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BOUND BV K.N&L30M. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



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of $nterCmnmunfcatfon 



FOE 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



: When* found, make a nota'pf." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



VOLUME TENTH. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1854. 



LONDON: 

GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET. 

1854. 




AC 



LIBRARY 

728050 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 



" Wnen found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



VOL. X. No. 244.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 1. 1854. 



f Price Fourpence. 
I Stamped Edition, 



CONTENTS. 

Our Tenth Volume - 



Page 
1 



NOTES : 

Coleridge's Lectures on Shakspeare and 
Milton in 1812, by J. Payne Collier - 

Notes on Pepys's Diary - - - 2 

Mathematical Bibliography, by James 
Cockle, M. A., F.K.A.S. - -3 

Voltaire and Henri Carion. Spirit- 
rapping - - - - -4 

FOLK LORE : Valentine's Eve in 
Norwich Cure for Toothache 
Derbyshire Folk Lore - - 5 

Anecdote related by Atterbury, by 
Wm. Fraser, B.C.L. 6 

MNOK NOTES : Phrenology partly an- 
ticipated The first Pre-Raftaelite _ 
Hesiod and Matt. v. 43 Anecdote of 
Eldon ..... 6 

QUERIES: 
Clairvoyance, by Dr. Maitland - 7 

MINOR QUERIES : Pillars resting on 
Animals _ MS. Verses in Fuller's 
" Medicina Gymnastica " Charles 
Povey The Moon's Influence Salt, 
Custom connected with" The Devil 
sits in his easy chai" The Turks 
und the Irish- Milton PortraitsThe 
" Economy of Human Life "Robert 
Parsons or Persons Orpheus Sumart 
the Clockmaker " The Ants " 
Transmutation of Metals Franciscan 
Dress Richard Col well of Faversham 

Conspiracy to dig up Corpses The 
Herodians .... 7 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
" Animali Parlanti" of Casti Con- 
fessor to the Royal Household Negus 

" Terra: Filius " _ Consecration of 
Colours Motto of" The Sun" News- 
paper " Louvre " Boards - 9 

Kt.PLIKS : 

Abbey of Aberbrothock - - - 11 
Reprints of Early Bibles, by George 

Offor, &c. - - - - 11 

Books burnt by the Hangman - 12 

Classic Authors and the Jews, &c. - 12 

Coronation Custom - - - 13 

PHOTOORAPJIIC CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. 
Long on an easy Calotype Process 
Mr. Fox Talbot's Patents- Photogra- 
phic Paper Substitute for Pins - 14 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Medal 
Ralph Bosvile Hummins,' Ale 
Heiress of Haddon Hall Barren's 
Regiment Aska or Asca " Peter 
Wilkins " Rev. John Lewis- Eden 
Family _ Kutchakutchoo Elstob 
iamily _ Forensic Jocularities 
Divining Rod - George Herbert 
French Refugees _ Double Christian 
names "Cuibono" - - - 15 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. . . 19 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted - 19 

Notices to Correspondents - . 20 



VOL. X No. 244. 



Multaj tcrricolis lingua;, ccelestibus una. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
AND SONS' 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



rPHE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 1, 1854. 

OUR TENTH VOLUME. 

However unwilling to occupy any portion of our 
columns with matters relating to ourselves, we cannot 
issue the First Number of our TENTH VOLUME with- 
out a few words of thanks to cur Contributors, Friends, 
and Readers, for their continued and increasing sup- 
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encouragement as binding us to increased exertion to 
make " NOTES AND QUERIES " the indispensable com- 
panion of every Student, the ready and efficient helper 
of every Man of Letters. 



COLERIDGE'S LECTURES ON SHAKSPEARE AND 
MILTON IN 1812. 

The readers of " N. & Q." may like to hear of a 
find it has very recently been my good fortune to 
make of my original short-hand notes of " Lec- 
tures on Shakspeare and Milton," delivered by 
Coleridge as long since as the year 1812. Un- 
luckily they are not complete, for although each 
lecture is finished, and, in a, manner, perfect in 
itself, my memoranda (which are generally very 
full, and in the ipsissima verba of the author) only 
apply to seven out of fifteen lectures, viz. to the first, 
second, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and twelfth. 
What has become of the others I know not ; they 
are probably utterly lost ; and such as remain 
would perhaps have shared the same fate, if they 
had not been deposited in the highest drawer of a 
high, double chest, to which servants and others 
could not conveniently resort for waste paper. I 
knew that I once had them in my possession, and 
when I was printing the edition of Shakspeare, 
which I superintended nearly ten years ago, I 
looked for them with great diligence, but in vain ; 
and even now I might not have recovered them 
had it not been necessary, on my removal to this 
place, to turn out the contents of every receptacle 
in order to destroy what was mere rubbish, occu- 
pying space that could not be worse filled. 

In my "Introductions" to the various plays of 
our great dramatist, I have not unfrequently re- 
ferred to lectures delivered by Coleridge in 1818, 
and I there made several quotations from my 
pencillings ; but for some cause, which I do not 
now remember, I did not, as in 1812, follow the 
lecturer with verbal accuracy, excepting on a few 
particular points. I was taught short-hand as a 
part of my early education ; and although in 1812, 
when Coleridge delivered the lectures of which I 
have such full notes, I was quite a young man, I 
could follow a speaker with sufficient, rapidity. 
Hence the confidence I feel in what I have so 



lately brought to light ; and now my original 
notes are all written out, they extend to from 
ten to forty sides of letter-paper for each lecture, 
apparently according to the interest I took in the 
particular topics. 

At a time when you are discussing in your 'co- 
lumns the important question, What has become of 
some of Coleridge's original manuscripts ? this dis- 
covery by me of seven of his lectures, nearly 
altogether devoted to Shakspeare (for Milton is 
only incidentally mentioned), cannot be without 
interest. I only wish that I had met with these 
relics of a genius so remarkably gifted before I 
put pen to paper for the edition of Shakspeare 
which came out in the years 1843 and 1844. 

I had carefully preserved Coleridge's printed 
" Prospectus " of his lectures in 1818 (I know not 
if it has ever been reprinted), because upon the 
blank spaces of it he wrote to me a very angry 
letter respecting the conduct of the editors or 
proprietors of a certain Encyclopedia, who had " so 
bedeviled, so interpolated and topsy-turvied " an 
essay of his, that he was ashamed to own it. I had, 
however, no such reason for taking care of his 
j prospectus of 1812, but I luckily found it among 
my notes, and I subjoin a copy of it, in order that 
your readers may see at once the general scope 
he embraced, and the particular subjects to which 
he proposed to devote himself: I say proposed to 
devote himself, because everybody who was ac- 
quainted with Coleridge must be aware, that it was 
not perhaps in his power, from the discursive and 
exuberant character of his mind, to confine himself 
strictly within any limits which, in the first instance, 
he might intend to observe. It is only on one side 
of post-paper, and it begins with the information 
that the course would be delivered at the room of 
the London Philosophical Society, Scots' Corpo- 
ration Hall, in Crane Court, Fleet Street : 

" Mr. Coleridge will commence on Monday, No- 
vember 18th (1812), a course of Lectures on Shake- 
spear and Milton, in illustration of the Principles of 
Poetry, and their application as grounds of Criticism 
to the most popular Works of later English Poets, 
those of the living included. 

" After an introductory Lecture on false Criticism 
(especially in Poetry), and on its causes, two-thirds of 
the remaining course will be assigned, first, to a phi- 
losophic analysis and explanation of all the principal 
characters of our gre-it dramatist, as Othello, Falstaff, 
Richard III., lago, Hamlet, &c. ; and second, to a 
critical comparison of Shakespear, in respect of Diction, 

\ Imagery, management of the Passions, judgment in 

1 the construction of his dramas ; in short, of all that 
belongs to him as a Poet, and as a Dramatic Poet, 
with his contemporaries or immediate successors, 
Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, Ford, Massinger, &c., 
in the endeavour to determine what of Shakespear's 
merits and defects are common to him with other 

! writers of the same age, and what remain peculiar to 

; his own genius. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



" The course will extend to fifteen lectures, which 
will be given on Monday and Thursday evenings suc- 
cessively. The lecture to commence at half-past seven 
o'clock. 

" Single Tickets for the whole course, two guineas, 
or three guineas with the privilege of introducing a 
lady, may be procured at J. Hatchard's, 190. Picca- 
dilly; J. Murray's, Fleet Street; J. & J. Arch's, 
Booksellers and Stationers, Cornhill ; Godwin's Ju- 
venile Library, Skinner Street ; W. Pople's, 67. Chan- 
cery Lane ; or by letter (post paid) to Mr. S. T. Cole- 
ridge, J. J. Morgan's, Esq., No. 7. Portland Place, 
Hammersmith." 

The above is all the information that was given 
anterior to the delivery of the lectures, and so far 
it is unlike the prospectus of 1818, in which the 
particular matters, to be treated of in fourteen 
lectures, were especially pointed out. Thus in 
reference to Shakspeare we are told that Lec- 
tures IV., V., and VI. would be " On the dramatic 
works of Shakspeare : in these lectures will be 
comprised the substance of Mr. Coleridge's former 
courses on the same subject, enlarged and varied 
by subsequent study and reflection." One of 
these former courses was that of 1812 ; but I 
learn from a diary I kept at the time (of which 
only fragments remain), that in the preceding 
year Coleridge had delivered a series of lectures 
on Poetry at the Royal Institution. I did not 
attend them, and perhaps might not have heard of 
them, but that Coleridge himself mentioned them 
in a conversation at my father's on 21st of Oc- 
tober, 1812. It was on the same occasion that he 
announced to us his intention of giving the lec- 
tures, of seven of which I have notes, and which 
commenced on the 18th November following. 
On the subject of his lectures at the Royal Insti- 
tution, I may be excused for extracting the fol- 
lowing passage from the daily record I then 
wrote : 

" Coleridge said that for his first lecture at the 
Royal Institution he prepared himself fully, and 
when it was finished he received many high-flown 
but frigid compliments, evidently, like his lecture, 
studied. For his second lecture he prepared 
himself less elaborately, and was much applauded. 
For the third lecture, and indeed for the re- 
mainder of the series, he made no preparation, and 
was liked better than ever, and vociferously and 
heartily cheered. The reason was obvious, for 
what came warm from the heart of the speaker, 
went warm to the heart of the hearer ; and 
although the illustrations might not be so good, 
yet being extemporaneous, and often from objects 
immediately before his eyes, they made more im- 
pression, and seemed to have more aptitude." 

The lectures of 1812 were delivered, as far as 
my memory serves me, without notes, but I do 
not think that the room was particularly full ; the 
applause was general and encouraging, and among 



the auditors on one occasion I saw Mr. Canning. 
My short-hand notes (some of which I wrote out 
at the time) are still very legible, but as they are 
too much in detail for your pages, I will endea- 
vour on a future occasion to make some acceptable 
quotations : to them this note must be considered 
merely introductory. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

Riverside, Maidenhead. 



KOTES ON PEPYS S DIARY. 

Vol. i. p. 2. (note.) Sir George Downing. 
A confirmation of LORD BRAYBROOKE'S account 
of Downing's birth, by Downing himself, occurs 
in a letter from. T. Howard to the king, April 5, 
1660, in Carte's Letters, ii. 319. Downing had 
made Howard an offer of his services to the king, 
and apologises for the past, "alleging to be en- 
gaged in a contrary party by his father, who was 
banished into New England, where he was brought 
up." Ludlow, who is generally very accurate, 
states that Downing had been a preacher and 
chaplain to Colonel Okey's regiment (iii. 99. ori- 
ginal edition). After the Restoration, Downing, 
being the king's envoy at the Hague, prevailed 
on the States to give up Okey and two other 
regicides, Barkstead and Corbet, who were in 
Holland. Ludlow, says Downing, behaved very 
treacherously to Okey, whom he had assured by a 
messenger that he had no orders to look after him. 
Ludlow says later (iii. 237.), speaking of Down- 
ing's mission to Holland in 166-, " I must here 
acknowledge that though Downing had acted con- 
trary to his faith, former pretences, and obliga- 
tions in betraying our friends, as I mentioned 
before, yet none of these who remained in Hol- 
land, or afterwards retired thither, were molested 
during his ministry, which was as much as could 
reasonably be expected from a person in his post." 
Downing sat for Edinburgh in Cromwell's parlia- 
ment of"l654, and for Carlisle in the two following 
Croinwellian parliaments. Query, What place 
did he sit for in the Convention Parliament ? His 
name is not to be found in the list of members 
in the Parliamentary History, but occurs in the 
debates (iv. 93 ). He was a frequent speaker in. 
Oliver Cromwell's parliaments. (See Burton's 
Diary, vols. i. and ii.) He took a very active 
part against Naylor, the religious enthusiast, and 
spoke often on religious questions. On one occa- 
sion, June 6, 1657, no minister was present to 
read prayers when the Speaker took the chair, and 
after the House had waited some time, a little 
debate arose on the minister's absence, in the 
course of which " Major- General Whalley told 
Mr. Downing that he was a minister, and he 
would have him to perform the work. Mr. 
Downing acknowledged he was once a minister." 
(Burton's Diary, ii. 192.) On another occasion, 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



May 25, 1657, a joke occurs about the office of 
Scout-master General, held by Downing under 
Cromwell. Cromwell was coming to his House of 
Lords to signify his consent to the " Petition and 
Advice," and his carriages passed by as the House 
of Commons was debating. Mr. Downing espied 
them, and said his Highness was passed by. Some 
called out, " Scout, scout," and altum risum. 
(Burton's Diary, ii. 122.) 

Jan. 9, 1659-60. " Muddiman . . . owns 
that though he writes new books for the Parlia- 
ment." New books should surely be news books. 

Jan. 17, 1659-60. "I went to the Coffee 
Club, and heard very good discourse; it was in 
answer to Mr. Harrington's answer*, who said 
that the state of the Roman government was not a 
settled government, and so it was no wonder that 
the balance of prosperity was in one hand, and 
the command in another," &c. Prosperity should 
be property. That the government should follow 
the balance of property is a fundamental principle 
of Harrington's Oceana. "And so it was no 
wonder that the balance," &c. I think there is 
probably something wrong here in the decipher- 
ing. The meaning is, " And so was no wonder, 
for that the balance," &c. 

Jan. 25, 1659-60. " Heard that in Cheapside 
there had been but a little before a gibbet set up, 
and the picture of Huson hung upon it." Hewson 
had lately made himself obnoxious in the city, by 
suppressing a rising of the apprentices against the 
Committee of Safety, just before the Committee 
of Safety was deprived of power. (Clarendon's 
History of the Rebellion, book xvi.) 

Feb. 13, 1659-60. The meeting of the 
troops ordered to leave London to make way for 
Monk's army. See a valuable letter giving some 
interesting additional particulars in Lister's Cla- 
rendon, iii. 83. 

March 2, 1659-60. "Great is the dispute 
now in the House, in whose name the writs shall 
run for the next parliament, and it is said that 
Mr. Prin, in open house, said, 'For King 
Charles's.'" Compare letter of Mr. Lutterell to 
Ormond, March 9, 1660, in Carte's Letters, ii. 
312. " Yesterday there was a debate about the 
form of the dissolution, when Mr. Prynne asserted 
the king's right in such bold language that I think 
he may be styled the Cato of this age." 

March 28, 1660. (note.) There is a slip of 
the pen in this note, where Sir E. Montagu's 
eldest son is said to have been candidate for 
Huntingdon. LORD BRAYBROOKE has correctly 
stated, in note to March 14, 1660, that it was the 
Earl of Manchester's eldest son. 



says 



April 21, 1660. Mr. Edward Montagu. Pepys 
vs, " I do believe that he do carry some close 



[* Query, for answer read Oceana, which seems to 
be an error in the deciphering ED.] 



business on for the king." Pepys's guess at E. 
Montagu's business is confirmed by Clarendon's 
account of his employment of him to negotiate 
with Lord Sandwich on behalf 4 of the king. 
(Hist, of Rebellion, book xvi.) 

May 4, 1660. Lord Sandwich's letter to the 
king, which Pepys gives from memory, is printed 
in Lister's Clarendon, iii. 104., and a reference to 
the letter will show the accuracy of Pepys's 
memory.* 

May 15, 1660. " Among others, he [Sir Samuel 
Morland] betrayed Sir Richard Willis, . . . 
who had paid him 1000Z. at one time, by the Pro- 
tector's and Secretary Thurloe's order, for intel- 
ligence that he sent concerning the king." Who 
had paid him, if the deciphering is correct, re- 
quires explanation. It must mean, who received. 
See a curious letter about Sir Richard Willis, 
mentioning Morland as privy to his quackery, in 
Lister's Clarendon, iii. 87. 

May 18, 1660. " So we took a scout." LORD 
BRAYBROOKE explains " scout," " a kind of swift 
sailing boat." The " scout" took Pepys from the 
Hague to Delfe, doubtless by canal, and would 
probably be similar to the trek schuyts, which 
have only been abandoned as a general mode of 
travelling in Holland on the introduction of rail- 
ways. But the trek schuyts were not, and from 
the nature of the case could not be, swift. Scoiit 
should be schuyt, probably. 

June 6, 1660. "Sir Anthony Cooper, Mr. 
Hollis, and Mr. Annesley, late Presidents of the 
Council of State." Presidents should be President. 
It applies only to Annesley, soon after Earl of 
Anglesey. C. H. 



MATHEMATICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

At p. 7. of PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S References 
for the History of the Mathematical Sciences, there 
are two trifling inaccuracies, which, occurring in so 
valuable a tract, it is desirable to correct. The 
Histoire of Bossut bears date 1802, not 1810, and 
it has not a list of mathematicians at the end. 
The list is appended to the English translation 
(London, 1803) of Bossut' s work. 

The -English "Editor's Preface" (from pp. xiii. 
xiv. of which it appears that the list in question 
was added by him) is somewhat remarkable. As 
far as p. x. it is in some places a reproduction, 
with slight variations, in the rest a literal transla- 
tion of portions of Montucla's preface to his own 
Histoire (compare, for example, the remarks on 
Proclus, at pp. viii. and v. of the respective pre- 
faces, &c.). 

The English editor having (p. x.) brought 
Montucla upon the stage, his previous plagiarism 



[* Noticed by LORD BRAYBROOKE in the new edi- 
tion. ED.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



renders him, perhaps unjustly, liable to the sus- 
picion of borrowing from Lalande (see Montucla, 
2nd ed., vol. iii. p. vii.) the criticism on the style, 
as well as the tribute to the clearness (ib., vol. iv. 
p. 667.) of Montucla. 

The questionable nature of the preface may, 
however, be a result of the same carelessness and 
haste which has (see the title-page of the trans- 
lation) conferred on Bossut the name of John, 
instead of his proper appellation, Charles. 

The name of Bonnycastle is attached to the 
" Editor's Preface," but unless its concluding sen- 
tence be considered to convey the meaning, there 
is no express assertion that he is the actual trans- 
lator. It would appear (see Pen. Cyc., art. Bon- 
nycastle, in which reference is made to p. 482. 
of the Gentleman's Magazine for 1821) that he 
added the list and editor's preface, and that Mr. 
T. O. Churchill, in fact, made the translation 
which Bonnycastle edited. The foregoing re- 
marks do not, of course, affect the merits of the 
translation itself. 

JAMES COCKLE, M.A., F.R.A.S., 
Barrister-at-Law. 

4. Pump Court, Temple. 



VOLTAIRE AND HENRI CARION. SPIRIT-RAPPING. 

I write to you on June 10, 1854, in what I be- 
lieve is called the second half of the nineteenth 
century, a period of great intellectual progress, 
and of much moral enlightenment. Inferior to the 
sixteenth century in the number of its great men, 
the nineteenth century has already exceeded the 
influence of the formerupon social civilisation by its 
vast range of scientific discoveries and their varied 
application. So at least, or something like this, I 
have read in a work in which the author proved 
the fact entirely to his own satisfaction. This is 
very natural and very proper. Next to the public 
approbation of your work is your own ; and the 
latter is especially useful when the former fails. 
But as great minds have their weaknesses, so it 
may be said great centuries have, I do not say 
their follies, but merely their intellectual relax- 
ations. Take, for instance, " Spirit-rapping." So 
greatly has the intellectual spirit of the age ad- 
vanced, that you can now, it seems, evoke the 
spirits of the past, through the medium of a 
wooden table ; and even if you have no other 
object than to obtain an autograph for your 
album, summon by this medium the hand you 
require, and have its image and subscription in 
good broad text (if the contributor so originally 
wrote it) before you. 

Do your readers doubt this ? Let them read the 
following evidence of the fact ; and as " N. & Q." 
are, I trust, destined to form a part hereafter of 
the literary history of the present, it will be of 



use, to enable some future historian to form an idea 
of the knowledge, the judgment, the reason, and 
the faith of certain educated minds at this present 
date. Let me premise the race of " spirit-rapping 
experiences " has been extremely rapid, and wefi 
contested between England, France, Germany, and 
America, but that Jonathan has gone ahead, as 
might be expected, of the others ; in fact, that in 
America the consumption of spirits has been 
greater than elsewhere. But Jonathan, though 
exceeding all in quantity, has been unequal in 
quality. It is due to the intellectual ingenuity 
of our friends and neighbours of France to say, 
that if they have not contributed the greatest 
amount of useful knowledge (which was not, 
perhaps, in their power), they have added greatly 
to the range of our curious amusements in this 
respect. 

I have before me a little book, "Lettres sur TE- 
vocation des Esprits a Madame . . . (Hum ?), 
par Mons. Henri Carion. Precede d'un fac-simile 
de 1'Ecriture de 1'Esprit qui a declare Stre Vol- 
taire ! " L'esprit de Voltaire ! Now, had it been 
that of Helvetius, or the same diluted of 1'Abbe 
Cotin, why, we might have succumbed to the in- 
fluence of the evidence ; but 1'esprit de Voltaire ! 
However, here is the record of what Mons. Henri 
Carion has done ; I send it you, " neat as im- 
ported." Recollect, it is the memorial of a spiri- 
tual fact by an educated man, which fronts without 
affronting the understanding of the day. 

After many " spiritual experiences," the author 
writes : " En songeant a reunir ces lettres en un 
petit volume, il m'est venu a la pensee qu'il serait 
agreable aux lecteurs de voir un specimen de 
L'Ecriture des Esprits ! et il m'a semble que Vol- 
taire devait etre, de tous les personnages qui n'a- 
vaient pas dedaigne de repondre a mon appel, celui 
qui exciterait le plus de curiosite." Just so ; not 
less than when he appeared, all paint and pom- 
made, at eighty-four years of age, to see his bust 
crowned at the Opera, A.D. 1778. 

" J'ai done congu le dessein de le mettre (lui 
Voltaire!) dans ma confidence (ah! and for what?), 
et de lui demander dans ce but un Autographs 
tout special dont je ferais faire le Fac-simile. 

" Voltaire ne se fit pas prier (he was always 
so concessional, especially to men whose mental 
faculties resemble those of Mons. Henri Carion, 
as, for instance, Freron and La Beaumelle), et 
repondit avec un empressement de bon augure a 
mon invitation. Des qu'il meut ecrit son nom! 
Ecoutez, Voltaire! lui dis-je, (as though the 
spirit and he were familiar as hand and glove,) j'ai 
a vous demander un avis, et un acte de complai- 
sance, qui peut etre utile a votre pauvre ame (and 
not less to "le petit livre" and the album). Savez- 
vous que j'ai le dessein de publier en un petit 
volume les diverses lettres ou j'ai raconte les ex- 
periences que j'ai faites sur 1'evocation des Es- 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



prits ? (Great as Voltaire's attainments were, it is 
strange, almost unnatural, to find they included 
the bibliographical knowledge of Mons. Carion's 
literary projects, but he answers in a flash.) Oui ! 
Savez-vous que je publierai dans ces lettres la 
conversation que nous avons eue ensemble, et 
pensez-vous que je fasse en cela une oeuvre utile ? 
(I am ashamed to transcribe the reply. Is it pos- 
sible that profaneness in the name of science has 
proceeded to this extent ? or could not the spirit 
of Voltaire restrain the malicious indulgence of 
his wit ?) Oui ! pour eclairer les hommes, en lew 
faisant connaitre la grande misericorde de mon 
Seigneur Dieu Jesus Christ. Mais je voudrais 
vous appliquer une partie du merite (only a part, 
and that " du merite." M. Carion says nothing of 
the value of the autograph so obtained) qu'il 
pourrait y avoir dans cette oeuvre, en vous y 
faisant contribuer d'une manic-re plus particuliere 
que tous les autres. En un mot (now comes the 
honour, the great reward, and the modest request, 
" mais c'est ce cher Carion." How could Vol- 
taire's spirit less than affiliate with this spirit which 
evoked his ?), je voudrais avoir de vous la ma- 
tiere ffunfac- simile (What is that ? Ink ?), que 
je placerais en tete de mon petit livre. (Always 
"le petit livre," but "en tete?" No, Mons. Carion 
has deceived the spirit, and placed the autograph 
rather" en queue." Doubtless this is the binder's 
fault, for Carion himself is a particular man. Notice 
how he proceeds.) Voulez-vous m'ecrire, le mieux 
que vous pourrez, quelques mots a votre choix ? (to 
aid the sale of " le petit livre." Voltaire replies 
in another flash) Oui ! Eh bien, ecrivez ce que 
vous croirez devoir etre le plus utile a vous et aux 
autres, et signez ensuite, avec tout le soin possible" 
which the spirit did in good round-hand * ; but 



[* Could somebody inform us how the handwriting 
is obtained ? 

When we know that, we shall hope for Dr. Schiff, 
of Frankfort-sur-Maine, to explain the trick; who, 
according to the Literary Gazette of Saturday last, has 
solved the mystery of Spirit-rapping." The Doctor, 
it seems, " was lately present when a medium was 
engaged in producing the rappings. This medium 
was a young German girl ; and as she sat perfectly 
isolated, and made no perceptible movement, the 
Doctor was puzzled to guess how she caused the tap, 
tap, by which questions were answered. Going home, 
it struck him that the noise might be occasioned by 
straining the tendons and muscles ; and he immediately 
set to work to contract his feet and hands, and make 
other experiments with his limbs. At length, to his 
delight, the 'rapping' struck his ear; and, after a 
few trials, he found that he could create it at will as 
easily as any ' medium.' And how is the thing done? I 
By simply displacing the peronceus lone/us which passes | 
behind the ankle up the leg; such displacing being ' 
effected by a scarcely perceptible change in the position 
of the foot, and being accompanied by a loudish snap. 



notwithstanding the injunction of " tout le soin 
possible," being hurried, raethin&s he " felt the 
morning air," he neither dotted his z"s nor crossed 
his fs, so that the hand reminds you of Charles 
Lamb's repentant- after-spirit, " Yours, raytherish 
unwell," but "la plume traga ces lignes aussitot:" 

" J'ai renie 
mes ceuvres impies. 

J'ai pleure, 
et mon Dieu m'a fait misericorde. 

VOLTAIRE." 

And this is avouched as a fact, addressed to 
an intellectual people, in the most enlightened 
capital of Europe. From henceforth no edition 
of the works of Voltaire is complete without 
these words as a motto on the title-page. They 
will at least impart to them this charm, that in a 
page of Voltaire three words of unmixed truth are 
found " Mes (Euvres Impies." S. H. 



FOLK. LOBE. 

Valentine's Eve in Norwich. I should be glad 
if any of your subscribers could give me any in- 
formation of the origin of the manner in which 
this festival is celebrated here. To all Norwich 
men (or women or children either) this eve will 
call up a host of delightful associations ; but those 
who are strangers may not so well know to what 
I allude. In brief, then, the custom is this : As 
soon as it is dark, packages may be seen being 
carried about in a most mysterious way ; and as 
soon as the coast seems clear, the parcel is laid on 
the door-step, the bell clashed, and the bearer 
runs away. Inside the house all is on the qui 
vive, and the moment the bell is heard, all the 
little folks (and the old ones too sometimes) rush 
to the door, and seize the parcel, and scrutinise the 
direction most anxiously, to see whether it is for 
papa or mamma, or for one of the youngsters. 
The parcels contain presents of all descriptions, 
from the most magnificent books or desks, to 
little unhappy squeaking dolls ; indeed, I have 
known a great library easy chair come in this 



In persons in whom the fibrous sheath containing the 
peronaus is weak or relaxed, the movement is more 
easily effected and produces a greater noise. Having 
made this discovery, Dr. Schiff practised it until he 
got to be a first-rate ' medium,' and then he hastened 
off to Paris to make it known. In a recent sitting of 
the Academy of Sciences, a paper on the subject was 
read ; and afterwards the Doctor, in presence of the 
learned body, showed how the feat was accomplished. 
Over and over again he created 'rappings' as distinct 
and as clear as any ' spirit' has done yet. His simple, 
yet scientific, explanation of one of the greatest of 
modern impostures, caused both gratification and 
amusement to the Academy."] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



way. As to thepreparation for this festival, you 
may easily imagine all the innocent mystery it 
occasions, and what hiding up of work, &c., there 
is, when any one comes in ; and what secret shop- 
ping ! for the shops are crowded for the week 
before. And then when the presents have come, 
what guessing there is who could have sent 
them ; for I ought to have stated that they are all 
sent anonymously, or at most with some attempts 
at poetry with them ; but all have the universal 
G. M. V., or " Good-morrow Valentine," upon 
them. 

I have only to add that this year the festival has 
been kept more religiously than ever. W. 

Norwich. 

Cure for Toothache. In Staffordshire and 
Shropshire, the following superstition prevails^ A 
mole-trap must be watched, and the moment it is 
sprung, and whilst the poor mouldwarp is in ex- 
tremis, but before life is extinct (for on this latter 
condition the success of the charm depends), his 
hand-like paws are to be cut off, and worn by the 
patient. A dexter paw must be used should the 
offending tooth be on the right side of the jaw, and 
the contrary. A case of this came under my 
notice the other day at Buildwas on the Severn. 
This appears to point to the Italian amulet in the 
form of a hand, against the Evil Eye. I have seen 
a mole's paw mounted in silver in London. 

W. J. BEBNHABD SMITH. 
; Temple. 

Derbyshire Folk Lore. It is a custom at the 
town of Bakewell, when a country beauty has 
been won by one of her many wooers, to hang 
upon the doors of the unsuccessful swains on the 
evening of the wedding-day a wreath of boughs 
and flowers : poor exchange for that " golden 
garland" the wedding-ring. P. M. M. 

Temple. 



ANECDOTE BELATED BY ATTEBBURT. 

Can any additional particulars be obtained or 
corroborations furnished, of the anecdote con- 
tained in the following extract ? 

" Among Smith's books in the Bodleian Library 
is The Historie of the Council of Trent, edit. 162O, 
London, folio ; and on the blank leaf opposite the title 
are the following notes in Dr. Atterbury's hand : 

' When Dr. Duncombe was sick at Venice, Father 
Fulgentio, with whom he was in the strictest intimacy, 
visited him ; and finding him under great uneasiness 
of mind, as well as body, pressed him to disclose the 
reason of it ; asking him, among other things, whether 
any nobleman under his care had miscarried, or his 
bills of return had failed him ; and proffering in the 
latter case what credit he pleased at Venice. After 
many such questions and negative answers, Dr. Dun- 



combe was at last prevailed with to own his uneasiness, 
and to give this true account of it to the father. He 
said that he had often begged of God, that he might 
end his life where he might have opportunity of re- 
ceiving the blessed Sacrament according to the rites 
and usages of the Church of England ; that consider- 
ing he spent his life in travelling chiefly through 
Popish countries, this was a happiness he could never 
reasonably promise himself; and that his present de- 
spair of it, in the dangerous condition he was in, was 
the true occasion of that dejection which Father Ful- 
gentio observed in him. Upon this the father bid him, 
be of good cheer, told him he had the Italian transla- 
tion of the English Liturgy, and would come the next 
day with one or two more of his convent, and admi- 
nister it to him in both kinds, and exactly according 
to the English usage : and what he promised, he per- 
formed the next day, Dr. Duncombe receiving it at his 
hands ; who, outliving his distemper, and returning 
into England, told this story often to my Lord Hatton, 
Captain Hatton's father, in the hearing of the Captain, 
about the years 1660, 1661, and 1662. This I had! 
from Captain Hatton's mouth in the year 1669. 

' FR. ATTERBURY, Oct. 11, 1701. 

"'In March, 1709, I met Captain Hatton again, 
and put him in mind of this story, which I desired 
him to repeat ; which he did without varying in any 
circumstance, but one only, viz. That Fulgentio did 
not actually administer the Sacrament to Dr. Dun- 
combe, the Doctor refusing to accept a kindness of 
that dangerous nature, which might involve Fulgentio 
in trouble, unless he were in the utmost necessity. 
But recovering from that time, he made no use of 
Fulgentio's proffer. He added, that Fulgentio told 
Dr. Duncombe that there were still in the convent 
seven or eight of Father Paul's disciples, who met 
sometimes privately to receive the Sacrament in both. 
kinds.' " Atterbury's Correspondence, vol. i. pp. 51, 52. 

WM. FBASEB, B.C.L. 



Phrenology partly anticipated. Lavater, in the 
third volume of his Physiognomy, quotes the fol- 
lowing passage from Claramantius on Conjecture 
respecting Man's Moral Character and Secret 
Affections, in ten books, Helnistadt, 1665 : 

" A square form of forehead is the sign of superior 
talents and sound judgment; for it arises from the 
natural figure of the head, in the anterior part of which 
judgment carries on its operations." 

UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

The first Pre-Raffaelite. 

" Upon asking how he had been taught the act of a 
cognoscento so very suddenly, he assured me nothing 
was more easy. The whole secret consisted in a strict 
adherence to two rules: the one, always to observe the 
picture might have been better if the painter had taken 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



more pains ; and the other to praise the works of Pietro 
Perugino." Vicar of Wakefield, ch. xx. 

MALCOLM FBASER. 
Clifton. 

Hesiod and Matt. v. 43. 



Hesiod, Works and Days, 353. 

May it not be this maxim of Hesiod our Saviour 
alludes to, when he says : 

" Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt 
love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy "(?) 
Matt. v. 43. 

JOHN SOUTH PHILLIPS. 

Bury St. Edmunds. 

Anecdote of Eldon. The following anecdote 
was related to me by my father, who had received 
it from Bosanquet, the author of the Reports. 

Judge Bosanquet, when a young man, was re- 
porting a case before Lord Eldon, and the chan- 
cellor requested to see the report. Bosanquet 
sent it to him with his judgment, reported exactly 
as it had fallen from his lordship's lips ; except 
that some of his unmanageably long sentences 
were broken up into reasonable lengths. One 
sentence especially, occupying three folio pages 
and a half, was broken into a number of shorter 
periods. His lordship's only alteration was to put 
this wounded snake of a sentence back again, as 
he had originally pronounced it. And in this 
state it may now be found in Bosanquet's Reports, 
filling three folio pages and a half. T. A. T. 

Florence. 



CLAIRVOYANCE. 

If room can be made for the following letter, 
addressed some months ago to the editor of the 
Christian Observer, it will explain itself; and 
perhaps some correspondent will be able and dis- 
posed to give me, either directly or through your 
pages, the information which it was intended to 
elicit : 

Gloucester, Feb. 4, 1854. 
SlK, 

In a review relating to mesmerism, in this 
month's Christian Observer, the writer says, with 
reference to what is called clairvoyance, 

" The best test of this fraud (for it is nothing better) 
is, that of the challenges which have been given to the 
whole class of clairvoyants, to read the numbers upon 
certain bank notes which have been locked up in metal 
boxes, on the condition of receiving these notes when 
so deciphered; and which have universally failed." 
P. 133. 

I am endeavouring to collect evidence on the 
subject ; and as his language seems to indicate an 



acquaintance with cases that have not come to my 
knowledge, I should feel much obliged if he would 
favour me with a list of the challenges to which he 
refers. 

In asking this information respecting what the 
writer speaks of as a notorious matter, I trust I 
shall not be considered as intruding myself on his 
confidence, or trying to penetrate his incognito. I 
have no wish to do either, but merely ask for re- 
ferences to published documents, or such a state- 
ment of names and dates as may enable me to 
find them. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

S. R. MAITLAND. 



Pillars resting on Animals. In churches at 
Modena, Parma, Florence, and other towns in 
Italy, are found pillars (generally near the en- 
trance) resting upon lions and other animals. 
Can any of your correspondents explain the 
meaning of such peculiar bases to columns ? I 
rather think there are none such in England. 

M. H. R. 

MS. Verses in Fullers " Medicina Gymnastica" 
In the fly-leaf of a copy of Fuller's Medicina 
Gymnastica (A.D. 1705), which I lately purchased, 
I found the following lines in manuscript : 
" In time of need, few friends a man shall finde ; 
But when a man is rich, then all seeme kinde." 
" Old Smug, the smith, for ale and spice 

Sold all his tooles, but kept his vice." 

" He plows in sand, and sowes against the winde, 

That hopes for constant love of womankinde." 

Are these lines known to any of your readers ? 

D. 
Leamington. 

Charles Povey. Can any of your correspon- 
dents refer me to sources of information regarding 
the above-named curious character, who died 
about the middle of the last century, at a good 
old age ; after projecting various schemes, and 
writing many books upon political, commercial, 
moral, theological, and miscellaneous subjects ? 
I am acquainted with the slight notices of Povey 
to be found in the Gent. Mag., Nichols, Tim- 
perley, Cunningham, Francis, Lysons, and Park ; 
and rather seek references to the newspapers of 
his day, where it is likely he often figured. J. O. 

The Moon's Influence. In the works of the old 
authors who have written on the subject of agri- 
culture, frequent allusion is made to the influence 
of the moon on the growth of plants ; and the 
farmer is cautioned not to sow his seeds during 
the increase of the moon. This caution however, 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



as far as my observation goes, applies only to the 
sowing of pease and beans. Sir Anthony Fitz- 
Herbert says : 

" Take especial care to sow your pease in the old of 
the moon ; then will they codd better, and be sooner 
ripe." 

Tusser writes to the same effect : 

" Sow peason and beans in the wane of the moon ; 
Who soweth them sooner, he soweth too soon : 
That they with the planet may rest and arise, 
And flourish with bearing most plentiful wise." 

Some of your readers may perhaps be able to 
inform me whether any such belief of the moon's 
influence prevails in any part of England at the 
present time ; and whether, if so, it is confined to 
the two particular crops alluded to. 

I am aware that, be it truth or mere superstition, 
there are many good housekeepers who will on no 
account kill a pig, with a view to salt its flesh, 
without consulting the age of the moon. 

R. W. B. 

Salt, Custom connected with. A friend tells me 
that some tribe of Tartars has a custom of carry- 
ing a piece of salt in a little bag at the saddle- 
bow, to be sucked by the way as a solace to the 
traveller; and also to be offered on occasion to 
those whom he may meet, as a pledge of friend- 
ship. What author mentions such a habit ? 

G. WILLIAM SKYEING. 

Somerset House. 

" The Devil sits in his easy chair." Who was the 
author of a satire on English politics, beginning : 

" The Devil sits in his easy chair, 

Sipping his sulphur tea, 
And gazing out, with a pensive air, 

O'er the broad, bitumen sea. 
Lull'd into sentimental mood, 

By the spirits' far-off wail," &c. 

ANON. 

The Turks and the Irish. Perhaps some 
reader of " N. & Q." may be able and willing to 
give the full title of the work alluded to in the 
following newspaper cutting ; and, farther, to in- 
form us exactly as to what the Pythagorean says 
of Ireland and its literature ? 

" A very valuable work has been recently edited at 
Leipsic. It is a Latin abstract of cosmography, ori- 
ginally written in Greek by Hicas, a Pythagorean 
philosopher of the third century, and who appears to 
have been a native of Istria, which, according to the 
learned German editor, comprehended part of the pre- 
sent Turkey. This work is a valuable addition to 
geographical knowledge, as the writer appears to have 
visited a great number of countries, which in his day 
were perfect terrce incognita. But what we would par- 
ticularly remark is his notice of two nations at nearly 
opposite extremities of Europe the Turks and the 
Irish. He speaks of the ' Turchoe,' or ' Turci,' as in- 



habiting a region near the Caspian Sea, comprising 
part of the territory wrested from their descendants by 
the late Emperor of Russia. This proves that the 
readings in other writers, which speak of the- Turks as 
an ancient people, are correct. But still more impor- 
tant is what this writer says of Ireland, which country 
he visited personally : for he speaks of the people -as 
having an alphabet and literature so early as the third 
century, i.e. nearly two hundred years before the time 
of St. Patrick, thus affording external confirmation to 
the genuineness of our Druidic remains." 

JAMES GBAVES.. 
Kilkenny. 

Milton Portraits. Is the present depository of 
two beautiful drawings on vellum of portraits of 
Milton the poet, by Richardson, jun., known ? 

GARLICHITHE. 

The "Economy of Human Life." Prior to the 
death of Dodsley, the Economy of Human Life 
was without scruple ascribed to Lord Chesterfield : 
the Monthly Review and the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine subsequently claimed the work as the pro- 
duction of the unassuming publisher and poet, 
affirming that Chesterfield permitted Dodsley to 
use his name as a favour, to promote the sale of 
the work. Is there any evidence beyond the ipse 
dixit of the writers in the Monthly Review and the 
Gentleman's Magazine for robbing Chesterfield of 
the honour of composing this admirable epitome of 
morals? T. M. N. 

Robert Parsons or Persons, the celebrated 
Jesuit theologian, died at Rome in 1610. When 
and where was he born, and what are the titles 
and dates of his published works ? His Christian 
Resolutions were elegantly translated into Welsh 
by Dr. Davies, the lexicographer and grammarian, 
and printed at London in 1632. Has there been 
a late edition of the original ? HIRLAS. 

Orpheus Sumart the Clockmaher. Can any of 
your numerous correspondents inform me when 
Orpheus Sumart flourished in Clerkenwell ? 

I have in my possession, and in use, a clock 
bearing on its face his name : the works are of 
wood, and its mechanism extremely simple.^ My 
late father's reminiscences extended back just a 
century from the present date, and he always 
spoke of it as a piece of old family furniture. 

T. B. B. H. 

" The Ants." The Ants ; a Rhapsody, two 
volumes 12mo. Curious cuts. 1767. The author's 
name and object of this satire are desired. J. O. 

Transmutation of Metals. Will some of your 
really scientific readers be pleased to state whe- 
ther it be possible to transmute any of the baser 
metals into gold ? I am inclined to believe that it 
is now possible, though it was not in the days of Sir 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Isaac Newton, nor yet in any previous age of the 
world. C. W. 

Franciscan Dress. Mr. Maclise, in his large 
picture of Strongbow and Eva, dated 1171, has 
introduced a friar dressed as a Franciscan. St. 
Francis, the founder of the Order, was born in 
A.D. 1182. Is there any authority to show that 
this garb was used before the time of the great 
saint of Assisi ? 



Richard Colwell of Faversham. I observed 
some years since, in an old pedigree of the ancient 
family of Colwell of Faversham in Kent, that one 
Robert Colwell had a son and heir called Richard 
Colwell of Faversham, and that he was twice mar- 
ried, viz. 1st, a daughter of John Bellinger, of co. 
Kent; 2nd, a daughter of John Master, of Sand- 
wich. My object is to ascertain, in the first place, 
the Christian names of these wives ; and, secondly, 
to what family the above John Bellinger belonged, 
and where his residence was, and when he died. 

As some aid, I may add that the father of the 
second wife died in 1558. Perhaps some of your 
able antiquarian correspondents can give me the 
information I require. F. T. 

Conspiracy to dig up Corpses. Niebuhr, in 
his Lectures on Roman History, vol. i. p. 290., 
2nd ed., by Dr. Schmitz, has the following pas- 
sage : 

" A person who looks with fondness upon past ages, 
and would fain recall them, is not a homo gravis, but is 
diseased in his mind. I would rather see a man pre- 
ferring the present to the past ; hut the legislative 
conceit of our age is very injurious, for legislators 
imagine that they can determine everything. I was 
once present in a country where the discovery was 
made that there existed a conspiracy of men who dug 
up corpses from their graves after they had been buried 
for many years ; and as the law bad made no pro- 
vision for such a crime, the monsters escaped with 
impunity." 

Does any of your correspondents" know what is 
the country, and what the circumstances, to which 
Niebuhr here alludes ? L. 

The Herodians. In the Add. MSS. of the 
British Museum, No. 7197., there is a history of 
Paul the Presbyter, and his dispute with Satan. 
In this is contained some account of a semi- 
Christian sect called Herodians, who only received 
the Gospel by Mark, and four of the Books of 
Moses. They were Socialists in a very wide sense, 
and lived in Samaria. Who can give me any 
other reference to them ? B. H. C. 



"Animali Parlanti" of Casti. Will some cor- 
respondent kindly inform me if there exists a 



translation of this poem into English ? Watt 
mentions only a French translation. T. A. T. 

Florence. 

[There is an admirable English translation by the 
late William Stewart Rose, the translator of Ariosto, 
which was published by Murray in 1819, under the 
title of The Court and Parliament of Beasts, freely trans- 
lated from the "Animali Parlanti " of Giambattista Casti, 
a Poem in Seven Cantos. The translation was ad- 
dressed to Ugo Foscolo in a poetical dedication, in 
which the translator treats of the liberties he has taken 
with his original, and which concludes : 

" Dear Foscolo, to thee my dedication 's 
Address'd with reason. Who like thee is able 
To judge betwixt the theme and variations ? 
To whom so well can I inscribe my fable 
As thee ? since I upon good proof, may sing thee 
Docturn sermones utriusque linguce."] 

Confessor to the Royal Household. D'Israeli, in 
his Commentaries on Life and Reign of Charles /., 
describing the difficulties which Elizabeth and 
James had to contend with in relation to their 
Catholic subjects, says : 

" So obscure, so cautious, and so undetermined were 
the first steps to withdraw from the ancient Papistical 
customs, that Elizabeth would not forgive a bishop for 
marrying ; and auricular confession, however con- 
demned as a point of Popery, was still adhered to by 
many. Bishop Andrews would loiter in the aisles of 
St. Paul's to afford his spiritual comfort to the un- 
burtheners of their conscience." 

And he then adds this note : 

" This last remains of Popery may still be traced 
among us; for, since the days of our Eighth Henry, 
the place of confessor to the royal household has never 
been abolished." 

Query, is the office still in existence ; and if so, 
who holds it, and by whom is the confessor ap- 
pointed ? Of course, I do not suppose that our 
Queen maintains a Roman Catholic confessor ; 
but is the office still retained in the same manner 
as that of the Abbot of Westminster, referred to in 
one of Cardinal Wiseman's Pastorals ? 

A YOUNG SUBSCRIBER. 

[The office is connected with the Chapel Royal, 
St. James's, and is at present held by Dr. Charles 
Wesley, who is also sub-dean. The appointment is by 
the Dean of the Chapel Royal, the Bishop of London. 
The confessor (sometimes called chaplain) officiates at 
the early morning prayers, so punctually attended by 
the late Duke of Wellington. Chamberlayne, in the 
Magna: Britannia Notitia, p. 97., edit. 1755, has the 
following notice of the Chapel Royal: "For the eccle- 
siastical government of the King's court, there is first 
a dean of the Chapel Royal, who is usually some 
grave, learned prelate, chosen by the King, and who, 
as dean, acknowledged) no superior but the King; for 
as the King's palace is exempt from all inferior tem- 
poral jurisdiction, so is his chapel from all spiritual. 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



It is called Capella Dominica, the domain chapel ; is 
not within the jurisdiction or diocese of any bishop ; 
but, as a regal peculiar, exempt and reserved to the 
visitation and immediate government of the King, who 
is supreme ordinary, as it were, over all England. By 
the dean are chosen all other officers of the chapel, 
namely, a sub-dean, or prtecentor capella, thirty-two 
gentlemen of the chapel, whereof twelve are priests, 
and one of them is confessor to the King's household, 
whose office is to read prayers every morning to the 
family, to visit the sick, to examine and prepare com- 
municants, to inform such as desire advice in any case 
of conscience or point of religion," &c.] 

Negus. In a lately-published catalogue of 
books on sale by Mr. Kerslake of Bristol, I ob- 
serve the following article, which may perhaps be 
deemed worthy of a place in your pages : 

"6915. The Annales of Tacitus, and Description of 
Germany, 1604, folio, old vellum wrapper, 16*. 

" This book has belonged to Thomas Vernon of 
Ashton, Bishop's Waltham, Hants, 1704 1753, who 
has made use of the margins throughout the volume 
for the purpose of recording his observations, opinions, 
friendships, including also his will ! On p. 269. is what 
appears to have been the origin of the word ' Negus.' 
' After a morning's walk, half a pint of white wine, 
made hot and sweetened a little, is recond very good, 
Col. Negus, a gent" of tast, advises it, I have heard 
say.'" 

If I might add a Query upon this Note, it 
would be, Can any corroboration be given of the 
correctness of the etymology ? and is anything 
farther known of Colonel Negus ? T. S. B. R. 

[Wine and water, it is said, first received the name 
of Negus from Colonel Francis Negus, who was com- 
missioner for executing the office of Master of the 
Horse during the reign of George I. Among other 
anecdotes related of him, one is, that party spirit run- 
ning high at that period between Whigs and Tories, 
wine-bibbing was resorted to as an excitement. On 
one occasion some leading Whigs and Tories having, 
par accident* got over their cups together, and Mr. 
Negus being present, and high words ensuing, he re- 
commended them in future to dilute their wine, as he 
did, which suggestion fortunately directed their atten- 
tion from an argument which probably would have 
ended seriously, to one on the merits of wine and 
water, which concluded by their nicknaming it Negus. 
A correspondent in the Gentleman's Mag. for Feb. 1799, 
p. 119., farther states, "that Negus is a family name; 
and that the said liquor took its name from an indivi- 
dual of that family, the following relation (on the vera- 
city of which you may depend) will, I think, ascertain. 
It is now nearly thirty years ago, that being on a visit 
to a friend at Frome, in Somersetshire, I accompanied 
my friend to the house of a clergyman of the name of 
Potter. The house was decorated with many paint- 
ings, chiefly family portraits, amongst which I was par- 
ticularly pleased with that of a gentleman in a military 
dress, which appeared, by the style, to have been taken 
in or about the reign of Queen Anne. In answer to 



my inquiries concerning the original of the portrait, 
Mrs. Potter informed me it was a Colonel Negus, an 
uncle of her husband's ; that from this gentleman the 
liquor usually so called had its name, it being his usual 
beverage. When in company with his junior officers 
he used to invite them to join him by saying, ' Come, 
boys, join with me; taste my liquor !' Hence it soon 
became fashionable in the regiment, and the officers, in 
compliment to their colonel, called it Negus"~\ 

" Terras Filius" Who was the author of 
Terra Filius, or the Secret History of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, <?., two vols. 12mo., London, 
printed for R. Francklin, under Tom's Coffee 
House in Russell Street, Covent Garden, 1726 ? 

Doubtless some of your correspondents will be 
able to answer the above Query, and may, 
perhaps, have the means of adding some inform- 
ation about him, and the probable degree of credit 
to be given to his representations. 

I would ask at the same time what was the date 
of the last appearance of a Terra Filius at Ox- 
ford, and where any memorials of the custom, and 
of the speakers, and, their speeches (if any), are 
to be found ? T. A. T. 

Florence. 

[Nicholas Amherst was the author of this popular 
satire. He was the ostensible editor of the Craftsman, 
under the assumed name of Caleb Danvers. (See 
" Life of Amherst," in Gibber's Lives of the Poets, 
vol. v. p. 325. ; Southey's Specimens of English Poets, 
vol. i. p. 394.; and Gentleman's Magazine for October, 
1 837, p. 373. ) Mr. Hallam says, ' Amherst's Terree 
Filius is a very clever, though rather libellous invective 
against the University of Oxford at that time ; but I 
have no doubt it contains much truth." Constit. Hist., 
vol. iii. p. 335. For an interesting and curious article 
on the various Terras Filii, see Oxoniana, vol. i. pp. 104- 
110.] 

Consecration of Colours. "Was it customary, 
during the last war (the French war), on present- 
ing colours to a regiment, to consecrate or bless 
them previously ; and, if so, what was the form 
generally used on the occasion ? ENQDIKEH. 

[It was customary, during the last French war, to 
consecrate the colours of a regiment. A form of prayer 
was composed for the occasion, as will be seen from the 
account of the presentation of colours to the Queen's 
Royal Volunteers, noticed in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for January, 1804, p. 71. In the same volume, at p. 34., 
the prayer is printed. In a pamphlet, entitled An Ad- 
dress delivered to the Royal Westminster Volunteers, on 
the Consecration of their Colours, May 25, 1797, by the 
Rev. Joseph Jefferson, there is also a prayer composed 
for the occasion.] 

Motto of " The Sun " Newspaper. A friend of 
mine wishes to ascertain the precise words of the 
Latin motto which, until recently, was uniformly 
printed upon every copy of The Sun newspaper. 
The quotation, for such I suppose it was in reality, 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



might, I understand, be Anglicised thus : " Who 
dares say the Sun tells a lie ? " T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

[The motto is taken from Virgil, Georg., lib. i. 
1. 463. : " Solem quis dicere falsum audeat." The 
other motto was not very complimentary to its cotem- 
porary, " Sol clarior Astro."] 

"Louvre" Boards. Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." inform me the origin of the word 
louvre, as applied to louvre boards of churches ? 

INA. 

Wells. 

[This word is variously written louvre, loovre, lover, or 
lantern, from the French Vouvert. It is sometimes 
termed afomeril. In Withal's Dictionary, pp. 195. 215., 
we read of " The lovir or fomerilL ... A loover where 
the smoake passeth out." And in the Antiquarian Re- 
pertory, vol. i. p. 69., occurs the following passage : 
" Antiently, before the Reformation, ordinary men's 
houses, as copyholders and the like, had no chimneys, 
but fleus, like leuvtr holes." See also Glossary of Ar- 
chitecture, s. v.] 



ABBEY OF ABEBBHOTHOCK. 

(Vol. ix., p. 520.) 

Will J. O. kindly state how and in what respect 
" that fine old ruin, the Abbey of Aberbrothock," 
has been " brushed up ? " All lovers of the re- 
mains of ancient architecture in Scotland, and in- 
deed everywhere, will be delighted to hear that a 
spirit of reverence and love for the monuments of 
past ages (such fragments of them as still exist) 
is not quite dead in Scotland, nay, in fact is re- 
viving. This is manifested, not as combined with 
a spirit of blind attachment to old abuses and 
superstitions, but as a refined feeling for the pure 
and the beautiful in art, as it was developed in a 
region and at a time often supposed to have been 
sunk in barbarism. The " brushing up " at Aber- 
brothock does not mean, it is to be hoped, mutila- 
tion and defacement. In that case, may it spread, 
like a mania, all over the land ! All Scotsmen, I 
said, in whose breasts a spark of genuine taste or 
cultivated intellect dwells, and whom no distance 
from their country, no length of absence from it, 
can render indifferent and cold towards their native 
land, will be delighted to learn that Aberbrothock, 
in its fallen and mutilated state, still has some 
friends and protectors left. May Holyrood Chapel 
and other ruined structures meet with like atten- 
tion from a government that ought to care for them, 
or, better still, from the awakened public spirit 
of the country at large ! This regard of Scotsmen 
for their country, manifested in various ways, is 
too often sneered at in England, and stigmatised 
as a piece of disloyalty or wild fanaticism (parti- 



cularly if it should take the form of saying that 
the terms of the Union have not been observed), 
although the persons who do so forget, or possibly 
have yet to learn, that such feelings of nationality 
are the very life-blood of national honour and in- 
dependence in all countries, and ought to be che- 
rished and watchfully fostered by statesmen, not 
discouraged and neglected. England would never 
have become the great power she is if she had not 
been aided and seconded by her proud, high- 
spirited sister, Scotland, in building up the now 
world-embracing state of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. In all reason, therefore, the just complaints 
lately made in Scotland, as to the neglect of the 
fine old national monuments of its past history, 
ought to meet with attention, as forming part and 
parcel of a now common inheritance of glory. 

RHADAMANTHUS. 



KEPKINTS OF EARLY BIBLES. 

(Vol. ix., p. 487.) 

Your respected correspondent, the REV. R. 
HOOPER, M.A., has introduced a most interesting 
question, which has not yet been satisfactorily 
resolved, Which is the first edition of our in- 
valuable and justly venerated translation of the 
sacred Scriptures? In 1611 there were two, if 
not more, editions of the German version pub- 
lished by the King's printer, Robert Barker. And 
in the same year several editions of the authorised 
translation for the Church Service in royal folio, 
issued from his press ; two of which, Dr. Cotton 
tells us, are in the British Museum. Some in- 
formation may be gleaned from a rather violent 
controversy between Thomas Curtis and Rev. E. 
Cardwell in 1833. No discovery has been made 
of the original manuscript. According to The 
London Printers' Lamentation, 4to., 1660*, this 
MS., attested by the translators, was in possession 
of the printers, Bill and Barker, March 6, 1655. 
It does not appear to have been subsequently 
heard of. Many copies of the printed editions, 
bearing the date of 1611, are now to be found in 
our public libraries, and all ought to be carefully 
collated. This, with the history of the translation, 
and the alterations made in it to the present time, 
would be a deeply interesting volume. I possess 
a list of errata found in collating my own copy, 
which is a remarkably fine one. These are at the 
service of any gentleman who has leisure and 
desire to undertake so good a work. 

MR. HOOPER will be gratified to know that a 
collation of our early translations was published, 
accompanied by the authorised texts from the 
copy bearing the date of 1611. This was accom- 

* Reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany. I quote 
Dr. Cotton's List. 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



plished under the care of Bishop Wilson and the 
Rev. C. Cruttwell at Bath, in 1785. It forms 
three handsome volumes in royal 4to., and, to the 
disgrace of our Bible-loving community, is now 
selling for about the value of its binding. In my 
collection of English Bibles are more than forty 
editions of the authorised version published be- 
tween the years 1611 and 1640. GEORGE OFFOR. 
Hackney. 

In answer to MR. HOOPER'S inquiry, whether 
any copy of the great folio, 1613, is to be found 
which is not defective in some sheets, I may in- 
form him that I possess a folio black-letter by 
Robert Barker. The title, &c. is wanting ; and 
it commences with the text, which is however 
perfect, with the exception of the last page in 
Revelations. It has the mistake "Emorite" in 
Gen. x. 16., which marks the earlier edition of 
1611 (a mistake not corrected for a considerable 
time, as is evident in a 4to. of 1630 which I have), 
though it does not exhibit the repetition in Exodus 
xiv. 9. to be found in that edition. It is beauti- 
fully clean throughout, and would by no means 
excite such pious reflections as MR. HOOPER'S 
more venerable though not more ancient copy. 

I must conclude this note with a Query about 
this same Bible. In the title of " Newe Testa- 
ment" it purports to be " ^[ Imprinted at London 
by Robert Barker, Printer to the King's most 
excellent Maiestie, Anno Dom. 1513." 

The date, 1513, is a strange misprint, no doubt 
intended for 1613, as is evident from other con- 
siderations. I have not been able to discover any 
notice of so important an error, and I would 
therefore wish to ask whether it is known to col- 
lectors ? and if so, where any copies are to be seen 
which exhibit it ? J. R. G. 

Dublin. 



BOOKS BURNT BY THE HANGMAN. 

(Vol. ix., p. 425.) 

In turning over Evelyn's Diary (edit. 1854), 
I have met with a few examples of book-burning, 
which I beg to contribute to the list you are 
forming. 

" 16th May, 1661. The Scotch Covenant was 
burnt by the common hangman in divers places in 
London. Oh prodigious change ! " exclaims the 
diarist, vol. i. p. 352. The curious will find a pic- 
torial representation of the committal of the Co- 
venant to the flames in a little volume entitled 
The Phoenix (in allusion to the futility of attempt- 
ing to put down a national movement by such 
means), " Edinburgh, printed in the year of Co- 
venant-breaking." 

" 17th June, 1685. The Duke (Monmouth) landed 
with but 150 men; but the whole kingdom was 



alarmed, fearing that the disaffected would join them, 
many of the train-bands nocking to him. At his 
landing he published a Declaration, charging his 
majesty with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on 
pretence of his own title, and offering to call a free 
parliament. This Declaration was ordered to be 
burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaimed a traitor, 
and a reward of 50001. to any who should kill him." 
Vol. ii. p. 225. 

"5th May, 1686. This day was burnt at the Old 
Exchange by the common hangman, a translation of a 
book written by the famous Mons. Claude, relating 
only matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres 
and barbarous proceedings of the French king against 
his Protestant subjects, without any refutation of any 
facts therein ; so mighty a power and ascendant here 
had the French ambassador, who was doubtless in great 
indignation at the pious and truly generous charity of 
all the nation for the relief of those miserable sufferers 
who came over for shelter." Vol. ii. p. 253. 

The book here alluded to was, I presume, an 
English version of Les Plaintes des Protestans 
cruettement opprimez dans le Royaume de France, 
Cologne, Pierre M"arteau, 1686, in which the 
Minister of Charenton gives a lively picture of the 
excesses committed at the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes. 

"1699 1700. The Scotch book about Darien was 
burnt by the hangman by vote of parliament. The 
volume which met this warm reception in London was 
An Enquiry into the Causes of the Miscarriage of the 
Scots Colony at Darien; or, an Answer to a Libel en- 
titled A Defence of the Scots abdicating Darien. See 
Votes of the Commons, 15th January, 1699-1700." 
Vol. ii. p. 357. 

The above-named book (Glasgow, 1700) was, I 
think, a reply to that written by Herostratus, 
Junior, alias Harris, or Herries *, and no doubt 
savoured strongly of the national disgust at the 
treatment the Scots had met with from William 
and his government in their attempt to carry out 
a century and a half ago a favourite colonial 
scheme of our own day ! 



CLASSIC AUTHORS AND THE JEWS (Vol. ix. passim) : 

JEWS AND EGYPTIANS (Vol. ix., p. 34.). 

If one great cause of error has been wrong 
identification, a correct discovery of the same 

* Although no one will say there was a want of 
provocation in the proceedings of the Scots in regard 
to this publication, it is but just to remark here that 
they lighted the first fire ; for Mr. Burton, speaking of 
this book of " Walter Herries, Surgeon," observes that 
it was, " along with other pamphlets on the English 
side of the question, ordered by the Scots parliament 
to be burned, as ' blasphemous, scandalous, and calum- 
nious.' " Act. Par. 10 211. : see the Darien Papers, 
Edinburgh, 1849. 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



individual or nation under different names will 
be in the reconstruction of history an advance 
towards truth. By the Greeks and Romans the 
Jews were confounded with neighbouring nations. 
Thus Strabo (lib. xvi.) considers Syrian Palestine 
as the same country as Judaea ; Diodorus Siculus 
(lib. ii. c. i.) makes Ascalon, a Jewish city, to be 
a city in Syria ; Justin (lib.'xxxvi.) supposes the 
Jews to have inhabited Syria, and mistakes Da- 
mascus for their capital. " Imperium (inquit 
Justin, lib. i.) Assyrii qui postea Syri dicti sunt, 
trecentis annis tenuere." (See Selden de Diis 
Syris, Proleg.) Consequently they were con- 
founded with the Syrians and Assyrians. Thus 
Ovid makes the Euphrates to be a river in Pa- 
lestine : 

" Venit ad Euphratem comitata Cupidine parvo; 
Inque Palaestinae margine sedit aquas." 

Fasti, lib. ii. v. 463. 

They were confounded with the Chaldaeans, as 
in the oracle adduced by Justin Martyr : 

" Soli Chaldasi sapientiam sortiti sunt, et Hebrzei per 
se genitum regem colentes Deum ipsurn." Walton's 
Proley., xii. 2. 

When Pausanias states that Plato and the Greeks 
derived the doctrine of the immortality of the 
soul from the Chaldasans, it is not improbable that 
he intended the Hebrews. It is certain that there 
were multitudes of Jews in all countries, who, 
being subject to and living amongst the Chaldseans, 
Egyptians, &c., might easily have been taken for 
the people of the country they inhabited. Some 
writers have maintained (v. Dickinson's Delphi 
Phoenicizantes, and Bochart's Canaan) that the 
colony of Phoenicians led by Cadmus into Greece 
were Canaanites, of the race of the Cadmonites, 
who inhabited Mount Hermon, and were so called 
from that mountain's lying in the most eastern 
part of that country, Cadmonim signifying the 
same as easterns ; and have conjectured that 
amongst them there was a large number of Jews. 
Phoenicia and Palestine were both of them part of 
Syria : see Pliny's Nat. Hist., b. v. c. 12. Canaan 
and Phoenicia are used indiscriminately in the 
Septuagint. Chserilus, in Euseb. Prcep. Evang., 
lib. in. c. ix., speaking of the Jews in Xerxes' 
army, says : 

"T\a>ff(rav fjifv $oiviGffa.v OTTO aTofw/T<av cuptevrfs." 

" Trajicit inde hominum genus admirabile visu. 
Phcenicum similis grandi sonat ore loquela, 
Montibus in Solymis habitant, juxtaque paludem * 
Immensam : altonsum squallens caput obsidet horror. 
Progaleis derepta ab equis, durataque fumo 
Ora ferunt." 

And Plato, as Serranus has observed, mentions 
the Jews by the name of Phoenicians. Strabo 

* Asphaltis palus. 



places Mount Cassius and Rhinocorura, which 
were both in the confines of Palestine, in Phoe- 
nicia. Stephanus Byzantius calls Phoenicia XVo, 
and the Phoenicians Xvaoi. From Bceotia a colony 
of these Cadmonites went to Peloponnesus, where 
they built Lacedaemon, which gave occasion to the 
Lacedsemonians claiming kindred with the Jews. 

Bochart farther shows that the inhabitants of 
the island of Crete, who colonised many of the 
islands in the JEgean Sea, originally emigrated 
from Palestine, the sea-coast of which was called 
Creth, and the inhabitants Crethim or Crethi. 

In reference to MR. WARDEN'S conjecture, that 
the early colonisers of some of the Grecian states 
were Jews, not Egyptians, I beg to remark that 
Sir Isaac Newton, in his Chronology of Ancient 
Kingdoms Amended, condemned the opinion of 
Manetho, that the shepherd kings expelled from 
Egypt, and who emigrated into Greece, were the 
Israelites under Moses. It is irreconcileable with 
the universal belief that the rites and customs 
imported into Greece were identical with those of 
Egypt, as has been shown at large by Bryant in 
his Observations upon the Plagues inflicted upon 
the Egyptians, 8fc. See also Warburton's Divine 
Legation, b. iv. s. v. BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



CORONATION CUSTOM. 

(Vol. ix., p. 453.) 

The consent of the people to the assumption of 
the crown was changed into a dutiful recognition 
by Cranmer under King Edward VI. The former 
seems to have been, until that time, the constant 
practice. Tindal (speaking of its use at the coro- 
nation of Richard II.) says : 

" This ceremony, though not mentioned in any of 
our historians, was no innovation ; but seems to be a 
remainder of the old English custom of electing the 
king, as may be observed by comparing the manner of 
the coronation and election of King Edward the Con- 
fessor and William I. with this action, and which has 
been observed ever since." Tyrrel, vol. iii. p. 829. ; 
Walsinghain, p. 195. 

Upon the alteration to the present form (for 
which see 2 Burnet, App. 93, and Lingard's Hist., 
reign of Edward VI.), Hallam, in his Constitutional 
History, vol. i. p. 37. note, remarks : 

" This alteration in the form is a curious proof of 
the solicitude displayed by the Tudors, as it was much 
more by the next family, to suppress every recollection 
that could make their sovereignty appear to be of 
popular origin." 

Up to that time the Church, while claiming a 
divine independence, defended popular rights 
against the crown, which then for the first time 
asserted a supremacy over both. Perhaps, if 
Cranmer and the Church had been less obsequious, 



14 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 244. 



some of our princes had been less domineering. 
In France the ancient form seems to have been 
retained at least down to the reign of Louis XV. 
On the occasion of his coronation, it appears that 
after he had promised to the archbishop to de- 
fend the rights of the Holy Church : 

" The people were asked ' whether they accept Louis 
. . . for their king?' And after their consent is 
given in a respectful silence, the archbishop tenders 
the king the oath of the realm, which he takes aloud 
sitting with his head covered, and laying his hands 
upon the Gospel ; and after this oath is pronounced, 
the king kisses the Gospels." Menin's Description of 
the Coronation, p. 138. 

Whatever be the form of succeeding to a throne, 
the succession must (in the absence of an oracle 
upon earth) be by the consent of the people ; and I 
believe that this consent is asked in every coro- 
nation ritual except our own. 

Considering the fate of the Stuarts, we may 
reflect that the English are not a demonstrative 
people, and often keep their deepest thoughts un- 
expressed. H. P. 

Lincoln's Inn. 



PHOTOGBAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Long on an easy Calotype Process. In compliance 
with your request to be furnished with the particulars 
of my manipulation in the calotype process, I beg to 
ofier the following as possessing many advantages over 
the plans as usually recommended. Before doing so, 
however, I would premise what are the conditions 
necessary for obtaining an impression on calotype paper 
by the agency of solar radiations. The surface on 
which we receive the impression is iodide of silver, 
and to render this coating sensitive to light forms the 
basis of the various manipulations. If we precipitate 
iodide of silver from a solution of the nitrate with an 
excess of iodide of potassium, and spread the resulting 
powder on paper, it will be found that on exposure to 
light no effect will be produced ; but if, on the con- 
trary, the iodide of silver be thrown down from a 
solution containing an excess of nitrate of silver, a dif- 
ferent coloured paper will be the result, and on repeat- 
ing the experiment of exposure to light, a very decided 
action will be observable on the precipitated mass. It 
first becomes light brown, and then gradually deepen- 
ing in colour, it assumes a dark tinge, verging on 
black. 

We have here evidently two distinct compounds, 
one sensitive to light, and the other perfectly insensible 
to that influence. Our object, therefore, in the pre- 
paration of the paper, is to coat its surface witli the 
sensitive compound, namely, a " SUB-IODIDE OF SILVER," 
and this I accomplish in the manner following : 

Pin the paper by two of its corners to a soft wood 
board, and by means of a glass rod spread evenly on its 
surface a solution of iodide of potassium of the strength 
of 20 grs. of the salt to 1 oz. of water ; allow this to 
remain for the space of two minutes, and then blot off 



carefully in order to remove the superfluous solution. 
When the paper is surface dry, repeat the operation 
with the aceto-nitrate of silver, composed as follows : 
Nitrate of silver, pure, 30 grs. ; glacial acetic acid, 
2 drachms ; water, 1 oz. Let this rest for two minutes, 
and very carefully blot off as before. If not required 
for immediate use, the paper thus prepared may be 
suspended to dry, or it may be immediately placed in 
the dark slide to await the exposure in the camera. 

The time of exposure will vary from two minutes to 
fifteen, according to the amount of light, size and focus 
of lens, diameter of diaphragm, and the nature of the 
object operated upon. 

On removal from the camera, the paper is to be 
transferred again to the board, and its surface treated 
through the agency of the glass rod with a saturated 
solution of gallic acid, taking care that no part is for a 
moment allowed to become dry. The picture will 
now commence to unfold itself in all its details, and 
will be of a light brown colour. When the whole of 
the picture is thus far developed, a few drops of the 
aceto-nitrate are to be spread as quickly as possible 
over it, in order to change the colour from brown to 
black, and to give intensity to the dark parts of the 
impression. 

Care must be taken not to carry the development 
too far, otherwise the lights of the picture will suffer, 
and will have a tendency to become brown, greatly 
impairing the distinctness of the resulting proof. 

The fixing of the negative produced as above is 
performed by immersion in a bath of hyposulphite of 
soda, of the strength of 4 oz. of the crystals to one pint 
of water, where it is allowed to remain until the whole 
of the yellow colour is dispelled from the light parts. 
It is then to be removed to abundance of water, and 
soaked for two hours at least, in order to remove the 
adhering hyposulphite. After carefully drying, the 
negative may be waxed in the ordinary way, and will 
be found in every way equal to those obtained by a 
more circuitous mode of operation. 

It will no doubt be noticed that the proportion of 
acetic acid is very high in the aceto-nitrate, but the 
rationale of its action will be best made clear by de- 
tailing the following simple experiments : Precipitate, 
as before directed, some sub-iodide of silver in two test 
tubes ; let one of the tubes be now exposed to the action 
of light, and the other carefully excluded from its 
influence ; add to each of them a saturated solution of 
gallic acid ; it will be found that both precipitates will 
become darkened, that which has undergone exposure 
attaining the darkest hue, the difference being apparently 
only one of intensity ; such, however, is not the case, as 
will be seen by adding to each a few drops of glacial 
acetic acid : in the one that has been exposed, no change 
will take place ; while, in the other, the whole of the 
darkness will^disappear, and leave the precipitate of as 
pure a colour as before the treatment with gallic acid. 

We therefore infer that the object of the large dose 
of acetic acid in the sensitive solution is beneficial in 
preserving the light parts of the picture, that is to say, 
to take up the oxide of silver as soon as it is precipitated 
by the action of the gallic acid on the light unexposed 
parts of the negative. 

I must apologise for thus trespassing on your valu- 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



able space, but it appears to me that more success is 
likely to attend the labours of junior photographers, 
when in possession of the rationale of any particular 
process, than when blindly following details of mani- 
pulation and using formulas of which they know not 
the behaviour and peculiarities. CHAS. A. LONG. 

153. Fleet Street. 

Mr. Fox Talbofs Patents. A Special General 
Meeting of the Photographic Society is to be held on 
Thursday next to receive a report from the Council 
respecting the intention of Mr. Fox Talbot, in refer- 
ence to the renewal of his patents. We understand 
that the Rev. J. B. Reade, from whose letter in the 
Philosophical Magazine we published an extract in our 
Number for June 3, p. 524., showing that " the use of 
gallate of silver as a photogenic agent had been made 
public in two lectures by Mr. Brayley, at least two 
years before Mr. Talbot's patent was sealed," is about 
to publish a second letter on the subject. Any com- 
munication from a gentleman of the position and scien- 
tific attainments of Mr. Reade, will be looked for 
with great interest at the present moment. 

Photographic Paper. You sometime since held out 
to photographers the hopes of their being supplied 
with that great desideratum, a paper on which they 
could rely. From your continued silence, I begin to 
fear that you have been disappointed in your expecta- 
tion. Is this so ? Juv. 

[We certainly have not yet received the specimens of 
paper to which we referred, but we have no reason to 
doubt that they will shortly be ready. ED. " N.& Q,."] 

Substitute for Pins. Having been induced by a 
correspondent of the Photographic Journal to try, as a 
cheap and useful substitute for pins for the purpose of 
suspending iodized and other papers to dry, a little 
article known as Smith's Patent Spring Clothes Pins, 
and having found them answer the purpose most ad- 
mirably, I think I am doing good service in calling 
the attention of my brother photographers to their 
utility. They may be purchased of the principal oil 
and colour men at Is. per dozen, or 10*. per gross. X. 



to $3in0r CEtuertatf. 

Medal (Vol. ix., p. 399.). The medal in- 
quired after by OLBBUCK was struck upon the 
Peace of Utrecht. I think there must be some 
mistake about its having been presented to any 
one by either of our universities ; but as it is not 
quite impossible, I should be glad to have some 
evidence of the fact. Possibly an examination of 
the records of Oxford or Cambridge might show- 
that a medal was presented to the writer of the 
best copy of verses upon the Peace of Utrecht. 

E.H. 

Ralph Bosvile (Vol. ix., p. 467.)- Y. S. M. 
will find a good pedigree of Bosvile in Hunter's 



South Yorkshire, vol. ii. p. 345., from which, and 
the subsequent pages, he may obtain some inform- 
ation that may probably assist him in his inquiries. 
The same valuable work contains various other 
notices of the family of Bosvile. C. J. 

Humming Ale (Vol. viii., p. 245.). Hum, in 
the slang of the fraternity of beggars, means 
strong liquor. See Beaumont and Fletcher, The 
Beggars' Bush, Act II. Sc. 1. 

" Prigg. A very tyrant, I, an arrant tyrant, 
If e'er I come to reign therefore look to it. 
Except you provide me hum enough." 

" HUMMER, v. To begin to neigh, according to 
Ray and Grose ; but in our use, it means the gentle 
and pleasing sound which a horse utters when he 
hears the corn shaken in the sieve, or when he per- 
ceives the approach of his companion, or groom." See 
Forby's Vocab. of East Anglia. 

If porter is skilfully poured into a tankard, a 
fine head or crown of froth is formed, which in 
subsiding gives a sound which may be called a. 
humming sound; or the epithet humming may 
signify the pleasing sound which stout liquor 
makes in the act of being poured out, or it may 
express the effect it produces upon the drinkers, 
making them hum under its kindly influence. 
May not, however, humming be a corruption of 
foaming ? It doubtless expresses the praise or 
admiration of the lovers of stout liquor. 

It may be illustrated by Burns' poem, " Scotch. 
Drink :" 

" O thou, my Muse 1 guid auld Scotch drink : 
Whether thro' wimpling worms thou jink, 
Or, richly brown, ream o'er the brink, 

In glorious faem." 
Again : 

" O rare ! to see thee fizz an' freath 
I' th' luggit caup !" 
Burns' Poems, 8vo., vol. iii. pp. 13. 15. 

Who does not hear, as well as see, " guid auld 
Scotch drink" in this poem, "ream and fizz and 
freath?" 

When mine host of the Garter had agreed to 
take Bardolph as a tapster, to draw and tap, he 
says to him : " Let me see thee froth and lime," 
(Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I. Sc. 3.). 

Might not a pot of double beer frothed by " the 
withered serving man," transformed into " the 
fresh tapster," have been in the ears of mine 
host's customers stout humming liquor f 

For instances of the use of the word humming, 
see Dr. Pope's Wish 

" With a pudding on Sunday, and stout humming liquor, 
And remnants of Latin to welcome the vicar." 

Major Dalgetty devoutly wishes the prison 
water were " Khenish wine," or " humming Lubeck 
beer" (Legend of Montrose). F. W. J. 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



Heiress of Haddon Hall (Vol. ix., p. 452,). 
The following is, I believe, a correct statement of 
the contents of the vault at Bakewell Church, 
which contains the remains of this lady and her 
family, as the same were found by workmen em- 
ployed on the restoration of the church. 

On the morning of the 6th October, 1841, the 
workmen commenced the excavation on the site 
of the monument of Sir John Manners and Do- 
rothy Vernon his wife, at the south-east corner of 
the Newark Chapel. Before the excavation had 
sunk a foot, the bones of a young person, " sup- 
posed to have been a son of the couple above- 
named," were found without any coffin, or the 
trace of one. The next disclosures were of traces 
of wooden coffins, surrounding the remains of two 
full-grown persons ; believed, from the situation 
under the monument, to be those of the celebrated 
Sir John Manners, and the far-famed Dorothy 
Vernon. The head of the female was still covered 
with hair, extremely friable ; and in it were six 
brass pins, almost exactly resembling those now 
in use, except that the pointing was more perfect. 
The workmen now dug northward, and presently 
discovered a circular jar, glazed inside, contain- 
ing lime and a small quantity of ashes, probably 
the viscera of some one who had been embowelled 
previous to interment. Passing by the lead coffin 
of an infant, and those of two children, the exca- 
vators next raised three skeletons ; which, from 
their situations under the tomb, were believed to 
be the remains of " The King of the Peak," Sir 
George Vernon, and his two wives : were like- 
wise found the reliquiae, supposed to be of the 
members of the Vernon family : the cranium of 
the first-mentioned, supposed to be the head of 
Sir George Vernon, was described as " magnifi- 
cent." On approaching the fine monument of 
Sir George Manners and his family, a large lead 
coffin was found ; the lid of which, from the head 
to the breast, the excavators were surprised to 
find had been ripped off, as with the sexton's 
spade rather than the plumber's knife ; but, on 
examining the bones, it was evident that not only 
had the body been withdrawn, and afterwards 
crammed hastily into the coffin again, but that the 
skull had been sawn through the cross direction 
of its vertical axis, probably from some purpose 
of clandestine surgical examination. This head 
might have been that of the wife or daughter of 
Sir George Manners. 

Dice were not found in the coffins. 

FRA. MEWBUKN. 

Darlington. 

Barretts Regiment (Vol. ix., p. 544.). I am 
much obliged to G. L. S. for his information in 
answer to my inquiry. I had arrived at the same 
conclusion, that Colonel Rich was the " Old 
Scourge " of Barrell's regiment ; but I was unwil- 



ling to fix upon him that unenviable title without 
some facts of severity to confirm my conclusion. 
I believe the date of my print to be 1747, because 
I find, what G. L. S. does not appear to have been 
aware of, that the 4th regiment, or Barrell's, was 
moved to Edinburgh after the battle of Cullodeu, 
and from thence to Stirling in Sept. 1747. Co- 
lonel Rich was severely wounded at Culloden, 
and his return to his regiment was after his re- 
covery from his wounds. E. H. 

Sir Robert Rich, Bart., was removed in May, 
1 756, from the colonelcy of this regiment, in con- 
sequence of being appointed Governor of London- 
derry, which he retained until September 3, 1774, 
when he was dismissed from the army, and de- 
prived of all military rank and emoluments. Can 
any of your readers refer to the history of that 
period, and state why he was dismissed ? I have 
searched the Annual Register for 1774, and various 
biographical dictionaries, in vain for an account 
of him. A son of his was born December 24, 
1774, but he appears to have predeceased Sir 
Robert, as the property and title came into the 
present family of Rich (ne Bostock) by the mar- 
riage, January 4, 1784, of the Rev. Charles Bos- 
tock with Mary Frances, only daughter and 
heiress of Lieut.-Gen. Sir Robert Rich, Bart., of 
Rose Hall, Suffolk. JDVEBNA. 

Aska or Asca (Vol. ix., p. 488.). I beg to 
forward the derivation and signification of the 
Gothic suffix iska, the English ish, and the 
Saxon isk; the Latin icu, as amicus, ac, as vorac; 
Greek iko, as polemikos; German isch, &c., with 
reference to p. 489. 

The Sanscrit root of these suffixes is cjf, ka, 

identical with the base of the interrogative pro- 
noun ka, who? which? It becomes in Sanscrit 
aha, ika, and uka, and forms adjectives and nouns 



of agency. Thus, Sanscrit TJ^T, sush, to be dry, 

siccari, becomes sush-ka, the adjective dry, having 
the property or belonging to dry. The synonyme 
in Latin is sic-cus, id. ; in Zend, hush-ka, id. ; in 
Sanscrit, Madraka, belonging to, a native of 
Madras; English, a Madrasee ; Parsika, a Par- 
see ; in Latin loquacs, loquax ; English loqua- 
cious, having the property of speech^ in Greek 
QOIVLKOS, Phoenician, noA.e/zi;cos, belonging to war ; 
in Lithuanian degikas, an incendiary, from degu, I 
burn ; in Gothic from funins, of the fire, funiskas, 
fiery ; larnis, of a child, barniskas, childish ; old 
Prussian, arwis, true, ariviskas, veracious, verax; 
Sclavonic, more, the sea, mare, morskyi, marine ; 
in new High German from sterne, a star, sternig, 
starry ; German, Franzosisch, Brittisch ; English, 
whitish, British. All these suffixes have this mean- 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



ing, having the property of ; belonging to. 
(Extract from Bellott's unpublished Sanscrit De- 
rivations of English.) 

The ci in tenacious, loquacious, tenacity, and 
loquacity is from the Sanscrit ka. 

T. BEIXOTT, R.N. 

10. Upper Byrom St., Manchester. 

"Peter Wilkins" (Vol. ix., p. 543.). Leigh Hunt 
devotes one of the papers (No. 31.) of his Seer to 
a notice of this quaint, imaginative work. It 
seems to be a great favourite of his, and he says 
that Southey has somewhere recorded his own 
admiration of it. The authorship he then was in- 
clined to ascribe to Abraham Tucker or Bishop 
Berkeley, leaning, however, to the latter, and not 
without reason, for there is much to remind us 
of the author of Oaudentio di Lucca. In a later 
work, however, replete with most delicious gossip, 
and instinct with that keen sympathy with genius 
which has led its author instinctively to track and 
describe its homes, the same writer has given more 
definite information on this subject, from what 
source obtained we are not told. 

" There are three things to notice in Clifford's Inn," 
says he, " its little bit of turf and trees ; its quiet ; and 
its having been the residence of Robert Pultock, 
author of the curious narrative of Peter Wilkins, with 
its flying women. Who he was is not known ; pro- 
bably a barrister without practice ; but he wrote an 
amiable and interesting work." The Town, vol. i. 
p. 157. 

Peter Wilkins and his winged women may pro- 
bably have suggested another curious 12mo. : 

" The Voyages and Discoveries of Crusoe Richard 
Davis, the Son of a Clergyman in Cumberland, whose 
life exhibits more remarkable incidents than the ex- 
istence of any human being in the known world has 
hitherto afforded ; among which are . . .his dis- 
covery of a floating island ; where among various re- 
searches he discovered and caught a Wild Feathered 
Woman, with whom he lived and taught the English 
language . . . and arrives at last safe with MARY in 
England ; where he now lives a prodigy of the present 
age." London, printed by S. Fisher, 1803, pp. 72. 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

Rev. John Lewis (Vol. ix., p. 397.). He was 
curate of Tetbury (not Tilbury), and a member 
of the clerical society meeting at Melksham, so 
that he wrote from personal knowledge : it is the 
printer's mistake. E. D. 

Eden Family (Vol.ix., p. 553.). I am "greatly 
obliged to E. H. A. for his reply to my Query 
respecting the Rev. Robert Eden ; and I sub- 
scribe this with my name and address at length, 
in hopes that E. H. A. will communicate to me 
farther particulars, as he kindly offers, since I am 



anxious to obtain the full pedigree of the Eden 
family, from which I am lineally descended through 
the parties he mentions in his reply. 

ROBERT EDEN COLE. 
University College, Oxford. 

Kutchakutchoo (Vol.ix., p. 304.). This amuse- 
ment was fashionable about sixty years ago ; and 
those who remember the low dresses then worn 
by ladies will join in reprobating its gross in- 
decency. The following extracts are from a satire 
called Cutchacutchoo, or the jostling of the Inno- 
cents, 2nd edit., Dublin, no date : query, if sold ? 

" Games and the mighty She's I sing, 
Who tightly tie the plumping-string*, 
And, stuff'd with stagnant blood, appear 
Like geese at Michaelmas' cheer. 

Now huge Clonmel is usher'd in, 

Give way, ye dames of bone and skin. 

Aspiring pigmies, do ye dare 

With her wide wonders to compare? 

Or hope with vain attempt to match her 

Mountain sublimity of stature ? 

Rival those cheeks that hundreds cost her, 

As broad and red as cheese of Glo'ster ? 

Calves as ye are (nay, frogs I vow), 

To strive with half so huge a cow. 

Now she with tone tremendous cries, 

' Catchacutchoo f . 

Let each squat down upon her ham, 

Jump like a goat, puck like a ram.' 

She spoke, and heaved a hearty damn. 

E. D. 

The children's play spoken of by SELETJCUS is well 
known in this country, but is not supposed to have 
any connexion with the Kutchin-kutcha Indians. 
The children squat down (if the expression may 
be allowed), the girls with their clothes tucked 
between their knees ; and one chases the others in 
a hopping kind of motion, the feet kept together, 
crying, " Catch you, catch you ; catch you, catch 
you" There is nothing Indian in this. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Elstob Family (Vol. ix., p. 553.). Your Num- 
ber of June 10th contains a Query as to the 
Elstob family. I am not able to answer the 



"' ' 1 
u f 

unn." f J 



* Plumpness being now the order of the day, these 
ladies fasten a bobbin round the arm to stop the circu- 
lation of the blood, and render it plump and ruddy. 

f Cutchacutchoo. The performers first bend them- 
selves into a posture as near sitting as possible. Thi 
done, and their petticoats tucked tightly about their 
limbs, the joyous mortals jump about in a circle with 
an agility almost incredible. 

j: The lowness of language does not require any 
apology. " Truth is preferable to poetry ; " and the 
reader is assured that such language is used now, for 
our innocents are become very diligent and hearty 
swearers. 



18 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



Query, but would merely observe that a former 
Number of " N. & Q." contains a Query of my 
own, as to another Elstob family. The second 
wife of David Mallet was a Miss Elstob, a daugh- 
ter of a steward of the Earl of Carlisle ; she was 
married to the poet in 1742. I have reason to 
believe that this Elstob family resided near New 
Malton. After much search and inquiry, how- 
ever, I regret that I can obtain no information on 
this point to me one of some interest. D. 

Leamington. 

Forensic Jocularities (Vol. ix., p. 538.) should 
read thus : 

" Mr. Leech 

Made a speech, 
Impressive, clear, and strong ; 
Mr. Hart, 
On the other part, 
Was tedious, dull, and long. 
Mr. Parker, 
Made that darker, 
Which was dark enough without ; 
Mr. Bell, 
Spoke so well, 
The Chancellor said I doubt." 

O.B. 

Divining Rod (Vol. viii., pp. 350. 400. ; Vol. ix., 
p. 386.). In answer to the complaint of J. S. 
WARDEN, that former correspondents did not tell 
what was discovered in the places to which the 
rod pointed, I am enabled, from a recent con- 
versation with Mr. Dawson Turner, to give his 
positive assurance that water was found in each 
place. The lady was Lady Noel, the mother of 
Lady Byron. The experiment took place at 
Worlingham, where the lady had never been 
before. The only persons present were Lady 
Noel, Lord Gosford, Mr. Sparrow, and Mr. Daw- 
son Turner. So far from there having been, as 
J. S. WARDEN surmises, some " unconscious em- 
ployment of muscular force," the lady showed 
Mr. Dawson Turner her thumbs and fingers 
much reddened and sore from the efforts she had 
made to keep the forked stick from turning down- 
wards. Water was found in every place to which 
the rod in her hands pointed ; and it is well known 
that the water at Woolwich was also found by 
that lady in the same manner. F. C. H. 

George Herlert (Vol. ix., p. 541.). The short 
poem of this author, entitled Hope, turns evi- 
dently upon matrimonial speculation ; though it 
may well serve to show the vanity of human ex- 
pectation in many more things. The watch was 
given apparently to remind Hope that the time 
for the wedding was fairly come ; but Hope, by 
returning an anchor, intimated that the petitioner 
must hope on for an indefinite time. The next 
present of a prayer-book was a broad hint that 
the matrimonial service was ardently looked for. 



The optic glass given in return showed that the 
lover must be content to look to a prospect still 
distant. It was natural then that tears of disap- 
pointment should flow, and be sent to propitiate 
unfeeling Hope. Still the sender was mocked 
with only a few green ears of corn, which might 
yet be blighted, and never arrive at maturity. 
Well might the poor lover, who had been so long 
expecting a ring as a token of the fulfilment of 
his anxious wish, resolve in his despair to have 
done with Hope. 

After writing the above, the thought occurred 
to me that the poet's ideas might be so expanded 
as to supply at once the answer to each part of 
the enigma. I send the result of the experiment. 

I gave to Hope a watch of mine ; but he, 

Regardless of my just and plain request, 
An anchor, as a warning gave to me, 

That on futurity I still must rest. 
Then an old prayer-book I did present, 

Still for the marriage service fit to use ; 
And he in mockery an optic sent, 

My patience yet-to try with distant views. 

With that, I gave a phial full of tears, 

My wounded spirit could no more endure ; 

But he return'd me just a few green ears, 

Which blight might soon forbid to grow mature. 

Ah, loiterer ! I'll no more, no more I'll bring, 
Nor trust again to thy deceiving tale ; 

I did expect ere now the nuptial ring 

To crown my hopes, but all my prospects fail. 

F. C. H. 

French Refugees (Vol. ix., p. 516.). I never 
heard of any hospital existing in Spitalfields so 
lately as 1789. The French Hospital in Bath 
Street was founded about 1716, and it is there 
that J. F. F. must look for the information he 
wants. I have some curious MS. notes of re- 
fugees who were relieved in London in 1686. 

J. F. F. does not appear to have seen my His- 
tory of the Foreign Refugees, Longman, 1846 ; or 
Weiss's Histoire des Refvgies Protestants, Paris, 
1853. J- ^ BURN. 

Double Christian Names (Vol. ix., p. 45.). 
The earliest instance on record that I have met 
with is that of John James Sandilands, an English 
Knight of Malta, who, in July 1564, was accused 
of having stolen a chalice from the altar of a 
church called St. Antonio, and a crucifix. Ac- 
knowledging his guilt, he lost his habit. Vide 
manuscript records of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem. W. W. 

Malta. 

Garnet, the conspirator, was an early instance 
of an individual bearing two Christian names. 
His portrait, sold at Rome, had the inscription, 



JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



" Peter Henricus Garnettus, Anglus, Londini pro 
fide Catholica suspensus et necatus, 3 Maii, 1606." 

Henry Garnet, or Garnett, was born circa 
1556, and was the son of a person of no very 
high position, that of a country schoolmaster ; and 
if we may judge from the fact of the higher orders 
being generally more conspicuous by a string of 
names than those beneath them, we ought cer- 
tainly to find earlier and more numerous instances 
among persons of rank than have yet appeared in 
the pages of " N. & Q." The second name might, 
however^ have appeared at his confirmation or 
canonisation. 

Query, What was Garnett's real surname and 
exact birthplace ? FURVTJS. 

The instance referred to in the accompanying 
extract, if correct, is another early example of 
double Christian names : 

" Referring to Burke's Baronetage, Landed Gentry, 
Dod's Knightage for 1854, and other cognate authori- 
ties, we find that Sir W. G. Ouseley is descended from 
an ancient Shropshire family, who settled in North- 
amptonshire in 1571, the then head of the family, 
Richard Ouseley Ouseley, having received from Queen 
Elizabeth, under whom he was a judge, a grant of the 
estate of Courteen Hall, in that county." Hadfield's 
Brazil, River Plata, and Falkland Islands, p. 226. 

W. DENTON. 

MR. DENTON'S instances are nothing to the 
purpose, as all those he gives are obviously double 
surnames, not double Christian names ; and I had 
expressly excepted the royal family. The custom 
was introduced undoubtedly by foreign inter- 
marriages, whether of kings or subjects, and may 
be traced much farther back in France, Germany, 
&c. than in England. J. S. WARDEN. 

" Cui bono" (Vol. ix., p. 76.). To assist your 
correspondent T. R. in arriving at a correct inter- 
pretation of the above phrase, I have the pleasure 
to send you an extract from a tale, entitled Thou 
art the Man, by Edgar A. Poe, the American 
author, which perhaps your correspondent may 
never have met with. It is as follows : 

" And here, lest I be misunderstood, permit me to 
digress for one moment merely to observe, that the 
exceedingly brief and simple Latin phrase, which I 
have employed, is invariably mistranslated and mis- 
conceived. ' Cui bono,' in all the crack novels and 
elsewhere, in those of Mrs. Gore for example (the 
author of Cecil), a lady who quotes all tongues, from 
the Chaldasan to Chickasaw, and is helped to her 
learning, 'as needed,' upon a systematic plan, by Mr. 
Beckford in all the crack novels, I say, from those 
of Bulwer and Dickens to those of Turnapenny and 
Ainsworth, the two little Latin words, cui bono, are 
rendered ' to what purpose,' or (as if quo bono), ' to 
what good.' Their true meaning, nevertheless, is ' for 
whose advantage.' Cui, to whom; bono, is it for a 
benefit. It is a purely legal phrase, and applicable 



precisely in cases such as we have now under con- 
sideration ; where the probability of the doer of a 
deed hinges upon the probability of the benefit ([ac- 
cruing to this individual or to that from the deed's 
accomplishment." 

S. B. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

An application has lately been addressed by the 
Society of Antiquaries to the Home Secretary, praying 
him to adopt measures for securing copies of the sepul- 
chral inscriptions in the graveyards of the city churches 
which are about to be removed. The Memorialists 
state, with great truth, " That they cannot over-rate 
the importance of these records as evidences of title, 
and in the tracing of pedigrees ; and it is to be feared 
that, if they are destroyed, not only a great amount of 
valuable evidence will be lost, but facilities will be 
given for manufacturing inscriptions and assumed copies 
of lost stones, and, as in a recent peerage case, for the 
actual production of forged stones." Lord Palmerston 
does not see how he can interfere. The Memorialists 
had told him through the Registrar- General ; and we 
yet hope that, either through that officer, or the autho- 
rities of each parish, some attempt will be made to 
effect this important object. 

The third volume of Gibbon's History of the Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire, edited by Dr. Smith, 
with Notes by Dean Milman and M. Guizot, forms this 
month's issue of Murray's British Classics. 

We have recorded in our columns (Vol. iii., p. 136.) 
Coleridge's high opinion of Defoe's wit, humour, and 
vigour of style and thought, and we agree in his esti- 
mate of them. We are therefore glad to find that The 
Novels and Miscellaneous Works of Daniel Defoe are to 
form a portion of Bohn's British Classics. The first 
volume has just been issued, and includes Captain 
Singleton and Colonel Jack. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Memoir of the Poet Dr. William 
Broome, with Selections from his Works, by T. W. Bar- 
low ; an interesting sketch of one whom, to use John- 
son's words, " Pope chose for an associate." India, 
Pictorial, Descriptive, and Historical. This new vo- 
lume of Bohn's Illustrated Library consists in a great 
measure of a revised and enlarged reprint of Miss 
Corner's work, with nearly one hundred woodcut 
illustrations. A Calendar of the Contents of the Red 
Book of the Irish Exchequer, by J. F. Ferguson, Esq., 
reprinted from the Proceedings of the Kilkenny Ar- 
chceological Society, is a valuable contribution to the 
history of the records of Ireland by a valued contri- 
butor of" N. & Q.," who has done so much for those 
documents. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

MACCABE'S CATHOLIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 

CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. 1828. 

WORDSWORTH'S GREECE. 1 Vol. 8vo. Illustrated. First Edition. 



20 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 244. 



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Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent 
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names and addresses are given for that purpose : 

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M. C. H. BROEMEL'S FESTTANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. Jena, 
1705. 

Wanted by William J. Thorns, Esq., 25. Holywell Street, Mill- 
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THEODEBETI OPERA (Hate, 1769) : Tom. ii. Pars i., con- 
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Par* i., containing Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles. 
Wanted by Rev. H. D. Millett, Collegiate School, Leicester. 

THB METROPOLITAN MAGAZINE. Nog. I. to XXIII., LIL, 
LXX. and following. 

Wanted by Mr. John P. SlUwell, Dorking. 

PROLUSIONS* POETICS. Chester, circa 1800. 

Wanted by Thomas Hughes, 13. Paradise Row, Chester. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of any Works of Geo. Abbott, Abp. of 
Canterbury, and Robt. Abbott, Bishop of Sarum. 

Wanted by John Thos. AblM, Stamp Office, Darlington. 

GLASSFORD'S EDITION OF BACON'S NOVUM ORGANON. 

Wanted by the Rev. G. W. Kitchin, Ch. Ch., Oxford. 

Gentlemen having Old Books in their possession may receive by 
post a List of Books wanted by Thomas Kersla'ke, 3. Park 
Street, Bristol. 



ta 



We shall next week print an inedited letter from GEORGE 
WASHINGTON, the first President of the United States, in which 
he enters into curious and minute details on the subject of his 
Family History. In the same Number we shall commence a Col- 
lection of Notes on Manners and Costume __ The Index to 
Volume the Ninth will be ready for delivery with No. 246. on 
Saturday, July 15. 



J. P. STILWELL will find some illustration of " Barnaby 
Bright " and Bishop Barnaby, in our First Volume, p. 132. 

G. The entry " certified " in Burial Registers no doubt refers 
to the certificates that the parlies were buried " in woollen," as 
required by the Act 30 Car. 11. c. 3. and 32 Car. II. c. 1. See 
" N. & Q.," Vol. v., pp. 414. 542., and Vol. vi., pp. 58. 111. 

J. G. T. The sign of The Cat and Fiddle is said to be a cor- 
ruption o/Le Caton Fidele. 

L. The Court and Character of King James, by Sir A. W., 
was written by Sir Anthony Weldon, Clerk of the King's Kitchen. 
It is a well-known book. 

T. A. T. A more complete key to the character} in Dibdin's 
Bibliomania appears in our Seventh Volume, p. 151. 

Mr. Townshend's Waxed-paper Process. This has teen given 
at length in the last Number of the Photographic Journal. Our 
abstract was taken from the Journal of the Society of Arts, and 
we regret that we did not so describe it. We are always anxious 
to acknowledge the source of whatever appears in our columns, 
and take this opportunity of supplying the omission. 

H. C. C. (Devizes). The appearance in your negative is from 
perfect negligence . Always wash your picture after development 
before placing it in the hypo. bath. Your focus is not good, and 
your church is all tumbling down from want of care in adjusting 



g 



H. H. (Glasgow). The appearance is from small particles of 
air intervening between your albumen and paper in its prepara- 
tion. You must use more care in putting it on the albumen. 
Take it by the right-hand corner, and remove it so that you do 
not draw it along the surface of the albumen, which causes streaks. 
Avoid making bubbles in the fluid, which are very detrimental to 
success. The other points mentioned in your letter are un- 
important. 

C. W. W. (Leamington). We do not know where you can 
procure amber varnish properly made. The expensive at first 
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portion covers the picture. 

W. G. Turner's paper is certainly the most certain. Old 
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JULY 1. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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at I precisely eacli Day, the principal POR- 
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BKARY of J. D. GARDNER, ESQ., of Chat- 
teris, Cambridgeshire, removed from his late 
Residence, Bottisham Hall, near Newmarket. 
The Library comprises a very fine collection 
of early Classics of the Fifteenth Century ; Six 
Caxton's, viz. Chastysins of Goddes Children, 
Reynard the Fox, Cathon, Jason, and a superb 
copy of the Golden Legende, wanting only 
17 lines ; also Boece, wanting only two leaves. 
Among the many books printed by Wynkyn 
de Worde is a beautiful copy of Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales, the only perfect copy 
known ; several extremely fine, early and 
rare Bibles and Testaments, viz. the Coverdala 
of 1535, folio, wiih the Map, supposed to be 
unique, and wanting only two leaves ; Roger's 
Bible, folio, quite perfect, 1537 ; Cranmer's 
Bible, folio, a magnificent and perfect book ; 
Day and Serle's Bible, 1549, in the original 
binding, almost as clean as the day it issued 
from the press ; Tyndale's Pentateuch, a beau- 
tiful and large copy, but wanting two or three 
leaves ; Tyndale and Powell's Testaments ; 
the Liturgies of 1519, 1552, and 1559, very fine 
and perfect copies. The Library is also rich 
in early inglish theology, history, and par- 
ticularly so in the poetry of the Elizabethan 
period, including many of the rarest volumes 
that have occurred for sale in the Heber, 
Jolley, Utterson, and other collections. Also 
the first four folio editions of the Works of 
Shakspeare, the copy of the first edition 
being from the library of John "Wilks, Esq., 
the finest copy ever sold by public auction. 
Am'injj other important and valuable Works 
in the collection may be mentioned a re- 
markably choice and very complete collection 
of the Works of De Bry. Early Italian poetry 
and general Italian literature form a feature 
of the collection, many of them being first 
editions and of considerable rarity. There are 
also many other valuable books in general 
literature, history, and topography ; including 
Prynn's Records, 3 vols. folio, very fine copy, 
from the Stowe Library ; ai d a most complete 
collection of Uearne's Works, on large paper. 

Catalogues are now ready, and may be had 
on application ; if in the Country, on the 
Receipt of Twelve Postage Stamps. 



EDWARD OFFOR, Lithogra- 
phic Draughtsman and Missal Painter, 
28. Leadenhall Street, City, and Grove Street, 
Hackney, having received permission to make 
fac-similes from the Bibles and Autographs, 
and copy the illuminated Manuscripts in the 
British Museum, is ready to fulfil any orders 
entrusted to him. He has also free access to 
his Father's well-known valuable Collection 
of Bibles and Manuscripts, from which he has 
made many fac-similes. 

Autograph and other Letters accurately 
fac-similed on Stone or Paper. Architectural 
Drawings ; all kinds of Plans ; Old Woodcuts ; 
Missals, and various kinds of Illuminated 
Writing ; as also Designs in any style made or 
copied. Plain or in Colours, on Stone, Wood, 
Zinc, Paper, &c., on the shortest notice. 

E. O. has received the appointment of He- 
raldic Draughtsman to the "Star Club" of 
London, and undertakes all kinds of Heraldry 
on Vellum or Stone. 

Valuable Books or Drawings will be pre- 
served with the greatest care, and security 
given if required. 

A Pupil wanted. 



ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMANTEAUS.TRAVELLING-BAGS, 
Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS. 

DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bajr 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directort. 



H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 



T. Grissell.Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A.Lethbndge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. ; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
ttt. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits: . 



Age 
17 - 
22 - 
27- 



s. d. I 

- 1 14 4 I 

- 1 18 8 I 



Age 
32- 
37 - 
42 - 



t. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 
-388 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10*. 6rf.. Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VKSTMENT and EMIGRATION: beings 
TREATISK on BKNEFIT BUILDING 8O- 
CIETIKS. and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the < ases of 
Freehold Laud Societies, Building Companies, 
Sic. With a Mathematical Append!* on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 244. 



VYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 

_Z\_ tographic Establishments. The superiority of this preparation is now universally ac- 
knowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal scientific men of the day, 
-warrant the assertion, that hitherto no preparation has been discovered which produces 
uniformly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases 
where a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in separate 
Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instructions 
for use. 

CAUTIOK. Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD W. 
THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signature 
and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS. CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure 
Photographic Chemicals : and may be procured of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at is., 2s., 
and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSES. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION. 

THE EXHIBITION OF PHO- 
TOGRAPHS, by the most eminent En- 
glish and Continental Artists, is OPEN 
DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission. 
e. d. 
A Portrait by Mr. Talbot' Patent 

Process - - - - -110 
Additional Copies (each) - -050 
A Coloured Portrait, highly finished 

(small size') - - - - 3 S 
A Coloured Portrait, highly finished 

(larger size) - - - -550 

Miniatures. Oil Paintings, Water-Colour and 
Chalk Drawings,'Photographed and Coloured 
in imitation of the Originals. Views of Coun- 
try Mansions, Churches, &c., taken at a short 
notice. 

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Pho- 
tographic Apparatus and Chemicals, are sup- 
plied, tested, and guaranteed. 

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers 
of Sets of Apparatus. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION", 
168. New Bond Street. 



IMPROVEMENT IN COLLO- 
ID DION.- J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 
289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion 
equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness 
and density of Negative, to any other hitherto 
published ; without diminishing the keeping 
properties and appreciation of half-tint for 
which their manufacture has been esteemed. 

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the re- 
quirements for the practice of Photography. 
Instruction in the Art. 

THE COLLODION AND PO- 
SITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. 
HOCKIN. Price Is., per Post, Is. 2d. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

.L & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 
blishment. 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art. 
123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S 

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledonian Road, Islington. 

OTTEWILL'S Rezistered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Feather- 
stone Buildings, Holborn ; the Photographic 
Institution, Bond Street ; and at the Manu- 
factory as above, where every description of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 



COLLODION PORTRAITS 

\J AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest 
ease and certainty by using BLAND & 
LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton ; cer- 
tainty and uniformity of action over a lensth- 
ened period, combined with the most faithful 
rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a 
most valuable agent in the hands of the pho- 
tographer. 

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass 
or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of de- 
tail unattamed by any other method, 5s. per 
Quire. 

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality. 

Instruction in the Processes. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photogra- 
phical Instrument Makers, and Operative 
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. London. 

The Pneumatic Plate-holder for Collodion 
Plates. 

*** Catalogues sent on application. 



THE SIGHT preserved by the 
Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit 
every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S 
OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents 
Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Im- 
proper Glasses, and is extensively employed by 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 



TITHOLESALE PHOTOGRA- 

|f PHIC DEPOT: DANIEL M'MIL- 
LAN, 132. Fleet Street, London. The Cheapest 
House in Town for every Description of 
Photographic Apparatus, Materials, and Che- 
micals. 

*** Price List Free on Application. 



TO PHOTOGRAPHERS, DA- 
GUERREOTYPISTS, &c. Instanta- 
neous Collodion (or Collodio-Iodide Silver). 
Solution for Iodizing Collodion. Pyrogallic, 
Gallic, and Glacial Acetic Acids, and every 
Pure Chemical required in the Practice of 
Photography, prepared by WILLIAM BOL- 
TON. Operative and Photographic Chemist, 
146. Holborn Bars. Wholesale Dealer in every 
kind of Photographic Papers, Lenses, Cameras, 
and Apparatus, and Importer of French and 
German Lenses, &c. Catalogues by Post on 
receipt of Two Postage Stamps. Sets of Ap- 
paratus from Three Guineas. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. Le Gray's 

JL New Ecliton. BELLOC'S MANUAL 
and COLLODION are to be had at ALEXIS 
GAUDIN'S Wholesale Photogranhical Di'pOt, 
67. Newgate Street. (E. BENTHEIM, Agent.) 



c 



OCOA-NUT FIBRE MAT- 

, TING and MATS, of the best quality. 
The Jury of Class 28, Great Exhibition, 
awarded the Prize Medal to T. TRELOAR, 
Cocoa-Nut Fibre Manufacturer, 42. Ludgate 
Hill, London. 



A LLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER 

\_ ALE. _ MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & 
SONS beg to inform the TRADE that they 
are now registering Orders for the March 
Brewings of their PALE ALE in Casks of 
18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY, 
Burton-on-Trent ; and at the under-men- 
tioned Branch Establishments : 

LONDON, at 61. King William Street, Citr- 
LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street. 
MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place. 
DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree. 
GLASGOW, at 1 15. St. Vincent Street. 
DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay. 
BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall. 
SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol. 

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the 
opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE 
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly 
recommended by the Medical Profession, may- 
be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLKS 
GENUINE from all the most RESPECT- 
ABLE LICENSED VICTUALLEHS, on 
"ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being specially 
asked for. 

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label 
can lie ascertained by its having " ALLSOPP 
& SONS " written across it. 



Patronised by tbe Royal 
Family, 

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS 
for any person producing Articles supe- 
rior to the following : 

THE HAIR RESTORED AND GREY- 
NESS PREVENTED. 

BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is 

acknowledged to be the most effectual article 
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strength- 
ening when weak and fine, effectually pre- 
venting falling or turning grey, and for re- 
storing its natural colour without the use of 
dye. The rich glossy appearance it imparts is 
the admiration of every person. Thousands 
have experienced its astonishing efficacy. 
Bottles, 2s. 6rf. ; double size, 4s. 6<l. ; 7s. 6d. 
equal to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small: 21s. to 
13 small. The most perfect beautifier ever 
invented. 

SUPERFLUOUS HAIR REMOVED. 
BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT 
does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its 
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by 
royalty and hundreds of the first families. 
Bottles, 5s. 

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effec- 
tual remover of Corns and Bunions. It also 
reduces enlarged Great Toe Joint's in an asto- 
nishing manner. If space allowed, the testi- 
mony of upwards of twelve thousand indivi- 
duals, during the last five years, might be 
inserted. Packets, Is. ; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent 
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, 
for 14 or 36 Post Stamps. 

Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street : 
JACKSON. 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY 
& EVANS, Dublin ; GOULDING, 108. 
Patrick Street, Cork : BARRY, 9. Main 
Street, Kinsale ; GRATTAN, Belfast ; 
MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow ; DUN- 
CAN & FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SAN- 
GER, 150. Oxford Street; PROfJT, 229. 
Strand : KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard ; 
SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street ; HAN- 
NAY, 63. Oxford Street ; London. All 
Chemists and Perfumers will procure them. 



nHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF 

\J SAFES AND LOCKS. These safes are 
the most secure from force, fraud, and fire. 
Chubb's locks, with all the recent improve- 
ments, cash and deed boxes of all sizes. C9m- 
plete lists, with prices, will be sent on applica- 
tion. 

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, 
London ; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool ; Hi. Mar- 
ket Street, Manchester ; and Horseley Fields, 
Wolverhampton. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London : and published by GKORHE BELL, of No. 188. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid..- Saturday, July 1. 1851. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTERCOMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 



" Wben found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 245.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 8. 1854. 



C Price Fourpence. 
( Stamped Edition, 



CONTENTS. 

:NOTES:- P 

Coleridge and his Lectures, by J. Payne 

Collier 

Notes on Manners, Costume, &c. - 

Pipe of Tobacco - - - - 
Archaic Words - - - - 

Modern Pilgrimages Amney HolyrcO'J, 

Gloucestershire - - - - 

FOLK LORE : French Folk Lore Na- 
val Folk Lore - - - 

.John Henderson - - - - 

MINOR NOTES : Herrick nnd Southey 
Westminster Abbey a Cathedral 
Barony of Ferrers of Chart ley Vam- 
pires 



QUERIES : 
Miscellaneous Manuscripts 



- 28 



MINOR QUERIES :_Boswell and Malone's 
Notes on Milton Water-cure in 1764 
_ Correspondence between Pilate and 
Herod, &c The Architect of the Mo- 
nastery of Batalha in Portugal 
Stoneham Chinese Language 
Amelia, Daughter of George It. 
' Virtue and Vice " Duchesse D'A- 
branti's _ " Perfide Albion I " Poly- 
gamy among the Turks Edward I. 
"Nagging" Constantinople - 2S 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Milton's Amour President of St. 
John's John Buncle John Zepha- 
niah Holwell Leases - - - 30 



Two Brothers of the Fame Christian 

Name, by J. D.Lucas, &c. - - 31 

Armorial - - - - - 32 

Inn Signs, by Thompson Cooper, &c. - 3! 

Leslie and Dr. Middletou - - 33 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORUF.SPONDKNCE -.-Pho- 
tographic Litigation : Itev. J. B. 
Kendo's Letter ; Affidavits of Sir 
D. Brewster and Sir J. Herschel - 34 

HEPLIKS TO MINOR QUERIES : Obsolete 
Statutes " Selnh " _ Pax Pennies of 
William the Conqueror Holy-loaf 
Money "Emori nolo," Ac Palin- 
dromic Verses_Dr. John Pocklington 

Byron and RochefoucauldSomer- 
setshire Fglk Lore Black Rat _ De- 
moniacal Descent of the Pluntagenets 

Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound" 

" Send me tribute, or else ," &c. 

Hour-glasses Barristers' Gowns _ 
Reversible Names When and 
where docs Sunday begin or end V 
Hiel the Bethelite - Will of Francis 
Rom Per Centum Sign Slavery in 
England - - - - - 36 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 40 
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted - 40 
Aotices to Correspondents - - 40 



VOL. X. No. 245. 



Multas terricolis linguae, ccelestibus una. 

SAMUEL BA.GSTER 
LT1 AND SONS' 

GENERAL CATALOGUE is sent 
Free by Post. It contains Lists of 
Quarto Family Bibles ; Ancient 
English Translations ; Manuseript- 
nctcs Bibles ; Polyglot LJibles in every variety 
of Size and Combination of Language ; Pa- 
rallel-passages Bibles ; Greek Critical and 
other Testaments ; Polyglot Books of Common 
Prayer ; Psalms in English, Hebrew, rind many 
other Languages, in great variety ; Aids to the 
Study of the Old Testament and of the New- 
Testament ; and Miscellaneous Biblical and 
other Works. By Post Free. 

London : SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 
15. 1'aternoster Row. 



* &vy,m; 



/, uia, 5" 



This Day, cheaper edition, One Volume 8vo., 
16s. 

EXPOSITION OF THE 
THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, Histo- 
rical and Doctrinal. By E. HAROLD 
BROWNE, M. A., Norrisian Professor of Di- 
vinity, Cambridge. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



This Day, in small 8vo., a New Edition, with 
Corrections and Additions, Gs. 

OF THE PLURALITY OF 
WORLDS : An Essay. To which is 
prefixed a Dialogue on the same Subject. With 
a New Preface. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



TVHE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 

I No. CLXXXIX., will be published on 
THURSDAY Next. 

CONTENTS : 

I. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
II. MILMAN'S HISTORY OF LATIN 
CHRISTIANITY. 

III. THE DR. A MA. 

IV. CLASSICAL DICTIONARIES. 
V. Till: KLKCTKIC TKUOGltAPIT. 

VI. MELANESIA AND NEW ZEA- 
LAND MISSIONS. 
VII. QUEF.N ELIZABETH AND HER 

FAVOURITES. 
VIII. LORD LYNDIIURST AND THE 

WAR. 
JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Now ready, No. VII. (for May), price 2t. Gd., 
published Quarterly. 

T)ETROSPECTIVE REVIEW 

1\ (New Series) ; consisting of Criticisms 
upon. Analyses of, and Extracts from. Curious, 
Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books. 

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 43G, cloth 10s. 6d., is also 
ready. 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, SG. Soho Square, 
London. 



A MERICAN BOOKS. LOW, 

f\. SON, & CO.. ns the Importers and Pub- 
lishers of American Books in this Country, 
have recently issued a detailed Catalogue of 
their Stock in Theology, History, Travels, 
Biography, Practical Science, Fiction, &c.. a 
Copy of which will be forwarded upon appli- 
cation. 

By arrangements with the American Pub- 
lishers, all Works of known or anticipated 
interest will in future be published by LOW, 
SON, & CO.. simultaneously witJi their appear- 
ance in America. Works not in stock ob- 
tained within six weeks of order. Lists of 
Importations forwarded regularly when de- 
sire 1. 

Literary Institutions, the Clergy, Merchants 
and Shippers, and the Trade, supplied on ad- 
vantageous terms. 

Small enclosures taken for weekly case to 
the United States at a moderate charge., 

T7NGLISH COUNTIES. A 

.S2j Catalogue of Remarkably Curious, Rare, 
Useful, and Cheap Books and Tracts connected 
with English Topography, Local Family 
History, Provincial Customs, &c. &c. Sent 
Free on receipt of 16 Stamps. 

J. II. FENNELL, 1 . "Warwick Court, Holborn, 
London. 



THE ORIGINAL QUAD- 
RILLES, composed for the PIANO 
FORTE oy MRS. AMBROSE MERTON. 

London : Published for the Proprietors, and 
maybe hail of C. LONSDALE.2G. Old Bond 
Street ; and by Order of all Music Sellers. 

PRICE THREE SHILLINGS. 



QTEPHEN GLOVER'S NEW 

O QUADRILLES. - The Turkish Army, 
the Turkish Navy, Le Pcrroquet, Osborne, the 
Great Globe, the Gipsies, the Welsh. Mamma's, 
Papa's, Eugenie, the Nice Young Maidens, and 
the Nice Young Bachelors. Piano solos, 3i. 
each ; duets, 4s. each. 

London : R.OBERT COCKS & CO., 
New Burlington Street. 



HAMILTON'S MODERN IN- 
STRUCTIONS FOR SINGING. 5s. 

Hamilton's Modern Instructions for the Piano- 
forte, 6'-' large folio pages, Fifty-sixth Edition, 
K Hamilton's Dictionary of 3,500 Modcal 
Terms, Forty-second Edition.!.?. Clark's Ca- 
techism of the Rudiments of Music, Thirtieth 
Edition, Is. 

" The above are among the most remarkable 
educational works that ever issued from the 
pres-i. Hamilton's name has become a ' house- 
hold word,' and h>s modern instructions are 
used everywhere. The Dictionary is a wonder : 
and as to the Catechism, no child learning 
music ought to be without it. To schools these 
works are invaluable, and, on the other hand, 
will be found beyond price to persons living in 
country places, or in the colonies, where masters 
are not to be had." Vide Morning Chronicle, 
Oct. 21, 1853. 

London : ROBERT COCKS & CO., 
New Burlington Street. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



This Day is published, in Two Vola. demy 8vo., 
28s. 

CHARLES THE SECOND IN 
THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. A Con- 
TriDution to his Biography, and to the History 
of his Age. Derived chiefly from Original Do- 
cuments, English and French. By S. ELLIOTT 
HOSKIN S, M.D., F.R.S. 

" A valuable addition to the History of Eng- 
land, a book that may be read with interest, 
and that the historian may follow with con- 
fidence. It has been compiled with sound 
judgment, great industry, and good faith." 
Guernsey Star. 

RICHARDBENTLEY, Puhlisherin Ordinary 
to Her Majesty. 



Just published. 

CATALOGUE OF BOOKS, 

. including some Curious and Scarce, may 
*d on Application, or sent Post Free. 
RICHARD THORBURN, 2. Carthusian 
Street, Charter-House Square. 



Just published, Gratis and Post Free, 

4 CATALOGUE of an Ex- 
tensive Collection of SERMONS, 
TCHES of SERMONS, COMMENTA- 
RIES on SCRIPTURE, e. &c., by the most 
Eminent American, French, and English 
Divines, including many scarce Puritan Com- 
mentators. 

A. HEYLIN (late Baynes), 28. Paternoster 
Row. 



Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 

THE (LATE1 ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 

Ji THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 
The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services, Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTINU, by J. B. 
SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to 
Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 

gice 26s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. 
olywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on 
the receipt of a Post-office Order for that 
amount : and, by order, of the principal Book- 
sellers and Music Warehouses. 

" A great advance on the works we have 
hitherto had, connected with our Church and 
Cathedral Service." Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country." Literary Gazette. 

" One of the best collections of tunes whicn 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears." 
Musical World. 

" A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
character to any which has hitherto appeared." 
John Bull. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Also, lately published, 

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THE 

TOPOGRAPHER & GENEALOGIST 

EDITED BT 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A. 

The Xlllth Part of this Work is now published, 
price 3s. 6d., containing: 

Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, 
in the Parish of Cudham, Kent, by G. Stein- 
man Steinman.Esq.,F.S.A. 

Petition to Parliament from the Borough of 
Wotton Basset, in the reign of Charles I., rela- 
tive to the ri^ht of the Burgesses to Free Com- 
mon of Pasture in Fasterne Great Park. 

Memoranda in Heraldry, from the MS. 
Pocket-books of Peter Le Neve, Norroy King 
of Arms. 

Was William of Wykeham of the Familv of 
Swalcliffe? By Charles Wykeham Martin, 
Esq., M.P..F.S.A. 

Account of Sir Toby Canlfield rendered to 
the Irish Exchequer, relative to the Chattel 
Property of the Earl of Tyrone and other fugi- 
tives from Ulster in the year 1616, communi- 
cated by James F. Ferguson, Esq., of the Ex- 
chequer Record Office, Dublin. 

Indenture enumerating various Lands in 
Cirencester, 4 Hen. VII. (.1489). 

Two Volumes of this Work are now com- 
pleted, which are published in cloth boards, 
price Two Guineas, or in Twelve Parts, price 
3s. 6rf. each. Among its more important ar- 
ticles are 

Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with In- 
troductory Observations on tlie Ancient 

. Earldoms of England, by the Editor. 

On the Connection of Arderne, or Arden, of 
Cheshire, with the Ardens of W arwickshire. 
By George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.S. A. 

Genealogical Declaration respecting the Family 
of Norres, written by Sir William Norres, of 
Speke, co. Lane, in 1563 ; followed by an ab- 
stract of charters, &c. 

The Domestic Chronicle of Thomas Godfrey, 
Esq.. of Winchelsea. ic., M.P., the father of 
Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, finished in 1655. 

Honywood Evidences, compiled previously to 
1620. edited by B. W. Greenfield, Esq. 

The Descendants of Mary Honywood at her 
death in 1620. 

Marriage Settlements of the Honywoods. 

Pedigrees of the families of Arden or Arderne, 
Arundell of Aynho, Babington, Barry. Bay- 
ley, Bowet, Browne. Burton of Coventry, 
Clarke, Clerke, Clinton, Close, Dabiidge- 
court, Dakyns or Dakeynes, D'Oyly, Drew, 
FitzAlan, Fitzherhert, Fianceis, Freming- 
ham, G'jl, Hammond, Harlakenden, He- 
neaze, Hirst. Honywood, Hodilow, Holman, 
Horde. Hustler, Isley, Kirby. Kynnersley, 
Marclie, Mars ton, Meynell, Norres, Peirse, 
Pimpe. Plomer, Polhill or Policy, Pycheford, 
Pitchford. Pule or De la Pole, Preston, Vis- 
count Ta-ah. Thexton, Trego^e. Turner of 
Kirklcatham.TJfford.Walerand, Walton, and 
Yate. 

The Genealogies of more than ninety families 
of Kockton-uiion-Tees, by Wm. D'Oyly 
Bayley, Esq.. F.S.A. 

Sepulchral Memorials of the English at Bruges 
and Caen. 

Many original Charters, several Wills, and 
Funeial Certificates. 

Survey, temp. Philip and Mary, of the Manors 
of Crosth le Landien, Landulph. Lishtdur- 
rant, P<iri>ehan. and Tynton. in Cornwall; 
Aylesbeare an<i Wliytf rd.co. Devon ; Kwerne 
Courtenay, co. Dorset ; Mudford mid Hinton, 
West Coker, and Stoke Courcy. CD. Somerset ; 
liollestou, co Stafford ; and Corton, co. 
Wilta. 

Survey of the Marshes of the Medway, temp. 
Henry" VIII. 

A III ,-criptiun of Cleveland, addressed to Sir 
Thomas Chaloner, temp. James I. 

A Catalogue of the Monumental Brasses, an- 
cient Monuments, and Painted Glass existing 
in the Churches of Bedfordshire, with all 
Names and Dates. 

Catalogue ot Sepulchral Monuments in Suf- 
folk, throughout the hundreds of Babcrgh, 
Blackbonm. Blything, Bosmere and Clay- 
don, Carlford, Colnies. Cosford, Hartismere, 
Home. Town of Ipswich. Hundreds of Lack- 
ford and Loes. By the late D. E. Davy, Esq , 
ot Ufford. 

Published by J. B. NICHOLS & SONS, 25. 
Parliament Street, Westminster ; where may 
be obtained, on application, a fuller abstract 
of the contents of these volumes, and also of 
the " Collectani a Topographica et Genealo- 
gica," now complete in Eight Volumes. 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULYS, 1854. 



COLERIDGE AND HIS LECTURES. 

It was not unusual, when I was young, to in- 
vite friends to tea and supper, and it was in this 
manner that my acquaintance with Coleridge, 
Wordsworth, Lamb, and others, began at my 
father's : tea was concluded before eight in the 
evening, and about eleven a supper, hot and cold, 
was served up in the dining-room, and the com- 
pany, without any excess either of eating or 
drinking, did not separate till one or two in the j 
morning. These parties may have commenced 
when I was sixteen or seventeen years old, and j 
they continued until I quitted my father's roof, j 
and had a roof of my own. Coleridge was not so j 
frequent a visitor as some others, but when he j 
did come, people were generally content that he j 
should have much of the- talk to himself, and I had 
the merit of being an excellent listener. It was 
my habit to put down, at least, the heads of what 
I had heard, and at one time I had a collection of 
memorandum-books extending over several years. 
Some of these I destroyed myself, because they 
contained observations or criticisms, which the 
speakers had delivered in the confidence of private 
intercourse, accompanied, perhaps, by remarks of 
my own, which, as I grew older and knew more, 
I regretted. A few of these books I retained, 
but in the course of thirty or forty years most of j 
these have been lost ; and, as I stated in a former 
communication, only some fragments are now ex- 
tant, and were found with my notes of Coleridge's 
lectures delivered in 1812. 

Among these fragments I am rejoiced to meet 
with extemporaneous commentaries by Coleridge 
on Shakspeare, and some rival dramatists. Thus, 
for instance, I find him maintaining, in the words 
of my diary, " That Falstaff was no coward, 
but pretended to be one, merely for the sake of 
trying experiments on the credulity of mankind ; 
that he was a liar with the same object, and 
not because he loved falsehood for itself. He 
was a man of such pre-eminent abilities as to 
give him a profound contempt for all those by 
whom he was usually surrounded, and to lead to 
a determination on his part, in spite of their own 
fancied superiority, to make them his tools and 
dupes. He knew, however low he descended, that 
his own talents would raise him, and extricate him 
from any difficulty. While he was thought to be 
the greatest rogue, thief, and liar, he still had that 
about him which could render him not only re- 
spectable, but absolutely necessary to his com- 
panions. It was in characters of complete moral 
depravity, but of first-rate wit and talents, that 



Shakspeare delighted; and Coleridge instanced 
Richard III., lago, and Falstaff." 

These are the very words in my diary, and, I 
presume, the very words Coleridge employed, as 
nearly as my memory served me ; the date is 
13th October, 1812, and four days afterwards I 
was again in his company at the chambers of 
Charles Lamb. He was talking of Shakspeare 
when I entered the room, and said " that he was 
almost the only dramatic poet who by his cha- 
racters represented a class and not an individual : 
other poets, and in other respects good ones too, 
had aimed their satire and ridicule at particular 
foibles and particular persons, while Shakspeare 
at one blow lashed thousands. Coleridge drew a 
parallel between Shakspeare and a geometrician : 
the latter, in forming a circle had his eye upon the 
centre as the important point, but included in his 
vision a wide circumference : so Shakspeare, while 
his eye rested on an individual character, always 
embraced a wide circumference of others, without 
diminishing the interest he intended to attach to 
the being he pourtrayed. Othello was a per- 
sonage of this description." 

From thence he went on to notice Beaumont 
and Fletcher, and gave high commendation to 
their comedies, but their tragedies were liable to 
great objections. " Their tragedies (he said) 
always proceed upon something forced and unna- 
tural ; the reader can never reconcile the plot 
with probability, and sometimes not with possi- 
bility. One of their tragedies was founded upon 
this point : a lady expresses a wish to possess the 
heart of her lover, terms which that lover under- 
stands all the way through in a literal sense, and 
nothing would satisfy him but tearing out his 
heart, and having it presented to the heroine, in 
order to secure her affections after he was past the 
enjoyment of them. Their comedies, however, 
were of a much superior cast, and at times, and 
excepting in the generalisation of humour and 
application, almost rivalled Shakspeare." 

This is all that I find recorded immediately re- 
lating to Shakspeare on the 17th October; but 
Coleridge went on to criticise Kotzebue and 
Moore's tragedy The Gamester, and from thence 
diverged to Soutbey and Scott. As, however, his 
opinions upon these subjects do not contribute to 
my purpose, I omit them, in order to subjoin his 
note to me, which is written, as I before men- 
tioned, on the blank spaces of the prospectus for 
his lectures in 1818. I had desired to have a 
ticket for the course, and he had forwarded one to 
me neither signed nor sealed, which I returned ; 
he sent it back properly authenticated, with the 
subsequent note, in which I have only left out one 
or two unimportant names : 

" If you knew but half the perplexities with 
which (I thank God as one sinned against, not 



22 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 245. 



sinning) I have been burthened and embrangled, 
you would rather wonder that I retained any 
presence of mind at all, than that I should 
have blundered in sending you an unsigned and 
unsealed ticket. Precious fellows those gentry, 

the Reverend and his comrades, are ! 

Contrary to the most solemn promise, made in 

the presence of Mr. and Dr. , they have 

sent into the world an essay, which cost me four 
months' incessant labour, and which I valued more 
than all my other prose writings taken collectively, 
so bedeviled, so interpolated and topsy-ttirvied, 
so utterly unlike my principles, and from endless 
contradictions so unlike any principles at all, that 
it would be hard to decide whether it is, in its 
present state, more disreputable to me as a man 
of letters, or dishonourable to me as an honest 

man : and on my demanding my MSS. ( 

knowing that after his engagement I had de- 
stroyed my fragmentary first copies), I received 
the modest reply, that they had purchased the 
goods, and should do what they liked with them ! 
I shudder, in my present state of health and 
spirits, at any controversy with men like them, 
and yet shall, I fear, be compelled by common 
honesty to dissolve all connexion with the Ency- 
clopaedia, which is throughout a breach of promise 
compared with my prospectus, even as they them- 
selves published it. Yours, S. T. COLERIDGE. 
" J. Payne Collier, Esq." 

As I cannot find that the prospectus of Cole- 
ridge's lectures in 1818 (they began on 27th 
January, and finished on 13th March) was ever 
reprinted, and as I happen to know that it cost 
him no little trouble and reflection, I venture, 
though it is somewhat long, to subjoin the intro- 
duction to what is called the " Syllabus of the 
Course," disclosing the particular contents of the 
fourteen separate lectures. 

" There are few families, at present, in the higher 
and middle classes of English society, in which 
literary topics, and the productions of the Fine Arts, 
in some one or other of their various forms, do not 
occasionally take their turn in contributing to the en- 
tertainment of the social board, and the amusement of 
the circle at the fireside. The acquisitions and at- 
tainments of the intellect ought, indeed, to hold a very 
inferior rank in our estimation, opposed to moral 
worth, or even to professional and scientific skill, 
prudence and industry. But why should they be op- 
posed, when they may be made subservient merelv by 
being subordinated 9 It can rarely happen that a man 
of social disposition, altogether a stranger to subjects of 
taste (almost the only ones on which persons of both 
sexes can converse with a common interest), should 
pass through the world without at times feeling dis- 
satisfied with himself. The best proof of this is to be 
found in the marked anxiety which men, who have 
succeeded in life without the aid of these accomplish- 
ments, show in securing them to their children. A 



young man of ingenuous mind will not wilfully de- 
prive himself of any species of respect. He will wish 
to feel himself on a level with the average of the so- 
ciety in which he lives, though he may be ambitious 
of distinguishing himself only in his own immediate pur- 
suit and occupation. 

" Under this conviction the following Course of 
Lectures was planned. The several titles will best 
explain the particular subjects and purposes of each ; 
but the main objects proposed, as the result of all, are 
the two following : 

" I. To convey, in a form best fitted to render them 
impressive at the time, and remembered afterwards, 
rules and principles of sound judgment, with a kind and 
degree of connected information, such as the hearers, 
generally speaking, cannot be supposed likely to form, 
collect, and arrange for themselves by their own unas- 
sisted studies. It might be presumption to say that 
any important part of these lectures could not be de- 
rived from books ; but none, I trust, in supposing that 
the same information could not be so surely or conve- 
niently acquired from such books as are of commonest 
occurrence, or with that quantity of time and attention 
which can reasonably be expected, or even wisely de- 
sired, of men engaged in business and the active duties 
of the world. 

" II. Under a strong persuasion that little of real 
value is derived by persons in general from a wide and 
various reading ; but still more deeply convinced as 
to the actual mischief of unconnected and promiscuous 
reading, and that it is sure, in a greater or less degree, 
to enervate even where it does not likewise inflate ; 
I hope to satisfy many an ingenuous mind, seriously 
interested in its own development and cultivation, how 
moderate a number of volumes, if only they be judi- 
ciously chosen, will suffice for the attainment of every 
wise and desirable purpose ; that is, in addition, to 
those which he studies for specific and professional 
purposes. It is saying less than the truth to affirm 
that an excellent book (and the remark holds almost 
equally good of a Raphael as of a Milton) is like a 
well-chosen and well-tended fruit-tree. Its fruits are 
not of one season only. With the due and natural 
intervals we may recur to it year after year, and it 
will supply the same nourishment, and the same gra- 
tification, if only we ourselves return with the same 
healthful appetite. 

" The subjects of the lectures are, indeed, very 
different, but not (in the strict sense of the term) di- 
rer se ; they are various, rather than miscellaneous. 
There is this bond of connexion common to them all 
that the mental pleasure which they are calculated 
to excite is not dependent on accidents of fashion, place 
or aye, or the events or the customs of the day ; but 
commensurate with the good sense, taste, and feeling, 
to the cultivation of which they themselves so largely 
contribute, as being all in kind, though not all in the 
same degree, productions of GENIUS. 

" What it would be arrogant to promise, I may yet 
be permitted to hope that the execution will prove 
correspondent and adequate to the plan. Assuredly 
my best efforts have not been wanting so to select and 
prepare the materials, that, at the conclusion of the 
lectures, an attentive auditor, who should consent to 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



aid his future recollection by a few notes taken either 
during each lecture or soon after, would rarely feel 
himself, for the time to come, excluded from taking 
an intelligent interest in any general conversation 
likely to occur in mixed society. 

S. T. COLERIDGE." 

Last week I sent a transcript of the prospectus 
Coleridge bad issued six years before the date of 
the above, and for the next Number of " N. & 
Q." I will transmit some quotations from my short- 
hand notes of the lectures delivered in consequence 
of it. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

Riverside, Maidenhead. 



NOTES ON MANNERS, COSTUME, ETC. 

Billiards. Evelyn (Mem., vol. i. p. 516.) de- 
scribes a new sort of billiards, " with more hazards 
than ours commonly have." The game was there- 
fore already known. The new game was with 
posts and pins. The balls were struck with " the 
small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with 
brass or silver." 

Buckles. Charles II. attempted in 1666 to in- 
troduce what was called a Persian dress (Evelyn's 
Mem., vol. i. p. 398.) into national use. One point 
of this alteration was to change " shoe-strings and 
garters into buckles, of which some were set with 
precious stones." The attempt wholly failed, and 
soon went out of fashion, except the buckles, 
which appear never to have been wholly lost. 
The shoe-buckles were pushed to a great size by 
the fops about 1775 : the largest were called 
Artois-buckles, after the Comte d'Artois, the 
French king's brother. But on the Revolution 
they became unpopular, and at one time it would 
have been dangerous to wear them. The re- 
publican Roland was the first person who ven- 
tured to Court without buckles. This matter 
made a sensation so great, as to deserve the ridi- 
cule of the Antijacobin : " Roland the Just with 
ribands in his shoes ! " The opportunity which 
buckles afford of ornament and expense has pre- 
served them as a part of the court dress ; and of 
late years they have appeared a little in private 
society. They are generally, though not always, 
worn when a prince of the royal family is of the 
party ; and at the king's private parties, although 
the rest of the dress be that usually worn, buckles 
are almost indispensable. Knee-strings came in 
with shoe-strings, and have had about the same 
vogue. We see in the great roses worn by peers 
and knights of the orders with their robes, the 
fashion of shoe and garter knots, which were com- 
mon in the reigns of Charles II. and Louis XIV. 

Baits. Bull and bear baiting are well-known 
amusements; but in Evelyn's Memoirs, vol. i. 
p. 408., he tells us that 
" A very gallant horse was baited to death by dogs ; 



but he fought them all, so as the fiercest of them 
could not fasten on him till they (the assistants) ran 
him through with their swords. This wicked and 
barbarous sport should have been punished on the 
contrivers of it, to get money under pretence that the 
horse had killed a man, which was false." 

Cloaks. After being out of fashion for near a 
century, cloaks are come a little into fashion again 
(1822). For officers in the army they are better 
than great-coats, as the latter spoil the epaulets 
and lace ; but for common life, they are cumbrous 
and more expensive. I do not think the fashion 
will last. It is said that when the common Irish 
wish to excite a quarrel in a fair, one of them 
drags a cloak or coat along the ground as a signal 
of defiance (Edgeworth). I find this practice to 
be of older date and higher origin than may be 
supposed. Sandras de Courtilz, in his Memoires 
du Comte de Rochefort, states that one of the un- 
becoming follies of the Duke of Orleans was that 
he took pleasure " a tirer les manteausf sur le Pont 
Neuf." This probably means that his royal high- 
ness amused himself in stealing cloaks, but the 
practices were probably originally the same. C. 

(To be continued.) 



A PAPER OF TOBACCO. 



The department of domestic antiquities, re- 
ferred to by your correspondents in their articles 
on "Tobacco-Pipes" (Vol. ix., pp. 372. 546.), ap- 
pears to be not much investigated. As I consider 
the subject of interest, I have pleasure in sub- 
mitting the following items, with a view some- 
what to elucidate it. 

MR. SMITH says, at p. 546., that he has long 
thought the habit of smoking more ancient than 
is generally supposed, and refers to the use of 
coltsfoot, and the discovery of ancient tobacco- 
pipes under the floor of an abbey at Buildwas, in 
Shropshire. 

The mention of coltsfoot reminds me of a pas- 
sage in the Historie of Plantes, by Rembert Do- 
doens, translated by Henrie Lyte, and published 
in 1578, about eight years prior to the supposed 
introduction of tobacco among us. The passage 
in question will be found under the article 
" Coltsfoot." The writer there states that if the 
smoke of the dried leaves of that plant be in- 
haled through a pipe or funnel, by persons suffer- 
ing from certain affections, they will be materially 
benefited. I regret that the book is not at hand 
just now for me to give the exact words of the 
passage.* This is the earliest allusion to smoking 

[ The following is the passage on " The Vertues of 
Colefoote. The green leaves of colefoote pounde with 
hony, do cure and healc the hoate inflammation called 
Saint Anthonies fyrc, and all other kindes of inflam- 



24 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 245. 



in any form with which I remember to have met, 
and it certainly suggests that pipes for smoking, 
as well as the practice of smoking itself, were 
unknown to both author and translator. The 
dried leaves of coltsfoot and of other plants, as 
milfoil or yarrow, are still frequently smoked in 
the country and generally mixed with tobacco ; 
the motive for this is not always economy, but 
sometimes preference, or supposed medical quali- 
ties. We can easily account for the use of fra- 
grant herbs, after tobacco had been introduced, 
and men had learned to like it, from the dearness 
of it. A list of Rates of Merchandises, printed 
in 1642, now lies before me, and under the head 
of Tobacco I observe the following. (The sums 
are the duties payable) : 

" Tobacco vocat. * Spanish, and Brazeil tobacco, or 
any not English plant, the 1., 31." 

There is no doubt that a curious chapter might 
be written on the history and literature of this 
subject. Everybody has heard of James I.'s 
Counterblast to Tobacco, in which he inveighs 
right royally against a habit already widely and 
fondly cherished. Pope Urban VIII. (1623 
1644) issued a bull against the use of tobacco in 
churches. The third Mexican synod, and the 
third synod of Lima, as well as a synod in the 
Canary Islands, also expressly condemned it under 
similar circumstance?, as appears from theSacerdos 
Christianus of Abelly (ed. 1737, pp. 562-4.). 
Jacobus Balde, a Jesuit, the author of sundry 
Latin poems (cir. 1625), has one (Satyra 19.) with 
this title, Medici ciijusdam longe clarissimi, Taba- 
cophilia et fatum. Among the Lusus Westmona- 
sterienses (ed. 1740, p. 25.) is one with the motto 

" Disce tubo genitos haurire et reddere fumos." 

Nor are we7,likely to forget the lucubrations on 
tobacco, appended by the Rev. R. Erskine to his 
Gospel Sonnets ! To these many additions may 
be made, especially from prose writers, as Salma- 
sius, who, in his ludicrous character of the Inde- 
pendents, given in the Defensio Regia (ed. 1649, 
p. 354.) amusingly says of their ecclesiastical 
assemblies : " Quidam interim, hausti fistula 
tabaci fumos in angulo revomunt ! " I pass over 

mation. The parfume of the dryed leaves layde upon 
quicke coles, taken into the mouth through the pipe of 
a funnell, or tunnell, helpeth suche as are troubled 
with the shortness of winde, and fetche their breath 
thicke or often, and do breake without daunger the 
impostums of the breast. The roote is of the same 
vertue, if it be layde upon the coles, and the fume 
thereof received into the mouth." ED.] 

"* Note, that this sort of tobacco until the ninth 
of September, 1642, is to pay after the rate of 21., and 
afterwards according to the rate of 31. 

" Spanish or Brazeil tobac. in pudding or roull, 
the ]., 31."' 



Alsted, Yoet, &c., to add a remark on the inven- 
tion of the tobacco-pipe. Some time since a 
remarkable specimen of miniature size was found 
under the foundation of a cottage, which bore the 
date of 1588 on one of its beams. This pipe was 
probably deposited where it was found, about the 
date in question. The occurrence of tobacco- 
pipes under the abbey floor, as mentioned by ME. 
SMITH, is curious ; but has the floor never been 
disturbed ? 

My own impression is, that the common account 
of the introduction of tobacco, and of tobacco- 
pipes, is correctly traced to the last quarter of the 
sixteenth century, when the practice of smoking 
was brought from the Caribbee Islands, where they 
called, not the weed, but the pipe by the name of 
tobacco. B. H. C. 



ABCHAIC WORDS. 

(Continued from Vol. ix., p. 492.) 

Foule, greatly. " Than was Kynge Herode foule 
astonyed of theyr wordes [the wise men's]." The 
Festival, fol. Ixxv. verso, edit. 1528. 

Fraccyon, breaking. The Festival, fol. li. recto. 
" Whan he [Odo] was at Masse, and had made the 
fraccyon, he sawe that blode dropped." 

Fromwarde, returning. The Festival, fol. 1. verso. 
" All his steppes towarde and fromwarde the holy 
chyrche his good aungell rekeneth to his salvacyon." 

Halowe, a thing consecrated. " And the halowes of 
God." The Festival, fol. cxci. verso. 

Imposytoure, a conferrer. Festival, fol. cxxii. verso. 
" Specyally the more, yf the imposytoure and gyver of 
the name have perfyte scyence of the thynge." 

Ineffrenate, lawless. Stubbes, apud Papers of the 
Shakspeare Society, iv. 82. 

Leprehode, the state of leprosy. The Festival, 
fol. Ixxvi. verso. " And as soon as he was chrystened, 
the leprehode fell into the water." 

Lowable, commendable. Caxton's Art of Dying Well, 
fol. A. iii. verso. " Hope, thenne, is a vertue moche 
lowable, and of grete meryte before God." 

Muldworp, a worldling? "Ye maken a maldworp 
stonde there." Wycliffite versions, Prolog, vol. i. 32. 

Maugre, dislike, enmity. Foxe, Acts and Monu- 
ments, vii. 452., edit. 1843. (See also Prompt. Parvu- 
lorum, in voc., at last "let loose from" press.) 

Mightles, weak. " Olde people that ben myghtles." 
The Festival, fol. xv. recto, edit. 1528. 

Mowing, mocking. Festival, fol. cxxviii. recto. The 
devills " stode a ferre of, and sayd mowing, and with a 
croked countenaunce." 

Nosethrylless, in Festival, fol. xcix. verso. 

Outstray, to enlarge. Wycliffite versions, i. 66. 
" The epistles streytnes suffryd not lenger this to ben 
outstrayed," the Latin of Jerome being evagari, cap vi. 

Overlargely, fully. Wycliffite version, i. 66., later 
version, cap. vi. 

Payrement, loss. " That in nothing payrement yee 
suffre of us." Wycliffe's version, 2 Cor. vii. 9. 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



Payne, endure pain. " And made him to be done on 
a crosse, for that he should payne thereon longe or he 
dyed." The Festival, fol. Ivi. recto. 

Perdurubility, endurance. Caxton's Golden Legend, 
"Inv. of the Cross," edit. 1503, as subjoined to Fisher's 
Ancient Paintings at Stratford-upon-Avon, 1838. 

Possessioners, rightful owners. " And ever shall be 
[the Jews] subjectes and not possessioners." The Fes- 
tival, fol. xeix. verso. 

Premyour, the chief, or recompence. "Jesus is ... 
his lovers rewarde and premyour." The Festival, 
fol. cxxiii. verso. 

Rather. " Of the rather people." Wycliffite ver- 
sions, i. 69., where the later gives "former." 

Reprouchable, lamentable. " Yet is the deth of the 
soule .... much more reprouchable." Caxton's Art 
of Dying Well, A. i. verso. 

Resourd, spring up again. " Fro thens .... the 
lyfe resourded, and the stench is tourned into swetnes: 
Canticorum i." Caxton's Golden, Legend, " Invent, of 
Cross." 

Sen-ze, spelt seyne in Wycliffite version, i. 2. : " Seyne 
of Nicene." 

Sharper, shaper? " God the Maker, the sharper of 
all these thynges." The Festival, fol. cxxiiii. recto. 

Shenship, confusion. " The seventh payne is open 
shenship or shame for synne." The Festival, fol. clxxx. 
verso, edit. 1528. " Prophetis of Baal, that counceili- 
den Acal go to werre to his own schenschipe and deth." 
Wycliffite versions, Prolog., p. 30. 

Shepster, a seemster. See " N. & Q,.," Vol. i., 
p. 356. 

Speed, interest. " Yf thou praye ony thynge agaynst 
thyne owne spede." The Festival, fol. clxxxix. recto. 

Stickle. This word seems to mean " to encourage, 
promote," in the passage following : " As on this day 
(24 June) was the conflict at Mersbrough . . . stickled 
forth by the Pope." Liturgical Services, Queen Eliza- 
beth (Parker Society), p. 449. 

Treaty, disquisition. Jewel's Works, edit. Oxford, 
1848 (Reply to Harding, art. v. div. 1. vol. ii. p. 320.) 
" Herein he [Harding] bestowed his whole treaty." 

Unberobbed, secure from loss. The Festival, fol. Ixxvii. 
recto. " So that all the people myght go sage and un- 
berobbed." 

Undepar (ably, inseparably. " Dives and Pauper," 
apud H.Tooke's Diversions of Purley, p. 408. ed. 1840. 

Uiiderjoin, to subjoin. Wycliffe vers., Prolog, i. 38., 
from Dublin MS. 

Underlonte, to condescend. The books of Psalms. 
" Kingis to pore men it maketh underlontynge." 
Prologue to Wycliffite versions, p. 39. note. 

Undren. " An husbounde man went into his gardeyn, 
or vyne yearde, at prime, and ayen at undren or myd- 
day." Liber Ftstivalis, fol. v. verso, edit. Paris, 1495. 

Ungilty, guiltless. Coverdale's Bible, Exod. xxi. 

Unmiyhtfulness, reducing, weakening. Foxe, Acts 
and Monuments, iii. 114., edit. 1843. " Wrongfull op- 
pression of commons for unmightfulnesse of realmes." 

Upstyenye, rising up, ascension. " Thus for grete 
wonder that the lower aungelles had of his [Christ's] 
upstyenge." The Festival, fol. xli. recto, ed. 1528.' 

Uttcrmore, additional. " Withouten uttennore help." 
Wye-lift", versions, Prolog., i. 37., from Dublin MS. 



Vading, failing. " Vading of water." Foxe, vol. ii. 
177., edit. 1843. 

Venom, as a verb, to envenom. " A grete dragon . . . 
venymed the people so with her brethynge." Festival, 
fol. xcviii. verso. 

Vocyall, by word of mouth. " Confessyon vocyall." 
The Festival, fol. clxxxiiii. verso. 

Voydly, uselessly. " Beware that thou bare not that 
name voydly." The Festival, fol. clvii. verso. 

Wair, a pool ? " The bysshop of the temple let 
make a way re .... to washe in shepe." The Festival, 
fol. ci. recto. 

Waryinge, cursing. Wyeliff. vers. of Rom. iii. 1 4. 

Wederynge, fine weather. The Festival, fol. cxciv. 
verso. " That God sende suche wederynge that they 
may growe." 

Welowynge, fading. " Roses, lelyes, and floures with- 
out welowynge." The Festival, fol. cxlii. verso. 

Withinforth, internally. " For only contrycyon wy- 
thinforth may suffyce in suche a case." Caxton's Art 
of Dying Well, fol. A. iii. recto; Foxe, ii. 744., ed. 1843. 

Wtthoutforth, externally. The Festival, fol. xxxi. 
recto. 

Wonders, exceedingly. " Than was Kynge Herode 
wonders wroth." Fest., fol. Ixxv. verso. " A wonders 
ryche man." Fol. x. verso. 

Yeasely, feebly ? Latimer to Hubherdin, in Foxe, 
vol. vii. Append. 209., edit. 1843. "Which two per- 
suasions though they be in very dede lyes, as 1 trust in 
God to shew them, yet though they were true did but 
yeasely prove your intention." 

N. B. The explanation of words offered in the 
foregoing list is in many cases but conjectural, 
and is, of course, fully open to correction or im- 
provement. Novus. 



MODERN PILGRIMAGES AMNET HOLYROOD, 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

Although not aspiring to the relation of any 
anecdote of the author, or of the account of a 
"Pilgrimage to the Holy Land" (Vol. v., p. 289. ; 
Vol. vii., pp. 344. 415 ), I think the following sim- 
ple narrative of pilgrimages to a sacred spot in 
our own country is worthy of preservation in the 
columns of " N. & Q." If we are to credit recent 
writers on the customs of the Irish of making 
yearly pilgrimages to shrines and holy wells, such 
superstitions are gradually giving way to the light 
of divine truth. But in the following relation 
there is neither superstition nor bigotry. 

At a recent meeting of the Cotswold Naturalists' 
Club in Gloucestershire, a paper was read by 
Mr. Charles Pooley upon the still prevalent cus- 
tom of pilgrimages to the churchyard of Amney 
Crucis or Amney Holyrood in that county, the 
church in which parish is dedicated to Holyrood ; 
the parish is in the hundred of Crowthorne and 
Minety : 

" Amney Holy Rood," Mr. Pooley relates, "is not 
deserted, even in these days ; pilgrimages are still made 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



there pilgrimages of deep devoted affection to shrines 
hallowed in the sanctuary of the heart. It was here 
I chanced to overtake a dusty and way-worn traveller 
who had come upwards of forty miles to pay a visit to 
his mother's grave. He told me that for many years 
it had been his annual custom to set apart a few days 
to pay this tribute of affection to her memory. On 
another occasion I met at a neighbouring village two 
young men, who, as they informed me, had just ex- 
piated in gaol a crime of which they had been found 
guiltv. They were in a deplorable state, with scarcely 
a rag to cover them, without shoes or stockings, and 
bareheaded. I assisted them to decipher a few letters, 
almost obliterated, which were chiselled, alas 1 on their 
mother's tomb also. I saw them sit down beside it, and 
pour out their feelings in deep anguish. It was a new 
sight to behold such men, from whom we conceive no 
hardships or sufferings would have wrung a tear, yield- 
ing to the influence of some sweet remembrance of 
tender care ; of some cherished thought of parental 
solicitude ; or, it may be, in sorrow, feeling the con- 
sciousness of early disobedience, with the sad reflection 
of its bitter consequences, and the contrast of their own 
turbulent, reckless life, with the solemn silence and 
peacefulness of their mother's grave. The hour was 
sanctified by such a scene ; and as it seemed an intru- 
sion to be even an accidental spectator of their com- 
nmnings, I left them, pilgrims as they were, though 
not habited ' in cockle hat and sandal shoon,' still 
seated by the grave, forthwith to continue, let us hope, 
under the guardianship of the angels who had thus so 
tenderly touched the sweetest chords of their soul, and 
led them responsive to contrition at that shrine where 
their purest, holiest affections rested. If there are 
churchyards whose gates are padlocked and barred, 
may the remembrance of these incidents relax the bolts 
in favour of those who would pass a solemn moment 
there !" 

J. M. G. 
Worcester. 



FOLK LORE. 

French Folk Lore : Miraculous Powers of a 
Seventh Son. The following abridged translation 
of an article which appeared lately in a French 
provincial paper, Le Journal du Loiret, may prove 
interesting to the collectors of facts bearing on 
popular superstitions : 

" We have more than once had occasion to make our 
readers acquainted with the superstitious practices of 
the Marcous. The Orleanais is the classic land of 
Marcous, and in the Gdtinais every parish at all above 
the common is sure to have its marcou. If a man is 
the seventh son of his father, without any female in- 
tervening, he is a marcou : he has on some part of the 
body the mark of a fleur-de-lis, and, like the kings of 
France, he has the power of curing the king's evil. 
All that is necessary to effect a cure is, that the marcou 
should breathe upon the part affected, or that the suf- 
ferer should touch the mark of the fleur-de-lis. Of all 
the marcous of the Orleanais, he of Ormes is the best 
known and most celebrated. Every year, from twenty, 



thirty, forty leagues around, crowds of patients come 
to visit him ; but it is particularly in Holy Week 
that his power is most efficacious ; and on the night of 
Good Friday, from midnight to sunrise, the cure is 
certain. Accordingly, at this season, from four to five 
hundred persons press round his dwelling to take ad- 
vantage of his wonderful powers." 

The paper then goes on to describe a disturb- 
ance among the crowds assembled this year, in 
consequence of the officers of justice having at- 
tempted to put a stop to the imposture. The- 
article concludes thus : 

" The marcou of Ormes is a cooper in easy circum- 
stances, being the possessor of a horse and carriage. 
His name is Foulon, and in the country he is known 
by the appellation of Le beau marcou. He has the 
fleur-de-lis on his left side, and in this respect is more 
fortunate than the generality of marcous, with whom 
the mysterious sign is apt to hide itself in some part of 
the body quite inaccessible to the eyes of the curious." 

HONORE DE MAKEVLLLE. 

Naval Folk Lore. In reading a French novel 
the other day, I met with, the following passage : 

" Antoine Morand etait un de ces vieux matelots, 
nourris dans les principes de 1'ancienne ecole, qui sif- 
flent pour appeler le vent, et apaisent 1'orage en fouet- 
tant les mousses au pied du grand mat." 

To whistle for a wind is a practice commorr 
I believe to all sailors ; but I do not remember to 
have heard before, that the Spirit of the Storm 
was to be propitiated by flogging the unfortunate 
middies at the main-mast. Can any of your 
readers inform me whether this superstition exists 
among the sailors of other nations besides the 
French, and whether there are any traces of it 
to be found on board of British ships ? 

An infallible recipe for raising a storm is to 
throw a cat overboard. The presence of a clergy- 
man, a corpse, or a dead hare on board a ship is 
said to bring bad weather. A collection of naval 
superstitions would be an interesting addition to 
our folk lore, and I wish that some of your aquatic 
readers would favour us with what they know on 
the subject. HONORE DE MABEVILLE. 



JOHN HENDERSON. 



The generation who knew anything of this 
extraordinary man are now rapidly passing away, 
and whilst a few of them are yet left, it seems, 
desirable to collect and preserve the little that 
may be remembered of him, which is not already 
to be found in the note to Cuttle's Recollections of 
Coleridge. With this view, I send some parti- 
culars relating to his last illness, which I took 
down nineteen years ago from the lips of a highly 
respectable inhabitant of Bristol, since deceased, 
who knew one at least of the parties concerned, 
and I believe all of them who were resident in 
that city. 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



John Henderson had a relation named Mary 
Macy, who lived on Redcliff Hill : she was a very 
extraordinary woman, and had a sort of gift of 
second sight. One night she dreamed that John 
Henderson was gone to Oxford, and that he died 
there. In the course of the next day, John Hen- 
derson called to take leave of her, saying that he 
was going to Oxford to study something concern- 
ing which he could not obtain the information 
he wanted in Bristol. Mary Macy said to him, 
" John, you'll die there ; " to which he answered, 
" I know it." 

Some time afterwards Mary Macy waked her 
husband, saying to him, " Remember that John 
Henderson died at two o'clock this morning, and 
it is now three." Philip Macy made light of it, 
but she told him that she had dreamed (and was 
conscious that she was dreaming) that she was 
transported to Oxford, to which city she had 
never been in reality ; and that she entered a room 
there, in which she saw John Henderson in bed, 
the landlady supporting his head, and the land- 
lord and others surrounding him. While looking 
at him, she saw some one give him medicine ; after 
which John Henderson saw her, and said, " Oh ! 
Mrs. Macy, I am going to die ; I am so glad you 
are come, for I want to tell you that my father is 
going to be very ill, and that you must go to see 
him." He then proceeded to describe a room in 
his father's house, and a bureau in it : " In which 
is a box containing some pills ; give him so many 
of them, and he will recover." Her impression of 
all in the room was most vivid, and she even 
described the appearance of the houses on the 
opposite side of the street. The only object she 
appeared not to have seen was a clergyman, who 
was in attendance on John Henderson. Hender- 
son's father, going to the funeral, took Philip 
Macy with him ; and on the way to Oxford, Philip 
Macy told him the particulars of his son's death, 
which they found to have been strictly correct as 
related^ by Mary Macy. Mary Macy was too 
much interested about John Henderson's death 
to think anything of his directions about the pills, 
yet, some time afterwards, she was sent for by the 
father, who was ill. She then remembered her 
dream ; found the room, the bureau, and the pills, 
exactly as had been foretold, and they had the 
promised effect, for Henderson was cured. 

Hannah More several times alludes to John 
Henderson in her letters, and appears to have 
known him personally. N. J. A. 



Hcrrick and Southey. The article in the 
Quarterly Review for 1810, on Dr. Nott's Herrick, 
was not written by Southey, to whom it is com- 
monly attributed, but by the late Mr. Barren 



Field, the friend of Charles Lamb, and, I have 
pleasure in adding, my friend as well. Your 
able correspondent ME. SINGER (as the editor of 
Herrick) may be glad to know this. MR. SINGER 
has followed the common report, but my inform- 
ant was Mr. Field himself. If Mr. Field had 
lived another year, I was to have accompanied 
him on his second visit to Dean Prior. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 
Kensington. 

Westminster Abbey a Cathedral. 

"Robbing Peter to pay Paul. On the 17th De- 
cember, 1540, the abbey church of S. Peter, West- 
minster, was advanced to the dignity of a cathedral by 
the king's letters patent. Dr. Thos. Thirlby was obliged 
to surrender his see in 1550, when the diocese of Mid- 
dlesex was rejoined to that of London ; and several 
estates belonging to the Dean of Westminster were 
granted in trust for the repairs of S. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. Hence is said to have sprung the adage, ' Rob- 
bing Peter to pay Paul.' An act of parliament after- 
wards passed, declaring that Westminster should still 
remain a cathedral, under a dean and chapter, but sub- 
ordinate to the diocese of London." See Winkle's 
Cathedrals, Introd. ( The Guardian, Nov. 16, 1853.) 

A. A. D. 

Barony of Ferrers of Chariley. I have not 
seen noticed in any of the periodicals the curious 
coincidence that the recent death of Lord Charles 
Townshend s. p. places his nephew, Mr. Ferrers 
of Baddesley-Clinton, in the next degree of suc- 
cession, not only to the peerage, in which his 
family occupied a prominent station for three cen- 
turies, but to the very title of his own male 
ancestry. J. S. WARDEN. 

Vampires. The following paragraph is, per- 
haps, worth preserving in the columns of " N. & 
Q." I send it to you as copied from The Times 
of June 23 : 

"Vampires in the United States. The Norwich (U. 
S.) Courier relates a strange and almost incredible tale 
of superstition recently enacted at Jewett City in that 
vicinity. About eight years ago, Horace Ray, of Gris- 
wold, died of consumption. Since that time two of 
his children, grown-up people, have died of the same 
disease the last one dying some two years since. 
Not long ago the same fatal disease seized upon an- 
other son, whereupon it was determined to exhume 
the bodies of the two brothers already dead and burn 
them, because the dead were supposed to feed upon 
the living ; and so long as the dead body in the grave 
remained in a state of decomposition, either wholly or 
in part, the surviving members of the family must con- 
tinue to furnish the substance on which the dead body 
fed. Acting under the influence of this strange and 
blind superstition, the family and friends of the de- 
ceased proceeded to the burial-ground at Jewett City 
on the 8th instant, dug up the bodies of the deceased 
brethren, and burnt them on the spot." 

R.V.T. 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



MISCELLANEOUS MANUSCRIPTS. 

I have had a manuscript book lent to me con- 
taining the following works, and I shall be very 
glad to be informed by any of your correspondents 
which, if any, are in print, and where they are to 
be found : 

1. " Brevis Relatio eorum qua? spectant ad 
declarationem Sinarum Imperatoris Kara Hi circa 
coeli Cumfucii et Avorum cultum, datam anno 
1700. Accedunt primatum doetissimorumque 
virorum et antiquissirna? traditionis Testimonia. 
Opera P. P. Societ. Jesu Pebini, pro Evangelii 
propagatione laborantium." 

At the foot of this title-page follows some 
writing, which I cannot read, and which I do not 
think you would be able to print. 

I have endeavoured to give a fac-simile of the 
first three parts of it ; the end is evidently " by 
Mr. Hodges." 

2. " De Imputatione Actualis Adas Peccati." 
Reference is made in the coTirse of this article, 

which I have not yet read, to Pighius, Bellarmini, 
Daniel Camerius, Chemnitz, Calvin, and a host of 
authors of that celebrity. 

The first part shows that not all the Protestant 
churches have taught that the actual sin of Adam 
is imputed to us, both from their own public con- 
fessions and from the treatises of some of the most 
famous writers among them. 

The second part shows that the ancient Fathers, 
and especially Augustine, by no means seem to 
have recognised that hypothesis concerning the 
imputation of Adam's sin. 

The third part shows that that hypothesis con- 
cerning imputation neither is to be found in 
Scripture, nor is of any weight as regards piety, 
and that therefore it ought by no means to be 
accounted and set down among the common public 
articles of faith. 

Such is the translation of the heading of each 
part. The whole is in Latin. 

3. The general assembly of the Chapter of the 
Catholick Church, held in May, A.D. 1667. 

This just states the occasion of the assembly; 
then follows " The Roll of Chaptermen and officers, 
as it stood at the beginning of this assembly." 

Then follow the records of the several sessions 
of May 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and llth, and after that 
rules for Dean's, Treasurer's, Secretary's, Vicar- 
General's, and Archdeacon's office. 

It appears by the signatures to be an original 
document. 

4. The fourth is a catalogue of the library of 
Isaac Vossius : " Catalogus codicum manuscrip- 
torum integrioris notss et exactions curse in Bi- 
bliotheca viri clarissimi D. Isaac! Vossii." 

5. The fifth is entitled, "Memoire pour trois 
manuscrits arabes nouvellement apportes d'orient." 



According to this Memoir the MSS. in question 
treat of the religion of the Druses, and of their 
laws, statutes, and ordinances, " dont on n'avait 
point entendu parler jusqu'a present." 

The discovery of these MSS. is due to Sieur 
Nosvallah Glide, "natif de la ville de Damas, 
medecin de profession." 

6. A MS. without title-page, on the back of 
which is written, " MS. notes cont. the grounds 
of grammar." It contains a Latin grammar, or 
rather accidence, a good deal of which is rude 
rhyme. 

7. A MS. inscribed on the back " S. Chrys. 
Anecd. in Bibl. Bodl. Ox." with the former owner's 
name on the top of the first page of the dedica- 
tion, " Rev. D ri ac Dns Dns Arthuro Charlett," 
not in the same hand as that in which the rest of 
the MS. is written. This also seems to be an 
original poem. It is a new year's gift from Hum- 
fredus Wanley to a superior officer in his own 
college, and bears date Kal. Jan. 1698-9. So 
says the dedication. 

The MS. is entitled 

" nival- ffvv S-e< TWV \6ycavKal iriffro\iv avftcSSTuv 
TOV ev ayiois irarpbs fifjuav 'Icadvvov apxieTrHrKSirov Ko>p- 
(TTavrlvov ir6\eus TOV X.pvcroffT6[j.ov, rwv pfXP 1 TO " Vvv 
&v TJ) TOV BoS\fiov /3tAto0^/c7j 'Q6vriffi Trepiexofievctiv." 

Then follows the Catalogue, very neatly written, 
giving the title and the opening words of the 
several treatises, &c., which are very numerous, 
and the shelf on which each is kept. 

8. A letter from Rome, dated at the end of 
May 7, 1687, containing an account of the per- 
secution of Count Molinos by the Jesuits. It has 
no name, but is entitled " Copie of a letter from 
H." It appears to be a Catholic revealing to a 
friend in England the history of the spread of 
Quietism, and the efforts made by the Roman 
hierachy to keep it in check. 

9. " A Relation showing how Mr. Lewis Ramee 
was detained in y e prisons of y e Inquisition at 
Mexico and in Spain, and concerning his happy 
deliverance, sent by himself to Madam de ." 

This MS., which is very interesting indeed, and 
full of good spirit, the work of an able man, has 
an appendix of letters between him and his friends 
and persons of authority, treating about his re- 
lease. -E. C. S. 



Boswell and Malones Notes on Milton. Have 
the Boswell MS. Notes on Milton's Poems, edited 
by Warton, and Malone's MS. Notes on Milton's 
Letters of State between 1649 and 1659, been pub- 
lished ? GABLICHITHE. 

Water-cure in 1764. The following passage 
from Rousseau's Confessions, which occurs near 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



the beginning of the sixth book of the first part, is 
a sufficiently curious illustration of " nothing new 
under the sun," to be worth citing in 1854 : 

" C'etait alors la mode de 1'eau pour tout remede ; 
je me mis a 1'eau, et si peu discretement, qu'elle faillit 
me guerir, non de mes maux, mais de la vie." 

Can any sweeper up of the crumbs of history 
furnish the readers of " N. & Q." with any par- 
ticulars respecting this eighteenth century avatar 
of hydropathy, its promoters, its methods, its du- 
ration ? or must the water-doctors before Priess- 
nitz be consigned to the same limbo as the brave 
before Agamemnon ? T. A. T. 

Florence. 

Correspondence between Pilate and Herod, Sfc. 
In the Add. MSS., No. 14,609., there is a letter 
from Herod to Pilate, and another in reply, from 
Pilate to Herod. These are followed by re- 
ferences to Justin Martyr, and one Theodorus, 
who wrote to Pilate about Christ. Is the alleged 
correspondence here alluded to elsewhere to be 
found, or found mentioned ? The documents 
above referred to are in the Syriac language. 

B. H. C. 

The Architect of the Monastery of Batalha in 
Portugal. Murphy, in his well-known work on 
this noble fifteenth century structure, states that 
its architect was "David Hacket, an Irishman," 
and gives as his authority Joze Scares da Sylva, 
who in his Mem. del Rey D. Joano 1, torn. ii. 
p. 533., refers to " one of the memoirs of F. An- 
tonio da Madureira, a Dominican friar, and a 
celebrated genealogist." I should feel much 
obliged for information as to the latter writer. 
First, as to writings, whether they are in print or 
not ? Secondly, if so, whether the David Hacket 
above referred to was a native of Kilkenny, and 
identical with a prelate of the same name who 
filled the see of Ossory from 1460 to 1479 ? 

JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 

Stoneham. Can any one furnish me with a 
pedigree of, or any information concerning the 
family of this name ? Is it connected with the 
villages (I believe) of Stoneham-on and under- 
the-Hill, in Sussex ? G. WILLIAM SKYRING. 

Somerset House. 

Chinese Language. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me as to the best method of 
studying the Chinese language ? What are the 
best works on the subject ? Where, and at what 
price, may these works be obtained ? 

L. H. WALTERS. 

Amelia, Daughter of George II. Are there 
any records or documents that may be referred 
to of the appointments to the household of the 



Princess Amelia, daughter of George II., and 
aunt of George III. ? LEVERET. 

" Virtue and Vice." A Treatise in Prose and 
Verse, or Virtue and Vice, was published in 1783, 
8vo. pp. 320 : 

" It may be necessary and proper," says the anony- 
mous author, " to let the uncandid reader know of a 
truth, before he reads the following reflections, that if 
every man had been like the writer (touching the sub- 
ject-matter of this book), in sentiments and conduct, 
there never would have been a Dalilah upon the earth." 

He treats his subject in an extraordinary way, 
and I should like to know who the immaculate 
man was. J. O. 

Duchesse D' 'Abrantes. Having been reading 
the memoirs of Madame Junot, Duchess D'A- 
brantes, I am anxious to know whether the fol- 
lowing paragraph in the Athenceum of January 7 
(No. 1367. p. 25.) relates to that individual, and, 
if so, what authority there is for the statement. 
The AthencEurn, in speaking of the hideous con- 
trasts in Paris, quotes Father Prout, saying, 

" ' Paris ! gorgeous abode of the gay. Paris ! haunt of 
despair.' 

Where Balzac laid the scene of his fictitious Pere 
Goriot, and where the brilliant Duchess D'Abrantes 
in her time the extravagant queen of a gay salon 
ended her days in a common hospital." 

M. D. 
Great Yarmouth. . 

"Perf.de Albion!" What was the origin, or 
the occasion of Napoleon's compliment to Eng- 
land, when he named her " perfide Albion ? " 

G. T. H. 

Polygamy among the Turks. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me what is the actual con- 
dition of the Turks with respect to polygamy ? 
Is it only the privilege of the wealthy? or, if more 
general, whence the supply of wives ? In other 
nations there is no great disparity in the numbers 
of the sexes. G. T. H. 

Edward I. What is the evidence for an in- 
formation, which I once obtained from a very 
trustworthy historian, that the name of Edward 1. 
had been inscribed on the books of the University 
of Padua ? and when and by whom is this great 
prince first called the English Justinian ? a. 

" Nagging" Whence is this word derived ? 
Is it to be found in any dictionary ? Is it a cor- 
ruption of hnacking ? Is there any authority for 
the use of the word ? G. 

Constantinople. Where is to be found the 
prophecy, in every one's mouth, that the Turks 
will hold Constantinople for four centuries ? 

NEMO. 



30 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 245. 



Minor 

Milton's Amour. Is the name and family of 
the lady of wit and beauty, to whom Milton paid 
attentions of a tender nature, during his temporary 
separation from his first wife, known ? 

GAELICHITHE. 

[Mr. Mitford, in his " Life of Milton," prefixed to 
his Works, vol. i. p. Iviii., notices the poet's attentions 
to the fair sex at this period: "The golden reins 
of discipline and government in the Church being now 
let loose, Milton proceeded to put in practice the doc- 
trine which he advocated, and seriously paid his ad- 
dresses to a very accomplished and beautiful young 
lady, the daughter of Dr. Davis ; the lady, however, 
hesitated, and was not easily to be persuaded into the 
lawfulness of the proposal, which fortunately termi- 
nated in effecting a happy reconciliation with the 
offending and discarded wife." In a note, Mr. Mit- 
ford farther states that " during the desertion of his 
wife, Milton frequented the society of the Lady Mar- 
garet Leigh, a person of distinction and accomplish- 
ment. To Lady Ranelagh, the favourite sister of the 
illustrious Boyle, in his later years he was gratefully 
attached. He says of her to her son, who had been 
his pupil, ' Nam et mini omnium necessitudinum loco 
fuit.' The reader will be referred with pleasure, on 
the mention of this illustrious lady, to Mr. Crossley's 
learned and interesting Diary of Dr. Worthington, 
p. 124. &c."] 

President of St. Johns. Who was President 
of St. John's, Oxford, in 1721 ? And is any 
printed sermon by him extant, in which the fol- 
lowing passage occurs ? 

" And the Church of England has the peculiar mis- 
fortune, under the profession of the purest faith, to see 
them made teachers and governors in her communion, 
who either deny or betray all the great articles of the 
Christian religion. But it is to be remembered that 
these men, though at present vitally united to it, as 
extraneous adventitious particles to the human body, 
we have been speaking of, yet are not of the essence of 
it, nor enter into its identity ; and when at last they 
are dropt from it, it may be hoped there may le a glorious 
resurrection wit/tout them ! " 

T.A.T. 

Florence. 

[Dr. William Delaune was President of St. John's 
College, Oxford, in 1721 ; and daring that year pub- 
lished a sermon on Original Sin. We have glanced 
through that sermon, as well as twelve others published 
by him, but cannot discover the passage quoted above.] 

John Buncle. Who wrote the Autobiography 
of John Buncle, Esq., in two vols., London, 1766 ? 
I presume the name to be a fictitious one. If not, 
who was John Buncle, and what particulars about 
him are known ? The book in question is an ex- 
ceedingly strange one in many ways. A more or 
less connected narrative is made the thread on 
which are strung a variety of theological discus- 



sions, by no means remarkable for good taste in 
their manner, or orthodoxy in their matter. 
Mingled with these are a suite of the most auda- 
ciously improbable adventures, all related in the 
most simple matter-of-fact manner ; the principal 
scene of which is represented to have been that 
part of Yorkshire called Richmondshire. Among 
a variety of strange and unaccountable statements, 
the following struck me as remarkable as a re- 
markable fact that is, or as a remarkable lie. He 
speaks of the "grandson of the great primate 
Usher, and the only remaining person of the 
archbishop's family," as " the most violent papist 
I ever saw. I knew the man," he proceeds to say, 
" in Dublin, and have never heard so outrageous 
a Catholic as he was. He said, to my astonish- 
ment, that his grandfather was a great light, but 
burnt with his head downwards in this world, till 
he dropped into hell in the next." Was Usher's 
grandson the only remaining member of the pri- 
mate's family ? Was he a Roman Catholic ? and 
was he a man likely to have uttered the above 
atrocity ? T. A. T. 

Florence. 

[The author of this work is the eccentric Thomas 
Amory, who appears to have travelled in search of 
Socinians, as Don Quixotte in search of chivalrous 
adventures, and probably from a similar degree of in- 
sanity. In 1755 he published Memoirs: containing the 
Lives of several Ladies of Great Britain. The charac- 
ters of these ladies are truly ridiculous, and probably 
the offspring of fiction. They are not only beautiful, 
learned, ingenious, and religious, but they are all zealous 
Socinians in a very high degree of heterodoxy. At the 
end of these Memoirs he promised a continuation of 
them, which was to contain what the public would 
then have received with great satisfaction, and certainly 
would still, should the MSS. luckily remain extant, 
namely, " An Account of two very extraordinary per- 
sons, Dean Swift and Mrs. Constantia Grierson." " As 
to the Dean," he says, " we have four histories of him 
lately published : to wit, by Lord Orrery, the Observer 
on Lord Orrery, Deane Swift, Esq., and. Mrs. Pilking- 
ton." Of course these pieces are all imperfect and very 
unsatisfactory ; but he adds, " I think I can draw his 
character, not from his writings, but from my own near 
observations of the man. I knew him well, though I 
never was within sight of his house, because I could 
not flatter, cringe, or meanly humour the extrava- 
gancies of any man. I am sure I knew him better 
than any of those friends he entertained twice a week 
at the deanery, Stella excepted. I had him often to 
myself in his rides and walks, and have studied his 
soul when he little thought what I was about. As I 
lodged for a year within a few doors of him, I knew his 
times of going out to a minute, and generally nicked 
the opportunity. I knew the excellencies and defects 
of his understanding ; and the picture I have drawn of 
his mind, you shall see in the Appendix aforesaid. As 
to Mrs. Grierson, Mr. Ballard's account of her in his 
Memoirs of some English Ladies, lately published, is not 
worth a rush !" This Appendix was never published, 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



to the great loss of Disraeli and his Curiosities of 
Literattire. Amory is said to have been educated for 
a physician, but is not known to have ever practised. 
He appears, from his works, to have been evidently 
deranged. He died in 1788, aged ninety-seven. There 
are two or three letters relative to the family, and the 
eccentric habits of this individual, in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, vols. Iviii. and lix. A good biographical 
sketch of him is given in Chalmers' Biographical Dic- 
tionary, s. v.3 

John Zephaniah Holwell. Can any of your 
readers inform me where John Zephaniah Hol- 
well, Esq., who died at Pinner in 1798, was buried, 
and if any monument has been erected to his 
memory? His narrative of his sufferings in 1758 
is well known. In De La Motte's heraldic work, 
printed in 1803, he is described as of Walton in 
Surrey. I have been some time collecting all I 
can about the worthies of this parish, and have 
searched in vain in the registers for his name. 
His age too is a matter of doubt ; as, in the Annual 
Register, I find that he died in his one hundred 
and first year, while the Gent. Mag. makes him 
ninety-eight ; and the Handbook of Harrow states 
that he was born in Dublin, Sept. 17, 1711, and 
died Nov. 5, 1798. F. G. W. 

Pinner. 

[We would recommend a search to be made in the 
registers of Fulham, as Faulkner, in his History, 
p. 349., states that Zephaniah Holwell was buried in 
that churchyard, A. D. 3771; but this is clearly an 
error, as Lysons' Environs, vol. ii. p. 412., more cor- 
rectly notices that Elizabeth, wife of Zephaniah Hol- 
well, Esq., was buried there in 1771.] 

Leases. Will one of your readers, learned in 
the law, be good enough to explain why leases are 
granted for 99 years, or 999 years, rather than for 
100 years or 1000 years? Is there some technical 
reason for this, and where can an explanation of 
it be found ? E. II. H. 

[There is no sound technical or legal reason. The 
estate would be of the same nature if the terms were 
for 100 and 1000 years respectively as 99 or 999. It 
is a custom to have the odd number, which has arisen 
from some old notion that 1000 years was equal to a 
freehold, and that ] 00 years was too long for a build- 
ing-lease.] 



TWO BROTHERS OF THE SAME CHRISTIAN NAME. 

(Vol. ix., p. 125.) 

A correspondent of yours has written on the 
above subject, in which he brought forward in- 
stances of two brothers of the same Christian 
name ; but those mentioned by him are of rather 
a remote period. The only instance of compara- 
tively recent date that I can mention, is the Mor- 



gans, of Tredegar Park, near Newport, Mon- 
mouthshire. The late Sir Charles Morgan had 
two sons of the same Christian name, viz., Charles 
Morgan Robinson Morgan, the present Baronet, 
and Charles Octavius S winner ton Morgan, M. P. 
for Monmouthshire. Perhaps an objection may 
be made to the above, as the Morgans have in- 
termediate names, whereby they are distinguished. 
But on the other hand, at the time when those 
persons lived, that are mentioned by your Chester 
correspondent, two or more names were then never 
given to a child at baptism. J. D. LTJCAS. 

Bristol. 

About sixteen years ago, having occasion to 
inquire of John Tod as to his circumstances and 
family, he informed me that he had thirteen 
children, seven of whom were sons, each named 
John, five of them then living ; and of six daugh- 
ters then alive, three were named Parnell. 

H. EDWARDS. 

An instance of this kind will be found in the 
noble family of Hawkins. Vide Burke's Peerage 
and Baronetage, p. 496. edit. 1848. W. W. 

Malta. 

To the instances of two brothers with the same 
Christian name already given, add that of Edmund 
Verney, tried for his share in Dudley's conspiracy, 
June 11, 1556, whose brother, Sir Edmund Ver- 
ney, of Penley, Knight, was his heir. See pedigree 
m*Letters and Papers of the Verney Family, pub- 
lished by the Camden Soc. ; also page 78. of the 
same. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

An ancient instance of this occurs in a grant 
made by Robert de Vallibus, to Castleacre Priory, 
as early, probably, as the reign of William Rufus 
or Henry I. He thereby grants a mill in Pentney, 
and other property, to the Priory, for the health 
of himself, his wife, and his sons, and for the souls 
of his father and mother, and of his brother, 
Robert Pinguis, and of the rest of his brethren, to 
wit, Gilbert and Hubert. Pinguis was probably 
a bye-name, given to the second Robert, to dis- 
tinguish him from his brother of the same name. 

ANOTT. 

Your correspondent, who refers to Lodge's 
Peerage "for instances of two brothers in families 
having the same name, quotes the names of the 
sons of the Marquis of Ormonde, all of whom 
bear the Christian name of James. He might 
have added the fact, from the same source, of all 
the sons of the Duke of Portland bearing that 
of William. This is presumed to have been in 
honour of William, Prince of Orange (afterwards 
William III. of England), by whom the family 
was first ennobled. Perhaps the name of James, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



in the Ormonde family, has been adopted in 
honour of the monarch whom William dethroned. 
From the same authority it will also be seen that 
not only are all the sons of the late Earl of 
Carlisle named George, but all the daughters 
Georgiana. ANON. 



ARMORIAJL. 

(Vol. ix., p. 398.) 

I have searched for the coats mentioned by 
CID, without being able to find more than two of 
them, which are, 1. Brendesley, Per pale or and 
sable (I could not find a coat sable and or), a 
chevron between three escallops counterchanged. 
2. Mackmorough. Gules, a lion rampant argent. 
There are many coats quarterly per fess indented, 
but not one of the colours named : the same 
remark applies to the three conies. 

The case put by the same correspondent is one 
not to be easily answered by an amateur herald 
or a non-professional writer. My first impression 
was that, except by the will of A., his arms could 
not be borne legally by his daughter's children, 
her husband being no gentleman of coat armour. 
And for this reason ; he, bearing no arms, could 
neither impale those of his wife, nor bear them 
on an escutcheon of pretence. Much less then 
could he transmit them to his issue. 

I expected to find that some of our learned 
writers would solve the question, and spent some 
time in searching the pages of Gwillim, Gerard, 
Legh, Nisbet, Berry, Robson, the Glossary, and a 
host of smaller fry, without success. At length I 
met with a copy of the MS. (preserved in the 
College of Arms) of the indefatigable Glover, en- 
titled Rules for the dewe quartering of Arms. The 
eighth of these Rules states that 

" If an inheritrix marrie a man that bearith no 
armes, her issue by that husband shall not bear the j 
mother's father's armes, because the heires of inherit- 
ance be only permitted to quarter the armes of her 
ancestors with his owne, which he having none, cannot 
do ; and if he should bear them alone as his own proper j 
coate of name, it were an injury to the issue male of 
her ancestors, which is not to be permitted or suffered : 
bot iff at any tyme either the husband of such in- 
heritance or any her issues by him have armes to them 
given, then may they lawfully quarter their father's 
arms therewith." 

In the case before us there is certainly this 
slight difference, that A. is said to have been the 
last and only representative of his family, where- 
fore there could be no " injury to the issue male " 
of his daughter's ancestors; but the adoption of 
his arms by B.'s descendants would be likely to 
bring contempt upon both them and the "gentle 
science of armorie." BROCTCNA. 

Bury, Lancashire. 



It would be, I believe, quite irregular for the 
issue of B. to use the arms, quarterings, crest, 
and motto of A. under the circumstances stated. 
The proper course to be adopted is for the issue 
of B. (who are said to have no arms of their own) 
to apply to the Heralds' College for a grant of 
arms ; they will then be in a legal position to bear 
the arms and quarterings of A. quarterly with 
their own family arms, assuming that A. had a 
legal right to them himself, which, as " being the 
representative of an ancient family," most pro- 
bably he had. C. J. 



INN SIGNS, ETC. 

(VoLix., pp. 148.251.) 

" Chequers. During the Middle Ages it was usual 
for merchants, accountants, and judges, who arranged 
matters of revenue, to appear on a covered ' bane,' so 
called from an old Saxon word meaning a seat (hence 
our bank). Before them was placed a flat surface, 
divided by parallel white lines into perpendicular co- 
lumns; these again divided transversely by lines crossing 
the former, so as to separate each column into squares. 
This table was called an exchequer, from its resemblance 
to a chess-board, and the calculations were made by 
counters placed on its several divisions (something 
after the manner of the Roman abacus). A money- 
changer's office was generally indicated by a sign of 
the chequered board suspended. This sign afterwards 
came to indicate an inn or house of entertainment, 
probably from the circumstance of the innkeeper also 
following the trade of money-changer; a coincidence 
still very common in seaport towns." Dr. Lardner's 
Arithmetic, p. 44. 

A. A. D. 

In reply to your correspondent S. A., I beg to 
inform him that wine-shops with the sign of the 
chequers were by no means uncommon in Italy. 
Two such were recently excavated at Pompeii. 
A temple dedicated to Isis, the fabled wife of 
Osiris, who corresponded to the Ceres, as her 
husband to the Bacchus of the Romans, was dis- 
interred at the same place ; but what the symbol 
represents has never been clearly discovered. 
Some suppose it to bear the same signification as 
it properly does in England, viz. a licence to the 
frequenters of that house to play at dice or similar 
games of chance. A. F. 

Oxford. 

Many years since, while on a tour in Cornwall, 
I remember seeing on the signboard of the inn 
at Sennen, a small village near the Land's End, 
en one side " The First Inn in England," and on 
the other " The Last Inn in England." 

HENRY STEPHENS. 

Your correspondent G. W. THORNBURY says 
the Goat with the Golden Boots is from the Dutch 
" Goed in der Gooden Boote," Mercury, or the 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



God in the Golden Boots : if the exotic words be- 
long to any language, it is not the Dutch, as I am 
sure your friendly cotemporary De Navorscher 
will tell you. J. K. 

" Green Man and Still. In the sign of the ' Green 
Man and Still,' we perceive a huntsman, in a green 
coat, standing by the side of a still , in allusion, as it 
has been facetiously conjectured, to the partiality 
shown by that description of gentry to a morning 
dram. The genuine representation, however, should 
be the green man (or man who deals in green herbs), 
with a bundle of peppermint or penny-royal under 
his arm, which he brings to be distilled." Ritson's 
Life of Robin Hood, notes and illustrations (N.) 5. 

THOMPSON COOPER. 
Cambridge. 

Ma. THORNBURT derives "Pig and Whistle" 
from " Peg and Wassail Bowl," which appears to 
me equally unintelligible. May I suggest that it 
is a corruption of " Pyx and Housel ? " I need 
hardly mention that the Pyx is the small chest or 
box, in which the Housel or Host is reserved by 
the Roman Catholics. G. A. T. 

While stopping for refreshment, during a country 
ramble the other day, at " The Maypole " on the 
confines of Hainault Forest immortalised in 
Barndby Rudge, I observed the following lines over 
the fire-place : 

" All you who stand 
Before the fire, 
I pray sit down ; 
It 's my desire, 
That other folks 

As well as you, 
May see the fire 
And feel it too!" 

" N.B. My liquors good, 

My measures just ; 
Excuse me, sirs, 
I cannot trust ! " 

Over the stable-door were the following : 
" Whoever smokes tobacco here, 

Shall forfeit sixpence to spend in beer ; 
Your pipes lay by, when you come here, 
Or fire to me may prove severe." 

TYE. 

At Wadsley Bridge, in the parish of Ecclesfield, 
there is this motto to the sign of " The Gate :" 

" This Gate hangs well and hinders none: 
Refresh, and pay, and travel on." 

ALFRED GATTT. 

The following lines occur beneath the sign of a 
Lion in this State : 

" The lion roars, but do not fear ; 
Cakes and beer sold here." 

UNEDA. 
Philadelphia. 



LESLIE AND DR. MIDDLETON. 

(Vol. ix., pp. 324. 575.) 

The reference to Blackwood's Magazine, for 
which I am obliged to J. O. B,, enables me to 
trace the imputation on Middleton to a distin- 
guished writer. The article, entitled " Cicero," 
is reprinted in the second volume of the Boston 
edition of Mr. De Quincey's Historical Essays. 

Some years ago I bought all books on "The 
Miraculous Powers Controversy" that fell in my 
way, and read many of them ; but neither among 
the cotemporary adversaries of Middleton, nor in 
his own writings, can I find any trace of its having 
been said that " he sought for twenty years some 
historical facts which might conform to Leslie's 
four conditions, and yet evade Leslie's logic." 
Mr. De Quincey cites no authority. There may 
be some, and I shall gladly receive any farther 
assistance on the question. 

Mr. De Quincey treats Middleton with great 
severity. He begins with " Conyers Middleton is 
a name that cannot be mentioned without dis- 
gust;" and ascribes his partiality to Cicero to a 
hatred of Christianity, which induced him to de- 
pict a heathen with all virtues. He says : 

" He (Middleton) wished to have it believed that 
he was worse than he seemed, and that he would be a 
fort esprit of a high cast, but for the bigotry of his 
church. It was a fine thing to have the credit of in- 
fidelity without paying for a license to sport over those 
manors without a qualification." 

Is there any foundation for this charge ? I 
doubt whether the principal librarian of the 
University of Cambridge would ever have thought 
it desirable " to be believed worse than he was," 
or "a fine thing" to be credited with a large 
amount of infidelity. 

" Conyers Middleton held considerable preferment in 
the Church of England. Long after he had become an 
enemy to that church (not separately for itself, but as 
a strong form of Christianity ), he continued to receive 
large quarterly cheques upon a bank in Lombard Street, 
of which the original condition had been that he should 
defend Christianity with all his soul and with all his 
strength." 

As to the " large preferment," all I can find 
about it is the following from the Penny Cyclo- 
pcedia, art. MIDDLETON : 

"He died at Hildersham on the 28th July, 1750. 
He accepted, shortly before his 'death, a small living from 
Sir John Frederick. His subscription to the Thirty- 
Nine Articles was represented by his enemies, but 
whether truly or not it is difficult to say, as hypo- 
critical and insincere." 

Allowance may be made for inaccuracies which 
escape a writer's attention in the hurry of com- 
posing a brilliant magazine article, but they should 
be set right in reprints. That this has not been 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



[No. 245. 



done in the American edition of Mr. De Quincey's 
works, I have shown (" N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 26.), 
and perhaps the above will be thought to the same 
effect. A much graver charge of misrepresent- 
ation, uncorrected in the English edition, may be 
seen in Mr. Henderson's Sketch of Kanfs Life 
and Works (p. Ixxv.), prefixed to the translation 
of Victor Cousin's Philosophy of Kant. H. B. C. 
U. U. Club. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

[The following documents will, we believe, be perused 
with great interest at the present moment, and be here- 
after regarded as valuable materials towards the History 
of Photography,] 

Rev. J. B. EEADE, on Mr. H. Fox Talbofs Claim to the 
Priority of Discovery of the Use of Gallic Acid in Pho- 
tography. 

Stone Vicarage, Aylesbury, June 24, 1854. 

Dear Sir, On my return home after some days' ab- 
sence, I find my attention called to an extract from your 
affidavit referring to my use of infusion of galls as a pho- 
togenic agent. I feel it due to you to state without 
delay, that there is abundant proof of my use of infusion 
of galls for the purposes mentioned in your specification, 
and of my publication of it as forming " a very sensitive 
argentine preparation " two years before your patent was 
sealed. Ever since the publication 'of an extract from 
my letter to Mr. Brayley in the North British Review for 
August 1847, which, from the tenor of your affidavit, I 
conclude that you never saw, my claim has been fully re- 
cognised in several of the popular manuals. The follow- 
ing is a quotation from one published by Willats: 
" The Calotype or Talbotype is, as we have already men- 
tioned, the invention of Mr. Fox Talbot, or is claimed by 
him." To this the editor adds the following note : "So 
early as April 1839 the Eev. J. B. Reade made a sensitive 
paper by using infusion of galls after nitrate of silver : by 
this process Mr. Reade obtained several drawings of mi- 
croscopic objects by means of the solar microscope ; the 
drawings were taken before the paper was dry. In a com- 
munication to Mr. Brayley, Mr. Reade proposed the use 
of gallate or tannate of silver ; and Mr. Brayley, in his 
public lectures in April and May, explained the process 
and exhibited the chemical combinations which Mr. 
Eeade proposed to use." 

You may perhaps have forgotten that, at the Meeting 
of the British Association at Oxford, I had a short con- 
versation with you on your own coloured photographs. 
I introduced myself to you as a relative of j'our friend 
and neighbour, Sir John Awdry, and I informed you that 
I had used infusion of galls for microscopic photographs 
and fixed with hyposulphite of soda, before you took out 
your patent. 

The effect of gallic acid or the infusion of galls in de- 
veloping an invisible image was discovered accidentally by 
me, as I believe it was also by yourself, and it is certain 
that no one could use this photogenic agent as we have 
done without discovering one of its chief properties. I 
may state that I have often been asked to oppose your 
patent ; but I had no wish to meddle with law, or to 
interfere with the high reputation which your discovery 
of a process, named after yourself, secured to you, by 
which "paper could be made so sensitive that it was 
darkened in five or six seconds when held close to a wax 
candle, and gave impressions of leaves by the light of the 
moon." This however was both subsequent to my own 
use of gallate of silver, of which you appear never to 



have heard, and also essentially dependent upon it. My 
nitro-gallate paper, which I used successfully with the 
solar microscope, the camera, and an Argand lamp, was 
far more sensitive than any which preceded it; and I 
considered the important question of fixation to be set at 
rest by the use of hj'posulphite of soda, which I have no 
doubt you employ yourself in preference to your own 
fixer, the bromide of potassium. In fact, by my process, 
which, as I state in my letter to Mr. Brayley, was the 
result of numberless experiments, the important problem 
was solved, inasmuch as good pictures could be rapidly 
taken and permanently fixed. My principal instrument 
was' the solar microscope ; and while you failed, as you 
state in your first paper at the Royal Society, to obtain 
even an impression after an hour's exposure, and were 
disposed to give up this experiment in despair, though 
you afterwards obtained small pictures in about a quarter 
of an hour, I had succeeded in producing and developing 
at one operation of less, and sometimes much less than 
five minutes' duration, the beautiful Solar Mezzotints, as 
I termed them, varying in size from 50 to 150 diameters, 
which were exhibited in 1839 at the Marquis of North- 
ampton's, and at the London and Walthamstow Institu- 
tions ; and some in the spring of that year were even 
sold at a Bazaar in Leeds in support of a charitable fund. 
The process was explained to my friends in Yorkshire, 
and I find from a Leeds manuscript that I proposed the 
nitro-gallate paper " for" immediate use and diffused day- 
light." The ammonio-nitrate process also, which does 
not seem to have any definite parentage, though I 
believe included in your second patent of June 1843, 
was among the first which I employed, and probably 
I was the first to suggest it. At all events I may 
give 3-011 as a matter of history the following extract 
from a letter to my brother in Leeds, dated April 26, 
1839: "Dissolve 6 grains of nitrate in 5j of water 
and add liquor ammonias, which will throw down 
the brown oxide of silver, but on the addition of a little 
more will take it up and form a clear solution. Wash the 
paper and dry it. Then put 9 j of common salt in half a 
pint of distilled water. Wash the paper with this mix- 
ture, &c." I also propose to dissolve two grains of gela- 
tine in one ounce of distilled water as an accelerator for 
the nitrate, as well as to fix with hyposulphite of soda. 
Had Mr. Brayley's lectures been printed, you would pro- 
bably have become acquainted with my processes, as well 
as with those of other photographers, which were ex- 
plained and illustrated by him. At all events I have 
never ceased most emphatically to make the claims which 
in your affidavit you deny to me, and therefore, for the 
sake of furnishing a correct history of the progress of the 
art, I must be allowed to print this letter, as the only 
means left to me of meeting the case. 

I am sure that the art now so far advanced, and still 
advancing, has our best wishes. Mr. Grove would present 
to you in my name a copy of my letter to Mr. Hunt, 
which was written before I had heard a syllable of your 
present actions. 

Believe me to be, 
Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

J. B. READE. 
Henry Fox Talbot, Esq. 

Affidavits made by SIR D. BREAVSTER and Sm J.' HER- 
SCHEL respecting the Caloti/pe Photographic Process in- 
vented by H. F. TALBOT, ESQ. 

IN CHANCERY. Between WILLIAM HENRY Fox 
TALBOT, Plaintiff, and JAMES HENDERSON, De- 
fendant. 

I, DAVID BREWSTER, Principal of the United Colleges 
of Saint Salvador and Saint Leonards, in the University 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



of Saint Andrew's, in Scotland, now residing at Ko. 44. 
Saint James's Place, Westminster, Knight, make oath, and 
say as follows : 

1. I have for many years paid much attention to op- 
tical science, and I have written treatises on. that science 
generally, and on different branches of it. 

2. I have paid much attention to the art of Photo- 
graphy, and have written and published various writings 
concerning the history and progress of that art. 

3. I have been acquainted with the photographic 
process invented by the plaintiff, and at first called by 
him the calotype process, and described in the specification 
marked X., shown to me at the time of my making this 
affidavit, from the time, or nearly so, of the first publi- 
cation of it by him, videlicet, from the year 1841, and I 
fully believe that he was the first and true inventor of the 
said calotype process, and I say that such is the general 
opinion of scientific men, according to the best of my 
knowledge and belief. 

4. That I was the first, or one of the first, persons who 
proposed and maintained that the name of Calotype ought 
to be changed to that of Talbotype, after the name of the 
inventor. 

5. That I am acquainted with the principle of what 
has been termed the collodion process in photography, 
and that I consider it to be a useful and convenient mode 
of operating. 

6. That by employing the said collodion process a 
greater rapidity of photographic action is frequently ob- 
tained, together with a greater precision and clearness in 
the negative image or picture. 

7. That the said collodion process consists chiefly in a 
mode of obtaining the negative pictures upon a film or 
skin of iodized collodion spread upon glass, instead of ob- 
taining them upon a sheet of iodized paper according to 
the plaintiffs invention, described in the said specification. 

8. That I consider the said collodion process to be only 
a variation or modification of the plaintiff's said in- 
vention, called by him the calotype, for the following 
reasons, videlicet : 

Pirst. Because the skin of iodized collodion spread 
upon glass serves as a substitute for the sheet of 
iodized paper employed by the plaintiff. 

Secondly. Because, in both cases, the iodized sur- 
face (whether collodion or paper) requires to be 
excited or rendered sensitive to light by washing 
it over with a solution of nitrate of silver, or by 
dipping it in a bath of the same. 

Thirdly. Because, in both cases, after an invisible 
image has been impressed upon the photographic 
surface (whether of collodion or paper), it is re- 
quisite to develop it or render it visible by washing 
it with a liquid (which is the chief and principal 
part of the plaintiff's said invention): and the 
liquid generally employed for that purpose is either 
gallic acid as described by the plaintiff in his said 
specification, or a modification of the same, termed 
pyrogallic acid. 

Fourthly. Because (whether the first or negative 
image is obtained upon collodion or upon paper), 
in either case, the final result of the process is the 
same, videlicet, a positive picture is obtained upon 
paper by the action of light. 

9. That I have read a copy of the joint and several 
affidavits purporting to be made by Robert Hunt and 
Charles Heisch, sworn in this cause on the 22nd day of 
this present month of May; also copies of two several 
affidavits purporting to be made by Alphonse Normandy 
and William Henry Thornthwaite", both sworn in this 
cause on the same 22nd day of May instant ; and that, 



notwithstanding such affidavits, I fully believe that the 
plaintiff was the first and true inventor of the calotype 
process described in his said specification, and that the 
said calotype process was very different from any photo- 
graphic process previously known ; and I say that the 
distinction attempted to be drawn in the said affidavits 
between the collodion and calotype processes is fallacious, 
inasmuch as the collodion process borrows from the calo- 
type process its most essential point, videlicet, the develop- 
ment of an invisible image, and therefore it ought to be 
considered merely as an improvement upon the latter 
process. 

DAVID BREWSTEH. 

Sworn at my chambers, Xo. G. Xew Square, Lin- 
coln's Inn, in the county of Middlesex, this 
24th day of May, 1854, before me, 

W. STRICKLAND COOKSON, 
A London Commissioner to administer 
oaths in Chancery. 



IN CHANCERY. Between WILLIAM HENRY Fox 
TALBOT, Plaintiff, and JAMES HENDERSON, De- 
fendant. 

I, JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM HERSCHEL, Baronet, 
Master of Her Majesty's Mint, make oath, and say as 
follows : 

1. I have read a copy of an affidavit sworn in this 
cause by Robert Hunt and Charles Heisch on the 22nd, 
and filed on the 23rd of May instant, in which my name 
is mentioned in the following terms, videlicet : 

" Sir John Herschel also published the fact of his having 
used gallic acid in a paper communicated by him to the 
Royal Society on February 20th, 1840, and which paper 
is printed and published in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions." 

2. I say that the inference attempted to be drawn to 
the prejudice of the plaintiff from my memoir in the 
Philosophical Transactions, above referred to, is erroneous ; 
inasmuch as in the experiments there referred to, I did 
not use gallic acid for the purpose of developing a dormant 
picture, not being then aware that any such dormant pic- 
ture existed, but only with a view to increase the sensi- 
tiveness of the paper. 

3. I say that my memoir, above referred to, extended 
to nearly sixty pages, and that gallic acid is only once 
named in it, to the best of my recollection, videlicet, at 
page 8, in the following words : 

" My first attention was directed to the discovery of a 
liquid or emulsion, which, by a single application, whe- 
ther by dipping or brushing over, should communicate 
the desired quality. The presence of organic matter 
having been considered by some late chemists an essen- 
tial condition for the blackening of the nitrate of silver, I 
was induced to try, in the first instance, a variety of mix- 
tures of such organic, soluble, compounds as would not 
precipitate that salt. Failing of any marked success in 
this line (with the somewhat problematic exception of 
the gallic acid and its compounds), the next idea which 
occurred, was . . ." 

4. I say, that in writing the passage of my memoir 
above quoted, I did not contemplate the photographic 
process, since called the calotype process ; nor was I then 
acquainted with that process. 

5. I say that I have been acquainted with the plaintiff's 
invention, called the calotype process, from the time, or 
nearly so, of its first publication in 1841 ; and that 1 con- 
sider the leading feature in the plaintiff's said invention 
to have been the discovery of the existence of invisible 
photographic images on paper, and the mode of making 
them visible, described by the plaintiff. And I say that 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



such invention was a new one to the best of my judg- 
ment and belief, and that it was of great importance in 
photography, and that it has continued to be used by 
photographers ever since the time of its publication. 

J. F. \V. HERSCHEL. 

Sworn at the house of the above-named Sir John' 
Frederick William Herschel, No. 32. Harley 
Street, in the count}' of Middlesex, this 25th 
day of May, 1854, before me, 

W. STRICKLAND COOKSON, 

A London Commissioner to administer 

oaths in Chancery. 



to iHtnor 

Obsolete Statutes (Vol. ix., p. 562.). The Rev. 
John Hildrop, Rector of VVath near Ripon, was 
the author of the Letter to a Member of Parlia- 
ment proposing a Bill to revise, &c. the Ten 
Commandments. It was attributed at the time to 
Dean Swift, but afterwards owned and inserted 
by Dr. Hildrop in a collection of his miscellaneous 
works, printed in two small 8vo. volumes, pub- 
lished in the year 1754. For the titles of these 
works, and some account of the author, J. O. is 
referred to the Gentleman's Magazine for August, 
1834 ; where, it must be observed, Magnus White- 
grave has unfortunately repeated Dr. Whitaker's 
incorrect transcript of a memorial in the chancel 
at Wath to Dr. Hildrop' s daughter ; and the as- 
sertion, untruly made, that there is no inscription 
there to the memory of the doctor himself. He 
died January 18, A.D. 1756, aged seventy-three 
years. His daughter Catherine, wife of Mr, 
Francis Bacon, died September 6, A.D. 1754, aged 
thirty-three years. 

I should be very glad to know to what univer- 
sity Dr. Hildrop belonged, and in what year he 
graduated D.D. I believe he was not of Cam- 
bridge, and that he did not take his Doctor's de- 
gree till after the year 1741. PATONCE. 

fDr. Hildrop was a student at St. John's College, 
Oxford; M. A. June 8, 1705; B. and D.D. June 9, 

1743.] 

" Selah" (Vol. ix., p. 426.) ; Songs of Degrees 
(Vol. ix., pp. 121. 376. 473.). Having devoted a 
considerable portion of a work on the Psalms, 
published a few years back, to the consideration of 
the word selah, it was with some surprise that I 
observed a quotation in the " N. & Q." from The 
People's Edition of the Bible, to the effect that the 
word means da capo. The great mass of ancient 
authorities (which, though various, are not in 
reality discordant) does not favour this opinion ; 
nor is it borne out by internal evidence. The word 
is, I am confident, a musical direction ; but always 
connected with the sentiment, and the peculiar 
construction of the psalm. If my view is correct, 
it was not intended to be read ; still, for my own 



part, I would not venture to omit it when pub- 
licly reading the Ode of Habakkuk. As the 
Bible translation of the Psalms is not intended for 
liturgical use, I would omit the word were I read- 
ing the Psalms in private. It may be remarked 
as a curious fact, that Jackson of Exeter set the 
word selah to music in an anthem composed for 
the opening verses of the Ode of Habakkuk. He 
evidently regarded it as an exclamation of praise. 
As to the " Songs of Degrees," I venture to 
refer to the work mentioned above for an essay 
which discusses this question also. JOHN JEBB. 

Pax Pennies of William the Conqueror (Vol. ix., 
p. 562.). Without any pretension to numismatic 
lore, I throw out a suggestion that the letters on 
the reverse of the Conqueror's pennies, PAXS, may 
stand for Willelmi Anglice Christus Salus, which 
of course would hold equally good in whatever 
order the letters were placed. F. C. H. 

Holy-loaf Money (Vol. ix., pp. 150. 256. 568.). 
The custom of distributing the pain beni, or 
blessed bread, is retained I believe in France only. 
It is the sole remnant of the oblations of the faith- 
ful. In the fourth century the Christians, as a 
sign of union and charity, sent to each other small 
loaves called Ei>\oyiai, and the distribution of 
blessed bread during Mass from what remained of 
the offerings unconsecrated, was afterwards intro- 
duced as a sign of union among the assistants. 
When the primitive practice of daily communion 
began to be discontinued, the blessed bread be- 
came a kind of substitute for those who did not 
actually receive the blessed Eucharist. F. C. H. 

"Emori nolo," frc. (Vol. ix., p. 481.). This 
line occurs in Cicero, Tusc. Queest., i. 8. 15. The 
correct version has cestumo, not euro, which would 
not scan. H. H. D. 

Palindromic Verses (Vol. ix., p. 343.). The 
origin of the lines quoted by T. A. T. is thus ex- 
plained in Hone's Every-Day Book, col. 170. : 

" St. Martin having given up the profession of a 
soldier, and being elected Bishop of Tours, when pre- 
lates neither kept carriages, horses, nor servants, had 
occasion to go to Rome in order to consult his holiness 
I upon some important ecclesiastical matter. As he 
1 was walking gently along the road he met the devil, 
! who politely accosted him, and ventured to observe 
! how fatiguing and indecorous it was for him to per- 
form so long a journey on foot, like the commonest of 
! cockle-shell-chaperoned pilgrims. The saint knew 
i well the drift of Old Nick's address, and commanded 
him immediately to become a beast of burden or 
jumentum ; which the devil did in a twinkling, by as- 
suming the shape of a mule. The saint jumped upon 
I the fiend's back, who at first trotted cheerfully along, 
but soon slackened his pace. The bishop of course 
had neither whip nor spurs, but was possessed of a 
I much more powerful stimulus, for, says the legend, he 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



made the sign of the cross, and the smarting devil in- 
stantly galloped away. Soon, however, and naturally 
enough, the father of sin returned to sloth and ob- 
stinacy, and Martin hurried him again with repeated 
signs of the cross, till twitched and stung to the quick 
by those crossings so hateful to him, the vexed and 
tired reprobate uttered the following distich in a rage ; 

' Signa te, signa ; temere me tangis et angis ; 
Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor.' 

That is, 'Cross, cross thyself thou plaguest and 
vexest me without necessity ; for, owing to my ex- 
ertions, Rome, the object of thy wishes, will soon be 
near.' " 

HENRY H. BREEN. 
St. Lucia. 

Dr. John Pochlington (Vol. ix., p. 247.). Arms 
of Pocklington of Yorkshire : Paly of six argent 
and gules, a pale counterchanged. CID. 

Byron and Rochefoucauld (Vol. ix., p. 347.). 
Allow me to call your attention to the fact, that 
the Note furnished by SIGMA under this head has 
already appeared in Vol. i., p. 260., with the sig- 
nature of MELANION, under the head of " Pla- 
giarisms and Parallel Passages." Your " Notices 
to Correspondents" bear ample evidence of the 
vigilance which you are continually called upon 
to exercise, in order to obviate repetitions of this 
kind ; but as the volumes continue to increase, 
the difficulty of verifying such matters will be- 
come proportionably great ; and it therefore be- 
hoves your correspondents, by a proper degree of 
research on their part, to assist you in preventing 
this most valuable periodical from degenerating 
into a mere echo of its former self. 

HENRT H. BREEN. 

St. Lucia. 

Somersetshire Folk Lore (Vol.'ix., p. 536.). 
Your correspondent M. A. BALLIOL says, that, 
on the highest mound of the hill above Weston- 
super-Mare, is a heap of stones, to which every 
fisherman in his daily walk to Sand Bay, Kew- 
stoke, contributes one towards his day's good 
fishing. Although the object ascribed to a similar 
custom in Greece is of a different character, your 
readers may feel interested in the following pas- 
sage describing it, from Gell's Narrative" of a 
Journey in the Morea, p. 113. : 

" On the road from Tragoge to Andrutzena we 
passed one of those heaps of stones, called by the 
Greeks anathemas. A person who has a quarrel with 
another, collects a pile of stones, and curses his uncon- 
scious foe as many times as there are stones in the 
heap. It is the duty of every Christian to add at least 
one pebble as he passes by, so that the curses in a 
frequented road became innumerable. A Greek who 
should travel on one of our English roads, would 
imagine the whole population at war; and in Italy, 
where the heaps are larger, and generally occupy the 



whole of the best part of the road, he would be dis- 
posed to add another curse to fall upon the road- 
makers themselves." 

N. L. T. 

Slack Rat (Vol. ix., p. 209.). I have noticed 
an answer to MR. SHIRLEY HIBBERD about the 
existence of the old Black Rat in England. I 
believe one of its last strongholds in Britain was 
Lundy Island, near Ilfraconibe ; where they are 
still, or were till very lately, occasionally met with. 
HORACE WADDINGTON. 

Oxford Union Society. 

Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets (Vol. ix., 
pp. 494. 550.). A detailed account of the legend 
relative to the extraction of the Plantagenets, and 
consequently of the Royal Family of England, 
from the Devil, by the mother's side, is in John 
Fordun's Scotichronica. There is a whole chapter 
on the subject, to which, not having the book 
beside me, I cannot more particularly refer. 

WILLIAM BROCKIE. 

South Shields. 

Shelley's " Prometheus Unbound" (Vol. ix., 
pp. 351. 481.). I cannot help thinking that your 
correspondent F. C. H. has missed the peculiar 
beauty of this passage ; and, though with great 
diffidence, I beg to offer a conjecture upon its 
meaning. F. C. H. says that the circumstances 
which give rise to the feeling alluded to by the 
poet are : 

" . . . when the winds of spring 
Make rarest visitation, or the voice 
Of one beloved is heard in youth alone." 

The latter can only mean the circumstance of a 
young man hearing the voice of a beloved friend ; 
which obviously, I think, is not what is intended. 
The interpolation of the word is destroys the 
sense of the passage : the chief beauty of which, 
in my mind, lies in the analogy shown to exist 
between the feelings which are called up in us 
upon hearing the soft breezes of returning spring, 
and those which are awakened in us upon hearing 
the voice of a beloved friend, who has been sepa- 
rated from us since the time of our earliest youth : 

" . . . . . the voice 
Of one beloved heard in youth alone." 

If I understand Shelley's allusion rightly, it is 
to " that sense, which, when the winds of spring or 
the voice of a long absent friend returned, recall 
the remembrance of youthful days, fills the faint 
eyes," &c. 

It is possible that a line may have dropped out, 
which may have contained words similar in mean- 
ing to those given in Italics above ; but the more 
probable supposition is, that the sentence was in- 
advertently left unfinished. Such omissions are 
by no means uncommon. ERICA. 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



" Send me tribute, or else ," tfc. (Vol. ix., 

p. 451.). The potentates of whom your corre- 
spondent W. T. M. inquires, were two Irish chief- 
tains, O'Nial of Tyrone and O'Donnell of Tyrcon- 
nell, in the latter part of the fifteenth century. 
The dispute was caused merely by the haughty 
character of O'Nial, who was unable to brook an 
equal in that part of the country, and accordingly 

sent the message, " Pay me tribute, or else ," 

to his rival ; which was as promptly answered by 
O'Donnell, "I owe you none, and if ." Y. 

Hour-glasses (Vol. ix., p. 252.). An hour- 
glass is, or lately was, affixed to the pulpit in the 
church of St. Albans, Wood Street, London. See 
Godwin's Churches of London, " St. Albans, Wood 
Street." O. S. 

Bishop Andrewes, in a sermon on Ash Wed- 
nesday, 1622, on fasting, says : 

" But that I take myself bound to prosecute the 
text I have begun, 1 would choose rather to spend the 
hour in speaking again for the duty to have it done." 

Does not this seem to fix the limit usually as- 
signed to sermons in -his age ? The sermons of 
the good bishop are long enough to occupy a full 
hour of ordinary preaching. 

Bingham, Antiq., lib. xiv. cap. 4., says, 

" Ferrarius and some others, are very positive they 
(f. e. the sermons in the early Church) were generally 
an hour long, but Ferrarius is at a loss to tell by what 
instrument they measured their hour, for he will not 
venture to affirm that they preached, as the old Greek 
and Roman orators declaimed, by an hour-glass." 

E. H. M. L. 

Barristers' Gowns (Vol. ix., p. 323.). " The 
lapel, or piece which hangs from the back of the 
barrister's gown," is a diminutive representation 
of the ancient hood, formerly worn as a covering 
for the head and shoulders. The tippet, or liri- 
pipium, an important part of the hood (indicating 
from its length the rank of the wearer), hangs 
down in front of the left shoulder. 

GILBERT J. FRENCH. 

Bolt on. 

The lapel attached to the back of the gown is 
the hood (somewhat curtailed) which barristers 
wore before the introduction of wigs or hats, 
which were fastened to the gown to prevent their 
being lost when taken off on their going into 
court. ANON. 

Reversible Names (Vol. viii., pp.244. 645.). 
The title of one of the peers of the realm reads 
the same backwards as forward Lord Glenelg. 

PRESTONIENSIS. 

Odo may be added to the list of male reversible 
names. UNEDA. 



When and where docs Sunday begin or end? 
(Vol. ix., p. 284.). H. OF HORWENSTOW says that 
Sunday begins at six o'clock P.M. on Saturday, 
and he quotes the expression in the Bible, " The 
evening and the morning were the first day," in 
proof of it. H. should recollect that evening was 
formerly the name for what we now call afternoon : 
as in the Prayer Book, where the evening service 
is that for the afternoon. Hence, if his quotation 
has any bearing on the question, Sunday must 
begin at Saturday noon. 

I suppose the expression " the evening and the 
morning were the first day" may be thus ex- 
plained. At the commencement of the earth's 
first solar day, the sun was perpendicularly over 
that part of the earth which was nearest to it, at 
which place it was of course noon ; and as soon 
as the diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis 
began, the afternoon or evening commenced at 
that point. 

In Massachussetts, the law makes the Sabbath 
only eighteen hours long, instead of twenty-four. 
It commences at midnight between Saturday and 
Sunday, and ends on Sunday at 6 P.M. ; so that 
work may be done, or amusements, or political 
meetings may be attended to, on Sunday evening 
without breaking the law. This is a reaction from 
the old puritanical strictness of " the Pilgrim 
Fathers," and is one of many. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Kiel the Bethelite (Vol. ix., p. 452.). The 
meaning of text 3rd (al. 1st) Book of Kings, xvi. 
34., is, I think, satisfactorily determined by refer- 
ring to the previous prophetic imprecation of 
Joshue (al. Joshua) vi. 26. : 

" Cursed be the man before the Lord, that shall 
raise up and build the city of Jericho. In his first- 
born may he lay the foundation thereof, and in the 
last of his children set up its gates." 
The curse was fulfilled in the death of his eldest 
son, when he dared to lay the foundations of a new 
Jericho ; and the loss of all his other children in 
succession as the work advanced, till his last died 
as he finished the city and set up its gates. Dr. 
Geddes, who may be safely trusted, so far as 
fidelity of translation goes, though no farther, 
renders the prophecy thus : 

" With the loss of his first-born son .... and with the 
loss o/his youngest son." 
And he thus translates the fulfilment : 

" In his days Kiel, a Bethelite, rebuilded Jericho : 
the foundation of which he laid in the death of his 
eldest son, Abiram ; and in the death of his youngest, 
Segub, he set up its gates." 

There can be no reason for supposing that Hiel 
buried his children alive under the buildings. 
The text itself warrants no such monstrous inter- 
pretation, but is plainly opposed to it ; inasmuch 



JULY 8. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



as it denounces a threat, a curse, and a punish- 
ment, which could not have been fulfilled by the 
voluntary perpetration of inhuman cruelties on 
the part of a father. F. C. HUSENBETII. 

I do not find any difference among the com- 
mentators to whom I have access, as to the mean- 
ing of the curse in Joshua vi. 26., fulfilled in the 
case of Hiel the Bethelite, 1 Kings xvi. 34. All 
his sons were to die in succession, beginning with 
the eldest even to the youngest, during the build- 
ing of the city. I do not see any other meaning 
that can be attached to the words, conveying the 
notion of a punishment for the audacity of the 
rebuilder. " Write this man childless," was a 
familiar curse. And there is a manifest appro- 
priateness in the fact, that a succession of judg- 
ments should fall upon him as the work went on ; 
each being a louder call from the Almighty to 
stop him in his impious course. G. T. HOARE. 

Tandridge. 

Will of Francis Rons (Vol. ix., p. 440.). At 
p. 441. the words "The Right Honorable Francis 
Rous, Esq., acknowledged this to be his last will 
and testament, the 12th day of April, 1658," there 
is the following note : " It should doubtless be 
1657." But the text is correct, and the foot-note 
erroneous. The commencement of the year is 
counted from March 25. The will was written on 
March 18, 1657, which would be March 18, 
1658, if the year were reckoned to begin on 
January 1. It was acknowledged on April 12, 
1658, less than one month after it was written, 
since the legal commencement of a new year 
had intervened between the writing and the 
acknowledgment. Finally, it was proved on 
Feb. 10, 1658. The writer of the foot-note pro- 
bably omitted to observe that, in consequence of 
the legal mode of computing the date, Feb. 10, 
1658, is nearly ten calendar months later than 
April 12, 1658. 

The present case affords a good example of a 
mode of dating, which has been a frequent occa- 
sion of perplexity and error. JOHN T. GRAVES. 

Cheltenham. 

Per Centum Sign (Vol. ix., p. 451.). These 
arbitrary characters are adopted for facility of 
expression, the 00 denoting, arithmetically, 
the ciphers composing the centum ; and the man- 
ner of writing it thus, %, is adopted for certainty 
and convenience, which are important elements in 
commercial transactions. 

The contraction viz. is a curious instance of 
the universality of arbitrary signs. There are 
few people now who do not readily comprehend 
the meaning of that useful particle ; a certain 
publican excepted, who, being furnished with a 
list of the requirements of a festival in which that 
word appeared, apologised for the omission of one 



of the items enumerated : he informed the com- 
pany that he had inquired throughout the town 
for some viz, but he had not been able to procure 
it. He was, however, readily excused for his 
inability to do so. 

Vi^. being a corruption of videlicet, the termin- 
ation sign was 5i never intended to represent the 
letter "z," but simply a mark or sign of abbrevi- 
ation. It is now always written and expressed as 
a " z" and will doubtless continue to be so. This 
is one of many arbitrary modes of expression, the 
use of which is known to many, and few desire to 
know how they became invented. G. M. B. 

Mitcham, Surrey. 

Slavery in England (Vol. ix., p. 421.). The 
slavery which existed in England under the 
Saxons, and which was not entirely obliterated 
till the beginning of the seventeenth century, was 
more properly called villenage. It was, as Black- 
stone observes : 

" A species of tenure neither strictly feudal, Norman, 
or Saxon, but mixed and compounded of them all." 

This villenage is so graphically described by 
Blackstone, in his Commentaries, that I will quote 
a few passages in answer to PRESTONIENSIS'S 
Queries : 

" Under the Saxon government there were, as Sir 
William Temple speaks, a sort of people in a condition 
of downright servitude, used and employer! in the most 
servile works; and belonging, both they, their children 
and effects, to the lord of the soil, like the rest of the 
cattle or stock upon it." Vol. ii. book ii. c. 6. 

" These villeins, belonging principally to lords of 
manors, were either villeins regardant, i. e. annexed to 
the manor or land ; or else they were in gross, or at 
large, i. e. annexed to the person of the lord, and trans- 
ferable by deed from one owner to another. They 
could not leave their lord without his permission ; but 
if they ran away, or were purloined from him, might 
be claimed and recovered by action, like beasts or other 
chattels. They held, indeed, small portions of land, 
by way of sustaining themselves and their families; but 
it was at the mere will of the lord, who might dis- 
possess them whenever he pleased : and it was upon 
villein services, that is, to carry out dung, to hedge 
and ditch the lord's demesnes, and any other the 
meanest offices. A villein, in short, was in much the 
same state with us as Lord Molesworth describes to be 
that of the boors in Denmark, and which Stiernhook 
attributes also to the traals or slaves in Sweden." 
Cap. 6. 

The state of servitude of these villeins was not 
absolute, like that of the negroes in the AVest 
Indies ; for, as Hallam (Middle Ages, vol. i. 
p. 149.) observes : 

" It was only in respect of his lord, that the villein, 
at least in England, was without rights ; he might in- 
herit, purchase, sue in the courts of law ; though, as 
defendant in a real action or suit, wherein land was 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 245. 



claimed, he might shelter himself under the plea of 
villenage." 

Serfage ceased in the reign of Elizabeth. There 
were, however, some solitary instances later : the 
last instance of villenage is recorded in the reign 
of James I. Your correspondent will find much 
valuable information on this interesting subject in 
Blackstone's Commentaries (vol. ii. book 5i. c. 6.), 
and in Hallam's Middle Ages (vol. i. p. 145., and 
vol. ii. p. 302., 9th edit., 1846). 

F. M. MlDDLETON. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Messrs. Blackwood have published a continuation of 
Mr. Finlay's valuable contribution to our knowledge of 
Byzantine history; it is entitled History of the Byzantine 
and Greek Empires, from MLVII to MCCCCLIII, by 
George Finlay, and forms the second and concluding vo- 
lume of the work. In this the author treats of the de- 
cline and fall of the Byzantine government, and of the 
Greek empires of Nicsea and Constantinople ; and he has 
in these, as in his preceding labours, made constant re- 
ference to the original historians, in order to make the 
work not only useful as a popular history, but also as an 
index to scholars, who may be more familiar with classical 
literature than with the Byzantine writers. 

Mr. F. A. Neale never having been able, as he tells us 
in his preface, to meet with a connected history of Is- 
lamism, which uninterruptedly treated of the reigns of 
the Saracen caliphs in the East, in North Africa, and 
Spain, down to the foundation of the Ottoman Empire, or 
following its growth upwards into the reign of Abdul- 
Medjid, endeavoured to form a compilation from different 
authors, treating at different dates of the separate do- 
minions of Islatnism in the east and west ; and the result 
is a couple of very readable volumes, under the title of 
Islamism, its Rise and its Progress, or the Present and Past 
Condition of the Turks. The publication is well-timed, 
and no doubt Mr. Neale will receive the thanks of many 
readers. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Diary and Letters of Madame 
D'Arblay, Vol. VII., which concludes this pleasant gos- 
siping book ; rich in pictures of the men and manners 
of " those good times when George the Third was 
king." Logic, or the Science of Inference, a Systematic 
View of the Principles of Evidence, and the Methods of 
Inference in the various Departments of Human Know- 
ledge, by Joseph Devey, is the new volume of Bonn's 
Philological Library. Poetical Works of William Cowper, 
Vol. III., with Selections from the Works of Robert Lloyd, 
Nathaniel Cotton, Henry Brooke, Erasmus Darwin, and 
William Hayley, the new volume of the Annotated Edition 
of the English Poets, edited by Robert Bell. The selec- 
tions which complete this volume give an interest as well 
as novelty to this collection of our poets, and will, we 
doubt not, be very generally approved. Schamyl, the 
Sultan, Warrior, and Prophet of the Caucasus, the new 
number of The Traveller's Library, is a judicious com- 
pilation from the German of Wagner and Bodenstedt. 
Lives of the Queens of England, by Agnes Strickland, 
"Vol. Vll., is occupied with a Biography of Mary, the 
Consort of William III., who is treated by Miss Strickland 
with gredt harshness. 



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to 

Since the account of the Washington family was in type, ire 
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S. A. On the representation of Moses with horns, see 
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JULY 8. 1854.] 



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[No, 245. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 



" "When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 246.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 15. 1854. 



C With Index, price 1O<?- 
( Stamped Edition, Hd. 



CONTENTS. 



HOTES : 



Page 



The Edwards Correspondence, by J. H. 
Markland - - - - 41 

A Letter of Le Neve to Baker -. Extract 
from Bishop Bancroft's Will, by J. E. 
B. Mayor - - - - 42 

Sepulchral Monuments - - 42 

Unpublished Poem by Thomas Camp- 
bell, by L. H. J. Tonna - - 44 

MINOR NOTES : Successful Guesses 
Dickens's "Child's History of Eng- 
land" The Chits (Lady Russell's 
Letters) Female Parish Overseer - 44 



The Lord High Steward : Warren Hast- 
ings' Trial - ... 45 

Dedications of Suffolk Churches, by 
J.H.Parker - - - - 45 

.Raphael's Cartoons - - 45 

MINOR QUERIES : William de la Grace 

The Old Week's Preparation _ 
George III. an Author on Agriculture 

Chinese Proverbs in the Crystal 
Palace Milton's Mulberry Tree 
Clock of Trinity College, Dublin 



' Pasquin ' 



- 46 



MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Andreas Cellarius : " Regni Polonia:" 
Richard Culmer, alias Blue Dick 
Ducal Coronets - - - - 46 



Mathematical Bibliography, by Pro- 
fessor De Morgan - - 47 

Clay Tobacco-pipes, by W. Bates, &c. - 48 
Orchard - - . - -50 

Epitaph in Lavenham Church - - 50 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Tests 
for Intensity of Light and Fluidity of 
Collodion _ Photographic Hints 
Query on Mr. Lyte's Process - -51 



ueen Elizabeth dark or fair ?_Lord 
Worth" Awk " " Latten-jawed " 
Moral Philosophy Heraldic Anomaly 
Salutations -Highland Kcsiment 



ffwct j-euiiimi \^UMOIIIS tti rreston 
-Works on Bells-Madamede Sta;;l 
iuery on South's Sermons _ Bakers' 
lalltyslIathcrleighMoor, &c. - 51 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted - 56 
Notices to Correspondents - - 56 



VOL. X No. 246. 



Multrc tcrricolis lingua;, ecclestibus iinn. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
LTJ AND SONS' 

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London : SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 
15. Paternoster Row. 



HsAA./ /cts>> 



TXurru,i, f 



Just published, Gratis and Post Free, 

A CATALOGUE of an Ex- 
tensive Collection of SERMONS, 
SKETCHES of SERMONS, COMMENTA- 
RIES on SCRIPTURE. c. &c., by the most 
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Divines, including many scarce Puritan Com- 
mentators. 

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'THE ORIGINAL QUAD- 

I RILLES, composed for the PIANO 
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London : Published for the Proprietors, and 
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boards, price 2s. 

HANDY ANDY By SAMUEL 
LOVER. 
Just published, 

COMIC NOVEL BY THEODORE HOOK. 
In fcap. 8vo., bds., Is. 6rf. 

NED MUSGRAVE; or, The 

Most Unfortunate Man in the World. By 
THEODORE HOOK. 

Just published in fcap. 8vo. boards, \s. Gd. 

ADVENTURES OF A BASH- 
FUL IRISHMAN. By W. F. DEACON, 
Author of " Annette," " November Nights," 
&c. c. 

London : DAVID BRYCE, 48. Paternoster 
How. 



Now ready, in 8vo., with Plate and Woodcuts, 

RESEARCHES ON LIGHT 

JAj IN ITS CHEMICAL RELATIONS ; 
embracing an Examination of all the Photo- 
graphic Processes. By ROBERT HUNT, Pro- 
fessor of Physics in the Metropolitan School of 
Science. New Edition, thoroughly revised, 
with extensive Additions. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



Just published, in Three Volumes 8vo., price 
it. 16s., in sheets. 

FASTI ECCLESI^ ANGLI- 
CAN^E ; or, A Calendar of the Principal 
Ecclesiaatical Dignitaries in England and 
Wales, and of the Chief Officers in the Uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge, from the 
earliest time to the year MDCCXV. Compiled by 
JOHN LE NEVE, corrected and continued 
from MDCCXV. to the present time, by T. 
DUFFUS HARDY, Assistant Keeper of the 
Public Records. 

Oxford : at the UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
Sold by J. H. PARKER, Oxford, and 377. 

Strand, London. 
GARDNER, 7. Paternoster Row. 



Just published, 8vo., price 5s. 6d. in sheets. 
A NGLIA REDIVIVA; ENG- 

rV LAND'S RECOVERY: being THE 
HISTORY of the Motions, Actions, and Suc- 
cesses of the Army, under the immediate 
Conduct nf his Excellency SIR THOMAS 
FAIRFAX, KNT., Captain-General of all the 
Parlianv nt's Forces in England. Compiled 
for the Public Good by JOSHUA SPRIGG, 
M.A. 

- Kd- TO. <t>v\\a. rim IvXov ct; 8ep<nreiav TOIV tSvuir. 

London, M.DC.XLVH. A New Edition. 

Oxford : at the UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, 

and 377. Strand, London ; and GARDNER, 

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SAXON OBSEQUIES illustrated 
by ORNAMENTS and WEAPONS 
Discovered in a CEMKTERY near LITTLE 
WILBRAIIAM, in 1851. By the HON. R. C. 
NEVILLE, forty Plates from Drawings by 
Stanesby. Comprising .Ml beautifully coloured 
Fac-simiies, with a Plan of the Site. 

"In all respects this is as creditable and 
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articles, and the position of the skeletons dis- 
interred, s well as a plan of the site, and a 
judicious selection of objects for engraving." 
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4;. Is. ; reduced to 21. 2s. 

*** Only Eighty Copies remain unsold. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



FOB THE PUBLICATION OP 



EAELY HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS, 



THE CAMDEN SOCIETY is instituted to 
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The Subscription to the Society is M. per 
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52. PRIVY PURSE EX- 
PENSES of CHARLES II. and JAMES II. 
Edited by J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A. 

53. THE CHRONICLE OF 

THE GREY FRIARS OF LONDON. Edited 
from a MS. in the Cottonian Library by 
J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S. A. 

'54. PROMPTORIUM: An 

English and Latin Dictionary of Words in 
Use during the Fifteenth Century, compiled 
hiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. 
By ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
Vol. II. (M to R.) (Now ready.) 

Books for 1852-3. 

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OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, con- 
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1292-3 ; 2. Household Accounts of Princess 
Elizabeth, 1551-2 ; 3. Requeste and Suite of a 
True-hearted Englishman, by W. Cholmeley, 
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56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. 

A Selection from the Correspondence of the 
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to the year 1639. From the Originals in the 
possession of Sir Harry Vemey, Bart. To be 
edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Trea. S.A. 

57. REGUL^ INCLUSARUM: 

THE ANCREN BEWLE. A Treatise on the 
Rules and Duties of Monastic Life, in the An- 
glo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century, 
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a 
translation from the Latin Work of Simon de 
Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from 
MSS. in the Cottonian Library, British Mu- 
seum, with an Introduction, Glossarial Notes, 
&c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., 
Prebendary of Lincoln. (.Now ready.) 



The following Works are at Press, and will be 
issued from time to time, as soon as ready : 

58. THE CORRESPOND- 
ENCE OF LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY, 

during the Civil Wars. To be edited by the 
REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready 
immediately.) 

ROLL of the HOUSEHOLD 

EXPENSES of RICHARD SWINFIELD, 
Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289, 1290. with 
Illustrations from other and coeval Docu- 
ments. To be edited by the REV. JOHN 
WEBB, M. A., F.S.A. 

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. 

PAUL'S : a Description of the Manors belong- 
ing to the Church of St. Paul's in London in 
the year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON 
HALE. 

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND 

BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de 
Reims, an Anglo-Norman Poet of the latter 
end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the 
unique MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by 
M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the 
Roman de Brut. 

Communications from Gentlemen desirous 
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WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary. 
25. Parliament Street, Westminster 



WORKS OP THE CAMDEKT SOCIETY, 

AND ORDER OF THEIR PUBLICATION. 



1. Restoration of King Ed- 
ward IV. 

5. Kyng Johan, by Bishop 

Bale. 

3. Deposition of Richard II. 

4. Plumpton Correspondence. 
8. Anecdotes and Traditions. 

6. Political Songs. 

J. Hayward's Annals of Eli- 
zabeth. 

8. Ecclesiastical Documents. 

9. Norden's Description of 

Essex. 

10. Warkworth's Chronicle. 

11. Kemp's Nine Dales Won- 

der. 
1J. The Egerton Papers. 

13. ChronieaJocelinideBrake- 

Ipnda. 

14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 

1690. 

14. Rishanger's Chronicle. 
18. Poems of Walter Mapes. 

17. Travels of Nicander Nu- 

cius. 

18. Three Metrical Romances. 



Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

Apology for the Lollards. 

Rutland Papers. 

Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 

Letters of Eminent Lite- 
rary Men. 

Proceedings against Dame 
Alice Kvteler. 

Promptoiium Parvulorum : 
Tom. I. 

Suppression of the Monas- 
teries. 

Leycester Correspondence. 

French Chronicle of Lon- 
don. 

Polydore Vergil. 

The Thornton Romances. 

Verney 's Notes of the Long 
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Autobiography of Sir John 
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Correspondence of James 
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Liber de Antiquis Legibus. 

The Chronicle of Calais. 



36. Polydore Vergil's History, 

Vol. I. 

37. Italian Relation of Eng- 

land. 

38. Church of Middleham. 

39. The Camden Miscellany, 

Vol. I. 

40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 

41. Diary of Walter Yonge, 

Esq. 

42. Diary of Henry Machyn. 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon- 

shire. 

44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 
4fl. Twysden on the Govern- 
ment of England. 

46. Letters of Elizabeth and 

James VI. 

47. Chronicon Petroburgense. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen 

Mary. 

49. Bury Wills and Inventories. 

50. MnpesdeNugisCurialium. 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guyl- 

ford. 



WORKS 

BT IHH 

REV. OR. MAITLANO. 



THE DARK AGES; being a. 

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THE VOLUNTARY SYSTEM, 

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NOTES on the CONTRIBU- 
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NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 15, 1854. 



THE EDWAKDS CORRESPONDENCE. 

When MSS. have passed, during a series of 
years, through many hands, and have found at 
last an abiding depository, like the British Mu- 
seum, the Bodleian, or some other public library, 
it might be well, for the information of literary 
men, that the fact should be noticed in the pages 
of " N. & Q." As a case in point, the correspond- 
ence of Thomas Edwards, the critic and poetical 
writer, may be mentioned. In Col. Way's sale in 
1834 it was purchased by the late Mr. Thorpe for 
27Z., inserted in his Catalogue of MSS. for that 
year (No. 242., marked 42Z.), purchased by Mr. 
Barker, the editor of Stephens' Thesaurus, and 
resold, with the rest of his library, in 1834 or 
1836. The MSS. afterwards passed into the 
hands of the late respected Mr. Rodd ; and I am 
informed by my friend Dr. Bandinel, that in 1837 
the six volumes were happily obtained by him for 
the Bodleian library. 

This correspondence, as the late Mr. Evans 
told me in 1841, comprises letters addressed to 
Speaker Onslow, Geo. Onslow, Hon. Philip Yorke 
(2nd Earl of Hardwicke), C. Yorke, Lord Roys- 
ton, Richardson, Crusius, Dyer, Cambridge ; two 
letters are addressed to Pope ; one to Capel, with 
emendatory criticism; J. H. Browne, Dr. J. Hoad- 
ley, Lovibond, Dr. Chauncey, R. Lloyd, Birch, 
Archbp. Herring, Melmoth, and Edwards's great 
friend Daniel Wray. Many of these letters, Mr. 
Evans added, " well deserve to be printed. In 
one of them there is a curious mention of the 
publication of Pope's translation of the Odyssey, 
by which it would appear that Pope had con- 
cealed the assistance he received in the version. 
The letters fill six volumes, each of which has an 
index." 

^The librarian of the Bodleian suspects that some 
of Edwards's best letters may not have been pre- 
served in these volumes; but still he considers 
that an interesting selection may be made, and it 
is to be hoped that they may, at no distant period, 
engage the attention of some competent editor, 
and that the literary world may be benefited by 
their publication. 

^ Wounded as Warburton must have been, and 
bitter as was his scorn of what Parr calls the keen 
raillery of Edwards, he must have been awakened 
by the ^acuteness of his criticism to the painful 
conviction that, by a strange perversity of under- 
standing, or depravation of taste, he had, in his 
notes on Shakspeare, too frequently mistaken that 
which was obvious and perplexed what was clear. 
"There was an affectation (says Whitaker) equally 
discernible in the editor of Pope and Shakspeare, 



of understanding the poet better than he under- 
stood himself." 

When Bishop Hurd speaks of " the felicity of 
Warburton's genius in restoring numberless pas- 
sages in Shakspeare to their integrity, and in 
explaining others, which the author's sublime 
conceptions or his licentious expression kept out 
of sight," his admiration of his idol must have ob- 
scured his taste and common sense. Mr. Hallam 
says with truth, " Warburton, always striving to 
display his own acuteness and scorn of others, de- 
viates more than any other commentator from the 
meaning of his author." Walpole, and, at a long 
interval, Mr. D'Israeli, both state as their opinion 
that Edwards's volume "annihilated the whimsical 
labours of Warburton ;" and we are told by Wal- 
pole that "Warburton's edition of Pope had waited 
because he had cancelled above a hundred sheets 
(in which he had inserted notes) since the pub- 
lication of the Canons of Criticism" (Letters, i. 
232.) Whether Walpole had authority for this 
assertion we shall doubtless learn from the gifted 
editor of the forthcoming edition of Pope, when 
he touches upon Warburton as a commentator on 
that poet. 

Of Edwards's talents, and of this celebrated 
publication, displaying alike great critical acumen 
and the keenest satire, one opinion seems to have 
prevailed. True it is that while Johnson admitted 
Edwards to be a Wit, he gave but parsimonious 
praise to his work, considering that he had ridi- 
culed Warburton " with airy petulance." In the 
literary intercourse between these giants per- 
sonal intercourse they had none, as Warburton and 
Johnson met but once, and that accidentally, 
we must be strongly impressed with the superior 
noblemindedness and generosity of heart exhi- 
bited by Johnson. He never forgot an early 
compliment that he had received at Warburton's 
hands, "He praised me, Sir, when praise was of 
value to me." His tribute to Warburton, in his 
preface to Shakspeare, is the more valuable, as the 
eulogy is so judiciously qualified. The high enco- 
mium, the highest he could pay him that "one of 
his notes on Hamlet almost set the critic on a level 
with his author," would have been appreciated by 
any one but Warburton, whose " literary tyranny 
could not be exceeded, and has never been 
equalled since the days of the Scaligers."* In 



* Churchill, Works, vol. i. p. 224. The poet Byrom 
had addressed Familiar Letters to a Friend, on War- 
burton's Sermon " The Office and Operations of the Holy 
Spirit" One great object of these epistles was to 
show, in opposition to " the bellicose divine," that 
the main use of preaching is to inculcate peace. 
This truth is enforced in lines of great beauty, and 
in the most appropriate, gentle language. What 
is the comment of Warburton ? " Byrom is very 
libellous upon me, but I forgive him heartily, for 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



corresponding with his brother prelate Warbur- 
ton could thus refer to and speak of one of the 
wisest and best men of the eighteenth century, 
" Of THIS Johnson you and I, I believe, think 
alike." Again, we have a passage from the same 
letter : " Had not Johnson's remarks on the Com- 
mentaries as much folly as malignity in them, I 
should have reason to be offended." (1765.) 

Dr. Parr, in his Warburtonian Tracts, has, in a 
passage of much feeling and eloquence, rendered 
ample justice to Johnson with especial reference 
to his conduct] towards Warburton, with an ex- 
tract from which I shall close this too lengthened 
article : 

"J. spoke well of Warburton, without insulting 
those whom W. despised. He suppressed not the 
imperfections of this extraordinary man, while he en- 
deavoured to do justice to his numerous and transcen- 
dental excellences. He defended him when living, 
amidst the clamours of his enemies, and praised him 
when dead, amidst the silence of his friends." P. 184. 

J. H. MAHKLAND. 



A LETTER OF LE NEVE TO BAKER : EXTRACT FROM 
BISHOP BANCROFT'S WILL. 

The following letter is copied from the original, 
inserted at the beginning of vol. xxxii. of Baker's 
MSS. in the University Library. The subsequent 
fortunes of Bancroft's library are recorded in the 



he is not malevolent, but mad!" (Letters, p. 98.) 
When referring to these letters, I may notice that 
the offensive passage regarding the Ark may have 
been borrowed from Rabelais ; but Og, the King of 
Basan, not Gog or Magog, according to the Rabbins, 
takes the benefit of the Ark in the Flood. (Letters, 
p. 119.) My friend, the Rev. F. Kilvert, has, in his 
valuable volume A Selection from Warburton's unpub- 
lished Papers, 1 841, exhibited the character of the pre- 
late in a far more amiable light than that in which it 
has elsewhere appeared. We cannot agree with Hurd, 
that "playfulness of wit" is a distinguished feature of 
the correspondence which he published. The letter to 
Mr. Jane, to which Hurd refers, but which was not 
amongst his papers, has fortunately been recovered, 
and given by Mr. Kilvert, and is, as he justly ob- 
serves, written in the spirit of a Christian and a gentle- 
man. 

I may here state, for the information of the readers 
of " N. & Q.,' T that a portion of Byrom's interesting 
Journal and Remains, edited by the Principal of St. 
Bee's College, has, through the liberality of his excel- 
lent descendant, been just issued by the Chetham 
Society. The Catalogue of the poet's curious library, 
prepared under the superintendence of Mr. Rodd, was 
printed in 1848 for private distribution at the instance 
of the same individual the possessor of her ancestor's 
lands, his books, and his talents. 



Biographia Britannica, and in Cooper's Annals of 
Cambridge. 

11 Kic. Bancroft, Archiep. Cantuar. 

" In Cur. Prasrog. Wingfield, 96. 

" Item. I give all the Bookes in my Studdy over 
the Cloysters unto my Successor and to the Arch- 
bushoppes of Canterbury successively for ever, yf he 
my nexte Successor will yealde to such assuraunces as 
shalbe devised by such learned counsell as my Super- 
visor and Executor shall make choyce of, for the con- 
tinuance of all the saide bookes unto the saide Arch- 
bushoppes successively accordinge to my true meaninge ; 
otherwise I bequeath them all unto his Ma tlei Colledge 
to be erected in Chelsey, if it be erected within theis 
six yeares ; or otherwise I give and bequeath them all 
to the Publicke Librarie of the Universitie of Cam- 
bridge. Touehinge this my bequest and Legacie there 
may be some defecte in the same, which I desire may 
be so supplyed as that all my saide bookes may re- 
mayne to my Successors, for that is my cheifeste 
desire, and if it mighte please his moste excellente 
Ma tie and his most royall Successors, when they receive 
the homage of anie Archbushopp of Canterbury, first 
to procure him to enter bondes to leave all the saide 
bookes to his Successor, my desire herein woulde be 
greately strengthened. 

" Dat. Oct. 28, 1610. 

"Probat. Nov. 12, 1610." 

" Reverend S', 

" I beg you will attribute the delay in sending what 
is abovewritten partly to the Easter Holydays, when 
the Office was not open, and partly to a slight return 
of my Ague. 

" The Bp. of Peterb. never heard of that Apology 
you mention of Bp. Horn, printed A 1553. 

" You dont inform me where that MS. Life of Bp. 
Patrick [is], nor can either the Bp. of Ely or of 
Peterb. tell me. 

" I much wonder I cant hear from Mr. Atwood : I 
hope I have not disobliged him. 

" I am with all possible respect, 
" Your most humble Serv*. 

" Jo. LE NEVE. 

" Apr. 14, 1719. 
" For, 

" The Reverend Mr. Tho. Baker, 
at S l John's College in 

Cambridge." 



St. John's College, Cambridge. 



J. E. B. MAYOR. 



SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS. 

(Concluded from Vol. ix., p. 586.) 

It was not my intention to have extended this 
dissertation to a fourth section, but several pieces 
of evidence bearing on the subject having come 
to notice, I am induced to bring them forward. 
The following curious extract from an old 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



volume in a Cambridge library is much to the 
purpose : 

"Hearinge that he (Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln) was 
dead, and his corpse then a bringeinge into the gates of 
Lincolne, he (King John) with all the princely trayne, 
wente forth to meet it. The three kings with theyr royal 
alleyes, carryed the corpse on those showlders that are 
accustomed to upphoulde the weighte of whole king- 
domes. From whome the great peeres received the same 
and bare it to the churche porche, whenne three arche- 
bishoppes and the bishoppe conveyed it to the quier. 
Lyeinge open-faced, mytered, and in all pontificall orna- 
ments, with gloves on his handes, and a ringe on his 
finger, (it) was interred with all solleynities answerable." 
Archaeological Journal, June, 1850, p. 178. 

The ancient episcopal monuments, it may be 
necessary to repeat, are presumed to be a petri- 
faction of a similar imposing scene ; an enduring 
transcript of the venerable remains with all the 
concomitant adornments. As before stated, images 
were sometimes substituted for the body ; accord- 
ingly we are informed that 

"In 1532 the corpse of John Islip, Abbot of Westmin- 
ster, was set up in the Abbey under a goodly herse, and 
that after the interment underneath the herse, was made 
a presentation of the corpse covered with a cloth of gold 
of tyshew." Ackerman's Westminster Abbey, Appendix. 

If life is not extinct in the mediaeval effigies, 
and all idea of sickness and languor is to be ex- 
cluded, what alternative remains ? Can it for a 
moment be conceived that, in what has been de- 
signated^ in some quarters " the age of faith," 
bishops in pontificals, and priests in eucharistic 
vestments, implored divine mercy in health and 
vigour reclining upon their beds ? When men 
refuse to bend the knee in their addresses to the 
Throne of Grace, we can scarcely imagine them to 
be penetrated with a deep feeling of humility and 
reverence. A carelessness of posture, where there 
is no infirmity, is an act of positive disobedience. 
Alloyed with error as their creed was, this accusa- 
tion is unfounded and unjust. Dark indeed must 
the ages have been when such contempt of the 
greatness, glory, and majesty of God was prac- 
tised, and corporeal homage denied. What a re- 
flection on ^the worthies of the olden time, with all 
their deficiencies, to fancy that they performed 
their devotions upon their backs ! What injustice 
to the good and great of modern days to com- 
memorate them in marble in an attitude so false, 
irreverent, and absurd! The signification of 
"supine," according to Johnson, is "lying with 
the face upward; negligent; careless; indolent; 
drowsy^; thoughtless; inattentive." 

Diminutive representations of the liberated 
spirit (a kneeling figure) conveyed by angels to 
the heavens, though of frequent occurrence in 
brasses and incised slabs, are rare in monumental 
sculpture. Bishop Northwold's in Ely Cathedral 
may be specified in addition to those previously 
mentioned ; and in a panel on the canopy of the 



tomb of Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, in West- 
minster Abbey, are the figures of two angels in 
an attitude of adoration, and the lower part of an 
upright female figure above these, intended to 
represent the assumption of her soul. In Flemish 
brasses the soul borne to heaven in an ample sheet 
of drapery usually appears in the canopy work ; 
and Abraham is often figured in these and others 
as receiving the spirit into the abode of the blest. 
It was considered a bold step in the Princess 
Charlotte's monument at Windsor to sculpture 
her soul soaring aloft from the breathless form 
enveloped in drapery below; but a much more 
daring achievement would it have been had symp- 
toms of life been manifested in both. 

Many of these figures of every description 
(two or three shrouded) clasp a heart in their 
hands, either as indicative of their faith, for " with 
the heart man believeth unto righteousness," or 
rather, as has been ably argued, as the symbol of 
a liberated soul. It is an extraordinary emblem 
in any case, but utterly unaccountable in the 
portraiture of animated beings. Of a sculptured 
example we may mention that of Bishop Ethelmar 
de Valence at Winchester ; and it may be added 
that a singular effigy of a knight, discovered in 
1833, in the isle of Sheppey, bears the little figure 
of a soul in prayer carved in a mystic oval in his 
hands, himself in an attitude of prayer. (Archaeo- 
logical Journal, Dec. 1849, p. 351.) 

Small figures of bedemen or chantry-priests, 
praying for the soul of the defunct, are at the feet 
of Brian Fitzallan, 1302, Bedale, Yorkshire; and 
also of William of Wykeham in Winchester Ca- 
thedral. The sides of altar-tombs are often em- 
bellished with figures of the offspring, as well as 
with those of mourners or weepers frequently in 
monastic habits, as whole convents have been 
accustomed in Roman Catholic countries to form 
a part in funeral processions. 

A pair of small angels in numerous instances 
support the head or pillow, often bearing thuribles. 
It is an easy task to connect these ministering 
spirits with death, by a comparison with an old 
miniature representing the ceremony of depositing 
the body of Edward the Confessor in his tomb. 
Two ecclesiastics support the head, and a bishop 
is in the act of fumigating the corpse with censers 
like the angels. (Shaw's Dresses, fyc. of the Middle 
Ages.) A remarkable class of monuments not yet 
appealed to, named semi-effigial, materially favour 
this view of the case ; for in his work on the 
Tombs of Elford, Staffordshire, they are thus 
described : 

"Elford presents also an example of a 'curious but un- 
graceful fashion in monumental memorials, namely, an 
effigy represented as if the upper and the lower portion of 
the coffin-lid were removed, so that the head and arms 
are seen, and the feet below, the central part of the tomb 
being closed over." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



It is well known that Christians of the Middle 
Ages were sometimes buried with their arms 
elevated. In Gonalston Church, Notts, a skeleton 
was discovered in a stone coffin with a coating of 
fine red mud. The head had fallen a little to one 
side, the hands had been placed on the breast, and 
the left arm was in its original position. Vain is 
it to protest that holding a sceptre, a sword, a 
book, a chalice, or a pastoral staff, implies a degree 
of action incompatible with a state of dissolution, 
for embalmed bodies have been brought to view 
with such objects placed in the hands, and even 
with open eyes. When the tomb of Edward III. 
was opened in the year 1774, "the body was 
richly habited. Between the two forefingers and 
the thumb of 'the right hand, the king held the 
sceptre with the cross made of copper gilt, and 
between the two forefingers and thumb of the left 
hand he held the rod or sceptre with the dove." 
Without reference to stern realities, the poetry of 
Longfellow might dispel such allusion : 

" Slain by the sword lies the youthful lord, 
But holds in his hand the crystal tall ; 
The shatter'd luck of Edenhall." 



" And there on the smooth yellow sand display'd, 
A skeleton wasted and white was laid ; 
And 'twas seen as the waters moved deep and slow, 
That the hand was still grasping a hunter's bow." 

As before quoted, " the soul of the sixteenth 
century dared not contemplate its body in death ! " 
but stranger still, supposing it to be the truth, the 
nineteenth century even denies that the prostrate 
effigies of its forefathers are dead. C. T. 



UNPUBLISHED POEM BY THOMAS CAMPBELL. 

The mistake made by X. Y. Z. in ascribing to 
Mrs. Hemans Campbell's poem of Roland the 
Brave (Vol. ix., p. 372.) has reminded me of a 
circumstance that may be interesting to the 
readers of " N. & Q." 

Some five-and-twenty years ago I went to dine at 
a friend's house. On entering the drawing-room, 
I found that the object of attraction was an album, 
which had been presented that morning to the 
young lady of the house. Her name was Florine, 
and the lines were as follows : 

" TO FLOKINE. 

" Could I recall lost j^outh again, 

And be what I have been, 
I'd court you in a gallant strain, 

My young and fair Florine. 
" But mine's the chilling age that chides 

Affection's tender glow ; 
And Love that conquers all besides 

Finds Time a conquering foe. 
" Farewell ! we're parted by our fate, 

As far as night from noon. 
You came into the world so late, 
And I depart so soon ! T. C." 



Dinner was announced; and ere it was half 
over, a loud knock was heard at the door, and 
Mr. Campbell came into the dining-room some- 
what excited, and making many apologies forf 
intruding. He was asked to join the party, but 
he declined ; and merely begged to see the album, 
as there was an error in the verses which he wished 
to correct. The album was brought ; and taking 
from his waistcoat pocket a small penknife, he 
proceeded to erase the word " parted" in the first 
line of the stanza, and substituted for it " severed ;" 
which, from the occurrence of the word " depart" 
in the last line, of course improved the verses : 
the repetition having evidently haunted his poetic 
ear. The correction made Mr. Campbell take a 
hasty leave ; he had another engagement, and could 
not stay. 

The lines were published, I believe, in the New 
Monthly Magazine, of which Campbell was then 
editor ; but I have never seen them in his col- 
lected poems. L. H. J. TONNA. 



Successful Guesses. Your columns should be 
open to successful critical guesses. Let me give 
you one. Dr. Johnson, in his Life of John Philips, 



" This ode [his ode to St. John] I am willing to 
mention, because there seems to be an error in all the 
printed copies, which is, 1 find, retained in the last. 
They all read : 

Quam Gratiarum cura decentium 
O ! O ! labellis cui Venus insidet. 

The author probably wrote : 

Quam Gratiarum cura decentium 
Ornat; labellis cui Venus insidet." 

I have referred to the first edition, and there 
the reading is Ornat, as Johnson conjectured. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 
Kensington. 

Dickens' s" Child's History of England." In 
one of the last chapters of this work, Mr. Dickens 
gives us the novel piece of information that the 
Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Rochester 
of Charles II.'s reign were the same person : he 
ought to have told us whether the Duke's family 
name was Carr, Wilmot, or Hyde, as persons of 
all these families held the earldom during the 
Duke's lifetime. It may be rather creditable 
than otherwise to those to whom the History is 
addressed, to be ignorant of the lives and works 
of two such profligates ; but one looks for more 
acquaintance with the history of that age in a 
writer like Mr. Dickens. J. S. WARDEN. 

The Chits (Lady RusselTs Letters}. A" mis- 
take of Miss Berry, the accomplished editor 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



of Lady Russell's Letters, is not corrected in 
the new collected edition. Lady Russell writes, 
June 12, 1680: "The three chits go down to 
Althorpe, if they can be spared." Miss Berry 
conjectured that the chits were the Earl of Lei- 
cester's children, Lord Leicester having been 
mentioned in the previous sentence. The chits is 
the nickname of the three chief ministers of the 
day, Laurence Hyde, Godolphin, and Sunderland ; 
the last being the owner of Althorpe. The poli- 
tical ballad of " The Chits" is well known : 



" But Sunderland, Godolphin, Lory, 
These will appear such chits in story, 
'Twill turn all politics to jests," &c. 



C. H. 



Female Parish Overseer. Several instances of 
female parish clerks have appeared in " N. & Q. " 
I have not, however, seen any Note on female 
guardians of the poor. Will you give a place to 
the following paragraph, which has lately appeared 
in the newspapers ? 

"A Female Parish Overseer. Miss Sarah Matilda 
George was recently nominated at a vestry meeting as a 
fit and proper person to fulfil the duties of overseer of the 
poor of Misson, Notts ; and the Retford magistrates have 
made the appointment. Miss George subsequently at- 
tended a vestry meeting, declared her willingness to 
fulfil the duties, and received the balance due to the 
parish from the outgoing overseers." Record, May 11, 
1854. 

F. M. MlDDLETON. 



THE LORD HIGH STEWARD : WARREN HASTINGS 
TRIAL. 

Haydn, in his Book of Dignities, records 
the Lords Chancellors Thurlow and Loughbo- 
rough presiding in the capacity of Lord High 
Steward, the one at the commencement, and the 
other at the conclusion, of Hastings' trial. He 
gives circumstantially the minute dates of their 
respective appointments as such, Lord Thurlow 
on Feb. 12, 1788, and Lord Loughborough on 
Jan. 28, 1793. 

But Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Chan- 
cellors, vol. v. p. 575., expressly states, 

" The charge (z. e. against Hastings) not being 
capital, no Lord High Steward was appointed, and 
Lord Thurlow, during the time he held the great seal, 
presided over it (the trial) as Chancellor or Speaker 
of the House of Lords." 

It seems also to have been as chancellor that Lord 
Loughborough acted : see Lives of the Lord Chan- 
cellors, vol. vi. p. 268. Here, then, is a singular 
variance ; " non nostrum," &c., but I suspect that 
Lord Campbell is right as to the fact ; let me, 
however, with all respect question the reason he 
gives for the non -appointment of a Lord High 



Steward at this trial. Surely it was not because 
the charge was not capital, but because Hastings 
was not a peer. I think it will be found that this 
office is never filled except on occasion of a peers 
trial ; and indeed, I may quote Haydn himself, 
whose words are : 

" Henry (III.) and his successors, wisely judging 
that the power was too great, in some measure abo- 
lished the office, as, in the hands of an ambitious sub- 
ject, it might be made subservient to the worst pur- 
poses. It is now, therefore, only revived, pro hdc vice, 
to officiate at a coronation, or the trial of a peer." 

I should add that in Haydn's list of the holders 
of the office, comprising the period from the Re- 
storation to the present time, his own definition of 
the appointment is, with this one exception, strictly 
borne out. W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 



DEDICATIONS OF SUFFOLK CHURCHES. 

As you have upon former occasions allowed me 
to make use of your columns for practical pur- 
poses, will you again allow me to inquire whether 
any of your readers can supply me with the names 
of the saints after whom the following churches 
are named in the county of Suffolk ? My work 
on the archaeological topography of that county is 
nearly ready for publication ; but I am still in 
want of the architectural notes of a few churches 
and of these dedications, which I have in vain en- 
deavoured to find in any of the usual sources of 
information. J. H. PARKER. 

CHUBCHES IN SUFFOLK, THE DEDICATIONS OF WHICH 
ARE WANTED. 



Lowestoft. 

Wenham, Little. 

Ramsholt. 

Stowlangtoft. 

Poslingford. 

Whixoe. 

Wratting, Little. 



Alpheton. 

Exning. 

Whepstead. 

Gipping. 

Harleston. 

Welnetham, Great. 

Hargrave. 



RAPHAELS CARTOONS. 

I am not aware whether a singular mistake in 
one of Raphael's Cartoons has ever been noticed. 
The guide-books (authorised perhaps by the au- 
thorities) make no allusion to it. Some record of 
the error may possibly be in existence ; but if 
such is the fact, it is not I think generally known. 
There can be little doubt, therefore, that its pub- 
licity in your columns may make the circumstance 
more generally known ; and induce the compilers 
of the said handbooks, in their next edition, to 
" make a note of it" in the long explanation they 
give of the cartoon in question. This cartoon is 
said to describe the scene mentioned in the last 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 24:6. 



chapter of St. John's Gospel, of our Lord's ap- 
pearance at the lake of Tiberias ; and there can 
be little doubt but that such is the scene intended. 
Some sheep, to which our Lord apparently makes 
an allusion, occupy a prominent position in the 
drawing ; while St. John is so eagerly pressing for- 
ward, that St. Peter's expression, " What shall this 
man do?" is clearly represented. It is remark- 
able, however, that the artist has" introduced the 
figures of the eleven Apostles ; while the account 
in the Gospel distinctly states there were only 
seven, and enumerates the names of five of them, 
with the words " and two other disciples." If the 
mistake on the part of Raphael is singular, still 
more so must be the fact, that it appears to have 
been so generally overlooked, not only by the 
more uneducated classes who throng Hampton 
Court, but by those who have professionally 
studied these remarkable works. E. L. B. 

Twickenham. 



William de la Grace. Perhaps it is rather late 
in a subscriber from your first Number now to 
ask the question ; but in Vol. i., p. 163., a corre- 
spondent quotes the following from Fenton's 
History of Pembrokeshire, p. 379. : 

" Richard the First gave Isabella in marriage to 
William de la Grace, who thus became Earl of Pem- 
broke," &c. 

Now the Query I would submit to your learned 
correspondents is as to the name given to the for- 
tunate William Mareschal why William de la 
Grace f LEVERET. 

The Old Week's Preparation. The author of 
A Week's Preparation towards a worthy receiving 
of the Lord's Supper after the warning of the 
Church of the celebration of the Holy Communion, 
published in 1679, is not known; but to whom has 
it been generally ascribed, and on what grounds ? 

The edition of 1751, which I have, and which is 
the fifty-first, is " corrected throughout and en- 
larged by a clergyman of London." Who was he ? 
WM. FRASER, B.C.L. 

George III. an Author on Agriculture. 
George III., it is well known, was very eagerly 
addicted to agricultural pursuits, and towards 
the close of the last century he caused a large 
portion of the Richmond New Park to be 
ploughed up and sown with corn. He also held 
the whole of the Old Park in hand, and Keel's 
farm adjoining, in Mortlake parish, and on the 
latter erected great ranges of farming buildings. 
Of his husbandry and agricultural experiments 
in general, however, Mr. James Malcolm, in his 
Compendium of Modern Husbandry and Survey of 



Surrey, in 3 vols. 8vo., London, 1805, is not very 
encomiastic, and says he had seen every part of 
the business better and more cheaply conducted. 
His Majesty, it is said, also contributed several 
papers to some publication of agricultural trans- 
actions. I am very desirous to peruse these com- 
munications, and would consider it a favour in 
any reader of " N. & Q." who will point out to 
me where they may be found. 2. (1) 

Chinese Proverbs in the Crystal Palace. 
Doubtless some of your readers will remember 
having seen some excellent proverbs, which were 
among the " treasures " from China, in the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. They were printed on blue 
paper, and hung in frames on the sides of the 
counters. The English translation alone was 
given. I do not see any mention of them in the 
Exhibition Catalogue. Can any of your corre- 
spondents give me a list of them ? 

F. M. MlDDLETOX. 

Milton's Mulberry Tree. Does the mulberry 
tree, planted by Milto'n in Christ Church garden, 
Cambridge, when he was a student there, still 
exist ? and in what condition is it now ? 

GARLICHITHE. 

Clock of Trinity College, Dublin. The clock of 
Trinity College, Dublin, is always kept a quarter 
of an hour slow, and all university examinations 
and proceedings are regulated by that time. 

Though it may appear strange to seek for an 
answer at the other side of the Channel, I must 
ask through your pages the reason of so extra- 
ordinary an arrangement, and when it originated? 

I have heard it stated that the college time was 
altered in consequence of a student being killed in 
endeavouring to cross the railings, having been 
late for admission by the gate ; but I can scarcely 
consider this a sufficient cause for a change in- 
volving so much confusion and inconvenience. 

J. R. G. 

Dublin. 

" Pasquin." Pasquin has been a convenient 
peg upon which to hang satires of all kinds. One 
of this school is Pasquin ; a New Allegorical Ro- 
mance on the Times, with the Fortifivead ; a Bur- 
lesque Poem, dedicated to the Earl of Rochford. 
Published by the editor, Thos. Rowe, Esq., 1769. 
Anything about this production will be acceptable. 

J. O. 



Andreas Cellarius : " Regni Polonies." I should 
feel much obliged if you could give me any in- 
formation as to the" rarity, &c. of a work which 
has lately come into my possession, and the prin- 
cipal points of the title of which I give you below. 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



It is an 18mo., has a map of Poland, and about 
twenty panoramic views of the principal towns 
therein, all perfect and in good condition ; it is 
written in Latin in a very good and pure style. 

" Regni Poloniae, Magnique Ducatus Lituanise Omni- 
umque regionum juri Polonico subjectorum, Novissima 
Descriptio: Studio Andrea; Cellarii, Gymnasii Hornani 
Rectore. Amstelodami, apud ^gidium Janssonium 
Yalckenier, anno 1659." 

A CONSTANT READER. 

Birkenhead. 

[This work by Andreas Cellarius, in a perfect condition, 
is extremely rare. The Bodleian Library has no copy of 
it; and the one in the British Museum is without the 
panoramic views.] 

Richard Calmer, alias Slue Dick. Can you 
furnish me with any particulars relating to this 
personage, who figured as an iconoclast during 
the Commonwealth? CPL. 

[Kichard Culmer was born in the Isle of Thanet in 
Kent, educated in the Canterbury Grammar School, and 
afterwards at Magdalen College, Cambridge. He be- 
came minister of Goodneston in Kent, and was suspended 
ab officio et beneficio for refusing to read the Book of 
Sports on the Lord's Day. In 1635, being accused of 
perjury, he ws committed to the Fleet. After a sus- 
pension of three years and a half, he became assistant 
minister to Dr. Robert Austin at Harbledown, near Can- 
terbury. In 1344 he published Cathedratt Newes from 
Canterbury : shewing the Canterburian Cathedrall to bee in 
an Abbey -like, torrupt,\ind rotten condition, which calls for 
a speedy reformation or dissolution, &c. " If I hold my 
peace, the stones would immediately cry out." Luke, 
xix. 40. Two inswers to the pamphlet soon followed, 
The Razing of fie Record, -c., Oxford, 1644, and Anti- 
dotum Culmeriai.um : or Animadversions upon a late 
Pamphlet by Riclurd Culmer, who is here (according to his 
friend's desire, ani his own desert) set forth in his colours. 
" The mouth of tlem that speak lies shall be stopped." 
Ps. Ixiii. 12. Oxbrd, 1644. " About 1644," says Whar- 
ton ( Collect., vol. i.p. 77.), " he was thrust into the vicar- 
age of Minster in the Isle of Thanet, on the ejection of 
Dr. Casaubon, wheie he took down the cross from the 
spire of the steeple, iefaced the windows, and pulled down 
the hall in the vica-age house. A man so odious for his 
zeal and fury that .he parishioners of Minster had pe- 
titioned the parliameit against his coming to that place, 
where he lived till tie Restoration." Culmer was one of 
those appointed by tie parliament to detect, and cause to 
be demolished, the superstitious inscriptions and idolatrous 
monuments in Canterbiry Cathedral. After the king's 
restoration," says Wotd (Fasti, vol. i. p. 448., Bliss), 
" he continued so zealot in his opinion as to engage (as 
suspected) in that hellish plot for which Thomas Venner, 
Rog. Hodgkin, &c., ana.aptist and fifth-monarchy men, 
suffered in Coleman Street, London, Jan. 9, 1660. But 
the spirit of the man beinr as we ll known as his face, he 
was taken posting up fron Canterbury to London, riding 
upon Chatham Hill. Whreupon being committed for a 
time, he, among several ex.minations, was asked why he 
brake down those famous vindows of Christ Church in 
Canterbury? To which he answered, he did it by order 
of parliament. And being ..sked why in one window 
(which represented the devil tempting our Saviour) he 
brake down Christ, and left t devil standing? he an- 
swered, he had an order to tak down Christ, and had no 
order to take down the devil. Thereby was understood 






that those plotting brethren did mean when they in- 
tended to set up King Jesus, to pull down Christ." Cul- 
mer received the cognomen of " Blue Dick of Thanet," 
because he wore blue in opposition to black, which he 
detested. He died in the year 1662, and was buried in 
the parish church of Monckton in Kent. His will, proved 
May 13, 1662, is in the Prerogative Office, wherein he 
styles himself Richard Culmer of Monckton, Clerk, and 
mentions in it his eldest son Richard, then of Stepney, 
gent. ; the time of his being possessed of the sequestration 
of the vicarage of Minster ; his lands in Ireland ; his son 
James ; his daughters Anne, Katharine, and Elizabeth ; 
and his son-in-law, Roe, who married his daughter Eliza- 
beth. For notices of this renowned iconoclast, see Dr. 
Calamy's Abridgment of Mr. Baxter's Life and Times, 
vol. ii. p. 388. edit. 1713, and Wood's Fasti. See his cha- 
racter in the History of the Tryal of Abp. Laud, p. 344.] 

Ducal Coronets. What is the reason the Dukes 
of "Newcastle" and "Sutherland" do not wear 
the usual ducal coronets over their armorial 
bearings ? CURIO. 

[We believe that the Duke of Sutherland wears the 
ducal coronet without the cap, and we presume from 
our correspondent's note that the Duke of Newcastle 
does the same. The reason for this rests with the noble 
Dukes themselves.] 



MATHEMATICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

(Vol. x., p. 3.) 

I am glad to be able to assure MR. COCKLE 
that I am quite correct on both points. Bossut's 
Histoire generate des Mathematiques, depuis leur 
Origine jusqu'd Tannee 1808, was not published in 

1802, but in 1810. It has a list of mathematicians 
at the end, on which the fingers of my left hand 
are placed (the little finger on Timseus, the thumb 
on Waring) while I write this sentence. 

Bossut's first attempt at mathematical history 
was the preface to the mathematical volumes of 
the Encycl. Meth., which appeared in 1789. This 
preface, enlarged, was republished by him in 1802, 
not as Histoire, but as Essai sur T Histoire. This 
is the work referred to by MR. COCKLE as Histoire. 
I have never seen a copy of it ; I have only the 
translation (by T. O. Churchill, under the name 
of Bonnycastle, as noted in my article on Bonny- 
castle in the Penny Cyclopaedia), published in 

1803, with a list of mathematicians at the end. 
When Bossut published his third and largest 
work, the Histoire, Paris, 1810, two volumes oc- 
tavo, he added this list, acknowledging where it 
came from. Bossut does not call this a new 
edition of the Essay, but a new work. In 1812 
he published Memoires de Mathematiques, Paris, 
8vo. This volume, besides his prize essay on the 
arrimage (art of stowage) of vessels, contains 
notes and explanations to his History, and a me- 
moir of Pascal. In the preface he explains that 
the Essai (as he calls it) was very well received, 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



because it did not give any account of the dis- 
coveries of living mathematicians ; while the His- 
toire, for a contrary reason, was sharply attacked. 
His sagacity led him to the true explanation of 
this, namely, that the dead could not speak for 
themselves, but that the living could. 

While on this subject I may, with reference to 
the battle of the books, fought at the British Mu- 
seum in 1850, quote MR. COCKLE'S remark as one 
instance to be added to many of the advantage of 
full titles. Had I written the article in question 
in 1852 instead of 1842, I should have continued 
the title at least to the words "1'annee 1808," 
which would have given sufficient evidence that 
the work of 1802 must have been reprinted, or 
another substituted for it. A. DE MORGAN. 



The enumeration of ancient mathematical his- 
torians made by Montucla at pp. xvi xvii. of the 
Preface to the first edition (Par., 1758) of his 
Histoire is repeated, in substantially the same 
terms, at p. v. of the Preface (Par., An vii.) to the 
second edition of that work. Professor De Mor- 
gan, at p. 4. of his excellent References (Lond., 
1842), mentions this part of Montucla's enu- 
meration without comment, and, indeed, without 
naming Theophrastus, Eudemus, and Geminus, of 
whose works Montucla regrets that the only re- 
remains are " Le peu que Proclus parait en avoir 
extrait, et employe dans son prolixe commentaire 
sur le premier livre d'Euclide." I have some doubts 
as to the supposition of Montucla being entirely 
well founded. 

There is a paged index at the end of the Latin 
translation (Patavii, 1560), by Barocius, of the 
Commentaries of Proclus. So far as Geminus is 
concerned, this index is very defective. I find 
(and it may be useful to know) that his name 
occurs in the text of pp. 22. 61. 63, 64. 67. 100. 
105. 108. 110. 116. 139. 143. and 159.; and in 
the margin of pp. 65. 102. and 264., as well as of 
those just specified. 

That the marginal scholia constitute no por- 
tion of the labours of Proclus, would seem to be 
clear from the fact (see pp. 264. and 266.) of 
Eutocius being cited in them. That Barocius is 
their author will I think appear when they are 
examined by the light of the middle paragraph 
(commencing with " Pra3terea, quas" &c.) of the 
third page of his Prcefatio. 

Now the scholiast refers (see p. 264.) to the 
sixth book of the Geometric^ Enarrationes, or (as 
they are called by Montucla in the Preface to his 
first edition) Enarrationes Geometries, of Geminus, 
in a manner which seems to treat the verification 
of the reference as a thing perfectly practicable. 
That work of Geminus has then probably been 
extant at a comparatively recent period, and there 
may be some hope of recovering it. Is it among 



his Opera (Heilbronner, p. 571.) in the library of 
Paris ? or are there any traces of it in the Ba- 
rocian Library (Heilb., p. 287., art. F.), or else- 
where ? 

Thomas Taylor, at p. 199. of the second volume 
(Lond., 1789) of his English translation of Pro- 
clus, replaces the scholium just alluded to (that 
at p. 264. of the Latin of Barocius) by references 
to a treatise of Simson (Sect. Con., SfC.~). The 
parts referred to do not bear upon the present 
question, although they may give a portion of the 
information for which the scholiast refers to Ge- 
minus and Eutocius as accessible authors. 

JAMES COCKLE, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

4. Pump Court, Temple. 

P. S. In my former article (Vol. x., p. 3.) I 
omitted to mention that the fact of Bonnycastle's 
name being John, may be in some way connected 
with the error in the title-page of the translation 
of Bossut. 



CLAY fOBACCO-PIFES. 

(VoLix., pp.372. 546.) 

It is a somewhat singular fact, and would seem 
to support the theory that "something was 
smoked " before the introduction of the tobacco 
plant, that, in spite of the supprersive edict of 
Queen Elizabeth, and the Counterbhste of James, 
the Society of Tobacco-pipe Mikers, in the 
seventeenth year of the reign of the latter, had 
become so very numerous and considerable a body, 
that they were incorporated by royal charter, and 
bore on their shield a tobacco plant in full 
blossom. It is also worthy of remark, that al- 
though the common clay pipe is entirely different 
in material and form from the original American 
pipe, it was used in nearly its present shape at the 
first introduction of tobacco, as taough before ap- 
proved for a similar use. Clay ->ipes, supposed to 
be of a date anterior to this period, have occa- 
sionally been found in the Irsh bogs. An en- 
graving of a dudheen, which w;s dug up at Bran- 
nockstown, co. Kildare, sticking between the 
teeth of a human skull, will Je found in the An- 
thologia Hibernica (vol. i. p.352.), together with 
a paper, which, on the auhority of Herodotus 
(lib. i. sec. 36.), Strabo (to- vii - 296 -)> p mpo- 
nius Mela (2.), and Solinu? (c. 15.), would prove 
that the northern nations cf Europe, long before 
the discovery of America were acquainted with 
tobacco, or a herb of simlar properties, and that 
they smoked it through small tubes. (See note 
to Croker's Legends and Fraditions of the South of 
Ireland.) 

I find the following ftnong my Nicotiana, which 
I remember transcribing from one of the volumes, 
I cannot say which, o'the Mirror : 

" The Inverness Cou^er says, that in one of the an- 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



cient chimneypieces in Cawdor Castle there is a rude 
carving in stone of a fox smoking a tobacco-pipe, with 
the date 1510. As it is generally believed that to- 
bacco was first introduced into this country by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, about the year 1585, it is singular to 
find the common short tobacco-pipe thus represented 
on a stone bearing date so much earlier. The Courier 
says there can be no mistake as to the date or the 
nature of the representation. The fox holds the 
fragrant tube in bis mouth, exactly as it is held by its 
human admirers ; and the instrument is such as may 
be seen every day with those who patronise the cutty 
pipe." 

It would seem strange, unless the process of 
" smoking something " had been familiar to our 
ancestors, that the custom of " taking tobacco " 
in public places should have become so exten- 
sively prevalent at so short a period after its 
introduction. Malone (History of the English 
Stage) quotes from the Skialethia a collection of 
epigrams and satires, 1598, and an epigram by 
Sir John Davis of the same date, to show that the 
playgoers of the time of Shakspeare were wont to 
be attended at the theatres by pages, who fur- 
nished them with pipes and tobacco, which were 
smoked not only on the stage, where spectators 
were then allowed to sit, but in other parts of the 
house. Paul Hentzner was struck with the pre- 
valence of this custom in England, which, how- 
ever, was evidently new to him. Speaking of the 
playhouse, he says : 

" Here, and everywhere else, the English are con- 
stantly smoking of tobacco, and in this manner : they 
have pipes on purpose made of clay, into the further 
end of which they put the herb, so dry that it may be 
rubbed into powder ; and putting fire to it, they draw 
the smoke into their mouths, which they puff out 
again through their nostrils, like funnels, along with 
it plenty of phlegm, and defluxion of the head." 
Journey into England, 1 598. 

We must not forget, however, that James^I,, in 
his Counterblaste, asks his subjects to consider 
what " honours or policy can move them to 
imitate the manners of such wild, godlesse, and 
slavish people ? " and proceeds to say, " It is not 
long since the first entry of this abuse amongst us 
here (as this present age can very well remember 
both the first author and forms of its intro- 
duction)." It would seem, too, that the pheno- 
menon (so aptly described by Virgil, who deserved 
to be a smoker, 

" Faucibus ingentem fumum, mirabile dictu 
Evomit, involvitque domum caligine caca.") 

which struck such terror into the mind of Sir 
Walter Raleigh's servant, who thought his master 
to be on fire, must have been altogether new to 
that individual ; though now so universal that, as 
is pleasantly remarked by Dr. Maginn (apud 
Fraser, vol. iv. p. 435.), " The mode of expliffli- 



cating the smoke out of one's mouth is at present, 
as it were, a shibboleth demonstrative of an En- 
glish gentleman." 

But I must beg pardon for filling up your space 
with pleasantry, to which a pleasant subject has 
inadvertently led me, and conclude by remarking 
that in market-places may not unfrequently be 
seen a stall for the sale of herb tobacco. I be- 
lieve that the blossom of coltsfoot is commonly 
used in its manufacture, but should really recom- 
mend that experiment of such " vile mundungus " 
be made in corpore vili, rather than a valued ecume, 
as I can testify, ex. cred., that the bowl so used is 
polluted everlastingly. 

The author of The School of Recreation, 12mo., 
1701, recommends for the cure of the wounds re- 
ceived by cocks in fighting, to " Take the juice of 
English tobacco, or mouse ear, and after you have 
stirred it up with a little lint, bathe the place." 

So much for European smoking : when or how 
did the nations of the East become acquainted 
with this grand source of physical solace ? What 
did they do before they smoked ? are they indebted 
to Europe for this " bright occidental star," or is 
tobacco indigenous to the coasts of Syria and the 
hills of Laodicea, where the choicest in the world 
is now produced? When we consider how en- 
tirely the chibouque in Turkey, the hookah in 
India, the sheesha in Egypt, and the nargilly in 
Persia, is part and parcel of the orientalist, when 
we take into consideration his superstitious re- 
verence for custom, and his contempt for novelty 
and innovation, we are almost led to suppose that 
his use of tobacco is of immemorial antiquity. 
This would seem, however, not to be the case, if 
we are justified in drawing such an inference from 
an observation of old Sandys, who complains of 
the badness of the tobacco in the Levant, which 
he ascribes to the circumstance that Turkey is 
supplied with the refuse of the European markets: 

" They also," says he, " delight in tobacco, which 
they take thorow reeds, which have joyned unto them 
great heads of wood to contain it. I doubt not but 
lately taught them, as brought them by the English ; 
and were it not sometimes lookt into (for Morat Bassa 
not long since commanded a pipe to be thrust thorow 
the nose of a Turk, and so to be led in derision 
thorow the city), no question but it would prove a 
principal commodity. Nevertheless they will take it 
in corners, and are so ignorant therein, that that which 
in England is not saleable, doth pass here amongst them 
for most excellent." Sandys' Travels, Sfc., folio, 1673, 
p. 52. 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

If MR. RILEY cares for clay pipes, not tobacco 
ones, the oldest I have read of are those mentioned 
by Wilson in the Pre-Historic Annals of Scot- 
land, as having been found both in Ireland and 
Scotland, similar in shape to the modern ones, but 



50 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 246. 



at a depth below the surface of the ground, which 
proves they had been used long before the noxious 
weed was brought to this country. The old 
women in Annandale, Wilson tells us, used a dry 
white moss not long ago, and said it was much 
sweeter to smoke than tobacco. It might easily 
be that. M A L. 



ORCHARD. 



(Vol. ix., p. 400.) 

I think Professor Martyn has gone too far when 
he went to the Greek for his derivation of such a 
good old English word as orchard, more especially 
as, when pronounced, they do not agree in sound. 
That the English word is pronounced orchat, is 
only in analogy with that of the vulgar in all 
similar cases. I suspect it is simply worts-yard, 
i. e. herb-yard, which in this country preceded an 
enclosure for fruit-trees. Ash gives, " Wort, the 
general name of an herb ; a plant of the cabbage 
kind." Another derivation might be suggested, 
which, though less probable, I give for the sake of 
a remark which may be founded upon it, viz. 
orts-yard, i.e. waste-yard. Ash says under the 
word " Ort (a word not much used in the sin- 
gular), the refuse, that which is left." It is es- 
pecially used of the sweepings of cows' looses ; and 
this leads me to remark that it is in the language 
connected with the farm that some of our good 
old English monosyllables are to be traced. The 
farmer in the north, and doubtless elsewhere, still 
says to his man, " Go, unseal the kye, and sweep 
the orts in their booses into the groop." To un- 
seal is to loosen the sow, an ingenious wooden 
trap by which the cows are held. Ash says, 
" Sowe |(verb int. obsolete), to seal." But he is 
wrong, according to the writer's experience ; seal 
is the verb, and sowe its substantive. Boose is 
the locus standi of the cow, and groop (see Ash), 
the place for the urine. The terms of driving, 
again, ho, gee, &c., deserve the attention of anti- 
quaries, and probably some of your "readers may 
think this subject worth prosecuting farther. 

R.P. 

Dr. Johnson identifies the word with the Anglo- 
Saxon ontseapb (i. e. 'hort-yard), and his view 
seems far more probable than that of Professor 
Martyn. H. G. 



EPITAPH IN LAVENHAM CHURCH. 

(Vol. ix., p. 369.) 

This church is in Suffolk, but the following 
remarks apply to both counties. "Prayse" may 
here be a verb, and "continuall" an adverb for 
contirmally. The phrase is common in Norfolk 
among uneducated persons : " She continuall do 



it." The "of" in the next line maybe a Nor- 
folkism too; "I was a praising of her" being 
common also. "Ingrain" does not apply in this 
case ; a painter grains deal to imitate mahogany, 
oak, &c. The word ingrain or ingrained belongs 
to the dyer's trade, and is solely applied (I think) 
to scarlet ; at least to such colours only as are 
obtained from cochineal. The term Grana fina 
was used by Spanish merchants to distinguish the 
domesticated cochineal insect from the wild and 
inferior kind, Grana sylvestra, probably in igno- 
rance of its being really an insect ; and the term 
had irremediably taken its place in Spanish com- 
merce, before Cortez had sufficient leisure and 
opportunity to follow his master's orders in mak- 
ing himself acquainted with the natural produc- 
tions of the country he had conquered. The 
word is thus fixed in our language ; a curious fact, 
as I do not find that Keruces (according to Pliny), 
early used by the Spaniards, or Lac, still earlier 
used by the Indians, were subject to the same 
misnomer; yet the ancient 'Spaniards must have 
heard of the lac dye through the Phoenicians, even 
if it were not produced in Spain, as some writers 
have supposed. F. C. B. 

There are two or three misquotations in the 
copy of this epitaph rendered by your correspon- 
dent A. B. E,. As correctness is desirable, I ven- 
ture to repeat the lines, which are inscribed upon 
a brass plate affixed against one of the nave piers 
of this church, marking the corrections in Italics : 

" Continuall prayse these lynes in brasse, 
[The verb record is here obviously to be understood.] 

Of Allaine Dister here, 
A clothier vertuous whyle he was 
In Lavenham many a yeare 
For as in lyfe he loved best 
The poore to clothe and feede 
So with the riche and alle the rest 
He neighbourlie agreed 
' And did appoint before he died 
A spiall [special] yearlie rent 
Whiehe shoulde be every Whitsontide 
Amonge the poorest spent." 

" Et obiit anno dni 1534." 

Lavenham Church abounds in curious relics, 
and will well repay the antiquary who would take 
the pleasure of visiting its ancient fabric. Being 
a native of Lavenham, I have often read the epi- 
taph noticed by A. B. R. The first two lines 
mean " Continuall prayse these lynes in brass (do 
give) of Allaine Dister here" (i. e. wholieth here). 
It is one of those quaint forms of expression which 
still characterise the old people of Lavenham. 
The town is not in Norfolk, but in Suffolk, situated 
midway between Sudbury and Bury St. Edmunds. 

FRED. RIBBANS. 

Grammar School, Leek, Staffordshire. 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Tests for Intensity of Light and Fluidity of Collodion. 
On a recent visit to my friend Mr. S. T. Coathupe, of Bris- 
tol, he communicated to me two suggestions, which he 
has permitted me to make public, and which I am in- 
clined to think may prove valuable to my brother photo- 
graphers. The first is with respect to certain conditions 
of light ; and to enable the photographer, previous to his 
commencing his operations, to have some idea of its in- 
tensity, he recommends the use of a tourmalin, or Nichols's 
Prism, and a piece of unannealed glass or selenite, either 
of the former to analyse the light passing through the 
latter substances ; with the joint aid of which, on holding 
the former close to the eye, and the glass or selenite at a 
convenient distance, say two feet, and directing them both 
to the sky, the usual phenomena of polarised light will 
occasionally be discovered ; and according to the degree 
of intensity of polarisation then observed, the operator 
may obtain some knowledge of the time required for the 
exposure of the plate in the camera. 

When the sky fully polarises, he will of course allow 
double the time, there being only half the light that he 
would have when no such phenomenon occurs a hint 
not to be disregarded, and not obtainable with the same 
facility and accuracy by any other means that I have yet 
heard of. 

The second suggestion was with reference to keeping the 
iodized collodion constantly at the same degree of fluidity : 
and this would appear to be readily accomplished by the 
use of the ordinary specific gravity beads, choosing that 
condition of the collodion which the operator deems 
best suited for his work, and finding a bead which just 
floats in the centre of the bottle : keep the collodion to 
the same degree of fluidity by the addition of either ether 
or alcohol, as may be required, the thickening of the col- 
lodion as the bottle containing it gets emptied being in- 
dicated, of course, by the rising of the bead, which, by the 
addition of alcohol or ether, or the mixture of the two, 
would be restored to its normal state. Considering the 
above hints as practically valuable, I have (with Mr. 
Coathupe's permission) lost no time in giving them the 
greatest publicity in my power, and I know not a better 
medium than " N. & Q." J. W. G. GUTCH. 

No. 6. Clifton Villas, Paddington. 

Photographic Hints. Having found much difficulty in 
iodizing the paper, as advised by DR. DIAMOND, from the 
manner in which it curls on removal from the bath, and 
finding that after the paper has been damped, in accord- 
ance with that gentleman's directions, it iodizes unequally, 
thus spoiling the negative, I have tried a method which 
entirely remedies the inconvenience ; and as I am pretty 
sure others, especially young photographers, have found, 
or will experience like difficulties, I beg to offer it for their 
use. I cut the paper about half an inch larger than the 
size required, and fold back a quarter of an inch of each 
end, which, rendering the paper rigid, no warping ensues, 
ana the after process with the glass rod is perfectly easy, 
and there is not any fear, with a little care, of having the 
back soiled. 

I have found also that where the pins went through the 
paper during drying, on developing, very generally, a 
double fleck from the pin-hole spread right up the nega- 
tive, and thus spoiled it. I tried various means, until I 
tried the finer sort of hair pins used by ladies, which, 
being lacquered, answer admirably. I have not had one 
spoiled since. I bend the pin like a shepherd's crook, and 
place the end through a tape hung across a room, and pass 
the longer end through the paper, as by such means the 
paper hangs on the uninjured part of the pin ; otherwise, 



when bent by myself, probably the metal may be exposed, 
and the paper be thus spoiled. T. L. MERBITT. 

Maidstone. 

Query on Mr. Lyte's Process. Will you allow me to 
put a Query with reference to MR. LYTE'S instantaneous 
process, described in " N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 570. ? Is there 
not some mistake in the method of preparing solution 
No. 1. ? Two hundred grains of nitrate of silver are to be 
dissolved in six ounces of distilled water, and as much 
iodide of silver as will dissolve. Iodide of silver being in- 
soluble in water, of course none of it will dissolve. 

C. H. C. 



to $Ktt0r 

Curious Prints (Vol. v., p. 585.). With re- 
ference to curious prints I send you an account of 
a satirical print inserted, by some former pos- 
sessor of the work, in my copy of Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, at 
p. 453. of vol. ix. It has reference, I should sup- 
pose, to some event in the life of the famous 
John Wilkes. 

The print is headed "Midas, or the Surrey 
Justice." At a table is seated a person in a large 
full-bottomed wig, with ass's ears sticking out of 
it, writing; before him lies a paper with these 
words : " Sir, send me the ax Rel Latin to a 
Gustus of Pease." Behind him stands a tall 
figure, dressed according to the fashion of Wilkes's 
time, with ruffles, &c. ; and out of his mouth pro- 
ceeds a scroll inscribed with these words, " Not 
satisfied with the murder of the English, he must 
also murder the English language." This figure, 
I conclude, represents John Wilkes. 

On the table are papers inscribed " Warrants," 
" Commitments ; " also a book labelled " Fen- 
ning's Spelling," and a gun, with this inscription 
on the barrel, " The present practice of a Justice 
of the Peace." Under the table, on two folio vo- 
lumes, labelled the " Statutes at Large," lies a 
cat asleep. In the upper left-hand corner is a 
fox seated on a hill, holding in his right fore paw 
a sword, and in his left a pair of scales ; in one 
scale is a cock, and in the other a goose. In the 
left corner below stands a chamber utensil, with a 
large folio before it, as if to conceal it. The 
justice is in a dressing-gown and slippers, and 
seated in a very large arm-chair. 

Can any of your correspondents afford any ex- 
planation of this print, as to date, &c. ? 1. 11. R. 

De Beauvoir Pedigree (Vol.ix., pp. 349. 596.). 
MR. EDGAR MACCULLOCH is in error in his sup- 
position that the lady, who was widow of Admiral 
M'Dougal, and afterwards wife of Sir John 
Brown (now De Beauvoir), was the daughter and 
heiress of the Rev. Peter de Beauvoir, her affinity 
to him being that of first cousin, by the half blood, 
ex parte materna ; in which character she was his 
sole next of kin, according to the statutes for the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



distribution of the personal estates of intestates. 
It may assist MR. THOMAS RUSSELL POTTER, your 
first correspondent on this subject, in the object 
of his inquiries, and save him the trouble of fol- 
lowing a wrong track, to state how this relation- 
ship arose. The Rev. Peter Beauvoir was only 
child of Osmond Beauvoir of Downham Hall in 
Essex (ob. 1757), by Elizabeth his wife, who was 
daughter and heiress of John Beard, Esq., Gover- 
nor of Bengal. Mary, the widow of Governor 
Beard, and mother of Elizabeth Beauvoir, married 
secondly Thomas Wright, Esq., of East Harling, 
Norfolk ; and by him was also mother of Richard 
Wright, Esq., who was father (with other chil- 
dren) of Mary, the wife, first, of Admiral John 
M'Dougal, and afterwards of Sir John Edmond 
Brown, an Irish baronet. This gentleman assumed 
the name of De Beauvoir, as much I presume 
from its euphony over that of Brown as in testi- 
mony of the large fortune he had with his wife, 
to the entire exclusion of her nephews and nieces, 
the children of her late brother the Rev. James 
Wright; who, by the accident of their father's 
death before Peter Beauvoir, were, in law, one 
degree too remote in succession to his property. 
To return to the Beauvoir family : Osmond, 
above mentioned, who was son of a Richard 
Beauvoir, or De Beauvoir, of Hackney, in Mid- 
dlesex, had a sister Rachel Beauvoir married to 
Francis Tyssen of Hackney, Esq., by whom she 
had, besides other children whose legitimate 
descendants have failed, a daughter Mary, wife 
of Richard Benyon, Esq., whose grandson, the 
late Richard Pawlett Wrighte Benyon, changed 
his name to De Beauvoir ; and was certainly a 
descendant of that family, and, although too re- 
mote to participate as next of kin in the personal 
estate, was probably the heir-at-law of Peter 
Beauvoir. 

Mary, the wife, first of Governor Beard, and 
afterwards of John Wright, is also stated to have 
been a Beauvoir by birth ; but this wants proof. 
Your correspondents may satisfy themselves as to 
the other facts in the pedigree, dates, &c., by in- 
specting the records of the proceedings in Chan- 
cery in the cause M'Dougal v. De Beauvoir, circ. 
1822 ; and of the more recent proceedings in De 
Beauvoir . De Beauvoir, instituted by the baronet, 
also in Chancery, in 1846. G. A. C. 

Coaches (Vol. vi., p. 98.). The words of the 
old song were, as I remember them, 

" If the coach goes at nine, pray what time goes the 

basket, 
For there I can sit, and sing Langolee ? " 

Can any correspondent say where this old song 
can be found ? I. R. R. 

" Quod fuit esse" SfC. (Vol. vii., p. 235.). 
MR. EDGAR MACCULLOCH'S version of this enig- 



matical epitaph was corrected by another corre- 
spondent in p. 342., same volume ; who ought not 
however to have supplied any pointing. For 
other conjectural readings or translations, refer 
to Gentleman's Magazine, Feb. 1840. See also 
Ecclesiastes, i. 9. and seq., and iii. 15. G. A. C. 

Was Queen Elizabeth dark or fair f (Vol. v., 
pp. 201. 256. ; Vol. vi., p. 497.). I send you the 
following description of her from one who cer- 
tainly had no great cause to be very partial to 
her : 

" Sliee was a lady upon whom nature had bestowed, 
and well placed, many of her fayrest favors ; of stature 
meane, slender, streight, and amiably composed ; of such 
state in her carriage, as every motion of her seemed to 
beare majesty : her haire was inclined to pale yellow, her 
foreheade large and faire, and seemeing seat for princely 
grace j her eyes lively and sweete, but short-sighted ; her 
nose somewhat rising in the middest. The whole com- 
passe of her countenance somewhat long, but yet of ad- 
mirable beauty ; not so much in that which is termed the 
flower of youth, as in a most delightfull compositione of 
majesty and modesty in equall mixture . . . Her vertues 
were such as might suffice to make an Ethiopian beauti- 
full ; which, the more man knows and understands, the 
more he shall love and admire. In life, shee was most 
innocent ; in desires, moderate ; in purpose, just ; of spirit, 
above credit and almost capacity of her sexe : of divine 
witt, as well for depth of judgment, as for quick conceite 
and speedy expeditione; of eloquence, as sweet in the 
utterance, soe ready and easy to come to the utterance ; 
of wonderful knowledge, both in learning and affayres ; 
skilfull not only in Latine and Greeke, but alsoe in divers 
foraigne languages. None knew better the hardest art of 
all others, that of commanding men ; nor could more use 
themselves to those cares, without which the royall dig- 
nity could not be supported. Shee was relligeous, mag- 
nanimous, mercifull and just." Annals of the First Four 
Years of the Re.ign of Queen Elizabeth, by Sir John 
Hayward, Knight, D.C.L., p. 449. 

Hayward wrote the commencement of a Life of 
Henry IV., dedicated to the Earl of Essex ; a 
seditious pamphlet " as it was termed," says Lord 
Bacon, for which he was committed to prison, the 
queen being anxious to subject him to very severe 
treatment. R- J- SHAW. 

Lord North (Vol. vii., pp. 317. 207. ; Vol. viii., 
pp. 183. 230. 303.). Respecting any personal 
likeness supposed to exist between George III. 
and Lord North, I am able to confirm the fact by 
stating that last autumn, at Appuldercombe [then 
on sale, being the property of Earl Yarborough], 
Isle of Wight, there were lying for removal to his 
Lordship's other seat in Lincolnshire, two por- 
traits, one of George III., the other of Lord 
North, by Wm. Wynne Ryland, 1778, and mea- 
suring, as far as I recollect, about twelve inches 
by seven. 

The similarity between the two was exceedingly 
striking ; and this idea was strengthened^ in the 
minds of two friends and myself, by placing the 
smaller representative of Lord North by the side 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



of the larger proportions of his Majesty. At all 
events, an original of Lord North, and more to be 
relied on than an apocryphal print, has been found. 

FURVUS. 
Plumstead Common. 

"Awk" (Vol. viii., pp. 310. 438. 602.). This 
word probably exists in a compound form in 
Notts. A man who habitually uses his left hand 
instead of his right, and such instances are not 
uncommon (indeed, these people, as labourers, 
carpenters, and the like, seem stronger than the 
ordinary right-handed folk), is called by the com- 
monalty, with no meaning of contempt attached 
to the word, " bollocky," or " bollocky-paw." The 
word "bolbull" (as that animal is proverbially 
awkward), and auk = the left hand, may contri- 
bute to its formation ; unless " bollocky" be an 
adjective derived from bollock (?) = bullock. 

" Latten-jawed." In the above county I once 
witnessed a person falling under the displeasure 
of a low fellow, who entitled him (cum multis aliis) 
a " latten-jawed devil:" meaning, I suppose, that 
the unfortunate recipient of his epithets was a 
brazen-faced specimen of the horned and cloven- 
footed fraternity latten being a composition with 
much of the nature of brass. FURVUS. 

Plumstead Common. 

Moral Philosophy (Vol. ix., p. 351.). Your 
correspondent H. P. is informed that the following 
writers on moral philosophy (whose works are still 
in repute, though scarce), of the period specified 
by him, are mentioned by Watt, in his Bibliotheca 
Britannica : 

" 1. A Treatise on Moral Philosophy, by William Bald- 
wyne, anno 1547. This work passed through many edi- 
tions, and was enlarged 03' Thomas Palfreyman, anno 
1564 and 1584." 

" 2. The Moral Philosophy of Doni, translated by Sir 
Thomas North, anno 1570." 

"3. The Nosegay of Moral Philosophy, by Thomas 
Crewe, anno 1580 ; a small work." 

" 4. Christian Ethickes, or Moral Philosophy, by Wil- 
liam Fulbeck, anno 1587." 

" 5. A similar work by Lod. Bryskett, anno 1606." 

" 6. De Compescendis Animi Affectibus, &c., by Aloy- 
sius Luisinus, anno 1562." 

" 7. The Golden Cabinet of Moral Philosophy, by Wil- 
liam Jewell, anno 1612. A translation from the French." 

"8. Totius Philosophic Humanse Digestio, by the 
celebrated Hieron. Wildenberg, anno 1571." 

Other works of a later date (I need not inform 
him) are very numerous. C. H. 

Heraldic Anomaly (Vol. ix., pp. 298. 430.) I 

beg to thank TEE BEE for his interesting informa- 
tion regarding the old gate of Clerkenwell, though 
he has slightly mistaken the object of my inquiry, 
which was not for examples of arms surmounted 
with a cross in chief by no means uncommon 
but of the anomalous custom of bearing the pa- 



ternal and maternal coats impaled ; as, for instance,, 
on St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, where, by TEE 
BEE'S account, may be seen a chevron engrailed, 
between three roundles, impaling a cross flory, 
Docwra and Lamplugh, as described in my com- 
munication at p. 298. 

Apropos of these ancient escutcheons. Being 
in the island of Rhodes a few years ago, I was 
shown by Mr. Wilkinson, the then British consul, 
some stones bearing the royal blazonry of Eng- 
land, as well as other arms of English knights, of 
the fifteenth century, or perhaps earlier, that had 
once ornamented the front of the auberge of that 
venerable Language. This old palace, situated in 
the Strada dei Cavalieri, falling into a dilapidated 
state, had been sold to a Jew, who pulled it down, 
and utterly demolished it " from turret to found- 
ation stone." Mr. Wilkinson, with laudable zeal, 
had saved the armorial bearings of its former 
knightly possessors from total loss and destruction 
by purchasing them. Is it not a subject for 
regret, that these interesting memorials of Eng- 
land's chivalry are not placed for preservation in 
the British Museum ? JOHN o' THE FOED. 

Malta. 

Salutations (Vol. ix., p. 420.). In Shropshire 
the usual valediction among the poor is, " I wish 
you good luck," instead of the more common " I 
wish you good day," or " Good bye." This brings 
to mind Psalin cxxix. 8. : 

" So that they who go by say not so much as ' The 
Lord prosper you : we wish you good luck in the 
name of the Lord.' " 

The valediction " Good day " was originally '| God 
give you good day ; " it is now lost in the inane 
" Good morning " of the present day. 

WM. FHASER, B. C. L 

Highland Regiment (Vol.ix., p. 493.) ARTHUR 
is informed that the dirk is still worn by officers 
in the Highland regiments, in addition to the 
broadsword. In undress it is, sometimes at least, 
worn alone. The Reichudain Dubh Black-watch, 
or 42nd regiment, had broadswords and steel-hilted 
pistols supplied them by their officers for some of 
their early campaigns. They used them, I be- 
lieve, at Fontenoy ; but on their return home, 
the weapons were placed in store, and never re- 
issued. The white shell -jacket is merely the white 
waistcoat formerly worn with an open breasted 
coatee, and now, with the addition of sleeves, worn 
alone as an undress garment. 

FRANCIS JOHN SCOTT. 

Tewkesbury. 

Heraldic (Vol. ix., p. 398.). Cm is respect- 
fully informed that B.'s issue, having no paternal 
coat of their own to quarter it with, can make no 
use of their mother's coat. If they had had arms 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



of their own, they could then have quartered their 
mother's with them, but in any case the crest and 
motto would have been lost to them : for as a lady 
has no right to either, she cannot convey to her 
children what she never possessed herself. 

The " dead set " young, ignorant wives of the 
present day are making at the husband's crest is 
really amusing. A lady has as much right to the 
crest as to the beard or the breeches, and there- 
fore the sooner it is banished from her note-paper, 
envelopes, and pencilcase top, the better. 

Another correspondent asks if a peer's younger 
son may use the supporters? Even the eldest 
son must not do that till he gets his own head into 
the coronet by the death of his father. P. P. 

Bishops vacating their Sees (Vol. ix., p. 450.). 
The ex-bishop of Bombay has recently become the 
"parish priest" of Bath. ANON. 

*' Aches" (Vol. ix., p. 351.). S. S. asks if 
there is any rhyme earlier than that of Butler, 
showing the old fashion of pronouncing ache. In 
Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar, I find he makes 
ache rhyme with match. M A L. 

"Hogmanay" (Vol. ix., p. 495.). Among the 
many conjectures which have been offered on this 
subject, the following extract may be considered 
not unworthy of notice from a paper in The Bee 
(vol. xvi. p. 17., July 10, 1793), edited by James 
Anderson, LL.D., F.R.S., Edinburgh : 

" Translations from Snorro 1 s ' History of Scandinavia.' 
King Hako was a good Christian before he came to 
Norway (he had been baptized in England during his 
residence at the Court of Athelstane), but as all the 
inhabitants of Norway, particularly the nobility, were 
heathens, and much addicted to the worship of their 
false gods ; and as Hako stood much in need of the 
assistance of the nobility, as well as of the favour of 
the people, he thought it most advisable to exercise his 
own religion in private. He observed the Sundays, 
and fasted on Fridays, and was not unmindful of the 
other holidays of the Church. He made a law for 
fixing the heathen feast of Yole on the same day the 
Christians kept Christmass. Hogg-night preceded, and 
was usually observed on the shortest day in the year. 
The feast of Yole continued for three days thereafter." 

The editor remarks on the above in a foot-note : 

" The reader will here observe the genuine deriva- 
tion of the word Yole, and also of the name generally 
given to the night preceding that festival, Hogg-monay. 
The first appears to have been the ancient heathen 
name of their greatest holiday, and the word hogg, to 
kill or make slaughter." 

He farther remarks : 

" The feast of Christmass, or Yule, is held for three 
days together in Aberdeenshire at this day." (1793.) 

At the present time, in the west of Scotland, 
hogmanay is observed on the last day of the year 



among the people, merely in a friendly calling 
upon one another at their houses, and also in pre- 
parations for the jovial celebration of New Year's 
Day. Nearly half a century ago it was customary 
on hogmanay, for bands of boys and girls to 
assemble at the doors of houses, and sing the 
following : 

" Hogmanay 
Drol-ol-ay 

Unless I get some bread and cheese, 

I'll wait at your door all day." 

who were generally dismissed with some small 
present in money, a piece of currant-bun, or the 
eatables they demanded. G. N. 

The meaning of the word hogmanay, as applied 
in Scotland to the last day of the year, is, " Hug 
me now, for you will not have me long ;" or rather, 
" Make much of me, for I shall soon be gone." 

S. R. 

General Whitelocke (Vol. ix., pp. 201.455.). 

[In reply to the many inquiries and researches of 
correspondents relative to the place of sepulture of 
John "Whitelocke, Esq. (ci-devant lieut. -general), we 
are enabled to state that it was at Bristol. We have 
the subjoined communication transmitted to us from 
a friend who has received it from a gentleman who 
lately visited the cathedral. We have no doubt it 
will be found correctly stated, though the writer had 
not any writing apparatus at hand to copy it, and 
solely trusted to his memory.] 

I went to Bristol yesterday, and on my return 
from Clifton went into the cathedral, where I was 
shown (as I anticipated) the grave of General 
Whitelocke. He lies in the centre of the west 
aisle. A small unpretending slab of white marble, 
about eighteen inches square, placed diamond- 
wise, marks the spot, and upon it are these words : 
" JOHK WHITELOCKE, ESQ., 

Of Clifton. 

Died the 23rd day of October, 1833, 
Greatly regretted." 

These, I believe, are the exact words. Service 
was being performed at the time, and not having 
a piece of paper with me, I was obliged to trust 
my memory till I got home, when I immediately 
committed them to writing. 2. (1) 

"Putting a spoke in his wheel" (Vol. ix., p. 
601.). I think your correspondent MB. HAZEL 
has hit the true and obvious meaning of the above 
phrase: if you would clinch it at this point with 
an authority, here is an early application of it as 
an obstruction. 

In A Memorial of God's last Twenty-nine Years' 
Wonders in England for its Preservation and De- 
liverance from Popery and Slavery, 1689, the 
' author, speaking of the zeal exerted by the par- 
liament of James H. against arbitrary government, 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



tells us that two very good acts had lately been 
procured for the benefit of the subject ; one " for 
disbanding the army," " the other a bill of habeas 
corpus, whereby the government could not any 
longer detain men in prison at pleasure as for- 
merly ; both which bills were such spokes in their 
chariot wheels that made them drive much 
heavier." J- O. 

' Peculiar Customs at Preston (Vol. ix., p. 562.). 
ANON, may rest assured he has been made the 
victim of a hoax about widows' caps, disuse of 
mourning, &c., in Preston. These matters are 
just as much conformed to by all persons laying 
the smallest claim to respectability in Preston as 
elsewhere ; and the old excuse from an unpunctual 
tailor, " Sorry to disappoint you, sir, but we had 
a large order for mourning," is just as common 
here as in other places. If ANON, will tell us what 
other strange customs he has heard imputed to 
us, we shall be able to inform him through your 
columns whether or not he has been deceived. 

P.P. 

Works on Sells (Vol. ix., p. 240.). In re- 
ference to the list of works on bells, I beg to in- 
close you the following extract, which perhaps 
may interest some of your correspondents, the 
REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE among them : 

" Sacerdotes Graeci jam inde ab iis temporibus, quibus 
sub Turcica tyrannide esse cceperunt ecclesias Graecse, 
ligneo instrumento, quod HvXoi/ vocant, ad Graecos in 
ecclesiam convocandos, utuntur. Illud ita describit L. 
Allatius de Templis (Epiat. L): 'Est lignum binarum 
decempedarum longitudine, duorum digitorum crassitu- 
dine, latitudine quatuor, quam optime dedolatum, non 
fissum, aut rimosum ; quod manu sinistra medium tenens 
Sacerdos. vel alius, dextra malleo ex eodem ligno, cursim 
hinc et inde transcurrens, modo in unam partem, modo in 
alteram, prope vel eminus ab ipsa sinistra, ita lignum 
diverberat, ut ictum mine plenum, nunc gravem, nunc 
acutum, nunc crebrum, nunc extentum edens, perfecta 
musices scientia auribus suavissime moduletur.' " Suiceri 
Thesaurus, vol. ii. p. 448. 

This instrument was called the 'S.^a.vrpov ; and 
there is a mention of it, as Suicer tells us, under 
the article " s.v\ov num. iii. Typicum Sabse, cap. v." 

Allatius Leo, who is quoted above, was librarian 
of the Vatican about 1600, and perhaps his book 
De Templis Grcecorum aaay, if extant, furnish 
some useful particulars to the REV. H. T. ELLA- 
COMBE, or any of your subscribers who may be 
interested on the subject. W. B. II. 

Add to MR. ELLACOMBE'S list the following, 
which I observe in Mr. Petheram's Catalogue, 
No. V. : Campanologia, or a Key to the Art of 
Ringing, by Jones, Reeves, and Blakemore, bds. 
4s. 6d., scarce. (No date.) E. H. A. 

Madame de Stael (Vol. ix., p. 451.). It was 
not Fichte who helped A. W. Schlegel to write 
against Nicolai, but Schlegel who helped Fichte 



to do so, so far as that can be called help, 
which consisted in conducting Fichte's piece of 
humorous satire through the press, and prefixing 
a few remarks to it, explanatory of the reasons 
which led Schlegel to edit it during the author's 
lifetime. The title of the work in question, by 
Fichte in ridicule of Nicolai (Schlegel, no mean 
judge, does not think it dull), is as follows : 
Frederick Nicolafs Leben und sonderbare Mei- 
nungen ; ein Beitrag zur Liter argeschichte des ver- 
gangenen und zur Pddagogik des angehenden 
Jahrhunderts ; von Johann Gottlieb Fichte ; her- 
ausgegeben von August Wilhelm Schlegel. It was 
first printed at Tubingen in 1801, and forms part 
of the eighth volume of Fichte's Collected Works, 
published at Berlin in 1846. Like your corre- 
spondent R. A., I also cannot find any mention of 
this dispute in Madame de Stael's De L 1 Allemagne. 

J. MACEAT. 
Oxford. 

Query on South' s Sermons (Vol. ix., p. 515.). 
The " W. W.," after whom MR. W. H. GUNNER 
inquires, as referred to by South in vol. ii. p. 152. 
of his Sermons, was William Wright, a barrister, 
and the Recorder of Oxford, author of A Letter to 
a Member of Parliament, occasioned by a Letter 
to a Convocation-man, together with an Inquiry 
into the Ecclesiastical Power of the University of 
Oxford, particularly to decree and declare Heresy, 
occasioned by that Letter. London : W. Rogers, 
1697. 

The pamphlet is occasionally to be met with, 
and is not distinguished by more " insolence " or 
" virulence" than was usual in the controversies 
of that period. The writer was a warm partisan 
of William of Holland, and an opponent of con- 
vocational action : he was therefore not unlikely 
to incur Dr. South's anger. 

WILLIAM FRASEK, B. C. L. 

Bakers'" Talleys. These, which are spoken of 
as obsolete in England, in an article in " N. & Q." 
on "Scottish Female Dress" (Vol. ix., p. 271.), 
are in daily use here, and have been from time 
immemorial. The fact that our bakers are nearly 
all Germans, a race distinguished for their honesty, 
may have contributed to their continued use. A 
few bakers have lately introduced the plan of 
selling tickets by the quantity, marked with par- 
ticular sums of money, to be received back on the 
delivery of the bread. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Hatherleigh Moor (Vol. ix., p. 538.). The lines 
quoted by your correspondent (with the important 
difference of the word " all," instead of " then," in 
the last but one), were long preserved in old, but 
not ancient MS. by an inhabitant of Hatherleigh, 
and were inserted in the Devonshire Chronicle by 
Mr. Edwards, the respected parish clerk, in 1849. 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



It does not appear that the facts therein stated 
can be strictly authentic. Hatherleigh belonged 
to the Abbey of Tavistock from before the period 
of the Domesday survey, and it is not improbable 
that these were traditionary lines arising from the 
fact that the waste lands of the manor were granted 
to the poor by Ordgar, Earl of Devon, on his 
foundation of the monastery in the year 961 ; or 
that having been comprised in his grant to the 
Abbey, the Moor may have been assigned by one 
of the abbots to the use of the poor tenants of 
the manor. That a part of the Moor was so 
granted by the Abbey is asserted by Risdon in 
his Survey of Devon. The facts of the case could 
probably be determined only by reference to the 
chartulary of the monastery, formerly in the hands 
of Serjeant Maynard, and said afterwards to have 
been in the possession of the Duke of Bedford, but 
now not to be found. It is just possible that some 
intimation of the circumstances may be discovered 
in the MS. No. 152. in the Library of Queen's 
College, Oxford, which contains extracts from the 
chartulary above mentioned. S. J. D. 

A Note from Moore s Diary (Vol. vi., p. 310.). 
" Spoke of derivations of different words. Nin- 
compoop from non-compos. Cockahoop from 
the taking the cock out of a barrel of ale, and 
setting it on a hoop to let the ale flow merrily. 
Talbot, by-the-bye, has since suggested that it 
was from a game cock put on his mettle with his 
houppe erect." CI.EBICUS RUSTICUS. 

Anglo-Saxon Graves (Vol. ix., p. 494.). Per- 
mit me to assure your correspondent H. E., that 
archaeologists have no difficulty in identifying 
relics of the Anglo-Saxon period discovered in 
tumuli. Your correspondent, who, for aught I 
know, may be a Trustee of the British Museum, 
asks, somewhat naively, whether Anglo-Saxon 
coins have been discovered in these graves. He 
evidently thereby confounds the Pagan period 
and the Christian period, a singular confusion for 
one who takes any real interest in the matter. 
Anglo-Saxon coins have been discovered in Anglo- 
Saxon tumuli, and I need not do more than cite 
in confirmation of this fact the thirtieth volume 
of the Arch&ologia, p. 56. Again, Merovingian 
coins have been found in the Frank graves of 
Normandy, and it is well known that they are of 
the period between the reigns of Clovis and 
Charlemagne. I fear it was ignorance of such 
significant facts that led to the rejection of the 
Fawcett collection by the Trustees of the British 
Museum ! E. H. 

Princess Amelia's Household (Vol. x., p. 29.). 
I think LEVERET will find what he wants in the 
successive editions of Chamberlain's Present State 
of Great Britain, which gives a kind of court and 
official calendar from the time of William III. to 



George II. inclusive. I am not sure whether it 
was not continued for some years of the reign of 
George III. C. 



MMteUmtautt. 

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

AXD FIKSTOS. Valla. Venice. Folio. 

Robert Stephens. Paris, 1544. 
Palmanor. Antwerp, 1565. 
Pitholus. Paris, 1585. 
Autumnus. Paris, 1607. 
Stephens. Paris, 1616. 
Achaintree. Paris, 1810. 
English. Dryden. 
French. Dusaula. Paris, 1796, 1803. 

Animadversiones Observations Philologies in 

Sat. Juvenalis duas Priores. Beck. 

- - Spicilegium Animadversionum. Schurzflei- 

schius. 

- Jacob's Emendationes. 
Heinecke. Hate, 1804. 
_- Manso. 1814. 

Bartbius Adversaria. 



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Wanted by Mr. Josh. Phillips, Jun., Stamford. 

A PICTURE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. 1812-15. 

Wanted by B. Hitchcock, Esq., Trinity College, Dublin. 



Five or Six Copies of HISTORY OF HYDER An KHAN BAHADUR, or 
Memoirs concerning the East Indies, with Historical Notes, by 
M. M. D. L. T. 8vo. Johnson, 1784. 

Wanted by Acton Griffith, Bookseller, 8. Baker Street. 



to 

Owing to the extent of the INDEX TO OUR NINTH VOLUME, which com- 
pels us to infringe upon the present Number, we have been compelled to 
omit many interesting communications, our usual NOTES ON BOOKS, fyc. 

T. B. P. (Exeter). We can give no opinion as to the proposed papers 
without seeing them. The subject is certainly one of great interest. 

J. G. T. Gooseberry-fool is "pressed gooseberries," from the French 
Fouler, "to press or crush," $c. 

J. G. P. (Newcastle) shall receive a reply to his Queries. 

ABHBA. The promised " Memoir of the Rawdon Family " never 



J. D. (Edinburgh). Judging from the specimen you have sent, we 
should say that the negative had been insufficiently eorposed in the camera. 
Also thai if used in a double slide, that the light had affected the back of 
one of the papers u'hilst the other was being exposed. This should be 
remedied by placing a piece of yellow paper between them. Your sky 
appears intense and good. 

J. R. D. If you float your paper upon the solution of muriated salts, 
instead of completely immersing it, you will find the picture remains 
more on the surface and looks brighter. If hotpressed, it adds much to 
the brilliancy ofnon-albumenized proofs. 

ERRATUM. In the seventh line of MR. OFFOR'S article on Early Bible* 
(Vol. x., p. ll.),/or German read Genevan. 

INDEX TO VOLUME THE NINTH Incompliance with the suggestion of 
many valued correspondents, we have divvied our Index into two parts : 
first, an Index of Subjects ; second, an Index of Contributors. We 
trust that this will give increased facility of reference, and meet the 
approval of our readers. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 



"NOTES AND QUE 



is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 



weekly A'umbers, may have stamped copies fortvnrdcd direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for Hie stamped edition of " NOTES AMD 
QUERIES" (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in 
! favour of the Publisher, MR. GEOROE BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



JULY 15. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Valuable Illustrated Books at Reduced Prices. 

ROBERTS' HOLY LAND. 
250 Plates. 167. 16. Published at 41 
guineas. 

DIGBY WYATTS INDUS- 
TRIAL ARTS OF THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY. 160 Plates. 2 vols. folio, half- 
bound morocco. 10?. 10*. Publishedat 17*. 17*. 

DIGBY WYATT'S METAL 

WORK, and its ARTISTIC DESIGN. 50 
Plates. Folio, half-bound morocco. 3?. 3*. 
Published at 61. 6s. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Just published, 18mo., Is. 

QERMONS FOR WAY- 

O FARERS. By the REV. ALFRED 
GATTY, M.A. 

" In the eleven sermons now presented to us, 
for the marvellously small pnce of one shil- 
ling, we recognise a plain and solid style of 
scriptural instruction, well adapted to their 
proposed object." Clerical Journal. 

London : GEOBGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
2*. 6d. cloth. 

THE VICAR and his DUTIES : 
being Sketches of Clerical Life in a Ma- 
nufacturing Town Parish. By the REV. 
ALFRED GATTY, M.A. 

" We sincerely thank Mr. Gatty for his in- 
teresting sketches." English Churchman. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Edinburgh : R. GBANT & SON. 



Just published, price 8s. 6d. 

AHMOX6ENOYZ O nEPI THZ nAPAHPEIBEIAS 



T\EMOSTHENIS DE FALSA 

\J LEGATIONS. By RICHARD SHIL- 
LETO, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Second Edition, carefully revised. 

Cambridge : JOHN DEIGHTON. 
London : GEORGE BELL. 



Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 

THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 

THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 

The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services. Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTI.NO, by J. B. 
SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to 
Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 
price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. 
Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on 
the receipt of a Post-office Order for that 
amount : and, by order, of the principal Book- 
sellers and Music Warehouses. 

" A great advance on the works we have 
hitherto had, connected with our Church and 
Cathedral Service." Times. 

" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country. "Literary Gazette. 

" One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears." 
Musical World. 

'* A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
with a system of Chanting of a very superior 
character to any which has hitherto appeared." 
John Bull. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Also, lately published, 

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, 

COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as per- 
formed at the chapel Royal St. James, price 2*. 

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street. 



Now ready. No. VII. (for May"), price 2s. 6d., 
published Quarterly. 

"DETROSPECTIVE REVIEW 

Jt\j (New Series) ; consisting of Criticisms 
upon, Analyses of, and Extracts from, Curious, 
Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books. 

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10*. 6d., is also 
ready. 

JOHN BUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, 
London. 



ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 
PORTMANTEAUS.TRAVELLING-BAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand. 



CHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF 
SAFES AND LOCKS. These safes are 
the most secure from force, fraud, and fire. 
Chubb's locks, with all the recent improve- 
ments, cash and deed boxes of all sizes. Com- 
plete lists, with prices, will be sent on applica- 
tion. 

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, 
London ; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool ; 16. Mar- 
ket Street, Manchester ; and Horseley Fields , 
Wolverhampton. 

WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
I. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directori. 



T. Grissell, Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. Lethbndge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trusttei. 
W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100?., with a Share in three-fourths of th 
Profits : 

Age e. >. d. I Age i. d. 

17 - - - 1 14 4 | 32 - - - 2 10 8 

22 - - - 1 18 8 37 - - - 2 18 6 

27- - - 2 4 5 I 42 - - -382 

ARTHUB SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.8., 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10. 6d., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHI-EY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



TMPERIAL LIFE INSU- 

J. BANCE COMPANY. 

1. OLD BBOAD STREET, LONDON. 
Instituted 1820. 

SAMUEL HIBBERT, ESQ., Chairman. 

WILLIAM B. ROBINSON, ESQ., Deputy 
Chairman. 

The SCALE OF PREMIUMS adopted by 
this Office will be found of a very moderate 1 
character, but at the same time quite adequate 
to the risk incurred. 

FOUR-FIFTHS, or 80 per cent, of the 
Profits, are assigned to Policies every fifth 
year, and may be applied to increase the sum 
insured, to an immediate payment in cash, or 
to the reduction and ultimate extinction of 
future Premiums. 

ONE-THIRD of the Premium on Insur- 
ances of 500?. and upwards, for the whole term 
of life, may remain as a debt upon the Policy, 
to be paid off at convenience ; or the Directors 
will lend sums of 50?. and upwards, on the 
security of Policies effected with this Company 
for the whole tjrm of life, when they have 
acquired an adequate value. 

SECURITY. Those who effect Insurances 
with this Company are protected by its Sub- 
scribed Capital of 750,000?., of which nearly 
140,000?. is invested, from the risk incurred by 
Members of Mutual Societies. 

The satisfactory financial condition of the 
Company, exclusive of the Subscribed and In- 
vested Capital, will be seen by the following 
Statement : 

On the 31st October, 1853, the sums 
Assured, including Bonus added, 
amounted to - - - - - 2,500,000 
The Premium Fund to more than - 800,000 
And the Annual Income from the 
same source, to - 109,000 

Insurances, without participation in Proflti 
may be effected at reduced rates. 

SAMUEL INGALL, Actuary. 



Patronised by the Royal 
Family. 



JL 
rior 



O THOUSAND POUNDS 

for any person producing Articles supe- 
or to the following : 

THE HAIR RESTORED AND GREY- 
NESS PREVENTED. 

BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID i 

acknowledged to be the moet effectual article 
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strength- 
ening when weak and fine, effectually pre- 
venting falling or turning grey, and for re- 
storing its natural colour without the use of 
dye. The rich glossy appearance it imparts is 
the admiration of every person. Thousands 
have experienced its astonishing efficacy. 
Bottles, 2. (K/. ; double size, 4s. Cx?. ; 7s. 6d. 
equal to 4 small: llx. to 6 small: il.s. to 
13 small. The most perfect beautifier ever 
invented. 

SUPERFLUOUS HAIR REMOVED. 
BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT 
does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its 
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by 
royalty and hundreds of the first families. 
Bottles, 5*. 

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effec- 
tual remover of Corns and Bunions. It also 
reduces enlarged Great Toe Joint- in an asto- 
nishing manner. If space allowed, the testi- 
mony of upwards of twelve thousand indivi- 
duals, during the last five years, might be 
inserted. Packets, Is. : Boxes, 2s. Bel. Sent 
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, 
for 14 or 36 Post Stamps. 

Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street ; 
JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY 
& EVANS, Dublin ; GOULDINO. 108. 
Patrick Street, Cork : BARRY, 9. Main 
Street, Kinsale ; GRATTAN. Belfast ; 
MURDOCH, BROTHERS. Glnssrow ; DUN- 
CAN & FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SAN- 
GER, 150. Oxford Street: PKOIJT, 229. 
Strand : KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard ; 
SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street ; HAN- 
NAY, 63. Oxford Street : London. All 
Chemists and Perfumers will procure them. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 246. 



VYLO- IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 

_A. tographie Establishments. The superiority of this preparation is now universally ac- 




Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instructions 
for use. 

CACTION Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, BICHAKD TV. 

THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signature 
and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure 
Photoeranhic Chemicals : and may be procured of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at Is., 2s., 
and 3s 6rf each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 



TO PHOTOGRAPHERS, DA- 
GUERREOTYPISTS, &c. Instanta- 
neous Collodion (or Collodio-Iodide Silver). 
Solution for Iodizing Collodion. Pyrogallic, 
Gallic, and Glacial Acetic Acids, and every 
Pure Chemical required in the Practice of 
Photography, prepared by WILLIAM BOL- 
TON, Operative and Photographic Chemist, 
146. Holborn Bars. Wholesale Dealer in every 
kind of Photographic Papers, Lenses, Cameras, 
and Apparatus, and Importer of French and 
German Lenses, &c. Catalogues by Post on 
receipt of Two Postage Stamps. Sets of Ap- 
paratus from Three Guineas. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION. 

rTHE EXHIBITION OF PHO- 

L TOGRAPHS, by the most eminent En- 

S'ish and Continental Artists, is OPEN 
ALLY from Ten till Five. Free Admission. 

s. a. 

A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent 

Process - - - - - 1 
Additional Copies (each) - -050 
JL Coloured Portrait, highly finished 

(small size) - - - - 3 3 
A Coloured Portrait, highly finished 
(larger size) - - - - 5 5 
Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour and 
Chalk Drawings, Photographed and Coloured 
in imitation of the Originals. Views of Coun- 
try Mansions, Churches, &c., taken at a short 

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Pho- 
tographic Apparatus and Chemicals, are sup- 
plied, tested, and guaranteed. 

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers 
of Sets of Apparatus. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 
168. New Bond Street. 

/COLLODION PORTRAITS 

\J AND VI-EWS obtained with t:ie greatest 
ease and certainty by using BLAND & 
LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton ; cer- 
tainty and uniformity of action over a length- 
ened period, combined with the most faithful 
rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a 
most valuable agent in the hands of the pho- 
tographer. 

Albumen ized paper, for printing from glass 
or paper negatives, giving a minuteness or de- 
tail unattamed by any other method, 5s. per 
Quire. 

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality. 

Instruction in the Processes. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photosrra- 
phical Instrument Makers, and Operative 
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London. 

The Pneumatic Plate-holder for Collodion 
Plates. 

*#* Catalogues sent on application. 

THE SIGHT preserved by the 
Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit 
every varietv of Vision by means of SMEE'S 
OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents 
Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Im- 
proper Glasses, and is extensively employed by 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 



WHOLESALE PHOTOGRA- 

TT PHIC DEPOT: DANIEL M'MIL- 
LAN, 132. Fleet Street, London. The Cheapest 
House in Town for every Description of 
Photographic Apparatus, Materials, and Che- 
micals. 

*** Price List Free on Application. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

JL & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds, according to light. 

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 
blishment. 

Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art. 
123. and 121. Newgate Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

OTTEWZLL AND MORGAN'S 

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledonian Road, Islington. 

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A.ROSS, Feather- 
stone Buildings, Holborn ; the Photographic 
Institution, Bond Street ; and at the Manu- 
factory as above, where every description of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 



TMPROVEMENT IN COLLO- 

JL DION. .1. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 
289. Strand, have, by an improved mode of 
Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion 
equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness 
and density of Negative, to any other hitherto 
published ; without diminishing the keeping 
properties and appreciation of half-tint for 
which their manufacture has been esteemed. 

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the re- 
quirements for the practice of Photography. 
Instruction in the Art. 

THE COLLODION AND PO- 
SITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. 
HOCKIN. Price Is., per Post, Is. 2d. 



ROSS & SONS' INSTANTA- 
NEOUS HAIR DYE, without Smell, 
the best and cheapest extant. ROSS & SONS 
have several private apartments devoted en- 
tirely to Dyeing the Hair, and particularly re- 
quest a visit, especially from the incredulous, 
as they will undertake to dye a portion of their 
hair, without charging, of any colour required, 
from the liehtest brown to the darkest black, 
to convince tnem of its effect. 

Sold in cases at 3s. 6d., 5s. 6d., 10s., 15s., and 
20. each case. Likewise wholesale to the 
Trade by the pint, quart, or gallon. 
Address, ROSS S SONS, 119. and 120. Bi- 

shopsgate Street, Six Doors from Cornhill, 

London. 



PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 

JT each. D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho 
Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufac- 
turers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. 
The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes 
are best described in the following professional 
testimonial, signed by the majority of the lead- 
ing musicians of the age : " We, the under- 
signed members of the musical profession, 
having carefully examined the Royal Piano- 
fortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'AL- 
MAINE & CO., have great pleasure in bearing 
testimony to their merits and capabilities. It 
appears to us impossible to produce instruments 
of the same size possessing a richer and finer 
tone, more elastic touch, or more equal tem- 
perament, while the elegance of their construc- 
tion renders them a handsome ornament for 
the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) 
J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blew- 
itt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. 
Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen 
Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hasse', 
J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes. W. H. Holmes, 
W. Kuhe, G. F. Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, 
Alexander Lee, A. LefHer, E. J. Loder, W. H. 
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John 
Parry ,H. Panof ka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, 
E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Kodwell, 
E. Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. We- 
ber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright/' &c. 

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Listi 
and Designs Gratis. 

PENNETT'S MODEL 

I ) WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's PocketChronometer.Gold, 
50 euineas ; Silver. 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 2/..3Z., and il. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 

65. CHEAPSIDE. 



COCOA-NUT FIBRE MAT- 
TING and MATS, of the best quality. 
The Jury of Class 28, Great Exhibition, 
awarded the Prize Medal to T. TRELOAR, 
Cocoa-Nut Fibre Manufacturer, 42. Ludgate 
Hill, London. 



A LLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER. 

J\ ALE. _ MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & 
SONS beg to inform the TRADE that they 
are now registering Orders for the March 
Brewings of their PALE ALE in Casks of 
18 Gallons and upwards, at the BBEWERY, 
Burton-on-Trent ; and at the under-men- 
tioned Branch Establishments : 

LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City. 
LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street. 
MANCHESTER, at Ducic Place. 
DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree. 
GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street. 
DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay. 
BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall. 
SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol. 

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the 
opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE 
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly 
recommended by the Medical Profession, may 
be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES 
GENUINE from all the most RESPECT- 
ABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, ou 
"ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being specially 
asked for. 

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label 
can be ascertained by its having " ALLSOPP 
& SONS" written across it. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstau in th West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, July 15. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION. 

TOE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



" Wnen found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 247.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 22. 1854. 



" Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5cf. 



CONTENTS. 

NOTES : _ Pag3 

Manuscript of Coleridge's Lectures in 

1812, by J. Payne Collier - - 57 
Nicholas Ferrar and George Herbert, by 

J. E. B. Mayor - - - - 53 

American Surnames - - 59 

Antiquities of the Eastern Churches - 60 

MINOR NOTES : Sir William Hamilton 
Epigram on two Contractors To 
"thou," or to " thee " Curious 
Entries _ Ebullition of Feeling 
Preservation of Monumental Inscrip- 
tions - .... 61 

QCEJUES : 

Children nurtured by "Wolves in India G2 
P..;>iana : Dublin (1727) Edition of "The 
Bnnciad"- - - - 65 

MINOR QUERIES :_MS.on Church Unity, 
&c. Author of "Paul Jones" Lead 
Paint as a Protection for Timber _ 
Mr. Ranulph Crewe's Geographical 
Drawings " Follow your Nose " 
Cases of Walkingham, Duncalf, 
Butler, and Harwood _ Ponds for 
Insects Lely's Portraits Legend 
of a Monk Griffith Williams, Bishop 
of Ossory German Maritime Laws 
Warren of Pointon, co. Chester 
Letter of James II. Christening 
Ships Boodle The Dosnum Tree 
at Winchester The " Heroic Epistle " 65 

MrxoR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Monuments in the Burial-ground of 
St. George the Martyr W. l)e Bri- 
taine Early Salopian Pedigrees 
Bear and Ragged Staff Bishop An- 
drewes' Epitaph Searches at Heralds' 
College Nova Scotia Meaning of 
" doted " Shakspeare's Historical 
Plays - - - - - 67 

.REPLIES : 

Bolicrt Parsons or Persons, by Thomp- 
son Cooper, fcc. - - - - 63 

Transmutation of Metals, by John 
Macray - - - - - 69 

Trench on Proverbs, by the Rev. John 
Jebb - 70 

Forensic Jocularities, by J. W. Farrer, 
&c. ----- 70 

Anecdote related by Atterbury - 7J 

Ancient Usages of the Church, by Cuth- 
bert Bede, B.A. - - - - 72 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. 
Lyte's Process Plant's Camera 
Wax-paper Process - - - 73 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Old 
Army Lists The Title of Clarence 
" The Birch : a Poem "Henry Gar- 
nett A.M. and M. A Kutchakut- 
choo Lord Fairfax Gutta Percha 
The "Economy of Human Life " 
Lord Brougham and Home Tooke 
" Cutting off with a shilling" Con- 
secration of regimental Colours, ic. - 73 

.MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - 76 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted - 76 

.Notices to Correspondents - - 76 



VOL. X No. 247. 



Multx terricolis linguae, ccalestibus una. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
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[No. 247. 



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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1854. 

JJoteS. 
MANUSCRIPT OF COLERIDGE'S LECTURES IN 1812. 

I am sorry that an accident prevented the ful- 
filment of my intention last week, respecting my 
short-hand notes of Coleridge's Lectures in Nov. 
and Dec. 1812, and Jan. 1813. I will endeavour 
now to make up for the deficiency by supplying a 
few quotations from them, observing, by way of 
preface, that, although forty years have elapsed 
since the Lectures were delivered, I have every 
reason to rely upon the accuracy of what I furnish : 
of course, my original short-hand memoranda are 
in the first person, and this form I have observed 
throughout my transcript ; since, however brief my 
note, it gives the very words Coleridge employed, 
although I do not pretend to say that it gives all his 
words. I deeply regret that I was not then im- 
pressed with the necessity, as far as possible, of 
taking down the whole of what he uttered. He was 
not generally a rapid speaker, although continuous 
and flowing ; and when in the full tide of his sub- 
ject, when his face was lighted up almost with the 
appearance of inspiration, it was not easy to follow 
him ; not so much on account of his volubility, as 
because I found it extremely difficult to keep my 
hands to their mechanical employment, and my 
eyes from becoming fixed upon his glowing coun- 
tenance. 

It is singular that I have not marked the date 
of the day on which any lecture was delivered, 
excepting the first on Monday, Nov. 18, 1812 ; 
but as Coleridge was thus to occupy every suc- 
ceeding Thursday and Monday, and as I am not 
aware, from note or memory, that he failed, either 
from health or otherwise, in keeping his engage- 
ment, it is easy to calculate on what particular 
day the first, second, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, 
or twelfth lecture (the only ones of which I have 
yet recovered my notes) was pronounced. 

Lecture I. was chiefly devoted to the causes of 
false criticism : 

" 1. Accidental, arising out of the particular 
circumstances of the age in which we live. 

" 2. Permanent, arising out of the general prin- 
ciples of our nature." 

Into these I shall not now enter farther than to 
introduce* a pleasant anecdote, which I had pre- 
viously heard him mention in private society. He 
prefaced it thus : 

" As a third permanent cause of false criticism, 
we may enumerate the vague use of terms ; and 
here I may take the liberty of impressing upon 
my hearers the fitness, if not the necessity, of 
employing the most appropriate words and ex- 
pressions even in common conversation, and in 



ordinary transactions of life. If you want a sub- 
stantive, do not take the first that comes into your 
head, but that which most distinctly and pecu- 
liarly conveys your meaning : if an adjective, 
remember the grammatical use of that part of 
speech, and be careful that it expresses some 
quality in the substantive that you wish to im- 
press upon your hearer. Reflect for a moment on 
the vague and uncertain manner in which the 
word 'taste' has been often employed; and how 
such epithets as ' sublime,' ' majestic,' ' grand,' 
' striking,' ' picturesque,' &c. have been misap- 
plied, and how they have been used on the most 
unworthy and inappropriate occasions. 

" I was admiring one of the falls of the Clyde, 
and, while ruminating on what descriptive term 
could be most fitly used with reference to it, I 
came to the conclusion that the epithet 'majestic' 
was the most appropriate. While I was still con- 
templating the scene, a gentleman and lady came 
up, neither of whose faces bore much of the stamp 
of superior intelligence ; and the first words the 
gentleman uttered were, ' It is very majestic.' I 
was pleased to find such a confirmation of my 
opinion, and I complimented the spectator upon 
the choice of his epithet, saying, that he had hit 
upon the best word that could have been selected 
from our language. ' Yes, Sir (replied the gen- 
tleman), I say it is very majestic : it is sublime, 
it is beautiful, it is grand, it is picturesque ! ' 
1 Aye (added the lady), it is one of the prettiest 
things I ever saw.' I own that I was not a little 
disconcerted." 

Coleridge reserved this incident until nearly 
the conclusion of his lecture : it occasioned much 
laughter, and dismissed his auditors (after a few 
general observations) in very good humour. He 
continued the subject in his second lecture, in 
which he humorously divided modern readers into 
four classes : 

" 1. Sponges, who absorb all they read, and 
return it nearly in the same state, only a little 
dirtied. 

"2. Sand-glasses, who retain nothing, and are 
content to get through a book for the sake of 
getting through the time. 

" 3. Strain-bags, who retain merely the dregs 
of what they read. 

" 4. Mogul diamonds, equally rare and valuable, 
who profit by what they read, and enable others 
to profit by it also." 

Here it was that he gave us his definition of 
poetry ; and after explaining it in detail, and en- 
larging upon it, he thus broke forth : 

" I never shall forget, when in Rome, the acute 
sensation of pain I experienced on beholding the 
frescoes of Raphael and Michael Angelo, and on 
reflecting that they were indebted for their pre- 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



serration solely to the durable material upon 
which they were painted. There they were, the 
permanent monuments (permanent as long as 
walls and plaster last) of genius and skill, while 
many others of their mighty works had become 
the spoils of insatiate avarice, or the victims of 
wanton barbarism. How grateful ought mankind 
to be that, in spite of all disasters, so many of the 
great literary productions of antiquity have come 
down to us ! That the words of Euclid and Plato 
have been preserved, that we possess those of 
Newton, Milton, Shakspeare, and of so many other 
living-dead men of our island, is not so surprising. 
All these may now be considered indestructible : 
they shall remain to us till the end of time itself 
till Time, in the words of a great poet of the age 
of Shakspeare, has thrown his last dart at Death, 
and shall himself submit to the final and inevit- 
able destruction of all created matter. A second 
eruption of the Goths and Vandals could not en- 
danger their existence, secured as they are by the 
wonders of modern invention, and by the affec- 
tionate admiration of myriads of human beings. 
It is as nearly as possible two centuries since 
Shakspeare ceased to write, but when shall he 
cease to be read ? When shall he cease to give 
light and delight ? Yet, at this moment, he is 
only receiving the first fruits of that glory, which 
must continue to augment as long as our language 
is spoken. English has given immortality to him, 
and he immortality to English. Shakspeare can 
never die, and the language in which he wrote 
must with him live for ever." 

Having sketched the origin and history of the 
English stage in a summary but masterly manner, 
he was led to show how the fool of the time of 
Shakspeare grew directly out of the Vice of the 
old miracle-plays. 

" While Shakspeare (he observed) accommo- 
dated himself to the taste and spirit of the times 
in which he lived, his genius and his judgment 
taught him to use the characters of the fool and 
clown with terrible effect in aggravating the 
misery and agony of some of his most distressing 
scenes. This result is especially obvious in King 
Lear ; the contrast of the fool wonderfully 
heightens the colouring of some of the most 
painful situations, where the old monarch, in the 
depth of his fury and despair, complains to the 
warring elements of the ingratitude of his daugh- 
ters. In other dramas, though perhaps in a less 
degree, our great Poet has evinced the same skill 
and felicity of treatment; and in no instance can 
it be justly alleged of him, as it may be of some of 
the ablest of his contemporaries, that he intro- 
duced his fool or his clown merely for the sake of 
exciting the laughter of his audiences. Shaks- 
peare had a loftier and a better purpose, and in 
this respect availed himself of resources which, it 
should almost seem, he alone possessed." 



These were the concluding words of Coleridge's 
second lecture. In his third he thus alluded to 
the course he had recently given at the Royal 
Institution, mentioning the fact which he had 
previously stated in conversation, and which I 
introduced into my last paper in " N. & Q." He 
brought it forward as a reason why he had not 
chosen to prepare more than a bare outline of 
each lecture before he was called upon to give 
utterance to it. 

" Not long since, when I lectured at the Royal 
Institution, I had the honour of sitting at the 
desk so ably occupied by Sir Humphrey Davy, 
who may be said to have elevated the art of che- 
mistry to the dignity of a science, who has dis- 
covered that one common law is applicable to the 
mind and to the body, and who has enabled us to 
give a full and perfect Amen to the great axiom of 
Bacon, that ' Knowledge is power.' In the delivery 
of that course I carefully prepared my first essay, 
and received for it a cold suffrage of approbation. 
From accidental causes I was unable to study the 
exact form and language of my second lecture, 
and when it was at an end, I obtained universal 
and heartfelt applause. What a lesson to me 
was this, not to elaborate my materials, not to 
study too nicely the expressions I should employ, 
but to trust mainly to the extemporaneous ebulli- 
tion of my thoughts ! In this conviction I have 
ventured to come before you here, and I may add 
a hope, that what I offer will be received in the 
same spirit. It is true that my matter may not 
be so accurately arranged, it may not at all times 
fit and dovetail as nicely as could be wished, but 
you will have my thoughts warm from my heart, 
and fresh from my understanding , you shall have 
the whole skeleton, although the bones may not 
be put together with the utmost anatomical skill." 

This image is not very agreeable in itself, and 
does not well express the fulness, grace, and 
beauty of Coleridge's usual style in the illustra- 
tion of a subject, especially of a poetical kind. 
I am anxious to supply a few of his peculiar 
opinions upon those three great dramas, Romeo 
and Juliet, The Tempest, and Hamlet, but I^have 
already occupied so much space in " N. & Q." that 
I must postpone farther extracts from his Lectures 
to a future opportunity. J. PAYNE COLLIEE. 

Riverside, Maidenhead. 



NICHOLAS FERRAR AND GEORGE HERBERT. 

In " N. & Q.," Vol. ii., p. 445., several works 
relating to the Ferrars were noticed. To these 
others 'might be added; but my present business is 
to stimulate inquiry after the only biography of 
Nicholas Ferrar which is of much value *, that by 

* That by Bishop Turner, as Dr. Peckard has remarked 
(p. xii.), and as we may judge from the Gent. Mag., 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



his elder brother John. Thomas Baker, being 
allowed by the family to examine this, made an 
extract from it, omitting much in the earlier part, 
but retaining nearly the whole account of the 
Gidding settlement. His transcript preserves two 
(unpublished) letters of George Herbert, letters 
worthy of the man, in which he thanks his friend 
for a contribution towards building Leighton 
Church. As the most effectual means of eliciting 
the whole memoir, I propose to print this frag- 
ment. In the meantime I send this extract for 
your bibliographic readers (Baker's MSS., xxxv. 
397.) : 

" And as N. F. communicated his heart to him (Her- 
bert), so he made him the Peruser, and desired the appro- 
bation of what he did, as in those three translations of 
Valdezzo, Lessius, and Carbo. To the first Mr. Herbert 
made an epistle, to the second he sent to add that of 
Cornariua' Temperance, and well approved of the last." 

The Hundred and Ten Considerations of Signior 
John Valdesso, . . . now translated out of the 
Italian copy into English, icith Notes, Oxford, 
Lichfield, 1638, 4to., is in the Bodleian, Cam- 
bridge University, and Sion College libraries. It 
has notes by George Herbert, and is licensed for 
the press by Thomas Jackson.* 

The edition of 1646 omits " The Publisher to 
the Reader," and (of course) Jackson's license ; 
nor does it end with Valdesso's epistle dedicatory 
to his commentary upon the Romans. On the 
other hand, it has given the full date of Herbert's 
letter (the first edition omits the year), and has 
an index. The language is slightly different in 
the two editions. The Hygiasticon of Lessius, 
Angl. by T. S., 12mo. (Peckard, p. 216., says 
24mo.), was published with Herbert's translation 
of Cornaro, De Vitas sobrice commodis, at Cam- 
bridge in 1634. 

" June 15, 1634. Mr. Ferrar finished a translation of 
the Instruction of Children in the Christian Doctrine, by 
Ludovico Carbo. ... In the year 1636 he sent this 
translation to Cambridge to be licensed for the press. 
But the authority prevailing at that time in the Uni- 

Aug. 1772, p. 364., and from Mr. Macdonogh's book 
(Dodd's extract in the Christian Mag. for 1761, I have 
not yet been able to meet with), is not very much more 
than a compilation from John Ferrar. But where is 
Bishop Turner's MS. ? Had Mr. Macdonogh a copy ? 

* This edition, and that in small 8vo., " Cambridge, 
printed for E. D. by Roger Daniel, Printer to the Uni- 
versity, 1646," are now before me. See Peckard's note, 
p. 210. seq., and Mr. Holmes's in the new edition of 
Wordsworth's JEccl. Siogr., vol. iv. p. 47., where, after 
giving an account of the book, he says : " It may be re- 
marked as singular, that at the present time (1852), when 
BO many books have been reprinted, a work translated by 
Nicholas Ferrar, having notes by George Herbert, and a 
preface (?) by Thomas Jackson, should have remained 
unnoticed." These notes of Mr. Holmes's add greatly to 
the value of Dr. Wordsworth's book ; but much remains 
to be done, both in the notes and index. There are 
abundant materials, printed aud MS., for a similar col- 
lection. 



versity would not suffer it to be then published." 
Peckard, p. 217. n. 

Has this translation ever appeared ? 

J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

P. S. "E. D.," for whom the second edition 
of Valdesso was printed, is doubtless Edmund 
Duncon, Herbert's executor. This second edition 
(1646) has several new notes, which are printed 
in George Herbert's Remains (ed. Pickering) ; on 
the other hand, several of the original iiotes are 
omitted, and others altered. As this edition ap- 
peared after Herbert's death, we cannot be sure 
that the alterations have his sanction. At all 
events the editor should have printed all the notes 
of both editions and stated the variations. Bar- 
nabas Oley, in his Life of George Herbert, gives 
some account of the first edition ; of Ferrar's 
other translations he says (p. xcix., Pickering, 
1836) : 

"He helped to put out Lessius, and to stir up us 
ministers to be painful in that excellent labour of the 
Lord, catechizing, feeding the lambs of Christ ; he trans- 
lated a piece of Lud. Carbo, wherein Carbo confesseth 
that the heretics (t. e. Protestants) had got much advan- 
tage by catechizing: but the authority at Cambridge 
suffered not that Egyptian jewel to be published." 



AMERICAN SURNAMES. 

The changes that have taken place in family 
names during the short period that has elapsed 
since the settlement of America by Europeans, 
lead us to believe in the greater changes that are 
reported to have occurred in surnames in the old 
world. 

Whenever William Penn could translate a Ger- 
man name into a corresponding English one, he 
did so, in issuing patents for land in Pennsylvania : 
thus, the respectable Carpenter family in Lancas- 
ter are the descendants of a Zimmerman. 

Many Swedish and German names have suf- 
fered change : from Soupli has come Supplee ; 
from Up der Graeff, Graeff and Updegrove ; from 
Hendrick's son, Henderson. The district of 
Southwark, in this county, covers ground once 
owned by a Swede named Swen. His son was 
called Swen's son, from whom the Swanson family 
derived their name. The Vastine family came 
from a Van de Vorstein. 

A person whose family name was Sturdevant, 
Englished it into Treadaway a few years ago ; and 
a family which during the Revolution spelt their 
name Boehm have since softened it into Bumm. 

Occasionally a French name is translated. One 
of two brothers living near this city is known as 
Mr. La Rue, his brother as Mr. Street. Several 
New England names are corrupted from those of 
the French Acadians : thus Bumpus comes from 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



Bon pas, Bunker from Bon cceur, and Peabody 
from Piebaudier. 

Buckalew is evidently a corruption of Buc- 
cleugh, and Chism of Chisholm. 

A large family in Virginia and other southern 
states spell their name Taliaferro, and pronounce 
it Toliver. Have they any connexion with the 
Norman Taillefer ? 

Christ is a family name among the Pennsylvania 
Germans. It is pronounced Crist, like the first 
syllable of Christian. 

Pope and Dryden kept adjoining stores in Bal- 
timore not long ago : the signs of two merchants 
in adjoining stores in this city formed a short sen- 
tence when read together, " Peter Schott" and 
" Jonathan Fell." 

Col. Pancake was a military man of some note 
here shortly after the Revolution ; fifty years ago 
Captain John Pissant was an eminent political 
character in Gloucester county, N. J. 

The name of Schoolcraft is said to be a corrup- 
tion of Calcraft, arising from the fact that a Mr. 
Calcraft kept school in or near Albany, N. J. 

Two merchants trading under the firm of 
Swindler and Co., dissolved partnership in Co- 
lumbia, S. C., about ten years ago. It is more 
surprising that the partnership was ever formed. 

Mr. Pickup is the proprietor of an omnibus line 
in this city. 

We have some names among us wearing a clas- 
sical air. Mr. Cadmus keeps a shoe store : Pas- 
torius is a name in use, being probably a trans- 
lation, or attempt at it, by some German named 
Schaeffer. Arcularius and Curtenius are New 
York names, probably of Dutch origin. A Mr. 
Cato has lately applied for the benefit of the In- 
solvent Law. 

Mr. Violet Primrose is a respectable saddler in 
our city, where we also have Mr. Rees Wall 
Flower, who at one time lived in Garden Street. 

A family which has resided here for several 
generations, and called itself Dipperwing, which 
was occasionally varied by others to Tipperwings, 
has recently resumed its correct name, De Perven. 
A tombstone enabled them to make the cor- 
rection. 

Mr. Dickens's nom de plume, Boz, was borne 
by a Philadelphian about seventy years ago, at 
which time the name of Susan Boz was fre- 
quently entered in the index at the office of the 
Recorder of Dees as a grantor or grantee of real 
estate. 

Two persons in this city bear the name of 
Wizzard. A Mr. Gambler has been nominated a 
director of the public schools. 

A late California newspaper announces the 
marriage of Mr. John Snook of San Francisco. 
A small stream emptying into the Hudson River 
is called Snookskill, which seems to imply that 
the name Snooks is of Dutch origin. 



A respectable old Quaker family in this State 
spell their name Livesey, but it is almost univer- 
sally pronounced Loozeley. This corruption is 
said to date from the time when the u and the V 
were confounded ; but this does not explain the 
introduction of the second -L in Loozeley. 

A Mr. Gobble was plaintiff in an action of 
ejectment brought in Centre County, Pennsyl- 
vania, a few years ago ; and John Gudgeon has 
lately been arrested in Baltimore for a misde- 
meanour. 

There is a family in this city named Mush. 

A Quakeress named Hannah Active recently 
died here ; and the name of Catharine Fix appears 
in the list of letters uncalled for at the Post- 
Office. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 



ANTIQUITIES OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES. 

There was published in London, in the year 1682, 
a small book containing a variety of interesting 
matters in biblical literature, and illustrating the 
condition of the oriental churches, but of which 
every copy that I have yet seen has evidently been 
mutilated by the cancelling of a portion while at 
press or before publication. The title is, 

" Antiquitates Ecclesiae Orientalis, clarissimorum. 
virorum Card. Barberini, L. Allatii, Luc. Holstenii, 
Job. Morini, etc. Dissertationibus epistolicis enucleatae ; 
Nunc ex ipsis Autographis editae. Qtfibus prsefixa 
est Jo. Morini, Congr. Orat. Paris, PP. [R. P. ?] 
Vita. Londini, 1682, 8vo." 

The editor's name is not given, but a short address 
to the reader tells us that the collection of epistles 
had been found among the books of Father 
Amelot of the Oratory, after his decease ; that the 
entire had been purchased from his heirs, and 
were now edited from the originals. The address 
to the reader is followed by an index, or rather 
enumeration of the epistles, ninety-four in 
number ; but on examining the book itself we 
find but ninety-three, although the paging and 
signatures run regularly and without any apparent 
deficiency. Not so, however, the numeration of 
the epistles, the ninetieth being immediately fol- 
lowed by the ninety-second. The ninety-first is 
wanting, but from the index we learn that it is 
related to the intended expedition of some English 
Benedictines by a Catholic bishop : 

" D. de Sanes Episcopns Madoviensis, Cardinal! 
Bagni monacbos aliquot Anglos Benedictinos con- 
gregationis Madriticas cur urbe sua expelli velit de- 
clarat." 

It may be that some copies got abroad before 
this expurgation was effected ; if so, and that such 
can now be found, some additional illustration 
mi^ht be had of the incessant rivalry, perhaps 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



mutual hostility, of the secular and regular 
clergy. 

There is another edition of this book printed at 
Leipsic, 1683. (Fysher, Catal. impr. Libb. in 
Bibl. Bodl., sub voce " Morinus.") 

The original edition is noticed by the Leipsic 
reviewers (A. A. Erudd., 4682, p. 176.), but they 
do not remark any omission or mutilation ; is it 
not likely that they would have animadverted on 
such a defect did it appear in their copy ? 

ARTEBUS. 

Dublin. 



Sir William Hamilton. Mr. Burton, in his 
History of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 40, 41., after no- 
ticing Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston, observes 
in a note, 

" The name of this fierce and eloquent fanatic may re- 
call that of an eminent descendant, who applies a like 
energy of mind and resoluteness of purpose to a domination 
over the empire of thought and knowledge." 

The descendant is evidently meant for Sir William 
Hamilton, whose eminence is unquestionable, but 
who would not, we think, consider it as any com- 
pliment to be compared to this puddle-headed 
Puritan. But Sir William was not the descendant 
of Sir Robert, the fourth baronet, who died on the 
5th September, 1701, without lawful issue, never 
having been married. The baronetcy remained 
in abeyance until claimed by the present Sir 
William, who had to go back to 1505 to prove he 
was the heir male of the body of John Hamilton 
of Airdrie, the second son of Sir Robert Hamilton, 
Knight, in the male descendant of whose eldest 
son the baronetcy was created, 5th November, 
1673. The immediate ancestor of Sir William 
was called Methusalem. J. M. 

Edinburgh. 

Epigram on two Contractors. A friend lately 
repeated to me the epigram of which I inclose a 
opy. It was, as he told me, made during the 
first American war, and was in the newspapers at 
that time. Can any of your correspondents state in 
what newspaper it is to be found, and who was 
the author ? It may amuse your readers in re- 
ference to the late much-talked-of topic regarding 
military contracts : 

" To cheat the publick two contractors come, 
One deals in corn, the other deals in rum : 
Which is the greatest rogue, I pray explain ? 
The rogue in spirit, or the rogue in grain ? " 

A. 

To "thou" or to " thee." Whatever may be 
said as to the necessity of coining new words, 
there can be but one opinion as to the propriety 
of determining at once the form in which such 



words should be employed. For instance, Thorpe, 
in his Northern Mythology, vol. iii. p. 81., has the 
verb " to thou : " 

" In his master's absence he always thoued him." 

While Southey, in The Doctor, ch. ccxlii., uses the 
verb " to thee : " 

" When this excitement had spent itself, he sought for 
quietness among the Quakers, thee'd his neighbours, wore 
drab, and would not have pulled off his hat to the king." 

Can there be any doubt that the form used by 
Thorpe is the more correct one ? 

HENRY H. BREEN. 
St. Lucia. 

Curious Entries. Extracts from the accounts 
of the constables of the parish of Great Staughton, 
Huntingdonshire : 

*. d. 

" [1647, Dec.] Itm, paid for charges spent 
upon the man that watched John Pickle all night 
and the next daie till he was married - - 1 

"1648, Nov.] Itm, paid to a stranger for 
helpinge to carry the corps to buryal that dyed at 
the highewaie, and was laid in the street by some 
of the end - -04 

" Itm, paid for bread and beire for the com- 
panie then - - - - - - -10 

" Itm, given to a woman that was bereaved of 
her witts the 26 of Aprill, 1645 - - - -06" 

JOSEPH Rix. 

St. Neots. 

Ebullition of Feeling. Your correspondent (Vol. 
vii., p. 593.) who describes the influence of rage 
or anger upon Lord Tyrconuel on being refused 
an entrance into the city of Londonderry by 
burning his wig, will find many equally sin- 
gular manifestations in other generals. Thus, it 
is recorded, on learning the fall of Badajos, in 
Spain, Marshal Soult broke the plates and dishes 
he was then using. And our own AVellington, on 
hearing that Marmont was crossing the Douro, 
rose hastily from his seat, overturned his table, 
and broke the utensils thereon arranged for his 
own repast. The three events evidently produced 
different ebullitions of feeling : the first was de- 
cidedly disappointment, the second rage, and the 
third pleasurable excitement on the certainty of 
victory. 

The tale of doing violence to the " wig" brings 
to my mind a familiar ruralism, perhaps peculiar to 
Norfolk, where we have a condemnatory impre- 
cation used in cases of doubt : the rustic con- 
templating physical defeat on the advantages of 
an opponent, concludes his resolve to encounter 
the difficulty by exclaiming, 

" I will try, don't dash my wig." 

There may be some connexion between the 
"incendiarism" and swearing by the "wig," 
which may be made amusing and instructive, 
without entering upon every " saying" from the 



62 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 247. 



siege of Londonderry to the year 1854, memorable 
for the theft of a Judge's wig. H. D. 

Preservation of Monumental Inscriptions. If 
the act of parliament which is to authorise the 
removal of certain City churches, provided also 
that copies of all inscriptions on the monuments 
removed should be verified in the presence of 
certain authorities, and that such verified copies 
of inscriptions should be receivable in evidence, 
as the originals might be, the difficulty entertained 
by Lord Palmerston in the matter might thus be 
removed. T. F. 



CHILDREN NURTURED BT WOLVES IN INDIA. 

An Account of Wolves nurturing Children in 
their Dens, by an Indian Official, Plymouth, 1852. 
This curious pamphlet was published two years 
since at Plymouth, under the anonymous designa- 
tion of "an Indian Ofiicial." It is reported that the 
author is Col. Sleeman, whose name is well known 
not only as the exterminator of the Thugs, but 
also as a high authority on Indian affairs. The 
statements which it contains are, however, so 
strange and improbable, that it is desirable that 
they should be authenticated by some avowed 
writer. For this reason I am desirous of calling 
the attention of the readers of " N. & Q." to its 
contents. 

This pamphlet then alleges that native children 
have, in certain districts of India, been in their 
early years either carried away by a she-wolf, or 
fallen into her power ; that they have been nur- 
tured by the wild animal ; that they have subse- 
quently been seen, in a wild state, in the company 
of their adopted mother; and that they have 
been rescued from her, and restored to the care 
of human beings. The following is the first case 
mentioned by the anonymous writer : 

"There is now (he says), at Sultanpoor, a boy who 
was found alive in a wolfs den near Chandour, ten miles 
from Sultanpoor, about two years and a half ago. A 
tropper, sent by the native governor of the district to 
Chandour, to demand payment of some revenue, was 
passing along the bank of the river, near Chandour, about 
noon, when he saw a large female wolf leave her den, fol- 
lowed by three whelps and a little boy. The boy went on 
all fours, and seemed to be on the best possible terms with 
the old dam and three whelps, and the mother seemed to 
guard all four with equal care. They all went down to 
the river and drank, without perceiving the trooper, who 
sat upon his horse, watching them ; as soon as they were 
about to turn back, the trooper pushed on to cut off, and 
secure the boy ; but he ran as fast as the whelps could, 
and kept up with the old one. The ground was uneven, 
and the trooper's horse could not overtake them. They 
all entered the den ; and the trooper assembled some peo- 
ple from Chandour with pickaxes, and dug into the den. 
When they had dug in about six or eight feet, the old 
wolf bolted with her three whelps and the boy. The 



trooper mounted and pursued, followed by the fleetest 
voung men of the party ; and, as the ground over which 
they had to fly was more even, he headed them, and 
turned the whelps and boy back upon the men on foot, 
who secured the boy, and let the old dam and her three, 
cubs go on their way." 

The boy was taken to 'the village ; but he be- 
haved like a wild animal, trying to escape on his 
way into holes or dens ; and, instead of articulate 
speech, making only an angry growl or snarl. He 
avoided grown-up persons, but bit at children ; 
he rejected cooked meat, but ate raw flesh, which 
he put on the ground under his hands like a dog. 
He would not allow any one to come near him 
while he was eating, but he would share his food 
with a dog. The trooper left the boy in charge 
of the Rajah of Husunpoor, and the latter sent 
him to Cap. Nicholetts, who commanded the first 
regiment of Oude Local Infantry at Sultanpoor. 
From this time he remained in charge of Capt. 
Nicholetts' servants; he was apparently nine or 
ten years old when found ; he lived about three 
years afterwards, and died in August, 1850. His 
features were coarse ; his countenance was repul- 
sive, and he was very filthy in his habits. He ate 
and drank greedily ; would devour half a lamb at 
a time, and was fond of taking up earth and small 
stones and eating them. He could never be in- 
duced to keep on any kind of clothing, even in 
the coldest weather. He was inoffensive except 
when teased. He was never known to laugh or 
smile ; or to speak, until within a few minutes of 
his death, when he said that his head ached. He 
understood little of what was said to him, and 
seemed to take no notice of what was going on 
around him. He formed no attachment for any 
one, nor did he seem to care for any one. He 
shunned human beings of all kinds, and would 
never willingly remain near one. He used signs 
when he wanted anything, and very few of them,, 
except when hungry ; and he then pointed to his 
mouth. To cold, heat, and rain, he appeared^ to 
be indifferent ; and he seemed to care for nothing 
but eating. 

The account of the boy, while he was under the 
care of Capt. Nicholetts, authenticated by the 
testimony of an English officer, is entitled to our 
implicit belief; it leaves no doubt that he was 
an idiot, and that he exhibited unmistakeable 
marks of mental imbecility. The account of his 
first discovery, however, rests upon a very differ- 
ent foundation. It is a mere hearsay story, con- 
veyed by the Rajah of Husunpoor to the English 
officer, and told to him by a native ^ unnamed 
trooper. In order to ascertain what this trooper 
really saw, it would have been desirable that he 
should have been examined and cross-examined 
by an Englishman. 

The next case is that of a boy three years of 
age, the son of a cultivator at Chupra, twenty 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



miles east from Sultanpoor. In March, 1843, the 
child was taken into the fields by his parents ; and 
while the father was reaping, and the mother 
gleaning, a wolf rushed upon him ; caught him up 
by the loins, and made off with him towards the 
ravines. The boy was not heard of for six years : 
at the end of that time, two sepoys, watching for 
hogs at the edge of a jungle, ten miles from 
Chupra, saw three wolf-cubs and a boy come out 
of the jungle, and go down together to the stream 
to drink. The sepoys watched them till they had 
drunk, and were about to return, when they 
rushed towards them. All four ran towards a 
den in the ravines. The sepoys followed as fast 
as they could, but the three cubs had got in before 
the sepoys could come up with them ; and the boy 
was half way in, when one of the sepoys caught 
him by the hind leg and drew him back. He 
seemed very angry and ferocious, bit at them, and 
seized in his teeth the barrel of one of the guns, 
which they put forward to keep him off, and shook 
it. They, however, secured him, brought him 
home, and kept him for twenty days. They could 
then make him eat nothing but raw flesh. He 
was soon after recognised by the cultivator's 
widow (the man having in the mean time died) in 
a neighbouring village as her son, and identified 
by some marks on his body. She took him home, 
and kept him for two months. He preferred raw 
flesh to cooked, and fed on carrion when he could 
get it. When a bullock died, and the skin was 
removed, he went and ate of it like a village dog. 
His body smelt offensively. At night he went off 
to the jungle. The front of his knees and elbows 
tad become hardened, from going on all fours with 
the wolves. He never spoke articulately, and he 
showed no affection for his mother. At the end 
of two months, the mother, despairing of ever 
making anything of him, left him to the common 
charity of the village. The account of this boy's 
physical and mental state is similar to that of the 
former one. As in the other case, the evidence of 
the sepoys, who are said to have found the boy 
with the wolf-cubs, is not obtained at the fountain- 
head, but is filtered through intermediate inform- 
ants. It is therefore of little value. 

Another case of a boy, whose body was origin- 
ally covered with short hair, who could walk, 
but never could be taught to speak, was also re- 
ported by the Rajah of Husunpoor. The hair, 
however, by degrees disappeared, in consequence, 
as the Rajah stated, of his eating salt with his 
food. It is alleged that this boy " had evidently 
been brought up by wolves;" but it is not pre- 
tended that he was ever seen in company with a 
wolf. 

About 1843 a shepherd, twelve miles from Sul- 
tanpoor, saw a boy trotting upon all fours by the 
side of a wolf one morning, as he was out with 
his flock. With great difficulty he caught the 



boy, who ran very fast, and brought him home. 
He fed him for some time, and tried to make him 
speak, and associate with men or boys, but he 
failed. He continued to be alarmed at the sight 
of men, but was brought to Colonel Gray, who 
commanded the first Oude Local Infantry at Sul- 
tanpoor. He and Mrs. Gray, and all the officers 
in cantonments, saw him often, and kept him for 
several days. But he soon after ran off into the 
jungle, while the shepherd was asleep. It seems 
in this case as if the account of the finding of the 
boy had been given to the English officers by the 
eye-witness ; but this is not distinctly stated, nor 
is it said that the shepherd was a person whose 
unsupported statement could be safely believed. 

Another case, reported by a respectable land- 
holder on the estate of Husunpoor, ten miles from 
the Sultanpoor cantonments, is that of a boy, 
nine or ten years of age, who was rescued by a 
trooper, eight or nine years previously, from 
wolves, among the ravines on the road. He pre- 
ferred raw meat, he could not utter any articulate 
sound, but could understand signs ; he walked on 
his legs, but there were evident marks on his 
knees and elbows of his having gone very long on 
all fours ; and when asked to run on all fours he 
used to do so, and went so fast that no one could 
overtake him. A shepherd claimed the boy as 
his son, and said that he was six years old when 
the wolf took him off at night some four years 
before. In this case again the evidence is hear- 
say, and the rescue of the boy from the wolves by 
the trooper is said to have taken place eight or 
nine years before the time when his account, 
having passed through an uncertain number of 
intermediate links, reached the English officers. 

The last case is that of a boy, about ten years 
old, who was seen by a trooper, in the Bahraetch 
district, with two wolf-cubs, drinking in a stream. 
The trooper, who had a companion with him, 
managed to seize the boy, and put him on his 
saddle ; but the boy was so fierce, that, though 
his hands were tied, he tore the trooper's clothes, 
and bit him severely in several places. The 
trooper gave him to the Rajah of Bondee, but his 
wild and filthy habits soon tired both the rajah 
and a comedian, into whose hands he afterwards 
fell. He was subsequently taken up by a lad 
name Janoo, who rubbed him with mustard seed 
soaked in water, and fed him with vegetable food, 
in the hope of curing him of his offensive odour, 
but without success. He had hardened marks 
upon his knees and elbows from having gone on 
all fours. With a good deal of beating and rub- 
bing of his joints with oil, he was made to stand 
and walk upon his legs like other human beings. 
He was never heard to utter more than one ar- 
ticulate sound, and that was " Aboodeea," the 
name of the little daughter of the Cashmere co- 
median. In about four months he began to un- 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



derstand and obey signs. He was unwilling to 
wear clothes, took them off when left alone, but 
put them on again in alarm when discovered ; and 
to the last often injured or destroyed them by 
rubbing them against trees or posts, like a beast, 
when any part of his body itched. 

; " One night, while the boy was lying under the tree, 
near Janoo, Janoo saw two wolves come up stealthily, and 
smell at the boy. They then touched him, and he got 
up, and instead of being frightened, the boy put his hands 
upon their heads, and they began to play with him. They 
capered around him, and he threw straw and leaves at 
them. Janoo tried to drive them off, but could not, and 
became much alarmed ; and he called out to the sentry 
over' the guns, Meer Akbur Allee, and told him that the 
wolves were going to eat the boy. He replied, ' Come 
away, and leave him, or they will eat you also ; ' but 
when they saw them begin to play together, his fears 
subsided, and he kept quiet. Gaining confidence by de- 
grees, he drove them away, but after going a little dis- 
tance they returned, and began to play again with the 
boy. At last he succeeded in driving them off altogether. 
The night after three wolves came, and the boy and they 
played together. A few nights after four wolves came, 
but at 'no time did more than four come ; they came four 
or five times, and Janoo had no longer any fear of them, 
and he thinks that the first two that came must have 
been the two cubs with which the boy was first found, 
and that they were prevented from seizing him by re- 
cognising the smell : they licked his face with their 
tongues as he put his hands on their heads." 

Whenever the boy passed the jungle he always 
tried to escape into it ; at last he ran away and 
did not return. About two months after he had 
gone, a woman of the weaver caste, from a neigh- 
bouring village, came and gave such a description 
of marks on the boy's body, as identified him as 
her son, who had been taken from her five or six 
years before, at about four years of age, by a 
wolf. The author of the pamphlet states that the 
circumstances regarding the boy, after he had 
been brought to the village, were verified before 
him by Janoo and the other original witnesses ; 
in this, however, as in the other cases, the 
trooper's story, who is supposed to have seen the 
boy with the wolf-cubs, rests on hearsay. 

The author makes at the end the following 
remark : 

" From what I have seen and heard, I should doubt 
whether any boy, who had been many years with wolves, 
up to the age of eight or ten, would ever attain the 
average intellect of man. 1 have never heard of a man 
who had been spared and nurtured by wolves having been 
found ; and as many boys have been recovered by wolves 
after they had been many 3'ears with them, we must con- 
clude that, after a time, they either die from living ex- 
clusively on animal food before they attain the age of 
manhood, or are destroyed by the wolves themselves, or 
other basts of prey, in the jungles, from whom they are 
unable to escape, like the wolves themselves, from want 
of the same speed." 

As the question stands upon the facts related in 
this pamphlet, there is no satisfactory proof of 
any boy having been found in the care of wolves, 



or in their company. In none of the stories is 
this part of the case traced distinctly to the tes- 
timony of an eye-witness. This important defect 
in the evidence renders a suspense of belief ne- 
cessary, especially as many of the circumstances, 
supposed or reported, are in themselves highly 
improbable. 

In the first place, it is difficult to understand 
why certain children should be spared by the 
wolves, when it is stated to be their habit to kill 
and eat those which they carry off. The writer 
of the pamphlet states that the vagrant commu- 
nities near Sultanpoor, who do not object to 
killing wild animals, very seldom catch wolves, 
though they know all their dens, and could easily 
dig them out, as they dig out other animals. This 
is supposed to arise from the profit which they 
make by the gold and silver bracelets, necklaces, 
and other ornaments, which are worn by the chil- 
dren whom the wolves carry to their dens and 
devour, and are left at the entrance of these dens. 
If the gold ornaments of the children carried off 
and devoured by wolves are sufficiently numerous 
to be a regular source of profit to the vagrant 
communities, the number of children killed must 
be considerable. 

Even, however, if we suppose a wolf, from some 
unaccountable caprice, to spare a child which it 
carries off, it is difficult to understand how the 
child can be reared. The children alleged in this 
pamphlet to be carried off are not infants, but of 
the age of three or four years. They would not, 
like Romulus and Remus, have been suckled by 
a wolf; but they must have been fed upon flesh 
which the wolf procured for them. This is an 
office which wolves are not in the habit of per- 
forming for their own young ; and it is not ap- 
parent why they should undertake to perform it 
for a child. Besides, if a child were to live in an 
Indian forest with a wolf, it might conceivably be 
spared by its own protector ; but how could it 
avoid falling a prey to other wolves and wild 
beasts ? 

The account of the wolf- boys running upon all- 
fours, and of the anterior part of their knees and 
elbows becoming hardened, seems inconsistent 
with the structure of the human body, to which 
erect and not quadrupedal progression is essen- 
tial. The swiftness of these boys, and the diffi- 
culty with which one of them was caught by the 
fleetest young men of the pursuing party, is quite 
unintelligible. The extent to which the children 
are represented as bestialised by the association 
with wolves, and by the sylvan life, particularly 
the growth of hair upon one of them (like Orson 
in the nursery tale), savour of the marvellous, and 
resemble the stories circulated by the enemies of 
vaccination, about the growth of horns and other 
bovine appendages from the persons vaccinated. 
The freemasonry described as existing between 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



the boy under Janoo's care and various strange 
wolves, who visited him and played with him 
while he was with Janoo, also is a very strange 
circumstance. 

All the stories agree in representing the chil- 
dren carried away by the wolves as above the age 
of infancy, and as becoming brutalised by the 
lupine nurture ; so that when they are rescued 
from the wolves, and restored to human associ- 
ation, they are destitute of the leading attributes 
of man, moral and intellectual. These stories, 
therefore, afford no confirmation of the story of 
Romulus and Remus, who were suckled by the 
wolf, and who were after a few days found by the 
shepherd Faustulus, and given to be nurtured by 
his wife. 

In case these remarks should fall under the eyes 
of any person who has the means of making local 
inquiries in India respecting an alleged case of a 
boy rescued from wolves, it may be permitted to 
suggest that, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
truth, it would be desirable to take the deposition 
in writing of the person who professes to have 
found the boy in company with the wolf, and to 
cross-examine him closely as to the particulars. 
It is likewise to be wished that one of the idiot 
boys, who are reported to have been nurtured by 
wolves, should be examined by a scientific medical 
man, who would be able to throw light upon the 
physiological aspect of the question. L. 



POPIAHA : DUBLIN (1727) EDITION OF "THE 
DUNCIAD." 

Has any of your correspondents ever seen an 
edition of the Dunciad, 1727 ? Pope himself, in 
his notes to the first acknowledged edition of 
1729, says distinctly and repeatedly, that an " im- 
perfect edition" was published in Dublin in 1727, 
and republished in London in that year both in 
12mo. and in 8vo. But Malone did not credit this 
statement, and believed it to be a trick of Pope's. 
The first edition of the Dunciad being, as he 
thought, one with the frontispiece of an owl, and 
this imprint : " Dublin printed, London reprinted 
for A. Dodd, 1728." 

It is hard to conceive why Pope (fond as he no 
doubt was of maneuvering) should have put for- 
ward a wanton falsehood on a point of, as it seems, 
no importance, and which must have been at the 
time of public notoriety ; but I have looked for 
the alleged Dublin edition in vain. C. 



iflmor 

MS. on Church Unity, Sfc. A few years since 
I purchased a polemical treatise in MS., and should 
be glad if any of your readers could assist me in 



determining the authorship, which, I imagine, will 
not be a difficult matter to do. It is apparently 
in the handwriting of an amanuensis, but cor- 
rected throughout by the author. Its date is, as 
I suppose, between 1660 and 1680. Hammond 
and Baxter are both referred to, and the subject- 
matter is a defence of Church Unity and Dio- 
cesan Episcopacy. The following quotation will 
enable some of your readers to determine the 
authorship, and inform me whether the MS., which 
is evidently prepared for the press, has ever been 
printed: 

" But you'll say you have reason for what you 
teach, viz., that it is a knowne thing that all 
church power dooth worke only on the conscience, 
and therefore only prevailes by procuring consent 
and cannot compell. 

" Which position, if not rightly understood, and 
not rightly applyed, may give countenance to any 
kind of disobedience and rebellion. I shall refer 
you to what I. have written on this point in my 
Appollogy for the discipline of the antient church, 
p. 42. The sum whereof is that conscience must 
be grounded upon s . . . . and certain know- 
ledge ; this is the light of the understanding which 
must guide the will to choose," &c. W. DENTON. 

Author of " Paul Jones." 

"Paul Jones, or the Fife Coast Garland; a heroical 
poem in four parts, in which is contained the Oyster 
Wives of Newliaven's letter to Lord Sandwich." 
This is the title of a very scarce poetical satire, 
privately printed at Edinburgh in 1779, 4to., and 
consisting of thirty-seven pages. I have endea- 
voured to trace the name of the author, but 
without effect ; perhaps some of your numerous 
readers may be more successful. My copy be- 
longed to Archibald Constable the bookseller, 
whose collections relative to Scottish literature 
were very valuable. J. M. 

Edinburgh. 

Lead Paint as a Protection for Timber. Can 
any correspondent afford some approximate idea 
of the period at which paint first began to be ap- 
plied to the wood-work of buildings as a protec- 
tion from damp, weather, &c. ? I have seen doors 
of very ancient buildings, apparently cotemporary, 
or certainly of considerable age, in a good state of 
preservation, with a slight fibrous incrustation 
over the heart of oak below, but which bore no 
evidences of having ever been in contact with a 
paint-brush. BALLIOLENSIS. 

Mr.Ranulph Crewe's Geographical Drawings. 
Dr. Gower, in his Sketches of Materials for a His- 
tory of Cheshire, 3rd edit., p. 64., in noticing the 
accomplishments of Chief Justice Crewe's grand- 
son, the above-named gentleman, who was bar- 
barously assassinated at Paris in 1656, states that 
Mr. Crewe excelled to that degree in the fine arts, 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



and particularly in drawing, that his geographical 
delineations were impossible to be distinguished 
from the best engraved maps. 

Are any of the geographical drawings of Mr. 
Crewe, alluded to by Dr. Gower, now in being ? 
and where are they to be met with ? CESTRIENSIS. 

" Follow your Nose." In what collection of 
tales published in 1834, and reviewed the same 
year in the Athenaeum or Literary Gazette, shall I 
rfind the tale entitled "Follow your Nose?" I 
have searched Lays and Legends of Various Na- 
tions in vain, or at least the first to the sixth num- 
bers inclusive. - JUVERNA, M.A. 

Cases of Walkingham, Duncalf, Butler, and 
Harwood. In the preface to the Philadelphia 
reprint of Bishop Burnet's Life of the Earl of 
Rochester, the author says : 

" The cases of Walkingham andDuncalf are attested by 
such evidence as would support a civil action, or convict 
a criminal in any court in the world ; and, as these show 
the judgments, so do those of V. Butler and R. Harwood 
the immediate and palpable interposition of divine Grace." 

There is no other allusion to the above-men- 
tioned persons : so that I presume their cases are 
well known in America. Can any of your readers 
tell me what they are, or where I can find them ? 

P. S. 

Ponds for Insects. A London naturalist, with 
but very little time for collecting, would feel 
much obliged if some of the entomological readers 
of " N. & Q." would inform him of the exact 
localities of a few good ponds for insects (particu- 
larly the aquatic Coleoptera), within convenient 
walking distance say four or six miles of the 
north or north-west of the metropolis. Also, a 
favourable spot for the mollusc Paludina vivipara. 

DYTICUS. 

Lelys Portraits. Are there any very small 
portraits by Sir P. Lely extant ? One has been 
shown to me painted on silver in oil, about an 
inch long, and three quarters wide, which the 
owner says is a Lely, and appears to be a portrait 
of Charles II. W. II. 

Legend of a Monk. The case of St. Denis, 
mentioned in " N. & Q." (Vol. ix., p. 250.), was 
surpassed by that of a priest who carried his heart 
in his hand, after it had'been cut out of his body 
by the Turks, from Dalmatia to Italy. 

I read the account in a compilation which gave 
no authorities ; but the story looks old, and I shall 
be obliged by any of your correspondents refer- 
ring me to an authentic source. W. M. T. 

Griffith Williams, Bishop of Ossory. Allow 
me to correct a misprint in Vol. ix., p. 421., where 
I am made to ask for any facts relative to the 
life of "Griffith, William," instead of Griffith 



Williams. Williams was a native of Wales, and 
gives, in his multifarious writings, a great many 
incidents of his life. A correct list of his works 
would be a desideratum to JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 

German Maritime Laws. Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." oblige the undersigned by 
referring him to any modern writer on the above 
(either in German or Latin) ? H. C. C. 

Warren of Pointon, co. Chester. Do the pedi- 
grees of the County Palatine comprise that of the 
Warrens of Pointon ? And does it appear that 
Edward Warren, Dean of St. Canice, diocese of 
Ossory, A.D. 1626 1661, was of that family? 
Were there other families of the same name in 
co. Chester ? An answer to all or any of these 
Queries will oblige. JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 

Letter of James II. King James II. is said to 
have declared, in a letter to his daughter Mary, 
that the reason which first turned his attention to 
the Church of Rome, was the virulence of the 
court preachers against it. Can any of your cor- 
respondents quote the words of this letter, or give 
any information as to where it is to be found ? 2. 

Christening Ships. A recent ceremony, at 
which the Queen officiated, suggests the Query, 
Whence is derived the custom of christening 
vessels by breaking a bottle of wine over them, 
and what is the earliest instance of this custom ? 

If this ceremony be not a caricature of the 
Sacrament of Baptism, it is probably a parody on 
a custom which obtains in Roman Catholic coun- 
tries of blessing a vessel when she is about to be 
launched, and sprinkling it with holy water. 

EIRIONNACH. 

Boodle. Who was Boodle, the venerable host 
to whom the celebrated Club in St. James's Street 
owes its name ? Gibbon dates several of his let- 
ters, in 1772 and 1774, from this Club. 

J. YEOWEIJU 

The Domum Tree at Winchester. Local tra- 
dition holds that it was formerly the custom at 
Winchester to sing the celebrated college ode, 
"Dulce Domum," under the old tree of that 
name near the Itchen wharf. Was it ever so, 
and when was it discontinued ? 

HENRY EDWARDS. 

The " Heroic Epistle." It is said in Public 
Characters (vol. i. p. 253.) that about 1776 the 
author of An Heroic Epistle to Sir Wm. Chambers 
wrote An Heroic Epistle to Dr. Watson. If so, 
when and where was it published ? It is not in 
Almon's edition of what he calls The Works, &c. 
of author of Heroic Epistle. E. H. T. 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



foitfi 

Monuments in the Burial-ground of St. George 
the Martyr. This burial-ground is near to the 
Foundling Hospital. Can any correspondent say 
if any copies of inscriptions on the monuments 
exist ? There was one inscription on a tomb of 
the date of 1730, that is worn out by rain and 
damp, that the writer wishes to recover. It were 
to be desired that, in each parish, there were pre- 
served a " monument-book," in which the inscrip- 
tions on every tomb and monument were inserted 
so soon after their date as might be practicable. 

T. F. 

[We subjoin a copy of the inscription required by our 
correspondent, which is on the base of a high and very 
handsome stone obelisk : "In this vault lies the body of 
THOMAS FALCONER, Esq., descended from an ancient 
honourable family of the same name in Scotland, who, 
after having been employed eighteen years by the Hon. 
East India Company at Bengal, returned into England in 
1727, with the just reward of his extensive skill and 
honest industry in commerce ; an established good name, 
and a very ample fortune; with that rare felicity and 
largeness of mind, that knew the pleasure of possessing 
only from the power it gave him of dispensing ; of being 
generous to his acquaintance, grateful to his friends, and 
charitable to the poor ; with the same sound Church-of- 
England principles in religion that he took with him 
from home, and in which he died on the 25th of January, 
1729-30, in the 35th year of his age. To the memory 
of this, her much-beloved Son, his Mother erected this 
monument." In the same burial-ground is a handsome 
monument, with an urn at top, to the memory of that 
good man Robert Nelson, the author of Fasts and 
Festivals."] 

W. De Britaine. In 1682 was printed, 

" Humane Prudence, or the Art by which a Man may 
raise himself and fortune to Grandeur. By A. B. The 
second edition, with the addition of a Table. London, 
printed for John Lawrence at the Angel in Cornhill, near 
the Royal Exchange ; small 8vo." 

In the address by the bookseller to the reader, it 
is remarked : 

" I have had these few sheets so long by me, that the 
author (who is a gentleman of modesty and worth) has 
even almost forgot them." 

The first edition I never saw, but I presume the 
address to both editions is the same, and that the 
only variation between the two is the addition of 
the " Table." 

Twenty-eight years afterwards (1710) there was 
printed in London for Richard Sare, at Gray's 
Inn Gate, in Holborn, 

" Humane Prudence, or the Art by which a Man may 
raise himself and his fortune to Grandeur. The tenth 
edition, corrected and very much enlarged." 

This is undoubtedly the same work as that pre- 
viously noticed, only much enlarged, but not 
much improved, by the introduction of anecdotes 
and illustrations taken chiefly from the Italian 
novelists. The original address, however, is 



omitted, and there is substituted a dedication " To 
the Virtuous and most Ingenious Edw. Hunger- 
ford, Esq.," which is subscribed " W. de Britaine," 
and in which this passage occurs : 

" Some part of this manual was formerly dedicated to 
a person of great honour and merit, who is since dead ; 
and you being the next heir of all his virtues, no man has 
a juster title to ' humane prudence' than yourself." 

Now, although W. de Britaine has been recog- 
nised as the author in the catalogue of the Bod- 
leian, in Watt, and elsewhere, what evidence is 
there either of such a person really existing, or, if 
he did exist, of his being the author of this valu- 
able and curious manual ? If there was such a 
person, he, although, as the bookseller tells hig 
readers, " a gentleman of modesty and worth," 
must have got quit of his bashfulness very speedily. 
My own impression is that W. de Britaine, who- 
ever he may be, did not write the work, but that, 
having found it an excellent text-book, he made 
such spicy additions to it, as might suit the exist- 
ing taste of the public, and enable him to make a 
little money. 

Perhaps some of your numerous readers may 
possess the intermediate editions, and be able with 
their aid to throw some light on the authorship ; 
and particularly the one " formerly dedicated to a 
person of great honour " would give his name in 
all probability, as well as that of the dedicator. 

J.M. 

Edinburgh. 

[We have before us the sixth edition " corrected and 
enlarged by the author," published in 1693, by J. Rawlins 
for R. Sare, at Gray's Inn Gate. Also, the ninth edition 
corrected and enlarged (the words " by the author " are 
omitted), published in 1702, by Richard Sare, at Gray's 
Inn Gate. Both editions contain the dedication to Ed- 
ward Hungerford, Esq., with a few verbal alterations. In 
one of them is written in pencil " William de Britaine, 
pseud." Our correspondent may probably get a clue to 
the author from two articles which appeared in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for 1793, pp. 124. 711.] 

Early Salopian Pedigrees. I am desirous to 
ascertain if there be any collection of pedigrees, 
either in MS. or print, treating of the early his- 
tory and connexions of old Shropshire families, 
more especially in and near the ancient borough 
of Bridgnorth ? I allude more particularly to 
such families as flourished in the first four cen- 
turies after the Conquest. I am aware that the 
ancient records of the corporation of Bridgnorth 
perished during the civil war, otherwise a search 
through them might have materially assisted me 
in the object I have in view. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

[Our correspondent may consult with advantage Mr. 
Sims's valuable Index to the Pedigrees and Arms contained 
in the Heralds' Visitations, and other Genealogical Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum, art. Shropshire, which gives 
a bird's-eye view of the different families and their re- 
spective localities.] 



68 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 247. 



Bear and Ragged Staff. When was the crest 
,of the "bear and ragged staff" first assumed by 
the family of Leicester ? Is there any known 
reason for the combination of the two parts of 
this crest ? J. G. T. 

Falconhurst. 

[Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was the first of that 
family who adopted this right noble cognizance of the 
'Beauchamp- Nevilles. Fuller, in his Worthies, art. War- 
wickshire, says, " When Robert Dudley was governor of 
the Low Countries, with the high title of his excellency, 
disusing his own coat of the green lion with two tails, he 
signed all instruments with the crest of the bear and 
ragged staff. He was then suspected, by many of his 
jealous adversaries, to hatch an ambitions design to make 
himself absolute commander (as the lion is king of beasts) 
over the Low Countries. Whereupon some (foes to his 
faction, and friends to the Dutch freedom) wrote under 
his crest, set up in public places : 

' Ursa caret cauda, non queat esse .Leo.' 

' The bear he never can prevail 

To lion it, for lack of tail : ' " 

which gave rise to a Warwickshire proverb, in use at this 
day, " The bear wants a tail, and cannot be a lion." This 
singular cognizance sprang, according to the family tra- 
dition, from Arthgal, one of the knights of King Arthur's 
Round Table. Arth or north, in the British language, is 
raid to signify a bear ; hence this ensign was adopted as 
a rebus or play upon his name. Morvidus, another earl 
of the same family, a man of wonderful valour, slew a 
giant with a young tree torn up by the roots and hastily 
trimmed of its boughs. In memory of this exploit his 
successors bore as their cognizance a silver staff in a 
shield of sable. (Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry, p. 164.) 
That pious and amorous Saxon cavalier, Guy Earl of 
Warwick, also bore this renowned badge.] 

Bishop Andrewes' Epitaph, The conclusion of 
the epitaph on Bishop Andrewes, in vol. i. of the 
Anglo- Catholic Library (Parker, 1841), is this : 

" Tantum est, Lector, quod te maerentes posteri 
Nunc volebant, atque ex veto tuo valeas, dicto 
Sit Deo Gloria." 

How is this translated ? G. 

[Our correspondent's Query is not at all surprising, as 
Kippis and the other biographers of the good bishop have 
shirked the translation of the conclusion of his epitaph. 
Turning to old Stowe (book iv. p. 12., edit. 1720), it 
seems that an important word, scire, is omitted, so that 
the first line stands thus : 

" Tantum est (Lector) quod te scire masrentes posteri." 

This reading will be easily comprehended by G. ; how- 
ever we will give a version of it: "This is just what 
mourning posterity wished you to know, Reader, and 
having said ' Glory to God,' may you be well and prosper 
as you wish."] 

Searches at Heralds' College. How must I 
proceed to have a search for arms in the Heralds' 
College ; and what would be the expenses ? Does 
the Heralds' College give genealogical inform- 
ation ; and at what price ? W. E. H. 

[The expense of an ordinary search at the Heralds' Col- 
lege is five shillings ; for a general search, two guineas ; 
for copies of pedigrees, five shillings each generation ; for 



other matters, the expense of course depends on the 
nature of the document or information required. If 
parties desirous of information address themselves direct 
to the' Heralds' College, what they will receive may be 
depended upon ; which is more than can be said of much 
that is supplied by some purveyors of genealogical mat- 
ters. Our columns have afforded some curious illustrations 
of the manufacture of " Factitious Pedigrees." See, inter 
alia, Vol. ix., pp. 2 V 



Nova Scotia. In Chambers' Journal of June 10, 
a writer thus alludes to Nova Scotia : 

" The great mineral fields of that ill-used province, 
gifted by a late English sovereign to a favourite, are pretty 
nearly useless either to the possessor or to the public." 

Who are the sovereign and favourite alluded 
to ? Is not the province as much a possession of 
the English crown as Canada? B. T. 

[The first grant of lands was made to Sir William 
| Alexander by James I., from whom it received the name 

of Nova Scotia, instead of Acadia, as it was called by the 
i French. It has more than once changed proprietors, but 
j was confirmed to England at the Peace of Utrecht. At 

present it is immediately dependent on the British crown.] 

Meaning of" doted." I met with the following 
passage the other ^day in a pamphlet, called 
Answers to the Calumnies of Reviewers on Ship- 
builders : 

" The ' Royal William ' was planked under water with 
beech, which, if used before it becomes doted, answers the 
purpose quite as well as English oak." 

Can you, Mr. Editor, throw any light upon the 
word doted, which is not mentioned in Johnson ? 

B. 

[The word occurs in Todd's Johnson : " To dote, v. a. to 
decay, to wither, to impair ; " with the following example 
from Bishop Howson's Sermon, 1622, p. 33. : " Such an old 
oak, though now it be doted, will not be struck down at 
one blow." Halliwell spells it doated, "beginning to 
decay, chiefly applied to old trees. East."'] 

Shakspeares Historical Plays. Will any of 
your readers kindly inform me where I can find 
the best biographical illustrations of Shakspeare's 
historical plays ? M. D. 

[We would refer our correspondent to Commentaries on 
the Plays of Shakspeare, by the Rt. Hon. T. P. Courtenay, 
2 vols. 8vo., 1840.] 



EOBEET PARSONS OR PERSONS. 

(Vol. x., p. 8.) 

He was born at Nether Stowey, near Bridge- 
water, in the year 1546. The titles and dates of 
his works are thus given by Dodd : 

1. De Persecutione Anglicana, Epistola: Bononias, 
1581; Eomse, 1582. 

2. Responsio ad Edictum Reginse Elizabeths ; Romas, 
1593. 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



3. Reasons why Catholicks refuse to go to Church: 
Douay, 1580. 

4. De Sacris alienis non adeundis : Audomari, 1607. 

5. A Discovery of John Nicols, misreported a Jesuit : 
Lovan, 1592. 

6. A brief Censure upon two Books of W. Chark and 
M. Hanmer. 1581, 1582. 

7. A Defence of the aforesaid Censure. 1582. 

8. The Christian Directory, &c. 1583-4-5, 1591-2-8, 
1673. 

9. Of Pilgrimages, lib. i. 12mo. 

10. A Treatise of the three Conversions of England : 
St. Omer's, 1603. 

11. The Examination of Fox's Calendar. First Part. 
1604. 

12. Ditto, ditto, Second Part : 
St. Omer's, 1604. 

13. A Relation of the Trial made before the King of 
France in 1600 : St. Omer's, 1604. 

14. A Review of Ten Publick Disputations, &c. : St. 
Omer's, 1604. 

15. A Manifestation of the Folly and bad Spirit of 
certain in England, &c. : St. Omer's, 1604. 

16. A brief Apology or Defence of the Catholick Ec- 
clesiastical Hierarchy in England : St. Omer's, 1601. 

17. An Answer to the Fifth Part of Reports, &c. : St. 
Omer's, 1606. 

18. A Treatise tending to Mitigation against T. Morton. 
1607. 

19. A Defence of ditto : St. Omer's, 1609. 

20. The Judgment of a Catholick Gentleman on the 
Oath of Allegiance : St. Omer's, 1608. 

21. A Discussion of Mr. Barlow's Answer: St. Omer's, 
1612. 

22. An Account of certain Martyrs in England : Ma- 
drid, 1590. 

23. A Conference about the next Succession to the 
Crown, &c., under the name of N. Dolman, attributed to 
Parsons. 1593, 1594, 1681. 

24. A Temperate Wardword, &c., by N. D. 1599. 

25. The Warnword to Sir F. Hastings' Wasteword, by 
N. D. 1599, 1602. 

26. An Answer to O. E. 1603. 

27. A Dialogue concerning the Earl of Leicester. 1600, 
1631, 1641. 

28. An Apologetical Epistle concerning the Christian 
Director}': Antwerp, 1601. 

29. The Forerunner of Bell's Downfall. 1605. 

30. Liturgy of the Mass. 1620. 

31. Controversial nostri Temporis, MS. never published. 

32. A Memorial for Reformation, attributed to Parsons. 
1690. 

33. Cases of Conscience, MS. kept at Rome. 

There is no work of Father Parsons with the 
title mentioned by HIRLAS. I presume that the 
book alluded to is his Christian Directory. Of 
this there have been recent editions, at Liverpool, 
1754, and at Dublin, 1822. There is another 
work, which perhaps HIBLAS means, entitled A 
Book of Christian Exercise appertaining to Resolu- 
tion, by R. P., perused by E. Bunny in London, 
1585. This is the same as the Apologetical Epistle, 
No. 28. in the above catalogue. The substance of 
it was stolen by Bunny, a Protestant clergyman, 
and published under his own name. F. C. H. 

[We are also indebted to 'AXteu's for another list of Par- 
sons' Works, compiled chiefly from Wood's Athence and 
the Bodleian Catalogue.] 



Father Robert Parsons, of the Society of Jesus, 
was born at Nether Stowey, June 24, 1546; he 
entered the Society July 24, 1575 ; was ordained 
priest 1578 ; died at Rome April 15, 1610, in the 
English College ; and was buried in the College 
Church with a long Latin epitaph. He pub- 
lished fifteen different works, for a list and descrip- 
tion of which HIRLAS is referred to a work pub- 
lished in 1838, and called Collections towards illus- 
trating the Biography of the Scotch, English, and 
Irish Members of the Society of Jesus. D. 

This noted writer was born at Nether Stowey, 
near Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, in 1546. 
His life and a list of his works are to be found in 
Wood's Athence Oxonienses. There are many par- 
ticulars about him in the Hon. Ed. Petre's Notices 
of the English Colleges and Convents established 
on the Continent, Norwich, 1849; and in Strype's 
Memorials of Abp. Cranmer, Ecclesiastical Me- 
morials, Annals, Life of Abp. Parker, Life of 
Abp. Whitgift. THOMPSON COOPEB. 

Cambridge. 

For an account of Robert Parsons, of whom 
Bishop Andrewes so frequently makes mention, 
see A. Wood's Ath. Oxon., ii. col. 79. He died 
Aprils (15?), 1610. He assumed the name of 
Andrew Philopater. A WYKEHAMIST. 



TRANSMUTATION OF METALS. 

(Vol. x., p. 8.) 

Having no pretensions to be a "really scientific" 
reader of " N. & Q.," I nevertheless beg to con- 
tribute something towards the elucidation of your 
correspondent's Query, and to the bibliography of 
Alchemy. A Mons. Theodore Tiffereau published 
last year a Memoire, in which he asserts : 

" J'ai de'couvert le moyen de produire de 1'or artificiel ; 
j'ai fait de For." 

A reviewer in La Presse of June 15 gives an 
analysis of this pamphlet ; the author of which, it 
appears, was a chemical student at Nantes in 
1840, and went to Mexico in 1842 for the purpose 
of making an exploratory tour among the mines 
in that classic soil of metals. M. Tiffereau being 
afraid of interruption if his real object were 
known, concealed it under the mask of practising 
the new art of Daguerreotype ; and by this means 
he was enabled to traverse California, and other 
gold-producing districts, without molestation. He 
says : 

"C'est en Audiant les gisemens des me'taux, leurs 
gangues, leurs divers e'tats physiques, c'est en interro- 
geant les mineurs et comparant leurs impressions, que 
j'acquis la certitude que les metaux subissaient dans leur 
formation certaines lois, certains ages inconnus, mais dont 
les reultats frappent 1'esprit de quiconque les e'tudie avec 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



soin. Une fois place h ce point de vue, mes recherches 
devinrent plus ardentes, plus fructueuses ; peu b. peu la 
lumiere se fit, et je compris 1'ordre dans lequel je devais 
commencer mes travaux. Apres cinq ans de recherches et 
de labeurs, je re'ussis enfin k 'produire quelques grammes 
d'or parfaitement pur." 

As M. Tiffereau appears to be a really scien- 
tific man, in the matter of geology and mineralogy, 
your correspondents will probably be glad to pro- 
cure the Memoirs in which the process of dis- 
covery is narrated. The reviewer gives some 
quotations from M. Dumas, who, in his Lepons de 
Philosophic Chimique, says : 

" L'expe'rience, il faut le dire, n'est point en opposition 
jusqu'ici avec la possibilite' de la transmutation de corps 
simples ou au moins de certains corps simples.",. 

JOHN MACRAT. 
Oxford. 



TRENCH ON PROVERBS. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 387. 519. 641. ; Vol. ix., p. 107.) 

The following remarks were sent to " N. & Q." 
some months ago, but were, I suppose, accidentally 
overlooked. Having just found a copy, I send 
my remarks again. 

In reply to MR. MARGOLIOUTH, I must confine 
myself to the passages which he asks me to trans- 
late. To enter farther into the rest of the ques- 
tion would convert notes into essays. I must ac- 
knowledge I hold my former opinions still ; but to 
prove them would require very detailed criticism ; 
and neither MR. MARGOLIOUTH nor I would like 
that sort of popular argument which consists in 
counter-assertions. 

Now, as to the passages from Isaiah, I pass them 
by, as I never intended to question the fact that 
JJV in Hebrew, like the words representing to give 
in all languages, is often used elliptically ; that is, 
the noun it governs is understood. My objection 
was, that_ whereas in the disputed passage there is 
the transitive verb give, and also a noun, which it 
naturally seems to govern, the proposed trans- 
lation would leave the verb without an accusative, 
the noun without a governing verb. But, as MR. 
MARGOLIOUTH of course is aware, this very obscure 
passage of Isaiah is capable of an interpretation 
which altogether removes the ellipsis. 
As to the passage in Ps. xc. 5. 

VPP rut? Dn-iT 
t ?prv Tvna tpm 

the literal translation is, " Thou overwhelmest 
them : asleep are they : in the morning [they 
are] as the grass [which] groweth up." The el- 
lipsis here is not at all analogous to that alleged. 
It is a very usual omission of the particle of simi- 
litude, which omission, according to the poetical 
usage of all languages, converts a simile into a 



metaphor. Perhaps, however (for it is only so 
that the passage can be fairly considered to bear 
out the proposed rendering), MR. MARGOLIOUTH 
would translate it thus : " Thou overwhelmest 
them in sleep : they shall be in the morning," &c. 
If so, I have the same objection to this as to the 
other case, as unnecessarily disturbing a natural 
construction, and substituting a very questionable 
ellipsis. The reading of our Bible translation is 
borne out by the LXX, the Syriac, Jerome's 
Latin version from the Hebrew, and the ancient 
stichometricat arrangement. It is true the LXX 
and Syriac differ as to the first word (their read- 
ings were obviously different), but their trans- 
lations of ViT 1 occupy the same place. I must 
confess that, having gone through the whole Book 
of Psalms for the very object of ascertaining, if 
possible, an analogous ellipsis, I could discover 
none. But as my object is not victory in dispute, 
but a real desire for information, I will acknow- 
ledge that there is an ellipsis in one of the psalms 
of degrees, to which I would invite MR. MARGO- 
LIOUTH'S attention, not as being strictly in point, 
but as being as anomalous (if I am not mistaken) 
as that which he proposes, viz. in Ps. cxxxiv. 2., 
BHp D3T 1 1NtJ>, "Lift up your hands [in] the 
sanctuary." However, it is possible that this may 
be considered as one of those ellipses not unusual 
after verbs of motion, in which the particle, ex- 
pressed by us, is often contained in the verb, viz., 
" Lift-up-unto the sanctuary your hands." An 
interesting work might be written on the ellipses 
of the sacred language, by some Hebraistic Bos. 
Indeed the existing essays on Hebrew syntax are 
strangely defective. JOHN JEBB. 



FORENSIC JOCULARITIES. 

(Vol. ix., p. 538. ; Vol. x., p. 18.) 

The two articles referred to are instances of 
the crambe recocta with which the heedlessness of 
correspondents overloads the pages of " N. & Q. ;" 
and the following notice of them may tend to 
correct this abuse. 

The forensic jocularity which thejr reproduce 
are as well known as any epigram in our lan- 
guage. After having been extensively ventilated 
in the newspapers, it found a more substantial 
abode in Twiss's Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon ; 
and it has been reproduced in Mr. Hardy's Life 
of Lord Langdale, and still more recently^in the 
Quarterly Review of the latter work, in which the 
occasion of the verses and the correction of some 
verbal errors in the two former versions are given, 
and apparently on the authority of the original 
epigrammatist, there stated to be Sir George Rose. 

This well-known pleasantry T. A. T. sends us 
from " Florence as a picture of Chancery -practice 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



in the days when George III. was King, which 
some future Macaulay, when seeking to reproduce in 
his vivid pages the form and pressure of the time, 
may cite from ' N. Sf Q.,' ivithout risk of leading 
his readers to any very inaccurate conclusions." 
Now, highly as we may estimate "N. & Q.," it may 
be doubted whether the future historian would be 
likely to look to them under the date of June 10, 
1854, for what was already recorded in the lives 
of Lord Eldon and Lord Langdale; but if he did he 
would assuredly be " led to very inaccurate con- 
clusions" by T. A. T.'s Florentine version : for, in 
the first place, the lines are not the " picture of 
Chancery-pracft'ce," but of four Chancery-jorac- 
titioners of the time of George IV., in whose re- 
gency, if not his reign (as I rather believe), the 
verses were written ; and (which is of more im- 
portance) T. A. T. blunts two points of the epi- 
gram by applying to Mr. Leach one of the cha- 
racters of Mr. Hart, and vice versa. 

Then (Vol. x., p. 18.), another correspondent, 
O. B., offers a corrected version, which is still 
more erroneous, for it repeats the same mistake 
as to Leach and Hart, and adopts another mode 
(by Mr. Hardy) of substituting Mr. Bell speaking 
so well, which has no point at all, for " Mr. Cook 
quoting his book," which was really a sharp one. 

As the account given of this pleasantry in the 
Quarterly appears, as we have said, to have had 
the sanction of the author, it may be as Avell to 
transcribe it. 

" It happened that Mr. Vesey, the reporter, being sud- 
denly called out of the Court of Chancery, requested Mr., 
now Sir George Kose, to take a note of the argument, 
which he did, accurately enough it is said, in the follow- 
ing lines : 

' Mr. Leach made a speech, 

Angry, neat, and wrong ; 
Mr. Hart, on the other part, 

Was right, but dull and long. 
Mr. Parker made that darker, 

Which was dark enough without ; 
Mr. Cook quoted his book, 
And the Chancellor said, I doubt.' " 

Quart. Rev., Sept. 1852. 

c. 

The following was, I believe, the occasion 
of these lines : A certain witty barrister, now 
a Master in Chancery, "was asked by a friend, 
a reporter, to watch a cause for him in his ab- 
sence, and make out a short report of it. The 
barrister so deputed forgot his undertaking, and 
paid little attention to the debate till it was too 
late, when he scribbled off the metrical report in 
question, which was as follows. All the charac- 
ters are well remembered by the Chancery bar : 

" Mr. Leach made a speech, 
Angry, neat, but wrong ; 
Mr. Hart, on the other part, 
Was prosy, dull, and long. 



Mr. Bell spoke very well, 

Though nobody knew about what ; 

Mr. Trower talked for an hour, 
Sat down fatigued and hot. 

Mr. Parker made the case darker, 
Which was dark enough without ; 

Mr. Cook quoted his book, 
And the Chancellor said, I doubt." 

N. E. N. 
Lincoln's Inn. 

T. A. T. and O. B. write Leech. Leach is the 
right name. He afterwards filled the offices of 
Vice-Chancellor of England and Master of the 
Rolls. Hart was promoted to the offices of Vice- 
Chancellor of England and Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland. As to Mr. Parker, see Twiss's note to 
the passage extracted, ending 

" Parker happened to chime with ' darker.' If the 
counsel had been a Mr. Eayner, the report would as- 
suredly have run ' made the case plainer.' " 

Referring to the concluding passage of T. A. T.'s 
note, I know not what weight the Macaulay of 
the twenty-first or twenty-second century may 
give to my friend Rose's extempore squib, but I 
will express my earnest hope that the Lord Chan- 
cellor of that day may be as able, as honest, and 
as agreeable a judge as Lord Eldon was, and that 
he may have as learned, intelligent, and powerful 
a bar as practised before him at the time we are 
speaking of. To the counsel already named must 
be aQded the (I believe I may say) unrivalled Sir 
Samuel Romilly, their cotemporary. Mr. Wil- 
liams, of the common law bar, afterwards Mr. 
Justice Williams, one of the most formidable as- 
sailants of Lord Chancellor Eldon, both in the 
House of Commons and in the Edinburgh Review, 
appeared as counsel in the Court of Chancery 
upon some common law matter. As he left the 
court at the close of the day, he said, "Your Lord 
Chancellor is an abundantly agreeable judge." 
Twiss has fully discussed Lord Eldon's judicial 
character in his third volume. J. W. FABRER. 

Here is another forensic jocularity which I find 
in an old law book : 

" A woman, having a settlement, 
Married a man with none ; 
The question was, he being dead, 
If that she had was gone. 
Quoth Sir John Pratt, ' Her settlement 
Suspended did remain 
Living the husband, but him dead, 
It did revive again.' 
CJiorus of Puisne Judges, 

Living the husband, but him dead, 
It did revive again." 



H.M. 



Peckham. 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



ANECDOTE BELATED BY ATTERBURT. 

(VoL x., p. 6.) 

The Historic of the Council of Trent, edit. 1620, 
London, folio, mentioned by your correspondent 
WM. FRASER, is, I presume, a translation of Fra 
Paolo Sarpi's work bearing the same title, and 
hence Atterbury's note. The anecdote appears 
in a foot-note by Pierre Francois Le Courayer, in 
his translation into French of Sarpi's work, of 
which there are more than one edition : the first 
was published at London, in 2 vols. folio, 1736; 
but the one from which I am about to quote, and 
which is in the library of the British Museum, is 
in 3 vols. 4to., Amst, 1751. The quotation is 
from La Vie de FAuteur, vol. i. p. Ixiv., and a 
" relat. MS." is referred to in the margin as the 
authority : 

" Un Docteur Duncomb, qui charge de la conduite de 
quelques Seigneurs Anglois se trouvoit & Ve'nise apres la 
mort du Pere Paul*, y e'tant tombe" malade et paroissant 
tout k fait abattu, le Pere Fulgence f lui demanda la cause 
de son accablement et lui offrit tous ses services. Le Doc- 
teur avoua inge'nument au Pere, qu'il avoit toujours de- 
mande & Dieu la grace de mourir dans un endroit ou il 
put recevoir le Sacrement selon 1'usage de 1'Eglise Angli- 
cane, c'est-a-dire sous les deux Especes, et que malheu- 
reasement il se trouvoit sans cette espe'rance dans le pays ou 
il se trouvoit. Ce qui eut e'te' une difficult^ pour un autre, 
ne le fut pas pour le Pere Fulgence. II eut bientot con- 
sole' le Docteur, en lui disant qu'il avoit les prieres com- 
munes en Italien, et que s'il le souhaitoit il viendroit lui- 
me"me avec quelques-uns de ses confreres lui administrer la 
Communion sous les deux especes, d'autant plus qu'il y 
avoit encore dans son inonastere sept ou huit des disciples 
du Pere Paul, qui s'assembloient de terns en terns pour 
recevoir ainsi le Sacrement. C'est ce que le Docteur Dun- 
comb rapporte & Mylord Hatton h son retour en Angle- 
terre, et ce que 1'eVeque Atterbury atteste apres 1'avoir 
appris de la bouche du Capitaine Hattoa qui 1'avoit en- 
tendu dire plusieurs fois & son pere." 

I have now to trouble you with another Query 
arising from Atterbury's Note. Who and what 
was Dr. Duncombe ? I think there is ground in 
the extracts given by MR. FRASER and myself to 
warrant a surmise that he was a clergyman, and 
one of those ejected by the Puritans. That a 
friendly confidence should have been established 
between a disciple of Laud, as I take him to have 
been, and the Protestantising monk of Venice, is 
nothing to be wondered at at. 

MR. FRASER, I apprehend, wrote with a theo- 
logical, while I write with a genealogical, purpose ; 
but if I err in this conjecture, and MR. FRASER 
wishes for, or will impart, any genealogical details 
concerning Dr. Duncombe, and as such would not 
be generally interesting to your readers, I inclose 
my address for him, and shall be happy to hear 
from him. J. K. 

* He died January 14, 1642. 

f Fulgenzio was a Minorite. His Life of Fra Paolo was 
published in English (8vo., 1651). He was burnt in the 
Field of Flora. 



ANCIENT USAGES OF THE CHURCH. 

(Vol. ix., pp. 127. 257. 566.) 

The custom of dressing the church with flowers, 
green boughs, or holly and ivy, prevails at Leigh, 
Worcestershire, at the three great festivals of the 
Church. On Good Friday, too, the church is 
dressed with yew, which gives place to the flowers 
on Easter-day. At this church, the ascription of 
praise after the Gospel is sung ; in some of the 
neighbouring churches it is said by the clerk. At 
Leigh, when a funeral approaches the church, 
they cease the tolling of the bell, and ring a 
peal. The passing-bell is tolled three times three 
for a woman, and three times two for a man. 

It is the custom in some village churches in 
Huntingdonshire, for the communicants to leave 
their pews and seats as soon as the sermon is 
ended, and to arrange themselves (kneeling) on 
hassocks placed in rows in front of the altar. 
They continue in a kneeling posture from the 
beginning to the end of the service (a custom that 
causes great fatigue to aged and infirm people), 
and only move from their places when they come 
to kneel at the altar rails. After partaking of the 
Communion, "the befter class" retire to the soli- 
tude of their pews, leaving the poorer communi- 
cants kneeling at, or in front of, the rails. At two 
churches in Huntingdonshire, it is the custom for 
the clerk to receive, respectively, two shillings, 
and eighteen-pence, at the conclusion of this 
service. 

I have never been anywhere (I think) without 
observing what is termed " the ancient practice of 
an obeisance," as often as the Gloria occurs in the 
course of the service. I have seen this done by 
the poorest sort ; and have more particularly noted 
it in country villages. But it has always struck 
me that the obeisance was not to the Gloria as a 
whole, but only to that part of it which relates to 
the second person of the Trinity ; and that it was 
a custom founded on a too- full rendering of the 
text, "at the name of Jesus every knee shall 
bow." I am somewhat confirmed in this belief, 
by the answers of many of the poor made to re- 
marks on this subject; and I have frequently 
observed that the obeisance is as regularly made 
by them whenever the names of the three persons 
in the blessed Trinity (i. e. at the mention of the 
second person) are repeated during the sermon, or 
at some other part of divine service. The bowing 
of the head, believed by the Bishop of London to 
be a novelty (Vol. ix., p. 566.), I presume to be 
that obeisance made by some Scotch and other 
members of the Church, where the bowing posture 
is retained from the beginning to the end of the 
Gloria. Any reader of " N. & Q.," who may have 
attended the daily prayer at Durham Cathedral 
some six years ago, may remember how two or 
three Scotch members of its congregation were 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



accustomed to make a very low obeisance of this 
kind : the posture being retained during the whole 
of the Gloria, which, in a musical service, is often 
of from three to five minutes' duration, if not more. 

E. H. A. mentions Durham Cathedral (Vol. ix., 
p. 567.) ; and in the same paragraph says, that 
where the Bidding Prayer is used, he believes it 
is usual for the people to stand during the Lord's 
Prayer. I have always seen the reverse of this in 
Durham Cathedral and elsewhere. In St. George's 
Church, Kidderminster, the people were ac- 
customed to stand when this prayer occurred in 
the Second Lesson. 

Five or six years ago it was the custom in 
Durham Cathedral to have the Communion 
(sacramental) service partially sung on the first 
Sunday in every month. A portion of the cho- 
risters (both men and boys) were arranged for 
this purpose at desks within the rails, to the north 
and south of the altar. The service was read up 
to the Sursum Corda, when the choir took up the 
responses. After the thanksgiving, the words 
" Therefore with angels," &c. were said, and the 
choir did not join until the proper place. The 
same custom was observed on other Sundays with 
the clerks and people ; who only joined in at the 
words " Holy, holy, holy," &c. (Palmer refers to 
the people, " owing to the want of a clear rubrical 
direction," commonly repeating, not only the Ter- 
sanctus ; but also the "portion of the preface;" 
Orig. Lit. ii. 127. For this "Trisagion," see also 
Bingham, Antiq. 772. edit. 1846.) During the 
time of the delivering the Elements, an organ 
voluntary was played, with an effect both beauti- 
ful and impressive. In the Post-Communion, the 
choir joined in the Lord's Prayer ; and then, all 
standing, sang the " Gloria in Excelsis." 

CUTHBEBT BEDE, B.A. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Lyte's Process (Vol. x., p. 51.). In the event of 
MB. LYTE'S absence, I beg to suggest, in answer to 
C. H. C., that although iodide of silver is insoluble in 
water, it is soluble in solution of nitrate of silver, in which 
MR. LYTE directs that it shall be dissolved, according to 
C. H. C.'s own showing. GEO. SHADBOUT. 

Plant's Camera. In Mr. Dilke's Special Report of the 
New York Industrial Exhibition, that gentleman states : 

"M. H. Plant, of Paris, exhibits a camera box (with- 
out lens) for taking photographs on paper, together with 
a multiple frame for holding a number of sheets of pre- 
pared (dry) paper, and transferring them to the camera 
slide, and again from thence to the opposite side of the 
frame (after having received the impression), without 
exposure to light. The whole apparatus appears to be 
ingeniously and judiciously contrived; and the work- 
manship and fitting (on winch so much of its usefulness 
must depend) are admirable." 

The object of my present communication is to ask 
whether M. Plant's camera is known in England, and 



where it may be seen ; or, if not the camera itself, some 
fuller description of it ? P. C. 

Wax-paper Process. The cerole'ine process does not 
appear to have many advocates, because perhaps, in the 
first stage, the paper is not so transparent as is expected. 
Has, however, the solution of the iodide of silver, when 
made with spirits of wine, failed when used to iodize 
waxed paper ? THOMAS FALCONER. 



to 

Old Army Lists (Vol. ix., p. 589.). Y. S. M. 
will find army lists, from 1730* to 1854 inclusive, 
at Messrs. Parker, Furnivall, and Parker's esta- 
blishment, 30. Charing Cross, London ; and as hia 
letters are generally dated from Dublin, he will 
find several very curious army lists, from 1743 on, 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. Your 
correspondent JOHN D' ALTON, Esq., of 48. Sum- 
mer Hill, Dublin, could, doubtless, assist Y. S. M. 

G. L. S. 

The Title of Clarence (Vol. ix., p. 224.). See 
an elaborate paper upon this subject by the Rev. 
Dr. Donaldson, published in the first Number of 
Proceedings of the Bury and West Suffolk Archaeo- 
logical Institute. VOKAROS. 

" The Birch : a Poem" (Vol. vii., p. 159.). I 
possess a copy of the above poem, quoted at length 
by BALUOLENSIS, which contains several couplets 
not given in his copy. I found the lines in 
Adams's Weekly Chester Courant of Tuesday, 
July 25, 1786 ; and as the Grammar School of 
this city was at that time in the very zenith of its 
glory, I think it highly probable that the lines in 
question were the production of one or other of 
the scholars. If BALLIOLENSIS wishes to complete 
his MS. copy, and will communicate personally 
with me, I shall be happy to transcribe for him 
such of the lines as appear to be missing in his own 
MS. edition. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

Henry Garnett (Vol. x., p. 18.). Is it clear 
that this Jesuit Father had two Christian names f 
I can find no evidence to that effect in any ac- 
counts of his life, and am therefore inclined to 
think that the first word of the inscription under- 
neath his portrait at Rome was Pater, not Peter; 
as it is very unlikely that an English name should 
have found place in a Latin inscription. More- 
over, if he had taken a second name at his con- 
firmation, it would have come after his baptismal 
name, Henry. What FUHVUS means by his cano- 
nisation I cannot imagine, as he has never been 
thus honoured. Still I cannot approve of his 
being styled " the conspirator," as impartial his- 
tory acquits him on that head. It is not easy to 

[* The earliest Army List at Messrs. Parker, Furnivall, 
and Parker's, is dated March 20, 1739-40. ED.] 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 247. 



determine the date or place of his birth. Dodd, 
in his Church History, states that he was born in 
N"ottingham,sfa>e, in 1555 ; but F. More, in his 
History of the English Mission of the Society of 
Jesus, calls him Henry Garnett, of Nottingham, 
or, as others write, of Hennary, in the county of 
Derby. He gives as the date of his birth 1550, 
and states that he was born of "honourable 
parentage," which is rather at variance with the 
" country schoolmaster " of FURVUS. I believe 
that no farther search would be successful, as the 
above is all the information afforded as to the 
birth and parentage of Henry Garnett by the 
most authentic accounts extant. F. C. H. 

A notice of this unjustly condemned man will 
be found in Walcott's William of Wyheham and 
his Colleges, p. 403. A WYKEHAMIST. 

A. M. and M. A. (Vol. ix., pp. 475. 599.). 
E. G. R., M. A., before he so positively stated 
that JUVERNA was wrong in saying that " Masters 
of Arts of Oxford are styled M.A. in contradis- 
tinction to the Masters of Arts of every other 
University," should have looked into the Oxford 
and Cambridge Calendars. In Oxford the Bache- 
lors and Masters of Arts are B. A. and M. A., in 
Cambridge A. B. and A. M. ; whether the name is 
expressed in English or not has nothing to do 
with it. In Oxford the Doctor of Medicine is 
D. M., in Cambridge M. D. A. B. M., Oxon. 

KutchakutcJioo (Vol. x., p. 17.). Your corre- 
spondent E. D. is mistaken in thinking that any 
such " amusement was fashionable about sixty 
years ago." I can venture to say that it never 
was heard of in England. There was, indeed, as 
stated by E. D., a lampoon published in Dublin 
about 1804 under that title, which was made the 
vehicle of some satirical remarks on individuals, 
but which was, as to the existence of any such 
amusement, a mere fiction, a clumsy mystification, 
which deceived nobody, and had no success. C. 

Lord Fairfax (Vol. ix., pp. 10. 379.). UNEDA 
gives the name of the present Lord Fairfax incor- 
rectly. His name is, as stated in the Book of 
Peerage, Charles Snowdon Fairfax. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Snowdon, resides at her 
country seat, Woodbourne, in the district of Co- 
lumbia. Her son, known as Mr. Charles S. Fair- 
fax, went to California about three years ago, and 
is now a member of the legislature, and Speaker 
of the House of Representatives of that State. 

W. R. G. 

Washington, D. C., U. S. 

Gutta Percha (Vol. ix., p. 233.). In answer 
to your correspondent E. B., I beg to inform him 
that gutta percha may be rendered soluble by 
means of pure chloroform, which readily dissolves 



it. A coating of this solution may be applied to 
almost any article, and the gutta percha, after the 
evaporation of the chloroform, will, in my opinion, 
be found as hard as it was previous to being made 
soluble ; the gutta percha used should be that 
which is in the sheet, liked oiled silk, as it is the 
purest ; the chloroform should be good, for other- 
wise the application, instead of perfectly drying, 
remains glutinous. A simple way of testing the 
solution for its efficacy, is to pour a large drop of 
it on the back of the hand (supposing the solution 
to be a weak one, namely, half a drachm of gutta 
percha to one ounce of chloroform). If it be of 
good quality, it dries off within a minute, leaving 
on the skin a thin but firm pellicle perfectly dry, 
not adhering to the finger firmly pressed upon it, 
and capable of being drawn off in a consistent 
pellicle of a light colour. On the contrary, if the 
drop of the solution is long in drying, and not 
firm but glutinous, the chloroform is not pure. 

c.w. 

Bradford. 

The " Economy of Human Life '' (Vol. x., p, 8.). 
In the edition of the Economy of Human Life, 
printed for Thomas Tegg in 1811, the preface is 
addressed to the Earl of Chesterfield. We wish 
to know upon what authority the editor or pub- 
lisher thus ignored Lord Chesterfield's claim to 
the authorship of this much-admired synopsis of 
moral duties ? A reference to the original title- 
page and preface would throw light upon this 
question. Perhaps some reader of " N. & Q." 
may possess a copy of one of the earliest editions : 
the work was first published in 1751.* 

The morals and reflections are obviously the 
same as Chesterfield inculcated in his writings, 
while the maxims are similar, and at times iden- 
tical with the rules upon which the philosophic 
earl regulated his conduct through life. The 
style and sentiments are evidently above the 
humble abilities of Dodsley. We trust this in- 
quiry may be the means of preventing this minor 
English classic from sinking into oblivion. GJ. 

Lord Brougham and Home Tooke (Vol. ix., 
p. 575.). I think MR. DENTON right in sup- 
posing Lord Brougham's assertion (Vol. ix., 
p. 398.) to be an inference, certainly not a fact ; 
but I think Lord Brougham wrong in drawing 

[* The following is a verbatim copy of the title-page of 
the first edition : " The OEconomy of Human Life. Trans- 
lated from an Indian Manuscript, written by an ancient 
BKAMIX. To which is prefixed, An Account of the Man- 
ner in which the said MANUSCRIPT was discover'd. In a 
LETTER from an English Gentleman now residing in 
China, to the Earl of * * * *. London : Printed for M. 
Cooper, at the Globe in Pater-noster-Row. 1761." It is 

dedicated "To the Earl of ." In the illustrated 

4to. edition published by S. and E. Harding, Pall Mall, 
in 1795, both the title-page and dedication state that the 
work was addressed " To the Earl of E * * * *." ED.} 



JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



that inference. I also think MR. DENTON wrong 
in supposing that Home Tooke would deny truth 
" to have any objective existence," if by that ex- 
pression ME. DENTON means that he would deny 
" things to be causes of our ideas, of our thoughts." 
Let MR. DENTON, and J. O. B. also, refer to 
Home Tooke's etymology of think ; and also re- 
flect that in all his explanations of past participles 
and adjectives (having in his view the doctrine of 
abstraction, and abstract ideas), he maintained 
that there was an aliquid, a quidquid, a res ob- 
jecta always understood. 

Tooke also most carefully and constantly dis- 
tinguished the etymological or intrinsic meaning 
of a word from our application of it, founded 
upon and deduced from that meaning ; and, with 
his usual correctness and consistency, he would 
include in our legal application of the word libel, 
all that the law intends by the word. And his 
complaint in his own case was, not that the law 
was absurd, but that the law was not complied 
with in the information filed against him by 
Thurlow that the libel was not so sufficiently 
set forth and described as the law required. 

My opinion is, that Tooke has been and is 
much misunderstood, and quite as much misre- 
presented by such interpretations as the above, as 
Berkeley was by the witticisms of Reid. And 
farther, that it is time justice should be done to 
his noble theory. Q. 

Bloomsbury. 

" Cutting off with a shilling" (Vol. is., p. 198.). 
Your correspondent J. H. CHATEAU will, I 
think, find the answer to his Query in the follow- 
ing extract from Blackstone, book ii. ch. xxxii. : 

" The Romans were also wont to set aside testaments 
as being innfficiosa, deficient in natural duty, if they 
disinherited or totally passed by (without assigning a 
true and sufficient reason) any of the children of the 
testator. But if the child had any legacy, though ever 
so small, it was a proof that the testator had not lost his 
memory or his reason, which otherwise the law presumed ; 
but was then supposed to have acted thus for some sub- 
stantial cause, and in such case no querela inofficiosi testa- 
menti was allowed. Hence, probably, has arisen that 
groundless error of the necessity of leaving the heir a 
shilling, or some such express legacy, in order to disin- 
herit him effectually. Whereas the law of England makes 
no such constrained suppositions of forgetfulness or in- 
sanity ; and, therefore, though the heir or next of kin be 
totally omitted, it admits no querela inofficiosi to set aside 
such a testament." 

G. GERVAIS. 

Consecration of Regimental Colours (Vol. x., p. 
10.). The old Ordo Romanus, in the tenth cen- 
tury, contains a form for the consecration of a 
knight's gonfalon, as an essential feature in the 
ceremonial of his investiture. It much resembles 
the prayer at present in use. The early Church 
displayed banners in its solemn processions, as 



St. Augustine carried one ensigned with a cross 
(like the Labarum of Constantine) before K. 
Ethelbert, at Canterbury. Every great Monas- 
tery had its special banner, and sent it forth to 
battle. Stephen carried St. Wilfrid's, of Ripon, 
at Northallerton. A priest of Beverley carried 
St. John's in the army of King Edward I. The 
Earl of Surrey had the loan of St. Cuthbert's, of 
Durham, in his northern expedition; and Skelton 
speaks of St. William's, of York, being borne by 
the same gallant nobleman. The Edwards and 
the Henries won their victories under the banners 
of St. Edward the Confessor and St. Edmund of 
Bury. Henry VII. offered, after his winning of 
the Crown on Bosworth Field, the banner of St. 
George in the Cathedral of St. Paul. The Ori- 
flamme of St. Denis' Abbey was borrowed by S. 
Louis, by Philip le Bel, and Louis le Gros, when 
he defended France against Germany. The Pope 
sent consecrated colours to Charlemagne, and to 
Philip of Spain for his armada. The bannered 
cross led the crusader in the East, and the armies 
of Ferdinand beneath Granada against the Cres- 
cent. The dignity of a " banneret" was the first 
among those of the second order of nobility. The 
banners of the Knights of the Garter hang in St. 
George's, those of their brethren of the Bath in 
Henry VII.'s Chapel at Westminster : the banners 
of an enemy are suspended in our churches. The 
banner of England is composed of the crosses of 
St. George, St. Patrick, and St. Andrew. The 
Eastern Church had no service for the benedic- 
tion of colours. In the Church of England, the 
form, which is merely traditional, is varied accord- 
ing to the pleasure of the officiating clergyman. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Roger Aschanis Letters (Vol. ix., p. 588.). 
Since I sent a Query about Ascham's Letters, I 
have met with one dated Landau, Oct. 1, 1552, in 
the Hardwicke Papers, vol. i. p. 48. It may per- 
haps be well to add that the editor of the Zurich 
Letters (Second Ser., Nos. 30. and 40.) has printed 
two letters which had already (though he seems 
not to have been aware of it) been printed as the 
12th and 13th of the 1st book of Aschami Epistolce, 
Oxon. 1703. There are several variations, where 
the new copy seems to be more correct than the 
old ; the last letter is dated by Dr. Robinson 
Oct. 21, instead of Oct. 20. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

Elizabeth Ehtob (Vol. ix., p. 200.). On re- 
ference to the burial register-book of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, I find the record of the in- 
terment of Elizabeth Elstob on June 3, 1756, a 
plain proof that this learned and amiable lady was 
above the petty pride of being ashamed of her 
" noble poverty." MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Odd Fellows. In answer to C. F. A. W., 
Vol. ix., p. 327., I once saw in a bookseller's 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



[No. 247. 



catalogue (whose I forget) a work entitled An 
Historical Sketch of Odd Fellowship. If I should 
meet with it again, I will acquaint him of it 
through the medium of your paper. C. W. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The interest which must always be taken in the history 
of the founders of the North American civilisation, renders 
every fresh contribution to our knowledge upon that sub- 
ject welcome to all historical students, whether of the 
old country or the new. It is little wonder then that the 
second of the series of Critical and Historical Tracts, by 
the Rev. Joseph Hunter, being his Collections concerning 
the Founders of New Plymouth, should soon be out of 
print; or that the editor, tempted by the favour with 
which that brochure, as well as his contributions to the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, have been received 
and the success which has attended his farther researches 
in the same direction, should be tempted to give the 
whole to the world in a more complete form. This he 
has done in a handsome octavo volume, entitled Collections 
concerning the Church or Congregation of Protestant Sepa- 
ratists, founded at Scrooby, in North Nottinghamshire, in 
the Reign of King James I. ; the Founders of New-Ply- 
mouth, the Parent Colony of New-England. This ample 
title-page shows the object and general scope of the vo- 
lume, which is one every way deserving of the reputation 
of Mr. Hunter, as one of our most profound antiquaries. 

Mr. Bohn perseveres in his good work of supplying the 
readers of English history with a series of translations of 
the Monkish Chroniclers; and we have this month to 
thank him for the third and concluding volume of Mat- 
thew Paris's English History, which extends from the 
year 1235 to 1273. This volume is made still more useful 
by the addition of a General Index to Matthew Paris and 
Roger of Wendover. 

Mr. Tymms, the Honorary Secretary of the Suffolk 
Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, has just 
issued a Handbook of Bury St. Edmund's, which will be 
found a most useful companion to the visitor of that in- 
teresting locality. 

While on the subject of topography, we may also men- 
tion with deserved commendation, the Notes on the Archi- 
tecture and History of Caldicot Castle, Monmouthshire, by 
Octavious Morgan, Esq., and Thomas Wakeman, Esq", 
which has just been issued by the Caerleon Antiquarian 
Association. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Remains of Pagan Saxondom 
principally from Tumuli in England, by J. T. Akerman, 
Part X., containing fibulae from a cemetery at Fairford, 
in Gloucestershire, and fibulae found in Warwickshire and 
Leicestershire. Gibbon's Rome, with variorum Notes, 
including those of Guizot, Wench, Schreiter, and Hugo : 
Vol. IV., being the new volume of Bohn's British Classics, 
extends from the invasion of Gaul by Attila, A.D. 450, to 
the death of Justinian. A.D. 565. In the same publisher's 
Standard Library, he has issued a volume of considerable 
political interest, namely, Hungary and its Revolutions, 
from the Earliest Period to the Nineteenth Century, with a 
Memoir of Louis Kossuth. Messrs. L'ongman, with a view 
of rendering their Traveller's Library a collection of works 
of immediate interest, as well as of agreeable reading and 
permanent utilitv, have lately inserted in it several 
bearing on the Russian and Turkish question, and the 
Part just issued is one of these, and not the least valuable, 
being Russia and Turkey, by J. R. M'Culloch, Esq., re- 
printed with Corrections from the Geographical Dictionary. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

H. CORNELII AORIPP.JB OPERA. Lyons", 1531. Tom. H. 

54th, 57th, and following Numbers of the CAMDEN SOCIETY'S 

PUBLICATIONS. 
The 10th and following Vols. of the ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

OF GREAT BRITAIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 
JUVENAL AND PERSIUS. Valla. Venice. Folio. 

Robert Stephens. Paris, 1544. 

Falmanor. Antwerp, 1565. 

Pitholus. Paris, 1585. 

Autumnus. Paris, 1607. 

Stephens. Paris, 1616. 

Achaintree. Paris, 1810. 

English. Dryden. 

French. Dusaula. Paris, 1796, 1803. 

: Animadversiones Observationes Philologies in 

Sat. Juvenalis duas Priores. Beck. 
^^ Spicilegium Animadversionum. Schurzflei- 

schius. 
Jacob's Emendationes. 

Heinecke. Halas, 1804. 

Manso. 1814. 

Barthius Adversaria. 



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LOOOPOIOS will find the ballad of " King Cophetua and the Beggar 
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W. W. (Malta.) Received. Thanks. The letter shall be communi- 
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J. S. TFt77 our correspondent amplify hi* Query respecting Washing- 
ton's birthplace, and it shall appear next week! 

F. Ilobler. Our correspondent will find some particulars of the 
melancholy fate of Dr. LeicMiaidt in the Athenaeum of 1853, p. 738. : sec 
also the volume for 1848, pp. 262. 1267. ; for 1849, p. 94. 

F. E. C. (Lismore.1 Shall receive an anstoer. 

Merlin. Anthony Monday's Play of The Downfall of Robert, Earl of 
Huntingdon, published in Mr. Collier's supplement to Dorlsley, and 
Maid Sfarian, the once popular opera, are both founded on the story of 
Robin Hood. 

ERRATUM. Vol. x , p. 53., for " bolbull," read " bol " = butt. 

OCJR NINTH VOLDME, with very copious Index, price 10s. 6d. cloth 
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JULY 22. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
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THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 

THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 
The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services, Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. 
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" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country." Literary Gazette. 

u One of the best collections of tunes which 
we have yet seen. Well merits the distin- 
guished patronage under which it appears." 
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" A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
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character to any which has hitherto appeared." 
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ARCH210I.OGZCB.il WORKS 



JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, 

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE 
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CONTENTS: Section 1. Origin of Coinage- 
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BY THE 

REV. DR. MAITLANO, 



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Series of ESSAYS intended to illustrate the 
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MILL, containing some STRICTURES on 
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Is. 6d- 

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New Edition. Small 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

NOTES on the CONTRIBU- 
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KING, M.A., Incumbent of Christ's Church, 
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Milner." 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

REMARKS on that Part of the 

REV. J. KING'S PAMPHLET, entitled 
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An INDEX of such ENGLISH 

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8vo. 4s. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No, 247. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARA- 
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WESTERN LIFE ASSIT- 

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J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A.Lethbridge.Esq.. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustees. 
W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. ; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
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spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100?., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
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Age s. d. I Age i. d. 

17- - - 1 14 4 I 32- - - 2 10 8 

22- - -118837- - -2 18 6 

27-- - 2 4 5 I 42 - - -382 

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Actuary. 

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THUR SCRATCIILEY, M. A., Actuary to 
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No..5. New Street Square, m tbj 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by GEOROE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, m the Parish of St. Dunstau in the \V 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, July 22. 1854. 



Parish of 
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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 248.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 29. 1854. 



? Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



N OIKS : 

Original Letters of Major Andri? : Anec- 
dotes concerning him, &c., by Thomp- 
son Westcott, &c. - - -77 
Notes on Manners, Costume , &C. - 81 

" Ye sexes give ear," &c. - - - 82 
Franklin's Parable - - - 82 

Family of Lestrange, by the Rev. W. 
Dentou ----- 83 

MINOR NOTES: Curious Epitaph 
"Paunch" or "Punch," when first 
known in Eneland Monumental 
Inscription Bishop Sprat A New- 
England Dialogue - - 8-4 

QUERIES : 

"Washington's Birthplace - - 85 

\Vas Shakspeare a Roman Catholia ? - 85 

MINOR QUERIES: Marrow-bones and 
Cleavers William de Northie 
Editor of Hobbcs' Works _ English 
Bishops' Mitres Notaries _ Bloody 
Thursday Cayntou House, near 
Shiffnall Can a Man speak after lie 
5s dead ? Rev. Lewis Lewis Iris arid 
Lily Daughter of O'Melachlin, Kins 
of Meath " A dog with a bad Name" 
Norfolk Superstition - - - 87 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Trail-baton Saying of Voltaire The 
Everlasting Society of Eccentrics, 
1803 Life of Vandyke Early Ger- 
man History of Painters Crivelli the 
Painter Life of Mendelssohn - 88 

.REPLIES : 

Ebullition of Feeling - - - 89 
King James's Irish Army List, 1089, by 

John D' Alton - - - - 90 

Warburton's Edition of Pope - - 90 
May-day Custom, by Cuthbert Bede, 

B.A. ..... 91 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Tiir- 
pentino-wax Paper Process, by M. 
Lespiault - - - - - 92 

HF.PLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Pre- 
Raffaelism Mother of forty Children 
"Book of Almanacs ""Forgive, 
blest shade" Latin Versions of Gray' 
Elegy Russian Emperors Napo- 




MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 9fi 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



VOL. X. No. 248. 



Mult;e terricolis lingujc, ccclestibus una. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
AND SONS' 

GENERAL CATALOGUE is sent 
Free by Post. It contains Lists of 
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English Translations ; Manuscript- 
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Testament ; and Miscellaneous Biblical and 
other Works. By Post Free. 

London : SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 
15. Paternoster Row. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CLXXXIX., is published this Day. 

I. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
II. MILMAN'S HISTORY OF LATIN 

CHRISTIANITY. 
IIT. THE DRAMA. 
IV. CLASSICAL DICTIONARIES. 

V. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 
VI. MELANESIAN AND NEW ZEA- 
LAND MISSIONS. 
VII. QUEKN ELIZABETH AND HER 

FAVOURITES. 

VHI. LORD LYNDHURST AND THE 
WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Now ready, No. VII. (for May), price 2s. 6d., 
published Quarterly. 

T)ETROSPECTIVE REVIEW 

JLlj (New Series) ; consisting of Criticisms 
upon, Analyses of, and Extracts from, Curious, 
Useful, Valuable. and Scarce Old Books. 

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436., cloth 10s. 6d., is also 
ready. 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, 
London. 

BISHOP SELWYN'S OWN ACCOUNT OF 
HIS MISSIONS. 

The JULY Number of the 

COLONIAL CHURCH CHRO- 

*J NICLE AND MISSIONARY JOUR- 
NAL (being the First Number of Vol. VIII.), 
contains a Narrative by the Bishop of JSiew 
Zealand of his Melanesian Mission. 

PART I. 

The Christianfl of St. Thomas in Malabar ; 
the Bishop of Quebec on Colonial Bishop's 
Titles ; the 'Bishop <>f Newcastle's N. S. W., or 
a Colonial Bishop's Work : Report of the 
Monthly Meeting of the S. P. G. , the Ann. 
Meeting, June 21, at Willis's Rooms ; the Fes- 
tival at St. Paul's; Home and Colonial Mis- 
sionary News. 

Published Monthly, price 6rf. 
RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place. 



BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY FOR ACCOST. 

TTISTORY OF RUSSIA from 

JLJL the earliest period to the present time, 
compiled from the most authentic sources, in- 
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WALTER K. KELLY. In Two Volumes. 
Vol. I. with fine portrait of Catharine the 
Second. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6c?. 

HENRY G. BOHN, 4. 5, & 6. York Street, 
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BOHN'S BRITISH CLASSICS FOR AUGUST. 

DEFOE'S WORKS, edited by 
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THE GEOGRAPHY OF 
STRABO, literally translated, with co- 
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HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, 
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BOHN'S SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY FOR Aoousi. 

T7NNEMOSER'S HISTORY OF 

Iv MAGIC, translated from the German by 
WILLIAM HOWITT. With an Appendix 
of the most remarkable and best authenticated 
Stories of Apparitions, .Dreams, Second Sight, 
Somnambulism, Predictions, Divination, 
Witchcraft, Vampires, Fairies, Table-turning, 
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HOWITT. In Two Volumes. Vol. II. Post 
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HISTOEY OF 

1\ THE JKSUITS : their Origin, Progress, 

Doctrines, and Designs. With line portraits of 

Loyola, Lainvz, Xavier, Borgin, Acquaviva, 

Pere la Chaise, Ricci, and Pope Ganganelli. 

Complete in One Volume. Post 8vo. cloth. 5s. 

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This Day, Fifth and Cheaper Edition, in One 
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TIRE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE. 



London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
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THE ORIGINAL QUAD- 
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FORTE by MRS. AMBROSE MERTON. 
London : Published for the Proprietors, and 
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Street \ and by Order of all Music Sellers. 

PRICE THREE SHILLINGS. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248, 



TTTESTERN LIFE ASSU- 

T T RANGE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 

a. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 

Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 

H. E. Bicknell, Esq. T. Grissell, Esq. 

T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. J. Hunt, Esq. 

M.P. J. A. Lethbndge.Esq. 

G. H. Drew, Esq. E. Lucas, Esq. 

W. Evans, Esq. J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

W. Freeman, Esq. J. B. White, Esq. 

F. Fuller, Esq. J. Carter Wood, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustees. 
TV.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq.; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. William Rich. Bn sham, M.D. 
Bankers. Messrs. Cocks. Biddnlph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 
POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100?., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 

Af- 
22 - 



s. d. 

- 1 14 4 

- 1 18 8 
-245 



Age 
32 - 
37 - 
42- 



i. d. 

- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 
-382 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.8., 

Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10. 6<?., Second Edition, 
with material additions. INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
I^and Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
Ac. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
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MUTUAL LIFE ASSURANCE. 

qpHE SCOTTISH PROVIDENT 

L INSTITUTION combines the advantage 
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At the first division of surplus in the present 
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Copies of the last annual report, containing 
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JAMES WATSON. Manager. 
GEORGE GRANT, Resident Secretary. 

London Branch, 66. Gracechurch Street. 

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and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard ; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. HORNE 

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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy 
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Also every description of Apparatus, Che- j 
micals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art. 
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JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1854. 



ORIGINAL LETTERS OF MAJOR ANDRE : ANECDOTES 
CONCERNING HIM, ETC. 

(Vol. viii., pp. 174. 277. 399. 604. 643. ; Vol. ix., 
p.lll.) 

Permit me to add something to the stock which 
your correspondent SERVIENS has collected to- 
wards his biography of the unfortunate Major 
Andre. A friend lately procured for me an in- 
spection of four original letters of Major Andre, 
written in 1776 whilst he was a prisoner at Car- 
lisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. They 
are in the possession of Herman Cope, Esq., 
of this city (Philadelphia), to whose grandfather 
they were written. It seems that after Andre 
was captured by General Montgomery at Cham- 
plain, he was sent as a prisoner to Lancaster 
in Pennsylvania. Whilst there he contracted a 
friendship with Caleb Cope, a member of the 
Society of Friends, and in consequence of his 
professions a non-combatant in the war. John 
Cope, a son of this gentleman, seems to have 
had a talent for drawing, and Andre gladly as- 
sisted and instructed him. After Andre was re- 
moved to Carlisle, the correspondence was in 
reference to this boy and his studies. The letters 
show a kind interest in the young artist ; and the 
reference in the first letter to his endeavours to 
procure a boarding-house for him which would keep 
him away from the officers' mess, shows a regard 
for his morals and the religious feelings of his 
father. The request in the fourth letter that the 
boy would commit the name arid friendship of 
Andre for him to his memory, has, in reference to 
the subsequent fate of the writer, a touching in- 
terest. Without farther remark I send verbatim 
copies of the letters referred to, in which I have 
strictly followed spelling and punctuation. 



Sir, 



LETTER I. 



You wou'd have heard from me ere this Time 
had I not wish'd to be able to give you some en- 
couragement to send my young Friend John to 
Carlisle. My desire was to find a Lodging where 
I cou'd have him with me, and some quiet honest 
family of Friends or others where he might have 
boarded, as it wou'd not have been so proper for 
him to live with a Mess of Officers. I have been 
able to find neither and am myself still in a 
Tavern. The people here are no more willing to 
harbour us, than those of Lancaster were at our 
first coming there. If however you can resolve 
to let him come here, I believe Mr. Despard and 
I can make him up a bed in a Lodging we have in 



view, where there will be room enough. He will 
be the greatest part of the day with us em- 
ploy'd in the few things I am able to instruct him 
in. In the meanwhile I may get better ac- 
quainted with the Town and provide for his 
board. With regard to Expence this is to be at- 
tended with none to you. A little assiduity and 
friendship is all I ask in my young friend in 
return for my good will to be of service to him in 
a way of improving the Talents Nature hath given 
him. I shall give all my attention to his morals 
j and as I believe him well dispos'd I trust he will 
acquire no bad habits here. 

Mr. Despard joins with me in compliments to 
yourself, Mrs. Cope and family. 
I am Sir 

Your most humble servant, 

JOHN ANDRE. 

Carlisle, the 3rd April, 1776. 
I Superscription, "Mr. Caleb Cope, Lancaster." 

LETTER IL 
Dear Sir, 

I am much oblig'd to you for your kind Letter 
and to your son for his drawings. He is greatly 

! improv'd since I left Lancaster, and I do not 

! doubt but if he continues his application he will 
make a very great progress. I cannot regret that 
you did not send your son hither : We have been 
submitted to alarms and jealousys which wou'd 
have render'd his stay here very disagreeable to 
him and I wou'd not willingly see any person 
suffer on our account ; with regard to your ap- 
prehensions in consequence of the escape of the 

i Lebanon gentlemen, they were groundless, as we 
have been on parole ever since our arrival at this 
place which I can assure you they were not. I 
shou'd more than once have written to you had 
opportunitys presented themselves, but the post 
and we seem to have fallen out, for we can never 
by that channel either receive or forward a line 
on the most indifferent subjects. Mr. Despard is 
very well and desires to be remembered to yourself 
and family. I beg you wou'd give my most 
friendly compliments to your Family and particu- 
larly to your son my disciple, to whom I hope the 

i future posture of affairs will give me an oppor- 

i tunity of pointing out the way to proficiency in 

! his favorite study, which may tend so much to his 
pleasure and advantage. Let him go on copying 
whatever good models he can meet with and never 

; suffer himself to neglect the proportions and never 
to think of finishing his work, or imitating the 

! fine flowing lines of his copy, till every limb, 
feature, house, tree or whatever he is drawing, is 
in its proper place. With a little practice this 

j will be so natural to him, that his Eye will at first 
sight guide his pencil in the exact distribution of 
every part of the work. I wish I may soon see 

I you in our way to our own friends with which I 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



hope by Exchange we may be at length re- 
united. 

I am 

Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble servant 

J. ANDRE. 
Carlisle, the 3d Sept. 1776. 

LETTER III. " 

Your Letter by Mr. Barrington is just come to 
hand. I am sorry you shou'd imagine my being 
absent from Lancaster, or our troubles, could 
make me forget my friends. Of the several 
letters you mention having written to me only 
one of late has reach'd Carlisle, viz. that by Mr. 
Slough. To one I received from you a week or 
two after leaving Lancaster I returned an answer. 
I own the difficulties of our Correspondence had 
disgusted me from attempting to write. 

I once more commend myself to your good 
family and am sincerely 

Yrs, &c. 

J. A. 

I hope your son's indisposition will be of no 
consequence. 

Superscribed " Mr. Cope, Lancaster." 

LETTER IV. 
Dear Sir, 

I have just time to acquaint you that I re- 
ceiv'd your letter by Mrs. Callender with my 
young friend's drawings, which persuade me he is 
much improv'd, and that he has not been idle. 
He must take particular care in forming the fea- 
tures in faces, and in copying hands exactly. He 
shou'd now and then copy things from the life and 
then compare the proportions with what points he 
may have ; or what rules he may have reinem- 
ber'd. With respect to his shading with Indian 
Ink, the anatomical figure is tolerably well done, 
but he wou'd find his work smoother and softer, 
were he to lay the shades on more gradually, not 
blackening the darkest at once but by washing 
them over repeatedly, and never till the paper is 
quite dry. The figure is very well drawn. 

Capt. Campbell who is the bearer of this Letter 
will probably when at Lancaster be able to judge 
what likelyhood there is of an Exchange of pri- 
soners which we are told is to take place imme- 
diately ; if this shou'd be without foundation, I 
shou'd be very glad to see your son here. Of this 
you may speak with Capt. Campbell, and if you 
shou'd determine upon it, let me know it a few 
days beforehand when I shall take care to settle 
matters for his reception. 
I am Dear Sir 

Your most humble servt. 

J. ANDRE. 

Carlisle, the llth Oct. 1776. 



My best compliments if you please to your 
family and particularly to John. Mr. Despard 
begs to be remember'd to you. 
Superscription, " To Mr. Caleb Cope, Lancaster." 

LETTER V. 
Dear Sir, 

I cannot miss the opportunity I have of writing 
to you by Mr. Slough to take leave of yourself 
and Family, and transmit to you my sincere 
wishes for your welfare. We are on our road, as 
we believe to be exchang'd, and however happy 
this prospect may make me ; It doth not render 
me less warm in the fate of those persons in this 
country for whom I had conceived a regard ; I 
trust on your side you will do me the Justice to 
remember me with some good will, and that you 
will be persuaded I shall be happy if occasion shall 
offer of my giving your son some further hints 
in the Art for which he has so happy a turn. 
Desire him if you please to commit my name and 
my friendship for him to his memory, and assure 
him from me, that if he only brings diligence to 
her assistance, Nature has open'd him a path to 
fortune and reputation, and that he may in a few 
years hope to enjoy the fruits of his labor. Perhaps 
the face of affairs may so far change that he may 
once more be within my reach, when It will be a 
very great pleasure to me to give him what as- 
sistance I can. My best compliments as well as 
Mr. Despard's to Mrs. Cope and the rest of your 
family. I am truly 
Dear Sir 

Your most obedt. 

humb' servant, 

J. ANDRE. 

Reading, the 2nd Dec. 1776. 
Superscription, " Mr. Caleb Cope, Lancaster." 

From a pamphlet lately published at Carlisle, 
containing the borough ordinances, with a history 
of the place, I make the following extract, which 
relates to Andre whilst a prisoner there. 

" During the war Carlisle was made a place of rendez- 
vous for the American troops ; and in consequence of being 
located at a distance from the theatre of war, British 
prisoners were frequently sent hither for secure confine- 
ment. Of these Major Andre and Lieutenant Despard, 
who had been taken by Montgomery near Lake Cham- 
plain, Avhile here in 1776, occupied the stone house at the 
corner of South Hanover Street and Locust Alley, and 
were on a parole of honour of six miles, but were prohi- 
bited from going out of the town except in military dress. 
Mrs. Ramsey, an unflinching Whig, detected two Tories in 
conversation with these officers, and immediately made 
known the circumstances to William Brown, Esq., one of 
the county committee. The Tories were imprisoned. 
Upon their persons were discovered letters written in 
French, but no one could be found to interpret them, and 
their contents were never known. After this Andre and 
Despard were not allowed to leave the town. They had 
fowling-pieces of superior workmanship, but now being 
unable'to use them, they broke them to pieces, declaring 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



' that no d d rebel should ever burn powder in them.' 
During their confinement one Thompson enlisted a com- 
pany of militia in what is now Perry County, and marched 
them to Carlisle. Eager to make a display of (his own 
bravery and that of his recruits, he drew up his soldiers 
at night in front of the house of Andre" and his companion, 
and swore lustily he would have their lives, because, as he 
alleged, the Americans who were prisoners in the hands 
of the British were dying by starvation. Through the 
importunities, however, of Mrs. Ramsey, Captain Thomp- 
son, who had formerly been an apprentice to her hus- 
band, was made to desist ; and as he countermarched in 
company, with a menacing nod of the head, he bellowed 
to the objects of his wrath, ' You may thank my old 
mistress for your lives.' They were afterwards removed 
to York, but before their departure sent to Mrs. Ramsey a 
box of spermaceti candles, with a note requesting her ac- 
ceptance of the donation as an acknowledgment of her 
many acts of kindness. The present was declined, Mrs. 
Ramsey averring that she was too staunch a Whig to 
accept a gratuity from a British officer. Despard was 
executed at London in 1803 for high treason. With the 
fate of the unfortunate Andre every one is familiar." 

Thomas Balch, Esq., of this city informed me 
some time since that there was a letter in pos- 
session of his family, which was written by a 
member of it who had seen Andre whilst he was 
a prisoner of war at Carlisle. It was written 
after the death of Andre, and gave the recol- 
lections of the writer in reference to him. Mr. 
Balch promised to endeavour to obtain it for me, 
but upon inquiry it could not be found. The 
following statement of the contents from memory 
is given by L. P. W. Balch, Esq., of Richmond, 
Virginia : 

" All I recollect is that he (the writer, a near relative) 
saw Andre when a prisoner at Carlisle; that he was a 
very handsome young man, who confined himself to his 
own room, reading constantly ; that he used to sit and 
read with his feet on the wainscot of the window, where 
two beautiful pointer dogs laid their heads on his feet, 
and that when (he, the writer) afterwards heard of 
Andre's capture, he was surprised that he had not suffered 
the captors to shoot him on the spot." 

In the year 1847 Jno. Jay Smith and John F. 
Watson, of this city, published a volume entitled 
American Historical and Literary Curiosities, It 
contains copies of autograph letters taken by the 
anastatic process, and other curious affairs. 
Among the contents of this volume will be found 
copies of profiles cut by Major Andre for Miss 
Rebecca Redman. They are likenesses of Cap- 
tain Cathcart, afterwards Earl Cathcart, cut in 
1778 ; of Sir John Wrottesley, Bart., dated 1780 ; 
of Phineas Bond, afterwards British Consul at 
Philadelphia ; of Captain Battwell, and of Major 
Andre himself. The same work has a fac-simile 
full size of the ticket for the mischianza designed 
by Andre, and of the portrait of a lady by the 
8ame_ artist. These are transfers of the original 
drawings, reduced copies of which are given in 
Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution. The 
same work has a copy of a piece of poetry written 



by Andre, taken anastatically from the manu- 
script. I copy the lines : 

" A GERMAN AIE. 

Return enraptur'd Hours 

When Delia's heart was mine, 

When she with Wreaths of Flowers, 
My Temples wou'd entwine. 

When Jealousy nor Care, 

Corroded in my Breast 
But Visions light as Air 

Presided o'er my Rest. 

Now nightly round my Bed, 

No Airy Visions play, 
No Flowerets crown my Head, 

Each Vernal Holyday. 

For far from those sad Plains 

My Lovely Delia flies, 
And rack'd with Jealous Pains, 

Her wretched Lover dies. 

German Air ; words compos'd by Major Andre' at 
the request of Miss Becky Redman, Jan. 2, 1777." 

The original is in the possession of Henry Pen- 
nington of this city. The same work has the ac- 
count of the mischianza " from an officer," sent to 
the Ladies 1 Magazine, and which, it is now gene- 
rally believed, was written by Andre, who was a 
distinguished actor in the pageant. 

From the Philadelphia Stage from 1749 to 
1821, by Charles Durang, a historical work now 
in progress of publication here in a newspaper, I 
extract the following, which gives the most com- 
plete account of Andre's efforts as a scene painter, 
whilst the British were in possession of Phila- 
delphia in 1777-8, that I have seen : 

" A garrison hemmed in by an active enemy in a long 
winter, go through rather a dull routine of life's scenes of 
enjoyment. To the dashing young officer of European 
education, our city of right angles and uniformity offered, 
at that early period in the way of novelty meagre enter- 
tainment. Accordingly those gay young chevaliers re- 
solved themselves into a corps dramatique : there were 
several artists among them. The lamented Major Andre' 
was very talented in drawing and painting. On the eve 
of his execution he sketched a very accurate likeness of 
himself, which is extant. Captain Delancy was also a 
very excellent artist. They added some very useful and 
beautiful scenes to the old stock; one scene from the 
brush of Andre' deserves a record. It was a landscape 
presenting a distant champagne country, and winding 
rivulet, extending from the front of the picture to the 
extreme distance. In the foreground and centre a gentle 
cascade (the water exquisitely executed) was over- 
shadowed by a group of majestic forest trees. The per- 
spective was excellently preserved ; the foliage, verdure, 
and general colouring was artistically toned and glazed. 
The subject of this scene and its treatment were eminently 
indicative of the bland temperament of the ill-fated 
major's mind, ever running in a calm and harmonious 
mood. 

" It was a drop-scene, and hung about the middle of the 
third entrance as called in stage directions. The name of 
Andre was inscribed in large black letters on the back of 
it, thus placed no doubt by bis own hand on its com- 
pletion, sometimes a custom with scenic artists. It was 
burnt with the rest of the scenery at the destruction of 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



the theatre in 1821. It would have been a precious relic 
at the present day for its very interesting associations. 

" Poor Andre little thought while he was painting that 
scene, that a few short years afterward it would be used 
in a natural play, written on the subject of his capture 
and death. It was so used in the summer of 1807, on the 
4th of July, at the ' Old South,' as a representation of the 
pass on the banks of the Hudson river where he was taken 
by the three militiamen ; it being the only scene in the 
house which might answer for the locality, without 
painting one expressly for it. The piece had no merit as 
a drama, and was only concocted for holiday occasions, 
being a sort of hybrid affair, abounding with fulsome 
dialogue and pantomime full of Yankee notions and 
patriotic clap-trap ; but incessant laughter and applause 
I well remember rewarded the company's efforts." 

There was in Peall's Museum in this city, a few 
years ago, a MS. poem by Major Andre, entitled 
The Cow Chase. I presume that SERVIENS is 
familiar with the composition ; it has been printed, 
but I do not now know where to find it. If 
SERVIENS has no copy of this squib, which was in 
reference to the exploits of a foraging party 
under the command of the American General 
Wayne, I have no doubt but that I can procure a 
copy for him from New York, where I presume 
the original' poem now is. Our museum was 
broken up some years ago, and most of the stock 
bought by P. T. Barnum, of New York. If the 
latter has the verses I can procure a copy. I 
would refer SERVIENS for an interesting account 
of Arnold's treason and Andre's fate, with illus- 
trations to Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, 
vol. ii., in which he will find a fac-simile of a pen- 
and-ink portrait of Andre by himself. 

In conclusion, I inclose a newspaper clipping 
which has been published in New York Journal, 
since I thought of preparing this communication for 
" N. & Q." It is by a correspondent who, judging 
from his former writings, has devoted some at- 
tention to historical points, and I think it may be 
relied upon as correct. The relation throws an 
additional light upon the sad story of Andre's 
detection. 

" ARNOLD'S TREASON. 

"Application was made in the year 1825 for assistance in 
making out the necessary documents for a pension by one 
of the bargemen in the barge that conveyed General 
Arnold to the sloop of war ' Vulture.' He was bow-oars- 
man in the boat, next in rank to the coxswain, whose 
name was James Larvey. His memory was remarkably 
accurate, and his veracity unquestionable. 

" The day before the flight of Arnold, the barge brought 
him with Major Andre from Lawyer Smith's, below 
Stoney Point, to the general's head-quarters. They con- 
versed very little during the passage. The general told 
his aid, who was at the landing when they arrived, that 
he had brought up a relation of his wife. Arnold kept 
one of his horses constantly caparisoned at the door of his 
quarters, and the next morning, soon after breakfast, he 
rode down in great haste with the coxswain just behind 
him on foot. The coxswain cried out to the bargemen to 
come out from their quarters that were hard by, and the 
general dashed down the footfall instead of taking a cir- 
cuit, the usual one for those who were mounted. 



" The barge was soon made ready, though the general, 
in his impatience, repeatedly ordered the bow-man to 
push off, before all the men had mustered. The saddle 
and upholsters were taken on board of the barge, and 
Arnold, immediately after they pushed off, wiped the 
priming from the pistols and primed them anew, cocked 
and half-cocked them repeatedly. He inquired of Collins, 
the bow-man, if the men had their arms, and was told 
that they came in such haste that there were but two 
swords, belonging to himself and the coxswain. They 
ought to have brought their arms, he said. He then tied 
a white handkerchief to the end of his cane for a flag in 
passing the forts. On arriving alongside of the Vulture, 
he took it off and wiped his face. 

" The general had been down in the cabin about an hour, 
when the coxswain was sent for, and by the significant 
looks and laughing of the officers, the men in the barge 
began to be very apprehensive that all was not right. 
He very soon returned and told them that they were all 
' prisoners of war.' The bargemen were unmoved, and 
submitted to the fortunes of war, except two Englishmen, 
who had deserted, and who were much terrified and wept. 
The bargemen were promised good fare if they would 
enter on duty aboard the Vulture, but they declined, and 
were handcuffed, and so remained for four days. General 
j Arnold then sent for them at New York. In passing 
I from the wharf to his head-quarters, the two Englishmen 
slipped aboard a letter of marque, then nearly ready to sail. 

" The others, five in number, waited on Arnold, who 
told them that they .had always been attentive and 
faithful, and he expected they would stay with him he 
had, he said, command of a regiment of horse, and Larvey 
and Collins might have commissions, and the rest should 
be non-commissioned officers. Larvey answered that he 
could not be contented he had rather be a soldier where 
he was content, than an officer where he was not. The 
others expressed or manifested their concurrence in 
Larvey's opinion. Arnold then gave the coxswain a 
guinea, and told him that they should be sent back. At 
night they were conveyed to the Vulture, and the next 
day set ashore. 

" This worthy and intelligent applicant was a native of 
Plymouth, and belonged to an old and respectable family 
of that place by the name of Collins. He remembered 
perfectly well the dress of Major Andre when they took 
him up in the barge from Lawyer Smith's house to Ar- 
nold's quarters ' blue homespun stockings, a pair of 
wrinkled boots not lately brushed, blue cloth breeches 
tied at the knee with strings, waistcoat of the same, blue 
surtout buttoned by a single button, black silk handker- 
chief once round the neck and tied in front, with the ends 
under the waistcoat, and a flopped hat.' 

" Andre, it will be remembered, was executed in Oc- 
tober, 170, at Tappan, in Rockland county, in this state 
(New York). His body was buried on a farm near the 
place of execution, where it remained undisturbed until 
the 10th of August, 1821, when, by order of the Duke of 
York, Mr. Buchanan, the then British Consul residing in, 
this city, caused the remains of the unfortunate yet brave 
and accomplished youth to be disinterred and placed in a 
sarcophagus, with the view of being conveyed to Eng- 
land, and deposited near the monument erected to his 
memory in Westminster Abbey. In proceeding to dis- 
inter the remains, the coffin was found about three feet 
below the surface of the earth ; the lid was broken in the 
centre, and had partly fallen in, but was kept up by rest- 
ing on the skull. On raising the lid the skeleton was 
found entire, without a vestige of any other part of his 
remains, except some of his hair, which appeared in small 
tufts ; and the only part of his dress was the leather string 
which tied the hair." 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



In conclusion allow me, as an American, to 
allude to the Query of MR. TEIVETT ALLCOCK 
(Vol. ix., p. 111.), whether Andre was altogether 
blameless in the " questionable affair " for which 
he suffered. I do not see how his conduct can be 
defended. The spy who endeavours to discover 
the force and disposition of an enemy's troops, 
executes a dangerous commission, but it is an 
honourable one. The intelligence which he brings 
is of the greatest consequence, and though by the 
code of war his life is forfeit if he is detected, in a 
moral point of view he has done no wrong. But 
Andre was engaged in other offices than those of the 
spy. He knew that he was negotiating the terms 
of a treason, and tempting a weak officer to bar- 
gain away the cause of his country for gold and 
military rank. He did not enter the American 
camp with the furtive design of an honest spy, but 
he went as a tempter, to whisper proposals of re- 
ward to the weak ear of a once respected man, 
hoping by the splendour of his offers to prostrate 
his reeling virtue. It was not an honourable 
office which Andre undertook. We do not know 
how far he might have been forced into the po- 
sition by superior command, but at all events it 
was a false position, which brought upon him not 
merely the fall of the spy, but of the tempter. 
Andre seems in other affairs to have been a 
spirited, accomplished, and kind man, as the letters 
we have given above show. His transaction with 
Arnold was a great and a melancholy mistake. 

THOMPSON WESTCOTT. 

Philadelphia, U. S. A. 



I have read somewhere (but have mislaid the 
reference) that Washington and some of the 
American officers were inclined to have spared 
Major Andre, but that Lafayette and other French 
officers urged his execution with a vehemence and 
perseverance that overpowered the more merciful 
part of the judges. I am no admirer of the career 
of the " Grandison-Cromwell," but the cruelty 
and vindictiveness of the part here assigned him 
do not find, as far as I can remember, any parallel 
in his subsequent long and active life. Can some 
of your American correspondents inform me 
whether there is any foundation for the above 
statement ? 

_ MR. SPARKS, in his remarks on this case, vin- 
dicates Washington from the charge of excessive 
severity, by what he calls a parallel instance of 
the execution of a young American officer, appre- 
hended in the British camp. The cases are en- 
tirely different ; for it is evident by Mr. SPARKS' 
own account, that the American officer was a spy 
in the fullest sense of the word, which nobody 
accused Andre of being, although the rigid inter- 
pretation of the laws of war perhaps authorised 
his being treated as such. J. S. WARDEN. 



NOTES OH MANNERS, COSTUME, ETC. 

(Continued from p. 23.) 

Coats. Full dress coats have no capes nor cuffs, 
morningorriding coats had; whence are derived the 
ordinary coat now worn all through Europe called 
frocks, and all uniforms. The full dress was made 
to fit, but the riding dress was loose, and long in 
the collar and arms to protect the neck and wrists. 
When the weather was fine, or that the wearer 
came into a house, he doubled down his cape, and 
doubled up his cuffs : and as in those days the 
coats were lined with different coloured stuffs, the 
colour of the lining became the colour of the cape 
and cuffs. Uniforms had the same origin, the 
facings, as they are called, being only the old 
linings. This is still preserved in the French 
word revers, which is more correct than our word 
facing ; though that also, if well considered, has 
the same meaning : for it was the custom to face 
the breasts of coats with a slip of lining, which, 
when buckled back, became what is now called a 
facing, as in hats and boots, in which a corre- 
sponding alteration has taken place.) The frocks 
being cut down straight to cover the thighs (as 
grooms' frocks still are), were inconvenient to 
walk in ; the opposite corners of each skirt were 
therefore furnished with a hook and eye, by which 
the skirt was fastened back, and hence the form 
of the flaps of military coats, of a different colour 
from the coats, with an ornament in the place of 
the hook and eye. When I was a child (1790), I 
had a kind of military uniform which was made in 
this fashion, and I have seen uniforms of the Irish 
Volunteers in this style. This is the reason why 
a standing collar is essential to a full-dress coat; 
and that the Windsor uniform, rich, handsome, and 
laced as it was, and worn with a sword, cocked 
hat, and buckles, was not full dress, because it 
was a frock ; because the cape and collars were 
red, while the coat was blue ; and because the cape 
was a double one. Of this Windsor uniform there 
were three classes in the last thirty years of 
George III. : the common blue frock with red 
cape and cuffs, worn in the morning ; the laced blue 
frock, with gold-laced button-holes on the breasts, 
pocket-flaps, capes, and cuffs ; with this coat, white 
breeches, and a cocked hat and sword, were worn. 
It was the dress of those who attended the king 
when not actually at court. The third was a blue 
full-dress coat with standing collar, embroidered, 
with red silk breeches : this was a complete court 
dress, but worn only by cabinet ministers and the 
great officers of the crown. The Princes of the 
Blood, and the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, have 
a kind of frock uniform; blue for the former, &c.; 
the latter the colour he may choose, lined with 
silk, and with a button bearing the initial and 
coronet of the Prince or Lord Lieutenant ; but 
not otherwise differing from the usual frock coat. 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



The uniform of George IV., when Prince of Wales, 
was blue lined with buff, and buff waistcoats and 
breeches. When he became Prince Regent, the 
buttons bore G. P. R , and also the members of 
his government wore it. There was also esta- 
blished a kind of full dress of blue, with black 
cape and cuffs, and gold frogs, and Brandenberg 
embroidery ; but it did not take. 

The origin of these uniforms was a coat which 
the court of Louis XIV. wore in that monarch's 
visits to Marley, which was a kind of retirement, 
and to which it was therefore a great honour to 
be invited. The habit de Marly was therefore, at 
one time, a great distinction. But everything 
changes : when the Marquis of Vardes, a former 
favourite, returned to court, after a long exile, he 
thought it clever to appear in the old habit de 
Marly, with which he had been formerly honoured, 
but it was so old-fashioned that he was laughed at ; 
on which he said to the king, " Sire, loin de V. M. on 
n'est pas seulement malheureux, on devient en- 
core ridicule." A few of us who had the Windsor 
uniform under the old king, continue still to wear 
it on some half-dress occasions, such as the 
Speaker's dinners, Lord Mayor's Day, &c. ; but, 
much as it was once admired, it begins to grow 
strange. William IV. has established some official 
uniforms with graduated degrees of splendour : 
red velvet facings for his household, black 
velvet for diplomatists, and white for the Admi- 
ralty ; with deep embroideries and white-feather 
hat trimmings for the greater officers, and lighter 
embroideries and black hat trimmings for the sub- 
ordinates. This kind of livery (if I may use the 
expression), though in some respects convenient, 
and though it gives variety to a court which much 
wanted it, is not quite in accordance with our 
customs and manners ; nor is, I think, the arrange- 
ment consistent with the principles on which our 
court dresses have been regulated ; for a century 
and a half it has been too servilely borrowed from 
the foreign courts, where, as everything is mili- 
tary, these civil dresses partook of the nature of a 
military uniform : hence the capes and cuffs of a 
different material and colour from the coat itself. 
It is observable, that the second Windsor uniform 
was copied by the Emperor of Russia for his civil 
service. We have since returned the compliment. 

C. 



" TE SEXES GIVE EAR, ETC. 

The following song, in praise of good women, 
has been long a favourite with the peasantry of 
this part of Cornwall, and may be worthy of pre- 
servation in the pages of "N. & Q." It has, doubt- 
less, become a little corrupted by oral transmission, 
but I give it precisely as I took it down from the 
mouth of an old man, whose boast it was that he 



could sing more songs than there were days in the 
year. Among the number were " Artur Bradley," 
" The Six pretty Maidens," " Richard of Taunton 
Dean," and a more modern ditty, which, for ro- 
mantic incident, might in time have taken rank 
with " King Henry and the Miller of Mansfield," 
and "King Edward and the Tanner of Tamworth." 
It was entitled " Duke William [William IV.] and 
the Press-gang." 

The idea contained in verses 7 and 8 of the 
subjoined, is found in the "Persones Tale" of 
Chaucer (Remedium contra luxuriant) : 

" Ye sexes give ear to my fancy ; 

In the praise of good women I sing. 
It is not of Doll, Kate, nor Nancy, 
The mate of a clown, nor a king. 

" Old Adam, when he was created, 

Was lord of the universe round ; 
But his happiness was not completed, 
Until that a help -mate was found. 
" He had all things for food that was wanting, 

Which give us content in this life ; 
He had horses and foxes for hunting. 
Which many love more than a wife. 

" He'd a garden so planted by Nature, 
As man can't produce in this life ; 
But yet the all-wise, great Creator 
Saw still that he wanted a wife. 

" Old Adam was laid in a slumber, 

And there he lost part of his side : 

And when he awoke, in great wonder, 

He beheld his most beautiful bride. 

" With transport he gazed all on her ; 
His happiness then was complete, 
And he blessed the bountiful Donor, 
Who on him bestowed a mate. 

" She was not took out of his head, 
To reign or triumph o'er man : 
She was not took out of his feet, 
By man to be trampled upon. 

" But she was took out of his side, 

His equal and partner to be : 
Though they are united in one, 
Still the man is the top of the tree. 

" Then let not the fair be despised 

By man, as she's part of himself; 
For a woman by Adam was prized 

More than the whole world with its pelf. 

" Then man without woman's a beggar, 

Tho' of the whole world he's possesst ; 
And a beggar that has a good woman, 
With more than the world he is blest." 

T. L. a 

Polperro, Cornwall. 



FRANKLIN'S PARABLE. 

The editor of Franklin's Works states that he 
got this fable from Lord Kames's Sketches, Sfc. r 
which were published in 1774, and quotes Lord 
Kaines as follows : 

" The following parable against persecution was com- 
municated to me by Dr. Franklin of Philadelphia . . ." 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



But the fable itself had been published ten years 
before, by a person who was in the company in 
which Franklin read it, as from Genesis. The 
following cutting, from I know not what periodical, 
was found by me among the papers of a friend : 

" A supposed CJiapter in the Bible, in favour of Religious 
Toleration. 

" Some time ago, being in company with a friend from 
North America, as well known throughout Europe for his 
ingenious discoveries in natural philosophy, as to his 
countrymen for his sagacity, his usefulness, and activity, 
in every public-spirited measure, and to his acquaintance 
for all the social virtues ; the conversation happened to 
turn on the subject of Persecution. My friend, whose 
understanding is as enlarged as his heart is benevolent, 
did not fail to urge many unanswerable arguments against 
a practice so obviously repugnant to every dictate of hu- 
manity. At length, in support of what he had advanced, 
he called for a Bible, and turning to the Book of Genesis, 
read as follows : 

CHAP. XXVII. 

And it came to pass after those things, that Abraham 
sat in the door of his tent, about the going down of the 
sun. 

2. And behold a man, bowed with age, came from the 
way of the wilderness, leaning on a staff. 

3. And Abraham arose, and met him, and said unto 
him, Turn in, I pray thee, and warm thy feet, and tarry 
all night, and thou shalt arise early on the morrow, and 
go on thy way. 

4. But the man said, Nay, for I will abide under this tree. 

5. And Abraham pressed him greatly; so he turned, 
and they went into the tent ; and Abraham baked un- 
leavened bread, and they did eat. 

6. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed not 
God, he said unto him, Wherefore dost thou not worship 
the most High God, Creator of Heaven and Earth ? 

7. And the man answered and said, I do not worship 
the God thou speakest of, neither do I call upon his name ; 
for I have made to myself a God, which abideth always in 
mine house, and provideth me with all things. 

8. And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, 
and he arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth with 
blows into the wilderness. 

9. And at midnight God called unto Abraham, saying, 
Abraham, where is the stranger ? 

10. And Abraham answered and said, Lord, he would 
not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name ; 
therefore have I driven him out from before my face into 
the wilderness. 

11. And God said, Have I borne with him these hun- 
dred ninety and eight years, and nourished him and 
cloathed him, notwithstanding his rebellion against Me ; 
and couldst not thou, that art thyself a sinner, bear with 
'him one night ? 

12. And Abraham said, Let not the anger of my Lord 
wax hot against his servant : Lo, I have sinned ; forgive 
me, I pray thee. 

13. And he arose, and went forth into the wilderness, 
and sought diligently for the man, and found him : 

14. And returned with him to his tent ; and when he 
had entreated him kindly, he sent him away on the 
morrow with gifts. 

15. And God spake again unto Abraham, saying, For 
this thy sin shall thy seed be afflicted four hundred years 
in a strange land. 

16. But for thy repentance will I deliver them ; and 
they shall come forth with power, and with gladness of 
heart, and with much substance. 



" I own I was struck with the aptness of the passage to 
the subject, and did not fail to express my surprise, that 
in all the discourses I had read against a practice so dia- 
metrically opposite to the genuine spirit of our holy re- 
ligion, I did not remember to have seen this chapter 
quoted; nor did I recollect my having ever read it, 
though no stranger to my Bible. Next morning, turning 
to the Book of Genesis, I found there was no such, 
chapter, and that the whole was a well-meant invention 
of my friend, whose sallies of humour, in which he is a 
great master, have always an useful and benevolent 
tendency. 

" With some difficulty I procured a copy of what he 
pretended to read, which I now send you for the entertain- 
ment of your readers ; and you will 'perhaps think it not 
unreasonable at a time when our church more particularly 
calls upon us to commemorate the amazing love of Him 
who, possessing the divine virtue of charity in the most 
supreme degree, laid down his life even for his enemies. 

I am, &c., 

W. S. 

April 16, 1764." 

I may add that Lord Kames's edition, which is 
not so complete as the above, was copied into the 
Christian Miscellany, and thence reprinted, in 
1793, as a penny tract. M. 



FAMILY OF LESTKANGE. 

" 1631. Ham. Lestrange films Nich. et Anna3 uxoris 

bap* fuit 8 TO Decembris. 
1632. Nich. filius Nic. et Anna; uxoris baptizatus fuit 

17 mo Octobris. 
1636. Johannes filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bap. fuit 

8 TO Januarii. 

1639. Gulielmus filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bapt. fuit 

18 mo Aprilis. 

1640. Edwardus filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bap' fuit 

27""> Maij. 

1644. Rogerus filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bap 4 fuit 

8 T Junii. 

1645. Ann. filia Nich. et Ann. ux. bap* fuit 5 to Ffe- 

bruarii. 
1647. Carolus filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bap* fuit 

3 tio Aprilis. 
1651. Thomas filius Nich. et Ann. uxoris bap* fuit 

20 mo Maij." 

And in another hand, 

" 1669. Dec br 14, Sir Nicholas Lestrange, Bart., departed 
this life." 

This record may interest some of your genea- 
logical readers. It is copied from an interleaved 
copy of Dalton's Country Justice (4th edit., 1630), 
in my possession, which belonged to " Hamon le 
Strange." The volume possesses some interest, 
as showing that country justices of the Caroline 
period were not so utterly ignorant as Mr. Ma- 
caulay would have us believe. The notes which 
this country justice made on matters bearing on 
his magisterial duty, show that he was not only 
well read in the classical writers and jurists, but 
also that the schoolmen, fathers, and canonists were 
known to him. The quotations also from French, 
Italian, and Spanish writers show an acquaintance 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



with modern literature which a country justice of 
the Hanoverian era might well envy. 

W. DENTON. 



Curious Epitaph. 

"Here lyeth the body of Daniel Jeffery, the son of 
Michael Jeffery and Joan his wife. He was buried ye 
2' day of September, 1746, and in ye 18' yeere of his age. 
This youth, When in his sickness lay, did for the Minis- 
ter Send that he would Come and With him Pray 
But he would not atend. But When this young man 
Buried was the Minister did him admit he Should be 
Caried into Church * that he might money geet. By 
this you See what man will dwo * to geet money if he 
can * Who did Refuse to come and pray by the Fore- 
aaid young man." 

This epitaph was in the churchyard of West 
Allington, Devon. It alludes to the custom in 
the county, of a fee paid to the minister when a 
corpse is carried into church. The minister was 
the Rev. Mr. Pyle, son of the author of the Para- 
phrase on St. Paul's Epistles. It is given as above 
by Polwhele in his County History, who adds, what 
I have myself heard from an old gentleman who 
knew him well, and had seen the epitaph, that he 
would not allow it to be removed, not wishing to 
destroy such a specimen of village poetry and 
scandalous falsehood ; for it was well known that 
the youth died of virulent small-pox, and that so 
suddenly that there was no time for giving notice 
of his illness. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George. 

" Paunch" or "Punch" when first known in 
England. The following extract has been taken 
from Fryer's Travels to the East Indies, 1672 : 

" At Nerule (near Goa) is made the best arach, or nepa. 
die Goa, with which the English on this coast make that 
enervating liquor called paunch (which is Indostan for 
five), from five ingredients, as the physicians name this 
composition diapente; or from four things, diatesseron." 

W. W. 

Malta. 

Monumental Inscription. 

" In memory of Mr. John Ellis of Silkstone, who 
departed this life the 7th day of April, 1766, in the 
twenty-seventh year of his age. Also the body of 
Mary Isabella, daughter of the said Mr. John, who 
died in her infancy. Item ille corpus Bridget Ellis, 
Uxor super J. Ellis quis obeo Dec rli 8th, 1812, 
a- tat is 88. 

Life's like an inn where travellers stay, 
Some only breakfast and away ; 
Others to dinner stop, and are full fed ; 
The oldest only sup and go to bed.'" 

E.H. 

Bishop Sprat. I know not whether the birth- 
place of Sprat, Bishop of Rochester, has ever been 
satisfactorily settled. Wood (A thence), Godwin 



(De Presulibus, by Richardson), and Johnson, in 
his Lives of the Poets, state that he was borA at 
Tallaton, in Devonshire. In this they are fol- 
lowed by the Biographic Universelle, and the 
Cyclopaedia of the Society for Promoting Useful 
Knowledge, though in the latter the name of the 
place is misprinted Fallaton. Hutchins, in his 
History of Dorset, however, claims him as a native 
of that county ; and declares him, on the evidence 
of his epitaph, to have been born at Beaminster, 
Dorset. 

I have been looking over a Sermon of his, 
" preached to the natives of the county of Dorset, 
residing in and about the cities of London and 
Westminster, on Dec. 8, 1692, being the day of 
their Anniversary Feast," which appears to me 
to afford conclusive proof of the correctness of the 
latter opinion. He there addresses them as his 
" dear countrymen," using the word both there 
and elsewhere apparently in the sense of natives of 
the same county. Thus, for instance, he says : 

" No man can deny, but as to the country, whence we all 
have sprung, our lot has fallen to be born in a pleasant and 
fruitful place : and I am confident, many that hear me 
this day, have there alsojn goodly inheritance ; and many, 
if not there, I am sure have elsewhere. And you know 
the old Gospel rule, ' To whom much is given, of them 
much is required.' " 

C. W. BlNGHAM. 

A New-England Dialogue. The following 
presents the most striking peculiarities in the 
language and pronunciation of the people of New 
England : 

R. Samwell, Samwell! 

S. What say f 

R. Where's your brother Danel f 

S. He's to the tavern. 

R. He hadn't ought to be to the tavern. I'll tell 
your mother of him. 

S. Tell away : she's up garret. 

R. Where's your cousin Jeremiwr ? 

S. He's to uncle Obediwr's. Uncle has gone to 
the Legislatwr. 

R. Does Jeremiwr behave well now ? 

S. No, he's very ugly. He tried to burn the 
1 barn. 

R. Do tell! 

S. Yes, it's the natwr of him to play such tricks. 
i Uncle had thrashed him for something, and next 
! thing the farm was in a blaze. 

R. Let me know. 

S. Yes, Miss (Mrs.) Smith caught him at it. 

R. Where's Euphemiwr ? How old is she now ? 

S. She's two years old, and lives with her 
father-in-law (step-father). 

R. Did her father leave much ? 

S. Not much. His estate was apprized by the 
apprizers at four thousand dollars. 

R. That's a very low apprizement. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. . 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



WASHINGTON'S BIRTHPLACE. 

Until a recent date, it has been asserted, and 
admitted without question, that Washington, 
though descended from an English family of that 
name, was born in Virginia, in the United States. 
Within a few years, however, circumstances have 
come to light which render it probable that Wash- 
ington was born at Cookharn in Berkshire, during 
the temporary sojourn of his parents in that town, 
his mother, whose maiden name was Bale, having 
been a native of that vicinity. All the evidence I 
possess on the subject at present is of a tradi- 
tionary nature. It is very circumstantial, and 
comes through very few hands, and those of per- 
sons whose veracity is above suspicion ; but if the 
fact accord with the supposition, there no doubt 
exist parochial or other records, family letters, or 
other literce scriptce which will place the matter 
out of doubt. I resort to your pages in the hope 
that some of your readers may be able and willing 
to throw light upon this interesting question. It 
would be curious if it should appear that Wash- 
ington, who is honoured as one of the greatest 
men the world ever produced, and who rendered 
to Britain and America the inestimably valuable 
service of making them independent of each other, 
was born in England. THINKS I TO MYSELF. 



WAS SHAKSPEAKE A BOMAN CATHOLIC ? 

I am not aware that this question has been the 
subject of that particular investigation and in- 
quiry which it merits. I am convinced that, 
should it lead into controversy, the Editor of 
" N. & Q." would not permit it to be carried on 
in any unchristian spirit. No one would lament 
such an event more than the Protestant writer of 
this article, who is proud to say he mixes among 
Roman Catholic friends and acquaintance, without 
the slightest breach of friendship, or allusion to 
any difference on religion which exists between 
them. Having by chance met with the following 
quotation in a work of one of the most eminent 
Roman Catholics for mental and legal attain- 
ments, and having at an early period of his life 
been employed as an amanuensis to Mr. Charles 
Butler, his respect for his high and amiable cha- 
racter would have deterred him from a discussion 
in which their religious faith is involved, had he 
not thought Mr. Butler's belief that Shakspeare 
was a Roman Catholic, might be entered upon 
without exciting any acrimonious feeling, and 
that Mr. Butler's opinion was capable of re- 
futation. 

In Mr. Butler's Memoirs of the English Ca- 
tholics, he assigns the following reasons as the 



ground of his belief that Shakspeare was a Roman 
Catholic : 

" Many writers," he says, " premise a suspicion, which, 
from internal evidence, "he has long entertained, that 
Shakspeare was a Roman Catholic. Not one of his works 
contains the slightest reflections on popery, or any of its 
practices, or any eulogy on the Reformation. His pane- 
gyric on Queen Elizabeth is cautiously expressed, whilst 
Queen Catherine is placed in a state of veneration, and 
nothing can exceed the skill with which Griffith draws 
the panegyric of Wolsey. The ecclesiastic is never pre- 
sented by Shakspeare in a degrading point of view. The 
jolly Monk, the irregular Nun, never appear in his drama. 
It is not natural to suppose that the topics on which, at 
that time, those who criminated popery loved so much to 
dwell, must have often solicited his notice, and invited 
him to employ his Muse upon them, as subjects likely to 
engage the favourable attention both of the Sovereign 
and the subject? Does not his abstinence from them 
justify a suspicion that a popish feeling withheld him 
from them. Milton made the Gunpowder conspiracy the 
theme of a regular poem. Shakspeare is altogether silent 
on it."* 

That the family and father of Shakspeare were 
Roman Catholics, is very probable. Indeed there 
cannot be a doubt that they were so, if faith can 
be placed in the document I am about to describe. 

Mr. Isaac Reed, in his edition of Shakspeare in 
1793, published a document called The Confession 
of Faith, or Spiritual Will of John Shakspeare, 
William Shakspeare's father. It was communi- 
cated by Mr. Malone to Mr. Reed. It is said to 
have been discovered about 1770, by Charles 
Moseley, a master bricklayer, employed to new 
tile a house, in which Thomas Hart, a descendant 
of the Shakspeares, lived, and under whose roof 
our bard is supposed to have been born. It was 
found between the tiles and rafters of the dwell- 
ing, and was a manuscript consisting of six pages, 
stitched together in the form of a small book. 
The MS. was given to Mr. Peyton, an alderman 
of Stratford, who presented it to the Rev. Mr. 
Davenport, the vicar, and by him it was sent to 
Mr. Malone. It was deficient in the first leaf, 
which was afterwards supplied by the discovery 
that Moseley, who had then been two years dead, 
had copied a portion of it; and from his transcrip- 
tion the introductory part that was deficient had 
been supplied. 

Mr. Malone, on its receipt, believed in its au- 
thenticity, but in his Inquiry relative to the Ire- 
land papers and forgeries in 1786, changed his 
opinion. He says : 

" In my conjectures concerning the writer of this paper, 
I certainly was mistaken, for I have now obtained docu- 
ments that clearly prove it could not have been the com- 
position of any one of our poet's family." 

Still it is probable that Shakspeare's father 
might have been a Roman Catholic, but it by no 
means follows that his son, though bred up in that 

* The Italics are Mr. Butler's. 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



[No. 248. 



religion, continued in it. It is more than pro- 
bable that the enlarged, the inquisitive, the noble 
mind of Shakspeare, when the effects of the Re- 
formation were buoyant, became a convert to 
Protestantism. 

The opinion of Mr. Butler, that he was a Roman 
Catholic, is more negatively than positively ex- 
pressed ; it is a suspicion, grounded upon the 
unfair and erroneous assumption " that none of 
Shakspeare's works contains the slightest reflections 
upon popery, or any of its practices, or any eulogy 
on the Reformation." 

It is therefore from an examination of these 
works that he is to be judged; and I think the 
following quotations from some of Shakspeare's 
dramas will confute Mr. Butler's reasoning, and 
show us that Shakspeare's mind was fully awa- 
kened to the superstitions and vices of popery 
which then prevailed, and that no apprehension 
of excommunication withheld him from exposing 
them. 

Is it probable that a sincere Roman Catholic 
would have written the following sarcasms upon a 
Popish Cardinal ? 

First Part Henry VI. Act I. Sc. 3. (Alterca- 
tion between the Duke of Gloster and Henry 
Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, and afterwards 
Cardinal.) 

" Gloster (to the Bishop"). Stand back : thon manifest 

conspirator ; 

Thou that eontriv'dst to murder our dead lord : 
Thou that giv'st whores indulgences to sin ! 
I'll canvass thee in thy broad cardinal's hat, 
If thou proceed in this thy insolence. 

Win. Is ay, stand thou back, I will not budge a foot ; 
This be Damascus*, be thou cursed Cain, 
To slay thy brother Abel, if thou wilt. 

Glo. I will not slay thee, but I'll drive thee back : 
Thy scarlet robes, as a child's bearing-cloth 
I'll use, to carry thee out of this place. 

* * Priest, beware your beard ; 
I mean to tug it, and to cuff you soundly : 
Under my feet I stamp thy cardinal's hat ; 
In spite of pope or dignities of church, 
Here by the cheeks I'll drag thee up and down." 

(Again in Act III. Sc. 1, this altercation takes 
place.) 

" Win. Com'st thou with deep premeditated lines, 
With written pamphlets studiously devis'd, 
Humphrey of Gloster ? if thou canst accuse, 
Or aught intend'st to lay unto my charge, 
Do it without invention suddenly. 

Glo. Presumptuous priest! this place commands my 

patience, 

Or thou shouldst find thou hast dishonour'd me. 
Think not, although in writing I preferr'd 
The manner of thy vile outrageous crimes, 
That therefore I have forg'd, or am not able 

* The old travellers believed that Damascus was the 
scene of the first murder. Maundeville says, " And in 
that place where Damascus was found, Kayne slew Abel 
his brother." Knight's Shakspeare. 



Verbatim to rehearse the method of my pen : 
No, prelate ; such is thy audacious wickedness, 
Thy lewd, pestiferous, and dissentious pranks, 
As very infants prattle of thy pride. 
Thou art a most pernicious usurer : 
Froward by nature, enemy to peace ; 
Lascivious, wanton, more than well beseems 
A man of thy profession, and degree ; 
And for thy treachery, What's more manifest ? " 

Is it probable that Mr. Butler had never read 
the following well-known invective of King John 
to Pandulph, the pope's legate, or had he forgotten 
it? (K. John, Act III. Sc. 1.) : 

" Pandulph. I Pandulph, of fair Milan cardinal, 
And from pope Innocent the legate here, 
Do, in his name, religiously demand, 
Why thou against the church, our holy mother, 
So wilfully dost spurn ? 

King John. What earthly name to interrogatories, 
Can task the free breath of a sacred king ? 
Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name 
So slight, unworthy, and ridiculous, 
To charge me to an answer, as the pope. 
Tell him this tale : and from the mouth of England, 
Add thus much more, That no Italian priest 
Shall tithe or toll in our dominions ; 
But as we under heaven are supreme head, 
So, under him, that great supremacy, 
Where we do reign, we will alone uphold, 
Without the assistance of a mortal hand : 
So tell the pope ; all reverence set apart, 
To him, and his usurp'd authority. 

Pand. Then, by the lawful power that I have, 
Thou shalt stand curst, and excommunicate : 
And blessed shall he be, that doth revolt 
From his allegiance to an heretic ; 
And meritorious shall that hand be call'd, 
Canonized, and worshipp'd as a saint, 
That takes away by any secret course 
Thy hateful life." ' 

When Mr. Butler says " nothing can exceed the 
skill with which Griffith (Hen. VIII.') draws the 
panegyric of Wolsey," and that " the ecclesiastic 
is never presented by Shakspeare in a degrading 
point," he skilfully, I should be sorry to say wil- 
fully, omits to notice the character which Queen 
Katherine in the same scene draws of the ambi- 
tious prelate. I will only quote one passage from 
this drama, though so many others appear, which 
convinced me that no sincere and consistent 
Roman Catholic could have written so disparag- 
ingly of the pope himself and of his representa- 
tives as Shakspeare has done, without incurring 
excommunication by " bell, book, and candle." 

Henry VIII., Act IV. Sc. 2. (Dialogue between, 
Queen Katherine and Griffith on Cardinal Wol- 
sey's last moments.) 

" Kath. So may he rest ; his faults lie gently on him ! 
And yet with charity, He was a man 
Of an unbounded stomach, ever ranking 
Himself with princes ; one, that by suggestion 
Tied all the kingdom : simony was fair play ; 
His own opinion was his law; I 'the presence 
He would say untruths ; and be ever double, 
Both in his words and meaning : He was never, 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



But where he meant to ruin, pitiful : 
His promises were, as he then was, mighty ; 
But his performance, as he is now, nothing. 
Of his own body he was ill, and gave 
The clergy ill example. 

Griffith. Noble madam, 

Men's evil manners live in brass ; their virtues 
We write in water." , 

I could have selected passages from other 
dramas of Shakspeare, Titus Andronicus, Much 
Ado about Nothing, and All's Well that ends Well, 
in which he reflects upon the principles of popery ; 
but I think I have quoted sufficient to convince 
any unprejudiced mind, that, if ever Shakspeare 
was a Roman Catholic, he had renounced that 
religion and become a Protestant. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 



Marrow-bones and Cleavers. Is anything 
known of the origin of the custom which obtains 
occasionally at weddings, viz., the attendance in 
the evening at the house of the bride of a number 
of butchers, armed with " marrow-bones and 
cleavers," on which they " discourse music" (?) 
until bought off? Hogarth introduces them in 
his plate of the " Industrious 'Prentice married to 
his Master's Daughter." I believe it is considered 
rather complimentary than otherwise. I have 
looked through the indices of " N. & Q.," but can 
find no reference to it in any way. Any inform- 
ation will much oblige S. JOHN R. 

^ William de Northie. Can any of your readers 
give me any information respecting William de 
Northie, who is mentioned by Wiffen as accom- 
panying Richard I. in his expedition to the Holy 
Land. Are his descendants known ? If so, where 
located, and what arms do they bear ? MARTYN. 

Editor of Hobbes' Works. Can you inform me 
who was the editor of the folio edition of the 
Moral and Political Works of Thomas Hobbes of 
Malmesbury, never before collected together, 
printed at London, 1750? The Latin Life, by 
Dr. Blackbourne, was translated, and farther il- 
lustrated by that editor, with historical and cri- 
tical remarks. The illustrations are valuable. The 
student of Hobbes must wish to know their author. 
Your assistance, and that of your correspondents, 
will oblige. E. T. 

English Bishops' Mitres. The bishops of the 
Church of England wore their mitres, unless I am 
misinformed, at the coronation of George II., but 
did not at that of George III. Why was the use 
of these episcopal insignia discontinued ? Are any 
of the ancient mitres of our prelates preserved, 
and where ? And of what materials are they 
m ade ? WM. ERASER, B.C.L. 



Notaries. Can any of your Notators furnish 
me with some notes upon Notaries, more especially 
quotations from old writers, such as the following : 

" . . . . Besides, I know thou art 
A public notary, and such stand at law 
For a dozen witnesses : the deed being drawn too 
By thee, my careful Marrall, and delivered 
When thou wast present, will make good my title." 
New Way to Pay Old Debts. 

" So I but your recorder am in this, 
Or mouth and speaker of the universe, 
A ministerial notary." Donne. 

" Go with me to a notary, seal me there your 
Single bond." Merchant of Venice. 

" And bad Gyle go gyve gold all aboute, 
Namelich to notaries than non of 'hem faille." 

Piers Plouhman's Vision. 

The poll-tax on a notary in the reign of 
Richard II. was twenty shillings, whilst that on 
an attorney was only six and eightpence. Query, 
Was this considered an ad-valorem tax ? 

In Waller's Monumental Brasses are some in- 
teresting notes, but this is almost the only collec- 
tion with which I am acquainted. 

When were notarial seals first brought into 
use ? In the fourteenth century, the English 
notaries appear to have adopted the plan still 
followed by their brethren in Spain at this day. 
In place of the official seal, they drew a very 
elaborate pen-and-ink device, which was known as 
the " notary's mark." A NOTARY. 

Bloody Thursday. The Thursday before Easter 
is called " Bloody Thursday " by some in North- 
umberland. Is the appellation common ? J. H. B. 

Caynton House, near Shiffiiall. Will any of 
your readers who may have access to a history of 
the county of Shropshire, kindly inform me, or 
put me in the way of learning, when Caynton 
House, near Shiffnal, in Shropshire, was built, and 
by whom? Also, into whose possession it has 
now fallen ? Any other particulars connected 
with it would also be very acceptable. Is there 
any good history of the county in which I am 
likely to find the information I require ? SALOP. 

Can a Man speak after he is dead? 

" I remember to have seen the heart of a man who was 
embowelled as a traitor, which, being thrown into the 
fire according to custom, leaped out at first a foot and a 
half, and then less by degrees for the space, to the best of 
my remembrance, of seven or eight minutes. Ancient 
tradition, and worthy of credit it is, of a man who was 
embowelled in pursuance of that kind of punishment 
above-mentioned : after his heart was entirely torn out of 
his body, and in the hand of the executioner, he was heard to 
say three or four words of prayer." Vide Lord Bacon's 
Works, Historia Vitee et Mortis, fol. edit., 1740, vol. ii. 
pp. 178, 179. 

w. w. 

Malta. 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



Rev. Lewis Lewis. Can any of your readers 
give ine any information respecting the Rev. 
Lewis Lewis, who was chaplain to the British 
residents at Cronstadt or Petersburg some time in 
the last century ? I have understood that he died 
on his passage to England, and was buried at 
Yarmouth. If so, is there any monument to him 
in the church or churchyard there ? E. H. A. 

Iris and Lily. Will you or some of your cor- 
respondents explain to me the origin of the con- 
fusion between the iris and the lily in the shield 
of France ? The fieur-de-lys is evidently designed 
from the iris, which plant is commonly called 
" Flower-de-luce." Old Gwillim says of the fieur- 
de-lys : 

" This flower is, in Latine, called Iris, for that it some- 
what resembleth the colour of the rainebow. Some of the 
French confound this with the lily," &c. 

We never hear of anything but the lilies of 
France. It is not unusual, I believe, to draw the 
fleur-de-lys as an emblem of the blessed Virgin, 
where again it must be intended for a lily and not 
an iris. 

Again, why is the iris called a "flower-de-luce ?" 
Why is a pike called a " luce ? " IBIS. 

Daughter of O' fifelachlin, King of Meath. 
Can any of your correspondents inform me of the 
name of the daughter of O'Melachlin, King of 
Meath ; who, in her rejection of the advances of 
Turgesius the Dane, was instrumental in ridding 
Ireland of the northern pirates who infested the 
country about the middle of the ninth century. 

liOGER O'MOOBE. 

Dublin. 

"A Dog with a bad Name." The Com- 
mentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, published 
by Anthony Hall, from Leland's manuscript, 
Oxford, 1709, 2 vols. 8vo., does not bear a 
good character. The origin of this seems to be, 
that Aubrey's Surrey (if such a figure of quota- 
tion be admissible) says that it is full of gross 
errors and omissions, and that the Biographia 
Britannica quotes this opinion of Aubrey without 
any remark. Has any one supported this criti- 
cism by instances ? that is, has any one pointed 
out either error or omission, which must be 
charged on Anthony Hall, and not on Leland 
himself? M. 

Norfolk Superstition. Having had three deaths 
in my parish lately, I was gravely informed at the 
last funeral that it was not to be wondered at, as 
the first two corpses were quite limp till the time 
of their burial. Can any of your readers inform 
me whether the same opinion exists in other parts 
of the country ? A. SUTTON, 

Rector of West Tofts, Norfolk. 



<gtuerte tufffj 

Trail-baton. Among the arbitrary measures 
which were introduced into England in the reign 
of Edward III., Hume (Hist, of England, vol. ii. 
p. 490.) mentions " the renewal of the commission 
of trail-baton." Will you kindly inform me what 
is the meaning of " trail-baton ? " 

F. M. MIDDLE-TON. 

\_ Justices of trail-boston were magistrates appointed by 
Edward I. during his absence in the Scotch and French 
wars. They were so styled, says Hollinshed, for trailing 
or drawing the staff of justice; or for their summary pro- 
ceeding, according to Sir Edward Coke, who tells us they 
were in a manner justices in eyre ; and it is said they had 
a baston, or staff, delivered to them as the badge of their 
office ; so that whoever was brought before them was 
trails ad baston, traditus ad baculum : whereupon they had 
the name of justices de trail baston, or j usticiarii ad tra- 
hendum offendentes ad baculum vel baston. Their office was 
to make inquisition through the kingdom on all officers 
and others, touching extortion, bribery, and such-like 
grievances ; of intruders into other men's lands, barretors, 
robbers, and breakers of the peace, and divers other of- 
fenders ; by means of which inquisitions some were 
punished with death, many by ransom, and the rest 
flying the realm, the land was quieted, and the king 
gained riches towards th"e support of his wars. Matthew 
of Westminster, anno 1305. See, farther, a paper by Mr. 
Foss in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, voL i. 
p. 312., who shows that the traile-bastons were outlaws so 
designated, and that the justices of traile-baston were a 
species of itinerant judges, whose office continued in this 
country from 33 Edw. I., A.D. 1305, to 16 Rich. II., when 
the commissions appointing such judges were discon- 
tinued.] 

Saying of Voltaire. Chancing to meet with 
a late number of Eliza Cook's Journal, I read the 
following in an editorial article : 

" ' Your sermon,' said a great critic to a great preacher 
(both were eloquent men) 'was very fine; but had it 
been only half the length, it would have produced twice 
the impression.' You are quite right,' was the reply ; 
' but, the fact is, I received but sudden notice to preach, 
and therefore I had not the time to make my sermon short.' " 

I have seen this sentiment attributed to Vol- 
taire, who is reported to have apologised for 
writing a long letter on the ground that he had 
not the time to write a short one. But are not 
both these anecdotes borrowed from classical 
literature ? Is not the " saying of Voltaire" to be 
found in Pliny's Letters ? CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

[Our correspondent is perfectly correct in his conjec- 
ture ; a similar sentiment occurs in Pliny's Letters, lib. i. 
epist. xx. : " Ex his apparet, ilium permulta dixisse ; 
quum ederet, omisisse ; . . . . ne clubitare possimus, quae 
per plures dies, ut necesse erat, latius dixerit, postea re- 
cisa ac purgata, in unum librum, grandem quidem, unum 
tamen, coarctasse." "From this it is evident that he 
said very much ; but, when he was publishing, he omitted 
very much ; .... so that we ma} 7 not doubt that what 
he said more diffusely, as he was at the time forced to do, 
having afterwards retrenched and corrected, he condensed 
into one single book ; " the condensation and revision re- 
quiring more time and thought than the first production, 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



89 



" limse labor et mora," as Horace justly styles such a 
process.] 

The Everlasting Society of Eccentrics, 1803. 
At a meeting at Lloyd's Coffee House, as it was 
then styled, held July 20, 1803, a Patriotic Fund 
was established for the " encouragement and relief 
of those engaged in the defence of the country," 
to which the mercantile classes and public bodies 
largely subscribed, and from which votes were 
made and honours paid to gallant actions by sea 
or land. In looking through the list of contri- 
butors I find the sum of 760/. "from the women 
of England ; " several royal academicians, as Cos- 
way, Copley, Flaxman. Rigaud Tresham, James 
Wyatt, John Yenn Bourgeois, and Beechey, gave 
ten guineas each. The theatres, London and 
provincial, came forward with benefits ; and in 
towns probably no longer maintaining the sock 
and buskin, as, for example, Spalding, or " Thea- 
tre Wallis Grove, Spring Gardens." I see also 
the name of that scarcely-remembered " canta- 
trice," Signora Storace, for 2 \l. Out of all these 
topics of more or less interest, I venture to make 
but one Query : Has the Everlasting Society of 
Eccentrics wandered from its sphere ? Has it the 
intrinsic qualities it gave evidence of in subscrib- 
ing 2 1 1. to the Patriotic Fund ? Has it even exist- 
ence or subsistence ? J. H. A. 

[The Eccentrics, a convivial club so called, was an 
offshoot of the Brilliants, which met at a tavern about 
1796, kept by one Fulham, in Chandos Street, Covent 
Garden. The Eccentrics met at Tom Rees's in May 
Buildings, St. Martin's Lane, circa 1800. This club has 
numbered, since its commencement, upwards of 40,000 
members of the bans vivants of the metropolis, many of 
them holding a high social position : among others, Fox, 
Sheridan, Lord Melbourne, Lord Brougham, &c. may be 
mentioned. Its character was always held in such high 
consideration, that they were treated with great indul- 
gence by the authorities. There is an inaugural ceremony 
gone through when a new member is made, which termi- 
nates with a jubilation from the president. The books of 
the club, up to the time of its removal to its present quar- 
ters, are in the possession of the executors of the late Mr. 
Lloyd the hatter : they are of much interest, as containing 
the autograph names and addresses of all the members. 
The club at the present day meets on Friday evenings at 
the Green Dragon Tavern, Fleet Street, and comprises 
among its members many celebrities of the literary and 
political world.] 

Life of Vandyke. Do we possess any good life 
of Vandyke in German or English ? E. M. F. 

[The following work was published in 1844: Pictorial 
Notices : consisting of a Memoir of Sir Anthony Van Dyck, 
with a descriptive Catalogue of the Etchings executed by 
him : and a variety of interesting particulars relating to 
other Artists patronised by Charles I., collected from ori- 
ginal documents in Her Majesty's State-Paper Office, the 
Office of Public Records, and other sources, by William 
Hookham Carpenter, 4to.] 

Early German History of Painters. Can any 
of your correspondents inform me whether there 



is any German work on the early painters of Ger- 
many, of the same kind as Vasari's Lives of the 
Italian Painters and Sculptors f E. M. F. 

[Consult Universal Lexikon, von H. A. Pierre, art. MA- 
LEKEI, band xviii. p. 339. Also, Geschichte der zeichnen- 
den Kilnste in Deutschland und den vereinigten Nieder- 
landen, von Jo. Domin. Fiorillo, 4 bde. 8vo. Hannov. 

1815-20.] 

Crivelli the Painter. Can any of your corre- 
spondents furnish me with any notice of an early 
Italian painter, Crivelli ? OXONIENSIS. 

[There were four Italian painters of this name : 1. An- 
giol Maria, called II Crivellone, who died about 1730. 
2. Jacapo, his son, died 1760. 3. Cav. Carlo Crivelli, a 
Venetian, painted in 1476. 4. Vittorio Crivelli, also a 
Venetian. In the Antichita Picene, torn. xxix. and xxx., 
mention is made of his paintings of the dates 1489 and 1490. 
See notices of each in Lanzi's History of Painting in 
Italy.'] 

Life of Mendelssohn. Is there any life of Men- 
delssohn besides Benedict's short sketch yet pub- 
lished, or in progress ? E. M. F. 

[The following work was published in 1848 at Leipsic: 
Felix Mendelssohn- Bartholdy. Ein Denkmal fur seine 
freunde, von Werner Arthur Lampadius, 12mo. pp. 218.] 



EBULLITION OF FEELING. 

(Vol.x., p. 61.) 
H. D. says : 

" Our own Wellington, on hearing that Marmont was 
crossing the Douro, rose hastily from his seat, overturned 
his table, and broke the utensils thereon arranged for his 
own repast." 

I can give this statement the most decided 
contradiction ; and I can also state the circum- 
stance which, no doubt, gave rise to the fable 
of so uncharacteristic an " ebullition of temper." 
It was on July 22, 1812. The Duke was on 
horseback at an early hour watching Marmont'a 
movements (not on, or near, the Douro, but be- 
hind the Arapiles hills, near the Tormes), and 
anxiously directing his own army, which was 
marching on a parallel line to Marmont. The 
Duke had resolved, that if Marmont should so 
extend his line as to pass those hills, he would 
attack him, which he had been long wishing to 
do ; and he directed the officers of the right 
division of his army to keep a sharp look out, and 
to apprise him immediately if the enemy should 
appear beyond the hills. This was about one 
o'clock : and, far from being at table when Mar- 
mont moved, neither the Duke nor his staff had 
yet breakfasted ; but now, while waiting for the 
report of the enemy's movement, the staff alighted 
and sat down on the ground to have some cold 
meat, the Duke continuing on horseback. He got 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



to his share of this breakfast a piece of bread and 
the leg of a cold fowl ; which he was eating 
without knife or fork, when an officer rode up 
with the report that the enemy was visible beyond 
the specified point. Upon which the Duke threw 
the half-eaten leg of the fowl over his shoulder, 
and galloped away : the rest following as soon as 
they could mount. This was about two o'clock, 
and the battle was decided in two or three hours ; 
but it was not till late in the evening that the 
Duke was out of the saddle that whole day. 

I take this occasion of recurring to a former 
communication about the Duke's having said 
" Up guards, and at them ! " I have not the 
volumes of " ]N". & Q." at hand, and cannot there- 
fore refer to volumes and pages ; but I recollect 
that your last correspondent produced against my 
statements (made from the Duke's own lips) two 
letters alleged to have been written by the late 
Lieut.-Col. Batty, which would not have decided 
the question ; as it does not appear that the writer 
was near the Duke, or in a position to have heard 
whatever he did say: but the latter were not 
written by Col. Batty, then an ensign, who was 
wounded early in the day, and could not by any 
possibility have been in the circumstances of the 
writer of the letters, who evidently was only re- 
peating the gossip of the army, and not any 
observation of his own. C. 



KING JAMES'S IRISH ABMY LIST, 1689. 
(Vol. ix., p. 544.) 

As I only receive " N. & Q." monthly, I did 
not arrive at the above page of the last June 
Number until this day, or I should have earlier 
replied to C.'s kind remark and suggestions, j 
am quite aware of King's State of the Protestants, 
and have noted it off, wherever it contained names 
or facts applicable to the plan of my proposed 
"Family Illustrations;" but a short extract from 
Colonel O'Kelly's Macdria Excidium (p. 150.) 
will show that Sheldon, a lieutenant-colonel in 
my " Army List," was identical with the lieut.- 
general of Dr. King : 

" This Scilla (Sheldon) was a Cilician (Englishman) by 
birth, of the worship of Delphos (Rome). He was 
brought into Cyprus (Ireland) by Corydon (Tyrconnel), in 
the first year of the reign of Amasis (James II.), and by 
him made the captain of a company of men at arms. He 
advanced him afterwards to be his tinder-Tribune (Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel), to command his Legion (Regiment) in 
his own absence ; and by his uncontrollable power with 
Amasis (James II.), he procured for him a Commission 
to be one of the GENERAL Officers, though still a Sub- 
Tribune (Lieutenant-Colonel) ; and got his commission 
dated before that of Lysander (Sarsfield), whom he de- 
signed to undermine."., 

He is accordingly styled General Sheldon by 
Norris in the Earl of Westmeath's Letter of 



August 22, 1749, in O'Conor's Military Me- 
moirs, and lieutenant-general in King, as cited 
by C. I have very many notes collected concern- 
ing him, but my Queries of his lineage remain 
unsolved ; yet I am inclined to think he was of the 
English house of Brailes, and connected with the 
family of the present Viscount Dillon, to whom I 
directed a special inquiry, but received no reply. 
After the Revolution, he had the command of a 
brigade in the French service as colonel : his regi- 
ment was pre-eminently styled " the King's," i. e. 
James II.'s. He so distinguished himself in 1701 
against the Baron de Mercy, that the French 
monarch gave him the rank of lieutenant-general 
in his service. In 1702, Sheldon's Horse was 
distinguished against Prince Eugene ; in 1 703, 
against the Imperialists under Visconti, when he 
was wounded ; subsequently, in the army of the 
Rhine, and at the battle of Spire, where he was 
again wounded. The name of his brigade was 
after some years changed to "Nugent's;" again, 
in 1733, to " Fitz- James's," and was disbanded in 
1763. 

If C. would look to my Prospectus, as some 
months since in " K". # Q.," he would see that I 
confine my present labours exclusively to the Jaco- 
bites and Cavaliers. Of these I have upwards of 
four hundred families represented in the Army 
List, and to the illustration of their names must my 
work be confined. The attainders in King James's 
Parliament would open a quite different character 
of genealogies, but one well worthy of distinct 
exposition. 

C. is apprehensive that my publication will be 
delayed : when I issued my Prospectus, I little 
thought it would be so long unadopted. There is 
however now subscribed a sum of 8Gl. towards 
the required indemnity fund of 200?., and two 
hundred copies are engaged of the five hundred 
expected. The moment the indemnity fund is 
made up, I am ready to put to press. And while 
I earnestly solicit such aid of MSS. as may, more 
than any exertions of mine, make the volume a gem, 
I a^ain offer to answer any inquiries as to names in 
the List that may be put to me. JOHN 

48. Summer Hill, Dublin. 



WARBURTON'S EDITION or POPE. 
(Vol. x., p. 41.) 

MR. MARKLAND says : 

" We are told by Walpole that Warburton's edition of 
Pope had waited because he had cancelled abore a hun- 
dred sheets (in which he had inserted notes) since the 
publication of the Canons of Criticism. Letters, i. 232." 

I doubt not that MR. MARKLAND is correct in 
his reference ; but I do not find the passage at 
vol. i. p. 232., either of the edition of Walpole's 
Letters in 6 vols. (1840) ; in Letters to Mason, 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



2 vols. (1851) ; to Mann, 4 vols. (1843) ; to 
Countess of Ossory, 2 vols. (1848). I however 
am quite willing to assume the accuracy of the 
quotation*, and desire only to draw attention to 
the astounding assertion that Warburton cancelled 
above jive octavo volumes out of nine : and even 
to get at this limitation, he must have "inserted 
notes" in every page, and the whole work been 
printed before he began cancelling ; for " above 
a hundred sheets" is above sixteen hundred pages, 
which, at three hundred pages a volume, about 
the average of Warburton, is above five volumes ! 
There is indeed a mystery about the printing 
this edition, to which I wish to draw attention. 
Walpole's statement, or the reasonable deduction 
from it, that it was printed by Warburton after 
Pope's death, is contrary to the received ^opinion 
of the editors of Pope's Works. Mr. Carruthers 
tells us that Pope " had prepared a complete edi- 
tion of his works, assisted by Warburton, and it 
was nearly all printed off" before his death." I 
doubt this ; and the question is too important to 
remain with a doubt on it ; for the editors, from 
Warton to Carruthers, having interpreted certain 
signs by certain words in Warburton's edition, 
assume the signs to signify that the notes were 
written by Pope himself, and have therefore 
affixed his name to them. That Pope contem- 
plated such an edition is quite certain. In a 
letter to Warburton, Sept. 20, 1741, he wrote : 

" If I can prevail on myself to complete the Dunciad, it 
will be published at the same time with a general edition of 
all my verses (for poems I will not call them), and I hope 
your friendship to me will be then as well known as my 
being an author, and go down together to posterity." 

The Dunciad was completed, and was published, 
not with a general edition, but separately. Pope 
too, I infer, subsequently published, or printed, 
an edition of his Ethic Epistles, and distributed 
copies amongst his friends. These are the few 
facts I remember, bearing on the subject ; but I 
shall be glad to hear what those have to say on it 
who have better memories, or are better informed. 

Warburton was no doubt anxious to give au- 
thority to his edition of 1751 ; he therefore stated 
the case as to Pope's supervision as strongly as 
he could, with a clear conscience; but he says 
nothing that would lead me to infer that the 
edition of 1751 "was nearly all printed off" in 
Pope's lifetime. The reason, indeed, which he 
gives for having delayed the publication so long, 
would have been equally influential had Pope 
been living : 

" Mr. Pope, at his death, had left large impressions of 
several parts of his works unsold . . . and the editor was 
willing they [the executors] should have time to dispose 
of them to the best advantage, before the publication of 

[* The passage occurs in a letter to Geo. Montagu, Esq., 
dated June 13, 1751, in the Private Correspondence of 
Horace Walpole, vol. i. p. 232., 4 vols., 1820.] 



this edition (which hath been long prepared) should put 
a stop to the sale." 

"Prepared" does not mean printed: indeed, 
why should a work be printed before, and years 
before, it was to be offered for sale ? From 
another statement by Warburton, it is impossible 
to believe that even a single page of that edition 
had gone to press at the time of Pope's death : 

"The first volume, and the original poems in tho 
second, are here first printed from a copy corrected 
throughout by the author himself, even to the very pre- 
face: which, with several additional notes in his own 
hand, he delivered to the editor a little before his death. 
The juvenile translations, in the other part of the second 
volume, it was never his intention to bring into this edition 
of his Works . . . But these being the property of other 
men, the editor had it not in his power to follow the author'* 
intention." 

There are other passages bearing on this sub- 
ject, and some in seeming contradiction ; but I 
need not produce them until the subject has been 
considered by your correspondents. M. M. K. 



MAY-DAT CUSTOM. 

(Vol. ix., p. 516.) 

In answer to the Query of HENRIETTA M. COLE, 
as to a Huntingdonshire May-day custom, I may 
observe, that the doll of which she speaks is in- 
tended to represent Flora. For the last three 
May-days I have been in Huntingdonshire, and 
have made sketches of the May Queen and her at- 
tendants, the May-garland, and the after-sport of 
throwing at the garland. In Norfolk, and else- 
where, the garlands are literal garlands, formed of 
hoops wreathed with evergreens and flowers ; but, 
in Huntingdonshire, the " garland" is of a pyra- 
midal shape, in this respect resembling the old 
"milk-maid's garland." On referring to my 
sketches of it, I find that the crown of the garland 
is composed of tulips, anemones, cowslips, king- 
cups, meadow- orchis, wall-flowers, primroses, 
crown-imperials, lilacs, laburnums, and as many 
roses and bright flowers of all descriptions as can 
be pressed into the service. These, with the ad- 
dition of green boughs, are made into a huge 
pyramidal nosegay ; from the front of which a 
gaily dressed doll (Madame Flora) stares vacantly 
at her admirers. From the base of the nosegay 
hang ribbons, pieces of silk, handkerchiefs, and 
any other gay-coloured fabric that can be bor- 
rowed for the occasion. The " garland" is borne 
by the two maids-of-honour to the May Queen (her 
majesty, in respect of a train, being like the old 
woman cut shorter, of the nursery song), who 
place their hands beneath the nosegay, and allow 
the gay-coloured streamers to fall towards the 
ground. The garland is thus from four to five 
feet in height. The sovereignty of " The Queen 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



o' the May " is not hereditary, but elective : her 
majesty being annually chosen by her school- 
fellows in the morning, and (such is the fickleness 
of human nature) dethroned in the evening. My 
sketches inform me, that her chief symbol of 
sovereignty is a parasol, which she bears with 
grace and dignity. Moreover, she weareth white 
gloves, and carrieth a bag that displayeth a pocket- 
handkerchief. She has a white veil too ; and 
around her bonnet is her crown, a coronal of 
flowers. In front of her dress is a bouquet ; and 
in two of my sketches she wears round her neck 
an Odd Fellows' ribbon and badge the substi- 
tute for the ribbon of the Garter. You may be 
quite sure that her majesty is dressed in her very 
best, and has put on that white frock for the first 
time since last summer. Let us hope that she 
will have as merry a day as Tennyson's May 
Queen. 

Preceding the maids-of-honour with the gar- 
land, and followed by her attendants, both male 
and female, her majesty makes the tour of her 
native place, and, at the various houses of her 
subjects, exhibits the charms of Flora and the 
garland. If, as is commonly the case, the regal 
procession is composed of school-children, they 
sing such songs as may have been taught them. 
It is then usual for loyal subjects to make a pecu- 
niary present to the May Queen, which is depo- 
sited in her majesty's handkerchief-bag, and will 
be expended on the coronation banquet : a feast 
which will take place in the school-room, or some 
large-roomed cottage, as early as three o'clock in 
the afternoon ; when her majesty will be graciously 
pleased to sit down in the midst of her subjects, 
and will probably quaff at least ten of those cups 
that cheer but not inebriate, and will consume 
plum-cake and bread-and-butter in proportion. 
If the votive offerings have been large, the luxury 
of peppermint-drops, brandy-balls, toffy, and 
other kinds of " suck," may be added to these 
delicacies. When her majesty and suite have con- 
sumed all the tea, and cake, and goodies, they 
proceed to disport themselves before the eyes of 
their loving subjects. A cord has been drawn 
from chimney to chimney, or from tree to tree, 
across the village street. The garland is sus- 
pended from the centre of it, with Flora in the 
midst ; balls have been purchased with a part 
of the morning's gifts ; and (in the expressive 
language of pantomime bills) " now the fun be- 
gins." The balls are thrown backwards and for- 
wards over the rope and garland ; and, if Flora's 
nose is damaged by a bad shot, why it is no more 
than Flora might expect from placing herself in 
such a conspicuous and dangerous situation. 
Games are instituted : " I spy," " Tick," " Here 
we go round the mulberry-bush," " Thread-the- 
needle," " What have I apprenticed my son to?" 
"Blind-man's buff;" in all of which her majesty, 



having laid aside her crown and cares of state, 
frolics, "the maddest, merriest," of all. Per- 
chance the " tuneless pipe," or " harsh-scraped 
violin," may wind up the sports of May-day with 
a dance, and send her majesty to bed, wearied out 
indeed, but happier than many a queen who has 
worn a royal crown. 

So much for May-day in Huntingdonshire. In 
some parts of Worcestershire, a garland, similar 
to the May-day one, is taken about on May 29. 
As May-poles are not very plentiful, it may per- 
haps be worth mentioning, that the dance round 
the May-pole is kept up at the village of Clent 
(near Hagley), Worcestershire ; and that, last 
May -day, they 

" Danced about the May-pole, and in the hazel-copse, 
Till Charles's wain came out above the tall white 
chimney-tops." 

COTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

[The following process is translated from La Lumiere. 
The original communication was accompanied by pictures 
produced by this process, and of the beauty of which the 
editor of La Lumiere speaks in the highest terms.] 

Turpentino-wax Paper Process, by M. I^espiaidt. I 
have the honour of communicating to you the details of a 
dry paper process which joins, to the advantage of long 
preservation, that of easy manipulation and admirable 
tones, and at the same time preserves the proofs of a 
proper strength. I send with my letter two proofs, ob- 
tained by the aid of this new process : one of them shows 
that green is not so rebellious a colour as is generally 
believed to the action of the actinic rays ; and that by the 
help of bromide properly proportioned, you can secure 
not only the forms, but the very depths of the foliage. 

I generally use well- selected Saxe or Canson paper. If 
the paper is full of little holes, in consequence of too 
much glazing, 1 improve it by means of ordinary collo- 
dion dissolved, in a small quantity, in alcohol mixed with 
a little ether ; but if the paper is good, this precaution 
becomes useless. 

I put 200 grammes of white wax in a litre bottle, 
which I immediately fill completely with rectified spirits 
of turpentine. I have a larger vessel filled with water, 
heated to thirty or forty degrees centigrade, a tempera- 
ture which can be easily known without a thermometer, 
and simply by the help of the hand. I plunge the bottle 
almost entirely in the water, and leave it there about a 
quarter of an hour, shaking it from time to time. 

I then take it out, and the spirit has dissolved the 
proper quantity of wax. It ought to be of the consistency 
of olive oil, and not to set in cooling; if this happens, 
there has been too much wax, and it will be necessary to 
add a certain quantity more spirit, and to warm it again 
to render the mixture liquid. 

The papers are to be immersed in this preparation, 
previously filtered. They imbibe it immediately, and 
become transparent like a glass finely polished ; but by 
the desiccation, they soon take a heavy white appearance, 
and scarcely appear waxed. 

You can 'immerse twenty or thirty sheets together in 
the liquid ; and after having turned the whole mass, take 
them out one by one and suspend them by a corner. The 
time of immersion, is of little consequence, and may vary 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



from one minute to a quarter of an hour, without any 
difference of any consequence in the results. 

The sheets thus prepared, being well dried, are then 
plunged into a bath of iodide thus composed ; and where 
they must be left for two hours, in order that the wax 
may be well saturated : 



Filtered rice water 
White gelatine 
Sugar of milk 
Iodide of potassium 
Iodide of ammonium - 
Bromide of potassium - 
Chloride of sodium 



- 1 litre. 

6 grammes. 

- 20 

- 25 

- 2 

- 4 

- 2 



Fluoride and cyanide of potassium, about 50 centi- 
grammes of each. 

The papers must then be dried by suspending them by 
a corner, and in this state they can be kept any length 
of time. On the proportion of bromide and of the iodides 
depends the difference in the results obtained. Without 
bromide, the blacks are too strong, the colours hard and 
without the middle tints, an effect too generally obtained 
with the waxed papers of M. Le Gray. If the bromide 
predominates, on the contrary, the proofs are, it is true, 
perfect in the shadows, but the lights want strength. The 
proportions given above appear to me the most proper. 
Nevertheless, if you want to take rural landscapes, woods, 
and mountains, I think that it would be well to increase 
slightly the quantity of bromide, but this salt must never 
exceed the third of the iodides used. 

With regard to the cyanides and the fluorides, I must 
acknowledge I am not thoroughly convinced of their 
efficacy ; nevertheless, never having found their use pre- 
judicial, I have preserved them in the proportions indi- 
cated by M. Le Gray. The sugar of milk and of rice are 
indispensable, and by them you can obtain good blacks, 
even when using bromides. The rest of the manipula- 
tion does not differ from that which M. Le Gray gives in 
his excellent work. 

The sensitizing bath is the same, that is to say, 15 
grammes of nitrate of silver, and 24 grammes of acetic 
acid, to 300 grammes of water. I only take the pre- 
caution to saturate it with bromide and iodide of silver, 
by pouring into it some grammes of the iodized solution. 
I filter it, and I have no more fear of its prolonged action 
on the paper, so that I leave it there to soak from five to 
ten minutes. I generally plunge three or four sheets in 
the same bath ; I take them all out at the same time, and 
immerse them in rain-water; I thus shorten and simplify 
much the manipulation, without any accident resulting 
from it. 

If the time of the exposure has been right, and it is 
always less than with the paper waxed previously, the 
picture is visible on its removal from the camera. It 
may be developed very rapidly in the gallic acid, takes 
beautiful red tones, which quickly pass to the black. 
When the proof has been fixed, was'hed, and dried, I wax 
it in a quire of blotting-paper. It then equals the most 
perfect obtained by waxing the paper beforehand. If 
you prefer to wax the paper first, the bath ef which I 
have given the proportions above may be used to iodize 
it. It harmonises very well, but the shades are not so 
deeply marked. 

The turpentino-wax paper has, like the paper waxed 
beforehand, the advantage of being as good the eighth 
day as the first, only the time of exposure is a little 
longer the longer the paper has been prepared. For 
about six months that I have used the turpentino-wax 
paper, I have been able to ascertain the certainty of its 
results. 

The sheets prepared according to the form of Monsieur 



Stephane Geofray, give, it is true, beautiful results on the 
day of their preparation ; but in the hot season, and in 
the South of France, it is impossible to preserve them, 
many days, which may, perhaps, be explained by the low 
degree of temperature which the cerole'ine requires to 
liquefy it (29 centigrade). Besides, the proportion of 
ceroleine which the alcohol can dissolve is very little, 
when compared with the quantity of wax which the 
spirit of turpentine will dissolve without coagulating as 
it cools. 

To conclude, experience will show which is the pre- 
ferable process on dry paper, and for my part I am ready 
to accept that of M. Geofray as excellent, if it is demon- 
strated to me that with papers well prepared there is no 
danger of anv alteration during some days. 

MAURICE LESPIATJLT. 

NeYac, June 27, 1854. 

Addition to the process on dry paper, turpentine- 
waxed, by M. Maurice Lespiault. 

In the summer, by leaving the wax in the spirit of 
turpentine for three or four hours, it becomes dissolved to 
a proper degree. When the temperature is high, it is 
needless to warm it in the sand-bath. The gazogene, 
employed as a dissolvent, gives also good results ; but the 
papers must be immersed without delay in the solution, 
because the alcohol and spirit of turpentine, the combina- 
tion of which constitutes the gazogene, have a tendency 
to separate, as soon as this last is saturated with wax. 

The papers thus prepared assume a beautiful blue black 
in the bath of iodide, and whiten perfectly in the nitrate. 

If the different dissolvents of wax are studied, such as 
the essence of spikenard and of lavender, a complete wax- 
ing of the paper may be accomplished. It is useless to 
insist upon the importance, in an economical point of 
view, of such a process, for a litre of spirit will soak more 
than two hundred sheets of full-sized paper. 

MAURICE LESPIAULT. 

Nerac, July 5, 1854. 



to $Unor 

Pre-Raffaelism (Vol. x., p. 6.). 

" If at a distance you would paint a pig, 

Make out each single bristle of his back : 
Or, if your meaner subject be a wig, 

Let not the caxon a distinctness lack; 
Else all the lady critics will so stare, 
And angry vow, ' Tis not a bit like hair ! ' 

" Claude's distances are too confused 

One floating scene nothing made out 
For which he ought to be abused, 

Whose works have been so cried about. 

" Give me the pencil whose amazing style. 
Makes a bird's beak appear at twenty mile ; _ 
And to my view, eyes, legs, and claws will bring, 
With evefv feather of his tail and wing.' 

Peter Pindar, Lyric Odes for 1783, Ode vm. 

Dr. Walcot's Works are little read. Being 
chiefly personal and political, they are in danger 
of sinking, and leaving only some humorous tales 
afloat in the jest-books. I meet so few who have 
read the " Odes to the R. A.'s," that I do not feel 
it an impertinence to draw attention to them. In 
matters of art, Peter's censure is sometimes, but 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



not often, too severe. His praise is never unde- 
served : and, whether bestowed on Reynolds in 
his greatness, Wilson in his obscurity, or Law- 
rence at his beginning, has been confirmed by 
posterity. Many other examples will be found by 
those who look for them. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Mother of forty Children (Vol. ix., pp. 419. 
472. 522.). I attended once the christening of a 
baby, which was affirmed at the time to be the 
fortieth child of the then twice married mother, 
and I well recollect the sympathetic admiration 
manifested and expressed by the rather consider- 
able number of lady-gossips present at the festivity. 
The grandmother, as she seemed to be, had had 
several times twins, and once a triplet, as was 
said ; but, unlike the instance already quoted in 
" N. & Q.," very few survived, and her eyes were 
finally closed, at about the age of seventy- two years, 
by her only two remaining children, one a daughter 
of the first, the other a son of the second marriage. 
Of course, I cannot attest the number of forty as 
of my own knowledge, but only its affirmal and 
undisputed acceptation on an occasion when, if 
it had not been true, and had perchance been 
asserted, its inaccuracy could have been, and I 
presume would have been, promptly ascertained. 

I. H. A. 

The Cambridge Chronicle of June 17, 1854, has 
"The wife of Jervase Wilkinson, labourer, of 
Wollaton, Notts, was, a few days ago, delivered 
of her twenty-fifth child." P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

"Book of Almanacs" (Vol. ix., p. 561.). It 
may be interesting to PROFESSOR DE MORGAN to be 
informed that Perpetual Calendars have been con- 
stantly in use by our compilers of Almanacs for 
each successive year. The Kalendarium per- 
petuum, of which he speaks, was for the peculiar 
service of the order of preachers, or Dominicans, 
and adapted to the festivals of that order. Ga- 
vantus, in his Thesaurus Sacrorum Rituum, gives 
a complete set of tables, which, no doubt, have 
been used by most compilers of Catholic Calendars 
for centuries. The title is Ordo perpetuus Officii 
divini, etc. After some explanatory directions 
comes a Tabella Computi perpetua, then a Tabella 
Temporaria from the year 1631 to the year 2000, 
followed by the usual Calendar of Feasts through- 
out the year in the Roman Breviary. Then we 
have thirty-six tables or almanacs, which together 
furnish a perpetual calendar or Booh of Almanacs 
to the end of the present century. F. C. H. 

"Forgive, blest shade" (Vol. ix., p. 542.). 
The lines commencing "Forgive, blest shade," 
were, I have always heard, written by General 
Burgoyne, on the death of his wife Lady Charlotte 
(daughter of Edward, eleventh Earl of Derby), in 



1776. They are to be found in many places used 
as a monumental inscription, and have been set 
to music. C. DE D. 

Latin] Versions of Gray's Elegy (Vol. i., p. 101 .). 
In addition to those mentioned, I have a copy 
of one by H. S. Dickinson, M.A., Ipswich, 1849, 
the first line of which is 

" Nola sonans obitum pulso notat a;re diei." 

P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

Russian Emperors (Vol. ix., p. 222.). An 
old merchant-.captain, long in the Baltic trade, 
assured me that it was a general belief among 
those of his own class, that by the laws of Russia 
the Emperor was for the first twenty-five years of 
his reign subject to a certain degree of control 
from his nobles, but that at the end of that time 
all control ceased, and the government became an 
unmitigated despotism, to avoid which the nobles 
generally managed quietly to remove the occupant 
of the throne before the time had expired. The 
death of Alexander just as he was about to com- 
plete the fated period was one of the instances he 
adduced in support of- this notion. I must leave 
it to others better versed in the matter to say 
whether there is, or ever has been, any found- 
ation for the above belief. J. S. WARDEN. 

Napoleon's Spelling (Vol. ix., p. 203.). MR. 
BREEN'S theory, that Napoleon's bad spelling was 
affected, is one of those that neither admit of nor 
require a serious refutation. I shall only observe 
upon it that Sir William Herschel, a well-qualified 
judge, observed that Napoleon seemed desirous to 
be thought to know more in astronomy, as well as 
in other sciences, than he actually did know ; and 
is it to be supposed that a person so inclined 
would have shammed ignorance of the very rudi- 
ments of education ? It would be more to his 
advantage to suppose that the haste and agitation 
in which he frequently wrote, caused him now and 
then to put in a letter too many or too few, or to 
substitute a wrong one, as a glance at the manu- 
scripts of Byron, Scott, and many others, would 
show to have been the case with people of much 
better education than his. J. S. WARDEN. 

Medal on the Peace of Utrecht (Vol. ix., p. 
399.). It is stated that a family of the name of 
Swift of that place possesses a silver medal granted 
to Joseph Swift by the University of Oxford or of 
Cambridge. I think this will be found incorrect 
when the description of the medal is given, and 
the cause of its being struck stated. 

Bust of Queen Ann crowned with laurel : legend, 
"D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB." Rev. Ships sailing 
on a calm sea ; on the shore two labourers cultivat- 
ing the earth ; Great Britain under the figure of 
Pallas holding a lance and an olive branch: legend, 



JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



95 



" COMPOSITIS VENERANTUR AKMIS " (not 

1713. " They honour her who has put an end to 
the war." 

It was struck on the Peace of Utrecht. There 
were two medals struck, one much smaller than 
the other. The larger one in gold was presented 
to each member of the House of Lords, the 
smaller in gold to each member of the House of 
Commons. I have seen a medal of the same de- 
scription, but of a Size between the two, ex. rare. 

W. D. HAGGARD. 

Bank of England. 

Colonel St. Leger (Vol. ix., p. 76.)- W. P. M. 
is not sufficiently explicit, as he does not give the 
Christian name of the Colonel. St. Leger is the 
family name of the Lords Doneraile, of Ireland ; 
and to this he probably belonged. It may, how- 
ever, not be amiss to inform your querist, that the 
name appears in the London Gazette for October, 
1793: 

" Lieut.-CoI. John St. Leger, of the 1st Foot Guards, 
appointed Deputy Adjutant-General to the Forces on the 
Continent, under the command of the Duke of York." 

And in the same official document, " John St. 
Leger, of the 16th Dragoons," is one of the newly 
made Colonels. The following notice, too, we 
find in another periodical : 

" Died, at Madras, Major-General St. Leger, Colonel of 
the 80th Kegiment of Foot, and Commander-in-Chief at 
Trincomalee. He rode out in the morning, and returned 
in apparent good health, but had scarcely dismounted, 
when he was seized with a convulsion fit, which carried 
him off in a few minutes." Gentleman's Mag. for Feb. 
1800. 

These extracts, from their dates, seem not only 
to point to one and the same person, but to show 
that he was the associate of George IV., who, as 
Prince of Wales, was then in the prime and pride 
of life. C. H. (1) 

Knobstick (Vol. ix., p. 373.). The question of 
PRESTONIENSIS, on being inserted in the Preston 
Chronicle, elicited in that journal the following 
reply, which may be worthy of a place in 
" N. & Q." in the absence of a better answer : 

" During the occupation of the Catteral Cotton Printing 
Establishment, near Garstang, Lancashire, by the Field- 
ings, a difference took place between them and the block 
cutters, when a strike ensued, in consequence of which a 
number of hands were engaged from other places, and 
some of them none of the best. A meeting then took 
place among those thrown out of employ, when one old 
man rose and said emphatically, 'They were no better 
men than his KNOBSTICK (walking-stick), and he could 
make as good men as them out o' it.' " 

It is not stated when this took place, but I 
should say, if it took place at all, it will be from 
thirty to forty years since. The cant name first 
used at Catteral afterwards became general. The 
Query is, is the name with such a meaning above 
forty years old ? D. W. 



Ominous Storms (Vol. ix., p. 494.). The po- 
pular notion respecting ominous storms is very 
common in Cornwall. If your correspondent had 
inquired farther, he would probably have had the 
explanation which was recently given to a ques- 
tion of mine on the same subject, namely, that 
the cause of the tempestuous weather, which is 
held so unfailingly to accompany assize time, is 
the number of false oaths which are taken on 
these occasions. T. L. C. 

Polperro, Cornwall. 

Dedications of Suffolk Churches (Vol. x., p. 45.). 
The following are the saints after whom the 
churches mentioned by MR. PARKER are respec- 
tively named : 

Lowestoft - St. Margaret. 

Wenham, Little - - All Saints. 
Ramsholt - All Saints. 

Stowlangtoft - St. George. 

Poslingford - Virgin Mary. 

Whixoe - - - - St. Leonard. 

Wratting, Little - - St.'.Mary. 
Alpheton - SS. Peter and Paul. 

Exning - - - - St. Martin. 

Whepstead - - - St. Petronilla. 

Harleston - - - St. Augustine. 

Welnetham, Great - - St. Thomas. 

Hargrave - - - St. Edmund. 

I look forward with pleasure to MR. PARKER'S 
intended publication ; for we have as yet no work 
on archseological topography, embracing the whole 
of the Suffolk churches. W. T. T. 

Ipswich. 

Capt. Cook (Vol. ix., p. 423.). There are col- 
lateral descendants of the great circumnavigator, 
Capt. Cook, residing at lledcar, Sunderland*, and 
in this town ; and one of them -showed rne a few 
weeks since a genealogical list of the family, 
which perhaps might be too lengthy for the 
columns of " N. & Q.," but which I could forward 
to W. G. M'ALLISTER on receipt of a direct ap- 
plication. LUKE MACKEV. 

South Shields. 

Moon Superstitions (Vol. viii., pp. 79. 145. 321. ; 
Vol. ix., p. 431.). I beg to remind your corre- 
spondents on this subject, that as remarkable 
changes of weather take place as frequently 
between the changes of the moon as they accom- 
pany or follow closely those changes, it cannot be 
imagined by any person who will take the trouble 
to observe closely for any length of time, that the 
changes of the moon at all influence the weather. 
The subject is ably treated by Dr. Lardner, in an 
article on " Lunar Influences," in the Museum of 
Science. JOSEPH SIMPSON. 

Islington. 

[* York?] 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 248. 



"Ill Habits" tfc. (Vol. ix., p. 301.). The re- 
ference to this quotation is Dryden's Ovid, b. xv., 
" Of the Pythagorean Philosophy," lines 155-6. 

J. C. G. 

Liverpool. 

Morgan Odoherty (Vol. viii., p. 11.; Vol. ix., 
p. 209.). It is very possible, although quite new 
to me, that the author of " Cyril Thornton " was 
one of the writers (for there must have been more 
than one) who assumed this well-known nom de 
guerre in Blackwood. But I had always identified 
Captain Hamilton with another military contri- 
butor who figures much in the early volumes of 
Maga, " Major Spencer Moggridge of the Prince's 
Own," from the resemblance which the latter's 
descriptions of the different battles bear to those 
in the annals of the peninsular campaigns. 

I am surprised to see that S. never heard that 
Odoherty was supposed to be Dr. Maginn. Even 
before Fraser's Magazine came out, Maginn was 
universally reputed to be the man, and that pe- 
riodical fixed the name indelibly upon him ; for 
whatever doubt there might be as to the identity 
of the correspondent of Blackwood, in Fraser 
there was no mistaking it for an instant. See the 
notice of Maginn in the " Gallery of Literary 
Characters" (Fraser's Magazine, vol. iii.). 

J. S. WABDEN. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, BTC. 

Mr. Roach Smith, who is about to edit a work on the 
subject, has reprinted, from his Collectanea Antiqua, an 
article on The Faussett Collection of Anglo- Saxon Anti- 
quities. Mr. Smith writes strongly on this national 
grievance ; and we must say that the dissatisfaction with 
which the refusal of the Trustees of the British Museum 
to purchase them has been received, has only been 
equalled by the amazement at the amount of ignorance 
displayed in the House of Commons when that refusal 
was under discussion. 

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson have recently con- 
cluded the sale of the highly curious library of Mr. J. D. 
Gardner, of Chatteris. The Catalogue contained 2457 
lots, and produced no less than 817 1/.; a sufficient proof 
that what Theodore Hook said of paving stones, may now 
be applied to good old books, they are looking up. The 
following are the prices of some of the principal lots: 
Lot 29. Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, Vinezia, 1525, only one 
other copy known, 437. 30. Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, 
Vinezia, 1539, with autographs of Mary Richemond, wife 
of Henry, Duke of Richmond, natural son of Henry VIII., 
and of Sir Henry Pickeringe, Queen Elizabeth's ambas- 
sador and suitor, 187. 15s. 76. Pentateuch, translated by 
William Tyndale, Marlborow, in the Lande of Hesse, 
1530, having three leaves facsimiled, 1597. 77. Newe 
Testament ; Tindal's second edition, printed at Antwerp 
in 1534, wanting beginning and end, but having these 
deficiencies admirably facsimiled in imitation of the 
original printing, 47L 78. New Testament, translated by 
Myles Coverdale, 1538, 827. 193. Byble, translated by 
Myles Coverdale, 1550, 38/. 194. Newe Testament, by 



W. Tindale, 1536, 37/. 195. Newe Testament, in English 
and Latin, by Tindale and Erasmus, 1548, 39Z. 10s. 196. 
Newe Testament, in English and Latin, 1549, 35Z. 197. 
New Testament; first edition of the Rhemish version, 
printed at Rheims, 1582, 151. 238. A Collection of the 
Writings of the Fanatic Giordano Bruno, burnt in 1600 
at Rome as an Atheist, 201. 337. Boccaccio's Decamerone 
Quinta, 1527, 50Z. 376. The Phylobyblo of Richard de 
Bury, Bishop of Durham, one of the earliest bibliophilists, 
printed at Cologne about 1483, 101. 10s. 404. Caxton's 
translation of the book named the Royall, printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1507, 33Z. 408. Cervantes' Don 
Quixote; first editions of both parts Madrid, 1605-15, 
30/. 409. Cervantes' Novelas Exemplares, first edition, 
Madrid, 1613, 127. 10s. 415. Biblia Sacra Latine; the 
famous Vulgate edition on large paper Roma, 1592, 
357. 417. Byble ; first edition of Matthew's translation, 
1537, 150/. 419. Byble; first edition of Cranmer's, or 
the Great Bible, printed by Grafton and Whitchurch, 
1217. 420. Cranmer's Bible, 1549, 44/. 421. Bible; first 
Protestant translation by Myles Coverdale, printed at 
Zurich, 1535 ; wanting title-page and first leaf of dedi- 
cation, which are in facsimile by Harris, 3657. 422. 
Bible; Matthew's version revised by Becke, 1549, 407. 
423. Bible; by Mathewes, 1551, 457. 428. Bible; with 
Sceptical Notes, erroneously attributed to Pope Ganga- 
nelli, 1784, 15Z. 15s. 460. Booke of Jason; printed by 
W. Caxton, 1475, 105Z. 461. History of Reynard the 
Foxe, W. Caxton, 148J, 1957. 462. Golden Legende, by 
W. Caxton, 1483, 230Z. 463. Book called Cathon, by 
W. Caxton, 1483, 83Z. 520. Cocker's Arithmetic, 1678, 
8Z. 5*. 638. Dialogues of Creatures Moralysed, no date, 
301 649. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, printed by Wyn- 
kyn de Worde, 1498, 2457. 650. Boecius de Consolatione 
Philosophise, printed by W. Caxton, without date, with 
two leaves facsimiled, 707. 681. De Bry's Collection of 
early Voyages and Travels, in 25 parts, with quaint en- 
graving^ 2407. 682. De Bry's French Version of Hariot's 
Virginia, Francofurti, 1590, 35Z. 1120. Homeri Opera, 
first edition, in Greek, Florentia, 1488, 49Z. 1137. Apoca- 
lypsis Joannis, first edition of this celebrated block-book 
of 48 pages, 1607. 1191. Hull's Description of the earliest 
Steam-Tug, 1737, 7Z. 12s. 6d. 1210. Banquet of Jests, 
1657, 10Z. 1335. Book of Common Prayer, 1549, 51Z. 10s. 
1336. Book of Common Prayer, 1559, 647. 1337. Book of 
Common Prayer, 1552, 29Z. 1547. Psalter in metre, by 
Archbishop Parker, no date, 40Z. 10s. 1700. Prymer for 
the Use of Sarum ; Rouen, 1555, 15Z. 1800. Pilgrymage 
of Perfeccion, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1531, 31Z. 
1914. Sannazaro's Arcadia Vinezia, Aldo, 1514, printed on 
vellum, 30Z. 1999. A complete set of the Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society, from 1665 to 1830 inclu- 
sive, 78Z. 2022. Prynne's Collection of Records, 3 vols., 
I 1665-70, 1007. 2027. Purchas his Pilgrimes, a Collection 
j of Voyages and Travels, in 5 vols., 1625-26, 55Z. 10s. 2058. 
Shakspeare's Comedies and Tragedies, first edition, 1623, 
250Z. ; the second edition, 1632, sold for 18Z. 10s.; the 
j third, 1663 (burnt in the Fire of London), for 257. ; and 
| the fourth, 1685, for 137. 2154. Tindale's Parable of the 
I Wicked Mammon, printed at Marlborow in 1528, 107. 
! 2195. Shakspeare's Merchant of Venice, first edition, 1600, 
I 827. ; Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600, 12/. 15s.; Henry 
the Fifth, 1608, 8Z. 10s.; King Lear, 1608, 207.; Pericles, 
1609, 217. 2204. Sidney's Arcadia, first edition, 1590, 347. 
2218. Spenser's Faerie Queene, 2 vols., 1590-96, first 
edition, 167. 2326. Walton's Angler, 1653, first edition, 
107. 17*. 6d. 2433. Wat ton's Speculum Christian!, printed 
by Machlinia, without date, 107. 10s. 

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell, on Friday 
next, a most interesting collection of MSS., MS. Note 
Books, Letters, &c., of the poet Gray. 






JULY 29. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

An imperfect copy, or 2nd Volume, of FOXE'S MARTYRS. Folio. 1583. 

An imperfect copy of the BISHOPS' BIBLE. 1574. Folio. 

THE BISHOPS' BIBLE, 4to., 1584, with the First Part perfect. 

Title to small 4to. BIBLE, Cambridge, 1683. Or an imperfect copy, with 

Title, and STERNHOLD& HOPKINS PSALMS to correspond. 
STBHNHOLD ft HOPKINS' PSALMS, Cambridge, 1637. Small 4to. Or an 
imperfect copy having the end. 

Small 4to., 1612 ; or the last Part 

A small work on the IDENTITY op POPEKY AND SOCINIANISM IN PRINCIPLE. 

JOSEPH HUSSEY'S GLORY OF CHRIST. 

The first three leaves, or an imperfect copy of DR. CRISP'S SON'S DE- 

H. CORNELII AORIPPJC OPERA. Lyons, 1531. Tom. II. 

54th, 57th, and following Numbers of the CAMDKN SOCIETY'S 

PUBLICATIONS. 
The 10th and following Vols. of the ROYAL AORICCLTCRAL SOCIETY 

OF GREAT BRITAIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 
JUVENAL AND PERSIUS. Valla. Venice. Folio. 

Robert Sterhens. Paris, 1544. 

Palmanor. Antwerp, 1565. 

Pitholus. Paris, 1585. 

Autumnus. Paris, 1607. 

Stephens. Paris, 1616. 

Achaintree. Paris, 1810. 

English. Dryden. 

French. Dusaula. Paris, 1796, 1803. 

Animadversiones Observationes Philologies in 

Sat. Juvenalis dnas Priores. Beck. 

Spicilegium Animadversionum. Schurzflei- 

schius. 

Jacob's Emendationes. 

Heinecke. Hake, 1804. 

Manso. 1814. 

Barthius Adversaria. 

SRRVIOS on VIROIL. 
HAILITT'S SPIRIT or THE AOE. 

* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carnage free, to be 
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUEKIES," 
186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

ANQUETTL DC PKRRON, ZE.NDAVESTA TBADUIT ET COMMENT!. Vol. II. 

4to. Paris, 1771. 
HOLLER, J. H., DE NUMIS OBIENTALIBUS IN NUMOPHYLACIO GOTHANO 

AssERvATis COMMENTATE Prima. 4to. Gotha ? 1828 ? 
HASMUSSEN, JANDS, ANNALES ISLAMIC.E, SIVE TABULA . . CHAXIFARUM, 

ETC. 4to. Hafniae, 1825. 

Particulars to be addressed to Dr. Scott, 4. Rutland Street, Edinburgh. 



STEEVEWS' TWENTY FLAYS OP SHAKJPEARE. 1766. Vol. III. 
"Wanted by S. Alexander, 207. Hoxton. 



THE OLD WEEK'S PBEPABATION FOR THE HOLY COMMUNION AFTER TMB 
NOTICE OF THE CHDRCH, especially an edition prior to 1700. 

Wanted by Bev. W. Prater, Uttoxeter. 



LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR, a complete set. 

Wanted by Mr. L. Edmonds, 22. King Street, Soho. 



f2uttce<* to 

SHAKSPBABE'S RELIGION. Just as we are going to press, toe are in- 
formed that this question has been recently discussed in The Rambler. 
Injustice, therefore, to our Correspondent, we have to state that tat 
Query hat been in our possession for the last two months. 

H. E. S. (Tewkesbury). We have a letter for this Correspondent ; how 
shall toe direct it t 

E. S. (Bath). The coin is a gold Quinarius of the Emperor Focas or 
Phocas, and has his name, Dominus Noster FOCAS, fcc. See Akerman's 
Descriptive Catalogue, vol. ii. pp. 410, 411, 412. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. Mr. Sounders, of Maidstone Wharf, Queen- 
hithe, has completed his manufacture of paper for photographic pur- 
poses, and unit, we understand, forward specimens to any gentleman 
desirous of trying it. 

ERBATA. In Vol. x., p. 70. 1.9., /or " correspondents " read " corre- 
spondent ;" p. 71., for "mode," read "made ;" and for "characters of 
Mr. Hart," read " characteristics j" p. 74. col. 2. 1. 5. from bottom, for 
"1761," read "1751." 

OUR NINTH VOLUME, with very copiout Index, price 10*. Bd. clott. 
boards, it now ready. 

A few complete sets of" NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. 1. to !x., price four 
guineas and a half, may now be had. For these, early application it 
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PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 

each. D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho 
Square (established A.D. 1785), sole manufac- 
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The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes 
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haying carefully examined the Royal Piano- 
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T>OSS & SONS' INSTANT A- 

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NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 248. 



THE 

DEVOTIONAL LIBRARY. 

Edited by 

WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., 
Vicar of Leeds. 



The DEVOTIONAL LIBRARY Vas 
commenced in 1846. The design of the Pro- 
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price, a series of Works, original, or selected 
from well-known Church-of-England Divines, 
which, from their practical character, as well 
as their cheapness, would be peculiarly useful 
to the Clergy for Parochial Distribution. Since 
that period the following have appeared : 

Helps to Self-Examination, Jd. - ORIGINAL. 
The Sum of Christianity, Id. - A. ELLIS. 

Directions for Spending One Day Well, Id. 

ARCHBISHOP SYNGE. 

Short Reflections for Morning and Evening, 2d. 
SPINCKES. 

Prayers for a Week, 2rf. - - SOROCOLD. 

The above may also be had, bound together 
in cloth, as " Helps to Daily Devotion, price 
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The Crucified Jesus, Zd. - HORNECK. 

The Retired Christian, 3d. - - KBJC. 

Holy Thoughts and Prayers, 3d. - ORIGINAL. 

The Sick Man Visited, 3d. - - SPINCKES. 

Short Meditations for Every Day in the Year, 
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The separate Parti may still be Ttad. Advent 
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cloth, 9<J. I calf, 2s. 6d. Trinity, Part I., 
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ORIGINAL. 

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Minor Festivals, cloth, 8d. ; calf, 2s. 2d. 

Penitential Reflections for Days of Fasting 
and Abstinence (Tracts for Lent), 6d. 

COMPILED. 
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ARCHBISHOP SYNGE. 

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Pastoral Address to a Young Communicant, 
id. ORIGINAL. 

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Companion to the Altar, cloth, Gd. UNKNOWN . 
Sacred Aphorisms, cloth, 9</. BISHOP HALL. 

Devout Mnsinsrs on the Psalms, Parts I. to IV., 
cloth, Is. each ; or 2 vols. cloth, 5s. ORIGINAL. 

The Evangelical History of Our Lord and 
Saviour Jessus Christ, Part I., sewed, 4rf. ; 
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Church School Hymn Book, cloth, 8(7. 

COMPILED. 
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* The smaller Tracts may be had in 3 vols., 
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PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 
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The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
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Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
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QERMONS FOR WAY- 

Cj FARERS. By the REV. ALFRED 
GATTY, M.A. 

" In the eleven sermons now presented to us, 
for the marvellously small price of one shil- 
ling we recognise a plain and solid style of 
scriptural instruction, well adapted to their 
proposed object " Clerical Journal. 
London: GEORGE BELL, 18R. Fleet Street. 

* Gd. cloth. 

THE VICAR and his DUTIES : 
being Sketches of Clerical Life in a Ma- 
nufacturing Town Parish. By the REV. 
ALFRED GATTY, M.A. 

" We sincerely thank Mr. Gatty for his in- 
teresting sketches." English Churchman. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 188. Fleet Street. 
Edinburgh : R. GRANT & SON. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
55,h Br ' d |' ln the City of London ; and published by GEOROE BELL, of No. is*. Fleet Street, in the Parish oi St. Dunstau in the West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, July 29. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 
TOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 



" Wben found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CCTTLE. 



No. 249.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 5. 1854. 



C Price Fournence. 

I Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 



.NOTES : _ 



Page 



King James's, or the present Version of 
the Bible - - - - - 97 

Flowers mentioned by Shakspeare, by 
Edgar MacCulloch - - - 98 

Smith's " Dictionaries of Antiquities," 
by P. J. F. Gantillon - - - 98 

Nautical Folk Lore : Names of Ships 99 

Supposed Early Play-bill - - 99 

MINOR NOTES :_ Swift and " The Tat- 
ler " Epitaph on a Priest " While " 
and "wile " School Libraries : Salis- 
buryCherries - - - - 100 

QPKRIES : 

" He that fights," &c. - - - 101 
Louis de Beaufort - - - - 101 

Popiana: JamesMooreSmith.orSmyth. 102 

MINOR QUERIES: Marriages between 
Cousins Paterson, Founder of the 
BankFitchett's ''King Alfred " 
'" Albert surles Operations de 1'Ame" 
Anointing of Bishops Justice George 
"Wood _ Old Map of Mcndip, co. So- 
mersetBlack Livery Stockings 
Thomas Rolf " Emsdorff 's fame," 
&c. " Platonism Exposed "_ Brasses 
restored Sassanian Inscriptions 
Greatest Happiness of the greatest 
Number Choke Damp Remark- 
able Prediction The late Rev. James 
Plumptre Leonard Welsted - 102 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : _ 
Druids and Druidism Psalm Ixviii. 
4. Coroners' Inquests" Talliages" 
Pengwern Hall Prince Charles's 
House in Derby Singed Vellum - 104 



Lord Bacon and Shakspeare - - 106 

Coleridge's Lectures on Shakspeare - 106 

Hydropathy, by Edward Peacock - 107 

Catholic Floral Directories : Dr. For- 

ster's Works - ... 103 

Warburton's Edition of Pope - - 108 

The Dnnciad, by William J. Thoms,&c. 109 

Notaries, hy Albert Way - - 110 

bir 1 homas Browne and Bishop Ken - 110 

PHOTOrtRApmc CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. 
Lytes Instantaneous Process Wax- 
ing Positives Preserving Collodion 
Plates sensitive - - - - 111 

llEPLinsToMiNon QUERIES : Legend of 
thcSeven Sisters "To iump for joy" 
Pope's Odyssey Perspective 
" Peter Wilkins" "De male quresitis 
nx gaudet tertius litres " Apparition 
which preceded the Fire of London 
"A face upon a bott.e " Thompson 
: Esholt and Lancashire Latin 



Treatise on whipping School-boys 
^aunlleroy Old Dominion The 



Fa 



- c --nt Foreign Fountains The 
Z8tn- Regiment, why called " The 
i5lasherb?"_Hcroic:Epistle,"&c. - 111 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Books and Odd Volun, 9 Wanted 
Notices to Correspondents. 



VOL. X No. 249. 



Multoe terricolis lingua, ccelestibug una. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
AND SONS' 

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THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CLXXXIX., is published this Day. 

CONTENTS : 

I. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 
II. MILMAN'S HISTORY OF LATIST 
CHRISTIANITY. 

III. THE DRAMA. 

IV. CLASSICAL DICTIONARIES. 
V. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 

VI. MELANESIAN AND NEW ZEA- 
LAND MISSIONS. 
VII. QUEEN ELIZABETH AND HER 

FAVOURITES. 

VIII. LORD LYNDHURST AND THE 
WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



XHE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
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Jews from Heathen Writers. 5. Undesigned 
Imitations : Erasmus and Shakspeare. 6. 
Joseph John Gurney. 7. Our Ladtee of St. 
Cyr. 8. Sir W. Bethnm's Manuscripts. 9. 
Public Libraries and Book C'a' L a!< ;-. 
Portraits of Sir Philip Sidney. It. Harrow 
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ONDON LABOUR AND 

_J THE LONDON POOR, by HENRY 
MAYIIEW. A CycloiKcilia of Those that 
Wurk, Those that annint Work, and Those 
that trill nut Work ; with Illustrations of the 
Scenes and People described copied from 
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*** A quantity of odd Numbers for the 
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I 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARA- 
TUS, MATERIALS, and PUKE CHE- 
MICAL PREPARATIONS. 

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, 
containing Description and Price of the best 
forms of Cameras andother Apparatus, Voight- 
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free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps. 

Instructions given in every branch of the Art. 

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and 
Other Photographic Specimens. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



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THE SIGHT preserved by the 
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TT RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 

3. PABXIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 

Founded A.D. 1842. 



Director!. 
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J. Hunt, Esq. 



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F. Fuller, Esq. 
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Tnattet. 
W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. ; 

T. Grissell, Esq. 

PAtfstcian. William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Banters. Messrs. Cocks. Biddulph, and Co., 

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Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10s. 6rf., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
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pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHI.EY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 

\ LLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER 

Z\ ALE. _ MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & 
SONS beg to inform the TRADE that they 
are now registering Orders for the March 
Brewings of their PALE ALE in Casks of 
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LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street. 

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When in bottle, the genuineness of the label 
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Chemists and Perfumers will procure them. 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 5, 1854. 



KING JAMES'S, OR THE PRESENT VERSION OF THE 

BIBLE. 

Prior to the publication of Lowndes's Biblio- 
grapher's Manual, and indeed since, it has been a 
doubtful and undecided question as to whether 
there really were two editions of the present version 
of the Scriptures printed in 1611 : the Manual 
asserting that fact (vide BIBLE, vol. i. p. 177. 
col. 2.), but denied by the Rev. C. Anderson (vide 
Annals of the Bible, vol. ii. Index, " List of Edi- 
tions," p. xxii.) ; and Mr. Lea Wilson noticing 
only one impression of that year, claiming the 
palm for his (fine copy of the second) edition of 
1611, instead of an earlier impression of that 
year : neither gentleman appearing to have seen 
a copy of that impression first pointed out to Dr. 
Cotton by the Rev. Dr. Daly, Bishop of Cashel 
(see Cotton's List, p. 60., edit. 1852). 

Since the appearance of the second and enlarged 
edition of Dr. Cotton's List, in the autumn of 
1852, I have examined all the copies of that Bible 
bearing the dates of 1611, 1613, 1617, 1634, and 
1640, that have fallen under notice ; and having 
had upwards of forty copies with the titles of the 
first three dates, and others of the two later, feel 
assured (from matters hereafter related) that the 
whole volume WAS twice printed in 1611. 

Bearing in mind the discrepancies pointed out 
by Bishop Daly (vide Cotton's List, p. 60.), as well 
as those noted by Dr. Cardwell (British Maga- 
zine, March, 1833) in five copies, the following 
other important differences in the impressions 
occur. In the impression now considered at 
Oxford as the first and more rare, i. e. that with 
the lengthened verse, Exodus xiv. 10., 2 Chroni- 
cles, chap, xxix., is in the head-line printed 
xxxix., ; iv. Micah, head-line printed JOEL ; the 
wood-cut ornament at the commencement of 
Micah is a zig-zag, while in the second it is a 
running ornament, both being decorated with 
roses and thistles of different shape. In the edi- 
tion of 1617 this is again changed for another 
composed of other ornaments in type. Again, in 
the prefatory matter to the first edition, the dedi- 
cation commences, "TO THE MOST ;" in the second 
(claimed as the first by Mr. Wilson, in his ela- 
borate Catalogue) it is preceded by a distinguish- 
ing mark % " ^[TO THE MOST." The leaf with 
"The Names and Order of the Bookes" is printed 
entirely in black ; in the later impression three 
lines are printed in red on each side of the leaf. 
After this follows the royal arms, a large wood- 
cut occupying the entire page (in one of the five 
copies seen this leaf was left blank) : on the re- 
verse the top line is "The Genealogies of the 



Holy Scripture." In the second edition this head- 
ing is^ formed into a letter-press title, signed 
" J. S." (i. e. John Speed), within a double-lined 
border, and occupies the position of the royal 
arms. In truth too many variations occur, both 
in the type and in the woodcut initials and 
borders, to resist the fact of two entirely distinct 
editions appearing in the year 1611, although not 
seen by the Rev. Mr. Anderson, and left unre- 
corded by Mr. Lea Wilson in his very valuable 
Catalogue. Of the second edition there can be 
but little doubt but a very large impression was 
worked off, so many copies of it wanting titles, 
&c. continually appearing ; but the royal patent 
printer (save the mark !), while correcting errors 
in the body of the volume, committed others of a 
most glaring nature in his second impression (e.g. 
in the dedication, "OF" is printed "OE," the name 
of " CHRIST" is spelled " CHKIST." In the " List of 
the Books of the Old Testament," " 1 and 2 Chro- 
nicles " is named " 1 and 2 Corinthians," &c. &c.). 
That this edition came after the other is farther 
proved by four copies now lying before me, all of 
them having a title as of a new impression, dated 
in 1613, the mercenary royal printer (of whom a 
deplorable character for integrity, &c. is given by 
Mr. Anderson in his Annals, vol. ii. p. 339., 1852) 
having issued the unsold copies of this impression 
by cancelling the title to the volume only, leaving 
that to the New Testament as before, viz. 1611. 
That this piece of trickery (stale even in those 
days) was played by the worthy Mr. Barker, the 
errors in the dedication and prefatory matter as 
heretofore described, remaining uncancelled, will 
sufficiently testify. The putting off of the unsold 
copies of 1611 in this way by the royal printer is 
unnoticed, although a charge is made of the sub- 
stitution of titles dated 1611 (Query, if those in- 
tended to be destroyed by Mr. Barker himself?) 
to copies of the several editions of 1617, 1634, or 
1640, to pass those off for fine copies of the highly 
valuable and much coveted first impression, viz. 
1611. 

It should be observed of the impressions of 
1611, 1617, 1634, and 1640, the Psalms com- 
mence on B b b 4 ; in that of 1613, small type, on 
K K. It was from a copy of this edition, with a 
title dated 1611, Mr. Lowndes fell into error 
(vide Manual, vol. i. p. 177. col. 2.) as to the two 
editions of 1611 being of a different sized type. 
The New Testament of both impressions of that 
year begins on A 2, in the others on D d d d d 2. 
The dedication to every impression differs some- 
what in the setting up, that of 1613 being pre- 
ceded by a different mark before "TO" (see Wil- 
son's Catalogue) ; that of 1617 having a small 
cut of the roval arms above the titles of King 
James (printed " IAMES"), dedication ending *.* 
The New Testament of this edition has "IN- 
PRINTED " at the foot of the title. Edition of 



98 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 249. 



1634 : the royal arms with supporters, " C. R." 
on either side, " IAMES " as before, in centre of 
dedication, which ends * # *. Edition of 1640 : 
centre of title differently set up, the dedication 
surmounted as before with supporters, and "C. 
K.," "JAMES" being commenced with the proper 
letter. Other variations are pointed out in Mr. 
Wilson's Catalogue, but the entire volume of this 
impression presents a peculiar appearance, as 
though printed with worn-out type* The New 
Testament title is dated 1639, and the substitu- 
tion of the Psalms from this edition into incom- 
plete copies of the other impressions may be 
detected, by noticing that at Psalm ex. the head- 
line is printed " Psalmes." N. T. 



FLOWERS MENTIONED BT SHAKSPEARE. 

Can any of your Shakspearian correspondents 
inform me what flower is meant by " Cuckoo- 
buds," in the song " When daisies pied," &c. ? 
On referring to Johnson's Dictionary, I find : 
" Cuckoo-bud, Cuckoo-flower (Cardaminus, Lat.)j 
the name of a flower," with the quotation 
" When daisies pied and violets blue, 
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue," &c. 

On turning to the word " Cardamine, " I find it 
thus defined : " In botany, the plant lady's smock, 
called also the cuckoo-flower and meadow-cress" 
And again, under the word " Lady's smock," I 
find " \_Cardamine~\ a plant," with the quotation 

" When'daisies pied and violets blue, 
And ladysmock all silver white," &c. 

Now it is evident that Shakspeare speaks of two 
different flowers, and that the lexicographer con- 
founds them, for the same flower cannot be both 
silver white and of yellow line ; but what I wish to 
know is, which of the many meadow flowers of a 
yellow colour that bloom in spring is the one that 
the poet calls by the name of cuckoo-buds ? Is it 
the marsh-marigold, the lesser celandine, the 
crow's foot, or any other of the numerous family 
of Ranunculacea ? The Germans call the wood- 
sorrel "kuckucks-blume," but this flower, although 
yellow, is not a meadow plant. In Normandy 
the oxlip (Primula clatior} is called " coucou." 
If either of these bears a similar name in any part 
of England, and particularly in Warwickshire, it 
may very well be the flower mentioned in the 
song. 

Mary-buds, in the beautiful song of " Hark, 
hark, the lark," &c., is, I believe, generally re- 
ferred to the marigold. Am I right ? 

The long purples of Ophelia's garland is another 
plant about which there appears to be some un- 
certainty. I have seen the name assigned to the 
purple orchis, but I incline to think that the arum, 
or cuckoo's pint, is the plant meant. It is spoken 



of as bearing " a grosser name," and although this 
is applicable to either of the plants, I am confirmed 
in my view by the following passage in Crabbe'a 
Parish Register : 

" Where cuckoo-pints and dandelions sprung, 
(Gross names had they our plainer sires among), 
There arums, there leontodons we view." 

What particular kind of rose is that which decks 
Titania's bower, "sweet musk-roses?" Is it our 
moss-rose, or some other now forgotten variety ? 

The woodbine and honeysuckle are generally 
considered to be one and the same, but in the 
passage, 

" So doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle 
Gently entwine." 

they are evidently two different plants. What 
then is the woodbine ? Is it another creeper, the 
convolvulus or bindweed ? 

" Love-in-idleness " is said to be the pansy, but 
none of the original indigenous varieties of this 
flower, now so changed by cultivation, seems to 
answer the description of 

-" The little western flower, 
Before milk-white, now purpled with love's wound." 

I ought to apologise for the length of this string 
of Queries ; but an interesting chapter might be 
written on the flowers of Shakspeare, and I trust 
all lovers of the great bard will forgive me. 

EDGAR MAcCuixocH. 

Guernsey. 



SMITH'S "DICTIONARIES OF ANTIQUITIES." 

(Continued from Vol. vii., p. 302.) 
I send a few errata in addition to my previous 
list. 

Dictionary of Antiquities. 

Page 182. a, AURUM, for "11? : i," read 
tt l!9 6 

113 12' 

Page 1040. b, SERVITS, for " 1770?. 16s.," read 
" 1770Z. 16s. 8rf." 

Page 1272. OCTOBER EQUus,/or "880. a," read 
" 850. a." 

Ditto, after "oppidum," add "opponere, 527. a." 

Dictionary of Biography. 
Vol. I, 

Page 8. b, ACH^EMENES, for " xiii. 8., read 
" Epod. xiii. 8." 

Page 251. a, APRIES, for "Herod. 161. &c., 
read" Herod, ii. 161. &c." 

Page 471. a, BASSUS I, after " by Ovid," insert 
"Tristiaiv. 10. 47." 

Vol. II. 

Page 538. b, HTPERBOLUS, for " Thuc. vin. 74., 
read " 73." 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



Vol. III. 

Page 634. b, QUINTILIANUS, for "Mart. xi. 90.," 
read " ii. 90." 

Page 736. b, SCAUBUS, for " consulship," read 
" censorship." 

Page 815. a, SIBYLLA, /or "Plut.," read "Plat," 

Page 11 91. a, TULLUS, VOLCATIUS, 3, for "Cic. 
ad Fam. xiii. 41.," read " xiii. 14." 

Page 1195. b, note, TTPHON, for "716.," read 
" 713." 

Page 926. a, heading, for " Stattis," read " Strat- 
tis." 

Dictionary of Geography. 
Vol. I. 

Page 384. b, BALE, for " Tac. Ann. xii. 21.," 
rearf "xiii. 21." 

Page 502. b, CANTHABIS, for "Attica," read 
" Athena;." 

Page 781. b, DODONA (in the third quotation), 
for " Ao8twjr," read " AwScij^jv." 

P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

40. London Road, Leicester. 



NAUTICAL FOLK LOBE : NAMES OF SHIPS. 

It has been often observed that our Admiralty 
are not very fortunate in their selection of names 
for men of war ; and it is well known that there is 
something in a name which attracts seamen to 
enter for a particular ship. Two of our new 
90 gun screw line of battle ships have been named 
the Cassar and the Hannibal, although the re- 
putation of either name is not traditionally high 
in the British navy. 

The former Caesar, a ship of 80 guns, was com- 
manded at Lord Howe's victory, the battle of the 
1st of June, 1794, by Anthony James Pye Molloy, 
who was brought to a court-martial for miscon- 
duct on that day, and in some naval movements 
which followed it. Although, perhaps, acquitted 
of actual cowardice, Captain Molloy was disgraced 
and dismissed the Caesar. I remember that a sin- 
gular story was very current in naval circles in 
my early days, that Captain Molloy had acted 
dishonourably towards a young lady whom he had 
contracted to marry on his return from sea. 
Having violated his engagement, she brought an 
action against him for breach of the promise, and 
failed ; but it was said that she indignantly re- 
proached him in open court, and exclaimed, 
" Molloy, you are a bad man ; may your heart fail 
you in the day of battle ! " It was believed that 
her expressions produced their effect, and his 
subsequent conduct and fate proved a singular 
realisation of her prayer. Perhaps some of your 
correspondents conld supply more full details. 

Captain Molloy was brought to court-martial 
by his captain of marines, whose name was Hopper, 
a native of Cork ; and it is not a little remarkable 



that the same Captain Hopper brought a second 
of his captains, John Williamson of the Agincourt, 
of 64 guns, to a court-martial, also for cowardice 
at Duncan's victory, the battle of Camperdown, 
in 1797. Williamson was broken for his conduct 
on that day, and declared incapable of ever serving 
again in the navy. 

The Hannibal, of 74 guns, was one of the few 
British line of battle ships which were taken by 
the enemy during the last war. She grounded 
under the batteries in Algeziras Bay, in 1801, and 
although gallantly defended by her captain, Solo- 
mon Ferris, and her crew, she ultimately struck 
her colours under circumstances somewhat re- 
sembling the recent capture of the ill-fated steam 
frigate, Tiger, near Odessa, in the Black Sea. 
Seamen are strange beings ; they preserve amongst 
themselves traditions of unfortunate ships, and 
rarely reason very accurately as to causes. 

W.B. 



SUPPOSED EAELY PLAT-BILL. 

In Mr. Collier's History of Dramatic Poetry, 
vol. iii. p. 384., he gives the following copy of a 
play-bill (the original of which, he says, was sold 
among the books of the late Mr. Bindley), for the 
purpose of showing that Malone was " decidedly 
wrong " in affirming that " the practice of insert- 
ing the names of the characters and of the players 
did not commence till the beginning of the 
eighteenth century : " 

" By His Majesty's Company of Comedians, 

At the New Theatre in Drury Lane. 
This Day, being Thursday, April 8, 1663, will be acted, 

A Comedy called 
THE HUMOROUS LIEUTENANT. 
The King - - Mr. Wintersel. 

Demetrius 
Selevers (Seleucus) 
Leontius 
Lieutenant 
Celia - 
The Play will begin at three o'clock exactly. 

Boxes, 4s. ; Pit, 2s. Gd. ; Middle Gallery, It. 6d. ; 
Upper Gallery, Is." 

There can hardly be a doubt, however, that this 
document, the only one adduced to prove Ma- 
lone's conjecture untenable, is altogether spurious. 
In the first place the date of the year is given, a 
point which may well excite suspicion, as it is no- 
torious to all who are familiar with old play-bills, 
that it was not usual for them to bear the date of 
the year until as late as 1767. In the next place, 
April 8th, 1663, did not fall upon a Thursday, but 
upon a Wednesday in Lent, when, with rare ex- 
ception, the theatres were closed. And lastly, we 
find in the new edition of Pepys's Diary, the fol- 
lowing entry : 
" May 8. (Friday). Took my wife and Ashwell to the 



- Mr. Hart. 

- Mr. Burt. 

- Major Mohun. 

- Mr.Clun. 

- Mrs. Marshall. 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



Theatre Koyall, being the second day of its being opened. 
The house is made with extraordinary good convenience," 
&c. 

The natural inference therefore is, that the 
house had been opened for the first time on the 
previous evening (Thursday, May 7), as it is 
hardly conceivable that there would have been an 
interval of any length between the first and second 
nights of performance. Moreover, on April 22, 
Pepys had been to the playhouse in Vere Street, 
which, on June 1st, he tells us, was abandoned by 
the players when the " royal one " (Drury Lane) 
was opened. The " cast " given in Mr. Bindley's 
bill, too, is evidently incorrect, for we are specially 
informed by Pepys on May 8th, that, by the king's 
command, Lucy acted the part which had formerly 
belonged to Clun. 

Downes gives April 8, 1663, as the date of the 
opening of the new theatre ; but his information as 
to the king's company was, according to his own 
showing, second-hand, and cannot always be de- 
pended upon. 

Your insertion of this letter may perhaps in- 
terest some of the dramatic readers of " N. & Q." 

F.L. 

Bloomsbury Place. 



Swift and " The Toiler" I do not think it has 
been yet observed that the germ of Swift's 
" Polite Conversation " is to be found in The 
Tatler, No. 31., June 21, 1709, which was no 
doubt written by Swift himself, who was just 
then in London, and was, we know, a contributor 
to The Tatter. 

I take this occasion to observe what I suspect 
to be a mistake, and a very serious one, in the 
history of that branch of literature, in Mr. Alex- 
ander Chalmers' valuable introduction to the great 
edition of the British Essayists. 

Steele, in his preface to The Tatler, after ac- 
knowledging in the most ample manner, but only 
in general terms, his obligation to Addison, begins 
a new sentence with these words : " The same 
hand writ the distinguishing characters of men and 
women under the names of ' Musical Instruments ' 
(No. 153.), 'The Distress of the News-writers' 
(No. 18.), 'The Inventory of the Play-house' 
(No. 42.), and ' The Description of the Thermo- 
meter' (No. 214.), which I cannot but look upon 
as the greatest embellishment of this work." 

Mr. Chalmers seems to understand the same 
hand to mean that last mentioned, viz. Addison's ; 
whereas I am confident that it meant that these 
four pieces were by one hand, and that not Addi- 
son's. Nor is Mr. Chalmers consistent in his in- 
terpretation ; for in his Index he assigns two of 
the four to Addison, and leaves two anonymous. 
The four papers are all good, and would not dis- 



parage the name of Addison; but I think it is 
clear that they are not his, but were supplied by 
some one who probably contributed nothing else. 

C. 

Epitaph on a Priest. The following strange 
sepulchral inscription, which I send as a contri- 
bution to your other stores of like matter, existed 
in the chapel of the convent of the " Murate " in 
this city. The convent was, with many others, 
suppressed at the time of the French rule in 
Florence, and its ancient chapel is now a printing- 
office. All the documents, papers, and memo- 
randa in the possession of the nuns at the period 
of the dissolution, were taken possession of by 
the state, and preserved in the public archives. 
Among them is a MS. account of their chapel, 
with copies of all the inscriptions that were to be 
found in it. And of these the following struck 
me as sufficiently remarkable to deserve noting : 

" Laurentius Bandinius Sacerdotali munere insignitus 
tanquatn Passer in quotidiano sacrificio adipe frumenti 
saturatus in hoc Tumulo invenit sibi domum, et ad 
instar Turturis etiam posteris suis nidum preparavit. 
Anne salus MDCLIII." 

" Posteris suis ? " Of course we must not do 
such injury to the memory of this ornithological 
divine, as to suppose that his turtle-dove pro- 
pensities extended to other points of similarity 
besides that mentioned in the text. And the 
posteri intended must therefore be taken to be 
nephews and nieces and their descendants. But 
is this a proper and authorised use of the term ? 
And could a man's nephews and nieces be cor- 
rectly termed his " posterity " in our language ? 

T. A. T. 

Florence. 

" While" and "wile." An error in our ortho- 
graphy has lately become widely prevalent, and it 
is to be feared that, unless some timely check be 
put upon it, it will firmly establish itself in our 
language. The expression I allude to is to " while 
away the time;" which ought to be written ''wile 
away the time." The difference between the two 
words need not detain us long. While is a noun, 
signifying " time," and nothing else : and so we 
have it in the expressions, " a long while" " it is 
not worth my while.'" Wile, on the contrary, is 
both noun and verb : as a noun it means " guile," 
and as a verb it means "to beguile;" being, in 
fact, only another form of the word guile, as Wil- 
liam is of Guillaume, warden of guardian. The 
result of the whole is, that to ''wile away the 
time " signifies, to beguile the time : to " while 
away the time " means nothing, but w sheer non- 
sense. ~ *' 

P. S. I may remark that the word while, used 
as a conjunction, has the same signification, that 
of time : thus, " I was at Dover while you were 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



at Margate," is equivalent to " I was at Dover 
during the time during which you were at Mar- 



ScJiool Libraries Salisbury, In the adver- 
tisement to Hele's Offices of Daily Devotion 
(edition printed for the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, 18mo., Lond., no date), 
containing " a short notice of the author," it is 
stated that Mr. Hele 

" Bequeathed his Hebrew Bible, and certain other 
books, to the Close School ; and as some volumes belong- 
ing to the school library had become intermixed with his 
own, he specially desired that his sons should take care 
to restore such volumes to their proper place." 

J. MACEAT. 

Oxford. 

Cherries. Have you anywhere chronicled the 
origin of cherries, and their name also ? 

" From Keresoun, in the Black Sea, whence they were 
first introduced to Europe by Lucullus." 

I do not know the date.* A. L. 



"HE THAT FIGHTS," ETC. 

" He that fights and runs away, 
May live to fight another day." 

The above lines, constantly quoted as in Hudi- 
bras, as constantly cited as being in the Musarum 
Delicice, by Sir John Mennis, apparently on the 
authority of Lowndes, are still, notwithstanding 
" N. & Q." correspondence, Vol. L, p. 210., open, 
I submit, for verification. 

Observe, I have before me the first edition, 
London, 18mo., Henry Herringman, 1655, in 
which a former possessor has written, "It has 
been often said, by Lowndes among others, these 
lines, which have been generally supposed to be in 
Hudibras, are in this volume. This is a mistake. 
There are no lines bearing the least resemblance 
to them here." 

But the second edition, 1656, has been cited as 
containing them. This edition has been examined 
for me, and I am assured the lines are not in that, 
as Lowndes states. 

Now the reprint of 1817 was printed from the 
second edition of 1656, and in the preface, p. 12. 
(1817), it is said the first edition of 1665 differs 
only from the present 1656 in several select pieces 
of sportive wit standing in the title-page, instead 
of several pieces of poetique wit, and in the pub- 
lisher's address to the ingenious reader. 

The lines, therefore, are not likely to be in the 
second edition of the reprint. 

[* About 70 B.C.] 



I observe, however, the first edition has only 
87 pages; the second, Lowndes says, has 101 : the 
reprint closes with page 100, but ends with the 
same lines as the first. 

I am, however, assured these lines do occur in 
some edition of this work ; or rather, as it does not 
appear they do in the Musarum Delicice, first and 
second editions, are they to be found in the Wits 
Recreations, 1640, 1641, 1654, or 1663? 

Some of your correspondents probably will 
settle this question, which will be of great use if 
it correct only what appears to be an error on 
the authority of Lowndes. S. H. 



LOUIS DE BEAUFORT. 

Since the publication of Niebuhr's work, and 
the increased interest which it has awakened re- 
specting the early Roman history, attention has 
been attracted to the researches of Beaufort, who 
was the first to make a systematic investigation 
of the evidences for the history of the first five 
centuries of Rome. The first edition of his work 
(a copy of which is lying before me) was pub- 
lished at Utrecht in 1738, in one volume 12iuo., 
consisting of a short preface and 348 pages. The 
title-page is, Dissertation sur I 'incertitude des cinq 
premiers siecles de I'histoire romaine, par Mons. 
L. D. B. An English translation of this edition 
is stated by Hooke, in his " Dissertation on the 
Credibility of the First 500 Years of Rome" (in 
his History'), to have been published in 1740. A 
second edition of this work, revised, corrected, 
and considerably augmented, was published at 
the Hague in 1750. Copies of the first edition 
may occasionally be met with, but I have never 
been able to see a copy of the second edition, and 
should be much obliged to any of your corre- 
spondents who would inform me of a library 
where a copy exists. The British Museum library 
does not appear to possess a copy either of the 
first or second edition, or of the English trans- 
lation.* In the Preliminary Discourse to the 
Republique Romaine (Paris, 1767, 6 vols. 12mo.), 
published with M. de Beaufort's name, his author- 
ship of the Dissertation is acknowledged. 

The account of M. de Beaufort, which is given 
in the Biographic Universelle, and other French 
biographical dictionaries, is extremely meagre. 
Niebuhr (Lect. on Roman History, vol. i. p. Ixxvii. 
edit. Schmitz) says that he was a refugee (i. e. a 
Protestant refugee), who had lived for a long 
time in England. He was a member of the Royal 
Society of London ; he afterwards became pre- 
ceptor of the Prince of Hesse Homburg, and 



[* The English translation is in the King's Library, 
British Museum, s. v, DISSERTATION : press-mark, 293. 
b. 11.] 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



died at Maestricht in 1795. Is anything known 
of his life beyond these few particulars ? and is 
there any trace of his residence in England ? As 
he only died in 1795, there must be persons now 
alive who remember him. He must have lived to 
a great age, for he could scarcely have been less 
than thirty when his first publication appeared. L. 



POPIANA : JAMES MOOKE SMITH, OE SMTTH. 

Every reader of Pope knows how unenviable an 
immortality the poet has conferred on Mr. James 
Moore Smith, or Smyth ; but they are surprised 
and disappointed that none of the editors give any 
account of a gentleman who was distinguished at 
one time by Pope's friendship, as he was after- 
wards by his hostility. We gather, incidentally, 
that his original name was James Moore ; that he 
was the son of Arthur Moore ; that he assumed 
the additional name of Smyth; that he was at 
one time intimate with Pope, who " rhymed for 
Moore ;" that he was the author of a play, called 
The Rival Modes ; and, finally, that he was an 
acquaintance and correspondent of the Miss 
Blounts, and that to this latter circumstance has 
been attributed the intense animosity with which 
Pope seems to have pursued him. 

Arthur Moore was M.P., and a man of some 
note in the political world, of sufficient import- 
ance to be excepted from some act of amnesty, I 
think on the South Sea or Charitable Corporation 
affairs. I should be obliged by any farther in- 
formation about him. I also wish to know when 
and why James Moore took the name of Smyth ; 
whether he was married, and to whom ; and when 
he died. C. 



SSHnar 

Marriages between Cousins. What is the reason 
that writers of fiction in general make cousins fall 
in love with and marry each other? We all 
know the consequences of such marriages. I am 
afraid it is out of the province of " N. & Q." to 
obtain answers to such a question ; but if you 
would insert it, it would confer a great obligation 
on your old subscriber, H. M. 

Peckham. 

Paterson, Pounder of the Sank. To what 
company did the founder of the Bank of Eng- 
land, " William Paterson, merchant," belong ? B. 

Fitchetfs "King Alfred." Having lately met 
with the following work, King Alfred, a poem, by 
John Fitchett, in 6 vols. 8vo., London, 1841, 
which appears to me to have been, from its size 
and quantity of matter, a most stupendous un- 



dertaking in an individual, I shall feel indebted 
to any reader of " N. & Q." who will give me, 
or refer me to, a biographical memoir of Mr. 
Fitchett, and inform me how long his labours 
occupied him, &c. I observe the respected name 
of Roscoe appears as the editor. 2. (1) 

" Albert sur les Operations de FAme" 

" Albert, premier Medecin du Roi de Prusse, dans son 
traite 1 sur les operations de Tame, a bien explique 1'action. 
de Pargile dans la Tarentula, et de 1'eau dans 1'hydro- 
phobie. II les croit la meme maladie." Essai sur le 
Magnetisme, par B. Charlier, Brussels, 1803, p. 31. 

Can any of your readers help me to the passage 
in Albert's writings, or say where I can find any 
account of him ? A. J. 

Anointing of Bishops. It is stated by Strype, 
in his Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, that on 
Sunday, Sept. 5, 1547, Nicholas Ridley "was 
consecrated Bishop of Rochester by Henry, Bishop- 
of Lincoln," and others, " according to the old 
custom of the Church, by the unction of holy 
chrism, as well as imposition of hands." That on 
Sunday, Sept. 9, in- the following year, " Robert 
Farrar was consecrated Bishop of St. David's by 
Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, endued with 
his pontificals," and others. " Then certain hymns, 
psalms, and prayers being recited, together with 
a portion of Scripture read in the vulgar tongue 
out of St. Paul's Epistles, and the Gospel of St. 
Matthew, the Archbishop celebrated the sacra- 
ment of the body and blood of Christ." The 
Communion, we are afterwards informed, was dis- 
tributed in English. That on June 29, 1550, 
" John Ponet was consecrated Bishop of Rochester 
at Lambeth;" and that "this ceremony was per- 
formed with all the usual ceremonies and habits;" 
that the Archbishop, "having on his mitre and 
cope, usual in such cases, went into his chapel 
handsomely and decently adorned, to celebrate the 
Lord's Supper according to the custom and by 
prescript of the book intituled 'The Book of 
Common Service ;' " and that the bishops " assist- 
ing, and having their surplices and copes on, and 
their pastoral staves in their hands, led Dr. John 
Ponet, endued with the like habits, in the middle 
of them unto the most reverend father ;" and he 
was " elected, and consecrated, and endued with 
the episcopal ornaments." 

My Queries are : Was Nicholas Ridley the last 
bishop who was consecrated by the unction of the 
holy chrism ? Was Robert Farrar the first who 
was consecrated without it ? When were the 
mitre and pastoral staff, spoken of at the consecra- 
tion of John Ponet, last used ? O. S. 

Oxford. 

Justice George Wood. Having had an oppor- 
tunity of looking into Shaw's History of Stafford- 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



shire, referred to by your obliging correspondent 
MB. HUGHES, without being so fortunate as to 
succeed in discovering any particulars relating to 
the above-named gentleman, MR. HUGHES will 
perhaps be so good, in order to assist my farther 
search, as to name the pages in Shaw where the 
desired information may be sought for. 

Having observed in a foot-note to Lysons' 
Mag. Britannia, Cheshire, p. 501., that Hall-o'- 
Wood, in Balterley, situate partly in Cheshire 
and partly in Staffordshire, is said to have been 
built by Chief Justice Thomas Wood early in the 
sixteenth century, it occurs to me that Justice 
George Wood might have been a descendant of 
the Chief Justice. And probably MB. HUGHES, 
or some other of your genealogical correspondents, 
can throw light on the subject, and furnish the 
arms those judges bore, which would tend to 
establish a family connexion between them. 

CESTBIENSIS. 

Old Map of Mendip, co. Somerset. I have a 
large and old oil painting by me, with the follow- 
ing title over it, " Meyndeepe, with its adjacent 
villages and laws." It is a bird's-eye view of the 
hills, and its mineries, and is surrounded by por- 
traits of the many parish churches in the neigh- 
bourhood. On each side are the curious " minery 
laws," which appear to have been drawn up by 
"My Lord Chocke," whom "King Edward y e 
Fourth ordered to goe downe into y e county of 
Meyndeepe, to sett a concord and peace, upon 
Meyndeepe, upon paine of his high displeasure ; " 
there being, at that time, a great dispute "be- 
tween my Lord Bonvill's tenants of Chuton, and 
the Prior of Green Oare." 

I am anxious to know if this map has been en- 
graved, and when ? Or, are any of your readers 
in possession of a similar one ? Will some Somer- 
setshire or other reader of the " N. & Q." en- 
lighten me ? W. G. 
Bristol. 

Black Livery Stockings. In Southey's Letters 
from Spain and Portugal, London, 1808, p. 199. : 

" A Duke of Medina Celi formerly murdered a man, 
and as the court would not, or could not, execute so 
powerful a noble, they obliged their pages to wear black 
stockings, and always to have a gallows standing before 
their palace door. The late king permitted them to re- 
move the gallows, but the black stockings still remain a 
singular badge of ignominy." 

Can any of the English families whose liveries 
have black stockings be traced to a similar origin ? 

W. M. M. 

Thomas Rolf. Can any of your readers give 
me information as to the history of Thomas Rolf, 
who was buried in the Church of St. Catherine, 
Gosfield, Essex, about the year 1440 ? On the 
altar-tomb is his effigy in brass, with the subjoined 



inscription, in which he is called professor of law. 
Manning, in his List of Monumental Brasses, styles 
him "Thomas Rolf, Judge" In the Manual of 
Monumental Brasses, published by the Oxford 
Society, he is called " professor of law." Is the 
term " professor of law " synonymous with that of 
"serjeant at law?" for in the Oxford Manual 
the robes of the judges and barons of the Exche- 
quer are said to consist of the coif or skull-cap, a 
long robe with narrow sleeves, a hood, a tippet, 
and a mantle buttoned on the right shoulder. 
The dress of serjeant at law was the same, with 
the exception of the mantle, which they did not 
wear ; and to their hoods two labels were attached. 
Thomas Rolf has the latter dress. Must not Mr. 
Manning, therefore, have been mistaken in sup- 
posing him to have been upon the bench ? May 
he not have been an ancestor of Thomas Monsey 
Rolf, Lord Cranworth, now Lord Chancellor ? 

" Quadringenteno : semel. M. quat' X numerato Juni 
viceno septeno consociato. Legi p'fessus: sic Thomas 
Rolf requiescit, morbis dep'ssus, huic Xp'i vera quies sit. 
J&& dedit ip'e satis miserisque viris maculatis. Came 
p'stratis ; et virginibus bona gratis. Int' Juristas, quasi 
flos enituit iste, mortis post istos ritus vivat tibi Xp'e. 
Celi gemma bona ; succurre reo Katerina, mitis patrona ; 
sis huic Thome Medicina." 

W. T. T. 

Ipswich. 

" Emsdorjffsfame" 8fC. I am anxious to pro- 
cure a copy of a metrical address to the 15th 
Regiment of Hussars, commencing : 

" EmsdorfPs fame unfurl'd before you, 
Brave Fifteenth, your standards rear," 

and to learn the author's name. Perhaps your 
correspondent MB. H. L. MANSEL can supply a 
copy of this address, and furnish the name of its 
author, as he lately published in your columns 
some valuable details relative to the battle of 
Villers-en-Couche, in which the gallant 15th 
Hussars also distinguished themselves. Were the 
above words ever set to music ? JUVEBNA. 

" Platonism Exposed" I have a theological 
pamphlet of 128 pages, the title-page of which is 
lost, and the running title is " A Candid Inquiry." 
From the matter and print, I suppose it to be of 
about the middle of the last century. The author 
says, at p. 42. : 

" Had Lord Bolingbroke been a Greek scholar, he would 
not have taken his notions of the Platonic Trinity from 
Platonism Exposed, which is itself the compilation of one 
who also took his learning at second hand." 

Again, at p. 80. : 

" Platonism Exposed would look very meagre, if the 
unacknowledged obligations to Bayle and Le Clerc were 
withdrawn. The author had no Greek." 

Platonism Exposed seems to have been a well- 
known work, from the way in which it is men- 
tioned. Can any of your readers tell me what it 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



is, and where it is to be found ? I shall be glad 
to know the title-page or author of the pamphlet 
above mentioned. P. A. 

Brasses restored. Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform me of a way in which the ancient 
brasses, which are to be found in some of the 
country churches, may be rendered visible, and 
the inscriptions made legible ? 

JOHN STANLEY, M.A. 

Sassanian Inscriptions. In Buckingham's 
Travels in Assyria, vol. i. p. 473., I find the fol- 
lowing : 

" Between the second and third cave is a figure of a 
Sassanian monarch on horseback, with a Roman prisoner 
supplicating him in the act of kneeling. Behind this is 
an inscription of at least one hundred lines in the Sassa- 
nian character, which might easily be copied." 

Can any of your correspondents inform me 
whether this inscription, apparently at Nakhsch- 
i-Rustam, near Persepolis, has been copied, and 
where it is to be found ? I am certain no inscrip- 
tion of that length is to be found either in Porter 
or Ouseley ; but not being able to consult either, 
I cannot tell whether they mention it at all. The 
Nakhsch-i-Rustam inscriptions in De Sacy are 
very short. 

Have any better transcripts of the Sassanian 
inscriptions at the Takht-i-Jemschid been pub- 
lished than those given in Ouseley 's Travels, 
vol. ii. ? 

Coste and Flandin spent some time at Persepolis 
in particular ; and, possibly, their large work on 
Persia may answer my Queries. If so, I should 
be much obliged by the references from any one 
who can and will consult it. W. H. S. 

Greatest Happiness of the greatest Number. 
Can any of your correspondents trace to its origin 
the theory of " the greatest happiness of the 
greatest number," which we are accustomed to 
identify with the name of Jeremy Bentham ? 

It is laid down at the opening of the well- 
known work of that truly great man Beccaria, 
Dei Delitti e delle Pene, in these words, " La 
massima felicita divisa nel maggior numero." Bec- 
caria's Treatise was first published in the year 
1764. WM. EWAKT. 

University Club. 

Choke Damp. Wanted, the method of making 
choke damp for putting out coal-pit fires : the pit 
of a friend has unfortunately caught fire. 

EDWAKD HOGG. 

Remarkable Prediction. I cut the annexed 
slip out of a recent number of the Staffordshire 
Advertiser, as it has evident marks of modern 
fabrication about it. Perhaps the Bristol Mirror 
will reflect a little more light upon the old volume 
of predictions, and let the world know who the 



gentleman referred to is ; or, at all events, give us 
the full title of the book. 

" Remarkable. Prediction. The following is taken from 
an old volume of predictions, written in the fifteenth 
century, and now in the possession of a gentleman resid- 
ing at Chard, Somerset : 

' In twice two hundred years the Bear 

The Crescent will assail ; 
But if the Cock and Bull unite, 

The Bear will not prevaiL 
In twice ten years again, 

Let Islam know and fear, 
The Cross shall stand, 
The Crescent wane, dissolve, and disappear.' 

Bristol Mirror." 

KICUAED GEIEVE. 
Lichfield. 

The late Rev. James Plumptre. I beg to ask 
whether any reader of " N. & Q." can inform me 
in whose hands are the papers of the clergyman 
above named, who was formerly Vicar of Great 
Gransden, Huntingdonshire, and the author of 
various works ? My object in this inquiry is 
purely literary. D. 

Leonard Welste'd. I persuade myself that 
next to answering a question the best thing is to 
ask one, all reasonable inquiry and search having 
been previously made. On this self-approving 
principle I proceed to trouble you. We have 
acres of notes, old and new, to The Dunciad, and 
are therefore pretty well informed about Welsted ; 
but there is a reference to him in a note by Pope 
on the Prologue to the Satires, wherein we are 
told, "This man had the impudence to tell, in 
print, that Mr. P. had occasioned a lady's death, 
and to name a person he had never heard of." 
Where was " Welsted's lie " circulated, and who 
was the lady named ? W. L. 



toft!) 

Druids and Druidism. Whoever will mention 
the names of any books on Druidism or Druidical 
remains will oblige me very much. What others 
are there besides Toland and Higgins ? 

L. M. M. R. 

[Consult a valuable tractate, entitled The Patriarchal 
Religion of Britain, or a Complete Manual of Ancient 
British Druidism, by the Rev. D. James, 8vo., 1836 ; also 
An Inquiry into the Patriarchal and Druidical Religion, 
Temples, frc., by the Rev. Wm. Cooke, 1754 ; Dr. James 
Parsons' Remains of Japhet, 4to., 1767 ; Britannia after 
the Romans, 4to., 1837 ; Identity of the Religions called 
Druidical and Hebrew, demonstrated from the Nature and 
Objects of their Worship, 12mo., 1829; Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica, under the words BARDS and DRUIDS. About the 
year 1792, a short sketch of "Bardfsm," which was a 
component part of Druidism, was given by the celebrated 
Welsh philologist, William Owen, Esq. : it was embodied 
in his Introduction to the Heroic Elegies of Llywarch Hen. 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



Two years after appeared an Epitome of the Druidic Sys- 
tem, by Edward Williams, the venerable bard of Glamor- 
gan : it will be found at the close of the second volume of 
his Lyric and Pastoral Poems. In 1804 the Rev. Edward 
Davies published his Celtic Researches on the Origin, Tra- 
ditions, and Language of the Ancient Britons. This work 
is interspersed with valuable notices on the subject of 
Druidism, and supplies the deficiencies of preceding 
writers.] 

Psalm Ixviii. 4. In our present editions of the 
Book of Common Prayer, this verse reads " Praise 
Him in His name JAH, and rejoice before Him." 
In all the early editions, viz. those of Elizabeth 
and James I., in the sealed copy of the last Re- 
vision in the Tower of London, and in the edition 
of 1662, and others, printed from it, and in the 
Prayer Books of 1707, the reading is "Praise 
Him in His name, yea and rejoice before Him." 

I do not possess an edition between 1707 and 
the present century, and cannot tell how much 
longer the latter reading was continued. Can 
you give the information at what time, and by 
what authority, the alteration was made ? 

VOKABOS. 

[We have before us The Booke of Common Prayer, pre- 
pared by authority of Archbishop Laud, for the use of the 
Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1637, fol., in which the 
reading is Jah. Lewis, in his History of the Translations 
of the Bible, p. 129., edit. 1818, speaking of Cranmer's, or 
the Great Bible of 1539, says, " According to this trans- 
lation were the Psalms, Epistles, and Gospels, &c. in our 
Liturgy, with very little variation, of which this is one, 
that whereas in this edition of 1539, Psalm Ixviii. 4. is 
rendered ' Praise him in his name JAH, and rejoice before 
Him,' by some mistake or other the word Jah, in the after 
editions, is printed Yea."~\ 

Coroners' Inquests (Vol. ix., p. 483. " Notices to 
Correspondents"). I find in my note-book the 
following extract from the register of Denton 
Church, Hunts (the church in which Sir Robert 
Cotton was baptized) : 

" Anno 1678. John, the son of Will. Callis, was drowned 
25 th of Aprill, and buried 28 th , after y e coroner had past 
his verdict upon him. Anno p. dicto." 

I also made the following extract from the same 
register : 

" 1704 April y e 9 th , collected on y e Brief for y e poor 
Protestants, y e sum of ten shillings. Collected at y c same 
time, on y e Wapping Brief, y e sum of three shillings." 

Who were the "poor Protestants" thus re- 
lieved; and for what was "the Wapping brief?" 
CUTHBEBT BEDE, B.A. 

[The London Gazette of Dec. 20-23, 1703, contains the 
following order : " Whereas Her Majesty has been gra- 
ciously pleased to grant a brief for a collection towards 
the relief of the poor sufferers by the late dreadful fire at 
Execution Dock in Wapping, near London, most of whom 
are seamen, aea artificers, and poor seamen's widows, 
whose loss amounts to 13,040/." In the Postman of 
Feb. 1-3, 1704, it is stated that "On Sunday last Her 
Majesty's Brief for the relief of the persecuted Protestants 
of Orange was published, not only in most of the churches, 



but also in the meeting-houses of the Protestant Dis- 
senters of the city."] 

" Talliages." Can any of your readers inform 
me of what talliages consisted ? I am aware of 
their general nature, but I want to know whether 
they were imposed on individuals or on parishes, 
and by whom and by what authority ? It was no 
uncommon thing for charitably disposed persons 
to leave property to a parish, in aid of its " rents, 
talliages, and assessments." C. F. K. 

[Talliage was a general word including all subsidies, 
taxes, tenths, or other charges laid upon any person. 
Madox, in his History of the Exchequer, p. 480., fol., says, 
" There were two sorts of talliage : one paid to the king, 
the other to a subordinate lord. The talliage rendered to 
the king was raised upon his demesnes, escheats, and 
wardships, and upon the burghs and towns of the realm. 
In the elder times it was usually called donum and assisa. 
Donum was used with great latitude. To avoid confusion, 
I have in my own mind reduced its meaning to two or 
three particular heads : that is to say, when it was paid 
for or out of lands which were not of military tenure, it 
signified hidage ; when it was [paid out of knights' fees, 
it was scutage; and when it was paid by towns and 
burghs, it was talliage : or it signified in general, accord- 
ing as it was applied, either aid, scutage, or talliage."] 

Pengwern Hall. In the neighbourhood of 
Llangollen is a farm-house named Pengwern 
Hall, some portions of which bear marks of an- 
tiquity : as, for instance, in the Shippon are two 
pointed, trefoil, arched windows of the sixteenth 
century, and in another outbuilding a debased 
window of the same antiquity; while within the 
house there is what is there styled a crypt, with 
groined roof, which is stated or supposed to be of 
great antiquity. I have looked in all the guide- 
books, and in Pennant, who state that this was 
an old palace of Tudor Trevor, who flourished 
A.D. 924. Can any of your correspondents give a 
more full account than the brief statement con- 
tained in the guide-books? or refer me to any 
source for information ? 

There is a confused tradition in the neighbour- 
hood about some king buried at Pengwern : who ? 

F. R. I. 

[Llys Pengwern now forms a portion of Mostyn Hall, 
the seat of Lord Mostyn, of which a detailed account 
is given in Beauties of England and Wales, vol. xvii. 
pp. 727-36.] 

Prince Charles's House in Derby. Can any 
one give me information of an old house in Derby, 
said to have been occupied by Prince Charles, 
while he was in that town ? I have heard lately 
that such a house still exists, and that it is likely 
to be pulled down, if some one who values the 
associations connected with it does not save it. 

L. M. M. R. 

[This house, situate in Full Street, is noticed by Pil- 
kington and Lysons, who state that at the time Charles 
Edward Stuart entered the town (December 4, 1745) it 
belonged to the Earl of Exeter. In 1789 it was occupied 
by a Mr. Bingham, and in 1817 by Mr. Edwards.] 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



Singed Vellum. Can any of your readers 
assist me in the following case ? A few years ago 
the vicarage house of an adjoining parish was 
burnt down. The parish register, consisting of 
several old volumes in vellum, received consider- 
able injury. At the first glance they have the 
appearance of masses of charred wood. The 
edges of the leaves, for half an inch to an inch 
inwards, have been burnt away ; and the re- 
mainder of each volume, although not destroyed, 
has been rendered useless by the action of the 
heat. These leaves, instead of being flat^ and 
smooth, as heretofore, are now curled, twisted, 
contracted, contorted, involuted, convoluted, and 
crumpled together so densely and so rigidly, 
that they resist all attempts, except violence, to 
separate them. But violence is destruction, be- 
cause the heat and the dryness have rendered 
them brittle. Any attempt to unfold them from 
their present involutions only cracks them. The 
writing is brown from age, as in other MSS. of 
equal date, but has received no manifest injury 
from the fire. 

My Query is this : Can any of your readers 
inform me whether there is a process by which 
vellum, in such a state, may be softened and un- 
folded, without injury to the writing ? 

PETER HUTCHINSON. 

Sidmouth. 

[If our correspondent refers to Sims' Handbook to the 
Library of the British Museum, p. 26., he will find that, 
since 1842, no less than one hundred volumes written 
upon vellum, and ninety-seven upon paper, which were 
among the burnt fragments of the Cottonian MSS., have 
been restored under the directions of Sir Frederick Madden, 
the present keeper of the MSS. Having had occasion 
recently to consult one of these, namely, the MS. of the 
French version of the Ancren Rewle, described in our 
Ninth Volume, p. 6., we can speak to the great skill with 
which that unique volume has been flattened and ren- 
dered fit for use. ED. " N. & Q."] 



itqjttak 

LORD BACON AND SHAK.SPEARE. j 

(Vol. viii., p. 438.) 

The suggestion of THETA for an inquiry why 
these two great cotemporaries make no mention 
of each other, has not, I believe, produced any 
result. It might, I think, be very reasonably ac- 
counted for by several circumstances of dissimi- 
larity of condition and pursuits, and especially the 
fact that Shakspeare died before Bacon had pub- 
lished, or perhaps written, any of his celebrated 
works, or was otherwise known than as a success- 
ful lawyer. There can be little doubt that Bacon 
must have seen some of Shakspeare's plays acted, 
and may even have read some of them in the im- 
perfect quartos ; but the first collection of them in 
the folio of 1623 was but three years prior to 



Bacon's death, who could not, till then, have been 
acquainted with the full extent of Shakspeare'a 
genius ; and at that late period, or even earlier, it 
is not likely that the great legist and philosopher 
should have any occasion to allude to the great 
dramatist and poet. These reasons might, I think, 
reasonably account for the mutual silence of their 
works ; but I suspect that Bacon and Shakspeare 
knew much more of each other than either had 
any ambition to record. We know but too well 
how little satisfaction Bacon could have had in 
recalling to notice the proceedings against Essex 
and Southampton, in which a tragedy of Richard 
II. formed a prominent feature. This tragedy, 
altered for the occasion, the actors were bribed to 
play the night before Essex's insurrection, to in- 
flame the public mind ; and I cannot but suspect 
that Shakspeare himself was employed by South- 
ampton on this occasion, and that Southampton's 
long friendship and munificent patronage of Shak- 
speare date from this event ; and if so, there was 
good reason why Bacon and Shakspeare should 
not have much liked bringing their names to- 
gether. C. 



COLERIDGE S LECTURES ON SHAKSPEARE. 

(Vol. x., p. 1.) 

Every friend and admirer of the genius and 
superior talents with which Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge was gifted, and of the eloquent and exube- 
rant manner in which he poured forth his thoughts, 
must be delighted with the announcement MR. 
COLLIER has made of the discovery of his missing 
short-hand notes of Coleridge's lectures on Shak- 
speare. The quotations he promises * will be anx- 
iously looked for by the public generally, more 
particularly by his relatives, friends, and school- 
fellows. I am one of the few of his cotemporaries 
at Christ's Hospital that now remain. 

MR. COLLIER, in his communication to " N. & 
Q.," states, that "for Coleridge's third lecture, 
and indeed for the remainder of the series, he 
made no preparation, and was liked better than 
ever, and vociferously and heartily cheered. The 
reason was obvious, for what came from the heart 
of the speaker went warm to the heart of the 
hearer ; and though the illustrations might not be 
so good, yet being extemporaneous, and often 
from objects immediately before his eyes, they 
made more impression, and seemed to have more 
aptitude." 

In the first edition of Coleridge's Literary Re- 
mains^, vol. ii. p. 4., is a letter from him to Mr. 



[ * We shall have the pleasure of printing- a. farther com- 
munication from MR. COLLIER on this interesting subject 
in our next Number. ED. "N. & Q-"] 

t In this volume are many extracts, taken from a MS. 
common-place book in my possession. 



Aua. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



Britton, in which he thus correctly corroborates 
MR. COLLIER'S description of the delivery of his 
thoughts and feelings at his lectures : 

"The day of the lecture, till the hour of commence- 
ment," Mr. Coleridge says, " I devote to the consideration, 
What of the mass before me is best fitted to answer the 
purposes of a lecture ? that is, to keep the audience awake 
and interested during the delivery, and to leave a sting 
behind ; that is, a disposition to study the subject anew, 
under the light of a new principle. Several times, how- 
ever, partly from apprehension respecting my health and 
animal spirits, partly from my wish to possess copies that 
might afterwards be marketable among the publishers, I 
have previously written the lecture; but before I had 
proceeded twenty minutes I have been obliged to push 
the MS. away, and give the subject a new turn. Nay, 
this was so notorious, that many of my auditors used to 
threaten me, when they saw any number of written papers 
on my desk, to steal them away, declaring they never felt 
so secure of a good lecture as when they perceived that I 
had not a single scrap of writing before me. I take far, 
far more pains than would go to the set composition of a 
lecture, both by varied reading and by meditation ; but 
for the words, illustrations, &c., I know almost as little as 
any one of the audience (that is, those of anything like 
the same education with myself) what they will be five 
minutes before the lecture begins. Such is my way, for 
such is my nature ; and in attempting any other I should 
only torment myself in order to disappoint my auditors, 
torment myself during the delivery, I mean ; for in all 
other respects it would be a much shorter and easier task 
to deliver them in writing." 

My late friend Dr. Dibdin also thus describes 
Coleridge's powers in lecturing and conversation. 
There are none, indeed, of his friends that could 
not bear testimony to the wonderful facility and 
the sweet tones in which he gave utterance to his 
thoughts : 

" I shall never forget the effect his conversation made 
upon me at the first meeting. It struck me as something 
not only quite out of the ordinary course of things, but as 
an intellectual exhibition almost matchless ; there seemed 
to be no dish like Coleridge's conversation to feed upon, 
and] no information so varied and so instructive as his 
own. The orator rolled himself up as it were in his chair, 
and gave the most unrestrained indulgence to his speech ; 
and how fraught with acuteness and originality was that 
speech ; and in what copious and elegant periods did it 
flow ! As I retired homewards, I thought a second John- 
son had visited the earth, to make wise the sons of men ; 
and regretted that I could not exercise the powers of a 
second Boswell, to record the wisdom and the eloquence 
which had that evening flowed from the orator's lips. It 
haunted me as I retired to rest. It drove away slumber ; 
or, if I lapsed into sleep, there was Coleridge his snuff- 
box and 'kerchief before my eyes ! his mildly beaming 
looks, his occasionally deep tone of voice, and the excited 
features of his physiognomy. The manner of Coleridge 
was rather emphatic than dogmatic, and thus he was 
generally and satisfactorily listened to. It might be said 
of Coleridge, as Cowper has so happily said of Sir Philip 
Sidney, that he was the ' warbler of poetic prose.' 

"There was always this characteristic feature in his 
multifarious conversation;. it was delicate, reverend, and 
courteous. The chastest ear could drink in no startling 
sound; the most serious believer never had his bosom 
ruffled by one sceptical or reckless assertion. Coleridge 
was eminently simple in his manner : thinking and speak- 



ing were his delight ; and he would sometimes seem, 
during the most fervid moments of discourse, to be ab- 
stracted from all and everything around and about him, 
and to be basking in the sunny warmth of his own radiant 
imagination." Dibdin's Reminiscences, part i. p. 253. 

Your readers will, I trust, excuse this ebul- 
lition of feeling and regard for an endeavour to 
pourtray my reminiscences of an old and valued 
friend and schoolfellow, who printed for him, 
while resident at Calne in Wiltshire, the original 
edition of his Biographia Literaria, 1817. Cole- 
ridge also, when resident in Bristol, contributed 
to the columns of Felix Farley's Journal, of which 
I was the proprietor and editor, where appeared 
also some brief notices of his lectures upon Shak- 
speare delivered there ; but my ignorance of short- 
hand deprived me of the pleasure of making full 
reports. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 



HYDROPATHY. 

(Vol. ix., p. 395.) 

The medicinal qualities of water have been 
known from very early times. The Romans ap- 
preciated its excellence far more than we, not- 
withstanding our Sanitary Commission, our baths 
and our wash-houses. More than a century ago, 
hydropathy was practised in France, it would seem 
with very good effect. The following letter is 
extracted from the Genilemaris Magazine, vol. vii. 
(1737), p. 4.: 

" Caen, Normandy, Dec. 30, 1736, N. S. 

" My indisposition may justly be an Excuse for my 
slowness in answering your last kind Letter. For during 
almost three Months last past, I have been so afllicted 
with an Ague and Fever, that it had nigh ruin'd my Con- 
stitution and Pocket, by the great Quantity of Bark I had 
taken; and to so little purpose,, that I thought myself 
nearer Death than Recovery. In this feeble condition, I 
took a Resolution to go to an old Abbe' at Bayeux, who 
has for eight years practis'd with Success the giving com- 
mon Water medicinally, and cur'd in that time all sorts 
of Distempers. I became one of his Patients, but with 
little confidence in Water. However, I was persuaded it 
could do me no harm, if it did me no good ; he began 
with giving me his Emetic, which is nothing else but 
warm Water, and a feather to tickle one's Throat; I 
vomited heartily, and found Relief ; he then sweated me 
4 mornings together ; the 5th morning to my surprize he 
told me I was cured, and that the Ague would not return ; 
I was overjoyed to hear it ; but so unable to believe it, 
that I stayed three Weeks after, and boarded with him ; 
in which time he cured the Dropsy, Asthma, Gout, 
Colick, and other bad complaints, and all after the 
Physicians had condemned them. I had the pleasure to 
see these persons cured, and to enjoy, by his Method, per- 
fect health myself ; and he has given me Memorandums 
sufficient to be my own Doctor during my life. The poor 
Devil has been attack'd by the Physicians and Apothe- 
caries, but he answered them so well as to gain applause. 
When I have the pleasure of seeing you, I will show you 
some of his Writing. 

" Yours, &c. C. D." 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



I have never seen Smith's Curiosities of Com- 
mon Water, Sfc. ; and E. W. J. gives no date ; 
probably, however, it is more recent than the 
above-quoted. If "the poor devil's" answers to 
the physicians and apothecaries ever assumed a 
printed form, it is not impossible that Smith may 
have seen them. Query, does John Smith, in his 
pamphlet, make any mention of this Abbe of 
Bayeux ? EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



CATHOLIC FLORAL DIRECTORIES : DR. FORSTER*S 
WORKS.! 

(Vol. ix., p. 568.) 

I have just read EIRIONNACH'S Note on Catho- 
lic Floral Directories. That Dr. Thomas Forster, 
F.L.S., a retired medical physician, is the author 
of the Catholic Annual, containing the extracts 
from the Anthologia Borealis et Australis, and the 
Florilegium Sanctorum Aspirationum, there seems 
no doubt, as I have seen a copy so presented by 
him to a private library. 

Here it may be of use to notice the following 
also, as well as the work above cited, all written 
by him ; some with, some without his name : 

The Catholic Annual, containing the Circle of the 
Seasons, and Key to the Calendar, 12mo., 1830, Prole- 
gomena, pp. cxlviii. 

The Catholic Annnal for the Year 1831, 12mo. Third 
Edition, pp. 24. 

The Catholic Tear Book, comprehending the Circle of 
the Seasons, &c., fitted as a Christmas Present, 12mo., 
1833 : and Circle of the Seasons, Second Edition, 12mo., 
1829, pp. 432. 

This volume is described as " sent into the world 
for^ the third time, with large supplementary ad- 
ditions." 

* Observations on the Brumal Eetreat of the Swallow, 
Fifth Edition, 8vo., 1817. 

* Observations on the Influence of the Atmosphere on 
Health, &c., 8vo., 1817. 

* Flora Tonbrigensis : Catalogue of Wild Plants in the 
Neighbourhood of Tonbridge Wells, 12mo., 1816. 

* Facts respecting the Source of Epidemia, Third Edi- 
tion, 8vo., 1832. 

* Essay on Cholera Morbus, Second Edition, 8vo., 1831. 

* Annals of Aerial Voyages, 8vo., 1832. 

* Researches about Atmospheric Phenomena, Third 
Edition : to which is added the Calendar of Nature, 8vo., 
1823. 

This Calendar extends from the years 1807 to 
1823 : it is described as extracted from a Latin 
journal, and the author apologises for numerous 
imperfections owing to his never intending the 
early part of it for publication. It is perhaps in 
this Latin journal the extracts, cited in the Circle 
of the Seasons, were originally entered. 
The last work is 

Medicina Simplex, or the Pilgrim's Way Book, by a 
Physician, 12mo., 1832. 



Those in the foregoing list with an asterisk have 
the author's name. 

With regard to the "literary hoax" practised 
upon his readers by the quotations from the 
Anthologia and Florilegium, I am afraid Dr. For- 
ster could plead great examples, if not sound 
morals, for his justification. Are not Cleghorn on 
the Beatitudes, or Pickler on the Nine Difficult 
Points, cited by the late Rev. Sydney Smith, 
works only to be found " in the cabinets of the 
curious" as the late Lord Melbourne. 

Were not some descriptions of the later pictures 
by Turner, cited from a work of MS. poetry in 
his possession ? and are not some headings to 
chapters in the Waverley Novels similar exam- 
ples of " quotation ? " 

I may be mistaken ; perhaps your readers may 
correct and extend the list of works of " literary 
hoax," and an amusing chapter might be written 
if I could but pursue the subject. 

If EIRIONNACH indulge in the " weed," " fra- 
grant" or "nasty," as the case may be, he will 
find, in the Medicina Simplex, pp. 244., the fol- 
lowing. After an eulogium upon smoking, Dr. 
Forster adds : 

" The best composition for smoking, both as to general 
usefulness and against infection, is the following : 
Turkey tobacco - - - 1 Ib. 

Dutch canaster tobacco - - - 4 oz. 

Cascarilla bark, broken small - - 1 oz. 

Mix the above well, and smoke a pipe of it every 
evening : it is also a good digester after meals." 

This is a Note probably of interest to many a 
Parr Subscriber to " N. & Q." 

In conclusion let me add, I am afraid that Dr. 
Forster died at Brussels some short time since, 
my information resting upon a recollection of a 
notice to that effect, which I have an impression 
I have read. S. H. 



WARBtJHTON S EDITION OF POPE. 

(Vol. x., pp. 41. 90.) 

MR. MARKLAND has incidentally opened, and 
M. M. K. has followed up, a subject of consider- 
able importance to the literary history of Pope 
and Warburton. I had long since arrived at a 
strong suspicion that Warburton had taken con- 
siderable liberties with Pope's papers, and I trust 
that the discussion that has now arisen may lead 
to some explanation of circumstances as yet very 
obscure. 

I will begin by endeavouring to reconcile Wai- 
pole's statement (quoted by MR. MARKLAND) with 
M. M. K.'s difficulty as to the enormous extent of 
the alterations imputed. Walpole in 1751 had not 
yet become a printer, and was, perhaps, not fami- 
liar with the technical meaning of the word sheets, 
which it is possible that he may have used on this 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



occasion as equivalent to leaves, as the "cancelling 
an hundred sheets" in the printing-house meaning 
of the term, seems to me, as to M. M. K., incre- 
dible. But, however that may have been, I doubt 
whether anything of the kind happened with re- 
spect to the edition which Warburton published 
in 1751, which I have now before me, and which, 
to the best of my judgment, has no marks of any 
cancels whatsoever. M. M. K. thinks there is a 
great deal of mystery about this edition, which he 
states that Pope's editors, including Mr. Carru- 
thers, all believe to have been in preparation, and 
partly printed, before Pope's death. This M. M. K. 
doubts. I go farther : I disbelieve it totally. I 
have not Mr. Carruthers' volume at hand, but I 
can hardly think that he says so ; and I do not re- 
member that any other editor does ; nor do I see 
anything in Warburton's preface to countenance 
this conjecture. 

My guess at a solution of the difficulty is this : 
There can be no doubt that Pope was, in 1744-5, 
preparing, and had proceeded a good way in 
printing, a complete edition of his works, in 
which Warburton (who had already had a share 
in a small edition of 1743) was an active co- 
operator. How much was actually printed does 
not appear ; but it is certain that the four so- 
called " Ethic Epistles " were so, and ready for 
publication when Pope died. Bolingbroke says he 
has " a copy of the book" " that it contains the 
character of Atossa ; and he asks Lord March- 
mont whether it would be worth while to suppress 
the edition." That edition, it seems, was War- 
burton's property under Pope's will, and I sup- 
pose that it was for some reason suppressed ; at 
least I have never seen any edition of Pope's 
works between that of 1743 which has not, and 
Warburton's of 1751 which has, the Atossa. I 
therefore incline to conclude that the edition 
which Pope and Warburton were preparing in 
1744-5 was altogether suppressed ; and it is pos- 
sible that Walpole's rumour, as to the cancelling 
a hundred sheets, might, even in the special 
meaning of sheets, have had reference to this sup- 
pression. 

What is now desirable is, that the correspon- 
dents of " N. & Q." would be so good as to look 
out sharply for any set, or even odd volumes, 
which could have belonged to the edition that 
Pope and Warburton were preparing in 1744-5, 
and of which Bolingbroke had at least one volume. 

Is it known how Bolingbroke's books and 
papers, or those of Mallet, were disposed of? A 
clue to them might enable us to discover the 
" book " which Bolingbroke certainly possessed. 
As M. M. K. infers that Pope "published or 
printed an edition of the 'Ethic Epistles,' and 
distributed copies to his friends," would M. M. K. 
be so good as to state the grounds on which he 
makes that inference ? It accords with what Bo- 



lingbroke says of the printing the four "Ethic 
Epistles;" but M. M. K. does not cite Boling- 
broke, and seems to have had some other reason 
for his inference : it would be desirable to know 
what it is. As to the distribution of the new edi- 
tion among his friends, I would again ask what 
ground there is for this statement ? Has any such 
copy been ever seen ? or is there any intimation 
of the fact, except from Bolingbroke's statement 
that he had a copy ? C. 



THE DUNCIAD. 

(Vol. x., p. 65.) 

C. asks whether any of your correspondents 
have ever seen an edition of The Dunciad of 1727. 
" Pope himself," he says, " in his notes to the first 
acknowledged edition of 1729, says distinctly and 
repeatedly that an imperfect edition was published 
in Dublin in 1727, and republished, in that year, 
both in 12mo. and 8vo." Here then we have 
three editions published in 1727. May I be al- 
lowed to ask when and where did Pope distinctly 
and repeatedly say this ? And farther, to en- 
large the question, did any of your correspondents 
ever see any of these editions ? Of course I have 
my own opinion both as to what was said, and 
when said, and why said ; but think it best to be 
sure of my facts before I offer an explanation. 

E. T. D. 

I have a copy of an edition of The Dunciad 
with this title, The Dunciad, Variorum, with 
the Prolegomena of Scriblerus. Beneath is a 
plate representing an ass with a load of books 
and papers, and an owl on the top of the 
whole. Baker's Journal and the Flying Post lie 
upon the ground. On the left is the inscription 
" Deferor in vicuna," continued on the left, " ven- 
dentem Thus et Odores," and at the bottom, 
"London, printed for A. Dob. 1729." There is 
nothing about its being a reprint of the Dublin 
edition, although reference is made to five pre- 
vious editions. The contents of this volume are 
to be found in another copy, which I have dated 
1752, except the title-page : the text, moreover, 
besides having the fourth book, differs very ma- 
terially from that of 1729. I should like to know 
if my 8vo. copy of 1729 is the so-called 4to. of 
1729 ; if Pope is to be understood to be the editor 
of this 8vo. ; if it be the first edition published 
under his sanction ; and if any edition of The 
Dunciad presents the various readings ? 

B. H. C. 

As The Dunciad is now attracting the attention 
of the readers of "N. & Q.," I may mention that 
I have in my possession a copy of an edition 
(without date), not one, however, of " the first 
five imperfect editions of The Dunciad printed at 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



Dublin and London, in octavo and duod.," but 
one with the owl engraving, and for title The 
Dunciad, with Notes variorum, and the Prolego- 
mena of Scriblerus, written in the year 1727, 
London, printed for Lawton Gilliver, in Fleet 
Street, on the fly-leaf of which is the following 
inscription in the handwriting of the hero : 

" Lewis Theobald to Mrs. Heywood, as a tes- 
timony of his esteem, presents this book called The 
Dunciad, and acquaints her that Mr. Pope, by the 
profits of its publication, saved his library, wherein 
unpawned much learned lumber lay." 

Perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q.," or 
the writer of the admirable articles on Pope which 
have recently appeared in The Athentzum, may be 
able to say how far this statement of Theobald is 
correct. WILLIAM J. THOMS. 



NOTARIES. 
(Vol. x., p. 87.) 

The elaborate devices or marks used in old times 
by notaries, to which allusion is made in this Query, 
do not appear to have been investigated with suf- 
ficient attention. Representations have been oc- 
casionally, I believe, given with fac-similes of some 
ancient documents ; and a few marks of this de- 
scription, accompanying the signatures of notaries 
public in Ireland, in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, have recently been published in the 
Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii. p. 32., by 
Mr. Ferguson, who gives some extracts relating 
to notaries, from the Epistle Dedicatory to 
Prynne's fourth Institute. 

It has been stated that these marks were used 
in lieu of seals, and that they originated in the 
use of ^a stamp which the notary was accustomed 
to dip in the ink, and to impress upon the parch- 
ment, instead of affixing or appending an impres- 
sion on wax. It would appear, however, that 
notaries had seals, properly so called. They were 
ordered to make use of seals, according to a decree 
of the Council of Cologne, in 1310. The notaries 
royal in France were accustomed 7 to use seals 
from the commencement of the fourteenth century. 

I am not aware that any examples of notarial 
seals have been published, and no seal of this kind 
used in England has fallen under my notice. I 
have met with a few foreign matrices of the seals 
of notaries, all of them, I believe, Italian. The 
devices closely resemble the singular marks before 
mentioned, with which all who have given atten- 
tion to ancient documents are familiar. I have 
recently met with the matrix of the seal of the 
Order of Notaries of Faenza. The device is an 
ink-pot, with a pen in it. 

If impressions of these seals would be accept- 
able to A NOTABT, I shall have pleasure in for- 



warding them on receiving his address. I hope 
that his Query may elicit information regarding 
the origin of these singular marks, and the period 
when their use was adopted in England. 

ALBERT WAY. 
Keigate. 



SIE THOMAS BROWNE AND BISHOP KEN. 

(Vol. viii., p. 10. ; Vol. ix., pp. 220. 258.) 

What your correspondent J. H. MARKLAND calls 
" A Midnight Hymn," by Sir Thomas Browne, is 
evidently " An Evening Hymn ; " and the coin- 
cidence between that and Bishop Ken's well-known 
hymn was pointed out by James Montgomery of 
Sheffield, in his " Christian Poets" (I 2m -, 1827), 
one of the volumes of Select Christian Authors, 
published by Collins of Glasgow. As your corre- 
spondent has not given the whole of Sir Thomas 
Browne's lines, and as those he has given are not 
in their proper order, I may perhaps crave space 
for a complete transcript, with Montgomery's pre- 
fatory remarks. Having named two of Sir Thos. 
Browne's works, he proceeds, 

" In the former [Religio Medici'] we find the following 
lines, curious in themselves, but more so as apparently 
containing the general ideas of Bishop Ken's ' Evening 
Hymn.' They are thus introduced, in the author's quaint 
but impressive manner. Speaking of sleep, he says, ' It is 
that death by which we may be said to die daily ; a death 
which Adam died before his mortality ; a death whereby 
we live a middle and moderating point between life and 
death : in fine, so like death, I dare not trust it without 
my prayers, and a half adieu unto the world, and take my 
farewell in 

'A Colloquy with God. 

' The night is come. Like to the day, 
Depart not Thou, great God, away. 
Let not my sins, black as the night, 
Eclipse the lustre of Thy light. 
Keep still in my horizon, for to me 
The sun makes not the day, but Thee. 

Thou, whose nature cannot sleep, 
On my temples sentry keep. 
Guard me 'gainst those watchful foes, 
Whose eyes are open while mine close. 
Let no dreams my head infest, 
But such as Jacob's temples blest. 
While I do rest, my soul advance. 
Make my sleep a holy trance, 
That I may, my rest'being wrought, 
Awake unto some holy thought, 
And with as active vigour run 
My course, as doth the nimble sun. 

Sleep is a death. O ! make me try, 
By sleeping, what it is to die ; 
And as gently lay my head 
On my grave as now my bed. 
Howe'er I rest, great God, let me 
Awake again, at last, with Thee ; 
And, thus assur'd, behold, I lie 
Securely, or to wake or die. 
These are my drowsie days._ In vain 
I do now wake to sleep again. 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



! come, sweet hour, when I shall never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever ! ' " 

H. MARTIN. 
Halifax. 

Your esteemed correspondent J. H. MARKLAND, 
in his communication concerning good Bishop 
Ken, copies part of his midnight hymn as a 
parallel to that by Sir Thomas Browne (Religio 
Medici, p. 107., edit. 1659). The following para- 
phrase of both those beautiful effusions has long 
been handed about in MS., and is now sent for pre- 
servation in your columns. It was written about 
1750 by the Rev. Thomas Gibbons, D.D., but is 
not to be found in the collection of his poems 
published in that year. 

" Lord ! while the darkness reigns abroad, 
Shine thou on me a present God ! 
Still, still be with me, for thy ray, 
And not the sun, creates my day. 
Oh thou whose nature doth not sleep, 
Thy sentry at my pillow keep ! 
And guard me from those numerous foes, 
That wait to trouble my repose ! 
If dreams should mingle with my rest, 
Let them be such as Jacob blest ; 
Such as may my best good advance, 
And make my sleep a heavenly trance. 
That, when its silken bonds I break, 
In holy transports I may wake. 
Sleep is a death : then let me try 
By sleeping what it is to die ; 
That I as pleased may lay my head 
On the grave's couch as on my bed. 
This is a drowsy state, where night 
Holds a divided reign with light. 
I sleep awake I sleep again ; 
Amused beguiled with visions vain. 

come that hour, that morning break. 
When I from death to life shall wake. 
When, freed from this immuring cell, 
And bidding this dark world farewell, 

1 to the heavens shall wing my way ; 
And from the heights of endless day, 
Look down on this terrestrial ball, 
At home with God, my life, my all I " 

E.D. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Lyte's Instantaneous Process (Vol. ix., p. 570.; 
Vol. x., pp. 51. 73.). I should feel much obliged to your 
correspondent MR. SHADBOLT, if he would state whether 
he has himself made experiments on the solubility of 
iodide of silver in an aqueous solution of nitrate of silver ; 
and if so, to what extent he found it to be soluble. 

I was not aware of this solubility of iodide of silver, and 
I do not find it mentioned in any chemical work that I 
nave referred to; nor do I think that it has generally 
been considered to be so soluble, as one of the common 
methods in use for the quantitative determination of io- 
iine is, to add to the solution containing it nitrate of silver, 
TT 1 ^!? 311 * lie iodine is precipitated as iodide of silver. (See 

.^1 Se>s Handbuch der Analytischen Chemie, vol. ii. 
p. 607.) 

. ?. n or .^ r to ensure the complete precipitation of the 
iodine, it is of course necessary to add an excess of nitrate 
of silver; but if the precipitate is soluble to any appre- 



ciable extent in an excess of the precipitant, the accuracy 
of the results would be materially affected. 

Not having had time to determine by experiment how 
far iodide of silver is soluble in nitrate of silver, if MB. 
SHADBOLT has experimented on this subject, I should 
be very glad to know his results. 

I still cannot help thinking that there must be some 
omission in the description of MR. LYTE'S process, parti- 
cularly as I have heard that one of the most expert pho- 
tographers has failed, although he has literally followed 
MR. LYTE'S directions. C. H. C. 

Waxing Positives. Observing how much the ordinary 
calotype negative is improved by waxing, I have been in- 
duced to apply wax in the same way to positives printed 
upon ordinary paper with the most favourable results. As 
I find that it adds much to their beauty, I am induced to 
draw the attention of your photographic readers to the 
fact, which I believe is not generally known. J. J. F. 

Preserving Collodion Plates sensitive. The attention 
of photographers is still directed to this important object. 
In the last number of the Photographic Journal, Mr. 
Shadbolt announces the result of some experiments made 
by him with a preservative syrup, consisting of thret 
volumes of pure honey, five of distilled water, stirred to- 
gether with a glass rod until the honey is perfectly dis- 
solved. It is then to be filtered through blotting-paper 
(a process which occupies some hours). To the filtered 
mixture is then to be added one volume of alcohol. The 
collodion, having been rendered sensitive in the usual way, 
and the silver solution drained off, is to be coated by 
pouring over it this preservative syrup. Though thia 
diminishes the sensitiveness, so that if used immediately 
the exposure required is about double, still the sensitive- 
ness is preserved, so that Mr. Shadbolt has taken a pic- 
ture no less than three weeks after excitation, but with at 
least four times the exposure required for a fresh plate. 

In the same journal Mr. Spiller and Mr. Crookes, whose 
exertions in this direction deserve so much praise, give us 
the result of their experiments on nitrate of magnesia as 
a preservative agent, and state that in their opinion the 
following process scarcely admits of an improvement. 

" The plate coated with collodion in the usual manner 
is to be rendered sensitive in a 30-grain nitrate of silver 
bath, in which it should remain rather longer than is 
generally considered necessary (about five minutes). It 
must then be slightly drained and immersed in a second 
bath, consisting of 



Nitrate of magnesia 
Nitrate of silver - 
Glacial acetic acid 
Water - 



4 ounces. 

- 12 grains. 

1 drachm. 

- 12 ounces. 



and there left about five minutes; then removed, and 
placed in a vertical position on blotting-paper until all 
the surface moisture has drained off and been absorbed. 
This generally takes about half an hour, and they may 
then be packed away in any convenient box until re- 
quired for use. 

" Not only is the sensitiveness unimpaired by this treat- 
ment, but we think, on the contrary, that it is slightly 
increased; instantaneous negatives have been taken on 
plates which had been prepared some days previously. 
We are not yet in a position to give the length of time 
that may elapse between the preparation of the plate and 
development of the picture ; such experiments necessarily 
require a more lengthened period than we have at present 
been able to give; but as long as they have yet been 
kept (upwards of three weeks), there has been no ap- 
pearance of deterioration. 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



" Before the development, we find it advisable to moisten 
the collodion film by immersion in the silver bath for 
about half a minute, as otherwise the pyrogallic acid, or 
iron solution, would not flow evenly over the plate. The 
fixing, &c., is of course conducted as usual." 



to iHtnnr 

Legend of the Seven Sisters (Vol. ix., p. 465.). 
Ballybunnion, and the wild rocks and wolds 
around it, are rich in traditionary stories, Ossianic, 
Fairy Lore, and lastly, Giraldine and Cromwellian 
traditions. The legend alluded to by GEORGE OF 
MONSTER was thus narrated to me some years 
since by a peasant, who claimed legitimate descent 
in the direct line from the black knight, Fitzgerald 
of Dingle. One of the Vikingr, or northern sea- 
kings, invaded Ballybunnion (i. e. the land of 
Bunnion), and invested the chieftain, Bunnion, 
in his castle. His garrison were slain, and the 
chieftain, rather than his nine daughters should 
fall into the hands of the Victor, deliberately 
flung them one after another into the abyss, and 
followed himself, leaving the deserted castle to 
the sea-king, which he levelled to the ground, and 
it was never rebuilt. The cave is called in Irish 
by the peasantry pel I;AO|, i. e. the cave of the 
nine. J. L. 

Dublin. 

" To jump for joy " (Vol. ix., p. 466.). MR. 
FERGUSON, in relation to this expression, quotes 
some old French lines, 

" De la novele esteit heistez, 
E de joie saili a pes : " 

and says, "This expression is translated in the 
Glossary ' Saili a pes,' rose upon feet," and adds 
that it appears to him to be more correct than 
that of jumping or dancing for joy. In modern 
French it would be 

" De la nouvelle etait rejoui, 
Et-de joie saillit & pieds." 

This would be, translated, " Was rejoiced at the 
news, and through joy went out on foot." Saillie, 
a sally, is a running out of a fortress to attack an 
enemy. Now, Maurice of Prendergast being de- 
sirous of returning to Wales, and being impeded 
by the Wexford traitors, having offered his ser- 
vices to the king of Ossory, it seems very probable 
that Maurice of Prendergast had turned traitor 
himself to Henry II. ; and that the king of 
Ossory having secured the services of Prender- 
gast and his followers, was so overjoyed at the 
prospect of success against the invaders, that he 
did not stay to mount his horse, but " went out," 
or " sallied out on foot," to meet them. I there- 
fore contend that saili a pes is " sallied out on 



foot," and that it does not agree with the trans- 
lation of MR. FERGUSON. H. D. BASCHET. 

Waterford. 

Pope's Odyssey (Vol. x., p. 41.). MR. MARK- 
LAND mentions, on the authority of Mr. Evans, 
that in one of Edwards's letters, " There is a 
curious mention of the publication of Pope's trans- 
lation of the Odyssey, by which it would appear 
that Pope had concealed the assistance he had 
received in the version." The use of the word 
" curious " leads to the inference that the fact is 
made known through the fortunate preservation 
of Edwards's letter ; whereas it is notorious, and 
referred to I suppose by all Pope's biographers, 
certainly by Dr. Johnson in one of the com- 
monest books in the language. Johnson says : 

" Soon after the appearance of the Iliad, resolving not 
to let the general kindness cool, he published proposals 
for a translation of the Odyssey in five volumes, for five 
guineas. He was willing, however, now to have asso- 
ciates in his labour ; being either weary with toiling upon 
another's thoughts, or having heard, as Ruflfhead relates, 
that Fenton and Broome had already begun the work, 
and liking better to have them confederates than rivals. 
... In the patent, instead of saying that he had trans- 
lated the Odyssey, as he ha'd said of the Iliad, he says that 
he had undertaken a translation; and in the proposals, 
the subscription is said to be not solely for his own use, 
but for that of two of his friends who have assisted him in 
this work . . . The sale did not answer Lintot's expecta- 
tions, and he then pretended to discover something of 
fraud in Pope, and commenced, or threatened, a suit in 
chancery." 

O.P. 

Perspective ' (Vol. ix., pp. 300. 378. ^577.)- 
MR. HOAHE evidently allows my assertion to be 
correct, if we suppose that the eye is at that point 
where " all the lines subtend equal angles at the 
eye with the corresponding lines of the original 
landscape." But when he adds, " a picture is not 
to be looked at from one point," I totally differ 
from him. Must we do away with the point of 
sight altogether ? I think the rules of perspective 
forbid it. That the focus (if such a term may 
be applied) should be inconveniently near the 
picture, must be the case where a large field is 
condensed on a small ground. Also, when prints 
are engraved on a reduced scale from large 
pictures, the focus will approach the face of the 
print in the same ratio that the margin of the 
picture is diminished. This may account for the 
peculiar appearance of the interior of Winchester 
Cathedral, mentioned by your correspondent. 

JOHN P. STILWELD. 

Dorking. 

" Peter Wilkins" (Vol. x., p. 17.). The source 
from whence Leigh Hunt obtained his informa- 
tion of the real authorship of this charming fiction 
was no doubt the record of a sale, of remarkable 
interest to the historian and the antiquary, which 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



took place eighteen or nineteen years ago. It 
consisted of MSS. and autographs, among which 
were many original assignments of literary pro- 
perty to the Dodsleys. Several names of writers 
of works of established reputation, published 
anonymously, then became known for the first 
time, and among them, that of the author of 
Peter Wilkins. 

I find the following note transcribed at the 
time : 

" Robert Patlock, [not Pultock as Leigh Hunt 
writes it, and Paltock as Southey calls him], of 
Clement's Inn, assigned the MS. of the Life and 
Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornishman, to 
Dodsley, Jan. 11, 1749, for twenty guineas, 
[Southey says ten] twelve copies, and the cuts 
(or coppers used for the plates) of the first im- 
pression." 

The first edition with the curious plates (1751) 
is inscribed by the author to Elizabeth, Countess 
of Northumberland ; and there are some slight 
personal allusions in this dedication, which, if 
followed up, might t lead to farther confirmation 
about the writer. 

Southey has not only " somewhere recorded his 
admiration" of the book, [notes to "Curse of 
Kehama," Works, vol. x. p. 231.], but borrowed 
from it the idea of his own " Glendoveers" ("the 
loveliest race of all of heavenly birth"), far in- 
ferior, however, to the Glums and Gawrys of 
Patlock. 

There is a beautiful article on this work in the 
Retrospective Rev., vol. vii. p. 120. See also 
Coleridge's Table Talk, and Leigh Hunt's London 
Journal, No. 32. p. 249. W. L. N. 

Bath. 

" De male qucesitis vix gaudet tertius hares " 
(Vol. ii., p. 167. ; Vol. ix., p. 600.). This line occurs 
among the Adagio, of Erasmus, s. v. Ultio Male- 
dicti, p. 1865., fol., Aurel. 1606. 

ALEXANDER TAYLOR. 

Apparition which preceded the Fire of London 
(Vol. ix., p. 541.). In A View of the Invisible 
World, or General History of Apparitions, 8vo., 
London, 1752, at p. 228., is a chapter "of the ap- 
parition that told his friend of the Fire of London 
two months before it happened ; with some par- 
ticular remarks upon the story with relation to 
such appearances." 

The story seems to have been well known in 
1752, as the author of the above work does not 
say where it is to be found, but comments upon 
rather than tells it. The apparition took the form 
of a friend, was let in at the door by a servant, 
joined the family in the parlour, and talked about 
coming judgments ; and, among them, of the Great 
Fire. The master of the house thought his visitor 
prosy, and tried to change the conversation. .The 



apparition was let out as it came in ; and no one 
suspected, till after the fire, that it was not the 
gentleman whose shape it took. He, however, 
knew nothing about it ; and his own house was 
burnt at the Great Fire, when he had not time to 
save more than a quarter of his goods. 

Many apparitions predicted the fire : I can find 
no other account of this. If one may suggest an 
explanation of a story so imperfectly told, mine is 
that it was the gentleman himself; who having, 
according to the custom of that age, discoursed 
upon coming judgments, when dangerous in- 
quiries were made about the origin of the fire, 
preferred losing his reputation as a prophet to 
maintaining it at the risk of being treated as an 
incendiary. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

" A face upon a bottle" (Vol. ix., p. 599.). In 
the passage here quoted from Secretary Winde- 
bank's letter to Lord Strafford, the following 
words occur : 

" There never appeared a worse face under a cork upon 
a bottle, than your lordship hath caused some to make 
in disgorging such church livings as their zeal had eaten, 
up." 

Since the appearance of my former note, a 
gentleman versed in ceramic history has referred 
me, in illustration of this phrase, to the earthen- 
ware bottle, figured, under the name of " Grey- 
beard," in Marryat's History of Pottery and 
Porcelain (London, 1850), p. 253. Bottles or 
pots, with a hideous bearded mark on the neck, 
immediately under the cork, were so designated. 
Some of them are stated to have been called 
"Bellarmines" in the reign of James, in derision 
of Cardinal Bellarmine, whose letter respecting 
the non-validity of the oath of allegiance of 
Eoman Catholic subjects to a Protestant sovereign, 
was answered by the king. This agrees well with 
the time of the letter. L. 

Thompson of Esholt and Lancashire (Vol. v., 
pp. 468. 521.). One of your correspondents in- 
quired whether there was any family named 
Thompson, bearing arms, seated in Lancashire in. 
the early part of the seventeenth century. Now, 
I find from a pedigree among the Harleian MSS. 
(No. 1487. folio 310.), that Sir Henry Thompson 
of Esholt, who was knighted for his military 
services, had a son William, who married a 
daughter of Christopher Anderton of Lostock, 
Lancashire, about twelve miles from Preston. 
This William Thompson, Esq., at one time a 
notary, succeeded to the estate at Esholt, which 
ultimately went to the Calverleys of Calverley, 
through the marriage of Frances Thompson with 
Walter Calverley, circa 1667. The sons of Wil- 
liam were Christopher, seated at Esholt, and 
Henry, who apparently settled at Preston ; and it 



114 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 249. 



is probable that the arms attributed by several 
heraldic writers to " Thompson of Lancashire " 
were used by the latter Henry and his de- 
scendants. Sir Henry Thompson of Esholt was 
buried at Colne in Lancashire, where an inscribed 
stone to his memory was extant some years ago. 
A grant of arms was made to Sir Henry Thomp- 
son by Laurence Dalton, Norroy, about the year 
1559, and the coat is substantially the same as 
that claimed by the branches of the ancient and 
respectable family of the same name, settled in 
various parts of Yorkshire and the north of Eng- 
land ; but on referring to Burke's Landed Gentry, 
I do not find that any of these trace to the original 
grantee. It would appear, therefore, that there 
is some assumption here, though possibly the cir- 
cumstance may be accounted for. TEE GEE. 

Latin Treatise on whipping School-boys 
(Vol. ix., p. 148.). The antiquity of this laudable 
custom, honoured at once in "the breech and the 
observance, is treated of by the celebrated sophist 
Libanius : see his Sophistce, prceludia oratorio, &fc. 
(Paris, 1606-27, two vols. folio), orat. xii. ad 
Theod. torn. ii. p. 400. I should feel inclined to 
doubt the existence of a modern Latin treatise on 
the subject, especially as no allusion to it is found 
in Boileau's original work, the Historia Flagel- 
lantium, 12mo., Paris, 1700; or the French trans- 
lation of the same, Histoire des Flagellans, 12mo., 
Amsterdam, 1732 ; and the note in which it is 
mentioned, and which has given rise to the Query 
of BETULA, occurs for the first time in the English 
Paraphrase and Commentary of 1777. 

WILLIAM BATES. 
Birmingham. 

Fauntleroy (Vol. ix., p. 454.). A person of 
great respectability and remarkable accuracy once 
informed me that he had himself seen and recog- 
nised in Paris, Fauntleroy, whom he had known in 
London, after his supposed execution. I. H. A. 

Old Dominion (Vol. ix., p. 468.). How far 
the heraldic grant, spoken of by your corre- 
spondent PENN, is to be regarded as authentic, no 
printed American state paper, that I know of, de- 
termines. That, however, the colony of Virginia 
was governed after the martyrdom of Charles I. 
by Sir William Berkeley, under a royal commis- 
sion despatched by Charles II., then a fugitive in 
Breda ; that this state of things lasted until the 
arrival of the Parliamentary fleet and land forces, 
intended to subjugate the colony (1650) ; that the 
preparedness of the colony for resistance, and the 
judiciousness of the commissioners, resulted in 
articles of a treaty as between equals pro hoc vice, 
whereby the rights of the colony were preserved ; 
and that the Assembly of March, 1660, was sum- 
moned in the name of the king, though Charles 
was not yet acknowledged as such in England, 



are matters of history. Virginia, then, which 
continued loyal to her prince long after his exile, 
and which acknowledged him again in form earlier 
than the denizens of his own island did, has always 
been considered, even on this side of the Atlantic, 
as justly earning the title of the " Ancient Do- 
minion ; " a phrase which, although I cannot now 
substantiate it by any documentary reference, it 
is quite possible the restored king, by writing or 
speech, used himself. I. H. A. 

The Crescent (Vol. viii., p. 196.). Some time 
ago a correspondent wished to ascertain at what 
period the Crescent became the standard of Ma- 
hometanism. In the appendix to the late Elliot 
Warburton's work, entitled The Crescent and the 
Cross, the following incident is related : 

" The Crescent was the symbol of the city of Byzan- 
tium, and was adopted by the Turks. This device is of 
ancient origin, as appears from several medals, and took 
its rise from an event thus related by a native of Byzan- 
tium. Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, meeting 
with great difficulties in carrying on the siege of this city, 
set the workmen one dark night to undermine the walls. 
Luckily for the besieged, a young moon suddenly appear- 
ing, discovered the design, which accordingly miscarried, 
in acknowledgment whereof the Byzantines erected a 
statue to Diana, and the Crescent became the symbol of 
the state." 

The above account, if correct, points out'the 
period when the device was adopted, probably 
antecedent to 336 B. c., when the death of Philip 
took place. 

In Leland's Life of Philip of Macedon, it is 
related that at the siege of Byzantium, a bright 
meteor appeared in the air. 

" The meteor which had appeared so opportunely to 
direct their motions, the Byzantines ascribed to the 
peculiar favour of the gods, and in the ardour of their 
acknowledgments dedicated a statue to Hecate*, before 
which a lamp was kept burning continually by night and 
day to express their gratitude to the goddess, who had 
been pleased, in so effectual and seasonable a manner, to 
supply the absence of her luminary." 

ANON. 

Foreign Fountains (Vol. ix., p. 516.). I pos- 
sess a folio volume (18 inches by 10) entitled Les 
Fontaines de Paris, anciennes et nouvelles, ^par 
M. Amaury Duval, Membre de 1'Institut Imperial 
de France, contenant soixante planches, &c., Paris, 
1812, which is quite at the service of AQUARIUS. 

E.D. 

The 28th Regiment, why called " The Slashers ? " 
(Vol. ix., p. 494.). 

"Slashers, a nickname which was given during the 
American war to the 28th regiment of foot, and which 
took its origin from the following circumstance. One 
Walker, a magistrate in Canada, having during a severe 
winter, with great inhumanity, refused to give eomfort- 



* The same as Proserpine or Diana. She was called 
Luna in Heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate or Proser- 
pine in hell." 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



able billets to the -women belonging to the 28th, and some 
of them having perished in consequence of the inclemency 
of the weather, so great was the resentment of the corps, 
that some officers dressed themselves like savages, entered 
his house whilst he was sitting with his family, danced 
round the table, and suddenly pulling him back upon his 
chair, cut off both his ears. They instantly disappeared ; 
nor was the deed discovered until after their departure. 
From this circumstance, and in consequence of various 
intrepid actions which the 28th performed during the 
course of the war, the men obtained the name of ' Slashers.' 
Their conduct in Egypt, &c., has confirmed this character 
for intrepidity ; so that a recruit no sooner joins the 28th, 
or ' Slashers,' than he instantly feels himself equal to the 
most desperate enterprise, daring to do what some scarce 
dare to think." Vide James's Military Dictionary, 
4th ed., London, 1816. 

w.w. 

La Valetta, Malta. 

" Heroic Epistle " (Vol. x., p. 66.). The fol- 
lowing is the title of the piece inquired after by 
E. H. T. : 

"An Heroic Epistle to the Rev. Richard Watson, 
D. D., F.R.S., Archdeacon of Ely, late Professor of Che- 
mistry, now Regius Professor of Divinity in the University 
of Cambridge. Enriched with elaborate Notes, and very 
learned References. London . printed for T. Becket, 
Adelphi, Strand, 1780." 

There is a copy in the British Museum, press-mark 
643. k. 10. ' J. YEOWEIX. 

Epigram on Two Contractors (Vol. x., p. 61.). 
I would answer your correspondent A. by 
giving another epigram. The celebrated pirate 
and most notorious renegade, Paul Jones, having 
tyrannised over and brutally treated one of his 
officers, a lieutenant under his command, of the 
name of Sullivan, the latter no sooner got on 
shore than he challenged Jones to fight a duel, 
which the oppressor had not the resolution to 
accept. 

London Courant (daily paper) of Friday, 
8th December, 1780; epigram on Paul Jones's 
refusing the challenge of Lieut. Sullivan : 

" Ibit eo, quo vis, qui zonam perdidit." 

Hor. Epist., lib. n. ii. 40. 

" Great Jones now free, from future reprobation, 
j4. duel elect, secured his own salvation ; 
This son of Calvin, rich with plunder'd ore, 
Fought the good fight, and now will fight no more. 
What dread of foul disgrace can e'er confound 
The conscious worth of eighty thousand pound ? 
Let Harley, Mure, and Atkinson be dumb, 
He clears his conscience who has clear'd a plum." 

Mr. Harley was a wine merchant, and a con- 
tractor for remittances, provisions, and clothing. 

Messrs. Mure and Atkinson were contractors 
for rum, and probably the latter for corn also. 

Sir Philip Clerke, M. P. for Totness, said, 
4th May, 1778, in the House, that Messrs. Mure 
and Atkinson received to the tune of 250,000/. 
clear profit on their contracts. It was said Mr. 
Robinson, Secretary of the Treasury, introduced 



these great contractors to Lord North about 
1775. r . 

Obtains (Vol. ix., p. 589.). The verb obtinere 
is employed intransitively, in the sense of " to 
prevail, or reign," in the best Latin authors. The 
dictionaries quote the Pandects in support of this 
meaning: "Consuetudo qua3 retro obtinuit" (a 
custom which hath of old prevailed). Webster 
gives an English authority (Sir Richard Baker) of 
two centuries back. Other modern tongues have 
not, I believe, preserved this meaning in their 
words derived from obtinere ; and it is most pro- 
bable that it was once, like the verb " to ignore" 
(in the sense of " to treat as non-existent"), con- 
fined to our lawyers. W. M. T. 

The use of this word, impersonally and intransi- 
tively, in reference to a custom, law, &c., is clearly 
traceable to the Latin, as may be learned from any 
dictionary of that language. Thus Ainsworth : 
" Obtinet. Impers., it obtains ; Hodie obtinuit in- 
differenter qusestores creari, Ulp" B. H. C. 

Thomas Chester, Bishop of Elphin Wills in 
Ireland (Vol. viii., p. 340.). MR. TEWARS makes 
inquiry as to Thomas Chester, Bishop of Elphin 
in 1580, and as to offices for wills in Ireland. In 
each diocese there is a registry for wills, and a 
copy of the will of the above-mentioned Bishop 
of Elphin may have been entered in one of the 
books of the registry of Elphin diocese. A search 
would be made for this will if a letter were ad- 
dressed to " Mr. Kenney, Registrar of Elphin, at 
Elphin, Ireland," and postage stamps to the 
amount of 2s. 6d. inclosed in the letter. 

There is a general registry for wills in Dublin, 
called the Prerogative Office, situate in Henrietta 
Street ; and if the will above mentioned be not 
entered amongst the records of Elphin diocese, it 
may be found perhaps in this office. A letter 
addressed to Mr. Hawkins, the registrar, would, I 
think, receive attention and a reply. The charge 
for a search in this office also is half-a-crown. 

JAMES F. FERGUSON. 

Saltcellar (Vol.ix., p. 10.). 

" To sit at the table above or below the salt was a mark 
of distinction in opulent families. The salt was contained 
in a massive silver utensil, called a safer, now corrupted 
into cellar, which was placed in the middle of the table ; 
persons of distinction sat nearest the head of the table, or 
above the salt, and inferior relations or dependants below 
it." Toone's Glossary, p. 400. 

B. H. C. 

Cann Family (Vol. vii., p. 330.). There has 
long been a family of that name residing in Wy- 
mondham, with many branches in the adjacent 
villages. They believe themselves to come from 
the " far west." They are in the commission of 
the peace, and possess a good estate at Wram- 
plingham, Norfolk. HENRY DAVENET. 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 249. 



Coronation Custom (Vol. x., p. 13.). Being at 
a distance from books, I cannot refer to the " al- 
terations " in the coronation form referred to, but 
not specifically stated, by H. P. of Lincoln's Inn ; 
but I can venture to say that his conclusion, " that 
the consent of the people is asked in every coro- 
nation-ritual except our oum," is in the last point 
erroneous. I know not what English coronation- 
ritual he may have consulted, but I know, as a 
matter of fact, that the sovereign is presented to 
the acceptance of the people in a form technically 
called The Recognition, which was, as I saw and 
heard, responded to by the people, not " by a re- 
spectful silence," as H. P. describes the French 
practice, but by a hearty popular acclamation. I 
have seen this ceremony, and the rationale of it, 
explained in, I think, a recent number of the 
Quarterly Review. C. 

" Latten-jawed" (Vol. x., p. 53.). I cannot 
but believe that your correspondent FURVUS is 
mistaken in the words latten-jaioed, and, conse- 
quently, in his interpretation of them ; and that 
the term really used, but mispronounced, was 
leathern-jawed, which is common enough. 

Allow me to suggest that, in the preceding 
pages, where Queen Elizabeth is described to have 
been " of stature meane," this must have been 
intended for "of stature mesne" or middle height, 
since she is nowhere represented to have been 
short. NEGLECTCS. 

" Golden Tooth" (Vol. ix., p. 337.). In this 
part of the West of Scotland, when a young per- 
son shed a tooth, it was customary for the parent 
to give strict injunctions that the tongue was not 
to be thrust into the cavity for a considerable 
time, alleging as a penalty that it would prevent 
another from growing in its place. We had not 
advanced so far in the "golden tooth" as those in 
the " South of Ireland." It was with us probably 
also as a " lure" or stratagem, from the void felt 
in the gum for some time after that circumstance 
occurring, not to cause any distortion of face, to 
which the contrary might have given rise. G. N. 

" Condendaque Lexica" fyc. (Vol. ix., p. 421.). 
I cannot answer this question, but I can point 
to a passage from which, perhaps, the sentiment 
of the above words was borrowed. It is at the 
back of the title-page of Buxtorf s great Rabbini- 
cal Lexicon, as published in 1640 (or 1639, both 
dates are given) : 

" JOS. SCALIGEK. 

Si quern dura manet sententia judicis olim, 
Darnnatum jErumnis suppliciisque caput : 

Hunc neque fabrili lassent ergastula massa, 
Nee rigidas vexent fossa metalla manus : 

Lexica contexat: nam csetera quid moror? Omnes 
Poenarum fades hie labor unus habet." 

B. H. C. 



" (Vol. ix., p. 541.). I wonder this 
word is not in Stephens. Donnegan gives " same 
signif. as xP 5 ^ a g ut > hence catgut. From this 
' fides ' in Latin," which is used, as all know, of the 
strings of a musical instrument. Probably related 
to o-wifa, to extend, stretch, whence trinSfa, extended, 
wide. B. H. C. 

Grammars, SfC. for Publio Schools (Vol. ix., 
pp.8. 81. 209.). The following may be added: 

" A Latin Grammar for the use of Westminster School. 
1832." 

" Preces. Etonae, 1705 and 1816." 

" Catechesis cum Precibus in usum Scholse in Burgo 
Gippovicensi. Gippovici (Ipswich), 1722." 

" Catechesis in usum Scholse Mercatorum Scissorum. 
Preces. Per J. C. 1661, and 1804." 

" Preces Catechismus et Hymni in usum Scholae juxta 
S. Pauli Templum. 1814." 

" Davidis Selecti Psalmi juxta Corturi Jonstoni ver- 
sionem. Schol. Merc. Sciss., 1809. 

" Epigrammatum et Poematum Sacrorum etPsalmorum 
Delectus. Ex Audoeno, Barlaeo, Buchanano. Gippovici, 
1722." 

" Tporro(rxrifjLa.To\oyia in usum Schol. Reg. Gram, apud 
S. Edmundi Burgum. Ed. 11, 1717." 

In an advertisement attached to this latter 
work is mentioned " 'Oo/iaorucoc Bpaxu, in usum 
Scholae Westmonasteriensis." 

I have also the following, and should like to 
learn something of Neumayrus and Juvencius. 

" Enchiridion Juvenile, a Neumayri ' Methodo vitae 
Christians ' leviter immutatum. Bathonise, 1847." 

"Monita Paedagogica, a Juvencio leviter immutata. 
Bathoniae." 

J. W. HEWETT. 

" The Birch : a Poem" (Vol.vii., p. 159.; Vol.x., 
p. 73.). I fully agree with your correspondent 
ME. HUGHES, in the probable emanation of this 
poem from the King's School, Chester, probably 
with some finishing touches from )ts master, the 
Rev. Thomas Bancroft, afterwards Vicar of 
Bolton-le- Moors. I think that I have seen it in 
his MS. folio of his own poetical compositions at 
school, college, and in later life, mixed with others 
by his pupils. 

The same correspondent recently inquired 
(Vol. x., p. 40.) for the " Prolusiones Poeticce, circa 
1800." The real date of this elegant specimen of 
the Chester press is 1788, and it is dedicated to 
Bishop Cleaver as " the literary first-fruits of 
the King's School." Excepting, however, a few 
poems by Mr. J. Falconer and Mr. T. Park, pupils, 
all was the work of Bancroft himself, or the late 
Mr. William P. Greswell, who (as I believe) was 
second master of the school, and certainly assisted 
Bancroft in early co-operations and revisions con- 
nected wiih the preparation of Falconer's Strabo. 
These early compositions by Greswell have not, 
as far as I am aware, been noticed among the 
effusions of his classical pen. LANCASTBIENSIS. 



AUG. 5. 1854.] 



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[No. 249. 



This Day is published, price 5s. 

FIRMILIAN; 

OB, 

THE STUDENT OF BADAJOS. 

A Spasmodic Tragedy. 
By T. PERCY JONES. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London. 



This Day is published, in Two Volumes, 
price 9s. 

TEN THOUSAND A- YEAR. 

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Just published, 8vo., price 2s. Gd., 

HISTORY OF A COURT- 
MARTIAL on LIEUT. E. PLOW- 
DEN, 5th Bengal Light Cavalry, in 1848, and 
Reversal of the Sentence in 1854. By W. J. 
LAW, Esq., Her Majesty's Chief Commis- 
aioner for Relief of Insolvent Debtors. 

TJPHAM & BEET, 46. New Bond Street. 



PLAIN SERMONS. By the 

late REV. EDWARD BLENCOWE. 
Three vols., fcap. 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. Each sold 
eparately. 

" Their style is simple ; the sentence! are not 
artfully constructed ; and there is an utter ab- 
sence of all attempt at rhetoric. The lan- 
guage is plain Saxon language, from which 
"the men on the wall ' can easily gather what 
It most concerns them to know. 

" Again, the range of thought is not high and 
difficult, but level and easy for the wayfaring 
man to follow. It is quite evident that the 
author's mind was able and cultivated, yet, as 
a teacher to men of low estate, he makes no 
display of eloquence or argument. 

" In the statements of Christian doctrine, the 
reality of Mr. Blencowe's mind is very striking:. 
There is a strength and a warmth and a life in 
Tiis mention of the great truths of the Gospel, 
which show that he spoke from the heart, and 
that, like the Apostle of old, he could say, ' I 
J)elieve, and therefore have I spoken.' 

" His affectionateness, too, is no less con- 
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kind-hearted tone of every Sermon in the book. 
There is no scolding, no asperity of language, no 
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time there is no over-strained tenderness, nor 
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" Plain, short, and affectionate discourses." 
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London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



THE CHURCH SUNDAY- 
SCHOOL HYMN-BOOK. Edited by 
W. F. HOOK,D.D. Large paper, cloth, !.&/.; 
calf, 3s. 6d. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



3d. each, or &s. for 25 Copies for distribution 
among Cottage Tenantry, delivered any- 
where in London, on a Post-Office Order 
being sent to the Publisher, JAMES MAT- 
THEWS, at the Office of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle. In consequence of the new 
postal arrangements, parties in the country 
who desire it can have copies sent by post ; 
Six Stamps, in addition to the cost of the 
Numbers, will pass 10 Copies Free by Post. 
The cost of a single Copy, Free by Post, is 7d. 

THE COTTAGER'S CALEN- 
DAR OF GARDEN OPERATIONS. 
By SIR JOSEPH PAXTON. Reprinted from 
the Gardeners' Chronicle. Above 85,000 have 
already been sold. 

INDEX TO THB CONTENTS : 



African Lilies 

Agapanthus 

Anemones 

Annuals 

Apples 

Apricots 

Auriculas 

Beans 

Beet 

Biennials 

Black Fly 

Books, list of, for Cot- 
tagers 

Borage 

Borecole 

Box edgings 

Broccoli 

Brussels Sprouts 

Budding 

Bulbs 

Cabbage 

Cactus 

Calceolarias 

Californian Annuals 

Campanulas 

Carnations 

Carrots 

Cauliflowers 

Celery 

Cherries 

China Asters 

China Roses 

Chrysanthemums, 
Chinese 

Chives 

Clarkias 

Clematis 

Collinsias 

Coleworts 

Cress 

Creepers 

Crocus 

Crown Imperials 

Cucumbers 

Cultivation of Flowers 
in Windows 

Currants 

Dahlias 

Daisies 

Doa's-tooth Violets 

Exhibitions, prepar- 
ing articles for 

Ferns, as protection 

Fruit 

Fruit Cookery 

Fuchsias 

Gentianella 

Gilias 

Gooseberries 

Grafting 

Grapes 

Green Fly 

Heartsease 



Herbs 

Herbaceous Peren- 
nials 

Heliotrope 
Hollyhocks 
Honeysuckle 
Horse-radish 
Hyacinths 
Hydrangeas 
Hyssop 
Indian Cress 
Iris 

Kidney Beans 
Lavender 
Layering 
Leeks 

Leptosiphons 
Lettuce 
Lobelias 
London Pride 
Lychnis, Double 
Marigold 
Marjoram 
Manures 
Marvel of Peru 
Mese mbry anthemums 
Mignonette 
Mint 

Mushroom 
Mustard 
Narcissus 
Nemophilas 
CEnothera bifrons 
Onions 
Pajonies 
Parsnip 
Parsley 
Peaches 
Pea-haulm 
Pears 
Peas 

Pelargoniums 
Perennials 
Persian Iris 
Petunias 
Phlox 
Pigs 
Pinks 
Planting 
Plums 
Polyanthus 
Potatoes 
Privet 
Pruning 

Propagate by cuttings 
Pyracantha 
Radishes 
Ranunculus 
Raspberries 
Rhubarb 
Rockets 
Roses 
Rue 



Rustic Vasea 

Sage 

Salvias 

Savoys 

Saxifrage 

Scarlet Runner Beans 

Seeds 

Sea Daisy or Thrift 

Seakale 

Select Flowers 

Select Vegetables and 

Fruit 
Slugs 
Snowdrops 
Soups 
Spinach 
Spruce Fir 
Spur pruning 
Stews 
Stocks 

Illustrated with several Woodcuts. 

Published by J. MATTHEWS, 5. Upper Wel- 
lington Street, Covent Garden, London. 



Strawberries 
Summer Savory 
Sweet Williams 
Thorn Hedges 
Thyme 

Tigridia Pavonia 
Transplanting 
Tree lifting 
Tulips 
Turnips 

Vegetable Cookery 
Venus's Looking- 
glass 
Verbenas 
Vines 

Virginian Stocks 
Wallflowers 
Willows 
Zinnias 



Price 3s. 6d., free by post. 

THE TREE ROSE. PRAC- 
TICAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR ITS 
FORMATION AND CULTURE. Illus- 
trated by 24 Woodcuts. 

Reprinted from the Gardeners' Chronicle, with 
additions. 

CONTENTS : 

Annual pruning time, principle of execution, 
&c. 

Binding up 

Budding knife 

Budding, time of year, day, time of day, state 
of the plant, care of buds 

Budding upon body 

Bud, insertion of, into stock 

Bud, preparation of, for use 

Buds, dormant and pushing 

Buds, failing 

Buds, securiug a supply of 

Caterpillars, slugs, and snails, to destroy 

Causes of success 

Dormant buds, theory of replanting with ex- 
plained 

Guards against wind 

Labelling 

Loosing ligatures 

March pruning 

Mixture for healing wounds 

Planting out, arrangement of trees, &c. 

Pruning for transplantation 

Pushing eye, spring treatment of dwarf shoots 
from 

Roses, different sorts on the same stock 

Roses, short list of desirable sorts for budding 
with a pushing eye 

Sap-bud, treatment of 

Shape of trees 

Shoots and buds, choice of 

Shoots for budding upon, and their arrange- 
ment 

Shoots, keeping even, and removing thorns 

Shortening wild shoots 

Stocks, planting out for budding upon; the 
means of procurins ; colour, age, height ; 
sorts for different species of Rose ; taking up, 
trimming roots, sending a distance, shorten- 
ing heads, c. ; saw proper for tne purpose. 

GRAFTING. 

Aphides, to keep down 

Free-growers, remarks on _ 

Graft, binding up and finishing 

Grafting, advantage of 

Grafting, disadvantage of 

Operation in different months 

Preliminary observations 

Roses, catalogue and brief description of a few 

sorts 

Scion, preparation and insertion ot 
Scions, choice and arrangement of 
Stock, preparation of 

APPENDIX. 

A selection of varieties 

Comparison between budding and grafting. 

Post-Office Orders to be made payable to 
JAMES MATTHEWS. 5. Upper Wellington 
Street, Covent Garden, London. 



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
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City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, August 5. 1854. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OP INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

" WTien found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 250.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 12. 1854. 



C Price Fourpence. 

i Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 



NOTES : 



Page 



Coleridges's Lectures on Shakspeare, by 
J.Payne Col Her - - - - 117 

Kotesonsome Verses by Thomas Camp- 
bell, by G. H. Gordon - - - 119 

Hampshire Provincial Words, by F.M. 
Middleton - - - - 120 

The Inquisition, by B. B. WuTen - 120 

" Silence " of the Sun or tue Light, by 
T.J. Buckton - - - - 122 

MINOR NOTES : "A per se A " 
Satire on Mr. Fox Storey's Gate 

Ancient Bell Earliest Mention 
of Porter Bosses in Morwenstow- 
Church - - - - -122 

QPKRIES : 

Episcopal Salutation - - - 123 
The Schoolboy Formula - - - 124 

Captain Thomas Drummond - - 125 

MINOR QUERIES :_ Dr. John Hine's 
Collections Quotations of Plato and 
Aristotle Who struck Geonre IV. ? 
The American Birtern Mr. Jekyll 
and the "Tears of the Cruets lf 
Sir Hugh Middleton's Brothers _ 
Churches Erected Salutation Cus- 
toms Angier Family Heraldic 
Scottish Songs Ancient Punishment 
of the Jews Ciu-lad RodrigoBarony 
of Scales Dimidiation : the Half 
Eagle Cook's Translation of a 
Greek MS . Old Ballad Mutilation 
of Tacitus Rubrical Query Army 
The first English Envoy to Russia 
" The Tales of the Fairies "Cork 125 

MINOR QtTRRtEs WTTR ANSWERS : 
Storm in Devon Remigius Van ^em- 
put Translation of the Talmud, &c. 

Letter to Aetius Bernard Mande- 
ville Quotation Precedency of the 
Peers of Ireland in England - - 128 

REPLIES : 

The Duneiad, by J. IT. Markland, &c. - 129 
Robert Parsons, by W. Denton, &c. - I'M 
Brydone and Mount Etna, by John 
Macray - - - - - 131 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Pho- 
tography applied to Engraving on 
Wood Mr. Lyte's Instantaneous 
Process ----- 132 

UEPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Double 
Christian Names " Forgive, blest 
shade" "Jah," in Psalm lxviii.4. 
Singed Vellum Holy-loaf Money 
Saying of Voltaire "Time and I" 
Pictures at Hampton Court Palace 

Palaeologus Rev. Dr. Scott Ra- 
nulph Crewe's Geographical Draw- 
ings" To lie at the Catch " The 
Herodians " for he that fights and 
runs away," &c. - - - - 133 

MISCELLANEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &c. 136 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
.Notices to Correspondents. 



VOL. X. No. 250. 



Multce terricolis linguae, ccelestibus una. 

SAMUEL BAGSTER 
AND SONS' 

GENERAL CATALOGUE is sent 
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English Translations ; Manuscript- 
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other Testaments ; Polyglot Books of Common 
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other Works. By Post Free. 

London : SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 
15. Paternoster Row. 

IJ.li Zhtiroif rXwrrou, /MX V 



CHURCH HISTORIANS OF 

\j ENGLAND. Edited by the REV. 

JOSEPH STEVENSON, M.A. 

Already published, 

PRE-REFOKMATION SERIES. 

Vol. I., Part II. BEDA-ECCLESIASTICAL 

HISTOKY. 
Ditto-LIFE of ST. CUD- 

BERCT. 

Ditto-ABBOTS of WEAR- 

MOUTH and J ARROW. 
Ditto-CHRONICLE. 

Ditto-EPISTLE to BI- 

SHOP EGBKRCT. 

Vol. II., Part I. ANGLO-SAXON CHRONI- 
CLE. 

FLORENCE of WORCES- 
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and Appendix. 
Vol. II., Part II. CHRONICLE of ETHEL- 

WERD. 

ASSER'S ANNALS of AL- 

FRED. 
THE BOOK of HYDE. 

CHRONICLES of WAL- 

LINGFORD. 
HISTORY of INGULF. 
., GAIMAR. 

REFORMATION SERIES. 

ACTS and MONUMENTS of JOHN FOXE. 
Vol. I., Part II., and Vol. II., Part I. 

Either Series may be subscribed for inde- 
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Subscription, 20s. per annum. 

" Much credit is due to the editor, the Rev. 
J. Stevenson, for his careful criticism and 
translation of these interesting historical mo- 
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like prejudice or party spirit. ' It is not in- 
tended,' says the prospectus, 'to give the 
opinions of any particular school or period. 
Each writer will be selected, not with any 
reference to his theological opinions, but sim- 
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of his own day.' In other words, the editor 
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In crown 8vo., printed and ornamented from 
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HTHE WIFE'S MANUAL; or, 

L Prayers, Thoughts, and Songs, on several 

Occasions of a Matron's Life. By the REV. 

WILLIAM CALVERT. Rector of St. An- 

tholin, and one of the Minor Canons of St. 

| Paul's. 

j " This elegant volume is admirably adapted 
! for a wedding gift, and will, no doubt, in that 
j character alone, obtain a great run of popu- 
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to be." John Butt. 

London : LONGMAN. BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



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WALKER'S PRONOUNCING 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 12, 18-54. 



COLERIDGE'S LECTURES ON SHAKSPEARE. 

A learned friend of mine, and a justly valued 
contributor to " K. & Q.," the REV. DR. MAIT- 
LAND, has referred me to the following passage in 
the Mishna (Capita Patrum, v. 15.), in illustra- 
tion of Coleridge's division of readers into four 
classes, as mentioned in my last communication 
regarding his lectures of 1812-13. The resem- 
blance is striking : 

" Quadruplices conditiones (inveniunt) in his qui sedent 
coram sapientibus (audiendi causa). Videlicet conditio 
spongiae, clepsydrae, sacci fecinacei, et cribri. Spongia 
sugendo attrahit omnia. Clepsydra quod ex una parte 
attrahit, ex altera rursum effuudit. Saccus fecinaceus 
effundit vinum et colligit feces. Cribrum emittit farinam 
et colligit similam." 

I need hardly say that the passage is new to 
me, being entirely out of my line of reading; but 
how far it would have been new to Coleridge, I 
cannot determine : my note of the opening of his 
second lecture does not show that he referred to 
any authority, but contains merely these intro- 
ductory words, " Readers may be divided into 
four classes." Therefore, if he acknowledged the 
obligation, I have no trace of it ; and my opinion 
is, not only that he did not, but that it was scarcely 
necessary in a popular address (not a written 
essay) to be very particular on such points. 
However, it well merited observation, and in what 
I sent I should have noticed it, had the informa- 
tion been in my possession. If we are to blame 
Coleridge for plagiarism, we are bound to praise 
him for improvements on the original. I will 
now proceed to some other points, inserting as 
little of my own, and as much of Coleridge's, as 
your limits will allow. 

I will commence with a passage somewhat akin 
to what precedes, where the lecturer divides the 
readers of Shakspeare into two classes, intro- 
ducing them by some general remarks upon the 
characters the poet employs in his dramas. It 
occurs in the ninth lecture, where he says, 

" Shakspeare's characters, from Othello and 
Macbeth down to Dogberry and the Gravedigger, 
may be termed ideal realities ; they are not the 
things themselves, so much as abstracts of the 
things which a great mind takes into itself, and 
there naturalises them to its own conception. 
Take Dogberry : are no important truths there 
conveyed, no admirable lessons taught, and no 
valuable allusions made to reigning follies, which 
the poet saw must for ever reign ? Dogberry is 
not the creature of the day, to disappear with the 
day, but the representative and abstract of truth, 



which must ever be true, and of humour, which 
must ever be humorous. 

" The readers of Shakspeare may be divided 
into two classes : 1 . Those who read his works 
both with feeling and understanding ; 2. Those 
who, without aflecting to criticise, merely feel, 
and may be said to be recipients of the poet's 
power. 

" Between these two there can be no medium. 
The ordinary reader, who does not bring his un- 
derstanding to bear upon the subject, is often 
sensible that some ideal trait of his own has been 
caught that some nerve has been touched ; and 
he knows that it has been touched by the vibration 
he experiences a thrill, which tells us that we 
have become better acquainted with ourselves. 

" In the plays of Shakspeare every man sees 
himself without knowing that he does so ; as in 
some of the phenomena of nature, in the mist of 
the mountain, the traveller beholds his own figure, 
but the glory round the head distinguishes it from 
a mere vulgar copy ; in traversing the Brocken, 
in the north of Germany, at sunrise, the brilliant 
beams are shot askance, and you see before you 
a being of gigantic proportions, and of such ele- 
vated dignity, that you only recognise it to be 
yourself by similarity of action. In the same way, 
near Messina, natural forms, at determined dis- 
tances, are represented on an invisible atmosphere, 
not as they really exist, but dressed in all the 
prismatic colours of the imagination. So in 
Shakspeare, every form is true, everything has 
reality for its foundation ; we can all recognise 
the truth, but we see it decorated with such hues 
of beauty, and magnified with such proportions of 
grandeur, that, while we know the figure, we 
know also how much it has been refined and 
exalted." 

A great part of this ninth lecture was devoted 
to the Tempest, and passing over what is said of 
Prospero, Miranda, and other characters, I shall 
make a quotation from what Coleridge said re- 
garding Ariel. 

" If (he observed) a doubt could ever be en- 
tertained, whether Sliakspeare was a great poet, 
acting upon laws ari.sing out of his own nature, 
and not without law, as has sometimes been idly 
asserted, that doubt must be removed by the cha- 
racter of Ariel. The very first words lie utters 
introduce the spirit, not as an angel above men ; 
not as a fiend, below men ; but while the dra- 
matist gives him the faculties and advantages 
of reason, he divests him of all mortal cha- 
racter, not positively it is true, but negatively. 
In air he lives, from air he derives his being ; in 
air he acts, and all his colours and properties seem 
to have been obtained from the rainbow and the 
skies. There is nothing about Ariel that cannot 
be conceived to exist either at sunrise or sunset ; 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



hence all that belongs to Ariel belongs to the 
pleasure the mind is capable of receiving from 
external appearances. His answers to Prospero 
are directly to the question and nothing beyond ; 
or where he expatiates, which is not unfrequently, 
it is upon his own delights, or upon the unnatural 
situation in which he is placed, though under a 
kindly power and to good ends. 

" Shakspeare has properly made Ariel's very 
first speech characteristic of him. After he has 
described the manner in which he has raised the 
fitorm, and produced its harmless consequences, 
we find that he is discontented that he has been 
freed it is true from a cruel confinement, but still 
that he is not at liberty, but bound to obey 
Prospero and to execute his commands. We feel 
that such a state of bondage is almost unnatural, 
yet we see that it is delightful to him to be so 
employed. It is as if we were to command one of 
the winds in a different direction to that which 
nature dictates, or one of the waves, now rising 
and now sinking, to recede before it bursts upon 
the shore. Such is the feeling we experience 
when we learn that a being like Ariel is com- 
manded to fulfil any mortal behest." 

The lecturer proceeded in this strain for some 
time, illustrating most emphatically the admirable 
judgment of Shakspeare in this drama, as well as 
the astonishing powers of his imagination. He 
then adverted to the contrast afforded by Caliban. 

" The character of Caliban (said Coleridge) is 
wonderfully conceived ; he is a creature of the 
earth, as Ariel is a creature of the air. He par- 
takes of the qualities of the brute, but is distin- 
guished from brutes in two ways by having 
understanding without moral reason, and by not 
possessing the instincts which pertain to mere 
animals. Still, in some respects, Caliban is a noble 
being ; the poet has raised him far above con- 
tempt ; he is a man in the sense of the imagina- 
tion ; all the images he uses are highly poetical ; 
they fit in with the images of Ariel. Caliban 
gives us images from the earth, Ariel images from 
the air. Caliban talks of the difficulty of finding 
fresh water, of the situation of morasses, and other 
circumstances, which even brute instinct, without 
the aid of reason, could comprehend. No mean 
figure is employed by him; no mean passion dis- 
played, beyond animal passions and a repugnance 
to command." 

Surely all this is admirably said, and nicely and 
philosophically distinguished ; and I seem to have 
been so sensible of the worth of what was uttered, 
that my note of this lecture is longer than of any 
other, with the exception of that upon Romeo and 
Juliet, from which I shall select one or two speci- 
mens. First, I will insert Coleridge's definition 
of love, which he gave in these terms : 

" Love is a perfect desire of the whole being to 



be united to some thing or some being, felt neces- 
sary to its completeness, by the most perfect 
means that nature permits and reason dictates." 

Upon this idea of the imperfectness of one sex, 
which is always striving after perfection by unit- 
ing itself with the other sex, the lecturer mainly 
relied, and he followed up his definition (after a little 
enlargement and explanation) by these remarks : 

" Love is not, like hunger, a mere selfish appe- 
tite : it is an associative quality. The hungry 
savage is nothing but an animal, thinking only of 
the satisfaction of his stomach. What is the first 
effect of love, but to associate the feeling with 
every object in nature : the trees whisper, the 
roses exhale their perfumes, the nightingales sing 
nay, the very skies smile in unison with the 
feeling of true and pure love. It gives to every 
object in nature a power of the heart, without 
which it would indeed be spiritless, a mere dead 
copy. 

" Shakspeare has described this passion in 
various states and stages ; beginning, as was most 
natural, with love in the young. Does he open 
his play with making Romeo and Juliet in love 
at first sight, at the earliest glimpse, as any ordi- 
nary thinker would do? Certainly not: he knew 
what he was about, and how he was to accomplish, 
what he was about. He was to develop the whole 
passion, and he commences with the first elements 
that sense of imperfection, that yearning to 
combine itself with something lovely. Romeo 
became enamoured of the idea he had formed in 
his mind ; and then, as it were, christened the 
first real being of the contrary sex as endowed 
with the perfections he desired. He appears to 
be in love with Rosaline ; but, in truth, he is in 
love only with his own idea. He felt that neces- 
sity of being beloved, which no noble mind can be 
without. Then our poet our poet who so well 
knew human nature introduces Romeo and 
Juliet, and makes it nut only a violent but a 
permanent love ; a point for which Shakspeare 
has been ridiculed by the ignorant and unthink- 
ing. Romeo is first represented in a state most 
susceptible of love ; and then, seeing Juliet, he 
took and retained the infection." 

I consider myself fortunate to have been able 
to rescue such points as these from the oblivion to 
which I fear Coleridge's other lectures are de- 
stined ; and I will add a single short paragraph 
regarding a class of characters that has hitherto 
excited little observation. 

" As I may not have another opportunity, the 
introduction of Friar Lawrence into this tragedy 
enables me to remark upon the different manner 
in which Shukspeare has treated the priestly 
character, as compared with other writers. In 
Beaumont and Fletcher priests are represented as 
a vulgar mockery ; and, as in other of their dramatic 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



personages, the errors of a few are mistaken for 
the demeanour of the many. In Shakspeare they 
always carry with them your love and respect. 
He made no imperfect abstractions : he took no 
copies from the worst part of our nature ; and, 
like the rest, his characters of priests are drawn 
from the general body." 

Coleridge devoted one lecture to Richard II. and 
Hamlet. The first was his favourite historical play; 
and his admiration of the second is well known. 
His peculiar views on the character and conduct 
of the Danish prince were stated, perhaps, at more 
length in 1818, but not with greater distinctness 
and emphasis. " N. & Q." will, I trust, be able 
to find room for the two subsequent paragraphs : 

" The first question we should ask ourselves is, 
what did Shakspeare mean when he drew the 
character of Hamlet ? He never wrote anything 
without design, and what was his design when he 
sat down to produce this tragedy ? Sly belief is 
that he always regarded his story before he began 
to write, much in the same light that a painter 
regards his canvas before he begins to paint as 
a mere vehicle for his thoughts, as the ground 
upon which he was to work. What then was the 
point to which Shakspeare directed himself in 
Hamlet? He intended to pourtray a person in 
whose view the external world, and all its inci- 
dents and objects, were comparatively dim, and of 
no interest in themselves; and which began to 
interest, when they were reflected in the mirror 
of his mind. Hamlet beheld external things, in 
the same way that a man of vivid imagination, 
who shuts his eyes, sees what has previously made 
an impression on his organs. 

" The poet places him in the most stimulating 
circumstances that a human being can be placed 
in : he is the heir apparent of a throne ; his father 
dies suspiciously ; his mother excludes her son 
from his throne by marrying his uncle. This is 
not enough ; but the ghost of his murdered father 
is introduced, to assure the son that he was put to 
death by his own brother. What is the effect 
upon the son ? Instant action, and pursuit of 
revenge ? No, endless reasoning and hesitating ; 
constant urging and solicitation of the mind to 
act, and as constant an escape from action. Cease- 
less reproaches of himself for sloth and negligence, 
while the whole energy of his resolution evapo- 
rates in these reproaches. This, too, not from 
cowardice -for Hamlet is drawn as one of the 
bravest of his time ; not from want of forethought, 
or from slowness of apprehension for he sees 
through the very souls of all who surround him ; 
but merely from that aversion to action which 
prevails among such as have a world in them- 
selves." 

I will only add, that while Coleridge paid a just 
tribute to the sagacity and penetration of German 



critics, he claimed for himself the merit of ori- 
ginality in his opinions and observations upon. 
Shakspeare. He admitted that in the interval 
between one lecture and another, a friend had 
put a German work into his hand which in some 
respects corresponded with his notions ; but he 
distinctly denied that he had ever seen it before, 
or that he had in any way been guided or in- 
fluenced by it. It will be borne in mind, that all 
I have written belongs to the end of the year 
1812, and the beginning of the year 1813. 

J. PAYNE COLLIER. 
Riverside, Maidenhead. 



NOTES ON SOME VERSES BT THOMAS CAMPBELL. 

MR. TONNA, in Vol. x., p. 44., has certainly 
given a curious illustration of the verbal nicety 
(almost equal to Gray's !) of my late friend, the 
illustrious Bard of Hope. But though he refers 
to the copy of the verses in question, printed in 
the New Monthly Magazine, some months after 
the incident he describes, he does not appear to 
have seen it, else he would have observed that 
Campbell discarded his " second thoughts," and 
reverted to the word " severed." Perhaps he 
thought " parted " and " depart " looked some- 
what like a conceit, to which he was always op- 
posed. In this copy, and in one which now lies 
before me, in the author's autograph, and which I 
saw him write, after the death of the lovely, ac- 
complished, and unfortunate subject of the verses, 
there are two lines altered from MR. T.'s version :. 

" Could I bring lost youth back again," 
is substituted for 

" Could I recall lost youth again ; " 

" Affection's tender glow " 
becomes 

" Devoted rapture's glow," 

which is more impassioned and poetical, I think^ 

MR.T. does not seem to have consulted Beattie's 
Life of the poet, where (vol. iii. p. 70.) this little 
poem is reprinted, with a note by the bio- 
grapher. There also he would have found the 
striking sketch of the "Battle of the Baltic," 
which I transcribed from an early letter of Camp- 
bell to his brother bard, Sir Walter Scott, and 
from which the author's over-delicate taste re- 
jected eight whole stanzas, two or three of them 
almost as fine, even in this rough draft, as several 
of those which have so much contributed to his 
immortality. 

It is remarkable that we do not find in this 
sketch the expression " to anticipate the scene," 
interpolated for the sake of the rhyme, and which 
falls on the mind so " stale, flat, and unprofitable," 
amid so many " words that burn " and stir one's 
blood like the sound of a trumpet ! 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



There are two or three poems in the Life which 
ought to be in his collected works. I shall only 
instance the spirited " British Grenadiers " (vol. ii. 
p. 289.), and the noble lines entitled " Launch 
of a First Rate" (vol. iii. p. 295.). Had the 
" Launch " been composed before the last collec- 
tion of his poems passed through Campbell's 
hands, I fancy even his fastidiousness would have 
permitted its addition to the " Naval Songs." 

In curiosa felicitas of expression, Campbell's 
small volume is a mine of wealth ; yet he some- 
times uses epithets so faulty that they could not 
have escaped a far less critical eye. I think it 
has never been remarked that the obvious and 
unmistakeable pleonasm in the burden of " Ye 
Mariners of England," 

" While the stormy tempests blow " 

(one might, with as much propriety, speak of a 
tranquil calm!), was first rejected by the poet 
after it had been reprinted hundreds of times, in 
his most elaborate edition of 1837, with Turner's 
illustrations ; and that he substituted the exact 
words of the chorus of the old song (" Ye Gentle- 
men of England"), the music of which elicited 
this noble lyric, 

" While the stormy winds do blow," 
in which, by-the-bye, the full, open sound of 
*' do " seems to me preferable to the hissing of 
" -pests." Yet it was some time before the tem- 
pests were driven from the field by the wind's, for 
I find them arrayed in exquisite type in the Book 
of Gems (culled, I presume, by Mrs. S. C. Hall), 
published the year offer Campbell's pet edition. 

GEO. HUNTLT GORDON. 
H. M. Stationery Office, Aug. 4, 1854. 

P. S. Since writing the above I have observed 
" The Launch " in an edition published since 
Campbell's death ; yet surely it must be little 
known, else our daily papers would have quoted 
it, when they gave such copious illustrations of 
the sublime, heart-stirring launch of the Royal 
Albert. Printed as a broadside, it would have 
been most welcome, if dispersed among the visitors 
to Woolwich on that magnificent day ! 



HAMPSHIRE PROVINCIAL WORDS. 

In a former volume (Vol. v., p. 173.) one of 
your correspondents happily suggested that a col- 
lection of provincial words and expressions should 
be made in'"N. & Q." As education is now on 
the advance in our country villages, the provincial 
dialect and " simple annals" of the poor are fast 
disappearing. It is therefore of some importance 
to gather and preserve the homely language and 
phraseology of the people. 

Perhaps the following list of words, which I 



have collected from time to time, may prove ac- 
ceptable to some of your readers. 

Civil, good-natured ; used much of animals, as 
" a civil dog." 

Front, frit, frightened. 

Pure, well, in good health. 

Safe, sure, as " safe to die." 

Nens as he was, " much the same as he was." 

Pretty nens one, " pretty much the same." 

Thumb, a name given to the " mousahunt," or 
smallest of the weasel tribe. 

Pooks, haycocks. 

Tender, used of a sharp east wind, as " the wind 
is very tender." 

Fit time, long time. 

Fit deal of trouble, much trouble. 

Nunch, lunch : I have never heard this meal 
called by another name. 

Lodging. This quaint but expressive word was 
made use of by a labouring man, in reply to an 
inquiry after the health of his child : " Oh, Sir, 
he is pretty much lodging, neither better nor 
worse." 

Contraption, construction. 

Spiritual, angry ; -as, " I got quite spiritual with 
him." 

Stump, a stoat. 

Bavins, bundles of underwood. 

Should these examples of the Hampshire dialect 
prove worthy of a place in " N. & Q.," I shall be 
induced from time to time to send any fresh ex- 
pressions or words which may come under my 
notice. F. M. MIDDLETOW. 

Medstead, Hants. 



THE INQUISITION. 

The Inquisition in all its proceedings, except 
those by which it celebrated its triumphs in the 
public autos, has ever shrouded itself in mysterious 
secrecy. In the want of correct intelligence re- 
lating to it, many groundless and .improbable 
stories have found a ready reception with unin- 
formed persons, if only related with a show of 
authority, how unsubstantial soever the truth of 
them may prove to be. That some respectable 
writers have lent their pens to the circulation of 
such mistakes, and in some degree mischievous 
accounts, shows a want of care to verify the facts 
they narrate to their readers, or reflects more 
seriously upon their zeal, too eager in its conflict 
with error to pause a moment to consider, whe- 
ther their erroneous statements may not injure 
the truth it is generally intended to support. Not 
a little currency has thus been given to a story 
about the destruction of the palace of the Inqui- 
sition of Madrid, which, as it will appear, must be 
classed with childish legend or German romance. 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



It is in substance as follows : That when 
Napoleon Buonaparte penetrated into Spain in 
1809, he ordered the buildings of the Inquisition 
to be destroyed ; that Col. Lemanousky, of the 
Polish lancers, being at Madrid, reminded Mar- 
shal Soult of this order, and obtained from him 
the 117th regiment, commanded by Col. De Lisle, 
for its execution ; that the building, situated a 
short distance from Madrid, was in point of 
strength a fortress of itself, garrisoned by soldiers 
of the Holy Office, who being quickly over- 
powered, and the place taken, the Inquisitor- 
General, with a number of priests in their official 
robes, were made prisoners. That they found the 
apartments splendidly furnished with altars, cru- 
cifixes, and candles in [abundance ; but could find 
no places of torture, dungeons, or prisoners, until 
Col. De Lisle thought of testing the floor by float- 
ing it with water, when a seam was thus dis- 
covered through which it escaped below ; and the 
marble slab being struck by the butt end of a 
musket, a spring raised it up, and revealed 'a 
staircase leading down to the Hall of Judgment 
below. That there they found cells for prisoners, 
some empty, some tenanted by living victims, 
some by corpses in a state of decay, and some with 
life but lately departed from them ; that the living 
prisoners being naked, were partially clothed by 
the French soldiers and liberated, amounting to 
"one hundred in number. That they found there 
all kinds of instruments of torture, which so ex- 
asperated the French, that they could not be 
restrained from exercising them upon the captive 
inquisitors ; Col. De Lisle standing by whilst four 
different kinds were applied, and then leaving the 
apartment in disgust ; and finally, that when the 
inmates had been removed, Col. De Lisle went to 
Madrid, obtained gunpowder, placed it in the 
vaults of the building, and lighting a slow match, 
made a joyful sight to thousands of spectators. 
" The walls and massive turrets of that dark edi- 
fice were lifted towards the heavens, and the 
Inquisition of Madrid was no more." 

Now this attractive and romantic narrative of 
vindicated liberty, justice, and charity, must 
take its place among other unsubstantial and 
amusing fictions. The story, as far as I have 
been able to trace it, originates in a relation 
said to have been made by Col. Lemanousky 
whilst in the United States of America, to a 
Mr. Killog of Illinois, who published it in the 
Western Luminary. A refugee Pole, and a back- 
states newspaper ! 

. It is copied with more or less detail into various 
publications, which in this manner add a sanction 
of their own to its pretended authenticity. Not 
to mention various recent periodicals and news- 
papers, it appears in The Mystery Unveiled, or 
Popery as its Dogmas and Pretensions appear in 
the Light of Reason, the Bible, and History, by the 



Rev. James Bell, Edinburgh, 1834, at p. 424., 
quoting from the Christian Treasury, a Scotch 
periodical : Ferreal (M. de V.), Mysteres de V In- 
quisition et autres Societes secretes d'Espagne, avec 
notes historiques, et une introduction de M. Manuel 
de Cuendias, Paris, 1845, 8vo., at pp. 79 84. : 
The Inquisition, Sfc., Dublin, 1850, at pp. 209-14. : 
after giving the story at length, with some colour- 
ing, the writer adds, that " the Holy Catholic 
Church in this, as in other things, was grossly 
misrepresented : " a remark perhaps ingeniously 
introduced to cast a doubt upon all the circum- 
stances in the volume, true as well as untrue ; thus 
to render error and truth undistinguishable : The 
Curse of Christendom, or the Spirit of Poetry 
Exhibited and Exposed, by the Rev. J. B. Pike, 
1852, 8vo., at pp. 261264. 

It is strange that such respectable writers never 
thought of consulting the current histories of the 
Peninsular war, or the leading newspapers of the 
time The Courier and Morning Chronicle 
which could scarcely have passed so public an 
event 'by without recording it ; and that they did 
not mistrust the tale from the silence of Llorente 
and Puigblanch, who would certainly have men- 
tioned it ; for neither the ex-secretary of the tri- 
bunal, nor Sn. Puigblanch, who first published 
his Inquisicion sin Mascara at Cadiz in 1811, and 
occupied the Hebrew Professor's chair in the 
central university of Madrid in 1820-1, could 
have remained ignorant of such a consummating 
circumstance. Neglecting the pains to verify the 
fact, they have left it in their pages ; a striking 
instance for an intelligent opponent to point at, of 
simple credulity and the unsubstantial worth of 
their books. 

In 1808, Napoleon decreed the suppression of 
the Tribunals of the Inquisition, at Chaniartin, a 
village one league from Madrid, at a house of the 
Duke del Infantado's, where he lodged. They 
were again established by a decree of Ferdi- 
nand VII. on July 21, 1814; and again sup- 
pressed by the constitutional government of 1820. 
There were two houses of the Inquisition at 
Madrid, and they still exist. Marshal Soult did 
not command at Madrid, nor is it true that he 
ordered their demolition. The front and appear- 
ance of one of them has been altered only four or 
five years ago, but it was not pulled down. Who- 
ever will take the trouble to look at the plan of 
Madrid, published for sixpence by the Society ot 
Useful Knowledge, may see near the north-west 
corner, not far from the new Royal Palace, a 
shaded spot, stretching from the Calle ancha de 
San Bernardo to the Calle de la Inquisition, which 
opens into the Plazuela de San Domingo. That 
spot marks the principal building of the Inquisi- 
tion at Madrid; there was none beyond the town. 
It is one of the most substantial edifices, erected 
upon a granite basement ; and, judging from some 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



gratings seen from the street, having underground 
apartments rarely found in that capital. 

B. B. WlFFEN. 

( To be concluded in our next.) 



" SILENCE OF THE SUN OB THE LIGHT. 

Dante uses this expression twice : 

" Mi ripingeva la dove '1 sol tace." Inf. i. 60. 
And 

" I' venni in luogo d* ogni luce muto." Inf. v. 28. 
Pollock translates the first, 

" She drove me back to where the sun was mute." 
So Carlyle : 

" To where the sun is silent." 
And Gary : 

" Drove me to where the sun in silence rests.'* 
And Tarver : 

" Ou les rayons du soleil ne penetrent point." 
The second is rendered by Gary, 

" Into a place I came 
Where light was silent all." 

And by Carlyle, 

" I am come into a place void of all light ; ** 
with which Tarver coincides. 

The obsolete poetical phrase, "il sol tace," means, 
it is said, in modern Italian, non risplende ; and luce 
muto must have the same signification. 

The silence of the sun leads us to consider the 
marginal reading of our Bibles on Jos. x. 12., 
where, instead of " Sun, stand thou still," the He- 
brew may be read, " Sun, be silent." Both roots, 
D1T and DO"7, give the secondary sense of "silence," 
the primary of the former being to stand, of the 
latter, to cut off": so also the former means to stop 
in speaking, and the latter, to cut off your speech; 

' 



airoKKOfj.fJ.fVoi and (jxavfj^ airoKO'n-fj. 

In reference to the sun, the word in Joshua is 
explained by D"T, or +\ J (dorri), meaning mid-day, 

when the motion of the sun appears suspended, 
and when, in hot countries, man, bird, and beast 
retire from the oppressive heat, and 

" When scarce a chirping grasshopper is heard 
Through the dumb mead." Thomson. 

The whole passage in Joshua x. 12-14.* being 

* 12. Then Joshua addressed Jehovah in the presence 
of the children of Israel, upon the occasion of Jehovah de- 
livering up the Amorites, saying, 

" Let Israel see the sun in Gibeon stand ; 
The moon within the vale of Ajalon. 

13. Suspend thy course, sun, and stay, O moon, 
J"or vengeance of a nation 'gainst her foes." 



taken as poetical, historical, and commentatory, 
will dispense with the supposition of a miracle*, 
which many critics attempt to extract by a mis- 
apprehension of poetical phraseology. The in- 
terpretation usually given is, that the day was 
lengthened by a miracle ; and one mode has been 
conjectured by Whiston, in a note on Josephus 
{Ant. v. i. 17.), as a stoppage of the diurnal mo- 
tion of the earth for about half a revolution, 
which appears to be the notion generally enter- 
tained. It is only necessary to call attention to 
the fiict that the lengthening of days is of common 
occurrence, and is not made as Whiston suggests, 
but by varying the angle of the equator with the 
ecliptic, which might have been effected in Joshua's 
time by the attraction of a comet deflecting the 
earth from its regular motion, D^pfi DV3 (Jos. x. 
13.), translated " about a whole day," but mean- 
ing "as on a regular (usual or ordinary) day." 
Taking, however, the non-miraculous view of the 
question, it will not appear strange that the Is- 
raelites should think the day unusually long, when 
we consider that they had been in forced march 
all the previous night up-hill (Jos. x. 9.) ; had 
been fighting all day r and ascending the mountain 
in pursuit of the retreating foe in the evening ; 
which ascent would protract the day, and give a 
stationary appearance to the moon and the sun.f 

T. J. BUCKTOW. 
Lichfield. 



" A per se A" In one of the martyr Bradford's 
letters, addressed to the Lord Russell (Stevens's 
Memoirs of Bradford, No. 20., Lond. 1832, p. 64.), 
I find the following sentence : 

" In the one, that is for lands and possessions, you have 
companions many ; but in the other, my good lord, you 
are A per se A with us, to our comfort and joy unspeak- 
able," &c. 

Has any other writer used this expression, " A per 
se A," in a similar manner, to denote the standing 
alone amid the circumstances of any position ? 

J. SANSOM. 



It is thus written upon the corrected roll, that the sun 
stood in mid-heaven, and retarded his usual course. 

14. Neither before nor since has Jehovah listened, as on 
this day, to human voice ; for Jehovah fought for Israel. 

This is evidently supplementary and illustrative of the 
narrative, Jos. x.'l 11. Compare the poetical phrase of 
Deborah, "They fought from heaven: the stars in their 
paths fought against Sisera," Jud. v. 20., with the narra- 
tive of the preceding chapter. 

* Compare Hab. iii. 11. Ecclesiasticus, xlvi. 4., takes 
the sense literally, and as making " one day as long as 
two." 

t Sadler the elder, by ascending in his balloon just 
after sunset, witnessed the sun rising out of the west, and 
setting a second time that evening before he descended. 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Satire on Mr. Fox. Many r years ago I heard 
the following lines repeated : as the satire which 
they contain is harmless, I send them to " N. & 
Q." the Query being, are they worth preserving 
in print ? 

" At Brooks's of pigeons they say there are flocks, 
But the greatest of all is one Mr. Fox. 
If he takes up a card, or rattles a box, 
Away fly the guineas of this Mr. Fox. 

ye gamblers, your hearts must be harder than rocks, 
Thus to win all the money of this Mr. Fox. 

He sits .up whole nights, neither watches nor clocks 

Ever govern the movements of this Mr. Fox. 

Such irregular conduct undoubtedly shocks 

All the friends and acquaintance of this Mr. Fox. 

And they very much wish they could put on the stocks, 

And make an example of this Mr. Fox. 

Against tradesmen his door he prudently blocks, 

An aversion to duns has this Mr. Fox. 

He's a great connoisseur in coats and in frocks, 

But the tailors are losers by this Mr. Fox. 

He often goes hunting, though fat as an ox : 

1 pity the horses of this Mr. Fox. 

They certainly all must be lame in the hocks, 
Such a heavy-tail'd fellow is this Mr. Fox." 

CHARLES JAMES VULPES. 

Storey's Gate. 

Tis well the Gate is down ! 
Who was this Storey, that his long-lost name 
Should be inscribed upon the roll of fame 
And after ages of oblivion claim 

A posthumous renown ? 
Came he of gentle blood, or humble birth ? 

Plebeian was he, or patrician ? 
Was he in trade ? or did he till the earth ? 

Was he a parson, or physician ? 
Perhaps he fill'd some office in the State ! 

But was he ever known as Whig or Tory ? 
All seems a blank. Tho' Storey had a gate, 

'Tis plain his gate will never have a story. 

CECIL HARBOTTLE. 

[Our good friend CECIL HARBOTTLE has sacrificed his 
historical knowledge to the point of his epigram ; for we 
are sure he knows as well as anybody that Edward 
Storey, who gave his name to the gate, was keeper of 
the volary to Charles II., which volary or aviary was so 
large that the birds could fly about in it.] 

Ancient Bell. There is a note to Throsby's 
edition of Thoroton's Nottinghamshire (vol. ii. 
p. 88.) which may possibly interest MR. ELLA- 
COMBE and other lovers of Campanology : 

" In the year 1795, a gentleman of considerable fortune 
came to Leicester purposely to see an old bell brought to 
Mr. Arnold, bell -founder, to be recast. On it was the 
head of Henry III., King of England in the time of Pope 
Benedict. Round the crown this : 



Confessor CrtsUt 33cnetiute ora pro 
uofctS 9cum.' 

The history of this bell is this : When Broughton 
Church, in Northamptonshire, was knocked down by 
Cromwell, the bell was taken to the church of Moulton, 
near Northampton ; thence brought to Leicester in 1795, 



to be recast with the rest of the church bells. Its weight 
27 cwt. Mr. Smith, the gentleman noticed above as a 
curioso in ancient bells, says that there is only one more of 
the age that he knows of in England." 

THOMAS R. POTTER. 

Earliest Mention of Porter. You were kind 
enough, in your eighth volume, to give me some 
information as to the first introduction of this 
beverage. I have since found the passage to which 
I referred, in Nicholas Ambers t's Terrce Filius 
for May 22, 1721, somewhat earlier than the date 
you have mentioned ; " We had rather dine at a 
cook's shop upon beef, cabbage, and porter, than 
tug at an oar, or rot in a dark, stinking dungeon." 
This is probably the very earliest mention in print 
of porter. HENRY T. RILET. 

Bosses in Morwenstow Church. Sigel of Solo- 
mon. The pentacle ; symbol of Omnipotence ; 
the hand of God. Its five points signify the 
fingers of God. It is said to have been graven 
on a precious stone, and worn in a ring by Solo- 
mon with the tetragrammaton inscribed in the 
midst. Thereby He ruled the angels and they 
served Him. 

" Hence all his might, for who could these oppose ? 
And Tadmor thus and Syrian Baalbec rose ! " 

The Shield of David. A six- angled figure ; 
another point added to the pentacle to represent 
the human nature of " David's son." The man- 
hood taken into God. 

The double-headed Eagle. As the dove in the 
New Testament, so the eagle in the Old was the 
type of the Holy Ghost. After the time of Elijah, 
and the promise of a double portion of His spirit 
to his successor Elisha, the eagle with two heads 
denoted this increased access of the Third Person 
of the Trinity to man's kind. Like many other 
church emblems, this crest was subsequently 
adopted in the shield of mere earthly kings. 

Four Faces. In the likeness of man, three ; 
one feminine. The Trinity and the Blended 
Mother of Messias were thus pourtrayed. 

R. S. H. 



EPISCOPAL SALUTATION. 

So far as I remember to have observed the 
current style of episcopal documents in England, 
it differs from the ancient form, in which the 
bishops were not used to withhold from their 
"faithful children in Christ" their benediction: 
for example, in the marriage licence of the poet 
Gower (Vol. ix., p. 487.), we find, " dilecto in Christo 
filio, domino Willelmo, etc., salutem, gratiam, et 
benedictionem." And, in the Compleat Clerk, or 
Conveyancers' Light of 1671, the ecclesiastical 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



precedents still retain " salutem et gratiarn ; " 
whereas now it seems, that "grace" and "bene- 
diction " are both gone ; and, if I mistake not, even 
the poor little children just ready for confirm- 
ation are invited in a letter from their spiritual 
father, beginning : " John, by divine permission, 
&c., sends greeting." 

When did this curt style come into use, and is 
it now universal ? or is there any occasion on 
which our bishops give " grace and benediction," 
either in Latin or in the vernacular ? Of course 
there is a place for everything. In our new forms 
for cheap law, and plenty .of it, a man may find 
himself in chancery on reading : 

" Victoria R. 
. " To the within-named defendant C. D. greeting," &c. 

And, compared with the fatal context, this salu- 
tation may appear gracious enough ; but it does 
seem to me (cum omnimoda reverentia tantis 
patribus debita) that the pastorals, with which 
the faithful flock are honoured from their holy 
fathers, might be adorned with the restoration of 
the accustomed benediction without losing any 
of the excellences now pertaining to those inter- 
esting and rare documents. H. P. 
Lincoln's Inn. 



THE SCHOOLBOY FORMULA. 

I know not if your interest, or that of your 
renders, extends to the history and origin of a 
schoolboy game, or other whimsical formulae em- 
ployed by him on certain occasions in the prelimi- 
nary arrangement of choosing either " sides,"or the 
individual performer in cases where the main 
burden falls on one. I remember distinctly, but a 
few years ago, having repeatedly formed one of the 
ring around the spokesman or officer on such occa- 
sions, whose business it was, guided by this formula, 
to challenge alternately the individuals of the party 
who were ultimately to form the opposing forces in 
the game, or to challenge all in succession until, by 
this process of elimination, the one was left, upon 
whose activity or prowess the game should depend. 

Nursery rhymes, originating centuries ago, have 
before now occupied the attention of the learned 
and hidden sarcasm levelled at church and state 
have been discovered, by those who are profound 
enough, wrapped up in their simplicity. What mys- 
tery may there not be involved in the odd succes- 
sion of syllables employed from time immemorial in 
our plavgrounds ? What a field for the exercise of 
ingenuity and learning may it not afford to those 
who justly see, in every olden custom, some light 
thrown upon the life and manners of our ancestors ? 

The following is the formula : Pointing, in suc- 
cession, to one after another in the circle, passing, 
in the order of the watch-hand or the journey of 
the sun, one for every word or syllable pronounced, 



the speaker, facing with all of us the centre of 
the circle in which we stood, commenced with hia 
neighbour on his left, and counting himself in as 
he proceeded round and round, weeded us one by 
one in the manner I have described, by the run of 
the following incantation : 

" One-er-y, two-er-y, tick-er-y, seven, 
Ak-a-by, crack-a-by, ten, and eleven. 
Pin, pan, 
Musk-y Dan, 

Twiddle-urn, twaddle-urn, twenty-one. 
Black, fish, white, trout, 
Ee-ny, o-ny, 
You, go, OUT." 

I assure you that I am giving a faithful state- 
ment of the formula as used in my days, and as I 
doubt not many of your younger readers will certify 
that it is still in existence. Now if any of those 
interested in the history of our juvenile games can 
throw any light upon the origin of this odd collection 
of syllables, I, and all the others of that numerous 
body, will feel much obliged to him. X. 

[We suspect there are numerous versions of these 
" counting-out rhymes " to be found in our nursery tra- 
ditional literature. Mr. Halliwell, in his Popular Rhymes 
and Nursery Tales, p. 14., edit. 1849, has furnished the 
following : 

" One-ery, two-ery, 

Tick-ery, tee-vy ; 
Hollow-bone, crack-a-bone, 

Pen and eevy. 
Ink, pink, 

Pen and ink ; 
A study, a stive, 

A stove, and a sink ! " 

" One-ery, two-ery, 

Tickery, teven ; 
Alabo, crackabo, 

Ten and eleven : 
Spin, spon, 

Must be gone ; 
Alabo, crackabo, 

Twenty-one. 
U f spells out ! " 

Something similar to this, adds Mr. Halliwell, is found 
in Swedish, Arwidsson, iii. 492. : 

" Apala, mesala, 
Mesinka, meso, 
Sebedei, sebedo ! 
Extra, lara, 
Kajsa, Sara! 
Heck, veck, 
Vallingsaek, 

Gack du din lange man veck, 
Ut!" 

" Igdum, digdum, didum, dest, 
Cot-lo, we-lo, wi-lo, west ; 
Cot-pan, must be done, 
Twiddledum, twaddledum, twenty-one ! 

Hytum, skytum, 

Perridi styxum, 

Perriwerri wyxum, 

Abonum D."] 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



CAPTAIN THOMAS DRUMMOND. 

Who was Captain Thomas Drummond, the 
commander of the Scots Darien ship, the Speedy 
Return, for whose alleged murder Captain Green, 
of the English ship Worcester, suffered at Edin- 
burgh in 1705 ? 

Among the bitter things which this unhappy 
affair produced in London, was a broadside en- 
titled An Elegy on the much lamented Death of 
Capt. T. G., who was executed, with others of his 
Crew, under the pretence of being a Pirate, &fc. 
In this there is the following allusion to the sub- 
ject of my Query, where the writer speaks of 
Green's escape from the ordinary perils of a 
voyage only, on the " inhospitable shore " of Scot- 
land, to 

"find what Madagascar would forbear, 

E'en tho' detested Drummond harbours there ; 
Drummond, whose hands with Glencoe's blood embrued, 
Show murders by just judgments unpursued, 
Drummond ! the widows' tears, and orphans' cries, 
A guilty name for which the guiltless dies." 

I am aware proof exists that, whatever may have 
been the crimes of Green, there is very good 
reason to suppose that the murder of Drummond 
was not one of them ; but the connexion of the 
latter with the massacre of Glencoe, if true, is not 
so well known a fact. In Gallienus Redivivus, or 
Murther will out, being a true Account of that Affair 
(of Glencoe), in a Letter from a Gent, in Scotland 
to his Friend in England, Edinburgh, 1695, that 
name certainly does figure as one of the most bar- 
barous of the actors in this atrocity : 

" One of the proscribed Macdonalds, a child," says the 
writer, "suing for mercy, would have found it from 
Captain Campbell ; but I am informed one Drummond, an 
officer, barbarously run his dagger through him, whereof 
he died immediately." 

Is it possible that this miscreant was the man who 
subsequently figured so prominently as a com- 
mander in the service of the Scots Company, and 
one of their council at New Caledonia ? In both 
Mr. Burton's Darien Papers, and in the Journal 
of Drury, Drummond is presented to us more, I 
think, in the light of a military than a naval man ; 
and it' the Glencoe murderer, the Darien coun- 
cillor, and the Madagascar captive, are identical, 
the poet was premature in excepting him from 
God's judgment, for we are told by Drury that 
" he was killed at Tillea, in Madagascar, by a Ja- 
maica negro." J. O. 



Dr. John Hind's Collections. Can any one in- 
form me what became of the collection of Baby- 
lonian Antiquities, which formerly belonged to 
Dr. John Hine, of Baghdad ? It seems to have 
been of considerable value. E. H. D. D. 



Quotations of Plato and Aristotle. 

"Albumazar says that the man who knows how to 
count can be ignorant of nothing; and Plato, with Ari- 
stotle, says that man is the wisest of animals, because he 
has the science of numbers." Nouet's Life of Christ in 
Glory, translation by Dr. Pusey, p. 439. 

No reference is given to the works of Plato or of 
Aristotle. Can you *or your readers supply the 
deficiency ? H. P. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

Who struck George IV. ? Which of George IV.'s 
companions struck him when prince regent, for 
making use of an insulting expression after dinner ? 
I have heard that the prince was with difficulty 
dissuaded from taking legal proceedings against 
his assailant as for high treason. NEMO. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

The American Bittern. Refreshing myself the 
other day by turning over some old numbers of 
that delightful work, the Magazine of Natural 
History, I stumbled on the following statement as 
to an alleged luminosity of the American bittern : 

" It is called by Wilson the Great American Bittern ; 
but, what is very extraordinary, he omits to mention that 
it has the power of emitting a light from its breast, equal 
to the light of a common torch, which illuminates the 
water so as to enable it to discover its prey. As this cir- 
cumstance is not mentioned by any of the naturalists that 
I have ever read, I took some trouble to ascertain the 
truth, which has been confirmed to me by several gentle- 
men of undoubted veracity, and especially by Mr. Frank- 
lin Peale, the proprietor of the Philadelphia Museum." 
Vol. ii. p. 64. 

Is this a Jonathan, or something better ? If 
not a zoological fact, there may, perhaps, be some 
matters of traditional interest, perhaps an Indian 
superstition, mixed up with the statement, the 
particulars of which, if obtained in reply, may 
compensate for the space this Query occupies. 

SHIRLEY HIBBERD. 

Mr. Jekyll and the "Tears of the Cruets" 
Mr. Jekyll the barrister, who sat for Calne in 
several successive parliaments, was justly distin- 
guished as one of the most eminent wits of the 
age. At the time Mr. Pitt was meditating a tax 
upon salt, he produced a short and much-admired 
poem, entitled the Tears of the Cruets, in which 
the latter, apprehending that their contents, oil 
and vinegar, may be subjected to his remorseless 
taxation, feelingly lament their situation, and very 
pathetically allude to the probable ruin of the two 
great oilmen and Italian warehousemen of that 
day, in two lines which I recollect : 

" Poor Barto Valle ! melancholy Burgess ! 
Victims of Pitt, oflluskisson*, and Sturges."t 



* William Huskisson, Esq., M.P. for Morpeth, Under- 
secretary of State, War Department. 

f M.P. for Hastings and a Lord of the Treasury. 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



The verses first appeared in the Morning Chro- 
nicle, and I am not aware that they were ever 
published elsewhere. If any reader of " N. & Q." 
can inform me where I can find them, I shall be 
much obliged ; and if in no other publication than 
the Morning Chronicle, I beg to have the date of 
the paper pointed out. 2. (1) 

Sir Hugh Myddletorfs Brothers. Can any of 

your numerous correspondents furnish the names, 

places of residence, &c. of all, or nearly all, the 

many brothers of the late Sir Hugh Myddleton? 

A CONSTANT READER. 

Churches Erected. Can you tell me by what 
means I can ascertain the number of new churches 
that have been erected in each county, distin- 
guishing those where the expense has been de- 
frayed almost or entirely by individuals ? A. 

Salutation Customs. In the Retrospective Re- 
view, vol. ii. p. 240., I find the following : 

" The proud and pompous Constable of Castile, on his 
visit to the English Court soon after the accession of 
James I., was right well pleased to bestow a kiss on Anne 
of Denmark's lovely maids of honour, ' according to the 
custom of the country, and any neglect of which is taken 
as an affront.' . . . We should like to know when this 
passing strange custom died away a question we will 
beg to hand over to our friend ' X. & Q.' " 

In Hone's Year Book, col. 1087, this custom is 
also noticed by a correspondent as follows : 

" Another specimen of our ancient manners is seen in 
the French embrace. The gentleman, and others of the 
male sex, lay hands on the shoulders, and touch the side 
of each other's cheek ; but on being introduced to a lady, 
they say to her father, brother, or friend, Permettez-moi, 
and salute each of her cheeks . . . And was not this 
custom in England in Elizabeth's reign ? Let us read 
one of the epistles of the learned Erasmus, which being 
translated, is in part as follows : 

" '. . . Although, Faustus, if you knew the advantages 
of Britain, truly you would hasten thither with wings to 
your feet ; and, if your gout would not permit, you would 
wish you possessed the heart [sic] of Dajdalus. For, just 
to touch on one thing out of many here, there are lasses 
with heavenly faces ; kind, obliging, and you would far 
prefer them to all your Muses. There is, besides, a prac- 
tice never to be sufficiently commended. If vou go to 
any place, you are received with a kiss by all ; if you 
depart on a journey, you are dismissed with a kiss; you 
return, kisses are exchanged. They come to visit vou, 
a kiss the first thing ; they leave you, you kiss them all 
round. Do they meet you anywhere, kisses in abund- 
ance. Lastly, wherever you move, there is nothing but 
kisses. And if you, Faustus, had but once tasted them ! 
how soft they are how fragrant! on my honour you 
would wish not to reside here for ten years onlv, but for 
life.' " 

Perhaps some correspondent will answer the 
Query of the editor of the Retrospective Review as 
quoted above. CID. 

Angier Family. Is anything known of the 
descendants of the celebrated Nonconformist 



minister John Angier ; and especially of his three 
children? Elizabeth, born at Denton, June 24, 
1634, became the wife of the Rev. Oliver Hey- 
wood (afterwards her father's biographer), and 
died in 1661. John was in holy orders, which 
ig about the only fact I have been able to glean. 
There was also a third child, of whom I can learn 
nothing. J. B. 

Heraldic. What is the name of the family, 
also what is the crest appertaining to the follow- 
ing arms, viz. Argent, three pellets in bend voided, 
a chief sa. ?" In the Heralds' College, London, 
there is an old alphabet of arms, in which is : 
Argent, three pellets in bend voided, a chief sa., 
to the name of Hoyle, Yorkshire ; but the heralds 
say it is of no authority, and that they are as- 
sumed from the arms of Orrell, viz. Argent, three 
torteauxes in bend, between two bendlets sa., a 
chief of the second. There are also in the arms of 
O'Reilly of Ireland, as a second quartering : Ar- 
gent, a chief sa., between a bend gemelles, three 
torteauxes gu. Perhaps yourself, or some of your 
readers, can enlighten me as to whether they are 
the arms of Hoyle, _pr assumed, as the heralds 
state. FBEDEKICK. KENNETH. 

Clonea. 

Scottish Songs. Are there any old words to the 
airs of " The Yellow-haired Laddie," " The Bush 
aboon Traquair," " The Banks o' the Tweed," 
" Wandering Willie," and many more, equally 
beautiful ? And if so, where are they to be 
found ? Of course I don't mean words of the 
age or style of Allan Ramsay. L. M. M. R. 

Ancient Punishment of the Jews. I have a 
copy of Barrington's Observations on the Statutes, 
in which some former owner has written several 
useful notes. On the " Statutum de Judaismo " 
he says : 

" In death as in life, special indignities have been 
applied to the Jews. The Inquisition burnt them apart 
from other victims, and in the middle ages they were often 
put to death in company with animals held to be un- 
clean. Even so late as the year 1700, when the notorious 
Brunswick gang of robbers were executed for sacrilege at 
Zell, Jonas Meier was hanged with his head downwards 
on a separate gallows with a dog by his side ; though it 
does not appear that he was in any way different from the 
rest, except as being a Jew:" See Vortrefflich Gedacht- 
niss der Gottlicher Regierung. 

Can any of your readers tell me where I can 
see the book, or any other account of the case ? 

P. B. E. 

Ciudad Rodrigo. In the late Lord London- 
derry's Narrative of the Peninsular War, he men- 
tions, in his account of the siege of the above 
fortress by the French under Massena, in 1810, 
that a general assault was made by the besiegera 
on the night between June 30 and July 1, and re- 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



pulsed with very heavy loss by the Spanish gar- 
rison. Neither Napier, Hamilton, or other writers 
whom I have consulted, and who give very full 
accounts of the siege, make the least mention of 
this assault, important a feature as it would have 
been of the operations. Did no such attack ever 
take place ? or is it an exaggerated account of some 
trifling alarm ? J. S. WARDEN. 

Barony of Scales. Who was the Lord Scales, 
who commanded the British auxiliaries, and was 
killed in the battle of St. Aubin-du-Cormier, July 
27, 1488 ? Washington Irving, in a note to his 
Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada, appears 
to identify him with the "Lord Scales, Earl of 
Rivers, a near connexion of the royal family of 
England," who played so distinguished a part at 
the siege of Loxa, in 1486; but does not explain 
why the French historians designate him only by 
the inferior title. In fact, the legal connexion 
between the barony of Scales and the earldom of 
Rivers ceased on the death of Anthony Widville 
in 1483, although it is possible that his brother and 
successor, Richard, whom I presume to have been 
the volunteer of Loxa, still was vulgarly designated 
by the title which had been so long associated with 
the earldom of Rivers, but to which he had not 
the smallest right, either by descent or marriage. 
However, as Earl Richard appears to have sur- 
vived till 1491, we must look somewhere else for 
the leader of the British auxiliaries in the battle 
that decided the fate of Bretagne, and the marriage 
of its heiress. Most likely the French writers 
were mistaken in the English title, a case which 
has happened to them numberless times both before 
and since 1488. All the peerages agree in stating 
the barony to have fallen into abeyance in 1483, 
and to have remained so ever since. 

J. S. WARDEN. 

Dimidiation The Half Eagle. Not under- 
standing heraldry, I do not know whether the 
practice of dimidiation, referred to by L. C. D. 
(Vol. ix., p. 110.), is supposed to have a meaning. 
Schiller seems to ascribe one in Wallensteiris 
Death, Act III. Sc. 3. : 

" Wallenstein. Ye were at one time a free town. I see 
Ye bear the half eagle in your city arms. 
Why the half eagle only? 

Burgomaster. We were free, 

But for these last two hundred years has Egra 
Remain'd in pledge to the Bohemian crown ; 
Therefore we bear the half eagle, the other half 
Being cancell'd till the empire ransom us, 
If that should ever be." Coleridge's Translation. 



' Doch seit zwei hundert Jahren ist die Stadt, 
Der bohm'schen Kron' verpfandet. Daher riihrt's 
Dass wir nur noch den halben Adler fUhren, 
Der untre Theil ist cancellirt, bis etwa 
Das lieich uns wieder einlost." 

G. GERVAIS. 



Cook's Translation of a Greek MS. 

"Vincent Cook translated a Greek MS. of doubtful 
authenticity, giving an account of Plato's residence in. 
Italy. It is ascribed to Cleobulus, but the sentiments are 
those of a later age." Outlines of Ancient Philosophy, by 
Philip E. Butler, Philadelphia, 1831, p. 28. 

Can any of your readers give me the title of 
the above-mentioned work, or tell me where it is 
to be found ? J. TALBOT. 

Old Ballad. Forty years ago I frequently 
heard a ballad sung by the rustics of Derbyshire, 
only two lines of which I can remember. They 
were : 

" The Brownie Girl saw fair Eleanor's blood 
Run trickling down to knee." 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform me where 
I can discover this ballad ? THOMAS R. POTTER. 

Mutilation of Tacitus. Since I became con- 
vinced that there was a great preponderance of 
evidence in favour of the opinion that our Lord's 
crucifixion took place in April, A.D. 30, and that 
his public ministry did not last much more than a 
year, it has often occurred to me that the loss of 
the portion of the Annals of Tacitus relating to 
that period was not accidental ; but that the MS. 
was designedly mutilated by some enemy, or more 
probably by some injudicious friend of Chris- 
tianity, who wished to suppress the testimony of 
Tacitus as to the events connected with its origin. 
The one manuscript of the early part of the 
Annals is, I believe, at Florence ; and I desire to 
know if it presents the appearance of being inten- 
tionally mutilated. An exact description of it in 
reference to this suggestion, would be interesting 
to many of your readers. Perhaps some corre- 
spondent may be able to speak from recollection 
of what he has already seen. Or some Italian 
tourist may be induced to examine the manu- 
script, so as to enable him to decide the question. 

E. H. D. D. 

Rubrical Query. The rubric to the versicles 
that precede the three collects at Morning and 
Evening Prayer says : " Then the priest standing 
up, shall say," &c. After this rubric, on what 
authority does the priest kneel down again ? 

WILLIAM FKASER, B.C.L. 

Army. I wish to know when scarlet was first 
adopted by our soldiery ; when the first scale of 
pay was made, and at what rate for officers, both 
of cavalry and infantry regiments. Could any of 
your correspondents give me information on any 
of these points ? F. 

Oxford. 

The first English Envoy to Russia. Sir 
Jeremiah Bowes was ambassador from Queen 
Elizabeth to the then Czar of Muscovy (Ivan the 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



Terrible, I believe). A very remarkable anec- 
dote of his reply to that despot, on refusing, with 
Roman haughtiness, to pay a slavish obeisance to 
the barbarian, for which he was well nigh having 
his hat nailed to his head, was once in existence. 
Can any of your readers give me a copy of his 
heroic answer, or direct me where to search for 
it ? I have collected many particulars of Sir 
Jeremy's life and family, but cannot find any 
account of the fact I allude to, except that some 
one has made use of it to the glorification of his 
hero in a modern novel. A. B. 

"The Tales of the Fairies" 

" The Tales of the Fairies, or the Comical Metamor- 
phosis ; with the wonderful Operation of a Fountain in 
the Gardens of PATAGONIA, in restoring lost Virginity. 
London, printed in the year MDCCLXIV.," 16mo., with 
frontispiece, and plate at p. 140. 

By whom is the above, or to what does it refer? 
It seems political, and not what its title might in- 
duce people to suppose. M. L. 

Cork. In Oxfordshire, when a child exhibits 
an overweening fondness for a parent, with a view 
to gaining some coveted indulgence, it is usually 
denominated "cork," or, as it is called by the 
country people, "cark." "It is nothing but cork" 
is a common expression from parent to child. Can 
any of your readers define its origin ? Zz. 



S&inav 



fot'tfj 



Storm in Devon. Bishop Hall, in his medi- 
tation on the Invisible World, book i. sect. 6., on 
"The Employments and Operations of Angels" 
(Devotional Works, ed. Josiah Pratt, Lond. 1808, 
p. 459.), has the following passage : 

" I could instance irrefragably in several tempests and 
thunderstorms, which, to the unspeakable terror of the 
inhabitants, were seen," heard, felt, in the western parts ; 
wherein the translocation and transportation of huge, 
massy stones and irons of the churches, above the possi- 
bility of natural distance, together with the strange 
preservation of the persons assembled, with other acci- 
dents sensibly accompanying those astonishing works of 
God, still fresh in the minds of many, showed them 
plainly to be wrought by a stronger hand than Nature's." 

In a note at the words " western parts," the 
writer instances " the churches of Foye, Totness, 
and Withycomb," adding, " of the same kind 
were the prodigious tempests of Milan, an. 1521, 
and at Mechlin, Aug. 7, an. 1527." Is there any 
published account of the tempests at Foye, Tot- 
ness, and Withycomb, to which the bishop here 
alludes ? J. SANSOM. 

[In the British Museum is the following pamphlet: 
" To his Highness the Lord Protector, and to the Parlia- 
ment of England," 4to., no place or date. This is a letter 
without signature, written apparently by a Quaker, giving 
a curious account of Gloucester Cathedral. An engraved 



] frontispiece represents a church, with its interior visible, 
struck by lightning, and the congregation scattered. Be- 
neath it is the following inscription : "A most prodigious 
j and fearefull Storme of Winde, Lightning, and Thunder, 
mightily defacing Withicomb Church in Deuon, burning 
! and slayeing diverse Men and Women, all this in service- 
: time on the Lord's Day, Oct. 21, 1638." Mr. Davidson, 
i in his Bibliotheca Devoniensis, says, " This plate seems to 
j have been intended for one or the other of the two follow- 
ing tracts ; but it has not been found affixed to any copy 
of either of them." 1. " A True Relation of those sad and 
lamentable Accidents which happened in and about the 
Parish Church of Withycombe, in the Dartmoores in 
Devonshire, on Sunday, 21st October, 1638," 4to., London, 
1638 ; in the British Museum. % " A Second and more 
exact Relation of those sad and lamentable Accidents 
which happened in and about the Parish Church of 
Wydecombe, neere the Dartmoores in Devonshire, on 
Sunday the 21st of October last, 1638." 4to., London, 
1638.] 

Remigius Van Lemput. I shall feel much 
obliged for any information of the descendants of 
Remigius Van Lemput, the painter, who is stated 
to have been disowned by the historical family of 
that name still, or recently, existing at Antwerp, 
on account of his adoption of the Protestant faith ; 
and to have obtained his livelihood, during the 
time of Cromwell, in London, by his knowledge 
of painting, under the name of Remy. G. B. 

New York. 

[Remy's daughter was a paintress; and married 
Thomas, brother of Robert Streater, appointed Serjeant- 
painter at the Restoration, who is frequently noticed by 
Pepys in his Diary. Remy died in November, 1675, 
and was buried in the churchyard of Covent Garden, as 
his sou Charles had been in 1651.] 

Translations of the Talmud, frc. Does there 
exist a translation of the apocryphal Jewish books, 
The Talmud, &c., in any of the modern languages ? 
The information would much oblige K. 

[" Le Talmud de Babylone, traduit en langue Franchise 
et complete par celui de Jerusalem et par d'autres monu- 
mens de 1'antiquite Juda'ique, par 1'abbe L. Chiarini," 
Voll. L ii., 8, Leipz. 1831. There are two other trans- 
lations in Latin : " Talmudis Babylonici codex Middoth, 
sive de mensuris Templi ; Hebraice et Latine ; ex ver- 
sione et cum commentariis, studio Constantini rEmpereur 
ab Oppyck," 4to., Elzevir, Lug. Bat, 1630. "Talmudis 
Babylonici codex Succa, sive de Tabernaculorum Festo ; 
Hebraice et Latine ; ex versione et cum notis Fr. Bern. 
Dachs, et Commentariis Joh. Jac. Crameri," 4to., Trajecti 
ad Rhenum, 1726.] 

Letter to Aetius. Is there anywhere extant a 
copy of the entire letter of the Britons to Aetius ? 
GeofFry of Mon mouth, Nennius, and Bede give 
the same portions, which appear to be copied from 
some author who quotes only the fragments. I 
refer to Dr. Giles's translations of the above au- 
thors. W. B. THURMOND. 

[The entire letter is given by Polydore Virgil, but 
without stating his authority. Its authenticity is doubt- 
ful.] 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



Bernard Mandeville. On Thursday, July 11, 
1723, a presentment was inserted in the Evening 
Post against Mandeville's Fable of the Bees. Will 
any of your readers kindly inform me the result ? 
and, also, whether any farther proceedings were 
taken ? Will you also inform me where I can ob- 
tain the best information respecting Mandeville 
and his works? I have read the article in the 
Penny Cyclop., which is scarcely comprehensive 
enough. C. H. (2) 

[It does not appear that any farther proceedings were 
taken against Mandeville, after the presentment of the 
Grand Jury of Middlesex to the Judges of the King's 
Bench. If there had been, Mandeville would have no- 
ticed them in the collected edition of his Works, 4 vols., 
1728, where he has reprinted, from the London Journal of 

July 27, 1723, "A Letter to the Right Hon. Lord C ," 

severely animadverting upon his Fable of the Bees ; toge- 
ther with his " Answer to the Letter," and the present- 
ment to the Grand Jury. The best account of the author 
is contained in Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique, par 
Jacques George de Chaufepie, torn, iii., edit. 1753. Con- 
sult also his Life, by Dr. Birch, in the General Dictionary ; 
Lounger's Common-place Book, vol. ii. p. 306. ; and Chal- 
mers's Biographical Dictionary.'] 

Quotation. Can you oblige me by saying where 
to find the line 

" All men think all men mortal but themselves ? " 

J. M. 

[In Young's Night Thoughts, Night I., the 37th line 
from the end.] 

Precedency of the Peers of Ireland in England. 
I have an 8vo. volume in my possession, printed 
in Dublin without the author's "knowledge or 
concurrence," in 1739, entitled The Question of 
the Precedency of the Peers of Ireland in England 
fairly stated. As appears from the title-page, it is 
" A Letter to an English Lord, by a nobleman of 
the other Kingdom." Who was the author ? He 
adopts as his motto, " Alieni appetens, sui pro- 
fusus." " Largitor rapti " would have been more 
concise. ABHBA. 

[This work is by Sir John Perceval, first Earl of Eg- 
mont. Obit May 1, 1748.] 



THE DUNCIAD. 

C. asks, at Vol. x., p. 65., whether an edition of 
The Dunciad, 1727, has been seen ? The follow- 
ing extracts will probably prove that no such 
edition ever existed. In a letter addressed by 
Swift to Gay, Nov. 27th, 1727, he asks, "Why 
does not Pope publish his 'Dulness?'" Again, 
" I hope to see Pope's ' Dulness ' knock down the 
Beggar's Opera, but not till it hath fully done its 
job." 

Lord Bolingbroke, in a letter to Swift, not dated, 
but placed after the preceding one, says : " Pope's 



'Dulness' grows and flourishes it will be a 
noble work ; the many will stare at it, the few will 
smile." 

March 23, 1727-8, Pope tells Swift: "As for 
those scribblers, for whom you apprehend I would 
suppress my 'Dulness,' which, by the way, for the 
future, you are to call by a more pompous name, 
The Dunciad, how much that nest of hornets are 
my regard, will easily appear to you when you 
read the treatise of the Bathos." 

May 10, 1728, Swift says: "You talk of this 
Dunciad, but I am impatient to have it volare per 
ora. There is now a vacancy for fame ; the 
Beggar's Opera hath done its task." 

July 16, 1728, Swift writes : " I have often run 
over The Dunciad in an Irish edition (I suppose 
full of faults) which a gentleman sent me. The 
notes I could wish to be very large in what relates 
to the persons concerned." 

As Swift, of all men, would be indulged with 
an " early copy " of The Dunciad (for Lord Bo- 
lingbroke may have seen portions of the work in 
manuscript or in proof only), may we not con- 
clude from these extracts that The Dunciad cer- 
tainly did not appear till 1728 ? The Irish edition, 
" full of faults," may have been what Cleland. 
alludes to in his letter to the publisher, prefixed 
to the work (4to. and 8vo., 1729), " occasioned by 
the present (and as Warton or Bowles adds, the 
first correct) edition of The Dunciad''' .... 
" It is with pleasure I hear that you have procured 
a correct copy of The Dunciad, which the many 
surreptitious ones have rendered so necessary." * 

J. H. MARKLAND. 



I am glad that my inquiry about the first edition 
of The Dunciad has excited a correspondent 
spirit ; but the nature of the replies in Vol. x., 
p. 109., induces me, in order to save space and 
time, to repeat that what is inquired after is, 
any of the editions stated by Pope to have been 
published in Dublin and London, prior to one in 
12mo. published in London by Lawton Gilliver 
without date. 

I am surprised to find E. T. D, who writes as 
if he had considered the question, and tells us 
that he " has formed opinions of his own " upon 
it doubting my quotation of Pope's assertion, 
and asking where " Pope has distinctly and re- 
peatedly stated that an imperfect edition was pub- 
lished and republished in Dublin and in London 
in 1727." I am, I say, surprised that any one 
who has looked ever so superficially into the sub- 
ject, should not be aware that in a prefatory note 



* An advertisement which precedes this letter in these 
two editions, says; " It will be sufficient to say of this 
edition that the reader has here a much more correct and 
complete copy of The Dunciad than has hitherto appeared." 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



to what Pope calls the "first perfect edition" 
(z. e. that by Lawton Gilliver), he tells us : 

" This poem was writ in 1726. In the next year an 
imperfect edition was published at Dublin, and reprinted 
in London in 12mo., another at Dublin, and another at 
London, 8vo. ; and three others in 12mo. the same year." 

P. 66. 

This statement is repeated in Pope's first col- 
lected edition, 1736 (vol. iv. p. 70.), and again in 
his last collected edition, 1743 (vol. iii. p. 4.). 
Why E. T. D. should doubt its existence is more 
than I can explain ; but if he wondered at the 
existence of three editions (I had not specified the 
number), he will be more surprised to find Pope 
thus asserting that there werejffoe. 

Malone, I repeat, did not believe a word of all 
this, and I have never been able to find any one 
' of those alleged editions ; but it is, as I have said, 
quite incomprehensible that Pope should have vo- 
lunteered and persisted in a distinct and circum- 
stantial lie without any object that can be dis- 
covered. 

To save other correspondents trouble, I beg 
leave to state that I have before me the following 
early editions, and need no information about 
them. 1st. That which Malone thought to be the 
first of all, its title-page running thus : The 
Dunciad, an Heroic Poem in Three Books. 
Dublin printed ; London, reprinted for A. Dodd, 
1728. 2nd. The edition by Lawton Gilliver, 
mentioned by MR. THOMS, with the frontispiece 
of the owl, without date, but stating on the title- 
page that the poem was " written in 1727," and in 
the prolegomena, that this is " the first perfect 
edition." 3rd. The quarto edition of 1729, with 
a copper-plate vignette of an ass laden with the 
works of the Dunces, which Pope afterwards 
stated was " the first perfect edition." This seems 
to have been also printed in 8vo., but it is doubt- 
ful whether in the same year, as the date and 
printer's name, " A. Dod, 1729," are engraved on 
the copper-plate vignette, which, after being used 
for the 4to., appears to have been subsequently 
reproduced in the 8vo. Your correspondent 
B. H. C. has this 8vo., but seems to doubt that 
there was a 4to., and even to suspect that I have 
mistaken the 8vo. for a " so-called 4to." I beg 
leave to tell him that it is a 4to., a handsome one 

that I have even seen a large paper copy of it, 
and that it is by no means a rare volume I 
have seen several copies. This, which was Pope's 
first avowed edition, and which was presented to 
George II. and Queen Caroline, has a prefatory 
advertisement, complaining of former editions, 
and especially of one printed at Dublin. Why 
should he have repeated this if there was no such 
edition ? C. 



EGBERT PARSONS. 

(Vol. x., p. 68.) 

As Edmund Bunny is not present to speak for 
himself, I hope you will allow me to put in a plea 
of "Not guilty" on his behalf; your correspon- 
dent F. C. H. having confidently accused him 
and most unwarrantably of having broken the 
eighth commandment. Speaking of A Book of 
Christian Exercise, fyc., he says : 

" This is the same as the Apologetical Epistle, No. 28. 
in the above catalogue. The substance of it was stolen by 
Bunny, a Protestant clergyman, and published under his 



own name. 



There are here, I think, two false accusations 
and one misstatement. To take these in the order 
in which they stand : 

1. That the Book of Christian Exercise apper- 
taining to Resolution is the same as the Apolo- 
getical Epistle. This is wrong, for several reasons. 
A copy of the Exercise now lies before me. It 
has no title-page ; but the Dedication to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury is preserved, and the pre- 
face to the reader. The latter thus concludes : 
" And so I bid thee hartily farewell. At Bolton- 
Percie, in the ancientie or liberties of York, the 
9 of lulie, 1584. Thy hartie wel-willer in Christ." 
This first part was issued, then, sixteen or seven- 
teen years before the Apologetical Epistle was 
published (viz. 1601, if F. C. H.'s own date is to 
be trusted). The second part of the work (bound 
up with the first) is dated 1594, or seven years 
prior to the Apologetical Epistle. Now the Exer- 
cise is not an epistle at all, nor by any process can 
it be tortured into one, unless we may call 
Thomas a Kempis' Imitation, or Baxter's Sainfs 
Rest, epistles. I may observe in passing, that 
Baxter owed very much to the perusal of Parsons' 
book (the one under consideration) in early life. 

2. That the substance of Parsons' book was 
stolen by Bunny. What "Edm. Bunny" did, was 
to adapt Parsons' book to Protestant readers ; as 
many others had done before him, and have done 
since. This may be stealing ; but if it is, it is a 
crime which is chargeable upon many very excel- 
lent men of the various religious communions 
Romish as well as reformed. I should like to add 
the remarks of Bunny himself on this subject, 
but it will not be necessary owing to what now 
follows. 

3. That Bunny published it under his own 
name. He did : not as author, but as editor, 
which makes all the difference. Parsons himself, 
it appears, issued the book without his name. 
And therefore Bunny could give no more than 
the author gave, the initials " R. P.," and these 
he gave ; for he says to the reader : 

" Who it is that was the author of it, I do not know; 
for that the author hath not put to his name, but only 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



two letters in the end of his Preface : -which two letters I 
have set down under the title of the booke itselfe," &c. 

Whoever told F. C. H. that Bunny published 
the book in his own name, must have a character 
for mendacity which is exposed by the whole of 
Bunny's Dedication and Preface. Again, in 1594, 
where another editor (?) issued the second part 
of the work on the same plan, the initials " R. P." 
appear upon the title-page. This part is dedi- 
cated to Sir Thomas Heneage. The address to 
the reader thus begins : 

" Curteous Reader, not manie yeeres since, a book was 
published, Of Christian Exercise, appertayning to Resolu- 
tion : written by a Jesuit beyond the seas, yet an En- 
glishma, named M. Robert Parsons ; which booke AI. 
Edmund Bunny, hauing diligently perused, committed to 
the publique viewe of all indifferent iudgements : as glad 
that so good matter proceeded from such infected people, 
and that good might rise thereby to the benefit of others." 

I have said thus much, hoping to appease the 
manes of good Edm. Bunny ; and advise F. C. H. 
to see the book in question, which I never read 
but with pleasure. B. H. C. 

I am sorry that you did not insert the list of 
Parsons' works which I sent you, as I believe it 
would be found both more full and' more accurate 
than that given by Dodd, which I also referred 
to when drawing up my own. But my object in 
now recurring to the subject, is to vindicate the 
character of Edmund Bunny from the groundless 
charge brought against him by F. C. H., of having 
" stolen the substance of Parsons' Book of Chris- 
tian Exercise, and published it under his own 
name." In fact, the title, as given by F. C. H. 
himself, ought to have been sufficient to exempt 
him from such an imputation. I have the book 
now before me, and give the full title as follows : 

" A Book of Christian Exercise, appertaining to Reso- 
lution, that is, showing how that wee shoulde resolve 
ourselves to become Christians indeed, by R. P. ; Perused 
and accompanied now with a Treatise tending to Pacifi- 
cation, by Edm. Bunny, Lond. 1586." 

In a dedicatory epistle to Edwin Sandys, Arch- 
bishop of York, he states the nature and grounds 
of the alterations which he had made in the work, 
to adapt it to Protestant readers ; and in the pre- 
face to the reader he says : 

" Who it is that was the author of it, I doe not knowe, 
for that the author hath not put his name, but onely two 
letters in the ende of his preface : which two letters I 
have set downe vnder the title of the booke itselfe." 

And this is what F. C. H. calls " stealing the sub- 
stance of the book, and publishing it under his 
own name" 'A\KVS. 

Dublin. 

An able Roman Catholic historian, the Rev. 
Joseph Berington, in his valuable History of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Catholic Religion 



in England (pp. 26. 28.), thus speaks of Father 
Parsons : 

" To the intriguing spirit of this man (whose whole life 
was a series of machinations against the sovereignty of 
his country, the succession of its crown, and the interests 
of the secular clergy of his own faith,) were I to ascribe 
more than half the odium under which the English 
Catholics laboured through the heavy lapse of two cen- 
turies, I should only say what has often been said, and 
what as often has been said with truth. Devoted to the 
most extravagant pretensions of the Roman Court, he 
strove to give efficacy to those pretensions in propagating, 
by many efforts, their validity, and directing their appli- 
cation : pensioned by the Spanish monarch, whose pecu- 
niary aids he wanted for the success of his various plans, 
he unremittingly favoured the views of that ambitious 
prince, in opposition to the welfare of his country ; and 
dared to support, if he did not first suggest, his idle claim, 
or that of his daughter, to the English throne. Wedded 
to the society of which he was a member, he sought her 
glory and pre-eminence ; and to accomplish this, it was 
his incessant endeavour to bring under his jurisdiction all 
our foreign seminaries, and at home to beat down every 
interest that could impede the aggrandisement of his 
order. Thus, having gained an ascendancy over the 
minds of many, he infused his spirit, and spread his 
maxims : and to his successors of the society, it seems, 
bequeathed an admiration of his character, and a love of 
imitation, which has helped to perpetuate dissensions ; 
and to make us, to this day, a divided people. His writ- 
ings, which were numerous, are an exact transcript of his 
mind : dark, imposing, problematical, seditious." 

W. DENTOW. 



BRYDONE AND MOUNT ETNA. 

(Vol. ix., pp. 138. 255. 305. 432.) 

Being curious to ascertain, if possible, the 
origin of the frequently expressed disbelief in 
Brydone's account of his ascent to the summit of 
Mount Etna, I have discovered, in the course of 
looking into various works for that purpose, the 
following passage in the notes to the Canon Re- 
cupero's History of the mountain, by the canon's 
nephew, who published and edited the work many 
years after his uncle's decease. It will be remem- 
bered that the canon resided at Catania, and was 
visited by Brydone. 

" Brydone ebbe il coraggio d' ingannar 1' antore, facen- 
dogli credere d' esser salito fino al cratere dell" Etna. 
Egli non pole goder questo piacere per causa di una dis- 
graziata caduta che gli avenne nel viaggio, onde fu cos- 
tretto d' abbandonare 1' impresa. I suoi compagni, Ful- 
larton e Glover, giunsero pero fino a quel vertice fumante, 
e verificarano lassu la misura barometrica fatta altre volte 
dall' autore." Storia Natural e Generate deli' Etna, del 
Canouico Giuseppe Recupero, 2 vols. 4to., Catania, 1815. 

Swinburne, who did not ascend to the summit, 
says : 

" The Canon Recupero dissuaded me from attempting 
to reach the top of ^Etna, for he was certain that the snow 
would render it impracticable ; he observed that I should 
enjoy full as fine a prospect half way up the mountain as 
from the summit, by moving in a horizontal direction, 
and alternately taking in views towards different points 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



of the compass ; that the land would be equally seen in 
its whole extent, and all that I should lose would be a 
greater command of the sea ; and that I might form a 
tolerable idea of the crater of ./Etna from that of Ve- 
suvius, with which I was well acquainted. I paid a just 
deference to his opinion," c. Travels, vol. iv. p. 140. 

This passage would seem to prove that if Bry- 
done ascended the mountain, he might have 
written his glowing description without reaching 
the top, where, however, he explicitly narrates 
that he arrived, " in full time to see the most 
wonderful and most sublime sight in nature." 

Brydone states that he met with the accident, 
a sprain, alluded to by Recupero, in descending 
the mountain, not in ascending it. Recupero, it 
will be noticed, only says that Brydone deceived 
him in representing that he ascended to the crater, 
and says nothing about the summit of the moun- 
tain, which Brydone might have visited, granting 
all that Recupero asserts on his bare affirmation. 
Brydone's errors, in " sacrificing truth to piquancy 
in his narrations," have not led so eminent a judge 
as Spallanzani, who freely censures these errors, to 
question the truth of his ascent. LORD MONSON'S 
testimony also will add to the weight of evidence 
in favour of Brydone's general accuracy, so far as 
his lordship's not observing " a series of errors in 
the account while reading him on the spot " ex- 
tends. On the whole, perhaps, it will be thought 
by candid judges that Brydone's severest critics, 
who are chiefly foreign writers, indignant at being 
misled by him on some minor points, have been 
guilty of injustice in stigmatising the entire ac- 
count of his ascent as an ingenious romance. 
: JOHN MACRAT. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Photography applied to Engraving on Wood. The cur- 
rent number of the Art Journal contains a proof that the 
important question, Can photographs be produced on the 
wood block so as to be used by the engraver? has at 
length been solved in the affirmative. The engraving of 
the moon there given is most, satisfactory ; and we think 
our readers will be obliged to us for transferring to our 
columns the following letter from the Rev. St. Vincent 
Beechey, by whom this good service has been accom- 
plished. We hope Mr. Beechey will soon make known the 
means employed by him. 

Sir, 

"Enclosed I send you, I believe to be, the first fair 
specimen of a woodcut engraving, executed by Mr. Ro- 
bert Langton, of Cross Street, Manchester, upon a block 
on to which I have succeeded in transferring it in a con- 
dition exactly suited for the graver. It is a photographic 
copy of the celebrated map of the moon delineated by 
James Nasmyth, Esq., of Patricroft, on a scale of four 
feet diameter, which is certainly \>y far the most accurate 
in detail and execution that has yet been laid down ; the 
result of years of observation and most accurate micro- 
metric measurement. The scale to which this map is 
reduced on the block of course rendered it impossible to 
engrave all these minutiae ; but by this process the exact 
position of all the principal mountains and ridges has 



been preserved, and much detail introduced, which it 
would have required days, and a very clever draughts- 
man, to have reduced and laid down to scale. The pho- 
tograph was impressed upon the plain surface of the 
wood without any ground black or white, duly reversed, 
and requiring no other treatment than if it had been 
drawn, except that here and there a crater, &c., had to be 
made a little more distinct, depending merely upon the 
imperfection of the photograph. 

" To some of your readers it will doubtless appear a 
very simple thing to photograph on wood, ' Why not on 
wood as well as on paper or on glass ? ' I will therefore 
take the liberty of setting before them the difficulties 
which have to be overcome in this process, and which I 
am sure you, Sir, will duly appreciate. 

"I am indebted to Mr. Langton, both for the first 
instigation and for the necessary instructions which, 
enabled me to prosecute this research. Without the 
former I should never have undertaken it, and without 
the latter I should have burrowed in the dark. We were 
both perfectly aware that certain rude attempts had been 
made and published ; but it was evident from the specimens 
that they were of the roughest possible description, and 
quite unadapted to the purposes of Art-design. In order 
to impress a photographic image on wood for the purpose 
of engraving, the following difficulties have to be over- 
come : 

" 1. The block must not be wetted, or it will cast, and 
the grain will open. 

" 2. No material must be laid on the surface which will 
sink into the block and stain even the hundredth part of 
an inch below the surface, or else the engraver cannot see 
his cuts to any delicacy of detail. 

" 3. Neither albumen, nor pitch, nor any brittle material 
can be allowed upon the block, or else of course it will 
chip in the cross-lines, or those close beside each other. 

" 4. Whatever ground of any description is made use of 
must be so impalpably thin as* to be really tantamount to 
the surface of the block itself, or else it cannot be equalty 
cut through to any degree of certainty. 

" 5. The block should be so prepared for the purpose of 
the photographer, that his collodion or other preparation 
may freely flow over it without sinking in. and that it 
may be easily cleared off in case of any failure in a first 
attempt, in order that another photograph may be put 
upon the same block without fresh dressing. 

" 6. The photograph must be either a positive upon a 
white ground (or, as in the present instance, the unaltered 
wood itself), or a negative upon a blackened surface. 

" I need scarcely say that several attempts were made 
before all these difficulties were surmounted ; but I be- 
lieve the present process will be found as effective as it is 
simple. My very first attempt succeeded in impressing 
my church on a black ground, and we both thought that 
ground would have been of a nature to allow of easy en- 
graving ; but Mr. Langton found, that though not more 
than one hundredth part of an inch thick, and not brittle, 
no degree of excellence could be obtained in its execution. 
I shall yet endeavour to perfect this latter process, as it 
may sometimes be more convenient than the white 
ground. In the meanwhile, should you think this com- 
munication worth inserting in your valuable journal, the 
block shall be immediately sent up to your office. For 
any farther information I must refer your readers to Mr. 
Langton, Engraver, Cross Street, Manchester, with whose 
skill and ingenuity I believe you are already acquainted. 
I remain,, dear Sir, 

Faithfully yours, 

ST. VINCENT BEECHEY. 

Worsley Parsonage, June 19, 1854. 

P. S. I should much like to be able to whiten the 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



surface of the wood before commencing. At present it is 
more difficult to do so than to blacken it." 

Mr. Langton, in reply to a communication from the 
editor of the Art Journal, writes : 

" It is four years since I first tried to find some way of 
getting photographs on wood; and it is now nearly a 
year since (with the very able assistance of Mr. Beechey) 
anything at all satisfactory was produced. From what 
little experience I have had in engraving these photo- 
graphs, I see no reason why the process should not be 
extensively used ; but especially for some subjects, such 
as portraits, architectural detail, and even landscapes, 
where the view is not too extensive for the lens. And 
for producing reduced copies of works of Art in general, 
it would be invaluable." 

Mr. Lyte's Instantaneous Process (Vol. x., p. 111.). 
.In answer to C. H. C., I am somewhat surprised that he 
is unacquainted with a fact so very generally known to 
photographers, as the solubility of iodide of silver in a 
solution of the nitrate of the same base. The quantity 
taken up by a thirty-grain solution is very small indeed ; 
but quite enough to spoil several plates first immersed in 
a new bath, unless it has been previously saturated with 
the iodide of silver, hence the principal object of the pro- 
ceeding. I have never taken notes of the actual quantity 
capable of being dissolved in a solution of any given 
strength, but, like the same salt in a solution of iodide of 
potassium, the stronger the solution of nitrate the more of 
the iodide it will take up. I believe Mr. Home of Newgate 
Street has tested the exact weight, and I have no doubt 
he would communicate the result. 

With regard to Mr. Lyte's process, I have unfortu- 
nately not had time to try it one way or other ; but have 
no doubt whatever that it succeeds in his hands. 

GEO. SHADBOLT. 



ta fKinav 

Double Christian Names (Vol. x., p. 18.). 
In the two quotations which ERICAS gives from 
Co. Litt., Lord Coke's meaning evidently was, 
not that a man should not bear two Christian 
names, but that though any one might change his 
surname at pleasure, a change in his Christian 
name was permitted at his confirmation only. (See 
Paper on Surnames, Archceologia, vol. xviii. 
p. 105.) 

The instances of double Christian names given 
by your correspondents are, first, John James 
Sandilands, 1564; and second, Henry Frederick 
Stanley, the son of James, seventh Earl of Derby, 
1635. 

I may add that of Thomas Pope Blount, ma- 
triculated Trinity College, Oxford, 1574, being 
then aged eighteen ; he therefore, having been 
born in 1556, may in point of time have preceded 
Sandiiands. J. H. MARKLAND. 

"Forgive, blest shade" (Vol. ix., p. 241.) 

These lines are said to have been, in the first 
instance, inscribed upon the headstone of the 
grave of Mrs. Anne Berry, in the churchyard of 
Brading, Isle of Wight. 



In 1813, when I there read the epitaph, I was 
informed that it was written by the clergyman of 
the parish. 

In what year did Dr. Callcott set these lines to 
music ? J. H. MARKLAND. 

" Jah," in Psalm Ixviii. 4. (Vol. x., p. 105.). 
VOK.AROS will be assisted in his inquiries into this 
alteration, by knowing that the Psalms, Epistles, 
and Gospels in the Prayer-Book were not copied 
from the Great Bible of Cranmer, 1539 and 1540, 
in both of which the word " JA " is correctly 
printed ; but that they were taken from the Great 
Bible revised by the Bishops of Durham and 
Rochester, 1541, of which many editions were 
subsequently printed. In all these the word no 
longer appears in capitals, but in ordinary type, 
"yea." Upon the restoration of Charles II. the 
Convocation of 1661 made about six hundred 
alterations* in the Prayer-Book, which were rati- 
fied by the Act of Uniformity. Among these 
alterations the Epistles and Gospels were ordered 
to be read according to the last translation, but 
the old version of the Psalter was retained. The 
word "yea" was continued, in conformity with 
the sealed book, until the eighteenth century. 
It is so in Basket's edition, 8vo., 1736. The first 
edition altered to " JAH," in my humble collection 
of Prayer-Books, is the beautifully-printed royal 
8vo. by Baskerville, Cambridge, 1760. By what 
authority the alteration was made does not appear. 
The Scottish Psalter, being from the Genevan 
version, has the word "JAH" from the earliest 
editions. GEORGE OFFOB. 

Hackney. 

Singed Vellum (Vol. x., p. 106.). In addition 
to the information supplied by you, in answer to 
MB. HOTCHINSON'S Query, I beg to observe that I 
have several times witnessed the process of re- 
storing the Cottonian MSS., and can assure that 
gentleman that great skill, patience, and delicacy 
of touch is required in the operation, as a MS., 
when badly burnt, must be reduced to a state of 
pulp before the laminae can be separated. 

To Mr. Henry Gougb, sen., of Islington, belongs 
the honour of having (under the direction of Sir 
Frederick Madden) succeeded in restoring to use, 
in a most admirable manner, the injured treasures 
of the Cottonian library, some of which have 
proved to be of the highest historical importance. 

Zz. 

Holy-loaf Money (Vol. ix., pp. 150. 256. 568.). 
The reply of HONOHE DE MAREVILLE (Vol. ix., 
p. 568.) reminds me that the custom he relates as 
being common in Normandy and Brittany, I also 



* Dr. Tennison. See Stephen's Book of Common 
Prayer, published for the Eccles. Hist. Society, 1849, 
vol. i. p. clxxL 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



witnessed during the celebration of high mass at 
St. Gudule in Brussels, and the Madeleine and 
St. Roch in Paris. It struck me at the time that 
it might be a somewhat similar ceremony to the 
ancient agapce, but on inquiry I found it was not, 
though my informant failed to satisfy me what it 
really was. At St. Koch I particularly noticed 
children of six or seven years of age were reci- 
pients : it looked to me more like English sponge- 
cake than bread. Perhaps Dr. Rock or Dr. 
Husenbeth would kindly inform us what is the 
custom referred to above, and whence its origin ? 

THOMAS COJLLIS. 
Boston. 

Saying of Voltaire (Vol. x., p. 88.). 

" Mes Re've'rends Peres, mes Lettres n'avoient pas ac- 
coutume' de se suivre de si pres, ni d'etre si e'tendues. Le 
peu de temps quej'ai eu, a ete cause de 1'uu et de 1'autre. 
Je n'ai fait celle-ci plus longue, que parce que je n'ai pas 
eu le loisir de la faire plus courte. La raison qui m'a 
oblige de me hater, vous est mieux connue qu'k moi," &c. 
Pascal, Lettres Provinciates, Lettre XVI., du 4 De- 
cembre, 1656. 

C. FOEBES. 

Temple. 

"Time and 7" (Vol. vii., p. 585.). It is to 
Philip II. of Spain and England that Mr. Stir- 
ling assigns this adage, and not to the Emperor 
Charles V. CHEVEBELLS. 

Pictures at Hampton Court Palace (Vol. viii., 
p. 538.; Vol. ix., pp. 19. 85.). I take the fol- 
lowing extract from a biographical sketch of Sir 
William Beechy, R.A., which appeared in the 
London Monthly Mirror for July, 1798 : 

" It is hardly necessary to particularise occurrences of 
eo recent a date, except as they show the high esteem in 
which the subject of this memoir is held by the sovereign. 
Nothing can afford a clearer proof of this than his majesty's 
entrusting him with a subject of so much difficulty and 
extent as the grand picture representing the king at a 
review, attended by the Prince, Duke of York, &c., a 
work which, independent of the illustrious portraits it 
contains, requires an historical mode of treatment, and a 
judgment in the disposal of the figures, that none but a 
master could effectually administer. As a reward for the 
skilful execution of this arduous task, and to show his 
exalted regard for the arts in general, the king has lately 
conferred on the painter the honour of knighthood." 

From what is written above, it is evident that 
the Query of your correspondent *. is not yet 
answered, and that the review which the picture 
represents must have taken place before July 
1798, and not in 1799, as M.A. and NAEEO have 
supposed. W. W. 

Malta. 

Palceologus (Vol. ix., pp. 312. 572.). In 
Schomburgk's History of Barbadoes, 1848, is an 
account of Fernando, or Ferdinando, Paleologus, 
who appears to have settled in that island soon 
after the death of his father Theodoro, in 1636 



(of whose monumental tablet in Llandulph Church, 
Cornwall, there is an account in Archceologia). 
It seems that the family of his mother, Balls, had 
property in Barbadoes. His name occurs in re- 
cords there as having held various parochial and 
municipal offices from the year 1649 till 1669. 
He was buried October 3, 1 678, under the title of 
Lieut. Ferdinando Paleologus ; and his will, dated 
26th September, 1670, was proved 4th January, 
1680. In it he mentions his wife Rebecca, and 
his son Theodorius, who was then young, and 
who died apparently soon after ; his widow then 
succeeding to all his property. He probably had 
no other children. His sisters Mary and Dorothy 
Arundell have also small legacies left to them. 

W. C. TBEVELYAN. 

Rev. Dr. Scott (Vol. ix., p. 35.). Your cor- 
respondent C. H. D. applies for a biography of the 
reverend gentleman, and mentions him as author 
of the Characters of the Commons of Ireland, at 
the time of the defunction of that assembly at the 
termination of the year 1800. 

Although I cannot entirely solve the Query of 
C. H. D., yet I think the following statement will 
throw so much light -upon it, that some corre- 
spondent of " N. & Q." in Ireland will be enabled 
to do so. In the summer of 1811 1 was encamped 
with a regiment upon Bagshot Heath, and upon 
taking the ground we made inquiry for a clergy- 
man to officiate to the soldiers on Sundays. The 
neighbouring clergy were fully employed, and we 
were obliged to send to Farnham in Surrey, a 
distance of ten or twelve miles, where we pro- 
cured the assistance of this reverend gentleman. 
He was, I should suppose, about fifty-five, had a 
powerful voice, though his articulation was not 
very distinct. He gave us three sermons extem- 
porally, on three successive Sundays, on one 
text, Acts xxvi. 28., " Then Agrippa said unto 
Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." 
I can well recollect the effect his discourses had 
upon his auditors, and I never knew greater at- 
tention paid to any one's preaching, so admirable 
were his sermons. The late Lord de Clifford, as 
lieut.-colonel, commanded the regiment, and Dr. 
Scott gave him a copy of his work above men- 
tioned. I read it, and was much gratified with 
the perusal; and there was one thing which par- 
ticularly struck me, that among such a host of 
memoirs, Dr. Scott never in his descriptions intro- 
duced two characters in a similar way, and I never 
saw so much variety of style in any work of the 
kind. The reverend gentleman was then (in 
1811) tutor to the sons of Sir Nelson Rycroft, 
Bart., at Farnham. I should be glad to know the 
exact title of Dr. Scott's book. A. 

Ranulph Crewe's Geographical Drawings 
(Vol. x., p. 65.). If CESTEIENSIS will refer to 
Fuller's Worthies (vol. i. p. 193., Nichols's edit.), 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



he will find the authority for Dr. Gower's state- 
ment, which is given by the latter loosely and 
without acknowledgment. Fuller only mentions 
a map of Cheshire, drawn " so exactly with his 
pen, that a judicious eye would mistake it for 
printing, and the graver's skill and industry could 
little improve it." 

An engraving from this drawing will be found 
in King's Vale Royal (1656), at p. 3. of Webb's 
portion. It is dedicated to the memory of the 
amateur artist mentioned, " qui bane totius Cestrie 
mappam suo calamo designavit, et designatam suis 
sumptibus exaravit." LANCASTRIENSIS. 

" To lie at the Catch " (Vol. vi., p. 56. ; Vol. 
vii., p. 132.). Your correspondent M. D. seems 
somewhat at a loss for the meaning of this ex- 
pression, as used by Bunyan. It appears to me 
that the meaning is, as we should say at the 
present day, " You are trying to catch me trip- 
ping ; " or, as you have stated in your explanation, 
" You are trying to put a trick upon me, so as 
to place me in a false position." I think it not 
unlikely that the figure is derived from the position 
of the fowler, lying perdu, with the cord in his 
hand ready to close the spring or net upon the 
unwary bird. There is a curious picture in the 
Pia Desideria of Herman Hugo (from which 
Quarles copied most of his emblems), representing 
Death lying " on the catch," and inclosing the 
worldly-minded man in his net, Psalm xviii. 4., 
"The snares of death overtook me," being the 
motto under the picture. HENRY T. RII.EY. 

The Herodians (Vol. x., p. 9.). Very little is 
known of the Herodians, as they are only slightly 
mentioned in the Gospels, and do not appear at 
all irt Josephus. Prideaux (Connection, vol. ii. 
p. 396., Oxford, 1838) supposes them to have 
been a religious sect favouring Herod, who wil- 
lingly paid the Roman tribute, and complied with 
him in many heathen customs. The following 
list of ancient authors, who give any account of 
the Herodians, is recorded in Greswell\ .Harmony 
of the Gospels, vol. ii. p. 323. : 

" Epiphan. Oper. i. 45. 
Cbrysostom. Oper. vii. 687. A. B. in Matthaaum Homilia, 

Ixx. 1. 

, Theophylact. Oper. i. 119. B. in Matt. xxii. 
Ibid. 186. D. E. in Marc. iii. 

Ibid. 211. B. in Marc. viii. 

Ibid. 236. C. in Marc, xii." 

F.jM. MlDDLETON. 

"For he that fights and runs away" fyc. (Vol. 
vii., pp. 298. 346.). You are certainly mistaken 
in withdrawing your assertion that these lines are 
in the Musarum Delicice of Sir John Mennis, 1656. 
There was a copy of this work in Sion College 
Library, and I have a distinct recollection of 
searching for these lines in 1841, and in that copy 



I found them. I presume that it is to be found 
there still. HENRY T. RILEY. 

Irish Characters on the Stage (Vol. vii., p. 356.). 
I would refer your facetious correspondent 
PHILOBIBLION (who inquires, by the bye, whe- 
ther Shakspeare was an Irishman) to the Twin 
Rivals, by Farquhar, where Teague, an Irish foot- 
man, is introduced, with a patois very much re- 
sembling that of the low Jew of the present day ; 
and Love and a Bottle, by the same author, where 
Roebuck, an Irish gentleman, figures, but speaks 
respectable English. I do not at this moment 
recollect any others of the old plays in which the 
" Dear joys " (as Tom Brown and Fred Ward 
delight to call the Irish) are introduced. 

HENRY T. RIJLEY. 

Leslie and Dr. Middleton (Vol. ix., pp. 324. 
575.). The Rev. John Henry Newman, who has 
since separated from our Church, in his Essay 
on Miracles, p. clxxxviii., prefixed to the first 
volume of his translation of Fleury, refers to the 
discovery of the relics of SS. Gervasius and Pro- 
tasius, and the miracles wrought by them ; a fact 
that completely fulfilled Leslie's "four condi- 
tions." WIU.IAM FRASER, B.C.L. 

Black Rat (Vol. x., p. 37.). It may interest 
one of your correspondents, MR. WADDINGTON, to 
know that Bristol is said to be the last stronghold 
of the black rat. It is, I believe, about ten years 
since they have been extinct. Their last refuge 
was in the great sewer of that city. J. J. C. 

View of Dumfries (Vol. ix., p. 516.). Having 
examined Gough's collections of topographical 
prints in the Bodleian (as well as such volumes in 
the portion of the Gough library which relates to 
Scotland, as appeared likely to reward the search), 
I beg to inform BALIVUS that no such engraving 
as that respecting which he inquires can be found 
amongst them. W. D. MACRAY. 

New College. 

Chaucer and Mr. Emerson (Vol. vii., p. 356.). 
Is an OXFORD B. C. L. correct in his quotation 
from Emerson's Representative Men ? " Chaucer, 
it seems, drew continually, through Lydgate and 
Caxton, from Guido di Colon n a," &c. If so, it 
passes my comprehension how Chaucer could draw 
from Caxton, who was born about twelve years 
after Chaucer's death, or even from Lydgate, who 
was probably about twenty-five years of age at 
that period, and unknown as a poet. I trust, 
for the credit of literature, that Mr. Emerson 
never penned such nonsense as this, and more 
especially when engaged in so arduous an under- 
taking as destroying old Geoffrey's reputation as 
the father of English poesy. He might just as 
well attempt to bombard Sebastopol with oranges 
or tennis-balls. HENRY T. RILEY. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 250. 



Myrtle Bee (Vol. ix., p. 205. &c.). In re- 
ference to the above subject, I beg to observe, 
that I inspected a specimen of the hawk-moth a 
few days since at the British Museum ; and far- 
ther to assure MB. W. HAZEL that no two animals 
are more dissimilar than it and the myrtle bee 
the one being distinctly an insect, and the other a 
bird ; in fact, due allowance being made for dis- 
parity in size, no more similarity exists than be- 
tween a butterfly and blackbird. The cause of 
my having so minutely inspected the so-called 
myrtle bee is stated in Vol. ix., p. 205., to which 
I beg MR. HAZEL'S attention. At that time it was, 
and still is, out of my power to answer MR. SAL- 
MON'S Query, as to its size compared with the 
golden-crested wren, never having had one in 
my hand, or even seen one ; yet, strange enough, 
I am informed that it is common within two miles 
of this place (Egham, Surrey) ; and as soon as I 
procure a specimen I shall reply to MR. SALMON'S 
Query, being desirous of affording all the inform- 
ation in my power on the subject. C. BROWN. 

I was staying at the house of a friend at Uff- 
culme, near Cullompton, in July last year (1853) : 
and one day as I was standing near the porch, 
which was overgrown with honeysuckle, my atten- 
tion was attracted by the appearance of a humming- 
bird, as it appeared, hovering over the flowers. 
It visited different blossoms in succession, hover- 
ing near them, and extracting the honey without 
alighting, by means of a long proboscis, as un- 
doubted humming-birds are described to do. I 
have seen humming-birds in North America, but 
not so small as this, which was no larger than the 
minute kinds of the torrid zone. The body of it 
may have been about an inch and a halt' long. 
Being anxious to secure so great a prize before it 
should leave the spot, I approached cautiously, 
and made a blow at it with the stick I held in my 
hand. I struck it hard and full ; for I felt the 
blow I gave, and heard the sound. It fell upon 
the path ; but it instantly darted away sideways a 
yard or more into a flower-bed. For lialf an hour 
I hunted diligently, and was assisted by others 
who witnessed the occurrence ; but although the 
search was assiduously made, and renewed after- 
wards, we never could find the little creature. 
The whole circumstance only occupied a few 
second*, so that there was not much time for ob- 
servation. To the best of my recollection, it was 
dark brown in colour that, is, the upper part, 
which alone is what I remember seeing ; the beak, 
or proboscis, tapering away from the head, and 
about two-thirds the length of the body. I thought 
I heard the sound of the wings, and the tone ap- 
peared to resemble that of the whirr produced by 
feathered animals such, for instance, as that of 
sparrows in their flight. This peculiar whirr im- 
pressed me with the idea that the little creature 



was a genuine bird, covered with feathers ; but I 
may have been mistaken. Query, What could 
this have been ? Was it a humming-bird, or the 



PETER HUTCHINSON. 



hawk- moth ? 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Every student of Shakspeare will feel grateful to Mr. . 
Lettsom for the addition which he has made to the nu- 
merous works already existing devoted to the illustration 
of the poet's writings, by the publication of Shakspeare's 
Versification and its apparent Irregularities, explained by 
Examples from Early and Late English Writers, by the late 
William Sidney Walker. The object of this work is a 
very simple one, but one for which the late Mr. Walker, 
from his profound classical knowledge, deep poetical 
feeling, and discriminating intellect, was peculiarly fitted 
to accomplish. Mr. Walker assumes that the reader is 
familiar with the rules of modern English verse, and then 
enumerates the points of difference between Shakspeare 
and his cotemporaries on the one hand, and their successors 
on the other. He considers in sixty distinct articles the 
essential characteristics of the old versification, and when 
the latter differs from that to which we are accustomed, 
he explains how far such differences may be attributed to 
the custom of the age, how/ar to changes" in pronunciation, 
and how far to corruptions of the text. This brief de- 
scription of the book and its object will be sufficient to 
awaken attention to this little volume, which is one " lack- 
ing which " no Shakspearian library can be complete. 

The History of Magic, by Joseph Ennemoser, translated 
from the German by William Howitt; to which is added an 
Appendix of the most remarkable and best authenticated 
Stories of Apparitions, Dreams, Second Sight, Somnambu- 
lism, Predictions, Divinations, Witchcraft, Vampires, 
Fairies, Table- turning, and Spirit-rapping, selected by 
Mary Howitt, is the title of two volumes recently issued 
by Bohn in his Scientific Library, in which the' author 
treats of those remarkable phenomena and uncommon 
effects which have certainly hitherto been looked upon as 
mere phantoms, or belonging to a sphere quite uncon- 
nected with nature, but which nevertheless are a portion 
of history, and on that, as well as on other and higher 
grounds, of universal interest. It says something for the 
better spirit in which works which treat of the marvel- 
lous and inexplicable are now received, that the present 
volumes should find a place in a scientific library. 

By the publication of the eighth volume, which is de- 
voted to the life of Queen Anne, who is obviously very 
far from a favourite with her biographer, Mr. Colburo, 
has completed his cheap edition of Miss Strickland's Lives 
of the Queens of England. We might indeed speak of 
this edition as the best as well as the cheapest: for it has 
not only been carefully revised, but is accompanied by a 
most full and well-arranged Index, which gives great 
additional value to the work. 

BOOKS RECEIVED, Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire, edited by Dr. William Smith. The fourth 
volume of this handsome library edition of Gibbon, form- 
ing this month's issue of Murray's British Classics. 
Messrs. Longman's Traveller's Library, Parts LXV. and 
LXVI., are devoted to Lain^'s Notes of a Traveller on the 
Social and Political State of France, Russia, Switzerland, 
Italy, and other Parts of Europe during the present Century, 
in which this observant and intelligent traveller has 
attempted to collect materials for the future historian of 
the new social elements in Europe which are springing 
up from and covering the ashes of the French Revolution. 



AUG. 12. 1854.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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E. S. (Philadelphia), who inquires where the passage " The tongue is 
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X . Y . Z . The lines quoted in a morning paper occur in Prior's ballad. 
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Replies to other Correspondents in our next. 

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SATURDAY, AUGUST 19. 1854. 



{Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, erf. 



CONTENTS. 

Nona : Page 

The Inquisition, by B. B. Wiffen - 137 
Memoirs of Grammont : the Count de 

Matta, by W . H. Lammin - - 138 

Venerable Bede - - - - 139 

Plurality of Worlds - - - 140 
Church-building and Restoration du- 
ring the Years 1844 to 1854, by Thomas 

Collis 140 

Abductions in Ireland - - - 141 

MINOR NOTES : Correction of an Error 
in Sir Edward Coke's Genealogy 
Oblige pronounced Obleege Cuckolds, 
Epigram on Pope's " Ethic Epistles " 142 

QUERIES : 

The Collier's Creed - - - 143 

Queries on the " Fairy Queen " - 143 

General Washington and Dr. Gordon, 

byS.W.Rix - - - - 144 

MINOR QUERIES: Huntingdon Witch- 
craft Lecture " Bi bliotheca Hiber- 
nicana" Genealogical Capture of 
the Spanish Treasure-frigates in 1804 

Registration Act Dr . South on 
Extempore Prayers " Never more," 
&c. " Trafalgar," &c. Murray of 
Broughton English Words derived 
from the Saxon Artificial Breeding 
of Salmon from Spawn The Russian 
Language Orangeism Fraser 
" Church and Queen" St. Cyprian's, 
Ugbrooke The Cardinal De Rohan 

Coleridge's unpublished MSS. . 
Croyland, its Epithets The Fashion 

of Brittany Sir Peter Temple 
"Manual of Devout Prayers" 
Church of St. Nicholas within-the- 
walls, Dublin Age of Oaks Phos- 
phoric Light _ Prophecies respecting 
Constantinople - 144 

MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : 
Prohibition of the Rev. Mr. Maurice 
(about 1721) London Topographical 
Queries Archbishop Heiring Wil- 
liam III. and Cooper Cennick's 
Hymns - - . - 147 

REPLIES : 

" The Dunciad," by P. H . Fisher, &c . 148 
Longevity, by T.Balch, &c. - - 149 
Morgan udoherty - - - - 150 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE : Mr. 
Lyte's Instantaneous Process Fading 
of Positives - - - - 151 

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES : Ra- 
phael's Cartoons "Forgive, blest 
shade " Sepulchral Monuments 
Dr. Reid and lx>rd Brougham v. 
Bishop Berkeley and Home Tooke 
Canker or Briar-rose Haemony 
Mantel-piece Story of Coleridge 
MiscellaneousManuscripts Armorial 

Water-cure in the last Century 
Iris and Lily Proxies for absent 
Sponsors Rous, Provost of Eton, &c. 152 

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137 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 19, 1854. 



THE INQUISITION. 

(Concluded from p. 122.) 

To substitute truth for fiction, we may here 
give a more trustworthy statement than that be- 
fore quoted. It is from a gentleman who really 
inspected this house of the Inquisition at Madrid 
in March, 1820, when that evil sanhedrim was 
legally suppressed. The relator, an eye-witness, 
was no inventor of marvellous and doleful stories 
to defame it ; neither had he, we may be sure, 
asked for its restitution, like the Duke de Bailen. 
His account is as follows : 

" At the change of the absolute government of Fer- 
dinand VII. for the constitutional rule of the Cortes, on 
the 7th of March, 1820, the Tribunal of the Inquisition 
was legally suppressed. The people of Madrid, more 
from curiosity than a well-judging hatred, nocked in a 
crowd to see and examine the building. It was found in 
the street known by its odious name, entering by the 
right-hand from the Plazuela de San Domingo, commu- 
nicating at the back with the Dominican Convent Del 
Eosario in the Calle ancha de San Bernardo, that leads 
to the gate of Fuencaral, without which was the Quema- 
dero, or burning place. There was a communication from 
the building to the Dominican Convent by a subterra- 
neous passage, as appeared by that we passed through. 
Whether inquisitorial cruelty had been less active since 
1814, than before the French invasion, or that the instru- 
ments of torture had been removed, the fact was, that 
nothing was now found except traces which proved the 
use of them. 

" By the recommendation of Don Kodrigo de Aranda, 
second alcaide at that time, who was commissioned to 
collect the effects, books, and papers remaining there, 
torches were provided to enable us to penetrate the dark- 
ness of the passages below ground. Externally, the 
building presented nothing remarkable. We went in from 
the street by a large gateway ; a little to the right was 
the door of entrance, large and massive, approached by 
five or six stone steps. Crossing a short, wide, and dark 
passage, and descending more steps than were at the first 
door, we came out into a large patio, or inner court, with- 
out corredores round it, as are usual in such cases. Access 
was reached to the first floor by several staircases, some 
wide, some narrow, that, by intricate communications 
one with another, led, some to the halls of the Tribunal, 
and some to the places of imprisonment. Here these, in 
general, were roomy; with lofty ceilings and windows 
more than two feet square, placed'at a considerable height 
from the floor. Every prison had a very solid outer door, 
braced with strong ironwork. When these were opened, 
a small cell about four feet square was found within the 
apartment, formed of solid masonry. In the right-hand 
wall of this was a grating of strong iron bars about an 
inch square ; and opposite the first door of entrance was 
another very solid door with a similar iron grating. By 
this means the jailor, by only opening the first door, 
could review everything within the whole circle of the 
apartment. These were distinguished by the names of 
certain prisoners who had been confined" in them; such 
as Friar's Prison, the Beata Clara's, Juan Tan Halen's, 
and others. 



" Returned to the ground-floor in order to descend to 

the vaults, the Senora Marquesa de B shrank back in 

terror ; but the flambeaux being lighted by her footman, 
and again reassured, we descended above thirty steps, 
and found ourselves in an apartment some twenty feet 
square ; entirely empty, and dimly lighted by a sky-light 
from the ground of the patio, or inner court. The floor was 
firm and level ; but perceiving halfway along the wall, 
where the light from the court struck upon it, a moveable 
part, we examined the spot by the light of the torches ; 
and found at the height of some seven feet from the floor, 
two large wooden plugs firmly bedded in the wall in' a 
line with each other. In one of them a large iron ring, 
much rusted, of the thickness of a finger, still remained. 
The inference is, that it was a kind of torture, by fixing 
the wrists of the victim to the two rings, and removing 
the part of the floor below, so as not to be able to feel his 
feet at that height, he would be left suspended by the 
wrists. After examining several other apartments con- 
taining nothing worthy of notice, we entered cne through 
a breach that we found made through the thick masonry 
of the entrance cell, such as before described in the upper 
prisons. This was a very roomy parallelogram, and its 
floor, although tolerably firm, was very damp ; so much 
so, that we thrust a walking-stick into it, without any 
great force, up to the handle, and drew it out whitened as 
though it had passed through moist chalk. Opposite the 
place we entered stood an altar; the whole square shaft 
of it, and the step below, of yellow marble ; and on the 
steps were many droppings from wax candles. We could 
find no image, crucifix, or painting of any kind, nor aper- 
ture where this vault could have received light, nor could 
we discover the proper entrance to it. On the point of 
leaving, we perceived a kind of large window shutter at 
one corner, about five feet from the floor. It opened 
without difficulty, and we found a square space which led 
down to a well or sunken shaft. To prove whether it was 
so, we rolled a fragment of masonry into it. It returned 
no splash of water, but a heavy sound like a blow upon, 
wood, followed by a lengthened creaking noise, as if of a 
trap-door opened reluctantly. Withdrawing from this 
frightful spot, the footman, who carried the torches, 
picked up a rib of metal from the floor, one of the pair 
that form the compass legs of a lady's fan, by which it is 
opened and folded. The metal was so corroded, that it 
crumbled between the fingers. A singular thing to find 
in such a place, having no communication from the street 
or from the inner court. Leaving this dismal part of the 
edifice, we took a staircase, that after a descent of twenty 
steps, ended in a passage about a yard wide, and some- 
thing like forty feet long ; terminating in another shorter 
one that formed with this a cross, or head-line of the 
letter T. In the left-hand ami of this cross was a largo 
square funnel ; on the upper part of it, on each side, were 
fixed iron spikes, in the manner that gardeners call quin- 
cunx. The damp and dullness of this underground vault 
were most distressing to our feelings ; and fearing that 
the torches might become extinguished, and ourselves 
left in total darkness, we hastened back by the passage 
through which we entered; noticing that in this passage 
there were on each side recesses, or very narrow cells, the 
frames of the doorways alone remaining. We found by a 
plumbline, sunk from stage to stage, that these fearful 
and noisome cells were fifty feet below the ground of the 
principal court." 

This is 'the record of the house of the Inquisi- 
tion at Madrid from the remembrance, after the 
lapse of thirty years, of one whose character and 
simple manners avouch its credibility ; and whose 
name, if it might be given, would confirm it. 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 251. 



Several of the authors of the volumes, useful 
and instructive as they are in their general sub- 
ject, into whose pages the story has found an in- 
troduction, have, we are fully persuaded, no wish 
to mislead or merely amuse their readers with a 
romantic fiction ; and we can suppose that a nar- 
rative concerning an institution so mysteriously 
shrouded as that of the Inquisition, might not 
without some apparent reason, though incauti- 
ously and without examination, be taken up by 
them. Still they furnish the advocates of intoler- 
ance with a ready argument against the reception 
of what can be authentically proved ; they divert 
the mind from the apprehension of larger wrongs 
than those of individual suffering, shocking as they 
are ; they hold forth a false security, that this 
evil was destroyed, which is even now weaving its 
toils anew. That thundercloud still threatens 
which has for three long centuries shaded the best 
ge