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4J2. ^4>-^-^- 

! . 





Part I. 













With regard to the sounds of the Clmiege latiguBge 
4ie student would do well to consult Morrisoirs Gram*' 
mar, which contains a short treatise on-the subject. la 
Marshman's Clavis Sinica, there is a long and too thoo^ 
retical essay. An able paper on this topic appears iis 
tbe Ilird Vol. of the Chinese repository. No. 1. Abel 
Rt^itmsat's Grammaire Chinoise^ contains a hicid expo* 
sition of the system. Premare, in his Notiti®, is very 
short. The introiuction to Kanghe's Dictionary, from 
whence most- of the remarks of the above writers have 
been taken, is very full on the subject. For the FokeSn^ 
in particular, see Medhurst's introiluctory remarks to 
his Dictionary of that dialect, and Dyer's ;J3ystem of 
intonation; while for the Cantoa dialect, the Chinese 
Chrestomathy may Sve. consulted, which adda Httle to the 
geaeral notices contE'.ned in (h« above woHui. 

I. C^n e&aminMig th-^ m'sat mass of tlft; sounds of 
the Chinese laiigua^f . ^lv:\ q>[>ear as if the*? were the 
first effort of articulatiou -..utc by a cbild^ ^^Vv^ricv '^^gsSu 


timple monosyllables do the greater part ©f the words 
consist. They are thus the bare pronounciation of the 
elements of which every other language consists, with- 
eut their multifarious combinations. 

2. The Chinese is the most monosyllabic tongue on 
eurth, though not entirely so. The Annamese is fuller. 
and admits of more combinations ; the Siamese resem* 
bles the Chinese in many respects, so also the Laos, but 
both have a greater number of polysyllables; the Birmah 
and Pegu, two cognate dialects, have increased their 
compounds, and the Cambodian still more so: the Eo- 
ftan and Japanese are decidedly polysyllabic, though 
iadmitting of Chinese sounds to a great extent. It may 
also be remarked, that the Chinese oral medium has 
more combined words than the written one. 

3. The student must therefore be prepared to deal 
wif!i monosyllables in all their imperfections. If he 
imerely wishes to study Chinese literature, this subjec^ 
need not engage much of his attention; but if, on »hv 
contrary, he intends to speak the language, he must froni 
the very first, bestow much care upon repeating, after 
the teacher, in ith a shrill voice, every sound, endeavour- 
ing to assimilate his enunciation, as much as possible, 
to the Chinese drawl. Missionaries, above all, must 
acquire the proper pronunciation, from frequent oral 
communications with the natives^ and they cannot do 
better than live amougst the people, in order to ensure 
the acquisition of their dialedts. Difficult as is the 
task, still many stupid Malays and Negros have learnt 
to pronounce the tones of the Chinese language by 
this means; whilst well-educated men, who have confin- 
ed themselves to tlieir teachers, have found great dif* 
ficulty of utterance, whenever they come in contact 
with the common people. The table of syllables, in 
Morrison's alphabetic Dictionary, or that contained in 
Premare's N otitiaj, if repeatedly read with a native, will 
perbapb assist the student in acquiiing the various 
aounds contained in the Chinese language. We have, 
€oT the most part, retained Monison's orthography) 
^AicA tbougbdiiectiv^, is still the be^t iavt^uted. 

4. In characterisiiig the language as monosyllabic, 
we do not mean to say, that it is entirely so; for it con* 
tains compounds of two, three, four, five, and even mt 
syllables, e. g. ^ ^ seen s&ng, a teacher. ^ }l 
hae kow^ a harbour. ^ ^ '^ isung ping kwan, a 
Lieut.«General. ^ yt ^ tseen le king, a spy glass. 
7Y- 1^ ^ ^ shuysse te tiih, an admiral. ^ 
^ '^ :^ ^ me t'heen the ta kwo, an abomin*' 

ation. p^ Ml X ^ ^ ^^y ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^» ^ 
minister of state. "^ :J^ ^ "^ ^ pYh te& che 
hae tang hwa, Pyrus Japonica: while those of two are 
tt very frequent occurrence, (see the chapter on words.) 

5. The sounds of the Mandarin dialect have ch» e, 
f. g, gn, h, (aspirated) j, k, 1, m, n, o, ng, p, s, sh, sa, t, 
ts, u^ w, and y, for initials, when expressed by our letters: 
the finals are our vowels, with the German or Italian 
pronunciation, besides a and ng; in this we do not in- 
elude the syllable urh, which is unique in its kind. 
The initials k, p, and t are sometimes aspirated, as ^ 
ke, a foundation. ^ and k'he, a period. ^ pa, crusty 
and ^ p'ha, a curtain. ^ teih, to guide, ^ and t'heih, 
to fear; these aspirates ought to be carefully marked 
from the very commencement. The final vowels 
form a number of dip thongs, such as ae, aou, ay, ei, eaou, 
and ow. This is perhaps the most simple system of 
sounds in existence. 

6. 7 be numerous dialects spoken throughout the 
empire dilTer considerably from the Mandarin, both in 
the imtials as well as in the finals, and it is next to 
impossible to give an outline of these variations. Even 
the Mandarin dialect is spoken in various ways ; the 
northern people aspirate the words very strongly, and 
pronounce the short words, such as ^ tYh, virtue; and 

^ peih^ must, as softly as if they ended in a short 
vowel; whilst more to the south, and in most of the pro- 
vincial dialects, they are uttered abruptly asiftheyter^ 
minated in d, k, p, or t; thus i^ tseuS, to cut off, sounds 
like tsoat. W ke^, a bud, as kap. % keo, a horn, as 
keok. Ts is often iaterchangea with ch^ atvd^Vv\'wci^ 
vice versa, A diphtboug and. novjc\ ^.\^ w^^• ^'^^ 

4' sthUtms.. cnAV. t. 

umneed' as if they foni)eO sepsK^e syUableR; but the 
iattex.'is always uttered short, .so sc^ aknost to coalesce 
with the formcn- 1hu5 ^ leaoii, finished, does not 
sound like li-aou, but le^ou.^ tew, not te-u» but tVu. 

7. The great bulk of the naliou has no idea of spell* 
ing, but in several native dietionarieb, a system of du 
iriding^ words into initials and fiaals is introduced, 
adopted perhaps in iinitaticm of the Sanscrit, and by 
Kang*he carried to a great extent In the national 
dietionaiy there are nine series of initials, called '# ^ 
t^e nK>Q,36 in number. 1 he iSrstfive have four, the sixdi 
and seventh series have five, the eighth has four, and the 
ninth has only two sounds. The finals called ^ ^ ne^ 
ymn; am twelve in number, eight of which arc voweh 
ar.dq[ihthongs; and four nasals. By means of these 
two classes-, thie spelling of every word is effected. Thug 
Suppose you wish to intimate how the character 

^ I^, little^ soujids; you would write ^ lae^ conies 
ibr the initial, jg( leo, to steal, as the final; thus 1 (ae 
and 1) e6 becomes le6. This is a very tedious process, 
audnoi'ei^n understood by the- natives. The ourioua 
Kadep will* find' enough upon tiiis subject, in. Kanghe'a 
dietioiliuy, uid'Marshman's grammar.. 

8. The whole number of distinct sounds formed in* 
liie above manner is 629, includitig 195 aspirated ones. 
It woidd hai^ -been quite impossible to have expressed 
aHidfess withso very few articulations of the voice, and 
llierbfiDreliueL' Chinese intonated them to increase their 
^nistf Bxkd distinctness. There are altogether four 
tones,, called 4^ shing, as ^ ping, the even, ± sh4ng,. 
the high oneL0urarute, ^ klieu, the low or falling 
sound,, our grave;, and the JN. juh, or abriipt sound. 
The ChineseLmark, them thus, i: ^ J|^ >v this, 
however, is not done, nniebA the word receive a di& 
ferent signification from wha' it ha^ generally, and 
only very exact writers, in few cases, make use of thia- 
diacritical mark. The reason iSf that eveiy native when 
hoariog for the first time a "(vord pronounced, though 
oAerwibC entirely ignorant of tho syr^temv knows iinme* 
iUuieix 10- ^bat souiid it Ivclcugo. V/eatenr s<!ho<* 

CHAP. I. smiNDg. 5 

lats mark theni) when expressing Chinese in Roman 
letters^ tbe ping, by a, the shang, hy 4, the fc beiu 
by a, llie jixh, by Si. This intonation is^a very 
essential part of the language, to which a student from 
the very first must accustom his ear. It would be in 
Tain to attempt to convey an idea of the proper prcnun* 
ciation of these tones by rules; the auditoiy organs alone 
must be consuited; and when the distinction between 
them is ascertained, it ought to be carefully marked, 
what tone each character bears^ for otherwise none will 
lemmto talk intelbgibly. Premare^ Morrison, and 
others have given lists of the tones, which if attentively 
penised with a teacher, will best initiate the student 
w Ibis mystery. 

9. The meaning of words^ though to a foreign ear 
flounding in the same manner, is materially altered by 
intonation; thus 4& choo,ahinge: ;^ choo, a kitchen; 
j^ dido, a place; ^ chub, to go out. M- ma, hemp; 
Jl m6, ahorse; j(| ma, to scold; :^ m^, or m6, to 
wipe. (>nly those words which end in a simple vowel 
can have the short sound. There are not many sounds 
tiliat havatttts regular number of intonations ; 533 have 
the ping, 501 the shang, 519 the k'heu^ and 221 the 
jfih, which gives the whole number of liferent sounds, 
varied by tones, to be founds in the Chinese language, 
M 178L 

10* It is remarkable that the same system of intona- 
tion is found throughout all the dialects, and it may 
therefore be considered as an essential part of the lan« 
guage. ' Some' dialects subdivide the tones into two 
classes^ ^igher and lower ping, shang, &c. whilst poets 
merely divide them into jf. ping, even; and JJL tsih, 
deflected; subdividing them again into V^ tsing, clear, 
and ^ chuh, impure tones. 

11. Ifotwiihstandiiig this intonation, there are still 
an immense number of words, which, though con ve}ing 
difierent ideas, are to a European eargnmounced exact- 
ly^ alike; no les& than i\GZ ch^racterK have the sound 
of e, and of the other Bounds, there are often from 5U t^ 
iiOcb^i&eUM to eacb^ and ouavQxaigjb\^^2i^aix^^^Kx«^^ 


each intonation, so that notwithstanding this refine- 
ment of tones there exists stiil very great confusion iu 
the enunciation of this extraordinary language. 

12. We have already remarked, that several cha- 
racters change their signification mth the variation of 
Ihe tone, as for instance j^ yu, rain, becomes f^ yH^ it 
wins; ffi' T\r6o, to hate, becomes % woo, or hoo, how ? 

^ 6. or go, bad. Thus many substantives and adjec^ 
tives are turned into verbs by giving to them tlie k'heu 
tone, as ^ choo^alord; M chod^to rule; J: shdng« 
above ; J^ shang, to ascend. Poets assume great liber* 
tyin changing the intonation, for the sake of cadence 
and rhyme. We would urge the reader most particular* 
ly to give his attention to this subject, as this peculi* 
arity is so very frequently overlooked. 

13. Many characteis change their signification, by 
adopting different sounds, or in other words, certain cha- 
racters have a variety of sounds and meanings. For 
instance, the chai-acter Jt^ read khe, means elegant, tall ; 
readk^n, it signifies sincerity; iLj ke, to cut; read kwae. 
means to sharpen. This will appear still more clear, 
on examination of the dictionary: we merely subjoin 
file remark, that there are several characters, which 
may he read with two different accents, or even sounds, 
wimout changing the meaning. 

14. It frequently happens that a similarity of sound 
conveys a similarity of meaning, thus ^ king, ^ 
king,^ king, and iS king, mean all violent; so also 

t^ ^ ^ 41 ^ and m all pronounced juen, oi 
uwan, mean equally soft. This is not merely the case^ 
where there is an appaoniit similarity of character, but 
also where these have not the slightest recjemblauce. n.> 
'flpf heae, and i^ heae, bold: «^ and ^ heaoii, ;o 
call out. It is worthy of observation, that to a certai;, 
class of sounds, a certain series of ideas is attached, 
which remark would be confirmed by a reference to the 
dictionary: we shall quote here some examples : |^ 
diih, j^ che,'^ seih, and ^ seth, |11 signify to know, 
to be acquainted with* y|^ tung, ^^ tung, ||^ and tsung, 
ateU^ent ^^ ^ #x #. -^ % ^'^ l^ronounced 

CtlAF. II. CHARACTEltd. 7 

mung, mean obscure, dull. A slight attenfion to this 
subject, would greatly facilitate the acquisition of the 
meaning of characters. 

15. Many passages in Chinese bool^s are obscure, be- 
cause the writers, not consulting the meaning of the 
characters, and merely expressing the sound, without 
reference to the Dictionarj'. havegreatly embarrassed the 
sense. This is pritkcipally the case where persons have 
only a partial acquaintance with the written language. 

16. Without proper attention to the intonation Gie 
'spoken Chinese language is a mere unintelligible jargon; 
great stress therefore should be laid upon the intonation, 
as & wrong tone is not only grating to the ear of the 
^scholar, but perceptible by the most vulgar. In com- 
position, the Chinese carefully put together their words, 
so as to produce a rjrthmus, and when the regular (^i»- 
racters do not suffice, they use expletives to render 
the cadence complete. It would be well for the foreign 
student, when beginning to read Chinese, to do it jus) 
in the same singing manner as the natives employ, for 
by this means he will learn to proaounce correctly, and 
avoid confounding congenial sounds. 



For a general system of the CTiinese character, see 
Abel Remusat's Grammar. Marsh man's Grammar 
contains a variety of good ideas, mingled with some un- 
ibunded theories. 

1. To convey ideas of objects, by tracing an outline 
of 1iiem,i5 the first and most natural way of writing 
The Chinese being throughout an original people, ^ 
dopted tills mode in high antiquity, and the inventiiO«L 
at writing is ascribed to Fuh-he andTsaxi^i^, ^\imi^ 
nwAmctKBaid to hare fidst d&K>v^t^ iSk£^ Vavv^nf^ua^ 

8 CHAJblACTBRS. GHil?. If. 

art) on beholding the lines on the back of a torUnse, and 
the streaks with which betiutiful insects are adorned. 
But as every body cannot paint, and the process in itself 
is a very tedious one, some more easy representation of 
ideas became necessary; the forms were contracted and 
remodelled, so as to suit the convenience of the writer. 
It is also very obvious, that for the greatar part of ideas 
no imitative representations could be made, and there* 
fore new and arbitrary signs had to be invented. Thus 
did the present system of the Chinese chanicters come 
into being, and attain completion after many changes 
and improvements. They constitute without exception 
the most stupendous work of human genius, of which 
the literary world can boast, and were brought to per- 
iection by the incessimt exertion and ingenuity of thou- 
sands of the most intelligent persons, chosen from a 
nation counting millions, and this after the labour of 
many centuries. Their acquisition is, therefore, very 
difficult, but their construction is worthy of our ad- 

2* They have been aptly compared to our numerals, 
each possessing an intrinsic meaning, with ^is 4iffer- 
ence, however, that from the component parts of some of 
the Chinese characters the sound can be partially ascer* 
lained. Asa graphic system they have beauiy and 
expressiveness in their favour, but their being so nume* 
reus and difficult of acquisition are very great defepts. 
The paucity of sounds in this laiiguage renders all syt 
labic, or alphabetic representation of the same nugatoiy, 
and die manifold dialects make their adoption a matter 
of impossibility, llie characters, therefore, are best 
adopted to form the written medium of the Chinese 
language ; but some of the cognates, as the Korean and 
Japanese, possess a syllabic system^ by whicfa the sounds 
of tb^ characters are indistinctly conveyed; and ev<en 
the Cochin Chinese^ admits of tbia use of certain symbols, 
which 6erve^ for conveying the sounds, nearly in the 
same manner as the above-named system. It as J^ the 
USD pXthesf^ characters that this great nation has mmain* 
ed QUG »^oie^ and b^v^; groest a<>e;vet tSbi^ ^^^ 

dHAP. n. CffARACTKRa 9 

ferences, the literature has remained the same, intdli- 
gible to the inhabitaDts of the mo6t distant provtiicea» 
diroughout all ages. 

3. The modes of writing the characters are various. 
'Iliose in present use are, Ist, the ji|t '§1 sung te^ ia 
which character, most of the books are printed. It is 
firm and stiff, plain and perspicuous ; but it is little used 
ip writing: 2nd^1iie •:flf^ # keae shoo, pattern style, an 
eles^ailtand free hand, difiermg from the other by the to< 
tal absience of all stiffness : 3rd; the ^ # hing shoo^ 
or niamng hand, which -is the Ciuick mode of writing; 
used in the business of common life: 4th, the J|^ '^ ' 
tsaoutfize, is the extreme of the above, fiill of abbrevia- 
tions and contractions, betokening the hurry. ^Tith wbidi 
the characters ra*e ^^nritten, and almost uniutelhgtbte, 
except to the initVatedv With the first diree, every 
ono'who makes -any pretensions to Chinese scholarship 
should make himself acquainted, while he should also 
endeavour to read d^ -latter. There are besides these, 
three ancient forms, little used, except by pedants, and 
inpre&ces. They are 1st, the i|t 4l le shoo,oj£Gial 
atyle^introduced about the commencement of oar erft, 
thus called on account of its being used ia the public 
pijieel;; it is more coarse and ^^lumsy than any of ti|a 
abcrv^e. but has furnished the elements from whence the 
present i«^ode of writing was drawn: 2nd, the HI ^ 
chuen shoo^ a square character totally different from all 
others, almost exchisirelytised for seals : drd^ the if^ i^ 
k'ho tow, tadpole style; this is the primary hieroglyphic, 
fifst used at (he invention of writing, and now entirely 
6bdolete. The Chinese characters are written from top 
to bottom, and £rom the right to the left of the page, 

4. A good classification of the characters is stiU a de» 
sideratum; the Chinese have very little method in such 
matters, and exhibit therein the total absence of a philo* 
Bophical spirit. The original and most mitural division, 
which is still retained in some Japanese dictioviaries, 
is to place them according to their signification. Thus 
all characters that denote celestial objects are placed 
uhder one head, those which signify terrestiol ones nn- 

10 CHA&ACnR& CHA^. U. 

itr anotbeTii kc Hub arrangement however, has ma- 
ay great defecte, and renders it often very difficult to 
find a character. Ihe mode adopted by. Eanghe and 
others, is to phice the characters under keys or ra^ 
dicais, called ^ poo; and another plan is to divide the 
whole mass of symi^ols according to Ihe principles on 
which they were orginally constructed. 

5. In detailing dbe latter classification we follow 
native authors: 1st, there are rharacters refering to na> 
tiiral obje< ts, to whidi they bear some resemblance ; 
these are called fl^ |^ hmg seang, « hierc^lyphics. 
8u€h ate g mQh, dierived from ^^^ the eye, &c. ^ 
tee, from .^ a child, &c. in all 608 in number. 
2nd, there are characters that combine two or three 
ideas, in order to form a whole, as ^ seang, from wood. 
eye, and b»mboo, which joined together signify a box. 
(.the ( hinese have them elegantly made of bamboo.) 
'ttj^ ming, composed of sun and moon; signifying tc^e* 
ther bright, clear: these are called -^ ^ hwuy e, 
combination of ideas, amounting to 740 hi number: 3rd, 
those which convey by: their formation some idea of situ- 
irtion or form; as ^ san, three, formed, of three slarokes 
puttc^ther; 7^ hea, for "^ bdow, Jt and sbang, for ^ 
altovk; thesrare called^ #che S2e^ indications of things, 
and are together 107. They mighty however, very pro- 
perly be*placed in the first class, 4'th^ there is a class, 
ealliHi inverted symbols, which have lost their oiiginaf 
form; thus;^ yew; right, for ^ ;and;fe tso, left, for ^ ; 
these are called 4l| iji chuen choo, inverted signifiea^ 
tions, and are 372 in niiinber. This class seems to be 
entirely fanciful. 6th, there are characters that havo'lost 
their direct meaning, and have retained the metaphorical 
one Such are H t'hcth, a concealed heart, now used 
for vice. ^ chuh, grass sprineiug forth, used for to go 
out, 'i'hese are calk-<i fllC f| kea tseay, metaphoricsd, 
and arc^ ^9ti in nuniuer. 6th, characters conveying simie 
i<.t'aof80ivnd arc called 4i| f^ shing hing, phonetie 
fhnrai'UTfi; they consist ofeompounds, of which one con- 
w>v» tlxndca, and t]u^. other the sound: thus ib pih, a 
^}^5resK'.. comporftvi of ^ muh, a tree, and ij plh. 


wMte. The fanner in Jicates the idea, the latter the 
wand* 1^ gno, a §;oose, composed of ^ gao, the 
sound, and ^1^ neaou, the bird. This latter class is 
the most nnmerous, and contains no less thaia 2t,8i(^ 
making widi the above 24,235 characters. 

6, The elements of the characters are very sample; 
a horizontal and a perpendicular line, two oblique ones 
drawn in different directions, on<^ with a liook at >the 
end,, and a point or dot; from these few strokes ih^ 
vast variety of Chinese symbols has been framed, and 
they are all found in the character jjc yung, eternal. It 
IS remarkable, that neither the circle nor the triangle has 
been used, whilst the square appears in the most varied 
forms. Caligraphy is a science amongst the Chinese, 
and nobody can lay claim to scholarsmp without being 
able to write a fair bi^nd. Much attention, therefore, is 
bestowed on the art of drawing the.characters, and many 
of the Chinese write very beautifully. The student 
ought to learn from a native teacher how best to sketch 
the symbol, and carefully imitate his manner. 

7. The radicals under which the Chinese characters 
are classified, are 214. It is by no means necessary 
that there should be so many, for the forms of some are 
contained in otherB, and about one third have only 
a dozen characters under each, so that many of them are 
q^nite superfluous. In Gonsalves' Dictimiary the numc 
her has been considerably reduced. We may remark 
with regard to- these radicals that most of them -are ge- 
neric terms, under which a whole host of words is com- 
prised ; such as ^ neaou, bird; f^ yu, fish; i|fi)> tsaou, 
?Tass, &c. Though in many instances the radical in- 
fluences the meaning, it must not always be inferred, 
that this is the case; thus J| tseay, to pretend, is found 
under the radical grass ; ^ kea, a price, is classed vrn^ 
derthe radical man, and so with a great many others. 
The number of characters arranged under each radical 
differs also very considerably; thus |^ tsaou, grass, has 
142t3:; jj/L sbwuy, water, has 1333r ^ Jshow, the hand; 
has 1012; n k how, the month, has 968, It appears 
that the inventors of this system havecncbodxcd iu their 

12 CMARAernft. chai». tt. 

Hst many oripna) ideas, whilst tbey have introduced 
IftO variousi sonndfl. Ihis bhows that the clasaificatioii 
now tieated of, vrah the result of deep research and 
much labour. * 

8. The principal use of these radicals, or keys, is fo 
enable the student to find out the words in *die I mperial 
Dictionary. As soon as he has discovered the ra. ieal^ 
which occupies generally the most conspicuous part of 
the character, whether to the left or rigb(» above or be* 
low. (rhelefk being, however, the place of most of them,) 
be mu»t oouat the strokes of which the other part of the 
character is composed, and then look into the Dictionary, 
where he will fiud the word- arranged under its appro* 
priite radical, anesrding to th^ number of the strokes ; 
tisus^ tseay, tb'barrow, is under the radical A jin, 
a man, with 8 strokes ; ^ j^, will be found under the 
key ^ ho, firo, vrith 1 2 strokes, ^c. llie method of 
counting the number (tf stn>kes can only be acquired by 
iise; thus 2U yih, is only considered as one strol/j; 

JC yew, and A mow, as two; and H k'how. ashav- 
]i)g three strokes. 

9. Many characters are written in different ways, 
equally correct; thus m che, to rcHsb, may be written 

-^ ll and Jft So JIK naoQ, brains^ is also writ- 
ten jQ{ fj^^ and thus with many characters tfiat are 
much in use, some of whf eh hate six different forms; one. 
however, is always tbepredomimite. 

10. Chinese lexicographers have drawn a line of 
deroarkation between these variations. 1. There are 

jt !jt ching tsze, characters which are corrccfly 
written, and have no variations. 2. ^ ^ tung 
taae, identical character, different forms having the 
same meaning, as M ^^d ^ shen, food, a mess; 
M^ ifi* M^ vt and ^ all pronounced kwet, 
Ibe d^eek bones, a diverging road. 3. )J|, ^ tliung 
aae, characters that have some relation to each other, 
nd may be used promiscuously^ suph as j|t tsan, to 
mk^e, also used for £ three: ^ mcTh, honey, used 
ibrJif meth, secret. 4. ;^ ^ pitn tsze, and # ^ 
koo tsio, original and ancient forms of <be diaracter ; of 


these dbere are a ' good maoy, asj^ ftf ^ Islieti, to 
walk; 1^ for ^kwae, a clod. 5. #* ^ shub 
teae, or vulgar fiunns; ibis class is the most Tiumerous, 
as J^ for %, kwci, a demon; Jf^ for J^ choc, a place. 
In short every provincial dialect has a number of chap 
racters, that are not to be found in the Inipeiial Dic- 
tionary, and are peculiar to the place itself. ;!^ven lii. 
printed books (and especially in those written in the 
colloquial style,) a great many abbreviations and eon* 
tractions are met. with ob every page, which the reader 
after some experience will be able to understand; such 
arei^ foT\jg^ yen, severe; ^ for 5^ pan, to manage 
and a thousand otliers. 

11. (Characters slightly mod^ed, ought not to be 
considered as synonimous, unless the respective charac^ 
teristic parts have a similar meaning, and the charac- 
ters differ in no other respect. Thus many characters 
have promiscuously ^ muh, wood, M- chuh. bamboo^ 
and ^ tsaou, grass, for radicals, and if the rciuainder 
of the form resembleh one the other, they may almost 
be looked upon as syuonimes. Should, however, the 
prevailing figure be ;& shTh. a stone, /^ jin, a man, 
or ^ leih, strength, then how similar soever in form^ 
they generally differ as widely in meaning. Many 
symbols are to an unaccustomed eye nearly alike, though 
the meamng is materially different; thus ^ pii^g? peace, 
and ^ boo, a note of admiration in. or at jf^ 
keen, to see, and J^ pei, a pearl, or precious substance^ 
In distinguishing these, the attention should be directed 
to see, whether a perpendicular stroke be used, or one 
with a hook at the bottom, and vrhether the slanthig 
strokes be straiglit or bent Kanghe has given, iu the 
introduction of the Imperial Dictionary a list of cha- 
racters, which resemble each other; and Davis has writ* 
ten a very useful treatise upon Chinese Caligraphy, 
in the transactioDS of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

12. The number of Chinese characters has been 
variously stated. The following estimate is perhaps * 
nearest the truth. The characters in Kanghe*8 Diction- 
aiy^ aie 31^14; obsolete forma, 6,423; ckajacters for 


the first time coDecfed in that work . 1 ,659 ; anil. ^ eha*' 
lacters vithotit name or: meaning; 4.200; total -43f^496; 
It is natural to snppose: thai these are tiotalHn common 
use, and the question has again^and again been asked. 
hovr many are wanted to enable a.fiermn towrite^ npon 
any given subject. Some have aaul, that. 2,0QQ were 
enough, not considering the increased number of ideas, 
which will need to be conveyed by persons writing on 
literary and religious topics. The result to which we 
have come is, that for the com m(m purposes of life the 
above number would be nearly sr^cient but that a 
professional writer, and a student of general literature^ 
must have from 8 to 9,000 at his command. (See 
Dyer's very useful table of the most common characters.) 

13. We have already alluded t0 mere local charac- 
ters;* of this description there are in the Canton dialect 

^ chuk, to move, and i»fr im, not: in the Fokeen. 

S kea, a child, and {^ lang, man, with many hun- 
dreds more. In books these vulgarisms are rarely 
found; but whosoever wishes to be thoroughly conver- 
sant with a dialect, ought to make himself acquainted 
with these provincialisms. 

14. The characters used by the Chinese are ideo- 
graphic symbols, as ri<^ in variety as the compounds of 
the Greek language. The Chinese, who are actuated 
in every thing by the rule of contrariety, instead of 
combining sounds, have multiplied by juxta-position 
thenumberof ideographic symbols. Other languages 
s^iikTIo the ear, the Chinese to the eye; in the first 
therefore it is extremely defective, in the second abun» 
dantly rich, without parallel in other literature. 

The most superficial observer will have remarked, 
that besides the keys, there are agreatmirab^r of signs, 
which serve to compose characters. We shall here 
merely jquote a few, the others must be collected from 
the Dictionary; the character ^ gno, I, forms a com- 
ponent part of no less than 25 characters, to most of 
which it gives sound ; >:(»' chung, middle, of 19; ^ 
che, to know, of 16, tko. 

15. It eknrot ht^ denied, that these -^on'^jiaivfiding 


symbols, in many instances, give.iiottmly sound, but ak 
so. a generic meaning to the newly formed character;- as 
is frequently the case with the radicals; still there ai^e 
no certain rules for these derivations, and though some 
may occasionally be traced, it is' ve^ -$fficult,'tto 'fiz 
with certainty upon the signification. - (See ll^e pie- 
tionary, where* this subfect is amply discussed.) Anum* 
ber of characters contain the meaning of both the isom* 
ponent^arts; for instance 'IS: t^ng, from ^ kin^; me- 
tal, and ^ t^ng, to ascend, means a stirrup; Ig^ tsedi, 
from IpL tseu, to take, and it* neu, a woman, imports 
to take a wife, to marry; JL she, from J^ she, dead»aad 
^ me, rice, produces ordure, excrements. Ji§ mi&g, 
from Jt* kin, metal, and J^ ming, a name, to engrave. 
The student ought to accustom himself thus to trace 
(he (mgin of the characters, and in so doing he wiH 
never cease to admire the great ingenuity of the Chi* 
nese in forming their language. 

16. If each Chinese character had but a single 
meaning, it wouM be tolerably easy to acquire a si^- 
cieht number of .them; but besides the reasons that 
multiply in other languages the signification of words, 
there is in Chinese the similtarity of sound with other 
characters, that leads to the confounding of signiiicaticms; 
and moreover, a system of compounding two or more 
symbols, to convey a single idea, which renders the ac- 
quisition still more difficult Thus 4tf^ keu, for instance, 
means to raise, lift, move, elevate, introduce, recom- 
mend, to bring forward a subject, to praise, (used for 
^ yu, to praise,) to promote, all (used for ^ kcu, ail,) 
to walk, (used for ^ k'heu, to go,) to venerate (used 
tor ^ fee, to pray to,) to kill victims for sacrifice, (used 
for ^ kefh, to kill,^ to confiscate smuggled goods, (used 
for |& keiz, to lay nold of,) besides three taels weight, 
other and^a variety of other significations. C(Hnbined with 
words to f )rm phrases it reads thus, ^ A keu jin, 
a graduate of the second degree; ^ ^ keu tung, 
behaviour; ^ ^ keuhiug, to put in practice ;i^i^ 
e fceu, a noble act; — $^ yih keu, with one stroke, 
t4 once; ^ ^ keu she. the whole world; ^ ^ 

16 : :: womis; csap. m: 

keu tteeii, to recomltnenil; Jj^ 0r keen keu, to arrange; 
^ ^ paou keu, ti^ patronize; ^« IpL seih keu, 
detail; J$L JL keu che, conduct; ^ Jpi leangkeu, 
twice; #; ^ keu f^ to bring ibrward; :^ J|L ta 
keu, loudly; ^ -^ ^ ^^ keu show che laou, a 
i^^i ^ ^ ^^ keu, to raises :|pL;|j|f keu jang, to 
eleyate; >}^ ^iah keu^ eminent; 4^ ^ keu meen4 
to dispense; ^ Jl^ kaoukeu^ -to inform against, and 
many others. In this manAer the meaning of the chfr* 
laicters is. multiplied rto a very • great extent, and 
the most common ones are subject to almost infinite 

..,..17* It is therefore no small t^sk tobecomQ eonver- 
aant with the sjmbob^jof the Ghicese iaiiguage. The 
best plan is to become acquaint^iid' with the com* 
tn^ ODes&|t, and'tlven to study-: the combinations* 
Having learnt a' few hundred ofiheae, others will occinr, 
and rivet themselves iuthe memory ahnostmechanicaU 
ly^ untilt the ^tudentimasters a sufficient : number. Let 
it never be forgotten^ ho wever, .tbat:a2idivided attentirjn 
must be given to this^ subject by evcty one, who wishes 
to make real progt^s in tbe language; &)T it is only by 
hard labour, that a Chinese scholar can be formed. " 

t ... - J 


ON \raRDs. 

• 4 

1. Wb have already intimated that the Chinese 
symbols form a system of ideography, so that every 
character expresses an idea. Thus jfc te, earth, 
kwang, broad, '^ beang, to speak, J^ tsae, in, 
tseay, ay I Of some, however, the meaning has been 
lost, and others serve as mere expletives, and are used 
only for the sake of euphony, as ^ he, and 4fc yay. 

2. In our remarks upon this subject we shall con- 
Sue outselveb principally to the written language, a?! J 

cBiO?. ni. W0R1MS. 17 

onlj Qciitice Ae oral icediiufn, m 80 &!* es it stands in K 
l&tion with the other* 1'he rhincse langua{;j^ is exceed'^ 
ingly dissiinilar to oui: western tongues, and the EurO'* 
peaii Btiidtot at c^yeiy step timis the greatest discrepaii'^ 
des, if not the ^tiiiiost coutraiidty , ^ cosnp&red with a!) 
that he baa he^ hitheho uccustoineci to. llie aooner, 
4ie)refore, suirh a learner can dii^est himself of his fonnei 
ideaa of Grammar^ tht? better. A new scene here opens 
before hia cn^es^ and the more completely he can^ locaKae 
Kimself in tihis new sphere^ the more easily will ne eom^ 
pehend the structure of the Chinese tongue. 

3. S.eferriBg to the above enumeration of characterSi 
it will be seen, that a language must be rich, which has 
so many symbols of ideas j for it is ntt-'?''H.l :4> suppose^ 
that they weie formed according to the wjsnts of wntem; 
and that no cLttract^T was framed, unless a new idee 
had tendered it necessary. There must have been a, 
neat demand for terms, among a series of writers, who 
Ktc4 during a period of more than 20 centuries, and 
wlio tonchra almost upon every topic of literature. 
pemdng Tohime upon volume, on each subject, li 
therefore, it may not be co])sidered 4fae richest language* 
(aa far as Ibe number ofhnrords is concerned,) it yieldt: 
Sepal» of superiority to rer^few. ^ 

4. The Chinese is remarkable fw an abundance ot 
synonyines, whidi were perhaps found necessary, eithei 
to remedy the defect of a mimosyllabic t ngue, or to 
aid iu ttie rythmus. A great number of these have al^ 
most Uie same meaning, at any rate i^ is difficult to dis^^ 
cem the shades of difference between some of them; 
take, for instance, the characters for expressing the ider. 
of examining: they are^ ^ cha, j^ ch^, J^ s&ng. 
J^ kaou, i^ ko, ?£ kcw, i^ sin, ;|^ keen, ^ 
seen* U *«xffl ^*»t ^ sewn, ;0f yen, ^ vug 
1^ keen, 4R» kwan« j^ she, jj^ keaou, ig^ hih, 
^ she,-^ kan, ^ sm, |^ fcng, || ke6, ^ kw«, 
^ seang, and #, hTh, all of whidh, either separately 
W eomhxned. have this meaning. So also the : charac 

tc» fiarspcaVing; as ^ keang, |g hw^, '% yen, ^ 

16 WORDS* CDaP. ill 

«hw«,^ tatt, ^ yun,^ yu, p yu^vHr lun, ^ 

5. The great resourrefi of the language, however, 
consist in its capacity for forming compounds. Phrases^ 
containing two words may be divided into four classes: 
1 . When both the characters are sy noBjmous, as -II 
^ cha ch&, to investigate : 1^ % aheu seay, ts) 
writer ^ % hae urh, a child: % ^ tseTh sh&b, 
accustomed. 2. When one of the characters gives a 
d general, and the other a definite meaning, as ^ ^ 
seu taou, tautology; in this instance, ^ taou, to apeah, 
gives the general, and ^ seu, to rdterate, the definite 
sense. jJl ^ sanyen, stem^ severe; where j^ yen, 
regulates the meaning; and ^ ^ keaou pwiin, to 
transfer, where ^ expresses the definite idea. 3. 
When two characters respectively contribute to give a 
new but cognate idea: ihus ^ ^ pwan 15, a snare, 
from ^ pwati, ropes thrown about to entangle^ and 
$^ 16, threads of silk : ^ ^ pel pwan, to rebel, 
fiom ^ pei, to turn the back on, and |^ pwan, to 
revolt: |^ ^^ tung pwan^ a compiainion^ from 1^ 
lung, together with, and ^^ pwan, s^ associate. 4. 
When by the juxta*position of two characters an idea 
is elicited, which is not inker^t in either of tliem: as 
;jr It fang peen, alms, from ^ fang, a square, and 
-0t*peen, convenience: jt ^ seeiisSng, a teacher, 
from ^ seen, previous, and 4 »tf"g> bcrt:; '^^ $ 
ling gae., ytmr daughlter, from "^ Ih^ honourable^ and 
^ gae, to love. 

6. The first class is the most numerous, llie Che* 
nese, much delighting in euphony, group a great many 
characters together, merely for the sake of siiund. Thus 
they say, :^ JJL e fuh, clothes; /J. .ffr sS[ng ming» 
life. Or they form the words wifli a vie w to greater c^ 
tinetness in the sounds^ and to prevent mistakes. Thus 
they CdDmbirie •^S *|^ e yu^, for jqyfiiJ; 'ffe e, alone, 
might signify a hundred olhcr things, but fay tfak cello- 
cafifti its meaning is fixed So tibey say, ^ J^ tszc 
seu,-regular; there are so many words protiooDcedi tsre^ 
th^t the latter, wheal enunciated, would not distinctly 

. 'tU. WOIIB8. IS 

coDV^Ibe {irqper idea meant by t&ze. Tim is the 

gretft secret, ^tifliy, notwi^st^iding flie paucity of indi« 

Tidual 80un(IS) ioA the great sameness with wliich the 

ehaiaetersarepronouneed, there still exists so much 

distmctiiest in the 8pokea.InDgua&;e. But these com* 

pouB^JOe abeady definitely fixed by the force of habit, 

and cannot be put t<^ether at .random^ something Hke 

our wards topsy turvy, haruflb scarum^ and similar ex» 

preaakms. A fine ear will a6on discover the propriety 

and euphony that exii^ts in this juitta-position of woitls. 

In tihe spoken language^ these synonyities occur more 

freipmay, for the abcMre reasons, than in Ihe written. 

Let it, however^ not he imagined, that the above com» 

poanduig characters can only join with one associate; 

for there are several ihat may combine with two cmc three 

otteis^ with eq[ual Justice. To give an instance of the 

anacing^texuberance of the diinese languge we quote 

tbe Mlowing combinations: ^ ^ wftnho, |^ ^ 

boaaOh, ^ ^ Iwyung, ^ ^ a^angho^ jfii s^ 

i^f^ng^ J^ ^ Vhaeho, aod ftz iL hok'he, allof 

wiuchmean harmony, peace, concord^ &c So also 

Hk # hwan he, ^ #i be 16, ^ ^ ke yu«i, 

and Jik $r bin he, which meui joy, and a hundred 

others, with as many variations. Besides these, there 

are a few chsractaris that are always iised tog^er, aa 

It M S^ ^^1 <^loucly, and v^; f^ sha nmn, priest; 

a ^v also are repeated, as ]St fSL pe pe, arranged in 

order; and Che language itself admits of tautology to^a 

conc^iderahle extent 

7. The second class is fsr less niuneroos, and there 
exists yet no Dictionary tfaathas earefixlly collected them, 
eidier native or foreign; A few wilf hie found iutgr»* 

Siaed in eveiy lejucographic work, and especially '^in 
orrison's. Thqir ought to be made a peculiar subject 
of study, otherwise many passages and phrases will i^ 
cessarily be misunderstood. Jj^ >^ kwet; yin, for m- 
sta&ce, means ddSfJcatton, which a beginner, pethapi 
would transilate, to lose^SMney: j^ j^ kung kwp^ ex* 
anises of a literary natmie, and by no means, meritorious 
ts8k9« To be able to understand 4ud use this class oC 


wosdtf properly fornix prog^rais 

IB the study of C^binese lore. 

B. To the tli^fil class many words snnilar to our 
Inick-layer, shcc*inaker, &€. heXimff Under this head 
ve also reckon a great number of metaphorical express 
{jdiMss, such as ^ X ko tauh, to bind up the feet, gene- 
XBlly used for being fettered, or hampered ; ^ M^ kwang 
kw&n, a bare stick, a sharper: 4^ X &?aou jtn, a Ut* 
tie man, a worthl<%s fellow: ^ ^ bw^n fei, the sool 
flying, used for fiuhtinff ; and many others, in which the 
Chinese have shown yeiy great ingenaity. We ought 
here to remark, that it matters very little, whether in 
oiir acceptation of the words, the compounding charf^cters 
are adjectives, substantives, or verbs ; and wnether tbey 
may be united with o&ers belonging to a different class; 
the Chinese draw oo such dist'nctions, and amalgamate 
words at pleasure, no matter to what dass they original* 
ly belong. 

9. The fourth class, certainly the mo^t diificuu, is 
not remarkable for its richness in primary ideas, but 
for its utility in describing scientific objects, or words 
that have been introduced bv progressive eivilisatioa; 
such as i^ ^ seun foo, a Lieut Governor: jj^ Pf 
$hwuy sse, an admiral: ^ j^ twan choo, a &ult^ an 
error: ^f ff wae. ko, surgery. The student should 
not separate these ezpressicms, but consider them as 
compounds; just as be woul 1 poUysyllabie words in any 
language, and Ams read waeko, and not wae kd^ no 
more than he would pronounce, or write aur gery, ot 
trans actions. 

10. We should not be fisr wrong in affirming, tiiaft 
^ number of ff impounds in Chinese is greater than 
Hiat of single i^haracters, though most of the 4>rigfiial 
ideas are conveyed in monosy uables, as is also the case 
in mar.y instances in mir own tongue* The (liinese 
language, moreover, is ^ well adapted to form new 
compounds, that the ^Ukk appears to be ineichaustible. 
As, however, every thing in Chinese Grtammar de^nds 
On thf c<41fX5ation of words, it is by no meiros an indit 
Ssjieiit jaju<i*?r ^'vbKh cf the two clMu«:c*cn b« put hefoie 

CEAP* int. firoM>9. 1A 

mi wlndilidhiBd; a transpositioa ei^^ demnges the 
mhcie idea, or gives rise to a new one^ thus ^ ]jL 
seen ailog; conveys the idea of ^^teacher;" but tran&- 
poaed **bom before.'" So also ^ JL g&n choo, a 
patnm, but k Ji. thoa gftn, tbe ^^^ of GqA. And 
^ S chung kw5, China, but || ^ kwo chung, 
&e middle of a Jkingdom. 

11. Tbeves> are a great many charMters, yrhitA 
fliougfa not formiug a single id^, are very frequently 
founa in company: such as ^ >^ tTh bing, the prao- 
lice of wtae: 4^ .^ jin e, benevolence and justice; 
^ ^ le bae. advar^tiige and inju0: ^ jit taou 

le, the principles of reason, llie line of demarcation bcr 
Mm^ca compounds and adventitious collocations cannot be 
dimm so definitely, that tbere i^uld not be occasionaUy 
an approach to either side. In regard to the above 
mentioned classes, it ought also to be remembered, that 
^ey are not so distinct, as oiir general rules would 
aeem to intimate; still ibis arrangement may enable the 
student to classify the compounds with whicb he meets 
critically, and thus considerably assist his memory. 

12. Thoup;h each ot the last three classes lutve a 
^Sstmct meamng in combination, yet they may occasion^ 
ally be used separately; thus' the compound JL % 
yen tsaa, signifies tc^edier, fiither and motjber; but tb^ 
maj m certain ccmnections be also read M. yen, stents 
and H tsae, kind^ which,,Are the original meanings <tf 
the tenns. So |l|^ Hi telh yen, a shuttle-oock, may 
also iignifyt to tread itpon a swiallow; which meanings 
are ixmvey^ by each diaraeter sepu^tely. 

Idw hi the collooatiion of two diaracters there is a 

* great tendency to anti Aesis ; a peculiari^ ia which 4us 

ttnguage surpasses others, fixpressiona like these, 

If. tl hihpih^black and white; i$- |t- haou taci, 
^good and bad; ^ jL tung che, motion and rest; 

^ :^ nan neu, male and female; j^ ip laouyew, 
aid and young; occur again and again, where other la»» 
guag^ do not require tibem. (Compounds are also fonBh 
^A by puttiTig a w^ative partide before an. adjecti^ 
fb:)» givinc; it tbe opposite me9nt08;;'as J> ^ ^fc 


22 WORDS* C8AP. lU. 

haoOy bad; ^^ ^ puh me, ugly, &e. this class U 

14. Compounds do not merely comprise two Atr 
racters, but sometimes masy ; as ^ M ^ tseea It 
king) a spy glass; j^ ^ -^ sew hwuy ehanff^ an 
abbot; ^ ^ A waeyangjin, a foreigner, lli^ 
are scarcely any verbs or adjectives of this class, and 
most of the triple compounds signify ideas &at have 
been introduced intc^ the language, since the march of 
intellect has made somd progress. 

15. Compounds of four characters, are such m 
these, ijH ^ ^ 41 s^ng seay keen peih, an abl^fM* 
Tiation ;. ^ "Mk ^ ^ paou been shin shin, dete» 
tation: words of &is ciass are either strictly speaking 

attachment; and :^ $^ ^ W sbwuy sse yew 
keih, a post captain; or they eonsiat of ibe mere Tege& 
tion of two .compounds, as {|^ jl^ ^ ^ paoii 
ehai^ungkeang, the defences .(of a country;) ^ :^ 

i % kin €he yab y*, delicacies: ^ i^ ^ 1^ 
sang sin me& k, abandoned, or they are ciiviimlcK 
cutions, such as ^ if ^ 1^ chow neen che nuy, 
wiHiin die coii^pass of e year; 4^ )^ ^ jfc kwdi 
tsan woo te, greatly ashamed; ^i ^ ^ ^ ^^ 
tseay n^ng cah^ pretence. Still, whatever tli^ may he» . 
they eonvey aaingle idea, more or less forcih% express* 
ed. There «ffe very few of five characters Kke f^ iif- 

Uf >S ll lo foo san shih lan^ the dendr<>biam ; anS 

% ^^ % "H keen t^ die yen yu, apodiegms. 
Those of six are mare frequently met with, as J^ % 

^ it j$^ ^ paou fae^diintuDg king sse, 
lesmed;^ iS It If JL ife *^^ chwang 
ehing 893i y^i wei, majesty. 

16. It cannot be denied &at some of tliese latter 
eiKBipoiinds may be resolved into distinct sigsifieatiotts, 
stiU Ifae native reader considers them as expresfflQg on« 
idoSy and the meaning thus^ conveyed by tihe aid di a 
l({iiiii>OC of K^ymbols is fixed more impressively up<m fais 
mind. Tfae ormation of these words seems to have 
pitx^eeded }ust in the- same manner aa our ado^ ion of 

CaiUf. Ul. WORDS. ^ 

compound Greek words, as we ourselves stood ki want 
ofproper ter^s for subjects of which our anceston 
^d not form the slightest notioD. The Chinese laur 
guige possesses, moreover, one advantag<^ it can place 
a gieat iramber of words before substantives^ as q)i- 
ttets, and lims incorporate the description of the subjeft 
ikidi the word itself, so as to represent it under the 
]&ost varied forms. (See the Syntax.) 

17. A great many compounds, if we may call .theife 
la, are alSQ formed, by putting at the end of a stiing of 
woida^^ther ^ chay, or ^ teili; as ^ j^ ^,^ ta 
yu teib^ a fisherman; ^ ^ tr^ tso heae teih, a shoe^- 
mri^er. Whether we denominate thies6 phrases, or 
simple compounds, it is all the same ; the idea becomes 
hg mia process concentrated, thtis -i^ :^ ch5 chay, 
A maker; -^f ^ hingchay, a walker* ^ X^ 
$^J ^ seang pub taou chay, ineompreheB8ib]e5 ush 

•'9^*5*^- '^ ^ ^ ^ ^k ^^^ y^"^ ^^^ ^^ 

tem, irregular; 'J(^ ^[ M. f^ P^^ k'hodiay 
tcAi, unpardonable. (For tike formation of words b} 
amiesing |^ urh, and ^ tsze, see the C]:^apter m 

18« A little stu^ oi tbe language soon convinces 
one, ^t it not merely consists of words, iMit in a gra£kl 
measure of sentences, or phfjiises, which are used, bks 
our law t^rms and proverbs* This ought to be kept io 
view by the student, and ai? many of these trite exprea» 
sions committed to memory, as that faculty is Bbl« 

1^^ The Chinese have no idea of our grammatical 
distinctions, nor has a single native writer touched upon 
the subject. Whatever^ therefore, :.i said in the sec<md 
part of this v^ork must be understoiK: a.-, ao attempt to 
place the faingnage under grammatical rules, in order 
to fecilitafe the study ot it to Europeans* A word may 
be used as a substantive, adjective, or verb, just as it 
pleases tb^ speaker or writer, andite position shows in 
what fiiC^^ it ought (o be umletstood; for instance, J^ 
yu, ^^tJi, 5nay tlsQ bigiijiy to gi^'e; iff yih, to oppress, 
inay ^wbftfte^>iij^unr.t\'C'epaLrticie; ^ t*>ui» maybe a 

94 tm ^OVU. CHAP. I 

,0rtoap|nr(Mich,0Miea?; ^ che^ may signii^ of, 
(tftti arrive at irjyji neang, to look up, or ^e preposi&m 
to. We find £!4iMr the same word repeated, when tife 
iinrt is ayerfa, wd the second a substantive or adjective, 
for iiistance ^ ^ te te, to treat jwng&t brothers a» 
rach;^ ^ ^ ^ ^ fAke shit f ei fd, to declare what 
Is right t0"b» ri§^ and what is wrotagto be wron^: 

iS- !^ J^ ^ haoa haou woo 6, to esteem wlmt » 
gikid and hate wwuA is bad. 

00. The CUnese themselves divide all woarda into 
J^ ^ heu tsse^ empty chalracters, ^ Jft ^ tsoo 
tsxe, auityiaries, and |f ^ shih tsze, solid ones; the 
former are the pprticles, the latter the other parts of 
speech. These are again subdivided into fft ^ hw6 
tsze^ Irfin^ characters, veibs, or j^ ^ sie tsae^ dead 
chencten^ or soubs and adjectives. 



1. Ws ought here to premise thai the Chinese with 
its cognate tougues has no inflexions^ and that ell the 
grammatical distinctions, which are thus indicated: :r> 
other languages, are here ccmveyed by particles and 
generic terms. 

2. We suppose that the student is acquainted with 
general Grammar, and therefore spend no time in defim^ 
tions. Whatever is here said points strictly to the peco^ 
liarities of the language, without any attempt at adept* 
ingtbis tongue to the Lstm Gxammar. We iinend to 

give libe Chinese, as a whole, such as it % independent 
dfany other language, to enrible the reader to become 
fully acquainted ^Ui its idioms. 

• ■ 



^3. In most instances, the Chinese language leaves 
the article imexpressed: as j^ ]f # ^ ^ ^ 
mflh tseang tae ch6 tsze leaou, the carpenter has 
brought the table: ^ ± ift >^ >S. he6 sSxig 
tsae juh iih, the pupil has iust enterc'd the hoiijse. 
When, however, a stress is laid upon the word, either 
^ ke, the third personn] pronoun, orj^ chay, ihc 
telative pronoun, or the demonstratives ^ tsze, !jjff 
^^jO^^ pe, arc used to indicate it: as ^ ^ ^ 7f^ 
^ ift: X* fe® <"' P^ P^^ k'^<> shay meen, the sin can- 
not be pardoned: ^ J^ *•. ^ ^ ke jin hwae 
tuh sin, fA^ man harbours malicious intentions: Jk ^ 
a W ^ ^ tsze tsze sbang k'ho kea yay, this child 
is still praise-worthy: $fi M ^ H |t ^z^ shoo 
pull ke^ ko, the tree does not bear fruit: ^ H -If 
4^ -H ^ pe tse tsing chun sang gowy the woman 
became a widow in her youth: A :^ IH ^ 
^ i^ i^ ^ ^ jinchaywootih gan nJinig jin 
chih hoo h^nv can the man void of virtue hold an office Y 

4. la the conversational language ^ ^ chay 
ko, and ^ "fJQ na ko, serve the same purposes. It 
ought to be remarked, that all these pronouns may be 
translated this or that ; but still the rule holds good, 
(hat wherever a definite article is necessary, the above 
words are used. The most frequent teim employed b 
books is jl^ ke. . — 

5. Tlie indefinite article is, in highly finished literary 
works, never expressed; in books written in the convex 
sational style, and in common parlance it is conveyed, 
though not ver)' frequently ,%y — yih, ^ jti yih ko, 

— ^ yih ffo, and — ^ yih ko, (an abbreviated 
form of ig ko:) as ?f -& — tf ?> It P^* 
yih kong sha le, gave him a pcai : ^ "^ "SJ ||!L 

26 tABBB. CHAT. I. 

^ n i^ kliiQ yih 1<coyeD t& telh neu, he saw a 
beauty: ^ ij$ iS- % yew ko haou e, having a 
good inteution* Almost all the Chinese substantives 
have their particular numerals, which, put before the 
noun, serve to circumscribe the indefinite article, as 

"^ ifS "^ yih chih chuan, a vessel: ^^ i^ If- 
yib keen sze, a business: — if^ <^ ^ yih chun 
kliwae sze, a pleasing affair: % ^ ^^ ,^ yu te^ 
yih iaoa, an edict (See the paragraph on numerals.) 


6. Befiire proceeding further with the noun, we 
must here renuurk, that there exists a irery great differ- 
ence between the conversational style, and works 
strictly literal, which will be amply treated of under the 
Chapter on Style; we shall only observe here, that we 
intend henceforlli to distinguish these two modes by 
con v. (conversational,^ and lit. (literary.) ' 

7. The genitive is expreasted either by position, 
preceding the nominative, or by it che,(lit)and ^ 
teih,(conv.) Ihua Aw ^ jhi uh, a man's house: 
X S- tneen sing, heaven!s stars. It is thus that 
many compounds are formed, as IT ^ shoo fang, 
bookroom, aHbraiy: H :;jc ' yu shwuy, rain water. 
Regard to euphony and practice, will teach us whether 
we ought meije^ to iodioite thia case by position, or io 
use ^ che,aiid #§ teih; for one may say, A ^ A 
jin che uh, and ^ i$ ^ t'heen che sing, without 
changing the ideak If, however, several words precede, 
dieae particles must always be used; as ^ SL 1^ 
^ taou k che ching, the truth of right principles: 
^ # ^ A &^ f ^ JVLen fei tOia Jin 
teih sae woo, it was not the affair crif other people: jai 
'^ M lt fi^ che shen diay die fiih, to know the 
Jbap^inesB of iSbe good : ^ ^ ^ A chung kwo 
teih jin, a man of the central empire, a Chinese. In 
the colloquial style JiL te, and Ik te, on account of the 
similarity of sound, sr^ often substituted for ^ teih. 

Eveiy dfUENS of words, when placed before the noon, may 
require ^e^uitive particle, just as if they were nouBS; 
aa -fl^ -^ i, M- tsdhing ohe yang, the man- 
lier cfdomg any thing: /^ y$ ^ jin che to, many 
people: H |L )t /^ sheh leang che sin, a good 
heart, and similar expressions: (see also the paragrap£i 
upon the particles y& che, and jfy teih.) It is well ta 
remark also the following formations : lM( #§ te£h tcih, 
made of iron: >|^ ^ shih teih, stony: ^ ^ muh 
teih, wooden: % t^ seay teih, written. 

8. The dative is seldom expref^sed. The following 
may be noticed: fj. ^ i^ ll^ ^ e sin me tse joo, 
w^ provide you with fuel and rice: ;ffe & «* A 
she gin chung jin, to show favour ^o all men. In cases 
where emphasis is required, the particle j^ yu, is used; 
as JH^ % # y u ke tub, Dead to him, (this may how- 
e^r also signi^, cause him to read:) ^ M iL 
^ ^ yu p&ng yew fi]lw6 hwa, to speak to a friend; 
]^ ^ |{. X A ']keih tsccn yu kung jin, to give 
money to worki^en: j|( ^ % j|l yu gno Mn lac, 
seise and bring him to me: j&l heang, ^ yu, and 
j^ yu, ^tfae latter merely on account of the similarity 
of sound) are often used for J| yu, as in the following 
instances, ^ ^ J|. 4^ yu gno woo kao, it is no* 

tiling to me: ^ A Ht ffc Sl f^i^ ^^ P® y^ 
no advantage to men : Kg :(^ i|i{ wtbi yu gno, ask 
me: ilil ^ ^ heang t'ha.shw6, tell lum: 11} 
^ 1^ ^ heang yang siiang t'Jjtaou, ask the 
Hong-merchants, or demand fnmi the^i. Speaking to, 
may be expressed by # ^ i(^ tuy ta keang, speak to 
him: 3f^ ^ ^ ho ta shw^, or 41^ ^ ^ te ta 
shw6, tell him,(conv.) Far^ or instead of, is mostly ex- 
pressed by ^ wei, and occasionallv by ^ tae, and 
^ te, as jj^ A ^ ^ wei jin keuen ming, (lit) 
to sacr^ce one's life for men : ^ A ^ taejin tso, 
to do for one: ^^ g ^ ^ ;^ te kwo kea ch'huh 
leih, to exert one's self for the state. The words ^ 
keih, and ^- pe, may occasionally iserve to express- 
^e dative. 
9> Tbe. aceiK^ve is altogetiaier mi^'C&teii Vsr^ v^^^^ 

28 CASES. CHAF. |. 

i!cn; the rule, however, that it folf|oyfs the verb, is oc- 
casionally reversed. Thus injthe regular way, ^ 3^ 

hw6 le, to obtain profit; A A ^ # 6 jinjiii 
keae ft tsae, every body has made money. In* 
stances where it is^put before the verb are, ^ ^ 
:H^ ^ ^ yin xsze too fei leaou, all the money is 
•pent;J| |t X A ^ iBi Hfc 9i mae pan 
hung jin yth ,)sae ch^ ch&h, the compradores and work* 
men were all driven out. (See the Syntax.) 

10. The ablative is formed in various ways; thus 
our ftjf is expressed by :|Jt pe, as ^ A X P^ J^* 
keen, seen by men ; or by )5l e, as J^ ;^ jjH ^ 
e leYh keang tsin, to enter by force; this preposition, 
however, more frequently describes the inbtrumentality, 
like our with; as j^ JJ |^ A ^ ^^^ ^^^ J^°> ^^ 
kill men with the sword; Jjt i^ Ml J^ ^ y^^ ftih 
jin, to subdue men with l^dness. Q^ yew, is not only 
used to indicate the place from whence any th^.ii<s( comes, 
but also serves to express our ^ofthepa;::yive L*onstric- 
tion^ din it ^ ]|J |9[ 3E yew yang shang king 
le, managed by the Hong-merchants; ll) ]P9 §i jj^ 
yew ihun ch'huh lae, come out at the door; ill ^^ 

fj m yew yufe taou man, from Canton to 

Foke^n province. ;|^ yu, is also used to express 
our Ig^ and through i bs jj^ f^ }f^ sze yu min, fed 
by the people; and sometimes, but not often, ^ yu, is 
thus employed, fts "fl^ t||^ ^ ^ ^ paon hoo 
gno yii ping, he protected me by soldiers. On account 
c/i/OTi or in behalf of ^ is conveyed by % wei, and less 
frequently by 4IQ tae, or ^ to, as* ^ ^ Ifc wei 
|oo tso« I do it on your accou^ni; 4^ ^L ^ ]£ tae 
heung pwan le, I manage it for my brother; ^ 
^ ^ 46 te tsse hae pa, afraid about the child. 
The characters ^ yew,;g|^ tsung, and 1^ tsze, ex- 
press jS^om; as ^ % TJ^ ^ tsung kea le lae, come 
oat of t'he house; ft Jij ^ . Hf # ^ .^ tsze 
thiilg thung tseen wang hae pin, from the city he went 
.0© to ftie sea beach, /n, or at, is conveyed by |^ choo, 
-» tsae, J yu, ;^ yu, and sometimes by ^ hoo, 
-•• ,fc lb Jt' -jfe"^ 1|t ;^ ts?e shan ^b?v.*i wao 


tsaou mQh, there is no yerdure or wood op the hill; 

X jft ^ A^ >?S )^ t'heen leang ya jin che 

sin, heavenly goodness in the human heart; ^ ^ 

^ £i wei kew choo ke, to seek it in one's self; 

yt jft S. ^ ^^^ y^ ^he sheo, forest in extreme 

goodness; ^ m ^ :i^ f6( M ^ leenleaag 

ne'en yu ching mow yih, for two years he traded in the 

city. JVith^ is expressed by ^^ yu, and |s) tung, as 

^ JK ^ ^ yu jin jseang ho, to live peaceably 

^ft people; }^ ^ £ A}^ lungjoo ch*huh wae, 

to go abroad with you: f^ keae is used in the same 

manner. On and at, used before words expressing time» 

are generally not marked, as -f- >^ :z. H^t ^ ^ 

>$ fj^ shih yew urh tsae seun show fang yuh, on* the 

12ih year he went to inspect the districts and moimtains; 

tp 1? ^ ^ J9iJ^ tseibjih ch'huh s^g ching, 

on that very day he left the provincial city. The use of 

^ yu, to express in is by no means of frequent 


11.^ The vocative is either not expressed at all, as 
^ ^ ^ laou yay lae, come here, sir ! or by >jL 
yay, after the word, as -J^ ^fct 3^ J^ y^y 1*^» come 
hither Yu ! or by fSf o, as ^ j5 f^ lang keun o, 
oh my husband ! In conversation ^ ya, is sometimes 
jmt after the word, to indicate this case; fij^ yu, and 
ift e, are likewise used in this manner in good wri« 
tings: 4t ^ gaeya, and iff heu, are frequently used 
in exclamations, «and -^ tsae, at the end of a sentence. 
(See thejMuragraph on inteijertions.) 

12. The student will readily perceive, tbat the Chi- 
nese cases, as given above, do not exactly correspond 
with ours, but further study will teach him where 
to use these particles, and where to omit ftem, whilst 
it will also aid him in the construction of sentences. 


13. C^hinese nouns, grammatically considered, have 
no gender; but whenever the nature of things is pointed 
out. there are generic teru^s to convey the same; for hu« 

30 NUMBRR. CHAf. I. 

man beiog8, ^ nan, and it neu, express male and fe-^ 
male; for animals generally, ^ kung, and -tf^ moo; f(^ 
cattle in particular, ^ mow, and ^ pin; for birds, HfL 
heung, and^ tsze; for inanimate thingB, m i^aag, 
masi^ne, and ^ jow, feminine: ML keen, and ^ 
kw^n, or f^ yin, and ^ yang, for the male and female 
principles of nature, have their origin in the popular 
idea, that sex per?ades the universe, and that all inan- 
imate things partalLe either of one or the other quality. 

14. The words above mentioned are never added to 
the substantive, unless with a view express the gender; 
as % ke, a fowl; H >^ ke kung, a cock; 8§ ^ 
kemow,ahen;j|fc |^ # jl «| .-^ ^ <tt M 
tsze meen yang we heaou she pin mow chay, I do not yet 
know whether these sheep are ewes or rams ; Sfe ^ 

y^ ^ 45^ "*• s&ng tsze nan neu kd yih, he brought 
forth children, one sou and one daughter, llie appli- 
cation of these characters is very easy; they seldom oc- 
cur, and only when it is a matter of importance, 
that the gender should bo known. 


liS. Every Chinese noun may be expressive of tbe 
plural as well as the singular, thiis /^ jin, may be a 
man, and men; ^ neu, may be au ox, and oxen; ^ i 
he6 stog, disciple, or disciples. Unless it be distinctly 
indicated that a word has a plural signification it is left 
doubtful, llie plural form of the noun is pointed out, 
when necessary, by the use of particles: we shall here 
enumerate tbe particles which are used for the purpose, 
beginning with the most common, and afterwards ex- 
plaining them. ^ ting, jf^ mun, ^ pei, ^ luy^ 

^ t^aou, ^ tse, and jj^ chow, which are pat after 
the substaniive: so also %^ kd, p^ cboo, |p. chung, 

JL f<tn, r*nd J^ 'shoo; all of which are put before the 
nmid. and are strictly speaking collective adjectives, 
i^ougb used to convey the sense of the plural ; so also 
afo ^ keae, J^ ban, ^ heu, and 4^ too ; only the^ 

15. Cbi&iMSd books are nevt^r over cmwded wi& tha% 

<iaLAB. I. tfVMBBR. 31 

pluid particles; in good writiDgB lliey cure istiU moit^ 
gcaree. In many instances, ^hffte we should r oDsider 
lihem indispensably n^essary, the genius of the Chin&at 
languase, does not demand them at all; and on the niher 
liand^ mey are sometimes used^ where they appeal* to its 

IB , The most common phtral particle is ^ Ittng^ 

as A "^ jin t&ng, men : when two or three subjects 

are enumers^;ed, one after the other, this particle Is affi» 

^ to the last: as ^ A X K ^ nung foo luing 

1se«ngt&ng,agrieid[tartst8 and artisans: ^ ^/ ^ 

iJj « ^ ^ peen ping, wiln woo, Aang jitt ifeng, 

sdidiers, civilians, military officers, and merchants, (the 

amd is always left ouU) f*^ mun, is more frequently 

ned with the personal pronouns, m s^ 1^ gno mun, we; 

^ m joo mun, you,-^ sometimes in conversatiou it if 

annexed to substantives: ^ pei,is employed when a 

ehiss is to be indicated, as j§ % 6 pei, the wicked; 

"1^ !|^ tseenpei,and ^ Ifi how pei, predecessors, 

and successors; & H JST !p wangecbepci, the 

unjust; ^ Hit ^ ^ tung pei ehejin, equals; ^ 

tsaou, and *$ luy, are nearly of the same import as ^ 

pei, but not so fire<]|Uently used; thus '^ ^ kwan 

tsaou, means officers ; and 9 f^ fei luy, vagabonds: 

^ tse, and 7^ <?how, indicate likewise classes, 

and kinds, companies; ^ ^ woo tse, we, is used by 

.good writers. 

iB* 1^ Chung is very frequently used, as jfi 
Hf chung shang, all the merchants, or (he m^rdiants: 
^ ± Chung s^n^, all living things, or creatures, 
mankind. ^ choo, is also cmimon, as ffi 5b ^ 
^ $k ^ choo seen s&ng keae woo pinj^, the tea- 
-chers are all well; ^ i% choo wfth, all things, things. 
So.also^ ktt, as ^ A kftjin, every man, or men; 
4^ J^ k5 choo, every place, or places: J|t shoo, has 
nearly the same sigoifu^ation, as H choo, though less 
frequently used, as >Sk :t shoo sse, scholai's: ^ fan, 
is more common, as ft Afan jin, all men, or men; A> 
fan, is cften preceded by ^ choo, as )L # fati 

IS ^ Keae^ and ^ to, frequeBtly ooeui Ia good 
writings as well as in conversadon; as A ^ jfti :^ 
}m keae ch^ cbe, all men know it; it ^ ^" :ft- ^ 
foo tsse kc^d hing tih, father aod jon both practiced vir» 
tue; if jt "w ^ K ^ foo Ile^ kese tae 
mei mow, t^ women were all beautiful; JI8 Jl ^ 
>f> ^ pKng yew too pub tsae, tbe friends are all ab» 
tent ; j^ keu, is most freouentl v found in literary com^ 
position, as v^ ^ 1| 1W ^ J> ^ yew so 
8ze w&h keu pub snow lie Temv«4 none of tbe things 
that were given ; ^ ^ lPl Mj oizen yang keu sze, 
all Hie sheep died; ^. ^ ^jf^ jt kcun heae keu 
tseuen, the weapons were all prepared. )^ Han, i^ 
less frequent, as jj| J^ :|^ ^ joo ban tsung che, the 
scholars all followed him. 

20. There are a. varieiy of other modes of expressing 
the plural: by rcpoiiuon^ ^,^ ^ '^ kea kca. every fitmi- 
ly, families ; B jih jih, every 4ay, or daily. By the 
wotd ^ to, many, as ^» g A ^ Ji^ ^ ^ 
chung kw6 jin to ch'buh wae fang, many Chinese go to 
foreign countries ; or by the numerals ^ pib, and ft 
wan, (but ^ tseen, less frequency,) trs If *j^ pih 
kwan. the Mandarins; ]| ^ pih pwan, various ways; 
H ^ wan tib, all virtues, or vurtues , |^ % wan sue, 
for many ages; ^ %^ tseen ke, a variety of plans. 
There are some peculiar forms of expression, as D9 ^ 
sze hae, four seas, or tbe seas ; 2. ^ woo fang, the 
five points, or all pointis ; $. ^ woo ping, the ele* 
ments; £ ^ woo lun, the relations of life; JL ^ 
woo kuh, tbe various kinds of grain; JL ^ woo tseo, 
tbe different ranks of nobility; jt ^ "v^^oo we, tbe five, 
or yarious tastes : because tbe .Chinese, either in reality* 
or imagination, assume them to be so many in number. 
Such are also fL fir kew chow, the nine parts of the 
world, or tbe whole globe; -^U ^ kew yew, creatures, 
&c. For excess and multitude, >|^ kejin, 'J yun, 
andii^ fung, are often used, as -^ A keunjin, many 
men; )J6 i^ ^ ^ chuen chib yun tseib. the vessels 
assembled fia crowds; ife ||^ i^ ^ *^^u tsihfang 
klie, the thieves rose up, as thick as bees : we find aiso^ 

/^ifi M^pn joo^tin, or HtP il^ JM ^^9 ™^^ HH fiirertr 
or hills, that is in great multitudes: or shorter withoo^. 
ill ]00» lis /L ill jin San, or A ')^ j^^ ^^^9 <3tien in cooh 
nlmbie numbens^ like hiHs A\)d seas. S(m€, the Chi- 
nese express by ^ soo^ and ^* ke, a? ^ ^ ke keu, 
8ome sentences, and ||t 8 soo jYh« several days. 

21. An idiomatic pecnliarity, which the Chinoiehat 
in common -^ith the Japanese, is the addition of a gCK 
neric term to various nouns, for the sake of etumeratioiD, 
wiiich we may compare to our habit of saying Aetub o: 
^attle,pt^c^f of silk. ^A^tf<» of paper, &c. But express 
fiiOBs of this kind are not of frequent occurrence wiw us: 
Wliilst in Chinese few nouns are found to which one« 
two, or even three of thes3 terms is not applicable. Wf 
akall here quote the most comraoh. 
HH Ko, is applied to a great variety of nound,, esp^ 
friallyin conversation; when Writteu in the above man^ 
lier, it stands for living beings, but for inanimate dung, 
itchan^into ^ ko, or the abbreviated form 4^ ko: 
Ssw writers, however, make this grammatical distin^ 
tion. Thus -- 18 A yihkojin, one man; E "^ ;^.i 
^ ko pan, three planks; JL >h>eft«K)ko pmg 
'viTe cakes. 

Jt Chih, is applied to vessels, i^imals, and singer, 
objects; as U9 4 ^sze chih etiuen^ otjik 19 H 
chuen eje chih, tour ships; X j|^ ^ san chihyaBg, 

Aree sheep; 3S. '|L # ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ tables. 
^ Tuy,and ^ shwang^ ar6 used witli all the noqn^^ 
that can be arranged in pairs ; as — iS'lS.yi^ toy hcae. 
a pair of shoes; — 1^ ^yih shwang w&, a pair c^' 
stockings: and fUrther, as in other languages. 
' jil Chang, is used for everything that can be spreac- 
out; as — ^ j|j^ yih chang che, a sheet of paper; — 
^ ^ ^ yihchangkaoushe,aproehma1iim,(dl& 
is, a paper containing one;) ^ ^ P9 H J^ ^an^ 
mun leeii, a door screen. 

:)& Pa, is used for things that have a handle; sr 
^"^ ^ JJ yih pa tai3u, a sword; ^ ^ saou pa^ - 
besom, ai;4 a variety ot others. 

:^ Che, is \ised for things that are straight, m th : 

34 soniBSlt. cmAy. I 

iAlape of branrbes^as -- ^ilfey'^ ^^^ peen, a whip: 
^ ^ ^ yili che cfa&h, a flute. 

j^ Teaou, very much resembles? the formery in ite 
use, as -* i!|: ]j|g, yih teaou shing^ a cord ; — 1^ vj 
yih teaou ho, a river, ^c* 

1^ Keen, is used far objects that comprehend space, 
as buildbm of every description : thus X ffi >§. san 
Seen &h, wee houses. 

M Tso, now and then, also ^ tso, designates places, 
as *- >^ ^ y ifa tso chingy a cil^; X J^ & santsopb, 
thie6 towns. 

^ Fuh, or>C,jpeih,are\i8edfor{neces, or parts; aiE^ 
^ >£ >^ yih pern poo, apiece of cloth, n 'ftl |t ^rh 
fiih hwa, two pictotes. 

j4 Keen, serves to enumerate things m general, as 
"^ # ^ yih keen s&ci,or^ i^ sze keen, an affair; 
and^ f^ gan keen, a case in law; in th^ former in* 
stance,^ chun, is often used. This particle is like 
jlE^ ko, and|^ ehih, and is often promiscuously em- 
ployed; as — i^ if^ yih keen san, a jacket; ^ -f^ wub 
keen, things; ^ ^^ ho keen, goods, &c. 
^9J Foo, means a set, a lot; as -* ^ JK- J|^ yih foo 
kke keu^.a set of ilistruments, or utensils. 

^ Kwae, is used for pieces, or any thing substantial 
and solid; as ^ ^^ yihkwaebhih, a stone; E j^ 

^sankwae yin^ three dollars ; IS *^an>® anjyucn^ 
are usecl for globuhu* things; and;^ f^mg, for pieces; 

as Y^ ^ ^ ^ y *^ ^^^^ ^^^ J^'^' ^ piece of pork. 
|!!^ Chin, a gu&t, a dash, a beam; as — )n|^ Jl. yih 

rhin fimg^ a gubt of wind; — l!| jt yih chin kwanjr, 

a beam of i^ht; -- j^ ^ yih diiu yen, a puff of 

smoke: ^ ch^o^, is used nearly in the same sfian*- 

ner;aa— ^ % Y^ chang woo, a mist; ^ ^ jji 

yih chang yu, a shower of rain. 

gi Faou, is used for bundles; as -* S jf$ It yih 
paou meen hwa, a bale of cotton ; — ft ftj^^i paou 
che, a bundle of paper; so also ifla cha, as — #L #^ 
yih cha peih, a bundle of pencils ; -- ;^ ^ yih <m 
che, a bundle of paper; so also j^ s6. 

35L Kfia. forfi«mes and machinery ik; ~ JK. 5^ ^ 



Okkt. I. KtTMDSR. Hr 

yiif kea sbw^^ keu, a fiit engine; — ^ ;|^ j| yi'r 
k^swaa pwan^an abacus. 

'^ Tmj for Uiings of weight and btirdens; ai^ -- ^ 
t f. yihtanhbglc, a load of baggage; — ii j^ 
yih tan BOO taae, a load of vegetables. 
% Teen, for small things, di ops, &,c, as — 1^ ^ 
yih teen she, a moment of time; ~ 9|^ £ yih tec;. 
mft^adrop of ink. 

1^ Twan, indicates parts, and sentences; as — |S. 
If PI yihtwansin w&n, a piece of news; — ^ ^Jfe^ 
yih twan te, a part of land. 

"^ Kwan, enumerates things that are hollow; a-^ 
•- ^ 1|t yih kwan peih, a pencil; — ^ ^ y^ 
^^mok aeaou, a pipe. 

^ Kwan, like z)!!^ teaou, enumerates laws, preeepte 
p^titioBS, business^ afiaii's^ &c. sir ^ j^ |E yih kwau 
«ie, an 4iffair; M- ^ ~ ^ t%n^ tsing yih kwan, ^ 

XL Koo, for shares and parts; as — ^ i it[- yih kor 
^^ge, a share in some trading concern: — Jg^ |J^ 
yU:^ koo sbing, a bundle of twine 

"tt Wei, andy^ ming, are used for enumerating h\^ 
*^^an beings; the former, however, is mainly confined ti> 
P^Jisons of rank: whSe ^ yuen, is applied to govenv 
^Ucnt officers. For instance. ^^ jfj^ E9 ^ fan NraoL' 
'^s^jning, four foreign sailors; jj^ ^^ S. fitseangkung 
'^anwei, three gentlemen; X % S ||-win kwan sait 
yuen, 3iree civilians; 4S: wei, is also used for guns; 
^ ^ it' paou wei, a cannon. 
^ Tsl&ng, IS used for a layer, a story, a set : as — >^ 
^ yih tstogche. a sheet of paper ; — >tJ jL yihtsSlng 
^wa, a layer of tiles. So also jilchung. for duplicates. 
cnrterrace8;as ^ ^ f9 urhchung mun, the Sf^cond 
rlaor ; ~ ^ i}j yih chung san, tlie first of a series ofhil}& 
*f Feen, signifies a slice, a flake, a bit; — .'f ''f^ yit 
T>een BeuS, a flake of suow ; -^ )r ^ yih peeni che, ^^ 
F>it of paper; — >r "fS yihpeensin, a note. 

¥§ KOj A£^ well as ^ leib, are used foi* grains, ISteadt 
Vj*. rts — }rs^i ^ I*, yi'i^ iifrt rhJn eftoo, a j>c!»>^i; ^— ^ 

36 XmiBBA. CHAP, t 

^ TtMtis tued for a whole; as ~ 4^ ^ JtL yih 
iaou e fub, a 6uit of clothes; — >|g^ 41 yih taou shoo, 
t whole work: /i^ pun, aodi|||^ peen, are used exclusive- 
ly for books and papers; ^ keu, for euumeratiiig sen- 
tences and phrases; ^ taou, and Mb te£, fcnr edicts and 
states papers; as % ijiitK £ ^ yu te^ saa taou, three 
edicts; % show, is applied to odes; as •- "^ ^ yih 
show idbe, a mece of poetr>' : ^ yi^, is used oceasionaily 
iicnr iMKAa^tDa papers; as -- ^ ^^^yihy^ehetseen, 
a bundle of ^It paper: ^ fu^g, for enumerating lettersj 

^ "^ ^ j& ji^^ fti'^g ^Mi* ^^^^ Utter. 

. ^ Keon, and ^ ho, for congregated numbers; as . r" 
% ^% yihkeuB neaou,a covej of birds; -^ ]^ H ^ 
f iL- hv fei t'hoo, a CQmpar ly of ^agaboud;^. 
T^ Ting, is employed for carriages and caps: and 

^l^duuen, for rows and files; as ~ ip ^ y ymcfauen 
ping ting, a ^e of soldiers: 4^ dbin, c^^^choo, ki 
trees ; if^ ko, for plants: jfi shing, and ^ l^ng, for car-* 
riages and sedan diairs:-^ mow, for plots of l^nd ot 
^u»d:^ ling, for coats or jackets:^ tliow, and 
klbtQw^fr* aiiimals or cattle: the latter also for awordsi 
and the former for affairs.; as — ^ ^ ^ yih t*how 
^'hin sse, « Tratrimonial a^ir: {£ peih, £)r iiorses: ^ 
poo, for volumes, divisions: jQ taou, for quires of paper: 
^ ciua, for guns: ^ tse^ for any thing joiuted: £ 
meen, for things witna smooth siaface; as 3. g >g^ 
^u maen king, tfareeiooki^ glasses: ^ te&j for sticldDg 

substances ; as Z Jtt ^ |l san taakaQuj6,thfeepla8< 
ters: jit w&n, for ^nimierating cash:!^ tsan, for meals; 

^ ~ Jt "Viy^ teai^ f^^ & ^^1 <^ ^^- ^ ching, for 
musicaUunei: *Wi chub, of rolls: Itbw^, f<Y strokes: 7; 
hea, for blows :^ hang, for rows and <:olumcs:^ ehoo^ 
tor iacente sticks: iK) hwuy, for parts, times: ^ seun, 
for decades: >|^ tae, for stages : i^ mei, or ft ting, {cue 
pieces of ink: ^ kan, for bamboos: r|4li chifa, for cases cf 
books: i^ w&n, for rolls of silk: >^ wei, for fishes, and 
other animals:.^ keuh, for chess boards or affairs: 41- 
keun, for rolls, books, chapters, &c. ^ tsan^ for lampa. 
and similarly formed things : ^ leaug, for silver: and 
«3iaQ9r othei*siv 

'C9ASS ft. yoMvtvh. . 37 

22. Tihe reader will no doubt perceive tjiat most^of 
these termfl areattarhed t*} uouns, jto: which they bear 
some relation either io tdiape or quality, and a frequeat 

Seru8al of the foregoing paragraphs will enable thestUii 
entto make a riglit use of tbenu We may add, haw- 
ever, that they form an essential part of the language ; 
and to omit them, when necessary, would be as great a.a 
offence against grammar, as to dispense with oiu: articles 
and preposidons^ when the construction calls for thenu 
Seyei:al pouns t^ke a variety of numerals, and in -most 
instaJaceft tboir «ncanii^ is thcxby modilied. But eu* 
fi^ony, and the ;;trucr«;tro of the language, often requiie. 
them, }|?bere there evicts ;ic apparent necessity. 1^. 
C&inese say, l^r instance, ;^ yC poo peih, for clotht 
fi it.'P ^ leftwei jinbeung, benevolent brethxea» 
or gentlemen, &c. Inmost ca^^b, however, where a. 
istrict onmneration of the subject is not required, ih* 
munexals axe omitted. 




1. Tbk remark preyteiisl^ made, that Ctunese words 
do not exactly belong, to <me partieular class, applies 
also to &e adjective; tbusAta, great, and>|%seaou, 
small, though generally used as adjectives, ms^ occa* 
stonaUy be changed into nouns, « as ^ A. ke ta, its 
greatness; ^ ;i)\ ke seaou, its littleness; so also into 
verbs; as ;k 1^ ta che, to enlarge it, &c. On {het>tfaer 
hand, many nouns occasionally assume the shape of ad« 
joetives by being placed before other substantives; as 
A $ t'h^n chaou, the ^eWstial dynas^; h!^ ^ shiP 
vriih, worldly things; J :f: ^ che puh jixi, voy 
hard hoacted. 


2. . It is peculiar to tlie Chinese language to unite a 
great many words before nouns, ifhlcb then assmne the 
nature of adjectives; as K ^ -^ Hi K fen yew ping 
teih jin, >ill the sick; ^ ^ j^ ^ « If ^ot it 
yew ke cha e chuen mow yih che tsih, the duty of insti* 
tuting enquiries into the.lMde of fote^ vessels ; all the 
wor£ are here placed in relation to j|[ tsih, as if they 
were its epithets. 

3. Muchof the sign^cation of adjectives depends 
upon iheir position. The common mode is to place 
them before the noun ; a& ^ A haou jin, a good man ; 
if two or three precede, t£ey do not require a connective 
particle ;9ls^ % l^shen leang min, vtrtuousr people ; $^ 

1^ >;lc :^ mei yen tseih nju, a beautiful modest wo* 
mauL Where there are more than two adjectives, ^ 
che, generally intervenes between them and ^ the sub* 

stantive; It ;t ^\ '^ H^ t^ S paou jiile hae che 
kwan yuen, cruel and aanoying officers. Two adjec« 
fives put together havei)ften i^$ teifa, or.^ cliay, at the 
end ; as Jt M ^ y^ou yung teib, needfUI; ^ j^ ^ 
ke yen chhf^ very severe. 

4. Whenever the substantive verb is implied, adjec^ 

dvesare put after the noun; as A.i^ jin haou, be is a 

good man; Hi ^ sing m^ng, he is of a savage nature. 

Phrases like the following are frequent ; as JTI }^ ^ 

jz. t'heea te che ta, the greatness of heaven and earth; 

iil* ^ l2C "^ sixi ieang che kwan, the extent ^of gene* 

rositj^; in these cases the adjective by its position as* 

sume the nature of a noun, as hinted above. The for* 

motion of epithets like ;^ ^ muh teilr, woodea ; "^ 

^ kin teih, golden; and ^ ^ t'hecu teih., heavcalyi 

is veiy common. 


?5. WeVi>«>>v of no langi'age that adopts ^o tcia^ 
Miodts ot>ipressiiig the degree? ofcojupiirison, as ^Jw 
Cbiaebc. For Sif> bencSt of the ra^i^cr vro shall here 
i^;ca":Ttu4at'^. a.ii ^hathat: ccrciQ urder ovr cJ>?*:rnitior. 
and tn«sr, bo v/JlUv/ir- 7^- r ' • iunLxUer.zt. >7avK?-* -^t^i 


6. Oinr»ior»i8 expressed byJ^kSng; m ^ ^ 

Itt&g mei^ more beautiful ; when two objects are cotU'^ 

(ved villi each, other tiKe latter is preceded bv it p^ 

te compare; w^ lit Jt }t :ft ic ft ll tsae 

Beape pe neu k^ng mei, this woman is more beautifii} 

flan that : Jl httng, k however, occasionally omitted : 

"»^ Jfc ^ itf -i^gnopejoohaouyih seay,lam 

Mher better timn you : or^keaou, is annexed ; as ^ 

^ It yk It i^ gno pe keaou joo k^ng haou, I am 

fctto than yo«^ Sometimes £. k^ng is preceded by 

M^ §eangtuy;as >}k ^ iS ^ \SLiifi^ goo 

flMg toy, gno kSing faaou, compared with each other, 

I am better than you ; the same idea is also conveyed 

ly Ht ^ keaou^ tuy . Furthermore, the word M^ k^nj 

i found in phrases like the following; as |L 41 ^ J^ 

Ung yew shin yen, still more excessive; ;^ 1^ 9 JSL 

pe shang k^ng fei, he is still more fat; ^ j^ JL "i^ 

1( )((^ pe t'hae k&nghaou kwo tsze, that is much better 

tiian tins, 'ihere are also instances where iS^k^ng, ifi 

foUowed byi$^yu; as >^ ^ ^ ^lli:*;f^l%^ 

09 kin neen che kuh k&ng fune shin^ yu tseen neen teih, 

the grain of lliis year is more Ibondant than the ibrmet 

y^ax; or a phrase like the following may be formed: 

^•feilfe^Jl'^ ^IfeA 3-^^^^ '"^^^ ^^ <^ha kiing tsaou, 
•hih &n chp kwo, we have taken tea earlier this even* 
ing, and eaten rice later. 

7. Besides what has been already said it will be 
well to notice the following modes in which pe, is 
osed ;m ^ ^ jfe IS n$ pe t'ha kaoit, you are taller 
than he ; 5H ifc iC ^ j^ tsew pe shwuy haou to, 
wine is much better than water; X S Vfc >n ^ J!fi[ 
K it M kung tseang pe pub tih nutig foo che yung, 
the usefulness of the mechanic is not to be t:ompared 
with that of the husbandman; >f^ KJL >t J^ )f^ ^ 
puh kan pe shing chung hwa^ by no mean superiw to 
ihe central flowery nation ; ^^ flg It jjjS f@ ^ ^ ^ 
chay ko pe na ko yutf& haou, this is much betterthan 
that : -ft. j$ it H^ jT "^ ^ <^n shang ta pan puh k'ho 
pe, a private met ^hantb inle^r to tile daef ot' a fac- 
tory I at 1^ irt -(»t A rf> )& ^«ze rhin«r pe pe ehing "^ 


eeaott kiva, ilii» city is less than t%at ; \| ^ tt 2ff ^ 

^ :^ chay ko pe na ko yew haou, this is better than 

that : ^ keaou, is often used in the following manner ; 

as 1^ J0t ^ tsny Ikeaou k'hing, e lighter tnme ; "^ g 

j^ S£. ilfh muh keaou kin, ear and eyes are very near ; 

fK M MiiL b^^^ ^^ keaou kwan^ to ha^e the term 

mtfte extended ; j|^ iSf ^ -^ 4^^ ^ keaou tseen yew 

keen ^00 ts&ng, eompared with what it was before, it 

iiaa been rather less Aan incveased. 

8. ji^ Yu, as well as S& kwo, are often used to con- 
vey the idea of more: as^;^"!^^ been yu Yu, irorei 
excellent than Yu ; -j|" ;^ ^ kwei yn yin. r jore \al .?- 
able than silver i^Jfi^^ JJtJ^^we yerv' :*iiify 
yu tsae she chay, it has never been worse than at the- 
present time. Instances of ^ kwo, are 5Jc #- it 3{ 
joo hftouikwe gno, you are better than myself; or wiiii- 
;^ yn, as ^ ^ jg ;J^ |:. juohaou kwo yu gno, the 
i^^unne; /i^ \A :^ ^ seaoukwoyu e, less than an ant ^r 

ke tfh hing hw5 he ta kwo, hw6 he seaoa kwo yu keun 
tsse, his virtuous actions are more or less than those oT 
the superior man ; y|^ ^ !^ 5ft. ^ ^Bhwan yaou 
haou kwo chay ko, he wants it still better than this. 
It is also occasionally followed by 1^ 41 yu shin, as 

^ ^ ^\MlM 1a4& ^^ wang hing kwo yu6 yu 
shin*, his worthless conduct is still more outrageous: or 

preceded by ^ mft, as J^ >1^ It ^ >^ ^ ^^^^ 
san mSkwoyu theen, tl^ere are no hills higher than 
the heavens ; j^ ^ ij^ If- pQh kvro pwan neen, not 
more than half a year ; |^^ vft A^^® 8^^ kwo jin. 
wiser ttian the generality of mca. 

9. ^ Yu, better, is often used to designate the com* 
parattve degree ; as )|: fl^ yu nan, mor^ difficult ; ^ j|| 
^ ^L hang chuen yu kwae, he sailed faster ; ^ y^ 
^% yu yu heu yen, better than boasting : it is also 
used with jAu feea, jafter it ; as ^ ;Mi ^ ^i yu kea seay 
yin, still more dissc^ute: and not unfrequently repeatedi 
as ^^ iJi: ^ j^yfewsinyuyUjStiUmojesoixowfol, or 
teiterated iiT the following manner; as ^ Ifc 1^ ^ yu 
kwae yu e, the quicker im easier ; ^ XfljptTU kew yu 

Dftn^ the longer tibe^mofe difficult; 1^ p It % ^ 
% >r £ J11 leih ^ tliiiiur^ orb Til p^ die, tlie gr^at^^ 
the effort andeaieitieii, the lees the chasce of tttaimiig 
tiie object: jlC yew, sometfanes occuts^ mjLWJk yeir 
liliokwae^itill moro strange; Hf ^ ji£ # ju e yew 
ahen, his bpeech wm ttfll nunre coioflete; ^ ^p |L 
^ i. X ^ J^ ^ wejook1iTOgt8«edieyewAhig 
chay yay, tnere is nothing tike to Cobfodug' superior 
fullness. In this sense, on account of the similaritgr 
of the sound, ift yu, is now and then iised; we meet also 
with^yih;a6 ^ ^Tih shin^ more egitensiTebr; ^ 
^ yih shen, more excellent; ^ H 1^ i^ Jl9 at || 
Vheu Khing yih y^ien urh yih mwaUi the momyod spps«- 
rate yourself from the sages, the mofe fofix will be puffV^d 
«p.^' Tu^is alsoiifit:d in this mannerv tiB M i^ J^^ 
haou, better; M^ M ^^ T^ ^ng yufi tea, the nmra 
be prospers the more he gures* Ithasalsof^flkasasu^ 
fix;as>l| #iS^yueffthaoQ^ much better; ^|^ Jf 
J yihf&haoulea0ii,stiltbetteri-||||fiynifftfhe 
meen, still more respectable. J||. M: Shing yn, is also 
iisedform^^;ss^ ill iV 4t jjfe W Iflf yueshiugyu 
jriug kwang pih pei, ^^fightof ^ mocnl is a hMdnil 
limes brighter than thatof ttba firoifly^ So also, faiil 
seldom, jiC^ yew, as ^ Xdlf «sa@ ]re# ha<m, this si 

10. To compan whole 8ontetioes4|c ning, is used: 
9&Sf^ ft X^ ^ ^ M ning ssi pfih kliopet le, it is 
better toiUe fiuxi to Aaxf tme^n j^ndplte; J|K if ^ 
^ j^ W ^ IfL mng klio sho# pin^ p&h k*ho kow 

ia^u, it is better to iQffiv poverty, tiian to purloin; ]i|t 
$^^4t 4L ^ Ife' le, yu ke<^i^ yay, ninar k^wi, 
^ceramnnieSyitis better to be economical^ than pro* 

fcse;^ T if * /^ ^ T :fl, ^ # ning rho 
aim ke yew, pdih k'hp sin ke wbo« it is better to beHero 18 
Its exisi^ibe, than to believe in its non-existence. 

11. jti Joo, is often used in ootopaiisoiiii in various 

ways; as S)S ^ ^ jtH Vl /fS if ha Ko pfih joo chaf 

ko haou, Uiat is not so good hk this; 0$ Jf^"^ M^ ISk 

pa pflSi Joo hoo mSing^ t& leo^iaid is sot so ferocioua as 

Ihc tiger; jku Jc ^ g|b i» k# ^ Tf» ^'^^T T>^ 

42 JxmfMLAnw. cbap. n. 

njoo DM yih j^ibotif the water becMie still deeper, 
asd ^e fire still hotter^-^ ^ Tih^ is non^-and then used 
for Titarey as Jai ^S I^^Jl^j^joo seuS yah 
heaou, joaheuSjih hjiog, whiter than siiow^ and i!^ 
der than blood; % iX!X ^ !^ p&h joo k'hin laou^ no^ 
thing like diligent effort: in tfns case it is used syno* 
nymously with ^ 16^ which is often precede by the 
negative particle % ni6; as H ^ 1^ JK b)6 j6 &eae 
sse, there is nothing better than to die together. Sen- 
tences <>f the latter descripticm are ot' frequent eccuiv, 
iisnce ;(8ee alsothe nesative jparticles,) as R JH: ;^ 41 
ino tsse yew Jbm^ notibiug exceeding this, or mowihan 
4his : % Jfi. ^ ^ m6iXL che kun^, no greater merits; 
Jf^ ifi X^ ^ pttb joo p&kwaog, we brad better not gq; 
l>^ ^ III ^ :)r^ it>t ;r. ^ yu ke che teou, puh ioo 
ptth tacfu, it is better not to come at all, than to come ialei 
12. Of tne various, wm in which our w^ntl nw^ 
b expressed, notice th.e following: :$ ^ :^ tosanlba^ 
three parts iniore; ^ % ij^ shih to heen, moit 
4han tan years; t 3^ ^ shih lae neen, ten van 
aore;|( ** X kaouyihchOi, hi^er one covia; H. 
' -* # twan ^tsun, shorter one inch; >F 1^ % jt 
.pfth hea wan kin« not less than ten thousand tads; ^ 
\%4^A shth yew yn j|n, more than ten nien;)f 
^ 1^ A pi^ y®^ yu jin^ more than one:hundred mm. 
rllieromprntiTeis a)so occastonally indicated by an 
intenvigativa pronoun; as .^ i> $ii ^ seen s&ng sbfife 
been, who is wiser than you. Sir. As comparatives, 
I Ae fbUowing phrases may be cited: ^ Ifk- ^ |^ yvMi 
«hing peibpe, a bandied times inoie distant' 9 4t # 
^% A - *t US ;fe v& -Jfttactsuytssibtih yew 
,aban yih pwan kaou, yaw hae yih p wan shin, crimes aq^ 
^euniulated as high asmountaius, Hnd as d^n as seas 
:. ^ Uwaog^ irequenth occurs to denote, how mudr 
3)ore Y as ^ ^ p ^ hwang chung hwd hoo, how 
much .more (he central empire 9 ^ X 7^ Ut ifi ^ ,^ 
•A ^ 3L %: % # # fheen tseay ^h wei, urh yu jia 
boo, hwang yu k wei hoo, heaven is not adversOt how 
•fnuch les^i men, arid still ies&'Spints? %\ ShiUi is used 
&L ^^ se'nf^ ^-nsi^, but )eiN$ fiec^uently; QS ^ jlb ^ ;t 


^ dfe twe yew fc«e« fcowmQcbmorehc who has taleDta.t^ 
I ji W H win yuK, how inudb move' it may be said i^^^ 
Tae reader wU) eaaBy infer fVam what has been BaiA 
fte ili^asa of ibe Oimne language in this pariunilai^ 
tddanatteniiTis reading. of the above paragraphs will 
eaatie hka to eemprehend the greiU VHriety of.weye 
kf vbidi ihe ^omparatiTe is expressed. 

Id* The Chinese hare many words .like oof esAV*, 

itemKn^Jy^ isrtremeM almastj &e. b» H che,;g| kern, 

H ^"^^'-S ^^^^Hk ^<^S'^ tse^^^^Mn^ andH. tsin, 

lome of ymiA are placed bef{»^ the adjectires, and some 

after them. l%uff £ M the slnng, extremeh sacred; 

4fe M keih haou, very good; '^ ^^ ^ A mow jSik 

keih e, ^ery much dis^racedr # 4it 6 ^ ynng m&ng 

ekeih^^v^ry brave; yif^ ^ >4^ ^ tsaoii. k'hoo EeUi shin, 

he experienced intense raftering; ^ ^ tsny ishen, &xp 

tremely excellent; #, ^ 4g, H. ^ chetih yay e a^ey* 

ceedmgly virtuous; H Z i ^ km die die yay, iwr? 

Yiespeetfiu; :d| 3L fiff gae Vjmng che tse^ <xceedk 

injly painful- ^ ^ $, ^ ieang fi& cbe keib, he ei> 

joyed great happiness;^ ^ tatCT to, wrv much; t^ 
H 1^ Jl tsuy kwan kin yaoo, of fho Wbest importr 
ance; |t !^t tsuy seen» the Urat; ^ '^ 1^ ^ toay wel 
te yiht the very first; ^/^ ^ :^ hhig aeaug tsuy 
keifa^ ail exceedingly flourishing condition; §l ^ ^ 
^ "^^ K tsuy k^ou rhc yew lub chllih^ the h^est 
is five covids; '^ J^ shui she^ very right; 4: i^ doia 
haou, very jgooi; T> fi!ll>2: 4^ 4L^m ming che shio^ 
very dark; T #^ ^ k'ho-gae shin e, very ami- 
*Ue; $rM ^.8 S -^ )fi^ k« ^»ung ming shin put 
things his intelligence ist|uite unsurpassable; H s^ 
^ ^ mei sSi shin^keih, extremely beantifuL Instead 
of ^ -shm^ v^ shin^ ig sometimes used; from the resenv 
blanceofsmnidras^ ft shind^ung, very important; "H. 
% 7 #. shin wdkliohlbu very deteetable; and ibi^ 
also ^ te«r; as ^ .>?|. twu yieg, wry proper; ;f. -^ 

42 ookfAJunrs. e>AF. n. 

•fain,ioo 600 7^1 jj^ ixtt if ^ water bee«B« stiD deeper. 
and the fire ttiU faoittpr— £ TBi, k aoiMBd then oaed 
for wmn, «do $g j^-JBiiLi^^jooseiit^ 
beao«.)o(tbeuejihlntaa, whiter duD savw, and nd- 
der ttun blood; 7; dl9 9 # p<^ joo li'tno '^u* no- 
Aii^ tike dSi^ent eSort: in tfau ease it U used ^do- 
Bjnmwly with ^ jd, vhidt k ailcai precnled b; &e 
BcgKthre partkle ^ 1116; as j| ^ ifr £ so }6 keae 
■Bc^ there if nadung better than to die ti^tber. Sciv 
KDOeanf ibe latter dcacnptkn are of 6^ueBi «ceiuk. 
Tvntx :(m« alsotfac oegatiTe partkles.) as |t >fl ^ -H 
m<> tQ« yew khis, nomiug excedfisg this, or more-ifaaa 
■tiiis : X ^ ^ :^ mO ta che kung, so greats luents^ 
Jf" it^ TFi ^ P^ i<^ pub.wai)g, Ke had better &ot go; 
*t < ft S( ::i^ -W T' f<| yu te che «aou, puh ioo 
^h laaD,ittsbettcffiiatt0CDrr.e8taU,tlisn lu conie litfte; 
V2. Of tnevarisus wa^siii which oor vord maw 
ia expressed, notice the foiiuwiDg: ^ ^ V to un ftoL- 
three parts aore; ■}- ^ -^ abih to neeo, more 
than tea yeaxs; \ ^ ^- shih lae ae«n, ten yeats 
n ore; S — X kaouyihcldh, hi^ei oue covid; ^ 

} — i" twaa y2> tsuu, shorter one inch; T* T S 

.' p6b him wan EiD, not less than ten thousand taeU^ 

. ^ '^. A ihih yew yn jin, more than ten men; 
^ ft \ pih yew yu jin, more *haa one hundred n 

: ^ bt; romparadTe is alao occasio n aUy tndi:ated tiy bo 

; iotcrrugativu proDoun; ss 3t ^ ^ If seen s&ng ::hjih 
been, who ts witier than you. Sir. *£ com^.ati'ves, 

» the foHowiDg phrshceiuay be cited: it ;(|^ g^ ^yuen 
aiiiB)$ peib pe, a hundred dme& uwie distant. # ^ |}r 
r^rOt-*.^ ^ *"^ ^^bab tih ytm 

.^shin yib pwan kami. yew bse yih pj ^ ■ ' 

(,^niuliiled tui trigh Rfciuountainfi^ar 

c. 58* ilwfcug, frequentlv occuxf * 
aioreras :fL «p #, # hi 

jituiKh more the central 

Jioo. hvang yu 

4A 8imnMnr& cbap. ii, 

tcnttyutthefin Theeiaiiiple8ofiB^8hoot,a]«l^ ^ 

iii^pal^ K iliooe^ Teiy extraciidinai^: 

)Jl ^ # ^ smwweibwft yih^ veiy disditdilar; j^ 

1} M.4boo k^olilbi,T«»y hateful; #:>|^ 13^ ffi shoo 

'shtffi iob {rang, Tevy neglMtfiil; the hitter iBStaiices are 

of fiSq^ient Qtriin^nce in edicts. *- occurs 

less fremieiitly, and then generally in eoCopany with £ 

che. oiriL k1iae; asfL ^ 1^ t|^ hlme tse« heaou yu, 

Yeiy difetilrict orders* In edScts we also find ^ tsung« 

^ ke, infd l)^ -aln, nsed to express the superlative de^^ 

gree: l&tti ^ H ^ If tsung chung kew pau, ver; 

severely yroseeuted; |^ Jt ke yea, veiy strict ;^#^ 

^ le Nb yen, the new laws are veiy rigorous. iSi H&n,- 

16 used in Conversation ; as >$* ^4^1&ng.tib h^n, vcnr 

cold;i^ ^ ifi haou tih bftn« very good; ii5 b^ s»<^;*ri 

yi kin, if oceesionaUy nsed^ on account of the simiiaxi' 

^ of sound 

14«, There Mxe various other modes of expressing 
&e supeilative d^^ree, as jk. tliae; thus JL % tliae to, 
too niuch;iii!{ JL H :||. ho tliae woo le, how very 
rude ! H* It ^ ^ woo tsing fhae shin, vety unkind; 
Hi "ft ^ S tih hing fbae kwo^ vei^ virtiM)us, A 
Ta, is now and then used in the same manner; as^ 
A» i^ 19 yew ta fun pefe, or -K X^ H ^ ta pOh 
seang t'hung, very different '^ ^ Te yi^b, sometitnei 
occurs, as % ^ ^ te vih meaou, very dsooQent; o\ 
m ting, as ^ ^ ting haou, very good; alctb J: ^ang^ 
as i ii* shang haou, very good ; or Jt — ^ shaog 
yih^tSing haou, good in the highest degree; ^ 4^ K^ 
iS- tih ^e ^&h tfaou, very bad. 

\6. % Leang, is Hkewise used, bttt only in a few 
instances; as % K leang kew, fiir a considerable po» 
riod; %, % Bang to, ac^od many. Ihns also iff heu; 
Mff !K heu kew, very long; miff J5 heu to, veiy 
many ; 'fjf ^ heu dmou, very few.i^ Ebou, is emj^toy* 
id in the same nuoiBer; as if JL haou kew, a good 
9fhile; and more frequently ki convessation; as i(f ^ 
JHiaou ptth^ and less frequently if ^ haoii mub: thus 
kf T^ ^ ^ haott pah ping gan, veiy peaceful ;!*f 
T ->i lk baou pub bo tsQb) exceedingly harmimioiiM^ 

Tlie idea of the supetlatiir^ te a)qoex|iBesMd h^ the i^ 
pet^ion of the adjective; m % 'fi\kiOii )uKm, very 
Iiifi^; MS I!B ming ming^ vi»nf bright: or by adding 80iii^ 
Doon that pOBsesses the qualitj^ indieated by the adjeo 
live io the bigheBt degree: m X % t*heen haou, as high 
as heaven^ verr high; ^. $^ yen sfaiD) as deep as &e 
abyss, veiy deep ; ^ j|^ ^ i^he sae seuS^ paper that 
riisawi^ snow, very white. 

16. li Tseu^ is very often used before lihe adjee* 
tive to denote the superlative^ degree; as 1^ -& tseki^ 
meaou, vety excellent; |t!t Hi tseud mei, je^tremely 
beautiful :;f^ JH^ ptth shii^g, aT>d :^ \1k pdh kwo, the 
former put generally before, and the latter after the o^ 
jective^ are likewise of fre<|uent oecurrence; as ^ j^ 
^ Jih iung shing pQh sbing, insnrpassalily abundant^ 
K X^ ^ 1t^ $(l jin p^ hlio nhing soo, an innumei&i 
able host; #^ ^ \ft j*^ pflh kwo^ vetj hot; or in a coiP^ 
struetion like the following; >*. 9t |t A ^ J>fc 
kwae sd mo kwo yu tsse, insuirpassably swift; i^ ^ 
IL ^ M- chow g& shin ptth smng, desperately wicked 
H^ M6, is also used in the same manner; as ^ J;. ^ 
;^ m6 ta che kung, the high^t degree of merit; Jt 
lif^M .% ^ % i k^ kaq tan m6 (sze wei shin, dai^ 
tng eoiirage not to be surpassed^ w a phraise like the 
following may be formed; as ^ jt # ^ >5t T 
fiv^ jt kekwanleang wooekliokea e, or 4ft £^ ipf 
jr^ woo so k'ho k^a, such generosity is not to be ex- 
iteeded; f^ ffi # ^ ^ ^ti ^ kwae kw6 woo e ^h 
keache, excessively perverse; or the JoUowing || # , 
|l )^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ woo joo yu tssse. tn&urjmis^bly 
•cruel; Jt #.-#|fr^:?^Xke hwanhe Wf>^*-. pub 
keikhiui joy was unbounded; so also vk couyjursaiion, 
4E^ IL #§ 7 jf; # he hwan ileih leiKHi p&h tOi, very 

17* Before ckising &i8 subject,, we may observe^ 
that^^ nuincrais ^ wac, ^ tseen^ ^ j^, and ih ***^ 
are often used to denote the supei^lsve degree; the 
£lat and last m#st frequently; as jl| -if wan mMi vx^ 
ttensely aroodi + shih^ joined with ^ luu:; as. + ^ d&- 
shib fi» baou> Solos^blv good. This wocd^ fiiUN ^ 

■ kit 




n. tit - !^M««kwi yih. mj ^mSmOniJt. 

sttiifi NO t&VB^. Tvr; ncgtecdul; Ac htterwiiiitf^nt le 
of irequviii oCrum^Dce is cdielL — -te 1% tM£, aecns 
W«8 frMumiW. uid tltes geaesaOy m raanij witk E 

Verf £iK&Mtonlrr». In et&te we >ka fiBd^taon^ 
^ k«^ iaid 4| dko, lise^ to exprna tb« — yerUti ^e d» 
gr««: ibui ^ t 4. 49 tsUQg ch^iii^ krw pan, ^err 
•ererehrfnaecuted;!^ t kc ve-i. rery str-rtrif^yUt 
4in te liD t«d^ th« new Um uv rer)- rii^iruu^t. i^ Titmr 
ifrijfttnlin (-OttTeta»tkiu : •» :^ ^ ^ 'Ai:k '''" ^'& 
coW;*- -^ i/c. h»i'ttuhaan. wn ;:t^-'; 
y ^;n. ic t>ces8ioaaU> ih«< on aecounc of :he s 
^ of sound 

14. ThciT an T«ri«ii8 &&«r ntalai of eq 
tfM «up<9Hi»ti<ra degTM. as ^ t luw; tbua iL Ifr 
too mucb;«4 iL Jl -jl **o t^««^ i"roo le. h^m 
nidf t J*. <| *^ Jt woo l-mi^ t hae shin. Terr tmk 
H ^ A Jl tih hing t'htte kwo, ten; vi— uol 
Ta, u I'OVt »i>'l ihca us«diti th>:? t-xmc -naaav^r; 
j^ ^ « y**- t« ftiB )>«». i-r < r^ M M a 
gfeany t'hu"K. «•»■> itiffi-hnt < ■ T» ; 

it ting. M K 

as Ji ^ ^H^- -'U 

inBtanci^>; -i> '^- 
riod; ^ > It _ 
^13 .*. '^•:'* 


aaou ( 

g, iBj »5gl»: or ^ •ddmg . 


pHiiloa if *c 

Iii^;IS ^ wis 

mmftitliM iiiiatSMfi^Matjdbylhc mlfn^ 

inciBlkckMatdepKiM K % iliiRilw, ■ " '" 

Kkona. wT! hgk; 31 S yai itia, h det^ a 

■ifa II l> *aj <ble 

nc to ueBOBe 9k s^mimciv^ w^fK; 19 K ^ 1 
BCMv, iciy c3KdlieaK;K It toeut SMi, c itie iJ yjl 
beMriafbl: 7 » pfeb Ar«, «r^ .^ ^ fAk kir>. ' ~ 
fcttr put ftiM iiHy bdove, ud dw fatta dkr A* 
jtcfm, «e Onnic rffrgyiwt •aennwr; a> ^ tf ' 

A 9: T »|t pBpifelE'Wda^Mo.n MnoDBca^ 
dUr fet^t; UK «^ ti j^ pAh kw& Ttxy !>7e; fv ■ « «m»4 

■Mctwo hke tb; feOom^; A ^ ]£ J. J^ |b " 
fcwic i^ in.3 kwo y ^ae. wwnfp— My wrift; i^ ^ 

r ■»:> t* chf k^ifr ^ fcighfft degree of nmtt; X * 
^. Jl £ jt lb -S herkaaWw>fWPW«shin,du> ' 
E— BBWce eM to t» ■■fp— iimI, or > ■toase hke tk« " 
^^ be fcnn^r m Jt % ^ 9. ft H 

fekng wooek'bakea e. or Ifc 1^ ff 
~ L airh gg nerc aJ y i> not to Im tju -^ 
~ "^ ± knckwo voDtl 

>wa»JMjvtar, fiiMr|[' 

•0 iIm m 

|kckwnli»kM«fl* tt,<*qr 

t ids abiMi,. w —y »l> m. 

ri>*ll -)*««• Immv ■ 

48 psMOHAi FROiMnm. taiAr. m. 

also mie^ to fthew tlie gradatkm <>f epithets; as H^ ^ dtf 
lie fmi fisou, somewhat mmf If ji ^^ wMfos luuMi^ 
tqlerahly good /t ^ *5f shih fan haou, veij |;ood. 

'rheri^ are «ttlt a feti^ ptirasee that hx somie rare faw 
staticra explress fhe highest degree; as jQT 41 ehada 
keun, f JL i^b&Teih, JL ^ chj^ tseuS, # jQf chfr-ylri!^ 
.}if ^ ehlifih hiy, :^ i^ p6 t^niy, -g^ * # «^ ihknr 
chliSh choo luy, |^ ^ sae kwo, ^ ^ sae sliing^ alt 
of wliieh denote* anything above the common; so also 
^ j^ tsuy kwei) veTy sinM; % f^ v^6 kwei, inoif 
wu^Ad; $ -^ Jkae she* the most emioentiu the age. 




1. Wk may here |>remise, aR a general remark, that 
each personal pronoun, when put before th^ sulHitsn* 
tiw, cr ifv'henever it » followed 1^ i^ the, or ti tdh^ 
^6 gointivct particles, becomes possessive; as ilif H 
gbo kwA, our country ; -p: ^ J^ iL ffno teih pttng 
yew,inyi^end; ^ ^ ^ Jf^ jooche tso wei^you? ae» 
tHHis. The Rame particles also that form the phiiral of 
t^oifiis^ are employed in die declension ofpronouns: m. 
^ Iftng, H pei, m ^^^ 9 tsaou, and H^tse: (the finit 
and third by Tar the most frequent:) as 4!^ ^ goo t&ngi 
we; ^ ^ ^ mun, you. So also tfe S^ jB gno leang 
ko, welioiH-; i: ^ gnoleu, we aH of us; ^ ^l^ 
keaOj all y<%v ';w>i;Mns. 

2. ITie p? -riouns of the first person are ;^ gno, % 

^oo,:fr r^r >'^'»ji^ y*^' and4r tsft; w- S^ ™^^?> 

ai^?, sniactinfios ^' foo, nre i«^d, either in lo^ diale^tts^ 

our. jUt. . tmmoKAt wimiom. 47 

'3. "Hie Cfamew yerbs often imply ^e proii«un» m 
is'fte Gseitk and Lath) kaguages; thus ^ yu^, he ^'ji^d, 
H* kliaxi,v]|^0a see, 1 see, or he sees. >:^itice, hx^^Teyer 
fl^efe 18 ncrinflectioD m the Chinese, as is ^e leafired 
languages, to indicate &e person, it most be found <mt 
ty 'dietCODte^tt. Nothing is so repulsive to the Chkiese 
eaf, and llie geniiis of the language, as the Crequentiepe 
tilion ftf the personal pronouns. The |>68se6sh^ is 
likewise, in most instances, where pur language re* 
-quires it, omitted; and^nly where a stress is laad upon 
me word; it is at all employed. 

4. Instead of using die personal pronouns, the Cbi-^ 
nese adopt various mnides of avoiding it, of which we 
shall enumerate the pnncipal, whilst we refer the rea^^ 
derfbr the remainder to the Chapter on the epistalarj 

5. For the first pe^rson, either the name is sufasti* 
ioted/er the pronoun dispensed with; bj repeating the 

: suhject: thus ^ # ^ 1^ ^ ^ Kw6 woo nkng pan 
tsse sze, I (Ewd) ha^ fio ability &r managing this a& 
feir;.«^ M ^ *^ A 4r 1^ ik ai^^ M ^ "f^ 

wae sbane foo ta jin tae tseen, f iih ke chuy koo pun 
shang, (I^ tlie foreign merchant, repair to the tribunal of 
Your £.KcelIeney, and faombiy ask that you will <con« 
descend tD look upon (me) the merchant. In describe 
iag one's own office or pnfession, the t^rm intimating 
the seme yeiy ofteb bears the prefix;|w. {{un; 4ihu8 govern 
noes in thc£r edicts never use the personal pionoun, but. 
in Gpeaking of themselves, -put ;^ pun, i>efore &eir title; 

9st^^jt pu^ po^ ^^09 h the Governor; >^ P ^ 
pun kwan poo, I, the Hoppo: >^ ^ pun keen, L 
the district Magistrate; Jj^ jc p^)n ching, I, &e assis* 

'iant Magistrate; so that in a^ocumeot of soine" lengthy 
where we should employ the ^ronoun^ perhaps 40 timea^ 
in Chinese it would not occur, once. 

(5. There are, moreover, some cpnvectiDnal fonns, 
by which persons designate themselves. The niost 
common t(^ ;^ mow, such an one, and ^ yu, the stupid 

Hme, for I. Ib:^ Empror i}ses XL chin; kings, and 
fHSBoes, *# A kwa jmn, l^A koo lio. ^ --X y^ 

48 pBMCKvAf. vamwm, orap. m. 

yih jin, and ^ /J^^yuteaon tise; which t^rnid are 
|«^mps jemployed; in an affected tone of humility,, or to 
mitigate the power of their soTcreign sway, by the most 
humble deiignatioos. A minister speaking to bis niaa^ 
ter calls himself W^ c)^m : aMantrboo statesman^dtc. noo» 
slave; servants use >I* d^ seaou te1b,f||^po, and inferior 
officers, ^ T chc hfia. In common parlance between, 
equals, I is expressed by J% iL wan s^nff, and we by 
m. ^ wan pei; so also jip te, I; and^m te pei^ we^ 
The people in writing to their superiors call themselves 
H A tettjrjin^ sinners; (which fs also ui^ in aiMi*esse« 
to the Deity;) and M^e, ants; scholars and unlearned 
persons use |^ ^ heS s&i^, or ^9 ^ mun s^ng. A. 
tMfman speaking to her husband, calls herself # tse^ 
eOneubine, or ^ ^ pe ts^, handmaid: a son address-^ 
ing his father denominates himself jf^ "^ pilh seaou, 
^generate, or ph jfL seaou urb, ^e little br^: a daugh- 
ter uses 4^ ^ seaou njrti, the little girl ; and an old m«n» 
J^ jjt laoufbo, the old fellow. Thus there are for 
evety rank in life, degrading terms for expressing flie 
fi^ personal pronoun; asiu most oriental lai^^ges. 

7. The same rule applies to the possessive ; thus for 
my father, brother, &c. the Chinese say %^ 3i kea 
foo, the father of our fiimily; or^. ^foo tsliin, my 
beloved &&er; %. JL kifet heung, the elder brother of 
9ur household; and ^ j|^ shay te, the younger brother 
m cm cottage. A husband referring to his wife would 
wy ^ A nuy jin, the pei^oii within ; i^ $ nuy shih, 
the one at home; ^^ tseen fang, the vulvar one in 
ttieebamber;^ i^ tih&o,the bnely woman;4ii» #4 
chuiii kins^, tlic dvM thorn; ^ ^ san tse^my clownish 
wife; andjSr 1^ tseeu nuy , the mean person within. For 
my relation, a man would say ^ ^ soay ts^iin^ the cot-^ 
tagB ronnectioD; and for my son iC ^ keixen tsse, tlie 
uppy;formjp^^m)ily,j|C ^ ban kea, the cold house* 

a; for my noose, ^ it han.diay, the chiHy cottage; 
and foe my servant 4> ^ seaou keae, the little boy. 
The most common a^ectives used for iha. purposes of 
self depredation arel^tsSon^ ba6e;i^pe, vik^; ^ 
fihay^ji)^ «eaott^ wd ^ leu^: as )^ ^taoen 4i#i vsf 



mean surname; ^ B pe kw6, our vile country; "^ 1% 
aha; hea, my low cottage. These humiliatii^ forms of 
expreasion are sointervroveu vvith the Chinese language, 
that the omission of them, and the substitution of the 
timple pronouDS, would be very ofTensive against the 
taste of this extraordinary people. 

8. The second personal pronouns are ^ joo, ^ nrh^ 
snd in eo&Tersation^ ne ; jt nyu, is occasionally used 
Ibr^ joo, and^ne, for^f^ne; on account of the simi- 
krity of souod. In ancient books we find occasionally 
7i OMgJIjI^ j6j anddlftt joo, for the second personal pro- 
aoun. Thus j^ j}^ ^ J^ nae foo nae Isoo, your &ther 
nd grand-father; ^ ^ )t;^ too nae sin, examine your 
kart The remarks we have made above on the first, 
^\j also to the boc^nd personal pronoim. 

9. t As in the instance of the lirst person, there are 
eoQTentional iern)s used as substitutes for the secpnd 
personal pronoun. Thus townrds inferiors the name 
is Aow and then used: eouals axe addressed by i^ J^ te 
heuag^ brother; or jib ^ seen s&ng, teacher; ;ifg ^ 
seang'kung. Sir; ^ J^ jin heung^ benerolent lm>iher; 
M^ X' }aouheung,venexaUe farraier;^ ^ tsun kea, 
Shr;4C JL keashang/ ditto ;X ^ henng cliang, elder 
brother;^ ^ a ko/ brother; ^ ^ heung tae, or ^ 
JfL tae heuhg, ^exalted brother: and ta a lady jj^ :jiL&^ 
tseay, sister. All these nvtrds infF^r the eminence or ex* 
eellencd of the peason addrsssed^ hut are used in com^ 
moD conversation in the same way as our jftm. If a per- 
son have any official rank, tibat is then JDaeationed. 

iO. As ocHiourable expressions tofwards superiors, 
we may nem^ the followingrA A ta jin,J|^ ^ A' 
laou ta jio,J|^ A i^ 1&<^ ^ f<K>, which are used eii^t^ 
to venerable perscoSy or people in high rank; as vener- 
able Sir! wyonrExedlency f To teachers, or Mntle* 
men are applied 5t ^ seen st^g, teacher^;^ ^ i. 
)bou seen sling, venerable teacher -J^ JL iL Wimi tae 
tae, venerable superior; ^J(L jl^ ^ ta laou seen 
a&ng, great and venerable teacher; orj^ H^Ipja sse, 
venerable instructor. Spiritual guides ar^ addieaaed 
as ^ 3t shin foo, spiritual father. To mcai ka office. 


orpvopk- nbo have great capital at their command, 
they mL\t ^# laou teay, venerable father; JL #• ta 
yay, grea: Sire!:^ ^ laou yay, venerable Sire) i;. 
M» ^ ta laou yay, great and venerable Sire! the latter 
is addressed almost exclusively to MaiidatinS of high 
rank, whiie to persons high in the military service, 
JL fl^ tae sze, great general, is used. The Emperor 
is addressed by ||^ j)| ^ wan suy yay, the sire of ten 
thousand years ;:|^ i shing choo, the august lord; 
l!l T\ pe hea, Your Majesty ; jL M. '^ la hwang te, 
the great Emperor; ^ ± hwang shaag, his Imprrial 
Eminence, and similar titles: iu letters n vaiicty of other 
eifpressions are adopted, of which we I:^ha]l j?peak liere- 
after. We may just remark, however, that iv every rank 
of life, there are certain expression to convey an idea 
of the esteem in which one holds the person addressed. 
Thus Confucius called his disciples jJh ^ seaou tsze, 
little children ; or Z. 2. ^ urh san tsze, my twt> or 
three lads; while they, en the other hand, c«>tled htio. 
^i^ woo tsze, our sage; or simply 3f^ tszc, sage; 
n^reare a variety of other words prmcipally combined 
wafh ^ fan. a pattern, used for you, in highly flowery 
IffDguage, as .^ ^ kwang fan, the bright pattern; ^ ^ 
tSefaii, exalted pattern;^ 1^^ ven fa?i, strict pattern; 
a^-d ~|t "16 ^^00 fan^ lu'gent pattern. :^ Yen, counter 
nance, seems likewise to be occaoionally applied thus: 
as '^\^ tae yen, your exalted countenance;^^ c 
yen^ your proper demeanour; andJE. :^ heung yen, my 
brother's countenance. So also |^ tae, and *a tae, in 
vaiiousways: as^ 8. ^ laou tae tse, venerable Sir! 
t? a tae foo, your honoured name; •& -% tae kea, 
emhient Sir; ^ ^ tae ting, an epithet applied to the 
Ibree^^ highest officers in the state; and a great number 
of btiier expressions. Several persons are addressd 
by J>l| , ^ le^ wei, gentlemen ! instead of H <|^ urb 
ting, ycm. 

11. Onet of the most common words used instead 
ofthe possessive pronoun of the second person is ^ 
ling; honourable; as ^ Jt lingbeung, your hbnouf&ble 
bntber; 4" t| ling tsun, your bonoured father; ^ j^ 


ling tang, your respected mother; 4^ $f linglang, yoiir 
honourable son ;-^^ ^ ling gae, your exceller.t daugh- 
ter; likewise called^ ^ tseen kin, your treasure; 
80 also ^ i ling «hing, your good wife ; 4" ^ ling 
chung, your favoured concubine. I n t h e same sense ^ 
liwei) noble; andl^ tsun, honourable, are also used: as 
iK H kwei kw6, your noble country ;H|^ J$t kwei 
Uiifir, your noble age; :^ ^ tsun miag, your honour- 
ablename;^^ fang mii^, your fragraiii; oppc^ilation. 
A few terms less used are ^ kaou, high ; Jo. steiDg; «x- 
alted; and # shing, full: as % ;j&. kaou sing, your ele- 
vated surname; Jt # «?hans: foo, your exalted house, 
1^ l|i shiusf pang, your prorvperous country. The rea* 
der will not fail to remark, that all these a(UJatory ex- 
pressions arc just the i>pn<jsite of what is in use for the 
first personal pronoun,. U'here every epithet is employed 
that call convey the idea ci itifcri^rity: so much for 
Chinese politeness. 

12. The most common word for liie tfciiJ p8rc»r-a^ 
(ironoun in literaiy composition is ^ ke, he: ot ^% /V 
he jiu, that man; which is used in all cases, and btaii»* 
for he, she, it ihey, them, his, her, its, and theirs ; with- 
out the addition ot the. particles that convey the idea of 
Ihe plural 1 hus ^ ^ 3^ ke so wei, that which he 
does ; j^y tt ^ M wei ke so h w6, was led astray by 
him;^ ^ ke yen, his or her words ;^ ^ ke chung, 
in the midst of it. In conversation i& Vha, is employ ed ; 
while the plvival is formed by the addition of flH mun. 
^ Pe, that peii<>D, is more literary, and is likemse 
used like ^ ke, but of. less frequent occuiTencc:];^ e, 
he^ may be found-now and then, and is turued into the 
plural by the addition of ^ tSng; as ^^ e tkr.g. th. y ; 
this word occurs frequently in legal papers and jcdidts^ 
but not elsewhere : the constant use of it in our transla* 
tioa of the Bible is unsuitable : J^ nae, occurs in ancient 
books: as :^ 3S&: jfe T ^ ^ nae tseu hwuy hea wan 
woo, ho assembled tin* e''vil and military authorities 
imderhis banners. There arc also-* two local wecda fat 
the third personal pronoiui:. viz. 31 &^'U acdH ^ 

52 mBciPiocA]!:* f-jicniouv0; ckaf. ul 

keu nung. OAKirwise 4^ noons are poVro jt* ig nyu 
yu^, she said; ^ f|E p5 ts6^ (be aenrant did it 

i 3. For Che oblique casea ^ che, meaning him^ 
hermit, or thein, i» the most frequent: as ;}T ^ ta <^e, 
beat him, her, it, &c. j||<£ ^ keu chjih che, diive 
Ihemaway. In ancient books' we find, a poieesaive 
pronoun Ji^' ketiti, which is exclueavely used f(Mr this 
mrpoae: as "f" jpt^ %Mi fSc 4^hang keu^ tAi, pisiou 
keue w^, he who preserves his virtue, maintaina his 
throne. Otfaen#iisei||l tsin, own, and |^ ke, his, are fiff 
more frequent. f( Tsze, may occasional stand finr 
he, or she; and ^ she, for it; as 4^ A X i. seaou Jm 
fiin she, the inferior man reverses it In a construction 
like A ^ ^ foo tiih chay, he who reads, it foo, 
might be to stand for the tiwd personal pro- 
noun, but more of this under the relative. 

As a general rule we have remarked, that tiie third 
personal pronoun is less in use t^n bbj of the others, 
and that the na me or noun often replaces it. The 
language being devoki of grammatical rules, as we 
undeistandl theni, mach obscurity is thus avoided. 


14. nieredpitxail pcontnins are ti tsae, E ke, 

% d tsaeKe j^tsaekra,^ J| t6(@ahiQ,j^ ^ 
|nm shinJl^ kung, J| sbiA, and^tsin. These are 
joined with tlie personal pronouns; as^^ ^ £^ gno 
iBseke,! mvself; ^ f ^ ke t86,lie himMlf did it;i0L 

^ tsialae^lie luBiself came; j(^ J^ ^ pun sheglio,OT 
^ ^ j^ ^ she gno punaliin.itis Imyaelf; ^ fl 
||. jk tsaekeawootseen^hchimseUthasgotno monejr; 

g W 'd £i tes^ ^^^ ^^^ ^> ^^ injured himsdif; 

t ^ d ^ ^^'^ nwan tsze ta&h, self-sufficient; j^ 
'% 5t ^ shin weitligentsae, being himself Emperor; 

3t ft 1$ Jt^ f^ ^R l^^Rg kllRg) ony &ther himself 
3ploug^ed; % Ji ^ '^^ ^^^ P^^ *^^K> h^ himself 
dkuiBt move; ^ tL 41^ ^ ^ tsaeke wooleang mow, 
jvd oirrseives ha% oofca»ble plan; ^ ^ tsin |^, an 

autogira{i9b ;Wi ^ tein ^&Wi \m own band, in opposvtiDu 
to that of aao(bec;lPL ^^tsin >u, o^elf praise; IfiJiiH^^ 
ktiikftjssiA 'p^ and danced; J$ 

^ % ^' '^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^' ^^ ^ ^^^ work himself; 
^ ^ M ;^ Jiiokuiig woo leih, 1 myself have no 
9ibtenpk; ^j^if^ kung^ my trifling body, is an 
hunibie expression for myself; 49 1l ^ A- tOh tize 
;^?h.jin, 1 myself alone; 'g ^ tsae sbe^ self-righteous; 
4h ^ k6 tBse, radi one himself ^^ || pe tsze, others 
together with oniy's-sdf;^ "^ & )2l ^411 jinyihke 
€& gae ts^Qgf to follow ones own partiality or passions; 
^% i ife^JSJ^Ii A che yew ke, uih ptth The 
yew lin, to adirert merely to one's o wnself and not to 
adrert to bihen: L e. selgsh* llie above .will elnei* 
date the manner in which the reciprocal pronoun is ap- 
plied. Whenever there is no stress upon the personal 
pronoun, it is omitted. 

15. The term used to express mie^iia% is4€ Beang^ 
with its compounds JSL ^ boo seang, % ;^ ts^e seang, 
5^, ;^ te seang, ;f8 J^ seang ying, ;fB ^ seang tuy, 
i^ % seang e, ;)f| M »^ngching,;Ja i seang boo, 
together with 4^ pe, j^ tsze, and ^ kin: as :^ dl^ 
seang haou, on mutual good terms ;J|. ^ jf^ 1^ hoo 
seang ho myh, mutual harmony; 1^ ^ ^^^^S 
tsing seang ying, disuositioas eorrespondtog to each 
other; $ ;# jifg fl fookwei seang tuy, riches |ind ho- 
nours which correspond to each other; ^Hi^ JUt X l^v 
«(t;*po tsze hoo e chang, this and that man dmead <m 
each other; ^^"^^ ^ pe tsze yew tsuy, taere wft 
finiUs on both sides; ^ ^ tsze hoo, mutual mgaid; 
"^ Wt ^ i^ MJSi yifa tscikfn y rvr seaag kwan, 
there exists on the wdie a mutual relationship. 


16. Hie demonatraiave pronouns are jib tsze,^ sae, 
^ tsze, ^, she,^|^ chay. ^ foo, and 4^ ke, for. tkU^ 

&e latter also for thnti^ witti% ^ay,^ pe, and||& na, 
for that. Th«ae aye tilm|S put bdSore die noun, except 


^ cha\ , which is strictly speeking ^ reiatire pronoun. 
]^ TKvrti. and $1^ o\\«y^ hriv^ frcqttepl^y the sign oCthc 
pUiral atu-f^tiied. The foj lowing evpvnpies may iUv»5- 
trate their use. 

17. Jib ^ ^ ^ Tsze ihufti^ wang hing, this sort 
of disreputable conduct; fio ^ p^ ^^ tsze t^ng gcS 
t'boo, this kbd of ivorthless fellows; ift: 3S ^ A tsxe 
viic wei ysy, this is what v^as sr.ivi ; ^^' >t? ;i(:; wang yew 
tsze^ I hope lor this: :vb Wu yu tsze^ m tlm place; Jtt 
^ ts»e how, from this time; ^ ^4 ^^*^ ^^'^w, after this 
time;:Jp JJL jootsze, thus;^ sze, is rather t^paringly 
used; it occurs in the phrases ^ ^ sze she, at this 
time; ^ ^ ^ ^ tsae sze low sbih, iu this mean 
house ; ^ Jif 2^ ^ J^ kc sze che wei yu, is not thi% 
w hat was said ? -^ (^r \^ Jfif ho sze wei sze, why trans- 
gres9 iu this instance; X i^i ~M M t'haey5joo sze, it 
is in general thus; ^^^ A ^ P^ h^ ji^ sze, wha^ 
man is this. i& Tsze, is not exclusively used as a de- 
monstrative, but is sometimes taken to form adverbs; 
as ^ j|u tsze fung, 1 have now received ; i!| + ^ ^ 
J^ Q tsze shih yufe shih luh jih, now in the tentii 
month, outhe 16th day; or^ tszej'^fe^ tsze chay, 
is frequently used at the opening of a discourse, es« 
pecially in letters when the real contents are broached: 
^^"^ kin tsze, now; '^ ^ neentsze, thinking about 
Ihis;;^ "^ tsae tsze, here;^'J^ tsung tsze, from 
hence. J^ She, occurs in the following combinations; 
as ^ j^ahe she, this time ::^ ;j|.yu/sbe^ or f ^ yu 
she, thus; ^ ft ±^ ^^ itMigshifcch^shcjOr ^ ^ ^ 

tyu she rfi;- siie-, at this tim.ei^ X ^ht jin, lW& maa; 
^yungsm. ots thi&;-J|^ i^ shekoo, on this 5c- 
count ; j^ Bi! >^\>e Uib, \ht'ix;^ 1ft sin c, Uieiefo^i 
t^'^ >^ Joo she, thus; k ^ tsze ehe^ and ijis :^ yu she, 
from hence ;^ ^ »}^^shesohau chay, it is this 
that he hates. ^ 

18. if. ^ Chay sze, this business ; )!. "f^ A chay 
ko jin, this man ; (conversational)^ Ij^chay she, at 
this time; ^ ^ chay le, here; $|^ -^chay yang, in thin 
Rjaaner; 5^ ^ chay pwan, in this way ; and ^1, ^ chay 
^^;r.:r, these. iL Ke. otherwise the tlird personal irro- 


•aotro^ is frequevxtly used for the ctcmoDstraKvej cc;pp«n. 
ally in good writing: ps.^ A kejin, this, o?' llial man, 
^ Dr ke s?:e, lhis;^> .:§ ^mS^%ke^6ho ??i>br yen, 
how can this be described m words ;ig ^ ^ ^ ]^ 
urh ping min kc yung, you soldiers ard j>cople ti'V 
using this ;|t J^ fce yay, Omt night: $: ^i^ ^ it k* 
shwuy ehe che, who can know this '? ^ Chay, .conve^:^ 
our idea of the deinoijstrative, in all those crs^^ where 
it is followed in ov.r lanffUGffe bv a relatJTe; ^?; 
"whOj that wiiich: thus )j|| ^ ;^ shun vvoo cii ly, ?.^o^>c 
whooiiey me: :=- ^ ,7^ "^ ^ t!t iirhchay puh k'ho 
tih keen, ihes^ \^\o thiiigs cannot be had together; 'It 

•# ^ ^. 31> ^ i:il gae woo chay, gno yih gae chi?. 
those who love me. I also love them. 

; 19. ^ A Pe jin, that man; Jfc -- ^ ^-||- pe 
yih she, tszfe yih She, that was one time, this is another; 
j^ -ffe tsae pe, in' that place ;^ A ^^a jin, that man; 

Up ^ 1^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^' ** *^^* *^^^* Jp IB ^ ^a ko 
tszp, that boy;fj5 ii® A >if>.?. :^: ^ &^ r.a ko jin 
puh she gno sh& teih, ii is ric t I who killed that man 

As demopjiitraiives migh* also be coni-ide -od words 
of the following class, iff. wei,jjft wei, and tst Vv'ci, v* hen 
combined withB^ she: as^ ^ wei shCe rit that time; 
also-^ ^ kin neen, th?s jear;;^ Jg pnn yne, thiy 
month. In like manner >^ "^ yew choo, it is thn^^*; 
and several others : but as they only convey these mean- 
ingps in those particular instances, they cannot lay full 
claim to this name. The demonstrative is occasionally 
^pensed with in sentences like the following: as ^ 
1^ ^ ^ ^ y^ g^G gae yu chay, I love those who 
love me; ^k »R ^ -§• t§f A g^ h^n hftn woo teih 
jin, I hate those that hat<!* me. 


20. These are only two, viz. ^ so, and^ chay; 
lint their use is so much varied, that it is necessary to 
give a number of examples in ord-r to exhibit their full 
V>xc« aod medmn&; 


21. Thusj^so^in the following -Bentence ^ >^ 
1^ ^peih yew so sze, be must have •something^ of 
which he thinks; )^ ^ ^ H so Wfti fuh 16, that 
which is ealled happiness and pleasure; J9f ^ jK Jff 
go yew ban keen, all those who are traiterous Chinese; 
^ ^ ^ It ^ woo . so yaou che wiiii, the thing 
which I. want; W\ % ^ J^ \ so wei cliey pejin^tlie 
manwhotloes it; |^ ^ J3r >X^.^ ^ * she ke 
so e, kwan ke so yew, look to the motives by which he is 
guided, the principles from which he acts;^ jSf j§|^ 
ke so yah, that which he desires; ^ % :^ i& ^ 
80 wei chay bo sze, what is it that he is doing*? j|| ^ 
^ ^ ^ Jfe*'diaou ting so e lae chay, the man on 
whom the court depends ; A J^ ikj^^ so bin, that 
which m^ hate, or hateful to mankind. The word ^ 
BO, is sometimes used with the passive construction, as 
In the following instances: :|9t 1fe j^ ^ pet'hasohae, 
injured by him; % j^ A )9f M» ^^* foo jin sohwd, 
it was bis vfife that led him astrry ; or led astray by his 
vdfe. It is often fnreceded by IJi woo, not; or-flS" bo, 
what; as 4fc K ;^ % woo^so ^ub wei, he allows him- 
self to commit every thing; literally there is nothing 
that he does ncrfr do; H- M >f^ H* woo so pub nJing, 
there is notbing.tbat be is unable to do; omnipotent; 
^ "^ ^ % ho so p&h cbe, what place is there to 
which he do^ not go; ^^ X^ ^ boo so pub koo, 
wbf t4«4bere upon whi<^ be does not bestow attention % 
Q;*whete dots be not iMkt Hjf^t is, ^^ lo9)u every 
where; or thus JL ^ J^ ^ i|u ke so yew. all that be 
has, or whatsoever he has ; JL 1^ % ^ fan so mae 
mae, whatsoever he bought and sold; Jt. ^ ^ ^ 
fan so k€»ott yew, all with w^hom be associates ; ^ ^ so 
e, means the motive from which an a^ti<m springs ; also 
therefore ; ^ *fi^ so tilisg, that wkicb m suitable, one's 
Aaty. This pronoun never adopts^ tSng or any other 
plural particle. It may, however, be preceded by it 
ebe, as in the following sentetice: U "^ fff ^ # 
^ It ^ ^ kliQw ofae so sung fei sin che so che^ 
wlMit it teeitfKl by tbe mouU^.is not always that whiek 
is known by the keart. 


22. The o^t.i of;^- chay, is still more varif^d. li 

oftL'n s'.Tve?* to loriiilsuhi^rar.lives lor other words: as 

^ ^ sheivchiv, the vhtvitoUd. !. e. lie who Is virtuous; 

}^ ^ htio elravr, the .stuiltiit. i c. be wJio studies; 

A §^ 4 '^ ^ ^^ ^-* ^^^' ^''^^■^ >'*-^ ^^^^.^ * '*'^ ^^»^ 

yay. this ir» :!io studying of the kih-kujg to .:>./:t-ri, >^ 
X^ X 15. ^ j2;i gi^<^ j«5^ «^ay jinhang:gae chts» he 
whr>)ovos iinvay{S beloved by ir\ev:]ft ^ % 
)^ -^ yC 'ffir ^^'''<" '^^if-^^ ^■^^i ciiiiig chav tit * snuu. this 
.s Imi. ' "fitriraDceof tnose v,bo irovom wo-l; 60 iiisa in 
vVV.[ii'^nii'H'>j;,> rnir! »";.'• I h^.itiODS; 3:i.s ilj j^ ^, ;;^ vS* shau 
chay tM.uoj» c]i^:\«<en>U'ills are the soiirces-olfoaG rains; 
'B§ ^* A. '/t >^ 'i;r fj Hi^ ^it <^^^ jir chc r>o tani? 
hnni \.?v, 'ir*".e .'-^ tlr.'j* nliic?„ ou.rnr te br rm:*.: .c«iJ !*v 
men /( rt vci'*r to!3onK**:hincy gozr.g baovv /. i;? j>re- 
ceciedby nfc yay^:'-A*i^ >ii ;^ Ghang y&y C:>uy. tiu: ap 
bovc nitinhart; Phra.^\»s like tnc? foliowag occur fre- 
quciit]-; in ihc bocii r/ritci:: ts ?^, ^ .^ ^ 1^ ,\ ^ 

;fe # )^ A i?:: ^ ^^ ^' loohcpouruvo^.f!, i-:** 

iiR cbc: s-:ie, shei; shJy^ jin che szc chay yriy, .-^/-^al i.-'e- 
(y-cofin.sis in s^iilfeHy can \ing out people's dcsi^x-s. uiid 
M a|m^>pr;a^^!y^.To^dMlg tlioi^ doiiji^s, (tha^is, a tilial 
chi)(l ie?»ii v(1j:c ihb- iiiVn^ions of his parentb, and t'lirr;: -ties 
?roor'' *>'>:;?. voniTi.if».Tit u\)on their actions. ) Mark ^iso 
tht; fblk-^viair sont^Acefe; as R, B ^ ^ % ^^ 9SH 
$1 ^ ^ TT^iri jih tseea sheniUrh pub che we: '.he 
.!hny. -ilu propl^^ Ja5ly advanccin virtue, withoui know- 
mgth?*J tl'oy (ioso:/^;';^ # # ^ fF^ >fe ^ *# 
-J^ Vei yvw li»;o y^ng't^3e;*ijrh how keachiiy ya\. tLire 
t^.re no fifrj: ale^iVwlto/'firJ) loam to nurse chiidrtii ?*ad 

nfterwards rCiiiTTyiiiUit j^ ^ ^ ^ ^ M ^^t joo 
tsze chay, tsae keih ke diin chay yay, thus calamity will 
riflfect his person;. -^ J^ ^^ t'ii ^hay pun yay, virtue, 
is the n»arri ihinar^ 

23 "I'he bilativc .s sometimes understood, in 
which casr- )2^ che, uiiv^ ^ t ih are used. Thus % ^ 

"St .^'^ v-'Oo yorw cheviih, the ink I have;|!^ ^ ^ 
"Wt< t!t w^ '^ PS .^--^ P^^'^* sint'ha s^wateihsin wftu, 

I do not believe me VA^^h Jie rells: |^ ^^ ^^ it W*^^ 


gae chiB nyn, tbe vc^an I love : tind sometimes the a- 
hove Bamed particles are omitted : as i^ :j| A ^ ^ 
tyei yew 3m keib Tba there is noneta equal him; ^ 
^ "Sf dr k'han hoo keun sze, the soldiers who beheld 
Ae corpse. 

24. The prbofpal interrc^tive pronouns are^ 
shwuy,^ shuh, and 19 ho; eacb of which is used m 
vnriouB wayis, as may ht seen from the following ex- 

-5. ^ ik Sbwuy kan, Ttfho dares'? % A fihwuy jiii, 
what man "^ ^ tp she shwuy^who is It ? -^ f^ ^ 
nae teih shwuyho^ to whom is it of consequence? ^^ 
fa ^ shwuychc tsze, whose aoatM ]^ ^shwuy 
kea ;s2e, the son of whose family ? J^ ^ ;j% |i jl^ 
t^ze wuh she shwuy teih, whose are these tfain^? ^ 
^ ^ ^^*y 8^^ ^^ ahwuy, wiio would pass by nfe? . _ 
%l Z^ )& [^eshwuychekwo^wiiosefaaltisit?.^ J^ 
^ ;f^#pub keih joo keih shwuy, if be does not give It 
you, to whom will he give it?*^ «f^ H i5" ke chung 
ahwuy baeu, who amongst them is the best; or In coo^ 
versation itiHt^ ffl ^iS' t'ha mun ie f how shwuy 
faaou, ditto. ^ ^ -^ 1^ hm «3awuy, whosoever; ^ 
^ 1^ m woo wun sbwt:^ ho^ whichsoever; ;f; ^ 
jft ^h keu shwu^^ bo matter who. 

26. Hl HL Sb6h nSng, whois able? or X ^ ^ 
2^ ke sfauh nkng che, ditto. ^ jtl |^ ^ we che shuh 
jsSe. we know not which is ri^t; ^>f; if j^ 4C^ shuh 

fh k'ho jin yay, what e^amoi he borne ? J& ft ||> 7 
i ^un shuh <^ pifli rouh, w»?t^ whom wo»ild Your 
Majesty find a deficiency ? !|l. -J^ |fcr ^ ^ shiih 
yjiea shuh die yay^ what can he wish for that he does 
iHlt obtam^^ i^ ^ ^ .^ ^ Jl^l^^w nac hiug 
fthen cbay shvUshing, whois it mat excels in virtue 
and patience? ^ "^ pL ^ ^ J^^^^'^o seaou 
shuh shia, k'ho >{ae sbuh ^bin, can anything be u^^r^ 
riditirlouSjCaD aDything be more lamentable ^ 


27. 13" $ Ho sze, what business * ^ ^ '^ |[j 
ke koofao tsae, what is the cavise^ ^ ^ x^ ^ ^ 
ho yew yu gm> tsae, what is that lo me ^-dhi -|i^ i^joo 
yu ho, what can be done for me* Jt !jt ^iJf ke jno 
ming ho, nhat can he do against fate ? '^ Jt A. t^* joo 
chinjijin ho, bow can he rectify others^ "fei' 1^ 2f ^ 
betihcbe^wuy, what afallragoffin virtue! -^ ^ A 
iS sheho-jinchaj, what man is that? ^ ^ -^ X S 
'keaou hwan ho jm urh, to whom did you restore ft ? ^ 

S 1'? ^ joo bwan hoping, what sickness have you 

foftS? ^ 's -^ % i^f' ke ye3 ohav wei ho, what were 
is words? 1^1 % ho kaou, how high ■? or what is the 
lieigfat ? or j^ ^ $ kaou ke to, or ill :^ "f^ Itaou 
joo^bo.. bow hi^ is if?^ -jl" wei ho.-ftr ft bo koo^ 
]B -ftr jin ho, all signify why?-W £ -iP :A ha che 
ioot62e,howiBitcoine to this extent"? ^ '^ 
IS it? at the end of sentencos, and -iff ^^ joo ho, how'i in 
what tnannsr" a' thptr begioniog, 1^5 ^ H ^^ ':^** 
yew ho woo, who has, and who lw9 B0t¥ P\ ^ fao 
ehlioo, what place ? where ? ^ ^ -filf A piih Ian ho 
jin, whosoever; ^:^ -]irA J^ pechay ho jin ste, 
what is that man ^ m '& ;t ^ )^ ^Q c^*^ y^^< ^b^' 
need of vexation V 

28. There are other words which occasioHslIy 
Btand as adverbs, and at <4her times as mtertogative 
pronouns Thus ^ chow, occurs in a very fr.v; instan- 
ces foi who ? as ^ )(§■ i<| Jlfe tsze tseang choiy e. 
whom will you depend da ? ^M shin mo, or -ff ^ 
ahih mo,wiUi % ^ tsSng-mo, or merely^ shin, aee 
of very frequent occurreuce in convwsation. (See the 
rfiapter on interrogative particles.) Thus "It -S Mi 
shv; o shin mo, what do you say ? t^ .^ St. 1il ^m 

t^ joo k%Bn chay ko tsSng mo Vang shoo, look 8t 
1, and see what kind of book it is;;g ■€ Jft y^" 
shir, nau, what difficulty is there "^ X- A -§ ^ g)t 
•£ ^ puh t'huDg tih fha shw6 sbin tao^ I do not ud- 
der&land what he says. ^ ^ Na ko.efcur8 f« flAfur j 
M ^ ilp jS 4^ ^ ^ she aa k« teih shew peib^ 
whose writing is this ?' A iSF ' 'flS A •))** a» yi^ 


liojin, who 5«^ that? ^ HfV,^ k'he, antj^y^n, are 
orcRsroiiaUv used instead af'JS" ho. 


29. They are ^k6,'^.meu and 5^. — chiih ylh. 
The use of each of them will be be>t Jiiiiotratcu hy ex- 
auiples. Thus-^- ^ ko kw6 every naiwn; ^ "^ 
^ %: ko yen ke che, let each one spertk hiB ov.n opi- 
nioa , ^ ^ ko sih.r^f all shades, or descriptions ; -^ j^ 
ko bang, every article; H K ^ ^ J^ ^ leaiigjin ko 
yew pun sze, of those two. each one is endowed witL 
talent; -§- ^ ^ i^^ ko yu ke tang, every one in his cwa 
clan; -#- ~ A ko yih3in,ofeach one man; ^ \ j^ 
J^ k6 jin ko keen, each has his own peculiar opinion ; 
^ ^ ^ M k6 k5 cha pefe, differinu from each other; 
^ ^ ^ ^ k^ pau ko sze, every o>^e managing* his 
own business; ^ ^ ^i^ ko hwan bo teih. kt ^ach 
one have his own ; ^ J\^:^ i^f^^o 3 in too e ke, ^ach 
one adopted the plan; ^ ifQ :^ :^ ^y seang fc6 ko, 
each one for himself; ^ Q yj^ ^ko tsze hw^n chen, 
every one fought at random ; single handed ;-§- fft ko 
keu, each or all; ^ ^ k6 kung, all unitedly: ^ j^ ko 
choo^ every where. So also ^ ^ chCih yih, each: 
^ ^ 2^ ^M ^® y^ <Avo\x chuh, he desired each one in 
particular; .^ U ^ H chuh jlh so sen, what was 
wanted every day; ^ ^ chuh keen, every kind. In 
like manner we have -g- A mei jin, every man;^ -^ 
^ ^ ixiei yih keen &ze. every affair; # J^ meishe, 
each time; $-^ mei mei, always;^ ^g^^ j^ ^ mei 
yfih s^ang how, I have frequently wished to wait 
upon you in person ; -S- ^ ^ mei sze w^n, he enquired 
about every matter. 

30. Both is expressed in the following manner: ^ 
^ j^ '^ ^ '^ ke urh jin' keae seay tsze, both of 
them are writing; i& fll % ^ 3^ leang ko too j en 
ping, l)oth of them have contracted a disease; 1^ -f?*? 
^ 1^- fp^ #1 i'^a mun leang ko hng le, both of them 

aro shrewd; ^ •# J^ \t\> urh kung yung -^in, they 

CHAP. in. INDKiriNiTf'; i'llANOIWH;- ^t 

both exei-finl thcinsciro; jf^ ^ ^ 3R ^i fieung to 
kcBn mT) fsK bom ( ln' c/der ami yo^iiij/or brother Ikivc 
Ira nbf{i*C5:«"^d the law; {^ -fjL ^"; H^ y leung "Aei nhrh 
tan ieuoij. or ^ ffe fS- ^ ^ leaiip woi ken shih Jan. or 
^ "^"W- 3 *oo shih tail leaou, \ou both have eatc^n, 
*jk '^ >r >"?! rj^* ii* * ^^'^^ kc yew che, wo Ixvth have 
our .M?veral jnic^nlion^; 4"-. !?i: -$i -^ jS i^ 'ft "^ 
nmh IseaiJg yii rtt:ib iseaotr pingls^ ?i^«ng. both fhe car- 
pentf T '<^t\Ki it^mi' h ai>r at wiu'k at tlii> bo> , ^ ^ ' C" ¥l| 
too *b>(j -k-*ift t?io»s bath fathrr >mk1 sp*) ^.re come, 

3i. Akt/icr nnd vcltha" "mv exprc ;5eci in ihe folio'-v- 
iiiff 7o,'uVi"iC;r- ^4 ^* =^j ,^ -^ W' ^^"•^^' ^^'^^' h\y6 iiyu 
yevv tsu>\ ej;iiti your wa-. vr 'l^^ucjlftei is {guilty; ^ Jl: 
>^ "^w 5^'. Afc puh eho joo tseTv j^h-i Mia, it is either 
you orfc^;: Oi* p. >> gp .^b fei h^o trpih jio, if not you 
than he: or y;^ tp /^. ^ .^ jc^o r.hiing pcih yew yih, 
net>^.rcTj ycM, Jir- , ».j<t hi^ inn>h^alf!fl : ^ !^ -^ B^ 
5?\ :i^. ^ i h^vi> sb'> kta<»«i s^ze hwu .^he e sang', he. 
•: eitb^:^!' a re.r*iior or physician?; pi^ 4'?- -I^- A. ^ jSS* 
;|; - nri3 pany* siir. liril.eo.n psi^ ye'A yih, >t Mu>>t bfi 
•:*;lh :v t i trioby^taadors. 

jy^eiih^r )y IcrGCul b*/ ai*i:vn!:^^ 'he oegati^ ^ ^k?i- 
ticie: as it ilC T> ^^ V^ ^{^ JfX )c^ ciiiiy ko puh 
fche na ko puh she, it is rieithtr this nov that; jS§ ^ 
^ "^ M: yh) KMiig the meenkeae -woo. he has neither 
money nor res|>t:^1al)iijty::J^t "^ }if -/^ jk3 tsze kiu fei> 
iieiiher the oue nor the other; or ^ ^ M^ — ^''tt 
chun^ ^voo ylh, neitlier one of the t\vo: j^ X ^ If- 
iSilcancj jin too woo kv;o, neith<fr of thora is guilty; 
l^i ^tfi ?^ >| leang ko puh she. it is neither of tbe\n: 

'«& **i S& 'flSl # i^ i^' ^'^^ "^"^ l^ang ko too puh 
kuh, neither of Ihem wept;-||- :::* ^ /^ ^ ^ if 
TToo urh puh <:hay keae puh l56, neither of us servants 
will do it. 


32. We shall eniimcrali^ the priaciprtJ characters used 
for intletini<fc pnin*>uriti, aad the var5our» /itC-dcs in which, 
Ihio ctoi^N ol t^tiyi^ 14 e:\j[jrt;s^t;d. 

62 HtmeiNiTG vnomymt. cbav. hi. 

^ Mow^.ScppQe body, such a tstne;^ A wow jm* 
a certain persofi;^ ^ mowk'hih^ a certen^stnnisery 
or vkitor;;^ -9^ ^ ^ iaoumoo mow sb^etd motttear 
So and so- ^ W Jj5^ 4j^ -^ t^^e seih yn mow hiio, 
should I be femUUr with such an one*. Wi Hwo^ is of^ 
ten used irbthe s^^me manner: as ji{ 3 hwo yu& a cer-^ 
tain person has saul; ^ A hw6 jin, some body.-^ 
Yew, also occurs in the same sense: as J^ \ yew jin^ 
some bod}^ or some man; A i^ /^ 4ti "H^ ^peib 
yewjin paou t'ha Che, certainly some one l»6.told hint; 
^ ^ f^ y/ew wfiti keen, or % ^If yew wuh, some- 
mmg; :;^ ^ y^m tsze, sometimes^ So also ^ |||^ ^ 
yew ke tsaou, :i^ ^ si, yew ke poen^ A M fk ^^ 
yew teih^ ^ ^ f^ hw6 yew she, yf tUt ^ heu ke fan, 
^ ^ J^ ^ yew to shffou she, all mean sometsmes. 
^,Some ot afew^ is e:ErpDei$sed by^ -jjg ke koi, a few^ 
It A. fipoyin, several persons,;^ ^ :^ A 7^^ to 
dmott }in, more or less ; |[| A. ^^ V^ ^ ^^^ pe<)ple ;^ 
Q 900jih)^a few days;;!; :lt Q ^h soo jih, xu>t many 
diEiy&; or^ !^ pah jih, within a itkOTi time. 

Several is^ tibus expressed; >|[ 3|t yew soo^ &ere are 
several;!^ % fce ko, ^veral;^ ^ B fe&a ke jih, 
fi^i^eral dtiys ago; "il^ J^ J^ shangike choo, wmmded in 
several plgees; ^ i^ ^ ^ yew ke kwae wfih^ he has 
aayeral curiosities; ^ M r^ nen ke fan. several time& 
- For none or nothing^ 'me negative i$ employed : as 
llfk K woojin,no man^ none; tk ^ "— flj choo 
e p&h yih ch'hufa, non<' of the Bsurbarians came fiav 
''Kwd; -- ^ ^ jUt ^ ^ y^h ke yay niiifa yew k heu» 
not one went away ; <Hr — jg j|l :^ ^ yih ko weiyew 
kTbeu, notcaie of tbem went; J^ 4K- ^ haou woodbft^ 
nothing iost;^ X,; & ^ |^ shm shang mufa tSi 
diwan, he bad nothing on his body ;^ jlf^ i^fj^ too* 
woo k'hokeih, nothing to gi^e; |f^ ^ shay wc^s |g ^ 
teeiii" woo,iK^ ^ keu woo, all mean noUitng. 

33. The Chinese have various modes of expressing 
DUr word same, ITie most frequent is 1^ turn?: as 1^ 
J^ tung ming, the saire naroi^: fj ^ tuag neeU: of the 
wme age;^ — ^ u :; yih yang, or 1^ -^ j8t 
/>w«i?, ic the same manuQr; ^ ^^ «a ^ jg 

eUAP. III. IKD«r»itE l»R01fOtfN8. 63 

leang sin tang liaou woo. Both fheir mind^ have ^fmilar 
prejudices an<t predJIettions ; — ]ij yih tung, ?}: '-'ge- 
ih^lJf^ ^ sfettg timg, the same;:fc ^ >l^ ^ ta 
tung seaon e, terv mueh the same, And differdng but 
little; l«i /5t ^ » *^°g sinyHi e, with one heait and 
™^;1^33t f^ ^ tUBgtaouteihj}n,menofthe same 
TOETSuits; jf ^ p6h tung, not flie same, diflFerent; ^ 
1^ kong tung, p11 together; 4^ j^f ho tung, together 
witit» the same with;^ M S^^ tung paou knng 
joo, horn of the same womb, and socking ^ the same 
breast; uterine brothers: ^ ^ ^ tu»)g chin seih, of 
the same couch 6rid nrat, bed fellows : ^ fl^ tnng 
leaou, a fellow officer; S5 'jS^ tung tsung, of the same 
window, fellow students; 4ifr jf^ M ^ ^<>o pflh tung 
chaj, throughout the same; ^ ^ keae tamg, <^ ^ ^ 
— ^ keae tang yih jen, all the same. 

There are other W'Ords expressing ^{MIi^, of which we 
ennnierate the most common: as —yih, one; — j^ yih 
y«ng, or — ^ yfe pwan, after one manner; |p — 
Kwei yih, it eomes to the same thing; Jp -— hwa yih» 
to draw one line ; -^ — joo yih, as otiTe ; — fg yih 
xneen, at the same time;^ ^ keae jen, all the same; 
% Jf^^^^^ P^^ keae jen, universally tfce same; J^ 4t 
jfff ^ ta leo seang kin, generally, nearabouts ; Jfg^ ^ 
Jf^ A woo e e yay, no difference; J| H woo e, ditto, 
^ ISt yih ch6, one rut, or trace ;ia> IK ~ ||b joo 
ch'h&h yih ch6, as if driving in one rut; ^ ® ^ — 
>|l ^ tTia t'hung joo yih yang kaou, he is of the same 
height with you. 

34. ¥or other OT another the Chinese usejfctTia, 
45^1 pefe,J5 Kng, andU e. Ihus^ H t'haj-h, another 
<lay;'f|i A w'hajin, another rar.n;,?g X P^^ jin, some 
one else; j^ ^ #1 ISf^?^ ^^^^ '^*^^ ^» to fonn some 
other plan ; j^ ^ ^3^ pc* woo fha R«e, no other 
object; ^J 3^ ^ 5fc pSt sin fang fS, devise some other 
means; i{fr — ^ t'ha yih ko, anoth^. 

So als<. 55 linp: as § B ling jih, ^noflier day; jj 
.1? ling K'<'.,?se^ti4te dwelling; ^^ ^ j'H she ling: 
yih ko., I've? J LcS. k'S another; ^ Wl^^'"^y^^ 
yia tse^!:::. £:c .^nsi^tiil got som^^ oihe\' money; ^ ^ ^ 


i^ W ts;?e she Kn^ kccu ^ja-., ibis is another busiitpss. 
The Wlovviug expre>isluJift ;il;st)0C':'4«.r-jR- 13 ^^ jih^ ano- 
ther drty, "7; Q iiea jih. Iht? t?i;xt duy; flfj| ^ miug 

nieri, ne>:i year, 01 aiRtil-cryfi/??; X % [.^ ^ yew yew 
fail ,^ fa, Ui^ieare sHli otrcr .-vtai^s, y^ A^ ;> ?j^ ^ 

»6 5^ ^ i^^-^'^i j*^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ .i*^* J^*' ^^'^ shih. look upoa 
anothers loss as one'^ own 



cbejin, all the rr-eri of the ri'^tnifu^ a^^re, /l ^ &. ^ 
fan yew lieue kl:o, all ;v]io :., y^^;b^od aiid breath, ail 
mortals;, it jL/ta i'aii, gviiv'iv.Ujti-^ jL fh iaii, fgr the 
most part, JL ^ fai-. \:io:i Ihc .jijt^Obi "anpoithiit of the 
whokJ; jt A fan jii3, every hxjdy/,.JL ^6 fan ta^j,. every 
mprlal; %^ ^ faiiBoyevv, ill: "creatures: anu alrxii- 
lar.eApressions. . ,..> 

*;^ Chui]g, auci.l55,%tifli)ig, exwcetv? ■ Ik; >umie idea: as 
3fiL ^ rhmiir^iiug, every liviiii^ ^^^^u^J^'H^^'huiig tiiu, 
<he opinion oiall, orpubik opinioH;;^ >f>"@L^ kwa pub 
teih chiiiig, the few canuot retkt th^^ Uihuy;-^ ^ 
chunqtto, agrcat in;iny,:^ \^ chuug yi]v\ all ^aid;. ^ 

shooluy^ aii kir^Lit;:^ ^ ^jhoc? to,:matty;ife PL stioo 
ixiin, all the peopie, the jouitiqcji pe,;;plc-^ ^ fc^hoo ke, 
nearly, ncarahonts ; J^ ^ shoo ^>v;o; alnio^i; ^|g- ^ choc 
kuntr. 'ill von LTeiiilei'i' :•• ' ^ "^ '^hoo s'Z':. all affairs; 
'^ ^ ehoo^j.agreul >;J| -j^ shoo churj;;, the 
multilude:^ ^ choo tszc, aii the phiioi^onhers, tht? 
whole i.c:::>cji;*^ "^ choo bhwo^ geticfrti opinioa; ^ 
5j^ <ho'.' ke.:. tl<e v\huK' txiW 01 phiio^ophei?; if? ^f 

CHAP, ni, coLticriv^ pjRoyouNs. 60. 

nymous : as ;^ ^ nyu keae^ the women all ; Jf^ ^ 
chungkeae, all;^ ^ ^ keae puh keih, all inade- 
quate;jf ^ -- J^ urh gno yh t'he, you and I am 
o»<^; jfe^ #. W i^^^^^ tekeae jen, nearly all the same.r 
S ^ ^ i ^''^sm wuh keae s^ng, all things ere gene 
rated ;^ ist ^^ $^ laou yew keae tsae, both old and 
^ung are pteseat; — J^, yth kae, all together: ^ :^ 
^ ^ tseang k&e keu chiih, drive them all out togij^ 
ther; A- >f6L ta kae, in gsoieral, or on an average. 

^ Too, occ\>ts in this sense: as/cJSt^l^ jin too 
shw^ people aUsayj:^' ^ ^ ^ gno too woo tsnV; 
we mre innocent; ^;^ ta too, in general* 

i^ Eeu, bears the sait^e sense: as^^ :^ keu che, aB 
right* iH jSi i% '^ Jbomoo keu tseuen, both father 
and mothei' are well ; ^ % i^ ^ ^o w^i keu shen, 
all that he did was well ; "S^ ^ ^ ii& keu tsun hob 
^m, he kept it all in his heart; ^ j^ keu h6. eaeh^, 
every one; ;^ :g>f ^ ^ jf 1^ yew so sze keu puh 
show, t>f all that he gave he received nothing. So ^m 
>^ »eu: as ^' .^fc seu keaou, toteach all; ^ ^ sen mei| 
to level all. In the sense of all, ^ tseen, is used: as ^ 
^ tseenseuen, they all chose; 7; :|M :4r.v^ % puh 
yneii tsikn chay t'hing, he did not wSh that all should 
hear; ^ B ts&en yi^, idl said. We meet with J^ hau^ 
Kkewise as a eollective: thus X ^ ^ ^ yin wuh 
faan heang, rational «nd irrational trit^s all enjoyed it; 
^ ^ % han tee tsclh, all were assembled;^ ^ bas: 
c, all «uitabte;l§ 5IJ ^f ^ shanghan keuen ym, all 
the meix^hiinfe have contributed money. 

Mark also the following phrases:^ ^ tselae, they 
conic all together; — ^ t^ :^ y^fe tse keufGg,,all is* 
sued forth together;;^ % ^ ^ tse ch'huh tse^ yihg, 
they all went out to jneet him ;^^ tse shing^ all 
vim one voice; H ^ ^weitse, all tGge&er;^ S b& 
kca, your whole familv;>^ ft A ^o jih. jin, aJT the 
]ieopie of the city. We may mention :^ kiiug, in <he 
same connection : fks ;|^ ^ kungche^afi of themilQliew^ 
tir genoniUjr knoAvn ; ^ 'H* kung ke, the whole nunW; 
^ % W* Uk kung e kw& ching, all uaitedly coosidt^ 
Gd about the goi^nuacnt of tihe cgigLT^r^ V)"^ #^ ^ ih 

66 HtmRALk €VAF. IT. 

Jin 6bin kung Am, men and spirits weri" all exupenled; 

H JjjL teung kung, or^ j||^ kung tMuig, all toge her, 
m wnole; A ^ ta kung, ditto, t ^ h6 kuAg, iK 
*j|e*«r; -^ ^ kung kung, pnWicljr together: ^ 4g 

II' >^ kimg seang fmo tsoo, aey aV helped each oth«. 

A I^Ta iea, in conVenFatiM^ a^ifies all, eTery oiie^ 
wH of you: as^JSlfi fSi^A ^ k^ meen 'meen 
#|i^ she, thiogr aU lookeont eacbolher. As a collective 

^ skh, IS fiMuently used: as^ ^ seih koa^ ali; It 

#p seUi twan, the whole were eiit off; — ^ Mi M ¥^ 
tsd^ twin 8eih,ihewhoknumber,aU together; ^ if seih 
leib, with one's whole sferengtfi;|t jt tstn keae, all; 

% /il^ tab 0I1I5 with Ae whdfe mind; ^ ^ tseuen soo, 
die whole ptdoher, all; — ^ yih tse, ori^tse, ^ ^ 
yih ping,— J& y& t'hung^ — i^ vih tseg, and - ® 
jih f he, seyenmy s^ifies the whote, all together. We 
dpily remark in aodttidn^ that ^ lo, many, is often used 
jaa a eollectJTe pronoun, tad that words like ^ keun, a 
lvaad;^yuen; cHH^B;!iilf'iung, bees; are frequently 
iMled to denote anili^tudes, though it would not be ex-* 
ac^ proper to consider ihem in the light of collectives. 

, We mvj easily perceive after the perusal of this 
Chapter, mat die pronouns of this giguDtic language 
Me as varied as tiboae of the richest lanizuaffe. 



1. TnKRs aie three ways of writing the numends. 

The fhrst is called thef, ilh fi^ %. ^ fF T^^^ P^* 
tefti'soo m&h tsse, or the original mode of writing thenft, 
asd'is common in books or accounts. The second is cat- 

tt« cafntal made of writing, and consists tn a selection of 

^tmttem ^mibr in sound, but of various meaamga, 

7^ att u$ed ia httia and lm]^«c(Aat 4MMmmL^ ^ 


preTCQt their being easi{]r erasgd or chan^fttd^ or for ^ 
lake of oTfiameBt, gad the dic^ay of iMmhig* Tfie 
third and Iftst called ^ ^ k^^ ^^^ »^ ^^ 
MO tsse, or ^ i^ y0| ^ B 7^ «^>o c1ioif7 iHHrSOo mfiBt 
tsse, are abbreviated fon);6 used {o faeilUate writingi aadl 
expedite th«^ drawing out of aGceuirta; tbey derive their 
names from Lo^Choo, the place where Aey were, per- 
haps invented. 

2. The iirhole system of numeration is deeimd, 
which the ("hinese carry through all their calculattenff, 
to the ]^igj\efit nr^X lowest numbers. They went origin^ 
ally not mrther tlian a mynad, VLzi up to this d^go cm 
numbing in this manner. Thi?* th^'^Vbay, f j^ shSi 
wan, ten myriads, fmr I00,d0(); H Y .^ san shih waia, 
thirte myriads, fcr 300,000; ~ W It yih pih Wfm, a 
hundred myriads, for 1,000,000;— ^ Mj^ih t*e« 
wan, a ihoiisand myriads, for 10,000,000. Ine fo&riN 
ing U of later invention: &uch as||^yik, 100,000; 
tkchaou, Ifi00fi00i% kmg, 10,0W),000; j^ kM, 

100,000,000. The word;|i^ te,i|l j^g*^ ^^»^ 
keen,3£ ching, andj[^ t6ae,are adsouused by the fiuor 
htjust and Taoiji-priests to enumerate ihdr en^ess Indpas, 

3. Some numerals are used iu a peculiar mannei^, it 
which we shall exhibit the principal idioBis. 

— Yih, is used in numerous, compounds, soiiie af 
which have been alluded to, in a fonnelr part dT ^b 
work, and need not be repeated here : the fbltowhig^ 
however, may be noticed; — -^j^yfli, one by aoa{ 
— /iiT yih sin, with one hearty uhiuimEiou^; ll ~ ^ 
woo yih pub, wittiout exception;';^ ';--« piui yi^ or 
1^ , — fei yih, not merely one kin4; — B5 yih kinj^^ jm 
soon as; — |g yih meen, at the same thnei whOitf^ ut 
while, occastbnally repeated: as — W W W '^ m 
. 11^ ^ lE ^ ]£ yih jaeen ch'huh intin, yih nriMp.tlqr 
ehang pan rowd;taou, whilst Kjs.^viis going (Hit dF Am 
gate, I:^ said at the same time t6 his servam, &c« "-* "^ 

tsih e ke, yih tsih e keu, partly wifh loy, and j 
with fear; J^ — Ivan yih, one ici.ten thousand^ 


irf wj\1er; — ^, yih she, at one thne; — U ^7% 
fj^tie she, in a moments time; — >fe yih Isze, once; — 
'■^ yih 6Sng,lhe whole fife; — ^ yih {'hung, as soon 
."lis lie henni: and so with various othepTerhs; as — ^ 
\ih shwuj, aB BOOH as he slept; — ^yih wang, as 
'soon .as he went away. They use also— ^yih wei, 
br^— chuen yib^ addicted- to, devoted to. So also 
^r~ ^ yih B^,a littfe; — ^ yib haou, ma eli^ht d^- 

fee;— IS yih teen, one dot; ^ ^ " ^ ^ ^. 
\ tea ho yih eeay ya;? we yew, an had not a single or- 
,itrle of furniture. This numeral is also offen used be- 
tween a reduplication of the verb: asjg- — ^ kTian 
jjhk'han, to taSealook at;3^' — Sf seay ym seay, 
]^st write a little. When the numeral itself is regeat- 
,iqd, H conveys to the vetb something of the .participial 
i^SSpjng: as — ^.— --^ yih laeyih wang, goiiig and 
witoing';' -^ ^ — ,1^'yih IGb ^ih seay, reaJing aiid 
-UTiting; but it is also used ia this . manner with other 
partE! of speech; at — ' Ji. -r- 7* y^^ fchang yih hea, lip 
«iddoWn;— *J^ — ^ yih teen yih taou, topsyturvy. 
, 4. The second cardinal number j::. urh, is used fov 
'tnih: alsoin thie loUowing conneotioiia ^^ — piih urh, 
\lbe same; Z^t^ uA siin, douMp^njinded; X ^urh 
■Ir'^,, the two rdatlvea,' parents. ^ X*;ang, is syno- 
?jftEhSi>u6 with the^jiboTe: as ^ J^.leau^ l-, or ^ ;jt 
mug ta, tile twprfegii'Jir-or gi-eat D^es, i. ;'. Tui'.ei* aijd 
.«(rffi;^ "i leohg tsaeU^tfiR pjaiutiff _aiid J^ft^^giil; 
'^S ^ leang igei,, the two haaiapome thmgs,'.i. e. genius 
.is mati, and "beauty in womaii; ^ j^ sac szc, W"Qiin^, 
5. 'ihey^ocn to enumerate^ ^ tsaesan, me^ii:) 
^^aiii and again, frequoiitly, d]rice;3. i^ Ban tsiih, 
jROfBree rejatiops, \iz. father, moflier^ and wife;'^ '^ 
'in,kajig, the t£ree ties in life, vk. prjnce ftpd mipis- 
"■j^lihfr and sou, husband and wife; X )|E ^tn'kviiifg, 
eTfireeMigbts., viz. suni moon, and' stare; 3 ^ sail 
fhti'thfce powers, riz. heaven, earth, and man; :^ 
itipan; the three classes of gifteutlaats in a pwKr. 
= 'If. s?!! paou, the &ree predous 'SudfOias; 
'hi'hze.b''- ^ thfee <fficars, vir. die treasurer. 
?^aflfl(^ij/>ei'Siiendahtof ^« mU AevwSa-feT.Vv ■=, 

CHAr. IV. KUMfiRALS. 69 

^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^9 ^^^ three highest lit*v^vy rnnl?8. 

6. Ihry hiive alsind. ^ ^e fang, the io.:? .jirtr- 
tcrs;^B3 !> s^'t' hca, irii every pan;^^ ^ bze bhoo, mi 
every place; IB jg sse: miien, rsn every si'K So also 
BEt 1^ sze e,all the ' Barbari^a^; 1£[ ^ sse paou, the 
four precious thiDgs, viz penci!^ paper, ink, and mk* 
8tone; H9l vfe sze hae^the four s*'as, by which (l«iiiJi u 
mpposed to be sumsmded, often used for the whclt» 
Empire;. SI 1^ sze heang;tfae four pohits of the got^- 
pass ; ug ^ sze kc, and ys ^ sze she, the four seasonL^ . 
jg IJI sae t'he, or|25 J^ sze she, the fcCT members, oi 
extremities; and \Q ^^sze tuh, the fourmers, (in thr 
nortlLaf Cbina.) 

7 The J proceed with their groupings toJL-woo. 

jfive; as jS. ^ wookuh, five Viiids of grain, or grnifl 'u 

,general;iL ^ woo Inn, the five rdatic^s in Jife^ vii. 

prince ard srabje rt- hnfcbaud aad wife, p^Tn»iR itr/ichf!- 

dxen, elder and younger brothers, with firie'^.ils and couv 

panioids;.^ :^ woo keaou, the five :^rrccj,rs, iespei\- 

liig, each of these ;j5L ;:f7 woo hing, the five elriutrnts. 

' viz. wafer, fire, wood, metal, and earth, of wMc^ all in- 

. visible things are coinpo:-K;d, and to which ' correspond 

.thei S. v*^^ siijug, fiye planets, viz. Mercury, 

-Venus, Mars, Ju|iik^v^ and Saturn; i J|^ woo Isaag, 

tiie five viscera; Jl. ^ ^oo .sih, the five colcairs; £ v^t 

woo wei, the five tastes; j£ ^ woo yo, the five highes: 

'ihountains in China, towards which the worship of th:^ 

ancients was directed; JSl ^ woot:.c;>, the five rank^: 

Dfnobility;aDd JL^ woo fhrg, the four points of th:i 

compass and (he $iimtre, or zemtli. 

,' 8... They go on to euumsrate i^ "^ liih ko, the four 

t^iiartefs of the WorVd with the zenith and nadir; ;?: 

mil poo, the six tribunals at Veking;^ 

luBTang, the sixdej^arUnents of ajJItfiinifelration in rlic 

^ ^ "~ *> • ... . ^* O 

yiz, the- sun, ia<*on, and five planets: •V ;^ pJi fang, the 
fciglit j>rncit>al p.::A suhordJnatft |.oi\\t8 of i-w. vviuv.\j\^v. . 

A /3^ M /u* .H • l>,hv Airwi^lV. ^A\5» mI >\\&r ^TVT-V.A 

70 ]«UMBRAI^« CHAP. IT. 

code; xV ;fj- pfi hfng^ the eight cMfifeifeni ways 1>JF wbkh 
the tributkry grain arrives at Pelting 

9. 'I hey advftsee in their cfe&;jrficaticiB of numerals^ 
to A> kew: asib P9 kew mnn, the nine gates of the 
capital;^ $i tew keaon, the nine apertures of &e 
heart; ;A:^ & kew pin, the nine gradatkms of officiid 
njAijLi ^ kew chow, the nine prerincM ; :^ ^ k^w 
lan^, the nuie funishmeste;^ j^ kew taeuem^ the 
nine fountains^ undemeaA which lies hades ; -f ^ 
shglh tseuen, eatwely perfect; -f ^ ah?h fnn, rery much : 
^ ^ pih kwa:B, all the Mandarins; J * {^ pih sing, the 
hiMidrea sunamea, the peofde; ^ ^ pih hway, the go- 
nefal assemblage of nerves^ the brain; ^ ^ pih muh, 
the whole class of trees; ^ f^ pih ke, a hitudried plans, 

a great many bchemes; 1^ ^ H^ 4* 1^ ^^ P^^^ P»^^fl^9 
prove successful in every enterprise; 'gf 5^ j| pth 
taeen wan, an immense number; ::p ^ tseen " iaew, a 
hundred autumns, the birth*4ay of a person of rank ; 
*f 7 ^ ^ tseen pih kea tui^ a great mimy ser* 
^te; ^ )it^* te^^^ ^y? A titl^ of a kinftr YcMir Uajes^! 
^ J9 tseen chow, the same; ^ ill ^ :^ tseen san 
wan shwuy, all woods and waters; ^ if ^ ^t tseen 
i^een wan tsae, an amazing long time; ^ || wan kw6, 
ail nations; 1^ j^ wansuy,|| j^ ^ wan suy yay, and 
^ % M wan wan suy, all mean His Imperial Ma- 
jesty; H jjj^ wan show, tiie Imperial birth-aay ; ^ ^ 
wan fang, all parts of the world; J^ "it j^ >^waii 
nan tsung minij, at all risks obey you; j||^\^ vaR die, 
for all age^<,|| Wan, fellowed by a nemtive increacf^ 
its power: as|^ 7; ^ f^ wan pidi kan tsu, I would 
not on any account dwe to do scf; ^^ yih fshaoj;, or 
^ p^ cbaou n?in^ the millions of the people; j^\ ^ 
king cha<Mi, the capital. 

10. Fractions, jp: ^ Kng spo, are expressed Sn 
the folic wmg manner: as 3. ^ %^ ~ "^'^^ ftm jfew 
yih fan, or H ^ jfc '^ ^^^ ^^ <5he yih, one-tlmd; 
i^ "^ ^ ^ Ifih fan cbe sae, two-third^; :Jt ^ )t 
£ kew fuTi che woo, five-ninths; ^ pwan, oncrlialf ; 
1^ — jl ^ yin yih yuen pwan, one aoUar and a h^!f ; 

~ -^ J^ yih neea pwaa^ at ~ 2^ ^^ V*^ ^^ 

CHAP* rt. mmmxuML 71 

yew pwan^ t>ne year and a half; ^ ^ :^ g* ikeen ke 
pwanpSi, about balf re ^17 oM; ^ f^ pvran beang, 
lialf a minute; ^ :^ pwim yay,inidniglht; !Jr ^ pwan 
1«e, a ^on in law ; ;^ ^ ta pwan, the majority; 3* ^ 
^ ^ p^an ^in frwan e, half )>elieTing half di^bting. 
Y tllhuiig, land jjj^ y ang, are both used iq the sense of 
Mf: a qmirtto^ ^ »® ^ J^ — '«ze foa che yih; a quar- 
ter of an hour is j^ v^ ^ $fl she ^n yih k'hih. 

11. Once, twice, thrice, &c. are expressed in Qii- 
nese by joining the nunxerals toxfic. tsse, @ hwuy|H|| 
In, and W. tfeaouj as — ^yih tsze, once; ^jj ^ 
talioo^Bze, the first time;^ — ifc meiyih tsze, eveiy 
<ne;l|t';()t Bootsze. several times; ^K H tswl jih, the 
aecoiidday;^^! @ szefawuy, four times.; il M 10} }fz 
WB hwuy 8ze tsze, repeatedly, >> ^ luh &n, six times; 
^ ^^kefan, several times; — J^ yih tsaon, once; 
-f- '^ shih tsaou, ten^mes; ^ ^ fiui tsaou, several 
•i«»«»?j^ ^ tseS tsze,.^ j£ oh6teze,.|^ i^iuy tt?«e, 
f iii: luy t8£e,'^>^ ^Ken teze, ^ ^ to tsae,^^ ^ 
Tdt haou ke tsze, ^ >/i^ wang wesg^ ^ j|^ j)in tsze, 
>}j >fp seS seS, ^ ^ tsae saa, ^ S ^ 5. che 
tsae eke san,^ ^ kih tsze, £ ^ # ^ chung 
clttuig ch^ ch^, aU si^ify many times, mten. 

12. Dmibteis ex|)rehsed by £ chu»g, and ^ 
sfawang: as St ^ chux^gfiih, a double db^; $ ^ 
ciumg fuh, again; ^H ^ chung k^kih, to reprint; X 
1^ J^ Mif ^ ^^^ chung che, t8ih luh, three doubled 
iBftkejix; — ^ ;f|^ yih shwang w&, a pair ef stockings; 
^ fl, «hwang ts'hin, parenta;f^ j^ sbwang shwang, 
in j^rs ;||^ ^ wuo sfawnng, iztcomparable, peerless ; ^ 
^ ahwftug tseuen, bo^ perfect Jjl 1 an, .a^j tuh, 1^ 
tih, and .li chiih, all mean single; as 9 :^ tan saC| 
a aiagle jacket; J{|S ij| tmi tan^ mly, sokfy; !^ ^ tih 
Aow, a skigle boat; ^ -^ J^ tiih yih jia, ime single 
man;^ ^ tfih show, witii a single hajNl;|^ ^ caih 
iiii% one peiiBon alone. FoU is expressed %^^ pel, 
aMl)te kea: as ^ fS^ lom pd^ j^ X fSF to au pet, er 
>(* Z ^ kea shang San pei, three foW; i m K 
«aacnow»ia,atiicw£mcoia;^ -- t^ W^^^^ 

72 HVliE&ALCL eiMP. IV. 

iouble ;0-^ i^ ^ ehioj^ che shih pev ten Hme^ 
more ; /tt :]Jt ^ k^a lub pei, six fold. 

13. In order to express the ordinal, Ifee Qiieese 
prefix^ te, before the cairdii^ats: as^ ^ te sza, Ihe 
fourlb;^ ;/t4 le kew, the ninth. Ittctgkt, however, 
to be observed, that th^y are seldom used, and that the 
Chinese generiilly expres«^ the cariHnals thus; 3L ^ 
^ yjji ^ taou kwai^ &hih k*^w neeo, in the t9th 
year of Taou-kwang: S j^ san yufe^ the third nKmih; 
^ V3 keuea sae, the fourth book. 

14 Odd is express^ ^T^^ ^^* m ^^ ^ ^ >^ 
-f- ufh ts^en Eng l&h sfaih, £,06D;Ji9 Jt ^ )gr «be 
was ling sze, 40^1)04. 3/in*e ift enpressed &2p>|^ yu: as 

^ "S" "§ '^ ^ '^^ P^ y*** y^ tsSen^ more than 
600€a6fa,^ g ^; ^ shin yuen yu Bfaoog, ten doBafs 
are more thtoenouuh; ^ ^ IfU Jt shftiyuene sbajag, 
teD dollars andmore; yf^ Jt^ ^ ^ puh^hang^hikyuesi^ 
not niore than ten dollars; ^ g fj^ j; a)i[i)eyuenreiiea, 
less tha)^ ten dollars;, ^ IF i" M P**^ ^^' sbilryneB, 
not^low ten diiUai^; :i: sS^ Z ^ JR j^h kwa%Kig 
$an jih, more than two or three days; ^ ^^ -^ ^ 
urh ?shih yew vu neen^ twenty bxA odd years; ^ 
*" ^ soo shih ueen lae, for several tens ef years; J_ 
-f ^ Idh !«e shih neen, ^ring ten years; -f ^ 
Jt^ #^ shih neen e wan;;, for these ten years pasi;; :^ 
' — T ^ 5 1^ neen yih pih Vm^ woo buy, a»e hun- 
dred and five years of age; ^- :^ ^ 3. .^ jshow liib 
shdi san suy^ ai 63 years of age; i J^ ^ %hih yew 
san^ ty rteen^ ^ ^ :z. lu& yew urh, six^ t^ia These 
are the peculiar modes in whkh the Chinese use the 
niHnerak aud they ought consequently fe^ be imj[>rinted 
upon the memory^ 

15^ AddiHoM is called by the Chinese ^ ^tsin 
soo; subslractioQ |^ ||t t^hoo soo ; muUiplieatian 4^ ^ 
sbing shoo; the multijdtcatioa tabled ;& ^ 0t kew 
kew ho soo; aad division w tialied ^if ^ i^n 800« The 
whute process of arithin«4ic us perforated by the (hi* 
Bpsft ii^th ^reatdexlmty on the afiacus, an mstrument 
niih wbiA every SWo^A^^e ^\\V ^ coavess^ot 


system was carried by the Chinese to a very great ex>' 
tcat^ Moet of their money accounts, their measures, 
and their whole caioulations being founded upM>n it 

In computing money they use the following terms. 
Ten jS^ hwuh, make one]^ sze, ten^ sze, ooe^ haou, 
ten^ haou, one^ le. (or cash) ienM i^. *>^^e jr fur?, 
(or candareen) ten ^ fun, one ^.tseen, (or macey teu 
^^ tseen, one ^ leang, (a tael, or ounce.) For heavier 
articles they add 16 9§ l^ang, make one Jff kin, (or cat- 
ty, 1 J- lb, avoirdupoisc) lOO^f kin, make one:||£tan» 
or ;pL tan, (pecul, 133^ lb.) 

17. ■ Their long measure is the following: 10 ^ fan. 
milke one ^ tsun, (or pint;) 10 ^ tsun, one K chih, 
(of oovid) 10^ chih, one ^ chaug, (about lour yards; 
in Canton a yard is called/^ m^ ;) 10 ^ chang make one 
1^\ yin. In msaRuriiyg distances they say, five K chik. 
make one;^ j>O0, (or pace about 5^ feet,) 360 "^ poo, 
make one % le, (Chinese mile, ab^it 659^ yards,) 250 
sL le,:makeone^ too, (mathematical degree, which 
is also diTided scientifically int© 60 ^ fun, or minntes; 
and each of these -^ fun, into sixty |^ chaou, or seconds.} 
In land measure five jff^ chih, (as above) make one ^ 
poo, or ^ kuog, 240 j|$ckung, make onel^X. mow, and 
lOOi^ mow, one1J|[ kirjg. 

18. In drj measure, their mode of ireckoning is the 
following:;;^ ft luh siih, make one J^ kwei, ten i, 
kwei, one;^ chaou, ten^ chaou^ one:i(^ ts^ ten;||t ta^ 
one ^ ciKii, ten ^ ch6, one >S^ h6, ten '^ ho, one ^ 
cfaing, or pint, (about 31§ cubic pints) ten^ shiiiff, one 
^f taw, or peck, (about 316 cui^c | ints) five i^ tow, 
oneS4 hwuh, (or i&bOcuiiic pints) and two jIH^ hwiifa, 
make one >S shih^(or 3160 cubic pints.) This iotho 
scientific arrangement, not exactly followed in com- 
mon life, where two '{j^ yo, make one 4^ ho, the remain>' 
der is as above. 

19. In working time the Chinese make use of bro 
gets of horary characters; the fira^t is -f ^ sljfh kan, 
the ten stems, or J|^ ^ i^hoen kan. the oeletdial stains. 
Tbeae are ^ kea, ti yih, j^ ping, X t«ag, iSj woo, g^ 
ie, jlf[ ki^ng, ^ sin, ^ jiu, an«l ^ k wei. The other t^ 



CHAF. nr. 

The Chined count their years either arcording to the 
reign of an tmperor; as for 1840 they my 3t ^ ^ ^^ 
S^ taou kwang urh shth iieen, or according to a cyde, 
called W ^ k^ tsze, or ^ ^P ^ hwa kcS te«e, each 
coQfiifiting of 6() years; these are marked by the above 
horary characters. (Sec the annexed table. 1840 is the 
37th year M ^ ^^^g teze, of the 75th cycle, since the 
days of H wang-te. ) 



kea isae 


yh chow 
uin^ yin 





sin we 

fin iihih 

#^w i^— 1— X— ■— ^w^r* 





woo yid 


j ^ iu sEo 
I If) 

kwi'i we 

ke& shiB 


yih y^w 


ting^ liae 


woo tflie 


ke diow 


.^la maou 




kd» woo 


yih wr 
ping shin 


ting yew 


WOO seuh 
ke h«e 



jin shiM 


sin eoow 


juj yii) 


ked ehixi 


yih 0se 


pittg woo 


ting wf 




ke ye\w 




$tii Lac 


iixi tftae 


kea yis 


yih BHWM 


^» T «kvW:.«5 

ping shin 






; &^ 

, 57 

5m yew 

t jiD scuh 

? 60, 


CHA1». V. TKHE VERB. 77 

21 . In enumerating, the CJhinese do not generally use 
&e ocdinak as our first, secondly, thirdly^ &c. but adopt 
the following method: as — ^ yili Jae, first -' ^ urh 
lae, secondly ; (also occasionally |5 ^ ^ i^ :i. ^ ^ 
w •^ ^ yib cbay, in the first instance; ^ ^ urh 
chay, in the second instance; or ^ Jif .yih tsih, in th^ 
first place; X9i urh i<sih,iii the second place; or — 
H yih yu^,j:L 8 urh yue, thtjbame; or ^ — keyih, 
the first; ^ :Z. ke urh, the second; &c. In many in- 
stances they only u«e — yih, and will go through a 
whole series of subjec^*?, pr'^fncir>g *^'»^o with — ^^yih. 
First, second, and third rave are exprer.::^d by J: shang, 
*f* chung, and T hea. Firsi and last by itn j^ che 
cnung, ^ jjjL pun mo, and j^ Mj t'how wei. First 
SHid second byotching, aild^tsung. First, upper- 
most is^c yuen; as ^ H yaen jih, the first day of the 
yc*^; Xi ^ yden ncen, the first year of a reign. For 
the first day of a new month ^ so. is sometimes used 
iiiateadof^ts'ho«>, first. The uppermost is also ex- 
pressed by^ kwei: as ^ ^ tsuy kwei, the chief of 
sinners. Otherwise first (before others ) is expressed by 
*§" 5t show seen, or -|[ 41;^ tsuy seen. Last: as last 
year is expressed by ^ ^ k'hew neen, -^ 4p kew 
neen, or % '^ kli^h svy: the last day of the yeat is 
1^ 19 choajih. 

CHll^ER y 

TliK V£R2. 

I, As the Chinese verb has not yet been exhibited 
m ail its bearings, we shall be tlte more particular upoa 
thissul^ct. Thus it will be our-obj«rt Uj» show, how, 
though devoid of nK^oda and tensei^^ it \b niade to answer 
all ilk^ nurT'O^'K uf ouv (*onju^Hti*»!!s and inflectieoa; 
white we i*^«»h^ -**w3y« Var in mijyi. that unleaa the' j 
diatinci5'-m become necessary, ttoue of the grammatiQi^ 


particles or auxiliaries are employed. It in an extensive 
subject, in the disquisition of which, we iiitreat the rea- 
der's patience, which will, an wc hope, he not inappropri- 
ately bestowed. We shall not hm-den the memory by 
rules, bill lijostly teach by examples, and endeavour to 
shev f»y th.evse, the various modes in which the verb, 
called by the Chinese pr ^ tung tsze, or jg ^ hwa 
tsze, a inoying or living character is used. 


2. We beg^in with this class, as affording an intro^ 
duction to the subsequent remarks. I" rom tlie nature 
of the language- vve may easily suppose that auxiliaries 
are rather numerous^ The principal ones with their va- 
rious uses are enumerated below. 

3, The first is >^ tih. to get, or obtain; it also sig*- 
aifies ability. T*hus f^ ^ tso tih, it may be doi>e, 
practicable; ^ ^ gae tih, may be loved, amiable; 

Jfi ^ ta6 puh tth, it may not be done, impossible: 
. I' ^ ^ shwo puh tth, it cannot be spoken, unspeak- 
abio; ;?: 41= lit piih tih shw6, idem.^ ^ ^ M ^o 
yew tih shwo, cannot say anything; '^ ^ Jf^ ^ seay 
tih jHih ~ 
or X^ 
tih ieaou, 

^ king tih, frightened; 1^ j^ nan t«h, difficult to be 
obtained ;i^ ^ -^ J^. t han tib woe yen, can be de- 
sired without loatJr.iiaf; ^ 1^ r jH^ raei tih puh shing, 
can l^* coil wlr?vt-^ ,V-aVitiftil in the extreme; H ^ot l^i^ 
tih, U> uav^i' ^yoi^xie-^iiwrt of one's self: ig :^ soang till, lo 
b*? mutually aRret-able;^ ^-^ ^ wj X> ^ tsingpuh 
tih tung puh tih, could neither move nor b^ at re»t. 
A8 already shown above. ^ tih, o(i^v iudicat^jN ihe su- 
perlative degre*.?. hs jj^ ^ .^ P^mu ul\ kcil. a^ rnie) 
a€ pot^ifhle; H X- ^ p^ puh tib, o^ ^^ ~f ^ UAa 
p«jh tih, cOf»vey the rr!t'^ni?»;< '»' tUt; OuUiiVf ^« .^. '<%.u 
It might be^E^o; ,% .^ net^c? Imk o».>g ^ >'^f^t' »• . -.-* 
pir that h may bo rivoided, ur ii»^.c-t.>^^ ? ^r *'^:^ : ^!- '^ 


mcen pub ti)i. or^ >l^ ^ s&ng-puh tih, unavoidable. 

4. We next nhr to ^ cbo, which ib in some res- 
pects related to the flbove, though less definable, h 
means to cause, to effect, and, in many instances, when 
aifixed to verbs, cannot be explained by any corres- 
pondinij word in English: for instance itM leih cho, 
he' stood; 3& t t'^ih cho, did kick; ^ ^ tso cho, 
sat; "^ ^ nn ViiM, tool\. To this we add thd following 
instances, where its meaning will be clearly »een; as ^' 
^ Uin eho, to seek till we find; M. ^ keen cho, got 
sight of; ^ ^ wanjr chc\ looked towards ; H^ yT ^ 
shwuy pub cho, couid not slcej);^ ^ ^ tein puh 
cho, could not find ; ^ :^ '^ lew cho giio, retained 
ni)K;^ ^ ^ ^'^^ tih cho, succeeded in the pursuit; 
M m f^ ^^"^^ ^^^ *'*^^' thought about him: % ^ 
mci cho, on what account, for wliat pur[.06e; ^ ^- 
clxj keih. to be in haste: :^ 5^ cho X\i\\y. to issue or- 
ders; m t^ ^*ho nuou, got into a vage, ^ ^ cho lo, or 
% ^ yew ch«">, answerable for. The general meun> 
ing j in mo<si of these in^lanccs is, to reach, effect, come to, 
obiani, V aiise, 

5. \Vt- i«r\y also sptcifytl^keaou, or K^;- k^^ao^:, t:; 
cause wli^.;i^^-sht.^ <^^}iri^^,jf2-keih, 1^ pe, .iudsj^cbe, 
are ail used V) ior:n d neuter :.-au£ative, the iui;U two ex- 
clusively in conversfition: 'ds^ J3^ ^^ ^^ '^ 
keaou gno chow yay thin iaou. make ine ry»^k niglil and 
day ; -fK- 4^ tiil 4^ ]|) hew keaou foo tiuuig w^n, do 
not leu the woman hear of it;^^ ^Jl ^ ^ "^ 
keaou gno joo ho pan sze, liow shall 1 h^ able to ma- 
nage the busiiicks ; <it fJE fB |L ^-^ keaou na ko 
urh shwuy cho, made the child sleep; p^ ^ ^: •g^t 
-^ ^ 0^ keaou gBo t«o heu to gv> sj(r, caused me to do 
a great deal ofwickedae**; nf i >^ # Si ^ kf^M^i 
^n.". m\iik tib i iiiw: k'^Qvy, ht ga^e nic no o*^;pcrw«imtT for 
opeoi).5 *vr Jw^>*i^h, ik ^ ^^ ^ ^ 'J*!" ^ ISl 'Ht 
3S ijf jo« fan ics lo yen, keaou yno roeh tso k hwuy, 
by your mMct lipeocb aiwJ frequent repctitir.n /au pre- 

T£Btiaefromunderfttaa4ing^jou;>4 fj ^ ftT ^ Ifc 
keaou bhang aae h<» ^KJe}) 'ih, t^ake it Insupportable to 

^he KierchanM;. $^ Keatxi^ ;.*i: %crcmat cf ike simillk ^ 


rity ot sound, i& often need in the same manner, 
it # Shetihjtwai do;i^ A^ Hit ^ she 
jin show nan woo soo, to cause numberless sufferings to 
people; # ^ ^ jIt ^^^ she gno shih, do not cause 
me to suffer loss : fit A ^ ."^ ^ she jin ke shoo lae, 
cause beople to send letters. ^ She, is also used for 
perhaps: as also St. iR-she she. jig iyi kSa she, in the 
saraft so/ii^e: ^ ^ ling wan, to give notice; -^ A ^ 
-ft )>n^ jin hwap pc. to cause people to rejoice; 47 -^ 
^ ^ >g^ ^ vvuh liijg kea t&ze gno sze, do net let 
yoiii- family starve; -j^ j^ M '^ P<5 ^eu* pe ynen, to 
caucje the sources ofevil tohecuf ^; i^ ^ 1^ "^ Hi 
fre yew so '.• la^f^ •*a»«>e him k,» have somethiag to rely on; 

W ^ ^1^ r*^ ^ ^ t^ *^^* P^ ^^'^^^ yewping gan, 
^^aiics that tntJi^ TfiHy be jK^ace on hotli sides. ITns 

-,vord is also written ^ pe. 

^ Keih, like ihe formtM\ iir notes to give: as*]^ ^ 
shang keih, to give a reward ; ^ J^ mae keih, lo sell 
to; 5l^ ^ keih tsze, give a commanication, or commu- 
nicate ; i^ ^ }^ ^ keih ling hung pae, cau»e them 
to receive a passport, in edicts, this word is used in 
vaiious ways. But in conversation it i& often used in 
the passive ser/se: as ^ ^ ^ ^ keih gno ma fha, 
he Was blamed by me; ^ ^,^. % g^o ^^^ ^'ha ma, 
1 was blamed by him ',t^- 3(^^_ ^. keih gno sh^o 
t'ha, he was told by me. • 

^ C^e, means also to cause: as j^ ^ e che, in or- 
der to; iSt ]^ che e, cause that; J^ ^ che ti^ to com- 
munlcati information;^ Jj^ ke che, address to; ^ ^ 
che che,i to make kn^wiiyOr cause to know, JJt -IT ^ 
^ che yew tsee sze, unttT this affair was brought a- 
bout; dgt Jt che s«e, to cause death; J^ j^ J^ %^ jft 
^ k'hin laou e che tswcn tseen, wotk diKgently in or- 
der to gain money ; 4^ ^ kew che, do not let; |8t ^ 
ch« ling, cause, ^ \ 

6^ ^- Peih,«|kae,^yiug,:g^wo<i,^ seu, X «s 
-^ tang, andJSk^ all mean oaghi, musI; and should^ 
either singly or in compounds. ^ f)^ Wei peih, it is 
no5 peces^ary, it is not certain; ^* ^j^ pesh tso, must do; 


^ H peih yaou, all mean indispeiMably neeessaiy* 
^ Peih, often denotes the future tense, conveying a si* 
milar meaning to our shall: as ^^ 3^ peih. lae, shall 
come;^ ^ peih seay, will write ;jj& ^ peih taeang^ 
certainly will; ji^ jjt P*^ jen, oi^ ^ ^ peih Joo 
she, it must be &us; ^ ^ peih kii^, it will be 5c af- 
ter all. 

J5^ ^ Ying Icae, ought ;^ # feae tartg, should; 
-^ JfB kae tfize, ought to die;^ # iJl ^ 4fc ^^^^ 
tung e kae yay, conduct as it ought uy\^, 
J^ 'S' Yingtang, ought, what is proper; ^ >||^ tsse 
ying, certainly ought, it ssroy dutj-, |g ^^ seang yung, 
mutually required; J^ 7/C yii^ sliing^ to \<xk^ upon oneV 
self an obligation, to promise; ;^^ ^ ji(^ wei ying 
]^ew tsze, it ought not to be thu<, 
^ ^ Woo seu, ii;^ ^ woo peih, ^ JT woo e, mean 
severally must, ought, necessary, tQdis|)ensable : as ^ 
)^ %woo sub hing, you must walk fast; tI^ ^ ^ 
jlj woo peih tsin leih, it is necessary that you should ex- 
ert yourself; 1^ % 1fjf ^ woo e neang theen, w« 
ought to look up to heaven, 

^ ^ Seu yaou, necessarily must; ^ ^ seu t*hae, 
must wait;^ ^ tsung seu, above all must, ycnj must 
decide^lly ; ^^ j^ ^ keu^ seu t'Aan show, must cut 
off his head; Jf^jK ^ H6r nan ta seu hw&n, young men 
when grown up should be married;^ # ^ # iH 
seu w(K) tih chuy koo, must not on any account make pr^ 
tences. ^ beu, is now and then used in the same sense; 
^ $, Woo e, and 3£ Jt le e, ought, it is proper; j(g 
S: sean^ e, befitting;|jf^ ^ * > ^ :^ woo e 
fi^'buh leih wan seun, you ought to exert yourself to 
iinish the business ; j|g. jCpeene, suitable;^ j[ tih 
e« proper; ;|; ^ e jen, suitable;^ £ sfaih e, just 
what ought to be. 

SE '1^ Letaiig,^ ^ pun tang, mean what ought to 
be done;. Jg '^ seang tang, what is fittmg to be done; 
Hi M tang seay, must write; fl? '^ H Jt 5jt l« tang 
lae tlieea taou, it is reasonable that we should trust to 
piovide|iee;;i|:. J^ ^ % P^^ ^ tang wei, what ou^bt 
to be done. 


M Le, just, reasonable, oagbt;^ Sf 4" ^ ^*^ ^ 
ta«g wei, what ought to be done; JH |[ ^ IP ^^ 
viilkn t8u^, he ought in reason to be punished. 

7 . j|g| Yuen, ;^ y6, |^ yaou,ii^ she, and ^ klianjijt, 
all mean Kihfa^ desire, want, wiUi^s^d i9[ tsung jruei^ 
^ % yuen e, to wish;JK S A^ i j^ yueir wan jtn 
heang fuh, wb wish all men to enjoy happiinssB;^ 3^ 
^ % X>^ M^ XHt ^ #ytien seay yew seay 
, pfih tih, yuen tfiii yew tub puh tih, wishing to write 
and caMiot write, wishing to read and cannot read; J^ 

'% M M y^^^ ^ ^'^^ cliiDg, we widi you to go on 
your journey. 

ftire;;as.^ ;g- ^ J^ j^ y6 hing uih we tYh, he wished 
Her tralk but eould iM^-, i^ ;Sb M I& ^ y^ ^^ chuen, 
be wished to sail t ^ ^ ^ e yo ho w^, what does 
be wish to do?;f| ^fc i *t A ^ ^ y^eu y^> yu 
keajinseanghOjlie wished to live on good tern>9 with 
kyis family. 

Jl Yaou, and ^ # yo yaou, mean to ^ant, wish, 
Su:. as jl W H yaou eh'huh keae, he wanted to go out; 
^ f^ ^^ y6 yao^ kucg ehi^, he wanted to at- 
iaciiL Ae city; j|^ || twy yaou, or ^ ^^ kin yaou, very 
mu£b waoted 

ti^ ^e, is iised to express desire, wish, but is not 
employed so freqiiently as any of the above auxiliaries: 
Bsx^ J >^ ft sba yu y5 sluh, to be addicted to eat- 
mg and dnnkmg; ^ ^M US ^^ y^ ^^ ktgung he 
dianshed unb/ onded desires or jqppetites; t^ ^ J^ 
^ w& le diesl^e^ he was only deairous of gain. 

it Kliang, oill, to be willing as ^ -f >S§P^ 
fchang tsung. he was unwilling to follow, ^* -^wfin 
k'h^g, to assent to, to agree to, ^ -^ jg m6 k'hang 
wet, no one iiyas willing to do it. 

8 The verbs ;R pa,;|T *», H lae, i klieu, ^ tTiae, 
-f^ kau,if- luttg, and ^ p'ha, are used in various ways 
as auxiliaries. 

^ Pa, to take hold of, to grasp, often occurs as an 
^auxtiiary, and i^ m msmy instances untranslatable: a$ ^E 
^ ^ M ^ ^ pa t'halataioufsingnuy, takeaivj 

CHAP. V. AUXlLIAiriEac mS- 

draff him inside the room ; ^ ^ ^ M P* seaiig Kk 
rhuen.get the box on board the vessel; ^ ^ ^ \lL - 

W i* j£ 1^ >^ ^ pa pun tse che tsuy jin heiing teih; 
keen fhow, throw the guilt of his wife upon his br 'ther; 

^ ?^ 4fr J? P* wei woo yung, deem it of no use; 4B. 

— ^ ^ ^ pa yih kea sh^ leaou, kitted the whole f; v. 
mily; ;fc A jfel ^T P^ g^^ k'hing leaou,. treated me 
lightly; ^ -^ g^ j^ P^ ^^u tsoo ho, to^feed the fire 

wifli fuel; ^^/i- M^ ^ itUTP^ ^^^^' ^^^ 
hwa too tuy t'ha shwo leaou, he s{R^e the true language 
of his heart towards him; ^ t^ ^ — j||l pa sin mt 
rJhtno, just lay your hand upon your heart ;^ ^ ^ 
f ^ M ^ pagno mun k'hantihjint&een^lookufoiie 
ua withscK^ncontempt;^ i]^ ^ ^ ^ pa seaou t^ 
tajxg shen, consider my brother as a Tirtnous man; 4B 
^ -^ ^^ ^ I3"tfc pa foo kwei tso foo yun. k'he 
pe, to view riches as a fleeting cloud. From these va« 
rious examples it w31 appear, that the word, either ^iveb 
a causative meam&g, or may be transdated b;^ view, car 
consider, especially when fi^wed by ^ tang,^^ k1iatv> 

^ Ta, to beat, or ^rike, is used in a variety of w«yi , 
as an auxiliaiy : thua :^ ^ ta oeaou, to sweep; ^ ^ 
takea, to fight; ^ f^ ta teen, to arran^; ^ ^tstfH^ 
to send; ;^ ^ ta. {^, to dress;^ jpta sfawuy^ to 

sl»«P; tr ^ tafhing, to enquire; 3fr ^ tT ^ i 
yu gnota kochaou meen, turn the face to me; ^ 
^ j^ ta lak^he lae, drag him out of the water;j^ 
^ piihtakin, not ofgreatimportance, no matter; :fj 
^ yf ^ ta shin mo^uh kin, deem of no consequenos; 
tr "ftr ta chang, to fight. 

^ Lae, come, is used in various w»;^s as an auxiUar^ 
ry, but commonly follovrisg the verb: bbH^ ^ ^^^ 
poll loe, could not db il; >^ ^ ^ jitfc tih laia, eome 
^fo^^^iSi ^ lung lae, a^pproadb-^ |^ )Mttemt,Qarrmt: 
^ ^ wanglae, going .<^iid comifig, intercourse' ^ j^ 
iSH ^ 7^^ P^ "^^ ^' wanted to draw forth his sword, 
# ^ |e^ na sbwuy lae, bring water here: j| if^ 
k mn shoo lae, take a took at a book; ^^ "jf 
the k*be'peth Im, take up tkft i^9MRl\ ^ i^ %^ 


k*bfih tv^eang klie lae, began to weep; ^ :^ 4^ 8bw6 
k'he lae^ be^^c talking; (J$ ^ k'he lae, generally 
mea s to commence;) ^ ^ ch'huh lae. go cut; ^ ^ 
3|E na ch'hiih lae, take it oat;^HL ii J^ lung t'ha 
ch'huh lae, bring him out. It is often used as an ad- 
verb, OT adjective: as>5^ ^ jTuen lae, originaUy, now, 
placed at the beginning of sentences, that explain the 
foregoing: as ^ ^ ;?: tsung lae puh, or-^ 3l^ ^ 
tsunglae woo, never ^ J^ ^ t^eea lar, ?ht* above fre- 
quently in edicts : >j^ j^ how Ih^, after warcjU ; ^ ^ 
JK ^ tsung kin e lae, henceforward; ^ ^ lae 
tliow, origin; ^ J^ lae leih, hietory, state, circumatan- 
ce«; p.^rtieulars ; ^ ilE^jH woo Ine leih, no ioundation, 
no tnriii, unaccountaiie; 3^ i) lae yew, cause, particu- 
^^^l JL ^ H ^^ 1^ j^^ f'^r *h^8^ five days; ^ 0| 
^ ^ Ji ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^' moi^ than four months 
ago; ^ Yi I*® i*^» ^®^* ^^y^^ ^ tseang lae, in 

^ KTieuC to go: as $i %fv l*e k'heu, tn go and come 
^ ^ iS: ^ seanglaesesngkheu, toponcier; ^ ^ 
^^ ^ shw^ lae shwd k'heu, to talk over a thatter; 
^ /P ^ seaou pGh k'heu, unsaleable, cannot be sold: 
^ -^ ch'hah k'heu, go out; ^Sl-^ tsin kheu, or A 
^ jiih klieu, to enter;.^ ^ le k'heu, or j| M/ ^ 
ie k'hae k'heu, to leave^ to separate: ife-^ kwo k'heu, 
U> pass aw5.y ; 11^ ^- taj k'heu, to retire, to retreat; ^ 
^ ufr k heu, to take away; 1|" # -^ na pwan k'heu, 
■ 'ke away the dish; (the object, as in the case of i^ lae, 
U sometimes placed i>et ween the two verbs:] ^ ^ 
^ keang tih k'heu, it can be said; H :f: ^ keang 
puh Vheu, it cannot bg. said ; ^ "||fc k'heu tsew, to re- 
cede and approach^ two opposiies; ^ ^ k heu she, to 
lei^YC the worH^ to die; -J^ ^ k*heu neen, last year; 
•Jr /j^ k'heu how^-aft*f wards. 

^'T!hae, to wa;il, stands in our acceptation of the 
word in conversation, appaiently without any meaning: 
as ;j^ -^^ Mr ^ ^ . gn« thae yaou shwo lae; just as I 
w: beginning to apeak; ^ ^^ Wr J(: -i^ ^ ^ 
ft ^ % gflo yo tta? jaou puh k'fieu, gno y6^f*haf 
jBcuk *bcu^ i , wi&h U9t to go, axid ^«x I vi\%V ^ %o 1^ 

eMAP. V. AimtUAlUEIS. 85 

i^ )i|ilati I'hae Vheih, having no appetite; 1^ ^ ^ 
gno kTieu t'ht^e lae, I went and am come asjain; ^ 
^ ^ )/Sr^^ t'hae yaou f ban hae, do you wish to 
fathom fee sea? This word is used in many other in* 
stances, and is generally followed by -f^ yaou« 
-]pt Kan, to dare: ^ -j^ k'he kan, how 4are? Fol- 
lowed by^ she, it means perhaps, I guess: as ^ ^ 
yp% 3^ kan she pub lae, perhaps he will not conie;i^ 
;^ J^ ^ kan she p'heen gno, I guess he has deceived 
me: or join to>f§ pa: as]^ *)fe ^ ^ vE '^' ^ ^^ 
pa piih rhe taou sin tsing, perhaps he has no knowledge 
of my love. 

If Limg, meant to play, and trifle, ox to effect in a 
bad sense, and is variously used : as ^ ^ ^ -^ ^ 
lung t'ha woo nae ho, he brought him into dtfiiculties ; 
^ ^ ^ ^ mae lung show twan, to show oflF erne's 
cleverness; ^ J^ lynghwae, to spoil, If ^ lung yew, 
to lead astray : and so on in m toy other instances 

^ Pa, alone; or joined to ^ k'hung, or preceded by 
^> chth, indicates a probability : as ^ >f& ;^ :^ Jp 
Vhung pa we k'he shin, he has perhaps not yet n^ea; 
*)fi fj >f> -ff^ pa taou puh tih, we shall probably not 
be able to reach the place; j^, <& 3t 5S* 5^ T chih 
pa foo ts'hin sze leaou, the father is probably dead, 

^ Hing, occurs frequently in the senile of do^ and 
many times in a way which appears untranslatable: as 

>fj ^ hing joo, to order; |[, ^'^ ^ Y^^ ^i'^ff cha 
na, to mstitute severe investigation and seizure ; ^ ^ 

1^ f4 ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^) ^^ institute immediate 
6eardi; ^ ^ hingtseang, to bestow praise. 

9. Among the auxiliaries may be enumerated fli| 
n^nyr. i; ' k'ho^ tf ^^^liiiig, ^ hew, ^ peJi. f^ N&ng, is 
4ised in the sense of can, may, able, to do: as ^g i^ 
rAng t86,can do; ^ ^ n^ng seav^ can write; % ^ 
^ yew nang hing, Able to do: ^ T- i^ il V^ kepiih 
c&ng tsze poo, he eould not feed himself when hungry 

"Sf K'ho, in the sense of may; or can: as ,R ^ ^ 
II J/V vf ^ ^zjr chib k ho tung k'how, piih k'ho tnng 
shoW) you may iipeak. but you must tfot act: i. e scolo^ 
but !ZOl beat; ^ ^ if:, jjj" v^o ko^^ViV\x^^'^>a%\B^ 

86 AUltltlARlB^. CHAK. T, 

yf ^ kTio fow, or in conversation ^ M ItTiomo^ can 
itbe t and now and then ; ^ :% liTio she, may it befiQf 
^ >f^ ^ twan hoo puh kTio, on no account GSten 
-wl^n standing before verbs, it gives them the adjective 
Bignification : as If ^ k'bo gae, can beloved, anmble; 
"^ 'f^ klio laSku, hatefiih detestable ; ^ X kTio kecR, 
it is evident; W ^ -^ ^ ^ ^^ klio yew shin roo 
|RBg keu, \i'1iat pioofs are there ; ^ ^ ^ i|fe yevklio 
hwuy chow, could anything be so oetestable; i^ X ^ 
kl»o jin e, ^sruch as people would like. It often in^ 
cares the inrperative: as -^ ^ ;^ -^h ^J: ^ joo kTio 
waiig na i:ha lae, go and fet(^ some tea; ^ '^ ^ 
— ^ ne k'ho tso yih tso, sit a while ; If ^ Vho e, 
af»y ; 1^ »l ^ ^ k*bo e hwii le, May gain moaey; 
at the iBBd of sentences l^" 4fc k'ho fay. means that any* 
thing is practicable or admissible: as '^ ?B| 1^ A 
shihyenVho yay, it is allowable to ^mokej 9^ if k'bo 
k*ho. Just that In conversation jkJ> ^ seaon k'ho,^tii£ 
liDg; H J|v "^ woo puh kTio, most certainly. 

~^ Tsing, in the sense of to ask, request, is often used 
by the polite Chinese to express the imperative: sa 
"^ 4 tsing tso, pray sit down; 'll ^ tsiog lae, pray 
come, ^ f^ tsing w^n, I beg to enquire; ^ ^ jf- 
-^ ^ tsing pe k'han yUi k'haa, let loa have a look. 

^ Hew, meaning to cause, to rest, to leare off: an d 
j^i] peS, to take leave of, are often used to indicate the 
negative imperatrve: as "d^ Jl^ 7^ X tiew yaou wang 
leaou, do not forget ; ^ 46 ^ hew pa ne, do not fear 
J*»5 "fi^ -fl ^ ^ l^w tih kwo keen^ do'nt be too 
bambte; ^^ jk ^% ^w ke^ou t'ha ^emu hwa, 
do Qot Ui him owke game tttik; ^ ^ i^ ^ jM yaotil 
moi ch6^ do vkA believe; 4^ ^^ J|. ^ jw> peft yarn 
4i w6v da not teU it 

10. The fcltowing^ ^«*-R p*. U tsm,S& kwti, 
^ yih, i$^ peifa, and j|( c^mp;^ are all words descriptive 
of tire paat tense: as done^ &iulied, &c. 

Thus ^ ^ keang w«i, having said; ^ |l^ wan 
pan, having managed ; ^ ^ wan pei, fully prepared^ 
complete; ^ j^ wan tseun, fenished; ^ y ^sai leacm, 
done with, &ii$ted 


ill ^ Thing pa, having heard ;^ T pa leaou, 
dhne^ made an ekd of ; ]if || chih pa^ dismtBsed: «)f| 
^ pa fi^e, to desist from the examination ; j|| 1^ pa 
she, i^iit the market ;|| X pa kung, leave off wor>. 
H" ift TsmshS, killedthem all; ^ J^ tsto too, ex- 
4iirpa<e ifae whole ;^ ^ * #f It ping tsuh keae 
che tain, the soldiers were |l1I killed; ^ ff ahih tsin^ 
having eaten the whole. 

A Kwo,topa9s, exceed^ ia used in combmation: 

thus i^ ^ Aih kwo, having eaten; 5ft ;? l|t H kwo 

leaou 800 jih^ having passed several da^s; ^ ^ Ji^ 

^ pe tlia m^wan kwo, was deceived by him;^ ^ 

2|t Jf pQh kwo pwan neen^ not more than half a year. 

^ Tih, to come to a close^ to stop, is thus combined : 

M -tfe *& 8an yih, having scattered; — ;?^ jpf ^ yih 

Ibou tsan yih, with one blow he cut off his head ; f^ 

^ $ J^ ho plii^tnie che^ how has it come to this; ^ 

^^^en yih; hairing done speaking. 

Jft Peib, to terminate, is thus joined with dtbea 
tains : as ^ jpt hwapeifa^ having finished speaking; 
Jj^ K yuen peih, having expressed a wish ; ~ 3p jg 

X J{ yih neen iirh kung peih, within a year the work 
was finished; Jt ^ tsin peih, having completed. 

J$ Ching, to perfect, is thus used: as ]i^ Aching 
cho, finished doing it; J^ ^ ching keaou, finished the 
intercourse; J^' J|^:^ ching puh k'he, would not ef- 
fect; J^ & ching tsaou, fully constructed. 

1 1. Those which foUow ^ show,^ keen, \J| tsaou, 
*^ ling, and ^ kih, are words that frequently describe 
the passive. Thus j^ show, to receive;^ # show 
hae, to be injured; $ J^ showjuh, ta be insulted; ^ 
t^ show dioo, to be killed ; 3& M showhii»g,or J^ ^ 
show tsuy^ to be punished. 

JfL Keen, to see: asX ^ keen seaou, to be laughed at, 

or laughable ; Jt ^ keen leang, to be excused ; X M 
keensew, to be ai>hE^med;Jt ^ keen k'he, to be re- 
jected; T^ Jl IK: ^ pCih ^^^ hvr^n pe, not to be 

^ Tsaou, fa meet: as ^ ^ $ tsaou k'hin hwd, 
to boa^ifed; ^j^ f^ ^ tsaou, t^h wei, to be ^tiHvx^yc^^ 


bjf the rebels; 3^ tT tsaou ta^ to be beaten. ^ Yu, 
which meaiie al8)> to meet, b frequentlj need in the 
Mine manner: a6 \S^ ^ ^ ^ # 7^ kwan €*he lih 
teoo, to be oppressed liy the Mandariiifr. 

^ ling» to reeeive, is sometimes used in the passive 
sense: as ^ ^lisg joo, to receive camnumck, tabemfw 
dered; ^ ^ Iiug kaxw, to be instructed^ 

)C Keib, to eat, is thus used in a few iutances: as 
«j1 — tH^ keih yih king, to be astonished; ^Jf^ keib 
kwei, to be injured: ^ ^ |^ ^ keih sin show koo, 
to suflferdistress. % Wet, to be, sometimes assumes thr 
passive form : as ^ ^ J^ W ^^ *'^ ^^ t^®^ injuifed 
by him, 

12, ^ Tseang, to take, is frequently used in sen- 
fences where it is scarcely translatable: as ^ j^ ^ 
^ ~ i& tseang ko tsing shwo yih peen, h^ gave a 
detail of the whoie;^- ^ 7; ij^ jfee^igalia hea yo,' 
he put him in prison; ^.-$L ^ it tseang tseeri keaou 
t'ha, payhim the money ;^^ ^-^ tt ^ tseang 
jooyih taouehaou luh^ to transcribe an order; ^ -^ 
5c T ^ ^ tseang peen t'heenhea sin clie,soughtfoj 
him in the whole Empire. ( )ften, however, it is used 
to indicate the ftitUre tense: as )||p ^ tseang tso, will 
^^l^ % tseang seay, will write; ^^^ ^ tseang 
y6 ho wang, where are you going ? ^ ^ ^ J^ ke 
ts<^^j7g gan chTiuha which way shall we carry out the 
plan;^ i^- ^ i^ ^00 tseang nae ho, what shall J 
do: ^ ^ tseang iae, hereafter, in future ; ^ ^ tseang 
keih, almost, nearly;^ <j^ ^ ^ tseang tsze wan 
keaou, having nearly paid the whoie; -3^ >£ X ^ ih 
tseang kin san k::r:g she, about the third watch. 


13. They are the following: :^ yew, y} nae, fj| ke 
^ wei, ^ she, and Jt tsae. 

^ Yew, there is, also to have : as^ ;|^ A "^ Y^'^ P^ 
shwd, there are some who say; :^ jj§ ^V U y^w 
ebueajuh k *bow^ there are sooae v^ss^ that have en^ 


tered theliarbour; J9r ^ ^ ^ so ye«v hbg le, the 
Imggage that was there ;X % # ^ y^y yew how 
tsing, there was a strong aflfection; ^ J^ ^ ^ kin 
yew shlh ncm, it w now tea years ago; ^ -fe i| -K 
wei ehe yew yay, there never hati been« 

In the signification of have it oce*rrs ma:^ frequeiit- 
ly : as ^ ^ A ^ Ijfc yew tseen, jib keae king, if you 
have money, all peeple will respect you; i^ :f yew sie, 
have business, occupied;:^ 4lt yew woo, have or not 
have ; the former is the positive, the latter the negative 
verb substantive:;^ H ^M B yew jih sze woo 
jih, wheu you are in possession of anything, think on 
the day when you will have it not; :^ ^ yew le, it ha« 
somfe reason, or it is rea; Qua^blcr^jl jgl yew le, to have 
politeness, to he polite; ^ S^ yew been, to have limits^ 
a few;* ^ yew ?oo, lo liave a number, several; -J§i 
i^ tnun yew, have not; in conversation i^ ;^ we yew, 
not yet have. It is also used to indicate the i>ast tense : 
as ^ -^ yew 'keang, they hava said; |f $ ^ ^ 
king yew chih ling, he has elready oidered it. 

y$ Nae, is us^ed th«LS; ^ ]l5r A. ff^o nae jin, I am a 
flian;75 Jt^ naeta noo, h<^ was ffrcatly incensed; 
^ ^ T ^ i^ha nae hea keu, he was dismounting 
from the carriage;:!. A 7} ^ ^ % urh jin nae 
pub fuh yen, the two men did not speak again. 

^ He, occurs in the following eonnecfion: as ig "if 
A he haou jin, he is a good man; 7i f^ % }Ji, ^^M 
heleangkew,itislongago;^fJ^>|^ ii JE ^ ?! i»6- 
we he tung sze che taou loo, it is the way to ^e with 
him , |[t ^ "% -^ woo so he nee, there is no property. 

% Wei. has a great variety of sigQtfications; 3ts -^ A 
Wfi j^ , to be a man, or to aet the man; ^ )jfc JJ. % 
wei pih woo wei, it must be done;||| % nan wei, to 
make diffienH, to annoy ;;^ ^ yew V/Oi to have any- 
thing to do; Iji % woo wei, to have notiiing to da It 
18 Bon^etimc !C connected with j^ e, tocouHider, to view: 
MpJt i^ ^ A e wei shing jin, to consider him as a 
i^. It is often used to indicate the pase-ivc: as 2| A 
^ Hi wei jin so ban, to be hated by men: % ^ ^ 
j^ wei chuD^ so sin, to be believeii b\ ^\ %> % ^ 


^ wti >ii: * t:!j. icf^ a^va) f^' liisf (See eIsiodi« Pr*'i;j- 
sitions.) :^ She, r- lb i*» r-juployed: asj^ JiL 4^ she 
hwaiig ;c, it is th'» Krniwroi, ;;j; j^ -itti jfc puh she joo 
tB»e, It is noitbiio.-^ ^ij "^^^shetsih yen she. wbra 
it i& so, say that it is so; || de^ j^ ^^^ ^^ i* it thi2s? 
^ '^ ^^ ^fr -^ she ching ho sin hoo, uideed what 
heart is diis ! 

M- Tsae. is thus c ombined* ^ji ^ >|l t"ha yew teap, 
heisthe^re: :f; Jt puh tsae, tic i.^chsrnt; IJi $l j/li ^ 
ibo tsae na le, where r'S^.es ihc i>t? • iJv. il"? ^ i 8 
"fl^ Si^e tsae rauh tjic'='n. the business is before yom 
eyes, present ;>^ "f^ H rsae tang mcen, to be in one's 
p^^sfTii-e; ^ >& Isze tsae, to be oneVsclf ; jf« & ^ 1% 
]>uu t^iiai: hwa hea, need net be told. It ought to be 
reinarlred, thai it. tsae, al ways mdicates the place of b& 
ingin. (S*^e also the Prepositions.) 

Notwr.h^tandiDg the a axiety of these verbs, they r»i*^ 
often left out where ouv ^- \nT^e wn>j]i*; .r^qvire ^heni; 
a*^ :^ ^ g| A cmv rLu'Jsr 'v- jin, 1 am a Chinese. 

\ M*10TJv t LA<SE? OF VERBS. 

1 fe ihc .^=tuiction T?e d-au between the neuter 
aj)d active verbs dees not, from the nature of the Ian- 
grit:re, existin Chinette; in a few iiifntances, howevfv, 
tiie Toark <> i> ^ r'.tten above the word f -^ indicate its hail- 
ing adopted as ;vcts «c Si^ification. 

15 The pbrsive, as .tc have already reicnirked is 
indicated b^ ^ keen "^ show. ^ tsaou, »od othei: 
verbs. Besides tliese (ocAr. ve may rtilt mark the M- 
lov,ing 5JL 1^ A kTic yii jia or Jj^ :J A k'he yu jin, 
Oicspised by .nen. So ?J^o ^ $:4li^ nvung ke keaoQ 
h«ua» taught b> him ^ ^ ^ -^ ijt niung ke paoa hoo^ 
protected by him 
^ }\' is also (rpquentiy used ill tbis sense: BS-^ 
1?- '^ 3C p'^ mow sbS cht killed by «otgi? body:|Jt 
?S f ^ ^ pe Iwan keun t>o sb;^^. Killed by the roi 
b**!ioiih ariciy . jH # i)^ tsin pesN^ou. cutirfly b#iDi(; 

rHAF. V. MOODS. 91 

thnst of the spear; )l ^ ilL 'pt 1 ^ f^ri pe t'ha 
8hw6leaou gno, on the concrary it wast«»ld me by bim 
8u also 1^ yew. awd occaiiionally SI yui: as lif ii^ ^ 
^ vew t'ha k'har sh^, e^tiliiisbed hy him; B 3L ^ 
^ yin heUDg po luag, denied by my brother, ft may 
be well also to notice [dirases like the folic wiug:>/L 

>^ S ^ jin yew woo teih, oi A "^ MM ]^ ^ 
been chay, hated or detested by inen; ^^ ^ ;f£ 
^ ^ J^ k'holeen wang kaou shii jin, the mau who 
is falsely accused and killed, is to be pitied; f^ i^ ^ 
"^ Jj^" shwuy so she che chay, by whom was he sent? 
^ iSt f^ ^ ^he tse^ng teili wuh» these are stolen 
goods; ^^\5; ^ taoulaeche ho, stolen articles, 
^ ^ f^ f^ ^ heguotetsd chay, i!. vns done by 
roy brother 


16. *lhe indicative requires no comment, ^nd of the 
conjunctive we have already spoken in the case of if 
kho. wliic>. indicates a possibility or probability: a^ 
13" ^ k*ho tso, It may do; pf ^ k'ho hing, it may 
be done 

1 hove exist many conditional particles, which circam* 
scri'jvr *he conjunctive Such a&jgl joo,^ i^-^ toi^gr 
ii ^>i^i4ft y^^at shfe, ^ kow. ^ she, ^ tsung, 
and ^ hw6. To give a distinct idea of their use, w3 
^liall exemplify the various modes in which they are 

17. "jtP Joo, and^ j6, *r* nearly synonymous: as 
'^ ^ "^ ^ joo 7^w yin tseen, if I had money; :Mt 
^ j^ joo shoo taou, if the letter arrive. 1 hey are al* 
so combined; ^ief ^ ^ ^ joo j<> foo sie. if my fa** 
ther were to die, ji J6, is more frequently used than 
any other^ eitlier alone or combined: as # ^ tang j5, 
^ ^ j8 she,^ % JO ke,4t ^ kwo jd,^ ^ Jd 
^be,j|| ^ j6 jea, and $ * i6 chay: ffs ^ ;^ 
tang jfS pub ting, if he do not hsten;j^ "^ Z^ ^ 
fH »be pub ching ping^ if I'he ptre^e Vye i&^l \ECo\v&»ax^^\ 



Jt S^- 5t ^ j8 ke wail tseun, if it be finished; ^ ^ 
^ vl: ^ -f^ *<^o J<i chihfS tsiing «zf, if indPeed he 
adhf^re to th^ letter of the law and fbllow' up the busi- 
ncKs;^ ^ ^fc ;^ jo she ch'biih leih, if he exert 
himself: jll fj^ %■ j|^ jo jen k'hSiig tso^ifhc wilf do 
it; #^ ^ % *S: :|i Ife ^ jo chay yew sin keu *A'eu6 
i;ao, if he have a heart to ifbr^akc me. T^t Joo, is also 
used within kea, to eonvcy an idea of probability; as 
iU. '^ ^ ^ 1^ kea joo we tih le, fiuppcsing vou 
could not mak^mon^.y:^$(^ kea jen, andUSt ';jt. kea 
ling) both signify suppose the same idea is ci^nveyed by 
^il\l P** joo, and^lp ^ pe j6 m^ ^ T^ ^ t 
% ^ pe joopCib tseang ke shoo laNe, if he da uot 
bring the book;^ ^ "I" § ^ ^ i^ P^ J* kwan 
yuen fiixh kwao bH. if theMandarins do not retrain him. 
IS. f^ TaDe^a:&di]| tang.dT^syiioiiyinoei^jl^ ^ 
t\Tiij St>v6.. hi d'll ?^ t&ogjeru ffiean if: ife It *t ^, 
t!ing k&n l:ittg wet, if ycu dare to dihcbey; % ^' ;|; 
?^ tangbvT'6pai[ihti2f,iftiedonotgo;i}^ ^' iS 3^ 
y;> ^ tang Jen f &h fm pfih ting, but if k^ppmesr. be net 

^ Yo<>, ^^^ yoo |;i, ac4 ^ |fe yoo she, are afeo 
of ftimiUr importt as-A ^ /5i jfil 35 >^ ^ JL yoc 
«Jv^y xin fBh urh koo show *iih, just as if otie wers <o 
d>sreg3)rd enental effott, acd lock ov\f ti> rxie's feet aod 
^^^ *ikl ^^y Afr6 yoo we leaou, ere bf had done 
apeakinc J^ ig^yook'hd, it i^tiU may- i]o,1j^ ^. ^; 
^ H ^ ;o6 j& p&h fa« ping e a^ ii ooi erniowrd s^th 
^irtuouy principles ;;3p^ '^T^ IT Hto '% y(M> ibfe pub 
fc^bo joo f , if peihapi not arcording to cne ^. wi'^be^. 

"^ Sh*, gt ^ *W^ **^6» ^ud ^ j?. ^hft -he, m^, uaed 
*iii(he same sense* as ^:. ^ ^ i' !^ sli^bv^Oyev^biae 
3r&ng, if perhaps he have talent; ^it ^ f^ "^ ^ 
sh<$ :4ie ..hhiih mun woo sze^ if pnbaps ht may hirve 
^one out aud attended to his busiiie^s* 

1y Kow, bear!^ the saii\e sense: as '^ ^ 7 J^ ^ 
kovr fei pub seay tsze^ifhedo net nefl(Iect to write; 
1^ 7 ^ kovr piih jen. if it be not 4>u>; ^ ^ j^ 
ik ^ kow yow che yu tih^ if he have an incUnatftoa 
io rirti\c 

CHAP. V. MOOD8. 93 

*{fL She, is mostly used in connection iiifh^ she, 
but some^mes occurs alone: as 1^ j|SI^ 31 f|^ she aoo 

3ni 16, if it do not rain : -fgt ^ Ji ^ & % J^**^ sh^ 
hwang: te gSn chun, if the Enipcro. grhut it. 

;ttt Tsang, or IK, 5^ tsung jen,are tu bt inel with; 
as ^ <^ B ^ -^ ^ tsung kin ]ih taou pun heang. 
suppose I were to arrive to day at my native place |^ 
f!^ JljK $fC tsung jen shmg teih, suppose he were to o* 
vercome the enemy. 

^ Htv6, and ^M hwo chay, perhaps, likely, it 
may be. bear ihe same sense: as iC ^ ^ ^ ^- hwd 
jta hw6 piih jen. it may be so, or it may not be -.o; ^ 
>^ It )% IS) @ hwo chay shing keen hwuy kw6, he 
may perhaps avail himself -jf iiie opportunity and return 
to his country. 

ly Words likei^t kan. ^ ^ to kc^u . ^ Jl k.T.i 
ffhe,^ ^ k«n pa, or }{ •)» chih pa, ^ *>& kang pa 
^:>f # pa f^^h rih,4g, :f^ mdhftr. pah t;b, ..fl- 
iindicate&e conjunctive. CScc auxiliary ^•-»>js J So,i!^c 
^ ^ ^ kwan, 0. ^ pacu kwan ?J2d ^ *f§ kwau 
fci-^iig , as ^^^ ^ ^A £ '5. fj to kT.-an ^e hzi\k che 
^•co fe*un, hi is most likely ( he may be) not yet 50 jt^u 
^^ ^^. ^ "^ ^^ ^ ^-^' -- ^sing tsew haou fcauu 
it may b; imrT'cfii^tciy ^^-U |i ^ ^ :^J ^ jP**v 
Bc*<Bv\(j ye^^ Ic t&,he niti^ be successful, or it i& l»kfiy 
ih3t he will be successful Thcoe forms are esLciusively 
Ufred in conversation. 

2^ ISfe # (Jhoo fei, and I^ ^ choo Iomu. sta.i.i 
for n.tits$: as !^ 4^ ^ $ If^ ^o^ ^^i kline kin kang. 
unless you relax the prohibitions 1^ ^ J^ ^ J^ 

mai*ry, ytm .a.n have nochiluien;]^ ^ ^ ^ i^ it 
choo leacu shay te xsd ""Tan^ unless my younger broUier 
write die dssaj^ 

21. jB[ ^ Sho &o«% li^ shoo ~ and waa 
yih, occur in the sense ^perhaps, Bsjfk^^^ shoo 
ibo k'ho yay, it may perhaps do, ^ j|^^ ^ tj ^4 
shoo ke k'h^ ching taeeu wan^« he ma) perhaps have 
gone- on Eis jouio^y and proceeded j|| ^ ji^ ^ wan 
yih chuig S2e, ht may pethap^ iuiibh the bu&uifiK ^ 


94 iNFINlTlVE. CHAP. T. 

Su), although, requires Die eonjunetive: asJjL -tT-^ 
?uy hing tih. although he practice virtue. 

22. We quote still the following modes of convej- 
ing the sense of the conjunctive 4|| ?Jt ^ 1^ Yuen 
joochang show, may yon live, long; JL ^ ^ 4^ Jt 
j(^ ^ M ^ she k'ho jinyay, shuh puhk'ho jin yay, 
if this can be endured, \^liat cannot be endured '? 1^ ^ 
^ H T -^ Jfc nan taou gno tso leaou puh ching; 
is it possible that I could have erred? ( t^ 3t Nan 
taou, either with or without ^ ^ pub cning, is thus 
frequently used, while it is diflicuit to translate it by a 
'jorresponding term in oui* language. ) i^ vt. ^ ^ 
^ ^ nan taoii hwan sze ch< ■ gno, should she still 
ihink about me?i|| lEitl^^/fr ^ nan taou nyu 
yew heung f ih ching, can it be that the woman led 
you astray, -^^ ^^ 1$^^^ ^ 7k t'ha tiiy 
f how t'ha, gno ya) tuy I how joo, if he might resist hira» 
1 niijrhl also resist you ;,% jf^^ V^ ^ % % ^ te 
puh tsaou hwa, gno piih i.atig choo, if he have no luck, I 
cannot stay;;^ ^ '^ :fu ff ^ -- ^ ying e che 
yew, tseih tbzeyih sze, if any bad action wen:* to be de- 
nounced, it is this, fa ^ M ^ ^ X >^ ^ che ke 
xnmg, tsew jay jin chenoo if you were to point out bis 
name, you would only incite the anger of ethers. 


23. The Cui!:c.';e language has no paiHcuJar way 
ofexpie^sing this mood, thus the forms 9^ ^ % gno 
$2ae seay, 1 love to write, '^ fife ^ tsingt'haiae, reqaest 
him to come; are a mere juxta-positions of words, if 
1 stress be laid upon the word to of our infioilive, the 
sen^e is conveyed by J5^ e, fJt che, and 5t JBl che e: as 
^ ^ % fX ^ i gtio Veih joo yung che, 1 gave 
it you to use it,q| ^ ^ -^ It -3$ 1j| woi# keaou 
seang kung che e pe, I called you, Sir, to prepare; it 

Ir ^ K St Jit >^ jf& keun tsze gae jin, che e poo fuh, 
the si^penor man loves mankind, in order to spread hap* 
^piaesB amongst them , ^ ^ Yk^ It. "^^^ che c 1 ioo« 


cbe, 1 came to call biio* yX ^ "^ % ':id' ebwan t'ha 
wei baou» be thou^bf it well to (jladden otliers. 



24. To what we have already said, wheu treating 
of the auxiliary verbB, we raay add the following 

The Imperative is eitprc«sed by "i9" k'ho; hh ^ ^ 
% ^ joo klio seen yiii, do you driiik first; "5" tiB f^ 
k'lio cL'huh raim, go out of dogrs. But tbi^j form i^ 
usee? tc'-vards intcrion;, seldom to equals, and never to 
superiors, in whicli latter caseg^ ts'bing, pray;|(f ke. 
beg : and "l^ wang, hope ; are substituted 

25o To express let^ the Chinese employ seven?! 
words: as |^ ^^% t'hing t'ha tso, let him do it; ^ 
-^^ ^^ iS '^ ^ yewtih yangshang ganpan. Jet thf 
Hoiig merchants manage this well ; ^ 0^ ^ v^^g ^o 
k h3U, kt me go;^ -ifctJ^ ping t'ha shwo, let him 
talk:^ d^^ ^ jin foo choo fan, let the woman hoi? 
hertice; ^ J^ Ife '^ yi< ke tsin yay, let hiio e-iter; 
^ ^ ^ ISill heu tseang chii pwau, let the artisan ex- 
ctavate the rock,fi ^ :3^ 4^ jin ping k'he ling, let 
tbem get up the anchor; >^ 3^ ^ ^ chun gno k'he 
chingjler me goon my journey, ^ it ^ ^ yun che 
poo hij)g. let them walk on foot. 

26. Often no other term than the simple verb is used 
to indicdte the Imperative: as ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^«o 
gno miDg yu joo, sit down, I shall distinctly inform you* 
A rude manner is sometimes employed by adding -^ pa* 
at the end; as ^ ^ H joo k'heu pa, you beotV! go 
away ! Whikt on the other band^ the iise of % hins:> 
happy, fortunate, adds urbanity to the expression : as 
^ :f^ ^ j^ ^ ^ showshihp61e hing e, receive 
my trifling present; 4f ^ ^ ^ ^ hing woo keu 
bene gno, do not reject me;^ j^ hin^ t'hing, listen. 

27. JL Tseay, is very fxecpiently used to indicate the 
imperative: as >it A )S^ 11 joo tseay keen k'how, do 
you be silent: Ji ll ^ -^ tscay ^ hing ming k'heu, let 
us hear the orders and bt tjt Vo^cv^tAV^^ ^ Ti^^^jaJos^^ 


it signifies do not: as Ji :fC ig" .ft tseay pub kTio tdn, 
do net enter; A J^ ^ ;^tse8y m6 s6 bing, don't go 
80 fast 

28. Of ^ hew, and ^i pc^, we have already ppo* 
ken. % Mo, ^ wah, ^nd J|- woo, are used in the 
8ame irhuner, as ,^ ^ hl& shw6, don't say ^or ^ ^ 
^** ivjih "tvei nan, dor/t be afraid of diffirjiOties^ -* ^ 
v:oo fan fd, dor' t transgress the law. Jfi ^ Puh 
jraou, is used in the same sense: as >F ^ ^- pth yaou 
kuh, don't weep:^*||^gno yaon joo seay, I want you 
to write, or write. 


29. Stric/ly ^peakiisg the Chinese hare no express 
mode of conveying the participle ; and in all the cases 
where the genius of our language requires this inSexton 
the mera Chinese verb stands instead thereof. Terms 
like the following may easily be explained: as ^ f)F ^ 
Hf ^ joo tsoteih ho s?^, what src you doing? )9 "^ 
^ ^ ^ in shwu;/ bo ming chay,by whom was this 
ordered r^^ ^ d^ ^ & y^^ -^^ teihtung se, trans- 

Eorted goods; i; ^1 #^ ^ ^ ^ ^ leih, ts6, go, 
eae puh k'ho ning, sending, sitting, or sleeping he was 
never at rest. 


30. The modes of asking a question are exceeding- 
Ij various, and for further information we refer the rea- 
d'jt to the Interrogative Particles. Here we may, how- 
ever, notir^. the following instances: as ^ ^ ^ ^ 
J»>o tae pi' II lae, do you come, or do you not come? 4|l 
If t^ 13 ^ ^ A ^ k'hefei ts5 jib lae che jin 
ioo, is he not the man who camt yesterday ^ '^ Pi ^ 
^ k'bo e hing foo, c»ii he walk 1 ±V i^ ^ yl A 
^ ^ joo ho till yii jin ^ ang lae, how can T • have ir 

f^.rroj^r^c with XTh^t. ^ 

CHAP. V, Tiare. 97 


31. The Chinese verb is devoid of thosf nicfr dw^. 
tinctioDS which render other languages no accurate in 
expiessing; time. It is true, diat there are a number of 
auxilinries and particles to convey ihc idea of Hat ten- 
ses, but only &en, when a stress is laid upon tke time 
that anything happened or was done^ are these wbrda 
used: "^ seay, may ttierefore signify, to write, writings 
write^ wrote, or have written. 


3% ^ % Gno sfey, meani? I write, and every o- 
filer vetb fiius used, without any additional particles,, 
may denote fiie present tense; but if the act of ivrltiug 
just now takt^ place is to be marked, the following 
partielea serve to indicate it: ^ kin, now;^ ^beea 
fdnj fit present;^ 9^ heen ahe, at this present time; 
^ ^ heca tsae, here present ; iH, :||: been fseen,. in 
one's presence; 11^ ^ been mdh^ before one^a eyea; 
with:JIi 4" joo im, i© 4" urh kin, Q: ^ mfih kin^ 
^ ^ yu kin» all of which signify Aote^* Thusjt jft, 
Jfy ^ been tsae hing locuhe walks, or is now w^ing; 
'j^U 4"" >^ II- joo kin yew tseen, be has money, or be 
now has money , j0^ -g- yen tsacn,.g ^ muh hea,"^ 
r- k bib hea, gp j^^Yh she, or ^ 1$ IliYh sb<^ 
when put before the verbs gives the same meaning. 


ikfPCitrECT TEmis. 

33* The remarks made respecttng tlm present apb^ 
ply also to this tepse. Of the particles used to: iadieato 
the idea of the imperfect, th& feUbwing: xe- the lOMt 
freqwiit. ^ Fang^l^ j^ im^ teWv^ *- <ie«*,Nfe^^ 


5. t& iching chcjl >^ cfaing tsae.ife ft che tsze, 
]^ -IS. she cbe, ^ ^ shih tsae,^ *{JL shih cbe, and 
)S, '^ 6hib tang, all signifying ju^it now, ju»t about, 
at &c point, llius J£ K^ ^ 3^ 19 cbing paou sbih 
cbe keen, Y^b^lst be was tbrowing stones ; ( J£ cbing, 
generally commences tbe sentence, and ^ keen, stands 
at the end:)^ ^ >2: J^ ^ >r * 1^ ke lae cbe 
sbe, yu pub tsae kea, wben be ciinie I was not at borne; 
it 9i,^ ^ ii t*ha lae, gno tsae k'beu, wben be 
came, 1 bad just gone away; ^ 1^ "^ :^ ^ Jm bea, 
yu feng wang, just wben it rained, I set oflF; gg^ ^ jfc; 
]j^ sbm tsae kung teib, just wben tbey attacked the 
enemy; ^ jfi. ^ jl^ shecbetung lung, it was just 
then in the midst of winter ; ^ ^ t| # -jgt gi^ok'hcu 
teib she bow, wben I went away. 

In narratiTes, tbe mere verb without any additional 
partjcfeis use d to convey tbe idea of the imperfect tens^: 
as^^^^ 4:* + ^ k'bung Isze tsiih neen 
teeib i^hih san, i!])onfucius died at tbf; age of 73; ]$ 4tJ 
^ 4^ ^ shfi^gt^ tsaouchuen cbih,, ti^ merchants 
built ^me vessels. 

There are a great many other expressions to indicate 

tbe imperfect tense: for instance ^ ^ ^ M it ^ 

% It ^^luig tseen k6 kw6 mih kifa tseib hwuy, in 

former i;ime« t2>e learned of every nation aasembled 



34. Besides the words we have enumerated amongst 
the auxiliaries, sudb as ^ peib,& yib, ^ wan, &c. 
tbe foUowuig p;!rticles deserve notice, as designating 
the past tense; J leaou, d «»& king,iL ke, #^ ts&ng. 
If 8bang,i ISL ^ king,^ j^ neg king,^ ^feSug 
king,^ M. tseenking. 

^ Leaou, stands always at the end of sentences: as 
^ S t86 leaou, A>ne; ^ ^ T ^^7 tsae leaou, hav* 
ij^lf, written; ik j& ^ :f pe t'ha ma leaou, blamed by 


^ E, and fe ke may be instanced thus; ^ % % 
^ ^ \t yu ke p^ttg urh shih she, I have already 
boiled and eaten it; 6i ^ j|| ^ 3 ^ P&<^ 1^ Me leaou, 
haTing managed the business ; & M ® <^h^ baa arriyed; 
d ^ ,Si Jt ^ t^u^ ^Rfte^n e, it ha^ooen found. 
W. King, and ^ ^ been king, occur as Mows: 
,S4t^ kinghingyu, Ihave'ordCTBd it; |g. ^ ^ 
tB: %x been king sze hw^n lwan« the business has been 
brought into coi]d^ion|t J^Keg kmg> ^o<^ freque^tly 
occurs in edicts: as |^ ]^ ^^lk.W °^ ^^S P^ 
pbg kung keih, I have already ai^ointed soldiers to at- 
tack, "l^ M Tang king, is also mef with; as'^ j^ 
% M ^ ^ ^ tang king wei kw5 choo tsze hae, we 
have removed from the Empire ibis evil. Al|to & j^ 
e king: as & M, ^ ^ ^ ^ l^ing foo t& chuen, he 
has already embarked. • 

^ Ts&ng, is not uncommon: as^ ^ jK. 7 tsfing 
sbib fan leaou, having eaten rice ; 1^^ }gL >^ 4^ Mng 
king k'he ching, he has already gone on the journey; 
1& H^ li Is? t'ha ts&ng hang chuen, he hiis already 
sailed. J^ ^ pub ts&ng,i^ "^ we tsftng, occur in tb^ 
sense of not yet; as ^ -^ Jl i^ we tsUng shang 
t'heen, he has not yet ascended to heaven; T^^ % 
^ pub ts&ng tseih hwuy, they were net yet assembled 

^ Shang, may also be aotieed: as # f] ^ ^ ^ 
shimg yin yu chaou nuy, he has led him mto cdmjL 
But this pardcle is more used with the negative: as ^ 
4^ >?^ ^ ^^ shang p&b le, has. never been withoul 
flain; ^ ^ ^ ^ we shang p&h kan, never fiuled in 
being moved by \t;ti ^ ^% ^ % ^ k'hung 
isse shang wei wei le e, Confiicius was once a con^ 
missioned officer;^^ # H^ if A It ift^ gno shaog 
yu foo jin A w5 kw«, I biave spoken widi die woman; 

Mark ako the fallowing sentence: as^ J|, ^ yew 
keen few, have you nmu hua or not; ^ ^ ISi ^ m&k 
yew 8b& t ha, have not yet kiUedhini; 9f^ B. f^ ^ ^ 
jih tsJi wan, i( was fiaiahed yesterday. 

Wi TEWW8. €BAP. V. 

VLunsrccT tiksk. 

35. 1^ the use df the psrttcks mdiciting the Ink 
perfect ter^. sod tfao^e oithe pcrfcet, A« pluperflfH:t if 
formal ^^16 ^ ^ ^ -M *^ ^ e. m ^ Ji^ 

J i^ig Uet yaois miojp^ ^ihtniib tseang e king- kan 
inuh leaou, just when be was g^^^i^ to give db^cticns. 
it liappej«e-.Mh#: the carpenter b»ri already cut down 
theirei-;* *l S 1* X ?. it !« Aih taae taoc 
chiog. beu\g e chTiuh mun, on ois arriral at the ritv. 
my brother had aiready sroa*. oc ! cf the ^i» ; ^^^ ± 

# ^ ^3 A )^ \1| ^ e ]^^g lae she. pin^ yn Hag 

4 wo bhe. ^hcr^ the physidan came, ^e paueot had 5'' 
readj died. 

36. We shdl not here repeat what we have already 
aaid about the auxiKaries jit peih. and ^ tseaqg. \^hich 
are URed to convey the idea of the ftiture tense. Words 
like (he fbUowiiig ^ ^ tbeang bie, 4J^ ^ how lae, 
Jt ^ ^ tBse ehe how, yi ^ ^ ba^» Si) ^ ^^^^^ li^'w. 
and% taew, serve likewise to indicai«^ ctditin^ titne: as 
d St ^ ^7 ?l 1^ A isze few cue how puh 
i£k sin jin, siter ^is T shaB never beUeve people ijocaln ; 
4fe. ^ -H- ^ ^ 7^ hoi!^- Jae Isse yew feriiur ft» after 
Aat we shall agahi ha> e bome loeaif^^ of inana^nf^ the 
matter; ^1^ i ,>R it fl^ ^ tscang; lae puh yaou ts6 
Iwan, afierwarclsv or i:: fisture. he wiil not give rise to 
diptu buices^ifii f 11k tk fk ^ tsa« yijt: t« taew 
kite ifam, he will go i«n hss * vay at ibe ^d of (he month ; 
18 S8 ^^ ^ 'K i& hwny^kwo ting tsae^ hea aeun, 
he will certainly return to his comitTy during the last 
de:?-?-:>6 ^ ^ ?S * ]& I? *fc jo f Ha paou yuen, 
; . -i tovT? f^ t*ha. if he revenge Mmselfl I shall (»unit3i 
t - 1i fSt ^ It >f^ ^ jin ne lae, gno piih tlien, al- 
iA«;ugh you come, i^idl i^ go. Oftd) 1}h». teiie^es this 

Jf ;hr ieM&t paiticidaria-d. nor aie)^ L^eaa^, ijb peih« 
JU/f^ similar /jTwrnmatica^ particieb aiwa%b y^^^ 

^CBAT. VI. ABVSEBa. 101 

kaguage per^mphmly demmids i&em. The Chinese 
iiye in the past and preseDt, and care little for iuturity, 
and this may accoimt fcnr their having so few terms to 
convey the meaning of coming time. 


•37. For die person Tre ^:^rier to the personal pro* 
nettn, and only remark, thai; the pronoun is often left 
o«A, indeed it is considered to he inherent in the verb, 
while ili mniiiBtoo gives rise to much obscurity. 

The impersonal verbs are like ^ following: as 7; 
ii6 hea y u, it rains ; "7^ ^ hea seu^, it snows ;J| H . ^ 
she kwan §po, it concerns us ; ^ ^ liC Ik she ling 
gnb hwiin^^ it occasions me joy : mey are sometimes dis- 
tfu^ifihed feom the others hy Uie addition of j2!> >$ 
pern seu, must; and £ e, ought 

38. Of nmnher we merely tjbserve that the Chi* 
iMse verb Is never affected -hy iL in our xemarks a« 
boK^ wo have not spoken of 3te indicative mood, be* 
cnse i| is the aimp£e form of the verb, wi&out the ad« 
•diiion of any gmmmatical pasticle; the potential and* 
tiqplative mood6 are imaginary terms of the v^h, whick 
have no existence tn the language, and have been in* 
vented to siiit Ounese grammar to that of western na- 
tions. Should Dm s^dent not ^d any of fte gramma- 
tied distictions explained which other tongues exhibit, 
he has only to refer to the partides, i^ra some furth^ 
eluddattbn wifl be ^en. 



If a few instances the< t£yecti^ 
addiDg^ jen, and^^ i^^ 


tnaag mang jeu, vastly; ^ ;^< haou jeu, well; H ^ 
xRci ien, beautifully ; r}^ "t^j :itU ^ seun seun joo yay, 
Bincei-eiy: 1S?j 1R* ::^ ^ ^»^g bang joo yay, uncevemo- 
nioubly, witbotat shew. Advcrft^ are a}so &»nned by 
fcjrefi:*riac; Jit e, tga sub^taative: as iX ^j^ e e, justly; 
J^i >f>^ e le, politely. la oliher iastaacea the adjective 
Ik very geaerally used aa an adverb. 


2. The Chinese language is rich in tfai« claas of 
words, and we shall eadeavour to entimerate the prin- 
cipal n odes of interrogation. 

^l rio, 18 an interrogative pronoun of wliidh w^ 

have already treated. © ^ Yin ho, % i^ wei ho^ 

^ Jfc bo koo, fig* % ho wei,1gr ^ ho keu^Hg' 1^h» 

yne?i, and ^ IfeT y '-^f^n ho, 19A stand C . v^hy, where£ore» 

on v;hat accouut, &c. asiO ^ joo ho, how ? ^ d© ho 

joo, how will this do^ The latter at the end of senten* 

cets: as ^ ^ i^ ^ ke klio ho tsae, how will this dot 

1^ ^ % ho kan sze, how dare I to die? .;>^ ^ A 

^ f? ^ yu teuag ching foo ho yew« in administeriiM 

the government, what difficulty would there hot "iO -f 

^ joo yu ho, what can he do to ine?ita JE A ^ 

joo ching jin ho, how can he recdfy othera ^"fff ^ it 

^ ho tih che sh wac, what a faifisg of virtue 1 J^ :JtP 

^ i^ke joo che ho, how will that do^^H it ^ ^^ 

joo che nae ho, what 13 to be done ? 

^ i Hoo,^ \^ 00, ^ ho, and ^ woo, aU &gniiy how, 
T«?Ly? as ^ ^ "S^ 51 ^^o n^^g tanjsc die, how can 
one endure this? ^ :?C # ^ hoo puh peen hwa, why 

do you not reforni ? ^ ^S^ ^ b*^ ^^i" *sa« ^^^ w^^J 
accumulate riches ? iJ5 ^ isi Jfc hoo wei joo tsw, how 
ib if thus?^% Jf^ "So woo tsiih taou teae, how can 
•ii he worth while speaki^ oft a :a: * 

:S H6, stands for why not ? as S If ^ ^ ho 
^-^ei foo iae. why not return "iit ^ ^ i§ /t: M V.^* 
j?eB urh chel why does ncsb each of you csj^rcss be 

<WAP. TI. IKT£ftEO€ATlVfi». 10? 

4. JL K'he, wgnifies how ? as J£ -^ ife S ^ 
Yht yew tsxe le foo, how can such a principle esist ^ 

% yX % X^ M:'^ k'he e wei pah jin foOj l«rhy not 
endure it? %%^ ^ 3^ kTieteaefooto shaou,how 
does it consist in the quantity 9 ^ ^ k'he kaii, how 
dare 1 presume*^ (a common expression of polite- 
ness:)^ ^^ ^ k*hej6 shefoo^howisitthus?^ 

^ ]tjk f> 3Jfc -1^ k*hc yew kea yu ts^e tsae, can any- 
thin ^^ r.c added to this^ (ne plus ultra.) ^ :^ ^ it 

^ y^i ^ ^ '^' ^ 't^^- ^t t^^- ^^ ^0 '« ^*og keih 
tfta*»^^ hovi c^n you t>YO gentlensen attain to this ^ ^ jf\ 

^% ^r l^ ^ k'he puh shin k'ho seih tsae, how is it 

not df^eply to be lamented ? 

fHe has a similar meaning: asH ihetsi£r>wiience; 
'^ ^ be yew feih tsae, how has he virtiLe ? J; ^ 
;f; u l^t? he puh yuS, why does he not speak *? J|E U- 
^ fi VX % suy to, yih he e wci, though much, yet 
what is to he done with it ? 

5 S^Yen^ occurs at the commencement of a sentence: 
as ^ |9 ^i y^^ y^^g shJL v/hat will be the use of kil- 
ling him; sf ^ f- ^ ^ reakjinyu e, \%hy tax* 
sake henevolence arid justice? ^ ^ i^ -% J^Jc 
^^ ^ she yen tlh wei la chang fbo foo, how can he be- 
i^ome a great hero. 

^ Gan, has also the sense of the interrogative: aa 
^ ^ ,^ >Sr ^ gan tih tsuh sin foo, how can you i>e 
contents ^ ^ ^ ife gas kao wgtng tsze, how can I 
dare to hope • oi this *l 4^ M M^ ^ gsai nSng t6 yay, 
how can >\e ebcape 'i 

6. ^ >)f M6 fei, ia not unusual in asking a qaea* 
tionras ^ #- ^ f$ :J1 AjS: n^ii fei tsew he she jin 
mt>, isitnot this men? |i # 8l^ ^ #. ^ m6 fci tsd 
yay tso ieaou, was it not done last night? ^ ^ ^ xb& 

eAey is it uotso? ^ ^ Jli 7 ^ •i^ md fei keeaor 
u sin foo^ he lias surely seen the bnde. 

7. ^ Ke» occurs in the ser^^i^ of how, how many: 
h^M is^ ^v J^e to tseen^ how iiiuch money? jfi^ A ke 
jin, how many inen?;C 'f JS kau^ signifies the 
f^ume. 1 o show the various modes in \\ hk\\ <wov> \^ vsxs* 
presided, i^eqiwtc the followiMT" ^.^ ^ >V ^ ^'^'^^ 


chan^ or ^ 4^ "S^ «baag ke heu, how Ions? A. Mt 
^jmke to, pr ^ ilb ^ X yew ke ko jia, bow lauy 
mea^ ^ ^ ?fe yew ke tsze, ^ jF ^ lit to shaou 

^ ^^ 2k ^ ^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^^' ^' signify bow many 
nmestas^^ 9 ;^ maetoshaoo tseeir, fF ^* ft 
a in skaca mae teili, and % lilt 1^ ^ mae kea ke 
ho, for how muck w^ it $oId, or at what price 9 

S. im por. Tcrsa^on the followiog modes of mterro- 
gati^'*«u i&.o iQ use 

^ Na: aa^'ftB^'^^^'Qako hwan klsg 
to ii^> who will atiil jabber; ;J|, ^ fB) 6$ ^ "fE^ 
she ua ko teih show peih, whose handwriting^ is fliial 
^f— W ^i^ A ^ ^ A n* jih ko iih(a baott 
j£a «he ^ jin, whi<^ is. a ^otd snd which is a bad iam t 
#>§ T. ^li: M t. M aaypwpuhhopuh mfih 

dbe le, why should i^e not live in hannony ? 
^ ^ K* le, how. whcTo: as i/i^ ^ ^ nale kites, 
T^hither are ycHt gcdiig?«5 « ^^ tl jl aa k 
keang tifa hwn lae, bow can you speak i£us? ^ Jf^ 3^- 
19^ ^o pQh baouna, is not that well ? 

^' Tsing,^ shin, ^7 M ts^ng.in6,^ yS shin m6, 
^\ shih^-ft .^^ s-hib iKci,^- ± ts5ng s&ng, or 3^ :tJ^ 
ishr.g yan^ %\x signify in what manner? as 3|. 1^ 
tsang teih, what "^ %J^ iS- ''% ts&ug m<5 haou ne, how 
wUi that be well ^ ^ % '^ k'heS ts^ng leaou, bow in 
that to be done "i ^^ % M ^ pa t^g md teUi, what 

^ ^ shin m6 kaou e see, v hat good iuteiitioi» ) ili' 
-i^ |6t 1^ r^ te^ng nae woo tsung ying, how is it that 
thcrf are no traces 'i 

^ ^ Nan taou, occurs itl^ ia without :?; ^ pfiJ: 
ching at ike end: as % ^^ ^ ^"^ ^ 4^ ^ 3^8 nan 
taoa ioo sh« ifi' kaou yu pixh chinsf, have you £rs^ ac- 
cused me 1 ^ \t. T^* % 'J na J taou fs6 wan leaou, 
have you fiuished ih^i work i SoiLctiraes at the end 
;^ ^ puhdiic^mf^rely is iX^td: ?* ^ Jfi "£• 'J ift 
^ ^ iDiS piih k^ih Uraoagiv^ \j^i^a cV>3k>^^ mU be not 
eat n?e i o ■? 

evAK m. niTBU0Q4kTifi8. J09 

9.. The particleB affixed to Hie end of senHii^piei^ 
denoting a question are . the followitig :^ y^Jf^l^ J^ 
^ |Bae,:$ foo» J|;pj» or iatlie9E|^ j^ib ^td^oceaswiv 
»^y» choo. - ; ^:;£5 

^ Yay,is very €of|imM: aa^ ^: diajfvy, isift jBOit 
^ 1[|^ ibw yay, is it so qr iwijt^ jL jSi ^ kwo keea.y^y; 
19 tbktruiy to be ^ieept cv >^^jl^ |^ "^ keenyajr^ f ail M 
Bot be seen ? ^ pjl ^.:^ |K J(|J. hn e. che ke jeirya]!^ 
bow do you know Aat it is Aus? In a fen^ iiistaneea 
jji yay, is used fo/:^ yay, 

"^ Tsae, is ako of fi^urat iMMOi^ee: aa^ ^ ho 
isae, what is that 9 ^>|L^ gaol teae isae^ where ig 
it"? Vb A^ ^ yew pgk Ipo t8aa/,does jSiis come 
frommen ? J| || A ^ "^ naiian jinyay tsae, whati 
totyraniae a?er people 9 ^ "^^^^^ srny sia.ynF 
yu tsae/doeahe write a letter^ ^ ]f;. j£ 4^ pfit^vyip 
.e tsae, is ttot thia prcmer? --^ :l:. 

V3^ Foo, is a general sign of flie iote r rog a Uw^ ajfe <|$e 
end of senteocee: as SR j^^ ^ '^^ ^^® ^^^^ ^ ^ 
you know it? % rg^^t -dfe ^ A'he k'^ hjm k«(H» 
foo^howean jm TOf .<l|ie wioneyf Tp ^W-^f&k 

. ff^. Chops sbmc^tuiiAS Dccurs: as ;^ '^ yiewrhoe^Isit 
ftus? A % ^^ jui^yew shay choc^ should men: % 
bendon him; ^^ ^ "^^ ^'be Xify orb shtti cbop^ 
bow could he eat it"? -v.-v.ri 

$^ Vu, and more jBddoni J|. y% are met with: as J|^ 
AlilBhmgrJinytt,»h&asage«^ yfc $kPfJ^,lSL^ 
Jfii kewche yu, ]nb yu <^eyu, didbeeeek for it, or was 

^ ^M yew keen mfiObava you seen it? 
10. ^ Fow. isit, or is it not? is a sign of the &Ip 

tenrajgatiTe: as ^ ^ abefow, is it so or not? -^- ^\ 

? ^ she fow k^o hing, may it be done or not? #^.^^1 
lelteg fow, ia it done or not yet ? ^ ^ iSl ^ tow.ju 
mwan Men, is beoffoUage? JL J^ 3Sa ^^ /i^ A 

^ 4L I^Uh hea cbe woo sin yu fow yay^ de you know 
asy intention ?$ 14 ^ "^ fow^ t^ p&h choo, if noi^ 

vesMiiotkffl tbta; :£ ic, « iLfRW. ^^s^ ^^^ 

10ft mttATlVSi. CHAP. VI. 

lefii, if not be -vnll ii6t ^ deliver;^ 9S^^^ wei ^he 
lu fow, we. do not knityw whether it is suiiable or not 

U; II^Ame^ is/expressed by ^ 19 J|r tBUog ho 
dioo^ ^ ^ "19 Jl tsse tbungbo choo, whence; ^ Jj^ 
hortnunap. front whence;^ i^*^ tsimg na le^ - wheli^ 
ftom; -g :#.-t8» pe, ^ ^ ;fe *«ejw« <^^^ ^^ ^ 
yew pe> ftU express thence: ^ "i^Jfi bo cboo, where; 
'^ "19 JH bangf ho choo, whither. 

■• •• 


12. Tbi8 18 also a rery mimefMis class ; the prin^ 
iMdonea are^i; p&h: as^ ^ ^ t86 p^ lae, it on^ 
not be done; )f; tf*7 IS| pfib tseih pub le, aeitfaer 
instatttnor remqte;^^ i e the middle course; ^ ^ ^ 
^ sp£i yew j^ 9h», I have dobe something wrong; 
^ ^ J^ ^ p&h tih pub klieu, I cannot avoid going; 
>f^ ll^.p^b she, in no time, 6uon;)f; :M pub ke, not 
long, inthin a short time; j[i (( pfib jVb, not many days, 
diortly;]^ ^^^1^^ pub yuns pub joo tsse, it 
cannot be otberwite Uian thus; ^ . fi;'pfih Jen, not thus; 
5P^ Pfi^*«»^o' "«ht, wrong; ;f: 4|r^ pfih tih 
]f&b, cannot be avoided, must; >F'^ ^ pub kliopuh, 
^nttt not omit, ought: j[i ^ pumw^i. not only; (ftlp 
lowed by ^ Ji. yih tseay, but talso;) X> ^ pub ft, 

Hwless; >|; ^ pQh leaou, or ^ ^ p&h ke6, unezpectr 
•dly; ^ — ife ^ ptib yTfb urb tsfib, wants scarcely 
imffhingto be complete; >fr|| pub yaou, do not; ^ 
^ pttb jo; nothing better Iban;: Tfi ii %^ pdbtBM 
bwa bea, need not be recorded ;>(> ^ JL^pub te 
tseay sbwb, let us not detail this, but say — : a phrase 
W^ed-ttf denote the transition from one subject to another; 
7 ^ pub seaou, needless^ >f: ^ pub seaou, degetie- 
Mte;^ j7^ ^m baou n&fi bwim ks rejoiced murh. 
|K^' ^ Woo, have not^ is tne opposite ctf ;j| ytew, have; 
>K Ifc ^% yew woo tsing pe, wheAer or u«»t, there 
be abuses; jif.^ i F^ ^^ ^^^^ originally nothing; 
M ^ ^ iOJ E^ ^ woo yew pGbjo6kQehay,cheri4t 

friend aolike yourself; 4ft- Ift sll& -^ woo urh wei yew^ 
possesHuig oottiiiig and pretending to have all;!!^ mi 

^ $t woo (sih yen woo, if you hiave not, say that yoa 
liaye not;|!t JEft 9S ^ woo yew kliae yea, no wayof 
commencing the eonTeiMtion; IB Jf^ 1^ ^-^ H H- lA 
kw6 pQh klioyibjih woo keun, an empire cannot be 
<me day without a prince; 4^- ^ woo joo, notfiing Uke, 
much better; ^ J^ ^ i|^ woo ao pifli teae^ no place 
where he is not, omnipresent; ^^ ^ ^ woo so pfib 
che, nothing that he aoes not know;, omniscient; % ^ 

? Ift- ^ Mff ^ M- diliooch'tohyu woo,uifakwei 
yu woo, it came fortih out of nothing «id revqrts Ut no- 
thing; jf 1^ ^ H. iil'' shih ch'huh.yu woo sin, really 
unintentional; ^ J^ X ^ % 4ll^ teun nan cfadh imi 
keae woo, I have neidier son nor daughter; J^ Jb JWL 
T ^ jit t'heen shaug te tiea keae woo, neither ia 
heaven above, nor on earth beneath ;|ft' 1^ woo chang, 
death ;^^ $k ""Tjpo pei woo yib, not one of them. 
13. 3^ Fei, and S^fei, occur: as # If' A. >f% ^ 

JSL fei been jin pub k^ho yay, none but a worthy mai 

will do ;^ :>i|'|f. ^ fei we%yih, not only, but; ^ ^ 
;^ ^ fei funcbe sse, contrary to one's duty; ^ ^ 
^ 4{^ fei pe tsin chang, extraordinarv ; the same as It 
fei chang, uncommon ; ^ ^ she ret, right & wrong; 
i& )f; ^ fei t'ha pith k'ho, we cannot do without 
him;^^ -^ ^ Yf &iHin&ts&, do, not do unhilvful 
tiiings;^^ :^^l§D^^feikekweiuihtBe, to sacri- 
fice to the spirit of a man with whom we have had 00 
connection ; ^ Jl|^ ^ ^ A kuntf ken fei lus jin, to 
lecpmmend an improper person : ij^ ^ fei wei, bad ac» 
tions! ^ Fei, is sometimes used in the sense of nof, m 
which case it has always a bad meaning: as S ^ Ik 
iSt fei tih tuy lun, witliout virtue or wita bad <pialilie» 
to sink into perdition. ^ t, 

^ Fub, IS common: as # 591 ^ fuh joojm^, un- 
equal; # If fiih kTi&ng, unwilling, V!l ^ ^ it Ift 
^ ^ e fuh mwan ke chih she yew^ he was afflicted 
on account of not having fulfilled the duties of lus 

J* J| BiI&i]sanfic;ativeoC\pDQh^^ 

lOB inn4TtvBi. cvap. u 

pi6 seicfii, dofft lai]flh;4| ^ t& ^ 5 V^ 3Wti yia 
tM ie«oU)4o Bot mue a mistiliie; ^ Ip^lF '^ '^^ 
ihow, do sot proceed to violence: ^ ^ ;|i6 shw&doii't 
fay, iS' oftcaoi firilowedbyl^ t9ew: ai ^ ^^ '^ ^ 
>$lttfc^^^^^^ iii5 Bfaw6 g&o yew yin taeeii, taew 
the ahih muh yew, not to say diat I have money, I ua 
even destitute of food. Combined with adjectives of 
^ shin, it conveys the idea <tf the superiative degree^ 
as has been already xemarked: aa £ ^>$^l^ mi 
shin yu sze, nothing oould exceed this; j| ^ ^ ^ a^ 
tayut*heen,notlinig greater than heaven; H^ :^ ^ ^ 
and tachekungtinsuqpassable merits; || % ^^mH 
\lwo yu see, noming Can exceed this; (neplus oltra :) % 
Jtt m6 pe, incompaiablejjfc J^ ||^ ^ m6 waiig mft 
lae, neither go nor come; m^^ m6 15, the best, netfauur 
fike. ^ 

. .%. Miih, occurs in oonversation; aa ^ ^ ^ w : 
m&h kp ke hwuy, no opportunity; ^ ^ ^ miiih nae 
ho^ no resource; ^ "H ^ ]|^ muh ko tliow seu, uo 
clue; ^ --. ^ ffi . miUi yih jib been, not for one day at 
limire; % i^iSL ^ shm shang mixh tih chuen« 
nothing to wear on his body; ^ ;fiE >i^ Qiuh pa ping; 
no handle to lay holdc^; — ^ ^ ^^^ yih ko- yay 
m&h yew, I have not of them; -^ ^ J^ ~ ^ 
tauen mikh yew yih ko, none at alL 
• 15. ^ We,occttfaincon^bination,a8 J^ ^ wets&ng; 
and ^ ^ wechang, m thesenseoffiof aoip, not ^i 
tibua v£^ /^^ kothfiuimft, have you eaten rice ^ ^ we; 
» ^^ y^t \Axi%j not yetj ^ 3^ ^ ^ we lae ^ 
tie, 'dungs not yet coine to pass, future events . i^ v^ 
we she, not^ hitherto; ^ :^^ 4L weyewcheyay, or 
ii^ H^ ^ ^^t che yew yay, this has neyer been die 
^Ve; j^ ^ we. peih, not cerbdnly, or not necessarily; 
y^ ^ A^ ^.ft wei yew p&b joo tsae, it never haa 
been o^rwise; Jl ^ X y<^ ^^ ^^ ^^ discon- 
l^ted;.3^ % we ting, unsettled; j^l^ we klioi, caa- 
iipik . or may not;^ ^ tsunff we, never. 

16. Osf .# woo, and ^ wim, we have alrea^ app* 
ken^ but add here a J&w remarks: # ^ ^ ^ woo 

jpwilt^iiS^ di^ no iieed oC aakiB% «W9 aAi> iiu»aft^.U; 

cniAf^ VL vceATtvn. W 

:^ % yi tfoo hea too jih. do not i^ly »penA dm 
day; #- 1|}(^ ^ lib ^oo uifa urh sin, do not divide your 
iieart; >^:|^|fi wiih wei nan, do not fear difficultbs; 
^ ^ ^ 6 "*^8 ^^*^ ffihyen, do not, ilyou please, 
apeak of it again; ^ 94 ^ ^P^ JSfc kwo tsih wfih tan 
kae, when you have transgressed do not fear to repent 

17. JH Mei, and IH^ meg, are occasionaUy used aa 
negatives: as^ i^ me chaug, unusual; J^ |^ me kae, 
widioutend; Jl % T^ mei yew kli^ wei, thers* 
was not one left; ^ J^ me& yew, have not: 

L8. ]^ Waog;^ woo,:^ we, Ig plio, and son^ 
limes ^ wang, aire used in ancient books as negatives: 
thus S & wangkdh, unbounded; f^ :^ jfL ^ wa&|( 
yew tsae sze, (here isnci such things ^ ill 1^ 9Q che 
j6 waog wftn« do just as if ^ou did not hear. J^* Woo^ 
appears to be an abbreviation of :jfe woo: as |i^ ^ j^ 
woo fiih fim, no share of happiuess;:!^ 'ft we tsft, not 
to do; ^ ^ ti^ JlUt we yew sin tan, not the least cou- 
lAg^tH ^ p'ho tsih, unfathomable;^ ^>t>^ ke 
yih woo fiuig, the advantages are unbounded. 

19. 'I hese negatives cannot be used at random, but 
Ae foregoing examples will serve in some measure to 
direct the-x^dcr how to employ ttiem. 

To render the meaning of the negative still stronger 
the following words are prefixed.-]^ twan^^ tse^ ^ 
l^euS^ ^ tseu^, H. tsung,^ chung^ || wan^i^ tseuen^ 
A taj^ haoo,^ seaou,J^ leu, and^ ping: as H^ 3f^ 
% ^ twan foo puh k'ho, this cannot on auy account 
be dene; |^ tl 37^ ^ H wan wan p&h shay tsuy^ pa 
na account remit sins;||^ ||| ^ J|/tseen haou woo e^ 
not the slightest di&rence; ^ JlJP haou woo tsuy; 
entifely innocent; |fe ^ %^ tsen^ p&h k'hwau tae, 
not the slightest indulgence; Jfe |i — ^MM^mg 
woo yih kau stog ke, there was not one iiingle stundard. 

20. A great many words are formed hj Qieae nega- 
tives just in the s^me manner as with our m-, an-, lesa^ 
and dis*.* ^^ ^ ^ J^^ tsing le, reasonal>le; pr ^ 
iSL woo tsing 1e, unreasonable ; % j^ yew le^polite; 4K^ 
jjftwooie,unpoli1#;|| ^ woowaiig,hopeles6;|| ^ 

woo ki»axg; «odle6e« 4^ 4JI w<ie \s^^ 

IVb AiivsRBS OF Tim. CRAP. n. 

^ ^ ^ shin8hepuhIe,Terydi8adTaiitageod«;|K- "S^ 
vroo teih, peerless: ^ ^ puh jin, not only means oes* 
f itute of benevolence, but cruel, tyrannical ; ^ |L fSk 
chin, unministerlike, rebellious; jf; ]^ piih jin, comma* 
9ion9te;4l^j|^ woo too, inordinate, licentious BesUes 
lliegBe, there are a great uany similar words, which, by 
pr^ixing a negative obtain an opposite meaning. The 
Chinese are also very fond of repeating the Mame idea 
Midi the negative: aa ^ if§ :^ IQI md uih p&h chow, 
lieautilul and not ugly, i e. very beautiful; j|S £ 16 
3^ H ^ twan rhing urh fei wae seay, correct in con* 
4uet and not depraved;^ # ^ ^ ^ ^ Vban iaou 
fiing pShlanto, toworkinwstriouBlyandnot to ahow 
»«i«nes8,1^ ^ §t ik §^M ahowklioo ping woo 
gaa ()ah, to suflfer misery without the enjoyment of any 


2L Two negatives not only i^Srm, but render die 
affimuction still stronger: as ^ >^ ^ :0 ft we yew 
Ipfihjoo tsze, it certainly nevei has been otherwise;^ 
|[ ^ ^ me jih puh sae, no day without tfainkiog of 
fm^ i e. to think every day; ^ $k '^ jlf P^ woo tsia 
ieSi, esert one's-self to the utmost; M- JT ^ woo pttk 
die«lx> know every thing; ||. ;:i: || woo piUi Bi^ji 

AvriRMAYnm Awmma. 

22« ^ Sbe,^ yew, and ^ he. stand fiiromr j^^ 
f^^ Bhih tsae, means really;^ f^ kvFO jen, indeed j 
Hf ^ twan jea, decidedly ; — J^ yih ting« certainly; 
JfUL k5, verUy;^ ^ tang chin. 1*ufy;4t^lr gan taitig^ 
assuredly;^ ^ chin shih^ taiily; and ^ ^ cfaiqg 
ahihi ^ncerely. 

AOV^RBS or TfM£ 

23. We shall enumerate (he principal onea of tfus 

eHAP. VI. A WEBBS QW-Timk 111 

1^; Sbe^ oit^tmej or when, as lE^ >^ % # ifyt 
twseay tsse,- ivlteii hesat down to write; $ fS ■ ''S^-y 
H^ ch'Jb&b iDiin (j^e she, when be went out of llieigatfi; 
1^ \'-i, ^ 1^ thing jin che she how, when he iHid 
become a man, ot was of age; 11^ ll" she she, idwfe^ 
constantly ;# 1^ mel she, cveiy %imc ;yF t% jmg^h^ 
cidinarilK j^ 1^^ (fJiaoa she, a utU^ ^hile;>^j^ kew 
she,^ 1^ 'seen die,^ ]^ seih she, andll^ ^ chow 
ahe^ all mean ibmerly; jt ^ tsze. die, atthia time; 
^'1^ tang Bliei*:^'^ she-6bQ,^':'9^ wei she, and 
^ Jki^W ^S ^^^ ^^^ ^^ all ngnify, at thar time:; 
19^ ft 1^ Ik y^ ^^ ^^ she,;thcttj — t^ y3f 8fa% 
once^^t^ # t'^ she, ataaother time;'^ 1^ how she, 
in future, afterwaids ^ ]^ 1^ sny sbe^ immediately* ^rom 
time to time; ^ |^ ^ew she, sometimes;^ ^ ho she, 
J|^' lUt ke she, and in conversatioa ^ ;S ]^ ife^hin 
mti she how, all mean iifhen ? fp 1^ tseih she, immedi- 
ately ;B|^ she k'hih, every moment, momentarily; 
^ 1ft she che, just, at tliat time; ^]^ bwg obe, at » 
certain timejjp i^ rhe sbe,||' 1^ seif >be,j^ V^ 
|)een ahe^ and -^ fljf tseen she, signify in a bbort lime^ im» 
mediately; H^ 1^ ffl t^iig she keen, wifliiii a ntoment; 
^ 4^ ban she,f:eIdom;^ 9^' he >»lie, always. 

24» tf Tseliv» with iU combinaiions, means in^tanU 
^/ as tp 4S^ tseih peen,^ f {t t^ng tseih, fjt ^ tb^ih 
k*hih,)Jt tp suy tseih, ^1^ cbo tseih, ^l^ fp gang 
tseih, all tdgnify immediately. The same U expressed 
by^]^ seuyu,'^^ k'hib king,l^ R§ kifig been^ 

^' $ 3»w«ng>l9|$H8 ^^"^^ ^^^^ keen,^ ^ 
go jen,-fK % go king, |||; fp chft tseih,$l ^ cha jen, 

^ m shun keen, IK^ jl^. 2S ffl *l*^° shib^be keen, 
^ fan jen, ^ g(^ pwan heang, and ^ JL feeen 

25. £ai i^r^ sean^ IB expressed by-^ ^*«0U; ?^ -?• 
keih tisaou,]f^ J^ tbeu^ tsaou,^ J^ (sing ^biu, and ^p 
^ J^ ^ keoyib tsaouleanu, very early; j^ ^ sbaog 
tsaciu, still early: recently, is expressed by ^ kin, ^ Q 
kin jih,^ siu, j^ :^ ^ 3^1 we yew to kew, ^^ 
§oo king: formerly, reads thus: ^ ^ e tseen. ?fp^ 

112 4SVAIIM Of Tim. OMv. n. 

teeeB tlsow, j^ ^ taeen haBg, 'f:^ tangcieta,^^* 

feicr times; Jt |r shng l^tip, inli^lijtttiqin^;Jk^^^ 
t1iae,1i:oo, m very high az^qniky. Afterwarai^ jm cy^ 

P®^^ ^y fi^ ^ ^">^ "^^» -li. ^ how peep, and ^ 0| 
howtliow. 0^ 1^ T86^ih» means jetiUsiify;^ Q 

kin jih, to day; ^ Q teeen jih, the. day befare 7eBta^ 

day; 1^ ^ ming iib» to-morraUr ; jj||[^ fi libw jOi^ Oe' 

day after to-monow;]^^ tseen n^en, me year beftve 

Ia8t;^<^ kewneen, last year;^i^ km neen, the 

l^^esent year; l^J^ inmg ne^ y^;^ ^ nei 

neen,or^ ^neenneen, yearly, 

26. Wbilst, and during, are «ipres9ed by BB keen, 
Hl-tse,!!!! kang,and Jtchipg: as a ^ HrW chingc 
Inn keen, whilst* they were debatuuf; ^ Jt it W 
4&ng sse che tse, between life anddeam; ^ ^."yt W 
keadu hxn\^ che kang, whilst the engnssMnt; 
3^ ^ yS^ % ching yaou k'hae yen, whilst wiwmg to 
speak; j0t 1^ i^ tsze she keen, during;^t, ^ leenyay^ 
during ihe night; j^ }$ ^ ffl ching choo chuw k«en, 
whilst in a state of indecision. Hitherto, is expnwed 
by f^l ^ heang lae,;^ ^ tsung lae, i^ jN: taaa tBK, 
^ i^ Jt taou joo tese, and $9 ^ '^ taou joo kin. 
Henceforth, by 4" yX ^ kin e lae, ^ ^ JJl ^ tsat 
kin e how. Till and until, by^j^t^ y^^ 
yih yu,3l keih, ^ $. chih che,^ ^ tae kin» X 
keih che, and ^ taou. 

^ Qiang, ijt ^ ehang she, >IS. '^ hilng chaag; ^ 
]^ hajig^he, * ^ Chang yuen, Jf. igr piih twam jp, 
% pi]h tseuS, ^ ^41 tseg lean, ^ ^and k'hih kliih, 
mean constantly, always. 

27 » ^ Leaou, as w6 have already remarked, seems 
to indicate Uie past: as ^ ^ ^ ts& kwo ieaoii, having 
done it; ^ ^ ^' yu we leaou, not yet finished speak* 

^ 5 tow king too k'heu leaou, went 

to the capital; 1^ ? ^ ^ ^ #^ show leaou tsie 
ttnglingjuh, having received this insult; ^ ;^ Sa 5 
4a pan e leaou. being dressed; ))Sl ;j^ & 3 ihow slAa 


aevairal times: a&>^^^3ir3/$ ^ iaoum 
na leaoity ta 1tsMu» kin leaou^ Av Mandario htis Si'JtM^ 
beaten^and coofiatd him in prison; '^ ^ J^ ^ IwUml 
lea6u yay we« is It done^ or not yet done. Often it k 
put at the end of sentenced meiely for die e^e of ^4^ 
fhony: as^L jC;^jK^:lll ^ j ehay yew die ilaii 
te oiiih leaou, this is, a difficult theme. It ts not utifiia» 
quently preceded by ^ yay: b» J^ J^ ^^ J jvf 
tVh shin shwuy ieaou, his virtue is very mucH degeiie^ 

»t«d; ^Jf^^^^^Sy^Y pi&kwao ne^BeJbaoQ, 
Kd.>es not crnctm youir 2s.Sieur8; ^ ^ leami Me« t^ 
^ J^ leaou keuhf the afiiair is done; ;t Ms leaou kecn^ 
to see thoroughly; ^ ^ ^ ^ p leaou leaoii |bn 
Ming pih, very piainly ; ^ ^ -«^ leaou pijih4ih, exeeed* 
iugly unbearable; f :^ ^ J)rT ^ ^ &» yb^ 
heung leaou tih, the bravest of tile brave; ^ '^ jif t/[ 
:3iX^ % ^ ^ ^b^y tkng leih leang joo ho leaou tSi^ 
9uch a degree of strength how can one withstand; ^ 
Jf% ^ ^M ^ 1^0*1 puh tib diav in6 haou, esr 
ce*5diugly excellt^t; ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^Jfi^ leaou pa% 
tih jkta heung kin hum, the diligence of «my reader /fai^ 
ther is eixcessive. * * * 

^ £f ais we have already remarked likewise v0^ 
cateii tlhie past: as £ ^ e seay, 1 have written; £» 9J e 
lArh^ pa^t me prc^per tme: jfjg ^ urii e, the whole ^ 
done, B^jthing roore; 
urh e<i 1 haw. crJy ti« 

puh tih % ao fff^ouiTce^ & ^ ^ '^hin, too mac 
^ ^ te&e tsiee e^ here we CfO^m^ to an end. 

The following are die mo<t fifMiient; j^ taitj 
Jjk yat«ae3>fr jfc teaetawL^^tm taaodiiy \% 
* Jk tsae tfive (shoo,]^ m^.Mi t*** ^ <^^ " 

chay yih choo; it^ifiMr^ ^ — ^na ^ idiaa\. 

114 AOVntM 1>r QUAKTtTY. CEAR n. 

m expressed by ]^ ]^ yevi taie.j^ j^ tsung tsie; 
thentt, h%::^m ^ tamig oa eboo,^^::^ tranr pe. 
Our word iawaras^ is expressed by f^ n^g, a»a *^ 
wang; as]^ Jb heang sAmng^ upwards;]^ "|> b&uig 
Ilea, downwards ; ^ ^ wang se, west-ward; ^ ^ 
pei how, backward; ]J3 ^ heang taeen^ or^j^ tseen, 
ibrward; jf| fjg wae meea^ outward; ^Ijt Ji U meen^ 
inward :J^ jj^ cboo cboo, aad ^ J^ taou dioo» ererjf* 
where; Iv ]% "^ J^ P&b Iob ho diooi and ^ ^^ 
A p&h l(eu bo tihoo^ wheresoever: ^^>t.Mn 
taou cite ehoo, and ti % ^^ h^ang d^n te. fiuiff» 
ifiiidiefBOover; t}^ trhung« ^ m iAxuBg heen^ and ip 
^ chm^ 7US> ^ sigmfy middle. 


ii9/¥ & Pihpwaii,#ltehoopwaiv,an kipda, 
ii^ouB; ^ Jit^^y pwan, tbis sort sudi;j9j^ JH na 
pwan^JaUort;-* J^ vihpwan,^^y!hyang, ths 

^^'i^'"^! II ^ ^ y^^) mfiferentj^^chay pwan, or 
^ ^ jin pwan» suck So also'^^ cbay ^g>:^ 
j^. ]oo tsae» ^ ib <iw ^^s^e, such Use. 

■ \ -1 

AavntBS OP 9UAyTiT7« 

* • ■ 

. . ddk When treating of the numerals we adduced a 
fl&nber of this class^ we shall here fnention. the re» 
J^ Thae, greatly^ very; ji^:^ t*haet0r very mudi, 

excessive; JL <^* |^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^S ^y« ^^^er 
too in<Mer«^t; JL j^ tk t*hae shw6 hwa, too big talk; 
js^l^^ S ^^^ cb^C^ yusig e, too ea^. It is o& 
ten cpmbbed witb tSl kwo; as # ^ il )%. S^ gw 
tliae kwov>e loved roe too much; ^ )^ jif JL\k 
jhisinkib Vb^.kwo, he bestowed too much me upon it. 
' j^ Yih{ abb a?!curs b this sense: afi j^ )^ ^ yih 
tMiig..pOy too mdifier^ot; ]^ ^K^H^ y^ fAi^ p&h 
J^mif *^^/ wrong; .^ /^ ^ ^ kheS yih tsaou seay. 

aiaog leaou, a veiy IM phynognoray. 

^^ Haon, or :^ ;?; Imra p&h, ttgi^ 

^ baou hoo 8liw&» very IooIIbIi talk^^ ^ 

IkMOjifili naou J#, aa exoee&g gvml bustte; 

A 1C bs^ni kcS^Jb seam, veiy rnich laq^bed al Iky 


For the fetoaliider we Tefo flie leadto ta <lie:.paitfft 
daa, iQiat lam Ihe. mipeilatrre degpsee: aa far instaiiea 

jfk keflit extaiely: S. ^ T It ft-^ *«t 3^5 
klboaeaiMlLath leaMi ^ttria » iraiy iidiciiloaa} ^ 4% 

Hk :j|: ah w6 till 4aih she. that ii teiy troa; ftc: It 
aadb and flimikHr casaa ttiasa woids aia utedmftaiBaiiie 
maimer, asif tiiey atodd befora ao a^ieetive; jHr - sUJt, 
and i@L riift^ two teiba, that a)fec^iM«Cbll. j^^ 
to denote anything excemve: aa ^ w J(> ^^ ft 
kae ihan id»n shtt lib kaou, tiiathflliaioiiiMBadyhi^; 

"i^ ^ j^ ^^ ^^t^ <^ ^w ^^ 7^^ ^i*^ ^M 
trouUesmiie: ^ ^ ^ ^ Aiu kwae bf75 sh&t I an 

truly OTexjoyea^ or rrady to die lor joy, 

31. <|g^ oeay, a fittje;^ ^ sea aSay, tncomdder* 
^e;s^9eay we, trifliag, tmalL ^ Chay» and 
Ijp na, aire ofteDprefixed wifliout materiJhr changing 
ibe seme: .^ ^ ,^lan aeay haou, to day a EtHe 
better;!^ t^ ^ jjlfl bmg seay show ke6, riiew off 
aomewmit m one's skilL Affixed to a^jeetiyet it qua* 
ttles dieir meaning: dBiS^^S: haouieay, lailier gora; 
1^ p6 8cay« raiber end: proceeded by ^ vtn, or 
«-^ m&b yih, it may be transUted nof fie leoff ; "^ 

iM me least rest; ^ <!& ^ Sf muh sSay tlie nSeny 
dM the lea^i mpeetabOHy* ttis aliofoUowed by :^ 
^ ibin mo, ia tfie seatie senae: as tBt ^ ^ >^ ibirft 
seay shin mo, talka liitle;;]$ >^ J|^ 4| ;|^ tlie klm 
sjn^ ahin mOf to intradtiee ^omwttDg; 
JB Plm, is used ia the senae of raMcr; aa iS 

|^ojp^rathe<miieb;j99 :^ olio yew, lafliermiieb; 
MWb^9^ p%o beaoa tib, to understand somei 
cifmvthiDg; « ^U # p^boseeehw^^iaOm^MS^V 

^;Jif H p^nng, latbei ca^Vn. 

116 vncroittiovg^ m at^ tn. 

39L ^ To^mticb;^^ iwo to, too many; 
te cbiiog, bearer, tocKbea^v ; ^ 3)? t06biMiu,md ^ 
ta^Lwa^ bow many ^ faowmiiebf A ^ ^ f^ J^ 
tl^ng 40| gi«ai multitudes. ^ Sbiei, aftd m me. tiie 
mun, and ^ binrang, bow murb tbe ixK>Te) a?e xmeA ia 
tarieuB waTO: ai^ ^ JL bw&ng t»eay « atill ^aoie, fortb» 
inftrerfi^ ^hbo bwang, bow murb tbe moire; ^ ^ 

^' % ^ ^ I'S J^ **'^*"8 x*y ^^ y*^ y™8 ****" 

nw e, now imieh file more so^ at^ lie only ntteiB coaatant 
Agi}S sad notbing else: |^ fc^ng^ more; |^ ^ "^ A 
k&ng sen yibjm^ we must istiil nava one man; ^ Jf^ 
H^ :^* kKng fibitt k^kng me^ou, tbe more tbe better; 1|^ 
^^^^ \Ang p6b to d^^&h\ gite no^or? ordem; « 
k&ng tliae bodbe^ still wait bow long; w 
jl IXiDgiMay, and H 4^ k&ig keea^ morcila^. 



i; I^HEN treating of tbe eases of a^bstantiTee we 
bav(^ allready adverted to ibis class of'words^ We shdl 
Here ^ive a ^ncdnct idew oi Ibeir vanous useSo 

M' Yu, mth^ l^» is used in very diffareot wapfst as 

1% Jl-i^ 8^^ y^^' ' "MTitbyou^ flf 1 andyeiit J|{: ^ 
^ "^ ^ y u fno tlung i*ba lae, call bim to rome to me; 

m^^ T HiiJ^ ^^* ^^^ leapu le^ b&ving pei^ 
llroed towarda him ilie vwpe/ ceremonies^ ||:*J(. ^ 
^ ^uen yw iba y«», talk cautiously %tth bim; ^ ^ 
31 «[ p^i5 i^h yu yen, noi wofiby to be sp^Ioi to; 
^ 9^ X^^ ^^^ y^ ^^ ebuen* be swore diat ha would 
^hi l^kh kim ifntil de*th;it XpM^M 9-^^^^ 
jio e ^m% yu |iuj fe kill x^rn with a cliib or with ft 
4iwdrd^4g^ ^ )| Jt fw joo Aow seuen^ to briag maU 
ifc^ ab««t fei yw: ^ij5 ::f ^ A. T- 88 ^ ^5ii 
arA p£r/} biugr yu P^hii ^n t^iutf, W Mar a^ip^d noi to ac^^ 

fibi^uy yu urang teth, wbo will oppose Tour M^esty ^ 
^ ^ ^ 1^ y^ j<^ seiAngyo, cDiielMde a contmet with 
you; Jai ]^ 1^ ^ y}^ uiiij timg 19. to re^mee with ibe 
po5»kr<^ ^ i^ :M'M H*^^ win sin yu shun, io 
mipire the hearts cl tb« people with obedience; IC J|. 

tp6b yu (6U« yen, not comprised in it s ^ _ ^^ 
<^ ^fih nftng y^ yn sae foo^ who ift suftcieBt 

fcr this ? ^ ^ A M te^ y^ ^ i^* sacrifiei^ with 
jfreait eeremony ; ^ ^H^ pfih yu wUn, he did not ask 

It of him; ^ ^ ]^^ ^^^ y^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ eoneenis 
politics; ^ J|. ^ J33 yih yu keib pe^, and parted wiA 
tears; :^ :^ yu Uf!^ to he preserit at the sacrifice; %, 
^ $^ ^ fhh tih yu die^ ct>uld not be present al the 

examinatioiis; i^ it M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^®^ ^^^ 3^ 
yih yu che yu. did he seek for it, or was it given to hhn f 
M-^J^^y^* ^>^ "boo e, different fo>m this. It 
IB also used in comparison: a9>^ ^ ^ IR. ^ Ht tih 
yu ke kea ning ik>, i& Ytrti^ sincerity is bettar than 

pretence^^ :^ tr i "T )f5 ^ t^ ^ * # ^ 
m ^ iS. yu be ^njg yuh kung urh sze tlian^ Img hen 
naou iih urh che tsuh, it is better to dwell tnastraw bo^^ 
vel and be content, than to ascend a mlendid paUc« 
eheri&h imtifodf^ral.^ desires ;il^ j( ^ ^ ^ ^ 
jthlh nyn yu pe Ut ^^bjih mei, which k ino^t bemfftifiil^ 
your mere or my wife ^ 

So ^ \u,and^ yu. %nify im, in^ af: aa ^ ;^ J| 
^ che yu che shen^ t4> y^^im &^ supreme gwilj; j^ y^ 
4Rt "S y^ t'heen woo yew, k b^ven there ar6 no *sm^ 
rows; ^^^ S 4R''ity^beayu kw& woo wang^ 
neither d my own family nor rf my ^^cuntry is there 
hope; -jj^ i*^ ^ y^' "^^^ ^^ oeenjn the Ititb %e«trj 
^ ^ tJflJ ^ ^ yiii grio ioc foo ym, is to oje like a 

fleeting cIoik!; -^ ;J^ ^ "JJt ^^ J'*^ *^^ ^^^g-^ '^^^^ '^^•^ 
aecordii^ to ids clan; ^^-^)^ ^«w ke^ yu che, 
sought helip IVom him; j|^-|WM^4^ tsoo yu keueu 

kTitt), in ^ct pioprcity it ciiwool be done, ife ^ id 
yi^ j^ncerauiflr, «*»« it. re-^f-fiU: -§^ ^ J^ lb C yii 
aeaifU hwii. ^^^airj Mf dig^tUm; ^ li i^lfe «hlh sio yii 
igi^^ /ae^e i)<^. ^th to me; "^L 1^^ jC^^ Y^^ 'ficssi^ 

118 Fiicpoin70!fi. evAP. vn 

jiUj until be was luU-grown; ^ % ^ Ife — Mm 
gftn yu wan yik, to repay the tes tbousaiiMi pBit m hia 

<li9ii oiM^ raadred mflea. 

We hsiFe already remarked tbat::j^ ya aervea toii^ 
aerito the paaore: aBpt Mvk li* A lam Mh 
diay ehe yu jm, ibue woopeiibnD maniml hbour are 
niled by men; J| ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "^ ]ira» teaa 
]re9 wfih, fei yew yu wftb, the snpencar mas pcaaeaMa 
diini^B but k not poeaeaaed by them, i e. not enthnJled 
by luB riehes; JtH^i^ /^'^ ^ ^ae ju too jm ehe 
8h9W, died bv die hand of a woman ;4ki^l^ A^ yv 
(aou, killed by ibe awonL It ia used alae in eomp^ 
rifiouft: aa ^^ ^ -^ ;^ ife yih neeo cba^g vu tlin, one 
year older than he; ^ K^ :^ ^ ^ »& koojpi iaae 
ahe, diere are none more belpleas than tltoae who |daee 
too much confidence in themeelvea 

^ Foo, at^ w, and on, ia used nearly aa the above; 
diU8 Ift ^ ^ 1^ chfhi^ too ke keen, to go out from 
amongst them ; J| ^ Jtb e foo tsae, different from thia; 
^ S -^ Ji a^ chliuh /oo shang, thoughts come frona 
above; ^ ||^ ^M^ ^^ chaug foo shin, hide it about 
one's per6on;;j^ ^ ^ ^ ^ haou he6 kin foo che^ 
to lore kmrning is a near ap^roiskch to knowledge; ^ 
^ ^ -fl hing foo foo kwei. to actaa a ridi man; jj^ 
^_ :^ yn she foo^ fifom bf;t«to; ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ 
wiui, different from what he heard; ^ 4R^^K. ^ 11 
woo woo yin foo urh^ i will not hide it from yofu; 7f^ ^ 
J^ §f^ pUi nOi it doea not canaial in that It 
ia uaed also in eomparisDnfi: a^Jt^^^^ ni6tn 
Um yaou sbufl. none (greater tbaoiaou and Shun ; ^ 
**^ 8 ?e ^ 'fi gnoyihjib chaag foo urh, 1 am 
one day older than you. 

3. yX i*9 ;!igDifies by^ through, with ; as iS. )ii J||k- 
^ le e yfi hw&n« reason la conlouudrd by passion; 
fir Jt; e chehwft, to draw wiA the ^nger: yl ^ 
j§i tit ehuy to, to dednct by reasoning; :^ ]^ |^ 
yew e e foo, is it di&rentf ^Ji ^ W ^ t At baou 
show, ia>til old age; ^ ^ ^X^ flbih neen ,« chang, 
^a» tJSku tCB ytHii; yX ^ i\% ^^"i ^^ ^^ 

yuli^ in Ae tetifb mooft of the year^ ji^ ^ « Im, from 
the past to ftiture ages; -^ ^^ ^ toae kin e how^ 
ftomiiowai^lieDceilirth; J$ ^ e wei^ to consider, to 

look upon; ]Kl Jl H A ^ ^ '^'^ ji^> con^tdkred 
himasasag^;!; ')^ |^ H^ p&h e weie^DOtto^arofor 
ft;^ jl ^ W «^hibw«ikeuJi.iotake the ntmigtit 
ffnr the erooled; >^ ^ JS A e ohih vl |ki, by hb 
map he oppieaaod tbepeo|de; fil ^ "^ ^ e ju cbe 
he» acofMrdiDg to my fi»olini plan; j^ IfK X ^ ^ ^ 
tsliiB njriLtfhae ch^ be treatea her at his own mugh* 
^i y^ ^ ^ir^ gM kWiSn che, acearding to nay 
view of the matter. 

^ EL k aometknea uaed for JQ yiuig: as -9- 
^ ?J^ ^ wo6 WOO e yay, do not use apie; ^ ^ 
^ yX pen too pllbe^ m wat iadignant at his not be- 

m ^ Soe, ^]glkooe,aiidA^ she e, all signi.. 
Ct the eau^e^ reason, motire. Iberefoie: ae :^ :^ ^ )d 
imekeso e^ eomdder bit motives; jjk^ ^ )^ *ll^ P^b 
yew e yny, there must be a cause; yjL Hiit Iso^ this may 
do;:^ j^ klioe, it may pass;>^ ^ ho e» whereby: 

^ yX woo e^ ia aomethyies put tor J^ £S woo e, if you 
will not desist; ||^ j^ jli 3E ^ wooetaib wangyen, 
if you wiB not desist^ then let us 9|mnJi of tl^e royal sys-^ 
tern of goTemment 

4. ^ Choo^ Is nearly synonynious with :^ yi^ 
theOgh it is not 8ofire<|ueadv UMid: as ^ /$ ohoo sin, ia 
tfaa heart; :$S^ ^ S^ sb^ ^^^^ ke, to db towards oneV 
adtf;:^^ ^ sew chooke, to seek anything ftomone^a* 

^^tiv^M^^^^^ pUDchoo shin, cbin dioo 
shoo min^^fae origin of it is in one^s-f elf, and the e?i» 
deaoe of it in 4^ people; ^^% 4^ ^^^ cbangi he 
pointed to the (Ndmofbisbaiid; ill ^ii)t i&hoo cho iliin, 

no wrote iton hiagirdle; X t^ j| ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^ 
fleet on one^B-seit 

5. ^ Tov principally used ki eonfersatioif and le- 
sembUng in many respects ^ m it used to describe 
the dative case; ^ ^ ^ t^ tL ^*^ jooiseufc hwao 
kin, to da »^dy in your behalf with Hk cause of cala« 
^tyi# ^^^i^^ioQkbechiag,l^«(Ulfot ^t^ 

1!^ PR8ft>SXTIOIifl. (MM'. Til. 

set out on thU jotmiey; ^ A ^ jb f be jiir cblNA 
kihf (o esert oaeVself for people. 
^ Wd, is used tn the sense of /c^, in hekalf of: atf 
^ ^ & hStj^wei ke^ tofi^ud^ foronie^9 own benefit; 
^%^^% fr ]fn ^^ fei wei f U wei twng, uA 
wei ebwuy^ iT I am not grieved on Ms accouat^ on whose 
account should I be !^eviid V% M ]^ ^ wei kw5 
choo h^e, on behalf *)f one'a oouniry to ren^ove caLud* 
ty: ^ ^^ wei the be, to be glad on that account^ f^ 
^ 3^ ^ tae wci pm ts'hin;^ to petition on one's be» 
half; ^ 3^ T '^ ^^^ t'iiee^ hea ite^iku, to be a laugh* 
sto^k (o the eijQpire; ^ ^ :J" ^ >^ gwo wdtttaeywi 
che^ 1 will $peak for you^ t^ii I ^ A ^?^ ^ itei Jin 
che ping, heated th^ diseases of the people ; ^ ^ 

fweigno ts*hing lae, rail htm here to me; ^ 
"^ wel tsse bwuy W^^, in order to communicate: rah 
is always used at the commencement of edicts, when die 
contents are^ven: as ^ ili ^ 1^ t^ wei ch'h&h she 
hb9/oc^ joo| k OTder to i^sue a distinct proctamation* Of 
K % W ^^t*^ ^ wd b.i^^ ^ ho wei,^ % 
"I: yiir wei ts£e fco^i, $(^H we have already spok^i. 
Jjt li*sae;. m, it (« or nr^, is one of the most frequent 
prepositions: as^l^ tsae ching, in the etty;^ ^ 
't^w^'Wt% at home; ^ ill tsae san, on the hills; |) ^ 
■fea^.isa's, tefetoh^VseiC. to be at ^^^&>^^^^ -lE 8«t 
'lii tcaevto bic?comforuh'Se,? Jt ^ ^ i- tew gno rain 
■^MMi^, U d^wiv^c-* ^\ptH m%, it resU wi^h &J??^; :^ ^ >^ 
'^ pd k^n teae <Khot^^ wUh a drawn &word in his hand; 
^^ fp ^=^^ tseihcpow ; ^ ^ ^ kou tsae % ihe way 
jj? easy; ^. ^^p^ isae fisou d?:jiy^ amoiigst die nm=» 

livit off en eombintd with a number of other prepO» 
siti97ki^5 ^hidb U aJs^i^y^ precede.*: a^ -Ji. ^}* tsae wat. 
snit^idaj^y^ ^ ^aas tih wae, a}ut<iid(e the iVuusei ^ 
i tsa&i^baKig, a.5>av-^:;|^ ^ JL t!!jae ff^m i^ha^ig^ oa 
llie hUE:>^ 13 ^ ic;?-Ke ^n\:h ^>seeny before Ofiie'e eyei*; 
;|lt ^ :^ i^Su@ ta^ Ic^, ki tk(^ ba^ij^s' >^ ^ *& teae UMtg 
Tri?*v<5^ befef^r ^m^V f».«c:'>j5L^i(^ "j; !ii<#t?r' 'MU^ »?Mfj(tt oi$ 
the£;&^4nd;^ ^ t^as fo^J to mmiki *^H% j^i^i|^5^ 

^ )^ kw6cbmg tsae foo yangmin, good goiw nm gat 
oongists m prondiog for Ae nation. 

7. ^ l^zeri^yeir, ^ teunff. an meau;/^ 

fy, fhrauffk; as g ^ 'A ^^ # ^ tsae tlia teo«. 
neih e lae^, from the time that he rebelled and tiienc^^ 
forward;. II ^ JE. 4^ taze koo che kin, from ancient 
times until now; ^ ^ ^ tBse ti»nng tsae, from dMi: 
time of being at; ^ ^ M^ tsse hie woo, never; ^ ^ 
lae tsse, origin. 

)t? Yew, is employed nearly in the same sense; is 
ito ^ & 3^. y^^ ^ ® hew, it is long since; |[^ H^ 
^ woo yew tih, no way of |;etting itj^ ^ kin yeWi* 
the origin, or cause of anythmg^^g ^ ^ k1ie tung 
yew, or 1^ ll) sse yew, eaiiseft; Ip^A t) IRr ne£ yew^ 
tsaetseu, ibiafbrtune brought upon one's-self:^ jNS- 
1% ^ yew tsse urhlae, mm henceforth;^ H) tsuog 
yew, or ^ 1^ tsae yew^sigmiyyrofur^ ^k^f^^ si^ 
from hence; lii^ ^ chow yew, lAie means wmgh whiefc 
anything is brought about;.]^ it J5l 3L ^ yew kiir 
e keih yuen^ from the near to the mora distant; ^ jfcT- 
F9 ^ y^w tsie mnn tsin, enter bv tiiis door; iS) ^ 
>^. jLyew yueo jfih'ttti, to enter thrcmgh the gardes 

into the house; i6 ^ itX^Jf^^ y*** ■'"^ F* 
falling, to petition thraogh the Hiong merchants; %^ 

^ '^ j|c^ yew woo kwan ching pan, to be tiansaei 
edby the military lOandarinfr; ^ J^ % jKh ^ ^ 
yew she keunshe ta shing« foom this time the power at 
the miKtary greatly increased. 

^ Tsung,means also fr o m: bb^ i^ j^ ^ ^najf^ 
yuen uih lae, came front a distance; ||^ 4(1^ ^ ^ wo»- 
tsungcha senn^ no means of inyestigating; ^ ^ J^ 

^ woot8ung{tSh.8fiow, no means to get into Me% 
huids;4$t J|- te tsang&ng^ chlifih, went out of thfl 

8. m Heang, '^ wang, and if0 neanfd ad nmiii 

dieheait Elected upwvds; tiS "i^^ UMaib^:Wi^By^, 

122 PlSraSETIMIfi. CBAP.- TU, 

lo ikmad firm him; 1% MXIk *«« P*ng J«» 
d^wo. ta ^>eak lo 3 frieod. -■ a i 

Sc dbo "^ i«£z:g: as jg J| t^ H T ^ b^iij at 

Ka^«« ebific cbuiaf tsov. &e Csmed kis bone;, muA m 

i»«a kcijc hir^. »aT: kwes kew klsow. be Bade tbfe« 
yn^rU^L-^;; &ad uiT^e ^7»:nS3os6 fti Le went lowaidi 
^.- ^Mt. is rike isssi^T^ jiL-g: u % ft. ^ 41^ 
-^ ^ ^ j^ ikex uxf =bc yii;g ko kw5 draea rbSlg 
sk! beiebv we «dd7«:M c-c&r^UeH to the vesvek of ererj 

Sl J: ^b8]kff. «tev, T b«a. k hmt, ^ te^ fanw/l, 
■K all Kcd K pfepoi^iksid: iiiu» -t J^ 7^ jfc riMm 
l^bea bat le. up tobe&vea, aad dows to cardi; X J^ 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ X Aacg f nh yueii I'boea^ b^ pfib 
be« jrs. abenpe be iii not TCf-ire igunst b<«vcD, belon 
W haifcaBred bo n^siitj agaiitt; Kea : .4f Jl kaa Ama^ 
B}' wi^; T Jb — 4 ^ >^ «>bsiig orb fco 
abcrre rvti BOBtb&; ^ T^ ^baag ha, above 
«ad fai4o«. sore G7 leas; .^ J: >i^. k^uaa sbaag wka, 
reeibe above dsapier; ^ a^ Aac;g ssa, to nie op io 
€»e£ Bfifid; iL $. tbae te, belov. 

iO. tft TufG and % sees, BeaiiiBg ie/br\^f oad 
4IL bov, tfZ/t'r. eoiB? usdef ihits ctasii of woids: as k 
1^ i cfee£ rseea k^heo, 10 go i orward ; jL 1^ jea 
iBcer. bef-^ cce^g ere?: ^ K{ 3^ ^ ouisg tseen dM 
BT. aoae fcHDer b^nresf ; & ^ toe tsseea. to be b^ 
^.•K'; Ik ^ T -fl t9&^^ keu k^ho kcca. joii bmj kA 
bftfe th^ esjTwe. I «. t&ke w^rrLug;^ ^ ^ l! 
;«^« »ltib ::^fi tneeik. ir& jtsr* 4^; ^ q tae 1MB, 
besor? the inbi^caL befc^ YiKir Kxeeilc^er; ^ 2 ifr 

S v^ <^ ^^«e:2 ^^ sevef beanl oTi: bcfciv; i| ^ 

■c tsm- !c 50 fc?^«d; ^ ^ ^ me tms taow, 
4o^» ^ bciore; ^ ^ sees che. te kaow be£fiidkaad; 
^ ^^ % ^ ^s&ag iees k'bcz^ buw, 10 stnvo to gol 

hi •.^'X iiirs: «.«4iiX bi^»« tae^k after acaa; 411 


tize 8UD, fhe cbiidren and grftnd-chiMreiii>f (he xontthg 

^ Keen, between^ betwixiy and^Rimmy, is .usdS as a 

|ire{>06itian8: 'Ibus A i& jQ ilieea ii^ bSea, )^wji3|^ 

beaven and earth ; ^^ |Q chung heeiu anodgst^ ami<M| 

"^ ^' yt M ylb Tieen the keen, in ^e course of a yean 

11. 1^ Nuy, and % Ie« ih, and innde^^h «rae, mifr 
M^f; may be r:.iiked ainong (lie Chinese mepositiona: as 
Bl ^ yucn nuy, in the garden; |fc 1% te nuy, witb^ 
bk dte laud; j(^ ^ }/^ poh tsae nuy; not comprised 
therein; ^ ^ ^> ^ ^ 1^ pGh tsae^she kin she n^« 
not comprised within (he prohibil&nia; 3* ? 1^ • i^ 
j^ san jih nuy peih sze, will die widda duee days; Jtt 
jfi ching le, within the ciUr; % t| le^smeen;,. iiiside. 

So also $^ wae: as ^ jt* k6 wae, out«de (he «ik 
fourbs;^ ^ewae, beyond expectatioQ{jj^:^^fc1iih 
wae, out of the common way, extraoidinaijr; ^ ^} ife 
^ f& wae she g^n, to shew favour beyond (he letter 
€f (he law; ^ ift wae meen, .and il^'M'Waiet t'how^ 
€mtside, outer sur&ce; 1!^ ^ dhoo wae, besides, with 
tiie exception of: these characters are always separatedi 
the first commencing the sent^M^e. and Uie latter cqm* 

pleting it: ttius JSfe It ^ ^ ^ JR ^ ^ #1.* 
dux) joo chih kae foo yen hing cha peen wae^ beindM 
ordering the said Foo Magistmte to instihlie.a veif 
strict investigation. i ' * » 

. l2.1^Tae, means /ar, inHead of: as^ ^ ;^ % 

Ttae ne tso, I InU do it for you; ^ ^ ]@ IRF Aab 
tae te tuug heang lin «how klioo, he auffend lor 
his townsmen. . 

1^ Tuy, signifies fommfir. /a, opposite to: as # "Wi 
t^ tuy fha ^w6, he said to mm; ^ 3^ 1ft ^ tuy 
tlieenshwdahe, he swore by haaten; ^ ]& li^ meen, 
opposite to. 

^ Tin, OH 4Ke€mnt of; and||^ yuea, larawf of m v 
be taken as prepositions: aa ^ ^ >j^ ^^V^ ^^ V^ 
neih, on account of your obstinacy ;]pL % 4k ^^ ^^^^ 
man, on account of your bad trei^mMl; g ?| i(t yui 
Vfcrl 5-?;fof i!'M?. «;.S:t- r.f jijain; Bl ]^ S^ l^fHi she che 
iH . i:*: rj«';«;d-.t? i :-.;tvi--:iui{ !0 the tilM;i ^"^IR if^ ' % 

114 FllV08ITtOKfl. CHAP. VIL 

.|mh jrin ke tne, you must employ mtn accox^Bng to 
^Oieiir talents. 

^L Keih, Is used ia tlie sense of to, unUl^ «6^>ttf ; as^ 
^ m 1^ X ^ k^ ^^ <a6 keih 100, ibe livmiamtioa 
%um M jeteence to you;^ JL% ^ A taa JbA 
Mud »o.^ mhoo are you speaking about; ]^ :!. ^ 
keft urii jti^f'iuitil the aecond ni<nitlu 

II. Che, and j^ taou, mean to, or tfitfsfr as Jl. K 
J^ che tsae dioo, to this place; ^ S X^ Me a 
dw tee, the fouainess having come to Hua; ^ 31 ^ 
J^ 4^ ;:|tHray xheju laaerain e, so that iftcoma to t^i 
e x trem ity; H ^ S jfEi die kae touy iw, wguding 
Aat crhntMl; ^ J^ jt >^^ ^ ^ cbe yu s^ .^ 
klun Uou, as Cw aa the iDdustry of the woneii is cob» 

So ibo^ tomi: «a:$l ^ X IIR sii& iaou tliM 
aring^ they went tm killing tmtil^lnew of day; ^ fl- 

$j ^ ^^ -db ynl& taou pwan y»r intg di^ 4^ 
xainfbU^Dtfl mi&i§^t and then ceased; ^ i^ |t H 
Me taoa Ibo keeiu matters having come to tkia paM; ^ 
X ^^ S. king plih taou 600 le, he had noTgrae 
gbove % fair -mUes; ^^j^ lae taou dung, fae came 
to tke di^;:|$ M ^ ^tse^ taou poo (sie, ke raeeivi^ 
ad ^communication of 4ke board; i|l^^j ^ 1^ Ksqg 
taou y&k kan, I received your valuable comawmcnthm; 
^ %ti0ute,downtolke |[tound;J^ ^ ekow taou^ 
Mtire, eoooplete; ^ ^ taou dioov every vrkeie;^ $f 
^ f^ ftoo 4d E^b toott, extendii^ to every place; |^ 
jft taou te, or ID ^^aou te, atiU^^et, after all. 

ii CSi'buh, auty/rem^ comes under the same class: 
»^ t& 4^ na ch*hub lae, bring bim out; ^ ^ 4^ 
aSay ch%fih1ae, write it outf^ j& ^ f) cbfih tlia 
jdt%uh mnn, he kicked him out of doors. 
^ Ho, and ^ tung, together ^ with; die fonkier pria* 
oi|^ly in conversatiim: as ^ tH^ 4t ^ho ne hing loo, 
to walkjKifh you; ^ J^ ^ H leen jin ho ma, boA 
Men and liorses. 

^ Ijeeni oceura in &e sense of together^ with, m nn* 
:'ftmawnwUk: as ]£ ^ W % leen bo ke maou 
4&^> icj(;ia(bc^ kia companiona ke faaved death; 


^X%^ #X Ben jtnyu shoo n& keen, both 
the man mA the letter wete hrooght up for iioifieetioiu 

t«%* We may observe here,' that ma^y Chinese verlw 
comprise 1. Ihemselves our prepoBitioiis, aD aecount erf 
mrhich •would come brtter under the head at Synl^x. 
A few more exam^^Iea of prepositions may here be gtven. 

l^s aftm^ fn fMMliQr, isexpressed by A 1$ ta vjj^ 
:kilK.taluBe9tlj|; ^ chapuh to,Jt 7^ dbmgbea: 
IbusA ^ JL ^ ^ te yo woo Cs2en yia, ateut 
5000doUtt»i)iK JQ|5|L&i kiie ehin, about to liijpmit; 
IE. 4ft 1^^ dtiog faou ma le, he was i^kx^ la «- 
bwe;j^ lUS. J) tteefatdbtn^ yu^ it w«b ghwt 
Ibelrstnotith; SJf* ^!^ t neen tsmuis li& ^lili^Jllp 
was abmit 60 yeaia of age; Sff :;^ sae fang» naod 11 JJH 
taoa dioo» Jill aboutii^ every where; ^ tg^ ]|^ilt9Bi 
tsewyaouteo, I waa just abonft to do it 

14« dceordimf^ ia eimeaaeA by ^ e, ]|K. dMW^ 
gkn,4l| ^ am jin|p,andJ|[Lfceu^ thnsi^L 'll^ jgnle, «o- 
eofding to hiw^ H ]|l; ^11)^ tsua chaoo gan iiaa, h» 
maoaf^it weH aceordii^ly; -0 j^ ^.jiog ^ jrvi«f 
he accoidini^y ^v^ved to the^ke; ||l )( lu«1m,.ao 
iCordingioiMjpetitioa;^J^ JC, tsungekeen^^aeoDcd* 
ingtojouropition}^ ^^eltwei keu^ aoeoiding 

4^amatmay%ethuaexpiEMaed:aa^ ^itagrnab <nr 
:}U^ $$tta4oo, ar^ ?Jt fimieo, against yon. 

B^yaiii^ U^ojq^vesaed 1W »• wae, ^ kwo, andi^^ 
M >^ iPf ^ wae^ beyond the nriver;^ HL Invd been, 
beyond the timit;;^ H ff^ too^ beyond measme* 

Besides^ U expre^ra by j^ ^ Ui^ wae, ^ :i||' 
bwao yew, 1^ Ml ^fS¥>o tsse, and #: yu: as f ]it ^ 
^> yii tsae cbe wae, or iKl ^ tsve wae, beridas iimi 
ifta ^ ahangyew»*atill more, besides. ^^^ 

For /Ami^/C AeChinese use ^ tliung, and M.t%ow: 
as ^ ^ tiMmghing, to go through; ^ ^ taaa fhow, 

tVifhma^iBi tfauseKpressedr as ^^ ^ (6 3^ ^ ^ 
^ fei joouth we tih kew«ung, without you we riiould 
not have saved our lives; H ^ ]3> 4% ffe i ifc- woo 
tseenpttbtfli tSjoailuge. wiiAtout aiiont^tni^icaaQ^ 

125 conrmcnt^s. euhv. tih. 

Cmtemituf^ is expressed by >J }^j^ yo^ ? J^a^ 
jft,^ lun, and ]^ ^ kwei yu: w :^ J jL j» yi 
b&liig, eowerning your elder brotber; ^. Jjlt ^ 1^ SI 
if lun feise gse te seay sboo, I shall write to you alefi- 
ter com^atng this business^ 








I;: This is a very numerous class, to which we 
wisWto draw the attention of ike student, for wilhoat a 
dne k: owledge of (hem, neither can the books -be pro- 
perly nnderstood, nor the language appropriately writ- 
ten or iKpoken. The Chinese being destitute' of in- 
ttexions, much of the intelUgibilily of sentences depends 
tipon die proper useof these pairticlies. ' 



2^: These are the ftdkrwing; JL tseay* "<mm(i stands 
frequently at the commenqement of sentences and wtude 
sections: as JIL ^ tseaysliwS, and it is said; wUeh is 
«» introductory phrase at the commencement of nwst 
works of fiction. This particle also cicmples words: as 
%' JSL ^ foo tseay k'hwan, rich and liberal; ^ 16 
j^ Jl shio urh tseay kwang^ deep and wide; ^ < J. 

f^ gnotflieay wSn joo, I also ask you; :^ jl. iE 
93yu t&€ay l^n mae teeii; in my old age I bought a 
field; ft K iseay feo, now ftirtber; X ^ tsSay joo, 
now a!j^ or tbiis^; Ji -fE £- :^ tseay ken tseay tsow, 
new rc*isdiig. and r.o^x running; ^ J|^ .4% j^ JE,foe 
tseay puh che iruh, ijsiil he 7;aG not contei:t: ^ S^ 

still bis. actious were not c^orr^ct: ^ JL 4/ ^' ?^ 3^ 

i^#«/ /eN^ ll« ^iVii^ k*Uhr k>uau, U&4CM tac:.WiHk tW 


book and looked oyer it diligently rjtfe JL kpo ts^aji 
"^ JL kenen teeay^^ JL tBeen tieay<, 9II signify for t|^ 
tmie being, under existyig circumscancc^: jL j^ j}i( 
tseny chifa p'ha^ I only fear. *? . 

1 hia particle is alio often used, as we have formerly 
remarked to denote the iraperatire: thus ^ 3|^ 7^ B. 
^ ^ tseay k'han hea hwuy fun keae, junt look at tkt 
next chapter for the explanation; X!^.^^ 1^ tsew 
p&h 3raou &bw6, do not speak of it; JS. W^ ^ A 
tseav m6 shw6 t'ba jm, do not speak of other men ; 7$ 
]L ^ 1^ tMW t8eay fkng hea, just put down the wine. 

3. jiC Yew, and also, is frequently used, esjieciak 
ly in conversation: aa^ A32S ^ S^ ^ ^ ^ JK 
chow jin ehe t5 yewyewkew yu jiu, if you receiye a 
chaige from people, you will also be solicited by them} 
>L J^ :^ ^ yew chih she seaou, and only laughed { 
Jt ^ ^ ^ ^Alit^yew k'huig p'ha pe t'fan 
seaou fawa, he dso foaied lest the other should laugh a^ 
him. It is £reqnen% followed by a ne^tive: as '$ 
jL ^ ,^ joo yew piih che, do you also not know;: X», 
>F ^ -^ yew pub show ming, again be wwId.9jDl 
receive orders; X 4ll 391 ^ y^^ woo&n naon^ m^n^ 
OTOr he was not angry ;JC ^ yew lae, coma agpaa^ Jt:. 
^IfLJS^ yew laa tseu kew, agttn he got bimsetf into 
m scrape; i^JL bwaxuryew, bow much the more;^^- 
X f&b yew, again; ^ X:^ jtt (^ yew jop tse^ a^' 
gain thus, . » 

This particle is often repeated in a sant8noe;aa'|^ ^.* 

^ ^ ^ IT -3t- f^ ^^ leaou yew yin, yb leaott yew 
rhih^ hs^ving eaten he drank, and havMM drutiken be ata 
again;^X ± T^JLJt X A IJfT 4§ ping yew 
s&ng p&h keih, azo yew sze p&b tib, be was so ^iek tfaa| 
be could not live, and as for death He eouldnot die, L e. 
neitber dead nor alivej X 4t ^ ]G3 ^ ^ yew he 
yew muQ, yew king, be rejoiced and was sad, and alM> 
feared; «^X#-;^X8t^&|fc i^Jiw^yyew 
hwny p&h ke^ fcae yew kae woe sin, as to repentanca 
be eoiud not tfhct it, and as for refoonatioa be bad ua 

beaj*toifc;«. ^ A X«. % iL :8l ^ -^ ^ ^\ 


Cw iMiii sr w, ^€w tseay to tsae, vew yew heK klie, yew 
lu shib; yew klieen jang, yew no kli«*, he was » maa 
of nun^ beaaty », of much talent, endowed with apiriti 
honesty, modesty, and affability. 

4. ^ Uib, is used both as a ropuhtive and dicguno* 
tive: thus ^ T<a 1% ^ ]^ he6 urb she shih che, to 
learu and euttstanHy tobabituate^ouTMelf to anyihbg; 
13 1^ uAyuftjen^andhe8aidyes,beit so; ]^ 
^ ^ ^ % yin go urb yang shen^ hide the bad and 
proclaim the g<>od. This particle is, howeTcr, fireauen^ 
^ used as a mere elegant appendage, partly to mamtain 
the cadence, and partly to give a turn to the sentenee^ 
in which cases we cannot exactly trannlateit: as |iL -^l- 
^ ^ ^ niin woo tih urh ching, the pe^le could not 
find terus in which to praise;^ iH ^ ^ 1Q fin 
keen man urh ho, if Hiis be not rudeness, what is it? 
i$i. ^ % M^ tan urh puh yen, never tiied widi apeak- 

ittg; # I© >it <^ ^ A. ^^9 ™^ S^ ™y ^^ W 
fortunately nobody was in the bouse; % — ^ H^ 

^ ^ y^^ y^ ^y^ ^^ ^^ been, be b^ a daugliteE 
wbois both pretty and accompfisfied;^ ^ ^ ^ 
mwan urb how mI^ when it is fuH it will run out 
When m urb is put betwetsn twoai^ectivea or sttbataEOi' 
tivta dio latter modifies th^ former: asJjK iQ 4=^ le urik 
jii), stern, but beuevolent; 1^ fiB ^ kaou mb ping, 
nigh, but level; ]B9i?|Q ^ kwasgurfa maou,. extenttve, 
but luxunant ; 4Ei^£ ifQ JL ^ dtuen kliing mb tseay 
fDQy ^ vessel is ligbt and moreover buoyant: ^ ^ 
"ti ^ ^ uib kiaho yew foo^ can tbb exist now? iSi 
^ ^ ^ uifa kin uib how, henceforward; ^ & mb 
si,nndnofhin^mt»e; 'P 4^ ifi| iS^ jin tib urh e, benevo- 
lent but notbmg forther; % ^ ff& & kew tssa urk e, 
Binescmaonly; ^ id iOr & yu taae urb e, only here; 
^ |lo.jeBurti,stai,yet; ^^ i^J^ urii e um e» ab^ 
sduteiy nothing more. 

5; ^ ¥ay, and % yih, are used as copulatives: As 

former only in conversation: as^ ^ "(fe ^ ^^ 

9M/ BWBU fha yew pun sae^ it may be accounted Ibat ho 

MS tahn^;^ >> ic 4fc Hi ^ 1^1 ^ft»» ^Be|a ^wtt 

CHAP. VIII. fsoraLAtivis. 139^ 

followed by :te yew, ia eMDnenfiaf Aiofi: ^-^M 

yay yew teeo mow, yay yew fcn wm^ he liad 'MMfien^ 
fields, and ridiee. # 

It is often put behind the pronouns and other waidi» 
when it may oe translated by even: as ^ ^ ^ :||^ 
thay yay eeaou sie, eveatfais is a soDall business; ^ 4K1 
ik >^^ ^ gno yay wpo sb tabching^ 1 myadf at- 
00 haw no hitention to enter die vilgr; ^ 4L Jf^ ^ 
^ S^ A ^ liCr diway yay piOishair yu pe yii 
yin kedi teih, he did not even me a drink « water to 

in the least degree inmipent;-- ^ 4^ ||j)|^ y& 
haouyay woogae, not the sh|^test eibstaele. 

4L ^ Ya?Hhe,and«fc ^Jl yay jSh she, oecnr 
tety frequently: as«-^*^4ift-yay she moo 
ts*mn yu pei, diis ia also prepared^ my modiw; «* 
^ :|E If" )^ nt 5 yay she wang m sin sae leaou, this 
is also spendiagone*s thought to no purpose;^ ^? 
^ yay we klio ehe, it is idso what cannot be known 
er determined upon; ^ ^ yay we, not yet 

Itia oft^i repeated in a aentence seirenl times: aa-^ 
^ :^^A 4l 4L J(^ 9 ^ taeen vay pfih hwan 
jin, e yay ptth mae lae, he neither paid the people tfaeic 
money, nor did he buy any dodies; j| 4t» 7^ 1^ H^ 
5t P^ ^ If UP W! Ain y»y PM yung ne lda» 
Vhowyaypilh yung ne lliae, he will neiwer allow 
you to approach his pemon, nor permit you to open your 

Itiaa]aonaedtnquestioM:aa]^^ ^ ^ pilhyay 
16 foo, ia thia not delightfidi ^ it it ^ ^Mt 
k*hant1iak1ilng yay ptth killings ^ see wkather ho 
wwld or would nd; yf; ^ A %Jf4k V^ ^^ *^ 
yay pfih she, 1 do not know whetlmr it is so or not; ^ 
^ ^ 4l% ^ V^^ ^^ <ue yay ptth teae, I do not 
know whedhier he is there or not 

^ Tih, iamore frequently used in hooka: aa 4tL m^ 
^7i tliajrjhsbw6yuA>liAataM>Mad;1k^^^''«^ 


I8m ii alio w^ it wOl do; ^ ^^^ # $k^ ^ Vt^^^ ^^ 

TfSk woo raeiH i «lioiiid ^en not ie|*fne were I to die; 

^:iP A yihjoo4ilie,HbalBOtbus; j; ^ X^^ ^ 

HR 1^ pOh ebe tsuh chay fob fill yew, he who does not 

hoowWnit^^ & «oii«>wful;}r; 

"jp ^ ^ t^uh yih pe foo, was this not ,l(ieatil HfL "^ 

% ^;||; "If ^su^Ilet88et8euy]hkll0lSee^ tfiou^ 

you have hrou^t this upon yourself, still you are woiu 

Ay of i>i^-; ^ jj^ ft If ^ #, Ik ^^ p™ ^^ y^ 

hae tsiu Ukh, even ten volunies or books he ought to read 
entirely through ;j|, # ^ 4|- ^ ^ ^ keen she 
yih woo yen k'ho diw&i on Beetag' faiiki he could not 
utter a word; ^ 3f^ t{^ ^ H m yih pah yuaggno 
been yew, he did not allow me to saunter about 

6. X Ketti. is used for and in edicts, and mam 
fi^ritings. though not of fiequent occurrence: as Sj^ X 
^ gnokeihjoQ, land you ;XJ2t yew keih, now in 
conjunction ivith; VXjSl^ keih, undl^ to. 

^ Leen, occurs in the senseof «iMf, toj/etker with; 
vs^ %^ gno leen joo, I and you; ^ A % leea Jin 
aa, both men and horseSo It is ottiai Avowed by % 
yay. when it means even: bs^ ^ %[, ^ "^ leen 
fcng vay puh tfacm« he had even not swept the room. 
In ttiis case it isi^n preceded In ttie first part of the 
•entence bv'|^ *^ mo shwd, do not say; ;i^ Jf^ pfih 
ffli^ not onnr; JR fV puh tan, not merely; ^ M p&k 
tth,notoiify: as Tf: Ig^ * ^ IB 2|l * «f> - 
U Jgi^ puh tfih tsetazenwuy lae, IBen chfli nyu uih 
kliow fta ehaou, not only did my wife and chiloen re» 

4dm,biitmytwomecesalsocameback;|t Ht ^ « 
2: tli^4t^>^ MUF^ md shwd chay she 
chelJi, leen Jhmv ibe che l&h jAi heang, notto speak ci 
Ae joys rf flie present worid, «ven the happiness «^ ihe 
vrarld to come he will also eiyc^^ 
7 t^ Keen, bears dM aentie tif and, together with, 

CMflointly: as ^ ^ t ^^^ # ]^ :* 4«Fl* 
jt ping poo ^haapig ^boA keen too t^tt yuen jew toe ju 

#J)c, the pre^idenl \}iihe miKtaiy boavd and member of 

i^e Ce0c>urat^; ^ ^ "^ {it % i^ keun woo keen le 

kat^bfyrngf Ite manaf^^ mSS^ aQKm wAw ^ 


revenues; 1^ IK ^ ^ keen urh yew cbe^ to htifi^ 

— , _ ^ _^ ,, ^ .^kie»keeii 

t8euen« the three form one whole; 4t ^ |k ^ ehow 
yay keen tsow, he trmvolled both nigSt and day: ;^ ^ 
Ijt 4| ^^ ^u woo keen woo kung, ndther Ibe dvil 
nor military officers have any merit 

$ Pingy has nearly the same dgnification as die a» 
bove: as m il $ skoo png tsaou, the trees and grasft;^ 
* * ping keen, together with ;^ * Hfc J( 4 |& 
jj^ ^ chun ke show shuh ping meen yen cha. let him 
redeem lumself and avoid severe punishment; dAd^^ il. 
H tseay mei ping mei, both the sisters were beautiful; 
^>^ pnghmg, to walk together;;^ igt d^ ^1^ 
T Iftou yew ping keae na hea« he seized on old and 
young; — 1^ ^fll^ yik (nng chooMii:^ he killed them 
all together ; §tylf i& png leih chuy, to pursue v^itfat 
united strength. As already remarked above it is oftea 
succeeded by a negative: J^)S|^^1^ILSJ| 
$e chih king ying Ads; e ping woo woo pe» theynere- 
ly endeavoured to obtain a livelihood, a^d there werv 
no abuses; M H 1§^ piog woo waug^ hopeless^ 

^ Eae, means and, together with: as 41. ^ H^ 
^ ^ heen ling kae hS^ tae, the Been flMastrate and 
^e military Commandsnt; # # 9l^ it jiC dm Aim 
kae w&n woo, the hereditary Aomlity and flie civil and 
military officers. ^ Tung, with^ occurs as a copuli^ 
live: as ^M, ^ gno tung Joo, I and yon: abo J^ vo, 
as )i ^ ii heimg yu te, elder and yoaiiger brethren. 
In edicts we <^ten find-^ |9 kwuy tung, and ^ fi 
tdh tung, together willi, in coiyunction wtth^ Mid a»» 
der the gui^nee of. 

8. ^ Tsib) uigaHying then: sometiiaes ntandii fcr 
afro, and. ^ S%^ Mil ^ # 41^ kwo tsih wiUi tsa kat^ 
having trausgressed. then do not hesitate' lb changa^ 
j^ — -ij^ tsih yih yay, then it is one, the same; It ^ 
i^TT f^y'J^^'iC hingyewyuJtlh.«hih«awftn^ 


%mtm; f:%f\M i^L^^ J^ shih toifa tong 
Ao^ tern tsih tang chwang, to eift at the wme tM^ 
md fllt^p in the same bed This partk-te te often nerd 
ID detftttions, and in pursuing' a train of reaaooing* 
if^ ^ jlti^ ^ sew shin tsib taou leih, cnltivale per- 
aonal liitue, then good pfinciples will be established; 
# f^MlSIC'W^^ ^ A klun toih ehiajK, 
chiiig tsih hing, hiiig ttih tsin, be diKgent, and il will 
be aeeomplij^hed^ when aceomplished you will suceeed^ 
and when sbccessful, you maVadrance. In theiMim 
^^7 fl^ jH H^ *^ and^ }|f she tsih, are also vmtd. 
W ^ ^ ^ ^ fl :3r; ^ Yin joo chuy tsae, she 
tsih pah la^, nDce you have refused you witt not coim. 
Tins particle is also repeated with -^ yih: aa — W 
}il #~9lj9l)|yih teih e he^ yihtsiheyew^ pv^ ^iw 
joy, partly with sorrow. In coiifersation it standi often 
wi^^ ko, aft the end of sentences containing a request: 
ast^^lil^ltjaiilS^ hwang t'heen k^ku Ukm 
cbtiy kew tsih ko, let ai^ust heaven be compassionate 
and grant release, then it will do; "Ij^^ ^%, ^ 

^ ^ jfi *r ^^^S ^*^^ ^^^ ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

let hitoi toiAe over and speak, and that wtU do* 
If Tseih, then, is in acme instances used as the a^ 

bow: MUt^ :ilL^ X%^^ Q M tsd yay we 
kcih uia tseih leen jib shwiiy, last night not having 
bccti able to sleep, 1 hiyve been iBciioed to sleep during 
1l|4 «4iflle day ; ]^ j| ^ j& tseih she tsin heung, thia 
idthea my own brother. It is often put in this mannei;' 
aa eiL(tkiiiatofy of a foregoing part of the sentence. 

9 ^ Foo, stands often at the commencement of 
aenff-aoos as refi*rring to 96mething that has preened: 
liiua j^ ^41* foo jin ch^i; now mUh respect to virtue; 
^ ii "% ^ ipfoo kwaii^ now the militaiy Mandarine 
pieviotiriy sp^^ken ^ ik^ il }^ 1t ^ ^ foo yew 
peih che aho vay% now this is tone oppression. 

1& 1^ Tsew, then, Is ofteutuied t% conver^atiea: aa 
^ ^ *C tC ;r * 7«w i*k tao, tsew p5h is*, if 
y^ do not want to do ii, &en do not do It: also joined 
iria» Jl «;be as ^ ^%^iiL ^a^ig peih tsew she 


it ill thus. This tenn is often preceded by j| til^ m6 

8hw& p&h tidn pan fiin^ taew she wai^ lung leaoH^ nek 
nnly did he not do fab duty^ but he acted likewiiie cBft* 

reputobly:-i|^t|tXi* ]|^J|^ -^ f^4fF;|| hew 
rii w6 8Hn keeiH teew she shih keen too yew, not pi eay 
three [tiecee^ even ten piecee tn in my ponseseioit It 
isaisb followed by ^ y«y, wheh it means eiren: "^ Ht 
]t^j(^ ^^ taew wan aw yay p&h kan tue, I 
donotnfiiBefoaiaeven ten thourand deadia; 1^ ^ 
^. >& A ^ ^ 7 ^ taew she tlie^shih jita, yay 
kin puh teih^oren a van of ifon and ateue codld noli»> 

Maikakolhefolkmingezpiesakma:^ ;Ht^ ^ 
IdL ^ ^ ik ^Sij^ ^ diay jfang keang lae, tsew 

leami» this kind of language 

no room for doubting; ifL i^iSii^ taew sling yn 
f he£, it then beeame hardened Vke iron; 1|^ H. ||^ ^ 
^ tsew he mung jih^pwan^ it was like a dream* , 

I U The use of i|t p^n, lAen, 4m»H nearly reseniii 
blea the above: nii^^1f$^^:flf% neeii 
she pe tsa y^^h k'ho kliwan, even m my wile, I 
could not forgive this;^ ^ :^ ^ ^ ^ *t A 
4£i ji^A^ peenahekinffaset'hJ^tsaesitftjintW 
frng jin klian, even when the Emperor at the Capit4 
puta any one to death, he allows the people to see it; 
'fit ifS- pSen haou, that is well, that will do; ^ IS. "^ 
>f; A gno peen shih pfib tth, immediately I could not 
eat; Jt m K •^ Hl^ ma peen ma tik tOh, when he 
scoldra he abuseopeople bitterly. It is also repeated 
5 flt 1 ;|C "K flt |6 mae pSen mae 
pa,ify«mwanttotor^miy;ifnot|let it 

f 1Jt«i6t< 1$ flit fit t^i _ 

snoo peen tung gno t&h, gno tih shao peen tung ue 
tub, if vmi wish to study, then study Vith me^ and if 1 
stiidv, I will study with you. 

12. ^ KeS, meaning therg/ore^ ihen^ygt^ is used 
often at the oammeacement of a section, apd in cesneo* 
iian wilhH^ shw&, to introduce a uew subject In this 
iastanoeitiaalaepieoadedby }(vjg^|^\lt^^feX^^^39»ft 

134 OOPULATIVK8. CBhP. Vllt. 

the subject, snd bow sjpeak of something else* Often it 
serves to render a seDteiice still stronger: "ip ^ ift ^ 
k'heopuh se&h leac^ yet it is not to be regretted; 4^ ^ 
^ j0^^ ^ Vheb ehe Kang yang peih fft, yet these 
alretwo different bands; ^ ^l H^ i^ ^ V iS^% 
uroQ k'han ne ts6 wan klieft keae e, 1 snail look on hup 
til you have laushed, and tben exfdam mv idea; % i^ 
4lp ^ jgr jm teih k1ie5 pub haou, tbus it is hot well; 
# It #: ^ Ifc ^ il' ^ ne peen tBo mun^, gno 
k1ie& tang yay. you are dreaaoing^ and 1 am benighted; 

^J^^-^^^^^L ik ]^ fl^ klie6 she ne fiing 
gno, fei she yutsin ne^ you aw making inqmrtes after 
Hie, it is not I who am seeking for you; -isf J^ fff jjf^ 
^ kliecS she sin seang che, he is a new acquaintance; 
^ i^ >F JL k'he6pii^puhkeen,hedidnotaeefaim; 
^ 19 ^ ^IfflF kin jib klied seang yar, do you still 
think ab<mt it ^ It is oft^i followed byJ^ 8^^» ^^ ^ 
yiy:as^ ^i -• ^ *i T mk^e6slie yih 
tsae yay pbh shib. he does not know a single letter; 

^^UB /J. ^ip *.ir:^#-«Jt?^diih 
ko aeaou tseay, k'ke6 yay swan p&h tib rib ko urb tsae, 
ten dau^ters cannot be reckoned equal to one son; 
IK ^ li^ :^ ^ ^ sicglae k1ie6 she yih mutig, and 
when he awoke, behold it was a dream !^ ^ ^ ^ 
k*he6 yay baou seaou, it is after all a ridicalous affiiir. 
It ia also oflien used in phrascb implying a question^ as 
some of the above senteuces sufficiently tihew: so also 
^^ HL klieo she bo koo, for whatcause is this t 
18 ^ -i^ 'If Jl: ^ A « bay ko seang kimgt 
klie5 she ho jin, who is this gentleman f 

13. ':^ Fang, aud |%tsae^ together witb;j|% seuen, 
and sH nyih. are used for #Ara, the first is much em- 
ployed in all kinds of writing: thus -^ J^ If" jp. A. 
tVh fang k'ho fdh }iu« if you display yirtue^ yoo may tneu 
suiidue mankind i^ ^ ^^ &ug tib ke e, he then 
attained his i^isb; ^ ;jr ;^ z;^ gno fong fong siu. i 
then set my mind at ease; ^ i&%^ f^Bg ^^f^^ ^J 
leaou, he then finished his wntrfig: i^ seuen is used 
m ibe same manuer iu edicts but rather seUkmu So 

CUAF. viii. copmLATim. 13S 

ift Tsae, is ftrauently met with: m % ^ %. 

H^ H Ift ^ ii^ ^^^ 7^^ ^^ fce jSi, tsae tih tam 
8h<>W9 you have only to wait a few dam. and ^n it will 
come to hand; H^ ^"fS ^}Kii ^ tsae she ko 
chang kew che ke, thin is Uien a acheme that will work 

•ong;^,il lk^ ^ # taaeplieen tih tlia shang 
Ilow^ then you may deceive him, ao that he will lie 
caught, i. e. swallow the bait 

K'iit£, may frequently be tranalated by- mUl.* aa 
^ H- *-^ ^ '^^^^ ^^^^ j^ yea, and be did not 
speak me word; x Jfe~J£^ *K 3^ klsn^. die 
yih tao k'hung dumrleaoa, and it was merely an «mp^ 
ci1adel;1lf -^ S. ^ 7 ^ bo kloiiT^ die che i^ 
w&n, and how shall we manage so, that he wiU ask no 

U. fi Taou, and ^taom though verba, the first 
lo arrive, and Ihe second to fidl,are in conversation used 
variously as connective particles: thus ^ ?^ 4^ ^ 

fchay taouyay p&h tso, this then is not a mistake; 
^^JL'^^fl-fti^* tMOu yUi poo, keen 
yih keen, taoii.yay meaou, iff had been one step eaiiier 
aiid aeen him, it would have been well; j^ ^ ^ 4l 
"^ ^ kd aae taou yay woo leaou, every affidrwaa mis» 
managed; %. ^ "^^99^ wei ho taou yaou hwoy 
k'heu, wb^ do you want to return^ ||| ^ ^JSlI^ 
3^ ff^ y^ ^ nan taou ne mun taou ching pin pdh tih, 
it is hard to say that you cannot present one petition;. jflt 
:^ ^ ^ A fN 'Ir^'^BesheiiaiejintaOubwiiy 
shwdh wa, from whence are you, tiu^ouare ^ble to speak 
our language? ^ %f^ ^jSi ThUfi "^ ^ Hi jfnc 
k*heuen choo sang taou puh jjoo k'heuleaou pa. I advise 
you all, to make the best of your way off; ^ ^ i|^ >F 
M 1^ f^ 41 DB ^ ^ hvr« teih na plih i^\ iaou 
na ch6 ko sae teib, if you eamiot seiae him alhre, you 
may obtain his dead body;4i3' i^ % ^ ilfc- !^ 4^ 
ho tacuk'heuliae tlmslLngming.whyftendoyougoto 
injure bib life? "% ^ 4lt i^^ ^ taou she woo sin tsing, 
on the C(»trary. he. ta without affectum : llj "^ ^ ^ 
taou Doo klie lae, on the contrary he got angrv. llii*^ 
cbaneter may in 4k above uutaEKim ^ Xare^^^ah^ ^ 

pet^ Ampetn*, *HU, M tie &mtrarjf, i^e. whilst do one 
puiirlec^oitf owDwilt in all iuBteiKMeiMT^Ifce-Uaa. 
Wfaeojiniied to jl. te, it means «ft7/, homevtr^ ^^Ur «0: 
u Sil «. ^ H 11 taou te tsacu mn \mx^ nf ha 
■gtmthJfficulHes;^^ 4t ^^^%.^:1t^ 
'Pb 7;;. ^ mow woo yin te£di, taoa te yvmi tsip ktk 
now ta flM^ Ifaoagfa 1 have no mtney, I shall stiU ezot 
nvflelf to dAbd some great aflur. 

It u alM often lepeatod -tiP -tfi t i^ «§ « « 

fcea tih ySi, taouhwuy sing klie, nan taou ta yajr taoa 
mfih sing kle, &ou^ you be a semnt to a magutfate^ 
jret yon can &tl mto a passioo, it is hard to lay £^yoaf 
nuwtnr cannot also have such ebullitiotis 1 ^ ^ fT 
"ft^SHt-fc^Jfc gno ptih yen yii, ae taot 
ihwft dung shwd twan, 4iou|^ I aay nothing; yet you 
{ffate venr Ittffely. 

BodiJ)^ chuen* and JL Cu, aie used t« signify on <A« 
coafraiy, j«H, jfet: ia % ||^||^^;M>k«to<7 
<^uen woii e f&b kea, this crime vn tiie contrary ranoot 
be exceeded in enormity; 1^ ^ ;^ ^ chuen woo fiu^ 
n,on (he coDtrary we have noresouice;^ jflj^ ^ 
%%% 9Xb pub meihfon w^ so bae, if the buffoeit 
be not kept auiet, scnoe uiadiief will yet some of it; 
^^ |Lm|^ % j^ ^ kemowk«fpytk,bndiow 
ke ylu^^, aiabeing a rebdlious plot, Aey wiUstiU meet 
with cidJuni^. 

15^ X^ Jan, atandsfbrjrM, huly, ud ^U: di« 
^. iS^ ^ £ jeD yifa )rew cheystill it does esitt; fjft 
jQ i^k^ jen tub we jiii, let diis is not benevdeaw; 
%%%^ kliekejepfixshAwis It tiiosf^ W 
:f^ J^ # % Jen tsib ptihtB&h bed feo, is it not thea 
woiifartnbeaoquindf ^IJ^-^ % jtatsOitseiHW 
nae bo. but then what is to be donef A Jit )!K % 
^ M. cbft tsM jen how che obungi if 3m fcnmr Aas 
ften Too will also know all; ^ }iC^ ^ we pdh jen, it 
is not necassariV eo; ^ ?^ i^ W- ^bm jen nth jen, it 
K thus in itself^ self-existent, dw ays the same, imniirta- 
ble;j!S^ jeoyar< Hit truUr thus; :F ^ i^jeu,it n 


suy jen, althoug^h ; ^, ^jen how, afterwards; @t fHH 
ke jen, since ;^ Ij^ jen pK also;-<fJ ^"jins jen, as 
heretofore ; are frequent in the best writers. 

16. $p. Suy, is used for f Aotf^A, although^ with its 
coropoands: as 9|^ f^ suy jen, notwithstanding; H^ |^^ 
ifH Ki suy jen joo tsze, al&ough it be thus; 1p :^ j)L 
tuy joo tsze, ditto. 9^ ^ ^ suy j6 she, ditto, ^ ^ 
^ ^ suy jen chay yang, ditto, used in conversation: 

f^ siiy she, although it be thus; tt ;^ ^v4x ^ 
^ ^ suy yew tth hing, we 1»mi|:&euen ^^ 
be has virtue, yet is he not perfect; ^ ^ s. ^ S 
^ ^ ^ ^ . Sr Buy jen yang tsse san nSeto, k'hed we 
kan gkn, though he nourished^ £e child for three years^ 
yet it did not prove gratetul; H iP ^ ^ If ^SJ- * 
^ i^ suy joo she, jen fei king keu che sin, mougn it 
was thus, yet did he not shew any fear; |^ % j^ ^ 
^ -^ 5^ i% swy shing, yih yew so puh che yen, 
though a man be a sage, yet th^re are some things which 

he will not know; 3^ 4^^^t^HiQ^>i^ 
6uy woo piih*he6, jen hwuy wttn uih che che, though I 
have not learnt this, yet I knpw it from hearsay The 
particles that most commonly follow ^ suy, in the se* 
cond part of the sentence, are ^ yih, ^ jen, if k'hedi . 
^ sbang,]!^ tsew, and ^ yay. 

% Ke, occurs in the sense of since: as t{t ^ ^ 
jit ke jen joo tsze, shice it is thus; |j& >j| S f^ ^ 
iJ ke yew tain sin keg leih, since he has exerted him- 
self to the utmost. . 

Iji Shang^ stands foryet^ ^i^ ^. as il ^ shang 
yew, there is still; ^ ||k J^ ^ A H. ^St l|r iieea 
suy laou mae, shang i^ng cha ma^ though he is old and 
decrepid, yet he can ^lop about on horseback; 1$ ^ 
^ shang tsae uh, he is still at home; 4iL "^ Jj^ ]^ ^ 
tlia shang we ching sae, he has not yet accomplished tha 


iH Jing, siffnifias stiU^ m before: thus |9 -III jing 
jen, agaitu as before;^ ^ jing kew, as formeriy; f$ 
^ i^ jing shang wang pe^ atill he went thither; ^ 
'"^ ^ |ft jing chaou kew pan9.arrange it as heretofore; 
t Siwgtaeto^aaUaraa be6iw;tS |Mfe*k 

JW rVfffU, J»* i^CWiL rK4F» fllL 

i^«if n aiw; -*iA. i> ^ml -ctCTKr: fee ^orzoer uUiiiit 
1^ ^-**« jn t; tie >ki 

Tll^-^ ir^ ^ ij- wn'SC on: iiiB -^ JH -#1 

'<^^ '^ f-sie nik'j -woe, .1 'le ii^tfin 'as: aiu in-^rmr: •§ .^ 

/■ .' !«-; if l^]fi w, 'V net X s -hiLi. ;5- 'Jp, ^ jj\ iS? 
/k ,fr^. >Vm v^»m j*n. f 7011 io int aae aaa&: ^ it -SL 
;^ >' ^ JR ^"^ -^l^ ;?L i<i -^le nia lae. ^uh s'han nc 
*ic# <. n*^ fr,r if : ^nrvi *)««:« -iqaiu igu io at iee yoa 

v» c-f>--- i-p; .^ ^ -L ^ jr. i:iu/- "aroGdui ^inae, 
ii' i -'^.t V*. . r/rvKr.i u viJcimr 7!3u, '^ '% .^ i$ 15" 

;'ri ^^oii *>«u» j«*. ae -ivck^ mil ia;i£fief:. is if he 

4f *^'*^;^jjir i aeaiisr j«k :i*mJar -jo each ctiier; J^ ^ 
1W -;?'. y% *>i»^ ho .««, rVam * heac^ iocs he come i 
Z % /» jpeij «en y *iu5 lanie k oil feiiows;jS ^ 
* ^j^. i^» f/n fei trhfiO, a«;rji & set of rilaina. 

^^* Zoo, 14 aiM used i& thm aecae: as jBZ ^ ^ joo 
y*^ f he, if he ha« % ciad;:!!: ^ ii B j<» '''^^^ *** 
i*^. ;? *h«^, i#/v.r jiho-^id smiy^ en ^tat ?ery day; -jm ^ 
•f' /'<'> f%r. '.r.«'.4r. ^.s ',? 'JJrr:\r^ r^ : rd h'S bai.d; -jSl Ut 
^ J^ j^<» ii^iff U;i:if h was, to pa; ^ cordbig u> the num* 
*jf5f ^o imy Jh/5 whcle;ia if^ it J^ joo e jooyueo, ae« 
'j^ 1/7.^ Ui one * winbnianrl de«iies; ^ iSl i ^ tanj 
j<ifi ^.he ho, hov? th^o 8haJl vre dt>;^ ^ :^ ''^ joo 
t/i«' i:>w' ho, i^Kai 14 then Ui be done t 


r ' 1 h^ pmicipal onefiarc g yio, jig yuea, j^yuetu 
;* »i»4' /^. kuo, jgjt ;fej: yuen kf/o, ^ yj. she e, ^ ^vei, 
'Ji) iff- wni Ihw\ nod [fl '^ un w^t 

i'l \iii, cx|»fkwoi« fV, m^.ntiiii, on account of: at 

CHAP. VIII. msjimcTiTEft. 199^ 

^ X yin seaon shih ta, on account yoT small meters 
be ha# missed greater ones; ^^ J9 ^ ^ P^^^ S^ ke 
tsae, it must be on account of his talents; S* Jifs >^ i^ 
;in tsze che koo, on thia account; 81 fllr ^ ^ yiB ^^ 
che tse, to sacrifice according to the seasom; 

}^ Yoea, andiS yuen^ occur in the same aenae: » 
ti^ ))t ^ ^ ^ yuen tsze puh ju£ sin^ cfi iim ac- 
count he was not delighted; Jt ^ d6i^jp(s^i»» joe 
tsze, originally it is thus; ]S ^ 31^ ^ ^ ^ % JL 

j^ "^ yin joo faa ft yuen koo, piSh haft kliwaii tae, 1 
dare not be leuieuf^ because you faatre transgressed 
the laws;^ 4^ H ^ yuenpUB tsuy gik « accdkn^ 
of our wickedness: fi t MM M "t H^ t % 

% ]^ i yin puh koo tsin tseih che yuen, keae keuag 
koo too s&ng, by not paying attention to his relatives^ 
they spent a life of poverty. 

^ Kae, occurs in the sense of /or, beeaufte :MJ^ ^ 

^ ^ W *l|f IF kaekeuntsiflgyihyewdiangs«e/for 
in militaiy matters^ there is a constant doty to perform; 

t Jt #• # ^ 3^ ^ $c^Mj ^ kaeshangshe 
chang yew puh chwang ke tsin chay, for in aucieni 
tinges theve were some who did not bury their relations; 

'B >^ i' ^A ^ >3l ^ -^ ^ % % kae e shin ming 
show taou, puh wang hing che e, for it was with the in- 
tention of maintaining good principles, and of noi acting 
disorderly. ^ Kae, often comra^uces essays^ that con- 
tain a whole string of reasonings, but it is by no means. 
so frequently used by the Chinese as the genius of our 
language would demand, and foreign writers err by 
iuserting it wherever /or occurs in our tongue. The 
surest way is to substitute H) fin, which is by far the 
most common, and ai^oto let Uie cao^e precede the ef- 
fect, which IS almost an invariable rule in Cbioese* 


1 9. > ^ Chih, it ch6,||(. cfhe, and % te. ai^ used for 
&Mf, dnl^^ SfC the first in conven^ation, the second in 

good writings, aud the two foUov^g in fidiOSn 

liO 1>I8JU!«CT1VB8. CHAf. Vtll. 

^^ Chib, i« often follow^ by;% «he; 9b^ ^ ^ 
Ic ^ ^ gno chf b she 8ze leaoupa, there is nothing 
left for me but to die; }^ ^ ^ m chib 8he jiu nae, 
it is only to be patient Followed byt6pcK#tih, 
d^ haou, and'Y k\van, it ^ives a peculiar emphasis to 
those words: as j^ >f§ ^ ^ ^ ^ chih pa s^e puh 
yAn tang, I only fear that the business is not 'secure; 
J^ ^ B l|b 1^ chih san jih tsew lab, he will cbtne in 
three days ; ^ }^ 41^ ^ J9t gno chih tang piih ^he, I 
merely acted it as iff knew nothing of it ; /^ H& ^ iW 
>^ 3Hu chih pa ne mun hih sze, 1 only fear you will 
be frightened to death fit ^ Jf^ ^ W :f ^^ shwd 
iae chih pa ne ptth sin, if I tell you, I fear you will not 
believe; y\ -^ chih tih, means/orcerf, without resource^ 
and occurs as commonly as the preceding: J[^ ^J6 
^ chih tfh k^he ching, there remained Botbihg fw 
liim to do but to proceed on his journey; ^ A lH ^ 
y^ ^ III IfctiAjin woofs, chih tih kantTia,theyboth 
were at a kMts what 'to do, and had only to . follow him; 
H ^ '^ ^ Ml ^ chih tih y ih tse k'hei, leaou, 
they we*e fprced to go all together away;^ J^ iS-^ ^ 
chih haouchay t&ng, it is only (if this sort; J^ j^ ^ 
'^ Jt A chih haou tso ko wSn jin, he is only good for 
a literary character; }> i^ i ^ W chih haou woo 
liili jih, only about fi?e or six days; }{ ^ chih kiyan, 
signifies merelff^ only this:J^ ^ ^ ^2^ chih k wan 
fiing sin, only quiet yourself; J^ ^ W^ ^ ^ ^^^ 
4wfin k'hin k'mn^^uh shoo, only attend diligently to 
year books; *^^ ^ 15^ B ^ ^ ^ ^ <^Wh kwan 
ekungjib tanfae tan k'heu, he would do nothing the 
whole day but babble and - talk ; j^ %^ chih e, means, 
only this i» proper; J^ J^ chih koo, only regard this, 
mindnoifiiing^se; J^ %* chih k 'ho, this alone is prao* 
ticable; J^ ]^ TRd ^ chih tsze urfa e, only this and no- 
thing else; }^ M^ chih yew, merely this, and nothing 
else; }^ ^ Jit ^ ll^ chih yuen tsze show nan, only on 
this account he suffered. Jt Che, is used in the same 
manner, but by far not so frequently : thus Jt ^ . — 
idbeyfiw ytfrtseen, I have only. one cash; j^ ^:M 

^ Jit dio ^ gae cbe joo shm^ igtih c&s^ V^ tw^ he 

CHAP. YitK WBiVHCttVm. 141 

ioved him as his own seU^ rad not merely as bis s(m:. 
iP Ife^ te neen^but^oVily 1 thought; ik/f ^ 4^ m 
ehe kwei ke kungshuD, but valuing their obedience. 

20. 1S Tan,l|[ tan, and It tan, signify but^ anh: 
as iE ^ '^ A iS "^ tan lew yih jin wh klieu, fte 
left only one man and went away;^2. ;|; Hi ^tan 
puh tiling ming, only he did not listen to the ordeifti 
It is often followed by J^ehih.\ as fg. J^ jjl- JB it 

HT ^ tan chih woo p&ng yew k'ho ts'hing, but he had 
no friends to invite;^ ^ J^ t|.iL ffl tan jen puh 
B&ng kwo mun, he could not overcome his grief; iBk ^ 

:& ;ij^ tan ts*hinff fang sin, I only request you to be at 
ease; ^^i(fi j^ tan ynen jootsze, I only wish that 
it may be so; <£ ^ ;if^ :j^ tan tso pOh fhng, there is 
no otigection to your sitting down. It often means 
wheresoever^ alhiSi^ ^ jj^ tan taou che choo, 
whensoever he came ; ^fE fl| ^ ^ tan tung hing chay« 
all who went with htm. 

W Tan, is used in tibesisme sense: as ^ ^ ML r^ 
i^ tan shaou t'ha yih ko, he alone is wanted; J^ ^ 

Hi tf "^ tan chih kwan hoo shw6, he thinks ^f no* 
thing but talking at rand(nfei;|)l HJE. ||L & ^ ^^ 'c^ 
ts'hin kin gno, be only approached me, or condescended 
to me; Jjl 41 ^ ^ /h tan koo ke kea seaou, he only 
lookea to his femily. ^ Tan, is used in the same sense. 

21. 4^ Wei, ifL wei,!^ wei, and ^ nae, signify ofi* 
ly, but: thus ^ i^ ^m 9tk wei ch^we mo kwang, 
but the tabic was not yet polished; Hft iQi ^ (L wei 
I wan urh e, there was nothing but anatthy; ^ ^ ^ 

fi wei le she too, only haMetring after gain; i|^ "tfr 
^ ^ wei ming she t'hing, only listen to i^rdere^ ^ 
Wei, and Dk wei, are used in the same manner. , 

73 ' Nae, is iwed as a particle: thus ^ /^ ^ jJ'V >0- 
nae puh k'ho kew t^un, but it cannot be long maintain* 
ed ; 75 >f^ ^ J& nae piih show sin, but he could not 
guard his heaii;:^^ J^ ]6 nae, ot7$ S^ nae j6, mean as 
to, as regards. 

22. ^ Hwan, is used iit the sens^ of ako^ stiM, or: 
as r^ # ^ ^ It 4f puh seang tlia hwan ke tih, 

1 did not think that be ^-as atiU^ wittflt^ k& W; >^«^ 

MBtvHmiyM. CHAR vm. 

hwaa sbaag tsapu, it is slil) early; ^ ^ ^ ^ 
#f ^ choq leaou gna hwsft yew na ko, if I be ex- 
eldded^ who else is there. With a negative after it, it 
means notj^t: as ^S. ^> H ^ M^ hwaii pub taou pun 
Iteang^^ he has BOt yet arrived in his native place. Re* 
peated it means either, or: as ^ ^ '^ ]|. *JL & ^ 
hwan she taug chin, hwau she kea^ ia this troe or false ;: 
li^^#^:^%^ hwan she tseu tsc, hwau 
she tae seay, whether will he rn^rry ber or still wait a 
little. The second is often tefi; out: as '^ IB ^ 
^ ^S. ^ 4^ :?; ^ kinjth puh che, hwanlaeyly pnh 
lae, to day we do not know, whether be will come or 
no*; #' 4 :^^^ ll-^ ^ ^ ne hwan she lew yiipiih 
lew, will you detain Inni or not; ^ ^ J^ jki ^JL 
4& hwan she keen tlia puii keen t'ba, have yon seen him 
er not. It may also be translated by then : bs^ jfi Ih 
% ^ ^ % d§ chay yints2e hwan slie yaon kin teih, 
fliis money then is of some importanoe ; fjp ^ % 1^ 
^ ^ nalebwanjinteihch'b&hyhow can you recognize 
bim; ^ \1 |!t B3 ^ >b ifc 31 >&P i^ fS" gnp chay 
jwag teih k'htK) pe sze hwan kea sbih pei, this kind of 
suffering is then ten timefi worse thai) actual death. 

23, ^ Hw6> and |^ yih, signify either a,nd or : with 
a negative neither and nor: thus ^ ^ 3?? ^ hwd 
wanghwolae,, either eoming or going; ^ ^ ^ }^ 
hw^ tso hw6 gno, either sitting or lying down ; ^ ^ 
ill ^ ^ hw6je& bw^ puh jen, it m^ be thus or it 
may not; ^ A^ A M^ ^ :^^ BB hw6 pub tsae 
&b, hwd puh tib been, he is either not at home, or not 
at leisure: ^ ilj^ ^ ^ M i^ ^ ?|^ hwo ne pfib she 
hw5 t'ha pub she, either you or he is in fault. 

^ Yih, is employed in Ihe same way: thus 4^ ^ 
58!^ v£, jih we che taou, or it is not yet UiiderstooJ; 
^ 58^ A ^ yih yik jin mow, or is this a plan of 
fiieirs; 4^ 1^ 4^ ^Jph hw(> woo yu, is this nothing ? 
^ -^ y% ho, how; ^ JL yiit tseay, or. 

£0^, is expressed by ^k 'hang: unless^ by 1^ ^ 
dioo fei: Mtwithtandingf^ ^?9^i^ ^^y J^Wl^ ^ 
jjl Ifc ii^f jen Joo t«6e, ^ ^ :^ ^ ke she joo jcn^ 

CHkP. tx, 143 



1. The expletives coDstitiite a most important clatt 
of words, not only for rounding pelioids, bdt alaa Ibr 
promoting the intelligibility of sentences, and their o6sh 
nection with each other. They are the very essenee of 
construction, especially in the literary ctylo, asd tMr 
omission, or wrong position, is not only prodcN^tive; of 
Jarring sounds, but may entirely chango tha meanii^. oC 
a sentence. The principal ones are— • 

2. ^ Foo, this is used in admirations^ or exclam^ 
lions: as |g ^ yuen foo, how detestable! ^ ^ shin 
foo, how deep I Often merely to complete the rhythm us: 
as 4 •? >j| *J&- e foo yew hwuy, it was right that he 
should feel regret We hav« already remarked that it 
is often put at Uie end of sentences, and in such instances 
it is now and then fallowed by-^ tsae: as 4^ ^ -^ 
^^ jin yuen foo tsae, how far off is virtue! It is also 
repeated in interrogations: a&% % M ^ 1^ M M 

^ ke he6 chay fc^ ke w&n chw^foo, whedier has he 
learnt it or heard it "^ ^ ^ -^ ^ j^ shwuv k'heu foo 
ahwuy choo, who goes and who stays 1 >f^ ^ p&h ylh, 
c>ith<:r as a (|Uestion or sign of admiration has ^ foo, 
after it: as J|; "j^ i^ ^ P^h yih ]V^ foo, is not this bo* 
nevolence ? ^ ff^ ^ ^ puh yih kin foo, is not fhk 
diligence f In the following instances it may be ccmsi* 
dered either as an expletive or a preposition: as ^ ^ 

f[{j en 'huh foo ke keen, he came from amongst them; 

g^ «: e rbo rsse, different firom this; ^ ^ ifc h» 
foo tsze^ agreeing with this;^ ^ % ke foo sae, or 
M ^ ^ shoo foo 62e, nearly de&d;1Kil ^ ^M> 
see foo foo tsin, like his father. 
j^ ^ Woo foo, is synonymous with i^tjfi woo heiL 
jj^^ ^ woo foo,i!^ ]^ woo foo, and pjk ^ woo foo, all 
of which denote nlas I 

3. $1 £, and ^ he, are mere final paftides, and 
atrictly euphonic, denoting an affirmative iivlK^ %c«^:r^ 

144 Fxnn^ivies awo ifriEfiJCCTiows. chap, ik, 

ing sentence^ or terminating a phrase; asf^ijt^ $L 
iteang peih jen e* I think it must be w\^ ^ ^ fi 
kinshejene, now 1 examine the words; i^ ^ fi, 
k%K> che e, it may be known;^:: || ^ £ Hjin d 
urh e e, only virtue and justice, (nothing more;) i|f ^ 
1^ 1|? IL chwang yu ke she e, stored up in the mar& 
ket; % ^ ^ >^ ii woo we che che e, I do not yet 
know it It often corresponds with the relati\Fe ^ 
chay, and admits the following combinations: as |^ ^ 
efoo,|L i efoo,^Jtjcne, 3murhe,fc -^cc, 
and ^ H ho e, which are mere finals, 

^ He, is mostly used in poetry^ for the same pitr- 
pose as the above: mjl^ 1^ ^ %" hih be heuen he, 
ham splendid 1 how glorious ! ^ H A "^ pe me 
jia he, &at beautiful person ! H ;;^ A ^ se fang jia 
he, one from the western regions; ^ JL4^ ^ gan 
teeay hing hev tranquil and iiappy. 

4^ ^ . Tsae, is a partide like ^ foo, and is used iii 
exclamations as well as quentions: as^iMi^ fl| Bhen 
tsae wttn, how excellent a question \% ikj$ 4l^ foo 
isae yen yay, how rich the language ! %" V; i9 4Ki 
hSen tsae h wuy yay, how worthy a man is Hwuv ! iS[ 
^^ik ho ke meaou tsae, what w enror! JL ^ 
^ A )^ ^ to <^ sfaing jin che taou, how sublune 
are &e {^iaciples t)f the sages !^ "Pi ^^ fiih ho e 
tsae,' why again doubt ?- ^ ^M, gan tsae tsae, where 
i» itt JB -^ j^ ^ "^ keoen tsze to frio tsae, does a 
tuperior man have so many (wants) ? 

6. & Tay, is still more frequently used asaneic- 
pletive, and is often added toj^ chay, in the following 
manner: 1,.. In definitions: as :||: ^ P- 4L ^i^en 
chay jin yay, {goodness is benevolence;^ ^ A 2l 
^ ^ij^taouchay jin che hing K, yay, good princip!e« 
are the rules of human actions* 2, it refers to a former 
subject, and then precedes)^ chay: as ^ ^ ^ ^ 7f^ 
^ |fe 4fc sin yew yay chay^ p&h k'ho tseuS yay, faith* 
iiiltiess among friends (the subject just alluded to) can- 
not be dispensed with; Tf> ^ M ^ T ^ ^^^ 
cfaung yav chay, t'heea hea che t^ pun yay, the due me- 

diumis toe jpriad ^rincipte Mneul tlokx^tx liw viocfal 


Or it follows:^ chay at the end of a sentence; m ^ :i^ 
¥ ^ ^ ife ^j&^^^^^'^^o yang tsze, urb li6w 
&e^ rhay yay; (women) do not (first) learn to nouriab 
children Wfkd afterwards marry ; )fft ^ :j^ ^ i6 :^ 
^ ^ ^ 4& wdi kin abe w&n, urn we rbe cbe ebqr 
yay; we bave beard it just now, and did not know it 
previously. 3, It is often a mere final particle, and 
of this innumerable instances occur in «very book* 4^ 
It is often repeated: as^TTM)-)^ ^#.^ 

^^^ ^ ^ -srn ^^ M ^ ^ %^ 

t*heen bea klio kin yay, tse& 15 k*bo tsae yay, pib jm 
k'ho t'baou yay, ebuni< yung p&b k'bo n&ng yay, cue 
may be able to pacify the eidpira, refuse iStles of nobi> 
lity, tread on a liaked sword» (i. e. boldly brave dai»» 
gers) and stUl be unable to maiiitain the due medium; 
Ifi W l^ 4f -§ ^ |i A singsotung yay, ming so 
e yay, surnames are alike, but individual names are dif^ 
ferent 5, It is often used in answer to questions: as 
15 ^ kTio foo» can it be dcme ^ ;7^ ^ 4fc pfih k'boyan 
it cannot be done; ;^ ^ yew foo, have you g<jt ifi ^ 
^ ^ we yew yay, not yet; it is likewise joined to proper 
names, when c^iing on any one: as ^ ^ Yew yay^ 
Tew! 3^ % 4t lae Yu yay, come Yu! ,^ % ^ Mu^ 
seay yay, Ma, write. 

It may be usefti) also to mark the following sentences: 
as^ fk^ ^X^ t'bing sung, woo yew^ S^y/v^ 
deciding on lawsuits I am as others; ttl^ ^ % ^ J7" 
^ SM. woofooyuenkefun yutaou, oh bow far has kiB 
abandoned right priacipleftt ^ ^ ^ fT ^ :^ ^ 
i^ It taou che pub hing yay, woo rbe cbe e, I know 
why rigbic priuciples are not acted upon; ^^ ^ ^ 
^ ^n 1^ ^Z ^^ ^ Vhin cbae che ptth 
ehuen yay, nae tRung tQb cbe pHh e e, the reasoi| cif thdr 
Imperial commissioner's not eommuoicating tbis„ must 
be sought in the Governor's dishonesty; ^ ^ ^ $i 
^ ^ M ^ ^ f<)0 moo che sang, woo kwai tseem 
ytb yay, in burying one's father and mother^ it is tb6 
same, whether one be in respectable or mean ciream^ 
9t(ifK?eff. J!i» a final it is also followed by jjli^ vn: as ^ 

146 nnwi^nicfi ANp nrrBsjEcnOHs. csap. i%. 

a benevolent Government does not entangle (he peoplet 
(in the net of the law:) J^ £> yny e, is of frequent oo 
rurrence: m TQ" t^ ^ ;^ *& O k^howeijin fangyay 
€, it may be called a virtuous plan; X^ ^wL ^ €L 
]i&h tb&h kwan yay, e, not worjdby to be lo^ed upon. 

6. ^ Foo is usedby the bestwriterHanafinaK sy* 
tionymous with J^ yay, and |i e,.with whidi it is also 
rombined: as t^i ^ ^ ^ 1l^^ Jt ^ ching che 

Suh k'ho yen joo tsse £^, stiicgrity'cannot thus be hid* 
en;^ J^ diin ta. or% ^ ^ shin ta foo, itis very 
gteitl ^ >^ "^ H. :^ vran^ che ming e foo, it is 
your fate to die; ^^ ^ ^ ^ m&gno che yay foo^ 
no one knows meT^ |t ^ Woo e foo, it is done veitii 
me; & >^ $IL ^ h& wang kwan foo, why dp you 
cot go and look ? Ei ^ A e e foo, abstain from it 

7. ^ Yen, is often added at the end of sentences 
for the sake of elegance; ^ ifc ^ A* ^ JHUI tsse yew 
jin yen, there are men here; % ^ M: M^ Aaou see 
yen, he ou|^t to ponder a litUe; E A ^ #* ^ ^ 
|Si|l ^ san jin hing peih ye w gno sse yen, if tfaero be 
three walking t< gether, I shall always find is teacher, 
(i e. one of Sie number will toach'mej it is also re^ 
peated for the sake of cadence: m IB ]^^ ^ ||' 
# ^ ^ ^^ she^hing yen, wan w&b skng yen, the 
four seasons revolve, and all tbinpts are geneAted; S. 
M^ 1^ ^ KS ^ S^ ^ shing shin he yen, waa wfih 
fiih yen; the stars are suispenaed (in heaven's, vault) 
and all ^ings are ov€irs{iread. It is likewise! an et^ 
pletive:as^ ^;^ shaiigyendiay,siup^ ^ 
^ hca yen chay, inferiors; m ^ M^l^ ^ Y^ T^ 
hwS yen chay, mere are still some who doubt,. This 
partidle is diften used for Uie sake of aUiteratioiit whkh 
18 a peculiarity of the Chinese: as Ip J: ^ || tseih 
shang t'been yen, he then ascended to heav^; 40|t i7^ 11^ 
^ taou piih chuen yen, true dottrni^s hisve ft^ hiM 
commuiMcated; j(p W^ % x^l joo ts«<^ yen yen, thui 
speaking; ft ^J| meiyenyen, a fijoe couatenance. 
Expressions like )& ^ hwuh yen, suddenly; ^ J^ ^ 

AinAinyeit. joyfiilly; whfiie |g y eiu i» ^^pomyatim 

cbaP. tx. uxvixnvw Km nfrmuntcrmvu. 147 

with ^ jen, in the formation of aVi verbs, occur in the^ 
best writers. 

8. ^ Urh, 7 urh, and jg urh^ . convey u finab 
ihe idea of the diminutive. .. 

^j, Urh, principally in conversation: nsifSr It * S^ 
^ ^ tsean^ shwang yea urh kwan gno, he looked , at 
me with both his eyes; p^Dtllr ^"^-^^JE^ 
fc'jiow le shw6 ke keu haou k'han hwa urh, his moulli 
uttered a few fine words. In descriptiana it is related 
for the sake of euphony: as H^ ]€ '^ K^ ^ A^ 
% '^ Mf % m yen urh shin, pe urh fcaou. di^he urii 
^'hung, shun uih kliwang, the eyes were deep, tiie 
nose projecting, the teeth hollow* and the lips wide open. 
JP Uih, b fidore frequent in books: as :|^ M^'i^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i^^u^ ^^^y ^^ ^^9 ^^i puh yew 
ke mioguih^he is almost a prince, and only wants the 
name; 9^ ^ ^ J^ f&hsze urh e,not think about it; 

;r^|hm^#>ja ^ X t :^ pahhetso 

chay lung peih tliow te wftn kwan urh, he did not lik9 
to become a civil Mandarin that handles the pencil; |^ 
t- T- # ^ - IS. fe J^ *| ^ fei shay piUi tiK 
chay yih ting.woo shaaiaomtrh, could I not throw away» 
this bttpf black gause cap ¥ i. e. the badge of authority^ 
and retire from office. ^rfb> dn 

H Uifa, is idso met wiUi: as H j^ K Dl^eung 
tseen jin urh, a poor, mean wretch ; ^ )S II r^ I^eu 
urh pa ping, on a sudden he disbandednis soldiers ; ^ 
^ ^ ^ i^ wei so tsih yen urh. it depends upon 
what you choose; jiL^ ^ S. ^ koourh tseen taeay 

Sin, let us therefore rest a little;?) jB ^ao ura^ i^ is 
ua; ^ i^ yun urh, just as it is said, f^c. It also forms 
adverbs Uka^ jen, and ^ yen: as ^ HI tsdh uA. 
suddenly;^ ^ sben Drh^ well; ^ ^ ch6urh, confix 

In ancient writers i% urii is used, on account of the 

similarity of the sound, in the same manner. 

^ Choo, is in some sentences a mere fiuah jj^ Ta^ and 

$^ jru, are either singly or combined with othens u^ed 

as mials, such M4^ $f^^ yw yu taaa« In cmLH^\9ft>- 

148 sxFUnrrvBB awd iKTSKjccncms* cbar ix. 

tioD tjlj^ D^) ^M-' le, and .otiier provincial expletives are al- 
so employed. 

Amongst the compounds we enumerate the followiiig: 

31 ^ It y^» w^ «» m ^ y^n wh foa,;]| flSi 
e ^"yc» urh e e, g, ^ e. ^ e foo e foo, 5 ^ 
-f^ e e foo, & Pi A e e too. 

9. Of tlie iDteijections the following may be no* 
ticed : ^ gae, v)i e, ii# he, V^ neen, t^ e, ^ vew, l)j ^ 
heu e,ir^ f^ gae ya, i^ p^ teeay tsze, %w J^^ ^^*^> 
all ftigniTfing oh ! A vaunt ! is expressed by ^ *||k%eu 
|», ^ '^ICj'^^ pft) 1^ ^ choo che. Alas ! bjjrf ^ k'ho 

klio seih,)^ m hen tseay,^ |^e yi, «^ 
isuL "When calliug any one m conver^t* 
tion the Chinese use ^f ya% P9" o, :^ &^ ^ t^ gno teih 
tseya, my wife!;?!: ^i^ ^ M shehaou haon e o^ 
what an excellent idea ! ^ 31^ na tlieen, oh heavens ! 
H^Tsow, and^^fow, are interjections expresbive of 
contempt :)^^y a, tfya, N^Jf a ya,wj{f go, andi;^ 1^ 
16 ya, are inteijer tions of astonishment: ^ yim, ttr ^ 
6§ ynn teih, 6b ! ay ! 

■. i