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8OUN: 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



. , . 

A 



iftrtfum o MmCmnmunfcatfon 



FOE 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



* When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



VOLUME NINTH. 
JANUAEY JUNE, 1854, 



LONDON: 

GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET. 
1854. 



AC 



I 

, \ 



LIBRARY 

728041S 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION' 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

M When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



YOL. IX. No. 219.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 7. 1854. 



f Price Fourpence. 
i Stamped Edition, 



CONTENTS. 

-Our Ninth Volume - 
NOTES : 



Page 



A Strawberry-Hill Gem, by Bolton 

Corney - - - - - 3 

The "Ancren Riwle," by Sir F. Madden 5 

Order for the Suppression of Vagrancy, ' 

A. D. 1650- .M, by John Bruce - - 6 

Letters of Eminent Literary Men, by 

Sir Henry Ellis- - - 7 

Burial-place of Archbishop Leighton, 

by Albert Way .... 8 

MIXOR NOTKS: Grammars. &c. fr 
Public Schools "To captivate" 
Bohn's Edition of Matthew of West- 
minster French Season Rhymes 
and Weather Rhymes Curious Epi- 
taph in lilliugham Church, Essex 8 



Domestic Letters of Edmund Burke - 9 

MINOR QirKutES ; Farrant's Anthem 

Ascension Day Custom Saw- 
bridge and Knight's Numismatic 
Collections "The spire whose silent 

/!Uiger points to heaven " Lord 
Fairfax Tailless Cats Saltcellar 

Arms and Motto granted to Col. 
"William Carlos Naval Atrocities 

'Turtehydes Foreign Orders: Queen 
of Bohemia Pickard Family Irish 
Chieftains General Braddock - 9 

MINOR QUKRIFS WITH ANSWERS : 
Lawless Court, Bochford, Essex 
Mot>o on old Damask Explanation 
of the Word " Miser " " Acis and 
Galatea " Birm-bank General 
Thomas Gage - - - - 11 

REPLIES : 

Rapping no Novelty, by Key. Dr. Mait- 

land ..... 12 
Occasional Forms of Prayer, by John 

Macray - - - - - 13 
Oltic and Latin Languages - - 14 
-Geometrical Curiosity, by Professor De 

Morsnn - - - - - 14 

The Blftck-gUftTd, hy P. Cunningham - 15 
The Calves' Head Club, by Edward 

Peacock - ... 15 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : _ 
The Cnlotype Process Hockin's 
Short Sketch- Photographic Society 'a 
Exhibition - - , - - 16 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: "Firm 
was their faith," .tc. Vellum-clean- 
ing Wooden Tombs Solar Eclipse 
in the Year 1203 Lines on Woman 

Satin " Quid fades," &c. So- 
tatles _ The Third Part of " Chris- 
tabel" Attainment of Majority 
Lord Halifax and Mrs. C. Barton 
The fifth Lord Byron Burton Fa- 
mily Provost Hodgson's Transla- 
tion of the Atys of Catullus, &c. - 17 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - -21 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted , - 21 
A otiees to Correspondents - - 22 



VOL. IX. No. 219. 



rTHE SACRED GARLAND, or 

L THE CHRISTIAN'S DAILY DE- 
LIGHT. 

" Pluck a Flower." 

A New Edition of the above excellent and 

popular work will shortly ^e published in large 

type, crown 8vo., and may be obtained of any 

respectable bookseller in town or country. 

MILNER & SOWERBY, Halifax. 

QUEEN WOOD COLLEGE, 
NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, HANTS. 
Principal GEORGE EDMONDSON. 
Mathematics and. Natural Philosophy. Dr. 
Thos. A. Hirst, of the Universities of Marburg 
and Berlin. 

Chemistr;/ Dr. H. Debus, late Assistant in 
the Laboratory of Professor Bunsen, and Che- 
mical Lecturer in the University of Marburg. 

Classics and History. Mr. John S. Mum- 
mery, L. C. P. 

Modern Ltinr/uafies and Foreign Literature 
Mr. John Haas, from M. de Fellenberg's In- 
stitution, Hofwyl, Switzerland. 

Geodesy Mr. Richard P. Wright. 

Painting and Drawing. Mi. Richard P. 
Wright. 

English, and Junior Mathematics. Fre- 
derick Iliff, M. A., late Scholar of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and M.C.P. 
Ditto. Mr. William Singleton. 
J/ttttc.-Mr. William Cornwall. 

TERMS. 

For Boys under 12 years of age 407. per ann. 
from 12 to 16 - - 50 
above 16 - - - 60 

For further information see Prospectus, to 
be had of the Principal. 

The First Session of 1854 commences on the 
26th of January. 

PRINCE OF WALES'S 
SKETCH-BOX. Containing Colours, 
Pencils, &c,, with printed directions, as now 
used by the Royal Family. Price 5s. 
MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 
56 Long Acre, London ; and at her Majesty's 
Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico. 



CHRISTMAS PRESENTS. _ EXPERI- 
MENTAL CHEMISTRY. 

\ MUSEMENT FOR LONG 

XlL EVENINGS, bymeansofSTATHAM'S 
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and upward*. Book of Experiments, fid. " Il- 
lustrated Descriptive Catalogue" forwarded 
Free for Stamp. 

WILLIAM E. STATITAM, Operative Che- 
mist, 29 c. Rothcrfield Street, Islington, 
London, and of Chemists and Opticians 
everywhere. 



DO YOU BRUISE YOUR 
OATS YET? New Oat Crushers, 
27. 15*. &7., ditto 47. 5s. f>d. ; Chaff Cutters, 
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Flour Mills, 47. 10s. erf. 

MARY WEDLAKE & CO., 118. Fenchurch 
Street. 



QURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 

PRESIDENT __ His Grace the Duke of Norfolk. 
Gentlemen desiring to join the Society, are 
informed that Copies of the Rules, List of 
Members (upwards of 250), and Forms of Appli- 
cation for Admission, may be obtained from 
the Honorary Secretary. 

Annual Subscription - - - 10 

Composition for Life - - - 5 

On and after January 1, 1854, an entrance fee 

of 10s. will be required* from which those Mem- 

bers who join the Society during the present 

month will be exempt. 

GEORGE BISH WEBB, 

Honorary Secretary. 
46. Addison Road North, Netting Hill. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITU- 

TION. An EXHIBITION of PIC- 
TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Furope, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent 
Process, One Guinea ; Three extra Copies for 

105. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION. 
163. NEW BOND STREET. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

JL The Exhibition of Photographs, Da- 
guerreotypes, &c., by the best British and Fo- 
reign Photographers, is now open daily at the 
Rooms of the Society of British Artists, Suffolk 
Street, Pall Mall. Members are admitted with- 
out payment. Admission, One Shilling. Ca- 
talogues Sixpence. 

ROGER FENTON, Hon. Sec- 
4th Jan. 1854. 

PHYSIOGNOMY OF IN. 

.JL SANITY A Series of Photographic 
Portraits from the Life, 

By DR. HUGH W. DIAMOND, F.S. A. f 
with brief Medical Notes. To be published in 
occasional Parts, small quarto. 

S. HIGIILEY, 32. Fleet Street. 

Will be published on the loth instant, price 4rf. 
No. I. of the 

T IVERPOOL PHOTOGRA- 

1 J PIIIC JOURNAL. Conducted by the 
Members of the Liverpool Photographic So- 
ciety. 



Published by HENRY GREENWOOD, 16; 

Canning Place, Liverpool (by whom Adver- 
tisements will be received) ; and may be had 
through all Booksellers. 

TTEAL & SON'S EIDER DOWN 

1JL QUILT is the warmest, the lightest, 
and the most elegant Covering for the Bed, 
the Couch, or the Carriage; and for Invalids, 
its comfort cannot be too highly appreciated. 
It is made in Three Varieties, of which a large 
Assortment can be seen at their Establish- 
ment. List of Prices of the above, together 
with the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent Free by 
Post. 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manu> 
faeturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 219. 



NEW WORKS. 



THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, 

No. CCL, JANUARY, 1854. 8vo. , price 6s. 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



3 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1854. 
OUR NINTH VOLUME. 

THE commencement of a New Year, and of our Ninth 
Volume, imposes upon Us the pleasant duty of wishing 
many happy returns of the season to all our Friends, 
Correspondents, and Readers. 

Those of the latter class, who have so earnestly im- 
pressed upon Us the propriety and advisableness of 
placing our Advertisements on the outside leaves of 
each Number, will see that their wishes have at length 
been complied with. We trust they will be pleased 
with this change, and receive it as a proof of our readi- 
ness to attend to every reasonable suggestion for the 
improvement of " NOTES AND QUERIES." We can 
assure them that it is no less our desire to do so than 
our interest. 



A STRAWBERRY-HILL GEM. 

" Pour qui se donne la peine de chercher, il y a tou- 
jours quelque trouvaille a fair e, meme dans ce qui a ete le 
plus visite." Henry PATIN. 

I take up a work of European celebrity, and 
reflect awhile on its bibliographic peculiarities 
which may almost pass for romance. 

It is a Scottish work with regard to the family 
connexion of its author : it is an Irish work 
with regard to the place of his nativity. It is an 
English work as to the scenes which it represents ; 
a French work as to the language in which it was 
written ; a Dutch work as to the country in 
which it came to light. It was formerly printed 
anonymously : it has since borne the name of its 
author. It was formerly printed for public sale : 
it has been twice printed for private circulation. 
It was formerly classed as fiction : it is now be- 
lieved to be history. 

But we have too many enigmas in the annals 
of literature, and I must not add to the number. 
The work to which I allude is the Memoires du 
comte de Grammont par le comte Antoine Hamilton. 

The various indications of a projected re-im- 
pression of the work remind me of my portefeuiUe 
Hamiltonien, and impose on me the task of a 
partial transcription of its contents. 

Of the numerous editions of the Memoires de 
Grammont as recorded by Brunet, Renouard, or 
Querard, or left unrecorded by those celebrated 
bibliographers, I shall describe only four ; which 
I commend to the critical examination of future 
editors : 

1. " Memoires de la me du comte de Grammont; con- 
tenant particulierement Vhistoire amoureuse de la cour 
d'Angleterre, sous le regne de Charles II. A Cologne, 
chez Pierre Marteau, 1713. 12, pp. 4 + 428. 



" Avis DU LIBRAIRE. II seroit inutile de recorn- 
mander ici la lecture des memoires qui composent ce 
volume : le titre seul de Memoires du comte de Gram- 
mont reveillera sans doute la cutiosite du public pour 
un homme qui lui est deja si connu d'ailleurs, tant par 
la reputation qu'il a scu se faire, que par les differens 
portraits qu'en ont donnez Mrs. de Bussi et de St. 
Evremont, dans leurs ouvrages; et Ton ne doute nul- 
lement qu'il ne re^oive, avec beaucoup de plaisir, un 
livre, dans lequel on lui raconte ses avantures, sur ce 
qu'il en a bien voulu raconter lui-meme a celui qui a 
pris la peine de dresser ces memoires. 

" Outre les avantures du comte de Grammont, ils con- 
tiennent particulie[re]ment 1'histoire amoureuse de la 
cour d'Angleterre, sous le regne de Charles II; et, 
comme on y decouvre quantite de choses, qui ont ete 
tenues cachees jusqu'a present, et qui font voir jusqu'a 
quel exces on a porte le dereglement dans cette cour, 
ce n'est pas le morceau le moins interessant de ces 
memoires. 

" On les donne ici sur une copie manuscrite, qu'on en 
a recue de Paris : et on les a fait imprimer avec le plus 
d'exactitude qu'il a ete possible." 

The above is the first edition. The imprint is 
fictitious. It was much used by the Elzevirs, and 
by other Dutch printers. The second edition, 
with the same imprint, is dated in 1714 (Cat. de 
Guyon de Sardiere, No. 939.). The third edition 
was printed at Rotterdam in 1716. The avis is 
omitted in that edition, and in all the later im- 
pressions which I have seen. Its importance as a 
history of the publication induces me to revive it. 
There is also an edition printed at Amsterdam in 
1717 (Cat. de L-amy, No. 3918.); and another at 
La Haye in 1731 (Cat. de Rothelin, No. 2534*). 
Brunet omits the edition of 1713. Renouard and 
Querard notice it too briefly. 

2. " Memoires du comte de Grammont, par monsieur le 
comte Antoine Hamilton. Nouvelle edition, augmentee (Cun 
discours preliminalre mele de prose et de vers,par le meme 
auteur, et d'un avertissement contenant quelques anecdotes 
de la vie du comte Hamilton. A Paris, chez la veuve 
Pissot, Quay de Conti, a la croix d'or. 1746." 12. pp., 
24 + 408. 

" AVERTISSEMENT. Le public a fait un accueil si 
favorable a ces Memoires, que nous avons cru devoir en 
procurer une nouvelle edition. Outre les avantures du 
comte de Grammont, tres-piquantes par elles-memes, 
ils contiennent 1'histoire amoureuse d'Angleterre sous 
le regne de Charles II. Ils sont d'ailleurs ecrits d'une 
maniere si vive et si ingenieuse, qu'ils ne laisseroient 
pas de plaire infiniment, quand la matiere en seroit 
moins interessante. 

*' Le heros de ces Memoires a trouve* dans le comte- 
Hamilton un historien digne de lui. Car on n'ignore 
plus qu'ils sont partis de la meme main a qui Ton doit 
encore d'autres ouvrages frappes au meme coin. 

" Nous avons enrichi cette edition d'un discours mele 
de prose et de vers, ou 1'on exagere la difficulte qu'il y 
a de bien representer le comte de Grammont. On re- 
connoitra facilement que ce discours est du meme au- 
teur que les Memoires, et qu'il devoit naturellement en 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



orner le frontispice. Au reste il ne nous appartient 
point d'en apprecierle merite. Nous dirons seulement 
que des personnes d'ungout sur et delicat le comparent 
au Voyage de Chapelle, et qu'ils y trouvent les memes 
graces, le meme naturel et la meme legerete. 

" II ne nous reste plus qu'a dire un mot de M. Hamil- 
ton lui-meme, auteur de ces memoires, et du discours 
qui les precede. 

" Antoine Hamilton dont nous parlons, e"toit de 1'an- 
cienne et illustre maison de ce nom en Ecosse. II 
naquit en Irlande. II cut pour pere le chevaliei 
Georges Hamilton, petit-fils du due d'Hamilton, qu 
fut aussi due de Chatelleraud en France. 

" Sa mere etoit madame Marie Butler, sceur du due 
d'Ormond, viceroi d'Irlande, et grand maitre de la 
maison du roi Charles. 

" Dans les revolutions qui arriverent du terns de 
Cromwel, ils suivirent le roi et le due d'Yorck son 
frere qui passerent en France. Ils y amenerent leur 
famille. Antoine ne faisoit a peine que de naitre. 

" Lorsque le roi fut retabli sur son trone, il ramena 
en Angleterre les jeux et la magnificence. On voit 
dans les memoires de Grammont combien cette cotir 
etoit brillante ; la curiosite" y attira le comle de Gram- 
mont. II y vit mademoiselle d'Hamilton, il ne tarda 
pas a sentir le pouvoir de ses charmes, il 1'epousa 
enfin ; et c'est la tendresse qu 1 Antoine avoit pour sa 
soeur, qui 1'engagea a faire plusieurs voyages en France, 
ou il etoit eleve, et ou il a passe une partie de sa vie. 

" M. Antoine Hamilton etant catholique, il ne put 
obtenir d'emploi en Angleterre ; et rien ne fut capable 
d'ebranler ni sa religion, ni la fidelite qu'il devoit a 
son roi. 

" Le roi Jaques etant monte sur le trone, il lui donna 
un regiment d'infanterie en Irlande et le gouvernement 
de Limeric. Mais ce prince, ayant ete oblige de quit- 
ter ses etats le comte Hamilton repassa avec la famille 
royale en France. C'est -la et pendant le long sejour 
qu'il y a fait, qu'il a compose les divers ouvrages qui 
lui ont acquis tant de reputation. II mourut a S. 
Germain le 21 Avril 1720. dans de grands sentimens 
de piete, et apres avoir reu les derniers sacremens. 
II etoit age alors d'environ 74 ans. II a merite les 
regrets de tous ceux qui avoient le bonheur de le con- 
noitre. Ne serieux, il avoit dans 1'esprit tous les 
agremens imaginables ; mais ce qui est plus digne de 
louanges, a ces agremens, qui sont frivoles sans la 
vertu, il joignoit toutes les qualitez du cceur." 

If the above avertissement first appeared in 1746, 
which I have much reason to conclude, this is 
certainly a very important edition. The biogra- 
phical portion of the advertisement is the found- 
ation of the later memoirs of Hamilton. In the 
Moreri of 1759, we have it almost verbatim, but 
taken from the (Euvres du comte Antoine Hamilton, 
1749. Neither Brunet, nor Renouard, nor Que- 
rard notice the edition of 1746. The copy which 
I have examined has the book-plate G. III. R. 

3. ' Memoires du comte de Grammont, par le C. An- 
toine. Hamilton. 1760." [De 1'imprimerie de Didot, 
rue Pavee, 1760.] J2. I. partie, pp. 36 + 316. II. 
partie, pp. 4 + 340. 



This edition has the same avertissement as that 
of 1746. The imprint is M.DCC.LX. The type re- 
sembles our small pica, and the paper has the 
water-mark Auvergne 1749. At the end of the 
second part appears, De Timprimerie de Didot, 
rue Pavee, 1760. This must be M. Francois 
Didot of Paris. I find the same colophon in the 
Bibliographic instructive, 1763-8. v. 631. This 
very neat edition has also escaped the aforesaid 
bibliographic trio ! 

4. " Memoires du comte de Grammont, par monsieur 
le comte Antoine Hamilton. Nouvelle edition, augmentee 
de notes et d'edaircissemens necessaires, par M. Horace 
Walpole. Imprimee a Strawberry- Hill. 1772." 4. 
pp. 24+294. 8 portraits. 

[Dedication.] "A madame 

" L'editeur vous consacre cette edition, comme un 
monument de son amitie, de son admiration, et de son 
respect ; a vous, dont les graces, 1'esprit, et le gout re- 
tracent au siecle present le siecle de Louis quatorze et 
les agremens de 1'auteur de ces memoires." 

Such are the inscriptions on the Strawberry- 
Hill gem. Much has been said of its brilliancy 
and so, for the sake of novelty, I shall rather dwell 
on its flaws. 

The volume was printed at the private press of 
M. Horace Walpole at Strawberry- Hill, and the 
impression was (.limited to one hundred copies, of 
which thirty were sent to Paris. So much for its 
attractions now for its flaws. In reprinting the 
dedication to madame du Deffand, I had to insert 
eight accents to make decent French of it ! The 
avis is a mere medley of fragments : I could not 
ask a compositor to set it up! The avertissement 
is copied, without a word of intimation to that 
effect, from the edition of 1746. The notes to 
the epitre are also copied from that edition, except 
L'abbe de Chanlieu ; and two of the notes to the 
memoirs are from the same source. The other 
notes, in the opinion of sir William Musgrave, 
are in part taken from an erroneous printed Key. 
Where are the eclaircissements ? I find none ex- 
cept a list of proper names of which about one- 
third part is omitted ! 

In quoting Brunet, T have used the fourth edi- 
tion of the Manuel du libraire, 1842-4; in quoting 
Renouard, I refer to the avis prefixed to the 
(Euvres du comte Antoine Hamilton, 1812 ; in, 
quoting Querard, to La France litteraire, 1827-39. 
The other references are to sale catalogues. The 
titles of the books described, and the extracts, are 
given literatim, and, except as above noted, with 
the same accentuation and punctuation. 

To revert to the question of a new edition : I 
should prefer the French text, for various reasons, 
o any English translation that could be made. 
That of Abel Boyer is wretched burlesque ! 

The chief requirements of a French edition 

ould be, a collation of the editions of 1713 and 
1746 the rectification of the names of persons 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



and places a revision of the punctuation and 
a strict conformity, as to general orthography and 
accentuation, with the Dictionnaire de VAcademie 
franqaise, as edited in 1835. The substance of 
the avis of 1713 might be stated in a preface; and 
the avertissement of 1746, a clever composition, 
would serve as an introduction and memoir of the 
author. Those who doubt its value may consult 
the Grand dictionnaire historique, and the Bio- 
graphie universclle. As one hundred and sixty 
persons are noticed in the work, brevity of anno- 
tation is very desirable. It would require much 
research. The manuscript notes of sir William 
Musgrave would, however, be very serviceable 
more so, I conceive, than the printed notes of M. 
Horace Walpole. 

As the indications of a projected re-impression 
may be fallacious, I shall conclude with a word of 
advice to inexperienced collectors. Avoid tliejolie 
edition printed at Paris by F. A. Didot, par ordre 
de monseigneur le comte d'Atlois, in 1781. It is 
the very worst specimen of editorship. Avoid also 
the London edition of 1792. The preface is a 
piratical pasticcio ; the verbose notes are from 
the most accessible books ; the portraits, very un- 
equal in point of execution, I believe to be chiefly 
copies of prints not d'apres des tableaux origi- 
naux. The most desirable editions are, 1. The 
edition of 1760 ; 2. That of 1772, as a curiosity; 
3. That edited by M. Renouard, Paris, 1812, 18. 
2 yols.; 4. That edited by M. Renouard in 1812, 8. 
with eight portraits. The latter edition forms part 
of the GEuvres du comte Antoine Hamilton in 3 vols. 
It seldom occurs for sale. BOLTON COKNEY. 



THE "ANCREN RIWLE. 

The publication of this valuable semi-Saxon or 
Early English treatise on the duties of monastic 
life, recently put forth by the Camden Society, 
under the editorship of the Rev. James Morton, 
is extremely acceptable, and both the Society and 
the editor deserve the cordial thanks of all who 
are interested in the history of our language. As 
one much interested in the subject, and who many 
years since entertained the design now so ably 
executed by Mr. Morton, I may perhaps be al- 
lowed to offer a few remarks on the work itself, 
and on the manuscripts which contain it. Mr. 
Morton is unquestionably right in his statement 
that the Latin MS. in Magdalen College, Oxford, 
No. 67., is only an abridged translation of the 
original vernacular text. Twenty-three years ago 
I had access to the same MS. by permission of the 
Rev. Dr. Routh, the President of Magdalen Col- 
lege, and after reading and making extracts from 
it*, I came to the same conclusion as Mr. Morton. 

* At p. viii. of Mr. Morton's preface, for "yerze" 
(eye), my extracts read "yze." 



It hardly admits, I think, of a doubt ; for even 
without the internal evidence furnished by the 
Latin copy, the age of the manuscripts containing 
the Early English text at once set aside the sup- 
position that Simon of Ghent (Bishop of Salisbury 
from 1297 to 1315) was the original author of the 
work. The copy in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, I have not seen, but of the three copies in 
the British Museum I feel confident that the one 
marked Cleopatra C. vi. was actually written be- 
fore Bishop Simon of Ghent had emerged from the 
nursery. This copy is not only the oldest, but 
the most curious, from the corrections and alter- 
ations made in it by a somewhat later hand, the 
chief of which are noticed in the printed edition. 
The collation, however, of this MS. might have 
been, with advantage, made more minutely, for at 
present many readings are passed over. Thus, at 
p. 8., for unweote the second hand has congoun; 
at p. 62., for herigen it has preisen; at p. 90., for 
on cheajfte, it reads o mufre, &c. The original hand 
has also some remarkable variations, which would 
cause a suspicion that this was the first draft of 
the author's work. Thus, at p. 12., for scandle, 
the first hand has schonde ; at p. 62., for baldeliche 
it reads bradliche ; at p. 88., for nout for^ it has 
anonden, and the second hand aneust ; at p. 90., for 
sunderliche it reads sunderlepes, &c. All these, 
and many other curious variations, are not noticed 
in the printed edition. On the fly -leaf of this 
MS. is written, in a hand of the time of Edward L, 
as follows : " Datum abbatie et conventui de Leghe 
per Dame M. de Clare" The lady here referred 
to was doubtless Maud de Clare, second wife of 
Richard de Clare, Earl of Hereford and Glou- 
cester, who, at the beginning of the reign of Ed- 
ward I., is known to have changed the Augus- 
tinian Canons of Leghe, in Devonshire, into an 
abbess and nuns of the same order ; and it was 
probably at the same period she bestowed this 
volume on them. The conjecture of Mr. Morton, 
that Bishop Poore, who died in 1237, might have 
been the original author of the Ancren Riivle^ is 
by no means improbable, and deserves farther 
inquiry. The error as to Simon of Ghent is due, 
in the first place, not to Dr. Smith, but to Richard 
James (Sir Robert Cotton's librarian), who wrote 
on the fly-leaves of all the MSS. in the Cottonian 
Library a note of their respective contents, and 
who is implicitly followed by Smith. Wanley is 
more blamable, and does not here evince his usual 
critical accuracy, but (as remarked by Mr. 
Morton) he could only have looked at a few 
pages of the work. The real fact seems to be 
that Simon of Ghent made the abridged Latin 
version of the seven books of the Riivle now pre- 
served in Magdalen College, and this supposition 
may well enough be reconciled with the words of 
Leland, who says of him, 

"Edidit inter cetera, libros scptem de Vita Solitaria, 



6 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219., 



ad Virgines Tarentinas, Duriae cultrices." Comment., 
p. 316. 

A second copy of the Latin version was formerly 
in the Cottonian collection (Vitellius E. vii.), but 
no fragment of it has hitherto been recovered from 
the mass of burnt crusts and leaves left after the fire 
of 1731. I am happy, however, to add, that within 
the last few months, the manuscript marked Vitel- 
lius F. vii., containing a French translation of the 
Riwle, made in the fourteenth century (very 
closely agreeing with the vernacular text), has 
been entirely restored, except that the top margins 
of the leaves have been burnt at each end of the 
volume. This damage has, unfortunately, carried 
away the original heading of the treatise, and the 
title given us by Smith is copied partly from 
James's note. This copy of the French version 
appears to be unique, and is the more interesting 
from its having a note at the end (now half ob- 
literated by the fire), stating that it belonged to 
Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, whose 
motto is also added, " Plesance. M [mil], en vn" 
The personage in question was Eleanor, daughter 
of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and 
wife of Thomas of Woodstock, who ended her 
days as a nun in the convent at Barking in 1399. 
Is any other instance known of the use of this 
motto ? Before I conclude these brief remarks, I 
may mention a fifth copy of the Ancren Riwle, 
which has escaped the notice of Mr. Morton. It 
is buried in the enormous folio manuscript of old 
English poetry and prose called the Vernon MS., 
in the Bodleian Library, written in the reign of 
Richard II., and occurs at pp. 37l b> 392. In the 
table of contents prefixed to this volume it is 
entitled "The Roule of Reclous;" and although 
the phraseology is somewhat modernised, it agrees 
better with the MS. Cleopatra C. vi. than with 
Nero A. xiv., from which Mr. Morton's edition is 
printed. This copy is not complete, some leaves 
having been cut out in the sixth book, and the 
scribe leaves off at p. 420. of the printed edition. 

It is very much to be wished that Mr. Morton 
would undertake the task of editing another vo- 
lume of legends, homilies, and poems, of the same 
age as the Ancren Riwle, still existing in various 
manuscripts. One of the homilies, entitled " Sawles 
Warde," in the Bodley MS, 34., Cott. MS. Titus 
D. xviii., and Old Royal MS. 17A. xxvii., is very 
curious, and well deserves to be printed. 

F. MADDEN. 

British Museum. 



ORDER FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF VAGRANCY, 
A. D. 1650-51. 

At a time when the question of " What is to be 
done with our vagrant children ? " is occupying 
the attention of all men of philanthropic minds, H 
may be worth while to give place in your pages to 



the following order addressed by the Lord Mayor 
of London to his aldermen in 1650-51, which ap- 
plies, amongst other things, to that very subject. 
It will be seen that some of the artifices of beg- 
gary in that day were very similar to those with 
which we are now but too familiar. The difference 
of treatment between vagrant children over and 
under nine years of age, is worthy of observation. 

" By THE MAYOR. 

" Forasmuch as of late the constables of this city 
have neglected to put in execution the severall whol- 
some laws for punishing of vagrants, and passing them. 
to the places of their last abode, whereby great scandall 
and dishonour is brought upon the government of this 
city ; These are therefore to will and require you, or 
your deputy, forthwith to call before you the several 
constables within your ward, and strictly to charge 
them to put in execution the said laws, or to expect 
the penalty of forty shillings to be levyed upon their 
estates, for every vagrant that shal be found begging 
in their several precincts. And to the end the said 
constables may not pretend ignorance, what to do with 
the several persons which they shal find offending the 
said laws, these are further to require them, that al 
aged or impotent persons who are not fit to work, be 
passed from constable to constable to the parish where 
they dwel ; and that the constable in whose ward they 
are found begging, shal give a passe under his hand, 
expressing the place where he or she were taken, and 
the place whither they are to be passed. And for 
children under five years of age, who have no dwelling, or 
cannot give an account of their parents, the parish where 
they are found are to provide for them ; and for those 
which shall bee found lying under stalls, having no habit- 
ation or parents (from five to nine years old"), are to be 
sent to the Wardrobe House*, to be provided for by the 
corporation for the poore ; and all above nine years of age 
are to be sent to Bridewel. And for men or women who 
are able to work and goe begging with young children, 
such persons for the first time to be passed to the 
place of their abode as aforesaid ; and being taken 
againe, they are to be carryed to Bridewel, to be cor- 
rected according to the discretion of the governours. 
And for those persons that shal be found to hire children, 
or go begging with children not sucking, those children are 
to be sent to the several parisltes wher they dwel, and the 
persons so hiring them to Bridewel, to be corrected and 
passed away, or kept at work there, according to the go- 
vernour's discretion. And for al other vagrants and 
beggars under any pretence whatsoever, to be forthwith 
sent down to Bridewel to be imployed and corrected, 
according to the statute laws of this commonwealth, 
except before excepted ; and the president and go- 
vernours of Bridewel are hereby desired to meet twice 
every week to see to the execution of this Precept. 
And the steward of the workehouse called the Wardrobe, is 



* I suppose this to have been the ancient building 
known by the name of The Royal, or The Tower 
Royal, used for a time as the Queen's Wardrobe. It 
will be seen that it was occupied in 1650 as a work- 
house. 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



authorised to receive into that house such children as are 
of the age between five and nine, as is before specified and 
limited and the said steward is from time to time to 
acquaint the corporation for the poor, wh.at persons are 
brought in, to the end they may bee provided for. 
Dated this four and tvventyeth day of January, 1650. 

SAULEU." 

JOHN BRUCE. 



LETTERS OF EMINENT LITERARY MEN. 



I send you, as a New Year's Gift for your " N. & Q.," 
transcripts of half-a-dozen Letters of Eminent Literary 
Men, specimens of whose correspondence it will do 
your work no discredit to preserve, 

Yours faithfully, 

HENRY ELLIS. 
British Museum, Dec. 2G, 1853. 



I. 



Dean Swift to 



[MS. Addit, Brit. Mus., 12,113. Orig,'] 

Belcamp, Mar. 14th. 
Sir, 

Riding out this morning to dine here with 
Mr. Grattan, I saw at his house the poor lame boy 
that gives you this : he was a servant to a plow- 
man near Lusk, and while he was following the 
plow, a dog bit him in the leg, about eleven weeks 
ago. One Mrs. Price endeavored six weeks to 
cure him, but could not, and his Master would 
maintain him no longer. Mr. Grattan and I are 
of opinion that he may be a proper object to be 
received into Dr. Stephen's Hospital. The boy 
tells his story naturally, and Mr. Grattan and I 
took pity of him. If you find him curable, and it 
be not against the rules of the Hospitall, I hope 
you will receive him. 

I am, Sir, 

Your most humble Servt. 

JONATH. SWIFT. 
II. 

The Rev. Thomas Baker to Mr. Humphry Wanley. 
[Harl. MS. 3778, Art. 43. Or/>.] 

Cambridge, Oct. 16th [1718]. 
Worthy Sir, 

I am glad to hear Mrs. Elstob is in a condition 
to pay her debts, for me she may be very easy : 
tho' I could wish for the sake of the University 
(thp' I am no way engaged, having taken up my 
obligation) that you could recover the Book, or at 
least could find where it is lodged, that Mr. Brook 
may know where to demand it. This, I presume, 
may be done. 

If you have met with Books printed by Gutten- 
berg, you have made a great discovery. I thought 
there had been none such in the world, and began 
to look upon Fust as the first Printer. I have 



seen the Bishop of Ely's Catbolicon (now with us), 
which, for aught I know, may have been printed 
by Guttenberg; for tho' it be printed at Ments, 
yet there is no name of the Printer, and the cha- 
racter is more rude than Fust's Tuliie's Offices, 
whereof there are two Copies in 1465 and 1466, 
the first on vellum, the other on paper. 

May I make a small enquiry, after the mention 
of so great a name as Guttenberg ? I remember, 
you told me, my Lord Harley had two Copies of 
Edw. the Sixth's first Common Prayer Book. Do 
you remember whether either of them be printed 
by Graf'ton, the King's Printer ? I have seen four 
or five Editions by Whitchurch, but never could 
meet with any by Grafton, except one in my cus- 
tody, which I shall look upon to be a great liarity, 
if it be likewise wanting to my Lord's Collection. 
It varies from all the other Copies, and is printed 
in 1548. All the rest, I think, in 1549. One 
reason of my enquiry is, because I want the Title, 
for the date is at the end of the Book, and indeed 
twice ; both on the end of the Communion Office, 
and of the Litany. But I beg your pardon for so 
small an enquiry, whilst you are in quest of Gut- 
tenberg and Nic. Jenson. My business consists 
much in trifles. I am, 
Sir, 

Your most ob. humble 
Servant, 

THO. BAKER. 

To the worthy Mr. Wanley, at 
the Riding Hood Shop, the 
corner of Chandois and Bed- 
ford Streets, 

Covent Garden, 

London. 

A note in Wanley's hand says, "Mrs. Elstob 
has only paid a few small scores." 

III. 

Extract of a Letter from Win. Bickford, Esq., to 
the Rev. Mr. Amory of Taunton, dated Dunsland, 
March 7, 1731. 

[MS. Addit., Brit. Mus., 4309, fol. 358.] 

I cannot forbear acquainting you of a very 
curious passage in relation to Charles the Second's 
Restoration. Sir Win. Morrice, who was one of 
the Secretaries of State soon after, was the person' 
who chiefly transacted that affair with Monk, so 
that all the papers in order to it were sent him, 
both from King Charles and Lord Clarendon. 
Just after the thing was finished, Lord Clarendon 
got more than 200 of these Letters and other 
papers from Morrice under pretence of finishing 
his History, and which were never returned. Lord 
Somers, when he was chancellor, told Morrice's 
Grandson that if he would file a Bill in Chancery, 
he would endeavour to get them ; but young 
Morrice having deserted the Whig Interest, was 



s 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 219. 



prevailed upon to let it drop. This I know to be 
fact, for I had it not only from the last-mentioned 
Gentleman, but others of that family, especially 
a son of the Secretaries. As soon as I knew this, 
J took the first opportunity of searching the study, 
and found some very curious Letters, which one 
time or other I design to publish together with 
the account of that affair. My mother being Niece 
to the Secretary, hath often heard him say that 
Charles the Second was not only very base in not 
keeping the least of the many things that he had 
promised ; but by debauching the Nation, had 
rendered it fitt for that terrible fellow (meaning 
the Duke of York) to ruin us all, and then Monk 
and him would be remembred to their Infamy. 

(To be continued.) 



BURIAL-PLACE OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. 

On a visit this autumn with some friends to 
the picturesque village and church of Horsted- 
Jeynes, Sussex, our attention was forcibly ar- 
rested by the appearance of two large pavement 
slabs, inserted in an erect position on the external 
face of the south wall of the chancel. They 
proved to be those which once had covered and 

Erotected the grave of the good Archbishop 
eighton, who passed the latter years of his life 
in that parish, and that of Sir Ellis Leighton, his 
brother. On inquiry, it appeared that their re- 
mains had been deposited within a small chapel 
on the south side of the chancel, the burial-place 
of the Lightmaker family, of Broadhurst, in the 
parish of Horsted. The archbishop retired 
thither in 1674, and resided with his only sister, 
Saphira, widow of Mr. Edward Lightmaker. 
JBroadhurst, it may be observed, is sometimes in- 
correctly mentioned by the biographers of Arch- 
bishop Leighton as a parish ; it is an ancient 
mansion, the residence formerly of the Light- 
makers, and situated about a mile north of the 
village of Horsted. There it was that Leighton 
made his will, in February, 1683 ; but his death 
occurred, it will be remembered, in singular ac- 
cordance with his desire often expressed, at an 
inn, the Bell, in Warwick Lane, London. 

The small chapel adjacent to the chancel, and 
opening into it by an arch now walled up, had for 
some time, as I believe, been used as a school- 
room ; more recently, however, either through 
its becoming oufc of repair, or from some other 
cause, the little structure was demolished. The 
large slabs which covered the tombs of the good 
prelate and his brother were taken up and fixed 
against the adjoining wall. The turf now covers 
the space thus thrown into the open churchyard ; 
nothing remains to mark the position of the graves, 
ivhich in all probability, ere many years elapse, 



will be disturbed through ignorance or heedless- 
ness, and the ashes of Leighton scattered to th& 
winds. 

In times when special respect has been shown, 
to the tombs of worthies of bygone times, with the 
recent recollection also of what has been so well 
carried out by MR. MARKLAND in regard to the 
grave of Bishop Ken, shall we not make an effort 
to preserve from desecration and oblivion the 
resting-place of one so eminent as Leighton for 
his learning and piety, so worthy to be held in 
honoured remembrance for his high principles and 
his consistent conduct in an evil age ? 

ALBERT 



Grammars, SfC. for Public Schools. Would it 
not be desirable for some correspondents of " N". 
& Q." to furnish information respecting grammars, 
classics, and other works which have been written) 
for the various public schools ? Such information 
might be useful to book collectors; and would 
also serve to reflect credit on the schools whose- 
learned masters have prepared such books. My 
contribution to the list is small : but I remember 
a valuable Greek grammar prepared by the Rev. 
Hook, formerly head master of the College 
School at Gloucester, for the use of that establish- 
ment ; as also a peculiar English grammar pre- 
pared by the Rev. R. S. Skillern, master of St. 
Mary de Crypt School, in the same place, for the 
use of that school. I also possess a copy (1640) 
of the Romance Histories Anthologia, for the use of 
Abingdon School, and Moses and Aaron, or the 
Rites and Customs of the Hebrews (1641), both 
by Thos. Godwin, though the latter was written 
after he ceased to be master of the schools. 

P. H. FlSHEB. 
Stroud. 

" To captivate" Moore, in his Journal, speak- 
ing of the Americans (January 9th, 1819), says i 

" They sometimes, I see, use the word captivate thus : 
' Five or six ships captivated,' Five or six ships cap- 
tivated.'" 

Originally, the words to captivate were synony- 
mous with to capture, and the expression was used 
with reference to warlike operations. To capti- 
vate the affections was a secondary use of the 
phrase. The word is used in the original sense in 
many old English books. It is not used so now 
in the United States. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Bolms Edition of Matthew of Westminster. 
Under the year A.D. 782, the translator informs usr 
that " Hirenes and his son Constantine became 
emperors." Such an emperor is not to be found 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



in the annals of Constantinople. If Mr. Yonge, 
who shows elsewhere that he has read Gibbon, had 
referred to him on this occasion, he would pro- 
bably have found that the Empress Irene, a name 
dear to the reverencers of images, was the person 
meant. The original Latin probably gives no clue 
to the sex ; but still this empress, who is considered 
as a saint by her church, notwithstanding the 
deposition and blinding of her own son. was not a 
personage to be so easily forgotten. 

J. S. WARDEN. 

French Season Rhymes arid Weather Rhymes. 

*' A la Saint- Antoine (17th January) 

L,es jours croissent le repas d'un mohie." 
" A la Saint-Barnabe (llth June) 

La faux au pre." 
" A la Sainte- Catherine (25th November) 

Tout bois prend racine." 
" Passe la Saint- Clement (23rd November) 

Ne seme plus froment." 
*' Si 1'hiver va droit son chemin, 

Vous 1'aurez a la Saint-Martin." (12th Nov.) 
*' S'il n'arreste tant ne quant, 

Vous 1'aurez a la Saint- Clement." (23rd Nov.) 
*' Et s'il trouve quelqu' encombre*e, 

Vous 1'aurez a la Saint- Andre." (30th Nov.) 

CEYREP. 

Curious Epitaph in Tillingham Church, Essex. 

*' Hie jacet Humfridus Carbo, carbone notandus 
Non nigro, Creta sed meliora tua. 
Ciaruit in clero, nulli pietate secundus. 
Caelum vi rapuit, vi cape si poteris. 
Ob'. 27 Mar. 1624. JEt. 77." 

Which has been thus ingeniously paraphrased by 
a friend of mine : 

" Here lies the body of good Humphry Cole, 
Tho' Black his name, yet spotless is his soul ; 
But yet not black tho' Carbo is the name, 
Thy chalk is scarcely whiter than his fame. 
A priest of priests, inferior was to none, 
Took Heaven by storm when here his race was run. 
Thus ends the record of this pious man ; 
Go and do likewise, reader, if you can." 

C. K. P. 
Newport, Essex. 



DOMESTIC LETTERS OF EDMUND BURKE. 

In the curious and able article entitled " The 
Domestic Life of Edmund Burke," which appeared 
in the Atheneeum of Dec. 10th and Dec. 17th (and 
to which I would direct the attention of such 
readers of " N. & Q." as have not yet seen it), 
the writer observes : 

" There is not in existence, as far as we know, or 
have a right to infer from the silence of the biographers, 



one single letter, paper, or document of any kind 
except a mysterious fragment of one letter relating 
to the domestic life of the Burkes, until long after 
Edmund Burke became an illustrious and public man ; 
no letters from parents to children, from children t 
parents, from brother to brother, or brother to sister.'* 

And as Edmund Burke was the last survivor of 
the family, the inference drawn by the writer, that 
they were destroyed by him, seems, on the grounds 
which he advances, a most reasonable one. But 
my object in writing is to call attention to a 
source from which, if any such letters exist, they 
may yet possibly be recovered ; I mean the col- 
lections of professed collectors of autographs. On 
the one hand, it is scarcely to be conceived that 
the destroyer of these materials for the history of 
the Burkes, be he who he may, can have got all 
the family correspondence into his possession. On 
the other, it is far from improbable that in some 
of the collections to which I have alluded, some 
letters, notes, or documents may exist, treasured 
by the possessors as mere autographs ; but which 
might, if given to the world, serve to solve many 
of those mysteries which envelope the early history 
of Edmund Burke. The discovery of documents 
of such a character seems to be the special province 
of " N. & Q.," and I hope, therefore, although 
this letter has extended far beyond the limits I 
originally contemplated, you will insert it, and so 
permit me to put this Query to autograph col- 
lectors, " Have you any documents illustrative of 
the Burkes ? " and to add as a Note. " If so, print 
them ! " N. O. 



Farranfs Anthem. From what source did 
Farrant take the words of his well-known anthem, 
" Lord, for thy tender mercies' sake?" C. F. S, 

Ascension Day Custom. What is the origin of 
the custom which still obtains in St. Magnus and 
other city churches, of presenting the clergy with 
ribbons, cakes, and silk staylaces on Ascension 
Day? C.F. S. 

Sawlridge and Knight's Numismatic Collections. 
In Snelling's tract on Pattern Pieces for English 
Gold and Silver Coins (1769), p. 45., it is stated, 
in the description of a gold coin of Elizabeth, thafc 
it is " unique, formerly in the collection of Thomas 
Sawbridge, Esq., but at present in the collection 
of Thomas Knight, Esq., who purchased the whole 
cabinet." Can any of your readers inform me 
who this Mr. Knight was, and whether his collec- 
tion is still in existence ; or if it was dispersed, 
when, and in what manner ? I am not aware of 
any sale catalogue under his name. J. B. B* 

" The spire whose silent finger points to heaven'* 
I have met with, and sometimes quoted, this line. 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



Who is its author, and in what poem does it 
occur ? J. W. T. 

Dewsbury. 

Lord Fairfax. In the Peerage of Scotland I 
find this entry : 

" Fairfax, Baron, Charles Snovvdon Fairfax, 1627, 
Baron Fairfax, of Cameron ; sue. his grandfather, 
Thomas, ninth baron, 1846. His lordship resides at 
Woodburne, in Maryland, United States." 

Fairfax is not a Scotch name. And I can find 
no trace of any person of that family taking a part 
in Scotch affairs. Cameron is, I suppose, the 
parish of that name in the east of Fife. 

I wish to ask, 1st. For what services, or under 
what circumstances, the barony was created ? 

2ndly. When did the family cease to possess 
land or other property in Scotland, if they ever 
held any ? 

3rdly. Is the present peer a citizen or subject 
of the United States ? if so, is he known and ad- 
dressed as Lord Fairfax, or how ? 

4thly. Has he, or hns any of his ancestors, since 
the recognition of the United States as a nation, 
ever used or applied for permission to exercise the 
functions of a peer of Scotland, e. g. in the elec- 
tion of representative peers? 

5thly. If he be a subject of the United States, 
and have taken, expressly or by implication, the 
oath of citizenship (which pointedly renounces 
allegiance to our sovereign), how is it that his 
name is retained on the roll of a body whose first 
duty it is to guard the throne, and whose exist- 
ence is a denial of the first proposition in the 
constitution of his country? 

Perhaps UNEDA, W. W., or some other of your 
Philadelphia correspondents, will be good enough 
to notice the third of these Queries. W. H. M. 

Tailless Cats. A writer in the New York 
Literary World of Feb. 7, 1852, makes mention 
of a breed of cats destitute of tails, which are 
found in the Isle of Man. Perhaps some generous 
Manx correspondent will say whether this is a 
fact or a Jonathan. SHIRLEY HIBBERD. 

Saltcellar. Can any of your readers gainsay 
that in saltcellar the cellar is a mere corruption 
of saliere f A list of compound words of Saxon 
and French origin might be curious. H. F. B. 

Arms and Motto granted to Col. William Carlos. 
Can any reader of "N. & Q." give the date of 
the grant of arms to Col. William Carlos (who 
assisted Charles II. to conceal himself in the 
" Royal Oak," after the battle of Worcester), and 
specify the exact terms of the grant ? /*. 

Naval Atrocities. In the article on " Wounds," 
in the Encyc. Brit., 4th edition, published 1810, 
the author, after mentioning the necessity of a 



surgeon's being cautious in pronouncing on the 
character of any wound, adds that " this is parti- 
cularly necessary on board ship, where, as soon as 
any man is pronounced by the surgeon to be mor- 
tally wounded, he is forthwith, while still living 
and conscious, thrown overboard," or words to 
this effect, as I quote from memory. That such 
horrid barbarity was not practised in 1810, it is 
needless to say; and if it had been usual at any 
previous period, Smollett and other writers who 
have exposed with unsparing hand all the defects 
in the naval system of their day, would have 
scarcely left this unnoticed when they attack 
much slighter abuses. If such a thing ever oc- 
curred, even in the worst of times, it must have 
been an isolated case. I have not met elsewhere 
with any allusion to this passage, or the atrocity 
recorded in it, and would be glad of more inform- 
ation on the subject. J. S. WARDEN. 

Turlehydes. During the great famine in Ire- 
land in 1331, it is said that 

" The people in their distress met with an unex- 
pected and providential relief. For about the 24th 
June, a prodigious number of large sea fish, called 
turlehydes, were brought into the bay of Dublin, and 
cast on shore at the mouth of the river Dodder. 
They were froqti thirty to forty feet long, and so 
bulky that two tall men placed one on each side of the 
fish could not see one another." The History and 
Antiquities of the City of Dublin from the Earliest 
Accounts, by Walter Harris, 1766, p. 265. 

This account is compiled from several records of 
the time, some of which still exist. As the term 
turlehydes is not known to Irish scholars, can any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." say what precise 
animal is meant by it, or give any derivation or 
reference for the term ? U. U. 

Dublin. 

Foreign Orders Queen of Bohemia. It is 
well known that in some foreign Orders the 
decorations thereof are conferred upon ladies. 
Can any of your correspondents inform me 
whether the Order of the Annunciation of Sar- 
dinia, formerly the Order of the Ducal House of 
Savoy, at any time conferred its decorations upon 
ladies ; and whether the Princess Elizabeth, after- 
wards Queen of Bohemia, ever had the decoration 
of any foreign order conferred upon her ? In a 
portrait of her she is represented with a star or 
badge upon the upper part of the left arm. 

S. E. Gr. 

Pickard Family. Is the Pickard, or Picard, 
family, a branch of which is located in Yorkshire, 
of Norman origin ? If so, who were thQjirst settlers 
in England ; and also in what county are they most 
numerous ? ONE OF THE FAMILY. 

Bradford. 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



11 



Irish Chieftains. Some account of the following, 
Historical Reminiscences of O' Byrnes, O'Tooles, 
O'Kavanaghs, and other Irish Chieftains, privately 
printed, 1843, is requested by JOHN MARTIN. 

Woburn Abbey. 

General Braddock. Can any of your readers 
furnish me with information relative to this 
officer? His disastrous expedition against Fort 
Du Quesne, and its details, are well known ; but 
I should like to know something more of his pre- 
vious history. Walpole gives an anecdote or two 
of him, and mentions that he had been Governor 
of Gibraltar. I think too he was of Irish extrac- 
tion. Is there no portrait or engraving of Brad- 
dock in existence ? SERVIENS. 



Lawless Court, Rochford, Essex. A most 
extraordinary custom exists, in a manor at Roch- 
ford, in the tenants holding under what is called 
the " Lawless Court." This court is held at mid- 
night, by torch-light, in the centre of a field, on 
the first Friday after the 29th Sept., and is pre- 
sided over by the steward of the manor, who, 
however, appoints a deputy to fulfil this part of 
his duty. The tenants of the manor are obliged 
to attend to answer to their names, when called 
upon, under pain of a heavy fine, or at all events 
have some one there to respond for them. All 
the proceedings are carried on in a whisper, no 
one speaking above that tone of voice ; and the 
informations as to deaths, names, &c. are entered 
in a book by the president with a piece of charcoal. 
I may add, the business is not commenced until 
a cock has crowed three times, and as it is some- 
times a difficult matter to get Chanticleer to do 
his duly, a man is employed to crow, whose fee 
therefor is 5s. 

Now Morant, in his History of Essex, merely 
cursorily mentions this most singular custom, and 
has nothing as to its antiquity or origin ; I should 
therefore feel much obliged for any information 
concerning it. RUSSELL GOLE. 

[The singular custom at Rochford is of uncertain 
origin : in old authors it is spoken of as belonging to 
the manor of Rayleigh. The following account of 
" The Lawless Court," at that place, is printed by 
Hearne'from the Dodsworth MSS. in the Bodleian, 
vol. cxxv. : " The manor of Raylie, in Essex, hath a 
custome court kept yearly, the Wednesday nexte after 
Michael's day. The court is kept in the night, and 
without light, but as the skye gives, att a little hill 
without the tovvne, called the King's Hill, where the 
steward writes only with coals, and not witli inke. 
And many men and mannors of greate worth hold of 
the same, and do suite unto this strange court, where 
the steward calls them with as low a voice as possibly 
he may ; giving no notice when he goes to the hill to 



keepe the same court, and he that attends not is 
deepely amerced, if the steward will. The title and 
entry of the same court is as followeth, viz. : 
' Curia de domino rege, 
Dicta sine leye, 
Tenta est ibidem, 
Per ejusclem consuetudinem, 

Ante ortum solis, 
Luceat nisi polus, 
Seneschallus solus, 
Scribit nisi colis. 
Clamat clam pro rege 
In curia sine lege : 
Et qui non cito venerit 
Citius poenitebit : 
Si venerit cum lumine 
Errat in regimine. 
Et dum sine lumine 
Capti sunt in crimine, 
Curia sine cura 
Jurata de injuria 

Tenta est die Mercuriae 

prox. post festum S. Michaelis.' ** 
Weever, who mentions this custom, says, that he 
was informed that " this servile attendance was im- 
posed, at the first, upon certaine tenants of divers 
mannors hereabouts, for conspiring in this place, at 
such an unseasonable time, to raise a commotion. **] 

Motto on old Damask. Can your correspon- 
dents furnish an explanation of the motto herewith 
sent ? It is taken from some damask table napkins 
which were bought many years back at Brussels ; 
not at a shop in the ordinary way, but privately, 
from the family to whom they belonged. I presume 
the larger characters, if put together, will indicate 
the date of the event, whatever that may be, which 
is referred to in the motto itself. 

The motto is woven in the pattern of the 
damask, and consists of the following words in 
uncials, the letters of unequal size, as subjoined : 

"slGNUM PACIs DATUR LoRlC^E." 
the larger letters being IUMCIDULTC. If the C7"'s 
are taken as two F's, and written thus X, it 
gives the date MDCCLXIII. Perhaps this can be 
explained. EL 

[The chronogram above, which means " The signal 
of peace is given to the warrior," relates to the peace 
proclaimed between England and France in the year 
1763. This event is noticed in the Annual Register, 
and in most of our popular histories. Keightley says, 
" The overtures of France for peace were readily 
listened to; and both parties being in earnest, the 
preliminaries were readily settled at Fontainebleau 
(Nov. 3rd). In spite of the declamation of Mr. Pitt 
and his party, they were approved of by large majori- 
ties in both Houses of Parliament, and a treaty was 
finally signed in Paris, Feb. 18, 1763." The napkins 
were probably a gift, on the occasion, to some public 
functionary. For the custom of noting the date of a 
great event by chronograms, see " N. & Q.," Vol. v. r 
p. 585.] 



12 



1TOTES AND QUERIES. 



[> T 0. 219. 



Explanation of the Word " Miser" Can any 
of your readers explain how and when miser came 
to get the meaning of an avaricious hoarding man ? 
In Spenser's Faerie Queene, u. 1. 8., it is used in 
its nearly primary sense of " wretch :" 

" Vouchsafe to stay your steed for humble miser's sake." 
Again, Faerie Queene, n. 3. 8. : 

" The miser threw himself, as an ofifall, 
Straight at his foot in base humility." 

In Milton's Comus, which was written about 
fifty years after the first three books of the Faerie 
Queene, the present signification of the word is 
complete : 

" You may as well spread out the unsunn'd heaps 
Of miser's treasure by an outlaw's den, 
sAnd tell me it is safe, as bid one hope 
Danger will sink on opportunity," &c. 

J. D. GARDNER. 
Bottisham. 

[The modern restricted use of the word miser is 
subsequent to Shakspeare's time ; for in Part I. King 
Henry F/., Act V. Sc. 4., 

" Decrepit miser ! base ignoble wretch !" 

Steevens says has no relation to avarice, but simply means 
a miserable creature. So in the interlude of Jacob and 
Esau, 1568: 

" But as for these misers within my father's tent." 
Again, in Lord Stirling's tragedy of Croesus, 1604 : 

" Or think'st thou me of judgement too remiss, 
A miser that in miserie remains." 

Otway, however, in his Orphan, published in 1680, 
uses it for a covetous person : 

" Though she be dearer to my soul than rest 
To weary pilgrims, or to misers gold, 
Rather than wrong Castalio, I'd forget thee." 
So also does Pope : 

" No silver saints by dying misers given, 
Here brib'd the rage of ill-requited heaven."] 

" Ads and Galatea." Is there any good evi- 
dence in support of the commonly received opinion 
that the words to Handel's Acis and Galatea were 
written by Gay ? Hawkins merely states that 
they " are said to have been written by Mr. Gay." 
I have no copy of Burney at hand to refer to ; 
but I find the same statement repeated by various 
other musical historians, without, however, any 
authority being given for it. The words in ques- 
tion are not to be found among" the Poems on 
several Occasions^y Mr. John Gay, published in 
1767 by Tonson and others. Have they ever 
been included in any collective edition of his 
works ? G. T. 

Reading. 

[In the musical catalogue of the British Museum, 
compiled by Thomas Oliphant, Esq., it is stated that 



the words to Acis and Galatea "are said to be written, 
but apparently partly compiled, by John Gay." This 
sercnata is included among Gay's Poems in Dr. John- 
son's edition of the English Poets, 1790, as well as in 
Chalmers's edition of 1810, and in the complete edi- 
tion of British Poets, Edinburgh, 1794.] 

Birm-banL TkQ bank of a canal opposite to 
the towing-path is called the birm-banh. What 
is the derivation of this ? UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

[The word lirm seems to have the same meaning as 
berme (Fr. berme), which, in Fortification, denotes a 
piece of ground of three, four, or five feet in width, 
left between the rampart and the moat or foss, designed 
to receive the ruins of the rampart, and prevent the 
earth from filling the foss. Sometimes it is palisaded, 
and in Holland is generally planted with quickset 
hedge.] 

General Thomas Gage. This officer com- 
manded at Boston at the breaking out of the 
Revolution, and served under General Braddock. 
Where can I find any details of the remainder of 
his history ? SERVIENS. 

[An interesting biographical account of General 
Gage is given in the Georgian JEra, vol. ii. p. 67.] 



RAPPING NO NOVELTY. 

(VoLviii., pp. 512. 632.) 

The story referred to is certainly a very curious 
one, and I should like to know whether it is ex- 
actly as it was told by Baxter, especially as there 
seems to be reason for believing that De Foe 
(whom on other grounds one would not trust in 
such a matter) did not take it from the work 
which he quotes. Perhaps if you can find room 
for the statement, some correspondent would be 
so good as to state whether it has the sanction of 
Baxter : 

" Mr. Baxter, in his Historical Discourse of Appa- 
ritions, writes thus : ' There is now in London an un- 
derstanding, sober, pious man, oft one of my hearers, 
who has an elder brother, a gentleman of considerable 
rank, who having formerly seemed pious, of late years 
does often fall into the sin of drunkenness ; he often 
lodges long together here in his brother's house, and 
whensoever he is drunk and has slept himself sober, 
something knocks at his bed's head, as if one knocked 
on a wainscot. When they remove his bed it follows 
him. Besides other loud noises on other parts where 
he is, that all the house hears, they have often watched 
him, and kept his hands lest he should do it himself. 
His brother has often told it me, and brought his wife, 
a discreet woman, to attest it, who avers moreover, that 
as she watched him, she has seen his shoes under the 
bed taken up, and nothing visible to touch them. They 
brought the man himself to me, and when we asked 



7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



liim how he dare sin again after such a warning, he 
had no excuse. But being persons of quality, for some 
special reason of worldly interest I must not name 
him.' " De Foe's Life of Duncan Campbell, 2nd ed. 
p. 107. 

After this story, De Foe says : 

" Another relation of this kind was sent to Dr. 
Beaumont (whom I myself personally knew, and 
which he has inserted in his account of genii, or fa- 
miliar spirits) in a letter by an ingenious and learned 
clergyman of Wiltshire," &c. 

But he does not say that the story which he has 
already quoted as from Baxter stands just as he 
has given it, and with a reference to Baxter, in 
Beaumont's Historical, Physiological, and Theo- 
logical Treatise of Spirits, p. 182. Of course one 
does not attach any weight to De Foe's saying 
that he knew Dr. Beaumont " personally," but 
does anybody know anything of him ? Nearly 
four years ago you inserted a somewhat similar 
inquiry about this Duncan Campbell, but I be- 
lieve it has not yet been answered. 

S. R. MAITLAND. 



OCCASIONAL rORMS OP PRAYER. 

(Vol. viii., p. 535.) 

From a volume of Forms of Prayer in the 
library of Sir Robert Taylor's Institution, I send 
you the follow 3 nor list, as supplementary to MR. 
LATHBURY'S. This volume forms part of a col- 
lection of books bequeathed to the University by 
the late Robert Finch, M. A., formerly of Baliol 
College : 

A Form of Prayer for a General Fast, &c. 4to. 
London. 1762. 

In both the Morning and Evening Services of 
this Form "A Prayer for the Reformed Churches " 
is included, which is omitted in all the subsequent 
Forms. This is a copy of it : 

"A Prayer for the Reformed Churches. 

" O God, the Father of Mercies, we present our 
Supplications unto Thee, more especially on behalf of 
our Reformed Brethren, whom, blessed be Thy Name, 
Thou hast hitherto wonderfully supported. Make 
them perfect, strengthen, 'stahlish them : that they may 
stand fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ hath made 
them free, and adorn the Doctrine of God our Saviour 
in all things. Preserve the Tranquillity of those who 
at present enjoy it : look down with compassion upon 
such as are persecuted for Righteousness' sake, and 
plead Thy cause with the oppressors of Thy people. 
Enlighten those who are in Darkness and Error ; and 
give them Repentance to the Acknowledgment of the 
Truth : that all the Ends of the World may remember 
themselves, and be turned unto the Lord ; and we all 
may become one Flock, under the great Shepherd and 
Bishop of our Souls, Jesus Christ, our only Mediator 
and Advocate. Amen." 



Form, &c. Fast. 1776. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1778. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1 780. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1781. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1782. 

A Prayer to be used on Litany Days before the 
Litany, and on other days immediately before the 
Prayer for all Conditions of Men, in all Cathedra], 
Collegiate, and Parochial Churches and Chapels, 
&c., during his Majesty's present Indisposition. 
1788. 

The following MS. note is inserted in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Finch, father of the gentleman who 
bequeathed the collection : 

"Mrs. Finch accompanied my Father (Rev. Dr. 
Finch, Rector of St. Michael's, Cornhill) to the Ca- 
thedral, where he had a seat for himself and his lady 
assigned him under the Dome, as Treasurer to the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the 
original patrons of the Charity Schools. Mrs. F. was 
so fortunate as to obtain a seat in the choir, and saw 
the procession from the choir gate. Myself and 
Robert saw the cavalcade (which was extremely grand, 
and continued for the space of more than three hours, 
both Houses of Parliament with their attendants pre- 
ceding their Majesties) from Mrs. Townsend's house 
in Fleet Street." April 23, 1789. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the King's 

Recovery. 1789. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1793. ; 

Form, &c. Fast. 1795. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1796. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for many signal and 

important. Victories. 1797. 
Form, &c. Fast. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory of 

the Nile, &c. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory over 

the French Fleet, Aug. 1. 1798. 
Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the safe Delivery 
of H. R. H. the Princess of Wales, and the birth of 
a Princess. 1796. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1799. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1800. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1801. 

Form and Thanksgiving for the Harvest. 1801. 

Form and Thanksgiving for putting an End to the 
War. 1802. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1803. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1804. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1805. 

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for Lord Nelson's 
Victory. 1805. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1 806. 

Form, Sec. Fast. 1807. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1 808. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1809. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1810. 

Form, &c. Fast. 1812. 

Form, c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1814. 

Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1816. 

JOHN MACRAT. 
Oxford. 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



CELTIC AND LATIN LANGUAGES. 

(Vol. viii., p. 174.) 

There was a Query some time ago upon this 
subject, but though it is one full of interest to all 
scholars, I have not observed any Notes worth 
mentioning in reply. The connexion between 
these two languages has only of late occupied the 
attention of philologers ; but the more closely they 
are compared together, the more important and 
the more striking do the resemblances appear ; 
and the remark of Arnold with regard to Greek 
literature applies equally to Latin, " that we seem 
now to have reached that point in our knowledge 
of the language, at which other languages of the 
same family must be more largely studied, before 
we can make a fresh step in advance." But this 
study, as regards the comparison of Celtic and 
Latin, is, in England at least, in a very infant 
state. Professor Newman, in his Regal Rome, 
has drawn attention to the subject; but his in- 
duction does not appear sufficiently extensive to 
warrant any decisive conclusion respecting the 
position the Celtic holds as an element of the 
Latin. Pritchard's work upon the subject is sa- 
tisfactory as far as it goes, but both these authors 
have chiefly confined themselves to a tabular view 
of Celtic and Latin words ; but it is not merely 
this we want. What is required is a critical ex- 
amination into the comparative structure and 
formal development of the two languages, and this 
is a work still to be accomplished. The later 
numbers of Bopp's Comparative Grammar are, I 
believe, devoted to this subject, but as they have 
not been translated, they must be confined to a 
limited circle of English readers, and I have not 
yet seen any reproduction of the views therein 
contained in the philological literature of England. 

As the first step to considerations of this kind 
must be made from a large induction of words, I 
think, with your correspondent, that the pages of 
" N. & Q." might be made useful in supplying 
"links of connexion" to supply a groundwork for 
future comparison, I shall conclude by sug- 
gesting one or two "links" that I do not re- 
member to have seen elsewhere. 

1. Is the root of felix to be found in the Irish 
fail, fate ; the contraction of the dipththong a i 

or e being analogous to that of ama'imus into 
amemus ? 

2. Is it not probable that Avernus, if not cor- 
rupted from &opvos, is related to iffrin, the Irish 
infer* ? This derivation is at any rate more pro- 
bable than that of Grotefend, who connects the 
word with 'Ax^pav. 

3. Were the Galli, priests of Cybele, so called 
as being connected with fire-worship ? and is the 
name at all connected with the Celtic gal, a flame ? 
The word Gallus, a Gaul, is of course the same 
as the Irish gal, a stranger. T. H. T. 



GEOMETRICAL CURIOSITY. 

(Vol. viii., p. 468.) 

MR. INGLEBY'S question might easily be the 
foundation of a geometrical paper ; but as this 
would not be a desirable contribution, I will en- 
deavour to keep clear of technicalities, in pointing 
out how the process described may give something 
near to a circle, or may not. 

When a paper figure, bent over a straight line 
in it, has the two parts perfectly fitting on each 
other, the figure is symmetrical about that straight 
line, which may be called an axis of symmetry. 
Thus every diameter of a circle is an axis of 
symmetry : every regular oval has two axes of 
symmetry at right angles to each other : every 
regular polygon of an odd number of sides has an 
axis joining each corner to the middle of the 
opposite sides : every regular polygon of an even 
number of sides has axes joining opposite corners, 
and axes joining the middles of opposite sides. 

When a piece of paper, of any form whatsoever, 
rectilinear or curvilinear, is doubled over any 
line in it, and when all the parts of either side 
which are not covered by the other are cut away, 
the unfolded figure will of course have the creased 
line for an axis of symmetry. If another line be 
now creased, and a fold made over it, and the 
process repeated, the second line becomes an axis 
of symmetry, and the first perhaps ceases to be 
one. If the process be then repeated on the first 
line, this last becomes an axis, and the other (pro- 
bably) ceases to be an axis. If this process can 
be indefinitely continued, the cuttings must be- 
come smaller and smaller, for the following rea- 
son. Suppose, at the outset, the boundary point 
nearest to the intersection of the axes is distant 
from that intersection by, say four inches ; it is 
clear that we cannot, after any number of cuttings, 
have a part of the boundary at less than four 
inches from the intersection. For there never is, 
after any cutting, any approach to the intersection 
except what there already was on the other side of 
the axis employed, before that cutting was made. 
If then the cuttings should go on for ever, or 
practically until the pieces to be cut off are too 
small, and if this take place all round, the figure 
last obtained will be a good representation of a 
circle of four inches radius. On the suppositions, 
we must be always cutting down, at all parts of 
the boundary ; but it has been shown that we can 
never come nearer than by four inches to the 
intersection of the axes. 

But it does not follow that the process will go 
on for ever. We may come at last to a state in 
which both the creases are axes of symmetry at 
once ; and then the process stops. If the paper 
had at first a curvilinear boundary, properly 
chosen, and if the axes were placed at the proper 
angle, it would happen that we should arrive at a 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



regular curved polygon, having the two axes for 
axes of symmetry. The process would then stop. 

I will, however, suppose that the original bound- 
ary is everywhere rectilinear. It is clear then 
that, after every cutting, the boundary is still 
rectilinear. If the creases be at right angles to 
one another, the ultimate figure may be an irre- 
gular polygon, having its four quarters alike, such 
as may be inscribed in an oval ; or it may have 
its sides so many and so small, that the ultimate 
appearance shall be that of an oval. But if the 
creases be not at right angles, the ultimate figure 
is a perfectly regular polygon, such as can be in- 
scribed in a circle ; or its sides may be so many 
and so small that the ultimate appearance shall be 
that of a circle. 

Suppose, as in MR. INGLEBY'S question, that 
the creases are not at right angles to each other ; 
supposing the eye and the scissors perfect, the 
results will be as follows : 

First, suppose the angle made by the creases to 
be what the mathematicians call incommensurable 
with the whole revolution ; that is, suppose that 
no repetition of the angle will produce an exact 
number of revolutions. Then the cutting will go 
on for ever, and the result will perpetually 
approach a circle. It is easily shown that no 
figure whatsoever, except a circle, has two axes 
of symmetry which make an angle incommensur- 
able with the whole revolution. 

Secondly, suppose the angle of the creases com- 
mensurable with the revolution. Find out the 
smallest number of times which the angle must 
be repeated to give an exact number of" revolu- 
tions. If that number be even, it is the number 
of sides of the ultimate polygon : if that number 
be odd, it is the half of the number of sides of the 
ultimate polygon. 

Thus, the paper on which I write, the whole 
sheet being taken, and the creases made by join- 
ing opposite corners, happens to give the angle of 
the creases very close to three-fourteenths of a 
revolution ; so that fourteen repetitions of the 
angle is the lowest number which give an exact 
number of revolutions ; and a very few cuttings 
lead to a regular polygon of fourteen sides. But 
if four-seventeenths of a revolution had been 
taken for the angle of the creases, the ultimate 
polygon would have had thirty-four sides. In an 
angle taken at hazard the chances are that the 
number of ultimate sides will be large enough to 
present a circular appearance. 

Any reader who chooses may amuse himself by 
trying results from three or more axes, whether 
all passing through one point or not. 

A, DE MORGAN. 



THE BLACK-GUARD. 

(Yol. viii., p. 414.) 

Some of your correspondents, SIR JAMES E. TENNENT 
especially, have been very learned on this subject, and 
all have thrown new light on what I consider a very 
curious inquiry. The following document I discovered 
some years ago in the Lord Steward's Offices. Your 
readers will see its value at once ; but it may not be 
amiss to observe, that the name in its present applica- 
tion had its origin in the number of masterless boys 
hanging about the verge of the Court and other public 
places, palaces, coal-cellars, and palace stables ; ready 
with links to light coaches and chairs, and conduct, 
and rob people on foot, through the dark streets of 
London ; nay, to follow the Court in its progresses to 
Windsor and Newmarket. Pope's "link-boys vile" 
are the black-guard boys of the following Proclam- 
ation. PETER CUNNINGHAM. 

At the Board of Green Cloth, 

in Windsor Castle, 
this 7th day of May, 1683. 

WHEREAS of late a sort of vicious, idle, and 
masterless boyes and rogues, commonly called the 
Black-guard, with divers other lewd and loose 
fellowes, vagabonds, vagrants, and wandering men 
and women, do usually haunt and follow the Court, 
to the great dishonour of the same, and as Wee 
are informed have been the occasion of the late 
dismall fires that happened in the towns of Wind- 
sor and Newmarket, and have, and frequently do 
commit divers other misdemeanours and disorders 
in such places where they resort, to the prejudice 
of His Majesty's subjects, for the prevention of 
which evills and misdemeanours hereafter, Wee do 
hereby strictly charge and command all those so 
called the Black-guard as aforesaid, with all other 
loose, idle, masterless men, boyes, rogues, and 
wanderers, who have intruded themselves into His 
Majesty's Court or stables, that within the space, 
of, twenty- four houres next after the publishing 
of this order, they depart, upon pain of imprison- 
ment, and such other punishments as by law are 
to be inflicted on them. 

(Signed) ORMOND. 

H. BULKELEY. 

H. BROUNCKER. 
RICH. MASON. 
STE. Fox. 



THE CALVES' HEAD CLTJB. 
(Vol. viii., pp. 315. 480.) 

The Calves' Head Club existed much earlier 
than the time when their doings were commemo- 
rated in the Weekly Oracle (Yol. viii., p. 315.) 
of February 1, 1735, or depicted in the print of 
1734 (Vol. viii., p. 480.). There is a pamphlet, 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



the second edition of -which was published in 
small 4to., in 170-3, entitled : 

" The Secret History of the Calves' Head Club, 
or, the Republican Unmasqu'd, wherein is fully 
shewn the Religion of the Calves- Head Heroes in 
their Anniversary Thanksgiving Songs on the Thir- 
tieth of January, by their Anthems," &c. &c. 

We are told in the latter part of the long title- 
page that the work was published " to demonstrate 
the restless, implacable spirit of a certain party 
still among us," and certainly the statements 
therein, and more than all the anthems at the end, 
do show the bitterest hatred so bitter, so intense 
and malignant, that" we feel on reading it that 
there must be some exaggeration. 

The author professes to have at first been of 
opinion " that the story was purely contrived on 
purpose to render the republicans more odious 
than they deserv'd." Whether he was convinced 
to the contrary by ocular demonstration he does 
not tell us, but gives us information he received 
from a gentleman 

" Who, about eight years ago, went out of meer 
curiosity to see their Club, and has since furnish'd me 
with the following papers. I was inform'd that it was 
kept in no fix'd house, but that they remov'd as they 
saw convenient ; that the place they met in when he 
was with 'em was in a blind ally, about Morefields ; 
that the company wholly consisted of Independents 
and Anabaptists (I am glad for the honour of the 
Presbyterians to set down this remark) ; that the 
fa -nous Jerry White, formerly Chaplain to Oliver 
Cromwell, who no doubt on't came to sanctify with 
his pious exhortations the Ribbaldry of the Day, said 
Grace; that after the table-cloth was removed, the 
anniversary anthem, as they impiously called it, was 
sung, and a calve's skull fill'd with wine, or other 
liquor, and then a brimmer went about to the pious 
memory of those worthy patriots that kill'd the tyrant, 
and deliver' d their country from arbitrary sway ; and 
lastly, a collection made for the mercenary scribler, to 
which every mm contributed according to his zeal for 
the cause, or the ability of his purse. 

" I have taken care to set down what the gentleman 
told me as faithfully as my memory wou'd give me 
leave; and I am persuaded that some persons that 
'frequent the Black Boy in Newgate Street, as they 
knew the author of the following lines so they knew 
this account of the Calves' Head Club to be true." 

The anthems for the years 1693, 1694, 1695, 
1696, and 1697, are given; but they are too 
long and too stupidly blasphemous and indecent 
to quote here. Xliey seem rather the satires of 
malignant cavaliers than the serious productions 
of any Puritan, however politically or theolo- 
gically heretical. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Moors. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Calotype Process. 1 have made my first essay 
in the calotype process, following DR. DIAMOND'S 
directions given in " N. & Q.," and using Turner's 
paper, as recommended by him. My success has been, 
quite as great as I could expect as a novice, and sa- 
tisfies me that any defects are due to my own want of 
skill, and not to any fault in the directions given. I 
wish, however, to ask a question as to* iodizing the 
paper. DR. DIAMOND says, lay the paper on the solu- 
tion ; then immediately remove it, and lay on the dry 
side on blotting-paper, &c. Now I find, if I remove 
immediately, the whole sheet of paper curls up into a 
roll, and is quite unmanageable. I want to know, 
therefore, whether there is any objection to allowing 
the paper to remain on the iodizing solution until it 
lies flat on it, so that on removal it will not curl, and 
may be easily and conveniently laid on the dry side to 
pass the glass rod over it. As soon as the paper is 
floated on the solution (I speak of Turner's) it has a 
great tendency to curl, and takes some time before the 
expansion of both surfaces becoming equal allows it to 
lie quite flat on the liquid. May this operation be per- 
formed by the glass rod, without floating at all ? 

Photographers, like myself, at a distance from prac- 
tical instruction, are so much obliged for plain and 
simple directions such as those given by DR. DIAMOND, 
which are the result of experience, that I am sure he 
will not mind being troubled with a few inquiries rela- 
tive to them. C. E. F. 

ffockin's' Short Sketch. Mr. Hockin is so well known 
as a thoroughly practical chemist, that it may suffice 
to call attention to the fact of his having published a 
little brochure entitled How to obtain Positive and. 
Negative Pictures on Collodionized Glass, and copy the 
latter upon Paper. A Short Sketch adapted for the Tyro 
in Photography. As the question of the alkalinity of 
the nitrate bath is one which has lately been discussed, 
we will give, as a specimen of Mr. Hockin's book, a 
quotation, showing his opinion upon that question : 

" The sensitizing agent, nitrate of silver in crystals, 
not the ordinary fused in sticks, is nearly always con- 
fessedly adulterated ; it is thus employed : 

" The silver or nitrate bath. Nitrate of silver five 
drachms, distilled water ten ounces; dissolve and add 
iodized collodion two drachms. 

" Shake these well together, allow them to macerate 
twelve hours, and filter through paper. Before adding 
the nitric acid, test the liquid with a piece of blue 
litmus paper; if it remain blue after being immersed 
one minute, add one drop of dilute nitric acid *, and 
test again for a minute ; and so on, until a claret red is 
indicated on the paper. It is necessary to test the 
bath in a similar manner, frequently adding half a 
drop to a drop of dilute acid when required. This 
precaution will prevent the fogging due to alkalinity 
of the bath, so formidable an obstacle to young hands." 

Photoaraphic Society's Exhibition. The Photo- 
graphic^Society opened their first Exhibition of Pho- 



* " Dilute nitric acid. Water fifty parts, nitric acid 
one part." 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



17 



tographs and Daguerreotypes at the Gallery of the 
Society of British Artists, in Suffolk Street, with a 
soiree on Tuesday evening last. Notwithstanding the 
inclemency of the weather, the rooms were crowded 
not only by members of the Society, but by many of 
the most distinguished literary and scientific men of 
the metropolis. The Queen and Prince Albert had, 
in the course of the morning, spent three hours in an 
examination of the collection ; and the opinion they 
expressed, that the exhibition was one of great interest 
and promise, from the evidence it afforded of the ex- 
traordinary advance made by the art during the past 
year, and the encouragement it held out to the belief 
that far * greater excellence might therefore still be 
looked for in it, was a very just one, and embodied that 
given afterwards by the most competent authorities. 
We have not room this week to enter into any details, 
but can confidently recommend our readers to pay an 
early visit to Suffolk Street. 



to ifHCncrr 

" Firm was their faith" frc. (Vol. viii., p. 564.). 
These lines are to be found in a poem called 
"Morwennae Statio, hodie Morwenstow," pub- 
lished by Masters in 1846, with the title of Echoes 
from Old Cornwall, and written by the Vicar of 
Morwenstow. I agree with D. M. in the judg- 
ment he has announced as to their merits ; but 
hitherto they have been but little appreciated by 
the public. A time will come, however, when 
these and other compositions of the author will 
be better known and more duly valued by the 
English mind. SAXA. 

These lines were written on " the Minster of 
Morwenna," May, 1840, and appeared in the 
British Magazine under the anonymous name 
Procul. Of the eight stanzas of which the poem 
consists^ P. M. has quoted the second. The 
second line should be read " wise of heart," and 
the third "jtfrw and trusting hands." With your 
correspondent, I hope the author's name may be 
discovered. F. R. R. 

Vellum-cleaning (Vol. viii., p. 340.). In the 
Polytechnic Institution there are specimens of old 
deeds, &c., on vellum and paper, beautifully 
cleaned and restored by Mr. George Clifford, 
5. Inner Temple Lane, Temple, London. 

J. M'K. 

Shoreham. 

Wooden Tombs (Vol. viii., p. 255.). In the 
church at Brading, Isle of Wight 

" There are some old tombs in the communion place, 
and in Sir William Oglander's chapel, or family burial- 
place, which is separated from the rest of the church 
by an oak screen. The most ancient legible date of 
these monuments is 1567. Two of them have full- 
length figures in armour of solid elm wood, originally 



painted in their proper colours, and gilt, but now dis- 
figured by coats of dirty white." Barber's Picturesque 
Guide to the Isle of Wight, 1850, pp. 28, 29. 

J. M'K. 

Shoreham. 

Solar Eclipse in the Year 1263 (Vol. viii., 
p. 441.). In the Transactions of the Antiquarian 
Society of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 350., there are 
" Observations on the Norwegian Expedition 
against Scotland in the year 1263," by John 
Dillon, Esq. ; and at pp. 363-4., when speaking of 
the annular eclipse, he says : 

" The eclipse above mentioned is described to have 
occurred between these two dates [29th July and 9th 
August]. This being pointed out to Dr. Brewster, 
he had the curiosity to calculate the eclipse, when he 
found that there was an eclipse of the sun on 5th 
August, 1263, and which was annular at Ronaldsvo, 
in Orkney, and the middle of it was twenty-four 
minutes past one." 

These " Observations " contain much curious 
information ; but are deformed by the author 
attempting to wrest the text of the Norwegian 
writer (at p. 358. and in note I.) to suit an absurd 
crotchet of his own. Having seen that essay in 
MS., I pointed out those errors ; but instead of 
attending to my observations, he would not read 
them, and got into a passion against the friend 
who showed the MS. to me. J. M'K. 

Shoreham. 

Lines on Woman (Vol. viii., pp. 292. 350. &c.). 
The lines on Woman are, I presume, an altered 
version of those of Barret (Mrs. Barrett Brown- 
ing ?) ; they are the finale of a short poem oa 
Woman ; the correct version is the following : 

" Peruse the sacred volume, Him who died 
Her kiss betray'd not, nor her tongue denied'; 
While even the Apostle left Him to His doom, 
She linger'd round His cross and watch'd His tomb.' r 

I would copy the whole poem, but fear you 
would think it too long for insertion. MA. L. 

[Our correspondent furnishes an addition to our 
list of parallel passages. The lines quoted by W. V. 
and those now given by our present correspondent can 
never be different readings of the same poem. Besides, 
it has been already shown that the lines asked for are 
from the poem entitled Woman, by Eaton Stannard 
Barrett (see ante, pp. 350. 423.).] 

Satin (Vol. vii., p. 551.). In a note just re- 
ceived by me from Canton, an American friend of 
mine remarks as follows : 

" When you write again to ' N. & Q.' you can 
say that the word satin (Vol. vii., p. 551.), like the 
article itself, is of Chinese origin, and that other 
foreign languages, in endeavouring like the En- 
glish to imitate the Chinese sz-tun, have approxi- 



18 



KOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



mated closely to it, and to each other. Of this 
the answers to the Query given in the place re- 
ferred to are a sufficient proof; Fr. satin, 
W. sidan, &c. &c." 

I suspect that he is right, and that Ogilvie and 
Webster, whom you quote, have not got to the 
bottom of the word. I may add that the notion 
of my Canton friend receives approval from a 
Chinese scholar to whom I have shown the above 
extract. W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

" Quid fades" fyc. (Vol. viii., p. 539.). 

" BIERVK, N. Marechal, Marquis de, a Frenchman 
well known for his ready wit and great facetiousness. 
He wrote two plays of considerable merit, Les Re- 
putations and Le Seducteur. He died at Spa, 1789, 
aged 42. He is author of the distich on courtezans : 

Quid facies, facies Veneris cum veneris ante ? 
Ne sedeas ! sed eas, ne pereas per eas.' " 

Lempriere's Universal Biography, abridged from the 
larger work, London, 1808. 

C. FORBES. 
Temple. 

Sotades (Vol. viii., p. 520.). Your correspon- 
dent CHARLES REED says that Sotades was a 
Roman poet 250 B.C. ; and that to him we owe the 
line, " Roma tibi subito," &c. Sotades was a native 
of Maroneia in Thrace, or, according to others, of 
Crete ; and nourished at Alexandria B.C. 280 
(Smith's Dictionary of Biography, Clinton, F. H., 
vol. iii. p. 888.). We have a few fragments of his 
poems, but none of them are palindromical. The 
authority for his having written so, is, I suppose, 
Martial, Epig. n. 86. 2. : 

" Nee retro lego Sotaden cinaedum." 

ZEUS. 

The Third Part of " Christabel " (Vol. viii., 
pp. 11. 111.). Has the 7mA Quarterly Review 
any other reason for ascribing this poem to Maginn 
than the common belief which makes him the sole 
and original Morgan Odoherty ? If not, its evi- 
dence is of little value, ns^ exclusive of some pieces 
under that name which have been avowed by 
other writers, many of the Odoherty papers con- 
tain palpable internal evidence of having been 
written by a Scotchman, or at least one very fa- 
miliar with Scotland, which at that time he was 
not ; even the letter accompanying the third part 
of Christabel is dated from Glasgow, and though 
this would in itself prove nothing, the circum- 
stances above mentioned, as well as Dr. Moir's 
evidence as to the time when Maginn's contribu- 
tions to Blachwood commenced, seems strongly 
presumptive against his claim. Some of the 
earliest and most distinguished writers in Black- 
wopd are still alive, and could, no doubt, clear up 
this point at once, if so inclined. J. S. WARDEN. 



Attainment of Majority (Vol. viii., pp. 198. 250.). 
In my last communication upon this subject I 
produced undeniable authority to prove that the 
law did not regard the fraction of a day ; this, I 
think, A. E. B. will admit. The question is, now, 
does the day on which a man attains his majority 
commence at six o'clock A.M., or at midnight? 
We must remember that we are dealing with a 
question of English law ; and therefore the evi- 
dence of an English decision will, I submit, be 
stronger proof of the latter mode of reckoning than 
the only positive proof with which A. E. B. has 
defended Ben Jonson's use of the former, viz. 
Roman. 

In a case tried in Michaelmas Term, 1704, 
Chief Justice Holt said : 

" It has been adjudged that if one be born the 1st of 
February at eleven at night, and the last of January in 
the twenty-first year of his age at one o'clock in the 
morning, he makes his will of lands and dies, it is a 
good will, for he was then of age." Salkeld, 44. ; 
Raymond, 480, 1096 ; 1 Siderfin, 162. 

In this case, therefore, the testator was ac- 
counted of age forty-six hours before the com- 
pletion of his twenty-first year. Now, the law 
not regarding the fraction of a day, the above 
case, I submit, clearly proves that the day, as 
regards the attainment of majority, began at mid- 
night. RUSSELL GOLE. 

Lord Halifax and Mrs. C. Barton (Vol. viii., 
pp. 429. 543.). In answer to J. W. J.'s Query, I 
beg to state that I have in my possession a codicil 
of Mrs. Conduit's will in her own hand, dated 
26th of January, 1737. This document refers to 
some theological tracts by Sir Isaac Newton, in 
his handwriting, which I have. On referring to 
the pedigree of the Barton family, I find that 
Colonel Robert Barton married Catherine Green- 
wood, whose father lived at Rotterdam, and was 
ancestor of Messrs. Greenwood, army agents. His 
issue were Major Newton Barton, who married 
Elizabeth Ekins, Mrs. Burr, and Catherine Robert 
Barton. I find no mention of Colonel Noel 
Barton. The family of Ekins had been previously 
connected with that of Barton, Alexander Ekins, 
Rector of Barton Segrave, having married Jane 
Barton of Brigstock. The writer of this note 
will be obliged if J. W. J., or any correspondent 
of " N. & Q.," will inform him if anything is 
known respecting an ivory bust of Sir Isaac 
Newton, executed by Marchand or Marchant, 
which is said to have been an excellent likeness. 

S. X. 

[The ivory bust referred to by our correspondent 
is, we believe, in the British Museum.] 

The fifth Lord Byron (Vol. viii., p. 2.). I 
cannot but think that MR. HASLEDEN'S memory 
has deceived him as to the " wicked lord " having 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



19 



settled his estates upon the marriage of his son ; 
how is this to be reconciled with the often pub- 
lished statement, that the marriage of his son with 
his cousin Juliana, daughter of the admiral, and 
aunt of the late and present lords, was made not 
only without the consent, but in spite of the oppo- 
sition, of the old lord, and that he never forgave 
his son in consequence ? J. S. WARDEN. 

Burton Family (Vol. iv., pp. 22. 124.). In 
connexion with a Query which was kindly noticed 
by MB. ALGOR of Sheffield, who did not however 
communicate anything new to me, I would ask 
who was Samuel Burton, Esq., formerly Sheriff of 
Derbyshire ; whose death at Sevenoaks, in October, 
1750, I find recorded in the Obituary of the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for that year ? I am also de- 
sirous to ascertain who was Sir Francis Cavendish 
Burton of St. Helens, whose daughter and heiress, 
Martha, married Richard Sikes, Esq., ancestor of 
the Sikes's of the Chauntry House near Newark. 
She died since 1696. Both Samuel Burton and 
Mrs. Sikes were related to the Burtons of Kilburn, 
in the parish of Horsley, near Derby, to whom my 
former Query referred. E. H. A. 

Provost Hodgson s Translation of the Atys of 
Catullus (Vol. viii., p. 563.). In answer to MR. 
GANTILLON'S inquiry for the above translation, I 
beg to state that it will be found appended to an 
octavo edition of Hodgson's poem of Lady Jane 
Grey. 

In the same volume will be found, I believe 
(for I have not the work before me), some of the 
modern Latin poetry respecting which BALLIO- 
LENSIS inquires. The justly admired translation 
of Edwin and Angelina, to which the latter refers, 
was by Hodgson's too early lost friend Lloyd. 
The splendid pentameter is slightly misquoted 
by BALLIOLENSIS. It is not 

" Poscimus in terris pauca, nee ilia diu." 
but 

" Poscimus in vita," &c. 

THOMAS ROSSELL POTTER. 

Wymeswold, Loughborough. 

Wylcotes 1 Brass (Vol. viii., p. 494.). I should 
hardly have supposed that any difficulty could 
exist in explaining the inscription : 
"In on is all." 

To me it appears self-evident that it must be 
" In one (God) is my all." 

H. C. C. 
Holy, Family of ; their Portraits, Sfc. (Vol. viii., 

p. 244.) 1 would refer J. B. WHITBORNE to 

The Antiquities of Berkshire (so miscalled), by 
Elias Ashmole; where, in treating of Bisham, that 
learned antiquary has given the inscriptions to 
the Hoby family as existing and legible in his time. 
It does not appear that Sir Philip Hoby, or 



Hobbie, Knight, was ever of the Privy Council ; 
but, in 1539, one of the Gentlemen of the Privy 
Chamber to King Henry VIII. (which monarch 
granted to him in 1546-7 the manor of Wil- 
loughby in Edmonton, co. Middlesex), Sir Thomas 
Hoby, the brother, and successor in the estates of 
Sir Philip, was, in 1566, ambassador to France ; 
and died at Paris July 13 in that same year (not 
1596), aged thirty-six. The coat of the Hobys of 
Bisham, as correctly given, is " Argent, within a 
border engrailed sable, three spindles, threaded in 
fesse, gules." A grant or confirmation of this coat 
was made by Sir Edward Bysshe, Clarenceux, to 
Peregrine Hoby of Bisham, "Berks, natural son of 
Sir Edward Hoby, Nov. 17, 1664. The Bisham 
family bore no crest nor motto. H. C. C. 

The Keate Family (Vol. viii., pp. 293. 525.) 
Should the Query of G. B. B. not be sufficiently 
answered by the extract from Mr. Burke's Extinct 
and Dormant Baronetcies of England relating to 
the Keate family, as I have a full pedigree of that 
surname, I may perhaps be able, on application, 
to satisfy him with some genealogical particulars 
which are not noticed in Mr. Burke's work. 

H. C. C. 

Sir Charles Cotterell (Vol. viii., p. 564.). Sir 
Charles Cotterell, the translator of Cassandra, 
died in 1687. (See Fuller's Worthies, by Nuttall, 
vol. ii. p. 309.) 'AAieus. 

Dublin. 

Hue's Travels (Vol. viii., p. 516.). Not having 
seen the Gardener's Chronicle, in which C. W. B. 
says the travels of Messrs. Hue and Gabet in 
Thibet, Tartary, &c. are said to be a pure fabri- 
cation, concocted by some Parisian litterateur, I 
cannot know what degree of credit, if any, is to 
be given to such a statement. All I wish to com- 
municate at present for the information of your 
Querist C. W. B. is this, that I have read an 
account and abstract of Messrs. Hue and Gabet's 
Travels in one of the ablest and best conducted 
French reviews, La Revue des Deux Mondes ; in 
which not the least suspicion of fabrication is 
hinted, or the slightest doubt expressed as to the 
genuineness of these Travels. Mr. Princep, also, 
in his work on Thibet, Tartary, &c. quotes largely 
from Hue's Travels, and avails himself exten- 
sively of the information contained in them with 
reference to Buddhism, &c. 

Should the writer in the Gardener's Chronicle 
have it in his power to prove the Travels to be a 
fabrication, he will confer a benefit on the world 
of letters by unmasking the fabricator. J. M. 

Oxford. 

Pictures at Hampton Court Palace (Vol. viii., 
p. 538.). In reply to <J>.'s question when the 
review of the 10th Light Dragoons by King 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



George III., after the Prince of Wales assumed 
the command of that regiment, I beg to state that 
the Prince entered the army as brevet-colonel, 
Nov. 19, 1782; that the regiment received the 
title of " The Prince of Wales's own Regiment of 
Light Dragoons" on Michaelmas Day, 1783: that 
the regiment was stationed in the south of England 
and in the vicinity of London for many years, 
from 1790 to 1803 inclusive; and that King 
George III. repeatedly reviewed it, accompanied 
by the queen and the royal family. That the 
Prince of Wales was appointed Colonel-command- 
ant of the corps in 1793, and succeeded Sir W. 
A. Pitt as colonel of it in July 18, 1796. That 
the regiment was reviewed on Hounslow Heath 
by the King in August, 1799 ; and the Prince of 
Wales (who commanded it in person) received 
his Majesty's orders to convey his Majesty's ap- 
probation of its excellent appearance and per- 
formance. Perhaps the picture by Sir William 
Beechey was painted in 1799, and not 1798. I 
did not find the catalogue at Hampton Court free 
from errors, when I last visited the palace] in 
October, 1852. M. A. 

Pembroke College, Oxon. 

John Waugh (Vol. viii., pp. 271. 400. 525.). 
Does KARLEOLENSIS know whether John Waugh, 
son of Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle, was married, 
and to whom ? 

Farther information of the above family would 
be most acceptable, and thankfully acknowledged, 
by George Waugh, of the family of the Waughs 
of Oulton and Lofthouse, Yorkshire. 

Exeter. 

Daughters taking their Mothers' Names (Vol. viii., 
p. 586.). When BURIENSIS asks for instances of 
this, and mentions " Alicia, daughter of Ada," as 
an example, is he not mistaking, or following some 
one else who has mistaken, the gender of the 
parent's name ? Alicia JiL Ada would be ren- 
dered ** Alice Fitz-Adam," unless there be any- 
thing in the context to determine the gender 
otherwise. J. SANSOM. 

*' Service is no Inheritance" (Vol. viii., p. 586.). 
This proverbial saying has evidently arisen from 
the old manorial right, under which the lord of 
the manor claimed suit and service and fealty 
before admitting the heir to his inheritance, or 
the purchaser to his purchase. On which occasion, 
the party admitted to the estate, whether pur- 
chaser or heir, "rfecit fidelitatem suarn et solvit 
relevium;" the relief being generally a year's 
rent or service. ANON. 

Sir Christopher Wren and the young Carver 
(Vol. viii., p. 340.). If your correspondent A. H. 
has not already appropriated the anecdote here 
alluded to, I think I can confidently refer him to 



any biographical notice of Grindling Gibbons to 
whom the story of the "Sow and Pigs" relates. 
Gibbons was recommended to Sir Christopher by 
Evelyn, I think ; but not having " made a note of 
it," I am not sure that it is to be found in his 
Diary* If there be any monograph Life of 
Gibbons, it can scarcely fail to be found there. 

M. (2) 

Souvaroff's Despatch (Vol. viii., p. 490.). 
Souvaroff's doggerel despatch from Ismail, im- 
mortalised by Byron, is, as usual, misspelt and 
mistranslated. Allow me to furnish you with what 
I have never yet seen in English, a correct version 
of it: 

" Slava Bogou, slava Vam ; 
Krepost vziala, ee ya tarn." 

" Glory to God, glory to You, 
The fortress is taken, and I am there." 

DMITRI ANDREEF. 

Detached Church Towers (Vol. viii., p. 63.). 
In the lists I have seen no mention is made of the 
fine tower of West Walton Church, which stands 
at a distance of nearly twenty yards from the 
body of the church. W. B. D. 

Lynn. 

Queen Anne's Motto (Vol. viii., p. 174.). The 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania is in possession 
of an English coat of arms, painted on wood in 
the time of Queen Anne, having " Anna R." at 
the top, and the motto Semper eadcm on the scroll 
below. It probably was in one of the Philadelphia 
court-rooms, and was taken down at the Revo- 
lution. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Lawyers' Bags (Vol. vii. passim). The 
communication of MR. KERSLEY, in p. 557., al- 
though it does not support the inference which 
COL. LANDMAN draws, that the colour of lawyers* 
bags was changed in consequence of the unpopu- 
larity which it acquired at the trial of Queen 
Caroline, seems to show that green was at one 
time the colour of those professional pouches. 
The question still remains, "when and on what 
occasion it was discontinued ; and when the pur- 
ple, and when the crimson, were introduced ? 

When I entered the profession (about fifty 
years ago), no junior barrister presumed to carry 
a bag in the Court of Chancery, unless one had 
been presented to him by a king's counsel ; who, 
when a junior was advancing in practice, took an 
opportunity of complimenting him on his increase 
of business, and giving him his own bag to carry 
home his papers. It was then a distinction to 
carry a bag, and a proof that a junior was rising 



[* See Evelyn's Diary, vol. ii. pp. 53, 54., edition 
1850. ED.] 



JAN. 7. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



in liis profession. I do not know whether the 
same custom prevailed in the other courts. 

CAUSIDICUS 

In this city (Philadelphia) lawyers formerly 
carried green bags. The custom has declined of 
late years among the members of the legal pro 
fession, and it has been taken up by journeymen 
boot and shoe makers, who thus carry their work 
to and from the workshop. A green bag is now 
the badge of a cordwainer in this city. 2!2H. 

Philadelphia. 

Bust of Luther (Vol. viii., p. 335.). MR. J. G. 
FITCH asks for information respecting a bust of 
Luther, with an inscription, on the wall of a house, 
in the Dom Platz at Frankfort on the Maine. I 
have learned, through a German acquaintance, 
who has resided the greater part of his life in that 
city, that the effigy was erected to commemorate 
the event of Luther's having, during a short stay 
in Frankfort, preached near that spot ; and that 
the words surrounding the bust were his text on 
the occasion. He adds that Luther at no period 
of his life " lived for some years" at Frankfort, as 
stated by Ma. FITCH. ALFRED SMITH. 

Grammar in relation to Logic (Vol. viii., 
pp. 514. 629.). H. C. K.'s remarks are of course 
indisputable. But it is a mistake to suppose that 
they answer my Query. In fact, had your cor- 
respondent taken the trouble to consider the 
meaning of my Query, he could not have failed to 
perceive that the explanation I there gave of the 
function of the conjunction in logic, is the same 
as his. My Query had sole reference to grammar. 
I would also respectfully suggest that anonymous 
correspondents should not impute " superficial 
views," or any other disagreeable thing, to those 
who stand confessed, without abandoning the 
pseudonym. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 



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Youth, may be commended for its natural, simple, yet 

elevated tone Essay on Human Happiness, by C. B. 

Adderley, M.P. ; the first of a series of Great Truths 
for Thoughtful Hours. A set of little books similar in 
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22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



GALLERY OF PORTRAITS. Published by Charles Knight, under 
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Among other interesting communications intended for our 
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space to postpone until next week, are MR. GUTCH'S Paper on 
Griffin and his Fidessa, MR. D'ALTON'S on James II. 's Irish 
Army List, and DR. DIAMOND'* on The Advantages of Small 
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CESTRIENSIS. We have a letter for (his Correspondent; where 
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EIRIONNACH. The letter for this Correspondent has been for- 
warded. 

W. J. L. The Merry Llyd or Hewid has already formed the 
subject of some notices in our columns: see Vol. i., pp. 173. 315. ; 
Vol. vi., p. 410. We should be glad to have any satisfactory ex- 
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J. E. (Sampford) is informed that there is no charge for the 
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F. S. A., who asks the origin of tick, 
pp. 357. 409. 502. 



referred to Vol. iii., 



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of the Earls of Stafford ; see Vol. viii., p. 454. 

J. S. A. will find the information he desires respecting the 
Extraordinary North Briton in a valuable communication from 
MR. CROSSLEY, " N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 432. 

INDEX TO VOLUME THE EIGHTH. This is in a very forward 
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Art, Is., by post free, Is. 6d. 

French Polished MAHOGANY STEREO- 
SCOPES, from- 10s. 6d. A large assortment of 
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same 
in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen, at , 
equally low prices. 

ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPES. 
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and apparatus, complete from 31. 15s., at 

C. BAKER'S, Optical and Mathematical In- 
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Important Sale of Rare Books, Books of Prints 
and Illuminated Manuscripts. 

"MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY 

111 & JOHN WILKINSON, Auctioneers 
of Literary Property and Works illustrative of 
the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on 
MONDAY, January 9, 1 854, and Three follow- 
ing Days, at 1 o'clock precisely, an Important 
COLLECTION of RARE BOOKS, Books of 
Prints, Illuminated and Historical Manu- 
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Barker, Webb et Berthelot, Histoire Naturelle 
des lies Canaries, a magnificent work, in 10 
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5 vols. in 3 ; Le Vaillant, Histoire Naturelle 
des Oiseaux, on vellum paper, the plates beau- 
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Pittoresque de Constantinople, 2 vols. in 1 ; 
Montfaucon, Antiquite Expliqute, avec Sup- 
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FranSoise, 20 vols., a most beautiful copy, in 
morocco, of the best edition, on large paper ; 
Sebse Rerum Naturalium Thesaurus, 4 vols., 
an exceedingly choice copy in rich French 
morocco ; Museum Worsleyanum, 2 vols., on 
large paper ; Shaw, Illuminated Ornaments, 
on large paper, the plates exquisitely illu- 
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Verville, Le Moyen de Parvenir, a very fine 
copy of the rarest Elzevir edition ; Cieza, 
Historic del Peru, 1560-64, rare ; Boccaccio, II 
Decamerone, Ven. 1492, extremely rare ; Con- 
solat dels Fets Maritime, very rare ; Denyaldi, 
Rollo Northmanno-Britannicus, fine copy, 
and very scarce ; Henninges. Theatrum Gene- 
alogicum, 4 vols. in 5 ; Le Merre, R. cueil des 
Notes concernant les Affaires du Clerg de 
France, 13 vols., a beautiful copy ; Mandeville, 
Le Grande Lapidaire, 1561, an extremely rare 
edition ; Renversement de la Morale Chn'- 
tienne, rare ; Verheiden in Classem Xerxis 
Hispani Oratio, very rare ; Rare Works re- 
lating to England ; Books of Emblems ; A 
curious and interesting Volume in German, 
giving an Account of the Crusades against the 
Turks by the Christians, printed byBamler, 
in 1482 ; Some highly interesting Historical 
and other Manuscripts ; Finely illuminated 
Horaj and Missals ; and an interesting Frag- 
ment in the Autograph of Rousseau. 

To be viewed Two Days prior, and Cata- 
logues had ; forwarded Free on receipt of Six 
Postage Stamps, 



PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARA- 

1 PURE CHE - 



KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, 
containing Description and Price of the best 
forms of Cameras andother Apparatus. Voight- 
lander and Son's Lenses for Portraits and 
Views, together with the various Materials, 
and pure Chemical Preparations required in 
practising the Photographic Art. Forwarded 
free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps. 

Instructions given in every branch of the. Art. 

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and 
other Photographic Specimens. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 219. 



BOOKS SUITABLE FOR CHRISTMAS 

PUBLISHED BY 

MR. JOHN HENRY PARKER, 

OXFORD ; and 377. STRAND, LONDON. 



THE BOOK OF COMMON 

PRAYER. With Fifty Illustrations, from 
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J. W. B CJRGOiSr. In One handsome Volume, 
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type, with the Rubrics in red. Elegantly bound 
in antique calf, with vermillion edges, '2l. 2s. 

DAILY CHURCH SERVICES. 

la One Portable Volume, containing the 
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or 16s. in Hayday's morocco. 
This volume will be found equally useful to 
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' r OF THE IMITATION OF 

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THE CALENDAR OF THE 

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A HISTORY of the CHURCH 

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A PLAIN COMMENTARY 

on the GOSPEL of ST. MATTHEW, with 
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WILSON'S SACRA PRI- 

VATA. From the original MSS. Second 
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A SHORT EXPLANATION 

of the NICENE CREED, for the Use of 
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A. P. FORBES, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechiu. 
Fcap. 8vo., cloth-, 6s. 

TEN SERMONS IN ILLUS- 
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STEPS TOWARDS HEAVEN. A Small 
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DESCRIPTIONS OF CA- 
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REV. C. P. WILBRAHAM. Fcap. 8vo., with 
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*** This Manual is particularly adapted to 
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TALES AND STORIES FOR 
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i6mo. <;<;. 

THE SINGERS OF THE 

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ANGELS' WORK ; or, the i 

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ANN ASH ; or, the History of 

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KENNETH ; or, the Rear 

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SPECULATION A Tale. By 

the REV. W. E. HEYGATE. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 



PASTOR OF WELBOURNE 

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tion. 18mo. Is. 

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SMAI.Ii BOOKS FOR PRE- 
SENTS. 

THE PRACTICAL CHRIS- 
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lications for General Ciiculation. 

Learn to Die ( Sutton) - 

Private Devotions (Spinckes) - 

The Imitation of Christ (;\ Kempis) - 

Manual of Prayer for the Young (Ken) 

The Golden Grove (.Taylor) 

Life of Ambrose Bonwicke 

Life of Bishop Bull (Nelson) - 

Companion to the Prayer Book - 

Selections from Hooker (Keble) - 

Practical Christian (Sherlock). Part I. 
2s. ; Part H. 2s. ; 1 vol. 

Learn to Live (Sutton) - 

Doctrine of the English Church (Heylin) 

Holy Living ( Bp. Taylor) 

Holy Dying (Bp. Taylor) 

Tracts on the Church (Jones of Nay- 
land) - 

The Figurative Language of Holy Scrip- 
ture (Jones of Naylaud) 

Confessions of St. Auzustine 

Exposi ion of the Catechism (Nicholson) 

Thoughts on Reliaion (Pascal) - 

Wilson. on the Lord's Supper 

Wilson's Sacra Privata - 



Z.XTTZ.E BOOKS FOR PRE- 

; SHUTS, 

SELECTED FROM THE PAROCHIAL 
TRACTS. 

Words of Advice and Warning, limp - 

Baptism, limp - - 

Tlie Chief Truths, limp - 

The Church Service, limp 

The Holy Catholic Church, limp 

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limp - 

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The Lord's Supper, limp - 
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Daily Office for the Use of Families, 

roan - 

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gilt 

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Devotions fur the Sick, cljth - - 2 



THE PENNY POST for 1853 

is now ready, bound in cloth, lettered, with, 
Frontispiece, price Is. 6c/. 



JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEOKOE BEM,, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan iu the West, m tue 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 1S6. Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, January 7. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

M When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 220.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 14. 1854. 



("Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5<f, 



CONTENTS. 

.NOTES : _ Page 

Griffin's "Fidessa," and Shakspeare's 

" Passionate Pilgrim" - - -27 

Caps at Cambridge - - - - 27 

Letters of Eminent Literary Men, by 

Sir Henry Ellis - - - - 28 

Newspaper Folk Lore - - - 29 
King James's Irish Army List of 1689-90, 

by John D'Alton - - - - 30 
MINOR NOTES : Authors and Publishers 
Inscriptions on old Pulpits Recent 
Curiosities of Literature Assuming 
Names False Dates in \Vater-inarks 
of Papers ..... 31 

'QUERIES ! 

Ca plain Farre - - - - 32 

Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth 

Century - - - - - 33 

Manuscript Catena - - - - 33 

MINOR QUERIES ; Jews and Egyptians 
Skin-flint - Garlic Sunday Custom 
of the Corporation of London G na- 
ral Stokes Rev. Philip Morant The 
"Position of Suffragan Bishops in Con- 
vocation Cambridge Mathematical 
Questions Crabbe MSS. Tilly, an 
Officer of the Courts at Westminster 
Mr. Gye Three Fleurs-de-Ly a The 
Commons of Ireland previous to the 
Union i n 1 801 " Al 1 Holyday at Peck- 
ham " Arthur de Vere Master of 
the Nails Nattochiis and Calehanti 
" Ned o' the Todding " - - - 34 

MINOR QCFRIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Bridget Cromwell and Fleetwood 
Culet ..... 36 



The Asteroids or recently discovered 
Lesser Planets, by the Rev. H. Walter 36 

Emblematic Meanings of Precious Stoi es 
Planets of the Months symbolised by 
Precious Stones, by W. Pinkerton - 37 

Non-recurring Diseases - 



Milton's Widow, by J. F. Marsh - - 

Table-turning, by J. Macray - - 

Celtic Etymology - - - - 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : The 
Calotype Process : curling up of Paper 

Turner's Paper A Practical Photo- 
graphic Query - - - - 

IREPLiKS TO MINOR QOERIES : "Service 
is no Inheritance" Francis Browne 

Catholic Bible S >ciety _ Legal Cus- 
toms Silo Laurie on Finance _ 
David's Mother Anagram Passage 
,in Sophocles -B.L.M.-" The For- 
lorn Hope " Two Brothers of the 
snme Christian Name Passage in 
Watson Derivation of " Mammet " 
Ampers and -Misapplication of Terms 

Belle Sanvage Arms of Geneva 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments" 

Richard I. Lord Clarendon and the 
Tnbwoman Oaths _ Double Chris- 
tian Names Chip in Porridge Cla- 
rence Dukedom Prospectuses, &c. - 



31 JSCELLANEOT'S : 

Notes on Books, Jfec. - 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 
.Notices to Correspondents - 



VOL. IX. No. 220. 



. 45 
- 46 
-45 



SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY. 

PRESIDENT His Grace the Duke of Norfolk. 

Gentlemen desiring to join the Society, are 
informed that Copies of the Rules, List of 
Members (upwards of 250), and Forms of Appli- 
cation for Admission, may be obtained from 
the Honorary Secretary. 

s. 

Annual Subscription - - - 10 
Composition for Life - - - 5 
On and after January 1, 1854, an entrance fee 
of 10s. will be required, from which those Mem- 
bers who join the Society during the present 
month, will be exempt. 

GEORGE BISH WEBB, 

Honorary Secretary. 
46. Addison Road North, Netting Hill. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

. THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTO- 
GRAPHS AND DAGUERREOTYPES, 
Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, is now open ; in the 
Morning from 10 A.M. till half-past 4 P.M., and 
in the Evening from 7 till 10. Admission 1*. 
Catalogue 6d. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITU- 
TION. _ An EXHIBITION of PIC- 
TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT S Patent 
Process, One Guinea ; Three extra Copies for 
10*. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 
168. NEW BOND STREET. 



fkUEENWOOD COLLEGE, 

V NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, HANTS. 
Principal- GEORGE EDMONDSON. 

Ifathematic* and Natural Philosophy Dr. 

Thos. A. Hirst, of the Universities of Marburg 
and Berlin. 

Chemistry. "Dr. H. Debus, late Assistant in 
the Laboratory of Professor Bunsen, and Che- 
mical Lecturer in the University of Marburg. 

Classics and History. Mr. John S. Mum- 
mery, L. C.P. 

Modern Language,?, and Foreign Literature 

Mr. John Haas, from M. de Fellenberg's In- 
stitution, Hofwyl, Switzerland. 

Geodesy. Mr. Richard P. Wright. 

Painting and Drawing. Mr. Richard P. 
Wrignt. 

English, and Junior Mathematics. Fre- 
derick Iliff, M.A.. late Scholar of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and M.C.P. 

Ditto. Mr. William Singleton. 
J^wc.-Mr. William Cornwall. 

TERMS. 
For Boys under 12 years of age 40?. per ann. 



from 12 to 16 
above 16 



- 50 



For further information see Prospectus, to 
be had of the Principal. 

The First Session, of 1854 commences on the 
26th of January. 



IN VOLUMES FOR THE POCKET, PRICE 

FIVE SHILLINGS EACH. 

Now ready, in Six Volumes, fcp. 8vo., price Ss. 

each. 

BOWDLER'S FAMILY SHAK- 
1 SPEARE. In which nothing is added 
to the Original Text ; but those Words and 
Expressions are omitted which cannot with 
propriety be read aloud in a Family. A New- 
Edition. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN. 
& LONGMANS. 



In 8vo. with woodcuts, price 60s. ; or half 
bound in russ ia , 65s. 

BRANDE'S DICTIONARY 
OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND 
ART. Second Edition, corrected ; with a Sup- 
plement, which may be had separately, price 
3s. &d. 

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN. 
& LONGMANS. 



NOW READY, MR. DOD'S PEERAGE, &c. 

New Edition for 185* ; thoroughly revised, with, 
many Improvements. 

PEERAGE, BARONETAGE, 

JL KNIGHTAGE, &c.,for 1954 (Fourteenth 
Year) : by CHARLES R. DOD, Esq., Author 
of " The Parliamentary Companion," "Elec- 
toral Facts," &c. Fcp. 8vo., handsomely 
bound in cloth, gilt. 

WHITTAKER & CO., Ave-Maria Lane. 



Just published, to be continued Monthly, 
No. I., price 2s. 6d. of 

HTHE AUTOGRAPH MISCEL- 

JL LANY. A Collection of Interesting 
Letters of Emiaent and Distinguished Charac- 
ters ; with curious Public and Historical Docu- 
ments, English and Foreign, executed in 
Lithograph Fac-simile. Selected from the 
British Museum, and from other sources. 
Public and Private. 

London : F. NETHERCLIFT & DURLA- 
CHER, Lithographers and General Printers, 
18. Brewer Street, Golden Square. 



THE SACRED GARLAND, or 

J_ THE CHRISTIAN'S DAILY DE- 
LIGHT. 

" Pluck a Flower." 

A New Edition of the above excellent and 
popular work will shortly be published in large 
type, crown 8vo., and may be obtained of any 
Respectable bookseller in town or country. 
MILNER Si SOWERBY, Halifax. 



PHYSIOGNOMY OF IN- 

. SANITY. -A Series of Photographic 
Portraits from the Life, 

By DR. HUGH W. DIAMOND, F.S.A., 

with brief Medical Notes. Tb be published in 
occasional Parts, small quarto. 

S. HIGIILEY, 32. Fleet Street. 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



PROSPECTUS AND LIST ARCHJEOI.O&ZC AX, WORKS 



OXFOPJ) POCKET CLASSICS, 

A NEW SERIES OF THE GREEK AND 
LATIN CLASSICS FOR THE USE OF 
SCHOOLS. 



The want of a good Series of Greek and Latin 
Classics, suited to the Use of Schools, with the 
English mode of Punctuation, and under 
English Editorship, has long been felt ; and it 
is a matter of wonder that our Schools should 
so long have been obliged to depend on Ger- 
many for accurate Greek and Latin texts. 

To meet this want, the " OXFORD POCKET 
CLASSICS" were commenced some years 
back, and each year has added some three or 
four authors to the collection. 

The Series now consists of about Thirty 
Volumes. 

The advantages of this Series of Classics are, 
that they are printed from the best texts ex- 
tant ; and not only this, but each volume has, 
during its progress through the press, been 
superintended by some competent member of 
the University. There have also been supplied, 
where necessary, SUMMARIES, CHRONO- 
LuGICAL TABLES, BIOGRAPHICAL 
NOTICES, INDICES, and the like aids 
which are often wanting in other editions. 
Lastly, they are printed in a good plain type, 
and on a firm, fine paper, capable of receiving 
writing inks, for notes, and at the same time 
they are supplied at moderate prices. 

It is hoped that the advantages which the 
"OXFORD POCKET CLASSICS" possess 
over other Series will not fail to increase the 
circulation which they have already attained 
in both our public and private Schools, as also 
in our Universities. 

PRICES OF THE OXFORD POCKET 
CLASSICS. 

Paper. Bound. 

. d. s. d. 

jEschylus - - - 2 6 30 

Aristophanes. 2 vols. - - 5 60 

Aristotelis Ethica - - 1 6 20 

Caesar - - - -20 26 

Cornelius Nepos - - 1 14 
Demosthenes de Corona et 

^schines in Cteaphontem 16 20 

Euripides. 3 vols. - - 5 66 

Trago3diae Sex - 3 36 

Herodotus. 2 vols. - - 5 60 

Homeri Ilias - - - 3 36 

Odyssea - -26 30 

Huratius- - - - 1 6 20 

Juvenalis et Persius - - 1 16 

Livius. 2 vols. - - - 5 60 

Lu.-anus - - - -20 26 

Lucretius - - - 2 6 30 

Phtedrus - - - - 1 14 

Sallustius - - - 1 6 20 

Sophocles - - - 2 6 30 

Tacitus. 2 vols. - - 4 50 

Thucydides. 2 vols. - - 4 50 

Virgilius - - - -20 26 

Xenophontis Memorabilia - 1 14 

POET2E SCENICI GR^ECI, 19s. paper, 
21s. bound. 

A Liberal Discount is allowed from these 
prices to Schools, and where Numbers are re- 
quired. 

Short Notes to accompany the Texts of the 
OXFORD POCKET CLASSICS are now in 
course of publication, calculated as well for the 
use of schools as for the junior members of the 
Universities. 

Of SOPHOCLES are already published : 

s. d. 

The AJAX (including the Text) - 1 

The ELECTRA (ditto) - - - 1 

The CEDIPUS REX (including the 

Text) 10 

The ffiDIPUS COLONEUS - - 1 

The other Plays are in preparation. 

Of AESCHYLUS is already published, 

The PROMETHEUS VINCTUS (with 

TexU, Is.; the SEP TEM CONTKATHEBAS, 

Is. ; the PERSJE, Is. 

The other Plays are in preparation. 

The Six Plays of EURIPIDES are also in 
preparation. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 
337. Strand, London. 



JOHN YOXGE AKERMAN, 

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE 
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LON- 
DON. 



AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, 
Romano-British, and Anglo-axon Periods. 
1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth, illustrated by nu- 
merous Enarn.vings, comprising upwards of 
five hundred objects. 

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL. 

i 1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea. 

*** The Plates which illustrate this Vo- 
lume are upon a novel plan, and will, at a 
glanc , convey more information regarding 
! the types of Greek, Rom an, and English Coins, 
i than can be obtained by many hours' careful 
j reading. Instead of a fac-simile Engraving 
] being given of that which is already an enigma 
| to the tyro, the most strik ing am! characteristic 
features of the Coin are dissected and placed by 
themselves, so that the eye soon becomes fa- 
miliar with them. 

A DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 

! LOGUE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, 
i from the Earliest Period to the taking of Rome 
i under Const-mtine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo., 
numerous Plates, 30s. 

COINS OF THE ROMANS 

relating to Britain. 1 vol.Svo. Second Edition, 
with an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 6cZ. j 

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES 

and Princes, Geographically arranged and de- 
scribed, containing the Coins of Hispania, 
Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of several 
hundred examples. 1 vol. 8vo., price 18s. 

NEW TESTAMENT, Numis- 

matic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions 

of the Fine paper, numerous Woodcuts from 

the original Coins in various Public and Pri- 
vate Collections. 1 vol. 8vo., price 5s. 6rf. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO 

THE STUDY of ANCIENT and MODERN 
COINS. In 1 vol. fcp. 8vo., with numerous 
Wood Engravings from the original Coins, 
price 6s. 6d. cloth. 

CONTENTS: Section 1. Origin of Coinage 
Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek Civic Coins. 3. 
Greek Imperial Coins. 4. Origin of Roman 
Coinage Consular Coins. 5. Roman Imperial 
I Coins. 6. Roman British Coins. 7. Ancient 
I British Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 
9. Fnglish Coinage from the Conquest. 10. 
Scotch Co'nage. 11. Coinage of Ireland. 12. 
Anglo-GalTc Coins. 13. Continental Money 
in the Middle Ages. 14. Various Representa- 
tives of Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and 
Modern Times. 16. Table of Prices of English 
Coins realised at Public Sales. 

TRADESMEN'S TOKENS, 

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now in possession of the genuine text of this 
important work. 

OXFORD: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

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THE IPHIGENIA in TAURIS 
of EURIPIDES, explained by F. G. 
SOIGNE. Translated from the Grrman by the 
REV. HENRY BROWNE M.A.. Canon of 
Chichester. (Forming a New Volume of 
ARNOLD'S SCHOOL CLASSICS.) 

Lately published, in this Series, 

the following PLAYS of EURIPIDES, edited, 
with ENGLISH NOTTS, by the REV. T. K. 
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M.A. 

1. MEDEA. -2. BACCHJE 

3. HIPPOLYTUS. - 4. HECUBA. Price 3s. 
each. 

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price f.s. 

THE ETYMOLOGICAL COM- 

L PENDIUM : or. PORTFOLIO OF 

ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS: relating to 

Language, Litera'ure. and Government. 

Architecture ami Sculpture. 

Drama, Music, Painting, and Scientific Disco- 
veries. 

Articles of Dress, &c. 

Titles. Dignities, &e. 

Names, Trades, Professions. 

Parliament, Laws, &-c. 

Universities and Religious Sects. 

Epithets and Phrases. 

Remarkable Customs. 

Games. Field Sports. 

Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week. 

Remarkable Localities, &c. &c. 

By WILLIAM PULLEYN. 

The Third Edition, revised and improved, 
By MERTON A. THOMS, E>Q. 

"The additions to this book indicate the 
editor to be his father's own son. He deals in 
folk lore, chronicles old customs and popular 
sayincrs, and has an eye to all things curious 
and note-worthy. Thp book tells every thing.' r 
Gentleman's Magazine. 

" The book contains avast amount of curious 
information and useful memoranda." Lite- 
rary Gazette. 

" An invaluable manual of amusement and: 
information." Morning Chronicle. 

" This is a work of great practical usefulness. 
It is a Notes and Queries in mi' iature. . . . 
The revision which the present edition of it has 
undergone has greatly enhanced its original 
value. -Era. - 

London : WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 



JAX. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1854. 



GRIFFIN'S " FID ESS A," AND SIIAKSPEARE'S " PAS- 
SIONATE PILGRIM." 

I am the fortunate possessor of a thin volume, 
entitled Fidessa, Collection of Sonnets, by 
B. Griffin, reprinted 1811, from the edition of 
1596, at the Chiswick Press; I presume, by the 
monogram at the end, by Mr. S. W. Singer. 

The title of the original edition is Fidessa, more 
Chaste then Kinde, by B. Griffin, Gent, at London, 
printed by the Widdow Orwin, for Matthew 
Lownes, 1596. 

The advertisement prefixed by Mr. Singer to 
the reprint states, that the original is one of the 
rarest of those that appeared at the period in which 
it is dated ; that he is not aware of the existence 
of more than two copies, from one of which the 
reprint is taken, and that the other was in the 
curious collection of the late Mr. Malone. 

Besides the rarity of Fidessa, Mr. Singer states 
that it claims some notice from the curious reader 
on account of a very sti iking resemblance between 
Griffin's third sonnet, and one of Shakspeare's, in 
his Passionate Pilgrim (Sonnet ix.). 

I will transcribe both sonnets, taking Griffin's 
first, as it bears the earliest date. 
" Venus, and yong Adonis sitting by her, 

Under a myrtle shade began to woo him : 
She told the yong-ling how god Mars did trie her, 

And as he fell to her, so fell she to him. 
4 Even thus,' quoth she, 'the wanton god embrac'd 

me,' 

And then she clasp'd Adonis in her armes. 
'Even thus,' quoth she, 'the warlike god unlac'd 

me,' 

As if the boy should use like loving charms. 
But lie, a wayward boy, refusde her offer, 

And ran away, the beautious Queene neglecting: 
Showing both tolly to abuse her proffer, 
A nil all his sex of cowardise detecting. 
Oh ! that I had my mistris at that bay, 
To kisse and clippe me till I ranne away !" 

Sonnet in., from Fidessa. 
41 Fair* Venus, with Adonis sitting by her, 

Under a myrtle shade, began to woo him ; 
She told the youngling how god Mars did try her, 

And as he fell to her, she fell to him. 
4 Even thus,' quoth she, 4 the warlike god embrac'd 

me,' 

And then she clipp'd Adonis in her arms : 
4 Even thus,' quoth she, ' the warlike god unlac'c 

me,' 
As if the hoy should use like loving charms : 



* The early copies read " Venus, with Adonis sitting 
by her ; " the defective word was added at Dr. Farmer' 
suggestion. Had he seen a copy of Fidessa, the tru 
reading might perhaps have been restored. (Note by 
Mr. Singer.) 



Even thus,' quoth she, 'he seized on my lips,' 
And with her lips on his did act the seizure ; 

And as she fetched breath, away he skips, 

And would not take her meaning nor her pleasure. 

Ah ! that I had my lady at this bay, 

To kiss and clip me till I run away !" 

Sonnet ix., from Shakspeare's Passionate Pilgrim. 

That the insertion of Griffin's sonnet in the Pas- 
ionate Pilgrim was without Shakspeare's consent 
>r knowledge, is in my opinion evident for many 
easons. 

I have long been convinced that the Passionate 
Pilgrim was published surreptitiously ; and al- 
though it bears Shakspeare's name, the sonnets 
and ballads of which it is composed were several 
of them taken from his dramas, and added to by 
selections from the poems of his cotemporaries, 
Raleigh, Marlow, and others ; that it was a book- 
seller's job, made up for sale by the publisher, 
W. Jaggard. 

No one can believe that Shakspeare would have 
been guilty of such a gross plagiarism. Griffin's 
Fidessa bears date 1596 : the first known edi- 
tion of the Passionate Pilgrim was printed for 
W. Jaggard, 1599. It has no dedication to any 
patron, similar to Shakspeare's other poems, the 
Venus and Adonis, the Rape of Lucre ce, and the 
Sonnets; and why it bears the title of the Pas- 
sionate- Pilgrim no one has ascertained. 

But I am losing sight of the object I had in 
view when I took up my pen, which was, through 
the medium of "N. & Q.," to request any of its 
readers to furnish me with any particulars of 
B. Griffin, the author of Fidessa. 

Mr. Singer supposes him to have been of a 
Worcestershire family : as he addresses his " poore 
pamphlet" for patronage to the gentlemen of the 
Innes of Court, he might probably have been bred 
to the law. 

Perhaps your correspondents CUTHBERT BEDE, 
or MR. NOAKE, the Worcestershire rambler, might 
in their researches into vestry registers and parish 
documents, find some notice of the family. I am 
informed there was a gentleman of the name 
resident in our college precincts early in the 
present century, that he was learned and respected, 
but very eccentric. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 



CAPS AT CAMBRIDGE. 

At the congregation in the Senate House at 
Cambridge, Nov. 23, presided over by the Prince 
Chancellor, it was observed that the undergra- 
duates in the galleries (for want I suppose of an 
obnoxious Vice-Chancellor or Proctor upon whom 
to vent their indignation) poured it forth in yells 
and groans upon those members of the senate who 
kept on their hats or caps. The same has been 
done on several former occasions. It probably 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



arises from a mistake, in ascribing to the gaucherie 
of individuals what is really the observance of a 
very ancient custom. The following extract, from 
an unpublished MS. of the middle (I think) of 
the seventeenth century, in which the custom is 
incidentally noticed, will serve for a confirmation 
of what I say : 

" When I was regent, the whole house of congre- 
gation joyncd together in a petition to the Earle of 
Pembroke to restore unto us the jus pileorum, the 
licence of putting on our cappes at our publicke meet- 
ings ; which priviledge time and the tyrannic of our 
vicechancellours had taken from us. Amongst other 
motives, we use the solemne forme of creating a M r in 
the Acte by putting on his cappe, and that that signe 
of libertie might distinguish us which were the Regents 
from those boyes which wee were to governe, which 
request he graciouslie granted." 

This was written by an M.A. of Oxford. At 
Cambridge we have not hitherto had such haughty 
despots in authority, to trample upon our rights ; 
but we seem to be in danger of losing our jus pile.- 
orum through "the tyrannic," not of our Vice- 
Chancellors, but " of those boyes which wee are 
to governe." A REGENT M.A. OF CAMBRIDGE. 

Lincoln's Inn. 



LETTERS OF EMINENT LITERARY MEN. 

(Continued from p. 8.) 
IV. 

Dr. John Ward, Professor of GresJiarn College, to 
Dr. Gary, Bishop of Clonfert. 

[MS. Donat., Brit. Mus., 6226, p. 16.] 

My Lord, 

While there was any expectation of your Lord- 
ship's speedy return to England, I forbore to con- 
gratulate you on your late promotion. For though 
none of your friends could more truly rejoice at 
this news than I did, both on your own account, 
and that of the public ; yet in the number of com- 
pliments which I was sensible you must receive on 
that occasion, I chose rather to be silent for fear 
of being troublesome. But as I find it is now- 
uncertain, when your affairs may permit of your 
return hither, I could not omit this opportunity 
by your good Lady to express my hearty congra- 
tulation upon the due regard shown by the Govern- 
ment to your just merit ; and shall think it an 
honour to be continued in your esteem as ultimus 
amicorum. fc 

I doubt not but* your Lordship has seen Mr. 
Horsley's Britannia Romano, advertised in some of 
our public Papers ; but I know not whether you 
have heard that the author died soon after he had 
finished the work, before its publication. When it 
was hoped that the credit of this book might have 
been of some service to him and his large family, 



he was suddenly and unexpectedly taken off by 
an Apoplexy. Such is the uncertainty of all 
human affairs. That your Lordship may be long 
preserved in your high station for the good of the 
Protestant Religion, and the support of public 
liberty, are the sincere wishes of, 

My Lord, 
Your Lordship's obed* Serv*. 

JOHN WARD. 
Gresham College, 
April 24, 1732. 

V. 

Mr. Michael Mattaire to the Earl of Oxford. 

1736, Oct. 21. Orange Street. 
My Lord, 

After my most humble thanks for the continu- 
ation of Westminster Elections' you was so kind 
as to give me, I must acquit myself of my promise ; 
and therefore I herewith send your Lordship a 
copy transcrib'd exactly from the MS. given me 
by Dr. South himself of his verses upon West- 
minster School, with his name, and the year sub- 
scribed at bottom. They were indeed publish'd 
among his Opera Posthuma Latina Anon. 1717, by 
Curl, after his impudent way of dealing with dead 
authors' works ; and sometimes also with those of 
the living. 

Curl's printed copy differs from the MS. in these 
following places : 

Curl MS. 

Vers. 5. Multum. Late. 

16. Et. dum. 

21. ubi regnat. quod regnet. 

23. aemula. scmula, but over it ardua. 

25. dirigit. digerit. 

26. nitent. micant. 

29. studiosae. studiosa. 

30. ilia. ipsa. 
33. lumen. Lucem. 

Your Lordship by this may see how much this 
sawcy fellow has abused this learned man's fine 
copy of verses ; and how justly he deserved the 
correction which was inflicted on him at that 
school. 

By the tenth Distich it appears that the School 
(containing then Tercentum juvenes) was managed 
by three Masters onely : and, for aught we know, 
might flourish pretty well, though it had not twice 
that number. 

Give me leave, my Lord, to subscribe myself 
with profound respect, 

Your Honor/ 1 s 

most oblig'd, most obedient, 
and most humble Serv*. 

M. MAITTAIRE. 

"IN INCLYTAM SCHOLAM REGIAM WESTMONASTERIENSEM. 

Reginne funclata manu, Regina scholarum ; 
Quam Virgo extruxit, Musaq; Virgo colit. 



JAN. H. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



Inconfusa Babel, linguis et mole superba j 

Celsior et fama, quam fuit ilia situ. 
Gentibus et linguis late celebrata ; tacere 

De qua nulla potest, nee satis ulla loqui. 
Opprobria exuperans, pariterq; encomia : Linguis 

Et tot laudari digna, quot ipsa doces. 
Haebranis Graecusq; uno cernuntur in Anglo ; 

Qui puer hue Anglus venerat exit Arabs. 
Tercentum hie florent juvenes : mihi mira videtur 

Tarn numerosa simul, tam quoque docta cohors, 
Sic numero bonitas, numerus bonitate relucet j 

Ut Stellas pariter lux numerusq; decet. 
Arte senes, annis pueros mirabitur hospes ; 

Dtim stupet, in pueris nil puerile videns. 
Consurgit, crescitq; puer, velut Hydra sub ictu; 

Florescitq; suis saspe rigatus aquis. 
Stat regimen triplici fasces moderante magistro ; 

Doctaq; Musarum regna Triumvir habet. 
Scilicet has inter sedes quod regnet Apollo, 

Optime Apollineus comprobat ille Tripos. 

ardua 
Sic super invidiam sese effert asmula ; nullis 

Invida, sed cunctis invidiosa scholis. 
Inde in septenas se digerit ordine classes; 

Disposit^, septem, qua? velut Astrae, mi cant. 
Discit et Authores propria inter mcenia natos ; 

Et generosa libros, quos legit, ipsa parit. 
Instar Araneolai Studiosa has exhibet artes; 

Quas de visceribus texuit ipsa suis. 
Literulas docet hie idem Preceptor et Author, 

Idem discipulis Bibliotheca suis. 
Accipit hie lucem, non ultra caecus, Homerus : 

Hue vcnit a Scythicis Naso reversus agris. 
Utraq; divitijs nostris Academia crescit ; 

Hajc Schola ad implendas sufficit una duas. 
Sic Fons exiguus binos excurrit in Amnes : 

Parnassi geminus sic quoque surgit Apex. 
Huic collata igitur, quantum ipsa Academia prccstat : 

Die, precor ; Ha?c doctos accipit, Ilia facit. 

ROB. SOUTH. 
Ann. Dom. 1652, 

aut 1653." 
[MS. Harl. 7025, fols. 184, 185.] 

VI. 

The Earl of Orrery to Mr., afterwards Dr. 
Thomas Birch. 



[Addit. MS., Brit. Mus., 4303, Art. 147. 

Caledon, Sept. 21, 1748. 
Dear Sir, 

It either is, or seems to be, a long time since I 
heard from you. Perhaps you are writing the 
very same sentence to me ; but as the loss is on 
my side, you must give me leave to complain. 

This summer has passed away in great idleness 
and feasting : so that I have scarce looked into a 
book of any sort. Mrs. Pilkington and Con. 
Philips, however, have not escaped me. I was 
obliged to read them to adapt myself to the con- 
versation of my neighbours, who have talked upon 
no other topic, notwithstanding the more glorious 
subjects of Peace, and LordAnson's voyage. The 



truth is, we are better acquainted with the stile of 
Con. and Pilky, than with the hard names and 
distant places that are mentioned in the Voyage 
round the World. 

I have not peeped into the Anti-Lucretius : it 
is arrived at Caledon, and reserved for the longest 
evenings. Carte's voluminous History is weighing 
down one of my shelves. He likewise is postponed 
to bad weather, or a fit of the gout. Last week 
brought us the first Number of Con's second 
volume. She goes on triumphantly, and is very 
entertaining. Her sister Pilkington is not so for- 
tunate. She has squandered away the money she 
gained by her first volume, and cannot print her 
second. But from you, I hope to hear of books of 
another sort. A thin quarto named Louthiana is 
most delicately printed, and the cuts admirably 
engraved : and yet we think the County of Louth 
the most devoid of Antiquities of any County in 
Ireland. The County of Corke is, I believe, in 
the press ; and I am told it will be well executed. 
I have seen the County of Waterford, and approve 
of it very much. These kind of Books are owing 
to an Historical Society formed at Dublin, and of 
great use to this kingdom, which is improving in 
all Arts and Sciences very fast : tho' I own to you, 
the cheapness of French Claret is not likely to 
add much at present to the encrease of literature. 
If all true Hibernians could bring themselves to be 
of your opinion and Pindar's, the glorious memory 
of King William might keep the head cool, and 
still warm the heart ; but, alas, it sets both on fire : 
and till these violent fits of bacchanalian loyalty 
are banished from our great tables, I doubt few 
of us shall ever rise higher in our reading than 
the Memoirs of that kind I first mentioned. 

I am, Dear Sir, and so is all my family, truly 

Yours, 

ORRERY. 
To the Rev. Mr. Thomas Birch, 

at his House in 

Norfolk Street, 

London. 

Free (Boyle). 



NEWSPAPER FOLK LORE. 

The following paragraph is now going the round 
of the newspapers without reference to the source 
of information. I copy it from the Morning 
Chronicle of Friday, December 9. 

" Escape of a Snake from a Man's Mouth. An ex- 
traordinary circumstance occurred a few days ago to 
Jonathan Smith, gunner's mate, who was paid off at 
Portsmouth on the 6th of May last, from her Majesty's 
ship Hastings, 72 guns, on her return to England from 
the East Indies. He obtained six weeks' leave. On 
the expiration of that time, after seeing his friends at 
Chatham, he joined the Excellent, gunnery-ship at 
Portsmouth. After some time he was taken unwell, 



30 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 220. 



his illm-ss increased, and he exhibited a swelling in his 
stomach and limbs. The surgeon considering that it 
arose from dropsy, he was removed into Haslar Hos- 
pital, and after much painful suffering, although he had 
every attention paid to him by the medical officers of 
the establishment, he died. Two hours before his 
death a living snake, nine inches in length, came out of 
his mouth, causing considerable surprise. How the 
reptile got into his stomach is a mystery. It is sup- 
posed that the deceased must have swallowed the 
reptile when it was young, drinking water when the 
Hastings was out in India, as the ship laid for some 
time at Trincomalee, and close to a small island called 
Snake Island. The crew used very often to find snakes 
on board. The way they used to get into the ship was 
by the cable, and through the hawsers into the fore- 
castle. The deceased was forty years of age. He was 
interred in Kingston churchyard. His remains were 
followed to the grave by the ship's company of the 
Excellent." 

The proverbial wisdom of the serpent is here 
clearly exemplified. It lias long been well known 
among sailors that rats have the sense to change 
their quarters when a vessel becomes cranky ; 
whence I believe arises the epithet " rat," which 
is sometimes scurrilously applied to a politic man 
who removes to the opposition benches when he 
perceives symptoms of dissolution in tl*e ministry. 
The snake, in the simple narrative above quoted, 
was evidently guided by some such prudential 
motive when he quitted the stomach of the dying 
sailor, which could not continue for any great 
length of time to afford protection and support to 
the cunning reptile. 

I have an amiable friend who habitually swallows 
with avidity the tales of sea-serpents which are 
periodically imported into this country on American 
bottoms, and I have sufficient credulity myself to 
receive, without 'strict examination into evidence, 
the account of the swarming of the snakes up the 
cables into a ship ; but I cannot so readily believe 
that " considerable surprise " was caused in the 
mind of any rational biped by the fact that a 
living snake, which had attained to the length of 
nine inches, took the very natural precaution to 
come out of a dying man's mouth. 

How the reptile got into his stomach is a 
mystery which the newspaper writer lias attempted 
to clear up, but he has not attempted to explain 
how the reptile managed to live during many 
months in so unusual a habitation as a man's 
stomach. 

Some obliging correspondent of " N. & Q." will 
perhaps have the kindness to explain this remark- 
able fact in natural history. A LONDONER. 



KING JAMES S IRISH ARMY LIST OP 1689-90. 

In last September I undertook a literary pro- 
ject, which I think could be greatly aided through 
the medium of " N. & Q.," as there 'are few families 
in the empire that are not connected with its de- 
tails, and who might therefore be expected to feel 
interested in them. The project I allude to is a 
publication of King James's Irish Army List of 
1689.-90. King I must call him in reference to 
that list. Those that appear upon it were many 
his creedmen, and all his devoted adherents. The 
list, of which I have a copy in MS., extends over 
thirty-four pages octavo. The first two are filled 
with the names of all the colonels ; the four en- 
suing are rolls of the regiments of horse ; the four 
next, of the dragoons; and the remaining twenty- 
four record the foot : each regiment being ar- 
ranged, with the colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and 
major at head, and the captains, lieutenants, cor- 
nets or ensigns, and quarter-masters, in columns, 
on each respectively. To every regiment I pro- 
posed to append notices, historic and genealogical, 
to the extent of, perhaps, eight hundred pages or 
more, for the compilation of which I have ample 
materials in my own MS. collections. These no- 
tices I propose to furnish under him of the name 
who ranks highest on the list ; and all the scat- 
tered officers of that name will be collected in that 
one article. 

After an especial and full notice of such officer, 
to whom the family article is attach jd, his parent- 
age, individual achievements, descendants, &c., 
each illustration will briefly glance at the gene- 
alogy of that family, with, if an Irish sept, its 
ancient localities ; if an English or Scotch, the 
county from whence it branched, and the period 
when it settled here. 

I would next identify each family, so illustrated, 
with its attainders and forfeitures in 1641 ; 

With the great Assembly of Confederate Ca- 
tholics at Kilkenny in 1646 ; 

With the persons denounced by name in Crom- 
well's ordinance of 1652, "for settling Ireland ;" 

With the declaration of royal gratitude to the 
Irish exiles who served King Charles II. "in parts 
beyond the seas," as contained in the Act of Ex- 
planation of 1665 ; 

With (if space allowable) those advanced by 
James II. to civil offices, as sheriffs, &c., or mem- 
bers of his new corporations ; 

With those who represented Irish counties or 
boroughs in the Parliament of Dublin in 1689 ; 

With the several outlawries and confiscations of 
1691, &c.; 

With the claims that were subsequently (in 
1703) preferred as charges on these forfeitures, 
and how far allowed or dismissed ; 

And, lastly, as far as attainable, their achieve- 
ments in the glorious engagements of the Spanish 
and French Brigades : 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



31 



All statements throughout being verified by 
authorities. 

Already have I compiled and arranged the ma- 
terials for illustrating the eight regiments of horse 
upon this roll, viz. Tyrconnel's, Galmoy's, Sars- 
field's, Abercom's, Luttrell's, Sutherland's, Par- 
ker's, and Purcell's ; a portion of the work in 
which, according to my plan, the illustrations will 
be appropriated to the families of 

Aylmer. Lawless. Prendergast. 

- Barnewall. Luttrell. Purcel. 

Butler. Matthews. Redmond. 

Callaghan. M'Donnell. Rice. 

Cusack. M'Namara. Roche. 

De Courcy. Meara. Sarsfield. 

Dempsey. Morris. Sheldon. 

Everard. Nagle. Synnott. 

Gernon. O'Sullivan. Talbot. 

Hamilton. O'Kelly. c. &c. 

Kearney. Plunket. 

And this section (about 100 pages) is open to 
inspection on appointment. 

The above is but a tithe of the surnames whose 
genealogical illustrations I propose to furnish. 
The succeeding portions of the work, comprising 
six. regiments of Dragoons, and upwards of fifty 
of Foot, will offer for notice, besides numerous 
septs of the O's and Mac's, the Anglo-Irish names 
of 



Barry. 

Bellew. 

Bermingham. 

Burke. 

Cheevers. 

Cruise. 

D'Alton. 

Daly. 

D'Arcy. 

Dillon. 

Dowdall. 



Eustace. 

Fagan. 

Fitz Gerald. 

Fitz Maurice. 

Fitz Patrick. 

Fleming. 

Grace. 

Keatinge. 

Lacy. 

Nangle. 

Netterville. 



Nugent. 
Power. 
Preston. 
Russell. 
Savage. 
Segrave. 
Taaffe. 
Trant. 
Tyrrel. 
Wogan. 
Cum multis aliis. 



My inquiry touching Lord Dover, who heads 
the List, has heretofore elicited much curious in- 
formation ; and 1 confide that all who can afford 
literary assistance to the undertaking, by let- 
ters, inspection of documents, or otherwise, will 
promptly communicate on the subject. 

JOHN D'ALTON. 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 



Authors and Publishers. As " N. & Q." is, 
I believe, much read by booksellers as well as 
authors, would not both parties find great advan- 
tage by the latter advertising in your pages the 
completion and wished-for publication of any work 
on which they may have been engaged ? Pub- 
lishers, in this way, might hear of works which 



they would be glad to bring before the public, and 
authors be spared much unnecessary and often 
useless trouble and correspondence. Authors, I 
know, may feel some delicacy in coming before the 
world in this manner before publication, although 
after that rubicon is passed, their names and pro- 
ductions are blazoned on all the winds ; but as a 
previous announcement in " N. & Q." may be 
made anonymously, as respects the name of the 
writer, although not of course as regards the nature 
of his work, there seems no just reason why honor- 
able and beneficial arrangements may not be made 
in this way as well as by any other. To nie this 
plan seems to offer some' advantages, and I throw 
out the hint for the consideration of all whom it 
may concern.* ALPHA. 

Inscriptions on old Pulpits. "N. & Q." has 
given many kinds of inscriptions, from those on 
Fonts and Door-heads down to those on Watch- 
papers ; perhaps, therefore, it may not be without 
its use or interest to make a beginning for a list 
of inscriptions on old pulpits. The first inscrip- 
tion I quote is from Richard Baxter's pulpit, of 
which 1 have given a full description in Vol. v., 
p. 363. : 

1. Kidderminster. Baxter's pulpit (now pre- 
served in the vestry of the Unitarian Chapel). 
On the panels of the pulpit : 

"ALICE . DAWKX , WIDOW . GAVE . THIS." 
On the front of the preacher's desk : 

" PRAISE . THE . LORD." 

Round the sounding-board : 

" O . GIVE . THANKS . UNTO . THE . LORD' . AND . CALL 

UPOX . HIS . NAME . DECLARE . HIS . WORSHIP 

AMONG . THI . PEOPLE." 

At the back of the pulpit : 

"ANNO . 1621." 

2. Suckley, Worcestershire; round the sound- 
ing-board (apparently of very old date) : 

"BLESSED . ARE . THEY. THAT . HEAR . THE . WORDE . or 

GOD . AND . KEEPE . IT." 

3. Broadwas, Worcestershire ; on the panels : 

" WILLIAM . NOXON . AND . ROGER . PRINCE . C . W . 1632." 

Round the sounding-board, the same text as at 
Suckley. CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Recent Curiosities of Literature. Thackeray, 
in the second number of The Newcomes, describes 
an old lady's death as being caused from her head 
having been cut with a bed-room candle. N. P. 
Willis, in his Health Trip to the Tropics, speaks 

[* Any assistance which we can afford in carrying 
out this suggestion, which we may remark cotnes from 
one who has had practical experience on the subject, 
we shall be most happy to render. 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



of being waited on by a Carib, who had " no beard 
except a long moustache." Professor Spalding, 
of St. Andrew's, in his History of English Litera- 
ture, says that the sonnets of Wordsworth " have 
a perfection hardly to be swpassed." And J. 
Stanyan Bigg (the "new poet"), in the December 
number of Hogg's Instructor, exclaims : 

"The winter storms come rushing round the wall, 
Like him who at Jerusalem shriek'd out ' Wo ! ' " 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Assuming Names. Last Term, in the Court of 
Exchequer, application was made by counsel to 
add a surname to the name of an attorney on the 
roll; he having been left property with a wish 
expressed that he should take the surname in 
addition to his own, which he had done, but not 
by royal license. The court granted the applica- 
tion. (Law Times, vol. xxii. p. 123.) ANON. 

False Dates in Water-marks of Papers. Lately, 
in cutting up some paper for photographic pur- 
poses, I found in one and the same quire two 
sheets without any mark, two of the date 1851, 
nine bearing the date 1853, and the remaining 
eleven were 1854. I can imagine a case might 
occur in which the authenticity of a document 
might be much questioned were it dated 1853, 
when the paper would be presumed not to have 
been made until a year afterwards. I think this 
is worth making a note of not only by lawyers, 
but those interested in historical documents. 

H. W. D. 

Jan. 2, 1 854. 



duertal. 

CAPTAIN FARRE. 

I send you a Note and a Query respecting the 
fame person. Many years since, I passed a few 
days in one of the wildest spots in the south of 
England Hawkley, in the neighbourhood of Sel- 
bourne. On a visit to the church of Emshott or 
Empshot, I heard that the screen had been pre- 
sented by a Captain Farre, whose memory was in 
some way connected with the days of the republic ; 
and on farther inquiry tradition, it appeared, had 
come to the conclusion that Farre had been one 
of the regicides who had retired into the neigh- 
bourhood, and lived and died there in a sort of 
concealment. I found out, also, the house in which 
be had lived : a pretty modest cottage, in which 
a small farmer resided. I was struck, on ap- 
proaching it, by the beauty of the brick- work of 
the little porch, which appeared to have been an 
addition to the original building. On entering 
the cottage, I found that the kitchen and bed-room 
only were occupied by the family ; the one room, 
which had been the sitting-room, being used as a 



granary. The ceiling of this room was ponderous, 
with a deep rich sunken panelling. The little 
porch-entrance and the ceiling of this room were 
so out of character with the cottage, and indeed 
with all around, that I caused search to be made 
in the Registers of the parish to see if I could 
find some trace of this Captain Farre ; and I now 
eend you the result. There was no regicide of 
that name ; but Col. Phaer was one of those to- 
whom the warrant for the execution of Charles 
was addressed : and he certainly was not one of 
the twenty-nine subsequently tried for the high 
treason as it was called. What became of him I 
know not. Whether he reappeared here as Capt. 
Farre, or who Capt. Farre was, I shall leave to- 
the speculation of the better informed. There 
were many Farrs and Phaers out in the great 
Revolution, and the name is sometimes spelt one 
way, sometimes the other. Empshot, under Nore 
Hill or Noah Hill, was certainly an excellent place 
for concealment. The neighbourhood was, and is,, 
as White said, " famous for its oaks, and infamous 
for its roads." 

Extract* from the Parish Registers. 
" Captaine Farre of Nore, when our church was 
repaired, gave the new silke cushion and pullpit cloath, 
which was first use^ on Christmas Day, Anno Domini: 
1664." 

" 1683, Feb. 5. Anne Baker, kinswoman of Capt. 
Farre, was buried, and that very day the moone was 
new, and the snow thawed ; and the frost broke, which 
had lasted from Nov. 26, 1683, to that day, which is 
1 weeks. The ponds were frozen 2 feet, and that little 
water which was, was not sweet ; the very grave wherein 
she was buried in the church was froze almost 2 feet 
over, and our cattel were in a bad case, and we fared 
worse : and, just in our extremity, God had pitty on> 
us, and sent a gracious raine and thaw. She was 
buried in linnen ; and paid 50*. to the poore, and 6s. 8d. 
for being buried in the church." 

" 1685, April 1. Mrs. Farre was buried in linnen, 
and p d 505. to the poore." 

"1694. John, son of Mr. John Palmer and Eliza- 
beth his wife, was born Tuesday, May the 1st, and 
baptized at home May the llth; y e Captaine died 
Thursday last, y* day before." 

" An Account of the Briefe for the Relief of the French 
Protestants, read May 16th, at Newton, 1686. 

At Noare in Newton. 

Capt. Mr. Robert Farre gave 1 lib. for himself, and 
his kinswoman Mrs. Elizabeth Farre. 

His man Roger - Is. 

His maid Anna - - 6d." 

" Gathered towards the relief of the French Pro- 
testants, May 11, 1688 : 

Captain Far and Mrs. Elizabeth Far, 5s." 

C. F. 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



MARRIAGE CEREMONY IN THE FOURTEENTH 
CENTURY. 

Will some one of your correspondents (learned 
in such matters) refer me to a work treating of 
the marriage ceremony as performed in this 
country during the fourteenth century, in order 
to the explanation of the following passages, which 
refer to an event in English history the mar- 
riage of Edward I.'s daughter with the Count of 
Holland ? The king's writ to the Bishop of Lon- 
don speaks of the marriage as about to be cele- 
brated on the day after the Epiphany, upon which 
day (as shown by the Wardrobe Account) the ring 
was put on ; but it was on the next day (the 8th) 
that the princess " desponi fuit," as shown by the 
same account. 

In Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. p. 850., will be found 
a writ directed to the Bishop of London (and 
others) as follows : 

"Quia inter Comitem Holandiae et Elizabethan^ 
filiam nostram carissimam, matrimonium hac proxima 
die Lunse, in crastino Epiphania, apud Gyppesivicura 
solempnizari proponimus. Domino concedente," &c. 

In the Household Book of King Edward I. for 
the same year (Add. MS. 7965.) will be found 
the following entries, p. 6. : 

44 Oblat p'ticipdt. Terco die Januar in oblat pti- 
cipatis ad Missam celebratam ad magnu altare ecclla 
priorat' bi Pet in Gippewico die Nupciar Alienore de 
Burgo vij. 

" Pro Comitessa Holland. Eodem die (vij Januar) 
in denar tarn positis sup libru qin jactatis iter homines 
circumstantes ad hostium in introitu ecclle Magne Pri- 
oratus predci ubi comes Hollandie sub .... vit D7iam 
Elizabethan, filiam Regit cii anulo auri 1x5. 

" Fratribus predicatoribus de Gippewico p . . . . sua 
unius diei videltz viij diei Januar quo die D~na Eliza- 
beth filia R. despons fuit, p M. de Cauford, xiijs. iiijc/." 

R.C. 



MANUSCRIPT CATENA. 

About four years ago I purchased, at the sale 
of the museum of Mr. George Bell of Whitehaven, 
a folio vellum MS. in Latin, written apparently 
in the fourteenth century : containing a Catena, 
or a series of notes on the Epistles to the Romans 
find Corinthians, selected from the Fathers of the 
Church, viz. Origines, Ambrosius, Gregorius, Je- 
ronimus, Augustinus, Cassianus, Beda, Lambertus, 
Lanfrancus, Anselmus, and Ivo Carnotensis. As 
many of those authors were English, I infer that 
the volume was compiled in England for some 
English monastery. 

The beginning of each chapter is noted on the 
margin, but there is no division into verses. The 
sentences, or short paragraphs of the text, are 
written in vermillion, and the comments upon them 



in black : those comments are generally taken from 
one, but often from two or three authors; the names 
of each being stated. There are large handsome 
capitals at the beginning of each book, and the 
initials to the paragraphs are distinguished by a 
spot of red, but there are no illuminations. Two 
leaves have been cut out at the beginning of the 
volume ; a few at two or three places throughout 
the volume, and at the end, by some former pos- 
sessor. As the style of binding is very uncom- 
mon, I will describe it. It was bound in oak 
boards of half an inch thick ; the sheets were 
sewed on thongs of white leather, similar to what 
cart harness is stitched with. Instead of the 
thongs being brought over the back edges of the 
boards (as in modern binding), they are inserted 
into mortices in the edges of the boards, and then 
laced through holes, and secured with glue and 
wedges. The boards were covered first with al- 
lumed leather, and over that seal-skin with the hair 
on. The board at the beginning of the book had 
four feet, placed near the corners, of nearly an 
inch in height, half an inch in diameter at the 
base, and about a quarter of an inch at the point. 
Each was cast in one piece, with a circular base of 
about an inch and a quarter in diameter, and rising 
towards the centre ; and they were each fastened 
on by three pins or nails. The board at the end 
of the book was ornamented with four circular 
brass plates about the size of a halfpenny, placed 
near the corners ; having in the centre of each a 
stud, the head of which represented a prominent 
close flower of four petals. And in the centre of 
the board, there had been a stud or button, on 
which to fasten the strap from the other board to 
keep the book shut. Only one stud and one foot 
remained ; but the places where the others had 
been were easily seen. I presume that the volume 
was meant to lie on a lectern or reading-desk, 
resting on its feet; and when opened out, the 
other board rested on its studs, as both were worn 
smooth with use. 

The binding being loose, and the cover torn to 
shreds (part of which was held on by the stud), 
I got the book rebound as nearly as possible in 
the same manner as the first, only substituting 
Russia leather for the unsightly seal-skin ; and the 
remaining stud and foot afforded patterns, from, 
which others were cast to supply the places of 
those deficient. 

Nothing is known of the history of this volume, 
except that it was purchased by Mr. Bell from 
Alexander Campbell, a bookseller in Carlisle. I 
am inclined to think, that it had belonged to some 
monastery in Cumberland ; and the seal-shin cover 
would seem to indicate Calder Abbey (which is 
near the coast, where seals might be caught) as its 
original owner. 

Can any of your correspondents inform me, from 
the marks which I have given, whether this is a 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 220. 



copy of some known work or an original com- 
pilation ? And if the former, state where the 
original MS. is preserved ; and if printed, the par- 
ticulars of the edition ? 

If my MS. can be ascertained to have formerly 
belonged to any library or individual, I shall be 
glad to learn any particulars of its history. 

J. M. K. 

Sh or eh am. 



iHtnar 

Jews and Egyptians. Has any writer ever 
started the idea that the early colonisers of some of 
the Grecian states, who are commonly stated to 
have been Egyptians, may have been, in fact, 
Jews ? It seems to me that a good deal might be 
said in favour of this hypothesis, for the following 
reasons, amongst others : 

1. The Egyptian tradition preserved by Heca- 
tceus, and quoted from him by Diodorus, that 
Danaus and Cadmus were leaders of minor 
branches of the great emigration, of which the 
main body departed under the guidance of Moses. 

2. The near coincidence in point of time, as far 
as can be traced, of the appearance of Danaus, 
Cadmus, and Cecrops, in Greece, with the Jewish 
exodus. 

3. The letter, preserved by Josephus, of Areus, 
king of Sparta, to the high-priest of the Jews, 
claiming a common descent with the latter from 
Abraham, and proposing an alliance. It is difficult 
to explain this claim on any other supposition than 
that Areus had heard of the tradition mentioned 
by Diodorus, and, as he and his people traced 
their descent from Danaus through Hercules, 
they consequently regarded themselves as sprung 
from a common stock with the Hebrews. 

I throw out this theory for the consideration 
of others, having myself neither leisure nor oppor- 
tunity for pushing the subject any farther; but 
still I think that a distinguished statesman and 
novelist, who amused the world some years ago 
by endeavouring to trace most of the eminent 
men of modern times to a Jewish origin, might, 
with at least as much reason, claim most of the 
glories of ancient Greece for his favourite people. 

J. S. WARDEN. 

Skin-flint. Is the word skin-flint, a miserly or 
niggardly person, of English or foreign derivation? 
and where is the earliest instance of the term to 
be met with ? J. W. 

Garlic Sunday. The last Sunday of summer 
has been heretofore a day of great importance with 
the Irish, as upon it they first tried the new po- 
tato, and formed an opinion as to the prospects 
of the future harvest. The day was always called, 
in the west in particular, " G-arlie Sunday," per- 



haps a corruption of Garland Sunday. Can any 

one give the origin of this term, and say when 

first it was introduced ? U. U. 
Dublin. 

Custom of the Corporation of London. In the 
evidence of Mr. Bennoch, given before the Royal 
Commissioners for inquiring into the corporation 
of the city of London, he stated that there is,, 
amongst other payments, one of 133/. "for cloth 
to the great ministers of state," the city being 
bound by an old charter to give a certain amount 
of cloth annually to them. He subsequently 
states that this custom is supposed to be connected 
with the encouragement of the wool manufacture 
in its early history ; and that four and a half 
yards of the finest black cloth that the country 
can produce are annually sent to the First Secre- 
tary of State, the Second Secretary of State, the 
Lord Chancellor, the Chamberlain of the House- 
hold, the Vice- Chancellor of the Household, the 
Treasurer of the Household, the Lord Steward, 
the Controller,' the Lord Chief Justice of the 
Queen's Bench, the Lord Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, the Chief Baron of the Exche- 
quer, the Master of the Rolls, the Recorder of 
London, the Attorney-General, the Solicitor- 
General, and the Common Sergeant. 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." give a 
more particular account of this custom ? 

CERVUS. 

General Stokes. Can any of your readers give 
me any information respecting the parentage of 
General Stokes ? In the historical table of re- 
markable events in the Jamaica Almanack for 
1847 it says: "General Stokes, with 1600 men 
from Nevis, arrived and settled near Port Mo- 
rant, anno Domini 1655." And in Bryan Ed-* 
wards' work on Jamaica and the West Indies, 
mention is made of General Stokes in the follow- 
ing words : 

" In the month of December, 1655,. General Stokes, 
with 1600 men from Nevis, arrived in Jamaica, and 
settled near Port Morant. The family of the Morants 
of Vere (in Jamaica) are the lineal descendants of 
General Stokes, who took the name of Morant from 
the port at which he landed. General Stokes was 
governor of Nevis; and on his arrival in Jamaica was 
appointed one of the high commissioners for the 
Island." 

H. H. M. 

Rev. Philip Morant. I shall be obliged by 
any information respecting the linenge of the 
Rev. Philip Morant, who wrote a History of 
the County of Essex; and whether he was an 
ancestor of the Morants of Brockenhurst Park, 
Hants. He was born at St. Saviour's, in the 
Isle of Jersey, Oct. 6, 1700; entered, 1717, Pem- 
broke College, Oxford. He was presented to 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



the following benefices in the county of Essex, 
viz. Shallow, Bowells, Bromfield,Chicknal,Imeley, 
St. Mary's, Colchester, Wickliam Bishops, and to 
Oldliam in 1745. He died Nov. 25, 1770; and 
his only daughter married Thomas Aslle, Esq., 
F.R.S. and F. A.S. He was son of Stephen Morant. 
If any of the sons or daughters of that eminent 
antiquary Thomas Astle will give me any inform- 
ation relative to the pedigree of Philip Morant, 
M.A., they will greatly oblige me. H. H. M. 

Malta. 

The Position of Suffragan Bishops in Convo- 
cation. In Chamberlayne's Magnce Britannia 
Nntitia, or The Present State of Great Britain, 
1729, p. 73., it is said: 

- " All suffragan bishops and deans, archdeacons, 
prebendaries, rectors, and vicars, have privileges, some 
by themselves, others .by proxy or by representatives, 
to sit and vote in the lower house of convocation." 

Is there authority for this statement as regards 
suffragan bishops ? There is no writ or mandate 
that I have seen for their appearance. 

W. ERASER. 

Tor- Mob un. 

Cambridge Mathematical Questions. Can any 
of your readers inform me whether the University 
of Cambridge puts forth, by authority, a collection 
of all the questions proposed to candidates for the 
B. A. degree? 

If not, how can one obtain access to the ques- 
tions which have been asked during the last forty 
or fifty years ? IOTA. 

Crabbe MSS. In some second-hand book 
catalogue the following is inserted, viz., 

" 1"53. Crahbe (Rev. Geo., Poet), Poems, Prayers, 
Essays, Sermons, portions of Plays, &c., 5 vols. entirely 
autograph, together with a Catalogue of Plants, and Ex- 
tracts from the. second Volume of the Transactions of the 
Linncan Society, 1795 (this volume only contains a few 
Autograph Verges in pencil at the end). An Autograph 
tetter of 4 pa</es to the Dean of Lincoln, dated TROW- 
BRiDGE, March 31, 1815. A curious Anonymous letter 
from * Priscian ' to Mr. Murray, dated Dec. 8th, 1833, 
on the Orthography of the name of the Birthplace of 
the Poet, and which the writer observed in the View of 
the Town of Ahlebiirgh in the frontispiece to the Prospectus 
Mr. M. has jimt issued, fyc., interspersed with some por- 
traits and scraps, in 6 vols. 4to. and 8vo., dated from 
1779 to 1823, 8/. Ss." 

This is a note underneath : 

" The following portion of a Prayer, evidently al- 
luding to h s troubles, occurs in one of the volumes 
bearing date Dec. 31, 1779 : A thousand years, most 
adored Creator, are in thy Sight as one Day. So con- 
tract in my Sisrht my Calamities ! The Year of Sorrow 
and Care, of Poverty and Disgrace, of Disappointment 
and wrong, is now passing on to join the Eternal. 



Now, O Lord ! let, I beseech thee, my Afflictions and 
Prayers be remembered ; my Faults and Follies be 
| forgotten.' O ! Thou who art the Fountain of Hap- 
I piness, give me better Submission to thy Decrees, 
! better Disposition to correct my flattering Hopes, 
j better Courage to bear up under my State of Op- 
' pression,' " &c. 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." tell me 
who possesses this ? I should very much like to 
know. H. T. BOBART. 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

Tilly, an Officer of the Courts at Westminster. 
What office did one Tilly hold in one of the 
Courts at Westminster, circa 8 William III. ? 
Was he Warden of the Fleet ? What were his 
connexions by birth arid by marriage ? Was he 
dispossessed ? and if so, why ? J. K. 

Mr. Gye. Who was Mr. Guye, or Gye, who 
had chambers in the Temple circa 8 Wni. III. ? 

J. K. 

Three Fleurs-de-Lys. Some of your heraldic 
contributors may perhaps be able to say whether 
there is any instance of an English coat of arms 
with three fleurs-de-lys in a line (horizontal), in 
the upper part of the shield ? Such are said to 
occur in coats of arms of French origin, as in that 
of the celebrated Du Guesclin, and perhaps in 
English coats in the form of a triangle. But 
query whether, in any instance, in a horizontal 
line ? DEVONIENSIS. 

The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union 
in 1801. I have understood there was a work 
which contained either the memoirs or sketches 
of the political characters of all the members of* 
the last " Commons of Ireland ; " and I have heard 
it was written by a Rev. Dr. Scott of, I believe, 
Trinity College, Dublin. Can any reader of 
" BT. & Q." inform me if there be such a work ? 
and if there be a biographical account of the 
author to be met with ? C. H. D. 

" All Holyday at Peckham" Can any of your, 
correspondents inform me what is the origin of 
the phrase " All holyday at Peckham ? " * 

R. W. B. 

Arthur de Vere. What was the after history 
of Arthur (Philipson) de Vere, son of John, Earl 
of Oxford, and hero of Sir Walter Scott's novel 



[* Probably some of our correspondents may know 
the origin of this phrase ; and as many of them, perhaps, 
are not acquainted with its meaning among the slang 
literati, we may as well enlighten them with a quo- 
tation from the Lexicon Balatronicum et Macaronicum 
of Master Jon Bee : " Peckham, going to dinner. 
' All holiday at Peckham,'' no appetite. Peckish, hun- 
gry." ED.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



A mm of Giderstdn ? Was Sir Walter Scott justi- 
fied in saying, " thu manners and beauty of Anne 
of Gdurstein attracted as much admiration at the 
English Court as formerly in the Swiss Chalet?" 

2. 

Mast fir of the Nails. It appears from the 77/5- 
torical Register, January, 1717, " Mr. Hill was 
appointed Master of all the Nails at Chatham 
Dock." Can any of your readers favour me by 
stating the nature of the above office ? W. D. II. 

Nattochiis and Calchanti. A few days since an 
ancient charter was laid before me containing a 
-grant of lands in the county of Norfolk, of the 
date 1333 (temp. Edwr. IL), in which the follow- 
ing words are made use of: 

" Cu' omnib; g'nis t natthocouks adjaccntib; " &c. 

In a later portion of the grant this word is spelt 
natthociis. Probably some of your learned readers 
can throw some light on what is meant by the 
words granis et nattochiis as being appurtenant to 
marsh lands. 

In a grant I have also now before me of Queen 
Elizabeth 

" Decimas, calchanti, liquor, mineral, metal," &c. 

are given to the grantee for a term of twenty-one 
years : probably your readers can also enlighten 
my ignorance of the term calchanti; the other 
words are obvious. If any authorities are to be 
met with, probably in the answers to these queries 
your correspondents will have the goodness to 
cite them. F. S. A. 

" Ned o' the Todding." May I beg, through 
the medium of your excellent publication, to ask 
if any of your correspondents can inform me in 
which of our English authors I may find some 
lines headed " Ned o' the Todding ? " W. T. 



ftlfnar Aliened 

Bridget Cromwell and Fleetwood. Can you 
inform me whether Bridget, daughter of Oliver 
Cromwell, who was first married in 1651 to Ireton, 
Lord Deputy of Ireland (and had by him a large 
family), and secondly, to General Fleetwood, had 
any family by the latter ? 

And, if so, what were tfie Christian names of 
the children (Fleetwood) ? 

A NEW SUBSCRIBER OF 1854. 

[Noble, in hit Memoirs of the House of Cromwell, 
vol. ii. p. 3G9., says, " It is most probable that Fleet- 
wood had issue by his second wife Bridget, especially 
as he mentions that she was in an increasing way in 
several of his letters, written in 1654 and 1655. It is 
highly probable Mr. Charles Fleetwood, who was 
Iniriird at Stoke Newington, May 14, 1676, was his 
son by the Protector's daughter, as perhaps was Ellen 



I'Kctwood, buried in the same place in a velvet coffin, 
July 23, 1731 ; if so, she must liavc hern, at the time 
of her death, upwards of seventy years of age."] 

Culct. In my bills from Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, there is a charge of sixpence every term for 
culct. What is this ? B. R. I. 

[In old time there was a collection made every year 
for the doctors, masters, and beadles, and this \va* 
called collecta or culet : the latter word is now used for 
a' customary fee paid to the beadles. "I supp 
says Hearnc, " that when this was gathered for the 
doctors and masters it was only for such doctors and 
masters as taught and read to scholars, of which sort 
there was a vast number in old time, and such a col- 
lection was therefore made, that they might proceed 
with the more alacrity, and that their dignity might 
be better supported." Appendix to Hist. llol. dc Aves- 
bury.'] 



THE ASTEROIDS OR RECENTLY DISCOVERED LESSER 
PLANETS. 

(Vol. vii., p. 211. ; Vol. viii., p. 601.) 

QU;ESTOR has asked me a question to which I 
will not refuse a reply. If he thinks that the 
breaking up of a planetary world is a mere fancy, 
he may consult Sir John Ilerschers Astronomy, 
434., in Lardner's series, ed. 1833, in which the 
supposition was treated as doubtful, and farther 
discoveries were declared requisite for its con- 
firmation ; and Professor Mitchell's Discoveries 
of Modern Astronomy, Lond. 1850, pp. 163 171., 
where such discoveries are detailed, and the pro- 
gress of the proof is narrated and explained. It 
may be briefly stated as follows : In the last cen- 
tury, Professor Bode discovered the construction 
of a regular series of numbers, in coincidence 
with which the distances of all the known planets 
from the sun had been arranged by their Creator, 
saving one exception. Calling the earth's solar 
distance 10, the next numbers in the series arc 
16, 28, 52. The distances answering to 16 and 
52, on this scale, are respectively occupied by the 
planets Mars and Jupiter ; but the position of 28 
seemed unoccupied. It was not likely that the 
Creator should have left the methodical order of 
his work incomplete. A few patient observers 
agreed, therefore, to divide amongst themselves 
that part of the heavens which a planet revolving 
at the vacant distance might be expected to tra- 
verse; and that each should keep up a continuous 
examination of the portion assigned to him. And 
the result was the discovery by Piazzi, in 1801, 
of a planet revolving at the expected solar dis- 
tance, but so minute that the elder Ilcrschrl com- 
puted its diameter to be no more than 163 miles. 
The discovery of a second by Olbers, in the ibl- 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



lowing year, led him to conjecture and surest 
that these were fragments of a whole, which, at its 
first creation, had occupied the vacant position, 
with a magnitude not disproportionate to that 
assigned to the other planets. Since then there 
Lave been, and continue to be, discoveries of more 
and more such fragmental planets, all moving at 
solar distances so close upon that numbered 28, 
as to pass each other almost, as has been said, 
within peril ; but in orbits which seem capriciously 
elevated and depressed, when referred to the 
planes assigned for the course of the regular 
planets; so that, to most minds capable of appre- 
ciating these facts, it will seem that Olber'a con- 
jecture has been marvellously confirmed. 

As to the theological conjecture appended to 
it in my previous communication, about which 
QUJESTOB particularly questions me, I can only 
say, that if he deems' it rash or wrong, I have no 
right to throw the blame of it on any other man's 
shoulders, as I am not aware of its having been 
hazarded by any one else. But I hope he will 
agree with me, that if there has been a disruption 
<f a planetary world, it cannot have arisen from 
any mistake or deficiency in the Creator's work 
or foresight, but should be respectfully regarded 
as the result of some moral cause. 

HENRY WALTER. 



EMBLEMATIC MEANINGS OF PRECIOUS STONES 

(Vol. viii., p. 539.). PLANETS or THE 

MONTHS SYMBOLISED BY PRECIOUS STONES 

(Vol. iv., pp. 23. 164.). 

The Poles have a fanciful belief that each 
month of the year is under the influence of a 
precious stone, which influence has a correspond- 
ing effect on the destiny of a person born (luring 
the respective month. Consequently, it is cus- 
tomary, among friends and lovers, on birth-days, 
to make reciprocal presents of trinkets orna- 
mented with [the natal stones. The stones and 
their influences, corresponding with each month, 
are supposed to be as follows : 

January - - Garnet. Constancy and fidelity. 

February - Amethyst. Sincerity. 



March 



Bloodstone. 



Presence of 



April- Diamond. 

May - Emerald. 

June - Agate. 

July - Cornelian. 

August Sardonyx. 

September Chrysolite. 

October - Opal. 

November Topaz. 

December Turquoise. 

The Rabbinical writers describe a system of 
onornancy, according to the third branch of tin: 
Cubula, termed Notaricon, in conjunction with 



Courage, 
mind. 
Innocence. 
Success in love. 
Health and long life. 
Contented mind. 
Conjugal felicity. 
Antidote against madness. 
Hope. 
Fidelity* 
Prosperity. 



lithomancy. Twelve anagrams of the name of 
God were engraved on twelve precious stones, by 
which, with reference to their change of hue or 
brilliancy, the Cftballft was enabled to foretcl 
future events. Those twelve stones, thus en- 
graved, were also supposed to have a mystical 
power over, and a prophetical relation to, tho 
twelve si^ns of the Zodiac, and twelve angels or 
good spirits, in the following order : 
Anayramt. Stonei. Signi. Angel*. 

mrP Ruby. Aries. Mulchediel. 

1HJV ' Topaz.' Taurus. Asmodel. , 

Carbuncle. Gemini. Ambriel. 

Kmerald. Cancer. Muriel. 

Sapphire. Leo. Verchel. 

Diamond. Virgo. Humatiel. 

Jacinth. Libra. Zuriel. 

Agate. Scorpio. liarbiol. 

Amethyst. Sagittarius. Adnachiel. 

Beryl. Capricornus. Humiel. 

Onyx. Aquarius. Gabriel. 

Jasper. Pisces., Barchiel. 

These stones had also reference to the twelve 
tribes of Israel, twelve parts of the human body, 
twelve plants, twelve birds, twelve minerals, 
twelve hierarchies of devils, &c. &c. usque ad 
nauseam. 

It is evident that all this absurd nonsense was 
founded on the twelve precious stones in the 
breast-plate of the High Priest (Exodus xxviii. 
15. : see also Numbers xxvii. 28., and 1 Samuel 
xxviii. 6.). I may add that in the glorious de- 
scription of the Holy City, in Revelation xxi., the 
mystical number twelve Is again connected with 
precious stones. 

In the Sympathia Septem Metallorum ac Septem 
Selcctorum Lapidum ad Plane tas, by the noted 
Peter Arlensis de Scudalupis, the following are 
the stones and metals which are recorded ai 
sympathising with what the ancients termed the 
seven planets (I translate the original words) : 

Saturn - Turquoise. Lead. 

Jupiter - Cornelian. Tin. 

Mars - - Emerald. Iron. 

Sun - - Diamond. Gold. 

Venus- - Amethyst. Copper. 

Mercury - Loadstone. Quicksilver. 

Moon - - Chrystal. Silver. 

N. D. inquires in what works he will find the 
emblematical meanings of precious stones de- 
scribed. For a great deal of curious, but obso- 
lete and useless, reading on the mystical and 
occult properties of precious stones, I may refer 
him to the following works: Lea Amour* et 
noveaux Eschanges dcs Pierre* Precieuxet, Paris, 
1576 ; Curiofiitez inouyc* sur la Sculpture Talis- 
manique, Paris, 1637 ; Occulta Natures Miracula, 
Antwerp, 1567; Speculum Lapidi, Aug. Vind., 
1523 ; Les (Euvres de Jean Belot, Rouen, 1569. 

W. PlNKERTOIC. 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



NON-RECURRING DISEASES. 

(Vol.viii., p. 5 16.) 

To give a full and satisfactory answer to the 
questions here proposed would involve so much 
professional and physiological detail, as would be 
unsuited to the character of such a publication as 
" N. & Q." I will therefore content myself with 
short categorical replies, agreeable to the present 
state of our knowledge of these mysteries of the 
animal economy. It is true as a general rule that 
the infectious diseases, particularly the exanthe- 
mata, or those attended by eruption the measles 
for example occur but once. But there are 
exceptional cases, and the most virulent of these 
non-recurrent diseases, such even as small-pox, 
are sometimes taken a second time, and are then 
sometimes, though by no means always, fatal. 

Why all the mammalia (for, be it observed, these 
diseases are not confined to the human race) are 
subject to these accidents, or why the animal 
economy should be subject to such a turmoil at 
all, or, being so subject, why the susceptibility to 
the recurrence of the morbid action should exist, 
or be revived in some and not in others ; and 
why in the majority of persons it should be ex- 
tinguished at once and for ever, remain amongst 
the arcana of Nature, to which, as yet, the physi- 
ology of all the Hunters, and the animal chemistry 
of all the Liebigs, give no solution. 

Those persons who take note of the able, and 
in general highly instructive, reports of the Re- 
gistrar of Public Health, will observe that the 
word zymotic is now frequently used to signify 
the introduction into the body of some morbific 
poisons, such as prevail in the atmosphere, or 
are thrown off by diseased bodies, or generated in 
the unwholesome congregation of a crowded popu- 
lation, which are supposed to act like yeast in a 
beer vat, exciting ferments in the constitution, in 
the case of the infectious diseases, similar to those 
which gave them birth. But this explains no- 
thing, and only shifts the difliculty and changes 
the terms, and is no better than a modification of 
the opinions of our forefathers, who attributed all 
such disorders to a fermentation of the supposed 
" humours " of the body. The .essence of these 
changes in the animal economy, like other phe- 
nomena of the living principle, remain, and perhaps 
ever will remain, an unfathomable mystery. It 
is our business to investigate, as much as in our 
power, and by a slow and cautious induction, the 
laws by which they are governed. 

Non-recurrence, or immunity from any future 
seizure in a person who has had an infectious 
disease, seems derivable from some invisible and 
unknown impression* made on the constitution. 

* This word is used for want of a better, to signify 
some unknown change. 



There is good reason to suppose that this im- 
pression may vary in degree in different indivi- 
duals, and in the same individual at different 
times ; and thence some practical inferences are 
to be drawn which have not yet been well ad- 
vanced into popular view, but to which I cannot 
advert unless some reader of " N. & Q." put the 
question. M. (2) 



MILTON S WIDOW. 

(Vol. viii., p. 594. &c.) 

GARLICHITHE'S apologies to MR. HUGHES are 
due, not so much for neglecting his communica-. 
tions as for misquoting them. We all owe an 
apology to your readers for keeping up so perti- 
naciously a subject of which I fear they will begin 
to be tired. 

MR. HUGHES has not stated that Richard Min- 
shull of Chester, son of Richard Minshull, the 
writer of the letter of May 3, 1656, was born in 
1641. What MR. HUGHES did state (Vol. viii., 
p. 200.) was, that Mrs. Milton's brother, Richard 
Minshull of Wistaston, was baptized on April 7 
in that year ; and the statement is quite correct, 
as I can vouch, /rom having examined the bap- 
tismal register. Richard Minshull of Chester was 
aged forty or forty-one at the date of his father's 
letter, as shown below ; but even if he had been 
aged only fifteen, as supposed by GARLICHITHE, I 
do not see that there is anything in the language 
of the letter to call for observation. He had con- 
veyed to his father a communication from Randle 
Holmes, and the father writes in answer, "Deare 
and loveing sonne, my love and best respects to 
you and to my daughter [GARLICHITHE may read 
daughter-in-law if he likes, but I see no necessity 
for it], tendered w th trust of y r health. I have 
reaceived Mr. Alderman Holmes his letter, to- 
gether with y, wherin I understand that you 
desire to know what I can say concerning our 
coming out of Minshull House ;" and he proceeds 
to give the information asked for. 

GARLICHITHE, in his former communication, 
confounds Randle the great-grandfather with 
Randle the great-grandson, and in his present 
one he confounds Richard Minshull of Chester, 
the uncle, with Richard Minshull of Wistaston, 
the nephew. I agree with GARLICHITHE that 
" he, 'Richard, the writer of the said letter, must 
be fairly presumed to have been married at the 
date of such letter," which he addresses to his 
"Deare and loveing sonne;" but what of that? 
Whom he married, your readers are informed at 
p. 595. He died in the year following his letter, 
at the ripe age of eighty-six. 

The misquotations noticed above would, if not 
pointed out, lead to inextricable confusion of 
facts ; and I am compelled therefore again to 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



trouble you. In order, if possible, to set the 
matter at rest, I will put together in the form of 
a pedigree, compressed so as to be fit for insertion 
in your columns, the material facts which have 
been the subject of so much discussion ; but, be- 
fore doing so, permit me a word of protest against 
some of the communications alluded to, which are 
scarcely fair to " K & Q." 



is correct, suggests as new evidence the very do- 
cuments to which MR. HUGHES had furnished a 
reference ; ami a third, T. P. L. (quoting an ano- 
nymous pamphlet), jumps at once to the conr 
elusion that "tliere can be little doubt" the 
author derived his information from an authentic 
source, "and, if so, it serins pretty clear"-- that 
all the evidence supplied by lier aids' visitations* 



A correspondent (Vol. vii., p. 596.) asks for in- j wills, and title-deeds is to be discarded as idle 



formation as to Milton's widow, and MR. HUGHES 
(Vol. viii., p. 12.) refers him to a volume in which 
will be found the information asked for, and gives 
a brief outline of the facts there stated. On this 
GARLICHITHE (Vol. viii., p. 134.), misquoting MR. 
HUGHES, calls his attention to Mr. Hunter's letter, 
which, if GARLICHITHE had availed himself of the 
reference furnished to him, he would have found 
duly noticed. A second correspondent, MR. SIN- 
GER, whose literary services render me unwilling 
to find fault with him (Vol. viii., p. 471.), heading 
his article with five references, of which not one 



fiction. Such objections as the-e, and the replies 
which they have rendered necessary, are, with 
the exception of the valuable contribution of 
MR. ARTHUR PAGET, the staple of the contribu- 
tions which have filled so much of your valuable 
space. 

I conclude with my promised pedigree, the 
authorities for which are the Cheshire Visitation of 
1663-4, and the Lancashire Visitation of 1664-5, 
confirmed by the letter to Handle Holmes, and 
the legal documents published by the Chetham 
Society : 



John Mynshull, fourth and youngest son of John Mynshull of Mynshull, married the daughter 
and co-heiress of Robert Cooper of Wistaston, and founded the family subsequently settled 
there, as stated in his great-grandson's letter. 

Handle Mynshull of Wistaston married the daughter of Rawlinson of Crewe, as stated in his grandson's letter. 
Thomas Mynshull of Wistaston married Dorothy Goldsmith of Nantwich, as stated in his son's letter. 

Richard Mynshull of Wistaston married Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Goldsmith of Bos worth, 
in co. Leic. (who was probably maternal aunt or great-aunt to the John Goldsmith men- 
tioned in Dr. Paget's will) He was the writer of the letters in 1656, and died in 1657, aged 
eighty-six. He had two daughters and three sons, viz. 



Randle Mynshull of Wistaston married 
Ann Boot, and had seven children, of 
whom it will be necessary to mention 
three only, viz. 



Thomas Mynshull, the apothecary of 
Manchester, mentioned in Thomas 
Paget's will, aged fifty-one in 1664, 
had five sons and four daughters. 



Richard Mynshull, alderman of Chester, 
to whom his father wrote the letter of 
May 3, 1656, aged forty-seven in 1663. 



Bichard Mynshull, baptized April 7, 
1641. On June 4, 1680, he executed 
a bond, by the description of Richard 
Mynshull of Wistaston, frame-work 
knitter, to Elizabeth Milton of thecity 
of London, widow, who, though not 
itated to be his sister, was evidently 
a near relative, as appears from the 
contents of the bond. 

Warrington. 



John Mynshull appears to 
have resided in Manchester, 
where he was buried, May 18, 
1720, and administration was 
granted at Cheshire to Eliz- 
abeth Milton of Nantwich, 
widow, his lawful sister and 
next of kin. 



Elizabeth, baptized December 30, 1638, married 
Milton in 1664, is described as of London in the 
bond from her brother, on the occasion of her 
purchase of" an estnte at Brindley in Cheshire ; is 
described as of Nantwich in three legal documents 
from 1713 to 1725; by ilie same descriiition, ad- 
ministered to her brother John in 1720, and made 
her will on August 22, 1727, which was proved on 
October 10 in the same year. 

J. F. MARSH. 



TABLE-TURNING. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 57. 398.) 

One of the most distinguished men of science 
in France, M. Chevreul, the editor (late or 
present) of the Annales de Chimie, &c., has com- 
menced a series of articles in the Journal des 
Savants on the subject of the divining-rod, the 
exploring pendulum, table-turning, &c., his inten- 
tion being to investigate scientifically the pheno- 
mena presented in these instances. Having 
formerly written much on the occult sciences, 
and being a veteran in experimental science, 
M. Chevreul was generally deemed better quali- 
fied than most men living to throw light on the 



intervention of a principle whose influence he 
thinks he hns proved by his own proper experi- 
ence. It will be better to quote his own lan- 
guage : 

" Ce principe concerne le devdnppement en nous d'une 
action musculaire qui n'est pas le proditit d'une vo'onte, 
ma is le resnltat d'nne pensee qui se porte sur nn pheno- 
mene du monde exterieur sans preoccupation de faction 
musculaire indispensable d la manifestation du phenon ene. 
Get enonce sera developpe lorsque nous 1'appliqnerotis 
a Pexplication des faits ob i erv('s par nous, et deviendra 
parfaitement clair, nous 1'esperons, lorsque le lecteur 
verra qu'il est 1'expression precise de ces memes faits." 

A farther quotation (if it should not prove too 
long for " N. & Q.") from M. Chevreul's prelimi- 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 220. 



nary remarks will be thought interesting by many 
persons : 

" En definitive, nous esperons montrer d'une maniere 
precise comment des gens d'esprit, sous 1'influence de 
1'amour du merveilleux, si naturel a 1'homme, fran- 
chissent la limite du connu, du fini, et, des lors, com- 
ment, ne sentant pas le besoin de soumettre a un 
examen reflechi 1'opinion nouvelle qui leur arrive sous 
le cachet du merveilleux et du surnaturel, ils adoptent 
oudainement ce qui, etudie froidement, rentrerait dans 
le domaine des faits aux causes desquels il est donne 
a 1'homme dc remonter. Existe-t-il une preuve plus 
forte de 1'amour de 1'homme pour le merveilleux, que 
J'accueil fait de nos jours aux tahles tournantes ? 
Nous ne le pensons pas. Plus d'un esprit fort, qui 
accuse ses peres de credulite en rejetant leurs traditions 
xeligieuses contemporains de Louis XIV., ont repousse 
comme impossible un traite de chimere. Ce fait con- 
firme ce que nous avons dit de la credulite a propos de 
YEssai sur la Magie d'Eusebe Salverte, car si 1'esprit 
fort qui repousse la revelation ne s'appuie pas sur la 
methode scientifique propre a discerner 1'erreur de la 
verit<?, Uncertain du fait demontre, il sera sans cesse 
expose a adopter comme vraies les opinions les plus 
bizarres, les plus erronees, ou du moins les plus con- 
testables." 

The two articles hitherto published by M. 
Chevreul in the Journal des Savants for the months 
of October and November, extend only to the first- 
mentioned subject of these inquiries, the divining- 
rod. The world will probably wait with some 
impatience to learn the final views of so eminent 
a scientific man. J. MACRAT. 

Oxford. 



CELTIC ETYMOLOGY. 



(Vol.viii., pp. 229. 551.) 

Your correspondent is a very Antaeus. He has 
fallen again upon uim, and he rises up from it to 
-defend the Heapian pronunciation with renewed 
vigour. But I cannot admit that he has proved 
the pedigree of humble from the Gaelic. 

But, even if uim were the root of a Sanscrit 
word, and not itself a derivative, still the many 
stages through which the derivation undoubtedly 
passes, without any need of reference to the 
Oaelic, are quite enough to establish the exist- 
ence and continuance of an aspirate, until we 
arrive at the French; and it has already been 
proved, that many words which lose the aspirate 
in French do not lose it in English. The pro- 
gress from the Sanscrit is very clear : 

Sanscrit. Kshama. 

Pracrit. Khama. 

Old Greek. Xcfyta ; whence -x.dp.ai, X^fo X da ~ 
jj.a\6s. 

Latin. Humus, humilis. 

Italian. Umile ; because there is in Italian no 
initial aspirate. 



French. 'Humble ; because in words of Latin 
origin the French almost always omit the aspirate. 

English^ 'Humble. 

And here it may be observed, that humilis never 
had, except in the Vulgate and in ecclesiastical 
writers, the metaphorically Christian sense to which 
its derivatives in modern tongues are generally 
confined, and to which I believe the Gaelic umhal 
to be strictly confined. But the original words 
for humble are iosal and iriosal, cognate with the 
Irish iosal and iriseal, and the Cymric isel ; and 
the olden and more established words for the 
earth are, both in Gaelic and Irish, talamh and 
lar, cognate with the Cymric llawr. 

All these facts lead to a reasonable suspicion 
that uim, umhal, and umhailteas (an evident na- 
turalisation of a Latin word) are all derived from 
Latin at a comparatively recent date, as certainly 
as umile, humilde, 'humble, and 'humble are, and in 
the same Christian sense. The omission of an 
aspirate in the Gaelic word is then easily ac- 
counted for, without supposing it not to exist in 
other languages, and for this very simple reason, 
that no Gaelic word commences with h. There 
are some Celtic roots undoubtedly in the Latin 
language. It would be difficult, for example, to 
derive mcenia, munire, gladius, vir, and virago from 
any other origin, but much the larger number of 
words, in which the two languages resemble each 
other, are either adoptions from the Latin or de- 
rivatives from one common source, e. g. mathair 
and mother, brathair and brother, as well as the 
Latin mater and frater, from the Sanscrit matri 
and bhratri, &c., as all comparative philologists 
are well aware. Would your correspondents call 
it the 'Ebrew language, because a Gael calls it, as 
he must do, Eabrach f E. C. H. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Cdlotype Process : curling up of Paper. I am 
happy in having the opportunity of replying to your 
correspondent C. E. F. (Vol. 5x., p. 16. ), because, with 
himself, I have found great annoyance from the curling 
up of some specimens of paper. In the papers recently 
sold as Turner's, I find this much increased upon his 
original make, so much so that, until I resorted to the 
following mode, I spoiled several sheets intended for 
negatives, by staining the back of the paper, and which 
thereby gave a difference of intensity when developed 
after exposure in the camera. 

I have provided myself with some very thick extra 
white blotting-paper (procured of Sandford). This 
jeing thoroughly damped, and placed between two 
pieces of slate, remains so for many weeks. If the 
laper intended to be used is properly interleaved be- 
tween this damp blotting-paper, and allowed to remain 
there twelve hours at least before it is to be iodized, it 
will be found to work most easily. It should be barely 
as damp as paper which is intended to be printed on. 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



This arrangement will be found exceedingly useful for 
damping evenly cardboard and printed positives when 
they are intended to be mounted, so as^to ensure their 
perfect flatness. 

It is quite immaterial whether the paper is floated 
on a solution or applied with a glass rod. If a very 
few sheets are to be manipulated upon, then, for eco- 
nomy, the glass rod is preferable; but if several, the 
floating has the advantage, because it ensures the most 
even application. I sent you a short paragraph 
(Vol. ix., p. 32.) showing how we may be deceived 
in water-marks upon paper; and when we are suppos- 
ing ourselves to be using a paper of a particular date, 
in fact we are not doing so. 

I would also caution your photographic correspon- 
dents from being deceived in the quality of a paper by 
the exceeding high gloss which is given it by extra 
hot-pressing. This is very pleasing to the eye, and 
would be a great advantage if the paper were to remain 
dry ; but in the various washings and soakings which 
it undergoes in the several processes before the per- 
fect picture is formed, the artificial surface is entirely 
removed, and it is only upon a paper of a natural firm 
and even make that favourable results will be procured. 

H. W. DIAMOND. 

Turner's Paper. There is great difficulty in pro- 
curing good paper of Turner's make ; he having lately 
undertaken a contract for Government in making 
paper for the new stamps, the manufacture of paper 
for photographic purposes has been to him of little 
importance. In fact, this observation, of the little im- 
portance of photographic compared to other papers, 
applies to all our great paper-makers, who have it in 
their power to make a suitable article. Mr. Towgood 
of St. Neots has been induced to manufacture a batch 
expressly for photography ; but we regret to say that, 
although it is admirably adapted for albumenizing and 
printing positives, it is not favourable for iodizing, 
less so than his original make for ordinary purposes. 
All manufacturers, in order to please the eye, use 
bleaching materials, which deteriorate the paper che- 
mically. They should be thoroughly impressed with 
the truth, that colour is of little consequence. A bad- 
coloured paper is of no importance ; it is the extraneous 
substances in the paper itself which do the mischief. 

ED. 

A Practical Photographic Query I have never had 

a practical lesson on photography. I have worked it 
put as far as I could myself, and I have derived much 
information in reading the pages of " N. & Q.," so that 
now I consider myself (although we are all apt to 
flatter ourselves) an average good manipulator. Inde- 
pendently of the information you have afforded me, I 
have read all the works upon photography which I 
could procure; and as the most extensive one is that 
by Mr. Robert Hunt, I went to the Exhibition of the 
Photographic Society just opened, thinking I might 
there see his works, and gain that information from 
an inspection of them which I desired. My disap- 
pointment was great on finding that Mr. Hunt does 
not exhibit, nor have I been able to see any of his 
specimens elsewhere. May I ask if Mr. Hunt ever 



attempts anything practically, or is it to the theory of 
photography alone that he directs his attention ? 

I begin to fear, unless he lets a little of each go 
hand-in-hand, that he will mislead some of us ama- 
teurs, although I am quite sure unintentionally ; for 
personally I much respect him, having a high opinion of 
his scientific attainments. 

A READER OF ALL BOOKS ON PHOTOGRAPHY* 



to $ff{u0r 

"Service is no Inheritance" (Vol. viii., p. 587. ;. 
Vol. ix., p. 20.). P. C. S. S. confesses that he is 
vulgar enough to take great delight in Swift's 
Directions to Servants, a taste which he had once 
the good fortune of hearing avowed by no less a 
man than Sir W. Scott himself. G. M. T., who 
(Vol. viii., p. 587.) quotes the Waverley Novels for 
the use of the phrase " Service is no inheritance, 1 ' 
will therefore scarcely be surprised to find that it 
occurs frequently in Swift's Directions, and es- 
pecially in those to the " Housemaid," chap. x. 
(quod vide). P. C. S. S. 

Francis Browne (Vol. viii., p. 639.). It is not 
stated in the general pedigrees when or where he 
died, whether single or married. His sister Eliza- 
beth died unmarried, Nov. 27, 1662 ; and his elder 
brother, Sir Henry Browne of Kiddington, in 
1689. A reference to their wills, if proved, might 
afford some information if he, Francis, survived 
either of these dates. The will of Sir Henry 
Knollys, of Grove Place, Hants, the grandfather, 
might be referred to with the same view, and 
the respective registers of Kiddington and Grove 
Place. G. 

Catholic Bible Society (Vol. viii., p. 494.). 
MR. COTTON will find some account of this So- 
ciety (the only one I know of) in Bishop Milner's 
Supplementary Memoirs of the English Catholics^ 
published in the year 1820, p. 239. It published 
a stereotype edition of the New Testament with- 
out the usual distinction of verses, and very few 
notes. The whole scheme was severely reprobated 
by Dr. Milner, on grounds stated by him in the 
Appendix to the Memoirs, p. 302. The Society 
soon expired, and no tracts or reports were, I 
believe, ever published by it. The correspondence 
between Mr. Charles Butler and Mr. Blair will 
be found in the Gentleman s Magazine for the year 
1814. S. 

Fitzroy Street. 

Legal Customs (Vol. ix., p. 20.). The custom,, 
related by your correspondent CAUSIDICUS, of a 
Chancery barrister receiving his first bag from 
one of the king's counsel, reminds me that there 
are many other legal practices, both obsolete and 
extant, which it would be curious and entertain- 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



ing to collect in your pages, as illustrative of the 
habits of our forefathers, and the changes that 
time has produced. I recognise many among 
your coadjutors who are well able to contribute, 
either from tradition or personal experience, 
something that is worth recording, and thus by 
their mutual coimnunications to form a collection 
that would be both interesting and useful. Let 
me commence the heap by depositing the first 
stones. 

1. My father has informed me that in his early 
years it was the universal practice for lawyers to 
attend the theatre on the last day of term/ This 
was at a period when those who went into the 
boxes always wore swords. 

2. It was formerly (within fifty years) the cus- 
tom for every barrister in the Court of Chancery 
to receive from the usher, or some other officer of 
the court, as many buns as he made motions on 
the last day of Term, and to give a shilling for 
each bun. EDWARD Foss. 

Silo (Vol. viii., p. 639.). The word silo is de- 
rived from the Celtic siol, grain, and omh, a cave ; 
siolomh, pronounced sheeloo, a " grain cave." 
Underground excavations have been discovered 
in various parts of Europe, and it is probable that 
they were really used for storing grain, and not 
for habitations, as many have supposed. 

FRAS. CROSSLEY. 

I have no doubt but that MR. STRONG'S Query 
respecting silos will meet with many satisfactory 
answers ; but in the mean time I remark that 
the Arab subterranean granaries, often used by 
the French as temporary prisons for refractory 
soldiers, are termed by them silos or silhos. 

G. H. K. 

Laurie on Finance (Vol. viii., p. 491.). 

" A Treatise on Finance, under which the General 
Interests of the British Empire are illustrated, com- 
prising a Project for their Improvement, together with 
& new scheme for liquidating the National Debt," by 
David Laurie, 8vo., London, 1815. 

ANON. 

David's Mother (Vol. viii., p. 539.). The fol- 
lowing comment on this point is taken from vol. i. 
p. 203. of the Rev. Gilbert Burrington's Arrange- 
ment of the Genealogies of the Old Testament and 
Apocrypha, Lond. 1836, & learned and elaborate 
work : 

" In 2 Sam. xvii. 25., Abigail is said to be the 
daughter of Nahash, and sister to Zeruiah, Joab's 
mother; but in 1 Chron. ii. 16., both Zeruiah and 
Abigail are said to be the daughters of Jesse ; we must 
conclude, therefore, with Cappell, either that the name 
>nj. Nahash, in "2 Sam. xvii. 25., is a corruption of 
*6J^, Jesse, which is the reading of the Aldine and 
Complutensian editions, and of a considerable number 



of MSS. of the LXX in this place; or that Jesse had 
two names, as Jonathan in his Targum on Ruth iv. 22. 
informs us ; or that Nahash is not the name of the 
father, but of the mother of Abigail, as Tremellius and 
Junius imagine; or, lastly, with Grotius, \ve must be 
compelled to suppose that Abigail, mentioned as the 
sister of Zeruiah in 2 Sam., was a different person from 
Abigail the sister of Zeruiah, mentioned in 1 Chron , 
which appears most improbable." 



Dublin. 

Anagram (Vol. vii., p. 546.). Some years 
since I purchased, at a book-stall in Cologne, a 
duodecimo (I think it was a copy of Milton's De- 
fensio), on a fly-leaf of which was the date 1653, 
and in the neat Italian hand of the period the 
following anagram. The book had probably be- 
longed to one of the English exiles who accom- 
panied Charles II. in his banishment. I have 
never met with it in any collection of anagrams 
hitherto published. Perhaps some of your nu- 
merous readers may have been more fortunate, 
and can give some account of it. 
" Carolus Stuartus, Anglise, Scotia?, et Hiberniae Rex, 
Aula. statu, regno exueris, ac hostili arte necaberis." 

JOHN o' THE FORD. 
Malta. 

Passage in Sophocles (Vol. viii., pp. 73. 478. 631 .). 
Your correspondent M. is quite right in trans- 
lating irpdffo-sii' fares, and referring it not to eoy, 
but to the person whom the Deity has infatuated ; 
and he is equally right in explaining bxiyoarov 
Xpovov for a very short time. Tipdcraei, the old read- 
ing restored by Herman, is probably right ; but it 
must still be referred to the same person : Jlle 
vero versatur, &c. MR. BUCKTON explains , 
which is the relative to vow, to signify when, and 
translates povAtvcrai as if it were equivalent with 
jSo&Verai. Tbv vow w tfouAeverat is the mental power 
with which he (6 /3\a</>0eis, not ebs) deliberates. 
"Art] is, as M. properly explains it, not destruction, 
but infatuation, mental delusion; that judicial blind- 
nets which leads a man to his ruin, not the ruin 
itself. It is a leading idea in the Homeric theo- 
logy (//. xix. 88., xxiv. 480., &c.). 

Though the idea in the Antigone closely re- 
sembles that which is cited in the Scholia, it seems 
more than probable that the original source of 
both passages is derived from some much earlier 
author than a cotemporary of Sophocles. As to 
the line given in Boswell, it is not an Iambic 
verse, nor even Greek. It was probably made 
out of the Latin by some one who would try his 
hand, with little knowledge either of the metre or 
the language. MR. BUCKTON says, that to trans- 
late bxi-yoffrov very short, is not to translate agree- 
ably to the admonition of the old scholiast. Now, 
the words of the scholiast are oi5e 0X170;', not even 
a little, that is, a very little : so ov5e rvrfloy, ov8* 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



ovSe 



kind. 



and many forms of the same 
E. C. H. 

B.L.M. (Vol. viii., p. 585.). The letters 
B. L. M., in the subscription of Italian correspond- 
ence, stand for bacio le mani (I kiss your hands), 
a form nearly equivalent to " your most obedient 
servant." In the present instance the inflection 
baciando (kissing) is intended. W. S. B. 

" The Forlorn Hope" (Vol. viii., pp. 411. 569.). 
For centuries the "forlorn hope" was called, 
and is still called by the Germans, Verlorne Posten; 
by the French, Enfans perdus ; by the Poles and 
other Slavonians, Stracona poczta : meaning, in 
each of those three languages, a detachment of 
troops, to which the commander of an army assigns 
such a perilous post, that he entertains no hope 
of ever rescuing it, or rather gives up all hope of 
its salvation. In detaching these men, he is con- 
scious of the fate that awaits them ; but he sacri- 
fices them to save the rest of his army, i. e. he 
sacrifices a part for the safety of the whole. In 
short, he has no other intention, no other thought 
in so doing, than that which the adjective/or/orw 
conveys. Thus, for instance, in Spain, a detach- 
ment of 600 students volunteered to become a 
forlorn hope, in order to defend the passage of a 
bridge at Burgos, to give time to an Anglo- 
Spanish corps (which was thrown into disorder, 
and closely pursued by a French corps of 18,000 
men) to rally. The students all, to the last man, 
perished ; but the object was attained. 

It much grieves me thus to sap the foundation 
of the idle speculation upon a word the late Dr. 
Graves indulged in, and which Mr. W. R. Wilde 
inserted in the Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical 
Science for^ February, 1849; but, on the other 
kand, I rejoice to have had the opportunity of 
endeavouring to destroy the very erroneous sup- 
position, that Lord Byron had fallen into an error 
in his beautiful line : 

" The full of hope, misnamed forlorn." 1 

What the late Dr. Graves meant by haupt or 
pe^ for head, 1 am at a loss to conceive. Haupt, 
in German, it is true, means head ; but in speak- 
ing of a small body of men, inarching at the head 
of an army, no German would ever say Haupt, 
but Spitze. As to hope (another word for head) 
I know not from what language he took it; cer- 
tainly not from the Saxon, for in that tongue head 
was called heafod, hefed, or heafd ; whilst hope was 
called hopa, not hope. C. S. (An Old Soldier.) 
Oak Cottage, Coniston, Lancashire. 

Two ^ Brothers of the same Christian Name 
(Vol. viii., p. 338.). I have recently met with 
another instance of this peculiarity. John Upton, 
of Trelaske, Cornwall, an ancestor of the Uptons 
of Ingsmire Hall, Westmoreland, had two sons, 



living in 1450, to both of whom he gave the 
Christian name of John. The elder of these 
alike-named brothers is stated by Burke, in his 
History of the Landed Gentry, to have been the 
father of the learned Dr. Nicholas Upton, canon 
of Salisbury and Wells, and afterwards of St. 
Paul's, one of the earliest known of our authors 
on heraldic subjects. The desire of the elder Up- 
ton to perpetuate his own Christian name may 
in some way account for this curious eccen- 
tricity. T. HUGHES. 
Chester. 

Passage in Watson (Vol. viii., p. 587.). Your, 
correspondent G. asks, whence Bishop Watson 
took the passage : 

" Scire ubi aliquid invenire posses, ea demum maxima 
pars eruditionis est." 

In the account of conference between Spalato 
and Bishop Overall, preserved in Gutch's Collec* 
tanea Curiosa, and printed in the Anglo- Catholic 
Library, Cosin's Works, vol. iv. p. 470., the same 
sentiment is thus expressed : 

"By keeping Bishop Overall's library, he (Cosin) 
began to learn, ' Quanta pars eruditionis erat bonos 
nosse auctores ; ' which was the saying of Joseph 
Scaliger." 

Can any of your correspondents trace the words 
in the writings of Scaliger ? J. SANSOM. 

Derivation of"Mammet" (Vol. viii., p. 515.). 
It may help to throw light on this question to 
note that Wiclif's translation of 2 Cor. vi. 16. 
reads thus : " What consent to the temple of God 
with mawmetis f " Calf hill, in his Answer to 
Martiall (ed. Parker Soc., p. 31.), has the follow- 
ing sentence : 

" Gregory, therefore, if he had lived but awhile 
longer ; and had seen the least part of all the miseries 
which all the world hath felt since, only for mainte- 
nance of those mawmots ; he would, and well might, 
have cursed himself, for leaving behind him so lewd a 
precedent." 

And at p. 175. this, - 

" That Jesabel Irene, which was so bewitched with 
superstition, that all order, all honesty, all law of na- 
ture broken, she cared not what she did, so she might 
have her mawmots."" 

See also the editor's note on the use of the word 
in this last passage. In Dorsetshire, among the 
common people, the word mammet is in frequent 
use to designate a puppet, a doll, an odd figure, 
a scarecrow. J. D. S. 

Ampers and, & or Sf (Vol. viii., p. 173.). 
Ampers $-, or Empessy fy, as it is sometimes called 
in this country, means et per se Sf ; that is to say, 
8f is a character by itself, or sui generis, represent- 
ing not a letter but a word. It was formerly an- 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



nexed to the alphabet in primers and spelling- 
books. 

The figure ff appears to be the two Greek 
letters e and - connected, and spelling the Latin 
word et, meaning and. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Misapplication of Terms (Yol. viii., p. 537.)- 
The apparent lapsus noticed by your correspondent 
J. W. THOMAS, while it reminds one that 

" Learned men, 
Now and then," &c., 

Is not so indefensible as many instances that are 
to be met with; 

I have been accustomed to teach my boys that 
legend (& lego, to read) is not strictly to be con- 
fined to the ordinary translation of its derivative, 
since the Latin admits of several readings, and 
among them, by the usage of Plautus, to hearken ; 
whence our English substantive takes equal license 
to admit of a relation = a narrative, viz. " a thing 
to be heard ; " and' in this sense by custom has re- 
ferred to many a gossip's tale. 

Having thus ventured to defend the use of le- 
gend by your correspondent (Vol. v., p. 196.), I 
submit to the illuminating power of your pages 
the following novel use of a word I have met with 
in the course of reading this morning, and shall be 
gratified if some of your correspondents (better 
Grecians than myself) can turn their critical 
bull's-eye on it with equal advantage to its em- 
ployer. 

In the poems of Bishop Corbet, edited by Oc- 
tavius Gilchrist, F.S.A., 4th edition, 1807, an edi- 
torial note at p. 195. informs us that John Bust, 
living in 1611, "seems to have been a worthy 
prototype of the Nattus of Antiquity." (Persius, 
iii. 31.) 

Our humorous friend in the farce, -who was 
" 'prentice and predecessor " to his coadjutor the 
'jjothecary whom he succeeded, is the only sole- 
cism at all parallel, that immediately occurs to 

SQ.UEERS. 

Dotheboys. 

P.S. It would not be any ill-service to our 
language to pull up the stockings of the tight- 
laced occasionally, though I have here rushed in 
to the rescue. 

Belle Sauvage (Vol. viii., >p. 388. 523.). Mr. 
Burn, in his Catalogue of the Beaufoy Cabinet of 
Tokens presented to the Corporation of London, 
just published, after giving the various derivations 
proposed, says that a deed, enrolled on the Glaus 
Roll of 1453, puts the matter beyond doubt : 

" By that deed, dated at London, February 5, 
31 Hen. VI., John Frensh, eldest son of John Frensh, 
late citizen and goldsmith of London, confirmed to 
Joan Frensh, widow, his mother ' Totum ten' sive 



hospicium cum suis pertin' vocat' Savagesynne, alias 
vocat' le Belle on the Hope ;' all that tenement or inn 
with its appurtenances, called Savage's Inn, otherwise 
called the Bell on the Hoop, in the parish of St. 
Bridget in Fleet Street, London, to have and to hold 
the same for term of her life, without impeachment of 
waste. The lease to Isabella Savage must therefore 
have been anterior in date ; and the sign in the olden 
day was the Bell. ' On the Hoop' implied the ivy- 
bush, fashioned, as was the custom, as a garland." 
P. 137. 

ZEUS. 

Arms of Geneva (Vol. viii., p. 563.). Berry's 
Encyclopedia and Robson's British Herald give 
the following : 

" Per pale or and gules, on the dexter side a demi- 
imperial eagle crowned, or, divided palewise and fixed 
to the impaled line : on the sinister side a key in pale 
argent, the wards in chief, and turned to the sinister ; 
the shield surmounted with a marquis's coronet." 

Boyer, in his Theatre of Honour, gives 

" Party per pale argent and gules, in the first a 
demi-eagle displayed sable, cut by the line of partition 
and crowned, beaked, and membered of the second. 

" In the second a key in pale argent, the wards 
sinister." 

BROCTUNA. 

Bury, Lancashire;. 

" Arabian Nights' Entertainments " (Vol. viii., 
p. 147.). There is a much stranger omission in 
these tales than any MR. ROBSON has mentioned. 
From one end of the work to the other (in 
Galland's version at least) the name of opium is 
never to be found ; and although narcotics are 
frequently spoken of, it is always in the form of 
powder they are administered, which shows that 
that substance cannot be intended ; yet opium is, 
unlike tobacco or coffee, a genuine Eastern pro- 
duct, and has been known from the earliest period 
in those regions. J. S. WARDEW. 

Eichard I. (Vol. viii., p. 72.). I presume that 
the Richard I. of the " Tablet " is the " Richard, 
King of England," who figures in the Roman Ca- 
lendar on the 7th February, but who, if he ever 
existed, was not even monarch of any of the petty 
kingdoms of the Heptarchy, much less of all Eng- 
land. However, not to go farther with a subject 
which might lead to polemical controversy, surely 
MR. LUCAS is aware that a new series of kings 
began to be reckoned from the Conquest, and that 
three Edwards, who had much more right to be 
styled kings of England than Richard could have 
possibly had, are not counted in the number of 
kings of that name ; the reason was, I believe, 
that these princes, although the paramount rulers 
of the country, styled themselves much more fre- 
quently Kings of the West Saxons than Kings of 
England. J. S. WARDEN. 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman (Vol. vii., 
p. 211.). I regret having omitted " when found, 
to make a note of," the number of Chambers' 
Edinburgh Journal in which I met with the anec- 
dote referred to about Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 
which is given at considerable length ; and having 
lent my set of " Chambers " to a friend at a dis- 
tance, I cannot at present furnish the reference 
required; but L. will find it in one of the volumes 
between 1838 and 1842 inclusive. I do not re- 
collect that the periodical writer gave his authority 
for the tale, but while it may very possibly be 
true as regards the wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, 
it is evident that his daughter, a wealthy heiress, 
could never have been in such a position ; and it 
is not recorded that Lord Clarendon had any other 
wife. J. S. WARDEN. 

Oaths (Vol. viii., p. G 05.). Archbishop Whit- 
gift, in a sermon before Queen Elizabeth, thus 
addresses her : 

" As all your predecessors were at this coronation, so 
you also were sworn before all the nobility and bishops 
then present, and in the presence of God, and in His 
stead to him that anointed you, ' to maintain the 
church lands and the rights belonging to it;' and this 
testified openly at the Holy Altar, by laying your hands 
on the Bible then lying upon it. (See Walton's Lives, 
Zouch's ed., p. 243.) " 

I quote from the editor's introduction to Spel- 
man's History of Sacrilege, p. 75., no doubt cor- 
rectly cited. H. P. 

DouUe Christian Names (Vol. vii. passim}. 
The earliest instances of these among British sub- 
jects that I have met with, are in the families of 
James, seventh Earl, and Charles, eighth Earl, of 
Derby, both of whom married foreigners ; the 
second son of the former by Charlotte de la Tre- 
mouille, born 24th February, 1635, and named 
Henry Frederick after his grand-uncle, the stadt- 
holder, is perhaps the earliest instance to be found. 

J. S. WARDEN. 

Chip in Porridge (Vol. i., p. 382. ; Vol. viii., 
p. 208.). The subjoined extract from a news- 
paper report (Nov. 1806) of a speech of Mr. 
Byng's, at the Middlesex election, clearly in- 
dicates the meaning of the phrase : 

" It has been said, that I have played the.game of 
Mr. Mellish. I have, however, done nothing towards 
his success. I have rendered him neither service nor 
disservice." [" No, nor to anybody else," said a person 
on the hustings; "you are a mere chip in porridge."] 

W. R. D. S. 

Clarence Dukedom (Vol. viii., p. 565.). W. T. 
M. will find a very interesting paper on this sub- 
ject, by Dr. Donaldson, in the Journal of the Bury 
Archaeological Society. Q-. 



Prospectuses (Vol. viii., p. 562.). I have seen 
a very curious volume of prospectuses of works 
contemplated and proposed, but which have never 
appeared, and wherein may be found much in- 
teresting matter on all departments of litera- 
ture. A collection of this description would not 
only be useful, but should be preserved. A list 
of contemplated publications during the last half 
century, collected from such sources, would not 
be misplaced in " 1ST. & Q.," if an occasional 
column could be devoted to the subject. Gr. 

" I put a spoke in his wheel" (Vol. viii., pp. 464. 
522. 576.). This phrase must have had its origin 
in the days in which the vehicles used in this 
country had wheels of solid wood without spokes. 
Wheels so constructed I have seen in the west of 
England, in Ireland, and in France. A recent 
traveller in Moldo-Wallachia relates that the 
people of the country go from place to place 
mounted on horses, buffaloes, or oxen ; but among 
the Boyards it is " fashionable " to make use o*? 
a vehicle which holds a position in the scale of 
conveyances a little above a wheelbarrow and a 
little below a dung-cart. It is poised on four 
wheels of solid wood of two feet diameter, which 
are more or less rounded by means of an axe. A 
vehicle used in the cultivation of the land on the 
slopes of the skirts of Dartmoor in Devonshire, 
has three wheels of solid wood; it resembles a 
huge wheelbarrow, with two wheels behind, and 
one in front of it, and has two long handles like 
the handles of a plough, projecting behind for the 
purpose of guiding it. It is known as " the old 
three-wheeled But." As the horse is attached to 
the vehicle by chains only, and he has no power 
to hold it back when going down hill, the driver 
is provided with a piece of wood, " a spoke," which 
is of the shape of the wooden pin used for rolling 
paste, for the purpose of " dragging " the front 
wheel of the vehicle. This he effects by thrusting 
the spoke into one of the three round holes made 
in the solid wheel for that purpose. The operation 
of " putting a spoke in a wheel by way of impe- 
diment " may be seen in daily use on the three- 
wheeled carts used by railway navvies, and on the 
tram waggons with four wheels used in collieries 
to convey coals from the pit's mouth. N. W. S. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Every lover of Goldsmith and who ever read one 
page of his delightful writings without admiring the 
author, and loving the man 

'* . for shortness call Noll, 
Who wrote like an angel, but talk'd like poor Poll?" 

must be grateful to Mr. Murray for commencing his 
New Series of the British Classics with the Works of 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



Oliver Goldsmith, edited by Peter Cunningham, F.S.A. 

The Series is intended to be distinguished by skilful 
editorship, beautiful and legible type, fine paper, com- 
pactness of bulk, and economy of price. Accordingly, 
these handsome library volumes will be published at 
7s. 6d. each. If Mr. Murray has sho\vn good tact in 
choosing Goldsmith for his first author, he has shown 
equal judgment in selecting Mr. Cunningham for his 
editor. Our valued correspondent, it is well known, 
and will be proved to the world when he gives us his 
new edition of Johnson's Lives of the Poets (which by 
the bye is to be included in this Series of Murray's 
British Classics), has long devoted himself to the his- 
tory of the lives and writings of the poets of the past 
century. But in the present instance Mr. Cunning- 
ham has had peculiar advantages. Beside.5 his own 
collections for an edition of Goldsmith, he has had the 
free and unrestricted use of the collections formed for 
the same purpose by Mr. Forster and Mr. Corney : 
a liberality on the part of those gentlemen which de- 
serves the recognition of all true lovers of literature. 
With such aid as this, and his own industry and ability 
to boot, it is little wonder that Mr. Cunningham has 
been able to produce under Mr. Murray's auspices the 
best, handsomest, and cheapest edition of Goldsmith 
which has ever issued from the press. 

Of all the critics of Mr. Dod's Peerage, Baronetage, 
and Knightage of Great Britain and Ireland, Mr. Dod 
is himself at once the most judicious and unsparing; 
and the consequence is, that every year he reproduces 
his admirable compendium with some additional fea- 
ture of value and interest. For instance, in the volume 
for 1854, which has just been issued, we find, among 
many other improvements, that, at a very considerable 
cost, the attempt made in 1852 to ascertain and record 
the birthplace of every person who is the possessor, or 
the next heir, of any title of honour, has been renewed 
and extended with such success, that many hundred 
additional birthplaces are now recorded ; and the un- 
known remnant has become unimportant. These 
statements are perfectly new and original, acquired 
from the highest sources in each individual case, and 
wholly unprecedented in the production of peerage- 
books. 



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We are compelled to postpone until next week several NOTES ON 
BOOKS and NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

If MR. KF.RSLAKE will send the extract from liis catalogue which 
illustrates the corrupted passage in Childe Harold, " Thy waters 
wasted them," &c., we will give it insertion in our columns. 

J. W. T. Thanks. Your hint shall not be lost sight of. 

E. R. (Dublin). Erastianism is so called from Erastus, a 
German heretic of the sixteenth century. (See, for farther par- 
ticulars, Hook's Church Dictionary, s. v.) 

A PRIEST. We do not like to insert this inquiry without being 
able to give our readers a specific reference to some paper con- 
taining the advertisement ; will he enable ns to do so ? 

A. B. (Glasgow). This Correspondent appears to have fallen 
into an error ; on reference he will find ether not washed is re- 
commended ( Vol. vi., p. 277. ) , 'Indly, if he varnishes his pictures 
with amber varnish (Vol. vii., p. 562.) previous to the application 
of the black varnish, which should be Mack lacquer and not Bruns- 
wick black, then he will succeed. Courtesy demands a reply ; 
but we must beg a more careful reading of our recommendations, 
which will save him much disappointment. 

PHOTO-INQUIRER. Restoring Old Collodion. The question 
was asked in a late Number. Mr. Crookes being a practical ns 
well as scientific photographer, we hope to receive a solution of the 
Query 

INDEX TO VOLUME THE EIGHTH. This is in a very forward 
state, and will be ready for delivery with No. 221. on Saturday 
next. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vii., price Three Guineas 
and a Half. Copies are being made up and may he had by order. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



JAN. 14. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 

T RANGE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 

Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 



H.E.Bicknell,Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jim. Esq. 

M.P. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. F.vans.Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Rsq. 
J. H. Goodhart.Esq. 



T. Grisse1],Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. Lethbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



Trustees. 
W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
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application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100Z.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits: 



Age 



s. d. 
- 2 10 8 
6 



s. d. I Age 
17 - - - 1 14 4 I 32- 

22 - - - 1 18 8 37 - - - 2 18 6 
27- - - 2 4 5 | 42 - - -382 

.ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 
Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. 6f/., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Laud Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



POLICY HOLDERS in other 
COMPANIES, and intending Assurers 
generally, are invited to examine the Rates, 
Principles, and Progress of the SCOTTISH 
PROVIDENT INSTITUTION, the only 
Society in which the Advantages of Mutual 
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miums. Established 1837. Number of Poli- 
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Full Reports and every Information had 
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*** Policies are ndV issued Free of Stamp 
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GEORGE GRANT. Resident Sec. 
London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street. 



ENNETT'S MODEL 

. , WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
IIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Casts, in five qualities, and adapted to 
nil Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
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London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
50 truineas ; Silver. 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 21., 31., and 4l. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



"VYLO- IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 

J\. too-raphic Establishments. The superiority fif this preparation is now universally ac- 
knowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal scientific men of the day, 
warrant the assertion, that hitherto no preparation has been discovered which produces 
uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases 
where a quantity is required, tlie two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in serarate 
Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. 1 ull instructions 
for use. 

CAUTION. Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD W. 
THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP : for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signature 
and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 



. 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure 

:jf all respectable Chemists, in Pots at is., 2s., 
ARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard ; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., gs^Farringdou Street, Wholesale Agents. 



Photograi.hic "Chefnieais : and may be "procured" 
and 3s. Gd. each, through MESSRS. EDWAR 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

& CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
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Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
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123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAME- 
RAS. -OTTE WILL'S REGISTERED 
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is superior to every other form of Camera, 
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Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tri- 
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New Inventions, Models, &c.,made to order 
or from Drawings. 



IMPROVEMENT IN COLLO- 

L DION. J. B. HOCKTN & CO., Chemists, 
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equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness 
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THE COLLODION AND PO- 
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HOCKIN. Price 1*., per Po=t, Is. 2d. 



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PORTRAIT LENSES of double Achro- 
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LANDSCAPE LENSES, with Rack Ad- 
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A GUIDE to the Practice of this interesting 
Art, Is., by post free. Is. Gd. 

French Polished MAHOGANY STEREO- 
SCOPES, from 10s. Gd. A large assortment of 
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same 
in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen, at 
equally low prices. 

ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPES. 

Beautifully finished ACHROMATIC MI- 
CROSCOPE, with all the latest improvements 
and apparatus, complete from 31. 15s., at 

C. BAKER'S, Optical and Mathematical In- 
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posite Day & Martin's). 



ALLEN'S 'ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMANTEAUS.TRAVELLING-BAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 

DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand. 

TTEAL & SON'S EIDER DOWN 

_tL QUILT is the warmest, the lightest, 
and the most elegant Covering for the Bed, 
the Couch, or the Carriage ; and for Invalids, 
its comfort cannot be too highly appreciated. 
It is made in Three Varieties, of which a large 
Assortment can be seen at their Establish? 
ment. List of Prices of the above, together 
with the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent Free by 
Post. 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manu- 
facturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 

PRINCE OF WALES'S 
SKETCH-BOX Containing Colours, 
Pencils, &c., with printed directions, as now 
used by the Royal Family. Price 5s. 

MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 
56. Long Acre, London ; and at her Majesty ' 
Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico. 



SCIENTIFIC RECREATION FOR YOUTH 
EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY. 

A MUSEMENT FOR LONG 

J\_ EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S 
Chemical Cabinets and Portable Laboratories, 
5s. Gd., 7S. Gd., \Os.Gd.. 21s., 31s. 6</., 42s., 63*., 
and upwards. Book of Experiments, Gd. "Il- 
lustrated Descriptive Catalogue" forwarded 
Free for Stamp. 

WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Che- 
mist, 29 c. Rotherfield Street, Islington, 
London, and of Chemists and Opticians 
everywhere. 



RO YOU BRUISE YOUR 
OATS YET? New Oat Crushers, 
5s. 6d., ditto 41. 5s. Gd. ; Chaff Cutters, 
ll.7s.6d.. ditto 2Z. 19s. Gd. ; Mangles, '2l. 10s. Gd. ; 
Flour Mills, 41. 10s. Gd. 

MARY WEDLAKE & CO., 118. Fenchuxch 
Street. 

OPECTACLES. Every De- 

O scription of SPECTACLES and EYE- 
GLASSES for the Assistance of Vision, adapted 
by means of Smee's Optometer : that being 
the only correct method of determining the 
exact focus of the Lenses required, and of pre- 
venting injury to the sight by the use of im- 
proper Glasses. 

BLAND & LONG. Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 220. 



Cfte (JTamDen 

FOR THE PUBLIC 

EARLY HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OF 



THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to 
perpetuate, and render accessible, whatever is 
valuable, but at present little known, amongst 
the materials for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or 
Xiiterary History of the United Kingdom ; and 
it accomplishes that object by the publication of 
Historical Documents, Letters, Ancient Poems, 
and whatever else lies within the compass of 
its designs, in the most convenient form, and 
at the least possible expense consistent with 
the production of useful volumes. 

The Subscription to the Society is ll. per 
annum, which becomes due in advance on the 
Urst day of May in every year, and is received 
by MESSRS. NICHOLS, 25. PARLIAMENT 
STREET, or by the several LOCAL SECRE- 
TARIES. Members may compound .for their 
future Annual Subscriptions, by the pay- 
.rnent of 10?. over and above the Subscription 
for the current year. The compositions re- 
ceived have been funded in the Three per Cent. 
Consols to an amount exceeding 900Z. No 
Books are delivered to a Member until his 
Subscription for the current year has been 
paid. New Members are admitted at the 
Meetings of the Council held on the First 
Wednesday in every month. 



The Publications for the year 1851-2 were : 

52. PRIVY PURSE EX- 
PENSES of CHARLES II. and JAMES II. 

Edited by J. Y. AKERM AN, Esq., Sec. S.A. 

53. THE CHRONICLE OF 

THE GREY FRIARS OF LONDON. Edited 
from a MS. in the Cottonian Library by 
J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A. 

54. PROMPTORIUM: An 

English and Latin Dictionary of Words in 
Use durinz the Fifteenth Century, compiled 
chiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. 
By ALBERT WAY. Esq-, M.A., F.S.A. 
Vol. II. (M to R.) (Now ready.) 
Books for 1852-3. 

55. THE SECOND VOLUME 

OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, con- 
taining, 1. Expenses of John of Brabant, 
1292-3 ; 2. Household Accounts of Princess 
Elizabeth, 1551-2 ; 3. Requeste and Suite of a 
True-hearted Englishman, by W. Cholmeley, 
1553; 4. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at 
Clerkenwell, 1627-8 ; 5. Trelawny Papers ; 
6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell.- 
Now ready for delivery to all Members not in 
arrear of their Subscription. 



56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. 

A Selection from the Correspondence of the 
Verney Family during the reign of Charles I. 
to the year 1639. From the Originals in the 
possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. To be 
edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Trea. S.A. 

57. REGUL^ INCLUSARUM: 

THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the 
Rules and Duties of Monastic Life, in the An- 
glo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century, 
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a 
translation from the Latin Work of Simon de 
Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited f i om 
MSS. in the Cottonian Library, British Mu- 
sexim, with an Introduction, fJlossarial Notes, 
&e., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., 
Prebendary of Lincoln. (.Now ready.) 



The following Works are at Press, and will be 
issued from time to time, as soon as ready : 

58. THE CORRESPOND. 

ENCE OF LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY, 

during the Civil Wars. To be edited by the 
REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready 
immediately.) 

ROLL of the HOUSEHOLD 

EXPENSRS of RICHARD SWINFIELD, 
Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289, 1290, with 
Illustrations from other and coeval Docu- 
ments. To be edited by the REV. JOHN 
WEBB, M.A.., F.S.A. 

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. 

PAUL'S : a Description of the Manors belong- 
ing to the Church of St. Paul's in London in 
the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON 
HALE. 

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND 

BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de 
Reims, an Anglo-Norman Poet of the latter 
end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the 
unique MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by 
M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the 
Roman de Brut. 

Communications from Gentlemen desirous 
of becoming Members may be addressed to the 
Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols. 

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 
25. Parliament Street, Westminster. 



WORKS OF THE CAIV13DEW SOCIETY, 

AND ORDER OF THEIR PUBLICATION. 



1. Restoration of King Ed- 

ward IV. 

2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop 

Bale. 

3. Deposition of Richard II. 

4. Plumpton Correspondence. 

5. Anecdotes and Traditions. 

6. Political Songs. 

7. Hayward's Annals of Eli- 

zabeth. 

. Ecclesiastical Documents. 
9. Norden's Description of 

Essex. 
If). Warkworth's Chronicle. 

11. Kemp's Nine Daies Won- 

der. 

12. The Egerton Papers. 

13. ChronicaJocelinideBrake- 

londa. 

14. Irish Narratives, 1611 and 
1690. 

15. Rishanger's Chronicle. 

16. Poems of Walter Mapes. 

17. Travels of Nicander Nu- 

cius. 

18. Three Metrical Romances. 



19. Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

20. Apology for the Lollards. 

21. Rutland Papers. 

22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 

23. Letters of Eminent Lite- 

rary Men. 

21. Proceedings against Dame 
Alice Kyteler. 

25. PromptoriumParvulorum : 

Tom. I. 

26. Suppression of the Monas- 

teries. 

27. Leyeester Correspondence. 

28. French Chronicle of Lon- 

don. 

29. Polydore Vergil. 

30. The Thornton Romances. 

31. Verney's Notes of the Long 

Parliament. 

32. Autobiography of Sir John 

Bramston, 

33. Correspondence of James 

Duke of Perth. 

34. Liber de Antiquis Legions. 

35. The Chronicle of Calais. 



36. Polydore Vergil'a History, 

37. Italian 'Relation of Eng- 

land. 

38. Church of Middleham. 

39. The Camden Miscellany, 

Vol. I. 

40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 

41. Diary of Walter Yonge, 

Esq. 

42. Diary of Henry Machyn. 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon- 

shire. 

44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 

45. Twysden on the Govern- 

ment of England. 

46. Letters of Elizabeth and 

James VI. 

47. Chronicon Petroburgense. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen 

Mary. 

49. Bury Wills <nd Inventories. 

50. Mapes deNugisCurialium. 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guyl- 

ford. 



Just published, Gratis and Post Free, Parti. 
(New Series) of 

A CATALOGUE OF USEFUL 

f\_ AND CURIOUS BOOKS, AUTO- 
GRAPH LETTERS, MSS., AND LITE- 
RARY MISCELLANIES, on Sale by RI- 
CHARD JAMES BELL, 17. Bedford Street. 
Covent Garden, London. Part II. will con- 
tain a Collection of Rare Tracts, Books, MSS., 
&c., relating to the stirring times of Charles I. 
and II. 



THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 

L ZINE FOR JANUARY (being the Pint 
Part of a new Volume) contains the following 
articles : 1. The Princess (afterwards Queen) 
Elizabeth a Prisoner at Woodstock. 2. On 
supposed Apparitions of the Virgin Mary ; and 
particularly at La Salette. 3. Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh at Sherborne. 4. Manners and Morals of 
the University of Cambridge during the last 



Century. 5. English Sketches by F reign Ar- 
tists Max Schlesinarer's Saunterings in and 
about London. 6. Richard Baxter's Pulpit at 
Kidderminster (with a Plate). 7. Cambridge 
Improvements, 1853. 8. The Toxaris of Lucian. 
Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban : English 
Physicians in Russia Knishts Banneret 
Sir Constantine Phipps and Sir William Phips 
Diaries of Dr. Stukeley, &c. With Notes of 
the Month ; Historical and Miscellaneous Re- 
views; Reports of Antiquarian and Literary 
Societies; Historical Chronicle; andOmruARr, 
including Memoirs of the Queen of Portugal, 
the Duke of Beaufort, the Countess of New- 
hurarh, Lord Cloncurry, Rear-Adm. Pasco, 
Bickham Eseott. Esn., Wm. Gardiner. E^q., 
MM. Opie, Mr. Jas. Trubshaw, C.E., Mr. Sa- 
muel Williams, &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d. 
NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street. 

CHARLES I. A Curious Col- 
lection of upwards of 300 various Por- 
traits of this King, to be had at No. 1. Osna- 
burgh Place, New Road. Regent's Park. Also 
may be had on application, or on the receipt of 
Six Postage Stamps, a list of Books, Drawings, 
and Prints, illustrating the City of London. 
Books on History, Biography, and Topography, 
illustrated, inlaid, and mounted. 



Curious Books and MSS. Four Days' Sale. 

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, 

I Auctioneers of Literary Property, will 
SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 
191. Piccadilly, on WEDNESDAY, January 
IS, and two following days, a 1 arse Collection 
of RARE, CURIOUS, and INTERESTING- 
BOOKS, on Astrology, Witchcraft, Magic; 
the History of America, the East and West 
Indies, and of England, Ireland, and France : 
Curious Works on Quakerism, Controversial 
Theology, and in General Literature ; History, 
Philology, Bibliography, Voyages, and Tra- 
vels, &c. ; also a few Manuscripts, including 
Bywater's Account Of the Cutlers' Company, 
containing many curious entries ; the Ori- 
ginal Drawings of Carter's Ancient Architec- 
ture; a complete and early copy of Chalon'i 
Etchings from Rembrandt, &c. 

Catalogues may be had. 



Library and MSS. of the late EARL of 
MACARTNEY. 

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, 
Auctioneers of Literary Property, will 
SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Room, 
191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, January 24, 
1854, and following Days, the Important 
LIBRARY and MSS. of the late GEORGE, 
EARL of MACARTNEY, Ambassador to 
China in 1792, &c. The MSS. comprise He- 
raldic Visitations for many English Counties ; 
the MS. of Hobbes's Leviathan, presented by 
the Author to Charles II. ; Volumes of Superb 
Oriental and other Drawings ; Original MSS. 
of Bishop Atterbury ; State Papers of Sir 
George Downing, &c. 

Catalogues may now be had of MESSRS. 
PARKER. Oxford ; DEIGH PON, Cam- 
bridge : LANGBRIDGE, Birmingham ; 
HODGES & SMITH. Dublin; HYND- 
MAN, Belfast; BLACK WOOD, Edinburgh; 
and of the Auctioneers. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
Bt. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstau in tk West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, January 14. 1854. 






NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 221.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 21. 1854. 



f With Index, price 1(X- 
t Stamped Edition, Hd. 



CONTENTS. 

SOTES : Page 

A Plea for the City Churches, by the 

Rev. R. Hooper - - - - 51 

Echo Poetry - - - - - 51 

Ambiguity in Public Writing - - 52 

ACaroloftheKinss - - - 53 

Sir W. Scott and Sir W. Napier - - 53 

MINOR NOTES : Sign of Rain Commu- 
nications with Iceland Starvation, an 
Americanism Strange Epitaphs - 53 



Buonaparte's Abdication - - - 54 

Death Warnings in Ancient Familie* - 55 
The Scarlet Regimentals of the English 

Army ..... 55 

.MINOR QUERIES : Berkhampstead Re- 
cords " The secunde personne of the 
Trinetee" St. John's, Oxford, and 
Emmanuel, Cambridge " Malbrough 
'en va-t-en guerre " Prelate quoted 
in Procopius The Alibenistic Order 
of Freemasons Saying respecting An- 
cient History An Apology for not 
speaking the Truth Sir John Morant 
Portrait of Plowden Temperature 
of Cathedrals _ Dr. Eleazar Duncon _ 
The Duke of Buckingham Charles 
"Watson _ Early (German) coloured 
Engravings - - - - 56 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : _ 
History of M. Oufle Lysons' MSS. _ 
"Luke's Iron Crown " Horam 
coramDago" - - - -57 



Hoby Family, by Lord Braybrooke - 

Poetical Tavern Sisrns - - - 

Translation from Sheridan, &c. - - 

Florins and the Royal Arms - - 
Chronograms, by the Rev. W. Sparrow 

Simpson - - - - - 

Oaths, by James F. Ferguson, - - 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Split- 
ting Paper for Photographic Purposes 



Curling of Iodized Paper How the 

Rod is t " 



Glass ! 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: Wooden 

Tombs and Effiuies Epitaph on Poli- 
tian Defoe's Quotation from Baxter 
oil Apparitions Barrels Regiment 
Sneezing Does " Wurm," in modern 
German, ever mean Serpent ? Long- 
fellow's Reaper and the Flowers 
Charge of Plagiarism against Paley 
Tin John Waugh Rev. Joshua 
Brooks Hour-glass Stand Teeth 
Superstition Dog-whipping Day in 
Hull Mousehunt St. Paul's School 
Library German Tree Derivation 
of the Word "Cash" - - - 62 

^MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - 66 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 66 

-Notices to Correspondents - - 67 



VOL. IX. No. 221. 



A CATALOGUE of CURIOUS 

J\. and ENTERTAINING BOOKS, just 
Published by J. CROZIER, 5. New Turnstile, 
Holborn, near Lincoln's Inn Fields. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION. 

E VIEWS EXHIBITED 

by RUSSELL SEDGFIELD may be 
tained of MR. S. HIGHLEY, 32. Fleet 
Street ; and also of the Artist, 8. Willow Cot- 
tages, Canonbury. Price 3s, each. 

London: SAMUEL HIGHLEY, 

32. Fleet Street. 



T 

L 

obt 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTO- 
GRAPHS AND DAGUERREOTYPES is 

now open at the Gallery of the Society of 
British Artists, Suffolk Street. Pall Mall, in the 
Morning from 10 A.M. to half-past 4 P.M., and 
in the Evening from 7 to 10 P.M. Admission 1. 
Catalogue 6d. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITU- 
TION. An EXHIBITION of PIC- 
TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 21, 1854. 



A PLEA FOR THE CITY CHURCHES. 

When a bachelor is found wandering about, he 
cares not whither, your fair readers (for doubtless 
such a " dealer in curiosities " as you are has 
many of that sex who, however unjustly, have the 
credit of the " curious " bump) will naturally ex- 
claim " he must be in love," or " something hor- 
rible has happened to him." Let us, however, 
disappoint them by assuring them we shall keep 
our own counsel. If the former be the cause, 
green lanes and meandering streams would suit 
his case better than Gracechurch Street, London, 
with the thermometer five or six degrees below 
freezing point, and the snow (!) the colour and 
consistency of chocolate. Such a situation, how- 
ever, was ours, when our friend the Incumbent of 
Holy Trinity, Minories, accosted us. He was 
going to his church; would we accompany him ? 
We would have gone to New Zealand with him, if 
he had asked us, at that moment. The locale of 
the Minories was nearly as unknown to us as the 
aforesaid flourishing colony. On entering the 
church (which will not repay an architectural 
zealot), while our friend was extracting a burial 
register, our eye fell on an old monument or two. 
There was a goodly Sir John Pelham, who had 
been cruelly cut down by the hand of death in 
1580, looking gravely at his sweet spouse, a dame 
of the noble house of Bletsoe. Behind him is 
kneeling his little son and heir Oliver, whom, as 
the inscription informs us, " Death enforced to 
follow fast " his papa, as he died in 1584. 

And there was a stately monument of the first 
Lord Dartmouth, a magnanimous hero, and Master 
of the Ordnance to Charles II. and his renegade 
brother. We were informed that a gentleman in 
the vestry had come for the certificate of the 
burial of Viscount Lewisham, who died some 
thirty years ago ; that the Legge family were all 
buried here ; that after having dignified the aris- 
tocratic parish of St. George, Hanover Square, 
and the salons of May Fair, during life, they were 
content to lie quietly in the Minories ! Does not 
the high blood of the " city merchant " of the 
present day, of the "gentleman" of the Stock 
Exchange, curdle at the thought ? Yes, there lie 
many a noble heart, many a once beautiful face ; 
but we must now- a- days, forsooth, forget the 
City as soon as we have made our money in its 
dirty alleys. To lie there after death ! pooh, the 
thought is absurd. (Thanks to Lord Palmerston, 
we have no option now.) 

Well, we were then asked by the worthy In- 
cumbent, " Would you not like to see my head ?" 
Did he take us for a Lavater or a Spurzheim ? 
However, we were not left in suspense long, for 



out of the muniment closet was produced a tin 
box ; we thought of Heading biscuits, but we were 
undeceived shortly. Taken out carefully and 
gently, was produced a human head ! No mere 
skull, but a perfect human head ! Alas ! its 
wearer had lost it in an untimely hour. Start 
not, fair reader ! we often lose our heads and 
hearts too, but not, we hope, in the mode our poor 
friend did. It was clear a choice had been given 
to him, but it was a Hobson's choice. He had 
been axed whether he would or no ! He had been 
decapitated ! We were told that now ghastly 
head had once been filled with many an anxious, 
and perhaps happy, thought. It had had right 
royal ideas. It was said to be the head of Henry 
Grey, Duke of Suffolk, the father of the sweet 
Lady Jane Grey. We could muse and moralise ; 
but Captain Cuttle cuts us short, " When found, 
make a Note of it." We found it then there, Sir ; 
will you make the Note ? The good captain does 
not like to be prolix. Has his esteemed old re- 
lative, Sylvanus Urban (many happy new years to 
him !), made the note before ? 

We came away, shall we say better in mind ? 
Yes, said we, a walk in the City may be as in- 
structive, and as good a cure for melancholy, as 
the charming country. An old city church can 
tell its tale, and a good one too. We thought of 
those quaint old monuments, handed down from 
older churches 'tis true, but still over the slum- 
bering ashes of our forefathers; and when the 
thought of the destroying hand that hung over 
them arose amid many associations, the Bard of 
Avon's fearful monumental denunciation came to 
our aid : 

" Blest be the man that spares these stones, 
And curst be he that moves these bones." 

EICHARD HOOPER. 

St. Stephen's, Westminster. 



ECHO POETR3T. 

" A Dialogue between a Glutton and Echo . 

Gl. My belly I do deifie. 

Echo. Fie. 

GL Who curbs his appetite's a fool. 

Echo. Ah fool ! 

Gl. I do not like this abstinence. 

Echo. Hence. 

GL My joy 's a feast, rny wish is wine. 

Echo. Swine ! 

GL We epicures are happie truly. 

Echo. You lie. 

GL Who's that which giveth me the lie? 

Echo. I. 

Gl. What ? Echo, thou that mock'st a voice ? 

Echo. A voice. 

GL May I not, Echo, eat my fill? 

Echo. 111. 



52 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 221. 



Gl Will't hurt me if I drink too much ? 

Echo. Much. 

GL Thou mock'st me, Nymph ; I'll not believe it. 

Echo. Believe't. 

GL Dost thou condemn then what I do ? 

Echo. I do. 

GL I grant it doth exhaust the purse. 

Echo. Worse. 

GL Is't this which dulls the sharpest wit? 

Echo. Best wit. 

GL Is't this which brings infirmities ? 

Echo. It is. 

GL Whither will't bring my soul ? canst tell ? 

Echo. T hell. 

GL Dost thou no gluttons virtuous know ? 

Echo. No. 

GL Wouldst have me temperate till I die ? 

Echo. I. 

GL Shall I therein finde ease and pleasure ? 

Echo. Yea sure. 

GL But is 't a thing which profit brings? 

Echo. It brings. 

GL To minde or bodie ? or to both? 

Echo. To both. 

GL Will it my life on earth prolong ? 

Echo. O long ! 

GL Will it make me vigorous until death? j 

Echo. Till death. 

GL Will't bring me to eternall blisse ? ' 

Echo. Yes. 

Gl. Then, sweetest Temperance, I'll love thee. 

Echo. I love thee. 

Gl. Then, swinish Gluttonie, I'll leave thee. 

Echo. I'll leave thee. 

GL I'll be a belly-god no more. 

Echo. No more. 

GL If all be true which thou dost tell, 
They who fare sparingly fare well. 

Echo. Farewell. 

S. J." 

* l Hygiasticon : or the right Course of preserving Life 
and Health unto extream old Age : together with 
soundnesse and integritie of the Senses, Judge- 
ment, and Memorie. Written in Latine by 
Leonard Lessius, and now drfne into English. 
24mo. Cambridge, 1634." 

I send the above poem, and title of the work it 
is copied from, in the hope it may interest those 
of your correspondents who have lately been 
turning their attention to this style of composi- 
tion. H. B. 

Warwick. 



AMBIGUITY IN PUBLIC WRITING. 

In Brenan's Composition and Punctuation, pub- 
lished by Wilson, Royal Exchange, he strongly 
condemns the one and the other, as used for the 
former and the latter, or the first and the last. 
The understood rule is, that the one refers to the 
nearest or latter person or thing mentioned, and 
the other to the farthest or former ; and if that 



were strictly adhered to, no objection could be 
raised. But I have found, from careful observation 
for two or three years past, that some of our 
standard writers reverse the rule, and use the one 
for the former, and the other for the latter, by 
which I have often been completely puzzled to 
know what they meant in cases of importance. 
Now, since there is not the slightest chance of 
unanimity here, I think the author is right in con- 
demning their referential usage altogether. A 
French grammarian says, " Ce qui n'est pas clair 
n'est pas FranQais;" but though French is far 
from having no ambiguities, he showed that he 
fully appreciated what ought to be the proudest 
boast of any language, clearness. There is a 
notable want of it on the marble tablet under the 
portico of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, which says : 

" The church of this parish having been destroyed 
by fire on the 17th day of September, A. D. 1795, was 
rebuilt, and opened for divine service on the 1st day of 
August, A.D. 1798." 

The writer, no doubt, congratulated himself on 
avoiding the then common error, in similar cases, 
of " This church having," &c. ; for that asserted, 
that the very building we were looking at was 
burned down ! But in eschewing one manifest 
blunder, he fell /into ambiguity and inconclusive- 
ness equally reprehensible. For, as it never was 
imperative that a parish church should be always 
confined to a particular spot, we are left in doubt 
as to where the former one stood ; nor, indeed, 
are we told whether the present building is the 
parish church. Better thus : " The church of 
this parish, which stood on the present site, having," 
&c. 

Even with this change another seems necessary, 
for we should then be virtually informed, as we 
are now, that the church was rebuilt, and opened 
for divine service, in one day ! * Such is the care 
requisite, when attempting comprehensive brevity, 
for the simplest historical record intended to go 
down to posterity. It is no answer to say, that 
every one apprehends what the inscription means, 
for that would sanction all kinds of obscurity and 
blunders. When Paddy tells us of wooden panes 
of glass and mile-stones ; of dividing a thing into 
three halves ; of backing a carriage straight for- 
wards, or of a dismal solitude where nothing 
could be heard but silence, we all perfectly under- 
stand what he means, while we laugh at his un- 
conscious union of sheer impossibilities. CIARUS. 



* The following arrangement, which only slightly 
alters the text, corrects the main defects : " The church 
of this parish, which stood on the present site, was de- 
stroyed by fire on [date] ; and, having been rebuilt, 
was opened for divine service on [date]," 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



A CAROL OF THE KINGS. 

According to one legend, the three sons of Noah 
were raised from the dead to represent all mankind at 
Bethlehem. According to another, they slept a deep 
sleep in a cavern on Ararat until Messias was born, and 
then an angel aroused and showed them The Southern 
Cross, then first created to be the beacon of their way. 
When the starry signal had fulfilled its office it went 
on, journeying towards the south, until it reached its 
place to bend above The Peaceful Sea in memorial of 
the Child Jesu. 

I. 
Three ancient men, in Bethlehem's cave, 

With awful wonder stand : 
A Voice had call'd them from their grave 
In some far Eastern land 1 

IT. 

They lived : they trod the former earth, 
When the old waters swell'd : 

The ark, that womb of second birth, 
Their house and lineage held ! 

in. 

Pale Japhet bows the knee with gold ; 

Bright Shem sweet incense brings : 
And Ham the myrrh his fingers hold 

Lo ! the Three Orient Kings ! 

IV. 

Types of the total earth, they hail'd 

The signal's starry frame : 
Shuddering with second life, they quailM 

At the Child Jesu's name ! 

v. 

Then slow the patriarchs turn'd and trod, 

And this their parting sigh 
" Our eyes have seen the living God, 

And now, once more to die ! " 

H. or M. 



SIR W. SCOTT AND SIR W. NAPIER. 

Some short time ago there appeared in The 
Times certain letters relative to a song of Sir 
Walter Scott in disparagement of Fox, said to have 
been sung at the dinner given in Edinburgh on 
the acquittal of Viscount Melville. In one letter, 
signed " W. Napier," it is asserted, on the au- 
thority of a lady, that Scott sang the song, which 
gave great offence to the Whig party at the time. 

Now, I must take the liberty of declaring this 
assertion to be incorrect. I had the honour of 
knowing pretty intimately Sir Walter from the 
year 1817 down to the period of his departure for 
the^ Continent. I have been present at many con- 
vivial meetings with him, and conversed with him 
times without number, and he has repeatedly de- 
clared that, although fond of music, he could not 
sing from his boyhood, and could not even hum a 



tune so as to be intelligible to a listener. The 
idea, therefore, of his making such a public ex- 
hibition of himself as to sing at a public meeting, 
is preposterous. 

But in the next place the cotemporary evidence 
on the subject is conclusive. An account of the 
dinner was published in the Courunt newspaper, 
and it is there stated " that one song was sung, 
the poetry of which was said to come from the 
muse of ' the last lay,' and was sung with ad- 
mirable effect by the proprietor of the Ballantyne 



It is perhaps unnecessary to explain that the 
singer was the late John Ballantyne, and I have 
my doubts if the song referred to in the contro- 
versy was the one sung upon the occasion. This, 
however, is merely a speculation arising from the 
fact, that this was a song not included in Sir 
Walter Scott's works, which upon the very highest 
authority I have been informed was sung there, 
but of which Lord Ellenborough, and not Charles 
Fox, was the hero. It is entitled " Justice Law," 
and is highly laudatory of the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. It has been printed in the Supplement 
to the Court of Session Garland, p. 10., and the 
concluding verse is as follows : 

" Then here's to the prelate of wisdom and fame, 
Tho' true Presbyterians we'll drink to his name ; 
Long, long may he live to teach prejudice awe, 
And since Melville's got justice, the devil take law." 

Again I repeat this conjecture may be erroneous ; 
but that Sir Walter never sung any song at all 
at the meeting is, I think, beyond dispute. J. M. 



Sign of Rain. Not far from Weobley, co. 
Hereford, is a high hill, on the top of which is a 
clump of trees called " Ladylift Clump," and thus 
named in the Ordnance map : it is a proverbial 
expression in the surrounding neighbourhood, that 
when this clump is obscured with clouds, wet 
weather soon follows ; connected with which, many 
years since I met with the following lines, which 
may prove interesting to many of your readers : 

When Ladie Lift 
Puts on her shift, 
Shee feares a downright raine ; 
But when she doffs it, you will finde 
The raine is o'er, and still the winde, 
And Phcebus shine againe." 

What is the origin of this name having been given 
to the said clump of trees ? J. B. WHITBORNE. 

Communications ivith Iceland. In the summer 
of 1851 1 directed attention to the communications 
with Iceland. I am just informed that the Danish 
government will send a war steamer twice next 
summer to the Faroe Islands and to Iceland, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



calling at Leith both ways for passengers. The 
times of sailing will probably be announced to- 
wards spring in the public prints. This oppor- 
tunity of visiting that strange and remarkable 
island in so advantageous a manner is worthy of 
notice, as desirable modes of getting there very 
rarely occur. 

The observing traveller, in addition to the 
wonders of nature, should not fail to note there 
the social and physical condition, and diseases of 
the inhabitants. He will there find still lingering, 
fostered by dirt, bad food, and a squalid way of 
living, the true leprosy (in Icelandic, spelalshd) 
-which prevailed throughout Europe in the Middle 
Ages; and which now survives only there, in Nor- 
way, and in some secluded districts in central and 
southern Europe. He will also note the remark- 
able exemption of the Icelanders from pulmonary 
consumption ; a fact which seems extraordinary, 
considering the extreme dampness, inclemency, 
and variability of the climate. But the con- 
sumptive tendency is always found to cease north 
of a certain parallel of latitude. 

WM. E. C. NOUBSK. 

8. Burwood Place, Hyde Park. 

Starvation, an Americanism. Strange as it may 
appear, it is nevertheless quite true that this 
word, now unhappily so common on every tongue, 
as representing the condition of so many of the 
sons and daughters of the sister lands of Great 
Britain and Ireland, is not to be found in our own 
English dictionaries ; neither in Todd's Johnson, 
published in 1826," nor in Richardson's, published 
ten years later, nor in Smart's Walker remo- 
delled published about the same time as Ri- 
chardson's. It is Webster who has the credit of 
importing it from his country into this; -and in a 
supplement issued a few years ago, Mr. Smart 
adopted it as "a trivial word, but in very common, 
and at present good use." 

What a lesson might Mr. Trench read us, that 
it should be so ! 

Our older poets, to the time of Dryden, used 
the compound " hunger-starved." We now say, 
, starved witli cold. Chaucer speaks of Christ as 
" He that star/ for our redemption," of Creseide 
"which well nigh starf for feare;" Spenser, of 
arms " which doe men in bale to sterve." (See 
Starve in Richardson.) In the Pardoneres Tale, 
v. 12799: 

" Ye (yea), sterve he shall, and that in lesse while 
Than thou wilt gon a pas not but a mile ; 
This poison is so strong and violent." 

And again, v. 12822 : 

*' It happed him 

To take the hotelle there the poison was, 
And dronke ; and gave his felau drinke also, 
For which anone they storven bothe two." 



Mr. Tyrwhit explains, " to die, to perish ; " and 
the general meaning of the word was, "to die, or 
cause to die, to perish, to destroy." Q. 

Strange Epitaphs. The following combined 
" bull " and epitaph may amuse your readers. I 
copied it in April, 1850, whilst on an excursion 
to explore the gigantic tumuli of New Grange, 
Dowth, &c. 

Passing through the village of Monknewtown, 
about four miles from Drogheda, I entered a 
burial-ground surrounding the ivy-clad ruins of a 
chapel. In the midst of a group of dozen or more 
tombstones, some very old, all bearing the name 
of "Kelly," was a modern upright slab, well 
executed, inscribed, 

" Erected by PATRICK KELLY, 

Of the Towii of Drogheda, Mariner, 

In Memory of his Posterity." 

" Also the above PATRICK KELLY, 
Who departed this Life the 12th August, 1844, 

Aged 60 years. 
Requiescat in Pace." 

I gave a copy of this to a friend residing at 
Llanbeblig, Carnarvonshire, who forwarded me the 
annexed from a tombstone in the parish church- 
yard there : 

" Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Here lie the Remains of THOMAS CHAMBERS, 

Dancing Master ; 
Whose genteel address and assiduity 

in Teaching, 

Recommended him to all that had the 

Pleasure of his acquaintance. 

He died June 13, 1765, 

Aged 31." 

R. H. B. 
Bath. 



tterfetf. 
BUONAPARTE'S ABDICATION. 

A gentleman living in the neighbourhood of 
London bought a table five or six years ago at 
Wilkinson's, an old established upholsterer on 
Ludgate Hill. 

In a concealed part of the leg of the table he 
found a brass plate, on which was the following 
inscription : 

" Le Cinq d'Avril, dix-huit cent quatorze, Napoleon 
Buonaparte signa son abdication sur cette table dans 
le cabinet de travail du Roi, Ie2me apres la chatnbre a 
coucher, a Fontainebleau." 

The people at Wilkinson's could give no account 
of the table : they said it had been a long time in 
the shop ; they did not remember of whom it had 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



been bought, and were surprised when the brass 
plate was pointed out to them. 

The table is a round one, and rather pretty 
looking, about two feet and a half in diameter, 
and supported on one leg. It does not look like 
a table used for writing^but rather resembles a 
lady's work-table. The wood with which it is 
veneered has something the appearance of beef 
wood. 

Wilkinson's shop does not now exist : he used 
to deal in curiosities, and was employed as an 
auctioneer. 

The gentleman who bought this table is de- 
sirous of ascertaining at what time the table still 
shown at Fontainebleau, as that on which the ab- 
dication was signed, was first exhibited : whether 
immediately after the restoration of the Bourbons, 
or later, in consequence of a demand for shows of 
that sort ? Whether it is a fact that the Bourbons 
turned out the imperial furniture from Fontaine- 
bleau and other palaces after their return ? 

The date, "cinq d'Avril," is wrong; the abdi- 
cation was signed on the 4th. This error, how- 
ever, leads one to suspect that the table is genuine : 
as any one preparing a sham table would have 
been careful in referring to printed documents. 
From the tenor of the inscription, we may infer 
that it is the work of a Royalist. 

The Marshals present with Napoleon when he 
signed his abdication were Ney, Oudinot, and 
Lefevre ; and perhaps Caulincourt. A CANTAB. 

University Club. 



DEATH WARNINGS IN ANCIENT FAMILIES. 

I marvel much that none of your contributors in 
this line have touched upon a very interesting 
branch of legendary family folk lore, namely, the 
supernatural appearances, and other circumstances 
of a ghostly nature, that are said to invariably pre- 
cede a death in many time-honoured families of the 
united kingdoms. 

We have all heard of the mysterious " White 
Ladye," that heralds the approach of death, or 
dire calamity, to the royal house of Hohenzollern. 
In like manner, the apparition of two gigantic 
owls upon the battlements of Wardour is said to 
give sad warning to the noble race of Arundel. 
The ancient Catholic family of Middleton have 
the same fatal announcement made to them by 
the spectral visitation of a Benedictine nun ; 
while a Cheshire house of note, I believe that of 
Brereton, are prepared for the last sad hour by 
the appearance of large trunks of trees floating in 
a lake in the immediate vicinity of their family 
mansion. To two families of venerable antiquity, 
and both, if I remember right, of the county of 
Lancashire, the approaching death of a relative is 
made known in one case by loud and continued 



knockings at the hall door at the solemn hour of 
midnight ; and in the other, by strains of wild 
and unearthly music floating in the air. 

The " Banshee," well known in Ireland, and in. 
the highlands of Scotland, is, I believe, attached 
exclusively to families of Celtic origin, and is 
never heard of below the Grampian range ; al- 
though the ancient border house of Kirkpatrick 
of Closeburn (of Celtic blood by the way) is said 
to be attended by a familiar of this kind. 

Again, many old manor-houses are known to 
have been haunted by a friendly, good-natured 
sprite, ycelpt a " Brownie," whose constant care 
it was to save the household domestics as much 
trouble as possible, by doing all their drudgery 
for them during the silent hours of repose. Who 
has not heard, for instance, of the "Boy of 
Hilton ? " Of this kindly race, I have no doubt, 
many interesting anecdotes might be rescued from 
the dust of time and oblivion, and preserved for 
us in the pages of " N. & Q." 

I hope that the hints I have ventured to throw 
out may induce some of your talented contri- 
butors to follow up the subject. 

JOHN o' THE FORD. 

Malta. 



THE SCARLET REGIMENTALS OF THE ENGLISH 
ARMY. 

When was the English soldier first dressed in 
red ? It has been said the yeomen of the guard 
(vulgo Beef- eaters) were the company which ori- 
ginally wore that coloured uniform ; but, seventy 
years before they were established, viz. termo. 
Henry V., it appears the military uniform of his 
army was red : 

" Rex vestit suos rulro, et parat transire in Nor- 
maniam." Archceolog. Soc. Antiquar., Lond., vol. xxi. 
p. 292. 

William III. not only preferred that colour, but 
he thought it degrading to the dignity of his 
soldiers that the colour should be adopted for the 
dress of any inferior class of persons ; and there is 
an order now extant, signed by Henry, sixth Duke 
of Norfolk, as Earl Marshal, dated Dec. 20, 1698, 

" Forbidding any persons to use for their liveries scar- 
let or red cloth, or stuff; except his Majesty's servants 
and guards, and those belonging to the royal family 
or foreign ministers." 

William IV., who had as much of true old 
English feeling as any monarch who ever swayed 
the English sceptre, ordered scarlet to be the 
universal colour of our Light Dragoons ; but two 
or three years afterwards he was prevailed upon, 
from some fancy of those about him, to return to 
the blue again. Still, it is well known that dress- 
ing our Light Dragoons in the colour prevailing 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



with other nations has led to serious mistakes in 
time of action. A. 



Serkhampstead Records. Where are the re- 
cords of the now extinct corporation of Great 
Berkhampstead, co. Herts, incorporated 1618? 
And when did it cease to exercise corporate rights, 
and why ? J. K. 

" The secunde personne of the Trinetee " 
(Vol.viii., p. 131.)- What does the "old En- 
glish Homily" mean by "a wornanne who was the 
secunde personne of the Trinetee ?" J. P. S. 

St. Johns, Ox ford, and Emmanuel, Cambridge. 
Can your readers give me any information re- 
specting Thomas Collis, B.A., of St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, ordained priest by Richard (Rey- 
nolds), Bishop of Lincoln, at Buckden, 29th May, 
1743 ? What church preferment did he hold, 
where did he die, and where was he buried ? 

Also of John Clendon, B.D., Fellow of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, who was presented to 
the vicarage of Brompton-Regis, Somerset, by 
his College, in or about the year 1752 ? His cor- 
respondence with the Fellows of Emmanuel is 
amusing, as giving an insight into the every-day 
life of Cambridge a century ago. You shall have 
a letter or two ere long as a specimen. 

THOMAS COLLIS. 

Boston. 

*' MalbrougTi s'en va-t-en guerre." Some years 
ago, at a book-stall in Paris, I met with a work in 
one volume, being a dissertation in French on the 
origin and early history of the once popular song, 
'\Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre." It seemed to 
contain much information of a curious and inte- 
resting character ; and the author's name, if I 
remember rightly, is Blanchard. I have since 
made several attempts to discover the title of the 
book, with the view of procuring a copy of it, but 
without success. Can any of your readers assist 
me in this matter ? HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Prelate quoted in Procopius. In the 25th 
note (a), chap, xl., of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 
there is a quotation from Procopius. Can any of 
your readers conjecture who is meant by the 
" learned prelate now deceased," who was fond of 
quoting the said passage. 2. 

The Alibenistic Order of Freemasons. Can 
any of your readers, masonic or otherwise, inform 
me what is meant by this order of Freemasons ? 
The work of Henry O'Brien on the Round Towers 
of Ireland is dedicated to them, and in his preface 
they are much eulogised. H. W. D. 



Saying respecting Ancient History. In Nie- 
buhr's Lectures on Ancient History, vol. i. p. 355. r 
I find 

" An ingenious man once said, ' It is thought that at 
length people will come to read ancient history as if 
it had really happened,' a remark which is really excel- 
lent." 



Who was this "ingenious man" ? 



J.P. 



An Apology for not speaking the Truth. Can any 
of your correspondents kindly inform me where 
the German song can be found from which the 
following lines are taken ? 

" When first on earth the truth was born, 

She crept into a hunting-horn ; 
The hunter came, the horn was blown, 
But where truth went, was never known." 

W. W. 
Malta. 

Sir John Morant. In the fourth volume of 
Sir John Froissart's Chronicles, and in the tenth 
and other chapters, he mentions the name of a 
Sir John Morant, Knight, or Sir John of Chatel 
Morant, who lived in 1390-6. How can I find 
out his pedigree ? or whether he is an ancestor 
of the Hampshire family of Morants, or of the 
Rev. Philip Morant ? H. H. M. 

Malta. 

Portrait of Plowden. Is any portrait of Ed- 
mund Plowden the lawyer known to exist ? and if 
so, where ? P. P. P. 

Temperature of Cathedrals. Can any of your 
readers favour me with a report from observation 
of the greatest and least heights of the thermo- 
meter in the course of a year, in one of our large 
cathedrals ? 

I am informed that Professor Phillips, in a 
geological work, has stated that the highest and 
lowest temperatures in York Minster occur about 
five weeks after the solstices ; but it does not ap- 
pear that the altitudes are named. T. 

Dr. Eleazar Duncon. Dr. Eleazar Duncon 
was of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, D.D., anno 
1633, Rector of Houghton Regis same year, Chap- 
lain to King Charles I., Prebendary of Durham. 
He is supposed to have died during the interreg- 
num. Can any of your correspondents say when, 
or where ? D. D. 

The Duke of Buckingham. Do the books of the 
Honorable Society of the Middle Temple disclose 
any particulars relating to a " scandalous letter," 
believed to have been written by "a Templar 1 * 
to George Villiers, the Great Duke of Bucking- 
ham, in 1626, the year before his grace was assas- 
sinated by Felton ; which letter was found by a 
servant of the inn in a Temple drinking-pot, by 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



whom it was handed over to the then treasurer of 
the Society, Nicholas Hide, Esq. ? and was the 
author of such scandalous letter ever discovered 
and prosecuted ? CESTRIENSIS. 

Charles Watson. Can any of your readers give 
me any account of Charles Watson, of Hertford 
College, Oxford, author of poems, and Charles the 
First, a tragedy ? 

I believe a short memoir of this author was 
to have appeared in BlackwoocCs Magazine (the 
second volume, I think) ; it was never published, 
however. A. Z. 

? Early (German) coloured Engravings. I have 
six old coloured engravings, which I suppose to 
be part of a series, as they are numbered re- 
spectively 1, 2. 4. 11, 12, 14. They are mounted 
on panels ; and on the back of each is a piece 
of vellum, on which some descriptive verses 
in old German have been written. The ink re- 
tains its blackness ; but dirt, mildew, and ill usage 
have rendered nearly all the inscriptions illegible, 
and greatly damaged the pictures ; yet, through 
the laborious colouring and the stains, good draw- 
ing and expression are visible. Perhaps a brief 
description may enable some of your readers to 
tell me whether they are known. 

Nos. 1. and 11. are so nearly obliterated, that I 
will not attempt to describe them. No. 2. seems 
to be St. George attacking the dragon. The in- 
scription is : 

" Hier merke Sobn gar schnell und bald, 
Von grausam schwartzeu Thier im Wald." 

No. 4. A stag and a unicorn : 

" Man ist von Nothin dass ibr wiszt, 
Im Wald em Hirsch und Eikhorn ist." 

No. 12. An old man with wings, and a younger 
wearing a crown and sword. They are on the 
top of a mountain overlooking the sea. The sun 
is in the left corner, and the moon and stars on the 
right. The perspective is very good. Inscription 
obliterated. 

No. 14. The same persons, and a king on his 
throne. The elder in the background ; the 
younger looking into the king's mouth, which is 
opened to preternatural wideness : 

" Sohn in dein Abwesen war ich tod, 
Und mein Leben in grosser Notb ; 
Aber in dein Beysein thue icb leben, 
Dein Widerkunff't mir Freudt thut geben." 

The inscription is long, but of the rest only a 
word here and there is legible. Any information 
on this subject will oblige, H. 



History of M. Oufle. Johnson, in his Life of 
Pope, says of the Memoirs of ScriUerus : 

" The design cannot boast of mucb originality : for, 
besides its general resemblance to Don Quixote, there 
will be found in it particular imitations of the History 
of M. Oufle." 



What is the History of M. Oufte 



L.M. 



[ The History of the Religious Extravagancies of Mon- 
sieur Oufle is a remarkable book, written by the Abbe 
Bordelon, and first published, we believe, at Amster- 
dam, in 2 vols., 1710. The Paris edition of 1754, in 
2 vols., entitled L? Histoire des Imaginations Extrava- 
gantes de Monsieur Oufte, is the best, as it contains some 
curious illustrations. From the title-page we learn 
that the work was " Occasioned by the author having" 
read books treating of magic, the black art, demoniacs, 
conjurors, witches, hobgoblins, incubuses, succubuses, 
and the diabolical Sabbath ; of elves, fairies, wanton 
spirits, geniuses, spectres, and ghosts ; of dreams, the 
philosopher's stone, judicial astrology, horoscopes, 
talismans, lucky and unlucky days, eclipses, comets, 
and all sorts of apparitions, divinations, charms, en- 
chantments, and other superstitious practices ; with 
notes containing a multitude of quotations out of those 
books which have either caused such extravagant ima- 
ginations, or may serve to cure them." If any of our 
readers should feel inclined to collect what we may 
term " A Diabolical Library," he has only to consult 
vol. i. ch. iii. for a catalogue of the principal books in 
Mons. Oufle's study, which is the most curious list of 
the black art we have ever seen. An English trans- 
lation of these Religious Extravagancies was published 
in 1711.] 

Ly sons' MSS. Is the present repository of 
the MS. notes, used by Messrs. Lysons in editing 
their great work, the Magna Britannia, known ? 

T. P. L. 

[The topographical collections made by the Rev. 
Daniel Lysons for the Magna Britannia and the En- 
virons of London, making sixty-four volumes, are in 
the British Museum, Add. MSS. 94089471. They 
were presented by that gentleman.] 

"Luke's Iron Crown" (Goldsmith's Traveller, 
last line but two). To whom does this refer, and 
what are the particulars ? P. J. (A Subscriber). 

[This Query is best answered by the following note 
from Mr. P. Cunningham's new edition of Goldsmith : 

" When Tom Davies, at the request of Granger, 
asked Goldsmith about this line, Goldsmith referred 
him for an explanation of ' Luke's iron crown' to a 
book called Geographie Curieuse ; .and added, that by 
' Damiens' bed of steel ' he meant the rack. See 
Granger's Letters, 8vo., 1805, p. 52. 

" George and Luke Dosa were two brothers who 
headed an unsuccessful revolt against the Hungarian 
nobles at the opening of the sixteenth century : and 
George (not Luke) underwent the torture of the red- 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



hot iron crown, as a punishment for allowing himself 
to be proclaimed King of Hungary (1513) by the 
rebellious peasants (see Biographic Universelle, xi. 
604.). The two brothers belonged to one of the native 
races of Transylvania called Szecklers, or Zecklers 
(Forster's Goldsmith, i. 395., edit. 1854)."] 

" Horam coram Dago" In the first volume 
of Lavengro, p. 89. : 

" From the river a chorus plaintive, wild, the words 
of which seem in memory's ear to sound like ' Horam 
coram Dago/ " 

I have somewhere read a song, the chorus or 
refrain of which contained these three words. 
Can any of your readers explain ? 2. 

[Our correspondent is thinking of the song " Amo, 
amas," by O'Keefe, which will be found in The Uni- 
versal Songster, vol. i. p. 52., and other collections. 
We subjoin the chorus : 

" Rorum coram, 
Sunt divorum, 
Harum scarum 
Divo 1 

Tag rag, merry derry, per ri wig and hat-band, 
Hie hoc horum genitivo ! "] 



HOBY FAMILY. 

(Vol. ix., p. 19.) 

Many years have passed away since I went over 
Bisham Abbey ; but I was then informed that any 
family portraits belonging to the old House had 
been taken away by the widow of Sir John Hoby 
Mill, Baronet, who sold the property to Mr. George 
Vansittart in 1780, or shortly afterwards. I am 
not aware that there are any engraved portraits 
of the Hobys, excepting those mentioned by your 
correspondent MR. WHITBORNE, which form part 
of the series of Holbein's Heads, published in 
1792 by John Chamberlaine, from the original 
drawings still in the royal collection. In the 
meagre account of the persons represented in that 
work, Lady Hoby is described as " Elizabeth, one 
of the four daughters of Sir Antony Cooke, of 
Gidea Hall, Essex," and widow of Sir Thomas 
Hoby, who died in 1566, a v t Paris, whilst on an 
embassy there. The lady remarried John Lord 
Russell, eldest son of Francis, second Earl of 
Bedford, whom she also survived, and deceasing 
23rd of July, 1584, was buried in Bisham Church, 
in which she bad erected a chapel containing 
splendid monuments to commemorate her husbands 
and herself. The inscriptions will be found in 
Ashmole's Berkshire, vol. ii. p. 464., and in Wot- 
ton's Baronetage, vol. iv. p. 504., where the Hoby 
crest is given as follows ; " On a chapeau gules 
turned up ermine, a wolf reerreant arsrent." The 



armorial bearings are described very minutely in 
Edward Steele's Account of Bisham Church, 
Gough MSS., vol. xxiv., Bodleian, which contains 
some other notices of the parish. BRAYBROOKE. 



POETICAL TAVERN SIGNS. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 242. 452. 626.) 

I send two specimens from this neighbourhood, 
which may, perhaps, be worth inserting in your 
columns. 

The first is from a public-house on the Basing- 
stoke road, about two miles from this town. The 
sign-board exhibits on one side "the lively 
effigies " of a grenadier in full uniform, holding in 
his hand a foaming pot of ale, on which he gazes 
apparently with much complacency and satisfaction. 
On the other side are these lines : 
" This is the Whitley Grenadier, 

A noted house for famous beer. 

My friend, if you should chance to call, 

Beware and get not drunk withal ; 

Let moderation be your guide, 

It answers jvell whene'er 'tis try'd. 

Then use but not abuse strong beer, 

And don't forget the Grenadier." 

The next specimen, besides being of a higher 
class, has somewhat of an historical interest. In 
a secluded part of the Oxfordshire hills, at a place 
called Collins' s End, situated between Hardwick 
House and Goring Heath, is a neat little rustic 
inn, having for its sign a well-executed portrait of 
Charles I. There is a tradition that this unfor- 
tunate monarch, while residing as a prisoner at 
Caversham, rode one day, attended by an escort, 
into this part of the country, and hearing that 
there was a bowling-green at this inn, frequented 
by the neighbouring gentry, struck down to the 
house, and endeavoured to forget his sorrows for 
awhile in a game at bowls. This circumstance is 
alluded to in the following lines, which are written 
beneath the sign-board : 

" Stop, traveller, stop ; in yonder peaceful glade, 
His favourite game the royal martyr play'd ; 
Here, stripp'd of honours, children, freedom, rank, 
Drank from the bowl, and bowl'd for what he drank ; 
Sought in a cheerful glass his cares to drown, 
And changed his guinea, ere he lost his crown." 

The sign, which seems to be a copy from Van- 
dyke, though much faded from exposure to the 
weather, evidently displays an amount of artistic 
skill that is not usually to be found among common 
sign-painters. I once made some inquiries about 
it of the people of the house, but the only inform- 
ation they could give me was that they believed it 
to have been painted in London. G. T. 

Reading. 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



TRANSLATION FROM SHERIDAN, ETC. 

(Vol. viii., p. 563.) 

I cannot furnish BALLIOLENSIS with the trans- 
lation from Sheridan he requires, but I am ac- 
quainted with that from Goldsmith. It is to be 
found somewhere in Valpy's Classical Journal. 
As that work is in forty volumes, and not at hand, 
I am not able to give a more precise reference. 
I recollect, however, a few of the lines at the 
beginning : 
" Incola deserti, gressus refer, atque precanti 

Sis mihi noctivagas dux, bone amice, viae ; 
Dirige qua lampas solatia luce benigna 
Praebet, et hospitii munera grata sui. 
Solus enim tristisque puer deserta per agro, 

JEgre membra trahens deficiente pede, 
Qua, spatiis circum immensis porrecta, patescunt 

Me visa augeri progrediente, loca." 
" Ulterius ne perge," senex, "jam mitte vagari, 

Teque iterum noctis, credere, amice, dolis : 
Luce trahit species certa in discrimina fati, 
Ah nimium nescis quo malefida trahat ! 
Hie inopi domus, hie requies datur usque vaganti, 

Parvaque quantumvis dona, libente tnanu. 
Ergo verte pedes, caliginis imminet bora, 

Sume libens quidquid parvula cella tenet . . ." 

No doubt there is a copy of the Classical Journal 

in the Bodleian ; and if BALLIOLENSIS can give me 

volume and page, I in turn shall be much obliged 

to him. HYPATIA. 

The lines to which your correspondent BALLIO- 
LENSIS refers 

" Coriscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat." 

are a translation of the song in Sheridan's Duenna, 
Act I. Sc. 2., beginning 

" I ne'er could any lustre see," &c. 
They were done by Marmaduke Lawson, of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, for the Pitt Scholar- 
ship in 1814, for which he was successful : 
" Phyllidis effugiunt nos lumina. Dulcia sunto. 

Pulcra licet, nobis baud ea pulcra micant. 
Nectar erat labiis, dum spes erat ista tenendi, 

Spes perit, isque simul, qui erat ante, decor. 
Votis me Galatea petit. Caret arte puella, 

Parque rosis tenero vernat in ore color : 
Sed nihil ista juvant. Forsan tamen ista juvabunt. 

Si jaceant, victa marte, rubore genee : 
Pura manus mollisqne fluit. Neque credere possum. 

Ut sit vera fides, ista premenda mihi est. 
Nee bene credit amor (nara res est plena timoris), 

Conscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat. 
Ecce movet pectus suspiria. Pectora nostris 

Ista legenda oculis, si meus urat amor. 
Et, nostri modo cura memor nostrique caloris 

Tangat earn, facere id non pudor ullus erit." 
I have not sent the English, as it can be easily 
got at. The other translation I am not acquainted 
with. -D 



FLORINS AND THE ROYAL ARMS. 

(Vol. viii., p. 621.) 

The placing of the royal arms in four separate 
shields in the form of a cross first occurred upon 
the medals struck upon the nativity of King 
Charles II., anno 1630 ; and adopted upon the 
reverse of the coins for the first time in 1662, 
upon the issue of what was then termed the im- 
proved milled coin, where the arms are so placed, 
having the star of the Garter in the centre ; the 
crowns intersecting the legend, and two crowns 
interlaced in each quarter. The shields, as here 
marshalled, are each surmounted by a crown ; 
having in the top and bottom shield France and 
England quarterly, Ireland on the dexter side 
(which is the second place), and on the sinister 
Scotland.* But on the milled money which fol- 
lowed, France and England being borne separately, 
that of France, which had been constantly borne 
in the first quarter singly until James I., and after- 
wards in the first place quarterly with England, 
is placed in the bottom shield or fourth quarter. 
Mr. Leake, in his Historical Account of English 
Money f, after remarking that this irregular bear- 
ing first appeared upon the nativity medals of 
Charles II. in 1630, where the shields are placed 
in this manner, adds, that this was no doubt 
originally owing to the ignorance of the graver, 
who knew no other way to place the arms circu- 
larly than following each other, like the titles, 
unless (as I have heard, says he) that the arms of 
each kingdom might fall under the respective title 
in the legend; and this witty conceit has ever 
since prevailed upon the coin, except in some of 
King William and Queen Mary's money, where the 
arms are rightly marshalled in one shield. That 
this was owing to the ignorance of the workman, 
and not with any design to alter the disposition 
of the arms, is evident from the arms upon the 
great seal, where France is borne quarterly with 
England, in the first and fourth quarters, as it was 
likewise used upon all other occasions, until the 
alteration occasioned by the union with Scotland 
in 1707. 

In reference to the arrangement consequent 
upon the union with Scotland, he observes that, 
how proper soever the impaling the arms of the 
two kingdoms was in other respects, it appeared 
with great impropriety upon the money. The four 
escocheons in cross had hitherto been marshalled 
in their circular order from the left, whereby 
the dexter escocheon was the fourth ; accord- 
ing to which order the united arms, being quar- 
tered first and fourth, would have fallen together ; 
therefore they were placed at the top and bottom, 



* Evelyn's Discourse, edit. 1696, p. 121. 

f London, 8vo., 1745, 2nd edit., then Clarenceux 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



which indeed was right : but then France by the 
same rule was then in the third place, and Ireland 
in the second ; unless to reconcile it we make a 
rule contrary to all rule, to take sinister first and 
dexter second. 

In the coinage of King George I., the re- 
presentation of the armorial bearings in four 
separate shields, as upon the milled money of 
King Charles II., was continued. In the upper- 
most escocheou, England impaling Scotland ; the 
dexter the arms of his Majesty's electoral domi- 
nions ; sinister France ; and in the bottom one 
Ireland, all crowned with the imperial crown of 
Great Britain. The marshalling of the four esco- 
cheons in this manner might and ought to have 
been objected to by the heralds (has it been 
brought under their cognizance ?), because it ap- 
pears by many instances, as well as upon coins and 
medals of the emperors and several princes of the 
empire, that arms marshalled in this circular form 
are blazoned, not in the circular order, but from 
the dexter and sinister alternately ; and thus the 
emperor at that time bore eleven escocheons round 
the imperial eagle. In like manner, upon the 
money of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, we 
see the crest with a circle of eleven escocheons in 
the same order. The same order is observed in 
marshalling the escocheons of the seven provinces 
of Holland; and there is a coin of the Emperor 
Ferdinand, another of Gulick, and a third of 
Erick, Bishop of Osnaburgh, with four escocheons 
in cross, and four sceptres exactly resembling the 
English coins. That it was not altered therefore 
at that time, the mistake being so evident, can be 
attributed only to the length of- time the error 
had prevailed ; so hard is it to correct an error in 
the first instance whereby the arms of his Majesty's 
German dominions, which occupy the fourth quar- 
ter in the royal arms, do in fact upon the money 
occupy the second place ; a mistake however so 
apparent, as well by the bearing upon other oc- 
casions as by the arms of Ireland, which be- 
fore occupied the same escocheon, that nothing 
was meant thereby to the dishonour of the Bother 
arms ; but that being now established, it is the 
English method of so marshalling arms in cross or 
in circle, or rather that they have no certain 
method. v 

Until the union with Scotland, the dexter was 
the fourth escocheon ; from that time the bottom 
one was fourth; now the dexter was again the 
fourth. Such is the force of precedent in per- 
petuating error, that the practice has prevailed 
even to the present time : and it may be inferred, 
that fancy and effect are studied by the engraver 
before propriety. No valid reason can be ad- 
vanced for placing the arms in separate shields 
after their declared union under one imperial 
crown. J. 



CHRONOGRAMS. 

(YoLviii., p. 351. &c.) 

The banks of the Rhine furnish abundant ex- 
amples of this literary pleasantry: chronograms 
are as thick as blackberries. I send you a dozen, 
gathered during a recent tour. Each one was 
transcribed by myself. 

1. Cologne Cathedral, 1722 ; on a beam in a 
chapel, on the south side of the choir : 

P!A VlRGlNls MAB!^ soDALIiAS ANKOS s^CV- 
LAR.I RENO VAT." 

2. Poppelsdorf Church, near Bonn. 1812 : 
"pARoCnlALIs TEMpLI nVlNls jEDIrlCABAR." ; 

3. Bonn ; on the base of a crucifix, outside the 
minster, on the north side. 1711 : 

"GLORlFlCATE 

ET 
PORTATE DfiVM 

IN CORPORE VESTRO. 
1 Cor. 6." 

4. Bonn; within the minster. 1770: 






PATRON Is P!E 
DICAVlT." 

5. Aix-la-Chapelle ; on the baptistery. 1660 : 

"SACRVM 

PARoCnlALE DIVI JOHANNls 
BAPTlSTJE." 

6. Aix-la-Chapelle. St. Michael ; front of west 
gallery. 1821: 

sVM P!A CIVlTAiTs 

LlBERALIlATE RENoVATA DzCoRATA." 

7. Aix-la-Chapelle, under the above. 1852 : 

"ECCE 

MICHAELIs 

AEDES." 

8. Konigswinter ; on the base of a crucifix at 
the northern end of the village. 1726 : 

!N VNlVs VER! AC IK 
CARNAT! DE! HONORED! 

POsVERE. 

JOANKES PETRUS MUMRER ET 

MARIA GENGERS CONJUGES 

2 DA SEPTEMBRIS." 

9. Konigswinter ; over the principal door of the 
church. 1828: 

"ES IST SE!KES MEN CHER WOHN!JNG SONDEM E!N 
HKRRLICHES HAUSZ UNSERES GOTTES, I. B. D. KEtt. 

ER. 29. C. V. I." 

10. Konigswinter ; under the last. 1778 : 
"VNl sANOrlssIMo DEO, PATR! 

trrT.Tn C T>TnTTVTVE SAxOro'' 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



61 



11. Konigswinter ; under the last. 1779 : 

ERlGOR sVB MAX. FftlDERlCo KONlGSEGG AH- 
COLONIENSI plfi GVfiERNANTE." 



12. Coblenz. S. Castor; round the arch of the 
west door. 1765 : 



" D!RO MAR!A 
LAS COBLENZ AUBEFOHLEN SE!N.'* 

Of these, Nos. 9, 10. and 11. are incised on one 
stone, the letters indicating the chronogram being 
rubricated capitals ; but in No. 10. the second I 
in " filio," and the first I in " spirituique," though 
capitals, are not in red. I shall be much obliged 
to any of your correspondents who can supply a 
complete or corrected copy of the following chro- 
nogram, from the Kreutzberg, near Bonn. The 
height at which it was placed, and its defective 
colour, prevented me from deciphering the whole ; 
nor do 1 vouch for the correctness of the subjoined 
portion : 

"sCALA IESV PR 
NOBIS PASSI . A . . 
CLEJVlENTE AVGVSTO 



AVGVST 
PRElIoSI 
EXSTRV." 

Some parts of this inscription might be conjec- 
turally supplied ; but I prefer presenting it as I 
was able to transcribe it. The staircase in question 
was erected by the Elector Clement Augustus, in 
or about 1725, in imitation of the Scala Santa at 
Home. (See Murray's Handbook.} 

W. SPARKOW SIMPSON. 



OATHS. 



(Vol. viii., pp. 364. 471.) 

In Primate Colton's Metropolitan Visitation of 
the Diocese of Derry, A.D. 1397, edited by the 
Rev. William Reeves, D.D., it is stated, at p. 44., 
that several persons therein mentioned took their 
oath "tactis sacrosanctis Evangeliis;" and in a 
note Dr. Reeves says that 

^ Until the arrival of the English the custom of swear- 
ing on the holy evangelists was unknown to the Irish, 
\vho resorted instead to croziers, bells, and other sacred 
reliquaries, to give solemnity to their declarations. 
Even when the Gospels were used, it was not uncom- 
mon to introduce some other object to render the oath 
doubly binding. Thus in a monition directed by 
Primate Prene to O'Neill, he requires him to be sworn 
' tactis sacrosanctis Dei evangeliis ad ea, et super Ba- 
culum Jesu in ecclesia cathedrali Sanctae Trinitatis 
Dublin.' (Reg. Prene, fol. 117.)" 



The following lines upon the subject in ques- 
tion will be found in the Red Book of the Irish 
Exchequer : 

" Qui jurat super librum tria facit. 

" Primo quasi diceret omnia que scripta sunt in hoc 
libro nunquam mihi perficiant neque lex nova neque 
vetus si mencior in hoc juramento. 

" Secundo apponit manura super librum quasi di- 
ceret numquam bona opera que feci michi proficiant 
ante faciem Jeshu Christ! nisi veritatem clicaiu quando 
per inanus significentur opera. 

" Tercio et ultimo osculatur librum quasi diceret 
numquam oraciones neque preces quas dixi per os 
meum michi ad salutem anime valeunt si falsitatem 
dicam in hoc juramento michi apposito." 

Judging by the character of the handwriting, 
I would say that the above-mentioned lines were 
written not later than the time of Edward I. ; and 
as many of the vellum leaves of this book have 
been sadly disfigured, as well by the pressure of 
lips as by tincture of galls, I am inclined to think 
that official oaths were formerly taken in the 
Court of Exchequer of Ireland by presenting the 
book when opened to the person about to be 
sworn in the manner at this day used (as we are 
informed by Honore de Mareville) in the Eccle- 
siastical Court at Guernsey. 

It appears by an entry in one of the Order 
Books of the Exchequer, deposited in the Exche- 
quer Record Office, Four Courts, Dublin, that in 
James I.'s time the oath of allegiance was taken 
upon bended knee. The entry to which I refer is 
in the following words : 

"Easier Term, Wednesday, 22nd April, 1618. 
Memorandum : This day at first sitting of the court, the 
lord threasurer, vice threasurer, and all the barons being 
present on the bench, the lord chauncellor came hither 
and presented before them Thomas Hibbotts, esq., with 
his Majesty's letters patents of the office of chauncellor 
of this court to him graunted, to hold and execute the 
said office during his naturall life, which being read 
the said lord chauncellor first ministred unto him the 
oath of the King's supremacy, which hee tooke kneel- 
ing on his knee, and presently after ministred unto 
him the oath ordayned for the said officer, as the same 
is contayned of record in the redd booke of this court; 
all which being donn the said lord chauncellor placed 
him on the bench on the right hand of the lord threa^ 
surer, and then departed this court." 

JAMES F. FERGUSON. 
Dublin. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Splitting Paper for Photographic Purposes If the 

real and practical mode of effecting this were disclosed, 
it would be (in many cases) a valuable aid to the 
photographer. I have had many negative calotypes 
ruined by red stains on the back (but not affecting the 
impressed side of the paper) ; which, could the paper 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



have been split, would in all probability have been 
available, and printed well. 

I was sorry to see in " N. & Q." (Vol. via., p. 604.) 
an article under this head which went the round of 
the papers several months ago. Anything more im- 
practicable and ridiculously absurd than the directions 
there given can hardly be imagined : " cylinders of 
amber !" or " cylinders of metallic amalgam ! !" " excited 
in the usual manner," &c. I presume electrical excita- 
tion is intended. Though, how cylinders of metal are 
to receive electrical excitation, and to have sufficient 
attractive power over a sheet of paper as to rend it 
asunder, would be a problem which I believe even a 
Faraday could not solve : neither would excited glass 
cylinders effect the object any better; or if they could, 
it would be erecting a wheel to break a fly upon. 

The whole proposition must originally have been a 
hoax : in fact, we live in a day when the masses of the 
people are easily induced to believe that electricity can 
do everything. 

Another, and far more feasible plan has been pro- 
posed (" N. & Q,.," Vol. viii., p. 413.), viz. to paste the 
paper to be split between two pieces of calico or linen ; 
and when perfectly dry, part them. One half, it is 
said, will adhere to each piece of the linen, and may 
afterwards be obtained or set free from the linen by 
soaking. 

I have tried this with partial, but not satisfactory 
success. It will be remembered that the results of the 
true process were some years ago exhibited before a 
scientific company (I think at the Royal Institution), 
when a page of the London Illustrated News was first 
exhibited in its usual condition, printed on both sides ; 
and was then taken to an adjoining apartment, and in 
a short time (perhaps a quarter of an hour) re-exhibited 
to the company split into two laminae, each being per- 
fect. Neither the pasting plan, nor the electrical gam- 
mon, could have effected this. I hope some of your 
readers (they are a legion) will confer on photogra- 
phers the favour of informing them of this art. 

COKELY. 

Curling of Iodized Paper. The difficulty which 
your correspondent C. E. F. has met with, in iodizing 
paper according to DR. DIAMOND'S valuable and simple 
process, may be easily obviated. 

I experienced the same annoyance of "curling up" 
till it was suggested to me to damp the paper pre- 
viously to floating it. I have since always adopted 
this expedient, and find it answer perfectly. The 
'method I employ for damping it is to leave it for a 
few hours previously to using it upon the bricks in my 
cellar : and I have no doubt but that, if C. E. F. will 
try the same plan, he will be equally satisfied with the 
result. W. F. W. 

How the Glass Rod is used. Would you be kind 
enough to inform me how paper is prepared or excited 
with the glass rod in the calotype process ? Is the 
solution first poured on the paper, and then equally 
diffused over it with the rod ? DUTHUS. 

[The manner in which the glass rod is to be used 
for exciting or developing is very simple, although 
not easily described. The operator must provide him- 



self with some pieces of thin board, somewhat larger 
than the paper intended to be used ; on one of these 
two or three folds of blotting-paper are to be laid, and 
on these the paper intended to be excited, and which is 
to be kept steady by pins at the top and bottom right- 
hand corners, and the forefinger of the left hand. The 
operator, having ready in a small measure about thirty 
drops of the exciting fluid, takes the glass rod in his 
right hand, moves it steadily over the paper from the 
right hand to the left, where he keeps it, while with 
the left hand he pours the exciting fluid over the side of 
the glass rod, and moving this to and fro once or twice 
to secure an equal portion of the exciting fluid along 
the whole length of the rod ; he then moves the rod 
from left to right and back again, until he has ascer- 
tained that the whole surface is covered, taking care 
that none of the exciting fluid runs over the side of 
the paper, as it is then apt to discolour the back of it. 
When the whole surface has been thoroughly wetted, 
the superfluous fluid is to be blotted off with a piece 
of new blotting-paper.] 



to ^Itnor 

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. viii., p. 604.). 
In addition to that mentioned by J. E. J., there 
is a wooden chest 'in the centre of the chancel of 
Burford Church, in the county of Salop, with a 
figure in plated armour on the top; the head 
resting on a helmet supported by two angels, and 
at the feet a lion crowned. An ornament of oak 
leaves runs round the chest, at the ed^e. This 
effigy is supposed to represent one of the Corn- 
wall family, the ancient, but now extinct, barons 
of Burford. As I am preparing, with a view to 
publication, a history of this very ancient family, 
with an account of the curious and interesting 
monuments in Burford and other churches, I 
should esteem it a favour if any of your corre- 
spondents could furnish me with authentic in- 
formation relative to any members of the family, 
or of any memorials of them in other churches 
than those of Worcestershire and Shropshire. 

J. B. WHITBOBNE. 

Epitaph on Politian (Vol. viii., p. 537.). Har- 
wood's Alumni Etonenses, A.D. 1530, Hen. VIII., 
p. 22. : 

" Edward Bovington was born at Burnham, and was 
buried in the chapel. Some member of the College 
made these lines on him : 

* Unum caput tres lingjuas habet, 
(Res mira !) Bovingtonus.' " 

This member must have seen Politian's epitaph. 

J. H. L. 

Defoe s Quotation from Baxter on Apparitions 
(Vol. ix., p. 12.). The story copied by DR. MAIT- 
LAND from Defoe's Life of Duncan Campbell, is 
to be found nearly word for word in pp. 60, 61. of 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



The Certainty of the Worlds of Spirits fully evinced 
by the unquestionable Histories of Apparitions, Sfc., 
by Richard Baxter, London, 1691. I can trace 
no mention of the Dr. Beaumont, author of the 
Treatise of Spirits, unless he be the " eminent 
apothecary in Henrietta Street, Go vent Garden," 
stated by Nichols (Literary Anecdotes, vol. ix. 
p. 239.) to be the father of Mr. Beaumont, Regis- 
trar of the Royal Humane Society. 'AAieus. 
Dublin. 

Barrels Regiment (Vol. viii., p. 620.). If the 
song referring to Barrel's regiment was written 
about 1747, it was not original, but a parody or 
adaptation of one in The Devil to Pay, performed 
as a ballad opera in 1731 ; and which still main- 
tains its place, if not on the stage, in recent edi- 
tions of the " acting drama." 1 have not an old 
edition of the play, but quote from a collection 
of songs called The Nightingale, London, 1738, 
p. 232. : 

" He that has the best wife, 

She's the plague of his life ; 
But for her that will scold and will quarrel, 

Let him cut her off short, 

Of her meat and her sport, 
And ten times a day hoop her barrel, brave boys, 

And ten times a day hoop her barrel." 

May I append a Query to my reply ? Was The 
Nightingale published with a frontispiece? My 
copy is mutilated, but has belonged to some per- 
son who valued it much more highly than I do, as 
he has neatly repaired and replaced torn leaves 
and noted deficiencies. Prefixed is a mounted 
engraving of a bird in the act of singing, which, 
if intended for a nightingale, is really curious; as 
it is of the size and shape of a pheasant, with cor- 
vine legs and beak, and a wattle round the eye 
like that of a barb pigeon. The book is " printed 
and sold by J. Osborn," and shows that the post 
assigned to him in The Dunciad was not worse 
than he deserved. H. B. C. 

Garrick Club. 

[Our correspondent seems to have the veritable 
original engraving; the nightingale or pheasant, or 
whatever it may be, is mounted on a branch over a 
stream near to three houses, and a village on its banks 
is seen in the distance.] 

Sneezing (Vol. viii., pp. 366. 624.). To the 
very interesting illustrations given by Mr. Francis 
Scott of the ancient superstitions associated with 
sternutation, I should like to add one not less 
curious than any which he has given. It is re- 
corded in Xenophon's Anabasis, lib. iii. cap. 2. 

At the council of Greek generals, held after the 
death of Cyrus, Xenophon rose and made a speech. 
He set before his comrades the treachery of their 
late associate Ariseus ; the serious difficulties 
attendant upon the position of the Greeks ; and the 



necessity for immediate and vigorous action. Just 
as he had alluded to the probability of a severe con- 
flict, and had invoked the aid of the gods, one of 
the company sneezed. He paused for a moment 
in his harangue, and every one present did reve- 
- to Jupiter. The circumstance 



seemed to give new spirit and fortitude to the 
whole assembly ; and when Xenophon resumed, 
he said, " Even now, my comrades, while we were 
talking of safety, Zeus the saviour has sent us an 
omen ; and I think it would become us to offer to 
the god a sacrifice of thanksgiving for our pre- 
servation." He then, in the manner of a modern 
chairman at Exeter Hall, invited all of that opinion 
to hold up their hands. This appeal having met 
a unanimous response, they all made their vows, 
sung the paean, and the orator proceeded with his 
discourse. 

The adoration of the god, or the use of some 
auspicious words or religious formulary, appears to 
have been designed to avert any evil which might 
possibly be portended by the omen. It seems by 
no 'means certain that it was always regarded as 
favourable. Xenophon, in the case referred to, 
contrived very adroitly to turn the incident to 
good account, and to interpret it as a sign of the 
divine favour. The form of one of the sentences 
I have translated 

" 'ETrel TTfpl (rurripias -f]/j.wv \ey6vTtav olwvbs TOU 
Atbs rov 2&>T7jpos ecpai'Tj." 

affords a little illustration of the benediction in 
current use among the Greeks on such occasions, 
"Zew erwcroj/." J. G. F. 

Does " Wurm," in modern German, ever mean 
Serpent? (Vol. viii., pp. 465. 624.). F. W. J. is 
quite right as regards his interpretation of the 
word Wurm, used by Schiller in his Wallenstein 
in the passage spoken by Butler. 

Wurm is not used in German to mean a ser- 
pent. Serpents (Schlangen) are vertebrata, and 
are therefore not confounded with Wiirmer by the 
Germans. The language of the people frames 
proverbs, not the language of science. The Ger- 
mans apply the word Wurm to express pity or 
contempt. The mother says to her sick child, 
" Armes Wiirmchen!" signifying poor, suffering, 
little creature. Man to man, in order to express 
contempt, will say " Elender Wurm ! " meaning 
miserable wretch ; an application arising out of 
the contemplation of the helpless state and in- 
ferior construction of this division of the animal 
kingdom. The German proverb corresponds to 
the English. C. B. d'O. 

Longfellow's Reaper and the Flowers (Vol. viii., 
p. 583.). This charge of plagiarism, I think, is 
not a substantial one. To compare Death to a 
reaper, and children to flowers, is a very general 
idea, and may be thought by thousands, and ex- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 221. 



pressed in nearly the same words which Long- 
fellow, and before him Luisa Reichardt, have 
used. The first line of the two respective poems 
are certainly word for word the same, but that is 
all ; although the tendency of both poems is the 
same. Longfellow's poem is much superior to 
that of L. Reichardt ; for, while the former has a 
beautiful clothing, colouring, and harmony, the 
latter is very crude, poor, and defective. Long- 
fellow's long residence in Germany has indeed 
rendered him very susceptible to the form and 
spirit of German poetry, and hence there exist in 
Lis poems frequently affinities as to general forms 
and ideas : still, affinities arising from such causes 
cannot justly be termed plagiarism, much less the 
accidental choice of a very widely existent, natural 
thought. When Byron wrote his opening line to 
The Bride of Abydos, he did not probably think 
ofGothe's 

" Konnst du das Land wo die Citronen bliihen ?" 

Byron was not a German scholar ; and as the 
opening line is the only analogy between the two 
poems, we may justly believe it natural for any 
one who has lived in southern lands, to ask such 
a question. The charge of plagiarism, I think, 
ought to rest upon grounds which evince an actual 
copying. C. B. d'O. 

Charge of Plagiarism against Paley (Vol. viii., 
p. 589.). As a personal friend of the gentleman 
v/ho, under the name of VERITAS, brought, about 
five years ago, a charge of plagiarism against 
Paley, I feel called upon to say a few words to 
FIAT JUST. 

Truth cannot be refuted ; and F. J. may look 
at the translation of the old Dutch book of Nieu- 
wentyt's, which he will find in the British Mu- 
seum library, the same place where VEBITAS made 
the discovery while examining the works of some 
continental metaphysicians : and FIAT JUST, will 
then no doubt regret having made the rash and 
illogical observation, " that the accusation be re- 
futed, or the culprit consigned to that contempt," 
&c. The character of VERITAS as man, moralist, 
and scholar, does not deserve so unjust and rash 
a remark. 

The Dutch book, as well as the translation, are 
rery scarce. Five and six copies of the latter 
could only be found at the time of the discovery 
in London. C. B. d'O. 

Tin (Vol. viii., p. 593.). The suggestions of 
your correspondent S. G. C. are ingenious re- 
specting the etymology of Cassiteros, but a slight 
examination will show they are erroneous. The 
Cassi was only one of the many tribes inhabiting 
Britain in the time of Csesar, and it is by no 
means probable that it was able to confer its name 
upon the entire country, to the exclusion of all 
the rest; such as the Iceni, the Trinobanti, the 



Coritani, the Belga?, and various others too nume- 
rous to mention. We must bear in mind that the 
Phrenicians gave the name of Cassiterides to the 
British Isles ; and that in naming places they in- 
variably called them after some known or sup- 
posed quality possessed by them, or from some 
natural appearance which first arrested their 
notice : and such was the case in this instance. 
We learn that it was the common belief in ancient 
times, that the islands to the west of Europe were 
shrouded in almost perpetual gloom and darkness : 
hence the British Isles were called Cassiterides, 
from Ceas, pronounced Kass, i. e. gloom, dark- 
ness, obscurity ; and tir, i. e. lands, plural Ceasi- 
terides, i. e. " the islands of darkness." And the 
tin which the Phrenicians procured from them 
received the appropriate name of Cassiteros, z. e. 
the metal from the islands of darkness. 

FRAS. CROSSLET. 

John Waugh (Vol. viii., pp. 271. 400. 525. ; 
Vol. ix., p. 20.). The Rev. John Waugh was of 
Broomsgrove, Worcester, and died unmarried and 
intestate. Letters of administration of his estate 
in the province of York were granted Oct. 28, 
1777, to his five sisters and co-heiresses, Judith, 
Isabella, Elizabeth, Mary, and Margaret, spinsters, 
who all were living at Carlisle ; and were unmar- 
ried in August, 1792. WM. DURRANT COOPER. 

Rev. Joshua Brooks (Vol. viii., p. 639.). 
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine for March, 1821, 
contains a paper entitled a " Brief Sketch of the 
Rev. Josiah Streamlet." Under this sobriquet, a 
few incidents in the life of the Rev. Joshua 
Brooks are related, which may interest C. (1). 

G. D. R. 

Hour-glass Stand (Vol. viii., p. 454.). There 
is an hour-glass stand attached to the pulpit of 
Nassington Church, Northants. Nassington is 
bout six miles from the town of Oundle. 

G. R. M. 

There is an hour-glass stand in Bishampton 
Church, Worcestershire. CUTHBERT^BEDE, B.A. 

Teeth Superstition (Vol. viii., p. 382.). My 
wife, who is a Yorkshire woman, tells me that, 
whenever she lost a tooth as a child, her nurse 
used to exhort her to keep her tongue away from 
the cavity, and then she would have a golden 
tooth. She speaks of it as a superstition with 
which she has always been familiar. OXONIENSIS. 

Walthamstow. 

Dog-whipping Day in Hull (Vol. viii., p. 409.). 
This custom obtains, or used to do, in York on 
St. Luke's Day, Oct. 18, which is there known by 
the name of " Whip-dog Day." Drake considers 
the origin of it uncertain ; and though he is of 
opinion that it is a very old custom, he does not 



JAN. 21. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



agree with those who date it as far back as the 
Romans. 

In the History of York, vol. i. p. 306., respecting 
the author of which a Query has appeared in 
" N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 125., the traditional ac- 
count of its origin is given : 

" That in times of Popery, a priest celebrating mass at 
the festival in some church in York, unfortunately 
dropped the pix after consecration, which was snatched 
up suddenly and swallowed by a dog that lay under 
the table. The profanation of this high mystery occa- 
sioned the death of the dog ; and a persecution began, 
and has since continued on this day (St. Luke's), to be 
severely carried on against all the species in the city." 

A very curious whipping custom prevails ^ at 
Leicester, known by the name of "Whipping 
Toms," on the afternoon of Shrove Tuesday. It is 
thus described in Hone's Year Book, p. 539. : 

" In this space (the Newark) several (I think three) 
men called ' Whipping Toms,' each being armed with 
a large waggon whip, and attended by another man 
carrying a bell, claim the right of flogging every per- 
son whom they can catch while their attendant bell- 
inan can keep ringing his bell." 

Perhaps some one of your correspondents will 
be able to afford an origin for this odd usa^e. 

R. W. ELLIOT. 

2 Clifton. 



'" A Spanish lady now resident in England, a mem- 
ber of the Latin Church, mentioned to me, some 
months since, a custom prevailing in her native land 
similar to that in Hull described by MR. RICHARD- 
SON. It arose on this wise : Once upon a time, on 
a high festival of the Church, when there was an 
exposition of the blessed Sacrament, a dog rushed 
into the church when the altar was unguarded, and 
carried off the Host. This deed of the sacrilegious 
animal filled the Spaniards with such horror, that 
ever after, on the anniversary of that day, all 
dogs were beaten and stoned that showed them- 
selves in the streets. EDWARD PEACOCK. 
Bottesford Moors. 

Househunt (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606.). I think 
the inquiry relative to this animal may be satis- 
factorily answered by the following quotation from 
a very excellent and learned work, entitled A 
Natural History of British and Foreign Quadru- 
peds, containing many Original Observations and 
Anecdotes, by James H. Fennell, 8vo., London, 
1841: 

" The Beech Marten is the Maries folna of modern 
zoologists, the Maries Fagorum of Ray, the Maries 
Saxorum of Klein, the Mustela Maries of Linnams, and 
the Mustela foina of Gmelin. Its English synonymes 
are not less numerous; for, besides Beech Marten, it 
is called Stone Marten, Martern, Marteron, Martlett, 
and Mousehunt. The last name I insert on the authority 
of Henley, the dramatic commentator, who says it is 



the animal to which 'charming Willie Shakspeare' thus 
alludes in Romeo and Juliet : 

' Capulet. I have watch'd ere now- 
All night 

Lady Capulet. Ay, you have been a mouse-hunt in 
your time.' Act IV. Sc. 4. 

'< In Knight's Pictorial Edition of Romeo and Juliet 
(1839), this and many other terms equally requiring 
explanation are left quite unelucidated ; though one 
picture of the said mouse-hunt would doubtless have 
been more assistant to the professed object of the work 
than the two unnecessary pictures it contains of certain 
winged monstrosities called Cupids." P. 106. 

Mr. Fennell goes on to state, that the Beech 
Marten (alias Mousehunt) inhabits the woods and 
forests of most parts of Europe, seldom quitting 
them except in its nocturnal excursions ; and he 
adds that 

" The Beech Marten does sometimes, in the Highlands 
of Scotland, where it is common, and called Tugyin t 
take to killing lambs, and makes sad havoc. Luckily, 
however, it is nearly exterminated in the south of that 
country. In Selkirkshire, it has been observed to de- 
scend to the shore at night time to feed upon mollusks, 
particularly upon the large Basket Mussel (Mytilus 
modiolus). But the ordinary prey of both this and the 
Pine Marten appears to be hares, rabbits, squirrels, 
moles, rats, mice ; game birds ; turkeys, pigeons, and 
other domestic poultry, and also the wild singing 
birds." P. 109. 

In the above work Mr. Fennell has given many 
other interesting zoological elucidations of Shak- 
speare, and of various other ancient poets. 

G. TENNYSON. 

Rickmansworth. 

St. Pauls School Library (Vol. viii., p. 641.). 
A catalogue of the library was privately printed 
in 1836, 8vo. It is nominally under the care of 
the captain of the school, who, having his own 
duties to attend to, cannot be expected to pay 
much attention to it : this readily accounts for the 
disorder said to prevail. 

It is believed to contain the copy of Vegetius 
de re militari, the perusal of which by Marl- 
borough, when a pupil at the school, imbued him 
with that love for military science he in after-life 
so successfully cultivated. 

It would be a good deed on the part of the 
wealthy company, the trustees of Colet's noble 
foundation, to enlarge the library and pay a salary 
to a librarian ; it might thus become a useful 
appendage to the school, and under certain regu- 
lations be made accessible to the vicinity. W. A. 

German Tree (Vol. viii., p. 619.). In answer 
to the inquiry of ZEUS, who wishes to be informed 
whether this custom was known in England pre- 
vious to 1836, I beg to refer him to Coleridge's 
Friend, second landing-place, essay iii. (vol. ii. 



66 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 221. 



p. 249.), entitled " Christmas within doors in the 
north of Germany." The passage (apparently 
from Coleridge's journal) is dated " Ratzeburg, 
1799." It is, I think, also extracted in Knight's 
Half -hours with the best Authors. Coleridge went to 
Germany in 1798 {Biog. Lit^ vol. i. p. 211. note) ; 
but I imagine the passage I refer to did not appear 
till 1818, when The Friend was published in 
three volumes (Biog. Lit., vol. ii. p. 420.). As 
the book is so common, I do not think it worth 
while to copy out the account. ZEUS has by this 
time, I hope, had a Christmas Yggdrasil in his 
Olympus. ERYX. 

Derivation of the Word " Cash " (Vol. viii., 
p. 386.). May not the word cash be connected 
with the Chinese coin bearing that name, which 
Mr. Martin, in his work on China (vol. i. p. 176.), 
describes as being 

"..The smallest coin in the world, there being about 
1000 to 1500 (cash) in a dollar, i. e. one-fifth to one- 
seventh of a farthing." 

If I am not mistaken, the coin in question is 
perforated in the centre to permit numbers of 
the pieces being strung together, payments being 
made in so many strings of cash. W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Poetical Works of John Dryden, edited by Robert 
Bell, Vol. I., is the first of what is proposed to be a 
revised and carefully annotated edition of the English 
Poets, which is intended to supply what the publisher 
believes to be an existing want, namely, " a Complete 
Body of English Poetry, edited throughout with judg- 
ment and integrity, and combining those features of 
research, typographical elegance, and economy of price, 
which the present age demands." Certainly, half-a- 
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extraordinary manner ; and there can be little doubt 
that if the other essentials be as strictly fulfilled, and 
the collection embraces, as it is intended, not only the 
works of several poets who have been entirely omitted 
from previous collections, but those stores of lyrical 
and ballad poetry in which our literature is so pre- 
eminently rich, The Annotated Edition of the English 
Poets will meet with that extensive sale to which alone 
the publisher can look for remuneration. 

The Museum of Science and Art, edited by Dr. 
Lardner, is intended to supply a collection of instruc- 
tive tracts and essays, composed in a popular and 
amusing style, and in easy language, on the leading 
discoveries in the Physical Sciences : so that persons, 
whose occupations exclude the possibility of systematic 
study, may in their short hours of leisure obtain a 
considerable amount of information on subjects of the 
highest interest. This design is extremely well carried 
out in the first four numbers, which are devoted to 



I. and II. The Planets: Are they Inhabited Worlds? 
III. Weather Prognostics ; and IV. Popular Fallacies. 
The introduction of details and incidents, which could 
not with propriety be introduced into works of a 
purely scientific character, give great variety and in- 
terest to the different papers. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Journal of Sacred Litera- 
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notes, correspondence, &c., no less than twelve papers 
of varied interest to the peculiar class of readers to 
whom this periodical expressly addresses itself. Mr. 
Bohn has just added to his Standard Library a col- 
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his Elective Affinities ; The Sorrows of Werther ; German 
Emigrants ; Good Women ; and a Nouvelette ; and in his 
Classical Library he has commenced a revised edition 
of the Oxford translation of Tacitus. The Ninth Part 
of Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 
which extends from the conclusion of the article Ger- 
mania to Hytanis, concludes the first volume of this 
admirable addition to Dr. Smith's series of Classical 
Dictionaries. Cyclopaedia Bibliographica, Part XVI., 
from Platina to Rivet. Every additional Part con- 
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[No. 221. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

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" Wiien found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 222.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 28. 1854. 



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CONTENTS. 

NOTES : Page 

Prophets : Francis Dobbs, by Henry II. 

Breen - - - - - 71 

Sir Walter Scott and his Quotations 

from Himself - - - -72 

The. inns Campbell - - - - 73 

FOLK LOUR : Legends of the Co. Clare 

Slow-worm Superstition - - 73 
The Vellum-bound Juuius, by Sir T. 

Metcalfe 74 

MINOR NOTKS: The Scotch Grievance 

AYalpole and Macaulay Russian 

"Justice" False Dates in Water- 
marks of Paper - - - - 74 

QUERIKS : 

Mr. P. Cunninghame, by ,T. Macray - 75 
Was Bhakapeare descended from a 

Landed Proprietor '( by J. O. Halliwell 75 
MINOR QUERIES : " To try and get " 
Fleet Prison Colonel St. Lexer 
Lords' Descents Reverend Robert 
Hall " Lydia, or Conversion " Per- 
sonal Descriptions ' One while I 
think," &c. Lord Bacon Society for 
burning the DeadCui Bono -The 
Stock Horn -Lady Harington De- 
scendants of Sir M. Hale A Query 
for the City Commission Cross-legged 
Monumental Figures Muffins and 
Crumpets - - - - - 76 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
" Behemoth " " Dens ex M nchinil " 
Wheelbarrows Persons alluded to by 
Hooker 77 

. UEW.IKS : 

Longfellow's Originality, by Wm. Mat- 
thews - - - - - 77 

Queen Elizabeth and Queen Anne's 
Motto 78 

T3ooks burnt by the Common Hangman 73 

Stone Pulpits - - - - 79 

Antiquity of Fire-irons, by Wm. Mat- 
thews, &c. - - - - - 80 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem, by Wm. 
Wintlirop - - - - - 80 

Grammars, c., for Public Schools, by 
Mackenzie Walcott, M. A., &c. - - 81 

Derivation of Mawmet Came, by J.W. 
Thomas - - - - - 82 

The Gosling Family, by Honors de Mare- 
ville- - - - - - 82 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Tent 
for Collodion Purposes Multiplying 
Negatives and Collodion on Paper 
Photographic Copies of Ancient Manu- 
scripts Fox Talbot's Patents Anti- 
quarian Photographic Society - - 83 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : "Firm 
was their faith," &c. Attainment of 
Majority Three Fleurs-de-Lis 
Newspaper Folk Lore _ Nattochiis 
and Calchanti Marriage Ceremony 
in the Fourteenth Century Clarence 

" The spire whose silent finger," &c. 

Henry Earl of Wotton Tenth (or 
the Prii'ce of Wales's Own) Regiment 

of (Light) Dragoons, &c. - - - 83 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 90 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 90 

Notices to Correspondents - - 91 



VOL. IX. No. 222. 



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70 



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[No. 222. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 28, 1854. 



PROPHETS : FRANCIS DOBBS. 

Among the characters introduced to the readers 
of " N. & Q-," under the name of prophets, there 
are few that deserve so distinguished a place as 
Mr. Francis Dobbs. Not only has he a claim to 
that title, in the derisive sense in which it is ap- 
plied to all modern enthusiasts, but also on the 
higher grounds of political sagacity and practical 
wisdom. Some men have exhibited this double 
character successively, and at different periods of 
their lives ; but none have displayed it in such 
happy union as Mr. Dobbs. Indeed, in that re- 
spect, he is perhaps one of the most striking 
instances on record of what is called the " duality 
of the human mind." 

The information I am able to furnish respecting 
this remarkable man, is derived from a pamphlet, 
publi>hed "by authority" (probably himself), by 
J. Jones, Dublin, 1800, and entitled, Memoirs of 
Francis Dobbs, Esq. ; also Genuine Reports of his 
Speeches in Parliament on the Subject of an Union, 
and his Prediction of the Second Coming of the 
Messiah, with Extracts from his Poem on the 
Millennium. 

Mr. Dobbs was born on April 27, 1750 ; and 
was the younger son of the Rev. Richard Dobbs, 
who was the younger brother of Arthur Dobbs of 
Castle Dobbs, co. Antrim, formerly Governor of 
North Carolina. His ancestor, an officer in the 
army, came from England in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and by a marriage with the great- 
granddaughter of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, got the 
estate of Castle Dobbs, with other estates in the 
Co. Antrim. His great-grandfather was Mayor of 
Carrickfergus at the time King William landed, 
and was the first subject in Ireland that paid him 
allegiance. 

Mr. Dobbs devoted himself for some years to 
literary pursuits. In 1768 he purchased an en- 
signcy in the 63rd Regiment, in which he con- 
tinued till 1773. Having sold his commission, he 
turned his attention to the study of the law, and 
was called to the bar. He then married Miss 
Stewart of Ballantroy, in the county of Antrim, 
the daughter of a gentleman of considerable pro- 
perty, niece of Sir Hugh Hill, and descended from 
the Bute family. He afterwards joined the 
Volunteers under Lord Charlemont, was appointed 
Major to the Southern Battalion, and acted as 
exercising officer at the great reviews held at 
Belfast in 1780, 1781, and 1782. He took an 
active part, in conjunction with Lord Charlemont, 
Mr. Grattan, Mr. Flood, and others, in the poli- 
tical agitation of that period ; was the mover of an 
address to the King, approving of the proceedings 



of the Irish Parliament, and was a member of the 
deputation appointed to present it to his Majesty, 
on which occasion he refused the honour of a baro- 
netcy. At a later period, the Earl of Charlemont 
brought him into the Irish Parliament ; and it 
was while occupying a seat in that assembly, 
that he delivered the " Speeches " already re- 
ferred to. 

Mr. Dobbs's Speech on the Legislative Union is 
one of the most remarkable ever pronounced then 
or since, on that fertile topic. He descants in 
forceful language on the evils, real or imaginary, 
likely to arise from that measure ; and points out, 
with a striking minuteness of detail, some of the 
consequences which have actually resulted there- 
from. Indeed, the repealers of a subsequent 
period did little more than borrow Mr. Dobbs's 
language ; nor were they able, after thirty years' 
experience of the practical working of the Union, 
to add a single new grievance to the catalogue of 
those so eloquently expatiated upon by him in the 
year 1800. As, however, we have to deal with 
Mr. Dobbs chiefly as a religious prophet, I shall 
confine my extracts from his speeches to the illus- 
tration of his character in that capacity. 

The speech on the Legislative Union was de- 
livered on February 5, 1800. On June 7 follow- 
ing (the Bill having been carried in the mean 
time), Mr. Dobbs pronounced in the Irish Par- 
liament a speech in which he predicted the second 
coming of the Messiah. This speech, the most 
extraordinary that was ever made in a legislative 
assembly, presents a singular contrast to the 
sagacity which characterises his political perform- 
ances. A few short extracts will show the change 
that had come over his prophetic vision : 

" Sir, from the conduct pursued by administration 
during this Session, and the means that were known to 
be in their power, it was not very difficult to foresee 
that this Bill must reach that chair. It was not very 
difficult to foresee that it should fall to your lot to 
pronounce the painful words, That this bill do pass.' 
Awful indeed would those words be to me, did I con- 
sider myself living in ordinary times : but feeling as I 
do that we are not living in ordinary times feeling 
as I do that we are living in the most momentous and 
eventful period of the world feeling as I do that a 
new and better order of things is about to arise, and 
that Ireland, in that new order of things, is to be highly 
distinguished indeed this bill hath no terrors for me. 

" Sir, I did intend to have gone at some length into 
history, and the sacred predictions ; but as I purpose, 
in a very few months, to give to the public a work in 
which I shall fully express my opinion as to the vast 
design of this terrestrial creation, I shall for the pre- 
sent confine myself to such passages as will support 
three positions : The first is, the certainty of the 
second advent of the Messiah ; the next, the signs of 
the times of his coming, and the manner of it ; and the 
last, that Ireland is to have the glorious pre-eminence 
of being the first kingdom that will receive him." 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



After dwelling at some length on his first two 
positions, he thus proceeds : 

" I come now, Sir, to the most interesting part of 
what I have to say ; it is to point out my reasons for 
thinking this is the distinguished country in which the 
Messiah is now to appear. The stone that is to be 
cut out of the mountain without hands, is to fall on the 
feet of the image, and to break the whole image to 
pieces. Now, that would not be true, if Christ and 
his army was to appear in any country that is a part 
of the image ; therefore, all the countries that were 
comprised in the Babylonish and Assyrian empire, in 
the Medo- Persian empire, in the Greek empire, and 
in the Roman empire, are positively excluded. There 
is another light thrown on this question by a passage 
in the 41st chapter of Isaiah : ' I have raised up one 
from the north, and he shall come ; from ths rjsing of 
the sun shall he call upon my name, and he shall come 
upon princes as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth 
clay.' This is manifestly the Messiah ; and we are 
therefore to look for a country north of Judea, where 
the prophecy was given. The New World is out of 
the question, being nowhere a subject of prophecy ; 
and as the image is excluded, it can only be in the Rus- 
sian empire, or in the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, 
or Ireland. 

" The army that follows the Messiah, we are told, 
amounts to 144,000; and there are a few passages in 
the Revelation of St. John, that denote the place 
where they are to be assembled. One is, ' I saw them 
harping with their harps.' Another, ' I saw them stand- 
ing on a sea of glass, having the harps of God.' 
Another is, 'That they were clothed in fine linen, 
white and clean.' Another is, ' And he gathered them 
together in a place, in the Hebrew tongue, called 
Armageddon.' Now, what respects the harp and the 
fine linen, peculiarly applies to Ireland; and not at all 
to Russia, Denmark, or Sweden. The sea of glass I think 
must be an island. And I believe the word Armaged- 
don in the Hebrew tongue, and Ardmah or Armagh 
in the Irish, mean the same thing. At all events, 
there is great similitude in their sounds ; and St. 
Patrick thought proper to make the city of Ardmagh, 
which is the old name, the seat of the church govern- 
ment of Ireland. But besides these sacred passages of 
Scripture, there are some very particular circumstances 
attending Ireland. She has never had her share in 
worldly prosperity, and has only since 1782 begun to 
rise ; and I know no instance in history of any nation 
beginning to prosper, witlibut arriving at a summit of 
some kind, before it became again depressed. The four 
great empires rose progressively west of each other ; 
and Great Britain made the fcist toe of the image, being 
the last conquest the Romans made in the west. Now, 
Ireland lies directly west of it, and is therefore in 
exactly the same progressive line, and it never was any 
part of the image, nor did the Roman arms ever pene- 
trate here. The arms of Ireland is the harp of David, 
with an angel in its front. The crown of Ireland is 
the apostolic crown. Tradition has long spoken of it as 
a land of saints ; and if what I expect happens, that 
prediction will be fulfilled. But what I rely on more 
than all, is our miraculous exemption from all of the 



serpent and venomous tribe of reptiles. This appears 
to me in the highest degree emblematic, that Satan, 
the Great Serpent, is here to receive his first deadly 
blow." 

I had an idea of sending you some extracts from 
Mr. Dobbs's poem on The Millennium, but I fear I 
have already trespassed too far on your valuable 
space. HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 



SIR WALTER SCOTT AND HIS QUOTATIONS FROM 
HIMSELF. 

Your correspondent A. J. DUNKIN (Vol. vlii., 
p. 622.) asks who was the author of the couplet, 
" Oh ! for a blast of that dread horn, 
On Fontarabian echoes borne." 

In reply to which Query you refer him to the 
juvenile efforts of Frank Osbaldiston in the de- 
lightful novel of Rob Roy. 

You might have referred him likewise to a cor- 
responding passage in the sixth canto of Marmion, 
sec. xxxiii., from which the accomplished poet and 
novelist repeated inadvertently his own verses : 

" O for a blast of that dread horn, 
On Fontarabian echoes borne, 

That to King Charles did come," &c. 

I say " inadvertently " from my own knowledge. 
A few months after the well-known occurrence at 
a public dinner in Edinburgh, when Sir W. Scott 
openly declared himself the author of the Waverley 
Novels, the writer of these lines was staying at 
Abbotsford on a visit. On one occasion, when 
walking with Sir Walter about his grounds, I led 
the conversation to his late revelations ; and while 
expressing some wonder at the length of time 
during which the secret of the authorship had 
been kept, I ventured to say that I for one had 
never felt the smallest doubt upon the matter, but 
that the intrinsic evidence of these several works, 
acknowledged and unacknowledged, had long ago 
convinced me that they were written by one and 
the same author. Among other points I quoted 
the very lines in question from the elegy on the 
death of the Black Prince in Rob Roy, which I 
reminded Sir Walter might also be found in the 
sixth canto of Marmion. " Ah ! indeed," he re- 
plied, with his natural expression of comic gravity, 
" that was very careless of me ! I did not think I 
should have committed such a blunder ! " 

We kept up the like strain of conversation 
during the whole ramble, with a good deal ot 
harmless pleasantry. In the course of our walk 
Sir Walter stopped at a particular point, and 
leaning on his staff like his own " Antiquary," he 
pointed out some ancient earth-works, whose un- 
dulating surface indicated the traces of a Roman 
or Pictish encampment. " There," said he, " you 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



will perceive the remains of a very good camp." 
" Yes, Sir," said I, in the words of Lovel, " I do 
see something like a ditch indistinctly marked" 
Sir Walter burst into a hearty fit of laughter, 
saying, " Ay, my friends do call it the Kairn of 
Kimprunes." 

I trust your readers will forgive me for record- 
ing these trivialities ; but MR. DTJNKIN'S Query 
recalled them to my mind so forcibly after the 
lapse of many years, that I venture to obtrude 
them upon your notice. 

Before I conclude this paper, I may be per- 
mitted to make reference to a series of letters 
addressed to Richard Heber, Esq., M.P., by Mr. 
Adolphus, son of the historian of the reign of 
George III. In the conversation referred to, Sir 
Walter Scott mentioned these letters in terms of 
high approbation, terms not undeserved ; for 
a more elegant, ingenious, and convincing piece of 
literary criticism never issued from the press. 

At that time I had not seen it ; but in reference 
to the passage in question, the coincidence of 
which in the poem and the romance has not es- 
caped the critic's acuteness, Mr. Adolphus makes 
the following remarks : 

" A refined speculator might perhaps conceive that 
so glaring a repetition could not be the effect of inad- 
vertence, but that the novelist, induced by some tran- 
sient whim or caprice, had intentionally appropriated 
the verses of his great cotemporary. I cannot, how- 
ever, imagine any motive for such a proceeding, more 
especially as it must appear somewhat unhandsome to 
take possession of another man's lines for the mere 
purpose of exhibiting them in a ridiculous light. Nor 
does it seem to me at all unlikely that the author of 
Marmion, supposing him to be also the author of Rob 
Roy, should have unconsciously repeated himself in this 
instance, for we find him more than once apologising 
in his avowed works for having, in the haste of com- 
position, snatched up expressions, and even whole lines, 
of other writers." 

The anecdote above recorded proves the justice 
and refinement of the critic's speculation. 

A BORDERER. 



THOMAS CAMPBELL. 

In a small 8vo. volume before me, entitled The 
History of the Stage : in which is included the 
Theatrical Characters of the most celebrated Actors 
who have adorned the Theatre, frc. ; with the The- 
atrical Life of Mr. Colly Ciller (Lond. 1742), I 
notice a very remarkable similarity of thought and 
expression between its author and the late Thomas 
Campbell. The dramatic author writes thus : 

" But with whatever strength of nature we see the 
poet show at once the philosopher and the hero, yet 
the image of the actor's excellence will still be imper- 
fect to you, unless language could put colours into 
words to paint the voice with. 



" The most that a Vandyke can arrive at is to make 
his portraits of great persons seem to think ; a Shak- 
speare goes farther yet, and tells you what his picture 
thought ; a Betterton steps beyond them both, and 
calls them from the grave to breathe and be themselves 
again, in feature, speech, and motion. When the skil- 
ful actor shows you all these powers at once united, 
and gratifies at once your eye, your ear, your under- 
standing, to conceive the pleasure arising from such 
harmony you must have been present at it ; 'tis not to 
be told you." 

Now compare this passage with the following 
lines from Mr. Campbell's " Valedictory Stanzas 
to J. P. Kemble, Esq.," composed for a public 
meeting held June, 1817 : 

" His was the spell o'er hearts 

Which only acting lends, 
The youngest of the Sister Arts, 

Where all their beauty blends : 
For ill can Poetry express 

Full many a tone of thought sublime ; 
And Painting, mute and motionless, 

Steals but a glance of time. 
But by the mighty actor brought, 

Illusion's perfect triumphs come, 
Verse ceases to be airy thought, 

And Sculpture to be dumb." 9 

SERVIENS. 



FOLK LORE. 



Legends of the Co. Clare (Vol. viii., p. 436.). 
The Lake of Inchiquin, one legend of which has 
been already published in "N. & Q.," is said to 
have been once a populous and flourishing city, 
and still on a calm night you may see the towers 
and spires gleaming through the clear wave. But 
for some dreadful and unabsolved crime, a holy 
man of those days whelmed all beneath the deep 
waters. The " dark spirit " of its king, who ruled 
also over the surrounding country, resides in a 
cavern in one of the hills which border the lake, 
and once every seven years at midnight he issues 
forth mounted on his white charger, and urges 
him at full speed over hill and crag, until he has 
completed the circuit of the lake ; and thus he is 
to continue, till the silver hoofs of his steed are 
worn out, when the curse will be removed, and the 
city reappear in all its splendour. The cave ex- 
tends nearly a mile under the hill ; the entrance is 
low and gloomy, but the roof rises to a consider- 
able height for about half the distance, and then 
sinks down to a narrow passage, which leads into 
a somewhat lower division of the cave. The 
darkness, and the numbers of bats which flap their 
wings in the face of the explorer, and whirl round 
his taper, fail not to impress him with a sensation 
of awe. FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES. 

Slow-worm Superstition (Vol. viii., pp. 33. 479.). 
I believe that the superstition alluded to is 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



not confined to one country, nor to one species of 
reptile. I remember to have heard some country- 
men in Cornwall, who had killed an adder, say 
that it would not cease to writhe until the sun had 
gone down. Like many other so-called super- 
stitions, it is probably founded on a close observa- 
tion of a natural phenomenon ; and I feel quite 
sure that I have seen in print, although I cannot 
now call to mind where, that it is to be accounted 
for by the fact, that in these cold-blooded animals 
the nervous irritability does not cease until checked 
or destroyed by the chilling dews of evening. 

HONORE DE MAREVILLE. 
Guernsey. 



THE VELLUM-BOUND JUNIUS. 

(Vol. v., pp. 303. 333. 607. ; Vol. viii., p. 8.) 

I have no doubt that it will be satisfactory to 
some of your readers to know that I have in my 
possession a copy, " vellum bound in gilt," of 
Junius, printed for Henry Sampson Woodfall, 
1772, 2 vols. This copy has been in the family 
library for about sixty years. There are no 
marks by which it can be traced to its original 
owner. I imagine it must have been purchased 
by my grandfather, Sir Thomas Metcalfe, after his 
arrival from India about 1788 ; this is, however, 
merely a conjecture, in default of any more pro- 
bable theory. Of the authenticity of this copy I 
have no doubt ; I mean that it is now in the same 
condition as when it was first issued by the book- 
seller. The binding is evidently of an old date, 
the gilding is peculiar, and the books correspond 
exactly with the orders of Junius as given to 
Woodfall in Note No. 47., Dec. 1771, and although 
neatly bound, are, as Woodfall mentions in No. 64., 
not highly finished. Are there many copies of 
this edition, or may I congratulate myself upon 
possessing the one ordered by Junius? It is 
quite possible that my grandfather possessed this 
copy some years before his return from India; and 
I may mention that I also have a great many 
political pamphlets and satires, chiefly in poetry, 
of different dates, from 1760 to 1780, such as Ca- 
tiline's Conspiracy; The Didboliad; Ditto, with 
additions, dedicated to the worst man in the king- 
dom (Rigby), and containing allusions to all the 
most celebrated characters of Junius ; The Se- 
nators, La Fete Champetre^&nd many miscellanies. 
These, however, are perhaps well known. I have 
also a pamphlet containing an alleged unpublished 
canto of the Faerie Queene of Spenser, and a great 
many religious tracts from 1580 to 1700. Some 
of the political poems are published by Almon. 
Among other curious stray sheets, is a list of all 
the gentlemen and officers who fell in the cause 
of Charles I., and Mr. Richard Brown appears 
amongst the number- I hope to communicate 
more fully upon some future occasion, and must 



conclude with an allusion to the claims of Francis 
as the author of Junius. Strong as the proofs 
may be in his favour in England, I believe that in 
India there is testimony no less important ; and I 
have been informed, by one who spoke with some 
authority, that the letters of Francis upon record 
in this country bear no resemblance whatever to 
those of Junius. This assertion, however, is far 
too vague to satisfy any of your readers. I hope 
some day to be able to confirm it by examples. 
The India House might furnish the private cor- 
respondence between Francis and Hastings, which 
would be extremely interesting. 

T. METCALFE. 



Delhi. 



The Scotch Grievance. Can the demand of 
Scotchmen, with respect to the usage of the royal 
arms, be justified by the laws of Heraldry ? I 
think not. They require that when the royal 
arms are used in Scotland, the Scotch bearings 
should be placed in the first quarter. Surely it is 
against all rules that the armorial bearings, either 
of a person or of a nation, should be changeable 
according to th'e place where they are used. The 
arms of the United Kingdom and of the sovereign 
are, first and fourth, England ; second, Scotland ; 
third, Ireland. The Scotch have therefore the 
option of using these, or else the arms of Scotland 
singly ; but to shift the quarterings according to 
locality, seems repugnant to the principles of the 
science. Queen Anne and George I. bore, in the 
first quarter, England impaling Scotland : is it to 
be supposed that, for Scotch purposes, they bore 
Scotland impaling England? Can any coin be 
produced, from the accession of James VI. to the 
English throne, on which the royal arms are found 
with Scotland in the first quarter and England in 
the second ? 

A DESCENDANT FROM SCOTTISH KINGS. 

Walpole and Macaulay. That well-known and 
beautiful conception of the New Zealander in some 
future age sitting on the ruins of Westminster 
Bridge, and looking where London stood, may 
have been first suggested by a thought in one of 
Walpole' s lively letters to Sir H. Mann : 

" At last some curious native of Lima will visit 
London, and give a sketch of the ruins of Westminster 
and St. Paul's." 

ANON. 

Russian " Justice" Euler, in his 102nd letter 
to a German princess, says : 

" Formerly there was no word in the Russian lan- 
guage to express what we call justice. This was cer- 
tainly a very great defect, as the idea of justice is of 
very great importance in a great number of our judg- 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



ments and reasonings, and as it is scarcely possible to 
think of the thing itself without a term expressive of 
it. They have, accordingly, supplied this defect by in- 
troducing into that language a word which conveys the 
notion of justice." 

This letter is dated 14th February, 1761. Statue 
nominis umbra ? An answer is not needed to this 
Query. But can nothing be done to rescue from 
destruction the previous analytical treasures of 
Euler, now entombed in the archives of St. Pe- 
tersburgh ? T. J. BUCKTON. 

Birmingham. 

False Dates in Water-marks of Paper. Your 
correspondent H. W. D. (Vol. ix., p. 32.) on the 
subject of the water-mark in paper, is, perhaps, 
not aware that, within the last few years, the will 
of a lady was set aside by the heir-at-law, her 
brother, on account of the water-mark, she having 
imprudently, as it was surmised, made a fairer 
copy of her will on paper of a later date. The 
case will be in the recollection of the parties em- 
ployed in the neighbourhood of the Prerogative 
Court. L. 



MR. P. CTJNNINGHAME. 

Can any of your correspondents communicate 
information respecting a Mr. P. Cunninghame, who 
was employed in the Heralds' Office in the years 
1768-69, and who appears to have left his situation 
there in order to enter the church ? Mr. Cun- 
ninghame, from a MS. volume of his letters now 
before me, had friends and correspondents of the 
names of Towne, Dehane, Welsh, Cockell, Bawd- 
wen, Wainman, Haggard, Hammond, Neve, Ga- 
thorne, Lines, Connor, &c., and relations of his 
own name resided at Deal. One of his letters is 
addressed to his cousin, Captain George Cun- 
ninghame, General Marjoribanks' regiment, in 
garrison at Tournay, Flanders. 

Two gentlemen of the names of Bigland and 
Heard (probably Sir Isaac Heard, who died a few 
years since at a very advanced age) were his su- 
periors in the Heralds' Office at the time of his 
being there. A former possessor of this MS. vo- 
lume has written in it as follows ; and so warm a 
tribute of praise from a distinguished scholar and 
late member of this university, has induced me to 
send you his remarks, and to make the inquiry 
suggested by them. 

" I esteem myself fortunate in having purchased this 
volume of letters, which I met with in the shop of 
Mr. Robins, bookseller, at Winchester, in January, 
1808. They do credit to the head and the heart of 
the author. He seems to have been a man whose 
imagination was lively, and whose mind was capacious, 
as well as comprehensive. His remarks on different 



subjects betray reading and reflection. His mental 
powers, naturally vigorous, he appears to have culti- 
vated and improved by as much reading as his employ- 
ments and his agitation of mind would allow. I wish 
that he had committed to this volume some specimens 
of his poetry, as it would have been more than me- 
chanical, or partaking of common-place, for he writes 
in a style at once vigorous, lively, and elegant, and 
gives proofs of a correct taste. He had a manly spirit 
of independence, a generous principle of benevolence, 
and a prevailing habit of piety. The first of these 
qualifications did not in him (as it is too frequently apt 
to do) overleap the bounds of prudence, or the still 
more binding ties of duty, as is exemplified in the ex- 
cellent letters to his father, and Mr. Dehane. It is to 
be hoped that he entered into that profession from 
which he was so long and so perversely excluded; a 
profession suited to his genius and inclination, which 
would open an ample field for his benevolence, and 
which would receive additional lustre from the example 
of so much virtue and so much industry exerted in the 
cause of truth. It is to be hoped that he gained that 
competence and retirement to which the wishes of the 
interested reader must follow him, regretting that he 
knows not more of a man, who, from those amiable 
dispositions and those eminent talents, pourtrayed in 
this correspondence, would indeed 

' Allure to brighter worlds, and lead the way.' 

R. F." 

J. MACRAY. 
Oxford. 



WAS SHAKSPEARE DESCENDED FROM A LANDED 
PROPRIETOR ? 

MR. KNIGHT has on two occasions, the latter in 
his Stratford Shakspeare just published, called at- 
tention to what he concludes is an oversight of 
mine in not drawing any conclusion from a deed 
in which certain lands are mentioned as " hereto- 
fore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, Gent., 
deceased." These words are supposed by MR. 
KNIGHT to imply that the lands in question came 
to Shakspeare by descent, as heir-at-law of his 
father. This opinion appeared to me to be some- 
what a hasty one : believing that no conclusion 
whatever is to be drawn from the phrase as there 
used, and relying on the ordinary definition of in- 
heritance in the old works on law, I did not hesi- 
tate, some time since, to declare a conviction that 
the lands so mentioned were bought by Shak- 
speare himself. As the question is of some im- 
portance in the inquiry respecting the position of 
the poet's ancestry, perhaps one of your legal 
readers would kindly decide which of us is in the 
right. I possess an useful collection of old law- 
books, but there are few subjects in which error is 
so easily committed by unprofessional readers. In 
the present instance, however, if plain words are 
to be relied upon, it seems certain that the term 
inheritance was applied, to use Cowell's words, to 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



" every fee simple or fee taile that a man hatli by 
his purchase." (See The Interpreter, 1637.) 

J. O. HALUWELL. 



ffttturr 

" To try and get'' 1 The word and is often used 
instead of to after the verb to try : thus, in Moore's 
Journal (June 7, 1819), "Went to the theatre to 
try and get a dress." What is the origin of this 
erroneous mode of expression ? UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Fleet Prison. Where can a list of the officers 
of the Fleet Prison, especially the under officers, 
and more especially the tipstaffs, A.D. 1696, and 
shortly previously and subsequently, be seen ? 

J. K. 

Colonel St. Leger. Where can I find an ac- 
count of the celebrated Colonel St. Leger, the 
friend and associate of George IV. when Prince of 
Wales? In what year did he die? What age 
was he when his picture, now in Hampton Court, 
was painted by Gainsborough ? W. P. M. 

Dublin. 

Lords' Descents. Is a MS. collection of Lords' 
Descents, by Thomas Maisterson, Esq., made about 
the year 1705, now extant ? T. P. L. 

Reverend Robert Hall. Who was Robert 
Hall, a preacher of some celebrity in the time of 
James II. ? P. P. P. 

"Lydia, or Conversion." Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me who is the author of the follow- 
ing excellent drama, published nearly twenty years 
since : Lydia, or Conversion ; a Sacred Drama, 
inscribed to the Jews by a Clergyman of the Church 
of England: London, 8vo., 1835, published by 
itivingtons, and Hatchard & Son ? A. Z. 

Personal Descriptions. Is Sir Walter Scott's 
description of Saladin taken from any ancient 
writer, or is it a fancy sketch ? If the latter, I 
think he has fallen into error by describing in 
Saladin the features of a civilised Arab, rather 
than the very peculiar and unmistakeable charac- 
teristics of the Koordish frace. 

In a novel now publishing in Ainsiuorfli s Maga- 
zine, styled the " Days of Margaret of Parma," 
the celebrated Duke of Alva is described as a 
very tall man. I have never seen a portrait or 
read a description of his person, but had formed 
a very different idea of it from the circumstance 
that Count Tilly, who was certainly a short man, 
was said to be a striking counterpart of him in 
face, figure, and dress, a resemblance which added 
not a little to the terror and aversion with which 



'Tilly was regarded by the Protestants of Ger- 
many. Can any of your correspondents refer me 
to a description of A'lva? J. S. WARDEN. 

" One while I think" ^c. Whence are the fol- 
lowing lines : 

" One while I think, and then I am in pain, 
To think, how to unthink that thought again." 

W. M. M. 

Lord Bacon. Has the very discreditable at- 
tack made on the moral character of the great 
Lord Chancellor Bacon, by his cotemporary Sir 
Simon D'Ewes, and related by Hearne the his- 
torian at the end of his Life and Reign of King* 
Richard II., been investigated, and either esta- 
blished or disproved by later historians ? 

CESTRIENSIS. 

Society for burning the Dead. Wanted in- 
formation as to the " Society for burning the 
Dead," which existed a few years ago in London. 
A reference to any reports or papers of them 
would oblige D. L. 

Cui Bono. What is the true rendering of the 
Latin phrase Cui Bono ? Most text-books say it 
means " For w t hat good ? " or, " What use was 
it ? " But Francis Newman, in p. 316. of Hebrew 
Monarchy, says it means " who gained by (the 
crime)," and quotes Cicero pro Milone, xii. 32., 
in favour of his meaning. T. R. 

Dublin. 

The Stock Horn. Can any of your readers or 
friends tell me where I can see a specimen of the 
musical instrument called the "Stock Horn?" 
Or any musical instrument of primitive form, 
similar to that which Wilkie has represented in a 
subject from the " Gentle Shepherd," entitled 
" Roger and Jenny." It seems to be a kind of 
hautboy, or oboe, and often appears in musical 
devices of the last century, especially by Scotch 
printers. J. GORDON SMITH, 

Lady Harington. Can any of your readers 
give the pedigree of the late Lady Harington, 
mother of the lamented Principal of Brasenose 
Coll. Oxford ? The writer of this, who was dis- 
tantly related to her, recollects, though very 
young, being struck with her beauty when he saw 
her in 1787. One of her brothers died in India; 
and another was curate of the lower church in 
Guildford in 1806 ; he was probably Thomas 
Philpot, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, M.A. in 1798. 
Her mother was daughter or granddaughter of 
the celebrated mathematician Abraham de Moivre, 
and had a sister, or aunt, housekeeper of Windsor 
Castle. Her mother, the writer believes, was re- 
lated to the Gomms, a branch of the family de- 
scended from Eustache de St. Pierre. ANAT. 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



Descendants of Sir M. Hale.-A.YC there any of 
the descendants of Sir Matthew Hale, the famous 
judge of the seventeenth century, living either in 
England or Ireland ? W. A. 

A Query for the City Commission. In the 
London Gazette of January 23, 1684-5, we read 
that King Charles II. sent to the Lord Mayor, in 
a silver box sealed up with his majesty's seal, the 
receipts of the several cements used by the pa- 
tentees for making sea- water fresh ; as also the 
receipt of their metallic composition and ingre- 
dients, certified under the hand of the Hon. Robert 
Boyle, to be kept so sealed up by the present and 
succeeding lord mayors, lest a secret of so great 
importance to the public might come to be lost, if 
lodged only in the knowledge of a few persons 
therein concerned. 

It is to be hoped that the commissioners who 
are now engaged in investigating the affairs of 
the Corporation of London, will not fail in making 
inquiry of the present Lord Mayor after this silver 
box, committed so carefully to City preservation. 

H.E. 

Cross-legged Monumental Figures. Are any 
instances of the cross-legged figures, so common 
in England, to be seen in the churches of France, 
Italy, or Spain ? and if so, where may engravings 
of them be found ? J. Y. 

Muffins and Crumpets. Can any of your 
readers tell me the origin of the names " muffins 
and crumpets," and by whom and when intro- 
duced at the English breakfast-table ? 

OLD FOGIE. 

Athenaeum. 



to iff) 

"Behemoth" Does any one know a book called 
Behemoth, an Epitome of the Civil Wars from 
1640/01660? G.W.B. 

[This was the last work written by the celebrated 
Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury. " This history is in 
dialogue," remarks Bishop Warburton, "and full of 
paradoxes, like all Hobbes' other writings. More phi- 
losophical, political or anything rather than historical ; 
yet full of ^ shrewd observations." The editions are, 
1679, 8vo.; 1G80, 12mo. ; 1682, 8vo.] 

" Deus ex Machina." From what author is 
the phrase " Deus ex machina" taken? and what 
was its original application ? T. R. 

Dublin. 

[" Deus ex machina, " was originally a Greek pro- 
verb, and used to denote any extraordinary, unex- 
pected, or improbable event. It arose from the cus- 
tom or stage-trickery of the ancient tragedians, who, 
to produce uncommon effect on the audience, intro- 
duced a deity on special occasions : "Eirl TUV irapa- 



6&v KOI Trapa\6j(oi', " it is spoken of marvellous and 
surprising occurrences," as the German commentator, 
F. Smeider, thus explains the words of the passage in. 
which the adage is to be found, viz. Lucian's Hermo- 
timus, sub finem. The words are, -rb rui> rpay^wv 
TOVTO, ebs e/c fjajxavris eirityaveis. To this custom Ho- 
race alludes in his Ars Poetica, 1. 191. : 

' Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident." 

Conf. Gesneri Thesaurus, in Machina.] 

Wheelbarrows. Who invented the wheel- 
barrow ? It is ascribed to Pascal. ALPHA. 

[Fosbroke seems to have investigated the origin of 
this useful article. He says, " Notwithstanding Mont- 
faucon, it is not certain that the ancients were ac- 
quainted with the wheelbarrow. Hyginus, indeed, 
mentions a single-wheeled carriage, but it may apply 
to a vehicle of conveyance. Some modern writers 
ascribe the invention to Pascal, the famous geometer. 
The one- wheeled carriage alluded to was, perhaps, the 
Pabo of Isidore. As to the invention by Pascal, we 
find berewe, a barrow, rendered by Lye, a versatile ve- 
hicle ; but if more than the hand-barrow had been 
meant, the addition of wheel would perhaps have been 
made to the world." Encyclopaedia of Antiquities, 
vol. i. p. 349.] 

Persons alluded to by Hooher. Who was the 
ancient philosopher to whom Hooker alludes in 
Eccles. Polity, b. in. ch. xi. (iii.) ? and the Puritan 
champion of the Church Service, cited b. v. 
ch. xxvii. (1.) ? MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. , 

[The ancient philosopher is Philemon : see the 
passage quoted by the Rev. John Keble, edit. Hooker, 
1836, vol. i. p. 496., from Fragm. Incert., xliii., ed. Cler. 
The Puritan champion is Edward Dering : see his 
work against Harding, entitled A Spariny Restraint of 
many lavish Untruths, fyc., 4to. 1568.] 



LONGFELLOW'S ORIGINALITY. 
(Vol. viii., p. 583.) 

J. C. B. has noticed " the similarity of thought, 
and even sometimes of expression," between " The 
Reaper and the Flowers " of this popular writer, 
and a song by Luise Reichardt. But a far more 
extraordinary similarity than this exists between 
Mr. Longfellow's translation of a certain Anglo- 
Saxon metrical fragment, entitled " The Grave " 
(Tegg's edit, in London Domestic Library, p. 283.) 
and the literal translation of the same piece by 
the Rev. J. J. Conybeare, transcribed by Sharon 
Turner in Hist. Aug. Sax., 8vo. edit. 1823, vol. iii. 
p. 326. With the exception of a few verbal 
alterations, indeed, which render the fact of the 
plagiarism the more glaring, the two translations 
are identical. I place a few of the opening and 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 222. 



concluding lines of each side by side, and would 
ask if the American poet has the slightest claim to 
the authorship of that version, to which he has 
affixed the sanction of his name. 

Conybeare's Translation. 

" For thee was a house built 

Ere thou wert born, 

For thee was a mould shapen 

Ere thou of mother earnest. 
" Who shall ever open 

For thee the door 

And seek thee, 

For soon thou becomest loathly, 

And hateful to look upon." 

Longfelhiv''s Translation. 

" For thee was a house built 
Ere thou wast born, 
For thee was a mould meant 
Ere thou of mother earnest. 

" Who will ever open 
The door for thee 
And descend after thee, 
For soon thou art loathsome, 
And hateful to see." 

WM. MATTHEWS. 
Cowgill. 



QUEEN ELIZABETH AND QUEEN ANNE S MOTTO. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 174. 255. 440.) 

I was not aware that the Query at page 174. 
was not fully answered by me in page 255., but 
the following may be more satisfactory. 

Camden, in his Life of Queen Elizabeth (Annals 
of Queen Elizabeth, p. 32.), says her first and 
chiefest care was for the most constant defence of 
the Protestant religion as established by the au- 
thority of parliament. " Her second care to hold 
an even course in her whole life and in all her 
actions, whereupon she took for her motto (1559), 
Semper eadem (Always the same)." 

In his Remains (p. 347. 4to. 1637), Camden 
says, "Queen Elizabeth upon occasions used so 
many heroical devices as would require a volume : 
but most commonly a sive without a motte for 
her words Video, Taceo, and Semper eadem, which 
she as truly and constantly performed." 

Sandford is silent as to her motto. 

Leake says this motto, Semper eadem, was only 
a personal motto ; as queen, the old motto, Dieu et 
mon Droit, was used, and is so given in Segar's 
Honour, Military and Civil, dedicated to her ma- 
jesty in 1602, and which is also on her tomb. In 
some churches where there are arms put up to 
her memory, it is probable the motto Semper 
eadem may sometimes have been seen as being a 
personal motto to distinguish it from her brothers. 
Queen Anne, before the union with Scotland, bore 



the same arms, crest, and supporters as her father 
King James II., but discontinued the use of the 
old motto, Dieu et mon Droit, and instead thereof 
used Semper eadem. The motto ascribed to Queen 
Elizabeth she took for the same reason to express 
her constancy ; but this, which was personal as to 
Queen Elizabeth, was then made the motto of the 
royal achievement, and seems the first instance 
of discontinuing the old motto of Dieu et mon 
Droit, from the first assumption of it by King 
Edward III. ; for as to the different ones attri- 
buted to Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and 
King James L, they were personal only. 

The motto is indeed no part of the arms but 
personal, and therefore is frequently varied ac- 
cording to the fancy of the bearer ; nevertheless, 
when particular mottoes have been taken to per- 
petuate the memory of great events, either in 
families or kingdoms, and have been established 
by long usage, such should be esteemed as family 
or national mottoes, and it is honourable to con- 
tinue them. 

In 1702 (Gazette, No. 3874) Queen Anne com- 
manded the Earl Marshal to signify her pleasure 
that wheresoever her royal arms were to be used 
with a motto, that of Semper eadem should be 
used ; and upomthe union with Scotland in 1707, 
by her order in council it was ordered to be con- 
tinued. 

King George I., upon his accession, thought 
proper to discontinue it, and restored the old 
motto, Dieu et mon Droit. G. 



BOOKS BURNT BY THE COMMON HANGMAN. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346.) 

The Histoires of Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne 
were condemned, by an arret of the parliament of 
Paris, to be burnt by the common hangman. The 
charge against the works was, that D'Aubigne had 
spoken too freely "of princes ; and it may be added, 
too freely also of the Jesuits, which was probably 
the greatest crime. D'Aubigne said upon the oc- 
casion, that he could not be offended at the treat- 
ment given to his book, after having seen the Holy 
Bible ignominiously hanged upon a gibbet (for 
thus some fiery zealots used the Bible which they 
had taken from the Huguenots, to show their pious 
hatred to all translations of that book into their 
native tongue), and fourscore thousand innocent 
persons massacred without provocation. 

The Histoire of James Augustus de Thou (a 
Roman Catholic, though a moderate one) met 
with the same fate at Rome that D'Aubigne's had 
at Paris, and it was even debated in council 
whether the like sentence should not pass against 
it in France. D'Aubigne, however, spoke strongly 
in its favour, affirming that no Frenchman had 
ever before given such evident proofs of solid 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



judgment and steady application, qualities not 
generally allowed to be the characteristic of the 
nation. (Scott's Life of Theodore Agrippa $Au- 
ligne, p. 419.) 

In 1762 the Emilie of Jean Jacques Kousseau 
was burnt at Geneva by the common hangman. 
Le Contrat Social had soon afterwards the same 
fate. (Biographie Universelle, article " J. J. Rous- 
seau.") 

On June 17th, 1553, nearly the whole of the 
edition of the De Cmstianismi llestitutione of 
Servetus, which had been seized at Lyons, was 
cast into the flames, and Servetus burnt, in effigy 
at Vienne in Dauphine. (Biographie Universelle, 
art. " Servetus.") 

In 1538 the English Bible, printed by Grafton 
at Paris, was (with the exception of a few copies) 
burnt by the order of the Inquisition. During 
the reign of Henry VIII. (observes Mr. D'ls- 
raeli in Amenities of Literature, vol. iii. p. 358.), 
the Bishop of Durham had all the unsold copies 
of Tindal's Testament bought up at Antwerp and 
burnt. In this age of unsettled opinions, both 
Roman Catholic and Protestant books were burnt. 
In the reign of Edward VI. Roman Catholic works 
fed the flames. 

" All red-lettered illuminated volumes were chopped 
in pieces with hatchets, and burned as superstitious. 
The works of Peter Lombard, Duns Scotus, and 
Thomas Aquinas, carried on biers, were tumbled into 
bonfires. In the reign of Mary pyramids of Protestant 
volumes were burnt. All the Bibles in English, and 
all the commentators upon the Bible in the vernacular 
idiom (which we are told from their number seemed 
almost infinite), were cast into the flames at the 
market-place, Oxford." D'Israeli's Amenities of Lite- 
rature, vol. ii. pp. 164, 165. 

In Strype's Memorials (3rd part, 2nd ed., p. 
130.) is a proclamation of Philip and Mary, " that 
whoever finds books of heresy and sedition, and 
does not forthwith burn the same, shall be executed 
for a rebel" 

The Stationers' Company (who were granted 
a charter of incorporation during the reign of 
Philip and Mary) had power to seize, take away, 
and burn books which they deemed obnoxious to 
the state or to their own interests. 

" When Elizabeth was upon the throne, political 
pamphlets fed the flames, and libels in the reign of 
James I. and his son." D'Israeli's Curiosities of Li- 
terature, " Licensers of the Press." 



" In the first year of the reign of King William III., 
A.D. 1688, a grand auto-da-fe was performed by the 
University of Oxford on certain political works. 
Baxter's Holy Commonwealth was amongst those con- 
demned to the flames." D'Israeli's Amenities of 
Literature, vol. iii. p. 325. 

Perhaps some correspondent of " N. & Q." may 
furnish other instances of books burnt. L. A. 



STONE PULPITS. 

(Vol. viii., p. 562.) 

To MR. KERSLEY'S list I can add, from my own 
county, St. John the Evangelist, Cirencester, 
used ; SS. Peter and Paul, Northleach, used ; 
Staunton, All Saints, in the Hundred of St. 
Briavell's, Dean Forest, not used. 

The last has a curious double arrangement in 
two storeys, like a modern reading-desk and pul- 
pit, projecting west from the north side of the 
chancel arch, or rather (if I recollect rightly, for 
I took no notes on visiting the church) of the 
west tower arch, and to both which there is 
access from the newel leading to the ancient rood- 
loft. 

To the above might be added those of Coombe, 
Oxon ; Frampton, Dorset ; and Trinity Church, 
Coventry : and if any other than those in churches, 
the angular one in the entrance court in Magda- 
lene College, Oxford, from which, formerly, the 
University Sermon used to be preached on the 
festival of St. John the Baptist, when the court 
was strewed with rushes for the occasion (vide 
Glossary of Architecture, in verb.) ; that in the 
refectory of Tinterne Abbey, Monmouthshire ; 
and the well-known exquisite specimen of the 
later First Pointed period, occupying a similar 
locality in the Abbey of Beaulieu, Hants, so ela- 
borately illustrated by Mr. Carter in Weale's 
Quarterly Papers. BROOKTHORPE. 

A collection of English examples alone would 
make a long list. Besides the well-known one 
(A.D. 1480) in the outer court of Magdalene Col- 
lege, Oxford, the following are noted in the last 
edition of the Oxford Glossary, viz. : Beaulieu, 
Hants (A. n. 1260) ; Beverley ; Chester ; Abbey 
Garden, Shrewsbury: these are in refectories of 
monasteries. In churches at Cirencester ; 
Coombe, Oxon (circa A. D. 1370) ; Frampton, 
Dorset (circa A.D. 1450) ; Trinity Church, Co- 
ventry (circa A.D. 1470) : the latter appears from 
the cut to be stone. 

In the second edition of the Glossary is also 
St. Peter's, Oxon (circa 1400). 

Devonshire abounds in good samples : see 
Trans, of Exeter Architectural Society, vol. i., at 
table of plates, and the engraved plates of three 
very rich specimens, viz. Harberton, Chittlehamp- 
ton, North Molton, each of which is encircled by 
canopied niches with statues. 

At North Petherton, in Somersetshire, is a 
curious grotesque human figure of stone, crouched 
on the floor, supporting the pulpit (which is of 
wood, as I think) upon his shoulders, Atlas-like. 

J. J. R. 

Temple. 

MR. KERSLEY desires a list of ancient stone pul- 
pits. I can give him the following, but cannot 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



describe their positions, nor certify which of them 
are still used: Bedfordshire, St. Paul's, Bed- 
ford ; Cheshire, Nantwich ; Cornwall, Egloshayle ; 
Devonshire, Chittlehampton, Harberton, Totnes, 
South Wooton ; Dorsetshire, Frampton ; Glou- 
cestershire, North Cerney, Cirencester, Cold Ash- 
ton, Northleach, Pitchcomb, Winchcorab, Glou- 
cester Cathedral ; Hampshire, Beaulieu Abbey 
(fine Early Decorated), Shorwell, Isle of Wight ; 
Oxfordshire, Coombe (1395), Oxford, Magdalene 
College (1480), Oxford, St. Peter's; Somerset- 
shire, Chedder, Kew Stoke, Nailsea, Stogumber, 
Wrington ; Sussex, Clymping ; Warwickshire, 
Coventry, Trinity Church ; Worcestershire, Wor- 
cester Cathedral. C. R. M. 

The Glossary of Architecture supplies the fol- 
lowing examples: Beaulieu, Hampshire, c. 1260 
(plate 166.), in the refectory; Combe, Oxford- 
shire, c. 1370 (plate 166.) ; Magdalene College, 
Oxford, c. 1480 (plate 166.), in the outer court ; 
Frampton, Dorset, c. 1450 (plate 167.); Holy 
Trinity, Coventry, c. 1500 (plate 167.), restored 
by Mr. Rickman. 

Are, or were, the pulpits in the refectories of 
"the monasteries of Beverley, Shrewsbury, and 
Chester, referred to in the Glossary sub voc. PUL- 
PIT, of stone ? W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

There are ancient stone pulpits still existing at 
Beaulieu Abbey Church, now in use, A.D. 1260 ; 
Wells Cathedral, in the nave, A.D. 1547; Magdalene 
College, Oxford, A.D. 1480, in the south-east angle 
of the first court, formerly used at the Univer- 
sity Sermon on St. John Baptist's Day; Combe 
Church, Oxon., Perp. style : Frampton Church, 
Dorset, A.D. 1450; Trinity Church, Coventry, 
A.D. 1500. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

To the list may be added that of Holy Trinity 
Church, Coventry, which is a very fine specimen, 
and furnished with bracket for the book. It ad- 
joins the south aisle piers, and is in use. 

G. E. T. S. R. N. 



ANTIQUITY OF FIRE-IRONS. 

(Vol. viii., p. 587.) 

The Invention of these domestic instruments, 
called " tongs, fireshovels, and prongs " by Sir 
T. Browne, dates from a v^ry early period. The 
"shovel" is the A.-S. fyr-sceofl. Lye refers to 
" the fire-sholve " of the sixteenth century, which 
he tells us was " made like a grate to sift the sea- 
cole with," exactly as we see it constructed now. 
(See Gage's Hengrave, p. 23.) The " poker" (see 
Du Cange, v. Titionarium) is mentioned by Johan. 
de Janua in the thirteenth century. It had 
formerly two massive prongs, and was commonly 
called the " fire-fork." There is a poker of this 
description, temp. Hen. VIII., in Windsor Castle, 



which is figured in Britton's Arcldt. Antiq., vol. ii. 
p. 99. (See also Strutt's Horda Angelcynn, vol. ii. 
pp. 62. 64., and Fosbrooke's Encyc. Antiq., pp.264. 
305. 340.) The " tongs," A.-S. fyr-tang (see Du 
Cange, v. Tenalea, Tenales, Tenecula), with which 
Swift mischievously directs us to stir the fire " if 
the poker be out of the way," are of the remotest 
antiquity. They are frequently spoken of in the 
sacred records, as by Isaiah, vi. 6. ; and we all 
know to what purpose a similar weapon was ap- 
plied by holy St. Dunstan. In fact, they are 
doubtless coeval with fires themselves. The word 
" tongs " is the old Icelandic, Norraena, or Donsk- 
tunga, taung, pi. tdngir, the Dan. tang, Scot, and 
Belg. tangs, taings, Belg. tanghe, Alem. zanga, 
Germ, zange, Gall. tenaiUe, Ital. tenaglia, c. The 
most ancient of the mytho-cosmogonic poems of 
the elder Edda attribute to this implement an 
origin no less than divine ; for in the Volo-spa, 
st. vii., it is stated that when the mighty CEsir 
assembled on Idavb'llr to regulate the courses of 
the stars, to take counsel for the erection of tem- 
ples and palaces, and to build furnaces, amongst 
other tools, by them also then fabricated, tdngir 
scopo, " they made tongs," for the use and delecta- 
tion of the volundr a jam, or skilful blacksmith 
(the Weyland smith of " Kenilworth ") and care- 
ful housewife of future days. WM. MATTHEWS. 
. Cowgill. 

ALIQUIS will perhaps find his question satis- 
factorily answered by a visit to Goodrich Court, 
Herefordshire, where the late Sir Samuel Meyrick, 
with the industry and exactness which distinguished 
that indefatigable antiquary, had arranged a series 
of rooms illustrative of the domestic habits of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries. 

It is so long ago since I saw these rooms (and 
then but very cursorily), that I will not undertake 
to say the series was complete from the twelfth 
inclusive ; and when, recently, last there, the 
family were at home, and nothing but the armoury 
shown ; but from the evident care taken of that 
unrivalled and magnificent collection by the present 
proprietor, the series of appropriate furniture, 
each genuine specimens of the period they repre- 
sent, is doubtless preserved intact, though I un- 
derstood that the chambers had been since fitted 
up more consistently with the requirements of the 
nineteenth century. BROOKTHORPE. 



ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. 

(Vol. vii., p. 407.) 

R. L. P. asks " What members of the British 
language were present, when, in 1546, the English 
commander Upton attacked and defeated the 
famous corsair Dra.gut at Tarschien, in Malta ?"^ 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



81 



In answer to the above question I would beg to 
remark, that in September, 1536, John d'Omedes 
ascended the Maltese throne on the decease of 
Didier de Saint Jaille ; and his reign continued 
seventeen years, i. e. to 1553. In looking through 
several histories of the order, I am unable to 
find any mention made of a Turkish descent on 
the island in 1546. Had such an occurrence taken 
place, it doubtless would have been recorded ; but 
as it is not, it would have been impossible for the 
Commander Upton to have distinguished himself 
in any such conflict as your correspondent sup- 
poses. 

R. L. P. then asks, What members of it were 
present (that is, the British language) when the 
Chevalier Repton, Grand Prior of England in 
1551, was killed, after signally defeating the Turks 
in another attack on the island ? " 

With all due deference I would beg to state, 
that there was not in July, 1551, when Dragut 
made an attack on Malta, any English knight of 
the name of Repton ; and it can be satisfactorily 
shown by the following extract, that at the period 
referred to by R. L. P., Nicholas Upton was Grand 
Prior of England, and was not "killed" after sig- 
nally defeating the Turks, but died from the effects 
of a coup de soleil : 

" L'isola del Gozzo fu presa da Sinam Bassa, a per- 
suasione di Dragutte, il 1551, essendosi renduto a 
cliscrezione F. Galaziano de Sesse Aragonese, Governa- 
tore, che vi rimase schiavo. Ma poco dopo il Cavaliere 
F. Pietro d'Olivares, la ristauro da danni patiti e vi 
richiamo nuove famiglie a ripopolarla. Sinam, prima 
di andare al Gozzo, fece una discesa in Malta, ma fu 
rispinto da Cavaliere :. neUa quale azione pel molto caldo 
sofferto, mori Nicolas Vpton, Gran Priore cT Inghilterra." 
Vide Codice Dip., vol. ii. p. 573. ; as also Vertot's 
History of the Order, vol. iv. p. 144., date July, 1551. 

That Sir Nicholas Upton was Grand Prior of 
England in 1551, is sufficiently shown in the above 
extract ; and that he was Commander of Repton, 
or Ripston, will be as readily seen by the follow- 
ing lines translated from the Latin, and to be 
found in a book of manuscripts of the years 1547, 
1548, 1549, now in the Record Office. (Vide Lib. 
Bull. M. M. F. J. Homedes.) 

" On the 15th November, 1547, Nicholas Upton was 
appointed by the Grand Master Omedes Commander 
of Ripston in the language of England. And on the 
5th of November, 1548, he was exalted to the dignity 
of Turcopolier, in place of the knight Russell de- 
ceased." 

I am unable to inform R. L. P. what English 
knights were present in Malta in 1551 ; but enough 
has already appeared in " N. & Q." to show that 
they were few in number, and poor as regards 
their worldly effects. The Reformation had de- 
stroyed the British language, and caused the ruin 
of its members. The first severe blow against the 



Order of St. John of Jerusalem was given by 
Henry VIII., and the last by Queen Elizabeth in 
the first year of her reign. (Vide " N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., pp. 189. 193.) WILLIAM WINTHROP. 
La Valetta, Malta. 



GRAMMARS, ETC., FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

(Vol. ix., p. 8.) 

St. Mary's College, Winchester (publisher, 
D. Nutt). Novum Florilegium Poeticum ; Car- 
mina qucedam elegantissima ; De Diis et Heroibus 
poeticis libellus ; Homeri Ilias (Heyne) et 
Odyssece ; Interpretatio Poikiles Istorias ; Ovidii 
Fasti, librivi.; HoiKiXr) Iffropia; Selectee Histories 
ex Ccesare, Justino et Floro ; Notes on the Diates- 
saron, by the Rev. Frederic Wickham, now Second 
Master ; Gr&ca Grammatices Rudimenta, by Bi- 
shop Wordsworth, late Second Master ; Greek 
and Latin Delectus, by the Rev. H. C. Adams, late 
Commoner Tutor. 

Of Eton books there were in use the Latin and 
Greek Grammars ; Pindar's Olympian and Pythian 
Odes ; Scriptores Grceci et Romani. A complete 
list of Eton and Westminster school-books will be 
found in the London Catalogue, which enrols Vidce 
de Arte Poetica ; Trapp's Preelections Poetica, 
and the Rise, tyc. of Poetry and Fine Arts in An- 
cient Rome, as Winchester school-books. 

In 1512, Winchester and Eton had a common 
grammar. Hugh Lloyd, D.C.L., Head Master, 
A.D. 1580 1602, wrote Dictata and Phrases Ele- 
gantiores for the use of the school. William 
Herman, M.A., Head Master of Winchester, 
14951502, and Eton, 14891495, wrote Vul- 
garia puerorum. 

Hugh Robinson, D.D., Head Master, wrote 
Prayers and Latin Phrases for the school. It is 
almost superfluous to name Bishop Ken's Manual 
for Winchester Scholars, edited by Dr. Moberly, 
the present excellent Head Master, some years 
since. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M. A. 

In pursuance of the hint of MR. P. H. FISHER, 
I will describe an old school-book in my possession, 
which is bound up with Godwyn's Romance His- 
torice Anthologia. It contains, l.Preces ; 2. Gram } 
maticalia qucedam; 3. Rhetorica Irevis, and was 
printed at Oxford in 1616 by Joseph Barnes. 
Though there is nothing in the title-page to in- 
dicate that it was for the use of Winchester Col- 
lege, this sufficiently appears from the " Thanks- 
giving for William of Wiccham " in the grace after 
dinner, and also from the insertion of William of 
Wykeham's arms before the Rhetorica brevis. It 
bears abundant marks of having been used in the 
school, and contains, on the blank pages with 
which it was furnished, several MS. Wykehamical 
memoranda, some of them well known, and others, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



perhaps, the exercises of the original owner. All 
are in Latin, except the following verses, which I 
transcribe : 

" On Queene Anne, Queene of the Scots. 

March with his winds hath strooke a cedar tall, 
And morning April weeps the cedar's fall,' 
And May intends noe flowers her month shall bring, 
Since shee must lose the flower of all the spring ; 
Thus March's winds have caused April showers, 
And yet sad May must lose her flower of flowers." 

C.W.B. 



DERIVATION OF MAWMET, CAME. 

(VoLviii., pp.468. 515.) 

That the word mawmet is a derivation from the 
name of Mahomet, is rendered exceedingly pro- 
bable by two circumstances taken in connexion : 
its having been in common use to signify an idol, 
in the age immediately following that of the Cru- 
sades ; and the fact, that in the public opinion and 
phraseology of that time, a Saracen and an idolater 
were synonymous. In the metrical romances of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Maho- 
metanism is described as " hethenesse," and Sara- 
cens as "paynims," "heathens," and "folks of 
the heathen law." The objects of their faith and 
worship were supposed to be Mahomet, Jupiter, 
Apollo, Pluto, and Termagaunt. Thus, in the 
romance of Richard Cceur de Lion : 

" They slowe euery Sarezyn, 
And toke the temple of Apolyn." L. 4031-2. 

" That we our God Mahoun forsake." L. 4395. 

" And made ther her (their) sacryfyse, 
To Mahoun, and to Jupiter." L. 4423. 

" But to Termagaunt and Mahoun, 
They cryede fast, and to Plotoun." L. 6421-2. 
Weber's Metrical Romances, vol. ii. 

The editor says : 

" There is no doubt that our romance existed before 
the year 1300, as it is referred to in the Chronicles of 
Robert de Gloucester and Robert de Brunne." Vol. i. 
Introd., p. xlvi. 

In the same poem, the word mawmettes is used 
to signify idols : 

" Sarazynes before hym came, 
And asked off hym Crystendame. 
Ther wer crystend, as I find, 
More than fourty thousynd. 
Kyrkes they made off Crystene lawe, 
And her (their) Mawmettes lete down drawe." 

L. 582944. 

In Wiclif's translation of the New Testament 
also, the word occurs in the same sense : maw- 
metis, idolis, and false goddis being used indiffer- 



ently where idola or simulacra are employed in 
the Latin Yulgate : thus 

" Fie ghe fro worschipyng of mawmetis." 

1 Cor. x. 14. 
" My litel sones kepe ye you fro mawmetis." 

1 John v. 21. 

And in Acts vii. 41., the golden calf is designated 
by the same word, in the singular number : 

" And thei maden a calf in tho daies, and ofFriden a 
sacrifice to the mawmet." 

In the first line of the quotation last given 
from Richard Cceur de Lion, your correspondent 
H. T. G. will find an early instance of the word 
came ; whether early enough, I cannot say. In 
Wiclif s version, cam, came, and camen are the 
usual expressions answering to' "came" in our 
translation. If above five hundred and fifty years' 
possession does not give a word a good title to 
its place in our language, without a conformity 
to Anglo-Saxon usage, the number of words that 
must fall under the same imputation of novelty 
and "violent infringement" is very great indeed. 

J. W. THOMAS. 

Dewsbury. 



THE GOSLING FAMILY. 

(Yol.vi., p. 510.) 

ONE or THE FLOCK asks for information re- 
lative to the antiquity of the name and family of 
Gosling. The Norman name of Gosselin is evi- 
dently the same as that of Jocelyn, the tendency 
of the Norman dialect being to substitute a hard 
g for the./ or soft g, as gambe forjambe, guerbe for 
gerbe. As a family name it is far from uncommon 
in Normandy, and many of your antiquarian 
readers may recognise it as the name of a pub- 
lisher at Caen of works on the antiquities of that 
province. A family of the name of Gosselin has 
been established for many centuries in the island 
of Guernsey. William Gocelyn was one of those 
sworn upon the inquest as to the services, customs, 
and liberties of the island, and the laws established 
by King John, which inquest was confirmed by 
King Henry III. in the year 1248. In the year 
1331 an extent of the crown revenues, &c. was 
made by order of Edward III., and in this docu- 
ment the name of Richard Gosselin appears as 
one of the jury of the parish of St. Peter-Port. 

A genealogy of the Guernsey family of Gosselin 
is to be found in the appendix to Berry's history 
of that island, and it is there stated that 

" The first on record in Jersey is Robert Gosselin, 
who greatly assisted in rescuing the castle of Mont 
Orgueil from the French in the reign of Edward III., 
and was, for his gallant services, not only appointed 
governor of the castle by that monarch, but presented 
with the arms since borne by that family (viz. Gules, a 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



chevron between three crescents ermine), as appears by 
the original grant under the great seal of England, 
supposed to be upon record in the Tower of London, | 
or among the archives at Winchester. This Robert | 
Gosselin some time after settled in Guernsey, where j 
he married Magdelaine, daughter of William Mai- j 
travers, his majesty's lieutenant in that island." 

On referring to Burke's Armory, I find that ! 
families of the name of Gosselin, Gosling, and 
Gooseling all bear arms similar to those described j 
above, or but slightly differing, which affords a 
strong presumption that they are all descended ; 
from the same stock. The arms of Gosselin of j 
Normandy are quite different. 

HONORS DE MAREVILLE. j 

Guernsey. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Tent for Collodion Purposes. Some time ago, I saw 
in " N. & Q." a slight notice of a tent for the collodion 
process : I think it is called " Francis' Collodion 
Tent." Would you, or some of your photographic 
correspondents, oblige me by giving a short description 
of this tent, or any other form, so that I may be able to 
operate with collodion in the open air? 

I am of an opinion, with a portable tent, so that we 
could expose paper in a damp state, the process might 
be done nearly as quick as collodion. All that need 
be done for a paper negative, would be to expose and 
develop ; it can be fixed at home. But after being 
developed, it should be well washed and dried. 

JAMES O. CLAZEY. 

Multiplying Negatives and Collodion on Paper. As j 
I am desirous of printing a large quantity of copies of 
a glass negative in my possession, I shall be obliged by 
any hints as to the best method of multiplying such 
negative, so as to guard against an accident from 
breakage. 

I should also feel obliged for any hints upon the 
use of collodion applied to glass, paper intervening ; 
so that the paper may be afterwards removed from the 
glass, and used as a negative. I have heard of much 
success in this way, but am at a loss to know the best 
mode of operation. M. N. S. 

Photographic Copies of Ancient Manuscripts Might 

not photography be well employed in making fac- 
similes of valuable, rare, and especially of unique 
ancient manuscripts ? If copies of such manuscripts 
could be multiplied at a moderate price, there are 
many proprietors of libraries would be .glad to enrich 
them by what, for all purposes of reference, would 
answer equally well with the originals. A. 

[This subject, which has already been touched upon 
in our columns, has. not yet received the attention it 
deserves. We have now before us a photographic j 
copy of a folio page of a MS. of the fourteenth or 
fifteenth century, on which are inscribed a number of 
charters ; and, although the copy is reduced so as to 
be but about 2 inches high and H broad, it is perfectly 



legible ; and the whole of the contractions are as dis- 
tinct as if the original vellum was before us.] 

Fox Talbofs Patents. Would the Editor of" N. & 
Q." have the kindness to inform A. B. whether a pho- 
tograph (portrait), taken from a black cutting made by 
an amateur, and inserted in a published work, would 
infringe on Mr. F. Talbot's patent ? Also, whether 
collodion portraits come within his patent, as it was 
understood it could only apply to the paper process? 
(The cutting would be taken on albumenised paper.) 

A. B. would also be glad to know where Towgood 
of St. Neot's positive paper can be procured, and the 
price? A. B. 

Mr. Fox Talbot having thrown open the whole of 
his patents, with the exception of the taking of por- 
traits for sale, on which it is understood that gentle- 
man claims a royalty which may, in some cases, be 
considered a prohibition, I should be glad to know 
under which of Mr. Talbot's patents such royalty can 
be enforced, and when the patent in question expires? 

H. H. 

Antiquarian Photographic Society. We believe that 
most of the difficulties which have stood in the way of 
the organisation of this Society have at length been 
got over ; and that we shall, in the course of a week or 
two, be enabled to state full particulars of its rules, 
arrangements, &e. Our readers are aware that its 
main object is the interchange of photographs among 
the members ; each contributing as many copies of his 
own work as there are members of the Society, and 
receiving in exchange as many different photographs. 
Thus, if the Society is limited to twenty-five or fifty 
members, each member will have to furnish twenty-five 
or fifty copies, as the case may be, of the photograph 
he presents to the Society ; and, in return, will receive 
one photograph from each of his fellow members. The 
difficulty, or rather trouble of printing, must neces- 
sarily limit the number of members ; and as a conse- 
quence will, we doubt not, lead to the formation of 
many similar associations. 



ta Minor 

" Firm was their faith" frc. (Vol. viii., p. 564. ; 
Vol. ix., p. 17.). I am utterly unable to account 
for the reserve shown by SAXA in withholding the 
name of Robert Stephen Hawker, Vicar of Mor- 
wenstow, author of the beautiful volume of poems 
entitled Echoes from Old Cornwall : especially as 
the author's name appears on the title-page, and 
SAXA appears so desirous that his merits should 
be better known to the world. 'AAtetfe. 

Dublin. 

Attainment of Majority (Vol. ix., p. 18.). I 
cannot, in courtesy, omit to notice MR. RUSSELL 
GOLE'S obliging efforts to assist the investigation of 
this subject. I must, however, refer him to the 
first paragraph of my last communication (Vol. viii., 
p. 541.), on the reperusal of which he will find 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



that what he states to be " the question " has not 
been at any time questioned. He has apparently 
mistaken my meaning, and imagines that " about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century" means 
1704 (that being the date of the case cited by him). 

I beg to assure him that I intended the expres- 
sion, " beginning of the seventeenth century," to 
be understood in the ordinary acceptation. 

A. E. B. 

Leeds. 

Three Fleurs-de-Lis (Vol. ix., p. 35.). I have 
by me a MS. Biographical History of the English 
Episcopate, complete from the foundation of every 
See, with the armorial bearings of the several 
bishops : the whole I have collected from the best 
sources. I find among these, in the arms of Tril- 
leck of Hereford, three fleurs-de-lis in chief; Stil- 
lingfleet of VYorcester, Coverdale of Exeter, North 
of Winchester, three fleurs-de-lis, two in chief 
and one in base ; Stretton of Lichfield, three fleurs- 
de-lis in bend. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M. A. 

Sir John Egles, who was knighted by King 
James II. in the last year of his reign, and was 
Lord Mayor of London in 1688, bore : Argent, a 
fess engrailed, and in chief three fleurs-de-lis sable. 

The family of France, now represented by 
James France, Esq., of Bostock Hall, co. Cheshire, 
bear : Argent, on a mount in base a hurst proper, 
a chief wavy azure, charged with three fleurs-de- 
lis or. (The last are probably armes parlanles.} 

Halford of Wistow bears : Argent, a greyhound 
passant sable, on a chief azure, three fleurs-de-lis 
or. LEWIS EVANS. 

DEVONIENSIS is informed, that the family of 
Saunders bear the following coat of arms: viz. 
Argent, three fleurs-de-lis sable, on a chief of the 
second three fleurs-de-lis of the first. Also, that 
the families of Chesterfield, Warwyke, Kempton, 
&c., bear : Three fleurs-de-lis in a line (horizon- 
tal) in the upper part of the shield. See Glovers' 
Ordinary, augmented and improved in Berry's 
Encyclopcedia Heraldica, vol. i. H. C. C. 

, Newspaper Folk Lore (Vol. ix., p. 29.). 
Although (apparently unknown to LONDONER) the 
correspondent of The Times, under "Naval In- 
telligence," in December last, with his usual accu- 
racy, glanced at the " snaka lore " merely to laugh 
at the fable, I have written to a gallant cousin of 
mine, now serving as a naval officer at Portsmouth, 
and subjoin his reply to my letter ; it will, I 
think, amply suffice to disabuse a LONDONER'S, or 
his friend's, mind of any impression of credence to 
be attached to it, as regards the snake : 

" H.M.S. Excellent. Jonathan Smith, gunner's 
mate of the Hastings, joined this ship from the 
Hastings in July ; went on two months' leave, 
but came back in August very ill, and was imme- 



diately sent to the hospital for general dropsy, of 
which he shortly after died, and he was buried 
in Kingston churchyard, being followed to the 
grave by a part of the ship's company of the 
Excellent. 

" Shortly before his death a worm, not a snake, 
came from him. It was nine inches in length ; 
but though of such formidable dimensions, such 
things are common enough in the East Indies, 
where this man must have swallowed it, when 
very small, in water. They seldom are the cause 
of death, and, in the present instance, had nothing 
whatever to do with it. The story of the snake 
got into some of the papers, but was afterwards 
contradicted in several." 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Nattochiis and Calchanti (Vol. ix., p. 36.). 
Your correspondent F. S. A. asks what " cum 
g a nis et nattochiis" means, in a charter of the date 
of Edward II. At that time nattes signified 
reeds, and possibly withies : and the words quoted 
I believe to mean, " with all grass and reeds (or 
reed-beds)." He also inquires what is meant, in 
a deed of grant of the time of Queen Elizabeth, by 
a grant of " decimas calchanti," &c. ? It signifies 
" tithes ways," &c. The original law Latin for 
the modern phrase " all ways," &c., was calceata, 
signifying " raised ways." 

This word has (at different periods) been 
written, calceata, calcata, calcea, calchia, chaucee, 
and chausse; all of them, however, meaning the 
same thing. JOHN THRUFP. 

11. York Gate. 

Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth Century 
(Vol. ix., p. 33.). If R. C. will refer to Palmer's 
OriginesLiturgicce (Rivington,1845, vol. ii. p. 214.), 
he will find that the first part of the matrimonial 
office was " anciently termed the espousals, which 
took place some time before the actual celebration 
of marriage." Palmer explains : 

" The espousals consisted in a mutual promise of 
marriage, which was made by the man and woman 
before the bishop or presbyter, and several witnesses. 
After which, the articles of agreement of marriage 
(called tabulae, matrimonlales), which are mentioned by 
Augustin, were signed by both persons. After this, 
the man delivered to the woman the ring and other gifts ; 
an action which was termed subarrhation. In the latter 
ages the espousals have always been performed at the 
same time as the office of matrimony, both in the 
western and eastern churches ; and it has long been 
customary for the ring to be delivered to the woman 
after the contract has been made, which has always been 
iii the actual office of matrimony.". 

Wheatly also speaks of the ring as a " token of 
spousage" He tell us that 

" In the old manual for the use of Salisbury, before 
the minister proceeds to the marriage, he is directed to 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



ask the woman's dowry, viz. the tokens of speusage : and 
ly these tokens of spousage are to be understood rings, or 
money, or some other things to .be given to the woman by 
the man ; which said giving is called subarration (i. e. 
wedding or covenanting), especially lohen it is done by 
the giving of a ring" A Rational Illustration of the 
Book of Common Prayer, Sfc. (Tegg, 1845), p. 408. 

Perhaps the word subarration may suggest to 
E. C. a clue, by which he can mend his extract ? 

J. SANSOM. 

Clarence (Vol. viii., p. 565.). I made no note 
of it at the time, but I remember to have read, I 
think in some newspaper biography of William IV., 
that the title of Clarence belonged to the Plan- 
tagenets in right of some of their foreign alliances, 
and that it was derived from the town of Chia- 
renza, or Clarence, in the Morea. As many of the 
crusaders acquired titles of honour from places in 
the Byzantine empire, this account may be correct. 
Lionel Plantagenet's acquisition of the honour of 
Clare by his marriage with Elizabeth de Burgh, 
may have induced his father Edward III. to re- 
vive the dormant title of Clarence in his favour. 
HOJJORE DE MAREVIULE. 

Guernsey. 

" The spire whose silent finger" 8fc. (Vol. ix., 
p. 9.). - 

" And O 1 ye swelling hills and spacious plains ! 

L Besprent from shore to shore with steeple-tow'rs, 

And spires whose silent finger points to heav'n." 

Wordsworth, Excursion, vi. 17. 

Coleridge uses the same idea in his Friend, 
No. xiv. p. 223. : 

" An instinctive taste teaches men to build their 
churches in flat countries with spire-steeples ; which, 
as they cannot be referred to any other object, point 
as with silent finger to the sky and stars ; arid some- 
times, when they reflect the brazen light of a rich 
though rainy sunset, appear like a pyramid of flame 
burning heavenward." 

F. R.M., M.A. 

The following lines conclude a pretty little 
poem of Rogers's, entitled A Wish. They furnish 
at any rate a parallel passage to, if not the correct 
version of, the above : 

" The village church, among the trees, 

Where first our marriage vows were given, 
With merry peals shall swell the breeze, 
And point ivith taper spire to heaven" 

C. W. B. 

Henry Earl of Wotton (Vol. viii., pp. 173. 
281. 563.). In reply to the editors of the 
Navorxcher I have to state 

1. That neither of the Lords Stanhope mentioned 
died childless, the letters s.p. being a misprint for 
v. p. (vita patris} ; Henry having died during the 
lifetime of his father: and it was "in regard 



that he did not live to enjoy his father's honours " 
that his widow was afterwards advanced to the 
dignity of Countess of Chesterfield. 

2. It was Charles Stanhope's nephew (of the 
half-blood), Charles Henry van der Kerckhove, 
who took the name of Wotton. The insertion of 
the word "thereupon" between "who" and "took," 
on p. 281., would have made the sentence less 
obscure. 

3. Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, had, besides 
Henry Lord Stanhope, two daughters and ten 
sons. These were John, who died a student at 
Oxford; Ferdinando, M.P. for Tamworth, 1640, 
killed at Bridgeford, Notts, 1643 ; Philip, killed 
in defence of his father's house, which was a gar- 
rison for the king, 1645 ; Arthur, youngest son, 
M. P. for Nottingham in the parliament of 
Charles II., from whom descended the fifth earl ; 
Charles, died s.p. 1645 ; Edward, William, Tho- 
mas, Michael, George, died young. 

The earldom descended in a right line for three 
generations to the issue of Henry, Lord Stanhope, 
viz. Philip, his son, second earl ; Philip, third earl, 
his grandson ; and Philip, fourth earl, his great- 
grandson. 

The Alexander Stanhope mentioned by the 
editors of the Navorscher was the only son of 
Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, by his second 
marriage. His mother was Anne, daughter of 
Sir John Pakington, of Westwood, co. Worcester, 
ancestor of the present baronet, late Secretary of 
State for the Colonies. BROCTUNA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 

Tenth (or the Prince of Wales' s Own) Regiment 
of (Light) Dragoons (Vol. viii., p. 538. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 19.). The monarch of this realm reviewing a 
regiment, of which the heir apparent was not only 
Colonel, but took the command, and directed all 
the military evolutions on the occasion, was such 
a particular event as to merit being commemo- 
rated by the splendid picture at Hampton Court 
Palace. Your correspondent $., who desires to be 
informed on what particular day that review took 
place, will find that it was on Thursday, Aug. 15, 
1799. In the daily paper, The True Briton, of 
Aug. 16, 1799, he will find some details, of which 
the following is an abridgment : 

" The Prince of Wales's regiment (the 10th Light 
Dragoons) was yesterday reviewed by his Majesty on 
Winkfield Plain. The troops practised their man- 
oeuvres through Cranbourne Woods, &c. His Royal 
Highness gave the word of command to his regiment, 
and wore in his military helmet ' an oak bough.' The 
Prince of Wales gave an entertainment afterwards to 
the officers at the Bush Inn, at Staines." 

The general officers in attendance upon his 
Majesty, and represented in the picture, were the 
Commander-in-Chief, Field-Marshal II. E. H. the 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



Duke of York, K.G. and K.B., Colonel 2nd Foot 
Guards; Lieut.-Gen. and Adjutant- Gen. Sir Win. 
Fawcett, K. B., 3rd Dragoon Guards ; Lieut.- 
Gen. David Dundas, Quarter-niaster-General, 
7th Light Dragoons; Major-Gen. Goldsworthy, 
First Equerry, 1st Royal Dragoons. NARRO. 

Lewis and Sewell Families (Vol. viii., pp. 388. 
521.). C. H. F. will find M. G. Lewis's ances- 
tors, his family mausoleum, the tomb of his ma- 
ternal grandfather, &c., incidentally mentioned in 
" M. G. Lewis's Negro Life in the West Indies," 
No. 16. of Murray's Home and Colonial Library, 
1845. The pedigrees of the Shedden and Lush- 
ington family would probably afford him some 
information upon the subject of his Query. 

The Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell's second wife 
was a Miss Sibthorp, daughter of Coningsby 
Sibthorp of Canwick, Lincolnshire. By her he 
had one child, which died young. The Rev. 
George Sewell, William Luther Sewell, Robert 
Sewell, Attorney- General of Jamaica, and Lieut. - 
Col. Thomas Bailey Heath Sewell, were sons of 
the Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell by his first wife. 
Thomas Bermingham Daly Henry Sewell, son of 
the above Lieut. -Col. Thomas Bailey Heath Sewell, 
died March 20, 1852, aet. seventy-eight; and was 
buried in Harold's Cross Cemetery, near Dublin. 
Two daughters, the Duchess de Melfort, and Mrs. 
Richards, wife of the Rev. Solomon Richards, still 
survive him. (See Burke's Commoners, Supple- 
ment, name COLE of Marazion ; and Burke's Die. 
of Peerage and Baronetage, 1845, title WEST- 

MEATH.) W. R. D. S. 

Blue Bell and Blue Anchor (Vol. viii., p. 388.). 
Your correspondent 2K9. inquires the origin of 
the sign-boards of the "Blue Bell" and the "Blue 
Anchor ? " I have always understood that the 
sign of the Bell, painted blue, was intended as a 
substitute for the little Scotch flower bearing the 
name of the blue-bell. I believe it is either the 
blue flower of the flax, or that of the wild blue 
hyacinth, which in shape much resembles a bell. 
It was probably much easier to draw the metallic 
figure than the flower, and hence its use by the 
primitive village artists. As to the " Blue Anchor," 
the anchor is the well-known symbol of Hope, 
and blue her emblematic colour. Hence this 
adaptation is less a solecism than that of the bell 
for the hyacinth. W. W. E. T. 

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia. 

Sir Anthony Wingfield : Ashmans (Vol. viii., 
pp. 299. 376.). The portrait of Sir Anthony 
Wingfield, " with the hand on the girdle," was, a 
few years ago, in the collection of Dawson Turner, 
Esq., at Yarmouth. A private etching of it was 
made by Mrs. Turner. The original was rescued 
from among the Letheringham pictures at Ash- 



mans, where they appear to have been sadly neg- 
lected. 

The late Robert Rede, Esq., whose father, 
Thomas Rede, purchased of Sir Edwin Rich, 
Bart., in 1805, the manor of Rose Hall and Ash- 
mans, erected upon that estate the mansion called 
Ashmans. The place is not styled Ashmans Park, 
nor does its extent warrant such a designation. 

This property, on the death of Mr. Robert 
Rede in 1822, passed to the late Rev. Robert 
Rede Cooper, who assumed the surname of Rede'; 
and on his death, without male issue, the estate 
devolved upon his four daughters, Louisa Char- 
lotte, wife of Francis Fowke, Esq. ; Anne Cooper, 
wife of Robert Orford Buckley, Esq.; Mary Anne 
Sarah Bransby, wife of Charles Henry Tottenham, 
Esq. ; and Miss Madeline ISTaunton Leman Rede. 
The property has not been sold. Its most in- 
teresting antiquarian feature is the old house 
called Rose (or more properly Roos) Hall, which 
belonged successively to the Colly, Suckling, Rich, 
and finally the Rede, families. 

The pictures which remained at Ashmans were 
removed from thence within the last year; but 
whether any of those from the Letheringham gal- 
lery were among them, I know not. S. W. Rix. 

Beccles. 

Derivation of theWord "Celt" (Vol. viii., pp.344. 
651.). Job xix. 24. In the Cologne (Ely) edi- 
tion of the Vulgate, 1679, the word is Celt. In 
Mareschal's Bible (Ludg. 1525), the word in the 
text is Celte, but the marginal note is " al s Certe." 
In the Louvain (or Widen's) Bible (Antw., apud 
Viduam et Haeredes Joannis Stelsii, 1572, cum 
priv.), the word in the text is Certe. This latter 
being an authorised edition of the Vulgate, it 
seems probable that Celte, or Celt, must have 
been an error. R. I. R- 

The Religion of the Russians (Vol. viii., p. 582.). 
Your correspondent J. S. A. has mentioned 
under the above head the worship of " gods," as 
he calls their pictures or images, by the Russians. 
I am sure he will find no such name or meaning 
given to them by the Russians in their writings : 
for an account of what they really believe and teach 
I would refer him to Mouravieff's History of the 
Russian Church; The Catechism of the Russian 
Church Translated; Harmony of their Doctrine 
with that of the English Church ; all translated by 
Mr. Blackmore, late Chaplain to the Russian Com- 



pany. 



G. W. 



French T?*anslation of the " London Gazette" 
(Vol. vi., p. 223.). A correspondent describes a 
French edition of the London Gazette, which he 
had met with of the date of May 6, 1703; and 
considering it as a curiosity, he wishes some reader 
would give an account of it. It has occurred to 
me to meet with a similar publication, which ap- 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



peared twenty years antecedent to the time above 
specified. It is entitled La Gazette de Londres, 
publiee avec Privilege, depuis le Jeudi 11, jusqriau 
Lundi 15, Mai, 1682 (vieux style}, No. 1621. It 
gives a very circumstantial detail of the loss of 
the "Gloucester" frigate, near the mouth of the 
Humber, in the night of Friday, May 5, 1682, 
when she was conveying the Duke of York (post- 
quam James II.) to Scotland. Sir John Berry, 
who commanded the vessel, managed to remove 
the duke to another ship ; but the Earl of Rox- 
burgh, Lord O'Brien, the Laird of Hopetoun, 
Sir Joseph Douglas, Mr. Hyde (Lord Claren- 
don's brother), several of the duke's servants, and 
about 130 seamen, were lost in the " Gloucester," 
The pilot was either deficient in skill, or obstinate, 
and was to be brought to trial.* 

With regard to the reason of publishing a French 
version of the Gazette, might it not be judged ex- 
pedient (as the French was then spoken in every 
Court in Europe, and the English language almost 
unknown out of the British dominions) to publish 
this translation in French for foreign circulation ? 
It is to be remarked that the copy I have met 
with is styled privileged? D. N. 

" Poscimus in vita,'" Sfc. (Vol. ix., p. 19.). 
Allow me to correct a double error in this line into 
which MR. POTTER has fallen, though he has im- 
proved upon the line of BALHOLENSIS. The true 
reading of it is 

" Poscimus in vitam pauca, nee ista diu." 

In vitam (for life) is better Latin than "in vita ;" 
and ista is more appropriate than " ilia," in refer- 
ence to things spoken unfavourably of. 

C. DELAPRYME. 

Pickard Family (Vol.ix., p. 10.). The Pickard 
family are not from Normandy, but from Piccardy. 
Doubtless, many a Le Norman, Le Gascoign, and 
Le Piccard settled in this country during the 
Plantagenet connexion with those provinces. P. P. 

" Man proposes, but God disposes" (Vol. viii., 
pp. 411. 552.). Piers Ploughman's Vision, quoted 
by your correspondent MR. THOMAS, proves that 
the above saying was used prior to the time of 
Thomas^a Kempis ; but in adding that it did not 
originate with the author of the De Imitatione, 
your correspondent overlooked the view which 
attributes that wonderful work to John Gerson, a 
Benedictine Monk, between the years 1220 and 
1240; and afterwards Abbat of the monastery of 

[* It will be remembered that Pepys accompanied 
the Duke of York on this excursion to Scotland, and 
was fortunately on board his own yacht when the 
" Gloucester" was wrecked. His graphic account of 
the disaster will be found in the Correspondence at 
the end of his Diary. ED.] 



St. Stephen. (Vide De Imit. curd Joh. Hrabieta, 
1847, Praefat., viii. et seq.) 

Can any of your correspondents give other early 
quotations from the De Imitatione ? The search 
after any such seems to have been much over- 
looked in determining the date of that work. 

H. P. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

General Whitelocke (Vol. viii., p. 621.). In 
reply to G. L. S., I well remember this unfortu- 
nate officer residing at Clifton, near Bristol, up 
to about the year 1826 ; but as I then removed 
to a distant part of the kingdom, I cannot say 
where the rest of his life was spent. Although I 
was then but young, the lapse of years has not 
effaced from my memory the melancholy gloom of 
his countenance. If the information G. L. S. is 
seeking should be of importance, I cannot but 
think he may obtain it on the traces which have 
been given him. To which I may add, that up 
to a late period a son of the General, who was 
brought up to the church, held a living near Mai- 
ton, Yorkshire ; indeed, I believe he still holds it. 

D. N.'s information, that General Whitelocke 
fixed his residence in Somersetshire, may probably 
be correct; but it has occurred to me as just 
possible that Clifton was the place pointed to, in- 
asmuch as it is a vulgar error, almost universal, 
that Bristol (of which Clifton may now be said to 
be merely the west end) is in Somersetshire; 
whereas the fact is, that the greater part of that 
city, and the whole of Clifton, are on the Glouces- 
tershire side of the Avon, there the boundary 
between the two counties. 

I may mention, that in a late number of Taifs 
Magazine (?), there was a tale, half fiction and 
half fact, but evidently meant to appear the latter, 
in which the narrator states that he was in the 
ranks in General Whitelocke's army ; and in that 
fatal affair, in which he was engaged, the soldiers 
found that the flints had been removed from all 
the muskets, so as to prevent their returning the 
enemy's fire ! And this by order of their General. 
Is not this a fresh invention ? If so, it is a cruel 
one ! M. H. K. 

Non-jurors' Motto (Vol. viii., p. 621.)." Cetera 
quis nescit" is from Ovid, Amorum, lib. i., Elegia v. 
v. 25. W. J. BERN HARD SMITH. 

Temple. 

" The Red Cow " Sign, near Marlborough 
(Vol. viii., p. 569.). Being informed that Crom- 
well's old carriages, with the " Red Cow" on them, 
were some years ago to be seen as curiosities at 
Manton near Marlborough ; Cromwell being a 
descendant of a Williams from Glamorgan, and 
the cow being the coat of arms of Cowbridge ; and 
the signs of inns in that county being frequently 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



named " The Red Cow ;" will any of your readers 
oblige with some account of the origin of " The 
Red Cow" as a sign ; and what family has now a 
claim to such as the family arms ? GLYWYSYDD. 

Emblematic Meanings of Precious Stones (Vol. 
viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix., p. 37.). To the list of 
works on the mystical and occult properties of 
precious stones given by_ MR. W. PINKERTON, 
allow me to add the following, in which the means 
of judging of their commercial value, and their 
medicinal properties, are chiefly treated of : 

" Le Parfaict loaillier, ov Histoire des Pierreries: 
ov sont amplement descrites, leur naissance, juste prix, 
moyen de les cognoistre, et se garder des contrefaites, 
Facultez medicinales, et proprietez curieuses. Cora- 
pose par Anselme Boece de Boot, &c. : Lyon, 1644, 
12mo., pp. 788." 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

Calves'-head Club (Vol. viii., p. 480. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 15.). A correspondent of the Cambridge 
Chronicle of Dec. 31 says, that in the churchyard 
of Soham, Cambridgeshire, there is "a monster- 
tomb surrounded by a lofty iron railing," with the 
following inscription in letters of a large size : 

ROBERT D'AYE, Esquire, died April, 1770. Also 
MARY, Wife of Robert D'Aye, Esquire, Daughter of 
William Russell, Esquire, of Fordham Abbey, and 
Elizabeth his Wife, who was the only surviving 
Daughter of 

HENRY CROMWELL, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Son of 

OLIVER CROMWELL, 
Protector; died November 5, 1765, aged 73 years." 

After stating that in the same tomb lie the 
bodies of the daughter of D'Aye, and his wife 
(ob. 1779), their grandson (1803), and great- 
grandson (1792), the writer adds that there is a 
tradition in Soham that, during the lifetime of 
Mrs. D'Aye, out of respect to the doings of Oliver 
Cromwell, on the anniversary of King Charles's 
martyrdom, a calf's head besmeared with blood 
was hoisted on a pole in front of the cot of the 
husband. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

Burial in an erect Posture (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 
233. 630.) ; Eulenspiegel (Vol. vii., p. 357., &c.). 
The German rogue Eulenspiegel (or Howleglass, 
as Coplande renders it), of whose adventures "N. 
& Q." has had several notices, is another example 
of upright burial, as the following passage, trans- 
lated by Roscoe, shows : 

"Howleglass was buried in the year 1350, and his 
latter end was almost as odd and as eccentric as his 
life. For, as they were lowering him again into the 
grave, one of the ropes supporting the feet gave way, 
and left the coffin in an upright position, so that 
Howleglass was still upon his legs. Those who were 



present then said : ' Come, let us leave him as he is, 
for as he was like nobody else when he was alive, he is 
resolved to be as queer now he is dead.'" 

Accordingly, they left Howleglass bolt upright, 
as he had fallen ; and placing a stone over his 
head, on which was cut the figure of an owl with 
a looking-glass under his claws, the device of his 
name, they inscribed round it the following lines : 

HOWLEGLASS's EPITAPH. 

" Here lies HOWLEGLASS, buried low, 

His body is in the ground ; 
We warn the passenger that so 

He move not this stone's bound. 
In the year of Our Lord MCCCL." 

His tomb, which was remaining thirty years ago, 
and may be now, is under a large lime-tree at 
Mollen, near Lubeck. 

In Roscoe's German Novelists, vol. i. p. 141. et 
seq., there are references to several editions in 
various languages of the adventures of Thyll 
Eulenspiegel. J. R. M., A.M. 

Siting the Thumb (Vol. vi., pp. 149. 281. 616.). 
The lower orders in Normandy and Bribanny, 
and probably in other parts of France, when wish- 
ing to express the utmost contempt for a person, 
place the front teeth of the upper jaw between 
the nail and flesh of the thumb, the nail being 
turned inwards : and then, disengaging the thumb 
with a sudden jerk, exclaim, " J don't care that 
for you," or words of similar import. Is not this 
the action alluded to by Shakspeare and other 
writers, as " biting the thumb ? " 

HONORE DE MAREVILLE. 

Guernsey. 

Table-turning and Table-talking in Ancient 
Times (Vol. ix., p. 39.). I have received from 
a correspondent in Berlin the subjoined transla- 
tion of an article which was published in the Neue 
Preussische Zeitung of January 1 : 

" We have been informed that Professor Ranke has 
found out a passage in Ammianus Marcellinus by which 
it is unquestionably proved that table-turning was 
known in the east of the Roman Empire. 

" The table-turners of those days were summoned as 
sorcerers before the Council, and the passage referred 
to appears to have been transcribed from the Protocol. 
The whole ceremony (modus movendi hie fuit) is very 
precisely described, and is similar to what we have so 
often witnessed within the last month ; only that the 
table-turners, instead of sitting round the table, danced 
round it. The table-oracle likewise answered in verse, 
and showed a decided preference for hexameters. 
Being asked Who should be the next emperor?' the 
table answered ' Theod.' In consequence of this reply, 
the government caused a certain Theodorus to be put 
to death. Theodosius, however, became emperor. 

" The table oracle, in common with other oracles, 
had a dangerous equivocal tendency." 



JAN. 28. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



I learn from my correspondent, that the pas- 
sage in Ammianus Marcell'mus, though brought 
into notice by Professor Ranke, was discovered by 
Professor August at this place (Cheltenham). I 
am unable to verify the following reference : see 
Ammianus Marcellinus, Eerum Gestarum, lib.xxix. 
(p. 177., Bipont. edit.), and Ib. lib. xxxi. (p. 285.) 

JOHN T. GRAVES. 

Cheltenham. 

The Bell Savage (Vol. vii., p. 523.). MR. 
JAMES EJDMESTON is correct in rejecting the 
modern acceptation of the sign of the well-known 
inn on Ludgate Hill, as being La Belle Sauvage. 
Its proper name is " The Bell Savage," the bell 
being its sign, and Savage the name of its pro- 
prietor. But he is wrong in supposing that 
" Bell " in this case was the abbreviation of the 
name Isabella, and that the inn " was originally 
kept by one Isabella Savage." In a deed enrolled 
on the Close Roll of 1453, it is described as 
" Savage's Ynne, alias Le Belle on the Hope." 
The bell, as in many other ancient signs, was 
placed within a hoop. (See the Gentleman s Ma- 
gazine for November last, p. 487.) N. 

Door-head Inscriptions (Vol. viii., p. 652.). 
About the year 1825, I remember an old house 
known by the whimsical name of " Wise-in-Time," 
at Stoke-Bishop, near Bristol ; over the front door 
of which there was the following inscription, 
carved on a stone tablet : 

" Ut corpus ammo, 
Sic Domus corpori." 

The house had the reputation of being haunted. 
I cannot say whether it is still in existence. 

M. H. R. 

Over the door of a house in Alnwick, in the 
street called Bondgate : 

" That which your father 

of old hath purchased and left 

you to possess, do you dearly 

hold to show his worthiness. 

M. W. 1714." 

CEYREP. 

Funeral Customs in the Middle Ages (Vol. vi., 
p. 433.). In answer to your correspondent MR. 
PEACOCK, as to whether a monument was usually 
erected over the burial-place of the heart, &c. ? it 
is mentioned in Miss Strickland's Life of Queen 
Mary Stuart, that 

" An elegant marble pillar was erected by Mary as 
a tribute of her affection, to mark the spot where the 
heart of Francis II. was deposited in Orleans Cathe- 
dral." 

L. B. M. 

Greek Epigram (Vol. viii., p. 622.). The epi- 
gram, or rather epigrams, desired by your corre- 
spondent G. E. FRERE are most probably those 



which stand as the twelfth and thirteenth in the 
ninth division of the Anthologia Palatina (vol. ii. 
p. 61., ed. Tauchnitz). Their subjects are iden- 
tical with that quoted by you, which stands as the 
eleventh in the same collection. The two best 
lines of Epigram XIII. are 



" 'Avepa Tty \nr6yviov inrep vdroio 
^Hye, TrbSas %p-ii<Tas, o^a 

P. J. F. GANTILLON 

Macheys "Theory of the Earth" (Vol. viii 
pp. 468. 565.). 

" Died, on Saturday se'night, at Doughty's Hospi- 
tal in this city, Samson Arnold Mackey, aged seventy- 
eight years. The deceased was born at Haddiscoe, 
and was a natural son of Captain Samson Arnold of 
Lowestoft. He has been long known to many of the 
scientific persons of Norwich, and was remarkable for 
the originality of his views upon the very abstruse sub- 
ject of mythological astronomy, in which he exhibited 
great sagacity, and maintained his opinions with extra- 
ordinary pertinacity. He received but a moderate 
education ; was put apprentice to a shoemaker at the 
age of eleven, served his time, and for many years after- 
wards was in the militia. He did not again settle in 
Norwich until 1811, when he hired the attic storey ot 
a small house in St. Paul's, where he followed his 
business and pursued his favourite studies. About 
1822 he published his first part of Mythological Astro- 
nomy, and gave lectures to a select few upon the science 
in general. In 1825 he published his Theory of the 
Earth, and several pamphlets upon the antiquity of the 
Hindoos. His room, in which he worked, took his 
meals, slept, and gave his lectures, was a strange 
exhibition of leather, shoes, wax, victuals, sketches of 
sphinxes, zodiacs, planispheres ; together with orreries 
of his own making, geological maps and drawings, illus- 
trative of the Egyptian and Hindoo Mythologies. 
He traced all the geological changes to the different 
inclinations of the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit, 
and was fully persuaded that about 420,000 years 
ago, according to his theory, when the poles of the 
earth were last in that position, the geological pheno- 
mena now witnessed were produced. From his sin- 
gular habits, he was of course looked upon with wonder 
by his poor neighbours, and those better informed were 
inclined to annoy him as to his religious opinions. He 
had a hard struggle of late years to obtain subsistence, 
and his kind friend and patron the late Mr. Money- 
ment procured for him the asylum in which he died. 
He held opinions widely different to most men; but it 
must not be forgotten that, humble as he was, his 
scientific acquirements gained him private interviews 
with the late Duke of Sussex, the Duke of Somerset, 
and many learned men in the metropolis." 

The above is taken from the Norwich Mercury 
of August 12, 1843. TRIVET ALLCOCK. 

Norwich. 

"Homo Unius Libri" (Vol. viii., p. 569.). D'la- 
raeli devotes a chapter, in the second series of his 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 222. 



Curiosities of Literature, to " The Man of One 
Book." He says : 

" A predilection for som'e great author, among the 
vast number which must transiently occupy our atten- 
tion, seems to be the happiest preservative for our 
taste .... He who has long been intimate with one 
great author will always be found a formidable anta- 
gonist The old Latin proverb reminds us of 

this fact, Cave ab homine unius libri, Be cautious of the 
man of one book." 

and he proceeds to remark, that "every great 
writer appears to have a predilection for some 
favourite author," and illustrates it by examples. 

ElBIONNACH. 

Muffs worn by Gentlemen (Vol. viii., p. 353.). 
In the amusing quarrel between Goldsmith's old 
friend and his cousin in St. James's Park, "Cousin 
Jeffrey," says Miss, " I knew we should have the 
eyes of the Park upon us, with your great wig so 
frizzled and yet so beggarly." " I could," adds 
Mr. Jeffrey, " have patiently borne a criticism on 
all the rest of my equipage ; but I had always a 
peculiar veneration for my muff." (Essays, p. 263., 
edit. 1819.) MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

If, as we believe, the first and greatest qualifications 
for an editor of Shakspeare be love for his author and 
a thorough appreciation of his beauties, Mr. Charles 
Knight may well' come forward once more in that 
character. And, as he well observes, the fact of his 
having laboured for many years in producing a body of 
Commentary on Shakspeare, so that he was, out of the 
necessity of its plan, compelled not to miss any point, 
or slur over any difficulty, renders him not the less 
fitted for the preparation of an edition which is intended 
to be " The People's Shakspeare." The first volume 
of this edition, which he calls The Stratford Shakspeare, 
is now before us. It comprises the " Facts connected 
with the Life and Writings of Shakspeare," and the 
" Notice of Original Editions," and a most valuable 
shilling's worth it is. And there can be little doubt 
that, if Mr. Knight realises his intentions of suiting the 
present work to the wants of the many, by his endea- 
vours, without any elaborate criticism, to unravel the 
difficulties of a plot, to penetrate the subtlety of a cha- 
racter, and to show the principle upon which the artist 
worked, the present will be the crowning labour 
of his many praiseworthy endeavours to place a good 
edition of the works of our great dramatist within the 
reach of all 

" Who speak the tongue 
That Shakspeare spake." 

We cannot better show the utility and interest of 
The Autograph Miscellany ; a Collection of Autograph 
Letters, Interesting Documents, fyc., selected from the 



British Museum, and other sources Public and Private, 
than by stating the contents of the first number, which 
certainly contains admirable lithographic fac-similes of 
I. Queen Elizabeth's Letter to the House of Com- 
mons in answer to their Petition respecting her 
Marriage; II. Letter from Catherine de Medici; 
III. Wren's Report on the Design for the Summit of 
the City Monument; IV. Letter from Rubens on the 
Defeat of the English at Rochelle. . Their execution-is 
certainly most creditable to the artist, Mr. F. Nether- 
el ift. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Works of Joseph Addison, 
with Notes by Dr. Richard Hurd, Bishop of Worcester, 
in Four Volumes, with Engravings, Vol. I. This is the 
first of a new, cheap, and well-printed edition of Hurd's 
Addison, and forms one of Mr. Bonn's new series of 
British Classics. The Russians of the South, by 
Shirley Brooks, the 53rd Part of Longman's Traveller's 
Library, is a very lively and amusing little volume. It 
would have been read with interest at any time, but 
is especially deserving of attention at the present 
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ROBERTS' HOLY LAND. 

I) 250 Plates. 167. 16*. Published at 41 
guineas. 

DIGBY WYATT'S INDUS- 
TRIAL ARTS OF THE NINETEENTH 
CE \TURY. 160 Plates. 2 vols. folio balf- 
bound mor ceo. \l. IOs. Publi^hedat 17/. I/s. 

DIG BY WYATTS METAL 

WORK, and its ARTISTIC DESKiN. 50 
Plates. F- Ho, half-bound moro-.co. 31. 3s. 
Published at 6/. 6s. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



TT. GODDARD, Astronomical 
Telescope Maker, 2. Jesse Cottage*, 
Whitton, near Isleworth, London (or 10 
minutes' walk of Hounslow Railway Station). 

Excellent Portrait Combinations, 2} diame- 
t<r. for Portraits up to 5 inches, suitable also 
for Landscapes, mounted with rack and pinion 
31. 3s. ; or with sliding adjustment, only 21. 15. 

Excellent Portrait Combinations 3J diam., 
for Port raits 7 to 8 inches, and Landscapes of 
about 10 inches, mounted with rack-work ad- 
justment, 71. 7s. 

An Achromatic Landscape Lens of 12$, 14, 
16 or 17J inches focus, of 2} diameter, mounted 
in brass, with stops and rack-work adjustment, 
21. ; or with sliding adjustment, only H. 13s. % 

An Achromatic Landscape Lens of 3} diam., 
of 12 to 18 inches focus, mounted in brass, with 
stops and rack-work adjustment 41. 7s. 6cf. ; or 
with sliding adjustment, only 31. 17s. Sd. 

A 2}- Landscape Lens, unmounted, any focus 
(made), 15s. 

A 3} Landscape Lens, unmounted, 21. 

The (Portrait and Landscape) Combinations 
of Lenses. 3} diam., unmounted, 41. ; ditto, 2J 
diam.,lZ. 10*. 



ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, containing S'ze, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMANTE AUS ,TR A VELLING-B AG8, 
Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING- CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites. Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the onening as laree as *he bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing few compart- 
ment, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now he bad at the MANU- 
FACTORY. 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva I/evers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Sunerior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance. Gold. 27, 23. and 19 
guiTieas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer. Gold, 
50 "iiineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 21., 3L, and 4l. Ther- 
mometers from \s. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 
65. CHEAPSIDE. 



92 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 222. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 

Directors. 

H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jim. Esq. 
M.P. 



G. II. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evana, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 



T. Grissell, Esq. 
J. Hunt, Esq. 



J. A. Lethbridge.Esq. 
E. Lucas, Esq. 
J. Lys Seager, Esq. 
J. B. White, Esq. 
J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



Trustees. 
W.Whateley,Esn., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
in? a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Kates of Premium for Assuring 
1007., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits: 



Age 
17 . 

22 - 

27- 



Age 
32- 
37- 

42- 



s. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 
-382 



s. d. 

- 1 14 4 

- 1 18 8 

- 2 4 5 

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. 6^., Second Edition, 
With material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



^nitrite' k fcral li 



52. CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 
Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION. 

THIS SOCIETY PRESENTS THE FOL- 
LOWING ADVANTAGES : 

The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE 
MILLION. 

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability. 

Premiums affording particular advantages to 
Young Lives. 

Participating and Non-Participating Pre- 
miums. 

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT, or 
FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided 
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by 
way of addition to the sum assured, or in 
diminution of Premium, at their option. 

No deduction is made from the four-fifths 
'of the profits for Interest on Capital, for a 
Guarantee Fund, or on any other account. 

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and 
INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud. 

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May 
last, A BONUS was declared of nearly Two 
PER CENT, per annum on the amount assured. 
or at the rate of from THIRTY to upwards of 
SIXTY per cent, on the Premiums paid. 

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE 
PREMIUM ONLY has been paid. 

Next DIVISION OF PROFITS in 1856. 

The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. 
Assurances may be effected by applying on any- 
other day,between the hours of 10 and 4, at the 
Office of the Society, where prospectuses and 
all other requisite information can be obtained. 
CHARLES JOHN GILL, Secretary. 



POLICY HOLDERS in other 

COMPANIES, and intending Assure] 
:nerally, are invited to examine the Rate 



iiety in which the Advantages of Mutua 
Assurance can be secured by moderate Pre 
miums. Established 1837. Number of Poli 
cie issued 6,400, assuring upwards of Two am 
a Half Millions. 

Full Reports and every Information had 
(Free) on Application. 

*** Policies are now issued Free of Stamp 
Duty ; and attention is invited to the circum- 
stance that Premiums payable for Life Assur- 
ance are now allowed as a Deduction from 
Income in the Returns for Income Tax. 

GEORGE GRANT. Resident Sec. 
London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. Reduction 

1 in Price of French Papers prepared for 
Mons. Le Gray's Process. Examination of the 
.Papers, and comparison with the Prices hitherto 
charged for the same description, is respect- 
fully solicited ; the most perfect Selection 
and Chemical Manipulations having been ob- 
served, with a hope that an endeavour to re- 
duce the Cost of this beautiful and extensively 
applied Branch of Photographic Art, may 
secure a portion of Public Patronasre. Canson 
Freres' Waxed Negative fall spotted or imper- 



fect sheets rejected), 6s. per Quire. Iodized 
for three weeks, 



, . 
ditto, 8s. Sensitive, available 



, 

13s. ; Size, 17J by 11}, demy folio. Specimens 
of either Papers sent Free, between boards, on 
Receipt of Postage (ID Stamps), addressed, 
Prepaid, to 

LUKE SAMS, 7. Adelphi Chambers, facing 
the Society of Arts, Adelphi, London. 

* Positive Papers, English and Foreign. 



TMPROVEMENT IN COLLO- 

A DION. J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists. 
289.^ Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion 
equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness 
and density of Negative, to any other hitherto 
published ; without diminishing the keeping 
properties and appreciation of half tint for 
which their manufacture has been esteemed. 

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the re- 
quirements for the practice of Photography. 
Instruction in the Art. 

THE COLLODION AND PO- 
SITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. 
HOCKIN. Price Is., per Post, Is. 2d. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 
& CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 
blishment. 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, &.C.&G. used in this beautiful Art 

123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAME- 

1 RAS.-OTTEWTLL'S REGISTERED 
DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA, 
13 superior to every other form of Camera, 
for the Photographic Tourist, from its capa- 
bility of Elongation or Contraction to any 
Focal Adjustment, its Portability, and its 
adaptation for taking either Views or Por- 
traits. The Trade supplied. 

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tri- 
pod Stands, Printing Frames, Ac., may be ob- 
tained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte 
Terrace, Barnsbury Road, Islington. 

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order 
or from Drawings. 



Celtic Literature, Welsh Dictionaries, ISrcton 
Sonys. 

B. QUARITCH, 

16. CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER 
SQUARE, 

OfenforSak: 

1. Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, 2 vols. 8vo., 
pp. 1166, a valuable and learned Celtic Poly- 
glott, 21s. [,853. 

2. Pughe's Welsh-English Dictionary, 2 vols. 
impl. 8vo. (best edition), cloth, 27. 8s. [ 1832. 

. 3. Walter's English-Welsh Dictionary, 2 vols. 
impl. 8vo. r published at 31. 3s.), cloth, the com- 
panion to Pughe, only 18s. 

4. Barzaz-Breiz, Chants de la Bretagne, 
Breton et FranSais, 2 vols. 12mo., with the 
Music, 8s. [ig | 6 . 

5. Rostrenen.Dictionnaire Francais-Celtioue, 
4to., calf, gilt, 36s. [1732. 

6. Spurrell's Welsh-English and English- 
Welsh Dictionary, with a good Grammar, 
3 vols. in 2, 12mo. calf, 12s. [1819. 

7. The Cambro-Briton, 3 vols. 8vo., half-hd., 
calf, 36s. [1820-22. 

8. Lhuyd's Archaologia Britannica, folio, 
calf, good copy, 21. 2s. . [1707. 

>. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, 
3 vols. royal 8vo., calf, gilt, very -good copy, 
9(. 9s. [1801-7. 



containing: upwards of 
2OOO rare and valuable 
Philological Works, Gene- 
ral Literature, Books of 
Prints, Heraldry, &.c., is 
just published, price 6d. 



Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 

THE (LATE-i ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 
THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 

The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 

MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 

'ervices. Responses to the Commandments, 

nd a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. 
SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to 

ler Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 
price 25s. To be had of Mr. .T. B. SALE, 21. 

lolywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on. 

he receipt of a Post-office Order for that 

.mount : and, by order, of the principal Book- 

ellers and Music Warehouses. 

" A great advance on the works we have 
litherto had, connected with our Church and 
/athedral Service." Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
qualled in this country." Literary Gazette. 

One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Wei! merits the distin- 
uished patronage under which it appears." 
fusical World. 

' A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
haracter to any which has hitherto appeared." 
John Bull. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Also, lately published, 

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, 

iOMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as per- 
onned at the Chapel Royal St. James, price 2s. 

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARE SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEOKOE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the 
City Of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid. Saturday, January 28. 1864. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OE INTER-COMMUNICATION 



FOR 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



Jtfo. 223.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 4. 1854. 



f Price Fourpence. 
i Stamped Edition, 



CONTENTS. 

JToiEs:- Page 

Dryden on Shakspeare, by Bolton Corney 95 

Party Similes of the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury: No. 1. "Foxes and Fire- 
"brands." No. 2. " The Trojan Horse " 96 

Dutch East India Company. Slavery 
in England, by James Graves - - 98 

Original Royal Letters to the Grand 
Masters of Malta, by Wm. Winthrop 99 

iEnareans - - - - - 101 

MINOR NOTES: Russia and Turkey 
Social Effects of the severe Weather, 
Jan. 3 and 4, 1854 Star of Bethlehem 
Origin of the Word " Cant " Epi- 
gram on Four Lawyers - - 103 

'QUERIES : 

Contributors to "Knight's Quarterly 

Magazine" - 103 

The Stationers' Company and Al- 
manack - - - - - 104 

MINOR QHERIFS : John Bunyan 
Trajredy by Mary Leapor Repairing 
old Prints Arch-priest in the Dio- 
cese of Exeter Medal in honour of 
the Chevalier de St. George Robert 
Bloet Sir J. Wallace and Mr. 
Browne Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester Abbott Families Author- 
hip of a Ballad Elias Petley Ca- 
naletto's Views round London A 
Monster found at Maidstone Page - 1 04 

MINOR QCERIES WITH ANSWERS : _ 
The Fish " Ruffins " Oiigin of the 
Word Etiquette Henri Quatre 
" He that complies against his will," 
&c., and " To kick the bucket " St. 
Nicholas Cole Abbey - - - 106 

"REPLIES : 

Trench on Proverbs, by the Rev. M. 

Margoliouth - - - - 107 

Inscriptions on Bells - - - 109 

Arms of Geneva .... 110 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE: Mul- 
tiplying Negatives Towgood's Pa- 
perAdulteration of Nitrate of Sil- 
ver no 

REPLIES TO MTNOR QCERIKS : Passage 
of Cicero Major Andrd Catholic 
Bible Society Cassiterides Wooden 
Tombs and Effigies Tailless Cats 
Warville Green Eyes _ Came _ 
" Epitaphium Lucretiai " Oxford 
Commemoration Squib "Imp" 
False Spellings from Sound "Good 
wine needs no bush " Three Fleurs- 
de-I.ys Portrait of Plowden St. 
Stephen's Day and Mr. Riley's " Hove- 
den" Death Warnings in Ancient 
Families _" The Secunde Personne 
in the Trinitie " - - - - 111 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, fcc. ... 114 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 115 
Kotices to Correspondents - 115 



VOL, IX. No. 223. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 

THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTO- 
GRAPHS AND DAGUERREOTYPES is 
now open at the Gallery of the Society of 
British Artists, Suffolk Street. Pall Mall, in the 
Morning from 10 A.M. to half-past 4 P.M., and 
in the Evening from 7 to 10 P.M. Admission. Is. 
Catalogue 6d. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITU- 
TION. An EXHIBITION of PIC- 
TURES, by the most celebrated French, 
Italian, and English Photographers, embrac- 
ing Views of the principal Countries and Cities 
of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission &d. A 
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent 
Process, One Guinea ; Three extra Copies for 
10s. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 
168. NEW BOND STREET. 



TO PRE - R APH AELITES. 
On Sale, a verv beautiful Collection of 
CHINESE DRAWINGS. 

B. QUARITCH, 16. Castle Street, Leicester 

Square. 

*** B. Q.'s Catalogue of 2000 Rare, Valu- 
able, and Curious Books, just published, price 



SCIENTIFIC RECREATION FOR YOUTH 
EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY. 

AMUSEMENT FOR LONG 

_OL EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S 
Chemical Cabinets and Portable Laboratories, 
5s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 21s., 31*. 6d., 42s., 63s., 
and upwards. Book of Experiments, &d. " Il- 
lustrated Descriptive Catalogue" forwarded 
Free for Stamp. 

WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Che- 
mist, 29 c. Rotherfield Street, Islington, 
London, and of Chemists and Opticians 
everywhere. 



HEAL & SON'S ILLUS- 
TRATED CATALOGUE OF BED- 
STEADS, sent free by post. It contains de- 
signs and prices of upwards of ONE HUN- 
DRED different Bedsteads, in iron, brass, 
japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, 
rosewood, and walnut-tree woods ; also of 
every description of Bedding, Blankets, and 
Quilts. 

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manu- 
facturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 



WH. HART, RECORD 
AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUA- 
RIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to 
many of the early Public Records whereby his 
Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform 
Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiqua- 
rian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared 
to undertake searches among the Public Re- 
cords, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient 
WilLs, or other Depositories of a similar Na- 
ture, in any Branch of Literature, History, 
Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in 
which he has had considerable experience. 
1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, 
HATCHAM, SURREY. 



Just published, in cloth 8vo., 10s. 6<7. 

ON THE DECLINE OF LIFE 
IN HEALTH AND DISEASE ; being 
an Attempt to investigate the Causes of Lon- 



gevity, and the best Means of attaining a 
Healthful Old Age. By BARNARD VAN 
OVEN..M.D., Fellow of the Royal Medical 



Chirurgical Society, &c. 

" Old and youngr, the healthy and the in- 
valid, may alike obtain useful and practical 
hints from Dr. Van Oven's book ; his advice 
and observations are marked by much experi- 
ence and good sense." Literary Gazette. 

JOHN CHURCHILL, Princes Street, Soho. 



T7 



Just published, price Is., 

CCLESIASTICAL COURTS 

JL1; REFORM. An Account of the Present 
Deplorable State of the ECCLESIASTICAL 
COURTS of RECORD, with Proposals for 
their Complete Reformation. By W. DOWN- 
ING BRUCE, Esq., Lincoln's Inn, Barrister- 
at-Law, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
ke. 

HENRY ADAMS. 9. Parliament Street, and 
W. ARPTHORP, 22. Bishopsgate Street. 



TEGG'S CHRONOLOGY. 
In One handsome Volume, post 8vo., cloth, 

TEGG'S DICTIONARY OF 
CHRONOLOGY ; or, Historical and 
Statistical Register, from the Birth of Christ to 
the Present Tune. Fifth Edition, revised and 
improved. 

London : WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 

J_ No. CLXXXVIL, is published THIS 
CONTENTS : 

I. LIFE AND WORKS OF GRAY. 
II. HUMBOLDT'S COSMOS - SIDE- 
REAL ASTRONOMY. 

III. MISSIONS IN POLYNESIA. 

IV. M. GUIZOT. 

V. RELIGION OF THE CHINESE 

REBELS. 
VI. CASTREN'S TRAVELS AMONG 

THE LAPPS. 

VII. MEMOIRS OF KING JOSEPH. 
VIIL TURKEY AND RUSSIA. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



LL WORKS published under 

the Title SCOTT'S POETICAL 
|RKS are IMPERFECT and INCOM- 
PLETE, unless they bear the Imprint ef 
ROBERT C ADELL, or ADAM & CHARLES 
BLACK, Edinburgh. 

AUTHORS EDITION OF 

SCOTT'S POETRY, including the Copyright 
Poem of the LORD OF THE ISLES, 6 En- 
gravings, cloth, gilt edges, 5s. 

A. & C. BLACK, Edinburgh. 
HOULSTON & STONEMAN, London. 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 223. 



@>ocietg, 

FOR THE PUBLICATION OF 

EARLY HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS. 



THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to 
perpetuate, and render accessible, whatever is 
valuable, but at present little known, amongst 
the materials for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or 
Literary History of the United Kingdom ; and 
it accomplishes that object by the publication of 
Historical Documents, Letters, Ancient Poems, 
and whatever else lies within the compass of 
it designs, in the most convenient form, and 
at the least possible expense consistent with 
the production of useful volumes. 

The Subscription to the Society is 1Z. per 
annum, which becomes due in advance on the 
first day of May in every year, and is received 
by MESSRS. NICHOLS, 25. PARLIAMENT 
STREET, or by the several LOCAL SECRE- 
TARIES. Members may compound for their 
future Annual Subscriptions, by the pay- 
ment of 10Z. over and above the Subscription 1 
for the current year. The compositions re- 
ceived have been funded in the Three per Cent. 
Consols to an amount exceeding 900?. No 
Books are delivered to a Member until his 
Subscription for the current year has been 
paid. New Members are admitted at the 
Meetings of the Council held on the First 
"Wednesday in every month. 



The Publications for the year 1851-2 were : 

52. PRIVY PURSE EX- 
PENSES of CHARLES II. and JAMES II. 
Edited by J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A. 

53. THE CHRONICLE OF 

THE GREY FRIARS OF LONDON. Edited 
from a MS. in the Cot Ionian Library by 
J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A. 

54. PROMPTORIUM: An 

English and Latin Dictionary of Words in 

te during the Fifteenth Century, compiled 
efly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. 
ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
1. II. (M to R.) (JVow ready.) 
Books for 1852-3. 

55. THE SECOND VOLUME 

OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, con- 
taining, 1. Expenses of John of Brabant, 
1292-3 ; 2. Household Accounts of Princess 
Elizabeth, 1551-2 ; 3. Requeste and Suite of a 
True-hearted Englishman, by W. Cholmeley, 
1553 ; 4. Discovery of the Jesuits' College at 
Clerkenwell, 1627-8 ; 5. Trelawny Papers; 

6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell 

Now ready for delivery to all Members not in 
arrear of their Subscription. 



56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. 

A Selection from the Correspondence of the 
Verney Family during the reign of Charles I. 
to the year 1639. From the Originals in the 
possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. To be 
edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Trea. S.A. 

57. REGUL^B INCLUSARUM: 

THE ANCREN KEWLE. A Treatise on the 
Rules and Duties of Monastic Life, in the An- 
glo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century, 
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a 
translation from the Latin Work of Simon de 
Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from 
MSS. in the Cottonian Library, British Mu- 
seum, with an Introduction, Olossarial Notes, 
&c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., 
Prebendary of Lincoln. (Jfote ready.) 



The following Works are at Press, and will be 
issued from time to time, as soon as ready : 

58. THE CORRESPOND- 
ENCE OF LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY, 

during the Civil Wars. To be edited by the 
REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready 
immediately.) 

ROLL of the HOUSEHOLD 

EXPENSES of RICHARD SWINFIELD, 
Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289, 1290, with 
Illustrations from other and coeval Docu- 
ments. To be edited by the REV. JOHN. 
WEBB, M. A., F.S.A. 



THE SECOND VOLUME IS NO W RE AD Y. 

Embellished with 9 Portraits, price only 7s. 6d. 
bound, of the 

CHEAP EDITION OF MISS 
STRICKLAND'S LIVES OF THE 
EENS OF ENGLAND. 
To be completed in 8 Monthly Volumes, post 
8vo., price 7.6d. each, bound, illustrated with 
PORTRAITS OF EVERY QUEEN, and 
including, besides till other late improvements, 



Also just published, THE FOURTH AND 
CONCLUDING VOLUME, price fig. bound, 
of the 

HEAP RE-ISSUE OF EVE- 

LYN'S DIARY AND CORRESPON- 

" We rejoice to welcome this beautiful and 

I compact edition of ' Evelyn ' one of the most 

] valuable and interestins works in the language, 

1 now deservedly regarded as an English classic." 

Examiner. 

In a few Days, 

PEPYS' DIAKY AND COR- 
RESPONDENCE. 
A NEW AND IMPROVED LIBRARY 

EDITION, in 4 vols. demy 8vo., illustrated, 
with Portraits and other Plates, and with 
numerous additional Notes. Edited by LORD 
BRAYBROOKE. 

Published for HENRY COLBURN, by his 
Successors, HURST & BLACKETT, 13. 



ong- 
n in 
ON 



THE DOMESDAY OF ST. 

PAUL'S : a Description of the Manors bel 

ing to the Church of St. Paul's in 

the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACO 

HALE. 

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND 

BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de 
Reims, an Anglo-Norman Poet of the latter 
end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the 
unique MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by 
M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the 
Roman de Brut. 

Communications from Gentlemen desirous 
of becoming Members may be addressed to the 
Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols. 

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 
25. Parliament Street, Westminster. 



WORKS OF THE CAMDEOT SOCIETY, 
AND ORDER OF THEIR PUBLICATION. 



1. Restoration of King Ed- 

ward IV. 

2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop 

Bale. 

3. Deposition of Richard II. 

4. Plumpton Correspondence. 

5. Anecdotes and Traditions. 

6. Political Songs. 

7. Hay ward's Annals of Eli- 

zabeth. 

8. Ecclesiastical Documents. 

9. Norden's Description of 

Essex. 

10. Warkworth's Chronicle. 

11. Kemp's Nine Daies Won- 

der. 

12. The Eserton Papers. 

13. Chronica Jocelini de Brake- 

londa. 

14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 

1690. 

15. Rishanger's Chronicle. 

16. Poems of Walter Mapes. 

17. Travels of Meander Nu- 

cius. 

18. Three Metrical Romances. 



19. Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

20. Apology for the Lollards. 

21. Rutland Papers. 

22. Diary of Bishop Cartwrisrht. 

23. Leiters of Eminent Lite- 

rary Men. 

24. Proceedings against Dame 

Alice Kyteler. 

25. Promptoi ium Parvulorum : 
vTom. I. 

26. Suppression of the Monas- 

teries. 

27. Leycester Correspondence. 

28. French Chronicle of Lon- 

don. 

29. Polydore Vergil. 

30. The Thornton Romances. 

31. Verney's Notes of the Long 

Parliament. 

32. Autobiography of Sir John 

Bramston. 

33. Correspondence of James 

Duke of Perth. 

34. Liber de Antiquis Lesibus. 

35. The Chronicle of Calais. 



36. Polydore Vergil's History, 

Vol. I. 

37. Italian Relation of Eng- 

land. 

38. Church of Middleham. 

39. The Camden Miscellany, 

Vol. I. 

40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 

41. Diary of Walter Yonge, 

Esq. 

42. Diary of Henry Machyn. 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon- 

shire. 

44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 

45. Twysden on the Govern- 

ment ot'England. 

46. Letters of Elizabeth and 

James VI. 

47. Chromcon Petroburgense. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen 

49. Bury Wills and Inventories. 

50. MipesdeNugisCurialium. 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guyl- 

ford. 



Successors, HURST & B 
Great Marlborough Street. 



In 8vo., 6s. 6c?., bound in cloth, with many 
Woodcuts. 



A 



E LAWS OF THE HE- 

BREWS relating to the POOR. By the 
BBI MAIMONIDES. Now flrit translated 



into English, with an Introduction upon th 
Rights and upon the Treatment of the Poor, 
the Life of Maimonides, and Notes. By J. W. 
PEPPERCORNE, ESQ. 

" Deeply learned and of inestimable value." 
_ Church of England Quarterly Review. 

London : PELHAM RICHARDSON, 23. Corn- 
hill i and E. LUMLEY, 126. High Holborn. 

COMPLETION OF THE CATHOLIC 

HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 
By WM. BERNARD MAC CABE, ESQ. 



In the Press. 
THE THIRD AND LAST VOLUME OF 

A CATHOLIC HISTORY OF 

\. ENGLAND. Price 18s. 

Orders to complete Sets can be addressed to the 
Publisher, T. C. NEWBY, 30. Welbeck 
Street, Cavendish Square, London. 

N.B Only a limited number of Copies of 

this Edition will be published. It will he 
therefore necessary for intending purchasers 
to give their orders as early as possible. 

" Carefully compiled from our earliest re- 
cords, and purporting to be a literal translation 
of the writings of the old Chroniclers, miracles, 
visions, &c., from the time of Gildas; richly 
illustrated with notes, which throw a clear, 
and in many instances a new light on what 
would otherwise be difficult and obscure pas- 
sages." Thomas Miller, History of the Anglo- 
Saxons, p. 88. 

Works by the same Author. 

BERTHA ; or, The POPE and 

the EMPEROR. 

THE LAST DAYS OF 

O'CONNELL. 

A TRUE HISTORY OF THE 

HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION. 

THE LIFE OF ST. ETHEL- 
BERT, KING of the EAST ANGLES. 

A GRANDFATHER'S 

STORY-B' )OK ; or, TALES and LEGENDS, 
by a POOR SCHOLAR. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1854. 



DRYDEN ON SHAKSPERE. 

" Dryden may be properly considered as the father of 
English criticism, as the writer who first taught us to 
determine upon principles the merit of composition," 
Samuel JOHNSON. 

No one of the early prose testimonies to the 
genius of Shakspere has been more admired than 
that which bears the signature of John Dryden. 
I must transcribe it, accessible as it is elsewhere, 
for the sake of its juxtaposition with a less-known 
metrical specimen of the same nature. 

" He [Shakspere] was the man who of all modern, 
and perhaps ancient poets, had the largest and most 
comprehensive soul. All the images of nature were 
still present to him, and he drew them not laboriously, 
but luckily : when he describes any thing, you more 
than see it, you feel it too. Those who accuse him to 
have wanted learning, give him the greater com- 
mendation : he was naturally learned ; he needed not 
the spectacles of books to read nature ; he looked in- 
wards, and found her there. I cannot say he is every 
where alike ; were he so, I should do him injury to 
compare him with the greatest of mankind. He is 
many times flat, insipid ; his comic wit degenerating 
into clenches, his serious swelling into bombast. But 
he is always great when some great occasion is pre- 
sented to him : no man can say he ever had a fit sub- 
ject for his wit, and did not then raise himself as high 
above the rest of poets, 

' Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi.' " 
John DRYDEN, Of dramatich poesie, an essay. 

London, 1668. 4to. p. 47. 

The metrical specimen shall now take its place. 

Though printed somewhat later than the other, it 

has a much better chance of being accepted as a 

rarity in literature. 

Prologue to IULIUS CAESAR. 

" In country beauties as we often see 
Something that takes in their simplicity, 
Yet while they charm they know not they are fair, 
And take without their spreading of the snare 
Such artless beauty lies in Shakespear's wit ; 
'Twas well in spite of him whate'er he writ. 
His excellencies came, and were not sought, 
His words like casual atoms made a thought ; 
Drew up themselves in rank and file, and writ, 
He wondering how the devil it were, such wit. 
Thus, like the drunken tinker in his play, 
He grew a prince, and never knew which way. 
He did not know what trope or figure meant, 
But to persuade is to be eloquent ; 
So in this Ccesar which this day you see, 
Tully ne'er spoke as he makes Anthony. 
Those then that tax his learning are to blame, 
He knew the thing, but did not know the name ; 
Great lohnson did that ignorance adore, 
And though he envied much, admir'd him more. 



The faultless lohnson equally writ well ; 

Shakespear made faults but then did more excel. 

One close at guard like some old fencer lay, 

T'other more open, but he shew'd more play. 

In imitation Johnson's wit was shown, 

Heaven made his men, but Shakespear made his own. 

Wise Johnsons talent in observing lay, 

But others' follies still made up his play. 

He drew the like in each elaborate line, 

But Shakespear like a master did design. 

lohnson with skill dissected human kind, 

And show'd their faults, that they their faults might 

find; 

But then, as all anatomists must do, 
He to the meanest of mankind did go, 
And took from gibbets such as he would show. 
Both are so great, that he must boldly dare 
Who both of them does judge, and both compare j 
If amongst poets one more bold there be, 
The man that dare attempt in either way, is he." 
Covent Garden drolery, London, 1672. 8 p. 9. 

A short historical comment on the above ex- 
tracts is all that must be expected. The rest shall 
be left to the critical discernment of those persons 
who may be attracted by the heading of this Note 
Dryden on Shakspere. 

When Johnson wrote his preface to Shakspere, 
he quoted the first of the above extracts to prove 
that the plays were once admired without the aid 
of comment. This was written in 1765. In 1769 
Garrick placed the same extract at the head of his 
collection of undeniable prose-testimonies to the 
genius of Shakspere. Johnson afterwards pro- 
nounced it to be "a perpetual model of enco- 
miastic criticism ; " and Malone quoted it as an 
admirable character of Shakspere. Now, admir- 
able as it is, I doubt if it can be considered as 
expressive of the deliberate opinion of Dryden. 
The essayist himself, in his epistolary address to 
lord Buckhurst, gives a caution on that point. 
He observes, " All I have said is problematical." 
In short, the essay Of dramatick poesie is in the 
form of a dialogue and a dialogue is "a chace 
of wit kept up on both sides." 

I proceed to the second extract. Who wrote 
the Prologue to Julius Ccesar ? To what master- 
hand are we to ascribe this twofold specimen of 
psychologic portraiture ? Take up the dramatic 
histories of Langbaine a^d Baker ; take up the 
Theatrical register of the reverend Charles Burney ; 
take up the voluminous Some account of the 
reverend John Genest ; examine the mass of com- 
mendatory verses in the twenty-one-volume edi- 
tions of Shakspere ; examine also the commenda- 
tory verses in the nine-volume edition of Ben. 
Jonson. Here is the result : Langbaine calls 
attention to the prologue in question as an excel- 
lent prologue, and Genest repeats what had been 
said one hundred and forty years before by 
Langbaine. There is not the slightest hint on 
its authorship. 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



I must therefore leave the stronghold of facts 
and advance into the field of conjecture. / ascrib 
the prologue to John Dryden. 

It appears by the list of plays altered from 
Shakspere, as drawn up by Steevens and Reed 
that Julius Ctesar had been altered by sir William 
D'Avenant and Dryden jointly, and acted at the 
Theatre-royal in Drury-lane. It would therefore 
seem probable that one of those poets wrote the 
prologue on that occasion. Nevertheless, it does 
not appear in the works of either poet. 

The Works of sir William D'Avenant were 
edited by Mr. Herringman, with the sanction oi 
lady D'Avenant, in 1673 ; and its exclusion so 
far decides the question. 

The non-appearance of it in the Poems of 
Dryden, as published by Mr. Tonson in 1701, is 
no disproof of the claim which I advocate. The 
volume contains only twenty prologues and epi- 
logues but Dryden wrote twice that number ! 

I shall now produce some circumstantial evi- 
dence in favour of Dryden. It is derived from an 
examination of the volume entitled Covent Garden 
drolery. This small volume contains twenty-two 
prologues or epilogues, and more than fifty songs 
all anonymous, but said to be written by the 
refinedest wits of the age. We have, 1 . A prologue 
and epilogue to the Maiden queen of Dryden 
not those "printed in 1668 ; 2. A prologue and 
epilogue to the Parson's wedding of Thomas Killi- 
grew ; 3. A prologue and epilogue to the Mar- 
riage a la mode of Dryden printed with the 
play in 1673 ; 4. The prologue to JULIUS CAESAR ; 
5. A prologue to the Wit without money of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher printed in the Poems of 
Dryden, 1701 ; 6. A prologue to the Pilgrim of 
Fletcher not that printed in 1700. These pieces 
occupy the first twelve pages of the volume. It 
cannot be requisite to give any further account of 
its contents. 

I waive the question of internal evidence ; but 
have no misgiving, on that score, as to the opinion 
which may henceforth prevail on the validity of 
the claim now advanced in favour of Dryden. 

Sir Walter Scott observes, with reference to 
the essay Of dramatick poesie, " The contrast of 
Ben. Jonson and Shakspere is peculiarly and 
strikingly felicitous." He could have said no less 
whatever he might have said as to its author- 
ship had he seen the Prologue to Julius Caesar. 

BOLTON CORNET. 



PARTY SIMILES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ! 



NO. I. " FOXES AND FIREBRANDS. 
TROJAN HORSE." 



NO. ii. "THE 



(Continued from Vol. viii., p. 488.) 

The following works I omitted to mention in 
my last Note from want of room. The first 



is by that amiable Nimrod, John Bale, Bishop of 
Ossory : 

" Yet a Course at the Romyshe Foxe, &c. Com- 
pyled by Julian Harrison. Zurich. 1543. 4to." 

The four following are by William Turner, 
M.D., who also wrote under an assumed name : 

" The Huntyng of the Romishe Foxe, &c. By 
William Wraughton. Basil. 1543." 

" The Rescuynge of the Romishe Foxe, &c. Win- 
chester. 1545. 8vo." 

" The Huntyng of the Romyshe Wolfe- 8vo. 
1554 (?)." 

" The Huntyng of the Foxe and Wolfe, &c. 8vo." 

The next is the most important work, and I 
give the title in full : 

" The Hunting of the Romish Fox, and the Quench- 
ing of Sectarian Firebrands. Being a Specimen of 
Popery and Separation. Collected by the Honourable 
Sir James Ware, Knight, out of the Memorials of 
Eminent Men, both in Church and State: A. B. 
Cranmer, A. B. Usher, A. B. Parker, Sir Henry 
Sidney, A. B. Abbot, Lord Cecil, A. B. Laud, and 
others. And now published for the Public Good. By 
Robert Ware, Gent. Dublin. 1683. 12tno. pp. 248." 

The work concludes with this paragraph : 

" Now he that hath given us all our hearts, give 
unto His Majesties subjects of these nations an heart of 
unity, to quash division and separation ; of obedience, to 
quench the fury of rebellious firebrands : and a heart 
of constancy to the Reformed Church of England, the 
>etter to expel Popery, and to confound dissention. 
Amen." 

The last work, with reference to the first simile 
of my note, which I shall mention, is that by 
Zephaniah Smith, one of the leaders of the En- 
glish Antinomians : 

" The Doome of Heretiques ; or a Discovery of 
Subtle Foxes who wer tyed Tayle to Tayle, and crept 
nto the Church to doe Mischiefe, &c. Lond. 1648."* 



* The titles of these books remind one of " a merry 
isport," which formerly took place in the hall of the 
nner Temple. " At the conclusion of the ceremony, 
huntsman came into the hall bearing a fox, a purse- 
et, and a cat, both bound at the end of a staff, attended 
>y nine or ten couples of hounds with the blowing of 
uinting-horns. Then were the fox and cat set upon 
nd killed by the dogs beneath the fire, to the no small 
)leasure of the spectators." One of the masque-names 
n this ceremony was " Sir Morgan Mtimchance, of 
Much Monkery, in the county of Mad Popery." 

In Ane Compendious Sake of Godly and Spiritual 
Songs, Edinburgh, 1621, printed from an old copy, are 
the following lines, seemingly referring to some such 
pageant : 

* The Hunter is Christ that hunts in haist, 
The Hunds are Peter and Pawle, 
The Paip is the Fox, Rome is the Rox 
That rubbis us on the gall." 
See Hone's Year-Booh, p. 1513. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 






With regard to the second simile, see 

" The Trojan Horse, or the Presbyterian Govern- 
ment Unhowelled. London. 1646. 4to. By Henry 
Parker of Lincoln's Inn." 

" Comprehension and Toleration Considered, in a 
Sermon on Gal. ii. 5. By Dr. South." 

" Remarks on a Bill of Comprehension. London. 
1684. By Dr. Hickes." 

" The New Distemper, or The Dissenters' Usual 
Pleas for Comprehension, Toleration, and the Re- 
nouncing the Covenant, Considered and Discussed. 
Non Quis sed Quid. London. 1680. 12mo. Second 
Edition. Pp. 184. (With a figurative frontispiece, 
representing the * Ecclesia Anglicana.') " 

The first edition was published in 1675. Thomas 
Tomkins, Fellow of All Souls' College, was the 
author ; but the two editions are anonymous. 

As to the Service Book, see the curious work 
of George Lightbodie : 

" Against the Apple of the Left Eye of Antichrist ; 
or The Masse-Booke of Lurking Darknesse ( The 
Liturgy*), making Way for the Apple of the Right 
Eye of Antichrist, the Compleate Masse-Booke of 
Palpable Darknesse. London. 1638. 8vo." 

Baylie's Parallel (before referred to) was a 
popular work ; it was first printed London, 1641, 
in 4to. ; and reprinted 1641, 1642, 1646, 1661. 

As to " High Church " and " Low Church," see 
an article in the Edinburgh Review for last Oc- 
tober, on " Church Parties," and the following 
works : 

" The True Character of a Churchman, showing the 
False Pretences to that Name. By Dr. West." (No 
date. 1702?) Answered by Sacheverell in "The 
Character of a Low Churchman. 4to. 1702." "Low 
Churchmen vindicated from the Charge of being no 

The symbolism of the brute creation is copiously 
employed in Holy Scripture and in ancient writings, and 
furnishes a magazine of arms in all disputes and party 
controversies. Thus, the strange sculptures on mise- 
reres, &c. are ascribed to contests between the secular 
and regular clergy : and thus Dryden, in his polemical 
poem of The Hind and the Panther, made these two 
animals symbolise respectively the Church of Rome 
and the Church of England, while the Independents, 
Calvinists, Quakers, Anabaptists, and other sects are 
characterised as wolves, bears, boars, foxes all that is 
odious and horrible in the brute creation. 

" A Jesuit has collected An Alphabetical Catalogue of 
the Names of Beasts by which the Fathers characterised 
the Heretics. It may be found in Erotemata de mails 
ac bonis Lilris, p. 93., 4to., 1653, of Father Raynaud. 
This Lst of brutes and insects, among which are a 
variety of serpents, is accompanied by the names of the 
heretics designated." (See the chapter in D'Israeli's 
Curios. Lit. on " Literary Controversy," where many 
other instances of this kind of complimentary epithets 
are given, especially from the writings of Luther, 
Calvin, and Beza.) 



Churchmen. London. 1706. 8vo. By John Hand- 
cock, D.D., Rector of St. Margaret's, Lothbury." 

" Inquiry into the Duty of a Low Churchman. 
London. 1711. 8vo." (By James Peirce, a Noncon- 
formist divine, largely quoted in The Scourge : where 
he is spoken of as " A gentleman of figure, of the most 
apostolical moderation, of the most Christian temper, 
and is esteemed as the Evangelical Doctor of the Pres- 
byterians in this kingdom," &c. P. 342.) 

He also wrote : 

" The Loyalty, Integrity, and Ingenuity of High 
Churchmen and Dissenters, and their respective 
Writers, Compared. London. 1719. 8vo." 

See also the following periodical, which Lowndes 
thus describes : 

" The Independent Whig. From Jan. 20, 1719-20, 
to Jan. 4, 1721. 53 Numbers. London. Written by 
Gordon and Trenchard in order to oppose the High 
Church Party; 1732-5, 12mo., 2 vols. ; 1753, 12mo., 
4 vols." 

Will some correspondent kindly furnish me 
with the date, author's name, &c., of the pam- 
phlet entitled Merciful Judgments of High Church 
Triumphant on Offending Clergymen and others in 
the Reign of Charles J;f * 

I omitted Wordsworth's lines in my first note : 

" High and Low, 
Watchwords of party, on all tongues are rife ; 

As if a Church, though sprung from heaven, must 

owe 
To opposites and fierce extremes her life ; 

Not to the golden mean and quiet flow 
Of truths, that soften hatred, temper strife." 

Wordsworth, and most Anglican writers down 
to Dr. Hook, are ever extolling the Golden Mean, 
and the moderation of the Church of England. A 
fine old writer of the same Church (Dr. Joseph 
Beaumont) seems to think that this love of the 
Mean can be carried too far : 

" And witty too in self-delusion, we 
Against highstreined piety can plead, 
Gravely pretending that extremity 
Is Vice's clime ; that by the Catholick creed 
Of all the world it is acknowledged that 
The temperate mean is always Virtue's seat. 1 
Hence comes the race of mongrel goodness; hence 
Faint tepidness usurpeth fervour's name ; 
Hence will the earth-born meteor needs commence, 
In his gay glaring robes, sydereal flame ; 
Hence foolish man, if moderately evil, 
Dreams he's a saint because he's not a devil." 
Psyche, cant. xxi. 4, 5. 



[* We are enabled to give the remainder of the title 
and the date: " Together with the Lord Falkland's 
Speech in Parliament, 1640, relating to that subject : 
London, printed for Ben. Bragg, at the Black Raven 
in Paternoster Row. 1710." ED.] 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



Cf. Bishop Taylor's Life of Christ, part i. 
sect. v. 9. JARLTZBERG. 

' Nov. 28, 1853. 

P.S. Not having the fear of Sir Roger Twisden 
or MR. THOMAS COLLIS before my eyes, I ad- 
visedly made what the latter gentleman is pleased 
to term a "loose statement" (Vol. viii., p. 631.), 
when I spoke of the Church of England separating 
from Rome. As to the Romanists " conforming " 
for the first twelve (or as some have it nineteen) 
years of Elizabeth's reign, the less said about that 
the better for both parties, and especially for the 
dominant party.* 

MR. COLLIS'S dogmatic assertions, that the Ro- 
man Catholics " conformed " for the twelve years, 
and that Popes Paul IV. and Pius IV. offered to 
confirm the Book of Common Prayer if ^Elizabeth 
would acknowledge the papal supremacy, are evi- 
dently borrowed, word for word, from Dr. Words- 
worth's f Tkeophilus Anglicanus, cap. vii. p. 219. A 
careful examination of the evidence adduced in 
support of the latter assertion, shows it to be of 
the most flimsy description, and refers it to its 



* See the authorities given by Mr. Palmer, Church 
of Christ, 3rd ed., Lond. 1842, pp. 347^349. ; and 
Mr. Percival On the Roman Schism : see also Tierney's 
Dodd, vols. ii. and iii. 

A full and impartial history of the " conformity " of 
Roman Catholics and Puritans during the penal laws 
is much wanting, especially of the former during the 
first twelve years of Elizabeth. With the Editor's per- 
mission I shall probably send in a few notes on the 
latter subject, with a list of the works for and against 
outward conformity, which was published during that 
period. (See Bp. Earle's character of " A Church 
Papist," Microcosmography, Bliss's edition, p. 29.) 

f It is painful to see party spirit lead aside so 
learned and estimable a man as Dr. Wordsworth, and 
induce him to convert a ridiculous report into a grave 
and indisputable matter of fact. The more we know, 
the greater is our reverence for accuracy, truthfulness, 
and candour ; and the older we grow in years and 
wisdom, the more we estimate that glorious motto 
Audi alteram partem. 

What are our ordinary histories of the Reformation 
from Burnet to Cobbett but so many caricatures ? 
Would that there were more Maitlands in the English 
Church, and more Pascals and Pugins in the Roman ! 

Let me take this occasion to recommend to the 
particular attention of all teandid inquirers a little 
brochure, by the noble-minded writer last named, en- 
titled An Earnest Address on the Establishment of the 
Hierarchy, by A. Welby Pugin : Lond. Dolman, 1851. 
And let me here inquire whether this lamented writer 
completed his New View of an Old Subject; or, the 
English Schism impartially Considered, which he adver- 
tised as in preparation ? 

I should mention, perhaps, that Sir Roger Twisden's 
book was reprinted in 1847 : I have, however, met 
with the original edition only. 



true basis, viz. hearsay : the reasoning and infer- 
ences which prop the evidence are equally flimsy. 

Fuller, speaking of this report, says that it 
originated with " some who love to feign what 
they cannot find, that they may never appear to 
be at a loss." (Ch. Hist., b. ix. 69.) 

As the question at issue is one of great his- 
torical importance, I am prepared, if called on, to 
give a summary of the case in all its bearings; 
for the present I content myself with giving the 
following references : 

" Sir Roger Twisden's Historical Vindication of the 
Church of England in point of Schism, as it stands 
separated from the Roman. Lond. 1675." P. 175. 

"Bp. Andrewes' Tortura Torti. Lond. 1609." 
P. 142. 

" Parallel Torti et Tortoris." P. 241. 

" Abp. Bramhall ag. Bp. Chal." Ch. ii. (vol. ii. 
p. 85., Oxf.ed.) 

" Sir E. Cook's Speech and Charge at- Norwich 
Assizes. 1607." 

" Babington upon Numbers. Lond. 1615." Ch.vii. 
2. p. 35. 

'' Servi Fidelis subdito inndeli Responsis, apud 
Johannem Dayum. Lond. 1573." (In reply to 
Saunders' De Visibili Monarchia.} 

" Camd. Annal. an. 1560. Lond. 1639." Pt. I. 
pp. 47. 49. 

(See also Heylin, 303.; Burnet, ii. 387.; 
Strype, Annal. ch. xix. ; Tierney's Dodd, ii. 147.) 

The letter which the pontiff did address to 
Elizabeth is given in Fuller, ix. 68., and Dodd, 
ii. app. xlvii. p. cccxxi. 

N. B. In the P. S. to my last note, " N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., p. 156., was a misprint for Vol. v. 



DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY. SLAVERY IN 

ENGLAND. 

Having come across an old Daily Post of Thurs- 
day, August 4, 1720, I send you the following 
cuttings from it, which perhaps you may think 
worth insertion : 

" Hague, August 9. 

" It was on the 5th that the first of our East-India 
ships appear'd off of the Texel, four of the ships came 
to an anchor that evening, nine others kept out at sea 
till day-light, and came up with the flood the next 
morning, and four more came in this afternoon ; but 
as they belong to the Chambers of Zealand, and other 
towns, its thought they will stand away for the Maese. 
This fleet is very rich, and including the single ship 
which arriv'd about a fortnight since, and one still ex- 
pected, are valued at near seven millions of guilders 
prime cost in the Indies, not reckoning the freight or 
value at the sale, which may be suppos'd to make 
treble that sum." 

" We have an account from Flanders, that two ships 
more are come in to Ostend for the new East India 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



Company there; it is said, these ships touch no where 
after they quit the coast of Malabar till they come 
upon the coast of Guinea, where they put in for fresh 
water ; and as for those which come from China, they 
water on the bank of the Island of Ceylon, and again 
on the east shore of Madagascar; but that none of 
them touch either at the Cape de bon Esperance, or 
at St. Helena, not caring to venture falling into the 
hands of any of the Dutch or other nations trading to 
the east. These ships they say are exceedingly rich, 
and the captains confirm the account of the treaty 
which one of their former captains made with the 
Great Mogul, for the settling a factory on his do- 
minions, and that with very advantageous conditions ; 
what the particulars may be we yet know not." 

" Went away the 22d of July last, from the house 
of William Webb in Limehouse Hole, a negro man, 
about twenty years old, call'd Dick, yellow complec- 
tion, wool hair, about five foot six inches high, having 
on his right breast the word HARE burnt. Whoever 
brings him to the said Mr. Webb's shall have half a 
guinea reward, and reasonable charges." 

JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 



ORIGINAL ROYAL LETTERS TO THE GRAND MASTERS 
OF MALTA. 

(Continued from Vol. viii., p. 558.) 

I arn now enabled to forward, according to my 
promise, literal translations, so far as they could 
be made, of three more letters, which were 
written in the Latin language, and addressed by 
Henry VIII. to the Grand Masters of Malta. The 
first two were directed to Philip de Villiers L'Isle 
Adam, and the last to his successor Pierino Du- 
pont, an Italian knight, who, from his very ad- 
vanced age, and consequent infirmity, was little 
disposed to accept of the high dignity which his 
brethren of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
had unanimously conferred upon him. The life 
of Dupont was spared "long enough," not only for 
him to take an active part in the expedition which 
Charles V. sent against Tunis at his suggestion, 
to reinstate Muley Hassan on the throne of that 
kingdom, but also to see his knights return to the 
convent covered with glory, and galleys laden 
with plunder. 

No. IV. Fol. 6th. 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Ireland, to our Reverend Father in Christ, 
Dominus F. de Villiers L'Isle Adam, our most 
dear friend - Greeting : 

For a long period of time, Master Peter Vanes, of 
Luca, has been serving as private secretary ; and 
as^we have always found his service loving and 
faithful, we not only love him from our heart, 
and hold him dear, but we are also extremely de- 



sirous of his interest and advancement. As he 
has declared to us that his most ardent wish is by 
our influence and favour to be in some way in- 
vested with honour in his own country, we have 
most willingly promised to do for him in this mat- 
ter whatever lay in our power ; and we trust that 
from the good offices which your most worthy 
Reverence has always received from us, this our 
desire with regard to promoting the aforesaid 
Master Peter will be furthered, and the more 
readily on this account, because what we beg for 
may be granted without injury to any one. Since, 
then, a certain Dominus Livius, concerning whom 
your Reverend Lordship will be more fully in- 
formed by our same Secretary, is in possession of 
a Priory 'in the Collegiate Church of SS. John 
and Riparata in the city of Luca, we most earnestly 
desire that the said Livius, through your Reverend 
Lordship's intercession, may resign the said Priory 
and Collegiate Church to our said Latin Secretary, 
on this condition, however, that your Reverend 
Lordship, as a special favour to us, will provide 
the said Dominus Livius with a Commandery of 
equal or of greater value. We therefore most 
earnestly entreat that you will have a care of this 
matter, so that we may obtain the object of our 
wishes ; and we shall be greatly indebted to your 
Reverend Lordship, to whom, when occasion offers, 
we will make a return for the twofold favour, in a 
matter of like or of greater moment. 
May all happiness attend you. 
From our palace of Greenwich, 
13th day of January, 1526, 

Your good friend, 

HENRY REX. 

No. V. Fol. 9th. 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Ireland, to our Reverend Father in Christ, 
Dominus F. de Villiers L'Isle Adam, our most 
dear friend Greeting : 

Although, by many proofs, we have often before 
been convinced that your Reverend Lordship, 
and your venerable Brethren, after the loss of 
Rhodes, have had nothing more to heart than that 
by your actions you might deserve most highly of 
the Christian republic, and that you might some- 
times give proof of this by your deeds, that you 
have zealously sought for some convenient spot 
where you might at length fix your abode ; never- 
theless, what we have lately learnt from the let- 
ters of your Reverend Lordship, and from the 
conversation and prudent discourse of your vener- 
able Brother De Dentirville has caused us the 
greatest joy ; and although, with regard to the 
recovery of Rhodes, complete success has not an- 
sw^ered your intentions, nevertheless we think that 
this your Order of Jerusalem has always wished 
to seek after whatever it has judged might in any 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



manner tend to the propagation of the Catholic 
Faith and the tranquillity of the Christian Re- 
public. But that his Imperial Majesty has granted 
to your Order the island of Malta, Gozo, and 
Tripoli, we cannot but rejoice ; places which, as we 
hear, are most strongly fortified by nature, and 
most excellently adapted for repelling the attacks 
of the Infidels, should have now come into your 
hands, where your Order can assemble in all 
safety, recover its strength, and settle and con- 
firm its position.* And we wish to convince you 



* H. M. Henry VIII. was certainly labouring under 
an error, when supposing that the islands of Malta and 
Gozo " were strongly fortified by nature, and excel- 
lently adapted for repelling the attacks of the infidels ;" 
as in truth nature had done nothing for their defence, 
unless it be in furnishing an abundance of soft stone 
with its yellow tinge, of which all their fortifications 
are built. 

When L'Isle Adam landed at Malta in October, 
1530, it was with the rank of a monarch ; and when, 
in company with the authorities of the island, "he 
appeared before its capital, and swore to protect its 
inhabitants, the gates of the old city were opened, and 
he was admitted with the knights ; the Maltese de- 
claring to them their fealty, without prejudice to the 
interests of Charles V., to whom they had heretofore 
been subject." Never, since the establishment of the 
Order, had the affairs of the Hospitallers appeared 
more desperate than at this period. For the loss of 
Rhodes, so famed in its history, so prized for its sin- 
gular fertility, and rich and varied fruits ; an island 
which, as De Lamartine so beautifully expressed it, 
appeared to rise "like a bouquet of verdure out of the 
bosom of the sea," with its groves of orange trees, its 
sycamores and palms ; what had L'Isle Adam received 
in return, but an arid African rock, without palaces or 
dwellings, without fortifications or inland streams, and 
which, were it not for its harbours, would have been 
as difficult to hold as it would have been unworthy of 
his acceptance. (Vertot.) 

A person who has never been at Malta can, by read- 
ing its history, hardly picture to himself the change 
which the island underwent for the better, under the 
long and happy rule of the Order of St. John. Look 
whither one will, at this day, he sees some of the most 
perfect fortresses in the world, fortifications which it 
took millions of money to erect ; and two hundred and 
fifty years of continual toil and labour, before the work 
on them was finished. As a ship of war now enters 
the great harbour, she passe^ immediately under the 
splendid castles of St. Elmo, Ricasoli, and St. Angelo. 
Going to her anchorage, she "comes to" under some 
one of the extensive fortifications of the Borgo, La 
Sangle, Burmola, Cotonera, and La Valetta. In all 
directions, and at all times, she is entirely commanded 
by a line of walls, which are bristling with cannon 
above her. Should the more humble merchantman be 
entering the small port of Marsamuscetto, to perform 
her quarantine, she also is sailing under St. Elmo and 
Florianna on the one side, and forts Tigne and Manoel 
on the other ; from the cannon of which there is no 



that fresh increase is daily made to the affection 
with which we have always cherished this Order 
of Jerusalem, inasmuch as we perceive that your 
actions have been directed to a good and upright 
end, both because these undertakings of your 
Reverend Lordship, and of your venerable Bre- 
thren, are approved by us as highly beneficial and 
profitable ; and because we trust that your favour 
and protection will ever be ready to assist our 
nation, if there be any need ; nor shall we on our 
part be ever wanting in any friendly office which 
we can perform towards preserving and protect- 
ing your Order, as your Reverend Lordship will 
gather more at length of our well affected mind 
towards you from Dominus Dentirville, the bearer 
of these presents. 

May all happiness attend you. 

From our Palace at Hampton Court, 
The 22nd day of November, 1530. 
Your good friend, 

HENRY REX^ 
No. VI. 

Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and 
France, Defender of the Faith, and Lord of 
Ireland, to our Reverend Father in Christ,. 
Don Pierino de Ponte, Grand Master of Jeru- 
salem, t- 

Our most dear friend Greeting : 
We had conceived so great a hope and opinion 
of the probity, integrity, and prudence of your 
predecessor, that, from his care and vigilance, we 
securely trusted that the business and affairs of 
this your Order, which hitherto has always wont 
to be of no slight assistance to our most Holy 
Faith, and to the Christian name, would as far 
as was needful have been amended and settled 
most quietly and effectually with God and his 
Holy Religion. From the love then and affection 
which we have hitherto shown in no ordinary 
manner to your Order, for the sake of the pro- 
pagation of the Christian Faith, we were not a 
little grieved at the death of your predecessor, 
because we very much feared that serious loss 
would in consequence be entailed on that Religion. 
But since, both from your letters and from the 
discourse of others, we now hear that your vener- 
able Brethren agreed by their unanimous voice 
and consent to choose your Reverence as the 



escape. But besides these numerous fortifications, the 
whole coast of the island is protected by forts and bat- 
teries, towers and redoubts. We name those of the 
Red Tower, the Melleha, St. Paul, St. Julien, Marsa 
Sirocco, and St. Thomas ; only to show how thoroughly 
the knights had guarded their convent, and how totally 
different the protection of the Maltese was under their 
rule, from what it was when they first landed ; and 
found them with their inconsiderable fort, with one 
cannon and two falconets, which, as Boisgelin has men- 
tioned, was their only defence. 






FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



person to whom the care and government of so 
weighty an office should be intrusted, considering 
this dignity to be especially worthy of you and 
your spirit of Religion, we cannot but sincerely 
be glad ; and rejoice especially if, by your eminent 
virtues, it shall be effected that only such matters 
shall be undertaken, and presided over by the 
strength and counsels of the Order of Jerusalem, 
as are most in accordance with the True Religion 
of Christ our Redeemer, and best adapted to the 
propagation of his doctrine and Faith. And if 
you shall seriously apply your mind to this, as 
you are especially bound to, we shall by no means 
repent of the favours which we have bestowed 
neither seldom nor secretly upon this your Order, 
nay rather this object shall be attained that you 
shall have no reason to think that you have been 
foiled in that your confidence, and in our protec- 
tion and the guardianship which we extend over 
your concerns through reverence for the Almighty 
God. And we shall not find that this guardian- 
ship and protection of your Order, assumed by us, 
has been borne for so long a period by us without 
any fruit. 

Those things which the Reverend Prior of our 
Kingdom, and the person who brought your Re- 
verend Lordship's letter to us, have listened to 
with attention and kindness, and returned an 
answer to, as we doubt not will ba intimated by 
them to your Reverend Lordship. 

May all happiness attend you. 

From our Palace at Westminster, 
The 17th day of November, 1534. 
HENRY REX. 

From the date and superscription of the above 
truly Catholic letter, it will be seen that it was 
written about the" period of the Reformation in 
England, and addressed to the Grand Master of an 
Order, which for four centuries had been at all 
times engaged in Paynim war ; and won for itself 
among the Catholic powers of Europe, by its many 
noble and daring achievements, the style and title 
of being the "bulwark of the Christian faith." 
Bound as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
were in all ages to pay a perfect obedience to the 
Roman Pontiffs, it is not surprising that this should 
be the last letter which we have found filed away 
in the archives of their Order, bearing the auto- 
graph of Henry VIII. WILLIAM WINTHROP. 

La Valetta, Malta. 



ENAREANS. 



When Psammeticus turned back the conquering 
Scythians from their contemplated invasion of 
Egypt, some stragglers of the rear-guard plun- 
dered the temple of Venus Urania at Ascalon. 
The goddess punished this sacrilege by inflicting 



on the Scythian nation the "female disease." 
Herodotus, from whom we learn this, says : 

" The Scythians themselves confess that their coun- 
trymen suffer this malady in consequence of the above 
crime ; their condition also may be seen by those who 
visit Scythia, where they are called Enareae." Beloe's 
Translation, vol. i. p. 112., ed. 8vo. 

And again, vol. ii. p. 261., Hippocrates says : 

" There are likewise among the Scythians, persons 
who come into the world as eunuchs, and do all the 
work of women; they are called Enarasans, or wo- 
manish," &c. 

It would occupy too much space to detail here all 
the speculations to which this passage has given 
rise ; sufficient for us be the fact, that in Scythia 
there were men who dressed as, and associated 
with, the women ; that they were considered as 
victims of an offended female deity ; and yet, 
strange contradiction ! they were revered as 
prophets or diviners, and even acquired wealth by 
their predictions, &c. (See Universal History^ 
xx. p. 15., ed. 8vo.) 

The curse still hangs over the descendants of 
the Scythians. Reineggo found the " female dis- 
ease " among the Nogay Tatars, who call persons 
so afflicted " Choss." In 1797-8, Count Potocki 
saw one of them. The Turks apply the same 
term to men wanting a beard. (See Klaproth's 
Georgia and Caucasus, p. 160., ed. 4to.) From 
the Turkish use of the word " choss," we may infer 
that Enareans existed in the cradle of their race, 
and that the meaning only had suffered a slight 
modification on their descent from the Altai. De 
Pauw, in his Recherches sur les Americains, without 
quoting any authority, says there are men in Mo- 
gulistan, who dress as women, but are obliged to 
wear a man's turban. 

It must be interesting to the ethnologist to 
find this curse extending into the New World, 
and actually now existing amongst Dr. Latham's 
American Mongolia 1 . It would be doubly in- 
teresting could we trace its course from ancient 
Scythia to the Atlantic coast. In this attempt, 
however, we have not been successful, a few 
isolated facts only presenting themselves as pro- 
bably descending from the same source. The re- 
lations of travellers in Eastern Asia offer nothing 
of the sort among the Tungusi, Yakuti, &c. The 
two Mahometans (A.D. 833, thereabout), speaking 
of Chinese depravity, assert that it is somehow 
connected with the worship of their idols, &c. 
(Harris 1 Collection, p. 443., ed. fol.) Sauer men- 
tions boys dressed as females, and performing all 
the domestic duties in common with the women, 
among the Kodiaks ; and crossing to the American 
coast, found the same practised by the inhabitants 
of Oonalashka (ed. 4to., pp. 160. 176.). More 
accurate observation might probably detect its 
existence amongst intermediate tribes, but want 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



of information obliges us here to jump at once 
over the whole range of the Rocky Mountains, 
and then we find Enareanism (if I may so term it) 
extending from Canada to Florida inclusive, and 
thence at intervals to the Straits of Magellan. 

Most of the earlier visitors to America have 
noticed the numerous hermaphrodites everywhere 
met with. De Pauw (who, I believe, never was 
in America) devotes a whole chapter to the sub- 
ject in his Recherches sur les Americains, in which 
he talks a great deal of nonsense. It assisted 
his hypothesis, that everything American, in the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms, was inferior to 
their synonymes in the Old World. 

The calm and more philosophical observation of 
subsequent travellers, however, soon discovered 
that the so-called hermaphrodites were men in 
female attire, associating with the women, and 
partaking of all their labours and occupations. 
Pere Hennepin had already mentioned the cir- 
cumstance (Amstel. ed. in 12mo., p. 219.), but 
he seems to have had no idea of the practice being 
in any way connected with religion. Charlevoix 
went a step farther, for speaking of those he met 
with among the Illinois, he says : 

" On a pretendu que cet usage venait de je ne sals 
quel principe de la religion, mais cette religion avait, 
comme bien d'autres, prit sa naissance dans la corruption 
du cceur," &c. 

Here he stopped, not caring to inform himself as 
to the real origin of the usage. Lafitau says these 
so-called hermaphrodites were numerous in Loui- 
siana, Florida, Yucatan, and amongst the Sioux, 
Illinois, &c. ; and goes on, 

" II y a de jeunes gens qui prennent 1'habit de femme 
qu'ils gardent toute leur vie, et qui se croyent ho- 
norez de s'abaisser a toutes leurs occupations ; ils ne 
se marient jatnais, ils assistent a tous les exercises ou 
la religion semble avoir part, et cette profession de vie 
extraordinaire les fait passer pour des gens d'un ordre 
superieur et au-dessus du commun des homines," &c. 

Are not these, he asks, the same people as those 
Asiatic worshippers of Cybele ? or those who, ac- 
cording to Julius Firmicus, consecrated them- 
selves, the one to the Phrygian goddess, the others 
to Venus Urania? priests who dressed as women, 
&c. (See Moeurs des Sauvages americains } vol. i. 
p. 52., ed. 4to., Paris, 1724.) He farther tells us 
that Vasco Nunez de Baltfao met many of them, 
and in the fury of his religious zeal had them torn 
to pieces by dogs. Was this in DarSen ? I be- 
lieve neither Heckewelder, Adair, Golden, nor 
J. Dunn Hunter, mention this subject, though 
they must all have been aware of the existence of 
Enareans in some one or more of the tribes with 
which they were acquainted ; and I do not re- 
member having ever met with mention of them 
among the Indian nations of New England, and 
Tanner testifies to their existence amongst the 



Chepewa and Ottawa nations, by whom they are 
called A-go-kwa. Catlin met with them among 
the Sioux, and gives a sketch of a dance in honour 
of the I-coo-coo, as they call them. Southey 
speaks of them among the Guayacuru under the 
name of " Cudinas," and so does Von Martius. 
Captain Fitzroy, quoting the Jesuit Falkner, says 
the Patagonian wizards (query priests) are dressed 
in female attire : they are chosen for the office 
when young, preference being given to boys 
evincing a feminine disposition. 

Lafitau's conjecture as to the connexion between 
these American Enareans and the worshippers of 
Venus Urania, seems to receive some confirmation 
from our next evidence, viz. in Major Long's 
Expedition to St. Peter's River, some of these 
people were met with, and inquiry being made 
concerning them, it was ascertained that 

" The Indians believe the moon is the residence of a 

hostile female deity, and should she appear to them in 

their dreams, it is an injunction to become Cina?di, 

and they immediately assume feminine attire." Vol. i. 

| p. 216. 

i Farther it is stated, that two of these people whom 
j they found among the Sauks, though generally 
held in contemp^, were pitied by many 

" As labouring under an unfortunate destiny that 
they cannot avoid, being supposed to be impelled to 
this course by a vision from the female spirit that 
resides in the moon," &c. Vol. i. p. 227. 

Venus Urania is placed among the Scythian 
deities by Herodotus, under the name " Artim- 
pasa." We are, for obvious reasons, at liberty to 
conjecture that the adoption of her worship, and 
the development of " the female disease," may 
have been contemporaneous, or nearly so. It 
were needless entering on a long story to show the 
connexion between Venus and the moon, which 
was styled Urania, Juno, Jana, Diana, Venus, &c. 
Should it be conceded that the American Mon- 
golidce brought with them this curse of Scythia, 
the date of their emigration will be approximated, 
since it must have taken place subsequently to 
the affair of Ascalon, or between 400 or 500 
years B.C. 

The adoption of female attire by the priesthood, 
however, was not confined to the worshippers of 
Venus Urania ; it was widely spread throughout 
Heathendom; so widely that, as we learn from 
Tacitus, the priests of the Naharvali (in modern 
Denmark) officiated in the dress of women. Like 
many other heathenish customs and costumes, 
traces of this have descended to our own times ; 
such, for example, may have been the exchange 
of dresses on New Year's Eve, &c. : see Drake's 
Shakspeare and his Times, vol. i. p. 124., ed. 4to. 
And what else is the effeminate costume of the 
clergy in many parts of Europe, the girded 
waist, and the petticoat-like cassock, but a re- 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



lique of the ancient priestly predilection for female 
attire ? A. C. M. 



Russia and Turkey. The following paragraph 
from an old newspaper reads with a strange signi- 
ficance at the present time : 

" The last advices from Leghorn describe the genius 
of discord still prevailing in the unfortunate city of 
Constantinople, the people clamouring against their 
rulers, and the janissaries ripe for insurrection, in con- 
sequence of the backwardness of the Porte to commence 
hostilities with Russia." English Chronicle, or Uni- 
versal Evening Post, February 6th to 8th, 1783. 

J. LOCKE. 

Social Effects of the severe Weather, Jan. 3 
and 4, 1854. The daily and local newspapers 
have detailed many public incidents of the severe 
weather of the commencement of 1854: such as 
snow ten yards deep ; roads blocked up ; mails 
delayed ; the streets of the metropolis, for a time, 
impassible ; omnibuses with four horses ; Hansom 
cabs driven tandem, &c. The effects of the storms 
of snow, socially, were not the least curious. In 
the neighbourhood of Manchester seventy persons 
were expected at an evening party, one only 
arrived. At another house one hundred guests 
were expected, nine only arrived. Many other 
readers of your valuable paper have, no doubt, 
made similar notes, and will probably forward 
them. ROBEET RAWLINSON. 

Star of Bethlehem. Lord Nugent, in his Lands, 
Classical and Sacred, vol. ii. p. 18., says : 

" The spot shown as the place of the Nativity, and 
that of the manger, both of which are in a crypt or 
subterraneous chapel under the church of St. Katherine, 
are in the hands of the Roman Catholicks. The former 
is marked by this simple inscription on a silver star 
set in the pavement : 

' Hie de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est.'" 

The Emperor of the French, as representative 
of the Latin Church, first raised the question of 
the sacred places, now likely to involve the Pent- 
archy of Europe in a quasi civil war, by attempt- 
ing, through the authority of the Sultan of Turkey, 
to restore the above inscription, which had been 
defaced, as is supposed, by the Greek Christians ; 
and thereby encountering the opposition of the 
Emperor of the Russias, who claims to represent 
the Eastern Church. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Birmingham. 

Origin of the Word " Cant" From the Mer- 
curius Publicus of Feb. 28, 1661, Edinburgh : 

" Mr, Alexander Cant, son to Mr. Andrew Cant 
(who in his discourse De Excommunicate trucidando 
maintained that all refusers of the Covenant ought to 



be excommunicated, and that all so excommunicated 
might lawfully be killed), was lately deposed by the 
Synod for divers seditious and impudent passages in 
his sermons at several places, as at the pulpit of 
Banchry ; ' That whoever would own or make use of 
a service-book, king, nobleman, or minister, the curse 
of God should be upon him.' 

" In his Grace after Meat, he praid for those phana- 
ticques and seditious ministers (who are now secured) 
in these words, ' The Lord pity and deliver the precious 
prisoners who are now suffering for the truth, and close 
up the mouths of the Edomites, who are now rejoicing ; ' 
with several other articles too long to recite." 

From these two Cants (Andrew and Alexander) 
all seditious praying and preaching in Scotland i 
called " Canting." J. B. 

Epigram on Four Lawyers. It used to be 
said that four lawyers were wont to go down from 
Lincoln's Inn and the Temple in one hackney 
coach for one shilling. The following epigram 
records the economical practice : 

" Causidici curru felices quatuor uno 
Quoque die repetunt limina nota 'fori.' 
Quanta sodalitium prsestabit commoda ! cui non 
Contigerint socii cogitur ire pedes." 

See Poemata Anglorum Latina, p. 446. Lemma, 
" Defendit numerus." Juv. J. W. FARRER. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO " KNIGHT* S QUARTERLY 
MAGAZINE." 

I shall feel exceedingly obliged if you or any of 
your correspondents will inform me who were the 
writers in Knighfs Quarterly Magazine, bearing 
the following fictitious signatures: 1. Marma- 
duke Villars ; 2. Davenant Cecil ; 3. Tristram 
Merton ; 4. Irvine Montagu ; 5. Gerard Mont- 
gomery ; 6. Henry Baldwin ; 7. Joseph Haller ; 
S.Peter Ellis; 9. Paterson Aymer ; 10. Eustace 
Heron; 11. Edward Haselfoot ; 12. William 
Payne ; 13. Archibald Frazer ; 14. Hamilton 
Murray; 15. Charles Pendragon ; 16. Lewis 
Willoughby ; 17. John Tell ; 18. Edmund Bruce ; 
19. Reginald Holyoake ; 20. Richard Mills; 21. 
Oliver Medley ; 22. Peregrine Courtenay ; 23. 
Vyvyan Joyeuse ; 24. Martin Lovell ; 25. Martin 
Danvers Heaviside. 

I fear I have given you so long a list as to deter 
you from replying to my inquiry ; but if you can- 
not spare time or space to answer me fully, I have 
numbered the writers in such a way as that you 
may be induced to give the numbers without the 
names, except you think that many of your readers 
would be glad to have the information given to 
them which I ask of you. 

Tristram Merton is T. B. Macaulay, who wrote 
several sketches and five ballads in the Magazine ; 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223, 



indeed, it was in it that his fine English ballads 
first appeared. 

Peregrine Courtenay was the late Winthrop 
Mackworth Praed, who was, I believe, its editor. 

Henry Nelson Coleridge and John Moultire 
were also contributors, but under what signatures 
they wrote I cannot tell. 

Knight's Quarterly Magazine never extended 
beyond three volumes, and it is now a rather 
scarce book. Any light you can throw upon this 
subject will have an interest for most people, and 
will be duly appreciated by E. H. 

Leeds. 



THE STATIONERS COMPANY AND ALMANACK. 

Having recently had occasion to consult the 
Lansdown MSS., No. 905., a volume containing 
documents formerly belonging to Mr. Umfreville, 
I observed the following : 

" Ordinances, constitutions, rules, and articles made 
by the Court of Star Chamber relating to Printers and 
Printing, Jan. 23, anno 28 Eliz." 

Appended to these ordinances, &c. is a statement 
from which I have made the following extracts : 
" Via Januarii, 1583. 

" Bookes yeilded into the hands and disposition of 
the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Mysterie 
of the Stationers of London for the releife of y c poore 
of y e saide companie according to the discretion of the 
Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or the more parte of 
them. 

" Mr. Barker, her Ma ties printer, hath yeilded unto 
the saide disposition and purpose these bookes follow- 
ing : viz. 

" The first and second volume of Homelies. 

" The whole statutes at large, w th y e pamble as they 
are now extant. 

" The Paraphrases of Erasmus upon y e Epistles and 
Gospells appoynted to be readd in Churches. 

" Articles of Religion agreed upon 1562 for y a 
Ministers. 

" The Several Injunctions and Articles to be en- 
quired of through y e whole Realme. 

" The Profitt and Benefite of the two most vendible 
volumes of the New Testament in English, commonlie 
called Mr. Cheekes' translation : that is, in the volume 
called Octavo, w th Annotaciops as they be now : and 
in the volume called Decimo Sexto of the same trans- 
lation w th out notes, in the Brevier English letter only. 

" Provided that Mr. Barker himselfe print the sayde 
Testaments at the lowest value by the direction of the 
Master and Wardens of the Company of Stationers for 
the tyme being. Provided alwaye that Mr. Barker 
do reteyn some small number of these for diverse ser- 
vices in her Ma ties Courtes or .... [MS. illegible] 
and lastlye that nothing that he yeildeth unto by 
meanes aforesaide be preiudiciall to her Ma tles highe 
prerogative, or to any that shall succeed in the office 
of her Ma tlef printer." 



The other printers named are, Mr. Totell, Mr. 
Watkins, Mr. John Daye, Mr. Newberye, and 
Henrie Denham. 

I wish to raise a Query upon the following : 

" Mr. Watkins, now Wardein, hath yeilded to the 
disposcion and purpose aforesaide this that followeth : 
viz. 

" The Broad Almanack ; that is to say, the same to 
be printed on one syde of a sheete, to be sett on walls 
as usuallie it hath ben?." 

Query 1. Is this Broad Almanack the original 
of the present Stationers' Almanack ? 

2. When was this Broad Almanack first issued ? 

3. When were sheet almanacks, printed on one 
side of a sheet, first published ? B. H. C. 

P. S. The books enumerated in this MS., 
under the other printers' names, are some of them 
very curious, and others almost unknown at the 
present time. 



John Bunyan. The following advertisement is 
copied from the Mercurius Reformatus of June 11, 
1690, vol. ii. No 1 27. : 

" Mr. John Bunyan, Author of the Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress, and many other excellent Books, that have found 
great Acceptance, hath left behind him Ten Manu- 
scripts prepared by himself for the Press before his 
Death : His Widow is desired to print them (with 
some other of his Works, which have been already 
printed, but are at present not to be had), which will 
make together a Book of 10*. in sheets, in Fol. All 
persons who desire so great and good a Work should 
be performed with speed, are desired to send in 5s. for 
their first Payment to Dorman Newman, at the King's 
Arms in the Poultrey, London : Who is empower'd to 
give Receipts for the same." 

Can any of your readers say whether such a 
publication as that which is here proposed ever 
took place : that is, a publication of " ten manu- 
scripts," of which none had been previously 
printed ? S. R. MAITLAND. 

Gloucester. 

Tragedy ly Mary Leapor. In the second 
volume of Poems by Mary Leapor, 8vo., 1751, 
there is an unfinished tragedy, begun by the 
authoress a short time before her death. Can 
you give me the name of this drama (if it has 
any), and names of the dramatis personce ? A. Z. 

Repairing old Prints, N. J. A. will feel 
thankful to any one who will give him directions 
for the cleaning and repairing of old prints, or 
refer him to any book where he can obtain such 
information. He wishes especially to learn how 
to detach them from old and worn-out mountings. 

N.J.A. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter. I am 
informed that there is, in the diocese of Exeter, a 
dignitary who is called the Arch-priest, and that 
he has the privilege of wearing lawn sleeves (that 
is of course, properly, of wearing a lawn alb), and 
also precedence in all cases next after the Bishop. 

Can any of your Devonian readers give addi- 
tional particulars of his office or his duties ? They 
would be useful and interesting. W. FKASER. 

Tor-Mohun. 

Medal in honour of the Chevalier de St. George. 
It appears that Prince James (styled the Che- 
valier de St. George) served in several campaigns 
in the Low Countries under the Marquis de Torcy. 
On one occasion, when the hostile armies were 
encamped on the banks of the Scarpe, medals 
were struck, and distributed among the English, 
bearing, besides a bust of the prince, an inscription 
relating to his bravery on a former occasion. Are 
any of these now in existence ? They would pro- 
bably be met with in those families whose an- 
cestors served under Marlborough. A. S. 

Robert Bloet. Can you certify me whether it 
is received as an undoubted historical fact that 
"Robertas, comes Moritoniensis," William the 
Conqueror's uterine brother, was identical with 
Robert Bloet, afterwards Chancellor and Bishop 
of Lincoln? J. SANSOM. 

Sir J. Wallace and Mr. Browne. I inclose an 
extract from The English Chronicle or Universal 
Evening Post, February 6th to February 8th, 1783. 
Can any of your learned correspondents state the 
result of the fracas between Mr. Browne and Sir 
J. Wallace ? 

" Yesterday about one o'clock, Sir J s W e 

and Lieutenant B e, accidentally meeting in Par- 
liament Street, near the Admiralty Gate, Mr. B e, 

the moment he saw Sir J s, took a stick which a 

gentleman he was in company with held in his hand, 

and, after a few words passing, struck Sir J s, and 

gave him a dreadful wound in the forehead ; they closed, 
and Sir J s, who had no weapon, made the best de- 
fence possible, but being a weaker man than his anta- 
gonist, was overpowered. Mr. B e, at parting, told 

Sir J s, if he had anything to say to him, he would 

be found at the Salopian Coffee House. An account of 
this transaction being communicated to Sir Sampson 

"Wright, he sent Mr. Bond after Mr. B e, who found 

him at the Admiralty, and delivered the magistrate's 
compliments, at the same time requesting to see him 

in Bow Street. Mr. B e promised to wait upon Sir 

Sampson, but afterwards finding that no warrant had 
issued, did not think it incumbent on him to comply, 
and so went about his avocations. 

" Sir J s's situation after the fracas very much 

excited the compassion of the populace ; they beheld 
that veteran bleeding on the streets, who had so often 
gloriously fought the battles of his country! The 
above account is as accurate as we could learn j but 



should there be any trivial misstatement, we shall be 
happy in correcting it, through the means of any of our 
readers who were present on the spot. 

" Sir James Wallace has not only given signal proofs 
of his bravery as a naval officer, but particularly in a 
duel with another marine officer, Mr. Perkins, whom, 
he fought at Cape Fran 90 is ; each taking hold of the 
end of a handkerchief, fired, and although the balls 
went through both their bodies, neither of the wounds 
proved mortal ! The friars at Cape Francois, with 
great humanity, took charge of them till they were 
cured of their wounds." 

J. LOCKE. 

Dublin. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. I should be 
glad if any of your correspondents would refer 
me to an authentic account of the death of Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Queen Elizabeth's 
favourite. He is said by some to have been ac- 
cidentally poisoned by his wife ; by others pur- 
posely, by some of his adherents. This affair, 
though clouded in mystery, appears not to have 
been particularly inquired into. Likewise let me 
ask, on what authority is Stanfield Hall, Norfolk 
(the scene of a recent tragedy), described as the 
birthplace of Amy Robsart, the unfortunate first 
wife of this same nobleman ? A. S. 

Abbott Families. Samuel Abbott, of Sudbury, 
in the county of Suffolk, gentleman, lived about 
1670. Can any of your genealogical contributors 
inform me if he was in any way connected with the 
family of Archbishop Abbott, or otherwise eluci- 
date his parentage ? It may probably be interesting 
to persons of the same name to be acquainted that 
the pears worn by many of the Abbot family are 
merely a corruption of the ancient inkhorns of 
the Abbots of Northamptonshire, and impaled in. 
Netherheyford churchyard, same county, on the 
tomb of Sir Walt. Mauntele, knight, and his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Abbot, Esq., 1487, 
viz. a chev. between three inkhorns. The resem- 
blance between pears and inkhorns doubtless 
occasioned the error. I believe the ancient bottles 
of Harebottle were similarly corrupted into icicles. 

J. T. ABBOTT. 

Darlington. 

Authorship of a Ballad. ID. the Manchester 
Guardian of Jan. 7, the author of a stanza, writ- 
ten on the execution of Thos. Syddale, is desired ; 
as also the remainder of the ballad. From what 
quarter is either of these more likely to be ob- 
tained than from "N. & Q. ? " 

P. J. F. GANTILLON-. 

Elias Petley. What is known of the life or 
works of Elias Petley, priest, who dedicated to 
Archbishop Laud his translation of the English 
Liturgy into Greek. The book was published at 
the press of Thomas Cotes, for Richard Whitaker, 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



at the King's Arms, St. Paul's churchyard, in 
1638. Is it remarkable for rarity or merit ? 

J. O. B. 
Wicken. 

Canaletto's Views round London. Antonio 
Canaletto, the painter of Venice, the destruction 
of one of whose most powerful works has been of 
late the subject of so much agitation, was here 
amongst us in this city one hundred years since ; 
as seen by his proposal in one of the journals of 
1752: 

" Signior Canaletto gives notice that he has painted 
Chelsea College, Ranelagh House, and the River 
Thames ; which, if any gentleman, or others, are pleased 
to favour him with seeing the same, he will attend at 
his lodgings at Mr. Viggans, in Silver Street, Golden 
Square, from fifteen days from this day, July 31, from 
8 to 1, and from 3 to 6 at night, each day." 

Here is that able artist's offer in his own terms, if, 
not his own words. 

I have to inquire, are these pictures left here to 
the knowledge of your readers ? did he, in short, 
find buyers as well as admirers ? or, if not, did he 
return to Venice with those (no doubt) vividly 
pictured recollections of our localities under his 
arm ? GONDOLA. 

A Monster found at Maidstone. In Kilburne's 
Survey of Kent, 4to. 1659, under " Maidstone," is 
the following passage : 

" Wat Tiler, that idol of clownes, and famous rebell 
in the time of King Richard the Second, was of this 
town; and in the year 1206 about this town was a 
monster found stricken with lightning, with a head 
like an asse, a belly like a man, and all other parts far 
different from any known creature, but not approach- 
able nigh unto, by reason of the stench thereof." 

No mention of this is made by Lambarde in his 
Perambulation of Kent. Has this been traditional, 
or whence is Kilburne's authority ? And what 
explanation can be offered of the account ? 

H.W.D. 

Page. What is the derivation of this word ? 
In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
'edited by Dr. W. Smith, 1st edit., p. 679., it is 
said to be from the Greek TraiSaywybs, pcedagogus. 
But in an edition of Tacitus, with notes by^ Box- 
horn (Amsterdam, 1662), ifris curiously identified 
with the word boy, and traced to an eastern 
source thus : Persian, bagoa; Polish, pokoigo; 
Old German, Pagie, Bagh, Bai ; then the Welsh, 
lachgen , French, page ; English, boy ; and Greek, 
ircus. 

Some of your correspondents may be able to 
inform me which is correct. B. H. C. 



(Sumerf toftfj 

The Fish " Ruffins" In Spenser's Faerie 
Queene we read (book TV. canto 11.), among the 
river guests that attended the nuptials of Thames 
and Medway came " Yar, soft washing Norwitch 
walls ; " and farther on, that he brought with him 
a present of fish for the banquet called ruffins, 
"whose like none else could show." Was this 
description of fish peculiar to the Tare ? and is 
there any record of its having been esteemed a 
delicacy in Elizabeth's reign ? A. S. 

[This seems to be the fish noticed by Izaak Walton, 
called the Ruffe, or Pope, " a fish," says he, " that is 
not known in some rivers. He is much like the perch 
for his shape, and taken to be better than the perch, 
but will grow to be bigger than a gudgeon. He is an 
excellent fish, no fish that swims is of a pleasanter taste, 
and he is also excellent to enter a young angler, for 
he is a greedy biter." In the Faerie Queene, book i. 
canto iv., Spenser speaks of 

" His ruffin raiment all was stain'd with blood 
Which he had spilt, and all to rags yrent." 

To these lines Mr. Todd has added a note, which gives 
a clue to the meaning of the word. He says, " Mr. 
Church here observes, that ruffin is reddish, from the 
Latin rufus. I suspect, however, that the poet did 
not intend to specify the colour of the dress, but rather 
to give a very character istical expression even to the 
raiment of Wrath. Ruffin, so spelt, denoted a swash- 
buckler, or, as we should say, a butty : see Minsheu's 
Guide into Tongues. Besides, I find in My Ladies' 
Looking- Glasse, by Barnabe Rich, 4to. 1616, p. 21., a 
passage which may serve to strengthen my application 
of ruffin, in this sense, to garment: "The yong 
woman, that as well in her behaviour, as in the manner 
of her apparell, is most ruffian like, is accounted the 
most gallant wench." Now, it appears, that the ruff, 
or pope, is not only, as Walton says, " a greedy biter," 
but is extremely voracious in its disposition, and will 
devour a minnow nearly as big as itself. Its average 
length is from six to seven inches.] 

Origin of the Word Etiquette. What is the 
original meaning of the word etiquette ? and how 
did it acquire that secondary meaning which it 
bears in English ? S. C. G. 

[Etiquette, from the Fr. etiquette, Sp. etiqueta, a 
ticket ; delivered not only, as Cotgrave says, for the 
benefit and advantage of him that receives it, but also 
entitling to place, to rank ; and thus applied to the 
ceremonious observance of rank or place ; to ceremony. 
Webster adds, " From the original sense of the word, 
it may be inferred that it was formerly the custom to 
deliver cards containing orders for regulating cere- 
monies on public occasions."] 

Henri Quatre.^ What was the title of Henry IV. 
(of Navarre) to the crown of France ? or in what 
way was he related to his predecessor ? If any 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



107 



one would be kind enough to answer these he 
would greatly oblige W. W. H. 

[Our correspondent, will find his Query briefly and 
satisfactorily answered by Renault, in his Abrege 
de THistoire de France, p. 476. His words are : 
"Henri IV. roi de Navarre, ne a Pau, le 13 Decern- 
bre, 1553, et ayant droit a la couronne, comme de- 
scendant de Robert, Comte de Clermont, qui etoit fils 
de St. Louis, et qui avoit epouse 1'heritiere de Bourbon, 
y parvient en 1589." The lineal descent of Henri 
from this Count Robert may be seen in IS Art de 
verifier les Dates, vol. vi. p. 209., in a table entitled 
" Genealogie des Valois et des Bourbon ; St. Louis IX., 
Roi de France."] 

"He that complies against his will" frc.; and 
" To kick the bucket" Oblige T. C. by giving 
the correct reading of the familiar couplet, which 
he apprehends is loosely quoted when expressed 

" Convince a man against his will," &c. 
or, 

" Persuade a man against his will," &c. 

Also by stating the name of the author. 

Likewise by giving the origin of the phrase 
" To kick the bucket," as applied to the death of 
a person. 

[The desired quotation is from Butler's Hudibras, 
part in. canto iii. 1. 547-8. : 

" He that complies against his will, 
Is of his own opinion still." 

As to the origin of the phrase " To kick the bucket," 
the tradition among the slang fraternity is, that " One 
Bolsover having hung himself to a beam while stand- 
ing on the bottom of a pail, or bucket, kicked the vessel 
away in order to pry into futurity, and it was all UP 
with him from that moment Finis ! " Our Querist 
will find a very humorous illustration of its use (too 
long to quote) in an article on " Anglo- German Dic- 
tionaries," contributed by De Quincy to the London 
Magazine for April, 1823, p. 442.] 

St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. There is a church 
in the city of London called St. Nicholas Cole 
Abbey : what is the origin of the name or deriva- 
tion ? ELLFIN AP GWYDDNO. 

[This Query seems to have baffled old Stowe. 
He says, " Towards the west end of Knight Rider 
Street is the parish church of St. Nicolas Cold Abby, 
a comely church, somewhat ancient, as appeareth by 
the ways raised thereabout ; so that men are forced to 
descend into the body of the church. It hath been 
called of many Golden Abby, of some Gold (or Cold) 
Bey, and so hath the most ancient writing. But I 
coulc! never learn the cause why it should be so called, 
and therefore I will let it pass. Perhaps as standing 
in a cold place, as Cold Harbour, and such like." For 
communications on the much-disputed etymology of 
COLD HARBOUK, see " N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 60. ; Vol. ii., 
pp. 159. 340. ; and Vol. vi., p. 455.] 



TRENCH ON PROVERBS. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 387. 519. 641.) 

The courteous spirit which generally distin- 
guishes the communications of your correspon- 
dents, renders the " N. & Q." the most agreeable 
magazine, or, as you have it, " medium of inter- 
communication for literary men," &c. I was so 
much pleased with the general animus which 
characterised the strictures on my proposed 
translation of Ps. cxxvii. 2., that I was almost 
disposed to cede to my critics, from sheer good- 
will towards them. But the elder D'Israeli speaks 
of such a thing "as an affair of literary conscience," 
which consideration prescribes my yielding in the 
present instance ; but I trust that our motto will 
always be, " May our difference of opinion never 
alter our inter-communications ! " 

I must however, at the outset, qualify an ex- 
pression I made use of, which seems to have in- 
curred the censure of all your four correspondents 
on the subject ; I mean the sentence, " The trans- 
lation of the authorised version of that sacred 
affirmation is unintelligible." It seems to be per- 
fectly intelligible to MESSRS. BUCKTON, JEBB, 
WALTER, and S. D. I qualify, therefore, the 
assertion. I mean to say, that the translation of 
the authorised version of that sacred affirmation 
was, and is, considered unintelligible to many in- 
telligent biblical critics and expositors ; amongst 
whom I may name Luther, Mendelsohn, Heng- 
stenberg, Zunz, and many others whose names 
will transpire in the sequel. 

Having made that concession, I may now pro- 
ceed with the replying to my Querists, or rather 
Critics. MR. BUCKTON is entitled to my first con- 
sideration, not only because you placed him at the 
head of the department of that question, but also 
because of the peculiar mode in which he treated 
the subject. My replies shall be seriatim. 

1. Luther was not the first who translated 
fcWS? HH^ f JV p " Denn seinen Freunden gibt 
er es schlafend." A far greater Hebraist than 
Luther, who flourished about two hundred years 
before the great German Reformer came into 
note, put the same construction on that sacred 
affirmation. Rabbi Abraham Hacohen of Zante, 
who paraphrased the whole Hebrew Psalter into 
modern metrical Hebrew verse (which, according 
to a P. S., was completed in 1326), interprets the 
sentence in question thus : 

spa hx jrv p ^D 
: epn xh injD irmn I'JPTO 

" For surely God shall give food 

To His beloved, and his sleep shall not be withheld 
from him." 

2. It is more than problematical whether the 
eminent translator, Mendelsohn, was influenced by 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



Luther's error (?), or by his own superior know- 
ledge of the sacred tongue. 

3. I do not think that the phrase, " the proper 
Jewish notion of gain," was either called for or 
relevant to the subject. 

4. The reign of James I. was by no means as 
distinguished for Hebrew scholarship as were the 
immediate previous reigns. Indeed it would ap- 
pear that the knowledge of the sacred languages 
was at a very low ebb in this country during the 
agitating period of the Reformation, so much so 
that even the unaccountable Henry VIII. was 
forced to exclaim, " Vehementer dolere nostra- 
tium Theologorura sortem sanctissime linguae 
scientia carentium, et linguarum doctrinam fuisse 
intermissam." (Ilody, p. 466.) 

When Coverdale made his version of the Bible 
he was not only aided by Tindale, but also by 
the celebrated Hebrew, of the Hebrews, Emanuel 
Tremellius, who was then professor of the sacred 
tongue in the University of Cambridge, where 
that English Reformer was educated ; and Cover- 
dale translated the latter part of Ps. cxxvii. 2. as 
follows : " For look, to whom it pleaseth Him, He 
giveth it in sleep." 

When the translation was revised, during the 
reign of James I., the most accomplished Anglo- 
Hebraist was, by some caprice of jealousy, forced 
to leave this country ; I mean Hugh Broughton. 
He communicated many renderings to the re- 
visers, some of which they thoughtlessly rejected, 
and others, to use Broughton's own phrase, " they 
thrust into the margin." A perusal of Brough- 
ton's works * gives one an accurate notion of the 
proceedings of the revisers of the previous ver- 
sions. 

* Lightfoot, who edited Broughton's works in 1662, 
entitled them as follows : The Works of the great 
Albionen Divine, renowned in many Nations for rare 
Skill in Salem's and Athens' Tongues, and familiar 
acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning," &c. 

Ben Jonson has managed to introduce Broughton 
into some of his plays. In his Volpone, when the 
" Fox " delivers a medical lecture, to the great amuse- 
ment of Politic and Peregrine, the former remarks, 

" Is not his language rare ? " 
To which the latter replies, 

" But Alchemy, 

' I never heard the like, or y Broughton's books." 

In the Alchemist, " Face " is made thus to speak of a 
female companion : 

" Y* are very right, Sir, she is a most rare scholar, 
And is gone mad with studying Broughton's works ; 
If you but name a word touching the Hebrew, 
She falls into her fit, and will discourse 
So learnedly of genealogies, 
As you would run mad too to hear her, Sir." 

(See also The History of the Jeivs in Great Britain, 
vol. i. pp. 305, &c.) 



5. Coverdale's translation is not " ungramma- 
tical" as far as the Hebrew language is concerned, 
notwithstanding that it was rejected in the reign 
of James I. Dfta " bread," is evidently the ac- 
cusative noun to the transitive verb jnS " He shall 
give." Nor is it " false," for the same noun, Df"6> 
" bread," is no doubt the antecedent to which the 
word it refers. 

6. Mendelsohn does not omit the it in his He- 
brew comment ; and I am therefore unwarrantably 
charged with supplying it " unauthorisedly." I 
should like to see ME. BUCK-TON'S translation of 
that comment. If any doubt remained upon MR. 
B.'s mind as to the intended meaning of the word 
1HJJV used by Mendelsohn, his German version 
might have removed such a doubt, as the little word 
es, " it," indicates pretty clearly what Mendelsohn 
meant by ^njJV. So that, instead of proving Men- 
delsohn " at variance with himself," he is proved 
most satisfactorily to have been in perfect harmony 
with himself. 

7. Mendelsohn does not omit the important word 
p ; and if MR. B. will refer once more to his copy of 
Mendelsohn (we are both using the same edition), 
he will find two different interpretations proposed 
for, the word p, viz. thus and rightly. I myself 
prefer the latter rendering. The word occurs 
about twenty times in the Hebrew Bible, and in 
the great majority of instances rightly or certainly 
is the only correct rendering. Both Mendelsohn 
and Zunz omit to translate it in their German 
versions, simply because the sentence is more 
idiomatic, in the German language, without it 
than with it. 

8. I perfectly agree with MR. B. " that no 
version has yet had so large an amount of learn- 
ing bestowed on it as the English one." But 
MR. B. will candidly acknowledge that the largest 
amount was bestowed on it since the revision of 
the authorised version closed. Lowth, Newcombe, 
Home, Horsley, Lee, &c. wrote since, and they 
boldly called in question many of the renderings 
in the authorised version. 

Let me not be mistaken ; I do most sincerely 
consider our version superior to all others, but it 
is not for this reason faultless. 

In reply to MR. JEBB'S temperate strictures, I 
would most respectively submit 

1. That considerable examination leads me to 
take just the reverse view to that of Burkius, 
that fcOGP cannot be looked upon as antithetical 
to surgere, seder e, dolorum. With all my search- 
ings I failed to discover an analogous antithesis. 
I shall be truly thankful to MR. JEBB for a case 
in point. Moreover, Psalms iii. and iv., to which 
Dr. French and Mr. Skinner refer, prove to my 
mind that not sleep is the gift, but sustenance and 
other blessings bestowed upon the Psalmist whilst 
asleep. I cannot help observing that due reflec- 
tion makes me look upon the expression, " So He 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



giveth His beloved sleep," as an extraordinary 
anticlimax. 

2. MR. JEBB challenges the showing strictly 
analogous instances of ellipses. He acknowledges 
that there are very numerous ellipses even in the 
Songs of Degrees themselves, but they are of a 
very different nature. I might fill the whole of 
this Number with examples, which the most scru- 
pulous critic would be obliged to acknowledge as 
being strictly analogous to the passage under re- 
view ; but such a thing you would not allow. Two 
instances, however, you will not object to ; they 
will prove a host for MR. JEBB'S purpose, inas- 
much as one has the very word ,tJ> elliptically, 
and the other the transitive verb jJV, minus an 
accusative noun. Would MESSRS. BUCKTON, JEBB, 
WALTER, and S. D. kindly translate, for the bene- 
fit of those who are interested in the question, the 
following two passages ? 

?w antnr 

Psalm xc. 5. 



imn 



rv 

Isaiah xli. 2. 



The REV. HENRY WALTER will see that some of 
his observations have been anticipated and al- 
ready replied to. It remains, however, for me to 
assure him that I never dreamt that any one would 
suppose that I considered NJK> anything else but 
a noun, minus the ^ preposition. The reason why 
I translated the word " whilst he [the beloved] 
is asleep," was because I thought the expression 
more idiomatic. 

S. D. attempts to prove nothing; I am exempt 
therefore from disproving anything as far as he is 
concerned. 

Before I take leave of this lengthy and some- 
what elaborate disquisition, let me give my ex- 
planation of the scope of the Psalm in dispute, 
which, I venture to imagine, will commend itself, 
even to those who differ from me, as the most 
natural. 

This Psalm, as well as the other thirteen en- 
titled "A Song of Degrees," was composed for 
the singing on the road by those Israelites who 
went up to Jerusalem to keep the three grand 
festivals, to beguile their tedious journey, and 
also to soothe the dejected spirits of those who 
felt disheartened at having left their homes, their 
farms, and families without guardians. Ps. cxxvii. 
is of a soothing character, composed probably by 
Solomon. 

In the first two verses God's watchfulness and 
care over His beloved are held up to the view of 
the pilgrims, who are impressed with the truth 
that no one, "by taking thought, can add one 
cubit to his stature." The best exposition which 
I can give of those two verses I have learned from 
our Saviour's u Sermon on the Mount" (Matt. vi. 



25-33.). The third and following verses, as well 
as the next Psalm, are exegetical or illustrative. 
To whom do you attribute the gift of children ? 
Is it not admitted on all hands to be " an heritage 
of the Lord ?" No one can procure that blessing 
by personal anxiety and care : God alone can con- 
fer the gift. Well, then, the same God who gives 
you the heritage of children will also grant you all 
other blessings which are good for you, provided 
you act the part of " His beloved," and depend 
upon Him without wavering. 

The above is a hasty, but I trust an intelligible, 
view of the scope of the Psalm. 

MOSES MARGOLIOUTH. 

Wybunbury, Nantwich. 



INSCRIPTIONS Olf BELLS. 

(Vol. viii., p. 443.) 

The inscription on one of the bells of Great 
Milton Church, Oxon. (as given by MR. SIMPSOX 
in " N. & Q."), has a better and rhyming form 
occasionally. 

In Meivod Church, Montgomeryshire, a bell 
(the " great " bell, I think) has the inscription 

" I to the church the living call, 
'And to the grave do summon all." 

The same also is found on the great bell of the 
interesting church (formerly cathedral) of Llan- 
badarn Fawr, Cardiganshire. E. DYER GREEK. 

Nantcribba Hall. 

I beg to forward the following inscription on 
one of the bells in the tower of St. Nicholas 
Church, Sidmouth. I have not met with it else- 
where ; and you may, perhaps, consider it worthy 
of being added to those given by CUTHBERT BEDB 
and J. L. SISSON : 

* Est michi collatum 

Ihc istud nomen amatttm." 

There is no date, but the characters may indicate 
the commencement of the fifteenth century as the 
period when the bell was cast. G. J. R. GORDON. 

At Lapley in Staffordshire : 

" I will sound and resound to thee, O Lord, 
To call thy people to thy word." 

G. E. T. S. R. N. 

Pray add the following savoury inscriptions to 
your next list of bell-mottoes. The first disgraces 
the belfry of St. Paul's, Bedford ; the second, that 
of St. Mary's, Islington : 

" At proper times my voice I'll raise, 

And sound to my subscribers' praise 1" 
" At proper times our voices we will raise, 

In sounding to our benefactors' praise 1" 
The similarity between these two inscriptions 
favours the supposition that the ancient bell- 



no 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



founders, like some modern enterprising firms, 
kept a poet on the establishment, e.g. 

" Thine incomparable oil, Macassar ! " 

J. YEOWELL. 

A friend informs me, that on a bell in Durham 
Cathedral these lines occur : 

" To call the folk to Church in time, 

I chime. 
When mirth and pleasure's on the wing, 

I ring. 

And when the body leaves the soul, 
I toll." 

J. L. S. 



AEMS OF GENEVA. 

(Vol. viii., p. 563.) 

Your correspondent who desires the blazon of 
the arms of the " town of Geneva," had better 
have specified to which of the two bearings assigned 
to that name he refers. 

One of these, which I saw on the official seal 
affixed to the passport of a friend of mine lately 
returned from that place, is an instance of the 
obsolete practice of ditnidiation ; and is the more 
singular, because only the dexter one of the shields 
thus impaled undergoes curtailment. 

The correct blazon, I believe, would be: Or, 
an eagle double-headed, displayed sable, dimidi- 
ated, and impaling gu. a key in pale argent, the 
wards in chief, and turned to the sinister; the 
shield surmounted with a marquis' coronet. 

The blazon of the sinister half I owe to Ed- 
mondson, who seems, however, not at all to have 
understood the dexter, and gives a clumsy descrip- 
tion of it little worth transcribing. He, and the 
Dictionnaire de Blazon, assign these arms to the 
Republic of Geneva. 

The other bearing would, in English, be bla- 
zoned, Checquy of nine pieces, or and azure : and 
in French, Cinq points d'or, equipolles a quatre 
tfazur. This is assigned by Nisbett to the 
Seigneurie of Geneva, and is quartered by the 
King of Sardinia in token of the claims over the 
Genevese town and territory, which, as Duke of 
Savoy, he has never resigned. 

With regard to the former shield, I may just 
remark, that the dimidiate^ coat is merely that of 
the German empire. How or why Geneva ob- 
tained it, I should be very glad to be informed ; 
since it appears to appertain to the present inde- 
pendent Republic, and not to the former seignorial 
territory. 

Let me also add, that the plate in the Diction- 
naire gives the field of this half as argent. Mr. 
Willement, in his Regal Heraldry, under the arms 
of Richard II.'s consort, also thus describes and 
represents the imperial field ; and Nisbett alludes 



to it as such in one place, though in his formal 
blazon he gives it as or. 

Nothing, in an heraldic point of view, would be 
more interesting than a " Regal Heraldry of Eu- 
rope," with a commentary explaining the historical 
origin and combinations of the various bearings. 
Should this small contribution towards such a 
compilation tend to call the attention of any able 
antiquary to the general subject, or to elicit 
information upon this particular question, the 
writer who now offers so insignificant an item 
would feel peculiarly gratified. L. C. D. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Multiplying Negatives. In reply to M. N. S. 
(Vol. ix., p. 83.) I would suggest the following mode 
of multiplying negatives on glass, which I have every 
reason to believe would be perfectly successful : 
First, varnish the negative to be copied by means of 
DR. DIAMOND'S solution of amber in chloroform ; then 
attach to each angle, with any convenient varnish, a 
small piece of writing-paper. Prepare a similar plate 
of glass with collodion, and drain off all superfluous 
nitrate of silver, by standing it for a minute or so on 
edge upon a piece of blotting-paper. Lay it flat upon 
a board, collodio^ side upwards, and the negative pre- 
pared above upon it, collodion side downwards. Ex- 
pose the whole to daylight for a single second, or to 
gas-light for about a minute, and develope as usual. 
The result will be a transmitted positive, but with re- 
versed sides ; and from this, when varnished and treated 
as the original negative, any number of negatives simi- 
lar to the first may be produced. 

The paper at the angles is to prevent the absolute 
contact and consequent injury by the solution of ni- 
trate of silver ; and, for the same reason, it is advisable 
not to attempt to print until the primary negative is 
varnished, as, with all one's care, sometimes the nitrate 
will come in contact and produce spots, if the varnish- 
ing has been omitted. Should the negative become 
moistened, it should be at once washed with a gentle 
stream of water and dried. 

I have repeatedly performed the operation above 
described so far as the production of the positive, and 
so perfect is the impression that I see no reason why 
the second negative should be at all distinguishable 
from the original. 

I am, indeed, at present engaged upon a similar 
attempt ; but there are several other difficulties in my 
way : I, however, entertain no doubts of perfect suc- 
cess. GEO. SHADBOLT. 

Towgood's Paper. A. B. (Vol. ix., p. 83.) can pur- 
chase Towgood's paper of Mr. Sandford, who frequently 
advertises in " N. & Q." With regard to his other Query, 
I think there can be no doubt of his being at liberty 
to publish a photographic copy of a portrait, Mr. Fox 
Talbot having reserved only the right to paper copies 
of a photographic portrait. Collodion portraits are not 
patent, but the paper proofs from collodion negatives 
are. GEO. SHADBOLT. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



Adulteration of Nitrate of Silver. Will any of your 
chemical readers tell me how I am to know if nitrate 
of silver is pure, and how to detect the adulteration? 
If so with nitrate of potash, how ? One writer on 
photography recommends the fused, as then the excess 
of nitric acid is got rid of. Another says the fused 
nitrate is nearly always adulterated. I fear you have 
more querists than respondents. I have looked care- 
fully for a reply to some former Queries respecting 
Mu. CROOKES'S restoration of old collodion, but at 
present they have failed in appearance. 

THE READER OF PHOTOGRAPHIC WORKS. 






to jHttiflr 

Passage of Cicero (Vol. viii., p. 640.). Is the 
following what SEMI-TONE wants ? 

" Mira est enim quasdam natura vocis ; cujus qui- 
dem, e tribus omnino sonis, inflexo, acuto, gravi, tanta sit, 
et tarn suavis varietas perfecta in cantibus." Orator, 
cap. 17. 

B. H. C. 

Major Andre (Vol. viii., pp. 174.604.). The late 
Mrs. Mills of Norwich (nee Andre) was not the 
sister of Major Andre ; she was the only daughter 
of Mr. John Andre of Offenbach, near Frankfort 
on the Maine, in Germany ; where he established 
more than eighty years ago a prosperous concern 
as a printer of music, and was moreover an emi- 
nent composer : this establishment is now in the 
hands of his grandson. Mr. John Andre was not 
the brother of the Major, but a second or third 
cousin. Mrs. Mills used to say, that she remem- 
bered seeing the Major at her father's house as a 
visitor, when she was a very small child. He 
began his career in London in the commercial 
line ; and, after he entered the army, was sent 
by the English ministry to Hesse-Cassel to con- 
duct to America a corps of Hessian hirelings to 
dragoon the revolted Americans into obedience : 
it was on this occasion that he paid the above- 
mentioned visit to Offenbach. 

^ Having frequently read the portion of English 
history containing the narrative of the trans- 
actions in which Major Andre was so actively 
engaged, and for which he suffered, I have often 
asked myself whether he was altogether blameless 
in that questionable affair. TRIVET ALLCOCK. 
Norwich. 

P.S. This account was furnished to me by 
Mr. E. Mills, husband of the late Mrs. Mills. 

Catholic Bible Society (Vol. ix., p. 41.). Be- 
sides the account of this society in Bishop Milner's 
Supplementary Memoirs of the English Catholics, 
many papers on the same will be found in the 
volumes of the Orthodox Journal from 1813, when 
the Society was formed, to 1819. In this last 
volume, p. 9., Bishop Milner wrote a long letter, 



containing a comparison of the brief notes in the 
stereotyped edition of the above Society with the 
notes of Bishop Challoner, from whose hands he 
mentions having received a copy of his latest edi- 
tion of both Testaments in 1777. It should be 
mentioned that most of the papers in the Orthodox 
Journal alluded to were written by Bishop Milner 
under various signatures, which the present writer, 
with all who knew him well, could always recog- 
nise. That eminent prelate thus sums up the fate 
of the sole publication of the so-called Catholic 
Bible Society : 

" Its stereotype Testament was proved to 

abound in gross errors ; hardly a copy of it could be 
sold ; and, in the end, the plates for continuing it have 
been of late presented by an illustrious personage, into 
whose hands they fell, to one of our prelates [this was 
Bishop Collingridge], who will immediately employ 
the cart-load of them for a good purpose, as they were 
intended to be, by disposing of them to some pewterer, 
who will convert them into numerous useful culinary 
implements, gas-pipes, and other pipes." 

F. C. H. 

Cassiterides (Vol. ix., p. 64.). Kassiteros; the 
ancient Indian Sanscrit word Kastira. Of the dis- 
puted passage in Herodotus respecting the Cas- 
siterides, the interpretation* of Rennell, in his 
Geographical System of Herodotus ; of Maurice, 
in his Indian Antiquities, vol. vi. ; and of Heeren, in 
his Historical Researches ; is much more satisfac- 
tory than that offered by your correspondent 
S. G. C., although supported by the French acade- 
micians (Inscript. xxxvi. 66.) 

The advocates for a Celtic origin of the name 
of these islands are perhaps not aware that 
" Through the intercourse which the Phoenicians, by 
means of their factories in the Persian Gulph, main- 
tained with the east coast of India, the Sanscrit word 
Kastira, expressing a most useful product of farther 
India, and still existing among the old Aramaic idioms 
in the Arabian word Kasdir, became known to the 
Greeks even before Albion and the British Cassiterides 
had been visited." See Humboldt's Cosmos, "Prin- 
cipal Epochs in the History of the Physical Contem- 
plation of the Universe," notes. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 

Wooden Tombs and Effigies (Vol. ix., p. 62.). 
There are two fine recumbent figures of a Lord 
Neville and his wife in Brancepeth Church, four 
miles south-west of Durham. They are carved in 
wood. A view of them is given in Billing's An- 
tiquities of Durham. J. H. B. 

Tailless Cats (Vol. ix., p. 10.). In my visits 
to the Isle of Man, I have frequently met with 



* His want of information in this matter can only 
be referred to the jealousy of the Phoenicians depriving 
the Greeks, as afterwards the Romans, of ocular ob- 
servation. 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



specimens of the tailless cats referred to by your 
correspondent SHIRLEY HIBBERD. In the pure 
breed there is not the slightest vestige of a tail, 
and in the case of any intermixture with the 
species possessing the usual caudal appendage, the 
tail of their offspring, like the witch's " sark," as 
recorded by honest Tam o' Shanter, 

" In longitude is sorely scanty." 

In fact, it terminates abruptly at the length of a 
few inches, as if amputated, having altogether a 
very ludicrous appearance. G. TAYLOR. 

Heading. 

The breed of cats without tails is well known in 
the Isle of Man, and accounted by the people of the 
island one of its chief curiosities. These cats are 
sought after by strangers : the natives call them 
" Rumpies," or " Humpy Cats." Their hind legs 
are rather longer than those of cats with tails, and 
give them a somewhat rabbit-like aspect, which 
has given rise to the odd fancy that they are the 
descendants of a cross between a rabbit and cat. 
They are good mousers. When a perfectly tail- 
less cat is crossed with an ordinary-tailed indi- 
vidual, the progeny exhibit all intermediate states 
between tail and no tail. EDWARD FORBES. 

Waroitte (Vol. viii., p. 516.). 

*' Jacque Pierre Brissot was born on the 14th Jan., 
1754, in the village of Ouarville, near Chartres." 
Penny Cyclo. 

If your correspondent is a French scholar, he 
will perceive that Warville is, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the proper pronunciation of the name of this 
village, but that Brissot being merely the son of a 
poor pastry cook, had no right whatever to the name, 
which doubtless he bore merely as a distinction from 
some other Brissot. It may interest your Ame- 
rican friend to know, that he married Felicite 
Dupont, a young lady of good family at Boulogne. 
A relation of my own, who was very intimate with 
her before her marriage, has often described her 
to me as being of a very modest, retiring, religious 
disposition, very clever with her pencil, and as 
.having received a first-rate education from mas- 
ters in Paris. These gifts, natural and acquired, 
made her a remarkable young person, amidst the 
crowd of frivolous idlers who at that time formed 
" good society," not only in Paris, but even in 
provincial towns, of which Boulogne was not the 
least gay. Perhaps he knows already that she 
quickly followed her husband to the scaffold. Her 
sister (I believe the only one) married a Parisian 
gentleman named Aublay, and died at a great 
age about ten years ago. N. J. A. 

W is not a distinct letter in the French alpha- 
bet ; it is simply double , and is pronounced like 
v, as in Wissant, Wimireux, Wimille, villages be- 



tween Calais and Boulogne, and Wassy in Cham- 
pagne. W. R. D. S. 

Green Eyes (Vol. viii., p. 407.). The follow- 
ing are quotations in favour of green eyes, in ad- 
dition to MR. H. TEMPLE'S : 

" An eagle, madam, 
Hath not so green, so quick, so fair an eye." 

Romeo and Juliet, Act III. Sc. 5. 

And Dante, in Purgatory, canto xxxi., likens 
Beatrice's eyes to emeralds : 

" Disser : fa die le viste non risparmi : 
Posto t' avem dinanzi agli smeraldi, 
Ond' Amor gia ti trasse le sue armi." 

" Spare not thy vision. We have station'd thee 
Before the emeralds*, whence Love, erewhile, 
Hath drawn his weapons on thee." 

Gary's Translation. 

I think short-sightedness is an infirmity more 
common among men of letters, authors, &c., than 
any other class ; indeed, one is inclined to think 
it is no rare accompaniment of talent. A few ce- 
lebrated names occur to me who suffered weakness 
of distinct vision to see but the better near. I 
*am sure your correspondents could add many to the 
list. I mark them down at random : Niebuhr, 
Thomas Moore 1 , Marie Antoinette, Gustavus 
Adolphus, Herrick the poet, Dr. Johnson, Mar- 
garet Fuller, Ossoli, Thiers, Quevedo. These are 
but a few, but I will not lengthen the list at 
present. M A S. 

Came (Vol. viii., p. 468.). II. T. G. will find 
this word to be as old as our language. Piers 
Ploughman writes : 

" A cat 
Cam whan hym liked." 

Vision, 1. 298. 

" A lovely lady 
Cam doun from a castel." 

76. 1. 466. 
Chaucer : 

Till that he came to Thebes." 

Cant. T. 1. 985. '] 
Gower : 

" Thus (er he wiste) into a dale 
He came." 

Conf. Am. b. i. fol. 9. p. 2. col. 1. 

Q. 

" Epitaphium Lucretia " (Vol. viii., p. 563.). 
Allow me to send an answer to the Query of BAL- 
LIOLENSIS, and to state that in that rather scarce 
little book, Epigrammata et Poematia Vetera, he 
will find at page 68. that "Epitaphium Lucretise" 
is ascribed to Modestus, perhaps the same person 
who wrote a work de re militari. The version 



* Beatrice's eyes. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



there given differs slightly from that of BALLIO- 
LENSIS, and has two more lines ; it is as follows : 
" Cum foderet ferro castum Lucretia pectus, 

Sanguinis et torrens egereretur, ait : 
Procedant testes me non favisse tyranno, 
Ante virum sanguis, spiritus ante deos. 
Quam recte hi testes pro me post fata loquentur, 
Alter apud manes, alter apud superos." 

Perhaps the following translation may not be un- 
acceptable : 

" When thro' her breast the steel Lucretia thrust, 
She said, while forth th' ensanguin'd torrent gush'd ; 
From me that no consent the tyrant knew, 
To my spouse my blood, to heaven my soul shall 

show ; 

And thus in death these witnesses shall prove, 
My innocence, to shades below, and Powers above.' " 

C S.T.P. 

Oxford Commemoration Squib, 1849 (Vol. viii., 
p. 584.)- Quoted incorrectly. The heading stands 
thus : 

" LIBERTY ! EQUALITY ! FRATERNITY !" 

After the name of " Wri^htson" add "(Queen's) ;" 
and at the foot of the bill " Floreat Lyceum." I 
quote from a copy before me. W. P. STOKER. 
Olney, Bucks. 

"Imp" (Vol. vlii., p. 623.). Perhaps as amus- 
ing a use of the word imp as can be found any- 
where occurs in old Bacon, in his " Pathway unto 
Prayer" (see Early Writings, Parker Society, 
p. 187.) : 

" Let us pray for the preservation of the King's 
most excellent Majesty, and for the prosperous success 
of his entirely beloved son Edward our Prince, that 
most angelic imp." 

P.P. 

False Spellings from Sound (Vol. vi., p. 29.). 
The observations of MB. WAYNES deserve to be 
enlarged by numerous examples, and to be, to a 
certain extent, corrected. He has not brought 
clearly into view two distinct classes of " false 
spelling" under which the greater part of such 
mistakes may be arranged. One class arose solely 
from erroneous pronunciation ; the second from 
intentional alteration. I will explain my meaning 
by two examples, both which are, I believe, in 
MR. WAYLEN'S list. 

The French expression dent de lion stands for a 
certain plant, and some of the properties of that 
plant originated the name. When an Englishman 
calls the same plant Dandylion, the sound has not 
given birth " to a new idea " in his mind. Surely, 
he pronounces badly three French words of which 
he may know the meaning, or he may not. But 
when the same Englishman, or any other, orders 
sparrow-grass for dinner, these two words contain 



" a new idea," introduced purposely : either he, or 
some predecessor, reasoned thus there is no 
meaning in asparagus; sparrow-grass must be 
the right word because it makes sense. The name 
of a well-known place in London illustrates both 
these changes : Convent Garden becomes Covent 
Garden by mispronunciation ; it becomes Common 
Garden by intentional change. 

Mistakes of the first class are not worth record- 
ing ; those of the second fall under this general 
principle : words are purposely exchanged for 
others of a similar sound, because the latter are 
supposed to recover a lost meaning. 

I have by me several examples which I will 
send you if you think the subject worth pursuing. 

J. O. B. 

Wicken. 

" Good wine needs no bush " (Vol. viii., p. 607.). 
The custom of hanging out bushes of ivy, 
boughs of trees, or bunches of flowers, at private 
houses, as a sign that good cheer may be had 
within, still prevails in the city of Gloucester at 
the fair held at Michaelmas, called Barton Fair, 
from the locality; and at the three "mops," or 
hiring fairs, on the three Mondays following, to 
indicate that ale, beer, cider, &c. are there sold, 
on the strength (I believe) of an ancient privilege 
enjoyed by the inhabitants of that street to sell 
liquors, without the usual license, during the fair. 

BROOK.THORPE. 

Three Fleurs-de-Lys (Vol. ix., p. 35.). In 
reply to the Query of DEVONIENSIS, I would say 
that many families of his own county bore fleurs- 
de-lys in their coat armour, in the forms of two 
and one, and on a lend; also that the heraldic 
writers, Robson and Burke, assign a coat to the 
family of Baker charged with three fleurs-de-lys 
on a fesse. The Devon family of Velland bore, 
Sable, a fesse argent, in chief three fleurs-de-lys of 
the last ; but whether these bearings were ever 
placed fesse-wise, or, as your querist terms it, in a 
horizontal line, I am not sure. J. D. S. 

If DEVONIENSIS will look at the arms of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, he will there find the three 
fleurs-de-lys in a line in the upper part of the 
shield. A. B. 

Athenaeum. 

Portrait of Plowden (Vol. ix., p. 56.). A por- 
trait of Plowden (said to have been taken from 
his monument in the Temple Church) is prefixed 
to the English edition of his Reports, published in, 
1761. J. G. 

Exon. 

St. Stephen's Day and Mr. Rileys " Hoveden " 
(Vol. viii., p. 637.). The statement of this feaafe 
being observed prior to Christmas must have 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 223. 



arisen from the translator not being conversant 
with the technical terms of the Ecclesiastical Ca- 
lendar, in which, as the greater festivals are cele- 
brated with Octaves, other feasts falling during 
the Octave are said to be under (infra) the 
greater solemnity. Thus, if MR. WARDEN will 
consult the Or do Reciiandi Ojficii Divini for 1834, 
he will see that next Sunday, the 8th inst., stands 
" Dom inf. Oct.," i. e. of the Epiphany, and that 
the same occurs on other days during the year. 

May I point out an erratum in a Query inserted 
some time since (not yet replied to), regarding a 
small castle near Kingsgate, Thanet, the name of 
which is printed Aix Ruochim ; it should be Arx 
Ruochim. A. O. H. 

Blackheath. 

Death Warnings in Ancient Families (Vol. ix., 
p. 55.). A brief notice of these occurrences, with 
references to works where farther details may be 
met with, would form a very remarkable record 
of events which tend to support one's belief in 
the truth of the remark of Hamlet : 

" There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 
Than are dreamt of in our philosophy." 

A drummer is stated to be heard in C 

Castle, the residence of the Earl and Countess of 
A., "going about the house playing his drum, 
whenever there is a death impending in the 
family." This warning is asserted to have been 
given shortly before the decease of the Earl's first 
wife, and preceded the death of the next Countess 
about five or six months. Mrs. Crowe, in her 
Night Side of Nature, observes hereupon : 

" I have heard that a paper was found in her (the 
Countess's) desk after her death, declaring her convic- 
tion that the drum was for her." 

Whenever a little old woman visits a lady of the 
family of G. of R., at the time of her confinement, 
when the nurse is absent, and strokes down the 
clothes, the patient (says Mrs. Crowe), " never 
does any good, and dies." Another legend is, that 
a single swan is always seen on a particular lake 
close to the mansion of another family before a 
death. Then, Lord Littleton's dove is a well- 
known incident. And the lady above quoted 
speaks of many curious warnings of death by the 
appearance of birds, as well as of a spectral black 
dog, which visited a particular- family in Cornwall 
immediately before the death of any of its mem- 
bers. Having made this Note of a few more 
cases of death warnings, I will end with a Query 
in the words of Mrs. Crowe, who, after detailing 
the black dog apparition, asks : " if this pheno- 
menon is the origin of the French phrase bete 
noire, to express an annoyance, or an augury of 
evil ? " JAS. J. SCOTT. 

Hampstead. 



" The Secunde Personne of the Trinitie" (Vol.ix., 
p. 56.). I think it is Hobart Seymour who 
speaks of some Italians of the present day as con- 
sidering the Three Persons of the Trinity to be 
the Father, the Virgin, and the Son. J. P. O. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Mr. Wright's varied antiquarian acquirements, and 
his untiring zeal, are too well known to require recog- 
nition from us. We may therefore content ourselves with 
directing attention to his Wanderings of an Antiquary, 
chiefly upon the Traces of the Romans in Britain, which 
has just been published, and of which the greater part 
has appeared in a series of papers under the same title 
in the Gentleman's Magazine. It is intended to fur- 
nish, in a popular form, a few archaeological truths 
which may foster a love of our national antiquities 
among those who are less likely to be attracted by dry 
dissertations : and its gossiping character and pretty 
woodcuts are well calculated to promote this object. 

This endeavour to make the study of antiquities 
popular, naturally calls our attention to a small and 
very agreeable volume on the subject of what Brand 
designated Popular Antiquities. We refer to the last 
volume of Bohn's Illustrated Library. It is from the 
pen of Mary Hfowitt, and is entitled the Pictorial 
Calendar of the Seasons, exhibiting the Pleasures, Pur- 
suits, and Characteristics of Country Life for every 
Month of the Fear, and embodying the whole of Aik'nCs 
Calendar of Nature. It is embellished with upwards 
of one hundred engravings on wood ; and what the 
authoress says of its compilation, viz. that it was " like 
a walk through a rich summer garden," describes 
pretty accurately the feelings of the reader. But, as 
we must find some fault, where is the Index ? 

We have received from Birmingham a work most 
creditable to all concerned in its production, and which 
will be found of interest to such of our readers as 
devote their attention to county or family history. It 
is entitled A History of the Holtes of Aston, Barontts, 
with a Description of the Family Mansion, Aston Hall, 
Warwickshire, by Alfred Davidson, with Illustrations 
from Drawings by Allan E. Everitt ; and whether we 
regard the care with which Mr. Davidson has executed 
the literary portion of the work, the artistic skill of 
the draughtsman, or the manner in which the publisher 
has brought it out, we may safely pronounce it a 
volume well deserving the attention of topographers 
generally, and of Warwickshire topographers in especial. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Folious Appearances; A Con- 
sideration, on our Ways of lettering Boohs. Few lovers 
of old books and good binding will begrudge half a 
florin for this quaint opuscule Indications of Instinct, 
by T. Lindley Kemp, the new number of the Tra- 
veller's Library, is an interesting supplement to Dr. 
Kemp's former contribution to the same series, The 
Natural History of Creation. We record, for the in- 
formation of our meteorological friends, the receipt of 
a Daily Weather Journal for the Year 1853, kept at Is- 
lington by Mr. Simpson. 



FEB. 4. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TURKS IN EUROPE. By Lord John 
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Of SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS, without the Notes, Constable's 
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Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent 
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Vol. 



Edited 



THE ACTS AND MONUMENTS OF JOHN FOXE. 

by Rev. S. Cattley. Seeley and Burnside. 
VOLTAIRE'S WORKS. Vol.1. Translated by Smollett. Francklin, 

London, 1761. 
ECCLESIOLOGIST. Vol. V. In Numbers or unbound. 

Wanted by E. Hailstone, Horton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



PKNNY CYCLOPEDIA, from Part CVII. inclusive, to the end. 

Wanted by Rev. F. N. Mills, 11 . Cunningham Place, St. John's 
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BURTON'S EXCERPTA HIKROGLYPHICA. 
WILKINSON'S MATERIA HIEROGLYPHICA. 

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GENUINE AND IMPARTIAL MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND CHARAC- 
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any erroneous or partial accounts to the prejudice of this un- 
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sold by E. Cole. 1746. 

Wanted by Mr. Douglas, 16. Russell Square, London. 



ta 



COL. CHARTERIS or CHARTRES. Our Correspondent who in- 
quires for particulars respecting this monster of depravity is 
referred to Pope's Works, edit. 1736, vol. ii. p. 24. of the Ethic 
Epistles. Also to the following works: The History of Col. 
Francis Charteris from his Birth to his present Catastrophe in 
Newgate, \to. 1730; Memoirs of the Life and Actions of Col. 
Ch - s, 8vo. 1730 ; Life of Col. Don Francisco, with a wood-cut 
portrait of Col. Charteris or Chartres, 8vo. 

N. On the " Sun's rays putting out the fire," see Vol. vii., 
pp. 285. 345. 439. 

R. V. T. An excellent tract may be had for a few pence on 
The History of Pews, a paper read before the Cambridge Cnmden 
Society, 1841 : see also " N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 56., and Vol. viii., 
p. 127. 

C. K. P. (Bishop's Stortford). We candidly admit that your 
results upon waxed paper are much like our own, for no certainty 
has at present attended our endeavours. If the paper is made 
sensitive, then it behaves exactly as yours has done ; and if fallow- 
ing other formulae, we use a less sensitive paper, then the exposure 
is so long and tedious that ire are not anxious to pursue Photo- 
graphy in so "slow a phase." Why not adopt and abide by the 
simplicity of the caloti/pe process as given in a late Number f In 
the writer's possession we have seen nearly a hundred consecutive 
negatives without a failure. 

W. S. P. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne). Filtered rain-water is far 
the best to use in making your iodized paper. The appearances 
which you describe in all probability depend upon the different 
sheets resting too firmly upon one another, so that the water has 
not free and even access to the whole sheet. 

H. J. (Norwich). Turner's paper is now quite a precarious 
article ; a specimen which has come to us of his recent matte is 
full of spots, and the negative useless. Towgood's is admirable for 
positives, but it does not appear to do well for i >dizing. We hope 
to be soon able to say something cheering to Photographers upon 
a good paper ! 

Errata. MR. P. H. FISHER wishes to correct an error in his 
article on " The Court-house at Painswick," Vol. viii., p. 596., 
col. 2., for " The lodge, an old wooden house," read " stone 
house." Also in his article in Vol. ix., p. 8., col. 2., for " Rev. 
Hook," read " Rev. Stock." 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that 
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X 

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Just published, in 8vo., price la. 

BREVES TRACTATUS. 

De Prirnis Episcopis. S. Petri Alexan- 
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commemoratur. Recensuit MARTIMUS JO- 
SEPHUS ROUTH, S.T.P., Collegii S. Mag- 
dalenae, Oxon. Prases. 

Oxonii: apud JOHANNEM HENRICUM 
PARKER. 



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PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 
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The words selected by the Very Rev. II. H. 
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London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, February 4. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTERCOMMUNICATION 

FOE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

* WHea found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLK. 



No. 224.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11. 1854. 



f Price Fonrpence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 

NOTES : Page 

Eliminate, by C. Mansfield Ingleby - 119 
Cranmer's Bible - - - - 1 19 

Sovereigns Dining and Supping in 

Public - - - - 120 

Parallel Ideas from Poets, by Norris 

Deck 121 

The great Alphabetic Psalm, and the 

Songs of Degrees, by T.J. Bucktoh - 121 

.MINOR NOTES : Inscription on a 
Grave-stone in Whittlebury Church- 
yard, Northamptonshire Epitaph 
on Sir Henry St. George Newton 
and Milton _ Eternal Life Inscrip- 
tions in Books Churchill's Grave - 122 

QUERIES: 

Coronation Stone - - - - 123 
Old Mereworth Castle, Kent - - 121 

MINOR QUERIES : " I could not love 
thee, dear, so much" Leicester as 
fRanger of Snowdeu Crabb of Tels- 
ford Tolling the Bell while the 
Congregation is leaving Church 
O'Brien of Thosmond _ Order of St. 
David of Wales Warple-way 
Purlet Liveries, Red and Scarlet 
Dr. Bragge Chauncy, or Chancy 
Plaster Casts 2ip Dogs in Monu- 
mental Brasses - 125 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Marquis of Granby " Memorials 
of English Affairs," &c. Standing 
when the Lord's Prayer is read 
Hypocrisy, &c. - - - - 127 

HE PLIES : 

" Consilium Novem Delectorum Cardi- 

nalium," &c., by B. B. Woodward - 127 

John Bunyan, by George Offor - - 129 

The Asteroids, &c., by J. Wm. Harris - 129 

Caps at Cambridge, by C. II. Cooper - 130 
Russia, Turkey, and the Black Sea, by 

John Macray - 132 
High Dutch and Low Dutch, by Pro- 
fessor Goedes de GrUter - - 132 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE: The 
Calotype on the Sea-shore - - 134 

HEPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: Ned 0* 
the Todding Hour-glasses and In- 
scriptions on Old Pulpits Table- 
turning "Firm was their faith" 
The Wilbraham Cheshire MS. _ 
Mousehunt Begging the Question 

Termination " -by " German 
Tree Celtic Etymology Recent 
Curiosities of Literature _ D. O. M. 

Dr. John Taylor Lines attributed 
to Hudibras " Corporations have no 
Souls," &c Lord Mayor of London 
a Privy Councillor Booty's Case 
"Sat cito, si sat bene " Celtic and 
Latin Languages Brydone the Tour- 
ist's Birth-place - 135 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 138 
Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 138 
Is otices to Correspondents - - 139 



VOL. IX ISTo. 224. 



SCIENTIFIC RECREATION FOR YOUTH 
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A LL WORKS published under 

I\. the Title SCOTT'S POETICAL 
WORKS are IMPERFECT and INCOM- 
PLETE, unless they bear the Imprint of 
ROBE HT C ADELL, or ADAM & CHARLES 
BLACK, Edinburgh. 

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118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



PUBLISHED BY 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1854. 



ELIMINATE. 

(Vol. v., p. 317.) 

" N. & Q." has from time to time done much 
good service by holding up to reprobation modern 
and growing corruptions of the English language. 
I trust that its columns may be open to one more 
attempt to rescue from abuse the word which 
stands at the head of this article. 

Its signification, whether sought from Latin 
usage and etymology, or from the works of English 
mathematicians, is "to turn out of doors," "to 
oust," or, as we say in the midland counties, "to 
get shut of." In French it may be rendered as 
well by se defaire as by eliminer. Within the 
last seven or eight years, however, this valuable 
spoil of dead Latinity has been strangely per- 
verted, and, through the ignorance or carelessness 
of writers, it has bidden fair to take to itself two 
significations utterly distinct from its derivation, 
viz. to " elicit," and to " evaluate." The former 
signification, if less vicious, is more commonly 
used than the latter. I append examples of both 
from three of the most elegant writers of the day. 
In the third extract the word under consideration 
is used in the latter sense ; in the other extracts it 
carries the former. 

Lectures on the Philosophical Tendencies of the 
Age, by J. D. Morrell, London, 1848, p. 41. : 

" Had the men of ancient times, when they peopled 
the universe with deities, a deeper perception of the 
religious element in the mind, than had Newton, when 
having eliminated the great law of the natural creation, 
his enraptured soul burst forth into the infinite and 
adored ? " 

I take one more illustration (among many 
others) from pp. 145, 146. of this work : 

" It would not be strictly speaking correct to call 
them philosophical methods, because a philosophical 
method only exists when any tendency works itself 
clear, and gives rise to a formal, connected, and logical 
system of rules, by which we are to proceed in the 
elimination of truth." 

The Eclipse of Faith, by Professor Rogers, 
London, 1852, p. 392. : 

" They are now at college, and have imbibed in 
different degrees that curious theory which professedly 
recognises Christianity (as consigned to the New Tes- 
tament) as a truly divine revelation, yet asserts that it 
is intermingled with a large amount of error and ab- 
surdity, and tells each man to eliminate the divine 
element ' for himself. According to this theory, the 
problem of eliciting revealed truth may be said to be 
indeterminate, the value of the unknown varies through 



all degrees of magnitude ; it is equal to any thing, 
equal to every thing, equal to nothing, equal to in- 
finity." 

Theological Essays, by F. D. Maurice, Cam- 
bridge, 1853, p. 89. : 

" Let us look, therefore, courageously at the popular 
dogma, that there are certain great ideas floating in 
the vast ocean of traditions which the old world ex- 
hibits to us, that the gospel appropriated some of 
these, and that we are to detect them and eliminate 
them from its own traditions." 

But for the fact that such writers hav^ given 
the weight of their names to so unparalleled a 
blunder, it would seem almost childish to occupy 
the columns of a literary periodical with exposing 
it. It is, however, somewhat singular that it 
should be principally men of classical attainments 
who perpetrate it. In my under-graduate days at 
Cambridge, the proneness of " classical men " to 
commit the blunder in question was proverbial. 

In conclusion, then, let it be remembered that 
the word " eliminate " obtained general currency 
from the circumstance of its being originally ad- 
mitted into mathematical works. In such works 
elimination signifies the process of causing a 
function to disappear from an equation, the so- 
lution of which would be embarrassed by its pre- 
sence there. In other writings the word " elimi- 
nation " has but one correct signification, viz. "the 
extrusion of that which is superfluous or irrele- 
vant." As an example of this legitimate use of the 
word, I will quote from Sir William Hamilton's 
accurate, witty, and learned article on " Logic," 
published in the Edinburgh Review, April, 1833 : 

" The preparatory step of the discussion was, there- 
fore, an elimination of these less precise and appropriate 
significations, which, as they could at best only afford 
a remote genus and difference, were wholly incompe- 
tent for the purpose of a definition." 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 



CRANMER'S BIBLE. 

Queries which I have heard at various timesr 
lead me to think that a Note on this interesting 
volume may be acceptable to many readers who 
possess or have access to it; and especially to 
those whose copies may be (as too many are) 
imperfect at the beginning and end. Under this 
impression I send you an extract from the late 
Mr. Lea Wilson's catalogue of his unrivalled Col- 
lection of English Bibles. As very few copies of 
this curious and beautiful work were printed, and 
not one, I believe, has been sold, it is probable 
that few of your readers are aware of the criteria 
which that gentleman's ingenuity and industry 
have furnished for distinguishing between the 



120 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 224. 



various editions which are known under the title 
of The Great Bible, or Crammer's Bible. He 
begins his description of the edition of April, 
1539, thus: 

" As this volume is commonly called the First Edi- 
tion of Cranmer's or the Great Bible, I class it with 
the Six following; although in fact the Archbishop 
had nothing whatever to do with either the translation 
or publication. It was put forth entirely by Thomas 
Lord Cromwell, vide Herbert's Amen, p. 1550. vol. iii., 
who employed Coverdale to revise the existing trans- 
lations. The first wherein Cranmer took any part is 
the large folio of April 1540, the text of which differs 
from this edition materially. The pages of this volume 
and of the four next following begin and end alike ; 
and the general appearance of the whole five is so very 
similar that at first sight, one may be mistaken for 
another by those ignorant of the fact that they are all 
separate and distinct impressions : the whole of the 
titles, of which there are five in each Book, and every 
leaf of kalendar, prologue, text, and tables being en- 
tirely recomposed, and varying throughout in ortho- 
graphy, &c. The desire to make perfect copies out of 
several imperfect, has also caused extreme confusion, by 
uniting portions of different editions without due re- 
gard to their identity. These remarks apply equally 
to the editions of Nov. 1540, and Nov. 1541, of which, 
in like manner, each page begins and ends with the 
same words. Although the distinctive marks are 
very numerous, yet being chiefly typographical orna- 
ments or arrangement, it is impossible to give here suf- 
ficient guides to ensure the integrity of each volume." 
Page 12. 

On the next page but one is added : 

" The following lines of the forty-first chapter of Job 
differ in composition in all the seven volumes, and for 
the purpose of distinguishing the edition I have given 
them to each." 

No. 1. April, 1539. 

n<& ma te $Q cruel!, tljat 
to tere I) tin bp. * Wqa 
toStanfcejbefore me? 
Ijatf) geue me angtljing afore 
fjaitite, tljat 3 mawe reuiarUe 
Stmagagne? 

No. 2. April, 1540. 

n man f3 crucll, g* 
to stere f)t bp. * 
to statte Before me? 
f)atl) geuen we aug tljiwg a 
fore Ijaae, g 1 mawe refcoar* 
tie f)tm agawte ? 



aBIe 
aBIe 



aBIe 
aBIe 



II 



No. 3. July, 1540. 

B man te cruell, w 4 te aBIe 
to stere Ijmn bp. ~*tof)0 ig 
aBIe to ta >tfe Before me ? <&r 
J to 1)0 Ijatf) geuen me ang 
tljguge aforeijanoe, tfjat 3E 
mage retoarae I) tin agagne? 



No. 4. .Mn/, 1541. 

rC9 man i cruell, tljat fc Ija- 

M Ble to stgrre fjgm bp. *S2IOo te 

w I;aBIe to itan%r Before me? c9r 

1 tirjljo Ijatlj geuc me ang tl)tng 

i aforeljantfr, tljat 3E mage re^ 

iuartfe Ijgm agagne ? 11 i 

.ZVb. 5. December, 1541. 

'%T<& ma i $a cruel, tljat 

1 to atgrre Ijgm bp. 

W IjaBIe to ^tantr Before me? <9r 

I t ^-1)0 ljatl)c gmten me ange 

tljiwge afare pantJe, tfjat S 
mane retoarfte tym agamic? 

No. 6. November, 1540. 

| man t^ ^o cruell tljat te aBIe to 

1| Ijgm bp. * iOTjo t^ aBIe to ^tantfe Be- 

a fore me? C9r ^ to^o Ijatlj geuen me ang 

tf)!?iiQ afore Ijantfe, tljat mage re* 

JVy. 7. November, 1541. 

man itf s'o cruell tfjat i$ JjaBIe to 
tftgrre fjgjn bp. *iiIH^o te ftaBle ta 
jStanoe Before me ? (9r J toljo l;atlj gg- 
ueii me ang tljgng afore ijanoe, tiit 
i mage retoaroe ggm agagne? ^11 

I believe the foregoing to be an exact copy of 
Mr. Wilson's catalogue, but, of course, I cannot 
be responsible for the accuracy of his transcripts. 
Perhaps none but those who were admitted to his 
library ever had an opportunity of comparing to- 
gether all those editions ; and nobody would have 
done it with more care and fidelity than himself. 

S. Pv. M. 



SOVEREIGNS DINING AND SUPPING IN PUBLIC. 

In some observations which I made upon two 
or three pictures in Hampton Court Palace, in 
Vol. viii., p. 538 , I specified two worthy of notice 
on the above subject, and which are the first 
instances of such ceremony I have met with. It 
has been supposed to have been a foreign custom, 
but I do not find any traces of it upon record.* 



[* The custom was observed at a much earlier 
period; for we find that King Edward II. and his 
queen Isabella of France kept their court at West- 
minster during the Whitsuntide festival of 1317 : and 
on one occasion, as they were dining in public in the 
great banqueting-hall, a woman in a mask entered on 
horseback, and riding up to the royal table, delivered 
a letter to King Edward, who, imagining that it con- 
tained some pleasant, conceit or elegant compliment, 
ordered it to be opened and read aloud for the amuse- 
ment of his courtiers ; but, to his great mortification, 
it was a cutting satire on his unkingly propensities, 
setting forth in no measured terms all the calamities 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



One can easily imagine that the fastueux Louis 
XIV. would have no objection to such display, 
and that his mistresses, as well as queen, would 
be of the party, when we read, that in the royal 
progresses two of the former were scandalously 
paraded in the same carriage with his queen. To 
this immoral exhibition, indeed, public opinion 
seemed to give no check, as we read, that " les 
peuples accouraient 'pourvoir,' disaient-ils, 'les 
trois reines,' " wherever they appeared together. 
Of these three queens, the true one was Marie- 
Therese: the two others were La Marquise de 
Montespan and Mme. de la Valliere. But. to re- 
turn to my subject. I find by the London Gazette, 
No. 6091. of Sept. 4, 1722, that Geo. I., in his 
progress to the west of England, supped in public 
at the Bishop's (Dr. Richard Willis) palace at 
Salisbury on Wednesday, Aug. 29, 1722 ; and 
slept there that night. 

The papers of the period of George II. say : 

" There was such a resort to Hampton Court on 
Sunday, July 14, 1728, to see their Majesties dine, 
that the rail surrounding the table broke ; and causing 
some to fall, made a terrible scramble for hats, &c., at 
which their Majesties laughed heartily." 

And, 

" On Thursday, the 25th of the same month, it is 
stated, the concourse to see their Majesties dine in 
public at Hampton Court was exceedingly great. A 
gang of robbers (the swell-mob of that day?) had 
mixed themselves among the nobility and gentry; 
several gold watches being lost, besides the ladies' 
gown tails and laced lappets cut off in number." 

And again : 

" On Sunday, 15th September, 1728, their Majesties 
dined together in public at Windsor (as they will con- 
tinue to do every Sunday and Thursday during their 
stay there), when all the country people, whether in or 
out of mourning, were permitted to see them." 

Besides those three occasions of George II. and 
Queen Caroline dining in public, we have another 
recorded attended with some peculiar circum- 
stances!, as mentioned in the London Gazette, 
No. 7623. of Tuesday, Aug. 2, 1737 : 

" The 31st ult. being Sunday, their Majesties, the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Princesses Amelia 
and Caroline, went to chapel at Hampton Court, and 
heard a sermon preached by the Rev. Dr. Blomer. 
Their Majesties, and the rest of the royal family, dined 
afterwards in public as usual before a great number of 

which his misgovernment had brought upon England. 
The woman was immediately taken into custody, and 
confessed that she had been employed by a certain 
knight. The knight boldly acknowledged what he 
had done, and said, " That, supposing the King would 
read the letter in private, he took that method of ap- 
prising him of the complaints of his subjects." Strick- 
land's Queens of England, vol. i. p. 487 ED.] 



spectators. About seven o'clock that evening, the 
Princess of Wales was taken with some slight symptoms 
of approaching labour, and was removed to St. James's ; 
where, a little after eleven, she was delivered of a 
princess." 

This was the Princess Augusta, who was married 
to the Prince of Brunswick Wolfenbiittel. J>. 

Richmond. 



PARALLEL IDEAS FROM POETS. 

Longfellow and Tennyson : 

" And like a lily on a river floating, 
She floats upon the river of his thoughts." 

Spanish Student, Act II. Se. 3. 

" Now folds the lily all her sweetness up, 
And slips into the bosom of the lake ; 
So fold thyself, my dearest, thou, and slip 
Into my bosom and be lost in me." 

Princess, Part vii. 
Wordsworth and Keble : 

" A book, upon whose leaves some chosen plants 
By his own hand disposed with nicest care, 
In undecaying beauty were preserved ; 
Mute register, to him, of time and place, 
And various fluctuations in the breast; 
To her, a monument of faithful love 
Conquered, and in tranquillity retained !" 

Excursion, Book vi. 

" Like flower-leaves in a precious volume stor'd, 

To solace and relieve 

Some heart too weary of the restless world." 
Christian Year : Prayers to be used at Sea.. 

Moore and Keble : 

" Now by those stars that glance 
O'er Heaven's still expanse, 
Weave we our mirthful dance, 
Daughters of Zea ! " 

Evenings in Greece. 
" Beneath the moonlight sky, 
The festal warblings flow'd, 
Where maidens to the Queen of Heaven 
Wove the gay dance." 
Christian Year ; Eighth Sunday after Trinity. 

NORRIS DECK. 
Cambridge. 



THE GREAT ALPHABETIC PSALM, AND THE SONGS 
OF DEGREES. 

In attempting to discover a reason for the di- 
vision of Psalm cxix. into twenty-two portions of 
eight verses each, instead of seven or ten, the more 
favourite numbers of the Hebrew, I have thought 
that, as the whole Psalm is chiefly laudatory of the 
Thorah, or Law of Moses, and was written alpha- 
betically for the instruction mainly of the younger- 
people, to be by them committed to memory, a 



122 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 224. 



didactic reason might exist for making up the 
total number of 176 verses, peculiar to this Psalm. 
Adverting then to the necessity, for the purposes 
of Jewish worship, of ascertaining the periods of 
the new moons, to adjust the year thereby, I find 
that a mean lunation, as determined by the latest 
authorities, is very nearly 29'5306 days (29d. 12h. 
44m.) ; and as the Jewish months were lunar, six 
of these would amount to 177d. 4h. 24m., being 
somewhat more than one over the number of 
verses in this Psalm. As lunations, from ob- 
servation, vary from 29d. 7h. 32m. to 29d. 18h. 
50m., the above was a very close approximation 
to the half-year. The other half of the year would 
vary a whole lunation (Veadar) betwixt the or- 
dinary and the intercalary year.* This was, at 
least, the best possible combination of twenty-two 
letters for such purpose. This Psalm might then 
have answered some of the purposes of an almanac. 
It is a very important one in fixing the Hebrew 
metres, the initial letter being the same for every 
eight verses in succession. 

The words at the commencement of Psalms cxx. 
to cxxxiv., rendered " Song of Degrees," appear 
to me to signify rather " song of ascents" in re- 
ference to the Jewish practice of ascending to the 
house-top to watch and pray, as well as to sleep. 
If it be assumed that these fifteen Psalms were ap- 
propriated for domestic use on the Jew retiring, 
by ascending the ladder or stairs, to the upper 
part or top of the house (Ps. cxxxii. 3.), the 
meaning of several passages will be better appre- 
hended, I conceive, than by supposing that they 
were composed solely for temple use, or, as Eich- 
horn thinks, to be sung on a journey. Standing 
on the house-top, the praying Jew, like David and 
Solomon, would have in view heaven and earth 
(cxxi. 2., cxxiii. 1.), the sun and moon (cxxi. 6.), 
the surrounding hills (cxxi. 1.) and mountains 
(cxxv. 2.), the gates and city of Jerusalem 
(cxxii. 2. 3. 7.), Mount Zion (cxxv. 1.), the watch- 
men on the walls (cxxvii. 1., cxxx. 6.), his wife 
and children at home (cxxviii. 3., cxxxi. 2.), the 
mower bringing in his sheaves, compared with the 
grass on the house-tops (cxxix. 68.), all subjects 
especially noted in these fifteen Psalms. The 
number eight appears to be a favourite one in 
these, as well as in Psalm cxix., but there is no 
reason to believe that such number refers to the 
octave in music. It mayv refer, however, to the 
number of stairs or steps of ascent. I am not 
aware that the above views have been previously 
taken, which is my reason for calling attention to 
this interesting and well-debated subject. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 



* Their shortest ordinary year consisted of 353, and 
its half of 176^ days. The Mahometan ordinary half- 
year consists of 177 days. The calendar months of 
both Jews and Mahometans consist of 29 and 30 days. 



Inscription on a Grave-stone in Whittlebury 
Churchyard, Northamptonshire. 

" In Memory of John Heath, he dy'd Dec br y e 17 th , 

1767. Aged 27 years. 
While Time doth run from Sin depart ; 
Let none e'er shun Death's piercing dart ; 
For read and look, and you will see 
A wondrous change was wrought on me. 
For while I lived in joy and mirth 
Grim Death came in and stop't my breath: 
For I was single in the morning light, 
By noon was marri'd, and was dead at night." 

H. T. WAKE. 

Epitaph on Sir Henry St. George, Garter 
Principal King of Englishmen [sic in MS.], from 
a MS. in the Office of Arms, London (see Bal- 
lard MSS., vol. xxix.) : 

" Here lie a knight, a king, a saint, 
Who lived by tilt and tournament. 
His namesake, George, the dragon slew, 
But, give the herald king his due, 
He could disarm ten thousand men, 
And give them arms and shields again. 
But now the mighty sire is dead, 
Reposing here his hoary head ; 
Let this be sacred to the mem'ry 
Of Knight St. George and of King Henry." 

BALLIOLENSIS. 

Newton and Milton. Has it been observed 
that Sir Isaac Newton's dying words, so often 
quoted, 

" I am but as a child gathering pebbles on the sea- 
shore, while the great ocean of truth still lies undisco- 
vered before me." 

are merely an adaptation of a passage in Paradise 

Regained, book iv. : 

" Deep versed in books and shallow in himself, 
Crude or intoxicate, collecting toys 
And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge, 
As children gathering pebbles on the shore." 

ANON. 

Eternal Life. In the Mishna (Berachoth, 
ch. ix. s. 5.) the doctrine of a future eternal state 
is clearly set forth in a passage which is rendered 
by De Sola and Raphali : 

" But since the Epicureans perversely taught, there 
is but one state of existence, it was directed that men 
should close their benedictions with the form [Blessed 
be the Lord God of Israel] from eternity to eternity." 

A like explicit declaration of such future state 
occurs again in the Mishna, (Sanhedrin, ch. xi. s. 1.). 

T. J. BUCKTON. 
Birmingham. 

Inscriptions in Books. The following are taken 
eratim from the margins of an old black-letter 



literatim 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



123 



Bible. From the numerous errors we may sup- 
pose they were copied from dictation by a person 
unacquainted with Latin. 
" Quanto doctiores tanto te gesas submiseias." 
Forasmuch as y u art y e better learned, 
By so much y u must carry thy self more lowly." 

" Si deus est animus nohis ut carmina dicunt, 
Sic tihi pricipus (bus?) sit pura mente colendus." 

" Seing y* God is, as y e poets say, 
A liveing soul, lets worship him alway." 

" Tempora (e?) felici multa (i?) numerantur amici, 
Cum fortuna pent nulus amicus erit." 

" In time of prosperity friends will be plenty, 
In time of adversity not one among twenty." 

On the title-page, " John Threlkeld's Book : " 
" Hujus in dominum cupius (as?) cognescere libri, 
Supra prospiscias, nomen habebis ibi." 

" Whose booke I am if you would know, 
I will to you in letters show." 

On the other side : 

" Thomas Threlkeld is my name, and for to write . . 

. . ing ashame, 

And if my pen had bene any better, I would have 
mended it every letter." 

This last example closely resembles some others 
given in a late Number of " N. & Q." J. R. G. 
Dublin. 



ChurchiWs Grave. It is not perhaps generally 
known, that the author of The Rosciad was buried 
in the churchyard of St. Mary, Dover. On a 
small moss-covered head-stone is the following 
inscription : 

" 1764. 

Here lie the remains of the celebrated 
C. CHURCHILL." 

" Life to the last enjoy'd, 
Here Churchill lies. 

CANDIDATE." 

The notice is sufficiently brief ; no date, except 
the year, nor age being recorded. The biogra- 
phers inform us, that he died at Boulogne of a 
fever, while on a visit to Wilkes. 

The cemetery where his remains are deposited 
is in the centre almost of Dover ; and has recently 
been closed for the purposes of sepulture, with 
the exception of family vaults. Adjoining it is a 
small retired burial-place, containing at the most 
but two or three graves, and originally belonging 
to the Tavenors. Here is the tomb of Captain 
Samuel Tavenor, an officer of Cromwell, and, 
during his ascendancy, one of the governors of 
Deal Castle. Tavenor was a man distinguished 
for his courage, integrity, and piety. J. BRENT. 



CORONATION STONE 

A few years ago the following tradition was re- 
lated to me by a friend, and I should be glad if 
any of your correspondents can inform me whether 
it is current in any part of Great Britain or Ire- 
land, and whether there are any grounds for it. 
As it is connected with one of our most interest- 
ing national relics, the coronation stone, it may 
not prove beneath notice ; and I here give it in. 
full, shielding myself with the Last Minstrel's 
excuse : 

" I know not how the truth may be, 
But I tell the tale as 'twas told to me." 

I must allow that its extreme vagueness, if not 
improbability, hardly warrants an inquiry ; but 
having failed in obtaining any satisfactory proofs 
among my own friends, as a last resource I apply 
myself to the columns of your well-known and 
useful journal. 

When Jacob awoke after his wonderful dream, 
as related in Genesis (chap, xxviii.), he said, 
" Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it 
not;" and he was afraid, and said, "How dreadful 
is this place. This is none other but the house 
of God ; and this is the gate of heaven." He 
" took the stone that he had put for his pillow 
and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the 
top of it. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If 
God will be with me, and will keep me in this 
way that I go, and will give me bread to eat and 
raiment to put on, so that I come again to my 
father's house in peace, then shall the Lord be my 
God : and this stone, which I have set for a pillar, 
shall be God's house ; and of all that Thou shalt 
give me I will surely give the tenth unto Thee." 

That stone (so runs the legend) is supposed to 
have been taken away from Bethel by the House 
of Joseph, when they destroyed the city and its 
inhabitants (Judges i.); and a tradition, that who- 
soever possessed that stone would be especially 
blessed, and be king or chief, was current among 
the Jews ; the stone itself being guarded by them 
with jealous care. 

On the first destruction of Jerusalem, some of 
the royal family of Judah are supposed to have 
escaped, and to have gone in search of an asylum 
beyond the sea, taking this precious stone with 
them. Their resting-place was Ireland, where 
they founded a kingdom. Many centuries after- 
wards, a brother of the king descended from these 
exiles, named Fergus, went, with his brother's 
permission, to found a kingdom in Scotland. He 
said, however, he would not go without the sacred 
stone. This his brother refused to give him ; but 
Fergus stole it, and established a kingdom in 
Scotland. His descendants became kings of all 
Scotland, and were crowned sitting on that stone, 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



which was taken away by Edward I., and is now 
in Westminster Abbey. 

These are the outlines of this tradition. My 
object now is to ask whether any of your corre- 
spondents can inform me, first, Whether the Jews 
bad, or have, any like superstition concerning 
Jacob's pillar ; and whether the royal family of 
Judah possessed such a stone among their trea- 
sures ? Secondly, Whether any Jews are sup- 
posed to have settled in Ireland at so early a 
period ; and whether (that being the case) there 
are now, or were once, proofs of their having done 
so, either in the Irish language or in any of the 
ancient laws, customs, buildings, &c. of the coun- 
try ? Thirdly, Whether the Scotch believe that 
stone to have come from Ireland ; and whether 
that belief in the owner of it being king existed 
in Scotland ? and, lastly, Can any of your corre- 
spondents, learned in geology, inform me whether 
the like kind of stone is to be met with in any 
part of the British Isles ? or whether, as the le- 
gend runs, a similar kind of stone is found in the 
Arabian plains ? The story has interested me 
greatly ; and if I could gain any enlightenment 
on the subject, I should be much obliged for it. 

AN INDIAN SUBSCRIBER. 

[Several of our historians, as Matthew of West- 
minster, Hector Boethius, Robert of Gloucester, the 
poet Harding, &c.. have noticed this singular legend ; 
but we believe the Rabbinical writers (as suggested by 
our Indian correspondent) have never been consulted 
respecting it. Sandford, in his valuable History of the 
Coronation of James II. (fol., 1687, p. 39.), has given 
some dates and names which will probably assist our 
correspondents in elucidating the origin of this far- 
famed relic. He says, "Jacob's stone, or The Fatal 
Marble Stone, is an oblong square, about twenty-two 
inches long, thirteen inches broad, and eleven inches 
deep, of a bluish steel-like colour, mixed with some 
veins of red ; whereof history relates that it is the 
stone whereon the patriarch Jacob is said to have lain 
his head in the plain of Luza. That it was brought 
to Brigantia in the kingdom of Gallacia in Spain, in 
which place Gathal, King of Scots, sat on it as his 
throne. Thence it was brought into Ireland by Simon 
Brech, first King of Scots, about 700 years before 
Christ's time, and from thence into Scotland, by King 
Fergus, about 330 years before Christ. In the year 
850 it was placed in the abbey of Scone in the sherif- 
dom of Perth by King Kenneth, who caused it to be 
inclosed in a wooden chair (jiow called St. Edward's 
Chair), and this prophetical distich engraven on it : 

* Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti hunc quocunque locatum 

Inveniunt lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem.' 
' If Fates go right, where'er this stone is found, 
The Scots shall monarchs of that realm be crown'd.' 

Which is the more remarkable by being fulfilled in the 
person of James I. of England." Calmet, however, 
states that the Mahometans profess to have this relic 
in their custody. He says, " The Mahometans think 
that Jacob's stone was conveyed to the Temple of Jeru- 



salem, and is still preserved in the mosque there, where 
the Temple formerly stood. They call it Al-sahra, or 
the stone of unction. The Cadi Gemaleddin, son of 
Vallel, writes, that passing through Jerusalem, in his 
way to Egypt, he saw Christian priests carrying glass 
phials full of wine over the Sakra, near which the 
Mussulmcn had built their temple, which, for this 
reason, they call the Temple of the Stone. The wine 
which the Christian priests set upon the stone was no. 
doubt designed for the celebration of mass there."] 



OLD MEREWORTH CASTLE, KENT. 

Among your subscribers there are doubtless 
many collectors of topographical drawings and en- 
gravings. I shall feel specially obliged if any of 
them could find in their collections a view of old 
Mereworth Castle (as it stood prior to the com- 
paratively modern erection of Lord Westmore- 
land), and furnish me with a long desiderated 
description of it. Local tradition represents it as 
having been a baronial castle rising from the 
middle of a small lake, like that of Leeds, though 
of smaller dimensions, with the parish church at- 
tached. I should rather conjecture it to have 
been an ancient moated manor-house, magnified, 
in the course of t tradition, into a baronial castle 
and lake. 

Whatever the old building was, it was pulled 
down by John, seventh Earl of Westmoreland, 
during the first half of the last century. Had it 
been of the character of Leeds Castle, as the re- 
presentative of a long line of baronial ancestry, he 
would hardly have levelled such a structure, with 
all its inspiring associations, merely for the purpose 
of gratifying his passion for Palladian architecture 
by the erection of the present mansion. 

The ancient building seems to have been the 
residence of the knightly family of De Mereworth 
during the twelfth, thirteenth, and part of the 
fourteenth centuries, and from that time, till near 
the end of Elizabeth's reign, it ceased to be a 
family residence; for, after passing through va- 
rious hands (none of whom were likely to have 
resided there), it descended in 1415 to Joan, wife 
of the Lord Burgavenny, sister and coheir to the 
Earl of Arundel. The Burgavennys of that day 
resided always at their castle of Birling, which 
circumstance would intimate that it was a grander 
and more baronial residence than Mereworth 
Castle (for they had come into possession of both 
estates very nearly at the same period) ; and 
afterwards Mereworth by settlement passed to 
Sir Thomas Fane of Badsell, in marriage with 
Mary, daughter and sole heiress of Henry Lord 
Burgavenny, and "jure suo" Baroness Despencer, 
in 1574. From that time till its dismantling in 
the last century, Mereworth Castle was again a 
family residence, the seat of the Earls of West- 
moreland ; Francis, eldest son of said Sir Thomas 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



Fane and Mary Baroness Depencer, having been 
advanced to that earldom. As the seat of a 
noble family for more than a century and a half, 
it is hardly likely that no view should have been 
taken of it ; I have searched, however, in vain for 
it in Harris, Buck, and other published collections. 

It would be a matter of special interest to many 
besides myself, to obtain some information re- 
specting it. 

John, seventh earl, the builder of the present 
Pall ad i an mansion, died in 1762, when the earldom 
passed to a distant cousin, and the barony of De- 
spencer was called out of abeyance in favour^ of 
Sir Francis Dashwood, the son and representative 
of Mary, sister and eldest co-heir of John, seventh 
Earl of Westmoreland, and heir to his estates. 
On his death s. p., Sir Thomas Stapleton, sole 
heir to the Barony of Despencer (as lineal de- 
scendant and heir of Catherine, the younger sister 
and co-heir of the said John, seventh earl), suc- 
ceeded to the estate ; and from him it has lineally 
descended to Mary, Viscountess Falmouth, and 
"jure suo" Baroness Despencer, the present 
representative of the family. At Mereworth 
Castle itself, where the Viscount and Viscountess 
Falmouth reside, there is no view of the old 
"building ; but it is very possible that some drawing 
or engraving of it may exist in some of the resi- 
dences of the Earls of Westmoreland subsequent 
to the seventh earl, or at the seat of the Dash- 
woods, or in the British Museum. 

I trouble you with this Query, in the hope that, 
.among your numerous readers, some one may be 
..placed in a position to give us information on the 
subject. In doing so they would greatly oblige 

CANTIANUS. 



" I could not love thee, dear, so much" Where 
-are the following lines to be found ? what is the 
.context ? 

" I could not love thee, dear, so much, 
Loved I not honour more." 

H. 

Leicester as Ranger of Snowden. In the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, Leicester was made Ranger 
>of Snowden Forest, and using violent means to 
-extort unjust taxes from the people, under cover 
of this appointment, he was opposed and resisted 
fcy eight Welsh gentlemen, under the leadership 
of Sir Richard Bulkeley, of Baron Hill, in Angle- 
sey. Among these was a Madryn of Madryn, a 
Hugh ap Richard of Cefnllanfair, a Griffith of 
Cefn Amlwch, c. These patriotic gentlemen 
met with imprisonment in the Tower of London 
as their only recompense ; and there are extant 
poems by Guttyn, Peris, and other bards, ad- 
dressed to them on the subject. I should be 



obliged to any of your correspondents to give me 
any farther information on this subject, or refer- 
ence to documents which bear upon it. 

ELFFIN AP GWYDDNO. 

Crcibl of Telsford. Any information respect- 
ing the settlement of the family of Crabb, or 
Crabbe, at Telsford, county of Somerset, together 
with the names of the present representatives of 
that family, would be most thankfully received 
through the medium of your valuable pages, or in 
any other way, by ONE or THE NAME. 

Tolling the Bell while the Congregation is leav- 
ing Church. Can you inform me why this is 
done at Richmond Church ; and whether the cus- 
tom is adopted in any other ? * J. H. M. 

O'Brien of Thosmond. In the Calendar of 
Inquisitions post mortem, there appears one taken 
on the death of Alicia, wife of Nicholas Thos- 
mound, in the second year of King Henry IV. 
The estates were in Somersetshire. From the 
appearance of this name, I suspect it is not^an 
English one ; but rather an old form of spelling 
the name of the province of Tothmound or Tho- 
mond (South Munster), Ireland ; and that this 
Nicholas was an O'Brien, who called himself from 
his family's principality, for it was not uncommon 
in England formerly to take names from estates. 
Perhaps some of your correspondents having ac- 
cess to the Inquisition would ascertain more on 
the subject, and give it to the public. The name 
of Nicholas O'Brien occurs in the Irish rolls of 
Chancery about that very period. A. B. 

Order of St. David of Wales. In the reiojn of 
Queen Elizabeth there -was an order of knight- 
hoodthe Order of St. David of Wales. When 
was that Order created ? Who was the first 
knight ? Who was the last knight ? What pre- 
late was the chaplain to the Order ? Why was it 
dissolved ? Why is it not revived again ? We 
have several Welsh peers, noblemen, knights ; four 
bishops, men of science and learning, Welshmen. 
I hope the good Queen Victoria will revive this 
ancient order of knighthood, and the Prince of 
Wales be created the first knight. The emblem 
of Wales is a red dragon. 

Can any of your readers give an account of this 
ancient order ? Some years ago there were several 
letters in The Times, and other papers, respect- 
ing it and the Welsh motto. Wales should have 
its knight as well as Ireland, Scotland, and Eng- 
land. W. 

Warple-way. The manor of Richmond, in 
Surrey, has been the property of the crown for 
many hundred years, I may say from time imme- 

[* This custom is observed in many of the London 
churches. ED.] 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



did he live ? He appears, from various inscrip- 
tions round an engraved portrait, to have been a 
great duping dealer in pictures. E. H. 

Chauncy, or Chancy. Any reference to works 
containing biographical notices of Charles Chauncy, 
or Chancy, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, circa 1620, will oblige J. Y. 

Plaster Casts. RUBY would be thankful for a 
good receipt for bronzing plaster casts. 



morial : and in all the old records and plans, the 
green roads are called " warple-ways." Some of 
the old plans are marked " worple way," some 
" warple way." Can any of your readers tell me 
the derivation and meaning of the word, and refer 
me to an authority ? WM. SMYTHE. 

Purlet. Nelson, and the subsequent historians 
of Islington, relate a marvellous story on the 
authority of Purlet de Mir. Nat. x. c. iv. : 

" And as to the same hearings, or tremblements de 
terre, it is sayde, y* in a certaine fielde neare unto y e 
parish church of Islingtoun, in like manner, did take 
place a wondrous commotion in uarious partes, y e 
earthe swellinge, and turninge uppe euery side towards 
y e midst of y c sayde fielde ; and, by tradycion of this, 
it is obserued y* one Richard de Clouesley lay buryed 
in or neare y 4 place, and y* his bodie being restles, on 
y e score of some sinne by him peraduenture committed, 
did shewe or seeme to signifye y 1 religious obseruance 
should there take place, to quiet his departed spirit ; 
whereupon certaine exorcisers, if wee may so term y m , 
did at dede of night, nothing lothe, using divers diuine 
exercises at torche light, set at rest y e unrulie spirit of 
y e sayde Clouesley, and y e earthe did returne aneare 
to its pristine shape, neuermore commotion procedeing 
therefrom to this day, and this I know of a verie cer- 
taintie." Nelson's Islington, 4to. 1811, p. 305., or 8vo. 
1823, p. 293. 

The spelling of this extract seems at least as 
old as the time of Cloudesley's death (1517), al- 
though it would appear to be a translation ; and 
though the exorcism is apparently spoken of as 
having taken place long before the time of the 
writer. From these and other circumstances, I 
am led to suspect that Nelson was the victim of 
a cruel hoax, particularly as I am unable to find 
any such book as Purlet de Mir. Nat. in the 
British Museum. 

Query, Does any such book exist ; and if so, 
where ? FRIDESWIDE. 

Islington. 

Liveries, Red and Scarlet. In a provincial 
paper, I noticed a paragraph dating the origin of 
wearing red coats in fox-hunting from a mandate 
' of Henry II., who it appears made fox-hunting a 
royal sport, and gave to all distributors of foxes 
the scarlet uniform of the royal household : this 
also would involve another question as regards 
the origin of scarlet being the colour of the royal 
livery. Can any of your sporting or antiquarian 
correspondents give me any authority for the 
former, and any information about the latter ? 

W. E. W. RUMBOLD. 

Dr. Bragge. I shall be much obliged to any 
of your correspondents who will give me inform- 
ation respecting Dr. Bragge, who flourished about 
the year 1756. Who was he? Where did he get 
his degree ? Who were his chief dupes ? Where 



" In the prophecy regarding the 
birth of John the Baptist (Luke i. 15.) the angel 

says : 

" Kal olvov KO-l ffiKepa ov fj.rj irir)." 

This is in the authorised version (I quote from 
the original 1611 edit.) rightly rendered: 
" And shal drinke neither wine nor strong drinke." 

Now, in the Golden Legend, fol. cxl. (Wynkyn 
de Worde's edition, London, 1516) is this account: 

" For he shal be grete, and of grete meryte tofore 
our Lord : he shall not drinke wyne, ne syder, ne 
thynge wherof he myght be dronken." 

I need hardly remind your readers that o-iwepa 
was often used t by the LXX translators for an 
intoxicating liquor, as distinguished from wine, 
viz. Levit. x. 9., Numbers vi. 3., &c., and in about 
nine places ; but I do not remember " syder" as 
the " thynge wherof he myghte be dronken." Can 
any of your philological friends call to mind a 
similar version? I do not want to be told the 
derivation of (n'/cepa, for that is obvious ; nor do I 
lack information as to the inebriating qualities of 
" syder," for, alas ! an intimate acquaintance with 
Devonshire has often brought before my notice 
persons "dronken" with that exhilarating be- 
verage. RICHARD HOOPEB. 

St. Stephen's, Westminster. 

Dogs in Monumental Brasses. Is there any 
symbolical meaning conveyed in the dogs which 
are so often introduced at the feet of ladies in 
brasses, and dogs and lions at the feet of knights ? 
One fact is worthy of notice, that while the omis- 
sion of the dog is frequent in the brasses of ladies 
(e.g. in that of Lady Camoys, 1424, at Trotton, 
Sussex, and Joan, Lady Cobham, 1320, Cobham, 
Kent, and several others), the lion or dog, as the 
case may be, of the knight is scarcely ever left 
out ; indeed, I have only been able to find two or 
three instances. But again, in brasses later than 
1460, the dogs and lions are seldom, if ever, found 
either in the brasses of knights or ladies. Can 
you afford me any information on these points ? 

B. H. ALFORD. 

Tonbridge, Kent. 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



im'tf) 

Marquis of Grariby. In a late number of 
Chambers s Journal it is stated that there are eigh- 
teen taverns in London bearing the sign of the 
Marquis of Granby. How did this sign become 
so popular ; and which marquis was it whose 
popularity gained him immortality ; and when 
lived he ? J. M. WHARTON. 

[This sign is intended as a compliment to John 
Manners, commonly called Marquis of Granby, eldest 
son of John, third Duke of Rutland, who appears to have 
been a good, bluff-brave soldier active, generous^ 
careful of his men, and beloved by them. Mr. Peter 
Cunningham (Handbook, p. 398., edit. 1850) informs 
us, that " Granby spent many an happy hour at the 
Hercules Pillars public-house, Piccadilly, where Squire 
Western put his horses up, when in pursuit of Tom 
Jones." He died, much regretted, on October 19, 1770, 
Avithout succeeding to the dukedom. 

" What conquests now will Britain boast, 

Or where display her banners ? 
Alas ! in GRANBY she has lost 

True courage and good MANNERS." 

His popularity is shown by the frequent occurrence of 
his portrait as a sign-board for public-houses, even of 
late years ; a fact which at once testifies in favour of 
his personal qualities, and indicates the low state of 
our military fame during the latter half of the last 
century. ] 

"Memorials of English Affairs " SfC. Can you 
inform me who was the author of a folio volume 
entitled 

" Memorials of the English Affairs ; or an Historical 
Account of what passed from the beginning of the 
Reign of King Charles I. to King Charles II. his 
happy ' Restauration ; ' containing the Public Trans- 
actions, Civil and Military, together with the Private 
Consultations and Secrets of the Cabinet. London : 
printed for Nathanael Conder, at the Sign of the 
Peacock in the Poultry, near the Church, MDCLXXXII." 

I have never seen any other copy than the one 
in my possession. L. R. 

[This work is by Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke. The 
edition of 1682, possessed by our correspondent, was 
published by Arthur, Earl of Anglesea, who took con- 
siderable liberties with the manuscript. The best 
edition, containing the passages cancelled by the Earl, 
is that of 1732, fol. " This work," says Bishop War- 
burton, " that has been so much cried up, is a meagre 
diary, wrote by a poor-spirited, self-interested, and 
self-conceited lawyer of eminence, but full of facts." 
At p. 378. (edit. 1682) occurs the following entry: 
" From the council of state, Cromwell and his son 
Ireton went home with Whitelocke to supper, where 
they were very cheerful, and seemed extremely well- 
pleased ; they discoursed together till twelve o'clock 
at night, and told many wonderful observations of 
God's providence in the affairs of the war, and in the 
business of the army's coming to London, and seizing 



the members of the house, in all which were miracu- 
lous passages." To this sentence in the copy now be- 
fore us, some sturdy royalist has added the following 
MS. note : " Whitelocke reports this of himself, as 
being well pleased with it ; and the success of their 
villany they accounted God's providence !"] 

Standing when the Lord's Prayer is read. On 
Sunday, January 8, the second lesson for morning 
service is the sixth chapter of St. Matthew, in 
which occurs the Lord's Prayer. When the offi- 
ciating clergyman began to read the ninth verse, 
in which the prayer commences, the congregation 
at Bristol Cathedral rose, and remained standing 
till its conclusion. Is this custom observed in other 
places ? and (if there is to be a change of position) 
why do the congregation stand, and not kneel, the 
usual posture of prayer in the Church of England? 

CERVUS. 

[The custom, we believe, is observed in the majority 
of churches. The reason for standing rather than 
kneeling seems to be, that when the Lord's Prayer 
comes in the course of the lessons it is only read his- 
torically, as a part of a narrative, which indicates that 
the whole sacred narrative should be treated, as it was 
anciently, with the like reverence. The rubric says 
nothing about sitting ; standing and kneeling being 
the only postures expressly recognised. In the curious 
engraving of the interior of a church, prefixed to 
Bishop Sparrow's Rationale upon the Book of Common 
Prayer, 1661, there is not a seat of any kind to be seen, 
pews not having become at this time a general ap- 
pendage to churches; probably a few chairs or benches 
were required for the aged or infirm. The only in- 
timation of the sitting posture in our present Common 
Prayer- Book occurs in the rubric, enjoining the people 
to stand when the Gospel is read, which Wheatly tells 
us was first inserted in the Scotch Common Prayer- 
Book. See N. & Q.," Vol. ii., pp. 246. 347.] 

Hypocrisy, frc. Can you inform me with whom 
originated the following saying : " Hypocrisy is 
the homage which vice renders to virtue" ? 

A. C. W. 

[The saying originated with the Duke de la Roche- 
foucault, and occurs in his Moral Maxims, No. 233.} 



" CONSILIUM NOVEM DELECTORUM CARDINALIUM, 
ETC. 

(Vol. viii., p. 54.) 

The Note of your correspondent Novus upon 
this Consilium ought to have been answered 
before ; but as none of your contributors who can 
speak as " having authority " have undertaken to 
do so, I beg to offer to your readers the following 
statements and extracts, collected when my sur- 
prise at the assertions of Novus was quite fresh. 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 224. 



The first point on which jSTovus requires cor- 
rection is, the name of the pontiff to whom the 
Consilium purports to be addressed. N"ovus says 
Julius III., but the date of this document is un- 
questionably not later than the beginning of 1538, 
for Sleidan tells us that editions of it were printed 
at Rome, at Cologne, at Strasburg, and at another 
place, in the course of the year 1538 ; and in the 
title it is distinctly stated to have been presented 
to Paul III., who was pope in that year, whilst 
Julius III. was not elected till 1550. 

When Novus says that this Consilium " has just 
been once more quoted, for the fiftieth time, 
perhaps, within the present generation, as a ge- 
nuine document, and as proceeding from adherents 
of the Church of Rome," he falls short of the fact. 
For every writer of the least mark, or likelihood, 
whose subject has led him that way, has quoted it : 
thus, e.g., Ranke, who in his great work on The 
Popes and the Papacy, book ii. 2., refers to it as 
indicative of no dishonourable design on the part 
of the supreme pontiff. 

Amongst the writers of the time when the Con- 
silium is said to have been drawn up, who regarded 
it' as genuine, we may mention Luther, who, soon 
after it found its way into Germany, published a 
translation, with one of his biting caricatures pre- 
fixed ; and Sturm, who prefaced his translation 
with a letter to the cardinals to whom it was as- 
cribed, for which reason alone his edition was put 
in the " Index," no other edition being similarly 
honoured ; and this sufficiently refutes a statement 
of Schelhorn, in his letter to Cardinal Quirinus, 
upon which much reliance has been placed by 
those whom Novus would regard as sharers of his 
opinion. 

The appearance of the editions at Cologne and 
Strasburg in 1538, testifies to the speed with 
which the Consilium reached Germany. Sleidan 
-asserts that, when it was published there, some 
fancied it to be fictitious, and intended to ridicule 
jboth the Pope and the Reformation ; but others, 
that it was a device of the Pope to gain credit for 
not being hostile to the correction of certain con- 
fessed abuses. In the next year, on July 16th, 
Aleander wrote to Cochlaeus thus : 

" Multa haberem scribere de Republica, sed mail 
custodesestis rerum arcanarum, Consiliis Cardinalium 
promulgatis, cum invectiva Sthrmii, manibus hominum 
teritur, antequam vel auctoribus edita, vel execution! 
fuerit demandata." 

Which passage might be regarded as decisive of 
the question of genuineness, since Aleander was 
one of the Cardinales delecti whose names are ap- 
pended to the Consilium. 

That Le Plat should insert a copy in his Monu- 
ment, ad Hist. Condi. Trident, potius illustr. spect., 
may, perhaps, be considered an unsatisfactory ar- 
gument ; and the same will certainly be thought 



of the use of it by Sarpi. But Pallavicini is a 
witness not obnoxious to objections which apply 
to them, and he says : 

" It happened by Divine Providence, that this Con- 
silium was published, since it showed what were in fact 
the deepest wounds in the discipline of the Church, as- 
certained with great diligence, and exposed with the 
utmost freedom by men of incomparable zeal and know- 
ledge. And these were neither falsity of dogmas, nor 
corruption of the Scriptures, nor wickedness of laws, 
nor politic craft beneath the garb of humility, nor im- 
pure vices, as the Lutherans asserted ; but too great 
indulgence towards violations and abrogations of the 
laws, which Luther far more licentiously abrogated," 
&c. Vide book iv. ch. v., at the end. 

But Ranke's note upon a casual reference to 
this document in book i. ch. ii. 2. of his History 
of the Papacy, completely disposes of the question 
of its genuineness, and therefore of its " serious- 
ness " (to use one of Novus' phrases), when taken 
in conjunction with what has gone before. 

" Consilium, fyc.; printed more than once even at the 
time, and important as pointing out the evil, so far 
as it lay in the administration of discipline, precisely 
and without reserve. Long after it had been printed, 
the MS. remainec^ incorporated with the MSS. of the 
Curia. " 

Were it not that the assertion of !N"ovus is so 
roundly made, and in a form that is sure to adhere 
in the memories of readers sufficiently interested 
in the subject to notice his communication, it 
would have been enough to quote from one of the 
works he refers to, as containing copies of the 
Consilium, to expose the origin of his error ; and 
this, now that I have shown it to be an error, I 
crave your permission to do. This, then, is what 
Brown says in his Appendix ad Fascicul. Rer. 
Expetend. et Fugiend. (commonly cited as Fascicul. 
vol. ii.}, ed. 1690, pp. 230, 231. : 

" Saepius excusum est Consilium sequens, cum alibi, 
turn hie Londini, A. n. 1 609, ex bibliotheca Wilh. 
Crashavii, qui in Epistola dedicatoriu ad Rev mum D. 
Tobiam Matthaeum Archiep. Eboracen. citat quaedam. 
e Commentariis Espenca?i in Tit. cap. i. ad hoc Con- 
silium ab omni fraudis et fictionis suspicione liberandum ; . 
quasi prcesensisset Crashavius fore aliquando ut pro re, 
omnino ficta et falsa censeretur ; cum id in novissimis 
Conciliorum editionibus desiderari, et astute sup- 
pressum esse viderat, ut cst in admonitione sua ad 
Lectorem. Sed longe aliter res habebit ; suo cnim se 
sorex prodidit indicia ; et Cochlceus ipse (qui nesciit pro 
nobis mentiriy quantumvis in causa sud parum probus 
aliquando), hujusce Consilii fidem ab omni lobe impro- 
bitatis vindicavit et asseruit in historia sua de Actis et 
Scriptis Lutheri, ad annum 1539, fol. 312. &c. edi- 
tionis Colonien. 1568. editum est prasterea, hoc idem 
Consilium, Parisiis, publica authoritate, una cum 
Guliel. Durandi tractatu de rnodo Generalis Concilii 
celebrandi ; Libello Clamengii de corrupto Ecclesiae 
statu; Libello Cardinalis de Alliaco, de emendatione 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



Ecclesire ; et Gentian! Herveti oratione de reparanda. 
Ecelesiastica disciplina (qua? omnia, excepto primo, 
huic appendici inserentur), A.D. 1671. In hac nostra 
editions sequimur viruni doctissimum et pium Her- 
mannum Conringium ; adhibitis inultis aliis exem- 
plaribus, qua? omnia simul in hoc uno leges. FiV 
autem, Lector, ah'quid penilius de hoc Consilio rescire ? 
adisis [c] P. Paulum Vergerium (invisum aliis sed cha- 
rum nobis nomen), illiusque annotationes, in Catalogum 
hzereticorum consule, fol. 251. tomi primi illius operum 
Tubings editi, A.D. 1563, in 4to., et siquid noveris de 
reliquorum tomorum editione, nos Anglos fac, qua?so, 
certiores. [It would seem that the need of your 
"N. & Q,." was felt long before any one thought of 
supplying it.] Audi vero, interea, vel lege, Hermannum 
Conringium." 

And this is what that " learned and godly " man 
says : 

" Libellus ipse Cardinalis Capuani [Nicholas Schom- 
berg], ut creditur, cura ad amicuoi in Germaniam 
missus, mox anno 1539, et populari nostra et sua est 
lingua per Lutherurn et Sturmiurn editus. Eundem 
post vulgavit, cum acri ad Papam Paulum 17. (qui olim 
fuerat auctoruni) praafatione, Petrus Paulus Vergerius, 
postquam Protestantium partibus accessisset." 

I will not add to the length of this Note by any 
farther quotations ; but I am bound to say that if 
those I have given do not satisfy Novus, he may 
expect to be overwhelmed by confirmations of 
them. B. B. WOODWARD. 

Bungay, Suffolk. 



JOHN BUNYAN. 

(Vol. ix., p. 104.) 

A highly respected correspondent, DR. S. R. 
MAITLAND, has seen an advertisement in the Mer- 
curius Reformatw of June 11, 1690, announcing 
the intention of Bunyan's widow to publish ten ma- 
nuscripts which her husband had left prepared for 
the press, together with some of his printed treatises 
which had become scarce. He inquires whether 
such a publication took place. In reply I beg leave 
to state that they were published in a small folio, 
containing "ten [and two fragments] of his excel- 
lent manuscripts, and ten of his choice books for- 
merly printed." The volume bears the title of 
" The Works of that eminent Servant of Christ 
Mr. John Bunyan, late Minister of the Gospel 
and Pastor of the Congregation at Bedford. The 
first volume. London, by Wm. Marshall, 1692." 
It h?.s the portrait by Sturt, and an impression 
from the original curious copper-plate inscribed, 
" A Mapp, showing the order and causes of Sal- 
vation and Damnation." In addition to the Mer- 
curitts, John Dimton and others noticed, in terms 
of warm approval, the intended publication, which 
became extensively patronised, but has now be- 
come very scarce. 



To the lovers of Bunyan it is peculiarly inter- 
esting, being accompanied by a tract called " The 
Struggler," written by one of his affectionate and 
intimate friends, the Rev. C. Doe, containing a 
list of Bunyan's works, with the time when each 
of them was published, some personal character- 
istic anecdotes, and thirty reasons why all decided 
Christians should read and circulate these invalu- 
able treatises. A copy presented to me by my 
worthy friend the late Mr. Creasy of Sleaford, 
which is in remarkably fine condition, has on the 
title to the Index a printed dedication to Sir John 
Hartop of Newington, the patron and friend of 
Dr. Watts. This volume was to have been fol- 
lowed by a second, to complete Bunyan's works, 
but difficulties arose as to the copyright of the 
more popular pieces, which prevented its publi- 
cation. The original prospectus is preserved in 
the British Museum, which, with " The Strug- 
gler" and a new index to the whole of these truly 
excellent treatises, is reprinted in my edition of 
Bunyan's whole works for the first time collected 
and published, with his Life, in three volumes im- 
perial 8vo., illustrated with fac-similes of all the 
old woodcuts and many elegant steel plates. 

GEORGE OFFOR. 

Hackney. 



THE ASTEROIDS, ETC. 

(Vol. ix., p. 36.) 

It is certainly an uncomfortable idea to sup- 
pose that the asteroids are the fragments of a former 
world, perhaps accompanied with satellites which 
have been scattered either by internal convulsion 
or external violence. By looking into the con- 
stitution and powers contained within our own 
earth, we know that the means are not wanting 
to rend us asunder under the combined effects of 
volcanic action, intense heat, and water, meeting 
deep within the substance of the earth under great 
pressure. 

However, there is much to be said against the 
theory of Olbers, notwithstanding its plausibility. 
The distance between the internal asteroid Flora, 
and the external one Hygeia, exceeds ninety mil- 
lions of miles ; or nearly the distance between the 
earth and the sun. The force which could shatter 
a world into fragments, and drive them asunder 
to such an extent, must indeed be tremendous. 

Mr. Hind has drawn attention to the singular 
fact, that the asteroids "appear to separate the 
planets of small mass from the greater bodies of 
the system, the planets which rotate on their axes 
in about the same time as our earth from those 
which are whirled round in less than half that 
time, though of ten times the diameter of the 
earth ; and," he continues, " it may yet be found 
that these small bodies, so far from being portions 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



of the wreck of a planet, were created in their 
present state for some wise purpose, which the 
progress of astronomy in future ages may even- 
tually unfold." 

One thing I think is certain, that no disruption 
of a world belonging to our system could take 
place without producing some perceptible effect 
upon every other member of the system. The 
single centre of attraction being suddenly diffused 
and spread abroad into many smaller ones, at 
variable distances, must produce a sudden sway 
and alteration of position in all the other planets, 
and, to a certain extent, derange their respective 
economies. From this some striking changes 
would necessarily arise, such as in the length of 
their respective periods of revolution, the amount 
of light and heat, and other physical conditions. 
Certain geological phenomena should be found to 
confirm such a change, if these suppositions be 
true. 

As far as the theological part of the question is 
concerned, it is, I should think, opposed to Gibers' 
theory. Human intellect can scarcely conceive 
the necessity for the utter breaking up of a globe, 
even for the most grievous amount of sin. A 
more merciful dispensation was granted to our 
earth in the deluge ; and the Power which removed 
all but eight lives from the earth could have 
equally removed the eight also, without destroy- 
ing the integrity of the globe. It is as easy, and 
far more reasonable I think, to suppose, that the 
same Power which gave to Saturn a satellite nearly 
equal in size to Mars, should throw a cluster of 
minute planetoids into the space which, according 
to Bodes' empirical law, should have been devoted 
to one planet of larger dimensions. 

Whilst addressing you on astronomical subjects, 
I would beg leave to offer a few remarks upon 
Saturn, which I have not observed in any work 
on astronomy which I have yet consulted. This 
planet, with its satellites, appear to exhibit a close 
resemblance to the solar system, just as if it were 
a model of it. 

Besides his rings, Saturn is attended by eight 
satellites, so far as is at present known. The names 
of the satellites in their order from the body of 
the planet, are : 1. Mimas, 2. Euceladus, 3. Tethys, 
4. Dione, 5. Rhea, 6. Titan, 7. Hyperion, 8. Ja- 
petus. If we place them in a list in their order, 
and overagainst each place^he names of the planets 
in their order from the sun, certain parallelisms 
will appear : 

1. Mimas - - 1. Mercury. 

2. Euceladus - -2. Venus. 

3. Tethys - 3. Earth. 

4. Dione - - - 4. Mars. 

5. Rhea - - 5. Asteroids. 

6. Titan - -6. Jupiter. 

7. Hyperion - - 7. Saturn. 

8. Japetus - - - 8. Uranus. 



The relative magnitudes and relative positions 
of these bodies correspond in many points, I be- 
lieve, so far as is at present known. Titan, like 
Jupiter, is the largest of his system ; being but 
little less in size than the primary planet Mars. 
The next in magnitude is Japetus. Rhea is sup- 
posed to be of considerable size. The four inner 
ones are smaller than the others. Sir William 
Herschell considered that Tethys was larger than 
Euceladus, and Euceladus larger than Mimas. 
Dione and Hyperion have not yet been well esti- 
mated. These dimensions, if correct, correspond 
in many points with those of the planets. The 
first three satellites revolve in orbits of less dia- 
meter than that of our moon. The orbit of Dione, 
the fourth satellite, is almost precisely at the same 
distance from its primary as the moon is from the 
earth. As if to carry out the parallelism to the 
utmost, the zodiacal light of the sun has often 
been compared to the ring of Saturn. 

One remark it would appear arises out of these 
observations, viz. that the laws of attraction and 
gravitation seem to require, for the proper regu- 
lation of the whole system, that where a number of 
bodies of various sizes revolve round one common 
centre, the larger body should revolve at a cer- 
tain relative distance from that centre. Thus 
Titan, like a huge pendulum, seems to sway and 
maintain the regularity of the minor system, just 
aa Jupiter may be imagined to do in the great one. 

I must not intrude too far on your valuable 
space, but there remain some interesting point* 
for discussion in the Saturnian system. 

JOHN WILLIAM HARRIS. 

Exon. 



CAPS AT CAMBRIDGE. 

(Vol. ix., p. 27.) 

The extract from an unpublished MS. given by 
A REGENT M.A. or CAMBRIDGE refers to the year 
1620, as will appear from the following passages 
in Anthony a Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of Univ. of 
Oxford. 

" 1614. In the latter end of the last and beginning 
of this year, a spirit of sedition (as I may so call it) 
possessed certain of the Regent Masters against the 
Vicechanc. and Doctors. The chief and only matter 
that excited them to it was their sitting like boys, bare- 
headed, in the Convocation-House, at the usual assem- 
blies there, which was not, as 'twas thought, so fit, that 
the Professors of the Faculty of Arts (on which the 
University was founded) should, all things considered, 
do it. The most forward person among them, named 
Henry Wightwicke, of Gloucester Hall, having had 
some intimation of a statute which enabled them to be 
covered with their caps, and discovering also some- 
thing in the large west window of St. Mary's Church, 
where pictures of Regents and non- Regents were sit- 
ting covered in assemblies before the Chancellor, clapt 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



on his cap, and spared not to excite his brethren to 
vindicate that custom, now in a manner forgotten ; 
and, having got over one of the Regents to be more 
zealous in the matter than himself, procured the hands 
of most, if not all, of them to be set to a petition (in 
order to be sent to the Chancellor of the University), 
for the effecting and bringing about the matter. But 
the Vicechancellor, Dr. Singleton, having had timely 
notice of the design, sends a full relation of the matter 
to the Chancellor; whereupon answer was returned, 
that he should deal therein as he should think fit. 
Wightwicke, therefore, being called into question for 
endeavouring to subvert the honour and government 
of the University, whereby he ran himself into perjury 
(he having before taken an oath to keep and maintain 
the rites, customs, and privileges of the University), 
was banished, and his party, who had proved false to 
him, severely checkt by the Chancellor. 

" At length Wightwicke's friends, laying open to him 
the danger that he would run himself into, if he should 
not seek restauration and submit, did, after his peevish 
and rash humour had been much courted to it, put up 
a petition (subscribed in his behalf by the Bishop of 
London and Sir John Bennett) to the Chancellor of 
the University for his restauration, which being with 
much ado granted, but with this condition, that he 
make an humble recantation in the Convocation, sent 
to his Vicechancellor what should be done in the 
matter, and among other things thus : ' For the 
manner of his submission and recognition which he 
is to make, I will not take upon me to direct, but 
leave yt wholy unto your wisdomes, as well for manner 
as for the matter ; only thus much generally I will in- 
timate unto you, that the affront and offence com- 
mitted by Whittwicke in the Congregation House by 
his late insolent carriage there was very great and 
notorious, and that offence afterwards seconded and 
redoubled by another as ill or worse than the former, 
in his seditious practizing and procuring a multitude of 
handes, thereby thinking to justifie and maintain his 
former errors, and his proud and insolent disobedience 
and contempt. I hold yt therefore very requisite that 
his submission and recognition, both of the one fault 
and of the other, should be as publique and as humble 
as possibly with conveniencye may bee. Which being 
thus openly done, as I hope yt will bee a good example 
to others, to deter them from committing the like of- 
fence hereafter, so I do also wishe this his punishment 
may be only ad correctionem et non ad destructionem.' 

" This being the effect of the Chancellor's mind, 
Wightwicke was summoned to appear to make his 
submission in the next Convocation, which being held 
25 June this year, he placed himself in the middle of 
St. Mary's chancel, and spoke with an audible voice as 
followeth : 

"' Ornatissime Domine Procancellarie, vosque Do- 
mini Doctores pientissimi, quotquot me vel bannien- 
dum vel bannitionem meam ratam esse voluistis ut 
vobis omnibus et singulis innotescat discupio : me 
Henricum Whitwicke pileum coram Domino Vice- 
cancellario Thoma Singleton capiti baud ita pridem 
imposuisse, quod nemini Magistrorum in Congrega- 
ione yel Convocatione [in presentia Domini Vicecan- 
cellarii aut Doctoris alicujus] licere fateor. Scitote 



quaeso praeterea, me supradictum Henricum a sen- 
tentia Domini Vicecancellarii ad venerabilem Domum 
Congregationis provocasse, quod nee licitum nee 
honestum esse in causa perturbationis pacis facile con- 
cedo. Scitote denique me solum, manus Academi- 
corum egregie merentium Theologia Baccalaureorum 
et in Artibus Magistrorum in hac corona astantium 
Collegiatim et Aulatim cursitando rescripto appo- 
nendas curasse, in quibus omnibus Praefectis [summe] 
displicuisse, in pacem almae hujus Academia? et in dig- 
nissimum nostrum Procancellarium deliquisse, parum 
nolenti ammo confiteor, et sanctitates vestras humillime 
imploro, ut qua? vel temere et inconsulto, vel volenter 
et scienter feci, ea, ut deceat homines, condonentur. 
HENRICUS WIGHTWICKE.' 

Which submission or recognition being ended, he 
was restored to his former state, and so forthwith re- 
assumed his place. But this person, who was lately 
beneficed at Kingerbury in Lincolnshire, could never 
be convinced, when he became Master of Pembroke 
College, forty-six years after this time, that he made 
any submission at all, but carried the business on and 
effected it against all the University ; as to his young 
acquaintance that came often to visit him and he them 
(for he delighted in boyish company), he would, after 
a pedantical way, boast, supposing perhaps that, having 
been so many years before acted, no person could re- 
member it ; but record will rise up and justify matters 
when names and families are quite extirpated and for- 
gotten among men. Pray see more of this cap-business 
in the year 1620." 

" 1620. In the beginning of Michaelmas Term fol- 
lowing, the cap-business, mentioned an. 1614, was re- 
newed again : for some disrelishment of the former 
transactions remaining behind, the Regent Masters 
met together several times for the effecting their de- 
signs. At length, after much ado, they drew up a 
petition subscribed by fifty-three of the senior Masters 
for this year, and presented it to one whom they knew 
would not be violent against them, as Dr. Singleton 
was before. The beginning of it runs thus : 

" ' Reverendissimo Viro Domino Doctori Prideaux 
ornatissimo hujus Academia? Vicecan. digniss, &c. 

" ' Multa jamjudum sunt (reverendissime Vicecan- 
cellarie) qua? ab antiquis hujus Academiae institutis 
salubriter profecta, mala tandem consuetude, et in 
pejus potens aut abrogavit penitus aut pessime corru- 
pit, &c/ 

" Among those that subscribed to it were these fol- 
lowing, that afterwards became persons of note, viz. 
Gilbert Sheldon, Alexand. Gill, jun., and Anthony 
Farndon, of Trinity Coll. ; Pet, Heylin of Magd. 
Coll. [Robert Newlin of C. C. Q, &c.]. The chief 
solicitor of the business was Rous Clopton of Corpus 
Ch. Coll., a restless, busy person, and one afterwards 
as much noted for his infamy as any of the former for 
their learning or place. This petition, I say, being 
presented to Dr. Prideaux the Vicechancellor, and he 
considering well their several reasons for their sitting 
covered (one of which was that they were Judges in 
Congregations and Convocations), sent it to the Chan- 
cellor to have his consent, who also, after he had con- 
sidered of it, wrote a letter to the Vicechancellor, to 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



be communicated to the Convocation : the chief con- 
tents of which are these : 

" < After my very harty commendations, I doe take 
this manner of proceeding by the Regent Masters (for 
their sitting covered at Congregations and Convo- 
cations) in soe good part, that although I might well 
take some time to advise before I give answer, espe- 
cially when I consider how long that custom hath con- 
tinued, how much it hath been questioned, and that 
upon a long debate it hath been withstood by so grave 
and wise a Counsellor of State as your late Chancellor, 
my immediate predecessor ; yet, when I weigh their 
undoubted right, their discreet and orderly proceedings 
to seek it, not to take it, the chief, if not the only, 
cause why it was formerly denied ; the good congruity 
this doth beare, not with Cambridge alone (though 
that were motive enough), but all other places, it 
being no where seen that those that are admitted 
Judges are required to sit bare-headed ; I cannot 
choose but commend and thus farre yield to theire 
request as to referre it to the Convocation House. I 
hope no man can have cause to think that I have not 
the power to continew this custom as well as some 
others of my predecessors, if I had a mind to strive ; 
nor that I seek after their applause in yielding them 
that now, which hath been so long kept from them, 
but the respect I have to their due, to the decency of 
the place, and honour of the University, which I can- 
not conceive to bee anyway diminished, but rather in- 
creased, by their sitting covered, are the only reasons 
that have moved me, and carried me to so quick a 
resolution, wherewith you may acquaint the Convoca- 
tion House with this also, that what they shall con- 
clude I shall willingly agree to. And soe I doe very 
hartely take leave, and rest 

Your assured loving friend, 

PEMBROOKE. 

Baynard's Castle, 

this 4 of December, 1620.' 

Which letter being publickly read in a Convocation 
held 20 Dec., it was then agreed upon by the consent 
of all there present, that all Masters of what condition 
soever might put on their caps in Congregations and 
Convocations, yet with these conditions : That in the 
said assemblies the said Masters should use only square 
caps, and not sit bare, or without cap. And if any 
were found faulty in these matters, or that they should 
bring their hats in the said Assemblies, they should 
not only lose their suffrages for that time, but be 
punished as the Vicechancellor should think fit. 
Lastly, it was decreed, under the said conditions and 
no otherwise, that in the next Congregation in the 
beginning of Hilary Term, and so for ever after, all 
Masters, of what condition soever, whether Regents or 
not Regents, should, in Congregations and Convoca- 
tions, put on and use square caps. 

" All that shall be said more of this matter is, that 
the loss of using caps arose from the negligence of the 
Masters, who, to avoid the pains of bringing their caps 
with them, would sit bare-headed ; which being used 
by some, was at length followed by all, and so at length 
became a custom." 

It would seem, from Lord Pembroke's letter, 



that the right of the senate of this university to 
wear their caps had not been questioned. 

C. H. COOPER. 
Cambridge. 



RUSSIA, TURKEY, AND THE BLACK SEA. 

(Vol. ix., p. 103.) 

Statements and complaints have often been made 
respecting the imperfect knowledge possessed by 
English navigators of the shores and coasts of the 
Black Sea, and of the great danger thence arising 
to ships and fleets from England, which would 
thus seem to be without the charts necessary for 
their guidance. The Guardian newspaper reite- 
rates these complaints in its number for Jan. 11. 
This deficiency of charts, however, ought not to 
exist, and probably does not ; since, no doubt, 
the English and French Governments would take 
care to supply them at the present time. As 
respects England, Dr. E. D. Clarke, in his well- 
known Travels in Russia, 8fc. (see vol. i. 4th edit., 
8vo., London, 1816, Preface, p. x.), states that he 
brought 

" Certain documents with him from Odessa, at the 
hazard of his IHe, and deposited within a British 
Admiralty." 

These documents, we are led naturally to infer, 
were charts ; for he adds : 

" They may serve to facilitate the navigation of the 
Russian coasts of the Black Sea, if ever the welfare of 
Great Britain should demand the presence of her fleets 
in that part of the world." 

Happening to meet with this passage, in con- 
sulting Dr. Clarke's Travels, at the beginning of 
December, when the Fleets of Great Britain and 
France were on the point of entering the Black 
Sea, and having read in many quarters fears ex- 
pressed for the fleets from the want of charts, I 
ventured to copy out the passage relating to these 
remarkable documents, and sent it to Lord Aber- 
deen ; in case, from the alleged poverty of charts 
in the Admiralty Catalogues (see The Guardian, 
Jan. 11.), Dr. Clarke's "documents" should have 
fallen out of sight, and were forgotten. No notice, 
however, was taken of my communication ; from 
which I concluded that it was wholly valueless. 

JOHN MACRAY. 

Oxford. 



HIGH DUTCH AND LOW DUTCH. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 478. 601.) 

If "N. & Q." were the publication in which 
questions were cursorily settled, the answer of 
JAMES SPENCE HARRY (p. 478.) might suffice 
with regard to the Query of S. C. P. (p. 413.) ; 
but your correspondent E. C. H., who seems also 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



133 



to know something about the matter, wishes for 
German evidence. 

Should your correspondents JAMES S. HARRY 
and E. C. H. be acquainted (and I doubt not but 
they are) with the song, in which a German in- 
quires "What is his native land?" and having 
called over some of the principalities, as Prussia, 
Suabia, Bavaria, Pomerania, Westphalia, Swit- 
zerland, Tyrol, he cries disdainfully, " No ! no ! 
no ! my fatherland must be greater :" at last, 
despairing, he asks to name him that land, and 
is answered, " Wherever the German tongue is 
heard:" should JAMES S. HARRY and E. C. H. 
recollect these words, they will conceive that such 
a people must have several tribes, and each tribe 
their peculiar dialect, founded on prescribed rules, 
and to which individually equal justice is due. 

The dialects of the Deutsche Sprache, the 
German language, are the Ober Deutsche and 
Nieder Deutsche, Upper German and Low Ger- 
man : from the former dialect has, in course of 
time, proceeded the Hoch Deutsche Sprache, the 
High German language, now used exclusively as 



the book language by the more educated classes 
throughout Germany. 

The principal dialects of the Ober Deutsche 
are the following : 

1. The Allemanic, spoken in Switzerland and 
the Upper Rhine. 

2. The Suabian, spoken in the countries be- 
tween the Black Forest and the River Lech. 

3. The Bavarian, spoken in the South of Ba- 
varia and Austria. 

4. The Franconian, spoken in the North of 
Bavaria, Hessen, and the Middle Rhine. 

5. The Upper Saxon or Misnian, spoken in the 
plains of Saxony and Thtiringia. 

These dialects differ from each other, and parti- 
cularly from the High German language, with 
regard to their elements. 

The Ober Deutsche dialects differ from each 
other by the introduction of peculiar vowels. 

The Nieder Deutsche is distinguished from the 
Ober Deutsche by the shifting of consonants: 
ex.gr. : 



OBER DEUTSCHE DIALECTS. 


NIEDER DEUTSCHE DIALECTS. 


High 
German. 


Allem. 


Suab. 


Bavar. 


Franc. 


Upper 
Saxony. 


Lower 
Saxony. 


Hollandisch. 


English. 


wein. 


wi. 


wai. 


wai. 


wein. 


wein. 


win. 


wein. 


wine. 


stein. 


stein. 


stoi. 


stoa. 


staan. 


steen. 


steen. 


steen. 


stone. 


weit. 


wit. 


wait. 


wait. 


weit. 


weit. 


wet 


weid. 


wide. 


breit. 


breit. 


broit. 


broat. 


braat. 


breet. 


breet. 


breed. 


broad. 


haus. 


hus. 


haus. 


haus. 


haus. 


haus. 


hus. 


huis. 


house. 


kaufen. 


kaufen. 


koufen. 


kafen. 


kafen. 


koofen. 


koopen. 


koopen. 


to buy. 


feuer. 


Kir, 


fuir. 


foir. 


fair. 


foier. 


fiir. 


fur. 


fire. 


kirche. 


chilche. 


kieche. 


kirche. 


kerche. 


kerche. 


kerke. 


kerk. 


church. 


herz. 


herz. 


heaz. 


herz. 


harz. 


harz. 


hart. 


hart. 


heart. 


I grosz. 


grosz. 


grausz. 


grusz. 


grausz. 


grusz. 


groot.' 


groot. 


great. 


buch. 


buech. 


buacb. 


buech. 


bouch. 


buch. 


book. 


boek. 


book. 



I have introduced here, as a dialect of the 
Nieder Deutsche, the Dutch = Hollandisch, the 
language spoken by the people of the Neder- 
landen == Niederlande = Netherlands. 

The Nieder Deutsche dialect is also spoken in 
Westphalia, and along the river Weser, &c. 



All these dialects have also their own words, or 
at least their peculiar meanings of words, as well 
as particular modes of expression, and these are to 
be considered as provincialisms. 

PROFESSOR GOEDES DE GRUTER. 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Da. MANSELL having forwarded to me for publication 
the accompanying account of his mode of operation, I 
have much pleasure in laying it before the readers of 
" N. & Q. ; " because my friend DR. MANSELL is not 
only so fortunate in his results, but is one of the most 
careful and correct manipulators in our art. The pro- 
portions which he recommends, and his mode of ope- 
rating, are, it will be seen, somewhat different from 
those hitherto published. In writing to me he says : 
" I make a point of making a short note in the evening 
of the day's experiments, a plan involving very little 
trouble, but of great service as a reference." If all 
photographers would adopt this simple plan, how much 
good would result ! DR. M. complains to me of the 
constant variation he has found in collodion ; (with 
your permission, I will in your pages furnish him, and 
all your readers, with some plain directions on this 
point) ; and he has given me some excellent observ- 
ations on the " fashionable " waxed-paper process, in 
which he has not met with such good results as he had 
anticipated ; although with much experience which 
may some day turn to good account. DR. MANSELL 
concludes with an observation in which I entirely con- 
cur, viz. " That the calotype process is by far the most 
useful ; and I find the pictures it gives have better 
effect than the wax ones, which always to me appear 
flat, even when they are not gravelly." 

H. W. DIAMOND. 

The Calotype on the Sea-shore. The great quan- 
tity of blue light reflected from the sea renders calo- 
typing in its vicinity much more difficult than in the 
country ; the more distant the object, the greater depth 
has the blue veil which floats over it, and as a conse- 
quence of this disproportion, if time enough is given 
in the camera to bring out the foreground, the sky be- 
comes red, and the distance obscured. After constant 
failures with papers iodized in the usual manner, I 
made a number of experiments to obtain a paper that 
would stand the camera long enough to satisfy the 
required conditions, and the result was the following 
method, which gives an intensity of blacks and half- 
tones, with a solidity and uniform depth over large 
portions of sky, greater than I have seen produced by 
any other process. Since I adopted it, in the autumn 
of 1852, I have scarcely had a failure, and this success 
induces me to recommend it to those who, like myself, 
work in highly actinising localities. 

The object of the following plan is to impregnate 
the paper evenly with a strong body of iodide of silver. 
I prefer iodizing by the single process, and for this 
purpose use a strong solution, of iodide of silver, as the 
paper when finished ought to have, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the colour of pure iodide of silver. 

Take 100 grains of nitrate of silver, and 100 grains 
of iodide of potassium *, dissolve each in two ounces of 

* Having lately prepared this solution according 
to the formula given by DR. DIAMOND (Vol. viii., 
p. 597.), in which it required 650 grains to dissolve 
the 60-grain precipitate, we were inclined to think our 
correspondent had formed a wrong calculation, as the 
difference appeared so little for a solution more than 



distilled water, pour the iodide solution into the nitrate 
of silver, wash the precipitate in three distilled waters, 
pour off the fluid, and dissolve it in a solution of iodide 
of potassium, about 680 grains are required, making 
the whole up to four ounces. 

Having cut the paper somewhat larger than the 
| picture, turn up the edges so as to form a dish, and 
| placing it on a board, pour into it the iodide solution, 
abundantly, guiding it equally over the surface with a 
camel-hair pencil ; continue to wave it to and fro for 
five minutes, then pour off the surplus, which serves 
over and over again, and after dripping the paper, lay 
it to dry on a round surface, so that it dries equally 
fast all over ; when almost dry it is well to give it a 
sight of the fire, to finish off those parts which remain 
wet longest, but not more than just to surface dry it. 

Immerse it in common rain-water, often changing it, 
and in about twenty minutes all the iodide of potash 
is removed. To ascertain this, take up some of the 
last water in a glass, and add to it a few drops of a 
strong solution of bichloride of mercury in alcohol, the 
least trace of hydriodate of potash is detected by a pre- 
cipitate of iodide of mercury. A solution of nitrate of 
silver is no test whatever unless distilled water is used, 
as ordinary water almost invariably contains muriates. 
The sooner the washing is over the better. Pin up 
the paper to drip, and finish drying before a slow fire, 
turning it. If hung up to dry by a corner, the parts 
longest wet are always weaker than those that dry first. 
When dry pass a nearly cold iron over the back, to 
smooth it ; if well made it has a fine primrose colour, 
and is perfectly even by transmitted light. 

To excite the paper, take distilled water two drachms, 
drop into it four drops (not minims) of saturated so- 
lution of gallic acid, and eight drops (not minims) of 
the aceto-nitrate solution; mix. Always dilute the 
gallic acid by dropping it into the water before the 
aceto-nitrate ; gallate of silver is less readily formed, 
and the paper keeps longer in hot weather. If the 
temperature is under sixty degrees, use five drops of 
gallic acid, and ten of aceto-nitrate ; if above seventy 
degrees, use only three drops of gallic acid, and seven 
of aceto-nitrate. The aceto-nitrate solution consists of 
nitrate of silver fifty grains, glacial acetic acid two 
drachms, distilled water one ounce. 

Having pinned the paper by two adjacent corners 
to a deal board, the eighth of an inch smaller on each 
side than it is, to prevent the solutions getting to the 
back, lay on the gallo-nitrate abundantly with a soft 
cotton brush (made by wedging a portion of fine cotton 
into a cork) ; and keep the solution from pooling, by 
using the brush with a very light hand. In about two 
minutes the paper has imbibed it evenly, and lies dead ; 
blot it up, and allow it to dry in a box, or place it at 
once in the paper-holder. For fear of stains on the 



one-third stronger. We found upon accurately follow- 
ing DR. MANSELL'S instructions, that it required 734 
grains of iodide of potassium to effect a solution, whilst 
we have at the same time dissolved the quantity recom- 
mended by DR. DIAMOND with 598 grains. This little 
experiment is a useful lesson to our correspondents, 
exhibiting as it does the constantly varying strength of 
supposed pure chemicals. ED. * N. & Q."] 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



back, it is better to place on the board a clean sheet of 
ordinary paper for every picture. It is very important 
to have the glass, in which the gallo-nitrate is made, 
chemically clean ; every time it is used, it should be 
washed with strong nitric acid, and then with distilled 
water. 

To develop : Pin the paper on the board as before ; 
rapidly brush over it a solution of gallo-nitrate, as 
used to excite. As soon as the picture appears, in 
about a minute, pour on a saturated solution of gallic 
acid abundantly, and keep it from pooling with the 
brush, using it with a very light hand. In about ten 
minutes the picture is fully developed. If very slow 
in coming out, a few drops of pure aceto-nitrate brushed 
over the surface will rapidly bring out the picture ; 
but this is seldom required, and it will sometimes 
brown the whites. It is better, as soon as the gallic 
acid has been applied, to put the picture away from 
the light of the candle in a box or drawer, there to 
develop quietly, watching its progress every three or 
four minutes ; the surface is to be refreshed by a few 
light touches of the brush, adding more gallic acid if 
necessary. Many good negatives are spoiled by over- 
fidgetting in this part of the process. When the pic- 
ture is fully out, wash, &c. as usual ; the iodide of 
silver is rapidly removed by a saturated solution of 
hyposulphite of soda, which acts much less on the 
weaker blacks than it does if diluted. 

If the picture will not develop, from too short ex- 
posure in the camera, a solution of pyrogallic acid, as 
DR. DIAMOND recommends, after the gallic acid has 
done its utmost, greatly increases the strength of the 
blacks : it slightly reddens the whites, but not in the 
same ratio that it deepens the blacks. 

After the first wash with gallo-nitrate, it is essential 
to develop these strongly iodized papers with gallic 
acid only ; the half-and-half mixture of aceto-nitrate 
and gallic acid, which works well with weaker papers, 
turns these red. 

The paper I use is Whatman's 1849. Turner's 
paper, Chafford Mills, if two or three years old, an- 
swers equally well. M. L. MANSELL, A.B. M.D. 

Guernsey, Jan. 30, 1854. 



to 

Ned o" the Todding (Vol. ix., p. 36.). In an- 
swer to the inquiry of W. T., I beg to say that he 
will find the thrilling narrative of poor Ned of 
the Toddin in Southey's Espriellcts Letters from 
England, vol. ii. p. 42. ; but I am not aware of any 
lines with the above heading, by which I presume 
W. T. to be in search of some poetical rendering 
of the tale. j\ Q. jj. 

Hour-glasses and Inscriptions on old Pulpits 
(Vol. ix., pp. 31. 64.). In St. Edmund's Church, 
South Burlingham, stands an elegant pulpit of the 
fifteenth century, painted red and blue, and re- 



, 

i With gildin ' On ft there still remains an 
a hour-glass, though such appendages were not 
introduced till some centuries probably after the 



erection of this pulpit. The following legend goes 
round the upper part of this pulpit, in the old 
English character : 

" Inter natos mulierum non surrexit major Johanne 
Baptista." 

F.C.H. 

Table-turning (Vol. ix., pp. 39. 88.). I have 
not Ammianus Marcellinus within reach, but, if I 
am not mistaken, after the table had been got into 
motion, the oracle was actually given by means of 
a ring. This being held over, suspended by a 
thread, oscillated or leaped from one to another of 
the letters of the alphabet which were engraved on 
the edge of the table, or that which covered it. 
The passage would not occupy many lines, and I 
think that many readers of " 1ST. & Q." would be 
interested if some one of its learned correspondents 
would furnish a copy of it, with a close English 
translation. N. B. 

11 Firm was their faith" (Vol. ix., p. 17.). 
Grateful as I am to all who think well enough of 
my verses to discuss them in " N. & Q.," yet I 
cannot permit them to be incorrectly quoted or 
wrongly revised. If, as F. R. R. alleges, I had 
written in the third line of the stanza quoted 
" with firm and trusting hands" then I should 
have repeated the same epithet (Jtrni) twice in 
three lines. Whereas I wrote, as a reference to 
Echoes from Old Cornwall, p. 58., will establish, 
stern. R. S. HAWKER. 

The Wilbraham Cheshire MS. (Vol. viii., 
pp. 270. 303.). With regard to this highly curious 
MS., I am enabled to state that it is still preserved 
at Delamere House, the seat of George Fortescue 
Wilbraham, Esq., by whom it has been continued 
down to the present time. Mr. Wilbraham has 
answered this Query himself, but from some acci- 
dent his reply did not appear in the pages of 
" N. & Q." I therefore, having recently seen the 
MS., take this opportunity of assuring your 
querist of its existence. 

W. J. BERNHABD SMITH. 

Temple. 

Househunt (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 65.). This animal is well known by this name 
in Norfolk, where the marten is very rare, if not 
entirely unknown. The Norfolk mousehunt, or 
mousehunter, is the Mustela vulgaris. (Vide Forby's 
Vocab. of East Anglia, vol. ii. p. 222., who errs, 
however, in calling it the stoat, but says that it is 
the "smallest animal of the weasel tribe, and 
pursues the smallest prey.") It would be of much 
use, both to naturalists and others, if our zoological 
works would give the popular provincial names of 
animals and birds ; collectors might then more 
easily procure specimens from labourers, &c. I 
have formed a list of Norfolk names for birds, 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



which shall appear in " N. & Q." if desired. The 
Norfolk Mustelida in order of size are the " poll- 
cat," or weasel; the stoat, or carre; the mouse- 
hunt, mousehunter, or lobster. A popular notion 
of gamekeepers is, that pollcats add a new lobe to 
their livers every year of their lives ; but the dis- 
gusting smell of the animal prevents examining 
this point by dissection. E. G. R. 

If Fennell's Natural History of Quadrupeds be 
correctly quoted, as it is stated to be " a very ex- 
cellent and learned work," Mr. Fennell must have 
been a better naturalist than geographer, for he 
says of the beech marten : 

" In Selkirkshire it has been observed to descend to 
the shore at night time to feed upon mollusks, particu- 
larly upon the large basket mussel (Mytilus modiolus)'* 

Selkirkshire, as you well know, is an inland 
county, nowhere approaching the sea by many 
miles : I would fain hope, for Mr. Fenneli's sake, 
that Selkirkshire is either a misprint or a misquo- 
tation. J. Ss. 

Begging the Question (Vol. viii., p. 640.). This 
is a common logical fallacy, petitio principii ; and 
the first known use of the phrase is to be found in 
Aristotle, rl tv apxrj aiVe?<r0ai (Topics Jo. vin. ch.xiii., 
Bonn's edition), where the five ways of " begging 
the question," as also the contraries thereof, are set 
forth. In the Prior Analytics (b. u. ch. xvi.) he 
gives one instance from mathematicians 

"who fancy that they describe parallel lines, for 
they deceive themselves by assuming such things as 
they cannot demonstrate unless they are parallel. 
Hence it occurs to those who thus syllogise to say that 
each thing is, if it is ; and thus everything will be 
known through itself, which is impossible." 

T. J. BUCKTON. 
Birmingham. 

Termination " -ly n (Vol. viii., p. 105.). On 
going over an alphabetical list of places from A 
to G, I obtained these results : 



Lincoln - 
Leicester - 
York 

Northampton - 
Cumberland 
Norfolk - 
Westmoreland - 
Lancashire 
Derby - 
Nottingham 
Sussex 



65 

21 

24 

9 

7 

6 

3 

2 

2 

2 



Total 



- 142 



Results of a similar character were obtained in 
reference to -thorp, -trop, -thrup, or -drop; Lin- 
coln again heading the list, but closely followed 
by Norfolk, then Leicester, Notts, &c. B. H. C. 



German Tree (Vol. viii., p. 619. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 65.). ERYX has mistaken my Query owing to 
its vagueness. When I said, " Is this the first 
notice of a German tree in England?" I meant, 
" Is this the first notice of a German-tree-in-Eng- 
land ? " and not " Is this the first notice-in-Eng- 
land of a German-tree ? " as ERYX understood it. 

ZEUS. 

Celtic Etymology (Vol. ix., p. 40.). If the h 
must be "exhasperated" (as Matthews used to 
say) in words adopted into the English language, 
how does it happen that we never hear it in hour, 
honour, heir, honest, and humour ? Will E. C. H. 
be so kind as to inform me on this point ? With 
regard to the word humble, in support of the h 
being silent, I have seen it stated in a dictionary, 
but by whom I cannot call to mind, in a list of 
words nearly spelled alike, and whose sound is 
the same : 

" HUMBLE, low, submissive." 

" UMBLES, the entrails of a deer." 

Hence the point of the sarcasm " He will be made 
to eat humble pie ;" and it serves in this instance 
to show that the h is silent when the word is pro- 
perly pronounced. 

The two words isiol and irisiol, properly uirisiol t 
which E. C. H. has stated to be the original Celtic 
words signifying humble, have quite a different 
meaning : for isiol is quietly, silently, without 
noise ; and uirisiol means, sneaking, cringing, 
crawling, terms which could not be applied with- 
out injustice to a really humble honest person. 
The Iberno-Phcenician umal bears in itself evi- 
dence that it is not borrowed from any other 
language, for the two syllables are intelligible 
apart from each other; and the word can be at 
once reduced to its root urn, to which the Sanscrit 
word hshama, as given by E. C. H., bears no re- 
semblance whatever. FRAS. CROSSLEY. 

Recent Curiosities of Literature (Vol. ix., p. 31.). 
^-Your correspondent MR. CUTHBERT BEDE has 
done well in directing Mr. Thackeray's attention 
to the error of substituting " candle" for " candle- 
stick," at p. 47. of The Newcomes ; but it appears 
that the author discovered the error, and made a 
clumsy effort to rectify it ; for he elsewhere gives 
us to understand, that she died of a wound in her 
temple, occasioned by coming into contact with 
the stone stairs. See H. Newcome's letter. 

The following curiosity of literature lately ap- 
peared in the London papers, in a biographical 
notice of the late Viscount Beresford, which is 
inserted in the Naval and Military Gazette of 
January 14, 1854 : 

" Of honorary badges he had, first, A cross depen- 
dent from seven clasps : this indicated his having 
been present in eleven battles during the Peninsular 
War. His name was unaccountably omitted in the 



FEB. 11. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



return of those present at Ciudad Rodrigo. When 
Her Majesty gracefully extended the honorary dis- 
tinctions to all the survivors of the great war, Lord 
Beresford received the Peninsular medal, with two 
clasps, for Egypt and Ciudad Rodrigo." 

The expression should have been " the silver 
medal," not "Peninsular; 1 ' as, among the names 
of battles engraved on the clasps attached to the 
silver war-medals, granted in 1849, will be found 
the words " Martinique," " Fort Detroit," " Cha- 
teauguay," " Chrystler's Farm," and " Egypt. 

JUVERNA. 

D. O. M. (Vol.iii., p. 173.). I am surprised 
that there should be the least doubt that the 
above are the initials of " Datur omnibus mori." 

Dr. John Taylor (Vol. viii., p. 299.). There 
are several errors in the communication of S. R. 
He states that " Dr. John Taylor was buried^at 
Kirkstead, Lancashire, where his tomb is distin- 
guished by the following simple inscription." 

1. Kirkstead is in Lincolnshire. 

2. Dr. John Taylor lies interred in the burial- 
ground attached to the Presbyterian Chapel at 
Chowbent, near Bolton, in Lancashire. 

3. The inscription on the tombstone is as 
follows : 

" Here is interred the Rev. John Taylor, D.D., of 
Warrington, formerly of Norwich, who died March 5, 
1761, aged 66." 

4. The inscription given by S. R. is on a slab in 
the chapel at Chowbent. I may add that this 
inscription was drawn up by Dr. Enfield. 

THOMAS BAKER. 
Manchester. 

Lines attributed to Hudibras (Vol. i., p. 211.). 

** For he that fights and runs away, 
May live to fight another day." 

In so far as I can understand from the various 
articles in " "N. & Q." regarding the above quo- 
tation, it is to be found in the Musarum Delicice, 
12mo., 1656. There is a copy of this volume now 
lying before me, the title-page of which runs thus : 

" Musarum Deliciae, or the Muses' Recreation ; con- 
taining severall pieces of Poetique Wit. The second 
edition, by S r J. M. and Ja. S. London : Printed by 
J. G. for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at his 
Shop, at the Signe of the Anchor in the New Ex- 
change, 1656." 

This copy seems to have at one time belonged 
to Longmans, as it is described in the Bib. An. 
Poetica, having the signatures of " Orator Henly," 
"Ritson," and " J. Park." I have read this vo- 
lume over carefully twice, and I must confess my 
inability to find any such two lines as the above 
noted, there. As I do not think Mr. Cunningham, 



in his Handbook of London, or DR. RIMBATJLT.I 
would mislead any one, I am afraid my copy, 
being a second edition, may be incomplete ; and as 
I certainly did not get the volume for nothing^ 
will either of these gentlemen, or any other of the 
readers of " N. & Q.," who have seen other editions, 
let me know this ? 

There is a question asked by MELANION re- 
garding the entire quotation, which I have not yet 
seen answered, which is, 

For he that fights and runs away, 
May live to fight another day ; 
But he that is in battle slain, 
Can never hope to fight again." 

Are these last two lines in the Musarum Delicice ? 
or are these four lines to be found anywhere in 
conjunction ? If this could be found, it would in 
my opinion settle the question. 



S. WMSON. 



" Corporations have no Souls? frc. (Vol. viii., 
p. 587.). In Poynder's Literary Extracts, under 
the title " Corporations," there occurs the follow- 
ing passage : 

" Lord Chancellor Thurlow said that corporations 
have neither bodies to be punished, nor souls to be 
condemned ; they therefore do as they like." 

There are also two long extracts, one from Cow- 
per's Task, book iv., and the other from the Life 
of Wilberforce, vol. ii., Appendix, bearing on the 
same subject. ARCH. WEIR. 

Lord Mayor of London a Privy Councillor 
(Vol. iv. passim). Mr. Serjeant Merewether, 
Town Clerk to the Corporation of London, in his 
examination before the City Corporation Com- 
mission, said that it had been the practice from 
time immemorial, to summon the Lord Mayor of 
London to the first Privy Council held after the 
demise of the crown. (The Standard, Jan. 13, 
1854, p. i. col. 5.) L. HAKTLY. 

Booty's Case (Vol.iii., p. 170.). A story re- 
sembling that of " Old Booty " is to be found in 
St. Gregory the Great's Dialogues, iii. 30., where 
it is related that a hermit saw Theodoric thrown 
into the crater of Lipari by two of his victims, 
Pope John and Symmachus. J. C. R. 

" Sat cito, si sat bene" (Vol. vii., p. 594.). St. 
Jerome (Ep. Ixvi. 9., ed. Vallars) quotes this as 
a maxim of Cato's. J"- C* R. 

Celtic and Latin Languages (Vol. ix., p. 14.). 
Allow me to suggest to T. H. T. that the word 
Gallus, a Gaul, is not, of course, the same as the 
Irish Gal, a stranger. Is it not rather the Latin 
form of Gaoithil (pronounced Gael or Gaul), the 
generic appellation of our Erse population? In 
Welsh it is Gwydyl, to this day their term for an 
Irishman. 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 224. 



Gaoll, stranger, is used in Erie to denote a 
foreign settler, e. g. the Earl of Caithness is Mor- 
phear (pronounced Morar) Gaoll, the stranger 
great man ; being lord of a corner of the land in- 
habited by a foreign race. 

Galloway, on the other hand, takes its name 
from the Gael, being possessed by a colony of that 
people from Kintyre, &c., who long retained the 
name of the wild Scots* of Galloway, to distinguish 
them from the Brets or British inhabitants of the 
rest of the border. FRANCIS JOHN SCOTT, M.A. 

Holy Trinity, Tewkesbury. 

Brydone the Tourists Birth-place (Vol. vii., 
p. 108.). According to Chambers's Lives of Scots- 
men, vol. i. p. 384., 1832, Brydone was the son of 
a clergyman in the neighbourhood of Dumbarton, 
where he was born in the year 1741. When he 
came to England, he was engaged as travelling 
preceptor by Mr. Beckford, to whom his Tour 
through Sicily and Malta is addressed. In a copy 
of this work, now before me, I find the following 
remarks written in pencil : 

These travels are written in a very plausible style, 
but little dependence is to be placed upon their veracity. 
Brydone never was on the summit of ^-Etna, although 
he describes the prospect from it in such glowing 
colours." 

It is right to add, that the writer of these re- 
marks was long a resident in Italy, and in constant 
habits of intercourse with the most distinguished 
scholars of that country. J. MACRAY. 

Oxford. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The second volume of Murray's British Classics, 
which is also the second of Mr. Cunningham's edition 
of The Works of Oliver Goldsmith, fully justifies all we 
said in commendation of its predecessor. It contains 
Goldsmith's Enquiry into the State of Polite Literature 
in Europe, and his admirable series of letters, entitled 
The Citizen of the World. Mr. Cunningham tells us 
that *' he has been careful to mark all Goldsmith's own 
notes with his name ; " his predecessors having in 
Some instances adopted them as their own, and in 
others omitted them altogether, although they are at 
times curiously illustrative of the text. We are glad 
to see that Mr. Murray announces a new edition, re- 
vised and greatly enlarged, 01* Mr. Foster's valuable 
Life of Goldsmith, uniform with the present collection 
of Goldsmith's writings. 

Memorials of the Canynges Family and their Times ; 
Westbury College, Reddiffe Church, and Chatter ton, by 
George Pryce, is the somewhat abbreviated title of a 
goodly octavo volume, on which Mr. Pryce has bestowed 

* Scot or Scott is applied only to the men of Gaelic 
extraction in our old records. 



great industry and research, and by which he hopes to 
clear away the mists of error which have overshadowed 
the story of the Canynges family during the Middle 
Ages, and to show their connexion with the erection 
or restoration of Westbury College and Redcliff 
Church. As Mr. Pryce has some few inedited memo- 
randa relating to Chatterton, he has done well to in- 
corporate them in a volume dedicated in some measure 
to the history of Bristol's " Merchant Prince." 

Poetical Works of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 
Minor Contemporaneous Poets, and Thomas Sackville, 
Lord Bttckhurst, edited by Robert Bell, forms the 
second volume of Parker's Annotated Edition of the 
British Poets. Availing himself, very properly, of the 
labours of his predecessors, Mr. Bell has given us very 
agreeable and valuable memoirs of Surrey and Buck- 
hurst ; and we have no doubt that this cheap edition 
of their works will be the means of putting them into 
the hands of many readers to whom they were before 
almost entirely unknown. 

The Library Committee of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, having had under their consideration the state 
of the engraved portraits in the possession of the So- 
ciety, consulted one of the Fellows, Mr. W. Smith, as 
to the best mode of arrangement. That gentleman, 
having gone through the collection, advised that in 
future the Society should chiefly direct its attention to 
the formation of a series of engraved Portraits of the 
Fellows, and with great liberality presented about 
one hundred and fifty such portraits as his contribu- 
tion towards such collection. Mr. Smith's notion is 
certainly a very happy one : and we mention that and 
his very handsome donation, in hopes of thereby ren- 
dering as good service to the Society's Collection of 
Portraits, as we are glad to learn has been rendered 
to their matchless Series of Proclamations by our 
occasional notices of them. 



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to 



J. D. (Cheltenham). The work you allude to is Wace's 
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M. Le Roux de Lincy in 1836. 

B. O. The paginal references are omitted to the extracts from 
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R. The print of a bishop burnt in Smilhfield cannot be identi- 
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G. D. For the origin of Plough Monday, see Brady's Clavis 
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140 



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[No. 224. 



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in which his Route is trace! over the LITTLE 
MONT CENIS. By ROBERT ELLIS, B.D., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Cambridge : J. DEIGHTON. 
London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON. 



THE SEPTUAGINT OF THE CHRISTIAN 
KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY. 

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
ZINE for FEBRUARY contains a Re- 
view of the conduct of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge in the production of their 
edition of the Septuagiut printpd at Athens. 

We have the canon ot Scripture distinctly 
laid down in our Aiticles, and exhibited in an. 
authorised English Bible. It i* not an open 
question, whether we may follow that pre- 
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Eastern or Western Church. As members of 
the Church of England, we are bound t) con- 
form to the canon of Scripture laid down in the 
Sixth Article." 
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, m the Parish of 
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City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.- Saturday, February 11. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 225.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18. 1854. 



f Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, fjd. 



CONTENTS. 

'NOTES: Page 

Remarkable Imprints - 143 

legends of the Co. Clare, by Francis 

Robert Davies - - - - 145 

Canting Arms - - - - 1 16 
MINOR NOTES : Selleridge Tombs 
of Bishops Lines on visiting the 
Portico of Beau Nash's Palace, Bath- 
Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent A 
Hint to Publishers _ Uhland, the 
German Poet Virgilian Inscription 
for an Infant School - - - 1 46 

QUERIES: 

The Shippen Family John White, by 

Thos.Balch - - - - 147 

Books issued in Parts and not completed 147 

MINOR QUERIES : _ " Hovd Maet of 
Laet " _ Hand in Church Egger 
Moths The Yorkshire Dales Ciss, 
Cissle, &c. Inn Signs, &c. Smiths 
and Robinsons Coin of Carausius 
Verelst the Painter Latin Treatise 
on whipping School-boys White- 
washing in Churches Surname 
" Kynoch " Dates of published 
Works Saw-dust Recipe - - 148 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
<Bnmks, or Gossips' Bridles Not 
^caring a Fig for anything B. C. Y. 

Earl Nusrent's Poems Huntbach 
MSS. Holy Loaf Money St. 
Philip's, Bristol Foreign Univer- 
sities - - - - 149 

.REPLIES : 

Death-Yearnings in Ancient Families, 

by C. Mansfield Ingleby - - 150 
Starvation, by N. L. Melville, &c. - 151 
Osinotherley in Yorkshire, by T. Gill - 152 
Echo Poetry, by Jas. J. Scott - - 153 
Blackguard - - - - - 153 
" Wurm," in Modern German Pas- 
sage in Schiller's " Wallenstcin " - 154 
"Was Shakspeare descended from a 

Landed Proprietor j? by R. Gole, &c. - 154 

Lord Fairfax - - - - 156 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. 
Lyte on Collodion Dr. Diamond on 
Sensitive Collodion - - - 156 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES: Portrait 
of Alva Lord Mayor of London 
not a Privy Councillor Ne\v Zea- 
lander and Westminster Bridge 
Cui Bono Barrels Regiment Sir 
Matthew Hale Scotch Grievance 
- " Merciful Judgments of High 
'Church," &c. Robert Dudley, Earl 
of Leicester Fleet Prison The 
Commons of Ireland previous to the 
"Union " Les Lettres Jui ves " _ Sir 
Philip Wentworth General Fraser 

Namby-Pamby The Word "Mi- 
ser " The Forlorn Hope Thornton 
Abbey " Quid facies," &c. Christ- 
Cross-Ro \v_Sir Walter Scott, and his 
Quotations from himself, &c. - - 158 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 1C2 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 163 

Notices to Correspondents - - 163 



ToL.IX. No. 225. 



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142 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 225. 



WORKS 

BY THE 

REV. DR. MAITLAND. 



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A LETTER to the REV. DR. 

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THE VOLUNTARY SYSTEM. 

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NOTES on the CONTRIBU- 

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PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 

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TOPOGRAPHER^ & GENEALOGIST, 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A. 

The Xlllth Part of this Work is now published, 
price 3s. 6d., containing: 

Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, 
in the Parish of Cudham, Kent, by G. Stem- 
man Steinman, Esq., F.S.A. 

Petition to Parliament from the Borough of 
Wotton Basset, in the reign of Charles I., rela- 
tive to the right of the Burgesses to Free Com- 
mon of Pasture in Fasterne Great Park. 

Memoranda in Heraldry, from the MS. 
Pocket-books of Peter Le Neve, Norroy King 
of Arms. 

Was William of Wykeham of the Family of 
Swalcliffe? By Charles Wykeham Martin, 
Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 

Account of Sir Toby Caulfield rendered to 
the Irish Exchequer, relative to the Chattel 
Property of the Earl of Tyrone and other fugi- 
tives from Ulster in the year 1616, communi- 
cated by James F. Ferguson, Esq., of the Ex- 
chequer Record Office, Dublin. 

Indenture enumerating various Lands in 
Cirencester, 4 Hen. VII. (1489). 

Two Volumes of this Work are now com- 
pleted, which are published in cloth boards, 
price Two Guineas, or in Twelve Parts, price 
3s. 6d. each. Among its more important ar- 
ticles are 

Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with In- 
troductory Observations on the Ancient 
Earldoms of England, by the Editor. 
On the Connection of Arderne, or Arden, of 
Cheshire, with the Ardens of Warwickshire. 
By George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A. 
Genealogical Declaration respecting the Family 
of Norres, written by Sir William Norres, of 
Speke, co. Lane, in 1563 ; followed by an ab- 
stract of charters, &c. 

The Domestic Chronicle of Thomas Godfrey, 

Esq., of Winchelsea, &c., M.P., the father of 

Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, finished in 1655. 

Honywood Evidences, compiled previously to 

1620, edited by B. W. Greenfield, Esq. 
The Descendants of Mary Honywood at her 

death in 1620. 

Marriage Settlements of the Honywoods. 
Pedigrees of the families of Arden or Arderne, 
Arundell of Aynho, Babington, Barry, Bay- 
ley, Bowet, Browne, Burton of Coventry, 
Clarke, Clerke, Clinton, Close, Dabridge- 
court, Dakyns or Dakeynes, D'Oyly, Drew, 
FitzAlan, Fitzherbert, Franceis, Freming- 
ham, Gvll, Hammond, Harlakenden, He- 
neage, Hirst, Honywood, Hodilow, Holman, 
Horde, Hustler, Isley, Kirby, Kynnersley, 
Marche, Marston, Meynell, Norres, Peirse, 
Pimpe, Plomer, Polhill or Polley, Pycheford, 
Pitchford, Pole or De la Pole, Preston, Vis- 
count Tarah, Thexton, Tregose. Turner of 
Kirkleatham, Ufford, Walerand, Walton, and 
Yate. 

The Genealogies of more than ninety families 
of Stockton-upon-Tees, by Wm. D'Oyly 
Bayley, Esq., F.S.A. 
Sepulchral Memorials of the English at Bruges 

and Caen. 
Many original Charters, several Wills, and 

Funeral Certificates. 

Survey, temp. Philip and Mary, of the Manors 
of Crosthole. Landren, Landulph, Lightdur- 
rant, Porpehan. and Tynton, in Cornwall ; 
Aylesbeare and Whytford, co. Devon ; Ewerne 
Courtenay, co. Dorset ; Mudford and Hinton, 
West Coker, and Stoke Courcy, co. Somerset ; 
Rolleston, co. Stafford i and Gorton, co. 
Wilts. 
Survey of the Marshes of the Medway, temp. 

A Description of Cleveland, addressed to Sir 
Thomas Chaloner, temp. James I. 

A Catalogue of the Monumental Brasses, an- 
cient Monuments, and Painted Glass existing 
in the Churches of Bedfordshire, with all 
Names and Dates. 

Catalogue of Sepulchral Monuments in Suf- 
folk, throughout the hundreds of Babergh, 
Blackbourn, Blything, Bosmere and Clay- 
don, Carlford, Colnies, Cosford, Hartismere, 
Hoxne, Town of Ipswich, Hundreds of Lack- 
ford and Loes. By the late D. E. Davy, Esq., 
of Ufford. 

Published by J. B. NICHOLS & SONS, 25. 
Parliament Street, Westminster ; where may 
be obtained, on application, a fuller abstract 
of the contents of these volumes, and also of 
. the " Collectanea Topographica et Genealo- 
gica," now complete in Eight Volumes. 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1854. 



REMARKABLE IMPRINTS. 

More than one pen has considered titles, dedi- 
cations, and imprints worth a Note, and as there 
are still gleanings in their track, I take the liberty 
of sending you a few of the latter ; some from my 
common-place book, others from the fountain- 
heads on my own shelves, but all drawn at random, 
without much regard to classification or chrono- 
logical arrangement. 

The horrors of the Star Chamber and the Ec- 
clesiastical Courts produced many extraordinary 
imprints, particularly to those seditious books of 
the Puritans, better known as the Marprelate 
Family ; works which were printed by ambulatory 
presses, and circulated by unseen hands, now under 
the walls of Archiepiscopal Lambeth, and presto ! 
(when the spy would lay his hands upon them) 
sprite-like, Martin re-appeared in the provinces ! 
This game at hide and seek between the brave old 
Nonconformists and the Church, went on for 
years without detection : but the readers of " N. 
& Q." do not require from me the history of the 
Marprelate Faction, so well told already in the 
Miscellanies of Literature and elsewhere ; the 
animus of these towards the hierarchy will be 
sufficiently exhibited for my purpose in a few of 
their imprints. An Almond for a Parrot, for 
example, purports to be 

;< Imprynted at a place not farre from a place ; by 
the Assignes of Signior Some-body, and are to be soulde 
at his shoppe in Trouble- Knave Street." 

Again, Oh read ouer D. John Bridges, for it is a 
worthy work, is 

"Printed ouer sea, in Europe, within two forlongs 
of a Bouncing Priest, at the Cost and Charges of 
Martin Marprelate, Gent, 1589." 

The Return of the renowned Cavalier o Pasquill 
has the following extraordinary imprint : 

" If ray breath be so hote that I burne my mouthe, 
I suppose I was printed by Pepper Allie, 1589." 

The original "Marprelate" was John Penri, 
who at last fell into the hands of his enemies, and 
was executed under circumstances of great bar- 
barity in Elizabeth's reign. "Martin Junior," 
however, sprung up, and The Counter- Cuffe to 
him is 

" Printed between the Skye and the Grounde, wythin 
a Myle of an Oake, and not many Fields off from the 
unpriuileged Presse of the Ass-ignes of Martin Junior, 

1589." 

The yirulency of this theological warfare died 
away in James's reign> but only to be renewed with 
equal rancour in that of Charles, when Marpre- 



latism was again called into activity by the high- 
church freaks of Archbishop Laud. Vox Borealis, 
or a Northerne Discoverie by way of Dialogue be- 
tween Jamie and Willie, is an example of these 
later attacks upon the overbearing of the mitre, 
and affords the imprint 

" Amidst the Babylonians. Printed by Margery 
Marprelate, in Th \vack- Coat Lane, at the Signe of the 
Crab- Tree Cudgell, without any privilege of the 
Cater- Caps, 1641." 

Others of this stamp will occur to your readers : 
this time the Puritans had the best of the struggle, 
and ceased not to push their advantage until they 
brought their enemy to the block. 

When the liberty of the press was imperfectly 
understood, the political satirist had to tread 
warily ; consequently we find that class of writers 
protecting themselves by jocular or patriotic im- 
prints. A satirical pamphlet upon the late Sicke 
Commons is " Printed in the Happie Year 1641." 
A Letter from Nobody in the City to Nobody in the 
Country is " Printed by Somebody, 1679." Some- 
body's Answer is " Printed for Anybody." These 
were likely of such a tendency as would have ren- 
dered both author and printer amenable to some- 
body, say Judge Jeffries. During the administra.- 
tion of Sir Robert AValpole, there were many 
skirmishing satirists supported by both ministry 
and people, such as James Miller, whose pamphlet, 
contra, Are these things so ? is " Printed for the 
perusal of all Lovers of their Country, 1740." 
This was answered by the ministers' champion, 
James Dance, alias Love, in Yes, they are ! alike 
addressed to the "Lovers of their Country." 
What of That ? was the next of the series, being 
Miller's reply, who intimated this time that it was 
" Printed, and to be had of all True Hearts and 
Sound Bottoms." 

When there was a movement for an augmenta- 
tion of the poor stipends of the Scots Clergy in 
1750, there came out a pamphlet under the title of 
The Presbyterian Clergy seasonably detected, 1751, 
which exceeds in scurrility, if possible, the famous, 
or infamous, Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence Dis- 
played; both author and printer, however, had so 
much sense as to remain in the background, and 
the thing purported to be "Printed for Mess 
John in Fleet Street." Under the title of The 
Comical History of the Marriage betwixt Hep- 
tarchus and Fergusia, 1706 *, the Scots figured the 
union of the Lord Heptarchus, or England, with 
the independent, but coerced, damsel Fergusia, or 
Scotland; the discontented church of the latter 

* G. Chalmers ascribed this to one " Balantyne." 
| In Lockhart's Memoirs, Lond. 1714, Mr. John Balan- 
j tyne, the minister of Lanark, is noticed as the most 
i uncompromising opponent of the Union. I shall 
I therefore assign the Comical History to him until I find 
I a better claimant. 



144 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 225. 



finding that the former broke faith with her, could 
not help giving way to occasional murmurings, 
and these found vent in (among others) a poetical 
Presbyterian tract, entitled Melancholy Sonnets, or 
Fergusias Complaint upon Heptarchus, in which 
the author reduced to rhyme the aforesaid Co- 
mical History, adding thereto all the evils this ill- 
starred union had entailed upon the land after 
thirty-five years' experience. This curious pro- 
duction was " Printed at Elguze ? for Pedaneous, 
and sold by Circumferaneous, below the Zenith, 
1741."* Charles II., when crowned at Scone, 
took the solemn league and covenant ; but not 
finding it convenient to carry out that part of his 
coronation oath, left the Presbyterians at the 
^Restoration in the hands of their enemies. To 
mark their sense of this breach of faith, there was 
published a little book f describing the inaugura- 
tion of the young profligate, which expressively 
purports to be " Printed at Edinburgh in the Year 
of Covenant-breaking." The Scots folk had such 
a horror of anything of a deistical tendency, that 
John Goldie had to publish his Essays, or an At- 
tempt to distinguish true from false Religion (popu- 
pularly called " Goldie's Bible"), at Glasgow, 
"Printed for the Author, and sold by him at Kil- 
marnock, 1779;" neither printer nor bookseller 
would, apparently, be identified with the unclean 
thing. Both churchmen and dissenters convey 
their exultations, or denouncements, upon political 
changes, through the medium of imprints ; and 
your correspondents who have been discussing 
that matter, will see in some of these that the 
" Good Old Cause " may be " all round the com- 
pass," as Captain Cuttle would say, depending 
wholly upon the party spectacles through which 
you view it. Legal Fundamental Liberty, in an 
epistle from Selburne to Lenthal, is " Reprinted 
in the Year of Hypocritical and Abominable Dis- 
simulation, 1649 ; " on the other hand, The Little 
Bible of that militant soldier Captain Butler is 
"Printed in the First Year of England's Liberty, 
1649." The Last Will and Testament of Sir John 
Presbyter is "Printed in the Year of Jubilee, 
1647." A New Meeting of Ghosts at Tyburn, in 
which Oliver, Bradshaw, and Peters figure, ex- 
hibits its royal tendency, being " Printed in the 
Year of the Rebellious Phanatick's Downfall, 
1660." "Printed at N., with Licence," is the 
cautious imprint of a republication of Doleman's 

V 

* This resembles in its dpggrel style Scotland's 
Glory and her Shame, and A Poem on the Burgess Oath. 
Can any of your correspondents, familiar with Scottish 
typographical curiosities, tell me who was the author, 
or authors, of these ? 

f A Phoenix, or the Solemn League and Covenant, 8fc., 
12mo. pp. 168, with a frontispiece representing Charles 
burning the book of the Solemn League and Covenant, 
above the flames from which hovers a phoenix. 



Conference in 1681. A proper Project to Startle 
Fools is " Printed in a Land where Self's cry'd 
up, and Zeal's cry'd down, 1699." The Impartial 
Accountant, wherein it is demonstratively made 
known how to pay the National Debt, and that with- 
out a New Tax, or any Inconveniency to the People, 
is " Printed for a Proper Person," and, I may add, 
can be had of a certain person, if Mr. Gladstone 
will come down with an adequate consideration 
for the secret! These accountants are all mys- 
terious, you would think they were plotting to 
empty the treasury rather than to fill it ; another 
says his Essay upon National Credit is " Printed 
by A. R. in Bond's Stables ! " Thomas Scott, the 
English minister at Utrecht, published, among 
other oddities, Vox Ccelis ; or Newesfrom Heaven, 
being Imaginary Conversations there between 
Henry VIII. (/), Edward VI., Prince Henrie, and 
others, "Printed in Elysium, 1624." Edward 
Raban, an Englishman, who set up a press in the 
far north, published an edition of Lady Culros' 
Godlie Dreame, and finding that no title com- 
manded such respect among the canny Scots as 
that of Laird, announced the book to be "Im- 
printed at Aberdene, by E. R., Laird of Letters, 
1644." The Instructive Library, containing a list 
of apocryphal books, and a satire upon some theo- 
logical authors qf that day, is " Printed for the 
Man in the Moon, 1710." The Oxford Sermon 
Versified, by Jacob Gingie, Esq., is " Printed by 
Tim. Atkins at Dr. Sacheverell's Head, near St. 
Paul's, 1729." "Printed, and to be had at the 
Pamphlett Shops of London and Westminster," 
was a common way of circulating productions of 
questionable morals or loyalty. The Chapmen, or 
Flying-Stationers, had many curious dodges of 
this kind to give a relish to their literary wares : 
The Secret History of Queen Elizabeth and the 
Earl of Essex derived additional interest in the 
eyes of their country customers by its being 
"Printed at Cologne for Will- with- the- Wisp, at 
the Sign of the Moon in the Ecliptic, 1767." The 
Poems of that hard-headed Jacobite, Alexander 
Robertson of Struan, are "Printed at Edinburgh 
for Charles Alexander, and sold at his house in 
Geddes Close, where Subscribers may call for their 
Copies, circa 1750." * The New Dialogues of the 
Dead are " Printed for D. Y., at the foot of Par- 
nassus Hill, 1684." Professor Tenant's poem of 
Papistry Stormed imitates the old typographers, 
it being " Imprentit at Edinbrogh be Oliver and 
Boyd, anno 1827." A rare old book is Goddard's 



* I have not met with the name of such a bookseller 
elsewhere, and would like to hear the history of this 
book ; it was again published with the addition of 
The Martial Achievements of the Robertsons of Strnan, 
and in imitation of the original is printed at Edinburgh 
by arid for Alexander Robertson, in Morison's Close, 
where subscribers may call for their copies (1785?). 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



145 



Mastiffe Whelpe, " Imprinted amongst the Anti- 
podes, and are to be sould where they are to be 
bought." Another, by the same author, is a Sa- 
tirical Dialogue, " Imprinted in the Low Coun- 
treyes for all such Gentlemen as are not altogether 
idle, nor yet well occupyed." These were both, I 
believe, libels upon the fair sex. John Stewart, 
otherwise Walking Stewart, was in the habit of 
dating his extraordinary publications " In the 
year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by As- 
tronomical Calculation, 5000 ; " " In the 7000 year 
of Astronomical History in the Chinese Tables ; " 
and " In the Fifth Year of Intellectual Existence." 
" Mulberry Hill, Printed at Crazy Castle," is an 
imprint of J. H. Stevenson. The Button Makers' 
Jests, by Geo. King of St. James', is " Printed for 
Henry Frederick, near St. James' Square;" a 
co:irse squib upon royalty. One Fisher entitled 
Lis play Thou shalt not Steal; the School of Ingra- 
titude. Thinking the managers of Drury Lane 
Lad communicated his performance, under the 
latter name, to Reynolds the dramatist, and then 
rejected it, he published it thus : " Printed for the 
curious and literary shall we say ? Coincidence ! 
refused by the Managers, and made use of in the 
Farce of ' Good Living,' " published by Reynolds 
in 1797. Harlequin Premier, as it is daily acted, 
is a hit at the ministry of the period, " Printed at 
Brentafordia, Capital of Barataria, and sold by all 
the Booksellers in the Province, 1769." " Printed 
Merrily, and may be read Unhappily, betwixt 
Hawke and Buzzard, 1641," is the satisfactory 
imprint of The Downefall of temporising Poets, 
unlicensed Printers, upstart Booksellers, tooting 
Mercuries, and bawling Hawkers. Books have 
sometimes been published for behoof of particular 
individuals ; old Daniel Rogers, in his Matrimo- 
nial Honovr, announces " A Part of the Impression 
to be vended for the use and benefit of Ed. Min- 
sheu, Gent., 1650." How full of interest is the 
following, " Printed at Sheffield by James Mont- 
gomery, in the Hart's Head, 1795!" A poor 
man, by name J. R. Adam, meeting with reverses, 
enlisted, and after serving abroad for a period, 
returned but to exchange the barrack-room for 
the _ Glasgow Lunatic Asylum. Possessing a 
poetical vein, he indulged it here in soothing his 
own and his companions' misery, by circulating his 
verses on detached scraps, printed by himself. 
These on his enlargement he collected together, 
and gave to the world in 1845, under the title of 
the Garlnavel Minstrel, a neat little square vo- 
lume of 104 pages, exceedingly well executed, and 
bearing the imprint " Glasgow, composed, printed, 
and published by J. R. Adam;" under any circum- 
stances a most creditable specimen, but under those 
I have described "a rara avis in literature and art." 
The list might be spun out, but I fear I have 
exceeded limits already with my dry subject. 

J. 0. 



LEGENDS OF THE CO. CLARE. 

In the west of Clare, for many miles the country 
seems to consist of nothing but fields of grey lime- 
stone flags, which gives it an appearance of the 
greatest desolation : Cromwell is reported to have 
said of it, " that there was neither wood in it to 
hang a man, nor water to drown him, nor earth 
to bury him ! " The soil is not, however, by any 
means as barren as it looks ; and the following 
legend is related of the way in which an ancestor 
of one of the most extensive landed proprietors in 
the county obtained his estates. 

'Twas on a dismal evening in the depth of 
winter, that one of Cromwell's officers was passing 
through this part of the country ; his courage and 
gallantry in the " good cause" had obtained for 
him a large grant of land in Clare, and he was now 
on his journey to it. Picturing to himself a land 
flowing with milk and honey, his disappointment 
may therefore be imagined when, at the close of a 
weary day's journey, he found himself bewildered 
amid such a scene of desolation. From the in- 
quiries he had made at the last inhabited place 
he had passed, he was led to conclude that he 
could not be far distant from the "land of pro- 
mise," where he might turn his sword into a prun- 
ing-hook, and rest from all his toils and dangers. 
Could this be the place of which his imagination 
had formed so fair a vision ? Hours had elapsed 
since he had seen a human being ; and, as the soli- 
tude added to the dismal appearance of the road, 
bitterly did the veteran curse the folly that had 
enticed him into the land of bogs and " Papistrie." 
Troublous therefore as the times were, the tramp 
of an approaching steed sent a thrill of pleasure 
through the heart of the Puritan. The rider soon 
joined him, and as he seemed peaceably disposed, 
they entered into conversation ; and the stranger 
soon became acquainted with the old soldier's 
errand, and the disappointment he had experi- 
enced. Artfully taking advantage of the occasion, 
the stranger, who professed an acquaintance with 
the country, used every means to aggravate the 
disgust of his fellow-traveller, till the heart of the 
Cromwellian, already half overcome by fatigue 
and hunger, sank within him ; and at last he 
agreed that the land should be transferred to the 
stranger for a butt of Claret and the horse on 
which he rode. As soon as this important matter 
was settled, the stranger conducted his new friend 
to a house of entertainment in a neighbouring ham- 
let, whose ruins are still called the plaret House 
of K . A plentiful, though coarse, entertain- 
ment soon smoked on the board ; and as the eye 
of the Puritan wandered over the " creature com- 
forts," his heart rose, and he forgot his disappoint- 
ment and his fatigue. It is even said that he 
dispensed with nearly ten of the twenty minutes 
which he usually bestowed on the benediction ; 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 225. 



but be this as it may, ere he retired to his couch 
-"vino ciboque gravatus" the articles were 
signed, and the courteous stranger became pos- 
sessed of one of the finest estates in the county ! 
FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES. 



CANTING ARMS. 

In the introduction to a work entitled A Col- 
lectio?i of Coats of Arms borne by the Nobility and 
Gentry of the County of Gloucester, London, 
J. Good, 159. New Bond Street, 1792, and which 
| I believe was written by Sir George Nayler, it is 
asserted that 

" Armes parlanies, or canting arras, were not common 
till the commencement of the seventeenth century, 
when they prevailed under the auspices of King 
James." 

Now doubtless they were more common in the 
seventeenth century, but I am of opinion that 
there are many instances of them centuries pre- 
vious to the reign of King James ; as, for example, 
in a roll of arms of the time of Edward II. 
(A.D. 1308-14), published by Sir Harris Nicolas 
from a manuscript in the British Museum, there 
are the following : 

" Sire Peres Corbet, d'or, a un corbyn de-sable. 

Sire Johan le Fauconer, d'argent, a \\ifaucouns de 
goules. 

Sire Johan Heroun, d'azure, a iii herouns d'argent. 

Sire Richard de Cokfeld, d'azure, a une crois e 
iiii coks d'or. 

Sire Richard de Barlingham, de goules, a iii ours 
(6ears) d'argent. 

Sire Johan de Swyneford, d'argent, a un cheveroun 
de sable, a iii testes de cenglers (swines 1 heads) d'or." 

Sire Ammon de Lucy bore three luces ; Sire 
William Bernak a fers between three barnacles, 
&c. There are many other examples in the same 
work, but as I think I have made my communica- 
tion quite long enough, I forbear giving them. 

CID. 



Selleridge. The story of the author who was 
charged by his publisher for selleridge, and thought 
it for selling his books, whereas it was storing 
them in a cellar, is given by Thomas Moore in his 
Diary, lately published, upon the authority of 
Coleridge. It is to be found, much better told, 
in Coleridge's Biographia Literaria. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Tombs of Bishops. The following bishops, 
whose bodies were interred elsewhere, had or have 
tombs in the several cathedrals in which their 
hearts were buried : William de Longchamp, 



William de Kilkenny, Cardinal Louis de Luxem- 
bourg, at Ely ; Peter de Aqua Blanca, at Aqua- 
blanca, in Savoy ; Thomas Cantilupe, at Ashridge, 
Bucks (Hereford) ; Ethelmar (Winton), at Win- 
chester ; Thomas Savage (York), at Macclesfield ; 
Robert Stichelles (Durham), at Durham. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 
Durham. 

Lines on visiting the Portico of Beau Nash's 
Palace, Bath. 

And here he liv'd, and here he reign'd, 
And hither oft shall strangers stray ; 

To muse with joy on native worth, 

And mourn those pleasures fled for aye. 

Alas ! that he, whose days were spent 

In catering for the public weal, 
Should, in the eventide of life, 

Be destin'd sad distress to feel. 

An ever open heart and hand, 

With ear ne'er closed to sorrow's tale, 
Exalts the man, and o'er his faults 
Draws the impenetrable veil. 

L. M. THORNTON. 
Bath. 

Acrostic in Ash Church, Kent. The following 
acrostic is from 2^ brass in Ash Church, Kent. It 
is perhaps curious only from the fact of its being 
unusual to inscribe this kind of verse on sepul- 
chral monuments. The capital letters at the 
commencement of each line are given as in the 
original : 

" H John Brooke of the parish of Ashe 

O Only he is nowe gone. 

tlj His days are past, his corps is layd 

t^ Now under this marble stone. 

W Brookstrete he was the honor of, 

pd Robd now it is of name, 

O Only because he had no sede 

O Or children to have the same ; 

ft Knowing that all must passe away, 

fj Even when God will, none can denay. 

" He passed to God in the yere of Grace 
One thousand fyve hundredth ffower score and two 

it was, 

The sixteenthe daye of January, I tell now playne, 
The five-and-twentieth yere of Elizabeth rayne." 

FRAS. BRENT. 
Sandgate. 

A Hint to Publishers. The present period is 
remarkable for its numerous reprints of our poets 
and standard writers. However excellent these 
may be, there is often a great drawback, viz. that 
one must purchase an author's entire works, and 
cannot get a favourite poem or treatise separately. 

What I would suggest is, that a separate title- 
page be prefixed to every poem or treatise in an 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



author's works, and that they be sold collectively 
or separately at the purchaser's option. Thus few 
would encumber themselves with the entire works 
of Dryden, but many would gladly purchase some 
of his poems if they could be had separately. 

These remarks are still more applicable to 
encyclopaedias. The JZncycl. Metropol. was a step 
in the right direction ; and henceforth we may 
hope to have each article sold separately in octavo 
volumes. Is there no chance, amid all these re- 
prints, of our seeing Heyvvood, Crashaw, Southwell, 
Habington, Daniel, or Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den ? MARICONDA. 

Uhland, the German Poet. Mr. Mitchell, in 
his speech at New York, is said to have stated that 
Uhland, the German poet, had become an exile, 
and was now in Ohio. This is a mistake ; for 
Uhland is now living in his native Wurtemberg, 
and is reported in the papers to have quite recently 
declined a civic honour proposed to be conferred 
on him by the King of Prussia at the suggestion 
of Baron Humboldt. J. M. 

Oxford. 

Virgilian Inscription for an Infant School. 
". . Auditae voces, vagitus et ingens, 
Infantumque animas flentes, in limine primo." 

Mn. vi. 426. 

ANON. 



Omtrfe*. 

THE SHIPPEN FAMILY JOHN WHITE. 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania having 
requested me to edit certain MSS., I should be 
very much indebted to any one for information, 
either through your columns, or addressed to me 
directly, concerning the following persons or their 
ancestry. 

Edward Shippen, son of William, born in York- 
shire, near Pontefract or Wakefield, as supposed, 
1639 ; emigrated to Boston 1670, was a member 
of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany, afterwards turned Quaker, was publicly 
whipt for his faith (see Thomas Story's Journal, 
quoted in Southey's Common-Place Book}, re- 
moved to Philadelphia, elected Speaker 1695, first 
mayor 1701, &c., died 1712. His son's family 
Bible entries (now in possession of Colonel Jno. 
Hare Powel) say that his (the son's) relations in 
England were his "uncle William's children," 
viz. Robert Shippen, Doctor of Divinity; Wil- 
liam Shippen, Doctor of Laws and a parliament 
man ; Edward, a physician ; John, a Spanish mer- 
chant. 

The uncle William thus mentioned is conjec- 
tured to have been the Rector of Stockport, and 
the "parliament man" to have been his son, 



" downright Shippen " (Lord Mahon's Hist. Eng., 
three vols.) a conjecture strengthened by an- 
other mem., " John, son of the Rector of St. 
Mary's parish, Stockport, was baptized July 5, 
A.D. 1678." 

Edward Shippen's daughter, Margaret, married 
John Jekyll, collector of the port of Boston, said 
to have been a younger brother of Sir Joseph ; 
and a descendant, daughter of Chief Justice 
Shippen, married General Benedict Arnold, then 
a distinguished officer in the American army. 

Mr. Shippen lived in great style (Watson's 
Annals, &c.), and among his descendants were, 
and are, many persons of consequence and dis- 
tinction. 

Besides information as to Mr. Shippen's an- 
cestors, I should be glad to learn something of 
his kinsfolk, and of the Jekyll and Arnold 
branches. Sabine's (Loyalists} account of the 
latter is imperfect, and perhaps not very just. 

John White, Chief Justice Shippen, whilst a 
law student in London, writes, 1748-50, as though 
Mr. White was socially a man of dignified position. 
He was a man of large fortune ; his sister married 
San. Swift, who emigrated to this state. His 
portrait, by Reynolds, represents a gentleman 
past middle age, whose costume and appearance 
are those of a person of refined and elegant edu- 
cation. His letters were destroyed by fire some 
years since. The China and silver ware, which 
belonged to him, have the following arms : " Gules, 
a border sable, charged with seven or eight es- 
toiles gold ; on a canton ermines a lion rampant 
sable. Crest, a bird, either a stork, a heron, or 
an ostrich." The copy inclosed is taken from the 
arms on the china ; but our Heralds' College (i. e. 
an intelligent engraver, who gave me the foregoing 
description) says, that on the silver the crest is 

"o of/->T.L- /->l/-vct/- " TTT^CS "R A T /-ITT 



a stork close.' 
Philadelphia. 



THOS. BALCH. 



BOOKS ISSUED IN PARTS AND NOT COMPLETED. 

From time to time various productions, many 
valuable, others the reverse, have issued from the 
press in parts or numbers ; some have been com- 
pleted, while others have only reached a few num- 
bers. It would be desirable to ascertain what works 
have been finished, and what have not. I have 
therefore transmitted a note as to several that 
have fallen in my way, and should be happy for 
any information about them : 

; ' 1. John Bull Magazine, 8vo., London, 1824. Of 
this I possess four numbers. A friend of mine 
has also the four numbers, and, like myself, 
attaches great value to them, from the ability 
of many of the articles. One article, entitled 
" Instructions to Missionaries," is equal to any 
thing from the pen of T. Hood. May it not 
have been written by him ? 



148 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



[No. 225. 



2. Portraits of the Worthies of Westminster Hall, 

with their Autographs, being Fac-Similes of 
Original Sketches found in the Note- Book of 
a Briefless Barrister. London : Thomas and 
William Boone, 480. Strand. Small 8vo. 

Part I. Price Twenty Shillings. Twenty 
Sketches (very clever). 

3. Dictionary of Terms employed by the French 

in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, &c., by 
Shirley Palmer, M. D. 8vo., 1834. Bir- 
mingham : Barlow. London : Longman & 
Co. Two Parts. Stops at the letter H. 

4. Quarterly Biographical Magazine, No. I., May, 

1838. 8vo. London : Hunt & Hart. 

5. Complete Illustrations of the British Fresh-water 

Fishes. London: W. Wood. 8vo. Three 
Numbers. 

6. New and Compendious History of the County of 

Warwick, &c. By William Smith, F.R. S.A. 
4to. Birmingham : W. Evans. London : 
J. T. Hinton, 4. Warwick Square. 1829. 
Ten Numbers, to be completed in Twelve. 
On my copy there is written, " Never finished." 
Is this the case ? 

7. Fishes of Ceylon. By John Whitchurch Ben- 

net, Esq., F.H.S. London : Longman & Co. 
1828. 4to. Two Numbers. A Guinea each. 

J. M. 



" Hovd Maet of Laet." Will you kindly give 
me a translation of the above, which is in the 
corner of an old Dutch panel painting in the 
style of Ostade and Teniers, jun., in my posses- 
sion ? READING. 

Hand in Church (Vol.viii., p. 454.). What is 
the hand projecting under chancel arch, Brighton 
old church ? A. C. 

Egger Moths. What is the derivation of the 
word "egger," as applied to several species of 
moths ? MOUNTJOY. 

The Yorkshire Dales (Vol. ii., p. 220.). Is the 
Guide to the above by J. H. Dixon published ? 

E. W. D. 

Ciss, Cissle, tyc. Can any of your readers give 
me any authority for a written usage of these 
words, or any one of them : ciss, siss, cissle or 
cizzle ? They are often heard, but I have never 
seen them written, nor can I^fiud them in any dic- 
tionary. A. 

Inn Signs, frc. Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
supply information respecting inn and other signs ; 
or refer to any printed books, or accessible MSS., 
relating to the subject^? ALI>HEGE. 

Smiths and Robinsons. Could any of your 
correspondents inform me what are the arms of 



Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, those of the 
Smiths of Willoughby, those of the Smiths of 
Crudely, in Lancashire, and those of the Robinsons 
of the North Riding of Yorkshire? Also, in 
what church, and in what year, did Lady Eliza- 
beth Robinson, otherwise known as Betty of the 
Boith, serve the office of churchwarden ? 

JOHN H. R. SMITH, Jun. 

Coin of Carausius. A brass coin has lately 
come into my possession, bearing on the obverse- 
the head and inscription : 

" IMP. CARAVSIUS. P. P. AVG." 

And on the reverse, a female figure, with spear 
and a branch : 

" PAX. AUG. S. P. MLXXI." 

I believe it to have been struck by Carausius, an 
usurper of the end of the third century, and my 
Query is as to the meaning of the letters MLXXI. 
Some friends assert them to be the Roman nu- 
merals, making the year 1071, and conclude it to 
have been struck at that date. C. G* 

Paddington. 

Verelst the Painter. Can any of your readers 
inform me who was Jo. Verelst ? I have in my 
possession a picture bearing the signature, with 
the addition of ]?. 1714. The celebrated artists of 
that name mentioned in the Dictionary of Painters 
cannot be the same. CELCRENA. 

Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys. 
What is the name of a modern Latin author, who 
has written a treatise on the antiquity of the prac- 
tice of whipping school-boys ? The work is alluded 
to in the History of the Flagellants, p. 134., edit- 
1777, but the author's name is not given. 

BETULA. 
Dublin. 

WJiitewashing in Churches. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me at what period, and 
about what year it became the custom to cover 
over with whitewash the many beautiful works of 
art, both in stone and wood, which have of late- 
years been brought to light in our cathedrals and 
churches in the course of renovation ? K. 

Surname " Kynoch." Can any of your corre- 
spondents supply any heraldic or genealogical in- 
formation regarding this name, a few families of 
which are to be found in Moray and Aberdeen 
shires, North Britain ? J- 

Dates of published Works. Is it possible to- 
ascertain the exact time of publication of any 
book, for instance in the year 1724, either at Sta- 
tioners' Hall or elsewhere ? D. 

Saw-dust Recipe. There is a recipe existing 
somewhere for converting saw-dust into palatable 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



human food. Can you tell me what it is, or where 
it is to be found ? Gr- D. 






Pranks, or Gossips' Bridles. Walton Church 
contains one of those strange instruments with 
which our ancestors used to punish those dames who 
were too free with the use of their tongues. They 
were called hanks [branks], or gossips' bridles, 
and were intended to inclose the head, being 
fastened behind by a padlock, and having at- 
tached to it a small piece of iron which literally 
** held the tongue." Thus accoutred, the unhappy 
culprit was marched through the village till she 
gave unequivocal signs of repentance and humi- 
liation. Can any one give some account of this 
curious instrument ? GEOEGE HODGES. 

Oxford. 

[Fosbroke says that " the brank is a sugar-loaf cap 
made of iron hooping, with a cross at top, and a flat 
piece projecting inwards to lie upon the tongue. It 
was put upon the head of scolds, padlocked behind, 
and a string annexed, by which a man led them 
through the towns." (See also Brand's Popular An- 
tiquities, vol. Hi. p. 108., Bonn's edition.) Engravings 
of them will be found in Plot's History of Staffordshire, 
p. 389., and in Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. ii. 
p. 192. In the Historical Description of the Tower of 
London, p. 54., edit. 1774, occurs the following libel- 
lous squib on the fair sex : " Among the curiosities of 
the Tower is a collar of torment, which, say your con- 
ductors, used formerly to be put about the women's 
neck that cuckolded their husbands, or scolded them 
when they came home late ; but that custom is left off 
now-a-days, to prevent quarrelling for collars, there 
not being smiths enough to make them, as most mar- 
ried men are sure to want them at one time or an- 
other." Waldron, in his Description of the Isle of Man, 
p. 80., thus notices this instrument of punishment : "I 
know nothing in the Manx statutes or punishments in 
particular but this, which is, that if any person be 
convicted of uttering a scandalous report, and cannot 
make good the assertion, instead of being fined or im- 
prisoned, they are sentenced to stand in the market- 
place, on a sort of scaffold erected for that purpose, 
with their tongue in a noose made of leather, which 
they call a bridle, and having been exposed to the view 
of the people for some time, on the taking off this 
machine, they are obliged to say three times, Tongue, 
thou hast lyed.' "] 

Not caring a Fig for anything. What is the 
origin of this expression ? J. H. CHATEAU. 

Philadelphia. 

[Nares informs us that the real origin of this ex- 
pression may be found in Stevens and Pineda's Dic- 
tionaries under Hiaa ; and, in fact, the same phrase 
and allusion pervaded all modern Europe : as, Far le 
jftche, Ital. ; Faire la Jigue, Fr. ; Die Feigen weisen, 
Germ.; De vi/ghe setten, Dutch. (See Du Cange, in 



FicJia.) Johnson says, " To fig, in Spanish, higas dar, 
is to insult by putting the thumb between the fore and 
middle finger. From this Spanish custom we yet say- 
in contempt, A fig for you." To this explanation Mr. 
Douce has added the following note : " Dr. Johnson 
has properly explained this phrase ; but it should be 
added, that it is of Italian origin. When the Milanese 
revolted against the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 
they placed the Empress his wife upon a mule with 
her head towards the tail, and ignominiously expelled 
her their city. Frederick afterwards besieged and 
took the place, and compelled every one of his pri- 
soners, on pain of death, to take with his teeth a fig 
from the posteriors of a mule. The party was at the 
same time obliged to repeat to the executioner the 
words Ecco la fica. From this circumstance far la fica 
became a term of derision, and was adopted by other 
nations. The French say likewise, faire lafigue"'] 

B. C. Y. Can you give me any information 
respecting the famous B. C. Y. row, as it was 
called, which occurred about fifty years ago ? A 
newspaper was started expressly to explain the 
meaning of the letters, which said it was " Beware 
of the Catholic Yoke;" but it was wrong. 

H. Y. 

[These "No- Popery" hieroglyphics first appeared 
in the reign of Charles II. during the debates on the 
Exclusion Bill, and were chalked over all parts of 
Whitehall and the Houses of Parliament. O B. C. Y. 
was then the inscription, which meant, " O Beware of 
Catholic York." On their re-appearance in 1809 tho 
Y. was much taller than the B. C. ; but the use and 
meaning at this time of these initials still remains a 
query.] 

Earl Nugenfs Poems. I would be much 
obliged for any information relating to the poems 
written by Robert, afterwards Earl Nugent, be- 
tween the years 1720 and 1780. It is supposed 
that they were first published in some periodical, 
and afterwards appeared in a collected form. 

JAMES F. FERGUSON. 

Dublin. 

[A volume of his poems was published anonymously 
by Dodsley, and entitled Odes and Epistles ; containing 
an Ode on his own Conversion from Popery : London, 
1739, 8vo., 2nd edit. There are also other pieces by 
him in Dodsley's Collection, and the Neiv Foundling 
Hospital for Wit. He also published Faith, a Poem ; 
a strange attempt to overturn the Epicurean doctrine 
by that of the Trinity ; and Verses to the Queen ; with 
a New Year's Gift of Irish Manufacture, 1775, 4to.] 

Huntbach MSS. Can you tell me where the 
Huntbach MSS. now lie ? Shaw, in his History 
of Staffordshire, drew largely from them. UKSUS. 

[Dr. Wilkes's Collections, with those of Fielde, 
Huntbach, Loxdale, and Shaw, as also the engraved 
plates and drawings, published and unpublished, rela- 
tive to the History of Staffordshire, were, in the year 
1820, in the possession of William Hamper, F. S. A., 
Deritend House, Birmingham.] 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



Holy Loaf Money. In Dr. Whitaker's Whal- 
ley, p. 149., mention is made of holy loaf money. 
What is meant by this ? T. I. W. 

[This seems to be some ecclesiastical due payable on 
Hlaf-mass, or Loaf-mass, commonly called Lammas- 
Day (August 1st). See Somner and Junius. It was 
called Loaf or Bread-mass, because it was a day of 
oblation of grain, or of bread made of new wheat ; and 
was also the holiday of St. Peter ad Vincula, when 
Peter-pence were paid. Du Cange likewise mentions 
the Panis benedictus, and that money was given by the 
recipients of it on the following occasion : "Since the 
catechumens," says he, " before baptism could neither 
partake of the Divine Mysteries, nor consequently of 
the Eucharist, a loaf was consecrated and given to them 
by the priest, whereby they were prepared for receiving 
the body of Christ."] 

St. Philip's, Bristol. Can you inform me when 
the Church of St. Philip, Bristol, was made paro- 
chial, and in what year the Priory of Benedictines, 
mentioned by William de Worcester in connexion 
with this church, was dissolved, and when founded ? 

E. W. GODWIN. 

[Neither Dugdale nor Tanner could discover any 
notices of this priory, except the traditionary account 

preserved in William of Worcester, p. 210.: " 

juxta Cimiterium et Ecclesiam Sancti Pbilippi, ubi 
quondam ecclesia religiosorum et Prioratus scituatur." 
It was probably a cell to the Tewkesbury monastery ; 
and the historians of Bristol state, that the exact time 
when it became parochial is not known ; but it was 
very early, being mentioned in Gaunt's deeds before 
the year 1200; and, like St. James's, became a parish 
church through the accession of inhabitants.] 

Foreign Universities. Is there any history of 
the University of Bologna ? or where can be 
found any account of the foundation and consti- 
tution of the foreign universities in general ? 

J. C. H. R. 

[Our correspondent will find some account of the 
foreign universities, especially of Bologna, in the 
valuable article " Universities," Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica, vol. xxi., with numerous references to other works 
containing notices of them. Consult also " A Dis- 
covrse not altogether vnprofitable nor vnpleasant for 
such as are desirous to know the Situation and Cus- 
tomes of Forraine Cities without trauelling to see 
them : containing a Discovrse of all those Citties 
which doe flourish at this Day priuiledged Vniuer- 
sities. By Samuel Lewkenor. v London, 1594, 4to."] 



DEATH-WARNINGS IN ANCIENT FAMILIES. 

(Vol. ix., p. 55.) 

The remarks of JOHN o' THE FORD of Malta 
deserve to be followed up by all your correspon- 
dents who, at least, admit the possibility of " com- 



munications with the unseen world." In order to 
facilitate the acquisition of the requisite amount 
of facts, I beg to apprise JOHN o' THE FORD, and 
your other correspondents and readers generally, 
that a Society was founded about a year ago, and 
is now in existence, composed of members of the 
University of Cambridge ; the objects of which 
will be best gleaned from the following extract 
from the Prospectus : 

" The interest and importance of a serious and earnest 
inquiry into the nature of the phenomena which are 
vaguely called 'supernatural,' will scarcely be ques- 
tioned. Many persons believe that all such apparently 
mysterious occurrences are due, either to purely natural 
causes, or to delusions of the mind or senses, or to 
wilful deception. But there are many others who 
believe it possible that the beings of the unseen world 
may manifest themselves to us in extraordinary ways ; 
and also are unable otherwise to explain many facts, the 
evidence for which cannot be impeached. Both parties 
have obviously a common interest in wishing cases of 
supposed ' supernatural ' agency to be thoroughly sifted. 
. . . . The main impediment to investigations of this 
kind is the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number 
of clear and well-attested cases. Many of the stories 
current in tradition, or scattered up and down in books, 
may be exactly true ; others must be purely fictitious ; 
others again, probably the greater number, consist of a 
mixture of truth tand falsehood. But it is idle to 
examine the significance of an alleged fact of this 
nature, until the trustworthiness, and also the extent 
of the evidence for it, are ascertained. Impressed with 
this conviction, some members of the University of 
Cambridge are anxious, if possible, to form an exten- 
sive collection of authenticated cases of supposed ' super- 
natural' agency .... From all those who may be 
inclined to aid them, they request written communi- 
cations, with full details of persons, times, and places." 

The Prospectus closes with the following classi- 
fication of phenomena : 

" I. Appearances of Angels. (1.) Good. (2.) Evil. 

II. Spectral appearances of (1.) The beholder 

himself (e.g. 'Fetches' or 'Doubles'). (2.) Other 
men, recognised or not. (i.) Before their death (e.g. 
' second sight.') (a.) To one person, (b.) To several 
persons, (ii.) At the moment of their death, (a.) 
To one person, (b.) To several persons. 1. In the 
same place. 2. In several places, i. Simultaneously, 
ii. Successively, (iii.) After their death. In con- 
nexion with (a.) Particular places, remarkable for 
1. Good deeds. 2. Evil deeds, (b.) Particular times 
(e. g. on the anniversary of any event, or at fixed sea- 
sons), (c.) Particular events (e. g. before calamity or 
death), (d.) Particular persons (e.g. haunted mur- 
derers). III. ' Shapes' falling under neither of the 
former classes. (1.) Recurrent. In connexion with 
(i.) Particular families (e.g. the 'Banshee'), (ii.) 
Particular places (e. g. the ' Mawth Dog'). (2.) Oc- 
casional, (i.) Visions signifying events, past, present, 
or future, (a.) By actual representation (e.g. 'second 
sight'), (b.) By symbol, (ii.) Visions of a fantas- 
tical nature. IV. Dreams remarkable for coiner- 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



dences. (1.) In their occurrence, (i.) To the same 
person several times, (ii.) In the same form to several 
persons. (a.) Simultaneously. (b.) Successively. 
(2.) With facts, (i.) Past. (a.) Previously un- 
known, (b.) Formerly known, but forgotten. (11.) 
Present, but unknown, (iii.) Future. V. Feelings. 
A definite consciousness of a fact. (1.) Past: an 
impression that an event has happened. (2.) Present : 
sympathy with a person suffering or acting at a dis- 
tance. (3.) Future : presentiment. VI. Physical 
effects. (1.) Sounds, (i.) With the use of ordinary 
means (e. g. ringing of bells), (ii.) Without the use of 
any apparent means (e. g. voices). (2.) Impressions 
of touch (e.g. breathings on the person). 

"Every narrative of 'supernatural' agency which 
may be communicated, will be rendered far more in- 
structive if accompanied by any particulars as to the 
observer's natural temperament (e. g. sanguine, nervous, 
&c.), constitution (e. g. subject to fever, somnambulism, 
c.), and state at the time (e. g. excited in mind or 
body, &c.)." 

As I have no authority to give names, I can do 
no more than say that, though not a member of 
the Society, I shall be happy to receive communi- 
cations and forward them to the secretary. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

[ The Night Side of Nature would seem to indicate 
that its ingenious, yet sober and judicious, authoress 
had forestalled the " Folk-lore" investigations of the 
projected Cambridge Society. Probably some of its 
members will not rest satisfied with a simple collection 
of phenomena relating to communications with the un- 
seen world, but will exclaim with Hamlet 

" Thou com'st in such a questionable shape, 
That I will speak to thee !" 

and will endeavour to ascertain the philosophy of those 
communications, as Newton did with the recorded data 
and phenomena of the mechanical or material universe. 
Whether the transcripts of some of the voluminous 
unpublished writings of Dionysius Andreas Freher, 
deposited in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 5767 
5792.), will assist the inquirer in his investigations, we 
cannot confidently state : but in them he will find 
continual references to what Jacob Bb'hme terms " the 
eternal and astral magic, or the laws, powers and 
properties of the great Universal Will- Spirit of the two 
co-eternal worlds of darkness and light, and of this 
third or temporary principle." Freher was the prin- 
cipal illustrator of the writings of the celebrated Jacob 
Bb'hme, now exciting so much interest among the 
German literati ; and, if we may credit William Law, 
it was from the principles of this remarkable man that 
Sir Isaac Newton derived his theory of fundamental 
powers. (See " N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 247.) But on 
this and other matters we may doubtless expect to be 
well informed by Sir David Brewster, in his new "Me- 
moir of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac 
Newton." According to Law, the two-fold spiritual 
universe stands as near, and in a similar relation to this 
material mixed world, of darkness and light, evil and 



good, death and life, or rather the latter to the former, 
as water does to the gases of which it is essentially com- 
pounded. ED.] 



STARVATION. 

(Vol. ix., p. 54.) 

Until your correspondent Q. designated the 
word starvation as " an Americanism," I never had 
the least suspicion that it was obtained from that 
source. On the contrary, I remember to have 
heard some thirty or forty years ago, that it was 
first employed by Harry Dundas, the first Viscount 
Melville, who might have spoken with a brogue, 
but whose despatches were in good intelligible 
English. I once asked his son, the second Vis- 
count, whose correctness must be fresh in the re- 
collection of many of your readers, if the above 
report was true, and he seemed to think that his 
father had coined the word, and that it immediately 
got into general circulation. My impression is, 
that it was already current during the great 
scarcity at the end of the last, and the commence- 
ment of this century ; but the dictionary makers, 
those "who toil at the lower employments of 
life," as old Sam Johnson termed it, are not apt 
to be alert in seizing on fresh words, and " starv- 
ation " has shared in the general neglect. 

If you permit me I will, however, afford them 
my humble aid, by transcribing some omitted 
words which I find noted in a little Walker's 
Dictionary, printed in 1830, and which has been 
my companion in many pilgrimages through many 
distant lands. Many of them may by this time 
have found their way even into dictionaries, but I 
copy them as I find them. 

Minivar. 

Unhesitating. 

Remittent. 

Tannin. 

Curry (substantive). 

Uncompromised. 

Duchess. 

Resile (verb). 

Gist. 

Nascent. 

Dictum. 

Retinence. 

Phonetic. 

Lacunae. 

Extradition. 

Laches. 

Fulcrum. 

Statics. 

^Esthetical. 

Complicity. 

N. L. MELVILLE. 



Fiat. 

Lichen. 

Dawdle. 

Compete (verb). 

Starvation. 

Cupel (see test). 

Stationery (writing mate- 
rials). 

Chubby. 

Mister (form of address). 

Iodine. 

Disorganise. 

Growl (substantive). 

A vadavat (School for Scan- 
dal). 

Apograph. 

Flange. 

Effete. 

Jungle. 

Celt (formed of touch- 
stone). 



However " strange it may appear, it is never- 
theless quite true," that this word, "Starvation 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



(from the verb), state of perishing from cold or 
hunger," is to be found, and thus defined, in "An 
Appendix to Dr. Johnson's English Dictionary," 
published along with the latter, by William Maver, 
in 2 vols. 8vo., Glasgow, 1809, now forty-five years 
ago. In his preface to this Appendix he says : 

" In the compilation the editor is principally in- 
debted to Mr. Mason, whose labours in supplying the 
^deficiencies of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary have so much 
enriched the vocabulary of our language, that every 
purchaser of the quarto edition should avail himself of 
a copy of Mr. Mason's Supplement." 

Whether or not Mr. Maver drew the word 
" starvation " from Mr. Mason's Supplement, I 
-cannot say; but from old date in the west of 
Scotland it has been, and is still, popularly and 
-extensively used in the exact senses given to it by 
Mr. Maver as above. I think it much more likely 
to be of Scottish than of American origin, and 
that Mr. Webster may have picked it up from 
some of our natives in this country. 

I may add, that in early life I often spoke with 
Mr. Maver, who was a most intelligent literary 
man. In 1809 he followed the business of a book- 
seller in Glasgow, but from some cause was not 
fortunate, and afterwards followed that of a book 
auctioneer, and may be dead fully thirty years 
ago. His edition of, and Appendix to, Johnson 
were justly esteemed ; the latter " containing se- 
veral thousand words omitted by Dr. Johnson, 
-and such as have been introduced by good writers 
since his time," with " the pronunciation accord- 
ing to the present practice of the best orators and 
orthoepists " of the whole language. G. N. 

This word was first introduced into the English 
language by Mr. Dundas, in a debate in the House 
of Commons on American affairs, in 1775. From 
it he obtained the nick-name of " Starvation 
Dundas." (Vide the Correspondence between Ho- 
race Walpole and Mason, vol. ii. pp. 177. 310. 396., 
edition 1851.) The word is of irregular formation, 
the root starve being Old English, while the ter- 
mination -ation is Latin. E. G. R. 

The word may perhaps be originally American ; 
but if the following anecdote be correct, it was 
introduced into this country long before Webster 
compiled his Dictionary : 

" The word starvation was first introduced into the 
English language by Mr. Dundas, in a speech in 1775 
on an American debate, and hence applied to him as a 
nickname, ' Starvation Dundas.' ' I shall not,' said he, 
wait for the advent of starvation from Edinburgh to 
settle my judgment.' " Letters of Horace Walpole and 
Mason, vol. ii. p. 396. 

J.R.M., M.A. 

Throughout this part of the country, "starved" 
always refers to cold, never to hunger. To express 
the latter the word " hungered " is always used : 



thus, many were "like to have been hungered" in 
the late severe weather and hard times. This is 
clearly the scriptural phrase " an hungred." To 
"starve" is to perish; and it is a common ex- 
pression in the south, " I am quite perished with 
cold ;" which answers to our northern one, "I am 
quite starved." H. T. G. 

Hull. 

I cannot ascertain the period of the adoption of 
the unhappily common word " starvation " in our 
language, but it is much older than your corre- 
spondent Q. supposes. It occurs in the Rolliad: 



" 'Tis but to fire another Sykes, to plan 
Some new starvation scheme for Hindostan." 



M. 



OSMOTHERLEY IN YORKSHIRE. 

(YoLviii., p.617.) 

R. W. CARTER gives an account of folk lore in 
reference to Osmotherley, and expresses a desire 
to know if his statement is authentic. I have en- 
deavoured to make myself acquainted with York- 
shire folk lore, and beg to inform MR. CARTER 
that his statement approaches as near the truth as 
possible. In my early days I frequently had re- 
cited to me, by a respectable farmer who had been 
educated on the borders of Roseberry (and who 
obtained it from the rustics of the neighbour- 
hood), a poetical legend, in which all the parti- 
culars of this curious tradition are embodied. It 
is as follows : 

" In Cleveland's vale a village stands, 
Though no great prospect it commands ; 
As pleasantly for situation 
As any village in the nation. 
Great Ayton it is call'd by name ; 
But though I am no man of fame, 
Yet do not take me for a fool, 
Because I live near to this town ; 
But let us take a walk and see 
This noted hill call'd Roseberry, 
Compos'd of many a cragged stone, 
Resembling all one solid cone, 
Which, monumental-like, have stood 
Ever since the days of Noah's flood. 
Here cockles .... petrified, 
As by the curious have been tried, 
Have oft been found upon its top, 
'Tis thought the Deluge had cast up. 
'Tis mountains high (you may see that), 
Though not compar'd with Ararat. 
Yet oft at sea it doth appear, 
To ships that northern climates steer, 
A land-mark, when the weather 's clear. 
If many ships at sea there be, 
A charming prospect then you'll sec ; 
Don't think I fib, when this you're reading, 
They look like sheep on mountains feeding. 



ear./ 



FB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



Then turn your eyes on the other hand 

As pleasing' views you may command. 

For thirty miles or more, they say, 

The country round you may survey, 

"When the air 's serene and clear the day 

There is a cave near to its top, 

Vulgarly call'd the Cobbler's Shop, 

By Nature form'd out of the rock, 

And able to withstand a shock. 

On the north side there is a well, 

Relating which this Fame doth tell : 

Prince Oswy had his nativity 

Computed by astrology, 

That he unnatural death should die. 

His mother to this well did fly 

To save him from sad destiny ; 

But one day sleeping in the shade, 

Supposing all secure was made, 

Lo ! sorrow soon gave place to joy ; 

This well sprung up and drown'd the boy." 

It is confidently stated, in the neighbourhood 
of Osraotherley and Roseberry, that Prince Oswy 
and his mother were both interred at Osmotherley, 
from whence comes the name of the place, Os-by- 
his-mother-lay, or Osmotherley. THOMAS GILL. 

Easingwold. 






ECHO rOETEY. 

(Vol. ix., p. 51.) 

As another and historically-interesting specimen 
of echo poetry, perhaps the readers of " N/. & Q." 
may not dislike to see preserved in your pages the 
following translation from the French. The ori- 
ginal publication, it is said, exposed the bookseller, 
Palm of Nuremberg, to trial by court-martial. He 
was sentenced to be shot at Braunau in 1807 a 
severe retribution for a few lines of echo poetry. 
It is entitled 

" Bonaparte and the Echo. 

Son. Alone, I am in this sequestered spot not over- 
heard. 

Echo. Heard! 

Bon. 'Sdeath ! Who answers me? What being is there 
nigh? 

Echo. I. 

Bon. Now I guess ! To report my accents Echo has 
made her task. 

Echo. Ask. 

Bon. Knowest thou whether London will henceforth 
continue to resist ? 

Echo. Resist. 

Bon. Whether Vienna and other Courts will oppose 
me always ? 

Echo. Always. 

Bon. O, Heaven ! what must I expect after so many 
reverses ? 

Echo. Reverses. 

Bon. What? should I, like a coward vile, to com- 
pound be reduced ? 

Echo. Reduced. 



Bon. After so many bright exploits be forced to resti- 
tution ? 

Echo. Restitution. 

Bon. Restitution of what I've got by true heroic feats 
and martial address? 

Echo. Yes. 

Bon. What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble? 

Echo. Trouble. 

Bon. What will become of my people, already too un- 
happy ? 

Echo. Happy. 

Bon. What should I then be, that I think myself im- 
mortal ? 

Echo. Mortal. 

Bon. The whole world is filled with the glory of my 
name, you know. 

Echo. No. 

Bon. Formerly its fame struck this vast globe with 
terror. 

Echo. Error. 

Bon. Sad Echo, begone ! I grow infuriate ! I die ! 

Echo. Die!" 

It may be added that Napoleon himself (Voice 
from St. Helena, vol. i. p. 432.), when asked about 
the execution of Palm, said : 

" All that I recollect is, that Palm was arrested by 
order of Davoust, I believe, tried, condemned, and 
shot, for having, while the country was in possession of 
the French and under military occupation, not only 
excited rebellion amongst the inhabitants, and urged 
them to rise and massacre the soldiers, but also at- 
tempted to instigate the soldiers themselves to refuse 
obedience to their orders, and to mutiny against their 
generals. I believe that he met with a fair trial." 

JAS. J. SCOTT. 
Hampstead. 



BLACKGUARD. 

(Vol. ix., p. 15.) 

In a curious old pamphlet of twenty-three pages, 
entitled Everybody's Business is Nobody's Busi- 
ness answered Paragraph ly Paragraph, by a 
Committee of Women-Servants and Footmen, 
London, printed by T. Read for the author, and 
sold by the booksellers of London, and . . . price 
one penny (without date), the following passage 
occurs : 

" The next great Abuse among us is, that under the 
Notion of cleaning our Shoes, above ten Thousand 
Wicked, Idle, Pilfering Vagrants are permitted to 
stroll about our City and Suburbs. These are called 
the Black- Guard, who Black your Honour's Shoes, and 
incorporate themselves under the Title of the Worship- 
ful Company of Japanners. But the Subject is so low 
that it becomes disagreeable even to myself; give me 
leave therefore to propose a Way to clear the streets 
of those Vermin, and to substitute as many honest 
and industrious persons in their stead, who are now 
starving for want of bread, while these execrable vil- 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



lains live (though in Rags and Nastiness) yet in Plenty 
and Luxury." 

" A(nswer). The next Abuse you see is, Black your 
shoes, your Honour, and the Japanners stick in his 
Stomach. We shall not take upon us to answer for these 
pitiful Scrubs, but in his own words ; the Subject is so 
low, that it becomes disagreeable even to us, as it does 
even to himself, and he may clear the Streets of these 
Vermin in what Manner he pleases if the Law will give 
Mm leave, for we are in no want of them ; we are better 
provided for already in that respect by our Masters and 
their Sons" 

G.N. 

The following lines by Charles, Earl of Dorset 
and Middlesex (the writer of the famous old song 
" To all you ladies now at land"), are an instance 
of the application of this term to the turbulent 
link-boys, against whom the proclamation quoted 
by MR. CUNNINGHAM was directed. Their date is 
probably a short time before that of the procla- 
mation : 

" Belinda's sparkling wit and eyes, 

United cast so fierce a light, 
As quickly flashes, quickly dies ; 

Wounds not the heart, but burns the sight. 
Love is all gentleness, Love is all joy ; 

Sweet are his looks, and soft his pace : 
Her Cupid is a black-guard boy, 

That runs his link full in your face," 

F. E. E. 



"WURM, IN MODERN GERMAN PASSAGE IN 

SCHILLER'S " WALLENSTEIN." 

(Vol. viii., pp. 464. 624. ; Vol. ix., p. 63.) 

I believe MR. KEIGHTLEY is perfectly right in 
his conjecture, so far as Schiller is concerned. 
Wurm, without any prefix, had the sense of ser- 
pent in German. Adelung says it was used for 
all animals without feet whojmove on their bellies, 
serpents among the rest. Schiller does not seem 
to have had Shakspeare in his thoughts, but the 
proverb quoted by Adelung : 

" Auch das friedlichste Wurmchen beiszt, wenn man 
es treten will." 

In this proverb there is evidently an allusion to the 
serpent, as if of the same nature with the worm ; 
which, as we know, 1 ^ neither stings nor bites the 
foot which treads on it. Shakspeare therefore 
says "will turn," makingv a distinction, which 
Schiller does not make. In the translation Cole- 
ridge evidently had Shakspeare in his recollection ; 
but he has not lost Schiller's idea, which gives the 
worm a serpent's sting. Vermo is applied both by 
Dante and Ariosto to the Devil, as the " great 
serpent :" 

" . . . . .1' mi presi 
Al pel del vermo reo, che '1 mondo fora." 

Inferno, C. xxxv. 



" Che al gran vermo infernal mette la briglia." 
Orlando furioso, C. XLV. st. 84. 

E. C. H. 

With deference to C. B. d'O., I consider that 
Wurm is used, in poetry at least, to designate any 
individual of the tribe of reptiles. In the Kampf 
mit dem Drachen, the rebuke of the " Master" is 
thus conveyed : 

" Du bist ein Gott dem Volke worden, 
Du kommst ein Feind zuriick dem Orden, 
Und einen schlimmern Wurm gebar. 
Dein Herz, als deiser Drache war, 
Die Schlanae die das Herz vergiftet, 
Die Zwietracht und Verderben stiftet !" 

The monster which had yielded to the prowess 
of the disobedient son of the "Order" is elsewhere 
called " der Wurm : " 

" Hier hausete der Wurm und lag, 
Den Raub erspahend Nacht und Tag ; " 

while the " counterfeit presentment" of it " Alles 
bild ich iiach genau" is delineated in the follow- 
ing lines : 

" In eine Schlanae endigt sich, 
Des Riickens ungeheure Lange 
Halb Wurm erschien, halb Molch und Drache." 

The word in ^question is in this passage applic- 
able perhaps to the serpent section, but we have 
seen that it is used to denote the entire living 
animal. A. L. 

Middle Temple. 



WAS SHAKSPEARE DESCENDED FROM A LANDED 
PROPRIETOR ? 

(Vol. ix., p. 75.) 

I am inclined to think that MR. HALLIWELL has 
been misled by his old law-books, for upon looking 
at the principal authorities upon this point, I 
cannot find any such interpretation of the term 
inheritance as that quoted by him from Cowell. 
The words "the inheritance," in the passage 
" heretofore the inheritance of William Shakspeare, 
Gent., deceased," would most certainly appear ^to 
imply that Shakspeare inherited the lands as heir- 
at-law to some one. But, however, it must not 
be concluded upon this alone that ^the poet's 
father was a landed proprietor, as the inheritance 
could proceed from any other ancestor to whom 
Shakspeare was by law heir. 

Blackstone, in his Commentaries, has the follow- 
ing : 

" Descent, or hereditary succession, is the title 
whereby a man on the death of his ancestor acquires 
his estate by right of representation, as his heir-at-law. 
An heir, therefore, is he upon whom the law casts the 
estate immediately on the death of the ancestor : and 
an estate, so descending to the heir, is in Law called the 
inheritance.'" Vol. ii. p. 201. 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



Again : 

" Purchase, perquisitlo, taken in its largest and most 
extensive sense, is thus defined by Littleton ; the pos- 
session of lands and tenements which a man hath by 
his own act or agreement, and not by descent from any 
of his ancestors or kindred. In this sense it is contra- 
distinguished from acquisition by right of blood, and 
includes every other method of coming to an estate, 
but merely that by inheritance : wherein the title is vested 
in a person, not by his own act or agreement, but by 
the single operation of law." Vol. ii. p. 241. 

Thus it is clear the possession of an estate by 
inheritance is created only by a person being heir 
to it ; and the mere purchase of it, though it vests 
the fee simple in him, can but make him the assign 
and not the heir. The nomination (as it would be 
in the case of a purchase) of an heir to succeed to 
the inheritance, has no place in the English law ; 
the maxim being "Solus Deus haeredem facere 
potest, non homo ; " and all other persons, whom a 
tenant in fee simple may please to appoint as his 
successors, are not his heirs but his assigns. (See 
Williams on the Law of Real Property.) 

RUSSELL GOLE. 

MR. HALLIWELL is perfectly right in his opinion 
as to the expression " heretofore the inheritance of 
William Shakspeare." All that that expression in 
a deed means is, that Shakspeare was the absolute 
owner of the estate, so that he could sell, grant, or 
devise it ; and in case he did not do so, it would 
descend to his heir-at-law. The term has no re- 
ference to the mode by which the estate came to 
Shakspeare, but only to the nature of the estate 
he had in the property. And as a man may be- 
come possessed of such an estate in land by gift, 
purchase, devise, adverse possession, &c., as well 
as by descent from some one else, the mere fact 
that a man has such an estate affords no inference 
whatever as to the mode in which he became pos- 
sessed of it. The authorities on the subject are 
Littleton, section ix., and Co. Litt., p. 16. (a), &c. 
A case is there mentioned so long ago as the 
6 Edw. III., where, in an action of waste, the 
plaintiff alleged that the defendant held < de heere- 
ditate sua," and it was ruled that, albeit the plain- 
tiff had purchased the reversion, the allegation 
was sufficient. 

In very ancient deeds the word is very com- 
monly used where it cannot mean an estate that 
has descended to an heir, but must mean an estate 
that may descend to an heir. Thus, in a grant I 
have (without date, and therefore probably before 
A.D. 1300), Robert de Boltone grants land to 
John, the son of Geoffrey, to be held by the said 
John and his heirs " in feodo et hsereditate in per- 
petuum." This plainly shows that hcereditas is 
here used as equivalent to " fee simple." I have 
also sundry other equally ancient deeds, by which 
lands were granted to be held "jure hsereditaris," 



or " libere, quiete, hcereditarie, et in pace." Now 
these expressions plainly indicate, not that the 
land has descended to the party as heir, but that 
it is granted to him so absolutely that it may de- 
scend to his heir ; in other words, that an estate of 
inheritance, and not merely for life or for years, is 
granted by the deed. S. G. C. 

MR. HALLJWELL'S exposition of the term " in- 
heritance," quoted from the Shakspeare deed, is 
substantially correct, and there can be no question 
but that the sentence " heretofore the inheritance 
of William Shakspeare, Gent., deceased," was in- 
troduced in such deed, simply to show that Shak- 
speare was formerly the absolute owner in fee 
simple of the premises comprised therein, and not 
to indicate that he had acquired them by descent, 
either as heir of his father or mother, although he 
might have done so. As MR. HALLIWELL appears 
to attach some importance to the word "pur- 
chase," as used by Cowell in his definition of the 
term " inheritance," the following explanation of 
the word " purchase " may not prove unacceptable 
to him. 

Purchase " Acquisitum, perquisitum, pur- 
chasium " signifies the buying or acquisition of 
lands and tenements, with money, or by taking 
them by deed or agreement, and not by descent or 
hereditary right. (Lit. xii. ; Reg. Grig., 143.) In 
Law a man is said to come in by purchase when he 
acquires lands by legal conveyance, and he hath a 
lawful estate ; and a purchase is always intended 
by title, either from some consideration or by gift 
(for a gift is in Law a purchase), whereas descent 
from an ancestor cometh of course by act of law ; 
also all contracts are comprehended under this 
word purchase. (Coke on Littleton, xviii., " Doc- 
tor and Student," c. 24.) Purchase, in opposition 
to descent, is taken largely : if an estate comes to 
a man from his ancestors without writing, that is 
a descent ; but where a person takes an estate 
from an ancestor or others, by deed, will, or gift, 
and not as heir-at-law, that is a purchase. This 
explanation might be extended, but it is not ne- 
cessary to carry it farther for the purpose of MR. 
HALLIWELL'S inquiry. CHARLECOTE. 

The word " inheritance " was used for heredita- 
ment, the former being merely the French form, 
the latter the Latin. Littleton ( 9.) says : 

" Et est ascavoir que cest parol (enheritance) nest 
pas tant solement entendus lou home ad terres ou tene- 
mentes per discent de heritage, mes auxi chescun fee 
simple ou taile que home ad per son purchase puit 
estre dit enheritance, pur ceo que ses heires luy pur- 
ront enheriter. Car en briefe de droit que home por- 
tera de terre, que fuit de son purchase demesne, le 
briefe dira : Quam clamat esse jus et hereditamentum 
suum. Et issint serra dit en divers auters briefes, que 
home ou feme portera de son purchase demesne, come 
il appiert per le Register." 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



The word is still in use, and signifies what is 
capable of being inherited. H. P. 

Lincoln's Inn. 



LORD FAIRFAX. 

(Vol. ix., p. 10.) 

Your correspondent W. H. M. has called my 
attention to his Note, and requested me to answer 
the third of his Queries. 

The present rightful heir to the barony of Fair- 
fax, should he wish to claim it, is a citizen of the 
United States, and a resident in the State of Vir- 
ginia. He is addressed, as any other American 
gentleman would be, Mr., when personally spoken 
to, and as an Esquire in correspondence. 

A friend of mine, Captain W., has thus kindly 
answered the other Queries of W. H. M. : 

1. Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton in Yorkshire 
was employed in several diplomatic affairs by 
Queen Elizabeth, and particularly in negotiations 
with James VI. of Scotland. By Charles I. he 
was created a peer of Scotland, his patent having 
been dated at Whitehall on Oct. 18, A.D. 1627. 

2. The family of Fairfax never possessed pro- 
perty, or land, in Scotland, and had no connexion 
with that country beyond their peerage. Many 
English gentlemen were created peers of Scotland 
by the Stuart kings, although unconnected with 
the nation by descent or property. I may cite 
the following instances : The old Yorkshire 
House of Constable of Burton received a peerage 
in the person of Sir Henry Constable of Burton 
and Halsham; by patent, dated Nov. 14, 1620, Sir 
Henry was created Viscount D unbar and Lord 
Constable. Sir Walter Aston of Tixal in Staf- 
fordshire, Bart., was created Baron Aston of For- 
far by Charles I., Nov. 28, 1627. And, lastly, Sir 
Thomas Osborne of Kineton, Bart, was created by 
Charles II., Feb. 2, 1673, Viscount Dumblane. 

3. Answered. 

4. William Fairfax, fourth son of Henry Fair- 
fax of Tolston, co. York, second son of Henry, 
fourth Lord Fairfax, settled in New England in 
America, and was agent for his cousin Thomas, 
sixth lord, and had the entire management of his 
estates in Virginia. His third and only surviving 
son, Bryan Fairfax, was in holy orders, and re- 
sided in the United States. On the death of 
Robert, seventh Lord Fairfax, July 15, 1793, this 
Bryan went to England and preferred his claim to 
the peerage, which was determined in his favour 
by the House of Lords. He then returned to 
America. Bryan Fairfax married a Miss Eli- 
zabeth Gary, and had several children. (Vide 
Douglas, and Burke's Peerage.') 

There are several English families who possess 
Scottish peerages, but they are derived from Scot- 
tish ancestors, as Talmash, Radclyffe, Eyre, &c. 



Perhaps the writer may be permitted to inform 
your correspondent W. H. M. that the term "sub- 
ject" is more commonly and correctly applied to 
a person who owes allegiance to a crowned head, 
and "citizen" to one who is born^and lives under 
a republican form of government. L W. W. 

Malta. 

1. Thomas, first Lord Fairfax (descended from 
a family asserted to have been seated at Towcester, 
co. Northampton, at the time of the Norman inva- 
sion and subsequently of note in Yorkshire), ac- 
companied the Earl of Essex into France, temp. 
Eliz., and was knighted by him in the camp be- 
fore Rouen. He was created a peer of Scotland, 
4th May, 1627 ; but why of Scotland, or for what 
services, I know not. 

2. I cannot discover that the family ever pos- 
sessed lands in Scotland. They were formerly 
owners of Denton Castle, co. York (which they 
sold to the family of Ibbetson, Barts.), and after- 
wards of Leeds Castle, Kent. 

3. Precise information on this point is looked 
for from some transatlantic correspondent. 

4. The claim of the Rev. Bryan, eighth Lord 
Fairfax, was admitted by the House of Lords, 
6th May, 1800 (H. L. Journals). He was, I pre- 
sume, born befpre the acknowledgment of inde- 
pendence. 

5. The title seems to be erroneously retained in. 
the Peerages, as the gentleman now styled Lord 
Fairfax cannot, it is apprehended, be a natural- 
born subject of the British Crown, or capable of 
inheriting the dignity. It seems, therefore, that 
the peerage, if not extinct, awaits another claimant. 
As a direct authority, I may refer to the case of 
the Scottish earldom of Newburgh, in the suc- 
cession to which the next heir (the Prince Gusti- 
niani), being an alien, was passed over as a legal 
nonentity. (See Jtiddell on Scottish Peerages, 
p. 720.) There is another case not very easily 
reconcilable with the last, viz. that of the Earl of 
Athlone, who, though a natural-born subject of the 
Prince of Orange, was on 10th March, 1795, per- 
mitted to take his seat in the House of Lords in 
Ireland (Journals H. L. L). Perhaps some cor- 
respondent will explain this case. H. Gr. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 
Mr. Lyte on Collodion. When I had the pleasure 
of meeting you in London, I promised that I would 
write to you from this place, and give you a detailed 
account of my method of making the collodion, of 
which I left a sample with you ; but since then I have 
been making a series of experiments, with a view, first, 
to simplifying my present formulae, and next, to pro- 
duce two collodions, one of great sensibility, the other 
of rather slower action, but producing better half- 
tones. I have also been considering the subject of 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



157 



printing, and the best methods of producing those 
beautiful black tints which are so much prized ; and I 
think that, although the processes formerly given all 
of them produce this effect with tolerable certainty, 
yet many operators, in common with myself, have met 
with the most provoking failures on this head, where 
they felt the most certain of good results. 

1 do not pretend to make a collodion which is 
different in its ingredients from that compounded by 
others. The only thing is that I am anxious to de- 
fine the best proportions for making it, and to give a 
formula which even the most unpractised operator may 
work hy. First, to produce the collodion I always use 
the soluble paper prepared according to the method 
indicated by MR. CROOKES, and to which I adverted in 
'N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 252. Take cf colourless 
nitric acid of 1 '50, and sulphuric acid of 1'60, equal 
quantities by measure, and mix them ; then plunge into 
the mixture as much of the best Swedish filtering 
paper (Papier Joseph is also very good) as the liquid 
will cover ; it must be placed in it a single piece at a 
time. Cover the basin, and let it remain a night, or 
at least some hours. Then pour off the liquid, and 
wash the paper till its washings cease to taste the least 
acid, or to redden litmus paper. Then dry it. Of 
this paper I take 180 grains to one pint of ether, and 
having placed them together, I add alcohol drop by 
drop, till the ether begins to dissolve the paper, which 
will be denoted by the paper becoming quite trans- 
parent. I have rather increased the quantity of paper 
to be added, as the after treatment rather thins the 
collodion. This, when shaken up and completely dis- 
solved, forms the collodion. To sensitize I use two 
preparations, one prepared with potassium, the other 
with ammonium compounds ; and, contrary to what 
many operators find the case, I find that the potassium 
gives the most rapid results. To prepare the po- 
tassium sensitizer, I take two bottles of, we will sup- 
pose, 6 oz. each ; into one of these I put about half an 
ounce of iodide of potassium in fine powder, and into 
the other an equal quantity of bromide of potassium, 
also pounded ; we will call these No. 1 . and No. 2. 
I fill the bottle No. 1. with absolute alcohol, taking 
great care that there is no oxide of amyle in it, as that 
seriously interferes with the action of the collodion. 
After leaving the alcohol in No. 1. for two hours, or 
thereabouts, constantly shaking it, let it settle, and 
when quite clear decant it off into No. 2., where leave 
it again, with constant shaking, for two hours, and 
when settled decant the clear liquid into a third bottle 
for use. The oxide of amyle may be detected by 
taking a portion of the alcohol between the palms of 
the hands, and rubbing them together, till the alcohol 
evaporates, after which, should oxide of amyle be 
present, it will easily be detected by its smell, which 
is not unlike that exhaled by a diseased potato. Of 
the liquid prepared, take one part to add to every three 
parts of collodion. The next, or ammonium sensitizer, 
is made as follows. Take 

Absolute alcohol - - - 10 oz. 

Iodide of ammon. - 100 grs. 

Bromide of ammon. - - - 25 grs. 

Mix, and when dissolved, take one part to three of 



collodion, as before. I feel certain that on a strict 
adherence to the correct proportion depends all the 
success of photography ; and as we find in the kindred 
process of the daguerreotype, that if we add too much 
or too little of the bromine sensitizer, we make the 
plate less sensitive, so in this process. When making 
the first of these sensitizers, I always in each case let 
the solution attain a temperature of about 60 before 
decanting, so as to attain a perfectly equable compound 
on all occasions. 

In the second, or ammonium sensitizer, the solution 
may be assisted by a moderate heat, and when again 
cooled, may advantageously be filtered to separate any 
sediment which may exist ; but neither of these liquids 
should ever be exposed to great cold. 

I dissolve in my batli of nitrate of silver as much 
freshly precipitated bromide of silver as it will take up. 
Next, as to the printing of positives to obtain black 
tints, the only condition necessary to produce this re- 
sult is having an acid nitrate bath ; whether the posi- 
tive be printed on albumen paper, or common salted 
paper, the result will always be the same. I have 
tried various acids in the bath, viz. nitric, sulphuric, 
tartaric, and acetic, and prefer the latter, as being the 
most manageable, and having a high equivalent. The 
paper I now constantly use is common salted paper, 
prepared as follows. Take 



Chloride of barium 
Chloride of ammon. 
Chloride of potassium - 
Water - 



- 180 grs. 

- 100 grs. 

- 140 grs. 

- 10 oz. 



Mix, and pour into a dish and lay the paper on the 
liquid, wetting only one side ; when it has lain there 
for about five minutes if French paper has been used, 
if English paper till it ceases to curl and falls flat on 
the liquid, let it be hung up by a bent pin to dry. 
These salts are better than those generally recom- 
mended, as they do not form such deliquescent salts 
when decomposed as the chloride of sodium does, and 
for this reason I should have even avoided the chloride 
of ammonium, only that it so much assists the tints ; 
however, in company with the other salts, the nitrate 
of ammon. formed does not much take up the atmo- 
spheric moisture, and I have never found it stain an 
even unvarnished negative. To sensitize this paper 
take 



Nitrate of silver 
Acetic acid, glacial 
Water - 



- 500 grs. 

- 2 drs. 

- 5oz. 



Mix, and lay the paper on this solution for not less 
than five minutes, and if English paper, double that 
time. The hyposulphite to be used may be a very 
strong solution of twenty to twenty-five per cent., and 
this mode of treatment will always be found to produce 
fine tints. After some time it will be found that the 
nitrate bath will lose its acidity, and a drachm of acetic 
acid may be again added, when the prints begin to 
take a red tone : this will again restore the blacks. 
Lastly, the bath may of itself get too weak, and then 
it will be best to place it on one side, and recover the 
silver by any of the usual methods, and make a new- 
bath. One word about the addition of the bromide of 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



silver to the double iodide, as recommended by DR. 
DIAMOND. I tried this, and feel most confident that it 
produces no difference ; as soon as the bromide of 
silver comes in contact with the iodide of potassium, 
double decomposition ensues, and iodide of silver is 
formed. Indeed, farther, this very double decompo- 
sition, or a similar one, is the basis of a patent I have 
just taken for at the same time refining silver and ma- 
nufacturing iodide of potassium ; a process by which I 
much hope the enormous present price of iodide of 
potassium will be much lowered. F. MAXWELL LYTE. 

Hotel de 1'Europe, 
a Pau, Basses Pyrenees. 

P. S. Since writing the former part of this letter, I 
see in La Lumidre a paper on the subject of printing 
positives, in part of which the addition of nitric acid is 
recommended to the bath ; but as my experiments have 
been quite independent of theirs, and my process one 
of a different nature, I still send it to you. When I 
have an opportunity, I will send a couple of specimens 
of my workmanship. I had prepared some for- the 
Exhibition, but could not get them off in time. I may 
add that the developing agent I use is the same in 
every way as that I have before indicated through the 
medium of your pages ; but where formic acid cannot 
be got, the best developer is made as follows : 

Pyrogallic acid - - - -27 grs. 

Acetic acid - -. - - 6 drs. 

Water - - -. - - 9 oz. 

On Sensitive Collodion. As I have lately received 
many requests from friends upon the subject of the 
most sensitive collodion, I am induced to send you a 
few words upon it. 

Since my former communication, I believe a greater 
certainty of manufacture has been attained, whereby 
the operator may more safely rely upon uniformity of 
success. 

I have not only tried every purchasable collodion, 
but my experiments have been innumerable, especially 
in respect to the ammoniated salts, and I may, I think, 
safely affirm that all preparations containing ammonia 
ought to be rejected. Often, certainly, great rapidity 
of action is obtained ; but that collodion which acted 
so well on one day may, on the following, become 
comparatively useless, from the change which appears 
so frequently to take place in the ammoniacai com- 
pounds. That blackening and fogging, of which so 
much has been said, I much think is one of the results 
of ammonia ; but not having, in my own manipula- 
tions, met with the difficulty, I have little personal 
experience upon the subject. 

The more simple a collodion is the better ; and the 
following, from its little varyihg and active qualities, I 
believe to be equal to any now in use. 

A great deal has also been said upon the preparation 
of the simple collodion, and that some samples, however 
good apparently, never sensitize in a satisfactory man- 
ner. I have not experienced this difficulty myself, or 
any appreciable variation. 

The collodion made from the Swedish filtering 
paper, or the papier Joseph, is preferable, from the 
much greater care with which it is used. 



If slips of either of these papers be carefully and 
completely immersed for four hours in a mixture of an 
equal part (by weight) of strong nitric acid or nitrous 
acid (the aqua fortis of commerce) and strong sulphuric 
acid, then perfectly washed, so as to get entirely rid of 
the acids, the result will be an entirely soluble mate- 
rial. About 100 grains of dry paper to a pint (twenty 
ounces) of ether will form a collodion of the desired 
consistence for photographic purposes. If too thick, it 
may be reduced by pure ether or alcohol. However 
carefully this soluble paper or the gun cotton is pre- 
pared, it is liable to decompose even when kept with 
care. I would therefore advise it to be mixed with 
the ether soon after preparation, as the simple collodion, 
keeps exceedingly well. Excellent simple collodion is 
to be procured now at the reasonable price of eight 
shillings the pint, which will to many be more satis- 
factory than trusting to their own operations. 

To make the sensitizing Fluid. Put into a clean 
stoppered bottle, holding more than the quantity re- 
quired so as to allow of free shaking, six drachms of 
iodide of potassium and one drachm of bromide of 
potassium ; wet them with one drachm of distilled 
water first, then pour into the bottle ten ounces of 
spirits of wine (not alcohol) ; shake frequently until 
dissolved. After some hours, if the solution has not 
taken place, add a few more drops of water, the salts 
being highly soluble in water, though sparingly so in 
rectified spirits ; but care must be taken not to add too 
much, as it prevents the subsequent adhesion of the col- 
lodion film to the^ glass. 

A drachm and a half to two drachms, according to 
the degree of intensity desired, added to the ounce of 
the above collodion, which should have remained a few 
days to settle before sensitizing, I find to act most sa- 
tisfactorily ; in fine weather it is instantaneous, being, 
after a good shake, fit for immediate use. If the sensi- 
tive collodion soon assumes a reddish colour, it is im- 
proved by the addition of one or two drops of a satu- 
rated solution of cyanide of potassium ; but great care 
must be used, as this salt is very active. 

HUGH W. DIAMOND. 



t0 dKtnor 

Portrait of Aha (Vol. ix., p. 76.). There is 
a fine portrait of the Duke of Alva in the Royal 
Museum at Amsterdam, by D. Barendz (No. 14. 
in the Catalogue of 1848) ; and MR. WARDEN will 
find a spirited etching of him, decorated with the 
Order of the Golden Fleece, in the Historia Bel- 
gica of Meteranus (folio, 1597), at p. 63. The 
latter portrait is very Quixotic in aspect at the 
first glance, but the expression becomes more 
Satanic as the eye rests on it. LANCASTRIENSIS. 

Lord Mayor of London not a Privy Councillor 
(Vol. iv. passim; Vol. ix., p. 137.). L. HARTLY 
a little misstates Mr. Serjeant Merewether's evi- 
dence. The learned serjeant only said that " he 
believed" the fact was so. But he was un- 
doubtedly mistaken, probably from confounding 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



159 



the Privy Council (at which the Lord Mayor 
never appeared) with a meeting of other persons 
(nobility, gentry, and others), who assemble on 
the same occasion in a different room, and to 
which meeting (altogether distinct from the Privy 
Council) the Lord Mayor is always summoned, as 
are the sheriffs, aldermen, and a number of other 
notabilities, not privy councillors. This matter is 
conclusively explained in Vol. iv., p. 284. ; but if 
more particular evidence be required, it will be 
found in the London Gazette of the 20th June, 
1837, where the names of the privy councillors 
are given in one list to the number of eighty- three, 
and in another list the names of the persons at- 
tending the meeting to the number of above 150, 
amongst whom are the lord mayor, sheriffs, under- 
sheriffs, aldermen, common Serjeants, city solicitor, 
&c. As " N. & Q." has reproduced the mistake, 
it is proper that it should also reproduce the ex- 
planation. C. 

New Zealander and Westminster Bridge (Yol.ix., 
p. 74.). Before I saw the thought in Walpole's 
letter to Sir H. Mann, quoted in " N". & Q.," I 
ventured to suppose that Mrs. Barbauld's noble 
poem, Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, might have 
suggested Mr. Macaulay's well-known passage. 
The following extracts describe the wanderings of 
those who 

" With duteous zeal, their pilgrimage shall take, 
From the blue mountains on Ontario's lake, 
With fond adoring steps to press the sod, 
By statesmen, sages, poets, heroes, trod." 

" Pensive and thoughtful shall the wanderers greet 
Each splendid square, and still untrodden street ; 
Or of some crumbling turret, mined by time, 
The broken stairs with perilous step shall climb, 
Thence stretch their view the wide horizon round, 
By scatter'd hamlets trace its ancient bound, 
And choked no more with fleets, fair^Thames survey, 
Through reeds and sedge pursue his idle way. 

Oft shall the strangers turn their eager feet, 
The rich remains of ancient art to greet, 
The pictured walls with critic eye explore, 
And Reynolds be what Raphael was before. 
On spoils from every clime their eyes shall gaze, 
Egyptian granites and the Etruscan vase ; 
And when, 'midst fallen London, they survey 
The stone where Alexander's ashes lay, 
Shall own with humble pride the lesson just, 
By Time's slow finger written in the dust." 

J. M. 
Cranwells, near Bath. 

The beautiful conception of the New Zealander 
at some future period visiting England, and giving 
a sketch of the ruins of London, noticed in " N. & 
Q." as having been suggested to Macaulay by a 
passage in one of Walpole's letters to Sir H. Mann, 
will be found more broadly expressed in Kirke 



White's Poem on Time. Talking of the triumphs 
of Oblivion, he says : 

" Meanwhile the Arts, in second infancy, 
Rise in some distant clime; and then, perchance, 
Some bold adventurer, fill'd with golden dreams, 
Steering his bark through trackless solitudes, 
Where, to his wandering thoughts, no daring prow 
Had ever plough'd before, espies the cliffs 
Of fallen Albion. To the land unknown 
He journeys joyful ; and perhaps descries 
Some vestige of her ancient stateliness : 
Then he with vain conjecture fills his mind 
Of the unheard-of race, which had arrived 
At science in that solitary nook, 
Far from the civil world ; and sagely sighs, 
And moralises on the state of man." 

This hardly reads like a borrowed idea ; and I 
should lean to a belief that it was not. Kirke 
White's Poems and Letters are but too little read. 

.J. S. 
Dalston. 

Cui Bono (Vol. ix., p. 76.). Reference to a 
dictionary would have settled this. According to 
Freund, "Cui bono fuit = Zu welcheni Zwecke, 
or Wozu war es gut ?" That is, To what purpose ? 
or, For whose good ? CABNATIC. 

The syntax of this common phrase, with the 
ellipses supplied, is, " Cui homini fuerit bono ne- 
gotio?" To what person will it be an advantage? 
Literally, or more freely rendered, Who will be 
the gainer by it ? It was (see Ascon. in Cicer. 
pro Milone^ c. xii.) the usual query of Lucius 
Cassius, the Roman judge, implying that the 
person benefiting by any crime was implicated 
therein. (Consult Facciolati's Diet, in voce Bo- 
NUM.) UK. 

The correct rendering of this phrase is un- 
doubtedly that given by F. NEWMAN, " For the be- 
nefit of whom ?" but it is generally used in such a 
manner as to make it indifferent whether that, or 
the corrupted signification " For what good ? " was 
intended by the writer making use of it. The 
latter is, however, the idea generally conveyed to 
the mind, and in this sense it is used by the best 
writers. Thus, e. g. : 

" The question ' cui bono,' to what practical end 
and advantage do your researches tend ? is one," &c. 
Herschel's Discourse on Nat. Philosophy, p. 10. 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

Barrels Regiment (Vol. viii., p. 620. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 63.). I am obliged to H. B. C. for his atten- 
tion to my Query, though it does not quite answer 
my purpose, which was to learn the circumstances 
which occasioned a print in my possession, en- 
titled "The Old Scourge returned to Barrels." 
It represents a regiment, the body of each sol- 



160 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 225, 



(Her being in the form of a barrel, drawn up 
within view of Edinburgh Castle. A soldier is 
tied up to the halberts in order to be flogged ; 
the drummer intercedes : " Col., he behaved well 
at Culloden." An officer also intercedes : " Pray 
Col. forgive him, he's a good man." The Col.'s 
reply is, " Flog the villain, ye rascal." Under the 
print "And ten times a day whip the Barrels." 
I want to know who this flogging Col. was ; and 
anything more about him which gained for him 
the unenviable title of Old Scourge. E. H. 

Sir Matthew Hale (Vol. ix., p. 77.). From 
Sir Matthew Hale, who was born at Alderley, de- 
scends the present family of Hale of Alderley, co. 
Gloucestershire. The eldest son of the head of 
the family represents West Gloucestershire in par- 
liament. The Estcourts of Estcourt, co. Glouces- 
tershire, are, I believe, also connexions of the 
family of Hale. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

The descendants of Sir Matthew Hale still live 
at Alderley, near Wotton Underedge, in Glouces- 
tershire. I believe a Mr. Blagdon married the 
heiress of Hale, and took her name. The late 
Robert Blagdon Hale, Esq., married Lady Theo- 
dosia Bourke, daughter of the late Lord Mayo, 
and had two sons. Robert, the eldest, and present 
possessor of Alderley, married a Miss Holford. 
Matthew, a clergyman, also married ; who appears 
by the Clergy List to be Archdeacon of Adelaide, 
South Australia. Mr. John Hale, of Gloucester, 
is their uncle, and has a family. 

JULIA R. BOCKETT. 

Southcote Lodge. 

The Hales of Alderley in Gloucestershire claim 
descent from Sir Matthew Hale, born and buried 
there. (See Atkins, p. 107. ; Rudder, p. 218. ; and 
Bigland, p. 30.) When Mr. Hale of Alderley was 
High Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1826, the judge 
then on circuit made a complimentary allusion -to 
it in court. The descent is in the female line, 
and the name was assumed in 1784. 

LANCASTRIENSIS. 

Scotch Grievance (Vol.ix., p. 74.). The Scot- 
tish coins of James VI., Charles I., William, 
have on the reverse a shield, bearing 1. and 4. 
Scotland ; 2. France and England quarterly ; 
3. Irish harp. EDW. HAWKINS. 

V 

Under this head A DESCENDANT OF SCOTTISH 
KINGS asks : " Can any coin be produced, from 
the accession of James VI. to the English throne, 
on which the royal arms are found, with Scotland 
in the first quarter, and England in the second?" 

Will you kindly inform your querist, that in my 
Collection I have several such coins, viz. a shilling 
of Charles I. ; a mark of Charles IL, date 1669 ; a 
forty-shilling piece of William III., date 1697 : 



on each Scotland is first and third. I shall be 
most happy to submit these to your inspection, or 
send them for the satisfaction of your correspon- 
dent. F. J. WILLIAMS. 
24. Mark Lane. 

"Merciful Judgments of High Church" frc. 
(Vol. ix., p. 97.). The author of this tract, ac- 
cording to the Bodleian Catalogue, was Matthew 
Tindal. 'ATuews. 

Dublin. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (Vol. ix., 
p. 105.). I can refer A. S. to Camden's History 
of Elizabeth, where, under the year 1588, it is re- 
lated, 

" Neither was the publick joy anything abated by 
Leicester's death, who about this time, namely, on the 
4th day of September, died of a continuall fever upon 
the way as he went towards Killingworth." 

I can also refer him to Sir William Dugdale's 
Baronage of England, vol. ii. p. 222., where I 
find it stated that he 

" Design'd to retire unto his castle at Kenilworth. 
But being on his journey thitherwards, at Cornbury 
Park in Com. Oxon., he died upon the fourth of Sep- 
tember, an. 1588, of a feaver, as 'twas said, and was 
buried at Warwick, where he hath a noble monument." 

But neither in the above writers, nor in any 
more recent account of his life, have I seen his 
death ascribed to poison. The ground on which 
Stanfield Hall has been regarded as the birth- 
place of Amy Robsart is, that her parents Sir 
John and Lady Elizabeth Robsart resided at 
Stanfield Hall in 1546, according to Blomefield in 
his History of Norfolk, though where he resided 
at his daughter's birth does not appear. 'A\ievs. 

Dublin. 

Fleet Prison (Vol. ix., p. 76.). A list of the 
wardens will be found in Burn's History of Fleet 
Marriages, 2nd edit., 1834. Occasional notices of 
the under officers will also there be met with, and 
a list of wardens' and jailors' fees. S. 

The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union 
in 1801 (Vol.ix., p. 35.). Allow me to inform 
C. H. D. that I have in my possession a copy 
(with MS. notes) of Sketches of Irish Political 
Characters of the present Day, showing the Parts 
they respectively take on the Question of the Union, 
what Places they hold, their Characters as Speakers, 
frc., 8vo. pp. 312, London, 1799. Is this the 
book he wants ? I know nothing of its author, 
nor of the Rev. Dr. Scott. ABHBA. 

" Les Lettres Juives " (Vol. viii., p. 541.). The 
author of Les Lettres Juives was Jean Baptiste de 
Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, one of the most prolific 
and amusing writers of the eighteenth century. 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



161 



His principal works are, Histoire de V Esprit Hu- 
main, Les Lettres Juives, Lcs Lettres Chinoises, 
Les Lettres Cabalistiques, and his Philosophic du 
Ions Sens. Perhaps your correspondent may be 
interested to learn that a reply to the Lettres 
Juives was published in 1739, La Haye, three 
vols. in twelve, by Aubert de la Chenaye Des- 
Bois, under the title of Correspondence histonque, 
nhilosophique et critique, pour servir de reponse 
aux Lettres Juives. HENRY H. BREEN. 

Sir PhilipWentworth (Vol. vii., p. 42. ; Vol. viii., 
pp. 104. 184.). In Wright's Essex, vol. i. p. 645., 
Sir Philip Wentworth is said to have married 
Mary, daughter of John, Lord Clifford. I do not 
recollect that Wright cites authority. I know he 
has more than one error respecting the Gonsles, 
who are in the same pedigree. ANON. 

General Fraser (Vol. viii., p. 586.). Simon 
Eraser, Lieut.-Colonel, 24th Regiment, and Bri- 
gadier-General, was second in command under 
Burfroyne when he advanced from Canada to New 
York with 7000 men in 1777. He fell at Still- 
water, a short time before the surrender of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga. He was struck by a shot from 
a tree, as he was advancing at the head of his 
troops; and died of his wound October 7, 1777. 
He was buried, as he had desired, in the redoubt 
on the field, in the front of the American army 
commanded by General Gales. During his in- 
terment, the incessant cannonade of the enemy 
covered with dust the chaplain and the officers 
who assisted in performing the last duties to his 
remains, they being within view of the greatest 
part of both armies. An impression long pre- 
vailed among the officers of Burgoyne's army, that 
if Fraser had lived, the issue of the campaign, and 
of the whole war, would have been very different 
from what it was. Burgoyne is said to have shed 
tears at his death. General Eraser's regiment had 
been employed under Wolfe in ascending the 
Heights of Abraham, Sept. 12, 1759 ; where, both 
before and after the fall of Wolfe, the Highlanders 
rendered very efficient service. His regiment was 
also engaged with three others under Murray at 
the battle of Quebec in 1760. Some incidental 
mention of General Fraser will be found in Can- 
non's History of the Slat Regiment, published by 
Furnivall, 30. Whitehall ; but I am not aware of 
any memoirs or life of him having been published. 

J. C. B. 

Namby-Pamby (Vol. viii., pp. 318. 390.). 
Henry Carey, the author of Chrononhotonthologos, 
and of Ths Dragoness of Wantley, wrote also a 
work called Namby-Pamby, in burlesque of Am* 
brose Phillips's style of poetry ; and the title of it 
was probably intended to trifle with that poet's 
name. Mr. Macaulay, in his Essay on Addison and 



his Writings, speaks of Ambrose Phillips, who was 
a great adulator of Addison, as 

" A middling poet, whose verses introduced a spe- 
cies of composition which has been called after his 
name, Namby-Pamby." 

D. W. S. 

The Word "Miser" (Vol. ix., p. 12.). Cf. the 
use of the word miserable in the sense of miserly, 
mentioned amongst other Devonianisms at Vol. vii., 
p. 544. And see Trench's remarks on this word 
(Study of Words, p. 38. of 2nd edit.). H. T. G. 

Hull. 

The Forlorn Hope (Vol. viii., p. 569.), i. c. the 
advanced guard. This explains what has al- 
ways been to me a puzzling expression in Gur- 
nali's Christian in Complete Armour (p. 8. of 
Tegg's 8vo. edit., 1845) : 

" The fearful are in the forlorn of those that inarch 
for hell." 

See Rev. xxi. 8., where " the fearful and unbe- 
lieving" stand at the head of the list of those who 
" shall have their part in the lake which burneth 
with fire and brimstone." H. T. G. 

Hull. 

The true origin and meaning of forlorn hope 
has no doubt been fully explained in " N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., p. 569. Richardson's Dictionary does 
not countenance this view, but his example proves 
it conclusively. He only gives one quotation, 
from North's Plutarch; and as it stands in the 
dictionary, it is not easy to comprehend the pas- 
sage entirely. On comparing it, however, with 
the corresponding passage in Langhorne (Valpy's 
edition, vol. iii. p. 97.), and again with Pompei's 
Italian version (vol. iii. p. 49.), I have no doubt 
that, by the term forlorn hope, North implied 
merely an advanced party ; for as he is describing 
a pitched battle and not a siege, a modern forlorn 
hope would be strangely out of place. 

Is enfans perdus the idiomatic French equiva- 
lent, or is it only dictionary-French ? And what 
is the German or the Italian expression ? 

R. GARY BARNARD. 

Malta. 

Thornton Abbey (Vol. viii., p. 469.). In the 
Arch geological Journal, vol. ii. p. 357., may be 
found not only an historical and architectural 
account of this building, but several views ; with 
architectural details of mouldings, &c. H. T. G. 

Hull. 

" Quid fades" Sfc. (Vol. viii., p. 539. ; Vol. ix., 

5.18.). In a curious work written by the Rev. 
ohn Warner, D.D., called Metronariston, these 
lines (as printed in Vol. ix., p. 18.) are quoted, 
and stated to be 

" A punning Epigram on Scylla as a type of Lust, 
cited by Barnes." 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



I have not the Metronariston with me, and there- 
fore cannot refer to the page. D. W. S. 

Christ- Cross-Row (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.; 
Vol. viii., p. 18.). Quarles (Embl. ii. 12.) gives 
a passage from St. Augustine commencing, 
"Christ's cross is the Christ-cross of all our hap- 
piness," but he gives no exact reference. 
Wordsworth speaks of 

A look or motion of intelligence 
From infant conning of the Christ -cross-row." 
Excurs. viii. p. 305. 

These lines suggest the Query, Is this term for 
the alphabet still in use ? and, if so, in what parts 
of the country ? EIRIONNACH. 

Sir Walter Scott, and his Quotations from himself 
(Vol. ix., p. 72.). I beg to submit to you the 
following characteristic similarity of expression, 
occurring in one of the poems and one of the 
novels of Sir Walter Scott. I am not aware 
whether attention has been drawn to it in the 
letters of Mr. Adolphus and Mr. Heber, as I have 
not the work at hand to consult : 

" His grasp, as hard as glove of mail, 
Forced the red blood-drop from the nail." 

Rokeby, Canto i. Stan. 1 5. 

" He wrung the Earl's hand with such frantic 
earnestness, that his grasp forced the blood to start 
under the nail." Legend of Montrose. 

K L. T. 

Nightingale and Thorn (Vol. viii., p. 527.). 
Add Young's Night Thoughts, Night First, vers. 
440445. : 

" Grief's sharpest thorn hard pressing on my breast, 
I strive with wakeful melody to cheer 
The sullen gloom, sweet Philomel ! like thee, 
And call the stars to listen every star 
Is deaf to mine, enamour'd of thy lay." 

H. T. G. 

Hull. 

Female Parish Clerks (Vol. viii., p. 474.). 
Within the last half-century, a Mrs. Sheldon dis- 
charged the duties of this post at the parish church 
of Wheatley, five miles from Oxford, and near 
, Cuddesdon, the residence of the Bishop of Oxford. 
This clerkship was previously filled by her hus- 
band ; but, upon his demise, she became his 
successor. It is not a week since that I saw a 
relation who was an eye-witness of this fact. 

PERCY M. HART. 
Stockwell. 

Hour-glass Stand (Vol. ix., p. 64.). There is 
an hour-glass stand of very quaintly wrought 
iron, painted in various colours, attached to the 
pulpit at Binfield, Berks. J. R. M., M. A. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A., wisely con- 
ceiving that an illustrated work, comprising specimens 
of the arms, armour, jewellery, furniture, vases, &c., 
discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum, might be 
acceptable to those numerous readers to whom the 
magnificent volumes, published by the Neapolitan 
government, are inaccessible, has just issued a quarto 
volume under the title of Illustrations of Ancient Art, 
selected from Objects discovered at Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum. The various materials which he has selected 
from the Museo Borbonico, and other works, and a large 
number of his own sketches, have been carefully clas- 
sified ; and we think few will turn from an examin- 
ation of the forty-five plates of Mr. Trollope's admir- 
able outlines, without admiring the good taste with 
which the various subjects have been selected, and 
acknowledging the light which they throw upon the 
social condition, the manners, customs, and domestic 
life, of the Roman people. 

As the great Duke of Marlborough confessed that 
he acquired his knowledge of his country's annals in 
the historical plays of Shakspeare, so we believe there 
are many who find it convenient and agreeable to 
study them in Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens 
of England. To all such it will be welcome news that 
the first and second volumes of a new and cheaper 
edition, and which comprise the lives of all our female 
sovereigns, from ^Matilda of Flanders to the unfor- 
tunate Anne Boleyn, are now ready ; and will be 
followed month by month by the remaining six. At 
the close of the work, we may take an opportunity of 
examining the causes of the great popularity which it 
has attained. 

Mr. M. A. Lower has just published a small volume 
of antiquarian gossip, under the title of Contributions 
to Literature, Historical, Antiquarian, and Metrical, in 
which he discourses pleasantly on Local Nomenclature, 
the Battle of Hastings, the Iron Works of the South- 
East of England, the South Downs, Genealogy, and 
many kindred subjects; and tries his hand, by no 
means unsuccessfully, at some metrical versions of old 
Sussex legends. Several of the papers have already 
appeared in print, but they serve to make up a volume 
which will give the lover of popular antiquities an 
evening's pleasant reading. 

We beg to call the attention of our readers to the 
opportunity which will be afforded them on Wed- 
nesday next of hearing Mr. Layard lecture on his 
recent Discoveries at Nineveh. As they will see by the 
advertisement in our present Number^ Mr. Layard has 
undertaken to do so for the purpose of contributing to 
the schools and other parochial charities of the poor 
but densely populated district of St. Thomas, Stepney. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Mantell's Geological Excursions 
round the Isle of Wight, r. This reprint of one of the 
many valuable contributions to geological knowledge 
M$r the late lamented Dr. Mantell, forms the new vo- 
lume of Bohn's Scientific Library. Retrospective Re- 
view, No. VI., containing interesting articles on Dray- 
ton, Lambarde, Penn, Leland, and other writers of 
note in English literature. Dr. Lardner's Museum of 



FEB. 18. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



Science and Art, besides a farther portion of the in- 
quiry, " The Planets, are they inhabited Worlds ? " 
contains essays on latitudes and longitudes, lunar in- 
fluences, and meteoric stones and shooting stars. 
Gibbon's Rome, with Variorum Notes, Vol. II. In a 
notice prefixed to the present volume, which is one of 
Mr. Bonn's series of British Classics, the publisher, 
after describing the advantages of the present edition 
as to print, paper, editing, &c., observes : "The pub- 
lisher of the unmutilated edition of Humboldt's 
Cosmos hopes he has placed himself beyond the sus- 
picion of mutilating Gibbon." 



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ta 

J. B. WHITBORNE. Where shall we address a letter to this 
Correspondent f 

OXFORD JEU D'ESPRIT. We hope next week to lay before our 
Oxford friends a reprint of a clever jeu d'esprit, which amused 
the University some five- and- thirty years since. 

B. H. C. Will this Correspondent, who states (p. 136.) that he 
has found the termination -by in Sussex, be good enough to state 
the place to which he refers f 

C. C. The ballad of " Fair Rosamond " is printed in Percy's 
Reliques, in the Pictorial Book of British Ballads, and many 
other places ; but the lines quoted by our Correspondent 

" With that she dash'd her on the mouth, 

And dyed a double wound " 
do not occur in it. 

T. <$. Biographical notices of the author of Drunken Barnaby 
will be found in Chalmers' 1 and Rose's Dictionaries. The best 
account of Richard Brathwait is that by Joseph Haslewood, pre- 
fixed to his edition of Barnabffi Itinerarium. Gurnatt has been 
noticed in our Sixth Volume, pp. 414. 544. 

W. FRASER. Bishop Atterbury's portrait, drawn by Kneller, 
and engraved by Vertue, is prefixed to vol. i. of the Bishop's Ser- 
mons and Discourses, edit. 1735. The portrait is an oval medal- 
lion ; face round, nose prominent, with large eye-brows, double 
chin, and a high expansive forehead, features regular and pleasant, 
and indicative of intellect. He is drawn in his episcopal habit, 
with a full-dress curled wig , beneath are his arms, surmounted 
by the mitre. 

I. R. R. The song " the golden days of good Queen Bess ! " 
will be found in The British Orpheus, a Selection of Songs and 
Airs, p. 274., with the music. 

TRENCH ON PROVERBS. We cannot possibly find space for any 
farther discussion of the translation o/Ps. cxxvii. 2. 

BLOMEFIELD'S NORFOLK Gentlemen who possess a copy of this 
work will be kind enough to write to John Nurse Chadwick, 
Solicitor, King's Lynn, Norfolk, stating the fad, with their names 
and addresses, by letter, post paid. 

PROFESSOR HUNT'S Letter shall appear next week. We can 
well understand how a gentleman, who labours so assiduously in 
his scientific investigations, can have little time and feel little anxi- 
ety to produce merely pretty pictures. We are glad that the question 
was asked (we are sure only in a friendly spirit); and our photo- 
graphic readers will be as glad to hear that an enlarged edition of 
Professor Hunt's Researches on Light may soon be expected. 

C. E. F., FOUR PHOTOGRAPHIC READERS, and other Corre- 
spondents, shall receive due attention next week. 

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME is now bound and ready for delivery, 
price 10s. Gd., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Vo- 
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is desirable. 

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the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, 
and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 225. 



IMPERIAL LIFE INSUR- 
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1. OLD BROAD STREET, LONDON. 
Instituted 1820. 

SAMUEL HIBBERT, ESQ., Chairman. 
WILLIAM R. ROBINSON, ESQ., Deputy- 
Chairman. 



The SCALE OF PREMIUMS adopted by 
this Office will be found of a very moderate 
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to the risk incurred. 

FOUR-FIFTHS, or 80 per cent, of the 
Profits, are assigned to Policies every fifth 
year, and may be applied to increase the sum 
insured, to an immediate payment in cash, or 
to the reduction and ultimate extinction of 
future Premiums. 

ONE-THIRD of the Premium on Insur- 
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of life, may remain as a debt upon the Policy, 
to be paid off at convenience ; or the Directors 
will lend sums of 50Z. and upwards, on the 
security of Policies effected with this Company 
for the whole term of life, when they have 
acquired an adequate value. 

SECURITY. Those who effect Insurances 
with this Company are protected by its Sub- 
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Members of Mutual Societies. 

The satisfactory financial condition of the 
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On the 31st October, 185?, the sums 
Assured, including Bonus added, 

amounted to 2,500,000 

The Premium Fund to more than - 800,000 
And the Annual Income from the 
same source, to - 109,000 

Insurances, without participation in Profits, 
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SAMUEL INGALL, Actuary. 



PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 
each.-D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho 
Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufac- 
turers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 
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The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes 
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having carefully examined the Hoyal Piano- 
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J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Wew- 
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T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 

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W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
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Physician William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Banters. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 
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17 - - - 1 14 4 | 32- - - 2 10 8 



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- 2 4 5 I 



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Actuary. 

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Instructions given in every branch of the Art. 

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IMPROVEMENT IN COLLO- 

JL DION.- J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 
289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
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equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness 
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City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid,- Saturday, February IS. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

TOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLK. 



No. 226.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25. 1854. 



Price F 
Stamped 



ition, 



CONTENTS. 

.NOTES : Page 
Lesends and Superstitions respecting 
Bees 167 

Oxford Jeu d'Esprit - - , 168 
Ansareys in Mount Lebanon - - 169 
Primers of the Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, by the Rev. T. Lathbury- - 170 
MINOR NOTES : Objective and Sub- 
jective Lucy Walters, the Duke of 
Monmouth's Mother General Hay- 
nau's Corpse " Isolated " _ Office 
of Sexton held by One Family Sen- 
tentious Despatches Reprints sug- 
gested 170 

QUERIES : 

Pictures from Lord Vane's Collection - 171 
Burial-place of Thurstan, Archbishop 
of York, by George Fox - - 172 

MINOR QUERIES : Admiral Hopson 
"Three cats sat," &c. Herbert's 
'Church Porch" Ancient Tenure 
of Lands Dramatic Works Devreux 
Bowly " Corruptio optimi," &c. 
Lamenther Sheriff of Somersetshire 
in 1765 Edward Brerewood Eliza- 
beth Seymour Longfellow Fresick 
and Freswick Has Execution by 
Hanging been survived ? Maps of 
.Dublin _ " The Lounger's Common- 
place Book " _ Mount Mill, and the 
Fortifications of London " Forms of 
Public Meetings " - - - 172 

JMiNOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Queen Elizabeth and the Ring _ 
Lives of English Bishops : Bishop 

Burnet Eden Pedigree and Arms 

The Gentleman's Calling Obi and 
Sols Fystens or Fifteenths - - 175 



Hardman's Account of Waterloo - 176 

Dates of Births and Deaths of the Pre- 
tenders - 177 

"Could we with ink," &c., by J. W. 
Thomas - - - - - 179 

Mackey's Theory of the Earth, by J. 
Dawson, &c. - 179 

Do Conjunctions join Propositions only ? 
by G.Boole - - - - 180 

Robert Bloet, by Edward Foss - - 181 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : A 

Hint to the Photographic Society 
Test for Nitrate of Silver Professor 
Hunt's Photographic Studies Waxed- 
paper Pictures The Double Iodide 
Solution Dr. Mansell's Process - 181 

.&EPLIES TO MINOR QDKRIES : Buona- 
parte's Abdication Burton Family 
Drainage by Machinery Natto- 
chiii and Calchanti " One while I 
think," &c. " Spires 'whose silent 
finger points to heaven ' "Dr. Elea- 
zar Duncon " Marriage is such a 
rabble rout" Cambridge Mathe- 
matical Questions -Reversible Mas- 
uhne Names The Man in the 
Moon Arms of Richard, King of the 
R< mans _ Brothers with the same 
Christian Name _ Arch-priest in the 
Diocese of Exeter, &c. - - - 183 
MISCELLANEOUS : 

Books and Odd Volumes wanted - 187 
Notices to Correspondents - . 187 

VOL. IX No. 226. 



TNSTRUCTION IN ART, 

|_ General and Special, as afforded at the 
SCHOOLS of the DEPARTMENT of 
SCIENCE and ART, at MARLBORO UGH 
HOUSE, Pall Mall, London. The School 
consists of 

I. A NORMAL SCHOOL for TRAINING 

TEACHERS. 

II. SPECIAL CLASSES for TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION. 

Art Superintendent : 
BICHARD REDGRAVE, R.A. 

The SPRING SESSION will COMMENCE 
on 1st of MARCH, and end 31st of July ; and 
the Fees are for that period. 

1. The Courses of Instruction are intended 
to impart systematically a knowledge of the 
scientific principles of Art, especially in its 
relation to the useful purposes of life. A 
limited application of those principles is de- 
monstrated with the view of preparing Students 
to enter upon the future practice of the Deco- 
rative Arts in Manufactories and Workshops, 
either as Masters, Overseers, or skilled work- 
men. At the same time, instruction is afforded 
to all who may desire to pursue these studies 
without reference to a preparation for any 
special Branch of Industry. Special Courses 
are arranged in order to train persons to be- 
come Masters of Schools of Art, and to enable 
Schoolmasters of Parochial and other Schools 
to teach Elementary Drawing a* a part of 
general Education concurrently with Writing. 

2. The Lectures and Courses of Instruction 
are as follows : 

GENERAL COURSE FOR MALE STU- 
DENTS ONLY. 

A. Free-hand, Model, and Elementary Mecha- 

nical Drawing, Practical Geometry and 
Perspective, Painting in Oil, Tempera, 
and Water Colours. Modelling. The 
Classes for Drawing, Painting, and Mo- 
delling, include the Figure from the An- 
tique and the Life ; and Artistic Ana- 
tomy. Lectures, Teaching and Practice, 
in the Morning and Evening. Fee 4Z. 
the Session. Head Master, Mr. Burchet ; 
Assistants, Messrs. Herman, Walsh, 
Denby, Wills, and Hancock. 

B. The Evening Instruction is limited to ad- 

vanced Drawing, Painting, and Model- 
ling, including the Figure. Fee 21. 

TECHNICAL COURSES. 

C. Practical Construction, including Architec- 

ture, Building, and the various processes 
of Plastic Decoration, Furniture, and 
Metal Working. Lectures, Teaching and 
Practice, Morning and Evening. Fee 41, 
Evening Course only, Fee 21. for Male 
Studeats only. Superintendent, Profes- 
sor Semper. 

D. Mechanical and Machine Drawing, Class 

Lectures witk Evening Teaching and 
Morning Practice. For Male Students 



on 
Bi 



nly. Fee 2?. Superintendent, Mr. W. 
inns. 

E. Surface Decoration, as applied to Woven 

Fabrics of all kinds. Lace, Paper Hang- 
ings, &c. Lectures, Teaching and Prac- 
tice, Morning and Evening. Fee tl. An 
Afternoon Cttfes for Females only, Fee 
21. An Evening Class for Male Stu- 
dents only, Fee 2?. Superintendent, Mr. 
Octavius Hudson. 

F. Poicdain Painting, daily Teaching and 

Practice for Male and Fe-rale Students, 
fee 4. Superintendents, Mr. Simpson 
and Mr. Hudson. 



G. Wood Engraving. Lectures, daily Teach- 
ing and Practice for Female Students 
only, Fee 4Z. Superintendents, Mr. 
Thompson and Miss Waterhouse. 

H. Lithography, Chalk, Pen, and Colour. 
Daily Teaching and Practice for Female 
Students only, Fee 47. Superintendents, 
Mr. Brookes and Miss Channon. 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

On the Forms and Colours of the Animal and 
Vegetable Kingdoms, by Professor E. Forbes ; 
on the Human Form, by Mr. J. Marshall, 
F.R.C.S. ; on the History of Ornamental 
Art, by Mr. Womum, &c. Admission to each 
Lecture, 6d. 

3. The Instruction for the general Students 
is carried on daily, except on Saturdays. 

4. Students may matriculate for a period of 
three years upon paying 20Z. in one sum on en- 
trance, or three annual payments of \0l. They 
are entitled to attend all the Public and Clasa 
Lectures, the general and technical Courses, to 
receive personal instruction, and to practice in 
the School at all times ; they have also access 
to the Museum and Library. At the end of the 
Session they may pass an Examination, and 
have the privilege of competing for Scholar- 
ships, varying from 107. to 307. a year in value. 

5. Occasional Students are at liberty to at- 
tend only the particular Courses for which they 
enter, and have admission to the Museum, Li- 
brary, and Public Lectures. 

6. A CLASS FOR SCHOOLMASTERS 
AND PUPIL TEACHERS will meet every 
Wednesday and Friday, Tuesday and Thurs- 
day Evenings, and on Saturdays. Fee, 5*. 
Superintendent of the Training teaching, and 
Elementary Instruction, Mr. Burchet ; As- 
sistant, Mr. Bowler. 

Also at Gore House, Kensington, on Monday 
and Thursday. 

7. A Register of the Students' attendances is 
kept, and may be consulted by Parents and 
Guardians. 

8. The SCHOOL FOR THE FEMALE 
STUDENTS passing through the General 
Course, is at 37. Gower Street. Superintendent, 
Mrs. M'lan ; Assistants, Miss Ganu and Miss 
West. 

Fees : Advanced Classes, SZ. and 4Z. ; Ele- 
mentary Class, 20s. i Evening Class, 10. 

A Class also meets at Gore House, Kensing- 
ton, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

9. DISTRICT SCHOOLS OF ART, in con- 
nexion with the Department, are now esta- 
blished in the following places. Open every 
Evening (except Saturday) from 7 to 9'30. En- 
trance Fee, 2. Admission, 2s. and 3s. per 
month. The instruction comprise* Practical 
Geometry and Perspective, Free-hand and Me- 
chanical Drawing, and i-lementary Colour : 

1. Spitalfields, Crispin Street. 

2. North London, High Street, Camden 
Town. 

3. Finsbury, William Street, Wilmington 
Square. 

4. Westminster, Mechanics' Institute, Great 
Smith Street. 

5. St. Thomas, Charterhouse, Goswell Street. 

6. Rotherhithe, Grammar School. 

7. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Long Acre. 

At 1. and 2. Schools there are Female Classes. 
Application for admission to be made at the 
Offices in each locality. 

For farther information, apply at Marlbo- 
rough House, Pall Mall. 

LYON PL A YF AIR,} Secretaries. 



166 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 226. 



MUKRAY'S 

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MONS. 7s. 6(7. 

INDEPENDENCE AND SIJB- 

MISSION : the Use and Abuse of each. 
Second Edition. Is. Gd. 

SERMONS preached in the 

Parish Church of St. Martin's, Leicester. 
Second Edition. 12s. 6(7. 

SERMONS preached in the 

Chapel of Harrow School. Second Series. 12s. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



167 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1854. 



LEGENDS AND SUPERSTITIONS RESPECTING BEES 

The Vicar of Morwenstow, among the beautiful j 
poems to be found in his Echoes from Old Corn- j 
wall, has one entitled "A Legend of the Hive :" it j 
commences 

" Behold those winged images ! 

Bound for their evening bowers ; 
They are the nation of the bees, 

Born from the breath of flowers : 
Strange people are they ; a mystic race 
In life, and food, and dwelling-place !" 

As another poet has sung : 

" His quidam signis, atque haec exempla secuti, 
Esse Apibus partem Divines mentis et haustus 
JEtherios dixere." 

Mr. Hawker's Legend is to this effect : A Cornish 
woman, one summer, finding her bees refused to 
leave their " cloistered home," and " ceased to 
play around the cottage flowers," concealed a 
portion of the Holy Eucharist which she obtained 
at church : 

" She bore it to her distant home, 

She laid it by the hive 
To lure the wanderers forth to roam, 
That so her store might thrive ; 
'Twas a wild wish, a thought unblest, 
Some evil legend of the West. 
" But lo ! at morning-tide a sign, 
For wondering eyes to trace, 
They found above that Bread, a shrine 

Rear'd by the harmless race ! 
They brought their walls from bud and flower, 
They built bright roof and beamy tower ! 
" Was it a dream ? or did they hear 

Float from those golden cells 
A sound, as of some psaltery near, 

Or soft and silvery bells ? 
A low sweet psalm, that griev'd within 
In mournful memory of the sin !" 

The following passage from Howell's Parley of 
Beasts, Lond. 1660, furnishes a similar legend of 
the piety of bees. Bee speaks : 

" Know, Sir, that we have also a religion as well as 
so exact a government among us here ; our hummings 
you speak of are as so many hymns to the Great God 
of Nature ; and ther is a miraculous example in Ccesa- 
rius Cisterniensis, how som of the Holy Eucharist 
being let fall in a medow by a priest, as he was re- 
turning from visiting a sick body, a swarm of bees 
being hard by took It up, and in a solemn kind of 
procession carried It to their hive, and there erected 
an altar of the purest wax for It, where It was found 
in that form, and untouched." P. 144. 

It is remarkable that, in the Septuagint version 
of Prov. vi. 8., the bee is introduced after the ant, 



and reference is made to r?V epyavlav us 
ine?rcu : epyas. ffefji. St. Ambrose translates it ope- 
rationem venerabilem ; St. Jerome, opus castum ; 
Castalio, augustum opus ; Bochart prefers opus 
pretiosum, aut mirabile.* 

Pliny has much to say about bees. I shall give 
an extract or two in the Old English of Philemon 
Holland : 

" Bees naturally are many times sick ; and that do 
they shew most, evidently: a man shall see it in them 
by their heavie looks and by their unlustines to their 
businesse : ye shall marke how some will bring forth 
others that be sickeand diseased into thewarme sunne, 
and be readie to minister unto them and give them 
meat. Nay, ye shall have them to carie forth their 
dead, and to accompanie the corps full decently, as in a 
solemne funerall. If it chaunce that the king be dead 
of some pestilent maladie, the commons and subjects 
mourne, take thought, and grieve with heavie cheere 
and sad countenance : idle they be, and take no joy to 
do any thing : they gather in no provision : they march 
not forth : onely with a certain doleful humming they 
gather round about his corps, and will not away. 

" Then requisite it is and necessarie to sever and 
part the multitude, and so to take away the bodie from 
them : otherwise they would keepe a looking at the 
breathlesse carcasse, and never go from it, but still 
mone and mourne without end. And even then also 
they had need be cherished and comforted with good 
victuals, otherwise they would pine away and die with 
hunger." Lib. xi. cap. xviii. 

" We bury our dead with great solemnity ; at the 
king's death there is a generall mourning and fasting, 
with a cessation from labour, and we use to go about 
his body with a sad murmur for many daies. When 
we are sick we have attendants appointed us, and the 
symptoms when we be sick are infallible, according to 
the honest, plain poet : 

* If bees be sick (for all that live must die), 
That may be known by signes most certainly ; 
Their bodies are discoloured, and their face 
Looks wan, which shows that death comes on apace. 
They carry forth their dead, and do lament, 
Hanging o' th' dore, or in their hives are pent.' " 

Howell, p. 138. 

Of bees especially the proverb holds good, that 
"Truth is stranger than fiction." The discoveries 
of Huber, Swammerdam, Reaumur, Latreille, 
Bonnet, and other moderns, read more like a 
fairy-tale than anything else, and yet the subject 
is far from being exhausted. At the same time 
modern naturalists have substantiated the accu- 
racy of the ancients in many statements which 
were considered ridiculous fables. The ancients 

* The bee is praised for her pious labours in the 
offices of the Roman Church, " as the unconscious 
contributor of the substance of her paschal light." 
" Alitur enim liquantibus ceris, quas in substantiam 
pretiosae hujus lampadis Mater Apis eduxit." Office 
of Holy Saturday. 



168 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 226. 



anticipated its so far as even to have used glass 
hives, for the purpose of observing the wonderful 
proceedings of this winged nation. Bochart, 
quoting an old writer, says : 

" Fecit illis Aristoteles Alveare Vitreum, ut intro- 
spiceret, qua ratione ad opus se accingerent. Sed ab- 
nuerunt quidquam operari, donee interiora vitri luto 
oblevisset." Hierozoicon, Lond. 1663, folio, Part n. 
p. 514. 

ElRIONNACH. 



OXFORD JEU D'ESPRIT. 

The following jeu $ esprit appeared at Oxford 
in 1819 : printed, not published, but laid simul- 
taneously on the tables of all the Common Rooms. 
No author's name was attached to it then, and 
therefore no attempt is now made to supply this 
deficiency by conjecture. Since the attention of 
the discerning public has lately ^been directed 
towards the University of Oxford, probably with 
the expectation of finding some faults in her 
system of education, it is possible that some of 
those who are engaged or interested in that in- 
quiry may be amused and instructed by the 
good sense, humour, logic, and Latinity of this 
satire. 

" ERUDITIS OXONI^E AMANT1BUS SALUTEM. 

" Acerrimis vestrum omnium judiciis permittitur 
conspectus, sive syllabus, libri breviter edendi, et e 
Prelo Academico, si Diis, i. e. Delegatis, placet, pro- 
dituri : in quo multa dictu et notatu dignissima a 
tenebris et tineis vindicantur ; multa ad hujusce loci 
instituta et disciplinam pertinentia agitantur ; plurima 
quae Academic famam et dignitatem spectant fuse 
admodum et libere tractantur et explicantur. Sub- 
jiciuntur operis illustrandi ergo capitum quorundam 
Argumenta. 



1. ^Elfredi magni somnium de Sociis omnibus Aca- 
demicis ad Episcopatum promovendis : 

With suppliant smiles they bend the head, 
While distant mitres to their eyes are spread.' 

Byron. 

Opus egregium perutile perjucundum ex membranis 
vetustissimis detritis tertium rescriptis, solertia plus 
quain Angelo-Maiana, nuperrime redintegratum. 

2. DevorguillcB, Balliolensibus semper carissimas, 
pudicitia laborans vindicatur. 

3. Contra Kilnerum et Mertonenses disputatur, 
Pytbagoram Cantabrigiae nunquam docuisse : 



'Ea7raTj'Tt p.v6oi.' Find. 



4. Wiccamici publicis examinationibus liberi, sibi et 
reipublicae rtocentes. 

5. Magdalenenses semper aedificaturientes nihil 
agunt : 

' Implentur veteris Bacchi.' Virg. 



6. Orielensibus, ingenio, ut ipsi aiunt, exundantibus, 
Aula B. M. V. malevole denegatur : 

< Barbara Celarent Darii.' Ars Logica. 

7. De reditibus annuis Decani et Canonicorum 
^Edis Christi, sive de libris Canonicis. 

8. Quaestiones duae : An Alumni JEdis Christi jure 
fiant Canonic! ? An Alumni .iEdis Christi re-verd 
fiant Canonic! ? 

9. Respondetur serenissimae Archiducissae de Ol- 
denburg quaerenti : 

What do the Fellows of All-Souls do ?' 

10. E Collegio ^Enei Nasi legati Stamfordiam 
missi Nasum ilium celeberrimum, Collegii firuvvp-ov, 
solemni pompa Oxoniam asportant. 

11. Nummi ad ornandam faciem occidentalem Col- 
legii Lincolniensis erogati unde comparati fuerint ? 

' Lucri bonus est odor ex re 
Qualibet.' Juv. 

1 2. Note. The original beading of this chapter 
was altered in a later edition, and therefore is not re- 
printed here. 

13. Ex Societatibus caeteris ejectos Aula S. Albani 
pessimo exemplo ad se recipit : 

Facilis descensus Averni.' Virg. 

14. De Golgotha et de Golgothitis. 

1 5. Praelectores an Praelectiones numero sint plures. 

16. Viro venera&ili S. T. P. R. praelegente pecunia 
a clientibus sordide admodum exigitur. 

17. Magistri in Venerabili domo Convocationis 
necessario adsistentes more Attico rb TpieaSo\ov reci- 
pere debent. 

18. De Academicorum in Venerabili domo Convo- 
cationis sedentium podicibus igneo quodam vapore 
calefaciendis : 

' Placetne vobis Magistri?' & oel Vice- Can.] 

19. De viris clarissimis Bibliothecae Bodleianse Cu- 
ratoribus. 

'Scene II. Enter Quince the Carpenter, Snug 
the Joiner, Bottom the Weaver, Flute the 
Bellows-mender, Snout the Tinker, and Starve- 
ling the Tailor. 

Quince. Is all our company complete ? ' 

Shakspeare. 

20. De matulis in Bibliotheca studentibus copiosius 
suppeditandis : 

' 'A/tls yap fy o6pijTid(n}5 CUT);" 
ITapti crol Kpe/j.T)ffcTai tyyvs tirl rov iraTToXou.' 

Aristophanes. 

21. De Bibliothecario et ejus adjutoribus. 
' Captain. What are you about, Dick ? 

Dick. Nothing, Sir. 

Captain. Thomas, what are you doing? 

Thomas. Helping Dick, Sir.' 

22. Examinantur Examinatores.' 

23. Cuinam eorum Doctoris Planissimi cognomen 
jure optimo concedendum sit. 

24. De Dodd. 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



25. De Magistris Scholarum. 

* Who made that wond'rous animal a Soph ?' 

Oxford Spy. 

26. Baccalaurei ad Clepsydram determinantes. 

' Nor stop, but rattle over every word, 
No matter what, so it can not be heard.' 

Byron. 

27. De Vocum Great-go, Little-go, By-go, in con- 
cione quadam nupera perperam felici usu. 

'"ETJ rb ainb vitoKopi^aQai" tern Se viroKopi(rp.l>s os 
eAarroy no'iei K. r. \. fi>\ae'ia6ai e 8e?.' Aristotle. 

28. De statua matrons venerabilis TTJS Goose nuper 
defuncts in media Scholarum areii collocanda. 

29. De statutorum nostrorum simplici perspicuitate. 

v re /col aT\fvraiov rb Trap.' 



Ephraim Jenkins, apud the Vicar of Wakejleld. 

30. An Procuratorum pedissequi recte nominentur 
Bull-dogs ? 

3J. De passere intra Templum B. Marias concionan- 
tibus obstrepente per statutum coercendo. 

* *fl Zeu jScurtAeG rov (^Qey^aros rovpviQiov.' 

32. Typographium Clarendonianum famaj Univer- 
sitatis male consulit, dura Cornelium Nepotem et alios, 
id genus, libellos, in usum Scholarum imprimit. 

4 Fama malum.' Virg. 

* Quserenda pecunia primum.' Horat. 

33. De celeberrima Matrona Knibbs ex Horatii 
mente deificanda. 

* Divina tomacula porci.' 

34. Exemplo viri clarissimi Joannis Gutch pro- 
batur mortales errori obnoxios esse. 

35. Petitur ut memoria viri prosapia ingenio et 
moribus spectatissimi Gulielmi Stuart oratione annua 
celebretur. 

' Integer vitae scelerisque purus.' Hor. 
' The merry poacher who defies his God.' 

Oxford Spy. 

36. Oxonia novo lumine vestita, gaudent Baljense 
Atlanticas, exulant meretrices, Procuratores otio ene- 
cantur. 



' Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna.' Virg. 
37. Probatur Bedellum Academicum vero et ge- 
nuino sensu esse qunrtum Pra?dicabile ; quippe qui 
comes adsit Vice-Cancellario omni soli et semper. 
Doctissimus tamen Higgenbrockius Differentiam po- 
tius esse putat, cujus ha?c sunt verba : 

Bedellus est de Vice-Cancellarii Essentia, 
Nee potest dispensari cum absentia : 
Nam sicat forma dat Esse Rei, 
Sic Esse dat Bedellus ei.' 

Nee errat forsan vir clarissimus, si enim Collegii 
cujusvis Prasfectum (genus) recte dividat Bedellus 
adstans (Differentia), fit illico Species optata. Dominus 
Vice- Can. 



38. Tutorum et Examinatorum Oxoniensium pe- 
titio Mediolanum transmissa, ut Auctorum deperdi- 
torum restitutor nequissimus Angelus Maius, iste 
male feriatus, oculis et virilibus mulctetur. 

39. Statute quamprimum cautum sit, idque sub 
prenis gravissimis, ne quis ad Universitatis privilegia 
admissus auctoris cujuspiam libros feliciter deperditos 
invenire audeat, inventos hue asportet, imprimat, im- 
primendos curet, denique impresses legat. 

Haec sunt et horum similia, Academic!, qua? favore 
et Auspiciis vestris auctor sibi evolvenda destinat. Ei 
investigandi taedium, vobis delectatio, adsit, et honos 
et gloria. In quantam molem assurgat materies tarn 
varia tarn augusta non est in prtesenti ut pro certo 
aflfirmetur. Spes est, ut omnia rite collecta, in ordinem 
breviter et eyKVK\oivat5LKcas redacta, voluminibus, form 3, 
quam vocant ' Elephant- Quarto,' non plusquam tri- 
ginta contineantur. 

Omnes igitur qui famam aut Academias aut suam 
salvam velint, moras excutiant, Bibliopolam nostrum 
integerrimum prassto adeant, symbolas conferant, dent 
nomina, ut hanc saltern a nobis immortalitatem conse- 
quantur, alia fortasse carituri." 

J. B. 0. 

Loughborough. 



ANSAREYS IN MOUNT LEBANON. 

In the romance of Tancred, Mr. D'Israeli 
mentions the Ansareys, one of the tribes of Le- 
banon, as worshipping the old heathen gods, 
Jupiter, Apollo, and Astarte, or Venus. A 
writer of fiction is certainly not expected to be 
bound to fact ; but in such a matter as the present 
religion of an existing people, I feel doubtful 
whether to suppose this religion his own invention, 
or if he has any authority for it, and its connexion, 
with pagan Antioch. A people of to-day retaining 
the worship of the old gods of Greece and Syria, 
is a matter of great interest. I have looked into 
Volney's Travels in Syria, and Egypt, and in some 
later writers, but none of them state the paganism 
of Tancred to be the religion of the Ansareys. 
It is, however, said to be a mystery, so not impos- 
sibly the account in Tancred may be the reality. 
In the same work, the Sheikhs of Sheikhs, and 
his tribe, the Beni-Rechab children of Rechab, 
are said to be Jews on horseback, inhabiting the 
desert, and resembling the wandering Arabs in 
their mode of life. This also is curious, if there 
be such a people ; and some of your readers ac- 
quainted with the history and manners of Syria 
may give information on these matters. The 
other tribes of Lebanon are singular and equally 
interesting : the Maronites, Christians of the 
Roman Catholic sect, who, however, allow their 
priests to marry ; the Metualis, Mahoinedans of 
the sect of AH ; and the Druses, whose religion is 
unknown, and, as Lamartine tells us, was entirely 
so to Lady Hester Stanhope, who lived years in 
the middle of them. Volney divides the Ansareys 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 226. 



in several sects, of whom one worshipped the sun, 
another a dog, and a third had an obscene worship, 
with such lewd nocturnal meetings as were fabled 
of the Yesedee. F. 



PRIMERS OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

Little is known respecting the Primers *of this 
reign, and yet several editions were published. 
My object will be to give some information on the 
subject, in the hope that more may be elicited from 
your correspondents. 

There is an edition of the year 1559, 4to. Two 
copies only are known at present ; one in the li- 
brary at Christ Church, Oxford, and the other at 
Jesus College, Cambridge. It has been reprinted 
by the Parker Society. This Primer contains 
certain prayers for the dead, as they stand in that 
of Henry VIII., 1545. In short, with the ex- 
ception of " An Order for Morning Prayer," with 
which it commences, this Primer follows the ar- 
rangement of that of 1545 ; some things, relative 
to saints, angels, and the Virgin Mary, having 
been excluded. 

But I have in my possession another edition in 
12mo. of this reign, of which I can trace no other 
copy. My book wants the title, and consequently 
I cannot ascertain its date. It was formerly in 
(rough's possession, lam inclined to think that 
it is earlier than the edition reprinted by the 
Parker Society. 

Unlike the book of 1559, mine commences with 
the Catechism, but the subsequent arrangement is 
the same. The differences, when any exist, con- 
sist in a more literal following of the Primer of 
1545. The Prayers for the Dead are retained as 
in the book of 1559. The Graces, also, are more 
numerous in my edition, and some of them are 
not found even in King Henry's book. One con- 
sists of an address, as from the master of the 
family, with an answer from the other members. 
In some respects this is similar to a form in King 
Edward's Primer, while in others it is altogether 
different. At the close of the Graces, the book of 
1559 has the words " God save our Queen and 
Realm," while in my edition the reading is the 
same as in the book of 1545, "Lorde, save thy 
Churche, our Quene, and Realme," &c. 

In " The Dirige " there is a very singular va- 
riation. In 1559 we find "Ego Dixi, Psalm 
Esaie xxxviii.;" in 1545 it is only " Esa. xxxviii. ; " 
in that of 1546 the form is " Ego Dixi, Psal. Esa. 
xxxviii.;" and my edition has " Ego Dixi, Psal. 
xxxv.," being different from all the rest. 

Some curious typographical errors are also 
found in my edition. In the Catechism the word 
king is substituted for queen. In the third pe- 
tition in the Litany for the Queen, we have " That 
it may please thee to be hys defendour, and 
gevinge hym," &c. ; yet in the previous clauses 



the pronoun is correctly used. It would seem 
that the printer had the Primer of 1545 or 1546 
before him, and that in these cases he followed 
his copy without making the necessary alterations. 

Such are the more remarkable differences be- 
tween my edition and that of 1559. 

There is a Primer of this reign in the Bodleian, 
quite different from mine and that of 1559. In 
this the Prayers for the Dead are expunged, and 
the character of the book is altogether dissimilar. 
Two copies of this book exist in the Bodleian, 
which have been usually regarded as different 
editions. From a careful examination, however, 
I have ascertained that they are the same edition. 
One copy has the title, with the date 1566 on the 
woodcut border ; the other wants the title, but 
has the colophon, bearing the date 1575. The 
latter is the true date of the book, and the date 
on the title is merely that of some other book, for 
which the compartment had been used in 1566. 
Such variations are common with early books. I 
have several volumes bearing an earlier date on 
the title than in the colophon. Thus, the first 
edition of Sir Thomas Elyot's Castle of Health has 
1534 on the title, and 1539 in the colophon. The 
latter was the true date. It may be remarked 
that the two books in the Bodleian of 1575 will 
together make up a perfect copy. 

Some of your correspondents may be able to 
mention another copy of the edition which I 
possess. I am very anxious to discover another. 

THOMAS LATHBURY. 

Bristol. 



Objective and Subjective. I tried, a little while 
ago, to show in your pages that this antithesis, 
though not a good pair of terms, is intelligible, 
and justified by good English usage. But I must 
allow that the writers who use these terms, do all 
that is possible to put those who justify them in 
the wrong. In a French work at least, recently 
published, I find what appears to me a curious 
application of the corresponding words in that 
language. M. Auguste Comte, in the preface 
to the third volume of his Systeme de Politique 
Positive, speaks of some of his admirers who had 
by their " cotisations," or contributions, supported 
him while he was writing the work ; and he par- 
ticularly celebrates one of them, Mr. Wallace, an 
American, adding : 

" Devenu jusqu'ici le principal de mes souscrip- 
teurs, Wallace a perpetue subjectivement son patro- 
nage objectif, en me leguanl une annuite de cinq cent 
francs." 

I must confess that the metaphysics according to 
which a sum paid by a living man is objectif, and 
a legacy subjectif, is beyond my depth. 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



While I write, as if writers of all kinds were | 
resolved to join in perplexing the use of these un- 
fortunate words, I read in a journal, " objective 
discussion, in the sense of hostile or adverse dis- 
cussion, discussion which proposed objections." I 
think this is hard upon the word, and unfair 
usage of it. W. 

Lucy Walters, the Duke of Monmouth's Mother. 
The death of this unfortunate woman is usually 
stated to have taken place at Paris. The date is 
not given, and the authority cited is John Evelyn. 
But Evelyn's words have been misunderstood. 
He says, speaking of the Duke of Monniouth's j 

execution : 

I 

" His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of I 
some very mean creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, 
whom I had often seen at Paris; she died miserably, 
without anything to bury her." Diary, July 15,1685. 

This passage surely does not imply that she died 
at Paris ? In the Parish Registers of Hammer- 
smith is the following entry : 

" 1683, June 5, Lucy Walters bur." 

which I am fully persuaded records the death of 
one of King Charles's quondam mistresses. 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

; . General Haynau 's Corpse. A most extraor- 
dinary account has reached us in a private letter 
from Vienna to a high personage here, and has 
been the talk of our salons for the last few days. 
It appears that the circumstance of the death of 
General Haynau presented a phenomenon of the 
most awful kind on record. For many days after 
death the warmth of life yet lingered in the right 
arm and left leg of the corpse, which remained 
limpid and moist, even bleeding slightly when 
pricked. No delusion, notwithstanding, could be 
maintained as to the reality of death, for the other 
parts of the body were completely mortified, and 
interment became necessary before the two limbs 
above mentioned had become either stiff or cold. 
The writer of the letter mentioned that this strange 
circumstance has produced the greatest awe in 
the minds of those who witnessed it, and that the 
emperor had been so impressed with it, that his 
physicians had forbidden the subject to be alluded 
to in his presence. Query, Can the above sin- 
gular statement be verified ? It was copied from 
a French paper, immediately after the decease of 
General Haynau was known in Paris. W. W. 
Malta. 

" Isolated" This word was not in use at the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, as is 
evident from the following expression of Lord 
Bolingbroke's : 

" The events we are witnesses of in the course of the 
longest life appear to us very often original, unpre- 



pared, single, and unrelative ; if I may use such a word 
for want of a better in English. In French, I would 
say isoles." 

The only author quoted by Richardson is 
Stewart. R. CART BARNARD. 

Malta. 

Office of Sexton held by One Family. The 
following obituary, copied from the Derbyshire 
Advertiser of Jan. 27, 1854, contains so extraor- 
dinary an account of the holding of the office of 
sexton by one family, that it may interest some of 
your readers, and may be difficult to be surpassed. 



" On Jan. 23, 1 854, 
Bramwell, sexton of the 
le- Frith. The deceased 
forty-three years ; Peter 
years; George Bramwell, 
years ; George Bramwell, 
years ; Peter Bramwell, 
fifty-two years : total 223 



aged eighty-six, Mr. Peter 
parish church of Chapel-en- 
served the office of sexton 
Bramwell, his father, fifty 
his grandfather, thirty-eight 
his great-grandfather, forty 
his great-great-grandfather, 
years." 

S. G. C. 



Sententious Despatches (Vol. viii., p. 490. ; Vol. 
ix., p. 20.). In addition to the sententious dis- 
patches referred to above, please note the follow- 
ing. It was sent to the Emperor Nicholas by one 
of his generals, and is a very good specimen of 
Russian double entendres : 

" Folia Fascha, a Varschavoo vsiat nemogoo." 
" Folia is your's, but Warsaw I cannot take." 
Also, 

" Your will is all-powerful, but Warsaw I cannot 
take." * * * * 

J. S. A. 
Old Broad Street. 

Reprints suggested. As you have opened a list 
of suggested reprints in the pages of " N. & Q.," 
may I be allowed to remark that some of Peter 
Heylin's works would be well worth reprinting. 

There is a work of which few know the value, 
but yet a work of the greatest importance, I mean 
Dr. O'Connor's Letters of Columbanus. A care- 
fully edited and well annotated edition of this 
scarce work would prove of greater value than 
any reprint I can think of. MARICONDA. 



PICTURES FROM LORD VANE'S COLLECTION. 

My family became possessed of six fine por- 
traits at the death of Lord Vane, husband to that 
lady of unenviable notoriety, a sketch of whose 
life (presented by her own hand to the author) is 
inserted, under the title " Adventures of a Lady of 
Quality," in Peregrine Pickle. I quote from my 



172 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 226. 



relation who knew the facts.* Lord Vane was the 
last of his race, and died at Fairlawn, Kent, 
probably about the latter half of the last century .f 
The successor to his fortune selected a few pic- 
tures, and left the remaining, of which mine 
formed a part, to his principal agent. Amateurs 
say they are by Sir Peter Lely : a fact I should 
be glad to establish. I have searched Windsor 
Castle, Hampton Court, and Knowle Park collec- 
tions in vain for duplicates. 

No. 1. is a young man in what appears to be a 
court dress, exhibiting armour beneath the folds 
of the drapery. Point lace neck-tie. 2. Do., in 
brocaded silk and fringed dress. Point lace neck- 
tie and ruffles. A spaniel introduced, climbing 
up his knee. 3. A youth sitting under a tree, 
with pet lamb. Point lace neck-tie and ruffles, 
but of simple dress. 4. A lady in flowing dra- 
pery. Pearls in her hair and round her neck, 
sitting under a tree. An orange blossom in her 
hand. 5. A lady seated in an apartment with 
marble columns. Costume similar to No. 4, minus 
the pearls in the hair. A kind of wreath in her 
hand. 6. A lady in simple, flowing drapery, 
without jewellery, save a broach or clasp on her 
left shoulder ; holding a flower in her right hand. 
In all, the background is very dark, but trees and 
buildings can be traced through the gloom. The 
hands are models, and beautifully painted. Size of 
pictures, divested of their carved and gilt frames, 
four feet two inches by three feet four inches. If 
any of your readers can, from this description, 
give me any clue to the name of the artist, it will 
greatly oblige and be duly appreciated by an 
elderly spinster. S. D. 



BURIAL-PLACE OF THURSTAN, ARCHBISHOP OP 
YORK. 

The church of All Saints, in Pontefract, county 
York, was some years ago partly restored for divine 
worship ; and during the progress of the works, a 
broken slab was discovered in the chancel part of 
the church, upon which was cut an archiepiscopal 
cross, extending from the top apparently to the 
bottom. On the upper part of the stone, and on 
each side of the cross, was a circle or ring cut 

[* A correspondent in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
May, 1789, p. 403., who was* intimately acquainted 
with Lord and Lady Vane, states that " though Dr. 
Smollet was as willing as he was able to embellish his 
works with stories marvellous, yet he did not dress up 
Lady Vane's story of her Lord. She wrote it as well 
as she could herself, and Dr. Shebbeare put it in its 
present form at her ladyship's request." 

f Lord Vane died April 5, 1789, at his house in 
Downing Street, Westminster. He was great-grand- 
son of that inflexible republican, Sir Henry Vane, 
executed on Tower Hill, June 14, 1662. ED.] 



down the middle by a dagger ; and bearing on the 
circle the following inscription in Old English 
characters : 

" * tit . jjotr . ttf . all." 

In the middle of the stone, and on each side of 
the cross, also appear a shield emblazoned with a 
rabbit or coney sejant.* 

Beneath this part appears the commencement of 
the inscription, which seems to have run across 
the surface of the stone, " Orate pro anim . . . ." 
Here the stone is broken across, and the lower 
part not found. 

Can any of your numerous readers inform me 
if this stone could possibly be the tombstone of 
Thurstan, Archbishop of York ? It is said that he 
resigned the see of York after holding it twenty- 
six years : 

" Being old and sickly, he would have been made a 
monk of Pontefract, but he had scarcely put off his 
pontifical robes, and put on his monk's dress, when 
death came upon him and made him assume his grave- 
clothes ; for he survived but eleven days after his 
resignation, dying Feb. 5, 1140." 

Thurstan is stated to have been buried in the 
Monastery ; but may he not have been buried in 
the church of All Saints, which was the conven- 
tual church of tlje Priory of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, and was situated adjoining the Grange, the 
site of the Priory ? In the bull of Pope Celestine, 
" right of burial in this church was granted to 
the monks, saving the privileges of neighbouring 
churches." (Ch. de Pontif. fol. 8. a.) 

GEORGE Fox. 



Admiral Hopson. In Tomkins' History of the 
Isle of Wight (1796), vol. ii. p. 123., an anecdote 
is told of a native of Bonchurch named Hobson, 
who afterwards became Admiral Hobson. It is 
mentioned that he was an orphan, bound appren- 
tice to a tailor; and that being struck with the sight 
of a squadron of ships off the Isle of Wight, he 
rowed off in a boat to them, and was received OIL 
the admiral's ship; that the next day, in an engage- 
ment with the French, when his ship was engaged 
yard-arm and yard-arm with the enemy, he 
climbed up the mast, clambered to the enemy's 
yard-arm, mounted to the top-gallant mast, and 
took down the flag. This created consternation in* 
the enemy, who were soon defeated. Hobson was 

* In N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 19., I find, under the 
head of " Wylcotes Brass," an answer to the inscription, 
" In . on . is . all ; " and as the inscription on the tomb- 
stone discovered in All Saints, Pontefract, was very 
legibly written " In God is all," may not one family 
be a branch of the other ? Can you say where the 
quotation is from ? 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



173 



promoted to be an officer, and ultimately became 
an admiral. 

This is the story as told by Tomkins. I wish 
lo know what was his authority. 

Consulting Chernoch's Lives of the Admirals, I 
find mention of Admiral Sir Thomas Hopson, a 
native of Bonchurch ; who ran away from his 
parents, and did not return to his home till he 
was an admiral. This Sir Thos. Hopson was made 
second lieutenant in 1672, the year of the action 
in Solbay, in which the Earl of Sandwich perished. 
He rose to the rank of Vice-Admiral of the Red ; 
and in the action of Vigo, in 1702, he distin- 
guished himself, and was knighted in consequence. 
He received a pension of 5001. a year, and retired 
from the service in this year. He died in 1717. 
After he quitted the navy, he became Member of 
Parliament for Newtown, in the Isle of Wight. 

It is evident that this Hopson is the Hobson of 
'Tomkins ; and that Tomkins spoke of the French 
by mistake for the Dutch enemy. But I cannot 
discover what authority he had for his account 
of the manner in which young Hobson first distin- 
guished himself. G. CURREY. 

Charterhouse. 

" Three cats sat" frc. Can any of your corre- 
spondents give me the end of a ballad, beginning 
thus, which a very old lady in her ninetieth year 
is most anxious to know ? 

" Three cats sat by the fire-side, 
With a basket full of coal dust, 

Coal dust, coal dust, 
With a basket full of coal dust." 

JULIA R. BOCKETT. 
Southcote Lodge. 

Herbert's " Church Porch." Will any of your 
readers help me to the sense of the following 
stanza from George Herbert's Church Porch, 
verse 48 : 

" If thou be single, all thy good and ground 
Submit to love ; but yet not more than all. 
Give one estate, as one life. None is bound 
To work for two, who brought himself to thrall. 
God made me one man ; love makes me no more 
Till labour come, and make my weakness score." 

The lines of which I want the meaning are the 
last three. S. SINGLETON. 

Greenwich. 

Ancient Tenure of Lands. I should feel obliged 
to any of your readers who would inform me as to 
the ancient tenure by which estates were held in 
this country. For instance, a manor, including 
within its limits several hamlets, is held by A, 
who grants by subinfeudation one of the said 
hamlets to B ; B dies, leaving a son and successor, 
who continues in possession of the hamlet, and 



grants leases, &c., and thus for several generations. 
My question is, did A, in granting to B, relinquish 
all interest in the hamlet, or how much did he 
still retain, since in after years the hamlet is found 
to have reverted to him, and no allusion is after- 
wards made to the subinfeudatory lords who pos- 
sessed it for some generations? It is presumed 
that in early times lords of a manor were owners 
of the lands of the manor of which they were 
lords ; at present an empty title is all that remains. 
When did the practice of alienating lands by a 
piecemeal partition and sale commence ? and did 
a subinfeudatory lord possess the power of aliena- 
tion ? In fact, what is the origin of the numerous 
small freeholds into which our ancient manors are 
broken up ? J. B. 

Dramatic Works. Dramatic and Poetical 
Works, very rare, privately printed, 1840. In- 
formation relative to this work will oblige 

JOHN MARTIN. 

Woburn Abbey. 

Devreux Bowly. An old and excellent hall 
clock in this city bears the name of Devreux 
Bowly, of Lombard Street, London, as the maker. 
Can any of the readers of " !NT. & Q." (either ho- 
rologists or others) say when he lived ? UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

" Corruptio optimi" fyc. What is the origin or 
earliest use of the saying, " Corruptio optimi est, 
al. fit, pessima," in its present form ? I state it in 
this way, because I am aware of its having been 
referred to Aristotle's remarks on the different 
forms of government. The old Latin translation, 
however, does not contain the expression, and I 
have not traced it farther back than to writers of 
the seventeenth century, to Jeremy Taylor, for 
instance. E. M. 

Hastings. 

Lamenther. Who was the writer of the Life 
of Lamenther, written by herself, published by sub- 
scription in 1771? Is it a genuine narrative; 
and if so, where can I find a key to the initials ? 

C. CLIFTON BARRY. 

Sheriff 1 of Somersetshire in 1765. Will any of 
your correspondents resident in, or acquainted 
with the county of Somerset, oblige me by stating 
the date of death of James Perry, Esq., the Sheriff 
of that county in 1756 ; and also his place of 
residence, and the names of his children, if any ; 
and where any of their descendants now reside ? 

H. 

Edward Brerewood. Is there any authenti- 
cated portrait extant of this learned mathema- 
tician ? He was the first Gresham Professor of 
Astronomy at the University of Oxford, and the 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 226. 



author of several important philosophical works ; 
one of which, on the Diversity of Language, has 
been more than once reprinted. Possibly at Ox- 
ford, his alma mater, a portrait of him may be in 
existence ; and I dare say some resident member 
of that University will kindly endeavour to ascer- 
tain the fact. T. HUGHES. 
Chester. 

Elizabeth Seymour. I have lately met with a 
pedigree in which it is stated that Sir Joseph 
Tredenham (I presume of Cornwall or Devon- 
shire) married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward 
Seymour, first baronet of the present Duke of 
Somerset's line, by his wife Elizabeth Champer- 
nown ; but another pedigree gives this Elizabeth 
to George Gary of Cockington, co, Devon, Esq. 
Which is correct? Or did the said Elizabeth 
marry twice ? and, in that case, which was the 
first husband ? PATONCE. 

Longfellow. Could you inform me whether 
the name "Longfellow" may still be traced in any 
parts of England ? It is the belief of that distin- 
guished American poet that his name still exists 
in some of the south-western counties ; and it 
would be an additional gratification to him that 
his hopes were confirmed by testimony. 

OXONIENSIS. 

Fresick and Freswick. In the map of the king- 
dom of Scotland, occurring in the Theatre of the 
Empire of Great Britaine, by John Speed, 1614, 
pp. 131-2., on the north-east point of Scotland a 
place is noted as Fresick East, in the present maps 
Freswich. Is Fresick a contracted form of Fres- 
wick f and if so, has it some reference to a settle- 
ment of the Frisians (anciently Fresians) on this 
coast ? The village Freswick, on the borders of 
the Lek, and another Freswick in the neighbour- 
hood of Deventus, both in the Netherlands, near 
the Frisians, are supposed to owe their names to 
a settlement or refuge of those first parents of the 
Anglo-Saxons. D. H. 

Has Execution by Hanging been survived? I 
have heard vague and indiscriminate tales of per- 
sons who, as criminals, have undergone infliction 
of the punishment of hanging without total ex- 
tinction of life ; but I have always been disposed 
to look upon such accounts as mere fables, till 
lately, in turning over somk newspapers of the 
year 1740, I found a case mentioned, under such 
circumstances that, if it were untrue, its refuta- 
tion might have been easily accomplished. By 
The Craftsman of Saturday, Sept. 27, 1740, it 
appears one William Dewell had been concerned 
in the violation, robbery, and murder of a young 
woman in a barn at Acton (which place has so 
recently been the scene of another horrible crime). 
The Craftsman of Saturday, Nov. 29, 1740, states 



that Dewell, having undergone execution, and 
being brought to Surgeons' Hall to be anatomised, 
symptoms of life appeared, and he quite recovered* 
This strikes me as a most unaccountable story; 
but perhaps similar ones may have been met with 
in the reading of some of your correspondents. 2. 

Maps of Dublin. In Gough's Topographical 
Antiquities of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 689., 
it is stated that there is a map of the city and 
suburbs of Dublin, by Charles Brookin, 1728, and 
a map of the Bay and Harbour of Dublin, with a 
small plan of the city, 1728. I have Brookin's 
map of the city, 1728, but I have never seen or 
heard of any person who had seen the map of the 
Bay and Harbour of 1728. Possibly some of your 
correspondents could give information on the sub- 
ject, and also state whether there be any map of 
the city, either manuscript or printed, between 
Speed's map of 1610 and Brookin's of 1728, and 
where ? C. H. 

Dublin. 

" The Lounger's Common-place Booh." Who 
was the editor of this work ? Any information as 
to its literary history, and especially as to that of 
the revised edition of it, will be very acceptable 
to t W. H. S. 

Mount Mill, and the Fortifications of London. 
In a topographical account of Middlesex, pub- 
lished in the middle of the last century, I find the 
following : 

" Mount Mill, at the end of Goswell Street, was one of 
the forts erected by the Parliament for the defence of 
London." 

Will any of your correspondents be kind enough 
to inform me what the exact site was ; at what 
period it was demolished ; what were the names and 
sites of any other forts erected by the Parliament 
at the time for the purposes of defence ; and, lastly, 
in what work any record of them may be found ? 

B. R. A. Y. 

" Forms of Public Meetings''' Can any of your 
readers inform me of the name of the publisher 
of Forms and Proceedings of Public Meetings re- 
ferred to in The Times of Sept. 16 or 17 last, 
and supposed to have been written by the Speaker 
of the House of Commons ? Z. Y. 






[* Matt of the Mint in the Beggar's Opera says, " My 
poor brother Tom had an accident this time twelve- 
month ; and so clever a made fellow he was, that I 
could not save him from those flaying rascals the sur- 
geons ; and now, poor man, he is among the 'otamies 
at Surgeons' Hall." The executed culprit noticed by 
our correspondent, however, seems to have been re- 
animated at Surgeons' Hall. ED.] 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



Queen Elizabeth and the Ring. Has the com- 
mon story, respecting the Earl of Essex sending a 
ring to Queen Elizabeth by the Countess of Not- 
tino-ham, in order to procure his pardon, any 
foundation in fact ? T. T. W. 

[Miss Strickland seems to have examined the tra- 
ditionary notices of this love-token. She says: " The 
romantic story of the ring which, it is said, the queen 
had given to Essex in a moment of fondness as a pledge 
of her affection, with an intimation ' that, if he for- 
feited her favour, if he sent it back to her, the sight of 
it would ensure her forgiveness,' must not be lightly 
rejected. It is not only related by Osborne, who is 
considered a fair authority for other things, and quoted 
by historians of all parties, but it is a family tradition 
of the Careys, who were the persons most likely to be 
in the secret, as they were the relations and friends of 
all the parties concerned, and enjoyed the confidence of 
Queen Elizabeth. The following is the version given 
by Lady Elizabeth Spelman, a descendant of that 
House, to the editor of her great-uncle Robert Carey's 
Memoirs : ' When Essex lay under sentence of death, 
he determined to try the virtue of the ring, by sending 
it to the queen, and claiming the benefit of her pro- 
mise ; but knowing he was surrounded by the crea- 
tures of those who were bent on taking his life, he was 
fearful of trusting it to any of his attendants. At 
length, looking out of his window, he saw early one 
morning a boy whose countenance pleased him, and 
him he induced by a bribe to carry the ring, which he 
threw down to him from above, to the Lady Scrope 
his cousin, who had taken so friendly interest in his 
fate. The boy, by mistake, carried it to the Countess 
of Nottingham, the cruel sister of the fair and gentle 
Scrope, and, as both these ladies were of the royal bed- 
chamber, the mistake might easily occur. The countess 
carried the ring to her husband the Lord Admiral, who 
was the deadly foe of Essex, and told him the message, 
but he bade her suppress both.' The queen, uncon- 
scious of the accident, waited in the painful suspense 
of an angry lover for the expected token to arrive; but 
not receiving it, she concluded he was too proud to 
make this last appeal to her tenderness, and, after 
having once revoked the warrant, she ordered the exe- 
cution to proceed. It was not till the axe had abso- 
lutely fallen, that the world could believe that Elizabeth 
would take the life of Essex." Lives of the Queens of 
Enyland, vol. iv. p. 747.] 

Lives of English Bishops : Bishop Burnet. 
I should be glad to know who is the author of 
The Lives of the English Bishops, from the Re- 
stauration to the Revolution ; Fit to be opposed to the 
Aspersions of some late Writers of Secret History : 
London, printed for C. Rivington, at the Bible 
and Crown in St. Paul's Churchyard, MPCCXXXI? 
The name of " Nath. Salmon, LL.B. cccc," is 
written on the title-page ; but it does not appear 
whether this is intended to indicate the author, or 
merely a former possessor of the copy now lying 



before me. From this work, In which Burnet, 
Kennett, and others are very severely criticised, I 
send a curious extract relating to Burnet : 

" He puts me in mind of a petty canon of Exeter, 
to whom he used military force upon refusal to alter 
the prayers at his command until he should receive the 
proper instructions. He brought a file of musqueteers 
upon him, and crammed his amendments down his 
throat. This man, in a journey to London, visited the 
musical part of the Church of Salisbury, and was as 
usual asked to sing an anthem at evening service. He 
was a lover of humour, and singing the 137th Psalm, 
threw out his right hand towards the bishop's stall, 
and with great emphasis pronounced the words, ' If I 
forget thee if I forget thee,' repeating it so often that 
the whole congregation inquired after the meaning of 
it. It was from that time ordered that no strange 
songster should come up more." P. 229. 

E. H. A. 

[This work was written by Nathaniel Salmon, who 
was deprived of his curacy for being a Nonjuror. He 
afterwards settled as a physician at Bishop- Stortford 
in Hertfordshire, where he died in 1742. See a notice 
of him, and his other works, in Bowyer's Anecdotes, 
p. 638.] 

Eden Pedigree and Arms. I find in Gough 
Nicholl's Topographer and Genealogist, vol. i. 
p. 173., mention of a monument in All Saints' 
Church, Sudbury, to one of the Eden family ; and 
a pedigree painted on the east wall of Eden, much 
defaced, with. numerous arms, date 1615. Would 
any of your correspondents kindly give me par- 
ticulars of this monument, pedigree, and arms ? 

ELFFIN AP GWYDDNO. 

[The monument was commenced by the second Sir 
Thomas Eden in 1615, and contained, some years since, 
an inscription upon brass, a limbed picture, and upon 
the wall, beneath the canopy, a pedigree of the mar- 
riages of the family with those of Waldegrave, Peyton, 
Steward, Workington, Harrys, and St. Clere. The 
whole having fallen into ruin, it became necessary in 
1851 to remove it. The brass being gone, the follow- 
ing inscription upon the verge of the canopy alone was 
visible: " This tombe was finished at y e coste of Sir 
Thomas Eden, Knight, Maie 16, 1617." A large 
mural, monument to the memory of several of the Eden 
family is about to be erected by its side. See the 
Rev. Charles Badham's History and Antiquities of All 
Saints' Church, Sudbury, pp. 44-46. and 162., London, 
1852; who says that the pedigree upon the wall has 
been preserved, but does not state where it may be 
seen : it will, however, be found among the Harleian 
MSS. in the British Museum.] 

The Gentleman's Calling. Can any one tell 
me who was the author of this book? It was 
printed in London for T. Garth wait, at the little 
north doore of St. Pauls, 1660. JOHN SCRIBE. 

[This work is attributed to the uncertain author of 
The Whole Duty of Man, and is included among the 
collected works of that writer in the folio edition of 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 226. 



1729. Compare N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 537., with 
Vol. viii., p. 564.] 

Obs and Sols. Burton, in his Anatomy of 
Melancholy ("Democritus to the Reader"), 6tli 
edition, has the following passage : 

" Bale, Erasmus, Hospinian, Vives, Kemnisius, ex- 
plode, as a vast ocean of obs and sols, school divinity." 
"What is the meaning of the terms obs and sols f 

HENRY H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

[This is a quaint abbreviation of the words objec- 
tiones et solutiones, being frequently so contracted in 
the margins of books of controversial divinity to mark 
the transitions from the one to the other. Hence 
Butler (Hudibras, in. ii. 1237.) has coined the name 
iofob and sollers for scholastic disputants : 

" But first, o' th' first : the Isle of Wight 
Will rise up, if you should deny't ; 
Where Henderson, and the other masses, 
Were sent to cap texts and put cases: 
To pass for deep and learned scholars, 
Although but paltry ob and sollers : 
As if th' unseasonable fools, 
Had been a coursing in the schools."] 

Fystens or Fifteenths. Can you inform me 
what is the meaning of the word " fystens." In 
looking over an old corporation chamber book 
some years ago I found the following entries, of 
which I made extracts : 

" 1587. Paid to Mr. Mayor for fystenes, iiij. [sic], 
1589. Paid Mr. Dyston for the fystens, xxxs. 

More for the fystens, xxvjs. 
1592. Paid for the fystenes, xixs. iijrf. 

More for fystenes, xxxis. \\jd. q. 

1594. Paid to make up the fystenes, xxxijs. iijJ. 

1595. Paid for the fistenies, xxxs." 

In a recent publication this last entry is extracted 
thus : 

" 1595. Paid for the fifteenths, 30s." 

PATONCE. 

[This was the tribute or imposition of money called 
fifteenths, formerly laid upon cities, boroughs, &c., so 
called because it amounted to a fifteenth part of that 
which each city or town was valued at, or a fifteenth 
of every man's personal estate, according to a reason- 
able valuation. In 1588, on occasion of the Spanish 
invasion, the Parliament gave Queen Elizabeth two 
subsidies and four fifteenths.] 



HARDMAN'S ACCOUNT OF WATERLOO. 
(Vol. viii., p. 199.) 

The book for which G. D. inquires is, A De- 
scriptive Poem of the Battle of Waterloo^ and Two 
previous Days, dedicated to the Earl of Carlisle, 
by Captain Hardman, London, 1827, 8vo., pp. 28. 



It appears from the dedication that he was adju- 
tant to the 10th Royal Hussars, of which the Hon. 
F. Howard was major. He says : 

" We breakfasted together in the hovel on the 18th, 
in the morning, as stated in the poem ; and during that 
dreadful bloody day, he and I were frequently dis- 
coursing about our situation ; the good position occu- 
pied by us ; the humane feeling of our brave Duke for 
choosing that situation to save men's lives ; and once 
during the day our regiment was completely sheltered; 
all the balls from the enemy flying over our heads, 
except one that dropped about six yards from the 
major and me. We were at that time dismounted 
about twenty minutes, to rest the horses. I took the 
ball up ; we looked at it, and had a good hearty laugh 
overjrt." 

Here is the description referred to : 

" At three in the morning I went to Major Howard, 
' This morning, Major, is enough to make us all 

cowards ; 

Such a night of heavy rain I never before saw, 
It has fell hard on my shoulders and made them raw; 
But still I am hearty, can I do anything for you? 
For on the face of this province I never will rue.' 
' No, thank you, Hardman, not now, come by-and- 

by; 

I have lain in this place till my neck 's all awry. 
My servant is getting a light, then a letter I write ; 
But I am so excessively cold I cannot one indite. 
He shall then make a fire, and set water over, 
Come in an hour and live with me in clover ; 
We will have some coffee and some fat fowl too, 
Then we can face the French well at Waterloo !' 
'Thank you, Major, I will do myself the honour, 
That will be better than being sat on by the coroner." 

P. 12. 

The prose description of the charge is clear and 
vivid : 

" When we advanced to decide the destiny of the 
day, our right squadron was in front, led on by the 
brave Major-General Sir H. Vivian, commanding our 
brigade ; Lord Robert Manners commanding our regi- 
ment ; Major Howard commanding the right squadron ; 
and I, the adjutant, in front with those officers. Just 
as we began to advance, I said, ' Major, what a grand 
sight we have before us ! ' ' Yes, it is,' said the major. 
These were the last words he spoke, for in half a 
minute afterwards we were right amongst them, slash- 
ing away; then there was no time to talk. We quickly 
made them turn their backs towards us ; but there was 
one square of infantry that stood firm. That square 
made sad havoc among us. The major was killed by 
that square. He was not six yards from the muzzles 
of the French firelocks when he was shot. He fell off 
his horse, and, I believe, never moved a finger; but I 
had not a moment's time to stop, for we had not then 
cleared the field. This, my lord, is a true account of 
the last moments of your lordship's late son, and one of 
the best friends I ever had." P. iv. 
" We then drove their cavalry past a solid square mass; 

This mass stood firm against us, like solid brass. 



FEB. 25. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



This is the place where Hon. Major F. Howard was 

killed, 
That grieved my mind sorely and my poor heart 

thrilled." P. 19. 

Then follow some reflections which I abstain 
from quoting, as the way in which they are ex- 
pressed would produce an effect quite contrary 
to the author's intentions. The burial is thus 
described : 

" I ordered the party to mount their horses, 

And proceed to carry off and bury all our losses. 

The party assemble here, now instantly move for- 
ward : 

Serjeant, take care where you bury Major Howard. 

Take two objects in view, or three if you can, 

Then you will be sure to find him again ! 

He lies in the hollow, not far from the French 
guns. 

Bury him by their side, but not where water runs." 

P. 21. 

The criticism of the note quoted by G. D. is 
sound : " Hardman was no poet, but he could 
describe graphically what he saw and did." The 
poem seems to have been the result of a sudden 
thought. In the dedication he says it was not 
begun till May 18, and "A Letter to the Right 
Hon. George Canning," appended to it, is dated 
June 4. In the letter he says, that if he " can get 
into the printing-house again without loss," he 
will answer Mr. Canning effectually on the Ca- 
tholic question. He also hopes " to get before 
the public every week," and "to show that all 
gentlemen professing the law are the most abused, 
and at the same time more honest than any other 
class in this kingdom." Had the last-mentioned 
hope been fulfilled, I think I should have heard 
of it. I have not met with any other work bear- 
ing Captain Hardman's name ; and probably his 
printer's bill (he was his own publisher) put an 
end to his literary career. 

I subjoin two specimens of the poem which, 
though not relating to the subject of G. D.'s 
Query, may be interesting if you have room for 
them, as such poetry is not published every day. 
An exhortation to good conduct ends thus : 

" Therefore let us prepare, the call may be very soon ; 

Then we shall not despair, if the call be made before 
7 noon : 

But if our sins weigh us down, what misery and 
woe ! 

Ah ! devils all slily squinting, and to them we must 
go. 

Their eyes are flames of fire, their tongues are fright- 
ful darts, 

Their looks a venomous ire, ready to pierce our feeble 
hearts, 

Their cloven feet of enmity, their taily stings so 
long, 

Their poisonous hearts of calomel, daily forming vi- 
cious songs." P. 12. 



The other describes his own narrow escape, and 
the death of an artilleryman: 

" A ball from their infantry went through my jacket, 
Took the skin off my side, and made me racket. 
My sword-belt turned it, otherwise through it must 

have gone. 
The stroke was very severe, compare it to a sharp 

gore. 

Captain Fitzroy said, Harding is severely wounded ; 
A ball has gone through his side : here it comes, 

rounded ! ' 

Stop,' said I, a minute ; I shall be ready for ano- 
ther shot, 
I have now gotten my breath again, I will make them 

rot.' 

I then said to a gunner who was alleviating a gun, 
'Which of those columns do you mean to makq 

run ?' 
'That,' said he, pointing with his finger to a very 

large mass. 

A ball came that instant and turned him into brass. 
It cut him in two ; he then turned as yellow as that 

metal. 
He was a strange sight to see, and appeared quite 

brittle." P. 16. 

H. B. C. 
U. U. C. 



DATES OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF TH