the prosecution of the Post-office, found 
guilty, left for execution, and executed accordingly." 
P. 199. 

" One common scaffold confounds the most flinty 
hearts and the tenderest. However, it was in some 
measure the heartless part of Hatfield's conduct which 
drew upon him his ruin : for the Cumberland jury, as I 
have been told, declared their unwillingness to hang him 
for having forged a frank ; and both they, and those who 
refused to aid his escape when first apprehended, were 
reconciled to this harshness entirely by what they heard 
of his conduct to their injured young fellow-country- 
woman." P. 2O1. 

Hatfield was not " easily intercepted from flight." 
Sir Frederick Vane granted a warrant to appre- 
hend him on the charge of forging franks. Hatfield 
ordered dinner at the Queen's Head, Keswick, to 
be ready at three ; took a boat, and did not return. 
This was on October 6 : he was married to Mary 
on the 2nd. In November he was apprehended 
near Brecknock, in Wales : so those who refused 
to aid his escape, if such there were, were not 
*' reconciled to the hardship by what they heard 
of his conduct to their young fellow-country- 
woman." The " startling of the thunderclap" 
was preceded by an ordinary proclamation, de- 
scribing the offender, and offering a reward of 
501. for his apprehension. He was not " hurried 
away to Carlisle," but deliberately taken to Lon- 
don on December 12 ; examined at Bow Street, 
remanded three times, and finally committed ; 
and sent to Carlisle, where he was tried on 
August 15, 1803. 

Three indictments were preferred against him : 
the first for forging a bill of exchange for 20/., 
drawn by Alexander Augustus Hope on John 
Crump, payable to George Wood ; the second for 
a similar bill for 301. ; and the third for counter- 
feiting Colonel Hope's handwriting to defraud 
the Post-office. 

The Cumberland jury did not " declare their 
unwillingness to hang him for forging a frank," 
that not being a capital offence. I infer, also, 
that it was one for which he was not tried. He 
was convicted on the first indictment ; the court 
rose immediately after the jury had given their 
verdict ; and the prisoner was called up for judg- 
ment at eight the next morning. Trying a man 
tinder sentence of death for a transportable felony, 
is contrary to all practice. Hatfield was executed 
at Carlisle on September 3, 1803. 

Mary's misfortunes induced the sympathising 
public to convert her into a minor heroine. She 
seems to have been a common-place person, with 
small claims to the title of "The Beauty of But- 
termere." A cotemporary account says, " she is 



rather gap-toothed and somewhat pock-marked." 
And Mr. De Quincey, after noticing her good 
figure, says, " the expression of her countenance 
was often disagreeable." 

" A lady, not very scrupulous in her embellishment 
of facts, used to tell an anecdote of her which I hope 
was exaggerated. Some friend of hers, as she affirmed, 
in company with a large party, visited Buttermere a 
day or two after that on which Hatfield suffered ; and 
she protested that Mary threw on the table, with an 
emphatic gesture, the Carlisle paper containing an 
elaborate account of the execution." P. 204. 

Considering the treatment she had received, 
it is not unlikely that her love, if she ever had 
any for a fat man of forty-five, was turned into 
hatred ; and it was not to be expected that her 
taste would keep down the manifestation of such 
feeling. When Hatfield was examined at Bow 
Street, Sir Richard Ford, the chief magistrate, 
ordered the clerk to read aloud a letter which he 
received from her. It was : 

" Sir, The man whom I had the misfortune to 
marry, and who has ruined me and my aged and 
unhappy parents, always told me that he was the Hon. 
Colonel Hope, the next brother to the Earl of Hope- 
toun. 

" Your grateful and unfortunate servant, 
" MARY ROBINSON." 

I do not blame Mr. De Quincey, having no 
doubt that he believed what he was told ; but I 
have put together these facts and discrepancies, to 
show how careful we should be in accepting tra- 
ditions, when a man of very high ability, with the 
best opportunities of getting at the truth, was so 
egregiously misled. 

My authorities are, The Annual Register, 1803, 
pp. 421. and 428. ; The Gentleman s Magazine, 
1803, pp.779. 876. and 983.; Kirby's Wonderful 
Magazine, vol. i. pp. 309. and 336. The Newgate 
Calendar gives a similar account ; but not having 
it at hand, I cannot vouch it. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



NOTES UPON THE NAMES OF SOME OF THE EAH.LY 
INHABITANTS OF HEJLLAS. 

I. I have never seen it yet noticed, that the 
names Pyrrha, JEolus, Xuihus, Ion, are all names 
of colours. Is there anything in this, or is it for- 
tuitous ? 

II. In accordance with the above, I think we 
may refer most of the names of the early inhabit- 
ants of Greece to words denoting light or colour, 
or the like. 

(1.) Pelas-gi. The first part of this word is, by 
Mr. Donaldson, connected with jueA-as, which is 
also, probably, the root of Mol-ossi. 

(2.) Hellenes, connected with Helli, Selli, <r*Aay, 
euAT), TJA.IOS. This derivation is made more probable 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



by the fact, that the neighbouring Pelasgic tribes 
have a similar meaning ; e.g., 

Perrh(ebi, alike to Pyrrha and irCp; JEthices, 
eSOca ; Tymphcei, rixpoi ; Hesticei, e<rrla. Add to this, 
that the name Phthiotis seems indubitably to de- 
rive its name from Phthah, the Egyptian Hephaes- 
tus, and to be a translation of the word Hellas. 

N.B. The existence of an Egyptian colony in 
that part is attested by the existence of a Phthiotic 
Thebee. 

(3.) On the other hand, the word Achcsus seems 
to be connected with &x os i <*x t ' t W'5 an( i &X^ VS in * ne 
eense of gloom (of ovpaviov dxos). So the Homeric 
Cimmerians are derived from 1 T"?O3 (Job), de- 
noting darkness. 

(4.) Lastly, I submit with great diffidence the 
following examination of the words Doras and 
the JEolian Minyce, which I shall attempt to de- 
rive from words denoting sun and moon respec- 
tively. 

The word Dorus I assume to be connected with 
the first part of the names Dry-opes and Dol-opes. 
The metathesis in the first case seems sanctioned 
by the analogy of the Sanscrit dri and Greek Seipw, 
and the mutation of I and r in the second is too 
common in Greek and Latin to admit of any 
doubt, e.g. ap-^oXe'os and a\ya\4ros ; Sol and Sor- 
acte. With this premised, I think we may be 
justified in connecting the following word with 
one another. 

Dores, Dryopes with Sei'pios (of 2jJs and A?os) 
epos, the Scythian sun-god Olro-avpvc, the Egyp- 
tian O-siris, and perhaps the Hebrew "in and 
Greek Sypbe (the course of the sun being the 
emblem of eternity). Dol-opes with Sol, &% 
Selli, &c. 

On the other hand, the neighbouring Minyce 
seem connected with tuvvBw, /j.iwt>da, minus, all 
with the sense of decreasing or waning ; hence re- 
ferable, both in sense and (I fancy) in derivation, 
to Greek nty, and Latin men-sis. J. H. J. 



SHAKSPEAKE READINGS, NO. IX. 

" It lies as sightly on the back of him 
As great Alcides' shoes upon an ass." 

King John, Act II. Sc. 1. 

" The ass was to wear the shoes, and not to bear 
them on his back, as Theobald supposed, and therefore 
would read shows. The ' shoes of Hercules ' were as 
commonly alluded to by our old poets, as the ex pede 
Jferculem was a familiar allusion of the learned." (Mr. 
Knight in 1839.) 

Fourteen years' additional consideration has not 
altered Mr. Knight's view of this passage. In 1853 
we find him putting forth a prospectus for a new 
edition of Shakspeare, to be called "The Stratford 
Edition," various portions from which he sets be- 
fore the public by way of sample. Here we have 



over again the same note as above, a little diversi- 
fied, and placed parallel to Theobald's edition in 
this way : 

" It lies as sightly on the back of him 
As great Alcides' shows upon an ass." 

"The folio reads 'Great Al- "The 'shoes of Hercules^ 

rides' shoes.' Theobald says, were as commonly alluded to 

But why shoes, in the name of in our old poets, as the ex pede 

propriety? For let Hercules and Herculem was a familiar allu- 

his ihoes have been really as big sion of the learned. It was not 

as they were ever supposed to necessary that the ass should be- 

be, yet they (I mean the shoes) overloaded with the shoes he 

would not have been an over- might he shod (shoed) with 

load for an ass. '" them." 

Now who, in reading these parallel notes, but 
would suppose that it is Mr. Knight who restores 
shoes to the text, and that it is Mr. Knight who- 
points out the common allusion by our old poets 
to the shoes of Hercules ? Who would imagine 
that the substance of this correction of Theobald 
was written by Steevens a couple of generations 
back, and that, consequently, Theobald's proposed 
alteration had never been adopted ? 

I should not think of pointing out this, but 
that Mr. Knight himself, in this same prospectus, 
has taken Mr. Collier to task for the very same 
thing ; that is, for taking credit, in his Notes and 
Emendations, for all the folio MS. corrections,, 
whether known or unknown, necessary or un- 
necessary. 

Indeed, the very words of Mr. Knight's com- 
plaint against Mr. Collier are curiously applicable 
to himself: 

" It requires the most fixed attention to the nice- 
distinctions of such constantly-recurring ' notes and 
emendations,' to disembarrass the cursory reader from 
the notion that these are bond fide corrections of the 
common text 

" Who cares to know what errors are corrected in "" 
(the forthcoming Stratford edition), "that exist in no 
other, and which have never been introduced into tha 
modern text?" Specimen, &c., p. xxiv. 

The impression one would receive from Mr- 
Knight's note upon Theobald is, that Shakspeare 
had his notion of the shoes from " our old poets,' r 
while the learned had theirs from ex pede Her* 
culem; but where the analogy lies, wherein the 
point, or what the application, is not explained. 
Steevens' original note was superior to this, in so 
much that he quoted the words of these old poets,, 
thereby giving his readers an opportunity of con- 
sidering the justness of the deduction. The only 
set-off to this omission by Mr. Knight is the intro- 
duction of "ex pede Herculem," the merit of whick 
is doubtless his own. 

But it so happens that the size of the foot of 
Hercules has no more to do with the real point ^of 
the allusion than the length of Prester John's ; 
therefore ex pede Herculem is a most unfortunate 
illustration, particularly awkward in a specimen 
sample, the excellence of which may be ques- 
tioned. 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



29 



It is singular enough, and it says a great deal 
for Theobald's common sense, that he saw what 
the true intention of the allusion must be, although 
lie did not know how to reconcile it with the ex- 
isting letter of the text. He wished to preserve the 
spirit by the sacrifice of the letter, while Mr. Knight 
preserves the letter but misinterprets the spirit. 

Theobald's word " shows," in the sense of ex- 
ternals, is very nearly what Shakspeare meant by 
shoes, except that shoes implies a great deal more 
than shows, it implies the assumption of the 
character as well as the externals of Hercules. 

Out of five quotations from our old poets, given 

by Steevens in the first edition of his note, there is 

not one in which the shoes are not provided with 

Jeet. But Malone, to his immortal honour, was 

the first to furnish them with hoofs : 

" Upon an ass ; f. e. upon the hoofs of an ass." 

Malone. 

But Shakspeare nowhere alludes to feet ! His 
.ass most probably had feet, and so had Juvenal's 
verse (when he talks of his " satyra sumente co- 
thurnum"); but neither Shakspeare nor Juvenal 
dreamed of any necessary connexion between the 
feet and the shoes. 

Therein lies the difference between Shakspeare 
and "our old poets;" a difference that ought to 
be sufficient, of itself, to put down the common 
cry, that Shakspeare borrowed his allusions from 
them. If so, how is it that his expositors, with 
these old poets before their eyes all this time, 
together with their own scholarship to boot, have 
so widely mistaken the true point of his allusion ? 
It is precisely because they have confined their 
researches to these old poets, and have not followed 
Shakspeare to the fountain head. 

There is a passage in Quintilian which, very 
probably, has been the common source of both 
Shakspeare's version, and that of the old poets ; 
with this difference, that he understood the original 
and they did not. 

Quintilian is cautioning against the introduction 
of solemn bombast in trifling affairs : 

" To get up," says he, " this sort of pompous tragedy 
about mean matters, is as though you would dress up 
children with the mask and buskins of Hercules." 

[" Nam in parvis quiclem litibus has tragredias movere 
tale est quale si personam Herculis et cothurnos aptare 
infantibus velis."J 

Here the addition of the mask proves that the 
allusion is purely theatrical. The mask and bus- 
kins are put for the stage trappings, or properties, 
of the part of Hercules : of these, one of the items 
was the lions skin ; and hence the extreme aptitude 
of the allusion, as applied by the Bastard, in King 
John, to Austria, who was assuming the importance 
of Cosur de Lion ! 

It is interesting to observe how nearly Theo- 
bald's plain, homely sense, led him to the necessity 



of the context. The real points of the allusion can 
scarcely be expressed in better words than his 
own : 

" Faulconbridge, in his resentment, would say this to 
Austria, ' That lion's skin which my great father, King 
Richard, once wore, looks as uncouthly on thy back, as 
that other noble hide, which was borne by Hercules, 
would look on the back of an ass !' A double allusion 
was intended : first, to the fable of the ass in the lion's 
skin ; then Richard I. is finely set in competition with 
Alcides, as Austria is satirically coupled with the ass." 

One step farther, and Theobald would have dis- 
covered the true solution : he only required to 
know that the shoes, by a figure of rhetoric called 
synecdoche, may stand for the whole character and 
attributes of Hercules, to have saved himself the 
trouble of conjecturing an ingenious, though infi- 
nitely worse word, as a substitute. 

As for subsequent annotators, it must be from 
the mental preoccupation of this unlucky " ex 
pede Herculem," that they have so often put their 
foot in it. They have worked up Alcides' shoe 
into a sort of antithesis to Cinderella's ; and, like 
Procrustes, they are resolved to stretch everything 
to fit. A. E. B. 

Leeds. 



GOTHES AUTHOR-REMUNERATION. 

The Note in your valuable Journal (Vol. vii., 
p. 591.) requires, I think, so far as it relates to 
Gb'the, several corrections which I am in the position, 
of making. The amount which that great man is 
said to have received for his "works (aggregate)" 
is " 30,000 crowns." The person who originally 
printed this statement must have been completely 
ignorant of Gothe's affairs, and even biography. 
Gb'the had (unlike Byron) several publishers 
in his younger years. Subsequently he became 
closer connected with M. J. G. Cotta of Stuttgardt, 
who, in succession, published almost all Gothe's 
works. Amongst them were several editions of 
his complete works : for instance, that published 
conjointly at Vienna and Stuttgardt. Then 
came, in 1829, what was called the edition of the 
last hand (Ausgabe letzter Hand), as Gb'the was 
then more than eighty years of age. During all 
the time these two editions were published, other 
detached new works of Guthe were also printed ; 
as well as new editions of former books, &c. Who 
can now say that it was 20,000 crowns (thalers ?) 
which the great poet received for each various 
performance ? No one. And this for many rea- 
sons. Gb'the always remained with M. Cotta on 
terms of polite acquaintanceship, no more : there 
was no " My dear Murray" in their strictly busi- 
ness-like connexion. Gb'the also never wrote on 
such things, even in his biography or diary. But 
some talk was going around in Germany, that for 
one of the editions of his complete works (there 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



appeared still many volumes of posthumous), he 
had received the above sum. I can assert on 
good authority, that Gothe, foreseeing his increas- 
ing popularity even long after his death, stipulated 
with M. Cotta to pay his heirs a certain sum for 
every new edition of either his complete or single 
works. One of the recipients of these yet current 
accounts is Baron Wolfgang von Gothe, Attache 
of the Prussian Legation at Rome. 

A FOREIGN SURGEON. 

Charlotte Street, Bloomsbury Square. 



iHmor f 
Parallel Passages. 

" The Father of the gods his glory shrouds, 
Involved in tempests and a night of clouds." 

Dryden's Virgil. 

" Mars, hovering o'er his Troy, his terror shrouds 
In gloomy tempests and a night of clouds." 

Pope's Homer's Iliad, book xx. lines 69, 70. 

UNEDA. 

Unpublished Epitaphs. I copied the following 
two epitaphs from monuments in the churchyard 
of Llangerrig, Montgomeryshire, last autumn. 
They perhaps deserve printing from the slight re- 
semblance they bear to that in Melrose Church- 
yard, quoted in Vol. vii., pp. 676, 677. : 

" O earth, O earth ! observe this well 
That earth to earth shall come to dwell: 
Then earth in earth shall close remain 
Till earth from earth shall rise again." 

" From earth my body first arose ; 
But here to earth again it goes. 
I never desire to have it more, 
To plague me as it didl>efbre." 

P. H. FISHER. 

The Colour of Ink in Writings. My attention 
was called to this subject some years ago by an 
attempt made in a judicial proceeding to prove 
that part of a paper produced was written at a 
different time than the rest, because part differed 
from the rest in the shade of the ink. The follow- 
ing conclusions have been the result of my ob- 
servations upon the subject : 

1. That if the ink of part of a writing is of a 
different shade, though of the same colour, from 
that of the other parts, we cannot infer from that 
circumstance alone that the writing was done at 
different times. Ink taken from the top of an 
inkstand will be lighter than that from the bottom, 
where the dregs are ; the deeper the pen is dipped 
into the ink, the darker the writing will be. 

2. Writing performed with a pen that has been 
used before, will be darker than that with a new 
pen ; for the dry residuum of the old ink that is 
encrusted on the used pen will mix with the new 



ink, and make it darker. And for the same 
reason 

3. Writing with a pen previously used v/ill be 
darker at first than it is after the old deposit, 
having been mixed up with the new ink, is used 
up. M. E. 

Philadelphia. 

Literary Parallels. Has it ever been noticed 
that the well-known epitaph, sometimes assigned 
to Robin of Doncaster, sometimes to Edward 
Courtenay, third Earl of Devon, and I believe to 
others besides : " What I gave, that I have," &c., 
has been anticipated by, if not imitated from, 
Martial, book v. epigr. 42., of which the last two- 
lines are : 

" Extra fortunam est, quicquid donatur amicis ; 
Quas dederis, solas semper habebis opes." 

The English is so much more terse and senten- 
tious, besides involving a much higher moral sig- 
nification, that it may well be an original itself; 
but in that case, the verbal coincidence is striking 
enough. J. S. WARDEN. 

Latin Verses prefixed to Parish Registers. On 
a fly-leaf in one of the registers of the parish of 
Hawsted, Suffolk, is the following note in the 
handwriting of the Rev. Sir John Cullum, the 
rector and historian of the parish : 

" Many old register books begin with some Latin 
lines, expressive of their design. The two following, 
in that of St. Saviour's at Norwich, are as good as any 
I have met with : 

' Janua, Baptismm ; medio stat Tada jugalis 
Utroque es felix, mors pia si sequitur.' " 

Can any of your correspondents contribute other 
examples ? BURIENSIS. 

Napoleon's Sees (Vol. vii., p. 535.). No one^ 
I believe, having addressed you farther on the 
subject of the Napoleon Bees, the models of 
which are stated to have been found in the tomb 
of Childeric when opened in 1653, " of the purest 
gold, their wings being inlaid with a red stone, 
like a cornelian," I beg to mention that the small 
ornaments resembling bees found in the tomb of 
Childeric, were only what in French are called 
fleurons (supposed to have been attached to the 
harness of his war-horse). Handfuls of them 
were found when the tomb was opened at Tour- 
nay, and sent to Louis XIV. They were de- 
posited on a green ground at Versailles. 

Napoleon wishing to have some regal emblem 
more ancient than the fleur-de-lys, adopted the 
fleurons as bees, and the green ground as the 
original Merovingian colour. 

This fact was related to me as unquestionable 
by Augustin Thierry, the celebrated historian, 
when I was last in Paris. WM. EWART. 

University Club. 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



WAS THOMAS LORD LYTTELTON THE AUTHOR OF 
JUNIUS' S LETTERS ? 

In the Quarterly Review for 1852 (vol. xc. 
No. 179.) appeared a clever and speciously writ- 
ten article on the long debated question of the 
identity of Junius, in which the writer labours at 
great length to prove that Thomas, second Lord 
Lyttelton, who died in 1779, was the real sub- 
stance of the shadow of Junius, hitherto sought in 
vain. That this Lord Lyttelton was fully com- 
petent to the task, I do not doubt ; and that theje 
are many points in his character which may well 
be reconciled with the knowledge we possess of 
the imaginary Junius, I also admit but this is 
all. The author of the review has wholly failed, 
in my opinion, to prove his case ; and the remark 
he makes on Mr. Britton's theory (as to Col. Barre) 
may equally well apply to his own, namely, that 
it affords " a [another] curious instance of the 
delusion to which ingenious men may resign them- 
selves, when they have a favourite opinion to up- 
hold ! " The reviewer, indeed, admits that he has 
" traced the parallel from the scantiest materials ; " 
and in another passage repeats, that but " few 
materials exist for a sketch of Thomas Lyttelton's 
life." Of these materials used by the reviewer, 
the principal portion has been derived from the 
two volumes of letters published in 1780 and 1782, 
attributed to Lord Lyttelton, but the authorship 
of which has since been claimed for William 
Coombe. The reviewer argues, that they are 
"substantially genuine;" but evidence, it is be- 
lieved, exists to the contrary.* According to 
Chalmers, these letters were "publicly disowned" 
by the executors of Lord Lyttelton ; and this is 
confirmed by the notice in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for 1780, p. 138., shortly after the publication 
of the first volume. Putting aside, however, this 
moot-point (which, I trust, will be taken up by 
abler hands, as it bears greatly on the theory ad- 
vanced by the author of the Review), I proceed to 
another and more conclusive line of argument. 
In the Preliminary Essay, prefixed to Wood fall's 
edition of Junius, 1812 (vol. i. p. *46.), the follow- 
ing statement is made in regard to that writer, 
the accuracy of which will scarcely be doubted : 

"There is another point in the history of his life, 
during his appearance as a public writer, which must 
not be suffered to pass by without observation : and 
that is, that during a great part of this time, from Janu- 
ary 1769 to January 1772, he uniformly resided in 
London, or its immediate vicinity, and that he never 
quitted his stated habitation for a longer period than a 
few weeks." 

* I have been unable to refer to these letters, as no 
copy exists in the British Museum library. 



Now, do the known facts of Thomas Lyttelton's 
life correspond with this statement or not ? The 
reviewer says, p. 115. : 

" For a period of three years after Mr. Lyttelton 
' lost bis seat* that period during which Junius wrote 
his acknowledged compositions we hardly find a trace 
of him in any of the contemporaneous letters or me- 
moirs that have fallen under our observation." 

But how is it, let me ask, that the author of the 
review has so studiously avoided all mention of 
one work, which would at once have furnished 
traces of Thomas Lyttelton at this very period ? 
I allude to the volume of Poems by a Young' 
Nobleman of distinguished Abilities, lately deceased, 
published by G. Kearsley : London, 1780, 4to. 
Does not this look much like the suppressio veri 
which follows close on the footsteps of the assertio 
falsi ? It is hardly credible that the reviewer 
should not be acquainted with this book, for he 
refers to the lines spoken in 1765, at Stowe, in the 
character of Queen Mab, which form part of its 
contents ; and the existence of the work is ex- 
pressly pointed out by Chalmers, and noticed by 
Lowndes, Watt, and other bibliographers. Among 
the poems here published, are some which ought 
to have received a prominent notice from the 
author of the review, if he had fairly stated the 
case. These are : 

1. Lines "to G e Ed d Ays gh, Esq., 

[George Edward Ayscough, cousin to Thomas Lyt- 
telton] from Venice, the 20th July, 1770." F. 22. 

2. " An Irregular Ode, wrote at Vicenza, in Italy, the 
20th of August, 1770." P. 29. 

3. " On Mr. , at Venice, in J , 1770." 

4. "An Invitation to Mrs. A a D , wrote at 

Ghent in Flanders, the 23rd of March, 1769." P. 41. 

5. " An Extempore, by Lord Lyttelton, in Italy, anno 
1770." P. 48. 

Admitting that these poems are genuine, it is 
evident that their author, Thomas Lyttelton, was 
abroad in Flanders and Italy during the years 
1769 and 1770; and consequently could not have 
been the mysterious Junius, who in those years 
(particularly in 1769) was writing constantly in 
or near London to Woodfall and the Public 
Advertiser. Of what value then is the assertion 
so confidently made by the reviewer (p. 133.) : 

" The position of Thomas Lyttelton in the five years 
from 1767 to 1772, is exactly such a one as it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that Junius held during the period 
of his writings ; " 

or how can it be made to agree with the fact of 
his residence on the Continent during the greater 
part of the time ? 



* As M. P. for Bewdley. He was returned in 
1768, and unseated in January, 1769. 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



The reviewer, indeed, tells us that "just as 
Junius concluded his great work, Thomas Lyt- 
telton returned to his father's house, and Chatham 
was one of the first to congratulate Lord Lyt- 
telton on the event." This was in February 1772 ; 
and in the Chatham Correspondence, vol.iv. p. 195., 
is Lord Lyttelton's letter of thanks in reply. 
The reviewer would evidently have it inferred, 
that Thomas Lyttelton had returned home like a 
prodigal son, after a temporary estrangement, and 
from a comparatively short distance ; but surely, 
had the volume of Poems been referred to, it 
might or rather must have occurred to a candid 
inquirer, that in February 1772 Thomas Lyt- 
telton returned from his travels on the Continent, 
after an absence of nearly three years ! But, per- 
haps, the authenticity of the Poems may at once 
be boldly denied ? Is this the case ? Chalmers 
certainly includes them with the Letters, as having 
been "disowned" by Lord L.'s executors; but 
says, "as to the Poems, they added, ' great part 
whereof are undoubtedly spurious. 1 " It is certain, 
therefore, that some of the Poems are genuine ; 
and it is a pity that the exceptions were not spe- 
cified, as the discussion might then have been 
confined within narrower limits. The editor of 
the Poems, in his address " To the Reader," writes 
thus in vindication of them : 

" There is scarcely a line in the collection which 
does not bear testimony of its origin ; the places and 
dates are also strong corroborations to such of his 
friends as he corresponded with on his last journey 
across the Alps. His style was elegant, and his ideas 
so animated, that spurious productions would be imme- 
diately detected." 

This is the testimony of one who " had the 
honour of his friendship, which terminated only 
with his death," and is not to be lightly rejected.* 
My own conviction is in favour of the authenticity 
of the whole ; but, at all events, 1 shall be able to 
offer undoubted evidence as to the genuineness of 
part of the volume, and additional proof that the 
author was abroad at the precise time when, if 
lie were Junius, he must have resided in this 
country. By Thomas Lord Lyttelton's will (dated 
Oct. 30, 1777), he appointed as his executors his 
brother-in-law Arthur Viscount Valentia, his uncle 
William Henry Lord Westcote, and Wilson Ayles- 
bury Roberts of Bewdley. To the latter he left all 
his " letters, verses, speeches, and writings," with 
directions that, if published, it should be for his 
sole emolument. The important Query therefore 
at once arises, what became of these manuscripts, 
and were they destroyed or preserved ? 

* In the Public Advertiser for January 1, 1 779 [1780], 
appeared a notice of the Poems, said to have been "pub- 
lished yesterday ;" and although two pieces are extracted 
at length, not a syllable of doubt is expressed as to 
their genuineness. 



The afaove Mr. Roberts was an intimate per- 
sonal friend ; and from his local influence as bailiff 
and deputy-recorder of Bewdley, had no doubt 
contributed towards Thomas Lyttelton's return 
for that borough in 1768. His son continued to 
keep up a close connexion with the Valentia family 
at Arley Hall * ; and this fact, coupled with the 
close proximity of Bewdley, Arley, and Hagley, 
and the circumstance of the co-executorship of 
Lord Valentia and Mr. Roberts, would make us 
naturally look to the library at Arley as a not 
unlikely place of deposit for Thomas Lyttelton's 
papers. This is not mere conjecture, and brings 
me immediately to the point at issue : for, at the 
sale of the Valentia Library at Arley Castle, in 
December last, a manuscript volume made its ap- 
pearance in a lot with others thus designated : 

" Original Diary of Travels [of Lord Valentia] 
4 vols. ; Five Memorandum Books of Journeys and 
Travels ; also Two Old Folio Volumes of Original Poetic 
Pieces. " 

One of the folio volumes thus catalogued subse- 
quently came into my hands, and is evidently one 
of the manuscripts left by Thomas Lord Lyttelton's 
will to the care of Mr. Roberts, since it consists 
wholly of pieces in verse and prose of his compo- 
sition, written either in his own hand, as rough 
draughts, or copied (apparently by a female scribe) 
and afterwards corrected by himself. Among the 

Eoetry in this MS. I find the greater part of the 
>ng poem printed in the edition of 1780, p. 1., 
entitled " The State of England in the year 2199," 
which is without date in the MS., but in the edi- 
tion bears date March 21, 1771 ; as likewise the 
" Invitation to Miss Warb[u]rt[o]n," edit. p. 35., 
which appears in the MS. without any name ; and 
the "Extempore Rhapsody, March 21, 1771," edit, 
p. 37., also undated in the MS., but which supplies 
the name of " Yates," expressed in the edition by 
asterisks ; and also six lines at the end, which were 
omitted in the edition on account of their inde- 
cency. There are several variations in the manu- 
script, which prove that some other copy was 
followed by the printer ; and many typographical 
errors in the edition may hence be corrected. 
Besides these poems, the following pieces consti- 
tute the chief contents of this manuscript volume : 

Draughts of four letters written, by Thomas Lyttel- 
ton from Lyons, the first of which is dated September 10, 
1769. 

Heads of a series of Dialogues, in imitation of 
" Dialogues of the Dead," by his father George, first 
Lord Lyttelton. 

Poetical Fragments, imitated from Lucretius. 

* The estate at Arley was left to the Hon. George 
Annesley (afterwards Earl of Mountnorris), son of 
Lord Valentia, by the will of Thomas Lord Lyttelton, 
and Mr. Roberts was one of the trustees appointed. 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Two letters addressed by Thomas Lyttelton to his 
father ; and a third to " Dear George," probably his 
cousin George Edward Ayscough. 

Some Latin lines, not remarkable for their deli- 
cacy. 

Political letter, written from Milan, by Thomas 
Lyttelton ; in which indignant notice is taken of the 
commital of Brass Crossby, Lord Mayor, which took 
place in March, 1771. 

Fragment of a poem on Superstition, and various 
other unfinished poetical scraps. 

Private memoranda of expenses. 

A page of writing in a fictitious or short-hand 
character, of which I can make nothing. 

Remarks, in prose, on the polypus, priestcraft, &c. 

Poem in French, of an amatory character. 

Portion of a remarkable political letter, containing 
some bitter remarks by Thomas Lyttelton on the 
"first minister." He ends thus: "The play now 
draws to a conclusion. I am guilty of a breach of 
trust in telling him so, but I shall [not] suffer by my 
indiscretion, for it is an absolute impossibility any 
man should divine who is the author of the letter 
signed ARUSPEX." 

It would appear from the water-mark in the 
paper of which this MS. is composed, that it was 
procured in Italy ; and there can be little or no 
doubt it was used by Thomas Lyttelton as a 
draught-book, during his travels there in 1769 
1771 ; during which period, nearly the whole of 
the contents seem to have been written. The 
evidence afforded therefore by this volume, comes 
peculiarly in support of the dates and other cir- 
cumstances put forth in the printed volume of 
Poems ; and leads us inevitably to the conclusion, 
that it was utterly impossible for Thomas Lyttelton 
to have had any share in the Letters of Junius. He 
has enough to answer for on the score of his early 
profligacy and scepticism, without being dragged 
from the grave to be arraigned for the crime of 
deceit. His heart need not, according to the re- 
viewer, be " stripped bare" by the scalpel of any 
literary anatomist; but he may be left to that 
quiet and oblivion which a sepulchre in general 
bestows. Before I conclude these remarks (which 
I fear are too diffuse), I will venture to add a few 
words in regard to the signature of Thomas Lord 
Lyttelton. In the Chatham Correspondence, a 
letter from him to Earl Temple is printed, vol. iv. 
p. 348., the signature to which is printed LYT- 
TLETON, and the editors point out in a note the 
" alteration adopted" in the spelling of the name ; 
but it is altogether an error, for the fac-simile of 
this signature in vol. iv. p. 29., as well as his will 
in the Prerogative Court, prove that he wrote his 
name Lyttelton, in the same manner as his father 
and uncle. As to the resemblance pointed out by 
the author of the Review between the handwrit- 
ing of Thomas Lyttelton and that of Junius, it 
exists only in imagination, since there is really no 
similitude whatever between them. 



Some Queries are now annexed, in reference to 
what has been above discussed : 

1. In what publication or in what form did the 
executors of Thomas Lord Lyttelton disown the 
Letters and Poems ? 

2. Is it known who was the editor of the Poems 
published in 1780? 

3. Can the present representative of the family 
of Roberts give any farther information respecting 
Thomas Lord Lyttelton's manuscripts ? 

4. Lastly, Is any letter known to exist in the 
public journals of the years 1770, 1771, under the 
signature of AHUSPEX ? F. MADDEN. 

British Museum. 



Lord Chatham. I would suggest as a Query, 
whether Lord Chatham's famous comparison of the 
Fox and Newcastle ministry to the confluence of 
the Rhone and Saone at Lyons (Speech, Nov. 13, 
1755), was not adapted from a passage in Lord 
Roscommon's Essay on translated Verse. Possibly 
Lord Chatham may have merely quoted the lines 
of Roscommon, and reporters may have converted 
his quotation into prose. Lord Chatham (then of 
course Mr. Pitt) is represented to have said : 

" / remember at Lyons to have been carried to the 
conflux of the Rhone and the Soane : the one a gentle, 
feeble, languid stream, and, though languid, of no 
depth ; the other, a boisterous and impetuous torrent." 

Lord Roscommon says : 

" Thus have I seen a rapid headlong tide, 
With foaming waves the passive Saone divide, 
Whose lazy waters without motion lay, 
While he, with eager force, urg'd his impetuous way." 

W. EwAET. 
University Club. 

Slow- worm Superstition. Could any of your 
correspondents kindly inform me whether there is 
any foundation for the superstition, that if a slow- 
worm be divided into two or more parts, those 
parts will continue to live till sunset (life I sup- 
pose to mean that tremulous motion which the 
divided parts, for some time after the cruel ope- 
ration, continue to have), and whether it exists in 
any other country or county besides Sussex, in 
which county I first heard of it ? TOWER. 

Tangiers (Vol. vii., p. 12.). I have not seen 
any opinion as to these Queries. A. C. 

Snail Gardens. What are the continental en- 
closures called snail gardens ? C. M. T. 
Oare. 

Naples and the Campagna Felice. Who w;is 
the author of letters bearing this title, which ori- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



ginally appeared in Ackermann's Repository, and 
were published in a collected form in 1815 ? 

In a catalogue of Jno. Miller's (April, 1853), I 
see them attributed to Combe. Q. 

Philadelphia. 

" The Land of Green Ginger" the name of a 
street in Hull. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me why so called ? R. H. B. 

Mugger. Why are the gipsies in the North of 
England called Muggers f Is it because they sell 
mugs, and other articles of crockery, that in fact 
being their general vocation ? or may not the word 
be a corruption of Maghrdbee, which is, I think, a 
foreign name given to this wandering race ? 

H. T. RlLET. 

Snail-eating. Can any of your correspondents 
inform me in what part of Surrey a breed of large 
white snails is still to be found, the first of which 
were brought to this country from Italy, by a 
member, I think, of the Arundel family, to gratify 
the palate of his wife, an Italian lady? I have 
searched Britton and Brayley's History in vain. 

H. T. RILEY. 

Mysterious Personage. Who is the mysterious 
personage, what is his real or assumed lineage, 
who has, not unfrequently, been alluded to in 
recent newspaper articles as a legitimate Roman 
Catholic claimant of the English throne ? Of 
course I do not allude to those pseudo- Stuarts, the 
brothers Hay Allan. W. PINKEBTON. 

George Wood of Chester. Of what family was 
George Wood, Esq., Justice of Chester in the first 
year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1558 ? 

CESTBIENSIS. 

A Scale of Vowel Sounds. Can any correspon- 
dent tell me if such scale has anywhere been 
agreed on for scientific purposes ? Researches into 
the philosophy of philology are rendered exces- 
sively complex by the want of such a scale, every 
different inquirer adopting a peculiar notation, 
which is a study in itself, and which, after all, is 
unsatisfactory. I should feel obliged by any re- 
ference to what has been done in this matter. 

E. C. 

Seven Oaks and Nine Elms. Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." inform me whether there is any old 
custom or superstition connected with Seven Oaks 
and Nine Elms, even to be traced as fur back as 
the time of the Druids ? 

In some old grounds in Warwickshire there is a 
circle of nine old elm-trees ; and, besides the well- 
known Nine Elms at Vauxhall, and Seven Oaks 
in Kent, there are several other places of the same 
names in England. J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 



Murder of Monaldeschi. I will thank any of 
your correspondents who can give me an account 
of the murder of Monaldeschi, equerry to Chris- 
tina, Queen of Sweden. 

In the 2nd volume of Miss Pardoe's Louis XIV. 
(p. 177.), Christina is stated to have visited the 
Court of France, and housed at Fontainebleau, 
where she had not long been an inmate ere the 
tragedy of Monaldeschi took place ; and in a letter 
to Mazarin she says, " Those who acquainted you 
with the details regarding Monaldeschi were very 
ill-informed." T. C. T. 

Governor Dameram. I should be glad of any 
particulars respecting the above, who was Go- 
vernor of Canada (I think) about the commence- 
ment of the present century. He had previously 
been the head of the commissariat department in 
the continental expeditions, TEE BEE. 

Ancient Arms of the See of York. Can any cor- 
respondent enlighten me as to the period, and 
why, the present arms were substituted for the 
ancient bearings of York ? The modern coat is, 
Gu. two keys in saltire arg., in chief an imperial 
crown proper. The ancient coat was blazoned, 
Az. an episcopal staff in pale or, and ensigned 
with a cross patee arg., surmounted by a pall of 
the last, edged and fringed of the second, charged 
with six crosses formee fitchee sa., and differed 
only from that of Canterbury in the number of 
crosses formee fitchee with which the pall was 
charged. TEE BEE. 

Hupfeld. Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." 
tell me where I can see Hupfeld, Von der Natur 
und den Arten der Sprachlaute, which is quoted by 
several German authors ? It appeared in Jalm's 
Jahrb. der Philol. und Pad., 1829. If no corre- 
spondent can refer me to any place where the 
paper can be seen in London, perhaps they can 
direct me to some account of its substance in some 
English publication. E. C. 

Inscription on a Tomb in Finland. Can any 
reader of " N. & Q." explain the meaning of the 
following inscription ? 

" IETATI8 IN SUBD1TOS 
MARTYRI 

,'IET:S COXIUGALIS 
:: :::iv." 

It appears on an old monument of considerable 
size in a Finnish burial-ground at, Martishkin near 
Peterhoff on the Gulf of Finland. The letters are 
in brass on a stone slab. The dots before the iv., 
and in the other word, are holes in the stone where- 
in the missing characters had been fixed. 

J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 

Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Eailway Tra- 
velling. Having been forcibly impressed by a 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



paragraph in a popular periodical (The Leisure 
Hour, No. 72.), I am desirous of learning upon 
what authority the statements therein depend 
As, perhaps, it may also prove interesting to some 
of the readers of " N. & Q." who may not already 
have seen it, and in the hope that some of your 
contributors may be able to throw a light upon so 
curious a subject, I herewith transcribe it : 

" Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway Travelling. 

Sir Isaac Newton wrote a work upon the prophet 
Daniel, and another upon the book of Revelation, in 
one of which he said that in order to fulfil certain pro- 
phecies before a certain date was terminated, namely, 
1260 years, there would be a mode of travelling ol 
which the men of his time had no conception ; nay, 
that the knowledge of mankind would be so increased, 
that they would be able to travel at the rate of fifty 
miles an hour. Voltaire, who did not believe in the 
inspiration of the scriptures, got hold of this, and said 

* Now look at that mighty mind of Newton, who dis- 
covered gravity, and told us such marvels for us all to 
admire. When he became an old man, and got into 
his dotage, he began to study that book called the 
Bible ; and it seems, that in order to credit its fabulous 
nonsense, we must believe that the knowledge of man- 
kind will be so increased that we shall be able to travel 
at the rate of fifty miles an hour. The poor dotard ! ' 
exclaimed the philosophic infidel Voltaire, in the self- 
complacency of his pity. But who is the dotard now ? 

Rev. J. Craig," 

The Query I would more particularly ask is 
(presuming the accuracy of the assertions), What 
is the prophecy so wonderfully fulfilled ? R. W. 

Tom Thumb's House at Gonerby, Lincolnshire. 
On the south-west side of the tower of the church 
of Great Gonerby, Lincolnshire, is a curious cor- 
nice representing a house with a door in the 
centre, an oriel window, &c., which is popularly 
called "Tom Thumb's Castle." I have a small 
engraving of it (" W. T. del. 1820, R. R. sculpt.") : 
and a pencil states that on the same tower are 
other " curious carvings." 

I would ask, therefore, Why carved ? From 
what event or occasion? For whom? Why 
called "Tom Thumb's House?" And what are 
the other curious carvings ? G. CREED. 

Mr. Payne Collier's Monovolume Shakspeare. 
I should be extremely obliged to MB. COLLIER, if 
he would kindly give me a public reply to the fol- 
lowing question. 

The express terms of the publication of his 
monovolume edition of Shakspeare, as advertised, 
were 

" The text regulated by the old copies, and by the 
recently discovered folio of 1632." 

These terms manifestly exclude corrections from 
any other source that those of collation of the old 
copies, and the MS. corrections of the folio of 1632. 



Now the text of MB. COLLIER'S monovolume 
reprint contains many of the emendations of the 
commentators not referred to in Notes and Emend- 
ations. For example: in The Taming of the Shrew, 
where Biondello runs in to announce the coming 
down the hill of the " ancient angel " (changed by 
the corrector into ambler), two other alterations in 
the same sentence appear without explanation in 
the regulated text, namely, mercatante substituted 
by Steevens for "marcantant" of the folios; and 
surely in lieu of " surly," which latter is the word 
of the folio 0/1632. 

I now ask MR. COLLIER, on what authority were 
these emendations adopted ? 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 



WILD PLANTS AND THEIR NAMES. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 175. 233.) 

Perhaps the following may prove of some use to 
ENIVRI, in reply to his Query respecting the names 
of certain wild flowers. 

1. Shepherd's Purse (Bursa pastoris). " Sic 
diet, a folliculis seminum, qui crumenulain referre 
videntur." Also called Poor Man's Parmacitty, 
" Quia ad contuses et casu afflictos instar sper- 
matis ceti utile est." Also St. James's Wort, 
" Quia circa ejus festum florescit," July 28th. 
Also called Pick-purse. 

2. Eye-bright, according to Skinner (Euphra- 
sia), Teut. Augentrost ; " Oculorum solamen, quia 
visum eximie acuit." Fluellin (Veronica femina), 
" Forte a Leolino aliquo Cambro-Brit. ejus inven- 
tore." 

3. Pass Wort, or Palsy Wort (Primula veris). 
" Herba paralyseos." 

4. Guelder Rose (Sambucus rosea). " Quia ex 
Gueldria hue translata est." Gueldria is, or rather 
was, a colony, founded by the Hollanders, on the 
coast of Coromandel. 

5. Ladies' Tresses, a corruption of traces. A 
and of orchis, and used, with its various appel- 
.ations, " sensu obsc." 

6. The Kentish term Gazel is not improbably 
;he same as Gale, which, Skinner says, is from the 

A.-S. Gugel (Myrtus brabantica). 

7. Stitch Wort (Gramen leucanthemum, alias 
Holostium pumiluni). " Sic diet, quia ad dolores 

aterum punctorios multum prodesse creditur." 

8. The term Knappert, for Bitter Vetch, is pro- 
jably a corruption of Knap Wort, the first syl- 

"able of which, as in Knap Weed and Knap Bottle, 
s derived from the sound or snap emitted by it 
when struck in the hollow of the hand. 

9. Charlock (Rapum syloestre") ; Anglo-Saxon 
Mice. 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



10. London Pride or Tufts (Armeria prolifera). 
" Sic diet, quia flores propter pulchritudinem 
Londini valde expetuntur." (?) 

11. Avens ; also Herb Bennet (Caryophyllata). 
Skinner says, " Herba Benedicta ab insigni radicis 
vulneraria vi." (?) 

12. Mill Mountain, or Purge Flax (Linum syl- 
vestre catharticum, or ChamcElinum). " Montibus 
gaudet." 

13. Jack of the Buttery. " Sedi species ; sic 
diet, quia in tecto galacterii crescit." Pricket: "a 
Bapore acri." 

14. Cudweed or Cotton Weed ; Live-long. 
*' Quia planta perennis est." 

15. Sun Spurge. " Quia flores ad ortum solis 
se aperiunt." Churn Staff, from its similarity. 

16. Welcome to our House (Tithymalus Cypa- 
rissias). " Ob pulchritudinem suam omnibus ex- 
petitus." 

17. Ruddes (Fl. Calendula). "Acolore aureo." 
Wild or Corn Marigold. "Q. d. aurum Mariae, 
a colore sc. floris luteo." Gouls or Goulans, with 
a half-suppressed d, may very well be supposed to 
indicate its natural name Gold. Another name 
of this plant is Lockron, or Locker Goulans. 

18. Spurry (Spergula). " Sic diet, quia folia 
ejus octo, angusta, stelliformia, radios calcaris satis 
exacte referunt." 

19. Mercury Goose-foot. Probably a goose-foot 
resembling Mercury (Mercurialis), a herb con- 
cerning which Skinner doubts, but suggests, " Quia 
Mercuric, ut ceterae omnes plants planetis, appro- 
priata sit." Another name is Good Henry, I find 
not Good King Henry (Lapathum unctuosurn), " A 
commodo ejus usu in enematis." It is also called 
All-good, forasmuch as it is useful, not only for its 
medicinal qualities, but also in supplying the table 
with a substitute for other vegetables, such as 
asparagus. 

A plant termed in this country Gang Flower is 
the same as Rogation Flower, recalling the peram- 
bulation of parishes on one of those days. There 
is a vast fund of interesting matter in these old 
names of wild flowers (mixed up, of course, with 
much that is trifling) ; and I cordially agree with 
your correspondent, that it is well worth a steady 
effort to rescue the fast-fading traditions relating 
to them. It must be confessed, however, that the 
obstacles in the way of tracing the original mean- 
ing and supposed virtues, will in many instances 
be found very great, arising principally from the 
fanciful translations and corruptions which our 
ancestors made of the old names. Take, for in- 
stance, the following : 

Loose Strife or Herb Willow, from Lysimacliia, 
the original being undoubtedly a man's name, 
Lysimachus. 

Ale-hoof (Hedera terrestris). Anglo-Saxon Al 
tiehafian. " Herba Trayxp^oros, ad multos usus effi- 
cacissima." 



Herb Ambrose has a Greek origin, &H&POTOS, and 
is not indebted to the saint of that name. 

Comfrey or Cumfrey. " Herba vulnera confer- 
ruminans ;" good for joining the edges of a 
wound. 

Calathian Violets. Simply cupped violets, from 
KaXados, 

Brank Ursin (Acanthus). " It. brancha, unguis 
ursinus." 

Blood Strange ; properly, String. To stanch. 

Bertram. A corruption of irvptdpov (Pyrethrum). 

Spreusidany, Hair-strong, Sulphur Wort. Cor- 
rupted from Peucedanum. 

Pell-a-mountain, Wild Thyme. From SerpyT- 
lum montanum. 

Faceless. From Phaseolus, dim. of Phaselus ; s& 
called from its shallop shape. 

Stick-a-dove, French Lavender. From aroixas, 
(TTtuxaSos, Stoechas; so called from the irregularity of 
the petals. 

Such instances might be multiplied to almost 
any extent. 

There is, doubtless, a good deal of scattered in- 
formation respecting old English wild flowers to 
be met with, not only in books, but also among 
our rural population, stored up by village sages. 
Contributions of this description would surely be 
welcome in " N. & Q." H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Herbs of all kinds were, some two hundred years 
ago, esteemed of much value as medicine ; for in a 
curious, and I believe rather scarce, pharmacopoeia 
by Wm. Salmon, date 1693, I find some 414 pages 
devoted to their uses. This pharmacopoeia, or Com- 
pleat English Physician, was dedicated to Mary, 
second Queen of England, Scotland, France, Ire- 
land, &c., and appears to have been the first. The 
preface says " it was the first of that kind extant 
in the world, a subject for which we have no pre- 
cedent." 

" I have not trusted," he says, "to the reports of 
authors, but have wrote as an eye-witness in describing 
most things therein ; and it is nothing but what I 
know and have learnt by daily experience for thirty 
years together, so that my prescriptions may in some 
measure plead a privilege above the performances of 
other men." 

1. Capsella (Bursa pastoris) he describes as cold 
1, and dry in 2, binding and astringent. Good 
against spitting of blood or haemorrhage of th 
nose, and other fluxes of the bowels. The leaves, 
of which 5J- in powder may be given. The juice 
inspissate, drunk with wine, helps ague. A cata- 
plasm applied in inflammations, Anthony's fire, 
&c., represses them. 

2. Veronica Chamadrys he calls Euphrasia, 
Euphrosunee, and says it is much commended by 
Arnoldus de Villa Nova, who asserts that it not 
only helps dimness of the sight, but the use of & 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



makes old men to read small letters without spec- 
tacles, who could scarcely read great letters with 
spectacles before ; but that it did restore their 
sight who had been a long time blind. Truly a 
most wonderful plant ; and, if he freely used it, 
must have been a great drawback to spectacle- 
makers. 

3. Primula veris, he says, more properly belongs 
to the primrose than cowslip. The root is hau- 
matic, and helps pains in the back. The herb is 
cephalic, neurotic, and arthritic. The juice or 
essence, with spirits of wine, stops all manner of 
fluxes, is excellent against palsy, gout, and pains, 
and distempers of the nerves and joints. A cata- 
plasm of the juice, with rye meal, is good against 
luxations and ruptures. The flowers are good 
against palsy, numbness, convulsions, and cramps, 
being given in a sulphurous or a saline tincture, 
or an oily tincture, or an essence of the juice with 
spirits of wine. The juice of the flowers, or an 
ointment of the flower or its juice, cleanses the 
skin from spots, though the worthy old physician 
only gives a receipt for making essence as follows : 
Beat the whole plant well in a mortar ; add to it 
an equal quantity of brandy or spirits of wine; 
close up tight in a large bolt-head, and set it to 
digest in a very gentle sand-heat for three months. 
Strain out all the liquor, which close up in a bolt- 
head again, and digest in a gentle sand-heat for 
two months more. Rather a troublesome and 
slow process this. 

4. Geum urbanum he calls Caryophyllata, Herba 
benedicta, and Geum Plinii, and should be gathered, 
he says, in the middle of March, for then it smells 
sweetest, and is most aromatic. Hot and dry in 
the 2, binding, strengthening, discussive, cepha- 
lic, neurotic, and cardiac. Is a good preservative 
against epidemic and contagious disease ; helps 
digestion. The powder of the root, dose $j. The 
decoction, in wine, stops spitting of blood, dose 5ss 
to 5Jss. The saline tincture opens all obstructions 
of the viscera, dose 5j to ^iij. 

Should ENIVRI wish to know the medical virtues 
of our wild plants, I have no doubt but that this 
worthy old physician will tell him what virtues 
they were considered to possess in his day, at least 
by himself; and I can assure him that 1195 of the 
English Physician's pages ascribe marvellous pro- 
perties, not only to plants, but to animals, fish, and 
even the bones of a stag's heart. R. J. SHAW. 



JACOB BOBART. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 428. 578.) 

I am exceedingly obliged for the information 
afforded by DR. E. F. EJMBAUJLT concerning the 
Bobarts. Can he give me any more communication 
concerning them ? I am anxious to learn all I can. 
I have old Jacob Bobart's signature, bearing date 



1659, in which he spells his name with an e in- 
stead of a, which seems to have been altered to an 
a by his son Jacob. 

In Vertumnus it says Bobart's Hortus Siccus 
was in twenty volumes ; but the Oxford Botanic 
Garden Guide only mentions twelve quarto vo- 
lumes : which is correct, and where is it ? In 
one of my copies of Vertumnus, a scrap of paper is 
fixed to p. 29., and the following is written upon 
it: 

" The Hortus Siccus here alluded to was sold at the 
Rev. Mr. Hodgkinson's sale at Sarsden, to Mrs. De 
Sails, wife of Dr. De Sails." 

Is there any pedigree of the family ? 

In a letter of Jno. Ray's to Mr. Aubrey is the 
following : 

" I am glad that Mr. Bobart hath been so diligent 
in observing and making a collection of insects." 

Is there any collection extant ? 

" He may give me much assistance in my intended 
Synopsis of our English Animals, and contribute much 
to the perfecting of it." 

Did he do so ? 

Is the print of old Jacob Bobart, by "W. Ri- 
chardson, valuable ? 

Where can I pick up a print of him by Loggan 
del., Burghers sculp. ? There is a portrait of Jacob 
Bobart the younger in Oxford Almanack for 
1719 ; can I procure it? H. T. BOBABT. 



HERALDIC QUERIES. 

(Vol. vii., p. 571.) 

CETREP is informed, 1st, That a shield in the 
form of a lozenge was appropriated exclusively to 
females, both spinsters and widows, in order to 
distinguish the sex of the bearer of a coat of arms. 
It is of doubtful origin, though supposed, from the 
form, to symbolise the spindle with yarn wound 
round it ; of good authority, and not of very modern 
date. Many instances may be seen in Fuller, in 
the coats of arms appended to the dedications of 
the various chapters of his Church History. In 
sect. ii. book vi. p. 282. ed. 1655, he has separated 
the coats of man and wife, and placed them side by 
side ; that of the latter upon a lozenge-shaped 
shield Party per pale arg. and gules, two eagles 
displayed, counterchanged. 

2ndly, No one has a right to inscribe a motto 
upon a garter or riband, except those dignified 
with one of the various orders of knighthood. For 
any other person to do so, is a silly assumption. 
The motto should be upon a scroll, either over the 
crest, or beneath the shield. 

Srdly, I cannot find that it was ever the custom 
in this country for ecclesiastics to bear their pa- 
ternal coat on an oval or circular shield. For- 
bidden, as they were, by the first council of Mas- 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



con, Bingham, vi. 421., in the Excerptions of 
Ecgbright, A.D. 740, Item 154., and the Consti- 
tutions of Othobon, A.D. 1268, can. 4., to bear 
arms for the purposes of warfare, it is a question 
whether any below the episcopal order ought, in 
strict right, to display any armorial ensigns at all. 
Archbishops and bishops bear the arms of their 
sees impaled (as of their spouse) with their own 
paternal coats ; the latter probably only in right of 
their baronies. It is worthy of remark that, since 
the Reformation, and consequent marriage of 
bishops, there has been no official decision as to 
the bearing the arms of their wives, nor has any 
precedence been granted to the latter. H. C. K. 
Rectory, Hereford. 



DOOR-HEAD INSCRIPTIONS. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 585.) 

A few years ago I copied the following inscrip- 
tion from over the door of the residence of a parish 
priest at Cologne : 

" Protege Deus parochiam hanc propter 
Te et S.S. tuum, sicut protexisti 
Jerusalem propter Te et David servum 
tuum. IV Reg. xx. 6. 

A.D. 1787." 

From the gateway leading into the Villa 
Borghese, just outside of the " Porta del Popolo," 
at Home, I copied the following : 

" Villae Burghesiaa Pincianje 
. Gustos haec edico. 

Quisquis es, si liber 
legum compedes ne hie timeas. 
Ite quo voles, carpite quae voles, 

Abite quando voles. 
Exteris magis baec parantur 

quam hero. 

In aureo sasculo ubi cuncta aurea 
temporum securitas fecit 

bene morato : 
Hospiti ferreas leges praefigere 

herus vetat. 
Sit hie pro amico, pro lege 

honesta voluntas. 

Verum si quis dolo malo, lubens, sciens 
aureas urbanitatis leges fregerit, 

Caveat ne sibi 

Tesseram amicitia? subiratus villicus 
advorsum frangat." 

On the entrance into the Villa Medici are the 
two following : 

" Aditurus hortos hospes, in 

summo ut vides 
colle hortulorum consitos, 

si forte quid 
audes probare, scire debes 

hos hero 

herique amicis esse apertos 
omnibus." 



" Ingressurus hospes hosce quos 

ingentibus 
instruxit hortos sumptibus 

suis Medices 
Fernandus expleare visendo 

licet : 
atque his fruendo plura 

Velle nondecet." 

The following I copied from a gateway leading 
into a vineyard near the church of San Eusebio, 
at Rome : 

" Tria sunt mirabilia ; 
Trinus et unus, 
Deus et homo, 
Virgo et mater." 

CEYREP. 



CONSECRATED ROSES. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480.) 

I forward the accompanying observations on the 
origin of the Rosa d'Oro, in compliance with the 
request contained at page 480. of the 185th No. 
of " N. & Q.," in case they should not have come 
under your observation. They are to be found in 
Histoire de Lorraine, par R. P. Dom. Calmet : 
Nancy, 1745. ' 

" Le troisieme monastere fonde par les parens de 
St. Leon est PAbbaye de Volfenheim, a deux lieues de 
Colmar, vers le Midi, et a deux lieues environs d'Eges- 
heim, chateau des Comtes de Dasbourg, aujourd'hui 
(1745) inhabits, mais bien remarquable par ces vastes 
ruines, sur le sommet des montagnes qui dominent sur 
1' Alsace. 

" Volfenheim etoit un village considerable, a une lieue 
et demi de Colmar. On voie encore aujourd'hui a une 
demi Ii2ue de Sainte Croix dans les champs, Peglise qui 
lui servoit autrefois de paroisse. L'abbaye etoit a 
quelque distance de lii, au lieu ou est aujourd'hui le 
bourg de Sainte Croix. 

" Volfenheim ayant etoit [ Qucere, ete] mine' par les 
guerres, les habitans se sont insensiblement etablis 
autour de Pabbaye, ce qui a forme un bon bourg, connu 
sous le nom de Sainte Croix ; parceque Pabbaye etoit 
consacree sous cette invocation. Le Pape Leon IX., 
dans la Bulle qu'il donna a ce monastere la premiere 
annee de son pontificat, de J. C. 1O49, nous apprend 
qu'il avoit ete fonde par son pere Hughes et sa mere 
Heilioilgdis, et sesfreres Gerard et Hugues, qui etoient 
deja decedes; il ajoute que ce lieu lui etoit tombe par 
droit de succession; il le met sous la protection speciale 
du Saint Siege, en sorte que nulle personne, de quelque 
qualite qu'elle soit, n'y exerce aucune autorite, mais 
qu'il jouisse d'une pleine liberte, et quo Pabbesseet les 
religieuses puissent employer quelque eveque ils juge- 
roient apropos pour les benedictions d'autels, et autres 
fonctions qui regardent le ministere episcopal : que son 
neveu, le Comte Henri Seigneur d'Egesheim, en soit 
la voiie, et apres lui, Paine des Seigneurs d'Egesheim. 
a. perpetuite. 

" Que si cette race vient a manquer, Tabbesse et le 
couvent choisiront quelque autre de la parente de ces 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



39 



seigneurs, afin que 1'avocatie ne soit pas de leur race, 
et qu'apres la tnort de Kuentza, qui en etoit abbesse, 
et a qui le Pape avoit donne la benediction abbatiale, 
les religieuses choisissent de leur 'communaute, ou 
d'ailleurs, celle qui leur paroitra la plus propre, re- 
servant toujours au Pape le droit de la benir. Et en 
reconnaissance d'un privilege si singulier, 1'abbesse 
donnera tous les ans au Saint Siege une Rose d'Or du 
poids de deux onces Romaines. Elle Penvoyera toute 
faite, ou en envoyera la matiere prepared, de telle sorte 
qu'elle soit rendue au Pape huit jours auparavant qu'il 
la porte, c'est-a-dire, le Dimancbe de Careme, ou Ton 
chante a 1'Introite, ' Oculi mei semper ad Dominum ;' 
afin qu'il puisse benir au Dimanche ' Lsetare,' qui est 
le quatrieme du Careme. Telle est I'origine de la 
Rose d'Or, que le Pape benit encore aujourd'hui le 
quatrieme Dimanche de Careme, nomine ' LaHare,' et 
qu'il envoye a quelque prince pour marque d'estime 
et de bienveillance. Ce jour-la, la station se fait a 
Sainte Croix de Jerusalem. Le Pape, accompagne des 
cardinaux, vetus de couleur de rose, marche en caval- 
cade a Peglise, tenant la Rose d'Or a la main. II la 
porte, allant a 1'autel, charge 1 de baume et de mare. II 
la quitte au ' Confiteor,' et la reprend apres '1'Introite.' 
II en fait la Benediction, et apres 1'Evangile, il monte 
en chaise et explique les proprietes de la rose. Apres 
la Messe il retourne en cavalcade a son palais, ayant 
toujours la Rose en main et la couronne sur la tete. On 
appelle ce Dimanche ' Pascha rosata,' ou Lastare.' 

" Nous avons encore un sermon du Pape Inno- 
cent III., compose en cette occasion, au commence- 
ment du treizieme siecle. Le Pape Nicholas IV., en 
1^90, dans le denombrement qu'il fait des eglises 
qui doivent des redevances a 1'eglise de Rome, met le 
monastere de Sainte Croix, diocese de Basle, qui doit 
deux onces d'or pour la Rose d'Or, qui se benit au 
Dimauche Lzetere, Jerusalem." 

P. P. P. 



NOTES ON SERPENTS. 

(Vol. ii., p. 130.; Vol. vi., p. 177. Vol. iii., p. 490.; 
Vol. vi., pp. 42. 147.) 

Loskiel, in his account of the Moravian missions 
to the North American Indians *, tells us that, 

" The Indians are remarkably skilled in curing the 
bite of venomous serpents, and have found a medicine 
peculiarly adapted to the bite of each species. For 
example, the leaf of the Rattlesnake-root (Polygala 
senega) is the most efficacious remedy against the bite 
of this dreadful animal. God has mercifully granted 
it to grow in the greatest plenty in all parts most in- 
fested by the rattlesnake. It is very remarkable that 
this herb acquires its greatest perfection just at the time 
when the bite of these serpents is the most dangerous. 
..... Virginian Snake-root (Aristolochia serpentaria) 

* The title of this curious book is, Geschichte der 
Mission der evangelischen Briider unter den Indianern in 
Nordamerika, durch Georg H. Loskiel: Barby, 1789, 
Svo., pp. 783. Latrobe's translation of this book was 
published Lond. 1 794. 



chewed, makes also an excellent poultice for wounds of 

this sort The fat of the serpent itself, rubbed 

into the wound, is thought to be efficacious. The 
flesh of the rattlesnake, dried and boiled to a broth, is 
said to be more nourishing than that of the viper, and 
of service in consumptions. Their gall is likewise used 
as medicine."; P. 146. 

Pigs are excepted from the dreadful effects of 
their bite ; they will even attack and eat them. It 
is said that, if a rattlesnake is irritated and cannot 
be revenged, it bites itself, and dies in a few hours : 

" Wird dieses Thier zornig gemacht, und es kann 
sich nicht rachen, so beiszt es sich selbst. und in wenig 
Stunden ist es tout.", P. 113.* 

" I have seen some of our Canadians eat these rattle- 
snakes repeatedly. The flesh is very white, and they 
assured me had a delicious taste. Their manner of 

dressing them is very simple Great caution, 

however, is required in killing a snake for eating ; for 
if the first blow fails, or only partially stuns him, he in- 
stantly bites himself in different parts of the body, which 
thereby become poisoned, and would prove fatal to any 
person who should partake of it." Cox's Adv. on the 
Columbia River: Lond. 1832, p. 74. 

" Dr. Fordyce knew the black servant of an Indian 
merchant in America, who was fond of soup made of 
rattlesnakes, in which he always boiled the head along 
with the rest of the animal, without any regard to the 
poison." Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

" There is a religious sect in Africa, not far from 
Algiers, which eat the most venomous serpents alive ; 
and certainly, it is said, without extracting their fangs. 
They declare they enjoy the privilege from their 
founder. The creatures writhe and struggle between 
their teeth ; but possibly, if they do bite them, the 
bite is innocuous." 

Mrs. Crowe, in the concluding chapter of her 
Night-side of Nature, gives the testimony of an 
eye-witness to "the singular phenomenon to be 
observed by placing a scorpion and a mouse to- 
gether under a glass." 

" It is known that stags renew their age by eating 
serpents ; so the phoenix is restored by the nest of 
spices she makes to burn in. The pelican hath the 
same virtue, whose right foot, if it be put under hot 
dung, after three months a pelican will be bred from 
it. Wherefore some physicians, with some confections 
made of a viper and hellebore, and of some of the flesh 
of these creatures, do promise to restore youth, and some- 
times they do it."^ 

On reading any of our old herbalists, one would 
imagine that serpents (and those of the worst 
kind) abounded in " Merrie Englande," and that 
they were the greatest bane of our lives. It is 

* This reminds one of the notion respecting 

" The scorpion girt with fire," 
immortalised by Lord Byron's famous simile. 

f Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art and Nature ; 
being the Summe and Substance of Naturall Philosophy 
methodically digested : London, 1661. 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193, 



hard to stumble on a plant that is not an antidote 
to the bite of serpents. Our old herbals were com- 
piled, however, almost entirely from the writings 
of the ancients, and from foreign sources. The 
ancients had a curious notion relative to the plant 
Basil (Oscimum basilicum), viz., "That there is a 
property in Basil to propagate scorpions, and that 
by the smell thereof they are bred in the brains of 
men." Others deny this wonderful property, and 
make Basil a simple antidote. 

" According unto Oribasius, physician unto Julian, 
the Africans, men best experienced in poisons, affirm, 
whosoever hath eaten Basil, although he be stung with 
a scorpion, shall feel no pain thereby, which is a very 
different effect, and rather antidotally destroying than 
seminally promoting its production." Sir Thomas 
Browne, Vulgar Errors. 

An old writer gives the following anecdote in 
point : 

" Francis Marcio, an eminent statesman of Genoa, 
having sent an ambassador from that republic to the 
Duke of Milan, when he could neither procure an 
audience of leave from that prince, nor yet prevail 
with him to ratify his promises made to the Genoese, 
taking a fit opportunity, presented a handful of the 
herb Basil to the duke. The duke, somewhat sur- 
prised, asked what that meant ? ' Sir,' replied the am- 
bassador, ' this herb is of that nature, that if you handle 
it gently without squeezing, it will emit a pleasant and 
grateful scent ; but if you squeeze and gripe it, 'twill 
not only lose its colour, but it will become productive of 
scorpions in a little time." The Entertainer: London, 
1717, p. 23. 

Pliny tells us that a decoction from the leaves 
of the ash tree, given as a drink, is such a remedy 
that " nothing so soveraigne can be found against 
the poison of serpents ;" and farther : 

" That a serpent dare not come neare the sliadduw of that 
tree. The serpent will chuse rather to goe into the 
fire than to flie from it to the leaves of the ash. A 
wonderful goodnesse of Dame Nature, that the ash 
doth bloome and flourish alwaies before that serpents 
come abroad, and never sheddeth leaves, but continueth 
green until! they be retired into their holes, and hidden 
within the ground." 

The ancient opinion respecting the rooted anti- 
pathy between the ash and the serpent is not to 
be explained merely by the fact in natural history 
of its being an antidote, but it has a deeply myth- 
ical meaning. See, in the Prose Edda, the account 
of the ash 1 ggdrasill, and the serpents gnawing its 
roots. Loskiel corroborates Pliny as to the ash 
being an antidote : 

" A decoction of the buds or bark of the white ash 
(Fraxinus Carolina) taken inwardly is said to be a cer- 
tain remedy against the effects of poison," i.e. of the 
rattlesnake. 

Serpents afford Pliny a theme for inexhaustible 
wonders. The strangest of his relations perhaps 



is where he tells us that serpents, " when they 
have stung or bitten a man, die for very greefe 
and sorrow that they have done such a mischeefe." 
He makes a special exception, however, of the 
murderous salamander, who has no such " pricke 
and remorse of conscience," but would " destroy 
whole nations at one time," if not prevented. In 
this same book (xxix.) he gives a receipt for 
making the famous theriacum, or treacle, of vipers' 
flesh. Another strange notion of the ancients was 
"that the marrow of a man's backe bone will breed 
to a snake " (Hist. Nat., x. 66.). This perhaps, 
originally, had a mystic meaning ; for a great pro- 
portion of the innumerable serpent stories have a 
deeper foundation than a credulous fancy or lively 
imagination. 

Take, for instance, the wide-spread legend of 
the sea-serpent. Mr. Deane says, 

" The superstition of ' the serpent in the sea ' was 
known to the Chinese, as we observed in the chapter 
on the ' Serpent-worship of China.' But it was doubt- 
less, at one time, a very general superstition among the 
heathens, for we find it mentioned by Isaiah, ch. xxvii. 
1., 'In that day the Lord, with his sore and great and 
strong sword, shall punish Leviathan the piercing ser- 
pent, even Leviathan that crooked serpent : and He 
shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.' " 

In Blackwood's Magazine, vol. ii. p. 645., vol. iv. 
pp. 33. 205., may be found some interesting papers 
on the " Scrakin, or Great Sea Serpent." 

Mr. Deane's Worship of the Serpent (London, 
1830), and The Cross and the Serpent, by the Rev. 
Win. Haslam (London, 1849), are noble works 
both of them, and ought to be in the hands of 
every Christian scholar. In these two words, 
" Cross " and " Serpent," we have an epitome of 
the history of the world and the human race, as 
well as the ground-work for all our hopes and 
fears. In them are bound up the highest mys- 
teries, the truest symbolism, the deepest realities, 
and our nearest and dearest interests. 

Lord Bacon thus narrates the classical fable 
which accounts for the serpent's being gifted with 
the power of restoring youth : 

" The gods, in a merry mood, granted unto men not 
only the use of fire, but perpetual youth also, a boon 
most acceptable and desirable. They being as it were 
overjoyed, did foolishly lay this gift of the gods upon 
the back of an ass, who, being wonderfully oppressed 
with thirst and near a fountain, was told by a serpent 
(which had the custody thereof) that he should not 
drink unless he would promise to give him the burthen 
that was on his hack. The silly ass accepted the con- 
dition, and so the restoration of youth {sold for a draught 
of water) passed from men to serpents." The Wisdom of 
the Ancients (Prometheus, xxvi.). 

That this, as well as the whole of the legend re- 
lating to Prometheus, is a confused account of an 
early tradition relative to the Fall of Man, and 
his forfeiture of immortality, is obvious to any 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



unprejudiced mind. Lord Bacon's explanation 
shows that he has been overreached by his fancy 
and ingenuity. 

In all the ancient mysteries, the serpent was 
more or less conspicuously introduced, and always 
as a symbol of the invigorating or active power of 
nature. The serpent was an emblem of the sun. 
Solar, Phallic, and Serpent worship, are all forms 
of a single worship.* The Hindu Boodh, Chinese 
Fo, Egyptian Osiris, Northern Woden, Mexican 
Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent), are one and the 
same. (See the American Archceological Re- 
searches, No. 1.; The Serpent Symbol, and the 
Worship of the Reciprocal Principles of Nature 
in America, by E. G. Squier : New York, 1851.) 

In Hindostan, to this day, we have the Chau- 
dravanasas and the Snaryavanasas, worshippers of 
the moon, the aqueous or female ; and of the sun, 
the igneous or male principle. The Saivas conjoin 
the two. Clemens Alexandrinus has a curious re- 
mark, referring to the calling on Evoe or Eva in 
the orgies of Bacchus ; he says : 

" The symbol in the orgies of Bacchus is a conse- 
crated serpent ; and, indeed, if we pay attention to the 
strict sense of the Hebrew, the name Evia, aspirated, 
signifies female serpent.'" 

In my list of saints who are represented with a 
dragon or serpent beneath their feet, I omitted 
St. Hilary : 

" He is usually represented with three books. In 
Callot's Images he is treading on serpents, and accom- 
panied by the text Numb. xxi. 7. Both these emblems 
allude to his opposition to Arianism ; the books signi- 
fying the treatises he wrote against it, and the serpents 
the false doctrines and heresies which he overthrew." 
Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated : London, 
1851, p. 37. 

In Didron's splendid work (the Iconographie) 
we have several references to ancient represent- 
ations of our blessed Lord treading the dragon 
under foot ; and sometimes the lion, the asp, and 
the basilisk are added. (See Ps. xci. 13.) 

The Conception is usually represented in Chris- 
tian art by a figure of Mary setting her foot, as 
second Eve, on the head of the prostrate serpent 
(in allusion to Gen. iii. 15.), and thus we find it in 
Callot's Images. 

" Not seldom, in a series of subjects from the Old 
Testament, the pendant to Eve holding the apple is 
Mary crushing the head of the fiend: and thus the bane 

* In O'Brien's work on The Hound Towers of Ire- 
land, London, 1834, may be found much curious matter 
on this subject ; and a good deal of light is thrown on 
the horrors of Serpent or Boodhist worship. It is, 
however, a wild and irreverent book, and by no means 
to be recommended to the general reader, independently 
of the nature of its details. Mr. Payne Knight's book 
is too well known to need mention here. 



and antidote are both before us." 
Legends of the Madonna.) 



(See Mrs. Jameson's 
ElRIONNACH. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Early Notice of the Camera Obscura. I send you 
an early notice of the camera obscura, which is to 
be found in vol. vi. of the Nouvelles de la Repub- 
lique des Letlres for September, 1686, p. 1016. It 
is taken from a letter of Mons. Laurenti, medecin, 
of Boulogne, " Sur 1' erection des especes dans une 
chambre optique." 

" C'est ainsi qu'on nomme line chambre exactement 
fermee partout, si ce n'est dans un endroit par ou on 
laisse entrer la lumiere, afin de voir peints, et situes a. 
rebours, sur un morceau de papier blanc, les objets de 
dehors qui respondent a ce trou, auquel il faut mettre 
un verre convexe. On a souhaite, pour donner plus 
d'agr<5ment a ce spectacle, que les objets se peignissent 
sur ce papier selon leur veritable situation ; et pour cet 
effet on a cherche des expediens qui redressassent les 
especes avant qu'elles parvinssent au foier du verre, 
c'est-a-dire, sur le papier. L'auteur raporte ' 10' de 
ces expediens, et trouve dans chacun d'eux quelque 
chose d'incommode ; mais enfin il en raporte un autre, 
qui est exempt de toutes ces incommoditez, et qui, par 
le moien d'un prisme, au travers duquel il faut regarder 
les images peints sur le papier, les montre dans leur 
situation droite, et augmente meme la vivacite de leurs 
couleurs. C'est le hazard qui a decouvert ce pheno- 
niene." 

This letter is to be found at length in the Mis- 
cellanea Curiosa, sive Ephemeridum Medico-Physi- 
carum Oermanicarum Academics Natures curiosorum 
decuriall. annus quartus, anni 1685 continens cele- 
berrimorum Virorum observations medicas : Norim- 
bergje, 1686, in 4to. It may perhaps be worth 
consulting, if it were only to know what the ten 
rejected expedients are. ANON. 

Queries on Dr. Diamond's Collodion Process. 
Will you oblige me by informing DR. DIAMOND 
through your valuable publication, that I am, in 
common with many others, extremely indebted to 
him for his collodion, and would esteem it a favour 
if he would answer the following Queries, viz. : 

1 st. He says, in answer to a previous Query, 
that " nitrate of potassa " is not formed in his 
process. Now I wish to ask if (as the iodide of 
silver is redissolved in iodide of potassium) it is 
not formed when the plate is plunged into the 
nitrate silver bath, as the nitrate decomposes the 
iodide of potassium ? 

2nd. How long will the collodion, according to 
his formulae, keep, as collodion made with iodide 
of silver generally decomposes quickly. 

3rdly. Why does he prohibit washed ether ? 

4thly. Does he think cyanide of potassium, would 
do as well as the iodide, to redissolve the iodide of 
silver, iodide of potassium being at present so dear ? 



42 



NOTES AXD QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



Sthly. In his paper process, does not the soaking 
in water after iodizing merely take away a portion 
of iodides of silver and potassium from the paper ; 
or, if not, what end is answered by it ? W. F. E. 

Baths for the Collodion Process. Having lately 
been assured, by a gentleman of scientific attain- 
ments, that the sensitiveness of the prepared col- 
lodion plate depends rather upon the strength of 
the nitrate of silver bath than on the collodion, 
I am desirous of asking how far the experience of 
your correspondents confirms this statement. My 
informant assured me, that if, instead of using a 
solution of thirty grains of nitrate of silver to the 
ounce of water for the bath, which is the propor- 
tion recommended by Messrs. Archer, Home, 
Delamotte, Diamond, &c., a sixty grain solution 
be substituted, the formation of the image would 
be the work of the fraction of a second. This 
seems to me so important as to deserve being 
brought under the notice of photographers espe- 
cially at this busy season without a moment's 
delay; and I therefore record the statement at 
once, as, from circumstances with which I need 
not encumber your pages, I shall not have an 
opportunity of trying any experiments upon the 
point for a week or two. 

Upon referring to the authorities on the sub- 
ject of the best solution for baths, I have been 
struck with their uniformity. One exception only 
has presented itself, which is in a valuable paper by 
Mr. Thomas in the 6th Number of the Journal of 
the Photographic Society. That gentleman directs 
the bath to be prepared in the following manner : 

Into a 20 oz. stoppered bottle, put 

Nitrate of silver 1 oz. 

Distilled water - - 10 oz. 
Dissolve. 

Iodide of potassium - - 5 grs. 

Distilled water 1 dr. 

Dissolve. 

On mixing these two solutions, a precipitate of 
iodide of silver is formed. Place the bottle con- 
taining this mixture in a saucepan of hot water, 
keep it on the hob for about twelve hours, shake 
it occasionally, now and then removing the stop- 
per. The bath is now perfectly saturated with 
iodide of silver ; when cold, filter through white 
filtering paper, and add 

Alcohol - - - 2 drs. 
Sulphuric ether - - 1 dr. 

The prepared glass is to remain in the bath about 
eight or ten minutes. Now, is this bath appli- 
cable to all collodion, or only to that prepared by 
Mr. Thomas ; and if the former, what is the ra- 
tionale of its beneficial action ? A BEGINNER. 



iHfttor 

Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger 
(Vol. vii., p. 573.). If your correspondent 
II. B. C. really wishes to be released from his 
hard work in hunting up the truth of my and 
other narratives of the mitigation of capital pu- 
nishment to forgers, I shall be happy to receive a 
note from him with his name and address, when I 
will give him the name and address of my in- 
formant in return. By this means I may be able 
to relieve his shoulder from a portion of its 
burden, and myself from any farther imputations 
of " mythic accompaniments," &c., which are un- 
palatable phrases even when coming from a gen- 
tleman who only discloses hi initials. 

ALFRED GATTT. 

Ecclesfield. 

Chronograms (Vol. v., p. 585.) and Anagrams 
(Vol. iv., p. 226). Though we have ceased to 
practise these " literary follies," they are not with- 
out interest ; and you will ,perhaps think it worth 
while to add the following to your list : 

" Hugo Grotius, his Sophompaneas. 
By FranCIs GoLDsMIth." 

has no date on the title-page, the real date of 
1652 being supplied by the chronogram, which is 
a better one than most of those quoted in "N. & 
Q.," inasmuch as all the numerical letters are em- 
ployed, and it is consequently not dependent on 
the typography. 

James Howell concludes his Parly of Beasts as 
follows : 

" Gloria lausque Deo sasCLorVM in sascVla sunto. 

A chronogrammaticall verse which includes not onely 
this year, 1660, but hath numericall letters enow [an 
illustration, by the way, of enow as expressive of num- 
ber] to reach above a thousand years farther, untill the 
year 2867." 

Query, How is this made out ? And are there 
any other letters employed as numerical than the 
M, D, C, L, V, and I ? If not, I can only make 
Howell's chronogram equivalent to 1927. 

The same author, in his German Diet, after nar- 
rating the death of Charles, son of Philip II. of 
Spain, says : 

" If you desire to know the yeer, this chronogram 
will tell you : 

f ILIVs ante DIeM patrlos InqVIrlt In annos," 

which would represent the date of 1568. 

The same work contains an anagram on "Frere 
Jacques Clement," the murderer of Henry III. of 
France : " C'est 1'enfer qui m'a cree." J. F. M. 

Abigail (Vol. iv., p. 424. ; Vol. v., pp. 38. 94. 
450.). Can it be shown that this word was in 
general use, as meaning a " lady's maid," before 
the time of Queen Anne. It probably was so used ; 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



"but I have always thought it likely that it became 
much more extensively employed, after Abigail 
Hill, Lady Masham, became the favourite of that 
queen. She was, I believe, a poor cousin of Sarah 
Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, and early in 
life was employed by her in the humble capacity 
of lady's maid. After she had supplanted the 
haughty duchess, it is not unlikely that the Whigs 
would take a malicious pleasure in keeping alive 
the recollection of the early fortunes of the Tory 
favourite, and that they would be unwilling to 
lose the opportunity of speaking of a lady's maid 
as anything else but an " Abigail." Swift, how- 
ever, in his use of the word, could have no such 
design, as he was on the best of terms with the 
Mashams, of whose party he was the very life and 
soul. H. T. RILEY. 

Burial in unconsecrated Ground(Vol. vi., p. 448.). 
Susanna, the wife of Philip Carteret Webb, Esq., 
of Busbridge, in Surrey, died at Bath in March, 
1756, and was, at her own desire, buried with 
two of her children in a cave in the grounds at 
Busbridge ; it being excavated by a company of 
soldiers then quartered at Guildford. Their re- 
mains were afterwards disinterred, and buried in 
Godalming Church. H. T. RILEY. 

" Cob" and " Couriers" (Vol. vii., pp. 234. 321.). 
These names are not synonymous, nor are they 
Irish words. It is the pier at Lyme Regis, and 
not the harbour, which bears the name of the Cob. 
In the " Y Gododin" of Aneurin, a British poem 
supposed to have been written in the sixth century, 
the now obsolete word chynnwr occurs in the 
seventy-sixth stanza. In a recent translation of this 
poem, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel, M.A.," 
this word is rendered, apparently for the sake of the 
metre, "shore of the sea." The explanation given 
in a foot-note is, " Harbour cynwr from cyn du-fr." 
On the shore of the estuary of the Dee, between 
Chester and Flint, on the Welsh side of the river, 
there is a place called " Connah's Quay." It is 
probable that the ancient orthography of the name 
was Conner. 

Cob, I think, is also a British word, cop, a 
mound. All the ancient earth-works which bear 
this name, of which I have knowledge, are of a 
circular form, except a long embankment called 
The Cop, which has been raised on the race-course 
at Chester, to protect it from the land-floods and 
spring-tides of the river Dee. N. W. S. (2.) 

Coleridge's Unpublished MSS. (Vol. iv., p. 411.; 
Vol. vi., p. 533.). THEOPHYLACT, at the first re- 
ference, inquired whether we are " ever likely to 
receive from any member of Coleridge's family, or 
from his friend Mr. J. H. Green, the fragments, 
if not the entire work, of his Logosophia." Agree- 
ing with your correspondent, that "we can ill 
afford to lose a work the conception of which en- 



grossed much of his thoughts," I repeated the 
Query in another form, at the second reference 
(supra), grounding it upon an assurance of Sara 
Coleridge, in her introduction to the Biographia 
Literaria, that the fragment on Ideas would here- 
after appear, as a sequel to the Aids to 'Reflection. 
Whether this fragment be identical with the Logo- 
sophia, or, as I suspect, a distinct essay, certain it 
is that nothing of the kind has ever been published. 

From an interesting conversation I had with 
Dr. Green in a railway carriage, on our return 
from the Commemoration at Oxford, I learned 
that he has in his possession, (1.) A complete sec- 
tion of a work on The Philosophy of Nature^ 
which he took down from the mouth of Coleridge, 
filling a large volume ; (2.) A complete treatise 
on Logic ; and (3.) If I did not mistake, a frag- 
ment on Ideas. The reason Dr. Green assigns for 
their not having been published, is, that they con- 
tain nothing but what has already seen the light 
in the Aids to Reflection, The Theory of Life, and 
the Treatise on Method. This appears to me a 
very inadequate reason for withholding them from 
the press. That the works would pay, there can 
be no doubt. Besides the editing of these MSS. r 
who is so well qualified as Dr. Green to give us a. 
good biography of Coleridge ? 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Selling a Wife (Vol. vii., p. 602.). A case of 
selling a wife actually and bond fide happened in 
the provincial town in which I reside, about 
eighteen years ago. A man publicly sold his wife 
at the market cross for 151. : the buyer carried her 
away with him some seven miles off, and she lived 
with him till his death. The seller and the buyer 
are both now dead, but the woman is alive, and is 
married to a third (or a second) husband. The 
legality of the transaction has, I believe, some 
chance of being tried, as she now claims some 
property belonging to her first husband (the seller), 
her right to which is questioned in consequence of 
her supposed alienation by sale ; and I am informed 
that a lawyer has been applied to in the case. Of 
course there can be little doubt as to the result. 

Sc. 

Life (Vol. vii., pp. 429. 608.). Compare with 
the lines quoted by your correspondents those of 
Moore, entitled " My Birthday," the four follow- 
ing especially : 

" Vain was the man, and false as vain, 

Who said*, ' Were he ordain'd to run 
His long career of life again, 

He would do all that he had done.' " 

Many a man would gladly live his life over 
again, were he allowed to bring to bear on his 



* Fontenelle. 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



second life the experience he had acquired in that 
past. For in the grave there is no room, either 
for ambition or repentance ; and the degree of our 
happiness or misery for eternity is proportioned to 
the state of preparation or unpreparation in which 
we leave this world. Instead of many a man, I 
might have said most good men ; and of the others, 
all who have not passed the rubicon of hope and 
grace. The vista of the past, however, appears a 
long and dreary retrospect, and any future is 
hailed as a relief: yet on second and deeper thought, 
we would mount again the rugged hill of life, and 
try for a brighter prospect, a higher eminence. 

JARLTZBERG. 

" Immo Deus mihi si dederit renovare juventam, 
Utve iterum in cunis possira vagire ; recusem." 
Isaac Hawkins Browne, De Animi Immor- 

tdlitate, lib. i., near the end. 

(See Selecta Poemata Anglorum Latina, iii. 251.) 

F. W. J. 

Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions 
(Vol. vii., p. 594.). The passage alluded to by 
SIB A. ALISON appears to be the celebrated de- 
scription of the moral effects produced by the con- 
flicts of the Greek factions, which is subjoined to 
the account of the Corcyra3an sedition, iii. 82. 
The quotation must, however, have been made 
from memory, and it is amplified and expanded 
from the original. The words adverted to seem 
to be: 



5^ Trpo/X7j0?;s SeiXi'a fvirpfirfys, rb Se ffwcppov 
TOV dvdvSpov TrpocrxTj/ta, /cat rb irpbs airav ^wtrliv eirl irav 
apy&v. " 

Thucydides, however, proceeds to say that the 
cunning which enabled a man to plot with success 
against an enemy, or still more to discover his 
hostile purposes, was highly esteemed. L. 

Archbishop King (Vol. vii., p. 430.). A few 
days since I met with the following passage in a 
brief sketch of Kane O'Hara, in the last number 
of the Irish Quarterly Review : 

" In the extremely meagre published notices of 
O'Hara (the celebrated burletta writer), no reference 
has been made to his skill as an artist, of which we 
have a specimen in his etching of Dr. William King, 
archbishop of Dublin, in a wig and cap, of which por- 
trait a copy has been made by Richardson." 

This extract is taken from one of a very in- 
teresting series of papers upon " The Streets of 
Dublin." ABHBA. 

Devonianisms (Vol. vii., p. 544.). Film, For- 
rell. Pillom is the full word, of which pilm is a 
contraction. It appears to have been derived 
from the British word pylor, dust. Forell is an 
archaic name for the cover of a book. The Welsh 
appear to have adopted it from the English, as 



their name for a bookbinder is fforelwr, literally, 
one who covers books. I. may mention another 
Devonianism. The cover of a book is called its 
healing. A man who lays slates on the roof of a 
house is, in Devonshire, called a hettier. 

N. W. S. (2.) 

Perseverant, Perseverance (Vol. vii., p. 400.). 
Can MR. ARROWSMITH supply any instances of the 
verb persever (or perceyuer, as it is spelt in the 
1555 edition of Hawes, M. i. col. 2.), from any 
other author ? and will he inform us when this 
" abortive hog " and his litter became extinct. 

In explaining speare (so strangely misunder- 
stood by the editor of Dodsley), he should, I 
think, have added, that it was an old way of 
writing spar. In Shakspeare's Prologue to Troilus 
and Cressida, it is written sperr. Sparred, quoted 
by Richardson from the Romance of the Rose, and 
Troilus and Creseide, is in the edition of Chaucer 
referred to by Tyrwhitt, written in the Romance 
" spered," and in Troilus " sperred." Q. 

Bloomsbury. 

" The Good Old Cause" (Vol. vi., passim). 
Mrs. Behn, who gamed some notoriety for her 
licentious writings even in Charles II.'s days, was 
the author of a play called The Roundheads, or the 
Good Old Cause : London, 1682. In the Epilogue 
she puts into the mouth of the Puritans the fol- 
lowing lines respecting the Royalists : 
" Yet then they rail'd against The Good Old Cause ; 
Rail'd foolishly for loyalty and laws : 
But when the Saints had put them to a stand, 
We left them loyalty, and took their land : 
Yea, and the pious work of Reformation 
Rewarded was with plunder and sequestration." 

The following lines are quoted by Mr. Teale in 
his Life of Viscount Falkland, p. 131. : 
" The wealthiest man among us is the best : 
No grandeur now in Nature or in book 
Delights us repose, avarice, expense, 
This is the idolatry ; and these we adore : 
Plain living and high thinking are no more ; 
The homely beauty of The Good Old Cause 
Is gone : our peace and fearful innocence, 
And pure religion breathing household laws." 

Whence did Mr. Teale get these lines ? Either 
The Good Old Cause is here used in a peculiar 
sense, or Mr. Teale makes an unhappy use of the 
quotation. JARLTZBERG. 

Saying of Pascal (Vol. vii., p. 596.). In reply 
to the question of W. FRASER, I would refer him 
to Pascal's sixteenth Provincial Letter, where, in, 
the last paragraph but one, we read, 

" Mes reverends peres, mes lettres n'avaient pas ac- 
coutume de se suivre de si pres, ni d'etre si etendues. 
Le peu de temps <]ue fat eu a ete cause de Fun et de 
Vautre. Je n'ai fait celle-ci plus longue que parceque jo 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



45 



n'ai pas eu le loisir de la faire plus courte. La raison 
qui m'a oblige de hater vous est raieux connue qu'a 

E.E.T. 

Paint taken off of old Oak (Vol. vii., p. 620.). 
About twenty-six years ago, by the adoption of a 
very simple process recommended by Dr. Wol- 
laston, the paint was entirely removed from the 
screen of carved oak which fills the north end of 
the great hall at Audley End, and the wood re- 
assumed its original colour and brilliancy.^ The 
result was brought about by the application of 
soft-soap, laid on of the thickness of a shilling 
over the whole surface of the oak, and allowed to 
remain there two or three days; at the end of 
which it was washed off with plenty of cold water. 
I am aware that potash has been often tried with 
success for the same purpose; but, in many in- 
stances, unless it is used with due caution, the 
wood becomes of a darker hue, and has the ap- 
pearance of having been charred. It is worthy 
of remark, that Dr. Wollaston made the suggestion 
with great diffidence, not having, as he said, had 
any practical experience of the effect of such an 
application. BRAYBROOKE. 

Passage in the " Tempest" (Vol. ii., pp. 259. 299. 
337. 429.). As a parallel to the expression " most 
busy least" (meaning "least busy" emphatically), 
I would suggest the common expression of the 
Northumbrians, " Far over near " (signifying 
" much too near " ). H. T. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Committee appointed by the Society of Anti- 
quaries to consider what improvements could be intro- 
duced into its management, has at length issued a 
Report ; and we are glad to find that the alterations 
suggested by them have been frankly adopted by the 
Council. The principal changes proposed refer to the 
election of the Council ; the having but one Secretary, 
who is not to be a member of that body ; the appoint- 
ment of Local Secretaries ; the retirement annually of 
the Senior Vice- President ; and lastly, that which more 
than anything else must operate for the future benefit 
of the Society, the appointment of a third Standing 
Committee, to be called The Executive Committee, whose 
duty shall be " to superintend the correspondence of 
the Society on all subjects relating to literature and 
antiquities, to direct any antiquarian operations or ex- 
cavations carried on by the Society, to examine all 
papers sent for reading, all objects sent for exhibition, 
and to assist the Director generally in taking care that 
the publications of the Society are consistent with its 
position and importance." It is easy to see that if a 
proper selection be made of the Fellows to serve on 
this Committee, their activity, and the renewed interest 
which will be thereby awakened in the proceedings of 
the Society, will ensure for the Thursday Evening 
Meetings a regular supply of objects for exhibition, 



and papers for reading, worthy of the body and there- 
fore unlike many which we have too frequently heard, 
and to which, but for the undeserved imputation which 
we should seem to cast xipon our good friend Sir Henry 
Ellis, might be applied, with a slight alteration, that 
couplet of Mathias which tells 

" How o'er the bulk of these transacted deeds 

Sir Henry pants, and d ns 'em as he reads." 

We have now little doubt that better days are in store 
for the Society of Antiquaries. 

The Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute 
commences at Chichester on Tuesday next, under the 
patronage of the Dukes of Norfolk and Richmond, and 
the Bishop of Chichester, and the Presidentship of Lord 
Talbot de Malahide. There is a good bill of fare pro- 
vided in the shape of Lectures on the Cathedral, by 
Professor Willis ; excursions to Boxgrove Priory, 
Halnaker, God wood, Cowdray, Pet worth, Pevensey, 
Amberley, Shoreham, Lewes, and Arundel ; excava- 
tions on Bow Hill ; Meetings of the Sections of His- 
tory, Antiquities, and Architecture ; and, what we 
think will be one of the pleasantest features of the 
programme, the Annual Meeting of the Sussex Archae- 
ological Society, in the proceedings of which the 
Members of the Institute are invited to participate. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. A Glossary of Provincialisms in 
Use in the County of Sussex, by W. Durrant Cooper, 
second edition : a small but very valuable addition to 
our provincial glossaries, with an introduction well 
worth the reading. We shall be surprised if the meet- 
ing of the Institute this year in Sussex does not fur- 
nish Mr. Cooper with materials for a third and 

enlarged edition The Traveller's Library, No. 44., 

A Tour on the Continent by Rail and Road, by John 
Barrow : a brief itinerary of dates and distances, show- 
ing what may be done in a two months' visit to the 
Continent. No. 45. Swiss Men and Swiss Mountains, 
by Robert Ferguson : a very graphic and well-written 
narrative of a tour in Switzerland, which deserves a 
corner in the knapsack of the " intending" traveller. 
The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, by Francis 
Bacon, Viscount St. Alban, edited by Thomas Markby : 
a cheap edition of this valuable " handbook for think- 
ing men," produced by the ready sale which has at- 
tended The Advancement of Learning by the same 

editor Reynard the Fox, after the German Version of 

Glithe, with Illustrations by J. Wolf, Part VII., in 
which the translator carries on the story to The Out- 
lawry in well-tuned verse. Cyclopcedia Bibliographica, 
Part X. This tenth Part concludes the first half of the 
volume of authors and their works ; and the punc- 
tuality with which the Parts have succeeded each other 
is a sufficient pledge that we shall see this most useful 
library companion completed in a satisfactory manner. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition. 

WOOD'S ATHENE OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20. 
THE COMPLAYNTS OP SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in 15 vols. 8vo. 1739. 

CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. London, 1828. (Two Copies.) 
JONES' ACCOUNT OF ABEBYSTWITH. Trevecka, 8vo. 1779. 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



M. C. H. BROEMEL'S FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. 

Jena, 1705. 

COOPER'S ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 8vo. 1832. Vol. I. 
PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LKVENT DER HKILIGEN. Basil, 1522. 
LORD LANSDOWNE'S WORKS. Vol. I. Tonson, 1736. 
JAMES BAKER'S PICTURESQUE GUIDE TO THE LOCAL BEAUTIES 

OF WALES. Vol. I. 4to. 1794. 
SANDERS' HISTORY OP SHENSTONE IN STAFFORDSHIRE. J. Nichols, 

London, 1794. Two Copies. 
HERBERT'S CAROLINA THRENODIA. 8vo. 1702. 
THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED. 4lo. 1726. 

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Book* Wanted are requested 

to send their names. 
** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 

to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 

QUERIES." 186. Fleet Street. 



to 

J. M. G., who writes respecting the Leigh Peerage, is informed 
that we have a private letter for him. How can it be addressed to 
him ? 

W. W. (Malta) has our lest thanks for his letter of the 25th of 
June. His suggestion will be adopted ; but we shall shortly have 
the pleasure of addressing a private communication to him. 

SHAKSPEARE CRITICISM. We have to apologise to many friends 
and Correspondents for the postponement of their communications. 
As soon as the Index to Vol. vii. is published, we shall take steps to 
get out of these arrears. 

C. P. F. The Ch in the name of Chobham is soft. There is a 
Cobham within a few miles of the Camp. 

IODIDE (June 24th). There is much care required in iodizing 
paper; we have no hesitation in saying at present the subject has not 
met with sufficient attention. When the iodized paper is immersed 
in water, it is some time before it assumes a yellow colour. This 
may be accelerated by often changing the water. The brightness 
of the colour is by no means an index of its degree of sensitiveness 
on the contrary, paper of a bright yellow colour is more apt to 
trown than one of a pale primrose. Too bright a yellow would 
also indicate an insufficient soaking ; and suffering the paper to 
remain longer than is needful not only lessens its sensitive powers, 
but does much damage by removing all the size. 

H. N. (Kingston). Violet-coloured glass, ground on one side, 
may be obtained at \\d. per square foot of Messrs. Forest and 
Brownley, Lime Street, Liverpool. It may also be had in London, 
but the price charged is much higher. This glass obstructs just a 
sufficient degree of light, and is most agreeable to the sitter ; not 
much advantage accrues from the. use of large sheets, and it is 
objectionable for price. No doubt such an application as you 
mention would be useful; but, from the difficulty there is in keeping 
out the wet from a glass roof, it would be very objectionable. 
Beyond a reference to our advertising columns, we cannot enter 
upon the subject of the prices of chemicals and their purity. In 
making gun cotton, the time of immersion in the acids must be the 
same for twenty grains as for any large quantity : when good, 
there is a peculiar crispness in the cotton, and it is quite soluble in 
the ether. If our Correspondent (who expresses so much earnest- 
ness of success) will forward his address, he shall receive a small \ 
portion made according to DR. DIAMOND'S formulary, which we \ 



find extremely soluble; and he can compare it with that of his 
own production. 

F. M. (Malta). 1st. We are informed by DR. DIAMOND that 
however beautiful the results obtained by others in the use of 
Lanson's paper, in his hands he has found no certainty in its 
action, and, Jor iodized paper for negatives, far inferior to the best 
English papers. If the salts of gold are to be used, deep tints are 
very readily obtained by the French papers. The propriety of 
using gold is very questionable, not only as affecting the after 
permanence of the picture, but from the strong contrasts generally 
produced being very offensive to an artist's eye. Indly. Xi/loidine 
may be iodized precisely the same as collodion, but no advantage 
whatever is gained from its use. A collodion for the takin-of 
positives on glass should be differently made to one for negative 
Pictures fhere should be less of the iodides contained in it, and 
it should be more fluid. When this is the case, the image is never 
washed out by the hypo., and the delineation is equal in minute- 
ness to any Daguerreotype on metal plates, as has been shown by 
the specimens of the reduction of printing exhibited by Mr. Rosling 
?V5 I Octely f Arts ' Exhibition, where the letters were reduced to 
I-750M of an inch, or less than half the diameter of a human hair. 
If the protomlrate of iron properly prepared be used in the de- 
velopment, the deposit assumes the beautiful appearance of dead 
white silver, having none of the reflecting qualities of the metal 

C. E. F. (June 13th). The spots in the specimen sent depend 
upon minute substances in your collodion not receivin" the action 
of the nitrate of silver bath ; and you will find this Spon looking 
through a prepared plate after it has been in the nitrate bath, and 
previously to its ever having been in the camera. They may be iodide 
or wdate of silver, or small crystals of nitrate of potash. If the 
jormer, add a little piece of iodide of potassium, say /en grains to 
two ounces of collodion; or if the latter, it would 'depend upon a 
defective washing of the gun cotton by which all the soluble salts 
have not been removed : thus more care must be used. We would 
recommend you to use an entirely new bath and stronger, four 
ounces of hypo, to a pint ; it is evident that your very nice speci- 
mens have been spoiled by the stains of the bath. Allow us aain 
to draw your attention to tlie process given by MR. POLLOCK : we 
have seen most satisfactory pictures produced by it. 

R. H. CHATTOCK ( Solihull). The "freckled " appearance which 
you mention m your positives in all probability depends upon the 
action of the light upon the silver, which still remains in your 
proof. We have often found it to be tHe case when old hypo- 
sulphite of soda ts used, and when the strength of tlie bath is 
becoming weak and doubtful. H is certainly a snfe process to 
soak the picture in clean water for an hour or two, the light being 
ccluded previous to the immersion into the hypo. ; and the water 
extracting a large portion of the solutions remaining on the paper, 
the after application of the hypo, need not be so long continued, 
whereby the tone of the picture is not so much lowered. Your 
own observation, that a piece of Whatman's paper being merely di- 
vided, and one point exhibiting the defects and the other not, at 
once negatives the idea that the size in the paper has been affected. 

The Index to our SEVENTH VOLUME will be readii on Saturday 
next, the 16th. 

A few complete sets of " NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vi., 
price Three Guineas, may now be had ; for which early appli- 
cation is desirable. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



The Twenty-eighth Edition. 

^TEUROTONICS, or the Art of 

JLi Strengthening the Nerves, containing 
Remarks on the influence of the Nerves upon 
the Health of Body and Mind, and the 
means of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Me- 
lancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by DR. 
NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & 
STONEMAN. Price 4rf., or Post Free from 
the Author for Five Penny Stamps. 

" We can conscientiously recommend ' Neu- 
rotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the careful perusal 
of our invalid readers." John Hull News- 
paper, June 5, 1852. 

WANTED, for the Ladies' In- 
stitute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, 
LADIES of tastt- for fancy work, _ by paying 
21s. -will be received as members, and taught 
the new style of velvet wool work, which ia ac- 
quired in a few easy lessons. Each lady will be 
guaranteed constant employment and ready 
cash payment for her work. Apply personally 
to Mrs. Thoughey. N.B. Ladies taught by 
letter at any distance from London. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold. 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
50 L'uineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 22., 32., and 4i. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 



BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



OPECTACLES. WM. ACK- 

O _ LAND applies his medical knowledge as 
a Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Company, 
London, his theory as a Mathematician, and 
his practice as a Working Optician, aided by 
Smee's Optometer, in the selection of Spectacles 
suitable to every derangement of vision, so as 
to preserve the sight to extreme old age. 

ACHROMATIC TELE- 

SCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as 
exhibited at the Academy of Sciences in Paris. 
The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so con- 
structed that the rays of light fall nearly per- 
pendicular to the surface of the various lenses, 
by which the aberration is completely removed; 
and a telescope so fitted gives one-third more 
magnifying power and liirht than could be at- 
tained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the 
various sizes on application to 



WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Batten Gar- 
den,. I/uuion. 



JULY 9. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



47 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PIC- 

_L TUBES. A Selection of the above 
beautiful Productions (comprising Views in 
VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA. NUBIA. &c.) 
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet 
Street, where may also be procured Appara- 
tus of every Description, and pure Chemicals 
for the practice of Photography in oil its 
Branches. 

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures 
for the Stereoscope. 

*** Catalogues may be had on application. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical 
and Photographical Instrument Makers, and 
Operative Chemists. 163. Fleet Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARA- 

Ji TUS MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Ter- 
race, Barnsbury Road, Islington. 

T. OTTEWILL (from Home & Co. 'si begs 
most respectfully to call the attention of Gen- 
tlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the 
superiority of his newly registered DOUBLE- 
BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing 
the efficiency and ready adjustment of the 
Sliding Camera, with the portability and con- 
venience of the Folding Ditto. 

Every description of Apparatus to order. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

_l & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 
blishment. 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art 
123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



Just published, price Is., free by Post Is. 4<J., 

THE WAXED- PAPER PHO- 
TOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE 
LE GRAY'S NEW EDITION. Translated 
from the French. 

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for 
VOIGHTLANDF.R & SON'S celebrated 
Lenses for Portraits and Views. 

General Depot for Turner's. Whatman's, 
Canson Freres'.La Croix, and other Talbotype 
Papers. 

Pure Photographic Chemicals. 

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch 
of the Art. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. collodion 

(Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of 
Silver).- J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists. _'-'.). 
Strand, were the first in England who pub- 
lished the application of this agent (see Athe- 
nceum, Aug. 14th). Their Collodion (price 
9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitive- 
ness, tenacity, and colour unimpaired for 
months : it may be exported to any climate, 
and the lodizingCompoundmixed as required. 
J. B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE 
CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with 
the latest Improvements adapted for all the 
Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. 
Cameras for Developing in the open Country. 
GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. 
Lenses from the best Makers. Waxed and 
Iodized Papers, &c. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 

JT Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
man's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson 
Freres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's 
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every 
kind of Photography. 

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster 
How, London. 



CLERICAL, 
LIFE 



MEDICAL, AND GENERAL 
ASSURANCE SOCIETY. 

Established 1824. 



FIVE BONUSES have been declared ; at the last in January, 1852, the sum of isi,!257. wn 
added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the different ages from 24} to 55 per cent, 
on the Premiums paid during the five years, or from aL to 12?. 10s. per cent, on the Sum 
Assured. 

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being now provided for, 
the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT 
ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF PARTNERSHIP. 

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next Division, to one 
year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers. 

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be paid for the first 
five years. 

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk. 

Claims paid thirty days after proof of death, and all Policies are Indisputable except in cases 
of fraud. 

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the Society's Agents, or of 



99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London. 



GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary. 



TTNITED KINGDOM LIFE 

U ASSURANCE COMPANY; established 
by Act of Parliament in 1834. 8. Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, London. 

HONORARY PRESIDENTS. 



Earl of Courtown 
Earl Leven and Mel- 
ville 

Earl of Norbury 
Earl of Stair 
Viscount Falkland 



Lord Elphinstone 
Lord Belhaven and 

Stenton 
Win. Campbell. Esq., 

of Tillichewan. 



LONDON BOARD. 

Chairman. Charles Graham, Esq. 

Deputy- Chairman Charles Downes, Esq. 

H. Blair Avarne, Esq. | D. Q. Henriques, Esq. 



E. Lennox Boyd. Esq., 
F.S.A., Resilient. 

C. Berwick Curtis, 
Esq. 

William Fairlie, Esq. 



J. G. Henriques, Esq. 
F. C. Maitland.Esq. 
William Railton, Esq. 
F. H. Thomson, Esq. 
Thomas Thorby.Esq. 



MEDICAL OFFICERS. 
Physician. Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 

8. Bennett Street, St. James's. 
Surgeon. F. H. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners 

Street. 

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 
1834, to December 31. 1847, is as follows : 



Sum Time 
Assured. Assured. 



5000 

*1000 

500 



Sum added to 
Policy. 



In 1841. In 1848. 



14 years 683 6 8 
7 years 
1 year 



Sum 
payable 
at Death. 



* EXAMPLE. At the commencement of the 
year 1 8U , a ix-rson aged thirty took out a Policy 
for 1000?., the annual payment for which is 
24?. Is. Sd. ; in 1847 he had paid in premiums 
168?. 11s. 8c?. ; but the profits being Sf per cent, 
per annum on the sum insured (which is 
22?. 10s. per annum for each 1000?.) he had 
157?. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much 
as the premiums paid. 

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most 
moderate scale, and only one-half need be paid 
for the first five years, when the Insurance is 
for Life. Every information will be aiforded 
on application to the Resident Director. 



PURE NERVOUS or MIND 
COMPLAINTS. _ If the readers of 
NOTES AND (JuEKiF.s, who suffer from depres- 
sion of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing, 
groundless fears, unfitness tor business or so- 
ciety, blood to the head, failure of memory, 
delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, 
&c., will call on, or correspond with, REV. 
DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of above 
22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who 
have followed his advice, he will instruct them 
how to get well, without a fee, anil will render 
the same service to the friends of the insane. 
At home from 1 1 to 3. 

18. BLOOMSBURY STREET, BEDFORJ) 
SQUARE. 



TI7ESTERN LIFE ASSU- 

T T RANGE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY , 

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48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 193. 



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No. 194.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 16. 1853. 



C With Index, price IQrf. 
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CONTENTS. 
NOTES : Page 

Derivation of the Word " Island " ... 49 

Weather Rules, by Edward Peacock - - 50 

On the Modern Practice of assuming Arms - 50 

Morlee and Lovel, by L. B. Larking - 51 

Shakspeare Correspondence, by Robert Rawlinson and 

John Macray - - - - - .51 

Unpunished Letter . - - - 53 

MINOR NOTES : Lines on the Institution of the Order 
of the Garter Old Ship The Letter "h " in "hum- 
ble" "The Angels' Whisper" Pronunciation of 
Coke The Advice supposed to have been given to 
Julius III. - 53 

QUERIES : 

Bishop Gardiner " De Vera Obedientia " . .54 

MINOR QUERIES: Lord Byron Curious Custom of 
ringing Bells for the Dead Unpublished Essay by 
Lamb Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church 
Cromwell's Portrait Governor Brooks Old Books 
The Privileges of the See of Canterbury Heraldic 
Colour pertaining to Ireland Descendants of Judas 
Iscariot Parish Clerks and Politics " Virgin Wife 
and widowed Maid " " Cutting off the little Heads of 
Light "Medal of Sir Robert Walpole La Fete des 
Chaudrons Who first thought of Table-turning ? 
College Guide ------ 55 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Done Pedigree 
Scotch Newspapers, &c. Dictum de Kenilworth 
Dr. Harwood - - - > - - 57 

REPLIES : 

Names of Places, by J. J. A. Worsaae ... 
Cleaning old Oak, by Henry Herbert Hele, &c.'- 
Burial in an Erect Posture, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A. - 
Lawyers' Bags ...... 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE: New Photographic 
Process ....... 



MISCELLANEOUS : 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted . 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements ... 



REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: The Ring Finger 
The Order of St. John of Jerusalem Calvin's Cor- 
respondence Old Booty's Case Chatterton 
House-marks, fee Bibliography. Parochial Li- 
braries Faithful Teate Lack-a-daisy Bacon 
Angel-beast: Cleek : Longtriloo Hans Krauwinckel 
Revolving Toy Rub-a-dub Muffs worn by 
Gentlemen .Detached Church Towers Christian 
Names Hogarth's Pictures Old Fogie Clem 
Kissing Hands Uniform of the Foot Guards Book 
Inscriptions Humbug Sir Isaac Newton and 
Voltaire on Railway Travelling Engine-a- verge 
" Populus vult decipi," &c. Sir John Vanbrugh 
Erroneous Forms of Speech Devonianisrns - 61 



- C5 

- G6 
. 6C 



VOL. VIII. No. 194. 



DERIVATION OF THE WORD "ISLAND." 

Lexicographers from time to time have handed 
down to us, and proposed for our choice, two 
derivations of our English word Island; and, that 
one of these two is correct, has, I believe, never yet 
been called in question. The first which they 
offer, and that most usually accepted as the true 
one, is the A.-S. Ealand, Ealond, Igland ; Belg. 
Eylandt : the first syllable of which, they inform 
us, is ea, Low Germ, aue, water, z. e. water-land, 
or land surrounded by water. If this etymon be 
deemed unsatisfactory, they offer the following : 
from the Fr. isle, It. isola, Lat. insula, the word 
island, they say, is easily deflected. 

At the risk of being thought presumptuous, I 
do not hesitate to say, that both these alternatives 
are manifestly erroneous ; and, for the following 
reasons, I propose a third source, which seems to 
carry conviction with it : first, from analogy ; and 
secondly, from the usage of the language from 
which our, English word is undoubtedly derived,, 
the Anglo-Saxon. 

First, from analogy. Let us only consider how 
frequently names are given to parts of our hills,, 
shores, rivers, &c., from their supposed resem- 
blance to parts of the human body. Thus, for 
instance, we have a head land, a neck of land, a 
tongue of land, a nose of land (as in Ness, in Or- 
fordness, Dungeness, and, on the opposite coast, 
Grinez) ; also a mouth of a river or harbour, a 
brow of a hill, back or chine of a hill, foot of a hill ; 
an arm of the sea, sinus or bosom of the sea. With 
these examples, and many more like them, before 
us, why should we ignore an eye of land as un- 
likely to be the original of our word island ? The 
correspondence between the two is exact. How 
frequently is the term eye applied to any small 
spot standing by itself, and peering out as it were, 
in fact an insulated spot : thus we have the eye of 
an apple, the eye or centre of a target, the eye of 
a stream (i. e. where the stream collects into a 
point a point well known to salmon fishers), and 
very many other instances. What more natural 
term, then, to apply to a spot of land standing 
alone in the midst of an expanse of water than an 
eye of land ? 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



In confirmation of this view, let us look to the 
original language ; there we find the compounds 
of eag, ea, cegh, the eye, of very frequent occur- 
rence : all of them showing that this compound 
ea-land is not only legitimate, but extremely pro- 
bable. Thus we find, eag-ceple, the pupil of the 
eye ; eag-dura, a window-light, eye-door ; eag ece, 
pain in the eye ; eah-hringas, the orbits of the 
eyes. In the last instance, the g is dropped ; and 
it is certain that eag was pronounced nearly as 
eye now is. From all this, is it too much to con- 
clude that ea-land is the same as eye-land ? But 
farther, Ig (A.-S.) sometimes stands by itself for 
an island, as also do Igland and Igoth, and Ji 
was the old name of lona. Now I cannot find 
that there ever was the slightest connexion between 
the A.-S. Ig and water; nor do I believe that 
such an idea would ever have been started, but to 
support the old derivation of the word ; I have 
never seen a genuine instance of such connexion 
brought forward. Then the word Ig, if it be 
supposed to mean an eye, as I contend, may very 
well stand by itself for island ; but, if water be 
expressed by it, I cannot understand how it can 
serve to import land. 

If any farther confirmation be wanted, we have 
it in the diminutive eyot, of which ait, aight, eight 
are corruptions. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 



WEATHER RULES. 

Thomas Passenger, who dwelt at the Three 
Bibles and Star, on London Bridge, was very 
celebrated during the latter part of the seventeenth 
century for publishing popular histories and chap- 
books. His shop seems to have been the principal 
place of resort for the hawkers who then supplied 
the provinces with literature. Many of the works 
which issued from his press are now very rare : one 
of the most curious, and, at the same time, the 
rarest, is The Shepherd's Kalendar : or, the Citi- 
zen's and Country Man's Daily Companion, &c. 
The contents of this book are of a very singular 
nature, it being a kind of epitome of the facts it 
was then thought necessary for a countryman to 
be acquainted with. A considerable portion of 
the work is occupied by remarks on the weather, 
and on lucky and unlucky days : if I were to extract 
all on those subjects, this communication would 
extend to an unreasonable length. 

We are informed, under the head "Observations 
on Remarkable Days, to know how the whole Year 
will succeed in Weather, Plenty," &c., that 

" If the sun shine clear and bright on Christmas-day, 
it promiseth a peaceable year from clamours and strife, 
and foretells much plenty to ensue : but if the wind 
blow stormy towards sunset, it betokeneth sickness in 
the spring and autumn quarters." 



" If January 25 (being St. Paul's day) be fair, it 
promises a happy year ; but if cloudy, windy, or rainy, 
otherwise : hear in this case what an ancient judicious 
astrologer writes : 

If St. Paul be fair and clear, 
It promises then a happy year ; 
But if it chance to snow or rain, 
Then will be dear all sorts of grain : 
Or if the wind do blow aloft, 
Great stirs will vex the world full oft; 
And if dark clouds do muff the sky, 
Then foul and cattle oft will die.' " 

" Mists or hoar frosts on the tenth of March be- 
tokens (sic) a plentiful year, but not without some dis- 
eases." 

" If, in the fall of the leaf in October, many of them 
wither on the bows, and hang there, it betokens a frosty 
winter and much snow." 

Under "The Signs of Rain in Creatures" we 
have the following : 

" When the hern or bitron flies low, the air is gross, 
and thickening into showers." 

" The froggs much croaking in ditches and pools, 
&c., in the evening, foretells rain in little time to fol- 
low : also, the sweating of stone pillars or tombs de- 
notes rain." . 

" The often doping or diving of water fowl foreshows 
rain is at hand." 

" The peacock's much crying denotes rain." 

There is a list given of Lucky Days, which con- 
tains all the red letter saints' days of the Reformed 
English kalendar. We are also informed that 
there are other days in each mouth which " are 
successful enough." Thus 

" In January there are three, viz. 16. 18. 26. 
In February there are four, viz. 10. 19. 27. 28. 
In March there are two, viz. 14. 18. 
In April there are three, viz. 13. 22. 27. 
In May there are five, viz. 3. 5. 7. 11. 19. 
In June there are four, viz. 1O. 17. 2O. 27. 
In July there are six, viz. 1. 13. 19. 21. 27. 30. 
In August there are three, viz. 3. 7. 9. 
In September there are five, viz. 4. 8. 11. 15. 19. 
In October there are three, viz. 1. 8. 13. 
In November there are four, viz. 3. 9. 11. 15. 
In December there are three, viz. 9. 13. 17." 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 
Bottesford, Messingham, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



ON THE MODERN PRACTICE OF ASSUMING ARMS. 

" If any person be advanced into an office or dignity 
of publique administration, be it eyther ecclesiastical!, 
martiall, or ciuill : so that the same office coinpre- 
hendeth in it dignitatem vel dignitatis titulum, either 
dignitie or (at the least) a title of dignitye : the 
Heralde must not refuse to devise to such a publique 
person, upon his instant request and willingnes to 
beare the same without reproche, a coate of armes : 
and thenceforth to matriculate him, with his inter- 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



51 



marriages, and issues descending, in the register of the 
Gentle and Noble." 

Thus wrote Sir John Ferae in The Blazon of 
Gentrie, printed in the year 1586. So also Coates, 
in his additions to Gwillim, writing in 1724, says : 

" For though arms, in their first acceptation, were 
(as is shewed) taken up at any gentleman's pleasure, 
yet hath that liberty for many ages been deny'd ; and 
they, by regal authority, made the rewards and en- 
signs of merit, &c., the gracious favours of princes ; 
no one being, by the law of gentility in England, 
allowed the bearing thereof, but those that either have 
them by descent, or grant, or purchase from the body 
or badge of any prisoner they in open and lawful war 
had taken." 

He proceeds to adduce various authorities on 
this subject, for which I would refer to the Intro- 
duction to the last edition of Gwillim's Heraldry, 
p. 16. &c. 

Porny defines assumptive arms to be 

" Such as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of 
upstarts, who, being advanced to a degree of fortune, 
assume them without having deserved them by any 
glorious action. This, indeed (he adds), is great abuse 
of heraldry ; but yet so common, and so much tole- 
rated, almost everywhere, that little or no notice is 
taken of it." 

This was written in 1765. Archdeacon Nares, 
in his very amusing Heraldic Anomalies, printed 
in 1823, says: 

" At present, similarity of name is quite enough to 
lead any man to conclude himself to be a branch of 
some very ancient or noble stock, and, if occasion arise, 
to assume the arms appropriate to such families, with- 
out any appeal to the Heralds' office ; nor would any 
Alderman Gathergrease, living in affluence, be without 
such marks and symbols on his plate, seals, carriages, 
&c., with no higher authority, perhaps, than his own 
fancy and conceit." 

It must be confessed that the middle of the 
nineteenth century offers the most ample facilities 
for the would-be aristocrats of the age, and that 
without troubling Sir Charles Young or the Col- 
lege of Arms ; witness the following advertisement 
cut from a newspaper of the day : 

" THE FAMILY LIVERY. Arms and Crests cor- 
rectly ascertained, and in any case a steel die expressly 
cut for the buttons, free of cost," &c. 

There can, indeed, be no doubt that this foolish 
practice of assuming arms without right has of 
late years grown to an absurd height ; and I fear 
the assumption is by no means confined to persons 
who have risen by trade, or by some lucky specu- 
lation in railways, &c. ; even those who have been 
"advanced into an office or dignity of publique 
administration " have but seldom made their in- 
stant request " to the heralds " to devise a coate of 
armes to be borne by them without reproch" 



The episcopal bench, in particular, are very 
generally faulty in this respect, and, for the greater 
part, content themselves (if not by birth entitled 
to bear arms) by assuming the coat of some old- 
established family of the same, or nearly the same, 
name. In the case of temporal peerages, which 
are not seldom, thanks to the ancient constitution 
of England, renovated from the middle and lower 
classes, the practice is more in accordance with 
the precepts of The Blazon of Gentrie ; but I be- 
lieve there is at least one instance, that of a lawyer 
of the greatest eminence, who was last year ad- 
vanced to a peerage, and to the highest rank in 
his profession, who has assumed both arms and 
supporters without the fiat of the College of Arms. 
The " novi homines " of a former age set a better 
example to those of the present day, and were 
not ashamed to go honestly to the proper office 
and take out their patent of arms, thus " founding 
a family " who have a right to the ensigns of 
honour which they assume. SPJES. 



MORLEE AND LOVEL. 

The following document, in connexion with the 
trial between Morlee and Lovell, in the Court of 
Chivalry, will probably interest your heraldic 
readers. L. B. LARKING. 

Ceste indentur tesmoyne q' mos r John de 
Cobehm s r de Cobehm ad bailie p assent de les 
sires de Morlee et Louel dys lib' de bone moneye 
amest' John Barnet, cest assau' cent south p r le 
un ptye et cent south p r lautre ptye acause q' 
mesme le dit mestre John et mest' Willm Dawode 
et mest' Willm Sondeye serrount assessours sur la 
matire pendaunt pentre les deux syngn' susdite p r 
leur armes en le Court de Chiualerie. En tesmoy- 
naunce de quel payment a ycestes endentur lez 
ptyes susditez entrechaungeablement ount mys 
lours sceals. 

Don a Loundres le xx iu r de Feu'er Ian du rengne 
le Roy Richard secounde quinzisme. 

[In dorso.] 

Lendentur de x li paye a mest' John Barnet p r 
Morlee et Louel. 



SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE. 

Shakspeare Emendations. As this is the age of 
Shakspeare emendations, I beg to propose the 
following for the consideration of the numerous 
readers of " N. & Q." I am the more emboldened 
to do so, as I find several marginal corrections 
made from time to time are verified by the manu- 
script corrections in MR. COLLIER'S folio of 1632. 
These proposed are not, however, there, or I would 
not have troubled you, though it is many months 
since I first altered the reading of my copy. 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



Taming of the Shrew, Act V. Sc. 2. On the 
exit of Katharina to " fetch " in the disobedient 
wives, Lucentio remarks : 

" Luc. Here is a wonder, if you talk of a wonder. 
Hort. And so it is. I wonder what it bodes. 
Pet. Marry, peace it bodes, and love, and quiet life, 
An awful rule, and right supremacy ; 
And, to be short, what not that's sweet and happy." 

For " an awful rule " I propose to substitute and 
lawful rule, as agreeing better with the text and 
context ; indeed, the whole passage indicates it. 
Petruchio means that the change in Katharina's 
temper and conduct bodes love, peace, law, and 
order, in contradistinction to awe or fear. The 
repetition of the conjunction and also makes the 
harmony of the language more equal ; " and love, 
and quiet life, and lawful rule, and right supre- 
macy," rings evenly to the ear. Considering the 
number and character of the emendations in ME. 
COLLIER'S volume, I have the less hesitation in 
proposing this one. The language of Shakspeare 
is, as we know it, for the most part so clear, har- 
monious, distinct, and forcible, that I think we 
are justified in considering any obscure, incon- 
sistent, or harsh passage, as having met with some 
mishap either in hearing, transcribing, or in print- 
ing. Some months ago, and certainly before ME. 
COLLIEE'S volume of corrections appeared, I for- 
warded to " N. & Q." (it never appeared) a cor- 
rection from Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 2., 
where Cleopatra, contemplating suicide, says it is 

" To do that thing that ends all other deeds, 
Which shackles accidents, and bolts up change ; 
Which sleeps, and never palates more the dung. 
The beggar's nurse and Casar's." 

The word "dung" ending the third line, was so 
evidently dug, or nipple, that I thought no man 
to whom it was pointed out could have a doubt 
about it. ME. COLLIEE remarks in his recent 
volume, " This emendation may, or may not, have 
been conjectural, but we may be pretty sure it is 
right." I doubt if ME. COLLIEE would have ac- 
cepted any authority other than that of his own 
folio, although Shakspeare has frequently used the 
word dug as a synonym for nipple, as see Romeo 
and Juliet, Act I. Sc. 3. : 

" Nurse. And she was wean'd, I never shall forget 

it, 

Of all the days of the year, upon that day : 
For I had then laid wormwood to my dug. 

but, as I said, 

When it did taste the wormwood on the nipple 
Of my dug, and felt it bitter, pretty fool, 
To see it tetchy, and fall out with the dug ! " 

This quotation proves clearly, I consider, that dug 
was meant by Cleopatra, and not dung ; and so I 
considered before the old manuscript correction of 
MB. COLLIER'S appeared. The words " an awful " 



are as clearly to my mind and lawful. I doubt, 
however, if they will be so acknowledged, as the 
use of the words " an awful," it may be contended, 
are countenanced by other passages in Shakspeare ; 
I quote the following. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act IV. Sc. 1. 

"3rd Outlaw. Know then, that some of us are gen- 

tlemen, 

Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth 
Thrust from the company of awful men." 

The word " awful " is surely, in this place, lawful ; 
an outlaw would be little inclined to consider men 
as " awful," but the contrary. Read the last line 
as under 

" Thrust from the company of lawful men," 

and the meaning is simple and clear. The out- 
laws were thrust from the company of lawful men, 
that is, men who obeyed the laws they had broken 
in " the fury of ungovern'd youth." 

In King Richard II., Act III. Sc. 3., the follow- 
ing use of the words lawful and awful occurs : 

" K. Rich. We are amazed ; and thus long have we 

stood 
To watch the fearful bending of thy knee, 

[ To Northumberland. 

Because we thought ourself thy lawful king; 
And if we be, how dare thy joints forget 
To pay their awful duty to our presence ? " 

The meaning in this case is no doubt clear enough, 
and the words " awful duty " may be the right 
ones ; but had they stood lawful duty in any old 
copy, he would have been a bold man who would 
have proposed to substitute awful for lawful. 

Second Part of King Henry IV., Act IV. 
Sc. 1. 

" Arch. To us, and to our purposes, confin'd: 
We come within our awful banks again, 
And knit our powers to the arm of peace." 

The use of the word " awful " in this passage may 
be right, but, as in the preceding case, I think, 
had lawful banks stood in any old printed copy, 
or had it even been found in ME. COLLIEE'S vo- 
lume, the fitness would have been acknowledged. 
Shakspeare used the word " lawful " in many 
instances where, no doubt, it may with reason, 
strong as any given here, be changed to auful. 
In the historical plays, lawful king, lawful progeny, 
lawful heir, lawful magistrate, laicfid earth, lawful 
sword, &c., may be found. These suggestions, 
like the pinch of sand thrown on the old woman's 
cow, if they do no good, will, I trust, do no harm. 
ROBEET RAWLINSON. 

Shakspeare. A German writer, Professor Hil- 
gers, of Aix-la-Chapelle, published in 1852 a 
pamphlet, in which he endeavoured to prove that 
many passages in Shakspeare, which were origin- 
ally written in verse, have been "degraded" into 
prose, and quotes several passages from the plays 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



in support of his thesis. Professor Hilgers says 
that emendation of the text, by means of such a 
mode of correction as would restore the corrupted 
verses to their original form, has hitherto been 
almost entirely neglected by commentators, or 
else employed by them with very little ability and 
success. I have not seen the Professor's Treatise, 
and only write from a short notice which I have 
just perused of it in a German review; but, if 
what Professor H. states be correct, the subject 
appears to deserve more particular attention from 
the writers in the " N. & Q.," who have devoted 
their ingenuity and research to the illustration of 
Shakspeare. In the hope of attracting them to 
" fresh fields and pastures new," in which to re- 
create themselves, and to instruct and delight the 
world-wide readers of the great dramatist, I ven- 
ture to solicit attention to Professor Hilger's pam- 
phlet and its subject. In this I only echo the 
German reviewer's language, who most highly 
praises the Professor's acuteness, and the value of 
his strictures, and promises to return to them at 
greater length in a future number of the periodical 
in which he writes. JOHN MACBAT. 

Oxford. 



UNPUBLISHED LETTER. 

I have thought that the following old letter, 
from a retired lawyer of the seventeenth century 
to his future son-in-law, might not be altogether 
uninteresting to your readers, as referring to the 
value of land and money at the period when it was 
written. C. W. B. 

July y" 16 th , (16)95. 

Since you are pleased to demand my opinion 
concerning your intended purchase, I shall give 

?>u it as well as I can upon so short a warning, 
ou say, if lett, you suppose it was worth a 1301. 
per annu. I cannot tell by your letter whether 
the mills, lett at 20J. per annu, are a part of y e 
130/. : if it be, I think 26001. a great price, being 
much above twenty years' purchase, considering 
the lord's rent. But if they are not included in 
that sum, 'tis a good twenty years' purchase. Now 
you must consider what returne this will make for 
your money. I am sure, as times goe, not three 
per cent ; and money makes full five, and very 
seldom, if ever, pays taxes. I believe it may be 
very convenient for you, and it is very advan- 
tageous to be entire ; but if you should contract a 
debt to buy this estate you will be very uneasy, 
and, if you marry, the first setting out will be 
expensive, and it will be ill taking up money to 
defray necessary charges. I conceive the land is 
in hand, and not lett ; so that, if you have not a 
tenant, you must be at the expence of stocking, 
w ch will sett very hard upon you. And you know, 



w n your sister marrys, there is a 1000 pounds 
more to be provided. Pray putt all these things 
together, and propose some way of solving all 
these difficultys ; and, if you can, I should be glad 
to have it annexed to your estate, and settled upon 
the heirs male of your body. Upon w ch consider- 
ation I shall be more inclined to farther your 
desires in a reasonable manner. 

Pray, w n you hear any more of that couselor's 
amours send me word, but lett me advise you 
never to say anything of him or his estate that 
may come to the lady's ears. I hope my Lady 
Morton will not tell M Tregonell any more than 
what all the world should know. I heard the K 4 
had bid adieu to the Woodland Lady. I am very 
glad of it, for I wish him better fibrtune. I writt 
lately to S r John, who honoured me with a letter. 
As for public news, you have heard, I suppose, of 
our burning St. Malos and Grandvile ; and that 
wee have left a great many of our men before 
Namur, but they continue the siege vigorously. 
They say the ffrench are about to sett downe be- 
fore Dixmude, to bring us of by revultion. Pray 
p r sent mine and my daughter's service to your 
sister, and believe me to be, S r , your affectionate 
kinsman and servant J. POTENGER. 

Remember, at this time there is a great deal of 
land to be sold, but few purchasers. I have 
spooke to S r Miles Cooke, who promises to lett 
me have your settlement to peruse, and to end 
matters fairly. Since I writt my letter 'tis re- 
ported .... is surrendered or taken. 

These ffor Richard Bingha, Esq., at :1 

Bingham's Malcombe, to be left at . s 

the post-house in St. Andrew's, 
Milborne, Dorsett. 



Lines on the Institution of the Order of the 
Garter. I send you the following, which may be 
worth a corner in " N. & Q." The only account 
I can give of them is that I found them in MS. 
among other poetical extracts, without date or 
author's name : 

" When Salisbury's famed Countess was dancing with 
glee, 

Her stocking's security fell from her knee. 

Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round; 

The trifle was scouted, and left on the ground. 

When Edward the Brave, with true soldier-like spirit, 

Cried, The garter is mine ; 'tis the order of merit ; 

The first knight in my court shall be happy to wear, 

Proud distinction! the garter that fell from the fair: 

While in letters of gold 'tis your monarch's high 
will 

Shall there be inscribed, " 111 to him that thinks 
ill"'" 

TEE BEE. 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 






Old Ship. It may be of interest to some of 
your readers to learn that the ship which conveyed 
General Wolfe on his expedition to Quebec is 
still afloat under Jhe name of the " William and 
Ann." 

She was built in 1759 for a bomb-ketch, and 
\ras in dock in the Thames a few days since, 
sound and likely to endure for many years yet : 
she is mostly now engaged in the Honduras and 
African timber trades, which is in itself a proof 
of her great strength. A. O. H. 

Blackheath. 

The Letter "A" in "humble." I was always 
taught in my childhood to sink the h in this word, 
and was confirmed in this habit by the usage of 
all the well-educated people that I met in those 
days, as also by the authority of every pronoun- 
cing dictionary in the English language : and to 
this day hear many people quite as well educated, 
and of as high station in all but literary society, 
as Mr. Dickens, use the same pronunciation ; but 
this eminent writer has thought fit of late to pro- 
scribe this practice as far as in him lies, by making 
it the Shibboleth of two of the meanest and vilest 
characters in his works. I should like to know 
whether the aspiration of this letter is due to 
Mr. D.'s London birth and residence, or whether 
it has become of late the general usage of good 
society. If the latter, it is clear that a new edi- 
tion of Walker is required for the benefit of such as 
have no wish to be confounded with the "Heeps." 

Your late Numbers have given some curious in- 
stances of Cockney and other rhymes. I am sorry 
to see that the offensive r not only appears to be 
gaining ground in poetry, but also in the mouths 
of many whose station and education might have 
been supposed to preserve them from this vul- 
garism. If the masters of our great schools took 
as much pains with their pupils' pronunciation of 
English, as with that of Latin and Greek, we 
should hear less of this. J. S. WARDEN. 

" The Angels' Whisper." The admirers of that 
popular song will be surprised to find that there 
prevails in India a tradition very similar to the 
one on which that song is founded. 

The other day our Hindoo nurse was watching 
our baby asleep, and noticing that it frequently 
smiled, said, " God is talking to it ! " The tra- 
dition, as elicited from this woman, seems to be 
here, that when a child smiles in its sleep, God is 
saying something pleasing to it ; but when it cries, 
He is talking to it of sorrow. J. C. B. 

Punjab. 

Pronunciation of Coke (Vol. vii., p. 586.). 
Probably the under-mentioned particulars may 
tend to elucidate the Query discussed in your 
paper touching the pronunciation of Chief Jus- 
tice Coke's surname in his Lordship's time. 



In numerous original family "Coke documents"' 
in my possession, amongst which are a most 
spirited and highly interesting letter written by 
the celebrated Lady Elizabeth Hatton *, Sir 
Edward Coke's widow, quite in character with 
her ladyship, shortly after her husband's death ; 
and likewise several letters written by his chil- 
dren and grandchildren ; Sir Edward's surname- 
is invariably spelt Coke, whilst in other his family 
documents f and public precepts I possess, the- 
latter of which came under the eye of Lords 
Keepers Coventry and Littleton, Sir Edward's 
name is, in nine cases out of ten in five hundred 
instances, spelt Cooke and Cook ; thus, I submit, 
raising an almost irresistible presumption that, 
however the Chief Justice's surname was written, 
it was pronounced Cook and not Coke. 

T. W. JONES. 

Nantwicb. 

The Advice supposed to have been given to 
Julius III. The Consilium, sometimes and inad- 
vertently called a Council, addressed to Julius III., 
Pope of Rome, by certain prelates, has just been, 
once more quoted, for the fiftieth time, perhaps, 
within the present generation, as a genuine docu- 
ment, and as proceeding from adherents of the 
Church of Rome. This re-quotation appears in 
an otherwise useful little volume of the Religious 
Tract Society, entitled The Bible in many Tongues, 
p. 96. ; and it may tend to check the use made of 
the supposed Advice or Council to state, what a 
perusal either of the original in Brown's Fasciculus 
Rerum Expetend. et Fugiend., or of a translation in. 
Gibson's Preservative (vol. i. pp. 183. 191., ed. 
1848), will soon make evident, that the document 
in question is a piece of banter, and must be at- 
tributed to the pen of P. P. Vergerio, in whose 
Works it is in fact included, in the single volume 
published Tubing. 1563, fol. 94104. 

So frequently has this supposed Advice been 
cited as a serious affair, that the pages of "N. & Q." 
may be well employed in endeavouring to stop the 
somewhat perverse use of a friendly weapon. 

Novus. 



BISHOP GARDINER " DE VERA OBEDIENTIA. 

It is probable that others of your readers be- 
sides myself have had good reason to complain 
that Dr. Maitland has cruelly raised the price of 
this little book to a bibliomaniacal height, by his 
inimitable description of its curious contents and 
history. (Essays on Subjects connected with the 
Reformation, xvii. xviii. xix.) 



* Her surname is so written. 

f Some of them of so early a date as the year 160O, 
when Sir Edward was Attorney- General to Queen 
Elizabeth. 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Some of the things which seem to be indubitable 
respecting the original work are these : 1. That 
it was first printed in 1535. 2. That, consequently, 
Bishop Burnet (Hist. ofRef, Part I. b. iii. p. 166. : 
Dublin, 1730) was mistaken in representing it as 
having been written in reply to Cardinal Pole. 

3. That there was an octavo edition published at 
Strasburg in 1536, and that Goldastus followed it. 

4. That there was an additional reprint of the 
tract at London in 1603. (Schelhornii, Amcen. 
Hist. Eccles., torn. i. pp. 15. 849.) But I am 
anxious to make three inquiries relative to this 
really important document and its fictitious pre- 
face. 

1. The Roane volume, certainly the earliest in 
English, professes to have been printed by " Mi- 
chal Wood" in 1553. Can we not determine the 
place of its origin by the recollection of the fact, 
that Bishop Bale's Mysterye of Iniquyte, or Con- 
futation of Ponce Pantolabus, was printed at Geneva 
by "Mychael Woode" in 1545 ? 

2. With regard to the typographical achieve- 
ments of. the Brocards, is it not rather an apropos 
circumstance, that " Biliosus Balaeus," as Fuller 
calls him, was the author of a Historia Divi Bro- 
cardi? (Ware's Works, ii. 325.) 

3. May not Bale (or Baal, according to Pits) 
be suspected to have been the composer of the 
Bonnerian Preface ? He might have reckoned it 
among the many Facetias et Jocos which he de- 
clares that he had put forth. It is observable that, 
while the writer of this Preface designates Bishop 
Gardiner as the " common cutthrot of Englande," 
the same title is bestowed upon Bonner in the 
Foxian Letter addressed to him by " an unknown 
person" (Strype's Memor. iii., Catal. p. 161.: Lon- 
don, 1721), and which, from internal evidence 
taken from the part relating to Philpot, must be 
referred to the year 1555. The style of these per- 
formances is similar ; and let " gaie Gardiner, 
blow-bole Boner, trusti Tonstal, and slow-bellie 
Samson " of the Preface be compared with " glo- 
rious Gardiner, blow-bolle Bonner, tottering Tun- 
stal, wagtaile Weston, and carted Chicken." (Bale's 
Declaration of Banner's Articles, fol. 90. b., Lon- 
don, 1561.) E. G. 



tltnar CEuerfed. 

Lord Byron. What relation to the poet was 
the Lord Byron mentioned in the Apology for the 
Life of George Ann Bellamy ? UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead. 
In Marshfield, Massachusets, it has been cus- 
tomary for a very long period to ring the bell of 
the parish church most violently for eight or ten 
minutes, whenever a death occurs in the village ; 
then to strike it slowly three times three, which 



makes known to the inhabitants that a man or 
boy has expired, and finally to toll it the number 
of times that the deceased had numbered years of 
existence. 

The first settlers of Marshfield having been 
Englishmen, may I ask if this custom ever did, or 
does now, exist in the mother country ? W. W. 

Malta. 

Unpublished Essay by Lamb. Coleridge is 
represented in his Table Talk (p. 253. ed. 1836), 
to have said that " Charles Lamb wrote an essay 
on a man, who had lived in past time." The 
editor in a note tells us he knows " not when or 
where." I do not find it in the edition of his 
works published in 1846, nor have I been able to 
discover it in any of the journals, to which he 
contributed, that have fallen in my way. Have 
any of your correspondents met with it ? 

R. W. ELLIOTT. 

Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church. On 
lately visiting Crosthwaite Church, Cumberland, 
I was exceedingly struck with the great peculi- 
arity of a carving, pointed out to me by the sexton, 
on the left jambs of all the windows in the north 
and south aisles, both inside and out. It is in the 
form of a circle with eight radiations, and always 
occurs about half-way between the shoulder of the 
arch and the sill. Dui-ing the late restoration of 
the church, it has been covered with plaster in 
every case in the interior, save one in the north 
aisle, which is left very distinct. It does not 
appear on any of the windows at the east end or 
in the tower. I noticed a similar figure over the 
stone door-way of the old inn at Threlkeld, with 
the letters C G inscribed on one side, and the 
date 1688 on the other. The sexton said, he had 
never been able to obtain any intelligence as to 
its symbolical meaning or fc history, although he 
had inquired of nearly every one who had been 
to see the church. Can any of your correspon- 
dents throw a light upon the subject? 

R. W. ELLIOTT. 

CromiuelVs Portrait. In the Annual Register, 
1773, " Characters," p. 77. ; in Hughes's Letters^ 
ii. 308. ; in Gent. Mag., xxxv. 357. ; and in 
Noble's House of Cromwell, i. 307., is a statement, 
originally made by Mr. Say, of Lowestoft, in his 
account of Mrs. Bridget Bendish, importing that 
the best picture of Oliver which the writer had 
ever seen, was at Rosehall (Beccles), in the pos- 
session of Sir Robert Rich. Where is this por- 
trait ? Has it ever been engraved ? S. W. Rix. 

Beccles. 

Governor Brooks, about a century since, was 
governor of one of the West India Islands. I have 
heard Cuba named as his government ; and it 
might have been that, the short time Cuba was in 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



the possession of the English, he was governor of 
it ; but I am uncertain. If any correspondent, 
versed in West Indian affairs, can give me any par- 
ticulars of the family and antecedents of the above, 
or any reference to his services (for I suppose him 
to have been a military man), it will great oblige 

TEE BEE. 

Old Books. I notice some of your correspon- 
dents, having fancied that they have picked up at 
some old book-stall an invaluable treasure, are 
coolly told by others more learned, " It would be 
a bad exchange for a shilling ;" and, again, "If it 
cost three shillings and sixpence, the purchaser 
was most unfortunate." 

May I ask the value of the following ? They 
came into possession of my family about thirty 
years ago : 

" Epitome Thesauri antiquitatum hoc est Impp. 
Rom. orientalium et occidentalium Iconum ex antiquis 
numismatibus quam fidelissime delineatum. 

" Ex Musaeo Jacobi de Strada Mantuani Antiquatum. 

"Lugduni, apud Jacobum de Strada et Thomam 
Guercinum, MDLIII. (1553). Cum Privilegio Regio." 

Handsomely got up ; gilt edges, pp. 339. Also, 

" Sommario delle vite de GL'Imperiatore Roman i da 
C. Giolio Cesare sino a Ferdinando II., con le loro 
effigie Causte dalle Medaglie : In lioina apresso, 
Lodovico Giignani, MDCXXXVII, pp. 8O." 

BRISTOLIENSIS. 

The Privileges of the See of Canterbury. I 
find preserved by William of Malmsbury, in his 
Chronicle, book iii., the following letter from Pope 
Boniface to Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
respecting the privileges of his see : 

" Far be it from every Christian, that anything 
concerning the city of Canterbury be diminished or 
changed, in present or future times, which was ap- 
pointed by our predecessor Pope Gregory, however 
human circumstances may be changed : Itmt more espe- 
cially by the authority of St. Peter, the chief of the 
Apostles, we command and ordain, that the city of 
Canterbury shall ever hereafter be esteemed the Metropo- 
litan See of all Britain ; and we decree and appoint 
immutably, that all the provinces of the kingdom of 
England shall be subject to the Metropolitan Church 
of the aforesaid See. And if any one attempt to injure 
this church, which is more especially under the power 
and protection of the Holy Roman Church, or to 
lessen the jurisdiction conceded to it, may GOD ex- 
punge him from the book of life ; and let him know 
that he is bound by the sentence of a curse." 

How can the expressions I have Italicised be 
reconciled with the creation of the Archiepiscopal 
See of Westminster ? TV. ERASER. 

Tor-Mohun. 

Heraldic Colour pertaining to Ireland. There 
occurs in the Dublin University Magazine for 
October, 1852, an article entitled "A Night in 



the Fine Arts' Court of our National Exhibition," 
and at the conclusion a " Note," in which I find 
the following remarks : 

" This last (the figure of Erin), as described, is 
purely ideal, but legitimately brought in, as Hogan's 
figure of ' Hibernia ' occupied a position in the Fine 
Arts' Court, and suggested it. It may be as well to 
add that Erin is described as wearing a blue mantle, 
as blue, not green, is the heraldic colour pertaining to 
Ireland now." 

May I inquire at what time, and under what 
circumstances, blue was substituted for the old 
favourite green ? HENRY H. BHEEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Descendants of Judas Iscariot. In Southey's 
Omniana is the following : 

" It was believed in Pier della Valle's time that the 
descendants of Judas still existed at Corfu, though the 
persons who suffered this imputation stoutly denied 
the truth of the genealogy." 

Is anything farther to be met with on this cu- 
rious subject ? G. CREED. 

Parish Clerks ' and Politics. In Twenty-six 
Psalms of Thanksgiving and Praise, Love and 
Glory, for the use of a Parish Church (Exon., 
And. Brice, 1725), the rector (who compiled it), 
among other reasons for omitting all the impre- 
catory Psalms, says, 

" Lest a parish clerk, or any other, should be whetting 
his spleen, or obliging his spite, when he should be en- 
tertaining his devotion." 

That such practices were indulged in, we have 
the farther evidence of Bramston the satirist : 

" Not long since pariah clerks, with saucy airs, 
Apply'd King David's Psalms to state-affairs."* 

Can any readers of " N. & Q." point out ex- 
amples of such misapplication ? J. O. 

" Virgin Wife and widowed Maid" Whence 
come the words " Virgin wife and widow'd maid," 
quoted, apparently, by Liddell and Scott in their 
Greek Lexicon, s. v. aTrdpBevos, as a rendering or 
illustration of Hec. 610. ? 

" Ny/u^Tjv T' &VVIM-POV, irdpBfvdv T' aTrapBevov" 

ANON. 

" Culling off" the little heads of light." Perhaps 
you or one of your correspondents would help me 
to the whereabouts of some thoughtful lines which 
I recently came across, in a volume which I acci- 
dentally took up, but the name of which has com- 
pletely slipped my memory. 



K The Art of Politicks, in imitation of Horace, 17 '29, 
with a hybrid portrait of Heidegger, the arbit. elegant. 
of his day. 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



The lines referred to typified Tyranny under the 
form of the man who puts out the gas-lights at 
dawn : " Cutting off the little heads of light which 
lit the world." I am not sure of the rhythm, and 
so have put the lines like prose ; but they wind up 
with a fine analogy of the sun in all its glory 
bursting on the earth, and putting the proceedings 
of the light extinguisher utterly to nought. 

A. B. R. 

Medal of Sir Robert Walpole. On a brass 
medal, without date, rather larger than half a 
crown, are these effigies. 

On one side the devil, horned and tailed proper, 
with a fork in his right hand, and marching with a 
very triumphant step, is conducting a courtier in 
full dress (no doubt meant for Walpole), by a 
rope round his neck, into the open jaws of a 
monster, which represent the entrance to the 
place of punishment. Out of the devil's mouth 
issues a label with the words, " Make room for Sir 
Robert." Underneath, " No Excise." 

On the reverse are the figures of two naval 
officers, with the legend, " The British Glory re- 
revived by Admiral Vernon and Commodore 
Brown." This refers of course to the taking of 
Porto Bello in November, 1739. 

Is this piece one of rarity and value ? J. 

La Fete des Chaudrons. In the exhibition of 
pictures in the British Institution is one (No. 17.) 
by Teniers, entitled " La Fete des Chaudrons." 
In what publication can the description of this 
fete, or fair, be found ? C. I. R. 

Who first thought of Table-turning ? Whilst 
the people are amusing themselves, and the learned 
are puzzling themselves, on the subject of table- 
turning, would you have any objection to answer 
the following Query ? 

Who first, thought of table-turning ? and whence 
has it suddenly risen to celebrity ? J. G. T. 

Hagley. 

College Guide. Will some of your correspon- 
dents kindly inform a father, who is looking for- 
ward to his boys going to college, in what work 
he will find the fullest particulars respecting 
scholarships and exhibitions at the different col- 
leges in both universities ? Querist is in posses- 
sion of Gilbert's Liber Scholasticus (1843), the 
Family Almanack for 1852, and, of course, the 
University Calendars. S. S. S. 



r Done Pedigree. A very old MS. pedigree of 
the family of Done of Utkington, in the county 
before me, connects with that family no less than 
twenty-three Cheshire families of distinction, viz. 
Cholmondeley, Egerton,Wilbraham, Booth, Arden, 



Leicester, and seventeen others. Now, as it ap- 
pears by your note on the communication of a 
correspondent (Vol. vi., p. 273.), that there exists 
a pedigree of the family of Done, of Utkington, in 
the British Museum, Additional MS. No. 5836. 
pp. 180. and 186., perhaps you will be good 
enough to say whether that pedigree discloses the 
extensive Cheshire family connexion with the 
Done family above noticed. T. W. JONES. 

Nantwich. 

[The following families connected with Done of 
Utkington occur in the pedigree (Add. MS. 5836. 
p. 186.): " Richard de Kingsley, A.D. 1233 ; Venables, 
Swinerton, Peter de Thornton, Lord Audley, Dutton, 
Aston, Gerrard, Wilbraham, Manwaring, Eliz. Traf- 
ford, widow of Geo. Booth of Dunham, Ralph Legh 
of High Legh, Davenport. Thomas Stanley de Alder- 
ley, Thomas Wagstaff of Tachbroke, and Devereux 
Knightley of Fawsley." This pedigree was copied by 
Cole from an old MS. book of pedigrees formerly be- 
longing to Sir John Crew. See also Ormerod's Cheshire, 
vol. ii. p. 133., for a pedigree of Done of Utkington, 
Flax-Yards, and Duddon, compiled from inquisitions 
post mortem, the parochial registers, and the Visitations 
of 1580 and 1664.] 

Scotch Newspapers, SfC. What are the earliest 
publications of Scotland giving an account of the 
current events of that kingdom ? T. F. 

[ The Edinburgh Gazette, or Scotch Postman, printed 
by Robert Brown on Tuesdays and Thursdays, ap- 
pears to have been the earliest gazette. The first 
Number was published in March, 1715. This was 
followed by The. Edinburgh Evening Courant, published 
on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays. No. 1. ap- 
peared on the 15th December, 1718, and has existed 
to the present time. There was another paper issued 
on May 8, 1692, called The Scotch Mercury, giving a 
true account of the daily proceedings and most remark- 
able public occurrences in Scotland ; but this seems to 
have been printed in London for R. Baldwin. The 
earliest Almanack published in Scotland was in 1677, 
by Mr. Forbes of Aberdeen, under the title of A Nero 
Prognostication, calculated for North Britain, and which 
was continued until the year 1700.] 

Dictum de Kenilworth. Said to have passed 
anno 1266. What was the nature of it ? 

ABBEDONENSIS. 

[It is a declaration of the parliament of Henry III., 
containing the terms on which the king was to grant a 
general pardon to the malcontents of Ely, namely, that 
all who took arms against the king should pay him the 
value of their lands, some for five years, others for 
three and for one. A copy of it is in the Cottonian 
Library, Claudius, D. ii., 119. b., and in Tyrrel's Hist, 
of England, p. 1064.] 

Dr. Harwood. Can you tell me in what year 
the Rev. Dr. Harwood of Lichfield, author of a 
History of that city, and other works, died ? I 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



believe it was about 1849 ; but I have not been 
able to ascertain the exact date. A. Z. 

[Dr. Harwood died 23rd December, 1842, aged 75. 
For a biographical notice of him, see Gent. Mag. for 
February, 1843, p. 202.] 



NAMES OF PLACES. 

(Vol. vii., p. 536.) 

I have been travelling so much about in the 
country since I left England, that I have not al- 
ways the opportunity of seeing your " N. & Q." 
until long after the publication of the different 
Numbers. I have in this way seen some Queries 
put to me about matters connected with the his- 
tory of the Danish settlements in England. But 
as I have had no particular information to give, I 
have not thought it worth while to write to say 
that I know nothing of any great consequence. 

Just when I left Copenhagen, some days ago, a 
friend of mine showed me that ME. TAYLOR, of 
Ormesby in Norfolk, asked some questions re- 
garding the Danish names of places in Norfolk. 

In answer to them I beg to state, that all the 
names terminating in -by unquestionably are of 
Danish origin. MR. TAYLOR is perfectly right in 
supposing that several of these names of places 
contain the names of the old Danish conquerors. 
But I do not think that Ormesby originally has 
been Gormsby. Gorm certainly is the same as 
Guthrum ; but both of these names are distinctly 
different from the name " Orme " or " Orm," 
which, in our old language, signifies a serpent, 
and also a worm. (The famous ship, on board of 
which King Olaf Tryggveson was killed in the 
year 1000, was called " Ormen bin lange," i.e. the 
long serpent.) I have observed that several En- 
glish families (undoubtedly of old Scandinavian 
descent) at this day have the family-name "Orm" 
or "Orme." 

Among the other names of places quoted by 
MR. TAYLOR, Rollesby most probably must be de- 
rived from the name " Hollo " or "Rolf;" but I 
regard the origin of the other names as being 
much more doubtful. If we had the original 
forms of these names, it might have been easier to 
decide upon it. As the names are now, I do not 
see anything purely Scandinavian in them, except 
the termination -by. It is not at all unlikely that 
the name Ashby or Askeby might have been called 
so from "Ash-trees" (Danish "Ask eller Esk"), 
but I dare not venture into conjectures of this 
kind. 

I should be very happy if I in any other way 
could be of any service to MR. TAYLOR in his re- 
searches about the Danish settlements in East 
Anglia. His remarks upon the situation of the 
villages with Danish names are most interesting 



and instructive. I always sincerely wish that in- 
habitants of the different old Danish districts in 
the North and East of England would, in the 
same way, take up the question about the Danish 
influence, as I feel fully convinced that very re- 
markable and important elucidations might be 
gained to the history of England during a long 
and hitherto very little known period. 

J. J. A. WOHSAAE. 



CLEANING OLD OAK. 

(Vol. vii., p. 620. ; Vol. viii., p. 45.) 

Having been so frequently benefited by the in- 
struction, especially photographic, issuing from 
your most useful periodical, I feel myself almost 
bound to contribute my mite of information when- 
ever I may chance to have the power of doing so ; 
consequently, should you not get a better method 
of assisting MR. F. M. MIDDLETON out of his diffi- 
culty of softening old paint, as described in the 
" N. & Q.," No. 191., I beg to offer him the fol- 
lowing, and from experience I can vouch for its 
certainty of leading him to the desired result. 

Some years since, having had occasion to enter 
a lumber-room of an old building, I was struck 
with the antiquated appearance of an arin-chair, 
which had, in days long gone by, been daubed 
over with a dirty bluish paint. Finding, on in- 
quiry, that its owner set no particular value on it, 
I met with but little difficulty in inducing him to 
make an exchange with me for a good mahogany 
one. Soon after its being brought into my house, 
one of my domestics discovered that it positively 
swarmed with a species of lice, issuing from innu- 
merable minute worm-holes and crevices, which of 
course rendered it in its present state worse than 
useless. Determined not to be deprived of my 
prize, I resolved on attempting to rid it of this 
troublesome pest by washing it over with a strong 
solution of caustic soda, made by mixing some 
quick-lime with a very strong solution of the 
common washing soda (impure carbonate of soda), 
and pouring off the clear supernatant liquid for 
use. This proceeding, much to my satisfaction, 
not only succeeded in entirely getting rid of the 
vermin, but on my servant's scrubbing the chair 
with a hard brush and hot soap and water, I found 
that the caustic soda had formed a kind of soap, 
by chemically uniting with the oil contained in 
the old paint, thereby reducing it to such a state 
of softness, that by a few vigorous applications and 
soakings of the above-named solution, and subse- 
quent scrubbings, my new favourite was also freed 
from its ugly time-worn jacket of dirty paint, dis- 
covering underneath a beautifully carved and 
darkly coloured oaken surface. 

After being perfectly dried and saturated with 
linseed oil, it was frequently well rubbed, and the 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



chair stands to this day, like some of the valuable 
discoveries made by the alchemists when in search 
of the Elixir Vitse, or the Philosopher's Stone, an 
example of a fortunate and unexpected disclosure 
made when not directly in search of it. I have 
since learnt that a fluid possessing the above- 
named detergent qualities, is to be purchased at 
some of the oil and colour shops, the formula for 
its preparation being kept a secret. 

HENRY HERBERT HELE. 
Ashburton, Devonshire. 

P. S. In making the solution on a caustic 
alkali, perhaps I should have said that the common 
carbonate of potass of commerce will do as well as 
the common carbonate of soda, if not better, from 
the probability of its making a stronger solution. 

The following recipe for taking paint off old 
oak is from No. 151. of The Builder : 

" Make a strong solution of American potash (which 
can be bought at any colour-shop, and resembles burnt 
brick in appearance); mix this with sawdust into a kind 
of paste, and spread it all over the paint, which will 
become softened in a few hours, and is then easily re- 
moved by washing with cold water. If, after the wood 
has dried, it becomes cracked, apply a solution of hot 
size with a brush, which will bind it well together and 
make it better for varnishing, as well as destroy the 
beetle, which is often met with in old oak, and is erro- 
neously called the worm." 

The following is also from the same Number : 

" To make dark oak pale in colour, which is some- 
times a desideratum, apply with a brush a little dilute 
nitric acid judiciously ; and to stain light oak dark, use 
the dregs of black ink and burnt amber mixed. It is 
better to try these plans on oak of little value at first, 
as, to make a good job, requires care, practice, and 
attention." 

H. C. K. 

F. M. MIDDLETON will find that American 
potash, soft soap, and warm water, will remove 
paint from oak. The mixture should be applied 
with a paint-brush, and allowed to remain on until 
the paint and it can be removed by washing with 
warm water and a hard brush. GETSRN. 



BURIAL IN AN ERECT POSTCRE. 

(Vol. viii., p. 5.) 

Your correspondent CHEVERELLS refers to the 
" tradition" of one of the Harcourt family being 
buried in an erect posture, and asks, " Is the pro- 
bability of this being the case supported by any, 
and what instances?" As this Query has been 
raised, it may be worth while to mention the fol- 
lowing circumstance, as a singular illustration of 
a remarkable subject ; though (as will be seen) 
the actual burial in an erect posture is here also 
probably " traditional." 



Towards the close of the last century, there 
lived in Kidderminster an eccentric person of the 
name of Orton (not that Orton, the friend of Dod- 
dridge, who passed some time in the town), but 
"Job Orton," the landlord of the Bell Inn. 
During his lifetime he erected his tomb in the 
parish churchyard, with this memento-mori inscrip- 
tion graven in large characters on the upper slab : 

" Job Orton, a man from Leicestershire ; 
And when he's dead, he must lie under here." 

This inscription remains unaltered to this day, 
and may be seen on the right-hand of the broad 
walk on the north side of the spacious churchyard. 
His coffin was constructed at the same time ; and, 
until it should be required for other and personal 
purposes, was used as a wine-bin. But, to carry 
his eccentricity even to the grave, he left strict 
orders that he should be buried in an erect posture : 
and "tradition" (of course) says that his request 
was complied with. Your correspondent says that 
tradition " assigns no reason for the peculiarity" 
of the Harcourt knight's burial ; but tradition has 
been more explicit in Job Orton's case, whose 
reason (?) for his erect posture in the tomb was, 
that at the last day he might be able to rise from 
his grave before his wife, who was buried in the 
usual horizontal manner ! Job Orton appears to 
have had a peculiar talent for the composition of 
epitaphs ; as, in his more playful moments, he was 
accustomed to tell his better-half that if he out- 
lived her he should put the following lines on her 
tombstone : 

" Esther Orton a bitter, sour weed; 
God never lov'd her, nor increas'd her seed." 

He seems, however, to have spared her this 
gratuitous insult. As a farther illustration of the 
characters of this singular couple, the following 
anecdote is told. Esther Orton having frequently 
declared, that she should " never die happy until 
she had rolled in riches," Job, like a good hus- 
band, determined to secure his wife's happiness. 
Having sold some land for a thousand pounds, he 
insisted that the money should be paid wholly in 
guineas. Taking these home in a bag, he locked 
his wife up in a room ; knocked her down, opened 
his bag of guineas, and raining the golden wealth 
upon her, rolled his Danae over and over in the 
coin. " And now, Esther," said Job Orton, " thee 
mayst die as soon as thee pleases : for thee'st had 
thy wish, and rolled in riches." 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 



LAWYERS BAGS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 557.) 

Additional evidence of the fact that lawyers 
used to carry green bags towards the end of the 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



seventeenth century, is to be found in the Plain 
Dealer, a comedy by Wycherley. 

One of the principal characters in the play is 
the Widow Blackacre, a petulant, litigious woman, 
always in law, and mother of Jerry Blackacre, " a 
true raw squire under age and his mother's go- 
vernment, bred to the law" 

In Act I. Sc. 1., I find the following stage di- 
rections : 

" Enter Widow Blackacre with a mantle and a green 
bag, and several papers in the other hand. Jerry 
Blackacre, her son, in a gown, laden with green bags, 
following her." 

In Act III. Sc. 1. the widow is called imper- 
tinent and ignorant by a lawyer of whom she 
demands back her fee, on his returning her brief 
and declining to plead for her. This draws from 
her the following reply : 

" Impertinent again and ignorant to me ! Gadsbo- 
dikins, you puny upstart in the law to use me so, you 
green bag carrier, you murderer of unfortunate causes," 
&c. 

Farther on, in the same scene, Freeman, a 
gentleman well educated, but of a broken fortune, 
a complier with the age, thus admonishes Jerry : 

" Come, Squire, let your mother and your trees fall 
as she pleases, rather than wear this gown and carry 
green bags all thy life, and be pointed at for a tony. 
But you shall be able to deal with her yet the common 
way. Thou shalt make false love to some lawyer's 
daughter, whose father, upon the hopes of thy marrying 
her, shall lend thee money and law to preserve thy 
estate and trees." 

A. W. S. 

Temple. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

By the courtesy of our valued cotemporary The 
Athenaum, we are permitted to reprint the following 
interesting communication, which appeared in that 
journal on Saturday last.] 

" NEW THOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS. 

" Henley Street, July 6. 

" Your insertion of the annexed letter from my 
brother-in-law, Mr. John Stewart, of Pau, will 
much oblige me. The utility of this mode of 
reproduction seems indisputable. In reference to 
its concluding paragraph, I will only add, that the 
publication of concentrated microscopic editions of 
works of reference maps, atlases, logarithmic 
tables, or the concentration for pocket use of pri- 
vate notes and MSS., &c., &c., and innumerable 
other similar applications is brought within the 
reach of any one who possesses a small achromatic 
object-glass of an inch or an inch and a half in 
diameter, and a brass tube, with slides before and 
behind the lens of a fitting diameter to receive the 
plate or plates to be operated upon, central or 



nearly central rays only being required. The de- 
tails are too obvious to need mention. I am, &c. 
" J. F. W. HERSCHEL. 



"Pau, June 11. 

"Dear Herschel. I sent you some time ago a 
few small-sized studies of animals from the life, 
singly and in flocks, upon collodionised glass. The 
great rapidity of exposition required for such sub- 
jects, being but the fraction of a second, together 
with the very considerable depth and harmony 
obtained, gave me reason to hope that ere this 
I should have been able to produce microscopic 
pictures of animated objects. For the present, I 
have been interrupted. Meantime, one of my 
friends here, Mr. Heilmann, following the same 
pursuit, has lighted on an ingenious method of 
taking from glass negatives positive impressions of 
different dimensions, and with all the delicate mi- 
nuteness which the negative may possess. This 
discovery is likely, I think, to extend the resources 
and the application of photography, and with 
some modifications, which I will explain, to in- 
crease the power of reproduction to an almost un- 
limited amount.' The plan is as follows : The 
negative to be reproduced is placed in a slider at 
one end (a) of a camera or other box, constructed 
to exclude the light throughout. The surface pre- 
pared for the reception of the positive whether 
albumen, collodion, or paper is placed in another 
slider, as usual, at the opposite extremity (c) of 
the box, and intermediately between the two ex- 
tremities (at ft) is placed a lens. The negative at 
a is presented to the light of the sky, care being 
taken that no rays enter the box but those travers- 
ing the partly transparent negative. These rays 
are received and directed by the lens at b upon 
the sensitive surface at c, and the impression of 
the negative is there produced with a rapidity pro- 
portioned to the light admitted, and the sensibility 
of the surface presented. By varying the distances 
between a and c, and c and b, any dimension re- 
quired may be given to the positive impression. 
Thus, from a medium-sized negative, I have ob- 
tained negatives four times larger than the original, 
and other impressions reduced thirty times, ca- 
pable of figuring on a watch-glass, brooch, or ring. 
" Undoubtedly one of the most interesting and 
important advantages gained by this simple ar- 
rangement is, the power of varying the dimensions 
of a picture or portrait. Collodion giving results 
of almost microscopic minuteness, such negatives 
bear enlarging considerably without any very per- 
ceptible deterioration in that respect. Indeed, as 
regards portraits, there is a gain instead of a loss ; 
the power of obtaining good and pleasing likenesses 
appears to me decidedly increased, the facility of 
subsequent enlargement permitting them to be 
taken sufficiently small, at a sufficient distance 
(and therefore with greater rapidity and certainty) 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



to avoid all the focal distortion so much complained 
of, while the due enlargement of a portrait taken 
on glass has the effect, moreover, of depriving it 
Of that hardness of outline so objectionable in a 
collodion portrait, giving it more artistic effect, 
and this without quitting the perfect focal point as 
has been suggested. 

"But there are many other advantages obtained 
by this process. For copying by engraving, &c. the 
exact dimension required of any picture may at 
once be given to be copied from. 

" A very small photographic apparatus can thus 
be employed when a large one might be inconve- 
nient or impracticable, the power of reproducing 
on a larger scale being always in reserve. Inde- 
pendent of this power of varying the size, positives 
so taken of the same dimension as the negative 
reproduce, as will be readily understood, much 
more completely the finer and more delicate details 
of the negatives than positives taken by any other 
process that I am acquainted with. 

" The negative also may be reversed in its position 
at a so as to produce upon glass a positive to be 
seen either upon or under the glass. And while 
the rapidity and facility of printing are the same 
as in the case of positives taken on paper prepared 
with the iodide of silver, the negatives, those on 
glass particularly, being so easily injured, are much 
better preserved, all actual contact with the posi- 
tive being avoided. For the same reason, by this 
process positive impressions can be obtained not 
only upon wet paper, &c., but also upon hard in- 
flexible substances, such as porcelain, ivory, glass, 
&c., and upon this last, the positives being trans- 
parent are applicable to the stereoscope, magic 
lantern, &c. 

"By adopting the following arrangement, this 
process may be used largely to increase the power 
and speed of reproduction with little loss of effect. 
From a positive thus obtained, say on collodion, 
several hundred negatives may be produced either 
on paper or on albumenised glass. If on the latter, 
and the dimension of the original negative is pre- 
served, the loss in minuteness of detail and har- 
mony is almost imperceptible, and even when con- 
siderably enlarged, is so trifling as in the majority 
of cases to prove no objection in comparison with 
the advantage gained in size, while in not a few 
cases, as already stated, the picture actually gains 
by an augmentation of size. Thus, by the simul- 
taneous action, if necessary, of some hundreds of 
negatives, many thousand impressions of the same 
picture may be produced in the course of a day. 

" I cannot but think, therefore, that this simple 
but ingenious discovery will prove a valuable ad- 
dition to our stock of photographic manipulatory 
processes. It happily turns to account and utilises 
one of the chief excellencies of collodion that ex- 
treme minuteness of detail which from its excess 
becomes almost a defect at times, toning it down 



by increase of size till the harshness is much dimi- 
nished, and landscapes, always more or less un- 
pleasing on collodion from that cause, are rendered 
somewhat less dry and crude. 

" A very little practice will suffice to show the 
operator the quality of glass negatives I mean as 
to vigour and development best adapted for re- 
producing positives by this method. He will also 
find that a great power of correction is obtained, 
by which overdone parts in the negative can be 
reduced and others brought up. Indeed, in conse- 
quence of this and other advantages, I have little 
doubt that this process will be very generally 
adopted in portrait taking. 

" Should your old idea of preserving public 
records in a concentrated form on microscopic 
negatives ever be adopted, the immediate positive 
reproduction on an enlarged readable scale, with- 
out the possibility of injury to the plate, will be 
of service. 

" I am, &c. " JOHN STEWART." 



to Elinor 

The Ring Finger (Vol. vii., p. 601.). The 
Greek Church directs that the ring be put on the 
right hand (Schinid, Liturgik, iii. 352. : Nassau, 
1842); and although the direction of the Sarum 
Manual is by no means clear (see Palmer's Origines 
Liturgicce, ii. 213., ed. 2.), such may have formerly 
been the practice in England, since Rastell, in his 
counter-challenge to Bishop Jewel, notes it as a 
novelty of the Reformation, 

" That the man should put the wedding-ring on the 
fourth finger in the left hand of the woman, and not on 
the right hand, as hath been many hundreds of years 
continued." Heylyn, Hist. Ruf., ii. 430. 8vo. ed. 

But the practice of the Roman communion 
in general agrees with that of the Anglican. 
(Schmid, iii. 350-2.) Martene quotes from an 
ancient pontifical an order that the bridegroom, 
should place the ring successively on three fingers 
of the right hand, and then shall leave it on the 
fourth finger of the left, in order to mark the 
difference between the marriage ring, the symbol 
of a love which is mixed with carnal affection, and 
the episcopal ring, the symbol of entire chastity. 
(Mart, de Antiquis Eccl. Ritibus, ii. 128., ed. Venet. 
1783 ; Schmid, p. 352.) J. C. R. 

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Vol. vii., 
pp. 407. 628.). As my old neighbour R. L. P. 
dates from the banks o'f the Lake of Constance, 
and may possibly not see W. W.'s communication 
for some time, I in the meanwhile take the liberty 
of informing W. W. that the order of St. John 
was restored in England by Queen Mary, and, 
with other orders revived by her, was again sup- 
pressed by the act 1 Eliz. c. 24. J. C. JR. 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



CahirCs Correspondence (Vol. vii., pp. 501. 
621.). It may be well to mention that all the 
letters of Calvin which MR. WALTER quotes, are 
to be found in the old collection of his corre- 
spondence ; perhaps, however, the latter copies 
may be fuller or more correct in some parts. 

The original French of the long letter to Pro- 
tector Somerset is printed by Henry in his Life 
of Calvin; but, like the other documents of that 
laborious work, it is omitted without notice in the 
English travestie which bears the name of Dr. 
Stebbing. 

Heylyn's mis-statement as to Calvin and Cran- 
mer is exposed, and the ground of it is pointed 
out, in the late edition of the Ecclesia Restaurata, 
vol. i. p. 134. J. C. R. 

Old Booty's Case (Vol. vii., p. 634.). A friend, 
on whose accuracy I can rely, has examined the 
London Gazettes for 1687 and 1688, in the British 
Museum : they do not contain any report of 
Booty's case. I thought I had laid Booty's ghost 
in Vol. iii., p. 170., by showing that the facts of 
the case were unlikely and the law impossible. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Chatterton (Vol. vii., p. 267.). We are all 
very curious in Bristol to know what evidence 
or light J. M. G. of Worcester can bring to bear 
upon the Rowley Poems, from the researches (as 
he states) of an individual here to prove not only 
that Chatterton was not their author, but that 
probably the " Venerable Rowley " himself was. 

I had thought in 1853 no one doubted their 
authorship. There is abundance of proof to show 
Rowley could not have written them, and that 
only Chatterton could have done so. 

BHISTOLIENSIS. 

House-marks, Sfc. (Vol. vii., p. 594.). It is 
very well known that the sign of the " Swan with 
two Necks," in London, is a corruption of the 
private mark of the owner of the swans, viz., two 
nicks made by cutting the neck feathers close in 
two spaces. It is also a common custom in 
Devon to mark all cattle, horses, &c. with the 
owner's mark when sent out on Exmoor, Dart- 
moor, and other large uninclosed tracts for sum- 
mering : thus, Sir Thos. Dyke Acland's mark is 
an anchor on the near side of each of his large 
herd of ponies, on Exinoor. W. COLLTNS. 

Harlow. 

Bibliography (Vol. vii., p. 597.). The follow- 
ing may assist MARICONDA. : 

Fischer: Beschreibung einiger Typograpbischer Sel- 
tenheiten nebst Beytragen zur Erfindungsgeschichte 
der Buchdruckerkunst, 8vo. Mainz, 1800-4. 

Origin of Printing, in Two Essays ; with Remarks 
and Appendix, 8vo. 1776. 



The Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain, by 
J. Johnson, Dr. Dibdin, Dr. Wilkins, and others. 
Longmans, 1824. 

He will also find a list of works under the head 
PRINTING in the Penny Cyclopaedia. GETSRN. 

Parochial Libraries (Vol. vi., p. 432. ; Vol. vii. 
passim.). A parochial library was for many 
years deposited in the room over the south 
entrance of Beccles Church. The books consist 
chiefly of old divinity, &c., and appear to have 
been gifts from various persons ; among whom 
were Bishop Trimnel (of Norwich), Sir Samuel 
Barnardiston, Sir Edmund Bacon of Gillingham, 
Sir John Playters, Mrs. Anna North, and Mr. 
Ridgly of London. There is a copy of Walton's 
Polyglot Bible, 1655-7, besides an odd volume 
of the same work (Job to Malachi), 1656, uncut. 
It is probable that many of the books have been 
lost, as the room in which they were kept was 
used as a repository for discarded ecclesiastical 
appliances, and, latterly, for charity blankets du- 
ring summer. In 1840, with the consent of the 
late bishop of Norwich, and of the rector and 
churchwardens of the parish, the remaining 
volumes (about 170) were removed to the public 
library room, and placed under the care of the 
committee of that institution. A catalogue of 
them was then printed. The greater part have 
been repaired, with the aid of a donation of 10/. 
from a former inhabitant, who had reason to 
believe that some of the works had been lost in 
consequence of their having been in his hands 
many years ago. Are there not numerous in- 
stances elsewhere in which this example might be 
copied with propriety ? S. W. Rix. 

Beccles. 

Faithfidl Teate (Vol. vii., p.529.). " Though 
this author's name be spelt Teate, there is great 
reason to believe that he was the father of Nahum 
Tate, translator of the Psalms." Bill. Anglo- 
poetica, p. 361. In the punning copy of verses 
preceding the " Ter Tria " is this distich : 
" We wish that Teats and Herberts may inspire 
Ilandals and Davenants with poetick fire. 

Jo. CHISHUTT." 

My copy is on miserable paper, yet priced 
31s. 6d., with this remark in MS. by some former 
possessor: "Very rare: which will not be won- 
dered at by any one who will read five pages care- 
fully." E. D. 

Lack-a-daisy (Vol. vi., p. 535.). Todd had 
better have allowed Johnson to speak for himself: 
lack-a-daisy, lack-a-day, alack the day, as Juliet's 
nurse exclaims, and alas-the-day, are only various 
readings of the same expression. And of such in- 
quiries and such solutions as Todd's, I cannot 
refrain from expressing my sentiments in the 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



words of poor Ophelia, "Alack! and fye for 
shame ! " Q. 

Bloom sbury. 

Bacon (Vol. ii., p. 247. ; Vol. iii., p. 41.). I 
think that you have not noticed one very common 
use of this word, as evidently meaning beechen. 
Schoolboys call tops made of boxwood, boxers; 
while the inferior ones, which are generally made 
of beechwood, they call bacons. H. T. RILET. 

Angel-beast Cleek Longtriloo (Vol. v., 
p.' 559.). An account of these games, the nature 
of which is required by your correspondent, is 
given in the Compleat Gamester, frequently re- 
printed in the latter part of the seventeenth -cen- 
tury. The first, which is there called beast, is said 
to derive its name from the French la belt, mean- 
ing, no doubt, bete. It seems to have resembled 
the game of loo. Gleek is the proper name of the 
second game, and not check, as your correspondent 
suggests. It was played by three persons, and the 
cards bore the names of Tib, Tom, Tiddy, Towser, 
and Tumbler. Hence we may conclude that it 
was an old English game. The third game, or 
lanterloo, is evidently the original form of the 
game now known as loo. Its name would seem to 
indicate a Dutch origin. H. T. RILEY. 

Hans Krauwinckel (Vol. v., p. 450.) When 

the ground in Charterhouse Square was opened in 
1834, for the purposes of sewerage (I believe), vast 
numbers of bones and skeletons were found, being 
the remains, as was supposed, of those who died 
of the Plague in 1348, and had been interred in 
that spot, as forming a part of Pardon Churchyard, 
which had lately been purchased by Sir Walter 
Manny, for the purposes of burial, and attached 
to the Carthusian convent there. Among the 
bones a few galley halfpence, and other coins, were 
found, as also a considerable number of abbey 
counters or jettons. I do not recollect if there 
was any date on the counters; but the name 
" Hans Krauwinckel " occurred on some of them 
which fell into my possession, and which I gave 
some years ago to the Museum of the City Library, 
Guildhall. If these were coeval, as was generally 
supposed, with the Plague of 1348, it is singular 
that the same name should be found on abbey 
counters with the date 1601. I should be obliged 
if any of your correspondents could inform me 
when the use of jettons ceased in England ; and 
whether Pardon Churchyard was used as a place 
of sepulture after;i348, and, if so, how long ? 

H. T. ElLET. 

Eevolving 7^ (Vol. vi., p. 517.). The Chinese 
have lanterns with paper figures in them which 
revolve by the heat, and are very common about 
Nevr Year time. H. B. 

Shanghai. 



Rub-a-dub (Vol. iii., p. 388.). Your corre- 
spondent seems at a loss for an early instance of 
this expression. In Percy's Reliques there is a 
song, the refrain or burden of which is : 

" Rub-a-dub, rub-a-dub, so beat your drums, 
Tantara, tantara, the Englishman comes." 

H. T. RlLEY. 

Muffs worn by Gentlemen. In one of Gold- 
smith's Essays I remember well an allusion to the 
practice. The writer of the letter, or essay, states- 
that he met his female cousin in the Mall, and after 
some sparring conversation, she ridicules him for 
carrying "a nasty 0/c?-fashioned [A.D. 1760] muff;'* 
and his retort is, that he " heartily wishes it were 
a tippet, for her sake," glancing at her dress,, 
which was, I suppose, somewhat what we moderns 
call " decolletee. E. C. G. 

Detached Church Towers. The Norman tower 
at Bury St. Edmund's should not be included in 
the lists. Although now used as the bell tower of 
the neighbouring church of St. James, it was 
erected several centuries before the church, and 
was known as the " Great Gate of the Church- 
yard," or the " Great Gate of the Church of St. 
Edmund." It would be very desirable to add to- 
the list the date of the tower, and its distance from 
the church. BUBIENSIS. 

Add to the list the modern Roman Catholic 
chapel at Baltinglass, Ireland. It has a detached 
tower built in a field above it, and, although de- 
void of architectural beauty, is so placed that it 
appears an integral part of the chapel from almost 
any point of view. ALEXANDER LEEPER. 

Dublin. 

Is not the bell-tower at Hackney detached from 
the church ? I do not remember that it has been 
yet named by your correspondents. B. H. C.. 

Christian Names (Vol. vii., pp. 406. 626.). On, 
the name of Besilius Fetiplace, Sheriff of Berk- 
shire, in 26 Elizabeth, Fuller remarks, 

" Some may "colourably mistake it for BasiKus or 
Basil, whereas indeed it is Besil, a surname .... 
Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be pro- 
duced of a surname made Christian, in England, save 
since the Reformation ; before which time the priests 
were scrupulous to admit any at font, except they were 
baptized with the name of a Scripture or legendary 
saint. Since, it hath been common ; and although the 
Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of 
them prove unfortunate, yet the good success in others 
confutes the general truth of the observation." Worthies, 
vol. i. pp. 159, 160., edit. Nuttall. 

J. C. R. 

Lord C. of Ireland, which MR. WILLIAM BATES 
guesses to be Lord Castlereagh, was Lord Clare, 
Chancellor of Ireland, who used also to call men 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



with three names by a term opprobrious among 
the Romans : " Homines trium literarum." C. 

Hogarth's Pictures (Vol. vii. passim). One of 
the correspondents of " N. & Q." inquires where 
he could see some pictures from this great artist. 
May I ask if he is aware of the three very fine 
large paintings in the Church of St. Mary, Red- 
cliffe, Bristol? which I am told will shortly be 
sold. BBISTOLIENSIS. 

P.S. They were painted for the church, and 
the vestry holds his autograph receipt for the pay- 
ment of them. 

OldFogie (Vol. vii., pp. 354. 559. 632.). Whe- 
ther the origin of this term be Irish, Scotch, or 
Swedish I know not ; but I cannot help stating 
the significant meaning which, as an Edinburgh 
boy at the beginning of the century, I was taught 
to attach to it. Every High-School boy agreed in 
applying it to the veterans of the Castle garrison, 
to the soldiers of the Town Guard (veterans also, 
and especial foes of my school-mates), and more 
generally to any old and objectionable gentleman, 
civil or military. It implied that, like stones which 
have ceased to roll, they had obtained the pro- 
verbial covering of moss, or, as it is called in Scot- 
land (probably in Ireland also), fog. I have heard 
in- Scotland the " Moss Rose" called the "Fogie 
Rose ;" and there is a well-known species of the 
humble bee which has its nest in a mossy bank, 
and is itself clothed with a moss-like covering : its 
name among the Scottish peasantry is the fogie 
bee. G. J. F. 

Bolton. 

Clem (Vol. vii., p. 615.). MB. KEIGHTLEY 
considers this word to mean press or restrain, and 
quotes three passages from Massinger and Jonson 
in support of his opinion ; admitting, however, 
that it is usually rendered starve. Now, whatever 
may have been the root of this word, or whence- 
soever it may have been derived, I think it must 
be admitted that starve is the correct meaning of 
the word in these passages. Let the reader test it 
by substituting starve for clem in each case. In 
Cheshire and Lancashire the word is in common 
use to this day, and invariably means starved for 
want of food. Of a thin, emaciated child it is 
said, " His mother clems him." A person exceed- 
ingly hungry says, "I'm welly clem'd; I'm almost 
or well-nigh starved." It is the ordinary appeal of 
a beggar in the streets, when asking for food. 

EDW. HAWKINS. 

Kissing Hands (Vol. vii., p. 595.). CAPE will 
find in Suetonius that Caligula's hands were kissed. 

C. 

Uniform of the Foot Guards (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
In answer to D. N., as to where he can see uni- 



forms of the Foot Guards, 1660 to 1670, I have to 
refer him to the Orderly-room, Horse Guards, 
where he will see the costume of the three regi- 
ments since they were raised. In Mackinnon's 
History of the Coldstream Guards, he will find 
that regiment's dress from the year 1650 to 1840. 

C. D. 

Book Inscriptions (Vol. vii., p. 455.). At the 
end of No. 1801. Harl. MSS. is the following : 

" Hie liber est scriptus, 
Qui scripsit sit benedictus. 
Qui scriptoris manum 
Culpat, basiat anum." 

In the printed catalogue there is this note : 

" Neotricus quidam hos scripsit versiculos, ex alio 
forsan Codice depromptos." 

CO. (p. 

I have not seen the following amongst your de- 
precatory rhymes. It may come in with another 
batch. The nature of the punishment is somewhat 
different from that usually selected, and savours of 
Spain : 

" Si quisquis furetur 

Thfe little libellum, 
Per Phoebum, per Jovem, 

I'll kill him, I'll fell him ! 
In ventum illius 



I'll stick my scalpellutn, 
And teach him to steal 
My little libellum." 



RUBI. 



In a Gesner's Thesaurus I have the following 
label of the date 1762: 

" Ex Caroli Ferd. Hommelii Bibliotheca. 

" Intra quatuordecim dies comodatum ni reddi- 
deris, neq' belle custodieris, alio tempore, Non habeo, 
dicam." 

L. 

Humbug (Vol. vii., pp. 550. 631.). I do not 
remember any earlier use of this word than in 
Fielding's Amelia, 1751. Its origin is involved in 
obscurity : but may it not be a corruption of the 
Latin ambages, or the singular ablative ambage ? 
which signifies quibbling, subterfuge, and that kind 
of conduct which is generally supposed to consti- 
tute humbug. It is very possible that it may have 
been pedantically introduced in the seventeenth 
century. May, in his translation of Lucan, uses 
the word ambages as an English word. 

H. T. RlLET. 

A severe instance of the use of the term 
"humbug" occurred in a court of justice. A 
female in giving her evidence repeatedly used 
this term. In her severe cross-examination, the 
counsel (a very plain, if not an ugly person) ob- 
served she had frequently used the term_ humbug, 
and desired to know what she meant by it, and to 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



Lave an explanation ; to which she replied, " Why, 
Sir, if I was to say you were a very handsome 
man, would you not think I was humbugging 
you ? " The counsel sat down perfectly satisfied. 

G.H.J. 

Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway 
Travelling (Vol. viii., p. 34.). The passage in 
Daniel alluded to is probably the following : 
" Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall 
be increased," chap. xii. v. 4. MR. CRAIG should 
send to your pages the exact words of Newton 
and Voltaire, with references to the books in 
which the passages may be found. JOHN BRUCE. 

Engine- d-verge (Vol. vii., p. 619.). Is not this 
what we term a garden engine ? The French 
vergier (viridarium) is doubtless so named, quia 
virgd definita ; and we have the old English word 
verge, a garden, from the same source. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

" Populus vult decipi," Sfc. (Vol. vii., p. 572.). 
The origin of this phrase is found in Thuanus, 
lib. xvii. A.D. 1556. See Jackson's Works, book iii. 
ch. 32. 9. note. C. P. E. 

Sir John Vanbrugh (Vol. vii., p. 619.). Sir 
John Vanbrugh was the grandson of a Protestant 
refugee, from a family originally of Ghent in 
Flanders. The Duke of Alva's persecution drove 
him to England, where he became a merchant in 
London. Giles, the son of this refugee, resided in 
Chester, became rich by trade, and married the 
youngest daughter of Sir Dudley Carleton, by 
whom he had eight sons, of whom Sir John Van- 
brugh was the second. The presumption is he 
was born in Chester, but the precise date is un- 
known. ANON. 

Erroneous Forms of Speech (Vol. vii., pp. 329. 
632.). With regard to your two correspondents 
E. G. R. and M., I hold that, with Cowper's dis- 
putants, " both are right and both are wrong." 

The name of the field beet is, in the language of 
the unlearned, mangel-wurzel, " the root of po- 
verty." It acquired that name from having been 
used as food by the poor in Germany during a 
time of great famine. Turning to Buchanan's 
Technological Dictionary, I find, 

" Mangel-wurzel. Field beet ; a variety between the 
red and white. It has as yet been only partially cul- 
tivated in Britain." 

In reference to the assertion of your later cor- 
respondent, that " such a thing as mangel-wurzel 
is not known on the Continent," I would ask if 
either he or his friends are familiar with half the 
beautiful and significant terms applied to English 
flowers and herbs ? If he prefer using mangold 
for beet, he is quite at liberty to do so, and I be- 



lieve on sufficiently good authority. What says 
Noehden, always a leading authority in German : 
Mangold. Red beet ; name of some other plants, 
such as lungwort and sorrel." 

Mangold is here, then, a generic term, standing 
for other plants equally with the beet. One sug- 
gestion, however ; I would recommend the generic 
term, when used at all, to be used alone, leavino- 
the more familiar appellation as it stands, for the 
adoption of those who prefer the homely but su<r- 
gestive phraseology to which it belongs. E. L. H. 

Devonianisms (Vol. vii., p. 630.). Plum, adj. 
I am at a loss for the origin of this word as em- 
ployed in Devonshire in the sense of "soft," e.g. 
" a plum bed : " meaning a soft, downy bed. 

Query : Can it be from the Latin pluma ? And 
if so, what is its history ? 

There is also a verb to plum, which is obscure. 
Dough, when rising under the influence of heat 
and fermentation, is said to be plumming well ; and 
the word plum, as an adjective, is used as the 
opposite of heavy with regard to currant and other 
cakes when baked. If the cake rises well in the 
oven, it is commonly said that it is " nice and 
plum ;" and vice versa, that it is heavy. 

Clunk, verb. This word is used by the com- 
mon people, more especially the peasantry, to 
denote the swallowing of masses of unmasticated 
food ; and of morsels that may not be particularly 
relished, such as fat. What is the origin of the 
word? 

Dollop, subs. This word, as well as the one 
last-named, is very expressive in the vocabulary 
of the vulgar. It is applied to lumps of any sub- 
stances, whether food or otherwise. Such a phrase 
as this might be heard : " What a dollop of fat 
you have given me!" "Well," would be the 
reply, " if you don't like it, clunk it at once." I 
should be glad to be enlightened as to the etymo- 
logy of this term. ISAIAH W. N. KEYS. 

Plymouth, Devon. 



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WOOD'S ATHENS OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.' 
THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leydcn. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

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QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 






$atift& ta 

Owing to the necessity of infringing on the present Number for 
the Title-page of our Seventh Volume, we are compelled to omit 
many interesting communications, and our usual NOTES ON 
BOOKS, &c. 

ABREDONENSIS must be referred to the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, vol. xliii. p. 249., for a reply to his Query. It will be suffi- 
cient here to stale, that the WiUingham Boy was at his birth of gi- 
gantic form, and an object of great curiosity to the philosophical 
world. It is not stated how long he lived, or what education he 
received, so that we cannot ascertain whether he distinguished 
Jtimselfin any " department of literature or art." 

H. N. 'wiU find in our Seventh Volume, p. 192., that the 
quotation 

" Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love," &c., 
it from J. P. Kemble's Comedy of The Panel, altered from 
BUkerstaff's 'Tis well 'tis no worse. 

MR. POLLOCK'S PROCESS. "In answer to N. T. B., a saturated 
solution of hypo, saturated with iodide of silver. 

" 21. Maddox Street. HENRY POLLOCK." 

T. B. (Coventry). Paper positives are seldom varnished. 
The glossy appearance which they possess may depend either upon 
their being printed on albumenised paper, or upon their being 
hot-pressed. The latter process always much improves the pic- 
ture. Where the size has been much removed, it is well to re-size 
the paper, which may be done by boiling a few parchment cuttings 
in water, and soaking the prints in the liquor. 

H. II. H. ( Ashlmrton;. All the best authorities concur in the 
uncertain properties of the salts of gold. We have teen some 



Daguerreotypes which have been executed about three years, and 
were treated with the salts of gold, and which are now mere 
shades. 

C. M. M. (Abbey Road). Your question as to the spots hat 
been carefully answered in a late Number. The film which you 
notice on the surface of your nit. silver bath depends upon the 
remaining portion of ether in the collodion being liberated, which, 
not being very soluble in water, causes the greasy appearance. 
It soon evaporates, and is of no consequence. 

T. COOK is thanked for his offer of a cheap and easy method of 
obtaining pictures for the stereoscope. We shall be glad to receive 

DR. DIAMOND'S PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES. We share in the desire 
expressed by W. C., J. M. S., and many other Correspondents, for 
the speedy publication of this volume. But we believe the delay is 
not to be regretted. It is a very easy matter to write a book upon 
Photography; but it requires no small labour, and great consider- 
ation, to produce such a volume as Da. DIAMOND proposes, in 
which it is his desire to explain everything so clearly, that a 
person living in a remote part of the country, or in the colonies, 
may, from his directions, make a good photograph. 

Errata P. 25., last line, read "campus" for "campj-es;" 
p. 26., fourth line, read " iaro " for " iars ; " p. 36., 2nd col. line 
18., read " regularity " for " irregularity." 

A few complete sets of" NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., 
price Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had ; fur which 
early application is desirable. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
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by which the aberration is completely removed ; 
and a telescope so fitted gives one-third more 
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tained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the 
various stees on application to 

WM. ACKXiAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Gar- 
den, London. 



JULY 16. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



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68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 194. 



MURRAY'S 

RAILWAY READING. 



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A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOE 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 195.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 23. 1853. 



{Price Fqurpence. 
Stamp 



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CONTENTS. 

NOTES : _ Page 

William Blake ...... 69 

A Poem by Shelley, not in his Works - -71 

The Impossibilities of History - - - 72 

" Quern Deus vult perdere prius dementat," by T. J. 

Buckton -.-----73 
Shakspeare Correspondence, by J. Payne Collier, 

George Blink, &c. ----- 73 

"The Dance of Death," by Weld Taylor - - 76 

MINOR NOTES: Old Lines newly revived Inscrip- 
tion near Cirencester Wordsworth "Magna est 
Veritas et praevalebit " " Putting your foot into it " 76 

QUERIES : 

Fragments of MSS., by Philip Hale - - - 77 

The Electric Telegraph, by W. Matthews - 78 

MINOR QUERIES : Sir Walter Raleigh Ancient For- 
tifications: Hertstone, Pale, Brecost Newton and 
Somers Daventry, Duel at Passage in Burial 
Service " They shot him on the nine-stane rig" 
Wardhouse, and Fishermen's Custom there "Adrian 
turn'd the bull " Cary's " Pataeologia Chronica " 
The Southwark Pudding Wonder Roman Catholics 
confined in Fens of Ely White Bell Heather trans- 
planted Green's " Secret Plot" "The full Moon 
brings fine Weather" Nash the Artist Woodwork 
of St. Andrew's Priory Cnurcli, Barnwell ".The 
Mitre and the Crown" Military Music - - 78 



MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Stoven Church 
The Statute of Kilkenny Kenne of Kenne Rents 
of Assize, &c. Edifices of Ancient and Modern 
Times Gorram " Rock of Ages " - 



REPLIES: 

Remuneration of Authors 

On the Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits - 

Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge 



MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements ... 



80 



- 81 

- 82 

- 83 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE: Multiplication of 
Photographs Yelluw Bottles for Photographic 
Chemicals ------ 85 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Dinnybrook Fair 
Abigail Honorary Degrees Reel Hair Historical 
Engraving Proveibs quoted by Suetonius "Sat 
cito, si sat bene " Council of Laodicea, Canon 35. 
Anna Liyhtfoot J.ick and Gill Simile of the Soul 
and the Magnetic Needle Gibbon's Library St. 
Paul's Epistles to Seneca " Hip, Hip, Hurrah !" 
Emblemata Cainpvere, Privileges of Slang Ex- 
pressions: "Just tiie cheese " The Honorable Miss 
E. t. Leger Queries from the Navorscher " Pity 
is akin to Love" - - - - - 86 



- 90 

- 90 
. 



VOL. VIII. No. 195. 



WILLIAM BLAKE. 

My antiquarian tendencies bring me acquainted 
with many neglected and obscure individuals con- 
nected with our earlier English literature, who, 
after " fretting their hour" upon life's stage, have 
passed away ; leaving their names entombed upon 
the title-page of some unappreciated or crotchetty 
book, only to be found upon the shelves of the 
curious. 

To look for these in Kippis, Chalmers, Gorton, 
or Rose would be a waste of time ; and although 
agreeing to some extent with the Utilitarians, that 
we have all that was worth preserving of the Ante- 
diluvians, there is, I think, here and there a name 
worth resuscitating, possessing claims to a niche in 
our "Antiquary's Newspaper;" and for that dis- 
tinction, I would now put in a plea on behalf of 
my present subject, William Blake. 

Although our author belongs to the eccentric 
category, he is a character not only deserving of 
notice, but a model for imitation : the " dee in his 
bonnet" having set his sympathies in the henlthy 
direction of a large philanthropy for the spiritual 
and temporal interests of his fellow men. 

The congenial reader has already, I doubt not, 
anticipated that I am about to introduce that non- 
descript book bearing the running title and it 
never had any other of Silver Drops, or Serious 
Things ; purporting, in a kind of colophon, to be 
" written by William Blake, housekeeper to the 
Ladies' Charity School."* The curious in old 
books knows too, that, apart from its subject, the 
Silver Drops of W. B. has usually an attractive 
exterior ; most of the exemplaires which have 
come under my notice being sumptuously bound 
in old morocco, profusely tooled ; with the name 
of the party to whom it had apparently been pre- 
sented, stamped in a compartment upon the cover. 
Its value is farther enhanced by its pictorial and 
emblematical accompaniments. These are four in 
number : the first representing a heart, whereon 

* " Mr. Henry Cornish, merchant," was a coadjutor 
of Blake's in this charitable undertaking ; and as that 
Alderman was not executed until 1635, this pi blica- 
tion may be assigned to about that date. 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



a fanciful picture of Charity supported by angels ; 
second, a view of Ilighgate Charity Schools (Dor- 
chester House) ; third, Time with his scythe and 
hour-glass*; and the fourth, in three compart- 
ments, the centre containing butterflies ; the 
smaller at top and bottom, sententious allusions 
to the value of time " Time drops pearles from 
his golden wings," &c. These are respectable en- 
gravings, but by whom executed I know not. 
After these, and before coming to the Silver Drops, 
which are perhaps something akin to Master 
Brooks' Apples of Gold, the book begins abruptly : 
"The Ladies' Charity School-house Roll of High- 
gate, or a subscription of many noble well-disposed 
ladies for the easie carrying of it on." "Being 
well informed," runs the Prospectus, " that there 
is a pious, good, commendable work for main- 
taining near forty poor or fatherless children, 
born all at or near Highgate, Hornsey, or Ham- 
sted : we,. whose names are subscribed, do engage 
or promise, that if the said boys are decently 
cloathed in blew, lined with yellow ; constantly 
fed all alike with good and wholsom diet ; taught 
to read, write, and cast accompts, and so put out 
to trades, in order to live another day ; then we 
will give for one year, two or three (if we well 
like the design, and prudent management of it,) 
once a year, the sum below mentioned," &c. The 
projector of this good work was the subject of my 
present note ; and after thus introducing it, the 
worthy " woollen-draper, at the sign of the Golden 
Boy, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden," for such he 
was, goes on to recommend and enforce its im- 
portance in a variety of caj oiling addresses, or, as 
he calls them, "charity-school sticks," to the great 
and wealthy ; ostensibly the production of the 
boys, but in reality the concoctions of Mr. Blake, 
jand in which he pleads earnestly for his hobby. 
In An Essay, or Humble Guess, how the Noble 
Ladies may be inclined to give to and encourage 
their Charity-school at Ilighgate, Mr. Blake farther 
humorously shows up the various dispositions of 
his fair friends : "And first," says he, " my lady 
such-a-one cryed, Come, we will make one purse 
out of our family;" and "my lady such-an-one 
said she would give for the fancy of the Roll, and 
charity stick. My lady such-an-onc cryed by her 
troth she would give nothing at all, for she had 

[* It appears, from the following advertisement at 
the end of Silver Drops, that the plates of Time and 
Charity were used as receipts: "It is humbly de- 
sired, that what you or any of you, most noble Ladies, 
Gentlewomen, or others, are pleased to bestow or give 
towards this good or great design, that you would be 
pleased to take a receipt on the backside of Time or 
Charity, sealed with three scales, namely, the Trea- 
surer's, Housekeeper's, and Register's ; and it shall be 
fairly recorded, and hung up in the school-house, to be 
read of all from Time to Time, to the world's end, we 
hope." ED.] 



waies enough for her money ; while another would 
give five or six stone of beef every week." Again, 
in trying to come at the great citizen-ladies, he 
magnifies, in the following characteristic style, the 
city of London ; and, by implication, their noble 
husbands and themselves : " There is," says Mr. 
Blake, " the Tower and the Monument ; the old 
Change, Guild-Hall, and Blackwall-IIall, which 
some would fain burn again; there is Bow steeple, 
the Holy Bible, the Silver Bells of Aaron, thegodly- 
outed ministers ; the melodious musick of the 
Gospels ; Smithfield martyrs yet alive ; and the 
best society, the very best in all the world for 
civility, loyalty, men, and manners ; with the 
greatest cash, bulk, mass, and stock of all sorts of 
silks, cinnamon, spices, wine, gold, pearls, Spanish 
wooll and cloaths ; with the river Nilus, and the 
stately ships of Tarshish to carry in and out the 
great merchandizes of the world." In this the city 
dames are attacked collectively. Individually, he 
would wheedle them thus into' his charitable plans : 
" Now pray, dear madam, speak or write to my 
lady out of hand, and tell her how it is with us ; 
and if she will subscribe a good gob, and get the 
young ladies to do, so too; and then put in alto- 
gether with your lordship's and Sir James's also : 
for it is necessary he or you in his stead should do 
something, now the great ship is come safe in, and 
by giving some of the first-fruits of your great bay, 
or new plantation, to our school, the rest will be 
blessed the better" The scheme seems to have 
offered attractions to the Highgate gentry: 
" The great ladies do allow their house-keeper," 
he continues, " one bottle of wine, three of ale, 
half a dozen of rolls, and two dishes of meat 
a- day ; who is to see the wilderness, orchard, great 
prospects, walks, and gardens, all well kept and 
rolled for their honours' families ; and to give 
them small treats according to discretion when 
they please to take the air, which is undoubtedly 
the best round London." Notwithstanding the 
eloquent pleadings of Mr. Blake for their assist- 
ance and support, it is to be feared that the noble 
ladies allowed the predictions of his friends to be 
verified, and did " suffer such an inferiour meane 
and little person (to use his own phraseology) to 
sink under the burden of so good and great a 
work : " for we find that Gough, in allusion thereto, 
says (Topographical Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 644.) : 

" This Hospital at Highgate, called the Ladies' 
Charity School, was erected by one W. Elake, a 
woollen-draper in Covent Garden ; who having pur- 
chased Dorchester House, and having fooled away his 
estate in building, was thrown into prison." 

Even here, and under such circumstances, our 
subject was nothing daunted ; for the same 
authority informs us, that, still full of his philan- 
thropic projects, he took the opportunity his lei- 
sure there admitted to write another work upon 
his favourite topic of educating and caring for the 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



poor ; its title is, The State and Case of a Design 
for the better Education of Thousands of Parish 
Children successively in the vast Northern Suburbs 
of London vindicated, Sfc. Besides the above, 
there is another remarkable little piece which I 
have seen, beginning abruptly, " Here followeth a 
briefe exhortation which I gave in my owne house 
at my wife's funerall to our friends then present," 
by Blake, with the MS. date, 16oO ; and exhibits 
this original character in another not less amiable 
light : "I was brought up," says he, " by my 
parents to learne Hail Mary, paternoster, the 
Beliefe, and learne to reade ; and where I served 
my apprenticeship little more was to be found." 
He attributes it to God's grace that he fell a 
reading the Practice of Piety, by which means he 
got a little persuading of God's love to his soul : 
" Well, my time being out, I set up for myselfe ; 
and seeking out for a wife, which, with long waiting 
and difficulty, much expence and charge, at last I 
got. Four children God gave me by her ; but he 
hath taken them and her all again too, who was a 
woman of a thousand." Mr. B. then naturally 
indulges in a panegyric upon this pattern of wives, 
and reproaches himself for his former insensibility 
to her surpassing merits : relating with great 
naivete some domestic passages, with examples of 
ter piety and trials, in one of which latter the 
wiemy would tempt her to suicide : " There lie 
your garters," said he ; " but she threw them aside, 
and so escaped this will of the Devil." 

In conclusion, let me inquire if your Highgate 
correspondents are cognisant of any existing in- 
.stitution raised upon the foundation of William 
Blake's Charity School at Dorchester House ? 

J.O. 

[Our correspondent's interesting communication 
suggests a Query : Is there any biographical notice of 
William Blake ; and was he the author of the following 
piece, preserved among the Kings' pamphlets in the 
British Museum? "The Condemned Man's Reprieve, 
or God's Love-Tokens, flowing in upon the heart of 
William Blake, a penitent sinner, giving him assur- 
ance of the pardon of his sins, and the enjoyment of 
eternal happiness through the merits of Christ his 
Saviour. Recommended by him (being a condemned 
prisoner for manslaughter within the statute) unto his 
sister, and bequeathed unto her as a legacy." It is 
dated from "Exon Jayle," June 25, 1653, and was pub- 
lished July 14, 1653." ED.] 



A POEM BY SHELLEY, NOT IN HIS WOHKS. 

The following poem was published in a South 
Carolina newspaper in the year 1839. The per- 
son who communicates it states that it was among 
the papers of a deceased friend, in a small packet, 
endorsed " A letter and two poems written by 
Shelley the poet, and lent to me by Mr. Tre- 
lawney in 1823. I was prevented from returning 



them to him, for which I am sorry, since this is 
the only copy of them they have never been 
published." Upon this poem was written, " Given 
to me by Shelley, who composed it as we were 
sailing one evening together." UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

" The Calm. 

" Hush ' hark ! the Triton calls 

From his hollow shell, 

And the sea is as smooth as a well ; 

For the winds and the waves 
In wild order form, 

To rush to the halls 

And the crystal-roof'd caves 

Of the deep, deep ocean, 
To hold consultation 

About the next storm. 

" The moon sits on the sky 

Like a swan sleeping 
On the stilly lake : 
No wild breath to break 
Her smooth massy light 
And ruffle it into learns : 

<f The downy clouds droop 

Like moss upon a tree ; 
And in the earth's bosom grope 

Dim vapours and streams. 
The darkness is weeping, 

Oh, most silently ! 
Without audible sigh, 

All is noiseless and bright. 

" Still 'tis living silence here, 
Such as fills not with fear. 
Ah, do you not hear 

A humming and purring 

All about and about ? 

'Tis from souls let out, 

From their day-prisons freed, 
And joying in release, 

For no slumber they need. 

* Shining through this veil of peace, 

Love now pours her omnipresence, 
And various nature 
Feels through every feature 

The joy intense, 

Yet so passionless, 
Passionless and pure ; 

The human mind restless 
Long could not endure. 

But hush while I tell, 

As the shrill whispers flutter 
Through the pores of the sea, 

Whatever they utter 

I'll interpret to thee. 
King Neptune now craves 

Of his turbulent vassals 
Their workings to quell ; 

And the billows are quiet, 

Though thinking on riot. 
On the left and the right 
In ranks they are coil'd up, 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195, 



Like snakes on the plain ; 
And each one has roll'd up 

A bright flashing streak 
Of the white moonlight 

On his glassy green neck : 
On every one's forehead 

There glitters a star, 
With a hairy train 

Of light floating from afar r 
And pale or fiery red. 
Now old Eolus goes 

To each muttering blast, 
Scattering blows : 

And some he binds fast 

In hollow rocks vast* 

And others he gags. 
With thick heavy foam, 
' Twing them round 

The sharp rugged crags 

That are sticking out near,*" 

Growls he, ' for fear 
They all should rebel, 
And so play hell.' 
Those that he bound. 

Their prison-walls grasp, 
And through the dark gloom? 

Scream fierce and yell : 

While all the rest gasp, 

In rage fruitless and vain. 
Their shepherd now leaves them 

To howl and to roar 
Of his presence bereaves themy 

To feed some young breeze 
On the violet odour, 
And to teach it on shore 

To rock the green trees. 

But no more can be said 
Of what was transacted 
And what was enacted 
In the heaving abodes 
Of the great sea-gods.." 



THE IMPOSSIBILITIES OF HISTORY. 

In The Tablet of June 18 is a leading article 
on the proposed erection of Baron Maroclietti's 
statue of Richard Creur de" Lion. Theology and 
history are mixed : of course I shall carefully ex- 
clude the former. I have tried to trace the state- 
ments to their sources ; and where I have failed, 
perhaps some of your readers may be able to help 
me. 

" When the physicians told him that they could do 
nothing more for him, and when his confessor had 
done his duty faithfully and with all honesty, the stern 
old soldier commanded his attendants to take him o(F 
the bed, and lay him naked on the bare floor. When 
this was done, he then bade them take a discipline 
and scourge him with all their might. This was the 
last command of their royal master; and in this he 
was obeyed with more zeal than he found displayed 
when at the head of his troops in Palestine." 



I find no record that " the stern old soldier," 
who was then forty-two years of age, and whom 
the writer oddly calls Richard II., had any reason 
to complain of want of zeal in his troops. They 
fought well, and flogged well if they flogged at 
all. Richard died of gangrene in the shoulder ; 
and I have the authority of an eminent physician 
for saying, that gangrene, so near the vital parts, 
would produce such mental and bodily prostra- 
tion, that it is highly improbable that the patient, 
unless in delirium, should give such an order, 
and impossible that he should live through its- 
execution. 

Hume and Lingard do not allude to the " disci- 
pline ;" and the silence of the latter is important. 
Henry says : 

" Having expressed great penitence for his vices, and 
having undergone a very severe discipline from the 
hands of the clergy, who attended him in his last mo- 
ments," &c. Vol. Hi. p. 161. ed. 1777. 

He cites Brompton, and there I find the penance 
given much stronger than in The Tablet : 

" Pra?cepitque pedes sibi ligari, et in altum suspend! 
nudumque corpus flagellis caedi et lacerari, donee ipse 
praeciperat ut silerent. " Cumque diu caederelur, ex pras- 
cepto, ad modicum siluerunt. Et spiritu iterum 
reassumpto, hoc idem secundo ac tertio in abundantia. 
sanguinis compleverunt. Tamdiu in se revertens, afFerrf 
viaticum sibi jussit et se velut proditorem et hostem, 
contra dominum siuun ligatis pedibus fune trahi." 

This is taken from Brompton's Chronicle in De- 
cent Scriptores HistoricR Anglicance, 1652, p. 1279., 
edited by Selden. As Brompton lived in the- 
reign of Edward III., he is not a high authority/ 
upon any matter in that of Richard I. I cannot 
find any other. Hoveden and Knyghton are silent. 
Is the fact stated elsewhere ? Hoveden states,, 
and the modern historians follow him, that after 
the king's death, Marchader seized the archer,, 
flayed him alive, and then hanged him. My 
medical authority says, that no man could be 
flayed alive: and that the most skilful operator 
could not remove the skin of one arm from the- 
elbow to the wrist, before the patient would die 
from the shock to his system. 

Mr. Riley, in a note on the passage in Hoveden, 
cites from the Winchester Chronicle a possible 
account of Giirdum being tortured to death. Thet 
historian of The Tablet, in the same article, says : 

" We are far from attributing absolute perfection to 
the son of Henry II., one of that awful race popularly 
believed to be descended from the devil. When 
Henry, as a boy, practising Whiggery by revolting- 
against his father, was presented to St. Bernard at the 
Court of the King of France, the saint looked at him 
with a sort of terror, and said, ' From the Devil you 
came, and to the Devil you will go.' " 

The fact that Henry II. rebelled against his 
father is not given in any history which I have 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



i-ead; and the popular belief in the remarkable 
descent of Henry, and consequently of our present 
royal family, is quite new to me, and to all of 
whom I have inquired. Still, finding that the 
writer had an authority for the " discipline," he 
snay have one for the Devil. If so, I should like 
to know it ; for I contemplate something after the 
example of Luciau's Quomodo Historia sit con- 
scribenda. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



"QUEM DECS VULT PERDERE PRIUS DEMENTAT. 

Having disposed of the allegation that the 
Greek Iambic, 

" Sv frebs &f\fi airo\fffai IT/JWT' awotppevat," 

was from Euripides, by denying the assertion, I 
am also, on farther investigation, compelled to 
deny to him also the authorship of the cited pas- 

sage, 

"oTav Sf Aai'jLuoi/ dvSpl iroptrvvri Ka.ua, "rbv vow eAa<J/e 

TTpkTOV," 

Its first appearance is in Barnes, who quotes it 
from Athenagoras " sine auctoris nomine." Car- 
meli includes it with others, to which he prefixes 
the observation, 

" A me piacque come al Barnesio dl porle per distcso, 
d a canto mettervi la traduzione in nostra favella, stnza 
entrare tratto tratto in quistioni inutili, se alcuni versi 
appartengano a Tragedia di Euripide, o no." 

There is, then, no positive evidence of this pas- 
sage having ever been attributed, by any competent 
scholar, to Euripides. Indirect proof that it could 
not have been written by him is thus shown: In 
the Antigone of Sophocles (v. 620.) the chorus 
sings, according to Brunck, 

" 2o<t>iq yap %K TOV 
K\eivbv tiros Tee<pat>rar 
Tb Kattbv SoKfw TTOT' 



Bibs ayfi irpbs arav 

Trpdffcreiv 8' 6\iyoffTbv xp vw forks aras." 

*' For a splendid saying has been revealed by the 
wisdom of some one : That evil appears to be good to 
him whose mind God leads to destruction ; but that h? 
\God~) practises this a short time without destroying such 
a. one" 

Now, had Barnes referred to the scholiast on the 
Antigone, or remembered at the time the above- 
cited passage, he would either not have omitted 
the conclusion of his distich, or he would at once 
Lave seen that a passage quoted as "K TOU, of some 
one" by Sophocles, seventeen years the senior of 
Euripides, could not have been the original com- 
position of his junior competitor. The conclusion 
of the distich is thus given by the old scholiast : 
" urav 5" 6 Aoi/xwv dvSpl irop<rvvr> KO.KO., 
rbv vow eSAaiJ/e irpwrov <p Pov\everai," 



The words " when~he wills it" being left out by 
Barnes and Carmeli, but which correspond with 
the last line of the quotation from Sophocles. 
The old scholiast introduces the exact quotation 
referred to by Sophocles as " a celebrated (noto- 
rious, aoi'Si/zoi/) and splendid saying, revealed by 
the wisdom of some one, juero aotyias yap vn6 Tiros." 

Indeed, the sentiment must have been as old as 
Paganism, wherein, whilst all voluntary acts are 
attributed to the individual, all involuntary ones 
are ascribed to the Deity. Even sneezing was so 
considered : hence the phrase common in the lower 
circles in England, "Bless us," and in a higher 
grade in Germany, " Gott segne euch," which, 
form the usual chorus to a sneeze. 

The other scholiast, Triclinius, explains the pas- 
sage of Sophocles by saying, ''The gods lead to 
error (/3A.arjy) him whom they intend to make 
miserable (Suo-rux*'") : hence the application to 
Antigone, who considers death as sweet." 

T. J. BUCK/TON. 

Lichficld. 



SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE. 

A Passage in "The Taming of the Shrew" 
Perhaps I mistake it, but MR. C. MANSFIELD 
INGLEBY seems to me to write in a tone as if he 
fancied I should be unwilling to answer his ques- 
tions, whether public or private. Although I am 
not personally acquainted with him, we have had 
some correspondence, and I must always feel that 
a man so zealous and intelligent is entitled to the 
best reply I can afford. I can have no hesitation 
in informing him that, in preparing what he terms 
my "monovolume Shakspeare," I pursued this 
plan throughout ; I adopted, as my foundation, the 
edition in eight volumes octavo, which I completed 
in 1844; that was "formed from an entirely new 
collation of the old editions," and my object there 
was to give the most accurate representation of 
the text of the folios and quartos. Upon that 
stock I engrafted the manuscript alterations in my 
folio 1632, in every case in which it seemed to 
me possible that the old corrector might be right 
in short, wherever two opinions could be enter- 
tained as to the reading: in this way my text in 
the " monovolume Shakspeare " was " regulated 
by the old copies, and by the recently discovered 
folio of 1632." 

MR. INGLEBY will see that in the brief preface 
to the "monovolume Shakspeare," I expressly 
say that " while a general similarity (to the folio 
1632) has been preserved, care has been taken to 
rectify the admitted mistakes of the early impression, 
and to introduce such alterations of a corrupt and 
imperfect text, as were warranted by better au- 
thorities. Thus, while the new readings of the 
old corrector of the folio 1632, considerably ex- 
ceeding a thousand, are duly inserted in the places 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



to which they belong, the old readings, which, 
during the last century and a half, have recom- 
mended themselves for adoption, and have been 
derived from a comparison of ancient printed 
editions, have also been incorporated." I do not 
know how I could have expressed myself with 
greater clearness ; and it was merely for the sake 
of distinctness that I referred to the result of my 
own labours in 1842, 1843, and 1844, during which 
years my eight volumes octavo were proceeding 
through the press. Those labours, it will be seen, 
essentially contributed to lighten my task in pre- 
paring the " monovolume Shakspeare." 

My answer respecting the passage in The 
Taming of the Shrew, referred to by Ma. INGLEBY, 
will, I trust, be equally satisfactory ; it shall be 
equally plain. 

I inserted ambler, because it is the word sub- 
stituted in manuscript in the margin of my folio 
1632. I adopted mercatante, as proposed by 
Steevens, not only because it is the true Italian 
word, but because it exactly fits the place in the 
verse, mercatant (the word in the folios) being a 
syllable short of the required number. In the 
very copy of Florio's Italian Dictionary, which I 
bought of Rodd at the time when I purchased my 
folio 1632, I find mercatante translated by the 
word " marchant," " marter," and " trader," 
exactly the sense required. Then, as to " surely " 
instead of surly, I venture to think that " surely " 
is the true reading : 

" In gait and countenance surely like a father." 

" Surely like a father " is certainly like a father ; 
and although a man may be surly in his " counte- 
nance," I do not well see how he could be surly in 
his " gait ; " besides, what had occurred to make 
the pedant surly f This appears to me the best 
reason for rejecting surly in favour of " surely ; " 
but I have another, which can hardly be refused 
to an editor who professes to follow the old copies, 
where they are not contradicted. I allude to the 
folio 1623, where the line stands precisely thus : 

" In gate and countenance surely like a Father." 
The folio 1632 misprinted " surely " surly, as, in 
Julius Casar, Act I. Sc. 3., it committed the op- 
posite blunder, by misprinting " surly " surely. 
Another piece of evidence, to prove that " surely " 
was the poet's word in The Taming of the Shrew, 
has comparatively recently fallen in my way ; I did 
not know of its existence in 1844, or it would have 
been of considerable use to me. It is a unique 
quarto of the play, which came out some years 
before the folio 1623, and is not to be confounded 
with the quarto of The Taming of the Shrew, with 
the date of 1631 on the title-page. This new 
authority has the line exactly as it is given in the 
folio 1623, which, in truth, was printed from it. 
It is now before me. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

July 10. 



Critical Digest of various Readings in the Works 
of Shakspeare. There is much activity in the lite- 
rary world just now about the text of Shakspeare : 
but one most essential work, in reference to that 
text, still remains to be performed, I mean, the 
publication of a complete digest of all the various 
readings, in a concise shape, such as those which we 
possess in relation to the MSS. and other editions 
of nearly every classical author. 

At present, all editions of Shakspeare which 
claim to be considered critical, contain much loose 
information on readings, mixed up with notes 
(frequently very diffuse) on miscellaneous topics. 
This is not in the least what we require : we need 
a regular digest of readings, wholly distinct from 
long debates about their value. 

What I mean will be plain to any one who is 
familiar with any good critical edition of the 
Greek New Testament, or with such books as 
Gaisford's Herodotus, the Berlin Aristotle, the 
Zurich Plato, and the like. We ought to have, 
first, a good text of Shakspeare : such as may 
represent, as fairly as possible, the real results of 
the labours of the soundest critics ; and, secondly, 
page by page, at the foot of that text, the follow- 
ing particulars : 

I. All the readings of the folios, which should 
be cited as A, B, C, and D. 

II. All the readings of the quartos, which might 
be cited separately in each play that possesses 
them, either as a, b, c, d ; or as 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

III. A succinct summary of all the respectable 
criticisms, in the way of conjecture, on the text. 
This is especially needed. The recent volumes of 
Messrs. Collier, Singer, and Dyce, show that even 
editors of Shakspeare scarcely know the history of 
all the emendations. Let their precise pedigree be 
in the last case recorded with the most absolute 
brevity ; simply the suggestion, and the names of 
its proposers and adopters. 

IV. To simplify this last point, a new siglation 
might be introduced to denote the various critical 
editions. 

Such a publication should be kept distinct from 
any commentary ; especially from one laid out in 
the broad flat style of modern editors. Mr. Col- 
lier's volume of Emendations, ~c., for instance, 
need not have occupied half its present space, if 
he had first denoted his MS. corrector by some 
short symbol, instead of by a lengthy phrase ; 
and, secondly, introduced his suggestions by some 
such formularies as those employed in classical 
criticisms, instead of toiling laboriously after vari- 
ations in his style of expression, till we are wearied 
by the real iteration which lies under the seeming 
diversity. 

There should be none of this phrasework in the 
digest which I recommend. If indeed it were 
found absolutely necessary to connect it with a 
commentary, then arrange the two portions of the 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



apparatus as in Arnold's edition of Thucydides : 
the varice lectiones in the middle of the page, and 
the comment in a different type below it. But 
I repeat, it would be better still to give us the 
digest without the comment. All -would go into 
one large volume. And it cannot be doubted 
that such a volume, if thoroughly well done, would 
furnish at once a sort of textus receptus, and a 
critical basis, from which future editors might 
commence their labours. It would also be an 
indispensable book of reference to all who treat of, 
or are interested in, the poet's text. Such, I say, 
would be its certain prospects if the editor were 
at once an accurate, painstaking scholar, and a 
man of true poetical feeling. The labour would 
be great, but so would be the reward. It is only 
what the ablest scholars have proudly undertaken 
for the classics, even in the face of toils far more 
severe. Would that Mr. Dyce could be roused 
to attempt it ! B. 

[Some such edition as that alluded to by our corre- 
spondent has been long desired and contemplated. A 
proposal in connexion with it has been afloat for some 
time past, and we had hoped, would have been publicly 
made in our pages before now. There are difficulties 
in the way which do not exist in the parallel instances 
from classical literature, and which do not seem to have 
occurred to our correspondent ; but the project is in 
good hands, and we hope will soon be brought to 
bear. ED. ] 

Emendations of Shakspeare. I am sadly afraid, 
what with one annotator and another, that we, 
in a very little time, shall have Shakspeare so 
modernised and weeded of his peculiarities, that 
he will become a very second-rate sort of a per- 
son indeed ; for I now see with no little alarm, 
that one of his most delightful quaintnesses is 
to give way to the march of refinement, and 
be altogether ruined. Hazlitt, one the most 
original and talented of critics, has somewhere 
said, that there was not in any passage of Shak- 
speare any single word that could be changed to 
one more appropriate, and as an instance he gives 
a passage from Macbeth, which certainly is one of 
the most perfect and beautiful to be found in the 
whole of his works : 

" This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses. 

This guest of summer, 

The temple-haunting martlet, does approve 
By his loved mansionry, that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze, buttress, 
Nor coin of vantage, but this bird hath made 
His pendent bed, and procreant cradle : where they 
Most breed and haunt, I have observed, the air 
Is delicate." 

There are some who differ from Hazlitt in the 
present day, and assert that there is an error in 



the press in Dogberry's reproof of Borachio for 
calling him an " ass." The passage as it stands is 
as follows : 

" I am a wise fellow ; and which is more, an officer, 
and which is more, a householder, and which is more, as 
pretty a piece of flesh as any is in Messina, and one 
that knows the law, go to ; and a rich fellow enough, 
go to; and a fellow that hath had losses, and one that 
hath two gowns, and everything handsome about him." 

His having had losses evidently meaning, though 
he was then poor, that his circumstances were at 
one time so pi'osperous, that he could afford to 
bear losses ; and he, even then, had a superfluity 
of wardrobe in " two gowns, and everything hand- 
some about him." But this little word losses, the 
perfect Shakspearian quaintness of which is uni- 
versally acknowledged, is to be changed into 
leases ; if it should be leases, how is it that it does 
not follow upon " householder," instead of being 
introduced so many words after ? as, if leases were 
the proper word, it would assuredly have sug- 
gested itself immediately as an additional item to 
his respectability as a householder : for a moment 
only fancy similar corrections to be introduced in 
others of Shakspeare's plays, and Falstaff be made 
to exclaim at the robbery at Gad's Hill, " Down 
with them, they dislike us old men," instead of 
" they hate us youth ;" for Falstaff was no boy at 
the time, and this might be advanced as an au- 
thority for the emendation. But seriously, if this 
alteration is sent forth as a specimen of the im- 
provements about to be effected in Shakspeare, 
from an edition of his plays lately discovered, I 
shall, for one, deeply regret, that it was ever res- 
cued from its oblivion; for with my prejudices 
and prepossessions against interpolations, and in 
favour of old readings, I shall find it no easy 
matter to reconcile my mind to the new. Strip 
history of its romance, and you depriye it of its 
principal charm ; the scenery of a play-house im- 
poses upon us an illusion, and though we know it 
to be so, it is not essential that the impression 
should be removed. I remember once travelling 
at night in Norfolk, and a part of my way was 
through a wood, at the end of which I came upon 
a lake lit up by a magnificent moon. I subse- 
quently went the same road by day : the wood, I 
then found, was a mere belt of trees, and the lake 
had dwindled to a duck-pond. I have ever since 
wished that the first impression had remained un- 
changed ; but this is a digression. There is no 
author so universal as Shakspeare, and would that 
be the case if he was not thoroughly understood ? 
He is appreciated alike in the closet and on the 
stage, quoted by saints and sages, in the pulpit 
and the senate, and your nostrum-monger ad- 
vertises his wares with a quotation from his pages ; 
does he then require interpreting who is his own 
interpreter ? Johnson says of him that 
" Panting Time toil'd after him in vain." 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



And that he 

" Exhausted worlds and then imagined new." 

There is no passion that he has not pourtrayed, 
and laid bare in its beauty or deformity ; no feel- 
ing or affection to which his genius has not given 
the stamp of immortality : and does he want an 
interpreter ? It is treading on dangerous ground 
to attempt to improve him. Even MB. KNIGHT, 
enthusiast as he is in his veneration for Shak- 
speare, and who, by his noble editions of the poet's 
works, has won the admiration and secured the 
gratitude of every lover of the poet, has gone too 
far in his emendations when he changes a line in 
Romeo and Juliet from 

" Hence will I to my ghostly father's cell." 

to 

" Hence will I to my ghostly friar's close cell." 

As in the latter case the line will not scan unless 
the word "friar" be reduced to a monosyllable, 
which, on reflection, I think MR. KNIGHT will be 
inclined to admit. But my paper is, I fear, ex- 
tending to a limit beyond which you have occa- 
sionally warned your correspondents not to go, 
and I must therefore draw my remarks to a close, 
with a hope that not any offence will be taken 
where none is intended by those to whom any of 
my observations may apply. GEORGE BLINK. 

Canonbury. 



"THE DANCE OF DEATH." 

Amongst the numerous emblematic works, it 
has often appeared to me that the above work 
should be republished entire ; to give any part of 
it would be spoiling a most admirable series. I 
should desire to see it executed not as a fac-simile, 
but improved by good modern artists. The his- 
tory of " The Dance of Death " is too long and too 
obscure to enter upon here ; but from the general 
tenor of the accounts and criticisms of the work, 
it does not appear to have originated at all with 
Hans Holbein, or even his father, who also really 
painted it at Basil, in Switzerland, but to have 
had its origin in more remote times, as quoted 
in several authors, that anciently monasteries 
usually had a painted representation of a Death's 
Dance upon the walls. It is a subject, therefore, 
open to any artist, nor could it be said he had 

Eirated anything if he treated the subject after 
is own fashion. " The Dance of Death " begins 
of course with king, the queen, the bishop, the 
lawyer, the lovers, &c., and ends with the child, 
whom Death is leading away from the weeping 
mother. The original plates of Hollar, from 
Holbein's drawings, are possibly still extant, but 
they are by no means perfect, although admirable 
in expression. The deaths or skeletons are very 
ill-drawn as to the anatomical structure, and were 
they better the work would be excellent. The 



Death lugging off the fat abbot is inimitable ; and 
the gallant way he escorts the lady abbess out the 
convent door is very good. I have the engravings 
by Hollar, and have made some of the designs 
afresh, intending to lithograph them at some 
future day ; but there being thirty subjects in all, 
the work would be a difficult task. Mr. J. B. 
Yates might, indeed, with his excellent collection 
of Emblemata, revive this old and beautiful taste 
now in abeyance : it is now rarely practised by 
our painters. There is, however, a very fine 
picture in the Royal Academy Exhibition, by 
Mr. Goodall, which is, strictly speaking, an emblem, 
though the artist calls it an historical episode. 
Now it appears to me an episode cannot be re- 
duced into a representation ; it might embrace a 
complete picture in writing, but as I read the 
picture it is an emblem, and would have been still 
more perfect had the painter treated it accord- 
ingly. The old man at the helm of the barge 
might well represent Strafford, because, though he 
holds the tiller, he is not engaged in steering 
right, his eyes are not directed to his port. 
Charles himself, rightly enough, has his back to the 
port, and is truly jnot engaged in manly affairs, 
nor attending to his duty ; but the sentiment of 
frivolity here painted cannot, I should say, attach 
itself to him, for he is not to be reproached with 
idling away his time with women and children, as 
this more strictly must be laid to his son. But 
the port where some grim-looking men are se- 
riously waiting for him, completes a very happy 
and poetical idea, but incomplete as an emblem, 
which it really is ; and were the emblematic rules 
more cultivated, it would have told its story much 
better. 

At present, the taste of the day lies in more 
direct caricature, and our volatile friend Punch 
does the needful in his wicked sallies of wit, and 
his fertile pencil. His sharp rubs are perhaps 
more effective to John Bull's temper, who can take 
a blow with Punch's truncheon and bear no malice 
after it, the heavy lectures of the ancients are 
not so well suited to his constitution. 

WELD TAYLOR. 

Bayswater. 



iHtnor 

Old Lines newly revived. The old lines of 
spondees and dactyls are just now applicable : 

" Conturbabantur ConstantlnopftHtaril 

Innuinerabillbus soliL-itudinibus." 

W. COLLYNS. 

Harlow. 

Inscription near Cirenccster. In Earl Bathurst's 
park, near Cirencester, stands a building the 
resort in the summer months of occasional pic-nic 
parties. During one of these visits, at which I 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



was present, I copied an inscription, painted in 
old characters on a board, and nailed to one of the 
walls ; and as the whole thing had not the appear- 
ance of belonging to modern times, and, as far as 
I could decipher it, it referred to some agreement 
between Alfred and some of his neighbouring 
brother kings, concerning boundaries of territory, 
I send it to you for insertion. A. SMITH. 

15 " FO2DVS . QUOD . -SF.FREDVS . ET . LVTHRVNVS . REGES 
OMVES . ANGLIAM . INTOLEBANT . ORIENTALEM 
FERIERVNT . ET . NON . SOLVM . DE . SEIPSIS 
VERVM . ETIAM . DE . NATIS . SVIS . AC . NON- 
DVM . IN . LVCEM . EDITIS . QVOTQVOT . MISE- 
RJCORDI.* . DIV1NJE . AVT . REGIJE . VELVNT . ESSE 
PARTICIl'ES . JVREJVUANDO . SANXERVNT." 5" 

ijl " PRIMO . DITIONIS . NOSTR.S . FIXES . TAMESIK . EVEHVN- 
TOR.INDE. LEAM.VSQVE.FONTEM. EJ VS . TAM. RECTA 
AD . BEDFORDIAM . AC . DENIQVE . PER . VSAM . AD 
VIAM . VETE . LINTIANAM." 

Wordsworth. In Wordsworth's touching "La- 
ment of Mary Queen of Scots," one of the stanzas 
opens with : 

" Born all loo high ; by wedlock r-its'd 
Still hie/her, to be brought thus low !" 

Is it straining a point to suppose that the author 
has here translated the opening words of the well- 
known epitaph on the Empress Matilda, mother 
of our Henry II. ? 

" Ortu magna ; viro major ; sed maxima prole ; 
Hie jacet Henrici film, sponsa, parens." 

A. W. 

Sunningdale. 

" Magna est Veritas ct pravalebit." I was 
asked the other day whence came this hackneyed 
quotation. It is taken from the uncanonical 
Scriptures, 3 Esdras iv. 41. : 

" Et desiit loquendo : Et omnes populi clamaverunt, 
et dixerunt : Magna est veritas, et pravaht." 

T. H. DE H. 

" Putting your Foot into it." The legitimate 
origin of this term I have seen thus explained. 
Perhaps it may pass as correct until a better be 
found. According to the Asiatic Researches, a 
very curious mode of trying the title to land is 
practised in Hindostan. Two holes are dug in 
the disputed spot, in each of which the lawyers on 
either side put one of their legs, and remain there 
until one of them is tired, or complains of being 
stung by insects, in which case his client is de- 
feated. An American writer has remarked that 
in the United States it is generally the client, and 
not the lawyer, " who puts his foot in it." W. W. 

Malta. 



FRAGMENTS OF MSS. 

Dr. Maitland, in his valuable volume on the 
"Dark Ages," has the following remarks on a 
subject which I think has not met with the at- 
tention it deserves : 

" Those who are in the habit of looking at such 
things, know how commonly early printed books, 
whose binding has undergone the analytical operation 
of damp, or mere old age, disclose the under end pieces 
of beautiful and ancient manuscript. They know bow- 
freely parchment was used for backs and bands, and 
fly-leaves, and even for covers. The thing is so common, 
that those who are accustomed to see old books have 
ceased to notice it." 

In order to come within the design of your 
pages, I must put this in the shape of a Query, 
and ask, if it is not a pity that this fact has ceased 
to be noticed? We do not know what treasures 
may be contained in the shabby covers which we 
contemplate getting rid of. "There are thou- 
sands" (of MSS.), says the same writer, "equally 
destroyed, thousands of murdered wretches not 
so completely annihilated : their ghosts do walk the 
earth ; they glide unseen into our libraries, our 
studies, our very hands ; they are all about and 
around us. We even take them up and lay them 
down, without knowing of their existence ; unless 
time and damp (as if to punish and mock us for 
robbing them of their prey) have loosed their 
bonds, and set them to confront us." 

Archbishop Tenison had not " ceased to notice 
it." He very diligently rescued these " fragments" 
from the hands of his bookbinder : and it is to be 
regretted that he did not take equal precaution 
in preserving them. Recently, all that I could 
collect have been cleaned, inlaid, and arranged 
chronologically, making two interesting and valu- 
able volumes. 

How far would it be desirable to unite for the 
purpose of collecting MS. fragments, and early 
printed leaves ? 

Might not a Society, which should have for its 
especial object the discovery, cataloguing, and cir- 
culating information about these stray bits, be of 
great service ? E. g. I have before me five 
volumes of Justinian's Codices and Digcsta, Paris, 
1526 ; the covers of which are made of MS. 
Thirteen leaves go to make one board. They are 
written on both sides ; and thus an easy multi- 
plication gives us 260 pages of MS., or early print- 
ing, in the covers of one work ! 

It is not unlikely that, if the results of research 
in this direction were carefully registered, many 
perfect pieces might be recovered. PHILIP HALE. 

Archbishop Tenison's Library, 
St. Martin-in-the- Fields. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 






THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

I have just met with a passage in the Pseudo- 
doxia Epidemica of Sir Thomas Browne, wherein 
this invention is foreshadowed in terms more re- 
markable and significant, if less imaginative and 
beautiful, than that from The Spectator, to which 
public attention has already been directed, and 
which, I conceive, must unquestionably have been 
written, with this particular example of the " re- 
ceived tenets and commonly presumed truths " of 
the learned physician's day, distinctly present to 
the mind of Addison. The passage referred to is 
as follows : 

" There is another conceit of better notice, and whis- 
pered thorow the world with some attention ; credulous 
and vulgar auditors readily believing it, and more 
judicious and distinctive beads not altogether rejecting 
it. The conceit is excellent, and, if the effect would 
follow, somewhat divine : whereby we might commu- 
nicate like spirits, and confer on earth with Menippus 
in the moon. And this is pretended from the sym- 
pathy of two needles touched with the same loadstone, 
and placed in the centre of two abecedary circles, or 
rings with letters described round about them, one 
friend keeping one, and another the other, and agree- 
ing upon the hour wherein they will communicate. 
For then, saith tradition, at what distance of place 
soever, when one needle shall be removed unto any 
letter, the other, by a wonderful sympathy, will move 
unto the same." Book n. chap, ii., 4to., 1669, p. 77. 

Thus it is that " coming events cast their sha- 
dows before:" and, in the present case, one is 
curious to learn how far back the shadow may 
be traced. By whom has this conceit been whis- 
pered thorow the world f and in what musty tomes 
is that tradition concealed, which speaks concern- 
ing it ? Kircher's Catena Magnetica might haply 
tell us something in reply to these inquiries. 

In conformity with an often repeated suggestion 
to the correspondents of "N. & Q., w to the simple 
signature of my habitat, alone hitherto adopted by 
me, I now subjoin my name. WM. MATTHEWS. 

Cowgill. 



Sir Walter Raleigh. In the discussions on the 
copyright question some years ago, Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh was mentioned as one of the authors whose 
posterity is totally extinct ; but in his Life, as 
given in Lodge's Portraits, his descendants are 
given as far down as his great-grandchildren, of 
whom many were still living in 1699, at which 
period, says Mr. Lodge, my information ceases. 
It seems unlikely that a family then so numerous 
should have utterly perished since, both in its male 
and female branches ; and perhaps some of your 
correspondents may be able to trace their subse- 
quent history : the name is certainly not extinct, 
whether its bearers be his descendants or not. 



Is the gallant Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert de- 
scended from one of Sir Walter's half-brothers ? 

J. S. WARDEN. 

Ancient Fortifications : Hertsfone, Pale, Brecost. 
In the Clause Rolls, 16 John, M. 6. (Public Re- 
cords, vol. i. p. 192.) is a warrant of King John's, 
addressed to the bailiffs of Peter de Maulay of 
Doncaster, as follows : 

" Mandam' vob' q4 villa de Danecastr claudi faciatis 
hcritone et palo scdm qd fossatu fcm exigit, et una. 
leve bretasca ft faciatis sup ponte ad villa defen- 
denda." 

Which, in Miller's History of that town (p. 40.), is 
thus translated : 

" We command ye, cause the town of Doncaster to 
be inclosed with hertstone and pale, according as the 
ditch that is made doth require ; and that ye make a 
light brecost or barbican upon the bridge, to defend the 
town." 

I shall be obliged by being informed if hertstone 
is the correct translation of the word " heritone," 
and, if so, what species of fortification it was. Pale 
is probably a defence composed of high wooden 
stakes. Brecost is questionable, I imagine, and 
should most likely be spelt bretesk or bretex. I 
shall be glad, however, of explanations of the 
words. C. J. 

Newton and Somers. It has been said that 
there is a complimentary allusion to Somers in 
Newton's writings. Where? M. 

Duventry, Duel at. 

" Veni Daintreo cum puella, 
Procerum celebre duello." 

" Thence to Daintree with my jewel, 
Famous for a noble duel." 

Drunken Barnaby's Journal. n 

Can any Northamptonshire reader of " N". & Q." 
say between whom, and when, this duel took place ? 

J. II. L. 

Passage in Burial Service. Whence comes the 
expression in the Burial Service, " In the midst 
of life we are in death." I have observed that 
Mr. Palmer, in his Origines Liturgicce, refers for 
a parallel passage to ancient liturgies, but, if I 
mistake not, to none but those used in England. 
The passage is very scriptural : but I do not 
believe it exists in the Bible. J. G. T. 

" They shot him on the nine-stane rig" Where 
is the ballad beginning with the words 

" They shot him on the nine-stane rig, 

Beside the headless cross." 
to be found ? Who is the author ? BORDERER. 

Wardhouse, and Fishermen s Custom there. In 
a MS. local history, written in 1C19, there is this 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



passage : " They bought herrings during the sea- 
son, and then departed, as those fishermen which 
Ml fish at Wardhouse do use to do at present." 

Where was Wardhouse, and what was the 
custom there ? C. J. P. 

Great Yarmouth. 

" Adrian turnd the lull.'' 1 In an old MS. in 
niy possession, the following verse occurs : 

" Of wliate'er else your head be full, 
Remember Adrian turn'd the bull ; 
'Tis time that you should turn the chase, 
Kick out the knave and take the place." 

Would any of the correspondents of " N. & Q." 
be so good as to explain to me the reference in 
the second line of the verse ? G. M. 

Gary's "Palceologia Chronica" I have an old 
book entitled : 

! " Palasologia Chronica; a Chronological Account of 
Ancient Time. Performed by Robert Gary, D.LL., 
Devon. London : printed by J. Darby, for Richard 
Chiswell, at the Rose and Crown, in St. Paul's Church 
Yard, 1677." 

and shall be glad to be informed whether the 
author was any relation of Dr. Valentine Carey, 
who was consecrated bishop of Exeter in 1620, 
and died in 1626. (See Walton's Life of Dr. 
Donne.) CHRIS. ROBERTS. 

Bradford, Yorkshire. 

The Southward. Pudding Wonder. I have been 
very much pleased with the perusal of a collection 
of MS. letters, written by the celebrated anti- 
quary William Stukeley to Maurice Johnson, Esq., 
the founder of the Gentlemen's Society at Spald- 
ing. These letters have not been published ; the 
MSS. exist in the library of the Spalding Society. 
They contain much interesting matter, and fur- 
nish many traits of the manners, character, and 
modes of thinking and acting of their respected 
author. 

Can any of your readers explain the meaning of 
the following passage, which is found in a letter 
Uated 19th June, 1718 : " The Southwark Pudding 
u-onder is ocer ? " 

In the same letter the Dr. alludes to a con- 
tested election for the office of Chamberlain of 
the City of London, which took place in 1718 : 

" The city is all in an uproar about the election of 
a chamberlain, like a country corporation for burgesses, 
where roast pig and beef and wine are dealt about 
freely at taverns, and advertisements about it more 
voluminous than the late celebrated Bangoreaii Notifi- 
cation, though not in a calm and undisturbed way." 

PISHEY THOMPSON. 
Stoke Newington. 

Roman Catholics confined in Fens of Ely. Mr. 
Dickens, in Household Words, No. 169. p. 382., in 



the continuation of a " Child's History of Eng- 
land," says, when alluding to the threatened inva- 
sion of England by the Spanish Armada : 

" Some of the Queen's advisers were for seizing the 
principal English Catholics, and putting them to 
death; but the queen who, to her honour, used to 
say that she would never believe any ill of her subjects, 
which a parent would not believe of her own children 
neglected the advice, and only confined a few of 
those who were the most suspected among them, in 
the fens of Lincolnshire." 

Mr. Dickens had, of course, as he supposed, 
good authority for making this statement ; but, 
in reply to a private communication, he states it 
should have been Fens of Ely. I am, perhaps, 
convicting myself of gross ignorance by seeking for 
information respecting it ; nevertheless, I venture 
to ask the readers of " N. & Q." for a reference to 
the authentic history, where a corroboration of Mr. 
Dickens' statement is to be found ? 

PISHEY THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newington. 

White Bell Heather transplanted. Is it gene- 
rally known that white bell heather becomes pink 
on being transplanted from its native hills into a 
garden r 1 Two plants were shown to me a few 
days ago, by a country neighbour, flowering pink, 
which were transplanted, the one three, and the- 
other two, years ago ; the former had white bells 
for two years, the latter for one year only. What 
I wish to know is, Whether these are exceptional 
cases or not ? W. C. 

Argyleshire. 

Green's "Secret Plot." Can you inform me 
where the scene of the following drama is laid, 
and the names of the dramatis personce ? The 
Secret Plot; a tragedy by Rupert Green, 12mo., 
1777. The author of this play, which was pub- 
lished when he was only in his ninth year, was 
the son of Mr. Valentine Green, who wrote a 
history of Worcester. A. Z. 

" The full Moon brings fine Weather." When 
did this saying originate, and have we any proof 
of its correctness ? The late Duke of Wellington 
is reported to have said, that, as regarded the 
weather, it was " nonsense to have any faith in the 
moon." (Vide Larpent's Private Journal, vol. ii. 
p. 283.) W.W. 

Malta. 

Nash the Artist. In the year 1802, Mr. F. 
Nash made a water-colour drawing of the Town 
Hall, churches, &c., in the High Street of the 
ancient borough of Dorchester ; a line engraving 
(now rather scarce) was shortly afterwards pub- 
lished therefrom by Mr. J. Frampton, then a 
bookseller in the town. Can any reader of the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



"N. & Q." inform me -what Mr. Nash this was, 
and what became of him ? Was he related to the 
Castles and Abbeys Nash ? JOHN GARLAND. 

Dorchester. 

Woodwork of St. Andrews Priory Church, 
Barnwell. The Cambridge Architectural Society, 
which is now attempting the restoration of St. 
Andrew's Priory Church, Barnwell, will feel 
deeply indebted to any of your readers who can 
give them any information respecting the carved 
woodwork removed from that church some forty 
years ago, to make way for the present hideous 
arrangement of pews and pulpit. A man who 
lives on the spot speaks of a fine wood screen, and 
highly decorated pulpit, some portions of which 
were sold by auction ; and the rest was in his pos- 
session for some time, and portions of it were 
given away by him to. all who applied for it. 

THE TREASURER. 

Trin. Coll. Camb. 

" The Mitre and the Crown" I find the following 
work, at first published anonymously, reprinted as 
Dr. Atterbury's in Sir Walter Scott's edition of 
the Somers' Tracts. No reason is assigned by the 
editor for ascribing it to him, and I should be glad 
to know whether there is any satisfactory evidence 
for doing so. The original tract appears as anony- 
mous in the Bodleian Catalogue : 

" The Mitre and the Crown, or a real Distinction 
between them : in a Letter to a Reverend Member 
of the Convocation: Lond. 1711, 8vo." 

'AAe'i;s. 

Dublin. 

Military Music. Was military music ever 
played at night in the time of King Charles I. ? 

MILITARIS. 
Belfast. 



Sloven Church. Can you give me any inform- 
ation concerning the original church of Stoven, 
Suffolk, which was of good Norman work through- 
out, as lately ascertained by the vast number of 
Norman mouldings found in the walls in restoring 
it ? L. (2) 

[In Jermyn's "Suffolk Collections," vol. vi. (Add. 
MSS. 8173.), in the British Museum, are the following 
Notes of this church, taken 1st June, 1808, by H. I. 
and D. E. D. : " The Church consists of a nave and 
chancel, both under one roof, which is covered with 
thatch. The chancel is 30 ft. 3 in. long, and 15 ft. 5 in. 
wide. The communion-table is neither raised nor in- 
closed. The floor of the whole church is also of the 
same height. The nave is 30 ft. long, and 1 6 ft. 1 in. 
wide. Between the chancel and nave are the remains 
of a screen, and over it the arms of George II., between 
two tables containing the Lord's Prayer, &c. In the 



N. E. angle is the pulpit, which is of oak, hexagon, 
ordinary, as are also the pews and seats. At the W. 
end stands the font, which is octagon, the faces con- 
taining roses and lions, and two figures holding blank 
escutcheons, the pedestal supported by four lions. The 
steeple is in the usual place, small, square, of flints-, 
but little higher than the roof. In it is only one bell, 
inscribed 1759. The entrance into the church on the 
N. side is through a circular Saxon arch, not much 
ornamented. On the side is another of the same de- 
scription, but more ornamented, with zig-zag moulding, 
&c." Then follow the inscriptions, &c. in the chancel, 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Brown, John Brown, Thomas Brown ; 
in the nave, of Henry Kcable, with extracts from the 
parish register commencing in 1653.] 

The Statute of Kilkenny. Said to have been 
passed in 1364. What was the nature of it ? 

ABREDONENSIS. 

[This statute legally abolished the ancient code of 
the Irish, called the Brehon laws, and was passed in a 
parliament held at Kilkenny in the 40th Edward III., 
under the government of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. By this act, the English 
are commanded in all controversies to govern them- 
selves by the common laws of England, so that who- 
ever submitted himself to the Brehon law, or the law 
of the Marches, is declared a traitor. Among other 
things the statute enacted that " the alliaunce of the 
English by marriage with any Irish, the nurture of 
infantes, and gossipred with the Irish, be deemed high, 
treason." And again, " If anie man of English race 
use an Irish name, Irish apparell, or any other guize 
or fashion of the Irish, his lands shall be seized, and 
his bodie imprisoned, till he shall conform to English 
modes and customs." This statute was followed by the 
18th Henry VI. c. i. ii. iii., and the 28th Hen. VI., 
c. i., with similar prohibitions and penalties. These 
prohibitions, however, had little effect ; nor were the 
English laws universally submitted to throughout Ire- 
land until the time of James I., when the final extir- 
pation of the ancient Brehon law was effected.] 

Kenne of Kenne. Can any of your Kentish 
correspondents inform me to whom a certain 
Christ. Kenne of Kenne, in co. Somerset, sold the 
manor of " Oakley," in the parish of Higham, near 
Rochester ; and in whose possession it was about 
the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth or com- 
mencement of James I. ? 

The above Kenne, by marrying Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Sir Roger Cholmeley, and widow of 
Sir Leonard Beckwith, of Selby, in co. York, 
acquired possession of the same manor in co. 
Kent. 

After the death of his first wife, he married a 
Florence Stalling, who survived him. He died in 
1592. F. T. 

[" Christopher Kenne of Kenne, in the county of 
Somerset, Esq., was possessed of the manor of Little 
Okeley, in Higham, Kent, in the right of his wife, the 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Roger Cholmeley, anna 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



22 Eliz. ; and then, having levied a fine of it, sold it to 
Thompson, and he, in the reign of Charles I., alienated 
it to Best." Hasted. 

Of course, the Christian name of Thompson, and 
other particulars if required, can be obtained by a 
reference to the foot of the fine in the Record Office, 
Carlton Ride.] 

Rents of Assize, fyc. In the Valor Ecclesias- 
ticutt, the following varieties of income derived 
from rent of land constantly recur, viz. : 

" De redditu (simply). 
De redditu assisae. 
De redditu libero. 
De redditu ad voluntatem." 

Can the distinction between these be exactly 
explained by any corresponding annual payments 
for land according to present custom ? And will 
any of your readers be kind enough to give such 
explanation ? J. 

[Reddllm. Rents from lands let out to tenants; 
modern farm rents. 

Redditus Assisee. Quit rents : fixed sums paid by 
the tenants of a manor annually to the lord ; as in 
modern times. 

Redditus Libert. Those quit rents which were paid 
to the lord by " liberi tenentes," freeholders ; as dis- 
tinguished from '* villani bassi tenentes," &c. 

Redditus ad voluntatem. Annual payments " ad 
voluntatem donatium;" such as " confrana," &c. The 
modern Easter Offering perhaps corresponds with them.] 

Edifices of Ancient and Modern Times. Can 
any of your architectural or antiquarian readers 
inform me where a chronological list of the prin- 
cipal edifices of ancient and modern times can be 
found ? GETSRN. 

[Consult Chronological Tables of Ancient and Modern 
History Synchronistically and Ethnographically arranged, 
fol, Oxford, 1835. For those relating to Great Bri- 
tain, see Britton's Chronological and Historical Illustra- 
tions, and his Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain.'] 

Gorram. Please to direct me where I can find 
a short account of Gorram, an ecclesiastical writer 
(I suppose) mentioned by D'Aubigne, vol. v. 
p. 245. L. (2) 

[The divine alluded to by D'Aubigne is no doubt 
Nicholas de Gorran, a Dominican, confessor to Philip 
the Fair of France. He was an admired and eloquent 
preacher, and his Sermons, together with a Commen- 
tary on the Gospels, appeared at Paris, 1523 and 1539. 
He died in 1295.] 

" RocJt of Ages." Who is the author of the 
hymn beginning " Rock of Ages ? " J. G. T. 

[That celebrated advocate for The Calvinism of the 
Church of England, the Rev. Augustus Montague Top- 
lady.] 



REMUNERATION OP AUTHORS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 591.) 

Responding to the challenge of your correspon- 
dent MR. ANDREWS, I copy the following from my 
common-place book : 

From Lintot's memorandum-book of " Copies when 
purchased." 



Farquhar. 



1705. Recruiting Officer - 

1706. Beaux Stratagem - 



s.d. 

- 16 2 6 

- 30 



JBetterton. 



1712. The Miller's Tale, with some charac- 
ters from Chaucer ... 



576 



Mr. Centlivre. 

1703. May 14. Love's Contrivance - - 10 O 

1709. May 14. Busy Body - - - 10 

Mr. Gibber. 

1701. Nov. 8. A third of Love's Last Shift 346 

1 705. Nov. 5. Perolla and Izadora - - 36 1 1 O 

1707. Oct. 27. Double Gallant - - 16 2 6 
Nov. 22. Lady's Last Stake - - 32 5 
Feb. 26. Venus and Adonis - - 576 

1708. Oct. 9. Comical Lover - - - 10 15 O 

1712. Mar. 16. Cinna's Conspiracy - - 13 O 
1718. Oct. 1. The Nonjuror - - - 105 O O 

Mr. Gay. 

1713. May 12. Wife of Bath - - - 25 O 

1714. Nov. 11. Letter to a Lady - 5 76 

1715. Feb. 14. The What-d'ye-call-it? - 16 2 6 
Dec. 22. Trivia - - - - 43 O 

Epistle to the Earl of Bur- 
lington - - - - 10 15 
1717. May 4. Battle of the Frogs - - 16 2 6 
Jan. 8. Three Hours after Marriage 43 26 
Revival of the Wife of Bath 75 O 
The Mohocks, a farce - - 2/. 10*. 
Sold the Mohocks to him again. 

234 10 



Captain Killegrew. 
1718-19. Feb. 14. Chit Chat - 
Mr. Ozell. 

1711. Nov. 18.1 Translating Homer's Iliad, 

1712. Jan. 4. books i. ii. iii. 

1713. April 29. Translating Moliere 

N. Rowe, Esq. 

Dec. 12. Jane Shore ... 
1715. April 27. Jane Grey - 

Somerville. 
1727. July 14. A Collection of Poems - 35 15 O 



- 84 



10 8 6 
37 12 6 



50 15 O 
73 5 



82 



NOTES AND QUEEIE& 



[No. 195. 



Pope. 

1712. Feb. 19. Statins, 1st book, and Ver- s. d. 

tumnus and Pomona - - 16 2 6 
Mar. 21. First edition of the Rape 700 
April 9. To a lady presenting Ven- 
ture. Upon Silence. To the author 

of a poem called Successio - - 3 16 6 

1712-13. Windsor Forest (Feb. 23) - 32 5 O 

1713. July 23. Ode to St. Cecilia's Day - 15 

1714. Feb. 20. Addition to the Rape - 15 00 
Mar. 23. Homer, vol. i. - -215OO 
650 copies on royal paper - - 176 O 

1715. Feb. i. Temple of Fame - - 32 5 
April 21. Key to the Lock - - 10 15 

1716. Feb. 9. Homer, vol. if. - - - 215 O 
May 2. 650 royal paper - - 150 O O 
July 17. Essay on Criticism - 15 

1717. Aug. 9. Homer, vol. iii. - - 215 O 

1718. Jan. 6. 650 royal paper - - - 150 
Mar. 3. Homer, vol. iv. - - 210 

650 royal paper - - 150 

Oct. 17. Homer, vol. v. - - - 210 O 

1719. April 6. 650 royal paper - - 15O 

1720. Feb. 26. Homer, vol. vi. - - 210 O 
May 7. 650 royal paper - - - 150 O 

1 721 . Parnell's Poems - - - - 15 
Paid Mr. Pope for the subscription- 
money due on the 2nd volume of his 
Homer, and on his 5th volume, at 

the agreement for the said 5th vol. 
(I had Mr. Pope's assignment for 
the royal paper that was then left of 
bis Homer) .... 840 
Copy-money for the Odyssey, vols. i. ii. iii., 
and 750 of each volume printed on royal 
paper, 4to. ---... 615 
Copy- money for the Odyssey, vols. iv. and 

v., and 750 of each royal ... 425 18 7 

4244 8 7 

From that storehouse of instruction and amuse- 
ment, Nichols's Anecdotes* vol. viiL pp. 293 
3O4. 

I take this opportunity of forwarding to you a 
curious memorandum which I found in rummaging 
the papers of a "note-maker" of the last century. 
It appears to be a bill of fare for the entertain- 
ment of a party, upon the " flitch of bacon" being 
decreed to a happy couple. It is at Harrowgate, 
and not at Dunmow, which would lead us to be- 
lieve that this custom was not confined to one 
county. The feast itself is almost as remarkable, 
as regards its component parts, as that produced 
by Mr. Thackeray, in his delightful " Lectures," 
as characteristic of polite feeding in Queen Anne's 
reign : 

"June 25 Mr. and Mrs. LiddaTs Dinner at Green 

Drayon, Harroiagate, on taking FJiitfli Bacon Oath. 

Sill Fare. 
Beans and bacon. 
Cabbage, colliflower. 



Three doz. chickens. 

Two shoulders mutton, coweumbers. 

Two turbets. 

Rump beef, &c. &c. 

Goose and plumbpudding. ] 

Quarter lamb, sallad. 

Tarts, jellies, strawberries, cream. 

Cherrys, syllabubs, and blomonge. 

L.eg lamb, spinnage. 

Crawfish, pickled salmon. 

Fryd tripe, calves' heads. 

Gravy and pease soup. 

Two piggs. 

Breast veal, ragoud. 

Ice cream, pine apple. 

Surloin beaf. 

Pidgeons, green peas. 

Lobsters, crabs. 

Twelve red herrings, twenty-two dobils." 

W. R. 
Stockwell. 



ON THE USE OF THE HOUR-GLASS IN PULPITS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 489.) 

Perhaps the following may be of service as a 
farther illustration of this subject. 

Zaeharie Boyd says, in The Last Battell of the 
Sovle in Death, 1629, reprinted Glasgow, 1831, at 
p. 469. : 

" Now after his Battell ended hee hath surrendered 
the spirit, Clepsydra effluxit, his houre-glasse is now 
runne out, and his soule is come to its wished home, 
where it is free from the fetters of flesh." 

This divine was minister of the barony parish 
of Glasgow, the church for which was then in the 
crypt of the cathedral. I have no doubt the hour- 
glass was there used from which he draws his 
simile. Your correspondent refers to sermons an 
hour long, but, to judge from, the contents of " Mr. 
Zacharie's " MS. sermons still preserved in the 
library of the College of Glasgow, each, at the rate 
of ordinary speaking, must have occupied at least 
an hour and a half in delivery. When he had be- 
come infirm and near his end, and had found it 
necessary to shorten his sermons, his " kirk ses- 
sion " was offended, as 

" Feb. 13, 1651. Some are to speak to Mr. Z. Boyd 
about the soon skailing (dismissing) of the Baronie 
Kirk on Sunday afternoon." 

Though sermons are now generally restricted 
from three quarters to an hour's delivery, the 
practice of long preaching in the olden times in 
the west of Scotland had much prevailed. Within 
my own recollection I have heard sermons of 
nearly two hours' duration ; and early among a few 
classes of the first Dissenters, on " Sacramental 
Occasions " as they are yet called, the services 
lasted altogether (not unf'requently) continuously 
from ten o'clock on Sabbath forenoon, to three and 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



83 



four o'clock the following morning. A traditional 
anecdote is current of an old Presbyterian clergy- 
man, unusually full of matter, who, having preached 
out his hour-glass, was accustomed to pause, and 
addressing the precentor, " Another glass and then" 
recommenced his sermon. 

A pictorial representation of the hour-glass 
in a country church is to be seen in front of 
the precentor's desk, or pulpit, in a very scarce 
humorsome print, entitled " Presbyterian Pe- 
nance," by the famous David Allan. It also 
figures in the engraving of the painting by Wilkie, 
of John Knox preaching before Mary Queen of 
Scots. About twenty years ago it was either in 
the Cathedral of Stirling or the Armory of the 
Castle (the ancient chapel), that I saw the hour- 
glass (about twelve inches high) which had been 
connected with one or other of the pulpits, from 
botli of which John Knox is said to have preached. 
It is likely the hour-glass is there " even unto 
this day " (unless abstracted by some relic hunter) ; 
and if it could be depended on as an original ap- 
pendage to the pulpits, would prove that its use 
was coeval with the times of the Scottish Re- 
formation. I think its high antiquity as certain 
as the oaken pulpits themselves. 

At an early period the general poverty of the 
country, and the scarcity of clocks and watches, 
must have given rise to the adoption of the hour 
sand-glass, a simple instrument, but yet elegant 
and impressive, for the measurement of a brief 
portion of our fleeting span. G. N. 

Glasgow. 

On the 31st May, 1640, the churchwardens of 
Great Staughton, co. Huntingdonshire, " are, and 
stand charged with (among other church goods), a 
pulpit standinge in the church, having a cover 
over the same, and an houre-glasse adjoininge." 

Copy of a cutting from a magazine, name and 
date unknown: 

" Among Dr. Rawlinson's manuscripts in the Bod- 
leian Library, No. 941 contains a collection of Miscel- 
laneous Discourses, by Mr. Lewis of Margate, in Kent, 
whence the following extract has been made : 

" ' It appears that these hour-glasses were coeval with 
our Reformation. In a fine frontispiece, prefixed to 
the Holy Bible of the bishops' translation, printed in 
4to. by John Day, 1569, Archbishop Parker is repre- 
sented in the pulpit with an hour-glass standing on his 
right hand ; ours, here, stood on the left without any 
frame. It was proper that some time should be pre- 
scribed for the length of the sermon, and clocks and 
watches were not then so common as they are now. 
This time of an hour continued till the Revolution, as 
appears by Bishop Sanderson's, Tillotson's, Stilling- 
fleet's, Dr. Barrow's, and others' sermons, printed dur- 
ing that time.' 

"The writer of this article was informed in 1811 
by the Rev. Mr. Burder, who had the curacy of St. 



Dunstan's, Fleet Street, that the large silver hour-glass 
formerly used in that church, was melted down, into 
two staff heads for the parish beadles. 

" An hour-glass frame of iron, fixed in the wall by 
the side of the pulpit, was remaining in 1797 in the 
church of North Moor, in Oxfordshire." 

JOSEPH Rix. 

St. Neots, Huntingdonshire. 

In many of our old pulpits built during the 
seventeenth century, when hour sermons were the 
rule, and thirty minutes the exception, the shelf 
on which the glass used to stand may still be seen. 
If I recollect rightly, that of Miles Coverdale was 
thus furnished, as stated in the newspapers, at the 
time the church of Bartholomew was removed. 
Perhaps this emblem was adopted on gravestones 
as significant of the character of Death as a minister 
or preacher. 

The late Basil Montague, when delivering a 
course of lectures on " Laughter " at the Islington 
Institution some few years since, kept time by the 
aid of this antique instrument. If I remember 
aright, he turned the glass and said, "Another glass 
and then" or some equivalent expression. 

E. G. BAIXARD. 

There is an example at the church of St. Alban, 
Wood Street, Cheapside. This church was rebuilt 
by Sir C. Wren, and finished 1685 ; showing that 
the hour-glass was in use subsequent to the times 
alluded to. J. D. ALLCROFT. 

I saw, on 13th January last, an iron hour-glass 
stand affixed to a pillar in the north aisle of Belton 
Church, in the Isle of Axholme. 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



LADIES ARMS BORNE IN A LOZENGE. 

(Vol.vii., p. 571.) 

The subject of the Query put by your corre- 
spondent is one that has frequently occurred to 
me, but which is involved in obscurity. Heraldic 
writers generally have contented themselves with. 
the mere statement of ladies' arms being thus 
borne ; and where we do find an opinion hazarded, 
it is more in the form of a quotation from a name- 
less author, or of a timid suggestion, than an at- 
tempt to elucidate the question by argument or 
from history. 

By some this form of shield is said to have 
descended to us from the Amazons, who bore such : 
others say, from the form of their tombstones ! 
Now we find it to represent the ancient spindle 
so much used 'by ladies ; and again to be a shield 
found by the Romans unfit for use, and therefore 
transferred to the weaker sex, who were " allowed 
to place their ensigns upon it, with one corner 
always uppermost." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195, 



Here are quotations from a few of our writers 
on the science of Heraldry : 

BURKE, Encyclop. Herald. 1844. Queen Victo- 
ria bears her arms on a full and complete shield ; 
" for," says the old rhyme 

" Our sagest men of lore define 
The kingly state as masculine, 
Paiseant, martial, bold and strong, 
The stay of right, the scourge of wrong ; 
Hence those that England's sceptre wield, 
Must buckle on broad sword and shield, 
And o'er the land, and o'er the sea, 
Maintain her sway triumphantly." 

This, unfortunately, is only one side of the ques- 
tion : and, though satisfactorily accounting for the 
shape of the shield of royalty, does not enlighten 
us on the " origin and meaning " of the lozenge. 
BARRINGTON, Display of Heraldry, 1844: 

" An unmarried daughter bears her father's arms on 
a lozenge-shaped shield, without any addition or altera- 
tion." 

BERRY, EncycL Herald. 1830 : 

" The arms of maidens and widows should be borne 
in shields of this shape." 

EOBSON, British Herald, 1830: 

" Lozenge, a four-cornered figure, differing from 
the fusil, being shorter and broader. Plutarch says 
that in Megara [read Megura], an ancient town of 
Greece, the tombstones under which the bodies of Ama- 
zons lay were of that form : some conjecture this to be 
the cause why ladies have their arms on lozenges." 

PORNT, Elements of Heraldry, 1795, supposes 

The lozenge may have been originally a fusil, or 
fusee, as the French call it : it is a figure longer than 
the lozenge, and signifies a spindle, which is a woman's 
instrument." 

This writer also quotes Sylvester de Petra 
Sancta, who would have this shield to " represent 
a cushion, whereon women used to sit and spin, or 
do other housewifery." 

BRYDSON, Summary View of Heraldry, 1795: 

" The shields on which armorial bearings are repre- 
sented are of various forms, as round, oval, or some- 
what resembling a heart; which last is the most 
common form. Excepting sovereigns, women un- 
married, or widows, bear their arms on a lozenge 
shield, which is of a square form, so placed as to have 
one of its angles upwards, and is supposed to resemble a 
distaff." 

BOYES, Great Theatre of Honour, 1754. In 
this great work the various forms of shields, and 
the etymology of their names, are treated on at 
considerable length. The Greeks had five: the 
Aspis, the Gerron or Gerra, the Thurios, the 
Laiveon, and the Pelte or Pelta. The Romans 
had the Ancile, the Scutum, the Clypeus, the 
Parma, the Cetra, and others ; but none of these 
approached the shape of the lozenge. The shields 



of modern nations are also dealt with at length ; 
still the author appears to have had no informa- 
tion nor an opinion upon the lozenge, which he- 
dismisses with these remarks : 

" L'ecu dcs filles est en loze.nge, de meme de celtii des 
veuves ; et en France et ailleurs, celles-ci 1'ornent ct 
1'entourent d'une cordeliere ou cordon a divers neuds. 
Quant aux femmes mariees, elles accollent d'ordinaire 
leurs armes avec celles de leurs epotix ; mais quelque- 
fois elles les portent aussi en lozenge." 

COAXES, Dictionary of Heraldry, 1725, quotes- 
Colombiere, a French herald, who, he says, gives 
upwards of thirty examples of differently formed 
shields ; but no allusion is made to the lozenge. 

CARTER, Honor Redivivus, 1660. 

DUGDALE, Ancient Usage in bearing Arms, 1682. 

GWIIXIM, Display of Heraldry, 1638. 

CAMDEN, Remains, 1637. 

GERARD LEGH, Accedence of Armor ie, 1576. 

None of these authors have touched on the sub- 
ject ; which, considering that at the least two of 
them are the greatest authorities, appears some- 
what strange. 

FERNE, Blazon of Gentrie, 1586 

" Thinks the lozenge is formed of the shield called 
Tessera or Tessela, which the Romans, finding unfit for 
use, did allow to women to place their ensigns upon,, 
with one of its angles always upmost." 

Though unable at this moment to furnish ex- 
amples in proof of my opinion, I must say that 
it is contrary to the one expressed by your corre- 
spondent CEYREP, that "formerly all ladies of 
rank" bore their arms upon a complete shield, or 
bore shields upon their seals. The two instances 
cited by him are rather unfortunate, the connexion 
of both ladies with royalty being sufficiently close 
to suggest the possibility of their right to the "full 
and complete " shield. 

Margaret, Duchess (not Countess) of Norfolk, 
was sole heir of her father, Thomas of Brotherton, 
fifth Earl of Norfolk, son of King Edward L, and 
Marshal of England. She, " for the greatness of 
her birth, her large revenues and wealth,'V was 
created Duchess of Norfolk for life ; and at the 
coronation of King Richard II. she exhibited her 
petition "to be accepted to the office of High 
Marshal," which was, I believe, granted. In such 
case, setting aside her royal descent, I apprehend 
that, by virtue of her office, she would not bear 
her arms in a lozenge. She bore the arms of" 
England with only a label for difference. 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, wns herself 
royally descended, being great-granddaughter of 
John of Gaunt, son of Edward III. ; was daugh- 
ter-in-law of Henry V.'s widow, and mother of 
Henry VII. Being descended from the ante- 
nuptial children of John of Gaunt's third wife, 
who had been legit imatised by act of parliament 
for all purposes except succession to the crown, 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



Henry VII. would probably desire by every 
means in his power to suppress anything sugges- 
tive of his unsubstantial title to the crown. It 
might be by his particular desire that his mother 
assumed the full regal shield, on which to emblazon 
arms differing but slightly from those of her son, 
the king. 

It is not, however, my opinion that the form of 
shield under consideration is anything like so 
ancient as some of the authors would make it. I 
do not believe it comes to us either from the 
Amazons or the Romans. 

My own opinion, in the absence of any from the 
great writers to guide me, is, that we owe the 
use of this form of shield amongst ladies to hatch- 
ments OY funeral achievements. During the lime of 
mourning for persons of rank, their coats of arms 
are set up in churches and over the principal 
entrances of their houses. On these occasions it is 
well known their arms are always placed in a large 
black lozenge; a form adopted as the most proper 
figure for admitting the coats of arms of sixteen 
ancestors to be placed round it, four on each of 
the sides of the square. 

It was not until the reign of Richard III. that 
the College of Arms was regularly incorporated; 
and though the science of heraldry received its 
highest polish during the splendid reigns of 
Edward III. and Henry V., it had yet scarcely 
"been subjected to those rules which since the 
establishment of the College have controlled it. 
Mark Noble, in Ins History of the College of Arms, 
says that the latter reign 

" If it did not add to the wealth of the nation at 
large, gave rise to a number of great families, enriched 
by the spoils of Azincourt, the plunder of France, and 
the ransom of princes. The heraldic body was pecu- 
liarly prized and protected by the king, who, however, 
was very whimsical in the adoption of cognizances and 
devices." 

During the greater portion of the fourteenth 
century, and the early part of the fifteenth, there 
was a rage for jousts, tilts, and tournaments ; and 
almost every English nobleman had his officers of 
arms ; dukes, marquesses, and earls were allowed 
a. herald and pursuivant ; the lower nobility, and 
even knights, might retain one of the latter. To 
these officers belonged the ordering of everything 
relating to the solemn and magnificent funerals, 
which were so general in these centuries, and 
which they presided over and marshalled. 

During the reign of Edward IV. the exact form 
of these obsequies was prescribed. Not only were 
the noblemen's own heralds there, but the king's 
also ; and not in tabards bearing the sovereign's, 
but the deceased's arms. 

So preposterously fond of funeral rites were 
monarchs and their subjects, that the obsequies of 
princes were observed by such sovereigns as were 
in alliance with them, and in the same state as if 



the royal remains had been conveyed from one 
Christian kingdom to another. Individuals had 
their obsequies kept in various places where they 
had particular connexions.* 

Is it too much then to presume that in the 
midst of all this pomp and affectation of grief, the 
hatchment of the deceased nobleman would be 
displayed as much, and continued as long, as pos- 
sible by the widow ? May we not reasonably 
believe that these ladies would vie with each 
other in these displays of the insignia of mourning, 
until, by usage, the lozenge-shaped hatchment 
became the shield appropriated to the sex ? 

These hypotheses are not without some found- 
ation ; but if any of your correspondents will 
enunciate another theory, I shall be glad to give 
it my support if it is found to be more reasonable 
than the foregoing. BBOCTUNA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Multiplication of Photographs. In Vol. viii., 
p. 60. is a letter from MR. JOHN STEWART of Pau 
suggesting certain modes of operating in pro- 
ducing positive photographs, and which sugges- 
tions are apparently offered as novelties, when, in 
fact, they have been for some considerable time in 
practice by other manipulators. Of course, I do 
not suppose that they are otherwise regarded by 
MR. STEWART than as novelties, who cannot be 
acquainted with what is doing here ; but it ap- 
pears to me desirable to discriminate between facts 
that are absolutely, and those that are relatively 
new. 

Most of the transparent stereoscopic photographs 
sold in such numbers by all our eminent opticians, 
are actually produced in the way recommended 
by MR. STEWART ; and reduced copies of photo- 
graphs, &c., have been produced in almost every 
possible variety by DR. DIAMOND, and many 
others of our most eminent photographers. Very 
early in the history of this science, the idea was 
suggested by Mr. Fox Talbot himself, of taking 
views of a small size, and enlarging them for mul- 
tiplication ; and, if I am rightly informed, Mr. 
Ross was applied to to construct a lens specially 
for the purpose. Some months back, as early afc 
least as March or April in the present year, Mr. 
F. H. Wenham actually printed on common chlo- 
ride paper a life-size positive from a small nega- 
tive on collodion ; and immediately afterwards 
adopted the use of iodized paper for the same pur- 
pose ; and after he had exhibited the proofs, I 
myself repeated the experiment. In fact, had 
there been time at the last meeting of the Photo- 
graphic Society, a paper on this very subject 
would have been read by Mr. Wenham ; but the 

* Noble. 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



business before the meeting was too extensive to 
admit of it. My object is not, of course, to offer 
any objection to the proposition, but simply to put 
in a claim of merit for the idea originally due to 
Mr. Fox Talbot, and secondarily to Mr. Wenham, 
who I believe was an earlier operator in this way 
than any one. GEO. SUADBOLT. 

Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals. 
As light transmitted through a yellow curtain, or 
yellow glass, does not affect photographic ope- 
rations, would it not be desirable to keep the 
nitrate of silver and its solutions in yellow glass 
bottles, instead of covering the plain white glass 
with black paper, as I see directed in some cases ? 

CERIDWEN. 



to jHfnar tihterferf. 

Donnybrook Fair (Vol. vii , p. 549.)- ABHBA 
will find his answer in D'Alton's History of the 
County of Dublin, p. 804. : 

" About the year 1 174, Earl ' Strongbow'gave Don- 
nybrock (Devonalbroc), amongst other lands, to Walter 
de Riddlesford ; and in 1204, King John granted to 
the corporation of Dublin license for an annual eight- 
day fair here, commencing on the day of tli3 finding of 
the Holy Cross (May 3rd), with similar stallages and 
tolls, as established in Waterford and Limerick." 

This scene of an Irishman's glory has been 
daguerreotyped in lines that may be left in your 
pages, as being probably quite as little known to 
your readers as is the work above cited : 
" Instead of weapons, either band 
Seized on such arms as came to hand. 
And as famed Ovid paints th' adventures 
Of wrangling Lapithae and Centaurs, 
Who at their feast, by Bacchus led, 
Threw bottles at each others' head ; 
And these arms failing in their scuffles, 
Attack'd with andirons, tonges, and shovels : 
So clubs and billets, staves and stones, 
Met fierce, encountering every sconce, 
And cover'd o'er with knobs and pains, 
Each void receptacle for brains." 

J. D. 

Abigail (Vol. iv., p. 424. ; Vol. v., pp. 38. 94. 
450.; Vol. viii., p. 42.). Not having my " N. & 
Q." at hand, I cannot say what may have been 
already told on this subject, but I think I can 
answer the Queries of your last correspondent, 
H. T. RYI,EY. There can be, I think, no doubt that 
the familiar use of the name Abigail, for the genus 
" lady's maid," is derived from one whom I may 
call Abigail the Great ; who, before she ascended 
King David's bed and throne, introduced herself 
under the oft -reiterated description of a " hand- 
maid." (See 1 Sam. xxv. 24, 25. 27, 28. 31.) I 
have no Concordance at hand, but I suspect there 
is no passage in Scripture where the word hand- 



maid is more prominent ; and so the idea became 
associated with the name Abigail. An Abigail for 
a hand-maid is therefore merely analogous to a 
Goliath for a giant ; a Job for a patient man ; a 
Samson for a strong one ; a Jezebel for a shrew, 
&c. I need hardly add, that II. T. RYLEY'S con- 
jecture, that this use of the term Abigail had any 
relation to the Lady Masham, is, therefore, quite 
supererogative but I may go farther. The old 
Duchess of Marlborough's Apology, which first 
told the world that Lady Masham's Christian 
name was Abigail, and that she was a poor cousin 
of her own, was not published till 1742, when all 
feeling about " Abigail Hill and her brother Jack" 
was extinct. In fine, it will be found that the use 
of the term Abigail for a lady's maid was much 
more frequent before the change of Queen Anne's 
Whig ministry than after. C. 

Honorary Degrees (Vol. viii , p. 8.)- Honorary 
degrees give no corporate rights. Johnson never 
himself assumed the title of Doctor ; conferred on 
him. first by the University of Dublin in 1765, 
and afterwards in 1775 by that of Oxford. See 
Croker's Boswell, p. 168. n. 5., for the probable 
motives of Johnson's never having called himself 
Doctor. C. 

Red Hair (Vol. vii., p. 616.). The Danes are 
said to have been (and to be even now) a red- 
haired race. 

They were long the scourge of England, and to 
this possibly may ba attributed in some degree 
the prejudice against people having hair of that 
colour. 

In Denmark, it is said, red-hair is esteemed a 
beauty. 

That red-haired people are fiery and passionate 
is undoubtedly true ; at least I vouch for it as far 
as my experience goes ; but that they emit a dis- 
agreeable odour when inattentive to personal 
cleanliness, is probably a vulgar prejudice arising 
from the colour of their hair, resembling that of 
the fox wide the term " foxy." A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

Historical Engraving (Vol. vii., p. 619.). I 
am glad I happen to be able to inform E. S. 
TAYLOR that his engraving, about the restoration 
of Charles II., is to be found in a book entitled 

" Verhael in forme van Journal, van de Keys ende 't 
Vertoeven van den seer Doorluchtige ende Machtige 
Prins Carel de II." &c. "In 's Graven-hage, by 
Adrian Vlack, JI.DC.LX." &c. 

Folio. The names at the corner of the engraving 
are apparently "F. T. vliet, jn. P. Philippe, 
sculp." J. M. G. 

Proverbs quoted by Suetonius (Vol. vii., p. 594.). 
A full explanation of the proverb <nre05e /8pa5os 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



will be found in the Adagia of Erasmus, under the 
head " Festina lente," p. 588., edit. 1599. That it 
was a favourite proverb of the Emperor Augustus 
is also stated by Gellius, Noct. Alt. x. 11., and 
Macrob., Saturn, vi. 8. The verse, 



is from the Phcenissce of Euripides, v. 599. L. 

" Sat cito, si sat lene" (Vol. v., p. 594 ; Vol. viii., 
p. 18.). Your correspondent C. thinks that F. 
W. J. is mistaken in calling it a favourite maxim 
of Lord Eldon. Few persons are more apt to 
make mistakes than F. W. J. He therefore sends 
the following extract from Twiss's Life of Lord 
C. Eldon, vol. i. p. 49. They are Lord Eldon's 
own words, after having narrated the anecdote to 
which C. refers : 

" In short, in all that I have had to do in future life, 
professional and judicial, I have always felt the effect 
of this early admonition on the pannels of the vehicle 
which conveyed me from school, ' Sat cito, si sat hene.' 
It was the impression of this which made me that de- 
liberative judge as some have said, too deliberative ; 
and reflection on all that is past will not authorise me 
to deny, that whilst I have been thinking ' Sat cito, 
si sat bene,' I may not sufficiently have recollected 
whether ' Sat bene, si sat cito' has had its influence." 

The anecdote, and this observation upon it, are 
taken by Twiss from a book of anecdotes in Lord 
Eldon's own handwriting. F. W. J. 

Council of Laodicea, Canon 35. (Vol. viii., p. 7.). 
CLEBICUS (D.) will find Angelas in the text, 
without Angulos in the margin, in any volume 
which contains the version by Dionysius Exiguus, 
or that by Gentianus Hervetus ; the former printed 
Mogunt. 1525 ; Paris, 1609, 1661, and 1687 : the 
latter, Paris, 1561 and 1618 ; and sufficiently sup- 
plied by Beverege and Howel. Both translations 
are given by Crabbe, Surius, Binius, and others. 

The corrupt reading Angulos, derived from 
Isidorus Mercator, appears in the text, and without 
a marginal correction, in James Merlin's edition 
of the Councils, Colon. 1530 ; in Carranza's Summa, 
Salmant. 1551, Lugd. 1601, Lovan. 1668 (in 
which last impression, the twelfth, the true head- 
ing of the Canon, according to Dionysius and 
Crisconius, viz. " De his qui Angelas colunt," is 
restored) ; and in the Sanctiones Ecclesiastical of 
Joverius, Paris, 1555. 

For Angelas in the text, with a courageous 
"forte legendum" Angulos in the margin, in Pope 
Adrian's Epitome Canonum, we are deeply in- 
debted to Canisius (Thesaur. Monum., ii. 271. ed. 
Basnage); and this is the method adopted by 
Longus a Coriolano and Bail. R. G. 

Anna Lightfoot (Vol. vii., p. 595.). I have 
heard my mother speak of Anna Lightfoot : her 
family belonged to the religious community called 



Friends or Quakers. My mother was born 1751, 
and died in the year 1836. The aunt of Anna 
Eleanor Lightfoot was next-door-neighbour to my 
grandfather, who lived in Sir Wm. Warren's 
Square, AVapping. The family were from York- 
shire, and the father of Anna was a shoemaker, 
and kept a shop near Execution Dock, in the same 
district. He had a brother who was a linendraper, 
living in the neighbourhood of St. James's, at the 
west end of the town; and Anna was frequently 
his visitor, and here it was that she became ac- 
quainted with the great man of the day. She was 
missing, and advertised for by her friends : and, 
after some time had elapsed, they obtained some 
information as to her retreat, stating that she 
was well provided for ; and her condition became 
known to them. She had a son who was a corn- 
merchant, but, from some circumstance, became 
deranged in his intellects, and it is said committed 
suicide. But whether she had a daughter, I never 
heard. A retreat was provided for Anna in one 
of those large houses surrounded with a high wall 
and garden, in the district of Cat-and-Mutton 
Fields, on the east side of Hackney Road, leading 
from Mile End Road ; where she lived, and it is 
said died, but in what year I cannot say. All this 
I have heard my mother tell when I was a young 
lad ; furthermore your deponent knoweth not. 

J. M. C. 

Jack and Gill (Vol. vii., p. 572.). A some- 
what earlier instance of the occurrence of the ex- 
pression " Jack and Gill " is to be found (with a 
slight difference) in John Heywood's Dialogue of 
Wit and Folly, page 11. of the Percy Society's 
reprint : 

" No more hathe he in mynde, ether payne or care, 
Than hathe other Cock my hors, or Gyll my mare !" 

This is probably not more than twenty years 
earlier than your correspondent's quotation from 
Tusser. H. C. K. 

Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle 
(Vol. vi. passim ; Vol. vii., p. 508.). Southey, in 
his Omniana (vol. i. p. 210.), cites a passage from 
the Partidas, in which the magnetic needle is used 
in illustration. It is as follows : 

" E bien assi como los marineros se guian en la 
noche escura por el aguja, que les es medianera entre 
la piedra e la estrella, e les mucstra por de vayan, tam- 
bien en los malos tiempos, como en los buenos; otrosi 
los que han de consejar al Key, se deven siempre guiar 
por la justicia ; que es medianera entre Dios e el 
munclo, en todo tiempo, para dar guardalon a los 
buenos, e pena a los malos, u cada uno segund su me- 
rescimiento." 2 Partida, tit. ix. ley 28. 

This passage is especially worthy of attention, 
as having been written half a century before the 
supposed invention of the mariner's compass by 
Flavius Gioias at Amalfi ; and, as Southey re- 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



marks, "it must have been well known and in 
general use before it would thus be referred to as 
a familiar illustration." 

I do not think that any of your correspondents 
have quoted the halting lines with which Byron 
mars the pathos of the Rousseau-like letter of 
Donna Julia (Don Juan, canto i. stanza cxcvi.) : 

" My heart is feminine, nor can forget 
To all, except one image, madly blind ; 
So shakes the needle, and so stands the pole, 
As vibrates my fond heart to my fix'd soul." 

WILLIAM BATES. 
Birmingham. 

Gibbon's Library (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 455. 535.). 
The following quotation from Cyrus Redding's 
" Recollections of the Author of Vathek " (New 
Monthly Magazine, vol. Ixxi. p. 308.) may interest 
J. H. M. and your other correspondents under this 
head : 

" ' I bought it (says Beckford) to have something to 
read when I passed through Lausanne. I have not 
been there since. I shut myself up for six weeks, from 
early in the morning until night, only BOW and then 
taking a ride. The people thought me mad. I read 
myself nearly blind.' 

" I inquired if the books were rare or curious. He 
replied in the negative. There were excellent editions 
of the principal historical writers, and an extensive 
collection of travels. The most valuable work was an 
edition of Eustathius ; there was also a MS. or two. 
All the books were in excellent condition; in number, 
considerably above six thousand, near seven perhaps. 
He should have read himself mad if there had been 
novelty enough, and he had stayed much longer. 

*' ' I broke away, and dashed among the mountains. 
There is excellent reading there, too, equally to my 
taste. Did you ever travel alone among mountains? ' 

" I replied that I had, and been fully sensible of 
their mighty impressions. Do you retain Gibbon's 
library ? ' 

" ' It is now dispersed, I believe. I made it a pre- 
sent to my excellent physician, Dr. Schall or Scholl 
(I am not certain of the name). I never saw it after 
turning hermit there.' " 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

St. PauTs Epistles to Seneca (Vol. vii., pp. 500. 
583.). The affirmation so frequently made and 
alluded to by J. M. S. of Hull, that Seneca became, 
in the last year of his life, a convert to Christianity, 
is an old tradition, which has just been revived by 
a French author, M. Amedee Fleury, and is dis- 
cussed and attempted to be established by him at 
great length in two octavo volumes. I have not 
read the book, but a learned reviewer of it, M. S. 
De Sacy, shows, with the greatest appearance of 
reason and authority, that the tradition, instead 
of being strengthened, is weakened by all that 
M. Fleury has said about it. M. De Sacy's re- 
view is contained in the Journal des Debats of 



June 30, in which excellent paper he is a frequent 
and delightful writer on literary subjects. In the 
hope that it may interest and gratify J. M. S. to 
be informed of M. Fleury's new work, I send this 
scrap of information to the " N. & Q." 

JOHN MACRAT. 
Oxford. 

" Hip, Hip, Hurrah /" (Vol. vii., pp. 595. 633.). 
The reply suggested by your correspondent 
R. S. F., that the above exclamation originated in 
the Crusades, and is a corruption of the initial 
letters of " Hierosolyma est perdita," never ap- 
peared to me to be very apposite. 

In A Collection of National English Ballads, 
edited and published by W. Chappie, 1838, in a 
description of the song " Old Simon, the King," 
the favourite of Squire Western in Tom Jones, the 
following lines are quoted : 

"' Hang up all the poor hep drinkers," 
Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers." * 

A note to the above states, in reference to the 
word " hep," that it was a term of derision, ap- 
plied to those who drank a weak infusion of the 
" hep " (hip) berry, or sloe. " Hence," says the 
writer, " the exclamation of ' Hip, hip, hurrah,' 
corrupted from ' Hip, hip, away.' " The couplet 
quoted above was written up in the Apollo Room 
at the Devil Tavern, Temple Bar, where Ben 
Jonson's club, the " Apollo Club," used to meet. 
Many a drinker of modern Port has equally good 
reason to exclaim with his brethren of old, " Hip, 
hip, away ! " J. BRENT. 

Emblemata (Vol. vii., p. 614.). I have a small 
edition of the Emblemata Horatiana, with the fol- 
lowing title-page : 

" Othonis VaenI Emblemata Horatiana Imaginibus 
in ees incisis atque Latino, Germanico, Gallico et 
Belgico carmine Illustrata : Amstelaedami, apud Hen- 
ricum Wetstenium, clo . loc. i.xxxiv." 

The engravings, of which there are 103, measure 
about four inches by three ; the book contains 
207 pages, exclusive of the index. " Amicitise 
Trutina," mentioned by MR. WELD TAYLOR, is 
the sixty-sixth plate on page 133. 

There is another volume of Emblems by Otho 
Venius, of which I have a copy : 

" Amorum Emblemata Figuris ^Eneis Incisa, studio 
Othonis Veen I : Batavo Lugdunensis Antverpiae Venalia 
apud Auctorem prostant apud Hieronymum Ver- 
dussen, MDCHX." 

The engravings, of which (besides an allegorical 
frontispiece representing the power of Venus) 
there are 124, are oval, measuring five inches in 
length by three and a half inches in height. The 
designs appear to me to be very good. On the 

* A skinker is one who serves drink. 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



first plate is the name of the engraver, " C. Boel 
fecit." Each engraving has a motto, with verses 
in Latin, Italian, and French. Recommendatory 
verses, by Hugo Grotius, Daniel Heinsius, Max. 
Vrientius, Ph. Rubentius, and Petro Benedetti, 
are prefixed. It appears from Rose's Biographical 
Dictionary (article "Van Veen"), that Venius 
published another illustrated work, The Seven 
Twin Sons of Lara. Is this work known ? 

Horace Walpole did not appreciate Venius. He 
says: 

" The perplexed and silly emblems of Venius are 
well known." Anecdotes of Painting, vol. ii. p. 167. 

The Emblems of Gabriele Rollenhagius (of 
which I have also a copy) consist of two centuries. 
The engravings are circular, with a motto round 
each, and Latin verses at foot. My edition was 
published at Utrecht, MDCXIII. 

I write rather in the hope of eliciting inform- 
ation, than of attempting to give any, on a subject 
which appears to me to deserve farther inquiry. 

Q.D. 

Campvere, Privileges of (Vol. vii., pp. 262. 440.). 
Will your contributors J. D. S. and J. L. oblige 
me with references to the works in which these 
privileges are mentioned ? 

They will find them noticed also at pages 67. 
and 68. of the second volume of L. Guicciardini's 
Belgium (ed. 1646) : "Jus Gruis liberce" This 
is mentioned as one of the privileges of Campvere. 
Can any of your legal friends tell me what this is, 
and where I may find it treated of? E. 

Slang Expressions : " Just the Cheese " (Vol. vii., 
p. 617.). This phrase is only some ten or 
twelve years old. Its origin was this : Some des- 
perate witty fellows, by way of giving a comic 
turn to the phrase " C'est une autre chose," used 
to translate it, " That is another cheese ; " and after 
awhile these words became " household words," 
and when anything positive or specific was in- 
tended to be pointed out, " That's the cheese " be- 
came adopted, which is nearly synonymous with 
" Just the cheese." ASTOLPHO. 

The Honorable Miss E. St. Leger (Vol. vii., 
p. 598.). Perhaps your correspondent MR. 
BREEN may like to be informed that the late 
General the Honorable Arthur St. Leger related 
to me the account of his relative having been made 
a master mason, and that she had secreted herself 
in an old clock-case in Doneraile House, on pur- 
pose to learn the secrets of the lodge, but was dis- 
covered from having coughed. The Rev. Richard 
Arthur St. Leger, of Starcross, Devon, has an en- 
graving of the lady, who is represented arrayed in 
all the costume of a master mason, with the apron, 
ring, and jewel of the order. W. COLLYNS. 

Harbow. 



Queries from the Navorscher (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
" The Choice of Hercules," in the Taller, was 
written by Addison ; Swift did not contribute 
more than one article to that publication, a treatise 
on " Improprieties of Language." The allegory of 
" Religion being the Foundation of Contentment" 
in the Adventurer, was the work of Hawkesworth, 
to whose pen most of those papers are attributable. 

" Amentium haud amantium." The alliteration 
of this passage in the Andria of Terence is some- 
what difficult to preserve in English ; perhaps to 
render it 

" An act of frenzy rather than friendship," 

would keep up the pun, though a weak translation, 
bringing to mind the words of the song : 

" O call it by some other name, 
For friendship is too cold." 

In French the expression might be turned "folle- 
ment plutot que folatrement," although this is a 
fault on the other side, and a stronger word than 
the original. T. O. M. 

"Pity is akin to love" (Vol. L, p. 248.). 
Though a long time has elapsed since the birth- 
place of these words was queried, no answer has, 
I think, appeared in your columns. Will you then 
allow me to refer H. to Southern's Oroonoko, 
Act II. Sc. 1. ? 

" BJandford. Alas ! I pity you. 

Oroonoko. Do pity me ; 
Pity's akin to love, and every thought 
Of that soft kind is welcome to my soul. 
I would be pitv'd here." 

W. T. M. 
Hong Kong. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Our library table is covered at this time with books 
for all classes of readers. The theological student will 
peruse with no ordinary interest the learned Disserta- 
tion on the Origin and Connexion of the Gospels, with a 
Synopsis of the Parallel Passages in the Original and 
Authorised Version, and Critical Notes, by James Smith, 
Esq., of Jordan Hill : and when he has mastered the 
arguments contained in it, he may turn to the new 
number of The Journal of Sacred Literature, in which 
will be found a great variety of able papers. Our 
antiquarian friends will be gratified with a volume 
compiled in a great measure from original family 
papers, by its author Mr. Bankes, the Member for 
Dorsetshire ; and which narrates The Story of Corfe 
Castle, and of many who have lived there, collected front 
Ancient Chronicles and Records ; also from the Private 
Memoirs of a Family resident there in the Time of the. 
Civil Wars. The volume, which is with good feeling 
inscribed by the author to his friends and neighbours, 
Members of the Society for Mutual Improvement in 
the borough of Corfe Castle, contains many interesting 



90 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 195. 



notices of his ancestors, the well-known judge, Sir John 
Bankes and his lady so memorable for her gallant 
defence of Corfe Castle drawn from the family papers. 
The Royal Descent of Nelson and Wellington from Ed- 
ward I., King of England, with Tables of Pedigree and 
Genealogical Memoirs, compiled by G. R. French, is a 
handsomely printed volume, which will please the 
genealogist ; while the historical student will be more 
interested in The Flowers of History, especially such as 
relate to the Affairs of Britain from the Beginning of the 
World to the Year 1307, collected by Mattheiv of West- 
minster, translated by C. D. Yonge, Vol. I., a new vo- 
lume of Bohn's Antiquarian Library, and an important 
addition to his series of translations of our early national 
chronicles. The classical student is indebted to the 
same publisher for the second volume of Mr. Owen's 
Translation of the Organon, or Logical Treatises of 
Aristotle : nor will he regard as the least important 
addition to his library, the new Part (No. VII.) of 
Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 
which extends from CyrrJius to Etruria, and is distin- 
guished by the same excellences as the preceding Parts. 
We must conclude these Notes with a brief reference 
to a handsome reprint of the great work of De Quincy, 
the appearance of which in the London Magazine some 
thirty years since created so great a sensation, we 
mean of course his Confessions of an English Opium- 
cater. 



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LITERAUY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845. 

ATHENAEUM, commencement to 1835. 

A NARRATIVE OF THE HOLY LIFE AND HAPPY DEATH OP MR. 

JOHN ANGIER. London, 1085. 
MOORE'S MELODIES, loth Edition. 

WOOD'S ATHEN/E OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20. 
THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition. 

iu 15 vols. 8vo. 1739. 

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ta 



CECIL HARBOTTH in our next. 

W. MERRY and M. E. C. Our Correspondents are right. The 
oversight in question is certainly open to their censure. 

Answers to other Correspondents next week. 

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price Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had j for which 
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Remarks on the influence of the Nerves upon, 

the Health of Body and Mind, and the 

! means of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Me- 

: loncholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by DR. 

I NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & 

I bTONEMAN. Price 4rf., or Post Free from 

the Author for Five Penny Stamps. 

" We can conscientiously recommend ' Neu- 
rotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the careful perusal 
of our invalid readers." John Bull News- 
paper, June 5, 1852. 



' Just published, price Is., free by Post Is. id., 

THE WAXED -PAPER PHO- 
TOGRAPHIC PROCESS of GUSTAVE 
LE GRAY'S NEW EDITION. Translated 
from the French. 

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for 
VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated 
Lenses for Portraits and Views. 

General Depot for Turner's, Whatman's, 
Canson Freres'.La Croix.and other Talbotype 
Papers. 

Pure Photographic Chemicals. 

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch, 
of the Art. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



JULY 23. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



TTTESTERN LIFE ASSU- 

TT BANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



J. A. Lethbridge.Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
J. Lys Seager, Esq 
J. B. White, Esq. 
i. Carter Wood, Esq. 



Directors. 

IT. E. Bicknell.Esq. | T Grissell, Esq. 
T. 8. Cocks, Jun. Esq. j J. Hunt, Esq, 

G. II. brew. Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustee*. 
W.Whateley, Esq.. Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

2?aniers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
1001.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 



Age t. d. 

17 - - - 1 14 4 

22 - - - I 18 8 

27- - - 2 4 5 



Age 



* s. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 
~382 

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. Bd., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Laud Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUK SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street. London. 



SPECTACLES. WM. ACK- 

(O LAND applies his medical knowledge as 
a Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Company, 
London, his theory as a Mathematician, and 
his practice as a Working Optician, aided by 
Smee's Optomcter, in the selection of Spectacles 
suitable to every derangement of vision, so as 
to preserve the sight to extreme old age. 

ACHROMATIC TELE- 

SCOPES. with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as 
exhibited at the Academy of Sciences in Paris. 
The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so con- 
structed that the rays of light fall nearly per- 
pendicular to the surface of the various lenses, 
by which the aberration is completely removed ; 
and a telescope so fitted gives one-third more 
magnifying power and light than could be ob- 
tained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the 
various sizes on application to 

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Gar- 
den, London. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
nil Climates, may now lie had at Ibe MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHRAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
50 guineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 21., 31., aud 4?. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



UNITED KINGDOM LIFE 
ASSURANCE COMPANY; established 
by Act of Parliament in 1834. 8. Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, London. 

HONORARY PRESIDENTS. 



Earl of Courtown 
Earl Leven and Mel- 
ville 

Earl of Norbury 
F.arl of Stair 
Viscount Falkland 



Lord Elphinstone 
Lord Belhaveu and 

Stenton 
Wm. Campbell, Esq., 

of Tillidiewan. 



LONDON BOARD. 

Chairman Charles Graham, Esq. 

Deputy-Chairman. Charles Downes, Esq. 



H. Blair Avarne, Esq. 

E. Lennox Boyd,Esq., 

F.S.A.,Hesident. 



D. Q. Henriques, Esq. 
J. G. Henriques, Esq. 
F. C.Mai tland, Esq. 



William Railton, Esq. 
F. H. Thomson, Esq. 



C. Berwick Curtis, 

Esq. 
William Fairlie, Esq. ! Thomas Thorby, Esq. 

MEDICAL OFFICERS. 

Physician. Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 

8. Bennett Street, St. James's. 
Surgeon F. 11. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners 

Street. 

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 
1834, to December 31. 1847, is as follows : 



Sam 
Assured. 


Time 

Assured. 


Sum added to 
Policy. 


Sum 
payable 
at Death. 


In 1841. 


In 1848. 




5000 
*1000 
500 


14 years 
7 years 
1 year 


s. d. 
683 6 8 


s.d. 
787 10 
157 100 
11 50 


s. d. 
6470 16 8 
1157 10 
511 5 



* EXAMPLE. _ At the commencement of the 
year 1841, a person aged thirty took out a Policy 
for 1000/., the annual payment for which is 
241. Is. 8-:/. ; in 1847 he had paid in premiums 
168/. 11s. 3d. ; but the profits being 2f per cent, 
per annum on the sum insured (which is 
221. 10s. per annum for each 1000?.) he had 
157?. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much 
as the premiums paid. 

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most 



GILBERT J. FRENCH, 

BOLTON, LANCASHIRE, 

RESPECTFULLY informs the 

jL\i Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, 
that he replies immediately to all applications 
by letter, for information respecting his Manu- 
iiiclun-s in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, 
COMMUNION LINEN. &e., &c., supplying 
full information as to Prices, together with 
Sketches, Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., 
&c. 

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. 
FRENCH invites direct communications by 
Post, as the most economical and satisfactory 
arrangement. PARCELS delivered Free by 
Railway. 



HEAL & SON'S ILLUS- 
TRATED CATALOGUE OF BED- 
STEADS, sent free by post. It contains de- 
signs and prices of upwards of ONE HUN- 
DRED different Bedsteads; also of every 
description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. 
And their new warerooms contain an extensive 
assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture 
Chintzes. Damasks, and Dimities, so as to 
render their Establishment complete for the 
general furnishing of Bed- rooms. 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Ma- 
nufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 

JL Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
man's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson 
Frtres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's 
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every 
kind of Photography. 

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster 
Row, London. 



TNDIGESTION, CONSTIPA- 

JL TION, NERVOUSNESS. &c. - BARRY, 
DU BARRY & CO.'S HEALTH-RESTOR- 
ING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS. 

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, 

the only natural, pleasant, and effectual re- 
medy (without medicine, purging, inconveni- 
ence, or expense, as it saves fifty times its cost 
in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, in- 
testinal, liver and bilious complaints, however 
deeply rooted, dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual 
constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn, fla- 
tulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, 
ernplion of the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, 
sickneis at the stomach during pregnancy, at 
sea, and under all other circumstances, debility 
in the aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, 
cramps, paralysis, &c. 

A few out c/50,000 Cures : 

Cure, No. 71. of dyspepsia; from the Right 
Hon. the Lord Stuart de Decies : "I hare de- 
rived considerable benefit from your Revalenta 
Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves 
and the public to authorise the publication, of 
these lines. STUART DE DECIES. ' 

Cure, No. 49,832 : " Fifty years' indescrib- 
able azony from dyspepsia, nervousness, asthma, 
ccugh, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sick- 
ness at the stomach, and vomitings have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent food. 
MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Nor- 
folk." 




which no medicine could remove or relieve, 
have been effectually cured by Du Barry's food 
in a very short time. W. R. REEVES, Pool 
Anthony, Tivertou." 



Cure, No. 4.208 : " Eight years' dyspepsia, 
nervousness, debility, with cramps, spasms, and 
nausea, for which my servant had consulted 
the advice of many, have been effectually re- 
moved by Du Barry's delicious food in a very 
short time. I shall be happy to answer any in- 
quiries. REV. JOH.N W. FLAVELL, Hidlington. 
Rectory, Norfolk." 

Dr. Wurzcr's Testimonial. 

" Bonn, July 19. 1852. 

"This light and pleasant Farina is one of the 
most excellent, nourishing, and restorative 
remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all 
kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful 
in confined habit of body, as also diarrhoea, 
bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys and 
bladder, such as stone or gravel ; inflammatory 
irritation and cramp of the urethra, cramp of 
the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and hemor- 
rhoids. This really invaluable remedy is em- 
ployed with the most satisfactory result, not 
only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints, 
where irritation and pain are to be removed, 
but also in pulmonary and bronchial consump- 
tion, in which it counteracts effectually the 
troublesome cough ; and I am ens bled with 

g;rfect truth to express the conviction that Du 
arry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the 
cure of incipient hectic complaints and con- 
sumption. " DR. RUD WUBZER, 
" Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. 
in Bonn." 

London Agents : Fortnum, Mason & Co., 
182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her Majesty the 
Queen ; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street ; 
and through all respectable gr. cers, chemists, 
and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably 
packed for all climates, and with full instruc- 
tions, lib. 2s. 9il. ; 21b. Is. 6tl. ; 5lb. Us.; 121b. 
22s. ; super-refined, 51b. 22s. ; lOlb. 33s. The 
lOlb. and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post- 
office order. Barry, Du Barry & Co., 77. Re- 
gent Street, London. 

IMPORTANT CAUTION Many invalids having 
been seriously injured by spurious imitations 
under closely similar names, such as Ervulenta, 
Arabaca, and others, the public will do well to 
see that each canister bears the name BARRY, 
Du BARBY & Co., 77. Regent Street, Loadon. 
in full, without which nune it genuine. 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 195. 



A CHEAP ISSUE OF 

MURRAY'S HANDBOOKS 

FOR TRAVELLERS. 



FOR THE CONTINENT. 

HANDBOOK TRAVEL 

TALK. 3s.6d. 

HANDBOOK BELGIUM 

AND THE RHINE. 5s. 

HANDBOOK SWITZER- 
LAND, SAVOY, AND PIEDMONT. 7*.6rf. 

HANDBOOK NORTH 

GERMANY, AND HOLLAND. 9s. 

HANDBOOK SOUTH 

GERMANY AND THE TYROL. 9s. 

HANDBOOK FRANCE 

AND THE PYRENEES. 9*. 

HANDBOOK SPAIN, AN- 

DALUSIA, ETC. 16. 

HANDBOOK NORTH 

ITALY AND FLORENCE. 9*. 

HANDBOOK SOUTH 

ITALY AND NAPLES. 

HANDBOOK EGYPT AND 

THEBES, lis. 

HANDBOOK DENMARK, 

NORWAY, AND SWEDEN. 12s. 

HANDBOOK RUSSIA 

AND FINLAND. 12s. 

FOR ENGLAND. 

HANDBOOK MODERN 

LONDON. 5s. 

HANDBOOK ENGLAND. 

PART I. DEVON AND CORNWALL. 69. 
JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CLXXXV., is published THIS DAY. 

CONTENTS : 

I. IRELAND, BY THE FOUR MAS- 
TERS. 
II. HAXTHAUSEN ON RUSSIA. 

ill. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 

PROFE.SSOR OWEN. 
IV. ECCLESIASTICAL FORGERIES. 
V. AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF SIGNOR 

RUFFINI. 

VI. COUNT FICQUELMONT ON FO- 
REIGN POLICY. 

VII. REPORT OF THE OXFORD COM- 
MISSION. 
VIII. LIFE OF THOMAS MOORE. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Just published, 

THE CHRISTIAN REMEM- 
BRANCER, No. LXXXI., for JULY, 
1833. 

CONTENTS. 

I. Recent Metaphysics. 
'2. Miss Yonge's .Novels. 

3. Palmer's Dissertations on the Orthodox 
Communion. 

4. Stirling's Cloister Life of Charles V. 

5. Alford's Greek Testament. Vol. II. 

6. Modern Poetry. 

7- Church Penitentiary Association. 

8. Spicilegium Solesmence. 

9. Notices of New Books, &c. 

London : J. & C. MOZLEY, 6. Paternoster 
Row. 



J. R. SMITH'S 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



BRITANNIC RESEARCHES; or, New Facts and Rectifications 

of Ancient British History- By the REV. BEALE POSTE, M.A. Just published, 8vo. 
(pp. 488.), with engravings, cloth, 15s. 

A FEW NOTES ON SHAKSPEARE, with Occasional Remarks 

on Mr. Collier's Folio of 1632. By the REV. ALEXANDER DYCE. 8vo. cloth, 5s. 

WILTSHIRE TALES, illustrative of the Manners, Customs, and 

Dialect of that and adjoining Counties. By J. Y. AKERMAN, ESQ. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6rf. . 

FACTS AND SPECULATIONS on the Origin and History of 

Playing Cards. By W. A. CHATTO, Author of " Jackson's History of Wood Engraving" In 
one handsome volume, 8vo., illustrated with many Engravings, both plain and coloured, cloth, 
II. is. 

BOSWORTH'S (Rev. Dr.) Compendious Anglo-Saxon and English 

Dictionary. 8vo., closely printed in treble columns, cloth, 2s. 

LOWER'S (M. A. ) ESSAYS on English Surnames. 2 vols. post 8vo. 

Third Edition, greatly enlarged, cloth, 12. 

LOWER'S CURIOSITIES of HERALDRY, with Illustrations 

from Old English Wriiers. 8vo., numerous Engravings, cloth, 14s. 

WRIGHT'S (THOS.) ESSAYS on the Literature, Popular Supersti- 

tions, and History of England in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth, 16s. 

GUIDE to ARCHEOLOGY. An Archaeological Index to Remains 

of Antiquity of the Celtic, Romano British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. By JOHN YONGE 
AKERMAN, Fellow and Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. 1 vol. 8vo , illustrated with 
numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of 500 objects, cloth, lis. 

A NEW LIFE OF SHAKSPEARE; including many Particulars 

respecting the Poet and his Family, never before published. By JAMES ORCHARD HALLI- 
WELL, F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. 8vo., 76 Engravings by Fairholt, cloth, 15s. 



JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. SOHO SQUARE, LONDON. 



NEW EDITIONS OF SHARON TURNER'S 
HISTORICAL WORKS, WITH THE 
AUTHOR'S FINAL CORRECTIONS. 

Just published, in 4 vols. 8vo., price 50s. cloth. 

SHARON TURNER'S HIS- 
TORY of ENGLAND DURING THE 
DOLE AGES : Comprising the Reigns 
from the Norman Conquest to the Accession 
of Henry VIII. The Fifth Edition, revised ; 
with the Author's final Corrections added by 
the Author's Son, the REV. SYDNEY TUR- 
NER. 

By the same Author, New Editions, 

THE HISTORY OF THE 

ANGLO-SAXONS. The Seventh Edition. 
3 vols. 8vo., price 36s. 

THE SACRED HISTORY OF 

THE WORLD. The Eighth Edition, in 
3 vols. post 8vo., price 31s. 6d. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GEEEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



A COMPLETE HISTORY OF 

l\. DRUGS, by M. POMET ; with what 
is Observable from MESSRS. LEMKRQ and 
TOURNEFORT. Divided into Three Classes : 
Vegetable. Animal, and Mineral, ami their Use 
in Chemistry, Pharmacy, and the Arts. Il- 
lustrated with above 400 Copper Cuts. Done 
into English. 2 vols. 4to. in one. London : 
R. Bornirck & Co., 1712. Dedicated to Dr. 
Sloane. 

DE HUMANA PHYSIOGNO- 

MIA JOANNIS BAPTISTS PORTvE 
Neapolitan!. Libri 4. 1601. Ursellis Typ. 
Conellatorii. Numerous Woodcuts. To be 
disposed of. 

Apply by letter to W. C., care of MR. BELL, 
186. Fleet Street. 



LITERARY CURIOSITIES. 

An Original and Highly Interesting News- 
paper (A Little. Merr.urii, of ciL'ht pases), pub- 
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fine preservation ! Sent free on receipt of 
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An Original, Rare, and Curious Newspaper 
(A Little Jfrrcury, of sixteen pages), published 
in CHARLES THE SECOND'S Reign, sent free on 
receipt of 6s. 

An Original Newspaper (A Little Gazetted, 
rich in curious historical and domestic an- 
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An Original Newspaper of JAMES THE SE- 
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receipt of 3x. 6d. 

An Original Newspaper of QCEEV ANNE'S 
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rare, sent free on receipt of 2s. 6(1. 

An Original Newspaper of GEORGE THE SE- 
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An Original Newspaper of GEORGE THE 
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Apply, BY LETTER ONLY, inclosing a Remit- 
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born, London. 



' 



TO PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS, AU- 
THORS, ETC. 

WOOD ENGRAVINGS. 
Illustrations for Books, Periodicals, 
Newspapers, and every Class of Wood Engrav- 
ings executed in a Superior Style, at reason- 
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish, of St. Dunstan in the West, In the 
City of London , Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, July 23. 1853. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 196.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 30. 1853. 



{Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 
NOTES : Page 

Books chained to Desks in Churches: Font Inscription: 

Parochial Libraries, by W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A. - 3 
Real Signatures versus Pseudo-names, by the Rev. James 

Graves ..-.---94 
Popular Stories of the English Peasantry, by Vincent 

T. Sternl-erg ------ 94 

Shakspeare Correspondence, toy Cecil Harbottle, &c. - 95 

Epitnph and Monuments in Wingfield Church, Suffolk - 98 

Original Hoyal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta - 91) 

MINOR NOTES: Meaning of " Clipper "_- Anathema, 
Maran-atha Convocation and the Society for the 
Propagation of the- Gospel in Foreign Parts Pigs 
said to see the Wind Anecdote of the Duke of 
Gloucester ...... 100 



QUERIES : 

Lord William Russell 

Ancient Furniture Prie-Dieu - 



. 100 
- 101 



MINOR QUERIES : Reynolds' Nephew Sir Isaac New- 
ton Limerick, Dublin, and Cork Praying to the 
AVest Mulciber Captain Booth of Stockport 
"A saint in crape" French Abbes What Day is it 
at our Antipodes ? " Spendthrift " Second Growth 
of Grass The Laird of Brodie Mrs. Tighe, Au- 
thor ot " Psyche " Bishop Ferrar Sir Thomas de 
I.oriKueville Quotations wanted Syinon Patrick, 
Bishop of Ely: Durham: Weston : Jephson The 
He.veni igliams of Suffolk and Norfolk Lady Percy, 
Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl 
of March) Snap? of Coffins St. George Family Pic- 
tures Caley (John), "Ecclesiastical Survey of the 
Possessions, ftc. of the Bishop of St. David's," &c. 
Adamson'i " Lusitania lllustrata" Blotting-paper 
Poetical Versions of the Fragments in Atheneeus - 102 

REPLIES : 

Robert Drury - - . - - - 104 

The Termination -by ..... 105 
The Kosicrucians, by William Bates - - -106 

Inscriptions on Bells, by VV. Sparrow Simpson, B.A. - 108 
Was C >ok the Discoverer of the Sandwich Islands ? by 

C. K. B.igot 108 

Megatherium Americanum, by W. Pinkerton - - 109 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Stereoscopic Angles 

Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals - 1C9 

RcrtiEs TO MINOR QUERIES : Earth upon Earth, &c. 

Picalyly Mr. Justice Newton Manners of the 
Irish "Arms of the See of York " Up, Guards, and 
at 'cm !" Coleridge's Christabel : the 3rd Part 
Mitigation of Capital Punishment The Man with 
the Iron Mask Gentleman executed for Murder of a 
Slave Jahn'i Jahrbuch Character of the Song of 

the Nightingale, &c. 110 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted .... 114 
Notices to Correspondents - - - - 114 

Advertisements - - - - - .115 



VOL. VIII. No. 196. 



BOOKS CHAINED TO DESKS IN CHURCHES : FONT 
INSCRIPTION : PAROCHIAL LIBRARIES. 

It would be interesting to have a complete list 
of the various books still to be found chained to 
desks in our ancient churches. The " Bible of the 
largest volume," the "Books of Homilies allowed 
by authority," and the Book of Common Prayer, 
are ordered by Canon 80. to be provided for every 
church. In some places this regulation is still com- 
plied with : at Oakington, Cambridgeshire, a copy 
of a recent (1825) edition of the Homilies lies on 
a small desk in the nave. But besides these au- 
thoritative works, other books are found chained 
to their ancient desks : at Impington, Cambridge- 
shire are, or were, " three black-letter volumes of 
Fox's Martyrs chained to a stall in the chancel." 
(Paley's Ecclesiologisf s Guide, SfC.') At St. Ni- 
cholas, Rochester, chained to a small bracket desk 
at the south side of the west door, is a copy of A 
Collection of Cases and other Discourses to recover 
Dissenters to the Church of England, small Svo.> 
1718. The Paraphrase of Erasmus may probably 
be added to the list, (see Professor Blunt's Sketch of 
the History of the Reformation, 10th edit., p. 130.), 
though I cannot call to mind any church in which 
a copy of this work may now be found. In the 
noble minster church at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, 
is a rather large collection of books, comprising 
some old and valuable editions : all these books 
were, and many still are, chained to their shelves ; 
an iron rod runs along the front of each shelf, on 
which rings attached to the chains fastened to the 
covers of the works have free play ; these volumes 
are preserved in an upper chamber on the south 
side of the chancel. The parochial library at St. 
Margaret's, Lynn, Norfolk, is one of considerable 
interest and importance ; amongst other treasures 
are a curious little manuscript of the New Testa- 
ment very neatly written, a (mutilated) black- 
letter copy of the Sarum Missal, and many fine 
copies of the works of the Fathers, and also of the 
Reformers ; these are preserved in the south aisle 
of the chancel, which is fitted up as a library, and 
are in very good order. At Margate Church are 
a few volumes, of what kind my note-book does 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



not inform me. I may also mention, in connexion 
with St. Nicholas, Rochester, that the font is oc- 
tagonal, and inscribed with the following capital 
letters, the first surmounted by a crown : 
C.R.I.*.*.*.A.N. 

The large panel on each side contains one of the 
letters; the font is placed close to the wall, so 
that the remaining letters, indicated l?y asterisks, 
cannot now be read : the sexton said that the 
whole word was supposed to be " Christian," or 
rather "Cristian." Beside the font is a very 
quaint iron bracket-stand, painted blue and gold, 
" constructed to carry " two candles. 

W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

P. S. Permit me to correct an error of the 
press in my communication at p. 8. of your present 
volume, col. 1.1. 10. from bottom; for "worn," 
read " won." 



REAL SIGNATURES VERSUS PSEUDO-NAMES. 

It is pleasant to see so many of the correspon- 
dents of " N. & Q." joining in the remonstrance 
against the anonymous system. Were one to set 
about accumulating the reasons for the abandon- 
ment of pseudo-names and initials, many of the 
valuable columns of this periodical might be easily 
filled ; such an essay it is not, however, my in- 
tention to inflict on its readers, who by a little 
thought can easily do for themselves more than a 
large effusion of ink on the part of any corre- 
spondent could effect. I shall content myself with 
recounting the good which, in one instance, has 
resulted from a knowledge of the real name and 
address of a contributor. 

The REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE (one of the first to 
raise his voice against the use of pseudo-names) 
having observed in " N. & Q." jnany communi- 
cations evincing no ordinary acquaintance with 
the national Records of Ireland, and wishing to 
enter into direct communication with the writer 
(who merely signed himself J. F. F.), put a Query 
in the " Notices to Correspondents," begging 
J. F. F. to communicate his real name and address. 
There in all probability the matter would have 
ended, as J. F. F. did not happen to take 
"N. & Q.," but that the writer of these lines 
chanced to be aware, that under the above given 
initials lurked the name of the worthy, the cour- 
teous, the erudite, and, yet more strange still, the 
unpaid guardian of the Irish Exchequer Records 
James Frederick Ferguson, a name which 
many a student of Irish history will recognise with 
warm gratitude and unfeigned respect. Now it 
had so happened that by a strange fortune MR. 
ELLACOMBE was the repositoi-y of information as 
to the whereabouts of certain of the ancient 
Records of Ireland (see MR. ELLACOMBE'S notice 
cf the matter, Vol. viii., p. 5.), abstracted at some 



former period from the " legal custody " of some 
heedless keeper, and sold by a Jew to a German 
gentleman, and the result of his communicating 
this knowledge to Mr. Ferguson, has been the 
latter gentleman's " chivalrous " and successful 
expedition for their recovery. The English Quar- 
terly Review (not Magazine, as MR. ELLACOMBE 
inadvertently writes), in a forthcoming article on 
the Records of Ireland, will, it is to be hoped, 
give the full details of this exciting record hunt, 
and thus exemplify the great utility, not to speak 
of the manliness, of real names and addresses, 
versus false names and equally Will-o'-the-Wisp 
initials. JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 



POPULAR STORIES OF THE ENGLISU PEASANTRY. 

(Vol. v., p. 363. &c.) 

Will you allow me, through the medium of "N. 
& Q.," to say how much obliged I should be for 
any communications on this subject. Since I last 
addressed you (about a year ago) I have received 
many interesting contributions towards niy pro- 
posed collection ; but not, I regret to say, quite to 
the extent I had anticipated. My own researches 
have been principally confined to the midland 
counties, and I have very little from the north 
or east. Such a large field requires many gleaners, 
and I hope your correspondents learned in Folk- 
lore will not be backward in lending their aid to 
complete a work which' Scott, Southey, and a 
host of illustrious names, have considered a desi- 
deratum in our national antiquities. 

I propose to divide the tales into three classes 
Mythological, Humorous, and Nurse-tales. Of 
the mythological I have already given several 
specimens in your journal, but I will give the 
following, as it illustrates another link in the 
transmission of MR. KEIGHTLEY'S Hindustani 
legend, which appeared in a recent Number. It is 
from Northamptonshire. 

The Bogie and the Farmer. 
Once upon a time a Bogie asserted a claim to a 
field which had been hitherto in the possession of 
a farmer; and after a great deal of disputing, 
they came to an arrangement by agreeing to 
divide its produce between them. At seed lime, 
the farmer asks the Bogie what part of the crop 
he will have, " tops or bottoms." " Bottoms," said 
the spirit, : upon which the crafty farmer sows the 
field with wheat, so that when harvest arrives the 
corn falls to his share, while the poor Bogie is 
obliged to content himself with the stubble. 
Next year the spirit, finding he had made such an 
unfortunate selection in the bottoms, chose the 
tops; whereupon cunning Hodge set the Afield 
with turnips, thus again outwitting the simple 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



claimant. Tired of this unprofitable farming, the 
Bogie agrees to hazard his claims on a mowing- 
match, thinking that his supernatural strength 
would give him an easy victory ; but before the 
day of meeting, the cunning earth-tiller procures 
a number of iron bars which he stows among the 
grass to be mown by his opponent ; and when the 
trial commences, the unsuspecting goblin finds his 
progress retarded by his scythe coming into con- 
tact with these obstacles, which he takes to be 
some very hard very hard species of dock. 
" Mortal hard docks, these," said he ; " Nation 
hard docks ! " His blunted scythe soon brings 
him to a stand still, and as, in such cases, it is not 
allowed for one to sharpen without the other, he 
turns to his antagonist, now far ahead, and in- 
quires, in a tone of despair, "When d'ye wiffle- 
waffle (whet), mate ? " " Waffle ! " said the 
farmer, with a well-feigned stare of amazement, 
" O, about noon mebby." " Then," said the de- 
spairing spirit, " That, thief of a Christian has done 
me ; " and so saying, he disappeared and was never 
heard of more. 

Under Nurse-tales, I include the extremely 
puerile stories of the nursery, often (as in the 
German ones) interlaced with rhymes. The fol- 
lowing, from the banks of the Avon, sounds like 
an echo from a German story-book. 

Little Elly. 

In the old time, a certain good king laid all the 
ghosts, and hanged all the witches and wizards 
save one, who fell into a bad way, and kept 
a school in a small village. One day Little Elly 
looked through a chink-hole, and saw him eat- 
ing man's flesh and drinking man's blood ; but 
Little Elly kept it all to herself, and went to school 
as before. And when school was over the Ogee 
fixed his eyes upon her, and said 

" All go home but Elly, 

And Elly come to me." 

And when they were gone he said, " What did you 
see me eat, Elly ? " 

" O something did I see, 
But nothing will I tell, 
Unto my dying day." 

And so he pulled off her shoes, and whipped her 
till she bled (this repeated three days) ; and the 
third day he took her up, and put her into a rose- 
bush, where the rain rained, and the snow snowed, 
and the hail hailed, and the wind blew upon her 
all night. Quickly her tiny spirit crept out of 
her tiny body and hovered round the bed of her 
parents, where it sung in a mournful voice for 
evermore 

" Dark, weary, and cold am I, 
Little knoweth Gammie where am I." 

Of the Humorous stories I have already given 
a specimen in Vol. v., p. 363. 



Any notes of legends, or suggestions of any 
kind, forwarded to my address as below, will be 
thankfully received and acknowledged. 

VINCENT T. STERNBEHG. 

15. Store Street, Bedford Square. 



SHAKSPEABE CORRESPONDENCE. 

The old Corrector on "The Winters Tale" 
I am glad to find that you have another corre- 
spondent, and a very able one too, under the sig- 
nature of A. E. B., who takes the same view of 
" Aristotle's checks " as I have done ; though I 
think he might have paid me the compliment of 
just noticing my prior remonstrance on this sub- 
ject. It is to be lamented, that MR. COLLIER 
should have hurried out his new edition of Shak- 
speare, adopting all the sweeping emendations of 
his newly-found commentator, without paying the 
slightest heed to any of the suggestions which have 
been offered to him in a friendly spirit, or afford- 
ing time for the farther objections which are con- 
tinually pouring in. At the risk of probably 
wearying some of your readers, I cannot forbear 
submitting to you a few more remarks ; but I shall 
confine them on this occasion to one play, The 
Winter s Tale : which contains, perhaps, as many 
poetical beauties as any single work of our great 
dramatic bard. With reference to the passage 
quoted in p. 437., I can hardly believe that Shak- 
speare ever wrote such a poor unmeaning line as 
" . . they are false as dead blacks" 

nor can I perceive any possible objection to the 
original words "o'er dyed blacks." They may 
either mean false mourners, putting an over dark 
semblance of grief ; or they may allude figuratively 
to the material of mourning, the colours of which 
if over-dyed will not stand. In either of these 
senses, the passage is poetical ; but there is nothing 
like poetry in " our dead blacks" 

In p. 450. the alteration of the word "and" to 
^heaven" maybe right, though it is difficult to 
conceive how the one can have been mistaken for 
the other. At all events, the sense is improved 
by the change ; but I do not see that anything is 
gained by the substitution in the next line of 
"dream" for "theme." Whatever the king said 
in his ravings about Hermione, might as aptly be 
called part of his " theme " as part of his " dream." 
The subject of his dream was in fact his theme! 

Neither can I discover any good reason for 
changing, in p. 452., 

" . . and one may drink, depart, 
And yet partake no venom," 

into " drink a part." The context clearly shows 
the author's meaning to have been, that if any one 
departed at once after tasting of the beverage, he 
would have no knowledge of what he had drunk ; 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



but if lie remained, some one present might point 
out to him the spider in the cup, and then " he 
cracks his gorge," &c. 

In p. 460. MR. COLLIER says that the pa-sage, 
" dangerous, unsafe lunes i' the king," is mere 
tautology, and therefore he follows the old cor- 
rector in substituting " unsane lunes." Now it 
strikes me that there is quite as much tautology 
in " unsane lunes " as in the double epithet, " dan- 
gerous, unsafe." It is, in fact, equivalent to "in- 
sane madness ; " and, moreover, drags in quite 
needlessly a, very unusual ami uncouth word. 

In p. 481. we have the last word of the folio w- 
ing passage 

" I never saw a vessel of like sorrow, 
So fill'd and so becoming," 

converted into " o 'er-running ." This may possibly 
be the correct reading ; but, seeing that it is im- 
mediately followed by the words 

" . . .in pure white robes, 
Like very sanctity," 

I question whether " becoming " is not the more 
natural expression. 

" There weep and leave it crying," 
is made 

" There tcend and leave it crying," 
which I submit is decidedly wrong. I will not be 
hypercritical, or I might suggest that in that case 
the words would have been ''thither wend ;" but I 
maintain that the change is contrary to the sense. 
The spirit of Hermione never could have been in- 
tended to say that the child should ba left crying. 
She would rather wish that it might not cry ! The 
meaning, as it seems to me, is, that Antigonus 
should weep over the babe, and leave it while so 
weeping. 

In p. 487. the words " missingly noted" are 
altered to " musingly noted," which is a very ques- 
tionable improvement. Camillo, missing Florigel 
from court, would naturally note his absence ; and 
he may have mused over the causes of it, but_ 
there could ba no necessity for musing to note the 
fact of his absence : and I cannot help thinking 
that the word missingly is more in Shakspeare's 
style. 

I cannot subscribe at all to the alteration in 
p.492. of the word "unrolled" to "enrolled." To be 
enrolled and placed in the book of virtue is very 
like tautology ; but I conceive Shakspeare meant 
Autolycus to wish that his name might be unrolled 
from the company of thieves and gypsies with 
whom he was associated, and transferred to the 
book of virtue. 

I am entirely at issue with the old corrector 
upon his emendation in p. 498. : 

" . . Nothing she does or seems, 

But smacks of something greater than herself;" 
lie say?, ought to be : " Nothing she does or says." 
And how does MR. COLLIER explain this misprint? 



Why, by stating that formerly " says" was often 
written "saies." Now, I cannot for the life of me 
discover why the word "saies" should have been 
mistaken for " seems," any more than the word 
" says." But surely the phrase, " nothing she 
does or seems," is far more poetical and elegant 
than the other. It says in effect : there is nothing 
either in her acts or her carriage, " but smacks of 
something greater than herself." We have posi- 
tive evidence, however, that the passage could not 
have been " nothing she does or says," viz. that 
this speech of Polixenes immediately follows a 
long dialogue between Florizel and Perdita, which 
could not have been overheard, because Camillo 
directly afterwards says to the king : 

" . . He tells her something, 
That makes her blood look out." 

Thereby clearly proving, that the king could not 
have been remarking on what she said. 

The transformation of the last-mentioned line, 
into 

" That wakes her blood look out !" 

cannot, I think, be justified on any ground. He 
tells her something which " makes her blood look 
out." That is, something which makes her blush 
rush to the surface to look out upon it ! What 
can be more natural ? The proposed alteration is 
not only unnecessary, but awkward ! 

In p. 499., if the words " unbraided wares" must 
be altered, I see no reason for the change to " em- 
broided" wares. It seems to me that cmbraided 
would be the most proper word. 

What possible reason can there be for convert- 
ing; "force and knowledge," in p. 506., to "sense 
and knowledge ?" If I may be excused a play 
upon the words, I should say the sense of the pas- 
sage is not at all improved, and the force is en- 
tirely lost. 

I must protest most decidedly against the cor- 
rection of the following lines, p. 507. : 

" Can he speak ? hear ? 

Know man from man? dispute ins own estate?" 

Dispute his own estate means, defend his property, 
dispute with any one who questions his rights. 
The original passage expresses the sense quite 
perfectly, while "dispose his own estate" appears 
to me poor and insipid in comparison. 

MR. COLLIER'S objection to the speech of 
Camillo, in p. 514., 

" . . it shall be so my care 

To have you royally appointed, as if 

The scene you play were mine ; " 

is, that to make the scene appear as if it were 

Camillo's, could be of no service to the young 

prince. Now Camillo says nothing about the scene 

appearing as his. He says he will have the prince 

royally appointed, as if the scene he played were 

really his own : that is, as if he were the party 

interested in it, instead of the prince. 






JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



The reading of the old corrector 
" . . . . As if 

The scene you play were true," 
would be nonsense ; because, so far as the prince 
appearing to be Bohemia's son (which was what 
he was most anxious about), the scene to be 
played was really true ! 

The last correction I have now to notice is in 
the soliloquy of Autolycus in p. 522. : where MR. 
COLLIER proposes to read, " Avho knows how that 
may turn luck to my advantage," instead of " may 
turn back to my advantage." I see no advantage 
hi the change, but the very reverse. " Who 
knows but my availing myself of the means to do 
the prince my master a service, may come back to 
me in the shape of some advancement?" This 
seems to me to be the author's meaning, and it is 
legitimately expressed. How frequently it has 
been said that an evil deed recoils upon the head 
of the perpetrator ! Then why not a good deed 
turn back to reward the doer ? CECIL HARBOTTLE. 

P. S. It is rather singular that A. E. B., who, 
as I have already shown, has so completely shelved 
me in his remarks upon "Aristotle's checks," 
should now complain of the very same thing him- 
self, and say that his " humble auxilia have been 
coolly appropriated, without the slightest acknow- 
ledgment." However, as our opinions coincide 
upon the passage in question, I am not disposed 
to pick a quarrel with him. I cannot, however, at 
all concur in his alteration of the passage in King 
Lear : " Our means secure us," to " Our means 
recuse us." I will certainly leave him " in the 
quiet possession of whatever merit is due to this 
restoration" or rather this invention ! Can A. E. B. 
show any other instance in which Shakspeare has 
used the verb recuse ; or will he point out any 
other author who has adopted it in the sense re- 
ferred to ? Johnson calls it a "juridical word :" 
and I certainly have no recollection of having met 
with it, except in judicial proceedings. 

I can neither subscribe to the emendation of 
A. E. B., nor to that of the old commentator, but 
infinitely prefer the original words, which appear 
to me perfectly intelligible. -The sense, as it 
strikes me, is, that however we may desire things 
which we have not, the means we already possess 
are sufficient for our security ; and even our de- 
fects prove serviceable. Blindness, for instance, 
will make a man more careful of himself; and 
then the other faculties he enjoys will secure him 
from harm. 

II King Lear" Act IV. Sc.l. 

" Our means secure us, and our mere defects 
Prove our commodities." 

I should not object to your correspondent 
A. E. B.'s conjectural emendation, " recuse " for 
"secure," but that, unless my memory and Ays- 



cough are both deceptive, the word " recuse " is 
nowhere to be found in Shakspeare ; nor, as far as 
I know, in any dramatist of the age. If it be used 
by any of the latter, it is probably only in the 
strict legal meaning, which is quite different from, 
that which A. E. B. would attach to it. This is 
conclusive with me ; for I hold that there is no 
sounder canon in Shakspearian criticism than 
never to introduce by conjecture a word of which 
the poet does not himself elsewhere make use, or 
which is not at least strongly sanctioned by co- 
temporary employment. 

I therefore, as the passage is flat nonsense, re- 
turn to the well-abused " corrector's " much mo- 
dester emendation, " wants " for " means." 

And now permit one word in defence of this 
deceased and untoward personage. 

I think much of the unpopularity into which he 
has fallen with a certain class of critics, is owing 
to their not allowing him fair play. 

Suppose a MS. placed in our hands, containing, 
beyond all doubt, what MR. COLLIER'S corrected 
second folio is alleged to contain, authoritative 
emendations of the text : what should we, a priori, 
expect to find in it ? 

That text is abominably corrupt beyond a 
doubt ; it contains many impossible readings, 
which must be misprints or otherwise erroneous ; 
it contains also many improbable readings, harsh, 
strained, mean, inadequate, and the like. 

Now it is excessively unlikely that a truly cor- 
rected copy, could we find one, would remove all 
the impossible readings, and leave all the impro- 
bable ones. 

It is still more unlikely that, in correcting the 
improbable passages, it would leave those to which 
Mr. A., or Mr. BT, or Mr. C., ay, or all of us tp- 




hath had losses," " unthread the rude eye of re- 
bellion," and many more, have become consecrated 
in our eyes by habit; they have assumed, as it 
were, the character of additions to our ordinary 
vocabulary ; and yet I think sound reason itself, 
and that kind of secondary reason or instinct which 
long familiarity with critical pursuits gives us, 
combine to suggest that, occurring in a corrupt 
text, they are "probably corruptions; and cor- 
ruptions in lieu of some very common and even 
prosaic phrases, such as the corrector substitutes 
for them, and such as no conjectural critic would 
venture on. 

In short, the kind of disappointment which 
many of these corrections unavoidably give to the 
reader, is with me an argument in favour of their 
genuineness, not against it. 

And, lastly, in so very corrupt a text, it is d 
priori probable that many phrases which appear 
to need no correction at all, are misprints or mis- 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



takes nevertheless. It is probable that the true 
text of the poet contained many variations utterly 
unimportant, as well as others of importance, from 
the printed one. Now here it is precisely, that 
we find in the corrector what we should anticipate, 
and what it is difficult to account for on any 
theory disparaging bis authority. What could 
have induced him to make such substitutions as 
swift for " sweet," then for " there," all arose for 
" are arose," solemn for " sorry," fortune for 
" nature," to quote from a single play, the Comedy 
of Errors, which happens to lie before me, none 
of them necessary emendations, most of them 
trivial, unless he had under his eye some original 
containing those variations, to which he wished 
his own copy to conform ? It is surely wild 
guessing to attribute corrections like these to a 
mere wanton itch for altering the text ; and yet no 
other alternative is suggested by the corrector's 
enemies. 

I am myself as yet a sceptic in the matter, 
being very little disposed to hasty credulity on 
such occasions, especially where there is a possi- 
bility of deceit. But I must say that the doctrine 
of probabilities seems to me to furnish strong ar- 
guments in the corrector's favour; and that the 
attacks of professed Shakspearian critics on him, 
both in and out of " N. & Q.," have hitherto 
rather tended to raise him in my estimation. 

H.M. 

Aristotle's Checks v. Aristotle's Ethics. 

" Only, good master, while we do admire 
This virtue, and this moral discipline, 
Let's be no stoicks, nor no stocks, I pray ; 
Or so devote to Aristotle's checks, 
As Ovid be an outcast quite abjur'd." 

Taming of the Shrew, Act I. Sc. I. 

The following are instances of the use of the 
substantive check by Shakspeare : 

" Orlando. A man that had a wife with such a wit, 
might say, ' Wit whither wilt?' 

" Rosalind. Nay, you might keep that check for it, 
till you met your wife's wit going to your neighbour's 
bed." 

" Falstaff. I never knew yet, but rebuke and check 
was the reward of valour." 

" Antony. This is a soldier's kiss ; rebukable, 
And worthy shameful check it were to stand 
On more mechanic compliment." 

" Belarius. . O, this life 

Is nobler, than attending for a check." 

" logo. However, this may gall him with some 
check." 

" Desdemona, And yet his trespass, in our common 
reason 

is not almost a fault 

To incur a private check" 



These instances may show that the word in 
question was a favourite expression of the poet. 
It is true there was a translation of the Ethics of 
Aristotle in his time, The Ethiques of Aristotle. 
If he spelt it ethiques, no printer would have blun- 
dered and substituted checks. 

Judge Blackstone suggested ethicks, but John- 
son and Steevens kept to checks. And Johnson, 
in his Dictionary, sub voce Devote, quotes the pas- 
sage, but which, by a strange printer's misreading, 
is referred to " Tim. of Ath." instead of Tarn, of 
Sh. in Todd's edit, of Johnson's Dictionary (1818). 

W. N. 

Pall Mall. 



EPITAPH AND MONUMENTS IN WIXGFIELD CHURCH r 
SUFFOLK. 

I am not aware if the following epitaph has 
yet appeared in print ; but I can safely assert 
that it really has a sepulchral origin ; unlike those 
whose doubtful character causes them to be placed 
by your correspondent MR. SHIRLEY HIBBERD 
among the " gigantic gooseberries " (" N. & Q. ," 
Vol. vii., p. 190.). I copied it myself from a grave- 
stone in the churchyard of the village of Wing- 
field, Suffolk. After the name, &c. of the de- 
ceased is the following verse : 

" Pope boldly says (some think the maxim odd), 
' An honest man's the noblest work of God ;' 
If Pope's assertion be from error clear, 
The noblest work of God lies buried here." 

Wingfield Church itself is an interesting old 
place, but has been a good deal mauled in times 
past ; and the brasses, of which there were once 
several, are all gone. It is, I believe, a good deal 
noted for a parvise, or room over the porch, from 
which, by an opening in the wall, a view of the 
altar is obtained. There are two or three piscinas 
in different parts of the church, and a sedilla near 
the altar. The most interesting objects are, how- 
ever, three altar tombs, with recumbent figures of 
the Earls of Suffolk ; the earliest, which is of 
wood, representing either the first or second peer 
of the family, with his spouse. The next in date 
is that of the celebrated noble who figures in 
Shakspeare's Henry VI. The monument is, if I 
recollect right, of alabaster. The figure is attired 
in complete armour, and was originally painted ; a 
good deal of the colour still remaining. This and- 
the following monument are partly let into the 
wall, and are surmounted by beautiful Gothic 
canopies. The third is, I believe, also of alabaster, 
and is the effigy of (I think) the nephew of Mar- 
garet of Anjou's earl, and who lies by the side of 
his wife, one of Edward IV.'s family. 

It is very likely that all I have been writing is 
no news to any one. In that case I have but to- 
ask your pardon for troubling you with such a 
worthless Note. PICTOK. 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



ORIGINAL ROYAL LETTERS TO THE GRAND MASTERS 
OF MALTA. 

In searching through the manuscripts now filed 
away in the Record Office of this island with Dr. 
Villa, who has charge of them, and for whose 



assistance in my search I am greatly indebted, I 
have been gratified by seeing several original 
letters, addressed by different monarchs of Eng- 
land to the Grand Masters of the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem. Each of the royal letters in 
the following list bears the signature of the writer : 



Writer. 


Date. 


In what Lan- 
guage written. 


To whom addressed, or by whom 
received. 


Henry VIII. .... 


8th January, 1523 


Latin 


Villiers de L'Isle Adam. 


Ditto - - 


1st August, 1524 


Ditto 


Ditto. 




14th January, 1526 


Ditto 


Ditto. 




Ditto ----- 


10th day, 1526 (month 


Ditto 


Ditto. 




omitted) 






Ditto 


22nd November, 1530 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Ditto - 


17th November, 1534 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Charles II. 


17th January, 1667-8 


Ditto 


Nicholas Cotoner. 


Ditto - 


29th April, 1668 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Ditto - - - - - 


26th January, 1675-6 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Ditto 


Last day of Novem- 


Ditto 


Ditto. 




ber, 1674 






Ditto - 


21st June, 1675 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


James II. - 


13th July, 1689 


French 


Gregory Carafa. 


Anne - .... 


8th July, 1713 


Ditto 


Raymond Perellos de Roccaful. 


George I.* - 


24th August, 1722 


Latin 


Anthony Manoel de Villena. 


James (the Pretender) 


14th September, 1725 


French 


Ditto. 


George II. - 


19th June, 1741 


Latin 


Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca. 


Ditto 


8th December, 1748 


Ditto 


Ditto. 


Ditto 


6th November, 1756 


Ditto 


Ditto. 



* The letter of George I. is countersigned " Carteret ; " those of George II. by " Harrington," " H. Fox," 
and " Bedford." None of the other letters in the above list bear any signature but that of the king or queen 
who wrote them. Among the letters of Henry VIII., addressed to Villiers de L'Isle Adam, there is one of 
much interest. I refer to that of the earliest date, in which his majesty strongly recommended the Grand 
.Master to accept of Tripoli, on the coast of Barbary, and the islands of Malta and Gozo, as a residence for the 
convent, which Charles V. had offered him. The importance of Malta as a military station was known in 
England three hundred years ago. L'Isle Adam (with the exception of La Valetta), the most distinguished of 
all the Maltese Grand Masters, died on the 21st of August, 1534. The last letter of Henry VIII., addressed to 
him, came to his successor, Nicholas Cotoner. On the mantle which covered the remains of this great man these 
few words were inscribed, " Here lies Virtue triumphant over Misfortune." 

Intending in a short time to examine these royal P. S. Perhaps the following chronological table, 
letters more closely, and hoping to refer to them ; referring to the Maltese Grand Masters who are 
again in " N. & Q.," I refrain from writing more mentioned in the above Note, may not be un- 
at length on the present occasion. W. W. interesting to the readers of " N. & Q." : 

La Valetta, Malta. 



Xame. 


When elected. 


When deceased at Malta. 


Villiers de L'Isle Adam ------ 
Nicholas Cotoner --...._ 


At Rhodes, 1521 
At Malta, 1663 


1534, 21st of August. 
1680. 


Gregory Carafa --_._.. 
Raymond Perellos ------- 
Anthony Manoel de Villena - .... 
Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca - 


Ditto 1680 
Ditto 1 697 
Ditto 1722 
Ditto 1741 


1690. 
1720. 
1736. 
1773. 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



JHmar 

Meaning of " Clipper" I have more than 
once been asked the meaning and derivation of 
the term clipper, which has been so much in vogue 
for some years past. It is now quite a nautical 
term, at least among the fresh-water sailors : and 
we find it most frequently applied to yachts, 
steamers, fast-sailing merchant vessels, &c. And 
in addition to the colloquial use of the word, so 
common in praising the appearance or qualities of 
a vessel, it has become one quite recognised in the 
official description given of their ships by mer- 
chants, &c. Thus we often see an advertisement 
headed " the well-known clipper ship," " the 
noted clipper bark," and so forth. This use of the 
word, however, and its application to vessels, is 
somewhat wide of the original. 

The word in former times meant merely a 
hackney, or horse adapted for the road. The 
owners of such animals naturally valued them in 
proportion to their capabilities for such service, 
among which great speed in trotting was con- 
sidered one of the chief: fust trotting horses were 
eagerly sought after, and trials of speed became 
the fashion. A horse then, which was pre-eminent 
in this particular, was termed a clipper, i. e. a 
hackney, par excellence. 

The original of the term is perhaps the follow- 
ing : Klepper-lchn was a feudal tenure, so termed 
among the old Germans, where the yearly due 
from the vassal to the lord was a klepper, or, in its 
stead, so many bushels of oats : and the word 
klepper, or kleopper, is explained by Haltaus. Glos, 
Germ. Med. jEvi, 1758 : 

" Equus qui corripit gradum, et gressus duplic.it. 
Nomea habet a celeri correptorum passuum sonitu." 

H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Anathema, Maran-atha. Perhaps the follow- 
ing observation on these words may be as in- 
structive to some of the readers of " N. & Q." as 
it was to me. Maran-atha means " The Lord 
cometh," and is used apparently by St. Paul as a 
kind of motto : compare 6 nvpios eyyvs, Phil. iv. 5. 
The Greek word has become blended with the 
Hebrew phrase, and the compound used as a for- 
mula of execration. (See Conybeare and Howson's 
Life and Epistles of St. Paul, p. 64., note 4.) 

F. W. J. 

Convocation and the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

"When the committee I have mentioned was ap- 
pointed, March 13, 1700, to consider what might be 
done towards propagating the Christian Religion as 
professed in the Church of England in our Foreign 
Plantations ; and the committee, composed of very 
venerable and experienced men, well suited for such 
an inquiry, had sat several times at St. Paul's, and 



made some progress in the business referred to them, 
a charter was presently procured to place the con- 
sideration of that matter in other hands, where it now 
remains, and will, we hope, produce excellent fruits. 
But whatever they are, they must be acknowledged to 
have sprung from the overtures to that purpose first made 
by the lower house of Convocation." Some Proceedings 
in the Convocation of 1705 faithfully represented, p. 10. 
of Preface. 

W. FRASEK. 
Tor- Moh un. 

Pigs said to see the Wind. In Hudibras, Inde- 
pendant says to Presbyter : 

" You stole from the beggars all your tones, 
And gifted mortifying groans ; 
Had lights when better eyes were blind, 
As pigs are said to see the wind." 

Pt. 3. c. ii. 1. 1105. 

That most delightful of editors, Dr. Zachary Grey, 
with all his multifarious learning, leaves us here 
in the lurch for once with a simple reference to 
"Hudibras at Court," Posthumous Works, p. 213. 

Is this phrase merely an hyperbolic way of 
saying that,pigs are very sharp-sighted, or is it an 
actual piece of folk-lore expressing a belief that 
pigs have the privilege of seeing " the viewless 
wind?" I am inclined to take the latter view. 
Under the head of " Superstitions," in Hone's 
Year-Book for Feb. 29, 1831, we find : 

" Among common sayings at present are these, that 
pigs can see the wind," &c. 

The version I have always heard of it is 

" Pigs can see the wind 'tis said, 
And it seemeth to them red." 

ElRIONNACH. 

Anecdote of the Duke of Gloucester. Looking 
through some of the Commonwealth journals, I 
met with a capital mot of this spirited little Stuart. 

" It is reported that the titular Duke of Gloucester, 
being informed that the Dutch fleet was about the Isle 
of Wight, he was asked to which side he stood most 
addicted. The young man, apprehending that his 
livelihood depended on the parliament, and that it 
might be an art to circumvent him, turning to the go- 
vernor, demanded of him how he did construe ' Quam- 
diu se bene gesserit.' " Weekly Inttlligencer. 

SPERIEND. 



LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL. 

Can any of your correspondents inform me 
where the virtuous and patriotic William Lord 
Eussell was buried ? It is singular that neither 
Burnet, who attended him to the scaffold, nor his 
descendant Lord John Eussell in writing his life, 
nor Collins's Peerage, nor the accounts and letters 
of his admirable widow, make any allusion to his 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



remains. At last I found, in the State Trials, 
vol. ix. p. 684., that after the executioner had held 
up the head to the people, " Mr. Sheriff ordered 
his Lordship's friends or servants to take the body 
and dispose of it as they pleased, being given 
them by His Majesty's favour." Probably, there- 
fore, it was buried at Cheneys ; but it is worth a 
Query to ascertain the fact. 

My attention was drawn to this omission by the 
discovery of the decapitated man found at Nune- 
ham Regis (" N". & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 386.), and from 
observing that the then proprietor of the place 
appears to have been half-sister to Lady Russell, 
viz. daughter of the fourth Lord Southampton, 
by his second wife Frances, heiress of the Leighs, 
Lords Dunsmore, and the last of whom was 
created Earl of Chichester. But a little inquiry 
satisfied me this could not have been Lord Rus- 
sell's body ; among other reasons, because it was 
very improbable he should be interred at Nune- 
hain, and because the incognito body had a peaked 
beard, whereas the prints from the picture at 
Woburn represent Lord Russell, according to the 
fashion of the time, without a beard. 

But who then was the decapitated man ? He 
was evidently an offender of consequence, from 
his having been beheaded, and from the careful 
embalming and the three coffins in which his re- 
mains were inclosed. The only conjecture I see 
hazarded in your pages is that of MR. HESLEDEN 
(Vol. vi., p. 488.), who suggests Monmouth ; but 
he has overlooked the fact stated in the original 
communication of L. M. M. R., that Nuneham only 
came into the possession of the Buccleuch family 
through the Montagues, i. e. by the marriage of 
Henry, third Duke of Buccleuch, to Lady Eliza- 
beth Montagu ; the present proprietor, Lord John 
Scott, being their grandson. This marriage took 
place in 1767, or eighty-two years after Mon- 
mouth's execution, and thirty-three years after the 
death of his widow, the Duchess of Buccleuch and 
Monmouth, who is supposed to have caused the 
body to be removed from Tower Hill. 

Notwithstanding the failure of heirs male in 
three noble families within the century, viz. the 
Leighs, the Wriothesleys, and the Montagus, the 
present proprietor is their direct descendant, and 
there are indications in the letter referred to, that 
the place of interment of his ancestors, as well as 
of this singular unknown, Avill no longer be aban- 
doned to be a depository of farm rubbish. 

W. L. M. 



ANCIEKT FURNITURE PRIE-DIEU. 

Perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q." will 
be able to give me some information as to the use 
of an ancient piece of furniture which I have met 
with. At Codrington, a small village in Glou- 
cestershire, in the old house once the residence of 



the family of that name, now a farm-house, they 
show you in the hall a piece of furniture which 
was brought there from the chapel when that part 
of the building was turned into a dairy. It is a 
cupboard, forming the upper part of a five-sided 
structure, which has a base projecting equally 
with the top, which itself hangs over a hollow 
between the cupboard and the base, and is 
finished off with pendants below the cupboard. 
The panel which forms the door of the cupboard 
is wider than the sides. All the panels are curved 
with sacred emblems ; the vine, the instruments of 
the Passion, the five wounds, the crucifix, the 
Virgin and child, and a shield, with an oak tree 
with acorns, surmounted by the papal tiara and" 
the keys. The dimensions are as follows : 

Depth from front to back, 2 feet 4 inches. 

Height, 4 feet 8 inches. 

Height of cupboard from slab to pendants^., 
2 feet 6 inches. 

Height of base, 9i inches. 

Width of side panels, 1 foot 8 inches; of centre 
panel, 1 foot 10J inches. 

Width of the door of the cupboard, 1 foot 
5 inches. 

The door has carved upon it a scene represent- 
ing two men, one an old man sitting upon a chair, 
the other a young one falling back from a stool ; a. 
table separates them ; and in the next compart- 
ment (for an arcade runs through the group) a 
female figure clasps her hands, as if in astonish- 
ment. This I can hardly understand. But the 
panel with the papal ensigns I think may throw 
some light on the use of the whole. In the year 
1429, John Codrington of Codrington obtained a 
bull from Pope Martin V. to have a portable altar 
in his house, to have 'mass celebrated when and 
where he pleased. I find that such a portable 
altar ought to have " a suitable frame of wood 
whereon to set it." Such altars are frequently 
mentioned, though I believe very few remain ; but 
I never could hear of the existence of anything to 
show what the frame would be. It occurs to me 
as possible that this piece of furniture may have 
been used for the purpose. The whole question 
of portable altars is an interesting one, and if this 
account should by tie means of " N. & Q." fall 
into the hands of any one who is acquainted with 
the subject, I hope he would consider it worth a 
communication. 

For some time I was at a loss for another in- 
stance ; however, I have just received from a 
friend, who took interest in the subject, a sketch 
of something almost identical from the disused 
chapel at Chillon in the Canton Vaud. Of this I 
have not the measurements, but it stands about 
breast-high. It is there called a " prie-dieu," and 
is said to have belonged to the Dukes of Savoy, 
but the size is very ummml for such a use. I 
send sketches of each of the subjects of ray Query, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196 



and hope that, if this should be thought worthy of 
a place in " N. & Q.," some one will be able and 
willing to afford some information about them. I 
would add as a farther Query, the question of the 
meaning of the battle-axe and pansy, which appear 
on the "prie-dieu" at Chillon. Is it a known 
badge of the Savoy family ? R. H. C. 



Reynolds' Nephew. In the Correspondence of 
David Garrick, vol. i. pp. 664. 658., 4to., 1831, 
there are letters of Sir Joshua Reynolds regarding 
a play written by his nephew. Can you tell me 
whether this was the Rev. Mr. Palmer, minister 
of the Temple Church, and who was afterwards 
Dean of Cashel ; or had Sir Joshua any other 
nephew ? The letters are dated 1774, and the 
author appears to have been resident in London 
about that time. A. Z. 

Sir Isaac Newton. Which is the passage in 
Newton's Optics to which Flamsteed refers, in his 
account of the altercation between them, as having 
given occasion to some of the enemies of the former 
to tax him with Atheism ? and is there any evi- 
dence, besides what this passage may afford, in 
favour of Dr. Johnson's assertion, that Newton set 
out as an infidel? (Boswell, July 28, 1763.) The 
Optics were not published till 1704, but had been 
composed many years previously. J. S. WARDEN. 

Limerick, Dublin, and Cork. Can any of your 
Irish or other correspondents inform me to whom 
we are indebted for the lines 

" Limerick was, Dublin is, and Cork shall be, 
The finest city of the three" ? 

Also, in what respect Limerick was formerly su- 
perior to Dublin ? JN". 
Dublin. 

Praying to the West. A friend of mine told 
me that a Highland woman in Strathconan, wish- 
ing to say that her mother-in-law prayed for my 
friend daily, said : " She holds up her hands to the 
West for you every day." If to the East it would 
have been more intelligible ; but why to the West ? 

L. M. M. R. 

Mulciber. Who was Mulciber, immortalised (!) 
in Garth's Dispensary (ed. 1699, p. 65.) as " the 
Mayor of Bromicham?" My copy contains on 
the fly-leaf a MS. key to all the names save this. 

R. C. WARDE. 

Kidderminster. 

Captain Booth of Stocliport (Vol. vi., p. 340.). 
As yet, no reply to this Query has been elicited ; 
but as it is a subject of some interest to both 
Lancashire and Cheshire men, I should like to 



ascertain from JAYTEE in what 'collection he met 
with the MS. copy of Captain Booth's Ordinary 
of Arms ? Its existence does not appear to have 
been known to any of our Cheshire or Lancashire 
historians ; for in none of their works do I find 
any mention of such an individual as Capt. Booth 
of Stockport. Sir Peter Leycester, in his Anti- 
quities of Bucklow Hundred, Cheshire, repeatedly 
acknowledges the assistance rendered him by John 
Booth of Twanbow's Booh of Pedigrees ; but this 
gentleman appears merely to have collected for 
Cheshire, and not for Lancashire. Sir George 
Booth, afterwards Lord Delamere, is the only 
Captain Booth I have yet met with in my limited 
sphere of historical research ; and I am not aware 
that he ever indulged much in genealogical study. 

T. HUGHES. 
Chester. 

" A saint in crape." 

" A saint in crape is twice a saint in lawn." 

Whence this line ? W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

French Abbes. What was the precise ecclesi- 
astical and social status of a French Abbe before 



the Revolution ? 
Tor-Mohun. 



W. FKASER. 



What Day is it at our Antipodes ? Perhaps you 
can give me a satisfactory answer to the following 
question, a reply to which I have not yet been 
able to procure. 

I write this at 11 p.m. on Tuesday, July 12 ; at 
our Antipodes it is, of course, 1 1 a.m. : but is it 
11 a.m. on Tuesday, July 12, or on Wednesday, 
July 13 ? And whichever it is, what is the reason 
for its being so ? for it seems to me that the solu- 
tion of the question must be perfectly arbitrary. 

H. 

" Spendthrift." In Lord John Russell's Memo- 
rials of Charles James Fox, vol. i. p. 43., there is 
a letter addressed to Mr. Richard Fitzpatrick, in 
which Mr. Fox asks " if he was in England when 
Lord Carlisle's Spendthrift came out." And at the 
foot of the same page there is a note in which it is 
stated that this " was probably some periodical 
paper of 1767." 

My object in writing the above is for the pur- 
pose of asking what publication the Spendthrift 
really was, and where it can be purchased or seen ? 

W. W. 

Malta. 

Second Growth of Grass. The second growth 
of grass is known by different names in different 
localities. In some it is called fog, in others after- 
math and after-grass. The former name is com- 
mon about Uxbridge, and the latter about Stoke 
Pogis, in Buckinghamshire. In Hertfordshire it is 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



.03 



called hugga-mabuff ; I am not certain that this is 
the correct spelling of the name, never having seen 
it either in writing or print. In Leicestershire 
and Cambridgeshire the name eddish prevails, I am 
told, and hence eddish cheese, made from the milk 
of cows which have grazed eddish. Can any of 
your correspondents add to the above names, or 
throw a light upon their origin ? R. W. F. 

Bath. 

The Laird of Brodie. Can any of your corre- 
spondents explain what James V. of Scotland 
means in his celebrated ballad when he says : 

" I thocht you were a gentleman, 
At least the Laird of Brodie." 

According to the literal meaning, it would seem 
that the Laird of Brodie was something less than 
a gentleman ? Could his majesty intend to sa- 
tirise the alleged royal descent of Brodie from 
Bruidhie, the son of Billi, king of the Picts (see 
James' Critical Essay), by insinuating that the 
" Picts " and their descendants were not entitled 
to be ranked as " Generosi ? " I. H. B. 

Mrs. Tighe, Author of " Psyche" There is a 
monument in Inistioge churchyard, co. Kilkenny, 
to the memory of the authoress of that beautiful 
poem Psyche, Mrs. Mary Tighe, with a statue of 
her, said to be by Flaxman, which statement, as to 
its being from the chisel of that celebrated sculptor, 
I have seen contradicted. She was the daughter 
of the Rev. W. Blackford, and married Mr. Henry 
Ti^he of Woodstock, Ireland, in 1793. The in- 
scription, which, I believe, is in existence, was not 
added to the monument in 1845. Can any of your 
correspondents favour me with a copy of it? and 
was the statue by Flaxman ? Is there any authentic 
memoir of this delightful poetess ? When did her 
husband Mr. Tighe die ? He is said to have sur- 
vived his lady, who died in 1810, but a short time; 
and that he was the author of a History of the 
County of Kilkenny. I believe it was on visiting 
the churchyard of Inistioge that Mrs. Hemans 
wrote " The Grave of a Poetess." She is said to 
have been very beautiful. Is there any other 
engraved portrait of her in existence beside the 
one annexed to the several editions of her poems. 
Any particulars relating to this lady or her hus- 
band will be esteemed by T. B. WHITBORNE. 

Bishop Ferrar. Was the Bishop Ferrar (or 
Farrar), the martyr who suffered during the reign 
of Mary, of the same family as Ferrers (or Ferrars) 
earl of Derby and Nottingham, in the reign of 
Henry III. ? A CONSTANT READEK. 

Sir Thomas de Longucville. In the year 1753, 
a Sir Thomas de Longueville, baronet, was a 
lieutenant in his Majesty's fleet, and his commis- 
sion bore date 3rd June, 1719. I should be glad 



if any of your correspondents could inform me if 
he was a descendant of the De Longueville, the 
second Fides Achates of Scotland's "ill-requited 
chief." _ The real Sir Thomas de Longueville 
reposes in the churchyard of Bourtie, in the county 
of Aberdeen. Bourtie is a parish fraught with 
historic recollections. On the hill of Barra, with- 
in a mile of the parish church, Bruce at once and 
for ever put a period to the sway and power of the 
Cuming. I should be glad to learn if any of the 
descendants of the Lieutenant Longueville still 
survive, and if he was any descendant of the fa- 
vorite " De Longueville " of the olden time. 

ABBEDONENSIS. 

Quotations wanted. 

(1.) " Never ending, still beginning." 

(2.) " Chew the bitter cud of disappointment." 

Whence ? C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Symon Patrick, Bishop of Ely Durham 
Weston Jephson. In a small autobiography 
of Symon Patrick, the bishop's wife is stated to 
have been Penelope Jephson, grandchild of Lady 
Durham of Borstall. Can any of your readers 
inform me who this Lady Durham was ? 

Penelope Jephson was daughter of Sir Corne- 
lius (?) Jephson, I suppose of Mallow in Ireland. 

One of Bishop Patrick's granddaughters, Pe- 
nelope, married Edward Weston, Under- Secretary 
of State, of Corkenhatch (Herts ?). Query, Who 
was he, and are there any descendants of this 
marriage ? K. G. 

The Heveninghams of Suffolk and Norfolk. 
This ancient family traces its pedigree through, 
twenty-five knights in succession to Galtir He- 
veninghame, who lived when Canute was king of 
England, ann. 1020. (See Harleian MSS. 1449. 
fol. 91 b. ; and Southey's Doctor, &c.) 

From one of those knights, Sir John Hevenyng- 
ham (ob. 1536), descended a collateral branch, 
represented by Walter Heveningham of Pipe Hall 
and Aston estates, Staffordshire (1562), who mar- 
ried Annela, daughter of Fitzherbert the Judge. 
His eldest son was Nicholas, who married Eliza, 
daughter of Sir John Beevor ; and the eldest soil 
of the last-named was Sir Walter Heveningham 
(1612, ob. 1691). 

Now I should feel greatly obliged to any of 
your readers if, from any of the published or 
written documents relating to the county of 
Stafford, or from any other source, they could 
favour me with answers to the following Queries : 

1. Whom did Sir Walter Heveningham marry ? 
His second son married the widow of Sir Edward 
Simeon, Bart. ; but 

2. What was the name of Sir Walter's eldest 
son, and whom did he marry ? The issue of this 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



latter marriage was Charles Heveningham of 
Lichfield (ob. 1782), who married a daughter of 
Robinson of Appleby, and John Heveningham. 

A CHIP or THE OLD BLOCK. 

Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March). Upon what 
authority does Miss Strickland say (Lives of the 
Queens of England, vol. iv. p. 300.) that it is 
stated "by all ancient heralds" that this lady died 
without issue ? What herald can say this without 
bastardising the second Earl of Northumberland ? 
This assertion is a very sweeping one, and I have 
sought in vain for the statement said to be made 
by all heralds. G. 

Shape of Coffins. It would be interesting to 
ascertain in what localities any peculiar form of 
coffin is used ? 

In Devonshire, particularly among the farmers 
and poorer classes, the ridged coffin is very ge- 
neral, the end being gabled. The top, instead of 
being flat with one board, is made of two boards, 
like the double roof of a house ; in other respects 
the shape is of the common form. The idea is, j 
that such coffins resist much longer the weight of | 
the superincumbent earth ; but there can be no 
doubt that it is a very ancient shape. Many years | 
ago I heard that in some parish in this county the 
coffin was shaped like a flat-bottomed boat ; the 
boat shape is known to have been an old form. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George. 

St. George Family Pictures. In Gough's Sepul- 
chral Monuments, vol. iii. p. 77., it is mentioned, 
with reference to the estate of Hatley St. George, 
in county of Cambridge, that, at the sale of the 
house in 1782, "The family pictures were removed 
to Mr. Pearce's house at Cople, Bedford." Can 
any one tell me if the family pictures here spoken 
of were those of the St. George family (which in- 
habited the house for six hundred years) ; and if 
so, what has become of them ? R. A. S. O. 

Ceylon, June 11, 1853. 

Caley (John}, "Ecclesiastical Survey of the Pos- 
sessions, 8fC. of the Bishop of St. David's" 8vo. 
1812. The above is said, in a bookseller's cata- 
logue, to be privately printed. It is unknown to 
the bishop of the diocese and Mr. Black. Can 
any of your readers give any information about it? 

JOHN MARTIN. 

Froxfield. 

Adamsorfs "Lusitania Ulustrata." Is there any 
prospect of Mr. Adamson continuing his Lusitania 
Ulustrata ? Could that accomplished Portuguese 
student kindly inform me if there is any better 
insight into Portuguese literature than that con- 
tained in Bouterweck's Geschichte der Poesie und 
Beredsamkeit ? W. M. M. 



Blotting-paper. When did blotting-paper first 
come into use. Carlyle, in his Life of Cromwell, 
twice repeats that it was not known in those days. 
Is not this a mistake ? I have a piece which I 
am able to refer to 1670. SPERIEND. 

Poetical Versions of the Fragments in Athenceus. 
Can any of your correspondents inform me of 
the locus of any of these, in addition to Blackwood, 
xxxvi., and Fraser's Magazine f 

P. J. F. GAKTILLON, B. A. 



KOBEET DRCRY. 

(Vol. v., p. 533. ; Vol. vii., p. 485.) 

Under the conviction that Robert Drury was a 
real character, and his Madagascar a true narra- 
tive of his shipwreck, sufferings, and captivity, I 
crave your permission to give a few additional 
reasons why 1 think he should be discharged from, 
the fictitious, and admitted into the catalogue of 
real and bonafide English travellers. 

I have before stated that Drury did not skulk in 
the background when he published his book in 1727; 
but, on the contrary, invited the public to Tom's 
Coffee-house, where he engaged to satisfy the in- 
credulous, and resolve the doubting. By the 3rd. 
edition of Madagascar, 1743, it farther appears, 
that he continued "for some years before his- 
death" to resort to the above-named house; "at 
which place several inquisitive gentlemen received 
from his own mouth the confirmation of those 
particulars which seemed dubious, or carried with, 
them the air of romance." The period was certainly 
unpropitious for any but a writer of fiction, and 
Drury seems to have anticipated no higher rank 
for his Treatise, in point of authenticity, than that 
occupied by the several members of the Robinson 
Crusoe school. He, however, positively affirms it 
to be " a plain honest narrative of the matter of 
fact ;" which is endorsed in the following terms 
by " Capt. William Mackett :" 

" This is to certify, that Robert Drury, fifteen years 
a slave in Madagascar, now living in London, was re- 
deemed from thence and brought into England, his 
native country, by myself. I esteem him an honest 
industrious man, of good reputation, and do firmly be- 
lieve that the account he gives of his strange and sur- 
prising adventures is genuine and authentic." 

Mackett was a commander in the E. I. Comp. 
service ; and the condenser of Drury's MSS., after 
showing the opportunities the Captain had of as- 
suring himself upon the points he certifies to, 
characterises him as a well-known person, of the 
highest integrity and honoiir : a man, indeed, as 
unlikely to be imposed upon, as to be guilty of 
lending himself to others, to carry out a deception 
upon the public. 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES.. 



105 



Mr. Burton, in his lately published " Narra- 
tives," points out another source of information 
regarding Drury, in the Gent. Mag. for 1769, 
where will be found an account of W. Benbow ; 
in this, allusion is made to his brother John Ben- 
bow, who was wrecked with Drury in the " De- 
grave" Indiaman, on Madagascar. W. D., who 
communicates the information to SYLVANUS UR- 
BAN, asserts that he recollects hearing the MS. 
Journal of this John Benbow read ; and that it 
afforded to his mind a strong con6rmation of the 
truthfulness of Drury's Madagascar. He adds 
the following curious particulars anent our sub- 
ject : "Robin Drury," he says, "among those 
who knew him (and he was known to many, being 
a porter at the East India House), had the charac- 
ter of a downright honest man, without any ap- 
pearance of fraud or imposture. He was known 
to a friend of mine (now living), who frequently 
called upon him at his house in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, which were not then enclosed. He tells 
me he has often seen him throw a javelin there, 
and strike a small mark at a surprising distance. 
It is a pity," he adds, " that this work of Drury's 
is not better known, and a new edition published* 
(it having been long out of print) ; as it contains 
much more particular and authentic accounts of 
that large and barbarous island, than any yet 
given ; and, though it is true, it is in many respects 
as entertaining as Gulliver or Crusoe." 

It may farther be mentioned that the French, 
who have a good acquaintance with Madagascar, 
"have found Drury's statement of the geography, 
the natural history, the manners of the people, 
and the conspicuous men of the time, in Mada- 
gascar, remarkably accurate." (Bib. Gen. des 
Voyages, Paris, 1808.) Archdeacon Wrangham 
says : " Duncombe (?) calls Drury's Madagascar 
the best and most genuine account ever given of 
the island ; " and the missionary Ellis quoted 
Drury without the slightest suspicion that any 
doubt hangs over the genuineness of his narrative. 
Drury's account of himself runs thus : "I, 
Robert Drury," he says, when commencing his 
book, "was born on July 24, 1687, in Crutched 
Friars, London, where my father then lived ; but 
soon after removed to the Old Jury, near Cheap- 
side, where he was well known, and esteemed for 
keeping that noted house called ' The King's 
Head,' or otherwise distinguished by the name of 
the Beef-stake House ; and to which there was all 
my father's time a great resort of merchants, and 
gentlemen of the best rank and character." To 
this famous resort of the Revolutionary and Au- 
gustan ages I lately betook myself for my stake, in 
the hope that mine host might be found redolent 

* The editions of Madagascar known to me are those 
of 1727, 1731, and 1743, by the original publisher, 
Meadows, Hull, 1807, and London, 1826. 



of the traditional glory of his house. But alas ! 
that worthy, although firmly believing in the an- 
tiquity of the King's Head, and of there being 
some book in existence that would prove it, could 
not say of his own knowledge whether the king 
originally complimented by his predecessor was 
Harry the Eighth or George the Fourth ! 

In conclusion, I would just add, is not the cir- 
cumstance of our subject holding the humble post 
of porter at the East India House confirmatory of 
that part of his story which represents him as one 
of the crew of Hon. Company's ship " Degrave," 
whose wreck upon Madagascar I take to be an 
undoubted fact ? What so probable as this recog- 
nition, in a small provision for a man in his old 
age, whose misfortunes commenced while in their 
service ? Finally, to me the whole narrative of 
Robert Drury seems so probable, and so well 
vouched for, that I have given in my adhesion 
thereto by removing him to a higher shelf in my 
library than that occupied by such apocryphal per- 
sons as Crusoe, Quarle, Boyle, Falconer, and a 
host of the like. J. O. 



THE TERMINATION -BT. 

(Vol. vii., p. 536.) -~* 

I would suggest a doubt, whether the sufHx -by, 
in the names of places, affords us any satisfactory 
evidence, per se, of their exclusively Danish origin. 
This termination is of no unfrequent occurrence in 
districts, both in this country and elsewhere, to 
which the Danes, properly so called, were either 
utter strangers, or wherein they at no time esta- 
blished any permanent footing. The truth is, there 
seems to be a fallacy in this Danish theory, in so 
far as it rests upon the testimony of language ; 
for, upon investigation, we generally find that the 
word or phrase adduced in its support was one 
recognised, not in any single territory alone, but 
throughout the whole of Scandinavia, whose dif- 
ferent tribes, amid some trifling variations of dia- 
lect, which can now be scarcely ascertained, were 
all of them as readily intelligible to one another 
as are, at this day, the inhabitants of two adjoin- 
ing English counties. If this were so, it appears 
that, in the case before us, nothing can be proved 
from the existence of the expression, beyond the 
fact of its Norse origin ; and our reasonable and 
natural course is, if we would arrive at its true 
signification, to refer at once to the parent tongue 
of the Scandinavian nations, spoken in common, 
and during a long-continued period, amid the 
snows of distant Iceland, on the mountains of 
Norway, the plains of Denmark, and in the forests 
of Sweden. 

This ancient and widely-diffused language was 
the Icelandic, Norman, or Donsk tunga, that 
in which were written the Eddas and Skalda, the 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



Njala and Heimskringla. In it we have the suffix 
by, tinder the forms of the verbs ek by, ek bio, or 
at bua, and ek byggi or byggia, manere, habitare, 
incolere, struere, edificare ;' also the nouns bit 
(Ang.-Sax. by, Dan. bo, by~), domus, habitaculum ; 
and bui, incola, colonus, vicinus ; closely assimi- 
lated expressions all of them, in which the roots 
are found of our English words bide, abide, be, by 
(denoting proximity), build, borough, bury (Ed- 
mondsbury), barrow, byre, bower, abode, &c. Now, 
these explanations undoubtedly confirm the inter- 
pretation assigned by MB. E. S. TAYLOR to his 
terminating syllable; and it is probable enough 
that the villages to which he refers received their 
titles from the Danes, who, we know, on the sub- 
jugation of its former inhabitants, possessed them- 
selves of the country in which they are situated. 
This, however, is a begging the question ; for, 
resting simply on the evidence of the suffix, it is 
equally probable that these places preserved the 
names assigned to them by their former northern 
colonists. But our by or bua, the Ang.-Sax. bugan 
and beon, and the Germ, (ich) bin and bauen, have 
all been referred by learned philologists to the 
Greek <j)vta, or to fidca, or to iravw, iravofj.ai ; and the 
word has affinities scattered throughout numerous 
languages (there are the Gamb.-Brit. bydio, habi- 
tare, and byiv, vivere, for instance), so that we are 
surrounded by difficulties, if we attempt to esta- 
blish from its use any such point as that involved 
in your correspondent's Query. Cowaii-L. 



THE ROSICRUCIANS. 

(Vol.vii., p. 619.) 

When Pope, in dedicating his Rape of the Lock 
to Mrs. Arabella Fermor, was desirous of put- 
ting within the reach of that lady the information 
which MB. E. S. TAYLOR has sought through your 
pages, he wrote : 

" The Rosicrucians are a people that I must bring 
you acquainted with. The best account of them I 
know is in a French book called Le Compte de Gabalis, 
which, both in its title and size, is so like a novel, that 
many of the fair sex have read it for one by mistake." 
Dedicatory Letter to the Rape of the Loch. 

This celebrated work was written by the Abbe 
Montfaucon de Villars, and published in 1670. 
"C'est une partie (says Voltaire, Siecle de Louis 
XIV.) de 1'ancienne mythologie des Perses. 
L'auteur fut tue en 1675 d'un coup de pistolet. 
On dit que les sylphes 1'avaient assassine pour 
avoir revele leurs mysteres." In 1680, an En- 
glish translation appeared (penes me), entitled : 

" The Count of Gabalis; or the Extravagant Mys- 
teries of the Cabalists, exposed in Five Pleasant Dis- 
courses on the Secret Sciences. Done into English by 
P. A. (Peter Ayres), Gent., with short Animadver- 
sions. London: printed for B. M., printer to the 



Royal Society of the Sages at the Signe of the Rosy 
Crusian." 

The original French work went through several 
editions : my own copy bears the imprint of Am- 
sterdam, 1715, and has appended to it La Suite du 
Compte de Gabalis, ou Entretiens sur les Sciences 
secretes, touchant la nouvelle Philosophic" &c. 

So much in deference to Pope, whose only 
object, however, was to make Mrs. Fermor ac- 
quainted with so much of Rosicrucianism as was 
necessary to the comprehension of the machinery 
of his poem. MR. E. S. TAYLOR must go farther 
afield if he is desirous of " earning the vere 
adeptus" and becoming, like Butler's Ralpho 

" For MYSTIC LEARNING wondrous able, 
In magic Talisman and Cabal, 
Whose primitive tradition reaches 
As far as ADAM'S first green breeches ; 
Deep-sighted in INTELLIGENCES, 
IDEAS, ATOMS, INFLUENCES ; 
And much of TERRA- INCOGNITA, 
Th' intelligible world could say ; 
A deep OCCULT PHILOSOPHER, 
As learned as the wild Irish are, 
Or SIR AGRIPPA; for profound 
And solid lying much renowned. 
He ANTHROFOSOPHUS, and FLUDD, 
And JACOB BEHMEN understood ; 
Knew many an amulet and charm, 
That would do neither good nor barm ; 
In ROSY- CRUCIAN lore as learned 
As he that vere adeptus earned." 

Hudibras, Part i. Canto 1. 

These lines enumerate, in a scarcely satirical 
form, the objects and results of a study of Rosicru- 
cianism, in so far as it differs from that of alchemy 
and the occult sciences. The history of the 
Rosicrucians, or rather the inquiry as to whether 
actually existed at any time such a college or 
brotherhood, and, if so, to what degree of an- 
tiquity can it lay claim, forms another and, per- 
haps, somewhat more profitable subject, of atten- 
tion. This question, however, having been fully 
discussed elsewhere, I will conclude by a catalogue 
raisonne of such books and essays (the most im- 
portant of which are readily obtainable) as will 
enable your correspondent to acquire for himself 
the information he seeks. 

Allgemeine und General Reformation der ganzen 
weiten Welt, beneben der Fama Fraternitatis, oder 
Enstehung der Briiderschaft des loblichen Ordens des 
Rosenhreutzes, &c. 8vo. Cassel, 1614. [Ascribed to 
John Valentine Andrea. In this pamphlet occurs the 
first mention of the society ; no allusion being made to 
it in the works of Bacon, Paracelsus, Agrippa, &c. It 
was republished at Frankfort in 1617 under a some- 
what different title. Appended to it is a tract en- 
titled " Sendbrieff, oder Bericht an Alle welche von 
den neuen Briiderschafft des Ordens von Rosen- Creutz 
genannt etwas gelesen," &c. This work contains a full 
account of the origin and tenets of the brotherhood, 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



and is the source whence modern writers have drawn 
their information. It called into existence a host of 
pamphlets for and against the very existence and tenets 
of the society.] 

Histoire de la Philosophic Hermetique, accom- 
pagnee d'un Catalogue raisonne des Ecrivains de cette 
Science, par 1' Abbe Lenglet du Fresnoy. 3 vols. 1 2mo. 
Paris, 1742. 

Theomagia, or the Temple of Wisdom, containing 
the Occult Powers of the Angels of Astromancy in 
the Telesmatical Sculpture of the Persians and ^Egyp- 
tians; the knowledge of the Rosie- Crucian Physick, 
and the Miraculous in Nature, &c., by John Heydon. 
8vo. 1664. [The works of this enthusiast are ex- 
tremely curious and rare. He is also the author of 
the following.] 

The Wiseman's Crowne, or the Glory of the Rosie- 
Cross, &c. ; with the Regio Lucis, and Holy House- 
hold of Rosie- Crucian Philosophers. 8vo. 1664. 

Elhavarevna, or the English Physitian's Tutor in 
the Astrabolismes of Mettals Rosie- Crucian, Mira- 
culous Sapphiric Medicines of the Sun and Moon, &c., 
all Harmoniously United, and Operated by Astro- 
mancy and Geomancy, in so Easie a Method that a 
Fine Lady may practise and compleat Incredible, 
Extraordinary Telesmes (and read her Gallant's de- 
vices without disturbing her fancy), and cure all 
Diseases in Yong and Old, whereunto is added Pson- 
thonphancia, &c. 8vo. 1665. 

Dictionnaire Infernal ; ou Repertoire des Etres, 
Apparitions de la Magique, des Sciences occultes, 
Impostures, &c., par Collin de Plancy. 8vo. Paris, 
1844. 

To render this list more complete, a great num- 
ber may be added, the titles of which will be found 
in the following essays, from which much inform- 
ation on the subject will be gained : 

New Curiosities of Literature. By George Soane, 
B. A. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1849. [In vol. ii. p. 135. 
is an able and interesting essay entitled " Rosicrucian- 
ism and Freemasonry," in which the author, with 
considerable success, endeavours to show that Rosi- 
crucianism had no existence before the sixteenth 
century, and is a mere elaboration of Paracelsian 
doctrines : and that Freemasonry is nothing more than 
an offspring from it, and has, consequently, no claim 
to the antiquity of which it boasts.] 

Swift's Tale of a Tub. [In Section X. of this won- 
derful book will be found a caustic piece of satire on 
the futility of the Rosicrucian philosophy.] 

Butler's Hudibras. [Gray's notes to part I., 
passim. ] 

Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions. By 
Charles Mackay, LL.D. 2 vols. 8vo. [In the section 
devoted to the Alchymists, is a carefully compiled 
account of the Rosier itcians.] 

Chambers's Papers for the People, No. 33., vol. v. , 
" Secret Societies of the Middle Ages." 

Idem, No. 66., " Alchemy and the Alchemists." 

The Guardian, No. 163. 

The Spectator, No. 574. 

Idem, No. 379. [This number contains Budgell's 
Legend of the Sepulchre of Rosicrucius.] 



The Rosicrucian : a Novel. 3 vols. 8vo. ; 
Zanoni. By Sir E. L. Bulwer. 

After the slumber of a century, with new ob- 
jects and regulations, Rosicrucianism (so to 
speak) was revived in the country of its birth. 

A very curious volume was published fifty years 
ago, entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy against all 
the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried 
on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, 
and Reading Societies, by John Robinson, A.M., 
&c., 8vo., London, 1798. This volume is chiefly 
occupied by a history of the origin, proceedings, 
and objects of the Illuminati, a sect which had 
rendered important services to revolutionary in- 
terests, and laid the foundations of European 
propagandism. Much curious matter relative to 
this sect will also be found in George Sand's 
Comtesse de Rudolstadt, vol. ii. ; upon, or just 
before, its extinction, a new political association 
was formed at Baden and Carlsruhe, under the 
auspices of Baron von Edelsheim, prime minister 
of the Elector, under the title of Die Rosenkrietzer. 
This society was called into existence by a re- 
actionary dread of that republicanism in politics, 
and atheism in morals, which seemed at that time 
to prey upon the vitals of European society. The 
society soon spread, and had its affiliations in 
various parts of Germany, giving such uneasiness 
to Buonaparte, to the accomplishment of whose 
projects it exercised an adverse influence, that he 
despatched a secret messenger for the purpose of 
obtaining information as to its projects and de- 
velopments. He did everything in his power to 
destroy the association, which, however, survived, 
until his murder of Palm, the bookseller, for pub- 
lishing the Geist der Zeit, seeming to call for a 
new and modified association, led to its extinction, 
and the creation of a new secret society, the cele- 
brated Tungen-Bund, in its place. 

It will be seen that in the foregoing I have 
confined myself to that part of your correspon- 
dent's Query which relates to " the Brethren of 
the Rosy-Cross." I have not ventured to allude 
to the Alchymists, or the writings of Paracelsus, 
his predecessors and followers, which form a 
library, and demand a catalogue for their mere 
enumeration. If MR. E. S. TAYLOR, however, is 
desirous of farther information, and will favour 
me with his address, I shall be happy to assist his 
researches in Hermetic philosophy to the extent 
of my ability. WIU.IAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

The Society of Rosicrucians, or Rosecroix (whom 
Collier calls a sect of mountebanks), first started 
into existence in Germany in the seventeenth 
century. They laid claim to the possession of 
divers secrets, among which the philosopher's 
stone was the least. They never dared to appear 
publicly, and styled themselves The Invisible. 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



In 1622 they put forth the following advertise- 
ment: 

" We, deputed by our College, the principal of the 
brethren of the Rosicrucians, to make our visible and 
invisible abode in this city, through the grace of the 
Most High ; towards whom are turned the hearts of 
the just: we teach without books or notes, and speak 
the languages of the countries wherever we are, to draw 
men like ourselves from the error of death." 

The Illuminati of Spain were a branch of this 
sect. In 1615 one John Bringeret printed a work 
in Germany containing two treatises, entitled The 
Manifesto and Confession of Faith of the Fraternity 
of the Rosicrucians in Germany. H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON BELLS. 

(Vol. vi., p. 554. ; Vol. vii., p. 633.) 

My note-book contains a considerable number 
of inscriptions on bells ; some extracted from 
books, but others transcribed from the bells them- 
selves. I send you a few of the most remarkable 
inscriptions, with one or two notes on the subject. 

Chesterton, Cambridgeshire : 

1. " God save the Church." 

2. " Non sono animabus mortuorum, sed viventium." 

S. Benet's, Cambridge (see Le-Keux' Memo- 
rials) : 

1. " Of all the bels in Bennet, I am the best, 

And yet for my casting the parish paid lest. 

1607." 

2. " Non nomen fero ficti, 

Sed nomen Benedicti. 1610." 

3. " This bell was broke, and cast againe, 

by John Draper, in 1618, 
as plainly doth appeare: 
Churchwardens were, 
Edward Dixon, 

for one, 

who stood close to his tacklyn, 

and he that was his partner then, 

was Alexander Jacklyn." 

Girton, Cambridgeshire : 

" Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei." 
Stoneleigh, Warwickshire : 

1. " Michaele te pulsante Winchelcombe a petente 

dsemone te libera. 

2. " O Kenelme nos defende ne maligni sentiamus 

focula." 

Eastry, Kent : 

" One bell inscribed with the names of the church- 
wardens and the maker; a shilling of William III., 
and other coins are let into the rim." 

Erith, Kent : 

" A tablet in the belfry commemorates the ringing 
of a peal of 726 changes in twenty-six minutes." 



S. Clement, Sandwich, Kent : 

" In the ringing chamber of this noble tower is a 
windlass for lowering the bells in case of repairs be- 
coming necessary, with a trap-door in the floor open- 
ing into the church." 

S. Mary, Sandwich, Kent : 

" This bel was bought and steeple built, A.D. 1718. 
J. Bradley, R. Harvey, Ch. wardens. R. P. F." 

S. Andrew, Histon, Camb. : 

" Coins of Queen Anne in the rim of one bell ; but 
dated 1723." 

S. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (Weever, 
Fun. Mon., p. 491., edit, fol. 1631) : 

" King Edward the Third built in the little sanc- 
tuarie a clochard of stone and timber, and placed therein 
three bells, for the vse of Saint Stephen's Chappel. 
About the biggest bell was engrauen, or cast in the 
metal), these words : 

' King Edward made mee thirtie thousand weight 

and three : 

Take mee downe and wey mee, and more you shall 
fynd mee.' 

But these bells being to be taken downe, in the raigne 
of King Henry the Eight, one writes vnderneath with 
a coal : 

' But Henry the Eight will bait me of my weight." " 

If any farther extracts may interest you, they 
are very much at your service. 

W. SPAKEOW SIMPSON, B. A. 



WAS COOK THE DISCOVERER OF THE SANDWICH 
ISLANDS ? 

(Vol. viii., p. 6.) 

MR. WARDEN will find this question discussed 
by La Perouse (English 8vo. edit., vol. ii. ch. 6.), 
who concludes unhesitatingly that the Sandwich 
group is identical with a cluster of islands dis- 
covered by the Spanish navigator Gaetan in 1542, 
and by him named " The King's Islands." These 
the Spaniard placed in the tenth, although the 
Sandwich Islands are near the twentieth, degree 
of north latitude, which La Perouse believed was 
a mere clerical error. The difference in longi- 
tude, sixteen or seventeen degrees, he ascribed 
to the imperfect means of determination possessed 
by the early navigators, and to their ignorance of 
the currents of the Pacific. 

Allowing for the mistake in latitude, the King's 
Islands are evidently the same as those found on 
some old charts, about the nineteenth and twen- 
tieth degrees of north latitude, under the names 
of La Mesa, Los Mayos, and La Disgraciada ; 
which Capt. Dixon, as well as La Perouse, sought 
for in vain in the longitude assigned to them. 
They appear to have been introduced into the 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



English and French charts from that found in the 
galleon taken by Commodore Anson, and of which 
a copy is given in the account of his voyage. 
Cook, or Lieutenant Roberts, the compiler of the 
charts to his third voyage, retained them ; and 
La Perouse was the first to erase them from the 
map. There can, indeed, be little doubt of their 
identity with the Sandwich Islands. But although 
Cook was not actually the first European who had 
visited those islands, to him rightly belongs all the 
glory of their discovery. Forgotten by the Spa- 
niards, misplaced on the chart a thousand miles 
too far to the eastward, and unapproached for 
240 years, their existence utterly unknown and 
unsuspected, Cook was, to all intents and pur- 
poses, their real discoverer. C. E. BAGOT. 
Dublin. 



MEGATHERIUM AMERICANUM. 

(Vol. vii., p. 590.) 

Is not the cast of a skeleton in the British Mu- 
seum, recently alluded to by A FOREIGN SURGEON, 
and which is labelled Megatherium Americanum 
Blume., better known to English naturalists by its 
more correct designation of Mylodon robusfus 
Owen ; and if so, why is the proper appellation 
not painted on the label ? ]f that had been done, 
A FOREIGN SURGEON would not have fallen into 
the error of confounding the remains of two dis- 
tinctly different animals. 

Might I beg leave to add, for the information of 
your correspondent, that no British naturalist " of 
any mark or likelihood," has ever assumed that 
(though undoubtedly sloths) either the Mylodon, 
Sc.elidotherium, or Megatherium, were climbers. 
Indeed, the whole osseous structure of those 
animals proves that they were formed to uprend 
the trees that gave them sustenance. By no other 
hypothesis can we intelligibly account for the im- 
mense expanse of pelvis, the great bulk of hind- 
legs, the solid tail, the massive anterior limbs 
furnished with such powerful claws, and the ex- 
traordinary large spinal chord all these the 
characteristic features of the Mylodon. 

Whether there were palms or not at the period 
of the telluric formation, I cannot undertake to 
say ; but as A FOREIGN SURGEON assumes that a 
palm is an exogenous tree (!), I am induced to 
suspect that his acquaintance with geology may be 
equally as limited as his knowledge of botany. 
Besides, what can he mean by speaking of a sloth 
" the size of a large bear ? " Why, the Mylodon 
must have been larger than a rhinoceros or hippo- 
potamus. The veriest tyro in natural history 
would see that at the first glance of the massive 
skeleton. 

It is a painful and ungracious task to have to 
pen these observations, especially, too, iu the case 



of a stranger. But " N. & Q." must not be made a 
channel for erroneous statements, and we " natives 
and to the manner born" must be allowed to know 
best what is in our own museums. 

W. PlNKERTON. 

Ham. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Stereoscopic Angles. Like many of your cor- 
j respondents, I have been an inquirer on the sub- 
ject of stereoscopic angles, which seems to be still 
; a problem for solution. What is this problem ? 
1 for until that be known, we cannot hope for a 
i solution. I would ask, is it this? Stereoscopic 
pictures should create in the mind precisely such a 
conception as the two eyes ivould if viewing the ob- 
ject represented by the stereograph. If this be the 
problem (and I cannot conceive otherwise), its 
solution is simple enough, as it consists in placing 
the cameras invariably 2 inches apart, on a line 
parallel to the building, or a plane passing through 
such a figure as a statue, &c. In this mode of 
treatment we should have two pictures possessing 
like stereosity with those on the retinas, and con- 
sequently with like result ; and as our eyes enable 
us to conceive perfectly of any solid figure, so 
would the stereograph. I believe, therefore, that 
this is, under every circumstance, the correct 
treatment ; simply because every other mode may 
be proved to be false to nature. 

Professor Wheatstone recommends 1 in 25 when 
objects are more than 50 feet distant, and this 
rule seems to be pretty generally followed. Its 
incorrectness admits of easy demonstration. Sup- 
pose a wall 300 feet in extent, with abutments, 
each two feet in front, and projecting two feet 
from the wall, at intervals of five feet. The 
proper distance from the observer ought to be 
450 feet, which, agreeably with this rule, would 
require a space of 18 feet between the cameras. 
Under this treatment the result would be, that 
both of the sides, as well as the fronts, of the three 
central abutments would be seen ; whilst of all 
the rest, only the front and one side would be 
visible. This would be outraging nature, and 
false, and therefore should, I believe, be rejected. 
The eyes of an observer situated midway between 
the cameras, could not possibly perceive either of 
the sides of the buttress opposite to him, and only 
the side next to him of the rest. This seems to 
me conclusive. 

Again, your correspondent <I>. (Vol. vii., 
p. 16.) says, that for portraits he finds 1 in 10 a 
good rule. Let the sitter hold, straight from the 
front, i. e. in the centre, a box 2i inches in width. 
The result would be, that in the stereographs the 
box would have both its sides represented, and 
the front, instead of being horizontal, consisting 
of two inclined lines, i. e. unless the cameras were 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



placed on one line, when it would be horizontal. 
In such treatment the departure from both is as 
great as in the first example, and the outrage 

Greater, inasmuch as, under these circumstances 
E mean a boy with a box), to any person of 
common sense, the caricature would be at a glance 
obvious. This rule, then, although it produces 
stereosity enough, being false, should also be re- 
jected. 

I believe that 2 inches will be found to be 
right under any circumstance ; but should suffi- 
cient reasons be offered for a better rule, I trust I 
am open to conviction, and shall hail with great 
pleasure a demonstration of its correctness. 

Should it, however, turn out that I have given 
a right definition, and a correct solution of this 
most interesting problem, I shall rejoice to know 
that I have rendered an essential service to a 
great number of anxious students in photography. 

T. L. MERRITT. 
Maidstone. 

Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals. 
The proposal of your correspondent CERIDWEN to 
employ yellow glass bottles for preventing the de- 
composition of photographic solutions has been 
anticipated. It was suggested by me, in some 
lectures on Photography in November 1847, and 
in January of the present year, that yellow bottles 
might be so used, as well as for preventing the 
decomposition, by light, of the vegetable sub- 
stances used in pharmacy, such as digitalis, ipe- 
cacuanha, cinchona, &c. For solutions of silver, 
however, the most effectual remedy against pre- 
cipitation is the use of very pure water, procured 
by slow redistillation in glass vessels at a tempe- 
rature much below the boiling point. 

HUGH OWEN. 



to 



Earth upon Earth, $~c. I think the information j 
which has been elicited in connexion with the so- 
called " Unpublished Epigram by Sir W. Scott," 
" N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 498., sufficiently curious 
to justify an additional reference to the senti- 
ment in question ; the more so as I have to men- 
tion the name of its putative author. In Mont- 
gomery's Christian Poet, 3rd edit. p. 58., he gives, 
under the title of " Earth upon Earth," five verses, 
which it would appear are substantially the same 
as those published by Weaver (whose Funeral 
Monuments, his only publication, I have not within 
reach), but they exhibit considerable verbal dif- 
ference in the verses corresponding with those 
cited in " N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 576. Montgo- 
mery tells us in a note that this extract, given 
under the name of William Billyng, along with 
another from a poem entitled " The Five Wounds 



of Christ," by the same author, were from " a 
manuscript on parchment of great antiquity, in 
possession of William Bateman, Esq.," of which 
a few copies had been printed at Manchester, and 
" accompanied by rude but exceedingly curious 
cuts." Now who was William Billyng ? And 
when did he live ? Montgomery says " the age 
of this author is well known." The death of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to whom Weaver 
(Fun. Mon. 1631) applies the Stratford epigraph, 
is temp. Edward III. Is Mr. Bateman's MS. in a 
hand indicating so early a date ? J. H. 

Picalyly (Vol. viii., p. 8.). In Barnaby Rich's 
Honestie of this Age, p. 37. of the Percy Society 
reprint, we find this passage : 

" But he that some fortie or fifty yeares sithens 
should haue asked after a Pickadilly, I wonder who 
could haue understood him, or could liaue told what a 
Pickadilly had beene, either fish or flesh." 

Little did the writer think that in future years 
the name would become a " household word ; " 
though his prophecy as to the meaning of the 
word has been fulfilled by the appearance of the 
Query in the pages of " N. & Q." 

The editor of the work, Mr. Peter Cunningham, 
has a long note on the above passage ; and I am 
indebted to him for the following. 

" Ben Jonson ( U r o> ks by Giffbrd, viii. 370.) speaks 
of a picardill as a new cut of band much in fashion : 
' Ready to cast at one whose band stands still, 
And then leap mad on a neat picardill.' 

"But Middleton, The World tost at Tennis, 1620, 
speaks of a pic/iadi/l in connexion with the shears, the 
needle, &c. of the tailor ; from which it appears to have 
been an instrument used for plaiting the picked van- 
dyke collar worn in those days. 

" Mr. Gifford, in a note on another passage in Ben 
Jonson, says : 

' Picardil is simply a diminutive of picca (Span, and 
Ital.), a spear-head ; and was given to this article of 
foppery from a fancied resemblance of its stiffened 
plaits to the bristled points of these weapons. Blount 
thinks, and apparently with justice, that Picadilly took 
its name from the sale of the ' small stiff collars so 
called,' which was first set on foot in a house near the 
western [eastern] extremity of the present street by 
one Higgins, a tailor.' " 

The bands worn by the clergy and judges, &c., 
at the present day, are lineal descendants of the 
old picadils, reduced to a more sober cut ; and the 
picked ornament alluded to by your correspon- 
dent no doubt derived its name from its resem- 
blance in shape to these tokens of ancient fashion. 

H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Mr. Justice Newton (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 600. ; 
Vol. viii., p. 15.). I did not answer MR. F. 
KYFFIN LESTHALL'S first Query, because it was 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



palpable, from the context, that the " Mr. Justice 
Newton" he inquired after could not possibly be 
the Chief Justice who flourished in the fifteenth 
century; and because I am not aware of any 
judge of the superior courts of that name, during 
the time of the Commonwealth, or the years which 
immediately preceded or followed that period. 
Indeed, his designation as " Mr. Justice Newton, 
of the Middle Temple" plainly proves that he 
could not have been a judge upon the Bench at 
Westminster. He may perhaps have been a Welsh 
judge; or, remembering that "Mr. Justice" was 
the common title for a Justice of the Peace, it is 
still more probable that he was merely a magis- 
trate of the county in which he resided. 

EDWABD Foss. 

'Manners of the Irish (Vol. viii., p. 5.). In the 
very curious extract given by your correspondent 
H., boyranne is very likely to stand for borbhan, 
the Irish for " lamentation " or " complaint." An 
Irish landlord knows full well that, even up to the 
present day, his tenants " keep the bread, and 
make borbhan." Molchan, I suspect, comes from 
miolc, whey. Localran stands for loisgrean, corn 
turned out of the ear. As to the concluding line 
of the extract, I must leave it to some better Irish 
scholar than I can boast myself. 

" I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer 
houme," 

plainly has reference to the old practice, still pre- 
valent in some parts of Ireland on May- day, when 
young girls carry about a figure dressed as a baby, 
singing the Irish song, cii5Att7Afi perr> 4-j\ fAVpJiA 
il!)P, "We have brought the summer with us" 
(See Transactions of the Kilkenny Archaeological 
Society). Ultagh (Ultach) is Irish for an Ulster 
man, as H. will see by consulting any Irish dic- 
tionary, and can have no connexion with Utlagh, 
the Kilkenny money-lender. Ugteller is of course 
a misprint for Kyteller. Would that II. would 
give us his real name and address, or at least allow 
me to ask whether II. F. H. do not constitute his 
initials in full. JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 

Arms of the See of York (Vol. viii., p. 34.). 
I was about to send a note to " N. & Q.," pointing 
out that Mr. Knight, in his heraldic illustrations 
to 2 Hen. IV., in his Pictorial Edition of Shak- 
speare, has given the modern bearings of the see 
of York to Archbishop Scroope, instead of those 
which belonged to that date, when I observed a 
Query from TEE BEE, asking the date and origin 
of the change of arms which took place. I am sorry 
that I am unable to give any authority for my state- 
ment, but I believe it to be not the less true, that 
the change in question took place when Cardinal 
Wolsey came to the see. Nor can I give any 



farther reason for that change than the notorious 
jealousy of the Cardinal towards the superior 
rank of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Up to 
this period the arms of the two sees were precisely 
the same, though TEE BEE gives the number of 
crosses " patee fitch.ee " on the pall for difference ; 
I should be glad to know whether there is good 
authority for this statement. The present arms of 
the see evidently have reference to the dedication 
of the ancient cathedral church to St. Peter. 

H. C. K. 
Rectory, Hereford. 

" Up, Guards, and at 'em!" (Vol. v., p. 426.). 
These oft-quoted words have already engaged the 
attention of the readers of " N. & Q." Your fre- 
quent correspondent C. (Vol. v., p. 426.) is of 
opinion that the Duke did make use of these, or 
equivalent, words. The following extract I have 
copied from an article in the June number of 
Bentleys Miscellany. It will be found at p. 700. 
as a foot-note to a clever article, one of a series, 
entitled ".Random Recollections of Campaigns 
under the Duke of Wellington," written by an 
officer of the second brigade of Guards. 

" The expression attributed to the Duke of ' Up, 
guards, and at them again ! ' I have good reason for 
knowing was never made use of by him. He was not 
even with the brigade of Guards in question at the time 
they rose from their recumbent position to attack the 
French column in their front, and therefore could not 
well have thus addressed them. I never heard this 
story till long after, on my return to Englaad, when it 
was related by a lady at a dinner-table ; probably it 
was the invention of some goodly Botherby. I re- 
member denying my belief at the time, and my view 
has since been sufficiently confirmed. Besides, the 
words bear no internal evidence of the style either of 
thought or even expression of him to whom they were 
attributed.'' 

The invention of the goodly Botherby has pros- 
pered ! CUTHBEKT BEDE, B. A. 

Coleridge's ChristabelThe 3rd Part (Vol. viii., 
pp. 11, 12.). MR. J. S. WARDEN asks if I am 
correct in stating the 3rd part of Christabel to be 
the composition of Dr. Maginn. I can but "give 
my authority " in a reference to a sketch of 
Maginn's life, in a new and well-conducted peri- 
odical, The Irish Quarterly Review, which, in the 
number for September, 1852, after giving a most 
humorous account of a first interview between 
Blackwood and his wild Irish contributor, who 
had for more than a year been mystifying the 
editor by contributions under various signatures, 
proceeds thus : 

" A few days before the first interview with Black- 
wood, Maginn had sent in his famous ' Third part of 
Christabel.' It is only to be found in the Magazine ; 
and as many of our readers must be unacquainted with 
the poem, we here subjoin it." 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



The poem follows, containing the lines which led 
to the first inquiry on this subject. 

It was having read the Memoir in The Irish 
Quarterly which enabled me so promptly to re- 
member where the lines were to be found ; but I 
had long before heard, and never doubted, that the 
clever parody was composed by Dr. Maginn. 

A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

Mitigation of Capital Punishment (Vol. viii., 
p. 42 ). I am sorry MR. GATTY takes the phrase 
" mythic accompaniments " as an imputation on 
himself. I did not intend it for one, having no 
doubt that he repeated the story as he heard it. 
In it were two statements of the highest degree of 
improbability. One I showed (Vol. v., p. 434.) to 
be contrary to penal, the other to forensic practice. 
One MR. GATTY found to have been only a report, 
the other to have occurred at a different place and 
under different circumstances. Had these been 
stated in the first version, I should not have dis- 
puted them. Whittington was thrice Lord Mayor 
of London that is history, to which the pro- 
phecy of Bow-bells and the exportation of the cat 
are "mythic accompaniments." 

A word as to " disclosing only initials." I think 
you, as a means of authentification, should have 
the name and address of every correspondent. 
You have mine, and may give them to any one 
who pays me the compliment of asking ; but I do 
not seek farther publicity. H. B. C. 

Oxford. 

The Man with the Iron Mask (Vol. vii., pp. 234. 
344.). I think that Mr. James, in his Life and 
Times of Louis XIV., has, to say the least, shown 
strong grounds for doubting the theory which 
identifies this person with Mathioli ; and since 
then several writers have been inclined to full 
back, in the want of any more probable explana- 
tion, on the old idea that the captive was a twin 
brother of Louis. What has become of the letter 
from M. de St. Mars, said to have been discovered 
some years ago, confirming this last hypothesis ? 
Has any such letter been published, and, if so, 
what is the opinion of its genuineness? 

J. S. WARDEN. 

Gentleman executed for Murder of a Slave 
(Vol. vii., p. 107.) Sometime between 1800 and 
1805, Lord Seaforth being Governor of Barbadoes, 
a slaveowner, having killed one of his own slaves, 
was tried for the murder and acquitted, the law 
considering that such an act was not murder. 
Thereupon Lord Seaforth came to England, ob- 
tained an act of parliament declaring the killing of 
a slave to be murder, and returned to Barbadoes 
to resume his official duties. Soon afterwards 
another slave was killed by his owner, who was 
tried, convicted, and sentenced to be hanged for 



murder under the new act of parliament. At the 
time appointed the prisoner was brought out for 
execution, but so strong was public feeling, that 
the ordinary executioner was not forthcoming ; 
and on the governor requiring the sheriff to per- 
form his office either in person or by deputy, after 
some excuses he absolutely refused. The go- 
vernor then addressed the guard of soldiers, de- 
siring a volunteer for executioner, adding, " who- 
ever would volunteer should be subsequently 
protected as well as rewarded then." One pre- 
sented himself, and it thenceforth became as dan- 
gerous to kill a slave as a freeman in Barbadoes. 

G.-M.E. C. 

Johns Jahrluch (Vol. viii., p. 34.). Permit 
me to inform your correspondent E. C. that there 
is a copy of Jahn's Jahrbucher fur Philologie und 
Pddagogik in the library of Sir llobert Taylor's 
Institution, Oxford. Although this library is for 
the use of members of the university, I am sure 
the curators of the institution will give their per- 
mission to consult the books in it, to any gentle- 
man who is properly recommended to them. 

J. MACSAY. 

Oxford. 

Character of the Song of the Nightingale 
(Vol. vii., p. 397.). I imagine that many of the 
writers quoted by your correspondent lived in 
places too far removed to the north or west (as is 
my own case) ever to have heard the nightingale, 
and are, in consequence, not competent authorities 
as to a song they can only have described at 
second hand ; but that Shelley was not far wrong 
in styling it voluptuous, and placing it amidst the 
luxurious bowers of Daphne, may receive some 
confirmation from an anecdote told by Nimrod 
(" Life and Times," Fraser's Magazine,, vol. xxv. 
p. 301 .) of the sad effects produced both on morals 
and parish rates by the visit of a nightingale one 
summer to the groves of Erthig, near Wrexham. 

J. S. WARDEN. 

I accidently met with a scrap of evidence on 
this point lately, as I was driving at midnight on 
a sudden call to visit a dying man. The nightin- 
gales were singing in full choir, when my servant, 
an intelligent young man from the country, re- 
marked, " A cheerful little bird the nightingale, 
Sir. It is beautiful to hear them singing when one 
is walking alone on a dark night." 

Unsophisticated judgment of this sort, when 
met with unsought, seems to be of real value in a 
question depending for its decision so much upon 
the faithful record of impressions. OXOMEXSIS. 

Walthamstow. 

MR. CUTHBERT BEDS gives, in his list of 
epithets of the nightingale, "solemn," as used 
by Milton, Otway, Graingle. How the last two 
employ the term I do not know, perhaps they 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



113 



copied from Milton ; but he uses it, not as an 
epithet exactly, but to express the frequency 
of the bird's appearance. "Night, her solemn 
bird," means the customary attendant of the night : 
solemn being used in the classical sense, and de- 
rived from soles. So Virgil, " Solemnes turn forte 
dapes et tristia dona ante urbem in luco," &c. 

The word solemn probably acquired its present 
signification from the staid manner in which En- 
glishmen go through their customary ceremonies. 
" They took their pleasure sadly" as Froissart has 
it. SYDNEY GEDGE, B.A. 

Mysterious Personage (Vol. viii., p. 34.). 
There is no mystery about the legitimate claimant 
of the British throne. He is the Duke of Modena, 
lineally descended from Henrietta of England, 
youngest daughter of Charles I. : she married 
Philip Duke of Orleans, son of Louis XIII. and 
Anne of Austria, and had two daughters ; Louisa 
married to Charles II. of Spain (she died without 
issue), and Anna Maria, married to Victor Ama- 
deus, Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia. Their 
son Charles Emanuel III. succeeded in 1730, and 
was succeeded by his son Victor Amadeus III. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son Charles Ema- 
nuel IV., who died without issue, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Victor Emanuel, who left 
twin daughters, the elder of whom, Mary Beatrice, 
married Francis Duke of Modena, while the crown 
of Sardinia passed to her father's heirs male. The 
Duchess Mary Beatrice of Modena has left two 
sons, the elder of whom (born June 14, 1819) is 
the direct, undoubted heir of the House of Stuart. 

L. M. M. R. 

Ken : " The Crown of Glory" (Vol. vii., p. 597.). 
This work was properly rejected by Mr. Round 
in his edition of Bishop Ken's Works ; and in the 
preface he gives the reasons for so doing. The 
absence of certain forms of expression was the 
chief test relied on. The book is so excellent, and 
the prayers so warm and Ken-like, that its exclu- 
sion indicates much critical acumen on the part of 
Mr. Round. Subsequently to the publication of 
this collection, it was ascertained that the prayers 
and other parts of The Crown of Glory were taken 
from a book of Dean Brough, of Gloucester, en- 
titled Sacred Principles, which was published, I 
believe (I am writing at a distance from my books), 
in 1661. W. D N. 

Penmjcomequich, adjoining Plymouth (Vol. viii., 
p. 8.). In days gone by, when the boundaries 
of the town were much more circumscribed than 
at the present day, a well-known old female (a 
perfect character in her way) had long fixed her 
abode in a curiously built hut-like cot in the 
locality in question ; the rusticity of which, toge- 
ther with the obliging demeanour of its tenants, 
had gradually induced the good folk of Plymouth 



to make holiday bouts to this retired spot for the 
purpose of merry-making. As years rolled on, 
the shrewd old dame became a general favourite 
with the pleasure-seekers ; the increasing frequency 
of these pic-nics suggesting to her an opportunity 
which might be turned to good account, viz. that 
of providing her visitors with the cheap requisite, 
boiling water, for the brewing their sober after- 
noon's beverage, at the low rate of a penny a head. 
Still later in the evening of life, shrugging herself 
closely in her old scarlet cloak, which had served 
her well for better than half a century, she would, 
with much apparent gusto, recount to her pleased 
auditory how many a time and often she had made 
the " penny come quick," by the above-recited 
inexpensive vocation ; until at length her saying 
became a by-word in the neighbourhood, and 
universal consent fixed on the ever-happy octo- 
genarian's triplet as a fitting .appellation for the 
then nameless and retired little nook, but now 
thickly studded grounds, of Pennycomequich. 

That equally simple occurrences have frequently 
given rise to the names of places, is shown by other 
remarkable titles of localities not far distant from 
Pennycomequich, such as those of " The Bold Ven- 
ture," and of " No Place." HENRY H. HELE. 

Ashburton. 

Your correspondent R. H. B. is informed that 
the name of this village is Welsh, viz. Pen y own 
gwich, and signifies a village at the head of a 
valley. II. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Longevity (Vol. vii., pp. 358. 504. 607.). May 
I be permitted a word with your correspondent 
A. I., and at the same time assist MR. HUGHES in 
his laudable attempt "to convert him to the faith?" 
To do this, it will not be necessary for me to 
search either in annual or parish registers, or to 
decipher half-defaced inscriptions on marble monu- 
ments or humble headstones. 

A lady is now living, or was two months ngo, in 
Williamsburg, State of South Carolina, by the 
name of Singleton, who is known to be in the one 
hundred and thirty-first year of her age : 

" Her mental faculties are still unimpaired, and she 
retains all her senses except that of sight, of which she 
was deprived at the advanced age of ninety-nine years 
by an attack of the measles. Her bodily energy ex- 
hibits no diminution for many years, she being still 
able to walk briskly about the room. She has outlived 
all her children : her oldest descendant living being a 
granddaughter, over sixty years old. The first grand- 
daughter of this granddaughter, if now living, would 
be over sixteen years of age." 

\v. w. 

Malta. 

Arms : Battle-axe (Vol. vii., p. 407.). The 
undermentioned families bore three battle-axes 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



simply, their coats of arms varying only in metal 
and colour : 



Aynisworthe. 

Bainbrige. 

Batten. 

Daueys. 

Daverston. 



Gyves. 

Gibbes. 

Hall. 

Hakelett. 

Lewston. 



Stephen Iloby (the earliest ancestor of the 
Bisham family of whom any record is preserved), 

married , the daughter and heiress of 

Bylmore, whose arms were Gu. three halberds 
(long-handled battle-axes) in pale ar. handled 
or. : hence, no doubt, the three battle-axes in con- 
nexion with the Hoby or Hobby name at Bisham 
Church. William Hoby, of Leominster, the tenth 
in descent from the above-mentioned Stephen, 
married Catherine, sole daughter and heiress of 
John Forden alias Fordayne, by Gwentwynar, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Griffith Vahan alias 
Vaughan, Knight Banneret; Avho was, as I am 
led to think, of Denbigh or its neighbom-hood. 
I shall be happy to find I have thrown any light 
upon the Query of A. C. H. C. C. 

Sir G. Browne, Bart. (Vol. vii., p. 528.). Your 
correspondent NEWBURY is in error in styling this 
George Browne a baronet, nor was he of West 
Stafford or Wickham. He was the sole son and 
heir of Sir George Browne, Knight, of Wickham- 
breux, co. Kent, Caversham, co. Oxford, and Cow- 
dray in Midhurst, co. Sussex ; which last estate 
devolved on this family by the will of William 
Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton, the son of Lucy 
(daughter and co-heiress of John Nevill, Marquess 
of Montagu) by her first husband, Sir Thomas 
Fitzwilliam of Aldwark, co. York ; which Lucy 
became the wife of Sir Anthony Browne, who was 
knighted at the battle of Stoke, June 6, 1487, 
and succeeded as above-mentioned to the Cowdray 
estate. 

George Browne, who married Elizabeth or 
Eleanor, the daughter of Sir Richard Blount, was 
of Wickhambreux, Caversham, and also of West 
Shefford in co. Berks ; his name appears as thus 
in the Visitation of this county anno 1623. Of the 
nineteen children, he had three sons whose names 
are not given, and who died in the Royal cause 
during the civil wars : but as Richard, the third 
son, is expressly mentioned, he certainly was not 
one of the three killed in the service of King 
Charles I. Sir George Browne, second, but eldest 
surviving son, was made a K.B. at the coronation 
of King Charles II. ; and was celebrated by Pope 
in his " Windsor Forest." He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Francis Englefield, the second 
baronet of Wootton Bassett, co. Wilts, and died 
s. p. m. George, the eldest born, died an infant. 
Henry, the fourth son, died unmarried March 19, 
1668, and was buried at West Shefford; and 
John, the fifth, son, was of Caversham, and created 



a baronet May 19, 1665. He married the widow 

of Bradley, and was the ancestor of the 

baronets of Caversham, extinct in 1774. Three 
daughters, whose names are not given, became 
nuns. Eleanor, another daughter, died unmarried, 
Nov. 27, 1662, and was buried at West Shefford: 
and Elizabeth was the wife of John Yate of West 
Hanney, co. Berks ; and who died Jan. 26, 1671, 
before his wife. H. C. C. 



Mtitettmtawi. 

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by Mr. John Holland. 1 Vol. 12mo. 1824. 

LITERARY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845. 

ATHENJSUM, commencement to 1835. 

A NARRATIVE OF THE HOLY LIFE AND HAPPY DEATH OF MR. 

JOHN ANGIER. London, 1G85. 
MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition. 

WOOD'S ATHENE OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20. 
THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in 15 vols. 8vo. 1739. 

** Correspondents sending Lists of Pookt Wanted are requested 
to send their names. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MK. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 18G. Fleet Street. 



to 

In consequence of being compelled to go to press with the present 
Number on Thursday, and of the number of REPLIES TO MINOR 
QUERIES waiting for insertion, we have been compelled to omit our 
NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. 

T. M. B. The oft-quoted lines 

" So down thy hill, romantic Ashbourn, glides, 
The Derby dilly, carrying THREE insides," &c. 

will be found in the Poetry of the Antijscobin, at the close of the 
Second Part of The Loves of the Triangles. 

J. D. Where is the sentence of which you ask an explanation to 
be found f Send the context, or farther particulars. 

C. E. F. and T. D. (Leeds). Your inquiry as to the best mode 
of constructing a glass chamber for photographic purposes wilt be 
answered in our next. 

MR. JOHN COOK fins sent us a plan for taking cheaper pictures 
for stereoscopic purposes by means of a common camera, and the 
substitution for the ordinary ground glass of a piece of plate glass 
and a piece of paper, on which the outline of the figure is to be 
traced. When one sketch is thus made, the camera is to be moved 
fifteen or sixteen inches to the right or left, and a second drawing 
made in the same way. The plan is a very obvious one ; and 
though adapted far those who can draw and have an ordinary 
camera, it presents few advantages to photographers. 

H. H. H. (Ashburton). Were we to recommend you to any 
particular maker for your collodion tent, we should deviate from 
our rule of impartiality where several vendors are concerned, and 
we would therefore refer you to our advertising columns. 

W. N. (Kingston). We are sorry we cannot afford space for 
answering all your Queries on the making of gun cot tun. A portion 
made according to Dr. Diamond's formulary has befn forwarded 
to your address ; and if it is not entirely soluble, then the fault is 
in your ether. 

A few complete sets o/" NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., 
price Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had ; for which 
early application is desirable. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and, deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



JULY 30. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



INDIGESTION, CONSTIPA- 

J. TION, NERVOUSNESS, &c. - BARRY, 
DU BARRY & CO.'S HEALTH-RESTOR- 
ING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS. 

THE KEVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, 
the only natural, pleasant, and effectual re- 
medy (without medicine, purging, inconveni- 
ence, or expense, as it saves fifty times its cost 
in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, in- 
testinal, liver and bilious complaints, however 
deeply rooted, dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual 
constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn, fla- 
tulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, 
eruption of the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, 
sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at 
sea, and under all other circumstances, debility 
in the aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, 
cramps, paralysis, &c. 

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116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 196. 



J. R. 
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A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOE 

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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 197.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 6. 1853. 



f Price Fourpence. 
(_ Stamped Edition, 



CONTENTS. 

NOTES : Page 

High Church and Low Church - - - - 117 
Concluding Notes on several misunderstood Words, by 

the Rev. W. R. Arrowsmith - - - - 120 

Sneezing an Omen and a Deity, by T. J. Buck'on - 121 

Abuses of Hackney Coaches - - - - 122 
Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby, 

Thomas Falconer, &c. - - - - - 123 

MINOR NOTES: Falsified Gravestone in Stratford 
Churchyard Barnacles in the River Thames Note 
for London Topographers The Aliases and Initials 
of Authors Pure Darling's "Cyclopaedia Biblio- 
graphica" ------- 124 

.QUERIES : 

Delft Manufacture, by O. Morgan - - - 125 

MINOR QDEKIBS : The Withered Hand and Motto 
" Utinam " History of York " Hauling over the 
coals" Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury Wash- 
ington Norman of'Winster Sir Arthur Astun 
" Jamieson the Piper " " Reiser Glomer " Tieck's 
" Comcedia Divina" Fossil Trees between Cairo and 
Suez : Stream lik that in Bav of Argastoli Presby- 
terian Titles Mayors and Sheriffs The Beauty of 
ISutterrnere Sheer Hulk The Lapwing or Peewitt 
.(Vanellus cristatus) "Could we with ink," &c 
Launch ing Query Manliness - 125 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Pues or Pews 
" Jerningham " and " Doveton " - - - 127 

REPLIES : 



MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. 
Book- and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements ... 



Battle of Villers en Couche, by T. C. Smith, fee. - 127 

Snail-eating, by John Timbs, &c. - - - 128 

Inscription near Cirencester, by P. H. Fisher, &c. - 129 
Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead, by the 

Rev. H. T. Ellacombe and R. W. Elliot - - 130 

XVho first thought of Table-turning ? by John Macray 131 

Scotchmen in Poland - - - - - 131 

Anticipatory Use of the Cross, by Eden Warwick - 132 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Glass Chambers 
for Photography Dr. Diamond's Replies Trial of 
Lenses Is it dangerous to use the Ammonio-Nitrate 
of Silver?- - - - - - - 133 

REPLIES TO MINOR QCERIKS : Burke's Marriage 
The House of Falahill Defendant* of Judas Iscnnot 
Milton's Widow \Vhitaker's Ingenious Earl Are 
White Cats d af? Consecrated Roses The lie- 
formed Faith House-ii arks - Trash Adamsoniana 
Portrait of Cromwell - Burke's " Mijihtv Boar of 
the Forest " " Amentiiim baud Am;mtium "Talley- 
rand's Maxim Engli h Bishops deprived liy Queen 
Elizabeth Gloves at Fairs St. Dominic Names of 
Plants Specimens of Foreign English, &c. - - 134 



- 138 

- 138 

- 138 

- 139 



VOL. VIII. No. 197. 



HIGH CHCRCH AND LOW CHURCH. 

A Universal History of Party ; with the Origin 
of Party Names* would form an acceptable addi- 
tion to literary history : " N. & Q." has contributed 
towards such a work some disquisitions on our 
party names Whig and Tory, and The Good Old 
Cause. Such names as Puritan, Malignant, Evan- 
gelical^, can be traced up to their first commence- 
ment, but some obscurity hangs on the mintage- 
date of the names we are about to consider. 

As a matter of fact, the distinction of High. 
Church and Low Church always existed in the 
Reformed English Church, and the history of these 
parties would be her history. But the names were 
not coined till the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and were not stamped in full relief as party- 
names till the first year of Queen Anne's reign. 

In October, 1 702, Anne's first Parliament and 
Convocation assembled : 

" Fro:n the disputes in Convocation at this period, 
the appellations High Church and Low Church originated, 
and they were afterwards used to distinguish the clergy. 
It is singular that the bishops f were ranked among 

* There is a book called History of Party, from the 
Rise of the Whig and Tory Factions Chas. II. to the 
Passing of the Reform BUI, by G. W. Cooke : Lond. 
1836-37, 3 vols. 8vo. ; but, as the title shows, it is 
limited in scope. 

f See Haweis's Sermons on Evangelical Principles 
and Practice: Lond. 1763, 8vo. ; The True Churchmen 
ascertained ; or, An Apology for those of the Regular 
Clergy of the Establishment, tvho are sometimes called 
Evangelical Ministers : occasioned by the Publications 
of Drs. Paley, Hey, Croft ; Messrs. Daubeny, Ludlam, 
Polwhele, Fellowes ; the Reviewers, Sfc. : by John Over- 
ton, A. B., York, 1802, Svo., 2nd edit. See also the 
various memoirs of Whitfield, Wesley, &c. ; and Sir 
J. Stephen's Essays on " The Clapham Sect " and " The 
Evangelical Succession." 

J It is not so very " singular," when we remember 
that the bishops were what Lord Campbell and Mr. 
Macaulay call "judiciously chosen" by William. On 
this point a cotemporary remarks, " Some steps have 
been made, and large ones too, towards a Scotch re- 
formation, by suspending and ejecting the chief and 
most zealous of our bishops, and others of the higher 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Xo. 197. 



the Low Churchmen (see Burnet, v. 138. ; Calamy, 
i. 643. ; Tindal's Cont., iv. 591.)" Lathbury's Hist, of 
the Convocation, Lond. 1842, p. 319. 

Mr. Lathbury is a very respectable authority in 
matters of this kind, but if he use " originated" 
in its strict sense, I am inclined to think he is 
mistaken ; as I am tolerably certain that I have 
met with the words several years before 1702. At 
the moment, however, I cannot lay my hands on 
a passage to support this assertion. 

The disputes in Convocation gave rise to a 
number of pamphlets, such as A Caveat against 
High Church, Lond. 1702, and The Low Church- 
men vindicated from the unjust Imputation of being 
No Churchmen, in Answer to a Pamphlet called 
" The Distinction of High and Low Church con- 
sidered :" Lond. 1706, 8vo. Dr. Sacheverell's 
trial gave additional zest to the dudgeon eccle- 
siastick, and produced a shower of pamphlets. I 
give the title of one of them : Pulpit War, or Dr. 
S I, the High Church Trumpet, and Mr. H ly, 
the Low Church Drum, engaged by way of Dia- 
logue, Lond. 1710, 8vo. 

To understand the cause of the exceeding bit- 
terness and virulence which animated the parties 
denominated High Church and Low Church, we 
must remember that until the time of William of 
Orange, the Church of England, as a body her 
sovereigns and bishops, her clergy and laity 
comes under the former designation ; while those 
who sympathised with the Dissenters were com- 
paratively few and weak. As soon as William 
was head of the Church, he opened the floodgates 
of Puritanism, and admitted into the church what 
previously had been more or less external to it. 
This element, thus made part and parcel of the 
Anglican Church, was denominated Low Church. 
William supplanted the bishops and clergy who 
refused to take oaths of allegiance to him as 
king de jure ; and by putting Puritans in their 
place, made the latter the dominant party. Add ' 
to this the feelings of exasperation produced by j 
the murder of Charles I., and the expulsion of the j 
Stuarts, and we have sufficient grounds, political i 
and religious, for an irreconcilable feud. Add, | 
again, the reaction resulting from the overthrow I 

clergy; and by advancing, upon all vacancies of sees j 
and dignities, ecclesiastical men of notoriously Prexby- 
terian, or, which is ivorse, of Erastian principles. These | 
are the ministerial ways of undermining Episcopacy ; ! 
and when to the seven notorious ones shall he added 
more, upon the approaching deprivation, they will 
make a majority ; and then we may expect the new 
model of a church to be perfected." (Somers' Tracts, 
vol. x. p. 368. ) Until Atterhury, there were few High 
Church Bishops in Queen Anne's reign in 1710. Bur- 
net singles out the Bishop of Chester : " for he seemed 
resolved to distinguish himself as a zealot for that 
which is called High Church" Hist. Own Time, 
vol. iv. p. 260. 



of the tyrannous hot-bed and forcing-system, 
where a sham conformity was maintained by coer- 
cion ; and the Church- Papist, as well as the Church- 
Puritans, with ill-concealed hankering after the 
mass and the preaching-house, by penal statutes 
were forced to do what their souls abhorred, and 
play the painful farce of attending the services of 
" The Establishment." 

A writer in a High Church periodical of 1717 
(prefacing his article with the passage from Pro- 
verbs vi. 27.) proceeds : 

" The old way of attacking the Church of England 
was by mobs and bullies, and hard sounds ; by calling 
Whore, and Babylon, upon our worship and liturgy, and 
kicking out our clergy as dumb dogs : but now they 
have other irons in the fire ; a new engine is set up 
under the cloak and disguise of temper, unity, compre- 
hension, and the Protestant religion. Their business now 
is not to storm the Church, but to lull it to sleep: to 
make us relax our care, quit our defences, and neglect 
our safety .... These are the politics of their Popish 
fathers : when they had tried all other artifices, they 
at last resolved to sow schism and division in the 
Church : and from thence sprang up this very gene- 
ration, who by a fine stratagem endeavoured to set us 
one against the other, and they gather up the stake?. 
Hence the distinction of High and Low Church." The 
Scourge, p. 251. 

In another periodical of the same date, in the 
Dedication " To the most famous University of 
Oxford," the writer says : 

" These enemies of our religious and civil establish- 
ment have represented you as instillers of slavish doc- 
trines and principles . . . if to give to God and Caesar his 
due be such tow'ring, and High Church principles, I 
am sure St. Peter and St. Paul will scarce escape being 
censured for Tories and Highflyers." The Entertainer, 
Lond. 1717. 

" If those who have kept their first love, and whose 
robes have not been defiled, endeavour to stop these 
innovations and corruptions that their enemies would 
introduce, they are blackened for High Church Papists, 
favourers of I know not who, and fall under the public 
resentment." Ib. p. 301. 

I shall now give a few extracts from Low Church 
writers (quoted in The Scourge), who thus de- 
signate their opponents : 

" A pack or party of scandalous, wicked, and pro- 
fane men, who appropriate to themselves the name of 
High Church (hut may more properly he said to be 
Jesuits or Papists in masquerade), do take liberty to 
teach, preach, and print, publickly and privately, sedi- 
tion, contentions, and divisions among the Protestants 
of this kingdom." Motives to Union, p. 1. 

" These men glory in their being members of the 
High Church (Popish appellation, and therefore they 
are the more fond of that) ; but these pretended sons 
are become her persecutors, and they exercise their 
spite and lies both on the living and the dead." The 
Snake in the Grass brought to Light, p. 8. 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



" Our common people of the High Church are as 
ignorant in matters of religion as the bigotted Papists, 
which gives great advantage to our Jacobite and Tory 
priests to lead them where they please, or to mould 
them into what shapes they please." Reasons for an 
Union, p. 39. 

" The minds of the populace are too much debauched 
already from their loyalty by seditious arts of the High 
Church faction." Convocation Craft, p. 34. 

" We may see how closely our present Highflyers 
pursue the steps of their Popish predecessors, in reck- 
oning those who dispute the usurped power of the 
Church to be hereticks, schismaticks, or what else they 
please." Ib. p. 30. 

" All the blood that has been spilt in the late un- 
natural rebellion, may be very justly laid at the doors 
of the High Church clergy." Christianity no Creature 
of the State, p. 16. 

" We see what the Tory Priesthood were made of in 
Queen Elizabeth's time, that they were ignorant, lewd, 
and seditious : and it must be said of 'em that they are 
true to the stuff still." Toryism the Worst of the Two, 
p. 21. 

" The Tories and High Church, notwithstanding their 
pretences to loyalty, will be found by their actions to 
be the greatest rebels in nature." Reasons for an 
Union, p. 20. 

Sir W. Scott, in his Life of Dry den, Lond. 1808, 
observes that 

" Towards the end of Charles the Second's reign, 
the High- Church-men and the Catholics regarded them- 
selves as on the same side in political questions, and not 
greatly divided in their temporal interests. Both were 
sufferers in the plot, both were enemies of the sectaries, 
both were adherents of the Stuarts. Alternate con- 
version had been common between them, so early as 
since Milton made a reproach to the English Univer- 
sities of the converts to the Roman faith daily made 
within their colleges : of those sheep 

' Whom the grim woJf with privy paw 
Daily devours apace, and nothing said.' " 

Life, 3rd edit. 1834, p. 272. 

I quote this passage partly because it gives Sir 
Walter's interpretation of that obscure passage in 
Lycidas, respecting which I made a Query (Vol. ii., 
p. 246.), but chiefly as a preface to the remark 
that in James II.'s reign, and at the time these 
party names originated, the Roman Catholics were 
in league with the Puritans or Low Church party 
against the High Churchmen, which increased the 
acrimony of both parties. 

In those days religion was politics, and politics 
religion, with most of the belligerents. Swift, 
however, as if he wished to be thought an excep- 
tion to the general rule, chose one party for its 
politics and the other for its religion. 

" Swift carried into the ranks of the Whigs the 
opinions and scruples of a High Church clergyman . . . 
Such a distinction between opinions in Church and 
State has not frequently existed : the High Churchmen 



being usually Tories, and the Low Church divines uni- 
versally Whigs." Scott's Life, 2nd edit.: Edin. 1824, 
p. 76. 

See Swift's Discourse of the Contests and Dissen- 
sions between the Nobles and Commons of Athens 
and Rome : Lond. 1701. 

In his quaint Argument against abolishing Chris- 
tianity, Lond. 1708, the following passage occurs : 

" There is one advantage, greater than any of the 
foregoing, proposed by the abolishing of Christianity : 
that it will utterly extinguish parties among us by 
removing those factious distinctions of High and Low 
Church, of Whiff and Tory, Presbyterian and Church 
of England." 

Scott says of the Tale of a Tub : 

" The main purpose is to trace the gradual corrup- 
tions of the Church of Rome, and to exalt the English 
Reformed Church at the expense both of the Roman 
Catholic and Presbyterian establishments. It was 
written with a view to the interests of the High Church 
party." Life, p. 84. 

Most men will concur with Jeffrey, who ob- 
serves : 

" It is plain, indeed, that Swift's High Church prin- 
ciples were all along but a part of his selfishness and 
ambition ; and meant nothing else, than a desire to 
raise the consequence of the order to which he happened 
to belong. If he had been a layman, we have no 
doubt he would have treated the pretensions of the 
priesthood as he treated the persons of all priests who- 
were opposed to him, with the most bitter and irre- 
verent disdain." Ed. Rev., Sept. 1816. 

The following lines are from a squib of eight 
stanzas which occurs in the works of Jonathan 
Smedley, and are said to have been fixed on the 
door of St. Patrick's Cathedral on the day of 
Swift's instalment (see Scott, p. 174.) : 

" For High Churchmen and policy, 
He swears he prays most hearty ; 
But would pray back again to be 
A Dean of any party." 

This reminds us of the Vicar of Bray, of famous, 
memory, who, if I recollect aright, commenced his 
career thus : 

" In good King Charles's golden days, 

When loyalty no harm meant, 
A zealous High Churchman I was, 
And so I got preferment." 

How widely different are the men we see classed 
under the title High Churchmen! Evelyn and 
Walton *, the gentle, the Christian ; the arrogant 
Swift, and the restless Atterbury. 

It is difficult to prevent my note running 
beyond the limits of " N. Q.," with the ample 

* Of Izaak Walton his biographer, Sir John Haw- 
kins, writing in 176O, says, "he was a friend to a 
hierarchy, or, as we should now call such a one, a High' 
Churchman." 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



materials I have to select from ; but I cannot wind 
up without a definition ; so here are two : 

" Mr. Thelwall says that he told a pious old lady, 
who asked him the difference between High Church and 
Low Church, ' The High Church place the Church 
above Christ, the Low Church place Christ above the 
Church." About a hundred years ago, that very same 
question was asked of the famous South: 'Why,' 
said he, 'the High Church are those who think highly 
of the Church, and lowly of themselves ; the Low 
Church are those who think highly of themselves, and 
lowly of the Church." Rev. H. Newland's Lecture on 
Tractarianism, Lond. 1852, p. 68. 

The most celebrated High Churchmen who lived 
in the last century, are Dr. South, Dr. Samuel 
Johnson, Rev. Wm. Jones of Nayland, Bp. Home, 
Bp. Wilson, and Bp. Horsley. See a long passage 
on " High Churchmen" in a charge of the latter to 
the clergy of St. David's in the year 1799, pp.34. 
37. See also a charge of Bp. Atterbury (then 
Archdeacon of Totnes) to his clergy in 1703. 

JABLTZBEEG. 



CONCLUDING NOTES ON SEVERAL MISUNDERSTOOD 
WORDS. 

(Continued from Vol. vii., p. 568.) 

Not being minded to broach any fresh matter 
in "N. & Q.," I shall now only crave room to 
clear off an old score, lest I should leave myself 
open to the imputation of having cast that in the 
teeth of a numerous body of men which might, for 
aught they would know to the contrary, be as 
truly laid in my own dish. In No. 189., p. 567., 
I affirmed that the handling of a passage in 
Cymbeline, there quoted, had betrayed an amount 
of obtuseness in the commentators which would 
be discreditable in a third-form schoolboy. To 
substantiate that assertion, and rescue the dis- 
puted word " Britaine " henceforth for ever from 
the rash tampering of the meddlesome sciolist, I 
beg to advertise the ingenuous reader that the 
clause, 

" For being now a favourer to the Britaine," 
is in apposition with Death, not with Posthumus 
Leonatus. In a note appended to this censure, 
referring to another passage from L. L. L., I 
averred that MR. COLLIER had corrupted it by 
changing the singular verb dies into the plural 
die (this too done, under plea of editorial li- 
cence, without warning to the reader), and that 
such corruption had abstracted the true key to 
the right construction. To make good this last 
position, two things I must do: first, cite the whole 
passage, without change of letter or tittle, as it 
stands in the Folios '23 and '32 ; next, show the 
trivial and vulgar use of " contents " as a singular 
noun. In Folio '23, thus : 

" Qu. Nay my good Lord, let me ore-rule you now ; 
That sport best pleases that doth least know how. 



Where Zeale striues to content, and the contents 
Dies in the Zeale of that which it presents : 
Their forme confounded, makes most forme in mirth, 
When great things labouring perish in their birth." 

Act IV. p. 141. 

With this the Folio '32 exactly corresponds, save 
that the speaker is Prin., not Qu. ; ore-rules is 
written as two words without the hyphen, anc 
strives for striues. I have been thus precise, be- 
cause criticism is to me not " a game," nor admis- 
sive of cogging and falsification. 

I must now show the hackneyed use of contents 
as a singular noun. An anonymous correspondenl 
of " N. & Q." has already pointed out one in Mea- 
sure for Measure, Act IV. Sc. 2. : 

" Duke. The contents of this is the returne of the 

Duke." 
Another : 

" This is the contents thereof." Calvin's 82nd Ser- 
mon iipon Job, p. 419., Golding's translation. 

Another : 

" After this were articles of peace propounded, y e 
contents wherof was, that he should departe out of 
Asia." The 31st Booke of Justine, fol. 139., Golding's 
translation of Justin's Trogus Fompeius. 

Another : 

" Plinie writeth hereof an excellent letter, the con- 
tents whereof is, that this ladie, mistrusting her husband, 
was condemned to die," &c. Historicall Meditations, 
lib. iii. chap. xi. p. 178. Written in Latin by P. Came- 
rarius, and done into English by John Molle, Esq. : 
London, 1621. 
Another : 

" The contents whereof is this." Id., lib. v. chap. vi. 
p. 342. 

Another : 

" Therefore George, being led with an heroicall dis- 
daine, and neuertheless giuing the bridle beyond mo- 
deration to his anger, vnderstanding that Albert was 
come to Newstad, resolued with himselfe (without 
acquainting any bodie) to write a letter vnto him, the 
contents whereof was," &c. Id., lib. v. chap. xii. p. 366. 

If the reader wants more examples, let him give 
himself the trouble to open the first book that 
comes to hand, and I dare say the perusal of a 
dozen pages will supply some ; yet have we two 
editors of Shakspeare, Johnson and Collier, so un- 
acquainted with the usage of their own tongue, 
and the universal logic of thought, as not to know 
that a word like contents, according as it is under- 
stood collectively or distributively, may be, and, 
as we have just seen, in fact is, treated as a sin- 
gular or plural ; that, I say, contents taken seve- 
rally, every content, or in gross, the whole mass, is 
respectively plural or singular. It was therefore 
optional with Shakspeare to employ the word 
either as a singular or plural, but not in the same 
sentence to do both : here, however, he was tied 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



to the singular, for, wanting a rhyme to contents, 
the nominative to presents must be singular, and 
that nominative was the pronoun of contents. 
Since, therefore, the plural die and the singular it 
could not both be referable to the same noun con- 
tents, by silently substituting die for dies, MR. 
COLLIER has blinded his reader and wronged his 
author. The purport of the passage amounts to 
this : the contents, or structure (to wit, of the show 
to be exhibited), breaks down in the performer's 
zeal to the subject which it presents. Johnson 
very properly adduces a much happier expression 
of the same thought from A Midsummer Night's 
Dreame : 

" Hip. I love not to see wretchedness o'ercharged ; 
And duty in his service perishing." 

The reader cannot fail to have observed the fault- 
less punctuation of the Folios in the forecited 
passage, and I think concur with me, that like 
many, ay, most others, all it craves at the hands 
of editors and commentators is, to be left alone. 
The last two lines ask for no explanation even to 
the blankest mind. Words like contents are by no 
means rare in English. We have tidings and news, 
both singular and plural. MR. COLLIER himself 
rebukes Malone for his ignorance of such usage 
of the latter word. If it be said that these two 
examples have no singular form, whereas contents 
has, there is means, at any rate precisely ana- 
logous. On the other hand, so capricious is lan- 
guage, in defiance of the logic of thought, we have, 
if I may so term it, a merely auricular plural, in 
the word corpse referred to a single carcase. 

I should here close my account with " N. & Q." 
were it not that I have an act of justice to per- 
form. When I first lighted upon the two ex- 
amples of chaunibre in Udall, I thought, as we say 
in this country, it was a good " fundlas," and re- 
garded it as my own property. It now appears to 
be but a waif or stray ; therefore, suum cuique, I 
cheerfully resign the credit of it to MR. SINGER, 
the rightful proprietary. Proffering them for the 
inspection of learned and unlearned, I of course 
foresaw that speedy sentence would be pronounced 
by that division, whose judgment, lying ebb and 
close to the surface, must needs first reach the 
light. I know no more appropriate mode of re- 
quiting the handsome manner in which MR. SINGER 
has been pleased to speak of my trifling contribu- 
tions to " N. & Q.," than by asking him, with all 
the modesty of which I am master, to reconsider 
the passage in Romeo and Juliet; for though his 
substitution (rumourers vice runawayes) may, I 
think, clearly take the wall of any of its rivals, yet, 
believing that Juliet invokes a darkness to shroud 
her lover, under cover of which even the fugitive 
from justice might snatch a wink of sleep, I must 
for my own part, as usual, still adhere to the 
authentic text. W. K. ARROWSMITH. 



P. S. In answer to a Bloomsbury Querist 
(Vol. viii., p. 44.), I crave leave to say that I never 
have met with the verb perceyuer except in Hawes, 
loc. cit. ; and I gave the latest use that I could call 
to mind of the noun in my paper on that word. 
Unhappily I never make notes, but rely entirely on 
a somewhat retentive memory ; therefore the in- 
stances that occur on the spur of the moment are 
not always the most apposite that might be selected 
for the purpose of illustration. If, however, he 
will take the trouble to refer to a little book, con- 
sisting of no more than 448 pages, published in 
1576, and entitled A Panoplie of Epistles, or a 
LooMng-glasse for the Vnlearned, by Abraham 
Flemming, he will find no fewer than nine ex- 
amples, namely, at pp. 25. 144. 178. 253. 277. 285. 
(twice in the same page) 333. 382. It excites 
surprise that the word never, as far as I am aware, 
occurs in any of the voluminous works of Sir 
Thomas More, nor in any of the theological pro- 
ductions of the Reformers. 

With respect to speare, the orthography varies, 
as spere, sperr, sparr, unspar; but in the Prologue 
to Troilus and Cressida, sperre is Theobald's cor- 
rection of stirre, in Folios '23 and '32. Let me 
add, what I had forgotten at the time, that an- 
other instance of budde intransitive, to bend, oc- 
curs at p. 105. of The Life of Faith in Death, by 
Samuel Ward, preacher of Ipswich, London, 1622. 
Also another, and a very significant one, of the 
phrase to have on the hip, in Fuller's Historic of the 
Holy Warre, Cambridge, 1647 : 

" Arnulphus was as quiet as a lambe, and durst never 
challenge his interest in Jerusalem from Godfrey's do- 
nation ; as fearing to wrestle with the king, who had 
him on the hip, and could out him at pleasure for his 
bad manners." Book ii. chap. viii. p. 55. 

In my note on the word trash, I said (somewhat 
too peremptorily) that overtop was not even a 
hunting term (Vol. vii., p. 567.). At the moment 
I had forgotten the following passage : 

" Therefore I would perswade all lovers of hunting 
to get two or three couple of tryed hounds, and once or 
twice a week to follow after them a train-scent ; and 
when he is able to top them on all sorts of earth, and to 
endure heats and colds stoutly, then he may the better 
relie on his speed and toughness." The Hunting-horse, 
chap. vii. p. 71., Oxford, 1685. 



SNEEZING AN OMEN AND A DEITY". 

In the Odyssey, xvii. 541-7., we have, imitating 
the hexameters, the following passage : 

" Thus Penelope spake. Then quickly Telemachus 

sneez'd loud, 
Sounding around all the building: his mother, with 

smiles at her son, said, 
Swiftly addressing her rapid and high-toned words to 

Eumaus, 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 






' Go then directly, Eumaeus, and call to my presence 

the strange guest. 
See'st thou not that my son, ev'ry word I have spoken 

hath sneez'd at 9 * 
Thus portentous, betok'ning the fate of my hateful 

suitors, 
All whom death and destruction await by a doom 

irreversive.' " 

Dionysius Halicarnassus, on Homer's poetry 
(3. 24.), says, sneezing was considered by that 
poet as a good sign (<rvp.o\ov ayaOdv) ; and from 
the Anthology (lib. ii.) the words oi>8e \eyei, Zev 
triatrov, tav irrapfj, show that it was proper to ex- 
claim " God bless you ! " when any one sneezed. 

Aristotle, in the Problems (xxxiii. 7.), inquires 
why sneezing is reckoned a God (Sid ri T}>V ^\v 
iri-ap^bv, &fbv ijyovnf8a ffvat) ; to which he suggests, 
that it may be because it comes from the head, the 
most divine part about us (bftordrov r<av trept rajiai). 
Persons having the inclination, but not the power 
to sneeze, should look at the sun, for reasons he 
-assigns in Problems (xxxiii. 4.). 

Plutarch, on the Dasmon of Socrates (s. 11.), 
states the opinion which some persons had formed, 
that Socrates' daemon was nothing else than the 
sneezing either of himself or others. Thus, if 
any one sneezed at his right hand, either before or 
behind him, he pursued any step he had begun ; 
but sneezing at his left hand caused him to desist 
from his formed purpose. He adds something as 
to different kinds of sneezing. To sneeze twice 
was usual in Aristotle's time ; but once, or more 
than twice, was uncommon (Prob. xxxiii. 3.). 

Petronius (Satyr, c. 98.) notices the " blessing " 
in the following passage : 

" Giton collectione spiritus plenus, ter continue ita 
sternutavit, ut grabatum concuteret. Ad quern motum 
Eumolpus con versus, salvere Gitona jubet." 

T. J. BUCKTON. 
Birmingham. 



ABUSES OF HACKNEY COACHES. 

[The following proclamation on this subject is of 
interest at the present moment. ] 

By the King. 

A Proclamation to restrain the Abuses of Hackney 
Coaches in the Cities of London and Westmin- 
ster, and the Suburbs thereof. 

Charles R. 

Whereas the excessive number of Hackney 
Coaches, and Coach Horses, in and about the 
Cities of London and Westminster, and the Sub- 
urbs thereof, are found to be a common nuisance 
to the Publique Damage of Our People by reason 

* The practice of snuff-taking has made the sneezing 
at anything a mark of contempt, in these degenerate 
days. 



of their rude and disorderly standing and pass- 
ing to and fro, in and about our said Cities and 
Suburbs, the Streets and Highways being thereby 
pestred and made impassable, the Pavements 
broken up, and the Common Passages obstructed 
and become dangerous, Our Peace violated, and 
sundry other mischiefs and evils occasioned : 

We, taking into Our Princely consideration 
these apparent Inconveniences, and resolving that 
a speedy remedy be applied to meet with, and 
redress them for the future, do, by and with the 
advice of our Privy Council, publish Our Royal 
Will and Pleasure to be, and we do by this Our 
Proclamation expressly charge and command, That 
no Person or Persons, of what Estate, Degree, or 
I Quality whatsoever, keeping or using any Hack- 
ney Coaches, or Coach Horses, do, from and after 
the Sixth day of November next, permit or suffer 
i the said Coaches and Horses, or any of them, to 
stand or remain in any the Streets or Passages 
in or about Our said Cities either of London or 
Westminster, or the Suburbs belonging to either 
i <5f them, to be there hired ; but that they and every 
of them keep their said Coaches and Horses within 
their respective Coach-houses, Stables, and Yards 
(whither such Persons as desire to hire the same 
may resort for that purpose), upon pain of Our 
high displeasure, and such Forfeitures, Pains, and 
i Penalties as may be inflicted for the Contempt of 
Our Royal Commands in the Premises, whereof 
| we shall expect a strict Accompt. 

And for the clue execution of Our Pleasure 
herein, We do further charge and command the 
; Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Our City of London, 
| That they in their several Ward?, and Our Jus- 
' tices of Peace within Our said Cities of London 
' and Westminster, and the Liberties and Suburbs 
thereof, and all other Our Officers and Ministers 
of Justice, to whom it appertaineth, do take 
especial care in their respective Limits that this 
Our Command be duly observed, and that they 
from time to time return the names of all those 
who shall wilfully offend in the Premises, to Our 
Privy Council, and to the end they may be pro- 
ceeded against by Indictments and Presentments 
for the Nuisance, and otherwise according to the 
severity of the Law and Demerits of the Offenders. 
Given at Our Court at Whitehall the 18th day 
of October in the 12th year of Our Reign. 

GOD SAVE THE KlXG. 

London : Printed by John Bell and Christopher 
Barker, Printers to the King's most Excellent 
Majesty, 1660. 

Pepys, in his Diary, vol. i. p. 152., under date 
8th November, 1660, says : 

" To Mr. Fox, who was very civil to me. Notwith- 
standing this was the first day of the King's proclama- 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



tion against hackney coaches coming into the streets to 
stand to be hired, yet I got one to carry me home." 

T. D. 



SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE. 

Passage in " The Tempest" Act I. Sc. 2. 

" The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitch, 
But that the sea, mounting to the welkin's cheek, 
Dashes the fire out." 

"The manuscript corrector of the folio 1C32," 
MR. COLLIER informs us, " has substituted heat for 
* cheek, 1 which is not an unlikely corruption, a 
person writing only by the ear." 

I should say very unlikely : but if heat had been 
actually printed in the folios, without speculating 
as to the probability that the press-copy was 
written from dictation, I should have had no 
hesitation in altering it to cheek. To this I 
should have been directed by a parallel passage in 
Richard II., Act III. Sc. 3., which has been over- 
looked by MR. COLLIER : 

" Methinks, King Richard and myself should meet 
With no less terror than the elements 
Of fire and water, when their thundering shock 
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven." 

Commentary here is almost useless. Everyone 
who has any capacity for Shakspearian criticism 
'must feel assured that Shakspeare wrote cheek, 
and not heat. 

The passage I have cited from Richard II. 
strongly reminds me of an old lady whom I met 
last autumn on a tour througli the Lakes of Cum- 
berland, &c. ; and who, during a severe thunder- 
storm, expressed to me her surprise at the per- 
tinacity of the lightning, adding, "I should think, 
Sir, that so much water in the heavens would 
have put all the fire out." 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
, Birmingham. 

The Case referred to by Shakspeare in Hamlet 
(Vol. vii., p. 550.). - 

" If the water come to the man." Shaltspeare. 

The argument Shakspeare referred to was that 
contained in Plowden's Report of the case of 
Hales v. Petit, heard in the Court of Common 
Pleas in the fifth year of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. It was held that though the wife of 
Sir James Hale, whose husband was felo-de-se, 
became by survivorship the holder of a joint term 
for years, yet, on office found, it should be for- 
feited on account of the act of the deceased hus- 
band. The learned Serjeants who were counsel 
for the defendant, alleged that the forfeiture 
should have relation to the act done in the party's 
lifetime, which was the cause of his death. " And 



upon this," they said, " the parts of the act are to 
i be considered." And Serjeant Walsh said : 

" The act consists of three parts. The first is the 
imagination, which is a reflection or meditation of the 
mind, whether or no it is convenient for him to destroy 
himself, and what way it can be done. The second is 
the resolution, which is the determination of the mind 
to destroy himself, and to do it in this or that par- 
ticular way. The third is the perfection, which is the 
execution of what the mind has resolved to do. And 
this perfection consists of two parts, viz. the beginning 
and the end. The beginning is the doing of the act 
which causes the death ; and the end is the death, which 
is only the sequel to the act. And of all the parts, the 
doing of the act is the greatest in the judgment of our 
law, and it is, in effect, the whole and the only part 
the law looks upon to be material. For the imagination 
of the mind to do wrong, without an act done, is not 
punishable in our law ; neither is the resolution to do 
that wrong which he does not, punishable ; but the 
doing of the act is the only point the law regards, for 
until the act is done it cannot be an offence to the 
world, and when the act is done it is punishable. Then, 
here, the act done by Sir James Hale, which is evil and 
the cause of his death, is the throwing of himself into 
the water, and death is but a sequel thereof, and this 
evil act ought some way to be punished. And if the 
forfeiture shall not have relation to the doing of the 
act, then the act shall not be punished at all, for inas- 
much as the person who did the act is dead, his person 
cannot be punished, and therefore there is no way else 
to punish him but by the forfeiture of those things 
which were his own at the time of the act done ; and 
the act was done in his lifetime, and therefore the for- 
feiture shall have relation to his lifetime, namely, to 
that time of his life in which he did the act which took 
away his life." 

And the judges, viz. Weston, Anthony Brown, 
and Lord Dyer, said : 

" That the forfeiture shall have relation to the time 
of the original offence committed, which was the cause 
of the death, and that was, the throwing himself into 
the water, which was done in his lifetime, and this 
act was felony." " So that the felony is attri- 
buted to the act, which act is always done by a living 
man and in his lifetime," as Brown said ; for he said, 
" Sir James Hale was dead, and how came he to his 
death? It may be answered, By drowning. And who 
drowned him ? Sir James Hale. And when did he 
drown him ? In his lifetime. So that Sir James 
Hale being alive, caused Sir James Hale to die ; and 
the act of the living man was the death of the dead 
man. And then for this offence it is reasonable to 
punish the living man who committed the offence, and 
not the dead man. But how can he be said to be 
punished alive when the punishment comes after his 
death ? Sir, this can be done no other way but by 
devesting out of him, from the time of the act done in 
his life, which was the cause of his death, the title and 
property of those things which he had in his lifetime." 

The above extract is long, but the work from 
which it is taken can be accessible to but very few 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



of your readers. Let them not, however, while 
they smile at the arguments, infer that those who 
took part in them were not deservedly among the 
most learned and eminent of our ancient judges. 

THOMAS FALCONER. 
Temple. 

Shakspeare Suggestion. 

" These sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours; 
Most busy less when I do it." 

Tempest, Act III. Sc. 1. 

I fear your readers will turn away from the 
very sight of the above. Be patient, kind friends, 
I will be brief. Has any one suggested 

" Most busy, least when I do " ? 
The words in the folio are 

" Most busy lest, when I do it." 

The "it" seems mere surplusage. The sense re- 
quires that the thoughts should be " most busy" 
whilst the hands "do least;" and in Shakspeare's 
time, "lest" was a common spelling for least. 

ICON. 

Shakspeare Controversy. I think the Shak- 
speare Notes contained in your volumes are not 
complete without the following quotation from 
The Summer Night of Ludwig Tieck, as translated 
by Mary Maynard in the Athen. of June 25, 1853. 
Puck, in addressing the sleeping boy Shakspeare, 
says : 

" After thy death, I'll raise dissension sharp, 

Loud strife among the herd of little minds : 
Envy shall seek to dim thy wondrous page, 
But all the clearer will thy glory shine." 

CERIDWEN. 



Falsified Gravestone in Stratford Churchyard. 
The following instance of a recent forgery 
having been extensively circulated, may lead to 
more careful examination by those who take notes 
of things extraordinary. 

The church at Stratford-upon-Avon was re- 
paired about the year 1839; and some of the 
workmen having their attention directed to the 
fact, that many persons who had attained to the 
full age of man were buried in the churchyard ; 
and, wishing " for the honour of the place," to 
improve the note-books of visitors, set about 
manufacturing an extraordinary instance of lon- 
gevity. A gravestone was chosen in an out-of- 
the-way place, in which there happened to be 
a space before the age (72). A figure 1 was 
cut in this space, and the age at death then 
stood 172. The sexton was either deceived, or 
assented to the deception ; as the late vicar, the 
Rev. J. Clayton, learned that it had become a 
practice with him (the sexton) to show strangers 



this gravestone, so falsified, as a proof of the ex- 
traordinary age to which people lived in the parish. 
The vicar had the fraudulent figure erased at once, 
and lectured the sexton for his dishonesty. 

These facts were related to me a few weeks since 
by a son of the late vicar. And as many strangers- 
visiting the tomb of Shakspeare "made a note" of 
this falsified age, "N. & Q." may now correct the 
forgery. ROBERT RAWUNSOK. 

Barnacles in the River Thames. In Porta's 
Natural Magic, Eng. trans., Lond. 1658, occurs 
the following curious passage : 

" Late writers report that not only in Scotland, but 
also in the river of Thames by London, there is a kind 
of shell-fish in a two-leaved shell, that hath a foot full 
of plaits and wrinkles : these fish are little, round, and 
outwardly white, smooth and beetle-shelled like an 
almond shell ; inwardly they are great bellied, bred as 
it were of moss and mud; they commonly stick in the 
keel of some old ship. Some say they come of worms, 
some of the boughs of trees which fall into the sea ; if 
any of them be cast upon shore they die, but they 
which are swallowed still into the sea, live and get out 
of their shells, and grow to be ducks or such like 
birds (!)." 

It would be curious to know what could give 
rise to such an absurd belief. SPEHIEND. 

Note for London Topographers. 

" The account of Mr. Mathias Fletcher, of Green- 
wich, for carving the Anchor Shield and King's Arms 
for the Admiralty Office in York Buildings, delivered 
Nov. 2, 1668, and undertaken by His Majesty's com- 
mand signified tome by the Hon. Samuel Pepys, Esq., 
Secretary for the Affairs of the Admiralty : 

" For a Shield for the middle of the s. d. 
front of the said office towards the Thames, 
containing the Anchor of Lord High Ad- 
miral of England with the Imperial Crown 
over it, and cyphers, being 8 foot deep and 
6 foot broad, I having found the timber, 
&c. SO O 

" For the King's Arms at large, with 
ornaments thereto, designed for the pedi- 
ment of the said front, the same being in 
the whole 15 foot long and 9 foot high, I 
finding timber, &c. - - - - 73 15 O 

103 15 O" 

Extracted from Rawlinson MS. A. 170, fol. 132. 

J. YEOWELL. 

The Aliases and Initials of Authors. It has 
often occurred to me that it would save much 
useless inquiry and research, if a tolerable list 
could be collected of the principal authors who 
have published their works under assumed names 
or initials : thus, " II. B. Robert Burton," Nathaniel 
Crouch, "R.F.Scoto-Britannicus," Robert Fairley, 
&c. The commencement of a new volume of 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



125 



" N. & Q." affords an excellent opportunity for at- 
tempting this. If the correspondents of " N. & Q." 
would contribute their mites occasionally with this 
view, by the conclusion of the volume, I have little 
doubt but a very valuable list might be obtained. 
For the sake of reference, the whole contributions 
obtained could then be amalgamated, and alpha- 
betically arranged. PERTHENSIS. 

Pure. In visiting an old blind woman the 
other day, I was struck with what to me was a 
peculiar use of the word pure. Having inquired 
after the dame's health, and been assured that she 
was much better, I begged her not to rise from 
the bed on which she was sitting, whereupon she 
said, "Thank you, Sir, I feel quite pure this 
morning." OXONIENSIS. 

Oakridge, Gloucestershire. 

Darling's " Cyclopeedia Bibliographica." The 
utility of Mr. Darling's Cyclopeedia Bibliographica 
is exemplified by the solution conveyed under the 
title " Crellius," p. 813., of the following difficulty 
expressed by Dr. Hey, the Norrisian professor 
(Lectures, vol. iii. p. 40.) : 

" Paul Crellius and John Maclaurin seem to have 
been of the same way of thinking with John Agricola. 
Nicholls, on this Article [Eighth of the Thirty-nine 
Articles], refers to Paul Crellius's book De Libertate 
Christiana, hut I do not find it anywhere. A speech of 
his is in the Bodleian Catalogue, but not this work." 

Similar information might have been received 
by your correspondent (Vol. vii., p. 381.), who 
inquired whether Huet's Navigations of Solomon 
was ever published. In the Cyclopaedia reference 
is made to two collections in which this treatise 
has been inserted, Crit. Sac., viii. ; Ugolinus, vii. 
277. With his usual accuracy, Mr. Darling states 
there are additions in the Critici Sacri printed at 
Amsterdam, 1698-1732, as Huet's treatise above 
referred to is not in the first edition, London, 

1660. BlBLIOTHECAB. CHETHAM. 



DELFT MANUFACTURE. 

I am extremely desirous of obtaining some in- 
formation respecting the Dutch manufactories of 
enamelled pottery, or Delft ware, as we call it. 

On a former occasion, by your connexion with 
the Navorscher, you were able to obtain for me 
some very valuable and interesting information in 
reply to some question put respecting the Dutch 
porcelain manufactories. I am therefore in hopes 
that some kind correspondent in Holland will be 
so obliging as to impart to me similar information 
on this subject also. I should wish to know 

When, by whom, at what places, and under 
what circumstances, the manufacture of enamelled 
pottery was first introduced into Holland ? 



Whether there were manufactories at other 
towns besides Delft ? 

Whether they had any distinctive marks ; and, 
if so, what were they ? 

Whether there was more than one manufactory 
at Delft ; and, if so, what were their marks, and 
what was the meaning of them ? 

Whether any particular manufactories were 
confined to the making of any particular sort or 
quality of articles ; and, if so, what were they ? 

Whether any of the manufactories have ceased ; 
and, if so, at what period ? 

Also, any other particulars respecting the ma- 
nufactories and their products that it may be pos- 
sible to communicate through the medium of a 
paper like " N. & Q." OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 



The Withered Hand and Motto " Utinam." 
At Compton Park, near Salisbury, the seat of the 
Penruddocke family, there is a three-quarter 
length picture, in the Velasquez style, of a gen- 
tleman in a rich dress of black velvet, with broad 
lace frill and cuffs, and ear-rings, probably of the 
latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. His right 
hand, which he displays somewhat prominently, is 
withered. The left one is a-kimbo, and less seen. 
In the upper part of the painting is the single 
Latin word "UTINAM" (Othat!). There is no 
tradition as to who this person was. Any sug- 
gestion on the subject would gratify J. 

History of York. Who is the author of a 
History of York, in 2 vols., published at that city 
in 1788 by T. Wilson and R. Spence, High Ouse- 
gate ? I have seen it in several shops, and heard 
it attributed to Drake ; and obtained it the other 
day from an extensive library in Bristol, in the 
Catalogue of which it is styled Drake's Eboracum. 
Several allusions in the first volume to his work, 
however, render it impossible to be ascribed to 
him. It is dedicated to the Right Honourable Sir 
William Mordaunt Milner, of Nunappleton, Bart., 
who was mayor at the time. R. W. ELLIOT. 

Clifton. 

"Hauling over the coals." What is the origin 
and meaning of the phrase, " Hauling one over 
the coals ;" and where does it first appear ? FABEE. 

Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury. Can any 
of your readers give me any information respect- 
ing the Mr. or Dr. Butler, of St. Edmund's Bury, 
referred to in the extracts from the Post Boy and 
Gough's Topography, quoted by MK. BALLARD in 
Vol. vii., p. 617. ? BURIENSIS. 

Washington. Anecdotes relative to General 
Washington, President of the United States, in- 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



tended for a forthcoming work on the " Homes of 
American Statesmen," will be gratefully received 
for the author by JOSEPH STANSBURY. 

26. Parliament Street. 

Norman of Winster. Can any of your corre- 
spondents afford information bearing on the family 
of Norman of Winster, county of Derby ? 

" John Norman of Winster, county of Derby, 
married, in 1715 or 171 6, to Jane (maiden name par- 
ticularly wanted). The said J. Norman married 
again in 1723, to Mary" (maiden name wanted 
also). 

I shall be particularly obliged to any one afford- 
ing such information. W. 

Sir Arthur Aston. I shall be much obliged, 
should any of your very numerous correspondents 
be able to inform me in which part or parish, of 
the county of Berkshire, the celebrated cavalier 
Sir Arthur Aston resided upon his return from the 
foreign wars in which he had been for so many 
years engaged ; and previously to the rupture be- 
tween Charles I. and the Houses of Parliament. 

I believe one of his daughters, about the same 
period, married a gentleman residing in the same 
county : also that George Tattersall, Esq., of 
Finchampstead, a family of consideration in the 
same county of Berkshire, was a near relative. 

CHARTHAM. 

"Jamieson the Piper" -I am anxious to ascer- 
tain who was the author of the above ditty; it 
was very popular in Aberdeenshire about the 
beginning of this century. The scene, if I remem- 
ber rightly, is laid in the parish of Forgue, in 
Aberdeenshire. Possibly some of the members of 
the Spalding Club may be able to enlighten me 
on the subject. BATHENSIS. 

"Reiser Glomer" I have a Danish play enti- 
tled Reiser Glomer, Frit oversatte afdet Ryhlamske 
vech C. Bredahl: Kiobenhavn, 1834. It is a mix- 
ture of tragedy and farce : the former occasionally 
good, the latter poor buffoonery. In the notes, 
readings of the old MS. are referred to -with 
apparent seriousness ; but Gaminel Gumbo's Saga 
is quoted in a manner that seems burlesque. I 
cannot find the word " Kyhlam" in any dictionary. 
Can any of your readers tell me whether it signi- 
fies a real country, or is a mere fiction ? The 
work does not read like a translation ; and, if one, 
the number of modern allusions show that it is 
not, as it professes to be, from an ancient manu- 
script. M. M. E. 

TiecKs Comcedia Divina. I copied the follow- 
ing lines six years ago from a review in a Munich 
newspaper of Batornicki's Ungdttliche Comodie. 
They were cited as from Tieck's suppressed (zu- 
riickgezogen) satire, La Comodie Divina, from 



which Batornicki was accused of plundering freely, 
thinking that, from its variety, he would not be 
detected : 

" Spitzt so hoch ihr konnt euer Ohr, 
Gar wunderbare Dinge kommen hier vor. 
Gott Vater identificirt sich mit der Kreatur, 
Derm er will anschauen die absolute Natur ; 
Aber zum Bewustseyn kann er nicht gedeihen, 
Drum muss er sich mit sich selbst entzweien." 

I omitted to note the paper, but preserved the 
lines as remarkable. I have since tried to find 
some account of La Divina Comedia, but in vain. 
It is not noticed in any biography of Tieck. Can 
any of your readers tell me what it is, or who 
wrote it ? M. M. E. 

Fossil Trees between Cairo and Suez Stream 
like that in Say of Argastoli. Can any of your 
readers oblige me by stating where the best in- 
formation may be met with concerning the very 
remarkable fossil trees on the way from Cairo to 
Suez ? And, if there has yet been discovered 
any other stream or rivulet running from the 
ocean into the land similar to that in the Bay of 
Argastoli in the Island of Cephalonia ? H. M. 

Presbyterian Titles (Vol. v., p. 516.). Where 
may be found a list of " the quaint and uncouth 
titles of the old Presbyterians ? " 

P. J. F. GANTLLLON, B. A. 

Mayors and Sheriff's. Can you or any of your 
readers inform me which ought to be considered 
the principal officer, or which is the most import- 
ant, and which ought to have precedence of the 
other, the mayor of a town or borough, or the 
sheriff of a town or borough ? and is the mayor 
merely the representative of the town, and the 
sheriff of the Queen ; and if so, ought not the re- 
presentative of majesty to be considered more 
honourable than the representative of merely a 
borough ; and can a sheriff of a borough claim to 
have a grant of arms, if he has not any previous ? 

A SUBSCRIBER. 

Nottingham. 

The Beauty of Butter mere. In an article con- 
tributed by Coleridge to the Morning Post (vid. 
Essays on his otvn Times, vol. ii. p. 591.), he says: 

" It seems that there are some circumstances attend- 
ing her birth and true parentage, which would account 
for her striking superiority in mind and manners, in a 
way extremely flattering to the prejudices of rank and 
birth." 

What are the circumstances alluded to ? 

K. W. ELLIOT. 
Clifton. 

Sheer Hulk, Living in a maritime town, and 
hearing nautical terms frequently used, I had al- 
ways supposed this term to mean an old vessel, 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



with sheers, or spars, erected upon it, for the pur- 
pose of roasting and unmasting ships, and was lee 
to attribute the use of it, by Sir W. Scott anc 
other writers, for a vessel totally dismasted, to 
their ignorance of the technical terms. But of 
late it has been used in the latter sense by a 
writer in the United Service Magazine professing 
to be a nautical man. I -still suspect that this use 
of the word is wrong, and should be glad to hear 
on the subject from any of your naval readers. 

I believe that the word " buckle " is still used 
in the dockyards, and among seamen, to signify to 
"bend" (see "N.&Q.," Vol.vii., p. 375.), though 
rarely. J. S. WARDEN. 

The Lapwing or Peewitt (Vanellus cristatus). 
Can any of your correspondents, learned in natural 
history, throw any light upon the meaning in the 
following line relative to this bird ? 

" The blackbird far its hues shall know, 
As lapwing knows the vine." 

In the first line the allusion is to the berries of the 
hawthorn ; but what the lapwing has to do with 
the vine, I am at a loss to know. Having forgotten 
whence I copied the above lines, perhaps some one 
will favor me with the author's name. 

J. B. WHITBOBNE. 

" Could we with ink," Sfc. Could you, or any 
of your numerous and able correspondents, in- 
form me who is the bond fide author of the follow- 
ing lines ? 

" Could we with ink the ocean fill, 

And were the heavens of parchment made, 
Were every stalk on earth a quill, 

And every man a scribe by trade ; 
To write the love of God above, 

Would drain the ocean dry ; 
Nor could the scroll contain the whole, 
Though stretch'd from sky to sky." 

NAPHTALI. 

Launching Query. With reference to the acci- 
dent to H.M.S. Caesar at Pembroke, I would ask, 
Is there any other instance of a ship, on being 
launched, stopping on the ways, and refusing to 
move in spite of all efforts to start her ? A. B. 

Manliness. Query, What is the meaning of 
the word as used in " N". & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 94., 
col. 2. 1. 12. ANONYMOUS. 



Minat 



foifij 



Pues or Pews. Which is the correct way of 
spelling this word ? What is its derivation ? Why 
has the form pue been lately so much adopted ? 

OMEGA. 

[The abuses connected with the introduction of pues 
into churches have led to an investigation of their his- 
tory, as well as to the etymology of the word. Hence 



the modern adoption of its original and more correct 
orthography, that of pue ; the Dutch puye, puyd, and 
the English pue, being derived from the Latin podium. 
In Vol. iii., p. 56., we quoted the following as the earliest 
notice of the word from the Vision of Piers Plouman: 

" Among wyves and wodewes ich am ywoned sute 
Yparroked in pues. The person hit knoweth." 

Again, in Richard III., Act IV. Sc. 4. : "And makes 
her pue-fellow with others moan." In Decker's West- 
ward Hoe: " Being one day in church, she made monc 
to her pue-fellow." And in the Northern Hoe of the" 
same author: " He would make him a pue-fellow with' 
lords." See a paper on The History of Pews, read be- 
fore the Cambridge Camden Society, Nov. 22, 1841.] ; 

"Jerningham" and " Doveton." Who was the 
author of Jerningham and Doveton, two admirable 
works of fiction published some twelve or fifteen 
years ago ? They are equal to anything written 
by Bulwer Lytton or by James. J. MT. ; 

[The author of these works was Mr. Anstruther.] 



BATTLE OF VILLEBS EN COtJCHE. 

(Vol. viii., p. 8.) 

I possess a singular work, consisting of a series 
of Poetical Sketches of the campaigns of 1793 and 
1794, written, as the title-page asserts, by an 
" officer of the Guards ;" who appears to have been, 
from what he subsequently states, on the personal 
staff of His Royal Highness the late Duke of York. 
This work, I have been given to understand, was 
suppressed shortly after its publication ; the ludi- 
crous light thrown by its pages on the conduct of 
many of the chief parties engaged in the transac- 
tions it records, being no doubt unpalatable to 
those high in authority. From the notes, which 
are valuable as appearing to emanate from an eye- 
witness, and sometimes an actor in the scenes he 
describes, I send the following extracts for the 
information of your correspondent ; premising 
that the letter to which they are appended is dated 
from the " Camp at Inchin, April 26, 1794." 

" As the enemy were known to have assembled in 
reat force at the Camp de Czcsar, near Cambray, 
Prince Cobourg requested the Duke of York would 
make a reconnaissance in that direction : accordingly, 
on the evening of the 23rd, Major-General MansePs 
brigade of heavy cavalry was ordered about a league 
in front of their camp, where they lay that night at 

farm-house, forming part of a detachment under 
General Otto. Early the next morning, an attack was 
made on the French drawn up in front of the village 
of Villers en Couchee (between Le Cateau and Bou- 
chain) by the 15th regiment of Light Dragoons, and 
two squadrons of Austrian Hussars : they charged 
;he enemy with such velocity and force, that, darting 
hrough their cavalry, they dispersed a line of infantry 
brmed in their rear, forcing them also to retreat pre- 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



cipitately and in great confusion, under cover of the 
ramparts of Cambray ; with a loss of 1200 men, and 
three pieces of cannon. The only British officer 
wounded was Captain Aylett : sixty privates fell, and 
about twenty were wounded. 

" Though the heavy brigade was formed at a dis- 
tance under a brisk cannonade, while the light dragoons 
;had so glorious an opportunity of distinguishing them- 
selves, there are none who can attach with propriety 
any blame on account of their unfortunate delay ; for 
which General Otto was surely, as having the com- 
mand, alone accountable, and not General Mansel, who 
acted at all times, there is no doubt, according to the 
best of his judgment for the good of the service. 

" The Duke of York had, on the morning of the 
26th, observed the left flank of tlie enemy to be unpro- 
tected ; and, by ordering the cavalry to wheel round 
and attack on that side, afforded them an opportunity 
of gaining the highest credit by defeating the French 
army so much superior to them in point of numbers. 

" General Mansel rushing into the thickest of the 
enemy, devoted himself to death ; and animated by his 
example, that very brigade performed such prodigies of 
valour, as must have convinced the world that Britons, 
once informed how to act, justify the highest opinion 
that can possibly be entertained of their native courage. 
Could such men have ever been willingly backward? 
Certainly not. 

" General Mansel's son, a captain in the 3rd Dragoon 
Guards, anxious to save his father's life, had darted 
forwards, and was taken prisoner, and carried into 
Cambray. Since his exchange, he has declared that 
there was not, on the 26th, a single French soldier left 
in the town, as Chapuy had drawn out the whole gar- 
rison to augment the army destined to attack the camp 
of Inchi. Had that circumstance been fortunately 
known at the time, a detachment of the British army 
might easily have marched along the Chaussee, and 
taken possession of the place ere the Republicans could 
possibly have returned, as they had in their retreat 
described a circuitous detour of some miles." 

MR. SIMPSON will perceive, from the above 
extracts, that the brilliant skirmish of Villers en 
Couche took place on April 24th ; whereas the 
defeat of the French army under Chapuy did not 
occur until two days later. A large quantity of 
ammunition and thirty-five pieces of cannon were 
then captured; and although the writer does not 
mention the number who were killed on the part 
of the enemy, yet, as he states that Chapuy and 
near 400 of his men were made prisoners, their 
loss by death was no doubt proportionately large. 

The 15th Hussars have long borne on their 
colours the memorable words "Villers en Couche" 
to commemorate the daring valour they displayed 
on that occasion. T. C. SMITH. 

In Cruttwell's Universal Gazetteer (1808), this 
village, which is five miles north-east of Cambray, 
is described as being " remarkable for an action 
between the French and the Allies on the 24th of 
April, 1794." The following officers of the 15th 



regiment of light dragoons are there named as 
having afterwards received crosses of the Order of 
Maria Theresa for their gallant behaviour, from 
the Emperor of Germany, viz. : 

" Major W. Aylett, Capt. Robert Pocklington, Capt. 
Edw. Michael Ryan, Lieut. Thos. Granby Calcraft, 
Lieut. Win. Keir, Lieut. Chas. Burrel Blount, Cornet 
Edward Gerald Butler, and Cornet Robert Thos. 
Wilson." 

D. S. 



SNAIL-EATING. 

(Vol. viii., p. 33.) 

The Surrey snails referred to by H. T. RILEY, 
are thus mentioned by Aubrey in his account of 
Box Hill : 

" On the south downs of this county (Surrey), and 
in those of Sussex, are the biggest snails that ever I 
saw, twice or tbree times as big as our common snails, 
whith are the Bavoli or Drivalle, which Mr. Elias 
Ashmole tells me that the Lord Marshal brought 
from Italy, and scattered them on the Downs here- 
abouts, and between Albury and Horsley, where are 
the biggest of all." 

Again, Aubrey, in his Natural History of Wilt- 
shire, says : 

" The great snailes on the downes at Albury, in 
Surrey (twice as big as ours) were brought from Italy 
by * * * Earle Marshal, about 1638." Aubrey's 
History, p. 10., edited by John Britton, F.S. A., pub- 
lished by the Wiltshire Topographical Society, 1847. 

The first of these accounts, from Aubrey's Surrey, 
I have quoted in my Promenade round Dorking, 
2nd edit. 1823, p. 274., and have added in a note : 

" This was one of the Earls of Arundel. It is pro- 
bably from this snail account that the error, ascribing 
the planting of the box (on Box Hill) to one of the 
Earls of Arundel, has arisen. The snails were brought 
thither for the Countess of Arundel, who was accus- 
tomed to dress and eat them for a consumptive com- 
plaint." 

When I lived at Dorking (18151821) abreed 
of large white snails was found on Box Hill. 

JOHN TIMBS. 

MR. H. T. RILEY is informed that the breed of 
white snails he refers to is to be plentifully found 
in the neighbourhood of Shere. I have found 
them frequently near the neighbouring village of 
Albury, on St. Martha's Hill, and I am told they 
are to be met with in the lanes as far as Dorking. 
I have always heard that they were imported for 
the use of a lady who was in a consumption ; but 
who this was, or when it happened, I have never 
been able to ascertain. NEDLAM. 

The breed of large white snails is to be found 
all along the escarpment of the chalk range, and is 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



not confined to Surrey. It is said to have been 
introduced into England by Sir Kenelm Digby, 
and was considered very nutritious and wholesome 
for consumptive patients. About the end of the 
last century I was in the habit of collecting a few 
of the common garden snails from the fruit-trees, 
and taking them every morning to a lady who was 
in a delicate state of health ; she took them boiled 
or stewed, or cooked in some manner with milk, 
making a mucilaginous drink. E. H. 

I have somewhere read of the introduction of a 
foreign breed of snails into Cambridgeshire, I 
forget the exact locality, for the table of the 
monks who imported them ; but unfortunately it 
was before I commenced making " notes " on the 
subject, and I have not been able to recollect 
where to find it. SJELEUCUS. 



INSCRIPTION NEAR CIRENCESTEB. 

(Vol. viii., p. 76.) 

This inscription is not " in Earl Bathurst's 
park," as your correspondent A. SMITH says, but 
is in Oakley Woods, situated at some three or four 
miles' distance from Cirencester, and being sepa- 
rated and quite distinct from the park ; nor is the 
inscription correctly copied. Rudder, in his new 
History of Gloucestershire, 1779, says : 

" Concealed as it were in the wood stands Alfred's 
Hall, a building that has the semblance of great an- 
tiquity. Over the door opposite to the south entrance, 
on the inside, is the following inscription in the Saxon 
character and language [of which there follows a 
copy]. Over the south door is the following Latin 
translation : 

" ' Fcedus quod JElfredus & Gythrunus reges, 
omnes Anylia sapientes, quicunq ; Angliam incolebant 
orientalem, ferierunt ; & non solum de seipsis, verum 
etiam de natzs suis, ac nondum in lucem editis, quot- 
quot misericordiae divinas aut regias velznt esse parti- 
cipes jurejurando sanxerunt. 

" ' Primo ditionis ncstras fines ad TAamesin eve- 
huntttr, inde ad Leam usq; ad fontem ejus ; turn recta 
ad Bedfordiam, 'ac deniq; per Usam ad viam Vete- 
limjianam.' " 

I copy from Rudder, with the stops and con- 
tracted " et's," as they stand in his work ; though 
I think the original has points between each word, 
as marked by A. SMITH. 

The omissions and mistakes of your correspon- 
dent (which you will perceive are important) are 
marked in Italics above. 

Rudder adds, 

" Behind this building is a ruin with a stone on the 
chimney-piece, on which, in ancient characters relieved 
on the stone, is this inscription : 

' IN . MEM . ALFREDI . REG . RESTAVR . ANO . DO . 1085.' 

" It would have been inexcusable in the topographer 
to have passed by so curious a place without notice ; 
but the historian would have been equally culpable 



who should not have informed the reader that this 
building is an excellent imitation of antiquity. The 
name, the inscription, and the writing over the doors, 
of the convention between the good king and his pagan 
enemies, were probably all suggested by the similarity 
of Achelie, the ancient name of this place, to JEcglea, 
where King Alfred rested with his army the night 
before he attacked the Danish camp at Ethandun, 
and at length forced their leader Godrum, or Guthrum, 
or Gormund, to make such convention." 

It is many years since I saw the inscription, and 
then I made no note of it ; but I have no doubt 
that Rudder has given it correctly, because when 
I was a young man I was intimately acquainted 
with him, who was then an aged person ; and a 
curious circumstance that occurred between u?, 
and is still full in my memory, impressed me with 
the idea of his great precision and exactness. 

I would remark on the explanation given by 
Rudder, that the Iglea of Asser is supposed by 
Camden, Gibson, Gough, and Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare to be Clayhill, eastward of Warminster ; 
and Ethandun to be Edirtgton, about three miles 
eastward of Westbury, both in Wilts. 

Asser says that, " in the same year," the year of 
the battle, " the army of the pagans, departing 
from Chippenham, as had been promised, went to 
Cirencester, where they remained one year." 

On the signal defeat of Guthrum, he gave hos- 
tages to Alfred ; and it is probable that, if any 
treaty was made between them, it was made im- 
mediately after the battle ; and not that Alfred 
came from his fortress of 2Ethelingay to meet 
Guthrum at Cirencester, where his army lay after 
leaving Chippenham. 

If the treaty was made soon after the battle, it 
might have been at Alfred's Hall near Cirences- 
ter, especially if Hampton (Minchinhampton in 
Gloucestershire), which is only six miles from 
Oakley Wood, be the real site of the great and 
important battle, as was, a few years since, very 
plausibly argued by Mr. John Marks MofTatt, in a 
paper inserted, with the signature " J. M. M.," in 
Bray ley's Graphic and Historical Illustrator, p. 106. 
et seq., 1834. 

The mention of Rudder's History brings to my 
mind an inscription over the door of Westbury 
Court, which I noticed when a boy at school, in 
the village of Westbury in this county. This man- 
sion was taken down during the minority of May- 
nard Colchester, Esq., the present owner of the 
estate. Rudder, in his account of that parish, has 
preserved the inscription 

"D. 

o. M. 

N. M. M. H. E. P. N. C." 

He reads the first three letters " Deo Optimo 
Maximo," and says the subsequent line contains 
the initials of the following hexameter : 

" Nunc mea, mox hujus, et postea nescio cujus," 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 197. 



alluding to the successive descent of property from 
one generation to another. 

Perhaps one of your readers may be enabled to 
tell me whether the above line be original, or 
copied, and from whom. P. H. FISHEB. 

Stroud. 

The agreement referred to is no other than 
the famous treaty of peace between Alfred and 
Guthrun, whose name, by the substitution of an 
initial " L." for a " G.," among various other inac- 
curacies for which your correspondent is perhaps 
not responsible, has been disguised under the form 
of " Lvthrvnvs." The inscription itself forms the 
commencement of the treaty, which is stated, in 
Turner's Anglo-Saxons, book iv. ch. v., to be still 
extant. It is translated as follows, in Lambard's 
ApXcuovo/jua, p. 36. : 

" Fcedus quod Aluredus & Gythrunus reges ex sa- 
pientum Anglorum, atque eorum omnium qui orien- 
talem incolebant Angliam consulto ferienmt, in quod 
praeterea singuli non solutn de se ipsis, verum etiam de 
natis suis, ac nondum in lucera editis (quotquot saltern 
misericordiae divinaj aut regiae velint esse participes), 
jurarunt. 

" Primo igitur ditionis nostrae fines ad Thamesim 
fluvium evehuntor : Inde ad Learn flu men profecti, ad 
fontem ejus deferuntor : turn recta ad Bedfordiam por- 
riguntor, ac denique per Usam fluvium porrecti ad viam 
Vetelingianam desinunto." 

Another translation will be found in Wilkins's 
Leges Anglo- Saxonicce, p. 47., and the Saxon ori- 
ginal in both. As to the boundaries here denned, 
see note in Spelman's Alfred, p. 36. 

At Cirencester Guthrun remained for twelve 
months after his baptism, according to his treaty 
with Alfred. (See Si?n. Dunelm. de gestis Regum 
Anglorum, sub anno 879.) J. F. M. 



CURIOUS CUSTOM OF HINGING BELLS FOB THE 
DEAD. 

(Vol. viii., p. 55.) 

W. W., alluding to such a custom at Marshfield, 
Massachusets, asks " if this custom ever did, or 
does now exist in the mother country ? " The 
curiosity is that your worthy Querist has never 
heard of it ! Dating from Malta, it may be he has 
never been in our ringing island : for it must be 
known to every Englishman, that the custom, 
varying no doubt in different localities, exists in 
every parish in England. 

The passing bell is of older date than the canon 
of our church, which directs " that when any is 
passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled, and 
the minister shall not then slack to do his duty. 
And after the party's death, if it so fall out, then 
shall be rung no more than one short peal." 



It is interesting to learn that our colonists keep 
up this custom of their mother country. 

In this parish, the custom has been to ring as 
quickly after death as the sexton can be found ; 
and the like prevails elsewhere. I have known 
persons, sensible of their approaching death, direct 
the bell at once to be tolled. 

Durand, in his Rituals of the Roman Church, 
says : " For expiring persons bells must be tolled, 
that people may put up their prayers : this must 
be done twice for a woman, and thrice for a man." 
And such is still the general custom : either before 
or after the knell is rung, to toll three times three, 
or three times two, at intervals, to mark the sex.* 

"Defunctos plorare" is probably as old as any 
use of a bell ; but there is every reason to believe, 
that 

" the ringing of bells at the departure of the soul (to 
quote from Brewster's Ency. ) originated in the darkest 
ages, but with a different view from that in which they 
are npw employed. It was to avert the influence of 
Demons. But if the superstition of our ancestors 
did not originate in this imaginary virtue, while they 
preserved the practice, it is certain they believed the 
mere noise had the same effect ; and as, according to 
their ideas, evil spirits were always hovering around to 
make a prey of departing souls, the tolling of bells 
struck them with terror. We may trace the practice 
of tolling bells during funerals to the like source. This 
has been practised from times of great antiquity : the 
bells being muffled, for the sake of greater solemnity, 
in the same way as drums are muffled at military 
funerals." 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Rectory, Clyst St. George. 

At St. James' Church, Hull, on the occurrence 
of a death in the parish, a bell is tolled quickly 
for about the space of ten minutes ; and before 
ceasing, nine knells given if the deceased be a 
man, six if a woman, and three if a child. As far 
as I have been able to ascertain, the custom is 
now almost peculiar to the north of England ; but 
in ancient times it must have been very general 
according to Durandus, who has the following in 
his Rationale, lib. i. cap. 4. 13. : 

" Verum aliquo moriente, campanse debent pulsar! ; 
ut populus hoc audiens, oret pro illo. Pro muliere 
quidem bis, pro eo quod invenit asperitatera .... Pro 
viro vero ter pulsatur .... Si autem clericus sit, tot 
vicibus simpulsatur, quot ordines habuit ipse. Ad 
ultimum vero compulsari debet cum omnibus campanis, 
ut itasciat populus pro quo sit orandutn." Mr. Strutt's 
Man. and Oust., iii. 176. 



* This custom of three tolls for a man, and two for 
a woman, is thus explained in an ancient Homily on 
Trinity Sunday: "At the deth of a manne, three 
bells should be ronge as his knyll in worship of the 
Trinitie. And for a woman, who was the second per- 
son of the Trinitie, two bells should be ronge." 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



Also a passage is quoted from an old English 
Homily, ending with : 

" At the deth of a manne three bellis shulde be 
ronge, as his knyll, in worscheppe of the Trinetee ; and 
for a womanne, who was the secunde persone of the 
Trinetee, two bellis should be rungen." 

In addition to the intention of the "passing- 
bell," afforded by Durandus above, it has been 
thought that it was rung to drive away the evil 
spirits, supposed to stand at the foot of the bed 
ready to seize the soul, that it might " gain start." 
Wynkyn de Worde, in his Golden Legend, speaks 
of the dislike of spirits to bells. In alluding to 
this subject, Wheatly, in his work on the Book of 
Common Prayer, chap. xi. sec. viii. 3., says : 

" Our Church, in imitation of the Saints of former 
ages, calls in the minister, and others who are at hand, 
to assist their brother in his last extremity." 

The 67th canon enjoins that, " when any one is 
passing out of this life, a bell shall be tolled, and 
the minister shall not then slack to do his duty. 
And after the party's death, if it so fall out, there 
shall be rung 720 more than one short peal" 

Several other quotations might be adduced 
(vid. Brand's Antiq., vol. ii. pp. 203, 204. from 
which much of the above has been derived) to 
show that " one short peal " was ordered only to 
be rung after the Reformation : the custom of 
signifying the sex of the deceased by a certain 
number of knells must be a relic, therefore, of very 
ancient usage, and unauthorised by the Church. 

R. W. ELLIOT. 

Clifton. 



WHO FIRST THOUGHT OF TABLE-TURNING ? 

(Vol. viii., p. 57.) 

Respecting the origin of this curious pheno- 
menon in America, I am not able to give your 
correspondent, J. G. T. of Hagley, any inform- 
ation ; but it may interest him and others among 
the readers of " N. & Q." to have some account 
of what appears to be the first recorded experi- 
ment, made in Europe, of table-moving. These 
experiments are related in the supplement (now 
lying before me) to the Allgemeine Zeitung of 
April 4, by Dr. K. Andree, who writes from 
Bremen on the subject. His letter is dated 
March 30, and begins by stating that the whole 
town had been for eight days preceding in a state 
of most peculiar excitement, owing to a pheno- 
menon which entirely absorbed the attention of 
all, and about which no one had ever thought 
before the arrival of the American steam-ship 
" Washington " from New York. Dr. Andree 
proceeds to relate that the information respect- 
ing table-moving was communicated in a letter, 
brought through that ship, from a native of 
Bremen, residing in New York, to his sister, who 



was living in Bremen, and who, in her correspon- 
dence with her brother, had been rallying him 
about the American spirit-rappings, and other 
Yankee humbug, as she styled it, so rampant in 
the United States. Her brother instanced this 
table-moving, performed in America, as no delusion, 
but as a fact, which might be verified by any one ; 
and then gave some directions for making the 
experiment, which was forthwith attempted at the 
lady's house in Bremen, and with perfect success, 
in the presence of a large company. In a few 
days the marvellous feat, the accounts of which 
flew like wildfire all over the country, was exe- 
cuted by hundreds of experimenters in Bremen. 
The subject was one precisely adapted to excite 
the attention and curiosity of the imaginative and 
wonder-loving Germans ; and, accordingly, in 
a few days after, a notice of the strange pheno- 
menon appeared in The Times, in a letter from 
Vienna, and, through the medium of the leading 
journal, the facts and experiments became rapidly 
diffused over the world, and have been repeated 
and commented upon ten thousand fold. As the 
experiment and its results are now brought within 
the domain of practical science, we may hope to 
see them soon freed from the obscurity and uncer- 
tainly which still envelope them, and assigned to 
their proper place in the wondrous system of 
" Him, in whom we live, and move, and have our 
being." JOHN MACEAT. 

Oxford. 



SCOTCHMEN IN POLAND. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 475. 600.) 

" Religious freedom was at that time [the middle of 
the sixteenth century] enjoyed in Poland to a degree 
unknown in any other part of Europe, where generally 
the Protestants were persecuted by the Romanists, or 
the Romanists by the Protestants. This freedom, united 
to commercial advantages, and a wide field for the exer- 
cise of various talents, attracted to Poland crowds of 
foreigners, who iled their native land on account of 
religious persecution ; and many of whom became, by 
their industry and talents, very useful citizens of their 
adopted country. There were at Cracow, Vilna, Posen, 
c., Italian and French Protestant congregations. A 
great number of Scotch settled in different parts of 
Poland ; and there were Scotch Protestant congrega- 
tions not only in the above-mentioned towns, but also 
in other places, and a particularly numerous one at 
Kieydany, a little town of Lithuania, belonging to the 
Princes Radziwill. Amongst the Scotch families set- 
tled in Poland, the principal were the Bonars, who 
arrived in that country before the Reformation, but 
became its most zealous adherents. This family rose, 
by its wealth, and the great merit of several of its 
members, to the highest dignities of the state, but be- 
came extinct during the seventeenth century. There 
are even now in Poland many families of Scotch de- 
scent belonging to the class of nobles ; as, for instance, 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



the Haliburtons, Wilsons, Ferguses, Stuarts, Haslers, 
Watsons, &c. Two Protestant clergymen of Scotch 
origin, Forsyth and Inglis, have composed some sacred 
poetry. But the most conspicuous of all the Polish 
Scotchmen is undoubtedly Dr. John Johnstone [born 
in Poland 1603, died 1675], perhaps the most remark- 
able writer of the seventeenth century on natural his- 
tory. It seems, indeed, that there is a mysterious link 
connecting the two distant countries ; because, if many 
Scotsmen had in bygone days sought and found a 
second fatherland in Poland, a strong and active sym- 
pathy for the sufferings of the last-named country, and 
her exiled children, has been evinced in our own times 
by the natives of Scotland in general, and by some of 
the most distinguished amongst them in particular. 
Thus it was an eminent bard of Caledonia, the gifted 
author of The Pleasures of Hope, who, when 

' Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime,' 

has thrown, by his immortal strains, over the fall of her 
liberty, a halo of glory which will remain unfaded as 
long as the English language lasts. The name of 
Thomas Campbell is venerated throughout all Poland ; 
but there is also another Scotch name [Lord Dudley 
Stuart] which is enshrined in the heart of every true 
Pole." From Count Valerian Krasinski's Sketch of 
the Religious History of the Sclavonic Nations, p. 167. : 
Edinburgh, Johnstone and Hunter, 1851. 

J. K. 



ANTICIPATORY USE OF THE CROSS. 

(Vol. vii., pp. 548. 629.) 

I think THE WRITER OF "COMMUNICATIONS WITH 
THE UNSEEN WORLD " would have some difficulty 
in referring to the works on which he based the 
statement that " it was a tradition in Mexico that 
when that form (the cross) should be victorious, 
the old religion should disappear, and that a 
similar tradition attached to it #t Alexandria." 
He doubtless made the statement from memory, 
and unintentionally confounded two distinct facts, 
viz. that the Mexicans worshipped the cross, and 
had prophetic intimations of the downfall of their 
nation and religion by the oppression of bearded 
strangers from the East. The quotation by MR. 
PEACOCK at p. 549., quoted also in Purchas' Pil- 
grims, vol. v., proves, as do other authorities, that 
the cross was worshipped in Mexico prior to the 
Spanish invasion, and therefore it was impossible 
that the belief mentioned by THE WRITER, &c. 
could have prevailed. 

On the first discovery of Yucatan, 

" Grijaha was astonished at the sight of large crosses, 
evidently objects of worship." Prescott's Mexico, 
vol. i. p. 203. 

Mr. Stephens, in his Central America, vol. ii., 
gives a representation of one of these crosses. 
The cross on the Temple of Serapis, mentioned in 
Socrates' Ecc. Hist., was undoubtedly the well- 
known Crux ansata, the symbol of life. It was as 



the latter that the heathens appealed to it, and the 
Christians explained it to them as fulfilled in the 
Death of Christ. 

MR. PEACOCK, asks for other instances : I subjoin 
some. 

In India. The great pagoda at Benares is 
built in the form of a cross. (Maurice's Ind. 
Ant., vol. iii. p. 31., City, Tavernier.) 

On a Buddhist temple of cyclopean structure 
at Mundore (Tod's Rajasthan, vol. i. p. 727.), the 
cross appears as a sacred figure, together with 
the double triangle, another emblem of very wide 
distribution, occurring on ancient British coins 
(Camden's Britannica), Central American build- 
ings (Norman's Travels in Yucatan}, among the 
Jews as the Shield of David (Brucker's History 
of Philosophy}, and a well-known masonic symbol 
frequently introduced into Gothic ecclesiastical 
edifices. 

In Palestine. 

" According to R. Solomon Jarchi, the Talmud, and 
Maimonides, when the priest sprinkled the blood of 
the victim on the consecrated cakes and* hallowed 
utensils, he was always careful to do it in the form of 
a cross. The same symbol was used when the kings 
and high priests were anointed." Faber's Horce 
Mosaicce, vol. ii. p. 188. 
See farther hereon, Deane on Serpent Worship. 

In Persia. The trefoil on which the sacrifices 
were placed was probably held sacred from its 
cruciform character. The cross (*) occurs on 
Persian buildings among other sacred symbols. 
(R. K. Porter's Travels, vol. ii.) 

In Britain. The cross was formed by baring 
a tree to a stump, and inserting another crosswise 
on the top ; on the three arms thus formed were 
inscribed the names of the three principal, or 
triad of gods, Hesus, Belenus, and Taranis. The 
stone avenues of the temple at Classerniss are 
arranged in the form of a cross. (Borlase's An- 
tiquities of Cornwall.') 

In Scandinavia. The hammer of Thor was in 
the form of the cross ; see in Herbert's Select Ice- 
landic Poetry, p. 1 1., and Laing's Kings of Norway, 
vol. i. pp. 224. 330., a curious anecdote of King 
Hacon, who, having been converted to Christianity, 
made the sign of the cross when he drank, but 
persuaded his irritated Pagan followers that it was 
the sign of Thor's hammer. 

The figure of Thor's hammer was held in the 
utmost reverence by his followers, who were called 
the children of Thor, who in the last day would 
save themselves by his mighty hammer. ^ The 
fiery cross, so well known by Scott's vivid de- 
scription, was originally the hammer of Thor, 
which in early Pagan, as in later Christian times, 
was used as a summons to convene the people 
either to council or to war. (Herbert's Select Ice- 
landic Poetry, p. 11.) EDEN WARWICK. 

Birmingham. 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Glass Chambers for Photography. I am de- 
sirous to construct a small glass chamber for 
taking portraits in, and shall be much obliged if 
you can assist me by giving me instructions how 
it should be constructed, or by directing me where 
I shall find clear and sufficient directions, as to 
dimensions, materials, and arrangements. Is it 
essential that it should be all of violet-coloured 
glass, ground at one side, as that would add a good 
deal to the expense ? or will white glass, with thin 
blue gauze curtains or blinds, answer ? 

Probably a full answer to this inquiry, accom- 
panied with such woodcut illustrations as would 
be necessary to render the description complete, 
and such as an artificer could work by, would 
confer a boon on many amateur photographers, as 
well as your obliged servant, C. E. F. 

[In the construction of a photographic house, we 
beg to inform our correspondent that it is by no means 
needful to use entirely violet-coloured glass, but the 
roof tliereof exposed to the rays of the sun should be 
so protected ; for although the light is much subdued, 
and the glare so painful to the eyes of the sitter is 
taken away, yet but few of the actinic rays are ob- 
structed. It has been proposed to coat the interior with 
smalt mixed with starch, and afterwards varnished ; but 
this does not appear to have answered. Calico, both 
white and coloured, has also been used, but it is cer- 
tainly not so effectual or pleasant. Upon the whole, 
we think that the main things to attend to are, firmness 
in its construction, so as to avoid vibration ; ample 
size, so as to allow not only of room for the operator, 
but also for the arrangements of background, &c., and 
the sides to open so as to allow a free circulation of 
air ; blinds to be applied at such spots only as shall be 
found requisite. Adjoining, or in one corner, a small 
closet should be provided, admitting only yellow light, 
which may be effectually accomplished by means of 
yellow calico. A free supply of water is indispensable, 
which may be conveyed both to and from by means of 
the gutta percha tubing now in such general use. We 
apprehend, however, that the old proverb, " You must 
cut your coat according to your cloth," is most es- 
pecially applicable to our querist, for not only must 
the house be constructed according to the advantages 
afforded by the locality, but the amount of expense 
will be very differently thought of by different persons : 
one will be content with any moderate arrangement 
which will answer the purpose, where another will be 
scarcely satisfied unless everything is quite of an orne 
character.] 

Dr. Diamond's Replies. I am sorry I have 
not before replied to the Queries of your cor- 
respondent W.F.E., contained in Vol.viii., p. 41.; 
but absence from home, together with a pressure 
of public duties here, has prevented me from so 
doing. 

1st. Xo doubt a small portion of nitrate of 
potash is formed when the iodized collodion is im- 



mersed in the bath of nitrate of silver, by mutual 
decomposition ; but it is in so small a quantity as 
not to deteriorate the bath. 

2nd. I believe collodion will keep good much 
longer than is generally supposed ; at the be- 
ginning of last month I obtained a tolerably good 
portrait of Mr. Pollock from some remains in a 
small bottle brought to me by Mr. Archer in 
September 1850 ; and! especially notice this fact, 
as it is connected with the first introduction of the 
use of collodion in England. Generally speaking, 
I do not find that it deteriorates in two or three 
months ; the addition of a few drops of the iodizing 
solution will generally restore it, unless it has be- 
come rotten : this, I think, is the case when the 
gun cotton has not been perfectly freed from the 
acid. The redness which collodion assumes by 
age, may also be discharged by the addition of a 
few drops of liquor ammonias, but I do not think 
it in any way accelerates its activity of action. 

3rd. "Washed ether," or, as it is sometimes 
called, " inhaling ether," has been deprived of the 
alcohol which the common ether contains, and it 
will not dissolve the gun cotton unless the alcohol 
is restored to it. I would here observe that an 
excess of alcohol (spirits of wine) thickens the 
collodion, and gives it a mucilaginous appearance, 
rendering it much more difficult to use by its 
slowness in flowing over the glass plate, as well as 
producing a less even surface than when nearly all 
ether is used. A collodion, however, with thirty- 
five per cent, of spirits of wine, is very quick, 
allowing from its less tenacious quality a more 
rapid action of the nitrate of silver bath. 

4th. Cyanide of potassium has been used to re- 
dissolve the iodide of silver, but the results are by 
no means so satisfactory ; the cost of pure iodide 
of potassium bought at a proper market is certainly 
very inconsiderable compared to the disappoint- 
ment resulting from a false economy. 

H. W. DIAMOND. 

Surrey County Asylum. 

Trial of Lenses. When you want to try a 
lens, first be sure that the slides of your camera 
are correctly constructed, which is easily done. 
Place at any distance you please a sheet of paper 
printed in small type ; focus this on your ground 
glass with the assistance of a magnifying-glass ; 
now take the slide which carries your plate of 
glass, and if you have not a piece of ground glass 
at hand, insert a plate which you would otherwise 
excite in the bath after the application of collodion, 
but now dull it by touching it with putty. Ob- 
serve whether you get an equally clear and well- 
focussed picture on this ; if you do, you may con- 
clude there is no fault in the construction of your 
camera. 

Having ascertained this, take a chess-board, and 
place the pieces on the row of squares which run 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



from corner to corner ; focus the middle one, 
whether it be king, queen, or knight, and take a 
picture ; you will soon see whether the one best in 
the visual focus is the best on the picture, or 
whether the piece one or more squares in advance 
or behind it is clearer than the one you had pre- 
viously in focus. The chess-board must be set 
square with the camera, so that each piece is 
farther off by one square. To vary the experi- 
ment, you may if you please stick a piece of 
printed paper on each piece, which a little gum or 
common bees'-wax will effect for you. 

In taking portraits, if you are not an adept in 
obtaining a focus, cut a slip of newspaper about 
four inches long, and one and a half wide, and 
turn up one end so as it may be held between the 
lips, taking care that the rest be presented quite 
flat to the camera ; with the help of a magnifying- 
glass set a correct focus to this, and afterwards 
draw in the tube carrying the lenses about one- 
sixteenth of a turn of the screw of the rackwork. 
This will give a medium focus to the head : ob- 
serve, as the length of focus in different lenses 
varies, the distance the tube is moved must be 
learned by practice. W. M. P. 

Is it dangerous to use the Ammonia-Nitrate of 
Silver ? Some time ago I made a few ounces of 
a solution of ammonio- nitrate of silver for printing 
positives; this I have kept in a yellow coloured 
glass bottle with a ground stopper. 

I have, however, been much alarmed, and re- 
frained from using it or taking out the stopper, 
lest danger should arise, in consequence of reading 
in Mr. Delamotte's Practice of Photography, p. 95. 
(vide " Ammonia Solution ") : 

" If any of the ammonio -nitrate dries round the 
stopper of the bottle in which it is kept, the least 
friction will cause it to explode violently ; it is therefore 
better to keep none prepared." 

1 As in pouring this solution out and back into 
the bottle, of course the solution will dry around 
the stopper, and, if this account is correct, may 
momentarily lead to danger and accident, I will 
feel obliged by being informed by some of your 
learned correspondents whether any such danger 
exists. HUGH HENDERSON. 



to ;f 

Burkes Marriage (Vol. vii., p. 382.). Burke 
married, in 1756, the daughter of Dr. Nugent of 
Bath. (See Nat. Cycl., s. v. " Burke.") 

P. J. F. GANTILLON, B. A. 

The House of Falahill (Vol. vi., p. 533.)- As 
I have not observed any notice taken of the very 
interesting Query of ABERDONIENSIS, regarding 
this ancient baronial residence, I may state that 
there is a Falahiil, or Falahall, in the parish of 



Heriot, in the county of Edinburgh. Whether it 
be the Falahill referred to by Nisbet as having 
been so profusely illuminated with armorial bear- 
ings, I cannot tell. Possibly either Messrs. Laing, 
Wilson, or Cosmo Innes might be able to give 
some information about this topographical and 
historical mystery. STORNOWAY. 

Descendants of Judas Iscariot (Vol.viii., p. 56.). 
There is a collection of traditions as to this person 
in extracts I have among my notes, which perhaps 
you may think fit to give as a reply to ME. 
CREED'S Query. It runs as follows : 

" On dit dans 1'Anjou et dans le Maine que Judas 
Iscariot est ne a Sable ; la-dessus on a fait ce vers : 

' Perfidus Judasus Sablolieusis erat.' 

" Les Bretons disent de meme qu'il est ne au Nor- 
mandie entre Caen et Kouen, et a ce propos ils recitent 
ces vers . 

' Judas etoit Normand, 

Tout le monde le dit 
Entre Caen et Rouen, 

Ce malheureux naquit. 

II vendit son Seigneur pour trente marcs contants. 
Au diable soient tous les Normands.' 

" On dit de meme sans raison que Judas avoit de- 
meure a Corfou, et qu'il y est ne. Pietro della Valle 
rapporte dans ses Voyages qu'etant a Corfou on lui 
montra par rarete un homme que ceux du pays assu- 
roient etre de la race du trailre Judas quoiqu'il le 
niat. C'est un bruit qui court depuis long terns en 
cette contree, sans qu'on en sache la cause ni 1'origine. 
Le peuple de la ville de Ptolema'is (autrement de 
PAcre) disoit de meme sans raison que dans une tour de 
cette ville on avoit fabrique les trente deniers pour 
lesquelles Judas avoit vendu notre Seigneur, et pour 
cela ils appelloient cette tour la Tour Maudite." 

This is taken from the second volume of Me- 
nagiana, p. 232. J. H. P. LERESCHE. 

Manchester. 

Milton's Widow (Vol. viii., p. 12.). The in- 
formation once promised by your correspondent 
CRANMORE still seems very desirable, because the 
statements of your correspondent MR. HUGHES 
are not reconcilable with two letters given in 
Mr. Hunter's very interesting historical tract on 
Milton, pages 37-8., to which tract I beg to refer 
MR. HUGHES, who may not have seen it. These 
letters clearly show that Richard Minshull, the 
writer of them, had only two aunts, neither of 
whom could have been Mrs. Milton, as she must 
have been if she was the daughter of the writer's 
grandfather, Randall Minshull. Probably this 
Elizabeth died in infancy, which the Wistaston 
parish register may show, and which register 
would perhaps also show (supposing Milton took 
his wife from Wistaston) the wanting marriage ; 
or if Mrs. Milton was of the Stoke-Minshull fa- 
mily, that parish register would most likely dis- 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



close his third marriage, which certainly did not 
take place sooner than 1662. GARLICHITHE. 

Whitaker's Ingenious Earl (Vol. viii., p. 9.). 
It was a frequent saying of Lord Stanhope's, that 
he had taught law to the Lord Chancellor, and 
divinity to the Bishops ; and this saying gave rise 
to a caricature, where his lordship is seated acting 
the schoolmaster with a rod in his hand. E. H. 

Are White Cats deaf f (Vol. vii., p. 331.)- 
In looking up your Numbers for April, I observe 
a Minor Query signed SHIRLEY HIBBERD, in 
which your querist states that in all white cats 
stupidity seemed to accompany the deafness, and 
inquires whether any instance can be given of a 
white cat possessing the function of hearing in 
anything like perfection. 

I am myself possessed of a white cat which, at 
the advanced age of upwards of seventeen years, 
still retains its hearing to great perfection, and is 
remarkably intelligent and devoted, more so than 
cats are usually given credit for. Its affection for 
persons is, indeed, more like that of a dog than of 
a cat. It is a half-bred Persian cat, and its eyes 
are perfectly blue, with round pupils, not elon- 
gated as those of cats usually are. It occasionally 
suffers from irritation in the ears, but this has 
not at all resulted in deafness. H. 

Consecrated Roses (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 480. ; 
Vol. viii., p. 38.). From the communication of 
P. P. P. it seems that the origin of the consecration 
of the rose dates so far back as 1049, and was " en 
reconnaissance " of a singular privilege granted to 
the abbey of St. Croix. Can your correspondent 
refer to any account of the origin of the conse- 
cration or blessing of the sword, cap, or keys ? 

G. 

The Reformed Faith (Vol. vii., p. 359.). I 
must protest against this term being applied to 
the system which Henry VIII. set up on his re- 
jecting the papal supremacy, which on almost 
every point but that one was pure Popery, and 
for refusing to conform to which he burned Pro- 
testants and Roman Catholics at the same pile. 
It suited Cobbett (in his History of the Reform- 
ation), and those controversialists who use him 
as their text-book, to confound this system with 
the doctrine of the existing Church of England, 
but it is to be regretted that any inadvertence 
should have caused the use of similar language in 
your pages. J. S. WARDEN. 

Ilouse-marlis (Vol. vii., p. 594.). It appears 
to me that the house-marks he alluded to may be 
traced in what are called merchants' marks, still 
employed in marking bales of wool, cotton, &c., and 
which are found on tombstones in our old churches, 
incised in the slab during the sixteenth and seven- 



teenth centuries, and which till lately puzzled the 
heralds. They were borne by merchants who had 
no arms. E. G. BALLAED. 

Trash (Vol. vii., p. 566.). The late Mr. 
Scatchard, of Morley, near Leeds, speaking in 
Hone's Table Book of the Yorkshire custom of 
trashing, or throwing an old shoe for luck over a 
wedding party, says : 

" Although it is true that an old shoe is to this day 
called ' a trash,' yet it did not, certainly, give the name 
to the nuisance. To ' trash ' originally signified to 
clog, encumber, or impede the progress of any one 
(see Todd's Johnson) ; and, agreeably ta this explana- 
tion, we find the rope tied by sportsmen round the 
necks of fleet pointers to tire them well, and check 
their speed, is hereabouts universally called ' trash 
cord," or ' dog trash.' A few miles distant from 
Morley, west of Leeds, the ' Boggart ' or Barguest,' 
the Yorkshire Brownie is called by the people the 
Gui-trash, or Ghei-trash, the usual description of which 
is invariably that of a shaggy dog or other animal, en- 
cumbered with a chain round its ueck, which is heard 
to rattle in its movements. I have heard the common, 
people in Yorkshire say, that they ' have been trashing 
about all day ; ' using it in the sense of having had a 
tiring walk or day's work. 

" East of Leeds the ' Boggart ' is called the Pad- 
foot." 

G.P. 

Adamsouiana (Vol. vii., p. 500.). Michel 
Adanson (not Adamson), who has left his name to 
the gigantic Baobab tree of Senegal (Adansonia. 
digitata), and his memory to all who appreciate 
the advantages of a natural classification of plants 
for which Jussieu was indebted to him was 
the son of a gentleman, who after firmly attaching 
himself to the Stuarts, left Scotland and entered 
the service of the Archbishop of Aix. The En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica, and, I imagine, almost all 
biographical dictionaries and similar works, con- 
tain notices of him. His devoted life has deserved 
a more lengthened chronicle. SELEUCUS. 

Your correspondent E. H. A., who inquires re- 
specting the family of Michel Adamson, or Michael 
Adamson, is informed that in France, the country 
of his birth, the name is invariably written "Adan- 
son;" while the author of Fanny of Caernarvon, or 
the War of the Roses, is described as "John Adam- 
son." Both names are pronounced alike in French; 
but the difference of spelling would seem adverse 
to the supposition that the family of the botanist 
was of Scottish extraction. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Portrait of Cromwell (Vol. viii., p. 55.). The 
portrait inquired after by MR. mat is at the 
British Museum. Being placed over the cases in 
the long gallery of natural history, it is extremely 
difficult to be seen. JOHN BRCCE. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



Burke 1 s "Mighty Boar of the Forest" (Vol. in., 
p. 493. ; Vol. iv., p. 391.). It is not, I hope, too 
late to notice that Burke's description of Junius is 
an allusion neither to the Iliad, xiii. 471., nor to 
Psalm Ixxx. 8-13., but to the Iliad, xvii. 280-284. 
I cannot resist quoting the lines containing the 
simile, at once for their applicability and their 
own innate beauty : 

""Wvffev 5e 5a irpo^.a^air, ffvt i/ce\os a\cV 
Kairpitfi, 5<rr' V opecrfft KVVO.S &a\fpovs T' ai'^jot/s 
'Prji'Sitas e/ct Saaaft/, 4\idp.evos 8ia fii\aao.s. 
Us vlbs Te\a.(jLu>vos." 

W. FBASER. 
Tor-Mohun. 

" Amentium haud Amantium" (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
The following English translation may be con- 
sidered a tolerably close approximation to the 
alliteration of the original : " Of dotards not of the 
doting." It is found in the Dublin edition of 
Terence, published by J. A. Phillips, 1845. 

C. T. R. 

Mr. Phillips, in his edition, proposes as a trans- 
lation of this passage, " Of dotards, not of the 
doting." Whatever may be its merits in other 
respects, it is at all events a more perfect alliter- 
ation than the other attempts which have been 
recorded in "N. & Q." ERICA.. 

Warwick. 

When I was at school I used to translate the 
phrase " Amentium haud amantium " (Ter. Andr., 
i. 3. 13.) "Lunatics, not lovers" Perhaps that may 
satisfy FIDUS INTERPRES. n. B. 

A friend of mine once rendered this " Lubbers, 
not lovers." P. J. F. GANTILLON, B. A. 

Talleyrand's Maxim (Vol. vi., p. 575. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 487.). Young's lines, to which Z. E. R. refers, 
are: 

" Where Nature's end of language is declined, 
And men talk only to conceal their mind." 

With less piquancy, but not without the germ of 
the same idea, Dean Moss (ob. 1729), in his ser- 
mon Of the Nature and Properties of Christian 
Humility, says : 

" Gesture is an artificial thing : men may stoop and 
cringe, and bow popularly low, and yet have ambitious 
designs in their heads. And speech is not always the 
just interpreter of the mind : men may use a condescend- 
ing style, and yet swell inwardly with big thoughts of 
themselves." Sermons, <5fc., 1737, vol. vii. p. 402. 



English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth 
(Vol. vii., pp. 260. 344. 509.). The following par- 
ticulars concerning one of the Marian Bishops are 
at A. S. A.'s service. Cuthbert Scot, D.D., some- 
time student, and, in 1553, Master of Christ's 
Church College, Cambridge, was made Vice-Chan- 



cellor of that University in 1554-5 ; and had the 
temporalities of the See of Chester handed to him 
by Queen Mary in 1556. He was one of Cardinal 
Pole's delegates to the University of Cambridge, 
and was concerned in most of the political move- 
ments of the day. He, and four other bishops, 
with as many divines, undertook to defend the 
principles and practices of the Romish Church 
against an equal number of Reformed divines. On 
the 4th of April he was confined, either in the 
Fleet Prison or the Tower, for abusive language 
towards Queen Elizabeth ; but having by some 
means or other escaped from durance, he retired 
to Louvain, where he died, according to Rymer's 
Fcedera, about 1560. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

Gloves at Fairs (Vol. vii., passim.). To the list 
of markets at which a glove was, or is, hung out, 
may be added Newport, in the Isle of Wight. 
But a Query naturally springs out of such a note, 
and >I would ask, Why did a glove indicate that 
parties frequenting the market were exempt from, 
arrest ? What was the glove an emblem of? 

W. D N. 

As the following extract from Gorr's Liverpool 
Directory appears to bear upon the point, and as 
it does not seem to have yet attracted the atten- 
tion of any of your correspondents, I beg to for- 
ward it : 

" Its (?. e. Liverpool's) fair-days are 25th July and 
llth Nov. Ten days before and ten days after each 
fair-day, a hand is exhibited in front of the Town-hall, 
which denotes protection ; during which time no person 
coming to or going from the town on business con- 
nected with the fair can be arrested for debt within its 
liberty." 

I have myself frequently observed the " hand," 
although I could not discover any appearance of a 
fair being held. R. 

St. Dominic (Vol. vii., p. 356.). Your cor- 
respondent BOOKWORM will find in any chronology 
a very satisfactory reason why Machiavelli could 
not reply to the summons of Benedict XIV., 
unless, indeed, the Pope had made use of " the 
power of the keys," to call him up for a brief 
space to satisfy his curiosity. J. S. WARDEN. 

Names of Plants (Vol. viii., p. 37.). Ale-hoof 
means useful in, or to, ale; Ground-ivy having 
been used in brewing before the introduction of 
hops. " The women of our northern parts" (says 
John Gerard), "especially about Wales or Cheshire, 
do tunne the herbe Ale-hoof into their ale .... 
being tunned up in ale and drunke, it also purgeth 
the head from rhumaticke humours flowing from 
the brain." From the aforesaid tunning, it was 
also called Tun-hoof (World of Words) ; and in 
Gerard, Tune-hoof. 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



Considering what was meant by Lady in the 
names of plants, we should refrain from supposing 
that Neottia spiralis was called the Lady-traces 
" sensu obsc.," even if those who are more skilled 
in such matters than I am can detect such a 
sense. I cannot learn what a lady's traces are ; 
but I suspect plaitings of her hair to be meant. 
" Upon the spiral sort," says Gerard, " are placed 
certaine small white flowers, trace fashion," while 
other sorts grow, he says, " spike fashion," or " not 
trace fashion." Whence I infer, that in his day 
trace conveyed the idea of spiral. A. N. 

Specimens of Foreign English (Vol. iii. passim.). 
I have copied the following from the label on a 
bottle of liqueur, manufactured at Marseilles by 
" L. Noilly fils et C ie ." The English will be best 
understood by being placed in juxtaposition with 
the original French : 

" Le Vermouth 

est un vin blanc legerement amer, parfume avec des 
plantes aromatiques bienfaisantes. 

" Cette boisson est tonique, stimulante, febrifuge et 
astringente ; prise avec de 1'eau elle est aperitive et 
raffraichissante : elle est aussi un puissant preservatif 
contre les fievres et la dyssenterie, maladies si frequentes 
dans les pays chauds, pour lesqnels elle a ete particu- 
lierement composee." 

" The Wermouth 

is a brightly bitter and perfumed with aromatical and 
good vegetables white wine. 

" This is tonic, stimulant, febrifuge and costive 
drinking ; mixed with water it is aperitive, refreshing, 
and also a powerful preservative of fivers and bloody- 
flux ; those latters are very usual in warmth countries, 
and of course that liquor has just been particularly 
made up for that occasion." 

HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Blanco White (Vol. vii., pp. 404. 486.). Your 
correspondent H. C. K. is right in his impression 
that the sonnet commencing 

" Mysterious Night ! when our first parents knew," &c. 

was written by Blanco White. See his Life 
(3vols., Chapman, 1845), vol. iii. p. 48. 

J. K. R. W. 

Pistols (Vol. viii., p. 7.). In Strype's Life of 
Sir Thomas Smith, Works, Oxon. 1821, mention 
is made of a statute or proclamation by the Queen 
in the year 1575, which refers to that of 33 
Hen. VIII. c. 6., alluded to by your correspondent 
J. F. M., and in which the words pistol and pistolet 
are introduced : 

" The Queen calling to mind how unseemly a thing 
it was, in so quiet and peaceable a realm, to have men 
so armed ; . . . did charge and command all her sub- 
jects, of what estate or degree soever they were, that 
in no wise, in their journeying, going, or riding, they 
carried about them privily or openly any dag, or pistol, 



or any other harquebuse, gun, or such weapon for fire, 
under the length expressed by the statute made by the 
Queen's most noble father. . . . [Excepting however] 
noblemen and such known gentlemen, which were 
without spot or doubt of evil behaviour, if they carried 
dags or pistolets about them in their journeys, openly, 
at their saddle bows," &c. 

Here the dag or pistolet seems to answer to our 
" revolvers," and the pistol to our larger horse- 
pistol. H. C. K. 
Rectory, Hereford. 

Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions 
(Vol. viii., p. 44.). If L., or any of your readers, 
will take the trouble to compare the passage 
quoted, and the one referred to by him, in the 
following translation of Smith, with Sir A. Alison's 
supposititious quotation* (Vol. vii., p. 594.), they 
will find that my inquiry is still unanswered. 
The passage quoted by L. in Greek is, according 
to Smith : 

" Prudent consideration, to be specious cowardice ; 
modesty, the disguise of effeminacy ; and being wise in 
everything, to be good for nothing." 

The passage not quoted, but referred to by L., is : 

" He who succeeded in a roguish scheme was wise ; 
and he who suspected such practices in others was 
still a more able genius." Vol. i. book iii. p. 281. 
4to. : London, 1753. 

In this " counterfeit presentment of two bro- 
thers, L. may discern a family likeness ; but my 
inquiry was for the identical passage, " sword and 
poniard" included. 

If L. desires to find Greek authority for the 
general sentiment only, I would refer him to pas- 
sages, equally to Sir A. Alison's purpose, in 
Thucydides, iii. 83., viii. 89. ; Herodotus, iii. 81. ; 
Plato's Republic, viii. 11. ; and Aristotle's Politics, 
v. 6. 9. I beg to thank L. for his attempt, although 
unsuccessful. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Birmingham. 

The earliest Mention of the Word " Party " 
(Vol. vii., p. 247.). In a choice volume, printed 
by " Ihon Day, dwelling over Aldersgate, be- 
neath St. Martines," 1568, I find the word occur- 
ring thus : 

" The party must in any place see to himselfe, and 
seeke to wipe theyr noses by a shorte aunswere." A 
Discovery and playne Declaration of the Holy Inquisition 
of Spayne, fol. 10. 

Permit me to attach a Query to this. Am I 
right in considering the above-mentioned book as 
rare ? I do so on the assumption that " Ihon 
Day" is the Day of black-letter rarity. 

R. C. WARDE. 

Kidderminster. 

* Europe, vol. ix. p. 397., 12mo. 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



Creole (Vol. vii., p 381.). It is curious to 
observe how differently this word is applied by 
different nations. The English apply it to white 
children born in the West Indies ; the French, I 
believe, exclusively to the mixed races ; and the 
Spanish and Portuguese to the blacks born in 
their colonies, never to whites. The latter, I 
think, is the true and original meaning, as its 
primary signification is a home-bred slave (from 
" criar," to bring up, to nurse), as distinguished 
from an imported or purchased one. 

J. S. WAEDEN. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

We have before us a little volume by Mr. Willich, 
the able Actuary of the University Life Assurance So- 
ciety, entitled Popular Tables arranged in a new Form, 
giving Information at Sight for ascertaining, according to 
the Carlisle Table of Mortality, the Value of Lifehold, 
.Leasehold, and Church Property, Renewal Fines, <., 
the Public Funds, Annual Average Price and Interest on 
Consols from 1731 to 1851 / also various interesting and 
useful Tables, equally adapted to the Office and the Li- 
brary Table. Ample as is this title-page, it really gives 
but an imperfect notion of the varied contents of this 
useful library and writing-desk companion. For in- 
stance, Table VIII. of the Miscellaneous Tables gives 
the average price of Consols, with the average rate of 
interest, from 1731 to 1851 ; but this not only shows 
when Consols were highest and when lowest, but also 
what Administration was then in power, and the chief 
events of each year. We give this as one instance of 
the vast amount of curious information here combined ; 
and we would point out to historical and geographical 
students the notices of Chinese Chronology in the pre- 
face, and the Tables of Ancient and Modern Itinerary 
Measures, as parts of the work especially deserving of 
their attention. In short, Mr. Willich's Popular Tables 
form one of those useful volumes, in Which masses of 
scattered information are concentrated in such a way as 
to render the book indispensable to all who have once 
tested its utility. 

Mormonism, its History, Doctrines, and Practices, by 
the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, is a small pamphlet 
containing the substance of two lectures on this pestilent 
heresy, delivered by the author before the Kennington 
Branch of the Church of England Young Men's So- 
ciety, and is worth the attention of those who wish to 
know something of this now wide-spread mania. 

On the Custom of Borough- English in the County of 
Sussex, by George R. Corner, Esq. This well-con- 
sidered paper on a very curious custom owes its origin, 
we believe, to a Query in our columns. We wish all 
questions agitated in " N. & Q." were as well illus- 
trated as this has been by the learning and ingenuity 
of Mr. Corner. 

A Narrative of Practical Experiments proving to De- 
monstration the Discovery of Water, Coals, and Minerals 
in the Earth by means of the Dowsing Fork or Divining 
Rod, Sfc., collected, reported, and edited by Francis Phip- 



pen. A curious little pamphlet on a fact in Natural 
Philosophy, which we believe no philosopher can either 
understand or account for. 

SERIALS RECEIVED. Murray's Railway Reading: 
History as a Condition of Social Progress, by Samuel 
Lucas. An able lecture on an interesting subject. 
The Traveller's Library, No. 46. : Twenty Years in the 
Philippines, by De la Gironiere. One of the best 
numbers of this valuable series. Cyclopcedia Biblio- 
graphica, Part XL, August. This eleventh Part of 
Mr. Darling's useful Catalogue extends from James 
Ibbetson to Bernard Lamy. Archteologia Cambrensis, 
New Series, No. XV. : containing, among other papers 
of interest to the inhabitants of the principality, one on 
the arms of Owen Glendwr, by the accomplished an- 
tiquary to whom our readers were indebted for a paper 
on the same subject in our own columns. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

SOWBRBY'S ENGLISH BOTANY, with or without Supplementary 

Volumes. 

DUGDALB'S ENGLAND AND WALES, Vol. VIII. London, L. Tallis. 
LINGARD'S HISTORY OP ENGLAND. Second Edition, 1823, 9tb 

and following Volumes, in Boards. 
LONG'S HISTOHT OP JAMAICA. 
LIFE OF THE REV. ISAAC MILLES. 1721. 
SIR THOMAS HERBERT'S THRENODIA CAROLINA: or, Last Days 

of Charles I. Old Edition, and that of 1813 by Nicol. 
SIR THOMAS HERBERT'S TRAVELS IN ASIA AND AFRICA. Folio. 
LETTERS OF THE HERBERT FAMILY. 
BISHOP MOSLEY'S VINDICATION. 4to. 1683. 
LIFE OF ADMIRAL BLAKE, written by a Gentleman bred in his 

Family. London. 12mo. With Portrait by Fourdrinier. 
OSWALD'I CHOLLII OPERA. Genevae, 1635. 12mo. 
UNHKARD-OF CI'BIOSITIES, translated by Cliilraead. London, 

1650. 12mo. 

BEAUMONT'S PSYCHE. Second Edition. Camb. 1702. fol. 
MEMOIRS op THE ROSE, by Mr. John Holland. 1 Vol. 12mo. 1624. 
LITERARY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845. 
ATHENAEUM, commencement to 1835. 
A NARRATIVE OF THE HOLY LIFE AND HAPPY DEATH OP MR. 

JOHN ANGIER. London, 1685. 
MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition. 

WOOD'S ATHENE OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-50. 
THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804. 
SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, 

in 15 vols. 8vo. 1739. 

** Correspondents sending Lists of Bookt Wanted are requested 
to send their namei. 

%* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, 
to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 



MR. G. FITRRUN'S offer is declined with thanks. 

E. W., who inquires respecting the letters N and M in the Book 
of Common Prayer, is referred to Vol. i., p. 415. ; Vol. ii., p. 61. ; 
Vol. iii., pp. 323. 437. 

T. and other Correspondents who have written on the subject of 
Collodion are informed that we shall nexl week publish a farther 
communication from DR. DIAMOND upon this point . 

ADDENDUM Vol. viii., p. 104., add to end of Query on Frag- 
ments in Athenaeus, " D' Israeli's Cur. Lit., Bailey's Fragmenta 
Comicorum." 

J few complete sets of" NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., 
price Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had ; for which 
early application is desirable. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday, 



AUG. 6. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 



T Grissell.Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A.I.ethbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq, 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



H. E. Bicknell, Esq. 
T. 8. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustees. 
W.Whateley, Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty iu pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100?.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 



Age 

17- 

22 - 
27 - 



s. d. 

- 1 14 4 

- 1 18 8 

- 2 4 5 



Age 
32- 
3-- 
42 - 



s. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 

- 3 8 2 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. 6rf., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and oil the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PIC- 

J7 TURES. A Selection of the above 
beautiful Productions < comprising Views in 
VENICE, PAKIS, RUSSIA. NUBIA, &c.) 
may be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet 
Street, where may also be procured Appara- 
tus of every Description, and pure Chemicals 
for the practice of Photography in all its 
Branches. 

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures 
for the Stereoscope. 

** Catalogues may be had on application. 
BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical 
and Photographical Instrument Makers, and 
Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. 



LA LUMIERE ; French Photo- 
graphic Journal. The only Journal which 
gives weekly all the principal Photographic 
News of England and the Continent ; with 
Original Articles and Communications on the 
different Processes and Discoveries, Reports of 
the French Academy of Sciences, Articles on 
Art, Reviews, &c. 

Published every SATURDAY at PARIS, 
9. Rue de la Perle. 

Terms, 16s. per annum in advance. All 
English Subscriptions and Communications to 
be addressed to the English Editor, 6. lienman 
Terrace, Camden Town, London. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 

JC Negative and Positive Papers of What- 
man's, Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson 
Freres' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's 
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every 
kind of Photography. 

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic 
Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13, Paternoster 
Row, London. 



TTNITED KINGDOM LIFE 

U ASSURANCE COMPANY; established 
by Act of Parliament in 1834 S.Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, London. 

HONORARY PRESIDENTS. 

Earl of Courtown 
Earl Leven and Mel- 
ville 

Earl of Norbury 
Earl of Stair 
Viscount Falkland 

LONDON BOARD. 

Chairman Charles Graham, Esq. 

Deputy-Chairman. Charles Downes, Esq. 

H. Blair Avarne, Esq. 
E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., 

F.S.A., Resident. 
C. Berwick Curtis, 

E 



William Fairlie, Esq. 



Lord Elphinstone 
Lord Belli aven and 

Stentou 
Wm. Campbell, Esq., 

of Tillichewan. 



D. Q. Henriques, Esq. 
J. G. Henriques. Esq. 
F. C. Maitland, Esq. 
William Railton, Esq. 
F. H. Thomson, Esq. 



Thomas Thorby.Esq. 



MEDICAL OFFICERS. 

Physician. Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 

8. Bennett Street, St. James's. 
Surgeon. F. H. Thomson, Esq., 48. Berners 

Street. 

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 
1834, to December 31. 1847, is as follows : 



Sum added to 

Sum j Time Policy. 

Assured. Assured. 



5000 

*1000 

500 



|In 1841. ( In 18-18.| 



Sum 
pavable 

at Death. 



I s. d.\ s. d.\ />. d. 
14 years 683 6 8 i787 10 6470 16 8 
7 years - - 1157 10 |l!57 10 
1 year - - I 11 50 I 511 50 



* EXAMPLE. At the commencement of the 
year 1841, 2 person aged thirty took out a Policy 
for 1000?., the annual payment for which is 
24?. Is. M. : in 1847 he had paid in premiums 
168?. 11*. 8rf. j but the profits being 2} per cent, 
per annum on the sum insured (which is 
22?. 10s. per annum for each 1000?.) he had 
157?. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much 
as the premiums paid. 

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most 
moderate scale, and only one-half need be paid 
for the first five years, when the Insurance is 
for Life. Every information will be afforded 
on application to the Resident Director. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

L fc CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy i 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, j 
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Also every description of Apparatus, Che- j 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art 
123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

r\TTEWILL'S REGISTERED 

\J DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CA- 
MERA, is superior ti every other form of 
Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its 
capability of Elongation or Contraction to any 
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its adaptation for taking either Views or Por- 
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Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tri- 
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tained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte 
Terrace, Barnsbury Road, Islington. 

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order 
or from Drawings. 



WANTED, for the Ladies' In- 
stitute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant, 
LADIES of tast* for fancy work, by paying 
21s. will be received as members, and taught 
the new style of velvet wool work, which is ac- 
quired in a few easy lessons. Each lady will be 
guaranteed constant employment and ready 
cosh payment for her work. Apply personally 
to Mrs. Thoughey. N.B. Ladies taught by 
letter at any distance from London. 



TNDIGESTION, CONSTIPA- 

JL TION, NERVOUSNESS. &c. - BARRY, 
DU BARRY & CO.'S HEALTH-RESTOR- 
ING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS. 



THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, 

the only natural, pleasant, and effectual re- 
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in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, in- 
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deeply rooted, dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual 
constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn, fla- 
tulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, 
eruption of the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, 
sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at 
sea, and under all other circumstances, debility 
in the aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, 
cramps, paralysis, &c. 

A few out o/50,000 Cures: 

Cure, No. 71 , of dyspepsia ; from the Right 
Hon. the Lord Stuart de Decies : _" I have de- 
rived considerable benefit from your Revalenta 
ArabicaFood. and consider it due to yourselves 
and the public to authorise the publication of 

Cure, No. 49,832 :_" Fifty years' indescrib- 
able a?ony from dyspepsia, nervousness, asthma, 
cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sick- 
ness at the stomach, and vomitincs have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent food 
MARIA JOLLY, Wortliam Ling, near Diss, Nor- 
folk." 

Cure, No. 180:_"Twenty-fiveyears'nervous- 
ness, constipation, indigestion, and debility. 
from which I had suffered great misery, and 
which no medicine could remove or relieve, 
have been effectually cured by Du Barry's food 
in a very short time. W. R. RJSBVES, Pool 
Anthony, Tiverton." 

Cure, No. 4,208 : " Eight years' dyspepsia, 
nervousness, debility, with cramps, spasms, and 
nausea, for which my servant had consulted 
the advice of many, have been effectually re- 
moved by Du Barry's delicious food in a very 
short time. I shall be happy to answer any in- 
quiries. REV. JOHH W. FULVH.L, Ridlington 
Rectory, Norfolk." 

Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial. 

" Bonn, July 19. 1852. 

" This light and pleasant Farina is one of the 
most excellent, nourishinsr, and restorative 
remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all 
kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful 
in confined habit of body, as also diarrhoea, 
bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys and 
bladder, such as stone or gravel j inflammatory 
irritation and cramp of the urethra, cramp of 
the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and hemor- 
rhoids. This really invaluable remedy is em- 
ployed with the most satisfactory result, not 
only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints, 
where irritation and pain are to be removed, 
but also in pulmonary and bronchial consump- 
tion, in which it counteracts effectually the 
troublesome cough ; and I am en bled with 
perfect truth to express the conviction that Du 
Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the 
cure of incipient hectic complaints and con- 
sumption. " DR. RUD WCRZER, 
" Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. 

London Agents: Fortnum, Mason & Co., 
182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her Majesty the 
Queen ; Hedges Sc Butler. 155. hegent Street ; 
and through all respectable gr* ccrs, chemists, 
and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably 
packed for all climates, and with full instruc- 
tions, lib. 2s.9<7. ; 21b. 4s. 6d. ; 5lb. ll. ; 121b. 
22s. ; super-refined, 51b. 22s. ; lOlb. 33s. The 
lolb. and 121b. carriage free, on receipt of Po*,t- 
office order. Barry, Du Barry & Co., 77. Re- 
gent Street, London. 

IMPORTANT CADTIOV Many in valjds having 

been seriously injured by spurious imitations 
under closely similar names, such as Ervulenta, 
Araboca. and others, the public will do well to 
see that each canister bears the name BARRT, 
Du BARRY & Co., 77. Regent Street, London, 
in full, loithovt which none it genuine. 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 197. 



TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OB 
GARDENS. 

THE GARDENERS' CHRO- 

L NICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GA- 
ZETTE. 

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. 
LINDLEY,) 

Of Saturday, July 30, contains Articles on 



Agriculture, history of 

Scottish 
Agricultural Colleze 

examination papers 
Annuals, new 
Azaleas, to propagate 
Books noticed 
Brick burning, a nui- 



Horticultural Socie- 
ty's garden 

Machine tools 

Manures, concentrated 

liquid, by Mr. 

Bard well 

Marvel of Peru 

Mechi's (Mr.) gather- 



sance 

Cabbages, club in 
Calendar, horticul- New Forest 

tural I Plant, hybrid 

agricultural I Potatoes, Bahama 

Carrot rot, by Dr. Potato disease 

Reissck \ - origin of 

Carts f. waggons 
Cedar, gigantic 
Cockroaches, to kill 



Cycas revoluta, by Mr. 



Mirabilis Jalapa 



Poultry, metropolitan 

show of 
Races, degeneracy of 



Roses, Tea 



Ruppen from cuttings 

Drainage bill, London Soil and its uses, by 
Forests, royal Mr. Morton 
Fruits, wearing out of Strawberry, Nimrod, 
disease in stone, by Mr. Spencer 

by M. Ysabeau : Truffles, Irish 

Fumizator, Gsach's, Vegetables, lists of 

by Mr. Korsyth ' Violet, Neapolitan 

Guano, new source of , Waggons and carts 
Honey, thin Wax insects (witu en- 

Ilorticultural Society i graving) 



THE GARDENERS' CHRO- 
NICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE 
contains, in addition to the above, the Coveut 
Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool 
prices, with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, 
Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed Markets, 
and a complete Newspaper, with a comlensed 
account of all the transactions of the week. 

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for 
Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London. 



Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 

THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

T)SALMS AND HYMNS FOR 

THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 
The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services, Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTJNO, by J. B. 
SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to 
Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 
price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. 
Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on 
the receipt of a Post-office Order for that 
amount : and, by order, of the principal Book- 
sellers and Music Warehouses. 

" A great advance on the works we have 
hitherto had, connected with our Church and 
Cathedral Service." Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country." Literary Gazette. 

" One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears." 
Musical World. 

" A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
character to any which has hitherto appeared." 
John Butt. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Also, lately published, 

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, 

COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as per- 
formed at the Chapel Royal St. James, price 2s. 
C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street. 



ALPHABETS. 

QHAWS HANDBOOK OF 

k; MEDIAEVAL ALPHABETS AND 
DEVICES, 1853, 4to., 36 fine Plates printed in 
Colours (published at 16s.), cloth, 12s. 

SILVESTRE, ALPHABET- 

ALBUM, folio, Pari-', 1843, 60 large beautiful 
Plates (published at 100 francs), half morocco, 
20s. 

ALPHABETS OF ALL THE 

ORIENTAL AND OCCIDENTAL LAN- 
GUAGES, Leipsig, 1852, royal 8vo., 2s. 

Also an extensive Collection of Works on 
Diplomatics, Mediaeval Charters, &c., by Astle, 
Montfaucon, Mabillon, and Rodriguez, on sale 
by 

BERNARD QUARITCH, Second-hand 
Foreign Bookseller, 16. Castle Street, Leices- 
ter Square. 

** B. Q.'s Monthly Catalogues are sent 
Gratis for a Year on prepayment of a Shilling 
in Postage Stamps. 



THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
ZINE AND HISTORICAL REVIEW 
FOR AUGUST, contains the following ar- 
ticles : I. State Papers of the Reign of 
Henry VIII. 2. Madame de Longueviile. 
3. The Prospero of" The Tempest." 4. Letter 
of Major P. Ferguson during the American 
War. 5. Wanderings of an Antiquary : Bram- 
ber Castle and the Sussex Churches, by Thomas 
Wright, F.S.A. (with Engravings). 6. St. Hi- 
lary Church, Cornwall (.with an Engraving). 
7. Benjamin Robert Haydon. 8. The Northern 
Topographers Whi taker, Surtees, and Raine. 

9. Passage of the Pruth in the year 1739. 

10. Early History of the Post-Office. II. Cor- 
respondence of Sylvanus Urban : A Peep at 
the Library of Chichester Cathedral Christ's 
Church at Norwich Rev. Wm. Smith of 
Melsonby Godmanham and Londesborouzh. 
With Reviews of New Publications, a Report 
of the Meeting of the Archxologieal Institute 
at Chichester, and of other Antiquarian So- 
cieties, Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY, 
Price 2s. 6rf. 

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street. 



Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. 
cloth) of 

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND 
and the Courts at Westminster. By 
EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A. 

Volume Three, 1272 1377. 
Volume Four, 13771485. 

Lately published, price 28s. cloth, 

Volume One, 10661199. 
Volume Two, 1199 1272. 

" A book which is essentially sound and 
truthful, and must therefore take its stand in 
the permanent literature of our country." 
Gent. Mag. 

London . LONGMAN & CO. 



GILBERT J. TRENCH, 

BOLTON, LANCASHIRE, 

pESPECTFULLY informs the 

JAi Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, 
that he replies immediately to all applications 
by letter, for information respecting his Manu- 
factures in CH U KC H FURN IT UKE, ROB KS, 
COMMUNION LINEN, &c., &c., supplying 
full information as to Prices, together with 
Sketches, Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &e., 
&c. 

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. 
FRENCH invites direct communications by 
Post, as the most economical and satisfactory 
arrangement. PARCELS delivered Free by 
Railway. 



This day is published, price 6rf. 

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME 
OF THE MANUSCRIPT EMEND- 
AiIONS OK THE TEXT OF SHAK- 
SPEAKE. By J. O. HALLIWELL, Esq., 
r.K.S. 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, 
London. 



This day is published, in 8vo.. with Fae-simile 
from an early MS. at Dulwich College, 
price Is. 

nURIOSITIES OF MODERN 

\J SHAKESPEARIAN CRITICISM. By 
J. O. HALLIWELL, ESQ., F.R.S. 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, 
London. 



Just published, price 4s. fid. per dozen, or nicely 
bound in cloth, Is. each. 

MORMONISM: its HISTORY, 
DOCTRINES, and PRACTICES. By 
the REV. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A. 
(Late Scholar and Librarian of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; Curate of St. Mark's, Ken- 
nington.) 

A. M. PIGOTT, Aldine Chambers, Paternoster 
Row ; and 39. Kennington Gate, London. 



Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 5. in cloth. 

O YMPATHIES of the CONTI- 

O NENT, or PROPOSALS for a NEW 
REFORMATION. By JOHN BAPTIST 
VON HIRSCIIER, D.D., Dean of the Metro- 
politan Church of Freiburg, Breiszau, aid Pro- 
fessor of Theology in the Roman Catholic Uni- 
versity of that City. Translated and edited 
with Notes and Introduction by the Rev. 
ARTHUR CLEVELAND COXE, M. A., 
Rector of St. John's Church, Hartford, Con- 
necticut, U. S. 

" The following work will be found a noble 
apology for the position assumed by the Church 
of England in the sixteenth century, and for the 
practical reforms she then introduced into her 
theology and worship. If the author is ri.-ht, 
then the changes he so eloquently urges upnn 
the present attention of his brethren ought 
to have been made three hundred years ago ; 
and the obstinate refusal of the Council of 
Trent to make such reforms in conformity 
with Scripture and Antiquity, throws the 
whole burthen of the sin of schism upon Rome, 
and not upon our Reformers. The value of 
such admissions must, of course, depend in a 
great measure upon the learning, the character, 
the position, and the influence of the author 
from whom they proceed. The writer believes, 
that questions as to these particulars can be 
most satisfactorily answered." Introduction 
by Arthur Cleveland Coxe. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GRKAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, mav now be had at the MANU- 
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London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, H, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior I,ever, with 
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



Printed hy TH 



SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mar}', Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the 
London ; and published by GEOKGE BEM., of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstau in the W 
er. at No. Is6. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday. August 6. 1853. 



.St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEOKGE BEM., of No. 186. Fleet Str< 
City f London, Publisher, at No. Is6. Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, August 6. 1853 



Street Square, in the Parbh of 
' ~et, in thi 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 198.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 13. 1853. 



f Price Fourpence. 
t Stamped Edition, 



NOTES : 



CONTENTS. 



Bacon's Essays, by Markby 
The Isthmus of Panama 



Page 

- 141 
. 144 



FOLK LORE: Legends of the County Clare Moon 
Superstitions Warwickshire Folk Lore Northamp- 
tonshire Folk Lore Slow-worm Superstition A 
Devonshire Charm for the Thrush ... 145 

Old Jokes - - - - - -.- 146 

An Interpolation of the Players : Tobacco, by W. Robson 147 

MINOR NOTES: Curious Epitaph Enigmatical Epi- 
taph Books worthy to be reprinted Napoleon's 
Thunderstorm Istamboul : Constantinople- - 147 

QUERIES : 

Strnt-stowers, and Yeathers or Yadders, by C. H. 
Cooper - . . . - - .148 

MINOR QUERIES: Archbishop Parker's Correspon- 
dence Amor Nummi The Number Nine Position 
of Font Aix Ruochim or Romans loner "Lessons 
for Lent," &c. " La Branche des reaus Lignages " 
Marriage Service " Czar " or " Tsar " Little 
Silver On JEsop's (?) Fable of washing the Blacka- 
moor Wedding Proverb German Phrase Ger- 
man Heraldry Leman Family A Cob-wall Inscrip- 
tion near Chalcedon Domesday Book Dotinchem 
" Mirrour to all," Ac Title wanted Portrait 
of Charles I. : Countess Du Barry ... 149 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: "Preparation for 
Martyrdom " Reference wanted Speaker of the 
House of Commons in 1C97 



- 152 



153 
153 
154 
155 



REPLIES: 

Inscriptions in Books .... 
The Drummer's Letter, by Henry H. Breen 
Old Fogies ----.. 
Descendants of John of Gaunt, by William Hardy 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Lining of Cameras 

Cyanuret of Potassium Minuteness of Detail on 
Paper Stereoscopic Angles Sisson's developing 
Solution Multiplying Photographs Is it dangerous 

to use the Ammonio-nitrate of Silver ? - - 157 

EEPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: Burke's Marriage 
Stars and Flowers Odour from the Rainbow 
Judges styled Reverend Jacob Bobart " Putting 
your foot into it" Simile of the Soul and the Mag- 
netic Needle The Tragedy of Polidus Robert 
Fairlie " Mater ait natae," &c Sir John Vanbrugh 

Fet" des Chaudrons Murder of Monaldeschi 
Land of Green Ginger Unneath Snail Gardens 
Parvise Humlmg Table-moving Scotch News- 
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Voi.VIII. No. 198. 



BACON'S ESSAYS, BY MARKBY. 

Mr. Markby has recently published his promised 
edition of Bacon's Essays; and he has in this, as- 
in his edition of the Advancement of Learning, 
successfully traced most of the passages alluded to 
by Lord Bacon. The following notes relate to a 
few points which still deserve attention : 

Essay I. On Truth: "The poet that beauti- 
fied the sect that was otherwise inferior to the 
rest."] By "beautified" is here meant "set off to 
advantage," " embellished." 

Essay II. On Death. 

Many of the thoughts in the Essays recur in 
the " Exempla Antithetorum," in the 6th book 
De Augmentis Scientiarum. With respect to this 
Essay, compare the article "Vita," No. 12., in 
vol. viii. p. 360. ed. Montagu. 

" You shall read in some of the friars' books 
of mortification, that a man should think with 
himself what the pain is, if he have but his finger's 
end pressed or tortured, and thereby imagine what 
the pains of death are when the whole body is cor- 
rupted and dissolved."] Query, What books are 
here alluded to ? 

" Pompa mortis magis terret, quam mors ipsa."} 
Mr. Markby thinks these words are an allusion 
to Sen. Ep. xxiv. 13. Something similar also 
occurs in Ep. xiv. 3. Compare Ovid, Heroid. 
x. 82. : " Morsque minus pcenre quam mora mor- 
tis habet." 

" Galba, with a sentence, ' Feri si ex re sit populi 
Romani.' "] In addition to the passage of Tacitus, 
quoted by Mr. Markby, see Sueton. Galb. c. 20. 

" Septimus Severus in despatch, ' Adeste si quid 
mini restat agendum.' "] No such dying words are 
attributed to Severus, either in Dio Cassius, 
Ixxvi. 15., the passage cited by Mr. Markby, or 
in Spartian. Sever, c. 23. 

In the passage of Juvenal, the words are, " qui 
spatium vita?," and not " qui finem vitse," as quoted 
by Lord Bacon. Length of life is meant. 

Esfay III. Of Unity in Religion. 
" Certain Laodiceans and lukewarm persons."] 
The allusion is to Rev. iii. 14 16. 



142 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 






" It is noted by one of the Fathers, Christ's coat 
indeed had no seam, but the Church's vesture was 
of divers colours ; whereupon he saith, ' in veste 
varietas sit, scissura non sit.' "] Query, Who is 
the Father alluded to ? 

" The massacre in France."] I. e. the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew. 

Essay IV. Of Revenge. See Antitheta, No. 39. 
vol. viii. p. 374. 

The saying of Cosmo, Duke of Florence, as to 
not forgiving friends, recurs in the Apophthegms, 
vol. i. p. 394. ed. Montagu. 

Essay V. Of Adversity. 

On the fable of Hercules sailing over the ocean 
in an earthen pot, see Sap. Vet., vol. x. p. 335. 
And concerning the Greek fable, see Schneidewin, 
Del. Foes. Gr., p. 329. 

Essay VI. Of Simulation and Dissimulation. 
See Antitheta, No. 32. vol. viii. p. 370. 

" Arts of state and arts of life, as Tacitus well 
calleth them."] Mr. Markby does not trace this 
allusion, which is not obvious. 

Essay VII. Of Parents and Children. See An- 
titheta, No. 5. vol. viii. p. 356. 

" The Italians make little difference between 
children and nephews, or near kinsfolk."] Query, 
What ground is there for this assertion ? 

" Generally the precept is good : ' Optimum elige, 
.suave et facile illud faciet consuetude.' "] Query, 
Who is the author of this precept ? 

Essay VIII. Of Marriage and Single Life. See 
Antitheta, No. 5. vol. viii. p. 356. 

The answer of Thales concerning marriage is 
also given in Plut. Symp. iii. 3. 

Essay IX. Of Envy. See Antitheta, No. 16. 
vol. viii. p. 362. 

" The Scripture calleth envy an evil eye."] Lord 
Bacon appears to allude to James iv. 5. : " Do ye 
think that the Scripture saith in vain, the Spirit 
that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy ? " 

" Non est curiosus, quin idem sit malevolus."] 
From Plautus, Stick. 1 . 3. v. 55. : " Nam curiosus 
nemo est, quin sit malevolus." 

" Therefore it was well said, ' Invidia festos dies 
non agit.' "] Whence is this saying taken ? It 
occurs likewise in the Antitheta. 

Essay X. Of Love. See Antitheta, No. 36. 
vol. viii. p. 373. 

" It hath been well said, that the arch-flatterer, 
with whom all the petty flatterers have intel- 
ligence, is a man's self."] Query, From whom is 
this saying quoted ? 

" It was well said, that it is impossible to love 
and to be wise."] Mr. Markby cites a verse of 
Publius Syrus, " Amare et sapere vix Deo conce- 
ditur." Compare Menander, Andria, Fragm. 1., 
and Ovid, Met. ii. 846. : " Non bene conveniunt, 
nee in una sede morantur, Majestas et amor." 



" I know not how, but martial men are given to 
love."] Aristotle {Pol. ii. 9.) has the same remark, 
adding that there was good reason for the fable 
which made Venus the spouse of Mars. 

Essay XI. Of Great Place. See Antitheta, 
No. 7. vol. viii. p. 357. 

" Cum non sis qui fueris, non esse cur veils 
vivere."] Whatever may be the source of this 
quotation, the sense seems to require est for esse. 

" It is most true that was anciently spoken : ' A 
place showeth the man.' "] The allusion is to the 
celebrated Greek proverb " apxh avSpa SeiKwo-i" at- 
tributed to Bias, Solon, Pittacus, and others. See 
Diogenianus, Prov. ii. 94., with the note of Leutsch 
and Schneidewin. 

Essay XII. Of Boldness. See Antitheta, No. 33. 
vol. viii. p. 371. 

" Question was asked of Demosthenes," &c.] 
See Cic. de Orat. iii. 56. ; Brut. 38. ; Plat. Vit. 
X. Orut. c. 8. By the Greek word forJ/fpKns, and 
the Latin word actio, in this anecdote, is meant all 
that belongs to the acting or delivery of a speech. 
Bacon appears, by his following remarks, not to 
include elocution in actio ; which was certainly not 
Cicero's understanding of the word. 

" If the hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet 
will go to the hill."] Query, What is the au- 
thority for this well-known story ? 

Essay XIII. Of Goodness. 

" The Turks, a cruel people, nevertheless are 
kind to beasts, and give alms to dogs and birds ; 
insomuch, as Busbechius reporteth, a Christian 
boy in Constantinople had like to have been stoned 
for gagging in a waggishness a long-billed fowl."]. 
A. G. Busbequius, Legationis Turcica: Epistola 
quattuor, in Epist. iii. p. 107. of his works, Lond. 
1660, tells a story of a Venetian goldsmith at 
Constantinople, who was fond of fowling, and had 
caught a bird of the size of the cuckoo, and of the 
same colour ; with a beak not very large, but with 
jaws so wide that, when opened, they would admit 
a man's fist. This bird he fastened over his door, 
with extended wings, and a stick in his beak, so 
as to extend the jaws to a great width, as a joke. 
The Turks, who were passing by, took compassion 
on the bird ; seized the goldsmith by the neck, and 
led him before the criminal judge. He was with 
difficulty saved from an infliction of the bastinado 
by the interference of the Venetian Bailo. The 
man told the story to Busbequius, and showed 
him the bird ; who supposed it to be the Capri- 
mulgus, or goat-sucker. A full account of the 
Capri/nulgus Europeans (the bird here alluded to) 
may be seen in the Penny (Cyclopaedia, art. NIGHT- 
JARS. It will be observed that Bacon quotes the 
story from memory, and does not represent the 
particulars of it with accuracy. It is not a Chris- 
tian boy, nor is he threatened with stoning, nor is 
the bird a long-billed fowl. 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



"Neither give thou JEsop's cock a gem," &c.] 
Compare Apophthegms, No. 203. p. 393. 

" Such men in other men's calamities are, as it 
were, in season, and are ever on the loading part."~\ 
By " the loading part," seems to be meant the part 
which is most heavily laden ; the part which sup- 
ports the chief burthen. 

" Misanthropi, that make it their practice to 
bring men to the bough, and yet have never a tree 
for the purpose in their gardens as Timon had."] 
Query, What is the allusion in this passage ? 
Nothing of the sort occurs in Lucian's dialogue of 
Timon. 

Essay XIV. Of Nobility. See Antitheta, No. 1. 
vol. viii. p. 354. 

Essay XV. Of Seditions and Troubles. 

" As Machiavel noteth well, when princes, that 
ought to be common parents, make themselves as 
a party," &c.] Perhaps Lord Bacon alludes to 
Disc. in. 27. 

" As Tacitus expresseth it well, ' Liberius quam 
ut imperantium meminissent.' "] Mr. Markby is 
at a loss to trace this quotation. I am unable to 
assist him. 

The verses of Lucan are quoted from memory. 
The original has, "Avidumque in tempora," and 
*' Et concussa fides." 

" Dolendi modus, timendi non item."] Query, 
Whence are these words taken ? 

" Solvam cingula regum."] Mr. Markby refers 
to Job xii. 18. ; but the passage alluded to seems 
to be Isaiah xlv. 1. 

The story of Epimetheus is differently applied 
in Sap. Vet., vol. x. p. 342. 

The saying of Caesar on Sylla is inserted in the 
Apophthegms, No. 135. p. 379. That of Galba is 
likewise to be found in Suet. Galb. 16. 

Essay XVI. Of Atheism. See Antitheta, No. 13. 
vol. viii. p. 360. 

" Who to him is instead of a god, or melior 
natura."] From Ovid, Met. 1.21.: " Hanc deus 
et melior litem natura diremit." 

Essay XVII. Of Superstition. See Antitheta, 
No. 13. vol. viii. p. 360. 

Essay XIX. Of Empire. See Antitheta, No. 8. 
vol. viii. p. 358. 

" And the like was done by that league, which 
Guicciardiui saith was the security of Italy," &c.] 
The league alluded to, is that of 1485. See Guic- 
ciarclini, lib. i. c. 1. 

" Neither is the opinion of some of the school- 
men to be received, that a war cannot justly be 
made but upon a precedent injury or provocation."] 
Grotius lays down the same doctrine as Bacon, 
De J. B. et P., ii. 1. 2, 3. Query, What school- 
men are here referred to ? 

Essay XX. Of Counsel. See Antitheta, No. 44. 

vol. viii. p. 377. 



Jupiter and Metis.] See Sap. Vet., vol. xi. 
p. 354. 

" For which inconveniences, the doctrine of 
Italy, and practice of France, in some kings' times, 
hath introduced cabinet councils : a remedy worse 
than the disease."] By " cabinet councils " are here 
meant private meetings of selected advisers in the 
king's own apartment. 

" Principis est virtus maxima nosse suos."] 
From Martial, viii. 15. 

" It was truly said, 'Optimi consiliarii mortui' "] 
Compare Apophthegms, No. 105.: "Alonzo of 
Arragon was wont to say of himself, that he was a 
great necromancer ; for that he used to ask counsel 
of the dead, meaning books." 

Essay XXI. Of Delays. See Antitheta, No. 41, 
vol. viii. p. 376. 

" Occasion (as it is in the common verse) turneth 
a bald noddle," &c.] See '; N. & Q.," Vol. iii., 
pp. 8. 43., where this saying is illustrated. 

Essay XXII. Of Cunning. 

" The old rule, to know a fool from a wise man : 
' Mitte ambos nudos ad ignotos, et videbis.' "J 
Attributed to " one of the philosophers " in Apo- 
phthegms, No. 255. p. 404. 

" I knew a counsellor and secretary that never 
came to Queen Elizabeth of England with bills to 
sign, but he would always first put her into some 
discourse of estate, that she might the less mind 
the bills."] King's or queen's bills is a technical 
expression for a class of documents requiring the 
royal signature, which is still, or was recently, in 
use. See Murray's Official Handbook, by Mr. 
Redgrave, p. 257. Query, To which of Queen 
Elizabeth's Secretaries of State does Bacon allude ? 
And again, who are meant by the " two who were 
competitors for the Secretary's place in Queen 
Elizabeth's time," mentioned lower down ? 

Essay XXIII. Of Wisdom for a Man's Self. 

" It is the wisdom of rats, that will be sure to 
leave a house somewhat before it fall."] Query, 
How and when did this popular notion (now en- 
grafted upon our political language) originate ? 

" It is the wisdom of crocodiles, that shed tears 
when they would devour."] This saying seems to 
be derived from the belief, that the crocodile 
imitates the cry of children in order to attract 
their mothers, and then to devour them. See 
Salgues, Des Erreurs et des Prejuges, torn. ii. 
p. 406. 

Essay XXIV. Of Innovations. See Antitheta, 
No. 40. vol. viii. p. 375. 

Essay XXV. Of Despatch. See Antitheta, 
No. 27. vol. viii. p. 368. 

" I knew a wise man, that had it for a by-word, 
when he saw men hasten to a conclusion, ' Stay a 
little, that we may make an end the sooner.' "] 
Mr. Markby saya that Sir Amias Paulet is the 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



person alluded to. The saying is repeated in 
Apophthegms, No. 14. p. 414. 

" The Spartans and Spaniards have been noted 
to be of small despatch : ' Mi venga la muerte de 
Spagna, Let my death come from Spain, for 
then it will be sure to be long in coming.' "] The 
slow and dilatory character of the Lacedsemonians 
is noted in Thucyd. i. 70. : " Kal /UTJI/ KOL O.OKVOI irpbs 
j&yuas ^eXATjras." And again, i. 84.: "Kal rb PpaSv 
Kul fiAA.ov, t> fj.f/j.(povrai /j.d.\iffTa ij/j.<av." Livy repre- 
sents the Rhodians making a similar remark to 
the Roman senate in 167 B.C. : " Atheniensium 
populum fama est celerem et supra vires audacem 
esse ad conandum : Lacedaemoniorum cunctato- 
rem, et vix in ea, quibus fidit, ingreilientem," 
adv. 23. Bayle, in his Pensees sur les Cometes, 
243., has a passage which illustrates the slowness 
of the Spaniards : "D'un cote on prevoyoit, que 
1'empereur et le roi d'Espagne se serviroient de 
tres graudes forces, pour opprimer la chretiente : 
mais on prevoyoit aussi de 1'autre, qu'ils ne seroient 
jamais en etat de 1'accabler, parceque la lenteur 
et les longues deliberations qui ont toujours fait 
leur partage, font perdre trop de bonnes occasions. 
Vous savez la pensee de Malherbe sur ce sujet : 
S'il est vrai, dit-il dans quelqu'une de ses lettres, 
que 1'Espagne aspire & la monarchic universelle, 
je lui conseille de demander a Dieu une surseance 
de la fin du monde." 

Essay XXVI. Of seeming wise. 

" Magno conatu nugas."] From Terence, Heavt. 
iii. 5. 8. : " Ne ista, hercle, magno jam conatu mag- 
nas nugas dixerit." 

Essay XXVII. Of Friendship. 

"Epimenides the Candian."] Bacon calls the 
ancient Cretan priest Epimenides a " Candian," 
as Machiavel speaks of the capture of Rome by 
the "Francesi" under Brennus. Mr. Pashley, in 
his Travels in Crete, vol. i. p. 189., shows that 
Candia is a name unknown in the island ; and 
that among the natives its ancient denomination 
is still in use. The name Candia has been pro- 
pagated over Europe from the Italian usage. 

" The Latin adage meeteth with it a little : 
* Magna civitas, niagna solitudo.' "] See Erasm. 
Adag., p. 1293. It is taken from a verse of a Greek 
comic poet, which referred to the city of Megalo- 
polis in Arcadia : " 'Eprjuia fifyd\ri ar\v rj Mfyd\rj 
irJAis." Strab. viii. 8. 1. 

" The Roman name attaineth the true use and 
cause thereof, naming them ' participes curarum.' "] 
To what examples of this expression does Bacon 
refer ? 

" The parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true : 
'Cor ne edito.'"] Concerning this Pythagorean 
precept, see Diog., Laert. viii. 17, 18., cum not. 

The saying of Themistocles is repeated in Apo- 
phthegms, No. 199. p. 392. 

The saying of Heraclitus is repeated, Apo- 
phthegms, No. 268. ; De Sap. Vet., vol. xi. p. 346. 



It is alluded to in Nov. Org., ii. 32. : " Quicquid 
enim abducit intellectum a consuetis, sequat et 
complanat stream ejus, ad recipiendum lumen sic- 
cuni et purum notiouum verarum." 

"It was a sparing speech of the ancients, to say 
that a friend is another himself."] See Aristot., 
Mag. Mor. ii. 11.: "Mfa <f)a^v <pux*I n ^M Ka ^ ^ 
TOUTOU;" and iigain, c. 15.: "TotoDros olor eVepoy 
f.vai tyu t &v yt /cat ercpoSpat <f>i\ov TTOITJCTT/S, wffirep T& 
\t opevov ' &\\os OUTOS 'HpawA.7)s,' ' &\\os <pi\os fy<a.' '* 
Eth. Eud. vii. 12.: "'o yap <pi\os &ov\frat dvcu^ 
S>ffirfp >i rrapoi/xia <pr)<rlv, &\\os 'HpaK\rjs, &h\os ovros." 

L. 

(To be continued.') 



THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA. 

The interest which the execution of the railroad 
across the Isthmus of Panama excites, induces me 
to transmit you the following extract from Gare' 
Neu^ Survey of the West Indies, 8vo., London, 1699. 

A few lines relative to the author, of whom but 
little is known, may be also of use. He w:is th& 
son of John Gage, of Haling ; and his brother was 
Sir Henry Gag>-, governor of Oxford, killed at the 
battle at Culham Bridge, Jan. 11, 1644. His 
family were of the Roman Catholic faith: and he 
was sent by his father in 1612 into Spain, to study 
under the Jesuits, in the hope he would join that 
society ; but his aversion to them led him to enter 
the Dominican Order at Valladolid, in 1612. His 
motives were suspected; his father was irritated 
threatened to disinherit him and to arouse against 
him the power of the Jesuits of England if he re- 
turned home. He now determined to pass over to 
the Spanish possessions in South America; but as an 
order had been issued by the king, forbidding this 
to any Englishman, it was only by inclosing him 
in an empty sea-biscuit case, he was able to sail 
from Cadiz, July 2, 1625. He arrived at Mexico 
on October 8 ; and after residing there for some 
time to recruit himself from the voyage, resolved 
to abandon a missionary scheme to the Philippine 
islands he had planned, and accord! ngly, on the 
day fixed for their departure to Acapulco, escaped 
with three other Dominicans for Chispat. He 
was here well received, and went subsequently to 
the head establishment at Guatimala. He was 
soon appointed curate of Amatitlan ; and during 
his residence at this and another district contrived 
to amass a sum of 9000 piastres, with the aid of 
which he sought to accomplish his long-cherished 
desire of returning to England. Many difficulties 
were in his wa\ ; but on the 7th January, 1637, 
he quitted Amatitlan, traversed the province of 
Nicaragua, and embarked from the coast of Costa 
Rica. The ship was soon after boarded by a 
Dutch corsair, and Gage was robbed of 8000 
piastres. He succeeded in reaching Panama* 
traversed the Isthmus, and sailed from. Porto Bello 






AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



145 



in the Spanish fleet, which reached San Sucar, 
Nov. 28, 1637. He returned to England after 
an absence of twenty-four years. His father was 
dead : he found himself disinherited, and although 
hardly recognised by his family at first, he met 
ultimately with kindly treatment. During his 
residence in S. America, doubts had arisen in his 
mind as to the truth and validity of the creed 
and ritual to which he was attached. Whether 
this was the consequence of reflection from his 
theological studies, or animated love of change 
which his conduct at times betrayed, cannot be 
decided. He resolved to proceed to Italy, and 
renew his studies there. Upon his return, after a 
short residence, he renounced Catholicism in a 
sermon he preached at St. Paul's. About 1642 
he attached himself to the Parliament cause, and 
it is said he obtained the living of Deal in Kent; 
as the parish registers contain an entry of the 
burial of Mary daughter, and Mary wife, of 
Thomas Gage, parson of Deal, March 21, 1652 ; 
but when he was married, and whom lie married, 
does not appear. Gage's work has been rather 
too much decried. It contains matter of interest 
relative to the state of the Spanish possessions ; and 
his credulity and superstition must be considered 
in relation to his opportunities and his age. 
Perhaps some of your readers may contribute 
farther information concerning him, as the general 
accounts I have been able to meet with are con- 
tradictory and insufficient. The Biographic Uni- 
verselle states, that it was his Survey of the West 
Indies that led to the English expeditions to the 
Spanish Main, which secured Jamaica to the En- 
glish in 1654, and adds he died there in 1655. 
The registers at Deal could probably prove this 
fact; but I confess to doubt as to whether Gage 
really were the parson alluded to as resident there 
in 1652. He was evidently of a roving unsteady 
nature, fond of adventure, and the first to open to 
English enterprise a knowledge of the state of the 
Spanish possessions, to prevent which the council 
of the Indies had passed so many stringent laws. 
Colbert caused this work to be translated, and it 
has been often reprinted on the Continent, but 
much mutilated, as his statements relative to the 
Roman Catholic priesthood gave ofl'ence. A good 
memoir of Gage is still to be desired. The follow- 
ing is the extract relative to the Isthmus of Pa- 
nama, West Indies, p. 151. : 

" The Peruvian part containetli all the southern 
tract, and is tyed to the Mexican by the Isthmus or 
Strait of Darien, being no more than 1 7, or, as others 
say, in the narrowest place, but 12 miles broad, from 
the north to the south sea. Many have mentioned to 
the Council of Spain the cutting of a navigable channel 
through this small Isthmus, so to shorten the voyage 
to China and the Moluccoes. But the kings of Spain 
have not yet attempted to do it ; some say lest in the 
work he should lose those few Indians which are left 



(would to God it were so, that they were or had been 
so careful and tender of the poor Indians' lives, more 
populous would that vast and spacious country be at 
this day), but others say he hath not attempted it lest 
the passage by the Cape Bona Esperanza (Good 
Hope) being left off, those seas might become a re- 
ceptacle for pirates. However, this hath not been 
attempted by the Spaniards -, they give not for reason 
any extraordinary great charge, for that would soon be 
recompensed with the speedie and easie conveying that 
way the commodities from S. to N. seas." 

This bears reference to projects before 1625, 
or during his residence in S. America, between 
1625 1637 ; but Gage could hardly have under- 
stood the nature of the Spanish character, and the 
genius of the government, to speculate upon the 
cause of their neglect of every useful enterprise 
for the promotion of commerce and public good. 

S. H. 



FOLK LORE. 

Legends of the County Clare. On the west 
coast of Ireland, near the Cliffs of Moher, at some 
distance out in the bay, the waves appear con- 
tinually breaking in white foam even on the 
calmest day. The tradition among the country 
people is, that a great city was swallowed up there 
for some great crime, and that it becomes visible 
once every seven, years. And if the person who 
sees it could keep his eyes fixed on it till he 
reached it, it would then be restored, and he 
would obtain great wealth. The man who related 
the legend stated farther, that some years ago 
some labourers were at work in a field on the hill 
side in view of the bay ; and one of them, hap- 
pening to cast his eyes seaward, saw the city in all 
its splendour emerge from the deep. Pie called 
to his companions to look at it ; but though they 
were close to him, he could not attract their at- 
tention : at last, he turned round to see why they 
would not come ; but on looking back, when he 
had succeeded in attracting their attention, the 
city had disappeared. 

The Welsh legend of the Islands of the Blessed, 
which can only be seen by a person who stands 
on a turf from St. David's churchyard, bears a 
curious coincidence to the above. It is not im- 
possible that there may have been some found- 
ation for the vision of the enchanted city at Moher 
in the Fata Morgana, very beautiful spectacles of 
which have been seen on other parts of the const 
of Ireland. FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES. 

Moon Superstitions (Vol. viii., p. 79.). In this 
age of fact and science, it is remarkable that even 
with the well-informed the old faith in the "change 
of the moon " as a prognostic of fair and foul wea- 
ther still keeps its hold. W. W. asks " have we 
any proof of" the "correctness" of this faith ? To 
suppose that the weather varies with the amount of 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



illuminated surface on the moon would make the 
change in the weather vary with the amount of 
moonshine, which of course is absurd, as in that case 
the clouds would have much more to do with the 
question than the moon's shadow. But still it may 
be said the moon may influence the weather as it 
is supposed to cause the tides. In answer to this 
I beg to state the opinion of Dr. Ick, who was for 
upwards of ten years the curator of the Birming- 
Siam Philosophical Institute, an excellent meteoro- 
logist, geologist, and botanist. He assured me 
that after the closest and most accurate observa- 
tion of the moon and the weather, he had arrived 
at the conclusion that there is not the slightest 
observable dependence between them. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 

Wanvichshire Folk Lore. The only certain 
remedy for the bite of an adder is to kill the 
offending reptile, and apply some of its fat to the 
wound. Whether the fat should be raw or melted 
down, my informant did not say, but doubtless 
the same effect would be produced in either case. 

If a pig is killed in the wane of the moon, the 
bacon is sure to shrink in the boiling ; if, on the 
other hand, the pig is killed when the moon is at 
the full, the bacon will swell. ERICA. 

Warwick. 

Northamptonshire Folk Lore. There is a sin- 
gular custom prevailing in some parts of Nor- 
thamptonshire, and perhaps some of your cor- 
respondents may be able to mention other places 
where a similar practice exists. If a female is 
afflicted with fits, nine pieces of silver money and 
nine threehalfpences are collected from nine ba- 
chelors : the silver money is converted into a ring 
to be worn by the afflicted person, and the three- 
halfpences (i. e. 13ic?.) are paid to the maker of 
the ring, an inadequate remuneration for his la- 
bour, bvtt which he good-naturedly accepts. If 
the afflicted person be a male, the contributions 
are levied upon females. E. H. 

Sloiv-worm Superstition (Vol. viii., p. 33.). As 
a child I was always told by the servants that if 
any serpent was " scotched, not killed," it would 
revive if it could reach its hole before sunset, but 
that otherwise it must die. Hence the custom, so 
universal, of hanging any serpent on a tree after 
killing it. SELEUCUS. 

A Devonshire Charm for the Thrush. On 
visiting one of my parishioners, whose infant was 
ill with the thrush, I asked her what medicine she 
had given the child ? She replied, she had done 
nothing to it but say the eighth Psalm over it. I 
found that her cure was to repeat the eighth Psalm 
over the infant three times, three days running ; and 
on my hesitating a doubt as to the efficacy of the 



remedy, she appealed to the case of another of her 
children who had suffered badly from the thrush,, 
but had been cured by the use of no other means. 
If it was said " with the virtue," it was, she de- 
clared, an unfailing cure. The mention, in this 
Psalm, of " the mouths of babes and sucklings," 
I suppose led to its selection. W. ERASER. 

Tor-Mohun. 



OLD JOKES. 

Every man ought to read the jest-books, that 
he may not make himself disagreeable by re- 
peating " old Joes " as the very last good things. 
One book of this class is little more than the 
copy of another as to the points, with a change 
of the persons ; and the same joke, slightly varied, 
appears in as many different countries as the same- 
fairy-tale. Seven years ago I found at Prague 
the " Joe " of the Irishman saying that there were 
a hunrlred judges on the bench, because there was 
one with two cyphers. The valet-de-place told 
me that when the Emperor and Metternich were 
together they were called " the council of ten,"" 
because they were eins und zero. 

It is interesting to trace a joke back, of which 
process I send an example. In the very clever 
version of the Chancellor of Oxford's speech on 
introducing the new doctors (Punch, No. 622.) 
are these lines : 

" En Henleium 1 en Stanleium ! Hie eminens pro- 

sator : 

Hie, filius pulchro patre, hercle pulchrior orator; 
Demosthenes in herba, sed in ore retinens illos 
Quos, antequam peroravit, Grtscus respuit lapillos." 

Ebenezer Grubb, in his description of the oppo- 
sition in 1814, thus notices Mr. E. Douglas : 

" He is a forward and frequent speaker ; remarkable 
for a graceful inclination of the upper part of his body 
in advance of the lower, and speaketh, I suspect (after 
the manner of an ancient*), with pebbles in his mouth." ~ 
New Whig Guide, 1819, p. 47. 

In Foote's Patron, Sir Roger Dowlas, an East 
India proprietor, who has sought instruction in 
oratory from Sir Thomas Lofty, is introduced to 
the conversazione : 

" Sir Thomas. Sir Roger, be seated. This gentle- 
man has, in common with the greatest orator the world 
ever saw, a small natural infirmity ; he stutters a little : 
but I have prescribed the same remedy that Demo- 
sthenes used, and don't despair of a radical cure. Well,, 
sir, have you digested those general rules ? 

Sir Roger. Pr-ett-y well, I am obli-g'd to you,. 
Sir Th-omas. 

Sir Thomas. Did you open at the last general 
court ? 

Sir Roger. I att-empt-ed fo -ur or five times. 

Sir Thomas. What hindered your progress ? 

Sir Roger. The pe-b-bles. 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



Sir Thomas. Oh, the pelbles in hit mouth : but they 
are only put in to practise in private : you should take 
them out when you are addressing the public." 

I cannot trace the joke farther, but as Foote, 
though so rich in wit, was a great borrower, it 
might not be new in 1764. H. B. C. 

Garrick Club. 



AN INTERPOLATION OF THE PLAYERS : TOBACCO. 

I have witnessed the representation of the Twelfth 
Night as often, during the last fi ve-and-forty years, 
as I have had an opportunity ; and, in every in- 
stance, Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and the Clown, in 
their rollicking orgies, smoke tobacco. Now, this 
must be an " interpolation of the players ;" for not 
only was tobacco unknown in Illyria, at the period 
of the story, but Shakspeare does not once name to- 
bacco in his works, and, therefore, was not likely 
to give a stage-direction for the use of it. The 
great poet is freely blamed for anachronisms ; it is 
but fair he should have due credit when he avoids 
them. The stories of his plays are all antecedent 
to his own time, therefore he never mentions 
either the drinking of tobacco, or the tumultuous 
scenes of the ordinary which belonged to it, and 
which are so constantly met with in his cotem- 
porary dramatists. I see there is a note in my 
commonplace-book, after some remarks upon 
Green's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, " that this 
play, though written by a pedant, and a Master of 
Ails, contains more anachronisms than any one 
play of Shakspeare's." 

Can any of your correspondents learned in stage 
traditions say when this "smoking interpolation" 
was first made ? 



But, Sir, I think I shall surprise some of your 
readers by pointing out another instance of the 
absence of tobacco or smoking. In the Arabian 
Night's Entertainments, which are said to be such 
faithful pictures of oriental manners, there is no 
mention of the pipe. Neither is coffee to be met 
with in those tales, so delightful to all ages. We with 
difficulty imagine an oriental without his chibauk ; 
and yet it is certain they knew nothing of this 
luxury before the sixteenth century. At present, 
such is the almost imperious necessity felt by the 
Turk for smoking and coffee, that as soon as the 
gun announces the setting of the sun, during the 
fast of the Ramada, before he thinks of satisfying 
his craving stomach with any solid food, he takes 
his cup of coffee and lights his pipe. As I think 
it dishonest to deck ourselves with knowledge 
that is not self-acquired, I confess to the having 
but just read this "note" in the last number of 
the Revue des Deux Mondes, in a fine work upon 
America by the celebrated savant, M. Ampere. 

W. ROBSON. 

Stockwell. 



Curious Epitaph. In the Diary of Thomas 
Moore, Charles Lamb is said at a certain dinner 
party to have "quoted an epitaph by Clio Rickman, 
in which, after several lines in the usual jog-trot 
style of epitaph, he continued thus : 

' He well perform'd the husband's, father's part, 
And knew immortal Hudibras by heart." " 

There is an epitaph in the churchyard of New- 
haven, Sussex, in which the last of these two lines 
occurs, but which does not answer in other respects 
to the character of the one quoted by Lamb. On 
the contrary, it is altogether eminently quaint, 
peculiar, and consistent. The stone is to the 
memory of Thomas Tipper, who departed this life 
May the 14th, 1785, aged fifty-four years ; and the 
upper part is embellished with a representation, 
in bas-relief, of the drawbridge which crosses the- 
river, whence it might be inferred that the compre- 
hensive genius of Mr. Tipper included engineering 
and architecture. The epitaph runs thus : 

" Reader, with kind regard this grave survey, 
Nor heedless pass where Tipper's ashes lay. 
Honest he was, ingenuous, blunt and kind, 
And dared do what few dare do speak his mind.. 
Philosophy and History well he knew, 
Was versed in Physick and in Surgery too : 
The best old Stingo he both brew'd and sold, 
Nor did one knavish act to get his gold. 
He play'd through life a varied comic part, 
And knew immortal Hudibras by heart. 
Reader, in real truth this was the man : 
Be better, wiser, laugh more if you can." 

Is there any reason for supposing this epitaph 
to have been written by Clio Rickman ; and is 
anything known of Mr. Tipper beyond the bio- 
graphy of his tombstone ? G. J. DE WILDE. 

Enigmatical Epitaph. I offer for solution an 
enigma, copied from a tomb in the churchyard of 
Christchurch in Hampshire : 

" WE WERE NOT SLAYNE BUT RAYSD } 
RAYSD NOT TO LIFE, 
BVT TO BE BVRIED TWICE 
BY MEN OP STRIFE. 

WHAT REST COVLD TH LIVING HAVE, 
WHEN DEAD HAD NONE ? 
AGREE AMONGST YOV, 
HERE WE TEN AKE ONE. 
HIiN. ROGERS DIED APRIL 17, 1641. 
I. 11." 

The popular legend is, that the ten men perished 
by the falling in of a gravel-pit, and that their re- 
mains were buried together. This, however, will 
not account for the " men of strife." 

Is it not probable that, in the time of the civil 
wars, the bodies might have been disinterred for 
the sake of the leaden coffins, and then deposited 
in their present resting-place ? 






148 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



The tomb may have been erected some time 
afterwards by " I. R.," probably a relative of the 
" Henry Rogers," the date of whose death is com- 
memorated. T. J. 

Bath. 

Books worthy to be reprinted (Vol. vii., pp. 153. 
203.). In addition to those previously mentioned 
in " N. & Q.," there is one for which a crying 
necessity exists for a new edition, namely, The 
Complaynt of Scotland. It is often advertised 
and otherwise sought for ; and when found, can 
only be had at a most extravagant price. It was 
originally written in 1548 ; and in 1801, a limited 
impression, edited by Dr. Leyden, was published; 
and in 1829, "Critiques upon it by David Herd, 
and others, with observations in answer by Dr. 
Leyden," to the number of seventy copies. The 
Complaynt of Scotland and Sir Tristrem, an edition 
of which was edited by Sir Walter Scott, and 
published in 1804, are two of the oldest works of 
which the literature of Scotland can boast. 

INVERNESS. 

Napoleon's Thunderstorm. The passage of the 
Niemen by the French army, and its consequent 
entry on Russian territory, may be said to have 
been Napoleon's first step towards defeat and ruin. 
A terrible thunderstorm occurred on that occasion, 
according to M. Segur's account of the Russian 
campaign. 

When Napoleon commenced the retreat, by 
which he yielded all the country beyond the Elbe 
(and which, therefore, may be reckoned a second 
step towards his downfall), it was accompanied by 
a thunderstorm more remarkable from occurring 
at such a season. Odelben says : 

" C'etait un phenomena bien extraordinaire dans un 
pareil saison, et avec le froid qu'on venait d'eprouver," 
&c. Odelben, Camp, de 1813, vol. i. p. 289. 

The first step towards his second downfall, or 
third towards complete ruin, was his advance upon 
the British force at Quatre-Bras, June 17, 1815. 
This also was accompanied by an awful thunder- 
storm, which (although gathering all the forenoon) 
commenced at the very moment he made his at- 
tack on the British rear-guard (about two p. in.), 
when the first gun fired was instantaneously re- 
sponded to by a tremendous peal of thunder. 

Thunder, to Wellington, was the precursor of 
victory and triumph. Witness the above-men- 
tioned introduction to the victory of Waterloo ; 
the terrible thunder, that scattered the horses of 
the dragoons, the eve of Salamanca ; also, the 
night preceding Sabugal. And perhaps some of 
the Duke's old companions in arms may be able 
to add to the category. A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

Istamboul Constantinople. Mr. (afterwards 
Sir George) Wheler, who took holy orders and 



became rector of Houghton-le- Spring in the 
diocese of Durham, makes the following remarks 
in his Journey into Greece, Sfc. (fol., Lond. 1682), 
p. 178. : 

" Constantinople is now vulgarly called Stamlol by 
the Turks ; but by the Greeks more often Istampoll, 
which must needs be a corruption from the Greek 
either from Constantinopolis, which in pro- 
cess of time might be corrupted into Stanpolis or Istan- 
pnli; or rather, from it being called woAts KO.T' Qoxhvo. 
For the Turks, hearing the Greeks express their going 
to Constantinople by els r^vv6\iv, which they pronounce 
Is-tin-polin, and often for brevity's sake Stinpoli, might 
soon ignorantly call it Istanpoli or Slambol, according 
as either of them came into vogue first. And there- 
fore I think theirs is a groundless fancy who fetch it 
from the Turkish word Istamboal, which signifies a 
city full of or abounding in the true faith, the name 
being so apparently of Greek original." 

TV. S. G. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



titaerfaf. 

STRUT-STOWERS, AND YEATHERS OR TAD1>ERS. 

In the Collection of divers curious Historical 
Pieces printed by the Rev. Francis Peck at the 
end of his Memoirs of Oliver Cromwell, is 

" Some account of the Murder of the Hermit of 
Eskdale-side, near VVhitby, in Com. Ebor. by William 
de Bruce (Lord of Ugle Barnby), Ralph de Peircy 
(Lord of Snealon), and one Allatson, a Gent., and of 
the remarkable penance which the Hermit enjoyned 
them before he died." 

The story is briefly this: On the 16th Oc- 
tober, 15 Henry II., De Bruce, De Peircy, and 
Allatson were hunting the wild boar in Eskdale- 
side, where was a chapel and hermitage, in which 
lived a monk of Whitby, who was a hermit. The 
boar being hotly pursued by the dogs, ran into 
the chapel and there laid down and died. The 
hermit shut the door on the hounds, who stood at 
bay without. The three gentlemen coming up, 
flew into a great fury, and ran with their boar- 
staves at the hermit and so wounded him that he 
ultimately died. The three gentlemen, fearing 
his death, took sanctuary at Scarborough, but the 
Abbot of Whitby being in great favour with the 
king, removed them out of sanctuary, whereby 
they became liable to the law. The dying hermit 
(he survived till the 8th December), on the 
abbot's proposing to put them to death, suggested 
the following penance, to which, in order to save 
their lives and goods, they consented, and to which 
the abbot likewise agreed : 

" You and yours shall hold your lands of the Abbat 
of Whitby and his successors after this manner, viz. 
upon the eve [or morrow before] Ascension Day, you, 
or some of you, shall come to the wood of Stray-Head, 



AUG. 13. 1853.-] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



which is in Eskdale-side, by sun-rising, and there shall 
the officer of the abbat blow his horn, that ye may 
know how to find him. And he shall deliver to you, 
William de Bruce, ten stakes, eleven strut-stowers, and 
eleven yeathers, to be cut by you, and those that come 
for yon, with a knife of a penny price. And you, 
Ralph de Peircy, shall take one and twenty of each 
sort, to be cut in the same manner. And you, Al- 
latson, shall take nine of each sort, to be cut as afore- 
said. And then ye shall take them on your backs, and 
carry them to the town of Whitby, and take care to be 
there before nine of the clock, and at the same hour, if 
it be a full sea, to cease your service. But, if it be low 
water at nine of the clock, then each of you shall, the 
same hour, set your stakes at the edge of the water, 
each stake a yard from the other, and so yeather them 
with your yeathers, and stake them on each side with 
your strut-stowers, that they may stand three tides, 
without removing by the force of the water. And 
each of you shall really do, perform, and execute this 
service yearly at the hour appointed, except it be a full 
sea, when this service shall cease ; in remembrance that 
ye did most cruelly slay me. And that ye may the 
more seriously and fervently call upon God for mercy, 
and repent iinfeignedly of your sins, and do good 
works, the officer of Eskdale-side shall blow, Out on 
you ! Out on you ! Out on you ! for this heinous crime 
of yours. And if you or yours shall refuse this service 
at the aforesaid hour, when it shall not be a full sea, 
then you shall forfeit all your lands to the Abbat of 
"Whitby and his successors." 

There is a similar account, with verbal and 
other variations, " From a printed copy published 
at Whitby a few years ago," in Blount's Jocular 
Tenures, by Beckwitb, pp. 557 560. In that ac- 
count the word, which in Mr. Peck's account is 
" yeathers," is " yadders." Mr. Beckwitb states, 
" This service is still annually performed." 

Sir Walter Scott (Marmion, Canto II. st. 13.) 
thus alludes to the legend : 

" Then Whitby's nuns exulting told, 
How to their house three Barons bold 

Must menial service do ; 
While horns blow out a note of shame, 
And monks cry ' Fye upon your name ! 
In wrath, for loss of silvan game, 
Saint Hilda's priest ye slew.' 
' This on Ascension Day, each year, 
While labouring on our harbour pier, 
Must Herbert, Bruce, and Percy hear.' " 
In note 2. C. the popular account printed and 
circulated at Whitby is given. It is substantially 
the same with that given by Beckwith, but for 
"strut-stowers" we have " strout-stowers ;" and 
for "yadders" we have "y ethers." It appears, 
also, that the service was not at that time per- 
formed by the proprietors in person ; and that 
part of the lands charged therewith were then 
held by a gentleman of the name of Herbert. 

I shall be glad if any of your correspondents 
will elucidate the terms strut-stowers, and yea- 
thers or yadders. C. H. COOPER. 
Cambridge. 



Archbishop Parker's Correspondence. I am 
now engaged in carrying out a design which has 
been long entertained by the Parker Society, that 
of publishing the Correspondence of the distin- 
guished prelate whose name that Society bears. 
If any of your readers can favour me with refer- 
ences to any letters of the archbishop, either un- 
published, or published in works but little known, 
I shall feel extremely obliged. I add my own 
address, in order that I may not encumber your 
pages with mere references. Any information be- 
yond a reference will probably be as interesting to 
your readers generally as to myself. 

JOHN BRUCE. 

5. Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square. 

Amor Nummi. Can any of your correspondents- 
inform me as to the authorship of the following 
verses ? 

Amor Nummi. 

" ' The love of money is the root of evil, 
Sending the folks in cart-loads to the devil.' 
So says an ancient proverb, as we're told, 
And spoke the truth, we [no ?] doubt, in days of old. 
But now, thanks to our good friend, BILLY PITT, 
This wholesome golden adage will not sit [fit?] 
On English ground the vice dissolves in vapour, 
Being at best only a love of paper." 

It must have appeared in an English ministerial 
paper about the year 1805. From the Navorscher~ 

DIONYSIOS. 

The Number Nine. Can any of your mathe- 
matical correspondents inform me of the law and 
reason of the following singular property of the 
numbers ? If from any number above nine the 
same number be subtracted written backwards, 
the addition of the figures of the remainder will 
always be a multiple of nine ; for instance 

972619 
916279 

J56340 the sum of which is 1 8, or 9x2. 

925012 
210529 

714483 the sum of which is 27, or 9 X 3. 

83 
38 

45 the sum of which is 9. 

JOHN LAMMENS. 

Position of Font. The usual and very signifi- 
cant position of the font is near the church door. 
But there is one objection to this, viz. that the 
benches being best arranged facing the chancel, 
the people cannot without much confusion see the 
baptisms. This being so, perhaps a better place 



NOTES AND QTJEKIES. 



[No. 198. 



for the font is at the entrance of the chancel. The 
holy rite, so edifying to the congregation, as well 
as profitable to the recipient, can then be duly 
seen ; and the position is tolerably symbolical, 
expressing as it were " the way that is opened for 
us into the holiest of all." I am curious to know 
if there are any ancient examples of this position, 
and how far the canon sanctions it, which directs 
that the font be set up in " the ancient usual 
places " [plural] ? While on the subject let me 
put another Query. The Rubric directs that the 
font be " then," i. e. just before the baptism, 
filled with pure water. In what vessel is the 
water brought, and who fills the font ? What 
are the precedents in this matter? Rules, I 
think, there are none. A. A. D. 

Aix Ruochim or Romans loner. On the verge 
of the cliff at Kingsgate, near the North Foreland, 
is a small castle or fort of chalk and flint, known 
by the above name. Can any of your readers give 
any information regarding the date of the erection 
of this curious edifice ? Some of the local guide- 
books attribute it to the time of Vortigern, or 
about 448 ; but this seems an almost fabulous 
antiquity. A. O. H. 

Blackheath. 

" Lessons for Lent" frc. Lessons for Lent, or 
Instructions on the Two Sacraments of Penance 
and the B. Eucharist, printed in the year 1718. 
Who was the author ? H. 

" La Branche des reaus Lignages." Have any 
of your correspondents met with a romance, of 
which^ I have a MS. copy, entitled " La Branche 
des reaus Lignages ?" The MS. I possess is evi- 
dently a modern copy, and begins thus : 

" Et tens de cell mandement 
Duquel j'ai fait rameinbrement 
Et qu'aucun homme d'avis oil 
Jehan, qui Henaut justisoit 
Guerreoit et grevoit yglises 
En la garde le roi commises 
Ne . . . li vouloit faire hommage." 

The poem is divided by numbers, probably re- 
ferring to the pages of the original : beginning with 
1292, and ending with 1307. It is also evident, 
from the first verses themselves, that I have only 
a fragment before me. From the Navorscher. 

GAKSKE. 

Marriage Service. Are there any parishes in 
which the custom of presenting the fee, together 
with the ring, in the marriage service, as ordered 
by the rubric, is observed ? E. W. 

" Czar" or ''Tsar" Whence the derivation 
of the title Czar or Tsar ? I know that some 
suppose it to be derived from Caesar, while others 
trace it from the terminal -sar or -zar in the 



names of the kings of Babylon and Assyria : as 
Phalas-sar, Nebuchadnez-zar, &c. In Per.-ian, 
sar means the supreme power. I have heard much 
argument about its origin, and would be much 
obliged if any reader of " N. & Q." could state 
the correct derivation of the word. 

By which Emperor of Russia was the title first 
assumed ? J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 

Little Silver. There are several places m 
Devonshire so called, villages or hamlets. It is 
said, they are alway situated in the immediate 
neighbourhood of a Roman, or some other ancient 
camp. Hence, some people suppose the name is 
given to these localities from the number of silver 
coins frequently found there. 

Will any of your correspondents throw light oil 
this subject ? 

As every one knows, there is also a Silverton in 
Devonshire Silver-town par excellence. Is it 
in any way connected with the "Little Silvers ?" 

A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

On jSEsop's (?) Fable of ivashing the Blacka- 
moor. Is it possible the well-known fable was a- 
real occurrence ? The following extract would 
seem to allude to an analogous fact : 

" Counting the labour as endlcsse as the maids in 
the Strand, which endeavoured by washing the Biack- 
a-more to make him white." Case of Sir Ignoramus 
of Cambridge, 1648, p. 23. 

R. C. WAKDE. 
Kidderminster. 

Wedding Proverb. Is the following distich 
known in any part of England? 

" To change the name, but not the letter, 
Is to marry for worse, and not for better." 

I met with it in an American book, but it was 
probably an importation. SPISSTEH. 

German Phrase. What is the origin of a sar- 
castic German phrase often used ? 

" Er er\rartet dass der Himmel voll Bassgeigen 
langt." 

L. M. M. R. 

German Heraldry. Where cnn I refer to a 
book in which the armorial bearings of all the 
principal German families are engraved ? 

SPERIESD. 

Leman Family. About the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, say 1650 to 1670, two gentlemen 
left England for America, who are supposed to 
have been brothers or near relatives of Sir John 
Leman, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1616. 
Traditions, which have been preserved in manu- 
script, and which can be traced back over one 






AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



hundred years, tell of a correspondence which 
took place between the said Sir John and the 
widow of one of the brothers, in relation to her 
returning to England. 

The writer of this (a descendant of one of these 
gentlemen) is anxious to learn the names of the 
brothers and near relatives of this Sir John ; and 
whether any evidence exists of their leaving Eng- 
land for America, &c., &c. ; and would feel much 
indebted to any one who would supply the inform- 
ation through your paper. .R. W. L. 

Philadelphia. 

A Cob-watt. Why do the inhabitants of Devon- 
shire call a wall made of tempered earth, straw, 
and small pebbles mixed together, a cob-watt ? 
Walls so constructed require a foundation of stone 
or bricks, which is commonly continued to the 
height of about two feet from the surface of the 
ground. Has the term cob reference to the fact 
that such a wall is a superstructure on the found- 
ation of stone or brick ? A. B. C. 

Inscription near Chalcedon. In 1675, when 
Sir Geo. Wheler and his travelling companion 
visited Chalcedon (as recorded in his Voyage from 
Venice to Constantinople, fol., Lond. 1682, p. 209.), 
it was famous only for the memory of the great 
council held there in A.D. 327, the twentieth of the 
reign of Constantine the Great : 

" The first thing we did (he says) was to visit the 
metropolitan church, where they say it was kept ; but 
M. Nanteuil assured us that it was a mile from 
thence, and that he had there read an inscription that 
mentioneth it. Besides, it is a smalj obscure building, 
incapable to contain such an assembly." 

Has the inscription here spoken of been noticed 
by any traveller, and can any of your readers refer 
to a copy of it ; and say whether it is cotem- 
porary, and whether it has been more recently 
noticed ? W. S. G. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Domesday Book. What does the abbreviation 
gltt, or geld", applied to terra, signify ? Also, in 
the description of places, there is frequently a 
capital letter, B., or M., or S. before it, as in one 
case, e.g. "B. terr. gld wasta." Can any one in- 
form me what it signifies ? 

In the case of many parishes, it is stated that 
there was a church there : is it considered con- 
clusive authority that there was not one, if it is 
not mentioned in Domesday Book ? A. W. H. 

Dotincliem. What modern, town in Holland, 
or elsewhere, bore or bears the name of Dotinchem, 
at which is dated a MS. missal I have inspected, 
written in the fifteenth century ? The reason for 
believing the place to be Dutch is, that the Calen- 
dar marks the days of the principal saints of 
Holland with red letters. There are other indi- 



cations in the Calendar of the missal having been 
written in and for the use of a community situated 
where the influence of Cologne, Liege, Maestricht, 
and Daventer would have been felt. 

Perhaps, should the above Query not be an- 
swered in England, some correspondent of your 
Dutch cotemporary the Navorscher may have the 
goodness to reply to it. G. J. R. GORDON. 

Sidmouth. 

" Mirrour to all" Sfc. Can you refer me to any 
possessor of the poetical work entitled a Mirrour 
to all who love to follow the Wars (or Waves), 4to. : 
London, printed by John Wolfe, 1589 ? A copy 
was sold by Mr. Rodd for six guineas. (See his 
Catalogue for 1846.) H. DELTA. 

Oxford. 

Title wanted. I have a copy of the Pugna 
Porcorum, the margin of which is covered with 
illustrative and parallel passages, among which is 
the following : 

" Heros 

Ad magnum se accingit opus ferrumque bifurcum ) 
Cote acuit, pinguique perungit acurnina lardo ; 
Deinde suis, vasto consurgens corpore, rostrum 
Perforat et furcam capulo tenus urget, at ilia 
Prominuit rostro summisque in naribus haas'it." 

Xotpoxoipoy. 182. 

I shall be much obliged to any one who will 
give me the full title to the book from which this 
is quoted, and any account of it. G. H. W. 

Portrait of Charles L Countess Du Barry. 
In Bachaumont's Memoires Secrets, 8fc., I read 
the following passage under date of March 25, 
1771: 

" L'imperatrice des Russies a fait enlever tout le 
cabinet de tableaux de M. le Comte de Thiers, amateur 
distingue, qui avail une tres-belle collection en ce 
genre. M. de Marigny a eu la douleur de voir passer 
ces richesses chez 1'etranger, faute de fouds pour les 
acquerir pour le compte du roi. 

" On distinguait parmi ces tableaux un portrait en 
pied de Charles I., roi d'Angleterre, original de Van- 
dyk. C'est le seul qui soit reste en France. Madame 
la Comtesse Dubarri, qui deploie de plus en plus son 
gout pour les arts, a ordonne de 1'acheter : elk- 1'a paye 
24,000 livres. Et sur le reproche qu'on lui faisait de 
choisir un pareil morceau eutre tant d'autres qui auraient 
du lui niieux convenir, elle a rcpondu que c'etait un 
portrait de famille qu'elle retirait. En effet, les Du- 
barri se pretendent parents de la Maison des Stuards." 

Can you give me any account, of this portrait of 
King Charles by Vandyk, for which the Countess 
Du Barry paid the sum of 1000Z. sterling ? 

What grounds are there for the allegation, that 
the Countess was related to the royal House of 
Stuart? HESRY H. BKEEN. 

St. Lucia. 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



fftmar 



'e fot'tfj 



" Preparation for Martyrdom." Can any of 
your correspondents discover for me the author of 
the following work ? 

" A Preparation for Martyrdom ; a Discourse about 
the Cause, the Temper, the Assistances, and Rewards 
of a Martyr of Jesus Christ : in Dialogue betwixt a 
Minister and a Gentleman his Parishioner. Lond. 
1681, 4to." 

In order to afford somewhat of a clue to this 
discovery, I send a few extracts from another 
anonymous work : A Letter to the late Author of 
the " Preparation for Martyrdom" alluding to va- 
rious circumstances relating to the author : 

" I must confess that I had once as great a vene- 
ration for you as for any one [of] your figure in the 
church ; but then you preach 'd honestly, and liv'd 
peaceably ; but since pride or ambitious discontent, 
or some particular respects to some special friends of 
the adverse party, or something I know not what else, 
has thrust you upon scribbling, and a design of being 
popular ; since you had forsaken your first love (if 
ever you had any) to our church and establishment, 
and appear to be running over ad partem Donati, to 
the disturbers of our church and peace, you must needs 
pardon this short reflection, though from an old friend, 
and sometimes a great admirer of you. 

" As for the present establishment, you have (you 
conclude) as much already from that as you are likely 
to have, but you claw the democratical party, hoping 
at long run to see an (English) Parliament; that is, 
we must know, one that has no French pensioners 
shuffled into it to blast the whole business, such as will 
be govern'd by your instructions ; and then Presbytery 
(you trust) will be turn'd up Trump, the Directory 
once more take place of the Liturgy, and God knows 
what become of the Monarchy, and Mr. C. be made a 
great man. 

" What an excellent design was -that of your Stipu- 
lation, which I heard one say was like a new modell'd 
Independency. "Twas intended, I suppose, as an ex- 
pedient to reduce the sheep of your own flock, which 
through your default chiefly (as is commonly reported) 
were gone astray; but because this tool could n-)t 
work, without the force of a law to move it, therefore 
by law it must have been establisht, and the whole 
nation forsooth comprehended under it, and all must 
have set their instruments to your key, and their voices 
to the tune of B ley. Oh ! had this engine but met 
with firm footings in Parliament, as was hoped, our 
English world had been lifted off its pillars long before 
this day ; it had gone round, and in the church all old 
things had been done away, and everything had ap- 
peared new. But, Sir, I trust the foundations of our 
church stand more sure than to need such silly props as 
your Catholicon (as you vainly call it) to support "em. 

" What an excellent thing too is your book of Pa- 
tronage ?' 'Twere no living for Simon Magus, or any 
of his disciples here, if those rules you there lay down 
were but duly attended to. 

" But in those two books you showed vourself prag- 
matical only ; but in this of Martyrdom not a little 



impious, in your unworthy reflections upon almost all 
the honest people of England since the beginning of 
the reign of Oliver the First, and some time before ; 
not sparing many loyal worthies' memory who held tip 
a good cause upon their sword points (as you express 
it) as long as they could ; and when they could do so 
no longer, either dy'd for't, or deliver'd themselves up 
to the will of the conqueror, yet never (as you) abjur'd 
the cause. Our rulers you suppose are ill affected 
(otherwise your talk of Popery at your rate is like 
that of one that were desirous and in conspiracy to 
bring in Popery) : and, undoubtedly, it had been in 
already, had not the prayers of Mr. C., and the fifty 
righteous Non- Cons in every city, prevented it." 

'AXieyy. 
Dublin. 

[The Preparation for Martyrdom is not to be found 
either in the Bodleian or British Museum Catalogues. 
The auttior of the Letter in reply to it, however, has 
afforded a clue to its authorship. Zachary Cawdreyv 
who Appears to have been an admirer of the Vicar cf 
Bray, was Rector of Barthomley in Cheshire during 
the Commonwealth, and for fourteen years after tl>e 
Restoration ; this explains the hint in the Letter, of 
" setting their voices to the tune of B ley." Cawdrey, 
moreover, was the author of Discourse of Patronage ? 
being a M.idest Inquiry into the Original of it, and a 
further Prosecution of the History of it : which is also 
noticed in the Letter. Zachary Cawdrey was born at 
Melton Mowbray about 1616; at the age of sixteen, 
he entered St. John's College, Cambridge; and in 
1649 became Rector of Barthomley, where he died 
Dec. 24, 1684. His brother David was one of the 
ejected, and the author of several works.] 

Reference wanted. I find, in Blackwood, 
No. XXXVI. p. 432., a reference to an article ia 
the Edinburgh Review^ by Sir D. K. Sand ford, on 
Greek banquets. As I cannot find the article 
itself, may 1 ask your assistance ? 

P. J. F. CANTILLON. 

N. B. Tn the article in Blackwood, p. 441 ., for 
" Hejjescwtfer " read Hegesippus ; p. 444., for 
" Demafe " read Demglzw ; p. 450., for "NausWf'ce" 
read NauunttN* ; p. 455., for " Hesperides " read 
ILyperides. 

[The article will be found in the Edinburgh Review, 
vol. Ivi. p. 350. January, 1833.] 

Speaker of the House of Commons in 1697. 
Who was the Speaker who succeeded Sir John 
Trevor, and was Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons in 1697 ? W. FRASER. 

Tor-Mohun. 

[Peter Foley, Esq., succeeded Sir John Trevor, 
March 14, 1694. Sir Thomas Littleton, Bart., was 
chosen the next Speaker, December 3, 1698.] 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



ifttglfab 

INSCRIPTIONS IN BOOKS. 

(Vol. vii. passim.) 

Under this head the following translation of 
part of the inscription at Behistun may b classed. 
It is, I apprehend, the earliest of this sort of in- 
scription : 

" Darius rex dicit : si hanc tabulam, basque effigies 
spectas, et iis injuriatn facias, et quamdiu tibi proles 
sit non eas conserves, Oromasdes hostis fiat tibi, et 
tibi proles non sit, et quod facias id tibi Oromasdes 
frustretur." 

See Rawlinson's " Translation of the Great Per- 
sian Inscription at Behistun," par. 17. Asiatic So- 
ciety's Transactions. 

The following is an extract from Maitland's 
Dark Ages, p. 270., notes 3 and 4 : 

" Terrible imprecations were occasionally annexed 
by the donors or possessors of books ; as in a sacra- 
mentary which Mastene found at St. Benoit sur Loire, 
and which he supposed to belong to the ninth century. 
' Ut si quis eum de Monasterio aliquo ingenio non 
redditurus abstraxerit cum Juda proditore, Anna et 
Caipha, portionem feternae damnationis accipiat. Amen, 
Amen, Fiat, Fiat.' " 

There is a curious instance of this in a manu- 
script of some of the works of Augustine and Am- 
brose in the Bodleian Library : 

" Liber S. Mariae de Ponte Robert!, qui eum abs- 
tulerit, aut vendiderit, vel quolibet modo ab hac domo 
absciderit, sit anathema maranatha. Amen." 
In another hand (aliena manu), 

" Ego Johannes Exon Epus, nescio ubi est domus 
predicta, nee hunc librum abstuli, sed modo legitimo 
adquisivi." 

Also page 283. : 

" Liber B. Mariae de Camberone : si quis eum abstu- 
lerit, anathema esto." 

In the preface to a late publication (1853), 
Fragments of the Iliad of Homer from a Syrian 
Palimpsest, edited by AVilliam Cureton, the editor 
tells us : 

" The Palimpsest Manuscript, in which I discovered 
these fragments of a very ancient copy of the Iliad of 
Homer, formed a part of the library of the Syrian 
convent of St. Mary Deipara, in the Valley of the 
Ascetics, or the Deserts of Nigritia. On the first page 
of the last leaf the following notice occurs: ' This vo- 
lume of my Lord Severus belongs to the reverend and 
holy my Lord Daniel, Bishop of the province of 
Orrhoa (Edessa), who acquired it from the armour of 
God, when he was down in the province of the city of 
Amida, for his own benefit, and that of every one that 
readeth it. But under the curse of God is he who- 
soever steals it, or hides or removes it .... or 
tears, or erases, or cuts off this memorial from it, for 
ever. And through our Lord Jesus Christ may he 



who readeth it pray for the same Daniel, that he may 
find mercy in the day of judgment ! Yea, and Amen, 
and Amen. And upon the sinner who wrote it, may 
there be mercy in the day of judgment ! Amen. But 
at the end of his life he bequeathed it to this sacred 
convent of my Lord Silas, which is in Tarug (a city of 
Mesopotamia), for the sake of the remembrance of 
himself and of the dead belonging to him. May the 
Lord have mercy upon him in the day of judgment ! 
Amen. Whosoever removeth this volume from this 
same convent, may the anger of the Lord overtake him 
in both worlds to all eternity ! Amen.' " 

ANON. 

In some of Dugdale's MS. volumes in this College 
is the following, written by himself: 

" Maledictus sit qui abstulerit." 

THOMAS W. KING, YORK HERALD. 
College of Arms. 



THE DRUMMER S LETTER. 

(Vol. vii., p. 431.) 

MR. FORBES rightly describes the Drummer's 
Letter in the Sentimental Journey as "not only cor- 
rectly but elegantly written." There is, more- 
over, in two or three places, a play upon words, 
which indicates an intimate acquaintance with the 
idiomatic turns of the language. But all these 
circumstances are, to my mind, only so many 
grounds for the belief that the French of the 
letter is not Sterne's. 

If we are to judge of Sterne's French from the 
samples to be met with in Tristram Shandy and 
the Sentimental Journal, there is ample evidence 
that his knowledge of that language was some- 
what superficial. I shall give a few examples. 

Your readers are familiar with the incident in 
Tristram Shandy, where the Abbess and Mar- 
garita, having occasion to make use of two very 
coarse and indecent expressions, resort to the 
ludicrous expedient of splitting them in two, each 
pronouncing a separate syllable. Those words 
are scandalously common in the mouths of French- 
men ; and yet Sterne seems so little aware of the 
correct spelling of them, that he makes the poor 
nuns give utterance to two words, one of which, 
" bouger," means " to move," and the other, 
" fouter," is unknown to the French language. 

Farther on, in chapter xxxiv., the commissary 
employs the expression " C'est tout egal ; " but 
this is merely the translation of our English 
phrase " 'Tis all one." The French say " C'est 
egal," but never " C'est tout egal." 

In the Sentimental Journey, under the head of 
" The Bidet," La Fleur is made to say " C'est un 
cheval le plus opiniatre du monde." Now, tho 
man who could write the Drummer's Letter 
would not have applied the epithet " opiniatre " 



154 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 198. 



to a horse ; and, at any rate, he would have said 
" C'est le cheval le plus opiniatre du monde." 

In the chapter headed " The Passport," and 
also in another place, we have the phrase " Ces 
Messieurs Anglais sont des gens tres extraordi- 
naires." This should be " Messieurs les Anglais," 
&c. 

Again, under the head of " Characters," Count 
de B. says, " But if you do support it, M. Anglais, 
you must do it with all your powers." This " M. 
Anglais " is our " Mr. Englishman." The correct 
expression is " M. FAnglais " Mr. the English- 
man. 

I might add other instances ; but these, I 
trust, are sufficient to warrant the opinion that 
the Drummer's Letter, in its present shape, was 
not written by Sterne. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 



OLD FOGIES. 

(Vol. vii., p. 632.) 

At the place above referred to, MR. KEIGHTLEY 
puts to me several Queries ; but being resident in 
the country, I had not an opportunity of seeing 
them till the 15th instant, and it took some days 
to get the information that would enable me to 
answer them. 

I have now obtained the most ample evidence 
of the existence, in the latter part of the last, and 
the beginning of the present, centuries, of the 
existence of a peculiar body of men called the 
Fogies, in Edinburgh Castle. My informants 
agree in describing them as old men, dressed in 
red coats with apple-green facings, and cocked 
hats. One says that they fired the Castle guns ; 
another says that he understood them to be the 
keepers, or, as we might say, the warders of the 
Castle, and that they were sometimes brought into 
the town to assist in quelling riots ; and this gen- 
tleman's recollection of them goes back to 1784 at 
least. But the oldest date I have been able to get 
is from a much respected friend, the retired Town 
Clerk of Edinburgh, who writes to me thus : " I 
have a most vivid recollection of the Castle Foggies. 
They were an invalid company, and my recol- 
lection of them goes as far back at least as 1780, 
when I was at Stalker's English school in the 
Lawnmarket." 

To the testimony of these still living witnesses, 
I have to add that of Dr. Jamieson, who gives the 
word in his Dictionary as one of common and well- 
known use in Scotland in his time, 1759 1808 ; 
though he may have been mistaken in supposing 
it to be exclusively Scottish. It was for his tes- 
timony to this fact that I referred to Dr. Jamieson's 
Dictionary, and not for his etymology, for I am 
not so much of a " true Scot " as to consider him 
infallible in that department. I have not leisure 



at present to search any farther for the word in 
books, but in the meantime I presume to think 
the evidence I have procured of its use in Scot- 
land, will carry us nearly as far back as MB. 
KEIGHTLEY'S for its use in Ireland. 

I canot pretend to much acquaintance with 
the Swedish language, but I was quite well aware 
that that " is what is meant by the mysterious Su.- 
G." I was also aware that in the kindred Teu- 
tonic tongues the word runs through the various 
forms of vogt, fogat, phogat, voget, voogd, fogde y 
foged,fogeti, with the meaning of bailiff, steward, 
preses, watchman, guard or protector, tutor, over- 
seer, judge, mayor, policeman ; and I doubt not 
that fogie belongs to the' same family, though it 
has lost its tail. MR. KEIGHTLEY does not need 
to be told that words frequently degenerate in, 
meaning, falling from the noblest to the basest, 
from the purest to the most obscene. Is there 
then anything improbable in supposing that a word 
once applied to the governor or chief keeper of a 
castle, came at last to be applied to all, even the 
meanest, of his subordinates ? Dr. Jamieson as- 
serts that the -wordfogde in the Su.-G. has actually 
had that fate ; can MR. KEIGHTLEY controvert 
him? 

As a proof, quantum valeat, that the Castle fogies 
were so called for some other reason than merely 
because of their being " old folks," I may men- 
tion that there was in Edinburgh, for more than 
a century, another body of veterans; called the 
Town Guard, or City Guard, maintained by the 
magistrates as a sort of military police, or gen- 
darmerie, and finally disbanded in 1817. This 
corps was generally recruited from old soldiers ; 
and during the period of my acquaintance with 
them (9i years) they were all aged, and some of 
them very old men ; yet I never heard the word 
fogies applied to them. On the contrary, they 
were always distinguished from the fogies by the 
elegant appellation of the " Toon Rottens," or 
Town Rats, as well as by their facings, which 
were dark blue. Some, indeed, of my younger 
friends, who remember the "Rats" very well, say 
they never heard of the " Fogies " at all ; only 
one of them, who lived when a boy at the Castle 
Hill, perhaps about forty years ago, recollects of 
the word " fogie " as being then applied to the 
soldiers of the ordinary veteran or garrison bat- 
talions, with blue facings, that had superseded the 
fogies in the keeping of the Castle ; but of the 
veritable apple-green fogies of the older establish- 
ment, he has no remembrance. As my own re- 
collections of Edinburgh go back to 1808, the 
fogies, I presume, must have been by that time 
extinct, for I never saw any of them, though I 
frequently heard them spoken of by those who 
had seen them. 

I may mention also that while "fogie" was in 
use, and of well understood application in Scot- 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



land, the phrase " old folks," or, to write it accord- 
ing to our vernacular pronunciation, " auld fo'k," 
was also, and continues to be, in general and fa- 
miliar use ; but nobody in Scotland, I dare say, 
ever imagined that "the auld fo'k" of his ^ or- 
dinary acquaintance were just " old fogies," or 
had anything whatever to do with that peculiar 
class of men, properly so called, the keepers of the 
royal castles. It is most remarkable, also, that 
while the corrupt derivative, as MR. KEIGHTLEY 
says " old fogie " is, has been almost quite for- 
gotten among us, having disappeared with the 
men that bore the name of fogies, the parent form, 
as lie would have " old folks " or " auld fo'k " to 
be, should remain in full vigour and common use, 
as part of our living speech. In a word, from all 
I can learn it would appear that the word " fogie," 
in its most general acceptation, means by itself, 
without the " old," an old soldier ; and thai " old 
fogie " is only a tautological form, arising from ig- 
norance of its meaning. Be its origin, however, 
what it may, I have no hesitation now in express- 
ing my conviction that MR. KEIGHTLEY'S etymo- 
logy of the word is utterly groundless. J. L. 
City Chambers, Edinburgh. 



DESCENDANTS OF JOHN OP GAUNT. 

(Vol. vii., p. 628.) 

All persons will, I think, agree with MR. WAR- 
DEN in his very just complaint of the carelessness 
with which many of the English Peerages are com- 
piled. It would be a task, little short of a new 
compilation, to correct the errors and inaccuracies 
with which many of these productions abound, the 
less pardonable now, because of the facilities 
afforded for consulting the Public Records, should 
even our older genealogists, without such aids, be 
in some degree excused ; but as MR. WARDEN in- 
vites, by a personal appeal, the rectification of a 
chronological error which has crept into all the 
Peerages, founded upon the authority of Dugdale, 
respecting the period of the death of Thomas, 
sixth Lord Fauconberge, I am induced to send 
you a few Notes, which a recent examination of 
the Records in the Tower of London has supplied. 

When the facts are made patent, there will be 
no need to dwell upon the inconsistencies pointed 
out by MR. WARDEN, and the alleged incompati- 
bility in regard to age for an union between two 
persons of some note in family history, the son of 
the first Earl of Westmoreland and his Countess 
Joan and the daughter and heir of the Lord Fau- 
conberge, who formed an alliance from which the 
co-heirs are, it is believed, represented at this 
day. 

The birth of William Nevill, Lord Faucon- 
berge, afterwards created Earl of Kent, second 
son of a marriage which took place early in, or 



just before, the year 1397, may be assigned to in 
or about the year 1400 ; and we shall presently 
see that his future wife was born on the 18th of 
October, 1406, and married to him before the 1st 
of May, 1422. 

Walter, fifth Lord Fauconberge, died on the 
29th of September, 1362 (Esc. 36 Edw.IIL, 1st 
part, No. 77.), leaving a son Thomas (issue of his 
first marriage with Matilda, sister and co-heir of 
Sir William de Pateshull, Kt., Esc. 33 Edw. III., 
1st part, No. 40., and Rot. Orig., 34 Edw. III., 
Ro. 2.), then a minor, under eighteen years of 
age. 

Thomas, who was born circa 1345, was already 
in 1362 married to his first wife Constancia, by 
whom he dos not appear to have left any issue 
surviving. His was rather an eventful life ; some 
incidents not noticed by Dugdale will be briefly 
cited. On the 10th of August, 1372, being then 
a knight or chivaler, he had letters of protection 
on going abroad in the king's service, in the com- 
pany of Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick 
(Rot. Franc., 46 Edw. III.). Here it seems he 
forgot his allegiance, and having gone over to the 
French side was branded " tanquam proditor 
domini Regis Angliae " (Esc. 5 Ric. II., No. 67., 
6 Ric. II., No. 180., and 11 Ric. II., No. 59.). 
Can this have been the origin of the error in as- 
signing his death to the year 1376 ? He was, 
however, yet living in 1401, as in that year he 
succeeded to the reversion of the estates which his 
step-mother Isabella (a sister of Sir John Bygot, 
Chivaler), the widow of Walter Lord Faucon- 
berge, held in dower (Esc. 2 Hen. IV., No. 47.). 
Not long after this, and apparently a few years 
only before his death, and when somewhat ad- 
vanced in years, he married a second time. I 
have not been able to ascertain to what family his 
wife Joan, or Johanna, belonged, but she survived 
her husband only a short time. About the period 
of his marriage, too (9th August, 1405), an oc- 
currence of some importance to his descendants 
is recorded, namely, a grant by the king to Sir 
Thomas Bromflete and Sir Robert Hilton, of the 
custody and governance of all his estates in Eng- 
land, which had come into the king's hands " ra- 
tione ideocia? Thoma3 Fauconberge, Chivaler," to 
hold during the life of the said Thomas. This 
grant, however, was in the following year, on 
24th December, 1406, revoked and annulled, be- 
cause the said Thomas had proved before the 
king and his council in Chancery, " quod ipse 
sanas discretions hactenus fuerit et ad tune ex- 
istat," and he was thereupon re-adinitted to his 
estates which had descended to him "jure hajre- 
ditario post mortem AValteri Fauconberge patris 
sui, cujus haires ipse est" (Rot. Pat., p. 1., 
8 Hen. IV., m. 16.). He had only a few months 
before (15th February, 1406) obtained from the 
king livery of an estate which had come to him in. 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



1375 as one of the co-heirs, on his mother's side, 
of his grandmother Mabilia, a sister of Otho de 
Graunson, upon the death without issue of Thomas 
de Graunson, son of the said Otho. (Rot. Pat., 
p. 1., 7 Hen. IV., m. 6.) 

Was there in fact any real ground for the sug- 
gestion of Lord Fauconberge's idiocy ? This is 
one of the gravest imputations that can be cast 
upon a family, and it is a most unpardonable pre- 
sumption to make it lightly and without justice; 
but it is somewhat singular that nearly fifty years 
afterwards, his only daughter and heir, born at 
the very period when this charge was being re- 
futed, and when he himself was upwards of sixty 
years of age, became the subject of a commission 
issued to inquire of her alleged imbecility and 
idiocy. The commissioners sat at Gisburn in 
Cleveland in the county of York, on the 28th of 
March, 1463, and it was then found by the in- 
quest that " Johanna Fauconberge nuper comi- 
tissa de Kent, fatua et ydeota est, et a nativitate 
Bua semper fuit, ita quod se terras et tenementa 
sua neque alia bona sua regere scit, aut aliquo 
tempore scivit : " the jury also returned that she 
had not alienated any lands or tenements since 
the death of William, late Earl of Kent, her late 
husband. That Joan, the wife of Sir Edward 
Betliom, Kt., thirty years old and upwards, 
Elizabeth, the wife of Richard Strangeways, Esq., 
twenty-eight years old and upwards, and Alice, 
wife of John Conyers, Esq., twenty-six years old 
and upwards, were the daughters and heirs, as 
well of the said William the late earl, as of the 
said Joan the late countess. (Esc. 3 Edw. IV<, 
No. 33.) 

Thomas Lord Fauconberge died on the 9th of 
September, 1407, leaving the above-mentioned 
Joan, or Johanna, his daughter and heir, an infant 
of one year old. (Esc. 9 Hen. IV., No. 19.; see 
also Esc. 9 Hen. V., No. 42 ) His widow Joan 
had assignment of dower after her husband's 
death on 20th October, 1408, and she herself died 
in the following year, on the 4th of March, 1409. 
(Esc. 10 Hen. IV., No. 15.) A later inquisition, 
however, taken on 1st of April, 1422 (Esc. 
10 Hen. V., No. 22 a .), states that the said Joan, 
widow of Sir Thomas Fauconberge, Chivaler, died 
on the 23rd of June, 141 1 . The first date is most 
probably the correct one, as a fact would be more 
likely to be accurately stated by a jury impan- 
neled a few months only after the event recorded, 
than by an inquest taken after an interval of 
twelve or thirteen years. 

On the formal proof of age (Esc. 10 Hen. V., 
No. 22 b .) of Joan Fauconberge, daughter and heir 
of Thomas Lord Fauconberge and Joan his wife, 
taken at Northallerton, in the county of York, on 
the 1st of May, 10 Henry V., 1422, she was de- 
scribed as the wife of William Neville. She 
appears to have been born at Skelton in the said 



county, and baptized in the church there on the 
feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist (18th of Oc- 
tober), 1406 ; and on the same feast in 1421, being 
the 9th of Henry V., she had accomplished her 
fifteenth year. Dugdale (torn. ii. p. 4.) has fallen, 
into a singular mistake in alluding to this event, 
not to speak of the obvious inconsistency which 
those writers who follow his account have intro- 
duced in assigning the year of Lord Fauconberge's 
decease to 1372, thus making the daughter's birth 
to have occurred more than thirty years after her 
father's death. It is this : One of the witnesses, 
who speaks to the period of the baptism of Joan, 
was named Thomas Blawefrount the elder, fifty 
years of age and upwards, and the reason as- 
signed by him for his remembrance of the event 
is as follows : " Et hoc scit eo quod Isabella filia 
predict! Thomse desponsata fuit cuidam Johanni 
Wilton, et idem Thomas fuit ad sponsalia eodem 
die quo prasfata Johanna baptizata fuit, propter 
quod .bene recolit quod prrefata Johanna fuit 
a3tatis praedictaj." Dugdale has by a strange over- 
sight made the Isabella here described to be the 
daughter of Thomas Fauconberge, and sister of 
Joan, instead of the witness' own daughter. 

It is not quite evident, from the language of the 
document which records the imbecility of the 
Countess of Kent in March 1463, whether she 
was then actually dead. It appears, however, 
clear that she survived her husband, who lived but 
a few months to enjoy his newly acquired dignity. 

The account given by Dugdale of John, son of 
Thomas Lord Fauconberge, is scarcely intelligible. 
He says this lord " left issue John, his son and 
heir," and subsequently adds, " which John died 
without issue in the lifetime of his father." 

Lord Fauconberge may have had a son by his 
former wife, but I have seen nothing to confirm 
this supposition. By an inquisition taken after 
the death of Sir Walter Fauconberge, Chivaler, at 
Bedford, on the 18th of November, 1415, it was 
found that Joan, widow of one Sir John Faucon- 
berge, Chivaler, deceased, whom Thomas Broun- 
flete, junior, afterwards married, was then living, 
and that she granted to the said Sir Walter all the 
estate which she had in certain rents payable by 
Matilda Wake, formerly the wife of Sir Thomas 
Wake, Chivaler; that the said Sir Walter died 
on the 1st of September, 1415, but the jurors 
knew not who was his heir. (Esc. 3 Hen. V., 
No. 15.) Dugdale (vol. ii. p. 234.) cites a feoff- 
ment dated 9 Hen. IV., 1407-8, which shows that 
Thomas Brounflete, Esq., was then married to the 
said Joan, and consequently that Sir John Fau- 
conberge was dead at that time. 

I must close this, for I fear I have now ex- 
ceeded the limits which your valuable paper may, 
with justice to others, spare to subjects of this 
nature. WILLIAM HAKDT. 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



157 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Lining of Cameras. I find nothing so good to 
line a camera with as black velvet; for, black the 
inside of a camera as you will, if it is hard wood or 
any size used, there will be reflection from the 
bottom, which, with very sensitive plates, gives a 
dulness which, I think I may say, is caused by 
this reflection. I think even the inside of the lens 
tube might advantageously be lined with black 
velvet. W. M. F. 

Cyanuret of Potassium. I have been using lately 
12 grs. of cyanuret of potassium in 1 oz. of water 
for clearing the collodion plates, instead of hypo. 
There is one advantage, that there are no crystals 
formed if imperfectly washed, which is too common 
with hypo. You must take care to well wash off 
the developing fluid, whether pyrogallic, proto- 
nitrate, or protosulphite : if you use the latter 
40-grains strong, the whitest pictures can be ob- 
tained, nearly as white as after bichloride of 
mercury. A good formula to make it is 

Distilled water - - - 11 drachms. 
Alcohol 1 drachm. 

Nitric acid - - - 20 minims. 

Protosulphate of iron - - 60 grains. 

This I know to act well with care, and it will keep 
a long time. 

I find protonitrate solution 

Water - - - 1 ounce. 

Barytes - - - - 150 grains. 
Protosulph. - - - 150 

mixed in a proportion of 8 to 4, with a 3 -grain 
solution of pyrogallic a very nice developing 
mixture ; and, if poured back again after being 
used, will suffice 6 or 8 times over; but it is best 
new. W. M. F. 

Minuteness of Detail on Paper. Being fond 
of antiquarian studies, and having learned from 
" N. & Q." the value of photography to the ar- 
chaeologist, I have serious thoughts of taking up 
the practice of the art. Before doing so, however, 
I am anxious to learn how far that minuteness of 
detail which I so much prize, and which is of such 
value to the antiquary, is to be obtained by any of 
the processes on paper. I have seen some spe- 
cimens produced by collodion which certainly ex- 
hibit that quality in an eminent degree. Is any- 
thing approaching to such minuteness attainable 
by any of the Talbotype processes ? F. S. A. 

[Had this Query reached us last week, we should 
then, as now, have replied in the affirmative. We 
should then have referred, for evidence in support of 
our statement, to Mr. Fenton's Well Walk, Chelten- 
ham, published in the Photographic Album, and to Mr. 
Buckle's View of Peterborough. But we may now 
adduce a work almost more remarkable for this quality, 
namely, a view of Salisbury, by Mr. Russell Sedgefield, 



a young wood engraver, which is about to appear in 
the forthcoming part of the Photographic Album. 

To this beautiful specimen of the art we may cer- 
tainly refer as a proof that it is quite possible to obtain 
upon paper the greatest nicety of detail ; in short, 
every minuteness that can be desired, or ought to be 
attempted.] 

Stereoscopic Angles. I think there can be little 
doubt that MB. T. L. MERRITT (Vol. viii., p. 110.) 
has solved the problem as to stereoscopic angles : 
there can be no reason why one angle should be 
used for near objects, and another for distant. A 
true representation of nature is required ; and, as 
we cannot view any object with one of our eyes 
eighteen or twenty feet separate from the other, 
so it appears to me a true picture cannot be ob- 
tained by taking two views so far apart. The 
result must be to dwarf the objects ; and, in con- 
firmation of this, I may state that I was not con- 
vinced that the stereoscopic views were taken 
from nature till I understood the cause of their 
reduction. All views that I have been able to 
purchase, of out-door nature, appear to me to be 
taken from models, and not from the objects them- 
selves. 

A view of a tower conveys the idea, not of a 
tower of stone and lime, but of a very careful 
model in cardboard ; and this is exactly what 
might be expected from taking the views at so 
wide an angle. A church is seen, as it would be 
seen by a giant whose eyes were twenty feet apart, 
or as we would see a small model of it near at 
hand. 

I hope that some of your photographic corre- 
spondents will settle this question, by taking views 
of the same object both by the wide and close 
angle, and, by comparing them, ascertain which 
conveys to the mind the truest representation of 
nature. T. B. JOHNSTON. 

Edinburgh. 

Sissorts developing Solution (Vol. vii., p. 462.). 
Will you be so good as to ask MR. SISSON if he 
finds the above to answer as a bath to plunge the 
plate into, instead of pouring oji, as in the case of 
pyrogallic ? 

He is entitled to the warm thanks of all photo- 
graphers for the discovery of a solution which 
produces such pleasing tints with so much ease ; 
and it needs but the qualification I inquire after 
to render it perfect. I have used it when at least 
three weeks made, and am not sure that it is not 
even better than when fresh. S. B. 

P.S. Why not devote a little more space to 
this fascinating art in " N. & Q." ? I think, if 
anything, it grows less latterly. 

Multiplying Photographs. In Vol. viii., p. 60., 
you reprint a communication from Sir W. Her- 
schel which has appeared in The Athenceum. 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



It describes a method of printing from glass 
negatives, but there being no cut renders the 
meaning somewhat obscure. 

In the last number of the Photographic Journal 
(21st ult.), some mention is made of this letter. 
They say it proves to be one already long 
in use, Mr. Kilburn having practised it for four 
years. I am very desirous of obtaining more 
information about it. I want to know the length 
of the box or camera required ; and also the focus 
of the lens, and the best size. Probably Mr. Kil- 
burn or Sir W. Herschel would one of them be 
so kind as to say. W. M. F. 

What kind of lens should be used for talcing en- 
larged copies of glass negatives according to Mr. 
Stewart's plan ? and will the same lens also dimi- 
nish the picture ? Will not the usual camera lens 
act ? PLT. 

The usual compound lens is all that is required.] 

Would you have the goodness to explain, in 
some detail, the two methods by which Mr. 
Stewart and Mr. Kilburn multiply photographs 
in a reduced or magnified size ; the one by re- 
flected light, the other by transmitted. Mr. 
Stewart's experiments are upon glass, Mr. Kil- 
burn' s on cameras and daguerreotypes. I have 
never seen any description of this latter process, 
or of the method of preparing the stereoscope ob- 
jects : vide Athenceum, July 30, 1853. 

I observe with great pleasure that the cost of 
apparatus is becoming less, &c. AMATEUR. 

. [However much we may agree in the views ex- 
pressed in the latter part of AN AMATEUR'S letter, we 
have been obliged to omit it, as it violates our rule of 
not opening the columns of " N. & Q." to the recom- 
mendation of any particular manufacturer.] 

7s it dangerous to use the Ammonia-Nitrate of 
Silver? (Vol. viii., p. 134.). No: it is now 
generally used as the best of marking inks, without 
preparation ; and we have never yet heard of an 
explosion from its use. Mr. Delamotte has evi- 
dently confounded this preparation with the chlo- 
ride of silver precipitated with strong ammonia, 
which, when dried, forms the article known as 
fulminating silver; or by adding to the oxide of 
silver lime-water, and afterwards a strong solution 
of ammonia, a black powder is thrown down, which, 
when dried, is known as Berthollefs fulminating 
silver. There is also one other, formed by adding 
chloric acid to oxide of silver ; after drying this, 
and then adding potassa to a solution of it, the 
precipitate, by again being dried, becomes an ex- 
plosive compound. 

The photographer forms a weak solution for his 
purpose with one of the least soluble and weakest 
of the amrnoniacal preparations, and which, by 
drying around the stopper of the bottle, is very un- 



likely to become explosive, from its wanting the 
addition of another element as necessary to the 
formation of an explosive compound. For my 
own part, I must say, that I have found, from ex- 
perience, all the compound solutions of silver keep 
much better, and the photogenic effect more 
satisfactory, by mixing only so much as I may 
require for immediate use, at this time of the year 
especially. J. H. 



to iHtuor CEhtcrtcrf. 

Burke 1 s Marriage. I am obliged to MR. GAN- 
TILLON (Vol. viii., p. 134.), but the authority re- 
ferred to does not answer my questions (Vol. vii., 
p. 382.) : When and where was Burke married ? 
There is no doubt as to who he married. But 
some biographers say the ceremony took place in 
1766, others in 1767. Some leave it to be inferred 
that he was married at Bath, others in London. 

B. E. B. 

Stars and Flowers (Vol. iv., p. 22. ; Vol. vii., 
pp. 151. 341. 513.). To the passages quoted from 
Cowley, Longfellow, Hood, Moir, and Darwin, 
may be added the following ingenious application 
of this metaphorical language : 

" Alas for life ! but we will on with those 
Who have an age beyond their being's day. 
Mount with our Newton where Light ever flows; 
See him unveil its marvels and display 
The hidden richness of a single ray \ 
Unfold its latent hues like blossoms shed, 
Or flowers of air, outshining flowers of May ! 
A luminous wreath in rainbow beauty spread, 
The noblest Fame could leave round starry Newton's 
head." 

The Mi>ul, and other Poems, by Charles Swain, p. 64. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 

Odour from the Rainbow (Vol.iii., pp. 224. 310.). 
This idea has been traced to Bacon's Sylca, 
Browne's Britannia s Pastorals, Snow's Miscella- 
neous Poems, and to a Greek writer referred to by 
Coleridge. Georgius de Rhodes, in his Peripatetic 
Philosophy, mentions the same effect of the rain- 
bow, and quotes Pliny : 

" Dico sexto, iridis effect us duos prascipue numerari. 
Primus est, quod plantas, arbores, frutices, quibus in- 
cubuerir, efficit odorationes. Tradunt, inquit Plinius 
lib. xii. c. -4., in quocunque frutice incurvetur ccclestis 
arcus, eandem qua; sit aspalato suavitatem odoris ex- 
istere ; aspalato autem inenarrabilem quandam. Terra 
etiam ipsa suavius halare dicitur." 

In the annotations on Pliny, in loco, Aristotle is 
referred to in Problem. Quast. xii. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 

Judges styled Reverend (Vol. iv., pp. 1 5 1 . 1 98.). 
The following is an extract from the title of a 
small octavo volume, printed for the assignees of 






AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



159 



John More, Esq., London, 1635, which lately came 
into my hands : La novel Natura Brevium du Jugc 
Tresreverend Monsieur Anthony Fitzherbert ; with 
a new table by William Rastall. The preface is 
headed as follows : " La Preface sur cest lieuz 
compose per le Reverend Justice Anthony Fitz- 
herbert." 

Anthony Fitzherbert was appointed Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas in 1523, and died in 
30 Hen. VIII. William Rastall was appointed 
Serjeant-at-law in 1554, and one of the Justices 
of the Common Pleas in 1558 : it would seem, 
therefore, that as Rastall is not styled " Serjeant- 
at-law " in the title-page of the book when he 
made a new table to its contents, that the com- 
plimentary style of Reverend, as applicable to the 
judges, was used at least as late as the middle of 
the sixteenth century. 

THOMAS W. KING, YORK HERALD. 

College of Arms. 

Jacob Bolart (Vol. viii., p. 37.). I beg to 
supply the following additional particulars relating 
to the Bobart family. In the Correspondence of 
Dr. Richardson, edited by Mr. Dawson Turner, 
will be found a letter from Bobart junior to the 
Doctor, with a reference to two other letters. In 
pages 9, 10, and 11, a copious note respecting the 
Bobart family, by the editor, is given. A short 
notice of Bobart jun. also appears in the Me- 
moirs of John Martyn, Professor of Botany at 
Cambridge. The following epitaph on Bobart 
jun. is in Amherst's Terra Filius, 1726 : 
" Here lies Jacob Bobart, 
Nail'd up in a cupboard." 

In the preface to Mr. Nichols' work on Autographs, 
among other albums noticed by him as being in 
the British Museum, is that of David Krieg, with 
Jacob Bobart's autograph, and the following 
verses : 

" VIRTUS SCJA GLORIA. 

Think that day lost whose descending sun, 
Views from thy hand no noble action done. 
Your success and happyness 
Is sincerely wished by 

JA. BOBART, Oxford." 

Mr. Richardson's engraved portrait of Bobart 
the Elder is only a copy of Burghers' engraving, 
so highly spoken of by Granger, and cannol, 
therefore, be nearly so valuable as the latter. 

GARLICHITHE. 

" Putting your foot into it" (Vol. viii., p. 77.). 
W. W. is certainly '_' Will o' the Wisp" himself. 
We must not allow him to lead us into Asia, hunt- 
ing for the origin of a saying which is nothing 
more than a coarse allusion to an accident that 
happens day after day to every heedless or be- 
nighted pedestrian in England ; but if a foreign 
origin must be found for this saying, let us travel 



to Greece rather than to Hindostan, and we shall 
see in the writings of JEsehylus : 

', Scrns irrif^dreav ea> ir68<t 
'> irapaive'iv vovQertiv re rbv KctKftiy 
npdff<rofr'." /C.T.A. Prom. Vine. 271. 

C. FORBES. 
Temple. 

Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle 
(Vol. vi., pp. 127. 207. 280. 368. 566. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 508.). We have all overlooked the following 
use of this simile in Thomas Hood's poem, ad- 
dressed to Rae Wilson : 

" Spontaneously to God should tend the soul, 
Like the magnetic needle to the Pole; 
But what were that intrinsic virtue worth, 
Suppose some fellow, with more zeal than knowledge, 

Fresh from St. Andrew's College, 
Should nail the conscious needle to the north?" 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 

The Tragedy of Polidus (Vol. vii., p. 499.). 
This tragedy, printed at London 1723, 12mo., has 
a farce appended to it called All Bedevil'd, or the 
House in a Hurry. Browne was patronised by 
Hervey, the author of the Meditations. The scene 
of the drama is in Cyprus. The lover of Polidus, 
" the banished general," and Rosetta, daughter to 
Orient, chief favourite to the king, form the 
groundwork of the plot. My copy was formerly 
in the collection of plays which belonged to Stephen 
Jones, author of the Biographia Dramatica. 

J. Mr. 

Robert Fairlie (Vol. vii., p. 581.). In answer 
to the Query as to Robert Fairley, or more pro- 
perly Fairlie, I may mention that there is in my 
possession a presentation by the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, dated July 27, 1622, to "Robert Fairlie, 
son lawfull to Umquhill Robert Fairlie, goldsmith, 
Burgh of Edinburgh, to the said bursar place and 
haill immunities quhill he pass his course of Phi- 
losophie," in the College of Edinburgh. This un- 
doubtedly was the author of the two very rare little 
poetical volumes referred to ; and it proves, from 
the use of the word " Umquhill," that his father 
was then dead. 

There is an error in stating that the Kalendarium 
is dedicated to the Earl of Ancrum. In the copy 
before me it is inscribed " Illustrissimo et Nobilis- 
simo Domino, Domino Roberto Karo Comiti a Sum- 
merset," &c. The other work is the one dedicated 
to Lord Ancrum. I have both works, and they cer- 
tainly were costly, as I gave five guineas for them. 
They had originally been priced at ten guineas. 

A Bursary, according to Jamieson, is " the en- 
dowment given to a student in a university, an 
exhibition." It is believed that Fairlie was of the 
Ayrshire family of that name. J. MX 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



"Mater ait nates" 8fc. (Vol. vii., pp.247, 248.). 
When calling attention to these lines in " N.& Q." 
(Vol. vii., p. 155.), I at the same time asked if 
such a relationship as that mentioned in them was 
ever known to exist ? This Query was very 
kindly and satisfactorily answered by your corre- 
spondents ANOX and TYE. But, remarkable as were 
the instances mentioned by them of the two old 
ladies in Cheshire and Limington, who could speak 
to their descendants in a female line to the fifth 
generation, still that I am now to record of an old 
man in Montenegro is much more singular, as he 
could converse with his lineal descendants in an 
uninterrupted male line one generation farther 
from him, (i. e.) to the sixth. The case is too well 
authenticated to admit of a doubt, and until some 
one of your correspondents shall favour me with 
another equally to be credited, it will remain in 
the columns of " N. & Q." as the only one known 
to its readers : 

" Colonel Vialla de Sommieres, a Frenchman, who 
was for a long time governor of the province of Catano, 
mentions a family he saw in a village of Montenegro, 
which reckoned six generations. The venerable head 
of the family was 117 years old, his son 100, his grand- 
son 82, great-grandson 60, and the son of this last, who 
was 43, had a son aged 21, whose child was 2 years 
old!" 

w.w. 

Malta. 

Sir John Vanlrugh (Vol. viii., p. 65.). ANON. 
points at Chester as the probable birthplace of the 
above knight, named in MR. HCGHES'S Query. 
Now, Mr. Davenport, in his Biog. Diet., p. 546. 
(wherein is a wood-engraved portrait of Sir John), 
states that he was born in London, about 1672 ; 
but, supposing his place of nativity was, as your 
correspondent suggests, Chester, it might very 
easily be ascertained by searching' the parochial 
register of that city in or about the above year. 

GABLICHITHE. 

Fete des Chaudrons (Vol. viii., p. 57.). Some 
account of this fete will probably be found in Du- 
cange's Glossarium Mediae et Irtfimce Latinitatis. 
I have not a copy of the work at hand for reference. 

JOHN MACBAY. 

Oxford. 

Murder of MonaldescM (Vol. viii., p. 34.). 
The following account of this event is taken from 
the Biographic Universelle, article "Christine, reine 
de Suede :" 

" Cet Italien avail joui de toute la confiance de la 
reine, qui lui avail revele ses pensees les plus secretes. 
Arrivee a Fonlainebleau, elle 1'accusa de trahison, et 
resolut de le faire mourir. Un religieux de 1'ordre de 
la Trinite, le P. Lebel, fut appele pour le preparer a la 
mort. Monaldeschi se jeta aux pieds de la reine et 
fondit en larmes. Le religieux, qui a public lui-meme 



un recit de 1'evenemenl, fit a Christine les plus fortes 
representations sur cet acte de vengeance qu'elle voulait 
exercer arbilrairemenl dans une terre etrangere et dans 
le palais d'un grand souverain ; mais elle resta inflex- 
ible, et ordonna a Sentinelli, capitaine de ses gardes, de 
faire executor 1'arret qu'elle avail prononce. Monal- 
deschi, soup9onnant le danger qu'il courait, s'etait cui- 
rasse : il fallut le frapper de plusieurs coups avant qu'il 
expirat, el la galerie des Cerfs, ou se passa celle scene 
revoltanle, fut leinle de son sang. Pendanl ce temps, 
Christine, au rapport de plusieurs historiens, etait dans 
une piece attenante, s'enlretenant avec beaucoup de 
calme de choses indifferentes ; selon d'aulres rapports, 
elle ful presenle a ('execution, accabla Monaldeschi de 
reproches amers, et contempla ensuite son cadavre san- 
glanl avec une satisfaction qu'elle ne chercha point a 
dissimuler. Que ces details soient fondes ou non, la 
mort de Monaldeschi est une tache ineff^able a la me- 
moire de Chrisline, el c'est a regret qu'on voit sur la 
liste de ses apologistes le nom du fameux Leibnitz." 

In the answer which Queen Christina sent to 
the objections made in Poland to her election as 
their sovereign, occurs the following passage : 

" Le Pere dira en temoignage de la verite, qiie cet 
homme me fo^a de le faire mourir par la Irahison la 
plus noire qu'im servileur puisse faire a son maitre ; 
que je n'ordonnai sa mort, qu'apres 1'avoir convaincu 
de son crime par les lettres en original ecrites de sa 
propre main, et apres de lui avoir fait avouer a lui- 
meme, en presence de trois temoins, et du Pere prieur 
de Fonlainebleau : qu'ils savent qu'il dit lui-meme : 
4 Je suis digne de mille morts,' et que je lui fis donner 
les sacremens dont il etait capable avanl que de le faire 
mourir." Memoires concernant Christine, Amsl. et 
Leipzig, 17o9, lorn. iii. pp. 386-7. 

'A\itvs. 

Dublin. 

Your correspondent will find an account of this 
affair in the Appendix to Ranke's History of the 
Popes. T. K. H. 

Land of Green Ginger (Vol. viii., p. 34.). It 
is so called from the sale of ginger having been 
chiefly carried on there in early times. As far as 
I can recollect, none of the local histories gives any 
derivation of the name; those of Gent and Frost 
certainly do not, and this is the one generally re- 
ceived by the inhabitants. Salthouse Lane and 
Blanket Row are other streets, which may be 
referred to as having obtained their names in a 
similar way. R. W. ELLIOT. 

Clifton. 

An inhabitant of Hull has informed me that this 
street was so named by a house-proprietor whose 
fortune had been made in the West Indies, and I 
think by the sweetmeat trade. T. K. H. 

Unneath (Vol. vii., p. 631.). It strikes me that 
your correspondents MR. C. II. COOPER and E. G. R., 
in reply to MB. WEIGHT'S inquiry respecting the 



AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



161 



use of the word " unneath," used in Parnell's 
Fairy Tale, have fallen into a slight mistake in 
supposing that the seemingly old words used in 
this poem are really so. I make no doubt that 
MR. HALLIWELL is correct in noting the word 
" unneath " as signifying " beneath," in the patois 
of Somerset ; but I gravely suspect that Parnell 
had picked up the word out of our older poets, 
and used it in the passage quoted without con- 
sideration. 

The true meaning of " unneath " (which is of 
Saxon origin, and variously written, " unnethe, 
unnethes ") is scarcely, not easily. 

Thus Chaucer says : 

" The miller that for-dronken was all pale, 
So that unnethes upon his hors he sat." 

The Millers Prologue, v. 3123. [Tyrwhitt] 
And again : 

" Yeve me than of thy gold to make our cloistre, 
Quod he, for many a muscle and many an oistre, 
When other men hau ben ful wel at ese 
Hath been our food, our cloistre for to rese : 
And yet, GOD wot, unneth the fundament 
Parfourmed is, ne of our pauement 
N' is not a tile," &c. 

The Sompnours Tale, v. 7685. 

"Unneath," signifying difficult, scarcely, with 
difficulty, occurs so frequently in Spenser, that it 
is unnecessary to burden your pages with refer- 
ences. It may be remarked, however, that this 
latter author occasionally employs this word in the 
sense of almost. T. H. DE H. 

Snail Gardens (Vol. viii., p. 33.). In very 
many places on the Continent snails are regularly 
bred for the table : this is the case at Ulin, Wir- 
temberg, and various other places. A very lively 
description of the sale of snails in the Roman 
market is given by Sir Francis Head. I have 
collected much interesting information on this 
point, and shall feel grateful for any farther 
" Notes " on the subject. SELEUCUS. 

Parvise (Vol. vii., p. 624.). Perhaps the fol- 
lowing quotation may throw light on your cor- 
respondent D. P.'s inquiry respecting this word, 
in French Purvis. It is taken from a Dictionnaire 
Universel, contenant generalement tous les mots 
franqois, tant vieux que modernes, fyc., par feu 
Messire Antoine Furetiere, Abbe de Chalivoi, 
three vols. folio, La Haye et la Rotterdam, 1701 : 

" PARVIS, s. m. Place publique qui est ordinaire- 
ment devant la principale face des grandes Eglises. 
Le parvis de Notre Dame, de Saint Genevieve. On 
le disoit autrefois de toutes les places qui etoient de- 
vant les palais, et grandes maisons. Les auteurs 
Chretiens appellent le Parvis des Gentiles, ce que les 
Juifs appelloient le premier Temple. 11 y avoit deux 
Parvis dans le Temple de Jerusalem ; 1'tin interieur, 
qui etoit celui des Pretres ; et 1'autre exterieur, qu'on 



appelloit aussi le Parvis d'Israel, ou le Grand Parvis. 
LE CL. 

" Quelques-uns disent que ce mot vient de Paradisus ; 
d'autres de parvisium, qui est un lieu au bas de la nef 
oii Ton tenoit autrefois les petites Ecoles, a docendo 
parvis pueris. Voyez Menage, qui rapporte plusieurs 
litres curieux en faveur de 1'une et de 1'autre opinion. 
D'autres le derivent de pervius, disant qu'on appelloit 
autrefois pervis, une place publique devant un bati- 
ment." 

T. H. DE H. 

Humbug (Vol. vii., p. 631.). Allow me to add 
the following to the list of explanations as to the 
origin of this word. There appeared in the Berwick 
Advertiser the following origin of the word hum- 
bug, and it assuredly is a very feasible one. It 
may be proper to premise, that the name of bogue 
is commonly pronounced bug in that district of 
Scotland formerly called the " Mearns." 

" It is not generally known that this word, presently 
so much in vogue, is of Scottish origin. There was in 
olden time a race called Bogue, or Boag of that ilk, in 
Berwickshire. A daughter of the family married a 
son of Hume of Hume. In process of time, by default 
of male issue, the Bogue estate devolved on one Geor- 
die Hume, who was called popularly ' Hume o" the 
Bogue,' or rather ' Aum o' the Bug.' This worthy 
was inclined to the marvellous, and had a vast incli- 
nation to exalt himself, his wife, family, brother, and 
all his ancestors on both sides. His tales however did 
not pass current ; and at last, when any one made an 
extraordinary statement in the Mearns, the hearer 
would shrug up his shoulders, and style it just ' a hum 
o' the bug." This was shortened into hum-bug, and the 
word soon spread like wildfire over the whole kingdom." 

How far this is, or is not true, cannot be known ; 
but it is certain that the Lands of Bogue, com- 
monly called by country folk " Bug," passed by 
marriage into the Hume family ; and that the male 
representatives of this ancient family are still in 
existence. This much may be fairly asserted, 
that the Berwickshire legend has more apparent 
probability about it than any of the other ones. 

J. MX. 

P. S. " That ilk," in old Scotch, means "the 
same:" in other words, Hume of that ilk is just 
Hume of Hume ; and Brodie of that ilk, Brodie 
of Brodie. 

Table-moving (Vol. vii., p. 596.). I imagine 
that the great object in table-moving is to produce 
the desired effect without pressure. During ex- 
periments I have often heard the would-be " table- 
movers" cry "Don't press: it must be done 
without any pressure." J. A. T. 

Scotch Newspapers (Vol. viii., p. 57.). In Rud- 
diman's Life, by G. Chalmers (8vo. Lond. 1794), 
it is stated that Cromwell was the first who com- 
municated the benefit of a newspaper to Scotland. 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



In 1652, Christopher Higgins, a printer, whom 
Cromwell had conveyed with his army to Leith, 
reprinted there what had been already published 
at London, A Diurnal of some passages and affairs 
for the information of the English Soldiers. A 
newspaper of Scottish manufacture appeared at 
Edinburgh, the same authority relates, on the 31st 
of December, 1660, under the title of Mercurius 
Caledonius; comprising the affairs in agitation in 
Scotland, with a survey of foreign intelligence. 
It was published once a week, in a small 4to. form 
of eight pages. Chalmers adds, that 

" It was a son of the Bishop of Orkney, Thomas 
Lydserfe, who now thought he had the wit to amuse, 
the knowledge to instruct, and the address to cap ivate 
the lovers of news in Scotland. But he was only able, 
with all his powers, to extend his publication to ten 
numbers, which were very loyal, very illiterate, and 
very affected." 

JOHN MACRAY. 

Oxford. 

Door-head Inscriptions (Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 
588.; Vol. viii., p. 38.). Over the door of the 
house at Salvington, Sussex, in which Selden was 
born, is this inscription : 

" Gratvs, honeste, milii ; non clavdar, inito sedeq' 
Fvr, abeas ; non sv' facta solvta tibi." 

It has been thus paraphrased : 

1. By the late William Hamper, Esq., Gent. 
Mag., 1824, vol. ii. p. 601.: 

" Thou'rt welcome, honest friend; walk in, make free: 
Thief, get thee gone ; my doors are clos'd to thee." 

2. By Dr. Evans : 

" An honest man is always welcome here ; 
To rogues I grant no hospitable cheer." 

3. In Evans's Picture of Worthing, p. 129. : 

" Dear to my heart, the honest here sjiall find 
The gate wide open, and the welcome kind ; 
Hence, thieves, away ! on you my door shall close, 
Within these walls the wicked ne'er repose." 

4. In Shearsmith's Worthing, p. 71. : 

" The honest man shall find a welcome here, 
My gate wide open, and my heart sincere ; 
Within these walls, for him I spend my store. 
But thieves, away ! on you I close my door." 

ANON. 

Honorary Degrees (Vol. viii., pp. 8. 86.). The 
short note of C. does not elucidate if, indeed, it 
touches upon the matter propounded. It was 
stated, whether correctly I know not, that hono- 
rary doctors created by diploma (reference being 
made to the Duke of Cambridge, and one or two 
other royal personages) would have the distinctive 
privilege of voting in Convocation. It then oc- 
curred tome that Johnson whose Oxford dignity 
was conferred in 1776, by special requisition of 
the Chancellor, Lord North (his M. A. degree had 



been, I judge, likewise by diploma) is not men- 
tioned by Boswell or Croker, as having on any 
occasion exercised the right referred to. Did he 
possess that right ? and, if so, was it ever exer- 
cised ? The frequency of his visits to Oxford, and 
the alleged rigid adherence to academical costume, 
make the question one of some interest : besides, 
in regard to a person so entirely sui generis, and 
upon whose character and career so much minute- 
ness of biographical detail has been bestowed, it is 
not a little remarkable how many points are almost 
barren of illustration. M. A. 

"Never ending, still beginning" (Vol. viii., p. 103.). 
See Dryden's Alexander's Feast, 1. 101. 

F. B w. 



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WEDDELL'S VOYAGE TO THE SOUTH POLE. 

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SOWERBY'S ENGLISH BOTANY, with or without Supplementary 
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LONG'S HISTORY op JAMAICA. 

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to 

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" God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb," is referred to our 
1st Volume, pp.211. 230. 325. 357. 418. 

CLERICUS (D.). The Beugnr's Petition was written by the Rev. 
T. Moss, minister of Srierly Hill and Trent/ion, in Staffordshire. 
See " N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p 209. 

ARTERUS should complete his Query by statin*; where the Latin 
lines resembling Shak-peare's Seven Ages are to be found. We 
shall then gladly insert it. 

BEGINNER must consult some Photographic friend, or our Ad- 
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A fen' complete sets of" NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., 
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AUG. 13. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



163 



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in Bonn." 

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and thi-'.U'_;h ail respectable gr. ctrs, chemists, 
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IMPORTANT CAPTION Many invalids having 
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164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 198. 



TO BOOK CX.UBS, READING 
SOCIETIES, ETC. 

ALBF.MARLE STRICT, 
AuffustlSSS. 

THE NEW BOOKS OF THE 
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SIR HUDSON LOWE'S LET- 
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MR. PALLISER'S HUNTING 

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THE (LATE1 ARCHBISHOP OF 
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PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 
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The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
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Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
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Also, lately published, 

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, 

COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as per- 
formed at the Chapel Royal St. James, price 2. 
C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street. 



S< 



8vo., price 21. 

OME ACCOUNT of DOMES- 

_ TIC ARCHITECTURE in ENGLAND, 
from the Conquest to the end of the 'I hirteenth 
Centuiy, with numerous Illustrations of Ex- 
isting Remains from Original Drawings. By 
T. HUDSON TURNER. 

" What Horace Walpole attempted, and what 
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake has done for oil- 
painting elucidated its history and traced its 
progress in England by mtans of the records 
of expenses and mandates of the successive 
Sovereigns of the realm Mr. Hudson Turner 
has now achieved for Domestic Architecture in 
this country during the twelfth and tliirteeuth 
centuries." A rcliitect. 

" The writer of the present volume ranks 
among the nost intelligent of the craft, and 
a careful perusal of its contents will convince 
the reader of the enormous amount of labour 
bestowed on its minutest details, as well as the 
discriminating judgment presiding over the 
general arrangement." Morning Chronicle. 

" The book of which the title is given above 
is one of the ver> few attempts that have been 
made in this country to treat this interesting 
subject in anything more than a superficial 
manner. 

"Mr. Turner exhibits much learning nnd 
research, and he has consequently laid before 
the reader much interesting information. It 
is a book that was wanted, and that affords us 
some relief from the mass of works on Eccle- 
siastical Architecture with which of late years 
we have been deluged. 

" The work is well illustrated throughout 
with wood-engravings of the more interesting 
remains, and will prove a valuable addition to 
the antiquary's library." Literary Gazette. 

" It is as a text-book on the social comforts 
and condition of the Squires and Gentry of 
England during the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies, that the leading value of Mr. Turner's 
present publication will be found to consist. 

" Turner's handsomely-printed volume is 
profusely illustrated with careful woodcuts of 
all important existing remains, made from 
drawings by Mr. Blore and Mr. Twopeny." 
Atltencetim. 

JOHN HENRY PAliKER, Oxford ; and 
377. Strand, London. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GBOROE BEI.L, of No. 186. Fleet Street, iu the Pariah of St. Dunstaii m the West, m the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. lao. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, August 13. 1853. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



" Wben found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 199.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 20. 1853. 



{Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5 /. 



NOTES : 



CONTENTS. 



Baron's Essays, by Markhy - - 

Bishop Bui-net, H. Wharton, and Smith - 
Early Philadelphia Directories - 

Shakspeare Correspondence - 

Mottos of the Emperors of Germany, by Joshua G. 
Fitch ....... 

Poems by Miss Delaval - 



Page 
165 

167 
168 



Solution - 



T.EPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Robert Drury Real 
Signatures versus Pseudo-Names Lines on the In- 
stitution of the Garter " Short red, God red," &c 

Martha Blount Longevity Its Oldham, Bishop 
of Exeter Boom Lord "North Dutch Pottery 
Cramner's Correspondences Portable Altars Poem 
attributed to Shelley Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur 
(Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March) 
" Up, guards, and at them ! " Pennycomequick > 
Captain Booth of Stockport " Hurrah," &c. De- 
tached Belfrv Towers Blotting-paper Riddles for 
the Post-Office Mulciber . 

3IISTELLANEOU3 : 



Notes on Books, &c. 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 
Notices to Correspondents 
Advertisements ... 



MINOR NOTES: The Rights of Women Green Pots 
used for drinking from by Members of the Temple 
Quarles and Pascal Offer to intending Editors 
Head-dress - - - - - - 171 

QIERIES : 

MINOR QUERIES : Fox-hunting Broderie Anglaise 
" The Convent," an Elegy Memorial of Newton 
Mammon Derivation of Wellesley The Battle of 
Cruden : a Query for Copenhagen Correspondents 
Ampers and The Myrtle Bee Henry Earl of 
VVotton Connexion between the Celtic and Latin 
Languages Queen . Anne's Motto Anonymous 
Books - - - . . . - 172 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Major Andre 
"The Fatal Mistake" Anonymous Plays High 
Commission Court ..... 174 

ilEl'LIES : 

Rosicrucians- ...... 175 

Srarson's I'oems ...... 170 

" From the Sublime to the Ridiculous," &c., bv Henry 

H. Bresn "- - 177 

.Passage in the Burial Service, by Geo. A. Trevor and 

John Booker - - - - - - 177 

Patrick's Purgatory, by William Blood - - - 178 

.Lord William Russell - - - . - 179 

Oaken Tombs, &c. - - . - - - 179 
"" Could we with ink," &c., by the Rev. Moses Margo- 

liouth, &c. ...... 180 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Washing or not 
washing Collodion Pictures after developing, previous 
to fixing Stereoscopic Angles Sisson's Developing 



- 181 



185 
186 
186 
ISO 



V<kVIir 4 No. 199. 



BACON'S ESSAYS, BY MARKBY. 
(Continued from Vol. viii., p. 144.) 

Essay XXIX. Of tbe true Greatness of King- 
doms. 

" The speech of Themistocles."] See Plut. 
Them. 2., Cimon, 9. 

" Negotiis pares."] An expression of Tacitus. 
In Ann. vi. 39., he says of Poppseus Sabinus : 
" Maximis provinces per quatuor et viginti annos 
impositus ; nullam ob eximiam artem, sed quod 
par negotiis neque supra erat." Again, in Ann. xvi. 
18. of C. Petronius : " Proconsul Bithynise, et mox 
consul, vigentem se ac parem negotiis ostendit." 

"As Virgil saith, 'It never troubles the wolf 
how many the sheep be.' "] Lord Bacon, as Mr. 
Markby observes, evidently alludes to the follow- 
ing verses of Eclogue vii. : 

" Hie tantum Boreas curamus ftigora, quantum 
Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas." 

The meaning is, however, doubtless correctly ex- 
plained by Heyne : " Ut numerate pecori parcat." 
" Quia solam considerat lupus prasdam," says Ser- 
vius. The sense of the passage is, that after the 
shepherd has " told his tale," after he has counted 
his sheep, the wolf does not care how much he de- 
ranges the reckoning. 

For the advice of Parmenio to attack Darius by 
night, and the refusal of Alexander to steal the 
victory, see Arrian, Exp. Alex. iii. 10. ; Plut. 
Alex. 31., Curt. iv. 13. 

" Neither is money the sinews of war, as it is 
trivially said."] " Nervi belli, pecunia infinita," 
Cic. Phil. v. 2. Machiavel, like Bacon, questions 
the truth of this dictum, Disc. ii. 10. 

" Solon said well to Croesus (when in ostentation 
he showed him his gold), ' Sir, if any other come 
that hath better iron than you, he will be master 
of all this gold.' "] This saying is not in Herodotus, 
or in Plutarch's Life of Solon. Query, In what 
ancient author is it to be found ? 

*' Even as you may see in coppice-woods ; if 
you leave your staddles too thick, you shall never 
have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes."] 
The same illustration is used by Lord Bacon, in 



166 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



his History of Henry VII. : " Like to coppice- 
woods, that, if you leave in them staddles too 
thick, they will run to bushes and briars, and 
have little clean underwood " (vol. iii. p. 236., ed. 
Montagu). The word staddle means an uncut tree 
in a coppice, left to grow. Thus Tusser says, 
"Leave growing for staddles the likest and best." 
See Richardson in v., and Nares' Glossary in 
Staddle, where other meanings of the word are 
explained. 

" The device of King Henry VII."] See Lord 
Bacon's History, ib. p. 234. 

" Nay, it seemeth at this instant they [the 
Spaniards] are sensible of this want of natives ; 
as by the Pragmatical Sanction, now published, 
appeareth."] To what law does Lord Bacon al- 
lude ? 

"Romulus, after his death (as they report or 
feign), sent a present to the Romans, that above 
all they should intend arms, and then they should 
prove the greatest empire of the world."] See 
Livy, i. 16., where Romulus is described as giving 
this message to Proculus Julius. A similar mes- 
sage is reported in Plut. Rom. 28. 

" No man can by caretaking (as the Scripture 
saith) add a cubit to his stature."] See Matt. vi. 
27. 

Essay XXX. Of Regimen of Health. See 
Antith., No. 4. vol. viii. p. 355. 

Essay XXXI. Of Suspicion. See Anitth., 
No. 45. vol. viii. p. 377. 

Essay XXXII. Of Discourse. 

"I knew two noblemen of the west part of 
England," &c.] Query, Who are the noblemen 
referred to ? 

Essay XXXIII. Of Plantations. 
" When the world was young it begat more 
children ; but now it is old it begets fewer."] 
This idea is taken from the ancients. Thus Lu- 
cretius : 

" Sed quia finera aliquam pariendi debct habcre, 
Destitit, ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto." 

V. 823-4. 

" Consider likewise, what commodities the soil 
where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that 
they may some way help to defray the charge 
of the plantation ; so it be not, as was said, to the 
untimely prejudice of the main business, as it hath 
fared with tobacco in Virginia."] On the excessive 
cultivation of tobacco by the early colonists of 
Virginia, see Grahame's History of North Ame- 
rica, vol. i. p. 67. King James's objection to to- 
bacco is well known. 

" But moil not too much underground."] This 
old word, for to toil, to labour, has now become 
provincial. 

" In marish and unwholesome grounds."] Marish 
is here used in its original sense, as the adjective of 



mere. Spenser and Milton use it as a substantive ; 
whence the word marsh. 

" It is the guiltiness of blood of many corn- 
miserable persons."] No instance of the word 
commiserable is cited in the Dictionaries from any 
other writer than Bacon. 

Essay XXXIV. Of Riches. See Antith., No. 6. 
vol. viii. p. 356. 

"In sudore vultus alien!."] Gen. iii. 19. 

"The fortune in being the first in an inven- 
tion, or in a privilege, doth cause sometimes a 
wonderful overgrowth in riches, as it was with the 
first sugar-man in the Canaries."] When was the 
growth of sugar introduced into the Canaries ? 
To what does Bacon allude ? It does not appear 
that sugar is now grown in these islands ; at least 
it is enumerated among their imports, and not 
among their exports. 

Essay XXXV. Of Prophecies. 

" Henry VI. of England said of Henry VII., 
wheh he was a lad and gave him water, ' This is 
the lad that shall enjoy the crown for which we 
strive.' "] Query, Is this speech reported by any 
earlier writer ? 

" When I was in France I heard from one Dr. 
Pena, that the queen-mother, who was given to 
curious arts, caused the king her husband's na- 
tivity to be calculated under a false name, and 
the astrologer gave a judgment that he should be 
killed in a duel ; at which the queen laughed, 
thinking her husband to be above challenges and 
duels ; but he was slain upon a course at tilt, the 
splinters of the staff of Montgomery going in at his 
beaver."] The king here alluded to is Henri II., 
who was killed at a tournament in 1559 ; his queen 
was Catherine de Medici. Bacon's visit to France 
was in 1576-9 (Life, by Montagu, p. xvi.), dur- 
ing the reign of Henri III., when Catherine of 
Medici was queen-mother. Query, Is this pro- 
phecy mentioned in any French writer ? 

" Octogesimus octavus mirabilis annus."] Con- 
cerning the prophecy which contained this verse, 
see Bayle, Diet, art. Stofler, notes : art. Bruschius, 
note E. 

Essay XXXVII. Of Masques and Triumphs. 

" The colours that show best, by candlelight are 
white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water green ; 
and ocs, or spangs, as they are of no great cost, so 
they are of most glory."] Mr. Markby says that 
Montagu and Spiers take the liberty of altering 
the word ocs to ouches. Halliwell, in his Dic- 
tionary, explains oes to mean eyes, citing one 
manuscript example. This would agree tolerably 
with the sense of the passage before us. Ouches 
would mean jewels. 

Essay XXXVIII. Of Nature in Men. See 
Antith., No. 10. vol. viii. p. 459. 

" Optimus ille animi vindex," &c.] " Ille fuit 
vindex " in Ovid. 






AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



167 



'.' Like as it was with _<Esop's damsel, turned 
from a cat to a woman."] See Babrius, Fab. 32. 

" Otherwise they may say, 'Multum incola fuit 
anima mea.' "] Whence are these words bor- 
rowed ? 

Essay XXXIX. Of Custom and Education. 
See Antith., No. 10. vol. viii. p. 359. 

" Only superstition is now so well advanced, that 
men of the first blood are as firm as butchers by 
occupation, and votary resolution is made equi- 
pollent to custom, even in matter of blood."] This 
is an allusion to the Gunpowder Plot. 

" The Indian wives strive to be burnt with the 
corpse of their husbands."] The practice of sut- 
tee is of great antiquity. See Strabo, xv. 1. 30. 
62. ; Yal. Max. ii. 6. 14. 

" The lads of Sparta, of ancient time, were wont 
to be scourged upon the altar of Diana, without so 
much as quechiiig."~\ To queche here means to 
squeak. 

" Late learners cannot so well take the ply"] 
To take the ply is to bend according to the pres- 
sure ; to be flexible and docile under instruction. 

Essay XL. Of Fortune. See Antith., No. 11. 
vol. viii. p. 359. 

" Serpens, nisi serpentem comederit, non fit 
draco."] What is the origin of this saying ? 

The character of Cato the elder, cited from 
Livy, is in xxxix. 40. ; but the words are quoted 
memoriter, and do not agree exactly with the ori- 
ginal. 

For the anecdote of Tiniotheus, see " N. & Q.," 
Vol. vii., p. 493. 

Essay XLII. Of Youth and Age. See Antith., 
No. 3. vol. viii. p. 355. 

" Hermogenes the rhetorician, whose books are 
exceedingly subtle, who afterwards waxed stupid."] 
Hermogenes of Tarsus, who lived in the reign of 
Marcus Aurelius, wrote some able rhetorical works 
while he was still a young man ; but at the age of 
twenty-five fell into a state of mental imbecility, 
from which he never recovered. 

" Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy saith in effect, 
' Ultima primis cedebant.' "] The allusion is to 
Ovid, Heroid. ix. 23-4. : 

" Cocpisti melius quam desinis : ultima primis 
Cedunt : dissimiles hie vir et ille puer." 

Essay XLIII. Of Beauty. See Antith., No. 2. 
vol. viii. p. 354. 

" A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert 
Durer were the more trifler ; whereof the one 
would make a personage by geometrical propor- 
tions, the other by taking the best parts out of 
divers faces to make one excellent."] With re- 
gard to Apelles, Lord Bacon probably alludes to 
the story of Zeuxis in Cic. De Inn. ii. 1. 

" Pulcrorum autumnus pulcher."] Query, What 
is the source of this quotation ? 



Essay XL VI. Of Gardens. 

Many of the names of plants in this Essay re- 
quire illustration. Gennitings appear to be broom, 
from genista ; quodlins are codlings, a species of 
apple ; wardens are a species of pear, concerning 
which see Hudson's Domestic Architecture of the 
Thirteenth Century, p. 137. Bullaces are explained 
by Halliwell to be a small black and tartish plum, 
growing wild in some parts of the country. 

" My meaning is perceived, that you may have 
ver perpetuum, as the place affords."] The allu- 
sion, probably, is to Virgil, Georg. ii. 149. : 

" Hie ver assiduum, atque alienis mensibus asstas." 

" Little low hedges, round, like icelts, with some 
pretty pyramids, I like well."] A welt was the 
turned-over edge of a garment. 

" Abeunt studia in mores."] From Ovid's 
Epistle of Sappho to Phaon, Ep. xv. 83. 

" Let him study the schoolmen, for they are 
cymini sectores."~] The word Kv/j.ivo-n-p{<TTi)s is ap- 
plied in Aristot., Eth. NIC. iv. 3., to a miserly 
person ; one who saves cheeseparings and candle- 
ends. 

Essay LII. Of Ceremonies and Respects. See 
Antith., No. 34. vol. viii. p. 371. 

" It doth much add to a man's reputation, and 
is (as Queen Isabella saith) like perpetual letters 
commendatory, to have good forms."] Query, 
Which Queen Isabella was the author of this 
saying ? 

Essay LIII. Of Praise. See Antith., No. 10. 
vol. viii. p. 358. 

" Pessimum genus inimicorum laudantium."] 
From Tacit. Agric. c. 41., where the words are: 
" Pessimum inimicorum genus, laudantes." Lau- 
dantium for laudantes in the text of Bacon is an 
error. 

Essay LIV. Of Vain-glory. See Antith., No. 19. 
vol. viii. p. 364. 

Essay LVI. Of Judicature. 

"Judges ought to remember that their office is 
jus dicere, and not jus dare."'] Compare Aph. 44. 
and 46., in the eighth book De Augmentis. L. 



BISHOP BURNET, H. WHARTON, AND SMITH. 

The following curious piece of literary history 
is quoted from pp. 145 147. of Smith's De Re 
Nummaria : 

" But having thus owned the bishop's generosity, I 
must next inform the reader what occasion I have to 
make some complaint of hard usage, partly to myself, 
but infinitely more to Dr. H. Wharton, and that after 
his decease also. The matter of fact lies in this order. 
After Ant. Harmor had published his Specimen of 
Errors to be found in the Bishop's History of the Re- 
formation, there was a person that frequented the 
coffee-house where we met daily at Oxon, and who 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



afterwards became a prelate in Scotland, that was con- 
tinually running down that History for the errors dis- 
covered in it, many of which are not very material, and 
might in so large a work have been easily pardoned ; 
and in order to obtain such a pardon, I acquainted his 
Lordship with some more considerable errata to be 
found in the first volume of Anglia Sacra, out of which 
I had drawn up as many mistakes as I could possibly 
meet with, and had descanted upon them, as far as I 
was able, in the same method Ant. Harmer had drawn 
up his, and without acquainting the Bishop who was 
the author, sent them up to his Lordship with license, 
if he thought fitting, to print them. But when the 
collection was made, I had prefixed a letter to his 
Lordship, and next an epistle to the reader. In the 
former it was but fitting to compliment his Lordship, 
but the latter was altogether as large a commendation 
of Dr. Wharton's skill, diligence, and faithfulness in 
viewing and examining the records of our English 
church history. The disgust that this last gave his 
Lordship obliged him to stifle the whole tract ; but yet 
he was pleased to show part of it to many by way, as 
I suppose, of excuse or answer for his own mistakes ; 
but as I take it, after the Doctor's decease, he made it 
an occasion of foully bespattering him as a man of no 
.credit, and all he had writ in that Specimen was fit to 
go for nothing; which practice of his lordship, after I 
came to read both in the preface and introduction to 
his third volume, 1 was amazed at his injustice both to 
the living and the dead. For I had acquainted his 
Lordship that the faults were none of Dr. Wharton's 
own making, who had never seen the MS. itself, but 
only some exscript of it, writ by some raw and illiterate 
person employed by some of his Oxford friends to send 
him a copy of it. I once threatened my Lord Bishop's 
son that I had thoughts of publishing this and some 
other facts the Bishop had used to avoid the discovery 
of some other errata communicated to him by other 
hands; but I forbore doing so, lest I should seem un- 
grateful for kindnesses done and offered to me." 

E. IL A. 



EARLY PHILADELPHIA DIRECTORIES. 

The first Philadelphia Directories were published 
in the year 1785, when two appeared : White's and 
M'Pherson's. The latter is a duodecimo volume 
of 164 pages, and contains some things worth 
making a note of. 

Some persons do not seem to have compre- 
hended the object of the inquiries made of the 
inhabitants as to their names and occupations ; 
supposing, perhaps, that they had some connexion 
with taxation. The answers given by such are 
put, down in the Directory as the names of the 
respondents. Thus : 

" ' I won't tell you,' 3. Maiden's Lane." 
" ' I won't tell it,' 15. Sugar Alley." 
"' I won't tell you my name/ 160. New Market 
Street." 

" I won't have it numbered,' 478. Green Street." 
"' I won't tell my name,' 185. St. John's Street." 



" ' I shall not give you my name,' 4:3. Stamper's 
Alley." 

" What you please,' 49. Market Street." 

In the errata are the following : 

" For Cross Woman read Cross Widow." 
" For Cox Cats read Cox Cato." 

The alphabetical arrangement of a Directory is 
as great a leveller as the grave. In the Directory 
for 1798, after 

" Dennis, Mr., Taylor, Pewter Platter Alley." 
appears the following : 

" Dorleans, Messrs., Merchants, near 100. South 
Fourth Street." 

These were Louis Philippe and one of his brothers, 
who lived at the north-west corner of Fourth and 
Princes Streets, in a house still standing, and now- 
numbered 110. 

Talleyrand and Volney lived for some time in 
Philadelphia ; but, not being house-keepers, their 
names do not appear in any of the Directories. 

UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 



SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE. 

Shahspeare Readings, No. X. "Sheer" versus 
" Warwick-sheer." At page 143. of Notes and 
Emendations, Mr. Collier indulges in the following 
reverie : 

" Malone did not know what to make of ' sheer 
ale,' but supposed that it meant sheering or reaping ale, 
for so reaping is called in Warwickshire. What does 
it mean ? It is spelt sheere in the old copies ; and that 
word begins one line, Warwick having undoubtedly 
dropped out at the end of the preceding line. 
It was formerly not at all unusual to spell ' shire ' 
sheere ; and Sly's ' sheer ale ' thus turns out to have 
been Warwickshire ale, which Shakspeare celebrated, 
and of which he had doubtless often partaken at Mrs. 
Racket's. We almost wonder that, in his local parti- 
cularity, he did not mention the sign of her house," &c. 

The meaning of sheer ale was strong ale that 
which we now call " entire " ale unmixed, un- 
reduced, unmitigated the antithesis of that 
" small ale," for a pot of which poor Sly begged 
so hard, sinking his demand at last to " a pot o' the 
smallest ale." If Christopher lived in our own 
times, he might, on common occasions, indulge in 
small; but for great treats he would have Barclay's 
entire : and, instead of bullying Dame Hacket 
about " sealed quarts," he would perhaps, in these 
educated days, be writing to The Times under the 
signature of " A Thirsty Soul." Sly evidently was 
rather proud of underlying a score of fourteen- 
pence for sheer ale. 

Let us hear in what sense old Phil. Holland, in 
Precepts of Health, uses the word : 

" And verily water (not that onely wherewith wine 
is mingled, but also which is drunke betweene whiles, 



AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



apart by itselfe) causeth the wine tempered therewith 
to doe the lesse harme : in regard whereof, a student 
ought to use himselfe to drinke twice or thrice every 
day a draught of sheere water," &c. 

Here "sheere water" is put in apposition to 
that with which " wine is mingled;" the meaning 
of sheer, therefore, is integer: and sheer niilk 
would be inilk before it goes to the pump. 

But perhaps it will be objected that sheer, ap- 
plied to water, as in this place, may mean clear, 
bright, free from foulness. Well, then, here is 
another example from Fletcher's Double Marriage, 
where Castruccio is being tantalised after the 
fashion of the Governor of Barataria : 
"Cast, (tastes.) Why, what is this? Why, Doctor ! 

Doctor. Wine and water, sir. 'Tis sovereign for your 
heat : you must endure it. 

Villio. Most excellent to cool your night-piece, sir 1 
Doctor. You're of a high and choleric complexion, 
and must have allays. 

Cast. Shall I have no SHEER WINE then ? " 

The step from this to sheer ale is not very 
difficult. 

It may be remarked that, at present, we apply 
several arbitrary adjectives, in this sense of sheer, 
to different liquors. Thus, to spirits we apply 
" raw," to wines and brandy " neat," to malt drink 
" stout " or " strong ; " and then we reduce to 
"half and half," until at length we come to the 
very " small," a term which, like other lowly 
things, seems to have been permitted to endure 
from its very weakness. A. E. B. 

Leeds. 

" Clamour your tongues" ffc. 

" Clamour your tongues, and not a word more." 
Wint. Tale, Act IV. Sc. 4. 

Notwithstanding the comments upon this word 
clamour, both in the pages of " N. & Q-," and by 
the various editors of Shakspeare, I have not yet 
seen anything that appears to my mind like a 
satisfactory elucidation. 

Gifford, not being able to make anything of the 
word, proposed to read charm, which at all events 
is plausible, though nothing more. Nares says the 
word is in use among bell-ringers, though now 
shortened to clam. Unfortunately the meaning 
attached to the term by the ringers is at variance 
with that of clamour in the text ; for to clam the 
bells is what we should now call putting them on 
sette or setting them, and this is but preparatory 
to a general crash: still it is possible that the 
words may be the same. 

MR. AKROWSMITH (Vol. vii., p. 567.) maintains 
the genuineness of clamour in preference to charm; 
and, without a word of comment, quotes two pas- 
sages from Udall's translation of Erasmus his 
Apothegms "oneless hee chaumbreed his tongue," 
&c. ; and again " did he refrein or chaumbre 
the tauntying of his tongue." I confess I cannot 



fathom MR. ARROWSMITH'S intention ; for the 
obvious conclusion to be drawn from these quota- 
tions is, that charm, and not clamour, is an abbre- 
viation of the older word chaumbre. 

I am very much inclined to think that the verb 
in question comes directly from the A.-S. We 
find the word clam or clom a bond, that which 
holds or retains, a prison ; in the latter form the 
word is frequently used, and for the use of the 
former in the same sense Bosworth quotes Boe- 
thius (Rawlinson's ed., Oxon. 1698, p. 152.), which 
work I am unable to consult. From these words, 
then, we have clommian, clcemian, &c., to bind or 
restrain. It seems not very unlikely that from 
this original came Shakspeare's word clammer or 
clamour. I may add that Skinner explains the 
word clum by a note of silence, quoting " Chaucer 
in fab. Molitoris " (I have no copy of Chaucer at 
this moment within reach) ; and in the A.-S. we 
find clumian, to keep close, to press, to mutter, 
comprimere, mussitare : all these words probably 
have the same root. 

An instance of the use of the word clame or 
clamour is to be found in a work entitled The 
Castel of Helthe ; gathered and made by Syr 
Thomas Elyot, Knight, Sfc. ; printed by Thomas 
Berthelet : London, 1539 (black-letter). At p. 52. 
is the following : 

" Nauigation or rowynge nigh to the lande, in a 
clame water, is expedient for them that haue dropsies, 
lepries, palseyes, called of the vulgar people, takynges, 
and francies. To he carried on a rough water, it is a 
violent exercise," &c. 

H. C. K. 

Rectory, Hereford. 

Shakspeare Suggestions (Vol. viii., p. 124.). 
ICON asks "Has any one suggested 'Most 
busy, when least I do.' The ' it ' seems mere sur- 
plusage ?" 

The same suggestion, nearly verbatim, even to 
the curtailment of the " it," may be found in this 
present month's number of Blackwood's Magazine, 
p. 186. 

But ICON will also find the same reading, with 
an anterior title of nearly three years, together with 
some good reasons for its adoption, in " N. & Q.," 
Vol. ii., p. 338. And he may also consult with ad- 
vantage an illustrative quotation in Vol.iii., p. 229. 

In ^the original suggestion in " N. & Q-," there 
is no presumption of surplusage : the word " it " is 
understood in relation to labours ; that word being 
taken as a collective singular, like contents, and 
other words of the same construction. 

The critic in Blackwood disclaims consulting 
" N. & Q. ; " and it is, no doubt, a convenient dis- 
claimer. He follows the herd of menstrual Aris- 
tarchi, by hailing, with wondering admiration, the 
substitution of ethics for checks! And he shows 
his fitness for the task he has undertaken, by stat- 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



ing that " Mr. Singer alone had the good taste to 
print it (ethics) in his text of 1 826." 

Mr. Halliwell, however, in a recent pamphlet, 
states that 

" This new emendation has not only been mentioned 
in a great variety of editions, but has been introduced 
into the text by no fewer than five editors, the first, I 
believe, in point of time, being the Rev. J. Kann, who 
substituted ethics into the text as early as 1787." 

A. E. B. 

Leeds. 

Critical Digest. Your readers have seen 
no more welcome announcement than that con- 
tained in p. 75. of your present volume, that this 
project of a work, bringing into one view the 
labours of preceding editors and commentators, is 
in good hands and likely to be brought to bear. 
On the form of such a work it is perhaps prema- 
ture to offer an observation ; but, to be perfect, it 
ought to range with that remarkable monument 
of a lady's patient industry, Mrs. Cowden Clarke's 
Concordance. On the materials to be employed, 
all. your readers have such an interest in the sub- 
ject as to warrant them in making suggestions ; 
and it will be well to do so before the plans are 
fully matured. 

It ought, in my opinion, to be more compre- 
hensive than even the largest scheme suggested by 
your correspondent ; for, in addition to the com- 
ments which may be thought most worthy of inser- 
tion in full, or nearly so, it ought to contain at least 
a reference to every known comment, in the slightest 
degree worthy of notice, in relation to any passage 
in the work. To accomplish this would of course 
be a work of enormous labour, and the object of 
the present Note is to suggest, as a first step, the 
circulation of a list of works intended to be con- 
sulted, for the purpose of inviting additions ; not 
that such a list should encumber the pages of 
" N. & Q.," but I am much mistaken if you would 
not afford facilities for receiving the communica- 
tions asked for. This course is the more necessary, 
inasmuch as, in addition to works written exclu- 
sively on the subject of Shakspeare, there is a 
vast amount of Shakspearian criticism spread over 
works, the titles of which give no indication of the 
necessity for consulting them. For instance, up- 
wards of two hundred pages of Coleridge's Literary 
Remains are so employed ; and though, perhaps, 
the work is so well known that it would have 
found a place in the first copy of the list I have 
suggested, it may serve as an illustration of the 
sort of information which it would be desirable to 
invite. J. F. M. 



MOTTOS OF THE EMPERORS OF GERMANY. 

I was much interested in the lists given in 
" N. & Q." last year of the mottos adopted by 



serjeants-at-law on arriving at that dignity ; and 
it then occurred to me, that it would be curious 
to collect in like manner a complete list of the 
sentences, which, as is well known to students of 
history, the Emperors of Germany were accus- 
tomed to assume at their coronations. A recent 
visit to Frankfort has given me an opportunity of 
making and sending you such a list. The materials 
are collected from inscriptions on a series of im- 
perial portraits which adorn the principal cham- 
ber in the Romer or town hall of that city. The 
list, if it have no other interest, will at least serve 
to remind us that some of the Latin aphorisms and 
"wise saws" current among us now, have been 
doing duty in the same capacity for centuries : 

Conrad I. 911. (Franconia.) Fortuna cum blan- 

ditur fallit. 
Henry I. 918. (Saxony.) Ad vindictam tar dus, ad 

benejicentiam velox. 
Otho I. (The Great.) 936. (Saxony.) Satius est 

ratiyne cequitatis mortem oppetere, quam fugere et 

inhonesta vivere. 
Otho II. 974. (Saxony.) Cum omnibus pacem; 

adversus vitia bellum. 
Otho III. 983. (Saxony.) Facile singula rum- 

puntur jacula ; non conjuncta. 
Henry II. 1002. (Bavaria.) Nihil impense ames, 

itajiet ut in nullo contristeris. 
Conrad II. 1024. (Franconia.) Omnium mores, 

imprimis observato. 
*HenryIII. 1039. (Franconia.) Qui litem aufert ; 

execrationem in benedictionem mutat. 
Henry IV. 1056. (Franconia.) Multi multa sciunt, 

se autem nemo. 
Henry V. 1106. (Franconia.) Miser qui mortem 

appetit, miserior qui timet. 

Lothaire. 1125. (Saxony.) Audi alteram partem. 
Conrad III. 1137. (Swabia.) Pauca cum aliis, multa 

tecum loquere. 
Frederick I. (Barbarossa.) 1152. (Swabia.) Prce- 

stat uni probo quam mille improbis plncere. 
Henry VI. 1190. (Swabia.) Qui tacendi non 

habet artem, nee novit loquendi. 
Philip. 1197. (Swabia.) Quod male cceptum est, 

ne pudeat mutasse. 
Otho IV. 1208. (Brunswick.) Strepit anser inter 

olores. 
Frederick II. 1218. (Swabia.) Complurimum 

Thriorum, ego strepitum audiri. 
1250 1272. Grand interregnum. (See Hallam, 

Middle Ages, ch. v.) 
Rodolph of Hapsburgh. 1273. Melius bene im- 

perare quam imperium ampliare. 



* Hallam says, that the imperial prerogative never 
reached so high a point as in the reign of this monarch. 
The succession to the throne appears to have been 
regarded as hereditary ; and a very efficient control 
preserved by the emperor over the usually insubordi- 
nate confederacy. 



AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



Adolphus. 1291. (Nassau.) 

Albert I. 1298. (Austria.) Fugam victoria nescit. 

Henry VII. 1308. (Luxemburg.) Calicem vitas 

dedisti mihi in mortem* 
Louis IV. 1314. (Bavaria.) 
Charles IV. 1347. (Bohemia.) 
Wenceslaus. 1378. (Bohemia.) 
Robert. (Count Palatine.) 1400. Misericordia 

non causam, sedfortunam special. 
Sigismund. 1411. (Luxemburg.) Mala ultra ad- 

sunt. 
Albert II. 1438. (f Austria, House of Hapsburgh.) 

Arnicas optima vitce possessio. 
Frederick III. 1440. Austria imperare orbi uni- 

verso. 
Maximilian I. 1493. Tene mensuram et respice 

finem. 

Charles V. 1519. Plus ultra. 
Ferdinand I. 1558. Fiat justitia, et pcreat mundus. 
Maximilian II. 1564. Deus providebit. 
Rodolph II. 1576. Fidget Ccesaris astrum. 
Matthew. 1612. Concordi lumine major. 
Ferdinand II. 1619. Legitime certantibus. 
Ferdinand III. 1637. Pietate etjustitid. 
Leopold I. 1657. Consilio ct industrid. 
Joseph I. 1705. Amore et timore. 
Charles VI. 1711. Constantid etfortitudine. 
Charles VII. 1742. 

Francis I. 1745. Pro Deo et imperio. 
Joseph II. 1765. Virtute et exemplo. 
Leopold II. 1790. Opes regum, corda sulditorum. 
Francis II. 1792. Lege et fids. 

I have added, by way of rendering the catalogue 
more complete, the name of the particular family 
of German princes, for which each emperor was 
selected. A glance at these names furnishes a 
remarkable illustration of an observation of Sis- 
mondi : 

" That the great evil of an elective monarchy, is the 
continual struggle on the part of the rulers to make it 
hereditary." 

It is scarcely necessary to remind your readers, 
that the integrity of Charlemagne's empire was 
preserved until the deposition of Charles the Fat ; 
that France and Germany did not become sepa- 
rate until after that event ; and that Conrad was, 
therefore, the first of the German sovereigns, as 
lie was certainly the first elected by the confede- 
rate princes. JOSHUA G. FITCH. 

* At the death of Henry, Frederick the son of 
Albert disputed Louis's election, alleging that he had 
a majority of genuine votes. He assumed the motto, 
Beatd morte niliil beatius. 

f All the succeeding princes were of this family. 



POEMS BY MISS DELAY AL. 

If the accompanying songs have not been 
printed before, they may perhaps be worth pre- 
serving. They were written and set to music by 
a highly accomplished lady, the daughter of Ed- 
ward Hussey Delaval, Esq., the last of his name 
and race, sometime Fellow of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge ; the cotemporary of Gray and Mason, 
and well known for his literary and scientific at- 
tainments : 

" Where the murm'ring streams meander, 

Where the sportive zephyrs play, 
Whilst in sylvan shades I wander, 

Softly steal the hours away. 
I nor splendor crave nor treasure, 

Calmer joys my bososn knows; 
Smiling days of rural pleasure, 

Peaceful nights of soft repose." 



" Oh Music, if thou hast a charm, 
That may the sense of pain disarm, 
Be all thy tender tones address'd 
To soothe to peace my Anna's breast, 
And bid the magic of thy strain 
To still the throb of wakeful pain ; 
That, rapt in the delightful measure, 
Sweet hope again may whisper pleasure, 
And seem the notes of spring to hear, 
Prelusive to a happier year. 
And if thy magic can restore, 
The shade of days that smile no more, 
And softer, sweeter colors give 
To scenes that in remembrance live, 
Be to her pensive heart a friend ; 
And whilst the tender shadows blend, 
Recall, ere the brief trace be lost, 
Each moment that she priz'd the most." 

E. II. A. 



The Rights of Women. Single women, wlio 
were freeholders, voted in the State of New Jersey 
as late as the year 1800. In a newspaper of that 
date is a complimentary editorial to the female 
voters for having unanimously supported Mr. 
John Adams (the defeated candidate) for Presi- 
dent of the United States, in opposition to Mr. 
Jefferson, who was denounced as wanting in 
religion. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Green Pots used for drinking from by Members 
of the Temple. During the summer of 1849, when 
the new part of Paper Buildings in the Temple 
was being built, the workmen, in making the ne- 
cessary excavations, dug up a great number of 
pots or cups, which are supposed to have been 
used for drinking from by the students. I have 
recently met with the following letter from Sir 



172 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



Julius Caesar to Sir W. More, -which may be in- 
teresting to some of your readers : 

" After my hartie commendac'ons, &c. Whereas in 
tymes past the bearer hereof hath had out of the Parke 
of Farnham, belonging to the Bishopricke of Winches- 
ter, certaine white clay for the making of grene potts 
usually drunk in by the gentlemen of the Temple, and 
nowe understandinge of some restraint thereof, and that 
you (amongst others) are authorized there in divers re- 
spects during the vacancye of the said Bishopricke ; 
my request, therefore, unto you is, and the rather for 
that I am a member of the said house, that you would 
in favo r of us all p'mytt the bearer hereof to digge and 
carrie away so muche of the said clave as by him shalbe 
thought sufficient for the furnishinge of the said house 
\v th grene potts aforesaid, paying as he hath heretofore 
for the same. In accomplishment whereof myself with 
the whole societie shall acknowledge o'selves much be- 
holden unto you, and shalbe readie to requite you at 
all times hereafter w th the like pleasure. And so I bid 
you moste heartilie farewel. 

" Inner Temple, this xix th of August, 1591. 
" To the right worshipful Sir W'm More, Knight, 
geve these." 

This letter is printed in the Losely Manuscripts, 
p. 311. B. 

Bristol. 

Qimrles and Pascal. In Quarles' Emblems, 
book i. Emblem vi., there is a passage : 

" The world's a seeming paradise, but her own 

And man's tormentor ; 
Appearing fixed, yet but a rolling stone 

Without a tenter ; 
It is a vast circumference where none 

Can find a centre." 

And Pascal, in one of his Pensees, says : 

" Le monde est une sphere infinie, dont le centre cst 
partout, la circonfarence nulle part." , 

Here we have two propositions, which, whether 
taken separately, or opposed to each other, would 
seem to contain nothing but paradox or contradic- 
tion. And yet I believe they are but different 
modes of expressing the same thing. 

HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Offer to intending Editors. I had hoped that 
some one would accept MR. CROSSLEY'S offer of 
Ware's MS. notes for a new edition of Foxes and 
Firebrands. I myself will with pleasure contri- 
bute a copy of the book to print from (assuming 
that it will be properly executed), and also of his 
much rarer Coursing of the Romish Fox, which 
should form part of the volume. 

If any one is disposed to edit the works of Dr. 
John Rogers, the sub-dean of Wells, I will, with 
the same pleasure, supply his Address to the 
Quakers, of which I possess Mr. Brand's copy, 
which he has twice marked as extra rare ; and 



Rodd, from whom I purchased it, had never seen 
another copy. The entire works might be com- 
prised in two volumes octavo. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Flintoff has not 
yet published Wallis's Sermons on the Trinity, to 
accompany his excellent edition of Wallis's Letters,. 
1840. Would it not be possible to obtain so many 
names as would defray the expense of printing? 

s. z. z. s. 

Head-dress. The enormous head-dresses worn 
in the time of Charles I. gave rise to the follow- 
ing lines : 

" Hoc magis est instar tecti quam tegminis ; hoc non- 
Ornare est ; hoc est aedificare caput." 

CLERICDS 



Fox-hunting. Can any of your correspondents 1 
inform me, when the great national sport of fox- 
hunting first came into vogue ? 

Gervase Markham, whose work on sports, called 
Country Contentments, or the Husbandman's Recre~ 
ations, was published in 1654, gives due honour to 
stag-hunting, which he describes as " the most 
princely and royall chase of all chases." Speaking 
of hare-hunting, he says, " It is every honest man's 
and good man's chase, and which is indeed the- 
freest, readiest, and most enduring pastime ;" but 
he classes the hunting of the fox and the badger 
together, and he describes them as " Chases of a 
great deal lesse use or cunning than any of the 
former, because they are of a much hotter scent,. 
and as being intituled stinking scents, and not 
sweet scents." 

Although he does admit that this chase may be. 
profitable and pleasant for the time, insomuch as. 
there are not so many defaults, but a continuing, 
sport ; he concludes, " I will not stand much upon 
them, because they are not so much desired as the 
rest." 11. W. B. 

Broderie Anglaise. Being a young lady whose- 
love for the fine arts is properly modified by a 
reverence for antiquity, I am desirous to know 
whether the present fashionable occupation of the 
" Broderie Anglaise," being undoubtedly a revival,, 
is however traceable (as is alleged) to so remote a 
period as the days of Elizabeth ? SARAH ANNA.. 

" The Convent" an Elegy. Among the works 
ascribed to the Abbe Frangois Arnaud, a member 
of the French Academy, who died in 1784, there 
is one entitled, Le Convent, Elegie traduite de 
F Anglais. What is the English poem here alluded 
to ? HENRY II. BREEX. 

St. Lucia. 

Memorial of Nen-ton. The subscription now 
I in progress for raising a statue to Sir Isaac Newton 



AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



173 



at Grantham, the place of his early education, 
recalls to my recollection a memorial of him, about 
which I may possibly learn a few particulars from 
some one of the numerous readers of " N. & Q." 

I remember hearing when a school-boy at the 
college, Grantham, some thirty-five years ago, that 
Newton's name, cut by himself on a stone in the 
recess of one of the windows of the school-house, 
was to be seen there no long time back ; but that 
the stone, or the portion of it which contained the 
name, had been cut out by some mason at a time 
when the building was being repaired, and was in 
the possession of a gentleman then living in the 
Inrgest house in Grantham built, I believe, by 
himself. Those of your readers who knew Gran- 
tham at the time, will not need to be told the 
name of the gentleman to whom I allude. The 
questions I would wish to ask are these : 

1. Was such a stone to be seen, as described, 
-some forty or fifty years since ? 

2. Is it true that it was removed in the way 
that I have stated ? 

3. If so, in whose possession is the stone at this 
present time ? M. A. 

Mammon. Perhaps some of your readers could 
refer me to some work containing information in 
reference to the following allegation of Barnes, on 
Matt. vi. 24. : 

" Mammon is a Syriac word, a name given to an idol 
worshipped as the god of riches. It has the same mean- 
ing as Plutus among the Greeks. It is not known that 
the Jews even formally worshipped this idol, but they 
used the word to denote wealth." 

My question relates to the passages in Italics. 

B. H. 3 C. 

Derivation of Wellesley. In a note to the 
lately published Autobiographic Sketches of Thomas 
De Quincey, I find (p. 131.) the following passage : 

" It had been always known that some relationship 
existed between the Wellesleys and John Wesley. 
Their names had in fact been originally the same; and 
the Duke of Wellington himself, in the earlier part of 
liis career, when sitting in the Irish House of Com- 
mons, was always known to the Irish journals as 
Captain Wesley. Upon this arose a natural belief, 
that the aristocratic branch of the house had improved 
the name into Wellesley. But the true process of 
change had been precisely the other way. Not Wesley 
had been expanded into Wellesley, but inversely, Wel- 
lesley had been contracted by household usage into 
Wesley. The name must have been Wellesley in its 
earliest stage, since it was founded upon a connexion 
with Wells Cathedral." 

May I ask what this connexion was, and whence 
the authority for the statement ? Had the illus- 
trious Duke's adoption of his title from another 
town in Somersetshire anything to do with it ? 

J.M. 

Cranwells, Bath. 



The Battle of Cruden A Query for Copen- 
hagen Correspondents. In the year 10-59, in the 
reign of Malcolm III., king of Scotland, a battle 
was fought on the Links of Cruden, in the county 
of Aberdeen, between the Danes and the Scots, 
in which the Prince Royal, who commanded the 
Danish forces, was slain. He was buried on the 
field, near to which, according to the custom of 
the times, King Malcolm " biggit ane kirk." This 
church was overblown with sand, and another. 
built farther inland, which id the present parish 
church. To the churchyard wall there leans a 
black marble gravestone, about 7 ft. X 3 ft. 6 in. r 
which is said to have been sent from Denmark as 
a monument for the grave of his royal highness. 
The stone has the appearance of considerable an- 
tiquity about it, and appears to have been inlaid 
with marble, let into it about half an inch ; the 
marks of the iron brads, and the lead which se- 
cured it, are still visible. 

" Tradition says it did from Denmark come, 
A monument the king sent for his son." 

And it is also stated that, until within the last 
hundred years, a small sum of money was annually 
sent by the Danish government to the minister of 
Cruden for keeping the monument in repair. I 
should be glad to learn if there are any documents 
among the royal archives at Copenhagen, which 
would invalidate or substantiate the popular tra- 
dition. ABREDOXENSIS. 

Ampers and (ff or &). I have heard this 
symbol called both ampers and and apusse and. 
Which, if either, is the correct term ; and what is 
its derivation ? C. MANSFIELD INGLEST. 

Birmingham. 

The Myrtle Bee. I should feel much obliged 
to any reader of " N. & Q." who would answer 
the following questions respecting the bird called 
the Myrtle Bee ; separating carefully at the same 
time the result of his personal experience from any 
hearsay evidence that he may have collected on 
the subject. In what places in the British Isles 
has the bird been seen? During what months? 
Is it gregarious, or solitary ? What are its haunts 
and habits, and on what does it feed ? What is 
its colour, shape, and size? Its mode of flight? 
Does any cabinet contain a preserved specimen, 
and has any naturalist described or figured it 
either as a British or a foreign bird ? 

W. 11. D. SALMON. 

Birmingham. 

Henry Earl of Wotton. Jan van Kerckhove, 
Lord of Kerkhoven and lleenvliet, who died at 
Sassenheim, March 7, 1660, married Catherine 
Stanhope, daughter of the Earl of Chesterfield ; 
and had issue Charles Henry, who in 1659 was 
chief magistrate of Breda, and was created Earl 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



of Wotton by the king of England. Could any 
of your readers favour me with the date of the 
above marriage, as also those of the birth of 
the father and the son ; as well as that of the 
elevation of the latter to the peerage of England ? 
From the Navorscher. A. I. 

Connexion between the Celtic and Latin Lan- 
guages. Can any of your correspondents supply 
any links of connexion between the Celtic and 
Latin languages ? M. 

Queen Anne's Motto. What authority have we 
for asserting that "Semper eadein" was Queen 
Anne's motto, and that it expired with her ? 

CLERIC us (D.) 

Anonymous Books. Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." furnish the names of the authors of 
either of the following works ? 

1. The Watch ; an Ode, humbly inscribed to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of M f d. To which is added, 
the Genius of America to General Carleton, an Ode. 
London : J. Bew, 1778. 4 to. 

2. Fast Sermon, preached at Feb. 10th, 1779, 

by the Reverend ; showing the Tyranny 

and Oppression of the British King and Parliament 
respecting the American Colonies. Inscribed to the 
Congress. 8vo. (Sine loco out anno. An ironical 
Piece, severe on America.) 

3. National Prejudice opposed to the National In- 
terest ; candidly considered in the Detention or Yield- 
ing up Gibraltar* and Cape Breton, by the ensuing 
Treaty of Peace, &c. In a Letter to Sir John Bernard. 
London : W. Owen, 1748. 8vo. 

4. The Blockheads; or Fortunate Contractor. An 
Opera, in Two Acts, as it was performed at New York, 
&c. Printed at New York. London : reprinted for 
G. Kearsley, 1783. 12mo. 

5. The Present State of the British Empire in 
Europe, America, Asia, and Africa, &c. : London, 
1768, 8vo., pp. 486. 

Who prepared the chapters on America in this 
volume ? SEBVIENS. 



Minor urn'os tofff) 

Major Andre. A subscriber having observed 
the amount of valuable and recondite information 
elicited by a happy Query concerning General 
Wolfe, hopes to obtain like success in one he now 
puts forward in regard to the personal history, &c. 
of the unfortunate Major John Andre, who was 
hung by the Americans as a spy during their 
Revolutionary War. Being engaged upon a bio- 
graphy of Major Andre, he has already collected 
considerable matter ; but wishes to leave no stone 
unturned in his task, and therefore begs his bre- 
thren of " N. & Q." to publish therein any anec- 
dotes or copies of any letters or documents con- 
cerning that gallant but ill-fated gentleman. A 
reference to passages occurring in printed books 



bearing on this subject, might also well be given ; 
for there is so little known about Major Andre, 
and that little scattered piecemeal in so many and 
various localities, that it is hardly possible some of 
them should not have escaped this writer's notice. 

SERVIENS. 

[Smith's Authentic Narrative of Major Andre, 8vo. 
1808, has most probably been consulted by our cor- 
respondent. There is a good account of tbe Major in 
vol. ii. of the Biographical Dictionary of the Useful 
Knowledge Society, and it is worth consulting for the 
authorities quoted at the end of the article. See also 
the Encyclopedia Americana, article " Benedict Ar- 
nold ;" the American Whig Review, vol. v. p. 881.; 
New England Magazine, vol. vi. p. 353. ; and for a vin- 
dication of the captors of Andre, the Analectic Maga- 
zine, vol. x. p. 307. Articles also will be found re- 
specting him in Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 1. pp. 540. 
610. ; vol. li. p. 320. ; vol. lii. p. 514. Major Andre is 
one of the principal subjects of The British Hero in 
Captivity, a poem attributed to Mr. Puddicombe, 4to. 
1782.], 

" The Fatal Mistake." Can you tell me where 
the scene of the following play is laid, and the 
names of the dramatis personce : The Fatal Mistake, 
a Tragedy, by Joseph Haynes, 4to., 1696? 

The author of this play, who was known by the 
name of Count Haynes, was an actor in the theatre 
at Drury Lane about the time of James II., and 
died in 1701. There is an account of his life 
written by Tom Browne. " Gw. 

[The title-page of A Fatal Mistake states that it was 
written by Jos. Hayns ; but according to the Biog. 
Dramatica, it is not certain that Count Haines was 
the author. The dramatis persona are : Men, Duke, 
Duke of Schawden's ambassador, Rodulphus, Baldwin, 
Eustace, Ladovick, Albert, Godfrey, Arnulph, Fre- 
derick, Welpho, Conradine, Gozelo, Lewis, Ferdi- 
nando. Women, Duchess Gertruedo, Lebassa, de- 
mentia, Idana, Thierrie, Maria, Lords and Ladies, 
Masquers, Soldiers.] 

Anonymous Plays. 

1. A Match for a Widow ; or, the Frolics of Fancy. 
A Comic Opera, in Three Acts, as performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin. - London: C. Dilly, 1788. 
8vo. 

2. The Indians ; a Tragedy. Performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Richmond. London: C. Dilly, 1790. 
8vo. 

3. Andre ; a Tragedy in Five Acts, as now per- 
forming at the Theatre in New York. To which is 
added the Cow Chase ; a Satirical Poem, by Major 
Andre. With the Proceedings of the Court Martial, 
and authentic Documents concerning him. London : 
Ogilvy & Son, 1799. 8vo. 

SERVIENS. 

[I. A Match for a Widow is by Joseph Atkinson, 
Treasurer of the Ordnance in Ireland, the friend and 
associate of Curran, Moore, and the galaxy of Irish 
genius. He died in 1818. 



AUG. 20. 1853.] 



175 



2. The Indians is by William Richardson, Pro- 
fessor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow, who 
died in 1814. 

3. Andre is by William Dunlap, an American dra- 
matist.] 

High Commission Court. Can any of your 
readers'refer me to works bearing on the proceed- 
ings of the High Commission Court ? The sort of 
information of which I am in search is not so much 
on the great constitutional questions involved in 
the history of this court, as in the details of its 
mode of procedure ; as shown either by actual 
books of practice, or the history of particular cases 
brought before it. J. F. M. 

[Some account of the proceedings of the High 
Commission Court is given in Reeves's History of the 
English Law, vol. v. pp. 215 218. The Harleian 
MS. 7516. also contains Minutes of the Proceedings 
of the High Commissioners at Whitehall, July 6, 1616, 
on the question of Commendums, the king himself 
being present. It makes twenty-one leaves.] 



ROSICRUCIANS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 619. ; Vol. viii., p. 106.) 

We frequently see Queries made in these pages 
which could be satisfactorily answered by turning 
to tha commonest books of reference, such as 
Brand, Fosbroke, Hone, the various dictionaries 
and encyclopaedias, and the standard works on 
the subjects queried. Now it seems to me that 
"N". & Q." is not intended for going over old 
ground, and thus becoming a literary treadmill : 
but its mission lies in supplying information not 
easily found, and in perfecting, as far as possible, 
our standard works and books of reference. MR. 
TAYLOR'S Query affords an opportunity for this, 
as the ordinary sources of information are very 
deficient as regards the Rosicrucians. 

According to some, the name is derived from 
their supposed founder, Christian Rosencrcutz, who 
died in 1484. And they account for the fact of 
the Rosicrucians not being heard of till 1 604, by 
saying that Rosencreutz bound his disciples by an 
oath not to promulgate his doctrines for 120 years 
after his death. The mystical derivation of the 
name is thus given in the Encyc. Brit. : 

" The denomination evidently appears to be derived 
from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, 
as many imagine, of the two words rosa and crux, 
which signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these 
two words and the Latin ros, which signifies dew. Of 
all natural bodies dew was deemed the most powerful 
dissolvent of gold ; and the cross in the chemical lan- 
guage is equivalent to light, because the figure of the 
cross exhibits at the same time the three letters of 
which the word lux, light, is compounded. Now lux 
is called by this sect the seed or menstruum of the red 



dragon, or, in other words, gross and corporeal light, 
which, when properly digested and modified, produces 
gold. Hence it follows, if this etymology be admitted, 
that a Rosicrucian philosopher is one who, by the in- 
tervention and assistance of the dew, seeks for light ; 
or, in other words, the philosopher's stone. 

" The true meaning and energy of this denomination 
did not escape the penetration and sagacity of Gassendi, 
as appears by his Examen Philos. Fludd, torn. iii. s. 15. 
p. 261 . ; and it was more fully explained by Renaudot 
in his Conferences Publiques, torn. iv. p. 87." 

The encyclopaedist remarks that at first the title 
commanded some respect, as it seemed to be bor- 
rowed from the arms of Luther, which were a cross 
placed upon a rose. 

The leading doctrines of the Rosicrucians were 
borrowed from the Eastern philosophers* ; the 
Christian Platonists, schoolmen, and mystics : 
mixed up with others derived from writers on 
natural history, magic, astrology, and especially 
alchemy. All these blended together, and served 
up in a professional jargon of studied obscurity, 
formed the doctrinal system of these strange phi- 
losophers. In this system the doctrine of elemental 
spirits, and the means of communion and alliance 
with them, and the doctrine of signatures, are the 
most prominent points. 

Let me refer MR. TAYLOR to Michael Meyer's 
Themis Aurea, hoc est de legibus Fraternitatis Rosece 
Crucis, Col. 1615 ; the works of Jacob Behmen, 
Robt. Fludd, John Heydon, Peter Mormius, Eu- 
gene Philalethes ; the works of the Rosicrucian So- 
ciety, containing seventy-one treatises in different 
languages ; the Catalogue of Hermetic books by 
the Abbe Lenglet du Fresnoi, Paris, 1762 ; Man- 
get's Bibliofh. Chem. Curios., Col. 1702, 2 vols. 
folio; and the Theatrum Chemicum, Argent. 1662, 
6 vols. 8vo. 

I must make particular mention of the two 
most celebrated of the Rosicrucian works ; the 
first is La Chiave del Cabinetto, Col. 1681, 12mo. 
The author, Joseph Francis Borri, gives a most 
systematic account of the doctrine of the Rosic 
Cross in this interesting little volume. He was 
imprisoned for magic and heresy, and died in his 
prison at Rome in 1695 at the age of seventy 
years. On this work was founded one still more 
remarkable 

" Le Compte de Gabalis, on Entretiens sur les 
Sciences Secretes. ' Quod tanto impendio absconditur 
etiam solum modo demonstrare, destruerc est.' 
Tertull. Sur la Copie imprimee a Paris, chez Claude 
Barbin. M.DC.LXXI. 12mo., pp. 150." 



* The Jewish speculations on the subject of ele- 
mental spirits and angels (especially those that assumed 
corporeal forms, and united themselves with the daugh- 
ters of men) were largely drawn on by the Rosicrucians. 
(See the famous Liber Zo/iar, Sulzbaci, 1684, fol. ; and 
Philo, Lib. de Gigantibns. See also Hoornbeek, Lib. 
pro Convert. Jud., Lug. Bat., 1665, 4to.) 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



This work, thus published anonymously, was from 
the pen of the Abbe de Villars. An English 
translation was published at London in 1714. 

The doctrine of the Rosy Cross entered largely 
into the literature of the seventeenth century. 
This applies especially to the masques of James I. 
and Charles I. To the same source Shakspeare 
owes his Ariel, and Milton much of his Comus. 

It is strange, but instructive, to observe how 
variously different minds make use of the same 
materials. What greater contrast can we have 
than The Ttape of the Lock and Undine? the 
one redolent of the petit-maitre and the Cockney; 
the other a work sui generis, of human conceptions 
the most exquisite and spirit-fragrant. Wieland's 
Idris und Zenide, Bulwer's Zanoni, and Mackay's 
Salamandrine, are also based on Rosicrucian prin- 
ciples. Mention of the Rosicrucians occurs in 
Izaak Walton's Angler and Butler's Hudibras 
see Zachary Grey's note and authorities referred 
to by him. See also two interesting papers on the 
subject in Chambers's Edirib. Journal, ed. 1846, 
vol. vi. pp. 298. 316. EIBIONNACH. 

July 20, 1853. 

P. S. I may as well notice here a very curious 
book of Rosicrucian emblems, as I have it beside 
jne: 

" Atalanta Fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de 
'Secretis Naturaj Chymica. Accommodata partim 
oculis et intellectui, figuris cupro incisis, adjectisque 
sententiis, Epigrammatis et notis, partim auribus et 
recreation! animi plus minus 50 Fugis Musicalibus 
<trium vocum, quarum duae ad unara simplicem melo- 
diam distichis canendis peraptam correspondeant, non 
absq; singular! jucunditate videnda, legenda, medi- 
tanda, intelligenda, dijudicanda, canenda, et audienda. 
AuthoreMichaeleMajero, Imperial. Consistorii Comite, 
Med. D. Eq. Ex. etc. : Oppenheimii,,ex Typographia 
Hieronymi Galleri, sumptibus Job. Theodori de Bry, 
MDCXVIII." Small 4to. pp. 211. 

The title-page is adorned with emblematical 
figures. The work contains a portrait of the 
author, and fifty emblems executed with much 
spirit. Amongst others we have a Salamander in 
the fire, a green lion, a hermaphrodite, a dragon, 
&c. Every right page has a motto, an emblem, 
and an epigram under the emblem in Latin. The 
left page gives the same in German, with the Latin 
words set to music. After each emblem we have 
a " Discurstts." 

The following remarks on the title occur in the 
preface : 

" Atalanta Poetis celebrata est propter fugam, qua 
omnes procos in certamine antevertit, ideoque ipsis 
victis pro Virgine, praemio Victorias proposito, mors 
obligit, donee ab Hippomene, Juvene audaciore et 
provido, superata et obtenta sit trium malorum aure- 
orum per Vices inter currendum objectu, quae dum 
ilia tolleret, proeventa est ab eo, metam jam attingente : 



Haec Atalanta ut fugit, sic una vox musicalis semper 
fugit ante aliam et altera insequitur, ut Hippomenes : 
In tertia tainen stabiliuntur et firmantur, qua: simplex 
est et unius valoris, tanquam malo aureo : Hasc eadem 
virgo mere chymica est, nempe Mercurius philoso- 
phicus a sulfure aureo in fuga fixatus et retentus, quern 
si quis sistere noverit, sponsam, quam ambit, habebit, sin 
minus, perditionern suarum rerum est interitum," &c. 
Page 9. 



SEA.RSON S POEMS. 

(Vol.vii., p. 131.) 

John Searson was a merchant in Philadelphia in 
the year 1766. A few days before seeing the in- 
quiry respecting him, I came across his advertise- 
ment in the Pennsylvania Gazette ; but not having 
made a note of the date, I have since been unable 
to find it. His stock was of a very miscellaneous 
character, as " Bibles and warming pans," " spell- 
ing-books and swoi-ds," figured in it in juxta- 
position. He taught school at one time in Bask- 
ing Ridge, New Jersey. 

A copy of his poem on " Down Hill" is before 
me ; and it is quite as curious a production as the 
volume of poems which he afterwards published. 

He describes himself in the title-page as " Late 
Master of the Free School in Colerain, and formerly 
of New York, Merchant." The volume was printed 
in 1794 by subscription at Colerain. 

The work is introduced by " A Poem, being a 
Cursory View of Belfast Town," thus commencing : 

" With pleasure I view the Town of Belfast, 
Where many dear friends their lots bave been cast : 
The Buildings are neat, the Town very clean, 
And Trade very brisk are here to be seen ; 
Their Shipping are numerous, as I behold, 
And Merchants thrive here in riches, I'm told." 

Here are some farther specimens from this poem : 

" I've walk'd alone, and vicw'd the Paper Mill, 
Its walk, the eye with pleasure fill. 
I've view'd the Mountains that surround BELFAST, 
And find they are romantic to the last. 

The Church of BELFAST is superb and grand, 
And to the Town an ornament does stand ; 
Their Meeting Houses also is so neat, 
The congregation large, fine and complete." 

The volume contains a dedication to the Rev. 
Mr. Josiah Marshall, rector of Maghera, a preface, 
a table of contents, and "A Prayer previous to the 
Poem." 

The whole book is so intensely ridiculous that 
it is difficult to select. The following are rather 
chosen for their brevity than for any pre-eminent 
absurdity : 

" The Earl of Bristol here some time do dwell, 
Which after-ages sure of him will tell." 






AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



" Down- Hill's so pleasing to the traveller's sight, 
And th' marine prospect would your heart delight." 

* f The rabbit tribe about me run their way, 
Their little all to man becomes a prey. 
The busy creatures trot about and run ; 
Some kill them with a net, some with a gun. 
Alas ! how little do these creatures know 
For what they feed their young, so careful go. 
The little creatures trot about and sweat, 
Yet for the use of man is all they get." 

" He closed his eyes on ev'ry earthly thing. 
Angles surround his bed : to heaven they bring 
The soul, departed from its earthly clay. 
He died, he died ! and calmly pass'd away, 
His children not at home ; his widow mourn, 
And all his friends, in tears, seem quite forlorn." 

Some of the London booksellers ought to re- 
print this work as a curiosity of literature. Some 
of the subscribers took a number of copies, .and 
one might be procured for the purpose. The 
country seats of the largest subscribers are de- 
scribed in the poem. 

The book ends with these lines (added by the 
" devil " of the printing-office, no doubt) : 

" The above rural, pathetic, and very sublime per- 
formance was corrected, in every respect, by the author 
himself." 

This is erased with a pen, and these words written 
below " Printer's error." UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 



"FROM THE SUBLIME TO THE RIDICULOUS," ETC. 
(Vol. v., p. 100.) 

Since my former communication on the use of 
the phrase "From the sublime to the ridiculous 
there is but a step," I have met with some farther 
examples of kindred forms of expression, which 
you may deem worth inserting in " N. & Q." 

Shakspeare has an instance in Romeo and Juliet, 
where he describes " Love " as 

" A madness most discreet,' 
A choaking gall, and a preserving sweet." 

Quarles has it in his Emblems, Book iv. Epi- 
gram 2. : 

" Pilgrim, trudge on; what makes thy soul complain? 
Crowns thy complaint ; the way to rest is pain : 
The road to resolution lies by doubt; 
The next way home's the farthest way about." 

We find it in this couplet in Butler : 

" For discords make the sweetest airs, 
And curses are a kind of prayers." 

Rochester has it in the line 

" An eminent fool must be a man of parts." 
It occurs in Junius's remark 

" Your Majesty may lenrn hereafter how nearly the 
slave and the tyrant are allied." 



and in the following well-known passage in the 
same writer : 

" He was forced to go through every division, re- 
solution, composition, and refinement of political 
chemistry, before he happily arrived at the caput 
mortuum of vitriol in your grace. Flat and insipid in 
your retired state ; but, brought into action, you 
become vitriol again. Such are the extremes of alter- 
nate indolence or fury which have governed your 
whole administration." 

The thought here (be it said in passing) seems 
to have been adopted from these lines in Ro- 
chester : 

" Wit, like tierce claret, when 't begins to pall, 
Neglected lies, and 's of no use at all ; 
But in its full perfection of decay 
Turns vinegar, and comes again in play." 

But the most beautiful application of this senti- 
ment that I have met with, occurs in an essay on 
" The Uses of Adversity," by Mr. Herman Hooker, 
an American writer : 

" A pious lady, who had lost her husband, was for a 
time inconsolable. She could not think, scarcely could 
she speak, of anything but him. Nothing seemed to 
take her attention but the three promising children he 
had left her, singing to her his presence, his look, his 
love. But soon these were all taken ill, and died within 
a few days of each other ; and now the childless 
mother was calmed even by the greatness of the stroke. 
As the lead that goes quickly down to the ocean's 
depth ruffled its surface less than lighter things, so the 
blow which was strongest did not so much disturb her 
calm of mind, but drove her to its proper trust." 

HENRY II. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 



PASSAGE IN THE BURIAL SERVICE. 

(Vol. viii., p. 78.) 
" Tn the midst of life we are in death." 

A writer in the Parish Choir (vol. iii. p. 140.) 
gives the following account of this passage. He 



" The passage in question is found in the Cantarium 
Sti. Galli, or choir-book of the monks of St. Gall in 
Switzerland, published in 1845, with, however, a slight 
deviation from the text, as we are accustomed to it. 

Media Vita of St. Notker. 

' Media Vita in morte sumus : quern qujerimus ad- 
jutorem, nisi Te Domine, qui pro peccatis nostris juste 
irasceris. Ad te clamaverunt patres nostri, speraverunt, 
et liberasti eos. Sancte Deus : ad te clamaverunt patres 
nostri, clamaverunt et non sunt confusi. Sancte Fortis, 
ne despicias nos in tempore senectutis : cum defecerit 
virtus nostra, ne derelinquas nos. Sancte et misericors 
Salvator ainarae morti ne tradas nos.' 

" On consulting the Thesaurus Hymnologicus of 
Daniel (vol. ii. p. 329.) I find the following notice. 



178 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



It is called ' Antiphona pro Pcccatis,' or ' de Morte ;' 
and the text there given corresponds nearly with that 
in our Burial Service. 

" Media vita in inorte sumus : 
Quern quasrimus adjutorem nisi Te Domine, 
Qui pro peccatis nostris juste irasceris : 
Sancte Deus, sancte fortis, sancte et miserieors Sal- 

vator, 
Amarse morti ne tradas nos. 

" Rambach says, ' " In the midst of life " occurs in 
MSS. of the thirteenth century, as an universally com- 
mon dirge and song of supplication on all melancholy 
occasions, and was in this century regularly sung at 
Compline on Saturdays. A German translation was 
known long before the time of Luther, and was en- 
larged by him by the addition of two strophes.' Mar- 
tene describes it as forming part of a religious service 
for New Year's Eve, composed about the year 130O. 

" Hoffmann says that this anthem ' by Notker the 
Stammerer, a monk of St. Gall's (an. 912), was an 
extremely popular battle-song, through the singing of 
which, before and during the fight, friend and foe 
hoped to conquer. It was also, on many occasions, 
used as a kind of incantation song. Therefore the 
Synod of Cologne ordered (an. 1316) that no one 
should sing the Media vita without the leave of his 
bishop.' 

" Daniel adds that it is not, to his knowledge, now 
used by the Roman Church in divine worship ; but 
that the admirable hymn of Luther, ' Mitten wir im 
Leben sind,' still flourishes amongst the Protestants of 
Germany, just as the translation in our Prayer- Book 
is popular with us." 

GEO. A. TREVOR. 

Your correspondent J. G. T. asks whence comes 
the expression in the Burial Service, " In the 
midst of life we are in death ?" There are some 
lines in Petrarch which express precisely the same 
idea in nearly the self-same words ; but as the 
thought is by no means an unlikely one to occur 
to two separate and independent authors, we may 
not go to the length of charging the seeming pla- 

fiarism upon the compilers of our Prayer- Book, 
have mislaid the exact reference*, but subjoin 
the lines themselves : 
" Omnia paulatim consumit longior setas, 

Vivendoque simul morimur, rapimurque manendo : 
Ipse mihi collatus enim, non ille videbor ; 
Frons alia est, moresque alii, nova mentis imago, 
Voxque aliud mutata sonat." 

JOHN BOOKER. 
Prestwich. 



PATRICKS PURGATORY. 



(Vol. vii., p. 552.) 

Dr. Lanigan, in his learned Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of Ireland (vol. i. p. 368.), states that the so- 
called Patrick's Purgatory is situated at Lough 

[* Barbato Sulmonensi, epist. i. ED.] 



Derg (Donegal). It is never mentioned in any 
of the lives of the apostle, nor heard of till the 
eleventh century, the period at which the canons 
regular of St. Augustine first appeared, for it was 
to persons of that order, as the story goes, that 
St. Patrick confided the care of that cavern of 
wonders. Now there were no such persons in the 
island in which it is situated, nor in that of St. 
Davoc [Dabeoc ?] in the same lake, until about the 
beginning of the twelfth century. This purgatory, 
or purging place, of Lough/Derg, was set up against 
another Patrick's purgatory, viz. that of Crough 
Patrick, mentioned by Jocelyn, which, however 
ill-founded the vulgar opinion concerning it, was 
less objectionable. Some writers have said that 
it got the name of Patrick's Purgatory from an 
Abbot Patrick, that lived in the ninth century ; 
but neither were there canons regular of St. Au- 
gustine at that time, nor were such abridged 
modes of atoning to the Almighty for the sins of a 
whole life then thought of. It was demolished in 
the year 1497, by order of the Pope, although it 
has since been in some manner restored. 

The original Patrick's Purgatory then, it would 
appear, was at Croagh Patrick, in Mayo, near 
Westport ; speaking of the pilgrimages made to 
which, the monk Jocelyn (in his Life of St. Patrick, 
written A.D. 1180, cap. 172.) says that 

"Some of those who spent a night there stated that 
they had been subjected to most fearful torments, which 
had the effect, as they supposed, of purging them from 
their sins, for which reason also certain of them gave 
to that place the name of St. Patrick's Purgatory." 

By the authority of the Lords Justices who 
governed Ireland in 1633, previously to the ap- 
| pointment of Wentworth, Lough Derg Purgatory 
was once more suppressed ; but the sort of piety 
then fostei'ed among the members of the Roman 
communion in Ireland could ill afford to resign 
without a struggle what was to them a source of 
so much consolation. High influence was, there- 
fore, called into action to procure the reversal of 
the sentence ; and the Roman Catholic Queen of 
Charles I. was induced to address to the Lord 
Deputy of Ireland a letter in which she requested 
that he would be pleased " to allow, that the 
devotions which the people of that country have 
ever been wont to pay to a St. Patrick's place 
there, may not be abolished." The Lord Deputy 
declined acceding to this request, and said in his 
reply, " I fear, at this time, when some men's zeal 
hath run them already, not only beyond their 
wits, but almost forth of their allegiance too, it 
might furnish them with something to say in pre- 
judice and scandal to his majesty's government, 
which, for the present indeed, is by all means to 
be avoided." And adds, " your Majesty might do 
passing well to let this devotion rest awhile." 
After this second suppression, the devotion has a 
second time been " in some manner restored 5" and 






AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



179 



multitudes throng to the place on the faith of a 
false tradition, so long since exposed and exploded 
by their own authorities. Three hundred and 
fifty years ago, the" Pope, the representative of the 
Bishop of Clogher, and the head of the Franciscans 
in Donegal, combined their efforts to put down 
the scandalous fabrication ; but yet it remains to 
this day an object of cherished religions venera- 
tion an object of confidence and faith, on which 
many a poor soul casts itself to find consolation 
and repose. And those multitudes of pilgrims, 
year after year, assemble there, no influence which 
they look to for guidance forbidding them, to do 
homage to the vain delusion. 

D. W. S. P. will find farther information on 
this subject in The Catholic Lai/man for April 
last : Curry, Dublin. WILLIAM BLOOD. 

Wicklow. 



LORD "WILLIAM RUSSELL. 

(Vol. viii., p. 100.) 

In answer to W. L. M.'s inquiry, " where the 
virtuous and patriotic William Lord Russell was 
buried ? " I beg to state that I possess a pamphlet 
entitled : 

" The whole Tryal and Defence of William Lord 
Russel, who Dyed a Martyr to the Romish Fury in 
the Year 1683, with the Learned Arguments of the 
Council on both sides. Together with his Behaviour 
and Speech upon the Scaffold : His Character and 
Behaviour. London : printed by J. Bradford, at the 
Bible in Fetter Lane." 

There is no date to it ; but from the appearance 
of the paper, type, a rude woodcut of the execu- 
tion, &c., I doubt not that it was printed soon 
after the event, or certainly immediately after the 
Revolution, to meet the popular wishes to have 
information on the subject. It consists of sixteen 
octavo pages, very closely printed. The opening 
paragraph says : 

" Among the many that suffered in a Protestant 
cause [all the Italics used in this communication are 
those of the pamphlet], and indeed whose measure 
seem'd to be the hardest of all, was this honorable per- 
son William Lord Eussel, who was generally lamented 
for his excellent Temper and good Qualities ; being 
allowed to be one of the most sober and judicious 
Noblemen in the Kingdom, which even his Enemies 
could not deny ; and the Merit and Esteem lie bore 
was more cause of Offence against him than any Mat- 
ter that was reap'd up at his Tryal ; all which in effect 
was merely grounded upon Malice (I mean Popish 
Malice) that could not be forgot, from his Lordship's 
being one of those earnest sticklers for Protestant 
Liberty, and even the very foremost that prefer'd the 
Bill of Exclusion," &c. 

Then follows the trial, headed " July ] 3, 1 683, 
the Lord Russel came to his Trrjal at the Old 



Bailey." The indictment is described ; the names 
of the jury are given ; judges and counsel named ; 
the evidence, examinations, and cross-examinations 
(by Lord Russel) very interestingly narrated : 
the Report concluding, after a short address from 
Lord Russel, "Then the Court adjourned till 
four in the afternoon, and brought him in guilty." 
These particulars are followed by " The last 
Speech and Carriage of the Lord Russel upon the 
Scaffold, ffc" As to the executioner's work, all 
other accounts that I have seen state that after 
" two " strokes the head was severed from the 
body. The publication says : 

" The Executioner, missing at his first Stroke, 
though with that he took away his Life, at two more 
severed the Head from the Body .... Mr. Sheriff 
[continues the account] ordered his Friends or Ser- 
vants to take the Body, and dispose of it as they pleased, 
being given them by His Majesty's Favour and Bounty." 

The narrative proceeds : 

" His Body was conveyed to Cheneys in Buckingham- 
shire, where 'twas Buried among his Ancestors. There 
was a great Storm, and many loud Claps of Tfiunder 
the Day of his Martyrdom. An Elegy was made on 
him immediately after his Death ; which seems, by 
what we have of it, to be writ with some Spirit, and a 
great deal of Truth and Good-will; only this Frag- 
ment on't could be retriev'd, which yet may not be 
unwelcome to the Reader : 

' ' TVs done he's Crown'd, and one bright Martyr more, 
Black Rome, is charged on thy loo bulky score. 
All like himself, he mov'd so calm, so free, 
A general whisper question'd Which is he? 
Deck'd like a Lover tho' pale Death's his Bride, 
He came, and saw, and overcame, and dy'd. 
Earth weeps, and all the vainly pitying Crowd : 
But Heaven his Death in Thunder groan 'd aloud.' " 

A " sketch of his character " closes the account. 
Perhaps W. S. M. may deem these particulars not 
wholly uninteresting, but tolerably conclusive, 
considering the time of publication, when the fact 
must have been notorious. 

A HERMIT AT HAMPSTEAD. 



OAKEN TOMBS, ETC. 

(Vol. vii., p. 528.) 

At Banham, Norfolk, in a recess in the wall of 
the north aisle of the church, is an oaken effigy 
of a knight in armour in a recumbent position. 
Blomefield says : 

" It is plain that it was made for Sir Hugh Bardolph, 
Knight, sometime lord of Gray's Manor, in this town, 
who died in 1203; for under his left arm there is a 
large cinquefoil, which is the badge of that family," &c. 

Since he wrote, however (1739), with a view to 
the better preservation of this interesting relic, 
some spirited churchwarden has caused it to be 



180 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



well painted and sanded ; so that it now looks 
almost as well as stone. At the same time, the 
marks by which Blomefield thought to identify it 
are necessarily obliterated. T. B. B. H. 

William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who 
was slain at Bayonne in 1296, his effigy in wood 
is in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbey, 
covered with enamelled brass. There is also in 
Abergavenny Church, amongst the general wreck 
of monumental remains there, a cross-legged effigy 
in wood, represented in chain mail ; which the 
late Sir Samuel Meyrick supposed to have been 
that of William de Valence. It is mentioned in 
Coxe's Monmouthshire, p. 192. 

The effigy of Aymer de Valence referred to in 
Whitaker ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 528.) is not of 
wood ; he evidently refers to that of William de 
Valence. 

In Gloucester Cathedral there is the wooden 
monument of a cross-legged knight attributed to 
Robert Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of the 
Conqueror ; but it is probably of a little later 
period. THOMAS W. KING (York Herald). 

College of Arms. 

In the Cathedral of Gloucester, there is a 
wooden effigy of the unfortunate Robert Duke of 
Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror. It is so 
many years since I saw it, that I do not offer any 
description : but, if my memory be correct, it has 
the legs crossed, and (what is curious) is loose, 
and can be turned about on the tomb. A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

On the south side of the chancel of St. Giles' 
Church, Durham, is a wooden effigy in full armour; 
the head resting on a helmet, and the hands raised 
as in prayer. It is supposed to be the tomb of 
John Heath, who became possessed of the Hospital 
of St. Giles Kepyer, and is known to have been 
buried in the chancel of St. Giles' Church. He 
died in 1590. At the feet of the wooden effigy, 
are the words " HODIE MICHI." The figure was 
restored in colours about ten years ago. 

CUTHBEET BEDE, B. A. 



" COULD WE WITH INK," &C. 

(Vol. viii., p. 127.) 
The bonafide author of the following lines 

" Could we with ink the ocean fill, 

And were the heavens of parchment made, 
Were every stalk on earth a quill, 

And every man a scribe by trade ; 
To write the love of God above, 

Would drain the ocean dry ; 
Nor could the scroll contain the whole, 

Though stretch'd from sky to sky." 

is Rabbi Mayir ben Isaac. The above eight lines 
are almost a literal translation of four Chaldee 



ones, which form part of a beautiful ode on the 
attributes of God, not unmixed with a considerable 
proportion of the fabulous, which is sung in every 
synagogue during the service of the first day of 
the feast of Pentecost. 

May I now be permitted to ask you, or any of 
your numerous correspondents, to inform me who 
was the bonci fide translator of Rabbi Mayir ben 
Isaac's lines ? The English lines are often quoted 
by itinerant advocates of charity societies as hav- 
ing been found inscribed, according to some, on 
the walls of a lunatic asylum, according to others, 
on the walls of a prison, as occasion requires ; but 
extempore quotations on platforms are sometimes 
vague. MOSES MARGOLIOUTH. 

Wybunbury. 

The verses are in Grose's Olio (p. 292.), and 
are there said to be written by nearly an idiot, 
then living (March 16, 1779) at Cirencester. It 
happens^ however, that long before the supposed 
idiot was born, one Geoffrey Chaucer made use of 
the same idea, and the same expressions, although 
applied to a totally different subject, viz. in his 
"Balade warnynge men to beware of deceitful 
women : " 

" In soth to saie though all the yerth so wanne 
Wer parchment smoth, white and scribbabell, 
And the gret see, that^called is th' Ocean, 
Were tourned into ynke blackir than sabcll, 
Eche sticke a pen, eche man a scrivener able, 
Not coud thei writin woman's treacherie, 
Beware, therefore, the blind eteth many a flie." 

Again in the " Remedie of Love," the same lines 
occur with a few slight alterations. 

In vol. x. of the Modern Universal History, 
p. 430. note, I meet with this sentence : 

" He was succeeded by Jochanan ; not in right of 
descent, but of his extraordinary merits ; which the 
Rabbles, according to custom, have raised to so sur- 
prising a height, that, according to them, if the whole 
heavens were paper, all the trees in the world pens, 
and all the men writers, they would not suffice to pen 
down all his lessons." 

In later times, in Miss C. Sinclair's Hill and 
Valley, p. 25., we have : 

" If the lake could be transformed into an ink -stand, 
the mountains into paper ; and if all the birds that 
hover on high were to subscribe their wings for quills, 
it would be still insufficient to write half the praise and 
admiration that are justly due." 

C. I. R. 

These lines are by Dr. Watts. I cannot jusfc 
now distinctly recollect where they are to be found, 
but I think in Milner's Life of Watts. My recol- 
lection of them is that they were impromptu, given 
at an evening part)'. H. S. S. 



AUG. 20. 1853.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



181 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Washing or not washing Collodion Pictures after 
developing, previous to fixing. Since the question 
has been mooted I have tried both ways, and have 
come to the conclusion that there is very little 
difference in the resulting appearance of the pic- 
ture. The hypo, is certainly deteriorated when 
no washing is adopted. I think it is best to pour 
off" the first quantity applied into a cup kept for 
the purpose ; this is discoloured : I then pour on 
more clean hypo., and let it remain till the picture 
clears, and pour this into another cup or bottle for 
future use. What was poured into the first cup 
may, when a sufficient quantity is obtained, be 
filtered, and by adding more of the salt is not use- 
less. I pour on merely enough at first to wash off 
the developing fluid, and pour it off at once. The 
picture is cleared much sooner if the saturated 
hypo, solution is warmed, which I do by plunging 
the bottle into a pewter pint pot filled with hot 
water. . W. M. F. 

Stereoscopic Angles (Vol. viii., pp. 109. 157.). 
I perfectly agree with your correspondent MR. T. 
L. MERRITT (p. 109.) respecting " stereoscopic 
angles," having arrived at the same conclusion 
some months since, while at Hastings, where I 
produced stereoscopic pictures by moving the 
camera only two inches : having in one, seven 
houses and Jive bathing-machines ; and in the 
other, Jive houses and eight bathing-machines. If 
I had separated the two pictures more, I should 
have had all bathing-machines in one and all houses 
in the other ; which convinced me that nothing 
more is required than the width of the two eyes 
for all distances, or, slightly to exaggerate it, to 
three inches, which will produce a pleasing and 
natural effect : for it is quite certain that our eyes 
do not become wider apart as we recede from an 
object, and that the intention is to give a true 
representation of nature as seen by one person. 
Now, most stereoscopic pictures represent nature 
as it never could be seen by any one person, from 
the same point of view ; and I feel confident that 
all photographers, who condescend to make stereo- 
scopic pictures, will arrive at the same conclusion 
before the end of this season. 

If this be correct, all difficulty is removed ; for 
it is always advisable to take two pictures of the 
same prospect, in case one should not be good : 
and two very indifferent negatives will combine 
into one very good positive, when viewed by the 
stereoscope : thus proving the old saying, that two 
negatives make an affirmative. 

HENRY WILKINSON. 

Brompton. 

Sissons Developing Solution. In answer to 
S. B.'s inquiry, I beg to say, that I have not tried 
the above solution as a bath. I have always poured 



it on, believing that it was easier to observe the 
progress of the picture by that mode. If S. B. 
will forward me his address, I shall be happy to 
enter more minutely into my mode of operating 
with it than I can through the medium of "N. 
& Q." I have received other favourable testi- 
mony as to the value of my developing fluid for 
glass positives. 

While I am writing, will you allow me to ask 
your photographic correspondents whether any of 
them have tried Mr. Muller's paper process re- 
ferred to by Mr. Delamotte at p. 145. of his work? 
It was first announced in the Athenceum of Nov. 2, 
1851. When I first commenced photography 
(June, 1 852), I tried the process ; and from what 
I did with it, when I was almost entirely ignorant 
of the manipulation, I am inclined to think it a 
valuable process. The sharpness of the tracery in 
my church windows, in a picture I took by the 
process, is remarkable. Mr. Delamotte truly says : 
"This is a most striking discovery, as it super- 
sedes the necessity of any developing agent after 
the light has acted on the paper." Mr. Miiller 
says, that simple washing in water seems to be 
sufficient to fix the picture. This is also a striking 
discovery, and totally unlike any other very sensi- 
tive process that I am acquainted with ; and more 
striking still, that the process should not have been 
more practised. J. LAWSON SISSON. 

Edingthorpe Rectory. 



to iHtuor 

Robert Drury (Vol. v., p. 533. ; Vol. vii., p. 485. ; 
Vol. viii., p. 104.). I believe the Journal of Ko- 
bert Drury to be a genuine book of travels and 
adventures, and here is my voucher : 

" The best and most authentic account ever given 
of Madagascar was published in 1729, by Robert 
Drury, who being shipwrecked in the Degrave East 
Indiaman, on the south side of that island, in 1702, 
being then a boy, lived there as a slave fifteen years, 
and after his return tj England, among those who 
knew him (and he was known to many, being a porter 
at the East India House), had the character of a down- 
right honest man, without any appearance of fraud or 
imposture." John Duncombe, M. A., one of the six 
preachers in Christ Church, Canterbury, 1773. 

Mr. Duncombe quotes several statements from 
Drury which coincide with those of the lleverend 
William Hirst, the astronomer, who touched at 
Madagascar, on his voyage to India, in 1759. Ten 
years afterwards Mr. Hirst perished in the Aurora, 
and with him the author of The Shipicrech. 

BOLTON CORNET. 

Real Signatures versus Pseudo-Names (Vol. vi., 
p. 310. ; Vol. viii., p. 94.). There is no doubt 
that the straightforwardness of open and undis- 
guised communications to your excellent miscel- 



182 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 199. 



lany is desirable ; but a few words may be said on 
behalf of your anonymous contributors. If the 
rule were established that every correspondent 
should add his name to his communication, many 
of your friends might, from motives of delicacy, 
decline asking a question or hazarding a reply. 
By adopting a nom-de-guerre, men eminent in 
their various pursuits can quietly and unosten- 
tatiously ask a question, or contribute information. 
If the latter be done with reference to standard 
works of authority, or to MSS. preserved in our 
public depositories, the disclosure of the name of 
the contributor adds nothing to the matter con- 
tributed, and he may rejoice that he has been the 
means of promoting the objects of the " N. & Q." 
without the " blushing to find it fame." It should, 
however, be a sine qua non that all original com- 
munications, and those of matters of fact, should 
be authenticated by a real signature, when no re- 
ference can be given to authorities not accessible 
to the public ; and it is to be regretted that such 
authentication has not, in such cases, been ge- 
nerally afforded. 

THOS. WM. KING (York Herald). 

Lines on the Institution of the Garter (Vol. viii., 
p. 53.).- 

" Pier stocking's security fell from her knee, 
Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round." 

May I put a Query on the idea suggested by 
these lines that the accidental dropping of her 
garter implied an imputation on the fair fame of 
the Countess of Salisbury. Why should this be ? 
That it did imply an imputation, I judge as well 
from the vindication of the lady by King Edward, 
as also from the proverbial expression used in 
Scotland, and to be found in Scott's Works, of 
"casting a leggin girth," as synonymous with a 
female " faux pas." I have a conjecture, but 
should not like to venture it, without inquiring 
the general impression as to the origin of this 
notion. A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

"Short red, God red" Sfc. (Vol. vii., p. 500.). 
Sir Walter Scott has committed an oversight 
when, in Tales of a Grandfather, vol. i. p. 85., he 
mentions a murderer of the Bishop of Caithness to 
have made use of the expression, " Schort red, 
God red, slea ye the bischop." Adam, Bishop of 
Caithness, was burnt by the mob near Thurso, in 
1222, for oppression in the exaction of tithes ; 
John, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, was killed in 
retaliation by the bishop's party in 1231. 

The language spoken at that time on the sea- 
coast of Caithness must have been Norse. Suther- 
land would appear to have been wrested from the 
Orkney-Norwegians before that period, and the 
Celtic tongue and race gaining on the Norse; but 
on the sea- coast of Caithness I should apprehend 



the Norse continued to be the spoken tongue till 
a later period, when it was superseded by the 
Scottish. The Norwegians in the end of the 
ninth century colonised Orkney, and expelled or 
destroyed the former inhabitants. The Western 
Isles were also subjugated by them at that time, 
and probably Caithness, or at all events a little 
later. It would be desirable to know the race and 
tongue previously existing in Caithness, and if 
these were lost in the Norwegians and Norse, and 
an earlier Christianity in Scandinavian Paganism. 
This may, however, lead to the unfathornably dark 
subject of the Picts. Is it known when Norse 
ceased to be spoken in Caithness ? The story of 
the burning of the Bishop of Caithness forms the 
conclusion of the Orkneyinga Saga; and vide 
Torfteus, Orcades, p. 154.,