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NOTES AND QUERIES: 



ilebium ot hxttV'€o\n\nnniatmx 




LITEHAEY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



When found, make a note pf." — Captain Cuttle. 



.VOLUME ELEVENTH. 

January — June, 1855. 



LONDON: 

GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET. 
1855. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•• ^Vlien found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttle. 



Vol. XI. — No. 271.] Saturday, Januaey 6. 1855. 



C Price Fourpence. 

I Stamped Edition, f^d. 



CONTENTS. 

Our Eleventh Volume - - - 
NoTBs : — 

Unpublished Lictters of John Locke, by 
John Bruce . . - - 

Thomns Goffe the Dramatist, by Bolton 
Corney . - - - - 

Antiquity of Swimmine-belts 
An early Society of Antiquaries 
PopixnA : — The Rev. Alexander Pope, 
Caithness — James Moore Smyth — Sa- 
tirical Print of Pope - - - 
Ubraries in Constantinople : the Lost 
Worlds of the Ancients - - - 

ToiK Lore :_Deatli-bed Superstition 
— " As Hk as a parson's barn "—Charm 
for a Wart — Rhymes on Winter Tem- 
pest—A muffled Peal on Innocents' 
Day 

School and College Fees in Scotland 
Eighty Years since, by R. Carruthers 

Minor Notes : — A Russian and an 
English Regiment — Epitaph on Ri- 
chard Adlam — Earthenware Vessels 
found at St. Mary's Collegiate Church, 
Youghal, Ireland— Schedone and Pous- 
«in — A Family of Mx Children at a 
Birth — Clxina, Conquest of - 

^rxRiEs: — 
Addison's Letters, by Henry G. Bohn - 
Jennpns or Jennings of Acton Place 
"Ultimo," "Instant," and " Proximo " 

■MiKoB QuEBiFs : — Canons of York — 
"L'OGil de Boiuf "— Cummin — The 
Episcopal Wig — King John's Charter 
granted to Youghal _ Le Moine's 
•Praises of Modesty " — Sea Spiders — 
iKibands of Recruiting Sergeants — 
Skilful Sergeant Corderoy — A Note 
'for Junius — Anecdote of Canning _ 
Comedy at the Coronation of Edw . VI. 

— Work on the Reality of the Devil — 
Death of Sir Thomas Prendergast — 
True Cross, Relic of, in the Tower— 
Prussic Acid from Blood — Thirteen - 

Minor Qdertes with Answers : — 
Hangman's Wages _ Ancient Carving 

— Jubilee of 1809 — Coat Armour 

Beplies : — 

■Quakers executed in North America - 
ajongevity - - - . . 



Page 



JPhotOORAPHIC CoRRElPONDBNCE :— BrO- 

Jno-iodide of Silver— " La Lumi^'e " 
and Pliotography in England— Pho- 
nography and Law — Exhibition of the 
iPhotographic Society - . - 

Uepiies TO Minor Qderies : — "After 
me the deluge "—Remedy for Jaundice 

— Age of Oaks — White Slavery — 
'Talented"— "He that fights and 

mns away," &c.-Hengr«ye Church 

— Parish Registers, &c. - 

MlSCBLLANEOCS ; 

Notes on Books, &c. - - . 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Moticei to Correspondents. 



Vol. XI — No. 271. 



A NTIQTT ARIES and HIS- 

1\ TORIANS.- CATALOGUE of Inte- 
resting Books, consisting chiefly of History, 
Antiquities, Topography, Ancient Poetry, and 
Heraldry, selected from the Stock of 

THOMAS GEORGE STEVENSON, 
8?. PRINCES STREET, EDINBURGH. 

»*« Forwarded per Post on receipt of Two 
Stamps. 



" Here Crystal Glasses, such as Ganymede did 
oiFer to the Thunderer." 

AT THE OLD GLASS SHOP, 
33. PRINCES STREET, SOHO, over 
against St. Ann's Church, may be seen a great 
Variety of Glass Manufactures, finished witli 
the same Care that has distinguished it during 
the last Forty Years. 



AVendre, le Manuscrit de 
L'ESCLAVAGE MODERNE, par 
F. DE LAMINAIS. tout entier ^crit de la 
Main de I'Auteur. S'addresscr chez 

MADAME SUVESTRE, Rue Chateau d'Eau 
60, Paris. 



One large Volume, with 250 Illustrations, 
price 21. 2s. 

ARCHITECTURAL STU- 

r\ DIES IN FRANCE. By the REV. J. 
L. PETIT. With Illustrations from Draw- 
ings by the Author and P. 11. DELAMOTTE. 
" Our notice of thi« work has been unavoid- 
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and attractive books, and it would be difficult 
to meet with a volume combining so many 
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for his architectural works, which are justly 
held in high estimation ; but if we recollect 
right, this is the most elaborate and handsome 
volume which he has yet produced." — English 
Churchman, 

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



0^ 



12mo., price U. 6d, 

THE STUDY OF LAN- 

^ GUAGE : an Exposition qf "Tooke's 
Diversions of Purley," By CHARLES 
RICHAKDSOV, LL.P., Auaor of a New- 
Dictionary of the English I^anguage. 

" What an epoch in many a student's intel- 
lectual life has been his first acquaintance 
with the ' Diversions of Purley.' " —jTrencA on 
the Study of Words. 

" The judicio's endeavour of a veterRTi phjr 
lologist to extend the philosophical siudy of 
language by p pularising Horoe "Tooke's 
' Diversions of Purb y,' Dr. Biehardsoji has 
done good service to the study of language in 
this very judicious and compact recast, for the 
book is mucli more Jhan an abridgroent." — 
Spectator. 

GEORGE B£LL, 186. FlMt Street. 



CURIOUS NEWSPAPERS. — 
Fac-similes of Four ex'teme'y curious 
and highly interesting Rare Newspapers, pub- 
lished during the Times i>t KING CHARLES 
and OLIVER CROMWELL. Price 6rf. each, 
or the Four sent by Post on receipt of Twenty- 
eight Stamps. 

C.C. SPILLER, 102. HOLBOl'N HILI, 
(Corner of Ely Place), LONDON. 



pHRONICLES OF THE AN- 

Vy CIENT BRITISH CHURCH, previous 
to the Arrival of St. Augustine, A. d. 596. 
Second Edition. Post 8vo. Price 5s. cloth. 

" A work of great utility to general readers." 
— Morning Post, 

" The author has collected with much in- 
dustT and care all the information which cut 
throw light on his subject."— Huardian, 

" Not unworthy the attention ol our clerical 
friends." — Notes and Queries, ii. 453. 

London; WERTHEIM & MACINTOSH, 
24. Paternoster Row, and of all Booksellers. 



T'HE NEW CLERICAL DI- 

i RECTORY. - The First Part of THE 
NEW CLEHICAL DIRECTOHY will be 
presented with the n^xt Number of THE 
CLERICAL JOURNAL AND CHURCH 
AND UNIVERSITY CHRONICLE, on 
January 8. 

This CLERICAL DIRECTORY will con- 
tain a vast amount of original information not 
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1 guide to all facts necessary to be known re- 
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1 Ai VERTISERS wi 1 find the Number of 
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, the Clergy and best classes of the Laity, 
throughout the kingdom. 

A Copy, with Directory Supplement, Post 
Free, in return for Nine Stamps. 

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Strand, London. 



PART IV. of the BIBLIO- 
GRAPHER'S MANUAL, just pub- 
lished, contains Genealogy, Heraldry, Topo- 
gr^ihy, Astrology, Witchcraft, America, Early 
Typography, Games. X:c. &c ; also Prints, 
Autographs, Literary Miscel anie . Gratis, or 
by Post for Two Stamps, or with former Parts 
Six Stamps. Orders for 403. carriage free. 

JOHN GRAY BELL, II. Oxfprl Street, 
Manchester. 



Second Edition, with large tn p, pyice 3s., 
cloth boards. 

1)RIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
ESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin, &c.. Author of " Original Sur^ 
yeys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "lieology i^f the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro (" (iisoora projectfor 
tre improvement of the navigation of that 
river, and of varjoni other works on Portugal. 
JOHII ■WEALE, 69. Hlsh HollxKU. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



THE SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY. 

An Elegant and Interestini; Work, containing New and Important Discoveries respectine the 
JLife and Writings of Shakspeare. — Price ls.6d., or sent Free on receipt of Twenty-four 
Stamps. 

Contents : 

Shakspeare and the Spanish Invasion, with an Alphabetical I>ist of Loyal Old English 
Families who contributed Money for the Defence of their Country i Account of the Medical 
Practice of Shakspcare's Son-iii-Law, Dr. Join Hall, with an Alphabetical List of his Patients 
m Warwickshire, and the adjoining Counties ; Discovery of some of Shakspeare 's Manuscripts 
m Wales, with Extracts ; Notes on his Pedigree and the True Orthography of his Name, his 
Birthday, his Education, his Gallantry, his Bequest to his Wife ; Account of a very Destructive 
Flood at Stratford-on-Avon, in Shakspcare's time ; Ancient Verses addressed to him on his 
leaving Stratford-on-Avon to visit London ; Shakspeare, the Poet Catholic ; his Genius as a 
Comic Writer • The Government and Shakspcare's House ; Shakspcare's Wainscot Chair and 
gjs Mulberry Tree ; Verses written by an American Pileiim to Shakspcare's Birthplace ; The 
Bhakspearian Festival at Stratford-on-Avon ; Theatres in Ancient Times ; Expenses of a Play 
™ 1511 Curious Early Proclamations against Players; Shakspeare and Bartholomew Fa'r ; 



on Shakspeare ; Hemarks on J. P. Collier's old annotated Copy of the Folio Edition (1632) of 
Shakspcare's Works ; Notes ou the Plays of Shakspeare, written by Thomas White, B.A., of 
Cambridge, in 1793, and now first published from the Original Manuscript in Mr. Fennell's 
Collection; A Ca-alogue ot Rare and Curious Old Books and Tracts relative to the English 
Counties, Local Family History, &c. &c 

J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, High Holbom, London. 



Thi» Day is published, price 3s. Sd., Part XVT. 
of the 

rpOPOGRAPHER AND GE- 

1 NEALOGI'^T, edited by JOHN GOUGH 
NICHOLS, F.S.A.,Lo^D. and Nbwo. 

Contents : 
_ Pedigrees of Ellis and Fitz-Ellis —Epitaphs 
in the Huguenots' Burying-place at Paris, 
1675 — Statistic!! Account of the Diocese of 
Cloyne. compiled in the year 1 774, by the Rev. 
James Hingston — Extracts from tne Parish 
Registers of Hornby, co. York _ Extracts from 
the Parish Registers of Milton Lislebon, near 
Pewsey, co. Wilts — Pedigrees ot Parr of Ken- 
dal, of Parr and Kcnpnall, co. Lancaster, 
Backford, co. Chester, and other Col ateral 
Branches — P, digrees of i-everal Families of 
Bishop, of Devonshire, Dorsetshire, London, 
Norfolk, Lincolnshire, Warwickshire, York- 
«hire, Kent, and Sussex — Ttstimony to the 
Exemption of Skiddy's Lands, near Cork from 
the impositions o' Coyne and Livery, &c., given 
in the 37 Hen VIII _ Memora da in He- 
raldry : from the MSS. of Peter Le Neve, some- 
time Norroy King of Arms (continued). 

J. B. NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament 
Street. 



Now readj, Second Edition, t Voli. po«t 8vo., 
price 21«. 

EEMINTSCENCES OF THE 
) UNIVERi!ITY, TOWN, and COUNTY 
of CAMBRIDGE, fro ■■ the Year 1780. By the 
late HENRY GUNNING, M.A., Sen., ESQ., 
Bedell. 

" Some of the -tories are extremely piquant, 
and others are intciesting as pictures ot man- 
ners and habits of our foretath> rs, and such as 
are not to b procured from the ordinary re- 
cords of information respecting bygone times." 

— Cambridge Chronkle. 

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(uch as we have taken from Mr. Guining's 
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nected with the peri, d they describe, "-nd with 
whom the author was personally acquainted." 

— Examiner. 

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



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EVANS. SONS, & CO., respectfully in- 
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in bronze, or-moulu, crystal, alabaster, and 
porcelain, of various elcuant designs, suitable 
for the cottage or mansion. Show )<oorr s, 
33. KING WILLIAM STREET, LONDON 
BRIDGE. 



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(THE NATIONAL MTSCEL- 

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the Provinces of Bulgaria and Thrace, towards 
the End of the Tenth Century. 4. A Few 
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.5. Pinto Riheiro ; or. the Revolution in Por- 
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CHASSEAUD, late of Beyrout, Syria. 

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DR. LOVELL'S SCHOOL, 
WINSLOW HALL. BUCKS. — The 
PUPILS will RE-ASSEMBLE, after the 
present Vacation, on the 25tii January. A late 
Pupil has just been elected to a Sehobir.-hip at 
Lincoln College, Cxtord. Two others passed 
the Army Examination last September, and 
have already received Commissions — All par- 
ticulars about he School can be had on Appli- 
cation to the Principal. 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON. SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1855. 



OUB EI-EVENTH VOLUME. 

On the commencement of our Eleventh Volume our 
thanks are particularly due to our kind Friends, Contri- 
butors, and Headers. Their continued and increasing 
support excites our warmest gratitude. May 1855 be a 
happy and prosperous New Year to them — one and all! 

The Volumes of "Notes and Queries" published 
during the past year have contributed in many ways, 
and in no unimportant manner, to the illustration of our 
Language, Literature, and History. No effort shall be 
wanting to make the volume now commenced equally 
interesting to the Reader of the present day, and not 
less likely to be profitable to those who may hereafter 
refer to it. 

Need We promise more ? And does not the Number 
to which We now invite the Reader's attention, justify 
our saying thus much ? 



UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF JOHN LOCKE. 

The three letters I now send you seem to de- 
serve attention on several grounds. All of them 
are, I believe, unpublished, and two are letters of 
our great metaphysician John Locke. They all 
illustrate, although slightly, an important subject 
not yet properly treated in our literature, the his- 
tory of the origin and progress of true principles 
in reference to commerce ; and, finally, those of 
Locke tend to strengthen and render clear our 
notions of the real character of that great and 
good man. 

Of Locke's correspondent Gary, it will be suffi- 
cient to say, that he was a well-known merchant 
of Bristol ; and published, besides other works, a 
valuable Essay on the State of Trade in England 
(1695, 8vo. Bristol). At that time the important 
question of a new coinage was under consider- 
ation, and the propriety of preserving the old 
standard was in contest between Locke and Mr. 
Lowndes. On the publication of Locke's reply 
to Lowndes's Essay for the Amendment of the 
Silver Coin, Gary sent Locke a copy of his Essay 
on Trade, with the following letter, in which be 
pointed out some mistakes in Locke's answer to 
Lowndes : 

Bristol!, Janu. 11«>'95. 
Worthy Sir, 

I have read yo*^ answer to Mr. Lowndes his 
Essay for the amendm* of the silver coins, and I 
think the nation obliged by the service you have 
done in handling a subject of that weight so fully. 
I know my private opinion will not add a mite to 
its value ; however, I must give it this character, 
that you have done it (as all other things you 



write) w"* such clearness and strength of argum*, 
as if it had been the only thing whereto you had 
bent yo"" studys. When men undertake subjects 
whereof they have no clear notions, their books 
rather perplex the reader then guide him to a 
right understanding of what they would seem to 
unriddle. He that designs to propose methods to 
keep our money at home, must first consider what 
it is that causes it to be carried abroad. In this 
I think you have hit y^ mark. 'Tis the balance of 
our trade w*** foreign countrys, not altering the 
standard of our coine, w*^"" encreases or lessens our 
bullion at home ; and then the next thing is, to 
consider how this ballance may be brought to 
our side. When other nations are brought into 
our debt, no room is left for fetching away our 
bullion ; but, on the contrary, they must send us 
theirs ; and this I judge cannot better be done then 
by incouradging our manufacturers, w*^"^ will imploy 
our people. The wealth of England arises chiefly 
from the labour of its inhabitants, w'^'' being added 
to our own product, and also to the foreign ma- 
terials we import, encreases their value in those 
markets whither we export them ; and by how 
much we lessen the emportation of things already 
manufactured, and encrease that of the primums 
whereof they are made, soe much will the ballance 
of our trade alter everywhere in our favour. 

When the publick good of a nation is the design 
of a writer, it arms him with some assurance, w"*^ 
hath emboldened me to present you w*'' this little 
Tract or Essay on Trade, — the work of some 
leisure hours. All I say concerning it is, that 
'twas wrote without p'tiall respect to any one 
trade more then another ; if you shall think it 
worth your reading, 'twill oblige me. 

Please to give me leave to offer at something in 
yo'' book, w'^'' I suppose to be an oversight ; pa. 86., 
you propose the half-crowns, half-scepters, or 
half-unites, should go for two shillings and seven- 
pence half-penny each. I apprehend 'twas en- 
tended three shillings one penny half-penny, else 
'twill not agree with the exact half of the crown, 
scepter, or unite ; whether I take this right, 1 am 
uncertaine, but the following table, pa. 86, must 
be erroneous, where you put the 



half-crown - 


- 2s. 


0^. 


3 ditto 


- 8 


lOi 


5 ditto 


- 15 


u 


7 ditto 


- 21 


H 



This table seems to be perplext : for if you design 
the half-crown (w'^'' is imperfectly printed) at 

2s. 7 id. 

then 3 ditto must be 7 10^ 
5 ditto 13 1^ 
7 ditto 18 41- 

Nor will it agree with 3s. 1^,^. for the half-crown, 
w*^** is according to 6s. 3d. the crown. I have no 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



designe in mentioning this, save that if you find 
it an error it may be corrected in the next edition. 
I shall be obliged to you for the like favour, if 
you please to give yourselfe the trouble to read 
my book, w'^'' was seen by no man but myself till 
it past y" press, y"'fore I cannot think it without 
oversights. I am, 

Sir, yo'' m'' hu. serv*, 

Jno. Cart. 
To John Locke, Esq. 

This letter, and the accompanying book, did 
not reach Locke until the 11th of the following 
April. How the delay arose does not appear, 
Locke immediately replied as follows : 

Gates, 12 Apr., '96. 
Worthy S% 

Y' obleigeing letter of Jan. 11, with the most ac- 
ceptable present of y"" booke w*^*" accompanied it, 
came not to my hands till late last night. The lin- 
gering of it soe long by the way has upon many ac- 
counts been a misfortune to me. It has deprived me 
of the pleasure and instructions I might have had 
from the perusall of y"^ Essay. It has made me loose 
the oportunity of correcting a great fault, w*^*" having 
passed the presse in the first edition of my answer 
to Mr. Lowndes, I wish y' timely and very kinde 
admonition had come early enough to have made 
me set right in the second. But most of all I am 
troubld, that it has soe long delayd my thanks to 
one, who by his undeserved civility has soe just a 
right to them. And I might reasonably a[)pre- 
hend what thoughts of me soe hmg a silence might 
raise in y", did I not perswade myself that the 
good opinion y" are pleased to exj)resse of me in 
y' letter, would not let y" impute my silence to 
the worst of causes, ill breeding and ingratitude, 
till y" were satisfied that the slowness of my ac- 
knowledgm* was owing to noe thing but pure 
neglect in me. This stop soe unluckily put to the 
beginning of my acquaintance with y" I hope y" 
will perniitt me to repaire by my faster growth in 
it. Thuike not this a complem' in returne to y"^ 
civility, w*^** has made the overture. This request 
has more weighty motives than what I have re- 
ceived from y", though I acknowledge y' book and 
y' letter have very much obleiged me. A worthy 
rational man and a disiiiteressed lover of his 
country is soe valuable a thing, y* I thinke I may 
be allowed to be very ambitious of such acquaint- 
ance wherever I can meet with it. Give me leave 
then, now y* y" have opened the way to it, to own 
an impatience to be admitted into the freedom of 
familiarity and communicaticm. For though I 
have not yet the happynesse to know y' face, yet 
I am not wholy a stranger to y'' character. 

I ."hall say nothing now of y"^ booke : the few 
hours I have had it, have permitted me barely to 
cast my eye in hast on the three or fower first 
pages. I shall imploy the first leisure I have to 



read it over with attention, and to shew that I 
think my self already past the terms of complem' 
with y" I shall very frankly doe what in the close 
of y' letter y" desire of me; and whereof y" have 
set me so friendly an example in the error y" have 
shew*^ me in mine. 

I am, worthy S"", 

Y'' most humble and most 
obleiged servant, 

John Locke. 
KeC^ Aprill IS'""! ,„^ 
Answ. y« IT'" J ^"' 

Gary answered this letter on the 17th April, 
immediately after its receipt. A copy of his 
answer is preserved in the MS. whence the other 
letters are derived : — Additional MS. Brit. Mus. 
5,540. In the course of Gary's reply, he remarked, 
" The freedome I took in laying before you the 
Printer's Errors in yo'' answer to Mr. Lowndes you 
are pleased to excuse, and to take it with the same 
candor I intended it." On the 2nd May Locke 
returned the following excellent reply : 

Gates, 2 May, '96. 
Worthy S% 

I have read over your Essay of Trade y" did me 
the favour to send me, and have found the satis- 
faction I expected. It answers the character I 
had of y", and is the best discourse I ever read on 
that subject, not only for the clearnesse of all 
that y" deliver and the undoubted evidence of 
most of it, but for a reason that weighs with me 
more than both these, and that is, that sincere 
aime at the publick good and that disinteres.sed 
reasoning that appears to me in all y"^ proposals ; 
a thing that I have not been able to finde in those 
authors on the same argument w'^'' I have looked 
into. This makes me dare to owne to y" that 
there are some few things in it wherein my opinion 
differs from y", but yet I like not y"^ booke one jot 
the worse, since I can promise myselfe from a man 
of y"" ingenuity, and one who covers not by-interest 
of his owne under the pretence of serving the 
publick, that when I have the oportunity to 
debate them with y", either I shall be brought to 
righter thoughts by y'' stronger reason, or else 
that y" will not reject anything I shall offer be- 
cause y" have been of an other minde. In all 
debates with any one, all that I desire is, that 
between us the truth may be found, but whether 
I brought it thither, or carry it away, instead of an 
error that tooke its place before, I am little con- 
cerned ; only in the latter case I am sure I am the 
greater gainer. 

Gne thing I have to complain of y' booke, but 
it is the complaint of a greedy man, and that is, 
that it is too little ; but a second edition will give 
y" an oportunity to enlarge it, and I hope you will 
doe soe. He y* could say soe much can say a 
great deale more if he will, and y" doe as good as 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



confesse it in several parts of y' Essay. Y" cannot 
employ y"" thoughts on a more necessary or usefuU 
subject. The country gent., who is most con- 
cerned in a right ordering of trade, both in duty 
and interest, is of all others the most remote from 
any true notions of it, or sense of his stake in it. 
'Tis high time somebody should awaken and In- 
forme him, that he may, in his place, looke a 
little after it. I know noebody so able to doe it 
as y". I see noe party or interest y" contend for 
but that of truth and y'' country. Such a man 
carrys authority and evidence in what he says, 
and those that will not take the pains to under- 
stand him thoroughly, cannot refuse to believe 
him, and therefor I hope the same reasons that 
first set y" on worke will have force to make y" 
goe on. 

Y" make apologies in y" of the 17 Apr. for the 
freedom y" tooke in shewing me a mistake in my 
booke, and take it as a kinde of obligation that I 
excuse it. But I tell y" I doe not excuse it: 
that were to suppose that it needed an excuse. 
Now, I assure y", I thanke y" for it, and whether 
it were mine or the printer's slip, I take it for a 
great marke of y"^ good will and friendship to me, 
y* y" advised me of it, and I have given order to 
have it mended. Will y" give me leave with the 
same candor to offer two places to y" to be alterd 
in the next edition of y"" booke ; the one is in the 
last page of y' dedication to the king, where I 
thinke it is more for the advantage of y'^ argument 
that y" should say all his dominions rather than 
Judsea. For he and his father David had extended 
their conquests as far as the Great River, i. e. Eu- 
phrates, and the Scripture tells us that Solomon 
built Tadmor, w"^** was a great town in a pleasant 
and fruitfuU plain a great way in Arabia deserta. 
The other I guesse is a slip of the printer, and is 
of noe consequence to y'^ argum', and that is Inter 
Hades, p. 56., w*^^ I conceive should rather be In 
Hades or Hadou, w*^** signifies the state of the dead, 
and possibly y" will think may be as well expressed 
by amongst the shades, or some such other English 
words. I take this liberty only to shew y" that I 
in earnest covet a familiar acquaintance with y", 
and am, without a complem*, 

s^ 

Your most humble servant, 

John Locke. 
Rec^MayStn, 
Answ. y« 9*^ J ^^' 

For Mr. John Gary, Merchant, in Bristol. 

Gary replied 'with a promise to call on Locke 
the first time he came to London ; but the acquaint- 
ance made no progress. Other letters of Gary's 
may be seen in Mr. Rix's excellent volume of the 
Diary of Edmund Bohun. Locke's last letter 
speaks for itself. The kindness, conscientiousness, 
and precision, which were such marked charac- 



teristics of our eminent philosopher, are here 
written distinctly ; nor is there wanting that tinge 
of formality which was equally conspicuous in the 
man himself. John Bruce. 



THOMAS GOFFE THE DRAMATIST. 

" (Test la hibliograplde qui fournit a Vhistoire litteraire 
les elemens les plus positifs, et qui peut lui donner une exacti- 
tude rigoureuse." — Pierre-Claude-Fran9ois Daunou, 1831. 

No one can travel far in the walks of English 
history without discovering some new facts, or 
rectifications of current statements ; some par- 
ticulars which, if rejected as discoveries by the 
Bruces, the Colliers, the Dyces, the Singers, would 
certainly be hailed as such by those who are ac- 
customed to confide in the ordinary sources of 
information on the respective subjects. 

As an exemplification of this remark I shall 
give the result of an inquiry into the dramatic 
history of Thomas Goffe, M.A., student of Christ- 
church, Oxford; afterwards B.D. and rector of 
East Clandon, Surrey. Of the various reports of 
his proceedings, I shall transcribe and comment 
on two of the earliest and two of the latest : 

" Thomas Goff, the author of the Courageous Turk, 
Selimus, Orestes, tragedies ; The careless sheapherdess, 
a tragi-comedy ; and Cupid^s whirligig, a comedy." — 
Edward Philips, 1675. 

« Thomas Goff.— He writ several pieces on several sub- 
jects, amongst which are reckon'd five plays, viz. The 
careless shepherdess, 1656, 4». — The courageous Turk, 
1656, 80.— Orestes, 1656, 8".— The raging Turk, 1656, 8°, 
Seliinus, 1638, 4°."— Gerard Langbaine, 1691. 

" Thomas Goff. — He wrote several tragedies; but these 
do no honour to his memory, being full of the most ridi- 
culous bombast ; and one comedy, which is not without 
merit." — William Gifford, 1813. 

"Thomas Gouffe. — He wrote five tragedies, but none 
of them printed in his life-time. In the latter part of his 
life he wrote some comedies, published in the year in 
which he died."— Owen Manning and William Bbay» 
1814. 

Thomas Goffe wrote three tragedies while a 
student of Christ-church. We may consider 
them as his college exercises, and they were not 
published in his life-time. The raging Tvrke was 
dedicated to sir Richard Tichbourne by Richard 
Meighen, one of the proprietors of the second 
folio Shakspere, in 1631 ; The covragiovs Tvrke 
was dedicated to sir Walter Tichbourne by the 
same person in 1632 ; and The tragedy of Orestes 
was published by Mr. Meighen, without any de- 
dication, in 1633. This was the utmost extent of 
his dramatic writings. 

Philips was an ingenious critic, but a very care- 
less bibliographer. If he had examined The 
raging Tvrke he could have had no doubt as to 
its authorship. If he had examined the Selimus 
of 1594, he could not have ascribed it to Goffe, 
who did not leave Westminster-school till 1609. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



{No. 271. 



If he had examined Cvpids whirligig as printed 
in 1607, 1611, or 1616, he must have observed 
that it was addressed to maister Robert Hayman 
hy E. S. ! If he had examined The careless shep- 
herdes he must have seen that it was written for 
the theatre in Salisbury-court : now that theatre, 
as my friend Mr. Peter Cunningham has proved 
by documentary evidence, was not even built in the 
life-time of GofFe! 

Langbaine deserves about the same character 
as Philips. Of the five plays which he ascribes to 
Goffe, two are mis-ascribed, and he cites no one 
of the authoritative editions. Gifford condemns 
our author for making a raging Turk speak in 
character, and praises him for what he never 
wrote. I spare Manning and Bray, as dramatic 
history was rather out of their line. 

I do not mean to insinuate that all the corrective 
facts now produced are discoveries. Langbaine 
asserted that GofFe was not the author of Cvpids 
whirligig, and Mr. Isaac Reed proved that he 
could not be the author of Selimus ; but all the 
authorities whom I have consulted ascribe to him 
The careless shepherdes — and all of them betray 
a deficiency of bibliographic research. 

I have now justified the epigraph prefixed to 
this note, which cannot be too often repeated. It 
was written by its estimable author after a literary 
career of more than half a century. 

The discovery of errors sugstests the query. 
How did they arise? And an attempt to solve 
such a query is far from useless curiosity. It 
leads us to consider the nature of evidence ; it 
helps to sharpen the detective faculty ; and to pre- 
serve those who write from the censures of future 
critics. 

How then did the errors arise in this particular 
instance ? Here are my humble conjectures. 

Philips omits The raging Tvrke. Now, as that 
tragedy is ascribed to Goffe in the dramatic cata- 
logues which were printed in 1661, 1671, and 1675, 
it may either have been omitted through oversight, 
or because it was assumed to be the same piece as 
The covragiovs Tvrke. 

He may have ascribed Selimus to Goffe either 
on the authority of the aforesaid catalogues, or of 
the edition of 1638, in which the piece is said to 
be written by T. G. It is, however, the edition of 
1594 with a falsified title ! 

He may have ascribed The careless shepherdes 
to Goffe, though not published till five-and-twenty 
years after his death, either on the authority of 
the aforesaid catalogues, or because it is said to be 
written by T. G.Mr, of arts. 

He may have ascribed Cvpids whirligig to 
Goffe because it follows, in the aforesaid cata- 
logues. The careless shepherdes ; and he may have 
seen only the edition of 1630, in which the dedi- 
cation by E. S. is omitted. 

After so many conjectures, I must return to 



facts. Langbaine says Goffe " was buried at his 
own parish-church at Clandon, the 27th of July, 
1627. ' This is an error. By the kind permission 
of the rev. Edward John Ward, M. A., the rector, 
I copied, some time since, the subjoined entry 
from the original register : 

« 1629 July 27« Sepultus Thomas Goffe SS Theolog. 
Baccalaureus et Ecclesiae hujus Paroch Rector." 

Bolton Corkbt. 



ANTIQUfTT OF SWIMMING-BELTS. 

Those who hold that, literally, " there is nothing 
new under the sun," will see more than a fancifm 
parallel between a well-known passage in the 
Odyssey, and the following incident in the late 
wreck of the mail steamer " Forerunner." Cap- 
tain Kennedy, one of the passengers in that ship, 
thus modestly related to the Court of Inquiry an 
heroic act of his own, which is well worthy of 
record : 

"Remembering that there was a sick gentleman, a 
merchant captain, Mr. Gregory, who was below, I weat 
to inform him of our danger. This gentleman had pre- 
viously informed me that if any accident ever occurred 
he would certainly be drowned, as he could not swim. I 
remembered this at the moment, and as I had a swimming- 
belt in my cabin, I immediately rushed down to my cabia 
for the purpose of getting it. I gave it to Mr. Gregory. 
I inflated it for him, and put it round him, for he did not 
understand how to use it. I then left Mr. Gregory to 
shift for himself," &c. — The Times, Nov. 21, 1854. 

In the fifth book of the Odyssey we read the 
beautiful passage, which forms the subject of one 
of Flaxman's graceful illustrations, of the sea- 
nymph Leucothoe bringing to Ulysses, tempest- 
tost upon his raft, a magic zone, which, bound 
around his breast, enables him to swim to land. 
I will not trouble unlearned readers with the 
Greek ; Cowper's translation is, — 

" Take this : this ribband bind beneath thy breast. 
Celestial texture : thenceforth every fear of death dis- 
miss," &c. 

The Greek word is KfyfiSefj-vov, variously rendered 
in English zone, girdle, ribband, cincture. 

Without going so far as to believe that all new 
arts and inventions are but lost ones revived, I 
think it not improbable that the swimming-belt, 
inflated with air, may have been known in ante- 
Homeric times, and the tradition of it thus pre- 
served. F. 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



AN EABLT SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

It is not, perhaps, generally known that a So- 
ciety of Antiquaries existed in the seventeenth 
century.* 

The following minute of its first " chapter," at 
which its rules and bye-laws were instituted, will 
not, I hope, be unacceptable to your readers. It 
is, throughout, in the handwriting of Sir Edward 
Dering, except the signatures, which are auto- 
graph. There are verbal corrections in it, made 
evidently on the suggestion of the moment, and 
Sir Edward's signature is the first appended. 
The style and language are decidedly his ; and 
I think we may, with a fair presumption of truth, 
assign to him the honour of originating this So- 
ciety. That it enjoyed but a brief existence is 
easily accounted for by the parliamentary trou- 
bles which arose almost within two years of its 
birth, and in which more than one of its members 
bore part. 

The conventional marks by which the MSS-, 
&c. of the members were to be distinguished, is a 
fact of no small importance to collectors in this 
day. I have frequently met with one or other of 
these marks on MSS., and, till the discovery of 
this document, have always been at a loss to ac- 
count for them. I hope, therefore, by the publi- 
cation of this interesting minute in " N. & Q.," to 
furnish collectors with a satisfactory means of 
identifying many of their MSS. L. B. L. 

ANTIQUITAS EEDIVIVA. 

Att a chapter held y^ first of May, A° D"' 
1638, by the [Schollers] Students of Anti- 
quity whose names are underwritten, itt was 
agreed, and concluded upon, to hold, keepe, 
and with best credite to preserve these articles 
following, viz. : 

I* Imprimis. That every one do heipe and fur- 
ther each others studyes and endeavours, by im- 
parting and communicating (as time and other 
circumstances may permitt) all such bookes, 
notes, deedes, roUes, &c. as he hath, for y* expe- 
diting whereof, and that each may knowe what to 
borowe of other, for his best use and behoofe, itt 
is first concluded and promised, cache to send 
other a pfect inventory and catalogue of all such 
notes, bookes, collections, &c. as they now have. 

2° Item. That no ^son of this society do shewe 
or otherwise make knowen this, or any y^ like 
future agreement, nor call in, nor promise to call 
in any other person to this society, w'bout a par- 
ticular consent first had of all this present society. 

[* This it would appear followed, although, perhaps, 
not in consequence of the failure of Bolton's scheme for 
"an Academ Royal ; " of which scheme Mr. Hunter has 
given so interesting an account. (See Archceologia, 
voL xxxii. pp. 132— 149.) — Ed. "N. & Q."] 



3" Item. That every one do severally gather all 
observable collections which he can, concerning 
y^ foundations of any religious house, or castle, 
or publicke worke, and all memorable notes for 
historical! illustration of this kingdome : or y* 
geneologicall honour of any family therein, espe- 
cially concerning y* countyes of Kent, Hunting- 
don, Northampton, and Warwick ; and y" same 
to communicate unto such of this society who is 
most interessed therein. 

4° Item. That every one doe carefully and 
faythfully observe and recorde all persons which 
haue beene dignifyed with y^ title of knighthood, 
with a breife of y* time, place, county, &c. ; y" 
same to be disposed into such methode as att y* 
next consultation shall be agreed upon. 

5° Item. That every one do endeavour to bor- 
rowe of other strangers, with whom he hath interest, 
all such bookes, notes, rolles, deedes, &c. as he 
can obteyne, as well for any of his parteners as 
for himself. 

6° Item. Whereas, itt is entended, with care, 
cost, and industry, to pfect up certeine select, 
choise, and compleate treatises of armory and 
antiquityes, which cannot well be done without 
some preceding, rough, unpolished, and fowle 
originall coppyes : Itt is now agreed, concluded, 
and mutually promised, that y* s^ principall bookes 
so compleated, shall not, upon forfeite of credite, 
be lent out from among this society to any other 
person whatsoever. 

7° Item. That y* afores"^ roughe coppyes be not 
imparted to any stranger, without y* gnll consult 
of this society. 

8° Item. That care be providently had, not to 
lend, much lesse to parte with, any other peece, 
treatise, booke, roll, deed, &c. unto any stranger ; 
but to such psons, from whom some reasonable 
exchange probably be had or boi-rowed. 

9° Item. That euery of the rest do send unto 
S'^ Christopher Hatton, a pfect [note] transcript 
of all such heires femall of note as he can find — 
with y" probates of euery of them — to be method- 
ized by him. 

10" Item. For y* better expediting of these 
studyes, by dividing y® greate burden which 
through such infinite variety of particulars would 
arise, to the discouragement and oppressing of 
any one man's industry, itt is concluded and 
agreed to part and divide these labours as fol- 
loweth, viz. That S'' Christopher Hatton shall 
take care to collect and register all old rolles of 
armes, and old parchment bookes of armes, being 
of equall valew, antiquity, and forme with y* 
rolles. 

11° Item. For y" same reasons, that S' Thomas 
Shirley shall collect together and enter (att large 
or in breife, according to such coppyes as can be 
had), all patentes and coppyes of new grantes or 
confirmacons of armes or creastes. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



12° Item. For y* same reasons, that S"" Edward 
Bering do gather and compose a full compleate 
booke of armes by way of ordinary. 

13° Item. For y* same reasons, that M"^ Dugdall 
do collect and coppy all armoriall seales with a 
breuiate of y*^ deedes, and y'' true dimensions of 
J* seales. 

14° Item. For y" same reasons, that S' Edward 
Dering do sometime this soinr beginne a new 
system or body of armory, with such brevity, 
pspicuity, and proper examples, as may best be 
chosen ; to which purpose y^ other associates haue 
promised to send unto him such helpe, by way of 
originalls or coppyes of all extraordinary formes 
of sheildes, charges, supporters, augmentations, 
diminutions, differences, &c. as they can furnish 
forth; the same to be reveiwed att y* next 
chapter. 

15° Item. For y^ same reasons, that S' Thomas 
Shirley do gather y® names and armes of all (or 
as many as can be had) mayors, sheriflfes, and 
aldermen of London and Yorke, and of all other 
cittyes and townes throughout all ages. 

16° Item. For y° same reasons, that S''jChris- 
topher Hatton do collect together all y" names and 
armes of knightes, to which purpose, all y* rest of 
y* society are to send unto him such supply as 
they haue, except itt be for y" knightes of King 
James and King Charles, which are by y' paynes 
of Mr. Anthony Dering allready putt into good 
order, for which S' Edward Dering undertaketh. 

17° Item. Whereas many usefuU and pleasur- 
able notes are passed and comunicated betweene 
J® fores^ [schoUers] students of antiquity. Now 
to y* intent that continuall recourse may euer (as 
occasion shall arise) be had to y* study, bookes, and 
collections of him that shall so send or impart y" 
same, for y" iustifying of any transcript so received, 
and for y* more quicke finding and reveiwe of y" 
same, itt is further concluded and agreed, that 
every one shall forthwith fayrely marke every 
severall booke, roll, treatise, deede, &c., in his 
library : First, with one gnll note or marke of 
appropriation, whereby att first veiwe to know y* 
owner thereof: and then with such other addi- 
tional! marke as shall be thought fitt, that is to 
say,— 

S' Edward Dering to marke all such as belong 
unto him in this forme [on a shield, a saltire]. 
S' Christopher Hatton [a garb]. S'' Thomas 
Shirley [on a shield paly, a canton ermine]. And 
M"^ Dugdall thus [a cross moline]. And for petty 
small marks, these, in order as above, X — H — 
S— D. 

18° Item. IWhen any pson receiueth any tran- 
script or note from another of this society, which 
he is to keepe as his owne, and thereof to make 
use, he shall imediately marke y* same note, and 
all future transcripts thereof, with y* cheife cha- 



racter or marke of y' sender as aboue, — and y" 
sender of euery note shall take care that all notes 
by him sent, shall be written (as neare as may be) 
in y" same paper for size of bignesse as he shall 
first use, whether y° note sent do fill y* whole 
sheete, or but a line therein. 

19° Item. Least that too much care of sending- 
one to another may begett some mistake in lend- 
ing one thing twice, itt is resolved and agreed that 
he who sendeth or lendeth any booke, note, or 
roll, &c., to any other of this society, shall att y* 
sending or returne of the same, marke the same 
with y" principal! character or marke of the person 
to whom he shall so lend itt, — and, if itt be 
coppyed out of any of his bookes, then to sett a 
little marke of y" same forme in y* margent of y* 
s^ booke. 

20° Lastly. To preuent y" hazard of loosing 
time, by y^ trouble of seuerall mens taking 
coppyes of one and y* same thing : itt is concluded 
and agreed that whosoeuer peruse any booke, 
treatise, or deed, &c., and do transcribe y* same, 
he shall, att y® very last line, if itt be booke or 
treatise, &c. — or on y* dorse or y® labell, if itt b^^ 
a deede, sett one of these two markes D or d, — 
that is to say, if y" coppy be taken verbatim, then 
y* capitall letter D, but if breviated, then d. 

Edward Dering, Christopher Hattox,. 
Thomas Shirley, Wm. Dugdale. 

Notes. 

Sir Edward Dering was the first baronet of his house ;; 
his mark, the saltire, was his coat armour, or rather the- 
coat of Morini adopted by him. 

Sir Christopher Hatton was probably the first Lord 
Hatton, so created 1643, and great-great-grandson of 
John Hatton, brother of the Lord Keeper, temp. Eliz. 
The garb, his mark, was from his coat of arms. 

Sir Thomas Shirley. His mark is the coat of Shirlej 
Paley, a canton ermine. 

Dugdale, the Dugdale, his mark was from his coat of 
arms, a cross moline. 



POPIANA. 



77ie Rev. Alexander Pope, Caithness. — In tie 
Life of Pope I have mentioned a namesake and 
acquaintance of the poet who was minister of the 
parish of Reay, In Caithness. A snuff-box is in 
existence which Pope Is said to have presented to 
his clerical friend In the north. It is a handsome 
gilt box with an allegorical scene in relief on the 
lid. This interesting relic is believed to have been 
sent to the Rev. A. Pope by the poet, accom- 
panied by a note, in which he claimed a distant 
relationship to the minister. The box Is in the" 
possession of the grandson (by the mother's side) 
of the Rev. W. Pope, namely, James Campbell, 
Esq., Assistant Commissary-General, Edinburgh. 
The poet's autograph has been lost (to Mr. Camp- 
bell's great regret), but an elder brother of thia 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



gentleman distinctly recollected to have often seen 
and read it during his grandfather's life. May 
not the family of the poet have been originally 
from the north of Scotland, where a number of 
Popes, clergymen, resided in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries ? The grandfather of Pope 
is said to have been a clergyman in Hampshire, 
but no trace of him can be found in the registers 
of incumbents. The above particulars I owe to 
the courtesy of my friend, Mr. Robert Chambers, 
and trust the subject will be taken up by some of 
the able correspondents of " N, & Q.," who enjoy 
facilities for prosecuting literary and antiquarian 
researches. R. Caeeuthees. 

Inverness. 



James Moore Smyth. — To the Query of S. J. M. 
in Vol. X., p. 459. of'K & Q.," it maybe an- 
swered that the fact of James Moore Smyth, the 
object of Pope's hatred and satire, being the son of 
Arthur Moore, M.P., the distinguished Commis- 
sioner for Trades and Plantations, &c., seems esta- 
blished by the GentlemarCs Magazine, and by Man- 
ning and Bray's History of Surrey. The former 
announces his death (October 18, 1734) as " son 
of the late Arthur Moore, of Fetcham, Esq.," &c. 
The local history describes the estate of Fetcham 
as having been purchased by Arthur Moore, Esq. ; 
and an account is given of Arthur Moore and 
his family, including his third son James, who, 
according to the Gentleman's Magazine, took the 
name of Smyth " to enjoy an estate left him by 
Mr. Smyth of Gloucester Street." JST. B. 



Satirical Print of Pope (Vol. x., p. 458.). — 
Geiffin will find all he inquires after in A Pop 
upon Pope ; or more readily perhaps by turning 
to Carruthers' Life of Pope, p. 200. S. P. P. 



lilBBAEIES IN CONSTAKTINOPLE. — THE LOST WOBKS 
OF THE ANCIENTS. 

In the midst of the din of war, and the horrors 
that are its inevitable attendants, it can scarcely 
be demanded that much, if any, attention can be 
given to the exploration of antiquities, or to the 
research after lost manuscripts — the boast and 
glory of ancient letters. Still, even when sur- 
rounded by circumstances so unfavourable, enthu- 
siastic scholars and antiquaries have been found, 
in camps and battle-fields, profiting by the events 
which led them into foreign countries, and seeking 
to enrich their native land and the world at large 
with spoils dearer than all the material conquests 
of the victor. Would not, therefore, the present 
campaign in the Crimea, and the friendly relations 
subsisting between England and Turkey, seem to 
present the long-desired opportunity for English- 



men to obtain access to places that have long been 
shut up from them, and that are likely to contain 
manuscripts and other spoils inherited by the con- 
querors of the Byzantine empire ? The present 
Sultan of Turkey is not a man likely to refuse a 
request of this nature addressed to him on the part 
of the British government. A firman might be 
issued to all pachas and governors of cities .nnd 
provinces requiring them to grant every facility 
to properly authorised individuals of the British 
nation for exploring and examining all old build- 
ings and institutions likely to afford scope for re- 
search and discovery. In this way, the evils of 
war may be made eventually productive of good 
to mankind, by the bringing to light again of some 
of the long lost treasures oif Greece or Rome ; or, 
more precious still, of some works of Christian 
antiquity. The present Prime Minister, Lord 
Aberdeen, early distinguished himself as an en- 
lightened cultivator of the fine arts, and more 
particularly of Grecian art. His countenance 
would no doubt be given to measures calculated 
to save from destruction before it is too late any 
remains of antiquity in the classic lands of the 
East. Antiquary. 



FOLK LOEE. 



Death-bed Superstition. — Whilst residing at 
the village of Charlcombe, near Bath, in the year 
1852, a village well known to the ecclesiologists 
for its diminutive church, said to be the smallest 
in England, a curious circumstance came to my 
knowledge. The parish clerk made application to 
the clergyman for the loan of the paten belonging 
to the church. Being asked for what purpose, he 
said he wanted it to put salt on, and to place it on 
the breast of a dying person to make him " die 
easier." 

Is not this a trace of some old use of " blessed 
salt " in the mediasval Church ? W. N. T. 

Caius College, Cambridge. 

"As big as a parson's barn" is a Dorsetshire 
measure of magnitude, which happily begins to 
savour of antiquity, and ought, I think, to be re- 
corded. C. W. B. 

Charm for a Wart. — Some fifty years ago, a 
near relation of mine, then a little girl, was much 
troubled with warts, of which she had thirty-two 
on one hand, and two on the other. Accidentally 
hearing one day from a visitor, of an acquaintance 
who had been cured by cutting a nick or notch in 
an elder stick for each wart, touching the wart 
with the notch, and burying the stick without 
telling any one of it, she tried the plan, and 
utterly forgot the circumstance till some weeks 
after, when an intimate friend of the family asked 
her how the warts were going on. On looking at 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



her hand the thirty-two were gone, but the other 
two, which had not been charmed, were still there. 
She subsequently tried to get rid of these two in 
the same manner ; but the charm would seem to 
have been broken by her telling of it, and they 
remained where they were. 

As this circumstance happened In the family of 
a highly respectable London tradesman, at his 
country-house in one of the neighbouring villages, 
it seems to indicate that fifty years ago charms 
were in use in a class of society in which we should 
not now expect to find them. 

The Devonshire charm for a wart is to steal a 
piece of meat from a butcher's shop, rub it over 
the wart in secret, and throw it over a wall over 
your left shoulder. N. J. A. 

Rhymes on Winter Tempest. — 

1. " Winter's thunder, 

Poor man's death, rich man's hunger." 

2. " Winter's thunder, 

Summer's wonder." 
What others exist ? R. C. Warde. 

A muffled Peal on Innocents' Day. — On Inno- 
cents' Day, hearing the bells of Maisemore 
Church, in this neighbourhood, ringing a muffled 
peal, I inquired the reason, and was told by a 
parishioner that they always ring a muffled peal 
here on Innocents' Day. Is this peculiar to 
Maisemore ? C. Y. C. 

Gloucester, 



SCHOOL AND COLLEGE FEES IN SCOTLAND EIGHTY 
TEARS SINCE. 

Sir James Mackintosh, in his autobiographical 
sketch published by his son, has affectionately re- 
corded his early education at Fortrose, where a 
popular academy then flourished. The following 
copy of one of his school-bills, which lately fell 
into my hands, is curious : 

" Capt. Angus Mackintosh, of the 7\st, for his nephew, 
James Mackintosh, Dr. 

£ s. d. 

1775, July 15. To school fees from this to 
July 15, 1777, at 5s. per qr. - - 2 

1776-7. To cock's fight dues for 2 years, 2s. &d. 
each - - - - - 5 

To cash for a Mair's Introduction, 2s. Od. ; 
Cajsar's Com., Is. 6d. - - - 3 6 

To ditto for 3 months' fees at the dancing 
school, minuet, country-dances, and horn- 
pipe, &c. - - - - - 18 

To ditto for practisings at ditto - - 9 6 

To ditto at a public [ball] for himself and 

partner - - - - -020 

To ditto at going to Connage and Inverness 

[to visit his relations] for 2 years - - 4 

July 15. For answering the school fees, and 
other accidental demands, for the year com- 
meacing of this date - • - 1 

£5 2 0" 



It IS impossible to forbear a smile at the asso- 
ciation of the cock-fights and minuets with the 
future amiable and somewhat ponderous philo- 
sopher ! The scholar's board with a decent 
householder in Fortrose at this time was twelve 
pounds per annum. Here is one of the receipts : 

" Fortrose, 30th Maj^ 1780. 
" Reed, of Ba. [Bailie] John M<=Intosh, on account of 
board wages for Ja. M<=Intosh, son to Capt. John Mack- 
intosh, of the 73rd regiment, from Nov. 15th, 1779, to 
May 15th, 1780, day and date as above, the sum of &L 
St. Pr. Alex.-Man." 

In the autumn of 1780 James Mackintosh left 
the academy at Fortrose, and proceeded to Aber- 
deen College, the sum of twenty shillings being 
paid for his proportion of the chaise hire from' 
Inverness to Aberdeen. At college his expenses 
were, of course, greatly increased, and some of his 
relatives hinted at " prodigality," a charge which 
he strenuously denied. The following affords 
some data for forming a conclusion on this point; 

"Note of Expenses laid out on Jamie Mackintosh, from 
30th May, 1780. 

£ s. d. 
Cash at different times from that date to 

5th Julv, 1781 - - - - 34 8 

Cash froni 31st October, 1781, to 16th April, 

1782 - - - - - 29 14 

Cash from 10th June, 1782, to June, 1783 - 37 1 
Cash for clothes and other advances, from 

15th September, 1780, to July, 1782 - 26 

Cash for clothes and other advances for James 

from July, 1782, to October, 1783 - - 27 10 

£154 8 0" 
Many of the students at Aberdeen College lived, 
and many still live, at less cost ; but James 
Mackintosh was of the higher class of the youth 
attending the university. He was the son of an 
officer in the army, the heir to a small Highland 
estate (then valued at about WOl. per annum, and 
which he afterwards sold), and he was of social 
tastes and habits, as well as a great reader and 
collector. His future career is well known, — a 
career honourable alike to his great talents, his 
genuine benevolence, and simple dignity of cha- 
racter. R. Carruthers. 



A Russian and an English Regiment. — The 
courage of an English army is the sum total of 
the courage which the individual soldiers bring 
with them to it, rather than of that which they 
derive from it. When I was at Naples, a Russian 
and an English regiment were drawn up together 
in the same square: — "See," said a Neapolitan 
to me, who had mistaken me for one of his coun- 
trymen, " there is but one face in that whole 
regiment ; while in that (pointing to the English), 
every soldier has a face of his own." 

Coleridge's Friend (J. M. O.) 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Epitaph on Richard Adlam. — In the romantic 
village church of Kings Teignton, Devon, there is 
a tomb to the memory of Richard Adlam, whose 
epitaph, besides being a singular specimen of the 
style of the period, is so remarkable for the coinci- 
dence of the first line with Dr. Young's celebrated 
apostrophe to Death (Night Third) — 

" Insatiate archer ! could not one siifiice ? " — 
that we might almost think he must have seen and 
had it in hS mind when Jie wrote it. It is as fol- 
lows: 

" Richardus Adlam hujus ecclesise Vicarius, obit Feb. 10, 
1670, Apostrophe ad Mortem : 

"Damn'd tyrant! can't profaner blood suffice? 
Must priests that offer be the sacrifice ? 
Go tell the genii that in Hades lye, 
Thy triumphs o'er this sacred Calvary, 
Till some just Nemesis avenge our cause 
And force this kill-priest to revere good laws ! " 

GUMELMUS. 

Dalston. 

Earthenwai'e Vessels found at St. Mary's Col- 
legiate Church, Youghal, Ireland. — In the pro- 
gress of the restoration of the choir of this church 
during the autumn of this year, 1854, vases similar 
to those found at Fountains Abbey (Vol. x., 
p. 386.), and at St. Peter's Man<jroft, Norwich 
(Vol. X., p. 434.), were discovered. They are ten 
in number, laid on their sides, the orifices not 
reaching to the surface of the walls in which they 
are imbedded, but communicating with the out- 
side through circular perforations in a piece of 
limestone laid up to each. Five of these vases 
are in the north wall, and five directly opposite in 
the south, high up above the arches of the windows 
contiguous to the nave. They are all of browp 
earthenware, glazed within, but differ in shapes 
and dimensions. Some have narrow mouths, 
whence they gradually expand to the base. Some 
swell out, like Roman amphorce, and like them are 
symmetrically tapered to the bottom. Some have 
wide mouths, narrow necks, and broad bases to 
stand on. Measurements of the largest four were 
as follows respectively, viz. 15i inches X 11a ; 
15 X 11 ; 11 X 7 ; 9| X 91. May they not have 
been intended for acoustic purposes, according to 
Priestley's experiments ? Samubx Hayman, Clk. 

South Abbey, Youghal. 

Schedone and Poussin. — Great praise has been 
bestowed on Poussin for the pathetic episode in- 
troduced into one of his pastoral paintings; in 
which, amid the fleeting pleasures of the shep- 
herd's life, a stone, the memorial of some de- 
parted shepherd, is seen bearing the well-known 
inscription, " Et ego in Arcadia fui." It is ques- 
tionable whether Poussin did not borrow this 
idea. In the Sciarra Piilace at Rome, there is a 
picture of Schedone, in which shepherds are in- 



troduced contemplating a skull. On a stone 
below appear the words " Et in Arcadia ego." I 
apprehend that Schedone's painting whs produced 
the first, and that the pathetic and justly admired 
idea was originally his. Poussin, during his long 
residence at Rome, would be familiar with Sche- 
done's painting. W. Ewabt. 

A Family of Six Children at a Birth. — The 
Dayton Gazette, published in Ohio, states on the 
authority of " a lady of character, who saw and 
counted the children, and had the mother's word 
that they were all hers at a single birth," that a 
German woman lately passed through Dayton 
with six children born at a birth. The woman 
was on her way to see her husband, who was sick 
at another place where he was at work. The 
children were carried in a basket, and were all of 
a size except the youngest, which was smaller 
than the others. 

It is said that Ambrose Pare, the French phy- 
sician, gives an account of a similar family. 

Uneda. 

Philadelphia. 

China, Conquest of — In the year 1758, Lord 
Clive, then Governor-General of India, proposed 
to conquer China, if parliament would supply him 
with a force of fifteen thousand men. I have no 
doubt so great a man knew well that he was able, 
humanly speaking, to accomplish what he pro- 
posed; and if his proposal had been accepted, 
what a mass of misery might have been prevented, 
by China and India being united under one great 
Christian government ! The fanatical spirit of the 
present rebels against the Imperial government 
would now be turned, with fatal effect, against any- 
foreign interference of a hostile nature ; and 
nothing now remains for England, in her inter- 
course with China, but the most cautious, pacific, 
and prudent policy. A. 



^ntxit^. 



ADDISON S LETTERS. 



I am engaged in an edition of Addison's Works, 
which I at first intended should be a mere reprint 
of Bishop Hurd's, and form four volumes of my 
British Classics ; but I have found occasion to 
alter my plan. Some autograph-collecting friends 
having placed at my disposal several unpublished 
letters of Addison, and called my attention to the 
existence of many others in both private and pub- 
lic collections, I commenced a diligent, and I am 
happy to say successful search. I have, in conse- 
quence, discovered more than fifty letters quite 
unknown to the literary world ; all of which, to- 
gether with a considerable number which have 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



appeared in various printed collections, will come 
in a fifth volume of my edition. 

My object in addressing you is, to query 
whether any of your readers can and will help to 
increase my store, either by sale, loan, or tran- 
script, or by promotive indications ? To such, a 
debt of gratitude will be due from the public, and 

Henry G. Bohn. 



JENNENS OR JENNINGS OF ACTON PLACE. 

In the Gent. Mag. for July, 1 798, will be found 
-tin account of a very remarkable man, Wm. Jen- 
nens or Jennings of Acton Place, in the county of 
' Sufiblk, and of Grosvenor Square, London, who 
died on the 19th of June preceding, at the age of 
•ninety-seven. He is there stated to have been 
the richest subject of the crown, and having died 
intestate and without issue, that his almost in- 
calculable wealth would merge into three indi- 
viduals previously possessing immense fortunes. 
An opinion afterwards very generally prevailed 
that his heirs could not be traced, and that the 
crown had interfered to protect the property for 
whomsoever should establish the claim ; and it is 
believed that litigation took place on the subject 
even to a comparatively recent period. It was 
rumoured that a claimant had taken possession 
of Acton Place, and the notice of it in Shoberl's 
Beauties of England and Wales, published in 1813, 
vol. xiv., tit. Suffolk, would seem to sustain that 
statement : 

" On his decease the fine tapestry was torn from the 
walls, and sold with the furniture and other movables. 
This noble mansion having since that time been inhabited 
only by an old man and woman, now presents a deplorable 
spectacle of dilapidation, and the approach cannot be 
traced but by the colour and height of the grass which 
has grown over the gravel. The interior still exhibits 
some vestiges of its former splendour. The garden has 
fared even worse than the building, for it has been 
ploughed up, and has been now cultivated as a field." — 
P. 159. 

Some mystery unquestionably hangs over this 
singular individual, and the vast property which 
he left behind him undisposed of, and which it is 
believed has never yet been the subject of final 
adjudication or distribution. In "N. & Q.," Vol. 
iv., p. 424., date Nov. 29, 1851, an inquiry appears, 
whether the late Mr. Jenings of Acton Hall, 
Suffolk, was descended from a Yorkshire branch 
of the family, and where information as to pedigree 
could be obtained. In two subsequent Volumes, 
namely, Vol. vi., under October, 1852, and Vol. vii. 
for 1853, Queries also occur respecting the Jen- 
nings family ; but I have not been able to trace any 
very accurate details respecting the rich JMr. Je- 
nings. 

As the subject is to some extent one of historical 
interest, perhaps some of your numerous corre- 



spondents may be able to afford some information 
as to his pedigree and connexions, and also ns to 
the disposition of his money and estates, in whom 
they vested, and whether any portion yet remains 
for distribution. W. B. 

[It appears that William Jennens Avas a descendant of 
the family of Jennens of Gopsal Hall, co. Leicester, whose 
pedigree, and some account of the family, is given iu 
Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 859. In Acton Church, 
Sufiblk, is a monument with the following inscription : 
" To the memory of Robert Jennens of Acton Place, in 
the county of Sufiblk, Esq., fourth son of Humphrey 
Jennens, of Warwickshire, Esq., who died the 25th of 
February, 1725-6, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, 
leaving one only son, William Jennens, by Anne his wife, 
only daughter and heir of Carew Guidott, of Hampshire, 
Esq. He purchased the estate, and began the house. 
This monument was erected by his wife, who also built 
this chapel. She died the 24th of December, 1761, 
aged eighty-five, and is deposited in the family vault, 
under the chancel adjoining to this chapel, with the re- 
mains of her said husband. The above-named William 
Jennens died the 19th of June, 1798, in the ninety-eighth 
year of his age : is buried in the same vault with his 
father and mother, and his memory thus perpetuated by 
his particular direction." From a statement in the Gent. 
Mag. for March, 1803, p. 287., it appears that a consider- 
able part of the personal propertj' of Mary, dowager Vis- 
countess Andover, came to her as one of the heirs-at-law 
of William Jennens, whose death is noticed in the same 
work, vol. Ixviii. pp. 627. 755. See also the Gent. Mag. 
for July 1852, p. 85., and August 1852, p^ll4., for an 
account of a falsely rumoured settlement of this long 
litigated case. The noble structure of Acton Hall, con- 
taining fifty-four apartments, was demolished in 1825 by 
order of Earl Howe, heir-at-law of the late parsimonious 
proprietor: see the advertisements for its sale in the 
Ipswich Journal, March 5, 1825, and April 30, 1825.] 



" ULTIMO," " INSTANT," AND " PROXIMO." 

I should be glad to receive a critical notice of 
the common phrases ultimo, instant, aniS. proximo. 
From what source have these terms flowed into 
our language, and why is it that they refer to 
months only and not to days ? The received 
meaning seems to be as follows. If I, writing on 
the 20th of November, speak of the 10th ultimo, 
it means decimo die, ultimo mense, or the 10th of 
October. If I speak of the 10th instant, it means 
decimo die, instanti mense, or the 10th of Novem- 
ber. If of the 10th proximo, it means by a similar 
construction the 10th December. Now as I can- 
not find in books of reference, such as dictionaries, 
any explanation except that subjoined of these 
phrases, it is very easy to fall into error concern- 
ing them, especially as Dr. Johnson, our great 
authority in questions of philology, attributes in 
his dictionary a substantive meaning to the word 
instant, used in this sense, which he says is used 
" in low and commercial language for a day of the 
present or current month." This definition seems 
to be incorrect and imperfect when we analyse the 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



phrase, because I have shown that "instant" hath 
an adjective signification referring to the month 
itself, and not to the day. I am not ashamed to 
confess that until very lately I attributed a wrong 
meaning to these three words, conceiving that 
each and all of them applied to the day itself 
whose date stands prefixed, in which case the 
10th ultimo would mean the 10th of November, 
and the 10th instant would mean the 10th of De- 
cember — decimo die instanti, or the tenth day next 
at hand. It appears, however, that this con- 
struction is undoubtedly erroneous, and upon 
consideration it is evident that where days are 
numbered, they are numbered solely with refer- 
ence to the months in which they occur. Still, in 
the use of common terms the mind is seldom ap- 
plied critically to the consideration of their mean- 
ing, and therefore it might be desirable that all 
these words, although two of them be not actually 
English, should find a place in our English dic- 
tionaries and books of reference, since perhaps not 
one person out of a hundred may take the trouble 
to inform himself of the accurate meaning of 
words which he is in the daily habit of writing. 

A BOBDEBEB. 



Minor ^wtitS. 

Canons of York. — There is, in Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, an account of Mason the poet in a note 
in the second vol. p. 241., which ends thus : 

" The appointment of the four canon residentiaries of 
York cathedral is in the gift of the dean, who is obliged, 
by statute, to give the vacant canonry to the first man he 
sees, after the vacancy, capable of taking it. Mr. Mark- 
ham was his first sight on the death of Mr. Mason." 

I should be glad to know if this statement is 
correct ; and if so, what is the date of the statute 
which thus compels the dean so to dispose of the 
canonry ? C. de D. 

" L'CEil de Bceuf^ — Are the French memoirs 
published under this title an authentic work? 
What is known of the author or authors ? 

Uneda. 
Philadelphia. 

Cummin. — In The whole Art and Trade of 
Husbandrie, translated from the German by Bar- 
naby Googe, is this sentence, when speaking of 
the above herb : 

" It is sowed best (as they thinke) with curses and exe- 
crations, that it may prosper the better." 

Is there any old superstition respecting this herb ? 
Some seed was found a few years since, I think, 
in the coffin of William D'Albini, or in that of his 
wife, at Wymondham in Norfolk. Was it often 
placed in coffins ? Why ? The seed thus found 
germinated, I believe ; but Barnaby Googe does 
not mention it among those which " are the older 



the better." Has cummin seed ever been found 
in an Egyptian tomb ? F. C. B. 

Diss. 

The Episcopal Wig — Life of Bishop Porteus. 
— In the Life of Bishop Porteus, by a Lay Mem- 
ber of Merton College, Oxford (London, 8vo., 
1810), is the following passage (p. 90.) : 

" It is a short time since all Oxford was thrown into a 
ferment by the refusal of their newly appointed bishop, 
Dr. Randolph, to abandon a comfortable head of hair for 
an episcopal wig." 

Dr. Randolph was appointed Bishop of Oxford, 
1799, translated to Bangor, 1806, and to London, 
1809. I believe he ultimately conformed to the 
established usage as regards the episcopal wig. 
Who was the first modern bishop who abandoned 
the wig ? I should also be glad to know the name 
of the lay member of Merton College who wrote 
the above-mentioned Life of Bishop Porteus? 

C. H. Cooper. 
Cambridge. 

King John's Charter granted to Youghal. — The 
Report of the Commissioners on the Municipal 
Corporations of Ireland, 1835, alludes to a charter 
of incorporation granted to the above town by 
King John, a copy of which, the commissioners 
proceed to say, is believed to be in the British 
Museum. Will any contributor to "N. & Q." 
kindly set the question at rest by informing me 
whether such a document is in the Museum or 
not ? Samuel Hatman, Clk. 

South Abbey, Youghal. 

Le Maine's '■'■ Praises of Modesty " — ^Where can 
I find (in some accessible work) a copy of the 
Pere Le Moine's poem, entitled Praises of Modesty, 
from the seventh book of his Moral Portraits f 
Pascal alludes to it in his eleventh Provincial 
Letter. Perhaps some correspondent would kindly 
supply me with a copy of the verses, if there are 
not many of them. A. Challsteth. 

Sea Spiders. — I should be much obliged if any 
of your correspondents conversant with Natural 
History would inform me whether the insects 
popularly called " Sea Spiders " are commonly met 
with in the waters of this country. They belong, 
I believe, in scientific phrase, to the family of the 
Pycnogonidce. A friend of mine, who resides 
in Scotland, found them adhering to the small 
shells and sea-weeds on his yacht mooring-barrel, 
in fifteen fathoms of sea-water. P. S. 

Ribands of Recruiting Sergeants.' — Why are 
they worn ? Russell Golb. 

Skilful Sergeant Corderoy. — Can Mb. Foss or 
any of your legal antiquarian correspondents in- 
form me who this gentleman was, mentioned in 
the note at the foot of p. 133. of Athena Oxo- 



t2 



NOTES AND QJEiRIES. 



[No, 271. 



nienses, vol. i, by Bliss, 1848 (edit. Eccles. Hist. 
Society) ? Was he a member of Sergeant's Inn, 
Chancery Lane? and it' so, are the arms of the 
sergeant emblazoned anywhere there ? and what 
were they ? Any iufbrmation respecting him or 
his family will be acceptable. Shorbolds. 

A Note for Junius. — 

" Before I went to bed read some of Francis' Indian 
Minutes; quite able enoui^h to back him as the author of 
Junius." — Moore's Diary, vol. iii. p. 188. 

Query, Have any of the inquirers aft^ the author 
consulted these Minutes? J. M. 

Wobum Abbey. 

Anecdote of Canning. — During the time when 
the Right Hon. George Canning was in the ad- 
ministration, an<l on the breaking up of a meeting 
of the council, he the Right Hon. George Canning, 
I think it was, who undertook to tell any of those 
present that he would iguess their thoughts in less 
than twenty-one questions. One of the party 
thought of the wand of office. 

The first question was : Was it celestial or ter- 
restrial ? Ans. Teriestrial. 

Second, Was it animal or vegetable ? Ans. 
Vegetable, &c. &c. 

I have read tiie above in some work, and do not 
know where I can procure a copy. I thought you 
would be enabled to let me know what work it 
was in, and where I might obtain a copy. E. P. S. 

Comedy at the Coronation of Edward VI. — In 
the Rev. Joseph Mendham's Memoirs of the 
Council of Treiit (8vo., London, 1834), he quotes, 
from a MS. collection in his possession, an extract 
from a letter, dated March 8, 1547, addressed to 
Monsignore Verallo by Cardinal Farnese, in which 
it is stated that, at the coronation of Edward VI., 
plays were performed in dishonour and vitupera- 
tion of the Pope and the cardinals. The y)assage 
is as follows (p. lis. note). The cardinal is 
speaking delle cose d^Inghilterra, and proceeds 
thus : 

" E quanto alia dispositione di quelle anime perdute, 
ditoniar all' union' del la Chiesa, et ubedienza della Sede 
Apostolica, fin qui noii si comprende cosa buona, ma si 
vede tutto 1' opposite per alcune commedie, che sono state 
recitate nella ct)ronatione del nuovo Tirannetto, in disonor 
e vituperio del Papa, e delli Cardinali." 

Is this statement of Cardinal Farnese's a his- 
torical fact ? if so, what are the plays referred to ? 

J. M. B. 

Work on the Beality of the Devil. — In the 
Mamburgische Zeitschrift, Aug. 1778, a work by 
Professor Link, of Giessen, Uber die Besessener, 
is reviewed ; and called " one of the many works 
about which the public is so curious as to the 
personal reality of the Devil." Another is men- 
tioned under the title, Man muss auch den Teufel 



nicht zu viel aufhiirden. The controversy is treated 
as one of great interest, and Dr. Johan Semler is 
frequently referred to. Can any of your readers 
give me the title of Semler's book, or any others, 
on the controversy carried on in Germany at that 
time ? N. E. B. 

Death of Sir Thomas Prendergast. — The fol- 
lowing extract is from an obituary notice which 
appears in The Illustrated London News of Satur- 
day, Dec. 23, 1854 : 

" Few of the Anglo-Norman families in Ireland have 
held a more honourable and enduring position than that 
of Prendergast, seated for centuries at Newcastle, in the 
countj' of Tipperary, One of the descendants (Sir Thos. 
Prendergast, Bart.) was an eminent soldier of the reign 
of Queen Anne, and a participator in the victories of 
Marlborough. The mj^sterious warning that foretold his 
death, forms a most curious and well-authenticated anec- 
dote in family romance." 

I have no doubt that many of your readers call 
testify to the annoyance of a reference to " the 
well-known anecdote" which one does not know, 
and as I happen to stand in that predicament iu 
the present case, I shall be thankful to anybody 
who will give me the particulars of the " well- 
authenticated anecdote" here referred to. 

G. Tatlob. 

Reading. 

True Cross, Relic of in the Tower. — From certain 
original letters in the possession of a relative of 
mine, I am led to believe that, as late as the reigns 
of James I. and Charles I., there was preserved in 
the Tower of London, among the crown jewels, a 
relic, supposed to be a portion of the true Cross. 
Can any of your correspondents enlighten me 
upon this subject, and give any information as to 
the previous history of this relic, and what be- 
came of it ? J- A. D. 

Prussic Acid from Blood. — In Niebuhr's Zec- 
tures on Ancient History, translated by Dr. Schmitz 
(3 vols. 8vo., London, 1852), the following pas- 
sage occurs with reference to the story current 
in antiquity, that Themistocles poisoned himself 
with bull's blood (see Grote's Hist, of Greece, 
vol. V. p. 386.) : 

"It is generally acknowledged that the statement of 
his having killed himself by drinking ox-blood is a mere 
fiction; for no quadruped has poisonous blood. There 
are, however, several cases in which men are said by the 
ancients to have killed themselves with the blood of 
oxen. We know indeed that this is impossible ; but the 
prussic acid of modern times was at first (about ninety or 
one hundred years ago) prepared from blood ; and is it 
not possible that the ancients (of whose chemical know- 
ledge we form much too low an estimate) knew how to 
prepare it, though perhaps in an impure and imperfect 
sUte, and thus extracted the deadliest of all poisons from 
blood ? Such an explanation seems to me by no means 
forced; and how should such a tradition have become 
established in Greece, had there not been an occasion for 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



it ? If such a preparation had no specific name, it might 
very well be called ox-blood ; and the story may have 
been understood at Athens in the same, manner in which 
it has been understood down to our days ; namely, that 
Themistocles killed himself with actual ox-blood." — Vol.i. 
p. 361. 

With respect to this conjecture, perhaps some of 
your correspondents will be able to state whether 
prussic acid was known to chemists ninety or one 
hundred years a^o ; and whether it has ever been 
extracted from blood ? Moreover, does any other 
example occur in antiquity (as stated by Niebuhr) 
of a supposed suicide by drinking bull's blood ? L. 

Thirteen. — Fosbrooke, in the second volume of 
his Antiquities, p. 797., under the head of "Popular 
Superstitions," states, that " thirteen in company 
was considered an unlucky number by the ancient 
Romans." What classical authority has he for 
this statement ? G. M. 

Edenhall, PeHrith. 



fRinax Queries tpt'tfi ^nSiotti. 

Hangman's Wages. — I have often heard this 
term applied to the sum of thirteen pence half- 
penny. What is the reason of its being so called ? 

In the London Review, No. 1. (April, 1835) 
p. 39., hanging is spoken of as a cheaper punish- 
ment than transportation ; " for the fee of the 
executioner," says the reviewer, " with rope in- 
cluded, seldom exceeds thirteen shillings and six- 
pence." Is this correct? Is it possible that a 
man could be induced to play the part of Jack 
Ketch for so trifling sum as 13*. 6c?. ? 

H. Maetin. 
Halifax. 

[Dr. Samuel Pegge addressed a paper to the Society of 
Antiquaries on the vulgar notion, though it does not 
appear to be a vulgar error, that thirteen-pence halfpenny 
was the fee of the executioner at Tyburn, and hence it is 
called hangman's wages. The Doctor saj's, " As to the fee 
itself — thirteen-pence halfpenny — it appears to be of 
Scottish extraction. The Scottish mark (merk), not ideal 
or nominal money like our mark, was a silver coin, in 
value thirteen-pence halfpenny and two plachs, or two- 
thirds of a penny. This Scottish mark was, upon the 
union of the two crowns in the person of James 1., made 
current in England at the value of thirteen-pence half- 
penny (without regarding the fraction), by proclamation, 
in the first year of that king ; where it is said, that ' the 
coin of silver called the mark piece, shall be from hence- 
forth current within the said kingdom of England, at the 
value of thirteen-pence halfpenny.' This, probably, was 
a revolution in the current money in favour of the hang- 
man, whose fee before was perhaps no more than a shil- 
ling. There is, however, very good reason to conclude, 
from the singularity of the sum, that the odious title of 
hangman's wages became at this time, or soon after, appli- 
cable to the sum of thirteen-pence halfpenny. Though it 
was contingent, yet it was then very considerable pay; 
when one shilling per day was a standing annual stipend 
to many respectable officers of various kinds." Dr. Fegge's 
article will be found in his Curialia Miscellanea, which 



has been copied into Hone's Table Book, vol. ii. p. 696, 
Consult also the Gent. Mag. for Feb. 1821, p. 104. ; and 
Dr. Grey's note in Hudibras, part iii. canto ii. line 751.] 

Ancient Carving. — Some eight years since a 
gentleman residing in Ipswich purchased, at a 
carpenter's shop in Harkstead, Suffolk, the remains 
of a carved oak mantlepiece, consisting of two 
semicircular pilasters, four grotesque supporters, 
and two similar coats of arms. Crest, the head 
and neck of a pard, on an esquire's helmet, shield, 
and chevron between three pellets. The colours 
are wanting. The outer pair of grotesques bear 
the initials I. Gr., and the date 1638. Can any- 
one lead to the discovery of the family to whom 
this work of art belonged ? J. D. G- 

[The arms of Golding of Postlingford, and of Fornham, 
both in CO. Suffolk, are — Gules, a chevron or between 
three bezants. Richard Turner, of Great Thurlow, mar- 
ried Susan, daughter of John Golding of Postlingford, 
circa 1600—1612.] 

Jubilee of 1809. — Was there any detailed ac- 
count published of the celebration of the Jubilee 
of George III., which took place in 1809 ? 

^ , E.S.W. 

[Excepting Dr. Joseph Kemp's pamphlet, entitled The 
Patriotic Entertainment, called the Jubilee, London, 1809, 
we know of no other detailed account than what will be 
found in the newspapers and periodicals of the time : see 
especially Ackermann's Repositori/.'] 

Coat Armour. — To what names do the follow- 
ing bearings belong ? Purpure (?), a chevron be- 
tween three rabbits sejant argent. Argent, a 
fess between three falcons rising sable. Quar- 
terly, or and gules, four lions passant guardant, 
counterchanged. Patonce. 

[The last coat is probably that of North Wales, the 
colours being quarterly gules and or, the lions counter- 
changed. (ArchcBologia, xxix. 407.) We cannot trace 
the others.] 



d^tfilieg. 



QUAKERS EXECUTED IN NORTH AMERICA. 

(Vol. ix,, pp. 305. 603.) 

" In 1657 an order was passed ' that if any one brought 
a Quaker, ranter, or other notorious heretic within the 
jurisdiction of Plymouth colony, and should be ordered 
by the magistrate to return him whence he came, they 
should obey, or pay a fine of twenty shillings for every 
week that such obnoxious person should remain in the 
colony after such warning. 

" In despite of the twenty-shilling law, Quakers did 
come within their precincts, and proclaim their hated 
tenets. This gave occasion to a severer law, to the effect 
that whoever should harbour or entertain any Quaker in 
the colony would subject himself to a penalty of five 
pounds for every offence, or a public whipping. 

" In October," 1657, Humphrey Norton was examined 
by the court, who found him guilty of divers errors, and 
banished him from the colony. He' returned, however, in 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



company with another Quaker of similar spirit. They 
■were arrested and imprisoned. A prominent feature in 
the conduct of the Quakers, which greatly exasperated 
the court, was, their contempt of the legal authorities. 
They gave their tongues great licence, and seemed to 
have imagined that they were honouring God by their 
insolent defiance of the civil tribunals. Thus, at their 
examination, Norton said to the governor a number of 
times, ' Thou liest, Thomas ; thou art a malicious man.' To 
provoke greater severity, he said to the governor, * Thy 
clamorous tongue I regard no more than the dust under 
my feet, and thou art like a scolding woman, and thou 
pratest and deridest me.' As they professed to be'English 
subjects, the court ordered them to take the oath of fide- 
lity to their country. On their refusing, declaring they 
would take no kind of oath, they were sentenced to be 
whipped. After the sentence was executed, and whilst 
they were smarting under the stripes they had received, 
the marshal ordered them to pay a fee for the whipping ! 
Thatcher says, in our times we should think public whip- 
ping to be a sufficient punishment, without obliging the 
culprit to pay the whipper's fee. The Quakers not assent- 
ing to pay the required amount, were imprisoned until 
the marshal was satisfied. 

In 1658, the court framed a bill with this explanatory 
preamble : Whereas sundry Quakers and others wander up 
and down in this jurisdiction, and follow no lawful calling 
to earn their own bread, and also use all endeavours to 
subvert civil state, and pull down all churches and ordi- 
nances of God, to thrust us out of the ways of God, not- 
withstanding all former laws provided for the contrary ; it 
is decreed, that a house of correction be built, in which 
all such individuals, with all idle persons, or rebellious 
children, or servants that are stubborn and will not work, 
should be obliged to earn their living by labour, under the 
direction of an overseer. 

" On the 11th of May, 1659, six persons, among whom 
were Lawrence Southwicke and wife, were sentenced to 
depart out of the jurisdiction of the colony by the 8th of 
June, on pain of death. AVe have no evidence, however, 
that this extreme penalty was inflicted upon any Quaker 
in the Plymouth colony. For what was done in the 
Massachusetts settlement at Boston they are not respon- 
sible. The tragedies which were enacted there during 
this period will be described in another volume on the 
history of that colony." — Banvard's Plymouth and the 
Pilgrims, Boston, 1851. 

History proves that the leading men of Massa- 
chusetts, in law and divinity, firmly believed In 
witchcraft, and without any qualms of conscience 
readily condemned those unfortunate beings who 
were accused of it to suffer death. " Witchcraft," 
shouted Cotton Mather from the pulpit, " is the 
most nefandous high treason ;" and fourteen per- 
sons, men and women included, are too certainly 
known to have perished. But how did this per- 
secution result ? It was not long after these 
executions had terminated, that we find the 
" General Court of the Province asking pardon 
of God for all the errors of his servants and people 
in the late tragedy." Judge Sewall, who presided 
at the trials, rose in his pew at church, " and im- 
plored the prayers of the people that the errors he 
had committed might not be visited by the judg- 
ments of an avenging God on his country, his 
family, or himself." And now, in a MS. diary of 
this departed judge, may be read, on the margin 



against the description of these trials, In his own 
handwriting, these words of Latin Interjection 
and sorrow : " Voe ! voe ! voe ! Woe ! woe ! woe !" 

w.w. 

Malta. 



LONGEVITY. 



(Vol.x,, pp.489, 490.) 

In this one column we have, from three sources, 
collected by three different correspondents, evi- 
dence of which neither three nor three hundred 
such statements can prove to the satisfaction of 
those incredulous matter-of-fact people, who will 
be satisfied with nothing short of baptismal re- 
gisters, and which they call legal proof In the 
hope therefore of saving time and your space, 
allow me to remind your correspondents, that 
more than half a century since, as known to every 
bookseller, and testified by every book-stall in the 
kingdom, there was published, by an Ingenious 
gentleman of the name of Easton, a substantial 
octavo volume of three hundred pages, containing 
" the name, age, place of residence, and year of 
the decease of 1712 persons who attained a cen- 
tury or upwards." Surely here Is proof as good 
as any that can be found in " the waste leaf of an 
old magazine" (ante., p. 499.) ; proofs which, "name 
and place of residence" being given, your sceptics 
are bound personally to inquire into before they 
presume to hint a doubt. Mr. Easton, as he him- 
self tells us, was over-scrupulous ; and yet it 
appears from his preface (p. xvi.), that more than 
one-sixth of the 1712 were between 110 and 120 
when they died ; and three were between 170 and 
185 ! Mr. Easton refused admittance to every 
account of the authenticity of which he had the 
smallest doubt. And therefore, though the fact 
was vouched for by " two respectable authors," 
and confirmed by a third, who was^ " historiogra- 
pher royal," he did not Include In his list one 
man who died at the age of "370 years;" but 
recorded the fact in his preface, that "the reader 
might form bis own opinion respecting it." 

L. G. Y. 



" N. & Q." sometimes take an interest In cases 
relating to longevity. I may mention an Instance 
attended by more than one remarkable circum- 
stance. Near Sprlngburn, about three miles dis- 
tant from Glasgow, on the old north road leading 
to Stirling, are to be found residing in a humble 
cottage, a venerable Scotch couple, viz. George 
Robertson, ninety-two years of age, and his wife 
eighty-seven, who have been sixty-seven years 
married. They have outlived all their children ; 
•with only, so far as they are aware, some remote 
descendants abroad. The old man has become of 
late considerably paralytic, but retains the powers 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



of his memory and judgment better than could 
have been expected. His partner in life is yet 
healthy and active for her years. _ ^ • 

A better example of a shrewd intelligent couple 
could not easily be seen ; who, while they were 
able to follow their ordinary occupation, were in- 
dependent and hard-working. It would trespass 
too much on space to give any history of " Old 
George," as he is familiarly called. In the prime 
of life he was many years engaged as a man-of- 
war's man ; served with Sir Sidney Smith at St. 
Jean d'Acre, where he was wounded in the arm ; 
and was concerned in most of the exploits of 
Nelson, and at the battle of the Nile. Afterwards 
he voluntarily left the service; and for having 
done this, he says he was not entitled to any pen- 
sion or other government assistance. 

The thatched cottage in which he resides is also 
a relic of by-gone times, it having been a way- 
side hostelrie in 1745, kept by Janet Stobo ; at 
which Prince Charles halted and refreshed, on his 
inarch with the rebel troops from Glasgow to 
Stirling on the morning of Jan. 3, 1746. In the 
tout ensemble of this scene, truth appeals more 
powerfully than any kind of fiction. You enter 
the cottage, and see the aged couple by the fire- 
side reading the Bible and Instructive books, their 
almost constant employment ; and hoping, with 
Christian resignation, that their " time will not be 
long now." With all the vivacity of a young hero, 
ills dim eyes glistening full of tears, George will 
describe to the young listeners around. Nelson and 
the fleet, and fight his battles over again. He has 
always been a little thin man, endowed with a 
highly nervous active temperament. 

If there was any fund In London applicable to 
such cases, a very small allowance would be ex- 
tremely beneficial in smoothing the few remain- 
ing days of this interesting couple, and would be 
judiciously bestowed. G. N. 



PHOTOGKAPHIC COBBESPONDENCE. 

Sromo-iodide of Silver. — I see by a letter pubHshed in 
"N. & Q." of last week, that Mr. Reade states that a 
real bromo-iodide of silver is formed by the solution of 
bromide of silver in iodide of potassium, and that he finds 
fault with a former letter of Mr. Leachman's on this 
subject. Now there may be, as I allow, a difference in 
the molecular arrangement of iodide of silver deposited on 
the paper, and thus a more perfect impression produced 
of greens, or even yellows ; but that there exists even the 
least trace of bromide of silver in the deposit, I entirely 
deny. To prove this let me only ask that Mr. Reade 
will do me the favour of trying the following experiments. 
Take three grains of nitrate of silver, and three grains of 
iodide of potassium ; dissolve separately ; then add them 
together, and wash the precipitate thus produced with 
distilled water ; drain as dry as possible, and add half an 
ounce of liquid ammonia fort. ; let them digest together 
for several hours, shaking occasionally, and filter the so- 



lution repeatedly till quite clear ; next repeat the same 
experiment with only the substitution of bromide of po- 
tassium for the iodide above mentioned ; place the two 
solutions apart in separate test tubes. Next take the so- 
lution as recommended by Dr. Diamond and Mr. Reade, 
and adding water to precipitate the so-called bromo- 
iodide of silver, collect the precipitate on a filter ; wash it 
well, and digest it with ammonia as before ; filter the 
liquid, and place it in another test tube. Now to each of 
these add an excess of dilute nitric acid ; the result will 
be that the first will become only in the smallest possible 
degree opalescent, if at all so. The second will become 
quite white with the precipitate produced, while the 
third will show exactly the same comportment as the 
first. This establishes that we have a method of detecting 
bromine and iodine separately ; and also that in the case 
of Mr. Reade's bromo-iodide of silver, it comports itself 
with ammonia as iodide of silver does. But, he will say, 
does that prove that this is not bromo-iodide of silver ? 
Yes, it does, by the following experiment : first, mix in 
solution three grains of iodide of potassium, and two of 
bromide of potassium ; add nitrate of silver in slight ex- 
cess, and then well wash the precipitate in a dark room ; 
digest this, as before, in ammonia, and on the addition of 
an acid the same result is obtained as in the case of pure 
bromide of silver, that is to say, complete milkiness of the 
liquid. The reason for using the above proportions is, 
that this is the proportion, or nearly so, in which iodine 
and bromine combine separately ; and so we may expect, 
from similar examples occurring in chemistry, that this 
is their proper proportion of combination with bases ; but 
should this not satisfy Mr. Re.vde, let him add the least 
possible amount, instead of the above-named quantity of 
bromide, and he will always find that it at once produces 
extra milkiness in direct proportion to the quantity of 
bromide added, when compared with the almost complete 
transparence of the solution produced by what he chooses 
to call bromo-iodide of silver. Now I am far from saying 
that there does not exist such a compound as bromo- 
iodide of silver, but only that this is not the way to 
make it ; nor would I for the world detract from the value 
of Dr. Diamond's discovery, by which these troublesome 
green tints may be impressed ; all I say is, that this is 
not the way to get bromo-iodide of silver, as all the 
bromine remains in solution. But now for the method to 
get the substance required. The only means I know of 
is a modification of a process which appeared some time 
since in " N. & Q." Take fifty grains of iodide of potas- 
sium, and fifty grains of nitrate of silver ; mix in separate 
portions of distilled water ; pour them together, and col- 
lect and well wash the precipitate. Next take fifteen 
grains of bromide of potassium, and fifteen grains of nitrate 
of silver, and treat them in a similar manner. Mix the 
two precipitates thus produced in a measure glass, and 
fill the latter to mark six ounces with distilled water. Now 
add very carefully, in very minute portions at a time, and 
in fine powder, some cyanide of potassium, till the liquid 
only jtist clears up, and then filter it. The best cyanide 
for the purpose is that purified by crystallisation froni 
alcohol, as the ordinary cyanide contains much free alkali, 
and acts injuriously on the paper ; it will, however, do in 
default of better. The paper is to be laid as usual on this 
liquid, and when it has thoroughly imbibed, to be taken 
off; when nearly dried, throw it into a bath of a quart of 
distilled water, to which has been added one or two 
ounces of glacial acetic acid. By this means the cyanide 
is decomposed, and the iodide and bromide of silver pre- 
cipitated together. I prefer not using more bromide than 
above indicated, as it makes the colour of the negative 
rather too red when finished ; but it may be increased at 
the pleasure of the operator, or the whole quantity of the 



u 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



iodide and bromide of silver may be increased, if a thicker 
coating of these substances be required. The paper, after 
being washed in several waters, may be dried and used as 
the ordinary iodized paper. After a certain time the 
acetic acid will require to be renewed. If the operator 
prefers using the ordinary pyroligheous acid, as a cheaper 
reagent, he can do so, only employing double the quantity. 
This paper, I find, is rather injuriously affected by ex- 
posure to light before sensitising, and should be kept in a 
dark portfolio; but if only exposed for a very short time, 
and not to very bright light, appears to spontaneously 
recover its former condition. F. Maxwell Lyxe. 

Argeles, Hautes Pyrenees, Dec. 15, 1854. 

** La Lumiere " and Photography in England. — Our able 
French cotemporary La Lumieee, of the 23rd ultimo, 
contains two articles which show that the entente cordials 
between the French and English photographers is com- 
plete. The first is a critical notice of some copies of Dr. 
Diamond's Portraits of the Insane, in which full justice is 
done to our excellent correspondent's abilities as a photo- 
grapher, and to the value to the medical world of this 
ingenious application of his art. The second has reference 
to the subscriptions to support M. Laroche in his law- 
suit with Mr. Talbot, and to the testimonial to Dr. Dia- 
mond; and after complimenting English photographers 
for the manner in which they have come forward on both 
these grounds, and in the latter case how they appreciate 
the services of one " who seeks not his own benefit, but 
the jwogress of his art," tlie writer expresses his hopes 
to see the daj' when similar services will be everywhere 
recognised in a similar manner. 

Photography and Law. — The litigation in the photo- 
graphic world has not been put a stop to by the recent 
verdict in the case of Talbot v. Laroche. It is under- 
stood that the plaintiff means to move for a new trial, 
and that on the 9th he will make his application to the 
Privy Council for a renewal of his patent ; and to which 
application no opposition has, we hear, been entered. On 
the other hand, a meeting has been held, " of those who 
are interested in the art," to adopt measures for the pur- 
pose of supporting the verdict. 

JExh^ition of the Photographic Society. — This exhi- 
bition, which is to take place early in the present month, 
will, we believe, show the vast progress made by the art 
during the past year. 

Many complaints have reached us of the shortness of 
the notice given by the committee, and La Lumiere of 
Saturday last gives expression to the same feeling on 
behalf of foreign exhibitors. Why should this be? 



" After me the deluge"" (Vol. iil., pp. 299. 397. ; 
VoL v., p. 619.). — Milton says, that Tiberius was 
one who uaed the infamous proverb alluded to by 
Cioero : 

" They practise that when they fall, they may fall in a 
general ruin; just as cruel Tiberius would wish : 

* ' When I die, let the earth be rolled in flames.' " 
Meaaon of Church Government, book i. ch. v. p. 34. 

MACKaSZIB WAtOGTT, M.A. 

P.S. — A correspondent asks what is the origin 
of the " bean feast" among the servants at Lin- 



coln's Inn ? I believe several trades adopt the 
same name for the journeymen's merry-making. 

Remedy for Jaundice (Vol. x., p. 321.) ; Venom 
of Toads (Vol. vi., p. 517.). — The remedy for 
jaundice, recorded by C. W. B., is not peculiar to 
Dorsetshire. The learned Fred. Hoffmann (of 
Halle) made a note of it in 1675, in his Clavis 
Pharmaceutica Schroderiana, p. 705. : 

" Pediculus. Contra ictemm devorantur h, rusticis 
nS ix, et in atrophia h nonnullis probantur." 

The same volume supplies an older version of 
the story in Thomas Lupton's A Thousand Notable 
Things (1630), which was noted by Mr. Peacock 
in Vol. vi., p. 517. ; and replies to the Query which 
the story suggested, " Has the toad an antipathy 
to rue ? " 

" Salvia . . . Transplantatur Martio, cum rutd inter- 
mixta, qua serpentes et bufones salvia vieiniam arceantur." 

Thus far Hoffman c[uotes from Jo. Schroeder ; he 
then adds : 

" Salvia virtutes ad permultos affectus corporis humani 
commendari infrk videbimus ; nihilominus tamen et ilia 
suas habet qualitates noxias et virulenta censetur esse ea, 
quae foliorum pinnas quasi carbunculatas habet, et penitus 
retorrida est, emaciata et sicca, ad cujus radices ut pluri- 
mum bufones et alia virosa insecta nidulantur. Paneus, 
de Venenis, cap. 24., refert, se h, fide digno accepisse, duos 
mercatores, non longe ab urbe Tolosana illotis salvise foliis 
in vinum conjectis illicb atque illud bibissent, neci fuisse 
datos; sub cujus radicibus ingens bufonum acervus sta- 
bulari deinde repertus est, quos spurcitie sua salviam 
spurcasse. Medicus istius loci confirmavit." — P. 538. 

The works of Parseus (Ambrose Pare) were, I 
believe, first published in 1561. Vertaur. 

Hartford, Conn. 

Age of Oaks (Vol. x., p. 146.).— I find the 
following in the London Chronicle, Jan. 24, 1758 : 

" We hear from Durham that last week Thomas Tay- 
lor, Esq., of Cornsaw Raw, in the parish of Lanchester, 
had a considerable fall of trees, amongst which was one 
oak of extraordinary sisse ; the length of the trunk from 
the root to the branches 46 yards 18 inches, the circum- 
ference 7 yards 19 inches : the extreme distance of the 
branches as it lay along the ground measured across the 
trunk 60 yards. It is valued at 50/. Near the roat waa 
found, in a small iron box, a grant of that extensive 
manor to the family from King Jolm, supposed to have 
been buried there, about the time of the invasion by 
David, King of Scots, in the year 1347." 

Paternoster Row. 

White Slavery (Vol. x., p. 806.). — The laws of 
Pennsylvania, and of several other of the United 
States, formerly authorised the sale of the services 
of insolvent debtors, and of foreign immigrants, 
for a term of time, to pay their passage-money 
and other debts. In some States, laws of this kind 
continued in force until a very recent period. 
Persons who thus sold themselves to service, for 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ir 



the payment of passage- money, were called " Re- 
demptioners." See the Quarterly Review^ vol. x. 
p. 501. (note), and pp. 519-20.; Pickering's Vo- 
cabulary (Boston, 1816), s. v. Redemptionee. 

Vbrtaur. 

'"Talented" (Vol. x., p. 323.).— Dr. Webster's 
authority has not given currency to this new- 
coined adjective, except with careless writers and 
speakers. It is occasionally heard in conversa- 
tion, or met with ia a hastily-written newspaper 
article ; but I am not aware that its use is sanc- 
tioned by any writer of approved style, English 
or American. Veetaub. 

" He that fights and runs away" ^c. (Vol. x., 
p. 333.). — The passage of TertuUian, quoted by 
H. P. from Newman's Church of the Fathers, is to 
be found in the De Fuga in Persecutione, sec. 10. 
In the copy I use (Gersdorf's ed.) the Greek pro- 
verb is given in a note : 



"'Av>)/> o ^tvyiav zeal iraXi-v fiaxT^c^Tai,'" 



B. H. C. 



This was already looked upon as an old saying 
in the days of TertuUian, who, in his book De 
Fuga in Persecutions, writes of it thus : 

" Sed omissis quidam divinis exhortationibus, ilium 
magis Graecum versiculum secularis sententise sibi ad- 
hibent — 

' Qui fugiebat, rursus praeliabitur,' — 
at et rursus forsitan fugiat." — Cap. x. 

The " Greek verse" here spoken of by TertuUian 
is deemed by one of his annotators, Rhenan, to 
have been the following : 

" 'Ai'rjp 6 ^evywv koX ttolKiv fj.o-X'j'TeTa.L," 

and made either by or for Demosthenes as his 
best answer for having left his shield behind him, 
and run away at the battle of ChiBroaea. 

D. Rock. 

Newick, Sussex. 

. Mengrave Church (Vol. x., p. 405.). — If such 
an act as referred to ever received the royal 
assent, it would doubtless be found amongst the 
private acts in the Parliament Office. . G. 

Parish Registers (Vol. x., p. 337.). — Me. 
Blencowe's communication under this title has 
rather astonished me, as he appears to have com- 
pletely confounded parish registers and church- 
wardens' accounts. One only of his extracts ap- 
pears to be from a parish register, etractly so 
called. 

The extracts at the beginnirig of his note appear 
to be from books belonging to the parish of 
Braintree, but this is not distinctly stated. As- 
suming that I am correct in this supposition, may 
I ask why chronological order was not observed, 
instead of placing 1580 before 23 Hen. VIU., and 
J574 after both ? 



The " almanvyvets," which he conjectures may 
mean German music-books, should no doubt be 
almanryvets, a name given to a light kind of 
armour, because it was rivetted after the old 
Almayne fashion. (Minshew ; Test, Vet., 622. ; 
Sharp's Coventry Mysteries, 195.; HoUinshed, 
Hist. Ireland, 56. ; Fairholt on Costume.) 

The notion that the parish paid for discharging 
a " Popish priest " out of the ecclesiastical court 
in 1585, nearly thirteen years after the accession 
of Queen Elizabeth, is rather amusing ; but what 
can be said respecting the supposition that ninety- 
four quarts of wine were consumed in one year 
for the communion in a town with a population of 
about 2000? As Me. Blencowe is evidently 
aware that Whitsun ales, and similar drinkings, 
were customary at the period, is it not highly pro- 
bable that a large portion of this wine was so 
used ? 

The extracts from the corporation accounts of 
Saffron Walden do not appear to me very apropos 
of the subject-matter of Mb. Blencowe's Note. 

Thompson Cooper. 

Cambridge. 

Salutation after Sneezing (Vol. x., p. 421.). — 
While proceeding in a public vehicle from Bo- 
logna to Milan in the year 1847, I happened to 
sneeze, when a lady who sat near me called aloud 
""felicita" which attracted the notice of the other 
passengers. Having been aware of the importance 
attached to the omen, nothing farther occurred 
than the whole passing over among us with a good- 
natured smile. In Scotland some attention is yet 
paid to it. As I have long understood, to sneeze 
once is considered lucky ; twice in succession un- 
lucky. G. N. 

Dictionary of Living Authors (Vol. x., p. 451.). 
— Catalogue of five hundred celebrated Authors, SfC. 
8vo., 1788. In the copy now before me is this 
note : 

" A meagre and incorrect work, which we mention here 
as chart-makers notice shoals to be avoided." — H. Home, 
Int. to Bibliography, vol. ii. p. 422. 

My apology is due to the readers of " N. & 
Q." if, as appears probable, I have committed an 
error in attributing the compilation of this useful 
work to the late William Upcott. My authority 
for doing so, which might have been given at the 
time to temper the assertion, was, simply, that in 
the fly-leaf of my copy was written by a former 
possessor, "By the late William Upcott," and 
that I had more than once seen the same state- 
ment made in booksellers' catalogues ; for instance, 
in that I believe of Mr. John Gray Bell. 

The opinion of Mr. Coenet, that this work is 
the joint compilation of John Watkins and Fre- 
deric Shoberl, has every appearance of being the 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



more correct ; and perhaps that gentleman may 
now, in accordance with his promise, favour us 
with the " authority " upon which he expressed it. 

William Bates. 
Birmingham. 

King James Brass Money (Vol. x., p. 385.). — 
I subjoin a list of the gun-money coinage, com- 
piled partly from books, but mostly from my own 
and such other collections as I have had access to. 
The authorities are very conflicting, and I should 
be glad of any corrections, if there are any re- 
quired, as I had a design (not entirely laid aside) 
of publishing the complete series of the copper 
coinage of England, with all the varieties, colonial 
types, &c., including the leaden mixed metal spe- 
cimens, &c., temp. Charles II., James II., and 
William and Mary : 

1689. Sixpence. June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, 7ber, November, December ; none of 
October. 

1689. Shilling. June, July, August, Septem- 
ber, October, 8ber, November, 9ber; ditto, with a 
castle under king's head ; December, lOr. 

1689. Hal/crown. July, August ; ditto, with 
date under the crown ; September, October, 
8ber, November, December ; none of June. 

1690. Sixpence. January, February, and a 
unique one of May in the Dean of Lismore's col- 
lection. 

1690, Shilling. January, February, March, 
ditto smaller size ; April, ditto smaller size ; May, 
June, August, September ; none of July or Oc- 
tober known. 

1690. Halfcrown. January, February ; March, 
ditto smaller size ; April, ditto smaller size ; May, 
ditto smaller size ; June, July, August, October ; 
none of September. 

1690. Crown. Only one type. 

E. S. Tatlob. 

Ormesby St. Margaret, Norfolk. 

This extraordinary monthly coinage appears to 
be little known in England, though there is a 
tolerable account of it in Simon's Essay on Irish 
Coins, and in Ruding's Annals of the Coinage. 
Simon says, " some of these coins, for every month 
from June, 1689, to April, 1690, inclusive, are in 
the hands of the curious." For the information 
of your correspondent J. R, G., I have in my 
possession King James brass money from January, 
1689, to May, 1690, inclusive ; and if this last of 
this infamous monthly issue would assist or satisfy 
J. R. G., I will inclose it to a friend in Dublin 
for his inspection. F. J. W. 

Greenwich. 

Of these pieces the British Museum possesses 
eight varieties of the twelve dated May 1690, 
three of June, one of July, one of August, and 



one of September ; of the six 1690, it possessed 
two of May, and one of June. 

Edward Hawkins. 

English Proverbs (Vol. x., p. 389.). — In your 
list of the collections of English proverbs, with 
parallels from other European languages, you 
have omitted one which ought not to be passed 
over. The following is the title : National Pro^ 
verbs in the principal Languages of Europe, by 
Caroline Ward : London, J. W. Parker, 1842. 

'AA.tet5y. 

Dublin. 

Genoa Register (Vol. x., p. 393.). — Your cor- 
respondent has somewhat misunderstood my 
Query. I wish to know how a Genoa register 
(of 1790) may be procured. D. 

Pulpit Hour-glasses (Vol. ix., p. 252.). — The 
earliest reference to the pulpit glass known to me 
occurs in the churchwardens' accounts of St. 
Helen's, Abingdon ; where, under date mdxci, is 
the following : " Payde for an houre-glasse for the 
pulpitt, Ad." Charles Reed. 

Paternoster Row. 

Brasses of Notaries (Vol. x., pp. 165. 474.). — 
I think that Mr. Manning must have been mis- 
taken in supposing the brass of the notary, c. 1475, 
in the church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich, to have 
been stolen, as it has no appearance of ever having 
been removed from its matrix; it may possibly, 
however, have been for a time concealed under a 
pew, as has been the case with another brass in 
that church, described in Manning's List as " A 
man and his wife," but which should have been 
"A man and his two wives, c. 1510." This was 
discovered in March, 1853, on the removal of the 
pews in the chancel. W. T. T. 

Ipswich. 

Milton's Widow (Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134., &c.).— 
In Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. ii. p. 534., 
art. No. 6. on Dr. Zachary Grey, it is stated : 

" He (Dr. Grey) had one brother George, born in 1610, 
a Chamber-counsellor at Newcastle." 

To this is appended a note : 

" I have a number of this gentleman's MS. letters to 
Dr. Grey, &c. The following little circumstance, in a 
letter dated July 30, 1731, may be worth preserving : 

« ' I had a letter lately from aunt Milton, who is very 
well, and lives at Namptwich. There were three widow 
Miltons there, viz. the poet's widow, my aunt, and another. 
The poet's widow died last summer.' " 

This note may be of use to some of your corre- 
spondents. 0. DE D. 

Tallies (Vol. x., p. 485.).— The use of tallies 
in this locality is now, I think, confined to the 
dyers, who regularly furnbh their small tally of 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



wood to each customer having articles to be dyed ; 
and without the reproduction of which, the goods 
in question are on no account given up. The 
practice exists too, to some extent, among the 
small bakers of Plymouth, more particularly among 
those who have a large dinner-baking trade. This 
system prevails in consequence of the numerous 
frauds practised upon the bakers by parties apply- 
ing for dinners who had never sent them to_ be 
baked, and who thus enjoyed a cheap " tuck-in," 
to the mortification and loss of the rightful owners. 

T. Hughes. 
Chester. 

Tallies are still used by small shopkeepers in 
some of the villages in Warwickshire. They are 
occasionally produced in the small debt courts. D. 

Leamington. 

The Divining Rod, Table- turning, 8fc. (Vol. x., 
p. 467.). — As Mr. Bates appears to be unac- 
quainted with the communications of Professor 
Chevreul (author of the remarkable work on the 
harmony of colours, lately translated into English) 
to the Journal des Savants on the " Divining 
Kod " (la Baguette Bivinatoire), will you permit 
me to refer him to that journal, in which he will 
find a series of eight articles by Professor Chevreul. 
The concluding communication is in the number 
for July of the present year. John Macbat. 

Oxford. 



KOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

In the Biographical Catalogue of the principal Italian 
Painters, with a Table of the Cotemporary Schools of Italy, 
designed as a Hand-book to the Picture Gallery, by a Lady, 
edited by R. N. Worrum, we are furnished with a short 
but comprehensive sketch of the life and works of each 
artist ; embracing the leading characteristics which dis- 
tinguish them, and an enumeration of their principal 
works. The accompanying Synchronoxis Table of the 
principal Masters of the Italian Schools of Painting from 
the Thirteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries inclusive, adds 
to the great utility of this unpretending little volume, 
and will make the lover of Art rejoice in the writer's 
hope of proceeding with similar Catalogues of the artists 
of other countries. 

The favour with which the volumes of the late Henry 
Gunning's Reminiscences of the University, Town, and 
County of Cambridge, were received, not only by Uni- 
versity men, but also by the general public and the 
press, speedily exhausted the first edition. A second, 
somewhat enlarged, and yet cheaper edition, has now 
appeared ; and will no doubt soon find its way into the 
hands of all who like to hear an old man gossip of the old 
times in which he lived, and the well-known men with 
whom he associated. 

The interest we take in every endeavour to make more 
popular, and more generally known, the writings of the 
Father of English Poetry, would alone dispose us to speak 
well of Mr. Bell's edition of The Poetical Works of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, of which the First and Second Yolumes are now 



before us. But Mr. Bell, who has adopted as his text the 
Harleian MS. of the Canterbury Tales, from which Mr. 
Wright printed his version, has the merit of illustrating 
his author by a mass of Notes which will go far to make 
him as popular and well understood as he deserves to be. 
Why, however, does he omit that useful, though slight 
addition — numbering the lines of the poem? 

Whilst on the subject of old poetry, let us mention that 
we have received from Messrs. Williams & Norgate the 
First Part of a collection of the pseudo-Shakspeariaa 
Dramas, edited by Dr. Delius, whose familiarity with our 
language and Elizabethan literature is remarkable — 
especially in one not to the manner born. His edition of 
Edward the Third, an Historical Play, has but one defect ; 
being intended for readers of English, its Introduction 
should have been in the English language. 

We have before us two or three books of amusement, 
which we must perforce dismiss in a few words. First let 
us mention as of deep interest, and, we may add, of much 
instruction as a picture of the times, Florine, a Tale of 
iht First Crusade, by B. W. MacCabe. As we have no 
doubt every incident it contains, however startling, has 
its counterpart in some cotemporary chronicle, we wish 
the learned and able writer had added to the value and 
use of his book by a few references to his authority. — The 
Mouse and her Friends is a fresh contribution to our 
nursery literature from German sources, for which the 
" spelling " public are indebted to an old friend, John 
Edward T&y\or.— Mother and Son, the first of a new 
series of Tales for the Young Men and Women of England, 
will make all who read it look out anxiously for the re- 
mainder of the series. 

We have good news for all our friends who have li- 
braries ; Messrs. Letts, whose calendars and diaries are in 
everybody's hands and everybody's pockets, have pub- 
lished a form of Catalogue of the Library of , which 

must before long be on everybody's library table. It is 
so constructed that one may see at a glance the shelf or 
mark, author, editor or translator, title, edition, vols., size, 
date, place and publisher, cost, remarks ; and what to the 
good-natured is a column of no small moment, when and 
to whom lent, Sfc. 

It mav be useful to such of our readers as have au- 
thority 'to consult the Documents in the State Paper 
Office, to be informed that, by a recent regulation, that 
office is now open every day in the week between the 
hours of ten and three o'clock. 

Mr. Lilly announces for early publication, in two vo- 
lumes octavo, The Life of Bishop Fisher, by the Rev. J. 
Lewis, author of the Life of Wickliff, with an Appendix 
of Illustrative Documents, and an Introduction by the late 
Mr. Hudson Turner. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTID TO FURCHASK. 

Miss Stbickland's Lith o» thb Qunvt o» Ewolakd. Vol. H. of 

12 Vol. Edition. 
Inooldsbv Lboends. Vol. I. First Edition. 
SociBTT OF Arts' Journal. No. 39. Vol. I., andNoi. 52. 54. k 55. 

Vol. II. 
Th» Etert Mam's MAOAiiKa for 1770 and 1771. 

•»• Letters, statins partieulari and lowest price, carriage free, to hfi 
sent to Mr. Beu., PubUsher of "NOTES AND tiUEKIES." 
186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given tor that purpose : 

Wbaib's QnARTKRi.T Faphrs ok ARCHiTBcrnRB. Part 1. 
Cavblsh's Gothic Arcritbctorb. Part 3. 

Puoin's Examples op Gothic Abchitectubh. Parts 3 9t 4 of Vol. I. 
Weale. 

Wanted by John Hebb, 9. Laurence-Fountner Lane* 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



HsKSTmi's PRESCRT'A'rrrBi aoaimst Tire Plagcs. 4t(i. 1665. 
Sikott's Chroniclb op Bnoland. Vol. II. 4to. 1778. 
Sbakspiarb's Plats. Vol.11. 8vo. Printed by Bensley, 1809. 

Wanted by R. Thorhum, 2. Carthusian Street. 



Pbpts's Diary. Vol. IV. 

BoossEAo's Works. Vols. I. VI. VII. VIH. 12mo. London, 1705i 
To«KSHiRB Costume. 1814. 

Wanted by Captain TurtOn, 5th Dragoon Guards, Royal Barracks, 
Dublin. 



AicKiLiDM BcctEstAJTicoBDSc POST Bakonium, auctorc Abr. Bzovlo. 
TomueXV. Colon. Agr. About 1620. 
Wanted by Sev. Dr. Todd, Librarian of Trinity College, Dublin. 



Catsmdisb Societt Publicatiokis. a set. 

Wanted by Wm. Blackwood Sf Sons, Edinburgh. 



If we are right in supposing that " N. & Q." is found to be of use to 
literary men and lovers of literature, and that such use is commensurate 
icilh the extent to which its existence is known. We shall be readily ex- 
cused for 7-epui)Kshing, with a few alterations, the following ponragraph, 
written at the close of our first year : 

" It is obvious that the use of a paper like ' Notes and Qcebies ' bears 
a direct proportion to the extent of its circulation. What it aims at 
doing is, to reach the learning which lies scattered not only throughout 
every part of our own country, bu', all over the literary world, and 
to bring it all to bear upon the pursuits of the scholar; to enable, in 
short, men of letters all over the world to give a helping hand to one 
another. To a certain extent we have accomplished this end. Our 
later Numbers contain communications not only from all parts of the 
metropolis, and from almost every county in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, but from almost every quarter of the globe. This looks well. 
It seems as if we were in a fair way to accomplish our design. But much 
yet remains to be done. We have recently been told of whole districts in 



England so benighted as never to have heard of ' Notes akd Qderibs j • 
and after an interesting question has been discussed for weeks in onr 
columns, we are informed of some one who could have answereii it im- 
mediately if he had seen it. So lonsr as this is the case, the advantage 
we may confer upon literature and literary men is necessarily imperfect. 
We do what we can to make known our existence through the customary 
modes of announcement, and we grateful I y acknowledge the kind assist* 
«nce and encouragement we derive from our brethren of the publio 
press ; but we would respectfully solicit the assistance of our friends 
upon thia particular point. Onr purpose is aided, and our usefulness 
increased by every introduction which can be given to our paper, cither 
to a Book Club, to a Lending Library, or to any other channel of cir- 
culation amongst persons of inquiry and intelligence. By such intro- 
ductions scholars help themselves ab well as us, for there is no inquirer 
throughout the kingdom who is not occasionally able to throw light 
upon some of the multifarious objects which are discussed in our pages." 

QojEstob, who asks respecting History is Philosophy teaching by ex- 
ample, is referred to " N. & Q., Vol. v., p. 426. 

W. T. L. 7s it not an early form of Pope Joan board f 

3. W. A. B. will find a very interesting Note on 

" The Modest Water saw its God and blush'd " 
in Vol. vi.,p. 368. -See also Vol. viii., p. 242. 

Index to Volume the Tenth is in the hands of the Printer, andtoill 
be issued at latest with the Number of Saturday the 20th. 

Full price will be gioen for clean copies of" Notes and QnEBtES " Qf 
\st January, 1853, No. 166, upon application to Mr. Bell, the Publisher. 

A few completesets of" Notes and Qdebies," Vols. i. to ix.,pricefour 
guineas and a half, may now be had. For these, early application is 
desirable. 

"Notes and Qoeries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"Notes AND Queries" is also issued in Monthly Parts,/or theconi- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the tm- 
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pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn t» 
favour of the Publisher, Mr. Gborob Bell, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



Just published. 

PRACTICAL PHOTOGRA- 
PHY on GLASS and PAPER, a Manual 
containing simple directions for the production 
of PORTKAITS and VIEWS by the agency 
of Light, ii.cluding the COLLODION, AL- 
BUMEN, WAXED PAPER and POSITIVE 
PAPER Processes, by CHARLES A. LONG. 
Price Is. ; per Post, Is. 6d. 

Published by BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 
philosophical and Photographical Instru- 
ment Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. 
Fleet Street, London. 



COLLODION PORTRAITS 
AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest 
ease and certainty by using BLAND & 
LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton i cer- 
tainty and uniformity of action over a length- 
ened period, combined with the most faithful 
rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a 
most valuable agent in the hands of the pho- 
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Albumenized paper, for printing from glass 
or paper negatives, giving a minuteness of de- 
tail unattained by any other method, 5s. per 
Quire. 

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality. 

Instruction in the Processes. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photogra- 
phical Instrument Makers, and Operative 
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London. 

The Pneumatic Plate-holder for Collodion 
Plates. 

*»* Catalogues sent on application. 



THE SIGHT preserved by the 
Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit 
every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S 
OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents 
Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Im- 
proper Glasses, and is extensively employed by 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street, London. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ART. 
- MESSR.«. KNIGHT & SONS respect- 
fully inform Artists, Amateurs, and the Pro- 
fession, that tv-ev are the Sole Agents for 
VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S Photosrapliic 
Lenses for Portraits and Views. The different 
sizes can be seen at their Establishment, where 
they have every convenience for testing their 
powers. The Photographic Department of 
their Establishment comprises every useful 
improvement in this interesting Art. 
GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 

PURE CHEMICAL PREPAR- 
ATIONS requisite in the v rious Pro- 
cesses of the Photographic Art, manufactured 
and sold by GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, 
who having considerably reduced the price of 
many of their preparations, will have plea- 
sure in forwarding their new List on appli- 
cation. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S 

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledonian Road, Islington. 

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Ijindscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Feather- 
stone Buildings. Holbom ; the Photographic 
Institution, Bond Street ; and at the Manu- 
factory as above, where every description of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. — HORNE 
& CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining 
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from 
three to thirty seconds. ac<«rding to liglit. 

Portraits obtained by the above, ibr delicacy 
of detail, rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, 
specimens of which may be seen at their Esta- 
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Also every description of Apparatus, Che- 
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123. aud 121. Newgate Street. 



Now ready, in fancy boards, illustrated, 
price Is. 

nPALES FOR THE YOUNG 

1 MEN AND WOMEN OF ENGLAND. 
Part I., containing " MOTHER AND SON." 
Published January 1st. 

"To make boys learn to read, and then to 
place no good books within their reach, is to 
give them an appetite, and leave nothing in the 
pantry save unwholesome and poisonous food, 
which, depend upon it, they will eat rather than 
starve." — »S'ir ir. .ScoM. 

The want of not only useful but entertainine 
reading, such as young people will read, it is 
hoped will be supplied by this proposed series ; 
and while it will be borne in mind that the 
chief end and aim is to inculcate a right spirit 
and good and generous feelings, incident and 
even romance will not be forgotten, in order 
that the reader may be led gently on to read 
more and more, and imbibe good princudes, 
and a reverence for things true and holy, 
instead of the infldelity and unohristian teach- 
ing which is too often the intent of many books 
now in circulation. „„_ 

They will be issued in ILLUSTRATED 
SHILLING MONTHLY PARTS, in the sanje 
form as tne Series of PAROCHIAL TRAC fS. 

Subscribers' Names received by all Book- 
sellers. 

JOHN HENRY PARKER. 
Oxford, and 377. Strand, London. 



Just published. Second Edition. Price Is. 
Post Is. 6d. 



by 



THE COLLODION PROCESS. 
By T. H. HENNAH. 

Also, 
Price Is., by Post Is. 6d. 

THE WAXED-PAPER PRO- 
CESS of GUSTAVE LE GRAY (Translated 
from the French). To this has been adrted a 
New Modificaion of the Process, by wliich the 
Time of Exposure in the Camera is i educed to 
one -fourth, hy JAMES HOW, Assistant In 
the Philosophical Establishment of the Pub- 
lishers. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



Jan. 6. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



50,000 CTTHES WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

DU BARRYS DELICIOUS 
REVALENTA AKABICA FOOD 
CURES iiuiigestion idyapepsia), constipation 
and diarrhoea, dysentery, nervousness, bilious- 
ness and liver complaints, flatulency, disten- 
sion, acidity, heartburn, palpitation of the 
heart, nervous headache., deafness, noises in 
the head apd ears, pains in almost every part 
of the body, tic douloureux, fuceoehe, chronic 
inflammation, cancer and ulceration of the 
■tomach, pains at the pit. of the stomach and 
between the shoulders, erysipelas, ertiptions of 
the skin, boils and carbuncles, impurities and 
poverty of the blood, scrofula, ci ueh, asthma, 
consumption, dropsy, rheumatism, gout, 
nausea and sickness during pregnancy, after 
eating, or at sea, low spirits, spasms, craihps, 
epileptic fits, spleen, general debility, inquie- 
tude, sleeplessness, involuntary blushing, pa- 
ralysis, tremors, dislike to soiiety, unfitness for 
study, loss of memory, delusions, vertigo, blood 
to the head, exhaustirn, melancholy, ground- 
less fear, indecision, wretchedness, thoughts of 
self-destruction, and many other complaints. 
It is, moreover, the best food for inffuts and 
invalids generally, as it never turns odd on 
the weakest stomach, nor inter'eres with a 
good liberal diet, but imparts a healthy relish 
for lunch and dinner, and restores the faculty 
of digestion, and nervous and muscularenergy 
to the most enfeebled. In whooping cough, 
measles, sraall-pox, and chicken or wind pox, 
it renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important CAmioN against the fearful 
dangers of spuri'us imitations : — The Yice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10. 1H.'>4. against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill. for imitating "Du 
Barry's Kevalenta Arabiea Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 77. Regent 
Street, London. 

A few out o/ 50,000 Cures: 
Cure No. 71.. of dyspepsia, from the Right 
Hon. the Lord Stuart de Decies : — "I have 
derived considerable benefit from Du Barry's 
Rev lent a Arabiea Food, and consider it due 
to yourselves and the public to authorise the 
publication of these lines." — Stoart de 
Decies. 

Cure No. 180 : — "Twenty-five years' ner- 
vousness, constipation, indigestion, and de- 
bility, from which I have suffer' d great misery, 
and which no medicine could remove or re- 
lieve, have been effectually cured by Du 
Barry's Food in a very short time." — W. R. 
Reeves, Pool Anthony, Tiverton. 

Cure No. 49,«32 :_" Fifty years' indescribable 
agony from dysnepsia, nervousness, asthma, 
cough, constipatioi , flatulency, spasms, sick- 
ness at the stomach and vomiting, have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent food." — 
Maria Joily, Wortham Ling, near Diss, 
Norfolk. 

No. 4208. " Eight years' dyspepsia, nervous- 
ness, debility with cramps, spasms, and nausea, 
have been effectually removed by Du Barry's 
health-restoring food. I shall be huppy to 
answer any inquiries," Rev. .John W. Fla- 
vei.i.. Ridliiigton Rectory, Norfolk. — No. 81. 
" Twenty years' liver complaint, with dis- 
orders of the stomach, bowels, and nerve«," 
Andrew Phaser, Haddington. 

No. 32,R36. " Three years' excessive nervous- 
ness, with pains in my neck and left arm, and 
general debility, which rendtred my life very 
miserable, have been radically removed by Du 
Barry's htalth-restorin" food."— Ajlexandeh 
Stoart, Archdeacon of Ross, Skiberten. 

No. 58.034. Grammar School. Stevenage, 
Dec. 16, 1850 : " Gentlf men. We have found it 
admirably adapted for infants. Our baby has 
never once had disordered bowels since taking 
it." — R, Ambler. 

In canisters, suitably packed for all cli- 
mates, and with full instructions — lib., is. 
9d. :21b.. 4s. 6d. ; 5lb., lis. ; 121b.,22«. ; super- 
refined, lib., 6s. ; 2lb.. Us. i 51b , 22s. ; lOlb., 
33s. The 101b. and 121b. carriage free, en post- 
office order. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, London; Fortnum, Mason, & 
Co , purveyors to Her Majestv, Piccdilly : 
also at 60. Gracechurch Street : 330. Strand ; of 
Barclay, Eriwiirds, Sutton, Sanger, Hannay, 
Newberry, , nd may be ordered through all re- 
•pectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
i. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors, 



H. E. BicknelliEsq. 
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 
G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller. Esq. 
J. H. Uoodhart, Esq. 



T. Orissell, Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. I>ethbridge,EBq. 

E. liUcas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seajter, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



Trustees, 

W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. j George Drew, Eiq. 

T. Grisscll, Esq. 

Physician. — William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difflculty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
100^, with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 
Age 

17 - 



£ s, d. 


Age 


£ s. d. 


- 1 14 4 


32- 


- 2 10 8 


- 1 18 8 


»?- 


- 2 18 6 



- 2 4 5 



42- 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 

Actuary. 
Now ready, price 10s. 6rf., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIP;S, and on the (ieneral Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
*c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Lite Assuiance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, Loudon. 



ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 

I\ CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMAirrEAUS,TRAVELLINQ-BAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent tree by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their 'Travelling-bag 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN. 18. & 22. West Strand. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY. B.^ CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent l^evers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate (ieneva Levers, in (iold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Diito, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior I.*ver. with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold. 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 
50 sruineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its peiNrmance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 22., 32., and 4<. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT. Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance , the Admiralty, and the V^ueen , 

65. CHEAPSIDE. 



THE LONDON ASSURANCE, 

INCORPORATED A.D. 1720. 

FOR LIFE, FIRE. AND MARINE 

ASSURANCES. 

Head Office, 7. Royal Exchange, Comhill. 

EDWARD BURMESTER, ESQ., GoTemor. 
JOHN ALVES ARBUTHNOT, ESQ., Sub- 
Governor. 
SAMUEL GREGSON, ESQ., MJ>., Deputr- 

Governor. 



Directors. 



Nath. Alexander, Esq. 
R. Baggallay, Esq. 
G. Barnes, Esq. 
H. Bonham Bax, Esq. 
James Blyth, Esq. 
J. W. Borradaile. Esq. 
Chas. Crawley, Esq. 
W.Dallas, Esq. 
B. Dobree, Jun.. Esq. 
H. G Gordon, Esq. 
Edwin Gower, Esq. 



J. Alex. Hankey.Eaq. 
E. Hamage, Esq. 
Louis Hu h, Esq. 
William King, Esq. 
Charles Lyall, Esq. 
John Ord, Esq. 
David Powell, Esq. 
G. Probyn.Esq. 
P. F. Robertson, M.P. 
Alex. Trotter. Esq. 
Thos. Weeding, E^q. 
Lest. P. Wilson, Esq. 



JiQwin uower, Esq. 
David C. Guthrie, Esq . 

Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., F.R.S. 
WEST END OFFICE, No. 7. PALL MALL. 

Committee. 

Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 

HENRY KINGSCOTE, ESQ.. and 

JOHN TIDD PRATT, ESQ. 

Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ. 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
surances on Lives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Years, having issued its 
first Policy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two-thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire vtv- 
fits, are given to the Assured. 

Policies may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz. 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in profits, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
enMtling the Assured, either after the first five 
years, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium to a participation in the ensuing 
quinquennial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Annual Premiums of \ ersons who have been 
assured under Series " 1831 " tor five years or 
longer, is upwards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
poration has maintained during nearly a 
Century and a Half, secures to the public a 
full and faithful declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expenses 
OF Management, thus giving to the Assured, 
in consequence of the protection afforded by- 
its Corporate Fund, advantages equal to those 
of any system ol Mutual Assurance. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

All Policies are issued free from Stamp Duty, 
or from charge of any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium . 

The attention of the Public is especially 
called to the tfreat advantages offered to Ij^ 
Assurers by the Legislature in its recent 
Enactments, by which it will be found that, to 
a defined extent. Life Premiums are not stjt- 
Ject to Income Tax. 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 
Corp .ration. 

A Policy may be effected for as small a stmi 
as 201., and progressively increased up to SW., 
without the necessity of a new Policy. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer 
or exchange of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be mdde for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by eitlier a written or personal 
application to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of tlie West End Office. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 271. 



MR. MURRAVS 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



Albbmarlb Strbbt, 

January^ 1855. 



AN ENGLISHWOMAN'S IMPRESSIONS OF MANNERS 

AKD SOCIETY IN RUSSIA, DURING A TEN YEARS' RESIDENCE. Woodcuts. Post 
tro. \0s. Gd. 

HISTORICAL MEMORIALS OF CANTERBURY. THE 

LANDING OF AUGUSTINE -THE MURDER OF BECKET — BECKET'S SHRINE- 
THE BLACK PRINCE. By REV. A. P. STANLEY, M.A., Canon of Canterbury. Wood- 
cuts. 8vo. 7». Gd. 

HANDBOOK FOR YOUNG PAINTERS. By C. R. LESLIE, 

B.A. Illustrations. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

THE CRIMEA AND ODESSA ; their CLIMATE and Re- 
sources : described from Personal Knowledge. By PROFESSOR KOCH. Post 8vo. 
(Next Week.) 

GIBBON'S ROMAN EMPIRE. THE UNMUTILATED TEXT, 

COLLATED AND VERIFIED. Edited, with Notes, by DR. WM. SMITH. Portrait and 
Maps. Vol. VI. 8vo. 7s- Gd. ("Murray's British Classics.") 

JOHNSON'S LIVES OF THE ENGLISH POETS. Edited, 

with Notes, by PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. 3 Vols. 8vo. 22s. 6d. (" Murray's British 
Classics.") 

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER : a View of the Productive Forces of 

Modern Society, and the Results of Labour, Capital, and Skill. By CHARLES KNIGHT. 
"Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6ci. 

THE ART OF TRAVEL ; or, HINTS on the SHIFTS and CON- 
TRIVANCES available in WILD COUNTRIES. By FRANCIS GALTON. Woodcuts. 
Post 8vo. 6s. 

HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH POOR LAW : in connexion with 

the Condition of the People. By SIR GEORGE NICHOLLS, K.C.B. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28s. 

ATHENS AND ATTICA. By REV. C. WORDSVf ORTH, D.D., 

Canon of Westminster. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Crown 8 vo. &s.6d. 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF ITALIAN PAINTERS. 

With a TABLE of the COTEMPORARY SCHOOLS of ITALY. Edited by RALPH N. 
■WORNUM. With Chart. Post8vo. 6s. 6d. 

THE MONASTERY AND THE MOUNTAIN CHURCH: a 

Story Book for Children. By Author of " Sunlight through the Mist." Woodcuts. 16mo. 6s. 

THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE MECHANICAL 

INVENTIONS OF JAMES WATT. With Introductory Memoir. By JAS. P. MUIR- 
HEAD, M.A. With Portrait and Plates. 3 Vols. 8vo., 45s. ; or Large Paper, 4to., 84s. 

LORD HERVEY'S MEMOIRS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE IL 

Edited by MR. CROKER. Second and Cheaper Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 21s. 

MURRAY'S OFFICIAL HANDBOOK; AN HISTORICAL 

ACCOUNT OF THE DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES 
OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. An entirely New Edition. PostSvo. 6s. 

HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. With Criticisms and 

Biographical Notices. By GEORGE TICKNOR. Second and Cheaper Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 
34s. 

NOTES FROM LIFE. By HENRY TAYLOR. Fourth Edition. 

Fcap. 8vo. 2s. (" Murray's Railway Reading.") 

POLYNESIAN MYTHOLOGY, AND TRADITIONS OF THE 

ITEW ZEALAND RACE. By SIR GEORGE GREY, late Governor of New Zealand. 
"Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. (Next Week.) 

A TREATISE ON THE SCIENCE OF GUNNERY. By SIR 

HOWARD DOUGLAS. Fourth and entirely revised Edition. Plates. 8vo. 21s. 

THE LION HUNTER OF SOUTH AFRICA. By R. GORDON 

CUMMING. Fourth and Cheaper Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 12s. 

REJECTED ADDRESSES. By JAMES and HORACE SMITH. 

A New Edition, with Author's latest Corrections. Fcap. 8vo. Is. (" Murray's Railway 
Reading.") 

HUNGARY AND TRANSYLVANIA. With Remarks on their 

Social, Political, and Economical Condition. By .TOHN PAGET. Third and Cheaper Edition. 
Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8V0. 18s. 



JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 

pLARENDON'S (EDW. Earl 

V / of) HISTORY OF THE REBELLION 
AND CIVIL WARS IN ENGLAND, to- 
gether with an Historical View of the Affairs 
of Ireland. A New Edition, from the original 
MS., with the Notes of Bishoo Warburtou. 
7 Vols. 8V0., cloth lettered, 21. 10s. 

CARTE'S LIFE OF JAMES, 

DUKE OF ORMOND; containing an ac- 
count of the most remarkable affairs of his 
time, and particularly of Ireland under his 
government. A New Edition, carefully com- 
pared with the original MSS. 6 Vols. 8vo., 
cloth lettered, 21. 6s. 

MAY'S HISTORY OF THE 

PART,IAMENT OF ENGLAND, which be- 
gan November 3, 1610 ; with a Short and Ne- 
cessary View of some precedent Years. A New 
Edition. 8vo., cloth lettered, 5s. Gd. 

SPRIGG'S ANGLIA REDI- 

VTVA ; ENGLAND'S RECOVERY : being 
the History of the Motions, Actions, and Suc- 
cesses rf ihe Army under the immediite con- 
duct of his Excellency Sir Thomas FairfaT, 
Kt., Captain-General of all the Parliament's 
Forces in England. A New Edition. 8vo., 
cloth lettered, 6s. 

WHITELOCKES MEMO- 

RIALS OF ENGLISH AFFAIRS from 16?5 
to 1660. A New Edition. 4 Vols. 8vo., cloth 
lettered, U. 10s. 

Oxford : At the UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

SoM by J. H. PARKER, Oxforrl, and 377. 
Strand, London ; and GARDNER, 7. Pa- 
ternoster Row. 



Books Edited by the late 

MARTIN JOSEPH ROUTH, D.D. 

President of Magdalen College, Oxford. 



Platonis Euthydemus et Gorgias, 

Gr. et Lat., recensuit, vertit, notisque snis 
illustravit. 8vo. boards, 5s. 1784 

Reliquiae Sacrse secundi tertiique 

saeculi. 1814—18 

Editio altera. Tomi V. 1846—48. 8vo. 

boards, 22. Us. 

Scriptorum Eccleslasticorum Opus- 

cula. 1832 

Editio altera. Tomi II. 1841. 8vo. 

boards, 193. 

Burnet's (Bp.) History of His Own 

Time, with the suppressed Passages and 
Notes. 1823 

A New Edition, 6 vols. 8vo. bds., 21. 10s. 

1833 

History of the Reign of King 

James the Second. Notes by the Earl of 
D-ivtmouth, Speaker Onslow, and Dean 
.Swift. Additional Observations now en- 
larged. 8vo. boards, 9s. Gd. 1852 

Tres breves Tractatus. 8vo. 185.'J 

Oxford I At the UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

Bold by J. H. PARKER, Oxford, and 377. 
Strand, London ; and GARDNER, ?. Pater- 
noster Row. 



J>rinted by Thomai Clark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Gkohoe Bei.i„ of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Pariih of St. Dunstan in the West, in the. 
City of London, PablithCT, »t No. 186. Flett Street aforesaid Saturday, January 6, 1855. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 
roE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



•' 'Wlien foand, make a note of." — Captain Cuitlk. 



No. 272.] 



Saturday, January 13. 1855. 



f Price Fonrpeiice. 
Stamped Hdilion, fd. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



Capital Punishments in Henry VIII. 's 

Reisn, bv Rev. H. Walter - - 21 

The English Turcopolier of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem, by William 

"Winthrop 21 

Letter from Joanna Baillie, by H. Mar- 
tin 23 

Scraps from an old Common-place Book 23 
Kare Trncts, by K. C. Warde - - 24 

Englirfi Lawyers and English Diction- 
aries - - - - - 24 

Minor Noths : — " Traverse " — Mil- 
ton's Description of Rome — Custom 
observed in drinking at public Feasts 

— Female Rank — The first Dublin 
Newspaper - - - - 24 

QniRiEs : — 

Calendnr of Saints' Days - - - 26 

Leech Queries - - - - 26 

JVIiKoR QoFRiKs : — Foreigm Collections 
of Floral Poetry — A Ryder — " Cralivs 
of War" — Sestertium — Epigram in 
-a Bible — Eminent Men born in the 
same Vear — Published Lists of the 
Users of Hair Powder — Legal Query 

— Burial by Torch-lipht — " Proverbcs 
Gascons : ' Translation wanted — Ni- 
trous Oxide and Poetry—" Whychcote 
of St. John's " — Latinizing Proper 
Names : Index Geographicus — Reply 

to Leslie's "Case stated " - - 26 

MtNOR QUKRTFS WTTIf AWSWFRS I 

" Bridsewater Treatises "— " Caucus," 
its Derivation— Ballad quoted by Bur- 
ton — Family Arms — Menenius — 
Hanwell, Oxou - - - - 28 

'^IXPLIES : — 

Golden Table of Luneburg: Ancient 

Punishment of the Jews - - 29 
Military Titles - - - - 30 
The Pala!ologi, by William Bates, &c. - 31 
Lord Clarendon's Riding-school at Ox- 
ford - - - - - 32 
■Works on Bells, by Rev. H. T. EUa- 
combc. Sic. - - - - 32 
I 
"Photooraphec Correspoxdence : — On 
developing long-excited Collodion 
Plates — CoUodionized Glass Plates, 
&c. 33 

JIeplies to Minor Queries: — The Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of living Au- 
thors _ " Political Register " — Irish 
■Newspapers — Flemings in England — 
Paint Tel lant — Colonel Maceroni _ 
■Origin of the Terms " Wliig " and 
"' Tory " _ Bell-childe — Seals, Books 
relating to —The Schoolmen _ Sand- 
banks—Brasses restored — Clay To- 
baccii-pi|)cs — Churches dedicated to 
St. Pancras — Oxford Jeu d'Esprit — 
Song of the Cuckoo — " Nag " and 
" Knagg " — Sir Henry JoUnes, &.Q. - 34 

^IlSCELLANEODt : — 

Ifotes on Books, &o. - - - 40 

Books and Odd Volumes Wmted. 
Noticts to Correspondents. 



Postase Free, price 6d., which may be paid in 
Stamps. 

A CATALOGUE OF VALU- 

JrV ABLE BOOKS for Sale by TUOilAS 
KERSLAKE, BRISTOL. 

Containing a Vindication of the AUTO- 
GRAPHS of SIR ROGER DECOVERLEY'S 
"PERVERSE WIDOW" and her "MALI- 
CIOUS CONFIDENT," from a Disparaging 
Statement thrown out in the ATHENiEUM ; 
including also a Refutation of one of the 
Charges of "Mystification" brought against 
ALEXANDER POPE in that Journal. 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition 
price Is. ; or by Post for Is. 6d. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for ; 
with ample Rules fr Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management : together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiniBS only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MANN, 39. Cornhill ; and all Book- 
sellers. 



HAMILTON'S MODERN In- 
structions for the PIANOFORTE. 

— "Snd Edition, 4s. ; for Singing, 4th Edition, 

bs " These are new editionsof highly popular 

works. Mr. Hamilton devoted himself wholly 
to tne task of musical instruction ; and his 
didactic treatises on every branch of tlie art, 
the fruits of an intelligent mind aided by large 
experience, are by fur the most useful works 
of their class extant in this country." — Spec- 
tator. 

London : ROBERT COCKS & CO., New 
Burlington Street, Publishers to the Queen, 
and of all Musicsellers. 



s 



ONG of VICTORY - Strew 



Voi,. XI No. 272. 



CHARLE>< MACK AY, ESQ. Music by 
FRANK MORI. Sung with extraordinary 
I'cliit by Mr. Sims Reeves. .Also, now ready. 
Two New Gi' es. Words bv Charles Mackay, 
Esq. Muaic by Sir H. R. Bishop. 

London : ROBERT COCKS & CO., New 
Burlington Street, Music Publishers to the 
Queen. 

I?XCELSIOR, Song hy MISS M. 
1/ LINDSAY. Words by LONGFELLOW, 
l-'inely illustrated. 2s. 6rf. " An exquisite 
lyric." — Eliza Cool'. "Stirring and expres- 
sive." — Weekli/ Timfs. " Sublime in its sim- 
plicity."— Portemourt Guardian. "A gem, 
which, in this musical setting, is seen to greater 
I advtLntmse." — Patriot. "Makes the heart 
j echo the cry of * FIxoelsior.' " — Epitomist. 
I " Worthy of the exquisite lines of Longtiellow." 
; — Church and State Gazette. " Chaste and 
I simple." — /JnY'sA /Jajiner. Also, by the same 
authoress. Sneak Gently, is. 6rf. , and the Hymn 
of the Moravian Nuns, duet, Zs. ; and a Psalm 
of Life, 3s. 

Londim: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New 
Burlington Street, Music Publishers to the 
Queen. 



MR. SERJEANT STEPHEN'S NEW COM- 
MENTARIES ON THE LAWS OF 
ENGLAND. (Third Edition.) 

Just published, 4 Vols. 8vo., 4 Guineas, cloth. 

(Dedicated, by permission, to Her JIajesty the 
Queen.) 

IVTEW COMMENTARIES ON 

1a the laws of ENGLAND, in which 
are interwoven, under a New and Original 
Arrangement of the General Subject, all such 
parts of the WORK OF BLACKSTONE as 
are applicable to the present times ; together 
with full but compendious Expositions of the 
Modem Improvements of tl'e Law up to the 
latest period, the oriainal and adopted Mate- 
rials being throughout the Work typographi- 
callv distinguished from each other. By 
HENRY JOHN STEPHEN, Serjeant-at- 
Law. Third Edition. Preparfd for the Press 
by JAMES STEPHEN, of the Middle Temple, 
Barrister-at-Law, and Professor of English 
Law, &c. at King's College, London. 

" We have long regarded this as the most 
valuable low book extant. We make no ex- 
ception. We believe, moreover, the labour 
saved to the student by this work to be in- 
valunble. Nor are we sure that any amount 
of labour could give him the same comprehen- 
sive insight to the science ht- is about to enter 
upon. It is the grammar of the law. It is 
sheer nonsense to talk of the woitli of Black- 
stone now-a-days. W'e undertake to say that 
the student who should read him now would 
have to unread half the work contains, and 
add as much more to liis information wlicn he 
had exhausted all that Blackstone knew. This 
results not merely from the changes which 
have since taken place, but from the diffuse 
and often verbose style in which Blackstone 
wrote his very faulty worli, which it has t)een 
the fashion of a comparativily illiterate age 
to laud and extol. We venture to suggest to 
Serjeant Stephen to discard Blackstone alto- 
gether, and to re-wiite tlie passage; he has 
modestly but injudiciously interpolated in his 
own infinitely superior composit'on. We may 
here allude to the great care taken by Mr. 
James Stephen, to whom much Ciedit is due 
for the intelligent zeal and diligence he has 
evinced in preparing this edition of Stephen's 
'Commentaries' for the pres-," -From the 
Zaw Magazine. 

" Assuming that all prudent practitioners 
and students will wasli their hands of the past, 
and begin to form small practical libraries 
entirely of the recent law, the> could not find 
a better foundation than this third and new 
edition of Serjeant Stephen's ' Commentaries." 
which has been moulded throneliout to the 
present state of the law, and comprises all the 
recent alterations . . . We heartily recommend 
these 'Commentaries' as beyond measure the 
best book that has ever appeared to form a 
foundation for the study cf the law of Eng- 
land."— From the Laiv Times. 

QUESTIONS ON STEPHEN'S NEW 
COMMENTARIES. 

Also, just published, 8vo., 10s. 6d. cloth. 

QUESTIONS FOR LAW 

STUDENTS on the THIRD EDITION of 
MR. SERJEANT STEPHEN'S NEW COM- 
MENTARIES on the LAWS i f ENGLAND. 
By JAMES STEPHEN, of the Middle Tem- 
ple, Barrister-at-Law, and Proftssor of English 
Law, &c. at King's Collose, Lonoon, 
London : Published by MESSRS. BUTTER- 
WORTH. 7. Fleet Street, Law Publishers ta 
the Queen's Most ExceiUot ijtitaty. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



60,000 CUBES WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

T\U BARRYS DELICIOUS 

17 REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD 

CURES indigestion (dyspepsia), constipation 
and diarrhoea, dysentery, nervousness, bilious- 
ness and liver complaints, flatulency, disten- 
gion, acidity, heartburn, palpitation of the 
heart, nervous headiichef, deafness, noises in 
the head and ears, pains in almost every nart 
of the body, tic douloureux, faceache. chronic 
inflammation, cancer and ulceration of the 
stomach, pains at the pit of the stomach and 
between the shoulders, erysipelas, eruptions of 
the skin, boils and carbuncles, impurities and 
poverty of the blood, scrofula, cnugh, asthma, 
consumption, dropsy, rheumatism, trout, 
nausea and sickness during pregnancy, after 
eating, or at sea, low spirits, spnsms, cramps, 
epileptic fits, spleen, general debility, inquie- 
tude, sleeplessness, involuntary blushing, pa- 
ralysis, tremors, dislike to society, unfitness lor 
rtndy, loss of memory, delusions, vertigo, blood 
to the head, exhaustion, melancholy, ground- 
lees fear, indecision, wretchedness, thoughts of 
self-destruction, and many other complaints. 
It is, moreover, the best food for inftnts and 
invalids generally, as it never turns acid on 
the weakest stomach, nor interferes with a 
good liberal diet, hut imparts a healthy relish 
for lunch and dinner, and restores the faculty 
of digestion, and nervous and muscular energy 
to the most enfeebled. In whooping cough, 
measles, small-pox, and chicken or wind pox, 
it renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important Caotion against the fearful 
dangers of spuri' us imitations : — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10, 1854. against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill. for imitating "Du 
Barry's Kevalenta Arabica Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 77. Regent 
Street, London. 

A few mit o/ 50,000 Cures: 
Colonel H. Watkins, of Grantham, a cure of 

gout ; Mr. Joseph Walters, Broadwell Col- 
ery, Oldbury, near Birmingham, a cure of 
angina pectoi is ; and 50,000 other well-known 
individuals, who have sent the discoverers anJ 
importers, BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 
77. Regent Street, IjOt don, testimonials of the 
very extraordinary manner in which their 
health has been restored by this useful and 
economical diet, after all other remedies had 
been tried in vain for many years, and all 
hopes of recovery abandoned. 

Cure No. 48,314 : _" Miss Elizabeth Yeoman, 
Gateacre, near Liverpool : a cure of ten years 
dyspepsia, and all the horrors of nervous ii ri- 
taoility." 

No. 51,482 : Dr. Wurzer. " It is particularly 
useful in confined habit of body, as also in 
diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the 
kidneys and bladder, such as stone or gravel ; 
inflammatory irritation and cramp of the 
urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, and 
hoemorrhoids. Alsoin bronchial and pulmonary 
complaints, where irritation and pan; are to be 
removed, and in pulmonary and bronchial 
consumption, in which it counteracts effectu- 
ally the troublesome cough ; and I am enabled 
with perfect truth to express the conviction 
that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted 
to the cure of incipient hectic complKints and 
consumption " - Dr. Run. Wurzhb, Counsel 
of Medicine and practical M.D. in Bonn. 

Cure No. 47.121 :_"Miss Elizabeth Jacobs, 
of Nazing Vicarage, Waltham Cross, Herts : 
a cure of extreme nervousness, indigestion, 
gatherings, low spirits, and nervous fancies." 

Cure No. 3906 : — " Thirteen years' cough, 
indigestion, and general debility, have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent Revalenta 
Arabica Food."— Jambs Porter, Athol Street, 
Perth. 

In canisters, suitably packed for all cli- 
mates, and with full instructions — lib., is. 
9d.; 2lb., is. 6d. i 51b., lis. : 121b.,22«. ; super- 
refined, lib.. 6s. i 21b.. \\8. : 5lb.. 22s. ; lOlb., 
33e. The 101b. and 121b carriage free, < n post- 
oflice order. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, London ; Fortnum, Mason, & 
Co., purveyors to Her Mojestv, Picc"dilly : 
also at 60. Gracechurch Street ; XiO. Strand ; of 
Barclay, Edwards, Sutton, Sanger, Hannay, 
Newberry, end may he orc'ered through all re- 
spectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



A' 



CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 

and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting oi 

'pOBTMANTEAUS.TRAVELLING-RAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent tree by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN, IS. * 22. West Strand. 



BENNETT'S MODEL 
WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now b'; had at the MANU- 
FACTORY. 65, CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, B, and 4 
guineas. First-rate (Jeneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior I^ever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and m 
guineas. Bennett's PocketChronometer,Gold, 
50 L'uineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its performance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 22., 32., and 4<. Ther- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Itoard of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 

65. CHEAPSIDE. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 



T. Orissell, Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. Lethbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



H. E. Bicknell,Esq. 
T. S. Cocks.Jun. Esq. 

MP. 
G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans. Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 

Trustees. 

W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. 

T Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. — William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
1002., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 



Age 




£ s. d. 


Age 


£ s. d. 


17- 


_ 


- 1 14 4 


32- 


- 2 10 8 


22- 


- 


- 1 13 8 


37- 


- 2 18 6 



27- 



- 2 4 5 



42- 



3 8 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 
Actuary. 
Now ready, price I0». 6rf., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VFS'IMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISFon BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIEriF:S. and on the (Jeneral Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the < ases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
Sic. With a Muthemutical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, Loudon. 



THE LONDON ASSURANCE 

INCORPORATED A.D. 1720. 

FOE LIFE, FIRE, AND MARINE 
ASSURANCES. 
Head Office, 7. Royal Exchange, Cornhill. 



EDWARD BURMESTER, ESQ., Governor. 

JOHN ALVES ARBUTHNOT, ESQ., Sub- 
Governor. 

SAMUEL GREGSON, ESQ., M.P., Deputy- 
Governor. 



Directors. 

Nath. Alexander, Esq. J. Alex. Hankey, Esq. 

R. Baggallay, Esq. E. Harnage, Esq. 

G. Barnes, Esq. Louis Huih, Esq. 

H. Bonham Bax, Esq, William King Esq. 

James Blyth, Esq. Charles Lvall, Esq. 

J. W. Borradaile, Esq. John Ord, Esq. 

Chas. Crawley, Esq. David Powell, Esq. 

W. Dallas, Esq, G. Probyn, Esq. 

B. Dobree, Jun,, Esq. P, F. Robertson. M.P. 

H. G Gordon, Esq. Alex. Trotter Esq. 

Edwin Gower. Esq. Thos. Weeding, E-^q. 

David C. Guthrie, Esq, Lest. P. Wilson, Esq. 

Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., F.R.S. 



WEST END OFFICE, No. 7. PALL MALL. 

Committee. 

Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 

HENRY KINGSCOTE, ESQ.. and 
JUHN I'lDD PRATT, ESQ. 

Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ, 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
surances on Lives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Years, having issued its 
first Polcy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two-thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
fits, lire given to the Assured. 

Policies may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz. — 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in profits, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
en'itling the Assured, either after the first five 
years, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium to a participation in the ensuing 
quinquennial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Annual Primiumsof i ersons who have been 
assured under Series " 1831 " tor five years or 
longer, is upw ards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
poration has maintained during nearhi a 
Century and a Half, secures to the public a 
full and faithful declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expenses 

OP Management, thus giving to thf Assured, 

in consequence of the protection afforded by 

^iis Corporate Fund, advantages equal to those 

of any system ot Mutual Assurance. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

A H Policies are issued free from Stamp Duty, 
or fro'n charge ot any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium. 

The attenti<m of the Public is especially 
called to the yreat advantages offered to Life 
Assurers by the Legislature in its recent 
Enactments, by which it will be found that, to 
a defined extent. Life Premiums are not sub- 
ject to Income Tax. 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 
Corp -ration 

A Policy may be effected for as small a sum 
as 202., and progressively increased up to 502., 
without the neces-sity of a new Policy. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer 
or exchange of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by eitl cr a written or personal 
app ication to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of the West End Office. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY IZ. 1855, 



CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS IN HENRY Vin.'s REIGN. 

Reading Macaulay's Critical Essays, I perceive 
that in lb30, when reviewing Southey's Colloquies 
on Society, he has said : 

" Let them add to all this the /ac<, that 72,000 persons 
suffered death by the hands of the executioner during the 
reign of Henry VIII., and judge between the nineteenth 
and the sixteenth century." 

Whether Mr. Macaulay's subsequent more ex- 
tensive historical researches would let him still 
call that a/acf, I cannot presume to say. But it 
is notoriously referred to as a fact, by popular 
speakers or writers, from time to time ; and your 
useful publication is favourable to having the 
question so ventilated as either to put an end to 
the assumption of this imaginary proof of the 
ferocity of English tribunals temp. Hen. VIII., or 
to elicit some trustworthy evidence of its being 
a fact. 

To unreflecting readers of English history it 
may be enough that Hume has said at the close 
of his account of Henry VIII., ch. 33. : 

" The prisoners in the kingdom for debts and crimes are 
asserted in an act of parliament to be 60,000 persons and 
above ; which is scarcely credible. Harrison asserts that 
72,000 criminals were executed during this reign for theft 
and robber}', which would amount nearly to 2,000 a 
year." 

The credit due to such an assertion as the first, 
from its having been introduced into an act of 
parliament, can differ very little from the credit 
due to its independent probability. For so gross 
was the ignorance of national statistics prevalent 
in that age, that an observant and conscientious 
member of the inns of court, Mr. Simon Fish, 
could gravely tell the public, in his noted address to 
Henry VIII., styled The Supplication of Beggars, 
that there were 52,000 parish churches within the 
realms of England, and could found upon this 
statement a methodical calculation of considerable 
importance, whilst modern returns reduce the 
number of parishes below 11,000. 

As to Harrison's assertion in the Historical 
Treatise appended to Holinshed's Chronicles, I 
have not seen it for some years, and have not access 
to it at present ; but unless my memory deceives 
me, he made the assertion on no better authority 
than that of the Bishop of Tarbes, whom Francis I. 
sent to England ; that prelate's dislike to Henry's 
proceedings, and to the anti-papal spirit of our 
nation, made him but too willing to believe any 
slander against either. Whilst the tale suits Har- 
rison's object, which was to set forth the advan- 
tages enjoyed by Elizabeth's subjects, the progress 



of wealth and civilisation, as compared with their 
state under her father's reign. 

When we come to the earliest authority for any 
historical statement, it is always prudent to con- 
sider whether the author could have known what 
he states to be true. There is no probability that 
Henry's parliament had required such returns 
from all the gaols in the kingdom as would entitle 
its assertion respecting the number of prisoners 
to the weight belonging to any modern official 
document; neither is there any probability that 
a French bishop could have made any nearer ap- 
proximation to the number of executions than a 
conjecture, even if he had desired to keep within 
the truth. 

The estimate of the population of England at 
that date must also be acknowledged to rest upon 
grounds which are far from being indisputable. 
But it has been made without any motive for 
arriving at a false conclusion ; and it justifies the 
belief that the population was rather under than 
above 3,000,000, and consequently the number 
of males not more than 1,500,000; who must be 
again reduced to about a half, or 750,000, to 
obtain the number of males between 21 years and 
70. Imprisonment for debt is nearly limited to 
this last portion of the people ; and imprisonment 
for crimes fell almost as exclusively on the 
same, when the offences visited by the law were 
chiefly crimes of violence, or sheep and deer steal- 
ing : so that if 60,000 persons were in prison for 
debt and crimes, at least 55,000 of them would be 
adult males, that is, about one adult male out of 
every fifteen ; and if 2000 were executed yearly, 
when so many felonies were but punished with 
whipping, provided the felon could repeat his neck- 
verse, one out of every 375 men must be believed 
to have fallen annually by the executioner's hands . 
Are we to believe this ? 

The letters from a justice of the peace to Lord 
Burleigh, given in the Appendix to vol. iv. of 
Strype's Annals, Nos. 212. and 213., contain some 
remarkable gaol statistics for the county of So- 
merset. According to him, forty persons were 
executed for offences in that county in 1596; 
and he complains grievously of the hardship 
inflicted on the county by its being obliged to 
expend 73Z. on the relief of the prisoners, to whom 
they yet allowed but at the rate of 6c?. a week. 
The imprisonments must have been therefore 
generally brief. Henry Walter. 



THE ENGLISH TURCOPOLIER OF THE OKDER OT 
ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. 

(^Continued from Vol. x., p. 380.) 

At a general council held by the grand master 
William de Villaret, a. n. 1302, the several dig- 
nities which then existed were particularly men- 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



tioned, and in the following order: first came 
the reigning prince, and after him the marshal, 
chief Hospitaller, draper, treasurer, and lastly the 
Commander of Cyprus. De Villaret was so exact 
in his government at this period, that he not only 
established the respective ranks of liis officers, but 
also made known the number of servants and 
attendants whom they should have in their ser- 
vice, and the animals which they were expected or 
compelled to own. If it should be observed that 
in the above list no mention is made of a Turco- 
polier or admiral, the omission is easily explained. 
At the period now referred to, the Hospitallers 
and Templars were guests of the king of Cyprus, 
a monarch so jealous of his sovereignty, that he 
would permit no interference in the government of 
his subjects, or the protection of his island.* Had 
a Turcopolier been named, there would have been 
no duties for him to perform ; and had the admiral 
been mentioned, he had no fleet to command. 
Hence their omission from the list of officers then 
known in the convent. 

The gifted author of Eothen thus poetically 
notices the place which for fourteen years had 
been the island home of tlie Knights of St. John 
after their expulsion from the Holy Land : 

" Cyprus is beautiful : from the edge of tlie rich flowery 
fields on which I trod, to the midway sides of the snowy 
Olympus, the ground could only here and there show an 
abrupt crag, or a high straggling ridge that upsliouldered 
itself from out of the wilderness of myrtles and of the 
thousand bright- leaved shrubs that twined their arms 
together in lovesome tangles. The air that came to my 
lips was warm and fragrant as the ambrosial breath of the 
goddess infecting me, — not (of course) with a faith of the 
old religion of the isle, but with a sense and apprehen- 
sion of its mystic power, a power that still was to be 
obeyed — obeyed by me, for wh}' otherwise did I toil on 
with sorry horses to where for Her the hundred altars 
glowed with Arabian incense, and breathed in the fra- 
grance of garlands ever fresh. 

* ubi templum illi, centumque Sabaao 

Thure calent arae, sertisque recentibus hnlant.' 

^.neid, i. 415." 

Inl307Fulk De Villaret became Grand Master 
on the decease of his brother, and at a time when 
the Knights of St. John, greatly assisted by the 
Genoese and Sicilians, were engaged in a desperate 
struggle for the possession of Rhodes. Early in 
the following year this beautiful island was cap- 
tured ; f an important conquest, which not only 

* Captain Graves, of the Royal Navy, to whom as its 
president, and to Mr. Innes, its secretary, the Literary 
and Scientific Institute of this island is so much indebted, 
not only for its existence, but also for its present flourish- 
ing condition, has a History of Cyprus now quite ready 
for publication. To this work Captain Graves has given 
his continued and constant attention for several years, and 
its appearance may therefore be looked forward to with 
much interest, as a valuable contribution to the literature 
of the day. 

f Historians differ as to the precise period in which 
the capture of Rhodes took place. KnoUes has stated, in 



gave to the Hospitallers an agreeable residence for 
more than two centuries, but also enabled them to 
raise a bulwark against the encroachments of the 
Ottoman emperors, which for this long period, with 
their whole power, they could not overthrow. In 
1328, twenty years after the Order of St. John 
was established at Khodes, it is clearly shown by 
the records that a Turcopolier existed in the con- 
vent, and that " Giovanni de Buibralk " was the first 
known English knight who held the dignity. From 
this date until 1660, the office was uninterruptedly 
filled by Englishmen ; but for what reason it was 
first granted to one of that language, and ever after' 
remained v,'ith it, there is nothing in the manu- 
script reports of the general chapters which have 
been carefully referred to, or published histories, 
that we are aware of, to show. Five hundred years 
ago the Order of St. John was composed of eight 
different nations, as they were termed; and each 
had its own peculiar dignity. Thus, the Grand 
Commander, who by virtue of his office was per- 
petual president of the common treasury, comp- 
troller of the accounts, superintendent of stores, 
governor of the arsenal, and master of the ord- 
nance, was taken from the language of Provence. 
The Grand Marshal, who had the military com- 
mand over all the Order, the Grand Master's 
household only excepted ; and when at sea com- 
manded not only the general of the galleys, but 
the grand admiral himself, came from the language 
of Auvergne. The Grand Hospitaller, who had the 
direction of the hospital, was from the language of 
France. The Admiral, who in the grand marshal's 
absence had the command of the soldiery equally 
with the seamen, and could claim the right of 
being proposed to the council as general of the 
galleys, whether the Grand Master wished it or 
not, was an Italian. The Draper, or grand con- 
servator, who was charged with everything relative 
to the conservatory, as also to the clothing, and 
purchasing all necessary articles for the troops 
and hospital, came from the language of Arragon. 
The Turcopolier, who commanded the light cavalry, 
as also all the guards who were stationed in the 
fortresses near the harbours, or in the castles 
around the coasts, and gave all passwords and 
countersigns, came from England. Germany fur- 
nished the Grand Bailiff" to the Order ; and, lastly, 
Castile a Grand Chancellor, who could not fill the 
office unless lie knew how to read and write.* 

Having these several dignities now before us, 
should it be asked why any particular honour had 
been granted to any particular language, it might 
be a question as difficult to answer as that why the 



his Turkish History, p. 163., that it was in 1308 ; while 
Castelli, p. 83., has recorded that the conquest was not 
actuallj' effected until 1311. 

* Vide Boisgelin's Ancient and Modern MaUa,vo\.\. 
pp. 241. 245., from which work the dignities attached to 
each language are taken. 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



Turcopolier had been given to England, which was 
the third in rank in the convent. It is not im- 
probable that, at the foundation of the Order, tlie 
Grand Master selected tliose grand crosses to fill 
the different offices according to the ability evinced 
by them to perform their respective duties, and 
this without the least reference to the country 
from which they came. Among Englishmen at 
the present time, the cavalry is a favourite service ; 
and thus it may have been with their ancestors 
when the taste could be gratified. In this way 
perhaps the reason may be explained why the 
command of the light horse was always conferred 
on knights of the British tongue. 

William Winthkop. 
Malta. 



LETTER FROM JOANNA BAILLIE. 

The following letter, addressed, by Joanna 
Baillie, "To Mr. CoUett, Master of the Aca- 
demy, Evesham, Worcestershire," may interest 
some of the readers of " N. & Q." The original 
is in my possession : 

"Hampstead, June 18th, 1801. 
« Sir, 

" Tho' I am not altogether prepared to answer 
the' questions you have put to me in the letter 
I have had the honour of receiving from you, 
there is something in that letter so very flattering 
to the vanity which authors are not sutFered to be 
without, that it will not permit me to be silent. 
After the lenity and forbearance I have met with 
from the public, I should hold myself bound in 
gratitude, had I no other motive, to continue, in 
the best manner I am able, the plan I have begun 
in ' the Series of Plays.' When I shall have it in 
my power to publish another volume, I am not 
certain, but I hope it will be some time in the 
next spring. It has given me great satisfaction 
to learn that you have received any pleasure in 
reading the first. Without being vain enough to 
suppose that a work, with so many faults on its 
head, has been honoured with your entire appro- 
bation ; to have a voice of such respectable autho- 
rity at all on my side, is highly gratifying to, 
" Sir, 
" Your obliged humble servt. 
" J. Baillie." 

Mr. Collett, to whom this letter was addressed, 
was a schoolmaster at Evesham, and afterwards 
at Worcester. He published a volume of juvenile 
poems, and also some Sacred Dramas. There is 
a short notice of him in Chambers's Biographical 
Illustrations of Worcestershire; but I have not 
the work at hand to give particulars. He died in 
1817. H. Martin. 

Halifax. 



SCRAPS FROM AN OLD COMMON-PLACE BOOK. 

I have before me a common-place book of the 
reigns of James I. and Charles I., containing the 
gatherings of a most discursive reader. It con- 
sists of scraps of history, songs, bon-mots, 
epigrams, " cabalisticall verses which by trans- 
position of words, letters, and syllables, make ex- 
cellent sense, otherwise none at all," &c. The 
greater number of the pieces I am able to identify, 
but there are others which, as they are new to 
me, I transcribe, that your more erudite readers 
may inform me whose they are. If too well known 
to claim insertion, I shall be obliged by a brief 
reply as to their authorship. 

« TTie Cryer. 

" Good folk, for gold or hyer, 
Come help mee to a cryer, 
For my poore heart is gone astray 
After her heart that went this way. 
Hoe yes ! hoe yes I 

" If there bee any man, 
In towne or country, can 
Help mee my heart againe, 
I'll please him for his paine ; 
And by these marks I will you show, 
That only I the heart doe owe. 

" It was a true heart, and a deare, 
And never us'd to rome ; 
But having got this harme I feare, 
Will hardly stay at home. 

" For God-sake, walking by the way, 
If you my heart doe see, 
Either impound it for a stray, 
Or send it back to mee." 

That such language as the following should 
have come from " a great papist," is explained by 
remembering that, about the time of the present- 
ation of this new year's gift, the negoclations re- 
lative to the match between Charles and the In- 
fanta of Spain, and the visit of the prince and 
Buckingham to Madrid, had led to a somewhat 
sudden relaxation of the harsh statutes against the 
Catholics, who had great hopeg from this alliance. 

" Verses written on a rich cussion which was given to the 
King by Lady Cannisby (?), a great Papist, for a Nevs 
Yeeres gift. 1624. 

" The Solomon of peace, life's living bred 
X' only is, and under him our heade, 
His faithfull steward, James, Greate Brittain's king^ 
Preserves and feedes his people, from him spring 
Plenty and peace ; above all monarks blest ; 
Of good the greatest, and of great the best." 

" ^n anagram made upon the Prince upon his assurance 
with the lady of France. 

" Charles, Prince of Wales, 
Will chose France's pearl." 

T. Q. C. 
Polperro, Cornwall. 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



BARE TRACTS. 

The following notes on a small parcel of scarce 
and curious tracts lately come into my possession, 
are at the service of any reader taking delight in 
such matters. They may serve as the commence- 
ment of what is much needed — a descriptive cata- 
logue of the rarer tracts of the period. 

1. " The Infancie of the Soule : or the Soule of an 
Infant. Gathered from the boosome of Trueth, Begunne 
in Loue, and finished in the desire to profit others. By 
William Hill. Imprinted at London, by W. W., for 
C. Knight, and are to be solde at his shop in Paulas 
Churchyard at the Signe of the Holy Lambe. 1605. 4to." 
No pagination. 

Upon a fly-leaf is written, in the hand of the 
period : 

"Nouembery«29, 1620. 
" In the Riuer Seuern was the greatest flood that euer 
was sinse the flood of Noah ; there was drowned at Hom- 
tones Loade [Hampton's Lode] 68 persons as they whare 
going to Bewdly Faire." 

2. " Vox Coeli, or Newes from Heaven, or a Consulta- 
tion there held by the high and mighty Princes, King 
Hen. 8., King Edw. 6., Prince Henry, Queene Mary, 
Queene Elizabeth, and Queene Anne; wherein Spaines 
ambition and treacheries to most Kingdomes and free 
estates of Evrope, are vnmasked, and truly represented, 
but more particularly towards England, and now more 
especially vnder the pretended match of Prince Charles, 
with the Infanta Dona Maria. Written by S. R. N. J. 
Printed in Elisium. 1624." 4to. 60 pp. 

All the members of which Consultation, except 
Queene Mary, prognosticate ruin to England, and 
misery to " Baby Charlie" if the alliance is formed. 

3. "His Majesties Declaration, concerning His Pro- 
ceedings with His Subjects of Scotland, since the Pacifi- 
cation in the Camp neere Berwick. London, 1640." 4to. 
63 pp. 

Finely engraved portrait (half-length) of Charles 
as frontispiece. 

4. " The Replication of Master Glyn, in the name of 
all the Commons of England, to the generall answer of 
Thomas Earle of Strafford, April 13, 1641. London, Printed 
1641." 4to. 19 pp. 

5. " The last Declarations of the Committee of Estates 
now assembled in Scotland. Edinburgh, Printed by 
Evan Tyler, and reprinted at London, 18 Octob. 1648." 
4to. 24 pp. 

6. " A Revelation ofMr.Brigtman's Revelation. Printed 
in the yeere of fulfilling it, 1641." 4to. 37 pp. 

R. C. Warde. 
Kidderminster. 



ENGLISH LAWYERS AND ENGLISH DICTIONARIES. 

Sir F. Thesiger asserted the other day, in the 
Court of Queen's Bench, that the word swindle 
was not to be found in any English dictionary 
good or bad. 

Lawyers are famous for bold assertions, and it 
is their good luck to escape unharmed, however 



erroneous those assertions may prove. They all 
go to the account of zeal for their clients. 

Sir Frederick is most singularly unfortunate in 
this particular instance. Lord Campbell inter- 
rupts him, and tells him it is in Richardson's ; 
and adds, " It is not in Johnson's." And this is 
true ; but it is in Todd, who quotes from James's 
Military Dictionary. And for swindler he also 
refers to Ash's Supplement to his Dictionary, pub- 
lished in 1775 : Swindle, Swindler, Swindling, are 
all in Smart's Walker, remodelled. 

Mason, in his Supplement to Johnson, published 
more than fifty years ago, says that swindler is a 
" modern colloquial word." And farther, the 
learned knight might have found it in a dictionary 
by a member of his own profession, as a word re- 
cognised by the law of the land ; in that by Mr. 
Tomlins, who treats us with the exquisitely re- 
fined legal distinction between the word spoken, 
and the word written, as actionable or not action- 
able. 

Richardson says, the time and manner of intro- 
duction require to be ascertained. His own ex- 
ample " of the scandalous appellation sivindler " is 
from the Essays of the Rev. Vicesimus Knox, 
which were published at least eighty years ago. 
That author deserves now to be remembered, as 
one of the earliest advocates for the improvement 
of academic education. The probability is, that 
there is not now in use a single English dictionary 
that does not contain these words. 

I remember hearing the late Lord Erskine, 
when in his zenith at the bar, denounce the word 
derange as not English. It was not in Johnson : 
nor was it, though now in all our dictionaries. 
(See Todd's Johnson, and Richardson.) In England 
men were not formerly deranged. The clown, in 
Hamlet, tells us they were mad. Q. 

Bloomsbary. 



" Traverse." — The omission of a comma in 
Dr. Johnson's copy of Milton, apparently gave 
this word the place among prepositions which he 
and most subsequent lexicographers have conceded 
to it. Johnson's folio has — 

"Traverse, adverb (d travers, French), crosswise; 
athwart." 

and, 

" Traverse, prep, through, crosswise." 
the latter with a quotation from Paradise Lost 
(i. 569.), pointed thus : 

« He through the armed files 
Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse 
The whole battalion views their order due." 

Ash, referring to Milton as authority, borrows 
Johnson's definition, but inserts a comma between 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



the two words, " through, crosswise." Sheridan 
gives the same definition. Webster, as if to make 
the blunder more apparent, substitutes a semi- 
colon for the comma, and defines " Traverse, 
prep, through ; crosswise," citing Milton's lines, 
pointed as in Johnson. 

The earliest edition of the Paradise Lost which 
I have at hand (1688), has a comma after " views," 
in the line cited. So has Newton's edition (1749). 
Bentley, Todd, and nearly all recent editors of 
Milton, place a semi- colon there : 

" And soon traverse 
The whole battalion views ; their order due, 
Their visages and statures as of gods." 

This pointing, which is obviously the more correct, 
restores traverse to its proper place among the 
adverbs, and takes away the only authority on 
which its occasional use as a preposition rests. 
Dr. Johnson, it will be observed, made but one 
blunder, where subsequent lexicographers have 
contrived to make two ; for " traverse," if a pre- 
position, would be correctly defined by " through 
crosswise." But Webster, by separating the two 
words of this definition, has fallen into the ab- 
surdity of defining a supposed preposition by an 
adverb, "crosswise." Vertaur. 

Hartford, Connecticut. 

Milton's Description of Rome. — Would it not 
be well that Mr. Murray, in his Guide to Central 
Italy., on introducing the English traveller into 
Rome, should open the scene with the general 
description of an English poet, who himself wrote 
from recollection of the spot ; I mean, of course, 
Milton : 

" A river of whose banks 
On each side an imperial city stood, 
With tow'rs and temples proudly elevate 
On seven small hills, with palaces adorn'd, 
Porches, and theatres, baths, aqueducts. 
Statues, and trophies, and triumphal arcs : 

. There the Capitol thou see'st 
Above the rest lifting his stately head 
On the Tarpeian rock, her citadel 
Impregnable ; and there Mount Palatine, 
The imperial palace, compass huge and high 
The structure, skill of noblest architects, 
With gilded battlements conspicuous far, 

Turrets, and terraces, and glittering spires 

Thence to the gates cast round thine eye, and see 
What conflux issuing forth, or entering in ; 
Prffitors, pro-consuls to their provinces 

Hasting or on return 

Or embassies from regions far remote, 
In various habits, on the Appian road, 
Or on the Emilian. " 

Paradise Regained, book iv. 

There are few Englishmen of taste who will 

not have read or repeated these lines, as they 

gazed on the scene described from the campanile 

of the Capitol. Wm. Ewart. 

Custom observed in drinking at public Feasts. — 
In " N. & Q," Vol. X., p. 307., is mentioned the 



custom at Queen's College, of placing the thumbs 
on the table while the superiors drink. The fol- 
lowing custom has been observed from time im- 
memorial, and still is, at dinners given by the 
mayor, or at any public feast of the corporation of 
Lichfield. The first two toasts given by the 
mayor are " The Queen," and " Weale and Wor- 
ship," both which are drunk out of a massive em- 
bossed silver cup, which holds three or four 
quarts, and was presented to the corporation in 
1666 by Ellas Ashmole, a native of the city. 
The ceremony is as follows : — The mayor drinks 
first, and on his rising the persons on his right and 
left also rise ; he then hands the cup to the person 
on his right side, when the one next to him rises, 
the one on the left of the mayor still standing ; 
then the cup is passed across the table to him, 
when his left-hand neighbour rises ; so that there 
are always three standing at the same time, one 
next to the person who drinks, and one opposite 
to him. I presume that though the ceremony is 
different, the object was the same as that observed 
at Queen's College, that is, to prevent injury to 
the person who drinks. T. G. L. " 

Lichfield. 

Female Rank. — Few, save private friends and 
their friends, know the heroic conduct of Miss 
Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari, which is 
certainly beyond all praise. Not only has she, 
since her arrival, attended all the death-beds of 
the soldiers under her charge, but she has had the 
most dangerous cases placed in a room next to 
her own, that she may be near, and thus enabled 
to render them greater attention. Certainly this 
nobleness will be repaid by the praise of this and 
succeeding generations, but more especially by 
the blessing of God. Nevertheless, may we not 
ask, why great women should not be rewarded 
from henceforth as great men, excepting, as we 
feel bound to do, great authors ? Commissions 
are given away at present to non-commissioned 
ofiicers, and Canrobert is made a C.B. What 
would seem more appropriate, than that this lady, 
who has willingly given up the luxuries of private 
life for public good, should be henceforth known 
as Lady Florence Nightingale ? E. W. J. 

The first Dublin Newspaper. — The following 
paragraph from Gilbert's History of the City of 
Dublin (p. 178.), of which the first volume has 
lately appeared, may deserve a corner in " N. & 

" Thornton issued the first newspaper published in 
Dublin, which was styled The Dublin News Letter, printed 
in 1685, by ' Joseph Ray in College Green, for Eobert 
Thornton, at the Leather Bottle in Skinner Row;' it 
consisted of a single leaf of small folio size, printed on 
both sides, and written in the form of a letter; each 
number being dated, and commencing with the word Sir. 
The existence of this publication was totally unknown to 



2Q 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



former writers, who universally alleged that Pue^s Occur- 
rences was the first Dublin newspaper." 

Abhba. 



^ucrtcjS. 

CALENDAR OF SAINTS* DATS. 

In the Additional Notes appended to Nicliolls' 
Commentary on the Book of Common Prayer 
(p. 8. col. 2, 1. 13.), the following passage occurs : 

" In this kalendar, which preserves the memory of 
some ancient holy men and women that were famous in 
the Church (although their days be not now appointed 
by the new statute to be kept Holy Days, nor were they 
ail of them appointed to be kept so before), there is some 
difference between this edition and that of Edward VI. to 
which the Act of Uniformity referreth. In January, 
Lucian and Prisca are omitted, with Fabian : so Bast is 
added in the fifth of Edward "VI. In February, Dorothy 
and Mildred are added. In March, Perpetua, St. Gregory, 
and St. Benedict are omitted ; Adrian is added. In April, 
Richard and Alphage are omitted. In May, John Bever- 
ley, Pancrace, Helena, Adelina, are added, and Pernelle. 
In June are added Edmund, and the Translation of Edw. 
In July, Martin and Swithin are omitted ; Seven Sleepers 
are added. In August, Name of Jesus, and Beheading of 
St. John Baptist, are omitted ; Assumption of the Virgin 
Mary, Magnus, IBernard, Felix, and Cuthbert are added. 
In September, Eunarchus [Enurchus?], Hoh' Cross, 
Lambert, and Cyprian are omitted. In November, Brice, 
^Machute, St. Hugh, B. St. Edmund King, and Cecily are 
omitted ; and Theodore is added. In December, O Sapi- 
entia and Sylvester are omitted, and Osmond is added." 

This is an extract from some MS. notes in 
Bishop Cosin's handwriting. It would appear as 
if Bishop Cosin had before him a kalendar at- 
tached to a Book of Common Prayer of the fifth 
year of King Edward VI., commonly called the 
Second Book of Edward ; being that which, with 
certain specified altei-ations, was confirmed by the 
Act of Uniformity of 1 Eliz. The edition which 
he compares with this, and speaks of as difiering 
from it, was that in use prior to 1662. 

Now the difficulty which leads me to apply to 
*' N. & Q." for help, is this : I have not been 
able to find a calendar in any Common Prayer- 
Book of the fifth of Edw. VI., or of any other 
year of his reign, which answers to the descrip- 
tion here given. The copies of Edw. VI.'s 
Common Prayer-Books, which I have met with, 
contain only our red-letter Saints' Days, with the 
addition of a very few black-letter days in the 
editions of 1552. The calendar of the primer of 
1553 (as printed in the Liturgies, and other docu- 
ments of King Edw. VI., by the Parker Society, 
1844, p. 365.) contains many more black-letter 
days than the Prayer-Books, but yet does not 
correspond to the calendar Bishop Cosin seems to 
have had before him. 

What adds to the interest of the Inquiry is, that 
the Puritans, at the Savoy Conference, desired 
respecting Saints' Days, " that the names of all 



others (Saints), now inserted in the calendar, which 
are not in the first and second books of Edward the 
Sixth, may be left out." Now Bishop Cosin was 
an active member of the party opposed to the 
Puritans ; but in the Bishop's Answer nothing is 
said which implies, that any books of Edw. Vl. 
contained the Saints' Days objected to. 

I shall be grateful to any of your readers who 
may be able to point out any calendar which cor- 
responds, in the List of Saints' Days, with that 
described by Cosin, Indagatob. 



LEECH QUERIES. 

I hope that you will furnish me with inform- 
ation respecting what appears to me a curious in- 
quiry. We all know that the word leech was 
commonly used some centuries ago to designate a 
physician. It was employed in that sense by 
Spenser, and once (in Timon of Athens) by Shak- 
speare, as well as by many other writers. Sir 
Bulwer Lytton states, in one of the notes ap- 
pended to his novel Harold, that the derivation of 
the word has been perplexing to many of the 
learned, but that leicli is the old Saxon word for 
surgeon ; and that it has been traced to lick or 
lese, a body ; a word not signifying, like the pre- 
sent German Leiche, a dead body. Lich-fe was, 
in Saxon, a physician's fee, as I have been in- 
formed. 

The word has been thought by some to be de- 
rived from a Saxon verb, signifying, like the- 
French lecher, to smooth or assuage. But what I 
wish to ascertain is, whether the worm, the blood- 
sucker, the use of which appears fast disappearing 
from medical practice, was named from the phy- 
sician, or whether the physician was named from 
the little animal ? It is a curious fact, if it can be 
known ; either way showing how great was the 
use of phlebotomy In surgical practice. But how 
great must have been the belief in the benefit of 
these small blood-suckers, If the healing physician 
allowed himself to be called by the same name ! 
We know that the first surgeons were also bar- 
bers. When did the use of the leech come into 
competition with that of the lancet ? Surely some 
old medical works must contain this information, 
and would explain if, like many improvements in 
medical science, the use of leeches was derived 
from the East. C. (2) 



Minax <Sb\xtxiti. 

Foreign Collections of Floral Poetry. — What 
works are there similar to our Poetry of Flowers^ 
and others with like titles, in the French, Italian, 
Spanish, and Portuguese ? Communications from 
foreign booksellers will oblige. A. Challsteth. 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



A Ryder. — Why is an additional clause added 
to a resolution, &c. called " a ryder ? " I know- 
enough of criticism to be aware of the canon, that 
the most obvious meaning of a doubtful word or 
sentence is generally the wrong one. Blackstone, 
in describing the process of making a law, says : 

« The Bill is then ordered to be engrossed, or written 
in strong gross hand, on one or more long rolls or presses 
of parchment sewed together. When this is finished, it 
is read a third time, and amendments are sometimes then 
made to it ; and if a new clause be added, it is done by 
tacking a separate piece of parchment on the bill, which 
is called a ryder (Noy, 84.)."— Blaclistone's Comm., book i. 
ch.2. 

Wm. Fbaser, B.C.L. 

Tor-Mohun. 

" CTokys of War." — John Barbour, Archdea- 
con of Aberdeen, states that King Edward III. 
had artillery in his first campaign against the 
Scots in 1327, and calls the guns " crakys of 
war." (Vide Metrical Life of Robert Bruce, 
pp. 408, 409.) May we credit John Barbour on 
this subject? K. A. 

Sestertium. — I shall be much obliged to any of 
your classical correspondents who will kindly give 
me some rule for determining the sum of the fol- 
lowing figures. They occur in Cicero in Verrem : 

" HS. In millia - - Act II. 1. 2, 25. 

HS. CIoCIo - - - „ 1. 3, 32. 

HS. CIo - - - „ L 4, 17." 

F. M. MiDDLETON. 

Epigram in a Bible. — Who was the writer of 
the following satirical epigram, found inscribed in 
a Bible ? — 

" Hie liber est, in quo quserit sua dogmata quisque, 
Invenit et pariter dogmata quisque sua." 

A.C. 

Eminent Men born in the same Year. — The 
year 1769 was singularly productive of great men : 
Wellington; his military rival Soult; the dis- 
tinguished minister during their campaigns, Vis- 
count Castlereagh ; the Emperor Napoleon I. ; 
Chateaubriand ; Cuvier ; and Sir Walter Scott ! 
Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." adduce the 
names of seven persons equally famous of the same 
age? N. L. T. 

Published Lists of the Users of Hair Poioder. — 
Mr. Pitt, in his budget, 23rd Feb. 1795, when 
laying a tax of \l. \s. per head on hair powder, 
said the names of all those who wore hair powder 
■Would be published. (^Parl. Hist., vol. xxxi. 
1313.) Have such lists ever been published? 
If so, where may they be deposited ? As mention 
has been made of Pitt, perhaps some of your 
readers would tell why the editor (W. S. Hath- 
away) omitted so many of Pitt's budgets ? I 
refer to the edition of 1806. M. M. 



Legal Query. — Does 41 George III. c. 73. ex- 
clude the ministers of the established Kirk of Scot- 
land from sitting in parliament ? Would it ex- 
clude those who have holy orders in the Episcopal 
Church of Scotland ? William Fbaseh, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Burial by Torch-light. — It is an idea very 
generally prevalent that all burials by night are 
illegal, and that none but the Royal family may be 
buried by torch-light. A clerical friend informed 
me that the same statement had been made to 
him on the occasion of his using a candle to assist 
him in reading the office at a late funeral. What 
is the authority for it ? 

William Fbaseb, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

'■'' Proverhes Gascons:" Translation wanted. — 
Perhaps some correspondent, acquainted with the 
Gascon tongue, who has access to a copy of the 
following work, would kindly supply me with a 
translation (English or French) of the Proverbs 
on pp. 10 — 14. : Anciens Proverbes Basques et Gas- 
cons, recueillis par Voltaire et remis au jour par 
G.B.: Paris, 1845. A. Challsteth. 

Nitrous Oxide and Poetry. — I have before me 
a letter written in 1808, and containing a passage 
to the effect, that a Dr. Stancliffe repeated at the 
house of the writer's father some " Lines written 
after inhaling the nitrous oxide," by a living poet. 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." refer me to the 
lines and their author ? I have heard Southey 
named ; but I find no evidence of the fact in his 
printed poems. Dr. Stancliffe was, I believe, a 
popular (Quaker ?) lecturer on chemistry at the 
period alluded to. D. 

'■'■Whychcote of St. John^s." — Some years since 
(Vol. iii., p. 302.) I submitted, under the foregoing 
title, two Queries ; neither of which has been yet 
answered. As I perceive "N. & Q." has now an 
intelligent correspondent at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
to which place my Queries point, perhaps he could 
answer one of them, viz. Who is the author of 
Whychcote of St. John's f H. D. 

Latinizing Proper Names : Index Geographicus. 
Some few years ago a work was published, in Lon- 
don, if I mistake not, explaining the manner in 
which modern proper names, more especially of 
persons, ought to be Latinized, according to 
classical usage. Not remembering either the 
title or the publisher's name, I would feel greatly 
obliged if any of your able correspondents could 
favour me, through the medium of your valuable 
pages, with this information ; also with the title 
of the most copious Index Geographicus of the 
names of countries, cities, towns, &c. in English 
and Latin. A Plain AIan. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



Reply to Leslie's '■'■ Case stated." — Can anyone 
inform me who is the author of the following work, 
which is a Koman Catholic reply to Leslie : 

" The Case stated between the Church of Rome and the 
Church of England, in a Second Conversation betwixt 
a Roman Catholick Lord, and a Gentleman of the Church 
of England, [s. 1.] 1721. 8°"* 

'AAt6J;y. 

Dublin. 



fSiinnx ^vLtxiti iuttfi '^xi&azti, 

" Bridgewater Treatises." — In what year were 
the Bridgewater Treatises established ? with what 
object, and with what endowment? Were they 
limited in number ? and by whom were the sub- 
jects chosen ? Who were appointed as the judges 
of them ? C. (1) 

[The Right Hon. and Rev. Francis Henry Egerton, 
Earl of Bridgewater, died in Feb. 1829, and by his will, 
dated Feb. 2o, 1825, he directed certain trustees, therein 
named, to invest in the public funds the sum of 8000Z. — 
this sum, with the accruing dividends thereon, to be held 
at the disposal of the president for the time being of the 
Royal Society of London, to be paid to the person or 
persons nominated by him. The testator farther directed 
that the person or persons selected by the said president 
should be appointed to write, print, and publish one thou- 
sand copies of a work, "On the Power, Wisdom, and 
Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation; illus- 
trating each work by all reasonable arguments ; as, for 
instance, the variety and formation of God's Creatures in 
the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms ; the 
effect of Digestion, and thereby of Conversion ; the Con- 
struction of the Hand of Man, and an infinite variety of 
other Arguments; as also by Discoveries, ancient and 
modern, in Arts and Sciences, and the whole extent of 
Literature." The late president of the Royal Society, 
Davies Gilbert, Esq., requested the assistance of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and of the Bishop of London, 
in determining upon the best mode of carrying into effect 
the intention of the testator. Acting with this ad\'ice, 
and with the concurrence of a nobleman immediately con- 
nected with the deceased, Mr. Davies Gilbert appointed 
the following eight gentlemen to write separate treatises 
on the different branches of the subject : — Rev. Dr. Chal- 
mers ; John Kidd, M.D. ; Rev. Wm. Whewell ; Sir Chas. 
Bell; Peter Mark Roget, M.D. ; Rev. Dr. Buckland; 
Rev. Wm. Kirby ; and Wm. Prout, M.D. It is to this 
Earl of Bridgewater that the nation is indebted for the 
fine collection of manuscripts in the British Museum, 
called the "Egerton Collection."] 

" Caucus" its Derivation. — Unde derivatur the 
American electioneering word caucus ? Can it 
possibly be from the midtlle age Latin and Greek 
word caucus, kuvkios, KavKia, a cup or vessel? a 



[* We are inclined to think this work is by Robert 
Manning, Professor of Humanity and Philosophy at 
Douay College. About this time, Dodd states. Manning 
published several books of controversy much esteemed 
by the learned : see his Church History, vol. iii. p. 488. 
Dolman, a few years since, republished most of Man- 
ning's productions; and it is probable some clue to the 
authorship of the work noticed by our correspondent will 
be found in these reprints.] 



vessel for receiving voting papers? The Latin 
word is used as early as by St. Jerome and by 
St. Bede. {Eccles. Hist., ii. 16.) I fear this would 
be refining in their terms to a greater degree than 
is probable in America. But can any of your 
correspondents give a better explanation ? 

John B. Cabdale. 
Tavistock Square. 

[Mr. John Pickering, in his Vocabulary, or Collection 
of Words and Phrases, which have been supposed to be 
peculiar to the United States (Boston, 1816), calls caucus 
a cant term, used throughout the United States for those 
meetings which are held by the different political parties, 
for the purpose of agreeing upon candidates for oifice, or 
concerting any measure which they intend to carry at the 
subsequent public or town-meetings. The earliest ac- 
count he has seen of this extraordinary word is in Gordon's 
History of the American Revolution, 1788, vol. i. p. 240. 
Gordon says that more than fifty years previous to the 
time of his writing, " Samuel Adams's father, and twenty 
others, in Boston, one or two from the north end of the 
town, where all ship-business is carried on, used to meet, 
make a caucus," &c. From the fact that the meetings 
were first held in a part of Boston " where all the ship- 
business was carried on," Mr. Pickering infers that caucus 
may be a corruption of caulkers, the word meeting being 
understood. Mr. Pickering was afterwards informed that 
several gentlemen had mentioned this as the origin of the 
word. He thinks he has sometimes heard the expression 
a caucus meeting (caulkers' meeting). Mr. Pickering says, 
that this cant word and its derivatives are never used in 
good writing ; although occasionally found in the news- 
papers of the United States. ] 

Ballad quoted by Burton. — Burton (^Anatomy 
of Melancholy, part iii. sec. ii. memb. 4.) quotes 
from a ballad : 

" Thou honeysuckle of the hawthorn hedge. 
Vouchsafe in Cupid's cup my heart to pledge," &c. 

The reference in the notes is " S. K.. 1600." What 
does this mean ? A. Challsteth. 

[The reference is to one of the satires of Samuel Row- 
lands, and will be found in The Letting of Hvmovrs Blood 
in the Head- Vaine. With a new Morissco, daunced by 
Seauen Satyres, vpon the bottome of Diogenes Tubbe. 
Lond. ISmo! 1600, Satire iv., Sig. E.] 

Family Arms. — Can any of your readers give 
me any information as to the arms of a family 
" Manzy," and the arms of the family " Prevost." 

[The arms of Prevost are given in Robson's British 
Herald: — "Prevost, Bart. (Belmont, Hants, 6th Dec. 
1805) az. a dexter arm, in fesse, issuing from the sinister 
fesse point, the hand grasping a sword, erect, ppr. pomel 
and hilt or; in chief two mullets ar. Crest, a demi-lion 
ramp. az. charged on the shoulder with a mural crown or, 
the sinister paw grasping a sword, erect, as in the arms. 
Supporters (assigned by Royal Sign-manual : vide Ga- 
zette, 11th Sept. 1816) on each side a grenadier of the 
sixteenth, or Bedfordshire, regiment of foot, each sup- 
porting a banner; that on the dexter side inscribed 
' West Indies,' and that on the sinister, ' Canada.' Motto, 
Servatum sincere." We cannot discover the arms of 
Manzy.] 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29^ 



Menenius. — To whom are we indebted for 
an 8vo. volume of pamphlets, published a few 
years ago, and entitled Ireland : the Political 
Tracts of Menenixis f On their appearance from 
the press they attracted a considerable share of 
public attention. Abhba. 

[These remarkable political tracts are attributed to 
Digby Pilot Sarkie in the Catalogue of the British 
Museum. ] 

Hanwell, Oxon, — Can either of your correspon- 
dents supply, or give a reference to any work 
containing, information respecting a ruin called 
The Castle in this parish ? also a Dr. Gill, who 
was the rector about fifty years ago ? N. 

[Some account of Sir Antony Cope's "gallant house at 
Hanwell," as Leland calls it, will be found in the Beauties 
of England and Wales, vol. xii. part ii. p. 518.] 



QOLDEN TABLE OF LUNEBURG (Vol. V., p. 256. ; 

Vol. vii., p, 355. ; Vol. x., p. 428.) : ancient 

PUNISHMENT OP THE JEWS (Vol. X., p. 126.) 

I have never seen the Vortrefflich Geddchtniss 
der Gottlicher Regierung, but have a Dutch trans- 
lation, the abridged title-page of which is 

" Verhael van meede geplegede en nooit gehoorde Dief- 
stallen, als voornamentlyk an de zeer beruchte Goude 
Tafel, in 't Hooge Autaar van St. Michiels Kerke te 
Lunenburg. Door M. S. H. uit de Hoogduits vertaald. 
Amsterdam, 1710, 4to., pp. 425." 

The book contains the lives, deaths, and por- 
traits of twelve leading members of a large and 
well-organised gang of thieves, who operated 
chiefly on churches and goldsmiths' warehouses. 
The most important of the many cases proved 
againstthera was the plunder of the golden table 
at Luneburg. Besides the portraits there are — 
a frontispiece, in four divisions, representing the 
thief's career, stealing, spending, imprisonment, 
hanging ; an Indian plant called Datura, used to 
produce temporary unconsciousness in persons 
intended to be robbed ; and three folding plates : 

1. The place of execution at Zell, with the bodies 
of the culprits, showing how each was executed ; 

2. A plan of the golden table, with the parts which 
were not stripped distinguished in stipple ; and 

3. An engraving from a drawing of the pictures 
on the table. These seem to have been beautiful. 
The body is divided into eighteen compartments, 
each illustrating an event of Gospel history ; 
and on each of the two volets twelve saints are 
painted. 

How the table got to St. Michael's Church is 
not known. The received tradition was, that it 
was made from the gold and jewels which Otto IL, 
in the year 965, won from the Saracens at a great 
battle m Italy. So many were killed that it bore 



the name of "Pallida Mors Sarecenorum," yet 
there is no satisfactory evidence that any such 
battle was fought. Another tradition is, that the 
table was taken from the Greeks when they were 
defeated at Apulia by Otto I. Upon these points 
the author refers to H. Bunting's Brunswyckse en 
Lunenburgsche Cronyk, fo. 47. ; Meibomius, Iter. 
Germ., tom. iii. p. 77. ; and Wittichindus, Annal. 
i. 3. 

The table stood at the back of the high altar of 
St. Michael's Church. It was safe on Wednesday, 
March 9, 1698. On the following Sunday the 
sacristan, going to open the doors, found them 
forced, and the table stripped of nearly all the 
gold and jewels. Two lists are given ; one of the 
articles stolen, the other of those left. The first 
contains 105 items of enormous value ; the second 
only 21, and those mostly relics in silver or ivory 
boxes. 

In the second folding plate a place marked 
No. 3. is vacant. The explanation is — 

" Eenig goud, dat zekere Koningin van England in 
steede van dat zy'er wel eer ten Sieraad haarer kroone hadde 
uitgenoomen, volgens oude gedenkenisse zou weder vereerd 
hebben. Want vermids deze Koningin zinneloos wierd, 
heeft men dit volgens het oude erfgeruchte, aan haare 
kroon toegeschreven, en haar vervolgens geraaden het 
goud aan de Tafel weder te schenken ; waar van de 
kruis-beelden, in het tweede vak van vooren te reekenen, 
en in het tweede van 't laatste staande, die van een tame- 
lyke breete en hoogte waren, en met edel gesteente en 
paerlen bezet, gemaakt zyn ; en in gemelde vakken 
onder No. 3. stonden." — P. 377. 

I think there can be no doubt that the above 
relates to the crown mentioned by Paul Hentzner. 
Who was the "certain queen?" At p. 364. the 
author pauses between two executions, and says : 

" Tegenwoordig will ik de oude overlevering van een 
zekere Koninginne uit Engeland niet gaan ouderzoeken, 
die, van deze Tafel lets tot sieraad haarer kroone verzogt, 
en na dat men 'er het zelve uitgenomen hadde, eerlang 
zinnelos wierd, derhalven zy vervolgens twee goude 
kruis-beelden van eener groote, nevens het goud wede- 
rom zond. Zeker ist, dat er in een bezondere Lyst op 
veele plaatsen iets ingelast was, dat men uit de bleeke 
kleur, tegens 't andere goud te rekenen, ligtelyk kon 
merken. Indien 'er eertyds diergelyks was vorgevallen, 
zoo hadde men reden te denken, dat zulks ten tyde van 
Henryke Leo moest gebeurt zj'n, die met de Engelsche 
Prinses Machtild, Dogter van Konig Henrik den Tweede, 
gehouwd was, en als Bruid, in den Jaare 1168 uit de 
lande gevoerd met Hartog Henrik Leo, te Minden voor 
St. Pieters Autaar het Huwelyk sloot, dat ook in 't vol- 
gende Jaar 1169, met een plegtige Bylegering zeer prag- 
tig te Bronswyk voltrokken wierd. Als wanner men toeu 
met Engeland in een vertrouwelyk Vrendschap leefde." 

A slight foundation for a charge of larceny ! 

The table, though impoverished, was of import- 
ance in 1710. I find no subsequent notice of it 
in the descriptions of Luneburg to which I have 
referred. Several things worth seeing there are 
enumerated in Murray's Handbook of Northern 
Germany for 1854, but none of those in the 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



•second inventory. It is said, however, "In an- 
other apartment, under lock and key, is the 
corporation plate. Many of the vessels are 
masterpieces of goldsmiths' work of the fifteenth 
century" (p. 329.) Perhaps some relic of the 
table may be found among these ; and I hope 
readers likely to visit Luneburg will make a note 
to look. 

The book describes with tedious minuteness the 
discovery, trials, and executions of the thieves. I 
shall enter into these no farther than is necessary 
to answer P. B. E.'s Query. On March 21, 1699, 
six were executed at Zell. Christian Zwanke and 
Andrew Z wart were broken on the wheel; Jur- 
jam Kramer and Christopher Pante were be- 
headed, — the sentence states that the beheading 
was a favour, because they had confessed without 
being tortured, and Pante had behaved with 
credit as a soldier ; Gideon Peerman and Jonas 
Meyer were hanged, — no reason for the distinc- 
tion is given in the sentences. Perhaps some 
might be discovered by a careful perusal of the 
Jhistory ; perhaps it was only for variety. The 
Court, in its post-mortem treatment of Jonas 
Meyer, showed folly enough to warrant the sus- 
picion. At the scaffold Andrew Zwart* blas- 
phemed and behaved with great violence, but 
grew calmer and joined in prayer just before he 
was broken. The Jew Meyer persisted in re- 
pelling the ministers, and blasphemed till he was 
drawn up. This being told to the Court, on the 
next day a strange judgment was given : 

" That the body of Jonas Meyer be taken from the place 
of execution and brought before the Court, and that the 
tongue with -which lie has blaspliemed God be torn from 
his throat and publicly burned ; that the body be dragged 
back to the place of execution, and there hung up by the 
feet with a dog by its side." 

Absurd and shocking as this was, it was not in- 
flicted on Jonas Meyer as a Jew, but as a blas- 
phemer. 

On May 23, 1699, six more of the gang were 
executed : two were broken on the wheel, the 
other four hanged. Two of the latter were Jews. 
It was expected that Christian Miiller would 
speak ill of the authorities as Zwart did, and 
that the two Jews would blaspheme, after the 
example of Meyer ; so they were told that if they 
did their tongues should be torn out before their 
execution, and the executioner was ordered to 
have an assistant ready with the proper instru- 
ments. The assistant, fully prepared for action 
(met gloijenden tavgeri), accompanied them to 

* "Dezen Misdader, over zyn voorgeleezen Straf- 
vonnis, in hevigen toorm ontsteeken, koa door geene re- 
denen tot bedaaren gebragt worden. Zyn gemoed 
stoud, Avegens yver en wraaklust, in vollen vlam, en 
braakte, in de tegenwoordigheid van alle aanscliouwers, 
gelyk de Berg Vesuvius, somwylen geheele klompen van 
weerwraak uit." — P. 287. 



the scaiTold, but his services were not required 
(p. 361.). 

In July, 1700, two more of the gang, one of 
whom was a Jew, were simply hanged (p. 367.). 

The translator, in his preface, states that the 
original work had gone through two editions, and 
that the author, a Protestant minister, was dead. 
He acted as gaol-chaplain, attending the prisoners 
after sentence, and at their execution. Telling 
the truth seems to be his only merit. His matter 
is a mixture of Newgate calendar and condemned 
sermon — facts, morals, and theology jumbled into 
almost inextricable confusion, so that it would be 
as difficult to arrange a connected and continuous 
story or sets of stories from it as to make a draw- 
ing of the back of an engine-turned watch. Even 
the dates are confused, the yeiir being often sepa- 
rated from the month, and the month from the 
day, by twenty or more pages about what took 
place at twenty different times, some before and 
some after that which is wanted. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



MILITARY TITLES. 

(Vol. X., pp.433. 511.) 

There are three distinct classes of commissioned 
officers in the army, viz. the company officers, the 
regimental or field officers, and the general officers. 
Of these three classes, the captain, the colonel, 
and the general may be considered respectively 
the chiefs ; each having a locum tenens and a 
second assistant, thus : 

1. Captain Colonel General. 

2. Lieutenant Lieut. -Colonel Lieut.-General. 

3. Second Lieutenant) ■., . at • n i 

or Ensign - ]^^^i°^ Major-General. 

Here the junior, or No. 3, of each class is only 
major to the senior of the class immediately be- 
low him. 

It will thus be observed, that the major belongs 
to a distinct class from the lieutenant, and cannot 
be compared with him ; as a lieutenant-general 
may be compared with the major-general, being 
in the same class. The lieutenant being in each 
case the second officer of his class, the third being 
supplemental. 

If for an instant we allow the head of each 
class to be called magnus (the great man of his 
class), the second will of course be minor to him ; 
and, to continue the supposition, the junior will 
be minimus (of his class). Starting with these 
data, and carrying on the comparison into the 
next higher class, the junior of that class being 
senior to magnus becomes major. 

Your correspondent Archdeacon Cotton sug- 
gests : 

" Whenever any of the last three (major, lieutenant- 
colonel, and colonel), who are called field officers, are 



J"an. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



intrusted with higher and more extensive commands, the 
word general is added to their respective ranlvs, and the 
titles are shortened in the following manner: captain- 
major-general, lieutenant-coZoweZ-general, and colonel- 
general." 

Does he mean that the major becomes a major- 
general, the lieut.-colonel a lieut.-general, and 
the colonel a general ? Surely not. 

At the risk of being tedious, I v?ill give an ex- 
tract from the Queen's Regulations, which will 
show what the colonel does become when intrusted 
with a higher and more extensive command : 
Command and Bank of Officers. 

" 3. Officers serving on the staff in the capacity of briga- 
dier-generals, are to take rank and precedence from their 
commissions as colonels in the army, and not from the 
dates of their appointments as brigadiers." — P. 3. 

Thus we see the colonel intrusted with a higher 
command is not a general officer ; he is not given 
a higher commission, he is appointed to a supple- 
mental grade in his own class as a colonel. The 
army in the Crimea has afforded numerous in- 
stances of colonels being appointed to brigades, 
and subsequently gazetted to commissions as 
major-generals ; that is, to the rank of a general- 
7najor to the former titles of brigadier-generals, 
oV in reality of colonels. The title may be con- 
sidered as msi^OT-brigadier-genera.1 : 

" 5. Captains having the brevet-rank of field officers 
are to do duty as field officers in camp and garrison ; but 
they are to perform all regimental duties, according to 
their regimental rank, agreeably to the established rules 
of the service." — P. 3. 

Here again we see the captain jealously kept to 
his own class as a company officer. 

The final inference I would therefore draw is, 
that a major and a lieutenant being in distinct 
classes, and having no intimate connexion with 
each other, cannot be compared as can a lieutenant- 
general and a major-general. The term major 
implies only two persons under comparison : had 
three been intended (the lieutenant, the captain, 
and the major himself), the word would have 
been maximus. 

1 hope that the foregoing will answer O. S. 
with regard to the major-colonel he refers to. 

Page 1. of the Queens Regulations will show 
Archdeacon Cotton that the term '■^captain- 
general or field-marshal commanding the army," 
is recognised though not used in the British army. 
It means the general at the head (caput') of the 
generals. R. A. 



THE PALiEOLOGI. 



(Vol. X., pp. 351. 409. &c.) 

Perhaps it may interest Sir J. E. Tennent and 
the other contributors to " N. & Q." on the sub- 
ject of the last of the Palaeologi, to know, that a 
branch of that imperial house settled in Malta, 



and descendant?, in the female line, still exist, 
and occupy an honourable position in society. It 
appears by a pedigree, sufficiently proved by bulls 
and grants of various popes and emperors, and 
other documentary evidences, the enumeration of 
which would occupy too much valuable space, 
that Giorgio Palaeologus, sixth in descent from 
Teodoro, Prince of Thebes and Corinth, third son 
of the Emperor Manuel, settled in Malta about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. Maria 
Palaeologus, daughter and heiress of this Giorgio, 
married one Filippo Stafragi, and left an only 
daughter, wife of a Roman patrician, Michaele 
Wizzini. In the fourth generation this family 
ended also in a daughter, Maria Wizzini- 
Pala3ologo, who carried the imperial name and 
blood into the family of the Counts Ciantar, a 
Maltese race of some note and antiquity. The 
great-granddaughter of this marriage espoused 
Dr. Francesco Chapelle, one of the judges of her 
Majesty's superior courts of law, and in her issue, 
I believe, the representation of this branch of the 
imperial house remains. 

I remember to have met in society, some years 
ago, in London and Paris, a certain John Palseo- 
logus, a Greek, and an oriental scholar of some 
pretension, who claimed to be a scion of the im- 
perial family. John o' the Forp. 

Having met with a passage respecting this 
family in looking over A Survey of the Turkish 
Empire, Sfc, by C. Eton (8vo. London, 1799), I 
venture to transcribe it, upon the possibility that 
it may possess some interest for your correspon- 
dents under this head. At p. 373. of this work is 
preserved a memorial, presented in April 1790 to 
the Empress of Russia, by three deputies from the 
Greek nation, in which these words occur : 

" Give us for a sovereign your grandson Constantine ; 
it is the Avish of our nation (the family of our emperors is 
extinct), and we shall become what our ancestors were." 

To this Mr. Eton adds the following note : 

" In Europe we are apt to think that those who bear 
the names of Comnenos, Paleologos, &c., are descendants 
of the imperial family ; the Greeks however, themselves, 
have no such notions ; they are either christian names 
given them at their baptism, or that they have taken 
afterwards, and they only descend to the second genera- 
tion. A man is called Nicolaos Papudopulo ; the former 
is his name received in baptism, and the latter a surname, 
because he was the son of a priest ; his sons take the 
sni-name of Nicolopulo (son of Nicolaos) added to their 
christian name, and the children the father's christian 
name as a surname. Those of Fanar have, particularly 
lately, affected to keep great names in their families, 
which were only christian names, or names which they 
have taken of themselves, or were afterwards given them 
by their parents, relations, or friends. The same may be 
said of some names in the Archipelago, particularly when 
the family has preserved for some generations more pro- 
perty than their neighbours ; but their names do not add 
to their respect among the other Greeks, who all know 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



the origin of them, and have not the least notion that 
there is any lineal descent to be traced of their ancient 
imperial or noble families, notwithstanding the pretensions 
often of some of them, who bear their names when they 
come to Europe." — P. 373. 

William Bates. 
Birmingham. 



LORD clarendon's RIDING-SCHOOL AT OXFORD. 

(Vol. X., p. 185.) 

In the preface to the orij^inal folio edition of 
the Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon (Oxford, 
1759), the following passage occurs : 

" The reason why this history has lain so long con- 
cealed, will appear from the title of it, which shows that 
his lordship intended it only for the information of his 
children. But the late Lord Hyde, judging that so faith- 
fill and authentic an account of this interesting period of 
our history, would be aa useful 'and acceptable present to 
the public, and bearing a grateful remembrance of this 
place of his education, left by his will this and the other 
remains of his great-grandfather in the hands of trustees, 
to be printed at our press, and directed that the profits 
arising from the sale should be employed towards the es- 
tablishing a riding-school in the university. But Lord 
Hyde dying before his father, the then Earl of Clarendon, 
the property of these papers never became vested in him, 
and consequently this bequest was void. However, the 
noble heiresses of the Earl of Clarendon, out of their re- 
gard to the public, and to this seat of learning, have been 
pleased to fulfil the kind intentions of Lord Hyde, and 
adopt a scheme recommended both by him and his great- 
grandfather.* To this end they have sent to the uni- 
versit}' this history, to be printed at our press, on con- 
dition that the profits arising from the sale of this work 
be applied as a beginning for a fund for supporting a 
manage, or academy for riding, and other useful exer- 
cises, in Oxford." 

In Gibbon's Memoirs of his own life, he thus 
alludes to the subject : 

" According to the will of the donor, the profit of the 
second part of Lord Clarendon's history has been applied 
to the establishment of a riding-school, that the polite 
exercises might be taught, I know not with what success, 
in the university." 

Upon this passage Dean Milman makes the 
following remark : 

" See the advertisement to Lord Clarendon's Beligion 
and Policy, published at the Clarendon Press, 1811. It 
appears that the property is vested in certain trustees, 
who have probably found it impracticable to carry the 
intentions of the testator into effect. If, as I am informed, 
the riding-school depends in the least on the sale of the 
Heligion and Policy, the university is not likely soon to 
obtain instruction in that useful and manly exercise." — 
Ed. Milman, pp. 83. 86. 

In the advertisement prefixed to the Religion 
and Policy (Oxford, 1811), it is stated that the 
Duchess-Dowager of Queensberry gave the MSS. 
in question by deed to Dr. Robert Drummond, 
Archbishop of York, William Earl of Mansfield, 
and Dr. William Markham, Bishop of Chester, 

* See his Dialogue on Edxtcation. 



upon trust for the like purposes as those ex- 
pressed by Lord Hyde in the codicil to his will. 
It is added that the then present trustees, Wil- 
liam Earl of Mansfield ; John, Lord Bishop of 
London ; the Rt. Hon. Charles Abbot, Speaker of 
the House of Commons ; and the Rev. Dr. Cyril 
Jackson, late Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, 
having found the MS. of Religion and Policy 
among the Clarendon Papers, have proceeded in 
the execution of their trust to publish it. This 
advertisement, however, affords no explanation of 
the reasons which induced the trustees to abstain 
from taking any steps for performing the condition 
with respect to the establishment of a riding- 
school, upon which the manuscript of the Life of 
Lord Clarendon, and his other papers, were ac- 
cepted by the university. 

It is possible that the profits arising from the 
sale of the Life and the other manuscripts, which 
were at the same time presented to the university, 
were not sufficient to defray the cost of a riding- 
school ; but it does not appear that any statement 
of the inadequacy of the trust fund for the pre- 
scribed object, or any other explanation of the 
course which they pursued, was ever published by 
the trustees. L* 



WORKS ON BELLS. 

(Vol. ix., p. 240. — Additional List.) 

Miller's Church Bells. "Words to Ringers. 12mo., 1845. 

Beaufoy's (S.) Ringer's true Guide. 12mo., 1804. 

Reeve's Representation of an Irish Ecclesiastical Bell of 
St. Patrick. Fol., Belfast, 1850. 

Orders of the Company of Ringers in Cheapside, &c., 
from Feb. 2, 1603, MS. cxix. in All Souls' Library. 

Lampe de Cymbalis Veterum. 

Laurentius, CoUectio de Citharedis, Fistulis, et Tin- 
tinnabulis. 

Barbosa (D. Aug.), Duo Vota consultiva, unum de Cam- 
panis, alterum de Cemetariis. 4to., 1640. (" Libellus 
rarissimus," "N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 310.) 

Quinones (De Johan., D.D.), Specialis Tractatus de 
Campana in Villa dicta Vililla in Diocesi Csesaraugustana 
in Hispania, 1625. 

Pj'gius (Albert), Hist. Ang. 

August de Herrera, De Pulsatione Campanarum pro 
Defunctis. 

Laurentius Beyerlink. 

The last four are among those quoted by Bar- 
bosa in his very rare little book, which I had 
not met with when I published the list (Vol. ix., 
p. 240.), for the loan of which I am since indebted 
to the courtesy and kindness of its possessor. 

R. Hospinianus, in his volume (1672) De Tem- 
plis, has an interesting section " De Campanis 
et earum Consecratione." This author quotes 
largely from Johan. Beleth, Thos. Nageorgus, 
and Thos. Rorarius, 1570. 

Forster, in his Perennial Calendar, p. 616., re- 
fers to a memoir of Reaumur, in Memoirs of the 
Paris Academy, on the shape of bells. 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



M. Chateaubriand, in vol. iii. of his Genie de 
Chretienisme, chap. prem. " Des Cloches," has 
some beautiful remarks on bells. 

Dionysius Bar. Salibi, in the twelfth century, 
wrote on bells. This is on the authority of Mr. 
Fletcher, in his Notes on Nineveh. 

Allow me to correct an error in my Note of a 
bell inscribed " Signis cessandis," &c. (Vol. x., 
p. 332.). It is at Clapton, not Weston, in Gor- 
dano. 



The following Notes on bells and ringing may 
be acceptable to some of the readers of " N. & Q." 

Sermon Bell. — In the injunctions of Edw. VI., 
quoted from Sparrow's Coll. in Cranmer's Lettefs, 
by Parker Society, p. 498. : 

"All ringing and knolling of bells shall be utterly for- 
borne at that time (Litany, Mass, &c.), except one bell 
in convenient time to be rung or knolled before the ser- 
mon." 

Bell-ringing on Allhallows Day, at night, with 
other ceremonies, abolished by a minute of the 
king's letter to Archbishop Cranmer, 1546. (See 
the Letter published by Parker Society, p. 414.) 

Easter Bells. — Bells were never rung during the 
last three days of Passion week (Roccha) ; and on 
Easter Day no bells could be rung before the bells 
of the cathedral or mother church were rung. This 
was settled under Leo X., a.d. 1521, by an order 
of the Lateran Council. The number of bells in 
a parish church was limited to three by a decision 
of Char. Boromeo in the sixteenth century. 

Before the Reformation no layman was allowed 
to be a ringer ; the isfSce was confined to eccle- 
siastics, and it is said they were obliged to per- 
form their office in surplice. If so, it is a proof 
that in those days there could be nothing but 
tolling and chiming; for it would be dangerous 
and difficult to ring in a surplice. And yet, to 
quote from Fosbroke's Abridgment of Smith's 
Lives of the Berkeleys, p. 166., there were "good 
rings of bells formerly, because so much employed 
in funerals." At the ceremonial of Lady Isable, 
wife of Mauric Berkely, who died 1520, there is 
the entry, — 

"Item. Kyngyng daily with all the bells continually, 
that is to say, — 

At St. Michell's ... xxxiij peles. 

At Trinitie - - - . xxxiij peles. 

At St. John's ... xxxiij peles. 

At Babyllake, because it was so nigh Ivii peles. 

And in the Mother Church the - xxx peles. 

And every pele xiid." 

The peals rung on Christmas Eve or Christmas 
morning were called "the Virgin chimes." 

The ^^ pardon bell" was silenced by Shaxton, 
Bishop of Sarum, in 1538, according to Burnet, 
in his Reformation, book iii. p. 14. : 

" That the bell called the Pardon or Ave Bell, which 
of longe tyme hathe been used to be tolled three tymes 



after and before divine service, be not hereafter in any 
part of my diocesse any more tollyd." 

Query, What was the pardon bell ? 

H. T. Ellacombb. 

Clyst St. George. 

I send for insertion a cutting from the old book 
catalogue of John O'Daly (9. Anglesea Street, 
Dublin), thinking it may prove an addition to the 
list of books on the same subject which have al- 
ready appeared in your pages : 

" 47. Bells. Roccha (A. Fr. Angelo, Episcopo Taga- 
stensi), de Campanis Commentarius, plates, 4to. vellum, 
extremely rare, 5/. Romae, 1612. 

" The author of this curious and unique work must be 
an Irishman ; as there is a portion of it devoted to Irish 
bells, and to the powerful effect produced by the ringing 
of bells in expelling demons ; although there are demons 
that could not be rooted out, had all the bells that ever 
were manufactured and consecrated been rung at their 
heels." 

Will some of your readers who may have studied 
the subject, and have examined this work, give an 
account of it and its author ? Enivel 

Cushendall, Antrim. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Oji developing long-excited Collodion Plates. — To ascer- 
tain the limit within which syruped collodion plates will 
give perfect negatives, I have, during the last three weeks, 
made a number of experiments with 8^x6^ plates. The 
mean temperature during that period was 46°, and the 
mean degree of humidity SSQ. The plates were iodized 
as usual, immersed in a one-grain nitrate-of-silver bath 
for a few seconds, drained, and coated with two doses of 
syrup. It is much better to be a little prodigal of syrup, 
and make sure work with it ; for if it is repeatedly used 
there is great risk, in long-excited plates, of the reduction 
of some of the nitrate of silver it contains, and consequent 
speckling of the negative. I got perfect negatives with 
plates kept up to 198 hours ; but, taking the average of 
eight experiments, I should say that 150 hours is about 
the limit, after which there is more or less uncertainty. 
Beyond this time, owing to the hardening of the syrup, 
and its almost total insolubility in the one-grain bath, 
the negatives were very defective, the image being ex- 
tremely faint, and obscured by a veil of indurated syrup, 
and the plate mottled over with black patches. 

The syrup, after it has been on the plate a short time, 
consists of two layers ; an outer one, which remains soft 
and hygrometric for a long time, and is soluble in cold 
water; and an inner film next the collodion, a compound 
of syrup and nitrate of silver, which is insoluble in cold 
water. This is easily proved by washing the plate in a 
vertical glass bath, when this layer is seen separating in 
bran-like scales, the water mechanically removing it. 
This inner layer, after about 150 hours, becomes adherent 
to the collodion, at first round the margins of the plate, 
then to the whole surface, covering it as with a varnish 
which no amount of washing in cold water will remove. 

Seeing, however, that plates kept long beyond th« 
above periods were still sensitive, yielding images, al- 
though extremely imperfect, 1 felt satisfied that could 
the indurated syrup be removed, perfect negatives might 
stiU be obtained. It occurred to me that steaming the 



S4 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



plate would probably dissolve this indurated syrup, and 
after a few trials I met with perfect success. 

The following is the method I have pursued'with plates 
which had been excited upwards of ten days before expo- 
^i\re in the camera; and you may judge of its success by 
the positives I send (one being from a negative which 
had been kept 271 hours), although I am satisfied that 
the limit to the keeping of plates, with this manipulation, 
extends much beyond that period. 

On removing the plate from the dark slide, immerse it 
in the one-grain bath for five minutes, to remove the 
outer syrup ; drain it ; then hold it, collodion downwards, 
over the steam of boiling water poured into a flat pan, 
for about ten minutes, taking care to keep the plate four 
or five inches from the surface of the water ; the indurated 
syrup will gradually be seen to dissolve, and by inclining 
the plate the greater part is easily run off any angle you 
choose. Allow the plate to drain and cool ; then remove 
the remaining syrup by gently pouring over it distilled 
water. Having drained the plate, pour on pyrogallic 
acid (no image appears under this) ; after a minute or 
two, when the collodion has been well impregnated, pour 
off the pyro. into a glass containing about twenty-five 
minirns of a ten-grm'n nitrate-of-silver solution, and im- 
mediately pour it over the plate ; the image rapidly comes 
out, and may be developed as usual to any extent. With 
some kinds of collodion, or in very cold weather, it may 
be advisable, before using the pyro., either to pour over 
the plate a weak solution of nitrate of silver, or to mix 
the nitrate of silver with the pyro. in the first instance. 
I merely suggest this, having as yet found the method I 
have given quite sufficient. 

Steaming the plates cleans them so perfectly, and gives 
us such mastery over this method, that it is always better 
they should be so treated, whenever there is the least fear 
that the syrup is indurated. Thos. L. Mansell. 

Guernsey, 

CoUodionized Glass Plates, Sfc. — It is with some con- 
siderable regret that I find myself difi'ering from so expe- 
rienced a photographer as Mr. F. M. Lyte has proved 
himself. Such however being the case, there is no 
alternative but to give expression to my opinions, or else 
to be silent, and thus tacitly admit the correctness of a 
statement which I can by no means accede to. 

In Mr. Lyte's late communication (Vol. x., p. 511.) he 
states that my preservative process seems to differ in no 
essential point from his instantaneous one, except that Mr. 
Lyte mixes the nitrate of silver with the syrup, whereas 
I wash off all but a slight trace, and add none to the 
syrup ; and then adds that I am a discovei'er quite as in- 
dependent 'as himself, thereby seeming to imply that his 
original object was as much to preserve the sensitiveness 
of the plate as to obtain a more highly exalted condition 
of impressionability. Now, the exception alluded to ap- 
pears to me to be the most essential difference that can 
well be conceived ; and Mr. Lyte says, " I never leave it 
(the nitrate of silver) out of the syrup as he does, as that 
causes unequal development." 

That the latter allegation is totally unfounded I can 
most readily prove, having sent eight pictures to the 
forthcoming exhibition that have been thus taken, not 
one of which has the fault complained of. 

Moreover, I find from experience that the addition of 
nitrate of silver to the syrup materially interferes with 
the keeping qualities of the plate thus treated, more 
especially if the weather be at all warm. In Mr. Lyte's 
original process, as published in " N. & Q." (Vol. ix., 
p. 570.), the quantity of nitrate of silver there directed 
■would certainly spoil the plate in less than twelve hours ; 
the quantity recently adopted is very infinitesimal, but 



the whole process as now given appears to me to be but 
a variation of mine, directions for making grape sugar 
being interpolated. 

That Mr. Lyte was experimenting upon grape sugar, 
honej', &c. simultaneously with myself does not admit of 
a doubt, but his object in using it and mine were totally 
different, so far as I can judge by his published state- 
ments. Most assuredly mine was not any exaltation in 
sensibility, but preservation of what it had, either entirely 
or partially ; and in this research I was not indebted to 
any one for a single hint, beyond what I have already 
stated as due to Messrs. Spiller and Crooke, viz. that of 
exciting the plate first and preserving it afterwards. 

With regard to the efficacy of the formula I last gave 
(Vol. x., pp. 372. 452.), I may state that, on the 30th of 
last November, I excited and preserved six plates for 
small stereoscopic negatives, and was only able to use 
four of them on that day, and from press of business had 
no opportunity of using the remaining two until Decem- 
ber 28, exactly _/bur weeks from the time of exciting. I 
did not develope the pictures until twelve hours after 
exposure, yet the result is most satisfactory, being per- 
fectly dense pictures and most evenly developed. 

In conclusion, I cannot but express my regret that I 
am thus obliged to appear in an antagonistic position 
with Mr. Lyte, possibly in consequence of some mis- 
apprehension on my part as to his meaning, or some over- 
sensitiveness to an implied plagiarism. 

George Shadbolt. 



The biographical dictionary of living authors 
(Vol. xi., p. 17.). — The late Mr. Frederick Sho- 
berl, printer to his royal highness prince Albert, 
printed three volumes under my inspection — all 
for private distribution. The last volume was the 
Memoirs of my friend Mr. Ralmbach, which vyas 
completed in 1843. I continued, however, to call 
on Mr. Shoberl from time to time till almost the 
close of his short career. 

I there sometimes met his father, Mr. Frederic 
Shoberl, and on one of those occasions the con- 
versation turned on the National Benevolent 
Institution. "I gave my votes," said I, "In favour 
of Watkins, the author of the Biographical dic- 
tionary'" — "and of the Biographical dictionary 
of living authors,'' added Mr. Shoberl senior. 
"What! was he the author of that work?" So 
far I can report our colloquy almost verbatim, but 
must now have recourse to narrative. Mr. Sho- 
berl proceeded to assure me, in presence of his 
son, that the work was written by Watkins as far 
as the letter F — that some dispute with the pub- 
lisher then arose — that the materials were there- 
fore handed over to himself — and that he com- 
pleted the work as it now appears. 

Mr. Upcott may have contributed biographical 
cuttings, as he told me that he had made a collec- 
tion of such materials, but in the Catalogue of the 
library of the London Institution the work was 
entered by himself as anonymous. 

A list of the works written, revised, translated, 
or edited by Mr. Shoberl would equal in extent 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



any one to be found in his own volume. The 
first is dated in 1800 ; the last, I believe, in 1850. 
As it is in few hands, I subjoin the title of it : 

" The patriot father ; an historical play, in five acta. 
Freely translated from the German of Augustus von 
Kotzebue by Frederic Shoberl. London: printed for 
private circulation only, [by F. Shoberl junior] 1850." 
8vo. pp. 66. 

Bolton Cornet. 

^^ Political Register." — Your correspondent P. 
R. (Vol. X., p. 492.), after declaring, " the writers 
in it are not known to me, and to speculate on 
the subject would occupy too much of your 
space," concludes by stating " Wilkes was cer- 
tainly a conti'ibutor." How is this apparent in- 
consistency to be explained ? or is this merely a 
random assertion, resting on no other ground than 
the attention (not unnatural, looking at the cir- 
cumstances of the time and the character of the 
publication) which the Political Register paid to 
Mr. Wilkes' affairs ? C. Ross. 

Irish Newspapers (Vol. x., p. 473.). — Your 
correspondent William John Fitzpatrick, 
Monkstown, Dublin, states that " the Public Re- 
gister or Freeman s Journal appeared on Satur- 
day, Sept. 10, 1763. ISaunders sprang into vitality 
almost simultaneously with the Freeman, but is 
I believe its junior." 

As I know the character of " N. & Q." to be to 
elicit facts, I have to state that No. 13. of the ori- 
ginal of Saunders's News Letter is in my posses- 
sion, styled Fsdailes News Letter, bearing date 
Wednesday, February 5, 1745. 

In 1754, Henry Saunders, printer, became pro- 

Erietor, and changed the name, calling it after 
imself, as his predecessor had done. At this 
period it was published three times a week. 

_ In 1777 it became a daily paper, and has con- 
tinued so ever since; having now attained the 
greatest amount of circulation ever enjoyed by 
any daily paper in Ireland. These are facts which 
cannot be gainsayed, and I authenticate them with 
my signature. JI. B^ 

Dublin. 

The Belfast News Letter would appear to be 
the oldest of the existing Irish newpapers (pro- 
vincial or other). It was established in the year 
1737. For many years it was published twice, 
it is now published thrice a week. 

Joseph Wakrin Dobbin, A.M. 

7, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. 

Flemings in England (Vol. x., p. 485.). — 
M.D. is informed that many Flemings came to 
England with William the Conqueror, more in 
Henry I.'s time, and many as mercenaries, to help 
the Norman barons to hold their grants against 
the Welsh. That the chief authorities for the 



above are, William of Malmesbury, book v. ,' 
Girahlus Cambrensis, book xi. ; Leland, torn. viii. ; 
Holinshed, vol. ii. : Camden, p. 154., and p. 652. 
folio edition ; George Owen and Hoveden, to 
which one or two others may be added. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror's queen was Countess of 
Flanders. 

As to names, if M. D. would favour Welsh 
archaeologists with some of the more ancient 
Flemish names, could they be communicated by a 
native of Flanders, it might be of service to them, 
living as they do among the descendants of the 
Flemish, who were collected together from the 
more fertile provinces of England, where they are: 
said to have "swarmed" to the no little discontent 
of his nobles, and drafted into South Wales by 
Henry. 

Of the names mentioned by M. D., most of thera 
seem to be of Norman origin. Kemp and Vayle 
are conjectured to be Flemish, and are found still 
in South Wales. The result of inquiries after 
names and customs in Flanders would be gratify- 
ing. Gilbert de Bois. 

Saint Tellant (Vol. x., pp. 265. 514.). — Db. 
Rock is quite right as to the sex of St. Tellant ; 
the feminine termination given at p. 265. being an 
error of the press. He is, however, mistaken in 
supposing that I imagined him to be a Flemish 
saint. My Query was as to the probability of the 
tradition, which gives the bell «. Spanish origin, 
containing any shadow of truth. It has been 
made clear that it does not, the inscription refer- 
ring to a Welsh saint. Seleucus. 

Col. Maceroni (Vol. x., p. 153.). — In answer 
to the Queries of D. W. S., I believe there is not 
any account excepting the Memoir by himself. I 
believe him to have been far more Italian than 
English. I believe the name Maceroni not to be 
fictitious. 

In the summer of 1814, dining at the table of a. 
German friend at Naples, I was startled by some- 
thing icy cold touching my neck ; and found it to 
be a snake, winding about the back of my chair, 
which was immediately removed by the party next 
to me, who put it into his hat, and apologised to 
me for the annoyance : this gentleman was intro- 
duced to me as Signor Maceroni. My inquiries 
regarding him established to my belief that his 
mother was English and his father Italian ; his 
own manners gave the impression of Italian 
suavity, enlivened by French vivacity ; he spoke 
both languages fluently, and without the accent 
or peculiarities that generally characterise the 
natives of either country, when speaking the lan- 
guage of the other ; his English was perfect, but 
spoken with a flippancy very unusual in a native 
Englishman, which he certainly was not. During 
my stay at Naples, we became rather intimate ; 1 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



found him to be a most amusing companion, full 
of anecdote and varied information ; but our careers 
lay widely separate, and I never saw him after- 
wards. It is too true that he was very badly off 
when he wrote his Memoirs, and that he died 
after many years of misery — a disappointed and 
ruined man — in spite of energy and talent, that 
ought to have commanded an abundance of this 
world's goods, and the respect of his cotempo- 
raries. J. R. 

Malta. 

Origin of the Terms " Whig " and " Tory " 
(Vol. X., p. 482.). — Rapin the historian's able 
Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys, 1717, con- 
tains the following passage : 

" Les partisans du Roi furent d'abord nommez Cava- 
liers, nom qui a et^ change depuis, en celui de Torys. 
Ceux du Parlement, qu'on appella d'abord Tetes Rondes, 
ont recii, ensuite, le nom de Whigs. Voici I'origine de 
ces deux derniers noms de Torys et de Whigs. On ap- 
pelloit, en ce tems \h, Torys, certains brigands ou bandits 
d'Irlande qui se tenoient sur les montagnes, ou dans les 
isles que forment les vastes marais de ce pais-lk. On les 
nomme, h present, Rapperies. Comme les ennemis du Roi 
I'accusoient de favoriser la rebellion d'Irlande, qui ^clata 
dans ce meme tems, lis donnferent h ses partisans le nom 
de Torys. D'un autre cote, ceux-ci, pour rendre la pa- 
reille h leurs ennemis, qui ^toient ^troitement unis avec 
les Ecossois, leur donnferent le nom de Whigs, qui etoit 
celui qu'on donnoit en Ecosse h une sembable espfece de 
bandits. II paroit, par la, que ces deux noms sont aussi 
anciens que les commencemens des troubles, et neanmoins, 
ils ne sont venus h, la mode que plusieurs annees aprfes. 
Je ne saurois dire pr^cisement en quel tems ; mais il me 
semble, que les noms de Cavaliers et de Tetes Rondes ont 
dur^ jusqu'au r^tablissement de Charles II., et qu'ensuite, 
peu-k-peu, ceux de Torys et de Whigs ont pris leur place. 
Ce sont ces deux partis qui ont commence k diviser I'An- 
gleterre du tems de Charles I., et qui la divisent encore 
aujourd'hui." 

In this work I find the (to me) first application 
of the terms now in common use, "ultra" (outrez) 
and "moderate" (moderez) to political parties. Is 
there an earlier example of the employment of 
those words in this sense ? C. Ross. 

Bell'Childe (Vol. x., p. 508.). — With no pre- 
tension to legal knowledge, or acquaintance with 
old terms, but from a mere common view of the 
word in question, I should say it meant son-in-law, 
from heau-Jils, or bel- enfant. F. C. H. 

Seals, Books relating to (Vol. x., p. 485.). — In 
reply to your correspondent for books on seals, 
I would beg to recommend him to The Catalogue 
of Ancient Scottish Seals, by F. Laing, Edinburgh, 
4to. plates, 1850, as the latest work on the subject. 

Many valuable remarks are to be found in the 
various publications of the Society of Antiquaries 
and the different Archaeological Institutes ; but as 
an entire work on the subject, Laing's Ancient 
Seals is much esteemed by those conversant with 



the matter. It is, I believe, the only one that 
fully treats of it. It gives an interesting, though 
brief, account of the art of engraving and the use 
of seals, as well as descriptions of above 1200. 

In Ruddiman's Introduction to Anderson's 
Diplomata Scotia are some interesting notes on 
seals ; and the fine work of Les Sceaux des Comtes 
de Flandres may be consulted with advantage ; as 
also Natter's Traite de graver en pierre fine, and 
Tassie's Catalogue of Gems. But these works, 
and many others equally valuable, treat the sub- 
ject more specially as one of the fine arts, than in 
the official character which most of the mediaeval 
seals assume ; and it is, I presume, this view your 
correspondent takes. Signet. 

Your correspondent Adrian Adninan will find 
some assistance upon an examination of the un- 
dermentioned books, viz. : 

1. " Astle's Account of the Seals of the Kings, Royal 
Boroughs, and Magnates of Scotland. Folio. 1792." 

2. " Lewis's Dissertations on the Antiquity and Use of 
Seals in England. Small 4to. 1740." 

3. " Laing's Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from 
Ancient Scottish Seals, Royal, Baronial, Ecclesiastical, 
and Municipal; embracing a Period from a.d. 1094 to 
the Commonwealth Taken from Original Charters and 
other Deeds preserved in Public and Private Archives. 
4to. ' Only one hundred and fifty Copies printed for 
Sale.' 1850." 

T. G. S. 
Edinburgh. 

I can help your correspondent Adninan to the 
titles of a iewf works, in which he will find numerous 
engravings of seals, viz. Sandford's Genealogical 
Hist, of England; Laing's Catalogue of the Scot- 
tish Seals ; Tresor de Numismatique (a very fine 
work) ; Uredius' Sigilla Comitum Flandrice ; 
D'Anisy, Recueil de Sceaux Normands et Anglo- 
Normands. Z. z. 

The Schoolmen (Vol. x., p. 464.). — In reply to 
your Querist J. F., I beg to say that the best way 
in which he can satisfy himself will be to read, on 
any point of Theology which may be most Interest- 
ing to him, some one or more of the Schoolmen. 

The first Schoolman Is Peter Lombard, Bishop 
of Paris, who compiled the Sentences, i. e. the 
" decisions " of the Fathers. This great work is 
the foundation of all the scholastic writings. Our 
own Alexander of Hales, the Doctor Irrefragabilis, 
in whom I have also read, is one of those who 
followed and amplified the master of the Sentences. 
St. Thomas Aquinas, the Doctor Angelicus, did 
the same thing, leaving an authority and a repu- 
tation behind him which perhaps no other writer 
since the Fathers has obtained. Your corre- 
spondent will find, to his great satisfaction, and 
probably to his surprise, that those questions 
which, in common and unlearned talk, are daily 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



yentilated at dinner parties, religious or ordinary, 
all over England, have been seized upon, perfectly 
analysed, and set at rest, ages ago, by "the 
Schoolmen." I particularly recommend to him, 
for example, the Decalogue, in our countryman 
Alexander of Hales. D. P. 

Begbrook. 

J. F. does not state what branch of the School 
philosophy he wishes to study. If it be ethical 
philosophy, he cannot have a, more favourable 
initiation into ethics than in the Secunda Secundce 
of the Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas. I cannot 
boast of having read the Summa through ; but 
I use it for constant reference, and scarcely ever 
rise from its perusal without the acquisition of 
some new idea, or a suggestion of some new 
trains of thought. The angelic doctor certainly 
not only compiles but thinks, and they who enter 
into his full discussions of every subject will be 
constrained to think too. If J. F. is in earnest 
about studying the Schoolmen, I venture to recom- 
mend him especially to commence with the Secunda 
Secundce. Some previous knowledge of Aristotle's 
method and style is desirable. 

William Frasee, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Sandbanks (Vol. x., p. 508.). — The force of 
gravitation which brings down the silt from a 
river is opposed at or near its mouth by another 
force, that of the tide of the estuary or sea into 
which such river flows. Where these two coun- 
teracting forces meet, the sediment contained in 
the river-water settles and forms a bar across the 
river's mouth, and sandbanks beyond it, the op- 
position of the two streams (river versus tide) 
producing quiescence and facilitating the deposit 
of which sandbanks are composed. These sand- 
banks, the origin of deltas, are deserving of close 
attention, as their accretion constitutes a natural 
chronometer, whereby the age of the river itself 
may be approximately estimated, by ascertaining 
the quantity of deposit accumulated in a given 
time, and therefrom inferring the ratio of the time 
of the aggregate accumulation of the whole sand- 
bank. T. J. BuCKTOlf. 
Lichfield. 

Brasses restored (Vol. x., p. 535.). — Would 
Me. Richardson or W. W. oblige me by giving 
the composition of the ball, which being rubbed 
upon black paper, placed over an engraved brass, 
produces a perfect fac-simile, and the metallic 
appearance of the original, or say where it can be 
purchased ? Sob. 

Clay Tobacco-pipes (Vol. ix., p. 872. ; Vol. x., 
pp. 23. 48. 211.). — I have the bowls of two clay to- 
bacco-pipes of very small size and peculiar shape ; 
strangely enough, they were both found in church- 



yards in this county (Somerset), within five miles 
of each other ; they are cast in the same mould, 
and have on the heel the potter's name impressed, 
"lEFFRY HVNT." The Small size of the bowl, 
and the use of v for v in the stamp, point to some 
antiquity. Perhaps some reader of " N. & Q." 
who may be acquainted with the time and place 
at which Jeffry Hunt exercised his useful calling, 
will communicate a note thereon. 

Arthur Paget. 

Churches dedicated to St. Pancras (Vol. x., 
p. 508.). — Z. asks for the localities of the twelve 
churches dedicated in honour of St. Pancras. 
Here are eight of them ; some other correspondent 
can probably supply the others. 

Exeter ----- Devon. 
Widecomb-in-the-Moor - - Devon. 
Pancrasweek - - - - Devon. 
Chichester - - - . - Sussex. 
Wroot - - ■ - - - Lincolnshire. 
Coldred Kent- 
London, St. Pancras, New Road - Middlesex. 
Do. St. Pancras, Soper Lane 
(incorporated with St. Mary-le- 
Bow) ----- Middlesex. 

The best representation of St. Pancras I have met 
with is in the magnificent brass of Prior Nelond 
at Cowfold In Sussex : he is drawn with a youth- 
ful countenance, holding a book and a palm branch, 
and treading on a human figure, probably intended 
for one of his pagan persecutors. Norris Deck. 
Cambridge. 

Your correspondent Z. states, that there are 
twelve churches in England dedicated to St. Pan- 
cras, and wishes to know where they may be 
found. I suppose he has some authority for the 
specific number which he has mentioned, although 
he has not informed us of it. I send you the fol- 
lowing list comprising ten, which are all that I can 
discover, but probably some other correspondent 
may be able to supply the other two. 

Alton Pancras - - - - Dorset, 

Arlington ----- Sussex. 

Chichester Sussex. 

Coldred Kent. 

Exeter - „ . . . Devon. 

London, Soper Lane - - - Middlesex. 

St. Pancras Middlesex. 

Pancrasweek . - . - Devon. 

Widecome-in-the-Moor - - Devon. 

Wroot ----- Lincoln. 

F. B— w. 

[Our correspondents have overlooked the old St. Pan- 
cras Church, near Kentish Town.] 

Oxford Jeu dEsprit (Vol. x., pp. 364. 431.).— 
In a copy of Johannis Gilpini iter, latine redditum, 
in my possession, I find a MS. note, referring 
the authorship either to Robert Lowe, of Mag- 
dalen College ; or to John Caswell, of New Inn 
Hall. That note was inserted on the authority of 



ss 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



an ex-Fellow of Oriel College, and a first-class- 
man in Literis Huraanioribus of Michaelmas Term, 
1833. I am still unacquainted with the name of 
the author of the Rime of the New-made Bac- 
calere. G. L. S. 

Song of the Cuckoo (Vol. x., p. 524.). — Uneda 
refers to an old rustic and nursery rhyme, of 
which there are several slightly varying editions. 
That of my early recollections ran thus : 

" The cuckoo is a merry bird, 

She sings as she flies : 
She brings us good tidings. 

She tells us no lies. 
She sucks little birds' eggs 

To make her voice clear ; 
And when she sings ' cuckoo ' 

The summer is near." 

May I be allowed to refer Uneda to a paper of 
mine on the subject, published in Bohn's recent 
edition (edited by Mrs. Howitt) of Aikius' Calendar 
of Nature. Caroline Cathebike Lucas. 

Swansea. 

« Nag" and " Knagg" (Vol. x., pp. 29. 172.).— 
Are there not good and sufficient reasons for be- 
lieving these to be the same word, differently 
written, and to be different forms of gnaw for 
knaw ; in Ang.-Sax. Gnceg-an, in Ger. Nagen ? 
Todd tells us, that "^naw" is "sometimes written 
for g-naw." The interchange of k and g is com- 
mon ; so is the change of the guttural g into u or w. 
Todd gives no examples of " Anaw." Richardson 
has three : from Chaucer, Sir Thomas More, and 
North's Translations of Plutarch. 

To keep gnawing or knagging at a bone ; to fret 
or eat into by continued biting, by repeated trials, 
is a literal explanation from which all our conse- 
quent metaphorical usages seem easily to derive. 

Q. 

Bloomsbury. 

Sir Henry Johnes (Vol. x., p. 445.). — J. P. O.'s 
Query is truly " the voice of one crying in the 
wilderness," for, like many another traveller on the 
same road, he has lost his way in the thicket of a 
Welsh genealogy. I will endeavour, under cor- 
rection^ to restore him to the right track. Both 
Burke and Courthope, in their Extinct Baronetages, 
proceed upon the assumption that there was but 
one Sir Henry Johnes, Bart., of Albemarlis ; that 
he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Salis- 
bury, Knt., and widow of John Salisbury, Esq., of 
Riig, and that by her he left no issue, whereby the 
baronetcy became extinct. Now, it is perfectly 
clear to my mind that this is an error, for there 
were, beyond doubt, at least two Sir Henries, 
Baronets, of Albemarlis ; consequently the first 
Sir Henry must have left male issue, by one or 
other of his wives, Miss Salisbury or Elizabeth 
Herbert, for it appears to be quite certain he was 



tioice married. Elizabeth Johnes, who was married 
to Sir Francis Cornwallis, Knight, was one of two 
daughters of the second Sir Henry Johnes, Bart., 
by Margaret, his wife, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Henry VVilliams, Bart., of Gwernevet, as is expressly 
stated in Burke's General Armoury. Magdalen 
and Priscilla, who, as J. P. O. states, were married 
to the brothers Stepney, were daughters, as I con- 
ceive, of the^?-s^ Sir Henry Johnes, by Miss Her- 
bert; whereas Magdalen, who became the wife of 
^iv Anthony (not Sir Price) Rudd, of Aberglassny, 
was in all probability a niece of these ladies, a 
sister of Lady Cornwallis, and, by the same token, 
daughter and coheiress of the second Sir Henry 
Johnes, Bart., of Albemarlis. I cannot discover 
when either of the baronets Johnes died ; indeed, 
neither Burke nor Courthope state when the 
baronetcy became extinct. If J. P. O. knows 
where the family generally were buried, a reference 
to the monumental inscriptions or parochial regis- 
ters would set the matter at rest. 

As I stated at the onset, I have advanced these 
remarks entirely under correction, and it is there- 
fore quite possible that I may be wrong upon some 
points ; yet, in the main, I trust and believe my 
reasoning will prove correct. As Sir Fi-ancis 
Cornwallis was styled of Albemarlis, at least as 
early as 1710, I conclude the baronetcy became 
extinct sometime previous to that date. 

T. Hughes. 

Chester. 

Battledoor (Vol. x., p. 432.). — Thanks for the 
answer to my Query. Now as to the derivation of 
the word. It can scarcely be from hattoir, the 
name both of the washing beetel and the toy ; but 
Alberti gives " Battoir,grosse palette avec laquelle 
on bat la lessive ! " and on bat I'eau also ; there-' 
fore may not our word have been originally " battre 
d'eau ?" It is curious that, instead of adopting the 
name of the implement and the toy, we should 
have made a longer and a meaningless name for 
ourselves. In the case quoted from Annals of 
Cambridge, the implement was doubtless used to 
prevent infection by handling the clothes of per- 
sons who had the plague ; the hint might be taken 
in the present day. F. C. B. 

Diss. 

Abelardand the " Damnamus" (Vol. x., p. 485.). 
— See Berengarius, " Apologet. contra B. Ber- 
nardum," &c. in 0pp. Abcelard., 4to., Paris, 1616, 
p. 305. But it was never intended as a serious 
narrative. C. P. E. 

Novel in Manuscript and the " Sea Otter T — 
(Vol. vii., p. 130. ; Vol. x., p. 465.). — In answer 
to the Queries of your correspondent William 
DuANE, of Philadelphia, I have gone over the 
principal part of " Lloyd's List " for the year 1809, 
and can find no such ship as the " Sea Otter," 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



Captain Niles, named therein, either arriving at 
any port, sailing from anywhere, or even any 
notice taken of her loss in the list of shipping 
disasters, from August to December in that year. 
The " Sea Otter," if there was such a ship, did 
not belong to the port of London, for a friend of 
mine has kindly searched the books in the Custom 
House here, from 1805 to 1811, and no such name 
of vessel appears : separate books are kept at the 
Customs here for the various out-ports, so per- 
haps all hope may not yet be lost to your corre- 
spondent of finding her out. As no mention is 
made of such a vessel in Lloyd's List, as far as I 
can see, I am inclined to think it is a fictitious 
name,— could it be " Swallow," badly written ? _ I 
have seen two or three vessels of that name regis- 
tered. Is the year correct ? J. S. A. 
Old Broad Street. 

Does a Circle round the Moon foretell had 
Weather ? (Vol. x., p. 463.). — Among the people 
of Scotland a " brugh about the moon " has been 
long considered as betokening a change of weather, 
usually to wet; and from observation it will in 
most cases be found to hold true. The hrugh or 
fog is supposed to be caused by the atmosphere 
being charged with moisture ; and the longer and 
deeper the circle the more chance of copious rain. 
Dr. Jamieson, s. v. , says, " a hazy circle round the 
disk of the sun or moon, generally considered as a 
presage of a change of weather, is called a brugh 
or hrogh." That however, as regards the sun, does 
not appear to have popularly settled down with the 
same strength of prognostication. G. N. 

I beg to inform W. W. that, in the opinion of 
country people, a circle round the moon always 
portends rain ; and if very large, the fall of rain 
will be very great. It Is considered an indication 
of much rain, rather than stormy weather. This 
was first pointed out to me when I was a child, 
by a gentleman who was a great observer of these 
natural signs ; and my own observation since has 
convinced me of its truth. H. J. 

Wandsworth. 

What is Amontillado Shei'ry ? (Vol. ix., p. 474.). 
— I do not see that any of your correspondents 
has given what I believe to be the correct account 
of this curious wine. The peculiar flavour is 
caused by a process of fermentation, over which 
the growers have no control, and for which they 
cannot account. Sometimes only one or two 
butts In a vintage will be affected, and in other 
years none at all. Those which some mysterious 
influence designs for Amontillado, produce a kind 
of vegetable weed after having been put in the 
cask; it is long and stringy, like some of our 
fresh-water weeds, \)ut with very fine fibres, and 
y bears a very minute white flower. Immediately 
after shedding these flowers, the whole plant dies 



away, and never again appears, but it leaves that 
peculiar flavour. I have had this description po- 
sitively stated and verified by those who have vi- 
sited the Spanish wine districts : and in Chambers 
Edinburgh Journal I remember reading the same ; 
the exact reference I cannot give, but it was before 
August, 1852. I have looked over the indices 
since, and think it must be one of those articles 
which bears no relation to Its title ; a very bad 
habit, which prevents an index being of any use. 

Hogshead. 
Artificial Ice (Vol. x., p. 414.). — I had in- 
tended myself to have called attention to the mis- 
apprehension of my Query on this subject. W. J. 
Bernhard Smith is quite right as to what I alluded 
to. I understood, however, when making inquiries 
upon the subject, that the surfiice was smoothed 
by being rubbed with wet cloths. This was in 
answer to my question as to whether it would be 
necessary to roof over any place laid with the com- 
position. This, joined to Its being then a patent, 
led me to think no more of it at the time ; but I 
am now anxious to find out the composition, and 
therefore beg to renew my Query. What was the 
substance exhibited under the name of artificial ice 
for skating on at the Egyptian Hall and Baker- 
street Bazaar, many years ago ? I. P. O. 

" The Modern Athens" (Vol. x., p. 525.).— The 
manuscript entry referred to by our Editor, 
assigns the wrong Christian name to the author of 
this work. The Modern Athens was written by 
the late Mr. Robert Mudie, author of The British 
Naturalist ; Guide to the Observation of Nature ; 
and of many other popular works on !N"atural 
History and other subjects. C. Forbes. 

Temple. 

Quotation for Verification (Vol. x., p. 464.). — 

" Son of the morning, whither art^thou gone? 
Where hast thou hid thy many-spangled head 
And the majestic menace of thine eyes, 
Felt from afar ? " 

This passage is from Blair's Grave, lines 134—137; 
but the last word of the first line is " gone," not 
" fled," as given by W. Eraser. The poem being 
in blank verse, a rhyme here would be a fault. 

An Old Bengal Civilian some time since 
(Vol. v., p. 137.) Informed us, that the phrase 
" Son of the Morning," in Childe Harold, cant. 2. 
stanza 3., is an oriental expression for " traveller," 
in allusion to their early rising to avoid the heat 
of the sun ; but, however applicable this interpre- 
tation may be to the passage in Childe Harold, 
the phrase can hardly, I think, bear this sense In 
the lines from Blair. Can any of your readers 
say what it means here ? The context seems to 
refer it to Alexander the Great. E. L. N". 



40 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 272. 



MiittUKntani. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, BTC. 



King's Pamphkts. —The frequenters of the reading 
rooms of the British Museum were gratified, at the re- 
opening of the library this week, by the appearance of 
nine huge folio volumes labelled "King's Pamphlets." 
This is not a catalogue, however, of the splendid collection 
of pamphlets, about 40,000 in number, which generally 
pass under this name — " the most valuable set of docu- 
ments," says Thomas Carlyle, " connected with English 
history." The new catalogue we speak of represents some 
20,000 pamphlets belonging to the royal library, which 
were presented to the nation more than thirty years ago, 
but whose existence was made known to the public only 
on Tuesday last. They were disinterred by Mr. Panizzi, 
and, we understand, a catalogue was made of them fifteen 
years ago, but chiefly for the use of the librarians. This 
catalogue has been revised and recopied, and is now ac- 
cessible to the public. The collection contains all the 
most important pamphlets written during the reign of 
George III. on trade, commerce, finance, administration, 
and politics generally. It embraces also an immense 
number of tracts, placards, statutes, &c., in Dutch and 
French, having reference to Spanish rule in the Nether- 
lands. To Mr. Panizzi's energy the public is indebted 
for the banquet thus set before it. The old collection of 
King's Pamphlets, known to bibliographers as the Tho- 
mason Collection, was made during the reign of Charles I. 
and the Commonwealth. After experiencing a variety of 
vicissitudes, it was purchased by George III., who pre- 
sented it to the British Museum library. It is catalogued, 
in manuscript, in twelve small volumes folio. On the 
fly-leaf of the first volume is written, — " Actions that 
may be presidents to posteritie ought to have their re- 
cords : and doe merit a most usefull preservation." The 
tracts are entered according to their sizes. A distinct 
catalogue, alphabetically arranged, is much required for 
this most invaluable historical collection. 

Mr. Peter Cunningham, by the publication of the third 
volume of his edition of Johnson's Lives of the Poets, has 
brought to a close his many years' labours on these cele- 
brated biographies. The present volume, like its prede- 
cessors, contains not only evidence of the great pains 
which the editor has taken to do justice to the labours of 
Johnson, but also'much curious illustration of the accu- 
racy of Johnson in cases where his accuracy has been 
doubted, and also some curious instances of the shrewd- 
ness of his conjectures in the absence of positive know- 
ledge. Thus when Johnson says, " To read Eustathius, 
of whose work there was then no Latin version, I suspect 
Pope, if he had been willing, not to have been able," 
Mr. Cunningham shows how well founded is the suppo- 
sition by the following note : « * All the crime that I have 
committed is saying that he is no master of Greek ; and I 
am so confident of this, that if he can translate ten lines 
of Eustathius, I'll own myself unjust and unworthy.' — 
Brome to Fenton, 15th June, 1727 (unpublished Letter in 
Mr. Croker's possession)." It is by such apposite notes as 
this, and by the free use of unpublished materials, ori- 
ginal letters, &c., of which he has been fortunate enough 
to procure many well suited to his purpose, that Mr. Cun- 
ningham has succeeded in making his book, what we 
believe it will long continue to be, the standard edition of 
Johnson's Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets. 

Mr. Bentley, encouraged we presume by the success 
which has attended his cheap editions of Prescott's his- 
torical writings, has determined to make a monthly issue, 
in a cheap yet beautifully printed form, of many of the 
valuable copyright works of which he is the proprietor. 



The first of these Monthly Volumes of Standard and Po- 
pular Modern Literature (for so the series is to be entitled) 
is the first of that amusing and popular bit of gossiping 
history, Jesse's Court of England under the Reign of the 
Stuarts, a work undertaken to supply — in some measure, 
and so far as the period to which it refers — the want of 
those anecdotical memoirs in which the French are so 
rich. And although the book may want somewhat of the 
freshness, quaintness, and, so to speak, the unity of any 
one of these, it of course has on the other hand the ad- 
vantages which ought to attend all selections, of consist- 
ing of good things only ; so that for a wet day in the 
country, a long evening" at home, or a long ride by rail, 
Jesse's Court of England under the Stuarts, in its new 
and cheap form, will be found an admirable companion. 

Books Received. — Knowledge is Power; a View of 
the Productive Forces of Modern Society, and the Besults 
of Labour, Capital, and Skill, by Charles Knight, — an 
expansion and adaptation to the more advanced views of 
the present day of Mr. Knight's popular and most useful 
volumes. The' Results of Machinery, and Capital and 
Labour. 

Gibbon's Rome, with Variorum Notes. Volume Sixth — 
Bohn's British Classics. In announcing the extension of 
this edition to seven volumes, Mr. Bohn promises that the 
seventh shall contain " an Index more circumstantial and 
complete than any heretofore published." 

The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen, and the Ecclesi- 
astical History of Philostorgius, translated from the Greek, 
by Edward Walford, is the new issue of Mr. Bohn's Ec- 
clesiastical Library, and is another of his claims to the 
support of those who wish to see knowledge made accessible 
to all. 

James' Life of Richard Coeur-de-Lion, in Two Volumes, 
which forms the issue of Bohn's Standard Library for the 
present month, is one of the most popular of Mr. James' 
historical biographies. 

Fly Leaves. The Second Series fully justifies what we 
said of its predecessors, viz., that it is a fitting companion 
for Davis's Olio, and other works of that kind, prized by, 
because useful to all bibliographers. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO FURCHASK. 
Memoir or JoHW B^tbdke, thb Scotch Po«t. By his brother, Alex- 

Iif^oD'ucTORy'EssAT ON ENGLISH HisioKT, prefixed to " Lives of the 
Statesmen of the Commonwealth," by John Forster.Esq. Longman 

& Co. „ , . 

Cawood's Sermons. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

Theophilacteri Opera Omnia. _. , 

Miss Strickland's LiT»a or th» Qcsini o» Ewoland. Vol. JJ- oi 

12 Vol. Edition. „ , ^ „ , ^..^. 
Inooldsbt L.OENDS. Vol. I. First Ed^ion. « ., ^ ^k 

SocTETT OF Arts' Jodrnai,. No. 39. Vol. I., and No«. 52. 54. & 56. 

Vol. n. 
Th« Etert Man's Maoahne for 1770 and 1771. 

*»• Letters, statine particulars and lowest price. ca";*W« /'Jf^ *» 1>S 
sent to Mr. Beix, Publisher ot "NOri-S AND C;tll£>UlJ!<8, 
186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry. 
Cavendish Societt. All the Vols, published. 

Wanted by Jtev. Frederick Smithe, Churchdown, Cheltenham. 

Annalicm ecclesiasticorom post Baroniom, auctore Abr. Bzovio. 
TomusXV. Colon. Agr. About 1620. 

"Wanted by Bev. Dr. Todd, Librarian of Trinity College, Dublin. 



Jan. 13. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Great Exhibition ; Poetical RhPFSody. Pcarce, Sheffield. 

Dr. Commino on the Great Exhibition. Shaw. 

Hiooimson's Koh-i-noor. Pretyman and Nixon. 

Guide to the Great Exhibition. Ward. 

New Exhibition. Cooper, Quebec Street. o • »_ 

Crystal Paiace ; a Sketch. Square. Christian Knowledge Sooietr. 

J. H. Martin's Ode in Commemoration of Great Exhibition. 

Musings on the Exhibition, by Gray of Islay. Gilchrist. 

LoNDREs ET 1,'ExposiTioN. Durr. 

Mrs. Bkeweb's Lines on Gathering op the Nations. 

New Map of London, with Arrangements op Crystal i-ALACE. 

Kelly's Exhibition Guide. English Edition. Kent. ,„ . 

Goode's Sermon, " What have they seen in Thy House ? 8vo. 

Crystal Labyrinth : a Puzzle. 18S1. Ackermann. 

Illustrated Exhibition Almanac. Cassell. . 

Theology and Morality of Exhibition. 6d. Painter. , , . 

Three Cards, in German, French, and English. Lithographed in 

Gold by C. J. Smith. „ ^ ^ .v„.„ 

Palace of Glass and the City of Gold. Wertheim. 
A LovAL Stanza : James Prior. Bath. 
Exhibition Sheet Almanac. Gilbert. 
Lb-^Filote, a Newspaper. 

Wanted by Mr. Francis, 14. WelUngton Street North, Strand. 



Weale's Quarterly Papers on Architecture- 
Caveler's Gothic Architecture. Parts. 
Puoin's Examples of Gothic Architecture 
Weale. 

Wanted by John Hebb, 9. Lanrence-Pountney Lane 



Parti. 
Parts 3 & 4 of Vol. I. 



Herring's Preservatives against the Plague. 4to. 1665. 
Strott's Chronicle OF England. Vol.11. 4to. 1778. 
Shakspeare's Plays. Vol. II. 8vo. Printed by Bensley, 1803. 
Wanted by R. Thorbuni, 2. Carthusian Street. 



Cavendish Society Publications. A set. 

Wanted by Wm. Blackwood ^ Sam, Edinbvirgh. 



fiatUti to €arteg^aiHstnti. 

p. P — m. will find much illustration of the epitaph 

" Earth walks on Earth 
Glittering in gold" 

in " N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 498. i and! Vol. riii., pp. 110. 348. 
A. P. 

" Hell is paved with good intentions " 

is a saying ^Johnson's which has beamie proverbial. — See BosweH'a 
Johnson, by Croker, erf. 1848,p. 450. 

J. E. The head on the seal is that of a laughing Faun copied from a 
well-known gem by the Greek artist Ammonios. We are sorry the replies 
to the other Query have been overlooked. They shall be seen to. 

Bromo-iodide OP Silver. We are sorry to be compelled to postpone 
until next week a valuable conmunication on this sulgect, by the Rbt. 
J. B. Reade. 

Full price will be given for clean copies of" Notes and Queries " of 
\st January, 1853, So. 166, upon application to Mr. Bell, the Publisher. 

A few complete sets of " Notes and Queries," Vols. i. to x., price five 
guineas, will be ready very shortly. For these, early application is 
desirable. 

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, arid 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" Notes AND Queries " is also issued in Monthly Parts, /or the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may oe desirous of receiving the 
weekly Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of "Notes anb 
Queries " (.including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, Mr. Georob Bell, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



XYLO- IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 
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where a quantity is required, tlie two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in separate 
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Caution.— Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD W. 
THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this Signature 
and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure 
Photograi hie Chemicals : and may be procurt d of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at ts., 2s., 
and 3s. 6rf. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 



T 



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THE WAXED-PAPER PRO- 
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from the French). To this has been added a 
New Modificaiion of the Process, by which the 
Time of Exposure in the Camera is reduced to 
one-fourth, by JAMES HOW, Assistant in 
the Philosophical Establishment of the Pub- 
lishers. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 



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Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 



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VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S Photoerapliic 
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they have every convenience for testing their 
powers. The Photographic Department of 
their Establishment comprises every useful 
improvement in this interesting Art. 
GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, 
London. 

PURE CHEMICAL PREPAR- 
ATIONS requisite in the various Pro- 
cesses of the Photographic Art, manufactured 
and sold by GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, 
who having considerably reduced the price of 
many of their preparations, will have plea- 
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cation. 

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Fost«r Lane, 
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containing simple directions for the production 
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ease and certainty by using BLAND & 
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Albumenized paper, for printing from glass 
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every variety of Vision by means of SMEE'S 
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Injury to the Eyes from the Selection of Im- 
proper Glasses, and is extensively employed Xij 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet 
Street. London, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 272. 



12ino., price is. 6d. 

ON THE STUDY OF LAN- 
GUAGE : an Exposition of " Tooke's 
Diversions of Purley." By CHARIiES 
RIC[^ARDSO^f, LL. D., Author of a New- 
Dictionary of tiie English Language. 

" What an epoch in many a student's intel- 
lectual life has been his first aca"i>intonc8 
with the ' Diversions of Purley.' "—2V«hcA on 
t!ie Study of Words. 

" The judicious endeavour of a veteran phi- 
loloiiist to extend the philosophical study of 
language by popularising Home Tookc'i 
' Diversions of Purley,' Dr. Richardson has 
done good service to the study of language in 
this very judicious and compact recast, for the 
book is much more than an abridgment. ' — 
Spectator. 

GEORGE BELL, 18«. Flset Str«et. 

T7REE TRADE IN BOOKS — 

r 4. COPTHALL BUILDINGS, Moor- 
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on his own premises, the quality of every 
article is warranted. 



T\R. LOVELL'S SCHOOL, 

1/ WINSLOW HALL. BUCKS. — The 
PUPILS will RE-ASSEMB1,E, after the 
present Vacation, on the 25th January. A late 
Pnpil has just been elected to a Scliolurship at 
Lincoln College, Oxford. Two others passed 
the Army Examination last September, and 
have already received Commissions All par- 
ticulars about the School can be had on Appli- 
cation to the Principal. 



Second Edition, with large map, price is., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
RESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin. &c.. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts;" of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " alsoofa projectfor 
the improvement of the navigation of that 
river, end of varioui other works on Portugal. 

JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 



Just published. Part I., super-royal 8vo., in 
paper cover, sewed, at lOs. to non-subscribers. 

GIOTTO AND HIS WORKS 
IN PADUA. ByJOHNRUSKIN. 

N.B /n consequence of the numerous appli- 
cations for Mr. Jiitskin's Essay, the Council of 
the Arundel Society have resolved to sell it to 
the Public without the Engravings issued to the 
Subscribers. 

Published at the Office of the Arundel Society, 
24. Old Bond Street ; and to be obtained 
(through any Bookseller) of BELL & 
DALDT, Fleet Street. 



THE HOMILIST FOR JANU- 
ARY. price Is. (commencing Vol. IV.), 
contains : — 1. The Impotency of Time. 2. A 
Domestic Homily on Christian Love. 3. True 
Prayer, Social Morality. Chiist's Vision of Life. 
4. The True .'Soldiership. 5. Phases of Re- 
demptive Truth. 6. The Eros of Redemption. 
7. First Scene in the Moral History of Re- 
deemed Humanity. 8. The Five Brethren : a 
Terrible Picture of Domestic Life. 9. Paul 
and Barnabas ; their Contention and Sepa- 
ration. 10. The Present God. U. Glances at 
Great Preachers. Literary Notices, &c. ic. 

WARD & CO., 27. Paternoster Row. 



"OOOKBINDING F. SILANI 

I ) & CO. (Successors to the late T. ARM- 
STRONG ), 23. Villiers Street, Strand, solicit 
every DcFcription of Work relating to their 
Art. A List of Prices for Cloth, Half-calf, 
Calf, Morocco, or Antique Binding, can be 
had upon Application, or will be forwarded for 
One Stamp. Bookbinding for the Trade. 



PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 
each D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho 

Square (established a.d. US')), sole manufac- 
turers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25 
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. 
The peculiar advantages of these pianofortes 
are best described in the following professional 
testimonial, signed by the majority of the lead- 
ing musicians of the age : — "Wc, the under- 
signed members of the musical profession, 
having carefully examined the Royal Piano- 
fortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'AL- 
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testimony to their merits and capabilities. It 
appears to us impossible to produce instruments 
of the same size possessing a richer and finer 
tone, more elastic touch, or more equal tem- 
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the library, boudoir,ordrawing-room. (Signed) 
J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blew- 
Itt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp. P. Delavanti, C. H. 
Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen 
Olover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F. Hassi', 
J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. IL Holmes, 
W. Kuhe, O. F. Kiallmark, E. Land, O. Lanza, 
Alexander Lee, A. I<effler. E. J. Loder, W. H. 
Montgomerj-, S.Nelson, O.A.Osborne, John 
Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, F. Praegar, 
E. F. Himbunlt. Frank Romer, O. H. Rodwell, 
E. Rockel, Sims Reeves. J. Templeton, F. We- 
ber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," So. 

D'ALSIAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square, 
and DesisDs Gratis. 



Recently Published. 

I, 

JOHN DE WYCLIFFE, a 

*^/.u^,9?^9S^4P,H: including an Account 
of the W ychflfe MSS. m the British Museum, 
Oxford, Cambridge. &c. ; with a Portrait and 
Illustrations, from Drawings taken at WvcliflFe 
5nd Lutterworth. By ROBERT VAUGHAN, 
D.D. One Vol., small 4to., price 16s. cloth. 

"Dr. Vaughan writes with more case and 
vigour than in his youth, and there are evi- 
dences of increased scholarship and deeper re- 
flection. We have laid our pencil on many 
picturesque and curious passages." — ^<Ae- 
nmuin. 

"A most complete ond satisfactory account 
of the life and works of the Reformer, with 
many interesting statements as to the general 
history and condition of England in the four- 
teenth century. . . . We congratulate the 
learned author on the completion of a work of 
BO much research." —Literary Gazette. 

RORM EVANGELICiE; or, 

the Internal Evidence of the Gospel History. 
By the REV. T. R. BIRKS, M.A., Rector of 
KeUhall. In post 8vo., price 10s. dd. cloth. 

" Not often do we acknowledge the appear- 
ance of a book with so much pleasure and 
thankfulness os we have felt in placing at the 
head of an article the title which we have just 
written, for it is the title of a work which is 
not only in itself worthy of all praise, but 
which arrives at the right moment, was de- 
manded by present exigencies ; and will, we 
are persuaded, contribute timely help to 
many anxious and inquiring minds." — Chris- 
tian Observer. 

III. 

ISRAEL IN EGYPT; being 

Illustrations of the Book of Genesis nnd 
Exodus, from existing Monuments. With a 
great number of Engravings. In crown 8vo., 
price 6s. cloth. 

" This book is one of the most remarkable 
publications of our time, and can hardly fail 
to excite the attention of the Christian world." 
— Christian Witness. 

IV. 

ANNA ; or, Passages from 

Home Life : being a New and Enlarged Edi- 
tion of ■' Passages from the Life of a Daughter 
at Home." Fifth Edition, small 8vo., 3s. 6d. 
cloth. 

" As a picture of the power of religion in 
gradually subduing the asperities of a gloomr 
disposition and a morbid temper, this story u 
unequalled." — Edinburgh lieview. 

SEELEY, JACKSON. & HALLIDAY, 
54. Fleet Street. 



Just published, in fcap. 8vo., Portrait, 2s. 6d. 
cloth. 

'THE LIBRARY OF CHRIS- 

1 TIAN BIOGRAPHY. Under the Su- 
perintendence of the REV. ROBKRT BICK- 
ERSTETH.M.A., Rector of St. Giles's- in-the- 
Fields, and Canon of Salisbury. 

Vol. I. THE LIFE OF WIL- 

LIAM COWPER. 

Vol. IL, being the LIFE OF 

FELIX NEFF, with Portrait, will be pub- 
lished on the 1st of March. 

SEELEY, JACKSON, & HALLIDAY, Fleet 
Street ; and B. SEELEY, Hanover Street. 



MODERATEUR LAMPS. — 
EVANS, SONS, k CO. respectfully in- 
vite their friends and the public to an in- 
spection of the extensive and beautiful STOCK 
of these much-admired LAMPS, just received 
from Paris, embracing all recent improvements, 
in bronze, or-moulu, crystal, alabaster, and 
porcelain, of various elegant designs, suitable 
for the cottage or mansion. Show Rooms, 
33. KING WILLIAM STREET, LONDON 
BRIDGE. 



yrinted by Thomas Ci.AitK Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, IslinEton, »t No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Gf.orhe Bem.. of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Fariab Of St. Dunitan in the West, in tho 
City of London, Fubliaher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, January 13, 1855, 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•■ \inien found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlx. 



No. 273.] 



Saturday, January 20. 1855. 



f With Index, price lO^- 
i Stamped Edition, Ud. 



CONTENTS. 



IToTEs : — 



Pttge 



Gibbon on the Orange - - - '*1 

Hospital of St. Cross, by Henry Edwards 42 
Character of the Low Countries, by Wm. 

Bates ■** 

Minor Notes : _ Tlie Turkish Troops, 
A. D. 1801)— Curiosities of Letter- writing 
— Tlie Dultc of Monmouth — Curious 
Magical Compact — Osbern's Life of 
Odo — " Why spare Odessa ?"— Re- 
capitulations - - - - 4i 



QOERIES:- 

Bromley Letters, by Mary Anne Everett 
Green . . - - - 



46 



Minor Queries : — " Bonnie Dundee 
_ Rev. William Mackay — Doddridge 
and Whitcfield — Tartar Conqueror _ 
Clarkson Monument — Copying-ink — 
Van Lemput or Remee — Inscription 
Query —Professors— Nuns acting as 
Priests in the Mass — " What I spent," 
&c.— Lord Audley atPoictiers— "Cur 
mittis violas," &c. — Trial of Darell 
of I>ittlecote — Penitentiaries for Fe- 
males — Anglo-Saxon, &c. — Cowley 
on Shakspeare — Theophilus Iscanus 
— Niagara - - - - 46 

Minor Queries with Answers : — 
*' The Schoolmaster, or Teacher of 
Philosophic " — Conwaye : Book of 
Prayers — " Tableau de Paris " — 
Loiig S _ Two Surnames joined by 
Alias — Sir Thomas Tresham — Colo- 
phon — Nottingham Riots - - 48 

Keplies : — 

Dean Bill 49 

Southey and Voltaire, by Henry H. 

Breen - - - - - 50 

Did the Greek Surgeons extract Teeth ? 

by R. Wiibraham Falconer, M. D. - 51 



Fhotoohaphic Correspondence : — BrO- 
mo-iodide of Silver — The Photo- 
graphic Exhibition . . - 

Replies to Minor Queries: — Epigram 
quoted by I/ord Derby — Curious Cere- 
mony at Queen's College, Oxford — 
Anastatic Printing —Paris Garden — 
" RidingBodkin" — Spanish Epigram 

— AM ail Hill —A Russian and an 
English Regiment — The Episcopal 
Wig— Ribbons of Recruiting Sergeants 

— Account of the Jubilee — True Cross, 
Relic of, in the Tower- The last 
Jacobites — Pruid's Circle — Bishop 
Andrewes' Puns — Bolingbroke's Ad- 
vice to Swift — Old Almanacs — Quo- 
tations of Plato and Aristotle — Work 
on the Reality of the Devil—Antiquity 
of Swimming-belts—Jennens of Acton 
Place— Death-bed Superstition— Holy- 
loaf Money, &c. - - - - 

Miscellaneous : — 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted, 
notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XI No. 273. 



Just published, New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for !s. 6rf. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules f>r Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management : together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MANN, 39. Cornhill ; and »U Book- 
sellers. 



Second Edition, with large map, price is., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
RE.STER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin, &c., Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " also of a project for 
the improvement of the navigation of that 
river, and of various other works on Portugal. 
JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 

12mo., price 4s. 6d. 

ON THE STUDY OF LAN- 
GUAGE : an Exposition of " Tooke's 
Diversions of Purley." By CHARLES 
RICHARDSON. LL. D., Author of a New 
Dictionary of the English Language. 

" What an epoch in many a student's intel- 
lectual life has been his first acquaintanc* 
with the ' Diversions of Purley.' "—2'rencA on 
the Study of Words. 

" The judicious endeavour of a veteran phi- 
lologist to extend the philosophical study of 
language by popularising Home Tooke's 
' Diversions of Purley,' Dr. Richardson has 
done good service to the study of language in 
this very judicious and compact recast, for the 
book is much more than an abridgment." — 
Spectator. 

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



T7REE TRADE IN BOOKS.— 

r 4. COPTHALL BUILDINGS, Moor- 
gate Street. — S. & T. GILBERT beg resnect- 
fullv to inform the Public, that they supply all 
Books, Magazines, Reviews, Periodicals, Al- 
manacs, Pocket-books, and Diaries, published 
at Is. and upwards, at a reduction of 2d. in the 
Shilling, for Cash. Country Orders executed 
on the same terms, and delivered on the fol- 
lowing morning, at a charge for Postage of 6d. 
for each pound, or fraction of a pound weight. 
School and Export Orders promptly attended 
to. Please note the Address : 

S. « T. GILBERT, Booksellers, 
4. Copthall Buildings, Moorgate Street. 

BOOKBINDING. — F. SILANI 
& CO., (Successors to the late T. ABM- 
STRONG), 23. Villiers Street, Strand, solicit 
every ucscription of work relating to their art. 
A list of prices for cloth, half-calf, calf, mo- 
rocco, or antique binding, can be had upon 
application, or will be forwarded for One 
Stamp. Bookbinding for the Trade. 



Just published, in 8vo., price 25s. half-bound. 

HAYDNS BOOK OF DIG- 
NITIES : containingRollsof the Official 
Personages of the British Empire, Civil, Eccle- 
siastical, Judicial, Military, Naval, and Mu- 
nicipal, from the Earliest Periods ; compiled 
chiefly from the Records of the Public Offices. 
Together with the Sovereigns of Europe, from 
the Foundation of their respective States ; the 
Peerage of England and of Great Britain ; and 
numerous other Lists. 

" It is Impossible to speak too highly of this 
stupendous repository of historical informa- 
tion." — John Bull. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CXCI., is Published THIS DAY. 

Contents : 
I. FIRES AND FIRE INSURANCE. 
II. JOHN DALTON — ATOMIC CHE- 
MISTRY. 
III. PICTURES OF LIFE AND CHA- 
RACTER-LEECH. 
IV. BRODIE'S PSYCHOLOGICAL EN- 
QUIRIES. 
V. CLERICAL ECONOMICS. 
Vr. THE DOMESTIC HEARTH. 
VII. PROVIDENT INS I ITUTIONS. 
VIII. THE CAMPAIGN IN THE CRIMEA. 
IX. CORSICA. 
X. THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



CONG of VICTORY — Strew 

O Roses — Gather Garlands. Words by 
CHARLES MACKAY, ESQ. Music by 
FR.A.NK MORI. Sung with extraordinary 
<^clat by Mr. Sims Reeves. Also, now ready. 
Two New Glees. Words bv Charles Mackay, 
Esq. Music by Sir H. K. Bishop. 

I^ndon: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New 
Burlington Street, Music Publishers to the 
Queen. 



CCHOOL MUSIC. — HAMIL- 

O TON'S MODERN INSTRUCTIONS 
for SINGING, 5.S. : HAMILTON'S MODERN 
INSTRUCTIONS for the PIANOFORTE, 
73rd Edition, 4s. : HAMILTON'S DIC- 
TIONARY of 3500 MUSICAL TERMS, 45th 
Edition. I... ; CLARKE'S CATECHISM of 
the RUDIMENTS of MUSIC, 34th Edition, Is. 

ROBERT COCKS & CO., London. 

" The above are among the most remarkable 
educational works that ever issued from the 
press. Hamilton's name has become a ' house- 
hold word,' and his Modern Instructions are 
used everywhere. The Dictionary is a wonder ; 
and as to the Catechism, no child learnins 
music ought to be without it. To schools, these 
works are invaluable ; and, on the other hand, 
will be found beyond price to persons living in 
country places, o in the colonies, where mas- 
ters are not to be had." — Vide Morning Chro- 
ntc/e, Oct. 21. 

NEW BURLINGTON STREET, LONDON. 

To be had of all Musicsellers. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



50,000 CURES -WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

T\U BARRY S DELICIOUS 

1 7 REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD 

CURES indigestion (dyspepsia), constipation 
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it renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important Cadtion against the fearful 
dangers of spurious imitations: — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10, 1H54. against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill. for imitating "Du 
Barry's Kevalenta Arabica Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, ft CO., 77. Regent 

Street, Loudon. 

A few out o/ 50,000 Cures: 

Cure No. 7'.. of dyspepsia, from the Right 
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Revs lenta Arabica Food, and consider it due 
to yourselves and the public to authorise the 
publication of these lines." — Stuart ve 



Cure No. 180 : — " Twenty-five years' ner- 
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and which no medicine could remove or re- ] 
lieve, huve been effectually cured by Du 
Barry's Food in a very short time." — W. R. 
Beeves, Pool Anthony, Tiverton. 

Cure No. 49,«32 :_" Fifty years' indescribable 
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health-restoring food. I shall be happy to 
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*' "Twenty years' liver complaint, with dis- 
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AwnREW Eraser, Haddington. 

No. 32.836. " Three years' excessive nervous- 
ness, with pains in my neck and left arm, and 
general debility, which rendered my life very 
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Stoart, Archdeacon of Ross, Skibereen. 

No. 68,034. Grammar School. Stevenage, 
Dec. 16. \S!>n : " Gentlemen, We have found it 
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never once had disordered bowels since taking 
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In canisters, suitably packed for all eli- 
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refined, lib.. 6s.; 21b.. Us. : 5lb.. 22s.; lOlb., 
33«. The lOlb. and 121b. carriage free, rn post- 
office order. Barry. Du Barry. & Co., 77. 
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also at 60. Gracechurch Street ; 330. Strand ; of 
Barclay, Edwnrds, Sutton, Sanger, Hannay, 
Newberry, hud may be ordered through all re- 
spectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 



H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
T. S. Cocks.Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 
G. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart, Esq. 



T. Grissell, Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. Lethbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



Truaf^es. 

W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. 

T Grissell, Esq. 

Physician. — William Rich. Basham, M.D. 

Bankers. — Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditions detailed in the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
lOO/., with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 

£ s. d. 



22 - 
27- 



£ s. d. 

- 1 14 4 

- 1 18 8 

- 2 4 5 



Age 
32- 
37- 
42- 



- 2 10 8 

- 2 18 6 

- 3 8 2 



ARTHUR SCBATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., 
Actuary. 
Now ready, price 10«. 6<i., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the (ieneral Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies. Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 

1\ CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 
and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMANTEAUS.TRAVELLING-BAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent tree by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN. 18. & 22. West Strand. 



R 



ENNETT'S MODEL 

WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had nt the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. .Superior (Jold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate (Jeneva Levers, in (iold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Diito, in Silver 
Cases, 8, fi, and 5 guineas. Superior I.«ver, with 
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BENNETT. Watch. Clock, and Instrument 
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65. CHEAPSIDE. 



THE LONDON ASSURANCE, 

INCORPORATED A.D. 1720. 

FOR LIFE, FIRE, AND MARINE 
ASSURANCES. 
Head Oflice, 7. Royal Exchange, Cornhill. 



EDWARD BUBMESTER,ESQ., Governor. 

JOHN ALVES ARBUTHNOT, ESQ., Sub- 
Governor. 

SAMUEL GREGSON, ESQ., M.P., Deputy- 
Governor. 



Directors. 



Nath. Alexander, Esq. 
R. Baggallay, Esq. 
G. Barnes, Esq. 
H. Bonham Bax, Esq. 
James Blyth. Esq. 
J. W. Borradaile, Esq. 
Chas. Crawley, Esq. 
W. Dallas, Esq. 
B. Dobree. Jun.. Esq. 
H. G Gordon, Esq. 
Edwin Gowtr, Esq. 
David C. Guthrie, Esq. 



J. Alex. Hankey.Esq. 
E. Harnage, Esq. 
Louis Huth, Esq. 
William King. Esq. 
Charles Lyall, Esq. 
John Ord, Esq. 
David Powell, Esq. 
G. Probyn.Esq. 
P. F. Robertson, M.P. 
Alex. Trotter. Esq. 
Thos. Weeding, E<q. 
Lest. P. Wilson, Esq. 



Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., F.R.S. 



WEST END OFFICE, No. 7. PALL MALL. 

Committee. 

Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 

HENRY KINGSCOTE, ESQ.. and 
JOHN TIDD PRATT, ESQ. 

Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ, 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
surances on Lives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Years, having issued its 
first Policy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two-thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
fits, are given to the Assured. 

Policies may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz. — 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in profits, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
en'itling the Assured, either after the first five 
years, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium, to a participation in the ensuing- 
quinquennial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Annual Prtmiums of i ersons who have been 
assured under Series " 1831 " tor five years or 
longer, is upw ards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
poration has maintained during nearly a 
Century and a Half, secures to the public a 
full and faithful declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expenses 
op Management, thus giving to the Assured, 
in consequence of the protection afforded by 
its Cm-porate Fund, advantages equal to those 
of any system of Mutual Assurance. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

A It Policies are issued free from Stamp Duty, 
or froTi charge of any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium. 

The attention of the Public is especially 
called to the //reat advantages offered to life 
Assurers by the Legislature in its recent 
Enactments, by which it will be found that, to 
a defined extent. Life Premiums are not sub- 
ject to Income Tax. 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 
Corp ration. 

A Policy may be effected for as small a sum 
as 201., and progressively increa.sed up to 50;., 
without the neccf sity of a new Policy. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer 
or exclian'-'e of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by either a written or personal 
app'ication to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of the West End OflSce. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONHON. SATURDAY, JANUARY 20. 1855. 



GIBBON ON THE ORANGE. 



Gibbon was, in general, so careful a writer, and 
his knowledge of antiquity was so comprehensive, 
that any deviation from accuracy in his great 
historical work, even on a subordinate and inci- 
dental point, is wortliy of being noted. His his- 
tory has, moreover, been revised by editors of so 
much ability and learning, that those errors which 
were inseparable from so vast an undertaking 
have been for the most part rectified. The fol- 
lowing passage, however, stands without any ob- 
servation in the recent excellent edition of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Umpire, by Dr. 
Wm. Smith : 

"Almost all the flowers, the herbs, and the fruits that 
grow in our European gardens, are of foreign extraction, 
which, in many cases, is betrayed even by their names : 
the apple was a native of Italy ; and when the Eomans 
had tasted the richer flavour of the apricot, the peach, the 
pomegranate, the citron, and the orange, they contented 
themselves with applying to all these new fruits the 
common denomination of apple, discriminating them 
from each other by the additional epithet of their coun- 
try." — Vol. i. c. ii. p. 189. ; "Dr. Smith's edition. 

Of the exotic fruits enumerated in this passage 
as known to the Romans in the early period of 
the empire, the Malus Armeniaca, or apricot, is 
mentioned by Columella, a writer of the first 
century, as cultivated in Italy in his time. {De 
Re Rust, V. 10. xi. 2.) The Romans also called 
this fruit prcecocia or prcecoqua, as being an early- 
ripening peach. Speaking of the different Pcrsica, 
or peaches, Pliny says, " Maturescunt ajstate prae- 
cocia, intra triginta annos reperta, et primo de- 
nariis singulis venundata." {N. H., xv. 11.) 

Martial, in an epigram headed "Persica," or 
" Nucipersica," speaks of the apricot as inferior 
to the peach, and as a stock on which the peach 
was grafted : 

" Vilia maternis fueramus praecoqua ramis : 

Nunc in adoptivis Persica cara sumus." — xiii. 46. 

Palladius, however, who understood gardening 
better than Martial, describes Armenia or prce- 
coqua as a species of peach, and as being grafted 
on the plum (xii. 7.). Dioscorides likewise, after 
speaking of peaches (^Uepa-tKcl /utjXr), says that the 
smaller sort, called Armenians, in Latin irpaiKOKia, 
are more digestible (De Mat. Med., \. 165.; and 
see Sprengel's note, vol. ii. p. 416.) The Greek 
form of prcBCocia or praecoqua occurs as irpeKOKKia 
in Galen De Fac. alim., ii. 20., and as Pep'iKOKKa in 
the Geoponics. Compare Meursius, Lex. Grcec. 
barb, in ^fptKOKKia and TlpfKOKKia. From this cor- 
rupted form of the Latin prcecocia was formed the 
Italian albercocco, with similar forms in the other 



Romance languages, and the old English apricock. 
(See Diez, Rom. Worterbuch in Albercocco.) Le 
Grand d'Aussy ( Vie Privee des Frangais, torn. i. 
p. 216.) states that the apricot was not cultivated 
in France till the sixteenth century. 

The peach, Malus persica, had been introduced 
into Italy before the time of Columella (v. 10.), 
and its varieties are described by Pliny (xv. 11. 
13.), who states that it passed into Italy from 
Persia through Egypt. According to Le Grand 
d'Aussy, the peach was known to the ancient 
Gauls, and was cultivated in France in the time 
of Charlemagne (ib. p. 218.). 

The pomegranate, Punicum malum, or granatum, 
known to the Greeks in early times by the name 
of poid, appears to have been cultivated in Italy 
under the early emperors. (See Plin., N. H. xiii. 
34. ; Columella, xii. 41.) 

The citron, Malus Assyria, Medica, or citrea, 
was not cultivated in Italy in the time of Pliny. 
He states that the fruit was only eaten as an an- 
tidote against poison, and that the plant would 
not grow out of Media and Persia (xii. 7., xv. 14.). 
Virgil describes the citron as a Median tree, and 
speaks of its fruit as a remedy against poisons 
(Georg. II. 126 — 135. Compare Theophrast., 
Hist. Plant., iv. 4.). A writer named Oppius is 
cited by Macrobius, as stating in his work on 
Wild Trees, that the citron did not then grow in 
Italy : " Citrea item malus et Persica ; altera 
generatur in Italia, et in Media altera." (Saturnal. 
iii. 19. § 4.) Palladius (iii. 6. v. i.), whose time 
is uncertain, but who is referred to the fourth 
century, gives a minute account of its cultivation 
as being then common in Italy. 

But the orange, Citrus aurantium Sinensis, was 
a plant wholly unknown to the ancients. It is a 
Cliinese tree, and it lay beyond the range of their 
navigation and commerce. There is no reason to 
suppose that any ancient Roman had even seen 
the fruit of the orange. The common account is, 
that the orange was introduced into Europe by 
the Portuguese as late as the sixteenth century; 
and it is added that the original orange-tree 
brought from the East was still growing at Lis- 
bon, near the end of the last century, in the 
garden of Count San Lorenzo (Le Grand d'Aussy, 
ib. p. 199.). 

It appears, however, that this account is not 
exact, and that the merit of having introduced 
the orange-tree into Europe does not belong to 
the Portuguese. According to the recent re- 
searches of Professor Targioni .(as abstracted in 
" Historical Notes on Cultivated Plants," in the 
Journal of the Horticultural Society of London) y 
the orange- tree was introduced into Europe from 
Arabia by the Moors ; and was cultivated at 
Seville, towards the end of the twelfth century, 
and at Palermo, and probably at Rome, in the 
thirteenth. Le Grand d'Aussy likewise shows 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



that some plants of it existed in Dauphine in the 
year 1333, Other writers have supposed that it 
was brought from Asia by the Venetians or Ge- 
noese. But whatever may have been the precise 
time at which the orange-tree was introduced into 
Europe, and whatever the channel by which it 
came, it is certain that Gibbon has committed an 
anachronism of at least ten centuries, in ascribing 
the cultivation of the orange to the Romans of the 
first period of the Empire. L. 



HOSPITAIi OF ST. CROSS. 

THE CHARTER OF DE BLOI3. — AUGMENTATION BY CAR- 
DINAL BEAUFORT. — ALLEGED LOSS OF THE STATUTES. 
— CONSUETUDIJf AEIUM. — OPINION OF THE MASTER OF 
THE ROLLS, ETC.* 

The Charter from the 31st Report of the Com- 
missioners appointed in pursuance of the act 
6 Wm. IV. c. 71., and presented to both Houses of 
Parliament, by command of Her Majesty, 1837 : — 

" Henry, by the Grace of God, Minister of the Church 
of Winchester, to the Venerable Lord in Christ, Raymond, 
Master of the Hospital of Jerusalem, and his brethren in 
due succession for ever; Those things, which are appointed 
for the honour of God, and for the health of their souls by 
the faithful in Christ, ought to be so securely established 
as not to be shaken by any lapse of time ; wherefore, be- 
loved brethren in the Lord, I deliver and commit to Pro- 
vidence and to the administration of yourself and your 
successors (as evidenced by this writing), the Hospital of 
the poor of Christ, which I, for the health of my soul and 
of the souls of my predecessors, and of the kings of Eng- 
land, have founded anew without the walls of Winchester, 
preserving its condition unchanged, so that, as it has been 
constituted by me, and has been confirmed by those apo- 
stolic men of pious memory Pope Innocent and Pope Lucius, 
the poor in Christ mav there humblv and devotedly serve 
God. 

" Now the form of the service and the constitution ap- 
pointed b}' me is this : 

" Thirteen poor impotent men, and so reduced in strength 
as rarely or never to be able to support themselves with- 
out the assistance of another, shall remain permanently 
in the Hospital, to whom shall be given necessary gar- 
ments, provided by the Prior of the house, and beds 
suitable to their infirmities; also good wheaten bread to 
the amount of five measures daily, with three dishes at 
dinner and one for supper, and sufficient drink. 

" If, however, it should happen that any one of these 
recover his strength, he shall be dismissed with decency 
and respect, and another shall be introduced in his room. 

" Besides which thirteen poor men, 100 other poor men of 
good conduct, and of the more indigent, shall be received 
at the hour of dinner, to whom shall be given coarser bread 
of the same weight as above, and one dish, as shall seem 
meet according to the convenience of the day, and a cup 
of the measure aforesaid ; and who when they rise from 
dinner shall be permitted to take away whatever shall 
remain of the meat or drink. 

"We farther enjoin you compassionately to impart 
other assistance, according to the means of the house, to 
the needy of every description. 

* See « N. & Q.," Vol. x., pp. 183. 299. 381. 



" All these things I with the assistance of Divine grace 
have appointed to be observed in the aforesaid house of 
God for ever, to be continually and faithfully fulfilled 
by you, but preserving in all things the canonical juris- 
diction of the Bishop of Winchester, that the appoint- 
ment and administration of the Prior of the said Hospital 
may be by the hands of the said bishop ; and that the 
rents, together with all the appurtenances, bestowed upon 
the said Hospital by me, may remain without disturbance 
or misapplication for the purposes of the said Hospital ; 
among which appurtenances we have thought it right to 
enumerate the following by their proper names : — The 
churches of Fareham, of Nursling, of Milbrook, of Twy- 
ford, of Hinton, of Alverstoke, of Exton, of Hurstbourne, 
of Whitchurch, of Chilbolton, of Woodhay, of Alton, of 
Wintney, of Stockton, of Ovington, with all their appur- 
tenances and appendages, and the tithes of demesne of 
Waltham, and other rents assigned to them in the city 
of Winton : and if any person hereafter shall take upon 
himself to appropriate or diminish the said rents, or to 
disturb or deteriorate the statutes and customs of the 
aforesaid House of God, which have been confirmed by 
the authority of the Holy See and of the King, let him 
incur the anger of Almightj' God, and of the Bishop of 
Winchester, and of all good men, unless he shall study to 
amend his fault by fitting satisfaction. But to you and 
your successors, benefactors of the poor, while j'ou preserve 
our constitutions without breach, may there be peace and 
mercy from the Lord Jesus Christ." — P. 843. 

The date is not affixed, but 1157 is assigned as 
the year in which this charter was granted. 

Augmentation. 

Cardinal Beaufort, brother to King Henry IV. 
and Bishop of Winchester, about the year 1444 
made considerable additions to the buildings of the 
Hospital and its revenues, and directed an increased 
number of poor and others to be maintained 
therein ; he also imposed statutes and regulations 
to be observed on the part of the persons admitted 
on his foundation, which was to be described as 
the Alms-house of Noble Poverty. But the car- 
dinal, although a very wealthy man, had numerous 
enemies. He was scarcely dead before the malice 
of those who envied and hated him became too ap- 
parent, and the Hospital was soon stripped of the 
secular estates which he had annexed to it. How- 
ever, by the zeal and perseverance of Bishop Wayn- 
flete, a charter was granted by King Henry VI. 
in 1486, directing that with what remained of 
the cardinal's endowment, one chaplain and two 
brethren should be maintained instead of the two 
chaplains, thirty-five poor men and three women, 
appointed by Beaufort ; that ithe chaplain should 
celebrate mass daily with a special collect for the 
soul of the founder, and with the other prayers en- 
joined in the statutes : the two brethren were also 
bound to say private prayers like the old brethren, 
but their habiliments should be difierent. ( Life 
of Bishop Waynflete, p. 225.). 

Statutes. 

With reference to the statutes of tl.e house, 
a local historian states that the widcw of a 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



steward, prior to 1696, destroyed the whole of 
them and the ordinances, to cover her husband's 
defalcations. (Prouten's Winchester Guide, p. 38.) 
A similar statement was made to the Court of 
Queen's Bench in June, 1851, wherein it was al- 
leged that in the time of James I., one of the 
masters being resident in Scotland, left the care 
of the Hospital to his son, who again left it to a 
Mr. Wright, in whose time all the papers were 
lost, and that the wife of Wright burned all the 
records of the Hospital. (Shaw's Justice of the 
Peace, vol. xv. p. 433.) 

Consuetudinarium. 

The commissioners (from whose report the copy 
of De Blois's charter is taken) say that the regu- 
lations for the government of the Hospital and of its 
funds, if any were ever prescribed by the founders 
or visitors, appear to have been lost anterior 
to the year 1660, and the establishment was long 
conducted upon the authority of traditional custom 
only ; that the defect was at last supplied by com- 
mon consent of the master and brethren, about the 
end of the seventeenth century, by the preparation 
and adoption of a document called the Consuetu- 
dinarium, in which, after reciting that upon dili- 
gent and strict search made among the records of 
the Hospital, no statutes nor footsteps of any 
statutes could be found, directing the government 
and regulation thereof; but it then was and had 
been time out of mind governed by customs taken 
from and in pursuance of former grants and 
donations of the founder thereof . . . and to pre- 
vent all differences and disputes in future, the 
then master and the brethren, the steward and 
chaplain, mutually agreed and declared that the 
several customs and usages thereinafter written 
were those by which the said Hospital had been 
and was then governed. The instrument then sets 
forth the number and description of persons that 
were to be supported by the establishment, the 
allowance to each weekly, yearly, and on parti- 
cular days, which, together with other matters of 
rule and regulation, although important, are too 
long for insertion here. It also states, that it 
had been and was the custom and usage that the 
master should govern all persons in and belonging 
to the Hospital ; that he should receive all the 
profits and revenues thereof, with which he was to 
bear the whole charge of the house, and to keep it 
and the church in sufficient repair ; the overplus he 
was to retain for himself, &c. (P. 847.) 

The representations made in the Guide Book, 
in the Court of Queen's Bench, and of what was 
told to the Commissioners, may be received as 
matter of information only, and given without due 
warrantry ; but the statements in the Consuetudi- 
narium, attested by the signatures of the several 
parties thereto, and ratified conditionally by the 
then bishop of the diocese, demanded and received 



strict examination at the hands of the learned 
judge who presided over the court in which the 
inquiry was conducted. His searching eye and 
acute power of investigation soon detected the 
erroneous andfallacious assertions therein set forth. 

Judgment. 

The learned gentleman's opinion of that instru- 
ment is expressed with such a vigorousness of 
purpose, that it is not only startling, but forcibly 
impressive. He said : 

" This Consuetudinarium is one of the most extraordinary- 
documents that ever was produced or relied upon in a 
court of justice: it begins by reciting that search liad 
been made among the records of the Hospital, and that no 
statutes or trace of any statutes could be found, directing 
the government and regulation thereof. At that time they 
who were the parties to this recital had in their possession 
a copy of the sentence against Eoger de Clowne [one of the 
masters called severely to account by William of Wyke- 
ham in 1372, for endeavouring to convert the revenues of 
the House to his own use], a copy of the Bull of Pope Gre- 
gory respecting the abuses introduced by the Master of 
the Hospital by the appropriation of its revenues, and ap- 
pointing a commission to inquire into the same. They 
had also a copy of the evidence and proceedings under 
that commission, besides which they had various docu- 
ments respecting the establishment of the Alms-house of 
Noble Poverty. These documents, then and now in their 
possession, contain ample evidence of the original rules 
and statutes, showing the object and destination of the 
charity to have been the very opposite to that to which 
they were about to convert it. The continuation of this 
document is of a piece with the opening ; it recites that 
it had been time out of mind governed by customs taken 
out of and in pursuance of the grants of the founders, the 
interpretation of which might occasion differences between 
the master and brethren ; and in order to prevent which they 
(the master and brethren) had agreed on what the cus- 
tom was .... Thereupon they proceed to settle 
the custom, or rather the distribution of the revenues of 
the charity, in elaborate detail, according to their own 
will and pleasure, in direct violation of an act of parlia- 
ment passed one hundred and twenty years before, and in 
direct opposition to the evidence and documents then in their 
own custody .... A more barefaced and shameless do- 
cument, in my opinion, than this Consuetudinarium could 
not have been framed, nor could a more manifest and pro- 
bably wilful breach of trust have been committed bj' the 
master and brethren. The bishop who ratified this docu- 
ment trusted to the word of the master and brethren, but 
he gave his ratification qualified so as not to be in dero- 
gation of the statutes of the founder, if these should 
afterwards be discovered." — Law Journal, 1853, Chancery 
Cases, 793—809. 

1 am thankful to Mr. Charles T. Kelly for 
the corrections of my list of Masters supplied in 
Vol. X., p. 473. ; and through the medium of your 
columns request, on behalf of myself and other 
readers, the dates of appointment of the under- 
mentioned gentlemen, named by the Rev. Mac- 
kenzie Walcott, in his volume on Wykehum and 
his Colleges, as having been Masters of the above 
celebrated House : 

Page 347. " John Eede, D.D., Fellow of New College, 
1474. Warden of Winchester, &c. Mastef of St. Cross. 
Died 1521." 



u 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



Page 413. " John Crooke, Fellow of Winchester Col- 
lege, 1619. Prebendary of Winchester Cathedral, 1640. 
Master of St. Cross," &c. Died about 1645. 

Page 434. The Right Hon. " Charles Wolfran Corn- 
•wall, Barrister-at law, one of the Lords of the Treasurj^, 
and twice Speaker of the House of Commons, 1780, 1784. 
Master of St. Cross." Died 1789, and was buried in the 
Hospital Church. 

Heney Edwaeds. 



CHAEACTEE OF THE LOW COUNTEIES. 

The love of the Dutch for extreme cleanliness 
has become, as it were, proverbial ; and every one 
who has travelled through the country, and wit- 
nessed their grand hebdomadal schoonmaken, can 
testify to the almost fanatical excess to wliich the 
passion for purification is carried among them. 
It would appear, nevertheless, from various allu- 
sions in the works of our older writers, that in this 
respect, as well as others, the Dutch of the present 
day are " unlike their Belgic sires of old ;" and 
that while they have lost the bold and warlike 
character ascribed to their ancestors by Goldsmith 
in his Traveller, they have at the same time ceased 
to be characterised by the ruggedness of dress and 
filthiness of person which served at one time to 
point the moral of the wit and the satirist. Thus 
the punning allusions in Prince Henry's taunting 
speech to Poins have ceased to be intelligible, and 
I am not aware that any commentator has endea- 
voured to explain them : — 

" What a disgrace is it to me to bear the in- 
ventory of thy shirts ; as, one for superfluity, and one 
other for use? — but that, the tennis-court keeper knows 
better than I ; for it is a low ebb of linen with thee, when 
thou keepest not racket there ; as thou hast not done a 
great while, because the rest of thy low-countries have 
made a shift to eat up thy Holland : and God knows, 
whether those that bawl out the ruins of thy linen, shall 

inherit his kingdom," &c Second Part of King Henri/ 

IV., Act II. Sc. 2. 

An explanation of these allusions would be 
desirable : they may be thought to receive some 
illustration from the following passage from Earle's 
Microcosmography ; or, a Piece of the World 
discovered; ^c, ]2mo., London, 1732. In his 
character of " A Younger Brother," the Bishop 
says : " His last refuge is the Low Countries, 
where rags and linen are no scandal, where he lives 
a poor gentleman of a company, and dies without 
a shirt." So also in a satirical work by Owen 
Felltham (A Brief Character of the Low Countries 
under the States, being Three Weeks' Observation of 
the Vices and Virtues of the Inhabitants, London, 
1659, 12mo.), the sailors (that is, the inhabitants) 
are characterised as being able to " drink, rail, 
swear, niggle, steal, and be loicsie alike" (p. 40.). 
Goldsmith is reported to have said (where?) 
that " a Dutchman's house reminded him of a 
temple dedicated to an ox ;" and in his Citizen of 



the World (chap, xxxiv.), he says : " My Lord 
Firmly is certainly a Goth, a Vandal, no taste In 
the world for painting. I wonder how any call 
him a man of taste ; passing through the streets of 
Antwerp a few days ago, and observing the naked- 
ness of the inhabitants, he was so barbarous as to 
observe, that he thought the best method the 
Flemings could take was to sell their pictures and 
buy clothes." 

Perhaps, after all, these ill-natured sneers may 
have little better foundation than in those physical 
peculiarities and eccentricities which have so long 
marked out the Low Countries as a stock theme 
for the exercise of satirical humour — from the 
witty and extravagant descriptions of Marvell and 
Butler, to the pathetic " Adieu ! canaux, canards, 
canaille" of Voltaire, and the sarcastic description 
of the author of Vathek. William Bates. 

Birmingham. 



:^t«0r 3ott^, 

The Turkish Troops, a.d. 1800. — 

" It is, perhaps, a fortunate circumstance for Europe, 
that the eiforts which have been made at different times, 
and which are still making, by European officers, to in- 
troduce a discipline among the Turks, have proved in- 
effectual ; for, if they are considered in regard to their 
personal courage, their bodily strength, or their military 
habits, they will be found to equal, if not to surpass, any 
other body of men. A loaf of bread, with an onion, is 
what many of them have always lived upon ; rice is a 
luxury, and meat a dainty to them. With this abste- 
mious' diet they are strangers to many of our diseases, 
and the hardships of a camp life are habitual to them;, 
because, from their infancy, they have slept upon the 
ground and in the open air. Discipline would certainly 
make men who are possessed of such natural advantages 
very formidable ; whereas, from a want of it, they are 
despicable enemies." 

The camp at El-Arish : 

" The view of the camp the morning after my arrival 
at El-Arish, was to me a very singular sight, as I believe, 
it was original in its kind. " The ground upon which it 
stood was irregular, and a perfect desert of white sand, 
with no other signs of vegetation than a few date-trees, 
which stood in a cluster at a small distance. The tents,, 
which are of different colours and shapes, were irregularly 
strewed over a space of ground several miles in circuit, 
and everything that moved was conspicuous to the eye, 
from the white ground of the landscape. The whole re- 
sembled a large fair; a number of the soldiers who serve 
without pay carry on a traffic by which they subsist ; 
there are, besides, tradesmen of all descriptions who fol- 
low the camp; some keep coffee-houses, which are dis- 
tinguished by a red flag ; others are horse-dealers ; and 
a number of public cryers are constantly employed in 
describing to the multitude things lost,' or in selling 
divers articles at auction. This scene of confusion is 
certainly more easily conceived than told ; but a very 
ingenious definition of it was given by a Turk, who was 
asked to describe their manner of encampment. ' Thus,' 
said he, pulling from his pocket a handful of paras [a 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



4i 



small silver coin], ami throwing them carelessly on a 
table."— J. P. MoiuEK, 1801. 

The above extracts are from a Memoir of a 
campaign with the Ottoman army in Egypt, from 
February to July 1800. Loudon, 1801, 8vo. ; an 
interesting pamphlet of uncommon occurrence. 
Mr. Morier was private secretary to his excel- 
lency the earl of Elgin. Boi-ton Corkey. 

Curiosities of Letter-writing. — I subjoin a per- 
fect gem, which I have just received from a female 
correspondent : 

« Sur, 
" I Lucay * * * Beges to informe you that i Have 

nothing a gaints the * * * Compnay But my 

Husband is a Soulder And i Have nothing a Loud me 
from the Parish and the Hous that I Live in is wear my 
Sorounden Nebors Bee wear I Pick Hup my Little Bred 
for me and my famley And i Cannot Leave it without i 
Have a Nother Clous at and." 

The " nebors," I hear, consider the poor woman 
a witch ! In my judgment, the appeal would 
have been less eloquent had it been couched in 
less exceptionable vernacular. 

C. Mansfield Inglebt. 

The Duke of Monmouth. — The following is a 
copy of a letter addressed to the Corporation of 
Hull: 

« Whitehall, 23 Aug. 
" Gentlemen, 
" Upon my arrivall att London I mett with the report 
of Mr. ilarvell's death, one of the burgesses for yo'' towne, 
which gives me occasion to become a suitor to you in 
behalfe of Mr. Shales, that you would elect him to supply 
that vacancy in Parliament, whom I look upon as a person 
very well qualif3'ed to serve the king, his country, and 
yo'' Corporation in particular, to whose interests I shall 
always have a peculiar regard, and shall owne your kind- 
ness herein as an obligation to, 

" Gentlemen, 

"Yf very humble Ser^', 

" Monmouth." 
In another hand — 

" Reed the 29* Aug«, '78." 

It appears, however, that the duke's friend, Mr. 
Shales, was not elected to supply the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Andrew Marvel, but 
apparently Mr. Anthony Gilby. Shoreolds. 

Curious Magical Compact. — In Tableau de 
VTnconstance des mavvais Anges et Demons, par P. 
De Lancre, a Paris, 1612, p. 174., he relates the 
following : 

" En I'an 1574 vn homme nomme Trois Rieux, s'obliga 
enuers vn Medecin Escossois qui s'estoit venu accazer en 
cette ville de Bourdeaux nomme Macrodor [or, as he 
would be called in Scotland, Macrother or Macgrowther'], 
de luy seruir aprez sa mort de Demon, et h. ces fins il luy 
engageoit son esprit, s'obligeant de luy reueler toutes 
choses secretes incognues aux hommes, et lu}' faire tous 
les bons offices, que semblables Esprits ont accoustume de 
faire a ceux qui entrent en pareilles curiositez : mesrae se 
trouuer et apparoir visiblement k sa dextre toutes les 
festes solemnelles, anec sa robbe et un juppia ou casaquia 



de veloux tan^, et des chausses de mesme estoffe et cou- 
leur ; bref en mesrae habit qu'il estoit lors dudict pacta et 
conuention. lequel estoit escrit sur de parchemin vierge 
en lettre de sang d'homme que le teps auoit faicte vio- 
lette ; et fut trouuer la dicte obligatio auec une platine de 
cuyure de forme rode d'assez mediocre gradeur, dans 
laquelle estoyent grauez les sept noms de Dieu, des sept 
Anges, des sept planfetes, et plusieurs autres caracteres, 
lignes, poincts et autres choses k moy incognues. 

" Or ce Macrodor estoit communement tenu pour Ma- 
gicien et sorcier, et h faict luy et toute sa famille un fort 
pauure fin ; et pendant sa vie sa plus grande fortune a 
este de seruir de Medecin aux pauures prisonniers de la 
Conciergerie." 

May not such dark practices as the foregoing 
have given some countenance to the old phrase 
" Buying and selling the Devil ?" G. N. 

Osherns Life of Odo. — Alban Butler, in his 
Lives of the Saints, vol. vii. p. 39., states that " the 
life of St. Odo, written by Osbern, and quoted 
by William of Malmesbury, seems nowhere to be 
extant." In torn, cxxxiii. col. 931. &c. of the 
Patrologice Cursus Completus, by the Abbe J. P. 
Migne, we find " Vita S. Odonis auctore, ut 
videtur, Osberno monacho Cantuariensi (Apud 
Mabil. Acta Sanctorum ordinis S. Bened., &c.)." 
This life states that Odo was Bishop of Sherborne, 
not Wilton, previously to his promotion to the see 
of Canterbury. Joseph B. M'Caui«. 

British Museum. 

" Why spare Odessa?" — We have all seen this 
Query many times repeated in the " leading 
journal:" its transference to the more peaceful 
columns of " N. & Q." is now made more with a 
view to the introduction of some quotations from 
the chapter entitled " La Russie " of the Abbe de 
Pradt's celebrated work, Le Congres de Vienne^ 
than from any special desire to see Odessa razed 
to the ground. At the -same time I do wish to see 
that finely-situated port in the hands of a gene- 
rous power like England, which would render it a 
free mart for all the nations of the world, rather 
than an entrepot to be opened or shut at the ca- 
price of a despot like iJicholas. The spirituel 
Abbe says (he was no admirer of Russia fortj 
years ago ; what would he say now ?) : 

" Une creation d'arts et de commerce k Odessa m'in- 
spire plus de craintes que So war row avec son armee en 
Italie : les armees passent, les arts restent. La Russie a 
pris la route du Midi; elle s'avanee sur lui avec un« 
population vaillante et robuste, avec les instruments des 
arts, et sous des chefs aussi polices que les Europeens. 
.... Toute armee purement Europ^enne est civilisee; 
toute armee Russe Test seulement dans ses chefs et n© 
Test pas dans le i este de ses membres. Quels que soieat 
les progres de la civilisation en Russie, cette distance des 
chefs aux subaltemes durera encore longtemps. Mais 
c'est Ik precisement qu'est le danger. Une barbarie ro- 
buste et obeissante est toujours aux ordres de la civili- 
sation la plus exquise. Des mains savantes manient des 
instrumens barbares, et s"en servent corame des mains 

savantes peuvent le faire II parait (jue I'amitie et 

la reconnaissance de la Prusse oat facilite les arrango- 



4d 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



mens de la Riissie. On a pu croire n'avoir rien a con- 
tester h, qui I'on pouvait croire tout devoir. .... C'etait 
centre les agrandissemens de la Russie que le Congrfes 
devait dresser toutes les forces de sa raison, de ses re- 
presentations et de son opposition : c'eut ete un interes- 
sant plaidoyer que celui du midi de I'Europe, demandant 

au nord de cesser de I'alarmer, et de s'arrcter enfin 

En negligeant ce point capital, le Congrfes s'est complete- 
ment m^pris sur I'int^ret principal de I'Europe. II n'a 
pas connu le clef de la voute de son propre ouvrage." 

J. M. 

Recapitulations. — The pages of " N. & Q." are 
too valuable to be encroached on by recapitula- 
tions, the greater part of which might be avoided 
by a reference to the very clear and copious in- 
dices of the volumes. In Vol. x., p. 494., Mr. 
Henry H. Breen gives a quotation from Darwin 
illustrative of the simile " Stars and Flowers," and 
refers to Vol. vii. passim. Now, if Mr Breen 
had taken the trouble to verify his passim refer- 
ence, he would have seen that the simile is referred 
to in three places only in the seventh volume ; 
and that, in one of those places (p. 513.), the 
quotation from Darwin (which Mr. Breen gives 
with the air of its discoverer) was noted down by 
me. I may also here take the opportunity of 
pointing out another needless recapitulation. In 
Vol. ix., p. 346., I gave several parallel passages 
relative to " Death and Sleep ; " and among them 
I quoted Thomas Warton's well-known Latin 
epigram on sleep ; * and Peter Pindar's equally 
well-known English version. In Vol. x., p. 356., 
J. G. again quotes the Latin epigram, " adding" 
the lines, as he says, to the "passages already 
given," with the remark : " I have heard them 
attributed to an eminent dignitai'y in the Church, 
whose name has escaped me." And at p. 412., 
D. S., after remarking, " there are several trans- 
lations or imitations of tjie elegant lines which 
have been sent you by J. G.," quotes the English 
version of Peter Pindar. Cuthbbet Bede, B.A. 



^\xtxit&. 



BROMLEY LETTERS. 

May I ask whether any of your antiquarian 
readers can inform me what has become of the 
originals of the collection of letters known as the 
Bromley Letters., published by the late Sir Geo. 
Bromley, Bart., 8vo., London, 1787, printed for 
Stockdale of Piccadilly ? They contain letters to 
and from the Queen of Bohemia and other mem- 
bers of the Palatine family, from whom that of 
Bromley descends, through a natural daughter of 
Prince Rupert. The letters were sold with the 
other effects of the late Sir George Bromley, who 
assumed the surname of Pauncefort, at his house 

* Written for a statue of Somnus, in the garden of 
Mr, Harris, father of the first Lord Malmesbury. 



in Russell Square, in 1809, but who was their 
purchaser I am unable to ascertain, unless I can 
do so through your medium. 

I should also be much obliged if any of your 
correspondents can inform me of letters of Queen 
Henrietta Maria existing in private collections^ 
or in printed works of not very usual occurrence^ 
I am preparing a series of her letters for publica- 
tion, which I wish to render as complete as pos- 
sible. Mary Anne Everett Green. 

7. Upper Gower Street. 



" Bonnie Dundee.^'' — The tune to which Scott'a 
song, " The Bonnets of Bonnie Dundee," begin- 
ning : 
" To the Lords of Convention 'twas Claver'se that spoke," 

is usually sung, is not the tune called " Bonnie 
Dundee," in Thomson's or Wood's Collection of 
Scotch Songs. In Scott's Diary (see Lockhart's 
Life, vol. vi. p. 170.), he says the words were 
written to the tune of " Bonnie Dundee." Now, 
is the tune, to which the words are generally sung, 
an old air? Is it the air of "Bonnie Dundee" 
which was running in Scott's head, when he wrote 
the verses ; or what is the history of the air, if 
written to suit Scott's words ? H. B. 

Rev. William Maciay. — At the east end of 
Martham Church, Norfolk, are stones commemo- 
rative of the Mackay family, and until recently 
there was one commemorative of himself; it is- 
now removed, owing to the decayed state of the- 
tomb, and placed about the centre of the porch in 
the pathway ; it bears the following inscription : 

" In Memory of Wm. Mackay, Rector of Fishly, Vicar 
of Upton, Sequestrator of Ranworth, and Curate of Repps 
with Bastwick. Died July 13, 1752, aged eighty -seven." 

Where can any account of the above be found ? 
Did he publish any theological work ; and if so, 
what ? J- W. DiBOLL. 

Great Yarmouth. 

Doddridge and White field. — Long before the 
existence of " N. & Q./' I asked for an explana- 
tion of the following singular plagiarism through 
the medium of another periodical, but received no 
satisfactory reply. I trust I may be more fortu- 
nate in my present inquiry. 

In vol. iv. of Doddridge's Collected Works, there 
is a sermon on Luke x. 42., " One thing is need- 
ful ; " and the same identical sermon appears 
amongst those of Whitefield, edit. London, 1825, 
p. 312. 

Can any of your readers account for this as- 
tounding fact ? C. W. Bingham. 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



Tartar Conqueror. — Who is the Tartar con- 
queror referred to in the following passage of 
R. I. Wilberforce's Inquiry into the Principles of 
Church Authority, and where is the statement to 
be found ? 

" Those whose converse is only with books, and who 
live in that circle of thoughts which is suggested by our 
great divines, may imagine that the Church of England 
has one consistent system of teaching, and inculcates a 
single body of truth ; but experience dissipates the de- 
lusion, and shows such hopes to be like those of the 
Tartar conqueror, who discarded morning and evening 
prayer because he imagined himself to have reached the 
land of eternal sunshine." — P. 279. 

William Feasek, B. C. L . 

Alton, Staffordshire, 

Clarkson Monument. — In 1827 a subscription 
was set on foot for the erection of a monument 
near Wade's Mill, on the road to Cambridge,_the 
spot where Thomas Clarkson conceived the idea 
of entering on his anti-slavery labours. Was the 
memorial erected ? X. 

Copying-ink. — For some years I have saved 
1,he expense and the mistakes of an amanuensis in 
copying what I wi'ite, by taking fac-simile copies 
on damped tissue paper by the simple pressure of 
the hand. For this purpose I have used Tarling's 
copying-ink, and recently Plowman's. The former 
is frequently so deficient in gum as to fail in 
producing a distinct fac-simile ; and the latter so 
abundant as to smear or run when a copy is taken. 
Can any of your readers tell me what gum is the 
best, and how much should be put to a pint of 
common black ink, and if any other ingredients 
must be added to produce a distinct fac-simile ? 

Sob. 

Van Lemput or Remee. — Since favoured by a 
reply in " N. & Q.," respecting the painter Van 
Lemput, I have in vaia endeavoured to trace the 
issue of his sons. 

Perhaps one of your able correspondents could 
enlighten me farther on this point. I have been 
told they occasionally bore the name of Remee 
(from the father's name Remiglus). The family 
is historically celebrated at Antwerp as well as in 
Utrecht. New York. 

Inscription Query. — Between the leaves of my 
copy of Sylveira's Commentary on the Acts (fob, 
Venet., 1728), I found the other day a piece of 
paper, rather smaller than an ordinary visiting 
card, with the following inscription printed on it, 
except the last numeral, which has been inserted 
•with the pen : 

« Anno 1734. 
Capax est 
in Irschenberg." 

I shall be glad to receive an explanation of it from 
yourself or one of your correspondents. F. A. 



Professors. — What constitutes a professor ? 
Many small individuals assume that title, and 
many good philosophers do not use it, although 
they give lectures of the highest quality. Mimi. 

Nuns acting as Priests in the Mass. — At a 
short distance from Schaffhausen, on the Swiss 
side of the Rhine, is a place called Diessenhofen, 
near which there is a convent of Dominican nuns 
dedicated to St. Catherine. In a Guide-book, 
entitled Nouvel Ebel. Manuel du Voyageur en 
Suisse et en Tyrol, 10™* edit., revue et corrigee 
par L. Maison, Paris, 1852, I find the following 
account of this convent (pp. 190, 191.) : 

" Avant Diessenhofen, on voit le beau couvent dit de 
Ste. Catherine. II contient quarante religieuses avec une 
prieure. Du temps de la reformation, les nonnes dirent 
la messe, n'ayant pas de pretre, et choisirent I'une d'elles 
pour faire les fonctions de predicateur. Les scaurs qui 
habitent maintenant ce couvent, fonde au xiii""® sifecle, 
s'abstiennent de toute nourriture animale ; leur ^glise est 
decoree avec beaucoup de magnificence." 

What is the truth of tliis story ? Does it mean 
that one of the nuns actually performs the part of 
a priest in the Mass, as well as that of preacher ? 
And are we to infer, from the words " Du temps 
de la reformation," that the nuns of this place 
have taken upon themselves to act in this way, in 
consequence of having adopted some form of Pro- 
testantism ? 

Possibly some of your readers may be able to 
say whether there is any, and what, foundation 
for this singular statement. J. H. T. 

Dublin. 

" What I spent," SfC. — The following epitaph 
is of course well known : 

« What I spent I had ; 
What I saved I lost ; 
What I gave I have." 

But can you or any of your readers give the ori- 
ginal ? W. (1) 

Lord Audley at Poictiers. — Do the manuscripts 
preserved in Worcester College Library, Oxford, 
said to describe the achievements of Edward the 
Black Prince, with the names of his English at- 
tendants correctly spelt, contain those of the 
esquires who were companions of the great Lord 
Audley at the battle of Poictiers ? Battlefield. 

" Cur mittis violas," ^c. — Jovianus Pontanus 
has a short poem commencing — 

" Cur mittis violas ? nempe ut violentius uret ; 
Quid violas violis me violenta tuis ? " 

I shall be thankful for a copy of the remaining 
lines, as I am unable, just at present, to lay my 
hands upon the works of this writer. Does Pon- 
tanus dally with other flowers in this manner ? 

A. Challsteth. 



4« 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 273. 



Trial of Darell of Littlecote. — Is there any old 
book, or pamphlet, giving the details of the trial 
of Darell of Littlecote? L. (1) 

Penitentiaries for Females. — When was the 
first penitentiary for the restoration of fallen wo- 
men established ? Was there any penitential de- 
partment in any of the religious houses before the 
Keformation ? or is the penitentiary, as such, 
subsequent to that date ? We read that St. Vin- 
cent de Paul founded one in Paris under the 
superintendence of secular ladies ; but the insti- 
tution having very soon fallen into abuse, he 
placed it under the care of three nuns of a reli- 
gious order. This step created, we are told, a 
great deal of surprise at the time, and would 
therefore seem to prove that the Church in 
France at least had not had the penitentiary, as 
such, previous to the time of St. Vincent de Paul. 

Geo. Nugee. 

Anglo-Saxon, 8fc. — Will some one of the Anglo- 
Saxon students who correspond in " N. & Q." be 
so good as to inform a lady, whether it would be 
possible, with limited time and at small expense, 
to obtain a knowledge of that language ; and also 
to what extent it would be a useful assistant in 
the study of English etymology ? She would feel 
obliged by the titles of any French or German 
works equivalent in those languages to the Diver- 
sions of Purley and the works of Messrs. Trench, 
'Lower, &c. in our own. A Reader. 

Cowley on Skakspeare. — I have a memorandum 
that Cowley was of opinion that the grosser pas- 
sages in the plays of Shakspeare were interpolated 
by the players, but cannot find the particular 
reference. If any of your readers are acquainted 
with it, perhaps they would kindly make the re- 
quisite extract, which would be worth a place in 
*'N. & Q." independently of any personal object. 

J.O. H. 

Theophilus Iscanus. — Who was Theophilus 
Iscanus, who appeared on Bishop Hall's side in 
the Smectymnuan Controversy, in a tract entitled 
Philadelphus vapulans ogainst Lewis du Moulin? 
He dedicates the work to Bishop Hall ; and from 
•the dedication it would appear that he was one of 
his lordship's chaplains. It would appear that 
Bishop Hall had a chaplain named Jackson; and 
if so, can any information be obtained regarding 
him ? W. H. C. 

Niagara. — What is the supposed depth of 
water as it passes over the edge of the rock in 
this matchless waterfall ? Mimi. 



" The Schoolmaster, or Teacher of Philosophie.^* 
— I have an old black-letter tract, bound up with 
some others, about 1607-8, signed T. T., and with 
the running title of " Table Philosophie :" unfor- 
tunately, the title-page is wanting : could any of 
your correspondents favour me with an exact 
copy of the title-page ? To assist in the identi- 
fication, I may add, that in the preface, which is 
printed in Roman type, the author has these 
words : " And for this cause I b»ve determined 
to intitle this work The Schoolmaster, or Teacher 
of Table Philosophie, and have divided the same 
into foure severall partes." And then he goes on 
to give the " argument thereof." W. H. C. 

Edinburgh. 

[This -work is by Thomas Twine or Twyne. The fol- 
lowing is a copy of the title-page: — "The Schoolem aster,, 
or Teacher of Table Phylosophie. A most pleasant and 
merie Companion, well worthy to be welcomed (for a 
dayly Gheast) not onelye to all mens boorde, to guide 
them with moderate and holsome dyet; but also into 
euery mans companie at all tymes, to recreat their 
mindes, with honest mirth and delectable deuises : to 
sundry pleasant purposes of pleasure and pastyme. 
^ Gathered out of diuers, the best apprOued Aucthors : 
and deuided into foure pithy and pleasant Treatises, as 
it may appeare by the contentes. % Imprinted at Lon- 
don by Richard lohnes, dwelling at the Signe of the 
Rose and the Crown, neere-Holburne Bridge. 1683."] 

Conway e: Booh of Prayers. — I have in my 
possession a curious and early book of prayers 
entitled : 

" Meditations and Praiers gathered out of the Sacrea 
Letters and Tertuous Writers, disposed in Fourme of the 
Alphabet of the Queene her Most Excellent Majesties 
Name. Imprinted at London in Fleet Street, by Henry 
Wykes." 

The dedication to Elizabeth is signed J. Con- 
waye. Any information respecting ;the volume 
or its compiler will oblige. Verat. 

Islington. 

[Sir John Conway, of Arrow, in Warwickshire, being a 
person of great skill in military affairs, was made governor 
of Ostend by Robert, Earl of Leicester, Dec. 29, 1586 
(29 Elizabeth), the said Earl being then general of the 
English auxiliaries in behalf of the States of the United 
Provinces. From some cause or other, Sir John was 
made a prisoner; as the Harleian MS. No. 287, fol. 102, 
contains " an original letter of Sir John Conway to Sir 
Francis Walsingham, dated at Ostend, Sept. 8, 1583, 
concerning his imprisonment, and of the uses that m^v 
be made of Berney the spy, who has great credit with 
the Prince of Parma." During his confinement, Sir John 
wrote his " Posye of Flowred Praiers " on his trencher, 
"with leathy pensell of leade." He dietl Oct. 4, 1603. 
See Dugdale's Warwickshire, vol. ii. pp. 850. 852., -edit. 
1730.] 

" Tableau de Paris."— 'Who is the author of a 
work, which appears to have been produced 
periodically, entitled Tableau de Paris? The 
edition I possess is in twelve volumes octavo, and 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



m 



on its title-page there is " Nouvelle edition, eor- 
rigee et augmentee, a Amsterdam, 1783." In 
the Avertissement des Editeurs it is called an 
edition in four volumes, and another edition of 
Le Sieur Samuel Fauche pere is spoken of as a 
defective copy of the first edition in two volumes 
which appeared in June, 1781, and "which, ap- 
pearing at a distance of a hundred leagues from 
the author, is itself very imperfect." Anon. 

[This work is by Louis-Sebastien Mercier, according to 
"Barbier, Dictionnaire des Ouvrages. See also Querard, La 
France Litt(raire, s. ».] 

Long S. — Is it known what adventurous printer, 
and at what date, first disused the long s} In a 
cursory examination of several books, the latest 
which I find printed with the long s is The Di- 
versions of Purley, printed by J. Johnson, 1805. 
Probably some of your correspondents remember 
noticing the innovation, which seems to have taken 
place soon after 1800. Eden Warwick. 

[Mr. J. Bell, bookseller in the Strand, who printed and 
published an edition of Shakspeare, The British Theatre, 
and The Poets, about 1795, first set the example, which 
soon became general, of discarding the long f. As the 
Elzevir type is now coming into fashion, the long f, and 
its combinations, will remind us of olden times. ] 

Tioo Surnames joined by Alias. — One is con- 
tinually meeting this, as " Simon Sudbury, alias 
Tibold, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1381." Per- 
haps some of your readers would obligingly assign 
the reason of it ? Alias. 

Temple. 

[Godwin, in his Catalogue of the Bishops of England, 
p. 101., thus explains it: " This Simon was the sonne of 
a gentleman named Nigellus Tibold, so that his itrue 
name was Simon Tibold. But he was borne at Sudburj', 
a town of Suffolk, in the parish of S. George, and of that 
towne tooke his name, according to the manner of many 
cleargymen in those dales." See a notice of this prelate 
in « N. & Q.,» Vol. v., p. 194.] 

Sir Thomas Tresham. — In what work can I 
find a detailed account of Sir Thomas Tresham, 
father of the Gunpowder Plot conspirator ? 

E. P. H. 

[Some few notices of Sir Thomas Tresham may be 

f leaned from Bridges' Northamptonshire, vol. ii. pp. 324. 
74., &c. ; Fuller's Worthies, art. Northamptonshire; 
Leland's Itinerary, vol. vi. p. 38. ; Beauties of England 
and Wales, vol. xi. p. 169. ; and Gent. Maq. for August, 
1808, p. 680.] 

Colophon. — Unde derivatur ? J. M. 

[Colophon is derived from a city of that name in Ionia, 
north-west of Ephesus, and one of the places that con- 
tended for the birth of Homer. The Colophonians were 
excellent horsemen, and generally turned the scale on 
the side on which they fought ; hence the proverb, 
"KoKo<\>oiva. kninQivai," — "to add a Colophonian" — put 
the finishing hand to an affair ; hence also, in the early 
periods of printing, the last thing printed at the end of 
the book was called the colophon. The same phrase was 



used by the Romans, as well as by Erasmus, whose words 
are Colophonem addidi — "I have put the finishing touch 
to it." Consult Lemprifere's Classical Diet, by Anthon and 
Barker, and Thomas's Hiit. ofJ*riHting in America, vol. u 

p. 14.] 

Nottingham Riots. — Will you inform me where 
I can meet with a good account of the Nottingham 
Riots, which took place some time about the pass- 
ing of the Reform JBill ? W. E. HowLEiyr. 

Kirton in Lindsey. 

[A long account of the riots at Nottingham on the 
memorable days of Oct. 9th, 10th, andlltb, 1831, when 
the castle and Mr. Lowe's silk mill were demolished, will 
be found in the Nottingham Journal of Oct. 15, 1831, and 
in the Nottingham Review of Oct. 14, 1831, which was 
most probably copied into the London papers.] 



ISit^liti, 



TDEAN BILL. 



(Vol. vii., p. 286. ; Vol. x., p. 530.) 

I shall be very much obliged to A. R. M,, 
M. L. B., or to any other correspondent of " N. & 
Q.," to furnish me with particulars of the ancestgr 
of this worthy reformer. 

As a clue, I will recite all that I have been able, 
with limited resources, to collect. William Bill, 
D.D., was appointed Master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in 1546. He was invited to Trinity 
College, and became the second master on that 
foundation in 1551. Queen Mary ejected him in 
1553, and he was restored by Queen Elizabeth dn 
1558. In the following year Dr. Bill was ap- 
pointed, with several other learned divines, Arch- 
bishop Parker being at their head, to take a re- 
view of the two liturgies of King Edward VI., and 
to frame from them a Book of Common Prayer 
for the use of the Church of England. On the 
21st of May, 1560, Queen Elizabeth refounded the 
establishment at Westminster Abbey as a col- 
legiate church, to be governed by a dean and 
chapter, and appointed Dr. Bill to be the first 
dean. He died 15th June, 1561, in possession of 
the Deanery, the Mastership of Trinity College, 
and, I believe, the Provostship of Eton. Burke, 
in his Armory, says that Dr. Bill's niece, the heir 
of his elder brother Thomas Bill, of Ashwell, co. 
Hertford, married James Haydock of Greywell, 
CO. Southampton. In his Extinct Baronetage, 
under the family Samwell he says that Francis 
Samwell, Esq., of Cotsford, co. Oxford, who re- 
moved first to the town of Northampton, and 
afterwards settled at Rothersthorpe in that shire, 
was auditor to Henry VIII., and married Mary, 
sister to the Rev. William Bill, D.D., of Ashwell, 
CO. Hertford, almoner to Queen Elizabeth, by 
whom he had issue Sir William Samwell, auditor 
to Queen Elizabeth, knighted by James I., and 
ancestor of the baronets of that family. 



50 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[No. 273. 



I have never been able to ascertain whether the 
Dean was married, or to connect him with the 
StaflTordshire family. Richard Bill of EoUeston, 
CO. Stafford, the first I notice in that county, was 
born about twenty years after the Dean's death. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Robert Shenton, of Farley, Esq., and died circa 
1640, leaving issue three sons: 1. John, who inhe- 
rited Farley ; he left an only daughter and heiress, 
Elizabeth, who built Farley Hall. 2. Richard, 
who died without issue. 3. Robert of Stanton, 
the ancestor of the present family ; he had three 
sons, of whom Richard, the eldest, repurchased in 
1699 the Farley estate, which had been sold in 
1679 by Elizabeth Bill's son and heir. 

In the Manual of Brasses^ published at Oxford 
in 1848, it is recorded, that on Dean Bill's sepul- 
chral slab in Westminster Abbey, his coat of arms 
in brass, now lost, bore — Ermine, two wood-bills 
sable, with long handles, proper, in saltire ; on a 
chief azure, a pale or, charged with a rose gules, 
between two pelicans' heads erased at the neck 
argent. Burke, in his Armory, gives a similar 
coat to the Bills of Staffordshire, the only differ- 
ence being, that the wood-bills are called battle- 
axes, the pale is argent, and the pelicans are 
vulning themselves. But he gives to Dean Bill a 
coat altogether different, viz.. Or, a fret sable 
within a bordure engrailed azure, on a canton 
argent, five martlets in saltire sable. The con- 
struction of the first coat, the rose borne on a pale 
in the chief, savours of the Westminster arms *, 
and I should almost infer, from this circumstance, 
that these bearings were granted to the Dean 
during the short time he presided over that 
Chapter. If this suggestion be correct, no doubt 
a record of the grant, with perhaps some account 
of his family, is still extant in the College of 
Arms. A search there, or in the Harleian MS. 
No. 1546., in the British Museum, which contains 
the visitation of the county of Hertford, by Robert 
Cooke, Clarencieux, in the year 1572, might pro- 
duce a solution to A. R. M.'s Queries : Chauncey's 
Hertfordshire, or Clutterbuck's, might be con- 
sulted. Patonce. 



SOUTHET AND VOLTAIRE. 

(Vol. x., p. 282.) 

The French pMlosophes, and Voltaire in par- 
ticular, have sins enough of their own to answer 
for, without being made accountable for those 
which the malice or ignorance of their opponents 
has attributed to them, and any explanation that 
should exonerate them from the blasphemy im- 



* This is not an unusual mode of differencing the shield 
of persons connected with Westminster ; e. g. the arms of 
Lords Thurlow, Eldon, Wynford, and Langdale. 



plied in their ecrasez Vinfame, would be an act of 
justice as well as a service to the cause of truth. 

In France, the erroneous interpretation of this 
phrase is not confined to the illiterate classes, who 
are obliged to take all such matters upon trust, 
but is adopted and inculcated by professors of 
divinity, and others engaged in the education of 
youth. The wonder seems to be how, with the 
context so clear and so pointedly expressed, as in 
the passage quoted by Mb. De Morgan, this un- 
founded imputation should have received such 
general assent. As aids towards a solution of 
this difficulty, I beg leave to offer the following 
remarks. 

1. In the belief of the majority of Roman Ca- 
tholics, what Voltaire calls " superstition " is 
bound up with the essence of " religion." To as- 
sail the one is to assail the other ; and the man 
who should hold up either as infdme, is as culpable, 
in their eyes, as if he applied the term to the 
Divine Founder of Christianity. 

2. Of all controversialists Voltaire is the mosb 
unscrupulous. In the passage cited by Mr. Db 
Morgan, he draws a distinction between " super- 
stition " and " religion," and talks of his love and 
respect for the latter. But we all know that this 
is a mask. His attacks upon religion are not 
confined to what an enlightened Protestant might 
deem its " superstition," but extend to the under- 
mining of its fundamental truths. In this unholy 
warfare, satire, sarcasm, irony, abuse, are alike 
unsparingly employed; and as to misrepresent- 
ation, he never comes across a text of Scripture, 
the meaning of which he does not distort to serve 
his purpose. These tricks of distortion are part 
of his grand scheme for bringing Christianity into 
contempt ; and those who know with what acerbity 
and unfairness religious controversies are generally 
conducted, will not be surprised to find that Vol- 
taire's opponents have resorted to the same un- 
justifiable weapons, which he had wielded with so 
much success against them. 

3. It is clear that at first Voltaire used the ex- 
pression ecrasez Vinfdme in the restricted sensa 
of the passage quoted by Mr. De Morgan. But 
afterwards it became a sort of watchword among 
his disciples ; and the use of it, in this isolated 
form, by writers who were known to carry their 
abhorrence of religion to a fiendish excess, natu- 
rally led to the supposition that by Vinfdme they 
wished to designate the author of what they la- 
boured to represent as a tissue of " infamy." 

There is a slight apparent inaccuracy in one of 
Mr. De Morgan's remarks, which he will pardon 
me for adverting to. After quoting Voltaire's 
words, he adds : " consequently infdme is a femi- 
nine noun." This has reference to the passage 
quoted, and so far we understand what is meant ; 
but, taken in an absolute sense, it might lead to 
misconception. If infdme were a feminine noun, 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



the phrase ecrasez Vinfame could never have been 
understood by any one as applicable to Jesus 
Christ. The fact is, infame is an adjective, and is 
the same in both genders. When used as a noun, 
as in the passage from Voltaire, the elision leaves 
it doubtful whether the article intended be le or 
la ; nor is this uncertainty removed till we come 
to la and elle in the subsequent part of the sen- 
tence. PIenky H. Bbeen. 
St. Lucia. 



DID THE GREEK SURGEONS EXTRACT TEETH? 

(Vol. X., pp. 242. 355, 356. 510.) 

Mr. Hayes's suggestion as to the probable cir- 
cumstance which led the Greek surgeons to stop 
hollow teeth, is, I think, inadequate, especially as 
the fact of the imbedding of a grape or any other 
seed in the hollow of a decayed tooth would not 
afford relief; on the contrary, the swelling of the 
seed after it had remained awhile in such a po- 
sition, would produce inconvenience, pain, and 
sometimes intense suffering, as I have more than 
once experienced. It is, however, matter of less 
importance whence the practice was derived, than 
whether we possess reliable evidence of the fact, 
nor is it affected by the condition of the material 
used. Teeth were stopped with several intentions, 
— to prevent their breaking during extraction, to 
preserve them, and to alleviate pain. Celsus gives 
the following advice as to the first : 

" Turn, si fieri potest, manu ; si minus, forfice dens ex- 
cipiendus. Ac, si exesus est, ante id foramen vel lina- 
mento, vel bene accommodato plumbo replendum est." — 
Lib. VII. c. xii. 

How the lead was prepared for this purpose we 
have no information. 

Paulus ^gineta (Adams's Trans., published by 
the Sydenham Society), vol. ii. p. 294., also ad- 
vises the filling a carious tooth with a small tent, 
with the same object as mentioned by Celsus. 
Marcellus recommends filling a hollow tooth with 
gum from the ivy to prevent its falling out. Se- 
rapion, the filling a like tooth, and painful, with 
opium. 

As regards filing teeth, Paulus iEgineta advises 
that an unusually large tooth, or the projecting 
portion of a broken one, be scraped away with a 
file. Albucasis gives directions for filing down 
the teeth for fastening them with gold threads, 
and gives drawings for extracting the fangs of 
teeth. (P. ^ginet., ut supra, vol. ii. p. 295.) 

The references given to Mr. Hayes by M. D. 
will supply him with a vast amount of information 
on the subject to which he has turned his at- 
tention. R. WiLBRAHAM FaI-CONER, M. D. 

Bath. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Bromo-iodide of Silver. — I have read the communi- 
cations of Mr. Leaciiman and Mk. Lyte on this photo- 
genic agent with much interest, and in reply I beg to 
oflFer the following observations. Mr. Leachman proves 
that bromide of silver is entirely dissolved in a saturated 
solution of muriate of ammonia, and that bromo-iodide of 
silver (for such is, in fact, the precipitate he forms, though 
he doubts it) is altogether insoluble in that menstruum. 

Mk. Lyte proves that iodide of silver and the " so- 
called bromo-iodide of silver," when digested in strong 
liq. amm., are each similarly acted upon by an excess of 
dilute nitric acid. He then forms a true bromo-iodide of 
silver, but in such combination as to exhibit the same 
kind of milkiness which occurs with pure bromide of 
silver on the addition of an acid ; and hence he leads to 
the conclusion that bromide, and not iodide, of silver is 
exhibited by this experiment ; whereas Mr. Leachman 
thinks that by his experiment on the same double com- 
pound, the precipitate cannot be bromide of silver at all, 
but must evidently be the iodide. In this point of view, 
therefore, to use a legal formula, the case is one of Lyte 
V. Leachman. 

I now offer with some confidence the following experi- 
mentum crucis, as a proof of the accuracy of my former 
statement: — Form bromide of silver by the addition of 
the nitrate to bromide of potassium ; wash the precipitate, 
and dissolve it in an excess of bromide of potassium. It 
is scarcely necessary to say that bromide of silver is 
thrown down on diluting this solution with water. 
Next, form iodide of silver and dissolve it in an excess of 
iodide of potassium. Mix the two solutions together to 
form a bromo-iodide of silver ; and should any cloudiness 
appear, it is immediately removed by the addition of a 
few grains of iodide of potassium. Now the addition of 
water to this compound so entirely throws down the 
whole, both of the bromide and iodide of silver (or, as we 
may now term it, the bromo-iodide of silver), that not a 
trace of silver is to be found in the filtered supernatant 
fluid. Hydrochloric acid, that stern detector of silver, 
leaves it as clear as rock-crystal. I cannot devise a more 
stringent formula of verification as to the correctness of 
Dr. Diamond's theory ; and when we find that in prac- 
tice the results he obtains can be arrived at by no other 
method, it is probable that his present opponents will be 
converts to his views. J- B- Reade. 

The Photographic Exhibition. — The display of photo- 
graphic pictures this year is most satisfactory ; not only 
as showing the gradual progress and general improve- 
ments of the art, but also for the evidence it affords of 
the many purposes to which the art is applicable. We 
cannot enter into details of the beauty of the landscapes, 
&c., by Mr. Fenton, Mr. Delamotte, Mr. Leverett, Mr. 
Stokes", &c. ; of Mr. Mayall's admirable portraits and won- 
drous stereoscopic likenesses ; of the excellence of some 
of the small collodion positives exhibited by Mr. Rosling ; 
of the " clouds " and portraits of Mr. Hennah ; or of the 
promising pictures of Mr. Lake Price : all these, excellent 
as they are, belong, with the exception perhaps of Mr. 
Price's works, to general photograph j- — and admirable 
they are. But there are some of the more special pur- 
poses to which photography has been applied with most 
satisfactory results, to which we would rather direct 
attention. Its application to the physiognomy of disease, 
as shown by Dr. Diamond's "Melancholy;" to the 
microscope, as shown by Mr. Kingsley's beautiful illus- 
trations of the " Breathing System of Insects," &c. ; are 
striking instances of this. Not less so are the Count 
de Montizon's zoological portraits, which make him the 
Landseer of photography ; Mr. Contencin's copies of 



8% 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



portraits in chalk ; and, lastly, Mr. Thurston Thompson's 
copies of the Raphael drawings belonging to Her Majesty. 
Had we but these, we should scarcely envy Her Majesty 
the possession of the originals. 



fSie$liei ta ^tiior iSiuttiti. 

Epigram quoted by Lord Derby (Vol. x., 
p. 524.). — Lord Derby, as reported, certainly 
misquoted the epigram, but so does Jaydee in its 
best point. The true and pungent reading is, — 

" Lord Chatham with his sword wwdrawn, 
Is waiting for Sir Richard Strachan ; 
Sir Richard longing to be at them, 
Is waiting for the Earl of Chatham." 

Unlike most epigrams, the point was in the first 
line, the " sword undrawn." I well remember its 
first appearance (in, I think, the Morning Chro- 
nicle}, and we thought it was Jekyll's ; some one 
afterwards added a couplet, not very neatly ex- 
pressed, but quite as near the historical truth as 
the rest : 

" What then, in mischief's name, can stop 'em.' 
They both are waiting for Home Popham." 

c. 

Curious Ceremony at Queen's College, Oxford 
(Vol. X., p. 306.) — The practice of scholars wait- 
ing upon the Fellows' table was discontinued in 
the year 1796. I am assured, by one who has 
himself waited in this way, that the ceremony al- 
luded to by Dr. Barrington was a joke, never a 
practice. H. H. Wood. 

Queen's Coll. 

Anastatic Printing (Vol. x., pp. 288. 364.). — In 
reply to your correspondent J. P., I beg to ob- 
serve that he will obtain the information he re- 
quires in a work published in 1849 by Boyne, 
entitled On the various Applications of Anastatic 
Printing and Papyrography, by P. H. De la 
Motte. J. H. Gdtch. 

Paris Garden (Vol. x., p. 423.). — Mr. J. Ed- 
monds will find the following mention of it xoade 
in Mr. Cunningham's Handbook : 

"A manor or liberty on the Bankside in South wark, so 
called from Robert de Paris, who had a house and garden 
there in Richard II.'s time, who by proclamation or- 
dained that the butchers of London should buy that 
garden for the receipt of their garbage and entrails of 
beasts, to the end the city might not be annoyed thereby. 
— Blount's Glossographia, ed. 1681, p. 473. 

" This manor afterwards appertained to the monastery 
of St Saviour's, Bermondsey, and at the dissolution to 
Henry VIII. It was subsequently held by Thomas Cure, 
founder of the alms-houses in Southwark which bear his 
name ; and last of all by Rich. Taverner and William 
Angell. 

"A circus existed in the manor of Paris Garden, erected 
for bull and bear-baiting, as early as the 1 7 Henry VIII., 
when the Earl of Northumberland is said (in the House- 
hold Book of the family) to have gone to Paris Garden to 



behold the bear-baiting there. The best view of Paris 
Garden Theatre forms the frontispiece to the second 
volume of Collier's Annuls of the Stage." 

J. H. GUTCH. 

"Riding Bodkin" (Vol. x., p. 524.). — I pre- 
sume N. L. T. had exhausted all the sources of 
information usually attainable, such as Johnson's 
Dictionary and its confreres, before he burthened 
your paper with the Query above referred to. I 
therefore give an explanation as given to me more 
than once by a learned man and diligent antiquary, 
the late Henry Thomas Payne, Archdeacon of 
St. David's. '* Bodkin " is body kin (little body), 
as manikin (little man), and was a little person to 
whose company no objection could be made on 
account of room occupied by the two persons ac- 
commodated in the corners of the carriage. 

j Geokge E. Frehe. 

Yarmouth. 

Spanish Epigram (Vol. x., p. 445.). — May not 
J. P. R. have mistaken the following Italian for a 
Spanish epigram, in praise of small things some- 
times enfolding in themselves the largest value ? 
A huge lump of coal cries out : 

" Benchfe son' nevo, sono gigante." 

To this boast a tiny but sparkling speck of dia- 
mond answers : 

" Benchb son' piccolo, sono brillante." 

Cephas. 

Abigail Hill (Vol. x., p. 206.). — The notorious 
Mrs. (a Lady) Masham was daughter of Francis 
Hill, a Turkey merchant, and sister of General 
John Hill of Enfield Green. Her husband Samuel 
Masham was in 1711 created Lord Masham, which; 
title expired with his son Samuel, the second baron, 
in 1776. 

Can any of your correspondents inform me 
whether Sir Scipio Hill, baronet of Scotland, was 
connected with this family, or which was his 
parentage ? He was certainly an Englishman ; and. 
in the notice of his death in 1729, he is called "a 
gentleman whose character is very well known." 
He was a colonel in the army, and served In Scot- 
land, where he was concerned in the massacre of 
Glencoe. From a litigation in 171 1 in the Scottish 
courts, he seems to have been a gambler. R. R. 

A Russian and an English Regiment (Vol. xi., 
p. 8.). — Coleridge's Friend has, ludicrously 
enough, kicked down his own anecdote ; for be 
says that the critic on national physiognomies that 
he quotes was In truth so miserable a judge as to 
mistake Coleridge's Friend for a Neapolitan. 
I do not remember when a Russian and an English 
regiment were likely to have been drawn up ia 
the same square at Naples ; but if both regiments 
had been English or both Russian, but that one 
had been clean shaven, while the other wore beards 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



and moustaches, a looker-on would see more indi- 
viduality of countenance in the regiment that was 
shaven, Novacula. 

The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xi., p. 11.). — I be- 
lieve that the first bishops that appeared without 
wigs in the House of Lords were some of the 
Irish bishops after the Union. I remember par- 
ticularly that Archbishop Beresford, who had a 
very fine figure, a bald patriarchal head, and most 
benevolent expression of countenance, made a 
great and favourable impression amongst his pe- 
ruqued brethren of England ; but the custom was 
not general even on the Irish bench. The adop- 
tion of it by English bishops has been recent. I 
remember to have heard, fifty years ago, that an 
English bishop, whose name I heard but have for- 
gotten, applied to George III. for his sanction to 
leave off the wig, alleging that the bishops of even 
as late as the seventeenth century wore, as their 

f)ictures testified, their own hair. " Yes, my 
ord," said the king, " but the same pictures show 
that they then also wore beards and moustachios. 
I suppose you would hardly like to carry out the 
precedent. I think a distinction of some sort 
necessary, and I am satisfied with that which I 
find established." C. 

I believe that the present Bishop of London 
was the first to commence the disuse of the un- 
sightly and unecclesiastical wig. When a loyalist 
Cantab appeared in the recently imported 
Louis XIV. wig, Charles 11. issued an order for- 
bidding such imitation of lay costume. Tillotson 
is the first bishop represented in a wig, and wrote 
a sermon to defend himself. The archbishops and 
Bishops of Gloucester and Durham alone retain 
it, I believe. Anti-Wig. 

Ribbons of Recrmting Sergeants (Vol. xi., p. 11.). 
— Allow me to answer Russeix Goi,e by asking 
him in return why cockades are worn ? why 
ribbons are worn by parties at elections ? why by 
benefit clubs on Whit Monday? why by Free- 
masons ? why by horses in a fair ? why by ladies 
at all times? and why by princes, lords, and 
heroes when they can get them — blue, green, or 
red ? Simply for distinction, to attract attention. 

A RlBBONMAN. 

Recruiting ribbons show the colours of the 
clothing of the particular regiment for which the 
party is employed. We have red, white, and blue 
for a royal regiment, the red cloth, white lace, and 
blue facings : other corps have yellow, green, buff, 
black and purple ; in such cases no blue is em- 
ployed in the cockade and its streamers. 

Centueiok. 

Account of the Jubilee (Vol. xi., p. 13.), — An 
account of the celebration of the jubilee was 
printed in quarto by Mr. R. Jabet, proprietor of 



the Commercial Herald, Birmingham, either in 
the year 1809 or 1810; and bears as a frontis- 
piece a very excellent portrait of George III,, 
drawn and engraved by P. Egginton of Birming- 
ham. The volume consists of 203 pages ; and 
contains, according to the alphabetical order of 
the counties, accounts, in some instances copious, 
of the rejoicings upon this occasion in the various 
cities, towns, and villages in the kingdom. 1 
should have stated, that the book begins with the 
celebration of the jubilee in the metropolis. The 
title-page states that the compilation was made 
by a lady, the wife of a naval officer. This was 
really the case. Her name was Davis, and she 
resided at Solihull, Warwickshire. The expenses 
of the work were defrayed by subscription, of 
which the book furnishes the names of nearly 
350 subscribers. The profits were given to the 
Society for the Relief of Prisoners confined for 
Small Debts, The work is curious, and I know 
of no other similar account of this celebrated 
national rejoicing. From some knowledge of the 
family of the printer of the work, I think it may 
be stated that but few copies found their way to 
other persons than the subscribers, 

John Woddbrspoon. 
Norwich, 

True Cross, Relic of, in the Tower (Vol. xi., 
p, 12.). — I am enabled so far to enlighten J. A, D. 
on the above, as to inform him that I have seen a 
small piece of wood, with accompanying docu- 
ments attesting that it was a portion of the stump 
of the true Cross, and that it was formerly kept in 
the Tower of London among the jewels of King 
James I. I begged a splinter of this, and have it 
still ; set in a silver fiUagree cross, with crystal on 
both sides, in the form of a cross. It is more 
than thirty years since this occurred, but I re- 
member thinking the attestations very curious 
and worthy of credit. If I do not mistake, they 
accounted for the way in which the supposed 
relic was removed from the Tower, and came into 
the possession of the party who then held it. If 
I can obtain farther particulars, they shall be 
given ; but, at this distance of time, I almost de- 
spair of finding the person in whose hands the 
treasure then remained. F. C, Husenbeih. 

The last Jacobites (Vol. x., p. 507.)-— Valentine, 
Lord Cloncurry was a nobleman who was on very 
intimate terms with Cardinal York. Whether 
he was one who " indulged the hope of placing 
him upon the throne of Great Britain " or not, I, 
cannot say. But it looks suspicious, when we bear 
in mind that as a young man he joined, heart and 
soul, the anti-government party, was an United 
Irishman, became a member of the Executive- 
directory of the United Irish Society, wrote a 
pamphlet, and becoming an object of government 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



suspicion, was arrested in 1798, and examined 
several times before the privy council. A twelve- 
month later the government again arrested him, 
and kept him in the Tower for two years. In his 
autobiography, amongst some sketches of his visits 
to France and Italy, he thus speaks of the last of 
the Stuarts : 

" Amongst the prominent members of Roman society in 
those days was the last of the Stuarts, Cardinal York, 
with whom I became somewhat of a favourite, probably 
by virtue of addressing him as ' Majesty,' and thus going 
a step farther than the Dulie of Sussex, who was on 
familiar terms with him, and always applied to him the 

Style of Royal Highness Upon the occasion of 

my visit to Frascati, I presented the cardinal with a tele- 
scope, which he seemed to fancy, and received from him 
in return the large medal struck in honour of his acces- 
sion to his unsubstantial throne. Upon one side of this 
medal was the royal bust, with the cardinal's hat, and the 
words ' Henricus nonus Dei gratia rex ; ' and upon the 
other the arms of England, with the motto on the exergue, 
* Haud desideriis hominum, sed voluntate Dei.' " — Personal 
Recollections of the Life and Times, §*c. of Lord Cloncurry : 
Dublin, McGiashan. 

Cetrep. 

Druid's Circle (Vol. x., p. 524.). — In Rhodes's 
Peak Scenery it is said : 

"Near Middleton-by-Youlgrave we found the cele- 
brated Druidical monument of Arber-Low, one of the most 
striking remains of antiquity in any part of Derbyshire. 
This circle includes an area of from forty to fifty yards 
diameter, formed by a series of large unhewn stones, not 
standing upright, but all laid on the ground, with an 
inclination towards the centre : round these, the remains 
of a ditch, circumscribed by a high embankment, may be 
traced. Near the south entrance into this circle, there is 
a mount or burial-place ; in which some fragments of an 
urn, some half-burnt bones, and the horns of a stag were 
found." 

Your correspondent L. M. M. R. will observe 
the name is Arber-Low, not Arbelon, as stated in 
the Query. John Algor. 

Bishop Andrewes' Puns (Vol. ix., p. 350.). — 
The play upon words, so frequent in the sermons 
of that holy man, was the vice of the age. A few 
instances will, probably, suffice your correspon- 
dent: 

_ " Their anointing may dry up, or be wiped off ; and so 
kings be unchristed, cease to be Christi Domini." — 
Serm. III. on Gowrie's Conspiracy, p. 56. 

" The train ready, and the match ; they stayed but for 
the con, for the time, till all were con ; that is, simul 
sumpti, and then consumpti should have straight come 
upon all." — /6. Sermon IV. p. 266. 

Some curious particulars might be collected 
respecting quaint texts and sermons, such as that 
of the Dean of St. Stephen's, when Vienna was 
relieved by King John Sobieski of Poland (St. 
John i. 6.) ; and that of Dr. South before the 
Merchant Taylors' Company : " A remnant shall 
be saved," Romans ix, 27. ; and Dr. Gardiner's 
Sermon on Derbyshire. (Select, from Gent. Mag., 
vol. iii. p. 420.) Mackenzie WAiiCOTT, M.A. 



BolingbroJie's Advice to Swift (Vol. x., p. 346.). — 

" Nourrisser bien votre corps ; ne le fatiguer jamais ; 
laisser rouiller I'esprit, meuble inutil, votre outil dan- 
gereux ; laisser souper nos cloches le matin pour eveiller 
les chanoines, et pour faire dormir le doyen d'un sommeil 
doux et profond, qui lui procure de beaux songes ; levez- 
vous tard," &c. 

The mistakes in this quotation are all reducible 
to misprints. The verbs " nourrisser," " fatiguer," 
" laisser " (the imperative mood being intended) 
should terminate in z instead of r ; inutil should 
be inutile, and nos is a misprint for vos, unless 
it can be supposed that Bolingbroke meant to 
describe himself as one of the canons of St. 
Patrick's. The only difficulty is the word souper, 
where Bolingbroke is made to recommend that the 
bells should be allowed to have their supper, and 
that too in the morning. Mr. Ingleby suggests 
soupir, or, as better still, s'assoupir : but, in my 
opinion, neither is admissible. Laisser soupir is ob- 
viously incorrect : soupir is a noun, and laisser 
requires after it a verb in the infinitive mood. 
Soupirer (which was probably what Mr. Ingleby 
intended) would give us the bells performing the 
functions of " breathing " or " sighing." Again, as 
regards s'assoupir, to say laisser s'assoupir nos 
cloches would be to recommend that the bells 
should be kept motionless ; and in that state how 
could they eveiller les chanoines ? 

I have no doubt the word used by Bolingbroke 
was sonner, both because the variation from that 
word to souper is little more than the lengthening 
of the first stroke of the second n ; and also be- 
cause it is the only expression which will give us 
the effiict of awaking the canons : 

" Let your bells be rung in the morning, to awake the 
canons, and induce in the dean a sweet and profound sleep, 
accompanied by pleasing dreams ; rise late," &c. 

Henry H. Breen. 

St. Lucia. 

Old Almanacs (Vol. x., p. 522.). — Contemptu- 
ously as old almanacs have been spoken of, they 
are really most valuable helps to history, and a 
regular series of them is so rare, that I have never 
met with one of any early origin. The Museum, 
I think, does not possess even a tolerable one, and 
I hope that the Scotch series mentioned by your 
correspondent may be looked after and acquired 
for that national treasury. I myself have the 
good fortune to have completed a regular series of 
the French Almanachs Royaux, Nationaux, Jmpe- 
riaux, and Royaux, Nationaux, and Imperianx 
again, from 1700 ! inclusive to the present year, 
in all the various and very significant bindings of 
their respective times. I have heard that the late 
Duke of Angouleme had a similar collection com- 
plete to 1830, but that it was plundered and dis- 
persed at that revolution. I suppose, therefore, 
that my set is almost unique in private hands, at 
least in England. C. 



Jan. 20. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



Quotations of Plato and Aristotle (Vol. x., 
p. 125.). — The passage in Plato referred to by 
your correspondent H. P. will be found in his 
JSpinomis, vol. ii. p. 978., edit. Serrani. The fol- 
lowing extract from an analysis of this treatise, in 
Dr. Caesar Morgan's Investigation of the Trinity 
of Plato and of Philo Judceus, will I hope be ac- 
ceptable : 

"♦The God that gave number is the Heaven, who 
taught men the first principles of enumeration by the 
succession of day and night, the variations of the moon,' 
&c. The same method of instructing men in number is 
likewise mentioned in the Timceus. Philo also, adopting 
the same method of teaching, saj's, ' the stars were placed 
in heaven to answer many purposes,' &c." 

The nocti-diurnal rule of Scripture, and of 
various nations, respecting which inquiry has re- 
cently been made in " N. & Q.," is copiously 
illustrated by quotations and references in the 
Kev. Edward Greswell's Fasti Catholici et Indices 
Calendaricc, vol. i. pp. 130 — 236. : 

" In the allusions to the component parts of the wx^i- 
juepoi', which occur in Greek writers, it is observable that 
the idiomatic form of the allusion is invariably night and 
day, and day and night. We may infer from this fact that 
these two ideas were so associated in the minds of the 
Greeks, that they always presented themselves in this 
order; first night, and then day." — P. 167. 

To the specimens there given may be added 
the words of Plato, following those referred to by 
your correspondent : 

" no\Aa? fxti/ 5r) vu/cra? iroWa? 5e :^|acpas as ovpavo<; ouSeTrore 
froverat SiSaaxwi' a.vdpu>TiOVi iv re KaX Svo." 

BiBLIOTHECAR. ChETHAM. 

Work on the Reality of the Devil (Vol. xi., 
p. 12.).- 

"Semler. (1.) Untersuchung dcr damonischen Leute, 
Oder .sogenanten Besessenen : nebst Beantwortung einigen 
Angriflfe. Svo. Halle, 1762." 

" (2.) De Demoniacis, quorum in Evangeliis fit Mentio. 
4to. Edition. 1779." 

These are the only works by Semler in the very 
copious list of his writings to be found in Kayser's 
Vollstdndiges BUcher- Lexicon, that treat directly 
on this subject ; although it is not unlikely that 
Semler may have written upon it in some of his 
miscellaneous treatises, or in the theological re- 
views of Germany. In Farmer's work on the 
Demoniacs of the New Test., there are some refer- 
ences to Semler. J. M. 

Antiquity of Swimming-helts (Vol. xi., p. 4.). — 
There are many examples in the Nineveh sculp- 
tures in the British Museum, which plainly prove 
that something like the swimming-belt was in 
common use at the time which they are meant to 
represent. I do not recollect whether there is a 
single figure, but there are many instances of 
several people together passing a river supported 
by inflated skins. ^ M. E. F. 



Jennens of Acton Place (Vol. xi., p. 10.). 

From the several inquiries which have appeared 
in " N. & Q.," it seems evident that an impression 
exists that some portion of William Jennens' large 
property remains undisposed of. This, however, i/^ 
is not the case. The pedigree (which is not cer- 
tified) may be seen in the Townsend Collection in 
the Heralds' College. I would send you a copy 
if I thought it of sufllcient interest to appear in 
your columns. John Jennens, of Birmingham, 
left a son, Humphrey Jennens, of Erding and 
Nether Whitacre in the county of Warwick, who, 
by Mary, daughter of John Mil ward, of Snitterton, 
CO. Derby, had issue (with other children) Charles 
Jennens, eldest son, from whom descends Earl 
Howe and Robert Jennens, the father of William 
Jennens of Acton Place. Also two daughters : 
Esther, who married William Hanmer, Esq. ; and 
Ann, who married Sir Clement Fisher, Bart., of 
Packington. From Esther descended William 
Lygon, Esq., afterwards Earl Beauchamp ; and 
from Ann descended Lady Mary Finch, born in 
1716, and who married William, Viscount An- 
dover, 

William Jennens of Acton Place, by his will, 
simply devised his real estate to his wife for her 
life, leaving the reversion, as well as the whole of 
his personal estate, undisposed of. He appointed 
no executor, and on the 6th July, 1798, admini- 
stration, with the will annexed, was granted to 
" William Lygon, Esq., and the Right Honorable 
Mary, Viscountess Dowager Andover, the cousins- 
german once removed and next of kin of the said 
deceased." As next of kin, the personalty was 
shared between these parties ; while the real estate 
descended to the testator's heir-at-law, George 
Augustus William Curzon, and from him to his 
brother, the present Earl Howe. Q. D. 

Death-bed Superstition (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — I 
remember to have seen hanging up in the entrance 
of a relative's house at Clapham, many years ago, 
a large brass shallow dish, with a representation 
(cast in the metal) of Adam, Eve, the serpent, the 
Tree, &c. Inquiring the use of so curious-looking 
an article, I was told that such vessels were not 
uncommon in the houses of old families in Hert- 
fordshire, and it was generally placed, filled with 
salt, immediately after death, upon the breast of 
the deceased member of the family. Probably 
this has reference to the curious circumstance re- 
corded by W. N. T. It would be interesting to 
trace the origin of such observances. W. P. 

Holy-loaf Money (Vol. x., p. 488.). — Referring 
to Dr. Rock's corrections, I must observe, that 
when I asserted that the practice of distributing 
blessed bread was " the sole remnant of the obla- 
tions of the faithful," I alluded to those made 
during mass only, being quite aware of some 
others, which Dr. R. particularises. F. C. H. 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



" Ex quovis ligno non fit Mercurius " (Vol. x., 
pp. 447. 527.). — A printer's error unfortunately 
stultifies my communication on this subject. I 
wrote to show that the manufacturer of the note, 
which you quoted in reply to Mr. Fraser's 
Query, had mistaken the words of Erasmus him- 
self for an extract from Pliny, and never having 
taken the trouble of referring to the latter writer, 
had set them down as the result of independent 
research, though, like many other purloiners of 
other folks' goods, he was only leaving a certain 
clue for his detection and exposure. This was the 
"fashion" after which "the note-maker had 
blundered." Your printer, however, kind man! 
by substituting a colon for the full-stop after 
" Item Plinius libro decimo-sexto," and by placing 
the two succeeding periods, which form the pas- 
sage in question (" Quidam superstitiosus . . . 
artibus"), between inverted commas, has made 
me the sole blunderer : — in other words, making 
me show that the passage actually is an extract 
from Pliny, while the express object of my com- 
munication was to declare that it is not. 

A. Challsteth. 

Sonnet by Blanco White: Bacon (Vol. x., p. 311.). 
•' Scitissime dixit quidam Platonicus," &c. 

Has this quotation been traced to the original 
author, or does it remain to be discussed ? I find 
the same comparison as the one here quoted, and 
whi(!h is repeated in the Novum Organon, prajfat. : 

" Sensus enim instar Solis globi terrestris faciem aperit, 
coelestia claudit et obsignat." 

In Philo Judseus, Legum AUegorice, lib. ii. : 

" Itaque sensuum evigilantia mentis somnus est, mentis 
vero evigilantia somnus sensuum. Quemadmodum et 
sole oriente splendores aliarura stellarum obscuri sunt: 
occidente autem manifest! : sic solis plane in modum 
mens evigilans quidem inumbrat sensus : dormiens autem 
ipsos facit effulgere." 

I had written thus far when I looked into Wats's 
translation of Bacon's Advancement of Learning, 
where there is a reference, in loco, to Philo 
Judseus de Somniis. Neither are these " Night 
Thoughts," any more than the preceding, the same 
verbatim as Bacon's, to whom language was a 
virgula divinu, and — 

" Who needs no foil, but shines by his own proper light." 
BiBLIOTHECAB. CheTHAM. 

Cannon-ball Effects (Vol. x., p. 386.). — Apro- 
pos to my former inquiry on this subject, I here- 
with subjoin an illustrative extract, culled from the 
columns of this day's Edinburgh Ladies^ Journal : 

« 7%e Wind of a Cannon-hall. — The Salut Public of 
Lyons relates the following fact, which it points out to 
the attention of physiologists : — ' An officer of the French 
army, whom General de Martimprey had sent to make a 
reconnaissance in the neighbourhood of Sebastopol, was 
knocked down, not by a cannon-ball itself, but by the 



wind of it as it passed close to him. The commotion pro- 
duced was so intense that the tongue of the officer in- 
stantly contracted, so that he could not either put it out 
of his mouth or articulate a word. Having obtained 
leave of absence, he returned to Marseilles, where he 
underwent treatment by means of electricit3\ After the 
first few shocks the tongue began to move with more 
facility, but without his being able to speak. On the 
twelfth day he was subjected to an unusually violent 
shock, which produced the desired effect, and in a few 
minutes after the patient recovered his speech. He is 
now fully recovered, and expects to return to his post in 
a few days.' " 

David Forsyth. 
Edinburgh, Dec. 23, 1854. 

Praying to the Devil (Vol. v., pp. 273. 351.). — 
The infomous " Society of Blasters" was exposed 
in Dublin in 1738. One of its members, Peter 
Lens, a printer, in his examination, declared him- 
self a votary of the Devil ; and acknowledged 
having offered up prayers to him, and publicly 
drunk to his health. See speech of Earl Granard, 
Friday, March 10, 1737-8. I copy from a paper 
of the period. R. C. Warde. 

Kidderminster. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 273. 



PARISH SERMONS, 

BY 

THE REV. HARVEY GOODWIN. 

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Notes : — Pajc 

Arithmetical Notes, No. 1 ., by Professor 

De Morgan . . - - 57 

John Buncle - - - - 38 

Identification of Anonymous Books - 59 
The Preliminaries of War, by Bolton 

Comey - - - - - 60 
Dr. Routh. President of Magdalen Col- 
lege, by John Macray - - - 61 

Minor Notes :_" Seventy-seven " — 
Clock Inscription _ Snn-dial Motto — 
Ancient TIsasesofthe Church —John- 
son and Swift — Lord Derby and Man- 
zoni — Vessels of Observation - - 61 

QURRIFS : — 

Vaccination, by J. IT. Markland - 62 

Selwyn of Friston, co. Sussex, by E.J. 

Sclwyn - - - - - 6.3 

■Curious Incident - - - - 63 

MiKoR Qderifs : _ Heidelhers — The 
Sien of Griffiths the Publisher — 
Gilbert's "History of the City of 
Dublin " — Newspaper Cutting — Ri- ' 
chard Brayne, Braine, or Brain — Sir 
John Crosby _ Bishop Oldham— Arms 
of Sir .1. Russell — Distributing Money 
at Marriages — Gentleman hanged 
in LWO-fin — Ormonde Correggio — 
Churcliill Property — Bells heard by 
the drowned — Dean Smedley — Ge- 
lyan Bowers — Dial — Death of Dogs — 
"Verses— Psalm-siuging and the Non- 
conformists— "The Lay of the Scottisli 
Fiddle " — Heavenly Guides - - 64 

Minor Queries with Answers : — 
Fairchild Lecture at St. Leonard's, 
Shorediteh — " Penelope's Webb " — 
Rev. Dr. Gosset — Winchester Dulce 
Domum and Tabula Legum Poedago- 
gicarum — Levinus Monk — Quotation 

— Waverlcy Novels - - - 66 

Bepmks : — 
Prussic Acid as Blood, or Bull's Blood 

as Poison, by F. .T. Ijeachman. B. A. - 67 
Prophecies respecting Constantinople, 

by William Bates - - - 67 

The Schoolmen - - - - 70 

Green Eyes, by A. Challsteth - - 70 

PHnTOGnAPHir CoRRESPOXDEXCK :— Dr. 

Mansell's Process — Mr. Thompson's 
Copies of the Raphael Drawings— Tal- 
bot V. Laroche — Hillotype - - 71 
Eepliesto Minor Queries: — Sir Bevil 
Grenville— Anecdote of Canning — 
Biblical Question— The Episcopal Wig 

— James II. 's AVritings — Canons of 

York — Rose of Sliaron = Jericho 

Flminent Men born in the same Year 

Murray of Broughton— Knights of St. 
John of Jerusalem — Charles I. and his 
Relics — Kpigram in a Bible — Autho- 
rity of Aristotle — Farrant's Anthem 

— Well Chapel — " Condendaque I.ex- 
ica," &c. — Rhymes connected with 
Places — Poetical Tavern Signs, &c. - "1 

&T1SCEL1.ANEOU8 ; — 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 75 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XL— No. 274. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



LONDON. SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1855. 



ARITHMETICAL NOTES, NO. I. 

BoswelVs Arithmetic (Vol. x., pp. 363. 471.). — 
Could any correspondent, who knows the neigh- 
bourhood of Lichfield, tell me what was, and what 
is, the common mode of measuring fence work in 
that part of the country ? 

Francis Walkingame (Vol. v., p. 441.). — The 
Query there made has never received any answer. 
This writer, whose editors do not agree within 
twenty as to the number of the editions, is wholly 
unknown. There must be some grandson or 
great-nephew who could give a little information. 
A friend has recently presented me with an earlier 
edition than any I had ever seen ; it is " the tenth 
edition with several additions," printed for the 
author, London, duodecimo in threes. The date 
is 177 [2 i*] in the print, but the last figure has 
been neatly erased both in the title and preface, 
and a written I has been supplied. The author 
calls himself writing-master and accomptant; from 
the preface it appears that he kept a school, and 
from an advertisement that he taught writing 
and arithmetic abroad. He lived in Great Rus- 
sell Street, Bloomsbury. We may suppose that 
the work appeared before 1760 ; the author 
affirms that it was (1771) established in almost 
every school of eminence throughout the kingdom. 

William Milns. — He is mentioned in my Arith- 
metical Books (p. 80.) as author of a work on 
arithmetic published at New York in 1797, the 
preface of which shows him to have been at St. 
Mary Hall, Oxford. Join this to the following 
anecdote given by William Seward : 

" A gentleman born at Salonica in Turkey, when he 
was at St. Mary Hall in Oxford, as a gentleman-com- 
moner, was verj' kind to a worthy young man, whose 
circumstances obliged him to be a servitor of the college. 
The servitor taking orders had some preferment in 
America given him by his friend's recommendation. On 
the breaking out of the war he was accidentally informed 
that the estates of his benefactor were to be confiscated, 
as supposed to belong to a British subject. On this he 
took horse immediately, and proved to the Assembly that 
his friend was not a British subject." 

Edward Cocker. — In my Arithmetical Books I 
have sufficiently shown that the great work, the 
English Bareme, was probably a forgery by John 
Hawkins, under the name of Cocker. This 
Hawkins published in succession Cocher's Arith- 
metic, Decimal Arithmetic, and English Dictionary. 
For the circumstances which indicate forgery, I 
must refer to the work above cited, to which I 
now make the following additions. 

Cocker died between 1671 and 1675. By the 
inscriptions under his portraits he was born in 
1632. He was a writing-master and engraver, of 



writing at least. He is said to have published 
fourteen engraved copy-books. At the end of 
one of the almanacs for 1688 is advertised, as a 
reprint. Cocker's Pen's Transcendency. Evelyn 
(cited by Granger) mentions him and three others 
as comparable to the Italians both for letters and 
flourishes. His genuine work on arithmetic, pub- 
lished during his life, before 1664, is the Tutor to 
Writing and Arithmetic, which I suspect to have 
been an engraved book of writing copies and 
arithmetical examples. Some of his works are in 
the Museum. (Penny Cycl., " Cocker.") 

It seems that as soon as the breath was out of 
Cocker's body, this John Hawkins constituted 
himself his editor and continuer. Hawkins began 
by reprinting an undoubted work of Cocker, with 
a preface signed J. H. : 

" The Young Clerk's Tutor Enlarged : Being a most 
useful Collection of the best Presidents of Recognizances, 
Obligations, Conditions, Acquittances, Bills of Sale, War- 
rants of Attorney, &c. ... To which is annexed, 
several of the best Copies both Court and Chancery- 
Hand now extant. By Edward Cocker. Ex studiis N. 
de Latibulo 90\.ov6^av. The eighth edition." London, 
1675, 8vo. 

The goodness of Cocker's alleged work on arith- 
metic lies chiefly in this : of all the small and 
cheap school-books of the time, it is the one which 
adopts the now universal mode of performing 
division, to the exclusion of the older method, in 
which figures are written down and scratched out. 
In its explanations it is inferior to many of the 
works which it Supplanted. 

When did the name of Cocker become a pro- 
verbial representative of arithmetic? Can any 
one carry this higher than the year 1756 ? In 
that year appeared the farce of The Apprentice., 
in which the old merchant's strong point is the 
recommendation of Cocker's Arithmetic, " the best 
book that ever was written," to the young tra- 
gedian, his son. Arthur Murphy had evidently 
been looking up the names of arithmeticians ; the 
old man who reverences Cocker is called Wingate, 
the name of a writer second only to Cocker in the 
number of his editions. Is it to this farce that 
Cocker owes his position ? If Murphy had hap- 
pened to call his old citizen Cocker, and make 
him recommend Wingate's book, would the two 
have changed places ? These are questions which 
may have to be answered affirmatively, if no one 
can establish a usage prior to 1756. 

Any one who took the trouble might make a 
curious list of extracts in which dramatists and 
novelists have exposed the want of sufficient tech- 
nical knowledge to represent the characters they 
intended. Both Wingate and Cocker would have 
been shocked to hear the Wingate of the farce 
(who is obviously intended for a keen mercantile 
arithmetician) going on thus : 

" Five-eighths of three-sixteenths of a pound ! mul- 
tiply the numerator by the denominator! five times six- 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



teen is ten times eight, ten times eight is eighty, and — 
a — a — carry one. \_Exit.'\ " 

The latest numbered edition of Cocker I have met 
with is called the 55th, hy Geo. Fisher, London, 
1758, 12mo. 

Rather too scientific. — The piece broken off 
from a mass of saltpetre, to test it, was called the 
refraction ; and this word passed into a technical 
term for the pcr-centage of foreign matter found 
by common chemistry. A scientific journal took 
it that the goodness of saltpetre was measured by 
its refraction of the rays of light, and undertook 
to add that the less the angle of refraction the 
better the quality of the salt. 

Arithmetical Scale. — I know of but two at- 
tempts to alter our arithmetical scale altogether. 
Perhaps others can bring forward more. 

" Tlie Pancronometer, or universal Georgian Calendar 
. . . and the Reasons, Rules, and Uses of Octave Com- 
putation, or Natural Arithmetic. By H, J. London, 
1753, 4to." 

The word Georgian looks so like Gregorian, that 
probably many |)ersons passed the book over as 
one of those which the change of style produced 
by the score. The author's system of arithmetic 
is that in which local meaning proceeds by eights : 
thus 10 stands for eight, 100 for eight eights, &c. 
He has a mania for the comparative and super- 
lative terminations. His leading denominations 
are units, ers (eights), ests, thousets, thouseters, 
thousetests, millets, milleters, &c. He calls the 
square of a number its power, and the cube — by 
an oversigljt, not the powe.vi but — the poweres^. 
Eight feet make a feete?*, eight feeter.v a feetei/, 
eight pounds make a pounder, &c. If the crotchet 
which possessed this unfortunate H. J. were to 
return with seven others as bad as itself, thus, 
and thus only, would this crotchet of a system, as 
itself tells us, be made a crotcheter. But, strange 
as H. J. may appear, there is a stranger, not 
meaning eight, but only one. 

" Calcolo decidozzinale del Barone Silvio Ferrari . . 
. . dedicato alia natione Inglese." Torino, 1854, 4to. 

This work has probably been suggested by the 
discussions on the decimal coinage. The s^ystem 
is duoiiecimal. The author goes farther than 
H. J., for he takes old words under new meanings. 
Thus 10 is called ten, but means twelve; 100 is 
called a hundred, but means twelve twelves. Of 
course I translate the Italian into English. New 
names and symbols are wanted for old ten and 
old eleven (which now mean twelve and thirteen). 
They are hnppa, denoted by a sign like w, and 
pendo, derived from pendulum, with a symbol 
like 6 turned left side right. Thus what we call 
twenty-four is twenty, what wo call a hundred and 
twenty is kappatij (ten twelves). What we call 
twenty-three is ten-pendo (twelve and eleven). 
The year of grace now commencing is one thou- 



sand and kappaty seven, 10w7 ; 1000 meaning 
1728, wO meaning 120, and 7 being unchanged": 
and a happy new year it would be if we had to 
commence it with this new reckoning. We should 
pay money at the door of a show to see a man with 
ten fingers ; and it would seem very strange, in a 
philological point of view, that, after the traitor 
had hanged liimself, the number of apostles left 
should be designated by pendo. 

The author dedicates his work to our country. 
His system, he says, — 

" Abbisogna di mettere le prime sue radici in nn ter~ 
reno vergine, in cui non abbia a perire oppresso dall' ombra 
delta rigogliosa pianta decimale." 

This means that our persistence in refusing to de- 
cimalise our coinage, weights, and measures, is 
enough to make any one think we are open to an 
offer to rid us of the decimal numeration alto- 
gether. A. De Morgan. 



JOHN BCNCLE. 



On looking over a collection of old letters, I 
found several from T. Amory (John Buncle), 
and very curious ones they are. I send you a 
copy of one, which you may perhaps think worth 
preservirtg in your entertaining and instructing 
pages. C. DE D. 

" My dear Miss , 

" I send you a curious paper for a few minutes' amuse- 
ment to you and the ladies with you. It was written 
above thirty years ago. Perhaps you may have seen it in 
the magazines, where I put it; but the history of it was 
never known till now that I lay it before you. 
I am. 

Miss , 

Your faithful, humble servant, 

Amouri. 
" July 8, '73, 
Newton Hall. 

"A Song 
In praise of 3Iiss Rowe, 

Written one night extempore by a club of gentlemen in 
the count}' of Tipperary in Ireland. It was agreed that 
each member should, oflT-hand, write four lines, and 
they produced the following verses : 

1. 

" A whimsical pain has just caught me, 
Much worse than the gout in my toe ; 
What damsel on earth could have taught me 
To love, but enchanting Moll Rowe ? 

yVritten hy Sir Harry Clayton. 

2. 
" When chatting, or walking, or drinking, 
No person or subject I know; 
For all my whole power of thinking's 
Employ 'd about sweet Molly Rowe. 

By John 31acklin, Esq. 
3. 
" Some people love hunting and sporting, 
And chace a stout buck or a doe, 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



But the game I am fond of is courting 
A smile, from my dear Molly Rowe. 

By Thovias Dundon, Esq. 

4. 
" In the dance, through the couples a scudding, 
How graceful and light does she go I 
No Englishman ever lov'd pudding 
As 1 love my sweet Molly Kowe. 

By Mr. T. Amory. 
5. 
" In the dumps, when my friend says, 'How goes it? ' 
I answer him surly, ' So, so.' 
I'm sad, and I care not who knows it ; 
I suffer from charming Moll Rowe. 

By William Bingham, Esq. 

C. 
" The' formerlj- 1 was a sloven, 

For her I will turn a great beau ; 
I'll buy a green coat to make love in, 
And dress at my tempting Moll Rowe. 

By John O'Bourhe, Esq. 
7. 
" She's witty, she's lovely and airj', 
Her bright eyes as black as a sloe ; 
Sweet's the county of sweet Tipperary, 
The sweetest nymph in it's Moll Kowe. 

By Oliever St. George, Esq. 

8. 
■ " So great and so true is my passion, 
I kindle just like fire and tow; 
Who's the pearl of the whole Irish nation ? 
Arra ! who should it be but Moll Rowe ? 

By Popham, Stevens, Esq. 

9. 
" Your shafts I have stood, Mr. Cupid, 
And oft cry'd, ' A fig for your bow : ' 
But the man who escapes must be stupid. 
When you shoot from the eyes of Moll Rowe. 

By Thomas Mollinetix, Esq. 
10. 
" Come, fill up in bumpers your glasses, 
And let the brown bowl overflow ; 
Here's a health to the brightest of lasses, 
The queen of all toasts, ]\Iolly Rowe. 

By Thomas Butler, Esq. 

" Xota bene. — When by our mutual contributions we 
had finished our song, we all drank bumpers to Miss 
Rowe's health, and sang the last verse in grand chorus. 

" I do not remember, in all my reading or acquaintance, 
that such a thing was ever done before, and, perhaps, will 
never be again. 

" All the composers of this song (except Amory) and 
Miss Rowe are now in the grave. Here I am, round and 
sound, by the order of Providence, for some of God's 
adorable decrees. 

"Newton in Yorkshire, July th'8, 1773." 



IDENTIFICATION OF ANONYMOUS BOOKS. 

By one of those coincidences which are often so 
suggestive, it has happened that shortly after 
reading your address on the commencement of the 
Eleventh Volume, I have had occasion to refer 
to Mr. Bogue's useful but imperfect little volume, 



Men of the Time. In doing so I was reminded of 
what has been objected to it as a defect, the 
number of " unknown " names which it contains, 
by which I mean names of men active and influ- 
ential in their generation, but to a great part of 
that generation almost unknown — the writers on 
the public press. Writers of this class are too 
much disregarded by their cotemporaries, and too 
soon forgotten by their successors ; and the con- 
sequence is, that of no body of men have we so 
little knowledge as of political writers. What 
would we not give for a succession of volumes of 
Men of the Time, say from the commencement of 
the last century, or even from 1760? What a 
flood of light might occasionally be thrown upon 
an obscure page of history by a knowledge, not 
only of what was written upon that subject, but 
of those by whom it had been written. If we 
cannot now hope to discover all that we desire to 
know, we may yet do something to supply that 
deficiency. Let no reader of " N. & Q." think any 
fact tliat bears upon this subject — any hint of 
authorship, or any discovery of this kind, in any out 
of the way corner of his reading — too insignificant 
to be recorded, but throw it as a mite into the 
common treasury. More especially, let him not dis- 
regard any scrap of information tending to identify 
the author of any pamphlet. It may be a link in 
a chain of evidence the most important. What 
might not Mb. Crossley, Mb. Cobney, Mr. 
Cunningham, Db. Maitland, and many other of 
your recognised correspondents, furnish in this 

manner ; to say nothing of Mr. , Mr, , and 

Mr. , whose pens it is not difljcult to recog- 
nise* in your columns without their signatures, 
and to whom the men of the last century are 
as familiar as household words. Pray, Mr. Editor, 
excuse this suggestion, hastily thrown out and im- 
perfectly developed. Open your columns to this 
important subject, and, my word for it, generations 
yet imborn will thank me for the suggestion, and 
" N. & Q." for having adopted and carried it out. 

Anon. 

[If we rightly understand the object of our corre- 
spondent, viz., that we should invite contributions of all 
facts which serve to identify the authors of political pamph- 
lets, we readily accede to his proposal. But we desire to 
do far more. We would not confine ourselves either to the 
period or class of works to which our correspondent alludes. 
VVe hope every reader of " N. & Q." who can identify the 
author of any anonymous work upon any subject will record 
his discovery in our columns as a contribution towards 
that great desideratum in English literature, a Dictionary 
of Anonymous Books. 

We may take this opportunity of stating that we have 



* We have struck out the names given by our cor- 
respondent for the very obvious reason, that if he be right 
in his conjectures there can be no necessity for disturbing 
the incognito of the gentlemen to whom he alludes ; 
while the doing so would be a manifest discourtesv. — Ed. 
"N.&Q." 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



a measure in contemplation, somewhat in connexion with 
this proposal, which, if we are enabled to carry it out 
effectually, will give a feature of new and increasing in- 
terest to our pages. — Ed. " N. & Q."] 



THE PBELIMINABIES OF WAR. 

" Beware 
Of entrance to a quarrel ; hvf, being in, 
Bear it that the opposer may beware of thee." 

Shakspeare. 

The preliminaries of peace is a phrase with 
which most persons are familiar, and many must 
remember when the reports of such proceedings 
— when notes and conferences, propositions and 
counter-propositions — were the objects of con- 
stant and earnest discussion. 

The preliminaries of war seems to be a new 
phrase, and to deserve a place in the vocabularies 
of diplomacy. It would serve to indicate the cir- 
cumstances which chiefly require the consideration 
of sovereigns and statesmen previous to the de- 
claration of war. The subject may be rather out 
of date at this moment ; but while some are intent 
on passing events, others may choose to glance at 
affairs retrospectively. 

A just cause, and a just appreciation of the 
force with which we have to contend, as com- 
pared with our own resources and expectations, 
should be considered as the indispensable prelimi- 
naries of war. The first circumstance would 
carry with it a partial consolation for the evils 
and miseries which war produces, and the second 
would give us some assurance of the probability 
of its successful termination. 

The expediency of the war now in progress is 
a political question, and therefore unsuited to the 
publication in which this appears : it is neither a 
question of facts nor figures, but a labyrinth of 
arguments. An estimate of the force with which 
we have to contend is a more tangible subject, 
and I need not conceal that the notes thereon 
about to be transcribed are assumed to be of con- 
siderable importance. 

" Les forces de terre [de la Russie] sont estimees k un 
million d'hommes armes, y compris I'armee polonaise de 
50,000 hommes. Mais sur cette masse de troupes, on n'en 
compte qu'un peu plus de 700,000 de parfaiteraent regu- 
liferes, et 48,000 de troupes d'elite formant la garde. Si 
I'on considferel'etendue des frontiferes du cote de I'Europe, 
les distances et les points susceptibles d'etre attaques, 
enfin la population de I'empire, on ne trouvera pas cet 
^tat militaire plus fort que celui des autres monarchies 
continentales. Mais le projet de transformer peu k peu la 
population agricole des domaines de la couronne en une 
milice permanente, organis^e k la manifere des Kosaques 
sous le nom de colonies militaires [systeme aujourd'hui 
bien ^tabli], donnerait k la Russie une force armee pour 
ainsi dire illimitee." — Conrad Malte-Brun, 1826. 

" Les statisticiens et les g^ographes les plus distingues 
donnent les evaluations les plus disparates sur I'armee de 
I'empire Russe. — Mais les faits positifs et les raisonnemens 
de M. Schnitzler, dans sa statistique de I'empire Russe, 



nous ont engage k faire de nouvelles recherches ; leur r^- 
sultat nous a prouve la justesse des calculs de ce statisti- 
cien, et nous n'hesitons pas k les admettre dans le tableau 
en reduisant le cadre de I'armee russe sur le pied de paix, 
k la fin de 1826, k 670,000 hommes; encore ferons-nous 
observer avec M. Schnitzler que ce nombre doit etre re- 
gard^ k cette epoque plutot comme nominal qa'effectif." 
— Adrien Balbi, 1844. 

*' Le courage du soldat russe n'est pas impetueux comme 
celui du soldat fran9ais ; c'est, si je puis m'exprimer ainsi, 
un courage de resignation, et celui des recrues est peut- 
etre sup^rieur k celui des anciens soldats, mais ces derniers 
sont preferables, parce qu'ils savent mieux leur metier." 

— Le marquis de Chambray, 1823. 

"Les Kosaques s;jnt d'une vigilance extreme, mais lis 
ne font point consister leur gloire k braver le danger ; ils 
n'attaquent qu'avec une grande superiorite de forces, et 
se retirent k I'instant si I'on fait bonne contenance ; ils 
craignent beaucoup le feu, et ne s'y exposent jamais volon- 
tairement : leur principal but etant de faire du butin, et 
les bagages de I'armee en contenant de tres-pr^cieux, ils 
redoublaient d'activite." — Le marquis de Chambray, 
1823. 

"Cequi nous frappait sur tout [a Sevastopol], c'^tait 
de voir ces memes soldats, tour k tour terrassiers, char- 
pentiers, forgerons et ma90ns, accomplir k merveille toutes 
ces taches si diverses. — Ajoutons que le soldat russe est 
non-seulement uri habile artisan, mais encore un ouvrier 
docile par caractfere, respectueux sans bassesse, adroit et 
actif sans forfanterie." — Anatole de Demidoff, 1840. 

" Ce grand spectacle guerrier de Vosnessensk, dont 
j'^tais assez heureux pour admirer de si prfes tons les 
details, devait naturellement me trouver tout rempli de 
respect et d'attention. Certes ce n'etait pas un interet 
vulgaire qui m'avait conduit dans cette ville de soldats, 
et, aprfes le premier etonnement, je n'eus rien de plus 
presse que de me rendre compte de ces forces terribles, 
surtout de cette cavalerie formidable, qui n'a pas son 
egale dans le monde. C'est pourtant k ^institution des 
colonies militaires qu'il faut demander le secret de ces 
resultats admirables; de Ik est sortie cette arm^e impo- 
sante. Le nombre, la discipline, le bien-etre des hommes, 
la rare beaute des chevaux, et jusqu'a I'air martial de ces 
escadrons, tout proclame les heureux eflFets de ce systfeme 
et son incontestable superiorite." — Anatole de Demidoff, 
1840. 

" On courre la poste en France et en Angleterre, mais en 
Russie on vole, surtout dans le gouvernement de la nou- 
velle Russie. Je partis a huit heures et demie du matin 
de Nicolaief, et k midi un quart j'avais parcouru soixante 
verstes, et j'etais aux portes de Cherson." — Le baron de 
Reuilly, 1806. 

While thus reviewing the vast power in array 
against us, and reflecting on some oversights, and 
marks of public disappointment, I give no place 
to dismay. The only remedy is prompt and in- 
creased exertion — more officers — ■ more soldiers 

— more excavators — more ammunition — more 
supplies of every description. 

The skill and activity of the commanders in 
this conflict — the bravery and patient endurance 
of the troops and seamen — a rapid succession of 
unsurpassed victories — are the themes of admir- 
ation with all manly and candid minds. In one 
particular only there seems to have been a re- 
laxation of discipline, and on that essential point 
I presume to transcribe a word of advice : 

" Among the many precautions to which a commander 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



should attend, the first is that of observing secrecy" — 

POLYKIUS. 

"The commander of the Forces — has frequently la- 
mented the ignorance which has appeared in the opinions 
communicated in letters written from the army, and the 
indiscretion with which those letters are published." — Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, K.B. Celorico, 1810. 

Bolton Cornet. 



DR. ROUTH, PRESIDENT OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE. 

In tbe very interesting and ably drawn up 
account of Dr. Routb, said to bave been written 
by a Fellow of Magdalen, and wbicb appeared in 
The Times, no mention was made of tbe Presi- 
dent's first publication, tbe Euthydemus and Gor- 
gias of Plato; and tbe omission was soon after 
noticed by a correspondent of llie Times, wbo 
wrote from Cambridge ; but wbo was in error in 
placing tbe date of tbe Dialogues in 1774, instead 
of 1784, wbicb is tbe true date. In connexion 
witb Dr. Routb, and as a sligbt contribution both 
to biograpby and bibliography, I send you the 
following quotations ; the first from Moss's Manual 
of Classical Bibliography (London, 1825) : 

" After reading through the heavy and barren list of 
editions of the Dialogues, published separately, I am at 
last arrived at the first specimen of classical editorship, 
which my venerable, pious, and highly esteemed friend, 
the learned President of Magdalen College, Oxford, pre- 
sented to the world. (Oxon, 8vo., 1784.) That such and 
so highly appreciated presents are so seldom to be met 
with, is to every scholar a subject of regret. The Latin 
version is by the editor, in which he appears rather to 
have aimed at perspicuity and brevity, united with a 
correct interpretation of his author ; yet, nevertheless, we 
often meet with elegancies. Of the materials em- 
ployed by Dr. Routh, in the compilation of this edi- 
tion, I shall present my reader -with the detail given 
by Findeisen in his edition of the Georgias : — ' Routhii 
viri doctiss. egregium opus,' &c For far- 
ther information, I refer my readers to the brief but 
eloquent character of Dr. Routh, drawn up by my late 
lamented friend Dr. Parr, in his Characters of C. J. Fox, 
vol. ii. ; who, by the long and intimate acquaintance 
which subsisted between Iiim and the President, Avas 
duly able to discern and estimate that character, the 
virtues and accomplishments of Avhich he has so pleas- 
ingly pourtrayed; to the Preface of Findeisen; to the 
Critical Review for July, 1785, pp. 45 — 51. ; Fabricii Bibl. 
Graca., torn. iii. p. 135., edit. Harless ; Dibdin's hitrod., 
vol. ii. p. 137.; Brunet, Manuel de Libraire." — Moss, 
vol. ii. p. 434. 

The next extract is from Dr. Parr, in reply to 
the accusations of Gibbon against Oxford in 
general, and Magdalen College in particular : 

" Dr. Home was a monk of Magdalen [a contemptuous 
expression made use of by Gibbon], but he composed 
several volumes of sermons, to which Mr. Gibbon will not 
refuse the praise of ingenuity ; and he also drew up a 
Commentary on the Psalms, for nobler purposes than the 
amusement of scholars or the confutation of critics. Dr. 
Chandler is a monk of Magdalen. 13ut he has published 
Travels into Greece and Asia Minor, which have been 
well received in the learned world ; and, with great credit 
to himself, he has republished the Marmora Oxoniensia. 



Dr. Routh is a monk of Magdalen. But he is now en- 
gaged in a work of great difficulty, and of great use, for 
which he is peculiarly qualified by his profound know- 
ledge of the tenets and the language of the earlier fathers 
in the Christian Church; and long before the death of 
Mr. Gibbon, this very monk had sent forth an edition of 
Two Dialogues in Plato : an edition which, in common 
with many of my countrymen, I have myself read with 
instruction and with delight ; an edition which the first 
scholars on the Continent have praised ; which Charles 
Burney 'loves,' and which even Richard Porson 'en- 
dures.'" — Spital Sermon, notes, p. 128., London, 1801. 

I am informed, by a late Fellow of Magdalen, 
that the first scholars of Germany still continue to 
speak in terms of high praise of Dr. Routh's Two 
Dialogues of Plato. It is with deep feelings of 
gratitude for great kindness experienced from 
Dr. Routh, and of veneration for tbe character of 
one, wbo, even at a comparatively early period of 
life, seems to have inspired all wbo approached 
him with feelings of veneration, that I send these 
few hasty memoranda to the Editor of " N. & Q." 

John Macray. 

Oxford. 



" Seventy-seven." — I lately asked an " old in- 
habitant " his age ; and he answered, with a smile 
at his own bit of humour : " Why, Sir, I belong 
to the sevens ; born in the three sevens (1777), 
I must this year (1854) of course confess to the 
two sevens (77)." Another century must elapse 
before this reply can be given, after the year 
which has just expired. N. L. T. 

Clock Inscription. — Under tbe clock in front 
of the Town Hall in the town of Bala, Merioneth- 
shire, North Wales, is tbe following inscription : 

" Here 1 stand both day and night. 
To tell the hours with all rax might ; 
Do you example take by me, 
And serve thy God as I serve thee." 

H.J. 
Handsworth. 

Sun-dial Motto. — One at Hebden Bridge, 
Yorkshire : 

" Quod petis, umbra est." 

John Scribe. 

Ancient Usages of the Church (Vol. ix. passim). 
— There was, a few years ago, and probably still 
exists, in the parish church of Yeovil, a practice of 
singing, or rather saying, after the Gospel, words 
which incidentally themselves perhaps refer to an- 
other more ancient custom. The words, thus said 
or sung by the parish clerk, were these : " Thanks 
be to God for the Light of His Holy Gospel." 

J.J. 

Johnson and Swift. — Johnson's prejudice against 
Swift is visible in many passages in Boswell. That 
in which he declared " Swift is clear, but he is 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



shallow" (Croker's ed. 1847, p. 277.)> is curiously 
illustrated by the following characteristic anec- 
dote, which I have just disinterred from the Town 
and Country Magazine for Sept. 1769. 

Dr. Johnson, being one evening in company 
with some of the first-rate literati of the age, the 
conversation turned chiefly upon the posthumous 
volumes of Swift, which had not been long pub- 
lished. After having sat a good while collected 
in himself, and looking as if he thought himself 
prodigiously superior in point of erudition to his 
companions, he roundly asserted in his rough way 
that " Swift was a shallow fellow ; a very shallow 
fellow." The ingenious Mr. Sheridan, not relish- 
ing so despotic an assertion, and in his opinion so 
false a one, as he almost venerated the Dean of 
St. Patrick's literary talents, replied, warmly but 
modestly, " Pardon me, Sir, for differing from 
you, but I always thought the Dean a very clear 
writer." To this modest reply the following la- 
conic answer was immediately vociferated, " All 
shallows are clear ! " M. N. S. 

Lord Derby and Manzoni. — While Lord Derby's 
quotations are a matter of interest, let me recall 
attention to one which he made in a speech on the 
death of the Duke of Wellington. It was, re- 
markably enough, taken from Manzoni's Ode on 
the Death of Napoleon* 

" Ov'e silenzio e tenebre 
La gloria clie passb." 

But where was the speech made ? I cannot now 
recall, and should be thankful to any one who 
would inform me, and say how I may obtain a 
copy. I do not find the quotation in his speeches 
in the House, and believe it was made in one 
spoken at some public dinner. 

The Classics have for so long a time usurped 
the foremost place as subjects for quotation, that 
it was delightful to find so great a man as Lord 
Derby breaking through conventional rules and 
doing honour to the beauties of the Italian muse ! 

Hebmes. 

Vessels of Observation. — Vegetlus (de re Mil,, 
iv. 37.) has the following : 

" Ne candore prodantur, colore Veneto, qui marinis est 
iiuctibus similis, vela tinguntur et funes: cera etiam qua 
unguere sclent naves, inficitur : nauta; quoque vel milites 
Venetam vestem induunt, ut non solum per noctem, sed 
etiam per diem facilius lateant explorantes." 

Is this the origin of our Blue-jackets ? And 
would our present Board of Admiralty pooh-pooh 
the introduction of blue or sea-green sails ? 

Young Verdant. 

* // Cinque Maggio. 



caucriciS. 



VACCINATION. 



In the interesting Journal of John Byrom, 
F. R. S., one of the latest publications of the 
Chetham Society*, he states, under the date of 
June 3rd, 1725, that — 

" At a meeting of the Royal Society, Sir Isaac Xewton 
presiding, Dr. Jurin f read a case of small-pox, where a 
girl who had been inoculated and had been vaccinated, 
was tried and had them not again, but another (a) boy 
caught the small-pox from this girl, and had the confluent 
kind and died." 

The paper referred to by Byrom was commu- 
nicated by Mr. Sergeant Amand. It has been 
kindly transcribed for me by Mr. Weld, the libra- 
rian of the Royal Society. The case occurred at 
Hanover. The inoculation of the girl seems to 
have failed entirely. It was suspected that she 
had not taken the true small-pox. Doubts, how- 
ever, were removed, as a boy, who daily saw the 
girl, fell ill and died, " having had a very bad 
small-pox of the confluent sort." 

The point to which I would draw your readers' 
attention is the mention of " vaccination " in this 
journal in 1725 ; it is one of some interest and 
curiosity, as it is supposed that no one, before 
the time of Jenner, attempted to introduce the 
virus from the cow into the human species. The 
word does not occur in Amand's paper, of which 
Byrom is speaking. Nor is it to be found in the 
dictionaries of Bailey, Ash, or Johnson, until in- 
troduced into the last by Todd. Richardson, in 
his Dictionai-y, says that " it is a word of modern 
formation." Did Byrom borrow it, or was it hi& 
own invention ? He studied medicine, and it was 
suggested to him to practise as a physician in his 
native place. He so far obtained the title of 
doctor from his acquaintance, that he was com- 
monly so addressed; and on one occasion he desired 
that his letters should be directed Mr., not Dr. 
In 1727 he says that he had not health or ex- 
perience to practise in Manchester. 

Byrom's attention appears to have been much 
turned to the subject of inoculation. Other refer- 
ences to the practice will be found in the Diary^ 
and he mentions reading Dr. Wm. Wagstaffe's 
Letter to Friend, on the danger and uncertainty of 
Inoculation, published in 1722 {Diary, p. 140.). 

It was in 1762 or 1768 that Jenner's attention 
seems to have been first awakened to the subject 

* This diary, with a striking portrait, was generously 
given to the Chetham Society by its accomplished possessor, 
the poet's descendant. The MS. was happily committed 
to the hands of an editor, most competent to do full justice 
to it. In his preface and notes, Canon Parkinson has 
heightened the vivid picture which Byrom has drawn of 
the habits and manners of our grandsires, by his own 
observations. 

t At one time President of the College of Physicians. 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



of his great discovery, by the chapped hands of 
milkers sometimes proving a preventative of small- 
pox, and by those amongst them whom he en- 
deavoured to inoculate resisting the infection. In 
1770 he mentioned the cow-pox to John Hunter ; 
ten years afterwards his anticipations were quick- 
ened, and about 179G he performed the first 
successful operation. These dates I gather from 
Mr. Pettigrew's carefully compiled and very in- 
teresting life of Dr. Jenner.* 

Some of your correspondents will very probably 

tell me that what I have quoted is not a solitary 

instance of the use of the word vaccination early 

in the last century. J. H. Markland. 

Bath. 



SELWYN OF FRISTON, CO. SUSSEX. 

Can any correspondent of " N". & Q." help me 
with answers to the following questions ? 

Who were the Sheringtons of Selmeston, co. 
Sussex, one of whom, Katherlne, daughter and 
heiress of Simon Sherington, was married to John 
Selwyn of Sherington, about the year 1350? 

Are there any Sheringtons still extant tracing 
their descent from this family ? 

The grandson of this marriage is Nicolas Sel- 
wyn, of Sherington. I cannot find the surname 
of his wife ; her christian name is given in Berry's 
Genealogies of the Sussex Gentry as Laura. 

I have been told that the name of Nicolas 
Selwyn is found also Shulder. I shall be glad to 
know whether there is any confirmation of this, 
independent of the authority on which I have re- 
ceived it, which authority, I should add, Is a high 
one. 

In the collections of Peter Le Neve, Esq., 
Norroy King of Arms, now remaining In the 
College of Arms, there Is the following remarkable 
discrepancy with the statement of the monument 
of Sir Edward Selwyn still extant In Frlston 
Church. The monument speaks of one son only 
of Sir Edward, by name William Thomas Selwyn, 
who survived his father only two months. Sir 
Edward dying Dec. 9, 1704, and William Thomas 
Feb. 9, 1704, in his twenty-first year. The young 
man_ Is deplored as, " Qui sola spes fuit, et nunc 
exstlncta, antlquas Selwynorum familla;. Ultlmus 
hie Selwynorum jacet," &c. 

On the other hand, Peter Le Neve gives to Sir 
Edward Selwyn a son, whose christian name is 
■unrecorded, colonel of a regiment which Is unde- 
scribed, except as a regiment of foot, and who 
married a daughter of a Battinson of Chlselhurst, 
the christian name neither of the lady nor of her 
father being given. The house Is easily identified 
still as that of the late Sir Edward Beterson. 



* Biographical Memoirs of the most celebrated Physicians, 
Surgeons, Sfc., vol. ii. 



Now I have no doubt that the monument is 
here to be believed, and that the learned herald is 
in error. But I shall feel obliged by any one of 
your readers who will kindly fill up the deficien- 
cies of this record, and refer Colonel Selwyn to 
his proper father, or who will give me any other 
clue to the satisfactory solution of the difficulty. 

Sir Edward Selwyn was M. P. for Seaford in 
1681 and 1684, and High Sheriff of Sussex in 
1682. Can any of your readers tell me by what 
means I am likely to discover precisely why he 
was knighted. His uncle, Sir Nicolas Selwyn, 
was " one of the honourable band of pensioners of 
King Charles." I shall be glad to learn somethinij 
about these pensioners, and especially for what 
services Sir Nicolas was knighted and admitted 
into " the honourable band." 

I shall be thankful for any Information con- 
cerning the following Sussex families, or for re- 
ferences to documents where they are mentioned : 
— Sherington of Selmeston, about 1350; Marshall 
ofMaresfield, about 1380; Reresby, about 1440; 
Bates or Batys, about 1470 ; John Adam, about 
1500. E. J. Selwyn. 

Blackheath. 



CURIOUS INCIDENT. 

An intelligent and Imaginative, though unedu- 
cated old friend of mine (now dead), who had 
led a most eventful life, ran away from his parental 
home, In Edinburgh, when about sixteen years 
old. As is the case with all the strays and waifs 
of the British empire, he straightway bent his 
course to London. Of course the theatre was' not 
long unvislted ; and one Incident In a play which 
he then saw acted became indelibly stamped upon 
his mind, and exerted an important Influence upon 
him In after-life. This Is his description of It. 

A sturdy, middle-aged farmer was hard at work 
In his field, when he was interrupted by the ap- 
pearance of his daughter, whom he heartily loved. 
She was a beautiful, blooming. Innocent- looking 
girl of eighteen. Leaning upon his spade, and 
ceasing from his toil, the farmer looked fondly 
upon her, and passionately exclaimed, " How 
I love thee, Sukey ; Oh, how I loves thee ! 
Thou'rt a sweet lass, thou'rt ; how thy old father 
loves thee ! " And then he threw his spade down, 
and drew her to his bosom, fairly weeping with 
joy. But suddenly, and as If stung by some wild 
thought, he held her away from him at arms' 
length, and gazing fixedly and even sternly upon 
her face, cried, half inquiringly, half In soliloquy : 
" Dost know what Virtue Is like, Sukey ? It is 
like — ah, now, what is it like ? Let me see. It is 
like — like " (doubtfully, and as if he saw through 
a glass darkly), "like — Oh! I see what it's like. 
Didst ever see, dear Sukey, didst ever see a 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



beautiful and thrifty field of grain, waving its rich 
and golden top backward and forward so grace- 
fully in sun and shadow, and filling the air around 
with sweet fragrance ? Well, it is a lovely and a 
pleasant sight ; a sight that makes glad the heart 
of God's creatures. And a virtuous woman is like 
it. But ah ! Sukey dear, take a keen, cruel knife, 
and cut off the tops of the grain ; and then it 
becomes a sorrowful sight. Nought but straw, 
worthless straw, is left; which man and beast 
shall tread under foot, and trample on, and defile ! 
So it is with a woman despoiled of her virtue ! " 

Can any of your correspondents refer me to any 
play illustrating an incident similar to this ? It 
must have been acted in London prior to the 
Mutiny of the Nore, for my old friend, shortly 
after he witnessed it, was pressed into the naval 
service, and was a participator in that celebrated 
outbreak. C. D. D. 

New Brunswick, N. Jersey, U. S. A. 



Minar €iutviti. 

Heidelberg. — A spot in the plan of this cele- 
brated castle is called " Clara Dettin's Garden." 
Who was Clara Dettin ? N. 

The Sign of Griffiths the Publisher. — What 
could induce Griffiths, the publisher of the 
Monthly Review, to adopt The Dunciad for his 
sign ? J. M. 

Gilberfs " History of the City of Dublin." —In 
Mr. Gilbert's very interesting History of the City 
of Dublin, vol. i. p. 94., I have met with the follow- 
ing passage : 

" A woman, known as ' Darkey Kelly,' who kept an 
infamous establishment in this alley [Copper Alley], was 
tried for a capital offence about 1764 ; sentenced to death, 
and publicly burnt in Stephen's Green." 

The author informs us in the next sentence, 
that " her sister, Maria Llewellin, was condemned 
to be hanged, for her complicity in the affair of 
the Neals with Lord Carhampton ;" and therefore 
it is not likely that the printer has mistaken the 
date of Kelly's execution. But is it a fact, that 
any one was "publicly burnt in Stephen's Green" 
in or about the year 1764 ? Abhba. 

Newspaper Cutting. — 

_" It is not 400 years since a baron of this realm was 
tried for high crimes and misdemeanors ; and one of the 
charges exhibited against him was, that holding in con- 
tempt the respect that man ought to have for man, he 
had suffered himself to be carried about his own garden 
in a sort of a chair, with poles put to it, bv two of his own 
servants."— Aris's Birmingham Gazette, June 22, 1795. 

Who was the baron ? R. C. Wabde, 

Kidderminster. 



Richard Brayne, Braine, or Brain. — Can any 
of your readers favour me with any information 
respecting the family of Richard Brayne, Braine, 
or Brain, who lived at or near Northwood, in the 
county of Salop, and died August, 1755 ? and what 
was the maiden name of his wife, who also died in 
1755, and who was her father ? S. R. 

Sir John Crosby. — Can any one through your 
journal inform me, who, if there are any, are the 
descendants of Sir John Crosby, who is said to 
have built Crosby Hall in Bishopsgate Street, and 
who lived about the middle or latter end of the 
fifteenth century ? Query. 

Bishop Oldham. — Information is requested 
relative to the descendants of Dr. Hugh Oldham, 
Bishop of Exeter, who died June 15, 1519. 

Thos. p. Hassall. 

59. Lord Street, Chetham, Manchester. 

Arms of Sir J. Russell. — What were the arms 
of Sir James Russell, Knight, Lieut.-Governor of 
the island of Nevis, and Governor and Com- 
mander of the Leeward Carribee Islands, 1686? 
and his family's lineage ? M. M. 

Distributing Money at Marriages. — Perhaps 
some of your able contributors will favour me 
with the origin of the custom practised in Allen- 
dale, Northumberland, and other northern dis- 
tricts ? The male guests, as soon as they emerge 
without the precincts of the churchyard, com- 
mence distributing money to the spectators, and 
continue so to do from thence to where they 
remain for refreshments. — I might also add another 
peculiarity in connexion with a marriage in the 
same place. Previous to the bride entering the 
doorway of the house after the marriage ceremony, 
she is met at the door, a veil is thrown over her 
head, and a quantity of cake is pitched over her. 
Have these customs anything in common with 
Eastern customs? if not, what are their symbolical 
meaning? J. W. 

Allendale. 

Gentleman hanged in 1559-60. — A private 
gentleman, of a good family and of a large estate, 
suffered death by hanging in March 1559-60, for 
" a great robbery." There is no doubt that the 
" great robbery " must have been connected with 
political events. Can any of the many readers 
of " N. & Q." throw any light on this subject by 
means of their knowledge either of the immediate 
fact, or of the general passages of the political 
events of the time ? Careingtow. 

Ormonde Correggio. — Could you through your 
valuable publication give me any information as to 
the Ormonde Collection, and the Correggios in it? 
I possess a fine Correggio, a Madonna, formerly in 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



e$ 



the Ormonde Collection at Kilkenny Castle ; and 
am very anxious to ascertain how it came into that 
family, and the exact date when it left it. 

There is much historical interest connected with 
this picture, which was a heirloom in the family. 
The engraving, when seen by Colnaghi, was im- 
mediately recognised by him as one respecting 
which there had been much discussion, the paint- 
ing not being known to be in existence, — in fact, 
a lost one. 

The print is in the British Museum in three 
stages of engraving, with the following inscription : 

"Antonio da Correggio pinxit. R. Cooper del. et 
sculp. 1763. To the Queen this plate is humbly in- 
scribed by her Majesty's most devoted and humble servant, 
Richard Cooper. From the original painting of Cor- 
reggio, formerly in the Ormonde Collection, but now in 
the possession "of John Butler, Esq." 

Now, in 1716, the Duke of Ormonde had been 
attainted, and his estates confiscated. He died a 
pensioner on the bounty of the King of Spain, 
having taken part with the Pretender. John 
Butler was heir, and would inherit this picture as 
a heirloom. In 1791 he became seventeenth Earl 
of Ormonde, so that the painting was engraved 
when the title was extinct. 

It has been thought that the painting may 
have been one of the Escurial Corregglos, and was 
given by the King of Spain to the Duke of Or- 
monde for his services. If you can put the 
Q ueries for me in your publication, so as to elicit 
any information as to the time when it was given 
or purchased by the Ormonde family, and the cir- 
cumstances under which it was parted with, you 
will confer a great obligation. Margaret Fison. 

New Court House, Charlton, Cheltenham. 

P. S. — There appears to have been a sale at 
some time or other, at which I believe the picture 
was purchased, and came from that channel into 
our possession. 

Churchill Property, — About ten years ago 
some law proceedings were noted in The Times, 
referring to a fund for the benefit of persons 
named Churchill. Can any of your readers furnish 
the particulars of its origin and distribution, &c. ? 

One of the Name. 

Bells heard by the drowned. — Will any one 
kindly refer me to the story of a man who was 
drowned in a Danish lake ; and who described, on 
being restored, after a long period of suspended 
animation, that he heard under water, in his last 
moments of consciousness, the sound of the Copen- 
hagen bells ? Alfred Gatty. 

Dean Smedley. — I beg to renew my inquiry 
(Vol. X., p. 423.) after Dean Smedley, both on its 
own account, and to correct a blunder made by 
your printer in my former Query, of " Patres sunt 
octulae," for " Patres sunt retulas," i. e. old women. 



In reply to S. A. H.'s inquiry in the same 
Number (p. 418.), I am sorry to say that no ex- 
planation has yet appeared of Pope's agglomerated 
mention of Blackmore and Quarles, Ben Jonson 
and Old Dennis, the Lord's Anointed and the 
Russian Bear. Nor has Mr. Crosslet either re- 
tracted or supported his assertion as to the appear- 
ance of " Sober Advice " so early as 1716. I have 
no doubt that on reconsideration he finds that he 
was mistaken. Every paragraph of the poem 
proves that it could not have been written earlier 
than 1730. C. 

Gelyan Bowers. — What is the origin of the 
Julian (or Gelyan) Bowers, found in the north of 
England ? M. J. S. 

Dial. — How may I learn to accurately mark 
out and set a dial ? John Scribe. 

Death of Dogs. — In November I saw In War- 
wickshire a printed bill offering a reward for the 
discovery of " some evil-disposed person or per- 
sons who did poison a dog." Making inquiry last 
week, I was told that many dogs had since died 
in the neighbourhood very suddenly, and where 
there was not the least reason to suspect that 
poison had been administered ; but it was a new 
disease which had afflicted the canine race. Has 
a similar mortality taken place in other districts ? 
and what is the nature of the disease ? H. W. D. 

Verses. — In the Exchequer Record Office, 
Dublin, there is deposited an original paper upon 
which the following lines have been written : 

" Lett England, old England in glory still rise, 
And thanks to y" D. y' open'd her eys." 

The document to which I referred bears no date, 
but It appears to me to have been written in or 
about the year 1710. To whom is allusion made 
by the words (or rather the word and letter) " y* 
D. ?" J. F. F. 

Dublin. 

Psalm- singing and the Nonconformists. — Can 
any one explain why the early Nonconformists so 
much neglected the practice of psalm-singing in 
their worship ? John Scbibb. 

" The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle" a poem in 
five cantos, supposed to be written by W — — 

S , Esq. ; first American, from the fourth 

Edinburgh edition, London, .James Cawthorn, 
1814. The names of the author of the above will 
oblige. R. H. B. 

Heavenly Guides. — Who was the author of 
The Poor Mans Pathway to Heaven, a small black- 
letter work, dated about 1600 ? My copy lacks 
title-page. R. C. Wardb. 

Kidderminster. 



66 



NOTES AND QUERISS. 



[No. 274. 



;^{n0r CSuertcS iuttb ^n^torrS. 



FairchiJd Lecture at St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. 
— Thomas Faircbild, whose communication to 
■the Royal Society of Experiments on the Circula- 
tion of the Sap is printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions, 1724, and who died at Hoxton in 
1729, bequeathed money to trustees, for a lecture 
to be delivered in the church of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, annually, on Whit- Tuesday. The 
subject must be either " The wonderful works of 
God in the Creation," or "The certainty of the 
Resurrection of the Dead proved by the certain 
changes of the animal and vegetable parts of the 
Creation." Dr. Morell (T presume the author of 
the Thesaurus that bears his name, and the friend 
of Hogarth) preached this lecture for several 
years. I am desirous of knowing whether it is still 
delivered according to the will of the testator ; and 
if so, at what hour on Whit-Tuesday I must 
• attend at the church in order to hear it ? 

Geo. E. Feere. 
Eoydon Hall, Diss. 

[Some celebrated men have preached this lectui'e, among 
■ others Dr. Denne, Dr. Stukeley, and Samuel Ayscough ; 
but we never heard of Dr. Morell as one of the lecturers, 
nor does his name appear in the list furnished by Sir 
Henry Ellis, in his History of Shoreditch, p. 288. Mr. 
'Ayscough delivered it from 1787 to 1804, and was suc- 
' ceeded by the Kev. J. J. Ellis, Eector of St. Martin's 
Outwich, in 1805, who has continued lecturer until the 
present time. Next Whit-Tuesday will be the 125th an- 
niversary ; Divine Service commences at eleven o'cloclc. 
There was a local periodical published in 1852, called the 

■ Shoreditch Herald, which if our correspondent could be 
fortunate enough to pick up on any bookstall, he will find 
an interesting account of the worthy founder of this lec- 

■ ture. See the number for July, 1852, p. 42.] 

" Penelope's Wehb." — I have a much mutilated 
■copy of a black-letter volume so entitled. I 
should be glad to learn its date, exact title-page, 
and degree of rarity. E.. C. Warde. 

Kidderminster. 

[This work is by Robert Greene, and, from the prices 
given in Lowndes, must be extremely rare : " Boswell, 
985., 71. 15s. Roxburghe, 6656., 5/." It contains the 
foUo'wing full title-page : " Penelopes Web : wherein a 
Christall Mirror of Feminine Perfection represents to the 
view of euery one those vertues and graces which more 
curiously beautifies the mind of women, then eyther 
sumptuous Apparel, or lewels of inestimable value : the 
one buying fame with honour, the other breeding a kinde 
of delight, but with repentance. In three seuerall dis- 
courses also are three speciall vertues, necessary to be 
incident in euery vertuous woman, pithely discussed : 
namely. Obedience, Chastity, and Sylence. Interlaced 
with three seuerall and Comicall Histories. By Kobert 
Greene, Master of Artes in Cambridge. Omne tulit 
punctum qui miscuit vtile dulce. London, printed for 
lohn Hodgers, and are to be soldo at his shop at the 
Flowerdeluce in Fleete Streete, neere to Fetter Lane end. 
1601." See a list of Greene's innumerable pieces in Beloe's 
Anecdotes of Literature, vol. ii. pp. 168. 196. 291. ; and 
Censura Literaria, vol. viii. pp. 380 — 391. Dibdin, in his 
Reminiscences, vol. i. p. 437., remarks, " There is more to 



be learnt of the express character of the times in the 
pieces of Greene, Harvey, Decker, Nash, &c., than in the 
elaborate disquisitions of learned historians. And yet, 
after all — how singular! — in none of these cotempora- 
neous productions is there the slightest mention of Shak- 
speare, who was not only living but in high repute. One 
would have thought that his very 'hose, doublet, and 
jerkin' would have been described by some of this viva- 
cious and talkative tribe. Who would wish to ' lose one 
drop of that immortal man ? ' "] 

Pev. Dr. Gosset. — Can any of your readers 
oblige me with any recollections they may have 
of the Rev. Isaac Gosset, D.D., of bibliographical 
celebrity, other than may be found in Clarke's 
Pepertorium Bibliographicum, p. 455., or in the 
Gentleman s Magazine, to which I have referred ? 
I am also desirous of knowing where he was 
buried, and if he has an epitaph. His father, 
whose name also was Isaac, died at Kensington in 
December, 1799, at the advanced age of eighty- 
eight. F. G. 

[An interesting notice of Dr. Isaac Gosset will be 
found in Dr. Dibdin's Decameron, vol. iii. pp. 5 — 8. 78., 
and some passing notices in Dibdin's Reminiscences, vol. i. 
pp. 205. 295. Gosset is described under the character of 
Lepidus in the Bibliomania, and those amusing lines, 
" The Tears of the Booksellers," on the death of Dr. 
Gosset {Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxiii. pt. i. p. 160.), are by 
the Rev. Stephen Weston. Consult Home's Introd. to 
Bibliography, vol. ii. p. 651., and the Classical Journal, 
vol. viii. p. 471. &c., for some of the prices for which the 
Gossetian tomes were sold. We cannot discover Dr. Gos- 
set's burial-place.] 

Winchester Dulce Domum and Tabula Leguim 
Pcedagogicamm. — Will any reader give, or direct 
me to, the history of these ? J. W. Hewett. 

Bloxham, Banbury. 

[Dr. Milner, in his History of Winchester, vol. ii. 
p. 130., edit. 1801, remarks: "That the existence of the 
song of Dulce Domum can onlj' be traced up to the dis- 
tance of about a century ; j'et the real author of it, and 
the occasion of its composition, are already clouded with 
fables." Some of these traditionary notices will be found 
in Walcott's William of Wykeham and his Colleges, p. 266. ; 
and in Gentleman^ Mag. for March, 1796, p. 209., and 
July, 1796, p. 570.] 

Levinus Monk. — Who was Levinus Monk, whose 
daughter and coheiress, Mary, married Thomas 
Bennet of Babraham, Cambridgeshire, created a 
baronet in 1660 ? P. P— m. 

[Levinus Monk was clerk of the signet in 1611. His 
signature is affixed to two documents in the British 
Museum (Add. MSS. 5750. f. 134.; 5756. f. 161.), and is 
there spelt Levinus Munck.] 

Quotation. — Who is the author of the line 

" The glory dies not, and the grief is past," 

quoted in Lockhart's Life of Scott, vol. vi. p. 224. ? 

LB. 

[This fine line is from a sonnet on Sir Walter Scott's 
death, bj' the late Sir Egerton Brydges, as stated in the 
one-volume edition of Lockhart's Life of Scott, edit. 1845.] 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



Waverley Novels. — When and where did Sir 
Walter Scott publicly acknowledge the author- 
ship of the Waverley l!f ovels ? John Scribe. 

[At a theatrical dinner, Febriiar3'- 23, 1827, of which an 
account is given in Lockhart's Life of Svott, edit. 1845, 
pp.652, 653.] 



PRUSSIC ACI0 AS BLOOD, OE BULl's BLOOD AS 
rOISON. 

(Vol. xi., p. 12.) 

The supposition of Niebuhr with respect to 
bull's blood in old Greek writers, is extremely 
far-fetched, and unworthy of his great reputation. 
It is to be regretted that Blakesley, in his elabo- 
rate edition of Herodotus, has taken no notice of 
the passage (lib. iii. cap. 15.) where Psammenitus 
IS said to have been put to death by Carabyses by 
means of this poison ; for a subject which could 
present such difficulty to the acutest historian of 
modern times, ought not to be slurred over by an 
English commentator, whose professed object is 
" to illustrate, through his text, the time in which 
his author lived, and the influences under which 
his work would necessarily be composed." 

If we allow that the Greeks were acquainted 
with prussic acid, we must reject the usual 
modern opinions respecting the conditions of 
chemical science in ancient times, and must sup- 
pose there were men, living two thousand years 
ago, who were acquainted with all the discoveries 
hitherto supposed to have been due to the re- 
searches of the alchemists, who knew In fact as 
much, or more, of chemistry than many an expe- 
rienced practitioner of the last century. We have 
then to account for the strange fact, thav they 
have not chosen to reveal such scientific acquire- 
ments in writing, for not the remotest trace of 
such extensive knowledge is to be found in Greek 
authors. Although bull's blood contains the che- 
mical^ agents necessary for the production of 
prussic acid, the process of Its preparation from , 
animal substance in any form, but especially in i 
that of blood, is long and intricate ; such as re- 
<iuired the advanced science of 1782, and the 
ingenuity of a Scheele, combined with far greater 
patience for scientific investigation than Greeks 
generally seem to have been capable of to dis- 
cover. The process commences with evaporating 
the blood to dryness, and then heating It In a 
close crucible; but in its next stage It requires 
an acquaintance with other chemical agents, such 
as Is not to be found in any extant Greek work. 
Moreover, the blood. In character and appearance, 
differs so entirely from the acid, that It Is highly 
improbable the Greeks, careful as they generally 
were to mark in terms such differences, should 
have used the same name for substances so wholly 



dissimilar : still more improbable that the Romans 
would have imitated them in such carelessness. 
I am surprised that the acute and cautious Niebuhr 
did not use a little research, or consult a scien- 
tific man, before he propounded such improbable 
hypotheses. Had he referred to the Alexiphar- 
maca of Dioscorldes Pedacius, a Greek writer on 
the materia medica of the time as supposed of 
Nero, and whose work, though it probably era- 
bodied all that had been previously known, as it 
was certainly long after held the very best on the 
subject. Is replete with mistakes, he would have 
found a much more probable solution of the 
difficulty than that he has attempted. Chap. xxv. 
of the Alexipharmaca, which is wholly devoted to 
this poison, commences thus In the translation of 
the editor (J. A. Saracenus) of the best edition : 

" Tauri recens jugulati sanguis epotus, spirandi difficul- 
tatem strangulatiimque concitat, dum tonsillarum fauciumque 
meatus cum vehementi convulsione obstruit. Vomitum in. 
hoc male vitabimus ne forte grumi ejusmodi attractu in 
sublime elati gulte magis impingantur." 

He then propounds such remedies as we might 
expect. The simple experiment of stirring a 
little fresh blood with a stick, when a mass of 
fibrine will form around It, will serve to explain 
its modus operandi as poison. Pliny too. In his 
Natural Histo7-y, repeatedly refers to the danger 
of swallowing bull's blood, owing to the celerity 
with which it coagulates : see Hist. Nat., lib. xi- 
90. 1., and lib. xxviii. 41. 1. And it Is worthy of 
notice, that he recommends the very same reme- 
dies as Dioscorldes, viz. alkaline solvents com- 
bined with purgatives ; as " semen brassicas 
tostum," lib. XX. 26. 3. ; " gross! caprlfici," lib. 
xxili. 64. 3. ; " nitrum cum lasere," lib. xxxl. 46. 
13.; " coagulum hsedi et leporls ex aceto," lib. 
xxxviii. 45. 4. 

In brief, then, as ancient authors themselves 
Inform us that the at/xa ravpou veoff((>ayes acts as 
poison by coagulating in the stomach, we need 
not have recourse to the fanciful hypothesis that 
prussic acid was so designated, when we are told 
that Psammenitus, Hannibal, Themistocles, and 
others, died by Its means. F. J. Leachman, B.A. 

20. Compton Terrace, Islington. 



PBOPHECIES RESPECTING CONSTANTINOPLE. 

(Vol. X., pp. 147. 192. 374.) 

Among those moral diagnostics by which the 
philosophic observer is enabled to predicate the 
condition of nations and individuals, the tendency 
to utter gloomy vaticinations respecting them- 
selves Is not the least unfavourable. Indicative, 
In the first Instance, of the presumptive probability 
of the event foretold, and of that want of confi- 
dence In their own powers in Itself so conducive to 
failure, the prediction, once uttered, assumes the 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



terrors of divine judgment and irresistible fate ; 
and spreading from mind to mind with a rapidity 
proportioned to its plausibility, gathers strength 
from its very diffusion, till at length with the ac- 
cumulated impetus of the avalanche, it crushes its 
victim in its resistless course. Thus the pro- 
phecies which relate to this city, and which seem 
to have been adopted by its successive occupiers 
as a baneful charge upon the inheritance, testify, 
from their number and their purport, how uncer- 
tain, whether Greek, Latin, or Turk, they felt 
their tenure to be. That, for instance, may be 
cited of the Emperor Heraclius, related by B,i- 
gord ( Vie de Philippe- Auguste, collection Guizot, 
torn. xi. pp. 29, 30.), that the Roman dominion 
would be destroyed by a circumcised nation, erro- 
neously supposed by him to be the Jews ; and that 
this nation, who turned out to be the Saracens, 
should, as farther predicted by the martyr Me- 
thodius, make another irruption at the time of the 
coming of Antichrist, and overspreading the face 
of the world, punish the perverseness of Christians, 
by the perpetration of unheard-of atrocities for 
the period of eight octaves of years. Then there 
is the cloud of sinister predictions which darkened 
the reign of the last emperor Constantine Dra- 
goses ; the portentous oracle of the Erythraean 
sybil adduced by Leonard of Chios, and cited by 
Hammer ; and the answer given by a soothsayer 
to Michael Palaeologus, who was anxious to know 
if the empire which he had usurped would be 
peacably enjoyed by his descendants : 

" L'oracle lui repondit, Mamaini, mot qui ne sigmfie 
rien par lui-meme, mais qui fut expliqu^ par le devin de 
cette sorte : L'empire sera posse'd^ par autant de vos de- 
scendants qu'il y a des lettres dans ce mot barbare. Puis il 
sera 6t^ de votre post^rit^ de la ville de Constantinople." 
— Diicas, ch. 42. 

Finally the predicted event took place, and the 
Turks seized upon the doomed city, accomplishing 
a prophecy in the manner of their triumphant 
entry : 

" Par suite d'une proph^tie analogue on avait bouch^ la 
porte du Cirque. La veille de la prise de Constantinople 
par Mahomet II. I'empereur Constantin I'avait fait ouvrir 
pour faciliter une sortie, et par une fatale impr^voyance, 
elle n'avait pas ^te' refermee. Ce fut par 1^ que les Turcs 
86 precipitferent dans la ville." — Lalanne, Curiositis de 
Traditions, §-c., Paris, 1847, p. 36. 

The same author records another prediction, 
which possesses a present interest, inasmuch, 
though once supposed to bode evil to the Greeks, 
it is now, as is asserted, applied by the Turks to 
themselves : 

" Suivant Raoul de Dicet, historien anglais, dent la 
chronique ne s'^tend pas au-delk de 1199, la porte d'Or k 
Constantinople, par laquelle entraient les triomphateurs, 
portait cette prophetie: Quand viendra le roi blond 
de rOccident, je m'ouvrirai de moi-meme ! Ce ne fut 
pourtant pas par cette porte que les Latins p^n^trferent 
dans la ville en 1204, car la crainte des propheties qui la 
concemaient I'avait fait murer depuis longtemps. Au- 



jourd'hui les Turcs se sent appliqu^ la tradition, qui, 
jadis, effrayait les Grecs; ils croient fermement que la 
porte d'Or livrera un jour passage aux Chretiens qui 
doivent, comme ils en sont persuades, finir par reconquerir 
laville." — JWd., p.36. 

"We now come to the celebrated prophecy of 
the equestrian statue in the square of Taurus, so 
emphatically recorded by the sceptical Gibbon as 
of unquestionable purport and antiquity. la 
chap. Iv. of the Decline and Fall, we read, — 

" The memory of these Arctic fleets, that seemed to de- 
scend from the polar circle, left a deep impression on the 
imperial city. By the vulgar of every rank it was as- 
serted and believed, that an equestrian statue in the 
square of Taurus was secretly inscribed with a prophecy, 
how the Russians in the last days should become masters 
of Constantinople " 

To this the historian adds a conjecture, the verifi- 
cation of which we trust is still distant : 

" Perhaps the present generation may yet behold the 
accomplishment of the prediction, — of a rare prediction, of 
which the style is unambiguous, and the date unquestion- 
able." — Declint and FaU, Milman's ed. 1846, vol. v. 
p. 312. 

A reference to the Byzantine and monkish au- 
thorities cited by Gibbon in his note to the above, 
may lead, so far as their obscure phraseology can 
be understood, to a different opinion as to the 
purport of this prophecy ; as, however, its value 
and meaning have already been discussed in 
Fraser's Magazine, July, 1854, p. 25., to which 
the reader is referred, farther remarks are here 
unnecessary. It is doubtless the same prophecy 
that Dr. Walsh records in his Journey from Con~ 
stantinnple to England, London, Svo., 1828, p. 50. 

The opinion of a Frenchman a century ago will 
appear in striking contrast with those of his coun- 
trymen at the present day ; whose future co-ope- 
ration in preventing the fulfilment of his prediction 
was a circumstance which he did not foresee in 
his philosophic previsions. In a letter to the 
Empress of Russia, dated 21st Sept. 1770, Vol- 
taire writes, — 

"J'ai dit il y a longtemps, que, si jamais l'empire 
Turc est d^truit, ce sera par la Russie ; men auguste Im- 
p^ratrice accomplira son prediction. . . . Je ne suis 
pas surpris que votre ame, faite pour toutes les grandes 
choses, prenne gout h, une pareille guerre. Je crois vos 
troupes de debarquement revenues en Grfece, et vos flottes 
de la Mer Noire menaijant les environs de Constanti- 
nople ? " 

In a subsequent letter : 

" Pour peu que vous tardiez h vous asseoir sur le trone 
de Stamboul, il n'y aura pas mo}'en que je sois t^moin de 
ce petit triomphe. . . . J'espfere que votre Majesty 
chassera bientot de Stamboul la paste et les Turcs." 

To this the imperial correspondent briefly re- 
marks : 

" Pour ce qui regarde la prise de Constantinople, je ne 
la crois pas si prochaine. Cependant il ne faut, dit-on, 
d^sesperer de rien." 



jAJsr. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



60 



As not altogether irrelevant, the following re- 
marks of the empress may be cited, in reference 
to her invasion and conquest of the Crimea : 

" A propos de fierte, j'ai envie de vous faire sur ce point 
ma confession gen^rale. J'ai eu de grands succes durant 
cette guerre; je m'en suis r^jouie trfes naturellement ; j'ai 
dit: La Rassie sera bien connue par cette guerre; on 
verra que cette nation est infatigable, qu'elle possfede des 
hommes d'une merite eminent, et qui ont toutes les qua- 
lit^s qui forment les heros ; on verra qu'elle ne manque 
point des ressources, et qu'elle pent se defendre et faire la 
guerre avec vigueur lorsqu'elle est injustement attaquee." 
— Letter to Voltaire, 22nd July (2nd August), 1771. 

A somewhat different version of the prophecy 
quoted by Anon from Sansovino's Collection will 
be found in a treatise entitled A Discoursive Pro- 
blems concerning Prophecies, by John Harvey, 
Physician of King's Lynn in Norfolk, London, 
4to. (1588) ; and is cited in a curious fatidical re- 
pertory, Miracttlous Prophecies and Predictions of 
Eminent Men, Sfc, 12mo., London, 1821, p. 26. 

Dr. AValsh, in the Appendix to the work before 
alluded to, gives (p. 436.) two copies of a very 
singular document ; one the original, said to have 
been inscribed on the tomb of Constantine the 
Great, and the other its interpretation, ascribed 
to (jrennadius, the first patriarch of Constantinople 
after its capture by the Turks. It predicts the 
overthrow of the race of the Palaeologi by " the 
kingdom of Ishmael and him who is termed Ma- 
homet ; " and the destruction of Ishmael in turn 
by " the yellow- haired race," with the assistance of 
the western nations, who shall take " the seven- 
hilled city with its imperial privileges." Eton 
alludes to the same prediction, as asserting that 
the Russians, under the title of "the Sons of 
Yellowness," will conquer Constantinople ; and 
Forster, referring to it, cites the following passage 
in the notes to his singular work, Mahommed- 
anism Unveiled, Sfc, London, 2 vols. Svo., 1829 : 

" Wallachius in Vita Mahometis (p. 158.) refert, Turcas 
hodiernos in annalibus suis legere, tamdiu perstiturum 
regnura Muhammedicum, donee xeniant Jigliuoli biondi; 
i. e.Jlavi et albifilii, vel filii ex septentrione, flavis et albis 
capillis, secundum aliorum interpretationem ; utri autem 
Sueci hie intelligendi, ceu volunt nonnuUi, aliia discu- 
tiendum relinquo." — Schultens, Ecdes. Muhamm. Bret. 
Delin., Argent. 1668, p. 22. 

It is, perhaps, the same prediction, though more 
ominous and presently significant in expression, 
which is related by a Georgian author, probably 
of the eighteenth century, also as having been en- 
graven on the tomb of Constantine the Great : 

" Plusieurs nations se r^uniront sur la MerJToire, et sur 
le continent ; les Ismaelites seront vaincus, et la puissance 
de leur nation affaiblie tombera dans I'avilissement. 
Les peuples coalise's de la Russie et des environs subju- 
gueront Ismael, prendront les sept collines, et tout ce qui 
les entoure." — Lebeau, Histoire du Baa-Empire, edition 
Saint-Martin, p. 330. 

The Russians for their part seem fully alive to 
the policy of assuming to themselves the appa- 



rently divine mission of fulfilling these various 
prophecies. We are informed by the Edinburgh 
Review (vol. 1. p. 343.), that in 1769 a pamphlet 
was published at St. Petersburg, entitled The 
Fall of the Turkish Empire, predicted by the 
Arab astrologer, Mousta Eddin, the unlucky au- 
thor of which is said to have been thrown into the 
sea by the Turkish Sultan; and a collection of 
curious predictions concerning the same event 
was ^published at Moscow in 1828; perhaps, as 
the reviewer suggests, as a sort of Piece Justifica- 
tive. 

Those who may wish to pursue the subject, are 
referred to the chapter on the Ottoman Empire ia 
Dr. Miller's Lectures on the Phil, of Mod. History; 
the Mohammedanism Unveiled of the Rev. Charles 
Forster, before alluded to ; and the able essay on 
" Providential and Prophetical Histories " in the 
Edinburgh Review, vol. 1. p. 287. 

There remain yet to be noticed the vaticinal 
deliberations of that class of writers who have be- 
lieved themselves qualified to accept the Apoca- 
lyptic invitation, " Let him that hath understand- 
ing count the number of the beast." Among 
these Dr. Miller has succeeded in making out to 
his own satisfaction that there was a period of 
exactly 666 years between the second Nicene 
Council, by which the worship of images was au- 
thorised, and the taking of Constantinople ; thus, 
he thinks, the identity is established between the 
Greek Church, and the prediction concerning the 
second beast. Others are as firmly convinced, 
and with as good reason, that " the man " referred 
to is the heresiarch Mahomet, the numeral value 
of whose name spelt with Greek characters will 
be found to amount to the mystical sum, three 
hundred three score and six ; thus, — 

M+a+o+/i+e+ T +1+ s = xf « 
40 + 1 + 70 + 40+5 + 300 + 10 + 200 = 666 

which Constantinople, being like Rome, built 
upon seven hills, is aptly typified by the seven- 
headed beast " on which the woman sitteth." See 
the able essay on " Emblematic and Chronological 
Prophecies " in the British Review, vol. xviii. 
p. 396., the learned author of which is so convinced 
of the plausibility of this theory, that he makes it 
the basis of his scheme of Apocalyptic interpret- 
ation. The same view was held by the Roman 
Bishop Walmsley, whose theory, however, has 
been decisively disproved by that able controver- 
sialist, G. S. Faber. 

In conclusion it may be observed that these 
prophecies, however variously worded and vaguely 
recorded, have yet a certain significance and con- 
sistency ; they show that the belief is entertained 
by the Turks themselves that the Ottoman em- 
pire will eventually be destroyed by a northern 
and a Christian nation : this belief is itself an im- 
portant agent in the fulfilment of the prediction ; 
but we trust fervently that the fulness of time is 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



not now at hand for its accomplishment, and that 
Great Britain may not have her share by some 
irretrievable reverse to her arms, perhaps her 
first step in that " Decline and Fall " which his 
*ory tells us is the fate of all nations. 

William Bates. 
Birmingham, 



THE SCHOOLMEN. 

(Vol. X., p. 464. ; Vol. xi., p. 36.) 

My knowledge of the schoolmen is too slender 
to warrant me in offering an opinion unasked ; 
but I come within J. F.'s requisites, being " a 
living man who has read one treatise;" and 
having perused ten volumes and two numbers of 
■*' N. & Q." may claim " the advantage of some 
modern reading." I am sorry that he finds Smi- 
glecius "obscure and unconnected;" but hope 
that, as his view was taken on " looking into," it 
■vvill be changed by reading. I know no book 
more likely to appear "obscure and unconnected" 
than Simpson's Euclid on a cursory perusal, or 
less so than the logic of Smiglecius if gone through 
with the attention usually bestowed on the other. 
The title-page of the only edition which I know 
(I believe it is the last), that of Oxon, 1658, 4to., 
pp. 761., says : 

" In qua quicquid in Aristotelico Organo, vel cognitu 
necessarium, vel obscuritate perplexum, tam clare et 
perspicue, quam solide ac nervose pertractatur." 

This, I presume, was not a compliment paid by 
the author to himself; but from the great assist- 
ance I derived from his book, in reading the 
Organon^ I think it well-deserved. 

Though J. F. objects to the judgments of "co- 
temporaries," I wish to add, in support of my 
opinion, that of Rapin, as quoted approvingly by 
Bayle. (Diet., art. Smiglecius.) 

" Smiglecius, jesuite polonais, fut un des derniers dia- 
leeticiens qui ecrivit sur la logique d'Aristotc le plus 
subtilement et le plus solidement tout ensemble. II a 
penetre, par la sagacite de son esprit, ce qu'il y avait h 
approfondir en cette science, avec une clarte et une justesse 
qii'on ne trouve presque point ailleurs." — -Rapin's li&fiexions 
sur la Logique, p. 383. 

Bayle observes, that the English have done 
justice to this work by reprinting it, and that 
some were disposed to do more than justice, may 
be inferred from a story in Terra Filius, No. 21., 
■of — 

■" A member of a college, where Aristotle had no reason 
to complain of being treated with disrespect, having been 
heard to say, ' That the best book that ever was written, 
except the ]3ible, was Smiglecius.' " 

I know less of Zabarella, but in reading his 
commentary on the Posterior Analytics, I did not 
perceive " the diffuseness of style." That subject, 
at least, is not "frivolous ;" and I do not think 



any of those enumerated in the table of contents, 
prefixed to his logical works, are so. I refer to 
the 17th edition, Venetiis, 1617, 4to., pp. 700. 
Bayle calls him " un des plus grands philosophes 
du 16*^ siecle," and says : 

" II enseigna la logique pendant quinze annees, et puis 
la philosophic jusqu'a sa mort. II publia des commen- 
taires sur Aristote ; qui iirent connaitre que son esprit 
etait capable de debrouiller les grandes difficultes, et de 
comprendre les questions les plus obscures."' 

If J. F. has time and patience to go thoroughly 
into the object of his inquiry, I believe the best 
book is the Disputationes MetaphysiccB of Suarez 
(torn. ii. fol., Geneva, 1614). I say this, not on 
my own experience, having referred to it oc- 
casionally only, but on that of Schopenhauer 
(1 Parerga unci Paralipomena, p. 51.), who calls it : 

" Diesem achten Kompendio der ganzen scholastischen 
Weisheit, woselbst man ihre Bekanntschaft zu suchen 
hat, nicht aber in dem breiten Getrasche geistloser 
deutsclier Philosophie Professoren, dieser Quintessenz 
aller Schaallieit und Langweiligkeit." 

Schopenhauer is perhaps the highest authority on 
these questions ; and I am confident that he would 
not express an opinion on a book without reading 
it, or bestow praise where it was not fully de- 
served. H. B. C. 
U. U. Club. 



GEEEN EYES. 



(Vol. ix. passim.) 

The following addition to your notes on this 
subject, I copy from the Silva I'heologicB Symbolicce 
of Joh. Henricus Ursinus, Isrorimberga3, 1 665 : 
" cxcxx. 
" Smaragdini oculi. 

" ' Rex sedens in solio judicii dissipat, omne malum 
intuitu.' — Proverb, xx. 8. 

" Apud Cj'prios juxta Cetarias marmoreo Leoni in 
tumulo Reguli Hermiie oculi erant inditi ex Smaragdis, 
ita radiantibus etiam in gurgitem, ut territi instrumenta 
refugerent thynni, diu mirantibus novitatem piscatoribus, 
donee mutavere oculis gemmas " {Plinius, lib. xxxvii. 
cap. 17.) "Ita bonus justusque princeps fugat oculorum 
quasi fulgore improboi'um colluviem. Odere i'li istum 
non minus quam ulula; solem. Innocentia sola non fugit, 
amat etiam et colit ; quid eniin oculis Smaragdinis lastius ? 
visuve jucundius ? 

" ' 'A(^oj3ta /ieyiVrr) to <^oj36t(76at rows vd(U.ovj.' 

Synesius' Epist. ii. 
Leges qui metuit, nil habet metuere." 

Mr. Douce, in his Illustrations of Shahspeare 
(1807, vol. ii. p. 192.), refers to several old writers, 
by whom the epithet " green " has been applied to 
eyes, particularly the early French poets. Chaucer 
has given to one of the characters in The Knightes 
Tale, eyes of the same colour : 

" His nose was high, his eyin bright citryn." 



Pan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



In The Two Noble Kinsmen (Act V. Sc. 1.) we 
also find : 

" Oh vouchsafe, 
With that thy rare green eye," &c. 

Steevens notes these two instances on the passage 
in Romeo and Juliet already quoted by Mr. Temple, 
adding — "Arthur Hall (the most ignoi-ant and 
absurd of all the translators of Homer), in the 
fourth Iliad (4to., 1581), calls Minerva 

" ' The green eide goddese.' " 
I remember receiving, when at school, as an " im- 
position," for persistently translating y\avKib-nii; 
" green," or rather " sea-green eyed," as many 
hundred lines of the yEneid as there were letters 
in the offending epithet. A couplet, which pro- 
bably prompted the offence, still clings to my 
memory in connexion with this incident of my 
" salad " days ; it comes, perhaps, from an imita- 
tion of some old French or Spanish ballad, and 
refers of course to the eyes of some fair damsel : 

" Now they were green as a morning sea, 
And now they were black as black can be." 

Late years have added strength to the viridity of 
this opinion, and, to use the words of Ursinus, 
"quid oculis Smaragdinis l^tius ? visuve jucun- 
dius ? " Indeed, I can only think of the goddess, 
" too wise to look through optics black or blue," 
as possessed of eyes tinged with the emerald. 
Will any correspondent say why we should not so 
interpret Homer's epithet ? A. Challsteth. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Dr. ManseWs Process (Vol. xi., pp. 33, 84.). — It is 
with very considerable pleasure that I notice the commu- 
nication from Du. M.vnsell, detailing an improved me- 
thod of developing the preserved coUodioniscd plates. It 
is evidently so perfect and so simple of application, that 
there can be but one opinion about the matter. I need 
scarcely add that I shall certainly adopt it, and beg to 
offer my best thanks for so happy a suggestion. With a 
manipulator so sagacious as Dk. Majjsell, there is no 
photographic process that is good iu principle that could 
ultimately fail in his hands. Geo. Shadbolt. 

3Ir. Thompson's Copies of the Raphael Drawings. — By 
what process did Mr. Thurston Thompson procure his 
negatives of the Raphael Drawings, so justly praised by 
you in your notice of the Photographic Exliibition ? Will 
that gentleman be kind enough to say whether it was by 
simple superposition? or were they taken hy the camera'? 

K. D. 

Talbot V. Laroche. — We are glad to hear that the 
qucestio vexata which has so long agitated the photogra- 
phic world, is at length at rest. We understand that on 
the one hand no attempt is to be made to set aside the 
verdict, nor on the other to raise the points of law which 
■were mooted at the trial; and finally that Mr. Talbot, 
notwithstanding he has been a great loser by the ex- 
penses incurred in the experiments, &c., undertaken by 
him before taking out his patent, does not intend to per- 
severe in his application for its renewal. 



" HiUotype. — We have received the following from 
Mr. Hill, in relation to the natural colours. We are 
unable to give any farther information upon this subject 
than that which the notice contains. We may sav, how- 
ever, that one cause of Mr. Hill's delay is owing" to the 
lingering illness of his wife, who is at the present moment 
lying very low with consumption. He says, ' Her case 
has required and received most of my attention for a 
year past, or, without any doubt, I would have been out 
with the colours.' 

" ' The Natural Colours. — Daguerreotypists, and others, 
who wish to be informed as to my present plan for im- 
parting a knowledge of my Heliochromic Process, will 
please furnish me, postage paid (no other will be received), 
Avith their Names, Post Office, County, and State. Those 
who do so will be addressed with full particulars. My 
delay for the past year, and other matters, will be satis- 
factorily explained. Address, 

L. L. Hill, 

Westkill, 

Greene Co., N". Y. 

" ' Westkill, Dec. 11, 1854.' " 

From Humphrey's Journal of the Daguerreotype, Sfc. 



3RejjIicS ta ^tnar €i\itviei. 

Sir Becil Grenville (Vol x., p. 417. ). — T. E. D. 
sent a letter of Sir Bevil Grenville's for insertion. 
Will you be so good as to give place to these lines 
of inquiry, to ask whether T. E. D. is aware of 
any other letters of Sir Bevil Grenville hitherto 
unpublished ? or of any MS. annals of that illus- 
trious family, as an antiquary is desirous to trace 
the early history and connexion between the 
Grenville branch at Stowe in Cornwall, and 
George Lord Lansdowne the poet. Did the 
latter ever live at Stowe? and when did the 
Cornwall property pass into other hands ? Again, 
in what degree of consanguinity did Sir Richard 
Grenville, Lord of Neath Abbey in Glamorgan, 
South Wales, stand to the renowned Sir Bevil 
and Lord Lansdowne ? and what caused the 
breaking up of the Grenville branch in South 
Wales ? G. G. 

Anecdote of Canning (Vol. xi,, p. 12.). — If 
E. P. S. will turn to the second series of A Resi- 
dence at the Court of London, by Richard Rush, 
the American ambassador, he will, I believe, find 
the anecdote he is in search of. I cite this from 
memory. The game is not of twenty-one, but that 
of "Twenty questions;" and on this occasion, if I 
remember rightly, eighteen or nineteen had been 
asked when Canning guessed " The Wand of the 
Lord High Steward." The success of the ques- 
tion depends upon his power of logical division, 
and with this aid it rarely requires even twenty 
questions to arrive at the object thought of. 

D. W. 

Biblical Question (Vol. x., p. 495.). — You no- 
tice a Bible (Cambridge, 1663), sold for fifteen 
guineas at Sotheby and Wilkinson's, having 



^2 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



(1 Tim. iv. 16.) "Thy" instead of "The" doc- 
trine. Will you or any of your readers inform 
me of the cause of value of this volume ? Is it 
from its being supposed to be an intentional mis- 
print, or the rarity of the edition ? I possess one 
of the date of 1660 (John Field, London), having 
the same reading of the above passage. H. W. D. 

The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xi., p. 11.). — The 
first modern bishop who abandoned the episcopal 
wig, was the Honourable Edward Legge, Bishop 
of Oxford, 1815 ; and he, it was said, had a special 
permission from the Prince Regent to do so. 

E. F. 

James ll.'s Writings (Vol. x., p. 485.). — G. N. 
inquires whether certain devotional writings by 
King James II. were ever published, and, if so, 
under what title, &c. ? I have an 

" Abridgment of the Life of James II., extracted from 
an English manuscript of the Eev. Father Francis San- 
ders, of the Society of Jesus, and Confessor to his late 
Majesty, &c. 

"Also, a Collection of the said King's own Thoughts 
upon several subjects of Piety, by Father Francis Britton- 
neau, one of the same Society. Done out of French from 
the Paris Edition. 1703. London, printed for R. Wilson, 
Bookseller at Maidstone in Kent, and sold by the Book- 
sellers of London and Westminster. 1704. Price 2s." 
12mo. pp. 192. 

from p. 109. to the end are — 

" The Sentiments of James II. upon divers subjects of 
Piety," which collection, such as it is, says the French 
translator's advertisement, " is no more than a plain and 
faithful Translation of what he had set down with his 
own hand in English." 

" The approbation " of this work is dated Paris, 
the 13th of December, 1702. E. P. Shirley. 

Houndshill. 

Canons of York (Vol. xi., p. 11.). — The va- 
cancy of a canon residentiary of York is obliged 
to be given, not to the first man, but to the pre- 
bendary of York, who applies for it. My au- 
thority is a prebendary of that cathedral. E. F. 

Rose of Sharon ■=■ Jericho (Vol. x., p. 508.). — I 
think Mr. Middleton must allude to the " Rose 
of Jericho," Anastatica hierochuntica, a cruciferous 
plant, the Kaf Maryam, " Mary's Hand," of the 
Arabs, which, growing in the wastes of Arabia and 
Palestine, has the property of recovering its fresh- 
ness when placed in water, after having been ga- 
thered and dried. Most botanical works will give 
farther information on this point. Seleucds. 

Eminent Men bom in the same Year (Vol. xi., 
p. 27.). — Looking at the circumstances that your 
correspondent has taken both England and France, 
and has included Chateaubriand and Castlereagh, 
it is not too much to suppose that twenty men 
might have been named, Englishmen or French- 



men, of whom seven being born in the same year 
would be quoted as a coincidence. Again, co- 
temporaries of the highest note are usually between 
fifty and sixty years of age at the same time. 
The search for a coincidence, then, may be fairly 
conducted by picking out twenty men of fame 
who are born in the same decade. Supposing each 
year of that decade to be as likely as any other to 
be the year of birth, it is not more than seventeen 
to three against some one year giving seven or 
more of them. It is about an even chance that 
the coincidence would be found once, at least, in 
four trials. 

It appears then that of twenty cotemporaries 
who are within ten years of each other, it is not 
six to one against seven or more being of one 
year. And it is never difficult to find, in two 
great countries, twenty such cotemporaries who 
are all of high fame. It is true that a cluster 
containing men so remarkable as Napoleon and 
Wellington cannot often be found. 1. 4. 13. 

Murray of Broughton (Vol. x., p. 144.). — In 
answer to Y. S. M., I beg to inform him that 
there is no proof that Mungo Murray of Brough- 
ton (or Brochtoun), who had a charter in 1508 
of lands in Galloway, was second son of Cuthbert 
Murray of Cockpool, as stated by the inaccurate 
peerage writer Douglas. It is very likely, how- 
ever, that he was a cadet of that family. " Johne 
of Murray, of Kirkcassalt, sone and ayr of Un- 
quhile Stevin of Murray of Brochtoun," is pur- 
suer of an action before the Lords Auditors, 
March 23, 1481; and is styled "of Brochtoun" 
in a subsequent notice respecting the lands of 
Kirkcassalt in 1490. Between these dates, how- 
ever, appears the name of " Moungo Murray of 
Brochton ;" and I have met with notices of 
" Herbert Murray, son to Unquhile Mungo Mur- 
ray of Brochtoun," as flourishing in 1563 and 
1564. A descendant, probably George Murray 
of Brochtoun, had a charter in 1602 of the lands 
of Mekill Brochtoun and Little Brochtoun ; in 
which, after the heirs male of his body, John 
Murray (afterwards Earl of Annandale), son of 
Charles Murray of Cockpool and the heirs male of 
his body, whom failing, William Murray and Mal- 
colm Murray, brothers-german of George, and 
their heirs male respectively, are called to the 
succession. It is probable that George was father 
of John Murray of Brochtoun, who married a 
coheiress of Cockpool, as mentioned by Y. S. M. 

R. R. 

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (Vol. x., 
p. 301.). — In the notice of James Sandilands 
several mistakes occur, which only require to be 
noticed. Sir James Sandilands is said to have 
resigned the property of the Order into the hands 
of the Queen of England., instead of the Queen of 
Scotland. Torphichen is printed Torphicen ; and 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



73 



Polraaise, Polonaise. Sir James sat in the Scot- 
tish Parliament at the head of the Barons as Lord 
St. John, in virtue of his office of Preceptor of 
Torphichen ; and after the erection of the posses- 
sions of the Order into the temporal lordship of 
Torphichen, was designated " Lord St. John," 
" Lord Torphichen," and " Lord St. John of Je- 
rusalem," indiscriminately. He was dead in 1587, 
being in that year called "deceased;" and from 
his grandnephew and heir descends the present 
Lord Torphichen. K. R. 

Charles I. andhis Relics (Vol. vi., pp. 173. 578.; 
Vol. vii., p. 184. ; Vol. x., pp. 245. 416. 469.). — 
Your correspondent Mr. Hughes suggests that a 
list of authentic relics of the royal martyr would 
be an acceptable oifering to " N. & Q." Allow 
me to contribute my mite towards such an under- 
taking, by the following extract from Hillier's 
Narrative of the attempted Escapes of Charles I., 
London, 1852: 

" An ancestor of the name of Howe, of Mr. Thomas 
Cooke, now resident at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, 
was at this time [Jan., 1648] Master Gunner at the 
Castle of Carisbrook ; and as a mark of the king's sense 
of the attention' paid to him by that officer, he on one 
occasion presented him with the staff he was using. The 
ivory head of this relic is still in the possession of Mr. 
Cooke ; it is inlaid with silver, and unscrews, the top 
forming a scent-box. Mr. Howe had also a son, a little 
boy who was a great favourite of Charles : one day, seeing 
him with a child's sword by his side, the king asked him 
what he intended doing with it ? 'To defend your majesty 
from your majesty's enemies,' was the reply ; an answer 
which so pleased the king, that he gave the child the 
signet ring he was in the habit of wearing upon his finger. 
The ring has descended to a Mr. Wallace (of Southsea), 
a kinsman of Mr. Cooke. 

" It is also recorded that Mr. Worseley of Gatcombe, 
received his Majesty's watch (still preserved in the family) 
as a gift, the morning he was leaving the island," &c. 

Engravings of the cane-head and ring are given 
at p. 79. of the work. 

Perhaps the following extract from the Diary of 
Capt. Richard Symonds may serve to discover the 
whereabouts of the king's chess-board. 

" (May 1644). Round about the king's chess-board this 
verse : 

' Subditus et Princeps istis sine sanguine certent.' " 

Z.z. 
* Epigram in a Bible (Vol. xi., p. 27.). — Perhaps 
some of your readers, while looking up the author 
of this epigram, may happen to find out the author 
of the following translation : 

" One day at least in every week. 
The sects of every kind, 
Their doctrines here are sure to seek. 
And just as sure to find." 

It is rather an illustration of our monosyllabic 
language, that though the translation has' more 
niatter than the original, yet, counting every as a 
dissyllable, it has one syllable less. M. 



Authority of Aristotle (Vol. x., p. 508.). — In 
his Hist. Aiiim., iii. 5., Aristotle says : 

" To 5e vevpa tois ^loois exet tovtov 70;* rpoirov. ri fi.ev op^rj (tat 
TOVTOtv iiTTiv eK rrji xapStas." 

Thus translated by Theod. Gaza : 

" Nervorum mox ordinem persequemur. Origo eorum 
quoque in corde est." 

See also De Spiritu, cc. vi. ix. There can be 
no doubt, therefore, as to the opinion of Aristotle, 
that the nerves have their origin in the heart. 
Dr. Southwood Smith (Phil, of Health, i, 76.) 
appears to corroborate the Aristotelian view : 

" The organic nerves, distributed to the organic organs, 
take their origin and have their chief seat in the cavities 
that contain the main instruments of the organic life, 
namely, the chest and abdomen. These nerves encom- 
pass the great trunks of the blood-vessels that convey 
arterial blood to the organic organs." 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

" Kostliche Beispiele von der unglaublichen Verstockt- 
heit der scholastiker f iihrt Galilai in seinem Dialogus de 
Systemate Mundi (Colloq. 2 August. Treboc. 1635) an. 
Ein beriihmter Arzt zu Venedig demonstrirte ad oculos in 
einer anatomischen Vorlesung, dass der grosste Nerven- 
stamm von Him ausgehe und nur ein sehr dunner Faden 
gleich einem Funiculus zum Herzen dringe, und wandte 
sich dann mit der Frage an einen anwesenden Peripate- 
tiker, ob er sich nicht iiberzeugt habe, dass der Ursprung 
der Nerven das Gehirn und nicht das Herz sei ? Aber 
der Peripatetiker gah zur Antwort, nachdem er sich eine 
Zeit lang besonnen hatte : ' Equidem ita aperte rem ocu- 
lis subjecisti, ut nisi textus Aristotelius aperte nervos ex 
corde deducens obstaret, in sententiam suam pertractures 
me fueris.' " — P. 258. (Feuerbach, Pierre Bayle, Leipzig, 
1848.) 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Farranfs Anthem (Vol. ix., p. 9.). — Farrant, 
in his anthem, appears to have compiled it from 
several sources, probably the following : 

"Lord, for Thy tender mercies' sake [St. Luke i. 78., 
St. James v. 11.], forgive us that which is past ; [forgive 
us all that is past, — Con/., Holy Communion.'] and give us 
grace to amend our sinful lives; [That it may please 
Thee to endue us with the grace of Thy Holy Spirit, to 
amend our lives, — Litany.] that we may incline to virtue 
[Lord, incline our hearts to keep this law, — Comm., Holy 
Communion.'] and decline from vice. [Concede, ut ad nul- 
lum declinemus peccatum, — Breviar. Sarish., f. 13.]" 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

Well Chapel (Vol. x., p. 525.). — Dunheoed 
writes, " The spring of water flows from under 
the altar, which is marked with four crosses." 
After a tolerably extensive search I must admit I 
have never found an altar or tombstone so marked, 
the very usual number of crosses on Roman 
Catholic altars erected during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries is " five," intended as sym- 
bols of the five wounds of Christ ; some few are 
marked with " seven," these are figurative of the 
seven sorrows of the Virgin ; and to these may be 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



added the number of " eight," a rare occurrence, 
and perhaps used only on tombstones, where they 
ai'e commemorative of the eight Beatitudes. Your 
correspondent will confer a great kindness by ex- 
plaining the meaning intended to be conveyed by 
" four crosses." In modern Roman Catholic altars, 
no longer or rarely built of stone, a small square 
piece of marble is let into the wood on which a 
single cross is inserted. Henry Davbney. 

'■'■ Condendaque Lexica" <^c. (Vol. ix., p. 421.; 
Vol. X., p. 116.). — These lines, for which Mr. 
Gantillon inquires, and which are quoted in 
the preface to Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, will 
be found, as might be expected, in the Poemata 
of our great English lexicographer Dr. Johnson. 
They occur as follows in the first verse of the 
well-known poem, 

" rNnei seayton. 
(Post Lexicon Anglicanum auctum et emendatum.) 
" Lexicon ad finem longo luctamine tandem 
Scaliger ut duxit, tenuis pertsesus opellas, 
Vile indignatus studiuni, nugasque molestas, 
Ingemit exosus, scribendaque iexica mandat 
Dainnatis, poenam pro poenis omnibus unam," &c. 

This has been very pleasingly rendered in En- 
glish verse by his biographer Mr. Murphy (" Es- 
say on the Life and Genius of Samuel Johnson, 
LL.D.," prefixed to many editions of the Dic- 
tionary and Works'), which 1 shall here transcribe : 

" KNOW YOURSELF. 

(After revising and enlarging the English Lexicon or 
Dictionary.) 

" When Scaliger, whole years of labour past, 
Beheld his Lexicon complete at last, 
And, weary of his task, with wond'ring eyes, 
Saw from words piled on words a fabric rise, 
He cursed the industry, inertly strong. 
In creeping toil that could persist so long ; 
■'And if,' enraged he cried, 'Heaven meant to shed 
Its keenest vengeance on the guilty head, 
The drudgery of words the damn'd would know, 
Doom'd to write Lexicons in endless woe,' " &c. 

It appears from the above that B. H. C. was 
quite correct in attributing the original lines to 
Jos. Scaliger. The epigram which he noted will 
be found in the Gentleman! s Magazine for 1748, 
p. 8., and which, as Mr. Murphy remarks, was 
" communicated without doubt by Dr. Johnson " 
to his friend " unwearied Urban." J. li. G. 

Dublin. 

Rhymes connected with Places (Vol. v., p. 293.). 
— The following are in the moorlands of Stafibrd- 
shire, not far from Alton ; Grin is Grindon : 

" Calton, Caldon, Waterfall, and Grin, 
Are the four fou'est places I ever was in." 

Ita tester. Gulielmus Fraser, J. C. B. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 



Poetical Tavern Signs (Vol. x., pp. 33. 329.).— 
At Sti-eet-Bridge, Chadderton, near Manchester, 
referring to a coalpit chimney hard by : 

" Altho' the engine smoke be black. 
If you'll walk in I've ale like sack." 

John Scribe. 

In riding through Dorsetshire two or three 
years ago, my attention was caught in passing by 
a very old sign-board, representing a stag with a 
ring round its neck, and the following lines below : 

" When Julius Caesar reigned here, 
I was then but a little deer ; 
When Julius Ca;sar reigned king, ' 
Upon my neck he placed this ring. 
That whoso me might overtake, 
Sliould spare my life for Caesar's saltar" 

The stag was almost effaced, and the lines were 
much obliterated by the action of rain and sun. 
The inn is called " King's Stag." It is on your 
right, a little off the road from l^ydlinch to Ilasel- 
bury Bryan. Before you come to it, you pass 
an inn called " Green Man," with a very old 
sign-board, representing a gentleman entirely 
clad in green. Philologus. 

Bolinghrohes Advice to Swift (Vol. x., p. 346. ; 
Vol. xi., p. 54.). — Mr. Breen does not seem to 
be aware of the fact that, in French, instructions 
(lirdonnances) are commonly put in the infinitive, 
rarely in the imperative. Such being the fact, 
there is no need to adopt the suggested change of 
r into z, at the end of the verbs nourrisser,fatiguer, 
and laisser. 

Mr. Breen charitably suggests that by soupir 

I probably intended soupirer. Certainly : the 

error was occasioned by the proximity ois'asxoupir 

in my note. I think soupirer far preferable to 

■ sonner, and I have now little doubt that the former 

! was Bolingbroke's word. Allow me to thank 

I Mr. Breen for his reply. Though I have been 

obliged to dissent from some of his remarks on 

I Sterne's French, I am fully sensible of the sound- 

i ness of most of his criticisms on French composi- 

i tion, and think he has done good service for 

" N. & Q." C. Mansfield Ingleby. 

Birmingham. 

I Tenure per Baroniam (Vol. ii., p. 302. ; Vol. x., 
I p. 474.). — Bard and Rev. AVilliam Fraser ar^ 
I referred to a treatise, entitled Tenure and 
Peerage by Barony, published by Messrs. Stevens 
& Norton in August, 1853, where they will find 
the subject in question discussed. Copies of the 
pamphlet are left for them with the writer's com- 
pliments at the publisher's, Mr. Bell's, 186. Fleet 
Street. Anon. 

Earthenware Vessels found at Fountains Abbey 
(Vol. X., p. 386.). — It was a frequent practice to 
use bellarmines, or grey-beards (the glazed jugs 



Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



so called from a bearded mark on tbe neck), in 
the construction of old walls. There are constant 
examples of this in England. The object was 
probably to combine strength with lightness, on 
the principle of our modern hollow bricks. In 
the upper portion of the wall of Caracalla's Circus, 
near Rome, are many large globular amphora? 
embedded in the masonry in rows. 

W. J. Bebnhard Smith. 
Temple. 

Jtibilee of 1809 (Vol. xi., p. 13.). — An Account 
of the Celebration of the Jubilee of 1 809, in various 
Parts of the Kingdom, was published in a quarto 
volume at Birmingham shortly after. A copy is 
or was on sale at Russell Smith's, Soho Square. 
An ex-Lady Boswell Scuoi^\e. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The decision of the great literary prizes, Tlie Burnett 
Bequest, for the two best treatises'" On the Being and 
Attributes of God," took place at Aberdeen on Saturday 
last. The successful competitors were, for the first prize, 
of 1800/., the Rev. Robert Anchor Thompson, A.M., of 
Louth, Lincolnshire; and for the second, of 600/., tlie 
Eev. John TuUoch, Principal of St. Mary's College, St. 
Andrew's. There were no less than 208 competitors, and 
the judges, Professor Baden Powell, Mr. Henry Rogers, 
and Mr. Isaac Taylor, were unanimous in their decision. 
Thej' reported very favourably of several others of the 
very numerous essays submitted to their judgment. 

The Rev. Canon Stanley, whose article on the " IMurder 
of Becket " in the Quarterly Review for Sef)tember, 1853, 
was read with so much interest by historical students, 
has reprinted it in a volume entitled Historical Memorials 
of Canterbury, lie has thrown in as make-weights three 
other papers, namely, the Landing of Augustine; E<1- 
ward the Black Prince ; and Becket's Shrine, being the 
substance of four lectures delivered by him. These, how- 
ever, are inferior in value, because obviously less care- 
fully prepared than his contribution to the Quarterly Re- 
view. But tliej' have been illustrated with many curious 
and valuable notes by Mr. Albert Way, one of which, on 
a subject formerly discussed in our columns, namely, 
" The Pilgrim's Road," will be read with interest by all 
who took part in that discussion. 

If Lord John Russell's definition o'' a Proverb- — "The 
wisdom of manj' and the wit of one'' .— be correct; and 
if Lord Bacon be justified in declaring, that " the genius, 
wit, and spirit of a nation are discovered by their 
proverbs;" what a book of wit and wisdom, what an 
illustration of national character of the English, must 
that be which Mr. Bohn has recently issued under the 
title of A Handbook of Proverbs, §-c. .' And, certainly, 
a very curious collection it is. It certainly does not 
contain, as it professes to do, " an entire republication 
pf Ray's Collection of English Proverbs:" for no publisher 
could reprint Ray's work entire, and Mr. Bohn has ad- 
mitted quite as much of it as he decently could ; yet the 
collection is a valuable find useful one, and made still 
more so by its extensive Index. 

If it be a well-founded observation, that the life of any 
man written with truth must be of interest, how much 
interest must there also be in a like trutlif'ul history of 
any city, — a history which shall tell, not only of its 



bricks and mortar, or even of the scenes enacted in it, 
but also of those who congregated within its walls, 
and made its name famous among the people of the 
earth. Pennant did much of this for London, Saintfoix 
for Paris ; and we cannot bestow higher praise upon Ttie 
History of the City of Dublin by J. T. Gilbert, of which 
the first volume is now before us, than by saying that the 
Honorary Secretary of the Irish Archa3ological and Celtic 
Society has produced a work which may well be placed 
beside those models of amusing and instructive topo- 
graphy. The volume is replete Avith most curious matter, 
suggestive of manj' interesting inquiries, and deserves 
such patronage as will insure its early completion. It is 
altogether most creditable to the author. 

Books Received. — Gibbon's Roman Empire, with Notes 
by Milman and Gnizot, edited by Dr. Smith, Vol, VI., 
which carries the work down to the fifty-second chapter. 

Voyages and Discoveries in the Arctic Regions, by F. 
Mayne. This, the 73rd number of Longman's Traveller's 
Library, contains a clear " bird's-eye view " of a subject 
to which recent events have lent a painful interest. 

An Introductory Sketch of Sacred History, being a Con- 
cise Digest of Notes and Extracts from tlie Bible, and from 
the Works of approved Authors. Written by the author for 
the use of his own family, this compilation will be found 
useful in other families. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUME.S 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Shakspeabe. By Johnson and Steyens. 15 Vols. 8to. 1793. The 
Fifth Volume. 

Memoih ok .John Bbthcne, tjie Scotch Poet. By his brother, Alex- 
ander Betliune. 

Intuoductobv Kssai on English ITistoby, prefixed to "Lives of the 
Statesmen of the Commonwealth," by John I'orster, Esq. Longman 
& Co. 

Cawood's Sermons. 2 Vols. Svo. 

Theopuilacteri Opera Omnia. 

•»• Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriaije. free, to be 
sent to Ma. Bei.i., Publisher of "NOXtS AND QLEKIES," 
186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the centlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

Dibdin's TYrocRAPHicAL Antiquities. 4to. Vol. n, 
Gbkene Anne : News from the Dead. 4tn. 1651. 
LipscdMu's Buckinuhamshire. 4to. Kight Parts complete . 
Scottish Pasquii-s. Svo. Three Parts. 

Wanted by C. S., 12. Gloucester Green, Oxford. 



Th« PotiTicAi, Contest. Letters Ijetween Junius and Sir W. Draper. 

London, Newberry. No date. 
A Collection of the Letters op Atticus, Lucius, Jcnius, &c. Almon, 

1769. 
Letters of Jonios. 1 Vol. 12mo. 1770. No Publisher's name. 
Ditto Ditto 1770. Published by W'heble. 

DiTSO Ditto 1771. Ditto. 

Junius Discotebed. By P. T. 1789. 

Reasons fob bejecting the Evidence of Mb. Almon. 1807. 
Anothbh Guess at Junius. 1309. 
Enquibt concerning the Author of the Letters of Junius. By 

Roche. 1813. 
Attempt to ascertain thh Author of Junius. By Blakeway. 1813. 
Sequel of Attempt. 1815. 

A Great Personage proved to have been Junius. No date. 
A DiscoVERv OF the Author of the Letters of Junius. Taylor and 

Hessey. 1813. 
Junius Unmasked. 1819. 

The Claims op Sir P. Francis refuted. 1822. 
Who was Junius ? 1837. 
Pope's DuNciAD. Jnd Edition. 17J8. 
Ditto 3rd Edition. 1728. 

Key to the Dunciad. 1728. 

Ditto 2nd Edition. 1728. 

The Ijonhon Museum of Politics, Miscellanies, and Literature. 
4 Vols. 8vo. 1769, 1770. 
Wanted by William J. Thorns. Esq. , 25. Holywell Street, Millbank, 
Westminster. 

History op the Monastery at Tynemooth. By Wm. S. Gibson, Esq. 

Vol. IL 
■Wanted by Mr. Robert S. 5a?mon, The White Cross, ITewcastle-on-Tync. 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274.. 



BI.TI8A ; a Tragedy. 1763. 

Wantod by Frederick Dinsdale, Esq., Leamington. 

BoBNs's Poems. Printed for the Author, 1787, and sold by "Wra. Creech. 
Gray's Klbov. 1751. Printed by Dodsley. For these a liberal price 

will be given. 
TheRamblkr. (Johnson's). Sharpe Edition. 1803. Vol. I., or the 4 Vols. 
Johnson's Works. Vol. II. ^^ 

Tbor.ndiks's Works. All the Vols, after Vol. IV. 

Wanted by Thomas Hayes, Bookseller, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 



A few MS. Letters of Hornb Tooke. Written between 1760 and 1780. 

GuiXIVERlANA BT A1.EXANDRIA. 

Catalogue op the Library of Jno. Wilkes. Priced. (" Liberty 

Wilkes.") 
Book of Sports. A Tract, time of Charles I. 
JcNiDs Discovered. By Philip Thickness. Tract. 1789. 
Collection of all the remarkable and personal passages in The 

Briton, North Briton, and Auditor. 1766. 
The Vices. A small Poem published by Phillips. 12mo. 1828. 
Akecdotes op Junius ; to which is prefixed the King's Reply. 1771. 
Petition of an Englishman. By Tooke. 177-. 
An Attempt to ascertain the Author op Junius. By Rev. J. B. 

Blakeway. 1813. 
Another Tract, same subject, by Blakeway. 

Wanted by Thomas Jepps, 2. Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster Row. 

Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry. Published by Cavendish Society. 
Wanted by Mr. F. M. Rimmingion, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



Sacred Thoughts in Verse, by William Sewell, M. A. Published by 
Jas. Bohn, 12. King William Street, West Strand. 18a''). 

Wanted by W. H., Post Office, Dunbar. 



Siaiitti tti C0rrej{poiiOeiits. 

Balliolensis. The letter Icindly foi-warded lias already been printed 
m two or three places. Park's letter would be very acceptable. 

Indoctus. The saying referred to is one of several proverbs in the 
same spvnt; its author certainly cannot be ascertained. 

Jarltzbero. We have not been able to ascertain who was the author of 
the pamphlet referred to. 

Errata. — Vol. x., p. 417. 1. 9. col. I., for " 1842 " read" 1612 ; " p. 52t. 
col. 1. 1. 11., for " Memoirs of a Paint Brush," read " Memories of a 
Pamt Brush ; Vol. xi., p. 23. col. 1. 1. 19., for " suffered," read " sup- 
posed ; p. 39. 1. 8., for " longer," read " larger ; " p. 44. col. 1. 1. 24.,/or 

ruggedness, read " raggedness," and 1. 48., /or " Imen," read " lice."'' 

A few complete sets of Notes and Queries. Vols. I. to X., arc being 
made up, and wUl be ready next ivcek, price Five Guineas. For these 
early application is desirable. They may be had by order of ami Book- 
seller or Newsman. 

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"Notes AND Queries" is also issued in Monthly Parts,/j>- the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receiving the 
weekly Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
Publuher.^ The subscription for the stamped edition q/" "Notes and 
Queries" (.inclmiing a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, Mr. George Bell, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



Boax's Standard Library for February. 

/SONDE'S HISTORY OF THE 

\ J DOMINION OF THE ARABS IN 
SPAIN. Translated from the Spanish, by 
MRS. FOSTER. In Three Volumes. Vol.11. 
Post 8T0. cloih. 3s. 6rf. 

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, 
Covent Garden. 



Bohn's British Classics for February. 

BURKE'S WORKS, Volume II., 
containing his Reflections on the French 
Revolution; i.etters relating to the Bristol 
Election ; Speech on Fox's East India Bill, 
&c. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6rf. 

HENRY G. BOHN, 4. 5, & 6. York Street, 
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BoHN*s Scientific Library for February. 

HUNTS ELEMENTARY 

PHYSICS ; an Introduction to the 
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HUNT, Professor of Mechanical Science at 
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THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
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Contents : 
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m. PICTURES OF LIFE AND CHA- 
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IV. BRODIK'S PSYCHOLOGICAL EN- 

QUIRIFS. 
V. CLKRIi AL ECONOMICS. 
VI. THE DOMESTIC HEARTH. 
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VIIL THE CAMPAIGN IN THE CRIMEA. 
IX. CORSICA. 
X. THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



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piOTTO AND HIS WORKS 

VT IN PADUA. (Being an explanatory 
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N.B — In consequence of the numerous appli- 
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in the issue to the Subscribers. 

Published at the Office of the Arundel Society, 
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Jan. 27. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



THE LONDON ASSURANCE, 

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FOR LIFE, FIRE, AND MARINE 

ASSURANCES. 
Head OflSce, 7. Royal Exchange, Cornhill. 



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Directors. 



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LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
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spectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 274. 



IRISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND CELTIC SOCIETY. 

The object of this Society is to print, with Enaclish Translations and Annotations, the unpublished documents 
illustrative of Irish History, especially those in the Irish Lan<5uage ; also to protect the Monumental and Architectural 
Remains of Ireland, by directing public attention to their preservation. 

The publication of Twenty Volumes has been completed by the Irish Archaeological Society, founded in 
1840, and the Celtic Society, established in 1845. The present Society has been formed by the union of these two 
bodies. 

The Books of the Society are sold only to Subscribers, who are divided into two classes : Members, who pay 
3/. admission, and 1/. per annum ; and Associates, who pay an annual subscription of 1/., without any entrance fee. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE IRISH ARCHiEOIOGICAL SOCIETY. 



1841. 

I. TRACTS RKLATINO TO IHELAND. Vol. I., containin;; :_ 
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Aileach ; a Poem written a.d. 942 bv Cormacan Eigeas, witli a Trans- 
lation and Notes, by JOHN O'DONOVAN. LL. D. 2. " A Brife 
Descripti'in of Ireland, a.d. l.WS, by Robert Payne, vnto xxv. of his 
partners, for whom he is vndertaker there." Reprinted, with a Preface 
and Notes, by AQUILLA SMITH, M.D. 

II. THE ANNALS OF IRELAND, br James Grace, of Kilkenny. 
Edited by the REV. RICH. BUTLER. Price 8s. 

1842. 

I. THE BATTLE OF MAOH R ATTI (MOTR.A). Edited, with a 
Translation xnd Notes, by JOHN O'DONOVAN, LL.D. Price 10.i. 

IL TRACTS RELATING TO IRELA^fD,Vol IL, containins : — 
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AQUILLA SMITH, M.D. 3. A Statute passed at a Parliament held at 
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1S13. 

I. AN ACCOUNT OF THE TRIBES AND CUSTOMS OF HY- 
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IL THE BOOrC OF OBITS AND MARTYROLOGY OF THE 
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1844. 

I. REGISTRU.M E^CLESIE OMNIUM SANCTORUM .TUXTA 
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Additional Notes, by the HON. ALGERNON HERBERT. Price las. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•* Wliem found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlk. 



No. 275.] 



Saturday, February 3. 1855. 



f Price Foiirpence. 
Stamped Edition, f^d. 



CONTENTS. 



Tase 



Books hurnt, by Rev. B. H. Cowper - "7 

"Christie's Will," or" Cryistiswoll" - 78 

Facts respecting Colour - - - 79 
Notices of the Dead Sea, by ■William 

"Winthrop ----- 79 

The Man in the Moon - - - 82 

Minor Notes : — Old French Monthly 
Rules — Mutilation of Chaucer — Thu- 
cydides and Mackintosh — Fastener 
for loose Papers — London Directory, 
1855— The Conirress at Rhinocorura — 
Twins — Whittlebury Oaks — Inscrip- 
tions on Buildings - - - 83 

Queries: — 

Wilkes's Copy of Junins's Letters - 84 

Medal of the Pretender, by Chas. S. 

Greaves, Q. C. - - - - 84 

Sir Samuel Bagnall - - - 85 

Minor Queries : — Pope and " The 
Dunciad " — Gurney's " Burning of 
East Dereham " — Neilson Family — 
Lucifer's Ijawsxiit — Husbandman — 
Talismanic King— Bnoeh or Butch 
Family — Dramatic Queries — First 
Book printed in New England — " The 
woodville sung," &c.— F.S.A. Question 
— " William and Margaret " — Armo- 
rial — Arms of Ilsley - - - 86 

'Minor Queries with Answers : — 
Joyce Family — The Irish Palatines — 
Etruscan Bronzes — The " "Telliamed " 
_" The Twa Bairns," a Ballad - 87 

Hbplies : — 

The Devil's Dozen - - - - 88 

Cowley on Shakspeare, by F. White - 89 
Sir Thomas Prendcrgast, by Rev. J. B. 

Deane - - - - - 89 

"Roccha de Carapanis," by Rev. H. T. 

EUacombe - - - - 90 

"Photographic Correspondence : — Col- 

lodionized Glass Plates, &c Bromo- 

iodide of Silver - - - - 90 

jRepltes to Minor Queries: — Death- 
bed Superstition — " Whychcotte of St. 
John's " — Railroads in England — 
"Talented" — 'Snick up" _ The 
Tost-mark on the Junius Letters — 
"Nettle in, dock out" — Poems of 
Ossian — Books chained in Churches 
—Prophecies of Nostradamus, Marino, 
and Joachim — The Divining Rod 
— Amontillado Sherry — Mortality 
in August — Clay Tobacco-pipes — 
Brasses restored — St. Pancras — Arti- 
ficial Ice — Campbell's Imitations — 
Turning the Tables — Sestertium — 
Cummin — Tallies — Hangman's 
Wages — Charm for a Wart - - 91 



Notes on Books, &c. 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 

.Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XI No. 275. 



THE WIDOW'S RESCUE. 

The Widow of a former colleague of mine, employed for many years upon a legal Com- 
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[No. 275. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY Z, 1855. 



iJ0tci. 



BOOKS BURNT. 



Having been accustomed to enter in my adver- 
saria any notices which I have met with in the 
course of my reading, of the destruction of books 
by fire, permit me to forward to you the first 
portion of my collection. There is a second 
series of notes of the formation or existence of 
ancient libraries, which I shall be happy after- 
wards to send as a farther contribution to the 
history of books and their fortunes. No doubt 
many of these are already known to your readers, 
but perhaps they have not appeared in a collected 
form. My time does not permit me to arrange 
them in chronological order. I give my authori- 
ties where I find them recorded. You have cor- 
respondents who will, no doubt, make additions to 
this list, which may be considered supplementary 
to the notices of books burnt by the hangman, 
which have already appeared in your pages. 

Ic is pretended, that about the year of the 
world 3700, the Chinese Emperor Che-hwang-te 
ordered all books to be burnt ; and that after this 
event, in the metal vases were left the only monu- 
ments of the ancient characters. (^Asiatic Journal, 
vol. ii. p. 259.) 

Jehoiakim burnt the prophecies of Jeremiah, 
after cutting them with a knife. (Jer. xxxvi. 
23. &c.) 

In Acts xix. 19. it is recorded that those at 
Ephesus "who used curious arts, brought their 
books together and burnt them before all men." 

Socrates, the historian, relates (book i. 6.), that 
Constantine the Great ordered, that "if any 
writing of Arius" was found, it should be forth- 
with committed to the flames, to destroy not only 
the heresy, but every memorial of it. Any one 
who, after this, secreted any of Arius's books, did 
so on pain of death. To the same eifect writes 
Sozomen, i. 20. 

After this, heretical books were commonly or- 
dered to be removed in the same way. This will 
account for the fact, that so few of the writings of 
reputed heretics now remain. 

The destruction of the famous library of Alex- 
andria in A.D. 642 by Omar, is too well known to 
need description. 

The Council of Constance in 1414 condemned 
the writings of Wiclif to the flames, and added 
the condemnation of the author's bones. The 
same Council burnt Hus, the author of the heretical 
I'ooks. 

Luther copied the example of his teachers, and 
in 1520 burnt publicly the Pope's bull, the de- 
cretals, canon law, &c., at Wittemberg. But we 
must remember that Luther's writings had been 



already burnt at Mentz, Lou vain, and ' other 
places. 

Many books have been burnt privately as well 
as publicly in consequence of the decision of the 
Council of Trent concerning heretical writings. 

The burning of two-thirds of the Sibylline 
books by Amalthea, in the reign of Tarquin the 
Proud, is well known. (Comp. A. Gell. i. 19., and 
Plin. Nat. Hist. xiii. 13. 27.) The library of 
Pisistratus escaped burning at the destruction of 
Athens by Xerxes, who removed the books to 
Persia. (A. Gell. vi. 17.) 

The Alexandrian library was in part burnt at 
the siege of that city, but not intentionally. (A. 
Gell. vi. 17.) 

In 435, an Armenian council ordered the writ'- 
ings of Nestorius to be publicly burnt. 

In 680, at a general council at Constantinople, 
the writings of Honorius, Bishop of Rome, and of 
others, were condemned as heretical and burnt. 

In 868, a Roman council issued a condemnation 
of Photius, and adjudged to the flames his book 
against Pope Nicholas. 

In 869, at Constantinople, the writings of Pho- 
tius and of his defenders were ordered to be burnt 
before the synod. 

In 904, at Ravenna, the acts of the council, 
which condemned Formosus the Pope at Rome, 
were rescinded and burnt. 

In 1209, the second Council of Paris prohibited 
and burnt the writings of Aristotle and of others. 

In 1410, a convocation at Oxford condemned 
and burnt the writings of John Wiclif. They 
were again burnt in 1412, at Rome. 

In the destruction of Herculaneum in a.b. 79, 
many books were burnt ; many others yet remain 
more or less injured by fire. 150 volumes were 
discovered in 1754. 

It is said that books, to the number of 200,000^ 
were burned in a.d. 476 at Constantinople by 
order of Leo I., Bishop of Rome. 

Many of the books of Galen are known to have 
been burnt in his own house at Rome. One ac- 
count says he wrote no fewer than 300 volumes, 
the greater part of which were burnt in the 
Temple of Peace, where they had been deposited. 

There was a great destruction of books at the 
sacking of Rome by Genseric the Goth. The 
same is recorded of the overthrow at Athens. 
And of the destruction of Jerusalem, by the 
Romans under Titus. 

Augustin says : 

" Ezra, the priest of God, restored the law which had 
been burnt by the Chaldeans in the archives of the 
temple." — 0pp., vol. iii. part ii. App. 

Honorius III., in a.d. 1216, condemned the 
writings of John Scotus Erigena to be burnt. 

In the fifth century, Marcian, the Roman em- 
peror, issued an edict in which he condemned to 
the flames the writings of Eutyches. 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



Justinian, by a constitution made at the time of 
the fifth general council of Constantinople, or- 
dained that the writings of heretics should be 
burnt. Especial reference is made to Anthimus, 
Severus of Antioch, Zoaras, &c. 

Justinian, by another edict against Severus, 
forbad " that the sayings or writings of Severus 
should remain with any Christian man ;" and 
ordered that " they should be burnt with fire by 
their possessors. Whoever disobeyed was to have 
his hands cut ofF." 

In 1120, a council at Suessa condemned a book 
by Abailard, and compelled him to put it into the 
fire with his own hands. 

By will, Virgil required his own poems to be 
burnt; but Augustus prevented it from being 
effected. (Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 30.) 

The first Roman libraries were burnt when the 
city was set on fire by Nero. (Sueton., Nero, ^c.) 

The library adjoining the Temple of Peace at 
Rome was burnt under Commodus. Compare 
Herodian, i. 44. B. H. Cowper. 

(Zb he continued.) 



" Christie's will," or " crtistiswoll." 

Every one acquainted with Scott's Border 
Minstrelsy is aware that " Christie's Will " is the 
name of a famous border reiver of the seventeenth 
century : 

" Traquair has ridden up Chapelhope, 

And sae has he down by the Gray Mare's Tail ; 
He never stinted the light gallop, 
Until he speer'd for Christie's Will. 

" Now Christie's Will peep'd frae the tower, 
And out at the shot-hole keeked he ; 
* And ever unlucky,' quo' he, ' is the hour, 
That the warden comes to speer for me ! ' 

" • Good Christie's Will, now, have na fear ! 
Nae harm, good Will, shall hap to thee ; 
1 saved thv life at the Jeddart air. 

At the Jeddart air frae the justice tree. 

" ' Bethink how ye swore, by the salt and the bread, 
By the lightning, the wind, and the rain, 
That if ever of Cliristie's Will I had need, 
He would pay me my service again.' 

" ' Gramercy, my lord,' quo' Christie's Will, 
' Gramercy, my lord, for your grace to me I 
When I turn my cheek, and claw my neck, 
I think of Traquair, and the Jeddart tree.' 

" And he has open'd the fair tower yett, 
To Traquair and a' his companie; 
The spuile o' the deer on the board he has set. 
The fattest that ran on the Hutton Lee. 
" ' Now, wherefor sit ye sad, my lord ? 
And wherefor sit ye mournfullie? 
And why eat ye not of the venison I shot 
At the dead of night on Hutton Lee? ' 
" ' weel may I stint of feast and sport, 
And in my mind be vexed and sair! 
A vote of the canker'd Session Court, 
Of land and living will make me bare. 



" * But if auld Durie to heaven were flown. 
Or if auld Durie to hell were gane. 
Or ... if he could be but ten days stoun. 
My bonnie braid lands would still be my ain.' 

" ' mony a time, mj' lord,' he said, 

' I've stoun the horse frae the sleeping loun ; 
But for you I'll steal a beast as braid. 

For I'll steal Lord Durie frae Edinburgh town ! ' " 

As the ballad goes on to relate, and as Sir "Walter 
Scott's notes explain, Christie's Will was as good 
as his word. He kidnapped the " auld lurdane " 
near the sands of Leith, and enveloping him in a 
cloak, carried him to the Tower of Grahame, in 
Annandale, where he was detained in close con- 
finement until the lawsuit in which Traquair was 
concerned had been decided in his favour. Lord 
Durie, it was understood, would have voted ia 
fiivour of the opposite party. Various other 
daring deeds are recorded by the freebooter, 
which well entitle him to distinction in Border 
history. 

But who was Christie's Will ? Sir Walter 
states, on the authority of a somewhat ambiguous 
tradition, that his real name was Armstrong, and 
that he was the son or grandson of Cristopker, 
son of " the famous John Armstrong of Gilknockie, 
executed by James V. ; " hence called Christie's 
Will by way of distinction. 

The "Johnnie Armstrong" alluded to was ex- 
ecuted, it is believed, in 1529. His son Christo- 
pher appears to have been an infant at the time : 

" And God be with thee, Klrsty, my son, 
Wliere thou sits on thy nurse's knee." 

If this was the Christopher, as Sir Walter sup- 
poses, who grants a bond of man-rent to Lord 
Maxwell in 1557, he would then be about twenty- 
nine years of age, and could not well have been 
the father of Christie's Will, who kidnapped Lord 
Durie ; which circumstance must have occurred 
nearly eighty years afterwards. Alexander Gib- 
son, Lord Durie, the well-known collector of 
Durie's Decisions, was promoted to the bench 
10th July, 1621, and died in July, 1646.* As he 
is described as " Auld Durie " in the ballad, the 
probability is that his abduction took place to- 
wards the close of his life, about 1640. At all 
events Christie's Will, who is represented as 
having performed certain dexterous feats during 
the troubles of Charles I., must have been in the 
prime of life at the time, and was more likely, if 
an Armstrong at all, to have been the grandson 
than the son of Kirsty ; hence, unless Christopher 
had continued as a family name for two or three 
generations, the designation of Christie's Will is 
inexplicable. 

We have been led into these remarks by the 
fact, not generally known, perhaps, that Cryistis- 

• Another authority mentions his death as occurring 
10th June, 1644. 



Peb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



woll was, and still may be, for aught we know, a 
surname in this country. This appears from the 
following extract : 

« Test. Chiyistiswoll — The testament, testamentar, 
&c., of vmqle Johne Chryistiswoll, zonger, ane of the 
portioneris of Lunderstoun, ffaithfullie maid, &c., the 
xiiij dav of November, 1606 zeiris. Quhairin he nominat 
and constituit Thomas Chryistiswoll, in Brae, his brother, 
and Jonet Sympsone, spous to the defunct, his exrs , &c. 
. . . This testament was maid be the mouth of the 
deid, day, moneth, zeir and place, foirsaid. Befoir thir 
•witnesses — Mr. Thomas Zonger, minister atlnnerkipe; 
Thomas Sympsone in Brae ; James Tailzeour, ane of the 
portioneris of Lunderstoun, and James Hyndman, in 
Clochnmir. . . . Confirmed at Glasgow, the penult 
day of May, 1608 zeiris." 

It farther appears that Chryistiswoll, or Crystis- 
woll, was the name of a place as well as of persons : 
Robert Stewart, of Crystiswoll, is a witness to the 
testament of " Robert Birsbane of Bishoptoun, 
within the parochiu of Erskyne," dated 16th Ja- 
nuary, 1610. 

In Scotland, " Christie's Will," and " Cryistis- 
woll," as pronounced by the peasantry, are pre- 
cisely similar ; hence the possibility that the one is 
merely a misnomer of the other, and that the 
freebooter of the ballad was not an Armstrong at 
all, but a genuine descendant of the Cryistiswolls ! 

A. 



FACTS BESPECTING COLOUR. 

It has sometimes been maintained, that every- 
thing material has its symbolical signification. 
Have any of your readers, who incline to this 
opinion, ever observed how remarkably this theory 
is supported by the following facts in regard to 
colour ? 

If twenty persons were asked which they con- 
sidered the most beautiful of the three primary 
colours — blue, red, or yellow ? probably fifteen 
out of the twenty would reply " blue" — heaven's 
own hue. Yet ask those fifteen to name the two 
colours which they consider would form the most 
harmonious combination, probably not one of them 
would mention blue as forming part of this fa- 
vourite mixture. 

It is a law of colouring, that no two primary 
colours will blend — the effect would be harsh, the 
contrast too violent ; but a primary colour must 
always be united with a compound, and in that 
compound the primary must bear a part. Thus, 
red and purple are a good mixture, because red 
is an ingredient of purple. Green and gold are a 
good mixture, because yellow is an ingredient of 
green. Upon the same principle, blue and green 
ought to be an agreeable combination, because 
blue is an ingredient of green ; yet blue and green 
are universally considered a bad mixture. Thus 
we see that blue will not harmonise either with 
red, yellow, or green. It stands alone, exquisitely 



beautiful, but almost incompatible with other 
colours. Nevertheless, by mixing it with red, we 
produce purple — a colour which harmonises more 
universally than any other, whether primary or 
compound. Thus purple and red, purple and 
gold, purple and green — nay, even purple and 
blue itself — are all manifestly good mixtures. But 
though purple is so harmonious, and is in itself so 
beautiful, yet it has this peculiarity, viz. it loses 
all its charms when seen by an artificial light. 

Surely none can be so dull of imagination, as 
not to see the obvious spiritual meaning of all this. 
Blue — the hue of heaven — is too bright and pure 
to blend with earthly hues. How, then, can we 
bring heavenly things to harmonise with things 
earthly ? Has it not been by the shedding of blood ? 
Is it not the red stream of our Saviour's blood, 
which has brought down Heaven to earth ? Is it 
not that crimson stream which has restored har- 
mony between man and his Maker, between earth 
and Heaven ? And as purple — an apt emblem 
of the Gospel — is the only colour which is suited 
to all other colours, so the Gospel is the only 
scheme of religion which is suited to the condition 
of all men. And as purple, so beautiful when 
seen by the light of Heaven, looks dead and mean 
by an artificial light, so the Christian religion, 
when contemplated by a heaven-illuminated mind, 
is seen to be the sublimest of ideas ; but, seen by 
the dim taper of human reason, it looks mean 
and despicable. 

If there be any truth in these considerations, 
how much might colouring, in every branch of 
the art, be improved and ennobled by a due re- 
gard to its syuibolical meaning ! — a meaning 
which seems to have been graciously implanted in 
matter, in order that it may act as an antidote to 
itself, and raise the mind from an undue attach- 
ment to material things to the contemplation of 
things spiritual. Surely it is presumptuous to 
condemn Mr. Ruskin as romantic and fanciful, 
because he considers that to be the most perfect 
system of colouring in which red, blue, and pur- 
ple (the colours revealed to Moses on Mount 
Sinai) predominate. It may be objected that 
blue harmonises with brown and grey ; but it 
should be remembered, that these are neutral 
tints, and, as far as the present argument is con- 
cerned, must be placed in the same category with 
black and white. E. H. 

Bromsgrove. 



NOTICES OF THE DEAD SEA. 

It is not without reason that readers are puzzled 
when finding such contradictory statements in the 
works of well-known authors, as are to be met 
with in the following passages: 

1. "The lake Asphaltites is vastly great in circum- 
ference, as if it were a sea. It is of an ill taste, and is 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



pernicious to the adjoining country by its strong smell ; 
the wind raises no waves tliere, nor will it maintain either 
fish or such birds as use the water." * — Tacitus, lib. v. 
C 6. 

2. " This lake Asphaltydes is by some also called Mare 
Mortuum, for by reason of the saltnes, and thicknes of it, 

. nothing can live in it; neyther will it mix with the 

• waters of Jordan, though the river run through the very 

midst of the lake. No creature can possibly sink in it, 
though it were a horse, or oxe, and their legs were tyd 
together ; nay, the very burds that sometimes would fly 
over it, are by the noysome smell of it suffocated, and fall 
dead into it." * — Teonge's Diary, p. 120. 

3. "The river Jordan running a great way further 
with many windings, as it were to delay his ill destiny, 
gliding through the plains of Jericho not far below where 
that city stood, is at length devoured by that accursed 
lake Asphalt3-cles, so named of the bitumen which it 
vomiteth; called also the Dead Sea — perhaps in that it 
nourisheth no living creature, or for its heavy waters, 
hardly to be moved by the wind." * — Sandyx, lib. iii. 
p. 110., 1600. 

4. " We found the hills, which are of white stone, 
higher the nearer we approached the Dead Sea. The air 
has been always thought to be bad ; and the Arabs and 
people who go near its banks, always bind their handker- 
chiefs before their mouths, and draw their breath through 
their nostrils, through fear of its pernicious effects." * — 
Pococlt, vol. ii. pp. 37, 38., 1733, 1740. 

5. "Everything about it was in the highest degree 
grand and awful. Its desolate, though majestic features, 
are well suited to the tales told about it."* — Clarke's 
Visit to the Holy Land, 1801. 

6. " I went on, and came near to those waters of death ; 
they stretched deeply into the southern desert, and before 
me, and all around as far away as the e3'e could follow, 
blank hills piled high over hills, pale, yellow, and naked, 
walled up in her tomb for ever — the dead and damned 
Gomorrah. There was no fly that hummed in the for- 
bidden air — but instead, a deep stillness. No grass grew 
from the earth, no weed peered through the void sand ; 
but in mockery of all life, there were trees borne down by 
Jordan in some ancient flood, and these, grotesquely 
planted upon the forlorn shore, spread out their grim 
skeleton arms, all scorched and charred to blackness by 
the heats of long silent years." — Eothen, cap. xiii. p. 10(5. 

7. " At length we reached the shore of the fatal sea, 
and encamped within a few yards of the water's edge. The 
shore was strewn with logs of wood, and withered branches 
that presented something of a petrified appearance, and 
lighted into a fire with great facility. There was no shell, 
or fly, or any sign of life along the curving sand." — 
Warburton's Crescent and the Cross, cap. xi. p. 107. 

8. " About six we entered the great plain at the end of 
the Dead Sea ; for about a quarter of an hour we passed 
a few bushes, but afterwards found the soil sandy and 
perfectly barren. At dark, we stopped for the night in a 
ravine at the side of a hill, much against the wishes of 
our guides ; who strongly urged the want of water and 
the dread of dytchmaan, as inducements to make us pro- 
ceed. We collected a quantity of wood which the Dead 
Sea had thrown up at high-water mark, and endeavoured 
to make a fire in order to bake bread, as we had flour. 
The wood however was so impregnated with salt, that all 
our efforts to light it were unavailing; and we contented 



. * The references thus marked are to be seen in Teonge's 
Diary, London, 1825, pp. 120. 123. 



ourselves with drinking the flour and water mixed, which, 
though not very palatable, served to appease our hunger." 
— Irby and Mangles' Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, 
and the Holy Land, London, 1845, p. 107. 

9. " We arrived all at once at the lake ; I say all at 
once, because I thought we were a considerable distance 
from it. No murmur, no cooling breeze, announced our 
approach to its margin. The strand, bestrewed with 
stones, was hot ; the waters of the lake were motionless, 
and absolutely dead, along the shore. There was no 
want of wood, for the shore was strewed with branches of 
tamarind trees brought by the Arabs ; and such is the 
force of habit, that our Bethlemites, who had pi-eceded with 
great caution over the plain, were not afraid to kindle a 
fire which might so easily betray us. One of them em- 
ployed a singular expedient to make the fire : striding 
across the pile, he stooped down over the fire till his 
tunic became inflated with the smoke ; then rising briskly, 
the air, expelled by this species of bellows, blew up a 
brilliant flame. 

" About midnight I heard a noise upon the lake. The 
Bethlemites told me that it proceeded from legions of 
small fish which come and leap about on the shore. This 
contradicts the opinion generally adopted, that the Dead 
Sea produces no living creature." — Chateaubriand's 
Travels to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, London, 1835, 
vol. i. pp. 343, 344. 

10. " Since our return (to America), some of the water 
of the Dead Sea has been subjected to a powerful micro- 
scope, and no animalculse or vestige of animal matter 
could be detected." — Lvnch's United States^ Expedition 
to the Dead Sea, 1849, p.'377. 

11. "Almost at the moment of my turning from the 
Jordan to the Dead Sea, notwithstanding the long credited 
accounts that no bird could fly over without dropping 
dead upon its surface, I saw a flock of gulls floating 
quietly upon its bosom ; and when I roused them by a 
stone, they flew down the lake, skimming its surface 
until they had carried themselves out of sight." — 
Stephen's Incidents of Travel, cap. xxxii. p. 122. 

12. " The general appearance of this wilderness of land, 
and water over which an awful silence reigns, is gloomy 
in the extreme, and calculated to depress the spirit of the 
beholder. The soil around (the Dead Sea) being im- 
pregnated with salt, produces no plants; and the air 
itself, which becomes loaded with saline particles from 
evaporation, cannot be favourable to vegetation. Hence 
the deadly aspect which reigns around the lake. During 
the few hours we remained in this neighbourhood, we 
confess we did not see any birds ; but it is not true that 
the exhalations of the lake are so pestiferous as to kill 
those which attempt to fly over it." — liobinson's Pales- 
tine, vol. i. pp. 66, 67. 

13. " Nothing in this place gave me the least idea of 
the desolation spoken of in the Bible. The air is pure, 
and the fields extremely verdant." — Mariti's Visit to the 
Dead Sea, 1760, vol. vii. p. 372. 

14. " The old stories about the pestiferous qualities of the 
Dead Sea and its waters, are mere fables or delusions ; 
and actual appearances are the natural and obvious effects 
of the confined and deep situation, the intense heat, and 
the uncommon saltness of the waters. Lying in its deep 
cauldron, surrounded by lofty cliffs of naked limestone 
rock, exposed for seven or eight months in the year to 
the unclouded beams of a burning sun, nothing but ste- 
rility and solitude can be looked for upon its shores : and 
nothing else is actually found, except in those parts 
where there are fountains or streams of fresh water; in 
all of which places there is a fertile soil, and abundant 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



vegetation. Birds also abound, and they are observed to 
fly over and across the sea without being, as old stories 
tell, injured or liilled by its exhalations." — Pictorial 
Bible, London, 1849, vol. iii. p. 572. 



15. 



" THE DEAD SEA. 



' Upon the stern and desolate shore I stood 
Of that grim lake, within whose foul recess, 
Jordan's sweet waters turn to bitterness. 
O'er the dull face of the sepulchral flood, 
No spirit moved. In vain with soft caress. 
The gentle breeze its sullen waters wooed : 
No token answered. Xor was it the less, 
When there arose a tempest fierce and rude, 
A ghastly scene; for like no living sea. 
Whose billows, buoyant with a sparkling life, 
Ride on the storm, rejoicing in the strife, 
Was tliis ; but when the strong wind mightily 
Lifted its leaden waves, with dismal roar. 
And heavy corpse-like sound, they fell upon the shore.' 

" From Bethany we struck into a path, a little to the 
south of the Jericho road, and leading directly to the 
head of the lake. This was, if possible, even more dreary 
than the other; on all sides rose, peak above peak, blasted 
and desolate mountains, each like the crater of an extinct 
volcano. And as 1 descended into the silent plain of the 
Dead Sea, the only living creature in sight was a long 
thin snake, like a whipcord; that, curling itself away 
among the stones, seemed quite in character with the 
scene. 

" But there was nothing gloomy in the colour of the 
lake itself: on the contrary-, it Avas a deep and beautiful 
blue ; and if those naked rocks around were but covered 
with foliage, and those barren sands with verdure, it 
would indeed be a lovely and enchanting scene. And 
such it was once, — ' even as the garden of the Lord, before 
the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.' 

" But as I drew nearer to the water's edge, its character 
seemed to change, and I perceived how rightly it has 
received its name. Like the mirror held to the dead 
man's face, no breath of life dimmed the polished bright- 
ness of its surface. The gentle breeze played over it 
unheeded: there it lay, motionless and dumb — with its 
blue eye turned up to the naked sun, in a fixed and glassv 
stare." — Ferguson's Fine of Repose, London, 1851, 
pp. 102. 108, 109. 

IG. " I have no bright recollections of pleasant scenes, 
or happy hours experienced during my tour. Parching 
heat and intolerable thirst, the dusty wilderness, stum- 
bling and faded horses, the vain shelter of tents ; the by 
no means vain stings of fleas, flies, and their coadjutors 
and accomplices ; the fights with muleteers, and the im- 
positions of divers hirelings; make up the sum of my 
recollections, to which I may add a fever I caught bath- 
ing in the Jordan, and which has clung to me until my 
safe arrival home — a favour seldom accorded to other 
Europeans similarly situated, as they are almost invari- 
ably, and in a few da^'s, relieved from their torments by 
death." — Neal's Eight Years in Syria and Palestine, 
London, 1851, vol. i. p. 146. 

17. " I must here assert most positivelj^ that tlie al- 
leged impossibility of horses wading through the waters 
of the Dead Sea, in consequence of the density of those 
waters, which would make them lose their balance, con- 
stitutes a wild fable, resting on no foundatioM ; and which, 
like many other fallacies, has been repeated at pleasure, 
thus acquiring progressive and increasing currency in the 
narratives of succeeding travellers. 

_ " And here we are encamped once more for the last 
time on the shore of this sea, which has become so dear 



to us; now we can estimate at their correct value the 
fantastic fables so long invented to represent it as a place 
of malediction and death. I must confess, however, that 
on this particular occasion the attractions of the neigh- 
bourhood are materially qualified, owing to the swarms 
of musquitoes by which we were assailed. Xot content 
with assaulting such parts of our bodies as are exposed to 
their sting, these persevering enemies contrive to get 
within our clothing, and stab vis even through clotb, ' 
linen and flannel — with venom enough to drive us out of 
our senses." — De Saulcy's Journey round the Dead Sea, 
Lofldon, 1854, vol. ii. pp. 33. 36. 

18. " The Dead Sea was anciently called ' Sea of the 
Plain,' ' Salt Sea,' * East Sea ; ' and by Josephus, and the 
Greek and Roman writers, ' Lacus Asphaltites ; ' that is, 
bitumenous lake, on account of the bitumen found in its 
waters. 

" The water of the Dead Sea contains one-fourth of its 
weight in a hundred of saline ingredients, in a state of 
perfect desiccation. It is also impregnated with other 
mineral substances, especially with bitumen, which often 
floats on its surface in large masses ; it is most probably 
cast up from the bottom by volcanic action, and is re- 
corded to have been seen after earthquakes in masses 
resembling small islands. Considerable quantities of 
wood, and other vegetable matter, are found cast on the 
shores by the great buoyancy of the water, in which it is 
difficult to swim ; the feet being buoj-ed up to a level 
with the head. Its specific gravity is to that of distilled 
water, as 1212 to 1000; and greater, therefore, than that 
of any other water known. 

"Josephus relates, that some slaves, thrown in with 
their hands tied behind them, by order of Vespasian, all 
floated. Modern travellers have floated in its waters 
without moving, and were able to read a book or sleep ; 
and a horse having been driven in on one occasion, did 
not sink, but floated on his back, violently throwing his 
legs upwards. 

" There ai-e some hot brackish springs on the shores, 
but only two of sweet water, at Ain Jidy, and on the 
peninsula of the eastern shore. Xot a trace of vegetation 
nor a patch of verdure is to be found anywhei-e but in 
the two last-mentioned spots, except some canes and 
reeds near the salt-marshes; all is death-like sterility; 
not a living creature is seen, because the smallest bird 
would not find a blade of grass for its sustenance. The 
scenery is thus awfully wild and sublime, presenting a 
vivid picture of the grim terrific abode of eternal death." 
— Journal of a Deputation to the East, London, 1854, 
Part II. pp. 379, 380, 381. 

The space required for the insertion of the 
above extracts in "N. & Q." will prevent my taking 
some other quotations from standard works : that 
of Professor Robinson, and his well-known learned 
coadjutor the Rev. Mr. Smith, being among the 
number. De Saulcy, to whose interesting volumes 
a reference has already been given, ditters from 
all preceding travellers, as he does from many 
biblical scholars, when stating that the doomed 
cities of Sodom and Gomorrah may not have been 
destroyed by any sudden iiTuption of the Dead 
Sea. He states that the two places were distant 
from each other seventy-five miles ; and if ever 
submerged, the ruins, on the "recession of the sea, 
were left on dry land," which he has discovered. 
A critical writer has recently remarked, that 
Mr. De Saulcy's claim to this discovery cannot 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



be disputed, and to this opinion many readers will 
readily give their assent. 

Long as this note may be, still it cannot be 
closed before briefly referring to three distin- 
guished travellers, who perished shortly after 
navigating the Dead Sea, and left their remains 
not very far from its banks. The first was the 
much-regretted Costigan, whom the writer met at 
Constantinople before starting on his fatal expe- 
dition, and whose "melancholy story is known." 
Lieutenant Molyneaux, of H. M. S. " Spartan," 
in 1847 was the second unfortunate victim. He 
passed three days, and as many nights, in his boat ; 
and died on returning to his ship of the fever which 
be caught at that time. The notes left by this 
gallant young officer " were read before the Geo- 
graphical Society, and noticed in the Athenccum." 
One other name remains only to be mentioned, 
that of the lamented Dale ; he breathed his last 
on the hills of Lebanon, and was buried at Bey- 
rout. Second in command of the United States' 
Expedition to the Dead Sea, he died in the ser- 
vice of his country ; and the beautiful tribute paid 
to his memory by Commander Lynch will tell 
how much his loss was regretted. 

William Winthbop. 

Malta. 



THE MAN IN THE MOON. 

" Mon in the mone, stond and streit ; 

On is bot-forke is burthen he bereth. 
Hit is muche wonder that he na doun slyt, 

For doute leste he valle, he shoddreth ant shereth : 

When the forst freseth much chele he byd 
The themes beth kene is hattren to-tereth ; 

Nis no wytht in the world that wot wen he syt 
Ne, bote hit bue the hegge, whet wedes he wereth. 

" Whider trowe this mon ha the wey take, 

He hath set is o fot is other to foren, 
For non hithte that he hath ne sytht me hym ner shake, 

He is the sloweste mon that ever was yboren. 

Wher he were othe feld pyechynde stake, 
For hope of ys thornes to dutten is doren, 

He mot myd is twybyl other trous make, 
Other al is dayes werk ther were yloren. 

" This ilke mon upon heh whener he were, 

Wher he were y the mone boren aut yfed, 
He leneth on is forke ase a grey frere, 

This crokede caynard sore he is adred. 

Hit is mony day go that he was here, 
Ichot of is ernde he nath nout j'sped ; 

He hath hewe sumwher a burthen of brere. 
Therefore sum hayward hath taken ys wed. 

" 5ef thy wed ys ytake, bring horn the trous, 

Set forth thyn other fot, stryd over sty ; 
We schule preye the haywart hom to ur hous, 

Ant maken hym at hej'se for the maystry ; 

Drynke to hym deorly of fol god bous, 
Ant our dame Douse shal sitten hym by. 

When that he is dronke ase a dreynt mous, 
Thenne we schul borewe the wed ate bayly. 

" This mon hereth me nout, thah ich to hym crye, 
Ichot the cherl is def, the del hym to-drawe. 



Thah ic t,e^e upon beth nulle nout hye 
The lostlase ladde can nout o lawe. 
Hupe forth, Hubert, hosede pye 

Ichot thart amarstled in to the mawe ; 

Thah me teone with hym that myn teh mye, 

The cherld nul nout adoun er the day dawe." 

Harl. MS. 2253. 

We are here presented with the idea our an- 
cestors entertained of an imaginary being*, the 
subject of perhaps one of the most ancient as well 
as one of the most popular superstitions in the 
world. He is represented leaning on a fork, on 
which he carries a bunch of thorns, because it was 
for " pyechynde stake" on a Sunday that he is 
reported to have been thus confined. There can- 
not be a doubt that the following is the origin of 
the idea, however the moon became connected 
with it. See Numbers xv. 32. : 

" And while the children of Israel were in the wilder- 
ness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the 
sabbath day," &c. 

To have a care " Lest the chorle may fall out 
of the moone " appears from Chaucer's Troilus and 
Cressida to have been a proverbial expression in 
his time. In the Midsummer Night's Dream, 
Peter Quince, in arranging his dramatis personce. 
for the play before the duke, directs that " one 
must come in with a bush of thornes and a lan- 
tern, and say he comes in to disfigure or to present 
the person of moonshine," which we afterwards 
find done. " All that I have to say," concludes 
the performer of this strange part, "is, to tell you. 
that the lantern is the moon, I the man in the 
moon, this thorn -bush my thorn-bush, and this 
dog my dog." See Tempest also, Act II. Sc. 2. : 
" Ste. I was the man in the moon, when time was. 
Cal. I have seen thee in her, and I do adore thee ; 
My mistress showed me thee, thy dog, and bush." 
So far the tradition is still preserved among 
nurses and schoolboys ; but how the culprit came 
to be imprisoned in the moon is still to be ac- 
counted for. It should seem that he had not 
merely gathered sticks on the sabbath, but that 
he has stolen what he had gathered, as appears 
from the following lines In Chaucer's Testament 
of Creseide, where the poet, descrlbiftg the moon,, 
informs us that she had 
" On her brest a chorle painted painted ful even, 
Bearing a bush of thorns on his backe. 
Which for his theft might clime no ner the heven." 
We are to suppose that he was doomed to per- 
petual confinement in this planet, and precluded 
from every possibility of Inhabiting the mansions 
of the just. With the Italians Cain appears to 
have been the offender, and he is alluded to In a 
very extraordinary manner by Dante in the 20th 
canto of the Inferno, where the moon is described 



[* Our correspondent is of course aware that the song, 
with some similar remarks on this "imaginary being," 
have been noticed by Ritson in his Ancient Songs, p. 34., 
edit. 1792. — Ed.] 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



by the periphrasis " Caino e le spine." One of the 
commentators on that poet says that this alludes 
to the popular opinion of Cain loaded with the 
bundle of faggots ; but how he procured them we 
are not informed. The Jews have some Talmud- 
ical story that Jacob is in the moon, and they be- 
lieve that his face is visible. The natives of Ceylon, 
instead of a man, have placed a hare in the moon. 

Clemens Alexandrinus quotes Serapion for his 
©pinion that the face in the moon was the soul of 
a sibyl. See Plutarch's Morals also (p. 559., 
Holland's transl., fol. 1603), where Sibylla is 
placed in the moon : 

" And the dtemon said it was the voice of Sibylle, for 
she, being carried about in the globe and the face of the 
moon, did foretell and see what was to come." 

These last two instances may throw some light on 
the obscure passage in Dante. H. S. 



Old French Monthly Rules. — In the Calendrier 
Historial attached to La Bible, de Vlmprimerie 
de Francois Estienne, 1567, there are the follow- 
ing monthly rules, each accompanied with a neat 
illustrative woodcut : 

" Januier. Ce mois est figure de la mort corporelle. 
Feurier. En ce mois on reclost les hayes. 
Mars. En ce mois on seme I'orge et autres legumes. 
Auril. En ce mois on meine les troupeaux aux champs. 
May. En ce mois on s'addonne aux esbats. 
Juin. En ce mois on tond les moutons. 
Juillet. En ce mois on fauche les prez. 
Aoust. En ce mois on fait moissons. 
Septembre. En ce mois on vendange. 
Octobre. En ce mois laboure les terres. 
Nouemhre. En ce mois les champs prennent Icur faces 

triste. 
Decembre. En ce mois I'hyuer fait ranger les gens a la 
maison." 

The benevolent intention of Francis Stephen, 
the eminent compiler of this beautiful specimen of 
a very early almanac, is thus expressed in his 
Preface " Av Lectevr :" 

" Comme ceux qui considerent peu I'eternele proui- 
dence et gouuernemente de Dieu en ces choses inferieures, 
et moins dependans d'icelle, attribuans quasi le tous aux 
causes secondes et aux estoilles. Dont le plus souuent 
viennent a dire choses non seulement cotre toute piete 
ehrestienne, mais aussi eslongees de toute verity, ainsi 
que le demostre assez ce qui succede de leurs vaines et 
fausses pronostications." 

G.N. 

Mutilation of Chaucer. — At p. 22. of a lecture 
On Desultory and Systematic Reading, by the 
Right Hon. Sir James Stephen, K.C.B., one of 
the publications of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, is the following : 

" I saw his sleeves perfumed at the hand 
With grease, and that the finest in the land." 



In Bell's edition of Chaucer (1782) it is — 

" I saw his sieves purfiled at the hond 
With gris, and that the finest of the lond." 

Before quoting, the lecturer says : " I will, how- 
ever, read it (Chaucer's language) as it stands, 
with the change only of an obsolete word or two." 
His change in this instance simply makes the pas- 
sage absurd. Bell's note on " purfiled" is " from 
the Ft. pourfiler, which properly signifies, to work 
on the edge." " Gris" is a species of fur. 

J. H. AVELING. 

Thucydides and Mackintosh. — I was struck the 
other day with a coincidence of thought, ap- 
parently undesigned, between Sir J. Mackintosh 
and Thucydides. In speaking of the Crusades, 
the former observes : 

" The warlike spirit of the age was set in motion by 
religion; by glory; by revenge; by impatient valour; 
by a thousand principles, which being melted into one mass 
were not the less potent because they wert originally unlike 
and discordant." — Hist, of England, vol. i. p. 121. 

Compare this with Thucyd. (vi. 18.) : 

" No^ti<raTe . . . to re <f>avKov Kai ro fxeVov Kai to rrdw 
axpi^fS av ^vyKpaOiv fjLd\L<rT av i<rxvei,v." 

T. H. T. 

Fastener for loose Papers. — Every literary 
man knows that loose papers have a power of 
travelling about a table or a room. At the Ame- 
rican store in New Oxford Street are sold, for a 
penny a-piece, little wooden nippers, acting by a 
spring of brass wire, in a most efficacious manner. 
One of them will hold from one sheet to several 
quires of paper so tightly, that it will be Impos- 
sible to shake the nippers off the paper, and very 
difficult to shake the paper out of the nippers. 

M. 

London Directory, 1855. — In 1954 some con- 
tributor to " N. & Q." may be thankful that your 
pages have embalmed the following means of com- 
paring the then London Post- Office Directory with 
that of 1855 : 

"A new edition of the London Post- Office Directory haa 
just made its appearance. It contains 175 sheets of super- 
royal, or 2620 octavo pages. The whole of this vast bulk 
of information is constantly kept ' in type,' so that cor- 
rections and additions may readily be made. The present 
edition has been worked from a new fount, — the largest, 
we are told, that Messrs. Besley and Co. ever cast. There 
is a peculiarity in the binding which deserves attention : 
to facilitate reference, the different parts of the volume are 
coloured blue, red, or yellow, on the fore-edge, and the 
contents printed upon it. Each volume took a quick hand 
an hour and a half to sew ; but the whole number, 7000, 
weighing when ready for delivery upwards of 30 tons, 
were bound in ten daj's ! " 

E.W. 

The Congress at Rhinocorura The Greek 

Church father Epiphanius, the same who inter- 
dicted the reading of the writings of his celebrated 
colleague On>ewe«, indicates (in his Panario Hcere- 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



sibus) the time when the first political congress 
was held since the Creation. It was, he assumes, 
the three sons of the patriarch Noah, who had met 
at a congress at Rhinocorura, for the purpose of 
dividing the world among themselves. Having 
come to an understanding, he continues, the 
treaty was submitted to their father Noah, who 
gave his consent to it in his last will. That will 
must have been read by the pious Philastrlus, 
cotemporary of Epiphanius ; for he was so sure of 
the fact, that in his work De Heeresibus the dis- 
belief in that division, and its legitimacy, forms 
the 118th species of the heresies described in it. 

Dr. Michelsen. 

Twins. — In an Historical Dictionary of England 
and Wales, printed 1692, I have met with the fol- 
lowing entry, which may perhaps be interesting to 
the readers of " N. & Q.," as showing that the 
sympathy of " The Corsican Brothers " may be 
discovered nearer home. 

" Tremane. — Nicholas and Andrew Tremane were twins, 
born in Devonshire, alike in all lineaments, and felt like 
pain, though at a distance, and without any intelligence 
given. They equally desired to walk, sit, eat and drink 
together ; and were both slain together at New Haven in 
France, 1562 ; the one a captain of horse, the other but a 
private soldier." 

Rev. L. B. 

Whittlebury Oaks. — As it is possible that the 
zeal of some of the photographic correspondents 
of " N. & Q." may be sufficiently fervent to sus- 
tain them through a short winter's excursion for 
the sake of securing representations of magnifi- 
cent objects which will very shortly cease to exist, 
I beg to call their attention to the exceedingly 
fine old oaks in Whittlebury Forest, some of 
which are of enormous size, and are in the most 
picturesque state of partial decay. This forest is 
about to be disafibrested, and the trees are at this 
time marked for destruction, and will shortly be 
cut down, under (I believe) the authority of the 
Crown, previous to the land being allotted to the 
various claimants. It is difficult to understand 
why these magnificent wrecks of trees should be 
felled before the land is assigned to its new 
owners, for the value of them as (fire?) wood 
cannot be supposed much, if at all, to exceed the 
cost of cutting them down. Many persons would 
willingly pay much more than their real value for 
the sake of securing them on their property ; and 
not a few keen agriculturalists would much rather 
bear the obstruction they might cause than allow 
such splendidly picturesque old trees to be de- 
stroyed. XX. 

Inscriptions on Buildings. — The following in- 
scription in capital letters, in relief, is in front of 
the gallery in the Court House, Aberdeen : 

*8KKVATB TERMINOS QUOS PATRES VESTKI POSUERE." 

W.G. 



WILKES's COPY OF JUNIUS's LETTEKS. 

Coventry, in a letter to Barker {Claims, ^c, 
p. 298.), says that " at the sale of Wilkes's books 
there was a Junius with Wilkes's notes, brought 
51. 17s. 6d" One would suppose that this was a 
fact admitting of no doubt ; but Barker follows 
with this comment : " I have examined the sale 
catalogue of Mr. Wilkes's books, and do not find 
any mention of the Junius." After this one would 
suppose there could be no doubt the other way. 
Now I have a catalogue of the sale of Wilkes's 
books, with prices and names of purchasers, and 
there I find — 

" No. 715. Junius's Letters, 2 vol. 1794 [the last figure 
defaced]. 15». 

"No. 716. Junius's Letters, 2 vol. 1. Lond. 1772. 
5?. 15s. 6d." 

Both editions were bought in the name of Wall, 
or Wales, but from my copy it is difficult to make 
out the exact name. 

All is not yet made clear. In 1800, Chalmers 
published separately his Appendix to the Supple- 
mental Apology, intended to prove that Hugh 
Boyd was Junius. Therein (p. 42.) he writes : 

" 1 have now before me Mr. Wilkes's edition of Junius's 
Letters, with MS. notes which were written with his own 
hand. The first note is, ' This edition is imperfect and in- 
correct. It was printed by Dryden Leach.' " 

It is obvious that an edition printed by Dryden 
Leach was not the edition of " 1772," for that, it 
may fairly be assumed, was the genuine Woodfall 
edition ; indeed I know of no other in which the 
two volumes are dated 1772. Then again, how 
did any edition which belonged to Wilkes, and had 
his private MS. notes, come into the possession of 
Chalmers in 1 800 ; for Wilkes's books were not sold 
for two years after — Nov. and Dec. 1 802 ? To 
make confusion greater, in Aug. 1853 the books 
of Mr. Roche of Cork were sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Wilkinson, and one lot is thus described : 

" 614. Junius's Letters, 2 vol. old russia. H. S. Wood- 
fall, 1772. 

*^* This copy contains the notes, interlineations, and 
index references copied from those found in that belonging 
to John Wilkes, Esq., sold at his sale in 1802." 

Can any of your intelligent readers say what are 
the facts ? Where is the copy which Chalmers 
quoted from in 1800 ? Where the copy which sold 
for 51. 15s. M. in 1802 ? W. C. J. 



MEDAL OF THE PRETENDER. 

I inclose you two wax impressions of the'jtwo 
sides of a medal I possess, in order the better to 
describe it. The medal is of silver, with a very 
handsome head on one side, and on the other side 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



a dead tree, with a young living tree in leaf 
springing out of its roots. I think the tree is in- 
tended to be an oak. Over the top of the dead 
tree is the word " revLrescit ; " and at the bottom, 
" 1750." The medal is rather larger than a half- 
crown of 1823 ; indeed, the half-crown will nearly 
go within the outside rim of the medal, which is 
considerably broader than that of the half-crown. 

The account I received many years ago of this 
medal is, that it was given by the Pretender to 
Colonel Goring ; who, I believe, died a field- 
marshal in the Prussian service, and from him 
came into the possession of a member of my 
family, in which it has continued ever since. I 
am descended, through my grandmother, from 
William Goring of Kingston and Fradley in Staf- 
fordshire, and Colonel Goring was of the same 
family, I was told that very/ew of those medals 
were struck, as they were intended only for the 
intimate friends and warm supporters of the Pre- 
tender. As my grandmother was about ten years 
of age when the medal was struck, I think it pro- 
bable that the account she gave of it was correct, 
and the more so, as it was always held in par- 
ticular esteem. I have never heard of any other 
medal of this kind, but possibly some of your readers 
may : and I should be obliged to any of them for any 
farther information, either respecting the medal 
itself or Colonel Goring. 

I may add, that the medal is considerably worn, 
as if it had been carried in the pocket ; but not 
so as to obliterate any of its parts. 

Chas. S. Greaves, Q. C. 

[This medal, which was struck in Italy, is not uncom- 
mon. It represents Prince Charles ; and the reverse, the 
young tree springing from the withered trunk, alludes to 
his hopes of re-establishing his family. Impressions exist 
in copper. The likeness of the Prince was an approved 
one, for it appears upon three other medals of different 
sizes, bearing date respectively 1745, 1750 ; 1752, Sept. 23. 
To what does this latter date refer?] 



SIB SAMUEL BAGNAI.L. 

Some time since a friend of mine requested me 
to obtain for him information respecting a gentle- 
man of the name of Sir Samuel Bagnall. He said 
it was supposed he resided in Ireland, and held 
some military command there, either at the latter 
part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, or beginning 
of that of James I. 

To satisfy my friend's request, I examined with 
Bome care many of the existing historical and 
other documents relating to the reign of Eliza- 
beth, and ascertained that the family of Bagnall 
belonged to the county of Stafford ; also that one 
John Bagnall, Esq., had two sons, Ralph and 
Nicholas. That the eldest son. Sir Ralph Bag- 
nall, was described of Barlaston in that county, 



and that he married Elizabeth, the second daugh- 
ter of Robert Whitgrave, Esq., of Burton, in the 
same county, and by whom he had an only son, 
Samuel Bagnall. But by several pedigrees of 
that family which I consulted, it appears that Sir 
Ralph was never married, and that his son Samuel 
was illegitimate. 

The second son of John was Sir Nicholas Bag- 
nall, who married and had a large family, and re- 
ceived in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth 
the appointment of " Marshall of the Army in 
Ireland," which he retained until his death, and 
which occurred in 1575 at his seat, Newry Castle, 
in the county of Armagh. He was succeeded by 
his eldest son. Sir Henry Bagnall, who was also 
married and had several children. The queen, 
upon the death of his father Sir Nicholas, ap- 
pointed him to the same command, which Sir 
Henry held until his death in August, 1598, when, 
during the rebellion, he was slain in a battle at 
Blackwater, fought against the celebrated O'Neill, 
Earl of Tyrone. 

Upon the death of Sir Henry Bagnall, the queen 
gave that command to Sir Richard Bingham ; but 
he dying very suddenly shortly afterwards, the 
queen appointed Sir Samuel Bagnall, the cousin 
of Sir Henry, to that very important ofBce. Sir 
Samuel was very much distinguished at that 
period as a military man. He had accompanied 
the famous Devereux, Earl of Essex, in the ex- 
pedition against Cadiz in 1596, and at the taking 
of that city by assault, he received eight wounds, 
and was knighted on that occasion by the Earl of 
Essex, under the authority granted specially to 
him by Queen Elizabeth. So soon as Sir Samuel 
received the appointment, he immediately put 
himself at the head of 2000 infantry and 300 ca- 
valry, and crossed over the channel into Ireland. 

The latest account I have as yet been able to 
find of him is, that he still held tlie same command 
in 1602 ; but whether he died or resigned about 
that time, I cannot ascertain. Sir Samuel Bag- 
nall married, and left issue several daughters, but 
whether he had any sons I do not know. 

As the correspondents of " N. & Q." are so 
numerous and so well read, I have thought it very 
probable that some of them may be able to fur- 
nish me with the additional information I am in 
search of. My Queries are : 

1. The name of the wife of Sir Samuel Bag- 
nall ? 

2. Where his residence was, and when and 
where he died ? 

3. The names of his sons (if any?) and the 
names of his daughters, and whether married or 
not ? Chabtham. 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



Minav ^utviti. 

Pope and " The Dunciad." — Do any of your 
correspondents know of an edition of The Dun- 
<nad (alone) in Timo. or small 8vo., of the date of 
1750 ? Such an edition there certainly was. If 
any gentleman happens to possess it, and would 
kindly send it to the publisher's for my inspection, 
it should be safely and thankfully returned in two 
or three days. C. 

Gurney's " Burning of East Dereham.^' — An 
Account of the lamentable Burning of East Dere- 
ham, in the County of Norfolk, on the \st of July, 

1581, by Arthur Gurney, in verse, black letter, 

1582, London. Mentioned by Blomefield, who 
refers to Anecdotes of Topography, p. 37 1 . 

Where can I meet with a copy of this scarce 
poem ? I could not find it at the British Museum. 

G. A. C. 

Neilson Family. — What branch of the family 
of Neilson bears the arms of the Neilson of Cor- 
sack ; and what are the arms, crest, and motto, if 
any ? The same information respecting the family 
of Neilson of Grays ; Neilson of Craigcaffie ; 
Neilson of Maxwood ; Neilson of Grangen ; Neil- 
son of Galloway or Galway. In Naphtali, p. 323., 
the name of John Neilson of Corsack is mentioned, 
the said J. N. having died at Edinburgh, Dec. 14, 
1666. The name of Neilson, jun. (I suppose the 
son), appears in the list of fugitives. May 5, 1684. 
The land which appertained to this family was 
confiscated, it is said. Can you give any reliable 
information on the subject ? To whom is it sup- 
posed to have belonged ? 

The name William Neilson appears in the list 
of provosts of Edinburgh, a. d. 1717-18. Who are 
the descendants of this William Neilson, and what 
were his arms, crest, motto, &c. ? 

In the time of Robert Bruce, one of the family 
was entitled to bear two shields. What were 
they, and to whom descending, with crest ? 

From what heraldic work can this be learned ? 

Ex Familia. 

P. S. — Would you kindly say whether the 
Neilsons are descendants of the O'Neils, kings of 
a province of Ireland ; or from whom supposed to 
be descended, and how far back they can trace 
their pedigree ? 

Lucifer'' s Lawsuit. — After having described the 
dispute between Corcyra and Corinth, respecting 
Epidamnus, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian 
war, Niebuhr adds the following remark : 

" From a legal point of view, much might indeed have 
been said on both sides to justify the interference : and if 
the matter had been tried in a court of justice with all the 
tricker}' of lawyers, very different decisions might have 
been come to ; as in a very learned lawsuit of Lucifer 
against Christ, for doing injury to paganism, which was 



composed in the seventeenth century." — Lect. on Anc. 
Hittory, vol. ii. p. 39., ed. Schmitz. 

Can any of your correspondents explain this allu- 
sion ? L. 

Husbandman. — What is the original signifi- 
cation of this term ? In the present day we 
usually understand by it an agricultural labourer, 
a cottager, and such like. I have, however, seen 
it put as an addition, in former times, to persons 
whom I am disposed to think must have been in 
a somewhat higher position in life than those 
above mentioned. In Burn's History of Parish 
Registers in England, p. 98., is an extract from 
the register at Barwell, October 7, 1655, of "Mr. 
Gregory Isham, attorney and husbandman ;" and 
at Hawsted, p. 129. : 

" William Cawstone and Mary Baldwin, of this parish, 
were married 8 Sept. [1710]. The said William is a 
husbandman, and liable to pay 2s. Gd. as the king's 
duty." 

C.J. 
Talismanic Ping. — I have a ring in my posses- 
sion to which my father attached superstitious 
importance, and it bears the following inscription: 
" C2. 0. A2. = M'. T2. R«. Talisman *." 

Can any of your readers enlighten me as to the 
meaning of these signs, and inform me if such 
rings are common ? G. C. 

11. Mark Lane. 

Booch or Butch Family. — Information is re- 
quested as to the family of Booch or Butch, who 
lived in Carlisle or its neighbourhood. Upwards 
of one hundred years ago Elizabeth Booch (or 
Butch) from Carlisle settled in Dublin. Her 
father was an ensign in the army of William HI., 
at the battle of the Boyne. Her husband's father 
was an officer in James's army. He either belonged 
to Tyrone, or settled in that county after the 
revolution. Any information will interest 

A Descendant. 

Wolverhampton. 

Dramatic Queries. — Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding the following curious drama, 
the names of dramatis persona, &c. ? — The Manu- 
script, an interlude, by William Lucas, 1809. This 
drama is published in a volume along with The 
Travels of Humanus in search of the Temple of 
Happiness, an allegory. I would also be obliged 
for any account of the author. Besides the works 
I have mentioned, he has written The Fate of 
Bertha,a poem, 4to., 1800; The Duellist; or Men 
of Honour, London, 8vo., 1805, — a story calcu- 
lated to show the folly, extravagance, and sin of 
duelling. 

Can any of your readers give me the names of 
the authors of the following dramas, all of which I 
believe are very scarce ? — The Planters of the 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



Vineyai'd ; or the Kirk Sessions confounded, a 
comedy: Edinburgh, 1771. Malvina, a, tragedy: 
printed at Glasgow, 1786. The Duke of Roch- 
ford, a Tragedy from the Posthumous works of a 
Lady of Quality : performed at Edinburgh, 1799. 
Can any of your Newcastle correspondents give 
me any account of T. Houston, author of The 
Term-Day ; or the Unjust Steward, a comedy : 
printed at Newcastle, 1803 ? R. J. 

First Book prirded in Neio England. — At the 
sale of the residue of Mr. Pickering's books at 
Sotheby's Rooms on the 12 th ult., a lot (531) 
was sold, comprising various editions of the Psalms 
betwixt the years 1630 and 1675; it was pur- 
chased by Mr. Stevens, the American agent, who 
stated that one of the versions, dated 1646, was 
the first book printed in New England. Any 
bibliographical information respecting this volume, 
and its claims to priority, will oblige. 

C. J. Francis. 

Islington. 

" The ivoodville sung," ^c. — 

" The woodville sung, and would not cease, 
(Sitting upon the spray) ; 
So loud he waken'd Robin Hood, 
In the greenwood where he lay." 

It is desired to know whence the above is a 
quotation, and also what bird is intended by the 
"woodville?" E. A. B. 

F.S.A. Question. — Can any of your correspon- 
dents state if there be any, and what, legal rights 
with reference to the assumption by individuals, 
members or fellows of any societies, chartered or 
otherwise, to affix this or that series of letters to 
their names ; or any and what legal remedies for 
wrongful assumption ? I apprehend that there is 
no legal remedy ; and that the assumption at all, 
except where the authority is specially granted 
by charter, is a mere matter of taste or custom. 
How far a bye-law could give such authority, is 
aoother question. Nemo. 

" William and Margaret." — This beautiful 
ballad has been set to music no less beautiful than 
itself. But who is the composer? It opens in 
the key of D minor, but the key changes with every 
verse. It is not to be found in the list of Purcell's 
works. I hope Dr. Rimbault, or some of your 
musical correspondents, can answer my question. 

Hermes. 

Armorial. — To what families do the following 
arms belong ? 

1. Azure, a griffin rampant or. 

2. Argent, a chevron gules between three bugle- 
horns sable. 

The tinctures may not be quite correctly given 
on the plate from which the above are copied. 

P. P— M. 



Arms of Ilsley. — On the floor of the chancel of 
the parish church of Yoxall, co. Staffiard, is a stone 
slab, with a Latin inscription, commemorating 
Thomas Swinnerton of High- Wall-Hill, in the 
parish of Yoxall, gentleman, second son of Thomas 
Swinnerton of Butterton, co. Stafford, who died 
3rd July, 1713 ; and above the inscription is 
carved the arms of Swinnerton, a cross fleuree, 
over all a bendlet, impaling a chevron between 
three birds, or martlets. 

This Thomas Swinnerton married Sarah, second 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Ilsley, of High- 
Wall-Hill; and the adjoining stone records her 
death on I2th August, 1717, and styles her "wife 
and relict of Thomas Swinnerton, Gentleman." 

What is the blazon of the lady's arms ? 

Shaw, in his History of Staffordshire, vol. i. 
p. 101., describes the birds as "Cornish choughs." 
The arms of Ilsley are generally given as. Or, 
two bars gemelles sable, in chief three pellets. 

D. W. B. 



iHtiiar ^Mtxiti fiit'tib %.\i^txi. 

Joyce Family. — Could any of your correspon- 
dents, who have access to a copy of Nichols's 
Leicestershire, inform me whether, in that work, 
there is any account of the family of Joyce, at 
Blackfordby in the hundred of West Goscote ? 
Also, could any one give me any particulars con- 
cerning William Joyce, mentioned in Pepys's 
Diary, as to the place of his birth, &c. M. (1) 

[In Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 63, 64., 
edit. 1804, under Blackfordby, appears the following : — 
" Mr. John Joyce, who owned an estate at Blac:kfordby, 
very pleasantly situated on an eminence, well wooded, 
and excellent land both for tillage, sheep, and dairy, died 
more than twenty years since, leaving four sons, William, 
Nicholas, John, and Henry. The eldest, William, an 
attorney, died a few years after his father ; when the 
estate came to Nicholas, the present possessor, who now 
lives at Billesdon, and was an apothecary there. John, 
the third son, Avho was likewise an apothecary at Coles- 
hill, on the death of William, relinquishing business, came 
to reside at Blackfordby, and farmed the estate, which he 
rented of his elder brother Nicholas. This John died very 
lately, and has left a family, among whom is a son, also 
named John. Henry, the fourth brother, lives unmarried 
at Ashby. In the chapel yard, at the east end of the 
chapel, is an old altar tomb of stone, for William Joyce, 
gent., who died 1706, aged 51 ; and Sarah his wife, who 
died 1731, aged 67. There are several head-stones for 
their descendants, who have long inhabited the house 
opposite." This William Joyce does not appear to be the 
same person who is noticed in the Diary as Pepys's cousin, 
whose wife's name was Kate, " a comely fat woman." 
Anthony Joyce kept the Three Stags at Holborn Conduit, 
as we learn from a token issued by him, and described by 
Akerman, p. 105.] 

The Irish Palatines. — Can you tell me where 
to look for a satisfactory account of the Palatines 
in Ireland ? I am aware of what is said of them 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



by Ferrar in his History of Limerick, pp. 409 — 
412., edit. 1787. Abhba. 

[The following notice of the poor Palatines occurs 
in the Memoirs of Thomas Marquis of Wharton, by Sir 
K. Steele, p. 66. : 

" In this year (1709) the poor Palatines came into 
England, and my Lord Wharton, whose wisdom was too 
extensive to be confined to the narrow views of an igno- 
rant selfish faction, procured the Privy Council of Ireland 
to join with him in an humble address to Her Majesty, 
that as many of the poor Palatines as Her Majesty should 
think fit, might be settled in that kingdom ; where they 
should be very kindly received, and advantageously 
settled." 

Some farther notices of these poor Palatines will be 
found in The Annals of Queen Anne, 1709, 8vo. pp. 166 — 
168. Consult also Boyer's Political State of Great Britain, 
vol. i. pp. 133. 276—280.] 

Etruscan Bronzes. — At the sale of the collec- 
tion of the late Crofton Croker, last month, were 
several Etruscan bronzes labelled — 

" Dug up in 1829, under the immediate inspection of 
Lucien Buonaparte, Prince of Canino, on his estate at 
Canino, in Romany, on the borders of Tuscany, from the 
tombs of the ancient Etruscan kings; discovered to be 
the ruins of Vitulonia, which existed previous to the 
foundation of Rome, and 800 years before the birth of 
Christ. Purchased by Mr. W. Tilt, Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden." 

Can any of your readers refer me to an account 
of this discovery ? R. H. B. 

Bath. 

[In Archceohgia, vol. xxiii. pp. 130 — 276., is a " Cata- 
logue and account of certain Vases and other Etruscan 
Antiquities discovered in 1828 and 1829, by the Prince of 
Canino, translated and communicated to the Society of 
Antiquaries, by Lord Dudley Stuart, in a letter to .the 
Earl of Aberdeen." In an appendix to the article is a 
note by the Prince, containing an account of the origin of 
the excavations, &c. Consult also the Gent. Mag., vol. c. 
pt. i. pp. 162. 352.] 

The " Telliamed." — Is a publication called 
Telliamed (about 1750) known to any of your 
readers ? D. 

Leamington. 

[|The following notice of this work occurs in Barbier, 
Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Anonynies, s. v. : " TeUiame d 
ou Entretiens d'un Philosophe indien avec un Mission- 
naire francois, sur la diminution de la mer, mis en ordre 
sur les Memoires de M. de Maillet, par. A. G. [A. Guer]. 
Amsterdam, I'Honor^, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo. Nouvelle Edi- 
tion, augment^ sur les originaux de I'auteur, avec une 
vie de M. de Maillet [par I'abb^ le Mascrier]. Paris, de 
Bure, 1755, 2 vols. 12mo."] 

" The Twa Bairns" a Ballad. — In Mr. Kings- 
ley's lecture on English Literature, at Queen's 
College, Harley Street, published with other 
lectures in 1849, he asked : 

" How many poets are there in England now who could 
have written 'The Twa Bairns,' or 'Sir Patrick Spense ? ' " 

We all know " Sir Patrick Spense," through Percy's 



Reliques; but where is the ballad of " The Twa 
Bairns" to be found ? C. (2) 

[This ballad is entitled " The Bonnie Bairns," and will 
be found in Allan Cunningham's Songs of Scotland, vol. ii. 
p. 70., edit. 1826 ; it commences — 

" The lady she walk'd in yon wild wood. 
Beneath the hoUin tree, 
And she was aware of twa bonnie bairns 
Were running at her knee."] 



THE devil's dozen. 

(Vol. X., pp. 346. 474. 531.) 

I might, I think, complain of the tone of G. N.'s 
reply ; I shall content myself with proving that he 
is wrong on every point, of both his Query and 
his " defence " of it. He says he has never heard 
of the " baker's dozen." I wonder where he has 
lived. I beg leave to inform him, that the 
" baker's dozen " is not a phrase, but a fact of 
daily occurrence in the trade for the numbet 
fourteen, or more commonly thirteen ; and if he 
will send to any baker's shop for a dozen of rolls, 
he will receive thirteen of a larger size, or fourteen 
of a smaller. I will venture a conjecture at ex- 
plaining whence this custom may have arisen. 
Under the highly penal statutes for the assize of 
bread, bakers were liable to heavy penalties for 
any deficiency in the weight of loaves, and these 
weights were specified for loaves of every price 
from 18d. down to 2d. ; hut penny loaves, or rolls, 
were (no doubt from their minute weights) not 
specified in the statute : and therefore the bakers, 
when selling these nondescripts, to be on the safe 
side, threw in a thirteenth of the larger rolls or 
two of the smaller ones. And though the assize 
has been discontinued, the practice still survives ; 
and my housekeeper, only last week, received 
fourteen small rolls for the dozen. Nor is the 
use of the term confined to the technicality of the 
trade ; it is frequently used metaphorically to 
express thirteen or fourteen : for instance, in 
Grose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, G. N. 
will find : 

" Baker's Dozen, /owr^een; that number of rolls being 
allowed to purchasers of a dozen." 

And it is so ancient, that old Hudson, when he 
discovered the Bay of that name, gave to a cluster 
of thirteen or fourteen islands on the east shore of 
it the name of the " Baker's Dozen," as may be 
seen in all the charts, and even in the foreign 
ones, for D'Anville's great atlas exhibits those 
islands as " La Douzaine du Boulanger." 

The passage G. N. quotes from Dr. Jamieson 
is an egregious mistake of both his and the good 
Doctor's. It refers to a matter of an entirely 
different nature, viz. the superstitious dislike 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



which many people have to sit down to table with 
thirteen guests. Dr. Jamieson says, he cannot 
account for so strange a prejudice ; but I need 
hardly say, that it alludes, not to any supposed 
"Devil's dozen," but to the very contrary — a 
supper where there were a dozen righteous per- 
sons, and one only the Devil's, Judas Iscariot. C. 



COWLBT ON SHAKSPEABI:;. 

(Vol. xi., p. 48.) 

For the satisfaction of J. O. H., I copy from an 
old edition of Cowley in my possession, printed by 
Herringman in 1680, the passage to which I sup- 
pose he refers. It occurs in the preface to bis 
Poems, in which he complains of a publication of 
his verses without his concurrence, full of errors 
and interpolations. He then proceeds : 

" From this which has happened to myself, I began to 
reflect on the fortune of almost all writers, and especially 
poets, whose works (commonly printed after their deaths') 
we find stuffed out, either with counterfeit pieces, or with 
such which, though of their own coin, they would have 
called in themselves, for the baseness of the alloy; 
whether this proceed from the indiscretion of their friends, 
or by the unworthy avarice of some stationers, who are 
content to diminish the value of the author, so they may 
increase the price of the book. This hath been the case 
with Shakspeare, Fletcher, Johnson, and many others, 
part of whose poems I should take the boldness to pnme 
aad lop awaj', if the care of replanting them in print did 
belong to me," &c. 

While on the subject of Shakspeare, may I be 
excused for noticing an allusion to one of his cha- 
racters which I have just met with, written some 
thirty years previous to this preface, and by no 
less a person than Chillingworth ? It is in his 
first answer to " Charity Maintained," and is as 
follows : 

" So that, as a foolish fellow, who gave a knight the 
lie, desiring withal leave of him to set his knighthood 
aside, was answered by him, that he would not sufier 
anything to be set aside that belonged unto him," &c. 

This seems clearly to refer to the scene between 
Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice, where the 
attendant says, — 

"I pray you, Sir, then set your knighthood aside, and 
give me leave to tell you, you lie in your throat," &c. 

To which the knight replies, — 

" I give thee leave to tell me so ! I lay aside that 
which grows to me ! If thou get'st any leave of me, 
hang me," &c. 

I hope Cowley would not have " pruned and 
lopped away " this passage. F. White. 



SIB THOMAS FBKNDEBGAST. 

(Vol. xi., p. 12.) 

I have extracted (literally so) the following page 
from my Memoir of the Campaign of 1708, by 
John Marshall Deane, privately printed in 1846 : 
and I send it to you as an answer to Mr. G. Tay- 
LOB of Reading, who (Vol. xi., p. 12.) wishes to 
know the particulars of the story of Sir Thos. 
Prendergast's dream or vision. 

" Sir Thomas Prendergast was Colonel of the Twenty- 
second Regiment in 1709, when he fell at Malplaquet under 
very extraordinary circumstances, as testified by the fol- 
lowing extract from Boswell's Life of Dr. Johnson, vol. iii. 
c viii. p. 220. 12mo. 1835. 

" ' General Oglethorpe told us that Prendergast, an oflBicer 
of the Duke of Marlborough's army, had mentioned to 
many of his friends, that he should die on a particular 
day ; that on that day a battle took place with the French ; 
that after it was over, and Prendergast still alive, his 
brother officers, while they were yet in the field, jestingly 
asked him, ' Where was his prophecy now ? ' Prendergast 
gravely answered, ' I shall die notwithstanding what you 
see.' Soon afterwards there came a shot from a French 
battery to which orders for a cessation of arms had not yet 
reached, and he was killed on the spot. Colonel Cecil, who 
took possession of his efiects, found in his pocket-book the 

following solemn entry : — [Here the date] * Dreamt 

or * Sir John Friend meets me. '^ [here the very 

day on which he was killed was mentioned.] 

" 'Prendergast had been connected with Sir John Friend, 
who had been executed for high treason [by William the 
Third]. General Oglethorpe said he was with Colonel 
Cecil when Pope came and inquired into the truth of this 
story, which made a great noise at the time, and was then 
confirmed by the colonel.' 

" Such is this remarkable story. Mr. Croker endeavours 
to throw doubt upon it : ' Colonel Sir Thomas Prender- 
gast, of the Twenty-second Foot, was killed at Malplaquet, 
Aug. 31, 1709 ; but no trace can be foimd of any Colonel 
Cecil in the army at that period. Colonel Wm. Cecil, the 
Jacobite, sent to the Tower in 1744, could hardly have 
been, in 1709, of the age, rank, and station which Ogle- 
thorpe's anecdote seems to imply.' 

" But General Oglethorpe does not say that Cecil was a 
Colonel in 1709 : he might only have been a subaltern at 
that time, and a colonel when spoken of in the above con- 
versation. If he was a relative of Sir Thomas Prender- 
gast, he would probably administer to his property and 
take charge of his papers, as he is reported to have done. 
It is at all events clear, that Friend, Prendergast, and 
Colonel Cecil, were of the same political party. Whatever 
then may be the measure of our credulity in respect of 
apparitions of spirits, or premonitions of death, this ex- 
planation, or rather objection, by Mr. Croker, has not, in 
mj' mind, cleared away the difficulties of the direct nar- 
rative." 

J. B. Deane. 

Bath. 

* Note by Boswell. — "Here was a blank which may 
be filled up thus, or was fold by an apparition." 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



" EOCCHA DE CAMPANIS. 
(Vol. xi., p. 33.) 

Thanks are due to an Irish correspondent for a 
Note from a bookseller's catalogue (would he had 
given the date), showing the value (five pounds !) 
set upon a book on bells. He will see the work 
enumerated in my first list, Vol. x., p. 240. 

I have before alluded to the same work as one 
full of information on the subject (Vol. vi., 
p. 610.) ; but to give such an account of it as is 
asked for, would be to abridge the whole work, 
and would take up too many pages of " N. 
& Q." However, I will copy the title-page, and 
all that I find in the volume about Irish bells. 
For a fuller account of the good old bishop (who 
was a very voluminous writer), I would refer 
Enivri to biographical dictionaries. Should he 
wish to possess the work, I shall be happy to re- 
ceive the value set upon it by John O'Daly, and 
to devote it to the fund for the restoration of this 
church, in which I am engaged ; or if he will 
favour me with a direct communication, dropping 
his assumed (I presume) name, I shall be ready to 
lend it to him should he wish to read it ; it is a 
thin 4to. of 166 pages besides an index, with 
plates. The title-page (nicely ornamented) runs 
thus : 

"de 

campanis 

commentarivs 

a. fr. angelo roccha 

EPISCOPO TAGASTENSI, 

ET APOSTOLICI SACRARII PR^FECTO 

ELUCUBRATUS, 

AD SAXCTAM ECCLESIAM 

CATHOLICAM 

DIRECTVS. 

" In quo multa non minus admiratione, ac scitu digna, 

quam lectu jucunda, in Ecclesia Dei reperiri narratur. 

"Juxta diversa Quaesita, quae in pagina quinta videre 

licet. 

ROM^ 

APUD GULLIELMUM FACCIOTTUM. 

SUPERIORUM PERMISSU 

ANNO DOMINI 

M.DC.XII." 

" Cap. VII. Admiranda de Campanis consecratis. 

"Silentio prictermittenda non censentur admiranda 
ilia, et scitu quidem dignissima, quae de Campanis con- 
secratis narrantur, prajsertim vero juramentum in primis 
illud in Hibernia, Scotia, et alibi super Campanas prsestari 
consuetum, ob magnam reverentiam, quae ipsis adhibetur 
dictis in locis. Si qui enim super Campanas pejerare, hoc 
est falso, et animo fallendi jurare audeant, plerumque 
tacite, ut ita dicam, vel cselitus puniuntur. Si qui vero 
tales convicti ab homine pejerasse inveniantur, graviter in 
€03 animadverti solet, ut colligitur ex eo, quod in Topo- 
graphia Hiberniaj scriptum reliquit Silvester Giraldus in 
haec verba. 

" ' Hoc etiam non praetereundum puto, quod Campanas 
baiulas, baculosque Sanctorum in superiori parte recurvos, 
auro et argento, vel aere contextos, sive contectos, in 
magna reverentia tam Hiberniae, et ScotiaB, quam Guual- 



liae, vel Uualliae Populus, et Clerus habere solent ; ita ut 
Sacramenta (hoc est juramenta), super haec longe magis, 
quam super Evangelia, et praestare vereantur, et pejerare. 
Ex vi enim quadam occulta, et lis quasi divinitusinsita, 
necnon et vindicta (eujus praicipue Sancti illi appetibiles 
esse videntur) plerumque puniuntur contemptores, et 
graviter animadvertitur in transgressores.' 

'I Haec de juramento super Campanas prjestari memo- 
ratis in locis consueto, narrat Giraldus." 

From which, methinks, a Scotch or a AVelsh 
bookseller might as well claim the author for a 
countryman, as John O'Daly of Dublin fancies he 
must have been an Irishman ! 

H. T. Ellacombe. 
Rectory, Ch'st St. George. 



photographic cobeespondence. 

Collodioiiized Glass Plates, 8^c. — As I should be very 
sorry to make my old friend " N. & Q." the medium of 
any personal discussion between Mr. Shadbolt and my- 
self, I will be contented with merely acquitting myself of 
the various allegations contained in his letter (Vol. xi.^ 
p. 34.), and leaving the case as it stands to the opinion of 
the public. I am not a little surprised that my letter on 
the subject of preserving collodion plates should so have 
disturbed Mr. Shadbolt, and at the same time I am 
rather at a loss to find out wfiat I have done to merit his 
statements concerning me. 

In my reply I must divide his statement into two 
parts. 

First, he says I accuse him of plagiarism. Secondly, 
he states that I have plagiarised on his process. 

Now, as to the first point. I must repeat what I said, 
which was nearly as follows : That it was singular Mr. 
Shadbolt and myself should have been experimenting 
in the same line at nearly the same time, as his process 
seemed only to differ from mine in the fact that he left a 
slight excess of nitrate on the plate, whereas I kept the 
excess in the sj'rup. I then stated that I felt Mr. Shad- 
bolt to be a perfectly independent discoverer, but claimed 
for myself the priority of publication. Then I gave an- 
other method of preparing the plate for Iceeping it ; and, 
having some delicac}- as to even taking that part of his 
process, I said that I adopted his plan of washing the 
plate with a weaker nitrate bath. I might add, that in 
his first publication of his process, Mr. Shadolt never 
even alluded to my previous publication, although my 
process was published on the 17th of June, and his not 
till the 20th of the following month. He can surely, 
therefore, have nothing to say on this head? I do then 
most distinctly claim being the first to apply the honey 
or grape sugar to the collodion plate. Next, I do claim 
having also applied the same substances to preserving the 
plate sensitive, as may be seen in four instantaneous views 
which will appear in the Exhibition before the end of this 
month, in one of which the plate was kept for twenty -four 
hours, and the other three were carried two miles in a 
hot summer sun, and kept five hours. These were shown 
at the Royal Institution before the publication of my 
process. 

In my first publication I said that the stability of the 
process was greatly increased by my method. And again, 
in another place, that by my method the plates would 
keep for four hours at least. 

The combination of nitrate of silver with the grape 
sugar I still hold to be quite essential, as without it I find 
that not only are the half-tones not so perfect in the deep 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



shades, but next, that otherwise, with the utmost care 
possible, I cannot help getting one part of the plate more 
sensitive than the other, by the syrup washing the nitrate 
more from the side on which it is first poured on, than 
from that on which it runs off. It is evident, however, 
that after a certain time Mr. Shadbolt's syrup will be- 
come sufficiently nitrated b^' what it will wash off from 
the plate, and this nitrate will not, as he says, all preci- 
pitate by exposure to light, but a considerable portion 
•will always remain in combination. My object is to pre- 
vent the washing off by having the syrup and the wash- 
ing bath each about equally charged with nitrate ; and 
this small excess of nitrate does not injure the solution 
of grape sugar so much as it will most samples of honey, 
as the uucrystallisable sugar which the latter contains 
generally decomposes and causes the plate to fog. 

Now for the other portion of his statement : that I have 
taken his process, merely interpolating mine for making 
grape sugar. In my letter I said that I adopted tlie plan of 
Mk. Siiadbolt in washing the plate, which was excellent ; 
and as that makes the essential difference between his 
process and mine, I felt that in so saying I had given him 
all his due. And then I gave a process in which, for 
reasons before stated, I used grape sugar, not honey, and 
put nitrate of silver in the sj-rup ; and these differences 
being certainlj' at least as great as those between Mr. 
Shadbolt's process and mine, I leave it to the public to 
decide whether he has behaved as justly to me as I have 
to him. 

I may add also, in answer to what he saj's of the in- 
finitesimal nature of my dose of nitrate, that to all ac- 
quainted with the chemistry of photography it is well 
known what is the comportment of iodide of silver in the 
presence of even the smallest excess of nitrate of silver, 
and of the same substance when nitrate is not present. 
I feel the utmost confidence that my plan will be the one 
ultimately adopted for preserving the plates, as by this 
method with the grape sugar the results must be much 
more certain and regular than when honey, a substance 
•which is of so uncertain a constitution, is employed. In 
conclusion, I may add that I am very sorry to have tres- 
passed on your pages for so long a space; but as you 
have given publication to Mr. Shadbolt's letter, I hope 
you will permit me, with your usual kindness, to make 
my response to it, and I promise that I will not trouble 
you farther on this matter ; for should any reply be 
made to this letter, having now fully stated my case, and 
being also at present in a foreign country, I shall leave it 
to your readers to decide ■\vhether Mr. Shadbolt or my- 
self is in the right, and feel no doubt as to the result. 

r. Maxwell Lyte. 

Maison George, Rue Montpensier, Pau. 
Jan. 19, 1855. 

Bromo-iodide of Silver. — Mr. Reade, in a letter he 
addressed to you (Vol. xL, p. 51.), endeavours to show 
that the statements I made in my former letter in refer- 
ence to this subject are at variance with those of Mr. 
Lttte, which is not the case. He says that I prove, or 
think I prove, by my experiment, which he describes, 
that the so-called bromo-iodide of silver (for such, he 
says, is the precipitate I obtain from Dr. Diamond's 
solution) is in fact nothing of the kind, but consists en- 
tirelj' of iodide of silver; whereas, he says, Mr. Lyte 
first of all proves that the same compound'and iodide of 
silver when dissolved in strong liq. amm. are each simi- 
larly acted upon by dilute nitric acid, and then forms a 
true bromo-iodide of silver, but in such combination as to 
exhibit the same kind of milkiness which occurs with 
pure bromide of silver on the addition of an acid, and 
hence leads to the conclusion that bromide and not iodide 
of silver is exhibited by this experiment. 



Now I beg to remark, in the first place, thi^t the true 
bromo-iodide of silver which Mr. Lyte forms by adding 
an excess of nitrate of silver to a solution of the bromide 
and iodide of potassium, consisting as it does of a mixture 
of bromide with iodide of silver, is a very different com- 
pound from Mr. Reade's bromo-iodide of silver ; and, 
secondly, that my statement as to the latter being iodide 
of silver, is confirmed by Mr. LrxE, although Mr. Reade 
is endeavouring to prove the contrary. 

Again, Mr. Reade states that the whole of the silver 
from a solution of the double bromide and double iodide 
of silver is precipitated by water, which is quite true ; but 
what it has to do with the question under discussion I 
am St a loss to conceive. The whole of the silver from 
Dr Diamond's solution is precipitated by water, but it 
does not necessarily follow that the precipitate consists 
either wholly or partly of bromide or bromo-iodide of 
silver. On the contrary, the whole of the bromide of 
silver is, as I stated in my former letter, decomposed by 
the iodide of potassium, iodide of silver and bromide of 
potassium being formed ; and if Mr. Reade will take 
the trouble to test the precipitate for bromine, after hav- 
ing well washed it with water, he will find that it does 
not contain a trace of that element. 

Farther, Mr. Reade states that paper prepared •with 
Dr. Diamond's solution is more sensitive than ordinary 
calotype paper in the proportion of 10 to 1 ; but what 
does Dr. Diamond himself say as to the effect of his so- 
lution of bromide of silver? He says {Photog. Journal, 
vol. 1. p. 132.) it does not increase the general sensitive- 
ness of the paper, although it seems to accelerate its power 
of receiving impressions from the green rays ; a statement 
■which, as far as regards the general sensitiveness of the 
paper, is quite in accordance with my experience. 

In conclusion, if Mr. Reade will wash his paper more 
thoroughly after applying the solution, so as to get rid of 
the whole of the bromide and iodide of potassium, I am 
confident he ■will not find it more sensitive than ordinary 
calotype paper. J, Leachmak. 

20. Compton Terrace, Islington. 



3RepIte^ to Minat ^utvitS. 

Death-bed Superstition (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — An 
extract from your paper, thus headed, having 
been extensively copied, I beg to state that the 
whole story is a misrepresentation, no doubt un- 
intentional. I ■was the clergyman of Charlcombe 
at the time alluded to, and no death took place in 
the parish during the year 1852 ; but in 1850 the 
clerk came to me to borrow, not the plate, for 
there was none, but a pewter plate to place it on 
the body of a person already dead, to prevent the 
body swelling. It is true I used the plate as a 
paten, but it was asked for simply because it was 
pewter ; so that it might be a case of quackery, 
but not of superstition ; and I think it is plain to 
any one that a dying person could hardly bear a 
pewter plate filled with salt upon his chest, and if 
placed there it would be much more likely to 
hasten death than to alleviate it. 

Ed.mund Ward Peahs. 

" Whychcotte of St. Johns" (Vol. iii., p. 302. ; 
Vol. xi., p. 27.). — The authorship of this very 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



interesting work has often been questioned. I am 
however enabled to state, that it was written by 
the Rev. Erskine Neale, now rector of Wood- 
bridge. This gentleman is still actively engaged 
in literary pursuits. Among the best known of 
his later works are The Experiences of a Gaol 
Chaplain and The Coroner's Clerk. 

RoBEEX S. Salmon. 
iS'ewcastle-.on-Tyne. 

Railroads in England (Vol. x., p. 365.). — The 
following extracts may perhaps interest your Cor- 
respondent W. W,, who inquires for notices of 
railroads earlier than 1676 ; 

" It appears by the order of the Hostmen's Company, 
'at a courte hoiden the thirde day of Februar}-, anno 
Reginse Elizabethse, &c. 43, annoque Domini 1600,' that 
waggons and waggon- ways had not then been invented ; 
but that the coals were at that time brought down from 
the pits in wains (holding eight bolls each, all measured 
and marked), to the staiths by the side of the river 
Tyne." — Brand's History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vol. ii. 
p. 272. 

Again : 

'*' 1671. Waggon-ways, or railway's, for the conveyance 
of coals, appear to have been in use on the Tyne at this 
period. In Bailey's View of Durham, p. 35., it is stated 
(on the authority of Mr. Robson, then agent at Ravens- 
worth) that the earliest mention of coals delivered by 
waggons occurs in 1671, at Team Staith." — Richardson's 
Local Historian's Table Book, voL i. p. 301. 

And the following seems to confirm the date : 

" September 2, 1674. The hostmen of Newcastle en- 
deavoured to procure an Act of Parliament to regulate 
the great abuses and exactions upon the collieries for 
their way leaves and staith-rooms." — Brand's History of 
Newcastle, vol. ii. p. 297. 

To the coal-owners on the river Tyne, there- 
fore, is due the honour of having commenced the 
system of Railways. The system was not adopted 
on the neighbouring river, the Wear, until a much 
later period, as appears by the following extract 
from Hutchinson's History of Durham: 

" 1693. Waggon-ways were now first used on the river 
Wear by Thomas Allan, Esq., of Xewcastle, who amassed 
a large fortune in collieries, and purchased estates, a part 
of which still retains the name of ' Allan's Flatts,' near 
Chester-le-Street." 

Robert S. Salmon. 

Xewcastle-on-Tyne. 

'■'■Talented" (Vol. xi., p. 17.). — Coleridge, a 
great authority in such matters, objected to the 
use of this word. In p. 181. of Table Talk, he 
says : 

" I regret to see that vile and barbarous vocable talented, 
stealing out of the newspapers into the leading reviews 
and most respectable publications of the day. Why not 
shillinged, farthinged, tenpenced, &c. .' The formation of a 
participle- passive from a noun, is a license that nothing 
but a very peculiar felicity can excuse." 

Coleridge evidently is not aware of its being a 



revived word, for • he goes on to say that such 
slang mostly comes from America. Your corre- 
spondent adduces several words ; he might have 
added gifted as analogous in formation to talented, 
and in most constant use. E. 

" Snick up'' (Vol. i., p. 467. ; Vol. ii., p. 14. ; 
Vol. iv., p. 28.). — Respecting this expression, I 
quote a passage from Middleton's Blurt, Master 
Constable, Dyce'sedlt., 1840, vol.i. p. 284., to show, 
as I think, that it is not invariably used as a stage 
direction for " hiccough," whatever it may signify 
in Twelfth Night : 

" Sim. You smell a sodden sheep's head: A rat? 
Ay, a rat ; and you will not believe one, marry, fob ! I 
have been believed of your betters, marry, sriick up I " 

I think it likely to mean " shut your shop," a 
vulgar expression of the present day, — " What do 
you know about it ? " E. H. B. 

Demerara. 

The Post-mark on the Junius Letters (Vol. viii., 
p. 8. ; Vol. X., p. 523.). — For the information of 
your correspondents, allow me to say that I have 
in my possession several letters of the required 
date, and bearing the peculiar mark. They are 
among the family correspondence of the late Dr. 
Doddridge. One of his daughters, while on a visit 
to the neighbourhood of London, writes to her 
mother at Northampton, and posts her letter 
(franked) at the suburban office. The mark is 
invariably a triangular stamp, with the words 
"pent-post patd," countersigned '■'■Mac Cul- 
lock." These letters are written from the house of 
a Mr. Streatfield ; and though the name of the 
place is in no case given at the head of the first 
page with the date (June, 1763), there is internal 
evidence sufficient to fix the post-office to have 
been situated in Highgate. Charles Reed. 

Paternoster Row. 

"■Nettle in, dock out" (Vol. iii., p. 463.). — In 
addition to the instances already given of the use 
of this expression, I give you one from Middleton's 
More Dissemblers besides Women, Dyce's edit., 
vol. iii. p. 611. : 

" Is this my in dock, out nettle ? " 
And the editor, in his note, refers to Sir Thomas 
More's Works, 1557, fol. 809. E. H. B. 

Demerara. 

Poems of Ossian (Vol. x., pp. 224. 489.). — The 
John o' Groat Journal says : 

" We lately sent , a deputation to wait on an aged 
widow of fourscore years, resident in Sutherland, who can 
repeat not much less than a thousand lines of poetry, 
which she regards as Ossianic, or belonging to a very 
remote age ! Upwards of eight hundred lines, rather im- 
perfectly copied, we have got and can produce them . . . 
In the language of our friends who waited upon her, and 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



93 



passed two long summer days in copying her lays: 'She 
never heard these poems imputed to any but Ossian and 
other bards of the Fingalian age.' She firmly believed 
that the very words of these poems were those of the 
Fingalians. She never heard of the Macpherson contro- 
versy, nor that ever the poems of Ossian were in print." 

In addition to this, I may add, that when I 
attended University and King's College, Aberdeen, 
there were several students from Nova Scotia. 
We all lodged in the same house. Our conversa- 
tion one evening happened to turn on the Poems 
of Ossian. I asked if they were known in Nova 
Scotia ? I was told, that many of the people who 
had emigrated from the Highlands could repeat 
many lines of his poems ; although they could 
neither read nor write, and that they had never 
heard of Macpherson. W. G. 

Macduff. 

Books chained in Churches (Vol. viii., pp. 93. 
206. 273. 328. ; Vol. x., pp. 174. 393.). — As re- 
ference has several times been made in your pages 
to this ancient custom, perhaps you may not deem 
the following unworthy of your notice. The 
usage, it is evident, was owing to a scarcity of 
books, and may be traced back to distant ages. 
It was common in St. Bernard's time, for he says, 
in Serm. IX. de Divers. No. 1. : 

" Et est velut communis quidam liber, et catena alli- 
gatus, ut assolet, sensibilis mundus iste, ut in eo sapien- 
tiam Dei legat, quicumque voluerit." 

The saint does not here mention churches as con- 
nected with this custom, for he spoke of what was 
known to all. But his meaning is more clearly 
set forth by St. Thomas a Villanova, who was 
born in 1480, in his " Concio prima" in Festo Sti 
Augustini, No. 3. He says, — 

" Unde Bernardus, mundum istum sensibilem, librum 
communem catena ligatum appellat, ut in eo sapientiam 
legat quicumque voluerit, sicut solent esse in Ecclesiis ca- 
thedralibus breviaria promiscuse multitudini exposita, 
catenulaque appensa." 

J.N. 

Greenwich. 

Prophecies of Nostradamus, Marino, and Joa- 
chim (Vol. X., p. 486.). — 

" Scrisse gia Xostrodamo in un Tacuino 
Autor, che mai non disse la bugia ; 
L'istesso afferma un' altra Profetia 
Del reverendo Abbate Gioacchino ; 
Che quando una bestiaccia da molino 
Parlar con voce humana s'udiria. 
Subito 1' Antechristo nasceria 
E '1 fin del Mondo sarebbe vicino." 

Marino, La Murtoleide, Fisch. xlviii., 
ed. Spira, 1619. 

H. B. C. 
. U. Club. 

The Divining Rod (Vol. x. passim}. — Perhaps, 
like many of your correspondents, I had imagined 
that the supposed properties of the divining rod 




had been a discovery recently made, either by 
that great American artist, Mr. Barnum, or by 
one of the Dii minores of this country. To my 
mortification, however, I find that it is " as old as 
the hills," or at least cotemporaneous with the 
" Sortes Virgilianse," et id genus omne. I have 
before me The Works of Mr. Abraham Cowley, 
in two vols. 12mo., London, printed in 1681 ; and 
in one of his "Pindarique Odes," addressed to 
Mr. Hobs (vol. i. p. 41.), I find the following 
lines : 

" To walk iuTuines, like vain ghosts, we love. 
And with fond divining wands. 
We search among the dead 
For treasures buried." 

And to these lines is added (p. 43.) the following 
note : 

"Virgula Divina, or divining wand, is a two-forked 
branch of a hazel tree, which is used for the finding out, 
either of veins, or hidden treasures of gold or silver ; and 
being carried about, bends downwards (or rather is said 
to do so) when it comes to the place where they lye." 

D. W. S. 

Amontillado Sherry (Vol. xi., p. S9.). — Mosto 
(French, mout; German, must), or raw wine, is 
made up and flavoured by the addition of the wine 
grown in the district of Montilla. The product 
is Amontillado, or Montillated sherry. This is 
the real derivation of the term. I do not pretend 
to deny the peculiarity of the fermentation of 
Montilla wine. H. F. B. 

Mortality in August (Vol. x., p. 304.). — Sep- 
tember will, I think, be foutid to be the month of 
greatest mortality in most of the plague years, 
although it does not appear to have been the case 
at Cambridge in 1666, or at Bury in 1637. From 
the extracts from the registers of St. Mary's, Bury 
St. Edmunds, printed in Tymms's History of that 
church, it appears that in 1544 " the highest rate 
of mortality was in August and September, when 
45 persons in the one month, and 75 in the other, 
are entered with the plague mark." In 1637 
there were 74 in July, 128 in August, and 117 in 
September. Busiensis. 

Clay Tobacco-pipes (Vol. xi., p. 37.). — The 
Hunts appear to have been a family of pipe- 
makers, but where established I am unable to 
state. In my collection of old pipes from various 
localities, there are now about fifty different 
marks, and amongst them are two with the name 
in question, but of different individuals, " iohn 
HVNT " and " THOMAS HVNT." One was found in 
London, the other at Ogden St. George in Wilt- 
shire. In both cases the letters are sunk, not 
embossed; the v is substituted for the u, the A 
has a cross-bar at top, and in one the n and t are 
combined like a monogram. Jeffry Hunt is new 
to me. Pipes of the seventeenth century are often 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



found in churchyards ; I picked up several when 
the surface ground of that at Much Wenlock was 
lowered. W. J. Bernhaed Smith. 

Temple. 

Brasses restored (Vol. x., pp. 104. 535. ; Vol. xi., 
p. 37.). — For the information of Sob I beg to say- 
that the " metallic rubber " and prepared paper 
for monumental brasses are sold by H. S. Richard- 
son, Stockwell Street, Greenwich. I have em- 
ployed this method, but I doubt if Sob will find it 
answer so fully as he probably expects. Its com- 
position is not made known, but it appears to be 
simply bronze powder melted with bees'-wax. 
Rubbings made with it on black paper certainly 
produce very faithful representations of the 
original brasses, but they have the disadvantage of 
not bearing to be folded ; and the bright colour, of 
the bronze soon fades. F. C. H. 

St. Pancras (Vol. xi., p. 37.). — The figure of 
this saint on the noble brass of Prior Nelond is 
described by Norris Deck as " treading on a 
human figure, probably intended for one of his 
Pagan persecutors." I should suppose it rather 
intended to symbolise his triumphs over the arch- 
enemy of mankind, in allusion to the etymology of 
the saint's name. He is said to have been Bishop 
of Taormina in Sicily, to have been ordained by 
St. Peter himself, and finally stoned to death. 
Hence he is often represented with a sword in one 
hand and a stone in the other. F. C. H. 

Artificial Ice (Vol. xi., p. 39.). — Your corre- 
spondent I. P. O. inquires " What was the sub- 
stance exhibited under the name of artificial ice 
for skating on at the Egyptian Hall and Baker 
Street Bazaar, many years ago ? " I believe it 
was merely a strong solution of Epsom or Glauber 
salts, which was frequently replaced, as it was soon 
cut up by the skaters. F. C. H. 

CampheWs Imitations (Vol. vi., p. 506.). — The 
line — 

" And coming events cast their shadows before." 
has been compared with similar thoughts in Leib- 
nitz and Chapman. It has also a prototype in 
Shakspeare, though the resemblance is not so 
close as to amount to plagiarism in Campbell. 

In Troilus and Ci-essida, Act I. Sc. 3., Nestor 
says : 

" And in such indexes, although small pricks 
To their subsequent volumes, there is seen 
The bahy figure of the giant mass 
Of things to come at large." 

Sttlites. 

Turning the Tables (Vol. ill., p. 276.). — This is 
derived from the game of backgammon, formerly 
called " The Tables," where the tables are said to 
be turned, when the fortune of the game changes 
from one player to the other. Uiceda. 



Sestertium (Vol. xi., p. 27.). — The following ex- 
tract from Zumpt, § 84., is perhaps the best reply 
that can be given to Mr. Middleton's Query : 

" The neuter sestertium, which denoted a sum and not a 
coin, was equal to a thousand sestertii. In reckoning by 
asses, as the Romans carried their numbers only to centeria 
millia and formed higher numbers by adverbs (§ 29.), the 
words ceniena millia came to be left out, and only the 
numeral adverbs, decies, vicies, &c. used, with which 
centena millia is to be supplied. Thus decies aeris was 
decies centena millia assium aeris. In reckoning by ses- 
terces, the neuter noun sestertium was joined in the case 
required by the construction with the numeral adverb. 
Thus decies sestertium (^-i-o-um-o) was decies centena millia 
sestertioru/n (gen. pi. of sestertius), a million o{ sestertii. The 
adverb often stood alone ; e. g. decies, vicies. There were 
therefore three forms, carefully to be distinguished from 
each other : the sestertius, joined with the cardinal num- 
bers, denoting a single nummus sestertius ; the sestertium, 
joined in the plural with ordinals, denoting so many 
thousands of the nummi sestertii ; a.nd sestertium, joined in 
the singular only with numeral adverbs, denoting so 
many hundred sestertia, or hundred thousand sestertii. 
See Vail. Pat. 2. 10. sex millibus (sc. sestertiis masc). 
Suet. Aug. 101. Vicena sestertia. Kep. Att. 14. 2. Sestertio 
vicies . . . sestertio centies. These three combinations 
were distinguished in writing ; HS. X. was decem sestertii- 
HS. X. decem sestertia; HS. X. decies sestertium. But the 
distinction was not always observed, if our present MSS. 
of the classics are correct. Vid. Ascon. Ped. dc Ver. 1., 
extr." 

Subject to the correction of Cicero's text, or to 
his mystification, the following are the respective 
values of — 

HS. D. millia * = 5 hundred sestertia = £4035 
HS. MM. = 2 thousand sestertii = 16 

HS. M. = 1 „ „ = 8 

These English values are from Ainsworth. The 
Penny Cyc, art. Sestertius, values the sestertium 
at 8?. 17s. \d. See Anthon's Sullust. Catal. 
XXX. Conf Say, Pol. Ec. b. i. c. 31. § 7. as to the 
comparative value of Roman and modern money. 
On the text of Act. ii. 3. 32., see Valpy's ed. vi. 
p. 532. T. J. BucKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Cummin (Vol. xi., p. 11.), or rather Cumin 
(Cuminum cyminum, Linn.), was probably placed 
in coffins with the dead body (as many other plants 
and herbs) on account of its antiseptic, aromatic 
properties. That it was extensively used for some 
purposes In ancient times may be inferred from 
the mention of it in holy writ (both Old and New 
Testaments), in the old Medical Classics both 
Greek and Roman, and in the writings of Horace, 
Persius, and others ; but it was most In use ap- 
parently by the Arabian physicians : much is said 
of it by Rhazes, Serapion, Avicenna, and Aver- 
rhoes ; but whether there is anything to connect 
the plant with any necrologlcal purposes, I hare 
not been yet able to ascertain. The inquiry would 
be well worth pursuing. William Pamplin. 



• Here the word millia is used instead of sestertia. 



i 



Feb. 3. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



Tallies (Vol. x., p. 485.; Vol. xi., p. 18.).— 
Tallies are universally used in the hop-gardens in 
the neighbourhood of Canterbury, between the 
overseer of the garden and the hop-pickers, to 
mark the number of baskets filled. E. F. 

Hangman s Wages (Vol. xL, p. 13.). — I know 
not how hangmen are remunerated now for their 
disgusting work ; but six or seven and twenty 
years ago there were always two persons employed 
in London to perform all executions, hangings, 
whippings, pillories, &c., and each of them had a 
salary of 50Z. a year. I can assure you that when 
a vacancy occurred, there were many candidates 
for the office. E. F. 

Charm for a Wart (Vol. xi., p. 7.)- — Twenty- 
five years ago there resided at the little village of 
Ferry Hincksey, near Oxford, in a cottage adjoin- 
ing the church, an old woman who had a great 
reputation for charming warts. Being at that 
time a lad, and much troubled with these ex- 
crescences, one of which was as large as a four- 
penny piece, I was recommended to pay the old 
lady a visit. With fear and trembling I entered 
her little hut, and after being interrogated as to 
the number of warts upon my person, a small stick 
was produced, upon which certain notches were 
cut, a cross having been first slightly imprinted on 
the larger wart ; the old lady then retired into 
her garden to bury the stick, and I was dismissed. 
From that day my troublesome and unsightly 
adherents began to crumble away, and I have never 
been troubled since. Silence as to the transaction 
Is strictly enjoined, nor must any remuneration be 
offered until the warts have quite disappeared. 

Z. z. 




NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Camden Society has just issued another valuable 
contribution to our materials for the History of England. 
It is entitled Grants from the Crown during the Reign of 
Edward the Fifth, from the Original Docket Book, JUS. 
Harl. 433., with an historical Introduction, by John Gough 
Nichols, F.S. A. The manuscript, of which the documents 
here printed form a part, has long been known as a record 
of great value, and as such has been quoted by several of 
our most painstaking historical writers. Of the import- 
ance which Humphrey Wanley attached to it, no better 
proof can be given than the fact, that his account of its 
contents occupies no less than sixty pages of the folio 
Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. Short as was the reign 
and Dr. Lingard, the leading events of it are still involved 
in an obscurity, to the removal of which this volume will 
of Edward V., and despite the labours of Sharon Turner 
greatly contribute : and few, we think, will rise from its 
perusal without a feeling that it is one, the publication of 
which reflects credit alike on the Camden Society, and 
the accomplished antiquary by whom it has been so 
carefully edited. 

We have before had occasion to make favourable 
mention of the Journal of the Architectural, ArchcBological, 



and Historic Society for the County, City, and Neighbour- 
hood of Chester; and the Third Part (January to De- 
cember, 1852), which has just been issued, deserves the 
same treatment. Like its predecessors, it is properly con- 
fined to subjects of local interest, and is profusely, rather 
than elegantly, illustrated. 

The mention of this local Society recalls our attention to 
a small contribution to local biography, the publication 
of which calls for a few lines of record in our columns. 
We allude to a series of Profiles of Warnngton Worthies, 
collected and arranged by James Kendrich, M. D. 
Among these Warrington Worthies it may be remem- 
bered are the Aikins, Barbaulds, Dr. Priestley, &c. 

We learn that the library of the late learned and re- 
spected President of Magdalen College, Oxford, Dr Routb, 
is to be transferred from Oxford, where books abound, to 
Durham. By a deed of gift, made two years ago, it is 
conveyed to the Warden, Masters, and Scholars of the 
University of Durham. The library is said to contain 
nearly 20,000 volumes. 

The world-renowned collection of the late Mr. Bernal 
is to be sold by Messrs. Christie & Manson at his late 
residence, in Eaton Square, early in March. The Cata- 
logue, which is illustrated with woodcuts of the most 
valuable and interesting articles, has just been issued; 
and when the assemblage of matchless objects, which the 
liberalitj- and good taste of the late proprietor had enabled 
him to bring together, are dispersed abroad, the Catalogue 
will find its place on the shelf of every lover of early art, 
not only as a memorial of the collector, but as a guide to 
his own studies in the same department. We advise our 
readers not to lose the opportunity of seeing, before it is 
broken up, a collection which has, we believe, scarcely its 
equal in Europe ; and our friends who are collectors, to 
remember that such another sale cannot occur again for 
years. 

While on the subject of Sales, we maj' direct attention 
to the very curious — indeed Messrs. Southgate & Barrett 
are perhaps justified in calling it unique — collection of 
prints and cuttings, entitled " Notes and Illustrations," 
treating on every subject interesting to the antiquary, 
the historian, and the topographer, and comprised in one 
hundred and thirty quarto volumes, which they are 
about to sell by auction. Those only who have endea- 
voured to make collections upon any particular subject, 
can form an estimate of the value of matei-ials such as 
these. 



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Black. 

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IT HisTORiAM EVANOELicuM . Thc wliolc Or Buy odd Volumcs. 
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Christfan Rememdrascbr. No. 56, for April 1847, and No. 67, for 
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Sir Thos. Chaloner's De Kbpub. Anolorum, with his De illitstricu 

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Wanted by G. S. Comer, Esq., 3. Paragon, New Kent Boad. 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



Dibdin'» Ttpoobaphical Antiquities. 4to. Vol. II. 
Grkene Anne : News from the Dead. 4to. 1651. 
Lipscomb's BocKiNOHAsMBiBE. 4to. Eight Parts complete . 
Scottish Famuus. 8vo. XhieeFaita. 

"Wanted by G. S., 12, C-loueerter Green, Oxford. 

Thk Political Contest. Letters between Juniuf and Sir W. Draper. 

London, Newberry. No date. 
Ijttkbs of Jonics. 1 Vol. I2mo. 17?0. No Publisher's name. 
Pitto Ditto 1770. Published by Wheble. 

Ditto Ditto 1771. Ditto. 

JcNiDS Diswotebed. By P. T. 1789. 

Reasons for bejbctino the Evidencji of Mb. Aijio.k. 1807. 
Another Guess at Junius. 1809. t n 

Enqoirt concerning the Author of tbb Lbttbh* of Junius. Uy 

Attempt to ascertain the Author of Junius. By Blakeway. 1813. 

Sequei, of Attempt. 1815. „ j i 

A Great Pbrsonaoe proved to have bheh Junius. No date. 

A Discovery of the Author of the Letters of Junius. Taylor and 

Hessey. 1813. 
Junius Unmasked. 1819. 

The Claims of Sir P. Francis refuted. 1822. 
"Who was Junius ? 1837. 
Pope's DoNciAD. tnd Edition. 1728. 
Ditto 3rd Edition. 17"i8. 

Ket to the Dunciad. 1728. 

Ditto 2nd Edition. 1728. 

The London Museum of Politics, Miscellanies, and Litbrature. 
4 Vols. 8vo. 1769, 1770. 

"Wanted by William J. Thorns, Esq., ^. Holywell Street, Millbank, 
Westminster. 

HisTORT OF THE MONASTERY AT Ttnimoutk. By "Wm. S. Gibson, Esq. 

Vol. II. 
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Eltira, i a Tragedy. 1763. 

Wanted by Frederick Dimdak, Esq., Leamington. 



BuBNs's Pjems. Printed for the Author, 1787, and sold by "Wm. Creech. 
Gray's Elegy. 1751. Printed by Dodsley. For these a hberal price 

will be given. _ . -.^ , t i, . tt , 

The Rambler. (Johnson'sl. Sharpe Edition. 1803. Vol. I., or the 4 Vols. 
Jobns.,n's Works. Vol. IL ^ .„ , t^ 

Tborndikk's Works. All the Vols, after Vol. IV. 

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A few MS. Letters of Hobne Tookb. Written between 1760 and 1780. 

GuLLIVEBIANA ET AleXANDBIA. 

Catalogue of the Library op Jmo. Wilkbs. Priced. (" Liberty 

Wilkes.") 
Book op Sports. A Tract, time of Charles I. 
Junius Discovered. By Philip Thickness. Tract. 1789. 
Collection OF all the remauicable and personal passages in Thk 

Briton, North Briton, and Auditor. 1766. 
The Vices. A small Poem published by Phillips. 12mo. 1828. 
Anecdotes of Junius ; to which is prefixed the King's Reply. 1771. 
Petition OF AN Englishman. By 'Tooke. 177-. 
An Attempt to ascertain the Author op Junius. By Rev. J. B. 

Blakeway. 1813. 
Another Tract, same subject, by Blakeway. 

Wanted by Thomas Jepps, 2. Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster Rov. 



Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry. Published by Cavendish Society. 
Wanted by Mr. F. M. Eimmington, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



Sacrbd Thoughts in Verse, by William Sewell, M. A. Published by 
Jas. Bohu, 12. King William Street, West Strand. 1835. 

Wanted by \V. IL, Post Office, Dunbar. 



fiaii(t6 to €oxxt&]^a\itstnli. 

The attention of our photographic friends is directed to the article 
headed " Whittlebicry Forest," ante, p. 84. 

A few complete sets of Notes and Quebtes. Vols. I. to X., are heing 
made up, and will be ready next week,priceYivB Guineas. For these 
early application is desirable. They may be had by order of any Book- 
seller or Newsman. 

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to tiieir Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"Notes AND Queries" is also issued in Monthly Parts, jW the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procurinq the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly, jmle parties 
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EDWARD BURMESTER, ESQ., Governor. 

JOHN ALVES ARBUTHNOT, ESQ., Sub- 
Governor. 

SAMUEL GREGSON, ESQ., M.E., Deputy- 
Governor. 



Directors. 



Nath. Alexander, Esq. 
R. Ba?Eallay, Esq. 
G. Barnes, Esq. 
U. Buulmni Bax, Esq. 
James Blyth, Esq. 
J. W. Borradaile, Esq. 
Chas. Crawley, Esq. 
W. Dallas, Esq. 
B. Dobree, Jun., Esq. 
H. G. Gordon, Esq. 
Edwin Gower, E 



David C . Guthrie, Esq. 



% 



J. Alex. Hankey,Esq. 
E. Harnage, Esq. 
Louis Huth, Esq. 
William King, Esq. 
Charles Lyall, Esq. 
John Ord, Esq. 
David Powell, Esq. 
O. I'robyn, Esq. 
P. F. Robertson, M.P. 
Alex. Trotter, Esq. 
Thos. AVeeding, Esq. 
Lest. P. Wilson, Esq. 



Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., F.R.S. 
WEST END OFFICE, No. 7. PALL MALL. 

Committee. 

Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 

HENRY KINGSCOTE, ESQ., and 
JOHN TIDD PRATT, ESQ. 

Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ, 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
surances on Lives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Years, having issued its 
first Policy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two-thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
fits, are given to the Assured. 

Policies may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz — 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in prottts, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
entitling the Assured, either after the first five 
years, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium, to a participation in the ensuing 
quinquennial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Anniral Premiums of persons who have been 
assured under Series " 1831 " (or five years or 
longer, is upwards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
poration has maintained during nearly a 
Century and a Half, secures to the public a 
full and faithftil declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expenses 
OF Manaoement, thus giving to the Assured, 
in consequence of the protection afforded by 
its Corporate Fund, advantages equal to those 
of any system of Mutual Assurance. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

A II Policies are issued free from Stamp Duty, 
or from charge of any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium. 

The attention of the Public is especially 
called to the great advantages oifered to Life 
Assurers by the Legislature in its recent 
Enactments, by whicli it will be ibund that, to 
a defined extent. Life Premiums are not sub- 
ject to Income Tax. 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 
Corporation. 

A Policy may be eifected for as small a sum 
as 20f., and progressively increased up to M., 
without the necessity of a new Policy. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer 
or exchange of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by either a written or personal 
application to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of tlie West End Office. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 



WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 184S. 



Directors. 



T. Grissell.Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A.Lethbridge.Esq. 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



H. E. BicTcnen,E8q. 
T. S. Cocks.Jun. Esq. 

M.P. 
O. H. Drew, Esq. 
W. Evans, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, F.sq. 
J. H. Ooodhart.Esq. 

Trustees. 

W.Whateley.Esq., Q.C. ; George Drew, Esq. 

T. Grissell.Esq. 

PAysician.— William Rich.Basham.M.D. 

Baniters. — Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE. 

POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
come void through temporary difficulty in pay- 
ing a Premium, as permission is given upon 
application to suspend the payment at interest, 
according to the conditionsdetailedin the Pro- 
spectus. 

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
loof.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 



Age 

17 - 



27- 



£ s. d. 


Age 


- 1 14 4 


32- 


- 1 18 8 


37- 



* ». d. 

-2108 
- 2 18 6 



ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A,, F.R.A.S., 
Actuary. 
Now ready, price IO.i. 6fZ., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIE'lTES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHIiEY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, London. 



A 



LLEN'S ILLUSTRATED 

CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, 

and Description of upwards of 100 articles, 
consisting of 

PORTMANTEAUS.TBAVELLING-BAGS, 

Ladies' Portmanteaus, 

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, 
DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling re- 
quisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by 
Post on receipt of Two Stamps. 

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
box and Writing-desk , their Travelling-ba« 
with the opening as large as the bag, and the 
new Portmanteau containing four compart- 
ments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the 
kind ever produced. 

J. W. & T. ALLEN. 18. ft 22. West Strand. 



R 



ENNETT'S MODEL 

J, , WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EX- 
HIBITION. No. 1. Class X., in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now be had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
guineas. Ditto, in Silver Ca^es, 8, 6, and 4 
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold 
Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 8, 8, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 
guineas. Bennett's PooketChronometer.Oold, 
50 Euineas ; Silver, 40 guineas. Evenr Watch 
skilfully examined, timed, and its peri\>rmance 
guaranteed. Barometers, 22.,32., and 42. Tber- 
mometers from Is. each. 

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument 
Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of 
Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 

63. CHEAPSIDE. 



50,000 CURES WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

DU BARRY'S DELICIOUS 
REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD 
CURES indigestion (dyspepsia), constipation 
and diarrhoea, dysentery, nervousness, bilious- 
ness and liver complaints, flatulency, disten- 
sion, acidity, heartburn, palpitation of the 
heart, nervous headaches, deafness, noises in 
the head and ears, paius in almost every part 
of the body, tic douloureux, faceache, chronic 
inflammation, cancer and ulceration of the 
stomach, pains at the pit of the stomach and 
between the shoulders, erysipelas, eruptions of 
the skin, boils and carbuncles, impurities and 
poverty of the blood, scrofula, cough, asthma, 
consumption, dropsy, rheumatism, gout, 
nausea and sickness during pregnancy, aiter 
eating, or at sea, low spirits, spasms, cramps, 
epileptic fits, spleen, general debility, inquie- 
tude, sleeplessness, involuntary blushing, pa- 
ralysis, tremors, dislike to society, unfitness for 
study, loss of memory, delusions, vertigo, blood 
to the head, exhaustion, melancholy, ground- 
less fear, indecision, wretchedness, thoughts of 
self-destruction, and many other complaints. 
It is, moreover, the best food for infjuts and 
invalids generally, as it never turns acid on 
the weakest stomach, nor interferes with a 
good liberal diet, but imparts a healthy relish 
for lunch and dinner, and restores the faculty 
of digestion, and nervous and muscular energy 
to the most enfeebled. In whooping cough, 
measles, small-pox, and chicken or wind pox, 
it renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important Caution against the fearful 
dangers of spurious imitations : — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10, 1854. against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill, for imitating "Du 
Barry's Revalcnta Arabica Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 77. Regent 
Street, London. 

A few out o/ 50,000 Cures: 

Colonel 11. Watkins, of Grantham, a cure of 
gout ; Mr. Joseph Walters, Broadwell Col- 
liery, Oldbury, near Birmingham, a cure of 
angina pectoris ; and 50,000 other well-known 
individuals, who have sent the discoverers ani 
importers, BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 
77. Regent Street, London, testimonials of the 
very extraordinary manner in which their 
health has been restored by this useful and 
economical diet, after all other remedies had 
been tried in vain for many years, and all 
hopes of recovery abandoned. 

No. 51,482 : Dr. Wurzer. " It is particularly 
useful in confined habit of body, as also in 
diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the 
kidneys and bladder, such as stone or gravel ; 
inflammatory irritation and cramp of the 
urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, and 
haemorrhoids. Also in bronchial and pulmonary 
complaints, where irritation and pain are to be 
removed, and in pulmonary and bronchial 
consumption, in which it counteracts effectu- 
ally the troublesome cough ; and I am enabled 
with perfect truth to express the conviction 
that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted 
to the cure of incipient hectic complaints and 
consumption." _ Dr.Rcd. Wdbzer, Counsel 
of Medicine and practical M.D. in Bonn. 

Cure No. 48,314 : _" Miss Elizabeth Yeoman, 
Gateacre, near Liverpool : a cure of ten years 
dyspepsia, and all the horrors of nervous irri- 
tability." 

Cure No. 47,121 :_"Miss Elizabeth Jacobs, 
of Nazing Vicarage, Waltham Cross, Herts : 
a cure of extreme nervousness, indigestion, 
gatherings, low spirits, and nervous fancies." 

Cure No. 3906 : _ " Tliirteen years' cough, 
indigestion, and general debility, have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent Revalenta 
Arabica Food."— James Porter, Athol Street, 
Perth. 

In canisters, suitably packed for all cli- 
mates, and with full instructions — lib., is, 
M. ; 21b., is. 6rf. ; 51b., lis. ; ielb.,22s. ; super- 
refined, lib., 6s. ; 21b.. Us. ; 5lb., 22s. ; lOlb.. 
33s. The lOlb. and 121b. carriage free, on post- 
office order. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, liondon; Fortnum, Mason, & 
Co, purveyors to Her Majesty, Piccadilly: 
also at 60. Gracechurch Street ; 330. Strand ; of 
Barclay, Edwards, Sutton, Sanger, Hannay, 
Newberry, and may be ordered through all re- 
■pectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 275. 



A LIST OP 

MR. HALLIWELL'S PRIVATELY PRINTED WORKS. 

MK. SKEFFINGTON, having purchased the entire remainders of these yalnable works, begs to inform the public that only the small number 
of Sixteen complete Sets remain, while the largest stock of any separate volume is but Eighteen, some being out of print, and several others 
nearly so. Collectors of fine libraries may therefore rest assured that these publications must ere long become of great rarity. 

All are printed in Quarto, uniform with the works of the ROXBURGHE and other private Book Clubs, the impression of each work being 
most strictly limited to a small number of copies. 



MORTE ARTHURE : The Alliterative Romance 

of the Death of King Arthur ; now first printed, from a Manuscript in 
the Library of Lincoln Cathedral. Seventy-five Copies printed, bl. 
»»» A very curious Romance, full of allusions interesting to the 
Antiquary and Philologist. It contains nearly eight thousand 
lines. 

Only One separate Copy left. 

IL* 

THE CASTLE OF LOVE : A Poem, by RO- 
BERT GROSTESTE, Bishop of Lincoln : now first printed from in- 
edited MSS. of the Fourteenth Century. One Hundred Copies printed. 
IM. 

*»* This is a religious poetical Romance, unknown to Warton. 
Its poetical merits are beyond its age. 

m. 
CONTRIBUTIONS TO EARLY ENGLISH 

LITERATURE, derived chiefly from Rare Books and Ancient Inedited 
Manuscripts from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Century. Seventy- 
five Copies printed. SI. 3s. 

Contents :— The Suddaine Turne of Fortune's Whecle, an in- 
edited Poem, by Taylor, the Water Poet ; the Life of Saint Ka- 
therine ; the Knight and his Wife : Dr. C»ius"8 Magical MS. ; the 
Tale of the Smyth and his Dame ; the Booke of Robin Conscience j 
Ballads on Hugh of Lincoln : Band, RufFr. and Cuffe : Newes out 
of Islington ; a Derbyshire Mummer's Play ; the Interlude of 
Youth. 

Out of prmt separately. 

IV. 

A NEW BOKE ABOUT SHAKSPEARE 

AND STRATKORD-ON-AVON, illuHrated with numerous woodcuts 
and facsimiles of Shakspeare's Marriage Bond, and other curious Ar- 
ticles. Seventy-five Copies printed. U. Is. 

Out of print separately. 



THE PALATINE ANTHOLOGY. An ex- 

tensive Collection of Ancient Poems and Ballads relating to Cheshire 
and Lancashire ; to wliich is added THE PALATINE GARLAND. 
One Hundred and Ten Copies printed, il. 2s. 

Out of print separately. 



THE YORKSHIRE ANTHOLOGY. — An 

Extensive Collection of Ballads and Poems, respecting the County of 
Yorkshire. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 21. 2s. 

»«* This Work contains upw,irds of 400 pages, and includes a 
reprint of the very curious Poem, called " Yorkshire Ale," 1697, 
as well as a great variety of Old Yorksliire Ballads. 



VII. 

THE LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH 

AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, illustrated by Reprints of very 
Rare Tracts. Seventy-five Copies printed. 21. 2s. 

Contents : — Harry White his Humour, set forth by M. P. — 
Comedie of tlie two Italian Gentlemen — Tailor's Travels from 
London to the Isle of Wight, lfrl8 — Wyll Bucke his Testament — 
TheBoiike of Merry Riddles, 1629— Comedie of All for Money, 
1578 — Wine, Beere, Ale, and Tobacco, 1630 — Johnson's New 
Booke of New Conceites, 1630 — Love's Garland, 1624. 

Out of print separately. 
VIII.* 

SOME ACCOUNT OF A COLLECTION OF 

SEVERAL THOUSAND BILLS, ACCOUNTS. AND INVEN- 
TORIES, Illustrating the History of Prices between the Years 1650 and 
1750, with Copious Extracts from Old Account-Books. Eighty Copies 
printed. H. Is. 

**» This is an interesting account of a very curious and valuable 
collection presented by Mr. llalliweU to the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 

IX.* 

THE POETRY OF WITCHCRAFT, Illustrated 

by Copies of the Plays on the Lancashire Witches, by Heywood and 
Shadwell, viz., the " Late Lancashire Witches," and the '" Lancashire 
Witches and Tegue o'Divelly, the Irish Priest." Eighty Copies printed. 
21. 2s. 



THE NORFOLK ANTHOLOGY, a Collection 

of Poems, Ballads, and Rare Tracts, relating to the County of Norfolk. 
Eighty Copies printed. 21. 2s. 

m 

XL* 

SOME ACCOUNT OF A COLLECTION OF 

ANTIQUITIES, COINS, MANUSCRIPTS, RARE BOOKS, AND 
OTHER REI.IQUES, Illustrative of the Life and Works of Shak- 
speare. Illustrated with Woodcuts. Eighty Copies printed. W. Is. 

XII.* 

ACCOUNT OF MANUSCRIPTS presented by 

Mr. Halliwell to the Public Library, Plymouth, with pieces by Dr. 
Forman, Siiirley, &c., from inedited MSS., 4to. Eighty copies printed. 
21. 2s. 

XIII, XIV. 

NOTICES OF AN UNIQUE EDITION OF 

THE ARCADIA, and of tbe Shaksperian Documents at Bridgewater 
House. Two Tracts, 4to. Twenty-five copies printed. 



Out of print separately. 



A complete Set may, for the present, be obtained for 12?. 12s. Four Sets have been sold since this was issued a few weeks since, so only 
Twelve Sets now remain. 'Those works rharked with an asterisk may be purchased at the prices affixed. The rest are out of print except m 
complete Sets. 

All Applications for Copies to be made to MR. SKEFFINGTON, 163. Piccadillj-. 



Printed by Thomas Clark Sbaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street.in the Parish of St. Mary, IslingtoS, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Oeorok Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Pariih of St. Dunstan m the West, id the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid— Saturday, February 3, 1855. 




NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



•• \(nien found, make a note of.' 



Captain Cuttlb. 



No. 276.] 



Saturday, February 10. 1855. 



f Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, gd. 



CONTENTS. 



Pase 



Ancient Chattel Property in Ireland, by 

James F. Ferzu^on - - - 

PopiANA :— Pope's "Etliio Epistlps " — 

Anecdotes of Pope — James Moore 

Smyth . - - - - 

Books burnt, hy Rev. B. H Cowper 

I/ansailos Bell, by Thomas Q. Conch - 

Anonvmous and Pseudonymous AVorks, 

by William Bat' s 
Scraps from an old Common-plnce Book 
The " Altnanacli Royal de France," by 
Bolton Corney - - - - 

MiNim Notes: —Former Power of the 
Turks— Pr. Routh, President of Mas- 
dalen College— Strange tynofrraphical 
Krror — Exchange of Brasses— The 
Fuxine, O"- Black Sea — Campbell's 
Poems — Co'd-protectors — "Galore " 
— Creation of a Baronetess 



Old English MS. Chronicle - - 103 

Marvell's " Rehearsal Transprosed," by 

H. Martin - - - - - 104 

"Wells Procession - - - - 104 

Minor Querifs:— The Lyme Rp^is 
and Briflport" Domesday " and " Dom 
Books " — Turkish Embiematieal 
Flower — Value of Money in Ifi.V) _ 
Kev. Roger Dale — Quotations wanted 

— " Romance of the Pyrenee-," &c. — 
I>uck<' Birds _ Cardinal's red Hat — 
Archbishop Leiphton — Marrinffes de- 
creed by Heaven — Greek " Dance of 
Flowers" — Theatrical A nnouncements 

— " At tu,quisquiseri3," &c. - - 105 

Minor Qitrrirs with Answers : — 
Ri^jht Rev, Charles I.lovd, D.D., 
Bishop of Oxf.>rd -Paisley Abbey — 
Demonological Query —Early Enzlish 
and Latin Grammar — '* To rat " — 
" Domesday Book " - - - 106 



The Inquisition, by Col. T-ehmanowsky 108 

Lord Derby and M'inzoni - - I08 

The Suitan of the Crimea - - 109 

Milton's Widow, by T. W. Jones - 109 

PHHTOfiRAPHrr CoRRKSPONDENCK : — PrC- 

servation of sensitised Plates— Fading 

of Positives - - - - 110 

Replies to Minor Ql'Frtes: — Oranges 
among the Romans— Leverets marked 
with white Stars _ Major Andre — 
Desiirna'ion of Works imder Review 
—Tobacco smoking—" What I spent," 

&c. — " Star of the twilight grey " 

Quintus Calnber _ Oriel — Wenther 
Rules - Spirit Rappings — The School- 
hoy Formula — To " thou " or to 
** thee " — " As big as a parson's bam " 
— " The Village Lawyer " — Unregis- 
tered Proverbs — Old Jokes : " John 
Chinaman's Pig," &c. - - - llo 

Miscellaneous : — 

Notes on Books, &c. - - - 115 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



UNION OF FRANCE AND 
ENGLAND ; Advantages accruing 
from. — Would any Correspondent of " Notes 
AND QcERiEs" kindlv refer the Advertiser to 
any Works, Pamphlets. Reviews, iic, or Ar- 
ticles on the above subject. 

Address, "ALPHA," MESSRS. JACKSON & 
FROST, Bury St. Edmunds. 



Vol. XI. — No. 276. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 
WORKS. BY LORD MAHON. 

Now ready, 

A HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 

l\ FROM THE PEACE OF UTRECHT 
TO THE PEACK OF VERSAILLES, 1713- 
1 783. Tliird and revised Edition. 7 Vols. 8vo. 
33s. 

II. 

THE SAME. Popular Edition. 

7 Vols. Post 8vo. fo. each. 
III. 

THE "FORTY-FIVE;" or. 

a NARRATIVE OF THE REBELLION IN 
SCOTLAND IN 1745. Reprinted from the 
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sixth Thou- 
sand. Post 8vo. Zs. 

HISTORY OF THE WAR 

OF THE SUCCESSION IN SPAIN. Se- 
cond Edition, Map. 8vo. lit. 

SPAIN UNDER CHARLES 

THE SECOND! or, EXTRACTS FROM 
THE COKHESPONDENCEOFTHE HON. 
AI-EX\NUEK STANHOPE, British Mi- 
nis'er at MuOrid from ln90 to 170U. Second 
Edition. Post 8vo. 6s. 6rf. 

VI. 

HISTORICAL AND CRI- 

TICAI, ESSAYS. Reprinted from the 
QUARTERLY REVIEW. Fourth Thou- 
Euud. Post8vo. 6s. 

Til. 

LIFE OF LOUIS, PRINCE 

OF CONDE. SURNAMED THE GREAT. 
Seventh Thousand. Post 8vo. 6». 

Vlll. 

LIFE OF BELISARIUS. Se- 

cond Kdition, Post 8vo. lOs. &d, 

IX. 

THE STORY OF JOAN OF 

ARC. Fifth Thousand. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 
JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



This Day, with a Chart, post 8vo., 6s. 6d. 

r>IOGRAPHICAL DICTION- 
) ARY OF ITALIAN P-s INTERS: 
with a 'r ABLE of the CoTEMPORARY 
SCHOOLS of ITALY, designed as a HAND- 
BOOK to the PKTURE GALLERIES of 
ITAI-Y. By A LADY. Edited by RALPH 
N. WORNUM. 

JOHN MURRAY", Albemarle Street. 



PROFESSOR PHXXXiXPS* 
VORESEIRE. 

This Day, SccondEdition, with 36 Plates, 8T0.. 
15». 

rpHE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, 

I AND SEA COAST OF YORKSHIRE. 

With Essays on the CLIMATE. SCENERY, 
AND ANCIENT INHABITANTS OF THE 
COUNTRY. By JOHN PHILLIPS, F.R.S., 
Deputy Reader of Geology in the University of 
Oxford. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



HANDBOOK TO CHURCH AND STATE. 

This Day is published, an entirely new and 
thoroughly revised Edition, post dvo., 6». 

MURRAY'S OFFICIAL 

ill HANDBOOK ; being an HISTORICAL 
ACrOIiNT OF THE DUTH-:S AND 
POWERS OF THE PRINCIPAL AU- 
THORITIES OF THE UNITED KING- 
DOM AND THE COLONIES. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



With Woodcuts, jwst 8vo., 6s. 

'THE ART OF TRAVEL; or, 

I HINTS on the SHIFTS and CON- 
TRIVANCKS available in WILD COUN- 
TRIES. By FRANCIS GALTON, Author 
of" Travels in South Africa." 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



NEW WORK BY CHARLES KNIGHT. 

This Day, with many Woodcuts, crown 8to., 
7s. M. 

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER: 
a View of the Productive Forces of 
Modern Society, and the Results of Labour, 
Capital, and Skill. By CHARLES KNIGHT. 

By the same Author, 

ONCE UPON A TIME. 2 Vols. 

Fcap. 8vo. \Qs. 

Also, 

THE 01 D PRINTER AND 



JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



This Day, with copious Illustrations, post 8vo., 
lOs. 6(7. 

A HANDBOOK FOR YOUNG 

r\ PAINTERS. ByC. R.LESLIE, R. A., 
Author of the " Life of Constable." 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



This Day, with Woodcuts, 8vo., 7s. Srf. 

HISTORICAL MEMORIALS 
OF CANTERBURY. The LAND- 
ING of AUGUSTINE : The MURDER of 
BECKRT: BECKET'S SHRINE j The 
BLACK PRINCE. By REV. A. P. STAN 
LEY, M.A., Canon of Canterbury. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



XYLO- IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Pho- 
toeraphie Establishments.- The superiority <f this preparation is now universally ac- 
knowledged Testimonials from the best I'hotouraphers and principal scientific men uf the day, 
■warrant the assertion, that hitlierto no preparation has been discovered which produces 
unifbimly such perfect pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all eases 
where a nunntity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price m separate 
Bottles, in which state it itiay be kept for years, and Exported to any Climate. Full instructions 
for use. 

CAOTion. — Each Bottle is Stamped with a Bed Label bearing my name, RICHARD W. 
THOMAS, Chemist, 10. PaU Mall, to counterfeit which is felony. 

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. 

ThpfJptiuine is made only by the Inventor, nnri is secured with a Red Label Iiearinfr this Signal ure 
and Address, KltUAKDW. 'I HOM AS. C HEMIST, 10. TALL MALL, Manufacturer of Pure 
Photno-rn. hie Chemicals : and may he jirocur rt of all respectable Chemists, in Pots at Is,, 'is., 
and .Sfet/ each through MESSKS. EDWARDS. fi7. St. Paul's Churchyard ; and MESSRS. 
BARCLAY & CO., 95. Faningdon Street, Wholesale Agents. 



Jmt published. Second Edition. Price Is., by 
p. St Is. 6rf. 

THE COLLODION PROCESS. 
By T. H. HENNAH. 

Also, 
Price Is., by Post l.«. 6d. 

THE WAXED-PAPER PRO- 
CESS i.f gust ave l.E GRAY (Translated 
from the French). To this has beei a<l<led a 
Hew Modifica ion of the Process, hy which the 
Time of Kxposure in the Camera is i educed to 
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Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



LONDON. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 10, 1855. 



ANCIENT CHATTEL PROPERTY IN IRELAND. 

(Vol. ix., p. 394.) 

The following extracts, which have been made 
from several of the records of the Irish Exche- 
quer, afford some information upon the cost of 
personal property in Ireland at an early period of 
time, and they also convey to us some idea 
" Of manners long since changed and gone." 
Amongst the fragments of Irish records re- 
cently brought to Dublin from Switzerland, I 
find a remnant of a Plea Roll of the 18 Edward I., 
containing an entry stating that Nicholas, Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, was accused of taking two cows 
worth 5s. each, and two bullocks (juveiicas) worth 
2s, each, the property of Henry Kenefeg. By 
other fragments of Irish records, also brought 
from Switzerland, and apparently of the reign 
of F^dward IT., it appears that a knight named 
Waleys and Nicholas Habrahara broke into the 
" cameram sacerdotum " of the church of St. 
Patrick at Cashel, and stole therefrom four cran- 
nocks of wheat worth 20.9. eacli ; that Stephen 
Laweles robbed Hugh Northwyche of a heifer 
worth 5s., of sixty gallons of ale worth 15a'., of 
two bushels of wheat, " unam falmgam et unum 
capucium," worth 11* ; that William Stafford, the 
king's sergeant, with others, robbed Roger le Bret 
of a heifer (juvenca), worth 40d., "de uno arcu et 
uno glaneto " (value di^faced), and of tliree sheep 
worth 8d. each; that Robert Brown robbed Henry 
Spencer of eighteen pigs worth 1 mark, John the 
chaplain of two cows worth 1 mark, and of a heifer 
worth 40d., and that he also robbed John Manery 
of a cow and a heifer wortli 1 mark. It farther ap- 
pears by these fragments of the reign of Edward II., 
that a horse was then valued, sometimes at a mark, 
and at other times at 405., a shoep " bidentem " at 
12d., a pig at 2s., and six crannocks of wheat at 6^. 

It also appears by the same fragments that 
Geoffrey Harold, vicar of Grene, robbed a woman 
who was going towards Limerick of " unam fa- 
lmgam " worth 12r/. ; that two members of the 
family of de Londres robbed John le Fleiuyng 
of ten crannocks " bladi mixti et uno crannoco 
trasei avenas," and that they also robbed William 
Bagod of twenty crannocks of wheat and twenty- 
eight crannocks of oats worth 20Z. ; that Robert 
Fitz John Swayn robbed John Fitz Adam of 
twelve cows worth 10 marks, and thirteen "af- 
fris" worth 6 marks; that "una oUa enea " was 
worth 126?.; that two tunicks were worth 4s., a 
gown 3s., four salmon 2s., nine cows 6^., twelve 
cows 12 marks, and half a crannock of wheat 8s. 

In the 4 Edward II. the goods of William the 
clerk of Newcastle of Lyons were found to con- 



sist of sixteen crannocks of wheat worth 6s. 
each, of sixteen crannocks of oats worth 4s, 6d. 
each, a haycock worth 10s., three cows and two 
calves worth 8s, each, thirty-two "bidentes" worth 
lOd. each, one "affrum" worth 2s., fourteen pigs 
worth 18c?. each, three and a half acres of " hasti- 
nell," sown, worth 8s, an acre, three crannocks of 
beans worth 6s. each, and one crannock of peas 
worth 4s. 6d. 

In the 26 Edward III. the following articles, 
being the property of one Walter de Berming- 
ham, were delivered by the treasurer of the 
Exchequer to Robert de Preston, for the benefit 
of his the said Walter's son when of full age : 

s. d. 

" Una galea ove le barber pro hastiludio - 20 

Una selda pro eodem - - - - - 15 

Unum par' de plates - - - - - 6 8 

Unum bresteplate - - - - - 3 4 

Unum saccam pro eodem - - - - 5 

Un mayn de f'erre - - - - - 20 

Un cbapel de ferre - - - - - 10 

Ifn rerebrase - - - - - -0 12 

Un estofF pro una lancea - - - - 18 

Un aketoii - - - - - - -66 8" 

By the Memoranda Roll of the 48 & 49 Ed- 
ward III., memb. 45 face, it appears that one 
Maurice Laweles of Le Bre (hodie Bray), near 
Dublin, had nine acres of wheat, each acre of the 
price of 4s. ; seven acres of oats, price 40(/. per 
acre; a horse worth a mark, and a sow and six- 
teen little pigs worih 3s., within the said manor. 

In the 2 Richard III., William Brian of Drom- 
conragh, a chaplain, robbed Stephen Patrick of 
" duas tunicas virorum panni Anglici " worth 
13s. 4d., and "unam falingam " worth 40^. In 
the 1 Richard III. James Cruys robbed Thomas 
Saresfeld of eight yards of cloth, called " asay,*' 
worth 13s. 4fi?., and " de uno instrumento ferri," 
called " brandirne," worth 20d. 

By the Memoranda Roll of the 1 1 Henry IV., 
mem. 15 dorso, it appears that John Frampton, 
of the city of Dublin, the king's debtor, had 
twenty-eiyht " nobilia auri et unum anulum auri 
precii," 20d., which he gave to William Botiller, a 
chaplain, to distribute for his soul ; that he also 
possessed "unum parvum anulum aureum" worth 
20d., which he also gave "pro anima sua;" he 
also possessed "aliquod anulum aureum cum una 
margarita vocata saffire " worth 20d. By another 
entry upon the same Roll, membrane 12 dorso, it 
appears that he also possessed " unus anulus 
aureus cum una margarita vocata dyamount " 
worth 20s., " unum nobile auri et unus anulus 
aureus " worth 40^/. 

In the 6 Edward IV., Richard Broun, a chap- 
lain, robbed Robert Cusake of Cosyngeston of a 
horse worth 5 marks, and in the 1 Richard HI., 
William Stevenot, the prior of All Saints, near 
Dublin, at Rathlege, robbed Richard Pheypowe 
of three bushels of wheat worth 3s. In 2 Ri- 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



chard III., a husbandman robbed Emmot Owyn, 
a widow, of a horse worth 16s. la tlie 18 Ed- 
ward IV., a nurse stole from Robert Belyng 
of Belyngeston " unam faljngam " worth 40cf., 
"duas pephis fill linei " worth lO^d., "duas pe- 
plas," called "lanud," worth 20d., " unum tii)pet 
de violet panni Anglici" worth 18d., and a pair of 
spurs worth \2d. In the reign of Richard III-, 
Walter Cusake of Gerardeston was robbed of two 
salmon worth 4s. eacli. In the 19 Edward IV., 
Edward Telyng of Syddan, and an " idilman," 
robbed Robert White " de quinque forpicibus" 
worth 20d., " duobus securis " worth I6d., "duo- 
bus penetrulibus" worth 4rf., and 20d. m money. 

In the 1 Henry VII., James Barby, a merchant 
of Dublin, robbed Christopher Bellewe of Bel- 
leweston of two cows worth 5s. 4d. each. In the 
1 Richard III., John Nerterville of Douth, gen- 
tleman, robbed Richard Molice of two sheep 
worth 8d. each, and four bushels of oats woith 
I2d. In the 2 Richard III., Robert Chamberlyn 
of Chamberleyneston, gentleman, stole seven acres 
of wheat, worth 26s. 8d. per acre, from Feral 
Oconyll of Gyrly ; and in the 1 Richard III, 
" unam ollam eneani," and " unum morterium 
eneam " (values defaced in the record), " a 
chafFe " worth 20s., and " quodam vas eneam 
vocatara A bell" worth 13s. 4rf, were stolen from 
Robert Scurlag. 

In the 2 Charles I., Mr. Philip Bushen of 
Grangemillon, co. Kildare, was condemned i'ov 
the murder of his wife, and an inventory having 
been made of his goods, they were found to consist 
of, amongst other things, — 

Irish money, 
s. d. 
*' 32 cowes . . - . worth 26 
2 bulls 26 



53 
100 
2 
3 

6 



38 calves - - - _ - 

8 yerrans . - - - - 

4 lioggs . - - _ - 

Certen weyncs, their chaynes and 

plowharnes and irons 

Hay 

700 sheep and 400 lambs - - - 
4 pieces or guns - - - - 
2 iron shovells - - _ - 
1 old cott ----- 
1 yron pott and 4 panns of brasse - 100 
1 three-pint |)cwter pott, 1 pewter 
dish, pewter salt, 1 payreof iron 
trippets, and 1 spitt 
1 hayre cloth to dry malt, and cer- 
ten pieces of tj'mber 
6 cowes and 1 sucking calf - 
14 young cattle, heifers and bullocks, 
of two yeares old or thereabouts 
18 yearling bullocks and heifers 
C300 foote of board lying in the great 
wood - - - - - 
292 fatlioni of wood lying by the river 
of Barrowside - - - - 



8 each. 
8 each. 
each. 
4 each. 
each. 

4 



each. 

4 each. 

G each. 

8 





6 8 



10 
120 



each. 
each. 



16 the fath. 



Cork, and Youghal, in the south of Ireland, and 
sold for the sum of 1049/. 3s. 6cf. By the certi- 
ficate of sale which was returned into the Exche- 
quer, it appears that "a barque" of 34 tons was 
sold for 60/., another of between 50 and 60 tons 
was sold by candle for 106/., another of 70 tons 
was sold for 32/. ; 10,000 weight of " reiscms " 
were sold for 20s. a hundred ; 340 hides for 
102/. 12s.; 48 pipes of " Mallaga wynes" for 
12/.; and 170 " peeces " of "Mallaga relsons " 
for 18s. "per peece." Before the ships were 
seized the commissioners made the following pay- 
ments for "ye shipps companie :" 

£ s. 
" They paid the bruer for beere - - - 7 10 

They paid the baker for bread - - - 4 16 
They paid for 220 weight of butter - - 2 17 

They paid for 2 barrells of herrings - - 1 17 
They paid for 8 quarters of beefe - - - 1 15 " 
Memoranda Roll of the Exchequer, 4 Charles I. m. G. 

James F. Fekguson. 
Dublin. 



2 6 the hand. 



POPIANA. 



In the year 1628 several French vessels were 
seized in the ports of Waterford, Kinsale, Dingle, 



Pope's ^^ Ethic Epixdes." — I solicit the early 
attention of my fellow-contributors to "N. & Q." 
to the following Query. 

In Nichols's Anecdotes of Literature, vol. v. 
p. 578., it is stated that in 1742 Warburton 
edited for Pope his Ethic Epistles, with his own 
commentary. Is any copy of that publication 
extant ? I doubt any of that date's having ever 
existed. C. 

Anecdotes of Pope. — As you inserted the anec- 
dote of Johnson which I lately sent you, perhaps 
you will give admission to the following anecdotes 
of Pope from the Town and Country Magazine 
for May, 1769? I believe it contains the earliest 
information we have as to the precise place of the 
poet's birth. What is known of his tragedy of 
Timoleon ? are any portions in existence ? 

M. N. S. 

" Some authentic Anecdotes of Mr. Pope, never 
before in print : 

" Mr. Pope was born in Lombard Street, Lon- 
don, in a house where a few years ago resided 
Mr. Morgan, an apothecary. 

" Pope, when very young, was introduced as^ a 
maker of verses to Dryden, who gave him a shil- 
ling for the version of ' Pyramus and Thisbe.' 

" Pope wrote his Ode on Music at the desire 
and instigation of Steele, who used to prefer it 
to Dryden's : it was set to music by Dr. Green. 

"Pope spent some time in writing a tragedy 
called Timoleon, but did not succeed in the at- 
tempt." 

James Moore Smyth (Vol. x., pp. 102. 240.459.). 
— As every fiict tending to establish the identity 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



of this gentleman as the son of Arthur Moore will 
be probably acceptable to C, Ma. Carrutiikrs, 
and J. M. S., I send you the ibllowing passage 
which I have just stumbled upon in p. 19. of Jlie 
Brohdignngian ; heing a Key to Gullivers Voyage 
to Brohdignag. In a Second Letter to Dean Swift: 
London, 1726 : 

" This observation, Mr. Dean, we both know to be true, 
and I have had the honour of hearing it confirmed by 
Arthur Moore, Esq., at his rural seat in Surrey. I am 
likewise assured that his hopeful son Jemmy resolves to 
cast this race of upstarts in a comedy which is shortly to 
make its appearance upon the Theatre Royal in Drury 
Lane." 

This is the second part (there are altogether 
four) of A Key ; being Observations and Explan- 
atory Notes upon the Travels of Lemuel Gulliver. 
By Signor Corolini, a noble Venetian now residing 
in London. In a Letter to Dean Swift. Traris- 
latedfrom the Italian Original. 

" Qui vult, Lector, decipi decipiatur ; 

" Out comes the Book, and the Key follows after." 

London, printed in the Year 1726.* I should like 
to know from some of your readers familiar with 
the literature of the time, whether Signor Corolini 
was not related to Dr. Barnveldt, who attacked the 
Rape of the Lock ; and also to the author of the 
Key to the Dunciad? I have not a copy of the 
latter work to refer to, but I have a strong im- 
pression that it bears on the title a couplet very 
like that on the Key to Gulliver. 

By-the-bye, having given us a Bibliography of 
The Dunciad., you ought to complete your work 
by a Bibliography of The Key to that poem, and 
of the various books to which it gave rise. S. R. 



BOOKS BURNT. 

{^Continued from p. 78.) 

During the persecution of Christians under the 
pagan emperors, it was not uncommon for their 
books to be condemned to the fire. Thus, in the 
martyrdom of Saturninus, who suffered under 
Diocletian in a.d. 304, we read that a fire was 
kindled to consume the sacred books which had 
been given up for the purpose ; but a sudden fall 
of rain extinguished the flames and saved the 
volumes. The martyr Euplius (a.d. 303) was led 
away to execution with a copy of the Gospels 
hung about his neck. The same year an edict 
was issued by the emperor, ordering all the sacred 
books of the Christians to be surrendered to the 
civil magistrates, or to be seized in order to be 
burnt. This edict was published throughout the 



* There is no publisher's name, but the last three pages 
are occupied with a list of New Books, printed for H. Curll 
in the Strand. I presume the ^ is a misprint, for the first 
book on the list is Pope^s Familiar Letters to Cromwell, Sfc. 



empire, and as far as possible carried into effect. 
Those who timiiily gave up the books were called 
traditores, of whom freciuent mention is made in 
the records of the times. The first council of 
Aries, in 314, decided (Canon 13) that those of 
the clergy should be deposed who gave up the 
sacred Scriptures, the vessels used in the service, 
or tlie names of their brethren. 

Zonaras informs us (book iii. Leo Isaur.) that a 
royal edifice had been erected, wherein many 
volumes of sacred and profane literature were 
deposited, and where from ancient times he was 
allowed to dwell who, having proved his supe- 
riority in letters, was styled the OEcumenical Doc- 
tor. His associates were twelve other learned 
men, who were maintained at the public expense, 
to whom whoever was ambitious of acquiring 
knowledge resorted, and whom the emperors 
themselves consulted in the business of the state. 
Leo would have deemed the accomplishment of 
his designs no longer uncertain, if the sanction of 
these men could have been obtained. He laid 
before them his views : he made use of caresses 
and of threats. But when nothing could prevail, 
he dismissed tliem, and, commanding the building 
to be surrounded with dry wood, consumed them 
and the rich treasure which they guarded, of 
30,000 volumes, in the flames. (Berington's Lit. 
Hist., pp. 361-2., Bohn's edition.) 

Constantinople was taken in 1204, and it is 
probable that many works perished in the three 
fires which raged in the city, and some writings 
of antiquity which are known to have existed in 
the twelfth century are now lost. {Ibid. p. 393.) 

In the year 1453, when Constantinople was 
taken by the Turks, 123,000 MSS. are said to 
have disappeared. It is well known that they 
were not all destroyed, as many were removed. 

Cardinal Xlmenes is reported, at the taking of 
Grenada, to have doomed 5000 copies of the 
Koran to the flames. 

In 1059, Berenger was compelled to burn the 
work of John Scotus Erigena against Paschasius 
Radbert. The book is now lost. 

Early in the sixteenth century the Emperor 
Maximilian gave an order that all Jewish books 
should be burnt except the Bible, because they 
were filled with blasphemies against Christ. 
Reuchlin and other learned men opposed it ; 
whereupon Reuchlin was required by the em- 
peror to examine the books. He did so, but he 
saved all that contained no attacks upon Chris- 
tianity, and burnt the rest. This lenity ofiended 
the Dominicans, who charged Reuchlin himself 
with heresy. Hochstraten assembled a tribunal 
at Mayence against Reuchlin in 1513, and secured 
the condemnation of his writings to the flames. 

Not long after, anonymous publications con- 
taining evangelical doctrines began to be printed 
and privately circulated at Modena, but they 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



were soon discovered by the inquisitors and 
burnt. 

The celebrated treatise of Aonio Paleario, On 
the Benefits of the Death of Christ, was prose- 
cuted with great rigour, and whenever found 
destroyed ; and though no less than 40,000 
copies of it were sold in six years, it is now a 
scarce book. 

" The Index Expurgatorius is well known ; and as the 
condemned books were consigned to the flames, we form 
some idea of the amount of destruction caused by theo- 
logical bigotry and hate." 

In A.D. 849, Godeschalk was condemned at 
Chiersey, and sentenced to be deprived and to 
be whipped, until he should throw the statements 
he had made at Mentz the year before in his own 
defence into the flames. It is said he submitted, 
under torture, to throw into the fire the texts he 
had collected in support of his own opinions, 

B. H. COWPEB. 

(To he continued.) 



IjANSALLOS beli,. 

In many parishes in Cornwall an annual allow- 
ance of Is. Qd. is made to the ringers, who, on the 
night of Nov. 4, remind us of the Gunpowder 
Plot. Now ringers are proverbially thirsty souls : 
and the crazy discord, or no less expressive silence 
of some of the belfries, plainly tells how this item 
of the churchwarden's account is expended. 
" Cracked one ringing night," concludes the his- 
tory of many of our bells. 

The tower of Lansallos"Church contains the 
fragments of two bells scattered on the floor of 
the belfry ; while a third, still hanging, barely 
serves to notify the hour of service to the inha- 
bitants of the adjoining hamlet. A few particulars 
respecting the latter may interest some of your 
correspondents, and furnish two or three Queries 
to those learned in heraldry. 

There is nothing remarkable in the shape or 
size of the bell, but it bears the words, in an old 
black-letter character : " Sancta Margareta ora 
pro nobis," and also three coats of arms which I 
will attempt to describe. 

The first is a chevron between three fleurs-de- 
lys. The second is an octagonal shield, charged 
with a very curious crosslet. Tiie third is a chev- 
ron between three remarkable-looking vessels with 
spouts, more like the modern coffee-pot than any- 
thing I know besides. The tinctures, if there 
were ever any, are obliterated. 

Can any of the readers of "N, & Q." inform 
me — 1. To whom the arms belong? 2. Whether 
the character of the legend indicates the age of 
the bell ? 3. What are the vessels with which 
the third of the shield is charged ? I 



It has been supposed that the latter is the coat 
of Pincerna (a family which afterwards took the 
name of Lanherne), whose ancestor, William de 
Albany, held lands from the Conqueror on the 
service of attending the king as chief butler on 
the day of coronation. But the Pincerna arras, as 
displayed among seven-and-thirty of the alliances 
of the Trelawnys, over the fire-place in the hall 
at Trelawny, are : Gules, on a bend or, three 
covered cups sable. 

This bell, I have thought, may be coeval with 
the re-edification of the church, which was dedi- 
cated to St Ildierna, or Hyldren, October 16, 
1331. (Oliver's Monasticon Dioc. Exon., Ap- 
pendix.) 

On putting together the fragments of one of the 
other bells, it was found to bear the initials of the 
donors ; and an inscription in modern characters, 
of which I could only discover these words : 

" In Maj- we cast this — 
To pray and hear his word divine." 

It will be unnecessary for me to confess my 
ignorance of tlie gentle science ; but as an atone- 
ment for my heraldic offences in this note, I shall 
be happy to make a {q\y tracings of my sketch of 
the legend and arms for those of your readers 
whom the subject may interest, and who will 
apply to Thomas Q. Couch. 

Polperro, Cornwall. 



ANONYMOUS AND PSEUDONYMOUS WORKS. 

The position which the careful and methodical 
Querard occupies in the Frencli library is filled 
— longo intervallo — in ours by Watt and 
Lowndes : but we still remain without a manual, 
of reference such as that afforded by Barbier. 
This leads me to make the authorship of the un- 
dernoted volumes the subject of a Query ; and to 
suggest that if, under such a heading as I have 
chosen, those possessed of such information would 
spontaneously contribute it, a valuable nucleus 
might be formed for a future dictionary, — a work 
which I believe would not be ill-received by the 
public. 

The English Spy; an original work, characteristic, 
satirical, and humorous, &c. By Bernard Blackmantle.* 
2 vols. 8vo. London, 1826. 

Moments of Idleness, or a Peep into the World we call 
"ours." London, 12mo., 1833. 

Walter ; or a Second Peep, &c. By the same Author. 
London, 12mo., 1835. 

The Rebellion of the Beasts, or the Ass is dead! Long 
live the Ass! ! ! Bv a late Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. London, J. & H. L. Hunt. 12mo. 182.5. 

Deliciaj Literariae; a new volume of Table Talk. 
London, r2mo. 1840. 

The Cigar. 2 vols. 12mo. 

[* Charles Molloy Westmacott.] 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



The Every Night Book. By the Author of The Cigar. 
12ino. 

The Fourth Estate ; or the moral effect of the Press. 
By a Student at Law.* Loudon, Ridgway. 8vo. 1839. 

W1U.1AM Bates. 

Birmingham. 

P. S. — The above Queries were transmitted to 
" N. & Q." before the appearance of the paper on 
the " Identification of Anonymous Books," VoL xi., 
p. 59. I have only to adil that 1 entirely coincide 
with the remarks appended by our Editor, and 
look forward with much interest to tlie develop- 
ment of the plan which he has iu contemplation. 



SCRAPS FROM AN OLD COMMON-PLACE BOOK. 

(Vol. xi., p. 23.) 

The Citizen of the World, letter cvi., speaks of 
his havinnf, after long lucubration, devised a me- 
thod " by which a man miixlit do himself and his 
deceased patron justice, without being under the 
hateful reproach of self-conviction," and gives his 

elegy "On the Death of the Riglit Hon ," 

as a specimen of a poem " in which the flattery is 
perfectly fine, and yet the poet perfectly inno- 
cent." Though Goldsmitli may be the first who 
adopted the expedient in elegiac poetry, yet this 
compromise between trutli and flattery had been 
made in amatory verse before his time, as the 
following lines will sliow. 

The terminations of two or three of the stanzas 
seem to be taken fi'om old ballads, that of tlie 
third especially being a part of a song, of which 
all that I remember is, that its wit was of the very 
coarsest kind. 

To his Mistress. 
" love, whose power and might 
None ever yet withstood. 
Thou forcest mee to write, 

Come turne about Robin Hood. 
" Sole mistress of my rest, 
Let mee this far presume, 
To make this bold request, 
A black patch for the rhtime. 
" Your tresses finely wrought, 
Lilie to a golden snsu-e. 
My silly heart hath caught, 
As Moss did catch his mare. 
" What is't I would not doe 

To purchase one good smile? 
Bid mee to China goe. 

And I'll stand still the while. 
" I know y' I shall dye, 

Love so my lieart bewitches ; 
It makes mee houri}'^ cry. 
Oh how viy elbow itches. 
" Teares soe oreflow my sight 
Witii waves of daily weeping, 
Tiiat in the carefull night 
/ talie no rest for sleeping. 

[* Frederick Knight Hunt.] 



" But since my simple merrits 
Her loving looks nmst lack, 
Come cheer my vital spirritta 
With claret wine and sack. 

"And since that all reliefe 

And comfort doth forsake mee, 
I'll hang myselfe for griefe. 
And then the DeviU take mee." 

I forbear to copy " her aunswere," which has 
neither wit nor delicacy. 

Wlio is the author of the following graceful 
lines ? 

" Wrong not, deare empress of my heart, 
The merit of true passion. 
By thinking hee can feele no smart. 
That sues lor no compassion. 

^' For since that I doe sue to serve 
A saint of such perfection, 
Whome all desire, yet none deserve 
A place in her affection, 

" I'd rather chuse to wante releife, 
Than hazard y^ revealing ; 
Where glory recommends y« greefe, 
Dispare dissuades y^ healing. 

" Since mj' desires doe aime too high 
For any mortall lover, 
And reason cannot make them dj'e, 
Discretion shall them cover. 

** Silence in love doth show more woe 
Than words, though none so witty. 
The beggar that is dumb, you kuowe, 
Deserveth double pity." 



Polperro, Cornwall. 



T. Q. C. 



THE " ALMANACK ROYAL DE FRANCE." 

The Almanack royal de France, which has been 
briefly described on a late occasion, deserves a 
separate note; and our alliance with France, an 
event at which I heartily rejoice, recommends this 
voluminous series to the keepers of public li- 
braries. A few stray volumes of it are as much 
as we ever meet with in private collections. 

Brunet omits this im|)<)rtant publication, and so 
does Ebert. I proceed to describe it in the words 
of a well-informed writer : 

" U Almanach roi/al de France, un des plus anciens et 
des plus utiles, remonte h I'annee 1679 oil il recjut ses 
premii^res lettres de privilege. Son contenu se borriait 
alors an calendrier proprement dit. a quelques observa- 
tions sur les phases de la lune, h I'indicatioji des jours de 
depart des courriers, des fetes du palais, des principales 
foires et des villes oil Ton battait inonnaie. On y ajouta, 
depuis 1699, les naissances des princes et princesses de 
I'Europe, le clerge de France, I'epee, la robe et la finance. 
Aujourd'hui on y trouve le tableau ofiiciel de tous les 
principaux employes, et I'etat des gouvernemens etrangers 
tels quils sont reconnus par la France. Suecessivement 
agraudi, il excfede deja mille pages d'un grand format." — 
J. H. ScnxrrzLER, 1833. 

It must be added, in proof of the alleged im- 
portance of this publication, that the proprietors 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



of it are authorised, by lettres de privilege, to collect 
such information as may be recjuired to complete 
it partout ou hesoin sera. It is the authenticity of 
its information which gives it so peculiar a claim 
on the attention of historians and biographers. 

There was a set in the choice collection of the 
late M. Armand Bertin, rcdacteur en chef du 
Journal des debats, which collection was sold at 
Paris last year. It is thus entered in the sale- 
catalogue : 

" 1679. Almanaclis royaux. Paris, 1700 ii 1846, 145 
Tol. in-8, relies en maroquin velin et veau, la plupart avec 
armoires. Collection curieuse et rare." 

I shall conclude with two Queries. 1. Was the 
above set purchased for the British Museum ? 
2. What are the deficiencies of the Museum set ? 

Bolton Cobney. 



Minav ^attg. 

Former Power of the Turks. — At the present 
time, the following passage from the letters of 
Busbequius, ambassador from Ferdinand II. to 
the Sultan Solyman II., may interest the readers 
of " N. & Q." I extract it from the Loungers 
Common -place Book, the name of the author of 
which I should be glad to know.* The biogra- 
phical articles are frequently very curious, and 
prove the author to have had an extended literary 
knowledge. 

" When I compare the power of the Turks with our own, 
I confess the consideration fills me with anxiety and dis- 
may, and a strong conviction forces itself on my mind 
that we cannot long resist the <lestruction which awaits 
us; they possess immense wealth, strength unbroken, a 
perfect knowledge of the art of war, patience under every 
difficulty, union, order, frugality, and a constant state of 
preparation. 

" On our side, exhausted finances and universal luxurj', 
our national spirit broken by repeated defeats, mutinous 
soldiers, mercenary officers, licentiousness, intemperance, 
and a total contempt or neglect of military discipline, fill 
up the dismal catalogue. 

"Is it possible to doubt how such an unequal conflict 
must terminate? The enemy's forces being at present 
directed against Persia, only suspends our fate ; after 
subduing that power, the all-conquering Mussulman will 
rush with undivided strength and overwhelm at once 
Europe as well as Germanj'." 

H. W. D. 

Dr. Rnuth, President of Magdalen College. — 
Dr. Routh, the late learned President of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, was born before the Seven 
Years' war had begun ; before Clive conquered 
India, or Wolfe bought with his blood Canada ; 
before the United States ever thought of being 
an independent country, or Poland was dismem- 
bered. He was M. A. and Fellow of that Society 
when Gibraltar underwent its memorable siege. 
He was past fifty years when Sir Arthur Wel- 

[* By Jeremiah Whitaker Newman.] 



lesley sailed for Portugal. The last of the Stuarts 
was not dead when Routh was a boy ten years 
old. He was president before the French Revo- 
lution broke out ; he had known Dr. Leigh, 
Master of Baliol, Addison's cotemporary ; had 
seen Dr. Johnson scrambling up the steps of Uni- 
versity College ; talked with a lady whose aunt 
had seen Charles II. walking in "the parks" with 
his dogs ; he persuaded Dr. Seabury to seek con- 
secration from the Scotch bishops ; he died 
Friday, Dec. 22, 1854. 

Mackenote Walcott, M. a. 

Strange typographical Error. — In a copy of 
Johnson's tragedy of Irene, which I bought many 
years ago, one of the characters has to address 
Mahomet II. thus : 

" Forgive, great Sultan, that, by fate prevented, 
I bring a tardy message from Irene." 

The unlucky printer forgot the e in " fate," and 
gave it : 

" Forgive, great Sultan, that hy fat prevented," &c. 

leaving it to be inferred that the honest mes- 
senger was too corpulent to reach his royal master 
in time to save the heroine's life. 

Alfred GonrKET. 
14. Canonbury Square. 

Exchange of Brasses. — The inability to obtain 
anything like a good series of brasses by inde- 
pendent exertion is felt by all amateur collectors. 
I would suggest that all persons who are willing 
to exchange rubbings of brasses from their own 
neighbourhood for others more remotely situated, 
should unite together. 

I would held each party responsible for the 
brasses within a radius of, say five miles from his 
or her address (I must not omit the ladies). 

Manning's List, and a map of England, would 
then only be required. The Editor of " N. & 
Q." would, I am disposed to think, publish the 
addresses ; if not, the expense of printing would be 
merely nominal. 

In the absence of an abler hand, I should be 
willing to arrange the materials. The above plan 
is only recommended for simplicity and economy 
of space in printing, and any farther suggestions 
will be received with thanks. Henrt Moodt. 

Bury School. 

The Euxine, or Black Sea. — The following 
note of \Vells on the 151st verse of the Perie- 
gesis of Dionysius, explains the origin of the 
name Pontus Euxinus : 

" Pontus* kit' iioxrfv antiquis dictus est, tanquam 
Mare Maximum, et quasi Oceanus alter: sed et Axenus\, 
hoc est, inhospitabilis, olim dictus est, sive ob maris tur- 
bulentiam et importuosa littora, sive ob barbaros Accolas. 



• Ovid. Trist. iv. 4. 56. 



f Polyb. IV. 5. 



Peb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



Postea in Euxinum nomen mutatum est, sive ob Graj- 
corum urbes in ejus littore conditas, iinde hospitalior ea 
ora facta est, sive ko-t eix^rnxia-iJibv solum : negat enim Ovid, 
etiam suo sseculo nomen hoc ei vere convenire : 

* Euxinus falso nomine dictus adest.^" 

In the Penny Cyclop., art. Black Sea, this ex- 
planation is called unsatisfactory ; but the writer 
should have borne in mind, that Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and even America, are names of Greek 
origin, as well as the Euxine. Tlie Turks, Arabs, 
Rulsians, French, Germans, and English designate 
it the Black Sea— probably from its stormy 
character. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 

CampheWs Poems. — 

« Sweet was to ns the Hermitage 

Of this unplough'd, untrodden shore ; 
Like birds all joyous from the cage, 
For man's neglect we loved it more." 

O'Connor's Child. 

The last line of the above extract is repeated 
by the poet, in almost the same words, in his 
"Lines on leaving a Scene in Bavaria :" 

" Yes ! I have loved the wild abode. 

Unknown, unplough'd, untrodden shore : 
Where scarce the woodman finds a road, 
And scarce the fisher plies an oar ; 
For man's neglect I love thee more." 

R. V. T. 

Cold-protectors. — Our innate patriotism, now 
breaking out in mysteriously-knitted "comforters," 
finds a parallel in the winter campaign of 1760. 
The then Dean of Gloucester has an advertisement 
in a local paper (Journal, No. 1949., 1760) offering 
" a warm flannel waistcoat to any volunteer, to 
defend him against the inclemency of the approach- 
ing season." E.. C. Wabde. 

Kidderminster. 

" Galore." — This word, now in common use, is 
derived from the Irish go leor, i. e. in abundance. 
An Oxford B. C. L. 

Creation of a Baronetess. — The following is a 
curious instance of the creation of a baronetess in 
her own right, which is recorded in the last page 
of the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1754, in 
the list of " Foreigners who have received the 
Dignity of English Baronets from our Kings :" 

" Created by King James II. 

« Sept. 9, 168G. Cornelius Speelman, of the United 
Provinces, a General of the States of Holland; with a 
special clause to the General's mother of the rank and title 
of a baronetess of England." 

H.M. 



OLD ENGLISH MS. CHRONICLE. 

I send you some extracts from a MS. chronicle 
of English history, in hopes that you will inform 
me whether you, or any of your readers, recognise 
them as coming from any known history. 

The MS. i^ small folio, and begins : " In ye 
year fro ye begginning of ye worlde 3990, yer 
was in ye noble lond of Greece a wort hi kyng." 
And ends : " The Wennesday next aft"^ uppon the 
morow, Edwarde, the noble Erie of March, was 
chosen kyng in the cyte of London, and began for 
to reygne," &c. 

From cap. xli. : 

" Yis Constantyn (the Gi*eat) first endowed ye 
Chirche of Rome with possessions. And tlianne 
yer was a voys yherd above in ye cyr yat sade yus, 
Hodie infusum est venenii, in ecclid dei " (in margin 
nota bene). 

King John is said to have died by poison. His 
" Letter obligatory to ye Pope of Rome " is given 
at full length in English. 

From cap. cvii. : 

"... Maister Robert Grostet, bisshop of Lin- 
coln . . . because ye pope hadde provided his 
nevew yt was a child to a curid benefice ... ye 
said Robert wolde not admitte, and wroot ageea 
to ye pope, yat he wold not, ne owed not admitte, 
eny suche to have cure and rewle of soules that 
cowde not rewle theymself, ne understand ye 
English tunge ; wherefore ye said Robert was . . . 
acursid, and he appelid fro ye pope's court to ye 
court of hevene. And sone after ye said Robert 
deide acursid ; and ii yeer after his deth, lie ap- 
pend lik a bisshop to ye pope as he lay in his bed, 
and saide, Surge miser veni ad judicia .... 
And with ye pricke of his bisshoppis staf he 
pricked ye pope . . unto ye herte, and in ye 
morow ye pope was founde ded .... And be- 
cause ye said Robert deide acursid notwithstond- 
ing . . . miracles, ye court of Rome will not 
suffre him to be canonized." 

From cap. cxlvi. : 

(j8) " Henry IV. as a defence for having put 
the Archbishop of York to death, sent to the pope 
the 'habergeon yat yarchblsshop was armed ynne 
with these wordis : Pater vide si tunica hcec sit filii 
tui an non.' And ye pope answerde .... Sive 
hcec sit tunica filii mei an non scio quia f era pessima 
devoravit fUium meum." (6th of Henry IV.) 

From the same chapter (3rd of Henry IV.) : 

(a) Richard II. was supposed to be still alive : 
" And a frere menour of ye covent of Aylesbury 
cam to ye kyng, and acusid a frere of ye same 
hous, a prest ; and saide that he was glad of kyng 
RIchardes life, and he was brought to ye kyng, 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



and he saide to him, ' Thou hast herd yat kyng 
Richard is alive, and art glad yereof ?' Ye frere 
answerde : ' I am as glad as a man is glad of ye 
liff of his friende, for I am holden to him . . .' 
Ye kyng saide : ' Thou hast noised and told 
openli yat he livith, and so thou hast excited and 
stirid the peple agens me.' Ye frere saide, ' Nay.' 
Thanne saide ye kyng : ' Tell me trouthe, as it is 
in thi herte, yf thou sawest kyng Richard and me 
in ye feld fighting togedir, w* whom woldest thou 
holde ?' ' Forsoth,' saide ye frere, ' with him ; for 
I am more beholde to him.' Thanne saide the 
kyng : ' Thou woldest yat I and alle ye lordis of 
my reme were ded?' Ye frere saide, 'Nay.' 
' What woldest thou do with me,' saide ye kyng ; 
*yf thou haddest ye victory ovyer me ?' Ye frere 
saide : ' I wolde make you duke of Lancaster.' 
' Thou art not my friend,' saide ye kyng ; ' and 
yerefor thou shalt lese thin hed.' And thanne he 
was dampned . . . ." 

Other interesting conversations follow on the 
same subject. But I have already to apologise 
for the length of this letter. Can you inform me 
what my chronicle is ; and also, whether such an 
one has ever been printed ? J. S. D. 

Oxford. 

[The chronicle would appear, at first sight, to be a 
version of the " Brut." It is obviously one deserving of 
farther examination; and if our correspondent would 
entrust it to us for a short time, we think we may pro- 
mise him a satisfactory report upon it. — Ed. " N. & Q."] 



MABVELLS "REHEARSAL TRANSPROSED. 

Is there an annotated edition of this witty and 
learned production ? * The work is not infrequently 
spoken of as The Rehearsal Transposed, and two 
instances of this error are now before me. One 
occurs in vol. iv. p. 226. of Fletcher's History of 
the Revwal and Progress of Independency in Eng- 
land (4 vols. 12mo., 1849). The other is to be 
found in " N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 513. As the latter 
is in a quotation, the error may probably be found 
also in the volume whence the passage is taken. 
There is not, I believe, in Marvell's pages, any 
explanation of the meaning which he attached to 
the word " transprose<l ; " but in his day it would 
be so well understood as to need none. The best 
that has fallen in my way is to be found in the 
Co?igregafional Magazine for June, 1821 (vol. iv. 
p. 318.). Under the head of " Literaria Rediviva, 
or The Book-worm," Marvell's work is reviewed ; 

[* There is a work, entitled A Common-place Book out 
of the "Rehearsal Transprosed," with useful Notes, 8vo., 
London, 1073 ; but we have never met with it. Marvell 
seems to have taken the title of his work from the comedy 
of The Rehearsal, written by John Sheffield, Duke of 
Buckingham, in revenge for the character drawn of him 
by Dryden under the character of Zimri. ] 



and the writer's opening remarks, which I tran- 
scribe, contain the explanation to which I refer : 

" The title of the work which we here introduce to our 
readers is taken, as well as numerous allusions in the 
body of the performance, from the celebrated satirical 
play of the Duke of Buckingham, called the Rehearsal ; 
in which the principal dramatic writers of the age of the 
Restoration were severely, but justly, ridiculed. The 
hero of the Duke of Buckingham's satire is an ignorant 
and bloated play-writer, called Bayes. This wretched 
and affected scribbler invites two friends to witness a 
rehearsal of a new play which he has just finished ; and, 
as the rehearsal is proceeding, he entertains his friends, 
by disclosing to them the rules by which he composed 
his plays. The following brief extract from the Duke's 
Rehearsal, will explain the design of Marvell in calling 
his work the Rehearsal Transprosed, as well as throw 
some light upon the character of the ambitious eccle- 
siastic whom the author has dubbed Mr. Bayes. Marvell, 
by this ingenious artifice, shielded himself from the legal 
consequences which, in that intolerant age, the infuriated 
churchman might have brought upon him. Bayes says : 

" ' My first rule is the rule of transversion, or regular 
duplex; changing verse into prose, or prose into verse, 
alternative as j'ou please. 

" ' Smith. Well, but how is this done by rule, Sir? 

" ' Bayes. Why thus, Sir ; nothing is so easy when 
understood. I take a book in my hand, either at home 
or elsewhere, for that's all one ; if there be any wit in't, 
as there is no book but has some, I transverse it : that is, 
if it be prose, put it into verse (but that takes up some 
time) ; and, if it be verse, put it into prose. 

" ' Johnson. Methinks, Mr. Bayes, that putting verse 
into prose should be called transprosing. 

" ' Bayes. Sir, it's a very good notion, and here- 
after it shall be so.' " 

H. Martin. 

Halifax. 



WELLS PROCESSION. 

The following curious poem is copied from an 
old MS. formerly in the possession of one of the 
eathedral dignitaries, and there is good reason for 
believing that it has never appeared in print. If 
any of the readers of " N. & Q" can give me any 
infbrmati(m as to the author or the circumstances 
to which it refers, I should esteem it a very great 
favour. Tlie original MS. is indorsed " Wells 
Procession, 1716." 

"wells processiok, 
In a Letter to Sir Will. W—d—m. 
" In eighty -six, when tricksters rul'd the State, 
And tools of Rome in Aron's chair were sett. 
When grave processions march'd in solemn pomp. 
And brawny Jesuits lampoon'd the rump ; 
Fine sights there were, that pleas'd the giddy mob ; 
Each priest was then ador'd as much as G — d ; 
And justly too, for every man must own, 
If Levites can make gods, their work's their own : 
Yet their processions, and their noise of bells, 
Were trifles all compar'd to ours at Wells, 
Where Querpo march'd in state, and sable drest, 
Mounted on Horner's steed above the rest, 
Attended by our rake-hell lilly white, 
Who loudly roar'd, ' I'm for the Churches right ! * 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



J 



A brave support (I think) ; we must do well, 
Since our pjood Cliurcli has stole a prop from hell; 
P'or faith the figure was as black as ink, — 
I took him for a devil by liis stink. 
In his right h:ind he held a branch of birch. 
With it (says he) I'll sweep our Mother Cliuroh. 
After him niarcli'd three worthies of tiie gown. 
Whose honesty to all the West is known, 
P^xcept the Whigs, who say that tiiey have none 
And dare assert that college plate has paid 
For man}' hearty meals Cremona made. 
Tliat some Wells scholars to their cost can tell 
How, chapman like, j'oung Whackum books w'd sell; 
Tranquillo might have past in silence here, 
Had modest Jone contain'd another year. 
Tlien follow'd all the rabble of the town 
With hideous noise, declaring they were sound. 
Sly Querpo, finding how they were inclin'd. 
Proclaims a halt, and thus declar'd his mind: — 
' Townsmen and lovers, partners in my woe ! 
Tis true our cause is sunk, and hopes so low. 
That I'm become so faint I scarce can speak. 
Of a bad markett we must make the best; 
We'll nose the Whigs and bravely raise our crest. 
Though we at Preston and elsewhere are foil'd. 
Though a septennial! act our measures spoii'd, 
Though last November fiU'd us all with pain, 
October now shall raise our spirits again. 
Learn'd Thomas is returu'd in health to Wells, 
Our James is safe at Rome (huzza!), then ring the 
bells." 

Ina. 



Minar ^ISiuetiei. 

The Lyme Regis and Bridport "Domesday" and 
"Dom Books." — These ancient volumes are known 
under the above titles. The latter has entries, it 
is stated, of the reign of Henry VI. 

The Lyme Regis Domesday, called also The 
Broad Book, is a ponderous volume to wliich 
allusions, in reference to entries therein, are fre- 
quently made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

This MS. volume is supposed to have been sent 
to the late Mr. Dean, a solicitor, living in Guilford 
Street, at the time of a law-suit about the year 
1828. Mr. Dean died suddenly, and the volume 
has not been seen for years. It has been heard of, 
and, as is believed, was offered for sale. It is the 
property of the Town Council, who succeeded the 
former corporation. Tlie Mayor of Lyme Regis 
would be glad of an answer to this Query : Who 
can give any information respecting this Domes- 
day Book ? 

The Mayor will thankfully treat for the above, 
to be replaced in the archives. The late Mr. 
George Smith was town clerk at the time of the 
law-suit before alluded to. 

George Roberts (Mayor of Lyme Regis). 

Dorset. 

Turkish Emblematical Flower. — Has Turkey 
an eitibleniatic flower, a^ England has the rose, 
and Ireland the shamrock ? If so, what is it ? 

J. J. W, 



Value of Money in 1653. — Can any correspon- 
dent inform me of the value of a pound sterling 
in the year 1653, as compared with the value of a 
pound sterling in 1855 : adopting as the standard 
of value the price of a quarter of wheat, or of an 
ox, or of any other important commodity in the 
country ? G. N. 

Rev. Roger Dale. — I should feel greatly obliged 
to any of your readers who could furnish me with 
any particulars relating to the Rev. Roger Dale, 
his ffxraily connexions, and the various prefer- 
ments he held ? Mr. Dale was appointed curate 
of Denton, in the parish of Manchester, in 1679; 
which he resigned in 1691 for that of Northen, or 
Northenden, in Cheshire. J. B. 

Quotations wanted. — 

Who is the author of the "Evening Hymn" com- 
mencing — 

" Soon as the evening star, with silver ray," &c. ? H.- 
Clifton. 



" The heart may break, yet brokenly live on." F. M. E. 



" Earth has no sorrow which heaven cannot heal." 

J. H. A. B. 



" Which maidens dream of when they muse on love." 
Whence ? " R. V. T. 



" . . . . strew'd 
A baptism o'er the flowers." 
Whence? R. V. T. 



What Christian Father wrote this, and where ? 

" Creavit angelos in ccelo, vermiculos in terra ; non 
superior in istis, non inferior in illis." A Naturalist. 

" Romance of the Pyrenees," 8fc. — Who was 
the author of The Romance of the Pyrenees, 
Sancto Sebastiano, Adelaide, The Forest of Mont- 
albano, and Rosabella, romances published fifty 
years ago, and popular in their day ? Uneda. 

Philadelphia. 

Lucky Birds. — There is an ancient custom in 
Yorkshire, and I presume it is more or less general 
throughout England, of having a boy to enter 
your house early on Christmas and New Year's 
Day ; and this boy is called a lucky bird. Now 
can you inform me the date and origin of this 
custom ? why a black-hair d boy is universally 
preferred ? and why he is called a lucky bird ? 

R. B. 

Headingley. 

CnrdinaTs red Hat. — In the Historia Literaria 
of Cave, the author says of the Synod of Lyons in 
1245 (1243 ?) : "In this synod, if I mistake not, 
the red hat, as a sign of the dignity of cardinal, 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



was first instituted." In the Supplement to the 
same work, H(enry) W(harton) says Paul II. 
(1464) was the first to make the grant. "If I 
mistake not," Cave is right. Paul added the pal- 
lium or cloak, and Gregory XIV. made some other 
alterations. • B. H. C. 

Archbishop Leighton. — The Rev. J. N. Pearson, 
in his sketch of the above prelate's life, mentions 
that — 

" There is still in existence a humorous poem on Dr. 
Aikenhead, Warden of the College (at Edinburgh), which 
Leighton wrote when an undergraduate. It evinces a 
good-natured playfulness of fancy, but is not of a merit 
that calls for publication." 

I doubt not many of your readers would, 
nevertheless, agree with me in thanking any one 
who has access to this document, by bringing 
it to light through your pages ; provided it be of 
reasonable dimensions, and unpublished by any 
other biographer. If even one of the Juvenilia 
of Leighton should prove to be without merit, the 
greater would be its literary curiosity. 

C. W. Bingham. 

Marriages decreed hy Heaven. — What is the 
origin of this saying ? I find that the opinion 
prevails among the Chinese. I have also met 
with it in the writings of Dieterich, a Lutheran 
divine who wrote early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. B. H. C. 

Greek "Dance of Floivers." — Where is the 
best account of this ancient dance? On what 
authorities do the moderns found their descrip- 
tions? Did similar dances obtain among other 
nations, either of old or to-day ? A. Challsteth. 

Theatrical Announcements. — Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." inform me when the custom, 
now universal among the daily papers, originated, 
of placing the theatrical announcements of the 
evening's performances immediately preceding the 
leading articles ? I should also like to know the 
rationale of the custom in question, and whether 
the notices are considered as advertisements, and 
paid for accordingly. H. W. D. 

"At tu, quisquis eris" Sfc. — Dr. Johnson has 
prefixed to the 41st number of his Idler (the 
paper on the death of his mother) the following 
not very appropriate verses. Can any of your 
readers tell me whence they are taken ? 

" At tu, quisquis eris, miseri qui cruda poetae 
Credideris fletu funera digna tuo, 
Haec postrema tibi sit flendi causa, fluatque 
Lenis inoffenso vitaque morsque gradu." 

Some of the editions have given them to Ovid, 
but I cannot find them anywhere in the works of 
that poet. F. W. 



iHtnor <!h\xtnti tuftS ^n^tti. 

Right Rev. Charles Llo7/d, D.D., Bishop of 
Oxford. — Can any of your correspondents furnish 
reminiscences of this prelate, who was also Regius 
Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and prematurely 
removed by death in 1829? Have any notes of 
his Lectures on the Book of Common Prayer ever 
been published, or could you be the medium of 
collecting some of their disjecta membra from 
among your readers ? 

Dr. Lloyd was, I believe, the first Professor for 
many years who gave private lectures in addition 
to his formal prelections on theology, when ap- 
pointed in 182'i. The announcement of them 
created a sensation at the time ; but, from cir- 
cumstances, it was not my happiness to have heard 
them. I may mention one happy suggestion of 
his, viz. that the versicle, towards the end of the 
Litany — " O Son of David, have mercy on us," — 
had always appeared to him to be incorrect, and 
not agreeable to the meaning of the first com- 
pilers of the formulary ; inasmuch as our Saviour, 
after His ascension, was never invoked with re- 
ference to His ancestor according to the flesh. In 
the course of our examination of some ancient 
MSS., or editions of the Liturgies to which our 
own is indebted, the corresponding invocation was 
found written contractedly, " O fill D. viv." (i. e. 
Dei viventis), in such a way that a hasty glance 
might lead a copyist to transcribe it as " fill 
David." 

Bishop Lloyd was son of the Rev. Thomas 
Lloyd, who died at High Wycombe in 1815, 
having held the rectory of Aston-sub-Edge, co. 
Gloucester, from 1782. Balliolensis. 

[Our correspondent is probably aware that Mr. Palmer, 
in his Origines Liturgka, has made some use of Bishop 
Lloyd's liturgical notes. In his preface he states, " That 
the' late Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Lloyd) was so convinced 
of the expediency [of having the English Offices in their 
original languages], that he was himself collecting mate- 
rials for the purpose, which he intended to publish as 
soon as his avocations should permit. His lordship's col- 
lections were entered on the margin of a folio Prayer 
Book, in the library given by Dr. AUestree for the use of 
the Regius Professor of Divinity in this university [Ox- 
ford] ; and having been kindly permitted to compare 
them with the results of my own investigations, I have 
derived from them several valuable observations, which 
are acknowledged in their proper places." In a note Mr. 
Palmer adds, "I have been informed that his lordship 
delivered several private lectures, entirely on this topic, 
to a class of theological students in this university." 
Some passing notices of these private lectures, delivered 
in 1826, will be found in Froude's Remains, vol. i. pp. 30. 
39. 47, 48. ; but the lectures have never been printed. In 
1825, Dr. Lloyd edited for the Clarendon Press the Formw 
laries of Faith, put forth by authority during the reign 
of Henry VIII. In 1827 he published a revised and en- 
larged edition of the Sylloge Confessionum ; and in 1828 
produced a very correct and elegant edition of the 
Greek New Testament, for the use of junior biblical 
students, Avhich has been reprinted in 1830 and 1847. 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



Bishop Lloyd also acknowledged the authorship of an 
article in the British Critic for October, 1825, entitled "A 
Tiew of the Roman Catholic Doctrines." For biogra- 
phical notices of this learned prelate, consult the Georgian 
Era, vol. i. p. 526. ; Annual Biography and Obituary, 
vol. xiv. p. 353. ; and the Gent. Mag. for June, 1829, 
p. 560.] 

Paisley Abhey. — On the altar wall of Paisley 
Abbey Chapel a series of sculptures are carved 
■which, though whitewashed over, refuse to be 
obliterated. The series seems to rudely sot forth 
the life of a saint, at all events an ecclesiastic, 
from his cradle to his grave. In one a stream of 
light descends on his head as he pens some annals 
in a book. Paisley's "Black Book" is well known; 
could this have any connexion with the sculpture? 
In this chapel there is also a tomb, which rumour 
assigns as the shrine of Marjory Bruce ; with 
what authority ? and what is the history of the 
sculpture ? Dunheoed. 

[This seems to be what is called "Queen Bleary's 
tomb," of which the late Dr. Boog wrote an account, 
published in the Transactions of the Society of the Anti- 
quaries of S(;otland, vol. ii. part ii. pp. 456 — 461. He 
seems to conjecture, from the figures in the east end of 
the aisle being so different from any other work about 
the church, that they must be referred to a period prior to 
that of the building of the present fabric ; and he adds, 
"it is certain, from the foundation charter, that a church 
existed at Paisley before that time." In his account of 
the tomb, while he considers the basement as forming 
part of the monument, he puts no faith in the Paisley 
tradition of its being that of Marjory Bruce, mother of 
Robert II. On this subject some curious conjectural in- 
formation may be found in Appendix iii. to the volume 
of the Maitland Club for 1831, entitled Descriptions of the 
Sheriffdoms of Lanark and Renfrew, pp. 296 — 304. Con- 
sult also the New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vii. 
pp. 217—220.] 

Demonolo^ical Query. — In Barlcei Adversaria 
Traject. ad Rhenum, 1G72, are some notes on the 
third book of Apuleius, in which it is stated, that 
witches seem to have lost the art of assuming 
various forms, but that they still use ointments to 
enable them to fly. Some examples are given ; 
among them is : 

" Viri tenuis qui ab uxore ad amatorem ejus videndum 
in cajtu demonum in arenarias Burgadalenses ductus erat, 
ut recens et notissimum est." 

In the margin " Biiis. de C. M." is cited. As 
several of your correspondents are learned in 
demonology, perhaps one may oblige me with the 
facts of the case, or the full title of the book so 
briefly referred to. J. E. T. 

[The work quoted in the margin is by Petrus Binsfel- 
dius, entitled Tractatus de Confessionihus malcficnrum et 
sagarum, an et quanta fides eis adhibenda sit? 8vo., Aug. 
Trev., 1591, 1596, et Col. Agr., 1623. Praludium xii. 
-seems to treat upon this subject: — "Daemones possunt 
assumere corpora, et in ipsis apparere hominibus."] 

Early English and Latin Grammar. — I observe 
that you and your correspondents are directing 



some attention to early works on education. A 
volume of English and Latin Grammar is now 
before me, which I found in the library at Mel- 
ville, in Fifeshire, and which bears date 1557 ; 
but whether it is rare or not, I do not know. 
Neither the name of the printer, nor the place of 
printing, is given. There are two works. The 
title of the first is thus : 

" A Short Introduction of Grammar generallie to be 
used. Compiled and set forth for the bringing up of all 
those that intend to attaine the Knowledge of the Latin 
Tongue." 

Below is this motto : 

" In time truth cometli to light, and prevaileth." 

with an engraving representing Time handing 
Truth out of a cave ; and the words " cum privi- 
legio." It contains 55 pages. 

The second part is of the same date, and con- 
tains 127 pages. The engraving represents a 
printing-press. It is entirely Latin, with this 
title, Brevissima Imititutio, seu ratio Grammatices 
cognoscendce, &c. It includes "Propria quae mari- 
bus " and " As in prassenti." 

These books may be quite common ; and if so, 
I have said enough to allow of their being verified. 
If rare, any question relating to them can be 
answered. W. L, M. 

[These works were printed by Reynold Wolfe, the first 
who had a patent for being printer to the king in Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew. The first edition of them is dated 
1549, 4to., London, and is in the Bodleian, but is not no- 
ticed either by Ames or Dibdin, who both speak of Wolfe's 
edition of 1569. Our correspondent's copy is probably in 
8vo. ; if so, it is the Paris edition. Both works have been 
frequently reprinted.] 

'■'■To rat." — What may have been the origin 
of this phrase as applied to any sudden and mer- 
cenary change in politics ? Abhba. 

[This modern cant phrase originated, no doubt, from 
the sagacity of rats forsaking ships not weather-proof. It 
is not only applied to those who desert their political 
party from some mercenary motive, but is used in most 
trades for those who execute work at less than the re- 
gular scale prices. These individuals are hooted at and 
despised like rats.] 

" Domesday Book." — What is the precise deri- 
vation of Domesday Book ? G. R. L. 

[Stow, Annals, p. 118., 1631, tells us, "The Booke o^ 
Bermnndsetf saith this book was laid up in the King s 
treasurie (which was in the church of Winchester or 
Westminster), in a place called Domus Dei, or God's 
house, and so the name of the booke therefore called 
Domus Dei, and since, shortly, Domesday." The author 
of Dialogus de Scaccario, however, gives the following 
explanation of the name: "Hie liber ab indigenis Domes- 
dei nuncupatur, id est. Dies Judicii, per metaphoram: 
sicut enim districti et terribilis examinis illius novissimi 
sententia nulla tergiversationis arte valet eludi ; sic, cum 
orta fuerit in regno contentio de his rebus quae illic anno- 
tantur, cum veiitum fuerit ad librum, sententia ejus in- 
fatuari non potest, vel impune declinari. Ob hoc nos 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



eandera Librum Judiciarium nominavimus ; non quod ab 
eo sicut a praedicto Judicio non licet ulla ratione disce- 
dere." (Mad ox, Hist. Excheq., edit. 4to., vol. ii. p. 398.) 
So Rudborne, Angl. Sacr. torn. i. p. 257. : " Vocatus 
Domj'-sday; et vocatur sic, quia nuUi parcit, sicut nee 
magnus dies Judicii." These derivations are quoted in 
Sir HenrA' Ellis's General Introduction, to Domesday Book, 
pp. 1,2.]" 



THE INQUISITION. 

(Vol. X., pp. 120. 137. 246.) 

The attack made upon Col. Lehmanowsky in 
the first of the above articles having been re- 
published in the United States, !that gentleman, 
who has been for many years a clergyman of the 
Lutheran Church in this country, has taken notice 
of it in the following letter to the editor of the 
Independent, a religious newspaper published in 
the city of New York. Uneda. 

Philadelphia. 

Letter from Colonel Lehmanowsky. 

Hamburg, Clark co. Indiana, 
Dec. 15, 1854. 

Mr. Editor of the Independent, 

A few days ago, a gentleman gave me to read 
an article, published in a London (England) pe- 
riodical, called Notes and Queries, in which a writer 
criticised my statement about the destruction of 
the Inquisition Chemastin, near Madrid, in Spain. 
In perusing this article, my first intention was not 
to take notice of it, and let it pass for what it is 
worth. But yesterday, a friend of mine handed 
me your paper. The Independent, in which my 
attention was drawn to an article signed "In- 
quirer." In said article I am called a " Polish 
refugee ; " whereas, the Polish refugees came in 
this country only in 1833 ; whilst I came after the 
battle of Waterloo, in 1816, and have had the 
honour, since 1821, to be a citizen of these United 
States. 

Secondly, the gentleman says that in the year 
1814 the king of Spain re-established the "In- 
quisition," and in 1820 he or his friend saw that 
massive building yet standing, and therefore I 
must have made a false statement about Its being 
blown up. It seems the learned gentleman thinks it 
needs to rebuild an "Inquisition" as long as it 
needed to build St. Peter's at Rome, and in eleven 
years time it could not be rebuilded, as it was blown 
up in 1809 by the troops under my command. 
May be, if the gentleman would go to Moscow, in 
Russia, at the present time, he will likewise say, 
Moscow has never been burned, and the Kremlin 
had never been blown up by powder in 1812, 
because, he would say, the houses are all standing, 
and the " massive " buildings in the Kremlin are 
there. 



Thirdly, this kind gentleman says thnt Marshal 
Soult was not the Commandant of Madrid. Who 
said so ? not I. My statement is, that Count 
Mejoles was the Commandant, but Marslial Snult 
the Military Commander of the division, wliich 
not only occupied Madrid, but twenty or thirty 
miles round about Madrid. 

And now, Mr. Editor, I think I have done so 
far my duty in answering this very learned gen- 
tleman, who made the criticism in the Notes and 
Queries. But allow me to remark, that I ;;m 
astonished that any one should wait twenty years 
since my first statement, to correct the same. It 
seems to me that those who were always wishing 
to have this statement hushed up, waited until 
they were sure Marshal Soult and Col. De Lisle 
were dead, and no doubt suspected Col. Lehma- 
nowsky was also numbered among the dead, so 
that they may have free pluy ; but they are 
mistaken. 

I will only add, as the Lord has blessed me to 
be nearly eighty-two years of age, they sliould 
wait a little longer, until they are sure tiiat none 
are living who took part in the destruction of the 
"Inquisition Chemastin." 

In conclusion, let me inform you, Mr. Editor, 
that it is (with the help of God) my firm resolu- 
tion to write no more on this subject, as I am 
advanced in age, and can emi)loy my time a groat 
deal better to do the work of my Captain of Sal- 
vation, Jesus Christ, in preaching His Gospel to 
saints and sinners. 

I remain, with due regard, your obedient ser- 
vant, J. J. Lehmanowsky. 



LORD DERBY AND MANZONI. 

(Vol. xi., p. 62.) 

I cannot inform Hermrs where Lord Derby 
delivered the speech in wliich he is said to have 
quoted the lines from Manzoni's Ode to Napoleon, 
but I know that his admiration of that ode dates 
from many years back. At Rome, in the year 
1821, when "it was still in its first fiime, and a 
common topic of conversation. Lord Derby ex- 
pressed his high opinion of its merits in the com- 
pany of English ladies, of whom one or two did 
not understand Italian, and were a good deal 
chagrined to be thus excluded from the pleasure 
which its recitation appeared to convey to the 
rest. Lord Derby took up the book and said, 
" Oh ! I will try to give you some general notion 
of the matter of the poem"; its fire and inspiration 
will all evaporate in translation;" and witli a 
wonderfid rapidity he struck off an improvised 
paraphrase in English, whicli I well remember 
thinking, at the time, gave earnest of tlie talents 
which his maturer years have so splendidly deve- 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



loped. I am not sure that he translated the whole 
ode. I never possessed a copy, but some passages 
have remained in my recollection, and though the 
incident has probably long passed from the me- 
mory of the distinguished author, I will vouch for 
the correctness of mine for a stanza or two. 

" O quante volte, al tacito 
Morir d' un giorno inerte, 
Chinati i rai fulminei, 
Le braccia al sen conserte, 
Stette — e dei di che furono 
L' assalse il souvenir. 

" E ripensb le niobili 
Tende, ei percorsi valli 
E 1 campi dei manipoli — 
E 1' onda dei cavalli — 
E il concitato imperio — 
E il celere obbedir." 



" Oft, as in silence closed some listless day. 

His eyeball's lightning ray 

Bent on the tumbling flood, 

With folded arms he stood — 

And bitterly he number'd o'er 
The days that had been — and that were no more. 

" He saw the quick-struck tents again — 
The hot assault — the battle plain — 
The troops in martial pomp array'd — 
The pealing of the artillery — 
The torrent charge of cavalry — 
The hurried word 
In thunder heard — 
Heard — and obey'd." 

B.(l) 



THE SULTAN OF THE CRIMEA. 

(Vol. X., pp. 453. 533.) 

When I was in Edinburgh in 1821-2, a man of 
gentlemanly appearance and manners was moving 
in good circles, and went by the name of Prince 
Crimgary Cattygary, or Khrim Gherri Khatti 
Gherri, and afterwards married a Scotch ladv. 
But if she was thenceforward called " Sultana," it 
could only be in jest. The prince was said to 
have been sent to Edinburgh for his education by 
the Emperor Alexander. This also was probably 
said idly, it being well known that no Russian 
notable could reside abroad without the Emperor's 
permission. 

In Chambers's edition of Clarke's Travels, p. 94,, 
I find this note : 

" It was here (Sympheropol) that Katti Gherri Krim 
Gherri resides. He' is a descendant of the Tartar Khans ; 
and having become acquainted with the Scotch mission- 
aries at Carass in the Caucasus, he was sent to Edinburgh 

for education. Here he married Dr. Lyall visited 

him in 1822 ; and describes him and his Sultana as living 
in great happiness. According to Mr. Spencer, he had 
not succeeded in the j'ear 183G in making a single convert 
(vol. ii. p. 89.). A great indisposition to Christianitv 
exists amongst the Tartars, arising from its being pro- 
fessed by the Russians." 



Clarke gives a detailed account of the Russian 
intrigues in becoming possessed of the Crimea. 
He says : 

" It is well known that, by the last treaty of peace which 
Russia made with the Turks, prior to the conquest of the 
Peninsula, Shahin Ghirei, of the family of the Khans, 
who had been a prisoner and a hostage at Petersburg, 
was placed on the throne of the Crimea." 

Then follows his (Clarke's) account of the depo- 
sition and miserable fate of this poor victim of 
Russian perfidy and aggression. 

The note of your correspondent Anat (Vol. x., 
p. 533.) assumes that the Query at p. 326. is "the 
Sultan's account of himself." Surely this is gra- 
tuitous. Tliere must be scores of men in Edin- 
burgh who will be able to verify the circumstances 
above related. It is possible, but not very pro- 
bable, that the hero of the tale may have left the 
Russian territory, and taken refuge in this country. 
He cannot now be very young. M. (2) 



MILTON S WIDOW. 

(Vol. Ix., pp. 38. 225.) 

By some original papers I am enabled to con- 
firm the accuracy of that part of Mr. G. Grey's 
letter to his brother Dr. Zachary Grey, your cor- 
respondent C. DE D. quotes from Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes in one of your recent Numbers, which 
states that there were three widow Miltons there 
{i. e. Nantwich). The three persons alluded to 
were : — 1. Milton the poet's widow, who is first 
traced to that town in the year 1688. 2. The 
widow of a Mr. Humphrey Milton, an attorney 
and a freeholder there. And 3. The aunt of 
Dr. Grey and his brother. But as respects the 
time of the death of Milton's widow mentioned by 
Mr. Grey, it has already been shown by one or 
two of your able contributors, that she died in 
1727, and not in 1730 — the year in which he fixes 
her death to have taken place ; and a recently 
discovered inventory and appraisement of her 
effects, taken by Mr. John AUcock, the acting 
executor of her will, on August 26, 1727, pre- 
served with her original will proved at Chester on 
October 10th in the same year, puts the matter be- 
yond all doubt ; inasmuch as it shows that her dis- 
solution must have occurred between the dates of 
her will, the 22nd of August, and the inventory 
the 26ih of the same month, 1727 ; and most^ pro- 
bably on the very day her will bears d.ate, judg- 
ing from the extremely short interval between the 
two dates. The details of the inventory I have 
referred to, also assist in identifying the testatrix 
as being the poet's widow, if any farther evidence 
on that head was requisite. This document will 
be lo(tked upon as interesting, when it is known 
that it describes with the greatest minuteness, not 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



only all the old lady's household goods, but like- 
wise the whole of her wardrobe ; the value of each 
article being placed opposite thereto, and, on 
running over the items, I think I may safely 
hazard an opinion, that she took with her on 
leaving London a few of her husband's movables. 
The inventory is comprised in seven common law 
folios, and affords a curious specimen of the man- 
ner in which habitations occupied by persons in 
Mrs. ]\Iilton's station of life were furnished at that 
period, and of the apparel she was accustomed to 
wear. The following are some of its most attrac- 
tive items : " A large Bible," estimated at 8s. ; 
" two books of Paradise" at 10s. (I must leave 
your readers to form their own judgments on the 
probability of these books being Milton's own 
copies of his Paradise Lost and Regained) ; " some 
old books, and a few old pictures," at 12s. ; " Mr. 
Milton's pictures (unquestionably his portraits) 
and coat arms," at 10/. 10s. ; "two teaspoons and 
one silver spoon, w**" a seal and stopper," at 12s. 6c?. ; 
" a totersheW knife and fork, w*** other odd ones," 
at Is. ; and " a tobacco-box," at Qd. The aggre- 
gate account of the appraisement is 38Z, 8s. 4rf. 
I regret to say, that, after the most diligent in- 
quiries in this town and the neighbourhood, I 
have not been successful in discovering any of the 
articles I have particularised, nor any of the 
others enumerated in the inventory, except one 
of the knives and forks ; the history of which I 
have had the good fortune to trace satisfactorily. 

The subject of the relationship, historians had 
persuaded themselves, and led others to believe, 
existing between our poet's widow and the family 
of MinshuU of Stoke, having engaged my atten- 
tion, I cannot close my present communication 
without mentioning, for the information and satis- 
faction of such of your readers as take an interest 
in her genealogy, that I am in possession of evi- 
dence of the most conclusive character, which 
fully goes to establish that Sir Edward MinshuU 
of Stoke Hall resided at that mansion with his 
family in 1667, and up to the time of his death, 
which happened a few years afterwards ; and that 
he had issue by his wife Dame Mary, who was 
the youngest daughter and coheiress of Edward 
Moryall, Esq., of Gray's Inn (whose eldest daughter 
was Barbara, the wife of Randle Dod, Esq., of 
Edge, of this county), viz. five children: — 1. 
Edward, his successor; 2. William of Gray's Inn, 
living in 1715 ; 3. Mary ; 4. Ann; and 5. Eliza- 
beth, so long supposed to have been the third wife 
of Milton. The two youngest daughters, Ann 
and Elizabeth, lived with their mother Lady Min- 
shuU, after Sir Edward's death, at a house she 
enjoyed as a portion of her jointure, called " The 
New Bell," situate in Nantwich, in 1674 — being 
the identical year in which our immortal bard 
breathed his last, and ten years subsequently to 
his last marriage; thus rendering it utterly im- 



possible that his widow could have been Sir 
Edward MinshuU's daughter. T. W. Jones. 

Xantwich. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC COHRESPONDENCE. 

Preservation of sensitised Plates. — It appears there is 
now no doubt that the method of preserving collodion 
plates in a sensitive state for eight or ten days is quite 
practical. I have determined to try it as soon as the 
weather becomes more favourable. Mr. Shadbolt having 
been so liberal in giving us his plan, I have no doubt but 
he will not think me intrusive if I ask him two or three 
questions on the subject. What method does he pursue 
when from home and has more sensitive plates to expose 
than are in the dark frames ? That is, does he recom- 
mend keeping the sensitive plates in a plate-box, and 
using only one dark frame for exposing the whole of the 
plates ? If so, does Ma. S. use a tent in order to remove 
the plates into the frame and back into the plate-box ? 
It certainly would be a cumbrous affair to have as many 
dark frames as we had plates, or even half the number 
providing they were double dark frames. I will be glad 
to learn Mr. Shadbolt's plan, or any other photographer's 
who may have had some practice in this process. 

R. Elliott. 

Fading of Positives. — Nothing is more vexatious in 
photography than to find our pictures fade and disappear, 
even after we suppose we have taken all the precautions 
in our power to preserve them. The fading of positives 
sometimes takes place soon after they are printed; at 
other times they preserve their tints for many months or 
even j'ears, and then begin gradually to lessen in inten- 
sity and beauty of colour. This has generally been at- 
ttibuted to some portion of the hyposulphite of soda 
being allowed to remain, and no doubt that is the general 
cause. But I beg to call the attention of your photo- 
graphic friends to other causes, viz. the card-board on 
which they are pasted, as wdll as the material used for 
causing them to adhere to it. Near four years since I 
was presented by a friend with a beautiful landscape 
view, which has remained unaltered until lately, having 
during the whole time been framed and exposed to light. 
The picture has been stuck to its mount, round its edges, 
to the extent of a quarter of an inch ; and here only, 
where the picture is in contact with its mount, has the 
colour gone. In my collection other pictures, which were 
mounted at one time, appear to have deteriorated, whilst 
they have not done so at another ; the mode of manipu- 
lation being the same. I am therefore led to infer, that 
bleaching chemicals have been suffered to remain in some 
samples of card-board which has caused this decay; and 
it is probable that even the paste itself, or other material 
used for sticking, may undergo some change by time, 
causing this effect. I am sure any hint tending to pre- 
serve our works will be acceptable to us all. H. W. D. 



lUtjfUti to Minav ^utxltS. 

Oranges among the Romans (Vol. xi., p. 41.). 
— Your correspondent L. has made it very pro- 
bable that the orange-tree was not planted at 
Rome till the thirteenth century. Gibbon is not 
the only writer who has made the mistake of sup- 
posing that the ancient Romans were acquainted 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



with this tree. Barbie du Bocage, in his work on 
Sacred Geography (edit. Migiie, Paris, 1848), s. 
voc. Itulie, has the ibllowing extraordinary state- 
ment : 

" II parait que les Pheniciens tiraient differents produits 
de I'ltalie, puisque Ezechiel (ch. xxvii. G. in the Vul- 
gate) parle de ce qui vieiit d'ltalie, et sert h. fairs les 
chuiubres et les magasins des vaisseaux tyriens. Peut- 
etre le propLete enteud-il pailer des bois precieux 
d'orangers, de citronuiers et autres que I'ltalie douue eu 
aboudance." 

No doubt the Vulgate is in error in translating 
Chittiui by Italy, and the writer in supposing that 
the Phoenicians derived the wood of the orange- 
tree from that country. B. 11. C. 

Leverets marked with white Stars (Vol. x., 
p. 523.). — The Rev. W.B. Daniel, who was well 
known as a sportsman in his day, has the follow- 
ing passage in his book on Rural Sports, vol. i. 
p. 448. : 

" In the spring of 1799, in the orchard of W. Cole, of 
Heiions Bampstead, in Essex, seven young hares were 
found ill one form ; each was marked with a star of white 
in its forehead. This mark, according to received opinion, 
is always seen when the young exceed two in number." 

I well remember, more than thirty-five years ago, 
having seen four \evy young leverets in a form, 
all marked with white stars on their forehead, 
and doubtless belonging to the same litter, for 
they were under a balk in the parish of Little 
Chesterfbrd, then unenclosed. 

This corroboration of Mr. Daniel's theory is, 
however, shaken by the testimony of three of my 
gamekeepers, who have had much experience in 
such matters, and have been recently questioned 
on the subject. One of them states his having 
seen, some years ago, at Shortgrove, in this county, 
a litter or cast, as he expressed himself, of four 
leverets, 07ie of which only had a white star, but 
that he had often observed a single young rabbit 
marked in the same way. Another keeper had 
occasionally seen 07ie young hare with the white 
mark, and the third keeper had never observed or 
heard of the peculiarity. 

Perhaps some of the correspondents of " N. & 
Q." may throw farther light on tlie subject ; 
apropos to which, it has often struck me as a 
matter of regret, that gamekeepers are in general 
illiterate persons, whereas they might, if better 
educated, have ample opportunities of observing 
the habits of birds and wild animals, and making 
valuable discoveries, as well as confuting vulgar 
traditions, which have been copied from one au- 
thority to another, till they have obtained a 
certain degree of credibility, without resting on 
any good foundation. Braybrooke. 

Audley End. 

Major Andre (Vol. viii. pasxim). — Sebviens 
" being engaged upon a biography of Major 



Andre," I send the following, trusting it may be 
acceptable. 

" Colonel Hamilton to Miss Schuyler. 

" Head Quarters of the Armj-, 

Tappan, October 2, 1780. 

..." Poor Andre suffers to-day. Everything that is 
amiabi. in virtue, in fortitude, in delicate sentiment, 
and accomplished manners, plead for him ; but hard- 
hearted pohcy calls for a sacrifice. He must die. I send 
you my account of Arnold's affair; and to justify mxself 
to your sentiments, I must inform you that I urged a 
compliance with Andre's request to be shot, and 1 do not 
think it would have had an ill effect. But some people 
are only sensible to motives and policy, and sometiniea 
from a narrow disposition mistake it. 

" f'Vheii Andre's tale coines to be told, and present resent- 
ment is over, the refusing him the privilege of choosing 
the manner of his death will be branded with too much 
obstinacy. 

"It was proposed to me to suggest to him the idea of an 
exchange for Arnold; but I knew I should have forfeited 
his esteem by doing it, and therefore declined it. As a 
man of honour he could not but reject it ; and 1 would not 
for the world have proposed to him a thing which must 
have placed me in the unamiable light of supposing him 
capable of meanness, or of not feeling myself the impro- 
priety of the measure. I confess to you I had the 
weakness to value the esteem of a dying man because I 
reverenced his merit." 

The much-respected lady to whom the above 
letter was addressed, died at AVashington, No- 
vember 9th, 1854, at the advanced age of ninety- 
seven years, having outlived her husband. General 
Hamilton, for more than half a century. W. W. 

Malta. 

Designation of Works under Review (Vol. ix., 
p. 516. ; Vol. X., p. 473.). — I beg to thank Mr. 
Forbes for reminding your correspondents of my 
original Query. I am as much surprised as he is 
that some one has not taken the trouble to answer 
it. Caption is a pure Americanism. To save the 
trouble of reference, I beg to repeat my Query : 

Under what technical term should a reviewer 
refer to the group of works forming the heading 
of the article ? Example : " The subject is ela- 
borately treated in the second work of our * * *." 
What word ought technically to supply this 
blank ? C. Mansfield Ingleby. 

Birmingham. 

Tobacco-smoMng (Vol. x. passini). — The fol- 
lowing passage appears to have been not yet 
quoted, and will be interesting both to smokers 
and to teetotallers. Speaking of Bechion, or 
coltsfoot, as a remedy for a bad cough, Pliny 
says : 

" Hujus aridas cum radice fumus per arundinem, 
haustus et devoratus, veterem sanare dicitur tusaim ; sed 
in singulos haustus passuin gusiandum est." — Nat. Hist. 
XX vi. 16. 

That is, the smoke of the plant, dried along with 
its root, when imbibed and inhaled through a 
tube, is said to be a cure for a long-standing 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



cough. But between the whiffs you must take a 
drop of wine ! Verbum sapienti sat. 

This passage is clearly the original of that from 
Dodoens, in my former communication on this 
subject. I cannot lay my hands upon the refer- 
ence. B. H. C. 

" What I spent," Sfc. (Vol. xi., p. 47.). — The 
epitaph alluded to was in Tiverton Church, on the 
tomb of Edward Couitenay, third Earl of Devon, 
commonly called " the blind and good earl ;" who 
died 1419, and his countess Maud, daughter of 
Lord Camois. The following was the true in- 
scription : 

" Hoe, hoe ! who lies here ? 
I, tlie goode Krle of Devonshere ; 
With Maud, my wife, to mee full dere, 
We lyved togeather fyfty-fj've yere. 
What wee gave, wee have ; 
What wee spent, wee had ; 
What wee lefte, wee loste." 

J. R. W. 

Bristol. 

" Doncaster, in Yorkshire, 

" Howe ! howe ! who is heare ? 
I, Kobin of Doncastere, 
And Margaret my feare. 

That I spent, that I had, 

That I gave, that I have. 

That I left, that I lost. 

A.D. 1579. Quoth Robertus Byrkes, who in this world 
did reigne threescore j-ears and seven, yet liv'd not one." 

This man gave Rossington Wood to the public. 
I have found two or three inscriptions like this : 
one in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey ; another 
in St. Olave Church, Hart Street, in Southwark ; 
and a third in the church of St. Faith, as part of 
the epitaph of one William Lamb. But the oldest, 
and that from which the others may h;ive been 
taken, is in tiie choir of St. Peter's Church at 
St. Alban's. There was to be seen in Scotland, 
some years ago, upon a very old stone, the same 
thought thus expressed : 

« It that I gife, I haif, 
It that I len, I craif, 
It that I spend, is mvne. 
It that I leif, I tyne." 

This is an extract from Hackett's Epitaphs, vol. i. 
p. 37. edit. 1757. J. R. M., M.A. 

In reply to W. (1), the following is the original 
of the lines he quoted : 

" Quod expendi habui, 
Quod donavi habeo. 
Quod negavi punior, 
Quod servavi perdidi." 

Bristoliensis. 

[We must remind our correspondents that this epitaph 
has already been discussed in "N. &Q. ;" the one on 
Eobin of Doncaster, in Vol. v., p. 179. ; and the lines 
quoted by Bkistoliensis, at p. Abi. of the same volume, 
from the brass of Johu Kellynworth, 1412. Mu. J. S. 



Warden (Vol. viii., p. 30.) has also noticed that it has 
been anticipated, if not imitated from. Martial, book vi. 
epig. 42. Quarles, in his Divine Fancies, lib. iv. art. 70., 
lt)3o, has made the following riddle upon it : 

" The goods we spend we keep; and what we save 
We lose; and only what we lose we have.^''] 

"Star of the twilight grey" (Vol. x,, p 445.). 
— In a volume bearing the Utle Jacobite Melodies, 
a Collection of the most popular Legends, Ballads, 
and Songs of the Adherents to the House of Stuart, 
Edinburgh, printed by William Aitchison, 1823, 
" Star of the twilight grey," given at p. 260., is 
ascribed to J. H. Allen, Esq. E. D. R. 

Quintus Calaber (Vol. x., p. 345.). — I am not 
aware of any complete translation, but I have 
before me Select Translations from the Greek of 
Quintus SmyrncRus, by Alexander Dyce, A.B. of 
Exeter College, Oxford, &c., 8vo, Oxford, 1821, 
pp. vi. 123. Mr. Dyce, now so well known for his 
editions of early dramatists, states in the preface 
that nothing is known of the author: that be re- 
ceived the one name Q. Smyniieus, — "because 
Tzetzes {Chiliad, ii. 489.) a|)plies it to him ; and 
because he himself, in his xii books, says that the 
muses inspired him wliile he was feeding sheep 
near Smyrna;" the other (Q. Calaber), "from 
his poem having been discovered by Cardinal 
Bessarion in a monastery of Calabria." 

Mr. Dyce goes on to say : 

" His ' Supplement to the Iliad' consists of xiv books, 
of which no translation has appeared in our language : it is 
generally supposed tiiat he borrowed largely from the 
Cyclic poets, chiefly from Lesches." 

quoting " Heyne, Excurs I. (de rerum Trojanorum 
Auctoribus) ad JEneid. II." Balliolensis. 

Oriel (Vol. x , pp 391. 535.). — Your correspon- 
dent Ovris tiiinks that I come so near the deri- 
vation of this word, that, in school-boy phrase, 
" I burn." By his own admission, I think I may 
say that I am not only so near the hidden object 
of search, but that, in Buonaparte phrase, Je le 
tiens! I iiave already said tliat it is the Norman- 
French oreil " with a dilFerence," and classes with 
the majority of the figurative appellations of ar- 
chitecture derived from that language. Amongst 
the many figurative uses of the word oreille, re- 
ferred to by Boiste in liis excellent Pan-Lexique, 
we find several to imply a partie saillaide, and 
amongst them the oreillons or oi-illons of fortifi- 
cation, as remarked by Jacob Bryant. M. (2) 

Weather Rules (Vol. viii., pp. 50. 535. ; Vol. ix., 
pp. 9. 277. 307. 585.). — 

" Portuguese Weather and Season Rules. — A wet Ja- 
nuarv is not so good for corn, but not so bad for cattle. 
Januarj^ blossoms till no mans cellar. If February is dry, 
there is neither good corn nor gootl hay. VV'hen March 
tlmnders, tools and arms get rusty. He who freely lops 
in March will get his lap full of fruit. A cold April 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUElilES. 



113 



brings wine and bread in plentj'. A cool and moist April 
fills ihe cellar and fattens the cow. A windy May makes 
a fair year. He who mows in May will have neitlier fruit 
nor hay. Midsummer rain spoils wine stock and grain. 
In May an east-lying field is worth wain and oxen ; in 
July, the oxen and the yoke. The first day of August, 
the" first day of harvest. August rain gives honej', wine, 
and safi"ron. August ripens, September gathers in. Au- 

fust bears the burthen, September the fruit. September 
ries up wells or breaks down bridges. Preserve j'our 
fodder in September, and your cow will fatten. In Oc- 
tober dung your field, and the land its wealth shall yield. 
On All Saints' Day there is snow on the ground ; on St. 
Andrew's, the night is twice as long as day. He who 
dungs his bailey well shall have fruit a hundred fold; 
and if it has been a wet season there is nothing to fear. 
No one thrives who godless drives. None in August 
should over the land ; in December none over the sea. 
Laziness is the key to poverty. The usurer's gold sits 
down with him to table." 

Cjeykep. 

Spirit Rappivgs (Vol. ix., p. 200.). — 

" A writer giving an account of some very remarkable 
'spiritual manifestations,' declares that he saw and ex- 
perienced at the house of a neighbour, among other things, 
the spirit of his grandfather, which rapped him on the 
forehead with such force, 'that the sound could be heard 
in every part of the room.' We should think," says the 
Boston Post, " it very likely. There are heads which, as 
is common with em()ty shells of all sorts, make capital 
mediums of sound. His 'grandfather' could not have 
made a better selection." 

w.w. 

Malta. 

The following extract from a work not likely to 
fall into many hands, will, it is hoped, be accept- 
able, and help to counteract fanaticism and lolly : 

" these are not to be set down — at least so it is to be 
hoped — among the iiurmal and catholic superstitions in- 
cident to humanity. They are nmch worse than the 
worst form of the doctrine of materiality, 'i'hese aber- 
rations betoken a perverse and prurient play of the ab- 
normal fancy, groping for the very holy of holies in 
kennels running with the most senseless and god-aban- 
doned abominations. Our natural superstitions are bad 
enough ; but thus to make a systematic business of 
fatuity, imposture, and profanity, and to imagine all the 
while that we are touching on the precincts of God's 
spiritual kingdom, is unspeakably shocking. The horror 
and disgrace of such proceedings were never even ap- 
proaclied in the darkest days of heathenism and idolatry. 
Ye who make shattered nerves and depraved sensations 
the interpreters of truth, the keys which shall unlock the 
gates of heaven, and open the secrets of futurity — ye who 
inaugurate disease as the prophet of all wisdom, thus 
making sin, death, and the devil the lords paramount of 
creation — have ye bethought j-ourseives of the backward 
and downward course which ye are running into the pit 
of the bestial and the abhorred? Oh, ye miserable 
mystics! when will ye know that all God's truths and all 
man's blessings lie in the broad heath, in the trodden 
ways, and in the laughing sunshine of the universe, and 
that all intellect, all genius, is merelj' the power of seeing 
wonders in common things." — Institutes of Metapliysic, 
p. 22.) , by Professor Ferrier, of the University of St. An- 
drew's, Edinburgh, 1854. 

J. Mackay. 

Oxford. 



The Schoolboy Formula (Vol. x., p. 124.). — 
The following are used in the United States for 
the selection of the tagger, before commencing a 
game of tag. A boy is touched by one in the 
middle of the ring at each word. The one last 
touched goes out of the circle. The process is re- 
commenced and continued uptil only one is left, 
who is the first tagger. 

" Eeny, meeny, moany, mite, 

Butter, lather, boney, strike, 

Hair, bit, frost, neck, 

Harrico, barrico, we, wo, wack." 
" Eeny, meeny, tipty, te, 

Teena, Dinah, Domine, 

Hocca, proach, Doinma, noach, 

Hi, pon, tus." 
" One-ery, Two-ery, Hickory, Ann, 

Filliston, Follaston, Nicholas, John, 

Queeby, Quawby, Virgin, Mary, 

Singafum, Sangalum, Buck." 

Uneda. 
Philadelphia. 

To ''thou" or to ''thee" (Vol. x., p. 61.).— 
Thorpe was undoubtedly right, in a grammatical 
point of view, in saying " to thou," but it is evi- 
dent that Southey, in saying that some one "theed" 
his neighbours, meant to give a good-humoured 
rebuke to the Quakers for saying " thee " instead 
of " thou." In this country, this corruption is 
almost universal among the Society of Friends, 
who say " Hoicz thee do ? " for " How dost thou 
do ? " "I hope thee is well ? " " Will thee come 
and take tea with us ? " 

Not one in a thousand is correct in this matter. 
While making it a matter of cimscience not to use 
the plural you for the singular thou, they have no 
qualms about using the objective in place of the 
nominative ; — swallowing a camel after straining 
at a gnat. Unbda. 

Philadelphia. 

" As big as a parsorCs barn " (Vol. xi., p. 7.). — 
The following remark in Mr. Huntington's Bank 
of Faith has doubtless reference to the above 
Dorsetshire saying (Mr. H.'s wife was a Dorset- 
shire woman). Speaking jocosely of having made 
their bed-room into a depository for the corn 
gleaned by his wife, H. says : 

" So we slept defended with the staff of life, having all 
our tithes in our bed-chamber, which, by the bye, I 
believe was one of the smallest tithe barns in Christendom." 
— Huntington's Bank of Faith, p. 48. (tenth edition), 
London, 1822. 

William Pamplin. 

"The Village Lawyer" (Vol. ix., p. 493.).— 
The printed edition of this farce bears date 1795, 
and is stated in the Biographia Dramatica to be 
pirated. It is of French origin, and the author 
never printed it ; and it is thought that Mr. Col- 
man purchased the copyright. E. H. B. 

Demerara. 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



Unregistered Proverbs (Vol. x., pp. 210. 355.). — 
To the list, add "As peart as a pearmonger" 
(costermonger ?), belonging to Lancashire. 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

Old Jokes: "John Chinaman's Pig" (Vol. x., 
p. 534.). — 

" BeeoUtS. MtfCKoy ya na/cos ovtos. 
Diceeopolis. 'AAA.' aitav komov," 

Achamenses, 909. 

He might have added pigeon's milk., — 



TUfiaivQV, opvC$<iiV jrope'ico <roi yaAa. 



Garrick Club. 



Aves, 1672. 
H. B. C. 



Barristers' Gowns (Vol. ix., p. 323.). — I have 
always understood the piece hanging from the 
back of barristers' gowns, to represent the hood 
which formerly formed a part of that robe. 

E. H B. 

Demerara. 

Man-of- War, why a Ship of War so called? 
(Vol. iv., p. 40.). — May not this term have its 
origin thus : a ship manned for war — inde, man 
of war ? Or, because it is a ship which carries 
men of war ? E. H. B. 

Demerara. 

Sharp Practice (Vol. x., p. 343.). — With re- 
ference to this notice from Mr. Eras. Brent, I 
inclose a copy of a song which has been in my 
family many years (in manuscript), and I know 
not whether it has been printed. It certainly is 
identified with the account in the London Chro- 
nicle of Jan. 11—13, 1781. 

" A lawyer quite famous for making a bill, 

And who in good living delighted : 
To dinner one day with a hearty good will 

Was by a rich client invited. 
But he charged six and eight-pence for going to dine, 

Which the client he paid, tho' no ninny ; 
And in turn charged the law\'er for dinner and wine, 

One a crown, and the other a guinea. 
But gossips, you know, have a saying in store, 
He who matches a lawj'er has onl^' one more. 

" The lawyer he paid it and took a receipt. 

While the client stared at him with wonder, 
With the produce he gave a magnificent treat. 

But the lawyer soon made him knock under. 
That his client sold wine, information he laid, 

Without licence, and, spite of his storming. 
The client a good thumping penalty paid. 

And the lawyer got half for informing. 
But gossips, you know, have a saying in store. 
He who matches a lawyer has only one more." 

W. D. Haggard. 
Ballion Office, Bank of England. 

Latinizing Proper Names (Vol. xi., p. 27.). — 
There is a dictionary of proper names which, I 
believe, will give your correspondent just the in- 



formation he requires. Unfortunately I cannot 
find a copy of it, and the only clue which I can 
give is that the author's name is Pye. It is a very 
useful book, and any of your readers who possess 
a copy, and will communicate the exact title, will 
thereby oblige not only A Plain Man but your 
obedient servant, Q. 

[The work noticed b}' our correspondent is probably 
the following : A New Dictionary of Ancient Geographt/, 
exhibiting the Modern in addition to the Ancient Names 
of Plaees. Designed for the Use of Schools, and of those 
who are reading the Classics or other Ancient Authors. 
By Charles Pye: London, 8vo., 1803.] 

HandeVs Wedding Anthem (Vol. x., p. 445.). — 
Is the anthem noticed by H. E. different from that 
composed in 1736 for the wedding of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, and the Princess of Saxe Gotha, 
and which is printed in Dr. Arnold's Collection of 
HandeVs Works ? The words of this are from 
Psalm Ixviii. v. 32. ; Psalm cxxviii. v. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. ; 
Psalm xlv. V. 17.; Psalm cxxvii. v. 4, 5, 6.; 
Psalm cvi. v. 46. ; and it is the only Wedding An- 
them by Handel I ever met with, either in print 
or MS. If the anthem referred to by 11. E. be 
not the same, it is probable that it was a com- 
pilation from several compositions, an expedient to 
which Handel had frequent recourse for tem- 



porary occasions. 



AV. H. H. 



Doddridge and Whitejield (Vol. xi., p. 46.). — 
Your correspondent should have said that the 
sermon he alludes to is undoubtedly the pro- 
duction of Dr. Doddridge. This is manifest from 
the date of its original publication ; the Advertise- 
ment to the Reader is dated " London, July 29, 
1735." Now Whitefield's ordination did not take 
place till Sunday, June 20, 1736, or nearly one 
year later than the publication of this sermon. 
Whoever included it in the collection of discourses 
by Geo. AVhitefield, appears to have made a stupid 
blunder : — Suum cuique. B. H. C. 

The Crescent (Vol. vii. passim). — You have 
alreaily inserted several Notes on this subject; 
will the following add anything to what has ap- 
peared ? Doubtless originally connected with the 
worship of Diana, or the Moon, who Is represented 
" assez souvent avec un croissant sur la tete." 
But not only Diana, Greek and Roman princesses 
have frequently attached to themselves the sym- 
bol of the crescent upon coins and medals, &c. 
Monaldini, in his Istituzione Antiquario-numisma- 
tica, p. 91., alludes to this fact in these words : 

"La luna crescente fe spesso adoprata a sostenere il 
busto delle Principesses che sono negli state, come la luna 
nel cielo." 

At the end of his work he gives a medal on which 
the crescent appears eleven times. I would re- 
mark that the worship of Diana or Arterius pre- 
vailed very extensively in the Old World. The 



Feb. 10. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



Scytliians were especially addicted to it ; and in 
the Taurica Chersonesus, now called the Crimea, 
it was customary to sacrifice to this goldess the 
strangers who came to their shores. We regret 
to see the horrid rites, vre may say, renewed in 
our own day, and celebrated at this moment. 

^ B. H. C. 

Rhymes on Places (Vol. x., p. 369.). — 
" Sutton for mutton, 
Tamworth for beef, 
Walsall for bandy-legs, 
Birmingham for a thief." 

Another has in it the following line : 

" Worcester for pretty girls." 
I am unable to supply the remainder.* B. H. C. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, BTC. 



Nobility, §*c., by Henry Eumsey Forsfer, of the Morning 
Post. Fifth Tear, revised by the Nobility. Having taken 
some pains to test the accuracy of this compact Pocket 
Peerage, we can bf-ar evidence to the great varietj' of 
information which Mr. Forster has compressed into hia 
volume, and to the reliance which may be placed upon it. 



Gifled with a ready pen and as ready a pencil, and a 
power of observation which seems to allow few objects 
deserving of notice to escape his attention, jMr. George M. 
Musgrave, M.A., has produced an octavo volume umler 
the title of Rambles through Normandy ; or Scenes, Cha- 
racters, and Incidents, in a Sketching Excursion through 
Calvados, which will afford a few hours' amusing reading 
to those who love to travel by the fireside; and, on the 
other hand, will be found an interesting travelling com- 
panion to those who maybe tempted to visit the romantic 
and picturesque scenes to which it relates. 

We have received a small volume from America, pret- 
tily illustrated, and containing a good deal of pleasant 
semi-antiquarian gossip, entitled The History and Poetry 
of Finqer Rings, by Charles Edwards. The worthy 
Counse\lor-at-Law of New York, for such it appears is 
the profession of the writer, has collected his materials 
from a great variety of sources, and produced a little 
volume wliich, if not so profoundly learned as those in 
which Kirchmann, Gorleus, Kircher, &c., dissertate De 
Annulis, will, we doubt not, be found lighter and more 
agreeable reading. 

Books Received. — Cornwall, its Mines, Miners, and 
Scenery, by the author of Our Coal Fields and our Coal 
Pits, forms, like that work, a portion of Longman's Tra- 
veller's Library, and will be found as full of information 
and interest as its predecessor. 

Curiosities of London, exhibiting the most rare and 
remiirkable Objects of Literest in the Metropolis, with nearly 
Fifty Fears' Personal Recollections, by Joim Timbs, F.S.A. 
Mr. Timbs might have added in his title-page, to his list 
of advantages under which the present volume has been 
produced, the many years for which he edited The Mirror, 
and those which must have resulted from his long-con- 
tinued connexion with the Illustrated London A^ews. 

Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Umpire, edited 
by Dr. Smith, with Notes by Dean Milman and M. Guizot. 
The seventh Volume of this handsome edition, one of 
Murray's British Classics, brings Gibbon's narrative down 
to the victory of the Genoese over the Venetians and 
Greeks in 1352. 

The Pocket Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland, with 
Genealogical and Historical Notices of the Families of the 

[• See " N. & Q.," Vol. v., pp. 374. 404., for two other 
versions of the above.] 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

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• »• Letters, statins particulars and lowest price, carriagf free, to be 

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Particulars of Price, Sic. of the following Books to be sent direet to 
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Thk Abtificks and iMPosTriREs OF Fai.ss Trachbrs, discoTered in a 
Visitation Sermon; preached at Croydon, in Surrey, May 8th, 17IS. 
By William Taswell. D D. 1712. 
The Chuhcb nr England not Supirstitious, 4c. By William Tas- 
well. D.D. 17H. 
Physica Akistotelica unoKRNS AccoMKODATioR, in usum juvcntutls 
Academicae. Authore Gul. Taswell, S. T. P. Londoui, 1718. 

ANTICHRI.-.T REVEALED AMONO THE SeCT OK Ql'AKFRS. Ih ailSWBr tO k 

book entitled " The Rector Corrected." By William Taswell, D.D. 
1723. 

MiscELiANiA Sacra : containing the Story of Deborah and Barak; Da- 
vid's Lammtations o^cr Saul and Jonathan; a Pii.daric Poim; and 
tlie I'rayer of Solomon at the Dedication of the Temple. By K. Tas- 
well. 4to. !>• nd., 1760. 

Ten necessary Queries todchino the Personall Treatif, very use- 
ful and necessary to be considered. Also a right Description of a 
Cavalier With some Drops to quench the Fiery Bull ot Colchester. 
By James Taswell. 1618. 

Wanted by Mr. John Tansu'eU, 5. King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

Bishop's Bible. 1574. Title and first few leaves. 
Dave's Bible. Folio. 1551. Title ai;d Dedication by E. Beche. 
TiNDALB Testament, by Jugec. 1566. Title and last leaf. 
Ca wood's Br RLE. 1569. The Tables and end. 

Wanted by P. Rose, Printer, Broadmead, Bristol. 



British Almanac for 1828, with or without the Companion. 
Wanted by J. B. Jdl, • 5. Grenfleld Street, Liverpool. 



LoNDOM Magazine for 1773-4, and 1783. 

Wanted by Frederick Dinsdalc, Esq., Leamington. 



Wanted of Percy Society's Publications, 
Satirical Songs and Poems on Costcme. Edited by Fairholt. 
Buown's Britannia's Pastorals. The Third Work. Edited by 

Croker. 
The Intebludu of John Bon and Mast. Person. Edited by W. H. 
Black. 

Wanted by Robert Stewart, Bookseller, Paisley. 



Sebast. Babradas, seo Barradius, Commentabiordm in concordiau 
ET BisTOBiAM EvANonLicuM. The wliole Or any odd Volumes. 
Wanted by Rev. William Fraser, Alton, near Cheadlc, Staftbrdshire. 



Christian Remembrancer. No. 56, for April 1847, and No. 67, for 
Jan. 1850. 
Wanted by J. G. Talbot, Esq., 10. Great Georsrc Street, Westminster. 

ituK, with his De iLLasTRicK 



Sir Thos. Chaloner's De Repdb. .A.n 
quorundum encomii8 misckllanea. 

Wanted by Q. R. Corner, Esq., 3. Paragon, New Kent Eoad. 



fioXitti to Corrc!Sp0uifciiW. 

Mr. John Taylor's Article," 3vvtvs as edited bt Sir P. Francis," 
reachedus too late for insertion in this jyumbcr. It shallcertai.dy appear 
in our next. 

R. C. Wabde (Kidderminster'). We have a letter for this Corre- 
spondent. How sliall it bt forwarded f Two addressed as above have 
been returned. 

Rev. J. B. "eade on Bromo- iodide of Silver is unavoidably postponed 
until next week. 

3. M.S. (Manchester.') It is always the case, if a portrait when par- 
tiaVy developed in the dark be brought into light, that the negative parts 
become jmsitive. You will see some observations in former A umbers of 
this Jmirnal up<m the same subject. 

Dr. Mansell's Process. Having had an opportunity of examining 
three views taken bi/ Db. Mansell at intervals of l'20, 198. and 271 Iwurs 
aft r the cicitemeni of the respective Collodion Plates, we gladly bear our 
testimony to their perfect development,beauty, and effect. 



lie 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



H. H. (Glassrow.) Please faneard a specimen, no matter how small, 
f^f the failure of which you comj.lain, atid no doubt we shall be able to 
suggest a cure. 

Errata. — Vol. xi., p. 28. col. J. iMt line, /or " foreifm bookrellers," 
read '•foreign-booksellers;" p. 27. col. 2. 1. 23., /or •'Voltaire," read 
" Voltoire"; p. fi8. col. 2. I. 46.,/or"son," read" ma"; p. 69. ci>l. 2. 1.21. 
/or "deliberations," read " delirations " ; 1. 4u., for "whicli," read 
" while." 

A few complete sets of Notes and Qhkries. Vols. I. to X., are rww 
ready, price Five Goineas. For these early application is desirable. 
Thetl may he had by order of any Bookseller or Newsman. 



'NoTiis AND QoBRiEs is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Conntry Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver Oiem to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"Notes AND Queries" is also issued in Monthly Part3,/or thecon- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procurinn the un- 
stamped weekly If umbers, i/r prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resilient in the country or abroad, who mai/ be desirous of receiving the. 
weekly Numbers, may Itave stamped cof>ies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of "Notes and 
Queries " (including a very copious Iiulex) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publislier, Mr. George Bell, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



Lately published, 

TOHNSONI, T. OPUSCULA 

?| OMNIA BOTANICA THOM-E JOHN- 
SONI nup. edita a T. S. RALPH. 4to. 
Tlates and Map. 12s. {16'29-41.) London, 1817. 

The various Works may also be had sepa- 
rately, viz. : 

Iter Plantarum investigationis 

ergo susceptum in agrum Cantianum, kc. 
Ericetum Hamstedianum sive Plantarum ibi 
crescentium observatio. 1629. 3s. 

Descriptio Itineris plantarum 

inTestigationis erpro suscepti in Agrum Cantia- 
num, &c. 1632. Plate. S». 

Mercurius Bo'anicus sive plan- 
tarum gratia suscepti Itineris anno 1634. 
Ejusdem .Vercurii Botanici pars altera sive 
Itineris in Cambriam descriptio, &c. 1641. 6s. 

*»* The above are beautifully reprinted, 
and with a strict regard to fidelity. 
WILLIAM PAMPLIN. 45. Frith Street, 
Soho, London. 



Just published, price 3s. bd. 

T?SSAYS IN DIVINITY. By 
'j .JOHN DONNE, D.D., sometime Bean 
of St. Paul'". Reprinted from the Kdition of 
1651. and edited, with a Life of Donne, by the 
REV. A. JESSOPP. M.A., of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

JOHN TUPLING, 320. Strand. 



Just published, in paper cover, sewed, snper- 
royal 8vo., price 10s. 

piOTTO AND HIS WORKS 

VT in PADUA. (Being an explanatory 
BTbtice of the Series of Wood Engravings 
executed for the Arundel Society, alter the 
frescoes in the Arena Chapel.) By JOHN 
RUSKIN. Part I. 

N.B. — In consequence of the numerous appli- 
cations for the Essay contributed by Mr. Ruskin 
lx> thejifth year's publication of the Society, the 
Council have resolved to sell it to the Public ge- 
nerally without the Wood Engravings compiled 
in the issue to the Subscribers. 

Published at the Office of the Arundel Society, 
24. Old Bond Street ; and to be ob'ained 
(through any Bookseller) of BELL & 
DALDY, Fleet Street. 

JOHN NORTON, Secretary. 



QAXON OBSEQUIES illustrated 

O by ORNAMENTS and WEAPONS 
discovered in a CEMETERY rear LITTLE 
WILBRAHAM, in 1851. By the HON. R. C. 
NEVILLE. Forty Plates from Drawings by 
Stanesby. Comprising 521 beautifully coloured 
Fac-similes, with a Plan of the Site. 

"In all respects this is as creditable and 
complete a work of Antiquarian Illustration 
as we arc acquainted with. The editorship is 
efficient, comprising, together with a brief 
preface and narrative of facts, a caieful cata- 
logue of the quality and distribution of the 
articles, and the position of the skeletons dis- 
interred, as well as a plan of the site, and a 
judicious selection of objects for engraving."— 
Spectator. 

One vol. royal 4to. extra cloth. Published at 
4Z. 4«. ; reduced to 21. Is. 

*»» Only Eighty Copies remain unsold. 

BICKERS at BUSH, Leicester Square, 
London. 



The beautiful Library of RALPH BERNAL, 
ESQ. 

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY 
& JOHN WILKINSON, Auctioneers 
ot Literary Property and Works illustrative of 
the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on 
Monday, February 12, and Five following 
Days, at I o'clock precisely, the very choice, 
valuable, and beautiful Library of the late 
RALPH BERNAL. ESQ.. many years Chair- 
man of Ways and Means, and of Committees 
of the House of Commons, and M.P. for Ro- 
chester. Comprising fine Books of Prints ; 
Beautiful Picturesque Sceneries ; Works on 
Costume ; Illustrationsof Meaia^val Art ; Gal- 
leries, and other Productions of a splendid cha- 
racter, manv mounted on Cardboard, and ex- 
quisitely coloured, in close imitation of the fine 
original Drawings : Rare WorVs and Books of 
Emblems; Illuminated Mis<als and Prin'ed 
Horse ; Illustrations of the different branches of 
Natural History ; Polar and other interes ing 
Voyages aiid Travels, in the English, French, 
and Spanish Languages ; Poetry and the 
Drama ; Bibliography. Literary History ; He- 
raldry ; Genealogy; Greek and Latin ('lassies ; 
Books of Fan"y and Imagination ; some valu- 
able County Histories, and a Selec'ion of the 
best Works in the different Branches of English 
T.itera'ure, many of which are enriched with 
lUustratims of high quality, in choice proof 
states. —This fine Library presents the b st 
examples of the respective classes. It has been 
formed with much caie, and the exquisite 
bindings and conditions are in accordance with 
the high taste of the late Proprietor. There 
are also some Autograph Letters of R' yiil 
Personages and Literary Characters, inc'uding 
some fine Holograph specimens by Charles the 
First, Alexander Pope, and Samuel Richard- 
son. 

May be viewed two days prior. Catalogues 
are now ready, and may be had on Application ; 
forwarded to the Country on receipt of Six 
Stamps. 



WHITELOCKE'S EMBASSY TO 

SWEDEN. 

Just published, in 2 vols. 8vo., price 24s. cloth. 

A JOURNAL of the SWEDISH 

J\ EMBASSY in the Years 1653 and 1651, 
impartially written by the Ambassador, BUL- 
STRODE WHITELOCKE; and first pub- 
lished from the original M^. by DR. C. M>)R- 
TON,F.S. A., Librarian of the British Museum. 
A New Edition, revised by HENRY REEVE, 
Esq., F.S.A. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



Just published, New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for is. 6d. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, 

I How to liive and What to Live for ; 
with ample Rules f-r Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management : together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, anil that sterling 
happiniss only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS&CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MANN, 39. Comhill ; and all Book- 
sellers. 



In post 8vo., price 12s., with Portraits, 

QOME MEMORIALS of JOHN 

O HAMPDEN. HIS PARTY, and HIS 
TIMES. By LORD NUGENT. Third Edi- 
tion, revised, with a Memoir of Lord Nugent. 

THOMAS CILKLrrisH'S 

-uroRKs. 

THE LIFE OF JOHN STER- 
LING. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

SARTOR RESARTUS; or. 

The LIFE and OPINIONS of HERR 
TEUFEI.SDROKH. Third Edition. Post 
8vo. 10s. 6d. 

LATTER-DAY PAM- 
PHLETS. Post 8vo. 9s. 

OLIVER CROMWELL'S 

LETTERS AND SPEECHES. With Elu- 
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Kdition. In Four Volumes. Post 8vo. 21. 2s. 

THE LIFE OF SCHILLER. 

New Edition, with a Portrait. Small 8vo. 
8s. 6d. 

PAST AND PRESENT. 

Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10s. 6'J. 

LECTURES ON HEROES 

AND HERO-WORSHIP. Fourth Edition. 
Small 8vo. 9s. 

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CRITICAL and MISCELLA- 
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Volumes. Post 8vo. 21. 2s. 

TRANSLATION of GOTHE'S 

WILIIELM-MEISTER. Second Edition. 
Three Vlumes. Small 8vo. 18». 

London : CHAPMAN & HALL, 
193. Piccadilly. 

Thi^ Day, octavo, 7s. 6rf. 

OXFORD ESSAYS. Written 
by Members of the University. 
Contents : 

Lucretius and the Poetic Characteristics of 
his Age. By W. Y. Sellar, late Fellow of Oriel 
College. 

Su^itestions on the best Means of Teaching 
English History. By J. A. Froude, late Fellow 
of Exeter College. 

Alfred de Musset. By F. T. Palgrave, Fel- 
low of Exeter College. 

The Plurality of Worlds. By Henry J. S. 
Smith, Fellow of Balliol College. 

Persian Literature. By E. B. Cowell, Mag- 
dalen Hall. 

Clime and its Excuses. By the Rev. W. 
Tlinmson, Fellow of Queen's College. 

The Neighbourhood of Oxford and its Geo- 
logy. By John Phillips, F.R.S.,F.G.S., Deputy 
Reader of Genlogy 

Hegel's Philosophy of Right. By T. C 
Sandars, late Fellow of Oriel College. 

Oxford Studies. By the Rev. M. Pattiion, 
Fellow of Lincoln College. 

In April, uniform with the above. Octavo. 

CAMBRIDGE ESSAYS. 

Written by Members of the University. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



Feb. 10. 1855.1 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



50,000 CURES WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

T\V BARRYS DELICIOUS 

JLJ REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD 

CURES indigestion (dyspepsia), uoiistipation 
and diarrlioca, dysentery, nervousness, bilious- 
ness and liver complaints, flatulency, disten- 
sion, acidity, heartburn, palpitaiion of the 
heart, nervous headache', deafness, noises in 
the head and ears, pains in almost every nart 
of the body, tie douloureux, facenehe. chronic 
inflammation, cancer and ulceration of the 
stomach, pains at the pit of the stomach and 
between the shoulders, erysipehu, eruptions of 
the skin, boils and carbuncles, impurities and 
poverty of the blood, scrofula, C' ueh, asthma, 
consumption, dropsy, rheumatism, gout, 
nausea and sickness during pregnancy, after 
eating, or at sea, low spirits, spasms, cramps, 
epileptic fits, spleen, general debil ty, inquie- 
tude, sleeplessness, involuntary blusiini.', pa- 
ralysis, tremors, dislike to so' iety, unfitness tor 
study, loss of memory, delusions, vertigo, blood 
to the head, exhaustion, melancholy, ground- 
less fear, indecision, wretchedness, thoughts of 
self-destruction, and many other complaints. 
It is, moreover, the best food for inf nts and 
invalids generally, as it never turns acid on 
the weakest stomach, nor interferes with a 
eood liberal diet, but imparts a healthy relish 
for lunch and dinner, and restores the faculty 
of digestion, and nervous and musculareuergy 
to the most enfeebled. I" whooiiing cough, 
measles, small-pox, and chickei' or wind pox, 
it renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important Cadtion against the fearful 
dangers of spuria us imitations : — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10, IH.^4, against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill, for imitating "Du 
Barry's Kevalenta Arabica Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., 77. Regent 
Street, London. 

A feto out £)/■ 50,000 Cures: 

Cure No. 71.. of dyspepsin, from the Right 
Hon. the I,ord Stuart de Decies : _ •' T have 
derived considerable benefit from Du Barry's 
Revalent a Arabica Fod, and consider it due 
to yourselves and the public to authorise the 
publication of these lines." — Stuart de 

Dec1£S. 

Cure No. 180 : — " Twenty-five years' ner- 
vousness, constipation, indigestion, and de- 
bility, from which I have suffer, d great miser.v, 
and which no medicine could remove or re- 
lieve, have been efiectunlly cured by Du 
Barry's Food in a very short time."— W. R. 
Rkeves, Pool Anthony, Tiverton. 

Cure No. 49,s32 :_" Fifty years' indescribable 
agony from dysnepsia, nervnusness, asthma, 
cough, 'onstipatio' , flatulency, spasms, sick- 
ness at the stomach and vomiiii'g, have been 
removed by Du Barry's excellent food" — 
Maria Jolly, Wortham Ling, near Diss, 
Norfolk. 

No. 4208. " Eight years' dyspepsia, nervous- 
ness, debility with cramps, spasms, and nausea, 
have been eflFeetually removed by Du Barry's 
health-restoring food. I shall be happy to 
answer any inquiries," Rev. ,)ohn W. Fla- 
VELL, Ridliiigton Rectory, Norfolk. — No. 81. 
"Twenty years' liver complaint, with dis- 
orders of the stomach, bowels, and nerves," 
Andrew Fk.asf.b, Haddington. 

No. 32,83fi. " Three years' excessive nervous- 
ness, with pains in my neck and left arm, and 
general debility, which rend> red my life very 
miserable, have been radically removed by Du 
Barry's health-restorin-r food." _ Alexander 
Stuart, Archdeacon of Ross, Skilier>^en. 

No. 58,034. Grammar Set ool. Stevenage, 
Dec. 16. 1850 : " Genthmen, We have found it 
admirably adapted for infants. Our tuiby has 
never once had disordered bowels since taking 
it," — R. Amuler. 

In canisters, suitably packed for all cli- 
mates, and with full instructions — lib., is. 
9rf.: 21b., -IS. 6rf. ; 51b., Us. j I21b.,22s. ; super- 
refine-i, lib., 6s-.; 2Ib.. lis. ; 51b, ■>2s. ; lolb., 
3^. The lOlb. and 121b. carriage free, ( n post- 
ofBce Older. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, London; Fortnum, Mason, s, 
Co, purveyors to Her Mojestv, Piccadilly: 
also at 60. Gracechurch Street : 330. Strand ; of 
Barclay, Edwards, Sutton, Sanger, Ilannay, 
Newberry, and may be onlered through all re- 
ipectable Booksellers, Grocers, and Chemists. 



THE LONDON ASSURANCE, 

INCORPORATED A.D. 1720. 

FOB LIFE. FIRE, AND MAEINE 
ASSURANCES. 
Head Office, 7. Royal Exchange, CornhiU. 

EDWARD BURMESTER, ESQ., Governor. 

JOHN ALVES ARBUTHNOT, ESQ., Sub- 
Governor. 

SAMUEL GREOSON, ESQ., M.F., Deputy- 
Governor. 



Directors. 



Nath. Alexander, Esq. 
R. Bairjiallay, Esq. 
G. Barnes, Esq. 
H . Bonham Bax, Esq. 
James BIyth, Esq. 
J. W. Burradaile, Esq. 
Chas. Crawley, Esq. 
W. Dallas, Esq. 
B. Dobree, Jun., Esq. 
H. G Gordon, Esq. 
Edwin Gowtr, Esq. 
David C. Guthrie, Esq. 



J. Alex. Hankey, Esq. 
E. Harnage, Esq. 
Louis Huih, Esq. 
William King. Esq. 
Charles Lyall, Esq. 
John Ord, Esq. 
David Powell, Esq. 
G. Prohyn, Esq. 
P. F. Robertson, M.P. 
Alex. Trotter Esq. 
Thos. Weeding, E-q. 
Lest. P. Wilson, Esq. 



Actuary, PETER HARDY, ESQ., F.R.S. 
WEST END OFFICE, No. 7. PALL MALL. 

Committee. 

Two Members of the Court in rotation, and 

HENRY KINGSCOTE, ESQ.. and 

JUHN i'lDU PRATT, ESQ. 

Superintendent, PHILIP SCOONES, ESQ. 



LIFE DEPARTMEXT. 

THIS CORPORATION has granted As- 
surances on l>ives for a Period exceeding One 
Hundred and Thirty Years, having Issued its 
first Policy on the 7th June, 1721. 

Two- thirds, or 66 per cent, of the entire pro- 
fits, ure given to the As^ured, 

Policits may be opened under either of the 
following plans, viz. — 

At a low rate of premium, without partici- 
pation in profits, or at a somewhat higher rate, 
en itling the Assured either, after the first five 
years, to an annual abatement of premium for 
the remainder of life, or, after payment of the 
first premium, to a participation in the ensuing 
quinquennial Bonus. 

The abatement for the year 1855 on the 
Annual Pnmiumsof i ersons who have been 
assured under Series " 1831 " tor five years or 
longer, is up» ards of 33 per cent. 

The high character which this ancient Cor- 
po'ation has maintained during nearly a 
Century and a Half, secures to the public a 
full and faithful declaration of profits. 

The Corporation bears the whole Expenses 
OF Managf.ment, thus giviuu to thn Assured, 
in consequence of the protection afforded by 
its Corporate Fund, advantages equal to those 
of any system of Mutual Assurance. 

Premiums may be paid Yearly, Half-yearly, 
or Quarterly. 

A II Policies are issued free from Stamp Duty, 
or fro'" charge ot any description whatever, 
beyond the Premium. 

The attention of the Public is especially 
called to the i/reat a<liantages offered to Life 
Assurers by the Legislature in its recent 
Enactments, by which it will be found that, to 
a defined extent. Life Premiums are not sub- 
ject to Income I'ax, 

The Fees of Medical Referees are paid by the 
Corp ration 

A Policy may be effected for as small a sum 
as 2o;., and progressively increased up to bOl., 
without the necessity of a new Policy. 

Every facility will be given for the transfer 
or exchani;e of Policies, or any other suitable 
arrangement will be made for the convenience 
of the Assured. 

Prospectuses and all other information may 
be obtained by either a written or personal 
app ication to the Actuary, or to the Superin- 
tendent of the West End Office. 

JOHN LAURENCE, Secretary. 



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MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch- 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 276. 



miSH AUCHTOLOGTCAL AND CELTIC SOCIETY. 

The object of this Society is to print, with Enajlish Translations and Annotations, the unpublished documents 
illustrative of Irish History, especially those in the Irish Lanscuac^e ; also to protect the Monumental and Architectural 
Remains of Ireland, by directing public attention to their preservation. 

The publication of Twenty "Volumes has besn co^npleted by the Tuisir Arch-^vOlogical SocrEXY, founded in 
1840, and the Celtic Society, established in 1845. The present Society has been formed by the union of these two 
bodies. 

The Books of the Society are sold onlv to Subscribers, who are divided into two classes: Members, who pay 
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1841. 

T. TRACTS RELATING TO IRELAND. Vol. I., containing : — 
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lation and Notes, by JOHN O'DONDVAN, I,L. D. 2. " A Brife 
Descripti n of Ireland, a.d. 1589, by Hohert Payne, vnto xxv. of his 
partners, for whom he is vndertaker there." Reprinted, with a Preface 
■nd Notes, by AQUILLA SMITH, M D. 

II. THE ANNALS OF IRELANR, by .lames Grace, of Kilkenny. 
Kdited by the REV. RICH. B UTLER. Price 8s. 

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I. THE BATTLE OF MAGH R \TH (MOIRA). Edited, with a 
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II. TRACTS REl.ATING VO IRELA VD, Vol IL, containins : — 
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THE LIBER HYMNORUM. or Book of Hymns of the Ancient 
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THE WARS OF THE DANES IN IRELAND. With Trans- 
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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

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<* Xinien fonndi make a note of." — Captain Cuttlk. 



No. 277.] 



Saturday, February 17. 1855. 



f Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, fd. 



CONTENTS. 

Notes : — Page 

Junius, as edited by Sir P. Francis, by 

J.Taylor 117 

Sanitary Hints on the Crimea, by Bol- 
ton Corney - - - - 118 
"Queer 'Ihines in Queer Places" - 118 
Books burnt, by Rev. B. H. Cowper - lao 
Roman and Englisii Laws, by Dr. Mi- 

chelsen - - - - - 121 

MixoB NoTis : — Spenser and Tasso — 
Duration of a Visit — " Muratorii Rer. 
Ital." — John Gait and Jeremy Tay- 
lor — Tailed Men — John Shakspeare 

— Deaths in the Society of Friends - ISl 

<1d«ries: — 

The " Dictionarium Anglicum," nsed 
by Skinner in his " Etymologicon 
Linguaa A nglicanae :" London, 1671, 
by Albert Way - - - - 122 

Block Book : " Schedel Cronik," by 
Thos. Leadbitter - - - - 124 

Minor Qoibiis :— Hymn-book wanted 

— Burton of Twickenham — Coats of 
Arms of Prelates — " Adolescentia 
similis est," &c "Actis sevum im- 

1 jlet," &c. — Qarrick's Portrait in the 
Character of Satan — Chaloner Family 

— George Miller, D.D. —Bibliographi- 
cal Queries — Passage in St. Augus- 
•tine — Sir Thomas Bodley's Life — 
Letters of James I._Reading in Dark- 
iness — Prayers and Sermon by Bishop 
Symon Patrick — Works on India — 
fitory of the blind Man — Stone- 
Jlenge— Flexible Moulds for Electro^ 

type ... . . 124 

Minor Qukriis with Amswkrs ! — 
Society of Friends or Quakers — Bi- 
shops in Chess — Godderten - - 126 

Repmks : — 

Oxford Jeux d'Esprit - - - 127 

Will and Testament - - - 127 

Sir Bevil Gren villa - - - 128 

Count Neiberg, &c. - - - - 128 

X>eanBill - - - - - 129 

Hozer - - - - - 129 

"Photooraphic ConRESPOKnxxcx : — Bro- 
mo-iodide of Silver — Photographic 
Likenesses of Soldiers and Sailors - 130 

iRepi^ies to MiiroK Quirip.s : — Janus 
Vitalis —The Episcopal Wig — Por- 
trait at ShoteshamPark — Sir Thomai 
Tresham — Jennens of Acton Place — 
■Psalm-singing and Nonconformists — 
■*■ Belchild" — Death of Dogs — Dying 
Words of the Venerable Bede — Ge- 
lyan (or Julian) Bowers — Dial — Dod- 
dridge and Whitefield — Two Brothers 
with the same christian Name— Door- 
way Inscriptions— Old Pulpit Inscrip- 
tions — Heavenly Guides — Curious 
Incident — Capital Punishments in 
Henry VIII. 's Reign — Cook's Trans- 
lation of a Greek MS Eminent Men 

born in 1769 — The Queen's regimental 
Goat, &c. - - - . - 131 

MlSCELUlNEOUS : 

Notes on Books, &o. - - - 135 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XI No. 277. 



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MILTON. — The PARADISE 

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" A useful little volume, the fruit of great 
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of Christian iconography." — Archa:ological 
Journal, No. 27. 

BURNS & LAMBERT, 17. Portman Street, 
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THE COMMITTEE OF THE 
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which they have derived the means of sub- 
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In this Address the Committee have drawn 
attention to the condition of their pecuniary 
resources, and have shown Iiow painful their 
position is, in consequence of the funds at their 
disposal being inadequate to meet the pressing 
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hope that by pursuing this course they may 
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The pension awarded to the male pensioners 
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During the last seven years seventy candi- 
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though all were eligible for election, and all 
deserving relief. 

At the last election there were eleven candi- 
dates, and two only were elected ; several of 
the unsuccessful candidates being upwards of 
seventy years of age. 

On these occasions the natural inquiry would 
be, " What becomes of the unsuccessful can- 
didates ? " A full answer to this would be a 
painful category of the ills of life that help- 
lessness is subject to. And the duty of the 
Committee is to smooth the path of such as 
these in the last and most rugged stage of 
human existence. 

The Committee have made "Notes and 
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Donations and Subscriptions will be thank- 
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likewise by the Secretary, who will gladly 
reply to any communication requiring farther 
information respecting the institution. 

JOHN JEFFREY, Secretary, 
61. Charlotte Street, Portland Place. 



FIVE SERMONS, preached 
before the University of Oxford. Tiiird 
Edition. Cloth, 3s. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



TESTIMONIAL 

DR. DIAMOND. F .S.A. 

The eminent services rendered by DR. DIAMOND to Pliotography, and especially to 
that important branch of it — its application to Archaeology, have given rise to a general feeling 
that he is entitled to some public acknowledgment in the nature of a Testimonial. Sca'cely 
any of the practisers of Archieologieal Photoaraphy but have received gr^at benefit from the 
suggestions and improvements of DR. DIAMtJND. Those improvements have been the results 
of numerous and costly experiments, carried on im the true spirit of scientific inquiry, and 
afterwards txplained in the most frank and liberal manner ; without the slightest reservation 
or endeavour to obtain from them any private or personal advantage. DR. DIAMOND'S con- 
duct ill this respect has been in every way so peculiarly honourable, that there can be no doubt 
many persons will be rejoiced to have an opportunity of testifying their sense of his high merits 
and their own obligations to him, by aiding the suggested Testimonial. 

To give expression to this feeling, a Meet'n? was recently held, when the following 
Gentlemen were elected a Committee to receive Subscriptions. 

COMMITTEE. 



JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., F.S.A. 

W. DURRANT COOPER, ESQ.,r.S.A« 

GEORGE R. CORNER, ESQ., F.S.A. 

J. J. FORRESTER, ESQ., F.G.S., &c. 

EDWARD KATEK, ESQ., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

KEV. J. R. MAJOR, M.A., F.S.A., Hon. Sec. 



THOMAS MACKINLAY, ESQ., F.S.A., 

Hon. Treas. 
WILLIAM SMITH, ESQ., F.S.A. 
REAR-ADMIRAL W. H. SMYTH, K.S.F. 
WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ., F.S.A. 



Subscriptions received by all the Members of the Committee. Post-Office Orders to be 
made payable at St. Martin's - le - Grand to the Order of the Hon. Treasurer, THOMAS 
MACKINLAY, ESQ., 20. Soho Square, London. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED. 



The Lord Viscount Mahon, Pies. 

S.A. 

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C. Harwood Clarke, Esq., B. A., 

F.S.A. 

George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. 
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F. Cramp, Esq. - - - - - 
Albert Cramp, Esq. - - - - 
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F. W. Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A. - 
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AFeilovrof theSoc. of Ant. - 
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James Forre.-ter, Esq. - . - 
Miss E. Forrester - - - - 
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Edward Foss, Esq., i .8.A. 

P. W. Fry, Esq. 

Thomas Garle, Esq. - - - 

J. P. Gassio t, Esq., V.P.R.S. - 
John Green. Esq. . - - - 
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J. E. H, - - - „ - - 
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Edward Hawkins, Esq.., F.S.A. 



£ $. d. 



R. Gardner Hill. Esq. - - - 
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R. W. S. Lutwidge, Esq. - - - 

Rev. r. R. Major, M. A. - - - 

Thomas Mackinlay, Esq., F.S.A. - 
T. L. Mansell, Esq., A.B.M.D. 
The Laiiies Caroline and Augusta 

Nevill 

J. G. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. 
R. C. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. 
Editor of " Notes and Queries " 
Norwich Photngraphic Society - 

F. Ouvry, Esq., Trea. S. A. 

Heniy Pollock, Esq. . - - - 

J. H. P. 

W. Lake Price, Esq. - - - - 
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Rev. J. B. Reade, F.R.S. - - - 

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T. Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 



J BENNETT'S MODEL 
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Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to 
all Climates, may now ba had at the MANU- 
FACTORY, 6."). CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold 
Ix)ndon-niade Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 
euineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, e, and 4 
guineas. lirsl-rate Ueneva Levers, in Uold 
Cases, 12, 111, and n guineas. Ditto, in Silver 
Cases, 9, b, and :> guineas. Superior Lever, with 
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and ISi 
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Wuineas; Silver, lo guineas. Eveir Watch 
skilfully examiiieil. timed, and itsperWrmance 
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BENNETl', Watcn, Clock, and Instrumen t 
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fti.CUKAPSIDS. 



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PHOTOGRAPHIC DELINE- 
ATIONS of the SCENERY, ARCHI- 
TEC lURE, and ANTIQUITIES of G'- EAT 
BRJTMN and IRELAND. By RUSSELL 
SEDGFIELD. Folio Parts, 21s. each ; or 
separate Photographs, 4s. each. 

Contents of Part I. 

I. The Norman Tower, Bury St. Edmunds. 
2. The Abbey Gate, Bury St. Edmunds. 3. 
South Transept, Norwich Cathedral. 4. The 
West Front of Binham Priory, Norfolk. 5. 
Part of the Cloisters, Norwich Catiiedral. 
a.« The Precinct Gate, Norwich. 

COKTENTS OF PaRT H. 

6. The Norman Tower, Bury St. Edmunds 
(No. 2.). 7. St. Mary's Church, Bury St. Ed- 
munds. 8. St. Benedict's Abbey, Norfolk. 
9. Part of Binham Priory, Norfolk. 10. The 
Bishop's Bridge, Norwich, 10.* Walsiugham 
Abbey. 

Contents of Part III. 

I I . The West Towers, York Minster. 12. The 
West Door, York Minster. 13. St. Helen's 
Church, York. 14. Conduit in High Street, 
Lincoln. 15. Bishopthorpe Palace. 15.* The 
Jew's House, Lincoln. 

Contents op Part IV. 
16. The East End of Lincoln Cathedral. 

17. The Chapter-House, Lincoln Cathedral. 

18. Newport Arch (Roman), Lincoln. 19. St. 
Mary's Alibey, York. 20. Knaresborough 
Castle. 21. Wakefield Bridge. 

London : SAMUEL HIGHLEY, 
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VJIEGE OF SEVASTOPOL.— 

O Stanford's Bird's Eye View of Sevasto- 
pol, Balaklava, and the Country round, show- 
ing the very extensive and important Works 
recently erected by the Russians on the North 
Side of the Harbour; the inner Lines of De- 
fences in Sevastopol itself; the position of the 
Allied Armies, Defence Works, ike. &c., is now 
ready. Price, in one sheet, plain, 3s., case, 
bs.6d. ; c loured, .5s., case, 7s. 6d. ; per post, 
6d. ad itioiial. 
London: EDWARD STANFORD, Wholesale 

and Retail Mapseller, 6. Charing Cross; and 

all Bokseilers. 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



LONDON. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY M, 1855. 



JUNIUS, AS EDITED BY SIB P. FRANCIS. 

Having occasion to turn to a volume of Junius 
to refresh my memory with a quotation, I dis- 
covered, to my great surprise, that the copy to 
which I referred differed greatly from the usual 
editions, especially in the notes. This led me to 
give the work a more particular examination. 
Though I had been possessed of it for fifteen 
years, I could not remember that I had ever 
before looi<ed into it. The following are the 
princi[)al differences between this edition and that 
of Woodfall in 1772, besides those which result 
from the various readings. 

1. The Title is different : 

" The Letters of the celebrated Junius. A more com- 
plete Edition than any j-et published. In Two Volumes. 
London : printed in the year mdcclxxxiii." 

The motto is omitted, and there is no printer's nor 
bookseller's name. 

2. An " Advertisement " follows : 

"This Edition of the celebrated Letters of Junius is 
given as a more complete one than any yet published. 
In'what is called the author's own edition, three fourths 
of the Letter respecting the Bill of Rights, the most im- 
portant one in the collection, were omitted. All these 
omissions are restored to their proper places in this 
edition. 

"Fourteen Letters are also added to this edition. They 
are either Letters written by Junius, or Letters to which 
he has replied; and, on that account, justice seemed to 
require that they should be ranged along with his answers 
to them. These letters are marked with a star. A 
variety of Explanatory Notes have also been added, 
some of which have been noticed in the Contents ; but the 
whole of them were too numerous to be so distinguished. 

" It is proper to observe, that the Letters signed Philo 
Junius were written by Junius. In this edition, a mis- 
take committed in the author's edition has been avoided. 
In that edition, the Letter of Philo Junius, dated May 
22nd, 1771, is inserted twice; the first time in Volume 
First, as a Note to the twentieth Letter ; and the second 
time in Volume Second, as the forty-sixth Letter." 

3. The Dedication is omitted. 

4. The Preface is omitted, with the exception of 
the concluiling paragraph from De Lolme, which 
is headed " M. De Lolme on the Liberty of the 
Press," and begins as follows : 

" Whoever considers what it is that constitutes," &c. 

This single page stands in the place of a Preface. 

5. Then we have "Contents of Volume First." 

" Letter I. Political Character of Englishmen ; Alarm- 
ing State of the Nation ; Plan of Government since his 
present Majesty's Accession ; Characters of the present 
and former Ministers ; America ; Summary View of our 
Condition. 

" Notes : Character of the Dulie of Grafton ; his conduct 
to the Marquis of BocMngham, Junius and Lord Mans- 



Jield's Opinion of Mr. Pitt's and Lord Camden's declama- 
tions in favour of America." 

The word " declamations " is a mistake of the 
printer's ' for " declarations." There are many 
literal errors in the book, which lead us to sup- 
pose that it had not the benefit of the editor's final 
revision. 

" Letter II. Sir William Draper's defence of the Mar- 
quis of Granby. 

" Notes : Sir William Draper's embroidered Night-gown ; 
his healing Letter from Clifton." 

The Note about the embroidered night-gown is 
one of the new notes introduced into this edition. 

The Contents are carried on in this manner to 
the eighty-sixth Letter, which contains the en- 
larged account of the author's Letter concerning 
the Bill of Rights. A note at tlie end of the Con- 
tents of this Letter again calls attention to what 
is said of it in the Advertisement : 

" In the Author's own edition, three fourths of this last 
Letter are omitted, but in this present edition all the 
omissions are restored to their proper places." 

The same information is conveyed, for the third 
time, in a note appended to the Title of the Letter 
itself. 

" In the Author's own edition, nearly twelve pages of 
the above Letter are omitted. In this edition the whole 
extract is given, as it was originally presented to the 
Supporters of the Bill of Rights. The passages marked 
with inverted commas are those in the Author's edition. 
The passages not marked are the parts of the Letter now 
again restored to their proper places." 

After the " Contents to Volume First," the work 
commences with the Half Title : 

" Letters of Junius, 8fc. ; Letter I. To the Printer of 
the Public Advertiser, 21 January, 1669 : Sir, The sub- 
mission," &c. 

Thus there are three different Titles given to 
the work : The Letters of the celebrated Junius ; 
The celebrated Letters of Junius ; and The Letters 
of Junius. These irregularities are perhaps owing 
to the want of the editor's last revision. 

The question to be solved is, Who was the 
editor of this extraordinary work? As the author 
of Junius Identified, I was naturally inclined to 
fix on Sir Philip Francis, if there were no im- 
pediments in the way. I cannot find any. He 
went out to India in the spring of 1774, and he 
arrived in England in October, 1781. There was 
ample time for him to prepare this edition for the 
press, and to have it printed in the year 1783. 
Whoever the editor might be, it is very evident 
that he considered himself as much entitled to 
make free with the work as if he were the author ; 
and who was more likely to have taken these 
liberties than Sir Philip Francis? I am now 
alluding only to those sweeping alterations which 
I have been describing. But if it can be shown 
that Sir Philip did actually make corrections and 
emendations in a copy of Junius, and that this 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



copy belonged to the same edition with that which 
we are now considering, it will go far, I think, to 
prove that he was both the editor and the au- 
thor of the work. The following extract from a 
note by Mr. Bohn, giving an account of the sale 
of Sir Philip Francis's library, Feb. 3, 1838, is of 
service as supplying the information of which we 
are in search : 

" Among the lots which more particularly concern the 
present inquiry were several different editions of Junius's 
Letters, and some of the printed inquiries as to their 
authorship. These sold for rather high prices, as the fol- 
lowing quotations will show : 

" 416. Junius's Letters, 2 vols., with some MS. correc- 
tions of the text, and notes by Sir Philip Francis. In 
calf. 1783. 12/. 12s, Armstrong." 

"417. Junius's Letters, with notes by Heron, 2 vols., 
with some MS. notes and corrections of the text, by Sir 
P. Francis. 1804. 21, 2s. Armstrong." 

"421. Junius. A collection of the Letters ofAtticus, 
Lucius, and Junius ; with MS. notes and corrections, and 
blanks filled up by Sir Philip Francis. 1769. And other 
tracts in the volume. 3/. 5s. Armstrong." 

" These and most of the other annotated books were 
bought, under the pseudonj'me of Armstrong, for Mr. 
H. R. Francis, then master of a Grammar School at 
Kingston-upon-Hull, in whose possession they still are." 
— Wade's Junius, vol. ii. p. 86. 

I have omitted In the above list those books 
mentioned by Mr. Bohn which had no immediate 
connexion with our present subject. 

Thus, by another chain of evidence wholly un- 
lookcd for, and totally different from all that was 
produced in Junius Identified, we are again led to 
the conclusion that Sir Philip Francis was the 
author of Junius's Letters, John Taylor. 

7, Leonard Place, Kensington. 



SANITARY HINTS ON THE CRIMEA. 

The elevated portion of the Crimea, which lies 
between Cape Chersonese and KafFa, and extends 
some twenty miles Inland, may be said to be better 
suited to the constitutions of Englishmen than 
many places at which our soldiers are stationed. 
Nevertheless, It is not the climate for a winter en- 
campment. The rest of the peninsula should be 
avoided at all seasons of the year. In autumn it 
would be the destruction of an array. 

With regard to the positions now occupied by 
our own troops, or by our allies, there are some 
sanitary hints to which I wish to give additional 
circulation. They are quite independent of the 
doings or mis-doings of official persons, whether 
at home or abroad. 

Sebastopol, — 

■ " Trente mille hommes [soldats], abrit^s par les tentes 
d'un camp, pretent leurs bras h ces gigantesques meta- 
morphoses [des travaux de nivellement, 1837], et c'est 
Ik un coup d'ceil vraiment plein d'interet, que cette foule 
laborieuse, toute vetue de toile blanche, s'agitant et se 



croisant dans le nuage de cette poussifere qu'ils enlfevent 
sac par sac, et pour ainsi dire poign^e par poignee, aux 
mamelons abaisses : veritable travail de fourmilifere, oil la 
division infinie des forces arrive h, la longue au meme re- 
sultat que I'^nergie des moteurs et la puissance des ma- 
chines. Cependant, parnii cette troupe active et perse- 
yeran te, Mn^tfau redoutable s'etait manifest^: une ophthalmie 
intense, V ophthalmie egyptienne, contagieuse selon les uns, 
epidemique, disaient les autres, exergait des ravages mal- 
heureusement trap constates. On Valtribuait gin'eralement 
a la prodigieuse poussiere que les vents font tourhillonner 
sur ces coteaux, depouilles depuis que les travaux de nivelle- 
ment ont ite entrepris. 3Iais quelle que soit la cause de ce 
mal, ce tnal est horrible. Vingt-quatre heures suffisent 
souvent a corrompre Vceil entier et a Varracher de son 
orbite." — Anatole de Demidoff, 1840. 

Inkerman. — 

" L'histoire de la Crimee n'oiFre sur Inkerman que des 
notions fort incertaines. Selon quelques savants chroni- 
queurs, les temps antiques de la Grfece I'ont connue floris- 
sante sous le nom de Theodosie ; d'autres y veulent 
retrouver le Stenos de la geographic des Grecs. Pallas, 
au contraire, est dispose k croire que les G^nois sont les 
premiers qui se soient etablis sur ces rochers escarpes. 
Aujourd'hui des murailles en mine, quelques restes de 
tours et un grand nombre de petites grottes alignees sur 
le flanc abrupte de la montagne, sont tout ce qu'on peut 
voir dans une courte visite. Les habitants de Sevastopol 
qui vous accompagnent dans cette promenade vous conseillent 
ordinairement d'abreger votre sejour, tant les marais voisins 
ont une mauvaise renommee." — Anatole de Demidoff, 
1840. 

Eupatoria, — 

" Si cette grande ville tatare [Eupatorie alias Kozlof ] 
fut autrefois florissante, il faut avouer qu'on ne trouve 
presque plus aujourd'hui que des ruines pour temoigner 
de cette ancienne prosperite. — Les vcritables causes de 
I'abandon de Kozlof sont la prosperite envaliissante 
d'Odessa, et I'accroissement du cabotage dans la partie du 
port de Sevastopol reservee au commerce. II faut dire 
aiissi, dussions-nous trouver des contradicteurs, que le climat 
de cette cote et son voisinage des etangs salins de Salt doivent 
etre contraires a la sante des habitants de Kozlof. Durant 
notre sejour — il nous fut aise de reniarquer parmi les ha- 
bitants des symptomes assez nombreux defevres etidemiques." 
— Anatole de Demidoff, 1840. 

Bolton Corney. 



" QUEER THINGS IN QUEER PLACES. 

I have sometimes thought of asking a corner in 
"N. & Q." for the insertion, under the above 
heading, of those articles which a book-worra 
occasionally meets in the course of very miscel- 
laneous reading, and to which may be applied the 
distich : 

" The thing we know is rather strange and queer, 
And wonder ' how the devil it came there ? ' " 

Take as a specimen the following, which would 
well suit Cunningham's Handbook of London, but 
looks very incongruous in the midst of a — "funeral 
sermon ! " 

Sometime since I purchased, among other old 
books, one entitled Oi-atio Panegyrica in obitum 
Jacobi Frey, Basil, 1636. I was induced to buy 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



it by seeing that, though a Swiss " Professor of 
Greek," he had been, at the time of his decease, 
"Dean-elect of Armagh, in Ireland." Upon looking 
through the volume this was explained, by finding 
that Frey, having gone to England with high 
reputation as a scholar and divine, was engaged as 
tutor to Lord Dungarvan, son to one of the lead- 
ing men of the day, " the great Earl of Cork ; " this 
led to his introduction at Court, to an acquaint- 
ance with Archbishop Ushsr, and his nomina- 
tion to a Deanery, which would have placed him 
in close relation with that learned Primate, who, 
" without respect of persons," loved a scholar 
wherever he found him. This appointment was cut 
short by Frey's premature death in Switzerland, 
August 26, 1636, while preparing to take posses- 
sion of his new dignity. And it was on the occa- 
sion of his funeral, that the panegyric I refer to 
was delivered. 

Now comes the " queer thing" for which I wish 
a place in " IS. & Q." In the funeral oration, 
Frey's various wanderings and journeys are briefly 
touched on : his landing at Dover ; — his journey 
by Canterbury and Rochester to London ; — "a 
brief note of Westminster Abbey;" and then, as 
the orator says, " ut tristibus aliquid Joci admis- 
ceam" he proceeds to tell of " A famous tavern 
in London (^Apollo ei nomen) regulated by twenty- 
four golden rules for keeping all in order and 
decency." " Leges convivales, nisi memoria mea 
decoxit, sunt istce." Will you allow me (with a 
Query, whether any other record of this classic 
tavern remains ?) to offer you the rules, with my 
version of their meaning. They certainly seem " as 
practical as classical ;" though, from the change of 
manners, and the disparagement of the classics in 
modern education, it may be advisable to translate 
for " the use of country gentlemen " and tavern 
frequenters in general : 



17. 
18. 
119. 
20. 
21. 



Nemo Asymbolus, nisi Umbra, hue venito, 

Idiota, insulsus, tristis, turpis, abesto, 

Eruditi, urbaiii, hilares, honesti, adsciscuntor, — 

Nee lectJB foeminae repudiantor, 

In apparatu quod eoiivivis corrugat nares, nil esto, 

Epuiaj delectu potius, quam sumptu, parantor, 

Obsonator et coquus, eonvivarum gula periti sunto. 

De dlscubitu non contenditor — 

Ministri a dapibus occulati et muti, 

a poeulis auriti et celeres sunto, 
Vina puris fontibus ministrantor, aut vapniet hospes, 
Moderatis poeulis provocare sodales fas esto. 
At fabulis magis quam vino velitatio fiat, 
Convivte nee muti, nee loquaces sunto, 
De seriis aut sacris poti et saturi ne dlsserunto, 
Fidieen, nisi accersitus, non venito. 
Admisso risu, tripudiis, choreis, eantu, 
salibus, omni gratiarum festivitate 
sacra celebrantor. 
Joci sine felle sunto, 
Insipida poemata nulla recitantor, 
Versus scribere, nuUus cogitor. 
Argumentationis totus strepitus abesto, 
Amatoriis querelis, ac suspiriis, liber angulus esto, 



} 



22. Lapitharum more scyphis pugnare, vitra eollidere, 
fenestras excutere, supellectilem dilacerare, nefas 

esto, 

23. Qui foras vel dicta, vel facta eliminat, eliminator, 

24. Neminem reum pocula faciunto. 

Focus perennis esto." 

Idem Anglice redditum. 

" 1. All pay the reck'ning here, save 'hangers on;' 

2. Fools, blockheads, sad dogs, scoundrels, get you gone I 

3. Men learn'd, polite, gay, honest, here may crowd ; 

4. Even well-conducted ladies are allow'd. 

5. Let nothing mean in dress provoke a sneer. 

6. You'll find 3'our dinner rather good, than dear, 

7. Caterer and cook are bound for wholesome fare. 

8. None must strive here for upper place or chair. 

9. Waiters — at tables sharp and silent stand, 
To fill the cups, be quick-ear'd and at hand. 

10. Guests, you may rate the host, if bad the wine. 

11. Challenge to cheerful glasses while you dine; 

12. Yet more to repartee, than drink incline ; 

13. Neither be moody — nor too free of prate, 

14. No serious subjects in your cups debate. 

15. Unless when sent for, here no music plays ; * 

16. Yet mirth, dance, song, and all the joy of praise 
Are here allow'd in Christmas Holidays. 

17. If jokes be pass'd, let them be void of spite ; 

18. Insipid poems none must here recite. 

19. No one need sing, unless he thinks it fit, 

20. Loud noisy argument, we don't permit. 

21. A corner's here to make love-quarrels up ; f 

22. But none must bawl, smash windows, plates, or cup. 

23. Who hence take tales, had best betake them hence ; 

24. Let none for words o'er wine take deep offence." 

A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

[Our correspondent's memory has proved treacherous 
for once: he has only to open the works of rare Ben 
Jonson (edit. 1846, p. 726.), where he will find the famed 
" Leges Convivales " with a translation. Mr. Cunning- 
ham thus notices them in his Handbook, art. " Devil 
Tavern, Temple Bar : " — "The great room was called 
' The Apollo ! ' Thither came all who desired to be 
' sealed of the tribe of Ben.' Here Jonson lorded it with 
greater authority than Dryden did afterwards at Will's, 
or Addison at Button's. The rules of the club, drawn up 
in the pure and elegant Latin of Jonson, and placed over 
the chimney, were, it is said, ' engraven in marble.' In 
The Tatler (No. 79.), they are described as being ' in gold 
letters ; ' and this account agrees with the rules them- 
selves — in gold letters upon board — still preserved in 
the banking-house of the Messrs. Child, where I had the 
pleasure of seeing them in 1843, with another and equally 
interesting relic of the Devil Tavern — the bust of 
Apollo." Pepys twice notices this celebrated tavern in 
his amusing Diary : — " Feb. 25, 1664-65. To the Sun 
Taverne, and there dined with Sir W. Batten and Mr. 
GifFord the merchant ; and I hear how Nick Colborne, 
that lately lived and got a great estate there, is gone to 
live like a prince in the country, and that this Wadlow, 

* It would seem as if this rule had been prepared pro- 
phetically ! against the " organ nuisance." 

•j- This is obviously the unsuspected original of a stanza 
in the song of " Mrs. Casey the Hostess," in one of 
O'Keefe's dramas : 

" Let Love fly here on silken wings, 
His tricks I can connive at ; 
A lover who would say ' soft things,' 
Can have a room in private ! " 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



that did the like at the Devil Tavern by St, Dunstan's, 
did go into the country, and there spent almost all he had 
got, and hath now choused this Colborne out of his house, 
that he might come to his old trade again. But, Lord I 
to see how full the house is, no room for any company 
almost to come into it. Late home, and to clean myself 
with warm water ; my wife will have me, because she do 
use it herself." Again, " Oct. 22, 1668. To Arundell 
House, where the first time we [the Royal Society] have 
met since the vacation, and not much company; and 
afterwards my Lord and others and I to the Devil Ta- 
vern, and there ate and drank, and so home by coach; 
and there found my uncle Wight and aunt, and Woolly 
and his wife, and there supped, and mighty merry."] 



BOOKS BURNT. 

(^Continued from p. 100.) 

Arnobius alludes to the burning of the books 
of Christians by the Pagans. {Adversus Nationes, 
book iv. c. 36.) He speaks in general terms of 
the suppression and destruction of Christian books 
in book iii. c. 7. 

Under the Emperor Valens all books of magic 
were diligently sought after and burnt. This 
appears to have been in consequence of the 
offence committed by the " table-turning " philo- 
sophers, as already reported in " N. & Q.," Vol. ix., 
and recorded by Zosimus (book iv. 13.) and 
others. To this circumstance allusion is made in 
those laws of the Theodosian code which were at 
that time published. 

Baronius says that the use of books of magic 
was formerly forbidden both among the Greeks 
and Romans ; and that the ancient practice was to 
burn them as well as other books of a dangerous 
tendency. 

The same author says that the library at Con- 
stantinople when burnt under Zeno (not by 
Leo I. of Rome, as has been said) contained above 
12,000 volumes ; among which was a MS. 120 feet 
long, containing the Iliad, Odyssey, and other 
poems, written in letters of gold, upon the intes- 
tine of a dragon ! 

After the conversion of the Arian Goths, Isi- 
dore of Seville composed for them an office which 
continued in use till the invasion of the Arabs, 
who scattered the Christians of Spain, except 
those of Toledo. These were called Mozarabs, 
and they persevered in the use of the office of St. 
Isidore until after the expulsion of the Moors. It 
was then ' intimated that they must adopt the 
Roman rite ; they objected, and it was eventually 
determined, after fastings, processions, and prayer, 
to kindle a great fire, and commit to it a copy of 
each ritual. This was done. The Mozarabian 
office was triumphant, for it was not in the least 
injured, while the Roman was reduced to ashes. 
{GeograpMe des Legendes, Paris, 1852.) 

The city of Lyons, which had been overthrown 
by the Saracens, was restored by Charlemagne, 



who established there a fair library in the Isle of 
Barbe. The library thus formed was '■'■ pillee et 
brulee par les Calvinistes en 1562." (Seethe work 
last named, pp. 642. 671.) 

In his History of Benuvais, Louvet relates that 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the ar- 
chives of the Chapter of Clermont were destroyed 
by different fires. (From the same work, p. 379.) 

Petrus Alcyonius, in a work entitled De Exilic, 
Venice, 1522, says : 

" When a boy I heard the learned Greek Demetrius 
Chalcondyles relate that the priests had so much authority 
with the Bj'zantine Caesars, that to please them they 
burnt entire poems of the ancient Greeks, but especially 
those which record the loves, impure dalliances, and fail- 
ings of lovers. In this waj- perished the poems of Menan- 
der, Diphiius, ApoUodorus, Philemon, and Alexis, and the 
fancies of Sappho, Erinna, Anacreon, Mimnermus, Bion, 
Alcmanus, and Alcaeus. For these they substituted the 
poems of our Nazianzen, which, although they excite 
the mind to a more ardent attachment to religion, yet do 
not teach the Attic propriety of words, nor the graces of 
the Grecian tongue." — Quoted in Preface to Anacreon, 
Parma, 1791. 

At Florence, in 1547, a law was made which 
required all who possessed heretical books, par- 
ticularly those written by Ochino and Martyr, to 
deliver them up within fifteen days, under penalty 
of one hundred ducats and ten years in the 
galleys. Heretic books were burned by the In- 
quisition with great ceremony. 

In 1548, the Senate of Venice ordered all who 
held books containing anything contrary to the 
Roman Catholic faith, to deliver them up within 
eight days, or be proceeded against as heretics. 

In 1679, Cardinal Spinola, Bishop of Lucca, 
wrote a letter to the descendants of the Lucchese 
Protestants at Geneva, inviting them to return to 
the bosom of the church. They sent him an able, 
and yet a respectful, reply. But the pope ordered 
that every copy of it which came into Italy should 
be burnt. 

On the 12th of May, 1521, Thomas Wolsey, 
chancellor, cardinal, and legate, went in solemn 
procession to St. Paul's. This procession carried 
to the burning pile the works of Luther, which 
were devoutly consumed before an immense 
crowd. (D'Aubigne.) 

The niece of the learned Peiresc is said to have 
burnt his correspondence to save the expense of 
firing. 

In 1671 "a fire consumed the greatest part of 
the Escurial Library (Madrid), rich in the spoilg 
of Grenada and Morocco." (Gibbon.) 

Giordano Bruno, the philosopher, was burnt in 
1600, as well as his books. 

About 1537 many copies of an English version 
of the Scriptures, which was being printed at 
Paris, were seized and burnt on a complaint made 
by the French clergy. 

In the retreat of Torres Vedras in 1811, Mas- 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



sena burnt and plundered every village tbrough 
which he passed. The church and convent of 
Alcobaga — " the value of which," says Mr. 
Southey, " may be expressed to an English 
reader by saying, that they were to the Portuguese 
what Westminster Abbey and the Bodleian are to 
the history and literature of England " — were 
burnt by orders from the French head-quarters. 

In my next, which will consist chiefly of En- 
glish examples, this series of notices will be con- 
cluded. B. H. COWPEB. 
(To he continued.) 



THE ROMAN AND ENGLISH I-AWS. 

The highest flower of the Roman law falls in the 
limes of the deepest decline of civil liberty, in the 
second and third centuries. Tlie greatest jurist, 
Papinian, was the Prefectus Prcetorio of the greatest 
tyrant, Caracalla. The organs of despotism, and 
even the municipal decuria, had sunk during the 
prevalence of that law to such a depth of degra- 
dation, that criminals were condemned to accept 
the decury ; a post which also Jews and heretics 
were competent to fill, and by which illegitimate 
children were declared legitimate. The panegy- 
rists of that law, such as Savigny and others, in 
vain try to persuade us, that Hot the law itself, 
but its tyrannical application, had wrought mis- 
chief in the country. They forget, however, that 
the emptiness of a legislation shows itself not only 
by the wrongs accruing from its own direct force 
and application, but also by the absence of those 
provisions by which a wrong application or inter- 
pretation might be prevented. 

In striking contrast with the above, stands the 
welfare and prosperity of the English nation, de- 
spite the defects in their laws and judicial admi- 
nistration. The difference between the two is, 
that the Romans could not have been more un- 
happy even without their laws, while the English 
might probably be still more happy without theirs, 
i. e. by reforming them. 

The laws of the Germanic nations were the 
emanation of their times, customs, manners, and 
way of thinking ; and they were consequently 
adapted to their individual and national wants and 
necessities. The Roman laws, on the contrary, 
possessed no national peculiarities. They found 
a home in all countries, because they were at 
home nowhere : they might be adopted or dis- 
carded everywhere according to circumstances; 
they could in short be applied to everything, and 
all cases, because they did not suit any case in 
particular. Db. Michelsen. 



Spenser and Tasso. — Although the " lovely 
lay" which, with the exception of one line, forms 
the 74th and 75 ih stanzas of Canto xii. book ii. of 
The Fairie Queene, meets with neither note nor 
comment in any of the editions of that poem to 
which I have referred, I can scarcely believe that 
its origin is unknown. 

The author of that fragrant volume Flora 
Domestica, marks a "striking resemblance" be- 
tween it and a passage in Tasso ; and on referring 
to La Gerusalemme Liberata, I find that is in 
reality a pretty faithful translation of the 14th 
and 15th stanzas of Canto xvi. The comparison 
of human life with the frail fleeting beauty of the 
flower, can only become a poet's own by the man- 
ner of its treatment : for, as your readers are well 
aware, the thought is to be found in every litera- 
ture, and admits of almost endless illustration. 
Its teaching here, as that of the poets of old, is — 

". . . . citraque juventam 
-^tatis breve ver, et primes carpere fiores." 

A. Challsteth. 

Duration of a Visit. — With the saying of an 
old lady in one (which ?) of Miss Ferrier's novels, 
as referred to in Lockhart's Life of Scott, 
chap. Ixiv. p. 570. (People's edition), viz. " that a 
visit should not exceed three days, the rest, the 
drest, and prest day," compare Plautus, Mil. Glor., 
III. i. 145. : 

" Hospes nuUus in amici hospitium devorti potest, 
Quin, ubi triduum ibi continuum fuerit, jam odiosua 
siet." 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

" Muratorii Rer. Ttal." — A large paper copy of 
Muratorii Rerum Ltalicarum Scriptores has been 
recently purchased for a public libraiy. On col- 
lating vol. Iv., I found the paging to run thus : 
pp. 353, 354, 355, 354. 359, 358, 359, 360. This 
I found to be not an error in paging, but a dupli- 
cation of pp. 354. 359., and a deficiency of pp. 356, 
357. On inquiry I found the small paper copies 
correct ; and our copy has been completed by 
leaves taken from an odd volume of one of those. 
From what I have learned, I believe the British 
Museum copy to be perfected in a similar manner. 
As some of your readers possessing copies of this 
work may not be aware of the above error, I 
hope you will not object to inserting the above 
memorandum in your valuable periodical, of which 
I have been a most warm advocate from its very 
commencement, though (from pressure of business) 
not a contributor to it. B. V. 

John Gait and Jeremy Taylor. — In Sir An- 
drew Wylie, the hero acquires the sobriquet of 
"Wheelie" by calling out, when a four-wheel 
carriage passed him and his schoolmaster, " Wee 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



dune, wee Wheelie ; the muckle ane canna catch 
you." 

The same idea occurs in Jeremy Taylor's 
Sermons : 

"Tlie hinder wheel, though bigger than the former, 
and measures more ground at every revolution, yet shall 
never overtake it." 

And in Persius, sat. v. 1. 70. : 

" Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno 
Vertentem sese, frustra sectabere canthum ; 
Cum rota posterior curras, et in axe secundo." 

as quoted by Taylor. 
Is the same idea found elsewhere ? J. N. 

Tailed Men. — The reappearance of exploded 
errors, both in natural and moral science, is one 
of the least satisfactory phenomena observable in 
the history of our race. 

I extract the following from old Purchas, on a 
subject now again presented to the credulous 
public. I fear that we have not made so much 
progress in the intervening 250 years as we some- 
times imagine. Writing of the Philippine Islands 
he says : 

'' Lambri, the next kingdom, hath in it some men with 
tayles, like dogges, a spanne long." 

And of Sumatra : 

" They say that there are certaine people there called 
Daraqui Dara, which haue tayls like to sheepe." 

"As for those tailed people (a slander by Becket's 
legend *, reported of some Kentish men, iniurious to that 
angrie saint, and after applied to our whole nation ; manj', 
indeed, esteeming the Englisli to be tayled), Galvano 
affirmeth, that the King of Tidore told him that in the 
islands of Battochina there were some which had tayles." 

The monstrosities depicted by mediseval limners 
are abundantly justified by the descriptions of this 
worthy geographer. I cannot resist quoting a 
whole catalogue of wonders from the description 
of the Moluccas, in which the strange truth is 
outdone by the stranger fiction : 

" In this iland are men hauing anckles, with spurres, 
like to cockes ; here are hogges with homes ; a riuer 
stored with fish, and yet so bote, that it flaieth off the 
skinne of any creature which entreth it ; there are oisters 
so large that they cristen in the shells ; crabbes so strong 
that with the claws they will breake the yron of a pick- 
axe; stones which grow like fish, whereof they make 
lime." — Purchas his Pilgrimage, edit. 1613. 

S. R. P. 

John Shakspeare. — In a roll of the seventh 
year of Edward I., entitled 

" Placita corone coram Johanne de Reygate et sociis suis 
Justiciariis itinerantibus apud Cantuar. in octabis Sancti 
Hillarii anno regni Regis Edwardi septimo, Saloiii." 

occurs the following entry : 

" Danyel Pauly suspendit se in villa de Freyndeii. Et 
Mariota fil' p'dci Danyelis prima inventrix no venit nee 

* See Lamberts Perambulation. 



malede se credlf. Et fuit attach' per Willm Morcok et 
Alanu Bryce Ido in mia. Judm feloii de se catalla p'dci 
Danielis Lix. s uii Robs de Scotho vie respond' et Wills 
Paly et Rics Pally duo vicini no ven nee maletf. Et 
Wills fuit attach' p PetrFabrQ et Johem Shakespere. 
Et Rics fuit^ttach'p Gilbm atte Hok et Willm de Freya- 
den, ido in mia." 

I have not consulted any other documents in 
order to discover a farther account of this John 
Shakspeare. Perhaps some of your readers may 
be able to show some connexion with the poet's 
ancestors. William Henry Hakt. 

New Cross. 

Deaths in the Society of Friends. — Statement 
of deaths in the Society of Friends in Great 
Britain and Ireland between January 1 and 
December 31, 1854 ; 

Under 1 year * - 

Under 5 years - - - 

From 5 to 10 - 

10 to 15 - 

15to20 - 

20 to 30 - 

30 to 40 - 

40 to 50 - 

50 to 60 - 

60 to 70 - 

70 to 80 - 

80 to 90 - 

90 to 100 - 



Males. 


JFemales. 


Totals, 


11 


9 


20 


16 


15 


31 


3 


7 


la 


7 


7 


14 


1 


6 


7 


11 


16 


27 


9 


20 


29 


9 


11 


20 


14 


27 


41 


38 


32 


70 


35 


54 


89 


13 


21 


34 


1 


1 


2 



157 217 



374 



Average of age, 52 years, 8 months, 10 days. 
One-third have attained 70 years and upwards. 
Many are total abstainers from strong drink. 

Wm. Collibr. 

Woodside, Plymouth. 



^LMtViti, 



THE " DICTIONARICM ANGLICUM," USED BT SKIN- 
NER IN HIS " ETTMOLOGICON LINGUJE ANGLI- 
CAN JE :" LONDON, 1671. 

Amongst the numerous dictionaries produced 
in England during the seventeenth century, there 
existed one, cited largely by Dr. Skinner in his 
Etymologicon, and which was known also to Ray, 
entitled the Dictionarium Anglicum. I am de- 
sirous to ascertain any particulars regarding this 
work, which appears to have comprised a remark- 
able assemblage of archaisms and words of rare 
occurrence. It is wholly unknown, so far as I 
can learn, except through the citations by the 
authors above mentioned ; and the most diligent 
search for a copy has hitherto proved ineffectual. 
The recondite character of the words given from 



* These numbers are included in the next, under 
Shears. 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



it by Dr. Skinner, amply suffice to excite curiosity 
to see the whole of a work which would probably 
afford much assistance in the investigation of 
obsolete and provincial expressions. 

The only precise indication given by Dr. Skin- 
ner, in regard to this dictionary, occurs in the 
first part of his Etymologicon, under the word 
Bartek, of which he offers the following deriva- 
tion : "Author Dictionarii Anglici, anno 1658 
editi, nescio quam bene, a Lat. Vertere deflectit." 
I have found no other passage where the date of 
publication is mentioned. 

I may observe that, having submitted the diffi- 
culty of tracing this book to Sir Frederic Madden, 
of whose friendly aid in all such inquiries I cannot 
speak without grateful esteem, he informed me 
that he had long sought in vain for this dictionary 
so copiously used by Skinner. The late Mr. 
Eodd, whose information in regard to the rarities 
of early lexicography and works on language was 
rarely at fault, was likewise unable to afford any 
clue. Sir Frederic informed me that he supposed 
it might have been a dictionary published with 
the initials only of the author, about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. I thought at one 
time that it might have been an enlarged edition 
of The English Dictionarie, by H. C, Gent., 
namely, Henry Cockeram ; as may be gathered 
from the signature to his Dedication to Lord 
Boyle. Lowndes mentions the editions of 1632, 
16.53, and 1659 ; and I possess those of 1631 (the 
third, revised and enlarged) and 1655 (the tenth). 
The comparison of the words cited by Skinner 
fails, however, to identify his Dictionarium with 
the curious little production of Cockeram. The 
only work in which I have been able to trace 
some of the curious archaisms cited by Skinner, 
is the English Dictionary by Elisha Coles, school- 
master, published about 1700. As, however, that 
author makes boast of his knowledge of English 
lexicography — and that he knew "the whole 
succession from Dr. Bulloker to Dr. Skinner, from 
the smallest Volume to the largest Folio" — It Is 
very possible that he may have transcribed the 
archaisms in question from the pages of Skinner,* 
without even having seen the Dictionarium of 
which I am in quest. 

Books of this class are often of rare occurrence ; 
scarce a copy In some cases seems to have escaped 
the heedless destructiveness of schoolboys. In 
the hope, however, that this curious production 
may exist in the collections of some reader of 
" N. & Q.,"^ I ^ would Invite attention to the 
numerous citations which occur in Skinner's 
Etymologicon, from which I append the following 
examples. _ They will at least enable the possessor 
of any dictionary of the period to test Its Identity 
with the Dictionarium Anglicum of 1658. 

In the first division of Dr. Skinner's work, com- 
prising the more common English words traced to 



their derivation, he made comparatively little use 
of the_ work to which my Inquiry relates. The 
following word is found, however, which deserves 
notice : 

" GowTS, vox quaj mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit. 
Author dicit esse Somersetensi agro usitatissimum, iisque 
Canales Cloacas seu sentinas subterraneas designare," &c. 

A clue seems possibly here afforded to the 
county of which the author of the Dictionarium 
wasa native, or with which at least he was most 
familiar. I may refer also to the following words 
given in this first part of Skinner's work, as de- 
rived from the same authority : Criplings, Gusset, 
Hames, Haphertlet, Heck, Mammet, Mond, Pai- 
sage, Portpain, Posade, Spraints, Tanacles, &c. 

In the more archaic, the fourth division of the 
Etymologicon, comprising — 

"•Originationes omnium vocum antiquarum Anglicarum, 
qus3 usque a Wilhelmo Victore invaluerunt, et jam ante 
parentum setatem in usu esse desierunt," — 

the citations are more frequent. The following 
may serve as examples : 

" Abarstick, vox quaj mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit, 
inter veteres Anglicas voces recensita, alioqui nunquam 
vel lecta vel audita ; exponitur autem insatiabilis," &c. 

" BuTTEN, vox Venatica qua3 mihi in solo Diet. Angl. 
occurrit, exp. lingua quam ego vix interpretari possum 
(the first part in putting out a stag's head) forte prima 
pars cornu cervi tenelli," &e. 

" Cebratane, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum 
occurrit (exp. a trunk to shoot out on),«Fistula pilarum 
Explosoria, corrupt, a Fr. G. Sarbataine," &c. 

" Cosh, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum vox 
occurrit, dicit esse idem cum Cotterell, et utrumque Casam 
exponit, ridicule ut solet omnia; Cotterell enim Casam 
sed Villicum notat." 

" MusTKiCHE, Authori Diet. Angl. apud quem solum 
occurrit, exp. a shoemaker's last, a voce Lat. quam Festus 
ex Afranio eitat, Mustricula," &c. 

" RuTTiER, vox quaj mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit 
exp. ab Authore, a direction for the finding out of courses 
by land or sea, also an old beaten souldier," &c. 

" Wreedt, vox qua} mihi in solo Diet. Angl. occurrit, 
Author dicit vocem esse Belgicam quod facile credo, 
nullus tamen credo esse Anglicam licet centies juraret, 
vox oritur a Belg. Wreed, ssevus," &c. 

These may suffice as examples. I might farther 
refer to the following : Afgodness (impiety), 
Alifed (allowed), Anweald, Bagatell, Berry (ex- 
plained as "villa virl nobilis"), Borith (a plant 
used by fullers), Fisgig, Griffe graffe, or by 
" hook or crook," Hord (vacca pregnans), 
Himple (claudicare), Johling, Nacre, Pimpompet, 
Tampoon, Vaudevil, and a multitude of other 
uncommon or obsolete words, many of wliich are 
not elsewhere found. Skinner, it should be ob- 
served, gives his etymological observations in 
Latin ; but It is probable that the Dictionarium 
Anglicum was composed in English. 

I have found no other author of the seventeenth 
century who appears to have availed himself of 



IM 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[No. 2rt. 



the labours of his cotemporary, with the exception 
of Ray. In his Collection of English Words not 
generalhj used (first produced in 1674), I find : 

" Bragget, or Braket ; a sort of compound drink made 
up with hone}', &c. The author of the English Dictionary, 
set forth in the year 1658, deduces it from the Welsh 
word brag, signifying malt ; and gots, a honeycomb." — 
P. 10., 2nd edit. 1G91. 

I hope that some careful inquirer into the 
sources of English lexicography may solve the 
singular difficulty now for the first time, as I 
believe, submitted for investigation ; and that the 
curious production, so copiously, though ungra- 
ciously, used by the learned Dr. Skinnei-, may be 
identified and rescued from oblivion. 

Albert Wat. 



BLOCK BOOK : " SCHEDEL CRONIK.' 

I have a scarce old book {Schedel Cronik, a 
block book apparently), which upon its own au- 
thority was printed at Augsburg in 1396. It is 
in the original cover, and on the fly-leaf in front 
is the following note, written in a bold legible 
hand : " Liber valde rarus teste Jo. Vogt in catal. 
libr. rar. & al. pi. W. Eichhold;" and there are 
some_ other manuscript notes not very legible. 
But it appears to be doubted whether the date 
should be 1396 or 1496 ; and if you would give 
this letter a place in your valuable publication, it 
is likely that some of your readers will be able to 
clear up the doubt. 

In considering this question, the following facts 
appear to be deserving of consideration. Printing 
by movable metal types was in use before 1462^ 
when, as we are informed, by the dispersion of the 
servants of Fust and ShoeflTer, in consequence of 
the sacking of Mentz in that year, the invention 
of printing with movable types was publicly di- 
vulged. (Knight's Old Printers, 169.) Before 
movable metal types were invented, block books 
were in use ; and there is a print, dated in 1423, 
of St. Christopher bearing the Infant Christ. 
(Knight's Old Printers, 53.) By the invention 
of movable types the expense of printing was 
greatly reduced, and it is not very probable that 
the book in question, which is a large foolscap 
folio full of wood engravings, should be published 
at the distance of thirty or forty years afterwards. 
Is it not equally or more probable that it should 
have been published forty-four years before the 
invention of printing by movable types (in 1440), 
than fifty-six years afterwards? 

Should any of your readers desire to see the 
book, I shall have pleasure in showing it. 

Thos. Leadbitter. 
No. 3. Lansdowne Place, 
Brunswick Square. 



Minav Outvies. 

Hymn-book wanted. — In the Every Man's 
Magazine for 1770 or 1771, about the middle of 
the volume, is a letter complaining of a new prac- 
tice of adapting theatrical airs, and even the words 
of songs, to sacred purposes. The writer gives 
examples from a recently published hymn-book, 
of which I remember two. 

" The echoing bells call us all to the church, 
To the church my good lads then away ; 
The parson is come, and the beadle and clerk 
Upbraid our too tedious delay." 

The second is : 

" Let gay ones and great 

Make the most of their state. 
Still running from foible to foible ; 

Well I who cares a jot ? 

I envy them not, 
While I have my psalm-book and Bible." 

" Should the stage retaliate," says the writer, " we may 
expect to hear a religious Hawthorne singing psalms, and 
a religious Macheath preaching sermons." 

I shall be much obliged by the full title of the 
hymn-book, if known to any reader of " N. & Q." 
I do not approve the practice of quoting books 
from memory, but my excuse for so doing is, that 
it is many years since I saw the Every Man's 
Magazine; the library which contained it is dis- 
persed, there is no copy in the British Museum, 
and I have advertised for one without success. 

H. B. 0. 

U. U. Club. 

Burton of Twickenham. — There is an ancient 
monumental brass plate in the north aisle of the 
parish church of Twickenham, Middlesex, with 
this inscription : 

"Hie jacet Ric'dus Burton, nup' capitalis maj' d'ni 
Regis et Agnes ux' ejus, qui obiit 23*^ die Julii, A"> Do' 
MCCCCXLiii. q'r' a'i'ab's p'piciet D"." 

To this is affixed the royal arms as borne by 
Henry V. (who reduced the fleurs-de-lis to three), 
but without supporters. As this person died 
22 Henry VI., it is possible he might have held 
some distinguished post under both monarch?, but 
what that may have been I am not able to unravel 
from the words "capitalis maj';" and I request 
some reader of " N. & Q." will decipher them ; 
and also, if possible, inform me where I can find 
some account of a person whom I judge to have 
been of some importance by bearing the king's 
arms. Qu.ero. 

Coats of Arms of Prelates, — I should feel 
indebted to any of your correspondents who would 
give me the coats of arms of the following pre- 
lates :■ — Chandler, Sarum, 1415; Yonge, Callipolis, 
1513; Wellys, Sydon, 1508; Penny, Carlisle, 
1509 ; Owen, Cassano, 1588 ; Underbill, Oxford, 
1589; Rowlands, Bangor, 1598 ; Owen, Llandaff", 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



126 



1639 ; Lavington, Exeter, 1747; Harris, Llandaff, 
1729; Burgess, Sarum, 1825; Batson, Clonfert, 
1804 ; Maltby, Dunelm. ; Mant, Down and Con- 
nor ; Lipscomb, Jamaica. Also any particulars 
of the life of Lord George Murray, Bishop of St. 
David's ? Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

" Adolescentia similis est" Sre.-—" Adolescentia 
similis est serto rosEe senectus serto urticae." I find 
this comparison called a proverb. An authority 
for the assertion, and an early instance of its use, 
would oblige A. Challsteth. 

" Actis cevum implet" SfC. — 

" Actis aevum iniplet,*non segnibus annis." 

The above epigraph is continually ascribed by 
some to Ovid, and by others to Publius Syrus. 
But I can neither find it in one nor the other. 
Would any of your correspondents obligingly 
indicate its author or origin? M. (1) 

GarricKs Portrait in the Character of Satan. — 
In a note on The Sisters, a novel by Dr. Dodd, so 
injudiciously written as almost to encourage the 
vice it professed to expose, it is stated that Gar- 
rick was requested by the artist, who illustrated 
Dr. Newton's edition of Milton, to give him the 
benefit of his wonderful powers of expression to 
assist him in the conception of an illustration for 
book iv. of Paradise Lost, — that the scowl of 
malignant envy, with which Satan is represented 
as regarding the happy innocence of our first 
parents in that print, is therefore to be taken as 
Garrick's conception of the character. Can this 
be substantiated from other authorities ? 

Balliolensis. 

Chaloner Family. — Mr. Corner will be very 
thankful for any information respecting the two 
Sir Thomas Chaloners, from temp. Henry VIII. 
to James I., their ancestors or descendants, be- 
yond what is contained in the memoirs in the 
Biographia Britannica and Anthony k Wood's 
Athence Oxon., and the works there referred to ; 
and Mr. Corner is desirous of learning if there 
•were any, and, if any, what connexion between 
that family and the Chaloners of Sussex and 
Surrey ? 

3. Paragon, New Kent Eoad. 

George MiUer, D.D. — In the Records of the 
Particulars of the Consecrations of the Irish Bishops 
since the Restoration, of which a part is appended 
to the last (February) number of the Irish Church 
Journal, it is stated that Dr. Miller preached the 
sermon on the consecration of Bishop Saurin in 
the cathedral of Armagh, Dec. 19, 1819. The 
author of Modern History Philosophically Illus- 
trated was well known ; and I have many, if not 
the whole, of his publications. Did the sermon 
in question ever appear in print ? Abhba. 



Bibliographical Queries. — Can you oblige me 
with the names of the respective authors of the 
following pamphlets ? 

1. " Remarks occasioned by some Passages in Doctor 
Milner's Tour in Ireland : Dublin, 1808." 

2. " A Sketch of the State of Ireland, Past and Present, 
Fifth Edit. : Dublin, 1810." * 

3. " A Commentary on the Proceedings of the Catholics 
of Ireland: Dublin, 1812." 

4. " An Address to the Public on behalf of the Poor : 
Dublin, 1815." 

5. " An Inquiry into the Abuses of the Chartered 
Schools in Ireland. Second Edit. : London, 1818." 

6. " One Year of the Administration of the Marquis 
of VYellesley in Ireland. Fourth Edit. : London, 1823." 

Abhba. 

Passage in St. Augustine. —Where, in the writ- 
ings of St. Augustine, can the following words be 
found : " Unus erat, ne desperes ; unus tantum, 



ne praesumas 



E. D. K. 



Sir Thomas Bodleys Life. — I have in my pos- 
session a LIS. autobiography of Sir Thomas 
Bodley, with a copy of his will, &c. (pp. 1 10, 8vo.), 
and apparently in the handwriting of the early 
part of the seventeenth century. Can you give 
me any information respecting this interesting 
memoir of one to whom scholars are so deeply 
indebted, besides what has been recorded by 
Lowndes ? Abhba. 

Letters of James I. — It is mentioned in Sir 
P. Francis's Historical Questions, that letters from 
King James were printed by Lord Kaimes from 
MSS. in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh ; but 
immediately suppressed for reasons there given, 
and not worth quoting. Is this true, and are the 
letters still in the Advocates' library ? L. J. I. 

Reading in Darkness. — Joseph Justus Scaliger 
said that he was able during darkness to read 
without the aid of artificial light ; and moreover 
adds, that the same power was possessed by Jerome 
Cardan and his father. This statement of Sca- 
liger is alluded to, and seemingly believed, by the 
writer of an article on Cardinal Mezzofanti in the 
January number of the Edinburgh Review. Do 
any of Scaliger's cotemporaries mention this 
faculty ? Is such a power of vision physically 
possible ? Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

Prayers and Sermon by Bishop Symon Patrick. — 
1. In the year 1689, Dr. Patrick published A 
Prayer for perfecting our late Deliverance, and in 
1690 A Prayer for the King's Success in Ireland: 

[* By John Wilson Croker, Esq. On a fly-leaf of a 
copy of the eighth edition before us is the following MS. 
note : " First published in 1808 ; the seventh edition in 
1816. Being too even-handed, it pleased no party-men 
of any faction, but all admired it as an excellent, if not 
the verj' best imitation of Tacitus."] 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



These have become scarce, and are not to be met 
with in the British Museum, Bodleian, Lambeth, 
or Cambridge University libraries. 

2, AVatt {Bihl Brit.) and Cooke {Preachers 
Assistanf) ascribe to him an Accession Sermon on 
Psalm Ixxii. 15., with the title Ad Testimonium, 
published in 1686. This is not included in the 
ordinary lists of his works in the Biographia Bri- 
tannica, &c.'; but there is no accurate list extant. 

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents 
who will inform me if they possess copies of the 
Prayers or Sermon* in question, or can direct me 
to any library which contains them. 

Alexander Tatlor, M.A. 
"5. Blomfield Terrace, Paddington. 

'Wo7'ks on India. — A civil engineer who is 
going to India will be obliged if any of the 
readers of "JST. & Q." will refer him to the best 
books, maps, &c. on the physical features of that 
country, particularly with reference to its en- 
gineering wants and capabilities, or descriptive 
of engineering works actually executed. 

This information is wished for especially with 
regard to the presidency of Madras ; and if it be 
addressed C. E., care of Mr. G. Bell, 186. Fleet 
Street, on or before the 18th of this month, it will 
be thankfully received. 

Story of the Mind Man. — There is, if I recol- 
lect rightly, in an old jest-book, a story of a blind 
man whose basket is stolen from him, and he beats 
a post, thinking it the thief. If any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." can give the reference to 
this, it will confer a peculiar favour. S. D. L. 

Stone-Henge. — Where is the Stone forming 
" Stone-Henge " supposed to have been quarried ? 
How many of the upright stones are now capped? 

MiMMI. 

Athenseum Club. 

Flexible Moulds for Electrotype. — Can any of 
your scientific correspondents give me a good 
receipt for the above, so that casts much undercut 
can be copied in one mould? G. E. T. S. R. N. 

Leamington. 



Society of Friends or Quakers. — When the 
name of any member of this sect of Christians is 
mentioned in the public journals, or any other 
print, why is the fact that he is a member of this 
religious body invariably appended, the same care 
never being bestowed in publishing the religious 

[* The Sermon is in the British Museum, in a volume 
of Sermons collected by Letsome, and entered in the new 
catalogue of " King's Pamphlets : " the press-mark 226, 



profession of the individuals of any other com- 
munity ? G. DrMOND. 

[We presume that it simply arises from the fact that 
the Friends as a religious body are seldom found taking 
an active part in the political, scientific, or literary insti- 
tutions of the country, although of late j'ears there have 
been a few honourable exceptions. In tlie cause of hu- 
manity, such as their efforts for the abolition of slavery, 
this marked distinction is not so generalh' observable. 
Besides, they are more ensily distinguished from other 
sects by their peculiar dress.] 

Bishops in Chess. — What was the original 
name of those pieces which we call bishops ? 
Vida's lines are : 

" Inde sagittiferi juverffes de gente nigranti 
Stant gemini, totidem pariter candore nivali ; 
Nomen Areiphilos Graii fecere vocantes, 
Quod Marti ante alios cari fera bella lacessant 
Continub hos inter rex, necnon regia conjux 
Clauduntur medii." 

D. S. B. 

['Ap7ji^iA.os is an Homeric epithet, signifying fond of 
battle, or devoted to Mars. The poet seems to have sub- 
stituted it for the usual word eJphiii or alphin, for the'sake 
of the metre, and this very appropriately, as the polemic 
traverses of chess are a mimicry of the tactics of war : 

" In either line the next partitions claim 
Two archers, Areiphili their name, 
Belov'd by Mars ; to whose distinguish'd care 
Belongs the guard of each imperial pair : 
The guards inclosing, and the pairs inclos'd, 
Are white and white to black and black oppos'd." 
In Rees's Cydopcedia, we read that " the piece called the 
bishop has been termed by English writers alphin, aufin, 
&c., from an Arabic word signifying an elephant ; some- 
times it was named an archer : by the Germans the hound 
or runner; by Russians and Swedes the elephant; by 
Poles the priest; and by the French the fou, or fool. 
When it was first introduced cannot be exactly ascer- 
tained; as in Caxton's time this piece was stj'led the 
elphin. Probably the change of name took place after the 
Reformation." Sir Frederic Madden, however, in Ar- 
chcBologia, vol. xxiv. p. 225., has given the most satisfac- 
tory account of the original names of this piece : he says, 
" The original name of the piece (bishop) among the 
Persians and Arabs -was Pil or Phil, an elephant, under 
the form of which it was represented by the orientals ; 
and Dr. Hyde and Mr. Douce have satisfactorily proved 
that hence, with the addition of the article al, have been 
derived the various names of alfil, arfil, alferez, alphilus, 
alfino, alphino, alfiere, avfin, alfyn, awfyn, alphyn, alfyn, 
as used by the early Spanish, Italian, French, and English 
writers."] 

Godderten. — What is the signification of the 
word godderten, or goddert, which I have re- 
cently met with in a MS. of the sixteenth cen- 
tury ? T. Hughes. 

Chester. 

[Nares, in his Glossary, speaks of goddard as a kind of 
cup or goblet, made with a cover or otherwise, but states 
that he can find no certain account of the origin of the 
name. Godard, according to Camden, means godly the 
cup; and appears to have been a christening cup.] 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



OXFORD JEUX d'eSPBIT. 

(Vols. X. and xi.) 

As several of your correspondents have lately 
been inquiring about some of the so-called Ox- 
ford jevx (Tesprit, it has occurred to me that it 
might be well if some person qualified for the 
task would undertake to make a permanent^ col- 
lection of those amusing but perishable articles. 
They contain a great deal of humour, some salt 
and spice, and 7io malice ; and in many of them 
will be found valuable allusions to men and things 
connected with Oxford and its institutions, which 
are now fast wearing out of memory, yet do not 
deserve to be utterly forgotten. 

My idea is, that any collection of those pieces 
ought to begin with the Visitatio fanatica of the 
University by the Commissioners under the Com- 
monwealth, an excellent edition of which was 
published about thirty years ago by a gentleman 
who is still living within fifty miles of Oxford. 
This ought to be followed by Thomas Warton's 
admirable squib. The Companion to the Guide, and 
Guide to the Companion. Selections ought to be 
added from The Oxford Sausage, and possibly 
from Huddesford's Salmagundi, and his Whimsical 
Chaplet. And all these ought to be edited cum 
notis Scribleri et variorum. These pieces would 
bring us down to the productions of the present 
century, which are pretty numerous, both in 
Greek, Latin, and English. Those of their authors 
who are living should be requested to permit their 
effusions to be printed, and to accompany them 
with such short explanatory notes as the subjects 
may require, coupled with a due regard to the 
feelings of all parties concerned. 

I trust that there will easily be found, among the 
present residents of the University, some hel esprit 
willing to undertake the binding of this faggot. 
Of course the little volume would not be a book 
for the 01 TToWol ; nor would it be bought by the 
ol ^pSviixoi (the dons') ; but still I think that some 
fifty or sixty kindred spirits will be found ready 
to subscribe freely for such a souvenir; or per- 
haps they would prefer to divide the labour, the 
cost, and the copies among themselves. 

I throw out these loose hints for the consider- 
ation of your Oxford readers. If the idea should 
be taken up upon the foregoing plan, or anything 
like it — but not as a bookseller's speculation, I 
shall beg to be allowed to become one of the sub- 
scribers, undertakers, proprietors, or whatever 
they may choose to call themselves, in return for 
these suggestions. X. E. D. X. T. I. 



WILL AND TESTAMENT. 
(Vol. X., p. 377.) 

One of your correspondents, William S. 
Hesleden, of Barton-upon-Humber, forwarded 
you, a short time since, a very interesting speci- 
men of the manner in which a " Will and Testa- 
ment" was made in the reign of Henry VIII. 
The will is dated in 1535, and made by one 
" Robert Skynner, of the parish of St. John in 
Wykeford, in the citie of Lincoln;" and Mr. 
Hesleden seems desirous of obtaining such in- 
formation as may enable him to correct the pedigree 
of that very ancient family. 

Your correspondent says : " We have often 
heard of a distinction without a difference ; and 
as an exhibition of the distinction between the 
will and the testament, I send you a copy of the 
will and testament of one of the Skynner family." 
Also another of your correspondents, Ovns, takes 
the same view as Me. Hesleden ; and considers 
that the will is intended for real, and the testa- 
ment for personal property. Now I take leave to 
differ with both your correspondents on that i)oint, 
as I do not consider there is the slightest differ- 
ence between the "will and the testament" in 
the sense your correspondents understand it. 

It was a very common practice, at the period 
referred to, the making a marked separation be- 
tween real and personal property, and conse- 
quently the division into two parts ; but by no 
means universal. I have now before me several 
wills of that period, some of which make the entire 
separation, as in the case before us of Robert 
Skynner ; while others make no difference in the 
form of the will and testament. One of the latter 
kind is that of one of the Vice-Chancellors of 
Cambridge University. And I have also another 
one before me, which most clearly and strikingly 
shows the sense and true meaning of the phrase 
alluded to. After the usual preliminary descrip- 
tion, the will proceeds : 

" Beinge sicke in body by the visitation of God, but in 
good and perfecte remembrance, lawde and praise be unto 
Hym, do make this my presente testamente, coteyningc 
therein my last wyll, in manner and forme followinge.' 

Perhaps it will not be impertinent my remarking, 
that the word testament simply means the witness- 
ing by a writing, that which the individua,l de- 
clares to be his last will ; and which is sufficiently 
apparent by the Latin word testamentum, which is 
evidently the testatio montis. 

In reference to the remark of Mb. Hesleden, 
that he has reason to think that the Robert Skin- 
ner, who makes the will with a copy of which he 
has favoured the readers of " N. & Q.," was the 
grandfather of Sir Vincent Skynner of Thornton 
College, in co. Lincoln, I believe there is no 
question that that learned man was a member of 



12« 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



the ancient family of the "Skynners" of that 
county ; and from the same family (although at a 
very early period), according to tradition, the old 
family of the " Skynners" of the county of Here- 
ford was descended. But the arms are entirely 
different, the Skinners of Hereford bearing — Sable, 
a chevron or, between three griffins' heads erased 
argent. And there still exists in one of the old 
windows of the church of " Little Malvern," on 
the borders of Herefordshire (which formerly 
belonged to the monastery of the Benedictine 
monks), the following inscription : 

" Orate pro animabus Roberti Skinner et Isabelle uxoris 
ejus, et filiorum suorum et flliarum." 

From a junior branch of this family was de- 
scended Anthony Skinner, of Shelford Park, in 
the county of AVarwick ; who married Joane, one 
of the daughters of Chief Justice Billinge, temp. 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. Also, from another 
branch was descended the ancestor of the cele- 
brated Dr. Robert Skinner, Bishop of Oxford in 
the reign of Charles I. ; who is remarkable from 
the circumstance of his being the only bishop who 
continued to ordain ministers during the period of 
the Commonwealth, and after the Restoration he 
was created Bishop of Worcester. 

A much-valued friend of mine, who belongs to 
the ancient branch of the Hereford Skinners, pos- 
sesses a very curious history of the original family 
of the " Skynners ;" and which I think com- 
mences near the time of the Conquest, and which 
appears to have been written upwards of a cen- 
tury and a half since. And he has also a very 
curious will of one of his ancestors, Edward 
Skynner of Ledbury, in co. Herefordshire, made 
in the reign of Philip and Mary ; but as he is now 
in the country, I cannot ascertain the particulars. 
But should your correspondent Me. Hesleden 
wish for farther information, I feel quite certain 
my friend will be most happy to forward you any- 
thing which you may think at all useful or enter- 
taining. Chaetham. 



SIE BEVII. GRENVIXLB. 

(Vol. X., p. 417. ; Vol. xi., p. 71.) 

I readily reply to the inquiries of G. G. as far 
aa it is in my power. 

John, the third son of Sir Bevil Grenville, suc- 
ceeded to the Stow property on the death of his 
two elder brothers without issue, and was created 
Earl of Bath. He rebuilt Stow about 1680. The 
cedar wainscottings of the chapel, so greatly ad- 
mired, were said to have been taken out of a 
Spanish prize. He died 21st August, 1701, 
leaving an eldest son Charles, who was created 
Viscount Lansdowne in his father's lifetime, but 
who died from an accident a few days after his 
father, leaving an only son William Henry, who 



died under age in 1712, and with him the title 
became extinct. But the property appears to 
have descended, on the death of William Henry, 
to Grace, the sister of Charles, and aunt of Wil- 
liam Henry, who was then the widow of George, 
Lord Carteret, and created Countess Grenville, 
and through whom it has come to the present pos- 
sessor, Lord John Thynne. 

George, Lord Lansdowne, the poet, was the 
second son of Bernard Grenville, who was the 
fifth son of Sir Bevil. He was created Baron 
Lansdowne in 1712, and does not appear to have 
possessed the Stow property. The mansion was 
dismantled in 1720, and the materials sold by 
public auction. George, Lord Lansdowne, had 
four daughters, three of whom died without issue, 
and the fourth was married to Lord Foley, by 
whom she had issue. The last male branch of the 
line of Sir Bevil was Bernard, who was the son of 
Bernard, the brother of George, Lord Lans- 
downe, and who died 5th July, 1775. 

Many boxes of letters are said to have been 
sent some years since to George, Lord Carteret, 
the late possessor of the Stow estate, and he is 
reported to have committed them to the flames. 
A few original letters of Sir Bevil and his wife, 
and others, are still in existence, and also copies 
of other letters to and from Sir Bevil and his 
family. Sir Bevil was in a direct line of descent 
from Sir Richard de Grenville, who endowed the 
monastery at Neath about the year 1100. Sir 
Richard was one of the twelve knights among 
whom Wales was divided by Robert Fitz Hamon, 
who conquered it ; but Sir Richard appears not 
to have retained the gift, but to have bestowed 
the whole on the monastery, and to have returned 
to Bydeford, where he was settled. T. E. D. 



COrWT NBIBEHG, ETC. 

(Vol. X., p. 265.) 

The following letter, the original of which is in 

the possession of a friend of mine, seems pertinent 

to W. C.'s inquiry. To whom it was addressed 

does not appear. G. A. C. 

Lynn R*. 10th Novemb'", 1731. 

I am extreamly obliged to you for yo"^ kind 
remembrance of the 1'* instant. And since I 
observe, by what you there mention, that you have 
been lately in London, I account it my misfortune 
that I had not known it, because I verily believe 
I was in London at the same time, where I should 
have readily imbrac'd the pleasure of waiting 
^upon you, and have been proud to accompany you 
to Chelsea, when you went to dine there with 
S' Rob' Walpole. 

I left London a week sooner than I should have 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



done in order to be in the country at the time when 
the D. of Lorrain was to come to Houghton. I 
din'd at Houghton last Thursday, and observed 
that the preparations for the reception of his 
Highnesse were very great. On Saturday his 
Highnesse came, and with him Count Kinski, 
Count Althan, Gen" Nieubourg and Gen'^ Die- 
mar, the Dukes of Grafton, Richmond, Newcastle, 
and Devonshire. My Lord Essex, Delaware, 
Scarborough, Albemarle, Baltimore, Lovell, Port- 
more and Lifibrd. Besides severall persons of 
distinction. 

I was at Ho — n on Saturday last, and had the 
honour to be presented to the Duke of Lorrain 
(with some other gent'"), and afterward din'd 
with him in the Great Hall, at the most magnifi- 
cent entertainm* I ever yet saw. The table 
where the D. of Lorrain din'd was serv'd with 
twice 26 dishes : and after that a noble disert of 
more (prepared by Mr. Lambert, the King's con- 
fectioner, who attends all the time to furnish the 
disert). The second table, where I din'd, was 
twice serv'd with 16 dishes, and afterw'' with a 
disert suitable. 

The greatest rarities were there in greatest 
plenty. And everything appeared with the 
greatest elegance, as well as grandeur, and manag'd 
with the greatest order and oeconomy. 
^ The same method of entertainm* will be con- 
tinu'd all the time his Highnesse stays there ; w*^** 
will be till Fryday next. 

The Duke himself appears to be affable and 
easy ; and after dinner was over, seem'd to be gay 
and pleasant as if he lik'd his company, and made 
himself one with them, 

The crowd of visitants upon this occasion is 
inconceivable. And the going out in the morning 
to hunt, looks more like an army than a body of 
sportsmen. I should have been in the field to- 
day, but that it has prov'd so thorough bad, that 
it was neither fit for hunting nor visiting : to- 
morrow I hope I shall not be prevented. But 
I have already been too tedious, and it is time to 
put a stop to what might farther be said upon 
this subject. 

I am very glad to hear Mr. Musgrave is well, 
and I hope you will favour me with the tender of 
my humble respects to him. 

I take this opportunity, with pleasure, to kiss 
jour hands : and to assure you that I am, with 
the greatest respect, 
S% 
Yo"" most obedient and most humble 
Serv', 

Hen. Hare. 
I must not forget my old friend Mr. Mason, 
liiope he is well. 



DEAK BUX. 

(Vol. xi., p. 49.) 

Since writing the preceding article, I have ob- 
tained the following notices of the family in Hert- 
fordshire. 

A Dr. Bill was Rector of Wallington, having 
succeeded William De Thorntoft, who was instil 
tuted 2 Edward IL (Chauncy.) 

Roger Bill, cap., was instituted 26th August, 
1418, to the vicarage of Weston, by Bishop Re- 
pingdon of Lincoln. 

Roger Bille was linstituted to the Rectory of 
Aspenden during the episcopate of Bishop Aln- 
wick (1436—1450). Walter Dale succeeded, 
15 th July, 1447, upon the death of Roger Bille. 

John Bill, Clk., S.T.B., was instituted to the 
rectory of Letchworth, 13th February, 1597. 

John Bill, S.T.B., was instituted to the arch- 
deaconry of St. Albans, a.d. 1604. (Clutter buck.) 

Dr. Thomas Bill received 12/. lOs. per quarter 
as one of the physicians to Henry VIH. 

In the Princess Mary's " Privy Purse Ex- 
penses," under June, 1543, is entered, "Item, 
payed to Docto"" bill for a wagier that hir gee lost 
to hyme, x li." (Madden.) 

King Edward VI., by letters patent dated 
2nd March in the fifth year of his reign (1551), 
granted the chantry of Rowney, together with 
divers lands, tythes, &c., in the parishes and places 
of Rowney, Sacomb, Stondon, and Great and 
Little Munden, co. Herts, to Thomas Bill, the 
late king's physician, and Agnes his wife, and to 
the heirs and assigns of the said Thomas Bill for 
ever. Thomas Bill, by his will dated 1st June, 
1551, devised these premises, after the death of 
his wife Agnes, to his daughter Margaret, who 
married Michael Harris of Grawell, co. Hants, 
Gent, (compare with Burke's account above). 
Michael and Margaret Harris sold the estate in 
38 Eliz. (1595-6) to John Heming the Elder, of 
Rowney,. yeoman. (Clutterbuck.) 

Ann, wife of William Branfield of Clothall, one 
of the daughters of John Byll of Ashwell, gentle- 
man, died 5th November, 1578. Mont. Insc. at 
Clothall. (Chauncy.) Patohcb. 



(Vol. X., p. 264.) 

Hozer is a misprint of Hoijer, a Swedish, not 
a German, metaphysician. Sturzenbecher {Die 
neue Schwedische Literatiir, p. 29., Leipzig, 1850) 
says that he had prepared to edit a new literary 
journal, and condescended (demufhigte sicJi) to 
solicit permission, but could not obtain it, as the 
king thought one such work enough for the whole 
kingdom. Sturzenbecher sliows his dissent from 
the royal judgment by calllng^ Hoijer the " Phi- 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



losopber of Upsala," and bis favoured rival, a 
certain (einem gewissen) Herr Wallmark, whose 
Journal for Literaturen och Theatern issued an- 
tiquated and empty criticism from 1809 to 1814. 

I have found no other notice of Hoijer, and the 
only work of his which I know is entitled Af hand- 
lung om den Philosophiska Constructionen, af Benj. 
Carl H. Hoijer, Stockholm, 1799, pp. 202." The 
original of the passage quoted by J. A.^E. is at 
p. 119. : 

" Forklarar den ei hoad den skall fdrklara ; den for- 
klarar genom en cirkel. Tingen och realitaten skola fdr- 
klara tingen och realitaten. Det absoluta tinget ar en 
drom ; men den i allmanna lefvernet utom den toma spe- 
culationen gallande realitaten ar och blir den enda ver- 
kliga, och borrtages den, sa forsvinner afven dess forkla- 
ringsgrund." 

A better translation might be given, but my 
knowledge of Swedish is very superficial ; and to 
translate metaphysics, one ought not only to know 
a language well, but to be familiar with its onto- 
logical phraseology. 

J. A. E. asks, " Was Hoijer a follower of 
Fichte ? " I think not ; for, though giving Fichte 
high praise for acuteness, and assenting to many 
of his doctrines, he differs often and too freely to 
be held a follower. I give this opinion with some 
diffidence, warned by the example of Fortlage, 
who is reproached by Frauenstadt (Briefe ilber 
die Schopenhauer" sche Philosophie, p. 45.) with 
classing Schopenhauer among Beneke and the 
realists. When two such men differ as to the 
meaning of a third, writing in their own language 
on matters with which they are thoroughly .con- 
versant, a foreigner may well be cautious. 

H. B. C. 

U.U.Club. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Bromo-iodide of Silver. — Your correspondent Bromo- 
lODiDE, who commenced this chemical debate last No- 
vember, will be gratified to find that Mr. Lyte and Mu. 
Leachman admit his real existence, and that the only 
practical question is how to throw him down. Mr. 
Leachman confirms my statement that the whole of the 
silver in a solution of the double bromide and double 
iodide of silver, is precipitated by water. Hence it is only 
necessary to prove that in mixing these solutions the 
bromide of silver is not converted into iodide. Now it is 
ascertained by experiment that equal quantities of bro- 
mide and of iodide of silver require the same quantity of 
iodide of potassium to effect their perfect solution. Thus, 
80 grains of each of the former are dissolved in 650 grains 
of the latter, and a less quantity is insuflicient. But if 
80 grains of the bromide are to be converted into the 
iodide, it would require 74 grains of iodide of potassium to 
supply the requisite quantity of iodine ; and a perfect so- 
lution of the precipitate could not be effected without 724 
grains of iodide of potassium, which is contrary to ex- 
periment. Moreover, the conversion would be farther 
proved by the change of the peculiar whiteness of the 
bromide into the characteristic yellow tint of the iodide, 
which again is contrarv to exneriment. The case of the 



double bromide and double iodide is still stronger. For 
here, if the former robbed the latter of 74 grains of iodide 
of potassium, a large precipitate of iodide of silver would 
be immediately formed on mixing these solutions. Ex- 
periment, therefore, appears to confirm both my theory 
and my facts, and practical men may attack red and 
green as readily as blue and white. 

Mr. Leachman is also in error in supposing that I 
compare Dr. Diamond's solution with "ordinary calotype 
paper." He will find, on reference to my note in Vol. x., 
p. 472., that I compared it rigidly with " Mr. Talbot's 
calotype paper." The former, as he is well aware, is well 
washed for at least four hours in many changes of water ; 
the latter, after remaining for one or two minutes in a 
solution of iodide of potassium, is mereh' dipped into 
water, and consequently is very far from being free from 
that compound, which greatly impairs its sensibility. In 
fact, there is as much difference between the well- washed 
paper and the dip, as there is between a pint of brandy 
pure and a pint of brandy mixed with a quart of water. 
I admit that Dr. Diamond's paper is not superior to 
"ordinary calotype paper" in sensitiveness, but only and 
especially in its action on those tints upon which pure 
iodide of silver can make no impression. J. B. Reade. 



I have been very much pleased with reading the dis- 
cussion which has taken place in " N. & Q." relative to 
my recommendation of bromo-iodide of silver for negative 
calotype pictures ; and 1 trust even to your non-photo- 
graphic readers that this friendly controversy has not 
been useless. It may induce some to undertake photo- 
graphic views when they learn that the greens of a land- 
scape may be much more perfectly delineated than 
formerly ; for no doubt the indistinctness of delineation in 
this respect has caused an indiflference in many to attempt 
photographic productions. I will not say one word in 
addition to what I conceive Mr. Reade has so ably urged, 
beyond bearing witness to the accuracy of the experi- 
ments which have been conducted in elucidation of the 
question ; but I appeal to the practical results. If I find 
the inclosed landscape has all the detail in foliage which 
an artist would bestow or desire, and that this result is 
obtained on paper prepared as I have suggested with 
bromine as well as iodine, and if I find contrary results 
when iodine alone is used, I think the argument of ima- 
ginary decomposition having taken place to be perfectly 
set aside. 

Again, will you cast your ej'e on the inclosed portraits 
of a well-known antiquary, taken in a few seconds on a 
dull December day; in one, the scarlet coat and dark 
trowsers, and in the other the tabai-d, ivith all its various 
colours, arc delineated with all the proper gradation of 
tone. The collar of SS even is not solarised, another 
benefit I attribute to bromine being the mitigation of the 
over-exposure, of the high lights. It may not be inap- 
propriate here to make a reference as to the difference 
between actual practice, and mere scientific theory with- 
out it ; for it has been observed by some that a fractional 
part of a drop of nitric acid added to the nitrate of silver 
bath, completely destroys its power of producing rapidly 
good pictures; whereas the bath used on this occasion 
was made with a sample of nitrate of silver so strong of 
nitric acid that the cork and leather with which it was 
secured in the bottle were destroyed by the fumes of the 
free acid. Hugh W. Diamond. 

[We have of course seen the photographs alluded to by 
Dr. Diamond, and can bear testimony to the accuracy 
with which that gentleman describes the peculiar cha- 
racteristics which thev exhibit. — Ed. "N. & Q."l 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



Photographic Likenesses of Soldiers and Sailors, — It has 
lately occurred to me what a treasure the friends of a 
poor private, non-commissioned officer, or A. B., would 
consider a photographic likeness of their absent hero; 
and that perhaps you, in the midst of London and photo- 
graphy, might be able by yourself or by others to organise 
a scheme whereby every soldier or sailor, before embark- 
ing on service, might be able to leave behind with his 
friends such a memento of himself. 

There must be, I should think, many a skilful amateur, 
who, being furnished with materials and his expenses 
paid, would be pleased to attend at the barracks, or at 
the port of embarkation, and take the likeness of each 
poor fellow who presented himself with an order from his 
officer. 

What difficulties there may be in the amount of labour 
or expense, not being a photographer, I cannot estimate ; 
but if you think the idea worth proposing to the public, 
I shall be happy when the scheme is started to assist it 
with such small contribution as I can afford. 

Eegedonum. 



Janus Vitalis (Vol. x., p. 523.). — The poet 
Janus (or John) Vitalis, of Talermo, died in 1560. 
He must be distinguished from two others of the 
same name, priests of the fourteenth century ; one 
a cardinal, and the other a writer for the imma- 
culate conception. AVith the exception of some 
scattered epigrams, the only work mentioned by 
Fabricius as printed is Medit. in Ps. li., Bonon. 
1553, 8vo. Fabricius refers to Ant. Mongitor, 
Bibl. Sicula, v. i. p. 305. M. 

He was a divine and poet of Palermo, who died 
about 1560. His writings are : 

" Meditationes in Ps. li,, Bononiae, 1553, 8vo. ; Para- 
phrasis in Ps. cxxx. et Ps. Ixvii., Ibid. ; Hymni in An- 
gelos, et Poema de Archangelo; Epithalamiiim Christi et 
Ecclesise, Ibid. ; De Elementis, de Pietate erga Rempub. 
et Hymnus de Pace, Roma, 1554; Epigrammata varia, 
obvia in Pauli Jovii elogiis utrisque virorum litteris et 
bellica laude illustrium, et in Deliciis Poetarum Italia 
Gruterianis, tom. ii. p. 1411, seq. ; Bellum Africte illatum 
a Sicilia; Prorege Joanne Vega ; Elogia Romanorum Pon- 
tificum, et Julii III. atque Cardinalium ab ipso creatorum ; 
Triumphus Ferdinandi Francisci Davali Aquinatis Magni 
Piscarise Marchionis et lacrym^ in eundem ; Theratorizion 
sive de Monstris," &c. 

The above account is taken from the Bihlioth. 
Latina med. et inf. cetatis of Jo. Alb. Fabricius. 

'AXuis, 
Dubhn. 

The Episcopal Wig (Vol. xi., pp. 11. 72.). — 
E. F. is in error, when he says that the Hon. 
Edward Legge, Bishop of Oxford, was the first 
who left it off; so is your previous correspondent 
Anti-Wig, who ascribes its disuse to the present 
Bishop of London. It was first abandoned by 
the Hon. Richard Bagot, late Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, under the express permission of George IV. 
He (the bishop) was a remarkably handsome man ; 
and, many years before he was elevated to the 



Bench, the Prince Regent had said to him, before 
many witnesses (no doubt much more in joke thau 
earnest) : " It would be quite a shame to put you 
into a bishop's wig. Remember, whenever I make 
you a bishop, I dispense with your wearing it." 
Accordingly, when towards the end of the reign 
he was nominated to the See of Oxford, the 
bishop reminded the king of his promise, and, not 
without some difficulty, prevailed upon his Majesty 
to release him from this preposterous head-gear. 

The Bishop of London speedily took advantage 
of the dispensation ; but not immediately, since 
those who were present at the coronation of 
William IV. may remember that Bishop Blomfield 
officiated in the orthodox peruke. That Bishop 
Legge always wore it, many an All- Souls man 
can yet testify. B. (2) 

The Irish bishops do not appear to have worn 

wigs : 

"Archbishop Magee, in protesting against the Tithe 
Bill, and other innovations on the Church of Ireland, 
said that the fate of the English Church was involved in 
that of the Irish one. ' Pardon me,' says Lord Welles- 
ley, ' the two churches differ materially ; for instance, the 
English bishops wear wigs, and you do not wear any. 
I'll wig you, if you do not take care.' " — Moore's Diary, 
iv. 141. 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

Portrait at Shotesham Park (Vol. x., p. 465.). — 
At the Visitation of the county of Norfolk in 1664 
a short pedigree was entered, by which it appears 
that Richard Pead, of Garboldisham, in that 
county, gentleman, then living, was the son of 
Thomas Pead. His arms were : Or, on a bend 
azure, three human feet couped above the ancle 
argent. Crest : a chapeau gules, turned up er- 
mine, ornamented with two (ostrich) feathers or. 

Sir Thomas Tresham (Vol. xi., p. 49.). — In 
addition to the works mentioned as containing 
notices of Sir Thomas Tresham, I would call the 
attention of E. P. H. to a little book by Mr. Bell 
of Barnwell, in the county of Northampton, on the 
family of Tresham. It is entitled The Ruins of 
Liveden ; with historical Notices of the Family of 
Tresham and its Connexion with the Gunpowder 
Plot. It :may be purchased, I believe, from the 
author, or from Mr. Russell Smith, Soho Square. 

G. R. M. 

In the Visitation Book of the County of North- 
ampton, a pedigree of Tresham was entered in 1618. 
Sir Thomas Tresham, of Newton, in that county, 
knight, was the son of Maurice Tresham by Maria, 
daughter of Edmund Odingsells, of Ichington, 
in the county of Warwick ; and married Anne, 
daughter of Bartholomew Tate, of Delapre, near 
Northampton, Esq., by whom he had issue Henry 
Tresham, his son and heir apparent (who married 
Abigail, daughter of Cecil Cave, of Stanford, 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



Esq.) ; Thomas Tresham, of Newton, his second 

son, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 

Dickinson, of 'Manchester, and several daughters. 

Y. 

Jennens of Acton Place (Vol. xi., pp. 10. 55.). — 
Your correspondent Q. D. has given with perfect 
accuracy the devolution of the vast property of 
Mr. Jennens, real and personal. Can he authen- 
ticate the following anecdote ? I have heard it 
upon authority so apparently unexceptionable, 
that I know not how to doubt it. 

Mr. Jennens was supposed to possess a Bank 
of England note of 100,000Z. Two of this pro- 
digious amount had been issued by the Bank 
since Its institution. One had been returned 
years ago, and cancelled ; and the other was 
universally considered to be in Mr. Jennens's 
possession. He had the habit of hoarding and 
secreting his money ; and he left a written memo- 
randum, directing his executors to search in such 
places for such and such sums, specifying how 
much in notes, how much in coins, &c. Every 
direction was strictly accurate, except that which 
referred to the Leviathan note. That note was 
missing. It was not in the place indicated, and 
has never been recovered. Such is my story. 
Query, Is it true ? B, (2) 

Psalm-singing and Nonconformists (Vol. xi., 
p. 65.). — John Scribe will probably find an 
answer to his question in the Poet of the Sanc- 
tuary, a centenary commemoration of Dr. Watts, 
by Josiah Conder (Snow, London, 1851). This 
book contains an essay of an historical character 
upon the subject of psalm and hymn singing. If 
John Scribe can refer to Ainsworth on the Pen- 
tateuch, he will find in the early editions both 
rhymes and music at Exod. xv. and Deut. xxxiii. 
Ainsworth was one of the earliest who adopted 
the principles of Independency. The fact appears 
to be, that while bad singing characterised all 
classes of British Protestants till a recent period, 
it was worst among Dissenters. This arose partly 
from the acknowledged circumstance, that many 
of them refused to sing any human compositions. 
But it is certain that next to nothing of value was 
either written or borrowed by the Nonconformists 
to be used by them In the worship of praise till 
the last century. There are other reasons which 
lie deeper, but which are scarcely suitable for 
these pages. B. H. C, 

'■'■ Belchild" (Vol. x., p. 508.).— I beg, through 
your communicative publication, to inform Mr. 
Davewet that a belchild is a grandchild ; and in 
confirmation thereof, I give theTollowIng extracts 
from early wills : 

" John Porter, of Long Stratton, by will, dated xiiij 
daye of July, Mcccccxui, bequeths to eche of his bel- 
ehildren, via. ; and every of my godchildren, iiijd." 



" Agnus Borughs, by will, dated the fyrst daye of 
March, m.cccccxliiii, bequeth to either of her belchildren, 
Agnus Cowpe (otherwise Knott), and Isabell her sister, 
xxrf. ; and bequeth to either of my godchildren, John 
Ffecke and Stephen Ffecke, vjs. viijd. Also bequeth to 
eche of my belchildren, William Cowle the j'^onger, Maryon 
Bowie, and Margaret Bowie, iijs. iiijd. Also bequeth to 
Rose Aldred, vjs. viijd. ; and to my godchild, Agnus 
Aldred, xxd." 

In another will, of about the same period. Is : 

" I give to John Goche, my belchild, one cowe ; to be 
delivered at the age of xij yeres of the said John Goche." 

Archdeacon Nares, in his Glossary, explains 
belsyre and beldame to be grandfather and grand- 
mother ; though beldame is now applied as a term of 
disgrace, as is the term " wench" — which formerly 
was used respectfully to young ladies of the most 
respectable families, and even to royalty. (See 
Nares under the latter term, Wench.) 

GoDDARD Johnson. 

Death of Dogs (Vol. xi., p. 65.). — A circum- 
stance of the same nature as that described by 
your correspondent H. W. D. has just happened 
in Surrey ; a gentleman having about a fort- 
night since lost three valuable dogs, which were 
supposed to have been poisoned : on examination, 
however, no traces of poison were found in the 
stomachs. I shall endeavour to find out whether 
any others in the neighbourhood have suffered 
losses of the same sort, and, if so, communicate 
the fact, as well as anything else that may tend to 
throw a farther light on the subject. J. S. A. 

Old Broad Street. 

Dying Words of the Venerable Bede (Vol. x., 
pp. 139. 329.). — The passage from Cicero's Let- 
ters, wherein the expression "atramento tempe- 
rato" occurs, would seem decidedly to favour the 
Interpretation put on the word tempera by Rupi- 
CASTRENSis and Sir Emerson Tennent. Perhaps 
the following lines from Persius may deserve^ a 
passing notice, and tend to illustrate the practice 
of moistening or diluting Ink with water, to which 
they have alluded : 
" Jam liber, et bicolor positis membrana capillis, 

Inque manus chartae nodosaque venit arundo. 

Turn querimur, crassus calarao quod pendeat humor : 

Nigra quod infiisa vanescat sepia li/mpha ; 

Dilutas querimur geminet quod fistula guttas." 

Sat. in. 10—14. 

In connexion with the mention of Bede, I 
observe, in looking over Dr. Burton's Description 
of the Antiquities of Rome, it Is stated that his 
remains were said to have been burled under a 
stone near the silver gate of the old church of 
St. Peter's. A resident in the diocese of Durham 
may be excused for disbelieving this tradition. 

•^ E. H. A. 

Gelyan (or Julian) Bowers (Vol. xi., p. 65.). — 
I find the following extract in my common-place 
book, under the head of " Julian's Bower, near 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13$ 



Aukborough, Lincolnshire ;" but I have omitted to 
note the work from which it is taken. 1 believe 
it is from some county history : 

" The places called Julian Bowers are generalh' found 
near Roman towns. They are circular works made of 
banks of earth, in form of a maze or labyrinth. Dr. Stukeley 
thinks it was one of the old Roman games, which were 
brought to Italy from Troy ; and that it took its name of 
hotoer from borough, or earth-work, not bower or arbour ; 
and Julian from Julus, son of .^Eneas, who introduced it 
into Italy, according to Virg. ^n. v." 

J, R. M., M.A. 

[Julian's Bower is noticed in Stukeley's Itinerarium 
Curiosum, p. 91. The passage quoted by J. R. M. occurs 
iu Allen's LincolnsMre, vol. ii. p. 220. note.'] 

Dial (Vol. xi., p. 65.). —If Mr. Scribe will 
search the old book-stalls for a book, called 
Mechanick Dialling, or the New Art of Shadows, 
by Charles Leadbetter, 1737, he will find his 
question answered : for it professes to show how — 

" Any person, though a stranger to the art, with a pair 
of compasses and a ruler only, may make a dial upon any 
plane for any place in the world." 

He will also reap no small amusement from what 
is called by Mr. Leadbetter " a choice collection 
of mottoes in Latin and English," the transla- 
tions being more distinguished for freedom than 
accuracy. As for example : 

" Dies diem trudit. 
* A day kicks me down ! ' " 

" Ita vita. 
' Such is life's half circle ! ! '" 

" Sic transit gloria mundi. * 
* So marches the god of day.' " 

" Aut Caesar aut nihil. 
' I shine or shroud.' " &c. 

Let me take this opportunity of thanking very 
sincerely those of your correspondents who have 
contributed to the collection of genuine dial 
mottoes. A very beautiful one might perhaps be 
added to the list in the text — 

" Watch, for ye know not the hour." 

In these days of revival of old church architec- 
ture, it seems a pity that the dial over the porch 
should be totally forgotten. Hermes. 

See that most useful of all pocket-books, The 
TAterary and Scientific Register and Almanac for 
1854, p. 48. J. D. 

Doddridge and Whitejleld (Vol. xi., p. 46.). — 
Mr. Bingham considers it an " astounding fact" 
that one of Doddridge's sermons should appear in 
a volume of Whitefield's as the production of that 
celebrated preacher. He does not, however, say 
whether Whitefield himself published, or rather 
republished the sermon, or whether it was not 
included in a posthumous collection of his dis- 
courses? There have been several instances of 
this last kind. A preacher borrows for an occa- 



sion a sermon by some good author ; which is 
found accordingly, but unacknowledged, among 
jjis manuscripts. His friends, in presenting the 
world after his death with a specimen of his 
method, select the best they can discover, and 
inadvertently include, among the discourses pub- 
lished, one or more not his own. The last example 
that I remember of such an oversight occurred 
in the posthumous publication of the sermons of 
the late Mr. Suckling of Bussage. This error of 
the first edition was detected, and subsequently 
rectified. 

A much more striking instance of bold appro- 
priation is mentioned by a modern author, giving 
an account of the excellent commentary on the 
Bible compiled by the famous and unfortunate 
Dr. Dodd : 

" What is extraordinary," he says, " with respect to 
it (the Commentary') is, that it was republished as an 
original work by Dr. Coke the Methodist, with several 
retrenchments, but with few, and those unimportant, 
additions." 

That this statement contains no exaggeration is 
evident, from the testimony of Dr. Adam Clarke, 
contained in the " General Preface" of the last 
edition (Tegg, 1844) of his Commentary on the 
Bible : 

" The Rev. Thomas Coke, LL.D., has lately published 
a Commentary on the Old and New Testament, in 6 vols. 
4to. This is, in the main, a reprint of the work of Dr. 
Dodd ; with several retrenchments, and some additional 
reflections .... Dr. Coke should have acknowledged 
whence he collected his materials, but on this point he is 
totally silent." 

S. A. 

7. Lower James Street- 
Two Brothers with the same Christian Name 
(Vol. X., p. 513.). — The younger son of James III. 
of Scotland, who was created the Duke of Ross 
and Marquis Ormonde, was christened James ; 
though his elder brother, afterwards James IV., 
bore the same name. Having determined on 
becoming an ecclesiastic, he was nominated to the 
primacy when not more than twenty-one years of 
age, and died Archbishop of St. Andrew's in 1503. 
(Vide Lyon's History of St. Andrew's, voL i. 
p. 244.) 

Another instance occurs in the Seymour faauily. 
The first Duke of Somerset, brother-in-law of 
Henry VIII., and uncle of Edward VI., was twice 
married. Sir Edward Seymour, ancestor of the 
present Duke of Somerset, was the son of his first 
wife. Edward, Earl of Hertford, who_ married 
Lady ELatharine Grey, was the son of his second 
wife". The dukedom of Somerset and barony of 
Seymour reverted to the elder branch of the 
family on the extinction of the younger branch, 
according to the singular terms of the original 
grant. (Vide Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peerage.) 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



Doorway Inscriptions (Vol. x., p. 253.). — The 
following inscriptions are so placed over the arch- 
way of the Forth Mawr (great gate) at Llanover, . 
the residence of Sir Benjamin Hall, near Aber- 
gavenny, that the first meets the eye on entering 
the grounds, and the other on leaving them. The 
beauty of the original Welsh is necessarily much 
lessened in the translation here annexed, for the 
use of those who unfortunately are unacquainted 
with that fine and ancient language : 

" Pwy wy t, ddyfodwr ? 

Os cyfaill, gresau calou i ti ! 

Os dieithr, llettwgarwch. a'th erys ; 

Os celyn, add fwynder a'th garchara." 

( Translation.') 
" Who art thou, traveller ? 
If a friend, the -welcome of the heart to thee ! 
If a stranger, hospitality shall meet thee ; 
If an enemy, courtesy shall imprison thee." 

" Ymadawydd hynaws, gad feudith, 
Ar dy ol : a beudithier dithau. 
le chyd a hawddfyd it ar dy daith, 
A dedwydd ddychweliad." 

( Translation.') 
" Departing guest, leave a blessing 
On thy footsteps ; and mayst thou be blessed. 
Health and prosperity be with thee on thy journey. 
And happiness on thy return." 

N. 

Old Pulpit Inscriptions (Vol. ix., pp. 31. 135.). 
— To the inscriptions which I have already given 
may be added the following from St. Helen's 
Church, Sefton, Lancashire. On the pulpit : 

" He that covereth his sins shall not prosper, but whoso 
confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercie ; happy 
is the man. Anno Domini 1633." 

On the sounding-board : 

" My son, fear thou the Lord and the King, 
And meddle not with them that are given to change." 

CUTHBERT BeCE, B. A. 

Heavenly Guides (Vol. xl., p. 65.). — I think it 
not improbable that the work about which Mr. R. 
C. Wards inquires, is an early edition of the 
following : 

" The Plaine Man's Pathway to Heaven ; wherein 
euery Man may cleerely see whether he shall be saued or 
damned. Set forth Dialogue-wise, for the better Vnder- 
Standing of the Simple. By Arthur Dent, Preacher of 
the AVord of God at South Shoobery, in Essex. The One- 
and-twentieth Edition : London, 1631." 

'AA.J€i5s. 

Dublin. 

" The Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven ; wherein every 
Man may clearly see whether he shall be saved or damned. 
Set forth Dialogue-wise, for the better Understanding of 
the Simple. By Arthur Dent, Preacher of the Word of 
God at South Shoobery, in Essex," 

was reprinted in 1831 by Baynes of Paternoster 
Kow, from the 7th edition of 1607. The work is 
considered to have been written about 1590 ; and 



must have been very popular, as a copy published 
in 1704 is stated to be the 40th edition ; and that 
by computation, one hundred thousand copies 
have been sold. The matter is curious, and the 
language quaint. The chapter against " Pride 
of Dress" seems to have furnished Hamlet with 
some weapons of abuse against the fair sex in the 
nunnery scene with Ophelia. L. A. B. W. 

P. S.— R. C. W. calls it the ''Poor Man's Path- 
way," &c. 

Curious Incident (Vol. xi., p. 63.). — The play 
in which this passage occurs is, I believe. Speed 
the Plough; but I have not a copy to refer to. 

L. A. B. W. 

Capital Punishments in Henry VIII.'s Reign 
(Vol. xi., p. 21.). — I have no disposition to plead 
for the truth of the fact alleged by Hume and 
Macaulay, on the authority of Harrison, or to 
lessen the weight of Mr. Walter's arguments in 
support of his doubts ; but as I have looked into 
Harrison, I may as well quote what he says on 
the subject, for the sake of rectifying two errors 
into which Mr. Walter has fallen: — 1. That 
Harrison's authority was the Bishop of Tarbes ; 
2. That "his object was to set forth the advan- 
tages enjoyed by Elizabeth's subjects, as compared 
with their state under her father's reign." The 
following are his words : 

"It appeareth by Cardane (who writeth it upon the 
report of the Bishop of Lexovia) in the geniture of King 
Edward the sixt, how Henrie the eight, executing his 
laws verie seuerelie against such idle persons, I meane 
great theeues, pettie theeues and roges, did hang up 
three score and twelve thousand of them in his time. He 
seemed for a while greatlie to have terrified the rest : but 
since his death the number of them is so increased, yea al- 
though we have had no warres, which are a great occasion 
of their breed . . . that except some better order be 
taken, or the lawes alreadie made be better executed, such as 
dwell in uplandish townes and little villages shall Hue but in, 
small safetie and rest." — Harrison's i>esc/-J^^io?j of England, 
chap. ii. 

I have verified the reference to Cardan, who, 
towards the conclusion of his geniture of Ed- 
ward VI., speaking of his father Henry VIII., 
says, — 

" Antistes Lexoviensis mihi narrabat Besuntii, scilicet 
ut biennio antequam periret inventa sint lxxii millia 
hominum judicio et carnifice sub hoc rege periisse." 

The "antistes Lexoviensis," or Bishop of Lisieux, 
spoken of, was probably Jacques d'Annebaut, 
who, according to the Gallia Christiana, occupied 
that see from 1545 to 1558. 'AMeis. 

Dublin. 

Cook's Translation of a Greek MS. (Vol. x., 
p. 127.). — If Mr. Philip E. Butler had read 
Vincent Cook's account of the way in which the 
Greek MS. came into his grandfather's hands, I 
think he would have had no doubts as to its au- 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



thenticity. Cleobulus bears the same relation to 
Plato that Cid Hamet Benengeli does to Don 
Quixote. The title of the second edition is, — 

*' Platone in Italia, Traduzione dal Greco da Yincenzo 
Cuoco. Parma, 1820, 2 torn. 8vo." 

A note states that this is an exact reprint of the 
Milan edition in three vols. 8vo., but does not 
give its date. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Eminent Men born in 1769 (Vol. xi., p. 27.).— 
Sir Walter Scott was not born in 1769, but in 
1771 : Humboldt, the great traveller, and the 
author of Cosmos, was born in 1769; Arndt, the 
German poet, whose songs and other productions 
roused all Germany to oppose l^Tapoleon, was 
another child of that remarkable year ; and per- 
haps your readers can supply other instances. 
Humboldt and Arndt are still living in the enjoy- 
ment of their vigorous faculties. A. 

The Queen's regimental Goat (Vol. x., p. 180.). — 

"The celebrated snow-white goat presented by Her 
Majesty to the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers, died on the 
20th ult. After weathering the campaign in Bulgaria, 
and marching proudly at the head of his regiment from 
Kalamita Bay to Sevastopol, he has at last fallen without 
wearing the Alma medal he hail earned on the way. His 
stately demeanour and reverend beard made him a pro- 
minent feature in the appearance of the regiment as it 
moved along ; and the gap left by his absence will force a 
recollection of the fine animal upon the memory of every 
one familiar with the gallant 23rd. He had been hutted, 
and every care had been taken to protect him against the 
exposure and inclement weather; but all this attention 
was unavailing." — English Churchman, Jan. 18. 

Her Majesty's present of a goat to a Welsh 
regiment would seem to favour Dr. Hahn's as- 
sertion, and to prove that it is a custom in regi- 
ments from mountainous districts to have such an 
animal attached to the corps, as a fond reminis- 
cence and symbol of home and country. Perhaps 
some of your military readers can give more pre- 
cise information. J. M. (1) 

^'■Amentium, Jiaud Amantium" (Vol. vii., p. 595.). 
— A translation preserving the alliteration : 
" Brainless, not brainsick." Sttlites. 

" To the Lords of Convention " (Vol. vii., 
p. 596.). — This ballad has been set to music, and 
published by Ollivier, 41. New Bond Street, 
under the title of " Bonnie Dundee." The name 
of the author is not given, but I have always 
supposed it to be written by Sir Walter Scott, in 
which case it is doubtless to be found in any 
edition of his works.* Stylites. 

Niagara (Vol. xi., p. 48.). — When at Niagara 
last summer, I was at some pains to ascertain 

[* In Scott's Doom of Devorgoil. See « N. & Q.," 
Vol. viii., p. 19.1 



the thickness of the water falling over the Horse 
Shoe cataract. Within the concavity, where the 
water is most abundant, it is estimated at twenty 
feet, which is probably not far from the truth ; 
but on either side of the curve the depth is con- 
siderably less, probably not averaging more than 
five feet. C. R. Weld. 

Somerset House. 

The depth of water on the edge of the Horse 
Shoe Fall is estimated, by Sir Charles Lyell, at 
twenty feet ; and when at Niagara in June, 1854, 
I was told a circumstance by one of the guides 
which corroborates this opinion, — that when the 
ship "Detroit" was sent over the Falls in 1829, 
her hull, which drew eighteen feet, passed clear 
over the point of the Horse Shoe Fall, without 
touching. I believe the earliest engraving of 
Niagara is to be found in Father Hennepin's New 
Discovery of a vast Country in America, &c., 
London, 1698. A letter from a Swedish gentle- 
man, describing the Falls, appears in the Gent. 
Mag. for January, 1751 ; and in the following 
number Mr. Urban palms off upon his readers 
Hennepin's view, slightly altered to suit the nar- 
rative of the Swede, as " a new print of this 
wonderful fall or cataract." There appears to be 
a view of Niagara in Popple's Maps of the British 
Empire in America, engraved by Toms, folio, 
London, 1733 and 1740. Is this original, or a 
copy of Hennepin ? Are there any other early 
views of the Falls ? Arthur Paget. 

Bishop Oldham (Vol. xi., p. 64.). — It will 
perhaps be a sufficient answer to this Query, to 
advert to what I should have conceived to have 
been a universally known fact, that in 1519, and 
for centuries previously, the clergy were pro- 
hibited from marrying, and could not therefore 
have any descendants. Thompson Cooper. 

Cambridge. 

Death-led Superstition (A^ol. xi., p. 55.). — It 
is the common custom in Wales to borrow, if there 
should not be one belonging to the house, a deep 
pewter plate, which, filled with salt, is placed on 
the body of a deceased person as soon as possible 
after the corpse is laid out. The reason generally 
given is, that it will prevent the swelling of the 
body. N. 



KOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

We have received the first and second Parts of the 
interesting Private Journal and Literary Remains of John 
Byrom, edited for the Chetham Society by the Rev. 
Canon Parkinson. After the encomiums which have 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



already been passed upon it in this Journal (ante, p. 62.), 
by one so well qualified to judge of its merits, and to 
whose judgment all will so readily defer — we mean our 
valued correspondent Me. Makkland, — it is almost a 
work of supererogation for us to say one word as to the 
interest of the Diary and Letters, the curious and graphic 
pictures which they furnish both of Byrom and of his 
times, or of the appropriate illustrations of the text with 
which the learning and industry of Canon Parkinson 
have enabled him to enrich every page. All who like 
such truthful representations of bj'gone times are under 

freat obligations to the Chetham Sooietj'', to Canon 
arkinson, and most especially to Miss Atherton, the 
poet's descendant, who has most liberally made the book 
and its contents alike a present to the Society. 

A neatly -printed little volume, Essays in Divinity hy 
John Donne, D.D., sometime Dean of St. PauVs, edited by 
Augustus Jessopp, M.A., of St. Johi's College, Cambridge, 
appropriately dedicated to Dr. Bliss, as one who, with his 
wide knowledge, is " always able, and in his generous 
kindness is always willing, to help and encourage his less- 
experienced fellow-labourers in the fields of English litera- 
ture," has a twofold claim to notice : first, on account of 
the obvious care and attention bestowed upon it by the 
editor ; next, as being the first-fruits of some years' labour 
devoted to the preparation of an edition of Donne's col- 
lected works. 

Books Received. — A Supplement to the Tmperia I 
Dictionary, English, Technological, and Scientific, contain- 
ing an extensive Collection of Words, Terms, Phrases, ^c, 
not included in previous English Dictionaries, by John 
Ogilvie, D.D., Parts I. and ll. Of the utility of such a 
supplement to our English dictionaries there can be no 
doubt, even though the editor should be mistaken in be- 
lieving that all the words in his supplement are not to be 
found in anj' of our existing dictionaries. 

A Popular Harmony of the Bible, Historically and 
Chronologically arranged, by H. M. Wheeler, will unques- 
tionably accomplish the object for which it was under- 
taken, namely, ])rove a good substitute for such expensive 
yet truly valuable and learned works as Townsend's Ar- 
rangement of the Old Testament, and Greswell's Harmony 
of the New. 

Poetical Works of James TTiomson, edited by Robert 
Bell, Vol. I. This new volume of the Annotated Edition 
of the British Poets is introduced by a very pleasant 
biography of the poet. 



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Physica Aristotelica moderns accommodatior, in usum juventutU 
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THE SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
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DETACHED THOUGHTS 
AND APOPHTHEGMS extracted (by 
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"... deserve the individual prominence 
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"Carefully and intelligently selected." — 
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" The compiler will be thanked by a nu- 
merous public." — Nonconformist, Jan. 31. 

ROBERT B. BLACKADER, 
13. Paternoster Bow. 



Feb. 17. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



80,000 CURES WITHOUT MEDICINE. 

"nU BARRY'S DELICIOUS 

XJ REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD 
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the weakest stomach, nor interferes with a 
good liberal diet, but imparts a healthy relish 
lor lunch and dinner, and restores the faculty 
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to the most enfeebled. In whooping cough, 
measles, small-pox, and chicken or wind pox, 
K renders all medicine superfluous by re- 
moving all inflammatory and feverish symp- 
toms. 

Important Caction against the fearful 
dangers of spurinus imitations : — The Vice- 
Chancellor Sir William Page Wood granted 
an Injunction on March 10, 1854. against 
Alfred Hooper Nevill, for imitating " Du 
Barry's Revalenta Arabica Food." 

BARRY, DU BARRY, & CO., n^. Regent 
Street, London. 

A few out ofbOfim Cures: 
Cure No. 52.422 : — " I have suffered these 
thirty-three years continually from diseased 
lungs, spittiiifj of blood, liver derangement, 
deafness, singmg in the ears, constipation, 
debility, shortness of breath and cough j and 
dnring that period taken so much medicine, 
that I can safely say I have laid out upwards 
of a thousand pounds with the chemisis and 
doctors. I have actually worn out two medical 
men during my ailments, without finding any 
improvement in my health. Indeed I was in 
ntter despair, and never expected to get over 
it, when I was fortunate enough to become 
acquainted with your Revalenta Arabica ; 
which. Heaven be praised, restored me to a 
rtate of health which I long since despaired of 
attaining. My lungs, liver, stomach, head, 
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ances. I am, respectfully, 

" James Roberts. 
"Bridgehouse, Frimley, April 3, 1854." 
No. 42,130. Major-General King, cure of ge- 
neral debility and nervousness. No. 32,110. 
Captain Parker D. Bingham, R.N., who wag 
cured of twenty-seven years' dyspepsia in six 
■weeks' time. Cure No. 28,416. Willia-*- Hunt, 
Esq., Barrister-at-Law, sixty years' partial pa- 
ralysis. No. 32, 814. Captain Allen, recording 
the cure of a lady from epileptic fits. No. 26,419, 
The Rev. Charles Kerr, a cure of functional 
disorders. No. 24,814. The Rev. Thomas Min- 
ster, cure of five years' nervousness, with spasms 
and daily vomitings. No. 41,617. Dr. James 
Shorland, late surgeon in the 96th Regiment, 
a cure of dropsy. 

_ No. 52,418. Dr. Gries, Magdeburg, rccord- 
mg the cure of his wife from pulmonary con- 
sumption, with night sweats and ulcerated 
lungs, which had resisted all medicines, and 
appeared a hopeless case. No. 52,421. Dr. Gat- 
tiker, Zurich : cure of cancer of the stomach 
and fearfully distressing vomitings, habitual 
flatulency and colic. All the above parties 
will be happy to answer any inquiries. 

In canisters, suitably packed for all cli- 
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J&. The 101b. and 121b. carriage free, in post- 
office order. Barry, Du Barry, & Co., 77. 
Regent Street, London; Fortnum, Mason, i 
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to bl. A priced List, with Engravings, sent by 
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GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[No. 277. 



PROrSSSOR PHII.I.XPS' 
TORKSHIRE. 

ThiB Day, Second Edition, -vrith 36 Plates, 8to., 
15<. 

THE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, 
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A CATHOLIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 
The Anglo-Saxon Period. Complete in Three 

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This Day is published, price 18s., the Third and 

Concluding Volume of 

CATHOLIC HISTORY OF 

5^ ENGLAND. By WILLIAM BER- 
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" In days like these, when so many of our 
new books are but old ones newly dressed up, 
a work of original research, and for which the 
materials have been accumulated by the 
writer with great labour and diligence, de- 
serves especial commendation. Of such a cha- 
racter is the ' Catholic History of England; 
its Rulers, Clergy, and Poor, before the Re- 
formation, as described by the Monkish His- 
torians,' by William Bernard MacCabe ; of 
which the third volume, extending from the 
reign of Edward the Martyr to the Norman 
Conquest, has just been published. The vo- 
lumes bear evidence in every page that they 
are, as the author describes them, ' the results 

of the writing and research of many hours 

the only hours for many years that I had to 
spare from other and harder toils.' Himself a 
zealous and sincere follower of the ' ancient 
faith,' Mr. MacCabe's views of the characters 
and events of which he is treating naturally 
assume the colouring of his own mind ; many, 
therefore, will dissent from them. None of 
his readers will, however, dissent from bestow- 
ing upon his work the praise of being carefully 
compiled and most originally written. None 
will deny the charm with which Mr. MacCabe 
has invested his ' History,' by his admirable 
mode of making the old monkish writers tell 
their own story." — JVotes and Queries. 

" Mr. MacCabe's mode of composition is as 
novel as his plan. Sacrificing ordinary lite- 
rary pride, he makes the old Monkish writers 
compose the narrative — his ingenuity being 
displayed in the skill with which the passages, 
translated directly fromlthe original, with all 
their natural vigour of language, areconnected, 
so as to produce an appearance of oneness of 
design and continuity. He then fuses into one 
whole centuries of observation and narrative, 
and in fact revives those dead monks and 
scribes till they write his book. The plan is 
not only new, but it was necessary, as the 
reader will find if he compare the garbled and 
inaccurate version given by Hume and some 
other writers, with the origmal statements of 
the same events incorporated in these pages. 
He will also be better able to understand, when 
this universality of authorities is explained, 
why this book should be called a ' Catholic 
History.' The work is of great literary value." 
— Times. 

"It treats the Anglo-Saxon period under a 
phase quite different from that in which it is 
viewed by Lingard in his Anglo-Saxon Anti- 

auities. Lingard describes the doctrine and 
octrinal practice of the age ; the Catholic 
History tells the story of its inner life. Each, 
therefore, may be regarded as the complement 
of the other. Both are indispensable to every 
English historical collection." — Z>!(6Kn Re- 
vitw, 

T. C. NEWBY, Publisher, 30. Welbeck Street, 
Cavendish Square. 

Lately published, in 2 Vols. Svo. price 28». 

THE SAXONS in ENGLAND : 
a History of the English Commonwealth 
till the Period of the Norman Conquest. By 
JOHNM. KEMBLE,M.A.,F.C.P.S. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
and LONGMANS. 

On Friday next, a New and Cheaper Edition, 
crown Svo. 

THESAURUS of ENGLISH 
WORDS and PHRASES classified and 
arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of 
Ideas and A-ssist in Literary Composition. By 
P. M. ROGET, M. D., F. R. S. Third Edition, 
thoroughly revised, enlarged, and improved i 
and printed in a more convenient form. 
London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
and LONGMANS. 



Printed by Thoma. Clark Shaw, of No. 10.StonefleldStreet,in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, m the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Gkorok Beii,, of No. 1S6. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 1S6. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday, February 17, 1855. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•* 'Wlien found, make a note of." — Captaik Cuttlx. 



No. 278.] 



Saturday, February 24. 1855. 



f Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, f^d. 



CONTENTS. 

KoTBs : — Page 

Unpublished Letter of John Locke - 137 

PopiANA : — '"limoleou" — Pope and 
Warburton - - - - 139 

One of Speed the Historian's MS. Au- 
thorities - - - - - 139 

Crimean Requirements, bjr Bolton Cor- 
ney - - - - - HI 

Folk Lobk : — A Shropshire Supersti- 
tion—Fishermen's Superstition— Salt- 
spilling - - - - - 112 

The " Kabeljaauwen " and the 
"Hoeks,"by Rev. C. H. Gunn - 14 J 

Monumental Brasses, by F. S. Growse - 143 

Minor Notes: — "Oilins boilins " — 
Derivation of "retract "— A Literal, 
Critical, Poetical Transcript from 
Lloyd's — Shipwreclcs and Disasters 
at Sea — Genuine Rejected Addresses 

— Cutty-pipes- Newspapers— Friar 
Bacon's Study — Early Disappearance 

of Publications - - - - 143 

QoiRixs: 

Bishops' Arms, by Sir F. Madden - 145 
The Right of bequeathing Land - 145 

Minor QuKBiis: — Tax on Clocks and 
Watches — A Lady restored to Life — 
Fox Family — " Non omnia terra 
obruta,"&e.—Proeressive Geography- 
Walter Wilson's MSS. — Roman Sta- 
tions and Roads— Mildew on Piutures 

— Queen's College, Oxford — The Rev. 
John Angler — Greek and Roman 
Churches — " Leda " by Leonardo da 

, Vinci — Ireland : Ancient Usage — 
Ancient Order of Hiccabites - - 145 

Minor Qdkriks with Ak5w».bs : — 
Authors of Imtin Plays — Ross or 
Rouse— Hon. Anchitell Grey- Law- 
rence Holden _ Dictionaries, Cyclo- 
pedias, &c.-" To te-he "— Allhallows 147 

RsPLiEs : — 
Was Prussic Acid obtained from Bull's 

Blood by the Greeks ? - - - 148 

Sancte Bell at Clapton, by Rev. H. T. 

Ellacombe - - - - 150 

Archbishop Leighton and Provost Ai- 

kenhead - • - - - 150 

PHOTOnBAPHro CORRESPONDENCF : — 

Fadhig of Positives — Photographic 
Copies of Raphael Drawings — Photo- 
graphic Exchange Society - - 151 

Replies to Minor Qukries ; — Fair- 
child Lee ure — Bishops in Chess 

Monastery of Nutcelle — Use of the 
Terra" vaccinated "-Englisli Bishops' 
Mitres — Eartlienware Vessels found 
in the Foundations of Buildings — 
1'^3'^reachers — Meaning of " worth " 

— "Our Mieaus secure us"— Cardi- 
nals red ii«t — First Book printed 
Pj'''^',r''°?''"-1 - Baker's Dozen — 

The Woodw-eele »o„g, and wold not 
cease, &c.—^Nunsacn.^ as Priests in 
the Mass — Osbern's Life if odo — 
Husbandman, ice. - - - 152 

Miscellaneous : — 
Notes on Books, &c. - - - 155 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XI No. 278. 



Tliis Day, foolscap 8vo., is. 6d. 

HELLAS : the Home, the His- 
tory, the Literature, and the Arts of the 
Ancient Greeks. Translated from the Ger- 
man of JACOBS, by JOHN OXENFOKD. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



This Day, foolscap 8vo., 3s. 6d. 

I7NGLISH: PAST AND PRE- 
'j SENT. Five Lectures. By RICHARD 
CHENEVIX TRENCH, B. D , Examining 
Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Oxford, and 
Professor of Divinity, King's College, London. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



Just publislied, price Gs., in royal 4to., on thick 
Plate Paper ; with Illustrative Cover and 
Title-Page, a Second Edition of 

PROFILES OF "WARRING- 
TON WORTHIES ; " collected and 
arranged by JAMES KENDRICK, M.D. 

This is a Collection of Forty authentic Pro- 
flies or Silhouettes, with brief Biographical 
Notices, of such distinguished individuals 
(more especially in the depai tment of litera- 
ture), as by their birth, or prolonged residence 
at Warrington, in Lancashire, have become 
more or less identified with the history of tliat 
town. Amongst them will be found several 
portraits of the Aikin family, Dr. Barnes, 
Clayton, Enfield, Pendlebury Houghton, Ma- 
gowan, Percival, Priestley, Taylor, and Gil- 
bert Wakefield. The wiiole Collection forms 
an interesting appendage to the history of the 
Literature of the past century. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 

HADDOCK & SON, Warrington. 



In fcap. 8vo., with Woodcuts, price 7s. 

T ECTURES on POLARISED 

1 J LIGHT, together with a Lecture on the 
Microscoije, delivered before the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society of Great Britain, and at tlie 
Medical School of the London Mospital. By 
the late JONATHAN PEREIRA, M.D.. 
F.RS.,&c. Second Edition, greatly enlarged 
from Materials left by the Author. Edited 
by the REV. BADEN POWELL, M.A., 
V.P.R.S. 

London*LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
^ & LONGMANS. 



In Svo., with Plate and Woodcuts, price lOs. 6d. 

RESEARCHES on LIGHT in 

J\) its CHEMICAL RELATIONS; em- 
bracing a Consideration of all the Photo- 
graphic Processes. By ROBERT HUNT, 
F.R.S., Professor of Physics in the Metro- 
politan School of Science. Second Edition, 
thoroughly revised, with extensive Additions. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
& LONGMANS. 



TO BOOK COLLECTORS. — 
Just published, for January, 1855, T. MIL- 
LARD S CATALOGUE OF SECOND- 
HAND BOOKS, being a portion of 20,000 
Volumes (Gratis and Post Free) N. B. Li- 
braries purchased or exchanged. — ON SALE, 
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Mant's Bible, 3/. ; Waverley Novels, 48 vols., 
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12 Yols., new calf, extra, 10 guineas, &c. Sic. 
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Just published, with 10 Plates, price bs. < 

EVERY MAN HIS OWN 
PRINTER; or. Lithography Made 
Easy : being an Essay upon Lithography in all 
its Branches, showing more particularly the 
advantages of the Patent Autographic Press. 
GROOMBRIDGE & SONS, 5. Paternoster 
Row; and WATERLOW & SONS, 65 to 
68. London Wall, London. 



NEW HISTORY OF CHRIST'S 
HOSPITAL. 

Just published, price 2s. erf., by Post 3s. 

QOME ACCOUNT OF THE 

O HOSPITAL OF KING EDWARD VI. 
IN THE CITY OF LONDON, CALLED 
CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, ITS PAST AND 
PRESENT CONDITION. By W. H. HALE, 
M. A., Archdeacon of London, one of the Go- 
vernors of Christ's Hospital. 

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place. 



WHITELOCKE'S EMBASSY TO 
SWEDEN. 

Just published, in 2 vols. 8vo., price 24s. 

A JOURNAL of the SWEDISH 
EMBASSY in the Years 1653 and 1654, 
impartially written by the Ambassa