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Full text of "Notes and Queries : a Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, etc"

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



VOL. XII. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



;iHetrium of Jnter-'Communuatwn 




LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



'When found, make a note pf." — Captain Cuttle, 



VOLUME TWELFTH. 



July — Decembee, 1855. 



LONDON: 
GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET. 
1855. 



NOTES AND QUEIMES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

roB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIUTJARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

** VTben found, make a note of." — Caftaik Cuttlx. 



No. 297.] 



Saturday, July 7. 1855. 



C Price Fourpence. 

l Stamped Edition, gd. 



CONTENTS. 

Our Twelfth Volume . - 



Faee 



NoTEt : — 

Copy of the " Assertio Septem Sacra- 
mentorum adversus Lutherum," pre- 
sented by Henry VIII. to the Pope in 
!S21,by Sir F. Madden - - - I 

Lady Anne Clifford, by J. H. Marlcland 2 

Arithmetical Notes, No. 3, by Professor 
De Morgan - - - - U 

Coleridge's Marginalia on Raleigh's 
"History of the ■World,"by C. Mans- 
field Ingleby - - - - 5 

Cowley and Waller, by P. Cunningham 6 

Minor Notes: —An "Army Works 
Corps " in IS98_ A " Crannock " — A 
Relic of Wolfe _ Alliterative Couplet 
on Cardinal Wolsej;— Shakspeare's 
" Seven Ages " — Enigma on a Hole 6 

QniRiEi: — 

Was the Duke of York in Edinburgh in 
1684 ? by R. Chambers - - - 7 

Unprinted Letter to Sir Francis Bacon, 
by J. Payne Collier - - - 8 

Minor Queries :— Proverb _" Di- 
dion's Christian IconoKraphy " _ Mar- 
vellous Music — Bankers' Cheques — 
Renown — " Strangles for Life" _ 
George Fox foretold : Querv, By what 
Prophet ? _" Pollards '' _ {"rovidence 
— " Nine hundred and three doors out 
of the world "_ " News from West- 
minster" _" Old Nick " _ Bennet's 
" Parnphrase on the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer"_S8bbath — Poll-books 
—A small white Hand a Sign of high 
Birth - - - . . 9 

Minor Queries with Answers : — 
Anonymous Hymns _ Homer and 
Lord North — Battle of Patay - - 11 

Replies : — 

Back, by S. W. Singer - - - 11 

Sir Richard Steele and the Ladies' Li- 
brary - - - - - 12 

On stocking Marine Aquaria, by Shirley 
Hibberd, &c. - - - - 13 

Priests' Hiding-places, by C. A. Buckler, 
&c. 14 

Authors Names anagrammatised - 15 

Photooraphic Correspondence : — 
Mr. Lyte's Process - - - 16 

Replies to Minor Queries : _ The late 
Lord Viscount Strangford _ Judge 
James Whitelock's " Diary " _ 
" Foundling Hospital for Wit " _ 
Artificial Ice — Cathedral Registers — 
Earlof Galway or Galloway—" Thee " 
and "thou " - John Howland — Lord 
Dundonald's Plan — Black Rat — 
1 he Crucifixion — French Churches — 
.\a^nae,ov {pa^^aro! " — " The Chap- 
ter of Kmgs " _ The Red Hand, &c. 

Miscellaneous :_ 
Notos on Books, &c. ... 19 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol,. XII No. 297. 



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Bibliographical Notices and Extracts, 

A CATALOGUE of a truly 
valuable and interesting Collection of 
the RAREST and MOST CURIOUS and 
USEFUL BOOKS in the English and Foreign 
Languagesj but especially rich in EARLY 
ENGLISH LITERATURE, POETRY, 
THEt)LOGY, Sic. The whole in the choicest 
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This Day, the Fifth Volume, 2s. 6d., of 

H AUGER'S POETICAL 

,y WORKS. Edited, with Notes, by 
ROBERT BELL. 

On the First of August, the First Volume of 

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WORKS. 

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Second Edition, revised and enlarged, 4s. 

Pj^NGLISH : PAST AND PRE- 
V SENT. By RICHARD CHENEVIX 
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By the same Author, 

ON THE STUDY OF 

WORDS. Fifth Edition. 3s. 6f/. 

ON THE LESSONS IN PRO- 
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London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
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This Day, Vols. I. & U., with Maps, 8vo., 28». 

THE SPANISH CONQUEST 
IN AMERICA, and its Relation to the 
History of Slavery and to the Government of 
Colonies. By ARTHUR HELPS. 

This book is based upon " The Conquerors of 
the New World and their Bondsmen," two 
volumes of which were published some year* 
ago. The author has, however, been obliged 
to extend its plan and enlarge its form. The 
publication of "The Conquerors of the New 
World "will therefore not be continued; hut 
purchasers of the volumes already published 
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London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
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Now ready, in 2 Vols. 8vo., price U. Is. 

CHRISTIAN THEISM: the 

\J TESTIMONY of REASON and RE. 
VELATION to the EXISTENCE and CHA- 
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ROBERT ANCHOR THOMPSON, M.A. 

•«» The FIRST BURNETT PRIZE of 
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RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place. 



pHEAP BOOKS.— A CAT A- 

\J LOGUE of Books, in Various Depart- 
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be sent Post Free on application to 

W. HYDE.'Bookseller, 12. Mortimer Street, 
Carendish Square. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



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WOEKS 

BT THE 

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THE DARK AGES; being a 

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THE VOLUNTARY SYSTEM. 

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M.A.. Canon of Durham, to the New Edition 
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RIVINOTONS, Waterloo Place, raU MaU. 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON. SATURDAY, JULY1, 1865. 



OUR TWELFTH VOLUME. 

In commencing our Twelfth Volume We cannot 
resist giving utterance to a few words of courteous ac- 
knowledgment to all those Friends, Contributors, and 
Readers to whose kind assistance We are indebted for 
our success. We thank them all most heartily. And 
while We venture with confidence to direct their at- 
tention to our present Number, as a proof that custom 
does not stale the infinite variet}' of our pages. We pro- 
mise them increased exertions to make " Notes and 
Queries " deserving of a continuance of that favour which 
has hitherto been so lavishly bestowed upon it. — Vale. 



3aie^, 



COPT OF THE " ASSKRTIO SEPTEM SACEAMENTORUM 
AD VERSUS LUTHERUM," PRESENTED BT HENRY 
VIII. TO THE POPE IN 1521. 

Evelyn, in his Diary, vol. i. p. 128. (edit. 1819), 
speaking of his visit to the Vatican library at 
Kome, Jan. 18, 1644-5, and the rarities he had 
seen there, after mentioning the two Virgils, the 
Terence, &c., adds, " what we English do much 
inquire after, the booke which our Hen. VIII. writ 
against Luther." The late editor, Mr. Bray, sub- 
joins the following note : 

" This very book, hj one of those curious chances that 
occasionally happens, has recently been brought to Eng- 
land, where the editor has seen it ; and, what is very re- 
markable, wherever the title of Defender of the Faith is 
subjoined to the name of Henry, the Pope has drawn his 
pen through the epithet. The name of the king occurs 
in his own handwriting, both at the beginning and end; 
and on the binding are the royal arms. The present pos- 
sessor [Mr. Woodburn] purchased it in Italy for a few 
shillings from an old book-stall." 

In this statement, Mr. Bray is unquestionably 
in error. The volume he mentions was after- 
wards presented by Mr. Woodburn to the Fitz- 
william Museum, at Cambridge, where I saw it 
in 1846, and where it is exhibited to visitors as the 
identical copy sent by King Henry VIII. to the 
Pope, which was stolen from the Vatican library 
during the time the French were in Italy. It is 
in the original binding, and signed by the King at 
the beginning and end, but is printed on paper, 
whereas the copy presented by Henry to the Pope 
was printed on vellum ; and so far from having 
been " stolen from the Vatican," no doubt exists 
there at this moment. At all events, it was safely 
preserved there subsequent to my visit to the 
Fitzwilliam Museum, as proved by Sir George 
Head's account of the Vatican library in his work 
entitled Rome, a Tour of many Days, 8vo., 1849; 
in which, among " a few particular objects con- 
sidered the staple curiosities of the region" (Sir 

No. 297.1 o V 



George is but a poor bibliographer) actually seen 
by him, he specifies : 

" The ' Assertio Septem Sacramentorum,' written by 
Henry VIII., a royal literary effort in defence of the sevea 
Roman Catholic Sacraments, that procured the title of 
Defender of the Faith for the author ; " 

And he then proceeds to describe it as — 

" A good thick octavo volume, written in Latin, and 
printed in the year loOl [a mistake for 1521] in London, 
on vellum. The type is clear, with a broad margin, and 
at the beginning is the original presentation address to 
Leo X. as follows, subscribed by the royal autograph : 

" ' Anglorum Rex Henricus, Leo Decime, mittit 
Hoc opus, et fidei testis * et amicitiae.' " 

Strype, in his Memorials, vol. i. p. 51. (ed. 1822), 
states that the presentation of the book to the 
Pope was brought about by the means of Cardinal 
Wols^, " who procured some copies to be written 
in a very fine and beautiful character, and one of 
them to be bound up splendidly, namely, that that 
was to be sent especially to the Pope, and the said 
cardinal sent that especially to the King, for his 
liking of it, before it went." It would be desirable 
to know the authoi'Ity of Strype for these asser- 
tions. The book itself was printed by Pynson, 
" apud inclytam urbem Londinum, in aedibus 
Pynsonianis, an. mdxxi, quarto idus Julli," and 
from the original correspondence of Dr. John 
Clerk (the King's Orator at Rome) to Vi^'olsey, pre- 
served in the Cottonian MS. Vitellius, b. iv., two 
of the most important letters of which are printed 
by Sir H. Ellis in vol. i. pp. 257. 262. of his third 
series of Original Letters, it appears that no less 
than twenty-eight copies (apparently printed 
ones), each signed by the King's own hand, were 
forwarded to Rome, out of which number, at a 
private interview with the Pope, in September, 
1521, Dr. Clerk delivered two copies to his Holi- 
ness, one of which was covered with cloth of gold, 
and at the end of this copy (not at the beginning, 
as stated by Sir G. Head) were two verses in the 
King's autograph, "wry ten with a very small 
penne," and which, although stated by Clerk to be 
of the King's own composition, were in reality sent 
to Henry by Cardinal Wolsey, to be Inserted in 
the Pope's copy. Five or six more copies, at the 
Pope's request, were sent to him by Dr. Clerk, to 
be delivered to sundry learned cardinals ; and 
after the public presentation of the book to the 
Pope in full consistory, held on the 2nd Octo- 
ber (the whole process of which is related by 
Clerk), the remaining copies were forwarded, by 
direction of Cardinal Wolsey, " to various regions, 



* Lalande, who saw this book in the Vatican in 1765, 
reads (in his Voyage d'ltalie, tom. iii. p. 259., 1769, 
12mo.) tesiem, and says that these two verses were written 
by the king's own hand ; a fact meant probably also to 
be expressed by the ambiguous words of Sir G. Head, 
quoted above. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



universities, and countries, as tliey were addressed 
and ordered." 

It seems therefore certain, that the copy on 
paper belonging formerly to Mr. Woodburii, and 
now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, was not the one 
richly bound in cloth of gold presented to the 
Pope, and laid up in the Vatican (where Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury afterwards saw it), but one 
of those which were given to the cardinals ; and 
Tve may consequently conclude that the pen which 
struck out in it the title of Defender of the Faith 
was guided by a less infallible hand than that of 
the Pope. In fact, Leo X. died at the.end of No- 
vember, 1521, before the bull issued for the royal 
title had reached England ; and consequently it is 
quite impossible he could have struck out the 
words Defensor Fidei in the copy presented to 
him. 

It may be added, that at Bologna is still pre- 
served one of the copies sent to foreign universi- 
ties, stamped with the royal arms, and signed with 
the King's hand ; also that two other copies 
printed on vellum are mentioned by Van Praet, 
one of -which is in the Spenser library. 

F. Madden. 

British Museum. 



LADY ANNE CLIFFORD. 

The acceptable re-publication of a portion of 
Daniel's Worhs, by Mr. Morris of Bath, has 
brought afresh to our minds the poet's distinguished 
pupil, the Lady Anne Clifford. It is well known 
that this lady, having passed her sixty-third year, 
compiled a Diary or Memoir of her life, or what 
she calls " Memorables of Myself." 

Nine years ago, and at a later period, we find 
the following amongst the list of suggested pub- 
lications of the Camden Society : " The Auto- 
biography of Anne Clifford, Countess of Pem- 
broke, Dorset, and Montgomery, and other Re- 
cords preserved in Skipton Castle. To be edited 
by Edward Hailstone, Esq." It will be a subject 
of much regret if Mr. Hailstone has abandoned 
this work. More than twenty years since I 
strongly urged that, if permission could be ob- 
tained, the Diary of the Countess, and also that 
of her mother Margaret, Countess of Cumberland, 
if existing, should engage the attention of an 
editor, who would not only bring to his labours a 
knowledge of the eventful story of their lives, but 
who would treat the narrative of their joys and 
sorrows with genuine feeling. 

In the very last month a valued friend of mine, 
who adorns the judicial bench (when speaking of 
Daniel's Works, and of the " great Countess "), 
observes, " Good service would be done if some 
competent person were permitted to examine and 
print the interesting parts of her autobiography. 

Ifo. 297.] 



This and two or three more volumes seem to 
have been regularly continued, and all the earlier 
legal transactions of the family, marriages, settle- 
ments, &c., to have been collected and enrolled." 

In the York volume of the Transactions of the 
Archceological Institute (1848), Mr. Hailstone has 
printed " A true Memoriall of the Life of Lady 
Ann Clifford." This account he states to be taken 
from " a small 4to. volume containing an abstract 
or summary of the three great books of records 
kept at Skipton Castle," and was probably made 
by the Countess's secretary from " A Sumarie and 
Memoriall at the conclusion of the records in the 
third volume." He adds that " the MS. is in 
several persons' handwriting, but has not only 
been dictated, but corrected by the Countess, as 
many interlineations, and references to texts of 
Scripture, are made in her handwriting." Valu- 
able as is this paper, from the facts and dates it 
contains, it is rendered less interesting from being 
abbreviated, and written In the third person. 

Mr. Craik, in his Romance of the Peerage, says 
that " various diaries of portions of Lady Anne's 
own life, as well as historical memoirs of her an- 
cestry, drawn up by her, or under her direction, 
are spoken of as still existing at Skipton or Ap- 
pleby : " and he adds, very truly, that " It Is re- 
markable in how indistinct a way these manu- 
scripts have been spoken of by almost every 
writer who has referred to them." * It is to this 
point that I would chiefly direct the attention of 
your readers. The very title of the Diary, as 
given by different persons, varies. According to 
Mr. Baynes {_Biog. Brit., vol. Hi. p. 640.) it stands 
thus : 

" A Summary of the Records, and a true Memorial of 
the Life of the Lady Anne Clifford, who by birth being 
sole daughter and heir to my illustrious father, George 
Clifford, the third Earl of Cumberland, by his virtuous 
wife, Margaret Russell, my mother," &c. &c. &c., referring 
to her ancestry, titles, and marriages. 

There Is a MS. in the British Museum (Harl. 
MS. 6177.), a folio of about 240 pages, a transcript 
only ; it is entitled, — 

" A Summary of the Lives of the Veteriponts, Cliffords, 
and Earls of Cumberland, and of the Lady Anne, Countess 
Dowager of Pembroke, &c., daughter and heir to George, 
Earl of Cumberland, in whom the name of the said 
Cliffords determined. Copied from the original MS. the 
29th of December, 1737, by Henry Fisher." 
Mr. Hawkins informs me that It appears entire, 
without breaks, any marks of omissions or in- 
sertions ; but where the original is lodged, or 
from whence this copy was taken, we are no- 
where told. 

" Many things that have been quoted from the 



* Romance of the Peerage, vol. iv. p. 135. In referring 
to Mr. Craik's interesting work, it is due to the author to 
state that no writer has taken so much pains to ascertain 
the authenticity of the transcripts and extracts given 
from the Countess's Diary as he has done. , 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Countess's Memoirs or Diaries," Mr. Craik says, " are not 
to be found in this transcript. Fisher is, moreover, a very 
ignorant and incompetent hand, and appears to have 
been frequently unable to read what he undertook to 
copy. Mr. Baynes's transcript," of which I shall presently 
speak, "may, however, have been made from his." * 

Extracts have been given by Seward from 
what he terms " Memoirs of the early part of the 
Countess's Life, printed for the first time,"f but 
he gives no authority in confirmation of their 
authenticity, and they appear perfectly distinct 
from Mr. Hailstone's " Memoriall." 

Extracts, purporting to be taken from the 
Countess's Diary, have also been given by Pennant, 
Whitaker, and Hartley Coleridge. The last able 
writer says that he is mainly indebted to Dr. 
Whitaker for his facts. He also refers to " Sir 
Matthew Hale's MSS." (portions, doubtless, of 
the three folios), and gives us quotations in the 
Countess's own language. These we also find 
given by Baynes, but they are not in Whitaker's 
or Seward's Works ; nor in Mr. Hailstone's tran- 
script. When alluding to these MSS. we may 
refer to Roger North, who accompanied his rela- 
tive the Chief Justice (afterwards Lord Keeper) 
on the Circuit, and visited Appleby Castle soon 
after the Countess's death. He speaks of her as 
" a magnificent and learned lady." " It was said," 
he adds, " that Hales (sic), afterwards Chief 
Justice, assisted her in the perusal and methodizing 
of her evidences and muniments, and made her 
fair extracts of them." 

We cannot but mark the ungracious terms in 
which Hale's labours are alluded to both by 
Whitaker and Coleridge. The former, who has 
largely availed himself of them, coolly observes 
that - - 

" Ingenuous curiosity, and perhaps too the necessary in- 
vestigation of her claims to the baronies of the family, led 
the Countess to compile their history ; an industrious and 
diffuse, not always an accurate work, in which more 
perhaps might have been expected from the assistance of 
Sir Matthew Hale, who, though a languid writer, was a 
man of great acuteness and comprehension." — History of 
Craven, p. 313. 

In terms not more complimentary Coleridge 

says : 

" Lady Anne herself made a digest of the family re- 
cords, with the assistance of Sir Matthew Hale. We re- 
gret to say that, from the specimen we have seen, the 
learned judge seems to have contrived to shed a sombre, 
judicial dulness over the composition. He was much 
more interested about the tenures, leases, and other legal 
antiquities, than about the wild adventures, loves, and 
wars of the ancient house." — Biographia Borealis, p. 243. 

Did these writers expect that, whilst engaged in 
such a laborious and unimaginative occupation as 
a digest of grants and charters, " thoughts that 

* Romance of the Peerage, vol. iv. p. 141. 
t Anecdotes of some distinguished Persons, vol. iv, 
p. 302. ^ 

No. 297.] 



breathe and words that burn " should have burst 
from the excellent judge ? 

Gilpin mentions that he has " derived the most 
material part of his History of the Countess from 
a MS. life of Mr. Sedgwick, her secretary, written 
by himself. In this work Mr. Sedgwick occasion- 
ally inserts a few circumstances relating to his 
lady. It is a pity he had not given her the better 
share. His MS. is still extant in Appleby Castle," 
The three folios Gilpin did not see, but, when 
speaking of the Countess's own "Journal," he 
adds, " What an interesting collection of valuable 
anecdotes might be furnished from the incidents 
of such a life ! " The original diary, he had been 
informed, "the late Earl of Thanet destroyed, as it 
contained va&ny severe remarks on several cha- 
racters of those times which the earl supposed 
might give offence to their families." * This re- 
port might possibly have been circulated in order 
to prevent the MS. from being examined. Whit- 
aker tells us that amidst the evidences of Skipton 
are several memoranda of large parcels of papers 
sent away by order of Thomas, Earl of Thanet.- 
(P, 316. note.) 

The friend, to whom I have already referred, 
states, that he saw the folio volumes as late as the 
year 1843; and also that " loose in one volume 
was a birthday letter from the Countess to her 
father when aged eight or nine, much like a 
modern valentine." In addition to the larger 
Diaries, Whitaker mentions " an original book 
of accounts, filled with memoranda relative to 
Lady Anne's education, from 1600 to 1602," 
from which he has given extracts. Was this com- 
pletely distinct from the other documents ? 

Pennant, who has devoted some pages to Skipton 
Castle, and to the Cliffords, mentions the Countess 
Margaret's letters as extant in manuscript, and also 
her diary, and that of her daughter ; " the former 
mentions," he says, " several minutiw that I omit, 
being only proofs of her great attention to ac- 
curacy,"! i*- is pretty clear that this last ob- 
servation applies to the Lady Anne J, not to her 
mother. 

The following letter in my possession, addressed 
to Rltson, is in manuscript, but though not pub- 
lished in his correspondence (1833), it may have 
appeared elsewhere in print. The writer, John 
Baynes, Esq., of Embsay, near Bolton Abbey (to 
whom reference has already been made), was a 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Having 
gained the highest honours in the university, and 

* Observations on the ^fountains and Lakes of Cumher~ 
land and fFestmoreland, vol. ii. pp. 161. 164. 

t Tour in Scotland, vol. ii. p. 358. 

j " With a Shandean exactness, very unusual amongf 
female autobiographers in these days, Lady Anne begins 
her memoirs of herself nine months before her nativity, 
for the sake of introducing a beautiful quotation from 
Psalm cxxxix. 12 — 16." ' — Biographia Borealis, p. 269. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



with fair prospects at the bar, he was prematurely 
cut off in 1787 at the age of twenty-eight.* He 
contemplated a History of Craven, but had 
merely commenced his labours. From this letter 
it would appear that he had been attracted to the 
Countess's Memoirs. 

" Embsay Kirk, Sept. 8, 1785. 
" I have not succeeded so well at Appleby as I 
expected, not having met with that which was my 
chief object, namely, the Countess of Cumberland's 
Diary ; but I have found still more and more 
reason to admire the spirit and industry of Lady 
Anne, having seen the collections made by her 
orders, and under her inspection, relative to the 
Clifford family, which are such as, I will venture to 
say, no other noble family in the world can show. 
They are comprised in three enormous volumes, 
folio, and contain not only pedigrees of every 
branch of the family, but every grant, charter, or 
other document concerning the Cliffords, which 
could at that time be procured or met with. The 
usefulness of such a collection is not to be de- 
scribed ; it has ascertained their rights so clearly, 
as to have settled numberless disputes, not to 
mention those it must have prevented." 

It is strange that whilst examining these evi- 
dences, Mr. Baynes should have overlooked the 
autobiography ; and what is the more surprising, 
we find in the third volume of the Biographia 
Britannica, which was published in 1784, that Dr. 
Kippis, in a note on the article " Clifford," speaks 
of " papers which had been put into his hands by 
his ingenious and learned friend Mr. Baynes," and 
especially, he adds, "he has obliged us with a tran- 
script of the original narratioe left of Jierself hy the 
Countess of Dorset." '\ Who maybe the possessor 
of this transcript ? Extracts are given from it, ac- 
companied by this chilling remark : " The perusal 
of this MS. has given us little satisfaction. It is 
written in a manner extremely tedious, abounds 
with repetitions, and the facts related in it are for 
the most part equally minute and uninteresting." J 

Enough has been said to show how confused 
are the statements regarding the MSS., and that 
diligent investigation is necessary to combine the 
materials left by the Countess, as " Memorables " 
for her biography. Your readers will doubtless join 
with me in the wish already expressed, that Mr. 
Hailstone will still give us the Countess's Diary, or 
copious extracts from it. If he should not carry 
his original design into effect, may we not hope 

* Mr. Douce, who was a warm friend and great ad- 
mirer of Mr. Baynes, terms him " another Crichton," and 
adds, what will not be generally admitted, " He was cer- 
tainly the author of the Arcfusological Epistle to Bean 
Milles." 

t This may be accounted for by a mistake being made 
in the date of the letter, or in the copy of it. 

X Biog. Brit., vol. iii. p. 640. 

No. 297.] 



that the gentleman who has lately read before the 
Society of Antiquaries, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
a brief memoir of the Countess, the Rev. James 
Raine, Jun., may undertake this task. Or if both 
should decline it, is not this a work worthy of the 
Roxburghe Club ? The Diary would be a fitting 
companion to the very valuable volumes. Man- 
ners and Household Expenses of England, the 
splendid gift of Mr. Botfield in 1841, and the 
Howard Household Boohs, so ably edited by Mr. 
C01.LIER in 1844. J. H. Maekland. 



ARITHMETICAL NOTES, NO. II. 

Edmund Wingate. — The first edition of Win- 
gate's Arithmetic, published in 1629 or 1630, is a 
work of great rarity. I have never seen nor heard 
of a copy. It is an incunabulum of decimal frac- 
tions in England ; and though, owing to Kersey 
{Comp. Aim., 1851, p. 12,), it is not absolutely 
essential to the historian of arithmetic, yet it is 
very desirable that it should be produced and 
compared with the second edition. The first edi- 
tion of Cocker, of which several copies have ap- 
peared in sales in the last twenty years, is a mere 
curiosity ; that of Wingate is more. It should be 
noted, that it was common with Wingate to pub- 
lish under the initials E. W., adding sometimes 
" of Gray's Inn." Perhaps the obscurity of the 
first edition is owing to this concealment : all the 
other editions (eighteen at least) have the name 
in full. AVingate was a landed proprietor ; and 
persons so gifted, whenever they published trans- 
lation, elementary writing, or anything low, seldom 
put their names ; often it was only " a person of 
honour." Thus we have The Gentleman Ac- 
comptant . . . done by a Person of Honour : 
London, 1714, 8vo. Few, either among mathe- 
maticians or musicians, know that Lord Brounker 
translated Descartes's Compendium of Music under 
this mode of concealment. 

Ready Reckoner. — 

" Accompts cast up. With an Addition of Measuring 
Timber, Boord, Waynscot, Glasse, and Land, working 
an J' Question in Division as also rules of Fellowship. 
By John Bill : London, 1632. ~ 12mo." 

This is the earliest approximation to the ready 
reckoner which I have yet met with : but the body 
of the work is only an extended multiplication table 
of integers. My notion that the ready reckoner 
is not a very ancient contrivance is rather con- 
firmed by this writer never having heard of any- 
thing of the kind. He says : 

« To the end that every man may buy and sell without 
mis-reckoning in his accompt, and without the trouble of 
Pen or Counters, I have with long time and much labour 
endeavoured to finde out an Abridgement . . ." 

The eai-liest ready reckoner mentioned in my 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



3 



Arithmetical Books is the Panarithmologia (1693) 
of William Leybourn. Of this book 1 find that 
Granger (no great authority on such a point) says 
it was formed on a plan of his own, which was 
adopted by Bareme in France. If, as I suspect, 
the author of Playford's Vade Meeum be John 
Playford the printer, who printed in and about 
1679, then it remains to be settled whether Play- 
ford or Leybourn has the priority. 

Rapid Calculation. — 

" A Method to Multiply or Divide ... so expeditely 
that any Fifty Figures may either be Multiplied or Di- 
vided by any Fifty Figures, all in one Line, in Five 
Minutes Time . . . Invented by Quin Mackenzie-Quin, 
Esq. at the Eighth Year of his Age . . . London, Printed 
for the Author . . . muccl. By Authority of Parliament. 
Folio." 

If the boy wrote his own preface and descrip- 
tions, he tells us that necessitous virtue gained 
him a knowledge of numbers from indulgent 
nature. He tells the king, in the dedi- 
cation, that his firstlings in arithmetic are 
raised to so august a patrociny as the royal 
name ! He quotes Horace, Florus, Cicero, 
Proclus, &c. ; and also hundreds of names 
of Members of Parliament as subscribers. 
Probably the author was a lad of rapid 
calculating power, whose friends thought it 
would be a good speculation to tell the 
public that any one who used the boy's 
method could do as well. In the margin 
is the way to multiply 432 by 21. An in- 
stance of fifty figures by fifty figures takes 
two large folio pages, and could be done in 
no five minutes except those of the people 
who assure you they will not detain you 
longer. Some of your readers may have 
the means of giving some account of 
this curious production. I suppose that " by 
authority of Parliament " means " entered at 
Stationers' Hall." A. De Mokgan. 



432 
21 



10 



9072 



Coleridge's marginalia on raleiqh's " history 
OF the world." 

I possess a copy of Sir Walter Raleigh's History 
of the World, 1st edit., 1614, upon the margins of 
which are several MS. notes in a handwriting 
resembling Coleridge's, but without his initials. 
That they were written by him is rendered almost 
certain, from the following considerations : that 
he was familiar with the book (a fact which we 
learn from his marginalia on Stillingfleet's Ori- 
gines SacrcE, published in a periodical called 
Excelsior, No. IV.) ; that some at least of the 
opinions expressed in the margin of the History 
of the World are coincident with those of Cole- 
ridge ; and that the style of their composition is 
Coleridge's own. When it is considered how large 

No. 297.] 



an amount of the MSS. of the great poet- philoso- 
pher are withheld from publication, his admirers 
will I am sure feel grateful for any accession to 
the small amount of his published prose writings. 
I heartily wish my contribution were greater. 
Preface, p. 10. : 

" But had the Duke of Parma, in the year 1588, joyned 
the army which he commanded with that of Spaine, and 
landed it on the south coast ; and had his majesty at the 
same time declared himselfe against us in the north, it is 
easie to divine what had become of the liberty of England ; 
certainely we would then without murmur have [brought] 
this union [a far greater praise] than it hath since coat 
us." 

Coleridge : 

'•rorsan, bought — at a far greater price." 

Preface, p. 18. : 

" The living (saith hee [the preacher]) know that they 
shall die, but the dead know nothing at all." 

Coleridge : 

" ? But of the dead?" 

This note may be considered suggpstive of the 
opinion so often expressed by Coleridge, that — 

" The Jews believed generally in a future state, inde- 
pendently of the Mosaic Law." — See Table Talk, 3rd edit. 
(1851), p. 28. 

Preface, p. 24. : 

" He will disable God's power to make a world, -without, 
matter to make it of. He will rather give mothes of the 
aire a cause, cast the work on necessity or chance ; be- 
stow the honour thereof on Nature ; make two powers, the 
one to be the author of the matter, the other of ih^ forme; 
and lastly, for want of a worke-man, have it eternall: 
which latter opinion Aristotle, to make himself the author 
of a new doctrine brought into the world : and his Secta- 
tours have maintained it." 

Coleridge : 

" I do not think that Aristotle made the world eternal, 
from the difficulty of aliquid a nihilo materiali ; but from 
the idea of God as an eternal Act — actus ptcrissi7nus, and 
eternity = Simultaneous possession of total Being — for, 
strictly, God neither was nor will be, but always is. We 
may, without absurdity or contradiction, combine the 
faith of Aristotle and the Church, saying, God from all 
eternity creates the world by and through the Aoyos." 

In the marginalia on Stillingfleet's Origines 
SacrcB, above referred to, Coleridge says : 

" And where is the danger to religion, if we make pre- 
servation a perpetual creation, and interpret the first 
words of Genesis as we must do (if not Socinian) the 
first words of St. John. From all eternity God created 
the universe, and the earth became waste and void," &c. 

Whether this were the faith of Aristotle or not, it 
was certainly that of Plato. Cf. Timaeus. 

The above are all the notes on the Preface. 
The following are on the text of the History : 

Book I. p. 65. ch. v. § 5. : 

" Of the long lives of the Patriarchs ; and of some of late 
memory." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



Coleridge : 

" It is said that the first years were three moons •. that 
the ideal of each animal's life (of the warm-blooded) is 
eight times its full growth : that man is at his full at 
twenty-five, which x by 8 = 200 : and that, taking three 
as the" first perfection of number by [&?] unity (that is, 
three is tri-une), and three moons as the first year, this 
would agree with the age of Methusaleni, the only man 
who ever reached the ideal. A negro in Peru, who was 
still living eight years back, was then one hundred and 
eiehtv-six, as known by public registers of sales. 

"1817 [or 1807?]" 

From this note we arrive at the date at which 
these marginalia were written. The second 1 is 
thick, and might have been intended for a 0. 
Book I. p. 132. : 

" These riddles are also rife among the Athenians and 
■Arcadians, who dare afiirme, that they are more ancient 
than Jupiter and the Moon ; whereof Ovid — 

* Ante Jovem genitum terras habuisse feruntur 
Arcades : et Luna gens prior ilia fuit.' " 

Coleridge : 

" This may be equally true, whether the moon were a 
comet stopped by the attraction of the earth, and com- 
pelled, though not without some staggering, to assimilate 
its orbit; or whether the inward fire-matter of the earth, 
turning an ocean suddenly into steam, projected a con- 
tinent from that hollow which is now filled up by the 
Pacific and South Sea, which is about the size of the 
moon." 

I can find nothing like the chronological or 
geological views expressed in the last two notes 
in the published works of Coleridge. 

C. Mansfield Ingleby. 

Birmingham. 



COWLEY AND WALLER. 

There is a passage in one of Cowley's poems- 
which exhibits a blank in all the editions to which 
I have ready access. The poem is entitled " An 
Answer to a Copy of Verses sent me to Jersey." 

" . . . . One lately dM not fear 
(Without the Muses leave) to plant it [verse] here. 
But it produc'd such base, rough, crabbed, hedge- 
Ehymes, as e'en set the hearers ears on edge : 

Written by Esqui-re, the 

Year of our Lord, six hundred thirty-three. 
Brave Jersey Muse ! and he's for this high stile 
Call'd to this day the Homer of the Isle." 

Now Lean fill up the blank. The name omitted 
is that of William Prynne ; and my authority is 
Pope, in a note to The Dunciad, 8vo., 1729, 2nd 
edit., p. 64. Will Mr. John Bruce kindly throw 
some light on this Jersey allusion to his favourite 
Prynne? When Mr. Bell comes to Cowley he 
will not, I am sure, let this annotation escape 
bim. 

There is a passage in one of Waller's poems, 
that " Of Divine Love," which in all the modern 
editions that I have seen contains a corruption. 
My attention was first called to the passage by a 

JSTo. 297.] 



letter from Bishop Warburton to Dr. Birch (Ni- 
chols's Illustrations, ii. 931.). The couplet runs 
thus in Fenton and his followers : 

" Who for himself no miracle would make, 
Dispens'd with several for the people's sake." 

Now several, as Warburton says, is nonsense. 
The true reading is nature, as Warburton ga- 
thered from a MS. of the poem in his possession. 

Thus far Warburton ; and my Note is, that the 
edition of 1686 of Waller now before me reads 
nature, and thus confirms the reading which future 
editors should certainly adopt. 

Peter Cunningham. 

Kensington. 



:^tKar 3oUS, 
An ^^ Army Works Corps" in 1598. — 

" The generall of the artillery hath vnder his charge a 
great number of labourers or pioners, which of necessity 
must be had in a camp, and follow an army, to make 
trenches, rampiers, minings, countermines, ditches, caues ; 
to make plaine the waves for the army to march ; to ac- 
commodate the passages for the artillery to passe; to 
raise mounts to plant ordinance vpon ; to place and fill 
the gabbions ; to digge earth for the same ; to undermine 
wals, and townes, and to raze those of any gained places 
downe ; to cut timber to fortify withall ; to digge wells 
for water, and great pits to bury and to cast therein, the 
garbedge, filthinesse, and offalls of the campe; and 
seruing to a number of such necessary uses. 

" Ouer the sayd pioners there are captaines appointed 
to gouerne them, which should be men verv expert ia 
fortifications, trenching, mining, counter-mining, and in 
all sorts of engines concerning a campe, and battery 
actions; and therefore besides their experience, they 
ought to be learned and well skilled in all maner of for- 
tifications, both in campe, towne, or fortresse. These 
pioners do go before the campe with a sufficient band of 
souldiers for their guard, carrying with them mattockes, 
spades, shouells, pikaxes, crowes of iron, barrells, baskets, 
hampiers, and such other tooles ; and ouer euery three or 
foure hundred pioners a captaine." 

The above is from The theorike and practike 
of moderns warres, discoursed in dialogue wise. 
Written by Robert Barret. London, printed for 
William Ponsonby. 1598. Folio. 

Bolton Cornet. 

A " Crannock." —There is not, I believe, any 
recorded proof to be found in " N. & Q.," or else- 
where in a printed form, of the contents of an 
Irish measure called the crannoch. Having lately 
met with this term upon one of the records of the 
Exchequer of Ireland, I shall feel obliged by the 
insertion in " N. & Q." of the following extracts, 
which have been taken from the Memoranda Roll 
of the 13 & 14 Edward II., membranes 8 and 9 : 

" Memorandum quod, etc., et Johannes de Grene re- 
cognoverunt se teneri Philippe Braoun janitori castri 
Uublinensis in tribus crannocis frumenti quolibet vide- 
licet crannoco continente octo pecks boni sicci et muadi 
bladi." 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



" Memorandum quod, etc., recognovit se teneri Johanni 
de Lidegate clerico in quinque crarinocis avene quorum 
quilibet crannocus continebit xvj pecks sicci boni et 
muiidi bladi." 

This measure, therefore, in Edward II.'s days, 
contained either eight or sixteen pecks. 

James F. Ferguson. 

Dublin. . 

A Relic of Wolfe. — There is, I think, a work 
of the day entitled il Ship from her Cradle to her 
Grave. Could the undernoted good old craft 
have bequeathed to us her reminiscences, how 
interesting and eventful ! 

« The End of an. Old Collier. 

« The ' Conference,' of North Shields, captured and 
burnt by the Riff pirates, was one of the oldest collier 
brigs belonging to the Tyne. She was employed as a 
transport at the siege of Quebec, and has been ploughing 
the main ever since." — Times, June 15, 1855. 

J.O. 

Alliterative Couplet on Cardinal Wolsey. — The 
couplet in the following extract is new to me, and 
may also be the same to the readers of "N. & 
Q.:" 

" Wolsey, they tell us, was a butcher. An alliterative 
couplet, too, was made upon him to that import : 

* By butchers born, by bishops bred. 
How high his honour holds his haughty head.' 

Notwithstanding which, however, and other similar al- 
lusions, there have arisen many disputes touching the 
veracity of the assertion ; yet doubtless, those who first 
promulgated the idea were keen observers of men and 
manners ; and probably', in the critical examination of 
the Cardinal's character, discovered a particular trait 
•which indubitably satisfied them of his origin." — Ab- 
surdities, by A. Crowquill, p. 89., 1827. 

What a pity that the Duke of Buckingham did 
not avail himself of " apt alliteration's artful aid" 
in his invectives against the " butcher's cur ! " 

CUTHBEKT BeDE, B.A. 

Shahspeare's " Seven Ages." — In a former 
Number of " N. & Q.," (Vol. viii., p. 383.) some 
Latin verses were quoted, as resembling these ce- 
lebrated lines in As You Like It. I do not know 
whether it lias been observed, that there is a 
parallel passasje in one ot the spurious dialogues of 
Plato (the Axiochus), in which Socrates suras up 
the successive miseries of human life, much in the 
spirit of Jaques, though more grave and less sa- 
tirical. See the English translation of Plato in 
Bohn's Classical Library, vol. vi. p. 44. F. 

Enigma on a Hole. — Pontanus having made 
the following enigma on a hole, — 

"Die mihi quod majus fiat quo plurima demas." 
Scriverius answered, — 

"Pontano demas carniina, major erit." 

K L. T 
No. 297.] 



€iutvitS, 

WAS THE DUKE OF YORK IN EDINBURGH IN 1684? 

The above question has lately turned up among 
the historical antiquaries of Edinburgh, and given 
rise to a good deal of discussion. As a question 
of the greatest importance regarding the force and 
value of evidence depends upon it, I venture to 
submit a few particulars to the public through 
your esteemed medium. 

The Duke of York, as is well known, spent 
some years previous to May, 1682, in Edinburgh , 
in consequence of his desperate unpopularity in 
the south, and from a desire to cultivate an in- 
terest in Scotland. He has not hitherto been 
supposed to have visited Edinburgh after that 
period ; not a single writer, even among such 
minute cotemporary chroniclers as Lord Poun- 
tainhall, speaks of his having done so. Yet , 
strange to say, in the written record of the Privy 
Council of Scotland, preserved in our General 
Register House here, the duke is described, under 
his usual style of " His E,oyal Highness his Ma- 
jesty's High Commissioner," as presiding at four 
meetings in the latter half of July, 1684, namely, 
those of the 15th, 17th, 22nd, and 24th. I appre- 
hend that, in the practice of our law courts, in- 
cluding the House of Lords, this evidence as to 
the whereabouts of a man at a particular date 
would be held as paramount and irrefragable. 
Nevertheless, there can scarcely be a doubt that 
the duke was not in Edinburgh at that time. 

In the first place, there is the remarkable cir- 
cumstance that we have no other notice of the fact 
whatever. Fountainhall notes from day to day 
every movement of the state, every meeting of 
the Privy Council, and a vast number of small 
local matters, .and yet takes no notice of a visit 
of the duke. On the contrary, describing the 
reception given on the 10th of July to the Ear 
of Perth, newly arrived as Chancellor, vice Aber- 
deen displaced, he says, the demonstrations could 
not have been more honourable, though the king 
or the duke had been of the party. If the duke 
really had appeared, in however incognito a man- 
ner, at the council board, fully twenty people 
were there to recognise him; and that such a 
secret should have been preserved in such a town 
as Edinburgh is inconceivable. 

In the second place, the first day's minutes pre- 
sent us with a letter addressed by the council to 
the duke himself, thanking him for his share in 
bringing about tlie late ministerial changes; and 
this letter, as well as an address to the king, is 
sent in another to the English Secretaries o 
State, with a request that it may be delivered. 
We can scarcely suppose that all this business 
would be gone through in obedience to mere form 
without any reference being made to the duke 
personal presence, if he had been present. 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



Thirdly. While it was common, though not in- 
variable, in the minutes of 1680, 81, and 82, when 
the duke was present, to commence the deliver- 
ances of the council, " His Royal Highness his 
Majesty's High Commissioner and the Lords ot 
the Privy Council, having considered," &c., we find 
in all the four meetings of the latter half of July, 
where the duke's style is placed at the head of 
the sederunt, the ordinary formula of _" Lords of 
Privy Council having considered," &c. is adopted. 
On the other hand, it is remarkable that the 
duke had certainly, in the early part of this year, 
contemplated a visit to Scotland, In a letter of 
his duchess, printed in the Spalding Club Miscel- 
lany, vol. iii., dated only " Jan. 7," but which we 
know from allusions to have been of 1684, she 
tells her correspondent, the Marchioness of Huntly, 
" We must be contented only with writing to one 
another, for we are not likely to meet, the duke's 
journey being for so short a time that I shall not 
go with him into Scotland." 

If the matter had stood at this point, there might 
have been room for doubt about it. But the debate 
has been in a great measure set at rest by the dis- 
covery amongst the papers of the Lord Treasurer 
the Duke of Queensbury, now in the possession of 
his representative the Duke of Buccleuch, of two 
letters holograph of the Duke of York, addressed 
to the said Lord Treasurer, and dated at Tun- 
bridae and Windsor, respectively on the 22nd and 
and 25th of July, 1684. In the first he tells the 
Lord Treasurer that he is " glad to find that most 
of the loyal men are pleased at Lord Perth's 
being made chancellor." In the second, he ac- 
knowledges receipt of a letter from the Lord 
Treasurer, dated the 17th, and two from the 
Secret Committee, and makes special allusion to 
matters then under the attention of the Privy 
Council of Scotland. It is of course evident that 
he could not both be in Tunbridge and in Edin- 
burgh on the 22nd of July, or at Windsor and 
Edinburgh on the 25th. The allusions also to 
business "make it clear that no suggestion as to 
difference of style will avail to render it possible 
that the duke was in Edinburgh at the time of 
the four sederunts. 

It will remain for those who may be conversant 
with such business, to surmise reasons for intro- 
ducing the name of an absent member into^ the 
record of Privy Council on those four occasions. 
I have not as yet heard a single plausible con- 
jecture on the subject. 

If none such can be presented, the facts thus 

elicited must certainly be held as reflecting strongly 

on the value of documentary evidence of this 

class. R- Chambebs. 

Edinburgh. 



No. 297.] 



UNPRINTED LETTER TO SIB FRANCIS BACON. 

There are two points of interest In the follow- 
ing undated letter among Ayscough's MSS. in the 
British Museum (No. 4108.), regarding which 1 
am desirous of Information. In the first place it 
is addressed to Sir Francis Bacon, who was not 
created Lord Verulam until July, 1618, so that it 
was evidently anterior to that year. I have no 
very good authorities at hand, but I have had the 
copy by me for some time, and I have not ob- 
served that the original Is mentioned In any of 
the various accounts of Bacon; although It affords 
proof of a trait in the character of that great- 
little man for which he has not usually had much 
credit. The writer appealed to him to lend his 
aid in silencing aspersions, regarding which even 
the severities of the law had been threatened.^ Is 
anything known of the nature of these aspersions, 
or of the person against whom they were circu- 
lated ? This brings me to my second question : 
Who was Edmond Anderson, the writer of the 
letter? There was a chief justice of the Common 
Pleas of both those names, but he died in 1605, 
and he left behind him no son of the name of 
Edmond : his male issue were respectively Ed- 
ward, Francis, and William. The last of these 
three sons had a son named Edmond, grandson of 
the chief justice, who was created a baronet by 
Charles II., and he was perhaps not born at the 
date when the letter in question was written. It 
is a biographical matter of some interest, upon 
which it" Is very possible that Mb. Foss may be 
able to throw light : If he can do so, I shall be 
much obliged to him. My Queries are. Has the 
following letter been noticed in any of the Me- 
moirs of Lord Bacon ? and who, and what, was 
Edmond Anderson, the writer of it ? 
« Mr. Edmond Anderson's Letter to Sir Francis Bacon. 
" Noble S', — There is ever certaine presumption to be 
had of the favor of great men, soe there be a reason added 
to accompany their justice : myne that gives boldnes to 
call upon your succour is, that I am fallen more under 
the malignity of rumour than severity of lawes, though 
that hath oversett myne offence at the blackest marke. 
To force this latter cloud away none can, but the breath 
of a kinge : the other, which threatneth and oppresseth 
more, everv good spirit may helpe to disperse. In this 
name (HoW" Sir) I beseech vour goodnes to spend some 
few words to the puttinge of false fame to flight, which 
hath soe often endangered even the innocent. And it the 
savinge of a poore penitent man may come to be parte ot 
your care, let it ever be reconed to your vertue, that you 
have not onelv assisted to preserve, but create a person so 
corrected by necessity as the example of his repentance 
was not worthy to be lost, whoe will live and dye thank- 
fully yours. " Edmond Andekson. 

Whatever were the offences Imputed to Lord 
Bacon's correspondent (a matter of comparatively 
little moment), the tone and expressions of the 
above communication read almost like a confes- 
sion of guilt. J. Payne Collier. 
Maidenhead. 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Proverb. — Is the following proverb known and 
registered in any collection of rural philosophy ? 
I heard it the other day from an old herd. I was 
deploring the wetness of the month (May), when he 
replied : 

" A leaky May and a dry June 
Keeps the puir man's head abune." 

e. D. L. 

Greenock. 

" DidrorCs Christian Iconography" — As four 
years have now elapsed since Mr. Bohn published 
in his Illust. Library the first volume of Didron's 
Christian Iconography, may I venture to ask that 
gentleman when the second volume, which he has 
promised, may be expected ? 

It will be a great pleasure to many readers of 
" N. & Q.," besides myself, to learn that the con- 
clusion of the work will not be much longer de- 
layed. F. D. 
Beverley. 

Marvellous Music. — Among the Howard Papers, 
Lady Arabella Stuart, writing to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury from Broad Street, June 17, 1609, 



" But now from doctrine to miracles : I assure you 
w">in these few dayes I saw a paire of virginalles make 
good musick w*out helpe of any hand, but of one, that 
did nothing but warme, not move, a glass some five or 
six foote from them. And if I thought, thus great folkes 
invisibly and farre off worke in matters to tune them, as 
they please, I pray yo"" Lop forgive me ; and I hope God 
will, to whose holy protection I humbly recomend y 
Lop," &c. 

Can any of the readers in " N. & Q." divine any 
explanation how this curious experiment was con- 
trived ? Electricity or galvanism has been sug- 
gested. Cl. Hopper. 

Bankers' Cheques. — A difficulty in one case, a 
loss in another, and a doubt in the third — all of 
•which have happened during the last few days — 
make it of great importance that there should be 
a better understanding in these matters than seems 
at present to prevail. Some would, probably, 
think the city article of The Times the most ap- 
propriate place for these inquiries. I believe 
there are many readers of " N. & Q." who can 
enlighten us on the subject. 

1. Can a banker lawfully refuse to pay a cheque 
drawn on himself, although it be crossed in blank ; 
that is, the words " & Co." written upon it ? 

2. Is there any specific time in which a country 
banker becomes liable for a cheque which he has 
changed, or received in account, supposing it be 
not paid by the person on whom it is drawn ? 

3. Is it lawful, or necessary, or of any utility, 
to cross a stamped cheque made payable to order ? 

N. H. L. E. 
No. 297.] 



Renown. — Where shall I meet with the piecOi 
of which the following is a verse ? 

" I think the thing you call renown. 
That unsubstantial vapour, 
For which the soldier burns a town, 

The sonnateer a taper. 
Is like the mist, which as he flies 

The horseman leaves behind him, 
He cannot mark its wreaths arise. 
Or if he can, they blind him." 

R. Y. T. 
" Struggles for Life." — Could any of your 
readers tell me who is the author of Struggles for 
Life, or the Autobiography of a Dissenting Minister, 
published in 1853, by VV.&F. G. Cash, 5. Bishops- 
gate Street. Fueur-de-XiIS. 

George Fox foretold : Query, By what Prophet ? — 
That "good hater" after Dr. Johnson's own heart, 
worthy Francis Bugg, mentions in his Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress from Quakerism to Christianity, p. 259., the 
following long-winded title of one of Fox's works : 

" News coming up out of the North, sounding towards 
the South, written from the Mouth of the Lord, from one 
who is naked, &c., and cloathed with Righteousness ; whose 
Name is not known in the World, risen out of the North, 
which was prophesied of, and now fulfilled." 

To which our friend with the unsavoury patrony- 
mic dryly adds in the margin : " Query, By what 
prophet ?" I am pretty well acquainted with the 
controversial literature of the time, but I don't 
remember to have seen this answered. Will some 
one state the grounds for the assumed Messiah- 
ship. The marked locality of expression forbids 
the idea of a mere generality. 

C. Clifton Barht. 

" Pollards." — Trees with their heads cut oflF 
are called pollards, and disfigure the landscape in 
many parts of England. They are all old and 
ugly ; and as tenants are not allowed to cut the 
timber, how came these trees into existence ? H. T. 

Providence. — Written upon a fly-leaf of a little 
pocket Goldsmith's Almanac of 1679, I found the 
following lines. Are they from any known au- 
thor ? There is a striking similarity in idea to 
some portions of Pope's Essay on Man : 

" Did we not know, there's an adorfed will 
In all that happs to men, or good or ill, 
Suffer'd or sent, and what is man to pry 
Into th' abyss of such a mystery ? 
How man}' dangers on best actions wait. 
Right check'd by wrong, and ill men fortunate, 
Those mov'd effects from an unmoved cause, 
Might shake an easie faith ; Heav'n's sacred laws 
Might casual seem, and o^ irregular sense 
Spurne at just order, and blame Providence." 

Cl. Hopper. 

" Nine hundred and three doors out of the world." 
— Can any of your readers inform me in what 
Jewish author can be found an enumeration of 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



nine hundred and three, being every kind of death 
by which man enters the unseen world? It is 
referred to in an interesting little volume by H. 
Pendlebury, one of the ejected ministers, entitled 
Invisible Realities, p. 19. : 

" There is but one door that we all land in at our 
entrance. The Jews reckon nine hundred and three kinds 
of death or ways out of the world. Among all the kinds 
we can't see our own kind of death, by which we shall go 
into another world." 

But it appears there are many keys to each door, 
for, on p. 68,, the author argues thus : 

" Sirs ! you and I stand at the door of these unseen 
things ; and if death do but once open it, by any one of 
its manj' thousand keys, we shall immediately see that 
which we have never seen." 

G. Offob. 

Hackney. 

'■'■ News from Westminster ." — In the Poems on 
State Affairs, printed in 1704, occurs the follow- 
ing quatrain. An explanation will oblige. 

" NEWS FROM WESTMINSTER. 

-" Strange news from Westminster, the like was never 

heard, 

A Treasurer* in pantaloons, a Bishop f without beard, 

A Judge J with a periwig to his waste hanging down, 

A Speaker§ of the Commons that never wore a gown." 

Cl. Hopper. 

" Old Nick." — In Mr. Thorns' edition of the 
History of Reynard the Fox, printed for the 
Percy Society, p. 191., is the following note : 

" Nychers. In this name we have a striking allusion to 
the mythology of Scandinavia, and that portion of it which 
is retained among us to this day, when we designate the 
Evil One by the epithet of Old Nick. Odin assumes the 
name of Nickar, or Hnickar, when he enacts the destroj'ing 
or evil principle, and scarcely a river of Scandinavia which 
has not its appropriate Nikir." 

An explanation of one of our " household words " 
imported from Scandinavia, appears to be rather 
far-fetched. But I find that other writers have 
taken the same view as ]\Ir. Thoms : see Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, edited by Sir li. Ellis, vol. ii. 
p. 519. 

With the greatest deference to these learned 
antiquaries, I venture to propose a more simple, 
and therefore, in my judgment, better explanation 
of the epithet. It seems to me to refer to that 
peculiarly distinguishing mark of the devil, in 
popular belief, the cloven hoof : 

" There is no vulgar story of the devil's having appeared 
anywhere without a cloven foot. It is observable, also, 
that this infernal enemy, in graphic representations of 
him, is seldom or never pictured without one." — Brand, 
vol. ii. p. 517. 

The writer goes on to explain that the cloven foot 
belongs to the goat's shape, which is attributed to 



* Osborn. 
t Atkvn. 
1^0.297.] 



t Crew. 
§ Seymour. 



the fiend ; and that the horns and tail are similarly 
accounted for. 

Two other popular names of the devil in the 
North of England, " Old Harry " (Hairy), and 
" Old Scratch," seem plainly to refer to the same 
personal characteristic of the enemy of man, though 
they have much puzzled the antiquaries. {Brand, 
vol. ii. p. 520.) F. 

Bennet's " Paraphrase on the Book of Common 
Prayer." — In Thomas Bennet's Paraphrase, ivith 
Annotations upon the Book of Common Prayer^ 
edit. 1709, p. 94., occurs the following passage in 
a note on his commentary on the Litany : 

" I think myself obliged to take notice of a most scan- 
dalous practice which prevails in many such congrega- 
tions, as ought to be fit precedents for the whole kingdom 
to follow. 'Tis this : that laymen, and very often young 
boys of eighteen or nineteen years of age, are not only per- 
mitted, but oblig'd, publicly to perform this office; which 
is one of the most solemn parts of our divine service, even 
tho' many priests and deacons are at the same time 
present." 

What practice is here alluded to, and what 
congregations ? H. 

Sabbath. — When was the word Sabbath first 
used to designate Sunday ? In Low Latin it al- 
ways means Saturday. In the records of Con- 
vocation, as long as they were kept in Latin, Dies 
Sabbathi is always the Latin for Saturday. The 
same is the case in many of the continental lan- 
guages. William Fkaser, B. C. L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Poll-books. — What is the date of the earliest 
printed poll-book known? and is any collection 
of these documents in existence ? Z. z. 

A small white Hand a Sign of high Birth. — 
I wish some of your correspondents would give 
their observations on this fallacy (as I must deem 
it) of Lord Byron's. I have had little opportunity 
myself of forming a general opinion on the siib- 
ject ; but have been a disbeliever ever since seeing 
one of the largest pair of hands I ever beheld 
belonging to a gallant naval officer, to whom, in 
point' of pedigree. Lord Byron could hardly hold 
a candle. Sir Walter Scott too is well known to 
have had remarkably large hands, although he 
could adduce as many royal and noble ancestors 
as Byron himself. On the other side, I have seen 
very small white hands on persons of no particular 
descent ; but who may have consoled themselves, 
in their obscurity, with the belief that they bad 
more illustrious blood in their veins than they 
were aware of, on the strength of Lord Byron's 
dictum. J. S. Warden. 



July 7. 1855.' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



Anonymous Hymns. — Can you or any of your 
correspondents inform me of the authorship of the 
following hymns ? 

1. " Bring helpless infancy to me." 

2. " The food on which thy children live." 

3. " When His salvation bringeth." 

4. " Captain of Thine enlisted host." 

5. " Lord, look on all assembled here." 

6. " Great Ruler of the earth and skies." 

7. " See, gracious God, before Thy throne." 

8. " To God, the only wise." 

9. " Praise the Lord, ye heav'ns, adore Him." 

10. " With all my pow'rs of heart and tongue." 

11. " Lord, when my thoughts delighted rove." 

12. " Plung'd in a gulph of dark despair." 

13. " Thou art the way, to Thee alone." 

14. " Thanks for mercies past receive." 

15. " O Thou that dwellestin the heavens so high." 

16. " Our God, our help in ages past." 

Also whether 

" Come, thou long-expected Jesus," 

is by Oliver? C. H. H.W. 

Dublin. 

[We can supply the authorship of a few of these 
hymns: N"os. 6, 7, and 11. are by Mrs. Anne Steele, and 
will be found in her Poems on Subjects chiefly Devotional, 
by Theodosia, 3 vols. 8vo. Bristol, 1780. Nos. 8. 10. 12. 
and 16. are by Dr. Watts.] 

Homer and Lord North. — The following; stanza 
occurs in " An Ode to Lord North," in Fugitive 
Pieces of the Last Sessio?i, London, 1782 : 

" Take timely counsel. Lend thine ear 
To Homer's words ; for prophet ne'er 
Did deeper wisdom utter : 
'Tis hard to fight or press demands 
'Gainst a majority which stands 
Up for its bread and butter." 

Is any corresponding passage in Homer ?s J. D. 

[There is a line in Homer (_Iliad, book ii. 24.) analo- 
gous in sentiment to the words in the "Ode to Lord 
North : " 

" Ou xPV Tawuxiov evSeiv pov\r)<f>6pov avSpa ;" 

i. e. A statesman should be ever taking counsel, by night 
as well as by day.] 

Battle of Patay. — I am anxious to know 
whether the battle of Patay, at which Joan of Arc 
was present, was fought on the 10th or the 18 th 
of June, 1429. The books of reference which I 
have consulted do not agree as to the day of the 
month. Clericus (D.). 

[In L'Art de Verifier les Dates we read, "Le 18 Mai, 
elle combat a la bataille de Patai, en Beauce, oil Talbot, 
ge'ne'ral des Anglais, aprfes avoir perdu deux mille 
hommes, est pris avec plusieurs autres chefs."] 



BACK, 

(Vol. ix., p. 517.) 
If Barrett's conjecture as to the origin of thi» 
word, as locally applied at Bristol, is to be ad- 
mitted, it would perhaps rather be a ferry than a 
river, from which it originated. The following 
extract from a curious little volume * tends to 
show that this was the case : 

" Sur la Tamise est basty un pont de pierre oeuvre fort 
rare et excellent. Ce pont a vingt arches faictes de 
pierre, de 60 pieds de haulteur et de 30 pieds de large, 
basties en faijon de voulte. Sur le pont de coste et 
d'autre y a maisons, chambres et greniers, en sorte qu'il 
semble mieux estre une rue qu'un pont. Quant a la 
fondation du dit pont, faict k noter qu'au commencement 
il n'y avoit apparence de pont, raais c'estoit un bac, pour 
passer y repasser les gens et les marchandises amenees 
h, Londres. Par ce bac le passager s'enrichit merveilleuse- 
ment, pour I'occupation qu'il en fait par longues annees. 
Apres son decfes, il le laissa par legs testamentaire h, une 
sienne fille nommee Marie Andery [1. Overy]. Elle 
s'estant saisie d^s biens de defuncts ses pere et mere, et 
apres aussi avoir amasse tout pleiu de biens par le moyen 
du dit bac, fut conseillee de fonder une Keligion de Non- 
nains, un peu au-dessus du Chceur de I'Eglise qui depuia 
fut appellee Saincte Marie Andery (i. e. St. Mary Overies), 
aux fauxbourg de Soutwark lez Londres, en laquelle elle 
fut enterree. A I'entretenement de laquelle Eglise, icelle 
Marie donna par testament ledict bac et les profits pro- 
venants d'icelluy," &c. — Sig. L. iiij. 

It is evident that Bac is here used for Ferry^ 
but it strictly meant the vessel, or rather movable 
bi-idge, by means of which carriages, horses, and 
passengers were ferried over, as appears from that 
valuable old dictionary of Nicot, the prototype of 
our worthy Cotgrave : 

" Bac, m. acut. est un grand bateau k passer char- 
rettes, chevaux, et gens de pied d'un bord de rivifere k 
autre. Ponto, en Latin : Lequel mot retenants en maint 
lieux, celuy qui passe I'eau aux allans et venans est 
appelM Pontonier, qu'on dit en autres endroits Passagier, 
et Barquerol pour le mesme." 

It is singular that Stow, in his Survey of London^ 
has related the same account of the origin of the 
Priory of St. Mary Overies, which he is said to 
have obtained from Bartholomew Linsted, the last 
prior, but which Tanner says "is not confirmed 
by any other authority in print or manuscript that 
had occurred to him." We have here, at least, 
an earlier authority than Stow by twenty years. 
Whether the tradition was derived by Jean Ber- 
nard from the same source or not, does not appear. 

S. W. SiNGEE. 
Mickleham. 



No. 297.] 



* Discours des plus Memorables faicts des Roys et 
grands Seigneurs d'Angleterre, &c. Plus une Traict^ de 
la Guide des Chemins, les assiettes et Description des 
principales Villes, Chateuaux et Rivieres d'Angleterre, 
par Jean Bernard, 12o, k Paris, 1579. 



1!2 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



SIB BICHAED STEELE AND THE LADIES LIBEABY. 

(Vol. xi., p. 408.) 

Steele's eldest daughter, afterwards Lady 
Trevor, was named Elizabeth, and it is not im- 
probable that, though a child at the time, the 
doating father had a copy of the work bound in 
morocco after his thoughtless fashion and pre- 
sented it to her, and that the father, the mother, 
or she herself at some subsequent period, wrote 
" Eliza Steele" in it. This of course is but a con- 
jecture. I think, however, there is some evidence 
that may lead us to conclusions as to who was the 
compiler of the work. Your correspondent says it 
" was edited by Sir Richard from materials for- 
warded by a lady." So far as I can see, Steele's 
labours were confined to writing the dedications 
and a general preface. In the title-page the 
work is said to be " written by a lady," and 
" published by Sir Richard Steele ; " but in the 
preface the " writer " of the title-page becomes 
the "compiler," and Steele informs us that he is 
but " her gentleman usher," — that the work is 
"supposed to be collected out of the several 
writings of our greatest divines," — was " intended 
by the compiler for a guide to her own conduct," 
— and sent to him that " if thought worth pub- 
lishing " it might be " of the same service to 
others of her sex," — and he thus proceeds : 

"I put them into the care of a reverend gentleman 
much better qualified for the publication of such a work, 
and whose life and character are not so subject to the 
exceptions which the levity of some of my writings, as 
well as other circumstances, may expose a work as passing 
through my hands only. Though he was so good as to 
peruse the papers, he would not allow that the exception 
I made against my being the publisher was of weight ; 
for he would have it, that its coming out with my name 
would give an expectation that I had assembled the 
thoughts of many ingenious men on pious subjects, as I 
had heretofore on matters of a different nature : by this 
means, he believes, the work may come into the hands of 
persons who take up no book that has not promises of 
entertainment in the first page of it. For the rest, he was 
of opinion it would make its own way, and I easily sub- 
mitted to suffer a little raillery, when I had hopes of being 
the means of promoting the interests of religion and 
virtue." 

It follows, according to the title-page and this 
statement, that the work was compiled by a lady, 
and given to Steele for publication, and I agree 
with your correspondent that the question, " Who 
was the compiler ? " has some little literary 
interest. The publication gave rise to an angry 
correspondence, embodied in a pamphlet entitled : 

" Mr. Steele Detected : or the poor and oppressed or- 
phan's letters to the great and arbitrary Mr. Steele ; com- 
plaining of the great injustice done to the publick in 
general, and to himself in particular, b}' the Ladies' 
Library; published by Mr. Steele. Together with Mr. 
Steele's Answers; and some just Reflections on them. 
Lond., Morphew, 1714." 

No. 297.] 



The great injustice complained of is, that not 
only " the model of the Ladies' Library," but 
" the very timber, brick, and other materials " 
are stolen ; that " many and whole sections " have 
been taken without acknowledgment from Jeremy 
Taylor's Holy Living and Dying, the copyright of 
which work was vested in Royston Meredith, the 
complainant, who, I suppose, was a descendant of 
Royston, the bookseller and publisher of many of 
Taylor's works. Steele's first answer was very 
brief : 

" October 21, 1714. 

" Sir, I will inquire into what you ^vrite about, and 
write again about the subject of yours to, Sir, your most 
humble servant, Richard Steele." 

The " oppress'd orphan," however, would not wait 
Steele's inquiries, but replied immediately, in- 
sisting on ample satisfaction, threatening proceed- 
ings at law, and informing Steele that Tonson the 
publisher, on being referred to, said " that he paid 
copy-money, and that Meredith must apply to the 
author for redress." Steele now replied, not un- 
kindly, bxit firmly and finally : 

" October 26, 1714. St. James's Street 
" Sir, I have a second letter from you. The stile of the 
first was very harsh to one whom you are not at all ac- 
quainted with ; but there were suggestions in it which 
might give excuse for being out of humour at one whom 
you might, perhaps, think was the occasion of damage to 
you. You mentioned also an orphan, which word was a 
defence against any warm reply; but since you are 
pleased to go on in an intemperate way of talk, I shall 
give myself no more trouble to inquire about what you 
complain, but rest satisfied in doing all the good offices I 
can to the reverend author's grandchild, now in town. 
Thus leaving you to contend about your title to his 
writings, and wishing you success, if you have justice on 
your side ; I beg you will give me no more ill language, 
and you will oblige, Sir, your humble servant, 

RiCHAKD Steele." 

Meredith, in his pamphlet, expresses his belief 
that "the lady mentioned in the title-page, and 
the clergyman in the preface," are " nothing more 
than a blind excuse for his notorious plagiarism." 
I think not. In Steele's letter the shadowy 
" lady " of the title-page becomes a real and dis- 
tinct personage, "the reverend author's grand- 
child." Now the only reverend author mentioned 
in Meredith's letters, the only author referred to, 
is Jeremy Taylor; and as I read it, Steele declares 
that the work was compiled by Taylor's grand- 
daughter. Jeremy Taylor had two grand- 
daughters, Mary and Ann, children of his dnughter 
Joanna, who had married Edward Harrison of 
Maralane, Antrim, member of parliament for 
Lisburn. Mary was twice married; first to a 
Colonel Columbine, and secondly to Sir Cecil 
Wray, of Glentworth, Lincolnshire. She was not 
only wealthy by marriage, but ultimately inherited 
a considerable fortune as the last survivor of the 
Harrison family. Ann married Colonel John 
Pacey, secretary to the Duke of Ormond. 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



If we put faith in Steele's statement, and I see 
no reason for Mr. Meredith's doubt, it must have 
been one or other of these ladies that compiled the 
work, a very natural and becoming " labour of 
love." From the few circumstances that can help 
to a conjecture, I incline to an opinion in favour 
of Lady Mary. Jeremy Taylor, if so great a 
man may be enlisted under any mere party banner, 
was a high churchman and a high Tory ; indeed, 
Heber thinks it strange that any of his descend- 
ants should be found amongst the Whigs. It is 
fair to assume also that the secretary to the Duke 
of Ormond was of the same high church and Tory 
school. Taylor's daughters both in the first in- 
stance married gentlemen of estate in Ireland, 
and so far as appears, Ann may have continued to 
reside there all her life. But Steele was a Whig, 
and in 1714 a very fierce, active, and uncompro- 
mising AVhig. It was in that year that he was 
expelled from the then Tory House of Commons 
for writing The Crisis and The JiJnglishman, and 
it was in that year that the manuscript of the 
Ladies' Library was put into his hands for pub- 
lication. It is not unfair, therefore, to assume 
that there was some political sympathy between 
Steele and the compiler; for parties then ran 
so high that Swift himself was reproved for his 
intimacy with Steele, and Pope remonstrated 
with because he wrote in The Guardian. Ladies' 
political opinions are, of course, influenced by 
their husbands, and I have shown the probability 
that the husband of Ann was a high churchman 
and a Tory, and in 1714, we may be sure, strong 
both in faith and profession. Some Whig ten- 
dencies, indeed, subsequently manifested them- 
selves in Jeremy Taylor Harrison, one of the 
brothers of these ladies, who won thereby from 
Swift a place in the Legion Club : 

" There sit Clements, Dilkes, and Harrison, 
How they swagger from their garrison ! 
Such a triplet could j'ou tell 
Where to find on this side hell ? " 

The Whig sympathies of Mary are, however, 
better explained by her second marriage with Sir 
Cecil Wray, who, and whose elder brother, were 
zealous Whigs, and had served under King 
William, and been present at the battle of the 
Boyne. This marriage not only brings Mary as 
a permanent resident into England, — and Steele 
said she is " now in London," — but into imme- 
diate connexion with the Whig party. Under 
these circumstances, few and insufiicient as they 
are, I incline to the opinion that the Ladies' 
Library was compiled by Mary, the granddaughter 
of Jeremy Taylor, and the wife of Sir Cecil Wray. 

S. S. L. 



No. 297.] 



ON STOCKING MARINE AQUAEIA. 

(Vol. xi., pp. 365. 410. 452.) 

For a long time prior to the publication of Mr. 
Gosse's book, I had given my attention to the 
management of aquaria ; bat with this departure 
from the course pursued by Mr. Gosse and others, 
that I cultivated fresh-icater fishes and plants. 
My endeavours have been chiefly directed to the 
best mode of rendering the aquarium an elegant 
drawing-room ornament, easy of management, and 
at all seasons engaging and instructive. "N. & Q." 
is not a suitable medium for a lengthened com- 
munication on the subject, or I would detail at 
length the history of experiments from which I 
have derived much pleasure and profit. I will 
however embrace the opportunity aff()rded by the 
present discussion of the question, to aff'ord those 
interested a few hints on stocking and maintaining 
an aquarium with fresh-water productions. 

The best form of an aquarium for ornamental 
purposes is that adopted by painters and sculptors, 
when they desire to render an angular object 
graceful, viz. the double cube, in which the length 
is exactly double that of the width, the width and 
depth being equal. Such an object, if cut in half, 
would form two perfect cubes, and presents the 
most graceful outline of which an oblong angular 
body is susceptible. Having provided the tank, 
sprinkle in a stratum of fine sandy earth to the 
depth of one inch. Then build up according to 
fancy one or two masses of rockwork, for which 
dark stones should be chosen. The clinkers pro- 
duced at glass factories, and technically called 
" broken pots," are the handsomest for the pur- 
pose. There should be no gay shells about, or 
fantastic work of any kind ; they attract the eye 
from the more important objects, and injure by 
contrast the fresh aspect of the vegetation. One 
mass of rock-work should peer above the surface, 
for the growth of some choice aquatic plants. On 
the surface of this upper mass, a few inches of 
sandy mould, mixed with moss, should be placed ; 
and the crevices should be arranged to receive 
mould above the level of the water. Now fill the 
tank with clear river water, and insert the plants. 

In stocking with plants, Potamogeton fluitans, 
brooklime, water ranunculus (R. aquatalis), water 
violet, watercress, Dortinaus lobelia, the Dasmo- 
sonium indicum, and any other small-growing 
water plants, are suitable. The stones below 
should be coated with fresh-water algae, of any 
kinds easily attainable. There is a beautiful Cape 
plant, the Aponogeton distachyon, well suited for 
flowering on the rock- work above the surface ; 
and if the tank affords room for three inches of 
loam in one corner at the bottom, the yellow water- 
lily {Nuphar lutea) may be grown. It will oc- 
cupy a space of a foot or so in diameter, and will 
with care flower freely within doors. If a large 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



tank be used, a mound may be raised above one 
of the piles of rock-work, and planted with ferns ; 
which have a fairy-like aspect when wavinjr their 
emerald fronds over the glittering water. The best 
for this purpose are the oak fern {Polypodium 
dryopteris), the brittle bladder fern (Cystupteris 
fragilis), the pretty little Alpine bladder fern 
(C AlpineB), the true maiden hair {Adiantum 
capillus), and the Tunbridge filmy fern {Tricho- 
manes Tunbridgense). The ferns should be planted 
in a mixture of pounded charcoal, fine sand, leaf- 
mould, and very old lime rubbish ; and so arranged 
that the rocky surface on which they grow will 
prevent their root-stocks penetrating to the water. 
A fountain, which is easily arranged by the aid of 
a concealed gutta percha tube, may be made to 
play above these to the advantage of the ferns 
and the completeness of the scene. There are 
other moisture-loving ferns which would thrive in 
such a situation, but they would attain to too 
great a size. Those recommended do not any of 
them attain a greater height than eighteen or 
twenty inches. 

To obviate the necessity of a frequent change 
of water, a little system of compensation may be 
adopted. Furnish the tank with some plants of 
charce, and also with three or four water-snails. 
The chara will supply continuous streams of oxy- 
gen by a decomposition of the water, and thus 
preserve its freshness for the health of the fish, 
and the water-snails will devour every particle of 
scum or result of vegetable decay, and as they 
multiply under the masses of herbage the fish will 
regale upon their offspring. 

As to fish, where ornament Is sought rather 
than means of study, common gold fish are the 
easiest to obtain and keep ; but these fish ought 
not to monopolise our indoor lakes, as they do. 
The little stickleback and the gudgeon should be 
supplied in goodly numbers. They are very spor- 
tive, and splash about amongst the floating foliage 
in a most amusing manner. Carp, barbel, roach, 
and bream are all suitable, if not too large ; but 
perch, chub, and tench do not suit well, on account 
of their voracity, and the large size they attain. 

This form of the aquarium admits of ornament 
to almost any extent, and is a pleasing addition 
to the resources of an invalid, or as a hobby for 
those who love " little things that live and grow." 
I shall shortly publish an account of my progress 
in the culture of fresh-water productions indoors, 
and offer the foregoing hints in advance of what 
I have to say farther on the subject. 

ShIBLET PIlBBERD. 



As some of your readers appear to be in- 
teresting themselves about vivaria, possibly, the 
following notice of their early existence may not 
be uninteresting : 

" Thence to see my Lady Pen., where mv wife and I 

No. 297.] 



were shown a fine rarity ; of fishes kept in a glass of 
water, that will live so for ever ; and finely marked they 
are, being foreign." — Pepys's Dianj, May 28, 1665. 

G. H. KiKGSLEr. 



PBIESTS HIDING-PLACES. 

(Vol. xi., p. 437.) 

There are many of these remaining in the 
mansions of old Catholic families. Your corre- 
spondent Henky Tuck alludes to those at Sawston 
Hall, near Cambridge ; Coldham Hall, Suffolk ; 
Maple Durham ; and Ufton Court, Berkshire. 
There Is one very deep at Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk ; 
and nearly every old Catholic hall was provided 
with one, from the necessity of the times when 
the penal laws were rigorously enforced. The 
most curious hiding-place I have seen is that at 
Irnham Hall In Lincolnshire. The situation of 
this ingeniously- contrived place had been for- 
gotten, though it was well known to exist some- 
where In the mansion, till It was discovered a few 
years ago. In going round the chimney stacks it 
was observed that one of the chimneys of a cluster 
was without smoke or any blackness, and as clean 
as when the masonry was new. This led to the 
conjecture that it was not in reality a chimney, 
but an open shaft to give light and air to the 
priests' hiding-place, yet so forming one of a 
group of chimneys as to obviate all suspicion of its 
real purpose. It was carefully examined, and the 
conjecture fully borne out by the discovery of the 
long lost hiding-place. 

The opening into it was found by removing a 
beam behind a single step between two servants' 
bedrooms. You then come to a panel, which has 
a very small Iron tube let into it, through which 
any message could be conveyed to the occupant of 
the hiding-place. This panel being removed, a 
ladder of four steps leads down into the secret 
chamber, which, like that at Ingatestone Hall, is 
exceedingly dry, and free from any unpleasant 
atmosphere, owing to the excellent ventilation by 
means of the chimney above described. The floor, 
when I went down into it a few years a;jo, was of 
loose sand and a few stones, like the ordinary rub- 
bish of an unfinished building. There was a thick 
rush mat rolled up at one end, which had served 
the priest for a bed, and there was a small prayer- 
book, which no doubt he had used in his solitary 
confinement. The hiding-place is eight feet long 
by five feet broad, and just high enough to allow 
of standing upright. F. C. H. 

I have read with much interest the remarks 
(Vol. xi., p. 437.) on the priests' hiding-place 
at Ingatestone Hall. 

As misprints occur in the names of the localities 
of two of the examples cited by your correspon- 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



dent, and with wlilch I am acquainted, I venture to 
make the following observations. 

For Lawston Hall read Sawston Hall, near 
Cambridge, the seat of the ancient family of Hud- 
dleston : the mansion was destroyed on account of 
their adherence to the faith of their ancestors, and 
rebuilt in the time of Queen Mary, when the pre- 
caution was taken to construct the chapel in the 
roof. It is approached by a winding-staircase, 
which also gives access to the dreary " hiding- 
hole." 

Among other yaluable pictures still preserved at 
Sawston Hall, is a portrait of Father Huddleston, 
by whom Charles II. was reconciled to the See of 
Home on his death-bed, of which an interesting 
account is given by Miss Strickland in the life of 
Queen Catherine of Braganza. 

Ufton Court (mis-spelt Upton), near Reading, is 
an extensive, picturesque timber mansion, now 
sadly reduced and dilapidated, the former resi- 
dence of the Perkyns family. 

The chapel is on the second floor, in the roof. 
A piece of oak panelling of the sixteenth century, 
embellished with painting, still retains the abbre- 
viated names of Jesus and Mary. 

The hiding-hole is a lost space, of uneasy access 
by trap-door, in the midst of a chimney-stack near 
the lesser hall. 

Happily our lot is cast in an age when such 
precaution is no longer requisite in the construc- 
tion of domestic edifices. C. A. Buckler. 

Oxford. 



AUTHORS NAMES ANAGRAMMATISED. 

(Vol. xi., p. 463.) 

At the request of Balliolensis, I send the fol- 
lowing specimens, taken from Barbier's Table of 
Pseudonyms; they are not all, however, perfect 
anajjrams : 



Anagram. 
d'Aceilly - - . 
Alc^ dii Geroyle - 
Alcrofibas (feu Mc.) \ 
Alcofiibas Nasier J 
Alcuinus - . _ 
d'Alsinois (le comte) 
Anagrame d'Auneur 
Arlamech - - _ 
Arminis (anonymus de) 
Aspasius Antivigilmus - 
Atjem - - _ _ 
Audainel - . . 
Barettus (Lucius) - 
Barquebois (le sieur de) - 
Beauiioir - _ . 
Bonarscius - - - 
Borsandius - - - 
Braydore - . _ 
Bunialdus (Antonius) - 
Burgoldensis (Ph. Andr.) 
Castim (Josephus) 
Celspirius ... 
No. 297.] 



True Name. 
De Cailly. 
Claude Le Goyer. 

Pran(;ois Rabelais. 

Calvinus. 

Nicolas Denisot. 

Arraand Ragueneau. 

MardchaL 

De Marini. 

Aprosius de Vintimiglia. 

Jamet. 

Delaunay. 

Aulus Curtius. 

Jacques Robbe. 

Robineau. 

Scribanius. 

Brandesius. 

Roberday. 

Montalbanus. 

Oldenburgerus. 

Thomas Picetius. 

Serpilius. 



Anagram. 
Cermier de Sipois - 
Challudre (Simon) 
Chambre (Etienne de la) 
Chreggrene (^milius) - 
Cirellus . . - . 

Clouset . - - - 

Colvinus (Ludioinseas) - 
Corallus (Abydenus) 
Cotonius (Antonius) 
Crocippus (Aspasius) 
Dadeus Rufus 

Dalarinus (Fr.) - - - 
Datify de Romy - - - 
Demetrius (Aletheius) - 
Democritus (Constantinus) - 
Deviraeus (Renatus) 
Didoclavius (Eduardus) 
Disambec - ' - 
Drachir d'Armoni - - - 
Dralymont (J. D.) seigneur'^ 
de Yarl^me 3 

Eblanus (Candidus) 
Elintus . - - - 

Eiliverf Tnias ed Eniatnof 
Etrobius . - - - 
Etteilla - . - - 
Felhemesi . - - - 
Gaminville - - - - 
Gherus (Ranutius) 
Glaumalis de Vezelet - 
Hadezuca - - . - 
Higatus (Ranutius) 
Hyeval (Noel) - 
Josema Hermannus 
Ladulfi (Leon) - - - 
Lahceram - - - - 
Lasor h. Varea - - _ 
L^onnar (Achille) 
Lerac - - - - - 
Letus (Calvidius) - - - 
Lisset-Benancio - - - 
Loranicus - - - - 
Massalia de Sancto Lupo 
(Alexius a) - - - 
Maugenet - . - - 
Melitanus a Corylo (Joannes) 
Menart (le S.) - - - 
Mercerus (Saulus) 
Messalinus (W.) - - - 
Miriteus (Rolandus) 
Moni (le sieur de) - - - 
Mothe- Josseval (de la) - 
Musac (le sieur de) 
Musambertus (Claudius) 
Nellerto . - - - 
Nestesuranoy (le B. Iwan) - 
Nibuatnias - - - - 
Nigard(Sal.) 

Noissod - . - - 
Oger Liban Erberg 
Ollemirus _ . . - 
Ollenix de Mont-Sacre - 
D'Ollincan - - - - 
Persius Trevus - - - 
Pierchameus (Morinus) - 
Primnellius - - - - 
Rabi el UUoa de Deon - 
Randi - - - - - 
Rebude- . _ - - 
Reitabas de Sertsac 
Relfendso - - - - 



True Name. 

Mercier de Poissy. 

Charles du Moulin. 

Bruzen de la Martlni^re. 

Michael Geringer. 

Crellius. 

Coustel. 

Ludovicus Molinaeus. 

Ulrichus de Hutten. 

Ausonius Noctinot. 

Gasp. Scioppius. 

J. B. AudiflFredl. 

Raj'naldus. 

Faydit, de Riora. 

La"Mettrie. 

Christop. Andr. Meycke. 

Andreas Rivetus. 

D. Calderwood. 

De Cambis. 

Richard Dromani. 

Jean de Montlyard, sei- 
gneur de Meleray. 
Jo. Labenus. 

Tilenus. 

Fontaine dc St.-Fr^ville. 

Berotius. 

Alliette. 

M. Me'he'e, fils. 

Guillemain. 

Janus Gruterus. 

Guill. des Autels. 

De Cahusac. 

Ignatius Huart. 

Leon Halevy. 

Joannes Haramerus. 

Noel du Fail. 

Marechal. 

Savonarola. 

Leon Chanlaire. 

Carel. 

Claudius Quilletus. 

S^bastien Colin. 

Carnolius. 

Salmasius. 

Menegaut. 

Jo. Mantelius. 

Godefr. Hermant. 

Marcus Velserus. 

Salmasius. 

Mart. Ant. Delrio. 

R. Simon. 

Amelot de la Houssaye. 

J. P. Camus. 

Theodorus Marcilius. 

Llorente. 

Jean Rousset. 

Camille Saint- Aubin. 

Draing. 

Dossion. 

Gerberon. 

Mollerus. 

Nic de Montreux. 

Ch. Ancillon. 

Petrus Servius. 

S. Champier. 

Pompeius Sarnellus. 

Beroalde de Verville. 

Andry. 

De Bure. 

Sabatier de Castres. 

Rosenfeldus. 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



Anagram. 
Relmisius . . _ 
Revay (le) - - - 
Reynessius (Arnoldus) - 
Rhiba d'Acunenga 
Rhisenius Vechius (An.) 
Riand Jhevy 
Richea (Dodon) - 
Rolegravius - - - 
Roonptsy (Ch. Elie-Denis) 

Many more might be 
will suffice. 

Dublin. 



True Name. 

- Simlerus. 

- Le Vayer de Boutigny. 

- Leonardus Reyssenius. 

- Brahin du Cange. 

- Jo. Henr. Cohausen. 

- Jehan Divry. 

- O. Aicher. 

- Graverole. 

- Roch. Ant. Pelissery." 

added, but perhaps these 
'AKieis. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Lyte's Process (continued from Vol. xi., p. 492.). — 
If we desire to give the coating of collodion an extra de- 
gree of sensibility, we must proceed as follows : Take of 
fine old and white crystallised honey, 6 ounces ; distilled 
water, 6 ounces ; nitrate of silver (completely neutral), 
800 grains; alcohol, 8 drachms. Dissolve the nitrate in 
the water and alcohol, and then add the honey. When 
the whole is completely dissolved, pass it through a filter, 
exposing it to daylight during the operation. The light 
acts on the syrup, and turns it a dark red-brown colour. 
Put then some animal charcoal into another filter, and 
pass the liquid through it; and from this it will drip 
quite colourless. Should it, on exposure to light, again 
change colour, it must again be passed through the ani- 
mal charcoal ; and when the light no longer seems to 
afiect it, it is ready for use. This syrup is to be poured 
on to the plate as it comes out of the bath, or, what is 
better, is to make a bath of the syrup itself, into which to 
plunge the plate just as it was plunged into the ordinary 
nitrate bath, which I have already described. Anyhow 
the surface of the plate must be well washed with the 
syrup, so as completely to replace the nitrate solution 
which before adhered to it, by the syrup. The plate is 
thus rendered exquisitely sensitive, so that even with a 
landscape lens, if a diaphragm of not less than half an 
inch be used, instantaneous pictures may be produced, as 
maj' be seen by some specimens done by this process and 
lately exhibited in London. I must remark here, how- 
ever, that the operator must be most careful in his pre- 
paration of the syrup. 1st. That it be not exposed to too 
high a temperature, e.g. not left in the sun any length of 
time. 2nd. That the nitrate of silver be not the least 
acid (for this purpose, therefore, fused nitrate is prefer- 
able). 3rd. That the honey be old and crystallised, and 
of good quality, as all kinds of honey cannot be used in- 
discriminately ; indeed, so great is the difficulty of getting 
good honey, that after I had first discovered this process, 
and when I had used up the little stock of good honey I 
had by me, I was at least two months experimenting on 
various samples procured from all sources, till at last I 
got some from Toulouse, which answered my purpose. I 
doubt not but a method may be found of purifying all 
honey from the substance contained in it which is thus 
injurious, but up to the present time I have not dis- 
covered what that substance is. One thing I am almost 
sure of, which is, that whatever the substance may be, it 
is one which oxidises on exposure to air, as exposure 
seems to beneficially affect the crude honey before mix- 
ing. The syrup keeps well, but after some time it seems 
to lose its extreme sensibility, and to become perceptibly 
slower in its a(!tion, though at the same time a plate 
prepared with it is more stable. 

The next process we come to is the preservative pro- 
cess; for although by the former process the plate may 
No. 297.] f y 



be preserved, in cool weather, for several hours, and even 
in summer, if not too hot, for at least one hour, yet it is 
much more liable to deteriorate than when treated by the 
following modification, which I now give. To preserve 
the plate sensitive a long time, take of glucose, or sucre 
de raisin, or sucre de fecule, as it is sometimes called, 
6 ounces ; distilled water, 7 ounces ; alcohol, 8 drachms ; 
mix and filter. (The process for making glucose I will 
describe at the end ; I only here remark that should it be 
purchased, and should its solution give a cloudiness on 
the addition of nitrate of silver, it maj' be considered bad ; 
neither should its solution be precipitated by alcohol, or 
coloured by the addition of iodine water.) Then, in two 
other bottles, make a solution of 5 grains of nitrate of 
silver to 1 pint of distilled water, and in another small 
bottle make a solution of 10 grains of nitrate per ounce of 
water : filter all these. The collodion plate having been 
taken from the nitrate bath, is to be placed in a similar 
bath of one of the bottles of distilled water above men- 
tioned ; and here it is to be well washed by moving the 
bath up and down, as in the first instance. At the end of 
five minutes' careful washing it is to be taken out and let 
to drip ; then, having added 1 drop of the 10-grain solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver to 1 ounce of the syrup, the plate 
is to be well washed with this till all the surface is well 
covered with it ; it may be then put into the dark slide to 
be kept for use. Care must be taken also in this case 
that the plate be kept cool as possible, and free from dust 
or noxious gases. Of these last ammonia is completely 
destructive to it, and sulphuretted hydrogen equally so; 
also chlorine and all acid vapours. The plate thus pre- 
pared may be exposed in the camera at once, or, if the 
operator chooses, may be kept at his will, providing it be 
placed in a cool and dark situation. It is advisable, how- 
ever, to employ it before the expiration of many daj^s ; 
indeed the sooner the better, as if kept long it is always 
subject to casualties, such as dust, gases, and, lastly, the 
hardening of the syrup, as shown by Dr. Mansell, al- 
though I dissent entirely from his remedy for this 
(steaming), which in my hands has proved a complete 
failure, though I think I may feel confidence in my 
experience in such-like manipulations. 

F. Maxwell Lyte. 
Bagnferes de Bigorre, Hautes-Pyr^nees. 

[We are compelled by pressure of other matter to post- 
pone the remainder of the second portion of Mr. Lyte's 
communication until next week. 3 • 



JSitpllti ta Minor ^xttriti. 

The late Lord Viscount Strangford (Vol. xi., 
p. 456.). — It should be added to the well-de- 
served notice of that accomplished and able noble- 
man, that he was the contributor to " N. & Q." of 
the articles signed P. C. S. S. — the initials of 
his name, PEKcr Clinton Sydney Smyth. One 
who had known him for fifty-eight years has a 
melancholy pleasure in bearing — valeat quantum 
— his testimony to the extent and variety of his 
information — the liveliness of his fancy — the 
soundness of his principles — the goodness of his 
heart — and the private and public integrity of 
his long and distinguished life. C. 

Judge James WhitelocKs ^'- Diary" (Vol. xi., 
p. 341.).— This MS., about which Mr. Bruce 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



inquires, belongs to a descendant of the judge, 
now living at Amboise in France. Mr. Basil 
Montagu has given Mr. Bruce and me, and I 
have no doubt many other persons, a great deal of 
unnecessary trouble in searching the different 
libraries, by omitting to state where he found it. 
Having been indulged with its perusal, I can truly 
say that it is a most interesting record of the time ; 
and contains some anecdotes quite as curious as 
that extracted by Mr. Montagu, in his " Life of 
Bacon," relative to Sir Henry Yelverton. 

Edward Foss. 

" Foundling Hospital for Wit (Vol. xi., p. 386.). 

To the series of parts and editions of the New 
Foundling Hospital for Wit, furnished by Mr. 
Hawkins, a volume may be added, though not 
bearing this exact title. 

Mr. Hawkins's list commences with a work 
published in 1768. I possess an octavo volume, 
entitled — 

"The Foundling Hospital for Wit, intended for the 
Keception and Preservation of such Brats of Wit and 
Humour, whose Parents chuse to drop them. London, 
printed 1743. Reprinted for W. Webb, near St. Paul's, 
1763." 

The work was published In numbers, of which six 
are here given, irregularly dated, viz. No. 2., 
1749; No. 3., 1746; No. 4., 1763; No. 5., 1764; 
No. 6., 1749. 

On the title-page of No. 4. alone is subjoined 
to the publisher's name and address the following 
paragraph : 

" Where may be had Nos. 1, 2, and 3, containing all 
the Satires, Odes, Ballads, and Epigrams, by the Prime 
Wits of this Age, since the change of the late Earl of 
O d's administration." 

The contents of the volume consist almost ex- 
clusively of politico-satirical poems, mixed with 
many of an indelicate character. It may be men- 
tioned that in the third part is a reply by Lady 
Winchelsea to the " Impromptu addressed to her 
by Pope, not in his works, occasioned by four 
verses In the Rape of the Lock.'' 

The impromptu will be found in Mr. Carru- 
thers' very useful and carefully-edited volumes of 
Pope (vol. iv. p. 246.). The reply may possibly 
have a place in Mr. Croker's forthcoming edition 
of Pope, subjoined to the impromptu. 

J. H. Markland. 

Artificial Ice (Vol. x., p. 290.). —The artificial 
ice to which J. P. O. alludes was a solid composi- 
tion and not a freezing composition. It was in- 
vented by Mr. Wm. Bradwell, the architect of the 
Glytotheca, and Mr. Henry Kirk, and would have 
been introduced at the Colosseum, but that litiga- 
tion broke out between the patentees. It was, 
however, exhibited for a short time on a small 
scale at the Glaciarlum in Tottenham Court Road. 
The composition had the appearance of ice, and 

No. 297.] 



took the mark of the skate like real ice. One 
great object was to cultivate skating as a gym- 
nastic exercise at all seasons. It received the 
approval of Sir Wm. Newton and the Skating 
Club. Its composition will be found described in 
the patent. Hyde Clarke. 

Cathedral Registers (Vol. xi., p. 445.). — Mar- 
riages and christenings are solemnized in cathe- 
drals, and funerals also, unless burials have been 
ordered to be discontinued in them by Her Ma- 
jesty's order in council, under the recent burial 
acts. Such marriages, christenings, and burials 
are registered In the usual way, and in the same 
manner as in parish churches. 

I had written the above when I saw the answer 
of OxoNiENSis (Vol.xi., p. 496.), who gives as a 
reason that marriages are not often celebrated in 
cathedrals, that cathedrals, not being parish 
churches, would require to be licensed for the 
purpose, and that this being very seldom done, it 
would require a special licence to have a marriage 
celebrated in a cathedral. 

A cathedral is the parish church of the whole 
diocese, and the diocese in ancient times was 
therefore commonly called Parochia, Gibs. 171.; 
Skin, 101. By 6 & 7 W. 4. c. 85. s. 26., the 
bishop, with the consent of the patron and incum- 
bent, is empowered to license certain chapels for 
the solemnization of marriages. This of course 
cannot apply to cathedrals. In which marriages 
always were, and still are, solemnized under the 
ordinary licence of the bishop of the diocese, or 
by banns, or by the ordinary licence of the arch- 
bishop, which he has power to grant throughout 
his province. J. G. 

Exon. 

Earl of Galway or Galloway (Vol. xi., pp. 263. 
413.). — The remarks which I took the liberty of 
making upon this subject, are applicable to Henri 
de Massne de Ruvigni, who was created Baron of 
Portarlington, and Viscount of Galloway or Gal- 
way, upon the 25 th of November, anno 4 Wil- 
liam and Mary. As far as my researches have 
extended, I find that by the public records of 
Ireland he has been styled Viscount Galloway ; 
but by a fac-simlle of his handwriting, which is to 
be found in a recent number of the Ulster ArchcBO- 
logical Journal, it appears that he spelt his name 
Galway. James F. Ferguson. 

Dublin. 

" Thee" and ''thou" (Vol. x., pp. 61. 295.).—- 
The use of " thee " for " thou " is an old practice 
among the Quakers. A member of the society, 
born in 1754, and who had associated with rela- 
tives born in the seventeenth century, who was 
familiar with high Quakers and low Quakers, and 
had personal intercourse with American and Irish 
Quakers, told me that he had always heard it. 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



Members of the Society when taxed with it are in 
the habit of defending it on grounds of assumed 
grammatical propriety. It is so habitual that the 
best educated members of the Society adopt it, 
and few dramatists or actors succeed in imitating 
Quaker phraseology because they use " thou " in- 
stead of " thee." The vernacular Quaker saluta- 
tion is " How'st thee do ? " Hyde Clarke. 

John Howland (Vol. xi., p. 484.). — Elizabeth 
Howland married Wriothesley, not Rotherby, 
Russell, afterwards second Duke of Bedford. 
Mrs. Howland, her mother, was a daughter of Sir 
Josiah Child, of whom, as well as Mrs. Howland, 
there are portraits in the Duke of Bedford's col- 
lection at Woburn Abbey. Mrs. Howland mar- 
ried in 1681 John Howland, of Streatham, Esq., 
CO. Surrey. John Martin. 

Lord DxmdonalcCs Plan (Vol. xi., p. 443.). — 
Projects like those of Lord Dundonald are 
no novelties; even in the time of the Common- 
wealth, when the science of gunnery was not so 
perfectly understood, some idea of the same kind 
was set afloat. The following proposition was 
sent to Mr. Augier from Paris, and is still pre- 
served in MS. : 

" A person, who makes profession of bono'', and saith he 
hath had the good luck to have beene knowne of S"" 
Oliver Flemming during his publick employments abroad, 
doth propound to a friend of yours, that, by a secret he 
hath, he can with one ship alone breake what navall army 
or fleet soever, though never so great ; and that by the 
same secret he shall easily and in a short time beate 
downe all manner of earthen forts. Offering, that, if the 
commonwealth of England be pleased, he will go over at 
his owne charge to make what trj'alls so ever shall be 
desired of him, w'^'' will cost nothing. He desires likewise 
to be assured, that he shall not be forced to reveale his 
secret, untill the agreement be made for the reward ; and 
sayth, that the tryall shall be very speedy, and the exe- 
cution as sure, in general, as in particular." 

Cii. Hopper. 

BlacTi Rat (Vol. Ix., p. 209. ; Vol. x., pp. 37. 
335.). — The black rat is to be found in Basing- 
hall Street, and, as Mr. Pinkerton states, har- 
bours in the walls and roofs at times. It is pro- 
bable that the black rat contents himself with this 
domain, leaving the sewers to the brown rats. 

Hyde Ci-arke. 

The Crucifixion (Vol. xi., p. 485.). — It is not 
easy to account for the frequent practice of repre- 
senting the two thieves fastened to their crosses 
with cords, except by supposing that historical 
truth has been sacrificed to pictorial effect. That 
the thieves were fastened with nails, as well as 
our Blessed Lord, is undoubtedly the truth. St. 
Augustin, alluding to St. Matt, xxvii. 38., says, 
"Nisiclavis fixus esset (Christus), crucifixus non 
fuisset," which will of course equally apply to the 
thieves. (St. Aug. in Ps. Ixviii.) But he directly 

No. 297.] 



affirms this of them in his Tract xxxvii. in Joan, 
where he says "clavis confixi diu cruciabantur." 
And the same is asserted by St. John Chrysostom, 
St. Gregory the Great, St. Ambrose, and Rufinus. 
Indeed, the fact that when the three crosses were 
discovered by the holy empress Helen, they were 
at a loss to distinguish which had borne our 
Blessed Saviour, till the Almighty was pleased to 
make it evident by a miracle, suffices to prove 
that all three must have exhibited similar marks 
of nails. F. C. H. 

French Churches (Vol. x., p. 484.). — The 
question of Anon, has not yet been answered? 
" What date are we to assign to French churches, 
whose architecture corresponds to our Early 
English ? " A sufficient answer will be found in 
the following extract from An Inquiry into the 
Chronological Succession of the Styles of Ro- 
manesque and Pointed Architecture in France, Sfc, 
by Thomas Inkersley, 1850 : 

" It appears undeniable that the use of the pointed arch 
in France was an anticipation upon its adoption in Eng- 
land by a considerable period ; that the confirmed First- 
pointed or Earlv French style likewise took precedence of 
the Early English, except perhaps in the province of Nor- 
mandy : that the geometrical or Decorated style was in- 
vented and brought to perfection by our neighbours half 
a century before our English builders began to imitate it: 
that this style maintained its ground long after the ap- 
pearance of the English perpendicular style, which had 
attained its highest degree of splendour at a moment 
when French Flamboyant was but struggling into ex- 
istence ; whilst the latter, in its turn, still preserved itself 
pure and unmixed at a time when the former had become 
utterly debased, corrupted, and disfigured." — P. 36. 

In the second part of his work he gives the dates 
of the buildings mentioned in the first part. 

A comparative table of the architectural styles 
of the cathedrals of France, is given in Les Ca- 
ihedrales de France, by M. I'Abbe Bourasse, and 
is copied into the Ecclesiologist, vol. vi. p. 20. 

Cetrep.' 

" AojuTTcJSiov SpcJaaros " (Vol. xi., p. 465.). — The 
former word, in connexion with the latter, has a 
particular signification, according to Scapula : 

« Numeratur etiam inter personas comicas, quie crinium 
plexus gestant in acutum desinentes, instar lampadis." 
" This word is also used among comic actors, who 
wear their hair plaited and ending in a point, 
somewhat in the shape of a burning torch." 
Hence, figuratively, the word came to signify 
the point or conclusion of a matter, the end or 
catastrophe of a drama, as we phrase it, to bring 
the matter to a point. A. F. S. therefore seems, 
proprio marte, to have elicited the correct mean- 
\„„ Charles Hook. 

" The Chapter of Kings" (Vol. xi., p. 450.).— -I 
am inclined to doubt if the authorship of the 
above song has been clearly ascertained. In my 



July 7. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



19 



own notes I find it entered that Dibdin was the 
author. But it is strongly in my mind that it is 
older than either Dibdin or Collins. I knew 
Swinney and Farrell, who long kept a bookselling 
and printing establishment in High Street, Bir- 
mingham. But I am tolerably sure that I had 
learnt this song by heart before the date of Scrip- 
scrapologia. 1 have completed it to the present 
time by altering the last verse, and adding one 
verse more, in this way : 

" Queen Ann was victorious by land and by sea, 
And Georgy tlie First did with glory sway ; 
Under Georgy the Second much war we had, 
And Georgy the Third reign'd long and died mad. 

" Georgy the Fourth was expensive and vain, 
And Billy the Fourth was a sailor plain ; 
The sceptre is now in Victoria's hand, 
And long may she live to rule over our land ! 

And may her Son's Sons to the end of the Chapter, 
Be all of them Kings in their turns." 

F. C. H. 

The Bed Hand (Vol. xi., p. 447.). — Having 
read the remarks of your correspondent A. C. M. 
upon the red hand, I have forwarded the following, 
thinking he would be interested. 

The red hand among the Jews was the crest of 
the priesthood, adopted from the custom of spread- 
ing out the hands during the cei'emony of blessing 
the people. (Numbers, vi. 23.) 

The double triangle is said to represent the 
shield of David, and, decorated with handsome 
flowers, forms even at this day one of the principal 
ornaments of the tabernacle at the Feast of Ta- 
bernacles. Philo-Jud^us. 

Edmonton. 

Blue Mould on Coins (Vol. xi., p. 445.). — This 
is easily removed by the application of muriatic 
acid. The easiest way I have found to be to dip 
the coin into a small quantity of this acid, and 
leave it in, a longer or shorter time, according to 
the extent of the blue mould ; but never longer 
than a few seconds, for fear of injuring the coin. 
Then take the coin out and drop it into water, 
and on rubbing it dry with a bit of rag or leather, 
the blue mould will disappear. A small brush 
may also be used if the mould is hard crusted on 
the coin ; a camel-hair pencil will do, with the hair 
cut short. F. C. H. 

This is called by antiquaries and coin col- 
lectors, patina ; and it is proto-carbonate of copper 
chemically speaking. Anon, can, if he pleases, 
remove this " veil of ancient life " by putting the 
coin or fibula into dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric 
acid. If he acts in this manner he is no longer 
an antiquary, but only a "dealer in metal and 
marine stores," as he not only destroys the genuine 
appearance of the article so Vandalised, but will 
not be able to decypher the inscription or design. 
Do not play with acids, Anon. ; they will burn 
No. 297.] 



your fingers, and destroy your ancient coins of the 
realm. A. Gkoat. 

Athenaeum Club. 

Hour-glass in Pulpits (Vol. xi., p. 473.). — To 
the quotation given by J. A. H. from Dr. South's 
49th Sermon, I beg to add two others from the 
works of the same eminent divine ; the former of 
which will be found in his 5th, and the latter in 
his 28th Sermon : 

" Teaching is not a flow of words, nor the draining of 
an hour-glass, but an effectual procuring; that a man 
comes to know something which he knew not before, or 
to know it better." 

" The opposition he makes, our Saviour here emphati- 
cally describes by the winds blowing, the rain descending, 
and the floods coming: which is not an insignificant 
rhetorication of the same thing by several expressions 
(like some pulpit bombast, made only to measure an hour- 
glass), but an exact description of those three methods by 
which this assault of the devil prevails and becomes 
victorious." 

N. L. T. 

Quotations wanted (Vol. xi., p. 302.). — The 
quotation given by W. K,. M. is fronj Dryden's 
Hind and Panther. The correct reading is as 
follows : 

" By education most have been misled ; 
So they believe, because they so were bred : 
The priest continues what the nurse began, 
And thus the child imposes on the man." 

Hbnky H. Bbben. 

St. Lucia. 

^ Jute (Vol.xi., p. 426.). — This article is exten- 
sively used for paper-making. It is imported 
from India as a raw material, and manufactured 
into bagging and rope. It is known as gunny 
bagging, and is used for saltpetre bags, and to 
cover indigo chests, bales of silk, and other goods 
from India. H. T. 

Almanacs o/ 1849 and 1855 (Vol. xi., p. 323.). — 
This coincidence will occur again before " a very 
long time;" for 1860 has the same almanac with 
1849 and 1855. M. 

" The Tin Trumpet" (Vol.xi., p. 384.). — This 
work was written for the most part by Horace 
and James Smith, authors of Rejected Addresses. 

F.S. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

It was wisely done by the Council of the Camden 
Society, when they determined upon the issue of occa- 
sional volumes of miscellaneous articles. The first and 
second volumes of The Camden Miscellany were well re- 
ceived, not only by the Members of the Society, but by 
historical students generally. A third volume has just 
been issued ; and looking to the varied nature of its con- 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



tents, and the large amount of new information to be 
found in it, there can be little doubt that it will share 
general favour with its predecessors. 

The Camden Wiscellany, Vol. III., contains four articles : 
the tirst, Papers relating to Proceedings in the County of 
Kent, carefully edited by Mr. Almack, gives an authentic 
account of proceedings in Kent at the beginning of the 
Civil War, and during the progress of that political storm, 
from the papers of Thomas Weller of Tonbridge. This 
is followed by Ancient Biographical Poems on the Duke of 
Norfolk, Viscount Hereford, the Earls of Essex, and Queen 
Elizabeth, edited by Mr. Collier with his accustomed care 
from Cough's Norfolk MSS. in the Bodleian. The MS. 
was compiled by one " Thomas Brampton " about 1594, 
and Mr. Collier would be glad to be informed of any 
biographical particulars of him which may be known to 
our readers. To Sir F. Madden the Camden Society is 
indebted for the next paper, A Relation of some Abuses 
which are committed against the Commonwealth, together 
with a friendlie Reprehension of the same, composed espe- 
ciallie for the Benefit of this Countie of Durham^, De- 
cember 2Gth, 1629. The abuses to which the anonymous 
writer refers, he classes under four heads, namely, the 
waste of woods — the pulling down of castles and for- 
tresses — the decay of martial discipline — and the vani- 
ties of the people in drinking, smoking, and apparel. The 
MS. well deserves to be printed. In securing it for the 
Museum, and then editing it for the Camden Society, Sir 
F. Madden has done good service. The last and longest 
communication to the volume is by Mr. J. G. Nichols, 
who contributes Inventories of the Wardrobes, Plate, 
Chapel Stuff, ^c, of Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, 
and of the Wardrobe Stuff at Baynard's Castle of Katherine 
Princess Dowager. These, however, are but as the " one 
half-penny worth of bread to the intolerable deal of sack," 
— in Mr. Nichols accompanying Memoir and Letters of 
the Duke of Richmond. On this introductory paper the 
editor has bestowed considerable labour: and the result 
is one of those " historical monographs," which, when well 
done, are so valuable, and which no one can do better 
than Mr. John Gough Nichols. 

When will any Chancellor of Exchequer in this 
country, even one as fond of national ballad literature as 
Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, propose to parliament a vote for 
the expenses of collecting and preserving the ballads of 
the British Islands? Yet the Danish parliament has 
done this, and the publication of them has been entrusted 
to Lieutenant Svend Grundtvig, the grandson of the 
editor of Beowulf. Three Parts have already appeared. 
Lieutenant Grundtvig is also, in conjunction with Ion 
Sigurdson, editing the Old Ballads of Iceland, of which 
one volume has been published. We hope next week 
to lay before our readers a communication from Lieu- 
tenant Grundtvig on English and Scottish Ballads. 

Books Received. — A Classified Synopsis of the Prin- 
cipal Painters of the Dutch and Flemish Schools, their 
Scholars, Imitators, and Analogists. By George Stanley. 
•A small volume, which the inexperienced amateur will 
find very useful in enabling him to acquire a knowledge 
of the Dutch and Flemish masters. 

View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages. 
By Henry Hallam. Vol. II. We must content our- 
selves at present with chronicling the appearance of the 
second volume of this new, and cheaper, edition of the 
works of one of our greatest modern historians. 

Gibbon's Roman Empire, with Notes by Dean Milman 
and M. Guizot, edited by Dr. Smith. This is the eighth 
and concluding volume of Murray's British Classics 
edition of Gibbon — an edition which is at once the 
cheapest and handsomest edition of Gibbon that has yet 
been produced. 

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The Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, K. G. 
Sir Charles Fox. 

Matthew Marshall, Esq., Bank of England. 
William Smee, Esq., Bank of England. 



EXAMPLE OF RATES. 

DEATH FROM ANY ACCIDENT. 



Annual Sum Sick Allowance, 

Premium. Insured. per Week. 



£ s. d. 
2 



£ s. d. 
5 



DEATH FROM RAILWAY ACCIDENT. 



Annual 
Premium. 


Sum 
Insured. 


Sick Allowance, 
per Week. 


£ ». d. 
8 


£ 
1000 


£ s.d. 
5 



TOTAL LOSS OF HEALTH. 




Fob iNFOmMATioN, Prospectuses, Forms, 
etc., apply to the Chief Office, 5. Gresham 
Street, London. 

WESTERN LIFE ASSU- 
RANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 
S. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON. 
Founded A.D. 1842. 



Directors. 



T. Grissell, Esq. 

J. Hunt, Esq. 

J. A. Lethbridge.Esq, 

E. Lucas, Esq. 

J. Lys Seager, Esq. 

J. B. White, Esq. 

J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



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M.P. 
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Trustees. 

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Pftf/sicfan.— William Rich. Basham.M.D. 

Bankers. Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., 

Charing Cross. 

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POLICIES effected in this Office do not be- 
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 
loof.. with a Share in three-fourths of the 
Profits : 

Age 
17 - 
22 - 
27- 

ARTHUR 8CRATCHLEY, M.A.,F.R.A.8., 
Actuary. 

Now ready, price 10«. 6ff., Second Edition, 
with material additions, INDUSTRIAL IN- 
VESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a 
TREATISK on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mnthematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHI.EY, M.A., Actuary to 
the Western Life Assurance Society , 3. Parlia- 
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£ s. d. 


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• 


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42- 


- 


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WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, 
Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster 
Abbey.— The Westminster Hospital was in- 
stituted in the year 1719, and was the first of 
the kind in the United Kingdom established 
and supported by Voluntary Contributions. 
"The principle of admission is based chiefly on 
the urgency and nature of the symptoms of the 
patient, and during the past year 1,123 acci- 
dents and urgent cases have been received as 
in-patients without letters of recommendation, 
while 14,381 out-patients have obtained medical 
or surgical assistance with no other claim than 
their sufferings. Patients are constantly re- 
ceived from distant districts ; admission is also 
freely given to Foreigners who are ill and in 
distress ,• and relief is often afforded to patients 
who are sent as urgent cases by the clergy of all 
denominations. 'J'he number of patients ad- 
mitted in 1851 was, in-patients 1,754, out-patients 
19,545 — total 21 ,299. The demands on the Hos- 
pital are annually increasing, while the income 
from all sources has seriously declined. Thus 
in 1854,— 

£ 8. d. 
The income was . - - 4667 2 10 
The expenditure - - - 6112 19 2J 

Deficiency - - 1445 16 4i 
These increasing demands on the Hospital 
may, to a certain extent, be explained by the 
increase of population. Three wards, affording 
accommodation for 42 patients, are still un- 
furnished and unoccupied ; and to open these 
wards, and thus render the Hospital as efficient 
as or'ginally designed, would require an in- 
creased income of 15002. a year, besides the cost 
of fitting up the wards for the reception of the 
patients. Efforts are being made to increase 
the Hospital accommodation of the metropolis, 
but the duty is more imperative to make the 
accommodation already existing available. 
No new establishment is required, no additional 
officers, no increased buildings, but only means 
to receive and support in a long -tried establish- 
ment an increased number of the poor and 
destitute. 

During the recent epidemic 170 cases of 
Asiaticcholera were admitted, and 104 of the 
number wtre restored to health and their 
families. 3496 casesof choleraic diarrhcea were 
also received, and, through prompt attention, 
the further progress of disease was prevented. 
The Committee earnestly APPEAL to the be- 
nevolent for AID, and trust that the extent 
and value of the medical and surgical relief 
afforded to the poor from all parts may cause 
assistance to be given to the funds of this, the 
oldest metropolitan Hospital supported by vo- 
luntary contributions. 

Donations and Subscriptions are thankfully 
received by Messrs. Hoare it. Co., 37. Fleet 
Street; by Messrs. Bouverie & Co., 11. Hay- 
market ; by the Joint Treasurers, the Hon. 
Philip P. Bouverie and Peter R. Hoare, Esq. ; 
or by the Secretary. „ . 

F. J. WILSON, Sec. 



ONE THOUSAND BED- 
STEADS TO CHOOSE FROM— 
HEAL & SON have just erected extensive 
Premises, which enable them to keep upwards 
of One Thiiusand Bedsteads in stock. One 
Hundred and Fifty of which are fixed for in- 
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Wood, and Iron, with Chintz and Damask 
Furnitures, complete. Their new Warerooms 
also contain an assortment of BED-BOOM 
FURNI TURE, which comprises every reqm- 
site, from the plainest Japanned Deal for Ser- 
vants' Rooms, to the newest and most tastefljl 
designs in Mahogany and other Woods. The 
whole warranted of the soundest and best ma- 
nufacture. HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, AND 
PRICED LIST OF BEDDING, sent Free by 
Post. 
HEAL & SON, 196. Tottenham Court Road. 



TRELOAR'S COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MATTING, DOOR-MATS, 
MATTRESSES, and BRUSHES, gained the 
Prize-Medal at the Great Exhibition. At the 
Warehouse, 

42. LUDGATE HILL, 
will be found an Assortment of COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MANUFACTURES, unequalled for 
Variety and Excellence, at the most moderate 

Catalogues Free. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 7. 1855. 



ARCR2:OX.OGZC All -WORKS 

BY 

JOH!^ YOXGE AKERMAN, 

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE 
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LON- 
DON. 



AN ARCH^OLOGICAL 

INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, 
Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 
1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth, illustrated by nu- 
merous Engravings, comprising upwards of 
five hundred objects. 

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL. 

1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea. 

•*« The Plates which illustrate this Vo- 
lume are upon a novel plan, and will, at a 
glance, convey more information regarding 
the types of Greek, Roman, and English Coins, 
than can be obtained by many hours' careful 
reading. Instead of a fac-simile Engraving 
being given of that whicli is already an enijima 
to the tyro, the most striking andcharacteristic 
features of tlie Coin are dissected and placed by 
themselves, so that the eye soon becomes fa- 
miliar with them. 

A DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 

LOGITE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, 
from the Earliest Period to the takingof Rome 
under Constantine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo., 
numerous Plates, 30s. 

COINS OF THE ROMANS 

relating to Britain. 1 vol.Svo. Second Edition, 
with an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES 

and Princes, Geographically arranged and de- 
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Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of several 
hundred examples. I vol. 8vo., price 18s. 

NEW TESTAMENT, Numis- 

matic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions 
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AN INTRODUCTION TO 

THE STUDY of ANCIENT and MODERN 
COINS, in 1 vol. fcp. Svo., with numerous 
Wood Engravings from the original Coins, 
price 6s. 6d. clotli. 

Contents: — Section I. Origin of Coinage- 
Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek Civic Coins. 3. 
Greek Imperial Coins. 4. Origin of Roman 
Coinage— Consular Coins. 5. Roman Imperial 
Coins. 6. Roman British Coins. 7. Ancient 
British Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 
9. English Coinage from the Conquest. 10. 
Scotch Coinage. U. Coinage of Ireland. 12. 
Anglo-Gallic Coins. 13. Continental Money 
in the Middle Ages. 14. "Various Representa- 
tives of Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and 
Modern Times. 16. Table of Prices of English 
Coins realised at Public Sales. 

TRADESMEN'S TOKENS, 

struck in London and its Vicinity, from the 
year 1648 to 1672 inclusive. Described from the 
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seum, &c. l!>s. 

REMAINS OF PAGAN 

SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in 
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A GLOSSARY OF PROVIN- 
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THE NUMISMATIC CHRO- 
NICLE is published Quarterly. Price 3s. 6d. 
each Number. 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, 

London. 



Now ready, 

THE TERNS OP GREAT BRITAIN: 

Illustrated by JOHN E. SOWERBY. 

The Descriptions, Synonyms, &e., by CHARLES JOHNSON, ESQ. 
In One Volume, cloth boards, containing 49 Plates, full coloured, 27s. ; partly coloured, 14s. 

JOHN E. SOWERBY, 3. Mead Place, Lambeth. 



THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
ZINE AND HISTORICAL REVIEW 
for JULY, being the First Number of a New 
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6. Medieval London. 7. Original Letters of 
Swift respecting the Publication of Gulliver's 
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9. Diggings at Gloucester. 10. The Peerage of 
Ireland, and Title of Fermoy. 11. French 
History. 12. Letter of Aaron Burr, on the 
Foundation of Princeton College. With Cor- 
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Month, Reviews of New Publications ; Reports 
of ArchiEological Societies ; and OoixuAny, 
including Memoirs of Lord Strangford ; Lady 
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Head ; Dr. Gaisford, Dean of Christchurch, &c. 
&c. Price 2s. 6d. 

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street. 



MR. P, J. P, GANTILLON, M.A., 

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SECOND MASTER OF THE COLLEGIATE 
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Fellow of Christ's College. 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for Is. 6d. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules for Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management : together with instructions for 
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happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
Ufe. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
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nni 



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HE MICROSCOPE; its His- 

I tory. Construction, and Applications. 
With about 501) drawings of objects. By 
JABEZ HOGG, M.K.C.S., Assistant-Surgeon 
to the Royal Ophthalmic Hospital, Charing 
Cross, &c. 

" This volume might be called ' The Micro- 
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implies — a Cyclopaidia of information on all 
subjects relating to the microscope." — Quar- 
terly Jomiial of Microscopical Science. 

London : H. INGRAM & CO., 198. Strand. 



Second Edition, with large map, price 5s., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
T.T.oilAJ'- ,^^ JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
RESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Pans, Berlin, &c.. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts : " of the 
River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " alsoofa proiectfor 
the improvement of the navigation of that 
nver, and of various other works on Portugal, 

JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 
This Day is published, price 6s. &d. 

THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVER- 
SITY CALENDAR for the Year 1855. 
Cambridge : DEIGHTON, BELL, & CO. 
London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



TJ 



Now ready, crown 8vo., price 3s. 

ECTURES ON GOTHIC 

LJ ARCHITECTURE, chiefly in relation 
to ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH AT DON- 
CASTER. By EDMUND BECKETT DE- 
NISON, M.A., one of Her Majesty's Counsel. 
With Seven Illustrations. 

London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



2s. 6rf. cloth. 

THE VICAR and his DUTIES : 
being Sketches of Clerical Life in a Ma- 
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ALFRED GATTY, M.A. 

" We sincerely thank Mr. Gatty for his in- 
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London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 
Edinburgh : R. GRANT & SON. 



THE CHURCH SUNDAY- 

l SCHOOL HYMN-BOOK. Edited by 
W. F. HOOK.D.D. Large paper, cloth, ls.6rf.; 
calf, 3s. 6d. 
London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



FIVE SERMONS, preached 
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London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



A LETTER TO HIS Pa- 
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THE ATHANASIAN CREED. By W. F. 
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Price &d., or 4s. the dozen. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 



MR. GEO. HAYES, Dentist, of 
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Dentistry, and receive many unusual advan- 
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eitoer of the Colleges. 



Printed by Thomas Ci.ark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
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City of Iiondon, Publisher, at No. 1S6. Fleet Street aforesaid,- Saturday. July 7, 1855. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

roR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•* XCTben foand, make a note of." — Captain Cutti.e. 



No. 298.] 



Saturday, Jult 14. 1855. 



fWith Index, price I'^rf. 
I Stamped Edition, Hrf. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



Buchan's Scottish Ballads : Percy's 

Heliques, by Lieut. Svend Grundtvis - 21 

Junius, Mr. George Woodfall, and the 

Kev. Hartwell Home - - - 22 

Church of Durness, Sutherlandshire - 2i 

Hayimi 21 

Minor Notks : — "Worship" — Cut- 
tins of Teeth in advanced Aae — Er- 
rors in Sir Walter Scott's Novels — 
"Childe Harold" and tIie"Gerusa- 
lemine Liberata " — MS. Notes iu 
Copy of " The Description of the 
Sector " - - - - - 25 

Queries : — 

Who was Henry Shirlcv, the Author of 
" Tlie Marty r'd Soldier ? " by Evelyn 
P. Shirley - - - - 26 

Thomae Simon tlie Medallist, by Edgar 
MacCuUocli - - - - 27 

Minor Qufbibs: — Lord Byron and 
the Hippopotamus _ Calipash and 
Calipee — Scottisli Nursery Song — 
"Christ Church Bells "_'" Original 
Poems, by a Lady " _ Charlotte Hum- 
boldt — Officers kil led at Preston Pans 

— " Vesica Piseis " _ Harp — Method 
of taking out Ink _ James Campbell 

— " Ossian and Ferdousec " - - 28 

Minor Qofrtes with Answers : — 
Koman "Villa — Jones' "Botanical 
Tour through Cornwall and Devon " 

— " Legend of Captain Jones " — 
Charles Vyse — Condarius — Seal En- 
gravers' Seals - - - - 29 

Replies : — 

Theobald le Botiller, by James F. Fer- 
guson - - - - - 30 
Books burnt, by Rev. Thomas Gimlctte 31 
The Red Dragon - - - - 31 

Photooraphic Correspondence : — 
Mr. Lyte's Process - - - 33 

Replies to Minor Qoerirs : — " Two 
Pound Ten " — Descendants of Sir 
Walter Raleigh _ Naval Victories — 
Doorway Inscriptions — Notaries — 
The " ArchKological Epistle " — Wild 
Dayrell — Seventy-seven — " Rime of 
the new-made Baccalere " — " Pereant 
Qui ante nos nostra dixerint " — De 
Burgh's " Ilibernia Dominicana " — 

Book-plates — White Paternoster 

Hunting Bishops _ The Ducking Stool 

— Sir Thomas More's Works Statue 

of William III. at Bristol - - 34 

Miscellaneous ; — 

Books ond Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



In pest 4to., price 1?. \s. 

■DIVE GENERATIONS of a 

r LOYAL HOUSE. (In Two Parts.) 
PART I., containing the LIVESofRTCHARD 
BERi IE. and his Son PEREGRINE, LORD 
WILLOUGHBY, Queen Elizabeth's General 
in the Low Countries. By LADY GEORGINA 
BERTIE. 

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place. 



Vol. XII.— No. 298. 



Now ready, in 8vo., elegantly printed by 
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beautifully engraved on steel, after designs 
by J. Wolf, iialf-bound morocco, uncut, 
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■pEYNARD THE FOX, after 

l\) the German Version of Guthe. By T. J. 
ARNOLD, ESQ. 
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GEOLOGY FOR SCHOOLS. 
Price Is. 6d. bound in cloth, with Illustrations. 

TNTRODUCTORY TEXT- 

± BOOK OF GEOLOGY. By DAVID 
PAGE,r.G.S. 

" Of late it has not often been our good for- 
tune to examine a text-book on science of 
which we could express an opinion so eniirely 
favourable, as we are enabled to do of Jlr. 
Page's little work." — AtheiicBum. 

WILLIAM BL.\CKWOOD & SONS, 
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BRITISH ANTIQUITIES. 
Their present Treatment, and their real 
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Edinburgh : ADAM & CHARLES BLACK. 



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rpHE POSTDILUVIAN HIS- 

X TORY, from the Flood to the Call of 
Abram, as set forth in the early portions of the 
Book of Genesis, Critically Examined and 
Explained. By the REV. E. D. RCNDELL, 
of Preston, author of" The Antediluvian His- 
tory," " Peculiarities of the Bible," &c. Sic. 

London : J. S. HODSON, 21:. Portugal Street, 
Lincoln's Inn. 



Second Edition, with large map, price 5s., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
RESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin. &c.. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier ;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " also of a project for 
the improvement of the navigation of that 
river, and of various other works on Portugal. 

JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holbom. 



T ONDON LABOUR and the 

.kJ LONDON POOR. By HENRY MAY- 
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11 —Just published, Nos. 9. 10. & 11. of 
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Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for is. (id. 

rVBE SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, 

X How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules f,.r Diet, Itegimen, and Self- 
Mnnagemcnt : together witli instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a woU-regulutcd course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 03. Oxford 
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MR. P, J. P. GANTILLON, M.A., 

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Cambridge,) 

SECOND MA STER OF THE COLLEGIATE 
SCHOOL, LEICESTER, 

WILL be happy to receive 
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CoUe're ; and REV. E. MORTLOCK, B.D., 
Moulton Rectory, near Newmarket, lat; 
FeUow of Christ's CoUege. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



Just published, price Is. 6rf. 

PHOTOGRAPHY : the Im- 
portance of its Application in PRE- 
SERVrNG PICTORTAL RECORDS of the 
NATIONAL MONUMENTS of HISTORY 
and ART. By the HEV. F. A. S. MAR- 
SHALL. M. A., of Peterborough ; with an 
APPENDIX, containing a Practical Descrip- 
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A Copy of the above forwarded Free on the 
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THE CHORAL RESPONSES 

J AND LITANIES OF THE UNITED 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND, 
collected from authentic Sources by the REV. 
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Herefordshire. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON. SATURDAY, JULY 14. 1835, 



BUCHATS'S SCOTTISH BALLADS : PBRCr's RELIQUES. 

It is now just ten years since Mr. J. H. Dixon, 
then a member of the Council of the Percy So- 
ciety, became the editor of a book published for 
that body, entitled Scottish traditional Versions of 
Ancient Ballads, London, 1845. From the pre- 
face we learn that the materials of this work are to 
be found in two MS. volumes, then in possession 
of the Percy Society, containing ballad versions 
taken from oral tradition in the North of Scot- 
land by (? the late) Mr. Peter Buchan of Peter- 
head. In the same preface we are farther in- 
formed that — 

" Mr. Peter Buchan's manuscripts were compiled solely 
for his own amusement ; but at one time,' in consequence 
of the solicitations of several of his antiquarian and 
literary friends, it was certainly Mr. Buchan's intention 
to have published a portion, at least, of the materiel which 
he had so industriously collected. Causes, however, over 
which he had no control, compelled an abandonment of 
the design, and the volumes were laid aside till the esta- 
blishment of the Percy Society, when they were handed 
over to a member of the council, who made a careful in- 
vestigation of their contents. They were subsequently 
inspected by other members of the Society, and finally, 
bj' a vote of the Council, were placed in the hands of the 
editor and his friend W. Jerdan, Esq., for them to decide 
on the authenticity and general merit of the ballad 
portion of the volumes." 

Now every reader of this preface, who does 
not know better, must necessarily get the im- 
pression, that Mr. Buchan himself never pub- 
lished any part of his ballad collection ; while the 
reader who knows better must be strongly puz- 
zled by the question, why it is not even men- 
tioned, that this same Mr. Buchan has published 
three different collections of traditionaiy songs, 
and, in fact, is the man who has rescued, and for 
the first time published, more traditionary ballad 
versions than any other antiquary in Great 
Britain that we know of? His published col- 
lections are, taken together, and compared with 
the contributions of any other single collector, the 
richest source in this branch of folk lore out of all 
that up to this day have appeared before the 
British public. Neither Percy, nor Ritson, nor 
Herd, nor Scott, nor Jamieson, nor Motherwell, 
have brought so great a number of traditionary 
versions of old folk ballads before the public as 
Mr. Peter Buchan of Peterhead. His first and 
second publications (viz. Scai'ce Ancient Ballads, 
Peterhead, 1819 ; Gleanings of Scotch, English, 
and Irish scarce old Ballads, chiefly tragical and 
historical, Peterhead, 1825) were but small and of 
a more private nature; but his chief work, the 
Ancient Ballads and Songs of the North of Scot- 
land, hitherto unpublished, two vols. 8vo., Edia- 



burgh, 1828, contains no less than 145 ballad 
texts, all of them from oral tradition, or from fly- 
sheets (stall copies, broadsides), and only a very 
few of them of doubtful antiquity. 

That Mr. Buchan has not published his ballads 
with that scrupulous accuracy, that strict and 
verbal adherence to the popular tradition, as 
might be wished, and which may now be de- 
manded, we are ready to confess ; but he cer- 
tainly has done no worse in that respect than all 
the ballad editors of England and Scotland, with 
the exceptions of Mr. Ritson, Mr. Jamieson, and 
perhaps one or two more. His merits in pre- 
servation of the old Scottish folk lore are so great, 
that he certainly ought to be treated in a less 
slighting manner than has been the case ; and 
nobody had a better reason to point out his ser- 
vices than the gentleman who owed to him the 
whole of the collection which he brought before 
the public. 

When we leave the preface and come to the 
inspection of the contents of Mr. Dixon's volume, 
which contains no more than seventeen ballad 
versions, we find that out of these two-thirds have 
been published already by Mr. Buchan himself. 
But this fact is not hinted at by Mr. Dixon, ex- 
cept in two instances, in the notes ; the one when, 
in No. X., the editor says (p. 99.) that " Versions 
may be seen in the works of Herd, Scott, Jamie- 
son, Buchan, and Chambers," but it is not stated 
that Mr. Dixon's version of this ballad is word for 
word the same with that published by Mr. Buchan 
in his last collection, vol. ii. p. 198. The other 
instance is when Mr. Dixon, in the note (p. 104.) on 
" The Waters of Gamery," informs us that " there 
are many versions of this story, the most com{)lete 
being the one called ' Willie's drowned in Ga- 
mery : ' see Buchan's Ballads of the North." And 
here the editor farther deigns to quote Mr. Bu- 
chan's notes on the occasion. In this last instance 
the version published by Mr. Dixon is another 
than that published by Mr. Buchan himself 
(vol. i. p. 245.). But in none of the other in- 
stances, even where Mr. Dixon only gives a re- 
print from the same text that has been printed 
once before in Mr. Buchan's- large collection, is 
any mention made of this fact. We shall point 
out the rest of the communia bona of Mr. Buchan's 
published ballad books and Mr. Dixon's Ancient 
Ballads. 

The first piece in the Dixon collection is 
" Young Bondwell." This is not in Mr. Buchan's 
Ballads of the North ; but we are informed by 
Motherwell {Minstrelsy, Ancient and Modern, 
p. Ixxxvi.) that a version of this ballad has ap- 
peared in Mr. Buchan's Scarce Ancient Ballads. 
Whether that is the same text as given by Mr. 
Dixon, we are unable to decide, because the 
.Scarce Ballads are extremely scarce, and no copy 
of it within our reach. Of No. V. in the Dixon 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



Collection, another version, in some respects more 
perfect (thoujih in others somewhat doubtful), has 
appeared in Mr. Buchan's Ballads of the I^orth, 
■vol. i. p. 91. (Some verses of it were previously 
printed in Motherwell's Minstrelsy, p. Ixxxi.) 
But if we look to the notes of Mr. Dixon on this 
piece, we find no mention at all of its having ever 
appeared in print (though, in fact, " Proud Lady 
Margaret," in the Border Minstrelsy, is only an- 
other version of the same ballad, as already re- 
jnarked by Motherwell). Nor is this the case 
•with this song only, but 

The Dixon Collection, Xo. VI., has previously been pub- 
lished by Mr. Buchan in Ballads of the North, vol. ii. 
p. 222. : 

„ No. VII. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 217. 

„ No. VIII. „ „ Vol.ii. p. 194. 

„ No. IX. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 67. 

„ No.X. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 198. 

„ No. XI. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 201. 

„ No. XII. „ „ Vol. i. p. 245. 

„ No. XIII. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 203. 

„ No. XIV. „ „ Vol. ii. p. 200. 

Several of those are veriatim the same in Mr. 
Dixon's and in Mr. Buchan's publications, simply 
because they have been printed from the same 
authority, the Buchan MSS. But with the excep- 
tions of the two cases before mentioned (Nos. X. 
and XL), no mention is made of their having 
been published seventeen years before in a work 
that is of so much greater consequence in this 
line, tban is Mr. Dixon's publication. 

Now this is not fair. Mr. Dixon shows in two 
instances that he knows the fact of Mr. Buchan's 
editorship, and that ^le even knows and has used 
his last edition ; but why then not mention this 
in the preface ? And why not tell in the other 
eight instances that the ballad, now edited from 
Mr. Buchan's MSS., has been published by the 
great collector himself seventeen or twenty-six 
years ago ? All this does not look well. It cer- 
tainly appears as if Mr. Dixon did not wish any 
comparison to be drawn between his fairy volume, 
■with the seventeen ballad versions, and the great 
published Buchan Collection of 145 ballads, among 
which most of his seventeen are to be found, with 
little or no difference. 

What now ought to be done is this, that the 
•whole ballad portion of Mr. Buchan's MSS. should 
be published from the MSS., but with all the 
additions and va7-ice lectiones of the published 
collections of Mr. Buchan thrown into the notes. 
There are reasons to suppose the published 
•versions to be in some respects less authentic and 
genuine than are the MSS. from which they were 
taken ; there Mr. Buchan has kept close to the 
form in which they were taken down from oral 
tradition ; but in publishing them himself he has 
110 doubt taken soms liberties with them, to make 
them more suitable to the taste of the day. 
Therefore we must have the MSS. without any 

^O. 298.] 



alteration. But, on the other hand, many of the 
differences between the written and the printed 
copy may be derived from tradition, and therefore 
ought to be preserved. This would be a fine task 
for the Warton Society, and would be received 
by all friends of northern folk lore with a pleasure 
and gratitude only surpassed by that which would 
hail the appearance in print of the mysterious 
Percy Manuscript of Ballads, which now during 
just one hundred years has been partly expected, 
and partly suspected by the friends of folk lore all 
over the world. It was in the year 1755 that 
Bishop Percy, by his Heliques, gave the first im- 
pulse to that interest for popular poetry, which 
has since spread over the whole continent, and has 
called forth the lovely bloom of the popular poetry 
of all nations. Now it would no doubt be the 
most worthy manner of solemnizing the centennial 
of the British Keliques, if the Warton Society 
would also edit {verbatim et literatim) for the first 
time that inestimable relique, the chief source of 
the great Percy publication, and of the universal 
movement it has so happily occasioned. 

SVEND GrUNBTVIG. 

Copenhagen. 



JUNIUS, MH. GEORGE -WOOBrAI-L, AND THE REV. 
HARTWELX HORNE. 

The one fact in your Note to the letter of Ver*- 
TAUR (Vol. xi., p. 338.) is conclusive ; otherwise 
many facts might be added. But any statement 
by Mr. George W^oodfall, the son of H. S. Wood- 
fall, vouched for by Mr. Hartwell Home, will be 
thought by your readers entitled to especial con- 
sideration. It may be well, therefore, to examine 
that statement, as it may help us to conclusions as 
to the value of other statements made in the edi- 
tion of 1812, which rest on the authority of Mr. 
George Woodfall, — a highly respectable man, but 
a man, be it remembered, not accustomed to weigh 
evidence — not habitually to distinguish between 
what we believe and what we know, a refinement 
which is the result of a life of critical inquiry, — 
and yet a man who is considered by most persons 
as an oracle on the subject of Junius, a subject 
about which, in my opinion, he knew very little \. 
nothing, indeed, but what he picked up hurriedly^ 
when collecting materials for the edition of 1 8 12. 

On the authority, then, of Mr. George Wood- 
fall, Mr. Home informs us that an edition of 
Junius " without date," and having an " index," — 

" is the first edition of the letters of Junius in a collective 
form ; that the proof-sheets were corrected by Junius him- 
self; and in p. xx. of the preface, and in p. 25. of this 
volume, there are two manuscript corrections made by 
Junius." 

The true history of the edition without date 
was, as I believe, given long since in " N. & Q." 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



(Vol, vi., p. 383.)- Tlaafc it was not the first edi- 
tion is proved, as you liave sliown, by Junius's 
own instructions to the printer (Priv. Let., 
No. 59.) : 

" In. the preface, p. 20. line 7., read unseasonable. 
„ p. 2G. line 18., accuracy." 

for the words referred to occur in the edition of 
1772, at lines 7. and 18., whereas in the edition 
without date they occur in lines 10. and 22. 
These facts are conclusive : they prove that the 
edition without date could not have been the 
edition referred to by Junius, — could not, there- 
fore, have been the first edition. 

Another fact equally conclusive is, that no edi- 
tion which contains an " Index " could have been 
the edition referred to by Junius — the edition 
first issued. This subject also was heretofore con- 
sidered in "ISr. & Q." (Vol. vi., p. 383), and may 
therefore be here briefly disposed of. Junius, in a 
private letter to the printer (No. 58.), expresses 
his anger that the book had been issued to the 
public before copies had been forwarded to him. 

" I was impatient to see the book, and think I had a 
right to that attention a little before the general publi- 
cation." 

Copies were immediately sent, with a letter of 
explanation, to which Junius replies (No. 59.), — 

" Your letter, ivilh the hooks, are come safe to hand . , . 
If the vellum books are not yet bound, / loould wait for 
the Index.'" 

This letter (No. 59.) contains the very errata above 
referred to, and is proof, therefore, that the copies 
issued to the jiublic, and those suhsequenilij sent to 
Junius and referred to hy Junius^ were without an 
index. 

Here then, on the authority of Mr. Home, is 
evidence that Mr. Georjie Vroodfall did not know 
which was the first collective edition — did not 
know the order and sequence, or contents of the 
editions printed in his father's office (subsequently 
his owu office) — and did not take the trouble to 
examine or inquire, yet spoke on the subject with- 
out hesitation or qualification. 

Mr. Home farther states, also on the authority 
of Mr. George Woodfall, that "the proof-sh-eets " 
of the edition without date (or, to give him all 
possible licence, of the first collective edition) 
were " corrected by Junius himself," Like state- 
ments have been made by others ; the fact, in- 
deed, assumed to be unquestionable ; and certain 
corrected proof-sheets, as they are called, still in 
the possession of the Woodfall family, have been 
referred to as evidence. Under these circum- 
stances, therefore, I must believe that at that time 
Mr. George Woodfall was himself of opinion that 
he possessed the proof-sheets corrected by Junius. 
His statements to Mr. Home, and probably to 
others, gave currency to that opinion ; and there 
is a vitality in error which cannot be trampled 

No. 298.] 



out. Here we have it, reproduced from America, 
half a century or more after its first circiilation ; 
and long after it had been shown in " N, & Q." 
(Vol. vi., p. 261.) that what are called the cor- 
rected /)n;o/s of edit. 1772, are corrected sheets of 
one of Wheble's editions, sent as copij. 

The statement, however, is so important, and 
opens so wide a field for speculation, that it may 
be well here to consider whether "the proof- 
sheets" of the edition of 1772 were or were not 
" corrected by Junius himself." The history of 
that edition, given in the " Preliminary Essay" to 
the edition of 1812 (pp. 57. 60.), is, like so many 
other circumstantialities in that essay, purely spe- 
culative and imaginative. Where, for example, 
is authority to be found for the assertion that 
Junius " unde7-took to superirdend it as far as his 
invisibility might allow him ?" Junius distinctly 
told the printer that he would not superintend it. 

" You must correct the press yourself, but I sh'' be glad 
to see corrected proofs of the 2 first sheets." (Xo. 40.) 
" In a few days more I shall have sent you all the copy. 
You must then take care of it yourself, except that I must 
see proof Sheets of Ded" & Pref., & these, if at r ", I must 
see before the End of next week." (No. 45.) 

Again, and in the next letter : 

" The inclosed compleats all the materials that I can 
give. I have done my part. Take care you do yours.'* 
(No. 46.) 

Nothing can be more clear, I think, than that 
Junius not only did not undertake to superintend 
that edition, but, from the outset, he distinctly 
told the printer that, with the exception of the 
first two sheets and the dedication and preface, 
the printer must do it himself. It farther appears 
from the correspondence that Junius did see 
proofs of the first two sheets — perhaps the first 
three — but too late for purposes of correction, as 
I judge from the "woeful mistake" referred to 
(No. 44.) not having been corrected ; and that he 
did not see proofs of the dedication and preface 
(No. 46.). Why need not be here considered. 

Here the question might rest, but that the writer 
of the Essay — speaking, of course, on what he as- 
sumed to be the knowledge of Mr. George Wood- 
fall, for he had no knowledge of his own — pro- 
ceeds, after his fashion, into details which startle 
by their circumstantiality. Thus we are told 
(p. 63.) that " the difficulties of sending proofs and 
revises forward and backward were so consider- 
able " as to delay the publication ! Fortunately, 
in the very next page (64.) he shows that there 
could have been no such delay arising from such 
cause ; for he tells us " the letters at large, ex- 
cepting the first two sheets, which were revised 
by the author himself, were, from the difficulty of 
conveyance, entrusted to the correction of Mr. 
Woodfall;'''' so that, except the first two sheets,^ 
there was no sending proofs or revises either 
backward or forward. Therefore, not only oa 



u 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



the authority of Junius, but of the Preliminary 
Essay to Mr. Georjje Woodfall's own edition, it is 
proved that Mr. George Woodfall was in error 
when he told Mr. Home that " the proof-sheets 
were corrected by Junius himself." 

As to the assertion about the two " corrections 
made by Junius," it is a mere mystification. They 
were made by Junius ; but not, as the reader 
might suppose, made by Junius in that particular 
copy of the edition without date ; but, as shown 
by your correspondent, in letters to the printer 
(Nos. 44. and 59.), and with reference to the 
edition of 1772 ; and, that the reader may not 
fall into error, I will add, they were made after 
the work was published — after " the books " had 
*' come to hand," and in the very letter of Junius 
which acknowledged their receipt. 

I must, in conclusion, direct attention to a 
somewhat startling omission in this notice of the 
" manuscript corrections made by Junius." Mr. 
Home, on the authority of Mr. George Woodfall, 
refers to " two." But, as the reader may already 
have noticed, there were three : (Priv. Let., No. 59.) 
" in the preface, p. 20. 1. 7.," unreasonable for un- 
seasonable ; "p. 26. 1. 18.," accurary for accuracy ;" 
and (Priv. Let., No. 44.) the " woeful mistake," 
" p. 25.," of your instead of thee. Now the error 
Tiot referred to is that at p. 26. Why not, it may 
be asked ? Because there is no such error in the 
edition without date, — the edition which contains 
Mr. Home's note, and which could not therefore 
be the edition referred to by Junius. L. J. 



CHURCH OP DURNESS, SUTHERIiAKDSHIRE. 

The old church of Durness, in the immediate 
Ticinity of Cape Wrath, is one of the most in- 
teresting parish churches in Scotland. It bears on 
one of its doors the date of 1622, and the dust of 
by-past generations has so accumulated about it, 
that the churchyard is on the level of the window- 
sills, and you have to descend three steps to reach 
the floor of the church. I am not able to guess 
at the date of the oWer part of the church ; but, 
as Cape Wrath is often visited by geologists and 
tourists in search of the picturesque, I do hope 
that in the course of this year there may be an 
antiquary among them who will bestow a passing 
look on Durness kirk, and may have influence 
enough to prevail on the Duke of Sutherland (the 
sole heritor of the parish) to preserve it from the 
fate of immediate destruction that has invariably 
befallen our old Scotch parish kirks, when, as has 
been the case in Durness, a new church has been 
erected. 

The churchyard contains the tombs of many 
honourable men amongst the old, but now de- 
cayed, clan of Mackay. A plain slab covers the 
grave of Robert Mackay, better known as Rob 

No. 298.] 



Don, the most popular of Gaelic poets ; and at a 
little distance stands a more ambitious tribute to 
his memory in the shape of an obelisk, with in- 
scriptions (of little merit) in Greek, Latin, Gaelic, 
and English. Within the church is the tomb of 
an earlier hero of the Clan, Donald Macmurrichov 
(as I believe, Donald the son of Murdoch), a noted 
caterane, or (as it is politely expressed by a High- 
land historian) " a gentleman of incoherent trans- 
actions." This tomb is sculptured with an effigy, 
which I take to be Donald's, — a " memento mori " 
piece, of death's head and cross bones ; and in the 
centre is a blank stone, at the west end of which 
there is an iron ring, apparently intended to raise 
the stone. The following is a transcript of the 
epitaph : 

" Donald Macmurrichov here lyis lo, 
Vas il to his freind, Var to his fo, 
True to his maister in veird and vo." 

My communication, I dare say, will inform you, 
without my own confession, that I cannot pretend 
to call myself either an ecclesiologist or an anti- 
quary. But I have some reverence for antiquity, 
and I dare say I am not the only one of your 
readers who thinks he may do some service to 
your better-informed contributors, by venturing, 
in all humility, an occasional Note. My object is 
gained, if I can get any person of influence to take 
an interest in Durness kirk, and be its advocate 
with the most liberal and excellent nobleman, in 
whose hands its fate lies. 

If my Note is not already too long, you may 
perhaps add to your collection of eccentricities, 
the following epitaphs from a stone in Durness 
kirkyard. The dates, which I neglected " to make 
a Note of," are, I think, about 1780 and 1800 : 

On 3Ir. A.'s First Wife. 
" Ten years the genuine copy of a virtuous wife, 

Clear was the prospect of her landing safely from the 
storms of life." 

On his Second Wife. 
" Though mother and stepmother when but scarce nine- 
teen, 

In both relations she did eminently shine. 

Esteem'd of every rank while maid and wife, 

Now angel bright she quaffs immortal life." 

G. M. S. 



HAY HILL. 



The following elucidation of the history of this 
part of London may possibly interest some of your 
antiquarian readers. It appears scarcely con- 
sistent with what Cunningham says under that 
head in his Handbook of London. It was found 
in searching the Records of Chancery for another 
purpose, 21st June, 1855. J. P. O. 

In Chancer!/. Duke of Grafton v. Hilliaed. 
(Reg. Lib. 1735. (A.) fol. 384.) 

Whereas by an Order bearing date the 4th instant, for 
the reasons therein contained, it was ordered that the 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



Defendants having notice thereof should show cause unto 
this Court the last day of the term, why they should not 
be restrained from burning briclcs and lime in the places 
therein particularly mentioned. And whereas by a sub- 
sequent order of the 7th instant, for the reasons therein 
contained, it was ordered that the time for showing cause 
should be enlarged until this day, they submitting that 
all things should stay in the meantime. Xow upon 
Opening of the matter this present day unto the Right 
Honble. the Lord High Chancellor, &c., by Mr. Solicitor 
General, and Mr. Wilbrahara, being of counsel with 
the defendants Milliard, Cock, and VVhitaker, who came 
to show cause against the said order of the 4th instant, 
and alleged that the Right Honble. William Lord Berkley 
being seised of several fields in the parish of St. George, 
Hanover Square, part of a farm called Hay Hill Farm ; 
they, the said Defendants, did on the 8th day of April last 
enter into articles of agreement with the said Lord 
Berkley, and with the Honble. John Berklc}' his son and 
heir apparent, for part of a certain field called Brickfield, 
parcel of the said Hay Hill Farm, to build upon at the 
yearly rent of 420Z. for a term of ninety-four years. That 
there being some brick earth upon part of the said ground, 
thereby apprehending that they had good right by virtue 
of the said articles to have the benefit thereof, to make 
the same into bricks, or to dispose thereof to any person 
so to do, they sold the same to the Defendant Whitaker, 
with liberty to make and burn the same into bricks upon 
the said ground, under the restriction in the said articles 
as to the time of burning the said bricks. That they are 
restrained by the said articles from setting fire to any 
bricks that shall be made on the said ground before the 
1st day of July next, or to continue the said burning 
longer than the last day of August, at which time it was 
apprehended that the plaintiffs and others the inhabitants 
of the neighbouring houses would be gone to their re- 
spective country seats. That it hath been usual in all 
undertakings for buildings where fresh ground hath been 
broken up to make and burn bricks, or any part thereof 
whereon brick earth hath been found, notwithstanding 
there hath been several houses near adjoining to such 
bricks, inhabited at the same time, and particularly in 
May Fair and Grosvenor Buildings, in the last of which 
there is at present bricks making and intended to be burnt 
on the ground belonging to the said defendants. That 
the time for burning the said bricks being so short, and 
the uncertain inconvenience of the same depending upon 
the Avind; they apprehend that the same will be but 
little if any annoyance to the plaintiffs, and will not 
damage their furniture, and hope they shall not be re- 
strained from burning the said bricks and making all the 
advantage they can of the said ground. That as to burn- 
ing the lime on the said ground, they the said defendants 
are not concerned therein. Whereupon, and upon hearing 
of Mr. Attorney General, Mr. Brown, Mr. Welder, and 
Mr. Clarke of Counsel with the said Defendants, and an 
affidavit of the said Defendants Hilliard and Cock and 
Whitaker read, and what was alleged on both sides, his 
Lordship doth allow the cause now shown, and doth order 
that the said order of the 4th instant be discharged. 



SHinav ^attS, 

" Worship." — In Sir D. Brewster's Life of 
Newton, just published, is Newton's creed, from 
the long-suppressed Portsmouth papers, Tliis 
creed contains an exemplification of the old use of 
the word worship. According to Newton, Jesus 

No. 298.] 



Christ is not, as matter of obligation, an object of 
prayer, but he is an object of worship. An illus- 
tration or two of this word may lead to others, and 
especially to the suggestion of the question, what 
changes it has undergone. 

Theodore Hook, who often produced bits of 
reading in his novels, refers in one of them to a 
proclamation of James I., against dignitaries al- 
lowing the use of higher modes of address than 
were due to them. AH I remember is, that com- 
plaint is made of your honour being used towards 
those who were only entitled to worship. We 
know that city magistrates are called " your 
worship," while to this day the squire is nothing 
less than "his honour.". 

The city companies are all worshipful. The 
worshipful Company of Skinners has the motto, 
" To God alone be all glory ; " the Leathersellers 
read " Honor et gloria ; " the Drapers, " Honour 
and glory ; " but the worshipful company of Fish- 
mongers read, " All worship be to God only." 
This company is one of the oldest ; was it wor- 
shipful when it took this motto, which reads so 
strangely in connexion with its own style ? Is the 
higher meaning of the word the oldest of all ? 

Works of the seventeenth century treat worship 
as applicable to men, and even to abstract ideas ; 
wise men worship the sciences. In our day it 
means prayer. The gradual changes of meaning 
have introduced confusion into many phrases ; the 
worship of images, for example. M. 

Cutting of Teeth in advanced Age. — In a Com- 
mon-place, written by one Thomas Rawlins of 
Pophills, between the years 1724 and 1734, occur 
the following entries : 

« There lives in Mill Street, in Belfast, in Ireland, 1731, 
one Jane Hooks, of one hundred and twelve years of age, 
who has her memory and appetite as well as when she 
was but twenty years old, and has got a new sett of teeth, 
w«>» has drove 'out all y<= old stumps." 

" Rob*. Lyon, of y" city of Glasgow, aged one hundred 
and nine years, who was in the service of King Charles I., 
and who has got a new set of teeth, and recovered his 
sight in a wonderfuU manner." 

" Mrs. Page, at y" Royal Oak in Barnaby Street, 
Southwark, aged ninety years and upwards, has lately 
bred six great teeth in y« upper jaw, in June, 1732, which 
is an extraordinary and preternatural instance ; had not 
a tooth in her head these twenty years past." 

"Margaret White, of Kirkaldy in Scotland, aged 
eighty-seven, who had been toothless for many years, has 
just got eight new and fresh teeth. April, 1732." 

Cl. Hoppeb, 

Errors in SirWalter Scott's Novels'. — One of your 
correspondents remarks on Mr. Maclise's anachro- 
nism, in introducing a Franciscan friar into his pic- 
ture of the "Marriage of Strongbow." Has not Sir 
Walter Scott committed the same error in Ivanhoe, 
by making the disguised Wamba style himself 
"a poor brother of the Order of St. Francis?" 



26 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



The foundation of the Order is usually placed 
in 1210, and the saintship of its founder had of 
course a still later date. 

Why does Sir Walter, both in the Tales of the 
Crusaders and in loauJioe, always style a con- 
spicuous personage in the fourth Crusade, Mar- 
quis of " Montserrat," instead of " Montferrat ?" 
Did the long f mislead him ? J. S. Vv'^a.rden. 

" Cliilde Harold'''' and the " Gerusalemmc Lihe- 
rata.^' — The resemblance between the following 
stanzas of Childe Harold and the Gerusalemme 
Libei-ata has never, to my knowledge, been noted : 

" Oh Rome ! my country ! city of the soul ! 
The orphans of the heart must turn to thee, 
Lone mother of dead empires! and control 
In their shut breasts their petty misery. 
What are our woes and sufi'erance ? Come and see 
The cypress, hear the owl, and plod your way 
O'er steps of broken thrones and temples, Ye I 
Whose agonies are evils of a day — 

A world is at j^our feet as fragile as our clay." 

Childe Harold, iv. 78. 

" Giace 1' alta Cartago : appena i segni 

Dell' alte sue mine il lido serba. 

Muoiono le citta, muoiono i rcgni ; 

Copre i fasti, e le ponipe arena ed erba; 

E 1' uom d' esser mortal par che si sdegni ! 
• nostra mente cupida e superba ! " 

Gerusalemme Liherata, xv. 20. 



MS. Notes in Copy of " The Dsscription of the 
Sector." — In an old book, described in the title- 
page as The Description and Use of the Sector, 
Crosse-Staff'e, and other Instruments, published in 
London in lG-36, and dedicated to the Honourable 
John Count of Bridgwater, Viscount Brackley, 
and Baron of EUesmere, and on the first two blank 
pages, there are the following entries : 

" 1. John Benbow, 163G. 

2. To hia son John Benbow, May 5, 1671. 

o. FromVice-Admiral Benbow to Captain, (afterwards) 
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy, Nov. oO, 1702. 

4. From Sir Thomas to Hear, (afterwards) Vice-Ad- 
miral Jas. Mighells, ]\Iarch 28, 1717. 

5. From James to his young friend Lieut. Edwd. (after- 
wards) Admiral Lord Edwd. Ilawke, April 4, 17.33. 

6. From Lord Edw. to his Friend Horatio Nelson, then 
third Lieut, of the LowestofFe, (afterwards) Admiral Loi'd 
Viscount Nelson, Duke of Bronte, &c. &c. &c., May 26, 
1777. 

7. From Lord Viscount Nelson to his dear friend Cap- 
tain Hardy (now Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas), Oct. 21, 
1805. 

8. From Admiral Sir Thomas to Captain Salusbury 
Prj'ce Humphreys, June 11, 1813. 

9. From Captain Humphreys to Edwd. W. Lloj'd, 
July 27, 1821. 

Edwd. W. Lloyd, July 27, N. S., 1821." 

This book is in good condition considering its 
age, and the present owner purchased it in the 
town of Stockport some thirty years ago at a book- 
stall. The Edward W. Lloyd was,! think, the 
first representative of Stockport in parliament 
■ No. 298.] 



after passing of the Reform Bill. Perhaps some 
of the readers of " N. & Q." may throw some light 
upon the fact of its passing through so many 
hands. I may add that, on the first page, the 
word Talavera is written in large Roman text 
In letters three quarters of an inch long. 

John Goodwin. 
Frances Street, Strangways, Manchester. 



^Vitxiti. 



WUO WAS HENRY SHIRLEY, THE AUTHOR OF " THE 
MARTYr'd SOLDIER ? " 

In W^ood's Athena Oxonienses (edit. Bliss, iii. 
741.), under the article on James Shirley, the 
poet, is the following passage : 

" I find one Henry Shirley, gent., author of a play 
called The Martyr'd Souldier, London, 1638; which 
Henry I take to be brother, or near kinsman, to James." 

That this supposition of Wood is without found- 
ation, I think will appear from the extracts which 
follow : premising that on the parentage of James, I 
can throw no light, it is true that he assumed the 
arms of my family, which Wood also mentions, 
with the expressive adjunct : " If he had a right 
to them," — an assumption which has yet to be 
made good. 

There is a passage in Tierney's History of the 
Castle and Town of Arundel, vol. i. p. 67., which 
gives some sanction to Wood's observation as to 
the relationship with Henry, at least as regards 
the popular notion of it ; it is taken from a news- 
paper : 

"The Weekly Account of certain Special Passages, &c., 
from Wednesdaj', Jan. 3, to the lOtli of the same Month, 
lGd4." 

Mentioning that — 

" S'' Edward Bishop some years since embrued his wil- 
ful] hands in the blood of Master Henry Shirley, kinsman 
to 3Ir. James Shirley, the playwright, and who did excel 
him in that faculty." 

And in another newspaper, called " Certain In- 
formations from several Parts of ye Kingdom, 
No. 52., Jan. 8 to Jan. 15, 1644," where the taking 
of Arundel Castle and Sir Edward Bishop is men- 
tioned as — 

" Once a member of the Honourable House of Commons, 
untill he wilfully deserted his service there, who is also 
stigmatised with blood, for hilling of a man that only de- 
manded his due of him." 

That the same person is meant, there can be no 
doubt. The circumstances as to the debt, which, 
are here alluded to, we shall see afterwards. 

Again, in Prynne's Histriomast'ix, 1633, p. 553. b. 
(for this extract I am obliged to the Rev. Joseph 
Hunter), is the following, clearly connecting 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



Henry, the author of the play, with the man mur- 
dered by Sir Edward Bishop : 

" Such were the siidclen and untimely ends of all those 
ancient play-poets, which should serve as a caveat to our 
moderne (of whom some have likewise come to desperate 
ends) to deter them from their ungodly profession. Wit- 

ncsse, Sherli/, slaine suddenly by S'' Edward Bishop, 

while he was drunke, as most report." 

The most particular statement of the circum- 
stances of this murder is preserved in one of 
Dr. Birch's Transcripts in the Museum (Add. 
4177.). Tlie original appears to have been in the 
State Paper Office ; but I have been unable to 
discover it, where it ought now to be, among the 
domestic papers'of the year 1627 : 

" M'' Beaulieu to S'' Thomas Puckering, Bart., London, 
31 October, 1G27. 

" There is a foul murther committed on Friday last by 
S'' Edward Bishop, of Sussex, on jM"" Henry Shirley of the 
same shire, whom he run thro' with his sword (having no 
weapon about him), as he came to him in his lodging in 
Chancery Lane to demand of him an annuity of 40/., 
which the said S'' Edward Bishop was to give him, whose 
lands (which are reported be of 1500/. or 2000/. by the 
year) were presently begged or given away, but himself 
not yet found out." 

The Henry Shirley here mentioned, and who 
by the preceding extracts is identified with the 
play-writer, was the second son of Sir Thomas 
Shirley the younger, of Wiston, in the county of 
Sussex, by Frances Vavisore, his first wife. He is 
thus noticed in the Latin pedigrees of the Shirleys, 
written by Sir Thomas Shirley of St. Botolph's 
Bridge, in the latter part of the reign of Charles I. 
(Harl. 4023., p. 125. b.) : 

" Henrlcus Shirleius secundo natus, qui sine sobole 
occisus est." 

The annuity of 40Z., which was the occasion of 
his death, was bequeathed to him by his grand- 
mother, Lady Shirley; who secured it on the 
estate of her friend Sir Thomas Bishop, Knt., of 
Parham (father of Sir Edward), and in whose 
will it is also mentioned. 

I may add as confirmatory of the above, that it 
appears by the address "to the courteous reader" 
that the author of The Martyr d Souldlcr was dead 
in 1638 : 

" But the worke it selfe being now an orphant, and 
wanting him to protect it thtt first begot it, it were an injury 
to his memory to passe him unspoken of: for the man, 
his muse was much courted, but no common mistresse ; 
and though but seldonie seene abroad, yet ever much 
admired at," &c. 

And that it had been written some time before is 
evident from the verses 

" To the Reader of this Flay noic come ui Print. 

" That this play's old, 'tis true; but now if any 
Should for that cause despise it, Ave have many 
Reasons, both just and pregnant, to maintaine 
Antiquity ; and those too not all vaine," &c. 
No. 298.] 



Henry Shirley was also author of the following 
plays never printed, but entered on the books of 
the Stationers' Company, Sept. 9, 1653: IVie 
Spanish Duke of Lerma : The Duke of Guise ; 
The Dumb Bawd ; Giraldo, the Constant Lover. 

In the Ashmolean Library there are some verses 
by, I presume, the same author (see Black's Cata- 
logue, c. 43.), thus described : 

" The Battaile : the combatants, S'^ Ambrose Vaux, 
Knt., and Glascott, the Bailey of Southwark ; the place, 
the Rules of the King's Bench — 'No amorous style affects 
my pen.' " 

subscribed, " Henrye Sherley." And in the Scourge 
of Folly (by John Davies of Hereford), London, 
1611, p. 81., are some verses addressed 

" To my right worthy Friend, and truly generous Gentleman , 
Henry Sherley, Esquire. 

" Could I but sett thee forth as I desire." 

I wish I could include the more celebrated poet 
James Shirley — the author of those noble verses, 
" The glories of our birth and state" — also among 
the worthies of the family tree ; but the genealogy 
of the Shirleys of Sussex is so well ascertained, 
that I fear this to be impossible, and that I must 
rest contented with the less known name of his 
supposed kinsman. Evelyn P. Shirley. 



THOMAS SIMON THE AlEDALLIST. 

Can any of your correspondents give me any 
information concerning Thomas Simon, Simons, 
or Symonds, the famous medallist, who flou- 
rished temp. Charles I., the Commonwealth, and 
Charles 11., and particularly as to the place of 
his birth ? I believe him to have been a native 
of the island of Guernsey, and' for the following 
reasons : 

The name is common in the island, and may be 
traced back to an early date. Richard Simon was 
one of the " douzaine," or jury of the parish of 
Torteval, when the extent of the revenues of the 
Crown in Guernsey was drawn up in the 5th of 
Edward HL, and many individuals of the name 
are at the present day holders of land in the same 
and neighbouring parishes. 

It is known that Thomas Simon had an elder 
brother, also an artist, of the name of Abraham, 
and for many generations his Christian name has 
been common in the various branches of the 
family, there being scarcely a household of Si- 
mons in which it does not occur. 

Thomas Simon himself was married to a Guern- 
sey woman, daughter and sole heiress of Cardin 
Fautrart. 

In a complaint about the year 1655, against 
Peter de Beauvoir, Esq., bailiff of Guernsey, by 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855, 



one of the many factions into which the island 
was then divided, I find the following passage : 

"And the said Peter de Beauvoir makes use of Mr. 
Thomas Symons, a graver living in the Strand, which 
Symons having skill in graving and making medalls, 
hath accesse unto his Highnes and many members of the 
Council, speakes rashly of the isle and of the inhabitants 
thereof, and mainteynes and recomends the said de Beau- 
voir, who is his cosen german and his helpe and council 
in a suite in law about inheritance in the island of Guern- 
zey, wherein the said de Beauvoir is very officious to 
oblige to himself the said Symons," &c. 

In 1643 Simon was ordered by the House of 
Commons " to make a new Great Seal of Eng- 
land," * Lord Keeper Littleton having in the pre- 
vious year fled to York, where the King then was, 
taking the Great Seal with him. Is there any 
engraving of this new Great Seal, and where is it 
to be found ? 

From the second edition of Vertue's Medals 
and other Works of Thomas Simon, published in 
1780, I glean the following particulars, which will 
form the subject of one or two more Queries : 

The only surviving child of Thomas Simon was 
the wife of Mr. Hibberd of London, by whom she 
had one daughter, married to Samuel Barker of 
Fairford, Gloucestershire, high sheriff of the 
county in 1691. Mrs. Barker had two daugh- 
ters ; one died in her infancy, the other (Esther) 
was married to James Lamb, of Hackney, Esq., 
who died in 1761. In 1780 his widow was lady 
of the manor of Fairford. She had inherited 
several warrants and papers that had belonged to 
Thomas Simon. Can any one inform me whether 
she left any descendants, and whether these docu- 
ments are still in existence ? 

The following passage also occurs in Vertue's 
work : 

" Mr. Raymond also favoured me with the sight of a 
book on vellum, signed ' Thomas Simon ' in the first 
leaf, containing twenty-five heads in pencil and ink, 
beautifully drawn, and probably from the life, for 
medals." 

This Mr. Raymond was no doubt John Ray- 
mond, Esq., of Fairford in Gloucestershire. Was 
he in any way related to Mrs. Lamb ? 

Is it known what has become of the book on 
vellum ? 

Vertue mentions that Abraham Simon was in 
the suite of Queen Christina of Sweden. Are any 
farther particulars known of him ? 

[* In the British Museum (Addit. MS. 5478.) is an 
order for payment to Abraham Symons for the great seal 
made by his brother Thomas Symons, dated October 4, 
1643. And in Addit. MS. 6497., f. 71., is Abraham Sy- 
mons's receipt for his brother Thomas in behalf of T. 
Blakestone, dated October 6, 1643. It is generally sup- 
posed that Thomas Symons died in 1665, but according 
to a letter of Samuel Pegge {Gent. 3Iag., Maj', 1788, 
p. 379.), it seems that he lived many years after that 
date.] 

No. 298.] 



Finally, is there any memoir of either of the 
brothers ? Edgar MacColloch. 

Guernsey. 



Lord Byron and the Hippopotamus. — In one of 
Lord Byron's Journals, he mentions having visited 
Exeter Change in 1813 ; and having seen, amongst 
other animals, a " hippopotamus, very like Lord 
Liverpool in the face." Never having seen either 
premier or quadruped, I can only judge from their 
respective portraits, which certainly display very 
different physiognomies : but the question is, what 
animal he can have mistaken for hippo, as there 
can be no doubt whatever that the stout gentleman 
in the Regent's Park is the first of his kind that 
appeared in Europe since the days of the Romans. 
I should suspect the tapir; which is an animal of 
somewhat similar habits, and the outline of whose 
countenance is not so utterly different from that 
to which it is compared, J. S. Warden. 

Calipash and Calipee. — Whence are derived 
these turtle terms ? Have they reference to the 
Greek language and human digestion, xaKeiros and 
xaXeirr] ? I propound this for the consideration of 
your West Indian friends. W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

Scottish Nursery Song. — An old lady of my 
acquaintance repeated to me the following lines of 
an old Scotch nursing song, which her mother 
used to sing to her. There were several verses, 
but her memory has lost all but one : 

" Ken ye Mysie Barley hinnie. 
The lass that sell't the barley hinnie, 
She's lost her pouch an' a' her siller, 
Ne'er a laud will ere come till her. 
Wae's me ! for Mysie Barley hinnie." 

The remaining verses of this lyric are a desidera- 
tum to C. D. L. 
Greenock. 

" Christ Church Bells." — Can any of your 
numerous readers Inform me where I can find the 
above glee in Greek 9 I heard it sung many years 
ago, and remember the conclusion : 



" OuSets a.v 
Aeii/zet TO Kav 
IIpii/ aKoveif iJ,eyav Tofi-" 



J. T. C. 



Sidmouth. 



" Original Poems, by a Lady." — I have a small 
volume of verse In my possession, bearing the fol- 
lowing title : 

" Original Poems, on various Occasions. By a Lady. 
Revised by William Cowper, Esq., of the Inner Temple : 
London, printed for J. Deighton, Holborn ; J. Mathews, 
Strand ; and R. Faulder, Bond Street. 1792." 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



Can any of your readers state the name of the 
authoress ? In her " advertisement," by way of 
preface, she says : 

" These poems are the genuine fruits of retirement and 
leisure, and were occasioned by such a series of adverse 
events as led the author to a peculiar habit of contem- 
plating the ways of an all-wise, over-ruling Providence, 
and to the experience of that solid happiness in the pre- 
sent life which often begins when worldly prosperity 
ends." 

The poems are mostly of a religious character, 
and in some of them I think I can trace the hand 
of the author of the Olney Hymns. 

J. Penntcook Bbown. 
Islington. 

Charlotte Humboldt. — There was a volume of 
poems published under the following title, Co- 
rinth, a Tragedy, and other Poems, by Charlotte 
Humboldt, 1838. Can you inform me whether 
the authoress was a niece of the celebrated Miss 
Carter? In the Gentlemaiis Magazine for 1813, 
I observed the marriage of Henry de Humboldt, 
only son of Baron von Humboldt, of Schweidnitz, 
in Silesia, to Charlotte Carter, daughter of 
J. Carter, Deal, and niece of Miss E. Carter. 

R.J. 
Glasgow. 

Officers killed at Preston Pans. — Robert Cham- 
bers states, in his History of the Rebellion in 1745, 
that five officers in the royalist army were killed 
at the battle of Preston Pans. 

Can any of your readers supply me with the 
names of those officers, and the regiments to which 
they belonged ? A. B. C. 

" Vesica Piscis." — Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform me when the term vesica piscis was 
first used ? And if there are any examples of it 
earlier than the tenth century ? J. C. J. 

Harp. — When was the harp first used as the 
arms of Ireland, and when introduced in the 
royal achievement as such ? Z. Z. 

Method of taking out Ink. — Can some of your 
correspondents inform me of a means of taking 
writing from paper without making a serious 
blemish in it ? Any plan which would make a 
slight blemish would still be useful in the frequent 
case of old books having the title or other pages 
scored with names, &c. J,°P. 

James Campbell. — Can you, or any of your 
readers, give me any account of James Campbell, 
author of The Judgment of Babylon, the Siege of 
Masada, and other Poems, 12mo., 1826? This 
little volume of poetry was dedicated to the Rev. 
Dr. Styles, a dissenting minister, who died a few 
years ago. E. J. 

Glasgow. 

No. 298.] 



" Ossian and Ferdousee." — Was there any ver- 
sion of the " Shah Nameh" existing before the 
publication of Ossian, or was there any means by 
which Macpherson (who had not then visited 
India) could have become acquainted with the 
former poem ? The question is suggested by the 
striking resemblance of the Ossianic poem of 
Carthon to the episode of Sohrab and Rustum, 
lately versified by Mr. Matthew Arnold. The cir- 
cumstances are almost exactly the same through- 
out, even to the chivalrous refusal of the senior 
warriors to declare their names when their so 
doing would have averted the fatal issue. That 
two writers so far asunder in age and place should, 
without any knowledge of each other, have written 
tales so identical, would hardly be less wonderful 
than that the whole circumstances of the combat 
between the Horatii and Curiatii should, without 
the slightest variation in any point, have re- 
occui'red in Greece about five hundred years 
later. J. S. Warden. 



Roman Villa. — Can you inform me which is 
the best method of laying open a Roman pave- 
ment, bath, &c. ? I conclude that in this, as in 
most other cases, " a master's eye is worth two 
pair of hands." 

Are Roman villas (or rather I should say their 
foundations) usually built upon one and the same 
plan ? 

Once more, can you tell me if any book in 
which I can find a satisfactory account of these 
interesting buildings ? Centurion. 

[Having submitted this Query to a gentleman quali- 
fied to speak with the highest authority upon this sub- 
ject, he answers, " Tell your correspondent that to clear 
out a Roman villa he must always be present, or employ 
a competent overseer ; that he must as much as possible 
interdict the use of pick-axes, and have the shovel em- 
ploj'ed, and that carefully, or the painted plaster of the 
walls is sure to be lost. Pick-axes are sad destroyers of 
tesselated pavements. As to the plan of Roman houses 
and villas, there is a pretty general agreement, varied 
according to site and means ; but the Pompeian House in 
the Crystal Palace gives the best notion of what is 
generally found in all. The best books on the subject 
are Lysons' Account of the Roman Antiquities discovered 
at Woodchesier ; and Buckman and Newmarch's Illustra- 
tions of the Remains of Roman Art in Cirencester, the site 
of ancient Corinium."^ 

Jones'' "Botanical Tour through Cornwall and 
Devon." — This book was not published in London. 
Can you name the place of publication ? An early 
reply will greatly oblige, as it is wanted for con- 
sultation during a short visit to the seaside of 
Cornwall. Tempera et Scribe. 

[This work is by the Rev. J. P. Jones, one of the editors 
of Flora Devoniensis. It was printed at Exeter in 1820, 
and we suspect only for private circulation, as it is not to 
be found in our public libraries.^ 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855, 



'■^Legend of Captain Jones ^'' — Can you or any 
of your correspondents furnish a little information 
as to the book entitled Legend of Captain Jones ; 
relating his strange and incredible Adventures iy 
Land and Sea, 12mo., Lond., 1670 ? It is written 
in verse, and in a recent bookseller's catalogue 
has the following note appended to it : 

"A gravely ironical burlesque: the hero of it was a 
distinguislied commander in the days of Q. Elizabeth : 
priced in the Bib. Ang. Poet., 21. 12s. 6d." 

Who was its author ? Whom was it Intended to 
ridicule ? 

I may mention that my copy has a curious fold- 
ing plate at the commencement engraved by 
Marshall. H. C. 

Paddington. 

[The poem is by David Lloyd, Dean of St. Asaph, " a 
person," says Anthony k Wood, " who was always es- 
teemed an ingenious man, and poetically given." It is a 
very good burlesque in imitation of a Welsh poem, en- 
titled Owdl Rich. Greulon. " The said Captain Jones," 
says Wood, " on whom the legend was made, lived in tiie 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was in great renown for 
his high exploits, when Sir John Norris and his noble 
brethren, with Sir Walter Raleigh, were endeavouring 
for the honour of their nation to eternize their names by 
martial exploits." Andrew Marvell, in The Rehearsal 
Transprosed, edit. 1776, vol. ii. p. 19., speaking of the 
Legend of Captain Jones, says, " I have heard that there 
•was indeed such a captain, an honest brave fellow : but a 
wag, that had a mind to be merry with him, hath quite 
spoiled his history." The facetious Dean, it seems, by his 
generosity and loyalty having run himself much into debt, 
some wag, or perhaps himself, has thus memorialised him : 

" This is the epitaph 
Of the Dean of St. Asaph, 
Who by keeping a table 
Better than he was able, 
Run into debt 
Which is not paid yet."] 

Charles Vt/se. — Can you give me any account 
of Charles Vyse, the author of several well- 
known school-books? If I am not mistaken, 
Mr. Vyse was the master of a school at Mitcham, 
about seventy years ago. R. J. 

Glasgow. 

[Very little seems to be kno'>.\Ti of Charles Vyse. TTie 
JBiographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816, states 
that he was formerly master of an academy in Portland 
Street, and since a private teacher at Vauxhall. And in 
a letter from an old bookseller to his son in The Aldine 
Magazine, p. 134., it is farther stated, that "in the sale of 
Mr. Robinson's stock, the copyright alone of Vyse's Spell- 
ing, price one shilling, sold for 2,500/., besides an annuity 
of fifty guineas per annum to poor old Vj'se, to whom 
your brothers went to school in Walnut-tree Walk, Lam- 
beth, in the year 1805."] 

Condarius. — One of the attesting witnesses to 
an undated deed of Philip de Belmeis, circa 1155, 
is " Petrus, Conda7-ius mens." What was the 
office described by the word ? And can any other 
instance be cited in which it occurs ? Was it 

No. 298.] 



Chandler ? I should have thought It an error of 
the transcriber for Camerarius, had not Richard 
Camerarius occurred as a witness to the same 
deed. Thomas Rossell Potter. 

[From a passage in Du Cange it seems that this was a 
legal officer, whose duties were the same as those of the 
referendary, one to whom all royal or papal ])etitions were 
referred : " Reverendissimo in Christo Patri Dornino- 
Domino Johanni de Montemirali, Papoe Prothonotario et 
Condario," &c. — Glossary, in voce. The same authority 
informs us, that this John de Montemirali was the Pope's- 
referendary : " Hie Johannes de Jlontemirali summa 
Pontifici referendarius erat, anno 1470."] 

Seal Engravers' Seals. — I am collecting Im- 
pressions of seals, and I have obtained some on 
red sealing-wax, which have been made by en- 
gravers, having the face entirely dulled, as if by 
Vermillion, and the edges left the natural colour 
of the wax. Can any one inform me of the pro- 
cess of taking such impressions ? 

Adrian Adninan. 

Great Grimsby. 

[One way, and perhaps the usual way, is to powder the 
seal with vermillion; and when the wax is quite hot, 
make the impression. The powder upon the stamp causes 
the dulness.] 



EepIt'eS. 

THEOBALD liE BOTILLER. 

(Vol. vlli., p. 367. ; Vol. ix., p. 336.) 
At the time of the dissolution of the Irish Re- 
cord Commission, considerable progress had been 
made In the transcription and printing of ancient 
charters relating to Ireland. It appears to have 
been the intention of the commissioners to publish 
transcripts of the various bulls, charters, &c., of 
ancient date, which are to be found in various 
places of deposit ; but the sudden termination of 
their commission, has prevented the completion of 
this most useful work. The printed, but still un- 
published, portion of these " chartas antiquae," 
consists of ninety-two pages large folio : the 
earliest charter bearing date the 18(h of Hen. II. ; 
and amongst them I find, at p. 11., the transcript 
of a grant whereby Theobald Walter, the king's 
butler of Ireland, grants certain lands to the Ab- 
bey of Abbey Owney, situate in the county of 
Limerick. It commences in these terms : 

" Omnibus sancte matris ecclesie filiis tarn presentibus 
quam futuris Theobaldus Walteri pincerna Hibernie salu- 
tem Sciatis me pro amore Dei et beate Dei geuitricis 
3Iarie et pro anima domini mei H. Regis Anglie et Ri- 
cardi regis Anglie filii ejus et pro salute domini mei 
Johannis Comitis Moretonie et domini Hibernie et pro 
salute H. fratris mei Cantuar' archiepiscopi et pro anima 
chari mei Ranulfi de Glanvilla et pro anima Hervci Wal- 
teri patris mei et pro anima Matilde de Waltines matris 
mee et pro salute anime mee et pro salute Matilde spouse 
niee et pro salute animarum omnium amicorum et ante- 
cessorum et successorum meorum." 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



There is deposited in the British Museum a 
Tolume of Irish pedi<irees, placed, if I mistake not, 
in the Harleian Collection, and marked No. 1425, 
At p. 79. of this manuscript, I find the pedi£;ree of 
these early branches of the Ormonde family thus 
deduced. 

Theobaldua (Ie-Helj-c= Gilbert Beckett Poultgrave= 

1 of London. I 



"Walter FitK=Agnes. 
Theobald. I 



Thomas Beckett Archb. 
of Cauturburie. 



Hubbart=Th:s Mtiud married to her second husband Fulco Fitz 
Water. I "Warren, vld. record Tur. Ixindon in a° nono Regis 
Johannis. 



Theobald=M'aud, daughter to Kobte 
"Walter, le "Vavasor, record Tur. 
Knight. London, aP 1 Kegis Jo. 



Ilubbert, Archb. of Can- 
tarburie, ob. 1203, borne 
in "West Durhame in 
Norfolke. 



It "will be perceived that there is but a triflintr 
variance betv/een the charter (so far as it goes) 
and the pedigree. In the first named Theobald 
Walter gives the name of his father as Hervey, or 
Herveius Walter; while in the pedigree, he is 
called Hubbart Walter. The pedigree which is 
given by Lodge appears also to have been com- 
piled with care. The name of Theobald's father, 
as it appears in his publication, is Herveius 
Walter, who was married to Maud, the eldest 
daughter of Theobald de Valoines ; and not to 
De AValtines, as it is given in Tlieobald's Charter. 

Amongst the Cottonian MSS., Titus, B. xi. 
p. 246., there is a transcript of a charter made by 
John, Archbishop of Dublin, " Theobaldo Fitz- 
Walteri pincerna domini comitis Moretonia3 in 
Hibernia ;" and also another charter made to him 
by the prior of Manath (?) ; and at p. 232., a grant 
made to him by John, Earl of Moreton, of "totam 
Almodernes" (?), in the time of Richard I. 

Some doubt appears to exist as to who was the 
first Butler or pincerna for Ireland. Upon this 
question I would wish to refer to the claim of 
John Butler, Esq., of Kilkenny Castle, to the dig- 
nities of Earl of Ormond, Earl of Ossory, and 
Viscount Thurles, presented to the House of Lords 
in Ireland in the year 1790; wherein Theobald 
Butler, who was married to Margery, daughter of 
Richard de Burgo, is called the third honorary 
Butler. I would refer also to the letter of Walter, 
Earl of Ormonde, written in the year 1619, 
wherein he calls " Tibbott fithe (fitz) Walter the 
first of his name that went for Ireland" (MS. 
Brit. Mus., Julius, C. iii. p. 75. dorso) ; and to 
Lodge, who states that the butlerage was con- 
ferred upon the Theobald Walter in question 
A.D. 1177. 

In reply to a Query which has appeared in 
" N. & Q.," I beg leave to add, that it is stated in 
the Book of Pedigrees in manuscript, to which I 
have referred, that " Roesia, daughter to Nicholas 
de Vardon," married Theobald AValter, the second 
hereditary butler for Ireland ; and the authority 

No. 298.] 



which is given for this statement is Record. Tur. 
Londin. in anno 8 Hen. III. James F, Ferguson. 
Dublin. 



BOOKS BURNT. 



(Vol.xi., pp.161. 288.) 

In addition to the list of books enumerated by 
Messrs. Cowi'er and Wood, the following par- 
ticulars may be interesting. They refer to the 
proceedings of the Irish Parliament respecting a 
book published by the Irish Jacobites in 1715, 
and are to be found in the journals of the Irish 
House of Commons for that year. 

« March 24, 1715. 

" A motion being made that a book, intituled A Long 
History of a Short Session of a certain Parliament in a 
certain Kingdom, contains in it manj' reflections on the 
proceedings of the late House of Commons of this kingdom, 
and several paragraphs therein being read : 

"Resolved, Nemine contradicente, — That a book inti- 
tuled A Long History of a Short Session of a certain Par- 
liament in a certain Kingdom, is a false, scandalous, and 
malicious libel, highly reflecting on the proceedings and 
honour of the late House of Commons. 

" Ordered, — That Mr. Maynard, Colonel Barry, &c., 
or any three of them, be appointed a committee to meet 
in the Speaker's chamber to-morrow morning, at eight of 
the clock, to inquire who was the author, printer, and 
publisher of a book intituled A Long History of a Short 
Sessioji of a certain Parliament in a certain Kingdom. 
That they have power to send for persons, papers, and 
records, and to adjourn from time to time, and place to 
place, as they shall think lit, and report their proceedings 
with their opinion therein to the house. 

" Resolved, — That an humble address be presented to 
their excellencies the Lords Justices, that they will be 
pleased to issue a proclamation for giving a reward to 
any person who shall discover the author of the said 
book. 

" Ordered, — That the said address be presented to 
their excellencies by such members of this house as are 
of his Majesty's most honourable Privy Council. 

" Ordered, — That the said book be burnt by the hands 
of the common hangman upon the gate of this house, on 
Saturday next, at twelve of the clock, and that the 
Sheriffs of the City of Dublin be required to see the same 
done accordingly." 

Thomas Gimlette, Clk. 

Waterford. 



THE red dragon. 

(Yol. xi., p. 445.) 

The following remarks of Garter Anstis upon 
the origin and institution of the office of Rouge 
Dragon Pursuivant may be interesting to your 
Querist, inasmuch as they are accompanied by re- 
ferences to proofs, and the evidence upon which 
he founds his statements : 

Rouge Dragon, or the Red Dragon, instituted, 
as Sir Henry Spelman ' saith, by Henry VII. in 

1 Spelm. Gloss, v. Herald : " Rouge dragon a rubro 



S2 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



allusion to the (right) supporter of his shield, as- 
sumed by him as according to Sandford^, from the 
(supposed) ensign of Cadwallader^, from whom he 
derived himself in a male line ; but a French^ and* 
also a Dutch ^ author intimate that this denomina- 
tion was taken from the banner" ascribed to St. 
George, who in the legend is feigned to have killed 
one. As the dragon was anciently the standard ^ 
or banner of our kings, the authors quoted in the 
margin (see notes below) may be consulted, and 
the reader is left to his own judgment whether 
Dragons * Pursuivant^ sent hither by the King of 
Scotland in 12 Hen. VI., and then remitted to the 
Duke of Burgundy, was an officer of this kingdom. 
Henry VII. created an officer by this title the day 
before his coronation^, immediately after he had 
made the Knights of the Bath ; and on the 25 th 
April, in his first year^°, grants to Rouge 



Dracone Eegium Anglorum clypeum sustinente ab Hen- 
rico VII. institutus." 

2 Geneal. History, p. 464. 

3 Dr. Watts, in iiis Gloss, to M. Paris, v. Draco, saith 
it was in his time the standard which he himself saw in 
the expedition against the Scots in 1639. 

* Mbreau des Armoiries de ffrance, pp. 300, 301. "Le 
Dragon une des Supports d'armes d'Angleterre, et h, cause 
de la baniere du Dragon, que les Rois ont parmy leur En- 
seignes k I'honneur de Sainct George, Patron des Cheva- 
liers du bleu Jartier, et qui tua le Dragon." 

* Rouck der Nederlan. 

6 M. Paris, Battle of Lewis, " prsecedente eum (Regem) 
signo Regio (indicium mortis pretendente) quod Draconem 
vocavit." 

Spelm. Aspilogia, p. 17. 
Dufresne, Gloss., voce Draco. 

7 Hoveden, p. 397.*^ n. 10. Richard I. being in the 
Holy Land, " tradidit Draconem suum Petro de Pratellis 
ad portandum contra calumniam Rob. Trussebut," &c. 

Claus. 28 Henry III. n. 7. " 17 Junii mandatum est 
Edro fil Odonis — quod habere faciat unum Draconem in 
modum unius vexilli de quodam rubro sanulo, qui ubiq; 
sit de auro extencellatns, cujus lingua sit facta tanquam 
ignis comburens, et continufe appareat, moveatur et ejus 
oculi flant de Saphiris vel de aliis lapidibus eidem conve- 
nientibus, et ilium ponat in ecclia beati Petri Westm con- 
tra Adventum Regis ibidem." 

8 Henri, &c., at Tres, &c., que a Dragance pursevant 
nadgairs envoier de nfe tres ch et tres ame Cousin le Roy 
de' Escoce avec certeins Ires de credence a nous et a mesme 
nre counsaill facez avoir cynge marcs, &c., VI. ifeverer 
Pan douszisme (Hen. VI.). 

9 MS. Ant. h Wood in Mus. Ashm., 33, p. 23., H. V., 
penes me p. 312 ''.... created Rouge Dragon by King 
Henry VII., immediately as he had made the Knights of 
the Bath. MS. Wriothesley, Garter penes Dom. Jos. 
Jekyll Mil. Mag. Rotulorum, in the ceremonial of the 
creation of the Duke of Buckingham and others to be 
Knights of the Bath ; the king created a Pursuivant and 
named him Rouge Dragon. 

10 Pat. 1 Henry VII. p. 3. in 13. " Rex omnibus ad 
quos Salutem, Sciatis quod nos in consideratione veri et 
fidelis servitij quod delectus serviens noster Rouge Dragon 
nobis impendit et sic inposterum impendere intendit, de- 
dimus et concessimus ei quandam annuitatem sive an- 
nualem redditum decem librarum sterlingorum habend' 
et percipiend' annuatim a festo Sancti Michaelis Arch- 
angel! ultimo preterite pro termino vitse suae ad Recep- 

No. 298.] 



Dragon during life a salary of ten pounds yearly, 
which is entered 1^ as paid to him in the succeeding 
years, and in the sixth year he (being mis- 
entered'^ by the title of a herald) attended on the 
ambassadors of Bretagne ; and in the ninth year 
Rouge Dragon hath the annuity" granted him 
which Faucon enjoyed before he was promoted to 
be a herald, which was paid him in that ^* and in 
the two following years, and in the eleventh year 
he had been sent into foreign parts.^^ G. 



R. D. seeks for information on the subject of 
the Red Dragon, which can be given in a few 
words. The Red Dragon is essentially Welsh. It 
was the banner of Cadwaladyr, King of Britain ; 
and it led the Welsh to victory under Henry VII. 
at the battle of Bosworth ; in honour of which, 
that monarch created the heraldic office of Rouge 
Dragon, still existing in the Heralds' College, and 
which it was intended should always be filled by 

tam Scaccarij nostri per manus Thesaurarij et Camerari- 
orum ejusdem pro tempore existentium ad festa PaschiB 
et St. Michaelis Archangeli per equates portiones, aliquo 
statute acta ordinatione provisione vel restrictione in 
contrarium factis nonobstantibus. In cujus, etc. teste 
Rege apud Eborum 25 die Aprilis. Per breve de privato 
sigillo et de data," &c. 

11 Lib. Computat. in Off. Pel, P. 1 Henry VII., Rouge- 
dragon pursevant de feodo stio. 

Ibm. M. 2 Henry VII. Rougedrago pursivant de an- 
nuitate sua xl. 

Ibm. M. 3 Henry VII. Rougedragon pursevant de x 
libri annuls. 

Ibm. M. 4 Henry VII. Rougedragon pursuivant de 
annuitate x' per annum. 

Ibm. P. 5 Henry VII. Rougedragon pursuivant super 
annuitate sua x'. 

Ibm. P. 6 Henry VII. Rougedragon pursuivant de cert» 
suo annuo, &c. 

12 Ibm. 6 Henry VII. Rougedragon Heraldo pro cus- 
tubus et expensis suis in consimili casu 6s. 8rf., i. e. pro 
attendentia super ambassiatores BritanniiB nuper ve- 
nientes a Rege Romanorum. 

'3 Priv. Sigil. deliberat Cancellario 18 Januarij 9 
Henrj' VII. Rex Servienti nostro Rougedragon x libr, 
durante vita quas fFawcon nuper unus pursuivandorum 
nostrorum et jam unus Heraldorum nostrorum nuper 
habuit, etc. In Capilla Rotulorum Pat, 9 Henry VII. p. 
unica 18 Januarij. 

14 Priv. Sig. in libro in Off. Pell M. 9 Henry VII. 
Rougedragon pursevant pro termino vitse su£e per annum 
x". 

Lib. Comp. P. 10 Henry VII. Rougedrago pursuev* de 
annuitate sua x". 

Ibm. P. 11 Henry VII. Rougedragon pursev' de annui- 
tate sua 7l\ 

li Signet in Off. Pell " Right Trusty and Welbeloved, 
We grete you well, Forsomoche as We, for certain great 
causes and considerations us moving, send at this tyme 
our welbeloved servant Rowgedragoon, oon of our Pursui- 
vants in our espetial message into the parties beyond the 
Sea, Ye pay him all suche somes of money as been 
growen dueunto hym by reason of his fee at this fest of 
Estre last passed," &c. 24 April. 11 Henry VIL 

Lib. Comput. P. 11 Henry VII. Pro arreragijs feodi 
Rougedragon missi versus partes transmarinas, &c. 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



33 



a "Welshman. And it was so filled in the time 
of Queen Elizabeth, when the celebrated Lewys 
Dwnn made his heraldic visitations in Wales (long 
before the existence of the Heralds' College) ; 
which visitations have to a great extent, though 
not wholly, been collected and edited by the late 
learned genealogist Sir Samuel R. Meyrick, and 
published in two quarto volumes by the Welsh 
MSS. Society. These volumes contain also, a 
fac-simile of a drawing, in the British Museum, of 
the banner, containing the arms of Wales (four 
lions passant counterchanged), which was borne at 
the funeral of Queen Elizabeth, and which has 
been most unaccountably omitted on state occa- 
sions of late years. The Eed Dragon of Wales is 
depicted in Holbein's famous picture of the meet- 
ing of Henry VIII. and Francis I. (" Le Champ 
de drap d'Or"), belonging to the royal collection 
in Windsor Castle, of which also there are en- 
gravings ; where the Dragon of Wales appears 
flying over the head of the Tudor monarch, and is 
also depicted on every flag which marks the quar- 
ter of the British host. The Red Dragon may 
also be seen in Henry VII.'s Chapel in West- 
minster Abbey, as the companion supporter to the 
lion of England ; which it was, until supplanted 
by the unicorn of Scotland, brought in by James I. 
The field of the banner of the Red Dragon is o-reen 
and white : hence the royal colours and livery of 
the Tudors was green and white. And when 
Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., 
espoused James of Scotland, it is recorded that 
the royal liveries of the servants who accompanied 
her were green and white ; which is also the colour 
of the leek, the national emblem of Wales. It is 
a matter worth inquiry, what the undercurrent 
could be that was strong enough, not only to sup- 
plant the Cambrian dragon, without the aid of 
which the Stuarts could never have reigned over 
England and Wales; but which banished from 
the royal shield the arms of the country throu<Th 
whose princess the King of Scotland became heir 
to the throne of the Tudors ? In the Heralds' 
College may be now seen a drawing of Queen 
Elizabeth's seal, where the lions of Wales held 
their proper place ; and it would be but historical 
justice to restore them to their own place. G. G. 



PHOTOGBAPHIC COERESPONDENCB. 

Mr. Lyte's Process (continued from p. 16.). — The 
plate then being exposed in the camera for the same time 
as IS usually given in the ordinary process, is to be 
taken into a dark room to be developed ; and the first part 
ot this operation consists in disengaging from the plate all 
the syrup by long soaking in a weak nitrate bath of about 
5 to 10 grains of nitrate to the pint of distilled water 
(cold, not hot). This bath should be frequently renewed 
and the infinitesimal quantity of silver therein contained 
may be taken out by the addition of common salt, f See 

No. 298.] ^ 



remarks at the end, the treatment of residues, &c.) It 
should lie in this bath not less than four hours, being 
constantly moved about, and taken in and out of the 
bath ; or if the horizontal bath before described be used, 
it is to be frequently tilted up and down to well wash the 
surface of the plate. Here the three processes again unite 
in one : for the first case, with ordinary collodion, the plate 
is best developed at once on leaving the camera, by the 
instantaneous process likewise, though if the honey be 
not of the very best quality it is possible that the use of 
the weak washing bath of 10 grains to the ounce may be 
beneficial in removing the syrup before developing. Next 
the glucosed plate, on coming from this last bath, is also 
fit to be developed. The plate is now to be placed on a 
levelling-stand, and there is to be poured over it the 
following mixture : Pyrogallic acid, 2 grains; water, 
1 ounce ; acetic acid (glacial), 40 minims. Pour enough 
of this on the plate to well cover it all over (do not be 
sparing of it), and then keep moving the plate by lifting 
alternately each corner of it till the image is well up. In 
the case of the instantaneous and ordinary processes, 
should the exposure, &c. have been well conducted be- 
forehand, the first quantity poured on will bring the ne- 
gative up to the correct intensity ; but in the case of the 
preservative process the pictuie requires to be darkened, 
as, although the whole details are apparent, they are not 
dark enough through the want of a sufficiency of nitrate 
of silver being present. A similar effect is produced by 
over exposure, which seems to produce the same effect 
practically as too little exposure, and produces a negative 
which is red and transparent in the parts which should 
be opaque. When this is the case, pour off the first por- 
tion of developing liquid, and having put an equal portion 
into a glass, add to it about 10 drops of a solution of ni- 
trate of silver of 10 per cent., and treat the negative with 
this, with the same precautions before described. This 
will be found immediately to dai-ken all the dark parts of 
the picture, and to convert what might before have been 
styled a bad negative into a fine and intense one. The 
picture is now to be washed under a tap of water, or a 
stream of water to be poured on it, the plate being held 
in a slanting position to the stream ; the developing li- 
quid is thus removed. The negative may now be dried 
and kept till we wish to fix it, which process consists in 
the taking out from its surface the iodide and bromide of 
silver which the light has not affected, and which being 
yellow, while that reduced by the photographic agency 
is black, we are sure to know when this is clone, by the 
removal of all the yellow colour from the negative. To 
do this, take 1 pint of water, and in it dissolve 100 grains 
of cyanide of potassium (commercial), and add 10 grains 
of iodide of silver and 5 of nitrate. This is to be poured 
on to the negative, to remove the iodide of silver as I 
before said ; and when the operation is terminated, the 
liquid is to be returned into the bottle, as it rather im- 
proves than spoils by use ; and when once made, all we 
have to do is to keep the bottle always full, by adding 
water, in which is dissolved a proportionate quantity of 
cyanide of potassium. The removal of the iodide may be 
known by the clearing up of the picture and the disap- 
pearance of the yellow colour, which latter will be more 
easily seen on turning over the plate and looking at the 
back of it, when the undissolved iodide will be perceived 
as primrose-coloured spots. I may add that, for the con- 
venience of the operator in enabling him to see this more 
plainly, that this part of the process is as well conducted 
in full daylight, as the plate is no longer sensitive. The 
plate is now at once to be subjected to a stream of water, 
as before, so as to completely remove all the cyanide, and 
when considered sufficiently washed, to be stood up on 
one corner to dry ; when dry it may be varnished. The 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



best varnish I know is that recommended by Dr. Dia- 
mond, and sold by Hockin and Williams ; and the ope- 
rator will do best to buy some of it, as he cannot make it 
as cheaplj"- as he can buy it. But a very good varnish is 
made by dissolving about 15 parts of shellac in 100 parts 
of absolute alcohol by the aid of heat, standing the bottle 
loosely corked in some hot water and constantly shaking 
it till" dissolved, and then filtering it, while hot, through 
a flannel, which is covered with a slip of glass to prevent 
evaporation. The negative may now be considered 
finished. F. Maxwell Lytjs. 

Bagn^res de Bigorre, Hautes-Pyren^es. 



" Two Pound Ten" (Vol. xi., p. 503.). — " Two 
pound ten" was the burden of a mail-coach anec- 
dote which James Smith turned into a song. A 
fellow passenger, a stranger to Smith, who had, he 
said, run short of cash, asked him to lend him two 
pound ten, to bo repaid at the journey's end. 
Smith's reluctance to lend; his doubts as they 
travelled along about the repayment ; and his final 
satisfaction, when, at last, the stranger paid the 
two pound ten, are the theme of this pleasantry, 
which Smith used to sing very agreeably, as he 
did several other anecdotical songs. I should sup- 
pose that it is reprinted in his brother Horace 
Smith's account of James ; but I have not the 
book at hand. C. 

Descendants of Sir Walter Raleigh (Vol. x., 
pp. 373. 475.). — I am obliged by L. H. J. T.'s in- 
formation ; but fear, as B. H. C. observes, that 
the family relic mentioned cannot be the great 
Sir Walter's ; but it may have very well belonged 
to his grandson, another Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
survived the Restoration some time, and whom 
there is no improbability in supposing to have 
been possessed of a tea-pot. J. S. Warden. 

Naval Victories (Vol. xi., p. 462.). — The "Pas- 
quinade " quoted by <J>. is illustrated by a cari- 
cature published in England, by which it appears 
that the capture of Quebec was the immediate 
provocative to the satire. Mercury is descending 
upon the earth, announcing " Quebec pris par les 
Anglois le 18 Sept., 1759." Boats are sailing 
about with brooms at the mast-head. Soldiers 
are offering themselves to let by beat of drum. 
A minister is suspended from one arm of a great 
cross. A general is broken upon the wheel. A 
female ghost rises from the grave astonished at 
the scene, and the Maid of Orleans is also rising. 
Madame Pompadour is studying a scheme of "In- 
vasion," and a French gentleman is imploring her 
to pity the poor prisoners in England. 

France at this time ceased to maintain her pri- 
soners, but left them to the charity of the English, 
by whom large subscriptions were raised for their 
support. 

No. 298.] 



In June, 1759, it had been announced that two 
thousand workmen were employed at Havre in 
building one hundred and fifty flat-bottomed 
boats ; a like number were building at St. Maloes, 
Nantes, Port I'Orient, Morlaix, &c., all which 
were rendered unavailing by the late English 
successes. 

Walpole calls the lines quoted by *. an epigram 
on Mad. Pompadour, stating that there were fifty 
vile translations, and adding one of his own : 

" O, yes ! here are flat-bottom'd boats to be sold. 
And soldiers to let, — rather hungry than bold ; 
Here are ministers richly deserving to swing, 
And commanders, whose recompense should be a string. 

0. France ! still j-our fate you may lay at ... .'s door. 
You were saved by a maid, and undone by a wh — ." 

Edward Hawkins. 

Doorway Inscriptions (Vol. xi., p. 134.). — 

1 . At Naples, over the gate of the large hospital 
of the Annunciata, and to express the ample pro- 
vision therein made for the varied wants of the 
poor : 

" Lac pueris, dotem nuptis, velumque pudicis, 
Datque medelam aegris hsec opulenta domus." 

2. At Vienna or Berlin (?), over the entrance 
to the military hospital : 

" Lajso sed invicto militi." 

3. At Rome, over the principal entrance to the 
hospital "Del Santissimo Salvatore:" 

" Hospit. Salv. Eefugium pauperum 
et infirmorum." 

Ditto, over the door of the university called 
" Delia Sapienza :" 

" Initium sapientioe timor Domini." 

Ditto, over the Gregorian university, or as it is 
commonly called, the " Collegio Romano :" 
" Eeligioni ac bonis artibiis." 

4. At Rhodes, over the inmost of the seven 
gates that gave admission, through seven lines of 
bastions and walls, into the fortress of the Knights 
of St. John, built in 1399, and called " St. Peter's 
of the Freed," there was formerly this inscription : 

" Nisi Dominus custodierit, frustra 
vigilat qui custodit." 

Cetrep. 

On a stone over the door of Hill field House, a 
castellated mansion near Solihull, Warwickshire, 
is the following inscription : 

" Hie hospites 

In cselo cives. 

H. 

W. V. 

1579." 

The initials are supposed to be those of the 

builders of the house, William Hawes and Ursula 

his wife. Eden Warwick. 

Birmingham. 



July 14. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



Notaries (Vol. x., pp. 87.315.). — French no- 
taries use seals as well as English notaries. The 
paraphe or flourish is not peculiar to the notary. 
. The French notary, it must be remembered, per- 
forms most of the functions of the English country 
attorney. Hyde Clarke. 

The "ArcIicBological Epistle" (Vol. xii., p. 4.). 
— Nichols and Chalmers agree with Douce in as- 
serting that John Baynes was the writer. Mr. 
Makkland raises a doubt on the subject. I 
agree with him, and should be very glad to hear 
from some of your antiquarian, archEeological, or 
bibliographical correspondents what are the facts 
that will help us to conclusions. T. A. E. 

WildDayrell (Vol. xi., p. 483.). — A branch of 
the Dayrell family has been long settled at Shudy 
Camps in Cambridgeshire, and is descended from 
the family of that name at Lillingstone-Dayrell, 
in Buckinghamshire. Their name is spelled with 
a y, and pronounced Dorrell. J. D. G. 

Seventy-seven (Vol. xi., p. 61.). — N. L. T. says, 
" Another century must elapse before this reply 
can be given, after the year which has just ex- 
pired." On behalf of strict correctness allow me 
to remark that this reply, ipsissimis verbis, can 
never again be given. An analogous reply may 
be given in the year 1976 : "I was born in the 
three eights, and confess to the two eights." It 
is singular that with each figure the lapse is of 
122 years precisely. W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

" Rime of the new-made Baccalere " (Vol. xi., 
p. 38.). — G. L. S. is unacquainted with the au- 
thor's name. It was attributed at the time of its 
publication in Oxford to George John Davie, of 
Exeter College, who graduated in 1840. 

W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

" Pereant qui ante nos nostra dixerint" (Vol. x., 
p. 464.). — I lately met this quotation in a re- 
markably quaint and well-written American book, 
styled The Biglow Papers, wherein it was given 
as from St. Augustin, or St. Austin, for the author 
of the Papers characteristically uses the colloquial 
form. 

The last word was in the potential mood, as 
under the regimen of the indefinite " qui," and 
not in the indicative, as H. L. writes it. 

W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 

De Burgh's '■'■Hibernia Dominicana " (Vol. xi., 
p. 504.). — This book, according to Brunet 
(vol. i. p. 497., Paris, 1842), was printed at Kil- 
kenny, by Edmund Finn, under the direction of 
the author himself. 'AXievs. 

Dublin. 

ifo. 298.] 



Book-plates (Vol. xi., p. 471.). — I am very 
much obliged to your correspondent G. 11. M. for 
mentioning the book-plate of " Gilbert Nicholson 
of Balrath, in the county of Meath, Esq., 1669." 
I certainly have never seen an engraving of arms, 
clearly ascertained to be an English, Irish, or 
Scottish book-plate, with a date previous to 1698. 
This of Gilbert Nicholson's seems to be clearly a 
book-plate. Would it be too much "trouble to 
your correspondent to give in " N. & Q." a short 
description of the book-plate. I should expect to 
find in it a complete achievement, that is to say, 
helmet, wreath, crest, and mantle, with flowing 
lantrequins. If not of this kind, the curiosity of 
the book-plate will be increased. In any case 
those who are interested in heraldry will be much 
indebted to your correspondent if he will favour 
us with a description of it. 

I should add that I have in my collection foreign 
book-plates of a much older date. For example, 
one of gi'eat beauty, of 1606 : " "i" ioannes prae- 
posiTvs sanctae crvcis avgvstae anno dni 
MDCVi." This, with many others, I obtained 
from the library of the Very Reverend Canon 
Rock, to whom, if greater pursuits did not suffi- 
ciently occupy him, we might look for everything 
that could be said on such a subject as this. 

D. P. 

[Our correspondent has apparently overlooked the de- 
scription of Sir Edward Dering's book-plate of 1630, 
described in our 4th Volume, p. 94. — Ed. " N. & Q."] 

White Paternoster (Vol. xi., p. 511.). — I beg 
to assure P. P. P. that I never for a moment sup- 
posed that the so-called Enchiridion of Pope Leo 
was considered as a book of genuine devotion by 
the Church of Rome ; or that the prayers, or 
rather charms, it contains, were ever looked upon 
as authentic by her clergy. It is essentially a 
magical work, though not possessing the infernal 
character of the Grimoire, which in my copy is 
printed after the Enchiridion. The Grimoire is 
a book of black magic, full of diabolical incanta- 
tions for evil, whilst the charms of the Enchiridion 
are chiefly intended to avert or heal diseases, &c. 
Still I cannot but hold my opinion that the 
nursery hymn in question is derived from the 
White Paternoster, which, silly but harmless as it 
is, may well have been handed dov,rn to posterity, 
and preserved, especially in the rural districts, 
amongst other scraps of folk lore. 

W. J. Beenhard Smith. 
Temple. 

Hunting Bishops (Vol. ix., p. 432.). — Spelman, 
in his Apology for Archbishop Abbot, learnedly 
defends the practice of bishops hunting, and ob- 
serves, — 

"By ancient record the Bishop of Rochester, at his 
death, was to render to the Archbishop of Canterbury hia 
kemiel of hounds as a mortuary, whereof (as I am credibly 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



informed) the law taketh notice for the king, Sede vacante, 
under the name of 3Iuta Canum and Mulctura." 

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

The Ducking Stool (Vol. vii., p. 260. ; Vol. viii., 
p. 316. ; Vol. ix., p. 232.). — Permit me to direct 
the attention of your correspondents as to this 
obsolete instrument of punishment, to a paper on 
the subject which is to be found in the Transac- 
tions of the Kilkenny and South East of Ireland 
ArchcBological Society, for the year 1853, vol. ii. 
p. 254. B. L. 

Sir Thomas More's Works (Vol. xi., p. 324.). 
— The best and fullest list of the works of this 
writer, which seem to deserve a reprint on various 
jyrounds, will be found in the first volume of Dr. 
Dibdin's edition of the Utopia. It particularises 
all the works, not merely those of the Utopia. 

Novus. 

Statue of William, III. at Bristol (Vol. xi., 
p. 487.). — There is no truth in the report men- 
tioned by your Paddington corresf)ondent P. G., 
that the statue of William III. in Queen Square, 
Bristol, is illuminated once in one hundred years. 
It is illuminated when a general illumination of 
the city takes places, and at no other time that 
I am aware of. J. D. L. 

Bristol. 



MiittXlKntawi. 

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO FURCHASE. 

Andrew's CBp.) Sermons. Folio. 

Daniel's Roral Sports. 

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Alison's Ehrope. Vols. Xt. XII. XIV. XVI. XVII. XX. 

Porter's Tropical Agrtcultork. 

PoLi Synopsis. Five Vols. Folia. 

Steven's Book of the Farm. 

Coleridob's BmoRAPHiA I/itf.rahia. Part 2. of Vol. I. Aldine. 

Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Bouan Biography and My- 
thology. Part 18. 

Gerwan Popular Stories. By the brothers Grim ; original Kdilion, 
with Illustrations by Cruikshank. 2 Vols. 

Oriotnal Poems for Infant Minds. By several youne persons. 4th 
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Particulars of Price, &c. of the followins Books to be sent direct to 
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The Experic-nced Anoler. Ifi53. A good perfect copy, or an im- 
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Ijewis's Topographical Dictionary op England. Vol. I. 4to. 1833. 
Thompson's Alcrdo. Vol. Til. 4to. 

Any Small 4to. Tr\cts by Sir Walter Raleigh. Clean copies. 
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Wanted by Charles Blackburn, Bookseller, Leamington. 

ITniversal Magazine for 1789. Vols. LXXXIV. & LXXXV. 

'"L,-^°'',''f ■'^•*'^'''"'"^ *"" Poems. (.Twenty-seven in number, 
published during the seventeenth century.) 

Wanted by John Nurse Chadwick, Esq., King's Lynn. 

The Political Contest. Letters between Junius and Sir W. Draper. 

London, Newberry. No date. 
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without name of Publisher. ' 

Junius Discovered. By P. T. 1789. 

Reasons for rejecting the Evidence of Mr. Almon. 1807. 
Another Guess at Junius. 1809. 
A Discovery of the Author op the Letters of Junius. Taylor 

and Hessey, 1813. ^".luji. 

Sequel to Attempt to ascertain the Author op Junius. By Blake- 

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Siatltei to €arrtijfanXsmtg. 

Owing to the length of the Index to our Eleventh Volume, which has 
encroached upon the present A'umher, we are compelled to postpone until 
next week several interesting articles on Earle's Microcosmography, the 
Health of Tobacco Manufacturers. American Surnames, Orator Henley, 
^c, and our usual Notes on Books. 

Transmission op " Notes and Queries " by Post. We must remind our 
readers that stamped N'umbers are re-transmitsible by post for fifteen 
days fr<rm the date of publication ; but that the paper must always be so 
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unstamped copies may be posted at any time by affixing a penny postage 
stamp. 

We have now co»npZe<cdour Eleventh Volume, and must beg those who 
desire complete sets to make early application for them, as very few j-e- 
main. 

J. P. Will this Correspondent kindly furnish us with the names of the 
articles to which he refers f 

J. M. M. A. We believe your friend is right. We were about to ask the 
question when pour second Note arrived. 

Howell's Vision, or Dialogue between Soul and Body. I)oe.s our 
Correspondent wish to purchase this volume f If so, ive ^r.ill insert it with 
his name and address in our next week's list o/fiooKs Wanted. 

Marriages BETWEEN Cousins, Vol. x.,p. 102. WillU.'Mi.ofPeckham, 
whose article appeared in " N. & Q." as above, kindly inform the under- 
signed where a letter will reach him f By so doing he will greatly oblige, 
J. Dufpett Lucas, 

Stapleton Road, Bristol. 
W. S., who writes on the subject of the line from Dionysius' Cato, 
" Fronte capiUat^, post est occasio calva," 
is referred to the correspondence on its authorship in our 3rd VoL, pp. 8. 
43. 92. 124. 140. 286. 

Miss B. (near Newbury.) We have not thought it right to insert the 
A dvertisement sent, being doubtful whether it would be the means of pro- 
curing a really good article of the nature required. 

J. C. J. Our CorrespondetH is right in hit conjecture, that a carpenter's 
square is an emblem of St Thomas, and a hatbert. sword, or lance that 
of St. Matthias. See l>r. llusenbeth's Emblems of Saints. 

Errata. — Vol. xi.,p. 502. col. 2. 1. 36.,/or "Pautellnria," rejid "Pan- 
tellaria ;" p. 508. col. 2. 1.60., for'^ a mile," read "five miles ;" p. 509. 
col. 1. 1. 41., /or " basilisk " read " basilic." 

Full price will be given for clean copies of No. 166. and No, 169. upon 
application to the Publisher. 

A few complete sets of " Notes a nd Queries." Vols. I. to XI. , are nolo : 
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July 14. 1855.1 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, 
Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster 
Abbey.— The Westminster Hospital was in- 
stituted in tlie year 1719. and was the first of 
the kind in the United Kingdom estnblislied 
and supported by Voluntary Contributions. 
The principle of admission is based chiefly on 
the urgency and nature of the symptoms of the 
patient, and during the past year 1,123 acci- 
dents and urgent cases have been received as 
in-patients without letters of recommendation, 
while 14,381 out-patients have obtained medical 
or surgical assistance with no other claim than 
tlieir sufferings. Patients are constantly re- 
ceived from distant districts ; admission is also 
freely given fo Foreigners who are ill and in 
distress ; and relief is (5ften afforded to patients 
•who are sent as urgent cases by the clergy of all 
denominations. 'J'he number of patients ad- 
mitted in 185) was, in-patients 1,754, out-patients 
19,545— total 21,299. Thedemands on the Hos- 
pital are annually increasing, while the income 
from all sources has seriously declined. Thus 
in 1854,— 

£ s. d. 
The income was - - - 4667 2 10 
The expenditure - - - 6112 19 2 J 



Deficiency - - 1445 16 4i 
These increasing demands on the Hospital 
may, to a certain extent, be explained by the 
increase of population. Three wards, affording 
accommodation for 42 patients, are still un- 
furnished and unoccupied ; and to open these 
wards, and thus render the Hospital as efficient 
as originally designed, would require an in- 
creased income of 1500?. a year, besides the cost 
of fitting up the wards for the reception of the 
patients. Efforts are being made to increase 
the Hospital accommodation of the metropolis, 
but the duty is more imperative to make tlie 
accommodation already existing available. 
No new establishment isrequired, no additional 
officers, no increased buildings, but only means 
to receive and support in a long-tried establish- 
ment an increased number of the poor and 
destitute. 

During the recent epidemic 170 cases of 
Asiatic cholera were admitted, and 101 of the 
number were restored to health and their 
families. 3496 cases of choleraic diarrhoea were 
also received, and, through prompt attention, 
the further progress of disease was prevented. 
The Committee earnestly APPEAL to the be- 
nevolent for AID, and trust that the extent 
and value of the medical and surgical relief 
afforded to the poor from all tarts may cause 
assistance to be given to the funds of this, the 
oldest metropolitan Hospital supported by vo- 
luntary contributions. 

Donations and Subscriptions are thankfully 
received by Messrs. Hoare & Co., 37. Fleet 
Street! by Messrs. Bouverie & Co., 11. Hay- 
market ; by the Joint Treasurers, the Hon. 
Philip P. Bouverie and Peter R. Hoare, Esq. ; 
or by the Secretary. 

F. J. WILSON, Sec. 



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The difficulty of procuring a supply of Sea- 
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some time completely overcome by the suc- 
cessful composition of Artificial Sea-water, 
in which the Animals and Plants thrive and 
grow. 

The smaller Aquaria, when fitted up with 
pieces of rock, shells and sea- weed, and stocked 
with animal life, are objects of the highest 
interest and beauty ; and they yield to the 
observer the hitheito unattainable pleasure of 
watching at his ease, in his own upartments, 
the curious inhabitants of the Ocean. 



KING WILLIAM'S COL- 
LEGE, CASTLETOWN, ISLE OF 
MAN. — The system of EducTtion is compre- 
hensive, and the treatment of the Pupils is on 
a liberal scale. Many of the Pupils have ob- 
tained the highest honours at the Universities. 
Thecli-^ate is eminently salubrious. Terms, 
including Education, with French, German, 
and Drawing. Board and Wa-shing : — For 
Pupils under Twelve Years of Age. 35 Guineas 
per annum ; (or Pupils above Twelve Years of 
Age, 40 Guineas per annum. The College will 
re-open August 3rd. For Prospectuses apply 
to the Principal, the REV. DR. DIXON, or to 
MR. DAY, Bookseller, 13. Carey Street, Lin- 
coln's Inn, London. 



PENE A LOGICAL AND HIS- 

It TORICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT 
BRITAIN, 18. Charles Street, St. James's 
Square. 

This Society has been founded by several 
Noblemen and Gentlemen inierested in Gene- 
alogical and Historical research for the elu- 
ciflation and compilation of Family History, 
Lineage, and Biography, and for authenti- 
cating and illustrating the same. For Pro- 
spectus, &c , api>ly to the Secretary. 
By order in Council. 

RYCROFT REE-VE, Sec. 



TRELOAR'S COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MATTING, DOOR-MATS, 
MATTRESSES, and BRUSHES, gained the 
Prize-Medal at the Great Exhibition. At the 
Warehouse, 

42. LUDGATE HILL, 

will be found an Assortment of COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MANUFACTURES, unequalled for 
Variety and Excellence, at the most moderate 
Prices. 

Catalogues Free. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 14. 1855. 



VALUABLE LETTERS AND 
■ AUTOGRAPHS. 
A Complete Series of the Autoiraplis and 
Seals of all the Swedish Kings, Queens, and 
Regents, from Gustavus Vasa to Oscar ; com- 
prising, — 



Gustaf Vasa. 

Erik XIV. 

Jahan III. 

Sigismundus. 

Carl IX. 

Gustat Adolf. 

The Regency, 1632-44. 

Christina. 

Carl X. 

The Regency, 1660-72. 

Carl XI. 

Carl XII. 



The Regency during 
Charles's absence in 
Turkey. 

Ulrica Eleonora. 

Frcderich I. 

Adolf Frcderich. 

Gustaf III. 

Gustaf IV. 

Carl XIII. 

Carl XIV. 

Oscar. 



Autograph of Gustavus HI., and of his assassin, 

Ankarstrom. 
Autograph and Seal of Gustavus Adolphus, 

date 26th Jap. I62D. 
Autograpli and Seal of Queen Christina. 
Autograph and Seal of Charles XII. 
liCtter of Charles XII. to Count Horn. 
Letter of Stanislaus, King of Poland, date 

1st May, 170.'). 
Letter of Carl iJnn^. 
Autograph of ditto. 
Autograph of Emanuel Swedenborg. 

On Sale, and m.iy be seen any day betwepn 
the hoursof 12 and b, at WILLIAM WHITE'S, 
36. Bloomsbury Street, New Oxford Street. 



Just published, in One Volume, post 8vo., 
price 5s, 

ORIGIN OF THE SCOTS 
AND THE SCOTTISH LANGUAGE. 
An Inquiry preliminary to the proper Under- 
standing of Scottish History and Literature. 
By JAMES PATERSON, Editor of "Kay's 
Edinburgh Portraits ;" Author of "The Con- 
temporaries of Bums," " History of the County 
and Families of Ayre," "Memoir of James 
Fillans, Sculptor," &c. &c. 

Edinburgh : JOHN MENZIES, 
61. Princes Street. 

Glasgow : THOBIAS MURRAY S: SON, 
49. Buchanan Street ; J. PATERSON, 

94. Glassford Street. 

Paisley : R. STEWART, Cross. 



THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- 
ZINE AND HISTORICAL REVIEW 
for JULY, being the First Number of a New 
Volume, contains: — 1. Elizabeth, Queen of 
Bohemia. 2. Seal of Youzhal (with an En- 
graving). 3. Lucian in the Crimea. 4. Grill- 
purzcr's Sappho. 5. Vasco Nunez de Balboa. 
6. Medieval London. 7. Original Letters of 
Swift respecting the Publication of Gulliver's 
Travels. 8. Local Allusions, by Dr. Doran. 
9. Diggings at Gloucester. 10. The Peerage of 
Ireland, and Title of Fermoy. 11. French 
History. 12. Letter of Aaron Burr, on the 
Foundation of I'rinceton ColUge. With Cor- 
respondence of Sylvanus Urban, Notes of the 
Month, Reviews of New Publications ; Reports 
of Archaeological Societies ; and Obitoary, 
including Memoirs of Lord Strangford ; Lady 
Davy ; Rear-Admiral Boxer ; Sir George 
Head : Dr. Gaislord, Dean of Christchurch, &c. 
&c. Price 2s. 6d. 

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street. 



LAST SIX DATS. 

MARTIN'S SUBLIME PIC- 
TURES.— (Valued at 8,000 Guineas.) 
••The Last Judgment," "The Plains of 
Heaven," and the " Great Day of his Wrath." 
Now on View at the HANOVER SQUARE 
ROOMS, for a few Days only. 

TJpwards of 70,0no persons viewed them in 
the City lately, the pictures producing uni- 
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Admission by invitation card, or 6d. each. 



PULLEYN'S COMPENDIUM. 

One Volume, crown 8vo., bound in cloth, 
price 6s. 

THE ETYMOLOGICAL COM- 
PENDIUM ; or, PORTFOLIO OF 
ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS : relating to 

Language, Literature, and Government. 
Architecture and Sculpture. 
Drama, Music, Painting, and Scientific Disco- 
veries. 
Articles of Dress, &c. 
Titles. Dignities, &c. 
Names, Trades, Professions. 
Parliament, Laws. &c. 
Universities and Religious Sects. 
Epithets and Plirases. 
Remarkable Customs. 
Games, Field Sports. 
Seasons, Months, p.nd Days of the Week. 
Remarkable Localities, &c. &c. 

By WILLIAM PULLEYN. 

The Third Edition, revised and improved, 

By MERTON A. THOMS, ESQ. 

" The additions to this book indicate the 
editor to he his father's own son. He deals in 
folk lore, chronicles old customs and popular 
sayings, and has an eye to all things curious; 
and note-worthy. The book tells everything." 
— Gentleman's Magazine. 

" The book contains avast amount of curious 
information and useful memoranda." — Lite- 
rary Gazette. 

" An invaluable manual of amusement and 
information.'— J/ocKWijr Chronicle. 

"This is a work of great practical usefulness. 
It is a Kotes and Queries in miniature. . . . 
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undergone has greatly enhanced its original 
value." — £ra. 

London : WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 



Now ready, price 2.').«., Second Edition, revised 
and corrected. Dedicated by Special Per- 
mission to 

THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY. 

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR 
THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. 
The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. 
MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. _ The 
Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable 
also to Two or One, including Chants for the 
Services, Responses to the Commandments, 
and a Concise System of Cha.ntiku, by J. B. 
SALE. Musical Instructor and Organist to 
Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, 
price 2.'>s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. 
ifolywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on 
the receipt of a Post-Offlce Order for that 
amount : and, by order, of the principal Book- 
sellers and Music Warehouses. 

'* A great advance on the works we have 
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" A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly un- 
equalled in this country." — it<erar» Gazette. 

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Musical World. 

" A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together 
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— John Bull. 

London : GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street. 

Also, lately published, 

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COBfMANDMENTS and CHANTS as per- 
formed at the Chapel Royal St. James, price 2s. 

C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street. 



NEW SCHOOL ATLASES, 

BY 

ALEXATs^DER KEITH 

JOHNSTON, 

r.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., Geographer to 
the Queen. 



Tliis day is published, 

A SCHOOL ATLAS 

OR 

ASTRONOMY. 

Eighteen Maps, beautifully printed in colours, 
with Descriptions, embodying all recent Dis- 
coveries in Attrouomy. 

Edited by J. E.. HIND, F.R.A.S. 

Half-bound. Price \2s. 6d. 
XL 

A SCHOOL ATLAS 

OF 

GENERAL and DESCRIP- 
TIVE GEOGRAPHY. 

two Maps, printed in colours 

Index of Places. 

Half-bound. Price 12s. Gd. 

IIL 

A SCHOOL ATLAS 

OK 

CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Twenty Maps, printed in colours ; accompa- 
nied Dy a complete ludex ui riaces, in which 
the proper Qtasntities of the Syllables are 
marked. By T. HARVEY, M.A., Oxon. 
Price 12s. 6rf. half-bound. 
IV. 

A SCHOOL ATLAS 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Illustrating, in a Series of Original Designs, 
tiie Elementary Facts of Geology, Hydrology, 
Meteorology, and Natural liisiury. 
Eighteen Maps, printed in colours, with De- 
scriptions. 
Price 12s. 6d. half-bound. 
V. 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
ATLAS 

GENERAL and DESCRIP. 
TIVE GEOGRAPHY. 

FOR THE USE OF JUNIOR CLASSES. 
Twenty Maps, including a Map of Canaan and 
Palestine, with a General Index. Half- 
bound. 7s. 6</. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, 
Edinburgh and London. 
Sold by all Booksellers. 



The Ninth Edition, price 7s. 6d. boimd, 

EPITOME 

OF 

ALISON'S HISTORY OF 
EUROPE. 

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND 
YOUMG PERSONS. 
"A most admirable School Book." — Dublin 
Evening Mail. 

" A masterly epitome of one of the noblest 
contribu ions which has been made to the 
historic literature of the present day. Un- 
doubtedly the very best and safest book on tlie 
subject for the use of schools and young 
persons." — Htdl Pacl'ft. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, 
Edinburgh andLondon. 



Printed by Thomas Curk Sraw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 6. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Georos Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the 
City of Liondon, Publisher, at No. !86. Fleet Street aforesaid.— Saturday, July 14, 1856. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 
ron 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



<* "Vinxen fonnd, make a note of." — Caftain Cuttlk. 



No. 299.] 



Saturday, July 21. 1855. 



f Price Fonrpence. 
Stamped Edition, Qd. 



CONTENTS. 

KoTss: — Page 

The Folk Lore of a Cornish Village : 
Charms, Omens, &c., by Thomas Q. 
Couch - - - - - 37 

Ben Jonson and the Lawyers, by Ed- 
ward Foss - - - - - 38 
On the Health of Tobacco Manufac- 
turers, by William Bates - - 39 
The Indefatizable and Les Droits de 

I'Homme.by R. M. Metcalf - - 39 

American Surnames - - - 40 

Literature of Holland, by Professor 
Stephens - - - - - 41 

JVfiNOR Notes: — Orisin of Puffing — 
Junius and John Hope — "Times'" 
Advertisements - - - - 42 

Queries : — 

Editions of Microcosmography, by Kev. 

Dr. Bliss - - - - - 42 

" Descente en Angleterre " - - 43 

" The Lawyer," by William Henry 

Hart - - - - - 44 

Orator Henley - - - - 44 

Minor Qceriks: — Jonathan Swift — 
Edward Barnard— Anonymous Worlds 

— Chancels in Ormslcirk Parish Church 

— Bamford Family — Richard Kent, 
Esq. — " Aboard," " Ashore " — 
Phelps, Clerk of the Parliament — 

— Alexander Pope — Bridge, the Or- 

fan-builder — Lady Jane Home : 
<ord Robert Kerr — Schooley's Moun- 
tain : Sir Andrew Chadwick — David 
and Goliath — Precedence of Knights 

— Florins of the fourteenth Century 

— "The Whig Examiner" - - 45 

Minor Queries with Answers : — 
Old Books, Country Dealers in — 
Sherard — " The Celestial Divorce " — 
John Cleveland — Passage in Byrou - 47 

Beplies : — 

Priests' Hiding-places, &c., by H. Mar- 
tin, &c. - - - - - 48 
Epitaph on an Infant, by H. Martin, &c. 48 
Paget Arms - - - - 49 
Michael Angelo - - - - 50 

Photographic Correspondence : — 
Mr. Lyte's Process — Does Thunder 
affect Photographic Chemicals ? - 50 

Beplies to Minor Queries : The 

Jersey Muse — Prynne — Cambridge 
Jeux d'Esprit— "Nine hundred and 

three doors out of the world " 

" Struggles for Life " — Almanacs of 
1849, &c. — Homer and Lord North 

— Bennet's " Paraphrase " — Epi- 
gram on Laureateship — Allitera- 
tive Couplet on Cardinal Wolsey — 
Norman Superstition in 1855 — The 
Word " Sabbath " used for Sunday — 
Pollards — Sir Cloudesley Shovel — 
Times prohibiting Marriage — Paro- 
chial Libraries — Arabic Grammar 

— " Munchhausen's Travels " 

"Orts" - - - . .52 

Hiscellaneocs ; — 
Notes on Books, &c. - - - 56 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Kotices to Correspondents. 



Vol,. XII No. 299. 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price U. ; or by Post for Is. 6d. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules for Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management ! together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
Ufe. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street i MANN, 39. Cornhill i and all Book- 
sellers. 



Just published, price Is. ; by Post, Is. \d. 

BRITISH ANTIQUITIES. 
Their present Treatment, and their real 
Claims. By A. H. RHIND, F.S.A., L. & S. 
Edinburgh : ADAM & CHARLES BLACK. 



T 



In royal 12mo., price 6s., cloth boards. 

HE POSTDILUVIAN HIS- 



X TORY, from the Flood to the Call of 
Abram, as set forth in the early portions of the 
Book of Genesis, Critically Examined and 
Explained. By the REV. E. D. RENDELL, 
of Preston, author of" The Antediluvian His- 
tory," " Peculiarities of the Bible," &c. &c. 

London : J. S. HODSON, 22. Portugal Street, 
Lincoln's Inn. 



Second Edition, with large map, price 5s., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
RESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin, &c.. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier ; " and of the " Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " also of a project for 
the improvement of the navigation of that 
river, and of various other works on Portugal. 

JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CXCIII., is published THIS DAY. 

Contents : 
I. THE LATE ARCHDEACON HARE. 
II. CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. 

III. THE POPE'S INTERFERENCE IN 

SARDINIA. 

IV. ROMANS AT COLCHESTER. 

V. FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE 
CONCEPTION. 
VI. MEMOIRS OF REV. SYDNEY 

SMITH. 
VII. ADVERTISEMENTS. 
VIII. THE SUPPLY OF PAPER. 
IX. OBJECTS OF THE WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



W 



MR. P. J. P. GANTILLON, M.A., 

(Formerly Sch(.lar of St. John's College, 
Cambridge,) 

SECOND M A STER OF THE COLLEGIATE 
SCHOOL, LEICESTER, 

ILL be happy to receive 

BOARDERS. For Terms apply at 
40. London Road, Leicester. 

Reference is kindly permitted to REV. J. 
ATLAY, B.D., Fellow and Tutor of St. John's 
College ; and REV. E. MORTLOCK, B.D., 
Moulton Rectory, near Newmarket, late 
Fellow of Christ's College. 



Post 8vo., cloth, price 6.1. 6d. 

STRUGGLES FOR LIFE; an 

Kj Autobiography. 

" It is long since we have read a narrative so 
true, so thoroughly pervaded with a profound 

consciousness of the great realities of life." 

Daily News, 

" The contents of this entrancing volume 
are so multifarious, that it is impossible ade- 
quately to characterise it in a single sentence." 
— Christian Weekly A'eics. 

W. & F. G. CASH, 5. Bishopsgate Street 'ii 
Without. 



H 



OW SHALL I BRING OUT 

MY BOOK ?- Consult an Illustrated 

Manual, just published, entitled THE 
SEARCH FOR A PUBLISHER ; or. Coun- 
sels to a Young Author. It contains advice 
about Binding, Composition, Printing, and 
Advertising ; also. Specimens of Type and Sizes 
of Paper. It is a complete Literary Guide for 
the novice, ar.dfull of exact and trustworthy 
information. A copy, price 6d. ; post free, 7d. 

London : W. & F. G. CASH, 5. Bishopsgate 
Street Without. 



Now ready, in post 8vo., with 3 Maps, price 



10s. 



A 



THE CRIMEA, its Ancient and 
Modern History : th>> Khans, the Sultans, 
and the Czars : with Sketches of its Scenery 
and Population. By the REV. T. MILNE R, 
M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of "The Baltic, its 
Gates, Shores, and Cities," price lOs. 6d.— which 
may still be had. 

London : LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, 
St. LONGMANS. 



CATALOGUE of Curious and 
Useful BOOKS may be had Gratis on 
Application, or sent Post Free on receipt of 
One Stamp. 

R. THORBURN. 2. Carthusian Street, 
Charter- House Square. 

Now ready, in one handsome volume 4to., il- 
lustrated with 40 coloured plates, half bound 
in morocco, price 31. 

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAX- 
ONDOM, described and illustrated by 
J. YONGE AKERMAN, Fellow and Secre- 
tary of the Society of Antiquaries, London. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



BOOKS 
FOR THE SEA-S1DE» 



POPULAR BRITISH SEA- 

WEEDS ! comprising all the MARINE 
PI-ANTS. By the REV. DAVID LANDS- 
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as popular, and tlie plates are clear and ex- 
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a handbook for every resident on the sea- 
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" Profusely illustrated with specimens of the 
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POPULAR BRITISH ZOO- 

PHYTES. By the REV. DR. LANDS- 
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POPULAR BRITISH 

CONCHOI OG Y : containine a familiar His- 
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PHYCOLOGIA 



BRITAN- 



NICA ; or, the History of the British Sea- 
weeds ; containing Coloured Figures and de- 
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the shores of the British Islands. By WIL- 
LIAM HENRY HARVEY, M.D., M.R.LA.. 
Keeper of the Herbarium of the University of 
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In 4 vols, royal 8vo., arranged syste- 
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LOVELL REEVE. Henrietta Street, Covent 
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Price Is.; per Post, Is. 'Zd. 

Published by BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 
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npHE NEW COLLODION 

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Dep6t, 47a. Moorgate Streeti City. Circulars 
Free by Post. 



A CATHOLIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 

The Anglo-Saxon Period. Complete in Three 
Volumes. 

This Day is published, price 18s., the Third and 
Concluding Volume of 

A CATHOLIC HISTORY OF 
ENGLAND. By WILLIAM BER- 
NARD MAC CABE. 

" In days like these, when so many of our 
new books are but old ones newly dressed up, 
a work of original research, and tor which the 
materials have been accumulated by the 
writer with great labour and diligence, de- 
serves especial commenlation. Of such a cha- 
racter is the ' Catholic History of England ; 
its Rulers, Clergy, and Poor, before the Re- 
formation, as described by the Monkish His- 
torians,' by William Bernard MncCabe ; of 
which the third volume, extending from the 
reign of Edward the Martyr to the Norman 
Conquest, has just been published. The vo- 
lumes bear evidence in every page that they 
are, as the author describes them, ' tlie results 
of the writing and research of many hours — 
the only hours for many years that I had to 
spare from other and harder toils.' Himself a 
zealous and sincere follower of the ' ancient 
laith,' Mr. MacCabe's views of the characters 
and events of which he is treating naturally 
assume the colouring of his own mind ; many, 
therefore, will dissent from them. None of 
his readers will, however, dissent from bestow- 
ing upon his work the praise of ^eing carefully 
compiled and most originally wriiten. None 
will deny the charm with which Mr. MacCobe 
has invested his ' History,' by his admirable 
mode of making the old monkish writers tell 
their own story," — Notes and Queries. 

"Mr.MacCabe's mode of composition is as 
novel OS his plan. Sacrificing ordinary lite- 
rary pride, he makes the old Monki^h writers 
compose the narrative — his ingenuity being 
displayed in the skill with which the passages, 
translated directly from the original, with all 
their natural vigour of language, are connected, 
so as to produce an appearance of oneness of 
design and continuity. He then fuses info one 
whole centuries of observation and narrative, 
and iu fact revives those dead monks and 
scribes till they write his book. The plan is 
not only new, but it was necessary, as the 
reader will find if he compare the garbled and 
inaccurate version given by Hume and some 
other writers, with the original statements of 
the same events incorporated in these pages. 
He will also be better able to understand, when 
this universality of authorities is explained, 
why this book should be called a 'Catholic 
History.' The work is of great literary value." 
— Times. 

"It treats the Anglo-Saxon period under a 
phase quite ditlerent f : om that in which it is 
viewed by Lingard in his Anglo-Saxon Anti- 

Suiiies. Lingard describes the doctrine and 
octrinal practice of the age : the Catholic 
History tells the story of its inner life. Each, 
therefore, may be regardf d as the complement 
of the other. Both are indispensable to every 
English historical collection." _i>M6hn He- 
view. 

T. C. NEWBY, Publisher, 30. Welbeck Street 
Cavendieh Square. 



Imp. 8T0., 21. 2s. 

ARCHITECTURAL STU- 

j[\ DIES IN FRANCE. By the REV. J. 
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London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 

SOLOMON'S PHOTO- 

M • GRAPHIC CATALOGUE, now ready, 
Gratis, on application at 



J. 



22. RED LION SQUARE, LONDON. 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



3^ 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1855. 

floiti. 

THE FOLK LOBE OF A CORNISH VILLAGE : CHABMS, 
OMENS, ETC. 

'\Continued from Vol. xi., p. 499.) 

The domestic treatment of disease among our 
poor consists chiefly of charms and ceremonies ; 
and even when material remedies are employed, 
as much importance is attached to the rites which 
attend their employment as to the agents used. 
In many cases we may notice remnants of the old 
doctrine of signatures, and thtf idea of sympathies 
and antipathies between separate and dissimilar 
bodies. In the cure of haemorrhages, the pre- 
ference is given to medicines of a bright red 
colour ; and safFron-water, the brightest coloured 
decoction they are acquainted with, is admini- 
stered to throw out eruptions of the skin. The 
nettle-rush is treated by copious draughts of net- 
tle-tea. The fisherman, whose hand is wounded 
by a hook, is very careful to preserve that hook 
from rust during the healing of the wound. 

The following instances will illustrate the super- 
stitious character of the household medicine of the 
poorer of our population. 

If the infant suffers from the thrush, it is taken, 
fasting, on three following mornings, " to have its 
mouth blown into" by a posthumous child. If 
afflicted with the hooping cough, it is fed with the 
bread and butter of a family the heads of which 
bear respectively the names John and Joan — a 
serious thing for the poor couple in time of an 
epidemic. Or if a piebald horse is to be found in 
the country, the child is taken to it, and passed 
thrice under its belly. The mere possession of 
such a beast confers the power of curing this 
disease. The owner of a piebald horse states, that 
he has frequently been stopped on the road by 
anxious mothers, who inquire of him in a casual 
way, what is good for the hooping cough ; and 
the thing he mentioned, however inappropriate or 
absurd, was held to be a certain remedy in that 
particular case. 

The passing of children through holes in the 
earth, rocks, or trees, once an established rite, is 
still practised in various parts of Cornwall. With 
us, boils are cured by creeping on the hands and 
knees beneath a bramble which has grown into 
the soil at both ends. Children affected with 
hernia are still passed through a slit in an ash 
sapling before sunrise fasting ; after which the 
slit portions are bound up, and as they unite so the 
malady is cured. The asti is indeed a tree of many 
virtues : venomous reptiles are never known to 
rest under its shadow, and a single blow from an 
ash stick is instant death to an adder ; struck by 
a bough of any other tree, the reptile is said to 

No. 299.] 



retain marks of life until the sun goes down. The 
antipathy of the serpent to the ash is a very old 
popular fallacy. (Pliny, Hist. Mundi, lib. xvi.) 

The mountain ash, or care, has still greater re- 
pute among our country folk in the curing of ills 
arising from supernatural as well as ordinary 
causes. It is dreaded by evil spirits ; it renders 
null the spells of the witch, and has many other 
wonderful properties. The countryman will carry 
for years a piece of the wood in his pocket as a 
charm against ill-wish, or as a remedy for his 
rheumatism. If his cow is out of health, and he 
suspects her to be overlooked, away he runs to the 
nearest wood and brings home bunches of care, 
which he suspends over her stall, and wreathes 
round her horns : after which he considers her safe. 

Boys, when stung by nettles, have great faith 
in the antidotal properties of the dock; and whilst 
rubbing it into the part in pain, repeat the words, 
" Out nettle, in dock — nettle, nettle stung me." 

The cures for warts are many and various. A^ 
piece of flesh is taken secretly, and rubbed over 
the warts ; it is then buried ; and as the flesh de- 
cays, the warts vanish. Or some mysterious 
vagrant desires them to be carefully counted, and 
marking the number on the inside of his hat, 
leaves the neighbourhood — when the warts also 
disappear. 

There are a few animals the subject of super- 
stitious veneration, and a much greater number 
whose actions are supposed to convey intimations 
of the future. In some instances it would seem 
that they are considered more in the light of cause 
than prognostic ; yet as the doctrine of fatalism, 
in a restricted sense, runs through the popular 
belief, we may consider the conduct of the inhos- 
pitable housewife who drives ofl" the cock that 
crows on the door-step, thereby warning her of 
the approach of strangers, as only a fresh illustra- 
tion of the very old fallacy that the way to avert 
the prediction is to silence the prophet. Here are 
some of our superstitions connected with animals, 
&c. : — 

The howling of dogs, the continued croaking of 
ravens over a house, and the ticking of the death- 
watch, portend death. The magpie is a bird of 
good or ill omen, according to the number seen at " 
a time : 

" One for sorrow ; two for mirth ; 
Three for a wedding ; four for death." 

A crowing hen is a bird of ill luck. An old 
proverb in use here says : 

" A whistling woman, and a crowing hen, are two of 
the unluckiest things under the sun." 

The first is always reproved, and the latter got rid 
of without loss of time. Pluquet, in his book on 
the superstitions of Bayeux, gives this identical 
proverb : 

" Une poule qui chante le coq, et une fille qui sif3e, ' 
poirtent malheur dans la maison." 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



If, on the first hearing the cuckoo, the sounds pro- 
ceed from the right, it signifies that you will be 
prosperous ; or, to use the language of my in- 
formant, a country lad, " You will go vore in the 
world : " if from the left, ill-luck is before you. 
Children are frequently heard to hail the cuckoo 
in a verse which, as it, has recently appeared in 
*' N. & Q.," I shall not repeat, except the former 
part of the second quatrain, which is a pretty 
variation from the commoner version ; 

" He sucks the sweet flowers. 
To make his voice clear." 

Particular honour is paid to the robin and the 
■wren. A local distich says : 

" He that hurts a robin or a wren, 
Will never prosper sea nor land." 

This gives them a protection which the most mis- 
chievous urchin never dares to violate. 

It is a very prevalent belief that a bed-pillow, 
stuffed with the feathers of wild birds, renders 
painful and prolonged the departure of the dying. 
Death is also thought to be delayed until the ebb 
of the tide. 

The killing the first adder you see predicts that 
you will triumph over your enemies. The slough 
of an adder, hung on the rafters, preserves the 
house against fire. 

Our forefathers appear to have been among 
those who considered bees as possessing a portion 
" divinae mentis:" for there is a degree of de- 
ference yet paid to them, that would scarcely be 
offered to beings endowed with only ordinary 
animal instinct. On the death of a relative, the 
bees are acquainted of the event by moving the 
hive, or putting it in mourning by attaching a 
piece of black cloth or crape to it. The sale of 
bees is a very unlucky proceeding ; and they are 
generally transferred to another owner, with the 
tacit understanding that a bushel of corn (the 
constant value of a swarm) is to be given in re- 
turn. In cases of death, the in-door plants are 
also put in black ; for if this is omitted, they soon 
droop and die. 

The cricket is a bringer of good luck, and its 
departure from a house is a sign of coming mis- 
fortune. 

Amongst the omens believed in, or existing in 
proverbs, I may farther mention, that the break- 
ing of a looking-glass entails " seven years' trouble, 
but no want;" that the dirgeful singing of chil- 
dren portends a funeral. There is scarcely a 
sensation but has its meaning. If the left palm 
itches, you will have to pay money ; if the right, 
to receive. If the knee itches, you will kneel in a 
strange church ; if the sole of the foot, you will 
walk over strange ground ; if the elbow, you will 
sleep with a strange bed-fellow. If the ear tingles, 
you will hear sudden news. If you shiver, some 
one is walking over the spot destined to be your 

Ho. 299.] 



grave. If the cheek burns, some one is talking 
scandal of you. I have frequently heard these 
lines spoken by the person whose cheek is burning : 

" Right cheek ! — left cheek ! why do you burn ? 
Cursed be she that doth me any harm : 
If she be a maid, let her be slaid ; 
If she be a widow, long let her mourn ; 
But if it be my own true love — burn, cheek, burn ! "" 

Thomas Q. Couch. 
Cornwall. 



BEN JONSON AND THE LAWYERS. 

Whether Ben Jonson's partiality for the heads of 
the law arose from his having assisted in building 
the walls of Lincoln's Inn, or from some other 
cause, it would be difficult now to decide. But 
the fact of his admiration of them, in spite of 
Oldys's assertion that he ridiculed the profession^ 
appears in the encomiastic verses which he wrote 
on no less than three Lord Chancellors and 
Keepers of the Seals, and on one Lord Chief 
Justice. 

He addressed two epigrams to Lord Chancellor 
Ellesmere, which seem to be written more from 
the heart than the others. 

He composed another address to Lord Chief 
Justice Sir Edward Coke, which Giffbrd thus- 
characterises : 

" As a composition, this epigram boasts considerable 
merit. It is vigorous and manly, and has truth for its. 
basis." 

It affords some evidence, too, that players were, 
not inimical to Coke, nor Coke to them, as soma, 
biographers affirm. 

His next legal effusion is " On Lord Bacon's- 
Birth-day," entering his sixtieth year. With 
Coke's great rival, and almost avowed enemy, Ben 
seems somewhat at a loss. The points of his verse 
are laboured ; he says nothing of Bacon's justice or 
integrity, as in the others ; and is silent on his 
purity or skill in administering the laws. 

The address to Lord Keeper Williams, Bishop 
of Lincoln, the successor of Lord Bacon, appears- 
to have been composed soon after the bishop's- 
removal from the Seals ; and while it pays due 
compliment to the bishop, it stigmatises the "whis- 
perers" that effected his discharge. 

If we look at the commendations, addressed ta 
great men of such opposite characters, and if we 
remember the pecuniary embarrassments which toa 
often troubled the poet, are we far wrong in sur- 
mising that some of them were penned for, or 
with a view to, a " consideration ? " 

Edward Foss. 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



ON THE HEALTH OP TOBACCO MANUFACTURERS. 

There exists at the present moment an associa- 
tion of well-meaning people, which, styling itself 
*' The British Anti-Tobacco Society," has for_ its 
object the " counterblasting" of that plant ; which, 
according to a late number of Chambers's Journal 
(Dec. 16, 1854), 

-" is the most extensively used of all vegetable produc- 
tions ; and, next to salt, "the most generally consumed of 
all productions whatever — animal, vegetable, or mineral — 
on the face of the globe." 

A fact which renders their undertaking only less 
hopeless and Quixotic than that of the late unfor- 
tunate Dr. Howard himself.* Under the auspices 
of this Society a serial appears, entitled Smoke 
Not ; in tlie third number of which is " An Essay 
by Miss M. A. W., aged xvii, to whom a Prize 
has been awarded by a Committee," &c. This 
Essay is, in every respect, below criticism ; but 
there is one passage to which I would call atten- 
tion, being curious to learn how far the assertion 
contained in it is true. The experienced au- 
thoress asserts : 

" That smoke is an enemy to the health of man, is 
proved not merely by the universally acknowledged fact, 
that the most melancholy results constantly ensue from 
the unavoidable inhalation of it by workmen in certain 
spheres of manufactory labour." 

Now I am not at all aware that this is " an uni- 
versally acknowledged fact," although frequently 
asserted by lecturers and writers on the dele- 
terious properties of tobacco. Neither in the 
account of the tobacco manufactory at Seville by 
the Rev. W. Robertson, — of the cigar manufac- 
tories at Manilla, by Wilkes (Narrative of the U. 
S. exploring Expedition), — nor in that at Villa 
Nueva, by Lyon (Lyon's Mexico), do I find any 
notice of the "most melancholy results;" nor 
have I heard them lamented at the vast "fabriks" 
of Justus and others at Hamburg and Bremen. 
On the other side of the question, the opinion of 
M. Simeon may be cited, as embodied in a report 
presented by him to the minister of public works, 
and communicated to the Annates d'Hygiene 
Publique, Octobre, 1 84.3. At that time the French 
government, which has the monopoly of tobacco, 
•employed more than 5000 workmen in its manu- 
facture ; who were found, as a body, to enjoy a 
remarkable exemption from prevailing epidemics. 
This was especially the case at Lyons, where those 
so employed escaped to a man the typhoid fever 
of 1842; and at Toulouse, when the influenza 
attacked four per cent, of the inhabitants, while of 
those employed in the manufacture of tobacco 
only two out of 286 were affected. With regard 
to phthisis, this exemption is still more remark- 
able. It is true that the workmen are subject to 



catarrhs, which are however slight, and easily 
removed. Phthisis is also of rare occurrence 
among the workmen at Bordeaux ; at Havre, 
where this disease makes fearful ravages, the to- 
bacco manufacturers are exempt ; and at Stras- 
bourg, Morlaix, and Lille, it is less frequent 
among this class than those engaged in other oc- 
cupations. These facts ' are attributed by M, 
Simeon to the narcotic properties of the tobacco ; 
but he invites the attention of the profession to 
the subject. 

In 1836, M. Maurice Ruef, of Strasbourg, pub- 
lished a paper on the health of the workmen in 
the Royal Manufactories, in which he asserted 
that — 

" Pulmonary consumption is rare among the workmen, 
who are engaged from their youth in the manipulation of 
tobacco ; moreover, this disease makes much less rapid 
progress than it does usually in those who may happea 
to have the germ of it already developed when they enter 
the workshop." 

Six years afterwards (May 31, 1842), this gentle- 
man wrote a letter to the editor of the Gazette 
Medicate, affirming that his experience during the 
interval had amply confirmed the accuracy of his 
statements. 

There is a chapter " Of the Diseases of Tobac- 
conists, or those who make Snuff," in Dr. Rama- 
zini's Treatise on the Diseases of Artificers, trans- 
lated, together with other tracts, by Dr. James 
under the title of Health Preserved, 8fc., London, 
12mo., 1750. Here, however, I find no heavier 
charge than that the powder of tobacco — 

" vellicateth the nostrils . . and stimulates and dries the 
tender coat of the lungs and aspera arteria, and, with its 
foul steams, not only clouds the animal spirits in the 
brain, but produces a narcotic effect; and at the same 
time corrupts the digestion of the stomach by enervating 
the acid it contains . . . Nay, the very horses which turn 
the mill are so affected Avith the sharp and offensive ex- 
halation, that they frequently shake their heads and 
cough and blow their nostrils." — P. 122. 

I should be glad to learn the opinion of some 
of the professional or scientific correspondents of 
" N. & Q." upon this subject. William Bates. 

Birmingham. 



No. 299.] 



Salt, the Forbidden Food, ^c. 



the indefatigablk and les droits dk 
l'homme. 

Although there are a few inaccuracies in Mr. 
Osier's Life of Lord Exmonth that may be passed 
over in silence, yet the ignorant blunder that 
appears in the account of the action between the 
British ships Indefatigable and Amazon and the 
French ship Les Droits de I'Homme, of 74 guns, 
on January the 13th and 14th, 1797, requires to 
be noticed. 

At p. 100. of that biography it is stated that 
"Lieutenant Bell, who was quartered on the fore- 



40 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



castle, and who had kept the ship's reckoning 
through the night" &c. Perhaps a greater im- 
possibility could not be mentioned as a matter of 
fact ; and how the four naval officers, who are 
said (preface, p. vii.) to have " finally revised " the 
work, could have passed over such an egregious 
error, is of no little surprise to those acquainted 
■with nautical concerns ; and it is still rendered 
more astonishing, as one of them (Mr. Gaze), it Is 
presumed, would have remembered who then did 
" keep the log," and also had done the same in all 
actions for the previous three years. It does not 
appear to have occurred to either of these gentle- 
men, that the arduous duty Lieutenant Bell had 
to perform, rendered it utterly impossible (even 
if he had been so inclined) for him to have given 
' the very least attention to the necessary nautical 
calculations for that purpose ; his situation being 
so very remote from all the requisite means to 
accomplish the same. 

The fact is, that the writer of this notice, very 
• soon after he had entered the navy In the Are- 
thusa, was appointed by Mr. George Bell, the 
master, with the sanction of Sir Edward Pellew, 
the captain, to " keep the log " in all actions that 
should occur ; and the same was done with the 
like sanction by Mr. Thompson, the Master of the 
Indefatigable. In the action with Les Droits de 
I'Homme, Lieutenant Bell knew nothing of the 
situation of the Indefatigable until between 2 and 
3 a.m. of January 14, when it was reported to 
him (by the writer of this notice), with a com- 
mand from Sir Edward " to keep a look out for 
the land." Lieutenant Bell on being informed, 
in answer to his inquiry, that we should make 
the vicinity of the " Penmarcks," said, " Then I 
must keep a sharp look out," and instantly placed 
two of the seamen in the forerigging (one on each 
side) for that purpose. 

This is the simple truth, and can (it Is pre- 
sumed) be vouched for by living witnesses, not- 
withstanding the lapse of more than fifty-eight 
years. It is therefore hoped that should another 
edition of the biography be wanted, it will be 
corrected upon this point. R. M. Metcalf, 

Schoolmaster and Assistant-Clerk of the 
Arethusa, and Clerk and Schoolmaster 
of the Indefatigable, 1794 to 1797. 
5. Montpelier Terrace, Walworth. 



AMEBICAN SURNAMES. 

An old bachelor of eighty, named Benjamin 
Bird, lately married Mrs. Julia Chaff, aged thirty ; 
an event which, according to the newspapers, re- 
futes an old proverb. 

General Quattlebum was recently a member of 
the South Carolina legislature. 

No. 299.] 



Henry Moist was a waterman in this city, not 
many years ago. 

Mussulman and Turk are Pennsylvania names. 

Mrs. Mary Mock was recently arrested here for 
assaulting her husband, who thought her quite in 
earnest ; and Edward Serious, a coloured man, 
for a violent battery of his wife. 

John Thunder and Son (a Boanerges) were 
tailors in this city a few years ago ; at a later day 
a Mr, Thunder was an organist in one of our 
churches, and a Mr. Loud In another. 

Amongst appropriate names we may Include 
those of Doctors Physic and Hartshorne, eminent 
practitioners of medicine here ; and Messrs. Law 
and Lex of the Philadelphia Bar. We cannot say 
the same of Dr. Slaughter, a physician here In 
1830 ; or of Mr. Whale, who has been a dancing- 
master for many years. 

Nicholas Dabb is a painter In New Jersey. 

John C. Copper is an engraver In this city. 

Sergeant King, of the United States army, died 
suddenly at Carlisle, Pa., in 1850; and a brother 
sergeant, named Queen, dropped dead while assist- 
ing in laying him out. 

Mr. J. H. Clay Mudd was a clerk to Congress 
In 1849. 

Messrs. Gutelius and Slink were officers of the 
Pennsylvania legislature In 1849. 

Rev. Mr. Slicer was one of the chaplains to 
Congress a few years ago. 

Rev. Mr. Yocura officiates at most of the mar- 
riages in Appleton, Wisconsin. 

Solomon Rake was married In Doylestown, Pa., 
In 1849. 

Tea was plaintiff", and Phiz defendant. In a suit 
brought here a few years ago. 

Dr. Toothaker is a physician In this city. 

J. Cain is a broker in Baltimore. 

Charles Bitters died here in 1794. 

In 1853, Mary Elizabeth Buggy died at Mana- 
yunk, Pa. 

Augustus Cowman RItter died lately in Wash- 
ington city. Bitter is the German for horseman. 

Sophia Bible administered to her hxisband's 
estates in Philadelphia in 1849. 

Rev. Jesse Boring, from Georgia, died at St. 
Louis in 1850. Bishop Capers announced his de- 
cease to the Conference, of which he was a member. 

Mr. Failing keeps a hotel at Canandagua, New 
York ; and a Mr. Owings was an insolvent debtor 
lately, as might have been expected. 

John Augustus Mush died here this year. 

Mr. Gagger was a lawyer In Albany, New York, 
In 1852. 

Samuel Meek of Georgetown, S. C, advertises 
that he wishes to purchase fifty negroes. 

A Mrs. Halfman keeps the Halfway House near 
this city. We have also the name of Double- 
man. - 

The Oyster family Is a large one In the Interior- 



July 21.1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



of Pennsylvania. Probably the name is a corrup- 
tion of the German Eyster. 

William Henry Hiss is a chairmaker in Balti- 
more. 

Samuel Pother, of New York, cautioned his 
fellow citizens in 1835 against two quack dentists 
(the Brothers Crawcour), who had plugged some 
of his teeth with their " Eoyal Mineral Succeda- 
neum," and given him a wash for the others. Two 
of his teeth came out in coughing, and the wash 
salivated him. 

Messrs. Thunder and Rohr, two professors of 
music in this city, are about performing Rossini's 
" Stabat Mater." 



Notices of marriages and deaths, and of arrivals 
at hotels, have furnished most of the following 
names : 

Madder, Muszgnug, Maypole, Muckle, Macca- 
bees, Manspeaker, Mumper, Moth, Most, Mint, 
Midnight, Marrow, Moist, Measles, and Malady. 

Noggle, Neigh, Nettles, Nix, Noacre (perhaps 
descended from John Lackland). 

Overland, Overstreet, Outwater, Outerbridge, 
Onyx, Owner. 

Pavonarious, Pamphilion, Pippin, Peepear, Pick- 
ing, Purse, Pistole, Peppercorn, Pike and Pluck, 
Pique, Pitty, Poppy, Puling, Player, Poorman, 
Pardon, Pottle, Pipkin, Patchman. 

Quibbleman, Quarters. 

Rhino, Register, Records, Rosin, Ruby, Red- 
lion, Rump, Rumbolder, Rubber. 

See and Saw, Scout, Shaver, Sharper, Scamp, 
Sixty, Shotgun, Servant, School, Sneer, Spleen, 
Sour, SnufF, Simpers, Standing, Shade, Slow, Shoe, 
Side and Sides, Shallow, Smock and Shirts, Stiff 
and Stiffer, Sapp, Straw, Stretch and Stretcher, 
Spitfathom, Snag, Snagg, Shad, Sherry, Sponge, 
Stair, Springs, Straight, Spain, Spunk, Straw- 
berry, Stamp, Shines, Saucerbox, Shroud, Stum- 
ble, Shed, Scullion, Skeleton, Sleeper, Shingle, 
Sell, Steamer, Sweeten, Snare, Steer, Stallion, 
Stubblefeel, Smile, Showers, Sirjohn, Smack, 
Stuck, Storms and Sinkhorn. 

Tart, Taunt, Tankard, Teal, Tallman, Thistle, 
Tags, Threat, Thaw, Tongue, Toadvine, Tittle, 
Tiller and Helm, Towel, Tubs, Turbot, Terrier, 
Touchstone, Trap, Twingh, True, Trader, Tem- 
pest, Twigger, Twin, Throne, Tweedle, Tyne. 

Upright. 

Vixen, Viper, Vizard, Vermillion. 

Wizard, Week, Watchman, Winternight, Wages, 
Witherup, Wind, Wallower, Work and Worknot, 
Wool, Wraith, Walnut, Whip and Whipper, Wom, 
Warrant, Watte, Wart, Winkle, Wheat, Winegar 
(the owner of which name should have taken old 
Waller's advice to " spell it with a wee "). 

Yearly, Yeast, Yell, Yarn. 

For many of the names in this and the preced- 
ing paper, I am indebted to the large and curious 
No. 299.]] 



" Collection of Surnames" made by the late 
Edward D. Ingraham, Esq., of this city. Uneda. 
Philadelphia. 



LITERATURE OP HOLLAND. ) 

In the back of an old book I have just found 
the following, which may interest the readers of 
The Navorscher : 

1. A few small bits of vellum, containing frag- 
ments of a translation of the Gospels or New 
Testament, apparently from the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The pieces belong to Matthew xiv. and xv. 
I give an extract, ch. xiv. v. 19. &c. : 

" Brach. vfi gab sinen iugen di brot. ab' dl iugen gebl 
de schare vn aire asse. vn sit gesetzo. vii ufburte di 
aleybe. zwelf korbe vol brecke. ab' d' esznde zal waz fuf 
tusth ma. nz genum •w[ro]e. vnde cleine." 

The dialect approaches the middle Saxon. Is 
this translation known ? 

2. A fly-sheet on death, printed on one side, ap- 
parently from the end of the fifteenth or begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. The one-half 
(whether the upper or lower I cannot say) is 
a large coloured wood-cut, representing King 
Death, crowned, winged, and swinging a scythe, 
dashing along on a white horse, people of all ranks 
falling before him. The top and two sides are 
much dipt, and below we read, — 

"Des Doots die onuersienlick is en snel Weest altoos 
ghedachtich / soe doet ghy wel." 

Of the other half, which must have consisted of 
four columns, each of about twenty-eight lines, 
the first column seems to be cut away, as is half 
of the last. The following is part of the second 
(originally the third ?) column : 

" Dan thoenen hem die Helsche Personagien 
Vrenden/ Maghen / drijuen dan curagien / 
Sy douwent Hoeft / si strijcken Armen en Beenen 
Na werck volcht loon dan sulcke strijt sulcke gagien 
In manus tuas roept men dan alteenen 
Al mach men yerst wat snorken ende weenen / 
Noemter my eenen 
Men ontbeert hem wel / dorst hy slichts scheyden." 

The last column ends — 

" Ghedruckt toe Cam — ," 

the rest cut away, probably Campen. Does this 
old fly-sheet exist in Holland ? 

3. Some half-leaves of an edition of a half- 
lexicographical comment in verse and prose, in 
8vo. It has a gloss, in a Saxon dialect. Thus : 

" Vir sponsam diicit. sed nubit femina viro 
Pro parit et loquitur de regit et remouetque 
Conducit precium tradens prebensque ducatum 
Duco leyden. vt cecus cecum ducit." 

"Ducere naribus significat rueken Secundo habere. ut 
iobannes bonam ducit vitam. Tertio significat despon- 
sare vt vir sponsam ducit. sed sponso femina nubit quarto 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



cloppen vt ducant aurum. Inde ductile dat geclopt is. 
Fusile dat ghegossea is. Fictile dat ghebacken is," &c. 

What is the title of this work ? 

Should Notes of this kind be acceptable, I can 
easily supply others. Geokge Stephens. 

Copenhagen, June, 1855. 



Minor Hatti. 

Origin of Puffing. — 

" Few persons have an idea of the origin of the word 
puff, as applied to a newspaper article. In France, at one 
time, the coiffure most in vogue was called a ponff. It 
consisted of the hair raised as high as possible over horse- 
hair cushions, and then ornamented with objects indica- 
tive of the tastes and history of the wearer. For instance, 
the Duchess of Orleans, on her first appearance at court, 
after the birth of a son and heir, had on her pouff a repre- 
sentation in gold and enamel, most beautifully executed, 
of a nursery ; there was the cradle, and the baby, the 
nurse, and a whole host of playthings. Madame de ¥.g~ 
mont, the Duke de Richelieu's daughter, after her father 
had taken Port Mahon, wore on her pouff a little diamond 
fortress, with sentinels keeping guard: the sentinels, by 
means of mechanism, being made to walk up and down. 
This advertisement, the pouff, for such it really was, is 
the origin of the present word puff — applied to the in- 
flations of the newspapers." 

w. w. 

Malta. 

Junius and John Hope. — The interest which 
attaches to Junius is to some extent shared by his 
correspondents. He has not only immortalised 
himself, but them. Therefore the editors of his 
remarkable letters should try to give the names of 
his correspondents. To some extent this is done, 
but it is not always practicable. Letter LXII. is 
to " An Advocate in the Cause of the People." 
I have not seen the name of the " advocate" in 
any edition of the Letters. A volume before me 
enables me to give it : Thoughts in Prose and 
Verse, started in his Works, by John Hope, 8vo., 
Stockton, 1780. This work contains, among other 
things, twenty-one papers by the Leveller; and 
four " Letters to the Printer of the Public Adver- 
tiser on the Custom of Impressing Seamen." Two 
of the latter are addressed to Junius, whose reply 
to one as Philo-Junius is also given. I conclude 
with a Query : Who, and what, was John Hope?* 

B. H. C. 

" Times' " Advertisements. — Edgar A. Poe — I 
presume all your readers know who he was — 
remarks (in The Gold-Bug, and on the subject 
of secret writing), " It may well be doubted 
whether human ingenuity can construct an enigma 
of the kind, which human ingenuity may not, by 
proper application, resolve." Taking up recently 

[* For notices of John Hope, see "N. & Q.," Vol. v., 
p. 582., and Vol. vi., pp. 18. 39.] 
No. 299.] 



The Times of February 13, I saw a very mys- 
terious effusion, running in numerals, which a 
couple of minutes' attention deciphered thus]: the 
numerals represented letters in regular succession, 
commencing with m 1 to r 14, a 15, and so on to 
I 26 ; letter, for example, one of the words used, 
being shown as 26, 19, 8, 8, 19, 6. So the mystery 
solved becomes the ridiculous mouse. 

In like manner, about two months previously I 
discovered in The Times another advertisement 
on a still more simple, and consequently useless, 
principle. The chief letters, especially the vowels, 
were omitted, and by the supply of these, easily 
guessed notwithstanding the running of word into 
word, the entire advertisement was revealed. 
What possible end can these notifications answer ? 

W. T. M. 

Hong Kong. 



^MtvizS. 



EDITIONS OF MICEOCOSMOGRAPHT. 

I wish, for a bibliographical object, to discover 
the date of, and some particulars relative to, the 
fourth edition of Bishop Earle's Characters, a 
little book formerly known, and still often so 
called in booksellers' catalogues, as Blount's 
Microcosmography, from Blount, the bookseller's 
name, being affixed to the preface. 

The first edition was "Lond., by W. S. for 
Ed. Blount, 1628." Of this, after a search of 
more than forty years, I have only seen two 
copies ; one in the Bodleian Library, the second 
recently obtained for my own little collection. It 
may be distinguished from all subsequent im- 
pressions as " newly composed for the northerne 
parts of this kingdome," and having one character, 
that of a herald, omitted in all other copies till 
1633. The number of characters in this first 
edition amounts to fifty-four. The second edition 
has the same date, 1628, Lond., by William 
Stansby for Edward Blount ; number of characters 
fifty-three. 

Third edition, also same date, 1628, Lond., by 
William Stansby for Robert Allot ; number of 
characters fifty-three. 

Fourth edition, subject of this Query. 

Few books enjoyed a greater reputation, or 
seem to have commanded a more ready sale. 
There was a fifth edition in 1629 for Robert 
Allot, "much enlarged," the number of characters 
amounting to seventy-six. 

The sixth edition, " augmented," 1633, by E. A. 
for Robert Allot, has seventy-eight characters. 

The seventh edition, 1638, by J. L. for Andrew 
Crooke ; number of characters, seventy-eight. 

Between the sixth and seventh a surreptitious 
edition appeared, 1650, printed by W. Bentley for 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



William Shears, at the Bible in the New Rents. 
This was a reprint from the second or third edi- 
tions, as it contains only fifty-three characters, 
omitting that of a herald, which had been given, 
as before stated, in the first. 

The eighth edition, 1664, printed by R. D. for 
P. C. Number of characters seventy-eight. 

The ninth edition, 1669, by Thomas Ratcliff 
and Thomas Daniel, for Philip Chetwynd. Num- 
ber of characters seventy-eight. 

In 1676 was an edition, London, for Samuel 
Crouch, at the corner of Pope's Head Alley, next 
Cornhill : this is not called the tenth in the title- 
page, nor is it indeed anything more than the 
remaining copies of the ninth (1669), with a 
different title. 

The above were all in 12mo. 

The next edition was a small 8vo., Lond., by 
E. Say, 1732. It professes to be a reprint from 
the sixth of 1633, and is creditably and carefully 
executed, with a list, though necessarily incorrect, 
of former editions, and a brief account of the 
author. It had another title in 1740, The World 
Displayed, Sec, London, printed for and sold by 
C. Ward and R. Chandler, at the Ship without 
Temple Bar, and at their shops in Coney Street, 
York, and at Scarborough Spaw. 

In 1786 it was reprinted at Salisbury by E. 
Easton ; sold also by G. and T. Wilkie, St. Paul's 
Churchyard, London. This professes to be taken 
from the edition of 1650, and is of course incom- 
plete. I have not a copy before me, and cannot 
specify the number of characters. 

In 1811 the writer of this article published the 
last edition, with a few notes, and an appendix 
containing such information as he was then able 
to collect. It is certainly the most complete of 
all the impressions, but experience has convinced 
him that it is capable of great improvement, par- 
ticularly in the list of characters and books of 
characters, which in his own interleaved copy is 
increased fourfold. The book, however, is too 
common and unimportant to induce any pub- 
lisher to venture on such an undertaking. 

I may, perhaps, add that the late Mr. Bright 
had a MS. copy, and clearly a very early one, 
containing fifty-one characters. Those omitted, 
and which appear in the first printed edition, are 
" The World's Wise Man," " A Vulgar Spirited 
Man," and " A Stayed Man." This MS. was in 
my hands at the time of Mr. Bright's death, and 
would have been so still, but for a slight oversight 
of my old friend Thomas Rodd.* I am bound to 



[* We find in an old number of the Oxford Paper the 
following brief account of the late Mr. Rodd : many of our 
readers will be glad to preserve it in the pages of " N. & 
Q." " April 23, at his house in Great Newport Street, 
Mr. Thomas Rodd, bookseller. Mr. Rodd had left home 
in the morning to all appearance as well as usual, and in 
excellent spirits, in order to make some researches at the 

No. 299.] 



forgive him, since my small library, such as it is, 
owes nearly all its value to his extensive and ac- 
curate information, his unwearied research, and 
his friendly co-operation. Philip Buss. 



"descents en angleteree." 

Your valuable paper has so extensive a circu- 
lation, and commands the attention of so varied a 
list of readers, that I hope you will allow the fol- 
lowing question to be inserted, as by that means 
it is probable that a fact of some interest, even in 
an historical view, may be ascertained. Is the 
Napoleon medal, with the title " Descente en 
Angleterre," real and genuine ? It is well knowa 
as struck by Thomason, who issued it as an 
exact copy from an original medal made at Paris ; 
but many believe that it was his invention as well 
as work, Laving taken the " Frappe a Londres " 
from the Napoleon medal of the entry to Vienna. 
The copy in the collection at Paris is clearly one 
of Thomason's, while that in the Museum at 
Boulogne is stated to be an original, and in the 
appearance of the metal certainly looks different 
from those which were struck at Birmingham. 
Sir Edward Thomason professed that an original 
had been lent to him by the Duke of Wellington, 



British Museum, and transact business with the libra- 
rians. Whilst there he was seized with paralysis, losing 
the power of speech and motion. He was immediately 
conveyed home, shortly became insensible, and died the 
same evening ; all endeavours to check the progress of 
the disorder proving ineffectual. In the death of this 
amiable man the literarj' world sustains a loss that will 
not be easily repaired. Mr. Rodd joined to a most ex- 
tensive knowledge of books, manners the most unpre- 
tending and obliging. His ready kindness in imparting 
the stores of information he possessed, will be acknow- 
ledged by all who have had occasion to apply to him; 
whilst the strict integrity of his conduct, and the total 
absence of everything like exorbitance or overreaching 
in his mode of transacting business, had gained him a 
high character both in this country and on the Continent, 
and procured for him a most extensive and important 
trade. The Bodleian Librarj', as well as the British 
Museum, owe to Mr. Rodd's exertions the recent acqui- 
sition of many treasures; and the noble library lately 
formed at Queen's College by the munificence of the late 
Dr. Mason, is mainly indebted to his knowledge and 
personal superintendence for one of the most select col- 
lections of printed books ever brought together, and 
from which a just estimate maj' be formed of his good 
taste and sound judgment as a "bibliographer. We may 
add that Mr. Rodd numbered among his acquaintance 
many of the most distinguished literary characters in thie 
kingdom ; as a proof of which the late Mr. Grenville was 
in constant communication with him, and Mr. Douce be- 
queathed him a legacy in token of his regard. In this 
University, where he was well known and most highly 
respected, he was received rather as a personal friend 
than a man of business; and his loss will be felt and ac- 
knowledged by very many who enjo3'ed the pleasure of 
his acquaintance, and knew his worth." — Ed. " N. & Q."] 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



from which his was made as an exact copy ; that 
on the failure of the plan of invasion, the medals 
were suppressed and the die destroyed. I have 
heard it stated that eleven of the originals, and 
not more, were issued ; and that three or four are 
in England. If any of your correspondents could 
give information which would elucidate the fact, 
it would be interesting. Different opinions have 
been stated, on what would at first appear the best 
authority, as to the real intention of Napoleon for 
his grand military display at Boulogne : if it could 
be proved that this was a genuine medal struck 
by order of Napoleon, and cancelled upon his 
marching the troops to Germany, it would be 
strong evidence that the invasion of England was 
really intended. H. H. 



THE LAWTEE. 



The following lines, which I met with among a 
collection of miscellaneous pamphlets and scraps 
of poetry, may not be unworthy of a place in your 
periodical. They are printed on a sheet of fools- 
cap ; and at the head is a cut representing St. 
Peter opening the gates of heaven to a lawyer de- 
sirous of entering, but whom the apostle, on re- 
cognising his profession, refuses to admit. There 
is no date or author's name attached, and I should 
be glad if any of your correspondents could inform 
me on this point. William Henky Hakt. 

Albert Terrace, New Cross. 

"the lawyer. 
Professions will abuse each other ; 
The priest won't call the lawyer brother ; 
While Salkeld still beknaves the parson, 
And says he cants to keep the farce on ; 
Yet will I readily suppose 
• They are not truly bitter foes. 
But only have their pleasant jokes, 
And banter, just like other folks ; 
As thus, for so they quiz the Law, 
Once on a time th' attorney Flaw, 
A man, to tell you as the fact is, 
Of vast chicane, of course of practice ; 
(But what profession can we trace 
Where some will not the corps disgrace? 
Seduc'd, perhaps, by roguish clieyit, 
Who tempts him to become more pliant), 
A notice had to quit the world, 
And from his desk at length was hurl'd. 
Observe, I pray, the plain narration : 
'Twas in a hot and long vacation, 
When time he had, but no assistance, 
Tho' great from courts of law the distance, 
To reach the court of truth and justice 
(Where I confess my only trust is) : 
Tho' here below the learned pleader 
Shows talents worthy of a leader, 
Yet his own fame he must support. 
Be sometimes witty with the Court, 
Or work the passions of a jury 
By tender strains, or, full of fury. 
Misleads them all, tho' twelve apostles, 
While with new law the judge he jostles, 
No. 299.] 



And makes them all give up their pow'rs 

To speeches of at least three hours. 

But we have left our little man. 

And wander'd from our purpos'd plan : 

'Tis said (without ill-natur'd leaven), 

* If ever lawyers get to heaven. 

It surely is by slow iegrees' 

(Perhaps 'tis slow tney take their fees). 

The case, then, now I'll fairly state: 

Flaw reach'd at last to heaven's high gate : 

Quite spent, he rapp'd, none did it neater. 

The gate was open'd by St. Peter, 

Who look'd astonish'd when he saw, 

All black, the little man of law ; 

But Charity was Peter's guide. 

For, having once himself denied 

His Master, he would not o'erpass 

The penitent of any class; 

Yet never having heard there enter'd 

A lawyer, nay, nor one that ventur'd 

Within the realms of peace and love, 

He told him, mildh', to remove. 

And would have clos'd the gate of day," 

Had not old Flaw, in suppliant way. 

Demurring to so hard a fate, 

Begg'd but a look, tho' through the gate. 

St. Peter, rather off his guard, 

Unwilling to be thought too hard. 

Opens the gate to let him peep in. 

What did the lawyer? Did he creep in; 

Or dash at once to take possession ? 

Oh no, he knew his own profession; 

He took his hat off with respect. 

And would no gentle means neglect; 

But finding it was all in vain 

For him admittance to obtain. 

Thought it were best, let come what will, 

To gain an entry by his skill. 

So while St. Peter stood aside. 

To let the door be open'd wide. 

He skimm'd his hat with all his strength 

Within the gates to no small length : 

St. Peter star'd ; the lawyer ask'd him 

' Only to fetch iiis hat,' and pass'd him ; 

But when he reach'd the jack he'd thrown, 

Oh, then was all the lawyer shown ; 

He clapp'd it on, and, arms a-kembo 

(As if he'd been the gallant Bemho), 

Cry'd out, 'What think you of my plan? — 

Eject me, Peter, if yoc can.' " 



ORATOB HENLEY. 

In the interesting Essay on the character and 
writings of John Henley (the orator), which forms 
an article in the late Mr. D'Israeli's Calamities of 
Authors, some specimens are given of one of the 
earlier productions of that extraordinary person. 
I refer to Esther, a sacred poem in four books. 
We learn from a note to The Dunciad (book iii. 
line 195.), illustrative of the memorable passage — • 

" Embrown'd in native bronze, lo ! Henley stands," 

that the production which I have named was 
" well received by the town ;" and, certainly, the 
extracts from it affi)rded by our ingenious " de- 
tector curiositatum " seem to justify the public 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



favour; and might even occasion some surprise 
that the production is so entirely forgotten. Pre- 
fixed is a dissertation exhibiting an intimate 
knowledge of oriental dialects, with some curious 
speculations concerning " Ahasuerus," who is al- 
leged to be identical with "Xerxes." This hypo- 
thesis, it is said, is maintained with great acute- 
ness of reasoning and variety of learning. Indeed, 
as regards Henley's acquirements as a linguist, 
it is stated in a memoir of him, contained in 
Nichols's Leicestershire, that he published, within 
two or three years of taking the degree of B.A. 
at Cambridge, a compendium of the grammar of 
ten languages. Strange to say, the performance 
first referred to is not to be found in the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum Library : though 
the unhappy celebrity of the author might impart 
to it, one would think, a certain degree of in- 
terest, independently of the erudition displayed, 
and the poetical ability by which the work is 
undoubtedly characterised. That a man so re- 
markably gifted should have been debased to the 
subsequent career which marked him for the 
withering invective of Pope, and the graphical 
satire of Hogarth, is among the most signal in- 
stances of the perversion, conjointly with the moral 
sense, of rare endowments of intellect riglitly im- 
proved by education : a complete extinction of 
the powers of taste and judgment — of almost 
every attribute of scholarship — observable, it is 
believed, in his later productions ; being, in the 
following letter, indicated by a style the most 
congenial to the degraded occupations of the 
writer. It is difficult to conceive this effusion as 
having proceeded from the author of Esther, and 
the grammarian of ten languages! The person 
addressed is the Lord Chancellor Hardwicke : the 
date, 1755 : 

" I most humbly ask pardon for informing your Lord- 
ship that one proof of my serving his Majesty, and the 
ministry, in my speeches and advertisements, is, that I 
gain intelligence by them of the real enemies of the court ; 
and the late Rt. Eton. Mr. Pelham engaged it should not 
be known but to the royal family, first ministers, and 
judges. And Mr. Pelham, some months before his death, 
gave me ten guineas for one piece of intelligence about 
certain elections; which, with others, I could not have 
obtained but by such advertisements and discourses. I 
received sixty guineas from him, in the whole, for various 
services of that kind on severall occasions ; and I allways 
invariablj- devoted my oratory, and do to y^ like intention 
in several shapes ; and shall be proud of every oppor- 
tunity to be of any service or use to y^ Lordship, and y 
noble family." 

Mr. D'Israeli sums up the character of the 
" Orator" in these terras : 

" Henley was an indefatigable student — a scholar of 
great attainments, and of no mean genius : hardy and 
inventive, eloquent and witty. He might have been an 
ornament to literature, which he made ridiculous — and 
the pride of the pulpit, which he so lamentably disgraced." 

The object, however, of this communication 
No. 299.] 



(which has run to an inordinate length), was to 
inquire where the poem of Esther can be seen ? and 
whether any of your correspondents may know 
what are, or were, the contents of the 100 volumes 
of MSS. inspected by Mr. D'Israeli? To judge 
from the letter above cited, they might possibly 
serve to illustrate some curious passages of the 
political history of that period ; I mean in regard 
to " party management." A. L. 

Temple. 

[There is a copy of Esther, Queen of Persia, by John 
Henley, in the British Museum, entered in the new MS. 
Catalogue under his name, press-mark 11,631. e. About 
fifty volumes of Henley's Lectures, in his own hand- 
writing, will be found among the Additional MSS. 
10,346—10,349. ; 11,768—11,801. ; 12,199, 12,200. : 
19,920—19,924.] 



Minav ^ueviti. 

Jonathan Swift. — A new edition of Swift'$ 
Works is announced by Mr. Murray, to be edited 
by Mr. John Forster. I, for one, rejoice at this. 
Though we have had edition after edition fast 
following one another for a century, a new one is 
very much wanted. The best informed, however, 
best know the patient labour required to pro- 
duce such a work as is alone worth having. Can- 
not " N. & Q." come to the rescue ? — help forward 
the good cause ? The late discussions about Pope 
have certainly cleared away some minor doubts 
and difficulties ; and it is these minors which give 
so much trouble to editors. May I be allowed to 
start the game by asking when and where the first 
edition of Poetry, a Rhapsody, was published ? 
And how is the first edition to be known ? J. S. A. 

Edward Barnard. — Can you or any of your 
readers give me any account of Edward Barnard, 
author of a work published in 1757, under the 
title of Virtue the Source of Pleasure? Another 
work by the same author was published in 1741, 
viz. Experimental Christianity of eternal advantage, 
exemplified in the Life of Miss Lydia Allen, of 
London, who died November 17, 1740, 8vo., 2nd 
edition, 1741. R. J, 

Glasgow. 

Anonymous Worhs. — Can you inform me who 
are the authors of the following anonymous 
novels ? — 1 . Constantia, or the Distressed Friend, 
12mo., 1770. 2. The Disguise, a dramatic novel 
in two volumes, 12mo., 1771. 3. The West In- 
dian; or Memoirs of Frederick Charlton, 12 mo., 
1787. E. J. 

Glasgow. 

Chancels in Ormshirk Parish Church. — In the 
registers of the sixteenth century, kept in the 
parish church of Ormskirk, the chancel is divided 
into two parts, and named as two distinct chan- 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



eels.'" From the junction with the nave, to half 
the length eastward, it is designated the " King's 
Chancel :" thence to the eastern extremity, the 
" High Chancel." There is now no visible line, 
or mark of division, all being uniform with the 
nave ; nor any document in the church which ex- 
plains the matter. If any of the correspondents 
of " N. & Q." can suggest a reason for the dis- 
tinction, I shall feel greatly obliged for the favour. 

J. D. 
Ormskirk. 

Bamford Family. — Can any one give me the 
ancestry of Elizabeth Bamford, of Brinnington, 
Derbyshire ; born in 1747, and who left that 
neighbourhood in 1762 to reside with the family 
of Mr. Tipping, partner in the firm of " Peel, 
Yates, & Tipping" (the first Sir Robert Peel), of 
Manchester ? John Scribe. 

Richard Kent, Esq. — This gentleman was 
Cashier of the Customs previously to March 25, 
1679, as appears on the face of the proceedings in 
the impeachment of Lord Dan by (afterwards Duke 
of Leeds) ; and, according to Chamberlayne, he 
held the same office in 1692. There is reason to 
believe that he was a partner in one of the Gold- 
smith banking firms of his day. Can any of your 
readers give me any information on this head, or 
olherwise, of him ? J. K. 

" Aboard" " Ashore.'' — Can any of your cor- 
respondents defend the use of these, and analogous 
words ? I must confess I like them better than 
the expressions " on board," " on shore," which 
are generally preferred by fine-spoken people, 
l)ut which seem to me very like corruptions of a 
legitimate and very common form of adverb in 
our language, made by the addition of the affix a 
to a substantive. We all know what " a house 
afire" is; but "a house on fire," though very 
commonly substituted, is nonsense. Webster 
says the affix is sometimes a contraction of the 
Teutonic g-e, which anybody but a German pro- 
fessor, with a liberal theory of the transmutations 
of consonants and vowels, might think improbable. 
Sometimes, he adds, it is a contraction of the 
Saxon on, and, it may be, of the Celtic ag. I 
should be glad to hear any other opinion. 

W. M. T. 

Phelps, Clerk of the Parliament. — Will any of 
your numerous correspondents be kind enough to 
inform me what became of the John Phelps who 
•was clerk to the Parliament at the trial of 
Charles L ? I find his name mentioned in the 
Journals of the House of Commons, 12 Car. II. ; 
Somers' Tracts, vol. v. p. 274. ; and in Statutes at 
Large, art. xliv., 13 Car. II. I see also that he 
was sentenced, with William Lord Monson, Sir 
B. Mildmay, Sir James Harrington, and Robert 

No. 299.J 



Wallop, Esq., to be carried to the Tower, &c. 
Was this sentence carried into execution, and 
what became of him afterwards ? AVhere was he 
born, and of what family ? Oldmixon mentions 
the circumstance, and states that Echard says that 
it was so done on January 30 following. 

Jos. Llotd Phelps. 

Alexander Pope. — Inquiries are just now making^ 
in all directions for the works of, or works relat- 
ing to, Pope. Your own pages make this mani- 
fest; but the infection spreads, and I see that, 
amongst "Books Wanted" by Mr. Kerslake of 
Bristol, is a long list of Pope requirements, in- 
cluding The Dunciad of 1727 ; notwithstanding 
your elaborate report in proof that no such edi- 
tion was ever published. No matter — all honour 
to all seekers — good may result; and that is the 
apology for my troubling you. 

From a cotemporary catalogue of the library of 
Swift, Sir Walter Scott {Life, sect. 5.) gives a list 
of such works as " have remarks and observations 
on them in the hand of Dr. Swift." And amongst 
these is " Pope's Works, vol. ii., containing his 
Epistle and The Dunciad." Of course, the value 
of this copy must depend on the extent and nature 
of the remarks and observations. Is it known to 
be in existence ? and if so, where is it ? A. P. I. 

Bridge, the Organ-builder. — May I ask for in- 
formation as to the date of the death and place of 
burial of the celebrated organ-builder Bridge? 
Also for any particulars as to a partnership which 
is said to have existed between that great " tone 
artist" and his cotemporaries By field and Jordan? 

A list of the metropolitan and other church 
organs built by Bridge would be very interesting. 

T. H. 

Lady Jane Home : Lord Robert Kerr. — Where 
is any account to be found of the loves of Lady 
Jane Home and Lord Robert Kerr ? In what 
battle was Lord Robert killed ? D, 

Leamington. 

Schooley's Mountain : Sir Andrew Chadwich. 
— Will you allow a literary backwoodsman and 
former correspondent, to ask through your medium 
for information respecting the family of Schooley, 
and if there is such a place as Schooley's Moun- 
tain in England? Also any information respecting 
Sir Andrew Chadwick*, who died at the advanced 
age of ninety-eight in 1768, will be thankfully 
received by D. Stevens. 

Columbus, Ohio. 

David and Goliath. — The combat of David 
and Goliath is often represented in stained glass, 
and sometimes also in sculpture, in our English 

[* See a curious extract from the will of Sir Andrew 
Chadwick in the Gentleman's Mag., vol. Ixxiii, part ii. 
p. 1205.] 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



churches. Was it in any respect symbolical of a 
religious feeling, or otherwise, in a secular point of 
view, allusive to some national event, that had its 
run, like many of our ale-house signs, at a par- 
ticular period ? L. F. Stonegbave. 

Precedence of Knights. — Does a knight made 
by a lord lieutenant take precedence of a Com- 
panion of the Bath (C. B.), or a Companion of the 
Guel()hic Order (K. H.), the latter not having 
been knighted ? Questor. 

Cahir. 

Florins of the fourteenth Century. — Can you 
inform me of any work on the value of money in 
the different countries of Europe from the tenth 
to the seventeenth century ? I have searched the 
British Museum in vain for information on this 
subject. 

The point which I especially wish to ascertain 
is the value (in modern English money) of the 
Italian and German florin of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. . T. E. K. 

" The Whig Examiner^'' — When was the last 
number published ? Miss Aikin (^Life of Addison^ 
says, "Addison's last Whig Examiner appeared 
October 8." Sir Walter Scott {Life of Swift) 
says, " The last Whig Examiner is dated October 
12." Mr. Cunningham, in one note (Johnson's 
Live«, vol, ii. p. 142.), confirms what is said by 
Scott ; but in another, on the same page, he con- 
tradicts himself with a formality that puzzles me. 
The Whig Examiner, he says, " consists of five 
numbers: the first dated Aug. 3, 1710; the last, 
Avg.\2,\no:' T.W.E. 



Old Books, Country Dealers in, — Can you refer 
me to a list of the dealers in second-hand books 
resident out of the metropolis ? The utility of 
such a list to persons engaged in collecting for 
any particular object or course of reading, is so 
obvious, that, if it does not already exist, may I 
ask the help of " N. & Q." towards its formation ? 

A Bookworm. 

[We do not know of the existence of such a list as 
Bookworm requires, and, recognising the utility of it, 
we shall very gladly insert such an one if the country 
dealers in old books will furnish the materials.] 

<S%erarrf. — William Sherard, LL.D. "the 
prince and Mascenas of botany," was born at 
Bushby, CO. Leicester, 1659. ' Where was he 
buried ? 

His brother James, almost equally eminent in 
the science of botany, is commemorated in a Latin 
inscription in Evington Church. Both occasionally 
spelt the name Sherwood, as did their father. It 

No. 299.] 



is asserted, however, that this was a corruption, 
and that the Sherards of Bushby were a branch of 
the Sherards of Stapleford, now ennobled. What 
is the fact ? T. R. P. 

Wymeswold. 

[Dr. W. Sherard died August 12, 1728, and was buried 
at Eltham in Kent, it is believed without an epitaph. 
(Lysons' Environs, vol. iv. p. 655.) We cannot find that 
he was connected with the Sherards of Stapleford ; in fact, 
most of his biographers state that Sherwood was the family 
name ; but it does not appear at what time or for what 
reason the alteration was made. Some curious notices of 
the family by Mr. Green will be found in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, October, 1796, p. 810. ; and in Pulteney'a 
Sketches of Botany, vol. ii. p. 141., edit. 1790.] 

" The Celestial Divorce." — I give the title of a 
small but curious and interesting book I have 
lately met with, viz., — 

" II Divorzio Celeste, Cagionato dalle dissolutezze dalla 
Spoza Romana. Diviso in Trfe Tomi De' costumi dissoluti 
dell' Adutera. Consagrato alia Semplicit^. de' Cristiani 
Scropolosi. In Reguaea [Genevra] Appresso Vinigano 
Cipetti, 1679." 

At the end of the volume, and seemingly part of 
the same publication, is " II Testamento di Fer- 
rante Pallavicino, detto II flagello de Barberini."' 
May I inquire, through the pages of " N. & Q.," 
who is the author of this book ? and has it been 
translated into English? Any information on 
these points will oblige. p. 

[This work is generally attributed to Ferrante Palla- 
vicino, one of the wits of Italy, who was beheaded for his 
satirical attacks on the Pope and the Court of Rome in 
1644. Some, however, deny that he was the author of it. 
It has also been attributed to a certain Fd. Caponi, who 
turned Protestant in 1645, at Leipsic. (Ebert's Biblio- 
graphical Dictionary, vol. iii. p. 1269.) This piece was 
translated into English by William Lawrence, under the 
title of Christ Divorced from the Church of Rome, because 
of its Lewdness, London, 1679, 8vo. Another English 
edition appeared in 1718, entitled The Celestial Divorce^ 
made English from the Original Italian of Ferrante Palla- 
vicino. To this edition Is prefixed an account of the 
supposed author, Pallavicino.] 

John Cleveland. — Is anything known of this 
Royalist, who, " being at Norwich, was fetch'd by 
a guard before the commissioners and sent pri- 
soner to Yarmouth," from the gaol of which place- 
he addressed a long and eloquent petition to the 
Lord Protector ? C. I. P. 

Great Yarmouth. 

[Many of our readers, we presume, have heard of 
the famous, or, as Wright in his Antiquities of Halifair 
calls him, the inimitable John Cleaveland, the Royalist 
wit and poet, the social companion of Samuel Butler, the 
author of Hudibras, and the beloved friend of Bishop 
Lake and Bishop Pearson. The latter excellent prelate 
preached bis funeral sermon, and rendered this reason 
why he cautiously declined all commending of the de- 
ceased, " because such praising of him would not be ade- 
quate to any expectation in that audience, seeing some 
who knew him not would think it far above him, while 
those who knew him must know it far below him." His 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. ]855. 



genuine, incomparable pieces were published " by his en- 
trusted friends," who, in the warmth of their admiration, 
have graced the title-page with the motto, " Non norunt 
hsec monumenta mori." And Milton's nephew, Edward 
Phillips, in his Theatrura Poetarum, 1675, has the follow- 
ing remarks : " So great a man has Cleaveland been in 
the estimation of the generality, in regard his conceits 
were out of the common road and wittily far-fetched, 
that grave men, in outward appearance, have not spared, 
in vay hearing, to affirm him the best of English poets, and 
let them think so still, who ever please, provided it be 
made no article of faith." Gleaveland's Life has been 
written by Bishop Lake, prefixed to his Poems, 1677, 
8vo. ; and by Ur. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, in Kippis's 
Biographia Britannica, vol. iii. p. 628. His petition to the 
Lord Protector is also given in the latter work.] 

Passage in Byron. — What is the "by-word " 
to which Lord Byron alludes in the following 
lines of the " Ode to Napoleon ?" 

" That Corinth's pedagogue hath now 
^Transferred his by-word to thy brow." 

J. P. 
["Corinth's pedagogue" is Dionysius the younger, who 
on being banished a second time from Syracuse retired to 
Corinth, where he was obliged to turn schoolmaster for 
his subsistence. Posterity has branded him as the " ty- 
rant," which is probably the by-word to which Lord 
Byron alludes.] 



jaepItcS. 



PRIESTS HIDING-PI-ACES, ETC. 

(Vol. xi., p. 437.) 

Somewhere about the beginning of the present, 
or the end of tlie last century, a secret chamber 
was accidentally discovered in the ancient manor- 
house of Bourton-on-the- Water, co. Gloucester. 

Though frequently a resident in that house at 
a later period, I was not there when the discovery 
took place, and therefore can only offer' my con- 
tribution as hearsay evidence, if such be admis- 
sible in the pages of " N, & Q." 

The door appeared on tearing off the paper, 
which was about to be renewed ; it was on the 
second (or upper) floor landing-place, and opened 
into a small chamber, about eight feet square, 
containing a chair and table ; over the back of 
the former hung a black robe, and the whole had 
the appearance as if some one had recently risen 
from his seat and left the room. What might 
have been on the table, or whether anything else 
was found, I have now forgotten. On the same 
floor there were several other apartments, of 
which three only were in use, the other (called 
the " dark room ") having been locked up for 
many years. Of the three in use, one was called 
" the Chapel," another " the Priest's-room." The 
former had a vaulted roof or ceiling. All three, 
I believe, were supposed by the villagers to be 
haunted ; and they had been known by the above 
appellations in the family long anterior to the 

No. 299.] 



discovery of the door — "time out of mind!" 
The house was one of many gables — Old Entdish 
style? — very large and rambling, but of what 
date I know not. According to Rudder {History 
of Gloucestershire), the Manor of Bourton had 
been purchased by the Abbey of Evesham temp. 
Henry III., and the house had been a cell to that 
Abbey. It became property of the Crown at the 
dissolution : was granted 4 Eliz. to Lord Chandos ; 
15 Eliz. to Giles Lord Chandos ; 44 Eliz. to Grey 
Lord Chandos, who appears to have sold it ia 
1608 to Sir Thomas Edmonds, Treasurer of the 
Royal Household, and subsequently Privy Coun- 
cillor to Charles I. 

It was probably during his occupancy that (ac- 
cording to existing tradition) Charles passed the 
first night here on his way from Oxford. 

The daughter of Sir Thomas conveyed the 
manor to Henry Lord De la Ware, in marriage. 
His grandson John sold it to Charles Trinder, 
Esq. It afterwards passed (how not stated) to 
Mr. Boddington, Mr. Church, Mr. Partridge, and 
lastly to Samuel Ingram, Esq. 

So far Rudder. 

Subsequently, Mr. Ingram bequeathed it to his 
niece, Mrs. Jo. Rice, who dying without issue, in 
1834, the property devolved on the nearest of kin, 
— Vaux, Esq., surgeon, of Birmingham. 

It has since, I understand, been sold in lots, the 
hodse (except a small part of the south front) 
pulled down, the fine old trees in which it was 
embosomed felled, the shubberies grubbed up, the 
pleasure-ground converted into pasture, and the 
remains of the house into a dispensary (" Sic 
transit," &c.). ;A. C. M. 

Exeter. 



A secret chamber, similar in its object to those 
named by Ma. Tuck, was found in the old man- 
sion at Henlip, in Worcestershire, when it was 
taken <lown about thirty years ago. H. Martiit. 

Halifax. 



EPITAPH ON AN INFANT. 

(Vol. xi., pp. 190. 295.) 
This epitaph is met with in various places. The 
last in which I saw it may give some clue. In 
1839 there was a pulpit contest, shot for shot, 
between thirteen of the Church of England and 
three Unitarian Dissenters. Two volumes of 
Sermons were published : Unitarianism confided 
. . . by Thirteen Clergymen of the Church of 
England (Liverpool ; Hamilton, Adams & Co., 
London, 8vo.) ; and Unitarianism defended . . . by 
Three Protestant Dissenting Ministers of Liverpool 
(Liverpool; Green, Newgate Street, London, 
8vo.). One of the Trinitarian disputants, the 
Rev. H. M'Grath, quoted this epitaph as " from 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



the pen, I believe, of the late Dr. Robinson of 
Cambridge." Both your correspondents have 
quoted it wrongly; each has altered one of the 
points ; and I have vpaited with curiosity and 
amusement to see whether any one would give a 
correct copy. Mr. M'Grath quoted it as 1 have 
seen it before, except only that he inserted a 
word — the (Bible's) sacred page — and spoiled 
the metre. It now runs as follows : 
" Bold Infidelity, turn pale and die ; 

Beneath this stone four sleeping infants lie ; 
Say, are they lost or saved ! 

If death's by sin, they sinn'd, for they are here ; 

If Heaven's by works, in heaven they can't appear. 
Ah reason, how depraved ! 

Revere the sacred page, the knot's untied — 

They died, for Adam sinn'd ; they live, for Jesus died ? " 

I made a note of this long ago, partly on ac- 
count of tlie ingenious manner in which the di- 
lemma is packed, and partly on account of the 
incongruous appearance which is given by one 
word of poetic license, too bold for the precision 
of language which follows it. Supposing the di- 
lemma unanswerable, it is not infidelity which is 
cauglit by it, but some kind of Christianity. It 
rather reminds me, when this one word is con- 
sidered, of a young missionary I once heard of, 
who was educated in one of those colleges in 
which they teach at great length what a heathen 
is to be converted into, and at no length at all 
what a heathen is to begin with. An older mis- 
sionary was giving this young man some advice 
about his proceedings, and was interrupted with — 
" Oh ! of course, I shall assume justification by the 
faith." Query, A suitable alteration in the first 
line ? M. 



In the graveyard of Square (Independent 
chapel) in this town, the epitaph, "Ere sin could 
blight," &c., is inscribed over an infant who died 
in 1835. I have seen it elsewhere, I think in or 
near Worcester, but cannot now name the spot. 
It is, I presume, pretty well known. I find it in 
Sm.irt's British Poetical Miscellany, 12mo., Hud- 
dersfield, 1818, with Coleridge's name to it. 

The epitaph, " Bold Infidelity," &c., is usually 
attributed to the Rev. Robert Robinson, author 
of Village Discourses, &c., and the predecessor of 
the Rev. Robert Hall in the pastorate of the Bap- 
tist church at Cambridge. H. Maktin. 

In answer to one of the inquiries of JN". L. T., 
the following lines are sent. They are taken from 
Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, vol. i. p. 333., where 
they are said to be inscribed on a tomb of four in- 
fants Uiimed Hall, in Sibthorpe churchyard: 

.« The cup of life just with their lips they press'd, 
They found it bitter, and declin'd the rest. 
Averse then turning from the face of day. 
They softly sigh'd their little souls away." 

Sttlites. 
No. 299.] 



PAGET ARMS. 

(Vol. xi., pp. 385. 494.) 

The obliging reply of Mb. Arthur Paget to 
my Query concerning the Paget coat of arms, 
does not (he will permit me to say) satisfy my 
curiosity or exhaust the question. I think the 
shield bears evidence, on the fiace of it, of an 
origin more remote than the days of the virgin 
queen. The cross and the escallop (symbols used 
in earlier times than those of Elizabeth) indicate 
that the grant was made when the crusader and 
the pilgrim were not characters who lived merely 
in the pages of romance, but persons of every-day 
life and active reality. 

The cross is, I am aware, one of the frequently 
displayed honourable ordinaries of heraldry ; but 
I am inclined to believe there is a family group of 
shields (if I may so speak) traceable to a common 
parent, in which the cross is conspicuous. As with 
the cinquefoil of the ancient earls of Leicester, the 
chevron of the house of Albany, and the maunch 
of the Hastingses, these charges, and the ordinary, 
were often repeated in the coats worn by the 
vassals of the chief lord ; so the cross, displayed 
by some great feudal baron, was repeated in the 
armorial ensigns of his military followers. I will 
cite a few examples of the cross used in this way, 
with a view to elicit some farther remarks from 
your contributors : 

Azure, a cross engrailed or, was the coat of 
the Charnels of Elmesthorpe, Leicestershire ; and 
most lof the other instances I am about to quote 
are ancient arms of families once seated in that 
county. 

Gules, a plain cross argent. The Knights 
Hospitallers. 

Sable, a cross argent. Anonymous, Shacker- 
stone. 

Azure, a cross petty gules. Shepey, Shacker- 
stone. 

Sable, a cross engrailed or. Ufford, Snarestone. 

Gules, a cross engrailed argent, charged with 
five cinquefoils gules. Amary. 

Azure, a cross engrailed argent. Aleshury, 
Frowlesworth. 

Azure, a cross or. This coat is assigned to 
Lorty of Stoughton and Shelton of Lockington. 

Azure, a cross or. Anonymous, Stoughton. 

Or, on a cross engrailed az., five mullets or. 
Hospitallers, Burton-on-Trent. 

Ditto, ditto. Arms of Bourchier. 

Argent, a cross gules. Anonymous, Appleby. 

Or, a plain cross sable. Anonymous, EstwelLt* 

Argent, a cross vert. Hassey. 

When I state that six of the families named 
above were seated in the western side of the 
county of Leicester, in the Middle Ages, it will 
appear probable they held under some common 
suzerain; and as a branch of the Paget family 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



was resident at Ibstock, within a few miles of 
Shackerstone, Snareston, and Appleby, in the reign 
of Henry VI., I conjecture they held under the 
same baron as the families resident in that district, 
whose arms were once recorded in the stained 
glass of the neighbouring church windows. In the 
window of Shackerstone was formerly blazoned a 
coat (unassigned), differing only from the Paget 
ensigns in the engrailment of the cross. As lb- 
stock and Shackerstone are not much more than 
four miles apart, it is probable the former is a 
relic of the family last named ; for I apprehend 
the engrailing of the cross is too trifling a distinc- 
tion to imply a difference in a sculptured armorial 
bearing. 

I may also mention, that the arms of fami- 
lies seated in the counties bordering on western 
Leicestershire, also present the cross as their prin- 
cipal feature. May not all these have held under 
the Knights Hospitallers, whose arms were — 
Gules, a plain cross argent ? Jaytee. 



MICHAEL ANGELO. 

(Vol. xi., p. 343.) 

I have always understood that Agnolo and 
Angelo are merely interchangeable forms of the 
same word ; Agnolo being in fact the Tuscan 
variation, which, in accordance with the custom 
of the period, was written as spelt. To this day 
the same variation is used in Florence, not to 
mention other varieties in different parts of Italy. 
Angelo was and is the correct and Roman form — 
Agnolo, Angiolo, &c. provincialisms. All these 
are found in use promiscuously during his life and 
immediately after his death, and not only in ap- 
plication to Buonarotti, but other artists also who 
had the same Christian name. The following 
Notes will tend to prove the correctness of the 
above. 

The word " Agnolo " is to be found in many 
Italian dictionaries still, being therein translated 
" Angel " (in reference to the mediaeval coin of 
that name). 

In Vasaris Life (wherein throughout it is spelt 
Agnolo) it is particularly stated that — 

" The name he received was Michael Agnolo, because, 
without further consideration, and inspired by some in- 
fluence from above, the father thought he perceived some- 
thing celestial and divine in him beyond what is usual in 
mortals." 

This passage renders the name Michael Angelo, 
after the archangel, perfectly intelligible ; but if 
Agnolo be a different name, the intention of the 
father would appear to have blurfdered sadly. In 
the same life, the following artists are mentioned 
constantly. Fra Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli, 
and Angelo Bronzino, both also under the form of 
No. 299.] 



Agnolo ; and it is hardly likely that Ariosto's 
flattering lines had aught to do with the change- 
here. 

There are several portraits of Buonarotti en- 
graved during his lifetime by one Bonasone, pub- 
lished in 1546, another by Giorgio Mantriano, 
undated, and two others dated 1545, on all of 
which the name is spelt (in Latin) Angelus. 

On an engraving of the celebrated Pieta in St. 
Peter's (on which Vasari narrates that Michael 
Angelo himself inscribed his name) is the follow- 
ing inscription, " michel ang. b. pinxit Bomae." As 
the group differs slightly from the existing marble^ 
it is probably an engraving from an earlier design 
of the artist's, done some time previous to the ex- 
ecution of the sculpture. The statue itself was ex- 
ecuted for Cardinal Rovano in 1496-98, previous to 
the publication of Ariosto's poem. On an engrav- 
ing also by Agortino Veneziano, dated 1 524, from 
the cartoon of Pisa, the name is given Michael An- 
gelas. And lastly, in the libretto, describing the 
ceremonies performed at his obsequies in 1564 
(published by the Giunti), the title runs thus : 
" Esequie del divin Michael Angelo Buonarotti," 
&c. 

I have merely addressed these facts to show 
that, by Agnolo, Angelo was evidently understood 
by Italians of that period, as Eeic, upon inquiry 
of any native of the Peninsula, may readily satisfy 
himself is understood at the present day. 

J. M. L- 

Kensington. 



PHOTOGEAPHIC COERESPONDENCE. 

Mr. Lyte's Process (continued from p. 34.). — Havings 
then, produced a good negative on glass, it now remains 
to reproduce it on paper. Two objects are to be here ar- 
rived at : first and most essential is the fixitj', that the 
impression once produced may never fade ; and second,, 
fine tone of colouring, by which the artistic eflfect is 
heightened. I always use either " Papier de Saxe, grand 
format," or the positive paper of Canson frferes, which, 
though perhaps not quite so good in quality, it being fre- 
quently necessary to reject some of the sheets, has the 
recommendation of being much cheaper. Cut the paper 
into squares about half an inch larger than the glass 
negative each way ; lay these squares together, so that the 
face of the paper'is always turned one way ; and make a 
mark on each sheet by which you may know which is the 
back and which the front of the paper. To know which, 
is the right side is rather difficult at first, but after a 
little practice the operator will be able to tell at the first 
glance. The mark of the wrong side of the paper is the 
impression of the metallic cloth on which it is dried, and 
which is generally the less distinguishable the finer the 
quality of the paper. 

The first preparation is the salting, as it is called : 
make a solution of either 5 per cent, of chloride of am - 
monium, or 10 per cent, of chloride of barium (the 
latter gives perhaps more of a sepia tint than the for- 
mer), and put it in one of the square dishes sold for 
the purpose at all photographic chemists. Take the sheet 
of paper in both hands by opposite corners, and with 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



its face downwards, and bring one end of it in contact 
■with the liquid, and then, bending the sheet backwards, 
let it gradually down on the surface. By this, when 
properly done, we prevent the possibility of air-bubbles 
between the liquid and the paper, and at the same time 
wet only the face of the paper; when it lies flat on the 
liquid, and ceases to curl up, which will be in about 
three minutes, it is to be lifted off and hung up by one 
corner to dry. Many people may prefer to use albumen, 
and I mj-self now always employ it, as by more or less 
dilution'with water we can heighten or lessen to almost 
any degree the lustre it produces on the paper. A good 
proportion for general purposes will be found to be 40 
parts of albumen and 60 of water, to which is added 
7 parts of chloride of ammonium. The paper is to be 
treated with this just as with the simple saline solution 
before mentioned, only that it should He on the surface 
of the liquid just about twice as long. These papers 
when dry may be put aside for use, only that it is ne- 
cessary they should be kept in a dry place, and out of the 
way of all acid vapours. 

When we wish to sensitize the paper, which should not 
be done more than twenty-four hours before it is required 
for use, we take it, and, observing the same precautions as 
before, lay it on the surfaceof a bath composed of 100 parts 
of water, and 20 of nitrate of silver, and 1 part of sugar 
of milk; after lying on this bath for not less than five 
minutes, it is to be taken off and hung up as before to dry. 
I may here remark, that it is better to put a little scrap of 
blotting-paper on the corner of each paper, when hanging 
up to dr}', whichever bath it may have come from, as this 
carries off the last drop : also, that when we nitrate the 
papers, each one draws a certain amount of nitrate from 
the liquid, and it is therefore necessary to add 1 drachm 
■of solid nitrate of silver for every large sheet of the paper 
which is sensitized, or as many small sheets as would 
form a large one, and to fill the bottle in which the bath 
is kept always to the same height with water, to replace 
what the paper has imbibed ; also, that the bath becomes 
coloured when albumen paper is employed, to prevent 
which a little animal charcoal should be kept in the 
bottle into which the bath is returned, to decolorise it, 
the bath being filtered each time before using. 

The paper, when dry, will be fit for exposure in the pres- 
sure frame, which I think I need scarcely describe, the pro- 
cess being so well known to all photographers ; all I will 
remark is, that the picture should be printed twice as 
dark as it is ultimately intended to be, or at any rate con- 
siderably darker. Being then taken out of the pressure 
frame, we now proceed to fix the proof, and with this 
object we lay it in a bath of clean water, to soak out as 
much as possible of the nitrate of silver employed, which 
is now no longer of any use ; it next is put into a bath 
of salt and water, the strength of which is of no great 
moment ; here any remaining nitrate of silver is decom- 
posed after it has lain for five or six minutes, and it is 
now ready for the colouring bath, which is made as 
follows: Take 15 grains of ter-chloride of gold, and 
having dissolved it in a little water, add, very carefullj' 
and by degrees, some diluted liquid ammonia ; the gold 
solution will suddenly seem to turn from light yellow to 
a darker colour. Then having made a solution of three 
ounces of hyposulphite of soda and sixty grains of chlo- 
ride of silver, pour the gold solution into the hyposul- 
phite, stirring rapidly all the time. Let the liquid stand 
six or seven hours, and then filter it. The proof being 
taken from the salt solution, and plunged into this, is to 
be left there for about a quarter of an hour. No change 
will take place in the colour while it is in this solution, 
unless perhaps a slight shade of brown may pass over it ; 
but it will still look fiery red. Taking it now from this 

No. 299.] 



bath, place it in one composed of 100 parts of water, 
20 parts of hyposulphite of soda, and 0*5 carbonate of 
soda ; here it will be seen to change colour rapidly until 
it comes down to a fine sepia tone ; it is then' to be 
changed from this bath into another of the same com- 
position, and having lain in it for about a quarter of aa 
hour, is to be passed into one of pure water. This bath 
of pure water having been three times changed, and the 
proof well moved about during a space of at least six 
hours, it is to be again changed for one in which has beea 
mixed one ounce to a gallon of water of the concentrated 
solution of chloride of lime ; it should not be left long in 
this bath, but in a few minutes be passed into one of pure 
water, which must be constantly changed during twenty- 
four hours, the last washing being with tepid water. I 
must here add, that if the first three washings have not 
been done with great care, the chloride of lime will have 
a very injurious effect on the proof; and I only employ it 
as a sort of guarantee of the complete extermination of 
all sulphur or hyposulphite in the proof. 

In conclusion, I will offer a few remarks on the choice of 
views, and the posing of persons for portraits. First, be 
careful not to have the view lighted by a full light glaring 
directly upon it, as is the case when the sun is behind the 
camera, but rather prefer a side light, by which shadows 
being cast, more variety is given to the picture, and the 
effect of the perspective is heightened. Next, choose gene- 
rally a good rough foreground, so long as in so doing you 
can maintain the character of your landscape : prefer rather 
too long than too short a pose, as it will often be found 
absolutely necessary, in order to obtain the details of the 
deep shades, that the intensity of the sky must be sacri- 
ficed. This will be found particularly the case where the 
sky is verj' bright — as in this climate — and snowy 
mountains form the background, while we have often 
dark masses of trees in the front. Take care to place the 
principal object in the view as near the centre as possible ; 
never incline the camera upwards or downwards, as that 
destroys the effect of perspective, but rather have the 
front of it made, as most cameras are, with a movable 
front : rectangular lines drawn across the back of the 
ground glass will assist in placing the camera straight. 
Be careful not to expose the plate to too high a tem- 
perature during any part of the operation. In taking 
portraits I find a side light always preferable to having 
the light coming from the top. Next week I hope to 
add a few remarks on the chemistry of photography. 

F. Maxwell Lyte. 

Bagnferes de Bigorre, Hautes-Pyr^n^es. 

Does Thunder affect Photographic Chemicals ? — Can you 
or anj' of your correspondents account for the following 
failures ? I have two silver baths, the one of gutta percha, 
and the other of glass, which are kept together, and each 
is covered with a paper cover to keep out dust; they 
were in good order on Friday morning, the 13th inst, 
and a good result was obtained with the same collodion 
and developer as used on the following day, Saturday, 
when, as soon as the image showed itself under the action 
of the developer, the plate began to stain all over ; and 
the same result has followed upon every subsequent trial, 
and Avith plates excited in either bath, both with and 
without exposure in the camera. Fresh collodion and 
fresh developing solution has been tried in vain. 

The stains are of a brownish -yellow colour by reflected 
and purplish by transmitted light, and in some cases are 
only seen upon that part of the image which is black in 
the original ; in the case of a black dress the stain ac- 
curately follows the outline of the figure, and a figure in 
a light-coloured dress is free from the stain and fog which 
covers almost all the dark background. In two cases the 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



reduced silver has the appearance of a plate whitened by- 
bichloride of mercury, and these plates are free from this 
yellowish deposit. When the plate has not been exposed 
to light, the stain first appears at the end of from thirty- 
five to sixtj' seconds after pouring on the developer, and 
almost immediately after extends over the whole plate. 
The collodion was iodized with 1 drachm of iodide and 1 
of bromide of silver, each dissolved in 2 ounces of absolute 
alcohol ; and the solutions used in the proportion of 1^ 
drachm of iodide to J drachm of bromide, with collodion 
added to complete the ounce. The developer is a 1 -grain 
pyrogallic solution with a drachm of acetic and J a 
drachm of formic .acid to every 3 ounces. 

The baths are 30-grain silver solutions and have been 
in use about two months. The glass plates were cleaned 
first with ordinary liquor potassse, and, upon the stains 
appearing, secondly, with dilute nitric acid and tripoli, 
and left in the acid for eight hours. 

There was a violent thunderstorm on Saturday morn- 
ing : could it have affected the bath ? P. 



3Rcj)IteS t0 Minav <lEintvlti, 

The Jersey Muse (Vol. xli., p. 6.). — Mr. Cun- 
ningham says he " can fill up the blank" in Cow- 
ley's verse. But the blank, as he has shown, was 
filled up more than a century since by Pope ; and 
the question with me has always been- whether 
Pope was right. Either Pope or Cowley was 
wrong. Prynne, whom Pope assumed to have 
been meant, had indeed been sentenced in 1633 
for writing Histriomastix ; but a like atrocious 
sentence was passed on him in 1637 for publish- 
ing News from Ipsioich, including perpetual im- 
prisonment in Caernarvon Castle. On August 27 
of that year (1637), says Rushworth, " it was or- 
dered by his Majesty, with the advice of his Privy 
Council," that Prynne should be removed " to 
which of the two castles of the Isle of Jersey the 
governor should think fit," and he was in con- 
sequence removed to Jersey, and confined in 
Mount-Orgueil Castle. While there, Prynne 
wrote a volume of poems, which, on his libera- 
tion, he published (1641), entitled : 

_" Mount-Orgueil : or Divine and Profitable Meditation, 
raised from the Contemplation of these Three Leaves of 
Nature's Volume: 1. Rockes; 2. Seas; 3. Gardens; di- 
gested into Three distinct Poems. To which is prefixed, 
a Poeticall Description of Mount-Orgueil Castle in the 
Isle of Jersy. By William Prynne, late Exile, and close 
Prisoner in the sayd Castle." 

The "rough crabbed hedge ryhmes" of this 
volume are well described by Cowley, and justify 
his laugh at the "Jersey Muse" — "the Homer of 
the Isle." But here is the difficulty. Cowley 
says: 

" Written by Esqui-re the 

Year of our Lord, Six hundred thirty -three." 

Now Prynne, as I have shown, was not removed 
to Jersey until after August 2, 1637, and he dis- 
tinctly tells us, in a note to the poems : " I arrived 
in Jersey, January the 17, 1637"— 1637-8. I can 

No. 299.] 



only suppose, therefore, that Cowley was in error ; 
and had assumed that this Jersey imprisonment 
was a part of the first sentence (1633) for pub- 
lishing the Histriomastix. T. J. M. 

Prynne (Vol. xii., p. 6.). — The blank is filled 
up in Grey's Notes to Hudibras, pt. ii.c. i. 1. 646., 
where also is cited '■'■ Dunciad Varior., 1729, note 
on V. 101, book i." 

Hume (^History of Great Britain^ ch. Iv. vol. vi. 
p. 417.), describing the triumphant return of the 
Puritans, says : 

" By an order of Council, they had been carried to re- 
mote prisons ; Bastwic to Scilly,' Prynne to Jersey, Burton 
to Guernsey." 

H. B. C. 

Cambridge Jeux d" Esprit. — The Oxford jeux 
d'esprit having met with more than one champion 
(Vol. xi., pp. 127. 349.), I venture to stand up for 
the Cambridge productions of the same kind : 
when we can show Vla9r},uaToyoyia, Mother Hub- 
bard cum notis variorum, Fragmentum ex ^HdiKocfiv- 
a-iKo\7}p(iiv, The Cambridge University Steeple Chase 
(1847), together with sundry epigrams, &c., we 
need not fear comparison. If this hint brings 
forth some matured plan for a permanent col- 
lection of Cambridge jeux d'esprit, none will be 
more pleased than the present writer. 

P. J, F. Gantillon. 

" Nine hundred and three doors out of the world " 
(Vol. xii., p. 9.). — Me. Offor is informed, in 
answer to his Query, that the authority for the 
nine hundred and three kinds, or doors, of death 
is to be found in the Babylonian Talmud, Bera- 
choth, p. 8., and in Jalkud Schimoni on Ps. Ixviii. 20. 
It is said, " Nine hundred and three are the kinds 
of death made in this world ; for says Ps. Ixviii. 
21., niO^ niXSin, the issues from death." The 
numerical value of the word niXVin, " issues," is 
nine hundred and three, thus : 

n 400 

) . - . . - 6 

^f 90 

N 1 

1 6 

n 400 

903 
Leopold Dukes. 

" Struggles for Life" (Vol. xii., p. 9.) is ascribed 
to Rev. \Vm. Leask, of Kennington, a congre- 
gational minister. B. H. C. 

Almanacs of 1849, SfC. (Vol. xi., p. 323.; 
Vol. xii., p. 19.). — Surely your correspondent 
M. cannot have examined the Calendar before he 
wrote to you, affirming that the Almanac of 1860 
will be the same as that for 1855. 1860 is a leap- 
year, which 1855 is not ; and up to the interca- 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



lary day (February 29), the Almanacs are not 
alike. Indeed, strictly speaking, the Almanac for 
1855 is not like that lor 1849, as they differ in the 
Golden Number and the Epact. 

In 1849 the Golden Number is 7, the Epact 6, 
the Sunday Letter G, Sundays after Epiph. 4, 
Septuag. Sunday, Feb. 4 ; the First Day of .Lent, 
Feb. 21. 

In 1855 the Golden Number is 13, the Epact 13, 
the Sunday Letter G, Sundays after Epiph. 4, 
Septuag. Sunday, Feb. 4 ; the First Day of Lent, 
Feb. 21. 

In 1860 the Golden Number is 18, the Epact 7, 
the Sunday Letter A G, Sundays after Epipb. 4, 
Septuag. Sunday, Feb. 5 ; the First Day of Lent, 
Feb. 22. F. B— w. 

Homer and Lord North (Vol. xii., p. 11.). — I 
do not think that — 

" Ov xpy] travvv-f^iov evSeiv /3ovAi)<jidpoi' avSpa " 

goes beyond " It is not necessary that a states- 
man should sleep all night ;" a proposition which 
perhaps no one but Mr. Brotherfon will now dis- 
pute. 

A passage corresponding to the second part of 
the stanza is — 

" 'ApyaKiOu Si 
'AvSpaffi KOI wKe6ve(r<n fiax'jVao-flat Trept Sairl," 

Horn. Odyss. ii. 244. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

JBennefs ^^ Paraphrase^ (Vol. xii., p. 10.). — The 
custom alluded to is evidently that adopted in 
some collegiate churches and chapels, where, 
owing to the incapacity of the minor canons, the 
lay clerks either assisted, or actually sung the 
Litany : a custom, unfortunately, yet not univer- 
sally obsolete. Mackenzie Walcott, M.A. 

The author, as far as one can judge without the 
rest of the passage, is referring to a practice which 
still obtains in college chapels (at least at Cam- 
bridge), where undergraduates, " very often young 
boys of eighteen or nineteen years of age," are 
" obliged " to read the Lessons, each in his turn. 

J. Eastwood. 

Eckington. 

Epigram on Laureateship (Vol. xi., pp. 263. 
412.). — An older memory may still give farther 
correctness to the epigram inserted as above. It 
used to be repeated as follows : 

" Poetis nos laetamur tribus, 
Petrus Pindar, Pye, Paul Pybus. 
Sin ulterius ire perges, 
Sume tunc Sir James Bland Surges." 

H. Walter. 

Alliterative Couplet on Cardinal Wolsey (Vol. 
xii., p. 7.). — I remember these lines perfectly, 
-having as a boy read them, I think, in the notes 
""Jfo. 299.] 



to Goldsmith's England. The edition I cannot 
remember, but they ran properly thus : 

" Begot by butchers, but by bishops bred, : 

How high his honor holds his haughty head." 

Mackenzie Wai-cott, M.A. 

The lines on Wolsey, contained in the passage 
cited by Me. C. Bede, are not accurately given, 
nor rightly commented upon by the person who 
styled himself A. Crowquill. 

Wolsey was not said to have been a butcher, 
but only the son of a butcher, at Ipswich. The 
lines should be as follows : 

" Begot by butchers, but by bishops bred ; 
How high his honor holds his haughty head." 

H. Walter. 

The following alliterative exercise on the al- 
phabet may be useful to Interrogator. My in- 
formant cannot remember the name of the book 
out of which, years ago, she learnt it. 

" Andrew Airpump asked his aunt her ailment. ^i 

Did Andrew, &c. i 

If Andrew, &c. 

Where is the, &c. 
Billy Button bought a buttered biscuit. 

Did, &c. 
Captain Crackskull cracked a catchpole's coxcomb, &c. 
Davy Doldrum dreamt he drove a dragon. 
Enoch Elkrig eat an empty eggshell. :^ 

Francis Fripple iiogged a Frenchman's filly. 
Gaffer Gilpin got a goose and gander. 
Humphrey Hunchback had a hundred hedgehogs. 
Inigo Impey itched for an Indian image. 
Jumping Jackey jeered a jesting juggler. 
Kimbo Kemble kicked his kinsman's kettle. 
Lanky Lawrence lost his lass and lobster. 
Matthew Mendlegs missed a mangled monkey. 
Neddy Noodle nipped his neighbour's nutmegs. 
Oliver Oglethorpe ogled an owl and oyster. 
Peter Piper picked a peck of pepper. 
Quixote Quixite quizzed a queerish quidbox. 
Rawdy Rumpus rode a rawboned racer. 
Sammy Smellie smelt a smell of small coal. 
Tiptoe Tommy turned a Turk for twopence. 
Uncle Usher urged an ugly urchin. 
Villiam Veedy viped his vig and vaistcoat. 
Walter Waddle won a walking wager. 
X Y Z have made mj- brains to crack O. 
X smokes, Y snuffs, Z chews too strong tobacco. 
Though oft by X Y Z much lore is taught, 
Still Peter Piper beats them all to nought." 



D. 



Wark worth. 



Norman Superstition in 1855 (Vol. xi., p. 503.). 
— Although I cannot answer the latter part of 
Mr. Inglebt's Query, as to the antiquity of this 
superstition, I may affirm that the supposed ma- 
gical effects of the halter used by the suicide or 
the hangman; have been, and are even now, as 
prevalent in England as in Normandy. Brande 
says : 

" I remember once to have seen at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, after a person executed had been cut down, men 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



climb upon the gallows, and contend for that part of the 
rope which remained, and which they wished to preserve 
for some lucky purpose or other." 

" A halter, wherewith any one has been hanged (says 
Grose, in the Antiquarian Repertory/'), if tied about the 
head, will cure the head-ache." 

For farther information on this and similar delu- 
sions, consult Brande's Popular Antiquities, vol. iii. 
p. 276., edit. 1849. Charles Hook. 

The Word "■Sabbath" used for Sunday (Vol. 
xii., p. 10.). — The only words used in English 
for the first day of the week, before the existence 
of Puritanism, were Sunday and LorcHs Day. ^ 

The former of these expressions we retained 
from our Saxon ancestors, with all other Teutonic 
nations. The latter we adapted from the Chris- 
tian form of Southern Europe. 

Saturday, in Italian, still retains the Hebrew 
name of Sabbato ; so it is, with the slight literal 
variations which distinguish the several lan- 
guages, in Spanish and Portuguese. The French 
Samedi is properly explained by Menage as 
merely an abridgment of Sabbati-di ; just as 
Mardi is of Marti-di, and Vendredi of Veneri-di. 

When Dr. Nott, of Winchester, published his 
very elegant Italian Translation of the Book of 
Common Prayer, he used for " Sabbath," in the 
fourth commandment, the words " il giorno di 
riposo," recollecting the equivoque which would 
result from the use of Sabbato to an Italian ear. 
I remember serious objections being raised to thisi 
translation by some critics of the Calvinistic sec- 
tion in our Church, as well as to other translations 
of his in the same volume, and in which Dr. Nott 
had shown that he understood both languages 
rather better than those who found fault with him. 

The rabbinical, rather than the Christian ob- 
servation of one day in seven, which was incul- 
cated by the early Calvinists, may account for 
their preference of a word which seemed more 
closely to assimilate Sunday, in their minds, to the 
day when the disciples were reproved by the 
Pharisees for "plucking the ears of corn;" and 
when they were in their turn reproved by a higher 
and holier authority. 

The word for Sunday, in Russian, means resur- 
rection ; identifying the day, as the southern 
nations do, though more significantly, with the 
great triumph of the Christian faith. E. C. H. 

DTsraeli, in his Commentaries on the Life of 
Charles I., fixes the reign of Elizabeth and the 
year 1554 as the period when Sunday was first 
called Saturday (dies Sabbati). He says : 

" It was in the reign of Elizabeth, during the unsettled 
state of the national religion, that a sect arose among 
those reformers of the reformed who were known by the 
name of Sabbatarians." 
Also that — 

« John Knox, the great Reformer of Scotland, was the 

No. 299.] 



true father of this new doctrine in England, although 
Knox was the bosom friend of Calvin." — Vol. ii. c. 16. 
p. 353. 

Calvin was opposed, as were indeed Luther and 
the other great reformers of that day, to Knox's 
views of Sunday ; Knox himself was behind some 
of the present-day professors, if a tradition at 
Geneva is true, — 

" That when John Knox visited Calvin on a Sunday, 
he found his austere coadjutor bowling on a green. At 
this day and in that place," continues D'Israeli, a "Cal- 
vinist preacher after his Sunday sermon will take his 
seat at the card-table." 

This question is so much involved with the death 
of Charles I. and the rise of the Commonwealth, 
that DTsraeli has treated it very largely in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth chapters of his second 
volume, and with great erudition, judgment, and 
taste. T. J. BucKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Pollards (Vol. xii., p. 9.). — Before the days of 
King Coal, it is said these trees were annually 
lopped for fire-wood. They had therefore their 
peculiar value as a source of revenue, and the 
landlord in consequence retained a particular 
power over them. Blount refers to Plowden, 
fol. 469 b., and says : 

" We call those trees pollards, or pollingers, which have 
been usually cropped, and therefore distinguished from 
timber trees." — Law Lex. 
In my country they call them dotterels. B. H. C. 

Most of the largest and noblest oaks now in 
existence throughout England, to both of which 
epithets those in the park at Ampthill are entitled, 
appear to have been pollarded for many years. 
They were kept in that state till mineral coal came 
into general use, being living stores of fuel for the 
manor-house. H. Walter. 

The great proportion of pollards are willow- 
trees, the branches of which are regularly cut 
while young to make baskets of. This appears 
to me to be the cause of their existence, and also 
the reason why they are still allowed to disfigure 
the landscape in many parts of England, particu- 
larly in marshy ground, and on the banks of 
rivers. «*• Ss. 

Sir Cloudesley Shovel (Vol. xi., p. 514.). — 
With reference to the early history of this per- 
sonan^e, I may mention that it is stated in the 
Diary of the Rev. Abraham De La Pryme (de 
quo vide Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. i. p. 179.), 
under date of 1697, that— 

" Sir Cloudesley Shovel was a poor lad, born in York- 
shire. He was first ostler at an Inn at Retford; after 
that, being weary of his place, he went to Stockwith, 
where he turned tarpaulin, and from thence getting ac- 
quainted with the sea he grew up to what he now is." 

C. J. 



July 21. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



Times prohibiting Marriage (Vol. xi., p. 475,). 
, —Your correspondent G. R. M. has made a slight 
error in ascribing the table of prohibited degrees 
to Archbishop Hutton ; the " Matthew, Lord 
Archbishop of Canterbury," referred to as having 
first set forth that table is Archbishop Parker : 

" Abp. Parker, in 1563, compiled a table of the prohibited 
degrees, which he ordereil to be set up in the churches of 
his province of Canterbury." (See Dr. Pinnock's Laws 
and Usages of the Church and Clergy, 12mo., Camb. 1855, 
p. 748.) 

In the work just cited will be found much valu- 
able information upon this subject. 

In the register of Wimbish, Essex, occurs the 
following entry : 

" The Times when Marriages are not usually solemnized. 
None but Lent and fast-days. 

TAdvent Sunday '\ TS dayes after Epiph. 

Ffrom < Septuagesima > until < 8 dayes after Easter. 
(Rogation Sunday J (Trinity Sunday. 

The entry is made in a hand of about 1666 (the 
date of the first entry in this volume) ; the words 
not and none hut Lent and fast-days are interpo- 
lated in a later hand ; at the same time the words 
included in braces were partially crossed out. 

In the same registers is the following quaint 
entry of a burial : 

« Sept. 29, 1766. 
John Portnay (a thief and a robber)." 

There are also several other curious entries, of 
which I may possibly send you a Note. 

W. Sparrow Simpson. 

This point is sufficiently elucidated in Bing- 
ham's Antiquities, b. xxii. c. iv. s. 1. ; Wheatly 
On Common Prayer (edit. Bohn), pp. 397, 398. ; 
and Shepherd On Common Prayer (edit. 1828), 
vol. ii. pp. 337. et seq. In many of our northern 
parishes, as noticed by Archbishop Sharpe, in a 
charge delivered so late as 1750, and probably in 
those of other portions of the kingdom, the ob- 
servance of the former prohibited times certainly 
exists at the present day as something more than 
a bare feeling or remembrance ; for, in the loca- 
lities indicated, as a sort of restriction I suppose 
upon marriage in those seasons, or rather perhaps 
in imitation of the practice of the Church before 
the Reformation, it is still the recognised and ac- 
knowledged custom to require double fees for its 
celebration. This latter fact, however locally ap- 
plicable, that parties so engaging in matrimony 
are under the necessity of paying "smart money" 
for their irregular proceeding, I am sure will 
serve to convince K. P. D. E. that, in this single 
instance at any rate, the distance is not so wide 
as^ he would have us believe between " the Esta- 
blished Church of England " and that Church to 
which he would alone appropriate the title of 
" Catholic." Wm. Matthews. 

Cowgill. 

No. 299.] 



Parochial Libraries (Vols. viii. ix. x. passim). 
— Nathaniel Symonds, Esq., of Great Yarmouth, 
who died in 1720, bequeathed forty shillings per 
annum for fifteen years, to be laid out in the pur- 
chase of religious books, such as the minister of 
Great Yarmouth should think fit, half for Ormesby 
St. Margaret, and half for Yarmouth or Burgh. 
And to several other parishes he gave annuities 
for the same purpose, to purchase religious books 
for the poor. Vide Manship's Hist, op Yarmouth 
{temp. Q. Elizabeth), lately edited by Chas. J. 
Palmer, Esq., F.S.A., p. 250. No trace, however, 
of this bequest, I believe, exists. In the parish 
chest are two folios : Bishop Lake's Sermons and 
Exposition of the 5\st Psalm, 1629; and Bishop 
Jewel's Works, which has the following inscription 
on one of its fly-leaves : " Ormisby S"' Margrate 
owneth this booke," in a hand of the period of 
James or Charles I., and this couplet : 

" Audi-mus fur-es quse inea sunt dicito Cur-es, 
Imus transi-mus gaude-mus nilq. time-mus." 

E. S. Tatloe. 
Ormesby St. Margaret. 

Arabic Grammar (Vol. xi., p. 323.). — As I 
have seen no reply to his Query, I may inform 
P. S. that my Arabic instructor at Cambridge, 
Hana Araman Effendi, used Duncan Stewart's 
(8vo., J. W. Parker, 1841) for his pupils, and I 
have seen no simpler or better one since. 

E. S. Taylor. 

Ormesby St. Margaret. 

^^ Munchhauseii's Travels" (Vol. xi., p. 485.). — In 
reply to your correspondent H. H. Breen, re- 
specting the authorship of the Travels and Adven- 
tures of Baron Munchhausen, I beg to state that 
the story appeared in this country before Burger 
published his German version in 1787. If your 
correspondent will turn to the Gent. Mag. for 
July, 1786 (p. 590), he will find a notice of the 
second edition of Gulliver Revived, or, The Singular 
Travels, Sfc. of Baron Munchhausen, small 8vo., 
Oxford. H. Syer Cuming. 

" Orts" (Vol. xi., p. 501.). — This good old 
word is not peculiar to Devonshire ; it is very 
common in other counties, especially among school- 
boys — experto credite. And Grose, in his Glos- 
sary, affirms as much, thus defining the word : 

" Orts, fragments of victuals. Don't make or leave- 
orts, i. e. Don't leave any fragments on your plate." 

Though not now deemed classical, it was, no 
doubt, current coin — "verba valent ut nummi" — 
in Shakspeare's days : 

" The fragments of her faith, orts of her love." 

Troilus and Cressida, Act V. Sc. 2. 

" Some slender ort of his remainder Timon." 

Timon of Athens, Act IV. Sc. 3. 

Charles Hook. 



5e 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 21. 1855. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Mr. Akerman has brought to a close his Remains of 
Paqan Saxondom, principally from Tumuli in England, by 
thT publication of Parts XVII. XVIII. XIX. and XX., 
which contain, with illustrative notes, Plates 33. Jewelled 
Clasps from Hampshire, Spoon from a Barrow at Chatham ; 
34, FibulcB found in Norfolk, Wilts, and Kent ; 35. Ob- 
jects found in Suffolk, Wilts, and Kent ; 36. Fork, Amber, 
and Spindle Whirls; 37. Fibula from Linton Heath, Cam- 
bridge ; 38. Large dirk-shaped Fibula: found in Bucking- 
hamshire ; 39. Objects found in Suffolk, Norfolk, Wilts, 
and Kent ; and 40. Fibula Hairpins and Necklace. The 
value and utility of a work like the present, in which the 
objects are carefully drawn from, and as nearly as possible 
the size of, the originals, was shown at the last meeting 
of the Society of Antiquaries, when the remarkable urn 
and its contents, found at Eye in Suffolk, and figured in 
Plate 22., formed the subject of a most learned cotnmu- 
nication from Mr. J. M. Kemble, satisfactorily establish- 
ing their Sclavonic character. 

The Illustrated London News of Saturday last an- 
nounces that " the name and fate of Pope's Unfortunate 
Lady are known to the forthcoming editors of Pope, who 
derive their authority from Molly Lepel (Lady Hervey), 
whose means of information were indeed ample." We hope 
that this announcement may be received as an indication 
that the new edition of Pope is nearly ready for pub- 
lication. 

Books Received. — The Poetical Works of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, Vol. V. This new volume of Parker's Annotated 
Edition of the British Poets is most creditable to its editor. 
It contains old Geoffrey's eminently poetical version of 
Troylus and Cryseyde, with a carefully-written introduc- 
tion ; and a collation, for the first time we believe, of the 
printed edition with three early MSS. of the Poem. 

The Influence exerted by the Mind over the Body, by 
John Glen, M.A. This little volume, which contains the 
Bulwer Lytton Prize Essay on the subject to which it 

refers asubject, indeed, of the very highest interest and 

importance — is well deserving of attentive perusal, and 
will repay the time devoted to that purpose. 

Ogilvie's Supplement to the Imperial Dictionary, English, 
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Heath's Picturesque Annual. 1840. 

Holt's Miscellanfoos Extracts from various Authors. 1836. 

Andretes's(Bp.> Sermons. Folio. 

Daniel's Rural Sports. 

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Priestley's Works. Rutt's Edition. Vols. TV. V. TX. XV. 

Alison's E-ibope. Vols. Xr. XII. XIV. XVI. XVII. XX. 

Porter's Tropical Agriculture. 

PoLi Synopsis. Five Vols. Folia. 

Steven's Book of the Farm. 

CoLERtDot's BrooRAPHiA IviTERARiA. Part 2. of Vol. I. AldinB. 

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WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, 
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The principle of admission is based chiefly on 
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£ ». d. 
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[July 21. '1855. 



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N INDEX TO FAMILIAR 

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;N THE STUDY OF LAN- 
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THE CHORAL RESPONSES 
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CONTENTS. 

NoTHs I — Page 

Original Correspondence, by Professor 

De Morgan - - - - 57 

" A Sleeveless Errand," by S. "W. Singer S8 
Shubshadun : Haslam's Serpent and 

Cross, by G. Oc. Wray - - - 59 

Public Records of Ireland, by James F. 

Terguson - - - - - 59 

Pope, and Bathurst the Bookseller - 60 
The Bells of Bletchley in Buckingham- 
shire, by the Rev. A. Gatty - - 60 

Minor Notes : — Sense versus Sound 
— The Founder of the Russian Mon- 
archy a Warwicksliire Man —Ladies 
and Wives — Autliorship of Anson's 
Voyage — Alison's llistory of Europe 61 

QCERIKS: 

The" Annual Register"- - - 62 
The Destruction of the Exchequer Re- 



cords 
The Alchemic Term " Tincture ' 



63 



Mtnor Queries: — Tlie Widow Come- 
walleis— " Monody on the Death of 

Hellebore " — The Lancasliire Song 

Robespierre — Milton, Lines on 

Carmelites in Hereford — Etymology 
of the Word " Chess" — Ear-piercing 

— Telegraphic System of the Universe 

— Holidays — Quotation wanted — 
Full Fig — Verb and Nominative Case 

— Epigram on Prayer— Old CoUege 

of Physicians - - - - 64 

Mjnor Queries with Answers : — 
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and Walkinghame — Old Phrases 

Mennenius - - - - 66 

Replies : — 

Prynne, Cowley, and Pope, by John 

Bruce - - - - - 67 

Picture at Louvain - - - 69 

Bankers' Cheques, by T.J. Buckton - 70 

Notes on Trees and Flowers, by the 

Rev. W. Denton, &c. - - - 70 

Photographic Correspondence : — 
Photographic Copies of Oil Paintings 

— Photography apjplied to Archaeo- 
logy— Recovery of Silver from wasted 
Hypo. — Large and small Lenses - 72 

Replies to Minor Queries: — Mar- 
riages made up in Heaven — General 
Braddock — Scottish Nursery Song — 
" Ovum anguinum " — Door-head In- 
scription _ Wayside Crosses — Pierre 
Marteau — Eslie, Ushaw.aud Flass — 
Lightning and Bells — Captain Jones 

— Archbishop Abbot — Cromwell's 
Skull — St. Alban's Day — Deadening 
Glass Windows - - - - 1 72 

Miscellaneous : — 
Notes on Books, &c. - - - 75 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



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THE END : or THE PROXI- 
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veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[JuLT 28. 1855. 



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July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



!^t 



LONDON. SATURDAY, JULY iS. 1855. 
ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

A few days ago I stumbled again upon the follow- 
ing letters. They will show many of your readers 
a world with which they are wholly unacquainted ; 
and their publication may be useful in more re- 
spects than one. Many a poor working man is 
possessed by the notion that he has squared the 
circle or found the longitude, and imagines that 
he is the only person who is trying it. I could 
cite some sad instances of the manner in which 
such persons have left their work and injured 
their families, to employ themselves in making 
their fortunes by help of the circle. The present 
instance is that of a worthy man from an agri- 
cultural district, who sent me his quadrature of 
the circle, accompanied by the copy of a letter he 
had written to the Lord Chancellor, desiring him 
to hand over forthwith one hundred thousand 
pounds, the reward offered by parliament for the 
discovery. I returned the papers with a short 
letter, telling him that parliament had never 
offered any reward, and that, as to the problem, 
he had not enough of mathematical knowledge to 
see in what the difficulty consisted. The follow- 
ing letters from the discoverer and a friend were 
the consequence ; of course I did not reply. 



Doctor Morgan Sir. Permit me to address you 
Brute Creation may perhaps enjoy the faculty of 
beholding visible things with a more penitrating eye 
than ourselves. But Spiritual objects are as far out of 
their reach as though they had no being 

Nearest therefore to the brute Creation are those men 
who Suffer themselves to be so far governed by external 
objects as to belie\ e nothing but what they See and feel 
And Can accomedate to their Shallow understanding 
and Imaginations 

My Dear Sir Let us all Consult ourselves by the wise 
proverb. . 

I believe that evry man' merit and ability ought to 
be appreciated and valued In proportion to its worth and 
utility 

In whatever State or Circumstances they may fortu- 
nately or onfortunately be placed 

And happy it is for evry man to know his worth and 
place 

When a Gentleman of your Standing in Society Clad 
with those honors Can not understand or Solve a problem 
That is explicitly explained by words and Letters and 
mathematacally operated by figuers He had better 
Consult the wise proverb 

Do that which thou Canst understand and Comprehend 
for thy good 

I would recommend that Such Gentleman Change his 
business 

And appropriate his time and attention to a Sunday 
School to Learn what he Could and keep the Litle Chil- 
dren from durting their Close 

With Sincere feelings of Gratitude for your weakness 
and Inability I am Sir your Superior In Mathematics 

1849 June th 29 

No. 300.] 



Dor Morgin Sir 

I wrote and Sent my work to Professor of 

United States 

I am now in possesion of the facts that he highly ap-' 
proves of my work And Says he will Insure me Reward 
in the States 

I write this that you may understand that I have know- 
ledge of the unfair way that I am treated In my own*^ 
nate County 

I am told and have reasons to believe that it is the 
Clergy that treat me so unjust 

I am not Desirous of heaping Disonors upon my own"" 
nation. But if I have to Leave this kingdom without my 
Just Dues. The World Shall know how I am and have 
been treated • 

1 am Sir Desirous of my Just Dues 

1849 July 3 — ' 



July 7th, 1849 ' 
Sir. I have been given to understand that a friend of' 
mine one whom I shall never be ashamed to acknowledge- 
as such tho' lowly his origine ; nay not only not ashamed/ 
but proud of doing so for I am one of those who esteem 
and respect a man according to his ability and probity, 
deeming with D"' Watts " that the mind is the standard 
of the man." has laid before you and asked your opinion 
of his extraordinary performance viz the quadrature of 
the circle, he did this with the firmest belief that you 
would not only treat the matter in a straightforward; 
manner but with the conviction that from your known or, 
supposed knowledge of mathematicks would have givea 
an upright and honorable decision upon the subject; but" 
the question is have you done so? Could I say so I 
would with the greatest of pleasure and have congratu- 
lated you upon your decision whatever it might have 
been but I am very sorry that I cannot your letter is a 
paltry evasion, you say " that it is a great pity that you 

(Mr ) should have attempted this (the quadrature of 

the circle) for your mathematical knowledge is not sulfi- 
cient to make you know in what the problem consists,"! 
you don't say in what it does consist according to your 
ideas, ah ! no nothing of the sort, you enter into no dis- 
quisition upon the subject in order to show where you 

think Mr is wrong and why you have not is simply 

— - because you cannot — you know that he has done it and 
what is if I am not wrongly informed yoii have been heard 
to say so. He has done what you nor any other mathe- 
matician or those who call themselves such have done. 
And what is the reason that you will not acknowledge to 
him as you have to others that he has squared the circle 
shall I tell you? it is because he has performed the feat 
to obtain the glory of which mathematicians have battled 
from time immemorial that they might encircle their 
brows with a wreath of laurels far more glorious than ever 
conqueror wore it is simply this that it is a poor man a 
humble artisan who has gained that victory that you 
don't like to acknowledge it you don't like to be beaten 
and worse to acknowledge that j'ou have miscalculated, 
you have in short too small a soul to acknowledge that he 
is right. 

I was asked my opinion, and / gave it unhesitatingly 
in the affirmative and I am backed in my opinion not 
only by Mr — — a mathematician and watchmaker re- 
siding in the of but by no less an au- 
thority than the Professor of mathematics of ■ 

United States Mr and I presume that he at least is 

your equal as an authority and Mr says that the 

government of the U. S. will recompense Mr for the 

discovery he has made if so what a reflection upon Old 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



england the boasted land of freedom the nursery of the 
arts and sciences that her sons are obliged to go to a 
foreign countrj' to obtain that recompense to which they 
are justly entitled 

In conclusion I beg to contradict an assertion you made 
to the effect that " there is not nor ever was any reward 
offered by the government of this country for the dis- 
covery of the quadrature of the circle," I beg to inform 
you that there was but that it having been deemed an 
impossibility the government has withdrawn it, I do 
this upon no less an authority than the Marquis of 
Northampton 

D'' Morgan I am Sir Yours 

The last paragraph probably arises from the 
reward, now withdrawn, for the improvement of 
means for finding longitude. Nothing is more 
common than confusion between the longitude 
problem and that of squaring the circle. 

I might make a small book of correspondence 
of the following tenor. The first letter is from 
A. B. to me, setting forth that I am a great au- 
thority, and that knowledge and candour come as 
natural to me as beef and mutton ; whence an 
opinion from me would be of the greatest benefit 
to A. B. aforesaid, who ends by apologising for 
intruding his humble ideas upon so busy a lu- 
minary. The second letter is from me to A. B., 
setting forth why I differ from him (the case 
above printed was a hopeless one). The third and 
last is from A. B. to me, either recapitulating the 
case of Galileo, or quoting Dugald Stewart or 
somebody else against all mathematicians, or 
telling me that it is not for such persons in their 
closets to decide upon &c. &c. ; or explaining to 
me the whole matter didactically, and ending with 
*' Si quid novisti," &c. Sometimes, as in the case 
above, bad motives are put into my mind. 

A. De Morgan. 



"A SLEEVELESS EERAND. 

Of this popular phrase, which, as it was used by 
Warburton, can hardly yet be said to be obsolete, 
and of which every one knows the meaning, no 
one hitherto appears to have perceived the origin. 
Mr. N ares justly observes, "All the conjectures 
respecting its derivation seem equally unsatis- 
factory, even that of Home Tooke ; " who says, 
*' Sleeveless metaphorically means, without a cover 
or pretence." The definition in Todd's Johnson 
is — 

" Sleeveless, a. Wanting sleeves ; having no sleeves ; 
wanting reasonableness; wanting propriety; without a 
cover or pretence." 

All this is nothing to the purpose, and, however 
startling it may be, it is certain that the expression 
sleeveless in this phrase, and in many other old 
instances, had nothing to do with the sleeve of a 
garment. 

Mr. Nares has also observed, — 

" It is plain that sleeveless had the sense of useless be- 
No. 300.] 



fore it was applied to an errand. Thus Bishop Hall has 
'sleeveless rhymes,' and even Milton ' a, sleeveless reason.' "" 

It seems strange that this observation had not 
led the learned glossarist to the meaning of a 
sleeveless errand. It may be as well to cite a few 
old examples of the use of the word : thus 
Chaucer, in the Testament of Love, fo. 343. re- 
verse, edit. 1533 : 

"Good chyld (quod she) what echeth such renome to- 
the conscience of a wyse man, that loketh and measureth 
his goodnesse, not by sleevelesse wordes of y^ people, but 
by sothfastnesse of conscience : by God, nothyng." 

Again, in ReliquicB Antiquce, vol. i. p. 83. : 

" Syrrus, thynke not lonke, and I schall tell vow a. 
sleveles reson." 

And in Taylor the Water-poet's Works, ii. 111. r 

" .... a neat laundresse or a hearbwife can 
Carry a sleevelesse message now and th an." 

So Fairefax, Godfrey of Boulogne, bk. vi. st. 89. :. 

" . . . . For she had sent 
The rest on sleevelesse errands from her side." 

It will be recollected that Shakspeare has the- 
phrase in his Troilus and Cressida, where he 
seems to play upon the word sleeve ; and this may' 
have misled many. 

Now the fact is, that there was an old English' 
verb, to sleeve, signifying to divide or separate; 
and to sleeve silk was to separate and prepare it 
for weaving by passing it through the slay of a 
weaver's loom, sometimes called a sled; hence 
sleeved, sleaved, or sleided silk : and sleeve, or 
sleave, was that tangled coarse part left by the. 
operation. Which explains in Macbeth, — 
" Sleepe that knits up the raveVd sleeve of care." 

That to sleeve meant to divide or separate, will 
be obvious from the following passage in Lord. 
Brooke : 

" For th' object which in grosse our flesh conceives,. 
After a sort, yet when light doth beginne 
These to retaile and subdivide, or sleeves 

Into more minutes ; then growes sense so thinne;. 
As none can so refine the sense of man, 
That two or three agree in any can." 

Of Humane Learning, p. 24. 

And the word is still in use in the north for fo- 
split, cleave, or separate ,- so that the root is evi- 
dently the A.-S. rhp-an. 

I suspect that the word sleeve was anciently 
applicable to the coarse separated portions of wool 
or flax, as well as of silk, which was thrown aside 
as refuse that could not be divided into threads, 
or unravelled by passing it through the slay of the 
weaver, or the comb of the wool-worker or flax- 
spinner, and hence sleeveless, useless, profitless, 
like a sleeveless errand. S. W. Singer. 

Mickleham. 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



59 



SHUBSHADUN : HASLAM S SERPENT AND CROSS. 

The following Hindoo rite, practised in Bengal, 
is strikingly typical or prophetic of Christianity, 
according to the view taken by Mr. Haslam of 
heathen mythes. 

When a Hindoo, of higher caste than the 
Chahrdl and Kolu castes, wishes to be absolved 
from his sins through the power of the goddess 
Kali^ he can attain his wish by undergoing the 
following trial : 

He must first procure the body of a man of the 
Chanral or Kolu caste, who died a violent death, 
-on a Tuesday (Mongulbar), or a Saturday (^Sun- 
Tiehar). The head must be secretly cut from the 
body, and buried where three roads meet. For 
three successive nights a light (pruddip) must be 
burnt on the ground by the grave ; on the fourth 
day the head is to be exhumed, and the teeth ex- 
tracted, and a rosary (mdhdshunkher mala) made 
of the teeth and preserved. At the first oppor- 
tunity, another body of a man of the low castes 
above mentioned, who died a violent death on a 
Saturday or Tuesday, being the fourteenth or 
fifteenth of the moon's decrease, or dark side, must 
be procured ; and at midnight of the same day the 
corpse taken to a Hindoo burning-ground and laid 
on its back, with the arms and legs extended. 
Five pegs are then driven into the ground, one 
at the head, to which the hair must be fastened, 
and one at each wrist and ankle, to which the four 
extremities are to be attached. The penitent, 
provided with a small quantity of any of the fol- 
lowing alcoholic liquors, sits upon the breast of 
the body. The liquors are gauri (a kind of rum), 
madhee * (extracted from honey), and poistee f 
{distilled from grain). In this position, and 
wearing his rosary of teeth, the penitent begins to 
repeat a muntroo (incantation or prayer). Pre- 
sently the body acquires motion, and struggles, 
gnashes its teeth, and attempts to bite him. The 
intoxicating spirit should then be gradually 
poured into the mouth of the corpse, and will sub- 
due it. When this is effected, the penitent must 
shut his eyes and go on with the muntroo, fixing 
Lis mind all the while on the goddess Kali. Then, 
by the will of Kali, will he see a vision of fierce 
things, such as tigers and serpents, coming to 
bite him, and flames of fire on all sides threatening 
to consume him. 

If the penitent undergoes this without fear, and 
with faith in Kali, then, at the last watch or dawn 
of day, Kalee will appear to him, and say : " My 
child, I am pleased with you ; take the boon that 
you ask." He says, "Mother, I would go to 
heaven." During the performance of this cere- 
mony the spiritual guide (gooroo) of the penitent 

* Note the similarity of this word to mead. 
t Quer}', can whiskey be derived from this ? 
No. 300.] 



stays at a distance, and comforts and encourages 
his disciple, saying "Ma bhai" (No fear). It 
this ceremony be faithfully performed, the penitent 
disciple and his teacher are both pardoned, and 
their eternal happiness secured. This rite is 
taught in the Tantra. G. Oc. Wrat. 

Calcutta. 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF IRELAND. 

In some of the earlier numbers of " N. & Q.," 
mention is made of the existence of many of the 
public records of Ireland, which, in some way or 
another, had travelled from Dublin to the borders 
of the Lake of Constance, in Switzerland. By 
purchase, 1 became the possessor of those docu- 
ments. It appears, however, by a letter which I 
have recently received from Switzerland, that a 
farther quantity of records is there still to be found; 
and I subjoin a copy of the list of these documents, 
which has been sent to me in the hope that some 
effort will be made to restore them to their proper 
place of deposit, or at least to place them in some 
public record repository in either England or 
Ireland : 

" JBrevis notitia de quibusdam pergamenis quondam 
Dubline asservatis. 

Folia. 
I. Placitarum Regis Anglie nomine actarum pier, 
apud Waterford a fre Rogero Outlaw, priore 
hospitalis S. Jobs vices agente Joh' Darcy le 
Cousin Justiciarij Hibernie regesta in folils - 6 
Similiter placitarum apud Dublin habitarum 
circa annum 1345, in fronte ligata in calce 
defecta exempligratia ' Anno regni nostri 
(Edwardi III. regis xviii, die 10 April),' ita 
fasciculus -------11 

Similiter non ligata folia ejusdem autoris et 

aetatis, prioribus prius adherentia - - 16 

Fragmenta Seculi xiv etiam placitarum regesta 
apud Dublin continentia - - - - II 

II. Rotuli N. 17. E. 13. notati Escheator' s Accounts 
de Edwardi III. temporibus quorum unum 
perlongum -------3 

Eotuli fragmenta de provente regal, seculi 
forse xvii in foliis dolendo modo laceratis - 5 
III. Actarum recentiorum seculorum Angliam spec- 

tantium, No. ------ 4 

5S 
N.B. Mandata regia pleraque in placitis notata sunt 
alieque res ad historiam Anglie non spernende sunt et 
quedam cartarum bene conservate et non difiiciles lectori, 
minor pars autem igne, aque et muribus vulnerate." 

On one of the last-mentioned more recent 
parchments there is written on the outside — 

* " Settlement of Maurice Power's Estate on William 
Burke's marriage with his daughter (1687), deed of Con- 
veyance." 

There are signatures and a seal attached to this 
MS. 

"■ Another one is superscribed " Fitzsimmons 
and Shaw : Mr. Shenan for the def*." Date 1799. 



€0 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



* In another similar MS. the name of a Sir 
William Domville occurs. Many names, viz. Prin- 
dergast, Gibbon, Fitzgerald, Power, Fitzedmund, 
Russell, &c. &c., occur in the Latin manuscripts 
of the fourteenth century. James F. Ferguson. 

P.S. — The above-mentioned writings marked * 
are probably private documents which were lodged 
in some public office pendente lite ; and (as is very 
often the case) not restored to the owner after the 
termination of the suit. 



POPE, AND BATHCRST THE BOOKSELLER. 

A letter, without date of year, from Pope to Ba- 
thurst, has been lately published in the Gent. Mag. 
The circumstances stated in elucidation are briefly 
these. Motte, who published the Miscellanies, 
died March 12, 1758 ; and was succeeded in busi- 
ness by Bathurst (Feb., p. 146.) ; and the letter, 
now first published, says the editor or contributor, 
"seems to show that he (Pope) continued to re- 
ceive from Motte's successor, Mr. Bathurst, to 
whom it is addressed, considerable sums on ac- 
count of the Miscellanies'" (March, p. 261.). 

Now, with all deference to the editor or con- 
tributor, the letter only shows that Pope held a 
-bill of Bathurst ; but not that it was given for 
profit or copyright of Miscellanies, or anything 
whatever to do with that work. As to Bathurst 
as successor to Motte, and the payment to Pope, 
that is surely out of the question, for Pope died 
fourteen years before Motte. 

The history of the Miscellanies in connexion 
with Motte is briefly this. Motte published the 
"first," "second," and "last volume," in 1727. 
Some years after. Pope resolved to publish another 
volume, which Motte, to use Pope's words, " de- 
liberately refused." Motte soon saw his error, 
and applied to Pope on the subject, probably 
backing his solicitation with a friendly word from 
Swift. Pope replied : 

" All I can do were to speak to Mr. Gilliver, as you 
requested, to give you the share you w* have in y" pro- 
perty, and to set aside my obligation and covenant with 
him so far to gratify the Dean and yourself. You cannot 
object, I think, with any reason, to the terms which he 
pays, and which at the first word he agreed to." 

This was the last, though called " the third 
volume," of the Miscellanies. Motte, as we see, 
was then in business ; and indeed, as other letters 
prove, continued in business some years after. 
I can only suppose that Bathurst was the appren- 
tice, servant, or partner of Motte, long before he 
was his successor. P. A. B. 



u l>f^S7 



No. 300,] 



THE BELLS OF BLETCHLEY IN BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

I beg to offer the subjoined history of the bells 
of Bletchley Church, well known to many who 
travel on the North-western Railway. The ac- 
count has been extracted for me by my friend the 
Rev. T. Delves Broughton, the present Rector of 
Bletchley, from a MS. book bequeathed to the 
custody of the Rectors of Bletchley for the time 
being, and written on parchment by the late 
Browne Willis, Esq., the antiquary, who lived at 
Bletchley, and restored and beautified the church 
there. 

As the account is minutely descriptive of the 
way in which a peal of bells found their way into 
the tower of an old English parish church, it may 
not be uninteresting to those whose attention has 
been drawn to the subject of church bells. 

Alfred Gatty. 
" An account of other disbursements which have been 
made since this first account, as the casting of the bells, 
which were intended and designed to be altered when the 
church was first set about to be beautified ; though those 
were let alone till the last, and not attempted till the 
year 1712 ; in which j'ear, on St. John Baptist's Day, viz. 
24 June, the five old bells being very untunable, which 
had hung in the tower ever since the year 1629, when 
they were cast out of four large bells, were taken down, 
and with 18 cwt. of additional metal (which cost, with 
the carriage of it from Arseley in Bedfordshire to Bletch- 
ley, with other expenses in buying it, 65/. 16s.), were de- 
livered to Mr. Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester, 2d July 
following, in order to be recast into six, at which time the 
weight of the said five bells was as follows : 

cwts. qra. lbs. cwts. (jrs. lbs. 

Of the first or treble 5 2 24"^ 
Of the second - 6 2 8 I Total of y" 
gfttSh" :iO \ ! -ght^-43 6 7 
Of the fifth or tener 12 1 2 J 

And the charge for recasting of them, and adding two 
trebles, as follows : 
"Expenses in the Casting the five Bells, and making a Peal 

of eight. 
Paid as before for mettal bought, and brought £ s. d. 
from Arseley, co. Bedf. - - - 65 16 

Carriage of said five bells and mettal bought at 
Arseley, and bringing them back when cast 
into six - - - - - 22 15 

Paid to John and Richard William of Kings 
Sutton, CO. Northton., for taking down the old 
five bells and making frames for eight, and 
hanging the said eight bells - - 35 7 6 

Paid to William Grace, smith, of Bletchley, for 

iron-work, &c. about the frames and bells - 9 13 
Paid for timber bought at Beauchampton, and 
given to make the frames and carriage there- 
of, and for screws bought at London, brasses, 
&c., at least - - - - - 25 

Paid Mr. Rudhall for mettal of his own, added to 
make the trebles, weighing about 10 cwt. at 
6/. 10s. per cwt., as appears by his bill - 64 10 

Gave Mr. Rudhall for casting the bells - 53 15 

Paid for carriage of the two trebles from Glous'', 
and of a new tener from thence, and y« tener 
yt was first cast to be changed - - 15 10 

292 6 6 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



"N.B. To the expense of the bells the parish raised and 
paid 40/., but 20Z. thereof being assessed upon the bene- 
factor's tenants, he was forced to make several abatements 
to them, and great part also being spent by the church- 
trardens in junquetting, and great allowances being 
made by them to the parish clerk for oyl and finding 
bell-ropes, &c., scarce half thereof was regularly applyed 
to the uses mentioned above. 

" Paid to Hanns of Aylesbury for making chimes £ s. d. 
to go on the said eight bells to the 113 Psalm 
tune, and gave to the man that put them up, 
and for brasses to the two trebles, and car- 
riage of them to and from Aylesbury - 10 10 
Gave to Kitchener of Olney for tuning the bells 2 





« Bletchley 


Bells' 


WeU, 


iht. 










A. 


1713. 




cwts. 


qrs. 


lbs. 


^ 


_ 




. 


. 


5 


00 


12 


9. 


. 




. 


. 


5 


00 


17 


3 


. 




. 


- 


5 


03 


17 


4 


_ 




- 


: 


6 

7 


3 
3 


18 


/), 


_ 




20 


fi 


_ 




> 


- 


8 


3 


2G 


7 


- . 




_ 


. 


11 


00 


26 


8. 


Total 




; 




17 


00 


12 




69 


1 


18 



" The old bells weighed only forty-three hundred and 
seven pounds, so these are about twenty-six hundred and 
a half heavier: and the great tener is within a few 
pounds heavier than the old tener and treble both added 
together. 

" Inscriptions on the 1st and 2nd bells cast after the six 
biggest, only the bellfounder's, &c. names, but on the six 
biggest these verses : 

1. 
2. 

3. ' Quod sit Sacra dies, primo denuncio mane.' 

4. 'Ad Templum Populus per me properare monetur.' 

5. ' Pulsa voco Plebem tractare negotia villa.' 

6. ' Est Campanarum sine me Symphonia nulla.' 

7. 'Conjugium, Partus, Hysteria, Festa decoro.' 

8. ' Me resonare jubent Hominura mors, Concio, Funus.' " 



Sense versus Sound. — A town in the United 
States having been called Franklin, a friend 
wrote to the doctor stating that it had been done 
in compliment to him ; and added, that as the 
townspeople were building a church, perhaps he 
would kindly give them a bell. Franklin an- 
swered, that as he presumed the good people pre- 
ferred sense to sound, he declined giving the bell, 
but would gladly give them books. A reply so 
characteristic of the man should be remembered. 
It need only be added that Franklin kept his 
promise, and that his library js still in very good 
condition. " W. W. 

Malta. 

The Founder of the Rtissian Monarchy a War- 
wickshire Man. — A Warwick historian claims for 
that town the origin of Rurick's name. It is 

No. 300.] 



almost certain that Rurick was a Dane, and he 
may have taken part with the Danes against 
Alfred.* This part of English history is exces- 
sively obscure. The Baltic freebooter (Rurick = 
Warwick), a. d. 839, was called in by the inhabit- 
ants of Novgorod to defend them against their 
neighbours, who, having made himself master of 
great part of the country, founded a dynasty which 
ruled uninterruptedly till A. d. 1598, and which, 
prior to a.d. 1044, had made four naval attacks on 
Constantinople. Warwick was ruined in the 
early wars of the Danes, and restored by Ethel- 
fleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, and governot 
of Mercia, who built a fort there a. d. 913. Alfred 
destroyed the Danish power in England a.d. 893, 
after it had existed 106 years. We may con- 
jecture that Kurick's engagement to Russia left 
the Danish power in England so reduced as to 
favour Alfred's views. The etymology of War- 
wick shows its roots to be Guarth -f Wick = Gar- 
rison on the bend of a river (see Camden's Brit.^ 
p. 425.). The origin of the name of the Corsair, 
called Bapifyoi by Codinus, Bipc^ry" by Ducanges 
and Varagians or Varangians by Gibbon, was 
probably from Varangar Fiord, on the coast of 
Sweden in the extreme north, adjoining Norway, 
and ceded to Russia in 1815. f The Varangians 
are described at first as mixt Danish and Swedish, 
next as mixt Danish and English. (Gibbon, 
vol. X. c. 55.) T. J. BucKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Ladies and TFi're*. — Twenty years ago every 
new-born infant was announced as born of " the 
lady of ." At that time one or two per- 
sons began to see that this mode of proclamation 
neither said nor implied anything about the wed- 
ding-ring; and the example they set was gradually 
followed. Now, almost every mother who has 

not a title of rank is "the wife of ," or " Mrs. 

." But still, once in every two or three 

times (or Timeses), a " lady of" makes her appear- 
ance. When the change was exciting discussion, 
the following anecdote was very effective, which, 
being good enough to be true, of course was true. 
A lady presented herself at some place which was 
not open except by tickets, in some cathedral 
town. To the demur of the doorkeeper she said, 
" Do you know that I am the bishop's lady ? " To 
which the doorkeeper answered, " Madam, if you 
had been the Bishop's wi/e, I could not have ad- 
mitted you without a ticket." 



* Danes = Norsemen = Normans = Normanni were pro- 
perly Teutones of the Baltic coasts, including Norwegians, 
and had a literature. The Poems of Ossian are conceived 
in the spirit of this people, who have so much influenced 
European civilisation. . . ^„ 

\ They are called ^araegers by Milller (^Untv. Hist^y 
vol. ii. B. 14. s. 18.), which differs little from Warwickers 
in sound. 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



Even now, many persons are a little too fine, or 
too fearful of offending, to ask a man how his wife 
is. " How is your good lady ? " they say. If this 
be expressly meant to refer to the distinction 
between a good lady and a had lady, by way of 
avoiding the ambiguity of the word lady used 
alone, it is in very bad taste. Time was, moreover, 
when in England, as now in Scotland, people 
might have asked what a good lady is, as dis- 
tinguished from a good-wife. 

How is it that the word man has never lost its 
dignity, while the female sex has allowed woman 
to become a terra for which " lady " must be sub- 
stituted ? A similar question may be asked as to 
husband and ivife. Why are the first two people 
in the land not husband and wife, but consorts of 
each other ? 

But the worst fate has attended the real English 
feminine of husband, the word housewife.^ Under 
the pronunciation hussif, it was long a little case 
for holding needles and thread; under that of 
hussi/, it still expresses a meaning the reverse of 
its original. M. 

Author ship" of Anson s Voyage. — 1 

"Lord Anson's Voyage round the World, though it 
carries the name of Walters, who was chaplain to the 
Centurion, in the title-page, was in reality written by 
Benjamin Robins, a man of great eminence and genius as 
a mathematician and writer, under the immediate in- 
spection of the noble officer who commanded the expe- 
dition. So favourable was its reception with the public, 
that four large impressions were sold within twelve 
months, and it was translated into most of the European 
languages. The work still supports its reputation, and 
has been repeatedly reprinted in various sizes." — Naval 
Chronicle, vol. viii. p. 267. 

E. H. A. 

Alison's History of Europe. — Sir A. Alison, in 
his History of Europe from 1815 to 1852 (vol.ii. 
p. 117.), asserts that the Grand Duke Constantine 
of Russia, the Viceroy of Poland, was " son of the 
Emperor Paul I. and the celebrated Empress 
Catherine." I had previously imagined (1) that 
there had been but one Emperor of Russia named 
Paul, and (2) that the Empress Catherine was the 
mother and not the wife of that potentate. Again, 
the same historian (vol. iv. p. 288.) stntes that 
Lord Palmerston " has been a member of every 
administration, with the single exception of the 
short one of Lord Derby in 1852, for the last fifty 
years." This statement was published in the pre- 
sent year ; and on reading it I learnt for the first 
time that Lord Palmerston had been a member of 

(1) "All the Talents" government in 1806, or of 

(2) the Duke of Portland's in 1807, or of (3) the 
Duke of Wellington's in May, 1828 ; or of (4) 
Sir Robert Peel's in 1834, or of (5) Sir Robert 
Peel's in 1841. If the above-quoted passages, 
which caught my eye while turning over the pages 
of Sir Archibald's work (which I have not ex- 
No. 300,] 



amined throughout), are average specimens of its 
accuracy, it has at all events a fair claim to be 
called one of the most remarkable contributions to 
history ever published at 155. a volume. M. A. 
Oxon. 



eSuerfe^. 



THE "annual EEGISTER." 

Prior, in his Life of Edmund Burke, thus de- 
scribes the foundation of the Annual Register by 
that eminent writer and statesman : 

"At this moment also [1757], English literature and 
English history became indebted to him in no ordinary 
degree by the establishment, in conjunction with Dodsley, 
of the Annual Register. Of the excellence and utility of this 
work, the plan of which was ingenious, while the execution 
ensured great and unfading popularity, there never has 
been but one opinion. Several of the first volumes passed 
to a fifth and sixth edition. It is the best, and without any 
admixture of their trash, or being tediously minute, the 
most comprehensive of all the periodical works ; many of 
the sketches of cotemporarj' history, written from his 
immediate dictation for about thirty years, are not merely 
valuable as coming from such a pen, but masterly in 
themselves ; and, in the estimation of some of the chief 
writers of our day, are not likely to be improved by any 
future historian. They form, in fact, the chief sources 
whence all the chief histories of the last sixty years have 
been, and must continue to be, compiled ; besides furnish- 
ing a variety of other useful and illustrative matter. The 
Annual Register for 1758, the first of the series, came out 
in June of the "following year. Latterly a Mr. Ireland 
wrote much of it under Mr. Burke's immediate dictation." 
— P. 60., edit. 1824. 

From this statement it appears, that Burke 
either composed, or superintended the composi- 
tion of, the historical portion of the Annual Re- 
gister from its commencement in 1758, until about 
1788. The writer of this notice has been informed, 
that some of the volumes, about the latter period, 
were written by a gentleman named King. 

It seems that the twelve years from 1790 to 
1800, inclusive, were written by Dr. William 
Thomson, who is now chiefly known as the con- 
tin uator of Watson's History of Philip III. The 
following passage occurs in the " Annual Biogra- 
graphy and Obituary for 1818," in the Life of 
Dr. Thomson : 

" Towards the latter end of his life, the Doctor was chiefly 
employed in bringing up the long arrear of Dodsley's 
Annual Register. Of this employment he was not a little 
proud, as he now considered himself the legitimate suc- 
cessor of Edmund Burke. We understand that he com- 
piled the historical part from 1790 to 1800, inclusive ; and 
if paid as liberally as the Right Honourable gentleman 
just alluded to, his remuneration would have exactly 
amounted to 3000/. for ten volumes ; we have reason to 
think, however, that eleven or twelve were undertaken 
and completed by him." — Vol. ii. p. 111. 

Can any of your correspondents supply any ad- 
ditional facts respecting the authorship of the his- 
torical portion of the Annual Register during the 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



period from 1758 to 1800; and can they furnish 
any information for the period since 1800, either 
■with respect to the writers, or the political cha- 
racter of the history ? 

A bibliographical account of Dodsley's Annual 
Hegisler, and of other periodical works of the same 
character, may be seen in the Penny Cyclopcedia, 
art. Annuai. Kegisteb. L. 



THE DESTEUCTION OP THE EXCHEQUER RECORDS. 

I observe in Mr. Rawdon Brown's very in- 
teresting and well-edited Selection of Venetian 
Despatches in the Reign of Henry VIII. the fol- 
lowing important note : 

"The carelessness with which our national records 
have been kept is a subject of deep mortification to the 
antiquarian. In the year 1838, no less than eight tons 
weight of curious documents were sold by the then 
Chancellor of the Exchequer to Mr. Jay, a fishmonger, 
at the price of 8Z. per ton. Many of these have since been 
purchased at high prices by the British Museum, and by 
the government itself." 

Reference is added to Mr. Rodd's Narrative, 
1855. This I have never seen ; but I know that 
Mr. Rodd, an excellent judge of books and MSS., 
rescued many of these rejected treasures from 
destruction. What I want to know from one of 
your correspondents is this : Who was this wise 
Chancellor of the Exchequer ? His name deserves 
immortality in a work devoted to the preservation 
of curiosities. At the time when a penny-wise 
economy allowed the destruction of so many irre- 
coverable papers for the paltry consideration of 
64?., a pound-foolish prodigality was expending 
upwards of 200,000?. for Blue Books, of which 
more than half are only fit for the grocer and the 
fishmonger, and of which two-thirds are never 
read. E. C. H. 

[The sale of Exchequer Records took place in 1838 
under the following circumstances : 

The attention of Sir John Newport, Comptroller of 
the Exchequer, was first directed to the documents in 
question in 1835, and in 1836 they were inspected by 
Mr. Devon. Upon his report a communication was 
made to the Treasury by Sir J. Newport, and dir*:tions 
were given to have them examined ; the examination was 
entrusted to Mr. Bulley, chief clerk, and to Messrs. Wood- 
fall and Barrett, clerks in the ofiice of the Comptroller 
of the Exchequer. Mr. Bulley commenced his examin- 
ation in the early part of 1838, and " having applied for 
authority to destroy certain books and papers (the books 
being purely of account, and appearing to be of no interest 
or value at the present time ; and the papers, including the 
warrants of which the books of entry on record are re- 
tained, being equally valueless)," the documents were 
sold under an authority from the Treasury to destroy 
" mere memoranda, or papers of which entries have been 
been made of record in the books of the Exchequer or 
the Treasury." 

The Committee of the House of Lords, appointed in 
1840 to inquire into the subject, observe that many papers 
of great interest and value were preserved by Mr." Bulley. 

No. 300.] 



and add that " the manner in* which the selection was 
conducted would lead them to believe that the loss has 
not been extensive ; " and though the British Museum 
had purchased some, " it does not appear that any of very 
great consequence had been recovered in that quarter." 

Sir J. Newport was Comptroller of the Exchequer 
until succeeded by Lord Monteagle in Sept. 1839. 

Our correspondent has been misinformed as to the 
sums paid annually for parliamentary printing ; the largest 
amount for any one year since 1844 is 127,000/., for the 
year 1848-49 ; but for this year the estimate for printing 
and stationer}" for the United Kingdom and Colonies was 
302,362?., which apparently has been erroneously at- 
tributed to parliamentary printing alone.] 



THE ALCHEMIC TERM "TINCTURE." 

In the Introduction to Theosophy (or Guide to 
the Mystical Philosophy of Jacob JBohmen, adver- 
tised in "N. & Q.," Vol.xi., p. 517.), I find re- 
peated mention made of the word tincture, in con- 
nexion with the doctrine of Regeneration. And 
in the work referred to, p. 491. of the same 
treatise, I also find the word in familiar use ; as, 
for instance, in the following quotation, which is a 
postscript of a letter of the date of the year 1742, 
from the celebrated William Law to the philo- 
sopher and physician Dr. Cheyne, in answer to his 
inquiry for the grounds of Mr. Law's published 
averment, that Newton merely worked with 
Bohmen's demonstrations and principles, in bring- 
ing forth his celebrated discoveries : 

" JVom the authority above (writes Mr. Law) I can 
assure you that Sir Isaac was formerly so deep in J. B., 
that he, together with one Dr. Newton, his relative, set 
up furnaces [this was before the discovery of electricity, 
which is largely treated of in the same treatise, pp. 405 — 
420.], and for several months were in quest of the tincture, 

purely from what they conceived from him 

No one, from Bohmen, can know anything of the tincture, 
or the means or possibility of coming at it, without 
knowing and believing, as 13ohmen does, the ground of 
universal attraction," 

I also observe, in looking into the published 
writings of Bohmen, and the MSS. of Freher 
(British Museum, Add. MSS. 5767—93.), fre- 
quent use of the same word, but in various modi- 
fications ; as a pure and holy tincture, a defied and 
false tincture, an earthly tincture, &c. ; from which 
I have inferred the word tincture in its highest 
sense to mean the power or virtue of supernatural 
light, that is, of the Deity ; which is said by 
Bohmen to be couched in all living things accord- 
ing to their kind and degree in the scale of 
creation, as their most secret essence, and consti- 
tuting their medicinal, &c. properties ; but espe- 
cially manifest in the metals and in man. And 
farther, he asserts, that the tincture, though super- 
natural and invisible, is yet subject to the mani- 
pulation of man, provided he be a divi?ie artist, or 
magus ; that is, be so renewed in the spirit of his 
mind, or regenerated, that he is become endowed 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



with divine perception (a central or universal 
consciousness, or clairvoyance through all nature), 
and also a divine will, in addition to possessing 
practical science in chemistry and fire (or elec- 
tricity). 

Such I have gathered to be the sense of the 
•word, as used by these rational and christian 
writers, without reference to the mysterious gib- 
berish and hocus-pocus assumptions of the self- 
styled alchemists of the Middle Ages. But will 
some of your really adept correspondents be 
pleased to elucidate the meaning of the tincture as 
used by the theosophers, in simple untechnical 
language, and with intellectual clearness ? Also, 
whether (as I have surmised) the original al- 
chemical science does not, in effect, refer to the 
spiritual photogenic action of the pure divine 
light upon the moral and intellectual nature of 
man, in those who, by a perfect conformity to the 
Gospel precepts and counsels, have rendered 
themselves susceptible of its life-giving operation, 
rather than to the preparation of the philosopher's 
stone, and transmutation of the base metals into 
gold. P. T. 



The Widow Cornewulleis. — Stow informs us, in 
his Survey (edition Thoms), p. 52., that a lady so 
described received from Henry VIII. the grant 
" of a fair house and divers tenements near ad- 
joining, some time belonging to a late dissolved 
priory," in Sprinckle Alley, in reward of fine pud- 
dings (as it was commonly said) by her made, 
wherewith she had presented the king. " Such," 
adds the old historian, "was the princely liberality 
of those days ; " but it seems not to have occurred 
to him, that although the grant was out of all pro- 
portion to the benefit conferred, it cost the arbi- 
trary monarch nothing but the trouble of making 
over property of which he had taken possession 
illegally. I am, however, digressing from my 
object, which is to inquire whether any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." can in any way identify the 
widow, and tell me whether she belonged to the 
Suffolk family whose name she bore ? Also how 
far the story is confirmed by other cotemporary 
historians, though I am by no means disposed to 
undervalue the testimony of honest John Stow, 
regretting only that he does not speak more con- 
fidently on the subject. Braybrooke. 
Audley End, July 18. 

r " Monody on the Death of Hellebore" — 

■** Sweet were the winds which rapid Mermaids wore, 
On L5'bia's realms, when erst th' Antarctic boar 
Kuled his seraphic proselytes on high, 
'Midst the grim regions of Europa's sky. 
Hail ! intellectual Hellebore ; whose strain 
Dulcifies thunder — bids th' insurgent rain 
No. 300.] 



} 



Roll upwards —tune thy sweet, cathartic lyre, 

And melt th' empyreal source of Etna's fire — 

Nor wonder, that the fair Cordelia's horn 

With new-born sympathy bedews the mom. 

She first, with horror, orisons demure, 

Sung the chaste banners of the wizard boor ; 

She, from the bosom of departed woe, 

The princely fabric rear'd, ^vlth accents slow. 

Bending the pliant hecatomb around, 

Sharp, sonorous vestals sunk th' emphatic ground. 

Her pye-bald car thro' wond'ring nymphs she drove, 

And silence echoed thro' the vast alcove. 

Hear ! ages yet unborn ! — past, future days ! 

How white her valour, and how tall her lays. 

Yet must interior Fate's athmatic [ ? ] hand 

Hurl the brown Mermaid from th' Ionian land. 

Mute is that lyre, and cold th' unfeeling wound, 

Whose murmuring chords emit a silent sound. 

Yet shall my soul with inborn thraldom burn, 

Shed the dim tear, and burst th' impetuous urn. 

Witness, ye streams ! ye high aspiring vales ! 

Ye mountains, sinking from these mournful tales ! 

If my stern soul that tribute e'er denied. 

Which Mona lavish'd on her purple bride, 

While Orpheus mounts the zone on Lomond's snowy 

side. 
Begin, my Muse, th' atlantic note inspire ; 
Let seraph wings proclaim a seraph's ire : 
No more, indignant Hebrus' hollow head 
Feeds his blue flocks — for Hellebore is dead ! 
Angelic Hellebore ! the bending mast 
Yields its proud syrens to th' autumnal blast. 
No more chill winter wafts the foliage green ; 
Sweet emblem soaring on the rustic scene ! 
For Hellebore, fair nymph of Hecla's flame, 
Floats on Horizon's old, amphibious name. 
No more her breath attaints th' unhallow'd fan, "i 

'Mid the proud panoply of Karlo Kan : >- 

For nature sighs in peace ; and human kind is man. "J 

The above lines were given to me by my friend 
the late Earl of Mountnorris, and are said to have 
been written by the Hon. and Rev. William Her- 
bert. Have they ever been printed ? If so, when 
and where ? F. 

The Lancashire Song. — In the Fourth Part 
of Miscellany Poems, published by Mr. Dryden 
(p. 96., fifth edition), is a song thus entitled, 
which commences, — 

. " In Lancashire, where I was bom, 
And many a cuckold bred ; 
* I had not been marry'd a quarter of a year, 
But the horns grew out of my head. 
With hie the Toe bent, and hie the Toe bent, 

Sir Piercy is under the line, 
God save the good Earl of Shrewsbury, 
For he's a good friend of mine." 

Can any of your Lancashire correspondents, who 
have made the antiquities of that county the 
subject of their inquiries, throw any light upon 
the history of the song, or the many historical 
allusions to be found in it ? Does Mr. Chappeli. 
or Dr. Rimbault know anything as to its origin 
or antiquity? Od. 

Robespierre. — Amongst the papers of Robes- 
pierre found after his death, was a letter (Jan. 12, 



I 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



1792) from an Englishwoman, who it seems had 
sent him a pecuniary present in an order on her 
bankers, which had not been presented for pay- 
ment. She complains of this, and repeats her 
offer. The letter is signed (in the printed vo- 
lume) "Theeman Shephen," meaning probably 
Freeman Stephen. Can any of your correspon- 
dents guess who was Miss or Mrs. Freeman Ste- 
phen ? C. 

Milton, Lines on. — Where are the following 
lines to be found ? — 

^' When Milton's eye ethereal light first drew, 
Earth's gross and cumbrous objects check'd his view; 
Quick to remove these barriers from his mind, 
Nature threw ope th' expanse, and struck him blind. 
To him a nobler vision then was giv'n ; 
He closed his e3'e3 on earth, to look on heaven ! " 

F. 

Carmelites in Hereford. — I have before me a 
copy of Sandys' Travels in the Turkish Empire in 
1610, published in 1632. On the title-page is 
the inscription — 

" Ex Libris Carmelitaram Discalceatonim : Eesidentla 
Hereford'." 

Can any of your readers give any information 
as to any establishment of Carmelites in Hereford 
during the seventeenth century ? E. T. S. 

Etymology of the Word " Chess." — Among the 
derivations assigned to this word may be added 
that given by Pezron, in his ingenious treatise of 
the Antiquities of Nations. He states that Sacse, 
or more anciently Scacae, was a term applied by 
that section of the Gomerians who, migrating 
into Media, and receiving the name of Parthians, 
or exiles (parthu, in the Celtic language to this 
day signifying to divide), retaliated by calling the 
parent stock Sac(B or JScacce, a term implying 
thief, robber, and the like. The remains of this 
ancient word may be found in sac or sacager, 
which is to commit murder ; and from this Pezron 
thinks is derived our word chess. In barbarous 
Latin the game is called Scacorum Indus, and by 
the ancients latrunculorum ludu^, i. e. the thief's 
game. The Italians called it schacchi, which they 
borrowed from the schack of the Goths, who bore 
sway amongst them so long a time. 

As I am not aware whether this view is at all 
supported by other authority, perhaps you will 
allow this Query to be inserted in your columns : 
What is the earliest instance of the term Ivdus 
Sacorum designating our game of chess ? 

E. I. B. 

Ear-piercing.- — Will any of your correspon- 
dents, medical or others, inform me, on behalf of a 
female relative who feels a repugnance to the 
operation of having her ears pierced, whether 
there is any foundation for the widely-spread idea 
that it has a beneficial effect on the eyes ? If a 

No. 300.] 



dozen ladies are asked why they have submitted 
to it, they will nearly all say : " Ah ! it is so good 
for the eyes." Now, if this somewhat barbarous 
practice has nothing more than vanity to be said 
for it, it is well to let the same be stated. If the 
eyes are in a condition to require counter-irrita- 
tion, I should consider this might be much more 
advantageously effected by other means than an 
operation, the result of which must be merely 
temporary. L. 

Dalston. 

Telegraphic System of the Universe. — The 12th 
lecture in Professor E. Hitchcock's Religion of 
Geology, and its Connected Sciences, treats of " The 
Telegraphic System of the Universe." Can any 
of your readers refer me to other works on this 
subject? R. W. Hackwoo©. 

Holidays. — In the Miscellaneous Works of G. 
E. Howard (vol. iii. p. ccxlvi,), the following pas- 
sage appears ; 

•' If we calculate the number of holidays kept in Ire- 
land, the working hands who keep them, and the value 
of their labour, the amount will be immense. The priests 
have it in their power to remedy this evil. Don Geronimo 
Ustariz, in his book on the Theory and Practice of Com- 
merce and the Marine, relates that St. Chrysostom said 
' That the Martyrs had no delight in being honoured at 
the expense of the tears of the poor, as also that instead 
of promoting religion and devotion, it had quite the op- 
posite effect; and that piety should not trespass upon 
industry, nor industry upon piety.' Pope Urban VIII. 
was of the same opinion, and so he pronounced it upon 
the representation of several zealous bishops of the time. 
So it is also expressed by the Council of Trent, held in 
the year 154:9, in the 10th Canon." 

Now the Council did not sit in 1549. Perhaps 
some correspondent, familiar with the proceedings 
of that Council, would oblige me by pointing out 
the decree or canon which treats of the subject. 

Clebicus (D.') 

Quotation wanted. — Who is the author of the 
lines beginning with — 

" I dream'd my love was a milke white doe, that roam'd 
the forest wide ? " 

C.L. 

Full Fig. — What is the complete form of the 
abbreviated word used in the expression "Full 
fig.," meaningyMZZ dress ? J« G. T. 

Ch. Ch. Oxford. 

Verb and Nominative Case. — Is there no ex- 
ception to the first rule of our grammars, that a 
verb must agree with its nominative case, in 
number, &c., save the "noun of multitude?" 
" True," say the learned ; but my linendraper 
says, " Three and elevenpence halfpenny is not a 
high price for good Irish cloth," and I think he is 
right, grammatically speaking. How can I say 
" Ninety-five are a great age ? " It is manifest 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



in these cases that the idea of the mind is a totality, 
and that it is with that simple idea that we make 
the word accord. But this is not orthodoxy. 

While on these trifles I may mention the ex- 
pression " a three-year old," and a man " six foot 
iigh," which latter my schoolmaster used to be of 
opinion that no boy could use at home without 
risk of caitsing great pain and sorrow to his 
relatives and well-wishers. Perhaps some of your 
readers can furnish me with analogous licenses in 
foreign languages, which more liberal grammarians 
than ours have stamped as idioms. I think the 
Germans use the singular form Jahr (year) with a 
plural numeral adjective. W. M. T. 

Epigram on Prayer. — The Monitor, published 
March, 1712-13, performed by Mr. Tate, Poet 
Laureat, Mr. Smith, and others, contains the fol- 
lowing 

"epigram on pkayek. 

Prayer highest soars when she most prostrate lies. 

And when she supplicates, she storms the skies. 

Thus to gain Heav'n may seem an easy task, 

For what can be more easy than to ask ? 

Yet oft we do by sad experience find, 

That, clogged with earth, some prayers are left behind, 

And some like chaflf blown oflF by every wind. 

To kneel is easy, to pronounce not hard. 

Then why are some petitioners debarr'd? 

Hear what an ancient oracle declared ; 

Some sing their prayers, and some their prayers say. 

He's an Elias, who his prayers can pray. 

Reader, remember, when you next repair 

To church or closet, this memoir of prayer." 

What oracle is here alluded to ? Cl. Hoppee. 

Old College of Physicians. — Can any of your 
correspondents refer me to any engraving of — 

1. Linacre's house in Knight Rider Street, 
given by him to the College of Physicians, and 
used as their place of meeting till the early part 
of the seventeenth century ? 

2. The College of Physicians at the end of 
Paternoster Row (Amen Corner), to which the 
great Harvey added a library and museum? Both 
of these were destroyed in the Great Fire. The 
latter was on ground belonging to the Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's. W. M. 



Minav ^uexieS tut'tft ^n^tvg. 

Robert Pont. — In the Scotch version of me- 
trical psalms, " R. P." or " R. Pon." are prefixed 
to several of the psalms. Mr. Laing, librarian to 
the Writers to the Signet, Edinburgh, supposes 
that Robert Pont, a zealous Scotch Reformer, was 
the author of these. But I can see nothing in his 
antecedents, habits, or style of writing and think- 
ing, favourable to this supposition. From several 
of the psalms attributed to him being rendered 
into very peculiar metres, and set to tunes from 

IJo. 300.] 



the French version, I am induced to think the 
writer must have also been a Genevan refugee, 
and consequently acquainted with the Genevan 
psalmody. J. A. Perthensis. 

[Holland, in TTie Psalmists of Great Britain, vol. L 
p. 190., has the following notice of Robert Pont: "In 
1575, Bassandyne the printer published in Edinburgh 
'The CL. Psalmes of David, in English metre,' with 
Prayers and other Formularies of the Church of Scot- 
land. This version was probably the work of Robert 
Pont, who was one of the most renowned versifiers of the 
Psalms in the sixteenth century. He was minister of St. 
Cuthbert's Kirk, highl}' esteemed by the clergy, and was 
appointed a Lord of Session, dying in 1608 at the ripe 
age of eighty-one. His wife was a daughter of the cele- 
brated John Knox. In 1601, the following motion of the 
General Assembly was passed : ' Anent ye Translation of 
ye Psalmes in meeter. It is ordainet that the same [i.e. 
the old version] be revisit by Mr. Robt. Pont, minister of 
St. Cuthbert's Kirk, and his travels be revisit at the next 
Assm'lie.' It does not appear, however, that Pont pro- 
ceeded in the business." Our correspondent will find a 
notice of the various contributors to Sternhold and Hop- 
kins's version in " N. & Q.," Vol. x., p. 366.] 

Blue Beard. — Can any of your correspondents 
kindly inform me who Blue Beard was ? Any 
information on the subject will oblige Easbt. 

[The original Blue Beard was Giles de Laval, Lord of 
Raiz, who was made Marshal of France in 1429, and in 
the reigns of Charles VI. and VII. distinguished himself 
by his courage against the English when they invaded 
France. The services that he rendered his country might 
have immortalised his name, had he not for ever blotted 
his glory by murders, impieties, and debaucheries. Meze- 
ray says that he encouraged and maintained sorcerers to 
discover hidden treasures, and corrupted young persons 
of both sexes, that he might attach them to him, and 
afterwards killed them for the sake of their blood for his 
charms and incantations. At length, for some state crime 
against the Duke of Brittany, he was sentenced to be 
burnt alive in a field at Nantes in 1440. Holinshed no- 
tices another Blue Beard in the reign of Henry VI., anno 
1450. Speaking of the committal of the Duke of Sufiblk 
to the Tower, he says, " This doing so much displeased 
the people, that if politike provision had not been made, 
great mischief had immediately ensued. For the com- 
mons in sundry places of the realm assembled together in 
great companies, and chose to them a captain, whom they 
called Blue Beard ; but ere they had attempted any en- 
terprise, their leaders were apprehended, and so the matter 
pacified without any hurt committed."] 

Cocker and Walkinghame. — Can any correspon- 
dents of " N. & Q." furnish any particulars about 
these two celebrated computists ? I am not aware 
of two such eminent men of whom less is known. 
Indeed, I have never fallen in with any particulars 
at all regarding Walkinghame ; and any notice of 
Cocker is as meagre as may be. Meton. 

[Some biographical notices of Cocker will be found in 
the Penny Ci/clopwdia ; Professor de Morgan's Arith- 
metical Books, p. 56. ; « K & Q.," Vol. xi., p. 57. Walk- 
inghame seems unknown. Professor de Morgan, in 1847, 
inquired after him. " I should be thankful to any one," 
he says, "who would tell me who Walkingame was, 
and when the first edition of TVte Tutor's Assistant was 
published." See " K & Q.," Vol. v., p. 441., and Vol. xi., 
p. 67.] 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



Old Phrases. — In receipts for the payment of 
rent, about the beginning of the last century, oc- 
cur small additional sums for " trophy," " tronis," 
and "troness" money. Also a payment made 
" for the tax granted for drumhs and roullers (?)." 
What do these items refer to ? W. Denton. 

[Trophy, tronis, or troness money is a duty of four- 
pence paid annually by housekeepers or landlords, for the 
drums, colours, &c. of their respective companies of mi- 
litia. Eoullers are probably the mounted guard.] 

Mennenius. — Ashmole cites this writer thus : 
Mermen. Delic. Ord. Equestr. Will any of your 
correspondents favour me with the whole title of 
this work ;. its date and place of publication, and 
whether 4to. or 8vo. ? G. 

["Dellciae Eqvestrivm sive Militarivm Ordinvm, et 
eorvndem origines, statvta, sj'mbola et insignia, iconibvs 
additis genuinis. Hac editione, multorum ordinum, et 
quotquot extitere, accessione locupletata, serieque tem- 
porum distributa. Studio et industria Francisci Menne- 
nii Antverp. Coloniae Agrippinae, apud loannem Kinc- 
kium sub Monocerote. Anno mdcxiii., 8vo."] 



PETNNB, COWLEY, AND POPE. 

(Vol. xii., p. 6.) 

I have great pleasure in complying with Ma. 
Peter Cunningham's request in reference to 
Cowley's presumed allusion to Prynne as " the 
Homer of the Isle " of Jersey. I say Cowley's 
presumed allusion, because although I am Inclined 
to think that Prynne was the person at whom 
Cowley aimed, the question is not entirely free 
from doubt. The difficulty arises thus : 

Cowley, in that one of his Miscellaneous Poems 
quoted by Mr, Cunningham, and which is en- 
titled " An Answer to a Copy of Verses sent me 
to Jersey," wrote as follows : 

" You must know. 
Sir, that Verse does not in this island grow 
No more than sack ; one lately did not fear 
(Without the Muses' leave) to plant it here. 
But it produc'd such base, rough, crabbed, hedge 
Ehymes, as ev'n set the hearers' ears on edge. 

Written by Esquire, the 

Year of our Lord six hundred thirty-three. 
Brave Jersey Muse ! and he's for this high stile 
Call'd to this day the Homer of the Isle. 
Alas to men here no words less hard be 
To rhime with, then Mount-Orgueil is to me. 
Mount-Orgueil, which in scorn o' th' Muses' law 
With no yoke-fellow word will daign to draw. 
Stubborn Mount-Orgueil ! 'tis a work to make it 
Come into Rhime, more hard than 'twere to take it." 

Pope, in a note to The Dunciad, as Mr. Cun- 
ningham has reminded us, quoted a part of this 
passage, and filled up the blank with the name of 
" Williani Prynne." Two reasons may be alleged 
why Pope may have been mistaken : 1. Cowley 

No. 300.] 



apparently quotes from some poem in which these 
words occur : 



« Written by 



Esquire, the 



Year of our Lord six hundred thirty-three." 

But neither these words, nor anything like them^ 
can be found in any of the Jersey writings of 
Prynne. 2. It may be said Prynne could not 
be the culprit if the book was written, as Cowley 
leads one to suppose, in the year 1633. Prynne 
notes in his Mount-Orgueil, the book which is 
supposed to be alluded to, " I arrived in Jersey 
January the 17, 1637 ; " and it is not only evident 
from the whole tenor of Prynne's poems, but is 
distinctly asserted in his dedication of Mount- 
Orgueil to Sir Philip Carteret, the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Jersey, that the principal poems in 
his volume were written by Prynne whilst he 
was a prisoner in that island. He tells Sir 
Philip Carteret that his lines — 

" . . . . there grew. 
And so in justice are your proper due." 

But, in spite of this anachronism, I am, for my 
own part, inclined to accept the allusion as made 
to Prynne, and to claim for him the title of " the 
Homer of the Isle." 

In the same volume in which Prynne's Jersey 
poems are contained, there is ordinarily found 
appended to them a collection of short poems and 
inscriptions written by Prynne whilst in the 
Tower of London, and published under the 
title of Comfortable Cordials. One of these in- 
scriptions, originally written in Latin, concludes 
thus : " Ita ominatur Gulielraus Prynne ; Martii 3, 
1633," which he thus translates : 

" Of this opinion William Prynne was, the 
Third day of March six hundred thirty-three." 

It seems to me probable that Cowley misre- 
membered these lines, and that they are the 
original of his 



« Written by 



Esquire, the 



Year of our Lord six hundred thirty-three." 

The peculiarity of the omission of the "one 
thousand," the identity of the number "six 
hundred thirty-three," and Cowley's allusions to 
Mount- Orgueil, are in my mind very nearly con- 
clusive. Prynne was a person likely to be very 
lightly esteemed by Cowley. The coarseness and 
peculiarity of the lines would be helped to main- 
tain themselves in Cowley's memory by the 
rhyme, but it would only be so far as the rhyme 
was concerned. He would not sufficiently in- 
terest himself in Prynne's poems to discover that 
part of the volume was written in the Tower of 
London, a fact not mentioned in the title-page. 
Finding the lines I have quoted in the volume, he 
would conclude that they, like the rest, were 
written in Jersey ; and citing them memoriter., 
with nothing to guide him but the rhyme, I can 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



easily conceive that he may have misquoted in 
the way he has done. Perhaps the blank for 
the name was left because he felt a little uncertain 
of the accuracy of his quotation. 

Taking for granted, then, that Pope was pro- 
bably riu;ht, and that Prynne really was " the 
Homer of the Isle," the work which, in that case, 
Cowley had in his mind, was entitled 

" Mount-Orgueil : or Divine and Profitable Medita- 
tions, raised from the contemplation of these three Leaves 
of Nature's Volume: 1. Rockes, 2. Seas, 3. Gardens, di- 
gested into three distinct poems. To which is prefixed, 
a poeticall description of Mount-Orgueil Castle in the 
Isle of Jersy. By William Prynne, late exile, and close 
prisoner in "the sayd Castle. A Poem of the Soules Com- 
plaint against the Body ; and Comfortable Cordialls 
against the Discomforts of Imprisonment, &c., are hereto 
annexed. Psalme xix. 14. Psalme cxliii. 5. London, 
Printed by Tho. Cotes, for Michael Sparke, Senior, dwell- 
ing at the Blue Bible, in Greene Arbor. 1641. 4to." 

The book of which this is the title-page may 
claim a place among the many singular works 
for which our literature stands indebted to our 
prisons, but not on account of any poetical merit. 
The author has himself passed sentence on his 
rhymes in much the same terms as Cowley. He 
describes them as — 

"Like the subject, barren, rude, uncompt." 

The merit and curiosity of the book are to be 
found in the evidence which it affords that a good 
man unjustly sentenced may bear long and close 
imprisonment with equanimity, and if, like Prynne, 
of an active turn of mind, may convert even the 
view from the bare dungeon to which he is con- 
signed into a subject of study and improvement. 
Prynne's imprisonment will hereafter come to 
be treated by me more particularly; but I may 
remark at this time, especially as the facts are 
stated in the volume under consideration, that 
. Prynne was imprisoned for nearly eight years. 

"I was," he says, "first committed prisoner to the 
Towre of London, February 1, 1632, where, after two re- 
movals to the Fleete for a short space, I remained prisoner 
till July the 27, 1637, and was then removed to Carnarvan 
Castle, in North Wales, where I arrived August the 5, 
and was there kept close prisoner till I was by special 
warrant shipped and sent close prisoner for Jersy, Octob. 
the 10, 1637, where I arrived not till January the 17 
following. From whence I departed by warrant from the 
Parliament, Novemb. 19, 1640, and landed at Dartmouth, 
Novemb. 22, came into London, Novemb. 28, was pre- 
sented to the Commons House, Novemb. 30, where my 
petition was read Decemb. 3." 

During much of this time he was deprived of 
ordinary writing materials. His keeper in Jersey 
treated him in the kindest manner, and when 
times were changed received from Prynne the 
return of a true and grateful friend ; but even in 
Jersey he was kept without the use " of Inke 
and Pen." The poems here printed were jotted 
down with the rudest materials; some of them were 
probably written, like the letters of Sir Thomas 

No. 300.] 



More, with a piece of charcoal borrowed from a 
scanty fire ; others were preserved by being 
scratched on the walls of his prison chamber; 
most of them were thrown aside after they had 
been committed to writing with little expectation 
that they would ever see the light of day. 

On Prynne's release, he tells us that he blew up 
" these buried sparks." Whilst he was at the height 
of his popularity, they were printed by or for 
his old acquaintance Michael Sparke, and were 
put together in a volume with the author's 
portrait prefixed. Some copies do not contain 
"Mount-Orgueil" and the "Comfortable Cordials," 
but merely the " Meditations on Rocks, Seas, and 
Gardens." These last run to 184 pages ; " Mount- 
Orgueil" contains 10 pages not numbered ; and 
the "Comfortable Cordials" 16 numbered pages; 
besides title-page and dedication, which are un- 
numbered. 

Some of the poems, as I have already stated, 
were written in the Tower; but as our present 
question relates chiefly to Jersey, I shall confine 
myself to a few words about those which were 
penned in that island. Prynne thus explains how 
he came to turn his thoughts into this channel : 

" Shut up close-pris'ner in Mount-Orgueil pile, 
A lofty castle, within Jersie Isle, 
Remote from friends, neere three yeares' space, where I 
Had Rockes, Seas, Gardens, dayly in mine eye, 
Which I oft viewed with no small delight, 
These pleasing objects did at last invite 
Me, to contemplate in more solemne wise. 
What usefuU meditations might arise, 
From each of them, my soule to warme, feast, cheere. 
And unto God, Christ.Heaven, mount more neare. 
In which pursuite I found such inward joyes. 
Such cordiall comforts, as did overpoise 
My heaviest crosses, losses, and supply, 
The want of all foes did me then deny. 
Give me assurance of a sweete return 
Both from my exile, prison, and mine urne." 

I know not how it may affect other people, but 
there is to my mind something striking and even 
pathetic in the picture which is here and through- 
out this volume disclosed. The ill-used solitary 
man nurses no idle grief over past troubles and 
calamities ; but opening his heart to the influences 
of those natural objects which he could see at a 
distance, draws comfort and consolation from the 
prospect of that beauty from which he was ex- 
cluded. Thus he strengthens his heart for either 
fortune, and stands prepared with equal mind for 
still longer endurance of his imprisonment, or for 
delivery and triumph over his enemies. 

Thus occupied, he was happy. In all his prisons, 
and both by sea and land, he says, God " kept me 
so 

" In health and comfort that I met with no 
One day of sicknesse, sadnesse, discontent, 
In eight years' troubles and imprisonment." 

The nature of his meditations may be easily 
imagined. They are moralisations chiefly founded 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



upon passages or examples in Scripture. An 
extract of a few lines will show their nature : 

" How many sayling in full streames of wealth, 
Pomp, honour, pleasure, favour, greatnesse, health, 
And all contentments which the world can give 
Unto her darlings, whilst they therein live, 
Have in one houres space beene stript of all, 
And dasht in peeces with a suddaine fall ! 
How many mighty kings, states, monarchies, 
Have in a moment felt such miseries. 
Such fatall changes in their worldly state. 
As no heart could conceive, no tongue relate! 
Unconstant world, more full of changes then 
The sea or moone, how can the sonnes of men 
Once love or trust thee ! Goe, cheate [others, I] 
Th}' sickely friendship ever will defie." 

Of a different character is the following. The 
minuteness of the description of Mount-Orgueil 
is almost topographical : 

« Mount-Orgueil Castle is a lofty pile 
Within the easterne parts of Jersy Isle, 
Seated upon a rocke, full large and high. 
Close by the sea-shore, next to Normandie ; 
Neere to a sandy bay, where boats do ride 
Within a peere, safe both from wind and tide. 
Three parts thereof the flowing seas surround, 
The fourth (north-west-wards) is firme rockie ground. 
A proud high mount it hath, a rampeir long. 
Four gates, four posternes, bulworkes, sconces strong, 
All built with stone, on which there mounted lye 
Fifteene cast peeces of artillery. 
With sundry murdering chambers, planted so 
As best may fence itselfe and hurt a foe." 

And so he runs on through other lines. Prynne's 
faculty was not that of imagination, but of ob- 
servation. He would never have dreamt of writ- 
ing poetry, but for the position in which he was 
placed. It was the resource of an active mind, 
cut off from all employment. Like the faults of 
his character, it was the result of the shameful op- 
pression of which he was the victim. In quiet 
times he would have been a laborious practical 
lawyer, and an acute historical investigator. The 
misgovernment of Charles I., and the persecution 
of Laud, made him a political pamphleteer, a 
versifier, and a martyr. John Bedcb. 



PICTUEB AT LODVAIN. 

(Vol. xi., p. 486.) 

I went over the Town Hall at Louvain, in Sep- 
tember, 1847, and did not see the picture men- 
tioned in Mr. Wills's letter. It may have been 
in some room which I did not visit. Lope de 
Vega is copious in his attacks on heretics, and the 
exact original of the inscription may perhaps be 
found. The following is very near it : 

" Cespedes. Moviose una question la tarde misma 
Sobre aquesta ocasion en el Palacio ; 
Yo, Capitan, que estava hecho un veneno, 
Alcfe la mano, y de un bofetoncillo 
No. 300.] 



Hize escupar tres dientes a un herege, 
Creo que se le andava, no fue nada. 

Hugo. Yo se que santa fue la bofetada 
Y que hasta el cielo el eco llegaria." 

JSl valiente Cespedes, Act II. Sc. 1. 

Polemngraphia Nassovica^ authore Oulielmo JBau- 
dartio, Amstelodamii, 1621. A pictorial history 
of the Low-Country war of independence from 
1559 to 1615, in two volumes, oblong quarto. I 
believe it is not scarce, and, except the execution 
of the assassin Balthazar Gherard, the plates are 
not more shocking than the ordinary battle-pieces 
of Wouvermans or Van der Meulen. Baudart is 
as Protestant as Strada is Romish. 

Tragcedie van den Bloedigen Haeg of te Broeder- 
Moord van Jan en Cornelius de Wit, geschiedt de 
20 Oogst-Maendt 1672, binnen's Gravenhage, 
t'Hantwerpen, 12mo., pp. 64, no date. 

I have no evidence that this piece ever was 
acted ; but it might have been, as the eight illus- 
trations are of events concurrent with, but not 
forming part of the tragedy. Each is accompanied 
by descriptive verses. I never saw anything so 
abominable as the sixth and seventh, which re- 
present the brutalities practised upon the bodies 
of the De Witts. The details admit neither de- 
scription nor allusion. The tragedy, though con- 
taining some fustian, is not badly written, and the 
characters are well marked, especially those of 
Johanna the daughter of the pensionary, and her 
devoted, but rather vacillating, lover Fredrick. 
In the first plate the admiral De Witt holds a rope 
in one hand, and a dagger and purse in the other, 
before Tischelaer the barber, who is kneeling, 
and bids him choose between hanging, and pardon 
and pay for killing the Prince of Orange. The 
prince appears in the first act only. He speaks 
like a hero and a patriot, and when mentioned in 
the course of the piece, it is with eulogy almost 
as great as Mr. Macaulay's. The De Witts are 
drawn as traitors and assassins. They are de- 
tected, killed, and sent to eternal punishment. 
In the last act, a citizen having described part* 

* "Een Boots-gast als verwoed die roept en tiert met 

vloecken, 
Omstanders maackt my plaats, ich meet het hert 

gaan soecken. 
My hongert na de spijs, en heeft soo 't staal gedruckt 
Door sijnen boesem in de borst, soo 't hert ontruckt, 
En tot drj'malen toe hem in't gesicht gesmeeten, 
Riep, langt my zout en broodt, ick sal het hert op- 

eeten, 
Soo blusch ick mijneen haat : een ander is 't die 't 

hert 
Maakt, om dit snoo verraat, als eenen schoorsteen 

swert, 
En seyt ; dit's trouwloos hert gevult met nijt en 

wrake, 
Dat alderwitste Wit so swert heeft kommen maken 
Dus is dat dan ooch dit Wit verandert in pick swert." 

P. 57. 
Bad as this is, it is a trifle compared with the pictures. 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



of the atrocities to Margaret the admiral's widow, 
Johanna and Fredrick, Johanna invokes the 
spirits of her father and uncle. They appear, 
and say they are condemned for their treason to 
the excellent prince. The admiral tells Fredrick 
that he must share their pains within an hour. 
Fredrick naturally enough asks, " Whence comes 
the order ? " but being answered, " From hell," 
rather unnaturally obeys, and kills himself; Jo- 
hanna follows his example, and the tragedy ends. 

Mr. Macaulay says, " The Prince of Orange, 
who had no share in the guilt of the murder, but 
who, on this occasion, as on another lamentable 
occasion twenty years later, extended to crimes 
perpetrated in his cause an indulgence which has 
left a stain upon his glory, became head of the 
state without a rival." Though the book is with- 
out date, there can be no doubt that it was pub- 
lished when the events were fresh, and that it was 
intended to be acceptable to the prince. It is 
noticeable that Politieck the agitator (oproerder) 
who discovers the plot and acts as the prince's 
agent throughout, tells the mob, while exhorting 
them to break open the prison, that the prince 
will reward them for their work.* The imputa- 
tion of complicity could not then have been so 
offensive as it is now. 

I have trespassed upon your space at some 
length, as I believe this tragedy to be " rare," and 
am sure that it is " curious." It is referred to in 
an inquiry about the burial-place of the De Witts, 
in Navorschers Bijblad, 1853, p. cxlvi. 

Does any cotemporary historian say what be- 
came of Tischelaer the barber ? H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



BANKERS CHEQUES. 



(Vol. 



p. 9.) 



Although strictly a legal subject, I think a prac- 
tical man, who has been largely concerned in the 
receipt and payment of cheques, may venture to 
offer a valid opinion, especially as the cases cited by 
Bailey and Chitty are based on the usage of mer- 
chants. The use of crossing a cheque is for the 
same purpose at the clearing-house as inserting 
your name in a book, to show to whom it belongs. 
A public company, for example, issuing a cheque 
is liable to pay it to some representative of a firm 
who may not be authorised to receive money for 
such firm, although he may have authority to con- 
tract for goods in its behalf. The crossing ensures 
the payment of the cheque through a banker other 



* " Politieck. Verwacht kort yets verholen, 
Den avond is nabj', ziet wel op u behoedt, 
En peynst op Burger- recht, en waerom ghy het doet ; 
Den Prins u loonen sal, bevecht maar dees victorie, 
En d' Haagsche Borgery, in eeuwige memorie." — P. 43. 
No. 300.] 



than the one upon whom the cheque is drawn ; 
and as bankers keep the accounts only of creditable 
persons, a rogue cannot get it cashed, except 
through the medium of a shopkeeper or other 
person who keeps an account with a banker. 
Another use as regards bankers is saving the time 
and risk incurred in paying cheques in bank-notes 
or gold, and economising the use of the precious 
metals. The answers, then, to the questions put,, 
are : 

1. A banker may lawfully refuse to pay a 
cheque drawn on himself, although it be crossed,, 
with or without the words " & Co. ; " because the 
banker, as agent to the drawer of the cheque, is 
instructed by the crossing to pay it through another 
banker, and not in cash over the counter. If he 
so pay it, the banker takes the risk. 

2. Many decisions are to be found in the books 
affirming the principle that, although a person re- 
ceiving a cheque is not bound omissis omnibus 
aliis negotiis to go to the bank to get it cashed, 
he must nevertheless present it in a reasonable 
time after taking it, which time is a question for 
a jury. In practice, however, it is thought that 
if a cheque be taken for payment the day after it 
is received, there is no laches ; but if kept a second 
day, the holder has only recourse to the drawer 
in case of its nonpayment, and has no claim 
against the party from whom he received it. 

3. The stamping of cheques and making them 
payable to order, converts them entirely into bills 
of exchange ; the object of crossing is then effected 
by indorsement, which may be on the face as well 
as on the back of the instrument. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



NOTES ON TREES AND FLOWERS. 

(Vol. xi., p. 460.) 

Mr. Walcott has turned over a new leaf in 
"N. & Q." in his excursus on leaves and flowers, to 
which many of your correspondents will no doubt 
contribute until the joint store becomes a real 
"curiosity of botany." The author of "Bota- 
nical Notes from Theophrastus " (Vol. xi., p. 239.) 
can, I am sure, furnish many a Note. I add to 
Mr. Walcott's list the following. The ivy equally 
with the vine was dedicated to Bacchus. 

1. Surnames to Families or Persons. 



Alder. 
Ash. 
Ashfield. 
Ashton, &c. 
Beechcroft. 


Berry. Leek. Plum. 
Bramble. Onion. Tree, 
Chestnut. Perry. Vine. 
Dates. Plant. Wood. 

2. Christian Names. 


Rose. 


Margaret (daisy). 



" With Margaret's growing in ordinance." 

Chaucer, The Assembly of Ladies. 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



" One is called see of the day. 
The daisee, a floure white and rede, 
And in French called La Beth Margarete." 

Chaucer's Ballads. 

o. Held place in Heraldry. 

Trefoil. Beech (crest of Beechcroft). Wheat. 
6. Have been adopted as National Emblems. 

We may surely add to those given, the cogni- 
zance of the gallant Marquis of Montrose, — a 
stalk of oats. 

Is it quite correct to say that the '' white lily " 
was the badge of Florence ? Should it not rather 
be — 

The white lily, the Ghibelline badge. 

The red lily, the Guelphic, whether at Florence or 
elsewhere ? 

11. Have many interesting Associations. 

The elder has been supposed by some to be the 
tree on which Judas hanged himself, thus : 

" Judas he japed 
With Jewen silver, 
And sithen on an eller 
Hanged hymselve." 

Piers Plowman's Vision, 693 — 696. 

According to others it was a fig-tree : 

" Qumret aliquis qua ex arbore Judas se suspenderit ? 
Arbor ficus fuisse dicitur, idque cecinit Juvencus poeta 
hoc carmine 

Informen rapuit ficus de vertice montem." 

— Barradius in loco. 

Amongst the plants which derive their names 
from birds should be Inserted the larkspur. 

If the yew is note-worthy for its Importance to 
a nation of archers, the aspen is hardly less so : 

" The shooter ewe, the aspe for shaftes plaine." 

Chaucer, The Assembly of Fowles. 

Whilst the elm is hardly less sepulchral than the 
yew: 

" The piller elme, the coffer unto caraine." — lb. 
Of the ivy Kennett {Glossary) tells us — 

" The booths in fairs were commonly drest with ivy 
leaves, as a token of wine there sold, the ivy being sacred 
to Bacchus ; so was the tavern bush or frame of wood, 
drest round with ivy, forty years since, though now left 
off for tuns or baiTels hung in the middle of it. This 
custom gave birth to the present practice of putting out a 
green bush at the door of those private houses which sell 
drink during the fair ; and perhaps this is all the mean- 
ing of hanging out the broom when the wife is absent, 
and the husband left at liberty to entertain his friends." 
— See « N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 518. 

Chaucer says : 

" As the gaye leuesell at the taverne is signe of the 
wine that is in the seller." — Parson's Tale. 

An Italian writer of the fifteenth century, 
wishing to throw ridicule on a literary opponent, 
tells him that his grandfather was a tavern- 
keeper at Pistola : 

" Avi autem tui caupona Pistorii primum floruit non 

No. 300.] 



dignitate aliqua sed fronde ilia f estiva qu& ad vinum et 
popinas meretrices et ganeos invitabat." — Shepherd's 
Life ofPoggio, note, p. 35. (2nd edition). 

The cross was generally supposed to have been 
made of four kinds of wood, signifying the four 
quarters of the globe, or all mankind ; it is not, 
however, agreed what those four kinds were, or 
their respective places in the cross. Some say 
the four incorruptible woods were the palm, the 
cedar, the olive, and the cypress ; hence the line, — 
" Ligna crucis palma cedrus cupressus oliva." 

Instead of the palm and the olive, some claim the 
honour for the pine and the box ; whilst others 
say it was made entirely of oak. (See Barradius 
in loco ; Southey's Common-place Book, second 
series, p. 382. ; and his Omniana, " The Tree of 
Life," p. 276.) In Curzon's Monasteries of the 
Levant, we are told that the cedar was cut down 
by Solomon and burled on the spot afterwards 
called the pool of Bethesda; that about the time 
of the passion of our Blessed Lord the wood 
floated, and was used by the Jews for the upright 
parts of the cross. 

Amongst the titles of honour given to the 
Blessed Virgin in the " Ballad in Commendation 
of our Lady, " in the old editions of Chaucer, we 
find, 

" Benigne braunchlet of the pine tree." 

W. Denton. 



The following additions may be made to the 
classified lists given by Mr. Walcott : 

Flowers and Trees dedicated to Deities. 
Narcissus to Ceres. 
Cornel Cherry-tree to Apollo. 

Floioers and Trees bearing the navies of their original Homes, 
China Aster. American Aloe. 

Virginia Cactus. Carolina Jasmine. 

Indian Jasmine. 

Christian Names derived from Flowers and Trees. 
Angelica. Basil. Hortensia. 

May. Rosa. 

Larkspur and Cock's-foot Grass may be added 
to those named from birds ; Buckwheat, Ele- 
phant's Foot, Foxglove, and Dog's-tail Grass, to 
those called after animals ; and Snakeweed and 
Spanish Viper's Grass to those taking their names 
from reptiles. 

To the " more curious " names mentioned by 
Mr. Walcott, 

Garland Flower, Indian Shot, 

Hottentot's Bread, Solomon's Seal, 

Adam's Needle, 

may be added. A. C. M. 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORBESPONDENCB. 

Photographic Copies of Oil Paintings. — I shall feel 
greatly obliged if any photographer -who has successfully 
practised the copying of oil paintings, either by the glass 
or paper process, will communicate the details of his mode 
of manipulation through the medium of " N. & Q." 

I saw recently at Antwerp some exquisite photographs 
taken from landscapes in oil, which had been taken by 
the collodion process. Unfortunately I was unable to 
learn the particulars of manipulation. Gallo-Niteate. 

Photography applied to Archceology. — It will be remem- 
bered by our photographic, as well as our non-photo- 
graphic readers, that we were led to introduce the subject 
of that Art into our columns by our strong conviction of 
its utility to antiquaries ; — we might have added, seeing 
how easily accurate copies of manuscripts may be made by 
it, to men of letters also. The point which we urged has 
now been made the subject of a distinct pamphlet by the 
Rev. F. A. S. Marshall, M.A., of Peterborough, to which 
we recommend their attention. It is entitled Photography, 
the Importance of its Application in preserving Pictorial 
Records of History and Art, with an Appendix containing 
a practical Description of the Talbotype Process as adopted 
and practised by the Author during the last Seven Tears : 
and is an earnest and eloquent appeal in favour of an Art 
to the practical utility of which we really see no limits. 

Recovery of Silver from wasted Hypo. — I beg to add to 
what I last wrote on the recovery of the silver from waste 
hypo., an improved mode of proceeding by which complete 
precipitation is always ensured. 

Take the old hypo., put it in a pan or capsule of porce- 
lain, and heat it to boiling ; then add some liquor potassse, 
and boil up for some minutes; then add to the boiling 
liquid some syrup of glucose or of honey, no matter 
which, — and immediately all the silver precipitates out. 
If we omit this latter addition, we are not sure of precipi- 
tating all the silver. The liquid had better be boiled up 
for a few minutes more, before being filtered. Filter when 
hot, as it passes more easily, and wash the residue on the 
filter ; then, by treatment with aqua regia, it is converted 
into chloride of silver ; and this is treated as usual, and 
converted into nitrate of silver. F. Maxwell Lyte. 

Maison Ramonet, Bagnferes de Bigorre, 
June 20, 1855. 

Large and small Lenses. — "The discussion on this 
subject," observes the editor of the Liveipool Photographic 
Journal in his July number, " continues, with more 
courtesy than it commenced, between Mr. Sutton and 
Mr. Grubb. Mr. Mascher of Philadelphia, in a paper read 
before the Franklin Institute in that city, fancies he has 
incidentall}' set the question at rest in favour of small 
lenses, by the results of some experiments upon the dis- 
tances which should be preserved between the two points 
of view for a stereoscope. Considering that this required 
to be more than the real distance between the two eyes, 
because the eyes of the camera, the lenses, were so much 
larger than human eyes, and that there must be a relative 
proportion between the size of the eyes and the distance 
between them, he began to reduce the aperture of his 
diaphragm, and finding certain advantages arise in sharp- 
ness and distinctness, he tried two holes one-sixtieth 
of an inch in diameter, and two and a half inches apart, 
and in twenty minutes during sunshine he obtained with- 
out lenses two stereoscopic views of a house of very satis- 
factory character, on the same plate, without moving the 
camera. He refers to the distortion occasioned in small 
objects by viewing them with such monstrous eyes as 
lenses six inches in diameter, and the flatness given by 
thus assuming a power of seeing round a corner ; and 
No. 300.] 



states that in one of his views — a street — taken without 
a lens, but through a minute aperture, the most promi- 
nent (nearest) object was only one foot from the camera, 
and the most distant a mile off, yet both equally in per- 
fect focus. In conclusion, he suggests that we ' should 
look to the perfection of small lenses, and chemicals that 
will work instantaneously even with them. The human 
eye produces instantaneous pictures.' The parallel is 
daring and plausible, but we fear scarcely logical. The 
pictures produced by the human eye have no chemical 
effect to produce on the retina, but are as instantaneously 
effaced by closing the lids or turning awaj' the eyes. Bu^ 
they are active and thoughtful photographers in America, 
and what secrets they may extort or coax from nature 
no one can predict." 



3^tp\itg ta Minor <!SHitviti. 

Marriages made up in Heaven (Vol. xi., p. 486.). 
— I sent, or purposed to send, to " N. & Q.," the 
above question myself. All I have been able to 
gather upon this subject is this : the saying has 
been long common in our own country, but is not 
confined to it. The Analysis Evangeliorum, 1631, 
contains a German version of the proverb : 

« Es wird kein Eh auff Erd vollbracht, 
Sie wird zuvor in Himmel gemacht." 
" There is no marriage made upon earth : it was before 
made in Heaven." 

or, in the author's words : 

"Connubia priusquam in terris fiant, in coelo defi- 
niuntur." 

The cases of Adam, Isaac, and Jacob, &c. are 
appealed to in proof of the correctness of the sen- 
timent. 

There is another version of the German proverb :, 

" Die Ehen werden im Himmel geschlossen." 

" Marriages are arranged in Heaven." 

I have been wont to think the saying owed its 

origin to the words of our Lord in Matt. xix. 6. : 

"What therefore God hath joined together, let not man 
put asunder." 

But it appears that a similar notion prevails in 
China, as Davis relates. A little book on the' 
Chinese by Rev. T. Phillips says (p. 73.) : 

" From the Buddhists, who say that those connected 
in a previous existence become united in this, the Chinese 
have borrowed the notion that marriage goes by destiny. 
A certain deity, whom they style Yue-laou, the old man 
of the moon, unites with a silken cord all predestined 
couples ; after which, nothing can prevent their union." 

Perhaps the manifest importance of the marriage 
contract very early led to its being invested with 
a sacred character, and to its being regarded as 
under the especial direction and ordination of the 
Divine Being. B. H, C. 

General Braddock (Vol. xi., p. 283.). — I ob- 
tained the following particulars from an old 
man, a small farmer at Martham in this county, 
the grand-nephew, and, as it would appear from 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



his statement, the only representative of the 
general. 

General Braddock had two sisters and two 
brothers. Of the brothers, Daniel he believes to 
have died s. p. at Gimmingham, in Norfolk. One 
of the sisters — Fanny, who inherited a large for- 
tune from her sister who died unmarried, after 
gambling it all away — committed suicide. She 

also was unmarried. The remaining brother 

Braddock had two sons, James and Daniel ; this 
latter also died s. p. James died at Buxton, in 
Norfolk, leaving two sons ; James, who, as well 
as an only son, died at Sco Ruston ; and William 
Braddock, my informant. Also three daughters : 
1. Martha, late the wife of William Bexford, ma- 
riner, of Great Yarmouth ; 2. Elizabeth, married 
to John Pye, and then to John Riches (these all 
died at Scotlow) ; and 3. Anne, also twice mar- 
ried, first to Wm. Derry, and then to Edmund 
Wright : she died at Rollesby in 1854. William 
Braddock has several sons and daughters, who are 
all tradespeople. The old man has no papers on 
the subject, except a shield of arms : Sa., a bend 
engrailed arg., in the sinister chief an eagle dis- 
played or ; crest, an eagle displayed sa. This he 
inherited from his sister Martha Bexford, who he 
thinks had other documents, now lost, relating to 
the general's family. He believes himself entitled 
to a large sura of money, and remembers the late 
Lord Suffield of Blickling proposing to his grand- 
father to aid him in establishing his claim. I 
should be happy to correspond with Serviens on 
the subject. E. S. Tayi,oe. 

Ormesby St. Margaret. 

Scottish Nursery Song (Vol. xii., p. 28.). — I 
believe I can help your correspondent C. D. L., 
who dates from Greenock, to another verse of the 
nursery song about which he inquires. In the 
Fortunes of Nigel, Lord Glenvarlock's follower, 
after being elevated by George Herriot's good 
cheer, sings as follows : 

" do ye ken Elsie Marlie, honey ? 
The wife that sells the barley, honey ; 
For Elsie Marley's grown sae fine, 
She winna get up to feed the swine. 
do ye ken," &c. 

Perhaps, if the querist could trace out any de- 
scendant of " Sir Richard Moneyplies of Castle 
Collop," he might obtain the rest of the ballad. 

A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

There can be little question that the song to 
which your correspondent C. D. L. alludes is our 
north country lyric " Elsie Marley," the refram 
of which runs — 

" And do you ken Elsie Marley, honey ? 
The wife that sells the barley, honey : 
She lost her pocket and all her money 
A back o' the bush i' the garden, honey." 
It may be seen in the Bishoprick Garland, edited 
No. 300.] 



by our late venerable friend Sir Cuthbert Sharp.* 
The song is scarcely of sufficient interest for re- 
production in the columns of " N. & Q.," but if 
your correspondent will communicate with me 
personally, I shall be happy to furnish him with a 
copy of it. RoBEET S. Salmon. 

" Ovum anguinum" (Vol. xi., p. 346.). — L. M. 
M. R. thinks the glass ring, described by J. M. 
Rolls, is Druldical ; and would gladly purchase it, 
if he is inclined to part with it. Any answer 
addressed to L. M. M. R., under cover to John 
Spottiswoode, Esq., Spottiswoode, Lauder, Ber- 
wickshire, would reach the inquirer after the Ovvm 
anguinum. L. M. M. R. 

Door-head Inscription (Vol. x., p. 253. ; Vol. xi., 
p. 353.). — " Ce que Dieu garde est bien garde." 
There was a reason for this inscription being in 
French. It was doubtless chosen on account of 
its bearing an allusive reference to the name of 
the worthy clergyman by whom the parsonage 
house was built, the Rev. G. Dugard. E. H. A. 

Wayside Crosses (Vol. xi., p. 505.). — Your 

correspondent's inquiries into the history of mor- 
tuary crosses may perhaps be forwarded by some 
remarks on those memorials in Belgium. It i& 
scarcely possible to travel a few miles in that 
country, either on the high roads or on those less 
frequented, without finding one or more of those 
pious remembrances placed by the wayside. 
Those less pretending record the death, " near 
that place," of some one who, by his own negli- 
gence, or through the carelessness of others, there 
lost his life. Others destined to record a murder 
are generally more elevated ; as the one at Lub- 
beck, dated 1688, erected by the high road from 
Louvaine to Deist, on which is a long inscription 
recording the particulars of the murder of a 
priest, whose life was there sacrificed while tra- 
velling towards Malines. In the historic village 
of Willebroek is one made more than usually 
conspicuous, to record the murder of the burgo- 
master of the place. The inscription, literally 
translated, is as follows : 

«B. I. D. (pray for the soul of) Glis Vardicht, of old 
Bourgmester of Willebroek, here near murdered by twa 
soldiers with him lodging, the 21st May, 1696. Eartl^ 
renew by his offspring, 1829." , ' 

There are several crosses remaining in Norfolk, 
but I believe none possessing any particular merit 
as works of mediaeval art. The cross in Langley 
Park, the seat of Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, 
Bart., is perhaps one of the best existing example* 
of a single shaft ; the enrichments are full and 
very perfect. About the year 1801 the late Sir 
Thomas B. Proctor removed this cross from the 

[* This lyric will also be found in Richardson's Locat 
Historian's Table-book, Legendary Division, vol. iii. 
p. 103.] 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



original site near the Abbey, where it stood on 
what was called the Warren, and near the swamps 
of the Yore. It was in this removal the shaft 
was broken, but afterwards satisfactorily repaired, 
and now serves to mark the angular junction of 
the boundaries of Langley, Chedgrave, and 
Thurlton. Henri Daveney. 

Pierre Marteau ("Vol. xi., p. 503.). — Here is a 
book printed by Pierre Marteau : 

" Moyens surs et honnetes pour la conversion de tous 
les Herltiques (in two parts'), Dernifere edition revUe et 
corrig^e. A Cologne, chez Pierre Marteau, 1683." 

The author of this book has, I have heard, never 
been discovered, and the printer's name is fic- 
titious. B. H. C. 

EsTie, Ushaw, and Flass (Vol. xi., pp. 425. 495.). 
— ^"I think there can be no doubt that the name of 
Esh is derived from the tree so called by our 
Anglo-Saxon ancestors. In this neighbourhood 
the ash tree is pronounced esh at the present day. 
I have heard the same pronunciation in Suffolk ; 
and it probably prevails in the spoken language of 
other parts of England. 

In the earliest parish register, which commences 
in 1585, the name is written Eshe : in later re- 
gisters Esh and Ash. 

Thus the name is, in fact, identical with that 
found in Campsey Ash, Ash Bocking, and many 
other places. 

This etymology is recognised at an early period : 
thus, Thomas de Eshe is expressed in Latin as 
Thomas dt; Fraxino. 

The name Ushaw has been usually referred to 
Yew Shaw, or Yew Wood. Several yew-trees of 
great antiquity are still standing there. St. Cuth- 
bert's College at Ushaw for some time adopted 
for a device a yew-tree, with the motto "Durando 
ssecula vincit," taken apparently from Ambrose, 
de Fide resurrectionis, " Multasque setates quaedam 
arborum corpora reparata transmittant, ut ipsa 
durando vincant scECulay 

I have been searching in vain, during nearly 
twenty years, for the etymology of Flass. What- 
ever be the origin of the term, it appears to imply 
a low position ; for in the immediate neijjhbour- 
hood of Durham, towards the north-west, near 
the Infirmary, there is a lane called Flass Lane. 
It is well that the existence of this name should 
be on record, as the lane itself is nearly destroyed 
by the construction of a railway embankment and 
other works across it, and will no doubt soon cease 
to enjoy a "local habitation and a name." 

It should be mentioned that Flass Lane, near 
Durham, does not lead towards Flass, in the 
parish of Esh. 

While referring to local etymology, I would 
subjoin a Query respecting the word peth, imply- 
ing a wooded glen. It occurs in this neighbour- 
No. 300.] 



hood in Hagpeth, a wood near Flass ; in Brance- 
peth, five miles from Durham, where Lord Boyne 
has a seat, Brancepeth Castle, the former part of 
the same word being found in Brandon, a hill 
between Brancepeth and Ragpeth ; in Claypeth, 
now Claypnth, a comparatively low part of the 
city of Durham ; and locally, as a detached word. 
Thus I was told, sometime since, that a fatal ac- 
cident had occurred to a person " going down the 
peth," a hollow, wooded part of the road about 
half a mile from Durham, on the way to Brance- 
peth. Temple Chevalueb. 
Esh Parsonage. 

I am sorry to see that no one, not even Mr. 
Surtees, attempts to show the derivation of this 
name. Besides the place of that name on the 
south side of the Tweed, I have a large hill farm 
some fifteen miles to the north of it, also called 
Flass, and I have long been anxious to discover 
the etymology of it, but in vain. I do hope that 
some of your antiquarian correspondents may yet 
be able to give an explanation of it. J. Ss. 

Lightning and Bells (Vol. vi., p. 508. ; Vol. vii., 
p. 343.).— 

" A few days since, as two men residing in the com- 
mune of Bezant (Gers) were ringing the church bells, as 
is the custom in many parts of the country on the ap- 
proach of a thunder-storm, the lightning struck the tower; 
and the electric fluid, penetrating into the belfry, killed 
them both." — Galiqnani's Messenger. 

w. w. 

Malta. 

Captain Jones (Vol. xii., p. 30.). — Is not this 
the individual on whom the following good-natured 
epitaph was written ? 

" Tread softly, mortals, o'er the bones 
Of the world's wonder, Captain Jones ! 
Who told his wondrous deeds to many, 
But never was believed by any ! 
Posterity ! let this suffice — 
He swore all's true — yet here he lies!" 

W. J. Bebnhard Smith. 
Temple. 

Archbishop Abbot (Vol. xi., p. 500.). — The 
notice of Archbishop Abbot, as above, recalled to 
my mind the painful incident which resulted from 
his love of field sports, viz. his accidentally killing 
a eamekeeper with an arrow, which his grace 
aimed at one of the deer at Bramshill Park ; and 
may T, in connexion with the subject, ask, who was 
Dr. Josiah Frampton, the compiler, or the reputed 
compiler, of the very interestinnj series of conver- 
sations between himself and Bishop Stillingfleet, 
called Three Dialogues on the Amusements of 
Clergymen* My copy is the 2nd edition, pub- 
lished by Cadell and Davies, in 1797 : it was, I 
think, reprinted in 1820. May the Dialogues be 
regarded as authentic ? G. 

Baram. 



July 28. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



CromweWs Skull (Vol. v., p. 382. ; Vol. xi., 
p. 496 ). — I send you an addition to the notices 
supplied by your correspondent H. G. D. re- 
specting Cromwell's skull. It is taken from an 
Additional MS. in the British Museum, and is 
dated "April 21, 1813." It does not appear that 
Sir Joshua Reynolds was so desirous of possessing 
this interesting relic as is stated in your corre- 
spondent's " cutting." 

« The head of Oliver Cromwell (and it is believed the 
genuine one) has been brought forth in the city, and is 
exhibited as a favour to such curious persons as the pro- 
prietor chooses to oblige. An offer was made this morning 
to bring it to Soho Square to show it to Sir Joseph Banks, 
but he desired to be excused from seeing the remains of 
the old Villanous Republican, the mention of whose very- 
name makes his blood boil with indignation. The same 
offer was made to Sir Joseph forty years ago, which he 
then also refused. The history of this head is as follows : 
Cromwell was buried in Westminster Abbey, with all the 
state and solemn ceremony belonging to royalty ; at the 
Kestoration, however, his body, and those of some of his 
associates, were dug up, suspended on Tyburn Gallows for 
a whole day, and then buried under them ; the head of the 
Arch Rebel, however, was reserved, and a spike having 
been driven through it, it was fixed at the top of W^est- 
minster Hall, where it remained till the great Tempest at 
the beginning of the 18th century, which blew it down, 
and it disappeared, having probably been picked up by 
some passenger. 

" The head in question has been the property of the 
family to which it belongs for many years back, and is 
considered by the proprietor as a relic of great value ; it 
has several times been transferred by legacy to different 
branches of the family, and has lately it is said been in- 
herited by a young lady. 

" The proofs of its authenticity are as follows : it has 
evidently been embalmed, and it is not probable that any 
other head in this island has, after being embalmed, been 
spiked and stuck up as that of a traitor. The iron spike that 
passes through it is worn in the part above the crown of 
the head almost as thin as a bodkin, by having been sub- 
jected to the variations of the weather; but the part 
within the skull, which is protected by its situation, is not 
much corroded ; the wood work, part of which remains, 
is so much worm-eaten that it cannot be touched without 
crumbling ; the countenance has been compared by Mr. 
I Flaxraan the statuary, with a plaster cast of Oliver's face 
taken after his death, of which there are several in 
I London, and he declares the features are perfectly similar. 
I " Mark Noble (whose authority is very questionable) 
tells us that all the three heads (Oromwell's, Ireton's, and 
Bradshaw's) were fixed upon Westminster Hall ; and he 
adds, that Cromwell's and Bradshaw's were still there in 
I 1684, when Sir Thomas Armstrong's head was placed 
between them. 

" A ludicrous circumstance occurred not long ago at 
the British Museum : there is, it seems, in the Ashmole 
Museum, at Oxford, a skull said to be that of Oliver 
Cromwell. A visitor at the British Museum, after having 
seen the curiosities that were there shown him, inquired 
of the assistant, ' Pray, Sir, have you a skull of Oliver 
Cromwell in this house ? ' to which the assistant answered, 
' No, Sir.' ' Well, Sir,' said the stranger, ' I wonder at that, 
as they have one at the Ashmole Museum at Oxford." 

Z. z. 

-S"^. Allan's Day (Vol. i,, p. 399.; Vol. vii., 
p. 500.). — I send you the following extracts from 
No. 300.] 



an account of St. Alban's, In a description of Hert- 
fordshire, which I found in looking over the pages 
of an odd volume of the Universal Magazine. If 
any reliance is to be placed on these statements, 
there seems to have been some reason for the 
alteration in the calendar, to which reference has 
already been made in some of the earlier volumes 
of " N. & Q." Bede, however, asserts that St. 
Alban suffered on the tenth day before the calends 
of July, i. e. June the 22nd. 

" Here Offa built a large monastery for black monks, 
dedicated the same as directed, and enshrined St. Alban's 
bones in a rich and sumptuous tomb within their church, 
with this inscription : — ' Here lieth interred the body of 
St. Alban, a citizen of Old Verulam, of whom this town 
took its denomination ; and from the ruins of which this 
town did arise. He suffered June 17, 293.' " — Vol. viii. 
p. 54. 

" In the most eastern part of the church they show you 
a place where the shrine of St. Alban is said to have been 
fixed with this inscription : — • S. Albanus Verulamensis, 
Anglorum Protomartyr 17 Junii, 293.' " — Vol. viii. p. 55. 

" King Edward VI. after the dissolution of the monas- 
tery granted for the better government of the 

town a charter of incorporation, whereby .... that the 
Mayor and Burgesses shall .... hold three fairs, on 
Michaelmas day, on the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, 
and on St. Alban's day, June 17," &c. — Vol. viii. p. 55. 

E. H. A. 

Deadening Glass Windows (Vol. xi., pp. 409» 
471.). — Mix mastic varnish with a small quan- 
tity of white lead, merely sufficient to dim It ; 
apply It to the Inside of the pane of glass with 
an old, much worn, stumpy, large paint-brush, 
using a very small quantity of the varnish at a 
time, and applying It to the glass with the points 
of the hairs of the brush only. 

I have windows so dimmed, and looking like 
ground glass, twenty-two years ago, as perfect as 
ever, except where the untutored assiduity of a 
new housemaid may have exerted Itself, not quite 
In vain, to scrub off the varnish. J. Ss. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, BTC. 

We transcribe at length the full title of a work which 
will, we doubt not, interest large classes of our readers, 
The Benefit of Christ's Death, probably written by Aonio 
Paleario : reprinted in facsimile from the Italian Edition 
of 1543; together with a French Translation printed in 
1551 ; from Copies in the Library of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, to which is added an English Version made in 
1548 by Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devonshire, now first 
edited from a MS. preserved in the Library of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. With an Introduction by Churchill 
Babington, B.D., F.L.S., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Of the importance of this work to the history 
of the Reformation in Italy, some idea may be formed 
from the fact that the number of copies of it destroyed by 
the Romish Inquisitors was certainly not less than 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



forty thousand, it may have been double that number ; 
and so effectually did they carry on their work of de- 
struction, that Ranke asserts it " entirely disappeared, 
and is no longer to be found ; " and Macaulay remarks 
that " the Inquisitors detected in it the Lutheran doctrine 
of justification by faith alone; thej' proscribed it; and it 
is now as hopelessly lost as the second decade of Livy." 
Happilj' this is not the case ; the original work and early 
English and French translations of it are here preserved, 
and edited with a scrupulous fidelity as creditable to Mr. 
Babington as the scholarship by which he has illustrated 
the history of this remarkable book. 

One of "the most interesting and readable books of the 
present season is Dr. Doran's Lives of the Queens of Eng- 
land of the House of Hanover. The history of the four 
royal ladies — Sophia Dorothea, wife of George I. ; Caro- 
line of George IL, Charlotte of George III., and Caroline 
of George IV. — presents a picture of the Court of Eng- 
land for a period of more than a hundred years. Dr. 
Doran has dissected the manners of the times with free- 
dom, and filled his volumes with anecdotes of court and 
aristocracj', which tell extremelj' well. Whatever may 
have altered amongst us for the worse, it is plain that 
our court has infinitely improved. The tales of vice 
which appear in Dr. Doran's pages in connexion with the 
courts of the first, second, and fourth Georges are sick- 
ening. Great is the relief which the reader receives from 
the renovation of manners effected by Queen Charlotte. 
Still greater would have been the contrast, and the book 
would have terminated more agreeably, if it had come 
within the author's plan to follow the painful life of the 
last Caroline with that of the amiable and benevolent 
Adelaide. Dr. Doran's vivacity of style, and abundance 
of illustration are remarkable ; nor is he less successful 
in carrying his reader cleverly, and with continuous 
interest, through the occasional details which are ne- 
cessarv for the development of his story. 

Of feendrik Conscience, the Flemish novelist, it may 
be trulv said that he awoke one morning and found 
himself famous. Writing in a language which is familiar 
to comparatively few, he owes to his own merits alone 
the European reputation which he now enjoys. There is 
a truthfulness in his pictures which is perfectly delight- 
ful ; while the whole moral tone of his works is such as 
to make them a valuable addition to the light reading 
division of a library. Messrs. Lambert, therefore, are 
doing good service in publishing well- executed trans- 
lations of them; and if the whole of the series is as 
carefuHv done as the first three volumes — which con- 
tain 1. The Curse of the Village, and the Happiness of 
being Rich ; 2. The Lion of Flanders, or the Battle of the 
Spurs ; 3. Veva, or the War of the Peasants — we cannot 
doubt that the speculation will be as profitable to them 
as creditable to Hendrik Conscience. 

We have good news for our historical students — the 
third and fourth volumes of Macaulay's History of Eng- 
land are announced for early publication. Many of our 
readers, too, will be glad to hear that Messrs. Blackwood 
are about to issue in monthly volumes a collected edition 
of the writings of Professor Wilson. The series will 
commence with the world-renowned Nodes Amhrosiana. 

Books Received. — A Manual of Gothic Stone Carv- 
ing. — A Manual of Gothic Mouldings and continuous 
Ornaments. These form the first portions of a series of 
Manuals of Gothic Ornament, which it is hoped may find 
their way into the workshop in the same way as the 
publisher's (Parker of Oxford) more expensive publica- 
tions have found their way into the offices of architects. 
The design is a good one, and can scarcely fail of success. 

Frederic the Second, by the Rt. Hon. T. B. Macaulay. 
Another of Mr. Macaulay's brilliant essays, reprinted, and 

No. 300.] 



at a very appropriate time, in Longman's Traveller'i 
Library. 



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1000 


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8 


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ETC., APPLY TO THE ChISF OfFICB, 5. GrESHAM 

Street, Londok. 



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J. Carter Wood, Esq. 



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M.P. 
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W.Whateley,Esq., Q.C. i George Drew, Esq.; 

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Phvsician.— 'WiUia.m Rich. Basham.M.D. 

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WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, 
Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster 
Abbey. — The Westminster Hospital was in- 
stituted in the year 171U, and was the first of 
the kmd in the United Kingdom established 
and supported by Voluntary Contributions. 
The prmciple of admission is based chiefly on 
the ur-;ency and nature of the symptoms of the 
patient, and during the past year 1,123 acci- 
dents and urpent cases have teen received as 
in-patients without letters of recommendation, 
while 14,381 out-patients have obtained medical 
or surgical assistance with no other claim than 
their sufferings. Patients are constantly re- 
ceived from distant districts ; admission is also 
freely given to Foreigners who are ill and in 
distress ; and relief is often afforded to patients 
who are sent as urgent cases by the clergy of all 
denominations, 'ihc number of patients ad- 
mitted in 185« was, in-patients l,75i,out-patients 
19,545 — total 21,299. The demands on the Hos- 
pital are annually increasing, while the income 
from all sources has seriously declined. Thos^ 
in 1854,— ^ 

,^^ . ^ »• «?• 

The income was - - . 4667 2 10 
■The expenditure - - - 6112 19 2} 



Deficiency 



- 1445 16 4J 



These increasing demands on the Hospital 
may, to a certain extent, he explained by the 
increase of population. Three wards, affording 
accommodation for 42 patients, are still un- 
furnished and unoccupied ; and to open these 
wards, and thus render the Hospital as efficient 
as originally designed, would require an in- 
creased income of 1500Z. a year, besides the cost 
of fitting up the wards for the reception of the 
patients. Efforts are being made to increase 
the Hospital accommodation of the metropolis, 
but the duty is more imperative to make the 
accommodation already existing available. 
No new establishment is rejiuired, no additional 
officers, no increased buildings, but only means 
to receive and support in a long -tried establish- 
ment an increased number of the poor and 
destitute. 

During the recent epidemic 170 cases of 
Asiatic cholera were admitted , and 10) of the 
number wtre restored to health and their 
families. 3496 cases of choleraic diarrhoea were 
also received, and, through prompt attention, 
the further progress of disease was p- evented. 
The Committee earnestly APPEAL to the te- 
nevolent for AID, and trust that the extent 
and value of the medical and surgical relief 
afforded to the poor from all parts may cause 
assistance to be given to the funds of this, the 
oldest metropolitan Hospital supported by vo- 
luntary contributions. 

Donations and Subscriptions are thankfully 
received by Messrs. Hoare & Co., 37. Fleet 
Street ; by Messrs. Bouverie & Co., 1 1 . Hay- 
market ; by the Joint Treasurers, the Hon. 
Philip P. Bouverie and Peter R. Hoare, Esq. ; 
or by the Secretary. 

F. J. WILSON, Sec. 



fTRELOAR'S COCOA-NUT 

J FIBRE MATTING, DOOR-MATS, 
MATTRESSES, and BRUSHES, gained the 
Prize- Medal at the Great Exhibition. At the 
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42. LUDGATE HILL, 

will be found an Assortment of COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MANUFACTURES, unequalled for 
Variety and Excellence, at the most moderat« 
Prices. 

Catalogues Free. 



9190 MILNERS' HOLDFAST 

^ -*■ ^ and FIRE-RESTSTING SAFES 

(non-conducting and vapourising), with all 
the Improvements, under their Quadruple 
Patents of 1840-61-.M and 1855, including their 
Gunpowder Proof Solid Lock and Door (with- 
out which no Safe is secure). ■ -' 

THE STRONGEST, BEST, AND CHEAJRu 
EST SAFEGUARDS EXTANT. 

MIT.NERS' PHCENIX (212°) SAFE 
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and Extensive in the World. Show Rooms, 
6. and 8. Lord Street, Liverpool. London 
Dep6t, 47a. Moorgate Street, City. Circulars 
Free by Post. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[July 28. 1855. 



MURRAY'S 

JtAXlMVirunt RSADZIO-G. 

This Day, Fcap. 8vo., U. 

MAXIMS AND HINTS ON 

ANGLING, ETC. By RICHARD PENN. 
Also, Post 8vo.,2».6d. 

LIFE OF GENERAL WASH- 
INGTON. By WASHINGTON IRVING. 
Vol. I. 

Already Published, 

THE REJECTED ADDRESSES. U. 

NOTES FROM LIFE. By HENRY TAY- 
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BEAUTIES OF BYRON — PROSE AND 
VERSE. 3s. 

CROKER'S HISTORY OF THE GUIL- 
liOTINJi. Is. 

LOCKHART'S SPANISH BALLADS. 
is.6d. 

MAHON'S HISTORY OF THE "FORTY- 
FIVE." 3s. 

MATJREL'8 LIFE OF WELLINGTON. 
l$.6d. 

LAYARD'S POPULAR ACCOUNT OF 
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MILMAN'S FALL OF JERUSALEM. 
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3s. 6d. 

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MAHON'S STORY OF JOAN OF ARC. 
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MVRRAT'S 
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The FOLLOWING WORKS are now 
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THE WORKS OF OLIVER 
GOLDSMITH. Edited, with Notes, by 
PETER CUN JN INGHAM, F.S.A. Vignettes. 
4 Vols. 8vo. 7s. 6d. each. 



JOHNSON'S LIVES OF THE 

ENGLISH POETS. Edited, with Notes, by 
PETER CUNNINGHAM, F.S.A. 3 Vols. 
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HI. 

GIBBON'S DECLINE AND 

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THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, 
No. CXCin., is published THIS DAY. 

Contents : 
I. THE LATE ARCHDEACON HARE. 
XL. CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, 
rn. THE POPE'S INTERFERENCE IN 

SARDINIA. 
IV. ROMANS AT COLCHESTER. 
V. FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE 
CONCEPTION. 

VI. MEMOIRS OF REV. SYDNEY 

SMITH. 
Vn. ADVERTISEMENTS. 
VIII. THE SUPPLY OF PAPER. 
IX. OBJECTS OF THE WAR. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Now ready, 53rd Thousand, I8mo., 2s. 6d. 

LITTLE ARTHUR'S HIS- 
TORY OF ENGLAND. By the late 
LADY CALLCOTT. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for 13 stamps. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules for Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management ; together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
Ufe. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
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Sale of exceedingly choice and important 
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MESSRS. S, LEIGH SOTHEBY 
& JOHN WILKINSON, Auctioneers 
of Literary Property and Works illustrative of 
the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on 
Wednesday, Ist of August, and Three following 
Days, at 1 o'clock precisely, an exceedingly 
choice assemblage of rare, valuable, and beau- 
tiful Books, including the library of a literary 
character, and contaming the first edition of 
the Holy Scriptures in English, known as 
" Coverdale's Bible," mdxxxv. j other early 
editions of the Holy Bible, printed by Day, 
Barker, &c. ; beautiful specimens of Typogra- 
phy of the Fifteenth Century ; choice Illu- 
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of Shakspeare's Plays ; Spenser's Works, and 
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the Coronation Ceremonials ot' Napoleon, 
Charles X., George IV., and other crowned 
heads ; numerous works on Costume ; rare 
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Maj' be viewed Two Days previous, and Ca- 
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GOXiD XMCEDAIi FOR GEMC 
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CRESTS engraved on Rings and 
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PULLEYN'S COMPENDIUM. 

One Volume, crown 8vo., bound in cloth, 
price 6s. 

THE ETYMOLOGICAL COM- 
PENDIUM : or, PORTFOLIO OP 
ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS : relating to 

Language, Literature, and Government. 
Architecture and Sculpture. 
Drama, Music, Painting, and Scientific Disco- 
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Articles of Dress, &c. 
Titles, Dignities, &c. 
Names, Trades, Professions. 
Parliament, Laws. &c. 
Universities and Religious Sects. 
Epithets and Phrases. 
Remarkable Customs. 
Games, Field Sports. 
Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week. 
Remarkable Localities, &c. &c. 

By WILLIAM PUXLEYN. 

The Third Edition, revised and improved, 

By MERTON A. THOMS, ESQ. 

" The additions to this book indicate the 
editor to be his father's own son. He deals in 
folk lore, chronicles old customs and popular 
sayings, and has an eye to all things curious 
and note-worthy. The book tells everything." 
— Gtutlemwi's Magazine. 

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" An invaluable manual of amusement and 
information."— Jfoj-nmcr Chronicle. 

" This is a work of great practical usefulness. 
Ti \s ti Notes and Chieries in miniature. . . . 
The revision which the present edition of it has 
undergone has greatly enhanced its original 
value." — £ra. 

London : WHXIAM TEGG & CO., 
85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 



WA. LLOYD, 164. ST. JOHN 
( STREET ROAD, LONDON, 

DEALER IN MARINE LIVING 
ANIMALS, 

SEA- WEED, ARTIFICIAL SEA- WATER, 
AND MARINE AND FRESH-WATER 
AQUARIA. 

A Stock of small Aquaria, ready fitted up 
with Weed, Shells. Rockwork, and Marine 
Life, always on hand, at very moderate prices. 



THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

A great variety of Marine Animal Life can 
be preserved in health and vigour in these 
Aquaria, without trouble to the possessor. 
The difficulty of procuring a supply of Sea- 
water for occasional renewal has been for 
some time completely overcome by the suc- 
cessful composition of Artificial Sea-water, 
in which the Animals and Plants thrive and 
grow. . 

The smaller Aquaria, when fitted up with 
pieces of rock, shells and sea- weed, and stocked 
with animal life, are objects of the highest 
interest and beauty ; and they yield to the 
observer the hitherto unattainable pleasure of 
watching at his ease, in tiis own apartments, 
the curious inhabitants of the Ocean. 



CBVBB'S ZiOCKS, 

TiriTH all the recent Improve- 

TI ments. Strong Fire-proof Safes, Cash, 
and Deed Boxes. Complete lists of sizes and 
prices may be had on application. 

CHUBB ft SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, 
London ; 28, Lord Street, Li verpool j 16. Mar- 
ket Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, 
W ol verhampton. 



Printed by Tbohas Ci,ark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by Georok Bkli, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Pari>h of St. Dunstau in the West, in the 
City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid Saturday. July 28, 1856. 



NOTES AND QUEEIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 
roE 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

•• 'Wlien found, make a note of." — Caftaik Cuitlk. 



No. 301.] 



Saturday, August 4. 1855. 



f Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5 !• 



CONTENTS. 



If OTBf : — 



Page 

The Inquisition, by B. B. Wiffen - 77 

"Wines of tlie Ancients - - - 79 
Coleridge's Lectures, by William John 

Fitzpatrick - - - - 80 
Bemarkable Case of Longevity, by 

Henry H. Breen - - - - 80 

Boetical Wills, by G. Blencowe - - 81 

HiKOR Notes ; — " Almighty Dollar " 

— Parallel Passages — Error in Cary's 
"Dante" - - - - - 83 

Queries: 

Johnson's "Life of Dryden" - - 83 

Armorial Bearings of Clcre Family, by 

Kev. E. S. Taylor - . ' . 84 

Dr. Thomas Deacon - - - 85 

Minor Qdkbies : —Will of Thomas 
Lord IIoo — Longevity of Lawyers — 
Abb<? Carlo Fea — Elizabeth Bayuing, 
Countess of Sheppy _ Prize Office _ 
Bell's " Annotattd Edition of the 
British Poets : " Sir E. Godfrey's House 

— Scotch Version of Psalms — Tune 

of Diana — " Oderunt peccare," &c. 

Mrs. Middletou — Bells of Cast Steel 

— " The Reception " _ Dr. WoUaston 
on " Drowning " _ Simile of a Woman 
to the Moon _ Engravings in Illustra- 
tion of Horace _ Absorbent Paper - 86 

Minor Qoeribs with Answers : 

The Sphinx — Orator Henley — Mara- 
bout — Earle's " Microcosmography " 

— " Love h, la Mode " - - - 88 

Heplies : — 

" De joie salli A p^s," by James F. Fer- 
guson - - - - - 88 

" The Chapter of Kings," by Cuthbert 
Bede, B. A.,&c. - - - - 89 

Napoleon's " Descente en Angleterre " 
Medal, by Edw. Hawkins - - 90 

Nursery Hymn - - - - 90 

PHOTOGRAPHrc CORRESPONDENCE : — 

Method of obtaining several of the 
natural Colours in Photographic Pic- 
tures - - - - - 91 

Beplies to Minor Queries : " An- 
nual Register " — Kelic of Wolfe — 
Goring, L jrd Goring — Renown — lu 

tercepted Letter of Father Patrick's 

Vesica Pi scis — Ebrardus and.lolian- 
nes de Garlandia — Lines on gigantic 
Coal — Cratch : Cat's Cradle — Ben- 
net's " Paraphrase " — Forlorn 

Seventy -seven — List of Stone Crosses 

— Lady Jane Home: Lord Robert 
Kerr — Anonymous Hymns — Alma- 
nacs of 1819 and 1855 — " The Man in 
the Iron Mask "— Archdencon Furney 
_ Buchan's Ballads — Oflicers killed 
at Preston Pans — " The Celestial Di- 
vorce "— Semlegue : Sanlegue, &c. - 92 

Miscellaneous : — 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XII No. 301. 



NOTICE, to which we beg the parti- 
cular attention of our Subscribers.— 
"Notes and Queeies" has been re- 
gistered for the transmission of its 
stamped copies through the Post-Offlce 
beyond the limits of the United King- 
dom. Subscribers are reminded, that 
the stamp must be exposed, and the 
special postage (where requiredj mmt 
be prepaid. The special postage varies 
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freely through the Post is e.vtended 
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Unstamped copies of " Notes and 
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tfirough the Post-Office to all places 
within tJie United Kingdom fincluding 
the London- districtj, loith a penny 
postage stamp affixed. 



NEW WORK BY THE LATE BISHOP 
OF LINCOLN. 

In 8vo., price 63. 

DOME ACCOUNT of the EX- 

O TERNAL GOVERNMENT and DIS- 
CIPLINE of the CHUKCH OF CHRIST, 
during the FIRST THREE CENTURIES. 
By JOHN KAYE,D.D., late Lord Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place ; 

Of whom may be had. by the same Author 
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1. SOME ACCOUNT OF 

THE COUNCIL OF NICJEA. is. 

2. NINE CHARGES TO THE 

CLERGY. 10s.6d. 



In 8vo., price 1 5s. 

A TREATISE on ALGEBRA, 
VOL. 1. ; ARITHMETICAL AL- 
GEBRA. By GEORGIA PEACOCK, D.D., 
F.K.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Dean of Ely, and 
late Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

RIVINGTONS. Waterloo Place, and WHIT- 
TAKER i f O., Ave Maria Lane, London; 
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FOR TRAVEI.IiSXtS IHT 
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This Day, copiously illustrated with Coloured 
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PRICK AND MARBLE 

I) ARCHITECTTTRE IN ITALY. IN 
THE MIDDLE AGES : NOTES of a lOUR. 
By GEORGE EDMUND STREET, F.S.A., 
Architect. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



This Day is published, price 12s. 6rf., Part I. 
of the 

RUINS OF THE PRINCIPAL 
MONASTIC HOUSES OF YORK- 
SHIRE. Photograpliieally delineated by 
W. PUMPHREY. 

It is proposed to complete the above Series in 
from Eight to Ten Parts, each Part containing 
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accompanied by a sheet of descriptive Letter- 
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and contain one or more of tlie Abbeys or 
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anything of the kind offered to the public. 

PART I., price 123. 6fZ., contains Six Photo- 
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THE CLOISTERS ; THE REFECTORY ; 
THE CHOIR; BRIDGE OVER THE 
SKELL ; GENFRAL VIEW -SOUTH- 
EAST ; GENERAL VIEW — SOUTH- 
WEST. 

PART II., price lOs. M., containing Five 
Photographs of RIEVAULX ABBEY and 
KIRKHAxM PRIORY ; and - 

PART III., price lOs. 6d., containing Five 
Photographs of KIRKSTALL ABBEY, are 
nearly ready. 

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\J BOOKS. — W. PEDDERS CATA- 
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ANNOTATED EDITION OF THE 

ENGLISH POETS. 

This Day, the First Volume, 2s. 6cZ., clotli, of 

BUTLER'S POETICAL 

WORKS. With Memoir and Notes, by 
ROBERT BELL. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



BERBV. 

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, 
by MESSRS. MOODY & NEWBOLD, 
on Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday, the 
8th, 9th, and 1 1th Aug., lS55,on the Premises of 
the Owner, Wardwick, Derby, at II each Day, 
among other effects, antique furniture, curious 
arms, ancient stained glass, antique table glass, 
casliets, keg, tankard, and other antiquities 
and curiosities, pictures, prints, and books. 

Catalogues may be had on application to the 
Auctioueera, Derby. 



Jturt published, New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for 13 stamps. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE; or, 
How to Live and What to Live for; 
with ample Rules for Diet, Reirfmen, and Self- 
Uana^ement ; together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MANN, 39. Cornhill ; and all Book- 
sellers. 



Just published, with 4 Illustrations, price 
Is. 6d. 

PARABLES from NATURE. 
By MRS. ALFRED GATTY, Author of 
"The Fairy Godmothers." 

" Pretty little tales with allegorical truths of 
infinite value, and the work is nicely illus- 
trated." — English Journal of Education. 

London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 
Now ready, crown 8vo. , price 3s. 

LECTURES ON GOTHIC 
ARCHITECTURE, chiefly in relation 
to ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH AT DON- 
CASTER. By EDMUND BECKETT DE- 
NISON, M.A., one of Her Majesty's Counsel. 
With Seven Illustrations. 

liOndon : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



WA. LLOYD, 164. ST. JOHN 
• STREET ROAD, LONDON, 

DEALER IN MARINE LIVING 
ANIMALS, 

SEA-WEED, ARTIFICIAL SEA- WATER, 
AND MARINE AND FRESH- WATER 
AQUAKIA. 

A Stock of small Aquaria, ready fitted up 
with Weed, Shells. Rockwork, and Marine 
Life, always on hand, at very moderate prices. 

Valisneria, Chara, Nitella, Anacharis, and 
Other living fresh-water Plants, Insects, Mol-: 
lusks, Fish, &c. 



THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

A great variety of Marine Animal Life can 
be preserved in health and vigour in these 
Aquaria, without trouble to the possessor. 
The difficulty of procuring a supply of Sca- 
water for occasional renewal lias been for 
Borae time completely overcome by the suc- 
cessful composition of Artificial Sea^water, 
in which the Animals and Plants thrive and 
grow. 
_The smaller Aquaria, when fitted up with 
pieces of rock, shells and sea- weed, and stocked 
with animal life, are objects of the highest 
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Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST *, 1855. 



THE INQUISITION. 

Such readers of the " N. & Q." as have any 
curiosity on this subject may be referred to 
the article in Vol. x., p. 120., and continued in 
Vol. X., p. 137. In this article a description is 
given of the house of the General Inquisition of 
Madrid, at the time when the tribunal was sup- 
pressed in 1820; and censure is passed upon 
certain writers, English and French, for giving 
currency to a fictitious story of the demolition of 
a palace of the Inquisition near Madrid, in 1809, 
by the French troops under Marshal Soult. The 
story appeared to have been adopted by those 
writers successively, from a narrative purporting 
to have been made by Col. Lehmanowsky, and 
printed In a United States newspaper. In Vol. x., 
p. 246., appear some additional particulars relating 
to the house of the Inquisition, the result of per- 
sonal inspection in the year 1820, from the pen of 
Lord Monson; and in Vol. xi., p. 108., is a com- 
munication from Philadelphia to the " N. & Q.," 
giving the copy of a letter addressed from Ham- 
burg, Clark CO., Indiana, to the editor of the Inde- 
pendent, a New York religious newspaper, written 
from J. J. Lehmanowsky himself, endeavouring to 
support the credibility of the story put forth in 
his name ; into which newspaper it would seem 
that the first article, or some part of It, had been 
inserted from the " N. & Q." His letter mystifies 
and confounds the re-establishment of the Inqui- 
sition as an institution, which was suppressed in 
1809, and restored to power in 1814, with the 
(supposed) reconstruction of an edifice asserted to 
have been destroyed. And again resting, it would 
seem, his apocryphal "Destruction of the Inquisi- 
tion Chemastin" on the circumstance that a de- 
cree suppressing the Inquisition as an institution 
was issued by Napoleon in 1808, during his tem- 
porary residence, from a house of the Duque 
del Infantado's, at Chamartin, near Madrid ; an 
edifice yet standing, and In the gardens of which, 
in 1851, was growing the staple production of the 
United States — the cotton-plant, producing its 
flossy down and ripened seed. An " Inquisition 
Chemastin" never had existence. 

It will have been readily perceived by every 
candid reader of the first article, that its purpose 
was not personal, as Mr. Lehmanowsky by his 
letter would seem to infer ; It was a correction of 
the too easy adoption by some writers on the 
Romish controversy of a narrative to which they 
had lent the authority of their names, copying one 
from another without seeking cotemporary proofs. 
Hence a story that might afford an hour's amuse- 
ment in the columns of the newspaper where it 

No. 301.] 



first appeared, like any similar novelette, seemed 
not improbable, by the currency so given it, to 
become in this country an established fiction 
historical, and to return to the United States 
whence It came, with a more authentic impression 
upon it than at first it possessed. What efforts 
are made by the best writers to clear away the 
fables of history already adopted ! Is it not, then, 
the moral duty of an enlightened age to supply 
the following one with materials for historic ve- 
racity ? That is no generous enthusiasm for liberty 
and religious truth which would needlessly in- 
crease its future perplexity. In works of imagin- 
ation, it may be considered a high species of merit 
to adapt the facts of history In the most perfect 
manner to Romance ; but the best interests of 
literature are concerned in preventing the adapt- 
ation of undistinguishable romance to history. 
And as a certain sense of mystery envelopes every- 
thing relating to the Inquisition, which excites the 
imagination by its secrecy, it may be worth while 
to reply to Mr. Lehmanowsky's defence of his 
story, by producing here evidence of a more formal 
kind than the issue of a question of mere literary 
and historical interest might otherwise seem to 
require. 

This can fortunately be done from a set of 
papers now before me, officially drawn up, wit- 
nessed and signed, confirming the statements made 
in the first article as to the fabulous character of 
the said story. It would be scarcely suitable to 
occupy the columns of the " N. & Q." with a literal 
transcript of these papers and their technicalities ; 
it may be sufficient to give a summary of the 
declarations here, as the originals, when they have 
served their purpose, will probably be deposited 
in one of the great public libraries. 

The case opens with a statement of the subject- 
matter made as follows: — That In 1850, a book 
was published in Dublin, printed for Philip Dixon 
Hardy & Sons, entitled The Inquisition, its His- 
tory, Influence, and Effects. That in this volume 
of 250 pages, from pp. 209. to 214., is inserted an 
account of the demolition of the palace of the 
Inquisition (near Madrid) In the year 1809, by 
order of Marshal Soult, as related by the com- 
manding officer who destroyed the palace. That 
this account is altogether romantic and fabulous, 
and Is censured as such in pp. 20, 21. of an ap- 
pendix to a Spanish work by Gonzales de Montes, 
printed in 1851 ; that, trusting to the correctness 
of this appendix, the censure was extracted and 
printed (with remarks to the same purpose) In a 
London literary periodical, called " Notes and 
Queries ;" but that a gentleman named J. J. Leh- 
manowsky has written a letter in the United States, 
published in the " N. & Q.," re-affirming the cer- 
tainty of the facts ; and adding in his letter, that 
having arrived at the age of eighty, he shall take no 
trouble to correct or reply to any farther remarks 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



on the subject ; and that, as the assertions of this 
gentleman tend to belie the statements made in 
the appendix to the work by Montes, it is thought 
proper to establish their correctness by the cor- 
roborative testimonies of several respectable and 
truthful persons ; in order to place before him 
and others conclusive proofs that all the incidents 
of his story are fictitious. 

Hence it is here demonstrated, that the follow- 
-ing assertions are untrue: — 1. That a house of 
the Inquisition existed in 1809, with walls and 
■turrets of solid construction, five miles from Ma- 
-drid. 2. That it was defended by armed guards 
rin the service of the Inquisitors, 3. That it was 
handsomely furnished, having also paintings and 
a library. 4. That the Inquisitor-General had 
bis residence there. 5. That three regiments of 
Prench troops, under INIarshal Soult, went to de- 
molish it ; and that they mined and blew it up, 
with a tremendous explosion. On the contrary, 
it is certain, that there never were more houses 
for the use of the Inquisition of Madrid than one, 
recently built in the Calle de Maria Cristina, 
No. 4. nuevo ; and another where the Inquisitor- 
General resided, still existing in the Calle de 
Torija, No. 14. nuevo, opposite the present resi- 
dence of Lord Howden, the English ambassador. 

Firstly, D. F. A , Knight of the Order of 

Carlos III., &c. born, resident, and a proprietor in 
Madrid, aged sixty-four, living in the Plazuela 
, appeared before the judge and notary ; de- 
clared that he understood the subject-matter, and 
offered his positive declaration, that the relation is 
false that there had been in 1809 a house of the 
Inquisition five miles distant from Madrid, neither 
at Chamartin, solidly constructed with walls and 
turrets, or defended by guards in the service of 
the Inquisitors. That it is untrue that three regi- 
ments of French troops went to demolish it, min- 
ing and blowing it up ; because there never were 
more houses, for the use of the Inquisition of 
Madrid, than one, recently rebuilt in the Calle de 
Maria Cristina, No. 4. nuevo ; and another, still 
retaining its ancient form, in the Calle de Torija, 
No. 14. nuevo, where the Inquisitor-General 
lived ; aiid this stands opposite the house now 
occupied by the English ambassador, Lord How- 
den. That as to the furniture, pictures, and library, 
he is ignorant ; but if these were supposed to be 
in a house of the Inquisition five miles from 
Madrid, the assertion is fabulous ; because there 
never existed such an one. That he <;an truly 
make this declaration, because, in the year 1809, 
he had been residing at Madrid from his birth ; 
that he well knew the two buildings belonging to 
the Inquisition ; and that he never saw the guards 
or heard of the supposed demolition, which, if it 
had occurred, must have come to his knowledge : 
and this declaration, made under oath, being read 
over, he ratifies it. 

No. 301.] 



Secondly, D. J. G. V. , born at Villafranca^ 

resident at Madrid, Calle de , formerly hold- 
ing an appointment in the department of Receipts. 
of Espolios, since suppressed, aged eighty-four^ 
appeared, and stated that he understood the sub- 
ject. That the story is fictitious that there was, 
in 1809, a house of the Inquisition five miles from 
Madrid, neither at Chamartin, walled, turreted, 
and defended by guards ; that three regiments 
of French troops, under Marshal Soult, went to> 
destroy it, mining and blowing it up. That the 
Inquisition of Madrid never had more than twa 
houses ; one now rebuilt in the Calle de Cristina,. 
No. 4. nuevo ; and another in the Calle de Torija,. 
No. 14. nuevo, where the Inquisitor- General re- 
sided, opposite the house occupied by the presenfe 
English ambassador. Lord Howden. That he 
can declare this without the shadow of a doubt f 
be(!ause, in 1809, the period referred to, he at- 
tended daily at his oflice in the suppressed depart- 
ment of Receipts of Espolios, which was held at 
that time, and continued to be held down to the 
summer of 1811, in the Calle de Leganitos ; the 
first house on the right, entering by the Plazuela 
de Santo Domingo, in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the said houses of the Inquisition, their 
situation and appearance being well known to him; 
that they never were fortified ; that he never saw 
armed guards, or heard the supposed ruinous ex- 
plosion. That he is ignorant of the kind of fur- 
niture, pictures, and library ; never heard of their 
supposed grandeur : and he makes the declaration? 
under oath, and, being read over, he ratifies it. 

Thirdly, appeared D. J. H. de R , advocate, 

native and resident of Madrid, holding office in- 
the central university of Madrid, residing in the 

Plazuela , aged sixty-eight, and declared to 

be false beyond any kind of doubt that in 1809 
the house of the Inquisition existed five miles 
from Madrid, or at Chamartin, walled, turreted, 
and defended by soldiers at the service of the In- 
quisitors. That it is farther fictitious, that three 
regiments of French troops went to demolish it, 
and having mined it, blew it up. On the contrary, 
there were never more than two houses used by 
tha Inquisition of Madrid ; one recently rebuilt 
in the Calle de Maria Cristina, No. 4. nuevo. No. 8.. 
formerly ; and another still retaining its ancient 
form in the Calle de Torija, No. 14. nuevo, 
formerly No. 1., Avhere the Inquisitor-General 
resided, situated opposite the house now occupied 
by tlie English ambassador, Lord Howden. That 
he knew nothing of the furniture, ])ictures, or 
library there ; but in reference to those in the 
supposed house of the Inquisition five miles from 
Madrid, according to Mr. Lehmanowsky's account,, 
he could at once declare the description fictitious, 
because such an edifice never existed. That he- 
could truly make this declaration, beciuise, in 
1809, he ha4 been living at Madrid from his birth. 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



and perfectly knew the situation of the houses 
of the Inquisition ; never heard the report of 
the invented demolition, or saw any peculiar 
guards. Made under oath, and, being read over, 
ratified. 

Fourthly, D. L. L , native of Alicante, re- 
sident and propi-Ietor in Madrid, Calle de J , 

aged seventy-four, declared positively, that It was 
not true that, In the year 1809, there was any 
house of the Inquisition five miles distant from 
Madrid, nor at Chamartin, with walls, turrets, and 
defended by armed guards. That It Is equally 
f\ilse that three regiments of French troops were 
fient to demolish It ; that they mined and blew it 
«p. But, on the contrary, it is certain there 
never were but two houses of the Inquisition of 
Madrid ; one, now rebuilt, in the Calle de Maria 
Cristina, No. 4. nuevo, No. 8. formerly ; and 
another still retaining Its ancient form In the Calle 
de Torija, No. 14. nuevo, formerly No. 1., where 
the Inquisitor-General resided, in front of that 
now occupied by the English ambassador. Lord 
Howden. That, as to the furniture, pictures, and 
library, he knew nothing; but as respects those 
mentioned In the relation derived from Mr. Leh- 
manowsky, existing in a house of the Inquisition 
five miles from Madrid, he could at once declare 
the description untrue, and a pure Invention, for 
such an edifice never existed In the manner de- 
scribed; and that he could truly make such 
declaration, having been domiciled at Madrid for 
sixty-seven years, living there in 1 809 ; well know- 
ing the two houses of the Inquisition, and never 
till now heard of the demolition, or saw the guards 
who were the supposed defenders. 

These are testimonies of persons of known cha- 
racter, present at the place, and of an age to be 
perfectly cognizant, at this distance of time, of all 
the public events of the period. They are a sub- 
stantial summary of a set of papers drawn up In 
form, consisting of the following parts, which may 
be worthy of mention as a curiosity in them- 
selves :* — A request to make a statement of the 
subject ; the recorder's Avarrant allowing it ; the 
declarations of four witnesses ; the recorder's de- 
claration of the hearing and approval of witnesses' 
veracity ; delivery of copy, three notaries verify- 
ing the signature of the judge, notary, and re- 
corder : the j udge verifies those of the notaries ; the 
llegent of the Audiencia, the judge's ; the Minister 
of Grace and Justice, the Regent's ; the political 
director, the minister's ; the English Consul, the 
minister's, in these words : 

" I hereby certify, that the foregoing seal and signature 
are those ofHcially employed by Don Miguel de los Santos 
Alvarez,«Political Director in the office of her Catholic 
Majesty's Minister for Foreign Affairs . . . 

" Frederick Berxai., H. M.'s Consul." (Sealed.) 



[* We have seen these documents. — Ed. "K&Q."] 
No. 301.] 



And, finally, the Under Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, the English Consul's : 

" I certify that I believe the above signature, ' Frederick 
Bemal,' to be the handwriting of Frederick Bernal, Esq™, 
her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Madrid. 

WoDEHOUSE, 

Under Secretary of State. 
1855." (Seal.) 

B. B. WlFJFEN. 



WINES OF THE ANCIENTS. 

. I should be obliged to any of your readers, 
learned in the history of wines, who would Inform, 
me why those of the ancients were so much 
stronger than any known in modern times. That 
they were so, must be inferred from the fact,, 
familiar to every reader of the classics, that the 
Greeks and Romans always drank their wine 
largely diluted with water. The proportions of 
the mixture were various, according to the quality 
of the wines, and the taste of the drinkers ; but, 
generally, there was a much greater quantity of 
water than of wine. Heslod recommended the 
proportion of three to one : but some wines re- 
quired to be still farther weakened. In the Odys- 
sey we read, that the wine of Maron, the minister 
of Apollo, In Thracian Ismarus, was so strong, 
that, when he drank It, a single cup was mingled 
with twenty of water : 

" Tbv S' ore ttCvouv jiAeAiijSea olvov epvBpov, 
'Er Se'iras e(in-Ai;!ra! vSaro; ava elKOcri. fx^Tpa 
Xev-"—Od. IX. 208. 

This must be understood as a proof of the strength 
of the wine, not of the priest's temperance. But 
It may be said, that is one of those travellers' tales 
with which Ulysses amused the good king Alci- 
nous after supper ; and this potent wine is as 
fabulous as the beverage of Circe, which trans- 
formed men into swine. Pliny, however, states, 
that in his time the Maronean wine in the same 
part of Thrace was of equal strength : 

" Durat etiara vis eadem in terra generi, vigorque in- 
domitus." — Lib. xiv. cap. iv. 

It Is true, he goes on to contradict himself ;^ 
for he says that the consul Mutianus, when he was 
In that country, found that the wine was mixed, 
with water in the proportion of one to eight : 

" Quippe cum Mutianus ter consul ex his qui nuper- 
rime prodidere, sextarios singulos octonis aquae nusceri 
compererit prajsens in eo tractu." 

But what shall we think of the following strange 
tale, related by AthenaBus, on the grave authority ■ 
of Aristotle ? (I quote from Mr. Yonge's trans- 
lation, in Bohn's Classical Library) : 

" And Aristotle says, that the wine called the Sama- 
gorean wine is so strong, that more than forty men were 
made drunk with a pint and a half of it, after it had been 
mixed with water." — Deipnosophists, book x. c. xxxv. 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



S^Such stories as this make one suspect that the 
ancients were acquainted with the art of distilling 
alcohol ; though it is generally believed that this, 
like gunpowder, is an invention of which the 
moderns may boast. (P. Q/c, vol. ix. p. 23.) 

It may be said that, in former times, Bacchus 
was a powerful divinity, and has since been 
deposed; but I am not quite satisfied with that 
explanation. F. 



COLERIDGE S LECTURES. 

If I do not greatly mistake, I remember having 
seen repeatedly in your columns, about nine 
months since, some references to, and inquiries 
after, Coleridge's literary lectures in 1811, which 
it was feared had been lost irrevocably. One of 
your correspondents, a friend I believe of Cole- 
ridge's, informed the readers of " N. & Q." that 
he had some stenographical notes in his possession 
of the lectures referred to, and shortly after the 
announcement gratified the admirers of the great 
man by publishing them.* A few evenings ago, 
in looking over the file of the Dublin Correspon- 
dent, a dead-and-gone newspaper, I observed what 
I now inclose. The journal was edited by a 
barrister of eminence named Townshend, and 
generally contained more literary matter, and 
more special reports of lectures, sermons, &c., 
than the majority of its cotemporaries. 

" Mr. Coleridge delivered his first lecture at the Hall of 
the London Philosophical Society, on Monday evening 
the 25th ult., to a numerous and respectable audience. 
The subject of this lecture, which was the introductory 
discourse, was the cause of false criticism, especially in 
poetry ; and these the speaker divided into incidental and 
permanent. The incidental he stated to be such as gave 
to the persons of the present age an undue propensity to 
decide and condemn, summarilj', beyond the powers of 
discrimination possessed by the censurer. The permanent 
causes alleged were, the averseness of the mass of mankind 
to the exercise of the thinking faculty, the loose and in- 
accurate use of the terms expressive of excellence or 
defect, and the vicious propensity of the majority to 
judge of books by books, instead of consulting the living 
oracles of nature and man. Mr. Coleridge concluding by 
disclaiming, in a very animated manner, any inclination 
to a hasty and intemperate censure of his cotemporaries, 
to injure any man in his fair fame, to hold up individuals 
to contempt and scorn, or to involve on any occasion an 
attack on character with the liberal exercise of cri- 
ticism." 



« Dec. 17, 1811. 
" Mr. Coleridge, having concluded the preliminary dis- 
cussions on the nature of the Shakspearian drama', and 
the genius of the poet, and briefly noticed Lovers Labour^ 
Lost, as the link which connected together the poet and 
the dramatist, proceeded, in his seventh lecture, to an 
elaborate review of Romeo and Juliet, a play in which are 



[* Mr. Collier's valuable communications on this 
subject will be found in " N. & Q.," Vol. x., pp. 1. 21. 57. 
117. — Ed. "N. &Q."] 

No. 301.] 



to be found all the individual excellences of the author, 
but less happily combined than in his riper productions. 
This he observed to be the characteristic of genius, that 
its earliest works are never inferior in beauties, while the 
merits which taste and judgment can confer are of slow 
growth. Tibalt and Capulet he showed to be repre- 
sentatives of classes which he had observed in society, 
while in Mercutio he exhibited the first character of his 
own conception; a being formed of poetic elements, 
which meditation rather than obser^'^ation had revealed 
to him ; a being full of high fancy and rapid thought, 
conscious of his own powers, careless of life, generous, 
noble, a perfect gentleman. On his fate hangs the cata- 
strophe of the tragedy. In commenting on the character 
of the Nurse, Mr. Coleridge strenuously resisted the sug- 
gestion that this is a mere piece of Dutch painting ; a 
portrait in the style of Gerard Dow. On the contrary, 
her character is exquisitely generalised, and is subser- 
vient to the display of fine moral contrasts. Her fondness 
for Juliet is delightfully pathetic. ' What a melancholy 
world would this be without children, how inhuman 
without old age.' Her loquacity is characteristic of a 
vulgar mind, which recollects merely by coincidence of 
time and place, while cultivated minds connect their 
ideas by cause and effect. Having admitted that these 
lower persons might be suggested to Shakspeare by ob- 
servation, Mr. Coleridge reverted to his ideal characters, 
and said, ' I ask, where Shakspeare observed this ? ' (some . 
heroic sentiments by Othello) ' It was with his inward 
eye of meditation on his own nature. He became Othello, 
and therefore spoke like him. Shakspeare became, in 
fact, all beings but the vicious ; but in drawing his cha- 
racters he regarded essential not accidental relations. 
Avarice he never pourtrayed, for avarice is a factitious 
passion. The Miser of Plautus and Molifere is already 
obsolete.' Mr. Coleridge entered into a discussion of the 
nature of fancy; showed how Shakspeare, composing 
under a feeling of the unimaginable, endeavouring to 
reconcile opposites by producing a strong working of the 
mind, was led to those earnest coflceits which are con- 
sistent with passion, though frigidly imitated by writers 
without any. He illustrated this part of his subject by 
a reference to Milton's conception of Death, which the 
painters absurdly endeavour to strip of its fanciful 
nature, and render definite by the figure of a skeleton, 
the dryest of all images, compared with which a square 
or a triangle is a luxuriant fancy. 

" Mr. Coleridge postponed the examination of the hero 
and heroine of the piece, but prefaced his inquiry by 
remarks on the nature of love, which he defined to be 'a 
perfect desire of the whole being to be united to some 
thing or being which is felt necessary to its perfection, 
by the most perfect means that nature permits, and 
reason dictates ; ' and took occasion with great delicacy 
to contrast this link of our higher and lower nature, this 
noblest energy of our humane and social being, with 
what, b}' a gross misnomer, usurps its name ; and as- 
serted, that the criterion of honour and worth among 
men is their habit of sentiment on the subject of love. 

" We ai'e compelled to omit the partial illustration of 
his in the characters of Romeo and Juliet, the continuation 
of which we are promised in the succeeding lecture." 

William John Fitzpatbick. 

Booterstown, Dublin. 



REMARKABLE CASE OF LONGEVITY. 

To the instances of longevity already noticed in 
the pages of " N. & Q.," allow me to add that of 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



81 



Louis Mutel, a negro, who died in this island in 
1851, at the age of one hundred and thirty -Jive 
years. 

Louis Mutel was a native of Maconba, in the 
island of Martinique, where he was born in 1716. 
In 1771 he was married at Fort Royal in that 
island, to his slave Marie Catherine ; and about 
the year 1785 he came and settled at Gros-ilet in 
St. Lucia, where he continued to reside till the 
time of his death. His chief occupation was that 
of a dealer in trade ; he lived in easy circum- 
stances, and was much respected by all classes. 
Some time after his death, an inventory had to be 
taken of his effects, and among his papers was 
found his marriage contract with Marie Catherine 
in 1771, which establishes the fact of his being 
then fifty-five years of age, and consequently of 
his having been born in 1716. From this docu- 
ment (now in the possession of the Honorable 
Mr. Leager, Member of Council and Notary 
Royal, who took the inventory of Mutel's effects) 
I have, by that gentleman's kind permission, made 
the following extracts : 

" Contrat de mariage de Louis Mutel, nfegre libre, et 
de la nommee Marie Catherine, son esclave, du 4 Novem- 
bre, 1771. 

" Pardevant les notaires Royaux en I'isle Martinique, 
r^sidant en la ville du Fort Royal, soussign^s. 

" Furent presents le nomme Louis Mutel, n^gre libre, 
demeurant au quartier de I'ance Mitan, Paroisse Notre 
Dame de la Purification des trois Islets de cette isle, age 
de cinquante-cinq ans, natif du quartier du Maconba, 
Paroisse S»« Anne, de cette dite isle, stipulant pour lui et 
en son nom, d'une part." 

These extracts show that, in 1771, when the 
marriage took place, Mutel was fifty-five years of 
age. In the following the date of the marriage is 
repeated in words at length, and the document is 
authenticated by the signatures of the notaries by 
whom it was drawn up : 

" Fait et pass^ en la ville de Fort Royal de la dite isle 
Martinique, etude de M"' Lefebure, Fan Mil sept cent 
soixanteonze, le quatr« jour du mois de Novembre, du 
matin; aprfes lecture faite les dits futurs epoux ont 
declare ne savoir ecrire ni signer, de ce enquis suivant 
I'ordonnance ; les dits notaires ont sign^, et la minute est 
restee au dit M^ Lefebure, I'un d'eux. 

(Signed) Claa'^ery. 

Lefebure." 

This is followed by a certificate, under the hand 
of Malherbe de Contest, Greffier, showing that the 
marriage contract was published and recorded at 
Fort Royal on November 7, 1772. 

Louis Mutel died at Gros-ilet, on May 9, 1851, 
as appears by an entry in the parish registers, 
which I have carefully verified. 

There are now living in this island several 
persons of the age of ninety or upwards, a cir- 
cumstance which will appear still more remark- 
able when the character of the climate, and the 
scantiness of the population (about 26,000 souls), 

No. 301.] 



are taken into the account. I subjoin the par- 
ticulars : 

Madame Toraille - 
Madame Morel 
Madame Jacob 
Madame Devaux St. Philip 
Mr. Guy de Mareil 
Mademoiselle Vitalis 
Madame Anne 
Madame Coudrey - 
Madame Baudouin - 



coloured - aged 90 


coloured - 


, f 90 


coloured - 


, I 92 


white 


, 92 


white 


, 93 


white 


, 96 


black 


, 102 


coloured - 


, 106 


white 


, 106 



Henrt H. Breen. 



St. Lucia. 



POETICAL WILLS. 

Wills, as a matter of course, are usually drawn 
up by gentlemen learned in the law. Such being 
the case, it is very unusual to meet with any in a 
metrical form. I have, however, met with three 
wills of the latter description ; and thinking they 
are calculated to amuse the readers of " N. & Q.," 
I have transcribed copies of them. 

" The last Will and Testament of William Ruffell, Esq., 
of Skimpling, Suffolk. ' 

" As this life must soon end, and my frame will decay, 
And my soul to some far-distant clime wing its way, 
Ere that time arrives, now I free am from cares, 
I thus wish to settle my worldly affairs, 
A course right and proper men of sense will agree. 
I am now strong and hearty, my age forty-three ; 
I make this my last will, as I think 'tis quite time, 
It conveys all I wish, though 'tis written in rhyme. 
To employ an attorney I ne'er was inclin'd, 
They are pests to society, sharks of mankind. 
To avoid that base tribe my own will I now draw, 
May I ever escape coming under their paw. 
To Ezra Dalton, my nephew, I give all my land, 
With the old Gothic cottage that thereon doth stand ; 
'Tis near Shimpling great road, in which I now dwell. 
It looks like a chapel or hermit's old cell. 
With my furniture, plate, and linen likewise. 
And securities, money, with what may arise. 
'Tis my wish and desire that he should enjoy these, 
And pray let him take even my skin, if he please. 
To my loving, kind sister I give and bequeath, 
For her tender regard, when this world I shall leave, 
If she choose to accept it, my rump-bone may take, 
And tip it with silver, a whistle to make. 
My brother-in-law is a strange-tempered dog ; 
He's as fierce as a tiger, in manners a hog ; 
A petty tyrant at home, his frowns how they dread ; 
Two ideas at once never entered his head. 
So proud and so covetous, moreover so mean, 
I dislike to look at him, the fellow is so lean. 
He ne'er behaved well, and, though very unwilling. 
Yet I feel that I must cut him off with a shilling. 
My executors, too, should be men of good fame ; 
I appoint Edmund Ruffell, of Cockfield, by name ;. 
In his old easy chair, with short pipe and snuff. 
What matter his whims, he is honest enough ; 
With Samuel Seely, of Alpheton Lion, 
I like his strong beer, and his word can rely on. 
When Death's iron hand gives the last fatal blow, 
And my shattered old frame in the dust must lie low,. 
Without funeral pomp let my remains be convej'ed 
To Brent Eleigh churchyard, near my father be laid. 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



This, written with my own hand, there can be no appeal, 
1 now therefore at once set my hand and my seal, 
As being my last will ; I to this fully agree. 
This eighteenth day of March, eighteen hundred and 
three." 

Mr. Ruffell was a gentleman of an ancient and 
highly respectable family. It is well known in 
the neighbourhood where he resided that he gave 
various friends copies of his will. One of his re- 
latives, however, informs me that the original was 
not found after his decease. Possibly, on reflec- 
tion, he was induced to destroy it on the sup- 
position that he had expressed himself a little too 
harshly respecting his brother-in-law, and, more- 
over, beeri somewhat too caustic in his remarks 
on the legal profession. The legacy to his " lov- 
ing, kind sister " was such a one as few ladies 
would feel inclined to accept. The late Mr. Ezra 
Dalton, who succeeded to the testator's landed 
property, &c., was well known to the writer of 
this ; he was a good specimen of an old-fashioned 
gentleman farmer. It is obvious that Mr. Ruffell 
venerated the memory of his father, by desiring 
to be interred near him. This feeling, which 
denotes strong filial affection, appears to have 
prevailed generally from a very early period. 
Thus we find the patriarch Jacolj exclaiming at 
the close of his life, " Lay me in the grave of my 
fathers." 

The following is a copy of the will of the late 
Mr. Joshua West, of the Six Clerks' Office, 
Chancery Lane, dated December 13, 1804 : 

" Perhaps I died not worth a groat ; 

But should I die worth something more, 
Then 1 give that, and mj' best coat, 
And all my manuscripts in store. 
To those who shall the goodness have 

To cause my poor remains to rest 
Within a decent shell and grave. 
This is the will of Joshua West. 

" Joshua West. 
"Witnessed R. Mills. 

J. A. Berry. 
JouN Baines." 

Mr. West died possessed of property, and some 
valuable manuscripts, which were conveyed by the 
above will. 



Curious Testamentary Paper of a North Essex 
Labourer, — 

" The Will of James Bigshy of Manningtree. 

" As I feel very queer my will I now make ; 
Write it down, Joseph Finch, and make no mistake. 
I wish to leave all things fair and right, do you see, 
And my relatives satisfjr. Now, listen to me. 
The first in my will is Lydia my wife, 
Who to me proved a comfort three years of my life ; 
The second my poor aged mother I say. 
With whom I have quarrelled on many a day, 
For which I've been sorry, and also am still ; 
I wish to give her a place in my will. 
The third that I mention is my dear little child ; 
When I think of her, Joseph, 1 feel almost wild. 
No. 301,] 



Uncle Sam Bigsby, I must think of him too, 
Peradventure he will say that I scarcely can do. 
And poor uncle Gregory, I must leave him a part, 
If it is nothing else but the back of the cart. 
And for you, my executor, I will do- what I can, 
For acting towards me like an honest young man. 

Now, to my wife I bequeath greater part of my 
store ; 
First thing is the bedstead before the front door ; 
The next is the chair standing by the fire side, 
The fender and irons she cleaned with much pride. 
I also bequeath to Lydia my wife 
A box in the cupboard, a sword, gun, and knife, 
And the harmless old pistol without any lock. 
Which no man can fire off, for 'tis minus a cock. 
The cups and the saucers I leave her also, 
And a book called The History of Poor Little Mo, 
With the kettle, the boiler, and old frying-pan, 
A shovel, a mud-scoop, a pail, and a pan. 
And remember, I firmly declare and protest 
That my poor aged mother shall have my oak chest 
And the broken whip under it. Do you hear what I 

say? 
Write all these things down without any delay. 
And my dear little child, I must think of her too. 
Friend Joseph, I am dying, what shall I do ? 
I give her my banyan, my cap, and my hose. 
My big monkey jacket, my shirt, and my shoes; 
And to Uncle Sam Bigsby I bequeath my high boots, 
The pickaxe and mattock with which I stubbed roots. 
And poor Uncle Gregory, with the whole of my heart, 
I give for a bedstead the back of the cart. 
And to you, my executor, last in my will, 
I bequeath a few trifles to pay off" your bill. 
I give you my shot-belt, my dog, and my nets. 
And the rest of my goods sell to pay off my debts. 

" Joseph Finch, executor. 
"Dated February 4th, 1839." 

There are several good points and useful hints 
in this document. In the first place it appears 
the testator did not think of making a will till he 
felt " very queer," which serves to remind the 
reader that it is more discreet to attend to a 
matter of this kind when in health, as few per- 
sons can think and act calmly and dispassionately 
when they feel " very queer." Then the choice 
of an executor is a matter to be vrell considered. 
Here we find one appointed who on previous occa- 
sions had proved himself " an honest young man." 
The fatherly, kind, and affectionate manner in 
which the testator speaks of his "dear little child" 
is of a pleasing character. Perhaps It may be said 
he left her a queer legacy. Granted ; but then it 
must be remembered that a man can bequeath no 
more than he possesses ; as a member of the So- 
ciety of Friends would say, " Such as I have I 
give unto thee." The back of the cart given to 
" Uncle Gregory " was for a long time used in the 
cottage for the purpose of a bedstead ; and it pos- 
sessed at least one advantage, as those sleeping In 
it could not very well fall out of bed. The exe- 
cutor being somewhat of a sporting character, the 
" shot-belt, dog, and nets " were the most accept- 
able present that could be offered him. Some in- 
genuity is displayed in drawing up this will, as it 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



contains an inventory of the effects that were in 
the cottage. G. Blencowe. 

Manningtree. 



^^ Almighty Dollar." — This phrase originated 
with Washington Irving, who first made use of 
it in his charming little sketch of a Creole Vil- 
lage, which appeared in 1837. W. W. 

Malta. 

Parallel Passages. — 

"When a body is once in motion, it moveth, unless 
something hinder it, eternally ; and whatsoever hindereth 
it, cannot in an instant, but in time and by degrees, quite 
extinguish it ; and, as we see in the water, though the wind 
cease, the waves give not over rolling for a long time 
after ; so also it happeneth in tliat motion which is made 
in the internal parts of man," &c. — Hobbes. 

Robespierre. " The people will as soon revolt without op- 
pression as the ocean will heave in billows without the 
wind." 

"'True,' says Verginana ; 'but wave after wave will 
roll upon the shore after the fury of the winds is stilled.' " 
—Alison's History. 

" A flowery band to bind us to the earth, 
Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth 
Of noble natures, of the gloomy days. 
Of all the unhealthy and o'erdarken'd ways 
Made for our searching ; yes, in spite of all, 
Some shape of beauty moves away the pall 
From our dark spirits. 

An endless fountain of immortal drink 
Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink." 

Keats's Endymion (opening lines). 

" And let our love. 
Our large true love bend o'er our little babe. 
As the calm grand old heavens bend over earth, 
Kevealing God's own starry thoughts and things, 
So shall the image of our hearts' ideal, 
The angel nestling in her bud of life. 
Smile upward in the mirror of her face, 
A daily beauty in our darken'd ways, 
And a perpetual feast of holy things." 

Gerald Massul's Wedded Life. 

T.S.N. 

Error in Carys " Dante" — Will you allow 
me to call attention to a singular mistake which 
occurs in Gary's Translation of Dante? The pas- 
sages to which I allude are in the 23rd Canto of 
the " Inferno." The poet is describing the punish- 
ment of the hypocrites, when he says (v. 61.) ; 

" Egli avean cappe con cappucci bassi 
Dinanzi agli occhi, fatte della taglia, 
Che 'n Cologna per li monaci fassi." 

Again (v. 100.) : 

" E 1' un rispose a me : le cappe ranee 
Son di piombo si grosse, che li pesi 
Fan cigolar le lor bilance." 

In one of these places, Gary translates the word 
No. 301.] 



cappe, " caps ; " in the other, " bondets : " whereas 
it should have been " mantles," or " cloaks." The 
whole force and beauty of the passage is lost by 
this misrendering ; and the allusion to the mantle 
or cope of lead in which Frederic II. enveloped 
his victims is deprived of its point and meaning. 

T. F. K. 



€L\xtxit6, 

Johnson's " life of drtden." 

Speaking of Dryden's Plays, Johnson says : 
" The plays are said to be printed in the order in 
which they were written." Mr. Gunningham has 
allowed this passage (vol. i. p. 273.) to pass with- 
out comment. But is there any other authority 
for such a statement than a wrong reading of the 
advertisement prefixed to King Arthur, where 
Dryden said : 

" Finding that several of my friends, in buying my 
Plays, &c., bound together, have been imposed on by the 
booksellers foisting in a play which is not mine, I have 
here, to prevent this for the future, set down a catalogue 
of my Plays and Poems in quarto, putting the Plays in the 
order I wrote them." 

This is not saying the Plays were printed in the 
order in which they were written, and Johnson 
shows that be did not believe ^hey were : for 
(p. 280.) " Tyrannic Love," he tells us, " was 
written before the Conquest of Grenada, but 
published after it." I am not here considering 
whether Johnson was right or wrong, but whether 
he had any authority for the " it is said." If he 
had, where is it to be found ? 

Now a word or two as to. the fact itself. Mb. 
Cunningham, in a note to the last passage quoted 
(p. 280.), tells us that Johnson was in error : that 
Tyrannic Love was published in 1670, and The 
Conquest of Grenada in 1672. This, though a 
special correction, strengthens Johnson's general 
assertion ; but then the unnoticed general asser- 
tion is contradicted and disproved by the table 
given in the Appendix (p. 395.). What then are 
the facts ? Does Malone say he had seen, or has 
Mr. Cunningham seen, an edition of Tyrannic 
Love, published 1670? I know that Jones, in 
Biog. Dram., makes mention of such an edition ; 
but Isaac Reed, his predecessor, a more careful 
man, referred only to an edition of 1672. The 
entry in stationers' books proves nothing as to 
date of publication. 
Again, Johnson says : 

" It is related by Prior, that Lord Dorset, when as 
Chamberlain he was constrained to eject Drj'den from his 
office, gave him from his own purse an allowance equal to 
the salary. This is no romantic or incredible act of gene- 
rosity ; a hundred a year is often given to claims less 
cogent by men less famed for liberality. Yet Drj'den 
always represented himself as suffering under a public 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



infliction ; and once particularly demands respect for the 
patience with which he endured the loss of his little 
fortune. His patron might, indeed, enjoin him to sup- 
press his bounty ; but, if he suffered nothing, he should 
not have complained." 

On this foolish, captious comment, Mr. Cun- 
ningham very properly shows that Dryden lost by 
the Revolution more than lOOl. a year ; and that 
Prior refers only to the emoluments of which Lord 
Dorset, as Chamberlain, was obliged to deprive 
him. But more than this was required ; for, if 
Lord Dorset did enjoin Dryden " to suppress his 
bounty," Dryden disobeyed his lordship's orders 
in the very sentence from which Johnson quoted 
the mention of the loss of his little fortune (Ded. 
of Juvenal) ; and Dryden, with a wife to maintain, 
and three children to support, or help to support, 
as appears from the letter to his son Charles 
(p. 390.), and the anecdote of the watch (p. 336), 
might acknowledge Dorset's personal liberality, 
and yet complain that his age was reduced to 
want. Johnson him«elf, without either wife or 
children, did not find a pension of 300/. a year 
equal to his real or imaginary wants. D. J. 



AEMORIAL BEARINGS OP CLERE FAMILY. 

In the chancel of this church is the brass of 
Sir Robert Clere, who died 1529. Each word of 
the inscription, which is in the Tudor character, 
is separated from the next by a small shield bear- 
ing arms ; some of which are of the numerous 
alliances of the Cleres, while others I can find no 
connexion for at all. I shall enumerate them in 
the order in which they occur, giving the names 
of those mentioned in their pedigree, and of which 
there is no doubt. (Some of them are repeated 
once or more.) 

1st, 16 th, and 18 th. A hawk or raven displayed. 
Query Fastolf of Suffolk ? 

2nd. Three spear-heads (or reed-bunches ?) 
Query Reedham ? 

3rd and 21st. Snecke. Gu., a fess or in chief, 
a label of three ermines. 

4th and 8th. Rees. Gu., a chevron ermine be- 
tween three fleurs-de-lys or. 

5th and 19th. Boleyn. Three bulls' heads 
couped, but wanting the chevron. 

6th. Hopton. Arg., a chevron az. in chief, a 
label ermines. 

7th and 22nd. Westlesse. Arg., a chevron 
sable, between three cross crosslets fitche, and 
five billets of the last. 

9th. Quarterly. A bend . . ., and fretty . . . 
impaling a saltire engrailed. Query this last 
Kerdestone ? 

10th. Two chevrdns reversed. A crescent for 
difference. Query Newton ? 

No. 301.] 



11th. Wichingham. Ermine, on a chief sable, 
three crosses pattee or. 

12th. Martel. Gu., three hammers or. 

13th. Three chevronels. Query Clare ? 

14th. Udale, Owydal"^ or Dovedale. Arg., a 
cross moline gu. 

15th. A cross engrailed. Query Ufford ? 

16th. On a chevron, three estoiles. 

17th. Three roses or quatrefoils. 

20th. On a bend three mascles. Query Car- 
leton ? 

23rd. A cross, in dexter chief a dagger. Query 
City of London ? 

24th. Molyns. Paly wavy of six or and gu. 

I can find nothing to enable me to assign, with 
any probability, Nos. 9. 15. 16. 17. and 20. And 
for the assignation of Nos. 1. 2. 10. and 13. I 
have only the following slight grounds : 

1. A hawk displayed sable is assigned, in Daw- 
son Turner's History of Suffolk, to Fastolf of 
Suffolk. Some connexion with the Cleres is not 
improbable, but I find no account of it. 

2. Reedham. Az., three reed-bunches or, im- 
pales Caston on one of the painted windows 
formerly in Paston Hall. Sir William de Reedham 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert de 
Caston ; and his daughter and heiress Margaret 
marf-ied John Berney of Wichingham. A John 
de Berney married Joan, daughter of Barthol. de 
Wichingham, by whom came the estate in that 
parish. His son John lived at Wichingham, and 
was M.P. for Norfolk in the 2nd and 22nd of 
Edward III., with Robert Clere, Esq. Sir Wil- 
liam de Clere, the rebuilder of Ormesby Church, 
married Dionysia, daughter of Sir William Wich- 
ingham, in 1351. 

is this sufficient to account for the arms of 
Reedham on the tomb of one of his descendants ? 

10. Newton. Blomfield's Hist, of Norfolk, s. v. 
" East Tuddenham," says Robert Newton, gent., 

of , Warwickshire, conveyed part of this 

manor to Sir John Clere of Ormesby, and the 
other part having also come to the Cleres, the 
whole was sold by Sir Edward Clere, in Ed- 
ward VI.'s time. 

13. Clare. The manor of Stratton Strawless 
belonged to Richard Fitzgilbert, Earl of Clare, 
and was considered part of the " Honour of Clare." 
A trial respecting it took place in Sir Edward 
Clere's time, in which he was concerned. Will 
any correspondent kindly give me his help ia 
assigning Nos. 9. 15. 16. 17. and 20. ; and finding 
the reason why the other bearings have place 
among the matches of the Cleres, as they were a 
most important family in the county ? 

E. S. Tatloe. 
Ormesby St. Margaret. 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



DR. THOMAS DEACON. 

Can any of your readers give any information 
respecting Dr^ Thomas Deacon, a nonjuring 
bishop, who died at Manchester, February 16ih, 
1753 ? It is ascertained that he went into Hol- 
land in the autumn of 1716, where he lived on 
his own fortune ; that, on his return to England, 
he studied medicine in London under Dr. Mead; 
that he afterwards resided in Manchester, where 
he practised physic in 1719 or 1720, and where he 
was living at the time of the rebellion of 1745, In 
which three of his sons were concerned. He 
officiated in a chapel in Fennel Street, for which 
he published a Collection of Devotions in 1734. 
He was buried in the north-east corner of St. 
Anne's churchyard, where many other members 
of his family are also interred. Mr. Perceval, in 
the Appendix to his Apology for the Apostolical 
Succession (second edition), states that he was 
consecrated bishop by Archibald Campbell and 
Roger Lawrence. This appears to have taken 
place in 1733. 

The following is a list of his writings, to which 
perha{)s some of your readers can add : 

" The Doctrine of the Church of Rome concerning Pur- 
gatory, 1718, 12mo., London. A Complete Collection 
of Devotions, both Public and Private, 8vo., London, 
1734. Translation of Tillemont's Ecclesiastical Me- 
moirs (as far as A. d. 177), 2 vols, folio, 1733-5. A 
Full, True, and Comprehensive View of Christianity, 
8vo., London, 1747. An Apologetical Epistle to the 
Author of Eemarks on Two Pamphlets lately published 
against Dr. Middleton's Introductory Discourse ; in which 
the Preface to those Remarks is considered, 8vo., Lon- 
don, 1748." 

E. T. S. 

[It is much to be regretted that we have no good bio- 
graphical account of this remarkable man and admirable 
scholar. We are enabled, from various sources, to supply 
a few additional particulars to those furnished by our cor- 
respondent. In 1715 Deacon was residing in London, 
and drew up the speeches for the Rev. Justice Paul and 
John Hall, Esq., who were concerned in the rebellion at 
that time (Byrom's Remains, vol. i. p. 178.), and was 
probably present at their execution. A Presbyterian 
teacher at Rochdale, of the name of Owen, in the preface 
to the second edition of a pamphlet, entitled Jacobite and 
Nonjuring Principles freely examined, states that Deacon 
attended these two individuals on the scaffold, and that 
he likewise absolved them. This is denied by Deacon, 
who says : " I did not ofiSciate with those unfortunate 
gentlemen in their dying moments ; the clergyman who 
did was the Rev. Francis Peck, M.A., formerly of Trinitj' 
College, Cambridge; but neither he, nor any other 
person, did there and then absolve them." (^Gent.Mag., 
vol. xviii. p. 206.) About three months after this event 
Deacon went to reside in Holland, where he lived on his 
own private resources. On his return to London he be- 
came the pupil of the celebrated Dr. Mead, physician to 
George II., whom Deacon styled " the best of friends, and 
the very worthy and learned Dr. Mead." 

In 1745, during the rebellion under the Pretender, 
Deacon was residing at Manchester as a medical prac- 
titioner. Three of his sons joined the standard of Charles 
Edward Stuart, in what was called the Manchester regi- 

No. 30L] 



ment, commanded by Colonel Townlej'. At this time it 
appears Deacon had an interview with the Pretender at 
his lodgings, which afterwards rendered him obnoxious 
to the government : for, according to his own statement, 
" his house was searched for papers by military violence, 
under colour of a warrant signed by two justices of the 
peace, who (he says) have no authority to issue warrants 
in such cases ; that it was attacked more than once by a 
furious mob and unrestrained soldiery; that he lived "for 
some time under constant apprehensions of its being 
pulled down to the ground, and of his being compelled to 
remove his children out of their beds to prevent their 
being buried under its ruins." (^Gent. Mag., vol. xviii, 
p. 206.) Owen accuses Deacon with having visited the 
Court of the Pretender for the purpose of obtaining abso- 
lution for having sworn allegiance to George I. He says : 
" I dare tell you that our present government has enemies, 
and what kind of men they are. Be it at Bologne or 
Avignon, or whatever other place that your vagrant idol 
keeps up the mock state of a court, I dare tell you that 
the man who visits it to procure an absolution for having 
abjured Popery and the Pretender, and sworn allegiance 
to King George, and yet calls himself a good Protestant 
and a good subject, either affronts other men's under- 
standings, or betrays the weakness of his own." (Owen's 
Letter, p. 7.) Again, in a postscript (p. 156.), Owen adds : 
" Should the reader be at a loss to judge who that good 
Protestant is, who visited the Pretender's Court to pro- 
cure an absolution for having sworn allegiance to King 
George, 1 refer him. Sir, to you as my interpreter." 

On July 17, 1746, Thomas Theodorus Deacon, one of 
the Doctor's sons, was indicted at the special commission, 
holden in Southwark, for appearing in arms against the 
king as captain in the Manchester regiment ; and being 
found guiltj', was executed with eight of his companions 
on Kennington Common on the 30th of the same month. 
After he was decapitated, his head was taken to Man- 
chester and fixed on the Exchange. On one occasion, it 
is said, that when the Doctor was passing the Exchange 
where the head of his son was suspended, he took off his 
hat, and remained for a short time, as it is conjectured, in 
silent prayer for the departed spirit of his child. This 
appears probable, as the Doctor strenuously defended the 
practice of " offering and praying for the faithful departed, 
as delivered in Scripture and by tradition " (see his View 
of Christianity, pp. 336 — 340.). His son Charles, also en- 
gaged in the Rebellion, was conveyed on Jan. 11, 1749, 
from the new gaol, Southwark, to Gravesend, for transport- 
ation during life. Another son died whilst being conveyed 
from Manchester to London for trial. 

Dr. Deacon died on Feb. 16, 1753 ; and was buried in 
St. Anne's churchyard, Manchester. The following in- 
scription was placed on his tomb : 

" El fi.i\ ev {TTCLvpif'" — [Gal. vi. 14.] 

" Here lie interred the remains (which, though mor- 
tality is at present corrupt, but which shall one day most 
surely be raised again to immortality, and put on incor- 
ruption) of Thomas Deacon, the greatest of sinners, and 
the most unworthy of primitive bishops, who died 16th 
February, 1753, in the fifty-sixth year of his age; and of 
Sarah his wife, who died July 4, 1745, in the forty-fifth 
year of her age. The Lord grant the faithful, here under- 
lying, the mercy of the Lord in that day. 2 Tim. i. 18. 

" 'El' TOVTIff VlKa." 

In addition to the works noticed by our correspondent, 
Deacon translated the History of the Arians and the 
Council of Nice from Tillemont, published in 1721, 2 vols. 
8vo. ; and subsequently, Ecclesiastical Memoirs of the 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



First Six Centuries, by M. de Tillemont, 1733, 2 vols, 
folio. In 1746, he published an octavo pamphlet of fifty- 
pages divided into three parts: — !. The Form of Admit- 
ting a Convert into the Communion of the Church. 2. A 
Xitany, together with Prayers in behalf of the Catholick 
Church. 3. Prayers on the Death of IMembers of the 
■Church ; and an Office for those who are deprived of the 
Advantage of receiving the Sacrament, &c. Several of 
Dr. Deacon's Letters will be found in BjTom's Remains, 
vol. i. pp. 496—500., published by the Chetham Society. 
Mr. Canon Parkinson adds in a note (p. 500.), that "it is 
-much to be regretted that this admirable scholar did not 
Jeceive encouragement according to his merits. His let- 
ters in this work show him to have been a complete 
master of the English language, of a ready wit, and in- 
idomitable spirit ; one who ought to have been engaged 
in a more congenial taste than elaborating his learned 
yet somewhat arid Catechism, and carrying on contro- 
versies with men incapable of appreciating his merits and 
their own immeasurable inferiority."] 



Miliar cauwtcjf. 

Will of Thomas Lord Hoo. — I am printing for 
the Sussex Society my paper on " The Family of 
Hoo, of Sussex, Suffolk, Beds, and Herts." Can 
any reader of "N. & Q." inform me by letter 
■where the will of Thomas Lord Hoo and Hastings, 
who died 13th Feb. 1455, is proved? Extracts 
are among the MSS. at Coll. of Arms quoted by 
Anstis : it was not proved at Lambeth, and I 
cannot find it in the Index at Doctors' Commons. 
The extracts from the will, as preserved in the 
College of Arms, are printed, with some omissions, 
in Nicolas' Test. Vet. Wm. Dubrant Cooper. 
SI. Guilford Street, London. 

Longevity of Lawyers. — In the Life of Edward 
Earl of Clarendon (p. 32. of the edition published 
at Oxford, 1826), there occurs the following re- 
mark upon this subject :. 

"And it may be, the long lives of men of that pro- 
fession (for the lawyers usually live to more years than 
any other profession) may verj- reasonably be imputed 
to the exercise they give themselves by their circuits, as 
•well as to their other acts of temperance and sobriety." 

Does experience justify this assertion ? One 
might have thought that the clerical would have 
emulated the legal profession in being conducive 
to length of days. Archibald Weir. 

Abbe Carlo Fea. — The Chevalier Artaud, 
member of the French Institute, in his work Italie, 
published in the Univers Pittoresque in 1852, at 
p. 367. writes, — 

" Nous nous garderons bien d'oublier I'abbe Fea, suc- 
cesseur et commentateur de Winkelman, aujourd'hui 
pre'sident des Antiquites roraaines. C'est un homrae qui 
joint au plus noble desinteressement, I'erudition la plus 
vaste. Je ne le loue pas davantage, parce qu'il est un 
des meilleurs amis que j'aie en Italie." 

This I understand to refer to the Abate Carlo 
Fea, since dead, a distinguished Roman anti- 
No. 301.] 



quary. There was a family of consideration in 
Orkney tracing as proprietors beyond the time 
1468, when Orkney passed from the Danish under 
the Scottish dominion, Fea of Clestron, repre- 
sented in the female line by Mr. Alexander 
Sutherland Grccme, of Grcemshall, and ancestors 
of my own. I have heard it asserted that the 
Abbe Fea belonged to the Orkney family, but as 
I believe the name to exist at this moment in the 
Scandinavian countries, I think it is likely he was 
of Danish origin or descent. I beg information 
respecting him and of his writings. The mother 
of the celebrated engraver Sir Robert Strange, a 
native of Kirkwall, was Mrs. Jean ScoUay, of a 
fiimily possessing property in the same island with 
the Fcas, Stronsay, and intermarrying with them. 
They are the Norse Skuli or Skule, and of this 
name were, a competitor of the crown of Norway, 
an earl of Orkney, and a bishop of Iceland ; and 
the name is said to be still extant in Scandinavian 
lands. His father David Strang was a respectable 
citizen and civic dignitary of the city of Kirkwall, 
and all that is desirable to be known of his 
parentage and of the family of the Stranges or 
Strangs is told in Mr. Dennistoun's Life of that 
artist. W. H. F. 

Elizabeth Bayning, Countess of Sheppy. — Eli- 
zabeth Bayning, Countess of Sheppy for life, died 
in July, 1686. On June 19, 1684, she was living 
in St. Paul's, Covent Garden. By her will she 
directed her body to be buried at Chevening by 
the side of her husband, Francis Lennard, Lord 
Dacre. She was not burled there, neither at St. 
Paul's above mentioned. Can any of your readers 
supply the place of her interment ? 

It may be mentioned, that the Countess of 
Sheppy leaves many portraits in her will by Sir 
Peter Lely, including one of the Duchess of 
Cleveland, and a portrait of Lord Grandison, the 
duchess's father, "reputed" by Sir A. Vandyke. 
G. Steinman Steinman. 

Prize Office. — Where can be seen a list of the 
officers of the Prize Office in 1690 ? The commis- 
sioners sat in Aldersgate Street in 1666. 

G. Steinman Steinman. 

BelVs '■'■ Annotated Edition of the Bintish Poets :" 
Sir E. Godfrey s House. — The notes in this 
edition are of questionable value : thus, in a 
note to AValler's " Lines on the Statue of King 
Charles I. at Charing Cross," we find the sculp- 
ture of the pedestal stated to be by Gibbons ; 
whereas Cunningham's Handbook of London, 1850, 
of which Mr. Bell has otherwise availed himself, 
would have informed him of the detection of the 
eri'or, — Marshall, not Gibbons, being the sculptor. 

What is Mr. Bell's authority for stating the 
large house at the end of Northumberland Street, 
" overlooking the river, and now occupied by the 



Aug 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



Metropolitan Police," to have been the residence 
of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey ? (Oldham's Poetical 
Works, p. 82.) He lived, according to the rate- 
books of St. Martin's parish, and a coteinporary 
narrative, in Green's Lane ; whereas Mr. Bell 
states his house to be " at the bottom of Harts- 
horn Lane, or Alley." We question whether the 
house Mr. Bell refers to (formerly the Museum 
Club-house) is of Godfrey's period. Scrutator. 

Scotch Ve7-sion of Psalms. — I find a translation 
of the Tsalms, in Scottish metre, of the fifteenth 
century referred to, being No. 278. of the MSS. 
bequeathed by Archbishop Parker to Corpus 
Christ! College, Cambridge. Can any of your 
readers on the banks of the Cam give a descrip- 
tion of this version, with specimen of the versifi- 
cation — say of the 23rd Psalm; and other par- 
ticulars of its authorship and history ? 

J. A. Perthensis. 

Tune of Diana. — From the Preface to The New 
Jerusalem, a republication of an ancient hymn long 
popular in Scotland, with illustrative notes by the 
Rev. Dr. Bonar of Kelso (N.B.), we learn that 
the hymn appears in a MS. volume of the time 
of Elizabeth or James I., in the British Museum, 
No. 15,225, entitled " A Song made by F. B. P. 
to the Tune of Diana." Can any of your musical 
antiquaries direct me to the " tune of Diana ?" 

J. A. Perthensis. 

" Oderunt peccare" ^c. — 

" Oderunt peccare boni, virtutis amore." 

. Ilorat., Epist. i. xvi. 52, 

To which I have seen added : 

" Oderunt peccare mali, formidine poenae." 

Query, Where is the latter line to be found ? F. 

Mrs. Middleton. — Is there anything to confirm 
Lysons's statement (Environs of London, vol. iii. 
fol. 100.), that Mrs. Middleton, the celebrated 
beauty, resided at one time in Isleworth ? 

G. Steinman Steinman. 

Bells of Cast Steel. — There is a cast steel bell 
suspended in the works of Messrs. Naylor, Vickers, 
& Co., at Sheffield ; which was made at the manu- 
factory of Mayre & Kuhne, at Bochum in West- 
phalia, in 1853, and was sent over too late for the 
Dublin Exhibition. Its weight rather exceeds a 
ton, and its height is about four feet six Inches. I 
have heard it rung, and it gives out a powerful 
and good tone, but seems to have less vibration of 
sound than bell-metal. Messrs. Naylor & Co. are 
now casting some steel bells, not of a large size. 
I understand that the price of them is full one 
third less than if made of ordinary bell-metal. I 
should be glad if any of your correspondents have 
information or observations to offer on this sub- 
ject. Alfred Gattt. 

No. 301.] 



" The Reception.^'' — Can you inform me who is 
the author of The Reception, a play in three acts, 
by a chaplain in the navy ? Printed at Plymouth, 
8vo., 1799. R.J. 

Glasgow. 

Dr.Wollaston on "Drowning." — I shall be glad 
if you or any of your correspondents can inform 
me the title of, and where I can obtain a paper oa 
"Drowning," published by the late Dr. Wollaston. 
It contains answers to some queries on the subject 
propounded by the Doctor to a naval ofiicer, who 
when a midshipman had the misfortune to fall 
overboard ; and who. In his replies, recounts all 
the sensations he experienced as "a drowning 
man.'' R. W. Hackwood. 

Simile of a Woman to the Moon. — Can any 
correspondent fill up the twofold hiatus In the 
following lines, said to have been written by Mr. 
White, T. C. D., to his tutor, on Swift's comparison 
of a woman to a cloud : 

" You say, Sir, once a wit allow'd 
A woman to be like a cloud ! 
Accept a simile as soon 
Between a woman and the moon ! 
For, let mankind say what they will, 
The sex are heav'nly bodies still ! 
Grant me (to mimic mortal life) 
The sun and moon are man and wife. 
Whate'er kind Sol affords to lend her, 
She squanders upon midnight splendor ; 
And when to rest he lays him down, 
She's up, and stared at, thro' the town. 

Say, are not these a modern pair ? 
For each for other feels no care ; 
Each day in sep'rate coaches driving, 
Each night to keep asunder striving ; 
Both in the dumps in gloomj' weather, 
And sleeping once a month together. 

He owns at once a wife's ambition. 
And fully glares in opposition. 
In one sole point unlike the case is — 
On her own head the horn she places." 

Engravings in Illustration of Horace. — The 
title is, — 

"30 Bilder zu Horazens Werken. Gestochen unter 
derLeitung von C. Frommel, nach Zeichnungen v. Catel» 
Frommel, &c. Carlsruhe im Kunstverlag." 

This title is surrounded by a panorama of Tlvoli ; 
and there are thirty engravings In copper belonging 
to it. What is the history of these engravings ? 
Were they intended to illustrate any particular 
edition ? M. 

Absorbent Paper. — I beg leave to propound a 
question of some Importance to makers of Notes 
and Queries. It has been for fifty or sixty years 
(and now more than ever) the custom of the con- 
tinental printers to use paper which will not admit 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



of raakinjj marginal note3 in common writing-ink 
without blotting : I would ask are there any 
means of obviating this defect, either by some in- 
gredient to be added to ordinary ink, or some 
preparation to be spread partially over the paper 
where one wishes to add a MS. note ? C. 



The Sphinx. — What idea did the Egyptians 
intend to convey by the sphinx ? Was it possibljt 
that of moral and physical force ? Faunti^eeot. 

[The religion of Ancient Egypt was eminently mys- 
terious and emblematical. It was by emblems and visible 
signs, unknown to the vulgar, that the priests expressed 
their thoughts, notions, and superstitions. The sphinx 
signifies merely the state of the Nile when it inundates 
Egypt. As these inundations happen in the months of 
July and August, when the sun passes through the signs 
of Leo and Virgo, and as they were fond of uniting mon- 
strous and incongruous figures, they invented the sphinx, 
composed of the head of a virgin and the body of a lion, 
to intimate that the Nile overflows when the sun is pass- 
ing through these two signs. It is scarcely necessary to 
add, that the Egyptian astronomers were the inventors of 
the signs of the Zodiac] 

Orator Henley (Vol. xii., p. 44.). — Is there a 
list of the printed works of this character to be got 
in any of the various bibliographical publications ? 
I have in my possession rather an interesting 
volume of Tracts by him, published in 1727-31, 
«m. 8vo. T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

[The following works contain a list of Orator Henley's 
publications : — Watt's BMiotheca ; Bodleian Catalogue ; 
and Retrospective Review, vol. xiv. p. 224.] 

Marabout. — How did the particular sort of 
feathers worn by ladies, and called " Marabout," 
get their name ? C. de D, 

[" Marabout, se dit encore d'un oiseau dont la queue 
fournit des plumes, auxquelles on donne le meme nom, et 
qui servent d'ornement a diverses coiffures de femmes. 
tJn chapeau orne' de marabouts. EUe avait des mara- 
bouts sur sa toque." — Dictionnaire de VAcademie Frangaise, 
«. v.] 

EarWs " Microcosmography" (Vol. xii., p. 42.). 
— Is the name of the editor or publisher Blount or 
Blunt ? Upon looking over a copy of the " ninth 
edition, 1669," in my possession, I find it stated 
in the notice " To the reader " that " I have, for 
once, adventured to play the midwives' part, help- 
ing to bring forth three infants into the world, 
which the father would have smothered, &c. I 
remain thine, Edw. Blunt." T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

|y[The name may occasionally be spelt Blunt, which was 
probably the original orthography, but it is now better 
known as Blount. See a notice of him in Dr. Bliss's edi- 
tion of Earle's Microcosmography, p. xx., where it is stated 
No. 301.] 



that " it is no slight honour to Blount's taste and judg- 
ment, that he was one of the partners in the first edition 
of Shakspeare."] 

" Love a la Mode." — Can you tell me who 
wrote Love a la Mode, a comedy, 4to., 1663 ? This 
play, which was acted at Middlesex House, is said 
to be written by a person of honour, the initials 
of whose name are T. S. From some recom- 
mendatory verses prefixed, the author is supposed 
to have been either a brother-in-law, or a half- 
brother, of Sir R. Colbrand, Bart. Not having 
at hand either Burke or Debrett's account of ex- 
tinct baronetages, I shall be obliged if you 
could inform me whether there is any relation of 
Sir R. Colbrand, with whom the initials T. S. 
correspond. R. J. 

Glasgow. 

[In Burke's Extinct Baronetcies it is stated, that Sir 
Robert Colbrand married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Southland, Esq., of Lee, in Kent.] 



" DE JOIE SAILI A PES." 

(Vol. ix., pp. 112. 466.) 

Under the title of " to jump for joy," I some 
time past took the liberty of making a few re- 
marks in " N. & Q." upon the words "de joie 
saili a pes," conceiving the term " to jump for 
joy " to be their true translation. In a paper 
which subsequently appeared in that publication, 
it is stated that my construction of these words is 
incorrect, and that their true meaning is not that 
the person alluded to in my communication 
jumped with J03', but that he sallied out on foot. 

The book in which these words are contained is 
held in such high and deserved estimation in Ire- 
land, that I trust I may be permitted to offer one 
or two farther remarks upon this disputed pas- 
sage. 

It may be in the remembrance of those who 
have read this very interesting history (The Con' 
quest of Ireland by Henry II., London, William 
Pickering, 1837), that at pages 51. and 52. the 
poet describes the rupture which had taken place 
between an English knight named Maurice de 
Prendergast, and Dermot, the King of Leinster ; 
and (to use the words of the editor) that 
" Maurice proffered his services to the King of 
Ossory, who joyfully accepted them, and agreed 
to meet him at Tech-Moylin." At the time that 
Prendergast made this offer through his mes- 
senger to the King of Ossory, the knight was at 
the town of Wexford, and the king was in his 
own country of Ossory. Prendergast's mes- 
senger appears before the king and informs him 
that it was the knight's intention to serve him, if 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



he wished it, and that he would come to him for 
that purpose. The poet tells us that upon re- 
ceiving this news the king sallied out on foot, or, 
as I have read the words, "jumped with joy." 

But let us take the story as it is told in the 
language of the poet himself: 

" Morice ne se targa mie 
Al rei manda de Osserie 
Que h lui vendreifc, san mentir, 
Si lui plust, pur lui servir; 
Kar par mal esteit parti 
Del rei Dermod qu'il out servi." 

Morice did not tarry, but apprised the King of 
Ossory that he would come to him, in truth, if it 
should please him, in order to serve him, for that 
in consequence of injury done to him he was 
separated (or had departed) from King Dermod, 
whom he had served : 

" Quant Mac Donecbid entendi 
Que Morice vendreit k lui, 
De la nouele esteit heistez 
E de joie saili a p^s ; " 

When Mac Donechid (the King of Ossory) 
heard that Morice would come to him, he was 
rejoiced at the news, " et de joie saillit k pied : " 

" Al barun manda erraument 
Que h, lui venist assurement, 
Liveresun 11 freit doner 
Asez richez e plener." 

He (the King of Ossory) sent word to the baron 
(Morice de Prendergast) without delay that he 
(the king) would assuredly come (or go) to him, 
and that he would cause very rich and ample 
livery to be given to him : 

" Atant s'an ala le barun 
Lui e tut si compainun 
Vers la vile de Chatmelin 
Tindrent le dreit chemin." 

So the baron and all his companions went to the 
town of Chatmelin, keeping the direct road. 

The poet then informs us that one Donald Kave- 
nagh " asaili le barun " upon his way to Thamelin, 
where he arrived and sojourned for three days : 

" Le rei de Osserie sovent 
Message tramist h cele gent 
Que il vendreit le tiers jor 
San nul autre contreditur. 
Le reis i vint veraiment 
Le ters jor sanz delaement." 

The King of Ossory often sent a message to 
these people that he would come the third day 
without any farther excuse, and the king went 
truly upon the third day without delay. 

The poet then describes the meeting between 
the king and Prendergast, and the oaths that 
were sworn " sur Tauter e sur I'escrin." 

From what has been above stated it appears 
that Prendergast, by his messenger, informed the 
King of Ossory that he would go to him if he 
wished it ; and that when the king heard this 

No. 301.] 



news, he " de joie saili a pes," i. e., as I construe 
it, manifested his delight by one or more jumps. 
He is not, as I read the passage, described by the 
rhymer as going forth from his tent in haste to 
meet Prendergast, who was then far distant from 
him, nor to meet the messenger, for the king had 
already received his message ; and as a farther 
proof that the king did not then expect the 
baron's arrival, the poet tells us that he sent a 
messenger without any delay to Prendergast, to 
inform him that he (the king) would assuredly 
go to him, a promise which he afterwards ful- 
filled. 

Now, with respect to the word " saillir," I find 
the following explanations given of it in Cotgrave's, 
and also in a Law-French dictionary : 

" Saillir. To go out, issue forth ; appear above, 
stand out beyond others ; also to leap, jump, bound, skip, 
hop." — Cotgrave's Dictionary. 

" Sailler. To leap, to dance, also to issue forth." — 
Law-French Dictionary, printed in the Savoy, 1718. 

Assuming it to be the fact that the word sailler 
bears the meaning which I have ascribed to it, 
the disputed passage, " E de joie saili a pes," 
might with propriety be translated " and he 
jumped with joy," if the words " k pes " formed 
no part of it ; and I feel inclined to think that 
the rhymer has availed himself of a poet's license, 
by adding the words " a pes " merely to complete 
the sentence and preserve the rhythm. 

It is by no means improbable that the con- 
struction which I have put upon the passage in 
question is incorrect ; but at the same time I am 
at present disposed to say that the translation 
which has been substituted in its place is involved 
in some obscurity. James F. Ferguson. 



" THE CHAPTER OF KINGS. 

(Vol. xii., p. 19.) 

I copy the following from a MS. about a cen- 
tury old, and know not if they have been printed : 
" Memorial Verses from ye Conquest. 
" One thousand 66 the Conq'ror came ; 
One — 87 Will Rufus did the same. 
' Leven hundred, Henry stil'd the First, 
' Leven .35 we were with Stephen curst. 
The year 1154 

The Saxon Hal the second did restore. 
His rebel sons, Richard the first and John, 
' Leven 89 and 99 came on. 
Twelve hundred 16 Hal the third began; 
Twelve 72, brave Ned the first, his son. 
In thirteen hundred seven, the second Ned ; 
The third in 26 became our head. 
In thirteen 77 the second Dick, 
Deposed at length by a Lancastrian trick ; 
For Hal the fourth with rebels did combine, 
And seized the crown in thirteen ninety-nine. 
Henry the fifth esteemed the crown his due 
In fourteen 12 ; the Sixth in twenty-two. 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



Edward of York, the fourth and fifth j-ou see 

In fourteen sixty — fourteen eighty-three. 

In eighty-three too, barbarous Dick the third, 

Of whom some folks have monstrous things averred. 

In fourteen eighty-five the seventh Harry 

Began to reign — but backward seemed to marry. 

Huge Hal the eighth descended from each line, 

The sceptre grasped in fifteen hundred nine. 

Edward the sixth and Moll the first you'll see 

In fifteen forty-six and fifty-three. 

Sage Elizabeth in fifteen fifty-eight. 

Just James the first the kingdoms did unite. 

And both the realms in sixteen hundred two 

Became that gentle King's undoubted due. 

Good Charles the first in sixteen twenty-five, 

The very best of monarchs ! — then alive. 

In sixteen forty-eight and eighty-four 

The second Charles and James the sceptre bore. 

And O ! in sixteen hundred eighty-eight 

Brave Will. — blessed Moll, set all things right : — 

But hold, I'd like to have forgot, thej-'re reckoned, 

William the third forsooth, and Mollthe second. 

In seventeen hundred one, the great Queen Anne 

O'er Britons blessed her happy reign began. 

And in the years fourteen and twenty-seven. 

The first and second George were sent by heaven. 

To make us pious, wise and great. 

And render our prosperity compleat." 

Anon. 



F. C. H.'s belief, that he " had learnt this song 
by heart before the date of Scripscrapologia 
(1804), is reconcilable with the statement that 
Collins was the author of the song, which had been 
produced many years before " in the author's 
once popular performance, called The Brush." 
I cannot imagine that Collins would have called 
such particular attention to this song, alluded to 
the many imitations of it, and claimed its author- 
ship, without having indeed been its author. His 
song of " The Chapter of War " thus commences : 

" The Chapter of Kings, which I wrote myself." 
That Dibdin was not the author of the song, 
is pretty well proved by the fact of the song 
not having been admitted into the collection of 
Dibdin's songs, edited by T. Dibdin, and published 
by Bohn, under the patronage of the Queen and 
the Lords of the Admiralty (3rd edition, 1852). 

CUTHBERT BeDE, B. A. 



Though "I say it, that should not say it," yet I 
must say that I prefer the following termination 
of the above song, which I wrote for my children 
a year or two ago, to that of F. C. H. : 

" Queen Ann added much to Old England's fame ; 
And Georgey the First from Hanover came ; 
Georgey the Second the next appears ; 
And Georgey the Third reign'd sixty years. 

" Georgey the Fourth was a man of ton ; 
And Willy the Fourth as a sailor shone; 
And now we rejoice in Victoria's sway. 
For whom, as our Queen, we will ever pray." 

D. S. 

No. 301.] 



napoleon's "descents en angletebre" medal. 
(Vol. xil., p. 43.) 

When Buonaparte meditated the invasion of 
England, a die was prepared under the direction 
of M. Denon to commemorate the success of the 
undertaking. The device was Hercules strangling 
a sea monster : the legend was " descente en 
ANGLETERRE," and in the exergue " erappee a 
LONDBES." The die, in this state, was never 
hardened ; and whatever impressions were taken 
off", were in soft metal. When Buonaparte issued 
his Berlin and Milan decrees, by which he ex- 
pected to ruin the commerce of England, and 
exclude this country from all intercourse with the 
Continent, the die was brought out of its repose. 
The " FRAPPEE A LONDKES," being in small letters, 
was easily obliterated : the same was attempted 
with the legend, and " toto divisos obbe bbi- 
TANNOs" was substituted. The die was then 
hardened, and medals struck ; but under the pre- 
sent legend may be seen the traces of some of the 
letters of the original legend. How many of the 
soft metal impressions were struck, I could never 
ascertain. When I applied to Droz, the die en- 
graver, for a specimen, he assured me that all had 
been delivered to M. Denon. When I applied to 
him, he wished me to believe that I had been mis- 
informed, and that no such medal had been struck 
or in contemplation. 

One of these medals is certainly in England ; it 
was purchased at Paris, I believe, by Mr. MIl- 
lingen, for Dr. Burney, with whose entire collec- 
tion it passed to Mr. Charles Stokes : after this 
gentleman's death the collection was dispersed, but 
the medal in question was reserved by his nephew 
and executor, Mr. Hughes, in whose possession it 
now remains. I have casts in copper from two 
originals : one was made from that then in Mr. 
Stokes's collection ; the other was given to me by 
a French artist. 

When Sir Edward Thomason stated that one 
had been lent to him by the Duke of Wellington, 
he probably forgot to mention that it was only in 
a dream, and that when he awoke the medal was 
no longer in his possession. In his copy the por- 
trait of Buonaparte is not the same which was 
struck upon the soft metal originals. One was by 
Droz, the other by Jouffroy. Edw. Hawkins, 



NURSERY HYMN. 

(Vol. xi,, p. 206.) 

Each of the four verses of this hymn is often to 
be heard separately used, and some of them I 
have seen in old primers which I cannot now 
specify. It is evidently made up of a number of 
detached ancient sayings strung together. Mr. 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



George Sinclair (or Sanclar), who was professor 
of mathematics in the University of Glasgow two 
hundred years ago, wrote a very curious book, 
now scarce, entitled — 

" Satan's Invisible World Discovered, or a choice Collec- 
tion of modern Relations, proving evidently against the 
Atheists of this present age, that there are Devils, Spirits, 
Witches, and Apparitions, from authentic Records, Attest- 
ations of Witnesses of undoubted veracity, &c., edit. Edin- 
burgh, 1769, 12rao., pp. 294." 

At p. 101., in treating of "Charms or Incant- 
ations," which he derives from the " Latin word 
carmen, signifying a verse, because the Roman 
soothsayers gave their charms in verse," he thus 
states : 

"An old woman whom I read of used this charm when 
she went to bed : 

' Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
The bed be blest that I lie on.' " 

So that J. Y. (1) has for part of the second verse 
of the hymn the authority of a currency of two to 
three hundred years back. 

The learned professor collected a number of 
these charms, which he gives in sundry places of 
his book, and a few of them may amuse the readers 
of " N. & Q.," and may so far add to their inform- 
ation in the carmenative lore. He says : 

"At night, in the time of Popery, when folks went to 
bed, they believed that the repetition of this following 
prayer was effectual to preserve them from danger, and 
the house too : 

' Who sains * the house the night. 
They that sains it ilk a night. 
Saint Bryde and her brate f , 
Saint Colme and his hat, 
Saint Michael and his spear. 
Keep this house from the weir ; 
From running thief. 
And burning thief, 
And from a' ill rea(if) J, 
That be the gate can gae, 
And from an ill wight. 
That be the gate can light ; 
Nine reeds § about the house. 
Keep it all the night. 
What is that what I see 
So red, so bright, beyond the sea ? 
'Tis He was pierc'd through the hands, 
Through the feet, through the throat. 
Through the tongue, 
Through the liver and the lung ; 
Well is them that well may, 
Fast on Good Friday.' 

" Another prayer used by the thieves and robbers on 
the borders after meat, in order to stealing from their 
neighbours : 

* He that ordain'd us to be born, 
Send us more meat for the morn ; 
Part of 't right, and part of 't wrang, 
God let us never fast ov'r lang.]] 



• Preserves. 
X Plunder. 
II Long. 
No. 301.] 



f Apron, or covering. 
§ Roods, or holy crosses. 



God be thanked, and our Lady*, 
All is done that we had ready.' 

" A countryman in East Lothian used this grace always 
before and after meat : 

' Lord be bless'd for all his gifts. 
Defy the devil and airhis shifts. 
God send me mairf siller. Amen.' 

" An old woman taught her neighbour this charm when 
the butter would not churn : 

' Come, butter, come ; 
Come, butter, come ; 
Peter stands at the gate. 
Waiting for a butter'd cake ; 
Come, butter, come.' " 

In the professor's opinion, — 

" As the devil is originally the author of charms and 
spells, so is he the author of several b(au)dy songs which 
are sung. A reverend minister told me that one who was 
the devil's piper, a wizzard, confessed to him that at a 
ball of dancing the foul spirit taught him a b(au)dy song 
to sing and play, as it were this night, and ere two days 
passed all the lads and lasses of the town were lilting it 
through the street. It were abomination to rehearse it." 

This singular work of the professor's, which 
must have cost him much labour in collecting the 
materials from so many sources, and as affording 
some interesting glimpses of the state of society 
in his period, would now well stand a reprint. 

G.N". 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Method of obtaining several of the natural Colours in 
Photographic Pictures, hy M. Testud de Beauregard, com- 
municated to the " Society rran9aise de Photographic " 
by M. Durieu. — M. Durieu exhibited several coloured 
photographs by M. Testud de Beauregard, and observed 
that they form a series of coloured images, one set uni- 
formly blue, yellow, and rose colour, the other having 
different colours corresponding with the natural colours. 
Amongst the latter, one represents a female figure covered 
with a veil, and holding a basket of leaves : the figure 
is flesh-colour, the veil violet, and the leaves green. The 
other is the portrait of a woman, of which the face and 
hands are flesh-colour, the eyes blue, the hair flaxen, and 
the dress green, the collar and cuffs white ;' and lastly, 
the portrait of a child, which, besides the flesh colour of 
the face, hands, and legs, exhibits a dress striped with 
green and yellow, black boots, white linen, and a chair, 
of which the wood is black, and the cushion of chamois 
leather. 

A small landscape was also shown, with the eflTect of 
the setting sun varied with several colours. 

In his investigations, M. Testud de Beauregard com- 
menced with the fact, acknowledged for a long time, that 
there exist certain salts which are differently coloured 
by the action of light ; that this difference of coloration 
is due not only to the nature of the salt itself, but also, in 
the same salt, to the duration of the action of the light, 
or, in other words, to its intensity. 

Starting from this point, M. Testud de Beauregard 
considered whether, by combining several salts, either in 
the same bath, or on the paper itself, by means of suc- 
cessive immersions in different baths, it might not be 



* Virgin. 



t More. 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



possible to obtain sheets of paper which, when exposed to 
the action of light, would show different colours, more or 
less varied, according to the nature of the salt and the 
intensity of the light. 

It did not appear to M. Testud de Beauregard that a 
necessary relation should exist between the action of each 
coloured raj', and the production of the particular colour 
by that ray. It was only necessary to obtain on the 
same paper colours whose difference was due to the nature 
of the salt acted upon by white light, having regard at the 
same time to the modification resulting from the intensity 
of the action of the light. 

M. de Beauregard's process does not consist in apply- 
ing the colours as it is done in dyeing ; but, except the 
fixing and final development of the picture, the coloration 
is produced by a single impression of light. 

M. de Beauregard's first idea was to investigate the 
means of producing photographic pictures at a low cost, 
and with this view he endeavoured to substitute other 
substances for the salts of silver. He first tried ferri- 
cyanide of potassium (red prussiate of potash). This it 
is which, when a nearly-concentrated solution is em- 
ployed, gives to the pictures the uniformly blue tone 
seen in the picture exhibited. It affords aconsiderable 
range of tones, from the lightest to the deepest, according 
to the duration of the action of the light. 

The paper is prepared by floating it for a few minutes 
on the bath, and allowing it to dry. When it is suffi- 
ciently impressed by the light passing through the collo- 
dionized plate to be printed, it is fixed by immersing it 
for some time in pure water, and afterwards plunging it 
into a rather concentrated solution of alum, which inten- 
sifies the picture in a remarkable manner. The proof 
thus treated is unalterable by light. The yellow colour 
is obtained by impregnating the paper with a solution of 
bichromate of potash. A prolonged exposure to the light 
causes this colour to pass to green. The image is fixed 
by washing it in common water, and then immersing it 
in a solution of alum. 

Bichromate of potash can be employed to produce a 
black tone, which may be carried to a very considerable 
intensity, without any salt of silver being employed. The 
mode of treatment is as follows : after removal from the 
pressure frame, the paper is plunged for a few minutes 
into pure water, and then passed into a solution of proto- 
sulphate of iron. It is then washed a second time, which 
causes it to lose nearly all trace of the picture. But on 
immersing it in a bath of gallic acid, the picture developes 
and becomes of a blue black, the intensity of which may 
be increased by employing a solution of logwood. A 
saturated solution of bichromate of potash is used, and 
the paper soaked in it, and dried in the dark. Two 
seconds' exposure in the pressure frame is sufficient ; if it 
is exposed too long the picture becomes grey. 

The process by which M. de Beauregard obtains a 
varietj' of colour bj' a single exposure to the light in the 
pressure frame consists in impregnating the paper suc- 
cessively with two mixtures, taking care to dry the paper 
after the employment of each mixture. The first is com- 
posed of a solution of permanganate of potash with the 
addition of tincture of litmus. The second consists of 
ferricyanide of potassium acidulated with sulphuric acid. 

The paper thus prepared is floated on a bath of nitrate 
of silver. When the picture has appeared, first wash the 
paper with pure water ; then immerse it in a weak bath 
of hyposulphite of soda ; and lastly, after a second wash- 
ing, the colours are strengthened in a bath of neutral 
gallate of ammonia. 

M. Testud de Beauregard's theory is, that the different 
rays of light act upon the collodionized glass (he has not 
yet experimented on paper negatives) according to their 

No. 3ai.] 



colour, so as to produce different degrees of opacity, and 
that these are precisely analogous to the relative in- 
tensity of light proper to produce, by his process, the 
corresponding natural colours. 



ISit^lieS ta Minor ^Lutviti. 

"Annval Register" (Vol. xii., p. 62.). — Years 
ago I was Informed by the late Mr. Joseph Parker 
of Oxford, who was a very early friend of the late, 
and I regret to say the last, Archbishop of Cashel, 
that the historical chapters of the Annual Register 
were for some time written by Dr. then Mr. Lau- 
rence, at that period resident on a curacy or small 
benefice in the country, not far from Faringdon in 
Berkshire. And I have some recollection of his 
saying that Richard Laurence succeeded his 
brother Dr. French Laurence, the friend and ex- 
ecutor of Burke, in that department of Dodsley's 
valuable periodical. I trouble you with thi^;j 
notice in the hope that it may meet the eye of a,l^ 
near relative of the archbishop, who is far more 
able to impart information ou this subject than 
myself. Philip Bliss. 

Relic of Wolfe (Vol. xii., p. 7.). — Observing a 
Note under this head from J. O., and lamenting 
on the loss of the " Conference," perhaps he and 
the majority of your readers may not be aware of 
the well-being of a much more remarkable vessel 
than the above, viz. In the good old barque "Wil- 
liam and Ann," built in London in the year 1759 ! 
which ship actimlly conveyed General Wolfe at the 
time of the siege of Quebec, and as a proof of her 
good standing may be found as sustaining her 
character by appearing now classed in Lloyd's 
register book as ^ 1 (second class), and yet almost 
a century old, and is thirty-seven years older than 
the old Tyne brig which has lately finished her 
distinguished career. Nauticus. 

Goring, Lord Goring (Vol. xi., p. 487.). — The 
existence of a connexion between the noble house 
of Goring and the family of Goring of Kingston, 
in the county of Stafford, has probably been sup- 
posed from the fact of Henry (roring of Kingston, 
who died 1642, being stated In the Visitation of 
the county of Stafford, a. d. 1664, to have been 
son of Henry Goring of Horsham, in the county 
of Sussex, in which county the Gorings were lo- 
cated at Burton and Ovingdeene, and held con- 
siderable estates. No proof of any connexion was 
shown at the time of the Visitation, and It appears 
by a note to the entry of the pedigree of Goring 
of Kingston, that the arms assumed (those of 
Goring of Burton) were respited for Justification 
thereof, and Sir William Dugdale m his own 
hand adds " but nothing done therein." 

The kindred of the Kingston Gorings then was 
not admitted by the heralds, and the Visitation 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



proves that Henry Goring of Kingston, who died 
1642, was not the son of George Goring by Ann 
Denny, for it expressly states that he was son of 
Henry Goring of Horsham, by Elizabeth his wife ; 
and a close attention to dates will show that 
Henry Goring of Horsham could not have been a 
son of George Goring by Ann Denny, through 
whom the royal descent is obtained. 

It would add much to the value and credence 
of such published descents if the authorities and 
evidence were cited in the margin, for the state- 
ment referred to is not supported by any previous 
writers ; and since in genealogy " rien n'est beau 
que le vrai," such errors only produce ridicule, 
and at the same time inflict injury upon ancient 
families. K.. A. G. 

Renown (Vol. xii., p. 9.). — R. Y. T. will find 
the lines he wants in an admirable poem of Win- 
throp Mackworth Praed. Unfortunately his ex- 
cellent poems seem never to have been collected 
in England ; but there is a small 8vo. volume 
published in Boston, U. S. A. Many of the poems, 
charades, &c. (and probably the above), reappeared 
in the two volumes of the new series of the Penny 
Magazine, which may be bought on any book- 
stall. Is it necessary to say that Praed was a 
coadjutor of Charles Knight, and Macaulay, and 
others in Knight's Quarterly Magazine f Estb. 
'^ Birmingham. 

Intercepted Letter of Father PatricKs (Vol. xi., 
p. 477.). — Is not this letter a mere fabrication, 
intended to excite prejudice against the Young 
Pretender ? His devotion to the Virgin and St. 
Winifred, the medal with the Pope's toe, and the 
cap of liberty fallen of, the ardour of the poor 
prince to cram his new supporters with polemics, 
the point about resuming church lands and kin- 
dling Smithfield fires, &c., savour too strongly of 
the political squib to have come from any pen 
but that of some unscrupulous Hanoverian. A 
joke it cannot be called, for it was meant to do the 
Jacobites a serious mischief; but surely it must 
be a hoax played off to alarm the Protestants and 
excite a horror of the Stuarts. The English 
seems very modern for 1745. P. P. 

Vesica Piscis (Vol. xii., p. 29.). — Although 
unable to inform J. C. J. when this pointed oval 
yjdiS first adopted, I can nevertheless assure him 
that its use was much earlier than the tenth cen- 
tury, as it was the form of the seal of Wimburne 
Monastery, founded by Cuthburga, sister of Ina, 
king of Wessex, at the beginning of the eighth 
century. " C. Hook. 

Ebrardus and Johannes de Garlandia (Vol. xi., 
p. 486.). — My copy of Bates has p. 1. dirty, as if 
it had once been exposed, while the title and de- 
dication are on paper of a somewhat different 

No. 301.] 



tint. Probably part of the edition has a reprinted 
title and dedication. The lives have lists of works 
of a very good character for the time. 

The Modus Laiinitatis of Ebrardus was printed 
at least twenty-one times before 1500. But who 
Ebrardus was I do not know. 

Of John Garland it seems plain, by comparing 
Roger Bacon, Bale, Tanner, Wright {Anglo- 
Norman Period, p. 16. ; see also Comp. Aim., 1846, 
p. 13.), that Gerland, of the eleventh century, was 
an astronomer and calendar computer ; and that 
Garland, the cotemporary of Roger Bacon, who 
heard him blow up right and left (vituperavit 
omnes) as to whether it should be orichalcum or 
aurichalcum, was the grammarian. But the two 
are very often confounded. There were several 
works of Garland, which were often printed in the 
fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Tiie most 
celebrated were the Liber synonymorum and the 
Equivocorum interpretatio. 

The first work was latterly always accompanied 
by the exposition of Galfridus Anglicus. The 
following is a specimen, the poetry being Garland, 
and the prose Galfridus : 

" Ambulo vel gradior, eo, vado, de ambulo, pergo, 
Additur his spacior, vel itinero, vel proficiscor, 
Predictis junge tendo, cum curro, movere." 

" Hie docet autor quod omnia ista verba que hie po- 
nuntur sunt ejusdem significationis cum hoc verbo 
ambulo. Ambulo-as-avi-are quod est verbum neutrum. 
J? 

The Liber equivocorum has also a comment by 
some other hand, which generally gives the differ- 
ent English meanings. The following is a spe- 
cimen : ■ . ,,^^ !Ti{ 
" Glis animal, glis terra tenax, glis lapa vocatuj:,, > > 
Ris animal, sis terra tenax, tis lapa vocatur ,^^{^ 
Hie animal, hec terra tenax, hec lapa vocatur." 

" Autor hie docet equivocationem istius dictionis glis. 
. . . . Nam glis est quoddam animal (anglice a dor- 
mouse) .... Item glis est terra tenax (anglice 
clave) .... Item glis est lappa . . . (anglice 
a burre) . . . Quando est animal facit gliris in 
genitivo " 

These writers are now rather distant than ob- 
scure ; any one who walks back into their cen- 
turies is sure to meet with them. 

A. De MoEGAif. 

Lines on gigantic Coal (Vol. xi., p. 465.). — The 
author of verses on the above subject was the 
late Paul Moon James, Esq., of Manchester. 
They are entitled, " King Coal at the Great- 
Exhibition," and are printed (p. 201.) in an un- 
published collection of his poems, Manchester, 
1853. C. L. B. 

Kendal. 

Cratch: Cafs Cradle (Vol. xi., p. 421.).— If 
my memory serves me right, the " cat's cradle," 
though giving a name to the game, was one of 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



the latest, perhaps the last figure the string was 
made to assume, and we used to believe it was 
so called because it was only big enough to hold 
a kitten. Cratch is a word still in common use in 
the very sense given by Johnson and Maunder. 
Your horse eats his corn out of the manger and 
his hay out of the cratch above it. There is also 
the movable cratch from which cattle eat hay in 
the field or straw-yard, a rude representation of 
which is often seen in pictures of the Nativity. 

P.P. 

Bennefs ^^ Paraphrase" (Vol. xii., p. 10.). — 
In Exeter Cathedral one of the lay vicars assists 
the officiating priest in chanting the Litany. The 
lay-vicars are cantores, or singing men, and before 
the Reformation were in holy orders, which no 
doubt accounts for the practice not only at Exeter, 
but in other cathedral and collegiate churches. 

J. G. 

Exon. 

Forlorn (Vol. viii., p. 569.). — In the following 
extracts from a letter from Oliver Cromwell to 
Lenthall the Speaker, published in the Chetham 
Society's Civil War Tracts, p. 259., &c., the word 
seems used merely to signify an advanced body of 
troops. "Hope" is not added at all, and Mb. 
Wilde's view is corroborated. 

"Having intelligence that the enemy was drawing 
together from all his out-quarters, we drew out a forlorn 
of about 200 horse and 400 foot." 

" Our forlorn of horse marched within a mile of where 
the enemy was drawn up." 

" The forlorn of horse held dispute with them until our 
forlorn of foot came up and we had opportunity to bring 
up our whole army." 

" And therefore advancing with our forlorn and putting 
the rest of our army into as good a posture as we could, 
we advanced upon them." 

P.P. 

Seventy-seven (Vol. xi., p. 61. ; Vol. xii., p. 35.). 
— Though W. T. M. dates from the end of the 
world in space, I cannot permit him to know so 
much about its end in time, as to affirm that the 
reply can never again be given. A man born a.d. 
2777, may surely make it in 2854. And farther, 
there is nothing singular in the interval being 
122 years; 111 and 11 make 122. 

Of my own age I may say something which will 
not be predicable at equal intervals. I was x 
years old in the year of grace xXx. I will say 
so much as, that I do not mean I was 6 years old 
in A.D. 36 nor 7 in a.d. 49. I dare say Professor 
De Morgan, or some of your mathematical corre- 
spondents, will be able to find my age. M. 

List 'of Stone Crosses (Vol. xi., p. 506.). — 
The site of every way-side cross in the kingdom, 
of which any remains exist, is noticed in the Ord- 
nance maps, in a different type from the names of 
places. The scale is six inches to the mile, and 

No. 301.] 



each sheet represents a district of four miles by 
about six. The sheet which contains the town of 
Preston has either seven or eight pedestals of 
crosses noted ; the next sheet southward has six- 
teen. That containing the town of Chorley has 
seven. Thus a complete list for all England 
would require neither talent nor research ; taut it 
would involve much labour and some expense. 

P.P. 

Lady Jane Home : Lord Robert Kerr (Vol. xii., 
p. 46.). — Lord Robert Kerr, second son of 
William, third Marquis of Lothian, fell at the 
battle of Culloden, April 17, 1746, on the side 
of the crown, against Prince Charles Edward 
(Knight's History of England, vol. iv. p. 538.). 
Lady Jane Home, eldest daughter of Charles, 
sixtli Earl of Home, married Patrick Lord Pol- 
warth. Mackenzie Walcott, M. A. 

Anonymous Hymns (Vol. xii., p. 11.). — I can 
help C. H. H. W. to one more name, that of Hart, 
as the author of No. 5. in his list. 

No. 3., I believe, is wrongly quoted. I think it 
should be " When, His salvation bringing." 

N. H. L. R. 

Almanacs of 1849 and 1855 (Vol. xii., p. 19.). 

— I should have mentioned that 1860 does not 
agree with 1849 till the intercalary day is past. 
The omission arose from my being accustomed to 
the old plan of taking for the almanac of leap- 
year the corresponding, or most nearly corre- 
sponding, almanac of a common year,_ subject to 
alterations to be made by the user of it, in Janu- 
ary and February. 

It is also correct, according to the old plan, to 
say that 1849 and 1855 do not take the same al- 
manac. The almanac new and full moons do not 
agree : and these were essential parts of the al- 
manac. 

The almanac writer and the astronomer con- 
sider the intercalary day as coming between the 
two years, and the subsequent alterations in 
January and February as allowances for a bun- 
gling piece of adherence to antiquity. And this 
is much the easiest way of learning the almanac. 

It is fated that the " Epitaph on an Infant " 
(p. 49.) shall not appear corrrectly in your pages. 
The last stop is a note of interrogation instead of 
exclamation. M. 

" The Man in the Iron Mask" (Vol. xi., p. 504.). 

— In reply to the inquiry for information about 
"The Man in the Iron Mask," I beg to refer 
QuiESTOR to the account by A. Dumas, which con- 
tains all the explanations hazarded by every dif- 
ferent writer on the subject, and often thoroughly 
refuting the rubbish propagated by Delort, fixes 
on the only probable solution of the mystery. 
The opinions of the different speculators are given 
with their names, therefore Qu.s:stor will have aa 



Aug. 4. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



96 



opportunity of judging for himself as to which is 
the true explanation of this historical puzzle. 

L. M. M. R. 

Archdeacon Fumey (Vol. xi., p. 205.). — Your 
correspondent *. furnishes some materials for a 
memoir of this very distinguished antiquary, and 
expresses a hope that farther particulars may be 
supplied by any reader of " N. & Q." who may 
be enabled to add to what he communicates. In 
furtherance of his object I beg leave to add what 
I consider two very important facts. 

Judge Blackstone, in his much esteemed work, 
The Great Charter and Charter of the Forest, 
Sec, by William Blackstone, Esq., Oxford, 1759, 
4to., Introduction, p. xxxv., speaking of Magna 
Charta of Henry III., which is dated November 
12, 1216, says "this invaluable piece of anti- 
quity " was presented by the late Archdeacon 
Furney to the Bodleian Library at Oxford; and 
he takes the opportunity to add what important 
service many individuals may render to the re- 
searches of the antiquary, would they make 
similar depositories donations of such treasures, 
instead of letting them remain in private col- 
lections. The Charter is accompanied at p. 36. 
with engravings of the two very curious seals 
which are appended to it. 

The other matter to which I allude is seven 
volumes of MSS. of Archdeacon Furney, now in 
the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., of 
Middle Hill, Broadway, Worcestershire, and 
which are numbered 6632 — 6638 in his Catalogue 
privately printed in 1837. Most of these are in 
relation to Gloucestershire, but some are con- 
nected with Hampshire, Oxford, &c. ; and from 
the known talent and extensive knowledge of the 
collector are no doubt very curious and valuable. 

Amicus. 

BucharHs Ballads (Vol. xii., p. 21.). — Are the 
two {foolscap folio} MS. volumes lately in the 
possession of the Percy Society not the originals 
from whence the Ballads of the North were tran- 
scribed, printed, and published ? I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that they are; and that they were, 
in consequence of Mr. Buchan's unfortunate cir- 
cumstances, disposed of by him. Any ballads which 
ftiay be as yet unpublished of those in his MS. 
volumes were purposely kept out of his collections 
printed in 1828, because they were not considered 
by Sir Walter Scott and C. K. Sharpe, who re- 
vised the proof-sheets, &c., to be "genuine ori- 
ginal " ballads. From having had some little 
share in the publication of the two volumes in 
1828, I am fully aware. of all the circumstances 
connected therewith. T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

Officers killed at Preston Pans (Vol. xii., p. 29.). 
— A curious volume now before me, A Compleat 
History of the Rebellion, by James Ray of White- 

Ko. 201.] 



haven, volunteer under his R. H. the D. of Cum- 
berland, 1754, contains " a list of officers killed, 
wounded, and taken prisoners at the battle of 
Glaidsmuir, Sept. 21, 1745." From this list I 
extract the following : 

"Dragoons, Colonel Gardiner's : Colonel Gardiner, killed. 
Foot, Colonel Lascelles's : Captain Stuart, killed. Colo- 
nel Lee^s: Captains Bromer and Rogers, killed. Lord 
Loudon's : Captains Stuart and Howel, killed. " — Pp. 41— 
43. 

The author says at p. 37. : 

"This is by some called the battle of Preston Pans, 
from the place near it, which takes its name from the 
number of salt-pans there ; but it is more properly stiled 
the battle of Glaidsmuir, since that was the field of battle, 
being a wide barren heath, about seven miles east of 
Edinburgh." 

A. B. C. will observe that six officers are 
enumerated in the list, and not J?<7e only. 

B. H. C, 

P. S. — I will add a Query. Is anything known 

of James Ray above named ? The book contains 

neither the name of the publisher, nor of the place. 

In the " History of the Rebellion," as published 
in the Scots' Magazine, your correspondent A. B.C. 
will find much that will interest him. The names 
of the officers in the Royalist army that were killed 
at the battle of Preston Pans were as follows, viz. : 

1. Colonel Gardiner. 

2. Capt. John Stuart of Phisgill, Lascelles's- 
regiment. 

3. Capt. Braimer, Lee's regiment. 

4. Capt. Rogers, Zee's regiment. 

5. Capt. Holwell, Guise's regiment. 

6. Capt. Bishop, Murray's regiment. 

7. Ensign Forbes, Murray's regiment. 

T. G. S. 
Edinburgh. 

" The Celestial Divorce" (Vol. xii., p. 47.). — 
Upon looking over my collection of books, I find 
that I have a fine copy in old vellum of this cu- 
rious book. But it appears to be a diiferent edition 
from that in the possession of your correspondent. 
It is entitled — 

" II Divortio Celeste, Cagionato dalle dissolutezze della 
Sposa Romana. Et Consacrato alia Semplicith, de' Scro- 
polosi Christiani, In Yillafranca, 1643, pp. 196, 18mo." 

T. G. S." 

Edinburgh. 

Semle.gue — Sanlegue (Vol- xi., pp. 342. 433.). — 
The poet inquired for by your correspondents is 
probably Louis de Sanlecque, a canon of St. 
Genevieve's in Paris, where he was born in 1652. 
The first edition of his poems, under the title of 
Poesies heroiques, morales et satiriques, appeared 
in 1696. See La France Litteraire, sub voce 
" Sanlecque." Hbnby H. Breen, 

St. Lucia. 



96' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 4. 1855. 



Norman Superstition (Vol. xii., p. 53.). — In 
reference to the Norman superstition, it is to be 
observed that a nail taken from the gallows is a 
wide-spread superstition in Asia. It is mentioned 
in the Mischnah — De Sabbatho — of the things 
which are permissible on the Sabbath : " Exeunt 
cum ovo locustae, et cum dente vulpis, et cum 
clavo de suspenso, medicinae gratise." (They go 
out with the egg of a locust, the tooth of a fox, 
and with a nail from the gallows of one who has 
been hanged, as a medicine.) Leopold Dukes. 

r-« Vox populi, vox Dei" (Vol. vi., p. 185.). — 
Your correspondent CiiEBicus (D.) ascribes to the 
celebrated John Wesley the dissentient rejoinder 
once made to that well-known proverb, " Vox 
populi, vox Dei." " No, it cannot be the voice of 
God, for it was vox populi that cried out ' Crucify 
him, crucify him ! ' " and I have seen it elsewhere 
ascribed to him. It appears, however, to have 
had a much earlier origin, and Wesley did but 
quote from Arthur Warwick, whose Spare Mi- 
nutes, or Resolved Meditations and Premeditated 
Resolutions, had reached a sixth edition in 1637. 
I am unable to give you the exact reference to 
the page where the words occur, not having the 
volume by me, and having omitted to make a 
" note " at the time of reading the work. The 
words, however, are as follows : 

" That the voice of the common people is the voice of God, 
is the commoa voice of the people ; yet it is as full of 
falsehood as commonness. For who sees not that those 
black-mouthed hounds, upon the mere scent of opinion, 
as freely spend their mouths in hunting counter, or like 
Action's dogs in chasing an innocent man to death, as if 
they followed the chase of truth itself, in a fresh scent. 
Who observes not that the voice of the people, yea, of 
that people that voiced themselves the people of God, did 
prosecute the God of all people, with one common voice, 
* He is worthy to die.' I will not therefore ambitiously 
beg their voices for my preferment, nor weigh m}' worth 
in that uneven balance, in which a feather of opinion 
shall be moment enough to turn the scale, and make a 
light piece go current, and a current piece seem light." 

John Booker. 

David and Goliath (Vol. xii., p. 46.). — Among 
the copes preserved in the library of the Cathedral 
of Durham, there is one of rich crimson silk, on 
which is embroidered a figure of David holding in 
his hand the head of the vanquished Goliath. 
This cope is believed to have been the one pre- 
sented to the church by King Charles I. : 

" Charles certainly made to the church of Durham a 
present of this description, and if this be the robe, sin- 
gular reflections present themselves to the mind upon 
a consideration of its chief embellishment." — Eaine's 
Srief Account of Durham Cathedral, p. 47., 1833. 

Charles I.'s visit to Durham was in 1633. The 
copes are preserved in a glass case, in accordance 
with Mr. Eaine's suggestion. 

CCTHBERT BeBE, B. A. 
No. 301.] 



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CONTENTS. 



KoTH : 



Paee 

Country Dealers in Second-hand Books 97 
"King Lear," Act IV. Sc. 1.: "Our 

meanes secures us," the Reading: of the 

first Folios asserted by Rev. W. R. 

ArroTTsmith - - - - 97 

William Amall and the " Free Briton," 

by William J. Thorns - - - 98 

Hampshire Folk Lore, by Avon Lea - 100 
Mrs. Hannah More on Female Poetical 

Genius - - - - ■ joi 

Predictionsof the Fire of London - 102 

MiKoa Notes : —The Manor of Ken- 
nerleieh, near Crediton in Devon- 
•hire, lost by a Game of Cards — Pepys' 
Mother— The " French Book," printed 
by Wilkes — Contemporary r. Cotem- 
porary — Curious Inscription - - 102 

QUBRIKS; 

"When did Copes cease to be worn ? by 
CuthbertBede, B.A. ... 103 

Arms of Abbey of Bardney, by Pishey 
Thompson - - . - 104 

Minor Queries -.—Kymerton — Hun- 
tmgton and Lennard Families _ Wil- 
liam Bailie, Bishop of Clonfert — 
Origm of the Sign of Cock and Pye — 
Ells Family, &c. — Culver, Culyer, or 
Colier Rents, &c. — Christopher Urs- 
wick and Christopher Bainbridge — 
Paravincin, and Dialogue quoted by 
him — Glee v. Madrigal - - 104 

Minor Qderies with Answers • 

Sophist— Lord Carberry — " A Short 
Catechism "_ Lord Mahon's "His- 
tory" - - ... . 105 

Beplies : — 

"Calamum temperare," by Philar^te 

Chasles - - - . .106 

Dean Swift and " The Examiner " - 107 
Pilgrims' Roads - - . -108 

Sir Jerome Bowes, by J. Virtue Wynen 109 
Blue Rose, by W. Pinkerton - - 109 

The Ancient Mysteries : " Sibylle " or 
"SybiUe" - . . .no 

Photooraphio Correspondence : — 
Photographic Tests — On the Employ- 
ment of Collodionized Paper by M. A. 
Festeau, communicated to the Socii'tiS 
Fran5aise de Photographie - - HI 

Replies to Minor Qctehips : _ Lord 
Byron and the Hippopotamus — 
'Flass" and "Peth" — Helgic Ver- 
S°n 9f *'?f Gospels -"Christchurch 
^ells — Times " Advertispments _ 
Hobdays — Buying the Devil — Po- 
sies on Wedding-rings - " Aboard," 
Ashore - Old College of Physicians 
— Milton, lanes on his Blindness — 
Whiskey — Book-plates — Method of 
taking out Ink - Quadrature of the 
Circle, &c. . . . - 112 

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Notes on Books, &c. . . - 115 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
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Vol. XII 1^0. 302. 



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.58. THE CORRESPOND- 
ENCE OF LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY, 
during the Civil Wars. Edited by the REV. 
T. T.LEWIS, M. A. 

59. ROLLofthe HOUSEHOLD 

EXPENSiCS of RICHARD SWtNFIGLD, 
Bishop of Hereford, in the years 1289, 1290, with 
Illustrations from coeval D >cuments. Part I. 
Edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., 
F.S.A. 



Books for 1854-5. 

60. GRANTS, &c. FROM THE 

CROWN DURING THE REIGN OF 
EDWARD THE FIFTH, from the original 
D>cket-B»k, MS. Harl. .433. And two 
Speeches for opening Parliament, by John 
Russell, Bishop of Lincoln, Lord Chancellor : 
with an Historical Introduction, by JOHN 
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] 6L THE CAMDEN MIS- 

I CELLANY, Volume the Third, containing • 
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I County of Kent, 1642-46. Edited by RICHARD 
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62. THE HOUSEHOLD ROLL 

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year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON 
HALE. 

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND 

BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de 
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end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the 
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M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the 
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WORKS OF THE CAiaDSM- SOCIETT, 

AND ORDER OF THEIR PUBLICATION. 



Restoration of King Ed- 
ward IV. 

Kyng Johan, by Bishop 
Bale. 

Deposition of Richard II, 

Plumpton Correspondence. 

A necdotes and Traditions. 

Political Songs. 

Hayward's Annals of Eli- 
zabeth. 

Ecclesiastical Documents. 

Norden's Description of 
Essex. 

Warkworth's Chronicle. 

Kemp's Nine Dales Won- 
der. 

The Egerton Papers. 

Chronica Jocelinide Brake- 
londa. 

Irish Narratives, 1641 and 
1690. 

Rishanger's Chronicle. 

Poems of Walter Mapes. 

Travels of Nicander Nu- 
cius. 

Three Metrical Romances. 

Diary of Dr. John Dee. 

Apology for the Lollards. 

Rutland Papers. 



. Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 
. Letters of Eminent Lite- 
rary Men. 
, Proceedings against Dame 

Alice Kyteler. 
. Promptorium Parvulorum : 

Tom. I. 
, Suppression of the Monas- 
teries. 
Leycester Correspondence. 
French Chronicle of Lon- 
don. 
Polydore Vergil. 
The Thornton Romances. 
Verney 's Notes of the Long 

Parliament. 
Autobiography of Sir John 

Bramston. 
Correspondence of James 

Duke of Perth. 
Liber de Antiquis Lejibus. 
The Chronicle of Calais. 
Polydore Vergil's History, 

Vol. I. 
Italian Relation of Eng- 
land. 
Church of Middleham. 
The Camdeu Miscellany, 
Vol. I. 



40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton. 

41. Diary of Walter Yonge, 

Esq. 

42. Diary of Henry Machyn. 

43. Visitation of Huntingdon- 

shire. 

44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth. 

45. Twysden on the Govern- 

ment of England. 

46. Letters of Elizabeth and 

James VI. 

47. Chronicon Petroburgense. 

48. Queen Jane and Queen 

Mary. 

49. Bury Wills and Inventories. 

50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium. 

51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guyl- 

ford. 

52. Privy Purse Expenses of 

Charles II. and James II. 

53. Chronicle of the Grey ' 

Friars. 

54. Promptorium, Vol. II. (M. 

toR.) 

55. The Camden Miscellany, 

Vol. II. 
66. The Verney Papers. 
57. Regulse Inclusarum. The 

Ancren Rewle. 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



^7 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 11. 1855. 



COUNTRY DEALERS IN SECOND-HAND BOOKS. 

[We here publish a first list of Dealers in Second-hand 
Books resident out of the Metropolis. We have thought 
it better to issue such a list as we have been enabled to 
collect, imperfect as it must be, partly because the in- 
formation it contains will be useful as far as it goes, — 
partly because such publication will no doubt be an effec- 
tual means of procuring corrections or additions. Those 
Booksellers who publish Catalogues are distinguished by 
an asterisk prefixed to their names. We need scarcely 
add that we shall be glad to receive such Catalogues. — 
Ed. " N. & Q."] 

Aberdeen. * Alexander Smith, 92. George Street. 
Bath. Mr. IJayward. 

Messrs. Simms and Co. 
Berwick. J. Wilson, Hyde Hill. 
Birmingham. * W. Brough, 22. Paradise Street. 

* J. H. W. Cadby, 83. New Street. 

* Cornish, Brothers, 37. New Street. 

* Wm. Cornish, 108. New Street. 
M. Forbes, Market Hall. 

g. Harley, 3. Union Passage. 
. C. Langbridge, U. Bull Street. 

* W. J. Sackelt, 9. Union Passage. 
J. Weston, 197. Bradford Street. 
Mrs. Wilks, 119. Gt. Hampton Street. 

Brighton. * G. Gancia, 73. King's Road. 
Bristol. J. Axtens, 9. Lower Arcade. 

William Coombs, 54. Broad Street. 

* William George, 26. Bath Street. 

T. C. Jefferies, Cannyange House, and also 56. 
RedclifF Street. 

* T. Kerslake, 3. Park Street. 

* O. Lasburv, 10. Park Street. 

* W. and E. Pickering, 66. Park Street. 
Thomas Prescott, 9. Bridewell Street. 
William Quick, 91. Redcliff Street. 
Samuel Sherring, Upper Arcade. 
Wm. Hy. Stone. College Street. 

* Wm. Way, 13. John Street. 
Cambridge. Johnson, Sidney Street. 
Chester. Messrs. Prichard, Roberts, and Co. 
Derby. Keene, Irongate. 

Darlington. Sams. 

Dublin. T. Conolly, Upper Ormond Quay. 
J. Fleming, Eden Quay. 

• C. Hedgelong, 20. and 26. Grafton Street. 
W. McGee, 18. Nassau Street. 

E. Ponsonby, 116. Grafton Street. 

* W. B. Kelly, 8. Grafton Street. 
M. Rooney, Anglesea Street. 

Edinburgh. * James Braidwood, 26. George Street. 

* Wm. Ferguson, 7. and 9. Bank Street. 

* James Mcintosh, South College Street. 

* Ogle and Murray, 49. South Bridge. 

* T. G. Stevenson, 87. Princes Street. 

* James Stillie, Princes Street. 
Exeter. Holden, 60. High Street. 
Halifax. J. Baildon. 

Hull. * J. M. Stark, 64. Market Place. 

J. W. Leng. 
Ipswich. Burton. 

Leamington. Mr. Charles Blackburn. 
Lewes. Mr. James Butland. 
Lichfield. Mr. Lomax. 
No. 302.] 



Liverpool. * Edward Howell, Church Street. 

Lincoln. Mr. Brook. 

Manchester. Messrs. Cornish, 33. Piccadilly. 

Messrs. Thompson. 

Mr. Haves, Hunt's Bank, ! 

* John Gray Bell, 11. Oxford Street. 
Neiocastle-upon- Tyne. * Mr. Emerson Charnley, 5. Bigg 

Market. 
Mr. Richardson. 
Norwich. * Jarrold and Sons, London Street. 

* Muskett, Market Place. 
Paisley. R. Stewart, Cross. 
Salisbury. * Brown and Co., Canal. 

Beading. Mr. Barcham. ' ' 

Richmond, Surrey. Mr. Hiscocke. ^ 

York. * S. Sampson, 13. Coney Street. ). 

Sunter. , r 



"king LEAR," ACT IV. SC. 1.: " OUR MEANES SE- 
CURES US," THE READING OP THE FIRST FOLIOS 
ASSERTED BY REV. W. R. ARROWSMITH. 

" Old Man. Alack, Sir, j'ou cannot see j'our way. 

Glo. I have no wa}', and therefore want no eyes j 
I stumbled when I saw : Full oft 'tis seen, , 

Our mean secures us ; and our mere defects , 

Prove our commodities." — King Lear, Act IV. So, 1.' 

"Our mean secures us"]; i.e. "moderate, 
mediocre condition," Warburton. Hanmer writes 
by an easy change " meanness secures." The ttuo 
original editions have : " Our meanes secures us." 
I do not remember that mean is ever used as a 
substantive for low fortune, which is the sense 
here required; nor for mediocrity, except in the 
phrase, the " golden mean." I suspect the pas- 
sage of corruption, and would either read " our 
means seduce us," — our powers of body or fortune 
draw us into evils, — or, "our maims secure us" — 
that hurt or deprivation which makes us defence- 
less proves our safeguard. This is very proper 
in Gloster, newly maimed by the evulsion of 
his eyes. (Johnson.) There is surely no reason 
for alteration. Mean is here a substantive, and 
signifies "a middle state," as Dr. Warburton 
rightly interprets it. So again, in the Merchant of 
Venice : " It is no mean happiness therefore to be 
sealed in the mean." (See more instances in Dr. 
Johnson's Dictionary ; Steevens ; Johnson and 
Steevens' edition of Shakspeare in 10 vols., 
London, 1778, vol. ix. pp. 495-6) 

That a sentence as perspicuous in its diction as 
philosophical in its purport should have proved a 
stumbling-block to the perverse subtlety of War- 
burton, whose welcome task it was to be evermore 
correcting magnificat — that it should have afforded 
an easy subject for the unscrupulous surgery of 
Hanmer — is nothing wonderful ; but that the sound 
sense of Johnson, and verbal learning of Steevens, 
should have been baffied by it, is strange indeed. 

These commentators were evidently led astray 
by a twofold error, — one as to the signification of 
the word means, the other as to its syntactical 
usage, and their error is the more inexcusable 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



because neither this nor that had become obsolete 
in their day, nor are they so even at the present 
hour; and because a multitude of examples in 
both kinds might be instanced from among our 
most familiar and household words that must, one 
-would suppose, have precluded all possibility of 
misconception. If means be treated as a singular, 
so also is news, so is pains, so is shears, so is 
shambles, &c. &c., and let me add, with as good 
reason, and as commonly, as corpse, horse, &c., 
are treated as plurals. Again, does any one ques- 
tion the propriety, or misdoubt the import of the 
following speech ? " My means do not permit me 
to indulge in luxurious diet, and if my means did, 
my health would not." To be understood arigiit, 
is it necessary to say " my scanty means, and my 
lad health ? " Does not the obvious drift of the 
sentence sufficiently define the quality of the 
means and health, without the adjunct of any 
epithets ? Yet here have we a word, " health," 
which in strictness should be unsusceptible of the 
epithet bad, employed by itself in a sense the very 
reverse of its etymology, in precise accordance 
with which it is, however, as might be expected, 
likewise frequently used, e.g. "my health is re- 
stored : " there the word bears its full and proper 
meaning; therefore good health is tautological, 
indifferent or lad health is a catachresis, or implies 
a contradiction ; but notwithstanding this, custom 
sanctions the Coupling of all these adjectives with 
health, and without any adjective whatever li- 
censes the context to govern its acceptation. This 
being so, it certainly appears very hard that the 
unhappy word " means," which does not ex vi ter- 
mini import abundance, but both rightfully and 
customably admits the qualification either of co- 
pious, or indifferent, or scanty, should be excluded 
in this passage of Shakspeare, although not in 
common parlance, from bearing that signification 
which the context manifestly imposes and requires. 
Farther, were I to say, " Although neither my 
means nor my health will permit me to do this, 
yet do it I would, malgre my health, if my means 
were greater ; " and one should reply, " Then, sir, 
your means secure you," could this observation be 
truly termed either faulty in its phraseology, or 
ambiguous in its purport ? Gloster stumbled 
u-hen he saw his means were now curtailed, were 
straitened, straitened by the loss of his eyes ; and 
from such straitened means he infers the general 
sentiment, as admirable for its philosophy as just 
for its expression, " full oft 'tis seen our meanes 
secures us ; " which he amplifies and enforces in the 
ensuing clause, " and our mere defects prove our 
commodities." If man's power were equal to his 
will, into what excesses might he not be betrayed, 
ruinous to himself, as well as hurtful to others ; 
^jit happily for him an over-ruling Providence so 
. i)rdera infitters that man's means, his circum- 
scribed and limited means, become his security, 
No. 302.] 



keep him safe. The first error then into which 
the commentators have stumbled, is about the 
signification of the word means ; the second relates 
to its syntactical usage ; for, as was said before, I 
affirm that not only is means or meanes the right 
reading, but securss is so likewise ; that is, I 
affirm the correctness of the two first folios in 
both these words. And now, having, as I sup- 
pose, competently asserted the former, I will 
content myself with adducing half a dozen ex- 
amples in vindication of the latter. These ex- 
amples, for reasons hereafter to appear, shall be 
fetched from the works of Middleton, edited by 
Mr. Dyce. 

1. The Roaring Girl, Act II. Sc. 1., vol. ir. 
p. 513.: 

" Seb. Forty shillings is the agreement, Sir, between us ;, 
Now, Sir, my present means mounts but to half on't." 

2. The Witch, Act III. Sc. 2., vol. iii. p. 30a : 
" Seb. Because my means depends upon your service." 

most inconsistently altered by Mr. Dyce to de~ 
pend. 

3. The Widow, Act III. Sc. 1., vol. iii. p. 385. : 

" Martia. It should seem so 
By the small means was left j'ou, and less manners." 

4. A Fair Quarrel, Act V. Sc. 1., vol. iii^ 
p. 545. : 

" Rus. Come, Sir, your means is short ; lengthen your 
fortunes 
With a fair proffer." 

5. Women leware Women, Act I. Sc. 1., vol. iv> 
p.519. : 

" Moth. And hitherto your own means has but made shift 
To keep you single, and that hardly too." 

6. King Lear, Act III. Sc. 2., vol. iv. p. 580. : 
" Lear. So is all means raised from base prostitution. 

Even like a salad growing upon a dunghill." 

W. R. Arbowsmith. 
Broadheath. 



WILLIAM ARNALL AND THE " FREE BRITON."" 

By the kindness of a friend I hate lately be- 
come possessed of two documents which may 
perhaps be considered to deserve preservation m 
the columns of " N. & Q.," for they furnish some 
curious illustration of a passage m the later edi- 
tions of The Dunciad, which is no doubt famdiar 
to many readers ; while the passage itself deserves 
a note as a curious instance of the gradual changes 
which Pope's immortal satire underwent. _ 

In the first issues (I quote from edition C of 
"N. & Q.'s" "Bibliography of the Dunciad") 
we have the following account of "VVelstcd"' 
plunging for the prize. (Bk. ii. pp. 281-6.) 

« But nimbler W d reaches at the ground. 

Circles in mud, and darkness all around. 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99- 



No crab more active, in the dirty dance 
Downward to climb, and backward to advance, 
He brinajs up half the bottom on his head, 
And boldly claims the Journals and the Lead." 
In the first variorum edition, the " Dod," 4to., 
J729 (Ed. F.) this passage is thus amplified : 

^' Not Welsted so ; drawn endlong by his skull, 
Furious he sinks, precipitately dull. 
Whirlpools and storms his circling arm invest 
With all the Might of gravitation blest. 
No crab more active in the dirty dance, 
Downward to climb, and backward to advance, 
He brings up half the bottom on his head. 
And boldly claims the Journals and the Lead." 

In the edition however without date, probably 
of 1736 (Edition L.), and in both of the edi- 
tions bearin;^ that date (viz. Editions M. & N.), 
Welsted is deposed, and the name of Arnall sub- 
stituted, 

" Not so bold Arnall," &c. 
and in a note appended to this line we are told 
his history. We quote this note, however, from 
Warburton's edition (1751), Works, vol. v. p. 1G4., 
as it is there rather fuller : 

" WiLijAM ARNA1.L, bred an attorney, was a perfect 
genius at this sort of work. He began under twenty 
with furious party-papers: then succeeded Concanen in 
the British Journal. At the first publication of The 
Dunciad he prevailed on the author not to give him his 
due place in it, by a letter professing his detestation of 
such practices as his predecessor's. But since by the 
most unexampled insolence and personal abuse of several 
great men, the poet's particular friends, he most amply 
deserved a niche in the Temple of Infamy: Witness a 
paper called the Free Briton : a Dedication intituled ' To 
the Genuine Blunderer,' 1732, and many others. He writ 
for hire and valued himself upon it ; not indeed without 
cause, it appearing by the aforesaid Report that he re- 
ceived ' for Free Britons and other writings, in the space 
of four years, no less than ten thousand nine hundred and 
ninety -seven pounds six shillings and eight-pence out of the 
Treasury.' But frequently through his fury or foil}', he 
exceeded all the bounds of his commission, and obliged 
his honorable Patron to disavow his scurrilities." 

The Report here alluded to is that of the Secret 
Committee for inquiring into the conduct of 
Robert Earl of Orford, from which it appears, as 
stated in a previous note, 

" That no less than fift;/ thousand seventy -seven pounds 
eighteen shillings were paid to authors and printers of 
newspapers, such as Free Britons, Daily Courants, Corn- 
Cutters' Journals, Gazetteers, and other political papers 
between Feb. 10, 1731, and Feb. 10, 1741." 

The documents to which I have referred furnish 
curious illustrations of this existing connexion 
between the party writers and the government of 
the day. 

The first, which is endorsed — 

" Acco* of the Free Briton for Printing and Writing 
that Paper, from the l#i» of October, 1731, to the 13"> of 
January following : 

« £ 568 16s. 8d. 

" ^ me W. Arnali," 
gives an account of the expenses of printing and 
No. 302.] 



writing that journal for a period of three months ; 
and is as follows : 

£ s. d. 

" For printing Nine Single Papers, entitled 
the Free Briton, at the common Charge 
of Gl. 13s. 4d per Paper - - - 63 

For printing the Free Briton of November 
the 4«h against the Common Council 
of London ; a Double Paper, of which 
5000 copies were distributed - - 83 6 8 

For printing the Free Briton of November 
the 18"' on the same affair, a Double 
Paper, of which 4000 copies were dis- 
tributed 66 13 4 

For printing the Free Briton of Dec. le"', 
on the election of a New Common Coun- 
cil, a Single Paper, of which 4000 copies 
were distributed - - - - -33 68 

For printing the Free Briton of January 
the 13"', in Defence of the late Inform- 
ation against the Publisher of the Crafts- 
man, of which 1500 copies were distri- 
buted, a Single Paper - - - - 12 10 

For printing a Pamphlet called the Cap 
of Opposition stated between the Crafts- 
man and the People, occasioned by his 
Paper of Dec. the 4"S of which 4000 
copies were distributed _ - - 200 

For Writing the Free Briton, from the 14"> 
of October 1731 to the 13"» of January 
following - - 100 

For Writing the Papers in relation to the 

Common Council of London - - 60 

For Writing the Pamphlet called the Cap 
of Opposition stated - - - - 50 

£568 16 8 



« January 13*i', 1731. 
" Delivered, 

" Per me, W. Arnall." 
The second is endorsed simply "Mr. Peele," 
and shows how the Post Office was employed ia 
the circulation of the Paper : 

" Account of Free Britons delivered to Joseph Bell, Esq^'^, 
Comptroller of his Majesty's Post Office, by Order of 
the Right Hon^^<^ Sir liobcrt Walpole. 

£ s. d. 

" By Bill delivered for June, Julv, August, 

1733 ' - - 97 10 

By Ditto „ Sept., Oct., Nov. - 211 13 4 

Bv Ditto „ Dec, Jan., Feb. - 205 16 8 

By Ditto „ March, April, May, 

1734 - 221 13 4 

By Ditto „ June - - - 68 6 8 

By Ditto „ Julv, August, Sept. 230 

Bv Ditto „ Oct., Nov., Dec. - 238 6 8 

'Jan. 2, 1734-5 "^ 

9, » 
16. „ >2200 each Day - 91 13 4 

23, „ 

30, „ J 

Feb. 6, „ ^ 

^' " V2200 each Day - 73 6 8 

27', 
March 6, 

^^' " ^2200 each Day - 73 6 
27' 



27, „ J 

6, „ -) 

10, „ r- 

17, „ J 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



April 3, 1734-5- 

10, 

17, 

24, 

Mav 1, 

8, 

15, 

22, 

29, 
June 5, 

12, 

19, 

26, 



-2200 each Day 



-2200 each Day 



-2200 each Day 



£ s. d. 



73 6 8 



91 13 4 



73 6 8 



■£1750 0' 



The particulars of the fifty thousand pounds 
paid to political writers is set forth in an Appen- 
dix (No. 13.) to the Report to which Pope refers; 
and I may hereafter direct more particular atten- 
tion to it, for the information it affords on the 
{)olitico-literary history of the time ; but the 
ength of the present communication warns me 
to draw it to a close, which I will do with this 
Query, Where can I learn any farther particulars 
of the life of William Abnall, or find a list of 
his political writings ? William J. Thoms. 



HAMPSHIRE FOLK LORE. 

Shrove Tuesday. — At Basingstoke, and in some 
other parts of Hampshire, on Shrove Tuesday, the 
boys and girls go to the houses of the well-to-do 
classes in little companies. They knock at the 
door, and then begin the following rhyme : 

" Knick a knock upon the block ; 
Flour and lard is very dear, 
Please we come a shroving here. 
Your pan's hot and my pan's cold, 
[Hunger makes us shrovers bold], 
Please to give poor shrovers something here." 

They then knock again, and repeat both knocks 
and verses until they receive something. The line 
in [ ] is not said in Basingstoke, and many other 
places. They have, too, a peculiar way of saying 
these verses ; throwing a sharp accent upon the 
caBsural pauses, and staccatoing every word. At 
midday the children return home with their earn- 
ings, which consist of money, &c. 

Shig-sTiag Day. — The working men of Basing- 
stoke, and other towns in Hampshire, arise early 
on May 29, to gather slips of oak with the galls 
on : these they put in their hats, or anywhere 
about their persons. They also hang pieces to 
the knockers, latches, or other parts of the house- 
doors of the wealthy, who take them in to place 
in their halls, &c. After breakfast these men go 
round to such houses for beer, &c. Should they 

No. 302.] 



not receive anything, the following verses should 
be said : 

" Shig-shag,* penny a rag, 

[Bang his head in Croommell's bag], 

All up in a bundle" — 

but fear often prevents them. However, the lads 
have no fear, and use it freely to any one without 
an oak-apple or oak-leaf on some part of his per- 
son, and visible, — ill-treating him for his want of 
loyalty. 

After noon the loyalty ceases ; and then, if any 
one be charged with having shig-shag, the follow- 
ing verses are said : 

" Shig-shag's gone past, 
You're the biggest fool at last ; 
When shig-shag comes again, 
You'll be the biggest fool then." 

And the one who charges the other with the oak- 
leaf receives the ill-treatment. 

April Fool Day. — The last verses also do duty 
after twelve o'clock on April 1, by altering "shig- 
shag" to "April fool." The line in [], in the 
previous verses, is not repeated at Basingstoke 
and some other towns ; and without this I have, 
heard them used occasionally towards a dirty 
ragged fellow by boys in and around London. 

Satanic Lore. — At Hurley I heard a legend of 
Winchester Cathedral. At the " Devil's dancing 
hour" (midnight), whenever the night is dark, 
and the wind high, or the weather stormy, his 
Majesty of Pandemonium turns coachman, and 
drives Oliver Cromwell and his general round the 
cathedral, the carriage being followed by all the 
people whom they were the means of killing, who 
yell and shriek fearfully. Of course the noise is 
to be explained by the wind whistling through the 
trees, and the legend by the battle of Cheriton 
Down, and the havock committed in the cathedral 
by Sir William Waller's men : yet it seems that 
the second visitation by Cromwell, after Waller 
had gone to Oxford and Cromwell had left Naseby, 
made a deeper impression ; seeing that the above 
legend is sometimes told without the addition of 
the " general." 

The above were obtained a few years since in 
passing through Hampshire. Had I gone for the 
purpose of collecting notes, no doubt many more 
could have been gathered. Perhaps some of the 
subscribers of " N. & Q." living in Hampshire 
will add to their number, as the county is rich iu 
folk lore ; and, as may be seen from the above, 
their historical significance is considerable. 

Avon Lea. 

* I may mention, that the word shag among printers is 
applied to a disgraceful compositor ; and, secondarily, to a 
dirty, ragged, drunken one. 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



lal 



MBS. HANNAH MORE ON FEMALE POETICAL GENIUS. 

I believe that many of the readers of " N. & Q." 
will be pleased with the inclosed letter, which 
might be termed an essay. I believe it never has 
been published ; and ladies who are curious to 
know what a great lady thought of encouraging 
poetical tastes in young ladies, may thank me for 
transcribing this, which has found a place among 
other autographs. E. W. J. 

To Lady 

Dear Madam, 

You ask me whether I should think it right to 
encourage a propensity to poetry in a very young 
daughter ; I think I may answer without hesita- 
tion that I should not. Perhaps you will say 
" She talks to me who never had a child ; " and 
indeed it is very easy to decide with an air of un- 
feeling wisdom upon affections one has never 
known, and circumstances in which one has never 
been. In the present case, as far as I am able to 
judge, it appears to me that wit and poetry are, of 
all the propensities of the human intellect, those 
which require to be most counteracted in our sex. 
Wit is scarcely less perilous than beauty ; like 
beauty too, it is as full of attractions as of perils. 
A bright and strong imagination has a natural 
tendency to make the mind fly off from the plain 
path and sober rectitude of common life ; it is a 
sort of centrifugal force which requires to be acted 
upon by opposite powers, to keep the mind in due 
equipoise. 

A lively Imagination carries a great deal of sail, 
to which a severe education ought to oppose con- 
siderable ballast. By severity I do not mean 
harshness but care ; not unkindness but attention ; 
not rigour but discipline ; a sort of mental drill, 
which is, by habitual exercise, to train the heart 
for the combat of human life. Imagination, like 
all other gifts of Providence, Is desirable and de- 
lightful ; but like all other great gifts it exposes 
the possessor to difficulties and trials, from which 
less brilliant characters are exempt. Yet the 
temperate use and abstinent enjoyment of this 
shining talent adds dignity to its possessor ; for to 
use with discretion and modesty any talent com- 
mitted to us, is perhaps a still higher attainment 
of virtue than even to submit contentedly to the 
want of it. 

A lively Imagination Is naturally, though not 
necessarily, connected with strong passions ; what- 
ever encourages the one will Inflame the other ; 
light books feed and cherish this spark ; praise 
and admiration set It in a blaze. Intemperate 
wit seeks for praise as Its natural aliment; it de- 
mands it as its daily bread. Hence arise the 
inordinate hunger and the insatiable claims of 
variety. She is the veriest beggar that ever con- 
descended to live on casual alms, for she exists but 
on the charity of flatterers. She grows greater 

No. 302.] 



by Indulgence, and, like the vulture In the Grecian 
fable, she finds that "increase of appetite doth 
grow with what It feeds on," for every gratifica- 
tion creates a fresh desire ; plain truth will soon 
become cold and tame and insipid to the vitiated 
palate long accustomed to the delicious poignan- 
cies of exaggerated commendation. 

Do not be afraid that real talents will be 
quenched ; to do this. If it were possible, would be 
barbarous ; If the mind be animated with the true 
flame of genius, discretion will not extinguish it. 
If it be only an artificial warmth, kindled by a 
wrong education, and foster'd by undue flattery, 
that false fire which might have gone out of Itself, 
Is kept alive by heaping on It matter full of igneous 
particles ; and will destroy the little tenement 
which it should only warm and light. The liveliest 
parts should be chastis'd by a sober and rational 
education. The most elegant superstructure al- 
ways grows out of a foundation of solid usefulness, 
and all accomplishments which are not raised on 
the basis of sense and virtue, are like pyramids 
built with the point downwards. 

There is a levity in all human, I had almost said 
in the female mind, which naturally disposes It to 
whatever delights the fancy and gratifies the pas- 
sions. Instructing young girls therefore to cast 
down high imaginations. Is not less the business 
of prudence than the injunction of piety. I mean 
not to speak with the gravity of a divine, or to 
bring any arguments of the more serious sort ; I 
only aim to use the language of common human 
prudence, which wishes to promote the happiness 
of the object in view ; and this I take it will 
never be effected by whetting her appetites for 
praise or pleasure : to point her naturally too 
keen sensibilities still more acutely, certainly will 
not add to her comfort, whatever it may do to her 
ingenuities, and genius will always be bought too 
dear, when purchas'd at the expense of happiness I 
A parent will generally see more merit In a child's 
performance than it really possesses ; a friend Is 
expected to acknowledge more than he really 
sees ; and one can't help trembling for the virtue 
of a little creature when one sees her greedily 
swallowing down the applauses which the fondness 
of the mother extorts from the politeness of the 
guest. Thus, between the tenderness of nature 
and the complaisance of friendship, the poor little 
wit Is likely to hear as little truth as a beauty or a 
prince ; and of course to grow up with a deceitful 
estimate of her own merit, with a train of false 
views, fantastic desires, and craving passions. 
After all I doubt not I should be delightfed with 
the discovery of any agreeable talent in a child, 
and probably should not have a grain of that 
exaction which It is so easy to recommend to 
others. But your own admirable sense and exact 
judgment stands In no need of any poor sugges- 
tions of mine. In throwing together these hasty 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



thoughts without form, order, or digestion, if I 
have not shown my wit, I have at least shown my 
obedience to your commands. Hannah More. 



PREDICTIONS OF THE FIRE OF LONDON. 

Upon the fly-leaves of a small anti-papal work 
in my possession, entitled The Anatomy of Popery 
(London, 1673), I find copies of certain letters in 
MS. which are curious enough to claim a place in 
" N. & Q." I transcribe them literally : 

« To M-- Sam. Tliorlton, a.d. 1666. 

" My friend, 
" Y' presence is now more nesesary at London y" 
whare y" are ; y' y" may determen how to dispose of y 
estate in Soutliwarke: for it is determened by humen 
counsell, if not frustrated by devine power that y« sub- 
urbes will shortley be destroyd. Y"^ capacity is large 
enogh to understand (what) precedes as y genius shall 
instruct you.. 

" Cave. Cave. Fuge. Vale." 

The next is much defaced, rendering a perfect 
transcript impossible ; but as It contains some 
curious matter, I have waded through it, and 
present it in the clearest state : 

" Yours of y 6* curent came to me, and broug al y® 
tydinges of y" horning of London ; constantly exspected 
and discoursd of amongst y" pa. To my knowledge for 
these 18 yeares leyt past as to hapen this year, in w<^i» 
they doe alsoe promis to yn>sels and others y« introduction 
of y publick excersise of y^ Ca. Religion seated (?) in 
W^'minster hall, and severall oth^ places about y^ city 

and elswhare in y kdom. 

{Four lines obscure.) 

continually reproeving their fuint-heartednes will rend 
yra -yyth sQrow aud remors, and inflect torments vpon y™ 
equall to y® damned in hell, and will make y™ endever to 
find rest from this angush in y constant profession of y« 
truthe w<^i> they have so unhapyly betrayd. And in case 
of a relaps, tliey will be constrayned to drag you to y 
place of execution : or els to seke to rid y»ss by a generall 
massacre, w'^*' many good soules have so long disired. 
I hope S'' y" will not be wanting in y most earnst prayers 

to beg of God y* he wold be plesed to take of thes 

misarable wretches, and make the heartes of our G. to 
relent towards us, y* he wold convert those who in thaire 
harts (?) think they do him service by puting us to deth. 
" I am, S'', yors." 

Then followeth, as a note, the cruel torturing 
of a young female for religion's sake ; detailed 
with unpleasant distinctness, and wound up by a 
metrical warning worth preservation : 

" Down y" must y haritickes, 
For all J"" hopes in 66. 
The hand ag'' y"- is soe stedy, 
For Babylon is fain alredy. 
The Divall a mercy is for those 
Who holy mother church oppose. 
Let not y clargy y betray, 
Y"" eyes are opn — see y^ way, 
Retorn in time, if y" would save 
Y"" soules, V lives, or ought y have. 
No. 302.] 



Andify^live till 67, 
Confess y" have full warning given: 
Then see in time, or ay be blind, 
Short time will show w' is behind. 

" Dated y' 5'^ in y" yeare 1666, and y" first yeare 

of y» restoration of y« Court of Eome in Engld." 

G. E. R. 

Kidderminster. 



Minav ^atti. 

The Manor of Kennerleigh, near Crediton in 
Devonshire, lost by a Game of Cards. — In the 
year 184S I was staying with a friend at Kenner- 
leigh, who knowing I was fond of old places and 
old things, took me to Dowrlsh House, belonging 
to Captain Clayfield, built in the time of King 
John, the centre only remaining. It is approached 
through a gate-house. Mrs. Clayfield showed tis 
some porti'aits of the Dowrish family, and a 
marble table inlaid witli cards and counters, show- 
ing the two hands of Piquet held by Mr. Dowrish 
and an ancestor of the present Sir Stafford North- 
cote who were playing together, when Mr. Dow- 
rish, thinking he had won the game, betted the 
Manor of Kennerleigh, and lost it. The North- 
cotes hold it at the present time. The marble 
table was made to commemorate this event. 

Julia R. Bockett, 

Southcote Lodge. 

Pepys's Mother. — Samuel Pepys says, " My 
father and mother marryed at Newington, in 
Surry, Oct. 15, 1626." (Vide Diary, 1854, vol. ii. 
p. 196.) The Rev. W. C. Moore, minister of 
St. Mary, Newington, informs me that he has 
searched the register of marriages belonging to 
his church through the years 1625, 1626, and 
1627, without finding the name of Pepys. We 
have yet therefore to ascertain the family name 
of the diarist's mother. G. Steinaian Steinman, 

The " French Book," printed by Wilkes. — 
Grenville Papers, vol. ii. p. 81. Wilkes, in a 
letter to Earl Temple, says, " The 'French Book' 
is indeed most excellent, but is not published, nor 
ever to be." 

The editor, in giving a list of the books printed 
at Wilkes's private press in Great George Street, 
says, "there is no account of the _' French Book ' 
mentioned above." The work in question is, 
Recherches sur V Origine du Despotisme oriental, 
Ouvrage posthume de M. Boulanger, Lond., 1763, 
12mo., pp. 239. John Martin. 

Woburn Abbey. 

Contemporary v. Cotemporary. — I have re- 
marked nearly thirty places in which the word 
cotemporary occurs in " N. & Q." It is also 
uniformly adopted by the Rev. R. C. Trench. 
Now, admitting " N. & Q." and Mr. Trench to be 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



authorities of weight, I must really renture to 
suggest the desirability of universally adopting 
contemporary in lieu of its rival, whose claims 
were, on solid reasons, disallowed by Bentley him- 
self. C. Mamsfleu) Inglebt. 
Birmingham. 

Curious Inscription. — I offer no apology for 
forwarding this very curious inscription from a 
monument in Watringbury churchyard, Kent : 

" Here lyeth the body of Henry Wood, late Citizen 
and Haberdasher of London, who was born in this Parish, 
and gave unto the poor thereof a yearely portion for ever. 
He departed this life the 4th day of Nov., a.d. 1630. 

*' Houses we build, and ships we make of wood. 

Engines for warr, instruments musical. 
No man but knows it is exceeding good ; 

Ruin must come, if that y« wood doth fall. 
It's not in vaine that men him Wood did call, 

Consideringe howe usefuU he was heere, 
Unto the cittie, parish, hospital]. 

Sitting with Comon Counsaille at the steere. 
" Whereas he had a voyce among the best 

Of those grave sages of this honor d cittie, 
Out of their number he is gone to rest, 

Death hath him crusht — y» more the pittie. 

" Henricus Wood, downe I crushe, 
O downe I crush. It is the voyce of death ; 

■ Downe are we crusht, when once we lose our breath, 
, "Kings, potentates, and princes downe are crushte ; 
. jThe noble, learned, rich, and all are hushte, 

[In death's receptacle, they lie like wood: 

Those on the earth like oaks and cedars stood. 

In our chief mirth, the thoughts may make us blush, 

' Ere long come death, our brittle house to crush. 
" The loftie cedar, oake, and lustie pine, 

As well as shrubs, are subject to declyne ; 

No wood but must at last to ashes turne, 

As well as those contayned in this urne. 

None ever sounder was, none whose good name 

A sweeter odour left, nor better fame ; 

Nor with more zeal desir'd that blessed pension. 

To be materiall in the heavenly mansion." 

C. W. Bingham 



^xxtxitS, 



WHEN DID COPES CEASE TO BE WOEN ? 

At the present day, copes are but rarely worn. 

"By the Canons of the Church of England, the clergy 
are directed to wear this vestment ; but, out of tenderness 
to the superstition of weaker brethren, it has gradually 
fallen into disuse, except on such an occasion as the Coro- 
nation." — Dr. Hook's Church Dictionary. 

The last occasion of this wearing of the cope is 
well displayed in the engraving from Leslie's pic- 
ture of her Majesty receiving the Holy Commu- 
nion after her Coronation. The Rev. George 
Ornsby, in his Sketches of Durham (p. 129., 
1846), speaks of the copes belonging to the cathe- 
dral (which are now carefully preserved in the 
library), and says : 

« They were used in the Cathedral of Durham, in ac- 

No. 302.] 



cordance with the XXIV. Canon, at the administration 
of the Holy Communion, within the last seventy years." 

And he proceeds to give the following curious ac- 
count of the cause of their disuse. 

" Bishop Warburton, who held a prebendal stall here, 
until his death in 1779, was the first who laid them aside. 
His temper, which was none of the best, was wont to get 
uncommonly ruffled by the high collar of the cope getting 
between his neck and his full-bottomed wig. At last, in a 
fit of more than ordinary irritation, he threw aside the 
cope, and vowed he would never wear it again. After 
this, they were gradually laid aside by the other pre- 
bendaries, and at last fell into total desuetude." 

I would ask if there are any data to show at 
what period the wearing of copes fell into disuse 
in other cathedrals ; and, whether Warburton set, 
or followed, the fashion ? His arrogant and bold 
originality may have induced this change in the 
clerical vestments ; or th'e disuse of the cope may 
have been attributable to the infirmities both of 
mind and body that fell upon him in his latter 
years. Is the anecdote above quoted mentioned 
by any of Warburton's biographers ? 

I have elsewhere (Vol. xii,, p. 96.) spoken of the 
cope (with the figure of David with the head of 
Goliath) presented to the Cathedral of Durham by 
Charles I. On the Sunday of his visit to Durham 
(in 1633), he went to the cathedral to hear a ser- 
mon from the bishop (Thomas Morton) ; and, 
" after service, he dined at the Deanery, at the 
bishop's- charge ; where his Majesty had a cope 
that cost 140Z., belonging to the church, presented 
to him." Carter saw at Durham, in 1795, the cope 
which was presented to the monks by Queen 
Philippa after the battle of Neville's Cross, in 
1346 (see Raine's Brief Account, p. 47.). 

In the year 1355, the Lord Ralph de Neville 
gave to St. Cuthbert a set of vestments, including 
a cope made of velvet, and covered with silk and 
gold embroidery, and jewels of the richest descrip- 
tion. His widow, the Lady Alice, at her death, 
left, among many other things, to the sacrist, the 
two pieces of cloth of gold which covered her coffin. 
One of these was red, embroidered with Saracen 
flowers, and of this was made a cope, with a 
border of blue velvet embroidered with moons 
and stars (of. Raine, p. 29.). 

In the Holy Thursday procession in Durham 
Cathedral — 

" That holy Relique, St. Cuthbert's Banner, was carried 
first in the procession, with all the rich copes belonging 
to the church, every monk one. The Prior had an exceed- 
ingly rich one of cloth of gold, which was so massy that he 
could not go upright with it, unless his gentlemen, who at 
other times bore up his train, supported it on every side 
whenever he had it on." — Sanderson's Antiquities of 
DurJiam Abbey, p. 85. 

" Valuable were the jewels and ornaments which were 
bestowed upon that holy man St. Cuthbert. King Richard 
gave him his parliament robe of blue velvet, wrought 
with great lions of pure gold, an exceedingly rich cope. 
There was another cope of cloth of gold given to the 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. U. 1855. 



Church in honour of that holy man, by another prhice." 
— Sanderson, p. 89. 

Well, then, may Mr. Raine say, in speaking of 
these costly copes and gorgeous vestments at 
Durham — 

« When the reader is informed, that, to almost everj' one 
of the altars in the Church, and there were at least forty 
in number,' themselves rich in ornaments, were appropri- 
ated robes equally splendid with those above described, 
he may perhaps be enabled to form some idea of the 
gorgeous external pageantry of the Church during those 
times." 

CUTHBEET BeDE, B, A. 



ARMS OF ABBEY OF BARDNEY. 

■ What were the arms formerly used by the mitred 
abbey of Bardney on the Witham, near Boston in 
Lincolnshire ? Fuller, in his Church Hist., says he 
could not discover them. There is an escutcheon 
of arms finely carved on an oak panel in the 
present vicarage-house at Boston ; but which was 
removed from the old vicarage-house, where it 
was seen by Dr. Stukeley, and was the subject of 
a correspondence between Mr. Maurice Johnson 
and Roger Gale. If the arms of Bardney Abbey 
have not been authentically ascertained, I should 
venture to suppose that the arms upon this oak 
panel are those which were formerly borne by 
this institution; they are as follows, in the lan- 
guage of Dr. Stukeley : " A fesse charged with a 
fish and two annulets between three plates, each 
charged with a cross fitchee." This escutcheon is 
attached by a cord to a mitre; a pastoral staff 
passes diagonally behind the escutcheon ; at the 
top are the words " Ibi, Ubi," in old English 
characters ; and on each side of the escutcheon a 
single letter in the same character, that on the 
right of the panel being evidently an I; that on 
the left is indistinct, I think it is an H. Mr. 
Johnson thought they were both I. I do not 
know of any particular connexion between the 
abbey of Bardney and the church or town of 
Boston. 

The Abbot of Bardney owned a fishery at 
Boston in 1539. He also held property there at 
the Dissolution, which was sold by Henry VIII. 
to the corporation of Boston in 1546. The river 
Witham, in which the Abbot of Bardney had a 
fishery, was, and is yet, famed for its pikes ; hence 
the phrase "Witham pike, none like;" and the 
fish in the old escutcheon to which I have alluded 
is evidently a representation of that fish. It may, 
however, be intended for the Vesica Piscis, which 
is frequently found on the seals of bishops and 
monastic institutions. I have somewhere seen it 
stated that the fish there represented very often 
resembled the pike. May I request information 
upon tliis subject ? Pishey Thompson. 

Stoke Newington. 

1^0. 302.] 



Minav UStmviti, 

Kymerton. — In the pedigree of Vaughan of 
Hergest Court, Knigton, co. Hereford, is a match 
with "John Price of Kyme:- on," time of Eliza- 
beth or James I. In what parish and county is 
"Kymerton?" G. Steinman Steinman. 

Huntington and Lennard Families. — Can any 
particulars be found in Carlisle of the Huntimrton 
family (sometime Quakers), or of the Lennard 
family ? The Hon. Henry Lennard died at Car- 
lisle in 1703; and Mary, his widow, in 1707, leaving 
three daughters. Was she a daughter of Admiral 
Sir Richard Haddock ? G. Steinman Steinman. 

William Bailie, Bishop of Clonfert. — It appears, 
from Dr. Cotton's Fasti Feci. Hih., that William 
Bailie was Bishop of Clonfert from 1644 to 1664, 
a native of Scotland, educated at Glasgow, but 
D.D. of Oxford. From the records in the Ulster 
King of Arms Office, it appears that his only 
daughter and heir, Jane Bailie, in 1639 married 
James Hamilton, Esq., of Bailieborough, county 
of Cavan (vide Fun. Ent., viii. 233.). 

Can any of your correspondents tell from what 
Scotch family he sprang, and what arms he bore ? 

I looked through a large number of the MS. 
pedigrees deposited in the Advocates' Library, and 
mentioned this bishop to several antiquaries in 
Edinburgh. I also searched the records there, 
but could gain no clue to his family. 

His will is not deposited in the Prerogative 
Court in Dublin, as I had that searched ; nor is 
he mentioned in those records of the University 
of Glasgow which have been published. 

M. Meekins. 

Temple. 

Origin of the Sign of Cock and Pye. — At Ips- 
wich and Woodbridge are inns known by the 
above sign. The occupier of the first-mentioned 
states that he has frequently been questioned by his 
guests relative to the derivation of his sign with- 
out being enabled to give a satisfactory reply. 
Such being the case, he would feel obliged by 
being informed on the point. At the time cock- 
fighting was deemed an amusement, this ancient 
inn was much frequented by those who patronised 
that objectionable custom. At this period it was 
frequently announced in advertisements, " there 
will be cock-fighting at the Cock and Pye as 
usual." 

On one occasion, when this house was under re- 
pair, a rude representation of a cock standing upon 
a pie was discovered. It is well known that the 
eastern counties were formerly noted for en- 
couraging cock-fighting, now very properly dis- 
continued ; the county newspapers then frequently 
contained advertisements relative thereto. At 
Winfarthing, West Beckham, and Burgh, in Nor- 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



folk, are still found public-houses known by the 
sign of " The Fighting Cocks ; " and the expres- 
sion "they are living like fighting-cocks," is not 
unfrequently applied to those who are supposed 
to keep a more liberal establishment than their 
neighbours. In Shakspeare's time the words " By 
Cock and Pye " appear to have been used as a 
popular adjuration*, as we find them used in that 
sense in his writings. G. Blencowe. 

Manningtree. 

mis Family, Sec. — Will any of your readers 
kindly oblige me by giving the arms of Ells, co. 
Bucks, and of Smith, co. Oxon ? I have consulted 
several local works unsuccessfully, or should not 
trouble you to insert this. F. Gr. L. 

Sunningwell Rectory, Abingdon. 

Culver, Cidyer, or Colier Rents, ^c. — I fre- 
quently meet with the phrase, " this property 
pays a culver rent" (generally a small amount, 
and seldom exceeding a few shillings) to some 
individual or society. The peculiar designation 
of the rent is variously spelt : culver, culyer, colier, 
colyer, &c. I cannot find a satisfactory explana- 
tion of this word. By some I am told that it 
means an annual payment to keep pigeons, or have 
a dove-cot, and was originally paid to the lord of 
the manor ; by others, that it was a drainage tax 
for the use t)f a culvert, or sewer. I have received 
other explanations, but none of them satisfactory. 
Perhaps this application to the readers of " N. & 
=Q." may procure me the needed information. 

PiSHEY Thompson. 

Stoke Newington. 

Christopher Urswick and Christopher Bainhridge. 
— In the interesting work lately published, entitled 
Four Years at the Court of Henry VIII., being a 
selection from Sebastian Giustinian's Despatches 
to the Signory of Venice, Mr. Rawdon Brown, 
the translator, in two places (vol. i. pp. 71. and 
192.), mentions Christopher Urswick and Chris- 
topher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, as one 
and the same person. I am aware that they have 
been confounded by some authors ; but I thought 
their identity had been satisfactorily disproved. 
Its reassertion in so recent a publication may 
excuse my inquiry whether it is 'warranted by 
any late discovery. 

Cardinal Wolsey succeeded Bainbridge as Arch- 
bishop of York at his death in 1514, and Chris- 
topher Urswick (if Anthony Wood is correct) 
lived till 1521, when he was buried at Hackney. 
(Athen. Oxon., ed. 1815, vol. i. p. 703.) Anthony 
is, however, wrong when he states that he was 
Recorder of London. He has mistaken him for 
Thomas Urswick, who was Recorder from 1454 to 
1471, when he was made Lord Chief Baron of the 

[* See Nares's Glossary, articles Cock and Pye.] 
No. 302.] 



Exchequer, over which Court he presided till his 
death in 1479. Edward Foss. 

Paravincin, and Dialogue quoted by him. — 

" Francis Paravincin, in his Book upon the Soul, quotes 
largelj"- from a work intituled A Dialogue, in which it is 
proved on the authority of the Holy Fathers, that Sin is not 
now, and gives examples how murder, robbery, concu- 
piscence, and the like, may be indulged in bj' mixing a 
little good with the motives, and conscience be saved 
thereb}', though it he less than that latent spark which 
our lawyers hold to be enough to revive expiring 
estates." — An Appeal to Parliament on the Intrusions^ of 
the Jesuits, by J. Hammond, London, 1717." 

Can any of your readers give me the exact 
title of the dialogue above mentioned ? That is 
all which I actually want, but shall be glad to 
know that of Paravincin's work, and the meaninor 
of the " latent spark." W. S. P! 

Glee v. Madrigal. — What is the difference be- 
tween glees and madrigals ; between ballads and 
songs? John Scbibe. 



^mor <lkuttizi tut'ft ^niiotxi. 

Sophist. — One of the leading features of Grotd 
is his pleadings for the sophists ; and his plea is, 
that sophist originally meant nothing blame- 
worthy, it merely signified a professor or teacher. 
What is his authority for this ? and how could so 
innocuous a word receive so damaging a signi- 
fication, except from the misconduct of those who 
assumed it ? William Blood. 

Wicklow. 

[That unfortunate man of letters, Floyer Sydenham, in 
a note on Plato's Dialogue, " The Greater Hippias," has 
given a satisfactory reply to this Query. " The Grecian 
wisdom, or philosophy," he says, " in most ancient times, 
of which any records are left us, included phvsicks, 
ethicks, and politicks, until the time of Thales the Ionian, 
who giving himself up wholly to the studv of nature, of 
her principles and elements, with the causes of the several 
phenomena, became famous above all the ancient sages 
for natural knowledge ; and led the way to a succession 
of philosophers, from their founder and first master called 
Ionic. Addicted thus to the contemplation of things 
remote from the affairs of men, these all lived abstracted 
as much as possible from human society, revealing the 
secrets of nature only to a few select disciples, who 
sought them out in their retreat, and had a genius for 
the same abstruse inquiries, together with a taste for the 
same retired kind of life. As the fame of their wisdom 
spread, the curiosity of that whole inquisitive nation, the 
Grecians, was at length excited. This gave occasion to 
the rise of a new profession or sect, very different from 
that of those speculative sages. A set of men smitten, 
not with the love of wisdom, but of fame and glory, men 
of great natural abilities, notable industry and boldness, 
appeared in Greece ; and assuming the name of Sophists, 
a name hitherto liighly honourable, and given only to 
those, by whom mankind in general were supposed to be 
made wiser, to their ancient poets, legislators, and the 
gods themselves, undertook to teach, by a few lessons and 
in a short time, all the parts of philosophy to any person, 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



of -whatever kind were his disposition or turn of mind, 
and of whatever degree the capacity of it, so that he was 
•but able to paj' largely for liis teaching."] 

Lord Carberry. — Can any of your readers 
furnish any information respecting the Lord 
■Carberry who was appointed Lord President of 
the Principality of Wales by Charles IL ? Or 
any history of his family ? He is not in the Ex- 
tinct Peerage. K. B. 

[Our correspondent should have referred to the family 
name (Vaughan) in Burke's Dictionary of the Peerages, 
p. 630., edit. 1831, where he will find an account of this 
family. Consult also The Peerage of England, vol. ii. 
,p. 284., edit. 1714. John Vaughan, Esq., of Golden 
Grove, in Carmartlienshire, was created an Irish peer by 
the title of Lord Vaughan of Molingar, 18 James I., and 
Earl of Carberry, 1628. His son Kichard, second Earl of 
Carlerry, was made an English peer by the title of Lord 
Vaughan of Emlyn, 19 Charles I. His son John, third 
Earl of Carberry, and second Lord Vaughan of Emlyn, 
•was Governor of Jamaica, but dying January, 1712-13, 
•without issue male, the honour expired.] 

*'w4 Short Catechism.^'' — Can you inform me 
the name of the author of a diminutive black-letter 
volume with the following title : 

"A Short Catechisme for Housholders, whereunto are 
adioyned many necessory praiers. First made by Master 
.... and augmented by W. Dering. Psalme xxxiv. 11. : 
Come ye Children hearken unto mee, I will teach ye the 
feare of the Lord. Printed by W. Jaggard, dwelling in 
Barbican." 

The title-page having been exposed to damp, 
the author's name is quite illegible. There are 
also four leaves missing from the body of the 
•work, namely signature F. 9, 10., and G. 4, 5., the 
contents of which he would be happy to obtain, 
could he be favoured with the sight of a copy of 
the book, and be permitted to transcribe them. 

C. K. 

Greenwich. 

[The compiler of this Catechism was John Stockwood, 
jschoolmaster at Tunbridge. A copy of it, " newlie cor- 
rected and abridged," 1583, is in the British Museum, 
and in the Lambeth Library. We cannot find Jaggard's 
edition in any public library.] 

Lord MahorCs " History y — In vol. vii. c. lxii. 
p. 53. (ed. 1854) is this passage: 

" Thus until midsummer 1780, the American army in 
the central states remained almost wholly at gaze." 

What is the meaning of the phrase at gaze ? 

In the same volume, chapter lxv. (p. 16L), we 
read : 

"He sftewedT with bitter jealousy the popular gratitude 
■which Gratton had earned." 

Is not shewed a misprint for viewed ? 

Bar-Point. 

Philadelphia. 

[" At gaze " is a term used in stag-hunting. When 
the stag first hears the hounds, he looks around n all 
directions, and is said to be "at gaze," that is, in doubt 
or apprehension of an unseen danger. In heraldry, the 

IJo. 302.] 



hart, stag, buck or hind, when borne in coat armour full- 
faced, is said to be " at gaze."] 



3l^0j)lt£^. 



" CATAMUM TEMPERAHE." 
(Vol. X., p. 494.) 

Im tempra di penna is the " mending of a pen," 
as is proved by Dante's line, — 

" Ma poco dura alia sua penna tempra." 

The temperiHo temperato'io is a knife to mend 
pens. But the sense of the words tempra, tem- 
peratura, temperamento, widely differs from the 
French, tailler une plume ; the German, eine 
Feder schneiden; or the English, mending a pen. 
We Frenchmen hew our pens (feather quills at 
least) ; nous Ics taillons, as masons do stones ; Ger- 
mans lop them off (schneiden) ; Englishmen put 
them to rights, mend, or correct them, whenever 
there is something amiss, like good physicians, 
surgeons, or politicians, Italians, on the con- 
trary, in their artist-like way, wish to see their 
pens well tempered, well adjusted, well regulated, 
in harmony with the paper and the ink, ready to 
give good rhythm and measure, and to act quickly, 
resolutely, gracefully, let them be goose-quills, 
swan-quills, eyder-quills, peacock or eagle-quillsy 
or no quills at all. Even now we temper our steel 
pens, dipping them into a vase filled with small 
leaden balls, to wash the dirt off. 

" Quindi di tasea tragge il temperino," says 
Fortiquerra, in his Ricciardetto, "He draws his 
penknife out of his pocket." To Italians, as we 
said, the penknife is not only a knife, but the mo- 
derator, the regulator, the harmoniser and organ- 
iser of the pens. " Temperare la cetera d' alcuno" 
signifies to chime in with a person, to humour him. 
" Ti prego che tu temper! la lira," says Ludovico 
Pulci (Morgante Maggiore), " Tune the lyre, I 
pray." A watchmaker who winds up a watch or 
a clock, who puts it to rights, is said in Italian to 
accord, to temper the clock. " Temperava 1' oriuolo 
di palagio;" "He regulated the clock of the pa- 
lace " (Stor. Fiorent.). 

Such is the sense of the calamum temperare of 
the Venerable Bede, — an expression evidently 
mediaeval, borrowed by the more modern Italians, 
or rather transmitted to them by natural de- 
scent. Any pen which does not fulfil its office re- 
gularly, which does not " keep measure " (" ne va 
pas en mesure"), is an ill-tempered pen. " Quando . 
uno non balla, o non canta, o non suona a tempo^ 
cioe non osserva la battuta, noi diciamo che non 
va a tempo" (Vasari). Mixing up colours, con- 
solidating and organising various elements, and 
correcting them by each other, is to temper them. 
"Con tal industria end arte temperato" says Berni ; 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



"Arranged with such perfect industry and skill." 
" L' avea temperato con la sua lima," says Dante ; 
"He had put it to rights by the strokes of his 
file." 

The Venerable Bede, about whom your various 
correspondents have been lately so profuse of 
learned lore, when he said to his amanuensis, 
" Accipe calamum ; tempera, et scribe velociter," 
seems merely to have meant, " Here is thy pen ; 
put it in order, and hasten to write." 

Accipere calamum is not exactly apprehendere 
calamum. We may imagine the Venerable one 
taking up the quill, handing it to Cuthbert, ad- 
vising him to make it ready for use, nor to lose 
any tittle or parcel of time. 

Fhilarete Chasles, Mazariuaeus. 

Paris, Palais de I'Institut. 



DEAN SWIFT AND "THE EXAMINER. 

(Vol. xii., p. 45.) 

The following miscellaneous notes relating to 
Dean Swift's connexion with The Examiner are 
prefixed to a copy of the original edition in folio, 
1710 — 1714, formerly in the library of Charles 
Burney, D.D., and were most probably collected 
by him. This copy is now in the British Museum. 

J. Y. 



On August 3, 1710, appeared the first number 
of The Examiner, the ablest vindication of the 
measures of the Queen and her new ministry : 

" About a dozen of these papers. Swift says thirteen, 
were written with much spirit and sharpness by Lord 
Bolingbroke, Bishop Atterbury, Mr. Prior, Dr. Friend, 
Dr. King, and others, and published with great applause. 
But these gentlemen being grown weary of the work, or 
otherwise employed, the determination was that I should 
continue it, which I did accordingly eight months." — 
Swift's Works, vol. xv. p. 26. ; Supplement to Swift's 
Works, vol. i. p. 104. note, edit. 1779, crown 8vo. 

" But my style being soon discovered, and having con- 
tracted a great number of enemies, I let it fall into other 
hands, who held it up in some manner until her majesty's 
death."— Swift's Works, vol. xv. p. 26. 

Dr. Swift began with No. 13. (No. 14. of the 
original edition), and ended with No. 45., when 
Mrs. Manley took it up, and finished the first 
volume. It was afterwards resumed by a Mr. 
Oldisworth, who completed four volumes more, 
and published nineteen numbers of a sixth volume, 
when the Queen's death put an end to the work. 
Oldmixon concludes The Whig Examiner to have 
been principally the work of Mr. Maynwaring, as 
it was laid down to make room for The Medley. 
The same writer, in his Life of Mr. Maynwaring, 
attributes each number in The Medley to its 
proper writer. The original institutors of The 
Examiner are supposed to have employed Dr. 

No. 302.] ^ ^ 



William King as their publisher, or ostensible 
author, before they prevailed on their great cham- 
pion (Swift) to undertake that task. Mr. Prior 
was by many still considered as the author of The 
Examiner ; this appears by Swift's Journal to- 
Stella, Feb. 9, 1710-11. (Swift's Worhs, vol. xxii. 
pp. 157, 158.) 

When The Examiner was republished in 12mo.r 
No. 13., for some reason, was omitted. (Supple~ 
ment to Swifts Works, vol. i. p. 105., note.) 

See some account of Mr. Oldisworth in a note 
by the editor of the Supplement to Swiffs Works^ 
vol. i. p. 47., and by Swift himself, vol. xix. p. 256. 
He is called an " under-spur leather," " a scrub 
instrument of mischief of mine." Some people 
assure that Mr. Oldisworth, supposed to have writ 
or assisted in writing the last Examiner, was killed 
with his sword in his hand in the late engagement 
at Preston, in company with several others who 
had the same fate, having resolved not to survive 
the loss of the battle. {Weekly Packet, Dec. 31 
to Jan. 15, 1715.) 

" The Examiner carries much the more sail, as it i9 
supposed to be written by the direction, and under the 
eye of some great persons who sit at the helm of affairs, 
and is consequently looked on as a sort of public notice 
which way they are steering us. The reputed author is 
Dr. Swift, with the assistance sometimes of Dr. Atterbury 
and Mr. Prior."— "Present State of Wit," reprinted in 
Nichols's Supplement to Swift's Works, vol. i. p. 206., &c. 

" I have sent to Leigh the set of Examiners ; the first 
thirteen were written by several hands, some good, some 
bad; the next three-and-thirty were all by one hand, 
that makes forty-six : then that author, whoever he was, 
laid it down on purpose to confound guessers, and the last 
six were written by a woman [Mrs. Manley]."— Journal 
to Stella, Nov. 3, 1711, and note, edit. 8vo., 1768, p. 122. 

Dr. Hawkesworth, in a note, flatly contradicts 
this circumstantial and confidential account of 
The Examiner. Dr. Hawkesworth would not 
have fallen into this absurdity, if he had consulted 
the original periodical edition of The Examiner in 
folio. The 13th number, in the copy in folio, dis- 
claimed by Swift, was for some reason omitted by 
Barber, when he reprinted The Examiner in 12mo. 
The paper omitted is a curious defence of passive 
obedience, not inferior, perhaps, in point of so- 
phistry, or ribaldry, to any in the whole collection. 

Swift says : 

" The Examiner has cleared me to-day of being the 
author of his paper, and done it with great civilities. I 
hope it will stop people's mouths ; if not, they must go 
on and be hanged, I care not." 

The letter In which this Is said. Is dated March 23, 
1712-13, and alludes to the paper in The Examiner 
marked No. 35., vol. HI. (See Swift's Works, 
vol. xix. p. 226., crown 8vo.) Nevertheless, in a 
letter to Mrs. Johnson, dated in the beginning of 
the preceding month, he says : 

" I was in the city with mi/ printer to alter an Examiner 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. ]1. 1855. 



about my friend Lewis's story*, which will be told with 
remarks ... I could do nothing till to-day about 2'Ae 
Examiner, but the printer came this morning, and I 
dictated to him what was fit to be said, and then Mr. 
Lewis came and corrected it as he would have it ; so I 
was neither at church nor at court." — Swift's Works, 
vol. ix. p. 234. 

" I have instructed an under-spur leather f to write so 
that it is taken for mine."- — Ibid., vol. xxiii. p. 61. 

This is in a letter to Mrs. Johnson, dated Oct. 10, 
1711, so that this must be referred to The Ex- 
aminer in which he had discontinued to write. On 
June 22, about a fortnight after he discontinued 
to write in The Examiner., Swift tells Mrs. 
Johnson : 

" Yesterday's was a sad Examiner, and last week's was 
very indifferent, though some little scraps of the old spirit 
[as if he had given some hints] ; but yesterday's is all 
trash. It is plain the hand is changed." — Ibid., vol. xxii. 
p. 264. 

In a letter, July 17, 1711, Swift tells Stella: 

" No, I don't like anything in The Examiner after the 
45th number, except the first part of the 46th ; all the rest 
is trash ; and if you like them, especially the 47th, your 
judgment is spoiled by ill company and want of reading, 
which I am more sorry for than you think ; and I have 
spent fourteen years in improving you to little purpose." — 
Ibid., vol. xxii. p. 284. 

" As for The Examiner, I have heard a whisper, that 
after that of this day, which tells what this parliament 
has done, you will hardly find them so good. I prophesy 
they will be trash for the future : and methinks in this 
day's Examiner the author talks doubtfully, as if he 
would write no more. Observe whether the change be 
discovered in Dublin." — Swift's Letter to Mrs. Johnson, 
dated London, June 7, 1711. 

His last paper, No. 45., is dated June 7, 1711. 
(See Swift's Letters, vol. iv. pp. 363, 364. See 
ibidem, passages about The Examiner, pp. 60. 247. 
369.) In the same Letters, Sfc, published by Deane 
Swift, Esq., vol. V. p. 122., there is a very parti- 
cular account of The Examiner. (See also the 
note, and pp. 123. 31. 5. 118. 216. 217.) 

Swift, in the passages quoted above, has said 
enough to justify a suspicion that he was not alto- 
gether unconcerned in The Examiner, even after 
June 7, 1711. Steele might innocently enough 
insinuate a suspicion of this kind, and insist upon 
a fact that Swift did not in direct terms, in his 
letter to Addison, say that he was not concerned 
with The Examiner. The reader for curiosity 
may turn to his correspondence with Steele on this 
subject. (Swift's TForAs, vol. xvii. p. 99., &c.) In 
p. 103. of this volume. Swift expresses himself in 
the following manner : 

S" I have several times assured Mr. Addison, and fifty 
■others, that I had not the least hand in writing any of 
the papers; and that I had never exchanged one syllable 
with the supposed author in my life that I can remember, 

~ *«The paper about Lewis is The Examiner, No. 21. 

t This under-spur leather was perhaps the person Swift 
alludes to (vol. xxii. p. 274.), and calls "a scrub instru- 
ment of mischief of mine." . 

No. 302,] 



or even seen him above twice, and that in a mixed com- 
pany, in a place where he came to pay his attendance." — 
Ut supra, p. 103. 

Swift had just such a dispute with Lord Lans-r 
down. (See Journal to Stella, March 13 and 27, 
1711-12.) 

The Examiner. — This paper was esteemed to 
be the work of several eminent hands ; among 
which were reckoned Lord Bolingbroke, Bishop 
Atterbury, Mr. Prior, and others. The general 
opinion is, that those persons proceeded no farther 
than the first twelve or thirteen papers ; after 
which it seems to be agreed that the undertaking 
was carried on by Dr. Swift, who commenced a 
regular series of politics with No. 14., Nov. 2, 
1710; and having completed the main design 
which first engaged him in the undertaking with 
No. 45., June 7, 1711, and taken his leave of the 
town in the last two paragraphs of that number, 
never wrote any more in it (?). 2'he Examiner 
indeed still continued to be published, but it sunk 
immediately into rudeness and ill manners, being 
written by "some under-spur leathers" in the 
city, whose scurrility was encouraged (as Dean 
Swift himself did not scruple to own) by the 
ministry themselves, who employed this paper to 
return the- Grub Street invectives thrown out 
against the administration by the authors of The 
Medley, The Englishman, and some other abusive 
detracting papers of the same stamp. (See note on 
the Scotch edition of Swift's Works, vol. ii. p. 184., 
1756, 12mo.) 

It is now well known that the persons concerned 
in The Examiner were, Mrs. Manley, Dr. Swift, 
Lord Bolingbroke, Mr, Prior, and Mr. Oldisworth. 
Messrs. Pope and Arbuthnot often laid their 
hands to the same plough, and some others of their 
clan. (Vide Egerton's Memoirs of Mrs. Oldjield, 
p. 46.) 

N.B. — In Swift's WorAs all the numbers of The 
Examiner are different ; being there one number 
prior to what they should be. No. 14. is there 
No, 13., &c. &c. 



pilgrims' eoads. 

(Vol. il., pp. 199. 237. 269. 316. ; Vol. iii., p. 429,) 

An Interesting note by Mr. Albert Way, in 
Stanley's Historical Memorials of Canterbury, re- 
minded me of some memoranda which I made a 
few years ago in reference to a part of the line of 
that ancient road, which is supposed to have been 
traversed by the pilgrims in their route from 
Southampton to Canterbury. The Pilgrims' 
Lane is well known to the peasantry about 
Gatton and Merstham. An intelligent man told 
me he had traced it himself from Eeigate Hill to 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



the parish of Bletchingly, and that it is well known 
to shepherds on the downs between Reigate Hill 
and Guildford. It enters Gatton Park a little 
south of the higher lodge, passes on through the 
wood to the left of the carriage road to the house, 
and for some distance runs parallel with it, and 
forms part of it towards the bottom of the hill 
near the middle lodge ; it then enters the wood to 
the north of Gatton Tower, and appears as a 
terrace along the side of the bill ; it appears again 
in the avenue leading up to the Merstham Lodge, 
which stands on its line. Beyond Gatton Cottage 
a short hollow way by the side of the footpath to 
Merstham marks its course ; it is lost in the fields 
beyond, but points in the direction of Sir William 
JoUiffe's house, and the south of Merstham Church. 
It is generally of a raised character ; near the 
higher lodge it is slightly raised, nine or ten feet 
broad and paved with flints. Query, Was not 
this originally a Roman road from Venta Bel- 
garum (Winchester) to Darovernum (Canter- 
bury) ? In Antonine a road is marked from 
Venta Belgarum to Vindomis (Farnham), and 
this was probably continued between that town 
and Guildford along the chalk ridge called the 
Hog's^ Back, though neither ancient nor modern 
historians describe any Roman via in this direction 
through Surrey, and so on to Canterbury. The 
nanie Gatton {i. e. Gate-town) might lead one to 
conjecture that a Roman road had passed through 
or near it ; but though Roman coins are said to 
have been found there, no via has ever been 
pointed out. It is not likely that this ancient 
road was constructed for the especial use and ac- 
commodation of the " folke," whose name it bears, 
but was in all probability a medium of commu- 
nication between the capitals of the eastern and 
western provinces, for the legions of Rome and 
the natives of Romanised Britain. W. S. 

Hastings. 



SIR JEEOME BOWES. 
(Vol.x., p. 348.) 

The pedigree of the " first English Ambassador 
to Russia " has been given to the readers of " N. 
& Q." by your correspondent A. B. His article, 
however, contains little of Sir Jerome's personal 
history. Thinking that a few incidents may 
heighten the effect of the bare genealogical tree, 
I venture to offer them to you! 

Pepys, under date Sept. 5, 1662, has the follow- 
ing entry : 

" To Mr. Bland's, the merchant, by invitation ; where 
I found all the officers of the customs, very grave fine 
gentlemen, and I am glad to know them : viz. Sir Job 
Harvy, &c., very good company. And, among other dis- 
course, some was of Sir Jerome Bowes, Embassador from 
Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor of Russia : who, because 

No. 302.] 



! some of the noblemen there would gp upstairs to the 
I Emperor before him, he would not go up till the Emperor 
j had ordered those two men to be dragged down stairs, 
! with their heads knocking upon every stair, till they 
were killed. And when he was come up, they demanded 
his sword of him before he entered the room. He told 
them, if they would have his sword, they should have his 
boots too ; and so caused his boots to be pulled oflF, and 
his night-gown and night-cap, and slippers, to be sent 
for ; and made the Emperor stay till he could go in his 
night-dress, since he might not go as a soldier. And 
lastly, when the Emperor, in contempt, to show his com- 
mand of his subjects, did command one to leap from the 
lyindow down, and broke his neck in the sight of our 
Embassador, he replied, that his mistress did set more by, 
and did make better use of, the necks of her subjects : but 
said, that to show what her subjects would do for her, he 
would, and did, fling down his gantlett before the Em- 
peror ; and challenged all the nobility there to take it up 
in defence of the Emperor against his Queen : for which, 
at this very day, the name of Sir Jerome Bowes is famous 
knd honoured there." 

In a note, appended to the above passage, Lord 
Braybrooke informs us, that Sir Jerome's portrait 
is in Lord Suffolk's gallery, at Charlton. 

In Stowe (by Howes, edit. 1631, p. 669.) there 
is mention made of Sir Jerome Bowes, in an ac- 
count given of certain proceedings at law, between 
Simon Lowe and John Kyme on the one part, and 
Thomas Paramore on the other part. The said 
proceedings were touching " a certain manor, and 
demaine lands belonging thereunto, in the Isle of 
Harty, adioining the Isle of Sheppy in Kent." The 
said Thomas Paramore offered to defend his right 
" by battel." His challenge was accepted, and 
fixed to be tried on Tothill Fields. On the ap- 
pointed day, the plaintiff's "champion," one Henry 
Naylor, master of defence, and servant to the 
Right Hon. the Earl of Leicester, was led into the 
field by Sir Jerome Bowes. The fight did not 
come off; but the ceremony must have been im- 
posing. Stow expatiates quaintly on the dresses 
and appointments, in his usual minute manner. 

My extracts have already swollen this article to 
a great length ; I shall therefore content myself 
by begging A. B., or any other correspondent, to 
be kind enough to communicate all they know, or 
may hereafter discover, of Sir Jerome Bowes. 
From the position we find him occupying in the 
year 1571, that of backer to the servant of Leices- 
ter, and again in 1583 ambassador to Russia, 
we may fairly conclude him to have been what is 
now called " a rising politician." 

J. Virtue Wtnek, 
1. Portland Terrace, Dalston. 



BLUE ROSE. 



(Vol. xi., pp. 346. 474.) 

A correspondent, under the shelter of a Greek 
pseudonom, asserts his belief in the production of 
a blue rose ; though he says, " Years may elapse 



no 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. T1. 1855. 



before it is performed." I can inform him the 
exact period. When the Zoological Society ex- 
hibit their first Phoenix, the Horticultural Society 
will produce the first blue rose. 

The writer alluded to refers to the pansy as 
an instance of blue and yellovf being found in the 
same flower. This is an exceptional case, a freak 
of Nature — found in the wild flower, and not 
produced by cultivation — so well known to all 
botanists, that I did not think it worth an allusion. 
Indeed, Nature, as if she wished to show that this 
was a freak on her part, has introduced the blue 
and yellow into the same individual pansy; but 
who ever saw one all yellow, or all blue ? 

The yellow hyacinth, by no means strongly 
marked, and dull in colour, is not a variety of the 
blue hyacinth, but a distinct species of its genus ; 
and it remains to be proved, whether a blue one 
could be raised from it. The colour of a bulb, 
however, is not a fair illustration of the question. 
The colours of all bulbs — the breaking of a self 
tulip, for instance, into a rose, by blomen, or bi- 
zarre — are enveloped in a mystery which science 
has not yet been able to solve. 

With respect to the verbena, I think the Greek 
pseudonom has, unintentionally, attempted to mis- 
lead us. I know four species, V. canescens, V. 
diffusa, V. elegans, and V. multijida, that are 
naturally blue ; and one of these may be the 
*' good blue raised some years since." But, that a 
blue variety of the best known species, V. ma- 
lindres, can be produced, I do not believe ; simply 
because it would be contrary to a general rule of 
nature : that a yellow one could be produced may 
naturally be expected. We may hope to see a 
yellow camellia some day ; but who would ever 
expect to meet with a blue one ? 

" Nil mortalibus arduum est," is a noble motto ; 
but, as I have already observed. Nature has placed 
certain boundaries which man cannot surpass. 
The late Dr. Patrick Neill has well observed, that 
the whole business of horticulture " consists in 
the imitation of nature : whose processes may 
indeed be in some measure originated — as when 
a seed is inserted in the ground, or modified, as in 
the artificial training of fruit trees — but which 
may not be entirely controlled or counteracted." 

It is fair that a contributor to " N. & Q." may 
either write in his own name or anonymously, as 
he may think proper. But on a disputed ques- 
tion — when an assertion is contradicted, or when 
a person who has, con arnore, studied and written 
upon a subject for many years is termed a tyro — 
to insure accuracy, and even courtesy, the real 
name of the contributor should be imperatively 
required. I have another word to say : all this 
waste of space about a blue rose — a thing as un- 
naturally absurd as a blue horse, or a green man — 
has been caused by the insertion in " N. & Q." of 
what appears to me to be an extract from an 

No. 302.] 



American newspaper. Similar extracts from 
American newspapers have lately been published 
in " N. & Q.," tending, in my opinion, and that of 
others, to lower the high character of this perio- 
dical. As a subscriber and occasional contributor 
from the first, I humbly venture this remon- 
strance. No statement should be advanced in 
*' N. & Q." except upon the best authority. If 
we imitate Captain Cuttle, let us not forget Mr. 
Gradgrind's " facts." Neither English nor Ame- 
rican newspaper paragraphs can be considered 
good authorities. At a future period, " N. & Q." 
will be looked upon as the collective wisdom of its 
era ; and we should not suffer our simpler de- 
scendants to be misled, nor the wiser ones to 
laugh at our beards. W. Pinkerton. 

Hammersmith. 



THE ANCIENT MTSTERIES (Vol. xi., p. 511.) .' 
" SIBTLLE " OB " SVBILLE " (Vol, Xl., pp. 445. 

515.) 

" Is it not generally supposed that the Mysteries were, 
to the initiated, a sort of schools of religious doctrines ? " 

According to Bishop Warburton, the Mysteries 
were one of the methods adopted by the ancient 
legislators to inculcate the doctrine of rewards 
and punishments in a future state : 

" The popular belief of a Providence, and consequently 
of a future state of rewards and punishments, were so 
universal, that there nev.er was any civil policied people 
where these doctrines were not of national faith. The 
most ancient Greek poets, as Musaeus, Orpheus, &c., who 
have given systems of theologj' and religion, according to 
the popular belief and opinion, always place the doctrine 
of a future state of rewards and punishments as a funda- 
mental article. [And these were the founders of the- 
Mysteries.] One proof of this original may be deduced 
from what was taught promiscuously to all the initiated ; 
which was the necessity of a virtuous and holy life to- 
obtain a happy immortality. ... As our great phi- 
losopher with "equal truth and eloquence observes, ' The 
priests made it not their business to teach the people 
virtue; if they were diligent in their observations and 
ceremonies, punctual in their feasts and solemnities, and 
the tricks of religion, the holy tribe assured them that 
the gods were pleased, and they looked no farther," &c.* 
" This," says Warburton, " is most remarkable as fully 
confirming what we have said concerning the origin of 
the Mysteries, being invented to perpetuate the doctrine 
of a future state of rewards and punishments, that this 
doctrine continued to be taught even in the most corrupt 
celebrations of the mysteries of Cupid and Bacchus." 

Although (in the lesser Mysteries) the supernal 
and infernal gods passed in review, and the Mys- 
tagogue sung hymns in their praise?, he after- 
wards recanted and exposed the absurdity of the 
prevailing polytheism, taught a (evr select epoptce 
that Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Mars, &c., were 



• Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity. " He appears 
not to have been aware of this extraordinarj' institution 
for the support of virtue." This passage is quoted also 
by Leland. 



Aug. 11.1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



only dead mortals subject in life to the same 
pas^iions and vices with themselves, and declared 
the unity of the Godhead, the supreme cause of 
all things. 

Such, according to "Warburton, was the design 
of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Many writers agree 
with him (as Jablonski, author of the Pantheon 
JEgyptiorum, but he maintains that the Egyptian 
j^ods could not have been supposed to be of the 
same nature as the Greek) that the mere hu- 
manity of the Greek hero-gods was revealed in 
the Mysteries ; but some of them cannot believe 
that such a disclosure was made witli any par- 
ticular . view of depreciating the established re- 
ligion : 

" Whether the Mysteries were good or bad," says 
Bishop Laviiigton, Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists 
Compared, vol. ii. p. 245., " authors are pretty well agreed 
as to the preparatory ceremonies and manner of initiation, 
whereby they were to represent and act over again the 
actions and passions of the deities, for whose honour the 
Mysteries were instituted. As to any real good, it might, 
for what I know, be as great as what hath been effected 
by Free Masons or Free Methodists. . . . What I 
have said stands confirmed by unquestionable authority ; 
I mean that of the eminent Platonist, Jamblichus, to 
whom mankind gave in general the precedency in the 
knowledge of the Mysteries. .- . . That master of the 
Mysteries thus plainly owneth the truth of the facts ; he 
gives not the least intimation of their being any innova- 
tion or corruption of the original design. And his pleas 
and excuses for such infamous sights, discourses, and 
actions, may fairly be left to the judgment of the most 
ordinary capacity." 

The extract subjoined, from the same work 
(p. 239.), confirms the origin of the word " Sibyl," 
suggested by Faber in his Dissertation on the 
Mysteries of the Cabiri, vol. ii. p. 431. note n : 

" The Sibj'llte seem to have been priestesses of Cybele, 
from whom, according to the usual custom of the pagans, 
they borrowed their name ; " 

and by Mr. Fox Talbot*, who ingeniously meets 
the objection that the resemblance of the names 
depends upon the English pronunciation of the 
word Cybele as Si/bele, and that it disappears in a 
great measure if we consider that the Greeks said 
"Kybele." 

" The Mysteries are generally allowed to have been a 
cunning device, invented with politick views by men sup- 
posed to be inspired, or some prophetic women ; such as 
Orpheus, one of the fathers of the Mysteries, and com- 
poser of hymns for the use of the initiated ; or the pro- 
phetess Sibylla, inspired by Apollo, &c. (^n. vi.) She 
was guide to iEneas, prescribed his prayers and night 
sacrifices to Hecate (or Cybele)," &c. 

On the history of Orpheus the Encyclopedia 
Metropolitana, vol. ix. p. 122., may be consulted. 

In conclusion, I may observe that the deities 
were not so much distinct persons as passing 
under different names, and that the ceremonies 

* The Antiquity of the Book of Genesis illustrated by 
some New Arguments, 
No. 302.] 



instituted in honour of them were very much. 
alike. It is a remarkable coincidence, that not 
only have the Sybilline Books (for thus the word 
was often spelt in the seventeenth century, as if 
the origin of the word above given was then ac- 
knowledged) been interpreted as prophecies of the 
Messiah, but the ceremonies and symbols used at 
the mysteries of Bacchus have been traced to 
some parts of the prophetical writings of Isaiah. 
See Dr. Lamb's Hebi'ew Characters derived from 
Hieroglyphics, ^c. To which is added. An In- 
quiry into the Origin and Purport of the Rites of 
Bacchus. BiBLioTHECAK. Chetham. 



PHOTOGKAPHIC COBEESPONDENCE. 

Photographic Tests. — Can any of jonr chemical corre- 
spondents suggest any tests of simple application for the 
discovery of the following, viz. : 

1. The existence of nitric acid in the silver bath ; acid 
reaction to test paper may be caused by acetic acid. 

2. The existence of pyrogallic acid. 

3. Of hypo, in the silver bath ; and the remedies, if any, 
to be applied. 

I believe the existence of nitric acid in aqueous com- 
pounds is not easily determined. The fogging complained 
of by your correspondent P. may have been caused by 
the stopper of a bottle containing nitric, sulphuric, or 
hydrochloric acid becoming loosened, and the fumes from 
the acid contaminating the chemicals. I was for some 
days annoyed by the constant fogging of my plates, which 
I have every reason to believe was caused bj' the fumes 
from a bottle of hjairochloric acid, the stopper of which 
had got loosened. How is the presence of hydrochloric 
acid in the silver bath to be detected ? J. H. P. • 

On the Employment of Collodionized Paper by M. A. 
Festeau, communicated to the Sncieie Fran<;aise de Photo- 
graphic. — M. Festeau takes two plates of glass, perfectly 
cleaned with tripoli and alcohol, and a piece of waxed 
paper, from which the surplus wax has not been so com- 
pletely removed as is usually done ; upon the first plate 
of glass he pours a sufficient quantitj-- of alcohol to cover it 
completely; he places upon this the waxed paper, which 
adheres perfectly and without any bubbles of air. The 
waxed paper should be a few millimetres smaller than the 
glass plate. He holds the plate with the paper upon it in his 
left hand, and covers it with collodion in the ordinary way. 

Having detached the collodionized paper from the glass, 
he places it gentlv, but without pausing, on the surface 
of a solution of 9' grammes of fused nitrate of silver in 
150 grammes of distilled water. After it has remained in 
this position a few seconds, he plunges it completely into 
the liquid, and agitates it until the veins which are always 
produced disappear. 

When it is sensitised, he places it while wet upon the 
second plate of glass, to which it adheres perfectly. 

It is then exposed in the camera the same time as in 
the case of collodion on glass. 

On removal from the camera he immerses it, with the 
collodionized surface upwards, in the following solution : 

Distilled water - - - 1000 grammes 

Pyrogallic acid - - - 2 do. 

Pyroligneous acid - - - 75 do. 

and allows the image to develope. As soon as it has arrived 
at a sufficient degree of intensity, he washes it well in a 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



trough, and then soaks it in a solution of cyanide of potas- 
sium of 2 per cent., or hyposulphite of soda of 50 per cent. 
As soon as all the iodide of silver, -which has not been 
acted on by the light, is dissolved, it is carefully washed 
■with plenty of water. It is then dried bj' stretching it 
with a pin at each of the four corners upon a piece of 
cardboard, and afterwards varnished. The negatives can 
be preserved between sheets of blotting-paper. M. Festeau 
stated that the softness and finish of the pictures ob- 
tained in this way is admirable, that they are quite as 
quick as collodion, and that whilst the collodion is very 
apt to become detached from the glass during the wash- 
ing, on the waxed paper it will stand a considerable 
washing without any alteration. 



^splits ta Minax dhutvitS. 

Lord Byron and the Hippopotamus (Vol. xii., 
p. 28.). — Will Mr. Warden be kind enough to 
inform me where I can find the Journal of the 
late Lord Byron, in which he mentions his having 
seen an " Hippopotamus at Exeter Change in 
1813?" 

Supposing Mr. Warden's statement to be cor- 
rect, 1 have reason to think that Lord Byron 
wrote by mistake " Hippopotamus " for " Bonas- 
sus." And I shall be happy to give Mr.- Warden 
my reasons for thinking so. J. T. C. 

"Ffoss" and '' Peth" (Vol. xi., pp. 425. 495.; 
Vol. xii., p. 74.). — Both words appear to be of 
immediate Roman extraction : the wordy?ass being 
a corruption of vallis, as Roncesvalles, in Navarre, 
meaning " valley of briars ; " as Vallambrosa = 
shady valley, or Valparaiso = valley of Paradise. 
The word petJi, I conceive, is a corruption of the 
Latin pedestris, English path^ and means a foot- 
way — ^'' semiia pedestris ;" path being a compara- 
tively modern innovation upon the old word/»e?/i, 
as path is still pronounced in some parts of the 
country. The words ^ass, vallis, valley, and their 
congeners in the European tongues, are from the 
same root as the Sanscrit val and vall-=to cover, 
to hold or support ; which is also the root of the 
word "wall," vallan, vallas meaning mass, wall. 
The Sanscrit valitas, fast, is almost identical with 
the Latin validus, all from the same root. The 
other word peth, path, German Pfad, is of kin to 
the Sanscrit pad, to go, to stride or walk. The 
Sanscrit padas, foot, is the German Fuss, Greek 
irovs, Latin j9es, Gothic fotus, &c. T. J. Buckton. 

A key to the etymology of this word seems to 
be supplied in the article on " Asca or Aska " 
(Vol. ix., p. 488.). A. C. M. of Exeter, in alongish 
article, shows that the word asca, in all parts of 
the world, has reference to water, and is endlessly 
modified. In Great Britain we have rivers and 
lakes called severally, Esk, Exe, Axe, and Usk. 
JEasc (Irish) is water ; and ease or esc (Gael.) is 
water. Flask, a vessel to contain water, must be 
derived from the same root. 

No. 302.] 



The village Flass, about five miles from Durham, 
lies on low ground on the north side of the Dear- 
ness, at a point where the river divides into two 
streams running N. W. and S. W. Below the 
point of confluence, and opposite the village, the 
river, which runs from W. to E., makes a sweeping 
curve. Hence the name Flass is probably derived 
from its situation on the bank of the river. In 
Camden's map of the county, Flass is written 
" Flask." Ceyrep. 

Belgic Version of the Gospels (Vol. xii., p. 41.). 
— In reply to the Query of Mr. George Stephens 
respecting the Belgic version of the Gospels, I beg 
to inclose the description of a perfect manuscript 
from my Catalogue of 1 840, and am sorry I cannot 
trace to whom it was sold : 

" 7437. Testamentum Novum. Die Vier Evangelisten, 
seer eierlj'k op Perkement geschreven, met blauwe en 
roode voorletters, omtrent den Jare 1300. Evangelisti iv. 
nitidissime supra membr. MS. ; Litteris Initialibus vivis 
Coloribus ornati ; Saeculo xiii. Belgice donati ; folio, a 
very early Dutch Version of the Four Evangelists, MS. 
on vellum, said to be written about the year 1300, bound 
in old red morocco, gilt edges, from the collection of the 
celebrated Le Long, who considered it one of the principal 
gems in his library." 

At p. 2. of Le Long's own Catalogue, if I re- 
member rightly, there is a full account of the 
merits of the version. James Bohn. 

" Christchurch Bells" (Vol. xii., p. 28.).— The 
following are the Greek words to the above catch,, 
as used many years ago by one, now an octogen- 
arian, who delighted, and still delights, to deve- 
lope musical talent in youth. Old pupils of the 
C. O. S., and of the Fhil. Sch., amongst whom 
numbers of readers of "N. & Q." may probably 
be found (and who will readily recognise the in- 
stitutions indicated), will remember, like J. T. C, 
to have " heard it sung many years ago," and will 
be glad of the reminiscence which J. T. C. has^ 
called forth. 

" 'Ev T<a va<o XpioTov ef- 

riKovcn Kta&uivti, igicov<r* 

'Os riSetoi, toy ^Se<os, 

Kai KpOTOVcriu iKapoi^ Ikapiot, 
" 0a<ri irpiaTOi Seurepo? re 

Ais Kad' iKadTifv T]ixipav, 

Eicrepxou, ipxov eis euxrjv, 

Kai vjrrjpenjs v<}>r)yeTa.i, 
" TlVVL TtVl't Tl TO KioSioviov KaKsi 

Eis oiKOv <|)iAo7rorous, 

'AAA' ovSeLS to Kav Aeti^ei €<tfs av 

Tov riKoiSri aKOVtrr) TOM." 

S. H. H. 

St. John's Wood, 

" Times" Advertisements (Vol. xii., p, 42,), — 
If W. T. M. judge of the impossibility of invent- 
ing a method of inscrutable secret writing by the 
specimens of the advertisements in The Timesy 
which he has deciphered, he is very much mis- 
taken. The ciphers he mentions are of the most 
simple class, as they consist merely of an assign- 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



ment of a number to each letter of the alphabet. 
If he wish to test his ingenuity in the art, he should 
endeavour to discover the meaning involved in a 
piece of secret writing printed in Rees's Encyclo- 
pcedia, art. Cipher. It is the production of the 
late Mr. Blair, an Irish surgeon, and forms the 
best treatise on the art with which I am acquainted. 
The cypher alluded to is the last in the treatise ; 
and although the key and interpretation be given, 
yet it is a task of considerable difficulty to dis- 
cover the plan on which the alphabet is arranged. 

Should your correspondent desire to know more 
of this art, I would refer him, in addition to the 
article above mentioned, to La Cryptographie 
Devoilee, par Ch. Fr. Vesin (Bruxelles, 8vo., 
1848). Specimens of ciphers may be found in 
the second volume of Martens' Guide Diploma- 
tique, p. 576. et seq., and the Works of Dr. John 
Wallis, vol. iii. p. 659. 

There is a curious story respecting the inven- 
tion of a cipher used by the British government 
in the Autobiography of Wm. Jerdart, vol. i. pp. 40 
— 43. Thompson Coopek. 

Cambridge. 

Holidays (Vol. xii., p. 65.). — The reference to 
the Council of Trent by G. E. Howard is mani- 
festly wrong. Perhaps he refers to the twenty- 
fifth Session, Dec. 4, 1563, and the decree "De 
invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis sanctorum, 
et sacris imaginibus," where it is ordained that — 

" Omnis porro superstitio in sanctorum invocatione*, 
reliquiarum veneratione, et imaginum sacro usu tollatur, 
omnis turpis quaestus eliminetur, omnis denique lascivia 
.vitetur, ita ut procaci venustate imagines non pingantur 
nee ornentur, et sanctorum celebratione ac reliquiarum 
visitatione homines ad comessationes atque ebrietates non 
abutanturf, quasi festi dies in honorem sanctorum per 
luxum ae lasciviam agantur." — Canones et Decreta Sac, 
CEc. Concilii Tridentini, ed. 3., stereot. Romae, 1834. 

This confirms the alleged statement of St. Chry- 
sostom, that " the honouring of the martyrs [holi- 
days], instead of promoting religion and devotion, 
had quite the opposite effect." T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 

Buying the Devil (Vol. x., p. 365.). — There 
was an account in the American newspapers 
several years since of a spirit-merchant at Boston 
who purchased a cask of rum, in which he found 
a young negro ; upon which discovery he disposed 
of the cask again, observing, in the spirit of com- 
mercial enterprise, if any one bought the devil he 
was justified in selling him again. G. B. 

Posies on Wedding-rings (Vol. xi., p. 277.). — 
Your correspondent E. D. has furnished an inte- 
resting collection of these mottoes, evidently the 
result of much perseverance and attention. The 

• Cf. c. ult. X. De reliq. et ven. sanct. iii. 45. (Innoc. III.) 
t Cf. c. 2. D. iii. de cons. (cone. Tol. iii.) 
No. 302.] 



list is capable of being augmented, if such of your 
readers as possess information oil the subject 
would favour you with the particulars thereof. 
Perhaps you will allow me to add the following. 
Many years since a massive gold ring was found 
in a field at Terling, Essex, on which was en- 
graved, — 

" Where hearts agree, 
There God will bee." 

The late Mr. Brand, of Chapel, in the same 
county, picked up a similar one in his garden, 
having upon it, — i. 

" Heart and hand 
At your command." 

G.B- 
Manningtree. . ^ 

'"Aboard," ''Ashore" (Vol. xii., p. 46.)._— = 
These are nautical words, to be classed with 
aback, abaft, abreast, aburton, adrift, afloat, afore, 
aground, ahead, alee, aloft, aloof, amain, amidships, 
an-end, apeek, astern, athwart, atrip, avast, &c. 
The grammatical landsman usually inserts the 
preposition on, where the seaman softens it into 
the initial syllable a. A ship afire has originated 
a house afire, but in both instances on fire is the 
grammatical form, and the most ancient one. Two 
only of the above nautical terms are French, 
d bord and dflot. The landsman, as well as the 
seaman, uses a where on, in the sense of in, was 
anciently used, as afoot, aside, nowadays, alive, 
asleep, awalking, ariding, &c. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 

Old College of Physicians (Vol. xii., p. 66.). — 
Your correspondent W. M. will find the engrav- 
ings to which he alludes, viz. Linacre's House in 
Knight Eider Street, and the Old College of 
Physicians, in Sir Henry Halford's Gold-headed 
Cane, published by Murray in 1828, pp. 131. 137. 

Russell Institution. 

Milton, Lines on his Blindness (Vol. xii., p. 65.). 
— In one of my copies of Milton's Works, I have 
a manuscript affix of the lines beginning, — 
" When Milton's eye ethereal light first drew," 
which is thus introduced, — 

" Impromptu on the Blindness of Milton, from MSS. 
intituled • Icarian Flights.' " 

There is no note on my little record to state 
whence and when I procured it ; but it was many 
years ago, and my impression is that it was from 
a friend who was well aware of the interest I ever 
took in all that related to John Milton. Of th& 
manuscripts entitled " Icarian Flights," I know 
nothing ; but in the event of your not receiving 
more specific information, I thought F. might 
derive some assistance from the above. 

A Hermit at Hampstead. 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



Whiskey (Vol. xii., p. 59.). — Mr. What asks 
whether the word whiskey can come from the 
Hindu poistee. He is informed that it is derived 
from the Gaelic ooshk-a-pai (so pronounced), sig- 
nifying water and health. 

C. Mansfield Ingleby. 

Birmingham. 

Book-Plates (Vol. xii., p. 35.). — I most willingly 
comply with the request of your correspondent 
D. P., that I should describe the book-plate to 
which I called his attention In a former Number. 
There is, as he suggests, a helmet, wreath, crest, 
and mantle, with very flowing and profuse orna- 
mentation, the latter surrounding the entire 
shield. The arms are. Ermine, on a pale sable, 
three martlets. The crest, a leopard sejant, with 
a spear through the neck. Underneath, on a 
flowing scroll, the motto " Pro Republica." And 
below thi:<, "Gilbert Nicholson, of Balrath, In the 
county of Meath, Esq., 1669." My heraldic 
knowledge not being very great, I am not sure 
that my description will be quite intelligible, but 
it Is the best I can give. G. R. M. 

Ham. 

Method of taking out Ink (Vol. xii., p. 29.). — 
In a curious old Fi-ench book, with Innumerable 
receipts for all kinds of objects, 1 find many for 
taking stains of Ink out of paper. Among them 
it is asserted that such stains may be removed 
with verjuice, sorrel juice, or eau seconde. Other 
recipes run thus : 

1. Take e,qual quantities of lapis calaminaris, 
common salt, and rock alum, boil them in white 
wine for half an hour In a new pipkin. This will 
at once remove stains of ink from paper or parch- 
ment. 

2. Distil equal quantities of nitre and vitriol ; 
dip a sponge in the liquid and pass it over the 
ink, wliicli will be at once removed. 

3. Distil equal quantities of sulphur and pow- 
dered saltpetre for the same purpose. 

4. Rub the stain of ink with a little ball made 
of alkali and sulphur. F. C. H. 

Quadrature of the Circle (Vol. xii., p. 57.). — 
The self-sufficiency of persons who delude them- 
selves Into the belief that they have squared the 
circle, is not confined to modern times. In 1727 
Dr. Mathulon, who had published in Paris the 
year preceding two pamphlets concerning the 
quadrature of the circle and perpetual motion, 
printed at Lyons the following curious announce- 
ment to geometricians and philosophers : 

" M. Mathulon, doctor of physic, who pretends to have 
demonstrated the quadrature of the circle and perpetual 
motion, in two pamphlets printed in 1726, being surprised 
at the silence of the learned thereupon, und nevertheless 
fully convinced of the reality of his discoveries, has depo- 
sited a sum of three thousand livres to be paid to any one 
No. 302.] 



who shall publicly demonstrate the falsity of his quadra- 
ture of the circle; and he offers to lay a wager of ten 
thousand livres against the first gainsayer who will 
accept of it, as to his demonstration of perpetual motion, 
which he maintains to be receivable. He has chosen the 
Royal Academy of Sciences to determine that affair, and 
will stand to their decision." 

W.J. 

Russell Institution. 

American Christian and Surnames (Vol. xll., 
p. 40.). — Add, on the authority of a person 
well acquainted with Philadelphia, the following : 
Preserved Fish ; Return Jonathan Meggs. The 
story of this odd Christian name runs, that Jona- 
than Meggs, having proposed for the object of his 
affections, was refused, but as he departed the 
fair one relented and called from the window, 
" Return Jonathan Meggs," whereupon he did 
return, and the first-born child was so baptized 
In memory of the event. A legal firm In Phila- 
delphia bore the ominous title of " Katchum and 
Cheatum." The unfortunate owners of the names 
were compelled to dissolve partnership. O. *. 

To your next batch of curiosities of this kind 
you might add the comical conjuncture of Chris- 
tian and Surname which occvirred some years ago, 
when Mr. Preserved Fish managed the Secretariat 
of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, Boston. 

J. O. 

"Donniwell" (Vol. xl., p. 465.). — The word 
Donni, or Donny, In Donnlwell, is merely the old 
Keltic vocable don (otherwise on qy an), water, 
with the diminutive y, and signifies the little 
stream or brook. The word is still retained in 
the name of the rivers Don In Yorkshire, the Don 
which falls Into the sea at Aberdeen, another Don 
In county Antrim, Ireland, and in the Don In 
Russia. Hence, too, the Keltic name for the 
Danube, Donau, latinised Danublus. 

There is also Donnyland in Essex ; and the two 
rivers Oney In Salop and Herts, Honiton or 
Onyton In Devon, and the Uny in Cornwall, are 
all different forms of the same root. 

I might offer many other illustrations, but will 
refer only to the same word In the primitive 
nomenclature of Palestine ; the Dan, which, with 
the later Hebrew prefix Jor (river), we now, by a 
double pleonasm, call the river Jordan. 

W. L. N. 

Bath. 

Etymology of the Word ''Chess" (Vol. xii., 
p. 65.). — For the honour of this noble game I 
should be rather disposed to think that Pezron, 
to support the derivation of the word chess from 
Sacaj, has given a wrong meaning to the latrun- 
culorum Indus, or the thief's game, of the ancients. 
The game of latrunculi seems to have been much 
of the same nature as the modern chess. The 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



fiorures which the Romans used were of wax or 
glass ; their common name was calculi or latrunculi. 
The poets sometimes term them latrones, from 
latro, a hired soldier ; and in this sense it should, 
I think, be applied to chess, which gives the 
chance and order of war so happily ; and this 
idea is confirmed by Veda, who says : 

" War's harmless shape we sing, and boxen trains 
Of youth, encountering on the cedar plains. 
How two tall kings, by different armour known, 
Traverse the field, and combat for renown." 

W.J. 

Eussell Institution. 

Poetical Tavern Signs : a Patriarchal Inn- 
keeper (Vol. X., pp. 33. 329.). — At the King's 
Head Inn, Stutton, near Ipswich, until very re- 
cently there was a sign-board, inscribed on which 
was the following courteous invitation, addressed 
to wayworn travellers and others who were 
passing by : 

" Good people stop, and pray walk in. 
Here's foreign brandy, rum, and gin ; 
And, what is more, good purl and ale 
Are both sold here by old Nat Dale." 

These lines were written by one of the principal 
farmers in the parish, occasionally in the habit of 
calling at this ancient hostelry to " wet his weason 
with liquors nice." Mr. Nathaniel Dale, the late 
venerable and respected landlord, has just retired 
from business ; he has attained to the ripe age 
of eighty-four, eighty of which he passed under 
the same roof, and is still in the enjoyment of a 
green old age. 

" This old-fashioned Briton, who is hearty and hale. 
Is a moderate drinker of good purl and ale ; 
Which is better than all doctors' physic 'tis plain. 
For he seldom knows what 'tis to feel ache or pain." 

From the year 1793 to 1843 he filled the eccle- 
siastical office of parish clerk, with credit to 
himself and satisfaction to the minister and 
parishioners. On his first appointment to this 
office his fixed salary was no more than thirty- 
eight shillings a year, which was afterwards ad- 
vanced to filty-two shillings, and never exceeded 
that sum ; yet for this trifling remuneration he 
efficiently and cheerfully fulfilled the duties of the 
office. When his jubilee year as parish clerk 
arrived he resigned that appointment, but he ob- 
served not very long since that he felt as capable 
of performing that duty now as he did formerly. 
His jubilee year as parish clerk was celebrated in 
1843, at a village festival convened for the pur- 
pose ; and as a proof of the high estimation in 
which he has always been held, a handsome silver 
cup, value ten guineas, on which was engraved an 
appropriate inscription, was presented to him on 
the occasion. 

I may add, in conclusion, that he collected the 
parish rates and taxes, and occasionally exercised 

No. 302.] 



the occupations of a hairdresser and basket- 
maker. It being very unusual for any individual, 
and particularly an innkeeper, to reside four- 
score years in the same habitation, perhaps you 
will spare a niche for this brief record of " good 
old Nat Dale," now residing in this town. 

G. Blencowe. 
Manningtree. 

On the sign of " The Baker and the Brewer," 
in more than one street in Birmingham, is the 
following quatrain : 

" The Baker says, ' I've the staff of life ; 
And you're a silly elf 
The Brewer replied, with artful pride, 
• Why, this is life itself ! ' " 

H.M. 

^^ Struggles for Life" (Vol. xii., p. 9.) is not 
only ascribed to the Rev. William Leask, as your 
correspondent B. H. C. kindly informs you at 
Vol. xii., p. 52. ; but it is also often mentioned as 
being written by one or the other of the follow- 
ing distinguished ministers, Thomas Binney and 
Thomas T. Lynch. The publishers of the said 
work decline giving the name of the author. My 
own opinion is, that Leask did not write the book. 

D. N. a 

Stone Altars (Vol. xi., p. 426.).— When Strat- 
ford-on-Avon Church was repaired a few years 
ago, a stone altar was presented by a gentleman, 
and placed in the chancel. 

I recently visited the church, and, having made 
some remarks upon this altar, was informed by 
the clerk that the Bishop of Worcester, at a visi- 
tation held there, had spoken strongly against the 
erection of stone altars. After his charge, some 
one acquainted his lordship that such an altar had 
recently been placed in that church, and explained 
that the donor had been a great benefactor to the 
sacred edifice, which circumstance induced his 
lordship to allow the altar to remain. F. B. R. 



:^tsfcenane0tt^, 

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

That the name of Henry Lord Brougham is destined 
hereafter to occupy a proud position in his country'* 
annals, none can doubt. For which of his many and 
varied gifts he will be best remembered may, however, 
be matter of speculation. Those who have listened to liis 
fervid eloquence, his masterly declamation, his withering 
sarcasm, may claim that distinction for him as an orator. 
Those again, who have watched year by year his Tin- 
wearied endeavours to amend our civil, and to humanise 
our criminal, code, by repealing arbitrary enactments and 
obsolete statutes — now by giving the injured cheap 
justice, now by securing for the accused a speedy trial — 
may well argue that the name of Lord Brougham will be 
best remembered in connexion with his labours in the 



116 



NOTES- AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



great cause of Law Reform. Oa the other hand, there 
■will not be wanting zealous and enlightened students of 
Moral and Physical Science, who will regard as his 
greatest claims to distinction his successful labours in 
their own more immediate fields of inquiry ; while we 
have now before us two volumes, which serve to show 
how eminent a place the name of Henry Brougham is 
destined to fill in times to come in the literary history of 
England. These are the first two volumes of a new and 
uniform edition of Lord Brougham's Critical, Historical, 
and Miscellaneous Works. The first contains his Lives 
of Philosophers of the Reign of George III., comprising 
JBlack, iVatt, Priestley, Cavendish, Davy, Simson, Adam 
Smith, Banks, and D'Alembert. The value, interest, and 
instructive character of these biographies have been so 
generally recognised as to render farther notice of them 
superduous. We have simply to record their publication, 
and to remark that they have undergone a thorough 
revision, and are enriched with much additional illus- 
tration. The same may be said of the second volume, 
Lives of Men of Letters of the Reign of George IIL, com- 
prising Voltaire, Rousseau, Hume, Robertson, Johnson, and 
Gibbon. This series, which will be completed in ten 
volumes, is to be followed by a second, devoted to Lord 
Brougham's Legal, Political, and Professional Works. 

The interest which the natives of these islands must 
always take in their Scandinavian brethren is at the 
present moment greatly heightened by a consideration of 
the influence which they may eventually exercise in the 
great struggle which is now going on ; a struggle, the 
result of which cannot but be honourable to the two 
great nations now for the first time firmly allied, and 
allied in the great cause of humanity and social progress. 
The republication, therefore, by Messrs. Longman, in their 
Traveller's Library, of Mr. Forester's Rambles in Norway 
among the Fjelds and Fjords of the Central and Western 
Districts, with Remarks on its Political, Military, Ecclesi- 
astical, and Social Orgaiiisation, is peculiarly well-timed. 

Mrs. Gatty's Parables from Nature is an attempt " to 
gather moral lessons from some of the wonderful facts in 
God's creation." How lovingly and reverently this is 
done, all who read this new contribution to the libraries 
of our children will readily admit. Of the parables in 
this volume our favourite is " Knowledge not the limit of 
Belief," but all are excellent : while in the eyes of little 
readers, Mrs. Gatty's artistic illustrations will give the 
book no small additional value. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 
OswALD*s Calfdonian Pocket Coupanion. Last Edition. 

RiCHARDSONIANA. 1776. 

SoNos OF Innocence and of Experience. By ■William Blake. Thin 

8vo. London, Newberry & Pickerinz. 1839. 
Boyle's Court Goioe (as old as possible). 
Cambridoe Installation Ode. 1811. By W. Smyth. 
Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine fob 1770. 

Miss Seward's Poetical Works. 3 'Vols. Edited by Scott, 1810. 
Essay on the Stage, or the Art op Actino. A Poem. Edinbursh, 

1751. 

•«» Letters, statin? particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES ANU QUEKIES," 
186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the follo'wing Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are eiren for that purpose : 

StTRTEEs' History op Durham. "Vol. I. 

Hobson's British Herald. 4to. Vol. III. • 

Archmolooia. Vols. IIL IV. VIII. 

Hodgson's History of Northuubehland. Part 2. 'Vol. IXI. and Part 3. 

Vol. Ill , small paper. 
Moore's Byron. 17- 'Vol. Edition. Vol.11. Green Cloth. 

Wanted by E. Chamhy, Bookseller, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

No. 302.] 



^''^^°'"""' MosKUM OP Politics, Miscellanies, and Literatciie. 
4 Vols. Svo. 1769. 1770. 

The Key to the Ddnciad. 1728. 

Ditto, 2nd Edition. 1728. 

Collection of all the Remarkable and Personal Passages in Ta« 
Briton, North Briton, and Auditor. 1766. 

General Cockbcibn's Dissertation on Hannibal's Passage over the 
Alps. (Privately Printed.) Dublin. 1815. 

The Hibernian Magazine, oa Compendium op Entebtainino Know- 
ledge, for 1771, 1772, 1773. 

Wanted by W. J. Thorns, 25. Holywell Street, MiUbank, Westminster. 



Reynard the Fox. Translated by S. Naylor. Square Svo. 1844, 
Longman & Co. 

Modnt Calvary. A Cornish Poem. Edited by Davies Gilbert. Pub- 
lished by Nichols. 1826. 

Ardley's New Collection of Voyages and Travels. 4 Vols. 4to. 
1745. 

Wanted by Williams <5- Norgate, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 



Linoabd's History of England. Published by Baldwin & Cradock, 
Wanted by G. Steinman Steinman, Priory Lodge, Peckham. 



Nimbod. By the Hon. Algernon Herbert. Part 1. of Vol. IV. 
Wanted by Henmngham f HoUis, 5. Mount Street, Westminster. 



Vol. in. 



Spence's Things New and Old. 

Valpy's Shakspeare. Vols. VI. & X. 

Carlile's Republican. Vol. XI. 

Voltaire's PhilosophicaIi Dh 

Ramsey's Astrology. 

Alison's Europe. Vols. XI. XII. XIV. XVI. XVII. 

British Almanac and Companion. 1838 & 1839. 

Rdtt's Priestley's Works. Vols. IV. V. IX. XV. 

Wanted by Thot. Millard, Bookseller, Newgate Street. 



fiatitti to (S'QvttgpaiiUent^. 

H. W. The bell inscription forwarded bij our Correspondent is plainly 
Ave Gracia Plena. The mark after Plena seems to have been a colon, 
and converted into the semblance of a letter by some excrescence of the 
metal. The p. l. are the deficient Utters. The letters are of a very early 
date, not later than the early part qf the foia-teenth, pr(Aably of the 
thirteenth century. 

Lancastriensts is thanked for referringus to his very valuable Note on 
the Lancashire Song in our 10th Vol., p. 158. It is almost impossible that 
we should recollect what QueHes have already appeared, when those in- 
terested themselves overlook them. We have three nmo b^ore us. Unds 
Gentis is anxious for information about the Hoyle Family, and seems 
not to be aware that his Query upon that point has already appeared in 
Vol. vii., p. 237. E. H. S. writes to ask about Damian, who in his Dead 
Alive attributes certain enormities to Queen Elizabeth, but takes no 
notice qf his Query having already appeared in Vol. x., p. 165. ; johile 
another Correspondent seems equally unaware that his Quer y respecting 
the Arras of the Brettel Family has been already inserted in the same 
Volume, Pi 223. 

W. T!te lines asked for, 

" The Knight's bones are dust, 
And his good sword rust. 
His soul is with the saints, I trust," 

are from the conclusion of Coleridge's little poem entitled'Shxi'Kaieb.Vi 
Tomb. 

R. H. (Oxford), who inquires respecting Tennyson's " Bar of Michael 
Angelo," is referred to our 2nd Vol., p. 166. 

Curator. Reliquiae Sacra Carolina is no< scarce. Three copies were 
advertised last February in the cataloque issued by Waller Sf Son, 188. 
Fleet Street ; theprices 4s. 6d., 6s., and 9s. 

Full price will be given for clean copies of No. 166. and No. 169. upon 
application to the Publisher. 

A feio complete sets of " Notes and Queries," Vols. I. to XI., are now 
ready, price Five Guineas and a Half. For the^e early application is 
desirable. They may be had by order of any Bookseller or j\ ewsTnan. 

•'Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, ajid 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"Notes and Queries" is also issued in Monthly V&rts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receivina it monthly. While parties 
resitlent in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receiving the 
weekly Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of "Notes and 
Queries " (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Offlce Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, Mr. Oborob Bbll, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



Aug. 11. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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VESTMENT and EMIGRATION! being a 
TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING SO- 
CIETIES, and on the General Principles of 
Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of 
Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, 
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Com- 
pound Interest and Life Assurance. By AR- 
THUR SCRATCHLEY, M. A., Actuary to 
the Western Lite Assurance Society, 3. Parlia- 
ment Street, Loudon. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

OTTEWILL AND CO.>S 

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, 
Caledonian Road, Islington. 

OTTE WILL'S Registered Double Body 
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or 
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Feather- 
stone Buildings, Ilolborn i the Photographic 
Institution, Bond Street ; and at the Manu- 
factory as above, where every description of 
Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The 
Trade supplied. 



Just published. 

PRACTICAL PHOTOGRA- 
PHY on GLASS and PAPER, a Manual 
containing simple directions for the production 
of PORTRAITS and VIEWS by the agency 
of Light, including the COLLODION, AL- 
BUMEN, WAXED PAPER and POSITIVE 
PAPER Processes, by CHARLES A. LONG. 
Price Is. ; per Post, Is. id. 

Published by BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 
Philosophical and Photographical Instru- 
ment Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. 
Fleet Street, London. 



THE NEW COLLODION 

I manufactured by BLAND & LONG, 

153. Fleet Street. London, will bear compari- 
son with any other Preparation offered to 
Photographers. Price 9rf. per oz. Can be had 
separate from the Iodizing Solution. Nitrate 
of Silver, 4s. 6rf. per oz. ; Pyrogallic Acid, 
Is. 6rf. per drachm ; Glacial Acetic Acid, 6d. 
per oz. ! Hyposulphite of Soda, Is. per lb. 

CAMERAS, LENSE'S, and every Descrip- 
tion of Apparatus, of first-class Workmanship. 

Chemicals of ABSOLUTE PURITY, and 
every material required in the Photographic 
Art of the finest quality. 

Instruction in all the Processes. 
Catalogues sent on Application. 

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Photographical 
Instrument Makers, and Operative Chemists, 
153. Fleet Street, Loudon. 



010° MILNERS' HOLDFAST 

and FIRE-RESISTING SAFES 
(non-conducting and vapourising), with all 
the Improvements, under their Quadruple 
Patents of 1840-51-54 and 1855, including their 
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CBVBB'S l^OCKS, 

WITH all the recent Improve- 
ments, strong Fire-proof Safes, Cash 
and Deed Boxes. Complete lists of sizes and 
prices may be had on application. 

CHUBB ft SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard 
London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool ; 16. Mar- 
ket Street, Manchester! and Horseley Fields, 
Wolverhampton. 

PASSPORTS AND HAND- 
BOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS. _ ED- 
WARD STANFORD obtains Foreign Oflice 
Passports, on receipt of sealed letters of appli- 
cation, mounts them in neat morocco or roan 
cases, and procures the necessary visas. A 
Circular Letter of Instruction and Cost may be 
had on application Gratis, or per Post for One 
Stamp. Handbooks, Maps, and Guides, for all 
parts of the world. 

London : EDWARD STANFORD, Map and 
Bookseller, 6. Chajing Cross. 



WA. LLOYD, 164. ST- JOHN 
I STREET ROAD, LONDON, 

DEALER IN MARINE LIVING 
. ANIMALS, 

SEA-WEED, ARTIFICIAL SEA- WATER 
AND MARINE AND FRE8H-WATEB[ 
AQUARIA. 

A Stock of small Aquaria, ready fitted up 
with Weed, Shells. Rockwork, and Marine 
Life, always on hand, at very moderate prices. 

Valisneria, Cliara, Nitella, Anacharis, and 
other living fresh- water Plants, Insects, Mol- 
lusks. Fish, &c. 



THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

A great variety of Marine Animal Life can 
be preserved in health and vigour in these 
Aquaria, without trouble to the possessor. 
The difficulty of procuring a supply of Sea- 
water for occasional renewal has been for 
some time completely overcome by the suc- 
cessful composition of Artificial Sea-water, 
in which the Animals and Plants thrive and 
grow. 

The smaller Aquaria, when fitted up with 
pieces of rock, shells and sea-weed, and stocked 
with animal life, are objects of the highest 
interest and beauty ; and they yield to the 
observer the hitherto unattainable pleasure of 
watching at his ease, in liis own apartments, 
the curious inhabitants of the Ocean. 



PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas 
each. — D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho 
Square, London (established 1785), respectfully 
intimate that in addition to their ROYAL 
PIANOFORTES, 6J octaves, in rosewood and 
mahogany, at 25 Guineas, they have opened 
new show rooms for the exhibition of their 
ROYAL CONCERT PIANOFORTES, with 
repeater action, suited for apartments of the 
largest sire, possessing the tone, touch, and 
advantages of tlie grand, without its magni- 
tude and expense. Price 40 Guineas. Every 
Instrument warranted. The peculiar ad- 
vantages of these Pianofortes are best described 
in the following professional testimonial, 
signed by the majority of the leading musi- 
cians of the age: — "We, the undersigned 
members of the musical profession, having 
carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes 
manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE 
& CO., have great pleasure in bearing tes- 
timony to their merits and capHbilities. It ap- 
pears to us impossible to produce instruments 
of the same size possessing a richer and finer 
tone, more elastic touch, or more equal tem- 
perament, while the elegance of their construc- 
tion renders them a handsome ornament for 
the library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) 
J. L. Abel, F.Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J. Blew- 
itt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. 
Dolby, E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen 
Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison. H. F. Hass^, 
J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, 
W. Kuhe, G. F. Kialimark, E. Land, G. Lanza, 
Alexander Lee, A. Leffler. E. J. Loder. W. H. 
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John 
Parry, H. Panofka, Henry Phillips, P. Praegar, 
E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, 
E. Rockell, Sims Reeves. J. Templeton, F.We- 
ber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright,''^&c. 
D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists 
and Designs Gratis. ' 



MR. GEO. HAYES, Dentist, of 
66. Conduit Street, Regent Street, has a 
vacancy for a PUPIL. He would be fully in- 
structed in Mechanical, as well as Operative 
Dentistry, and receive many unusual advan- 
tages. If desired, he may attend the Classes at 
either of the Colleges. 



TRELOAR'S COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MATTING, DOOR-MATS, 
MATTRESSES, and BRUSHE'!, gained the 
Prize- Medal at the Great Exhibition. At the 
Warehouse, 

42. LUDGATE HILL, 
will be found an Assortment of COCOA-NUT 
FIBRE MANUFACTURES, unequalled for 
Variety and Excellence, at the most moderat* 
Prices. 

Catalogues Free. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 11. 1855. 



FOR TRAVEXiIiERS XN 
ZTAImV. 

TMs Day, copiously illustrated with Coloured 
Plates and Woodcuts, 8vo., 21j. 

BRICK AND MARBLE 
ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY. IN 
THE illDDLE AGES : NOTES of a TOUR. 
By GEORGE EDMUND STREET, F. S.A., 
Architect. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 



Second Edition, with large map, price 63., 
cloth boards. 

J)RIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
ESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin, ic. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ;" alsoofa projeotfor 
the improvement of the navigation of tliat 
river, and of various other works on Portugal. 

JOHN WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 



WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, 
Broad Sanctuary, opposite Westminster 
Abbey.— The Westminster Hospital was in- 
stituted in the year 1719, and was the first of 
the kind in the United Kingdom established 
and supported by Voluntary Contributions. 
The principle of admission is based chiefly on 
the urgency and nature of the symptoms of the 

Salient, and during the past year 1,123 acci- 
ents and urgent cases have been received aa 
in-patients without letters of recommendation, 
while 14,381 out-patients have obtained medical 
or surgical assistance with no other claim than 
their sufferings. Patients are constantly re- 
ceived from distant districts ; admission is also 
freely given to Foreigners who are ill and in 
distress ; and relief is often afforded to patients 
■who are sent as urgent cases by the clergy of all 
denominations. The number of patients ad- 
mitted in 1854 was, in-patients 1, 754, out-patients 
19,545 _ total 21,299. The demands on the Hos- 
pital are annually increasing, while the income 
irom all sources has seriously declined. Thui 
in 1854,— 

£ s. d. 
The income was - - - 40G7 2 10 
The expenditure - - - 6112 19 2J 



Deficiency - - 1445 16 4J 

These increasing demands on the Hospital 
may, to a certain exteut, be explained by the 
increase of population. Three wards, affording 
accommodation for 42 patients, are still un- 
furnished and unoccupied ; and to open these 
wards, and thus render the Hospital as efficient 
as originally designed, would require an in- 
creased income of 15002. a year, besides the cost 
of fitting up the wards for the reception of the 
patients. Efforts are being made to increase 
the Hospital accommodation of the metropolis, 
but the duty is more imperative to make the 
accommodation already existing available. 
No new establishment is required, no additional 
officers, no incre.ised buildings, but only means 
to receive and support in a long-tried establish- 
ment an increased number of the poor and 
destitute. 

During the recent epidemic 170 cases of 
Asiatic cholera were admitted, and 104 of the 
number were restored to health and their 
families. 3496 cases of choleraic diarrhoea were 
also received, and, through prompt attention, 
the further progress of disease was prevented. 
The Committee earnestly APPEAL to the be- 
nevolent for AID, and trust that the extent 
and value of the medical and surgical relief 
afforded to the poor from all parts may cause 
assistance to be given to the funds of this, the 
oldest metropolitan Hospital supported by vo- 
limtary contributions. 

Donations and Subscriptions arj thankfully 
received by Messrs. Hoare & Co., 37. Kleet 
Street ; by Messrs. Bou verie & Co., 1 1 . Hay- 
market ; by tlie Joint Treasurers, the Hon. 
Philip P. Bouverie and Peter R. Hoare, Esa. ; 
or by the Secretary. 

F. J. WILSON, Sec. 



rri 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price Is. ; or by Post for 13 stamps. 

IHE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or, 

_L How to Live and What to Live for ; 
with ample Rules for Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Management : together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
life. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Row i HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MANN, 39. CornMll ; and all Book- 
sellers. 



A CATHOLIC HISTORY OF ENGLAJTD. 

The Anglo-Saxon Period. Complete in Three 
Volumes. 

This Day is published, price ^Ss., the Third and 
Concluding Volume of 

\ CATHOLIC HISTORY OF 

J\_ ENGLAND. By WILLIAM BER- 
NARD MAC CASE. 

" In days like these, when so many of our 
new books are but old ones newly dressed up, 
a work of original research, and for which the 
materials have been accumulated by the 
writer with great labour and diligence, de- 
serves especial commendation. Of such a cha- 
racter is the ' Catholic History of England ; 
its Rulers, Clergy, and Poor, before the Re- 
formation, as described by the Monkisli His- 
torians,' by William Bernard MacCabe ; of 
which the third volume, extending from the 
reign of Edward the Martyr to the Norman 
Conquest, has just been published. The vo- 
lumes bear evidence in every page that they 
arc, as the author describes them, ' the results 
of the writing and research of many hours — 
the only hours for many years that I had to 
spare from other and harder toils.' Himself a 
zealous and sincere follower of the ' ancient 
faith,' Mr. MacCabe's views of the characters 
and events of which he is treating naturally 
assume the colouring of his own mind ; many, 
therefore,, will dissent from them. None of 
his readers will, however, dissent from bestow- 
ing upon his work the praise of ^eing carefully 
compiled and most originally written. None 
will deny the charm with which Mr. MacCabe 
has invested his ' History,' by his admirable 
mode of making the old monkish writers tell 
their own story." — Ifotes and Queries. 

"Mr. MacCabe's mode of composition is as 
novel as his plan. Sacrificing ordinary lite- 
rary pride, he makes the old Monkish writers 
compo>e the narrative — his ingenuity being 
displayed in the skill with which the passages, 
translated directly from the original, with all 
their natural vigour of language, are connected, 
so as to produce an appearance of oneness of 
design and continuity. He then fuses into one 
whole centuries of observation and narrative, 
and in fact revives those dead monks and 
scribes till they write his book. The plan is 
not only new, but it was necessary, as the 
reader will find if he compare the garbled and 
inaccurate version given by Hume and some 
other writers, with the original statements of 
the same events incorporated in these pages. 
He will also be better able to understand, when 
this universality of authorities is explained, 
why this book sliould be called a ' Catholic 
History.' The work is of great literary value." 
— Times. 

" It treats the Anglo-Saxon period under a 
phase quite ditterent fom that in which it is 
viewed by Lingard in his Anglo-Saxon Anti- 
quities. Lingard describes the doctrine and 
doctrinal practice of the age ; llie Catholic 
History tells the story of its inner life. Each, 
therefore, may be regarded as the complement 
of the other. Both are indispensable to every 
English lustorical collection." — /Ju&Zjrt Ite- 
view. 

T. C. NEWBY, Publisher, 30. Welbeck Street, 
Cavendish Square. 



Now ready. Fifth Edition, price Is. cloth. 
(Postage Free.) 

A WORD TO THE WISE; 
or Hints on the Current Improprieties 
of Expression in Writing and Speaking. By 
PARRY G WYNNE. 

" All who wish to mind their p's and o'», 
should consult this little volume." — Gentle- 
man's Magazine. 

GRANT & GRIFFITH, Corner of St. Paul's 
Churchyard. 



Just published, with 4 Illustrations, price 
Is. 6d. 

PARABLES from NATURE. 
By MRS. ALFFED GATTY, Author of 
" The Fairy Godmothers." 

" Pretty little tales with allegorical truths of 
infinite value, and the work is nicely illus- 
trated." — English Journal of Education. 

London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



12mo., price 4s. 

npHE HAYMAKERS' HIS- 

X TORIES. Twelve Cantos, in Terza 
Rima. By RUTHEB. 

" This is a scholarly little book, sweet as a 
meadow at hay-time, and full of summer in- 
fluences. We confess this little volume ex- 
cites our curiosity ; and as to the writer, the 
skill with which the metre is carried through, 
the almost immaculate correctness of the 
rhymes, and the equality of strength which 
pervades the whole, would indicate a poet of 
some standing, although the style resembles 
none that we remember. Really, an imitation 
of some of Crabbe's works becomes in his hands 
a poem as dainty and fanciful as the garden 
scenes of Queen Fiametta in the ' Dicame- 
rone.' " — Athenceum. 

" Many a faithful miniature of healthy 
rustic life."— Westminster Bevieio. 

" The bard often rises to the fervour and 
dignity of a true poet of nature and the heart." 
— JiuOlin Advertiser. 

London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



A 



Imp. 8vo., 2?. 2s. 

RCHITECTURAL STU- 

DIES IN FRANCE. By the REV. J. 

L. PETIT : with numerous Illustrations from 
Drawings by P. H. DELAMOTTE and by the 
Author, 

London : BIBLL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



Price 23. 6c?. 

A POETRY BOOK FOR 
CHILDREN, illustrated with Thirty- 
three highly finished Engravings, by C. W. 
Cope, R.A.,A. Helmsley, S. Palmer, F. Skill, 
G. Thomas, and H. Weir. 

London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street. 



& 



12mo. cloth, price 4s. 6d. 

,N THE STUDY OF LAN- 
GUAGE : An Exposition of Tooke's 
Dfversions of Purley. By CHARLES RI- 
CHARDSON, LI,. D.. Author of "A New 
Dictionary of the English Language." 

" The judicious endeavour of a veteran phi- 
lologist to extend the pliilosophical study of 
language by popularising Home Tooke's ' Di- 
versions of Purley.' Dr. Richardson has done 
good service to the study of language in this 
very judicious and compact recast, for the book 
is much more than an abridgment."- *i)ec- 
tator. 
London : BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street, 



Printed by Thoma* Ci.ark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefleld Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, In the Parish of 
St. Bride, in the City of London ; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the 
City of L^ndoi, Publisher, at No. 18ft. Fleet Street aforesaid,- Satmday, August 11, 1855. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OE INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIUTJARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



*' 'Wlien found, mako a note of." — Caftain Cuttlb. 



No. 303.] 



Saturday, August 18. 1855. 



fl'ricR Foiirpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5d. 



CONTENTS. 

NoTKs ; — Page 
Arithmetical Notes, No. III., by Pro- 
fessor De Morgan - - - 1 1 7 
" Tlie Menagiana " - - - 118 
Belgian Sports and Pastimes, by Henry 

Daveney - - - - - 118 

Thomas Tusser's Will, by G. Blencowe lia 
Military Bands in the last Century, by 

G. Blencowe - - - - 121 

Monumental Brasses, by W. R. Crabbe 121 

Minor Notes : —Reference —Summer 
Climate of the Crimea — Simon Wad- 
loe — Astounding Geographical Facts 
— Historical Parallels — Shakspeare 
and his Descendants (?) — " "Win of 
ape" 122 

Queries ; — 

NamhyPamby - - . - 123 

Harold, his Wife and Family, by E. 
Weit - - - . - 124 



Minor Qubbies : —Executors of Wills 

— Picture by Wilson-" Maud," by 
Alfred Tennyson —Duchess of Marl- 
borough — Roman Catholic Bishop- 
rics— Bardon Hill, Leicestershire — 
Length of Miles — Staniforth Family 

— Order of St. John of Jerusalem — 
Palindromon — A Book-post Query _ 
William Booth, of Witton, near Bir- 
mingham — " ft'aringtou," " ffolUott," 
&c. — " Philosophy of Societies " — 
St. Jerome— Piazzetta and Cattini — 

" Coney Gore " - - - - 124 

Minor Qufries with Answers : — 
Mrs. P. Llewlyn's Hymns — Oc- 
tagonal Fonts — Sir Samuel Shep- 
herd — History of Captain Thomas 
Stukeley — "Homo naturse minister 
etmterprea" - - - - 126 

Bbplibs : — 

" MUnchhansen's Travels," by John 

Macray, &c. - - - - 127 

Apparition of " The White Lady," by 

C. Mansfield Ingleby - - - 129 

Health of Tobacco Manufacturers, by 

J. C. Hotten - - - - 129 

Inscriptions on Bells, by Mackenzie 

Walcott, M.A.,&c. - - - 130 

Fhotooraphic Correspondence : 

Gutta-percha Baths —Deepening Col- 
lodion Negatives — Old Collodion - 131 

Eeplies to Minor Qderies : _ Ri- 
chard Kent, Esq. — Simile of a Wo- 
man to the Moon — Bells of Cast 
Steel — Wines of the Ancients — A 
oermon on Noses : Shakspeare's Auto- 
SJ'^P'? — BeatlngtheBounds_M ethod 
ot taking out Ink _ Absorbent Paper 
— Stained Glass Picture of Blessed 
Virsjin - Sir Cloudesley Shovel _ The 
hphinx _ Knights Hospitallers in 
Ireland, &c. - - . . 131 

MlSCELLANEODS : — 

Notes on Books, &c. - . - 136 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XII.— No. 303. 



NOTICE, to which we beg the parti- 
cular attention of our Subscribers. — 
"Notes and Queries" lias been re- 
gistered for the transmission of its 
stamped copies through the Post-Office 
beyond the limits of the United King- 
dom. Subscribers are reminded, that 
the stamp must be exposed, aiid the 
special postage (where required) mt^st 
be prepaid. TJie special postage varies 
in amount : the rate may be ascertained 
at any post-office. The period during 
ichich stamped copies can circulate 
freely through the Post is extetided 
from seven to fifteen days after date. 
Unstamped copies of " Notes and 
QuEEiES " will pass at any time 
through the Post-Office to all places 
within the United Kingdom Cinoluding 
the London district), with a penny 
postage stamp affiled. 



This Day, Sixth Edition, revised, 3s. 6(7. 

ON THE STUDY OF WORDS. 
By R. CHENEVIX TRENCH, B.D., 
Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of 
Oxford, Professor of Divinity, King's College, 
London. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



H 



Third Edition, Two "Volumes, 12«. 

EARTSEASE. 



By the same Author, Cheap Edition, 6s. 

THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE. 

London : JOHN W. PARKER & SON, 
West Strand. 



s 



THE SATURDAY REVIEW. 

On Saturday, Nov. 3. 1855, will be published, 
the First Number of the 

ATURDAY REVIEW of 

_ POLITICS, LITERATURE, SCIENCE, 
and ART. 

This Publication will consist exclusively of 
original matter, or of news embodied in ori- 
ginal comments ; and it will thus be distin- 
guished from all existing periodicals In several 
important respects. It will differ from the 
weekly newspapers in the exclusion of merely 
borrowed news, and from tlie purely literary 
journals in the admission of political discus- 
sion. It is intended that it shall address itself 
to the principal topics in the Political, Social, 
and Literarj' World, which will be impartially 
handled by competent writers, with that libe- 
rality and independence which educated and 
reflecting minds demand from those who as- 
sume to guide and represent public opinion. 

The publication of th° SATURDAY RE- 
VIEW is entrusted to MESSRS. JOHN W. 
PARKER & SON, West Strand, to whom all 
communications may be addressed. 



Just published. New and Cheaper Edition, 
price 1». ; or by Post for 13 stamps. 

THE SCIENCE OF LIFE ; or. 
How to Live and V/hat to Live for ; 
with ample Rules fur Diet, Regimen, and Self- 
Managtment ; together with instructions for 
securing health, longevity, and that sterling 
happiness only attainable through the judi- 
cious observance of a well-regulated course of 
Ufe. By A PHYSICIAN. 

London : PIPER, BROTHERS & CO., 23. Pa- 
ternoster Bow ; HANNAY, 63. Oxford 
Street ; MAKN, 39. CornhUl ; and all Book- 
sellers. 



Second Edition, with large map, price 5s., 
cloth boards. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON PORTU- 
GAL. By JOSEPH JAMES FOR- 
KESTER, of Oporto, F.R.G.S. of London, 
Paris, Berlin, &c.. Author of " Original Sur- 
veys of the Port Wine Districts ; " of the 
" River Douro from the Ocean to the Spanish 
Frontier;" and of the "Geology of the Bed 
and Banks of the Douro ; " also of a project for 
the Improvement of the navigation of that 
river, and of various other works on Portugal. 

JO HN "WEALE, 59. High Holborn. 



TluB Day is published, price 12s. 6d., Part I. 

of the 

RUINS OF THE PRINCIPAL 
MONASTIC HOUSES OF YORK- 
SHIRE. Photographically delineated by 
W. PUMPHREY. 

It is proposed to complete the above Series in 
fi-pm Eight to Ten Parts, each Part containing 
Five or Six Photographs, in a neat cover, and 
accompanied by a sheet of descriptive Letter- 
press. Each Part will be complete in itself, 
and contain one or more of the Abbeys or 
Priories according to the extent or importance 
of the Ruins ; at the same time the Series will 
form a complete whole. The Photographs are 
from negatives on glass, which gives a greater 
sharpness and clearness of outline than paper, 
and they will be found, on Inspection, equal to 
anything of the kind offered to the public. 

PART I., pi ice 12s. 6(?., contains Six Photo- 
graphs of Fountains Abbey, viz. : 

THE CLOISTERS ; THE REFECTORY ; 
THE CHOIR ; BRIDGE OVER THE 
SKELL ; GENERAL VIEW -SOUTH- 
EAST ; GENERAL VIEW - SOUTH- 
WEST. 

PART II., price 10s. 6rf., containing Five 
Photographs of RfEVAULX ABBEY and 
KIRKHAM PRIORY 5 and— 

PART III., price 10s. 6rf., containing Five 
Photographs of KIRKSTALL ABBEY, are 
nearly ready. 

N.B.— The Photographs will be forwarded 
Free by Post to all parts of the United King- 
dom All Communications addressed to 
WILLIAM PUMPHKEY, Osbaldwick, near 
York, win meet with prompt attention. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



IfATURAL HIS TO BY. 



MAY FLOWERS : being a Sequel of Notes and 
Not'ODs on Created Things. By the Author of " March Winds and 
April Showers." With numerous Wood Engravings. 5s. 



MARCH WINDS AND APRIL SHOWERS: 

be!npr Notes and Notions on a few Created Things. By the Author of 
"Episodesof Insect Life." With numerous Wood Engravings. 5s. 



LITERARY PAPERS by the late PROFESSOR 

EDWARD FORBES, F.R.S. Selected from liis Writings in the 
" Literary Gazette." With a Portrait and Memoir. Price 6s. 



FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. By JOSEPH 

DALTON HOOKER. M.D., P.R.S., &c. In 2 Vols. With 130 Plates. 
Boyal 4to., price 121. IZs. coloured, 61. 15s. plain. [Now completed. 



PHYCOLOGIA BRITANNICA ; or, History of 

the British Seaweeds : containing coloured Figures and Descriptions of 
all the Species of Algse inhabiting the Shores of the British Islands. 
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CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA; or, Figures and 

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ieparately. [Part 145. on the 30th. 

VII. 

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VIII, 

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BEHTHOr.D SEEMANN. F.L.S. With Tinted Lithographs and a 
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XII. 

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XIII. 

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FIRST STEPS TO ECONOMIC BOTANY: 

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Figures of all the Species. By THOMAS MOORE, F.L.S. With 
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REV. DR. LANDSBORODGH. Second Edition. With 22 coloured 
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PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS; or. 

Practical Notes on Country Residences, Villas, Public Parks, and 
Gardens. By C. H. SMITH, Landscape Gardener. Price 6s. 

XXXI. 

ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF FISH. By 

PISCARIUS. Third Edition. Price Is. 



LOVELL REEVE, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.] 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



LONDON. SATURDAY, AUGUST 18, 1856. 



ARITHMETICAL NOTES, NO. III. 

I find among my books the fourth edition of 
Van Etten's Recreations (Vol. xi., pp. 459. 504. 
516.), Paris, 1627, 8vo. At this rate the work 
started with yearly editions, so that it is odd that 
the edition of 1660 (Vol. xi., p. 459.) should only . 
be called the fifth. By an old note I find that 
Brunet also attributes the authorship to Leurichon 
^ol. xi., p. 516.). It appears that Henrion, said 
to have been the first French translator of Euclid^ 
very soon took up these Recreations. This fourth 
edition is marked D. H. P. E. M., meaning Denis 
Henrion, Prof esseur es Mathematiques, or Philo- 
sophe et Mathematicien. The earlier editions seem 
to contain some foolish things which do not appear 
in the English translations, and were probably 
struck out of later editions. For example, what 
would happen if the stars should fall ? You will 
tell us, says the author, that we should catch 
plenty of larks, and the ancient Gauls used to say 
that this was the only thing of which they stood 
jin awe. But If very great heat, or other adverse 
influence, should not interfere, a mathematician 
might venture to say that since the stars and the 
earth are round, a star would touch the earth only 
in a point, and then those who were not near that 
point would be in no danger, &c. 

I had intended in the next number of these 
Notes, to give some little account of the work 
which really suggested these Recreations, a work 
of some importance in the history of mathematics. 
Claude Gaspar Bachet de Mezlriac, the author 
(died 1638), an account of whom is given in the 
supplement to Moreri, and in Bayle, published 
several literary works, and two of a mathematical 
character. His edition of Diophantus, Paris, 
1621, folio (Gr. Lat.), is the first print of the 
Greek text, and is beautifully printed, but loaded 
with those unfortunate contractions which in print- 
ing are no contractions at all. Bachet had ac- 
cordingly been a reader of the manuscripts of 
Diophantus ; and there is one account, if not 
more, of some of the manuscripts containing com- 
mentator's allusions to the Indian algebra, though 
it must also be said that these manuscripts have not 
since been found. I mention this because we 
.shall presently see that Bachet produced and 
.printed one of the most remarkable points of the 
Indian algebra, get it how he might. 

The other work is the Prohlemes plaisans et 
delectables qui se font par les nombres. This work 
.'was first published in 1612, when the author, ac- 
cording to the usual accounts, was only twenty 
years old. The same accounts state that he joined 
the Jesuits, intending to become a member of 
No. 303.] 



their order, at twenty years old. Bayle, however, 
gives authority for his being the son of a first 
marriage, the second marriage being made in 
1586 ; and this is no doubt a more correct state- 
ment. The first edition of this work is not the 
remarkable one ; there is a copy in the British 
Museum ; and both editions are rare. 

The second edition (Lyons, 1624, Svo.) has ad- 
ditions by the author. One of them is the re- 
markable piece of Indian algebra of which I 
have spoken. Algebraists call it the solution of 
indeterminate equations of the first degree. It is 
a method of answering such questions as the fol- 
lowing : — In how many ways can a thousand 
pounds be paid in five-shilling pieces and seven- 
shilling pieces ? How may all the ways be de- 
tected by which one man may pay another thirteen 
shillings when the first has nothing but five-shilling 
pieces, and the second nothing but seven-shilling 
pieces? The mode in which Bachet proceeds is 
that which the Hindus call the Kuttaka, or pul- 
verizer, and which the European algebraists now 
connect with continued fractions. Hence this 
work Is, for Europe at least, an incunabulum of the 
theory of numbers. Whether Bachet was an 
original inventor cannot be directly ascertained. 
His title-page tells us that the work is partly de- 
rived and partly original. His method was an- 
nounced, though not fully given. In the first edition, 
so that he possessed it before 1612. It is his only 
claim to great power of original discovery. The 
case then stands thus : A method is known iu 
India, where it Is at least as old as the Christian 
£era. In the sixteenth century Bombelli, whose 
sufficiency as evidence Is well known, found in 
the Vatican library a manuscript of a certain 
Diophantus, with which he and another were so 
struck that they actually translated five books, 
intending to publish the whole. In [the notes to] 
this manuscript he and his comrade found frequent 
citations from Hindu writers, by which they learnt 
that algebra was in India before it was In Arabia. 
But this manuscript has never been found, though, 
on the other hand, the Vatican library contains a 
great deal which we do not know to have been 
closely examined. Add to this that of all the 
Hindu algebra, the method in question is the part 
which a commentator on Diophantus would have 
cited if he had known it. On the other hand, it 
would be very strange (though by no means without 
parallel) that Bombelli should have omitted to 
bring away and publish so remarkable a thing, if 
he had ever seen it. In the next century Bachet, 
who had resided at Rome, with the intention of 
editing Diophantus, which Intention he fulfilled, 
and who was acquainted with the assertion of Bom- 
belli, published this Indian method in a work which, 
a(!Cording to himself. Is partly derived from other 
writers ; and did nothing else of the same note. 
This is the case as it now stands ; possibly farther 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



research may settle the question whether or not 
the results of Indian algebra were in Europe in the 
sixteenth century. 

This work of Bachet is the one which must have 
suggested the Recreations of Leurichon or Van 
Etten, and was itself probably suggested by the 
sort of questions with which Diophantus is tilled. 
IBoth the French treatises are divided into ques- 
tions of a numerical character, and others. Of 
.some of these others I shall speak in a future com- 
munication. The numerical question^ are mostly 
methods of finding a number thought of; and 
some are of the simplest character. In one of 
those of Van Etten, the person who thinks of the 
number is told to add and subtract any number 
he pleases, to add the results together, and to give 
the sum to the conjurer, who thereupon detects 
the number thought of. Such a puzzle, gravely 
printed by a learned Jesuit, is an excuse for the 
schoolboys who used to be much mystified by the 
following: The conjurer said, think of a number, 
double it, add twenty, halve the result, take away 
the number you first thought of — and then he 
astonished his auditor by adding, And there re- 
mains ten. A. De Morgan. 



" THE MENAGIANA." 

The anecdote of Pontanus and Scriverius (ante, 
p. 7.) is in The Menagiana, 3rd edit., vol. i. p. 16. 
Whether a transfer like this is authorised by the 
laws of " N. & Q.," let the Editor decide. I may, 
however, be allowed to say, in defence of N. L. T., 
that other writers have borrowed from The Me~ 
nagiana without acknowledgment, and among 
them Jonathan Swift, 

Those pleasant verses, which exhibit paper- 
sparing Pope and the deaf Dean in company 
without conversation, end thus : 

" Of Sherlock thus, for preaching fam'd, 
The sexton reason'd well, 
And justly half the merit claim'd, 
Because he rang the bell." 

Is not this like Swift ? But still more like 
Menage. 

" Un predicateur avoit fait un excellent sermon, et 
<juelques-uns de ses auditeurs ne pouvoient se lasser d'en 
admirer la beaute, tant du cot^ des pens^es que de I'ex- 
pression. Apres s'etre epuisez a le loiier, le bedeau, qui les 
ecoutoit, leur dit : Messieurs, c'est moi qui I'ai sonne." — 
Menagiana, ii. 65. 

Swift bears the character of being one of our most 
original authors. Even Dr. Johnson, who. Bos- 
well says, " seemed to have an unaccountable 
prejudice against Swift," allows him this merit. 
In his Life of the Dean, after quoting the opinion 
of a former editor, that Swift had never been 
known to take a single thought from any writer, 
ancient or modern, he says : 

" This is not literally true ; but perhaps no writer can 

No. 303.] 



easily be found that has borrowed so little, or that, in all 
his excellences and all his defects, has so well main- 
tained his claim to be considered as original." 

I forget what Scott and Jeffrey have said on 
the subject, but one of the latest writers on th& 
character of Swift no doubt expresses the general 
opinion, when he says : 

" The originality of his writings is of a piece with the 
singularity of his character. He copied no man who 
preceded him." — Essays from " The Times,^' vol. i. p. 215. 

I submit that, when an author is detected in one 
act of plagiarism, the presumption arises that he 
has been guilty of more. F.. 



BELGIAN SPORTS AND PASTIMES. 

Perhaps a short attempt to sketch the domestic 
sports and pastimes of the people of Belgium may 
not prove unacceptable to your readers. Those 
I have selected are, I am aware, trivial ; but the 
sports of the Carnival, but too often tinctured with 
viciousness and vice, are of course well known to 
all, and varied to the whims and caprices of fertile 
inventions. 

" St. Nicholas," Dec. 6. The children place 
empty baskets or basins in various parts of the 
house, particularly in the bedrooms of papas and 
mammas, who are expected to deposit therein a 
variety of sweetmeats, delicacies, or fruits ; de- 
pendants and servants participate in the sporty 
and no habitable apartment is left without a re- 
ceptacle. This is followed by an excess of merri- 
ment as the various utensils are produced with the 
welcome freight, and the remainder of the day ia 
devoted to alloting and consuming the treasure 
found. 

"St. Martin," November 11. This day is de- 
voted by little urchins assembling in groups^ 
blacking each others' faces, and tieing many co- 
loured papers and ribbons about their persons;, 
one of the gang, the hero of the fun, is very gene- 
rally borne upon a rickety stool. In this manner 
they go from house to house, begging the very 
humble gratuity of a few apples, a donation very 
often made in kind, but more generally in cents 
or centimes. 

" Half Vasten," March 26. The fun of thi» 
day very much resembles the scenes of St. Ni- 
cholas, but the ever-varying depository is placed 
upon the mantelpiece, wherein the donations are 
expected to be of the same description, but the 
fun and frolic is confined to the family. 

" Onnoozele Kinderen," Innocents' Day, De- 
cember 28. This is a day of positive misrule. 
Masters and mistresses are alike subjected to the 
dominion of the prevailing influence. The where- 
abouts of every schoolmaster and governess is 
keenly watched by the self-emancipated pupils 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



11^ 



Tintll they unwarily enter a room of which their 
uncontrollable subjects have secured the bolt or 
key ; one or other is then speedily turned upon 
the unconscious victim, and no liberty is vouch- 
safed imtil a holiday is promised. The servants 
indulging in the sports of liberated vassals, secure 
their masters and mistresses in some convenient 
apartment, from which there is no regress until a 
hard and fast bargain is made, or some douceur 
promised. If mamma is entrapped, the captors 
stipulate for some favourite viand or much- re- 
lished sweetmeat ; and papa from his cage is glad 
to secure his liberty by a donation from the 
cellar. Should the captors leave unsecured the 
means of escape, the penalties fall with terrible 
vengeance upon the subdued delinquents, and 
reprisals alike agreeable and disagreeable are 
mercilessly enforced. 

January 19. The anniversary of the return of 
the Brusselois to their wives, who from an ab- 
sence of seven years believed them lost in the 
Crusades of 1100, is announced by the merry- 
going chimes. To commemorate the happy re- 
turn, the husbands are locked in by their wives, 
and no egress can be obtained, while the very un- 
musical clangour from the bells in almost every 
tower proclaim the joys of wedded life. 

Henry Davenet. 



THOMAS TUSSER S WILL. 

In 1846 Mr. Charles Clark, of Great Totham 
Hall, Essex, well known and esteemed as a 
zealous antiquary, printed at his private press the 
last will and testament of the above celebrated 
writer on agriculture, &c. The existence of this 
document appears to have been unknown, until 
its discovery through the instrumentality of re- 
searches made at the instance of Mr. Clark. As 
but a limited number of copies were printed, it 
has been seen but by very few ; and relating as 
it does to a worthy and excellent man, whose 
memory will ever be held in respect, perhaps the 
Editor will allow it a place in " N. & Q. : " 

(^Verbatim Copy.') 

" The last Will of Thomas Tusser. — In the name of 
God, Amen. The xxv of Aprill, 1580, 1, Thomas Tusser, 
of Chesterton, in the countye of Cambridge, gent., being 
feeble in bodye, but perfecte in memorie, thanks be to 
God, doe make and ordaine this my last will and testa- 
ment in manner and forme followinge, revokinge all other 
wills heretofore made ; that is to saye, fSrst and princi- 
pallye, I give and betake my sowle to Allmightie God 
the Father (my Maker), and to his Son Jesus Christ (my 
onelye Kedeemer), by whose merites I most firmlye 
beleve and trust to be saved, and to be partaker of lyef 
everlastinge, and to the Holye Gost (my Comforter), three 
personnes in one everlastinge Godheade, whome I doe 
most humblye thanke that he hathe mercifully kepte me 
untill this tyme, and that he hathe given me tvme and 
No. 303.] 



space to confessee and bewaile my sinnes, and that he 
hathe forgiven me them all, thorough the merites of our 
Savioure Jesus Christ, which I doe undoubtedlye beleve, 
because he hathe mercifullye promised yt, to whome be 
praise for ever and ever, Amen. Item. I give and be- 
queathe unto Thomas Tusser, my eldest sonne, to be de- 
livered unto him within one yere next after my decease,- 
ifyftye pounds of good and lawful monye of England, 
parcell of the three hundrethe and thirtie pownds which. 
William Tusser, my brother, dothe owe unto me uppon 
one recognisaunce wherein he standethe bownde unto me 
for the true paiement thereof ; and my will is, that suche 
trust3'^e frend, or frends, as shall be hereafter in this my 
last will and testament named, shall have the use of the 
said fiftie pounds for and duringe the nonage of my said 
sonne Thomas, and untill suche time as he shall accom- 
plishe and come the age of xx and one yeres, putting in- 
sufficient suerties for the true paiment thereof unto the 
said Thomas my sonne ; and alsoe to payefor and toward? 
the bringinge up of my said sonne Thomas, yerelye, the 
summe of fyve pownds, untill he shall accomplish and 
come to the age of twentye and one j-eres ; and when my 
said sonne Thomas shall accomplish his said age of 
twenty and one yeres, I will that the said summe of 
fyftye pownds shal be, within one monethe next ensueing. 
after the said accomplishment of twenty and one yereSr 
unto him well and trulye contented and paid at one whole 
and entire paiment, &c. Item. I give unto John Tusser, 
my second sonne, other fyftie pownds of lawfull monye of 
England due unto me by the fore said recognisance, and 
to be bestowed and employed to his use duringe his 
minoritie, and likewise to be paid unto him in suche and 
as lardge manner, and firme to all constructions and pur- 
poses as is before declared of the other fyftie pounds' 
before devised unto my sonne Thomas Tusser ; and alsoe 
fj've pownds to be paid yerely, duringe his minoritie, ia 
manner and forme before rehersed. Item. I give and be- 
queathe unto Edmond Tusser, my sonne, and to Marye 
Tusser, my daughter, and unto either of them, the summe 
of fyftye pownds, due to me by force of the foresaid recog- 
nisaunce, and to be bestowed and employed to the severall 
uses and benefitts of them, and either of them, duringe 
their minorities, and likewise to be paid to either of them, 
in such and as lardge manner and forme in everie respecte, 
to all constructions and purposes, as is before declared of 
the fyftye pownds devised before to my soime Thomas- 
Tusser; and also fyve pownds a peece yerdye, during 
their minorities, in manner and forme before rehersed. 
Item. I give and bequeathe unto Amye Tusser, my wyef, 
the summe of foure score pownds of lawful monye o£ 
England, dewe to me by force of the said recognisaunce, 
and to be paid unto her within one wholl yere next en--^ 
sewinge after mj' decease. Item. My will and intent is, 
that yf my brother, William Tusser, doe accordinge unto 
the intent and true meaninge of this my last will and 
testament, well and trulye paye the foresaid severall 
summes of monye, before geven and bequeathed, unto 
Amye, my wyef, to Thomas my sonne, and to the rest of 
my children before named, and alsoe doe from tyme tc' 
tyme, and all times hereafter, save and kepe harmeles my 
heires, executors, and administraters, and everie of them, 
of and from all trebles, chardges, and encumbrances, 
which maye at anye tyme hereafter come, rise, or growe, 
for or by reason of any manner of bonds wherein I standa 
bounde for or with him as suertie, that then I give and 
bequeathe unto him the summe of fyftie pownds, beinge 
the residue of the said summe due unto me by the force 
of the said recognisance before rehersed ; and 5'f he doe 
not well and trulye performe the same, then I give the 
said fiftie pownds unto my executor of this my last will 
and testament. Item. I will that yf anye of my children 



120 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



dye before they come to and accomplishe theire foresaid 
S6verull ages of xxi yeres, that then I will that his or 
theire parts or portions shal be distributed and equallye 
divided to and amongst the rest of my other children then 
snrvyveinge. Item. I give and bequeathe unto the afore 
named Thomas Tusser, my sonne, and his heires, all 
those seven acres and a roode of copy-holde which I now 
have lyinge in the parish or feilds at Chesterton ; to have 
and to holde the same, after the deathe of Amye, my 
Tvyef, to him, his heires, and assignes for ever. Item. I 
give also to the said Thomas Tusser, my sonne, all suche 
estate and tearme of yeares as I have yet to come in a 
certain close called Lawyer's Close, Ij-einge and beinge in 
the parish of Chesterton, which said close I have de- 
mised unto one William Mosse, for the tearme of one 
■whole yere, begininge at the Feast of St. Gregorye last 
past, yeldinge and pa3'inge for the same xxxvs. rente, 
•which said rente I doe alsoe gyve to my said sonne 
Thomas, towards his bringinge up in learninge. Item. I 
give also to the said Thomas my bookes of musicke and 
virginalls. Item. The residew of all my bonds, goods, 
and chattells, moveable and immovable, in Chesterton 
aforesaid, or ells where, beinge in this my last will and 
testament unbequathed, 1 give to Amye, my wyef, dis- 
dhardging all my debtes and funerall expenses, not 
amountinge unto above the summe of twentye marckes. 
And of this my last will and testament I constitute my 
said Sonne, Thomas Tusser, my full and whole executor ; 
and yf he happen to dye before he accomplishe his full 
age of twentye and one yeres, then I doe constitute and 
make John Tusser, my second sonne, my executor ; and 
yf yt fortune the said John to dj'e before he accomplishe 
the age of xxi yeares, I constitute and make Edmond 
Tusser, my sonne, my whole executor ; and yf yt happen 
the said Edmond to dye before he dothe accomplish and 
come to the age of xxi j'eres, I do then make and con- 
stitute Amye Tusser, my wyef, my full and whole exe- 
cutor of this my last will and testament. Item. I doe 
constitute, ordaine, and make one Edmond Moon, gent., 
father to the said Amye, my wyef, and grandfather to my 
fbrenamed children, my said trustie frend before men- 
tioned in this my said last will, guardian and tutor unto 
my forenamed children, and supervisor and overseer of 
this my last will and testament, unto whome I doe, next 
nnder God, comitte both my wyef and my forenamed 
children, trustinge assuredlye that he will take a fatherlye 
care over them, as fleshe of his fleshe, and bone of his 
bones. 

• " These whose names be hereunder written beinge -wit- 
nesses to this present last will and testament. 

John Plommer, 
of Barnard's Inne, in the countye of Middlesex, gentleman. 

Richard Clue. 

Thomas J eve. 

James Blower. 

William Hygeart. 

" Mem. — That William Hygeart dwellethe in South- 
werke, with Mr. Towlye, copper smithe ; Richard Clue in 
St. Nicholas Lane, free of the Merchant Tayler's; 
Thomas Jeve, ironmonger ; James Blower, servant, free 
of Clotheworkers. 

" Sealed and delivered in the presence of the parties 
above named. 

John Bootes. 
Francis Shackleton, 
the Parson of St. Myldrfed's, in the Poultrie. 

John Plomer. 

*' Proved in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of 
Canterburj-, the 8th day of August, 1580, by his son, 
Thomas Tusser." 

No. 303.] 



This will in all its provisions is very charac- 
teristic of the testator. I may add in conclusion 
that Mr. Clark, who has for many years past been 
a collector of rare old literature, of which he 
possesses a valuable collection, printed verbatim, 
at his private press in 1834, a few copies, of the 
original edition of 1557, of Tusser s Huvdreth 
good Poyntes of Husbandrie, in the preface to 
which he observes : 

" I am located within four or five miles of the natal 
place of its author, and engaged in the very same pur- 
suit that forms the subject of this work ; and I must ob- 
serve, that should my humble but accurate reprint of 
Tusser attract but little notice, I shall ever feel a plea-, 
sure and a pride in having been the means of again 
giving the curious, and the public in general, an oppor- 
tunity of justly appreciating the genius and worth of such 
a man as our old ' right trusty ' friend Thomas Tusser." 

Mr. Robert Baker, of Writtle, well known as a 
writer and lecturer on agricultural subjects, has 
observed that nearly all the proverbial philosophy 
published by Dr. Franklin in Poor Richard's Al- 
manac, and for which he has obtained so much 
credit, was in fact derived from Tusser. There 
is a mural tablet in Manningtree Church in re- 
membrance of this good old worthy, on which is 
inscribed the following inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Thomas Tusser, Gent., bom 
at Rivenhall*, in Essex, and occupier of Braham Hall 
near this town, in the reign of King Edward the Sixth, 
where he wrote his celebrated poetical treatise, entitled, 
Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, §-c. His 
writings show that he possessed a truly Christian spirit, 
and his excellent maxims and observations on rural 
affairs evince that he was far in advance of the age in 
which he lived. He died in London in 1580, at the age 
of 65, and was interred in the parish church of St. Mil- 
dred in the Poultry, where the following epitaph, said to 
have been written "by himself, recorded his memory : 
• Here Thomas Tusser, clad in earth, doth lie, 
Who sometime made the " Points of Husbandry." 
From him then learn thou may'st, here learn we must, 
When all is done, we sleep and turn to dust. 
And yet, through Christ, to heaven we hope to go ; 
Who reads his books, shall find his faith was so.' " 

G. Blencowb* 
Manningtree. 

* It has been ascertained that the name of Tusser does 
not occur in the parochial register at Rivenhall, which 
extends no farther back than 1634. Dr. Mavor, the 
talented editor of his works, observes in his judicious 
notes thereon, that the family has long been extinct. 
Braham Hall, in 1460 the residence of Sir John Braham, 
is about a mile and a half from Manningtree, and in the 
parish of Brantham, where Tusser first introduced the- 
culture of barley, as we find him saying, — 
" At Brantham where rye but no barley did grow. 
Good barley I had as many do know ; ' ' 

Five quarters an acre I truly was paid. 
For thirty loads' muck on each acre so laid." 
It is remarkable that tradition still points out the field 
where it grew. 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



MILITARY BANDS IN THE LAST CENTURY. 

I have before me a letter, dated July 2, 1793, 
written by the late Mr. W. J. Mattham, innkeeper 
of Lavenham, Suffolk, from which the following is 
an extract : 

" We have had four companies of the West Middlesex 
Mihtia quartered upon us for three days, consisting of 
three officers and forty-nine men, who had the best band 
I. ever heard, — 'tis worth mentioning to those who are 
lovers of superior music. It consisted of five clarionets, 
two French horns, one bugle horn, one trumpet, two bas- 
soons, one bass drum, two triangles (the latter played by 
boys about nine years old), two tambourines (the per- 
formers mulattos) ; and the clash-pans by a real blacka- 
moor, a very active man, who walked between the two 
mulattos, which had a very grand appearance indeed." 

I may mention that Mr. Mattham was a much 
respected member of the West Suffolk troop of 
Yeomanry Cavalry, and a competent judge of 
music. It is well known, that during a consider- 
able part of the last century, it was customary in 
wealthy families to keep a black footman ; we see 
this pleasingly illustrated by the " great painter of 
mankind," Hogarth : whether, in the words of 
Mr. Mattham, it was considered to have " a very 
grand appearance indeed," I am unable to say. 
It appears, however, to have met with the con- 
currence of the learned Dr. Johnson, who kept a 
black servant, and bequeathed to him the greater 
part of his property. 

It was a practice disapproved of by the late 
William Cobbett, who observed, in his charac- 
teristic manner : " Blacks don't smell like other 
people." 

The African race generally appear cheerful, 
contented, and happy, when under the influence 
of humane treatment. Many years since, being 
at New York, I observed groups of negroes em- 
ployed in discharging the cargoes of vessels : on 
commencing to raise the respective bales of goods, 
one of the party commenced singing the first 
words of a sentence resembling a glee or catch; 
which, being responded to by the others, produced 
altogether a pleasing degree of harmony — re- 
minding me of a couplet in Tusser's Five Hundred 
Points of Oood Husbandry : 

" Those servants are mostly useful and good, 
Who sing at their work, like birds in the wood." 



Maimingtree. 



G. Blencowe. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

Attention having been drawn in your valuable 
publication by the Rev. Sparrow Simpson to his 
'I Additions and Corrections of Mr. Manning's 
list of monumental brasses remaining in England," 
I trust a very slight sketch of those left in Devon 
may not prove too lengthy for your pages. I 
send the first half of a list (which will be finished 

No. 303.] 



In a subsequent Number). The parishes in the 
churches, of which brasses remain are arranged 
alphabetically for the convenience of reference. 

Atherington. A brass consisting of three figures, <5ne a 
knight in plate armour and two ladies, commemorating 
members of the Bassett family. Date, a.d. 1586. 
Biqhury. The effigy of a lady in a heart-shaped headdress. 
The male figure has been removed. The slab is pow- 
dered with scrolls bearing " Jhu mercy," " Ladye 

helpe." Date, . 

Braunton. Here is a very curious brass of Lady Elizabeth 
Bowcer, wyfe of Edward Cheechester, Esq. She is 
kneeling before a desk, and from her head, incised in 
the stone in which the brass is embedded, is a cross. 
Date, August 23, 1548. 
Chittlehampion. In this church is a brass consisting of 
three figures, a civilian and two females of the Cobleigh 
family. Date, 1480. 
Clist St. George. A brass of the seventeenth century, in 
memory of Julian Osborne, who is represented kneeling 
before a desk, on which is an open book. Date, 1614. 
Clovelly. In this church is a most curious brass of George 
Gary, who is represented in full armour save a helmet, 
the head being bare, with his hands jomed in prayer. 
The figure is lying on a richh' ornamented incised cross, 
which has at its base a coat of arms, also incised, being 
three wings, two and one. There is an inscription 
round which states it to have been the burial-place of 
Hugo Myghel. Michelstow bore. Sable, three wings 
argent, two and one. The cross and inscription are 
very much earlier than the brass, which bears date 
1540. Altogether this is a most curious monument. 
Dartmouth, St. Saviour's Church. A very fine brass of 
Sir John Hawley and his two wives ; date circa 1334. 
This is engraved in Mr. Boutell's Monumental Brasses 
of England. 
Dartmouth, St. Saviour's Church. A female figure in a 

heart-shaped headdress, without date or inscription. 
Dartmouth, St. Saviour's Church. An effigy of Gilbart 
Staplehill, once mayor of the town, in a civilian's furred 
robe ; a very good specimen of costume. The date is 
gone from the brass. He died on the 15th Feb., 1637. 
Dartmouth, St. Petrock's Church. A brass dated 1609, to 
the memory of John Roupe Merchant, in the costume 
of a civilian. 
Ermington. Here is a brass plate, on which are three 
figures, a male in a civilian's dress, and two females 
kneeling at desks, on which are open books. They re- 
present William Strachleigh and Anne his wife, and 
Christian, their only daughter. Date, 1583. 
Exeter Cathedral. Here is the splendid brass of Sir Peter 
Courtenay, Knight of the Garter, in full armour under 
a canopy. Date, 1455. This is engraved in the Trans- 
actions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, 
Here is also, in the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, s 
finely executed brass of William Langeton, a canon of 
that church. He is represented in a rich cope fastened 
by a morse ; from between the hands joined in prayer 
rises a graceful scroll, on which are these words : " Dne 
Jhu scdm actu meu noli me iudicare." 
Filleigh. A brass to the memory of Richard Fortescue, 
who is represented kneeling with a helmet and gauntlet 
at his feet. Date, 1570. 
St. Giles, near Torrington. A fine brass of Alyenore Pol- 
lard. Date, 1430. 
Haccomie. Here are a series of brasses of the Carew 
family, five in number. The first is Nicholas Carew,. a 
splendid figure in plate armour. Date, 1469. The 
second, Thomas Carew, in plate armour. Date, 1586, 
The third, Maria Carew. Date, 1589. The fourth. 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. ]8. 1855. 



Elizabeth Carew, a. d. 1611. The fifth consists of 

figures, and a long inscription to the memory of Thomas 

Carew and Ann his wife, who died the 6th and 8th 

December, 1656. 
Harford. Here is a brass of Thomas Williams, Esq., in 

armour, his head bare, and resting on a tilting helmet. 

The date is 1566. 
Kentisbear. Here are two figures of John Whiting, in 

armour, and Anne his wife, dated 1629. 

W. R. Crabbb. 

East Wonford, Heavitree, near Exeter. 



Reference. — An established mode of reference 
saves writing, printing, space, and trouble. Why, 
in this work, should not its volumes and pages be 
signified only by Roman and Arabic numerals ? 
Why would not (xi. 34.) do as well as (Vol. xi., 
p. 34.) ? It would do better, for as vol. and p. 
would remain in other references, their absence 
would instantly point out that " N. & Q." is re- 
ferred to, and no other book. And every now 
and then it would save a line. M. 

Summer Climate of the Crimea. — In reference 
more particularly to the vicinity of Inker man, 
Dr. E. D. Clarke says (vol. i. c. xviii. p. 440.), 
eirca 1800 : 

" Professor Pallas was among the number of those who 
became a victim to the consequences of their own too 
favourable representations. Having published his Ta- 
bleau de la Tauride, printed at Petersburg in 1796, in 
which he describes the Crimea as a terrestrial paradise 
(or, to use his own words in the dedication to Zoubof, as 
'Cette belle Tauride — cette province si hereusement dis- 
posee pour toutes les cultures qui manquent encore h, 
I'empire de Eussie '), the Empress sent him to reside 
there, upon an estate she gave him ; where we found 
him, as he himself confessed, in a pestilential air, the 
dupe of sacrifices he had made to gratify his sovereign. 

" Fevers are so general during summer throughout the 
peninsula, that it is hardly possible to avoid them. If 
you drink water after eating fruit, a fever follows ; if you 
eat milk, eggs, or butter, a fever : if, during the scorch- 
ing heat of the day, you indulge in the most trivial ne- 
glect of clothing, a fever; if you venture out to enjoy the 
delightful breezes of the evening, a fever; in short, such 
is the dangerous nature of the climate to strangers, that 
Russia must consider the country a cemetery for the 
troops sent to maintain its possession. This is not the 
case with regard to its native inhabitants, the Tartars ; 
the precautions they use, added to long experience, ensure 
their safety. Upon the slightest change of weather they 
are seen wrapped up in sheepskins, and covered by thick 
felts, while their heads are swathed in numerous ban- 
dages of linen, or guarded by warm stuffed caps, fenced 
with wool." — Vol. i. c. xxii. p. 571. 

" The tertian fever caught among the caverns of In- 
kerman," where he was temporarily separated for the 
Bishop Heber of a future day, " had rendered me so 
weak after leaving this beautiful spot, that it was with 
the greatest difficulty I could sit upon my horse. One of 
its violent paroxysms coming on afterwards at Yoursuf, 
I remained for some time extended upon the bare earth, 

No. 303.] 



in the principal street of the village. Its peaceful and 
hospitable inhabitants regarded me as a victim of the 
plague, and of course were prevented from offering the 
succour they would otherwise gladly have bestowed." — 
Vol. i. c. xxi. p. 541. 

He adds : 

" The pale Peruvian bark has very little effect in re- 
moving the complaint, but the red bark soon cures it." — 
Vol. i. p. 502 n. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Simon Wadloe. — In D'Urfey's Wit and Mirth, 
or Pills to Purge Melancholy., vol. iii. p. 153., edit. 
1719, is a song entitled "Old Simon the King." 
It is conjectured that the subject of it was Simon 
Wadloe, " the King of Skinkers," who kept the 
Devil Tavern at the time when Ben Jonson and 
the Apollo Club met there. As to the song, there 
is nothing in it characteristic of the man ; but it 
attributes to him the following two strings of 
aphorisms, each of them forming that kind of 
argument called by logicians a sorites : 

" Drink will make a man drunk. 

And drunk will make a man dry ; 
Dry will make a man sick. 
And sick will make a man die, 
Says old Simon the King. 

" Drinking will make a man quaff. 
Quaffing will make a man sing ; 
Singing will make a man laugh. 
And laughing long life doth bring, 
Says old Simon the King." 

J. Yeowell. 
13. Myddelton Place. 

Astounding Geographical Facts. — In a "new 
edition, revised," of a Compendium of Geography 
for the Use of National Schools in Ireland, I find 
at p. 101.: 

1. That North Shields is also'called Tynemouth. 

2. That Sunderland is in Northumherland. 

3. That Leeds is between the Wharfe and the 
Colder. 

I need hardly take the trouble to tell the readers 
of "K & Q.," that North Shields is a mileand 
a half from Tynemouth, that Sunderland is in 
Durham, and that Leeds is on the Aire, were it 
not for the sake of protesting against such gross 
inaccuracies on one page of a new and revised 
edition of one of a series of educational books, 
whose yearly circulation is said to be twenty 
thousand copies. Such a circulation should insure 
perfect accuracy. R. W. D., J.P. 

Seaton Carew, co. Durham. 

Historical Parallels. — Stiles, representative of 
the United States at the Austrian court, in his 
Austria in 1848-9, vol. i. p. 248., remarking on 
the defeat of the late King of Sardinia, says : 

" What a striking instance of the uncertainty of all 
human affairs do not the events of these few days present 
One week before, and the proud Piedmontese army, num- 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



bering from fifty to sixty thousand men, extended from 
the upper Adige along the whole line of the Mincio to 
Mantua — every hill-top fortified and bristling, with an 
army exulting in the consciousness of strength, superior 
in numbers to the enemy, and now scattered to the winds, 
so that no rappel or trump of war can call together one- 
third of their number. The King of Piedmont's disasters 
were ascribable not only to his want of proficiency in the 
science of war, but to his utter ignorance or neglect of 
the very details of service, especially in the organisation 
of a good commissariat. At a moderate calculation, one- 
tenth of the riedmontese, it was thought, fell not from 
the fire of the enemy, but from want of food and excessive 
fatigue. For three days, and during the hardest fighting, 
the troops were without proper supplies of food, men 
dropping from hunger on the road, because fresh troops 
were not detailed at the right moment, or necessary pro- 
visions seasonably furnished. Bread and corn, it is be- 
lieved, were sent at intervals to the men, but the wag- 
goners took to flight, and cutting their traces, escaped 
with their horses, leaving their loaded waggons in the 
road. The ammunition carts were said to have been de- 
serted in like mannei". These things were not accidents, 
but criminal oversights, because sufficient escorts were 
not sent to control the drivers, or take their place in case 
of need." 

He represents the condition and appearance of 

the successful Austrians " almost fit for parade," 
under Radetzky, as forming a striking contrast to 
the " soiled dress and fatigued looks of the Pied- 
montese" (p. 259.), and (p. 251.) he recounts the 
way in which both Austrians and Piedmontese 
trifled with the mediating English and French 
ministers, at a time when Lamartine offered the 
protection of France to " oppressed nationalities." 
The Report of the Committee on the state of the 
Army before Sevastopol will establish a parallel 
betwixt the condition of the English army in 1854 
and that of the Piedmontese in 1848 ; betwixt the 
Russians and French now, and the Austrians 
then ; whilst the diplomacy of the English and 
French at Cremona, deceived by Austrians and 
Piedmontese in August, 1848, has its parallel in 
the affiiir of the Viennese Note of August, 1853, 
when those mediating powers were equally but 
more dangerously deceived by Turkey, Russia, 
and Austria. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 

Shakspeare and his Descendants (?). — It may be 
interesting to some of your readers to learn that 
" William Shakspeare, of Knowle, in the county 
of Warwick," was tenant to the precipe on the 
suffering a recovery in 12 Geo. II. I have no 
ground for supposing him related to Shakspeare, 
except the similarity of name, and the vicinage. 

Eden Warwick. 

Birmingham. 

" Win of ape." — Chaucer uses this expression 
in The Mancipels Prologue : 

" I trow that ye have dronken win of ape." 

Tyrwhitt has very properly cited a correspond- 
ing French proverb : " Vin de singe." To this 
No. 303.] 



must be added that Le Roux de Lincy (Livre de 
Proverbes Franqais, Paris, 1842, p. 157.) gives a 
proverb .far more detailed than that quoted by 
Tyrwhitt. .:: J 

It may not prove uninteresting to the reader to 
learn, that the most ancient known source of this 
phrase is in a Talmudical parable, which is given 
in my Rahhinische Blumenlese (Leipzig, 1844), 
p. 192., the translation of which is as follows :j t(:,.^ 

" When Noah began to plant a vineyard, Satan came 
and asked him, ' What dost thou plant here ? ' 'A vine- 
yard.' ' What property has it .' ' ' Its fruits are, green or 
dried, sweet and pleasant ; wine is made of the fruits, 
which rejoiceth the heart' (Ps. civ. 15.) 'We shall,' 
said Satan, ' have a treat together.' * Good ! ' said Noah. 
What did Satan ? He brought a lamb, a lion, a pig, and 
an ape with him ; slaughtered them in the vineyard, and 
let the earth drink up their blood. Thereby he signified, 
that man, before he has tasted wine, is innocent as a lamb, 
which knows nothing ; and, ' as a sheep under the shearer, 
is dumb' (Is. liii. 7.). When he drinks moderately, he is 
as a lion, and supposes that there is none like him on 
earth ; if he drinks above measure, he becomes as a pig, 
and rolls about in nonsense. But if he is thoroughly 
drunk, he becomes as an ape ; he hops about, and jabbers, 
knowing neither beginning nor end of his speech." 

Leopold Dukes. 



<Mtxiti. 



NAMBT PAMBY. 



I am desirous to ascertain all that is known of 
the authorship and literary history of the follow- 
ing broadsides : 

1. " Namby Pamby; or, A Panegyric on the New 

Versification address'd to A P , Esq., by Capt. 

Gordon, author of the Apology for Parson Alberony and 
The Humourist [s. 1. v. a.]." 

2. " Namby Pamby's Answer to Captain Gordon [s. 1. 
V. a.]." 

3. " A Satyr to the Author of Namby Pamby, address'd 
to Amb. P ps, Esq., by a Lady, 1726." 

With respect to No. 1., I am aware that the 

initials "A P " are intended for Ambrose 

Phillips, and that Namby Pamby was a nick- 
name frequently bestowed upon him ; also that 
Henry Carey wrote a poem called Namby Pamby^ 
in ridicule of Ambrose Phillips; but I wish to 
know whether Captain Gordon is a real or fic- 
titious name; whether the author of No, 1, is 
really the author of the pamphlet entitled A mo- 
dest Apology for Parson Alheroni, London, 1719 ; 
and whether this poem (No. 1.), which commences 
with the lines, — 

" All ye poets of the age ! 

All ye witlings of the stage ! 

Learn your jingles to reform; 

Crop your numbers, and conform," 

is identical with the poem written by Henry 
Carey, which I have never seen.* 

[* This poem is by Harry Carey, and is appended to 
his Chrononhotonthologos, 12mo., 1777.] 



124 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



} 



Who is the author of No. 2. ? It has a strong 

resemblance in style and manner to many of the 

productions of Swift. As it is not very long, and 

IS probably not often to be met with, I may be 

' excused, perhaps, for giving it at length : 

" NymphUngs three, and three, and three, 

Daughters of Mnemosynee, 

Thrice, and thrice, and thrice again, 

I invoke j'our virgin train ; 

As ye make up nine in all, 

Just so often do I call. 

Haste and help me, fly with speed, 

Namby never had more need. 

Ev'ry bardling now throws dirt 

On my numbers quaint and curt. 

O my little Teian numbers, 

Dreams of my poetick slumbers. 

What avail j'our Short, and Sweet, 
Tripling on your little feet ! 
, If you're kickt about the street, 
,0 my heart is broken, hey ho ! 

Bring me crums of comfort, Clio, 

Terpe, Terpsi, 'Hymnie, Cnli, 

Melpi, 'Rato, 'Ranie, Thali, 

Join your forces all to ease me ; 

See how many scriblers teize me ! 

Scriblers Irish, scriblers English,' 

Kh3'ming rough, and chyming jinglish, 

Lev'Iing all at me their but. 

Cut, and cut, and cut, and cut, 

All because my verses are 

Witty, pretty, dehonaire. 

All because that I can sing 

Like the Unlet in the Spring, 

Chuckling, chirpling on the spray. 

Wood-note, wild-note roundelay. 

Bardlings tasteless, void of salt. 

Cry me down and find much fault ; 

At my tuneful lines they're fluster'd, 

Soft as pap and sweet as custard. 

Now, the more to raise their spleen, 

Let me write on fairy Queen. 

Little subjects I will chuse. 

Fairy words and fairy muse ; 

Ands, and ofs, and thats, and its, 

Forming verse in little bits. 

Minced poems 1 will make, 

Criticks then their hearts will break ; 

That they may the more be vext, 

Flies and _^eas shall be my next." 

No. 3. is much inferior to either of the others. 
It is written under the presumption that Dean 
.Swift is the author of No. 1. 'hXieis. 

Dublin. 



HAROIiD, HIS WIFE AND FAMII/T. 

I shall feel thankful to any of your readers who 
can answer the following Queries relating to the 
last Saxon king of England. 

Who was Harold's first wife, the mother of his 
two sons, Edmund and Godwin ? We may con- 
jecture from the fact of Harold's flying to Ireland 
in 1048, when his family was proscribed by Ed- 
ward the Confessor, and from his sons subse- 
quently residing and raising an army there, that 

No. 303.] 



she was an Irish lady ; but what was her name ? 
Whoever she was, Harold must have married her 
about that time, for his two sons appear upon the 
scene as young men twenty-one years later 
(1069). ^ 

In 1065 Harold was unmarried, for William 
made him swear that he would marry his daugh- 
ter Adeliza. When Harold broke his constrained 
oath, he is said to have married a Saxon wife, the 
sister of Edwin and Morcar. What was her 
name ? Can she have been the Edith (generally 
designated as Harold's mistress) whose name is 
connected with an affecting scene on the battle- 
field of Hastings ? Or was she the same as Lucy 
(a sister of Edwin and Morcar), who was, after 
the Conquest, given in marriage to Ivo Tailboys 
with the great estates of her family ? Did Ha- 
rold have any children by her ? 

Three years after the battle of Hastings, Ha- 
rold's son Edmund came to England with sixty- 
six vessels, and probably 5000 men, mostly Irish- 
men. This was the beginning of an insurrection 
in which the courage and energy of Harold's two 
sons was conspicuously displayed, but which, like 
all the other efforts of the Saxons, was eventually 
crushed by the Normans. Harold's sons after 
their defeat are said by Thierry (Norman Con- 
quest, vol. i. p. 207.) to have regained their vessels 
and set sail, deprived of all hope. What became 
of them after this ? Did they return to Ireland, 
or did they follow the example of many of their 
exiled countrymen, and enter the service of the 
Byzantine emperor ? That two young men of 
such high birth, courage, and energy should so 
suddenly disappear from the page of history is, to 
say the least, a singular circumstance. E. West. 



Executors of Wills. — Can any of your readers 
inform me when these were first instituted ? They 
were, it appears, quite unknown to the Roman 
Law. Leguleius. 

Picture hy Wilso7i. — I have in my possession a 
small painting (234 X 19i inches), in regard to 
which I desire some information. 

Its subject may be the neighbourhood of Tivoli, 
but I am inclined to think it is a composition. 

On the bank of a stream in the foreground is a 
group of three anglers. To the right stands a 
circular temple in ruins. Rising behind, to the 
right, are two high bluffs ; separated by a falling 
rivulet, and surmounted by ruined buildings ; and 
in the distance may be seen the shadowing out- 
lines of the dome of St. Peter's. On the back of 
the canvass is an impression in wax of the crest, 
arms, and motto of the Lysaght family, as borne 
by the Viscount Lisle. 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



The picture is in the style of the "English 
Claude;" and I should be glad to learn that the 
monogram RW, which it bears, was affixed by the 
hand of Richard Wilson. Rufebt. 

Baltimore. 

" Maud,'' ly Alfred Tennyson.— WAX one of the 
many readers of Maud be so kind as to explain to 
me the following line ? Talking of " the long- 
necked geese of the world," he adds : 
« Because their natures are little, and, whether he tried it 
or not, 

Where each man walks with his head in a cloud of poi- 



sonous Jlies," 

Thorpe Morieux Eectory, near 
Bildestone, Suffolk. 



W.H. 



Duchess of Marlborough. — She is described 
somewhere in pretty nearly these terms : " Three 
furies reigned uncontrolled within her breast ■ — 
detestable avarice, sordid ambition, and uncon- 
querable pride." Where does this passage occur, 
and what are the exact words ? F. 

Roman Catholic Bishoprics. — •! shall be much 
•obliged to any of your readers or correspondents 
who will inform me where I shall find an account 
of the archbishoprics and bishoprics of the Roman 
•Catholic Church in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and 
early part of the sixteenth centuries ; and the 
modern names of the localities of these ecclesias- 
tical divisions. I particularly wish to know the 
districts to which the following titles refer : — 
1451, Bishop of Enachdunensis ; 1479, Bishop of 
Kathlin; 1498, Bishop of Carleus ; 1512, Bishop 
■of Maionen ; 1518, Bishop of Argolicensis ? 

I am aware that I have copied the possessive 
termination to some of these titles, but I confess 
my inability to give the names correctly. 

PisHET Thompson. 

Stoke Newington. 

Bardon Hill, Leicestershire. — In the county of 
Leicester there is an elevation designated Bardon 
Hill, which is between 800 and 900 feet high. It 
is said the view from its summit is the most 
extensive in England, if not in Europe, owing to 
its central situation, and the comparatively flat 
nature of the surrounding country. From the 
mountains of Switzerland views of far greater 
extent in a given direction may of course be had, 
"but the prospect is obstructed in other directions. 
In the case of Bardon Hill the range of vision is 
extensive in all but a few directions ; so that 
■from its summit the Wrekin in Shropshire, the 
Malvern Hills, Dunstable, Lincoln Minster, and 
even Snowdon, may be discerned, — such, at 
least, is stated in topographical works. It is 
added that seamen, when on the German Ocean, 
on the coast of Lincolnshire, can see the top of 

No. 303.] 



Bardon before they can descry the line of the 
English coast. I am farther told that the officers 
employed in making the Ordnance Survey, whea 
on Snowdon, regarded Bardon as one of their 
landmarks, by means of which to make their ob- 
servations. As the distance must be nearly 
120 miles, this assertion seems improbable. May 
I ask any of your readers who have made tele- 
scopic observations, whether they can confirm an^ 
of the above statements ? Jatteb, 

Length of Miles. — The reader of Leland*s 
Itinerary will probably have observed that his 
distances seldom, if ever, agree with modern 
measurement. His " thence a five miles " is now 
nearer eight. In some instances the roads may- 
have been altered ; but in many, where there has 
been no alteration, his statements are an inaccu- 
rate guide to modern travellers. Were English 
miles ever longer than they are now ? And if so, 
when was the change made ? J. 

Staniforth Family. — In my collection of book- 
plates I have one of John Staniforth's, of Ports- 
mouth, whose arms are. Argent, three bars azure 
on a canton or, a fesse and three mascles sable. 
Crest, a dexter gauntlet in bend, holding a sword 
rompu near the hilt, in bend sinister, ppr. 

My friend Mr. Daniel Parsons has in his collec- 
tion of book-plates one of the same arms impaling 
for femme, " Or, a lion passant guardant gules, on 
a chief azure, three lozenges vaire, argent and 
gules;" and below the motto scroll the letters 
H. S., one on each side. 

In Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales, p. 329., the 
same arms are given to William Staniford, Jus- 
tic. Com. Banc. Can any of your readers tell 
me if this family of Staniforth is a branch of the 
family of that name who were living at Darnall, 
near Sheffield, in 1390 (the 13th of Richard II.), 
and if any representatives of this branch still exist 
bearing these arms? Any information relating 
to the family of Staniforth not already given in 
Mr. Hunter's History of Hallamshire would be 
gratefully received by K. 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem. — Does the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem still exist in this 
country ? The king of Prussia revived the Order 
in his dominions in 1853 ; and I find a Scotch 
baronet, Sir Richard Brown, of Colstoun, is de- 
signated secretary of the British Langue of the 
Order. I also noticed the other day the death of 
a Mr. Banks, who was styled a Knight Commander 
of the Order. If it exists, where is the pre- 
ceptory ? I find in the Edinburgh Almanac, 

"The Military and Religious Order of the Temple, 
Duke of Athol, Grand Master." 

This I presume to be connected with Masonry. 
It is stated to have been founded a.d. 1118. Some 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



years ago, I met the poet Charles Sillery (since 
dead) at a dinner party. He wore the Maltese 
Cross, and signed himself Knight of Malta. Does 
-this Order still exist, and where ? Caqadoke. 

Palindromon. — In a Minor Note by Dr. Mi- 
CHELSEN, Vol. X., p. 204., that gentleman states : 

" The palindromon changes the sense in the backward 
reading; the versus cancrinus retains the sense in both in- 
stances unchanged." 

I have always considered the follovVing beautiful 
font inscription to be a palindromon ; will your 
correspondent give his opinion, or state how his 
distinctive rule applies ? 

" vn^Of avo/xi);aaTa jaij iJ.ovav oi|(iv." 

S. Marttn. 

A Booh-post Query. — Some one orders a book 
■Tyhich is to be posted to him. It does not arrive, 
but it can be proved that the book was posted 
-bearing the address and the requisite stamps. 
Who is to suffer, if the packet cannot be found ? 
While the new Post Office regulations last, this 
sort of thing will probably often occur. 

Bookseller. 

William Booth, of Witton, near Birmingham 
(of whom honourable mention is made in Dugdale's 
Warwickshire, and also in Hamper's Life of Dug- 
dale), was a barrister, much consulted by his 
Birmingham neighbours. Many of the letters sent 
to him were preserved in a book, which was saved 
from destruction by the late Prebendary Bucke- 
ridge, who found it at a butter-stall. It after- 
wards came into the possession of Canon Newland, 
a Shropshire collector, whose papers are supposed 
to have been dispersed. Can any of your readers 
fiay where this book now is ? or where a volume 
by the same author, entitled Descents of some 
' Gentlemen and others, our Neighbours, in and about 
' ^Birmingham, A.j>. 1641, which Shaw the historian 
of Staffordshire found in the possession of Mr. 
.Darwin of Derby, in 1791, may be found ? A. D. 

[' ffarington;' '\folliott," ^c. — On what 
principle is it that some persons whose names 
begin with /prefer two small letters to one large 
one by way of initial ? Is any other letter of the 
-alphabet ever treated in the same way ? 

jj. cc. rr. 

*^ Philosophy of Societies." — I have been en- 
deavouring for some time past to procure a little 
treatise which I saw advertised two or three years 
ago, and which I believe to have been entitled 
2%e Philosophy of Societies, and which entered 
upon the general theory of associations and social 
aggregations. Perhaps some of the correspon- 
dents to " N. & Q.," several of whom must have 
.met with the book in question, would kindly in- 
form me if I am correct in the title, and where I 

No. 303.] 



can procure it ; or, indeed, any other work upon 
the same subject. Socius. 

St. Jerome. — 

" Jerome abhorred a woman as much as Mrs. Astel did 
a man; and detested and blackened matrimony and a 
wife, to extol and exalt that whim of his brain, virginity." 
— Memoirs of Buncle, vol. ii. p. 252. 

The quotation then goes on to describe the de- 
testation with which St. Jerome owned he viewed 
every woman about to become a mother " but as 
he reflected that she carried a virgin." 

I have two copies of Jerome's epistles, and 
wish for an exact reference for the above matter. 

Who was Mrs. Astel ? A character in some 
comedy, or a real personage ? J. K. L. 

Piazzetta and Cattini. — I have four engi-avings 
of heads by the hands of Piazzetta and Cattini ; ifc 
would appear there had been more, as one of mine 
is No. 6. I have — 

No. 1. A youth listening to something in his 
hand. 

No. 3. A man resting his head on his right hand. 

No. 5. A man reading, having a key in his right 
hand, and a cap on. 

No. 6. A man with his left arm through the 
handle of a basket of fruit, and apparently 
thinking. 

They have been in my family very many years. 
Will some of your readers kindly inform me when 
the artists above flourished, and whether the prints 
are of any note, and the subjects ? Of course, 
after so long, 1 could not complete the set. 

Ormond. 

" Coney Gore^ — A peculiar topographical term 
to be found in most of the shires south of the 
Trent, is Coney gore ; sometimes Coneygre, Cone- 
gar, Conegare, Conegarth. I know of above fifty. 
In situation, they seem generally to denote a 
Roman origin. In frequency, they are nearest to 
Cold Harbour. I am unable at present to assign 
a meaning to the term. Htde Clarke. 



i$ltn0r ^uerteS iotft aitiSfioerS. 

Mrs. P. Llewelyns Hymns. — Can any of your 
correspondents inform me where I can obtain Mrs. 
Penderel Llewelyn's Hymns, translated from the 
Welsh of Williams of Pant-y-celyn ? B, 

[These Hymns were published by the late William 
Pickering, and may probably be obtained at Mr. Toovey's, 
177. Piccadilly.] 

Octagonal Fonts. — There is said to be a font 
of Tecla, bearing verses by Ambrose, allusive to 
the early Christians' preference for octagonal fonts, 
because six is the number of anti-Christ, and eight 
the number of true Christianity. Where, or who, 
is Tecla ? What is the authority for this state- 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



ment ? Why did not this symbolism attach to 
pulpits as well as to fonts ? They are commonly 
sexagonal. Upminster. 

[The octagonal form is thus recommended in the fol- 
lowing lines of St. Ambrose over the font of St. Tecla at 
Milan, before it was adorned by more modem magni- 
ficence : 

« Octachorum sanctos tempi um surrexit in usus. 
Octagonus fons est, munere dignus eo. 
Hoc numero decuit sacri baptismatis aulam 
Surgere, quo populis vera sal us rediit 
Luce resurgentis Christ), qui claustra resolvit 
Mortis, et a tumulis suscitet exanimes." 

The last lines explain the appearance of Christ's resur- 
rection on fonts. Gruter, p. 1166. ; Ciampini, pi. ii. 
p. 22.] 

Sir Samuel Shepherd. — Is there any life or 
memoir of the late Sir Samuel Shepherd, late 
Solicitor and Attorney-General, and by whom ? 
Is anything known of Mrs. Susannah (?) Shep- 
herd, aunt of the above? lam told she was a 
very highly talented scholar. All 1 can learn is, 
that she was eighty years of age in or about 1810, 
and possessed property in Upminster in Essex. 

Upminster. 

[A long biographical account of Sir Samuel Shepherd, 
who died Nov. 3, 1840, will be found in the Law Maga- 
zine, vol. XXV. pp. 289 — 310. In the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine of February, 1810, p. 191., is a notice of the death of 
Mrs. Shepheard of Kelvedon, Essex, relict of the late 
Kev. George Shepheard, aged eighty-eight.] 

History e of Capt. Thomas Stukeley. — 

" The Famous Historye of the Life and Death of Cap- 
taine Thomas Stukeley. With his marriage to Alderman 
Curteis' Daughter, and valient ending of his life at the 
Battaile of Alcazar. As it hath been acted. Printed for 
Thomas Panyer, 1605, 4to., pp. 41." 

Above is the title of a play, in black-letter, of 
which, after a good deal of trouble, I have been 
unable to discover any mention whatever, Lowndes 
excepted, who gives the title, but can only men- 
tion one copy as having occurred for sale, namely, 
Khodes's, 28Z. lO*. (presumed to be the one in 
question). It is not in Baker's Biog. Dram,, nor 
have I been able to trace any other copy in a 
somewhat extensive series of sale-catalogues in 
my possession. Perhaps some of your contribu- 
tors may be able to render a little assistance as to 
the authorship and plot upon which it is founded ? 

There is a Stukeley of notorious character men- 
tioned by D'Israeli (^Curios. Lit.) in connexion 
with Sir Walter Raleigh. Has this anything to 
do with the " captaine " in question ? H. C. 

Paddington. 

[A copy of this play is in the British Museum, and 
some account of the marvellous exploits of Thomas Stuke- 
ley may be found in Fuller's Worthies, and Wood's Athena 
(Bliss), vol. ii. col. 266. Fuller styles him " a bubble of 
emptiness, and meteor of ostentation." He was killed at 
the battle of Alcazar, August 4, 1578. There are four 
versions of a ballad in black-letter among the Roxburgh 

No. 303.] 



Ballads in the British Museum, vol. ii. p. 60. ; vol. iii. 
pp. 266. 516. and 528., entitled "The Life and Death of 
Thomas Stukeley, an English Gallant in the Time of 
Queen Elizabeth', who ended his Life in a Battel of the 
Three Kings of Barbary." See it also in Evans's Collec- 
tion, vol. iii. p. 148. The individual noticed by D'Israeli 
in connexion with Sir Walter Raleigh was Sir Lewis 
Stukele}', an elder brother of the famous Thomas.] 

"Homo naturce minister et interpres." — At p. 170» 
of Phillips' Rivers, Mountains, and Sea-coast of 
Yorkshire, the author quotes the phrase, " Homo 
natura; minister et interpres," as Linnaeus'. Is 
such the fact ; and if so, where is it to be found ? 
Probably Linnseus used it as a quotation from 
Bacon. C. Mansfield Inglebt^ 

[The phrase occurs in Bacon's Novum Organum, to- 
wards the close of the prefatory chapter entitled "The 
Distribution of the Work." " Homo enim naturae minister 
et interpres tantum facit et intelligit, quantum de naturae- 
ordine, opere vel mente observaverit : nee amplius acit, 
aut potest."] 



SEtepltf^. 



" munchhausen's travels." 
(Vol. xi., p. 485. ; Vol. xii., p. 55.) 
A French writer, in La Revue Contemporainey 
has recently claimed for France the credit of 
having produced the original of Baron MUnch- 
hausens Travels. The title of the French work 
— the substance of which is said to be quite the 
same with the Baron's drolleries, and clearly of 
Norman and Gascon origin — is as follows : 

« La Nouvelle Fabrique des excellents traits de v^rit4 
livre pour inciter les resveurs tristes et melancholiques a 
vivre de plaisir, par Philippe D'Alcripe, Sieur de Neri en 
Verbos." 

This work had become so scarce that no copy of 
the first edition could be found to print from ; and 
the new edition is copied from the reprint of 1732. 
German critics demur to this imputed parentage 
of tlieir great boaster ; and in reply to the sally of 
the lively Frenchman, that the soil of the German, 
mind is too heavy for the production of so light 
and lively a composition, they retort by sayings 
that although German literature at present wears- 
a very morose and peevish aspect, it was not 
always so; for that humorous literature once 
flourished in Germany more than in any other 
country of Europe ; as even an Edinburgh re- 
viewer confessed, when he said (vol. xlvi. 1827) 
that " four-fifths of all the popular mythology, 
humour, and romance to be found in Europe in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, proceeded 
from Germany." Gervinus remarks that the pith 
of the Baron's adventures is to be found in a book 
very popular among the people, the fictitious 
Travels of the Finkenritter (Herr Polycarp von 
Kirlarissa), a work given to the world 200 years 



m 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



before Munchhausen saw the light. Some of the 
veracious Baron's stories are also to be found in 
Lange's Delicice AcademiccB (Heilbr., 1665), under 
the head of Mendacia Ridicula. The Baron never 
intended, it is said, to print his comical adven- 
tures, which he was in the habit of repeating in 
social circles ; and was very much surprised when 
he knew that they had been published in England 
without his knowledge, by a learned but unprin- 
cipled German scholar of the name of Raspe, who 
had taken refuge in this country from the pursuit 
of justice, and was much employed in translating 
works from other languages. 

. In further support of their claims to wit and 
humour, the Germans refer to their Reineke der 
Fuchs, and their Tyll Eulenspiegel ; the latter of 
which has been translated into all the languages 
of Europe. From Eidenspiegel, the French have 
derived their own word Espieglerie ; and even the 
word Calembourg may be traced to the Austrian 
Eulenspiegel — the priest Wigand von Theben, 
surnamed the "Jester of Kahlenberg." The 
reason why such injustice has been done to a 
highly important ingredient in the character of 
the German people, is said by a recent writer of 
their own to be this : because the literary history 
of Germany has been almost always written by 
men without any perception of the humorous, 
and who accordingly either pass It wholly by, or 
else bestow upon it very slight notice, which is 
deprived of all freshness and life by being over- 
laid with the heavy lumber of university learning. 

John Maceat. 
Oxford. 



My friend Mr. F. L. J. Thimm, In his Litera- 
ture of Germany historically developed, 12mo., 
London, attributes the authorship of this work 
to — 

" K. K. A. Munchhausen — who recited his Abenteuer 
in company to friends, who superintended their pub- 
lication — born 1759, died 1836." 

Mr. Thimm, however, admits that on this point 
he has been led Into error, and will consequently 
omit or modify the statement in the forthcoming 
edition of his useful little manual. I merely, 
therefore, make this allusion to his work In order 
that those who may consult it on this point may 
not be led into error. 

I have reason to believe that the following 
quotation from the Conversations- Lexicon will be 
found to contain a more correct and explicit ac- 
count of the book, its authors, translators, and 
compilers, than Is to be found elsewhere : 

" Munchhausen (Hieronymus Karl. Fried. Freiherr 
von) aus der sogenannten Weissen Linie des Hauses, 
geboren 1720 auf dem vaterlichen Gute Bodenwerder im 
Hannoverischen, gestorb. 1797, gilt fur einen der grossten 
Liigner und Aufschneider, so dass nach ihm noch gegen- 
wSrtig alle grotesk komischen Aufschneidereien Munch- 
No. 303.] 



hausiaden genannt werden. Er fand sein Hauptvergniigea 
darin, seine als russischer Cavallerie-offizier in den Feld- 
ziigen gegen die TUrkei, 1737-39 erlebten Abenteuer, die 
er bis zum wunderbaren ausschmiickte, immer und immer 
wieder zu erzahlen. Dieses absonderliche Talent hatte 
ihm zwar in seinem Vaterlande schon weit und breit 
einen Namen gemacht, doch fand sich f iir die Friichte 
desselben zuerst in England ein Sammler und Heraus- 
geber. Die l'*« Sammlung von Munchhausen 's Eeisen 
erschien dort unter dem Titel : Baron Miinchhausen's 
Narrative of his marvellous Travels and Campaigns in, 
Russia (London, 1785). Dieses frivole Werkchen fand 
vielen Beifall, und wurde in 2 Jahren filnf mal, zuletzt 
mit zahlreichen und umfangreichen Zusatzen aufgelegt. 
Nach der 4'«° Englischen Ausgabe erschien die !»*• 
deutsche Uebersetzung von Burger, London, 1786, welche 
1788 eine vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage mit Benut- 
zung der 5'«" englischen zugleich aber mit verschiedenen 
Zuthaten des Uebersetzers, und wahrscheinlich auch 
Lichtenberg's erhielt. Die englische Ausgabe von der H. 
Doring eine neue freie Uebersetzung unter dem Titel 
Milnchhausen Liigenabenteuer,184:Q, erschienen liess, riihrt 
ohne Zweifel von dem als Mineralog und Archaolog nicht 
unbedeutenden, seiner Zeit auch durch bebelristische Pro- 
ductionen bekannten, sonst aber iibelberuchtigten ehe- 
maligen Kasselschen Professor und Bibliotheker R. Z. 
Raspe (1737-94) her, der nach London gefliichtet war, 
und sich hier mit Schriftstellerei in mehreren Spracheii 
beschaftigte. 

" Einige von Miinchhausen's bekanntesten Jagd und 
Kriegsgeschichten finden sich schon, wenn auch in etwas 
ander und meist roher Gestalt in weit alteren Buchern, 
wie in Bebel's Facetia, aus denen sie nebst einigen anderen 
aus Castiglione's Cortegiano, und Bidermann's Utopia, in 
T. P. Lange's Delicice Acedemicce, Heilbronn, 1766, iiber- 
gingen. 

" Ausfiihrliches Uber Milnchhausen enthallt Elissen s 
Einleitung zur neuen Ausgabe d. Abenteuer, Goettingen, 
1849." — Conversations- Lexicon, 10'^ Ausgabe. 

Southey asks : 

" Who is the author of Miinchhausen's Travels, a book 
which every one knows because all boys read it ? 

" Two of his stories are to be found in a Portuguese 
magazine, if so it may be called, published about four- 
score years ago, with this title . . Folhcto de Ambas Lis- 

boas It ia not likely that the author of 

Milnchhausen should have seen these Folhetos ; . . . . 
But it is probable that the Portuguese and English writers 
both had recourse to the same store-house of fable." ^- 
Omniana, vol. i. p. 155. 

William Bates. 

Birmingham. 

Mr. Breen will find some correspondence on 
the authorship of this book in Vols. 11. and III. of 
" N. & Q." I refer to the matter, partly for the 
sake of repeating a question to which no answer 
was given at the time of that correspondence : 
Who was the Englishman spoken of In the Percy 
Anecdotes as the author of Milnchhausen, and de- 
signated by the initial " M." (see "N. & Q.," 
Vol. ill., p. 316.). J.C.R. 



■ .:» j^fyi:ii4_ 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



APPABITION OF "THE WHITE LADY. 

(Vol. viii., p. 317.) 

I am unable to answer C. M. W.'s Query as to 
the origin of her ladyship. But I append a cut- 
ting from the Morning Post, November 8th, 1854, 
in which is related the latest appearance of " The 
White Lady " to a member of the royal family of 
Bavaria. The extract is headed — 
" A German Legend. 

"The following extraordinary letter appears in the 
German papers : — 

" ' The Queen Theresa of Bavaria died of cholera at 
Munich on the 26th, as already known. I hasten to com- 
municate to your readers the following highly interesting 
and affecting details, of which I can guarantee the exact 
veracitj' : 

" ' On the 6th of October, between eight and nine o'clock 
in the evening, two princes of the Bavarian royal family, 
equal in birth and relationship, were seated at tea in a 
room of the Aschaffenburg Palace. A folding-door divides 
this room from another apartment, and a smaller papered 
door separates it from the antechamber usually occupied 
by the domestics in waiting. Of a sudden the latter door 
opened, and a lady covered with a black veil entered and 
made a low curtsey before the two illustrious personages. 
One of the princes, no little astounded, asked the lady if 
she were invited to tea, and, pointing to the folding-door 
leading into the tea-room (where the Queen and ladies 
were assembled), gave her to understand that she should 
enter. No replj', and the lady vanished through the 
small papered door. Both the illustrious personages were 
extremely agitated by this wonderful apparition, and its 
mysterious disappearance. One of them immediately 
hastened to the antechamber to inquire of the servants 
about the mysterious figure. No one had seen it come or 
go, except Asj'at, Queen Theresa's body hussar, who had 
met it on the passage. No other trace could be dis- 
covered. Both illustrious persons narrated what had 
occurred, and it soon came to Queen Theresa's ears, and 
she was so overwhelmed therebj' that she became greatly 
indisposed, and wept during the whole night. The 
journey to Munich was fixed for the following day. All 
the luggage and half the servants were already on the 
road. To remain longer at Aschaffenburg was' scarcely 
possible. Queen Theresa was filled with the most sorrow- 
ful forebodings. She asked several times if it were not 
possible to remain here. It would be too painful for her 
to quit Aschaffenburg this time. The mysterious and 
ominous Black Lady glided constantly before her imagin- 
ation. Somewhat calmed, at length, by judicious observ- 
ations, she at last sorrowfully commenced the journey, 
which it was not possible to postpone. But still, at Mu- 
nich, where she was at first slightly indisposed, but re- 
covered, her mind was preoccupied with the apparition 
of the Black Ladj', of whom she spoke to many persons 
with trembling apprehension. She was sought to be con- 
soled by saying that the sentries on duty had seen the 
lady enter the palace. But all was in vain. The idea 
that the apparition of the figure had a sinister foreboding 
for her life never quitted her mind. Twenty da.vs after 
the mysterious evening. Queen Theresa lay a corpse in 
the Wittelbacher Palace. Your readers are at liberty to 
judge of the incident as they please. I must, however, 
solemnly protest against any suspicions being thrown 
upon the exact truth of these facts, derived from the 
highest authority, as I took the above narrative verbatim 
from the statement of the best informed persons before I 

No. 303.] 



had the slightest suspicion of the Queen's death. The 
two illustrious persons narrated the circumstance of the 
apparition minutely to several persons, so that the whole 
town heard of it next morning, and on the same evening 
the whole personnel of the palace and the soldiers on duty 
were strictly examined, and requested to state all they 
knew of the matter — a good proof that the occurrence 
cannot be set down among ordinary nursery tales.' 

" When King Frederick I. of Prussia was attacked by 
his last indisposition, he sat one evening, about dusk, in 
his chamber at the Berlin Palace. The folding-door 
suddenly opened with a crash of broken glass — a white 
figure, with dishevelled hair and bespattered with blood, 
rushed before him. ' The White Lady ! the White Lady ! 
My death is at hand,' exclaimed the suffering King, and 
never completely banished the idea from his mind, al- 
though the figure was nothing more than his fanatic and 
insane Queen, a princess of Mecklenburg Schwerin." 

Since reading the above I observed in The 
Times an account of the death of a woman at 
Wolverhampton, from fright, in consequence of 
seeing " The White Lady " rushing up the steps 
leading from the cellar of a house there. Perhaps 
some correspondent can refer me to the paragraph. 
C. MANsriELD Inglebt. 



HBAI.TH OP TOBACCO MAWUFACTDREBS. j 

(Vol.xii., p. 39.) -^ 

Not coming under either of the classes Mr. 
Batks invites to discuss his well-timed Note on 
the health of tobacco manufacturers, I must sub- 
mit what I have to say as a non-professional, and 
merely state what has come under my own ob- 
servation. 

1849 was a terrible year to New Orleans, and 
the towns on the Mississippi River. To hear that 
populous districts were thinned, and in some in- 
stances whole households carried off in a night, 
occasioned but little surprise to those who had in 
former years seen the ravages of epidemics in this 
malarious climate. But, amidst the disease and 
death, there were some spots comparatively safe, 
and these were the tobacco manufactories. In 
New Orleans, while I was there, I had frequent 
opportunity of examining this interesting problem; 
and invariably found that, whilst cotton-dressers 
and sugar-refiners suffered with the rest of the 
inhabitants, the tobacco manufacturer was gene- 
rally exempt. But the term tobacco manufac- 
turer is, perhaps, too exclusive as a principal one 
in so interesting an inquiry. For practical pur- 
poses, it would be well to know how far man's 
connexion with tobacco exempts him from various 
complaints. 

Besides cigar rollers, cut-and-dry choppers, and 
snuff-makers, there are those engaged in planting, 
attending, curing, packing, warehousing, and load- 
ing, — all being brought in different degrees of 
contact with the "weed." On plantations, the 
negro and overseer are alike subject to the cholera, 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



and, indeed, to the same complaints as the neigh- 
bouring cotton-grower. In curing and drying 
houses, the men are partially safe from epidemics, 
and invariably free from lung complaints. But it 
is to the factory we must go to learn the full ex- 
tent of this singular preservative. Not until the 
leaf has been cured for some time, or at all events 
passed through the hogshead, do those neutralis- 
ing qualities show themselves; and it must be 
brought into continual contact with the men, and 
in a room or workshop of some kind, for them to 
be the subjects of its preservation. From this 
then it would appear, that only on certain condi- 
tions, and in certain stages, is tobacco a protection 
from contagious diseases ; and the same security 
is offered I believe in tan- pits, where, in cholera 
times, a remarkable share of health is observable 
amongst the men employed. 

In tobacco countries the application of the leaf 
in various ways forms the subject of several pre- 
scriptions. While hunting in the far west, if you 
are bitten by a rattle-snake, a tobacco leaf bound 
around the part will destroy any poisonous effects. 

Smoking before drinking impure river water will 
prevent the diarrhcea. In certain unmentionable 
skin disorders, the washing of the parts with water 
having tobacco steeped therein will drive it away. 
These, and similar recipes, are common in the 
Mississippi Valley. 

But to the tobacco manufactories. From those 
who have been curious with myself in the matter, 
I learn that in all large towns, where tobacco 
factories are carried on, the same properties are 
observable. In London, the great tobacco quar- 
tier is Goodman's Fields ; and, that I might com- 
pare notes with those already gained in America 
and the West Indies, I have several times made 
minute inquiries in that vicinity. The manufac- 
turers there — mostly enterprising Jews — describe 
their men as being remarkably free from lung 
complaints, skin diseases, and affections of the 
liver ; although I think I heard of a few instances 
where torpidity of the latter organ was complained 
of. Many of these men use oil as a part of their 
diet, agreeably to the custom of their race, and 
enjoy health superior still to those who do not 
take any. This, of course, is another interesting 
problem which has of late just been hinted at and 
then dropped. But one thing is observable in all 
cigar and tobacco factories, the men neither are 
nor look cheerful ; they rarely enjoy those bright 
animal spirits which other occupations induce. 
The sports of the field have scarcely any attrac- 
tion for them ; the}' are frequently noisy at the 
" board," and a whole factory full may sometimes 
be heard shouting the same song ; but it is a very 
different affair to a chorus round the capstan, or 
the melody a dozen negroes make whilst plying 
their hoes or picking off the suckers from the 
tobacco plants. 

]S"o. 303.] 



A tobacco manufacturer is seldom high, he is 
seldom low ; he appears to have entered that 
middle state of existence which some think the 
most enviable. His trot may be called the "jog 
trot." He rarely figures as a declaimer, rarely 
gets drunk and alarms the neighbourhood of his 
residence. What he invariably does, is to live 
contentedly, and without grumbling ; and consents 
to undergo a pickling in tobacco, to perhaps the 
slight deadening of his nerves, the undoubted 
weakening of his mind and strength of will, for 
the sake of preserving his skin, liver, and lungs 
from frequent epidemics. 

There is one fact which it may be as well to 
state, — spirituous liquors, drunk freely by those 
in a tobacco factory, soon destroy the conserving 
effects which they might otherwise enjoy from 
their calling. 

Another peculiarity still more remarkable is 
this, — the ordinary nervous distrust which smok- 
ing induces, and which proves perhaps the pleasure 
of the pipe to lay more in the anticipation than 
in the act itself, is seldom experienced by those 
who are engaged manipulating the " weed." In- 
deed, I have heard it remarked, that where a man 
could not indulge in three pipes a day without 
feeling symptoms of indigestion, he could double 
the number after he became employed by a tobac- 
conist, and feel none of the old symptoms, 

J. C. HoTTEN. 
151. Piccadilly. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON BELLS. 

(Vol. xi., p. 210.) 

At Christchurch, Hants, are the following le- 
gends of the fourteenth century on two bells. 
There are eight in the fine peal : 

6. " Sit . nobis . omen . Touzeyns . cum . cit , tibi . 
noraen. 
Virtus . campane . faciat . nos . vivere . sane." 

6. " Assis . festivus . pestes . pius . ut . fugat . Agnus. 
Mox . Augustinus . nee . dum . resonat . preco . 
magnus." 

They may perhaps be thus Englished : 

5. " Be ours the omen : since thy name is All Saints : 

May the virtue of the bell make us live in health." 

6. " Come soon, kindly (Saint) ; that the holy Lamb 
may drive away plagues: not yet sounds the great 
preacher Augustine." 

The priory was dedicated to St. Augustine ; and 
so it appears was this bell, here called, fi-om its 
solemn sound, herald or preacher. 

At Gloucester cathedral : 

5. John. " In multis annis resonet campana Johannis." 

6. Mary. " Sum rosa pulsata mundi, Maria vocata." 
4. " Sit nomen Domini benedictum." 

2. Peter. " Sancta Petre, ora pro nobis." 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



131 



At Woburn : 

2. " Johannes Lenglon, Episcopus Lincoln : Ave Maria, 
gratice plena, Dominus tecum." 

Mackenzie WalcotTj M.A. 



Bells in the Tower of the Chapel at St. MichaeVs 
Mount, Cornwall. — The following is a copy of the 
inscriptions, and the sizes of the bells : 

No. 1. 3 feet diameter ; 

" Soli, Deo, deuter Gloria. 1640. J. P." 

No. 2. 2 feet 9 inches diameter : 

" Filius est Deus. 

^ Raphael >i< Sancta Margareta. Ora pro nobis. 
Ordo Archangelorum." 

No. 3. 2 feet 6 inches diameter : 

" Spiritus Sanctus est Deus. 

iji Gabriel >J< Sancto Pauli. Ora pro nobis. 
Ordo Virtutum. 
Maria." 

No. 4. 2 feet 3^ inches diameter : 

" Charles and John Rudhall Fecit 1784." 

No. 5. 2 feet 2 inches diameter : 

" Come away, make no delay." 

No. 6. 2 feet diameter : 

« Ordo Potestatum." 

Nos. 2, 3, and 6, are of the same date, the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. 

Nos. 1, 4, and 5, are probably recasts of older 
bells, which made up the set of six. 

Can any of your readers furnish inscriptions for 
the last-mentioned bells, which would be in har- 
mony with the other three bells, viz. No. 2, 3, 
and 6. ? Jas. P. St. Aubyn. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC COBBESPONDENCB. 

Gutta-percha Baths. — I send you a gutta-percha bath 
similar to the one mentioned by Mr. Maxwell Lyte, in 
Vol. xi., p. 471. 

The first bath that I invented and made, about two 
years ago, was simply an open tray, with one of its ends 
formed into a large cell, to receive the fluid contents 
when the opposite end was raised until the tray stood 
vertically upon the cell. The plate was laid upon the 
bottom of the tray, face upward, and prevented from slip- 
ping into the cell, when the bath was raised, bv two studs 
cemented on the bottom. This is exactly Mk. Lyte's 
plan. 

The bath accompanying this Note I made about eigh- 
teen months ago, and designed it for flooding the plate, 
while laid face downward. It appears to have several 
advantages over the first: it works with greater cer- 
tainty, covering the whole plate by the use of a much 
smaller quantity of fluid; and the plate is less liable to 
be injured by dust or deposit in the solutions. A narrow 
rim is fastened along two sides of the trav to support the 
plate about one-eighth of an inch from the bottom, and 
leave room for the fluid to pass beneath it. Now stand 
the tray vertically on the bottom of the cell, and you will 

No. 303.] 



find the top of the cell is closed, except an opening one- 
eighth of an inch wide, along the bottom of the tray, 
extending the whole width between the two side rims. 
When tried in this state the fluid comes out in gushes ; on 
depressing the tray, every time a bubble of air squeezes 
itself under the cover; but by boring a small hole in the 
middle of the top, the flow is made beautifully equable, 
running evenly under the plate, and driving before it any 
air-bubble or impurity. 

These baths were made for the purpose of working in- 
side the camera ; but I abandoned them, from their lia- 
bility to receive more dust, &c. than the vertical ones. 

I claim no merit for these simple inventions, and trouble 
you rather to remind other claimants that when a dozen 
men of ordinary ingenuity meet with the same difficulty, 
it is very probable that two or three of them may, by 
pursuing the same train of thought, overcome it by pre- 
cisely the same means, without being chargeable with 
pilfering from each other. Sam. Cartwright. 

Deepening Collodion Negatives. — In Vol. ix., p. 282., 
Mr. Leachjl\n recommends the iodide of cadmium for 
this purpose. Will you have the goodness to ask him if 
he still recommends the same in preference to any other 
application? and if so, of what strength the solution 
should be? M. P. M. 

Old Collodion. — In Vol. xi., p. 390., you did me the 
favour to insert a Note of mine on this subject, wherein I 
stated that early this spring I added together numerous 
samples of old collodion of last summer's make, consisting 
of portions of almost every variety, in the whole amount- 
ing to nearly fourteen ounces, and that this mixture had. 
proved, in my hands, the best collodion I ever used, al- 
though many, or in fact the greatest number, of the sam- 
ples individually were worthless. 

My object in communicating this Note is to confirm the 
former assertion, as I find the same of the most excellent 
quality, as I have proved by many hundred examples 
since March last. I would therefore recommend your 
friends never to throw away their old collodion. 

M. P. M. 



Richard Kent, Esq. (Vol. xii., p. 46.). — From 
some old deeds lately in my hands, I extracted a 
few notes which may be useful to J. K. In 1684, 
the mortgage of a farm between Chippenham and 
Corsham, in co. Wilts, was assigned to Sir Robert 
Dillington, Bart., of Knighton ; Richard Kent of 
London, and Robert Rewes of London. In 1685 
Richard Kent is described as " of Corsham, Esq." 
He was elected M.P. for Chippenham, Aug. 25, 
1685; when he made that borough a present of 
the expenses incurred in obtaining a new charter 
three years before. He seems to have been 
knighted, and to have died before 1698 : as an in- 
denture, dated in that year, mentions — 

" John Kent, second son of Robert Kent, late of Bos- 
combe, CO. Wilts, and nephew to Sir Richard Kent, Knt., 
late of Corsham : John Kent the elder, brother and heir 
of Richard Kent, and Nicholas Fenn of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, surviving executor of Richard Kent." 
The estate of Richard Kent had been ordered by 
the Court of Chancery to be sold. A pedigree of 
Kent of Boscumbe, with a few extracts of the 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



name from the registers of that parish, may be 
found in Sir R. C. Hoare's Modern Wilts, " Hun- 
dred of Amesbury," p. 1 15. J. E. Jackson, 
Leigh-Delamere, Chippenham. 

'^^Simile of a Woman to the Moon (Vol. xii., 
p. 87.)' — The lines here quoted remind me of 
the foUowinnr epigram written by Richard Lyne, 
who was a Fellow of Eton. They have not, I 
believe, been printed. 
, " Femina ad Lunam comparata." 

*| Ltina nibet, pallet, variat, nocte ambulat, errat, 
Haec quoque Foemineo propria sunt (Jeneri. 
Cornua Luna facit : facit hsec quoque Foemina : mutant 
Quolibet haec tantum mense, sed Ilia die." 

Bratbbooke. 

Audley End. 

^!' After the first twelve lines, as set out by your 
(Sorrespondent, the lines run thus : 

" Say, are not these a modish pair, 

Where each for other feels no care? 

Whole days in separate coaches driving. 

Whole nights to keep asunder striving. 

Both in the dumps in gloomy weather. 

And lying once a month together. 

From him her beauties close confining. 

And only in his absence shining ; 

Or else she looks like sullen tapers; 

Or else she's fairly in the vapours ; 

Or owns at once a wife's ambition, 

And fully glares in opposition. 

In one sole point unlike the case is — 

On her own head the horn she places." 
tv H. E. N. 

Bells of Cast Steel (Vol. xii., p. 87.) Bells of 

cast iron have been made at Dundyvan Iron 
Works, near Glasgow, of a very large size. The 
iron is mixed with a very small proportion of tin 
(I believe) as an alloy, and the result is a very 
sonorous metal ; but so extremely brittle, that a 
very large one, cast at Dundyvan for the Hyde 
Park Exhibition, was cracked accidentally by a 
workman who gave it a knock with a small ham- 
mer. The sound was said to be equal to that of 
most bells of its size. R. G. 

Glasgow. 

^ Wines of the Ancients (Vol. xii., p. 79.). — The 
wines of the ancients were not always largely 
diluted with water, as your correspondent F. 
imagines. Pliny, Nonnlus, Athenseus, Varro, and 
other classical writers who treat on the subject of 
wines, Inform us that the wine required for im- 
mediate use and the ordinary consumption of the 
family was the simple juice of the grape, clarified 
with vinegar, and drawn from the barrel as 
wanted. A strong and sweet wine was obtained 
from the juice of the grape, crushed by the naked 
feet instead of the press. This was put to boll, 
and continually stirred until one-third of the 
liquor was evaporated, when it was called ca- 

No. 303.] 



renum ; when only half remained It was termed 
defrutum ; and lastly, when it was reduced to one- 
third in quantity, and of a consistence similar to 
honey. It took the name of sapa. This substance 
was still farther desiccated by exposure to the 
sun and to smoke, and by long keeping. Some 
of the gastronomes of antiquity produced on their 
tables certain wines which had so far dried up in 
the leather bottles, that they were taken out in 
lumps (^Aristotle) ; others placed in the chimney 
corner became in time as hard as salt (Galen). 
Petronius speaks of wine of a hundred leaves 
(Petro7i., c. 34.) ; and Pliny tells us that guests 
were served with wine more than two hundred 
years old, which was as thick as honey and ex- 
ceedingly bitter. Wine of this description must 
necessarily have been diluted, not only to reduce 
its strength, but to render potable. It was used 
to give body to weak wines, and it served as the 
basis of several beverages in great repute amongst 
the ancients. The Falernian wine was not drunk 
until It had attained its tenth year ; then it was 
possible to drink it undiluted. At twenty years 
old it could only be mastered by being mixed 
with water.. If older It was intolerable ; it at- 
tacked the nerves and caused excruciating head- 
ache. (AthencBus, i. 48.) It does not appear that 
the art of distlUatlng alcohol was known to the 
classical disciples of Bacchus. J. S. Coyne. 

A Sermon on Noses : Shakspeare's Autograph 
(Vol. X., p. 443). — Annibal Caro Is the supposed 
author of that "Sermon on Noses," " La Diceria 
de' Nasi," which, in the edition of the infamous 
Ragionamenti delV Aretino, published in 1584, Is 
subjoined to that chef-d'oeuvre of Impudence, 
lewdness, and depravity. La Diceria is a drol- 
lery not of the nicest kind, written in the Rabe- 
laisian strain, and quite worthy to be printed 
" nella citta di Bengodi." I am ignorant whether 
the author of Tristram Shandy, when he wrote his 
celebrated Chapter on Noses, had in his eye An- 
nibal Caro's lucubration ; he certainly had perused 
with great care Taglicozzi's (1597) or Taglia- 
cozzo's chlrurgical encomiums on the dignity, 
gravity, and authority of noses. I think he could 
have made good use too of Kornmann's chapter 
(De Virginitate, § 77.), " Num ex longo et acuto 
naso praesumatur vIrgo iracunda?" and of the 
devout speculations of Mademoiselle Bourignon 
about the noses of Adam and of Eve. There are 
some Pious Meditations of J. Petit (no date, in 
8vo., black-letter) on the Nose and the Two Nos- 
trils of the Holy Virgin, which are worth noticing, 
as well as Theophile Raynaud's (the Jesuit) great 
review of noses, contained in his Laus Brevitatis. 

As to the real or pretended autograph of Shak- 
speare, I leave it of course to the sentence of the 
connoisseurs ; this I must only add, as a fact 
rather worth submitting to their acumen, that in 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



the old Mazarinean Library, Paris Tnstitut, there 
exists a copy of Sir T. Harrington's curious tract, 
The Metamorphosis of Ajax, another drollery of 
the same era (not of the same stamp), on the 
title-page of which one may read, written in a 
very good hand of the sixteenth century, the word 
William, quite legible, under a slight dash of the 
pen, and the letters S . . p . . e, more effectually 
concealed under a more vigorous stroke of the 
same hand and the same ink. 

Philarete Chasles, Mazarinaeua. 

Paris, Palais de I'lnstitut. 

Beating the Bounds (Vol. xi., p. 485.). — Feel- 
ing sure that you will have a multiplicity of 
answers to this question, I shall content myself 
with referring R. P. to Brand's Popular Antiqui- 
ties, (Knight's edition, vol. i. pp. 116 — 124.); 
Hone's Year-Book (October 8.) ; Hone's Every- 
Day Book (May 12.) ; Wheatly's Illustration of 
the Book of Common Prayer (Oxon, 1846, p. 202.). 
Also in the churchwarden's accounts for the parish 
of Ecclesfield, are the following entries : 

" 1680. Spent at the preambulation, 6s. Sid. ; payde for 
bread and ale for those that went with the presession at 
Shiergreene Cross, 6s. 8d." 

J. Eastwood. 

Eckington. 

The origin of the custom of "beating the bounds," 
or perambulating the limits of the parish, which still 
prevails in the east, and other parts, as well as in 
the west of England, was from the ancient prac- 
tice of walking round in solemn religious proces- 
sion, chanting the Litanies, on the three days 
before Ascension, commonly called the three 
Rogation days. In the Catholic Church, the Lita- 
nies are still sung or recited on those days, and 
also in procession, where this is practicable. 

F. C.H. 

Method of taking out Ink (Vol. xii., p. 29.). — 
A small quantity of oxalic acid, or muriatic acid, 
somewhat diluted, applied with a camel's hair 
pencil, and blotted off with blotting-paper, will in 
two applications quite obliterate any traces of 
modern ink. By the aid of oxalic acid, I have 
restored a page on which an inkstand had been 
upset to almost primitive purity. 

WiixLAM Fbaser, B.C.L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

The following passage, which seems to answer 
J. P.'s Query referred to above, caught my eye 
yesterday whilst looking for something else in 
Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. ii. Not having the 
opportunity of trying the method referred to, I 
can only give the passage verbatim : 

_ " M. Chaptal remarks, that, since the oxygenated mu- 
riatic acid had been found capable of discharging the 
colour of common writing-ink, both from parchment and 
No. 308.] 



paper, without injuring their texture, it had been fraudu- 
lently employed," &c. &c. 

J. Eastwood. 

Absorbent Paper (Vol. xii., p. 87.). — In an- 
swer to the inquiries of C, I beg to inform him, 
that if he will dissolve a drachm of alum in three 
ounces of spring water, and sponge the paper with 
it ; when dry, it will bear writing upon without 
blotting. 

He may also write on absorbent paper with 
common ink, if he mixes gum-water with it. 

F.C.H. 

Having had much experience in foreign books^ 
and the papers on which they are printed — more 
particularly noticing the absorbent nature of 
modern German works — I would advise C. to 
make his notes upon their margins in pencil, a 
card being introduced under the leaf to make the 
line clear and sharp ; as I do not think anything 
could be done to impart size to the paper of a 
bound book, without injury to its appearance.^ 

Books may be with ease sized prior to binding,^ 
and the paper materially strengthened. 

Luke Limner. 

Stained Glass Picture of BlessedVirgin (Vol. xi.r 
p. 466.). — If the picture referred to be intended 
for the Blessed Virgin and Divine Infant, the toy 
described by L. J. B. is very remarkable and un- 
usual. 

A toy mill is the emblem of the infant St. James 
the Less, as represented among the highly-finished 
paintings on the screen of Ranworth Church, 
Norfolk ; and referred to by the Very Rev. Dr. 
Husenbeth, in his useful book of reference. Em- 
blems of Saints, by which they are distinguished 
in works of art (pp. 74 — 78.). I suspect that the 
figure holding an Agnus Dei is intended for St.. 
John Baptist, he being almost always so repre- 
sented. C. A. B. 

In answer to L. J. B. on "Stained Glass Pic- 
tures of the Blessed Virgin," I would remark that 
representations of toys are not uncommon in pic- 
tures of the childhood of our Blessed Lord. For 
example : 

1. In an early Byzantine painting I have, our 
Lord is painted with a twisted stick, probably a 
sugar-stick, in his hand. 

2. He is represented blowing bubbles froni a 
mussel-shell on a stick in one of those beautiful 
early pictures lately placed in the National Gal- 
lery. This is very prettily treated in Wierx's 
Vita et Passio Dei, where an angel is playing with 
Him. 

3. In A. Wierx's print of Virgo Matre, he is 
represented with a windmill on a stick, like the 
toy of the same kind we still see used. 

4. In a print of M. Sadlee, He has a sort of 
chaplet with which he is playing. 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



Instances of his playing with birds, fruit, and 
flowers are common enough. Akin to these ex- 
amples may be mentioned the instances of angels 
in the form of children playing near our Lord, as : 

1. In Albert Durer's large Passion, The Na- 
tivity, in which one angel is running with the 
cross revolving on a stick (a common toy in those 
days). 

2. In Bihlia Sacra, LugdunI : Bouille, 1541, 
p. 473, b, is an angel playing near our infant Sa- 
viour's head, with a toy in the shape of a Catherine- 
wheel. The print Is much earlier than the book. 
Many other instances might be given. 

John C- Jackson. 
Clapton. 

Sir Cloudesley Shovel (Vol. xi., pp. 184. 514. ; 
Vol. xii,, p. 54.). — In a rare little book now be- 
fore me, entitled Secret Memoirs of the Life of 
the Hon. Sir Cloudesley Shovel, Knt., ^c., by an 
officer who served under that admiral, and dedi- 
cated to " The Hon. my Lady Shovel," 12mo., 
London, 1708, it is stated at p. 3. : " He was born 
at a small town near Clay, in the county of Nor- 
folk." Whether this was Cockthorpe does not 
appear ; but if that place be near to Clay, this 
statement serves to strengthen its pretension to 
the distinction claimed for it. J. D . 

The Sphinx (Vol. xii., p. 88.). — The wide dif- 
fusion of this mystical figure seems to indicate 
that it had some more profound and general sig- 
nification than the overflow of the Nile. Modern 
writers mostly reject this interpretation, even in 
Egypt, and consider it emblematic of the kingly 
power. I believe it was more probably an em- 
blem of the Supreme Deity, as Layard suggests in 
his first work on Nineveh. 

It is an error to say that the Egyptian sphinx 
combined the head of a virgin with the body of a 
lion. This was the later Greek sphinx, after the 
primitive idea of its mystical meaning had been 
lost. " The Egyptian sphinx was invariably 
male," and united the body of a lion with the head 
of a man, surmounted by a serpent (Wilkinson's 
Ancient Egypt, 2nd Series, vol. i. p. 146., and 
Faber's Mysteries of the Cabiri, vol. i. p. 209.). 

This tri-formed monster occurs in many other 
countries besides Egypt, viz. in Assyria, with the 
head of a man, the body of a lion or bull, and the 
wings of a bird or of a seraph, the flying- serpent. 
In Persia and Etruria the same (Chardin's Travels, 
and Dennis's Etruria, vol. i. p. 51.). In Lycia, as 
the woman, lioness, and seraph (Fellowes's Lycia, 
and sculptures in the Lycian room in the British 
Museum). It also occurs among ancient Chinese 
religious emblems (Kaempfer's Japan, vol. i. 
p. 182.), and likewise in India (Maurice's Indian 
Antiq., vol. iv. p. 750.), and may be seen in the 
paintings of the ancient Mexicans. Its invariable 
triple form exhibits the primitive idea of the three- 
No. 303.] 



fold nature of the Godhead, an idea whose univer- 
sal diffusion indicates an origin of the most remote 
(probably antediluvian) antiquity. 

The globe with wings and serpents, also very 
widely diffused, seems to represent the same idea, 
and to be only a variation of the symbolic figure. 

Eden Warwick. 

Birmingham. 

Knights Hospitallers in Ireland (Vol. xi., 
p. 407.). — Possessions belonging to the Order of 
Malta in Ireland, before the abolition of the Reli- 
gious Orders by Henry VIII., may be found In 
iBoisgelin's History of Malta, vol. III. pp. 210—212., 
edit. 1804. W. W. 

Malta. 

[We have omitted the extract, as this work may be 
found in most public libraries. Under the eountj' Down, 
Boisgelin notices the " Territory of Orders, Commandery 
of St. John the Baptist, founded by Hugh de Lacy in the 
twelfth century."] 

Uncertain Meaning of Words (Vol. viii., p. 439.). 
— Your correspondent A. B. C. might have added 
to his instances of words of different meaning ap- 
plied to express the same idea : we say of a news- 
paper, that it contains "the latest intelligence;" 
or, that it has " the earliest intelligence ; " both 
phrases being intended to convey precisely the 
same meaning. " Your news is Zafe," means that 
it is stale ; but " He brings all the late news" ex- 
presses the very reverse of tardiness. J. S. C. 

Proverbs (Vol. xi., p. 299.)- —As the chief part 
of the proverb cited by yu. is alliterative, it is pro- 
bable the third line was likewise so anciently, and 
it would run thus : 

" To a red man reade thy reed, 

With a browne man breake thy bread, 
At a white man draw thy whittle." 

The fourth line is likewise probably modern, and 
should be omitted. Hyde Clarke. 

Table of Forbidden Degrees (Vol.xi., p.475.).-- 
By " Matthew, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury," 
is meant Parker, under whose authority the table 
was published in 1563. The XCIXth canon of 
1603 orders that " the aforesaid table shall be in 
every church publickly set up and fixed at the 
charge of the parish." Copies such as that 
described by A. R. M. are not uncommon. The 
dresses in the engraving are much like those in 
the old illustrations of the Spectator, and evidently 
belong to the last century ; but whether we must 
understand " John, Lord Archbishop of Canter- 
bury," to mean Potter (a. d. 1737—1747) or 
Moore (a.d. 1783 — 1805), I do not venture to 
determine. J- ^' ^' 

Fanatics of the Cevennes (Vol. xi., p. 487.). — 
B. H. C. may be referred to the Histoire des Pas- 
teurs du Desert, par N. Peyrat, Paris, 1842, 2 vols. 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



8vo. I think there Is an English translation pub- 
lished two or three years ago ; and in the Foreign 
Quarterly Review, about 1845, may be found an 
admirable article ,on the book by Mr. William 
Macpherson, of the Inner Temple, now Master in 
Equity at Calcutta. J. C. R. 

Buchaii's Ballads (Vol.xii., p. 21.). — Buchan's 
collection is celebrated by Sir Walter Scott, in his 
last Introduction to the Border Minstrelsy (Poet. 
Works, vol. i. p. 87., edit. 1833) ; a fact which one 
might have supposed sufficient to make the book 
known to all persons interested in such literature. 
The account which Mr. Grundtvig gives of Mr. 
Dixon's publication is therefore very surprising 
to me. But I take the liberty of hinting to Mr. 
Grundtvig, that the Ancient Ballads lie under 
some suspicion, notwithstanding Scott's opinion in 
favour of their genuineness. At least I was told 
soon after the appearance of the work, and in Mr. 
Buchan's own part of Scotland, that many of the 
pieces were manufactured by two very young 
men (both since known for better things), who 
amused themselves by imposing their productions 
on that not very critical or judicious editor. 
Perhaps the mention of this report may draw forth 
either a contradiction or a confirmation of it. 

J. C. R 

jRose's " Biographical Dictionary " (Vol. xi.> 
p. 437. )• — This book grew out of the Encyclo- 
pcedia Metropolitana, which Mr. Hugh James Rose 
undertook to edit after the death of the Rev. E. 
Smedley. The intention was not to produce an 
altogether original work, but one mainly founded 
on the Biographic Universelle and Chalmers. I 
still possess a paper of instructions drawn up by 
Mr. Rose for the guidance of contributors. Mr. 
Henry Rose succeeded his brother in the editor- 
ship of the JEncyclopcedia, and some changes of 
plan were made as to the Biographical Dictionary. 
Instead of appearing as a portion of the JEncyclo- 
pcedia, it became an independent work ; the size 
was changed from quarto to large octavo ; and, 
while the bulk of it was still to be executed by 
contributors who each undertook a certain por- 
tion of miscellaneous names, the chief articles in 
particular classes were committed to writers who 
were supposed to have a special acquaintance 
with the subjects. Thus, I remember that the 
Spanish biographies were to be executed by Dr. 
Dunham, and the naval by Captain Glascock. I 
do not know how far Mr. Henry Rose carried on 
his superintendence, nor when the system of con- 
tributors was abandoned ; but the greater part of 
the Dictionary was the work of a single writer, 
the Rev. J. Twycross. J. C. R. 

Ritual of Holy Confirmation (Vol. xi., pp. 342. 
512.). — In a sermon preached Sept. 27, 1619, at 
the first visitation of the then Bishop of Oxford, 

No. 303.] 



Dr. John Howson, by Edward Boughen, his chap- 
lain, the following sentence occurs after a citation 
from St. Augustine on the use of the sign of the 
cross in holy confirmation : 

" The cross, therefore, upon this or the like considera- 
tion, is enjoined to be used in Confirmation in the Book 
of Common Prayer, set forth and allowed in Edward VI.'s 
reign. And I find it not at any time revoked : but it is 
left, as it seems, to the bishop's discretion to use or not to 
use the cross in confirmation." — P. 11. 

Is this view respecting the bishop's discretionary 
power to use the sign of the cross in holy con- 
firmation borne out by any other Church of Eng- 
land divines ; and was it ever acted upon by 
Bishop Howson, or any of his cotemporaries ? 
The Church in Scotland retained it ; and her 
bishops still often, but not I believe universally, 
use it. William Eraser, B.C.L. 

Alton, Staflfordshire. 

Nursery Hymn (Vol. xi., pp. 206. 474.). — In 
the interesting " Report on the State of Parochial 
Education in the Diocese of Worcester," by the 
Rev. E. Feild (now Bishop of Newfoundland), 
printed as an appendix to the National Society's 
Report for 1841, may be found, at p. 164., the 
rhyme, — 

" Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John," — 
with variations taken down from the variation of 
children in the dioceses of Worcester and Salis- 
bury. J. C. R. 

Cathedral Registers (Vol. xi., p. 445.). — When 
in Sussex lately, I met with a woman who stated 
that she was married in Chichester Cathedral. 
Probably thirty years ago. F. B. R. 

Full Fig (Vol. xii., p. 65.). — May not this 
term, applied to dress, owe its derivation to the 
costume of fig-leaves adopted by our first parents ? 
The slang character of the phrase inclines me to 
hazard this conjecture. While I am on the sub- 
ject of dress I should like to have an explanation 
of the term " dressed to the nines," common in 
some parts of the country. J. S. C. 

May not this phrase have reference to the 
original apron of fig-leaves, with which Adam and 
Eve imperfectly clothed themselves ? 

Alfred Gattt. 

Pollards (Vol.xii., p. 9.). — Pollards are com- 
mon in the marshlands of Holland and Flanders. 
They are chiefly willows. Other trees are pol- 
larded there to prevent them from overshadowing 
the fields, and keeping off the sun. Trees are pol- 
larded here for the same ground. Trees are like- 
wise pollarded in the Netherlands, and here to 
strengthen the trunk, and make earlier and sounder 
timber. Hyde Clarke. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[Aug. 18. 1855. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

' At this pleasant season, when the whole work-a-daj' 
world is bent on holiday-making, poetry seems at a pre- 
mium; and our library table is enriched with sundry 
indications as to this direction of the popular mind. We 
will not attempt, in the limited space which we can de- 
vote to such matters, to indulge in a dissertation upon 
the merits of Mr. Tennyson's Maud; but refer such of 
our readers as lack criticism on this last bright spark 
hammered from the brain of the Laureate to the Examiner, 
for a well-considered and eulogistic lecture on its more 
patent beauties ; and to the Athenccum for an article rich 
in critic-craft, and in the elucidation of the more esoteric 
charms of this " thing of beauty." We will rather con- 
tent ourselves with calling attention to what has lately 
been doing to secure new readers and fresh welcome for 
some of the older masters of song. 

First turn we to the new volume of the Annotated Edi- 
tion of the British Poets. . It is the first of the Poetical 
Works of Samuel Butler, edited by Robert Bell ; and con- 
tains a carefully-written biography by the editor, and 
the first and second Parts of Hudibras. Some idea of the 
value of this new edition will be found in the fact that 
it is founded upon a careful examination of the former 
editions, from the earliest to the last reprint of that by 
Dr. Nash; that the text has been carefully collated; 
•obscurities from vague or false punctuation have been 
removed ; and in the illustrative annotations special re- 
gard has been had to the brief notes either known, or 
supposed to have been written, by Butler himself. We 
can scarcely anticipate but that, with such careful tender- 
ing, Mr. Bell will succeed in awakening a new interest in 
Butler in the minds of the reading public. 

Of somewhat less ambitious character are three volumes 
recently issued by Mr. Routledge, under the editorship of 
the Rev. R. A. Wilmott. The first of these is dedicated 
to the Poetical Works of William Cowpr, which are con- 
tained in one compact and neatly-printed volume. 
Cowper is evidently a favourite with Mr. Wilmott, who 
has obviously bestowed considerable pains in the brief 
preliminary " picture-sketch of his life and genius." The 
second volume contains The Poetical Works of Thomas 
Gray, Thomas Parnell, William Collins, Matthew Green, 
and Thomas Warton, of whom it is said by their editor, 
that " they bear a kind of relationship to each other, and 
seem to gain a grace and charm from the bond of fellow- 
ship that unites them." That this will be a welcome 
volume to many readers, none can doubt. And the same 
may safelv be predicated of the third, which contains The 
Poetical Works of Mark Akenside and John Dyer, and in 
this volume we have the best specimen of Mr. Wilmott's 
editorship. The biography of Dyer contains new ma- 
terials now first furnished by his descendants, and for the 
first time a genuine portrait of the poet— that which has 
hitherto passed for one being really the likeness of 
another Mr. Dyer. We may add that all three volumes 
are gracefully illustrated by Mr. Birkett Foster. 



Particulars of Price, &c. of tlie following Boo1<9 to be sent direct to 
tlie gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

Tracts fob the Times. Nos. 68, 69, 70. 

Wanted by W. Bate/idler, Bookseller, Dover. 



♦' BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

The Opinions op Sir Robert Pebl expressed in Parliament and 

IN PoBi.ic. By W. T. Haly of the Parliameutary Galleries. 
Baxter's I.ipe, by Orme. 2 Vols. 8vo. 
Wesley's Poems. 

RiCHARDSONIANA. 1776. 

•«» Letters, statinz particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
sent to Mr. Beli,, Publisher of "NOXJBS AND QUBBIES," 
186. Fleet Street. 

No. 303.] 



Binohah's Antiquities of the Christian Church. First Volume of 

8vo. Edition. London, 1822. 
NiMROD. By the Hon. Algernon Herbert. Part 1 . of Vol. IV. 

Wanted hy Henningham fy iroUis, 5. Mount Street, Grosvenor Square. 

Jahisson's Edinboroh Fhilosophicai. JoimNAi.. A complete set. 
Wanted by }V. Blackmore fy Co., Edinburgh. 

.Sobtees' History of Durham. Vol. I. 

Robson's British Herald. 4to. Vol. III. 

Arcb^ologia. Vols. III. IV. VIII. 

Hodgson's History of Northumberland. Part 2. Vol- IH. and Part 3, 

Vol. Ill , small paper. 
Moore's Byron. 17- Vol. Edition. Vol.11. Green Cloth. 

W anted by E. ChaniUy, Bookseller, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The London Mosbom of Politics, Miscellanies, and Literature, 

4 Vols. 8vo. 1769, 1770. 
The Key to the Dunciad. 1728. 

Ditto, 2nd Edition. 1728. 

Collection op all the RKMARstnLR and Personal Passages in Tb« 

Briton, North Briton, and Auditor. 1766. 
General Cockburn's Dissektation on Hannibal's Passage over the 

Alps. (Privately Printed.) Dublin. 1845. 
TpE Hibernian Magazine, or Comfbnoium of Entertainino Know 

LEDOE, for 1771, 1772, 1773. 

Wanted by W. J. Thorns, 25. Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster. 

Betnard the Fox. Translated by S. Naylor. Square 8vo. 1844. 
Longman fe Co. 

Mount Calvary. A Cornish Poem. Edited by Davies Gilbert. Pub- 
lished by Nichols. 1826. 

Ardlby's New Collection of Voyages and Travels. 4 Vols. 4to. 
1715. 

Wanted by Williams 4r Norgate, 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

Linoard's History of England. Published by Baldwin & Cradock, 
1839. Vol. XL ' 

Wanted by O. Steinman Steinman, Priory Lodge, Peckham. 



Spence's Things New and Old. 

Valpy's Shakspeji he. Vols. VI. & X. 

Carlile's Republican. Vol. XI. 

Voltaire's Philosophical Dictionary. Vol. III. 

Ramsey's Astrology. 

Alison's Europe. Vols. XI. XII. XIV. XVI. XVH. 

British Almanac and Companiov. 1838 » 1839. 

Ruit's Priestley's Works. Vols. IV. V. IX. XV. 

Wanted by TAos. Jfi'/Zard, Bookseller, Newgate Street. 



fiatitti to CarreSpaiitfcuW. 

C. J., who writes on the origin of Tradesmen's Tokens, is referred to 
Mr. Alcerman's volume on that subject published by Bussell Smith. 

Fauntleroy the Banker was executed for forgery at tlie Old Bailey 
2fov. 30th, 1824. See " N. & y.," Vol. x., p. 233. 

Clerical Bands. This subject has already been discussed in our 
columns. Vol. ii., pp. 23. 76. 126. 

Jaydee's Query respecting Arms on an inlaid table will, we hope, be 
answered very shortly. 

W. H. B. The famous old balladof The Babes in the Wood is printed 
in Percy's Reliques, vol. iii. p. 171. 

S'otices to other Correspondents in our next. 

Full price will be given for clean copies of JVo. 166. and No. 169 . upon 
application to the. Publisher. 

A few complete sets of"' Notes and Queries," Vols. I. to XL. are now 
ready, price VivR Guineas and a Half. For these early amplication is 
desirable. They may be had by order of any Bookseller or j\ '■'■'sman. 

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Frida;/. <ii that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's ijarcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday, 

"Notes and Queries" is also issued in Monthly Parts,,^ the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may he desirous of receiving the. 
weekly Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of "Notes and 
Queries " (inchuHng a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, Ma. Oeorob BellI No. 186. Fleet Street. 



Aug. 18. 1855.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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[Aug. 18. 1855. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMTINICATION 

roB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

(i -^xnien found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttlk. 



No. 304.] 



Saturday, August 25. 1855. 



f Price Fourpence. 
Stamped Edition, 5<f. 



CONTENTS. 

NoTBs:— Page 

Saint Swithin and Umbrellas, by Wil- 
liam Bates . . - . 137 
A Milton Note, by Tiiomas Keizhtley - 133 
House of Commons temp. Elizabeth and 

James - - - - - 138 

Inedited Poem by Chaucer - - 1 40 

The late Thomas Rodd - - - 141 

" The Songs of the Dramatists," by W. 

Sawyer - - - - - 142 

Fly-leaves of Books : Reuben Burrow, 
by Professor De Morgan - - 142 

Minor Notes : — A Green Rose — The 
Tippet — Almanacs -_ Meaning of 
" Codds " — Epigram — Places in the 
Crimea — A Street Song — Origin of 
Greenwich Park - - - - 143 

QuKRIES : — 

" Gesta Romanorum," and who com- 
piled it ? 144 

Turtle, Whitebait, and Ministerial 
Whitebait Dinners - - - 144 

MiNon Queries : — Sir Andrew de 
Harcia _ Norse Sagas — Royal Li- 
cence for Change of Surname — Objects 
impressed on the Bodies of Persons 
struck by Lightning —Grayling — 
Freeman Family — Leonard Milburn 

— Magazine Tale — Limberham — Per- 
sian Ambassador — Charles Masterton 
_ Lands held by Tenure — Bohun — 
Opal, its Origin — Beckett Pedigree — 
The Martyr-Philosopher — Author of 

" Gravity and Levity " - - - 145 

Minor Qdrrif.s with Answers : — 
William Gardiner and Rev. C. W. 

Chalklen — Heraldic — Aerolites 

Glass Windows in Alnwick Castle — 
" Lycidas," a Masque —"The Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments " - - 146 

Bbplies : — 

Historical Allusions - - - 148 

The Right of bequeathing Land, by 

Kussell Gole - - - - 148 
Priests' Hiding-places, by J. Waylen,&c. 149 

Eslie, Ushaw, and I'lass, by Hyde 

Clarke, &c. - - - - 150 

Photographic Corresponoenck : — 
Alteration of Positives - - - 150 

Replies to Minor Qhehies : The 

Burning of Jesuitical Books — Armo- 
rial Bearings of the Clere Family — 

Ladies and Wives—" Cock and pye " 

Oblation of a White Bull— Kymerton 

— Verb and Nominative Case — Sensa- 
tions in Drowning — Bennet's " Para- 
phrase " — Florins — Anonymous 
Hymns — Stonehenge — Anastatic 
Printing— Glee u. Madrigal — A Lady 
restored to Lite — John Cleaveland — 
French Churches _ Cambridge Jeux 
d'Esprit — Eliza Steele — Sherard — 
Cabbages — Anagrams, &c. - - 151 

Miscellaneous : — 

Notes on Books, &e. - . - 155 

Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



Vol. XII.— No. 304. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



LONDON. SATUBDAY, AUGUST To, 1859. 
SAINT SWITHIN AND UMBRELLAS. 

So certainly of late years is a period more or 
less approximating to the prescribed one_ of 
forty days characterised by i'ltermittent solstitial 
showers, that we almost forget to take note whe- 
ther St. Swithin, whom we were wont to consider 
our true mugister diluviorum, inaugurated the 
series on the day (July 15) dedicated to him in 
the calendar of popular superstition. Many, how- 
ever, still watch the passing clouds with anxiety 
on this important day, oblivious of the circum- 
stance that total change of date has been effected 
by the Gregorian reformation of the calendar, 
and that they should, consequently, make their 
atmospheric observations eleven days later. But 
this is a matter of little moment. Foster, in his 
Perennial Calendar, gives us (p. 344.) the origin 
of the belief, viz. that on the canonisation of this 
toly man, known in the flesh as Bishop of Win- 
chester, the monks, holding it not fitting that a 
saint should lie in a public cemetery (in which, 
according to his desire, he had been interred), 
determined to exhume his body with a view to its 
deposition in the choir ; but that this design, 
which was to have been carried into effect with 
solemn procession on July 15, was rendered im- 
practicable by reason of the violent rains, which 
commenced thereabouts, and continued for forty 
days without cessation. (See also Hone's Every- 
Day Book, vol. i. p. 953.) 

A difference of climate has led our neighbours 
to look somewhat earlier for a patron of showers. 
The following couplets have for centuries held 
a high place in France among meteorological 
canons : 
" S'il pleut le jour de la Saint Medard [June 8], 

II pleut quarante jours plus tard ; 

S'il pleut le jour de Saint Gervais et de Saint Protais 

' [June 19], 

II pleut quarante jours apres." 

M. Quitard, in his Dictionnaire des Proverhes, 
gives the following legend of St. Medard : 

" C'est le 8 Juin qu'arrive la fete de cet admirable 
fondateur de la rosifere de Salency, lorsque les roses bril- 
lent dans toute leur pompe, et une circonstance si peu 
auspeete ferait plutot penser que s'il avait quelque autorite 
sur I'atmosphfere, il aimerait mieux en preparer les plus 
pures influences, ne fut-ce que pour ces belles tleurs qu'il 
a destinees a couronner la vertu ; un pareil emploi parai- 
troit du moins assort! aux habitudes de sa vie. Pourquoi 
done a-t-on imagine de lui assigner un role tout oppose? 
A quel propos I'a-t-on represente' triste et somb