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Nova Scotia's Part 
in me Great War 






. . 

f .;.::;:= 


1Þ . 



Lieut.-Governor of Nova Scotia. 





(Captain R.O.) 




All Right. Rcserved 


Copvrillht. Canada, 1920, I,:y 
M. S. Hunt. 

(ih,r 3Jmmnrtal Ær1110ry 
@ur j1 albl1 QIn111raðrø 


T \YO years have passed since 
he last gun was fired in the 
Great \Yar on the "'estern Front and hitherto no attempt 
has been made to place before the people of Xova Scotia a 
comprehensive history of the various 
Iilitary Lnits and Patriotic 
Organizations which won for the Province imperishable fame. 
Anyone \vho makes an impartial investigation of Nova Scotia's 
response to the call of duty will concede that the sturdy little 
Province by the sea achieved an enviable record. In some respects 
it surpassed the other Provinces of the Dominion in promoting the 
successful conclusion of the great conflict-not only by the number 
of splendid troops it supplied in proportion to its population, Loth 
for Uverseas and Home Service, Dut also because it had in its 
capital city, Halifax, the Xayal Base of the Dritish Empire on the 
Atlantic Coast, and from its spacious harbor sent many hundreds 
of ships Overseas laden with Canadian and _'\llied troops and 
received them after the Armistice when they were employed in 
returning the v"ictors to their homes. From X ova Scotia ports, 
chiefly Halifax and ;:)ydney, were also shipped munitions, supplies 
and equipment required by the Army in the field. The appreciation 
of the troops and their dependants on their return from Overseas 
of the welcome given them by the representatives of the citizens of 
Halifax, and the comforts and kindnesses bestO\ve(1 upon them, has 
been attested by many grateful letters received from homes scat- 
tered over the Xorth 
\merican continent. The patriotic work of 
the Nova Scotia Dranch of the Red Cross Society, with its country 
auxiliaries. was magnificent. A.ll other patriotic societies and 
organizations gave equally valuable service. In fact. Xova Scotia 
played a role in the conduct of the war \vhich will redound to her 
glory for all time. 
fay the same sense of unity and spirit of self- 
devotion, which characterized her people during the war, be re- 
tained undiminished and be used \visely in time of peace. 
In giving a review of each of the :l\1ilitary Units which were 
mobilized or organized in Nova Scotia for service in the Great \Yar, 
narrative has been adhered to as far as po
sible. Official \yar. 


records were consulted in so far as they were available, but a 
great deal of information had to be gathered from personal war 
diaries and interviews. The book contains as complete a history 
of Nova Scotia's part in the Great \Var as could be compressed 
into a single handy library volume. And it has several uniqttt 
features. It contains many engraved portraits of K ova Scotian 
officers who made the supreme sacrifice, of officers commanding 
Cnits, leaders of patriotic organizations, and groups of special 
persons and events, and a reproduction of the authentic Nova 
Scotia Coat of _"-nTIs, granted by Charles I-all of which will be of 
great interest to readers of this history. 
Before closing this preface special recognition should be made 
of J. D. Logan, 1\1.A. (Dalhousie Cniv.), Ph.D. (Harvard Univ.), 
formerly Sergeant in the 85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders. 
for his patient. keen, and thorough reading of the entire manuscript, 
with important alterations and corrections. 
I am also deeply indebted to 1\1ajoT J. G. Johnstone, R.O., for 
his indefatigable assistance in the compilation of this volume. 
For information and assistance my thanks are also due to: 
Colonel \V. E. Thompson, Colonel Thos. Cantley, Lt.-Cot. S. G. 
Robertson, C.B.E., Lt.-Co!. H
 Flowers, Lt.-Co!. Joseph Hayes, 
D.S.O., Lt.-Co!. D. H. Sutherland, Lt.-Co!. R. B. Simmons, Lt.-Cot. 
A. VV. Duffus. Lt.-Co!. T. 1\1. Seeley, Lt.-Cot. J. L. 1\1cKinnon, 
Lt.-Cot. E. C. Dean, 1\lajor C. E. 
1cLaughlin, Major G. B. Cutten
Acadia Univ., 1\lajor A. A. Studey, Univ. of King's College, 1\1ajor 
J. F. Taylor, 1\Iajor 1\1. D. 
Iajor \V. G. 
rcRae, 1\Iajor 
D. A. :\IcKinnon. D.S.O., 
lajor P. O. Sou1is, Capt. G. C. 

1cElhinney, 1\1.C., Capt. Angus L. l\IcDonald. Hon. Capt. Clarence 
l\IcKinnon, Capt. B. 1\1. Beckwith, Capt. F. G. Kingdon, Capt. G. T. 
Shaw. Lieut. \"1. H. ".hidden, Dr. H. P. 1'vlcPherson, St. Francis 
Xavier Cniversity, Professor Fraser Harris, 1\/1edical School, Dal- 
housie University, Principal F. H. Sexton, Nova Scotia Technical 
College, 1\Ir. _'\.. A. Campbell. 
Ir. F. A. Crowell, 1\Ir. ::\J cI. 
:\Ir. Stuart 1\1cCawley. 
Ir. \Yi]fred Hearn, 1\1r. J. :\IcL. Fraser, 
l\fr. J. A. \\Talker. 



JVr. S. HUNT, 
Capt. R.O. 


NOVA SCOTIA'S CO.\f OF .\IOrs (Granted by Charle:. I) .......... 0 . . . . 
PORTRAIT of His Honour the Honourable 
IcCallum Grant, LL. Do, 
Lieutenant-Goyernor of X o\'a Scotia ........................... 
DEDICATION ................ 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . 0 . 0 0 0 0 . . 
PREFACE .............. 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0 . . 
PORTRAIT of Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada. during the \Yar.. 
PORTRAIT of the Honourable George Henry 
Iurray. Premier of Xo\'a 
Scotia ........................................................ 

I. Headquarters 
Iilitary District Xo. G ..... 0 . . . . . 0 . . . 
II. 6th Canadian 
Jounted Rifles . _ 0 0 0 
III. 9th Siege Battery ..................... 0 0 . . 0 . . 
IV. loth Siege Battery ............. 0 0 . 0 . 
V. 17th Field Battery :...... 0 . . . . . 0 . . . 
VI. 23rd and 24th Field Batteries ........ 
VII. 36th Field Battery ....- 
VIII. 14th Brigade, C.F.A. ........... 0 . . . 
IX. Royal Canadian Regiment ........ 
X. 17th Battalion ................... 0 . . 
XI. 25th Battalion ................. 0 . 0 0 0 . . 
XII. 40th Battalion . . . . . . . 0 . 0 , . . . . , 0 0 0 0 . . 0 . 0 . 
XIII. 64th Battalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
XIV. 85th Battalion and Band " 0 0 0 
XV. 106th Battalioa .................. 0 . . 
XVI. 112th Battalion ............... 0 
XVII. 185th Battalion ............. 0 . . . . . 
XVIII. 193rd Battalion .................. 0 0 . 
XIX. 219th Battalion . . . . . . . 0 0 . . . . 
XX. 246th Battalion .............. 
XXI. 2nd Construction Battalion 
XXII. Forestry Corps ................. 0 0 
XXIII. No. 6 District Depot 0 0 0 . . . 0 . 0 0 0 _ _ 0 _ 
XXIV. Canadian Army Seryice Corp,.. 
XXV. Canadian Ordnance Corps .... 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 
XXVI. Canadian .\rmy 
ferlical Corp,.. . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . . 0 0 0 0000000. 





9 2 


14 6 




Canadian Army Dental Corps ........................ 
Canadian Army Pay Corps .. _ . . . - - . . - - - 
Royal Canadian Garrison Axtillery .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Canadian Engineers .................................. 
l\Jilitia Units on Home Sen-ice ................... _ . _. 
1st Regiment Canadian Garrison .-\rtillery .............. 
J Ith Brigade, C.F.A., and Compos;te -\rtillery Company 
'63rd Reginlent ....................................... 
66th Regiment ............. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ 
9-tth Regiment .............................. .
. . . . . . . . . 
Composite Battalion .. ............................... 
Depot Battalion ..................................... 
" B" Unit, l\I.H.C.C. ................................. 
Uniyersity of Acadia College 
University of Dalhousie College ...................... 
University of King's College .. _ . . . _ _ _ _ 
University of St. Francis Xa,-ier's College ............ 
Presbyterian College, Pine Hill .............. .. - - . . . 
Recruiting in N oya Scotia ........................... 
Ocean Transport .................................... 
)1 unitions .......... . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Demobilization ....................................... 
Vocational Training ..... _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
P3triotic FUl'l.d ....................................... 
Victory Loan ....................... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . 
Red Cross Society: and \Villing \Var \V orkers, Green 
Feather Society and Catho1ic Ladies Society ....... 
Knights of Columbus ................................. 
Young )1en's Christian ...'\ssociation .................... 
Halifax Citizens' Reception Committee .. 
Creche at Pier 2 ...................................... 
St. )latthew's Church ......................... _ . . . . . . 

SPECIAL SKETCHES, with Portraits ............................... _ . .' 
It FELT DAWN "-A Literary Appreciati
n of a phrase in )IcCrae's 
poem, "In Flanders Fields" .................................... 


23 1 
24 2 

2ï 2 

29 6 
3 II 
3 22 

3ï o 



Premier of Canada during the Great \'-ar. 




... ..;.'


,' "'> 
,1 " .. :> . .. . ?:/ . .. .. .J... .. . . .: . .. . . . .. 

,'/ . " . . . . .. ... . '..... ... .. ... ... .. .. . .. 



\ ß
, ,.' 


HON. G. H 
Premier of 1o.T . l\IURRA Y 
nova S . · 
cotta during th G 
e reat \Yar. 

Nova Scotia's Part In the Great War 



U P()X the opening of the \Yorld "'ar the follO\ying were the 
principal Staff Officers at Bali fax, the headquarters of 

I ilitary District :\""0. 6:- 
Col. R. "". Rutherford, G.O.C. : Col. "-. "". Humphrey, A.O.C. ; 

Iajor R. J. Hayter, G.S.O.: 
Iajor A. H. "". Powell, D.A.A. 
& Q.:\1.G.; 
Iajor \\-. Gibsone, D..-\.A. & Q.
I.G. Fortress. 
l\lilitary District )J o. 6 then embraced the 
I aritime Provinces. 
but later in the war, when Compulsory Service came into force, )Jew 
Brunswick was made into a separate District, X o. ï. 
The aforementioned Staff bore the brunt of this sudden change 
from peace to \var, and met anù overcame the resultant many new 
problems with great credit to themselves. 
The sudden deluge of work included the calling out and recruit- 
ing up to strength of the Halifax City Regiments, viz.: I st Regiment 
Canadian Artillery, 63rd Regiment Halifax Rifles. and 66th Regi- 
ment Princess Louise Fusiliers, as part of the \\"ar Garrison of 

 fax ; supplementing this Garrison later by a Regiment styled the 
Composite Regiment, called up by Companies from other :\Iilitia 
Regiments in N" ova Scotia and from the 82nd in P. E. Island; call- 
ing out the ...\rgyll Highlanders to guard the cable and wire- 
less stations at North Sydney, ::\Iarconi, Louisburg. and Canso. and 
detachments of Artillery from the P.E.I. Heavy Brigade to protect 
the Harbors of North Sydney and Canso; the provision of guards 
for the wireless station at X ewcastle. )J .B.. for the International 
Bridge at St. Leonard's and Vanceboro. and the calling out of the 
3rd Regiment Canadian Artillery and the 62nd Regiment Infantry 
for the defence of St. John. K.B. 


This mcant that the immcdiate necessities of \yar called upon 
the _\Laritime l'royinces tu furni:,h. equip and train and keep supplied 
somc 3.000 of1ì.cers and men, of whom almost 2,600 \yere supplied 
by the l'rO\.ince of X oya Scotia: and of these more than 1.5 00 
men from the City of, Hali fax. 
This accounts for the fact that in the mobilization of troops for 
the first contingoent ;')t \ alcartier there were not so mam' men 
rcporkd there for duty from the City of Halifax or from rural 
Cape J1reton as might ha\-e been expected. The officers and men, 
though keen to enter this larger 
l'here. were compelled to do this 
guard and garrison \\"ork. and ,,-ere only relie\'ed and permitted to 
join Uycr:,eas Battalions as ne\\" men could bc found willing to take 
their places. 
In addition to equipping thi:, furce the further pressing: duty 
upon the] r. U. 
taff was the \\"urking out of a system of recruiting 
to take care of the thotl:,ands of young men anxious to get into the 
O\'er:,eas I 
attali()lìs as they were authorized. and to train the:,e men 
and officers. 
The first change in H.Q. 
taff camc in December. 191..1-. when 
:\f ajor \\-. E. Thompson \\"as called in from his Regiment. the 63 rd 
Halifax Rifle:" then doing duty on .\f c.\" ab's Island. to take over 
the work of Inspector of (hltpu:-ot:-o and Detachmenb throughout the 
District. with the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
This officer succeeded, upon the retirement of Colonel Humphrey 
in :\farch. 1 1 )1:;. to the appointment of .\ssistant _-\djutal
anù ()f1ìcer in charge uf .\dministratiun. lIe remained at H.Q. 
throughuut the \\-ar and until October 1. 19 [(). having succeeded 
to the cummand of the District in December. ] 9 I R upon the retire- 
ment of 
f ajor-Ceneral Lessard. He was promoted full Colonel in 
.\fay. IgJ{>. ami during the summer uf that year he acted as 
Commandant at . \ldershot Camp in addition to doing his work as 
E,'ery officer at H.Q. was continually on the watch for an 
opportunity of proceeding oyer:,eas. The chance came first to 
Hayter, \yho was offered the position of Urigade 
fajor at Val- 
cartier and was permitted to accept in Septcmher. 1<)1-1-. A careful. 
most painstaking officer. ah\'ays at \york. ahvays thinking about his 
\york. he left his impres:,: and at Yalcartier, in England. and in 



Francc thc :,amc qualitics marked hi:, yalue. lli:-. great modcsty 
may ha\-c :,ome\vhat rl'tanled his promotion, though hc \\'()n thc 
rank of BrigaJier-Ccneral beforc the war clo:,ed. 
For some timc the work of {
.SJ). ,,'as rather perfunctorily 
performed b) officers a waiting their chance to go O\"cr:,eas and 
 not again 
e\"erely faced till it ,,-as taken on by 
lajor .-\. 
Jones on his being itnalided homc from France after service with 
the 25 th Battalion. He carricd on till his health hruke down in 
January. II)Ii. whcn :\Iajor Souli:-- actcd temporarily till the arrival 
of ClIl. \ \. R. Lang. who arri\-ed in this 
tation \yith 
Ll':,:-.anI. remaining till :\Iay. 11)1
. \yhen he wa
 :,ucceeded by 
. Haggarty. 
Therc was a bit of a :,tru.:.!.gk bet\ycen "\ I ajor {
ih:-,one and 
l'ul\lnd Thomp:,on for the command of the -t-oth Uattalion, the 
'l'cond O\-er
ea:; Hattalion to bc rai:,ed in this Di:,trid. but the prize 
fell to the formcr, and hi:, place wa..; taken by 
Iajor R. U. \ rilli:,. 
who filled the dutie
 of D..\..\. and Q.:\LG. Fùrtr6s for the ualance 
of the \\-ar with grcat credit. 
Early in I
\Iajor l'II\\Tll \\-a:-; promuted to the rank of Lieut.- 
Coloncl. II i
 special \\-ork \yas re:,pnn:-iihility for recruiting and 
the organizing. ot1ìccring and equipping uf Cnits for (her:-;eas 
Senice. [Ic Lrought great cnergy and ability to this \\'urk. and 
 C\\- Unl1b,,"ick Wa:-i converted into a =-eparate Di
trict he 
\\-as dcta'iled to that Di:-itrict a
 .\.o\.C.. Fehruary. II)lG. 
Lieut.-Colonel [>o\\-e11 wa
 :;.uccceded by Lieut.-Colonel n. R. 
.\rnbtrung. of SL John. 
. B.. \\"ho camc out \\"ith his Regiment. 
the ,)lod C.o\.. at SL Juhn U1>"11 thc outhreak of the "-ar. and \dlO 
in addition to thi
 command was the reprc
entatiYe of the ()ftìcer 
Commanding the Di:,trict in 
 ew nrnn:"wick. and hall a 
:,upen-i:,ion o\"er recruiting in that Province. [Ie carried on the 
dutics of D..\..\. an(l (
. for Di:-;trict 
o. G till dcmohilized In 
Septemher. H) H). " 
T li
 work wa:" of a very high onkr. his gra:,p of details \\"as 
ual. and hi
 knO\dedge of :,hipping and Im...ine:-,:, affairs \vas 
of great a

i:-.tance. particularly in connection \\-ith the very import- 
ant ,,-ork of tran;-;porting. emharking and di:-;emharking troop
Thi:, lattl'r \\Oork a;-;..;umed ,;;uch dimen:-,i(llb that it was found 
:,ary to prm-ille him \\-ith an a:-;
raj()r \Y. D. Tait 

--rS P
\ THE GRE.-:lT llTAH 

served in this capacity for a time till he assumed command of 
i\IcGill lIeavy Dattery for service Overseas, when, in June, 19 16 , 
he was succeeded by 
[ajor P. U. Soulis, who came out un the 
outbreak of war with his Regiment, the 1st Cu--\.. 
.:\Iajor Soulis was gi,'en the special department 0 f Statistics 
and Documents, and the supervision of all embarkations and dis- 
embarkations. The combination 0 f these two officers made this 
most important work proceed so smoothly that hundreds of 
thousands of men ""ent through this port with the bulk of the 
citizens not realizing that anything unusual was going on. 
It should be mentioned. however. in this connection. that the 
work of ILQ. could not have met with the success it did. 
were it not for the very efficient executive work of ::\Iajor A. P. 
Lomas, the executive head of the Department of Transport and 
Supplies during the rush-time of this most important work. Xor 
could the work of ] LQ. have met with success in this matter had it 
not been for the energy and co-operation which the Clearing 
Services Command. represented here first by Lieut.-Colonel H. F. 

--\.dams and later by Lieut.-Colonel Cram. brought to its work of 
passing troops going and coming through its depot at Pier 2. 
\ rhen a fter Compulsory Service came into operation the 
necessity became evident for an officer to be detailed to give 
exclusive attention to the compilation and care of soldiers' docu- 
ments. the choice most naturally fell upon ::\Iajor Sou lis. He made 
a clo
e study of the work, and his system met with so much approval 
that many of his ideas were adopted by 
rilitia Headquarters and 
\"ere put into general operation. .:\Iajor Soulis continued to hold 
the appointment of District Record Officer till demobilized in July, 
Both Colonel Armstrong and .:\Iajor Soulis were South African 
. the fonner having lost a foot in action there, and the 
latter having been mentioned in despatches. 
In DecemLer, 19I..t-, Colonel Rutherford was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. and in October. 1915, wa3 given his step 
to :\Iajor-General. He was an officer of much more than ordinary 
attainments, and filled well the office of General Officer Com- 
manding, always carrying the confidence and respect of his Staff. 

 \ noticeable illcrease itl (lefecti\
e 11eariIlg S110\Yll dttring a 


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;YO/".l SCOTI.l'S P.IRT I.Y THE GRE.1T Tf'"lR 

conference of (
eneral ()flìcer
 at ()tta\\-a led 
J ilitia l1.Q. to bring 
about his retiremcnt, and in Xm"emhey-. 1
15. he \\"a
lajor-General Thoma
 1 ;en
General nen:-,on by-ought a long" training" in military affairs. a 
broad outlook. an attractive per
onality. and good judgment to cope 
with the many questions arising in the L>i
trict. lIe gave up his 
command in February, ISH8. to the rcgret of his Staff and of 
citizens \\'ho had been wont to do bu
s at ::\Iilitary Head- 
quarters. lIe wa:-, given leave till July I st of that year, and his 
valuable sen'iccs \\-ere recognized by il1\"estment with the order of 
General Benson's succe
;,;;or ,,'as 
lajor-General T. L. Les
\\'ho retained command till Decemher 2R 19]
. \yhen he was 

ucceeded by Colonel "-. E. Thomp:,on. 
The work done Ly the Carrison at ] lali fax during the \yar ,,-a:, 
most ardUotb. exacting and valuahle. From .\ugu
t ï. 191...1-. 
when Canada entered the war till final demohilization. the \\-ork 
was kept up cOlltim1Ou
ly. and upon the strick
t !a,,-;-; (If military 
Only such of1ìcers who:,e places c( IUlcl he filled hy yolunteer:-, 
wcre permittcd t(1 proceed (h-cr:-,e
h. and no man \\-a:; relien.'d for 
this broader field of action unk...:-; there ,,-as a man ready to tak
his place. This hcing so. it \\-a:-, the exccption for an unìcer once 
on the Staff or for any ,,-ell-trained onìccr of the lYnib out. 
particularly of the ..\rtillery. or for good non-c()mmi:-i
ioned officer:, 
and specialist-; tu get a chance for ()yer
. They all kne\y that 
should the war terminate \\-ithout their getting over they \Hluld fur 
the rest of their li\.e
 he compel1ed to explain that they \yere not 
permitted to go and felt keenly ho\\" flat 
uch an explanation would 
fall. They had. hO\n
ver. the con..;o!ation that they were doing a 
necessary and \-aluahle \\"ork and \\TIT buoyed up \yith the hope 
their chance \\-ould yet come: and if not. the State \\'ould at least 
recognize their voluntary services as at least equal to the sen-ices 
of those, many of whom were draftees. \\"ho had not proceeded 
further thall England or 
t. Lucia. Up to the time of writing. 
however, no such recognition has heen forthcoming. 
The above sds out in mo
t skclctoni7ed form the onlinan- 
duties of ILQ. consequent on the Country being at \\-ar. and the 


Port uf Halifax bcing the only port of embarkation and di
barkation for Canadian troops and supplies of \\-ar during the most 
strenuous months of the year. 
In addition \,"ere the extra re:-;ponsibilitie:-; of caring for troop=" 
awaiting- embarkation. Thcse troops \vere not only Canadians 
but also troups from United 
tates, _\nstralia, Xew Zcaland and 
some 50,000 laborers from China. 
\Yhen a contingent passed through thc port, either coming in 
or going out, from illness or other cau
 some were left behind. 
and thc:"Ie had to Le cared for. often taxing the facilities of the 
barrack:-; and hospitals to their utmost. J n the summer of 1918 
when we cncamped at 
\ldershot. some 5.000 Cnited States troops 
and a \yhole shipload was suddenly disemharked at Sydney suffcring 
frum the .. flu:' 
The temporary derelicts from Canadian troops passing through 
the City of 1 [alifax \vere taken care of by being attached to the 
Compusite Battalion. under Lieut.-Col. 1-1. L. Chipman. \ rhen 
ready for ()verscas these were attached to another unit going 
through. The records show the number of such exceeded 10.000 
men. Lieut.-Colonel Chipman deseryes special mention for his 
splendid administration of the Composite Dattalion and for his 
wise handling of man} difficult problems not to be met in an 
ordinary Garrison Battalion. 
_ \gain. the an" ful catastrophe which befell the City of llali fax 
on Dt::cemLer h. IgIï. \\.hen a ship loa(led with high explosi\'es 
exploded in the harbur. spreading death and deyastation broadcast. 
placed a gTcat burden upon the Garrison and proved its great value 
in a sudden cmergency. E\'ery officer and man of every 
Unit and Department. with áll the military facilities of the Garrison 
were rushed into the \york of removing the dead and wounded. 
fighting fires. prcparing" shelters. transporting and feeding the 
destitute. doing police duty and the hUlldred and one things thJt 
came to the hands of a willing, well-trained hody of troops. 
The Ordnance. under Lieut.-Col. _ \rthur PaneL opened widc 
its doors. and Olle of the first orders issued from 1 LQ. was for 
every available man of the 63rd from 
IcXab's and the 66th from 
York and also cvery artilleryman of the 1St Cu\. from the forts 
to be rush cd to thc city and. proceeding to the dc\'astated area hy 

l SCOTI.-l'S P
--1RT IX THE GRE.IT Tr Y .--1R 

way of the Ordnance Yard. for each to carry with him a blanket 
for the wounded and destitute. This order was fully carried out, 
Col. Panet. though himself wounded. tra\'elling continuously to and 
from the area of most suffering to see that a:" many as possible 
were cared for. 

Iajor H. P. Lomas. then at the head of the Department of 
Supplies and Transport, met the necessities of the sufferers with 
the same breadth of judgment, bigness of heart and broad inter- 
pretation of regulations which marked hi:" most succesdul admin- 
istration throughout the war of thi
 the essentially Lusiness 
department of the Sen'ice. 
Elsewhere in this publication will be found articles dealing \vith 
specific work done in this District during the war. so that in this 
article it is only attempted to give a general idea of who sat at 
 during these strenuous times and a general idea of 
the work they were- called upon to originate and supervise; and it 
must be borne in mind as the detail of this 
pecific work is studied 
and admired or condemned, the responsibility and the direction was 
always with that often maligned. seldom praised or congratulated. 
but ne\'ertheless patient. long-suffering. faithful. headquarters. 
This article cannot properly close, hO\\"ever, \\,ithout mention of 
the other heads of Departments in addition to those specially 
mentioned above because of their close association \\,ith the matters 
dealt with. who so heartily and \\"ith such great self-sacrifice 
performed their \"arious duties. each in their turn: 
Lieut.-Cot. J. _-\. Grant, Lieut.-Col. 
IcKelvie Bell. and Col. 
H. S. Jaques as Assistant Directors of :\Iedical Sen"ice. 
Lieut.-Colonel Houliston. Lieut.-Colonel Denoit. Lieut.-Colonel 
Yan Tuyl. and 
Iajor Pringle. Commanding the Royal Canadian 
Lieut.-Colonel Dean. Assistant Director of Transport and 
Col. S. J. R. 
ircom (Brig.-General upon Retirement). .--\ssistant 
Director of Pay Sen,ices. 
Co1. J. F. :\Iacdonald, Senior Ordnance Officer. 

Iajor J. .--\. Proudfoot. District 
ignalling Officer. 
Lieut.-Col. H. F. Adams and Lieut.-Colonel Cram, Clearing 
Sen'ices Command. 




T HE 6th Canadian 
Iounted Rifles \\'as recruited from the 
Iaritime Proyinces 
Iilitia Cavalry Regiments- 
.. .\" Squadron from the 8th P.L.F. (headquarters Sac1\:- 
ville, X .n,), and 36th P.E.I. Light Horse (headquarters Charlotte- 
town. P.E.I.) ; i, B" Squadron from the 28th X.B. Dragoon Guards 
(headquarters St. John, X .B.), and" C" Squadron from the 
King's Canadian Hussars (headquarters Canning. Xova Scotia). 
The establishment of officers and warrant officers cunsisted of 
the following: 
O.C.. Lieut.-Col. R. H. Ryan. South African, Russian-Japanese. 
American-:\Iexican \Yars; 2nd I.C., Lieut.-Col. _\. E. Ings, :\Iilitia 
Long Sen-ice 
Iedal; Capt. and Adj., Capt. B. \Y. Roscoe (later 
Capt. J. \Y. Long) ; Q.:\I., :\Iajor R. A. :\Iarch; O.
Iajor Colin 
:\IacIntosh; Chaplain. Capt. G. _-\. Kuhring: 
I.O.. Capt. F. A. R. 
Go\\"; Sig. Off., Capt. II. R. Emmerson: Asst. _-\dj., Lieut. E, 
Arnold; Vet. Off., Lieut. J. S. Roy; R.S.:\I., L. \Y. Long. 
i, .1 JJ Sqlladroll-0.C.. :\Iajor A. J. 
Iarkham; 2nd I.C., Capt. 
B. \Y. Roscoe: Lieut. A. T. Ganong, Lieut. G. X. D. Otty, Lieut. 
G. R. Barnes. Lieut. \Y. D. Atkinson, Sqd. Sgt.-
Iajor N. Dawes. 
(, B JJ S quadron-:\Iajor C. H. :\1 cLean; 2nd I. c., Capt. :\1. A. 
Scovil; Lieut. E. J. l\Iooney, Lieut. E. A. Thomas, Lieut. H. S. 
Everitt. Lieut. Geo. 
Iorrisey. Sqd. Sgt.-:\Iajor J. 
I. Lamb. 
(( C" Sqlladron-
Iajor T. A. Lydiard: 2nd I.C., Capt. J. C. 
Gray; Lieut. H. H. Pineo, Lieut. J. P. Knowlton. Lieut. "-. J. 
Brown. Lieut. II. L. Bo\yness. Lieut. B. 
1. Beckwith, Sqd. Sgt.- 

Iajor George Gill. 
Colonel Ryan and many of the officers and other ranks had 
volunteered at the outbreak of the war but owing to the expected 
necessity for the employment of mounted troops in the :\Iaritime 




Prm-inces (the j,.C.I r. ha\'inp: actually recei\"ed orders for 
mobilization) their sen"ices \yere not accepte(l. It was also inti- 
mated to Colonel Ryan, who \yas at Yalcartier. \yhen the First 
ion was mobilized, that in the eyent of the 
Iaritime Prm-ince 
Ca\-alry not being mobilized as 
Iilitia Units for home service he 
\vould Le permitted to rai
e a Cavalry Regiment from these units 
and would be gi\-en command thereof, owing to his previous senTice 
and experience in the field. 
Á-\ccordingly Colonel Ryan returned to X ova Scotia and in 
December. I
)I5, received orùers to rècruit the Regiment. 

_\ T .nrHF.RSl', ".5. 

TlIe Regiment ,,"as mohilized at \mher
t, \'",S., mohilization 
dating from ::\Jarch 17, ISJI5. 
The period during which the Regiment \\-as quartered at 
.-\mherst \\-as spent in perfecting the organization, taking on recruits 
:l.l1d training the latter. owing to re:-;trictions heing largely confined 
to setting-up exerci
es. ann drill and ruute marching \\-ith inspections 
by various Generals. 
\Yhile at _ \mherst a draft of t\yO hundred \'olunteers \\"as sent 
as reinforcement:; to the In fantry Regimenb in England to make 
up for the 10
t1stained by the Canadians in the Second l1attle 
of Ypres. These were replaced hy new recruits, 

.\1' Y_\LC-\R1'Jl
R C-\:\IP. 

lay. 1915. the Regimcnt \\-a
 moved to \ alcartier, being 
brigaded with the -t-th and 5th c.
 r. R"
. under command of Colonel 
(later Brigadier-General) C. A. Smart. 
Training at \ -alcartier was intensi\-c and pnformcd on foot. as 
horses haù not been recci\Ted, the Cavalry formation being howe\"er 
retained. Here the L'nit recei\"ed instruction in musketry and rather 
prided themselves in their ability in this line. 
\ rhile at Yalcartier and abo ,,-hcn at _ \mherst they were a:-;ked 
if they would volunteer to sen-e a
 dis1l10l1l1tcd troops. and the 
ans\yer was ah\"ays that" we \"ill sen-e in any \\"ay we are needed." 



The 6th c.
I.H.. left Yalcartier carly in July for England, 
embarking at Quehec on the slow South .J \merican cold storage 
boat ]lcrscllcl. X aturally the accommodations \vere not of the best, 
as therc ""ere six hundred men and four hundred horses on a boat 
without practically any pa:-;:-;enger accommodation. Their ele\-en 
days' yoyage ended at Devonport, where they got a great reception. 
_ \t Exeter they ""ere met at the :-;tation hy the good ladies of thal 
tmyn and giyen bag
 of food and f ruit, 
nd had their \yater 1)ottle5 
filled with hot coffee and tea. :\ f any times since has this been spoken 
of in grateful \\"ords hy the men, who \yere hungry and cold from the 
long train journey. ()n arri\'al at Camp in Dihgate they found 
themselves unce more camping in the :,and. .\:' active 
ervice in 
Egypt had been spoken of. the Lnit thought the authorities must he 
trying to accustom it to its future surroundings. 
\Yhile at Dibgate the Lnit reccÏved a dra it of officers and men 
frum the 
th c.
l. R" under cummand of Lieut. T. D. Johnstone 
(later Capt. in Command of .. B" Co.. 5th C.:\l.R., wOt1lHlell): 
second in command. Lieu1. 1 L X. nate {transferred to R,C.D. \. 
when Regiment \Va:, broken up). :\fany of the men who had been 
sick, owing to the strenuous training, had heen transferred to 
hospital, and when convalescent \yere sent to the Cayalry Reserve 
Depot. The:-;e hacl hcen replaced hy the draft of men from the 8th. 


The Regiment procee(led to France on ()ctoher LI-. 1915, the 
Brigade being attached to General Seely's Cavalry Division, oper- 
ating as Corps '1' ruups in the areas of Ploeg:-;teerte and :\ f es
The follm\"Ìng officers and warrant officers went to France with 
the Regiment and saw sen-ice at Ploegsteerte and :\Iessines during 
the fall ancl early \yinter months of 19[5. 
n.c., Lieut.-Colonel 
haw (later O.c. l
t C.:\LR., killed in 
action June 2, IY r6 ). 
2nd I.c., Lieut.-Colonel Tngi;: .\djt., Capt. J. \\T. Long: Q.

Jajor R. A. :\Jarch (later to 4th C.:\r.R, nattalion); P.:\T., Major 
C. ::\fcIntosh (later to Can, .\rtillery) ; ÀI.O.. Capt. F. A. R. C;ow 
(later to Can. _ \ rtil1ery) : Sig. Officer, Capt. I r. R. Enllner:,on (later 

XOT".-1 SCUTI.-1'S P.-1RT IX THE GRE.-1T ll'.JR 

Iajor 2I9th Infantry Battalion): 'Oet, Officer, Lieut. J. .\. Roy 
(later to Fort Garry Horse). 
(. A
' Sqlladroll-
[ajor A. J. 
Iarkham (later to Fort Garry 
Horse), Capt. B. \\". Roscoe, Liems. A. T. Ganong, C. "0:'. D. Otty. 
G. R. Barnes, T. D. Johnstone: Sqd. Sgt.-
[ajor X. Da\\-es. 
(( B 

Iajor C. H. 
IcLean. Capt. 
I. ..-\. Scovil. 
Lieuts. E. J. 
Iooney, E. A. Thomas, H. S. Everett, George 

lorrisey; Sqd. Sgt.-
[ajor J. 
I. Lamb (all later to 
th C.
Regt. ) . 
.. C n Sqlladroll-
Iajor T. .-\. Lydiard (later to R.C. Dra- 
goons), Capt. J. c. Gray, Lieuts. H. H. Pineo. J. P. Knowlton. 
n. :\1. Deck\yith. H. 
. Bate: Sqd. Sgt.-
rajor Ceo. Gill, D.C.:\I.. 
later R.S.
1. 5th C.
Lieut.-Colonel Ryan transferred to the Artillery, in which he 
sen-ed with distinction to the end of the \\ ar being decorated for 
conspicuous gallantry in the field, 


The Division \\'as withdrawn from the trenches in December. 
19 1 5. and orders were subsequently received that the 1st and 2nd 
I.R. Brigade should be reorganized into the 8th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade, consisting of b1. 2nd, 4th and 5th Battalions of 

[ounted Rifles. The junior Regiments in each Drigade, namely 
the 3rd and 6th C.
LR., were split up bet\\'een the two senior 
H.egiments. thus forming four Infantry Regiment:', 
The ostensible reason for this was the necessity of relieving 
infantry in trenches and the unsuitability of the cavalry formation 
for that purpose. The change in formation necessitated the transfer 
to England of officers of senior rank 
The command of the reorganized Brigade was assumed by Brig.- 
Gen. Y. .L\' S. \\ïlliams on January I. 1916. and training in infantry 
drill and tactics \\'a,> gone at in dead earnest by all ranks. 
This training continued both in the line and out and the Ijrigade 
occupied the Ploegsteerte area until :\Iarch, 1916, when it was moved 
.to the Y pres Sector as part of the newly-formed 3rd Division. 
commanded by General :\fercer. and took over the Hooge-Hill 60 


THE (jlll C

The disposal of the various Squadrons of the 6th C.
I.R. was as 
.. A. " and" C." Squadrons were formed into .. D" Company of 
the 5th C.
I.R. Battalion, the company officers and \varrant officers 
Captain B. "'. Roscoe (later 
Iajor, D.S.O., 2nd I.C. 5th C.
Battalion, \younded June 3, 1916, at Sanctuary \Yood) ; 2nd I.C., 
Captain H. H. Pineo (later killed in action at }.It. Sorrell, Y pres 
Sector, July, 1916) : Lieuts. .\. T. Ganong, G. K. D. Otty, G. R. 
Barnes: Lie
.!t. J. P. Knowlton (later to record office at Rouen, aad 
receiyed promotion there to Captain); C.S.
I. George Gill (later 
I. 5th C.
I.R. Battalion) : .. B" Squadron was formed into 
.. D" Company of the 4th C.
I.R. Battalion, the company officers 
and ,,-arrant officers being: 
Iajor C. H. 
IcLean (later 2nd I.C. 
-1-1h C.
I.R. Battalion); Capt. 
I. A. Scovil; Lieut. George 



The first serious engagement in which the Brigade was con- 
cerned was the Battle of Sanctuary "'ood, which began June 2. 
19 16 . 
The disposition of the Brigade \\'as: 1st and 4th C.
I.R.. front 
line and close support; 5th C.
I.R.. Battalion H.Q. and three Com- 
panies in support at 
[aple Copse; one Company in reserye at 
Zillebeke Bund; 2nd C.'I.R. in Brigade reserve near Poperinghe. 
The morning of June 2nd was clear with good visibility. About 
8 a.m. the Hun started a heavy bombardment. which grew in inten- 
sity. and information was receiyed that an attack \yas in progress 
on the sector held by the 7th and 8th Brigades. The bombardment 
continued unabatingly. and about twelve o'clock mine
 were seen 
to be blown. The whole of the area held by the two Brigades was 
being systematically and furiously shelled. and communication \vith 
the forward area was impossible. 
.\bout 2 p.m. Captain Roscoe received orders to reinforce with 
his Company. the remainder of the Battalion at 
Iaple Copse. There 
was no route specified, the officer conveying the order remarking 
that he hoped they would get through. 

lRT IX THE GRE.iT rr'....J.R 

The only other officer with the Company at this time was Lieut. 
C. :N. D. Otty, but it de\"cloped that the K.C.ü."s had the requisite 
requiremenb of leadership and judgment. The Company, led by 
Captain Roscoe. advanced to the support of the remainder úf the 
Battalion, and in full view of the enemy, through an extremely 
heavy barrage of fire, reached 
Iaple Copse \vith few casualties. 
reporting to Lieut.-Colonel G. 1 I. Baker, then commanding the 
1 kl ttaliol1. 
Orders \\'ere then received to connect up with the ïth Drigade 
on the left, to dig in and hold the Copse to the last. Then it was 
that the N,C.U.'s sho\\'ed those qualities of leadership and judg- 
ment, which later \\"ere tù be recognized in a substantial manner. 
C.S.J\I. George Gill, \vith t\\-enty men \vas ordered to occupy and 
hold a strong point whose garrison had been killecl. This he did 
,,"ith great bravery, showing much 
kill in defending the po:,ition. 
Sgts. George Chase, H, 
rcGarry and T. "-. 
lartin led detachmenb 
through the Copse and dug in on the edge next the enemy. Lieu- 
tenant Otty was absolutely fearless in assisting in the disposition of 
the Company. refusing to avail himself of anything that looked like 
shelter. I [e remarked to the Company Commander that if he \vas 
to be killed that would happen and that his men \\-ere his first 
consideration. en fortunately he ,,"as hit and killed within a short 
time after arri\-al at the Copse, 
The enemy made several ineffectual attempts to break through 
the line, and at each repulse his artillery fire became more se\-ere. 
There was absolutely no shelter from his fire, and the Cop:,e \vas like 
an in ferno. The Company held the position, and ,,'ere rein forced the 
next morning by the 2nd C.
. l\fter this thing
 quieted dmnl 
and the remnants of the Company marched out that night. 
_ \ t the roll-call on relief only one officer (Lieutenant BarlleS) and 
twenty men ans\vered their names. the remainder of the Company 
,,"hich went into action 130 strong. h<l ving heen either killed or 
Captain Roscoe had been wounded on the morning of June 3 rd . 
after the 2nd C.
I.R:s had arri\'ecL and the command of the Com- 
pany \Vas taken over by Lieutenant narnes, who was the nattaliol1 
Bombing Officer. and \vith his bombers had been acti\-e in the 
defence of the position. Lieutenant Darnes made se\-eral very daring 


patrols, practically bd\\"een the posts oi the enemy. \yho had 
attempted to push down hill in the long gras
. It \vas through his 
efforts that the Cnit \vas able to concentrate its rifle fire on the 
dangerous places and dislodge several machine guns. Lieutenant 
Barnes afterward got the 
l.C. for his work on this occasion. 
The Battalion. reduced to some 300 all ranks, moved into rest 
billets, and the losses \yere filled by a large draft of officers and 
other ranks from England. 
In the reorganization of the Battalion 
Iajor D. C. Draper 
(later Drigadier-General Commanding the Brigade) became O.C. 
(Lieut.-Colonel Daker having been killed in the engagement); 
Captain Roscoe was promoted to be second in command. awarded 
the D.S.O. for his worl( on the occasion and mentioned in 
despatches. The command of ., D" Company \\'as taken m'er by 
Lieut. H. H. Pineo (later promoted Captain), \yith Lieutenant 
Barnes, 2nd I.C. 
Sergt. Harold :\IcGarr} \\'as promoted to C.S.:\I. in place of 
George Gill, \yho was awarded the D.C.:\[. and promoted to be 
RegtI. Sgt.-:\Iajor for his meritorious services and brayer)" e\,inced 
during the battle. Sergt. (;eO. Chase. who \\'a
 severely wounded. 
was awarded the :\Iilitary .\Iedal and slated for a commission. 
The -I-th C,:\I.R. Battalion also lost heavily in the battle, and 
.. n" Company of that unit thereafter practically lost its identity 
as a :\Iaritime Prm"ince Company. O\\"ing to the casualties 
The command of the Brigade \yas taken m-er by Drig,-General 
J. II. Elmsley. D.S,O. (aften\'ard :\[ajor-General). replacing 
General "ïlliams, taken pri
oner in the battle. \\"hile the command 
of the Division devolved upon :\Iajor-General Lipsett, D.S,O. (later 
killed in action), the Divisional Commander, General :\[ercer ha\"ing 
been killed during the action. 
The Brigade, and incidentally the Company. under the new 
command had another \"ery strenuous period of training. and after 
an initiation trip for the new men the whole Company mm'ed up 
again to take their place in the line. \ \'hile in training they had 
the benefit of the advice of a C.S.:\I. from the \\'elsh Guards, 
which was a great help, especially to the x.c.n.\. This training 
showed later on the Somme. 




On the fir
t trip in after the June fight, the Unit took over the 
line on :\Iount Sorell. The first night in, the Hun started his 
regular trench mortar strafe. One of the first of these landed on 
the signallers' dugout, next company headquarters, and buried the 
men on duty there. Captain Pineo and Lieutenant Barnes, together 
with some of the men, started in to dig them out. .At that time 
they could still hear the men groaning. Almost immediately after- 
ward the Hun threw over another trench mortar. The men saw it 
coming by the trail of sparks, and all scattered up and down the 
trench. Captain Pineo was struck and instantly killed. The work 
of rescuing the men who had been buried need not have been per- 
formed by him. It was his anxiety for his men that cost him his 
life. Lieutenant Barnes at once took over the command of the 
Company. "'ord was here recei\-ed that the Hun had dug some 
mincs under the trench occupied by the Company, and to be on the 
lookout. During the night a party who were digging out in front 
uncm'ered a mine sap and on pulling up some planks from the roof 
sa w a man \yith a lighted candle passing under the lines. Explo- 
si\"es were immediately obtained and the sap blown. This evidently 
put the ,. wind U]J .. the Hun for he blew the remaining mines, some 
of which were hardly clea-r of his wire. 


Shortly after this the Unit left for the Sonulle. arnvmg 111 
Albert on September rst, after a long, hard march, and severe 
trammg. They moved up in support and were selected as one of 
the two Companies to be first over the top. In this engagement, 
owing to previous officer casualties. the sergeants had to lead 
Platoons. The attack on September 151h between 
roquet Farm 
and Courcellette was the first occasion in which the Tanks were used. 
The Unit had wonderful success on this day, losing \"ery few men 
in the attack. Afterward. out of one hundred and twenty, forty 
were killed and sixty wounded. holding the trench. Lieutenant 
Barnes was awarded the bar to the 
I.C. and his majority 

THE 6th C

for his \york on this occasion. X 0 one could speak too highly 
oi the way in \yhich he led his men, and it ,,"as largely due 
to his dash that the attack was so successful. ::\Iention should 
be made here of Sergeant Lo\yther, who was left behind with a 
party of ten men to garrison the trench until relieved by incoming 
troops. He lost a leg and seyeral of the men \yere killed and 
wounded before the relief was accomplished. Sergeant Lowther 
was a\yarded the :\1.::\1. Sergt.-::\Iajor ::\IcGarry, \yho had been 
recommended for a commission, was killed in this action. 
The Cnifs next attack was on October 2nd when" 0" Com- 
pany \yas in support. The objective was Regina Trench, strongly 
held by t,,"O diyisions of German :\Iarines, who had just been 
brought from Ostend to try and stop the Canadians. This \Vas one 
of the stiffest hand-to-hand fights the Company ever had. and 
naturally the casualties ,,"ere very heavy. Several times the Com- 
pany managed to bomb several hundred yards of trench clear, but 
each time the Hun ,,"ould come back with reinforcements. .-\t 
daybreak. with bombs and ammunition completely exhausted. the 
few sun-i\'ors ,,"ere forced to withdraw to the jumping-off trench, 
E\"ery officer engaged was either killed or wounded. 
Holmes. who led the Company on this occasion. after the officers 
""ere knocked out. was a\yarded the ::\1.:\1. Captain Beckwith. who 
had been detailed as O.c. of the 8th L.T.::\1. Battery. and had joined 
the Company for this occasion was wounded in the face. His 
leadership and energy were of great assistance, and it was largely 
due to him and his battery \\,ho were carrying ammunition that the 
Company was able to hold on as long as it did. 
The remainder of the time at the Somme was spent in relieving 
and holding front-line positions. The Battalion was complimented 
by the Army Commander for its fine work while at the Somme. a 
per:,onal visit being paid by him to Battalion Headquarters for that 
In addition to the decorations mentioned as being won here. 
many of the officers of the Battalion \\"ere cited for bravery and 
gallantry in the field. Sergeant T. "". 
Iartin was a\yarded the 
::\1.::\.1. and slated for a commission for a dari11g recon11ai:;ance of 
the enemy line under artillery fire. 

1.\'01'.<1 SCOTI.-l'S PÁ1RT IX THE GRE.iT TrAR 

ON 'fUE \T\IY FRu.x1'. 

The Cnit"s next move was to the \ïmy front, ,,"here it was soon 
apparent that preparations were being made for a terrific onslaught 
on the Hun. Some time was spent here in assisting in the work of 
preparation, after which the unit was withdra,,-n with the rest of 
the Brigade for a period of intensi\-e training in attack o\-er a taped 
layout of the enemy trenches. The Cnit \\'as then moved up to its 
part of the line, being in close support tú the -1-th C.
I.R. Battalion. 
The Battle of Yimy Ridge \vill live in history as the great 
achievement of the \var, owing to the po
.tion being considered 
impregnable and the fact that it was captured with inconsequential 
es, mainly due to a well considered plan of attack, absolute 
co-operation between all branches of the sen-ice and thoroughness 
of preparation. 
The Company carried on with the usual steadiness during 
the engagement and rendered valuable assistance, it
 losses being 


For some time after the capture of \ -imy Ridge it \\'a
impossible to bring up the artillery within range. as the Hun had 
retired to a line on the outskirts of Lens and Douai. The Company. 
with the rest of the Battalion, pushed m-er the Ridge and \\"ere in 
position as a sacrifice Dattalion to fight to the la
t man. in the event 
of a counter attack being launched to retake the Ridge. Trenche
were constructed. deepened and strengthened. but the expected did 
not happen, and finally the guns were able to get up within range, 
from which time ordinary trench routine ""as resumed. 
During a tour in the trenches on this front a raid was attempted 
by the Hun on the Company front. It \vas unsuccessful, the enemy 
being repubed \\"ith lieavy loss. 
Lieutenant Holmes was awarded the :\I.C. for his work on thi
occasion. displaying great coolness and gallantn- in holding off 
single-handed. until reinforced. a party of Huns. 
The Battalion at this time was under the command of :Major 
Roscoe, D.S.O.. \\"ho the day follm\"ing the attempted raid received 
a message from the Di\Tisional Commander complimenting the 

THE Gill C

Battalion on thcir steadiness during the attack. 
 \ few days after 
the Urigadc ,,'as \yithdrawn from thi
The Cumpany. which up until now had been practically all 
time Prm"ince men, under the ne,," reinforcement scheme drew 
their men from Quebec, and fur a while the Company \yas made up 
:1lmost entirely of French-Canadian:,. _\fter Pa"schendaele. during 
which the Company gaye its u:,ual a:,:,istance to the Hattaliun, the 
\vot111ded men began to come back a
 well as some of the X.C.O:
\\-ho had been granted conllni
:-iOlb. and once again it became a 

raritime Prm'ince Company. It wa
 at Passchendaele that Capt. 
L. C. Eaton \'-a
 killed, just beforc going oyer the top. 
In thc ,,-inter of 19Ii the Cnit moyed back to their old from at 
\ Ïmy. In 
I arch, 19IR the Dattalion put on a raid of 250 men. 
 Gillis and Young of the oid .. D ., Company took part in 
thi:,. and were both awarded the 
I.C. for their work. Gillis in 
particular had done some very finc ,,-ark during the :,econd attack 
on the 
omme. He had come back from ho
pital with an unhealed 
\\-ound in his arm. and although it "as too late for him to :"ectlre a 
rifle and the necc

ary equipment. he took a pick-axe handle and 
juined hi:, Company in going m"er thc top. He brought back the 
prisoners. sixty in all. taken on that occa
After a plea:"ant spring spcnt in reinforcing different parts of 
the line, in _ \ugu:'t the "Unit once a!.!"ain took the road south for 
_ \miens. The work done hy the Cumpany during this attack \va:- 
:--pcctacular. One of their accompli
hments was the capture of 
a 5.9 Dattery in actiun at point-blank range. One of the old 6th 
men \vas awarde(l the D,C.
r. for hi..; \york on this occasion and 
Lieutenant ] 
tead was a ,,-arded the Croix de 
uerre for his 
Lieutenant Smith was very seriuu..;ly \V0l111ded during the next 
scrap in front of _\lTa
. caned the Second nattle of _\rra
. lIe had 
been a stretcher-bearer-Sergeant ,,"ith the old Company and "'as 
awarded a conulli
sion in the spring of 19Ii. lIe was gi\-en the 

I.C. for his \vorl
 at .\rra.;; in the taking of 
[onchy. He after- 
,,"ards died of wounds in London. ni
 \vork all the time he had 
been with the Battalion had been ex('cptional and the a\yanl of hi

 r .C. was very popular. 



The next fight was for Cambrai. which as far as thi
\"as concerned consisted of a hunt for Huns through the ruins. 
collecting souvenirs by the \Yay. The Company had a bru
h with 
the Bosche on the other side of the town, but they were merely 
:,couts left behind and pulled out as 
oon as fired upon. The Com- 
pany was sitting down haying dinner when the English troops camc 

, ..... 





C \PT. L. C. E.\ToX. 

C \PT. H. H. PJXEO. 






\s there had been no barrage they did not know that the 
to\\"n had been taken. From here the Company went to Yalen- 
ciennes and then on to 
lons. Lieutenant Gi]]i
 wa" \\'ounded at 
Yalenciennes and invalided to England. 
The following other ranks of the óth C.
I.R. Regiment, who 
went to "D" Company of the 3th. obtained commissions \"ith the 

THE (jilt C

Battalion for gallantry and deyotion to duty on the field: J. \ \-. 
l.c. (later Capt. 8th Egd. Light Trench 
Iortars): L. C. 
Eaton (later Capt. O. C. .. D .. Company. killed at Passchendaele) : 

-\. C. \ \ïswell. \v0l1I1ded June 2. 1916 (later Div. Bombing Officer. 
Bramshott) : \ \. (). Earnstead. Croix de Guerre; C. G. Dunham. 

l.c.. wounded June 2. 1916: H. 
 \. Smith, 
l.C.. died of 
\\"olmds recei\'ed at 
Ionchy, _ \ug. 28. 1918: L. J. Young, 
\\'Olmded June 2, 1916, and at 
Ionchy, Aug. 28, 1918; A. E. 
I.c.. wounded three times: _\. H. ""eldon, wounded June 
2. 1<)16: T. \\-. 
I.. wounded .-\ug. 9th at Yimy; \Y. J. 
l.. \vounded at Lens. 1916: F. I. Andrews. :\I.
\vounded June 2. 1916. and Xoyember. 1918: Gordon Camphell. 
wounded t\\-ice; C, \Y. 
I.. wounded Ì\vice: A. H, 
"-hidden. wounded June, 1916: 
-\. Desbrisay, wounded June, 1916. 
died since returning home. 
Cadets undergoing training \vhen .-\rmistice was signed: Duncan 
Chisholm, Campbell 
IcLellan, \\"m. II. Graham, 
I.:\I.. J. .-\. 
Cameron. D.C.
I., \Yalter 
-\nderson. D.C.
The follO\\"ing were gazetted to other Regiments: A. Roger
X. Rogers. D. B. Holman. Stuart Roy. E. Elliott, Geo. 
.. BOo Squadron and Headquarters. 6th C.l\I.R.'s, went to the 
4th C.
I.R. Battalion and formed" D .. Company of that Datta lion 
under the command of 
Iajor C. H. 
IcLean, D.S.O (later 2nd i/c 
4 t h C.
I.R.'s: Capt. 
I. A. Scm"il. 2nd i/c (seriously wounded and 
taken pri
oner June 2. 1916). Lieut. H, S, Eyerett. bombing 
officer 4th C.
I.R., was wounded at Sanctuary \Yood. 
Iay, 1916. 
Lieut. E. .-\. Thomas was killed in action at Sanctuary \ Yood. 
Lieut. Geo. 
Iorrisey, Intelligence Officer of 4th C.l\I.R., was killed 
in action JUlie 2nd. 1916, while attempting to save a comrade's life. 
The following X.C.O.'s received commissions from the -t-th for 
gallantry and devotion in the field: C. \ Y. Hicks. wounded June 
2. 1916 (a1tenyards bombing officer. 3-t-th Reserve, Seaford). 
J. H. Craigie. gazetted to the Imperial Infantry: 
IcKenzie, com- 
mission with the 85th 
.S. Highlanders: J. O. Spinney. commission 
\vith the 52nd Dattalion: H. B, Fenis. Lieutenant R..-\.F.: J. J. 
Rowland. 4th C.
I.R.: J. II. Harris. Depot Battalion. St John: 
\\". C. \Yetmore, 236th Dattalion. 


ell \ PTER Ill. 

9 th CA.\

T HE 9 th Canadian Siege }bttery \yas compo
ed of of1ìcer
and mcn uelonging to the l{nyal Canadian Carrison _\rtillery, 

lost of the X.C.O."s and men came from 
().;. 1 and 2 
Companie:,. }{.C.G.. \,. at I-lali fax. X,S. 
 \ small numher came 
from Xo. :; Company at Esquimalt. }
.C. .\11 the officers of the 
original Uattcry camc from the strength of the R.C.C, \. at Halifax. 
For months the }{.C,G..\. had been mobilized in the Fort
the defence of I falifax; and becau:"e the ddencc of these li'ort:" 
\yas a prime nece:,:,ity, ancl no other troops heing ayailable. it wa:, 
ihle. in the "ie\v of I feadquarter.;, to relie\"e the R.C.G..\. for 

en-ice ( her:,eas. 
The po:,,:,ibility of an attack from Cerman ships at first kept up 
excitement, hut as the \Yar progre:,sed this soon dimini:,hed and the 
men lookcd dU"ïl frum the Forts at tran:"port a iter transport he:-G"- 
ing troop
 O\-er:,eas. These ,,-ere trying days for men keen them- 
'eh"e:" to go, and it ,,"as diftìcult to make them belin"c. a:" they \yerc 
constantly told. that their duty \"as here. \
 olunteer:-ì for O\"er:::eas 
wcre asked fur more than once hut nothing happened. 
Eyentually during the s11mmer uf 1916 a definite proposal, made 
by Lieut.-CoI. S. _\. He\yard. then acting C.R.C,
\. at the Citadel. 
to rai:,e a 
iege Hattery from the RC.G..\. ,vas granted. on the 
understanding that nwn to replace those taken a ,,-ay should be 
found aucl trained. This ,,'as ::.uun done. and the DaUery sailed for 
England on Sept. 2ï. 19 16 . 
. \ fter a long delay in England the nattery \vas equipped \yith 
six-inch howitzers, and landed in France on 
farch 22nd. The sub- 
sequent moves of the nattery after its arriyal at the Front is best 
set forth hy the follO\\'ing list of Ihttery positions :-
I ont St. Eloy 
-natt1c of .\rras or \ïmy Ridge; Ifill ] 31 (Caharet Roug"e): 
.-\ngres: I filt 70; Fri7enhcrp: Ridge-Dattle of ra


9 th C

TheIu::;; Calonne; 
Iaroc; Petit Yimy; Les Tilluels: Sou chez ; 
Lievin: Yillers Cagnicourt-Battle of Canal du Xord; Barrelle 
\Y ood: Sauchy Lestree-Battle of Cambrai; Dlecourt; Bantiguy; 
.:\Iarquette; Escaudain; \Ya\Techain-sous-Denain-Dattle of \Talen- 
ciennes; lIerin; Yalenciennes; St. Saulve; Onnaing: .:\Ions. 
During the incessant fighting of all this period it is not known 
which will be considered as major operation--, but the Dattle of 
_-\rras or 'Tim)" Ridge, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Canal du X ord, 
Cambrai and '-alenciennes will be considered as such as far as the 
Canadian Corps is concerned, and in all of which the 9th C.S.R. did 
its part. 
_-\fter the nattle of '-imy Ridge, the Group Cummander showed 
his appreciation of the ,,-ork of the Battery by a =,pecial letter of 
recognition for good ,,-ork done. It had been a vcry strenuous time. 
The Battery arri\"ed there only on _-\pril 5th. The position wa:, in 
an open muddy field. There ,vas not much time to get ready, 
Cun platforms ,,-ere cunstructed and camouflage erected. ready to 
mu\-e the guns in at night. -\11 material, as well as the ammunition. 
had to be carried a long distance, For three nights there was no 
"lcep, but guns ,,-ere registered on \pril 7th and the Battery took 
part in the bombardment on that and succeeding days. 
. \ iter Yimy the Battery moved fOr\vard to a position bet,,-een 
.-\ngres and Cité du Caumont. It had a long and memorable stay 
here <luring the protracted fighting round Lens. The po
ition \vas 
a \-ery fOr\vard one for a six-inch natter), and the Hun machine 
gun:, at night ;-;eemed \-ery near. Our infantry front line at first 
\vas rather uncertain just here and German snipers and posts used 
to occupy empty houses at night not very far from the Battery. It 
was a good position. The guns were just behind a hill which 
...creened their fla;-;h and ,,-ere well concealed from aeroplane obser- 
vation. The men off duty had good deep lIun dugouts. some 600 
yards in rear. But the place ,,"as shelled continually. 
The Dattery had wonderful luck, shells day after day dropping 
all round the guns and B. C. Post. Funk pits were soon COt1- 
.;;tructed near the guns for men to take cover ,,-hen necessary. It 
was during one of these enforced cessations of fire that a little 
epi:,ode occurred. The Xo. I. on looking out, sa,," an old gunner 
unner Forde) calmly 
itting on the trail of his gun and quietly 

X01" -1 SCOTI.-1'S P.-lRT I_Y THE CRE.-lT Tl'.-lR 

using most abusive and lurid language against the enemy. 011 
being asked by him why he did no! obey the order to take cm-er. 
he said, ., There is not a blankety blank Hun li\'ing who \yill make 
me take cm'er." It then transpired that he had habitually stay;d 
behind in this manner on such occasions. 
One of the chief dangers was from splinters. In trying to get 
our guns many of the Hun shells exploded on the top of the ridge 
in front of them, \\-hich sent showers of splinters for 
oo yards, so 
that the daily relief going and coming from dugouts to guns had 
an anxious time. During the stay at 
-\ngres many other batteries 
came to the locality. but did not stay long. leaving for sunnier 
It was during one of these visits that the first decoration was 
a\varded to the 9th C.S.B.. Gunner 
Iakin getting the 
l. for 
pulling some gunners belonging to another battery out of the debri:, 
in \\-hich they had been buried by hostile shell fire. But many 
others desen"ed a decoration as well as he and "-ere frequently 
recommended for it. 
Iay the Battery had their most unlucky day. one chance shell 
killing seven and \vOl1l1ding six. 
It was in June that a Staff Officer informed the Battery that for 
the time it had been in France it had (a) fired more rounds than 
any other Battery. (b) had received more shelling than any other 
Battery, and (c) \yas the most arlyanced Battery on the front. 
In ()ctouer the Battery left Lens area for the Xorth with the 
Canadian Corps. \vhich was to relieve the 
\ustralians in the opera- 
tions against Pas
chendaele. It remained in the Y pres Salient till 
Dec. 13th. The Battery relieved three R.G..-\. Batteries in turn, 
going further fon\"ard each time. By a merci ful prm-idence the 
ground was soft, and in consequence many enemy shells ,,-ere 
.. duds "; otherwise nothing could have prevented hea\'y casualties. 
Constant shelling and bombing: the enemy's aeroplanes e\'ery,,-here: 
ours not in sight. 
The Yopres Salient is the abomination of desolation-one big 
gra\"eyard. A peculiarly depressing place, nothing can describe it: 
it has to be felt. A complimentary letter \\'as published from 2nd 
Division describing the Heavy . \rtillery's \\'ork in the taking of 
Passchendaele as the " perfection of Heavy Artillery barrage."' 

9th C
-LY Sf EGE B_-l TTER}?, C.E.F. 

The Dattery moved 
outh again. and for the first time in eight 
months \yem into re:-;t at 1 [am-en-
-\rtois. arriving at that place on 
Dec. 13th. It seemed almost too good to be true. Jan. I Ith found 
the Battery back in the line again at Petit Yimy. Then followed 
une\entful moves to Calonne (Feb. 3rd) and 
[arúc. ,,-here there 
\yere good cellars for the men. 
_-\bout this time there \\"a...; a change in Drigade Commanders. 
On the ne,,- one asking the furtner one \\"hich ,,-as the best Battery 
in the Brigade. the 9th \\'as giyen a reputation it might well be 
proud of. 
On Feb. 25th the Dattery \ya:-; back again at Petit \ïmy po
,,-ith one 
ection in rear near Les Tilluel:,. Preparation for the 
expected Hun uffensÍ\'e "'as the order of the day. Succe
tems were prepared. Batteries ,,'ere issued with Lewis 

uns and \vere ordered to \yire their positions. 
I any battery posi- 
tions \yere prepared and camouflaged. It ,yas hard ,,'ork for the 
men \dlO had heavy days and night:-- of firing to carry out at the 
::-ame time. _-\gain the Dattery found itself the most advanced in 
the Brigade. and \vas always being called upon to fire on the most 
distant target in con
equence. J n ca:-;e of a successful 1 r un attack 
the position \vould have been impossible to get out of ,,-ith the steep 
\ Ïmy Ridg-e immediately in rear and all the roads registered and 
under obsen'ation by day. It seemed that the role of the Battery. 
under such circu111:,tances. was that of a sacrifice Battery. Gradu- 
ally the infantry in front were drawn in until the line \\"as held by 
little more than machine gun posts. The field gun
 took up posi- 
tions behind and one \voke up one night to the ul1tbual sound of 
our O\yn field artillery shell
 pas:-;ing m'er our heacb. 
.O.C. paid the Dattery a \-isit after a \vor
e than usual 
.. --trafe." but he found the men with their" tails up." He 
they \vere doing good work and that ""as why they ,,-ere being kept 
in that position. Three distinct times was the B. C. confidentially 
,,'arned that the attack \\'as expected on the m01TO"- and three times 
nothing t1l1usual happened. 

r arch 2 I st pas
ed and the f runs' great attack ,,-hich was to last 
nine terrible day:-; commenced. It was to the south of us. and not 
till the 28th did it reach our nei,:!hborhood. nut ,-\rras remained 
firtn. and there \\'a:-; no ach'ance worth 
peaking ahout on our front. 


l :';Cu1l. L"S P

. \ t 3 a.m. the enemy started shelling the Dattery \vith ga
, He 
attacked per:,i:,temly with hea\"y gun fire till 12 noon and again in 
the afternoon. _ \ t night eycry half hour he put duwn Lur:-,b of 
sing fire an <I concentration
. but the fire of the Dauery wa:, 
kept up in 
pite of it and ga
. The next day the enemy continued 
. lIut a half hour but Dattery. biItet
. road
 and railway 
received hi:-> attention. T\\'o of the signaller
 (Dickey and \Yest) 
did noble work in repairing our telephune line. nearly a mile. 
through a regular harrage of high explosin
 and ga:-,. their job 
being made mure diftìcult by some defensive \vire entanglement:-. 
,,"hich had Leen reccntly placed oyer our line. 
X ow succeeded :,e\"eralmonths \"hen the enemy'
 chief energie.;; 
werc directed to other parts of the Front. and the British Army 
\"as recovering i rom its \\'ound
. filling up its ranks and organizing 
for the coming glorious advance ,,-hich ,,-a:-; to end the war. 
During these '111onths the Uattery had PU:-;iti01b at Souchez and 
Lieyin, neither of the
e being pleasant spOb. hut ,,-here life was 
more or less normal: that is. daily and nightly ta:-;k
 of firing, some- 
times counter Lattery shoots. sometimes de:-;tructi\-e ;:,hoots. or 
harassing fire. to all of which the lIun replied in kind. 
 \t Lic,-in 
he gaye us two bad :gas bombardments. Lut the re:-,ults. had he 
known them. would have been bitterly di:->appointing to him. to such 
an extent had we been educated by thi
 time in anti-gas measure:.. 
At \ "illers Cag11Ïcourt Chère was some heayy firing and obstinate 
fighting before the enemy was driven acros
 'the Canal du Xord. 
.-\t Barelle \Yood the Battery ,,'as a clay. and at Sauchy Lestree. 
during the fight for Cambrai. which was yery scvcre. 
t\-eral day... 
were spent. .-\t this place the Huns' night bumbers were ver
Dut it wa:; nO\v mO\-ing warfare in earnest. THecollrt and 
Batigny were hot places for a day or t\\"o. _ \t l\Iarquette and 
Escaydain a night only ,,-as spent in each. \Yavrechain-Sous- 
Denain was easy. At Herin the Battery took part in the very fine 
artillery preparation for the taking of Yalencicnnes. ami at St. 
Saulve on Noy. it had its last casualty of one man killed. 
During all this moving warfare. condition:, ,,-ere a gre<lt cun- 
trast to the preyious trcnch warfare. Guns sometimes touk up 
positions in field:, almost untouched by shelltìre. The laborious gun 

(JIlt C.L\.llJLIX .";I[(;}
 D.ITTENl', C.l!..F. 

pit was nl'arly tlllkno\vn. Thc \\"o{llb an(l lITC:-- \Vl'l"C n..) longcr 
to piecc
. and lIcca
ionany onc \yalkl'd into bilkt:-- tu lind cut flo\ver:; 
:--till fresh on the \yindo\\" sin. or table. left there by the retiring lIun 
the day before (Ir hy it:' ciyil occupan 1 :-: \dw had bccn forcl'd to lean
\\-ith him. 

th C \:\_\l>L\
 SIECE g \T'fERY. 

.\uthurit\- iur urg-anizatiun. ll.
!. [-3h-12f). 
a111c:-. of original 
officer:; \vith rank: 
[ajor (Lieut.-Cot) S. .\. IIc\yard. Capt. 
I-I. I{. X. Cohhett, Lieut. D. \Y. 
rcl,een. Lieut. 1), .\. 
Lil'ut. \\". E. IL Starr. Licut. C. U. Thackray. all of l{,c. \. 
Rcinfurccl11l'nb: LÏeut. E. 
. Hoare. Lieut. T r. H. 
unter. Lieut. 
H. Cruit. C<
pt. C. 
lacKay. Lieut. 
r. .\. \\ïl:--011. Licut. E, T. 
Chesley. Capt. J. E. Lean. Lieut. J. 
I illar.'m. \ \-. . \. F. 
Fait-child. Lieut. F. C. I Tarding. Capt, H. T. 
Ia.i()r \\". 

cully. all of C.G. \.: Lieut. \Yarrcn (T\wtugu6e 1ntnprder): 
Lieut. P. 
[oyara. Portuguese troop
: Lieut. ]. C,, C.G.. \. 
Xumerical qrength: Officers, 6; \Y. O. and S. Scrgeant
, 8: other 
. 1-1--1-. Total all ranks, 15
Date of sailing for (h'er:-.eas: 2ith September. 1
Date of return to Canada: 
lay <)th. H)1f). 

: Gunners Young and S. Smith to R.O.C. training 
school for commi

I ilitary Cross. :::?: Dist. Conduct 
fcdal. :2: 
r.. 3: 

redal. 13: mentioned in dCi'patches. 3. 
Total 11l1111her of hattle ca
ualties: Officer. I: other ranki'. hi: 
total. 68. 


Cl L\PTER. 1\-. 

THE 10tft SIEGE B_-1TTERJ". 

T lIE proposal to recruit a. purely X oya Scotian _-\rtillery Cnit 
originated \\,hen four young officers had just cùmpleted their 
training \vith the Royal School of _-\rtillery at Halifax. 
These young officers \\'ere: Lieuts. "-m. Henry L. Doane. l
R.C.A.; Frederick II. Palmer. rst R.C._-\,: Robert Parker Freeman, 
Ist R.C..\.; Robert Ed\\'ard Jamieson. 1st R.C._\.. 
The proposal was laid before 
Iajor J. 
I. Slayter. R.C._\.. 
and after discussion he agreed to undertake to obtain the necö:-;ary 
authority and to take oYer. at any rate temporarily. the \\-ork of 
the Dattery. if such \vas apprm"ed. 
On August I, 1916. authority \yas applied fur frum the General 
Officer Commanding 
Iilitary District Xo. 6 for leaye to raise a 
Battery of Siege in Halifax for sen,ice Overseas. Un _-\ugust 12. 
19 16 , the organization of Xo. 10 Draft Siege _-\rtillery Battery was 
approved, and on Octobcr 1. 1916. authority was n
ceived from 
headquarters for the appointment vf the following officer
I. Slayter, R,C._-\. (in Command) ; Lieuts. \Ym. I I. L. Doane. 
1st R.C.A.: F. II. Palmer. bt R.C._\.: R. P. Freeman. 1st R.C._\.: 
R. E. Jamieson. 1st R,C._-\. 
Uarrack accommodation \\'as f(ìtmd for the proposed Datter} in 
South Darracks, and at once the \vork of acìÏ\-e recruiting \\'as 
taken up. Dy the end of X m"ember. 1916. the Dattery ,,-as rai
to a strength of eighty-fi\"e officers and men. Preliminary exam- 
inations were completed and as quickly as the men completed their 
preliminary training. they were passed on to Instructional Cour
to qualify as Cattery Commanders. _-\ssistants. Signalling and 
Gun Laying, and all the ya rious specialties that go to make up a 
Siege Battery. On December II, 191n, Lieut. \Y. H. L. Doane 
was promoted to fill the vacancy of Captain in the Battery. This 
completed the establishment of officers, 

TIlE loth 51E(;].!. J:

In accordance with orders recei,"ed on December 16. 1916. Lieut. 
Crosby and fifty othcr ranks were ,,-arned to hold themseh'es 
in readincss to proceed Overseas. They embarked on the 
5.5. 5calldilla.
'iall on January 23. 19Iï. Recruiting continued 
steadily and on 
Iarch 26, 191ï. Capt. \\-. H. L. Doane with fifty 
other ranks proceeded U'"erseas on the 5.5. 111 issillabie. 
Capt. F. H. Palmer being nO\\- the senior Lieutenant of the 
Dattery was promoted to Captain. 
Iarch 2ï, 191ï, On April 12. 
19 1 i, Lieut. 
I. D. 
-\rchibald. I 
t R.C.S,. and Lieut. R. D. Lacon. 
1st R,Ch-\" were appointed to the Battery. Lieut. R. P. Freeman 
and fifty other rank;:, \vere warned on 
[ay Ii, 19Ii, to hold them- 

elves in readiness to proceed Uverseas. They sailed on the 
Olympic on the 28th of 
I ay. 
mber 5. 19 1 ï. \varning \vas received that three officers 
and two hundred X.c.< ):s and men \vould proceed Overseas. As 
Iilitary Service ..Act was no", about to hecome law, organ- 
izations which had previously handled \"oluntary recruiting "'QuId 
now completely change their character. 
 \mple man power being 
available. it would only be necessary to outfit and start preliminar
training of men raised under the _-\ct. 
In view of this the Dra ft embarked for Overseas service on 
X O\'ember 2
. 19Ii. on the S.S. J1 ctagama. consisting of 
r. Slayter. Captain Palmer and one hundred and fifty X.C.O.'s 
and men. Lieutenant 
-\rchibald and fifty other ranks proceeded 
 on the 5,5. Olympic. Lieutenant Lacon, and some forty 
men. the latest joined recruits. "'ere left in I [alifax to carryon the 
Depot under the 
Iilitary Service Act. 

-\.s the persunnel of the detachment \\-ho made up this 
sailing \vere of an exceptionally high character. and had had con- 
siderable training in specialties. it \vas hoped that they might be 
retained as a Battery for sen,ice O\-erseas. 
On arri\-al at \\ïtley. Surrey. England. it was found that there 
,,-ere such heavy demands for reinforcements for Datteries and 
Urigades already authorized. that it \vould be impossible to retain 
the organization as it landed at \ \Ïtley, Specialists ,,-ere sent for 
extra courses. and as the
e \vere completed were drafted very 
largely to the newly-formed loth. I Ith and 12th Siege Batteries, 
and to the 3rd Brigade of the C.G...\, 

lY 0 1 y.} S C U 7 'J. }' S P. -} R r IX THE (;j.n
. I T 1,.. 1l? 

The Deput of the loth 
icge Battery at Halifax cuntinned under 

IajGr George Oland. with Lientenant Lacon. Licutenant 
and Lieutenant Baird. sending fOr\yard drafts and having raised 
and equipped and sent fonyard 
nl11e ten officers ami about eight 
hundred X.C.< )."s and men. The Depot at ] lalifax ,,-as finally 
ahsurhed af
er the. \nnistice in the 6th .\rtillery Depnt. 
These are the bare facts as taken from record:;. \vhich do not 
:,ignalize the splendid self-:;acrificing \york of such officers as 
Captains \Y. H. L. Doane. R, P. Freeman, F. I L Palmer, and 
R. E. Jamie
un; and such X.c.( ),'05 a... Jenkins. Fultz and HoI111e
From heg-inning to end thi:-; Cnit was marked by the high 
standard of the men that it dre,,". the remarkahle lack of crime oi 
cyen the pettiest sort. and the earl1c:-.tne
s and \v hole-hea rted 
manner in \yhich all ranks cndca vored to quali fy themseh'es for 
their dutic'. Ü\"erseas. 

3 0 


I7th B
lTTER1Y (lith B
ITTERr. C.F.A.) 

BY \\"ILFI{f.D IlI

T HE lith Battcry had the unique distinctiun uf being thc only 
lilitia t-nit Ül X ova 
cotia to he accepted as a 
l-nit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force for sen"ice ()yer- 
...ea:, in the First Canadian Contingent. On the (lay that war \vas 
dedart>d bet\yeen Creat Britain and Germany, the Department of 

I ilitia and I )efence wired it:' acceptance of Lieut,-Colonel H. C. 

lcLeod':, uffer uf the lith P.attcry. C.F..-\.. a... a i-nit for :,en-ice 
( h-erseas. 
The mobilization of the Battery was purely a matter of selection. 
fur many more than the required numher applie,l for enlistment. 
(In -\ug-ust 2
. 11)1...... the Hattery left 
ydney ,,"ith the full \\Oar 
:'trcngth of I..p officer:, and men. four guns and 123 horses. The 
t rip to '-a !cartier ,,-as une\"en t ful. Shortly a iter uur a rri \"al there 
,,-e \H're disappuinted to hear that the C nit \yould ha \'e to be split 
in ùrder that the ne\\- ,,"ar e:,tabli:,hment of six-gun {;atteries might 
IJe completed. The right section of the lith wa:, to be amalgamated 
\\-ith the 19th l
attery fr()1
l \loncton and \\ no(btuck, while the left 
-.ection went with thc 21...t nattery of \\-estmount. \fontreal. Tlms 
\fajor \fcLend \\'a:, tu command the new 6th Dauery. C.E.F,. keep- 
ing with him Capt. J. Ceo. Piercey. while Capt. J. \. 
our u\yn .. Johnnie - \ng-us," was lost to us. and \H'nt to the ne\y 
5 th Hattery in the :,ame Hriga,le. 
fhe t\\-O \\"eeks :,pent in '-a!cartier Camp wcrc pleasant. The 
getting u-.ed tu military romine. drill and ceremonials \\'as not at 
that early date a hanbhip. The noyelty had nut en
n hegun to 
\Year off then. The re,-icw:, held by Sir Sam II l1ghcs fir:,t and His 
Royal Hig-hne:,:, thc Duke IIf Connal1ght suhsequt'mly. llad a certain 


amount of pleasure for all of us, despite adverse weather conditions. 
Yet it was not without a certain degree of impatience that ,,-e 
a\vaited the word to set sail for England. 
Eventually, after many false alarms. the word came, and \ve 
donned full marching order to set out for Quebec and the waiting 
transports. \Yhat a memorable sight was that Armada congre- 
gated at Gaspe Bay! Thirty-three of our largest ocean greyhounds 
in full steam. ready and anxious to hasten to the assistance of our 

Iother Country in her hour of need. The order \\'as signalled 
from the flagship to set out-last letters of fare""ell ,,-ere hurried 
aboard waiting tenders. a lingering last look was taken at the 
shores of Canada, and the First Canadian Contingent bade fare\vell 
to the peaceful land of the 
Iaple Leaf and set its gaze to the East 
where lay discord and :-;trife. 
(kean trips generally are never very much out of the ordinary. 
and with the exception of one or two submarine scares, absolutely 
tvithout foundation, we steamed our uneventful. Ollt-of-the-way 
course 10 
1erry England-and war. The monotony "'as relieved 
by routine, athletic competitions and musical entertainments. It 
was in the organization of the latter that the popular Canadian 
composer of present ,times. Gitz Rice, closely related to the Cape 
Breton Rices, Brent and "'alter. first secured prominence in 
musical circles. However, if the trip was uninspiring. such could 
not be said of our reception at Plymouth. Bands playing. throng
cheering. the shores of the city blocked with thousands of people- 
England certainly did i.ts duty that day in welcoming to its shore:, 
her Canadian sons. 
Disembarkation lasted a week, but finally the" Old lith" landed 
at Devonport and were soon en route for Salisbury Plain:,. De- 
trained at Amesbury we were greeted with a downpour of rain. and 
it was very little else we saw in the weather line during the ,,"hole 
of our stay on that historic plain. ::\1 ud, mud, mud, and then more 
mud; drill. drill. driB, and then more driB. Sl11ns up Salisbury 
Plains, relieved only by brief leaves to London and prü\'incial 
towns. How we cursed the mud! Finally, however. \ve were 
moved into comfor.table quarters at U rchfont, where ""e enjoyed 
real English hospitality and good cheer. Even the Plains had its 
pleasant side. though. Our first Christmas a wa \' from home wa



spent there, and royally did 
lcLeod and his fellow officers 
endeavor to gi\'e us a real Christmas. 
\Ye spent about a month at "Crchfont before the call came for 
which we had been impatiently waiting. On February 8th, 1915, 
\\-e left for France. Embarking at 
-\ vonmouth we set out for the 
scene of war. The Allies at that time \\'ere being pressed from all 
sides. The Bases of Calais, Boulogne, and Rouen were seriously 
threatened. So it ""as to St. ::\fazair, a port in the Bay of Biscay, 
that the Canadians were sent. On February 13th we first set foot 
in France: on the 16th we detrained within hearing of the guns, at 
Hazebrouck, marching further in to billets at Borre. 
From Borre the 6th Battery moved up into action and took its 
first position at Fleurbaix on :\larch 1 st. The first round was fired 
into the German front line by Captain Tom Kitchen, then Bom- 
bardier, and \ve took it as a good omen that the second round was 
obsen'ed to have sent our enemy's field kitchen skyward. \Yhile 
at Fleurbaix the Battery played its part in the mix-up of :March 
loth at X euve Chapelle. and it \vas in this same position we under- 
went our baptism of fire-fortunately with no serious casualties. 
larch 29th, the Brigade to which the 6th Battery was 
attached, was \\-ithdrawn to rest-billets at \Vatou. It was here, on 
Easter Sunday, that the first intimation of the hardship and danger 
to be expected at Ypres was given us by our Commanding Officer, 
Co!. ]. ]. Creelman. The Easter Service was conducted by Rev. 
Canon Almon, and a feeling of intensity was apparent as he 
impressed upon us the sad fact, that of those who heard him that 
day, many would. before long. make that greatest sacrifice. And sò 
indeed it proved. Yet when. on A.pril 18th. we first caught a 
glimpse of the city of Ypres, then with a population of about twenty 
thousand, \yith its shops. estaminets and business places generally 
in full swing, it was hard indeed for us to believe that our padre 
could be correct. Little did \ve foresee that in four short days this 
city. beautiful. even after its first bombardment. would be a mass 
of ruins, its population fleeing to safety \\,ith a miserable handful 
of personal belongings. it
 Cathedral and historic Cloth Hall and 
invaluable treasures forever lost to posterity. Yet such was to 
ha ppen. 
3 33 

--J'S P

The bombardment of the Second Battle of Ypres commenced on 
the 21st, and on the 22nd the lIun let loose his deyilish fumes of 
poison gas. The French to our left fell Lack. exposing our flank. 
lea\ ing a gap of oyer a mile. ()ur own boys held. but at ,,-hat a 
price! H.einforcements from our 0\\"11 reseryes were hurriedly sent 
up. and all that was left of our First] >i\'ision ,,-as spread O\'er the 
\\"hole of a thrce-mile front. I :ut the} held un for that day and the 
next. (hI thc 23rd. from our position ncar St. Julien. we took 
part in what I firmly belie\'e to have been the most dramatic action 
that the Battery ,,-as engaged in during its stay in France and 
. ()ur infantry had fallen back to reform for a counter- 
attack, The enemy adyanced after them at a range of about 1.200 
yards frum our guns. '1'\\'0 of our latter \yere immediately switched 
to the left at an angle of ....5 0 from their original line of fire. The 
remaining t,,-o were galloped O\"er clear conntry under hea \'y' shell 
fire to take up a new position. 
\\ïth approximatel) only 100 rounds of ammunition. exposed to 
the hea\.iest shell fire. \\"e waited until the enemy were suAìciently 
advanced to come under our .. open sights" so that eyery round 
might count, 
o on they came until 600 yards separated us. The 
order came for us to retire. This 
IcLeod ignored. but 
instead gave the \\-ord to open fire. The ïth Battalion charged at 
the same time. with the remnants of the Kilty Brigade. Ronnd 
after round we poured into the still oncoming enemy until at last 
they were held and finally swept back through Langemarcl
Three ne\v positions were taken up hy the Battel-y that night. and 
finally we were settled at Ind.ian Hill. near "ïeltje. and to the side 
of Potijze. \ \"hat a hell-hole it \\"as! ()ur casualties were fast 
mounting up. both among the personnel and horses. and unfor- 
tunately a number of these were deaths. Ún 
Iay 1st we took up 
a position on the banks of the Y ser Canal. and remained there un til 
the Division \\"as withdrawn for reorganization at Hinges. 
J ay 19th we were again. as part of the .. Flying i th 
Division ., hustled into hot action at Festubert, and in the follo\Vin
month at Gi\'enchy. It was at the latter place that a gun from the 
6th Battery was placed in action in the front line trench. a .. stunt" 
subsequently acknowledged by the Ceneral Officer Commanding. 

lith BATTERY (Gtlt B"lTTERY, C.F.A.) 

From the "Orchard Position" at Givenchy the Old I ïth was sent 
into action at X euve Eglise, where for a long time they enjoyed 
comparative peace, with only occasional casualties, and nothing 
more than "raiding" ,,'ork, which was first commenced on this 
front, to relieve the monotony. It was while here that the 2nd and 
3rd Divisions came over and the Canadians became an Army Corps. 
It was here, too, that we lost our )'Iajor. 

IcLeod was of the type of 
officer most beloved by the Canadian rank 
and file, Quick, ålert, a thoroughly skilled 

--\rtillery ()fficer. he surdy would have 
forced early recognition from headquar- 
ters had he been spared to attain it. Ter- 
rible was the blow to hi=, .. boys," ",hen his 
body was found in a small pund not many 
 from the gun position. His was not 
e\'en the glory of the death from bullet or 
shrapnel. Yet his duty had been well done, 
to his God, to his country, to his fellow LT,-COL. G. H. MCLEOD. 
officers and men. This brief outline of the 
Old lith \\"ould be even more inadequate were the writer to omit this 
humble tribute to a dear friend and beloved Commanding Officer. 
Christmas. 1
)l5. was spent at Xeuve Eglise. and again we had 
to thank our of1ìcers for prO\'iding the usual Christmas trimmings. 
Conditions were not as they had been in England. and, unfor- 
tunately. many of the old faces were missing, Such were the 
fortunes of war, and ,,'e who had been raw recruits one shurt year 
before were beginning to look at things as philosophic veterans. 
In the latter part of January the Battery was withdrawn to 
Caestre for a brief rest. being relieved by one of the Cnits of the 
2nd Division. Early in February we went to Lederzeele, and 
larch 20th found ourselves in action once more at 
Eglise. Just about this time rumors. hitherto vague. became more 
certain that the Battery was once more to move Y presward. 
Rumor became a definite fact on April 4th. and we found ourselves 
 position at Railway dugouts, a trifle to the south of Ypres City. 
Here we remained in complete quiet until the 20th. when in the 
Hill 60 scrap we received our first taste of gas shells. 






It was during the month of 
Iay that the organization of three 
Howitzer Batteries was undertaken and sub-sections from all the 
Batteries in the Division were utilized to form these Batteries, and 
sub-section .. C" was separated from the 6th to help form the 
D, 48th Battery of 4.5's. The complete organization of this 
Battery had not been consummated before the German hordes again 
attacked in force, this time at Soi
ele Hill and Sanctuary \Yood. 
All sub-sections reported back to their own Batteries for duty, and 
the 6th Battery again played its important part in the Third Battle of 
Ypres. On the morning of June 13th the Canadians counter- 
attacked and regained the ground lost in the 2nd of June scrap, 
The remainder of the month of June was passed quietly in the 
Ypres Salient, as was also the month of July, with the exception of 
a little excitement at .. The Dump." About the middle of A.ugust 
the Battery went into billets for rest and tactical drill at Polin Cove 
and on the 26th entrained at Audruicq for the Somme. 
On detraining at Aix la Chateau on the 27th, the Battery, after 
one day's forced march, went into action at 
Iesnel on the 28th. 
On September 3rd the Old 17th supported the attack of an Imperial 
Corps on Thiepval, which was unsuccessful. \Ye then moved into 
position at La Boiselle on ground won from the enemy during the 
fighting there in the early part of July. Glad we were to see at 
long last ground won from the Hun. Seemingly we were now 
engaged in driving him back, steadily and surely. The Germans 
were retreating-the end of the war was in sight-so we thought. 
On September 15th the attack on Courcellette was commenced. 

Yho of us that were there can easily forget the glory of that early 
sunlit September morning! The writer was fortunate enough to be 
one of a party of Artillery Signallers to .. go over" with the second 
" wa\"e" of infantry and was forward when the signal-dropped 
from one of our air craft-came to advance. The intensity of the 
bombardment was overwhelming. It was impossible to hear the 
loudest shout of the man adjoining" you. \Ye were all frantic- 
cheering, yelling, jumping up and down in our ex.citement. It was 
pandemonium let loose \yith a vengeance-and we were \vinning. 
We were advancing. The Sugar Refinery was reached and our 
Battery was advanced. Courcellette was taken by the 25th and 2óth 
Battalions-and again we were mo\'ed forward until ""e were 

I7th BATTERY (6th B".-J.TTERY, C.F.A.) 

practically within two hundred yards of where the German front 
line had been on the morning of the 15th. This position-Pozieres 
\Y ood-had been won by the Australians at a terrible cost some 
weeks before. 
From the 15th until the 26th of September we were kept busy 
consolidating the ground won from the enemy. On the 26th we 
were again called upon to take part in a glorious action which won 
Thiepval for us. \V"e were also successful in our first attack on 
Regina Trench. Such heavy action was not successfully won with- 
out our paying the price, however, and the 6th Battery of October, 
1916, little resembled the Old 17th that left Yalcartier in September, 
1914. Heavy Bad been the toll of lives and casualties. 
It was on October 20th that the last remaining gun brought 
from Sydney, was condemned after firing 20,010 rounds of am- 
munition. From this on. the writer (having been wounded at the 
Somme sufficiently to keep him out of action for the remainder of 
the war) must depend, not on personal observation, but on infor- 
mation derived from divers sources. 
Early in 
 ovember Desire Support Trench was taken. and a 
little later on in the same month our wagon lines were again 
situated at Albert. The march along Bouzincourt. \? arennes, 
Raincheva. Frevent, St. Pol, S1. :\Iichel and :\Iarquay was un- 
eventful. On the 30th the Battery stopped at Pernes. for a well- 
earned rest. Our 1916 Christmas dinner was held here. and mighty 
well was it ,celebrated. On January 6th ,,-e started out for Bruay, 
Ruitz, Hersin to Fosse 10 and finally into action at Bully Grenay. 
On February 13th the first landing of the Canadians in France 
was suitably celebrated at noon, by the firing of .. Battery cheers" 
and" Brigade cheers." From then on is merely a series of names, 
Hersin \ Y agon Lines, :Ylaisnil-Ies- Ruitz, Camblain l' Abbe. until the 
E2 position behind Neuville St. Yaast. On the 25th the Battery 
was again changed from a four to a six-gun l?nit, From 
St. Vaast the Old 17th went to Yimy. "110 will forget Bentata 
Tunnel? Who will forget the morning of the 13th when two 
guns of the old Battery went to form the composite Battery at 
Bois Carre. to the right of Thelus? On the night of the 16th the 
Battery went over the Ridge. and from there on the story of the 
6th is the same as that O'f the other )J ova Scotia Units that took 

YOl'.1 SCOTL-l"S P.-1RT IX TIlE GRE.-1T ll'

part at Yimy. From \Tim)" to late in July \yas une\-entful. On 
the 22nd of that month our wagon lines \\"ere estahlished at Les 
Brebis. Un the 23rd we went into action behind Lnos Crassier. 
Things remained quiet until . \ugust 15th \\"hen the Hill 70 scrap 
for Lens commenced. Un September 9th we ,,-ere at Lievin. and 
remained in that \"icinity for about one month. 
.-\round October I st a move ,,-as made to L1oyeffies. ,,-here the 
wag.on line was e-.;tahlished. On the 6th the Uattery took up a 
position hehind the cemetery at Lieyin. where we remained for 
some time. Un the 2-t-th of (>ctober we ,,-ere again en route for 
Y pres. our old hunting ground. via Bethune. 
rorbecque and Gode- 
waers\Telde, ()n the 29th our \yagon lines \yere settled at a spot 
just south of St. Julien. and on the I st of X ovember ,,'e took up a 
position. which shall ever be consecrated in memory of our First 
Canadian Contingent. for the Passchendaele show. On the 23rd 
we were again en route south. YÏa Hailleul. Strazeele. Hayerskerque 
and \
endin-les-Hethune. Un Xoyemher 26th the Rattery was again 
at the Old Lievin cemetery. Christmas Day. 1917. was celebrated 
at Haillicourt. 
On January the Rattery took up a position behind Loos 
Crassier. ,,-here they remained in comparati\-e quietness until 
r arch. 
22nd. when a new position behind the double Crassier \\"a
On the 29th we went into action at ROl1\'ille Dump between .\rras 
and Achicourt, and from there to the Old 
Iill at .-\.chicourt on 
April 1St. On the 8th we were 'out at .-\nzin. on the 9th at 

Iusketry \Talley position. in front of St. Laurent Blangy. The 
Battery was withdra\\'n for rest at Hennan\"ille on 
Iay 25th. and 
on June 1st \yas inspected \yith the other Catteries in the Brigade 
by the Corp
 Commander. On the loth Divisional Sports were 
held. in which the old Battery won ib quota of prizes. 
On July 15th we went into action at St. Laurent Blangy, and 
on the 24th were back again at Achicourt-Old \\Ïndmill position. 
August the 1st sa,,- the Unit at Derlincourt. and on the 3rd they 
entrained at Frevent for .-\miens. \\T e detrained the follo\ying day 
at Prouzel and left for Bois de Boyes. On .\ugust 5th we took up 
a position at Bois de Centelles. and on the 8th took part in the 
"kick off" for the .-\miens show with a night position in front of 
Cayeux. From the 9th until the 16th is simply a sequence of names 
3 8 

lith B. LTTENr ((Jtll fl. LTTERr. C.F,./.) 

that spells the hardest action: Caix Y alley, \\' an"illers. Le Quesnoy, 
\\"an"illers. ()n _-\ugust 21st the Battery \vas en route back to 
Saleux. via Cayeux, Dumart and Hoves \\"ood. where they en- 
trained for 
-\ubigny and Dainville \\'ood, 
The .. kick off " for the Drocourt-Queant line came on Sep- 
tember 2nd. ()n the 3rd our position was taken up just east of 
Villers Cagnicourt. and on the 6th the 6th Battery was at Hainville 
on r
st, ,,"here they remained for about three weeks. On the 26th 
the Dattery went into action at Duissy. and on the 2ïth took part in 
the attack on Canal du ::\ord and Cambrai. The Old 17th had the 
honor to be the first Uattery to cross the Canal at Inchy. and 
immediately after took up position just east of the Canal beyond 
()ctoher was merely a repetition of names. The Battery took 
part in the general rout of the enem}. until X ovember 7th found 
them at Cre
pin. in action for the last time. On Xovember the 
loth the last round was fired from the Dattery in this position by 
IacDonald of .. It" subsection. the very same 
subsection that fired the first rOllnd on 
Iarch I, I<JI5. 
.-\t I I a.m. of X O\'ember I I th hostilities ceased and the fighting 
was finished. The" ()ld 17th'" hO\\-ever. marched into 
as part of the -\rmy of (kcupation and completed the work that 
the original had set out to du, \Tery few, however. of the original 
members were left by that time. Yet those of us. who were unable 
to share i
 the glorious hour of Yictory. were recompensed by 
knowing that our sttcces:-.ors nobly carried on in our places equally 
as well as. if not better than, we our-.;elvç's could have done. The 
Battery embarked at Southampton on 5.S. OlymPic. and arri\'ed at 
Halifax on .-\pril 21. 1919. It ,,"as demobilized the same day an(l 
consequently its home city. Sydney. was deprived of the plea
U1-e of 
welcoming it as a "['"nit. 

Officers: Killed . " , . . . 5 
Died,..,.,.......,..."".,.,."... 2 


Other ranks: Killcd ......,..........,..,..... If) 
Died of wounds ....".,..,'... 13 
Diecl ...,...,...,..,.,...,...... 2 


4 1 



HOKORS _-\ND A \\T.-\RDS. 
D,S.O. ....."...,..........,....,.............., 3 
M.C. .........".....",......,....,..........,.. 10 
D.C.l\L ..."...",. . " . , . , . . . _ " . . . . . , , . . , . . , . . , 
M.M. ........._."..., " 28 
Bar to l\LM. ..' ,...,....'.......,... 1 
M.S,M. ..............,......,.,......,.......... 1 
Croix de Guerre ...,.,......,..... ..' . . , , . . . , . 1 
Despatches .." . , . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 12 

4 0 



I N November, 19 1 4. Lieut.-Co!. T. M. Seeley, of Yarmouth, N.S. 
(O.c. 11th Brigade, C.F.A.), was commissioned to organize the 
23 rd Battery of Field Artillery. to represent the l\1aritime 
Provinces in. the 6th Artillery Brigade, C.E.F. The temporary 
headquarters were at Fredericton, N .B., but recruits were to be 
drawn from any part of the :Maritime Provinces. 
Iany were 
furnished by the 3rd, 4th and 11th 
Brigades of the lVlilitia Artillery. An 
important factor in the new Unit was 
a group of twenty-five or thirty students 
who joined from the University of New 
Brunswick and other universities. 
The recruiting proceeded at such a 
rate that Lieut.-Co!. Seeley soon found 
himself with fifty or sixty men over 
strength. He appealed to headquarters 
for authority to have a second Battery 
formed. which was granted, Lieut.-Col. 
B. A. Ingraham, R,O.. of Sydney, C.B.. 
was commissioned to organize the 24th Battery, also at Frederic- 
ton. He took over the surplus from the 23rd, and in addition 
brought a large detachment oi fine men from Cape Breton. 
These Batteries trained side by side until February 18, 19 1 5, 
when they were mobilized with the 21st Battery of Kingston and 
the 22nd Dattery of \Iontreal. and sent Overseas February 22nd 
011 5.5. J1 egantic, under Lieut,-Col. E. \Y. Rathburn. 
Iayor of Fredericton, the Premier of X ew Brunswick, the 
Earl and Countess of Ashburnham. and the citizens generally were 
yery kind to the artillerymen during their sojourn in Fredericton. 
4 4 1 






Just previous to sailing there were seyeral changes made in the 
personnel of the officers. Lieut.-Colonel Seeley was detailed to 
organization dut} in Canada. and 
rajor J. K. 
lacI,ar was placed in 
.:ommand of the 23rd Battery. On sailing the staff \vas: 
UacKay, O.C.: Capt. E. 
\. Chisholm; Lieuts. J. E. Read and 
J. X. 
IcEachern. The Staff of the 24th Battery was: Lieut.- 
Colonel Ingraham. O.c.; Capt. A., T. 
IacKay (of P.E.I.) : Lieuts. 
G, St. C. .-\. Perrin and O. 
Arriying in England the Catteries rcceived a hrief training at 
Shorncliffe. after which they were drafted to the Second Brigade, 
C.F.A., and Di\"isional .\ml1lunition Column in France. .\ large 
proportion of the X,C.O.'s and men of these Batteries won com- 
missions and distinctions on the field, 



THE Jatll B<--1TTERY

BY .;\L\JOR D. .\. l\L\CKIXXGN, D.S.G. 

T HE 3 6th Dattery \yas formed in Sydney in September, 19 1 5, 

Iajor \Yalter Crowe being the organizer and leading spirit 
in it. The rush of applications for positions in the Battery 
was so great that oyer one hundred had to be turned away. .l\Iajor 
Crowe selected his men with great care; and the subsequent 
achievements of the BaUery is evidence that his judgment was 
goud. To )Iajor Cro\ye must be given 
a great deal of credit for the splendid 
record which the BaUery achieved Over- 
, He remained with it as its Com- 
manding Officer and supervised nearly 
all its early training, took it Oyerseas in 
.:\1 arch, 1916, but on account of being 
yery much over age could not accom- 
pany the Battery to France: so the 
command ,,'as giyen to :\Iajor D. A. 

racKinnon. of Charlottetown, r.E,I. 
The Battery arrived in France on 
L\J" D. .-\, MACKINKON, D.S.O. 
July L-t-th, 1916, and was almost imme- 
diately placed in action on the Y pres Salient. \\" hich \\"as a very 
., hot ., spot. They \\"ere in action only twenty-four hours when they 
received quite a heavy shelling frum the enemy. They remained in 
this position for about a month. firing- day and night. and their quick 
response to all cal1
 from the infantry was remarked upon. The 
next moye ,,"as to Kemmel. which was a nice quiet 
pot. and the 
1>o)"s enjoyed them
eh-es yery much while in that vicinity. Early 
111 (Ictober the march for the Somme commenced, It occupied a 







week; and about the 12th of October the Battery went into action 
about one thousand yards in the rear of Courcellette. They received 
:onsiderable sheUing but returned one hundred rounds for every 
one they got. After the Battle of Regina Trench they moved 
forward in front of 1Vlartinpuich. with the expectation of another 
great battle which never materialized. While in this position they 
were constantly shelled, the discomforts were terrible, mud and 
rain preventing any kind of decent accommodation; but the gunners 
were better off than the drivers at the wagon lines; there the mud 
was two feet deep. and the trials and sufferings almost unendurable. 
N early all the ammunition had to be carried to the guns by packing 
it on horses' and mules' backs, taking it up over trails, inasmuch as 
the roads were death traps. on account of enemy fire. Notwith- 
standing this the Battery kept up its reputation for activity, having 
fired on several occasions well over one thousand rounds in a few 
hours. They were highly complimented for their "plendid conceal- 
ment and for the brave way in which they carried on under very 
discouraging difficulties. On the 20th of November the Division 
pulled out of the Somme. greatly to the relief of all. 
A week's tramp to the Ecuri Front commenced. the first two 
days being teeming rain and bitter cold. It was during this march 
that Sergt. Sam \Yilson, one of the most popular men in the 
Battery, contracted pneumonia and died in a few days, mourned by 
all. During the following months the Battery stayed in position 
doing garrison duty. but in February they were forced to leave 
and made three shifts of positions in three days. The bitter cold, 
it being the coldest winter in forty years. and the shortage of fodder 
for the horses, coupled with the hard work which so much moving 
entailed. caused the death of a great many horses and mules. The 
hardships of the drivers were also particularly severe. shelter was 
at a premium, and the winter of 1916 and 1917 will ever remain as 
a very disagreeable memory. 
Early in 1\farch preparations commenced for the Battle of \ 
Ridge, the drivers being constantly employed at night hauling vast 
quantities of ammunition to forward points. The month was very 
rainy with high winds. and all night the men would be exposed to 
the rain and winds and return at daybreak tired and exhausted. 


cold and wet to the skin. The sufferings which they experienced 
that winter, and the grim determination with which they carried 
through their duties will never be forgotten. On the 25th of March 
the 36th was changed to a six-gun Battery, absorbing 'One-half of 
the 29th Battery. It was a splendid consolidation, the new-comers 
proving very excellent gunners and drivers, and brave men. About 
the 1st of April. 1917. the Battery moved forward to a little 
hollow near the Arras road, facing Yimy Ridge. Rude pits had 
to be constructed for the guns, and these they soon fashioned int'O 
a home for the Battery. The Batteries were as thick as flies in 
this hollow, and we had neighbors on all sides of us. The 2nd of 
April saw everybody registering on targets in the enemy lines, and 
one had almost to crawl about to prevent being hit by 'Our own guns. 
As the enemy had observation of this position they very quickly 
began to use it, sllelling the area with gas and high explosives. It 
was a most uncomfortable position, and had the battle been delayed 
a few days longer and the enemy been given a chance to get more 
heavy artillery, there is no doubt that t'hey would have given us a 
bad time. 
The Battle of Vimy Ridge started at 5 o'clock, _\pril 9th. It was 
the biggest battle we had ever been engaged in, and everyone was 
quite interested to see how it would pan out. It was a great success, 
and we quickly got orders to move our position forward so as to be 
able to range on the retreating enemy. This was accomplished very 
speedily. The battle practically ended on 
\pril loth, and no 
further move was made forward. On the 14th we took our guns 
down into the village of Vimy being, we believed. one of the first 
Batteries to enter that much shelled village. We were lucky in getting 
in and lucky in getting our teams out, as the roads were shelled 
most terrifically. It was three weeks after that before we could 
bring a wagon of any description down the roads to the Battery. 
AU ammunition and supplies had to be brought on pack horses and 
mules along trails leading over the ridges, but by the exercise of 
great care they managed to keep up our ammunition supplies and 
prevent casualties. 
The first two weeks which followed in our position were memo!- 
able for the amount of gas which the enemy hurled at us. \Ve 

--1T TVr.1R 

wore our ma
ks practically all night. Thanks to a sufficient gas 
drill and gas prútection our casualties were slight. "ïth the energy 
and resource which characterized our boys they set to work and 
built a position which was the envy of all. It was so constructed 
that it was impossible to detect it by aeroplane or other observation. 
Speaking tubes connected all the gun-pits with the command post. 
and each pit had a tunnel leading into the other; so that if one was 
severely bombarded. an <::scape could be made through the other. 
The walls of the pits were nicely decorated with captured German 
material, and the appearance was such as to strike an inspecting 
officer most favorably. The greatest attention was paid to 
strengthening each defence, as the shelling was intense both by day 
and night. It was lucky that all these precautions were taken; for 
on the 24th of June; just as the Battery had completed firing a trial 
barrage, the enemy opened up with four batteries of heavy artillery. 
The bombardment was terrific, and almost all varieties of shell 
were used, including armorpiercing shell, which went down ten 
feet in the ground and then exploded, I t was marvelous that there 
was anything left of the Battery, the whole position was coyered 
with shell holes. One of the shells passed through the shelter in 
which Corp!. John 
'IcVicar, of Sydney. was with his gun detach- 
ment. The shock instantly killed Corporal 
Ic Yicar and dazed some 
of the others. At the same time others had become casualties. The 
day will be long remembered as one which inflicted great sorrow on 
the remaining members of the Battery. \Yhile we were in this 
position Corporal Jack and Gunner "'heatley were also wounded, 
and there were several regrettable casualties among the drivers at 
the wagon lines. 
Early in July the Dattery moved to a forward position near 
nd, while there, was subjected to another terrific bombard- 
ment in which they had nearly one thousand rounds of ammunition 
destroyed, Seyeral of the officers had dose calls, and those who 
are alive .will never forget the experience. About the 3 1st of July 
the Battery tTIO\'ed to Hill 70, and tOok up a position behind the 
double crassier. They constructed a good position in a very short 
time. The place was alive with Canadian Field Batteries, and it 
did not take the Hun long to discover the fact. X early all the 
4 6 

]Gth B.1TTER]T, C.FJ1. 

Batteries were :-;ilent.: that i:-;, they were not to do any firing until 
a battle commenced. but the 36th and a few others were selected to 
do all the firing, including the heavy task of demolishing the \\"ire 
in the German trenches, so that our in fantry coul(l get through. 
This the Battery did to the entire satisfaction of the infantry, 
although it \yas at quite a heavy cost to themseh-es, as they were 
constantly shelled day and night, and the 
position was a most trying one. The 
battle, \yhich took place about the 
of . \ugust, was one of the bluudiest of 
the \\"hule war. The Hill was the key to 
Lens. and the Hun determined to retake 
it at all costs. In one day there were 
fourteen counter attacks made by the 
Hun, and un eyery occasion the field 
artillery responded. instantly killing 
many thousands of Germans. The work 
of the 36th throughout this engagement 
was cummented un and needs no men- 
tion here. In one day they brought up from the ammunition dump 
and fired over five thousand rounds of ammunition. For two weeks 
the gunners had practically no rest, while the drivers that could be 
spared frum the wagon lines came up and assisted in getting 
ammunition ready. So active had the Battery become that the 
Hun determined tu destroy it and made seyeral attempts but with- 
out success. However on the night of the 24th of .L \ugust, while 
the Battery was firing an S.C >.S., in response to a call from the 
infantry, they were subjected to ã very intense shelling with a new 
gas, afterwards known as mustard gas. This gas is very n1l1ch of 
the nature of sulphuric acid. and the burns made hy it are very 
similar. J n a short' time seyeral men \vere struck b} the shells. 
sume wounded and some killed: others going to the assistance of 
their suffering comrades got the gas on their hands and \\"ere 
terribly burned. It was an awful night. and some yery gallant deed=-, 
were done. The returns next day showed three killed. three oAì.cers 
and twenty-five others gassed. Some of the men \\'ho \\"ere gassed 
on that occasion never recoyered from it. The effects will be with 



. - 





them as long as they live, It was a very bad night for the Can- 
adian Artillery. Other Batteries suffered, some even more severely, 
but they received unstinted praise for the gallant way they stuck 
to their guns. Besides the above, the Battery suffered a great many 
other casualties while in the Hill 70 Sector. In addition to Lieu- 
tenants Teed and Fleet being gassed, Lieutenant Longworth was 
severely wounded, On the night of the 29th of August we were 
relieved by a British Battery, Ibut the relief could not be completed 
in quiet, the Hun shelling the position very severely with gas. 
We were all pleased to leave that vicinity, and our next position 
was on the Vimy Front, which was nice and quiet; and everybody 
had a very pleasant time until the loth of October, when the 
Canadian Corps marched to Passchendaele, a trek that was under- 
taken with anything but light hearts, for its reputation as a death 
trap was known to all. On the 21st of October we took over 
from an English Battery, who were in a very bad way, having been 
practically shot to pieces. Everything was in very bad shape, only 
two guns being in action; but with great courage the boys set to 
work and very soon had the best position in the Salient. They 
protected their guns and themselves by the use of sand bags; and 
in that way saved many valuable lives. Conditions were such as 
to be almost impossible of descrip
ion. The mud was up to one's 
knees, and the place seemed to be nothing but shell holes filled with 
water. The enemy had perfect observation on us from the village 
of Passchendaele. On the 24th of October we registered our guns 
on its church, and the battle started on the 26th. During the 
progress of the battle we were severely shelled, Gunner J ra 
Stewart, of Charlottetown, being instantly killed. All the gunners 
carried on very heroically notwithstanding the shelling, and the day 
ended with a great victory for the Canadians. 
A few days later we had moved forward to a position in front 
of Kansas Cross, and in a short time had prepared a very fine 
position considering the materials at hand. The artillery programme 
was a very extensive one, firing starting at 5 o'clock in the morning 
and continuing at intervals several times through the day and night. 
The daily expenditure of the Battery ran well over one thousand 
rounds, and this had to be transported by pack mules a distance of 
eight miles from the ammunition dump. While on their way to 
4 8 


the guns they were subjected to scattered shelling and to bombing 
by overhead planes. At night they got no rest either at the guns, 
or the \vagon lines, heavy bombing planes circling over the area 
and dropping their contents indiscriminately. The casualties of 
the Canadians in these terrible battles are well known, their suffer- 
ings are beyond description. No words of mine can adequately 
portray the courage, fortitude, cheerfulness and devotion to duty 
exemplified by the officers and men of the 36th Battery in the 
terrible battles which culminated in the capture of Passchendaele 
Ridge. Among the officers it would be unfair to particularize, for 
all did their part nobly; but I believe that I could speak of Lieut. 
Andrew Livingstone's three weeks' experience as a forward officer 
as being the most awful of the lot. Words could not picture the 
things he saw and what he went through. To Lieut. Chas. Shrieve, 
of Digby, I always gave the greatest credit for the resourcefulness 
he displayed in building the positions. For his gallant conduct he 
was awarded the l\1:-ilitary Cross. Lieutenant Teed had previously 
received the same decoration for similar conduct at Hill 70, 
On the 14th of November the most awful experience the Battery 
ever had was encountered. The night before the enemy had 
attempted a counter attack but the signal from the infantry had 
met with such instant response from the field artillery that his ranks 
were practically decimated. In retaliation he turned every gun he 
could command on the Batteries of field artillery in front of Kansas 
Cross. There were probably twenty English and Canadian Bat- 
teries within an area of three hundred yards; and on these at 1.30 
in the afternoon was placed a bombardment that for intensity has 
probably never been excelled. 
uns and ammunition were blown 
up at every volley, one entire Battery being wiped out, with all its 
personnel. The 36th received their share of the shelling, their 
dugouts being blown up and the gunners and officers buried beneath 
them. They had, however, suffered very few casualties considering 
the terrible ordeal passed through; but those who were placed at 
the guns on that day will never forget the experience. 
On the 21st of November they moved out of Passchendaele, 
the Hun shelling the position just as they were leaving, and the 
succeeding Battery being practically annihilated within a few days, 

--1'S P
--1RT LY THE GRE.--1T ll'AR 

.-\. period of recuperation ensued, which did much to recover the 
morale of the Battery. In January they moved dO\\11 into the \
Front, suffering the ordinary ran of casualties, but without any 
very serious troubles. On the 21St of 
lar-=h, 1918, the Hun put 
on his famous offensive, and it was feared that he \\"uuld attempt 
to take \ 
imy Ridge. As there \yas very little chance of getting 
the guns out if he broke through our infantry lines, it was decided 
to move the Datteries from the plain to the top of the Ridge, where 
they were put for defensi\"e purposes. The 36th Battery \Vas 
selected as' a sacrifice Dattery and \\"ere left in their position in front 
of \ 
imy. Their task was to harass the enemy as much as possible, 
their daily expcnditure of ammunition running from a thousand to 
two thousand rounds, This activity of one Battery did not escape 
the alert attention of the IIun; and on the 2Sth of 
larch. when he 
made his famous attack on .\rras, a little to the south of Yimy. he 
took on the 36th Dattery in great style. In three hours it was 
estimated by observers on the Ridge that over two thousand rounds 
were fired into the Battery. (;uns and dugouts were blown up and 
a tremendous lot of damage done. Some brave deeds were carried 
out by members of the Battery. and among the decorations received 
for this affair were 
Iilitary ::\Iedals by Sergeant Cashen, of Sydney, 
and Signaller 
lacKenzie and Bombardier Peter Laforte. All the 
members of the Battery' acted most heroically. That night orders 
were given to retire the Battery from this untenable position, and 
in the new one they carried on with much more comfort. 
.-\bout the 1st of 
ray the Datter)" went into training for open 
warfare, and remained in training until July when they went into 
the line for a few weeks. Ûn the 2Xth of July they were drawn 
from the line, and on the first of August started on the famous 
march to .-\miens. The greatest secrecy was maintained regarding 
the destination of the Canadians, and it \vas not until the night of 
the 4th of August that we knew our destination. The nights of the 
5 th , 6th and ïth were utilized in bringing up thousands of rounds 
of ammunition and getting ready for the big battle \\'hich started 
on the 
th. The Bat
le of .-\miens was the hand-writing on the 
wall, so (;eneral Ludendorff has told us. On that day the 36th Battery 
occupied six positions, giving the most splendid aid to our glorious 

THE Juth BA-lTTERr, C.F.

infantry. A-\t half past four in the afternoon a German aeroplane 
s,,"ooped down 011 the Battery and killed several horses, wounded 
some of the men and Lieutenant 
Ianning. The casualties would 
have been greater but for the bra,-ery and coolne=,s of the machine 
gunners, who poured a constant yolley into the Hun and actually 
killed him. his plane crashing in a few minutes, 
The Battle of 
-\miens continued for several days with constant 
advances. On the night of the 13th we were ordered to place 
three thousand rounds of ammunition in an advanced position for 
another Battery. Sergt. J. \y, Eoutillier was giyen charge of the 
unloading. "-hile waiting for the arrival of the ammunition his 
party was subjected to heavy shell fire. Sergeant Doutillier and 
Sergeant Swift \\'ere killed and several others ,,"ere wounded. 
Sergeant Eoutillier was one of the most outstanding' men in the 
entire Dattery and his loss was very keenly felt. For hi.., bravery 
on this occasion Corp!. A. J. 
I cGillivary was a ,yarded the Croix 
de Guerre. 
On the 19 th of A-\Ugust the Battery started on its m
 rch for the 
Battle of Arras, arriving at Arras on the night of the 23 rd of 
August and going into position that same night. The night of the 
24 th was utilized in bringing up ammunition. On the 25 th they 
rested. On the morning of the 26th the famous Battle of Arras 
opened. It was a day full of stirring incidents, the 3 6th Datter)" 
suffered severe casualties. The days were very busy, 
the Battery constantly moving into new positions, 
helling the 
enemy, and being shelled in return. On the morning of September 
1st orders were received to cut wire on the llindenburg line, and 
to expend up,vards of fonr thousand rounds for that purpose. 
The position which the 36th Battery occupied was a very exposed 
one, and under observation by balloons and other means. The 
Battery had about completed onc task when the enemy started to 
shell us very severely. _\t first the rounds fell short. Liemenant 
Teed was at the telephone, and thinking that I rlid not recèivc the 
orders at the guns ran down to shout an order to ?\ o. 2 gun in charge 
of Sergeant 
IcKa'y. Just as he got there an enemy shell landed, 
instaptly killing Sergeant 
IcKay. Gunner John Cornfoot 3,r).cl Lieu- 
tefiant Teed. These were three of our very best. and the blO\\" wa


one of the saddest in the 36th Battery's whole experience. Lieut. 
Lionel Teed was from St. John, and had been with the Battery 
from its commencement. He was a brave officer, an extremely 
ch:ver one, and loved by all. Sergeant l\IcKay and Jack Corllfoot 
were also very popular. The wire cutting was completed. Nût- 
withstanding the shelling the brave boys of the 36th carried 
on as though nothing had happened.. 
The battle which took place the next 
day broke the Hindenburg line, the 
strongest trench fortification ever util- 
ized in warfare. 
A succession of move5 forward was 
then made. The Batteries kept close 
behind the infantry in their pursuit of 
the Hun. On the 14th a halt was made, 
and the Batteries transferred to another 
section of the Front. They took up a 
position in the village of Sudemont, 
which was a very "hot" place, being 
almost constantly under shell fire. A number of casualties occurred 
when we were in this position, notably Corpl. John McSween, who 
lost a leg, and Sergeant Philpott and others. On the 17 th the 
Battery started for the Battle of Cambrai, arriving in that sector on 
the evening of the 18th. The nights of the 19th and 20th were used 
in bringing up ammunition to a position in the little town of Inchy, 
where a battery position had been selected. The ammunition could 
only be drawn up under the greatest difficulties, for the roads were 
under heavy shell fire. Some very gallant deeds were done by the 
drivers and those in charge of them. For one particularly gallant 
exploit Corpl. A. Morrison received the D.C.M. 
The morning of the 21st was beautiful and the battle was 
wonderfully successful. Before ten o'clock thousands of yards of 
enemy territory had been penetrated and Bourlon \;Vood captured. 
The enemy field artillery recovered and shelled us vigorously, and 
we suffered several casualties. The battle continued for several 
days, with constant gain of territory for us. . On the night of the 
28th, while Lieutenant Livingstone was unloading ammunition, his 
drivers and the gunners were subjected to heavy shell fire and we 



. \ 



had many regrettable casualties; among the drivers, Frank Hughes, 
of Charlottetown, and Driver George McDonald, of Sydney. 
George was one of the most wonderful guides in France, and his 
loss was a severe one. The next few days saw several moves of 
positions, and on the 5th of October the 36th Battery was in a 
position at Raillencourt. On the evening of October 7th orders 
were issued for the Battery to move up 
to a position in the rear of St. Olle. 
The six guns with ammunition and 
ammunition wagons arrived at the posi- 
tion and were starting to unlimber when 
a volley of German shells landed directly 
in them.' The casnalties were terrific. 
over 50 per cent. of those present being 
killed or wounded together with twenty 
horses. The whole thing occupied only 
a few minutes. but it saddened a great 
many hearts, Lieut. Chas. Shrieve was CAPT. CHAS, D, SHRIEVE, 
shot through the chest and died instantly. 
Captain Craig was severely wounded through the hip, Lieutenant 
Livingstone was wounded in Ì\vo places and his ankle broken. 
Twenty-eight N,C.O. 's and men were killed or wounded. Among 
the killed was the very popular Bombardier John Drysdale. The 
blow was a demoralizing one, but the undaunted courage of the 
remaining members of the 36th was equal to the task. \^.ïthin 
three hours the guns had been transferred to new positions, and 
lines of fire laid out. and the Battery ready for action. 
The Hill 70 gas episode and the shelling received the night of 
Oct0ber the 7th were two of the worst experiences that any 
Battery had ever been called upon to endure, but the brave boys of 
the 36th met both with unflinching courage and proved themseh'es 
worthy of all the encomiums which had been he stowed upon them. 
For gallant work on this occasion several members of the Battery 
were decorated. On the loth of October Cambrai was captured. 
the 36th Battery doing its share to make the battle a success. 
From Cambrai they moved northward again, occupying various 
positions with various degrees of fortune until X ovember 1st, when 



--l.'S P

the march towards 
Ions commenced. This was one long suc- 
cession of triumphs, culminating in the capture of the celebrated 
city on the morning of the 11th of Xovember. On the afternoon 
of the loth we were in position at Je-
Iappes, a'bout one thousand 
yards from 
J ons. 
-\t 3,30 in the afternoon orders \vere received 
to fire on the railway at 
Ions. and while engaged in doing that 
several encmy shells were fired into the 
Battery. one of ,,"hich instantly killed 
Lieut. Fred Longworth. of Charlotte- 
town. and w0l1nded Sergeant Dickson 
and several others. Sergeant Dickson 
received thirty-two wounds but managed 
to pull through. On the morning of the 
I I th at 6.30 word \yas received that the 
. \. rmistice was .signed. and a 
I arch- Past 
\vas ordered to take place in the City of 

Ions. There was great rejoicing at the 
good news. inasmuch as the suffering of 
the last three months was beginning 10 
tell on the remaining memhers of the" Old Guard." 
I cannot close this account of the doings of the 36th Dattery 
without making reference to the wonderful qualities which the 
officers, X.C.ü."s and men displayed. It was easy to command a 
Battery like the 3hth. They were everything that could be desired. 
Loyal, brave and good-humored. \vith the greatest de\'otion to duty. 
they cannot be too highly praised by me. E very man was a hero 
and every man desen'ecl decorations many times over. I feel that 
it is but fitting that 1 should here mention the fact. when speaking 
about decorations, that the 36th DaUer}" received a very large share 
of them. including one D.S.O.. two Croix de Guerre, eight :\Iilitary 
Crosses. one bar for 
Iilitary Cro
!', ten lJ.c.
I.'s and t\yenty 

lil}tary 1Iedals. 
On )J"ovember 21. 1918. "\fajor D. A. 
innon. who com- 
manded the 36th Battery from its arrival in France on July Lt.. 
H)16. and who took part with the Dattery in all its battles. was 
granted sick leave to Canada. , 
The loss of so many brave officers and brave men had bcen a 
severe shock to him. and his nen"es became greatly unstrung, It 


., .... 


THE J(jth ß.--1TTERr, C.F,.--1. 

was with sincere regret that he parted with the boys after nearly 
three years of strenuous fighting. The Battery. after a short stay 
in Uelgium, \"as transferred to England, demobilizing in ::\Iarch, 
19 1 9. On the 36th Battery's return to Sydney, X.S., they were 
tendered a most notable reception. 


l\f aj or D. .-\. ),1 acKinnon. Charlotteto\\ n, P. E. 1. . . . Di
tinguished Sen'ice 
Order and Croix 
de Guerre. 
Capt. F. H, Tingley (killed), ).Ioncton ......,..... ).rilitary Cross. 
Capt. .-\. L. _\nderson. Toronto .,...,..."..,..... ).1ilitary Cross and Bar. 
Lieut. D. L. Teed (killed), St. John, X.E. ......,. .
Iilitar\" Cross. 
Lieut. C. D. Shrie\"e (killed), Digby. X.S. " ....,. -'Iilitar;' Cross. 
Lieut. R. F1eet, 
Iontreal ...".."......",...." .,. 
Iilitar.r Cross. 
Lieut. F. J. Longworth (killed L Charlottetown"... 
Iilitar.r Cross. 
Lieut. J. \Y. 1. Harris, 
Ioncton. X.E. ..'.".".,. 
rilitary Cross, 
Lieut. A. B. 
Ianning, Toronto ..."...,..,......,. 
rilitary Cross, 
Lieut. A, Livingstone, Sydney, X.S. .........,.'.,. 
rilitar.r Cross. 
Lieut, I. Alexander, Fredericton, X.B. ,.,."",.... 
Iilitan' Cross. 
Lieut. J. O'Grady, \Vinnipeg ...,...........,...,.. - 



14th BRIGADE,. C.F.A. 

T HE 14 th Brigade, C.F.A.. was organized in the spring of 
19 16 and was part of the 4th Division Artillery, which 
trained at Petawawa in the summer of 1916. The 14 th 
Brigade, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel John L. 1\IcKinnon, 
I of Halifax, N.S., was composed of the following Units: Head- 
quarters. 7 officers. 40 men. recruited in X ova Scotia. Batteries, 
55 th and 56th, recruited in Guelph, Ont. ; 
5 8th . recruited in 
 ew Brunswick; 66th, 
recruited in 
Iontreal. Brigade Ammu- 
nition Column, 3 officers. 120 men. re- 
cruited in Nova Scotia. 
In addition to the O.C., Lieutenant- 
Colonel lVIcI,-innon, the following other 
N ova Scotia officers proceeded Over- 
seas with this Drigade: Capt. G. C. 
Oland. Halifax. 
\djutant; Capt. C. V. 
Trites. Liverpool, ::\Iedical Officer, both 
attached to Brigade Headquarters; 

lajor S. C. Oland, in command of 66th 
Battery: Lieuf. J. Vickery, 58th Battery; Brigade Ammunition 
Column, Capt. F. S. Burns. Lieut. Herbert Stairs. Lieut. \Y. 1\1. 
Ray, Lieut. T. D. Farquahar. 
The 4 th Divisional Artillery, consisting of the 12th, ] 3th. 14 th 
and] 5 t þ Brigades. and Divisional Ammunition Column. left Canada 
on September ] I. 1916, and completed training in Eng-Iand. 
In the fall of 1916 the Imperial authorities for the Imperial 
Army adopted the formation of six-gun Batteries instead of four- 
gun Batteries, reducing Brigades in each Division. The Canadian 
authorities followed in January. 191í. and from the 1St. 2nd and 





Ii-tit BRIGADE, C.P.A. 

3 rd Divisions in France a new 4th Divisional Artillery was recon- 
stituted, and the old 4th Divisional Artillery became 5th Divisional 
Artillery, which later became Corps Artillery. 
On the formation of the 
 ova Scotia Regimental Depot, Lieu- 
lcKinnon was given command and was later 
appoir.ted Deputy J udge 
--\dvocate General, Canadian Forces Over- 




T lIE Royal Canadian Regiment \yas rai
ed on Decunoer 21, 
R3. as a LTnit of the new Canadian Permanent Force, for 
the instruction of the Canadian }lilitia by establishing 
schools of instruction for officers and non-commissioned officers, 
and by the formation of a nucleus of officers and non-commissioned 
ofììcer instructors to assist at the various 
lilitia Camps. The 
Hcgiment was first known as the" In fantry School Corps." 
In 19
5 .. C'- Company, stationed at Toronto, joined a mixed 
force 0 f 
Iilitia under the command of Lieut.-Col. \\', D. (>tter, 
\yhich marched acros:, the ice along the X urth Shore of Lake 
Superior to the 
orth-\\'est, to suppress the rebellion of the haIf- 
breeds, under the leadership of Louis Riel. The Company took 
part in the action of Fish Creek and the relief of Battleford on 
_-\pril 24th, and in the action of Cut J,nife Hill on 
r ay 2nd. 
It also took part in the pursuit of Chief Big Dear during June and 
July. It remained in garrison at Eattleford from July until 
October. \\,hen it returned to Toronto. This \Vas the first occasion 
on \\"hich Canadian troops had conducted active operations and 
brought them to a successful conclusion without the aid of T mperial 
In 1892 the name of the Regiment \yas changed to the .. Can- 
adian Regiment Infantry," and the following year Queen \ïctoria 
approved of the Regiment becoming a Royal Regiment, known as 
the" Royal Canadian Regiment of Canadian Infantry," and granted 
permission for her Imperial Cypher. Y.R.I., with the Imperial 
Crown, to be worn as a badge, 
In 1899, 011 the outbreak of the South .-\frican \Yar, a second 
(Special Service) Battalion was raised under the command of 
Lieut.-Colonel \Y. D. Otter. and sailed on October 30, 1899. in the 
S.s. Sardinian. arriving at Cape Tmyn on Xovember 30th. In 


aùdition to minor skirmishes the Battalion took part in the following 
actions \yhile in South .\frica: 

Paanlcberg .,.,..".. ....,.........,",.. 
Poplar Gro\"(' .,.........,..,..,.,.,....,. 
Drcifontein .. . - . . . , . ' . , . . . . . . , . . . . , , , , . 
IsraeJ"s Poort ,."...,...,......,..".... 
Honr's :\"e::k .....,.,.,.....,......,. -,.,... 
Zano River .,....,.....,.... .- 
Doorn Kop ..,....,...,..."..,..,..,...,. 
Pretoria "...',.,.".., . . . . . . , . . ' . , . , 

2ïth Fehruary, 
25th .-\pril, 
-lth June, 

19 00 
190 0 

The casualties in South .-\frica were thirty-nine killed, twenty- 
eight died of disease, one hundred and t\yenty-three wounded. 
The Battalion wa::, represented at the annexation ceremony at 
Pretoria on October 25th hy a pat-ty specially selected, and on 
Xm"emher i th it embarked at Cape TO\vn for Southampton. arriv- 
ing on X ovemher 29th, The Battalion was inspected by Her 
:.\lajesty Queen \ïctoria at \\ïncIsor Ca
tle. when she addressed 
thcm and thanked them for their services. This \yas the last official 
ction made by the Queen before her death. 
On Deccmber [Ith the Battalion embarked at Liverpoul and 
sailed for Canada. arriving at H ali f:tÀ on Decemher 23 n l. where it 
was disbanded. 
During the South .-\frican \Yar the name of the Regiment was 
changed to the .. Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry." 1 [is 
:.\Iajesty King George. then Duke of York. presented colors to the 
Regiment at Toronto on October 11. 1901. during his tour of the 
British Empire. 
.\ 3 nl (Garrison) Battalion of the Regiment was raised at 
H ali fax to relea!'e the ] st Battalion Leinster Regiment (Royal 
Canadians) for sen"ice elsewhere. This Dattalion was brought to 
a high state of efficiency and formed the greater part of the Garrison 
in the Fortress at Halifax. It was. ho\yever. disbanded shortly 
after being relieved by an Imperial Regiment. the 5 th Battalion 
Royal Garrison Regiment. in September. 1l)02. 
In 19 02 the name of the Regiment was once again changed. be- 
coming known by its present distinctive title of ., The Royal Cana- 
dian Regiment." 
In H)O-l-. a special hanner. given by Hi
 :.\fajesty King Ed\vard 
YII to commemorate the Regiment's sen,ices in South \ frica. was 


presented at Ottawa on October 4th by His Excellency the 
Governor-General, Lord .Minto. 
Imperial troops having been withdrawn and the defence of 
Canada taken over by local troops, the Regiment moved to Halifax, 
the establishment being raised to ten companies. 
On the outbreak of the European \Var in August, 191.-1-, the 
Regiment was mobilized at Halifax, occupying the various forts. 
It was brought up to war strength by a draft of four hundred 
volunteers, men from the newly formed Camp at Yalcartier, for 
the Expeditionary Force then being raised. Being trained regular 
troops, and the only ones available for service Overseas, the Regi- 
ment, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel A, O. Fages. was sent 
to Bermuda on September 9th to relieve the 2nd Battalion Lincoln- 
shire Regiment, and were the first Canadian troops to go abroad, 
In A.ugust of the following year, the Regiment having been relieved 
by the 3 8th Battalion, C.E.F., proceeded. under the command of 
Lieut.-Colonel Carpenter, to France, via England. where it was re- 
armed and re-equipped. It landed at Boulogne, under the command 
of Lieut.-Cot. A. H. ::\Iacdonell. D.S,O., on October 31st. and on 
moving up the line immediately became Corps Troops to the Cana- 
dian Corps under Lieut,-General Sir A. E. H. Alderson. K.C.B. It 
went into the trenches for the first time with the First Canadian 
Division, opposite l\Iessines. 
At the beginning of 1916 it was one of the Battalions composing 
the ï th Canadian Infantry Brigade under Brigadier-General A, C. 
-:\lacdonell, c.l\I.G., D.S.O., of the newly formed 3rd Canadian 
Division, under ::\Iajor-General .:\f ercer, c.B. The Brigade con- 
sisted of the Royal Canadian Regiment, Princess Patricia's Cana- 
dian Light Infantry, 42nd Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada) 
and 49 th Battalion (Edmonton Regiment), and. later. the 7 th 
Canadian l\Iachine Gun Company. The Regiment went into the 
line with the Brigade at \\Tulvergham, moving afterward to 
Kemmel and then to Y pres. 
The Regiment's first general action was that of the German 
attack on June 2nd to June 5th on Sanctuary \Vood and Hooge, in 
the Y pres Salient. Here the Regiment, under Lieut.-Cot. C. H. 
Hill. distinguished itself by its steadiness under the heaviest con- 
centration of hostile artillery and trench mortar fire which up to 


that date had ever been brought to bear on British troops. By its 
rifle and machine gun fire the attempted in fantry assaults against 
its lines were frustrated, and it was virtually the action of the 
machine guns? assisted by the ïth Canadian 
Iachine Gun Company, 
that prevented a great disaster to the whole Y pres Salient. These 
guns had been unable to get a,,-ay after being relieved on account 
of dawn breaking. On June 5th the Germans blew up three very 
large mines at Hooge, annihilating the Garrison. The guns, which 
were some distance in the rear, immediately mounted, fully exposed, 
on the :\Ienin Road, and by their coolly directed fire threw back the 
German Infantry, thus preventing them from swamping our line 
and outflanking it both north and south on the :\1 enin Road. The 
action of June 2nd to 5th exemplified the value of long training. 
The older men who had been in the Regiment for years, and \vho 
were considered as almost past their day. came to the fore wonder- 
fully by their steadiness and discipline. This was shown particularly 
when during the hostile infantry attacks and intense shelling they 
remained cool and steady and withheld their fire, only letting forth 
their perfect deluge of bullets when a good target appeared. This 
encouraged and gave added confidence to the younger men. It was 
certainly the old soldier's day. 
Between June and August some extremely gallant trench raids 
and expeditions were carried out by the Regiment. One raid 
carried out was discovered by the enemy before starting, and came 
under intense fire from rifles. bombs and machine guns at close 
quarters. In spite of this the party rushed forward and inflicted 
heavy losses upon the enemy, but every man except one was 
wounded. Two officers and some men came out into the open and 
worked for two hours under fire collecting and bringing in the 
In September the Regiment moved south ,,-ith the Canadian 
Corps under Lieut.-General Sir Julian H. G. Byng, K,C.B" 
K.C.:\I.G., :\I.V.O., to the Somme, where until :\ovember they 
took part in \'ery severe fighting at Courcellette, Regina Trench, and 
The Battalion performed a very difficult feat on September 15th, 
when it came up from reserve and occupied a line just after dusk 
over absolutely strange ground, made unrecognizable by shell fire, 

-1 SCUTL-1'S P
-1RT IX THE GRE_-1T Tr_'lR 

and in so doing was obliged to change front twice. They occupied 
their position on time. Again. on September 16th, two Companies 
went forward to attack an enemy trench over open ground. in full 
view of the enemy, in face of deadly rifle and machine gun fire. 
starting at a distance of over 800 yards and being practically ,,'iped 
out when less than 50 yards from the enemy's trench. 
On October 8th, at Regina Trench, the R.C,R. and one other 
Battalion were the only Cal1adian Dattaliol1
 to capture and for the 
time hold objectives. There by its gallantry and determination the 
Battalion held on throughout the day outflanked and unsupported. 
.-\ Battalion of German 
rarines was threatening the left, which 
necessitated a change of front. This was successfully accomplished. 
The enemy charged the position on three separate occa
ions. but 
were driyen back \\'ith heavy loss each time. This. hO\vever. was 
accomplished only by heavy loss to the Battalion. for. when 
relieved. it mustered only one officer and eighty-one other ranks: 
in one Company only five men remained. 
On leaving the Sonune area the H.egiment was so depleted that 
it was obliged to reorganize. The fighting had been of the bitterest 
hand-to-hand kind. 
The follo,,'ing order was published on leaving the area: 

., ïth Canadian Infantry Brigade. 
.. This Brigade has just finished a series of operations of which ewry 
member may be justly proud, 
.. The performance of the 15th September, 1916, when the RCR. 
P.P.C.L.L, .pnd and 49th Battalions, went into an unknown area on 
four and a half hours' notice. in broad daylight. and under heavy 5he11- 
ing. reached and jumped off on time. not from prepared assembly 
trenches, but from a battered trench captured that morning, and. chang- 
ing direction twice. captured and held three different ohjectives. together 
with some three hundred prisoners. has been characterized as one of the 
finest accomplishments by any Brigade in the war. 
"No one as time goes on can fail to be more and more impressed 
with the extent to which each arm of the military machine is dependent 
upon others for ultimate and lasting success; a Brigade may do better 
than ever before, and 'still fail to gain their objecti\"e, owing to another 
arm not ha\"ing ful1y accomplished its task. 
"The attack on September 16th. 1916. adds to. rather than dims, the 
glory. Both tlw R.C.R and the 42nd Battalion (R. H.C.) knew the 
barrage had failed. that the Zotlern Trench was fully manned. and that 
the chances of success were slight. Notwithstanding. the attacking com- 
panies of these Battalions did their duty. knowing that the attack of the 
9th Canadian Infantry Brigade. timed for 6.30 p.m.. depended entirely 
on their capturing their ohjective, They thrust the attack home gallantly 


and \\ell, but, under the circumstances, with the odds so hea,'ily against 
thcm, it was impossible to make good the Zollern Trench. 
.. On the 8th October, 1916, Rcgina Trench was not battered in nor 
the wire cut, but we all ha\-e good reason to be proud of the performance 
of our Rattalion" that day-tlw RC.R. and 4Qth Battalion for their 
attack, the P.P.C.L.I. for their good work in the yacated front line, and 
the 42nd Battalion (RH.C.) for cheerfully going in again to take over 
the defence of the line, although they had been withdrawn a few hours 
before and were desperatel.} tired. The ::\Iachine Gun Company also 
comcs in for its share of the welt-earned praise for its excellent barrage 
work and support of the Infantry. 
.. \Ve all feel particularly proud of the splendid work of the RC.R 
in dri,'ing through to their objecti,'e and holding it so long against odds, 
Xo one could have done better and few so well. 
.. A.. C. :\L\CDOXELL, Brig.-Gen.. 
.. Comd'g. ïth Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

., 15-10-16." 

In X ovember the I 
attalion I110yed north again to X euville St. 
Yaast, nothing of nmch importance happening with the exception 
of raids, These commenced a iter Christmas and became almost a 
daily occurrence. Daring deed:; of all degrees were performed by 
all rank
. with the result that the Battalion \\'as morally and actually 
master of the situation and owned" X 0 
Ian's Land." 
-\pril 9. 1917. the Dattle of Yil11Y Ridge commenced. This 
was one of the most perfectly planned actions that has e\'er 
occurred. Eyery man knew exactly ,,-hat he had to do and how to 
do it. and where he ""as to 
o. The strong ridge which the 
Germans had held and fortified to the best of thei r ability fell into 
our hands with comparative ease. 
Iany trophies were captured 
by the Regiment, and all their objectives ,,-ere taken \\,ithout any 
delay or hitch of any kind. This was accomplished in bitter 
weather and mud knee deep: the ground captured was held intact in 
spite of the furious and continued attacks launched by the enemy 
to wrest our gains from us. 
.-\.fter \ïmy the Regiment took part in the following major 
actions :-.-\vinn. June. I
)I7: Hill 70, July. 1917: Passchendaele. 
October and X O\'ember. 1
)I 7 I in the latter period eleven hostile 
attacks were successfully repelled) ; .-\miens. I9Ix' where the Regi- 
ment was on the extreme right successfully operating with the 
French : 
lonchy. August. H)18: Cambrai. where Lieut. 
I. F. Gregg 
won his \',C.: Forêt de Raisines. \T alenciennes: and last. hut not 
least. the dramatic capture of the world famous 
Ions. The credit 


for the first to enter 
Ions has been claimed by the 42nd Battalion. 
This is a moot point, and is probably due to the fact that a Company 
of the Royal Canadian Regiment was detached to the 42nd and 
entered the City from the S.E. The indubitable fact remains that 
Lieut. "'. 1\1. I,"ing of the R.C.R, was the first to reach the square, 
where he was received by the 11ayor at the Town Hall with his 
platoon, and where he signed the Golden Book of 1\lons, which was 
given by King Albert to the City on his departure in 1914. 
The Regiment returned to Canada and the C,E.F. personnel was 
demobilized at Halifax on loth l\larch. 1919. 
The following distinctions and awards \"ere gained by the Regi- 
ment in the war of 1914-18:- 

V,C. '" ..,..,... ....... ... I 
G.B.E, 1 
C.l\1.G. ... ...........,.,. -t 
C.B.E, ., ...,.... "...,. .,. I 
D.S.O. ' . . . , , . . . . , . . .. 11 
O.B.E, ...,...........,.'.. 5 
M.C. ....,..,.,.......'... 37 
Bar to ::Y1.C. ....,..,..,.,'. 5 
D.F.C, .....', ...,...... I 
D.C.l\1. ..,........... 24 
Bar to D.C.)!. ............ I 

1'-'1..:\1. ...,..........,....., 
Bar to :\1.::\1. 
M,S.M, ....""...,'...,. 
Foreign Decorations ..,.., 
l\Ientions ..".,..'"...... 
Commissions from the ranks: 
Lieut.-Colonel ..."....', 
Major ,....,.., .... .. 
Captain ........ ........ q 
Lieutenant .......,...... 28 
2nd Lieutenant ....','.,. 4 




THE Iïtlz B.-1TT
V, C.E.F. 

W HEX ,,"ar clouds lo\yered on the European horizon in 
July. 19L-t-. it would haye he en strange had the men of 
Pictou County. X ova 
cotia. not been among the first 
to recognize their duty to civilization and the Empire. 
On J ul
 31. I9L-t-. the officer commanding the ï8th Regimcnt 
Pictou Highland
rs wired the then :\linister of ),lilitia of Canada 
that his Regiment ,,"as ready for service. 
and received a reply, dated August I, 19 Lt., 
exprðsing the 
Iinister's thanks for the 
patriotic offer. On _-\ugust Rth orders 
were recei,"ed by ,,-ire from the Adjutant- 
General. Utta wa. as follo,,"s: .. It is notified 
for information that not more than 12 5 
men ",ith officers \\"ill be accepted from 
each rural Regiment." This order limited 
\"olunteering in X ova Scotian rural corps 
at once to that number. 
()n .-\ugust 20. 1914. 135 officers. non- 
conunissioned officers and other ranks left ROBERTSO
X e\\" Glasgo\\" for Ya1cartier, being joined 
at Truro hy a full quota of officers. non-commissioned oflì.cers 
anù uther ranks of the ïóth Colchester Rifles and small detach- 
menh of the 63nl and 66th J Ialifax Regiments. a Company from 
the ï5th Lunenburg Regiment under Lieut.-Colonel .-\ndre\\"s. and 
one from 69th, Passing through Cumberland County the Xoya 

cotian contingent was further augmented by a roll of officers. 
non-cummissioned ufficers and men. up to the strength authorized. 
from the 93rcl Cumberland l{egiment. \\-ith their O.c.. Lieut.- 
Colonel :\lurray. making in all a total of some fi'T hundred oftìcers. 
non-commissioned officers and other ranks. 




--1T lr.lR 

Had each of the seyen Xova Scotia Regiments of 
lilitia been 
able to send the number authorized the contingent would have been 
little short of strength as a Regiment. Ottawa had apparently 
overlooked the fact that both the Halifax Regiments and the 
of Cape Breton were on garrison duty, making it difficult for them 
to recruit beyond their then imperative need:-; or part with the 
number required. 
It was then proposed by the officers on board the troop train 
that steps be taken to form a X ova Scotian Battalion, so that all 
might sen'e together. The three senior officers of the contingent, 
Lieut.-Colonels Andrews, Cameron and 
Iurray asked Lieut.-Cot. 
S. G. Robertson_ to undertake the organization and ask that he be 
giyen command. 
\lthough he had specialized as far as possible in 
Staff work and felt his services would he of more value in that 
line than in Regimental duty, the request was diff1cult of refusal 
and the proposal was accepted. 
From the time of arrival in Valcartier the X ova Scotians 
remained together until a wire was received from the 
authorizing the organization of the Battalion. Vnfortunately an 
excessive advertising of the Unit by a too friendly press in Halifax 
aroused Provincial jealousies and no doubt made fulfilment of the 
authorization difficult. It undoubtedly made it appear to outsiders 
that the X ova Scotian officers were doing a lot of advertising. an 
opinion that was far from the truth. Time dragged on; a few 
officers and men losing heart joined other Battalions: but their 
number was small and all had the best reasons for doing so. In 
most cases it meant promotion. 
Shortly before the day of sailing, the raising of two new Cnits 
was authorized by Headquarters, to be numbered the I ith and 18th 
Battalions; and the personnel of the officers was published. which 
included one, if not two, of the senior 
 ova Scotian officers. 
Recruiting, howeyer, showed that there were no available rank and 
file apart from the Nova Scotians, who, however, absolutely refused 
to join without their own officers. As all prospect of a X ova 
Scotian Battalion seemed to have \'anished. therefore in Dreier to 
get the men to join one of the new Units, after consultation with 
the men Lieut.-Colonel Robertson offered his services as Paymaster 
in that Unit, 


THE I7tlz B
lLIOS. C.E.F. 

Hardly had his services been accepted by the Officer Com- 
manding than the Premier arrived in Camp and called a meeting 
of the X ova Scotian officers for the following morning. At the 
meeting two proposals were made to the officers, who were asked 
to consider them and report their decision at a later hour. The 
proposals were to go then as a half Battalion or remain behind to 
be properly organized and sail later. The meeting 0 f officers 
decided without dissent that to remain until properly organized was 
the only course open, in view of the shortness of time and lack of 
so much that was necessary. 
On this report being made to the Premier he stated that it had 
been decided to send us as a Battalion with the First Contingent, 
to allow us to recruit as far as possible and if necessary to send 
drafts later to complete our establishment. The colors of the 
Battalion were then presented by Lady Borden, with appropriate 
\\'ithin three days sufficient men had been recruited in Cape 
Breton, Pictou, Colchester and Cumberland Counties practically to 
complete the strength 0 f a Regiment. 
The Premier was no longer in Camp, and transport was refused. 
Possibly, the momentarily expected sailing of the First Contingent 
made it impractical, and the Battalion sailed from Quebec on Sep- 
tember 30, 1914, with a full strength of officers and non-com- 
missioned officers and 773 other ranks, unbrigaded under strength 
and under-equipped, but with hearts burning with loyalty, on board 
the 5.S. Ruthenia. 
Just one hundred and twenty-nine years before the ancestors pf 
many of these men had been disbanded from the 82nd Highlanders 
in Halifax and given grants of land comprising 20,000 acres in 
Pictou County. The Regiment had been raised in Perthshire by 
Col. Alexander Robertson of Struan, then Chief of Clan Donnachie, 
and was commanded by him. Now commanded by one of the same 
race and family they were returning to do their part in the world's 
The nominal roll of officers was as follows: Lieut.-Cot. Struan 
G. Robertson 
Iajors, Daniel D. Cameron and Daniel :\1urray; 
Adjutant, Capt. Charles E. Bent; Asst.-Adjutant. Lieut. L. Ray 


-1 SCOTI.-1'S P

Captains: \Y. H. Allen, L. C. Bentley, \Y. B. Coulter, .\lex. 
\Yatson, D. C. Sheppard, \Y. Forbes, Thos. Curwen Reid. 
Lieutenants: G. \Y. Harris, F. 
l. Bentley, F. 
J. E. Christie, E. \ \-. ::\Iingo, C. J. Groggett, J. 
l. Gillis. Bruce 
\. N. Peerless, R. E. Russell, G. A. Ross, G. E. C. Eager, 
IcKee, J. R. Bell, _\lister Fraser, Arthur Hunt Chute, 
B. .1, \\"alker, 
Paymaster, Bon. Capt. Arthur 
IcKay; Quartermaster. lIOll. 
Capt. Robert 
Icl\Ieekin; :l\Iedical Officer, Capt. H. :\Iorrell; 
Chaplain, Paul Goforth; Transport Officer, C. Hamilton Catty. 
For five months the Battalion saw sen"ice on Salisbury Plain as 
a Unit. No drafts arrived to bring the Battalion up to strength, 
but Ít was attached to one Brigade after another. Some one has 
said that the ardor of the Highlander springs from internal senti- 
ment, and that the only thing his spirit cannot brook is disappoint- 
It has ever been seemingly fated that governments failed to 
appreciate this characteristic of Scottish soldiers. Broken faith, 
real or supposed, caused rebellion ill even the Black \Yatch in Ii-B. 
In 1795, 
vhen it was proposed to break up the Cameron Highlanders 
by drafting, their Colonel told the Duke of York, then O. in C., .. To 
draft the 79th is more than you or your Royal father dare do r' 
The Duke of York replied: "The King, my father, will certainly 
send the Regiment to the \ Y est Indies." Colonel Cameron there- 
upon losing his temper warmly rejoined: " You may tell the King, 
your father, from me, that he may send us to h-l if he likes. and 
I'll go at the head of them. but he daurna draft us." 

\ttempts were made to draft the men of the 17th but as they 
had been enlisted over three months the Army Act made such 
procedure illegal, unless voluntary, and the protest of the Officer 
Commanding, after threatened proceedings, was effectual. 
Four Battalions of the First Canadian Contingent, including the 
I ith, were then made into Reserve Battalions, and the non-com- 
missioned officers and other ranks were drafted into the First 
Division to make up for the wastage suffered during its sojourn on 
Salisbury Plain, which then through 
ickness, desertion and the 
obtaining of commissions in the lmperial Forces was equivalent to 


about ten per cent. of the original total strength of the First Con- 

 \s a Reserve Battalion the 1 íth served throughout the \ Y ar and 
practically all X ova Scotian Infantry Drafts passed at one time or 
another through its ranks. From it were drawn the drafts for the 
lIighland Brigade 1st Division, and latterly those for Nova Scotia 
Infantry L"nits in the Field. As a Reserye it outlived many of its 
Of the gallant hearts that left X oya Scotia in August, 191..1., 
many haye paid the price and sleep their last sleep on alien soil. 

\nd. \\ hen the last Great Bugle Call 
O'cr Villi}' soul/dil/g, throbs, 
\Vhen the last grim joke is entered 
In the big black book 0 f Jobs, 
. I lid Bclgir battlcfidds gh'e uþ 
Their victims to the air, 
I shouldn't like to be the man 
That playcd those IIIcn ullfair," 




D\ CAPT. c., C. J\I'ELHE

I K endeavoring to write thi
 hrief account of the organization, 
training and operatlOns of the first Battalion of K OYa Scotians 
to be raised and equipped 111 their own Province and also the 
first from these ., the sea-girt hills and vales." which have con- 
tributed more than their quota of soldiers, sailors, statesmen, 
educators and 'men of affairs in the past. to man the trenches in 
France and Flanders, the writer regrets and wishes it understood 
that he is not writing from personal observations. inasmuch as (and 
this is what he regrets) he was not a member of the 25th Battalion 
until the spring of 1917. The su?stance, then, of the following is 
compiled from the \Yar Diary of the 25th Canadian Infantry 
Battalion, and is submitted to the publishers of this volume at their 
request and .with the fullest appreciation of the writer's inability to 
do justice to the task of chronicling four and a half years of any 
Battalion's history, least of all the splendid story of the indomitable 
courage and tenacious striving toward an ideal which were the 
predominant features of this. in several respects. an unique Bat- 
talion in the Canadian Corps. 
There are many omissions in the following narrative which the 
writer regrets are imperative in order to make it of sufficient 
brevity to allow of its publication in this volume. The nominal 
roB of officers is as issued by the Department of )'Iilitia and 
Defence on the Battalion's sailing from Halifax on 
Iay 20. H)15. 
The summary of decorations awarded was provided by the 
ral. Canadian 
Iilitia. Ottawa, and does not include 
the medals won by General Hilliam, C.B., and several other 
7 0 


officers and some other ranks when with Cnits other than the 25 th 
It \\ ill be interesting to note in the list of original 2nd Division 
oflicers who marched across the Rhine at Bonn on December 13, 
1918. that only two were commissioned officers on September 15, 
1915. They are Major A. \Y. P. \Yeston and Lieut. G. 

IcX eil, 
I.c. There .were ninety-six other ranks with the Battalion 
on both the above-mentioned dates. 
In the narrative there are many points on which the \\Titer 
would like to dilate at some length-more e
pecially on some of 
the deeds of heroism in the different actions. Of these deeds, 
practically in the earlier days (1915 and 1916). more went un- 
recognized outside the Battalion than the sum of all the decorations 
won by the Battalion. To mention more than the few that fit into 
the narrative is obviously not feasible. 
One thing that cheered the 25th Battalion through all their long 
service in France was the pipe band under Pipe-
Iajor Carson. 

rajor J. \Y. Logan was responsible for the organization and equip- 
ment of this fine band. There was nothing better in the armies in 
In pursuance of the Canadian Government's scheme to raise 
a Second Division for service (.)yerseas. Lieut.-Col. G. ..--\. Lecain 
(69th Regiment), of RoundhilI, Annapolis County, was authorized 
to mobilize the 25th Battalion. Canadian Infantry, in 
 ova Scoti3. 
(October. 1914). Lieut.-Colonel Lecain established headquarters 
at the .\rmories. Halifax. and opened recruiting offices in Sydney. 
Amherst. X ew Glasgo\,'. T ruro and Yarmouth. Recruiting com- 
menced late in October. 19I.
. The official nominal roll of officers 
who received appointment
 to the Battalion is published here and to 
them is due the credit of the splendid organization and training 
\V hich enabled these sons 0 f X ew Scotland to rank second to non e 
with the flO\yer of the Rriti
h Armies. 
Iention should also be 
made of the fine non-commissioned officers of the Battalion. and 
those loaned by the Permanent Force. who attended to the details 
of training with most cot1Jmendable zeal. 
It should be remembered that thi
ova Scotia's first 
attempt at recruiting and organizing a full Battalion for service in 
the Great "oar. and the facilities for the proper fulfilment of such 
7 1 

l'S P
--1T IfT.iR 

a task \yere far from perfect, In view of thi
 then X Ova Scotian:"> 
should Le. and. I think. are. unanimou
 in their praise of Lieut.- 
Colonel Lecain and all ranks of his Battalion for his organizing 
and so quickly training a Cnit \yhich. though many times decimated 
and only a skeleton of a nattalion left. quickly and 
absorbed its reinforcements and carried on \\ ith renewed energy 
and greater deeds toward the high ideal 
en"jce for home and humanity. 
1 he "Titer has uften had it suggestecl 
to him that it ,,-as a pity the det'ds of the 
'-5 th Battalion ""ere not better knO\nl by 
the people at home. The reply to such a 
'gestion, on behalf uf the Dattalion is 
this: The reputation of the 25 th 
talion \yaS sa fe in the hands of our com- 
rades throughout the Canadian Corps, 
and our exploits in raiding were the 
man-el of two anllie
. These exploits 
and deed:, with their inevitable accom- 
paniment of blood and death were not fit 
ubjects to pre:,s-agent 
into the already over-wrought family circles. which were po
in receipt of one of those mi
sile5 of despair and death-an ., official 
telegram from Úttawa." \Ye gloried in the encomiums of the 
rigade, Divisional, Corps and .\rl11} Commanders. and still more 
in the hearty praise of our comrades in the .. Y" or the canteen:- 
or estamineb. Cut no one thought of :->ending an account home. 
And why? \\'ell. there were a good many Bills. and Jock:-. and 
Toms and so on. who" \\-ent west .. in that scrap. \ncl what's the 
use of making it )'ealistic to .:\lary and Xora and Bessie? ,. 
Pard. we would rather not." 
.-\ nd there we will leave it and endeavor to adhere to a reso- 
lutiun to make this brief sketch statistically correct. 
efore Christmas Day. 191..+. the Battalion was at full strength 
and had the authorized ten per cent. resen-e in training in the 
Armories at Halifax and later on the Common. In .\pril the 
peuple of Xova Scotia presented the Battalion with t,,"O fine field 
kitchens and $2..;00. the ceremony taking place at the Provincial 


ï 2 


THE 25th BATT.--1LIO..V 

Building. in front of the whole Battalion on parade and a vast 
concourse of people. 

\s evidence of the fine 
pirit which animated the whole Bat- 
talion the follO\\-ing is copied from the official \ Yar Diary: U A 
Cni\'ersity Reinforcement Company of the P.P.C.L.r. arrivecl in 
the city to embark for England. and the 25th Battalion was called 
on to supply 
eYen men to bring it up to strength. The Datta lion 
,\'as formed up on the Common and an invitation extended for any 
who \,'i
hed to go U\'erseas at once in this draft to take one pace 
fUr\yanl. The whole Battalion. to a man. stepped forward making 
it Ileces
ary to search the records and select seven ex-Imperial 
sen-ice men. Privates 
\ldridge, Baker. Conroy, Cumberland. 
Erickson. J,ehoe and Leonard ""ere selected_" 
(hl sailing for England aboard H.Jl. T.S. Sa.rollia (Captain 
Charles, H..X.) on 
[ay 20. H)l3. Haligonians and many from other 
 in the Province witnessed many a moving spectacle as hright 
countenances fought the dimming influence of hea\"y hearts as they 
\vishecl the boys of the 25th Godspeed on their journey. and victory 
in the fight; leaying their safe return or immortalization in the 
hands of the Creator \vho deals justly ancl well in all things. "ïth 
(he 25th Battalion on board the Saxullia were tho
e gallant sons of 
Quebec, the 22nd Dattalion, X 0 account of the doings of the 25 th 
nattaliun cou.1d do justice to its purpose without paying tribute to 
those noble French-Canadians who were continually associated ,,"ith 
the 25th Battalion from embarkation at Halifax on 
Iay 20. I()I5, 
ro debarkation at the same port on 
Iay 16. H)I9. Surely th.ere is 
a löson for our politicians and religious bigots in the cluse co- 
ùperatiun which marked the attitude of these two Battalions toward 
each other throughout the period of their association. Our brave 

omrades of the 22nd Battalion sho\yed us that the French- 
Canadian was not only generous in sympathy but quick to 
collrthorate with his fellow Canadians of British descent on the 
broad principle of national \veHare. In hattIe, in sports. or in 
argument over the e
taminet tables. proof of the whole-hearted 
camaraderie het\\ een the 22nd and 25th Battalions \yas daily 
evident and fostered by both Gnits. 
The Saxonia docked at Devonport on -:\Iay 20. 1015. and her 
yaluable human cargo took trains Í<!r \Yestenhanger. in Kent County, 
6 73 


where they detrained in the middle of the night and marched to 
East Sandling Camp, in the Shorncliffe area, to which the 2nd 
Canadian Division had been assigned for the period of their inten- 
sive training. 
\ Vhile this training was being carried out the Battalion took part 
in Divisional l{e\'iews by H.
l. the l,-ing, Earl Kitchener, Lieut- 
General Sir Sam Hughes and General Steele, as well as one in 
honor of the visit to the area by the Premier of Canada, Sir Robert 
Borden, and Brigade and Training Inspectors. The 25th Battali!m 
"as now a Cnit of the 5th (Eastern Canada) Brigade, 2nd 
Canadian Division, which consisted of four Battalions and details 
(22nd, 24th, 25th and 26th) drawn from ÇJuebec, 
Iüntreal, X ova 
Scotia and X ew Brunswick. The Brigade Commander was Lieut.- 
Colonel (now l\la jar-General) Sir Da yid \ \"atson, and .Major- 
General R. \V. Turner, V.C., was Divisional Commander. 
After three and a half months of eight hours' training per day, 
with four hours of .practice in night operations frequently, the 
2nd Division was ordered to France. The 25th Battalion proceeded 
by boat from Folkestone to Boulogne on the night of September 
15, 19 1 5, and by train on the following day from Pont de Brieques, 
a few kilometres from Boulogne, to a small station near St. Omer. 
From here to the front line was the first real test of the nattalion's 
mora-Ie and physical condition. .:\Iarching for fi\"e days v;ith 
new (Kitchener's) boots over French and Belgian cobblestone 
roads, the Battalion relieved the King's Own Regiment on the 
night of the 22nd-23rd of September, 1915, the first K ova Scotia 
Battalion to face the Hun as a Unit. _ \nd not a man had dropped 
out in the gruelling grind of the last four days. The writer has 
been told, unofficially, that this was a record for the Di\"ision, and 
though it has never been confirmed, neither has it been denied. 
The first few tours in the front lines were spent in the H and I 
trenches, Kemmel Sector of the Y pres Salient, where the Hun was 
very active in mining operations. During the Battalion's second 
tour, which extended over six days, Fritz blew one large and three 
smaller mines on .. B " Company, which killed twelve and wounded 
twenty, leaving a crater 65 feet by 35 feet and 25 feet deep. This 
resulted in no advantage to the enemy, inasmuch as the charge was 

THE 25th BA.TT rlLI01Y 

situated so that it must have done considerable damage to his 
trenches, and the crater \va:-; promptly garrisoned by X ova Scotians. 
Late in (ktoLer. 11)15. 
Iajor E, Hilliam. a Ist Division officer, 
succeeded Lieut.-Colonel Lecain in command of the Dattalion; and, 
under his soldierly guidance. the 25th began to make the Bosche 
sít up and notice hi" surroundings. Lnder 
Iajor (as O.C,. Lieut.- 
Colonel) Hilliam's guidance the Battalion 
became expert in the little tricks which 
worried the enemy and made trench life 
more interesting. X otable among the 
many episodes which added spice to the 
daily routine was a raid on the Hun 
trenche::; by Lieutenant (no,,- Lieut.- ,. 
Colonel) \\ïse. and the stalking of a Ger- 
man patrol in Xo 
Ian's Land by Corporal 
(nO\v Captain) .. Ernie" Canning. which 
resulted in the capture of one of their 
number and the gaining of much informa- 
tion. The small garrison of thirty-fi\re c.B., c.:\I.G" D,S.O. 
25th Battalion men. under Lieutenants 

Iorgan, Johnstone and 
IcXeil. holding 
os, 1 and -+ craters at 
St. Eloi in April. 1913. gave the attacking company of Huns a 
sample of the unbeatable stuff they are made of. 
In April the 25th Battalion took over the line at St. Eloi where 
they remained about six weeks. This was beyond a doubt the most 
trying experience which the Battalion had to that time or has since 
been called upon to endure. There \vere no front line trenches. 
Five mine craters had to be occupied. since the front line trenches 
were all destroyed. and the men had to occupy most exposed posi- 
tions. E\-ery hole and eyery remnant remaining of a trench were 
used as the only possible cover, and mud, muck and \\ ater prevailed. 
Lnder continually heavy and harrowing fire and attacks the 
Battalion endured. though at the price of the 10::'::' of hundreds of its 
personnel. The German artillery fire in the Y pres Salient was the 
heaviest of the \\-ar. \\ïth enemy artillery on three sides. the 
situation may better be imagined than described. One crater that 
was occupied by the Battalion was attacked no less than five times 
between dusk and da-wl1 in one l1ight alone. but the crater \vas held. 


\Yhen the garrison was relieved there were not enough men left to 
bring out the wounded and a relief party had to be sent in for that 
purpose. On this front all intercommunication was impossible and 
isolated parties held the lines. The Battalion \Vas highly commended 
by the higher command for their excellent work on this front. 
The Battalion spent 339 days on the Belgian Front, of \yhich 16 4 
days were spent in actual front line trenches. 
Iany good officers 
and men \yere killed 
r \\'ounded, 
 \mong the former was 
Lieutenant Douglas. who was killed while fighting with the bth 
(\Vestern) Brigade in the craters of St. Eloi. Lieutenant Douglas 
was Batlt:alion 
rachine Gun ()fficer and had been loaned \yith the 
machine gun section to the 6th Brigade during the furious on- 
slaughts which the Hun was making on the craters. The men with 
Lieutenant Douglas were all killed excepting fiye who were captured. 
Besides the I
emmel and St. Eloi 
ectors, the 25th Battalion 
were engaged at Yierstraat, Ploegsteerte. Hill 60. Hooge and 
sines. _ \nd it was here, also, that the Battalion obtained .. Robert 
the Bruce," mascot and \"eteran of three years' service in the land of 
his birth. It would be hard for one to see the immense, sleek goat 
now on the farm of 
Iatheson at Baddeck and endeavor to 
imagine the same animal, two weeks old, hardly bigger than a cat, 
feeding from a bottle in the hands of Pipe-
[ajor Carson in the 
kitchen of the band's billet in Locre. Dut they are one and the 
same animal. The members of the band bought him from the 
I adame " of the house for t\\"o francs (..{.oc.), and trained him to 
" swank '. in front of the pipe band. eat cigarettes. drink beer, and 
demand his blanket at "lights out. ,. He added many other traits 
and tricks to his repertoire before the Battalion \yas disbanded, and 
many a would-be possessor of our mascot has felt the force of his 
., butt" sufficiently to make them all leave .. Robert the Druce" 
strictly to his O\vn Battalion. 
The 25th Battalion played a leading part in the assault at 
Courcellette on September 15, 1916, The whole Corps welcomed 
the relief from the ground-hog tactics of the fray in Belgium and 
looked forward with keen anticipation to their participation in open 
warfare tactics on the Somme in Picard)'. 
The Itroops marched a good portion of the long distance from 
Hazebrouck to 
-\lbert. The 25th Battalion spel1t a few days on the 
ï 6 


way in rchearsing praotices in formations for ach"ancing and assault- 
ing and arri\"ed in the brickfields of Albert ,,-here the whole Division units of the [st and 3rd Divisions were massed under tarpaulins 
and corrugated iron. a few days in advance of September IS. 19 16 . 
The plan of attack on the immediate front of Courcellette was 
for the -t-t h (Ontario) Brigade to open the attack on the morning 
of the fifteenth (15Ith) and clear the ground in front of Courcellette 
and on the sixteenth (16th) the 5th Brigade would carryon the 
attack into the town. The -+th Brigade had their objectives cleared 
and consolid3.lted so early in the day that the Di\"isional Commander 
decided to put the 5th Urigade over the top at h o'clock in the after- 
noon. Hrig.-General 
lacDonnell (5th Brigade) di\"ided the town 
e\"enly. pointed out the objecti \"es to Lieut.-Colonel Trembl
(22nd Datta lion ) and Lieut.-Colonel Hilliam. explained that the 
other t,,-o Battalions would be in support and reserve and sent the 
Quebecers and X ova Scotians to it. Both Battalions were led in 
person by their commanding officers. who set a fine example of 
leadership and courage to officers and men. The 25th and 22nd 
Battalions established their line ,,'ell to the east of the ruined 1O\V11 
and maintained their positions in the face of fierce counter-attacks 
until relieved a few days later. . 
This operation. brilliant as it \Vas in execution. cost the J1aaalion 

ome of ib most capable officers and men. Lieut.-Colonel HilliatU 
was \vounded in the hand, but refused to leave the line until his 
Battalion \vas relieved, He \Vas in evidence everywhere throughout 
the attack \vifh his long stick cheering his men and by his energy 
and daring urging them to their best endeavors. In his report to 
the G.O.C.. 5th Brigade. he praised the work of officers and men 
very highly, and closed with the words. .. General. I have the honor 
of commanding the finest body of men I have ever seen." 
Three Company Commanders. :\[ajor Tupper ("A" Company), 

Iajor Brooks (" D" Company), and Capt. John Stairs (" C" 
Company). \\"ere killed. and the O,C. .. B .. Company. 
Iajor Flowers, 
was se\-erely wounded. The _-\djutant. Captain Dicky. Lieutenants 
Hobkirk. HO\\"son. Craig and Doane were killed. The ,,'ounded 
included Capt. J. D. 
lcXeil, l\[ajor Xutter. Lieutenants ""etmore, 
Ryan, De Young and Dennis Stairs. 

.J.T TJY_--1R 

Before I pass from the doings of the Battalion on the Somme, 
it is necessary. in order to do justice to the narrative. to record the 
loss of one of the bravest and mo
t capable officers of the Battalion 
and one who gave great promise as a fearless and resourceful 
fighter for high ideals. I refer to Lieut. L. H. Johnstone, who led 
the 25th Battalion in the fruitless and bloody attack on Regina 












LIEUT, C. E. HO\VSO)/". 


CAPT. \\", E. E. DOA)/"E. 

Trench. October 1St. 1916. \Yhile gallantly leading those men into 
a veritable hell of machine gun and shell fire, the" Iron Duke," as 
he was nicknamed by the gallant men he was leading. fell to rise no 
\ Yhen the Battalion finally mO\"ed from the Somme area to be 
reinforced and recuperated there were Ie::,:; than une hundred of the 
ï S 


original crusaders who marched so gaily from Flanders less thall one 
month preyiol1s1y. Though they had received a hard drubbing they 
made the old nickname of .. Herring-choker" one to be respected 
as long as memory lives and histories are written. Theirs was not 
tlw attitude of the torn and mangled dog with its tail between its 
legs. \\ïth reinforcements, which arrived while the remnants of 
the Battalion rested a few days at Bertrincourt, near Albert, they 
\yere transported to Hersin. and immediately went into the line at 
Bully-Grenay. on the Lens Front. \yhere, with a pugnacity which is 
typical of the breed, they stirred up a quiet sector until it became 
the most frequently raided and most heavily shelled of their 
The fir
t raid on this front. and one of the most successful, was 
the enterprise, on Christmas E\-e, 1916. directed by Capt. \Y. A. 
Cameron and carried out by an officer and twenty men from each 
Company. The objective took in a point in the enemy lines known 
as the ., Pope's 
ose;' owing to the peculiar twist in the trench 
\yhich brought it to within fifteen yards of our line. Each party 
was successful in gaining entrance to the Hun trenches. In fact, 
t\\"o of the parties encountered no opposition, for Fritz had fled for 
cO\-er. But the party from .. D " Company, under Lieut. (now 
Capt.) "T. 
\. Livingstone, found their objectIve strongly manned 
and the men were able to get in some splendid bayonet and 
bomb \york. They saved seyen specimens of German Kultur to tell 
our Intelligence Staff what they knew about the situation on the 
other side of X 0 ::\1 an 's Land. 
Captain Cameron. Lieutenants Livingstone and ::\Iorris received 
d ilitary Crosses in recognition of their energy and personal gal- 
lantry in the aboye affair. 
Lieut.-Colonel ] Iilliam. D.S.O., was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General and appointed to the command of the loth 
Infantry Brigade. 4th Canadian Diyision. in January, 1917. The 
Dattalion at having their C.<). selected for a higher command recog- 
nizerl that no promotion in the .\llied Forces was more deserved; 
but regret at the Battalion's loss \Vas expressed by all ranks. The 
effects of his soldierly training and administration of the Battalion 
remained with them throughout the "-ar. 


l'S P

In the attack on \ïmy Ridge, Easter 
, I9 I ï, 
the 25th Battalion was led by 
I ajor J. A. Delancey. 
I.C., until 
that brave officer ,,"as killed, after which 
Iajor (now Colonel) 
A. O. Blois, of I falifax (who had enlisted as a private in the 40th 
Battalion. been appointed to a commission in the I 
transferred a subaltern to the 23th Battalion and had progressed 
at that date through the Adjutancy of the Dattalion to the rank of 
l\Iajor). took command. and organized and consolidated the objec- 
tives which had all been secured by ten o'clock and were extende(l 
later in the day. 
Two of the Dattalion pipers played the hoys O\'er the top that 
wintry morning, and although the German band and our (IWI1 

.... ;; , - 

.. -, 

'"' \/ 
t '... 



C \1' f. J. II, \\" -\LLACE. 

artillery drowned the skirting notes of the pibroch. our lads were 
fired \yith the spirit which prompted these two nohle musicians 
to volunteer and insist on accompanying the Uattalion through the 
muck and mire. the death and destruction \\'hich \,'as let loose on that 
fateful day. They were awarded :\Iilitary :\ledals for their splen- 
did example uf self-sacrificilJg disregard for personal safety. 
Lieutenant Hallisey. of Truro. was killed while proceeding to 
the ., jumping off" position. Several officers were wounded. and 
the casualties among the 
.C.O.'s and men were very hea\"y. The 
death of R.S,:\I. .. Dad" l-lenchcliffe. l\ I. c., father of all the X,C,O.'s 
and men in the Dattalion. was particularly regrettable; for he was a 
very efficient warrant officer and a friend to all. 

THE 25th B.1TT.1LlO

Lieut.-Colonel Uauld commanded the Battalion at the taking of 
Fresnoy and Arleux late in February. \Yhile these were only local 
affairs and confined to a narrow front, they were the cause of some 
very severc casualties, .. D" and .. C., Companies suffered very 
severely at .\rleux. Captain \\ eare, 
I.C.. was severely shell- 
shocked, Lieutenants Bell and \ Y all ace, two very pronllsmg young 
officers. were killed. and scores of our 
men caught in the wire. in the darkness, 
\\-ere literally 
hot to pieces. 
Shortly. after this affair! two officers' 
batmen from .. C ., Company went astray 
in the darkne

 \vith their officers' rations 
and ::;trayed into the enemy lines. Their 
whereabouts \\-as a mattér of .conjecture 
until the puhlication of the roll of prison- 
ers of \\-ar. In the thirty-eight months 
during which the 25th Battalion \vas in 
contact with the flower of the German LIEUT.-COL." STAX" 13.\ l; W. 
"oar Lord's Legion
. only eight of our 
men \\'ere captured alÏ\-e. The five machine-gunners have 
already been noted. 'l'hey \\-ere detached from the Uattalion at 
the time of their capture. The t\VO mentioned abO\-e were the 
victims of a dark night and unfamiliar recently captured ground. 
The cighth man to be captured \vas taken on the 
Iericonrt Sector 
early in 19 r 
 during a raid by a party of three officers and ninety 
Huns on a thinly held portion of the sectOl-. \ \' e also succeeded in 
capturing one of the raiding party \\,ho \\"a
 un fortunate enough to 
get into our wire entanglements. \ great deal of information \\'as 
gleaned from thc capti\"e regarding the training and composition of 
the raiding party. The man who \vas captured by the enemy had 
only joined the Battalion a few days previously, So what informa- 
tion the 
erman ] ntelligence Staff gleaned from him must have heen 
purely family affairs. 
Early' in July. ] 9] ï. Lieut,-Colonel Dauld obtained leave of 
aLsence to visit his home. and the command of the Dattalion 
devoh'ed on :\Iajor Blois. D.S.O.. who commanded the 25th. until 
he in turn was granted leave to Canada 111 
Iay. 19TH. 




The 25th Battalion played a glorious part in the Battle of Hill 
ï O on _-\ugu
t [5. 19 1 i. The boys went oyer the top from the sheIl- 
holes of X 0 
Ian'::, Land in front of Cite St. Laurent. .'...--\.. Com- 
pany. in the fir
t wa\'e, 
ecured the Hun front line. 00 n -. Com- 
pany was through them as soon as the creeping barrage permitted 
and clinched the snpport line. while" D ., Company carried on to the 
limib of the to\yn. The 24th Battalion 
then pu:"hed on our positions 600 yards 
farther to the trench .. X un 's 
Considering the amount of ground gained 
and the nature of the fighting. in ruined 
streets and over demolished buildings, the 
casualties \yere yery light on the r 3th. 
But the Hun artillery promptly laid down 
a barrage to cover his counter-attacks, 
\\'hich fell behind the front line and com- 
pletely churned up the debris formerly 
COL. A. G. BLOIS, Ð.S,O. knO\yn as Cité St. Laurent. \yhere the 25 th 
Battalion \Vas endea\"oring to establish 
a defensíye pO
ltlOn. The counter-attacks of the Rosche gradually 
weakened. and by the 18th had ceased; but his artillery strafeing 
gre\\' more intense as the days passed. causing many casualties. 
On tIle night of A.ugust 19-20, the 25th Battalion moved from 
their positions in Cité St. Laurent to the comparative peace and 
quiet of the front line. At daybreak the 6th Brigade on our 
immediate right were to attack and tighten the pressure already 
exercised on Len
. The Hun also divulged his reason for the 
systematic and furious shelling of our positions during the past six 
days when he launched an attack in force on the 6th Brigade and 
extending into our right (00 D ,. Company's front). The O.c. "D" 
Company. being in an advanced position and clo:-e to our own 
artillery barrage line, was ordered to place his men under cover, 
which he did. leaying only sentries at the entrances to shelters. 
Zero hour for the 6th Brigade's and the German attack coincided 
and both were demoralized by the intensity of the artillery fire they 


encountered before the a:::.sembly positions could be cleared. The 
result \yas that neither the 6th Brigade nor the Prussians opposite 
them left their trenches. nUt the artillery was not so active on the 
Front of our" D" Company, with the result that the I [uns were 
throwing grenades down on our dugout steps befure our men 
realized that they \\ ere trapped. Lieutenant Dauphinee was killed 
in a gallant attempt to clear the entrance 
to the dugout in which the whole Com- 
pany was sheltered. Captain "-. .-\. Liv- 
I.C" O.C. .. D" Company, 
managed to force his way out by another 
entrance, and \yith a Lewis Gun spitting 
.303 bullets from his shoulder, he man- 
aged to clear the trench of those who 
escaped his fusilade. But the trench was 
literally filled with corpses from the 
attacking hordes. X or was the situation 
normal as yet. A party of Huns had got 
in on the right of our boundary, and CAPT. OWEN C. DAUPHINEE. 
Lieutenant Spurr and Sergeant Jordan. 
after expelling them, organized the survivors of the Company of a 
\Vestern Battalion, who had lost all their officers and \yere in a 
precarious condition. The boys of ., D " Company. reinforced by a 
platoon from .. B" Company, which had been led up through the 
intense shelling by Lieutenant Bell, were busy all day repelling 
bombing parties which stubbornly attempted to force their \yay into 
our lines at the Battalion boundary-the junction of X un's Alley 
and Commotion Trenches. 
Captain Livingstone. whose ,,'ork on this day meritecl the 
Yictoria Cross, was severeh, wounded in the chest and col1ap
immediately after he had cleared the Huns from his trenches. and 
Lieutenant Spurr commanded his company until relieved by a 
company of the Royal Canadian Regiment at night. Great credit 
is due Lieutenants Gibbons and Hell for their skill and judgment 
in rallying our boys and organizing the defences. The coolness of 
Sergeant Jordan saved the situation on the immediate right. when he 
rallied the ovenyrought survivors of the "'estern Battalion. Cor- 
poral Boudreau, Company Sergt.-:\Iajor Bragg, Corporal "eniot. 




'-1'S P
-lT TV LiR 

and Sergt. " Dan ., Fraser also distinguished themselves in inflicting 
punishment on the Hun and by their heroic conduct throughout the 
day. Company Sergt.-
lajor Bragg and Sergeant Jordan were 
awarded Distinguished Conduct 
ledals for their services on this 
occasion. Captain Livingstone, 
l.C.. was awarded a bar. and 
Lieutenant Spurr, the 
Iilitary Crus
At Passchendaele, on Noyember 10. 19 1 ï, the 5th Infantry 
Drigade was given the post of honor as a successful assaulting 
Urigade. The 1st, 3rd and ..t-th Divisions and the 4th Brigade of 
the 2nd Division had been engaged in nibbling here and there at the 
Hun positions and had at length captured most uf the Passchendaele 
Hidge. But the ruined town still remained in German hands. On 
the morning of the 6th :'\ ovember the 26th Battalion attacked and 
captured the ruins to the eastern limits of the town and after hold- 
ing their gains for four days the 5th Brigade wa
 \\,ithdrawn from 
the Passchendaele Sector, and returned to Lens. 
The 2nd Canadian Division remained in the Lens-
Sectors until the latter part of February. [91R The only notable 
occurrence, other than the loss of one man to the Iluns, as previ- 
ously noted. was the stealth raid led by Lieut. r. R. Phillips. of 
arrington, assisted by a covering party under Lieut. :\I ax 

\lacRae, of "Testville. The raiding party of only five cra\decl 
O\Tr the Lens-.\rras Road and made their \Yay among the hattered 
houses of Lens to one of the buildings of Fosse 3 and destroyed 
a duguut full of .. Heinies," bringing the sentry who was on duty 
at the entrance into our lines. The prisoner proved to be a very 
observant chap and a great deal of infurmation was gleanerl from 
him. \Yhen questioned as to the great offcnsive which our Staff 
expected daily. he said no attack \vould be made on the Canadians. 
Fritz had probably had his fill of attacking Canucks when he broke 
his head on them in the First Battle of Y pres, at St. Eloi and the 
The 2nd Division had completed ten days of \\'hat was to be a 
months' rest when the long-expecterl Hun offensive broke away 
south on the British right on 
Jarch 21M. The 25th Dattalion had 
only started their syllabus of training and recreation when they 
were ordered south, The northern limits of this effort of the Hun 
was marked by the southern boundary of the Canadian Corps' 

THE 25th B.1 TT.1LIQX 

front, and here the 2nd DivisIOn took oyer the completely disorgan- 
ized line of the Imperial troops. The sector was knO\\"n as the 

Iercatel- X euyille Yetas:-;e Sector. Here the 25th Battalion was 
engaged three month
 in punishing the German Diyision opposite. 
Each period of six days spent in the front line \\"as marked by a 
raid on the enemy outposts. and sometimes our boys penetrated 
 of a mile into the Hun lines. So completely terror- 
ized was FrÌtz by the \"igorous onslaughts which occurred almost 
nightly and seyeral times in broad daylight that no resistance ""as 
offered in most cases, and at length the ne\\"s \\"as gleaned from 
some of the last prisoners that the whole Di\"i
ion had to be with- 
dra\\"n for re-equipment. 
The 2Sth Battalion e:-;tablished themselves as the "::\Iaster 
Raiders" of the Canadian Corps. and were called on for 
officers and non-commissioned officers to instruct the famous 
Guards Diyision in the ne\\" and mo
t effecti\'e art of keeping Fritz 
,,"orried. Six of the raids conducted on this front ,,"ere led by 
one officer, Lieut. (no\\" 
Iax ::\facRae. eyery one of which 
nettecl prisoners, besides machine guns and documents. -\mong 
the other officers taking part in these raids 
\\"ere Captains . \nderson and Holmes, 
Lieutenants Lounsbu ry, 1 fa ,,'es. Dell. 
Johnstone. Holly. Burchell. Spurr
\\" right. It was here that the Battalion 
established its record of successful raids 
and became known throughout the 1st 
and the -t-th l\rmies as the .. Raiding 
Dattalion." putting on about thirty raids 
in thi:-; sector. 
Lieut.-Colonel (now Colonel) Blois, 
D.S.O.. \\'a
 granted leaye to Canada and 
LIEl'T.-COI.. J. WISE, D.S.O., 
handed the Battalion ovcr to ::\f ajor (now 'I.C".. CROIX DE GUERRE. 
Lieut.-Colonel) \\ïse in ::\lay. 191R 
.-\t the battle of .\miens, .\ugust 8. 1(j!g. when the Canadian 
Corps \\'as first launched into the grand offensive which broke the 
German morale ancl hrought them hegging for peace. the 25 th 
TIattalion was on the left of the Canadian Corps and in touch with 
the dashing .-\ustralian Corp
 on their left. The attack. like that 



I I. 





of nearly two years previous at Courcellette, was made with the "t-th 
Brigade taking Yillers, Brettonneux. and l\Iarcelcave on the 
Amiens-Roye Railway, and a considerable stretch of country to the 
right of those towns. The plans "vere so well guarded and the 
assemblage of troops, guns. etc., so effectively concealed. that the 
enemy was utterly stunned at the suddenness of the attack and the 
speed with which it was pushed. 
After the ..t-th Brigade had established their line in front of 

Iarcelcave the 5th Brigade carried on the attack through \ Yien- 
court and Guillaucourt. The 25th Battalion encountered consider- 
able opposition in a small \\'ond south of \\Tiencourt; and it \\'as 
there that most of the casualties occurred. Lieut. J. \Y. Holly. of 
St. J 01111. \vas killed by machine-gun fire. and thirteen other officers 
\\-ere wounded in ousting the Huns from this wood, 
_-\t Guillaucourt. Lieut.-Colonel "Tise. \\"110 \\-as the first to 
arrive at the objectiye, fell, severely wounded by a sniper's bullet. 
The Adjutant. Capt. "K. H. \Yetmore, utterly disregarding his own 
safety. sprang to his O.C.'s assistance and became the target for a 
better directed bullet from the same sniper 
and fell. never to rise again. 

Iajor Day, second in command, who 
had been acting as a Brigade liason officer 
during the attack, immediately assumed 
command of the Battalion and directed it 
in the advance on the following day when 
the to\vns of Y rely and 
Ieharicourt werè 
taken. After having advanced twelve 
miles in two days, the 2nd Division gave 
place to the ..t-th, who carried on to the 
outskirts of Hallu. This attack was cer- 
tainly the most successful in which the 
25th Uattalion had thus far been engaged. An immense area of 
beauti ful country with some important towns had been taken from 
the Hun. with surprisingly few casualties. 
.-\fter a fe\; days in the line in front of Hallu, the Battalion was 
mO\"ed to Derneville. near Arras. where the details \vere left behind 
and we were into it agam-over Telegraph Hill and down the 

., ""'- 



....'-...,.. I 


í.-\PT, x, H. WETMORE. 



eastern slope to the Cojuel River on .-\ugust 2óth-a distance 
of four miles-fighting all the way; then acros
 the dried-up bed 
of the stream un the 27th to Cheris}' and past the Sensee River to 
the heighb beyond; and then a tightening up of the Hun resist- 
ance, which meant a fruitless hammering at the strongly ,,"ired 
positions in front of Cpton 'Yooel and" the Cro\\-'s 
est" on the 
The 2nd Division had not rested since the 5th of \ug"ust. anel 
had penetrated to great depths in the enemy's line
 on t" 0 fronts. 
The tired troops could accol1lpli
h no more. The \\T"iter can 
testify that men actually fell asleep on their feet on the night of 
the 28th-29th of 
\UgllSt. when a counter-attack was imminent. 
The state of mind of men \vhen so thoroughly exhausted as our 
boys \vere at the end of the third day, is one that cares not \\'hat 
may happen to a body so completely worn out. It is then that 

entiment-lù\"e of home, Battaliun pride, and the .shame of \\'eak- 
ness-asserts itself and supports a man \\,hen everything tangible i., 
.. C" Cumpany lost a splendid officer 
\\. hen Capt. 
I. L. Tupper was killed. .-\ 
relative of 
Iajor J. H. Tupper, who 
.. paid the price " at Courcellette in 1916, 
he had shown a fearlessness in the face of 
the enemy and a conscientiousness in all 
his duties which well merited his appoint- 
ment as O.c. .. C" Company. 
The Battalion had a respite of two 
days at Hautes A vesnes. on the .-\rras- 
St. Pol Road, O\'er the anniversary of the 
landing in France and the Battle of Cour- 
cellette, September 15th. and was then 
continuously in the fur ward area until after the fall of Cambrai on 
October 9. 1918. engaging the Hun in the Inchy-
IoeU\Tes and the 

rarcomg Switch Sector
. and clearing the Hun from the towns of 
Eseadoeueres anel Ievuy. on the northern outskirts of Camhrai. 
" B " Company, under Lieutenant (' no\\" 
(t\\'O bars). did splendid \\'ork at Inchy on the 2I
t and 22nd 







CAPT. ::\1. L. TepPER. 


September, when they captured scn
n machinc gun
. killing the 
crews an.d straightening out a kink in our line. 
In this wonùerful last hundred days of the \ \ ar. whcn the Hun 
had to be dislodged from the positions he had bccn preparing. 
since his first check at the 
Iarne in ISJ1..t-. the dccds of valor \yhich 
\\"ere enacted daily and hourly were too numerous to rcter to here 
at any length. Dut mention may be made of some of the more 
notable recipients of \\'ar Decorations awarded officcrs. 
and men, ,,"ho 
rved ,,"ith the 25th Battalion. 
First in the list must come Lieut.-Colonel (no,," Hrig.-General) 
Hilliam. who won the D.S.t). and two bars for personal gallantry 
in the field and was mentioned in despatches four times, He \\"as 
also in\'estecl with the insignia of a Companiun of the Uath (C.D,) 
and that of a Companion of the Order of St. 
[ichael and St. 
Gcorge (C.
I.G.). _ \nother officer who carries two rO\\"s of mcdals 
on his breast is 
Iajor G. 
Iatheson. D.S.O.. 
I.C., and .\1.
Lieut.-Colonel \\Tise wears the D.S.n. and the 
l.c.. \\"ith the French 
Croix de Guerre. LieuL 
I. Jordan \Years thc 
I.c.. D.C,
and Bar. 
Capt. l\Iax ::\IacRae wa
 awarded the 
Iilitary Cross three times. 
Company Sergt.-
Iajor Dauphinee and Corporal Lt:ggett each \\"erc 
awarded the 
Iedal three times. Regimental Sergt.-
Hurley was awarded the 
rilitary Cross. D,C.
ì..nd rrench Croix 
de Cuerre. Company Sergt.-
Iajor Boudreau received thc Croix 
de \Ïrtute (H.oumanian) besides the D.C.
I. and Bar. 
Iickarek \Yon the Russian Cross of St. George. \nd many 
officers and men won 
[ilitary Crosses. D.C.
I."s and Bars. 
--\.. summary of the nattalion's record of awards is given further 
The last occasion on which the 25th Battalion was in hostile 
contact with the Hun ,,"as at the storming of Elouges, a mll1\11g 
town near 
Ions. on Xovemher R 191H. The casualties. though 
very light, only eleven mcn being killed, included some of the 
original-- \vho had seen the thing through to this ringing dm\"ll of 
the curtain, Some ele\"en. including Company Sergt.-:\Iajor Ceorgc 
Yincent. D.C.
I., CorpI. John 
rorrison and " Dillie" Robcrts, \\"ho 
had wcathered ,the storm only to be swept over at the harhor's 
mouth, lie asleep in the little ci\"ilian cemeten' at Eloug-es. where 

THE 25th B.-1TT.-l LlOX 

their gra\'es \\-ill be guarded and cared for by the grateful people 
of thc to\\ï1, who \\"elco111ed the Datta lion as liberators. 
The boys of the Battalion ""ere enjoying their "lionization" by 
the populacc at 
lons when the ne\\'s wa
 received at 9 a,111. on 
1\ O\-cmber ] I, ]
lg. that \ye had but t,,"O hours more of hostilities 
when the - \ rmi
ticc would become effective. 
Thc reI11aining three days \\"ere given O\"er to celebrating what 
had been fought for. and prayed for during the last fonr years- 
1 Ïctory. .-\ Thanksgiving Sen"ice \\-as held in the little chapel in 
the LO\Vn. conducted by the brave chaplain who had stuck to u
through the" Las.t Hundred Days "--Capt. .\. J. 
racDonald. .\nd 
the local pastor addressed u
 in an impassioned .-\ddress of Thanks 
in French. out of which the writer di
tinguished only the oft- 
repeated phrase. .. 
I erci heaucoup. no
oYemhcr II). 191
. the Battalion started on dIe long march 
to the Rhine. \\" e crossed the German border near St. Yith at 
10.08 a.m.. Decemher 5th. with the Cnion Jack flying at the head of 
the column. \{ lo,-t-ï a.I11,. ] )ecember 13th. the Battalion crossed 
the Rhine at Bonn and proceeded to the .. Còlogne Dridgehead 
Outpost Line." ,,"here we had the sati
faction of telling the Hun 
ho\v he shouhl act and also the pleasure of enforcing our instruc- 
tions on him. 
. \ fter six \vceks on the Rhine. during which all ranks had an 
opportunity of visiting the famous cities of Cologne. Bonn and 
Coblenz. the Battalion returned to Belgium and went into hillets at 
An"dais. near 
 anmr. On April 5, 19H). we started for Havre. and 
on the night of the 9th embarked on the old PriJlce .-lytlll/r. formerly 
of the Boston-Yannouth sen-ice. and on the morning of the roth 
arri\'ed at Southampton and proceeded hy train to \\ïtlcy Camp in 
Surrey. ,,-hcre. after a month's sojourn a\vaiting document
the I
ccord Ortìce. we sailed from Sonthampton on the 01."111 pic. 

ray 10. 1911). 
()n hoard wcrc the whole 5th Brigade and the 2()th Hatrtalion, 
óth Drigade. - \ ftcr an unc\'entful though plea
ant \"oyage. and to 
the accompanimcnt of the music of several hands and the shrill 
whistles of factorics. boats and auto horns on both sidcs of Hali fax 
Harhor. thc OIYlllpic docked at Pier 2: anti after a fare"Tll to the 
22n<1. .2_ph. 2óth and 2()th \\-e lined up for our march to the 



Armories, which triumphal procession. to the writer. seemed to be 
but a part of a great dream, as the memory of the exile from home 
now seems but an hallucination. 

Decoration. Officers. Ranks, 
D.S.O, ........,......"..... ....,..........,..'...., 5 
1\1. C. ................ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3ï 2 
2nd Bar to l\I.c. ...,.,..,.......,......,..........,., I 
Bar to l\I.C. ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 
D.C.l\I. . . . . . ' . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . 27 
Bar to D.C.:\1. ., . , . . . . . ' , . . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . 2 
-;\ I.l\I. .."............,...,....... . , . . . . , . . , . . 15 6 
Bar to "1\I.M. ...,.......,.,......,... .., , . ' .. . . . . 25 
2nd Bar to :\l.IvI. ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :2 
M.S.l\1. . . . . . . , . ' . . ' . , . . _ . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 8 
Croix de Guerre ... ....,.,....",.....,....,.....," 3 5 
Russian Cross of St. George ...,.....,........,.,.... I 
Croix de Virtute Militata (Roumania) ,..,.......".. I 
Medaille Barbatie si Credinta, 3rd Class (Roumania).., 1 

Total ..,....".".....,..,...,......,........ 51 230 
Mentioned in Despatches, officers, 17; other ranks, IS. 


Lieut.-Col. Lecain. G. A.. O.c. ....,., 
., Sponagle, J. A.. M.D. ..... 
Major Bauld. D. S.. "D" Co, .... 
., Conrad, W. H., 2nd Cornd. 
Jones, A. N., " A" Co. .... 
McKenzie. J. G., "B " Co. . 
MacRae, D. A.. "C" Co... 
McKenzie. 1. H., Adjt. ". 
\Veston, A. W. P.. Jr. Maj. 
HOTl. Capt. Graham, E. E.. Chap. .'.. 
Capt. Holt. C. W. .....,..,..... 
" Logan, J. W., "C" Co. ... 
Hon. Capt. McPherson. D., Chap. .'" 
Capt. .Margeson, J. \V., Paymaster 
" Medcalfe, \V. B.. "B" Co. 
Purney, \V. P.. .. D" Co". 
Tuppe-r, J. H.. "A .. Co.... 
\Vhitford, \TV. 1.. .. D" Co. 
Lieut. Brooks. E. J.. "A" Co,.. 
" Bullock, L. X. B., "D" Co 
Cameron. \Y. A.. " A" Co. 
Delancey. ]. A., "M.G." ,. 
EvilIe, C. K., .. B ,. Co..... 
Grant. J. \Y., .. B " Co..... 
9 0 

Roundhill, Ann. Co. ..... ,69th Regt. 
l\Tiddleton, N.S. "",..,.' c.A.:\1.c. 
lifax . . . . ' . . . , , . . , .66th R

...,..,......,.. ,63 rd 
...."...,",." .C.F.:\. 
\ V estville .....,....,.... .7 8th Regt. 
Baddeck .......,.,.,...., .94 th " 
Stellarton ............,.., 78th " 
Halifax .,....,....,,66th" 
Arcadia . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . C.M.R. 
Amherst .' , . . . , .. . . . . . . .93 rd Regt. 
Halifax ...,....,...,.... ,63 rd " 
Sydney l\'Iines, C.B. .,.... 
Bridgewater .........".,. 75th " 
Halifax ..,. .....""..66th" 
Liverpool . ' . . ' , . , , , , , . . . ,68th " 
Bridgetown . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 th " 
Chester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75th " 
Falmouth ..,....,........'. 
Halifax .,...,.........., .63 rd " 
S1. John, K.B. 
Middleton ........,....,. . ()3 rd " 
Halifax .....,.........,. .8Ist 
Amherst .................. S.A, 

THE 25t/z BATT ALI01\T 


Grant, ]. A., ., B" Co..".. 
Johnstone, 1. H., "C" Co, 
Longley, H. G., "Trpt." '.. 
Macaloney, C. W. ..,..,.. 
Morgan, E., "D" Co. .'.. 
Mosher. C M, ...'..,".. 
Murphy, V. P., .. D" Co,.. 
McKay, K. 1., " A" Co.... 
McKinnon, D.. "A" Co... 
McLeod, H. A., "B" Co.. 
McNiel, G, M., " A" Co... 
McNiel, J. n, "c" Co.,. 
N ewnham, T. F., .. Qmst." . 
Roberts, G. E., "C" Co. . . . 
Smith, B. H. ,.....,.....' 
Stairs, J. C., "A" Co...., 
Tanner, F. I., "C" Co.... 
Young, G. R '" _.,...... 
RS.M. Miles, H. F. .... "_ 


Halifax ,...... _ _ _ " . . .63rd Regt. 
Sydney ......,......,....8Ist .. 
Paradise .....,........... 69th " 
Halifax .",....,......... 
Bear River ......,....,'.. 69th " 
Mahone Bay".",...... ,75th " 
New Ross ..,..... ..,.",75th " 
Inverness .......,........94th " 
Woodbine .,.,..,.........94 t h " 
Salt Springs, Pic. Co, ....' 78th " 
Iona .........,....,..,.. ,94th " 
Whitney Pier ......,..... S,A. 
Halifax " _....,.,..,.... .RCG.A. 

. . . . , . . , . , . . . . . . , .66th Regt. 
. . . . . , . . . , . . . , . . .66th " 
Pictou ....,....,.,..,.... C.F.A. 
KentviIle ........"....... C.M.R 
Halifax ..,...".....,... .RC.R. 

Strength of Unit on proceeding to France on Sept. 15th, 19 1 5. 
Officers. Other Ranks. 
32 1,000 
Reinforcements after coming to France. 
Officers. Other Ranks. 
23] 3.829 
Wounded and sick to England. 

Other Ranks. 

Killed in action and died';n hospita1. 
Officers. Other Ranks. 
32 686 

1\1 issing. 
Off. O.Rs. 
2 64 

Off. O.Rs. 

Off. o.Rs. 
37 682 

9 1 


THE -/otlz B

T HE 4 0th Battalion was authorized January I, 19 1 5, under the 
command of Lieut.-Co!. \\". H. Gi
sone (H..C.R,). As the 
men were recruited, detachments were formed at 
IcK ab's 
Island, Halifax, Sydney, Glace Bay. 
orth Sydney. Truro. Amherst, 

 ew Glasgow , Yarmouth. Lunenburg, I,-entville and Digby. 
The Dafitalion wa
 finally mobilized at Aldershot Camp, X .S.. 
Iay 1 I, 19 1 5. Lieut.-Colonel Gibsone proceeded direct to 
France to become A.
\.G. of the 3rd Canadian Division, which was 
then in process of formation. At Aldershot Camp, X.S., the -t- oth 
was first inspected by the Duke of Connaught and Brig.-General 
II. 1\1. 
IcLean, who commented on their splendid showing. On 
June 2EoÌ, under the command of Lieut.-Cot .\. G. Yincent. the 
4 0th Datta lion mO\'ed to Yalcartier Camp. Quebec. Defore leaving 
for Valcartier two drafts ,,'ere despatched, one of twenty-five men 
to the 25 th Battalion. and another of 250 men and five oAi.cers to 
England. as reinforcements. . 

-\t \ alcartier 
trelìUOUS \vork by all ranks drew special mention 
of the 4 0th by -:\Iajor-General Sir Sam Hughes at a General Re\-ie\\" 
of the Camp a week before sailing. The TIattalion was also in- 
spected later at Yalcartier by the Duke of Connaught and also by Sir 
H.obert Borden. A ""eek before sailing a third call was made for 
reinforcements, and again five officers and 230 X,C.U:s and mcn, 
all picked, were desp:ltched to England. 
Notwithstanding this great drain. on October IS. 19 1 3. the -1- oth 
sailed from Quebec on the 5,5. 5a.nmia. with a strength of 1. 1 -1-3 
9 2 

TI-lE -loth B.-lTT.:lLIO-.V 

all ranks, under the command of Lieut.-Co!. A. G. Vincent and the 
following officers: 
.:'IIajor C. A. Andrews, Second in Command. 
.:'Ilajor J. C. Ditmars. 
Capt. J. S. Legge, Adjutant. 
Lieut, H. Fisher, Q..:'Il. 
Lieut. G. 
I. Sylvester, Assistant 
Lieut. A. \V. Cunningham, Sig. Officer. 
Lieut. H. St. C" Jones, .:'I1.G, Officer. 
':\lajor Geo, \rood, Chaplain, 
Capt. E. Douglas, .:\ledical Officer. 
Capt. G" H. Gi1lis, Paymaster. 
':\lajor A. G. Xutter, O.c. .. .\ " Company, 
Capt. \V. E. Doane, Second in Command. 
Lieut. Ceo. Campbell. 
Lieut. G. \V. Anderson. 
Licut. P. \V. Freeman. 
Lieut. A. S. Al1en. 
Lieut. J. Harley. 
Capt. C. R. ChishoJm, O.C, " B" Compan). 
Capt. H. P. Ben. Second in Command. 
Lieut. .:\Ic.I. .:'II c Leod. 
Lieut. J. D. .:\IcIntyre. 
Lieut. \\T. \V. Pickup. 
Lieut. H. II. Heal. 
Capt. A. .:\1. Ross, D.C. " C" Company. 
Capt. G" \ V. Dwyer, Second in Command, 
Lieut. G. B. .:\Iurra\". 
Lieut. A. S, Churchill. 
Lieut. C. E. Little, 
Lieut. L. \V. Ormand, 
Lieut: D. H, l\IacKenzie, 
Capt. \v. Letcher, O.C. "D ,. Company. 
Capt. E. R. Dennis, Second in Command. 
Lieut. B. F. Davidson. - 
Lieut. F. P. H. Layton. 
Lieut. R. Jago. 
Lieut. L. \r. \V" Slacke. 
Lieut. F, G. Robertson. 
Lieut. A. Anderson. 
On October 29. 1915, after an uneventful voyage the Battalion 
landed at Plymouth and proceeded to Bramshott Camp. being the 
first Canadian Infantry Battalion to enter that Camp, where they 
took over quarters from the Royal Irish Rifles. ht BratUshott the 
4 0th joined part of the then contemplated 9th Brigade of the 3 rd 
Canadian Division, which was under the command of General Lord 
Owing to the heavy demand for rein forcements. following the 
disastrous action of June 2. 1916 (the Third Battle of Ypres), 


the Battalion was moved to East Sandling to become the 4 0th 
Reserve Battalion, where drafts were despatched to nearly every 
Unit in the Canadian Corps. After many moves the 40th absorbed 
the remnants of the 64th, 104th, l06th and [12th Battalions, and 
finally returned to Bramshott to become the 26th Reserve Battalion, 
and \vas finally absorbed by the 17th Reserve Battalion. 
The 40th Battalion has the distinction 
that praotically every officer and man of 
the original Battalion saw service in 
France. Ten of the officers were killed 
1ll action, viz.: 

Capt. A. l\1. Ross. 
Capt. "V. E. Doane. 
Capt. E. R. Dennis. 
Lieut. G. H. Campbell. 
Lieut. W, W. Pickup (Major). 
Lieut. G, M. Sylvester. 
Lieut. A. Allen (Capt.). 
Lieut. F. P. H. Layton. 
Lieut. H. Fisher, 
Lieut. A. S. Churchill. 

In addition, nineteen were wounded. 
CAPT. E. R. DENNIS Twelve received the l\LC" one the D.F.C. 
(killed in action at Vimy S I d d . d . 
Ridge. April s. IQI7). evera were promote .an mentlOne m 
despatches for valuable service. It would 
be a long list to give the names of the N.C.O.'s and men of the 
original 4 0th who gave their lives. Several were promoted to com- 
missioned rank in the Field and many others were decorated for 
valor. \Vherever they went they acquitted themselves in such a 
manner that although never to cross the Channel as a Unit, the 
4 0th always received honorable mention in every fighting Unit in 
the Canadian Corps. 



THE 6-1-th B

T HE 6-t-th Battalion ,vas authorized in June, 1915. and mobil- 
ized at Su,..;sex, K.B.. 
\ugust 15th. 1915. It was originally 
intended that this shou.ld be a Highland Battalion raised in 
N ova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island: and 
haying this in view, the officers were selected from the three 
provinces proportionately. 
\rhen the Unit started to recruit, owing to )Jew Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island being still busy completing the 55
h Battalion, 
all the recruits came from Nova Scotia. and eventually, when I\" ew 






 \ .. 
r ' 

CAMPBELL. (killed in action). 

l killed in action). 

Brunswick and Prince Edward Island began sending their quota, 
the ranks swelled to over 2,300, wherea
 the strength of a Battalion 
was only about 1,100 all ranks. 
The I04th Battalion was then authorized as aNew Brunsv...ick 
Battalion, and all the New Brun<;wick men with some of the oHicers 
\\ere transferred to the new Unit. 
Lieut.-Cot. H. f\Iontgomery Campbell, late 8th I [ussars :1
Commanding Officer I rth Infantry Brigade, l\Iilitary District No, 6, 
was appointed Commanding Officer 64th Battalion. 

Nor-.A SCOTIA'S P..dRT IX THE GRE.-lT Tf-.-lR 

The Battalion organized and trained for ten week
 at Su

and early in X O\'ember moved to ] Ialifax, where at rier :\0. 2 it 
\\'ent into winter quarters. continuing training till finally 
ai!illg on 
the 31st of 
Iarch, 1f)16. for Li\'erpool on the S....,.. .ldriatic. 
The follo\ying officers proceeded overseas \yith the Cl1it: 

O.c., Lieut.-Col. H. :\Iontgomery Campbell.. Formerly 8th l1u:,sars, 
Second in Command, 
Iajor H. Flowas. 1st C.G..\.. X.S. 
Iajor G. H. 
Iax\\"cll 1st e.G. \., 

Company Commanders- 
::\]ajor Angus \Y. 
Ic.-\.rthur "....,..,.'.. 
,. G. Guy 
IcLaughIin ..,.,.......... 
Gm L. 
Iott ......,.,......,...... 
Frãncis 1. Stephens ".......... 
Anglin, Gerald e. "."..".. ............, 
Barbour, Roydon :\IcF. ...,."........"., 
Bowron, Edward H. ...,...."........,... 
Fairweather, Frank R. ........ 

Li eutcnan ts- 
Blois. Arthur O. ...,........,..,...,.,... 
Campbell, Herbert 
1. .,..........",...,. 
Curren, Reginald H. ...... ' . ,.... . .., .' . 
Flo\\crs, Eric P. ....,...,....."......... 
Gale, John R. ...".,..,.,...........,.,.. 
Guildford, Da\'id .\. ,..,..,....""., .,.. 
Gunn, James D. ...,.,..". .."......,... 
Henn'. 101m D. ..,..,.. .,.",.... ..". 
. Charles 1 L ..,...,.,.",.....,... 
Keswick, Robert 
kL. ,...',........,.... 
l\IcKay, Reary ,..........".,..,....,..... 
::\lcLean, James D. .. . . . . . . , , . . . 

lcC1eave. Harrv A. ...."..,..."....,.,. 
l\lurray, Ralph 
I. ,. . . . . , . , , . . . . , . . ' , . . . . 
O'LearY. Harr\' ..,.....,.. . 
Perks. "Arthur"1. ...... ....,.........".. 
Rogers, \\TilIia\
1. .."..,.,.,.",.",..'. 
Russell. Bernard \\T. .""..,.',...,..,..., 
\Vatt, William L. .,....".,..,...,.,.,". 
\Vetmore, Norman n. .,..,..' 
\Vinslo\\', Donald B. ...,.,"... '" . " . . . 

Adjutant, Captain J. Hutton \\"alIace,....". 
.:\1edical Officer, Capt. Arthur C. Jost.".,.,. 
Quartermaster, Captain Samuel S. "'right.., 

Hon. Capt., Rev. "Vm. Fowler Parker...., 
Hon, Capt., Rev. Father Patrick :\IcQuilIan 
Paymaster, Hon. Capt. Robert :\1. Hope...., 
9 6 


78th Regt., X.S. 
67th Regt.. 

Ist Regl.. X.S, 
66th Regt., X.S. 

O.T.C., X.B. 
O.T.e., X.B. 
ï8th Regt., X.S. 
62nd Rcgt.. X.B. 

66th Regt., X.S. 
81st Regt.. X .S, 
14th K.C.H., )J.S. 
1st e.G..-\., X.S. 
. B. 
1st e.G..-\... X.B. 
69th. X.S. 
8th Hus:,ars, XB. 
iIst, X.B, 
i3rd, X. B. 
O.T.C.. X.B. 
O.T.C.. X.B. 
ï6th, X.S. 
. n. 
66th, KS. 
61\"(1. X.s. 
è.F.A.. X.S. 
i3rd, x.n. 
O.T.C., X.B. 
e.F..\., X.R. 

8ISt. X.S. 
e..'\.11.C.. X.S. 
R.e.G..\., X.S, 

.....,. ,

e.F.A., X.B. 

THE 6-1t/z B
-lTT ALI01Y, C.E.F. 

On arrival in England. April 9th. the Battalion moved to Bram- 
shott, where it remained for four weeks. It then moved to Otter- 
pool for preliminary musketry, proceeding to Lidd for the final 
training in that branch. During the stay at Otterpool the Battalion 
was attached to the 6th Training Brigade, being inspected by 
General Sir Sam Steele. together with the 63rd, 66th and 69th 
Battalions. After the inspection Nlajor-General Steele informed 
the troops that they were fully equal to any troops he had ever 
inspected. but that owing to certain exigencies of the war it wa3 
impracticable to send them to the Front as 1;nits. 
 ext day the 
drafting commenced and 198 were sent to the A.S.C. 
.-\ fter one week at Lidd an order wa:, received to send to Shorn- 




(killed in action), 

(kil1ed in action'. 

LIECT. H. .\.. '['CLEA\ E 
(killed in adion ). 

cliffe all those who had completed musketry. Fi\"e hundred other 
ranks in charge of Captain Fairweather moved out of camp at 
5 a.m. The next week wa:; spent completing musketry. and on the 
following Sunday the remainder of the Battalion moved back to 
Otterpool. Other drafts were almosl immediately called for of 
both officers and men. 
On July 3rd the last move \vas made to Caesar's Camp near 
Folkestone. The remainder of the Battalion was handed over to 
the 40th Reserve, and the 64th for all practical purposes ceased to 

xist. The O.C. and Staff were employed in winding up the affairs 
of the Unit. the other remaining officers being ordered to hold 
themselves in readiness to proceed to France. 
ï 97 


Every officer of this lTnit eventually proceeded to France. Of 
the thirty-nine officers the following paid the supreme sacrifice, 
namely: 11ajor G. H. l\Iaxwell. Capt. Frank Fairweather. Capt. 
J. Hutton \Va}.}ace, Lieut. Herbert :\1. Campbell, Lieut. C. H. 
Hobkirk. Lieut. Reary 
ay. Lieut. X. H. \Yetmore, Lieut. H. A. 
McCleave-eight in all. Of the remainder twenty-four were 
w011nded, only seven escaping the casualty list. 
This Battalion was undoubtedly one of the best trained Bat- 
talions leaving Canada. :\Iany of its N.C.O."s finally reached the 
Commissioned Ranks. and the Units in France were always pleased 
to get a detachment of 64th men. 




THE 85th BATT.<:JLION, NOI'A SCOT/.-1 H/(;}iL...J.XDERS, 

T aE fir
t distinctly Highland Battalion to Le organized in 
Xova Scotia ior acti\'e senice Overseas in the late \\"ar was 
5th Battalion, 0: ova Scotia Highlanders. The Battalion 
\Vas authorized at Ottawa on September 14. 1915, \yith the appoint- 
ment of Lieut.-Colonel Allison H. Borden as Commanding ()fficer. 
Headquarters for organization and moLilization were fir
t estab- 
lished at the :\Iilitary Camp, Aldershot, N.S,. on September 23, 
1915. Recruiting proceeded rapidly, the idea of a distinctly 
Scotia Highland BattaEon having fired with enthusiasm the people 
of the Province. who, true to their ancestral Highland 
pirit. were 
found .. deas gn cath" (ready for fight). The success of the re- 
cruiting drew an order from Ottawa for Dattalion Headquarters to 
be transferred to Halifax. and for the Battalion to be mobilized in 
full strength and stat:oned in the Armories. 
lobilization resulted 
on October 14. 1915. with the 85th Battalion 200 over strength, On 
that day occurred the first parade of the Battalion-a memorably 
impressive scene and event, by virtue of its contrasts in personnel 
for in all ranks were officers and men who came from every walk 
'of life. professional and industrial and commercial. with farmers 
and manufacturers amongst the officers. while clergymen. co1Jege 
proLessors, and teachers paraded shonlder to shoulder in the rank 
and file. 
The 85th Battalion has the distinction of being the senior. and, 
as it were. the parent Unit of the XO\'a Scotia Highland Bri
But 'with the Brigade as such th15 chapter is not concerned. Its story 
has been told incidentally in connection with the other L'""nits ,,-hich 
made up the Brigade. It will suffice to remark. however. that this 
magnificent body of fighting men-" the very flower of X ova 
Scotia's manhood "-after being noted by the military leaders and 


authorities in England" as the finest body of troops sent over from 
Canada," wa
. under the exigencies of military supervision, finally 
broken up in England, and reorganized into two Battalions, the 
85 th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders, and the I8Sth Battalion. 
Cape Breton Highlanders. The latter Battalion-" siol nan gais- 
geach mora "-became a splendid Unit in the so-called Fifth 
Division, but \Vas denied the privilege and glory of seeing service 

LlEl"T,-COL. .\. H. BORDEN, D S.O, 

in France as a Unit. The record of their compatriots, " 0" Com- 
pany of the 85th Battalion, at Vimy and Passchendaele, a most 
glorious record, is sufficient proof that had the 18Sth Battalion, 
Cape Breton Highlanders, got to France as a Unit, the name not 
only of Nova Scotia Province but also of the Island of Cape Breton 
would to-day be shining with still greater glory than that which 
they now possess for brilliant military achievement in the late War. 


As it was. however, the records of indi\-idual officers and men of the 
185th Battalion who had transferred to the 85th and other Units 
0n the 18Sth being broken up just before the initial drive of 1918, 
were such as to give a noble name not only to themselves individu- 
ally. but also to rhe 185th Battalion and Cape Breton Island. where 
plendid "C nit of fighting men was recruited. 
}{everting now to the 85th Battalion as such. after due training. 
and many inexplicable disappointments in earlier sailing for U\"er- 
seas. the 85th Battalion, and the other "Cnits of the 
ova Scotia 
Highland Brigade, broke camp on October 1 I, 1916, and sailed for 
England on October 13, 1916. aboard H.
I. Transport Ol}'mpic. 
The 85th and the Kova Scotia Highland Brigade disembarked at 
Liverpool on October 19, 1916. and immediately entrained for 
\Vitley Camp, Surrey, arriving in Camp the same evening. Follow- 
ing the breaking up of the X ova Scotia Highland Brigade, and the 
reorganization of the 85th. the Battalion sailed for France on 
February 10, 1917, going into training for service in the Field at 
Gouy Servins. Bouvigny, and Bouvigny \Yood. from \\-hich quar- 
ters the Battalion moved up to 
Iusic Hall Line. in the resen"es. to 
take part as .. a working Cnit " in the Battle of Vimy Ridge (:-\pril 
9. 19 1 7). 
Including Yimy. the 85th Battalion was in the following engage- 
ments- Vimy, April 9 to 14, 19 1 7; .. The Triangle:' June 20. 1917; 
Ontario Trench. June 26. 1917: Eleu dit Leauvette and the Horse 
Shoe. June 28, 1917: Lens. July to October, 1917: Passchendaele. 
October 28 to November 2. 1917; Arleux, June. 1918: Fompoux. 
July. 1918; Amiens. August 8 to II, 1918; 
\rras (Drocourt-Queant 
Line). September 2 to 5. Iq18: Cambrai (Bourlon), September 25 
to October 2. 1918: Yalenciennes. 
O\"ember. 1918: Quie\Techain. 
Xovemher. 1918: Honnelle Ri\"er. 
ovember. 1918. 
\Yhat the Battalion did after the signing of the \rmistice is of 
no military significance. It returned from France to England on 
:\Iay I. 1919, took part in the Great 1Iarch of Triumph through 
London on lVlay 3, 1919: sailed from England for Canada on 
3 1 . 1919: and arrived at Halifax on June 8. 1919. and two days 
later marched through the City of Halifax. \\"hich \yas CII fêtc to 
give the Cnit a memorably joyous welcome home. It was not. how- 
ever, a welcome from the city. hut from the whole Province, and it 


is estimated that 60,000 outside visitors-friends and relative::.-of 
the returned \,ictOl"S must have bcen present among the citizens of 
Halifax to witness the home-coming parade of the 
5th Battalion, 

 O\"a Scotia Highlanders. A week later (June 15, IQI9), a 
remnant company of the Battalion fell in at Grafton Park. Halifax, 
and headed by the Royal Canadian Regiment Band, marched with 
its King's and Regimental Colors to Government House, where the 
colors were deposited in the presence of His Honor Lieutenant- 
Governor Grant, Colonel \\. E, Thompson, D.O.C., 
LD. Xo. 6. 
and Staff On the occasion Lieut.-Col. James Layton Ralston, 
LG,. D.S.O.. with Bar, Commanding the 85th, read an address 
of farewell to the officers and N.C.O.'s and men assembled-and 
thus the history of the 85th Battalion, 
ova Scotia Highlanders, as 
a fighting Unit, came to an end. 
In the proper places there wilJ be explicit oL:-,ervations on the 
achie\'ements of the Battalion, individual officers, X ,C.O.'s and men 
on the Field. In the meantime, following is a summary of the 
honors and awards (259 in total) that belong to the Battalion:- 
r.r;. ".".....,..,.....' ..',.........,.....,...... ,... 1 
D.S.O. ."."....,..,.,......,.,."..,........., -t 
Bar to D5.0. , . . . '. , . " . .. . ' I 
:\I.C , , . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . , , . . . . , . . . ". . . , . . . . ' . . . . , . . . 3-4 
Bar to :\I.e. . . . , . , . . , . . , . , . . . , . . . . . 3 
D.C.:\I. . . . , . . ' . . . . . , . . . .. . . . IS 

 r. S.:\1. .'.'",. . . . , , , , , . , , . , . . . -t 
1\1.:\1. ...,....."..,..,."...,. .' . ., 166 
Bar to :\1.:\1. .., "....... [2 
Croix de Guerre "_..... - . ..... - . . 5 
:\lentioned in Despatches twice .........,. 4 
:\Jentioned in Despatches-Officers .,..,... C) 
:\lentioned in Despatches-Warrant Offi.::ers I 

T ütal ..."... 

...........,. 259 

The first.. big show" or engagemcnt in which the 85th Battalion 
took part wa::, that of \
imy Ridge. Theirs was not at first an 
envious situation, The Battalion had been substituted for another 
in the 12th Brigade, but the actual taking over did not ensue till 
after the Battle of Vimy Ridge. For that engagement the 85th was 
attached to the I Ith Brigade, commanded by Brigadier-Genera1 
Odium. For the Battle .of Yimy Ridge the 85th moved into posi- 
tion in the reserves. and was to serve as " a working Unit." that is, 


to follo\\ up the troop=, in action. and to carry ammumtlOn, build 
dugouts, keep up communication trenches, clear wire entangle- 
ments. and in general. as the phrase is. U to mop up. U The 85th, of 
course, could be called on, as they were! to fight in an emergency. 
But they were regarded as U green troops:' and it was not considered 
likely by the authorities that the Battalion would be efficient and 
steady under slaughterous fire. _-\s a matter of fact, all the while 
between the Battalion's arri\-al at Gouy Servin:; till the Cnit moved 
out from quarters into the resen-e at 
Iusic Hall Line for their 
part in the Battle of Yimy Ridge. the Commanding Officer, Lieut.- 
Col. .-\. H. Borden. the Second in Command, Lieut.-Cot. E. C. 
Phinney. the Adjutant. 
Iajor J. L. Ralston, and Assistant 
Adjutant. Lieut. A.. T. Croft, had been preparing the Battalion as 
much for a fighting Cnit as for a working Cnit-having had the 
German lines at Yimy all taped out to scale. and having trained the 
Cnit in e\'ery detail of the coming operation. until all ranks knew 
the preci
e "lay" of the Yimy Front and how the fighting Units as 
such would operate in action. Thus considered. the 85th Battalion 
wa5 not a Cnit of .. green troops" in the ordinary acceptance of 
the phrase. They were U ready for fight u-and unexpectedly they 
got their chance. and achieved to their immortal glory. 
The Battle of Yimy Ridge opened in the early morn of Easter 

Ionday. .-\pril 9. 19Iï. At first it was all clear. gain for the Cana- 
dians. But, at last, toward the evening. word kept coming back 
that the Canadian advance was being held up, that Hill I
5 re- 
mained l1ntaken. that it was a U nasty critical situation," becau=,e 
the enfilading of the Huns would destroy attacking troops totally. 
and that if Hill L
5 were not somehow taken, the engagement would 
fail. "-here were there fresh troops who could be sent in to' take 
Hill I
5? It is understood that Colonel Hilliam. commanding the 
25th Battalion, Xova Scotia's in\-incible .. Shock Troops." recom- 
mended that the 85th Battalion be selected for the feat. He assured 
Brigadier Odium that e\'en if they were'" green troops" they would 
be steady under fire. The die was cast. Orders came from head- 
quarters that two Companies of the 85th were to go into the line at 
-,undown and assault Hill 1-1-5. Lieut.-Col. Borden, Commanding 
Officer. selected U C., and ., D" Companies. and placed Capt. 
10 3 


Perclyal \Y. ..\nder
un in command, \yith Capt. Harvey E. Crowell 
in command oj .. C" Company. 
At zero hour" C" Company \\"ent over the top, followed imme- 
diately by .. D .. Company. but. for good reasons. without the usual 
barrage. The 
5th had dared. The question now was on the part 
of the Cnits that had been held up. \Yould the 85th also DO? 
Prom the moment the Companies \\"em O\'er the top. they pruceeded 
on to their objectiye. the cröt of 1[111 145. with the precision and 
s of lnured troops. There is no necessity to describe the 
ault in detail. But when the Huns first saw the 85th Companies 
going oyer the top. they were amazed. _-\.::; the Companies proceeded 
teady and indomitable in spite of the gun fire and the hail 
of bullets from concealed nesh of machine guns, the while them- 
 \yreaking destruction on the Bosche, the Germans hecame 
alarmed. And when the 85th Companies still kept on, in the same 

pirit. and with the same effectiveness. the Huns became discon- 
certed. and at last 19nominiously turned and" beat it;' leaving Hlll 
145-the HUBS' .. pivotal strategic stronghold "-in possession of 
the 85th Companies and the Canadian 
Corps. The clearing up of the Ridge 
and the advance of the 85th Companies 
to the Lens-_\rras Road need not detain 
us. On the morning of _-\.pril 14. 19 1 ï. 
'\ the Battalion was relieved by the Royal 
Sussex. and marched back to rest quar- 
ters at BOl1\'igny Huts. 
There \yere many acts of heroism on 
the part of officers, X,C.O,'s and men 
durlng the first day of the \ïmy Ridge 
LIEYTT -COL. E. C. PHIX","EY, " show" and on later days. One phrase 
might be applied to summarize the con- 
duct of the Commanding Officer 
 Lieutenant-Colonel Borden). the 
Second in Command (Lieutenant-Colonel Phinney) , and the 
Adjutant. ::\Iajor J. L. Ralston, who had the task of consolidating 
the line a fter the taking of the Ridge; not only were they all the time 
"cool. caLm and collected," but the three showed distinct military 
, Outstanding was the conduct of Capt. Percival \Y. Ander- 
son, wh?, amongst other exploits. single-handed performed a deed 
10 4 


of heroi...m which \\-on for him the 
Iilitary Cross (it should have 
been the Y.C.). One of the men in the patrols suffered a bad 
\\'ot111d. His groans were heard in .. 
lan's Land," but he lay 
where the whole field was raked by rifle and machine-gun fire. 
Captain .-\nderson would not ask or command any of his men to 
attempt a rescue, but went out himself and carried the wounded 
man back to safety. This splendid soldier and officer was killed at 
the Battle of Passchendaele. his death profoundly regretted: for he 
knew no fear. and he was a superb officer and leader of men. a 
splendid example of the Cape Breton Highlander. 
The list of those who turned exploits and won awards at Yimy 
is too long to admit of detailed accounts. But specially to be men- 
tioned are Capt. H. E. Crowell. Capt. H. B. Clarke, Chaplain, and 
later Transport Officer (acting) : Lieuts. II. C. Yerner (" Hell-Fire" 
Yerner). Douglas Graham, Hugh A. Cra\dey. F. C. 11anning; 
and amongst the privates and X.C.O."s-Pte. C. A. ).IcLeod. Pie. 
H. C. Steeves. Pte. A. J. 
\Iurphy, Pte. J. S. \\"estlake. Pte. L, M. 
Gates. Pte. K. '!\Ianoles, Pte. J. C. Taylor. Pte. C. 1. Doucette, 
Runners. Ptes. \Y. E. Stackhouse. \Y. \Y. Pearson and G. B. Peck: 
Lance-Corporal A. F. 
IacAree. Lance-Corporal '-. )1. Lind..-ay, 
Lance-Corporal H. \V. Hardy. Corporal C. D. Reid. and Sergt. 
. ü. Martel. 
The courage. pluck. indomitableness and resourcefulness of the 
officers. K.C.O.'s and men of the 85th Battalion at the Battle of 
Yimy Ridge were instanced not to glorify the Battalion. but to 
show forth the kind of "stuff" that was the spirit of the Unit. 
The same kind of spirit was shown in all subsequent engagements- 
"The Triangle," Ontario Trench, Eleu dit.Leauyette and the Horse 
Shoe and around Lens, up to Passchendaele. The outstanding 
phase of the long Battle of Passchendaele (October 28 to N ovem- 
ber 2. I9Iï) \Vas the recapturing of the front line by " D .. Company 
(Cape Bretoners). commanded by Captain Ross 
r. ).IacKenzie- 
another ., saving of the day," as at Yimy, by the 85th Battalion. 
The 85th was, as decided, to be in the line for a day before going 
over the top. However, 'before that move, "D" Compan) was to 
take over the whole Battalion frontage. the other Companies to 
remain at the rear. A \\'estern Canadian Unit was in the line. and 
8 I


just as .. D .. Company reached the line for the relief of the \Vestern 
Battalion, the Huns launched a violent and destructive counter- 
attack. Captain ::\lac.Kenzie and .. D" Company saw that the 
\\'estern Battalion was falling back, and the Huns advancing in 
great force. I t was a critical situation, and Captain ::\lacKenzie at 
once offered himself and his Company to reinforce the retiring 
Unit. The offer was gladly accepted. Captain 
IacKenzie ordered 
his Company to drop all kit. and to fix bayonets and advance in 
true Highland fashion. \\ïth huzzas they made for the enemy- 
dashing upon the Huns with such a rush and momentum, that the 
Huns became bewildered. next were seized with panic, broke, and 
.. beat it." The situation was saved. and the line recaptured 
shortly by continued advance to the position from which the 
\\,T estern Battalion was forced to retire. But that advance was 
costly in casualties. for it was covered by eJ?emy machine guns and 
snipers' posts. Then it was that the ancient fighting spirit of his 
Gaelic ancestors shone brilliantly in Captain 
IacKenzie. and he 
became the Gaelic Hero Cuchullain in the fight and in death. 
MacKenzie was shot through the abdomen-some say he was liter- 
ally riddled-with machine gun bullets. and he fell. But he 
struggled to his feet and kept on with his Company, bleeding to 
death. and commanded his men. encouraging them. until he dropped 
exhausted into a she1l hole. Even then. though undone. he would 
not be attended to. but kept encouraging his Company. Eventually 
he permitted himself to be placed on a stretcher. and while being 
borne away, he died-like Cuchullain too, unconquerable in death. 
There were many other indi\"idual examples of heroism on that 
day and during the days that followed at Passchendaele. But the 
slaughter was awful: and while the engagement added fresh glory 
to the 85th Battalion. and is a memorial to the living. it is to be 
regarded as an apotheosis of a1l Rsth officers. non-commissioned 
officers and men who fell at. that mysteriously ordered engagement 
-Major P. W. Anderson, :\1.C., Capts. John 
1. Hensley. E. R. 
Clayton, M.C., and Ross 
IacKenzie, Lieuts. \Valter IT Martel, 
M.M., Frank O. Hutchison. Angus D. ::\tfacDonald, 
orman C. 
Christie. Alexander D. Fraser, Fred J. Anderson, John R. Mac- 
Farlane, \V. H. l\1urr and R. Salisman, and the 123 privates and 


...... -- 






-, . 


I.1ElJT. J. R. 

,... . 







LIEUT, A, v. lIIACDO:\.<\LD. 





.... ..' 















non-commissioned officer.:'. It was for their bravery and röource- 
fulness and indomitablene
s-their sheer invincibility-at Passchen- 
daele that the 
5th Battalion won from the other Cnits in the 
Canadian Corps and the Imperials the noteworthy. if slangy, 
complimentary epithet, .. The K e\'er Fails." 
From Passchendaele to the signing of the Armistice would 
furnish only repetitions of the records of the 85th Battalion in 
action. It was aU a most honorable and glorious record. quite 
worthy to stand beside that of Canadian Units which had seen 
longer sen"ice. It would not do. ho\vever, to bring this summary 
narrative to a close without mentioning the characteristics of the 
outstanding officers, but for whom the 85th would not haye been a 
reality, or would not have achieved so splendidly. First, let it be 
remembered perennially that all honor and distinction belongs to 
Lieut.-Cot. Allison H. Borden for conceiving the idea of a distinctly 
Nova Scotia Highland Battalion, and, later, a distinctly X 0\' a 
Scotia Highland Brigade. As an officer he always displayed visioti. 
and decision. great gifts for organization: and in the Field he was 
a gallant and resourceful soldier, to whom the loss of men in actio.n 
was felt as a poignant personal loss. He was awarded the Dis- 
tinguished Service Order. But posterity will grateft
l1y remember 
him and honor his name as the Organizer and Commanding Office:- 
of the 85th Battalion, Xova Scotia Highlanders. and the Organizer 
and Brigadier of the Xova Scotia Highland Brigade. Lieut,-Co1. 
Earle C. Phinney was a young officer. and. in turn. filled several 
positions from Adjutant to Commanding Officer in Canada and in 
England, and had the honor of taking the 83th to France. where, 
though he had voluntarily reverted to Second in Command. he was 
temporarily in command till the arrival of Lieut.-Colonel Borden. 
He made a record at Yimy for coolness and resourcefulness in the 
Field. In a later engagement he was wounded. and was eventually 
invalided home. Lieut.-Cot. J. L. Ralston. who brought the 85th 
home, as Commanding Officer. also served as Adjutant and as 
Commanding Officer in the Field. He was his officers' and men:s 
ideal of "the splendid soldier." intrepid and indomitable, and 
always resourceful. He was wounded several times: and was 
awarded the p.S.O. and Bar to the D.S.O.. and honored by the 
King with the c.
I.G. Lieut.-Cot. Joseph Hayes was unique as an 


officer. He was the 
I.O. of the Battalion. and a more humane and 
1.0. there was not in the Canadian Corp
. Though several 
years past the age limit, he never missed a day from the line from 
Yimy to Passchendaele, and did much to keep up the morale and 
fighting spirit of the officers and men of the 85th. In a phrase, 
Lieut.-Cot Joseph Hayes \\"as a gal1ant officer. a genuinely brave 
soldier. and a humane and kind medical expert in the Ene. The 


L!EUT,-COL. J. L. RALSTON, c.::\I.G.. D.S.O. 

hygiene of the Battalion. ,,-hich was a record in the Canadian Corps, 
was due to Colonel Hayes' rigorous supervision of camp and line 
5anitation and his meticulous care of the person, food and potables 
of the officers and men. He was awarded the D.S.O. It is im- 
possible to make a "Homeric Catalogue" of the character and 
deeds of all the other officers. Suffice it to say that they all were 
good men and true. The Battalion had the distinction of having 
Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada. as Honorary Colonel. 

Killed in ActÎòn while serving with the 85th 
In France and Flanders 

1. ",_I. 
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l..I Elf 1. GEU. T. L'iE. 


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LlEt:'T. F, C. 




DÌpd after return to Canada, 

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CAPT. T, :.\1. 
I'LE \:\T. 



C\PT. ". \\. :.\(KIX:'oiO









,<' J _'-.. 

LIEt:'T, J. O. M'LEOD. 



T HE literary and the musical professions were well repre- 

ented in the personnel of the 85th Battalion-by one 
historian. two poets, and a brass and wood-wind band. an 
organization of instrumentalists that gave the Battalion additional 
and peculiar distinction and glory. Lieut.-Colonel Haye.5 in Englapd 
<l11d France acted as a free-lance war correspondent and, on arrlva: 
et to work to prepare the History of the 85th Battalion. He 
produced an illustrated work of nearly 400 pages-a most readable 
volume. the first history of any XO\'a 
cotia fighting "Cnit that had 
taken part in the late \Var. It was hurriedly prepared, under very 
difficult conditions, but despite a minimum of slight and inevitable 
discrepancies or omissions-every history from Thucydides to John 
Richard Green has these-it i
 a well-written and accurate work, 
a genuine monument to the literary acumen and devotion of that 
versatile and gallant officer, Lieut.-Cot. Joseph Hayes. The 1\\"0 
poets were the late Lieut, Frederick C. ::\Ianning, a brilliant alumnus 
of Acadia University. whose .. Poems" were posthumously pub- 
lished. They are excellent poems, both in conception and in cra f ts- 
manship. and go to prove how great a wastage of brain power and 
rare spirit was caused by the late \Yar. The other poet was Sergt. 
J. D. Logan, an alumnus of Harvard "Cniversity. He was a free- 
lance war corr
spondent at the Front. He published two volumes 
of war poems-" Insulters of Death and Other Poems of the Great 
Departure" (1916), and" The Xew Apocalypse and Other Poems 
of Days and Deeds in France" (1919). besides a series of magazine 
articles on special phases of the \Yar. a series entitled ., From Yimy 
to Passchendaele" (1918). and before sailing for Overseas a 
pamphlet on the 8Stli Band C' Canada':; Champion Regimental 
Band "). All this is mentioned to show that military training for 
active warfare and actual warfare do not necessarily kilt the finer 
spirit of men or turn :,oldiers from human beings into brutes. But 


the chief aesthetic glory of the 85th Battalion was its extraordinary 
fine marching and symphonic band. Following are the salient facts 
in its history. 
The band was the descendant of 
he old Albion 
Iines (Stellar- 
ton) Band, established in the '40's of the last century. and having 
a continuous history of nearly three-quarters of a century to date. 
It \ya
 for years the regimental band of the 78th Pictou High- 
landas. Lieut.-Colonel Borden, commanding the 85th. asked Lieut. 
Iooney, bandmaster of the Stellarton or ï8th Band, to 
organize a band for the 85th. The original personnel of the 85th 
Band, the personnel which went Overseas with the Battalion, was: 
Lieut. Dan. 
Iooney, Bandmaster; Sergt. J. C. Profitt, Corpls. 
\Y. D. 
IacLeod and Alex. :\Iyers, Ptes. 
-\. H. 
IacDougall, R. H. 
Roy. Ronald 
IacDougaH, E. B. :Mitchell (did not sail), R. Y. 
Geddes, C. rl. 
IacDonald, _-\. J. Fraser, T. R. Roy, J. \Y. Hender- 
son, T. B. Dayidson (died in France), C. \Y. 
-\ppleton, H. P. 
Barnes. F. T. Freeman. J. J. Gray, T. 
Iason. C. A. (" Chud ") 

-\. R. 
IacDonald, A. A. 
IacDougall, J. R. :\Iunro. 
H. H, 
r unay. C. E. Purves, G. A. Rackham, ,Yo D. Jamieson, 
F. :\. Ryan. \Y. P. Cameron, Joseph Smith, James Roy, D. \Y. 
Cameron. 'V. E. Gallagher, F. D. :\Iooney. A. F. Gallant, \Y. Dunn 
( did not sail. died later), Sergt. J. D. Logan. 
This band was distinguished in musicianship by 'i.'ersatility. 'vir- 
tuosity and brilliaHc)'. It had acquired a notable reputation for these 
qualities in Canada, and when Overseas, in England. where it was in 
demand by towns near Camp 'Yitley, for social functions of a semi- 
militar) or war-propaganda nature. The Director of 

en'ices. who came to Camp \\'itley. to hear and conduct the band 
at rehearsal said of it. in writing: "It is the best band that has 
come O'i.'erseas from Canada," and remarked specially on its pre- 
cision in attack, its unanimity, its dynamic qualities and nuancing. 
and its brilliancy. 
Xow. bands in camp and rðt quarters are regarded as good for 
the morale of Units. but generally were considered as impedimenta 
(or superfluous baggage) \\'ith a Unit active in the Field. But the 
officers and men of the 85th were insistent in their oUhpoken 
demand-a \Ye want our band." The problem was how to keep 


the band from being broken up, and how to get the bandsmen, with 
their instruments, into France. It was achieved by the character- 
istic resourcefulness of the Commanding Officer and officers. When 
the 85 th crossed to France the band was not on the establishment. 
The bandsmen, however, were brought over on the strength as 
fighting men, and the instruments came along too. somehow mys- 
teriously. as part of the Quartermaster's stores (Capt. Robert 
Donaldson was Quartermaster-and a kinder and more resourceful 
Quartermaster there was not in the Canadian Corps). The bands- 
men and their instruments being in France, their fixed place on 
the establishment of the Battalion was fin=llly adjusted by the 
The fame of this band soon spread throughout the 4th Division 
and the Canadian Corps, and into England; and it became a matter 
of perpetual demand for the 85th Band to be present and to play at 
concert parties and at parades and other functions of the Division 
dnd Brigade. This was due more particularly to the versatility of the 
band in soloists and a group of elltertai1lers amongst the personnel. 
who formed a concert party by themselves. It is \vithout question 
that Thomas Roy, euphonium soloist; Percival Barnes, piccolo and 
flute soloist; R. l\IacDougall and D. \V. Cameron, cornet soloists; 
J. C. Profitt and _<\lex. l\Iyers. clarinet soloists; Alex. (" Attell ") 

IacDougall, trombone soloist, and the trombone quartet (A. l\fac- 
Dougall, J. J. Gray, C. E. Purves, and James Roy) were as expert 
instrumentalists as the trained ear could wish to hear. They 
earned for the band its name for virtuosity and brilliancy. The 
group of entertainers comprised H. H. l\Iurray, George Rackham. 
Frank C' Hunk") A. Ryan, C. \y, Appleton and Ronald Mac- 
Dougall. l\lurray was vocal soloist, with band accompaniment, 
having a rounded cantabile baritone. He was also ., the lead" in 
the theatrical entertainment. sketches and vaudeville. with Rackham 
as foil. Ryan, Appleton and R. 1\IacDougall were step dancers, 
and Ryan was noted for his eccentric dancing specialties, The 
group, assisted by the other members of the band. also produced 
" The Old Homestead," in costume, at the Front. 
On the day of the Great :l\1arch of Triumph through London, 

fay 3, 1919, the 85th Band made a distinct popular" hit" with 


the Londoners. The Ðire\:tòr of Musical Services, noted the fact 
in the following official communication: 

" Argyll House, 
.. London, W.L, 
" To- .. May 5 th , 19 1 9. 
.. Deputy :\1inister, O,M.F.C, 
.. 34 Grosvenor St" W.I. 
,. SIR,-I have the honor to bring to your notice the. musical 
report of the bands marching through London:- 
.. · The 85th Battalion Band, thirty performers, under Lieutenant 
::V100ney. Bandmaster. This famous marching band has been sadly 
depleted by war losses, but gave a fine, spirited performance. which 
was much admired: 

.. I have the honor to be, 

" Sir, 
" Your Obedient Servant, 
"Musical Director." 

It should be noted that the band was considerably augmented 
when in France; and that one memher. T. B. Davidson, died. while 
Ben. IIichens and H. Luscomb were killed in action. It should 
also be noted that the 85th returned officers and men organized. 
under the name "The 85th Clansmen," and "The 85th ::\1emory 
Club," to perpetuate the name of the Battalion and the memory of 
the fallen by reunions on the days of the engagements in which the 
Battalion took part.-L. 



Io6th BATT ALIO..V, C.B.F. 

T HE IObth Battalion. Xova Scotia Rifles, was authorizeo on 
XO\'ember 8, 1915, and recruiting commenced at once. Being 
the first Rifle Battalion recruited in the 
Iaritime Provinces, 



the members of the various rifle clubs and 
was soon up to strength. 
The standards of the Battalion were 
high. Regimental 5,chools for the train- 
ing of non-c01l1mis:"ioned officers were 
estahlished. The motto of the Battalion 
was ,. X one So Reliable," and all ranks 
;;ought to make the Battalion worthy to 
bear such a name. 
Headquarters were established at 
Truro. where t\\"o Companies were sta- 
tioned: the other t\\"o Companies were 
stationed at Springhill and Truro. 

i't appealed strongly to 



lIEt;'T.-COL, R. IXXES. 


* Kil1ed in action or died of wounds. 

Lieut.-Cot. Robert Innes "...,.,.... O.c. 
Major O. G. Heard .".',.,.,...,.. Second in Command. 
Capt. C. M. Williams " 00 , . . . 0 . , '. ,\djut;mt. 
Capt, G, 
L Bryce..".............. Quartermaster. 
Capt. E. 1. 
itler ,..,............. Paymaster. 
Capt. W. L. 
luir ."...".....'..', 'fedical Officer. 
Hon. Capt. G. :McL. Dix ,. 0 . . . . , . . . Chaplain. 
*Lieut. H. C. Dawson .,..,....",... \ssistant Adjutant. 
Lieut. So D. 
10rrisot1 .. Signalling Officer, 
Lieut. R Flemming .......".,.,.... :\1achine Gun Officer. 
Lieut. J. T. Arenburg ............,. Randmaster, 
*Lieut. \V. R. "\rcAskill .. 0 . ., . . , . . . .' Base Detail. 



(killed in action). 



(killed in action) 

.. j 

,(killed in action). 

. '.; f 
'" -.. -IJ.; 





(killed in action). 



. ,.-. 
..., -.,;--



, . 


(killed in action) 


.. A " Company, 
*Major E. W. Joy,... ... . . . " . . ,. . .. 9' C , . 
Capt, C. B. McMulJen .."...,... - . . Second In Command. 
*Lieut. 1. F, Hallisey ........ 
*Lieut. P. A. Fulton...... '... 
Lieut. W. R. Cox ..".. . . - .. . , ... 
Lieut. F. S. Huntley ..".........., 

.. B" Company. 

lajor \y, J. H. Moxom . . . . . U.C, . 
Capt. F. D. Dodsworth .. _ . . . . . . , , , , . Second In Command. 
*Lieut. A. ),1. O'Brien...... , . . . . . '. . 
Lieut, ),1. McRae .,......."...,..., 
*Lieut. A. H. \N alker ."..,.,....... 
Lieut. F. V, Burge<:s .".,.".,...,. 

" C" Company. 
:\laior T. A. ::\IcPherson ,.. .. .. ,. . . O.C. 
Capt. È. J, Lounsberg- .,...,.....,.. Second in Command. 
Lieut, H. A. Allum .,.....,..,..." 
*Lieut. R. H. Sawler ..,.....,.. " .. 
*Lieut. C. E. Howson . - . 
Lieut. G. R. Harrison " , . , . . . . . . . . 

.. D" Company. 
Maior T. R. MaxwelJ ............... a.c. 
Capt. T. C. King _..... . . Second In Command. 
Lieut. \\T. 1. Brothfrs .,..,.......'. 
Lieut, M. Ì. Drvden ..,.....,..,.... 
Lieut. W, -A. Lfvingstone ....,...... 
Lieut. G. C. ::\fcDermid .....,..,.... 

The Battalion left Canada July 15, 1916. and encamped at Lower 
Dibgate, Shorncliffe, Eng1and. There it md the fate of many other 
Canadian Unit
. by being broken up into drafts to reinforce Bat- 
talions in the Field. 




A UTHORITY for the recruiting of the 112th Battalion. with 
headquarters in the historic town of vVindsor, )J.S., was 
granted in Xovember, 1915. Its personnel was composed .of 
officers and men drawn chiefly from the western part of 
Scotia, embracing the counties of Halifax, Hants, Kings, Annapolis, 
Digby, Yarmouth, Shelburne, Queens and Lunenburg. Recruiting 
progressed with unique rapidity and by the middle of April, 1916, 
the Battalion was at full strength. Over 1,500 men applied for 
enlistment, and of these about 300 were f.ound medically unfit. 
The significance of this achievement will be seen when it is con- 
sidered that it was accomplished without the aid of any extensive 
recruiting campaign, but -by the united effort of each officer and 
In the early days of the Unit each county was allowed to keep a 
detachment, providing it numbered fifty men or more, who trained 
in their own locality until finally mobilized in Windsor in May, 1916. 
There the Battalion encamped on the hill of Fort Edward, where 
it was subjected to a rigorous training, and the progress made 
elicited much praised from J\fajor-General Sir Sam Hughes, then 
Minister .of :
Vlilitia, who inspected the Unit about the beginning of 
July, 1916. The period of training at vVindsor was one of keen 
enjoyment to all concerned. Its discipline was stern, its experience 
was at times hard, but the life was altogether wholesome and 
profitahle, which was evidenced by the improvement in the bearing 
and appearance of thè Unit during its short stay at \Vindsor. 
The Battalion was commanded .by Lieut.-Cot. H. B. Tremaine. 
The other officers were: 1vlajors W. F. D. Brennan, second in com- 
mand; T. IV1. Seely, M. S. Parker, T. A. Mulock; Capts. R. \V. 
Churchill, O. G. Dauphinee (killed in action), R. T. Christie, 
J. Flemming (Adjutant), E. S. Spurr, M.C. (killed in action), 



:\1. P. Titus (Quartermaster), H. A. 
IacDonald (Paymaster), 
John St. C. 
IcI":a y (
ledical Officer), C. R. Cumming (Chaplain), 
G. R. :\Iartell (Chaplain), Lieuts. J. T. Probert, 1I.C. (killed in 
action), R. S. Parsons, \V. D. Comstock, J. \V. Hughes, J. K. 
Swanson lkilled in action), \V. G. Foster (killed in action), 
I. Hebb (killed in action), A. ÀI. Parsons. :\:1.C., R. 

I.C., R. B. Logan, Â. H. Creighton, P. L. \Yilcox, 
J. \V. G. Lardner, \V. P. Harmon, \Y. H. Smith, J. C. Lithgow, 
R. \\-. DiLl, E. \Y. Bell, C. C. lVlarash, :\1. L. Tupper (killed in 
action). \V. J. Sangster, L. E. Langley (killed in actian), R. Hen- 
shaw, R. 11. 
IcGregor (killed in action). O. H. Lunham. G. \\-. 
Banks, A. T. E. Crosby, H. L. Gates. 
Capt. G. R. 
lartell, Rector of Christchurch, \\Ïndsúr, X.S., 
and Chaplain of the Battalion throughout its organization, did 
splendid wark in recruiting and was beloved by all ranks. Owing 
to his inability to proceed Overseas, the Re\". Charles R. Cummings 
 appointed Chaplain and held the position until transferred to 
hospital duty in England preparatory ta proceeding to the Chaplain 
Services in France in January, 19 1 ï. 
Captain l\Iartell died in June, 19 18 . 
Colors f.or the II2th Battalion \,-ere 
made .by 
1rs. Annie Pratt, .of \\ïndsor. 
N ova Scotia, and were presented to the 
Battalion by :\Irs. Tremaine. ,,-ife of the 
Commanding Officer, on Friday after- 
noon, July 21, 1916. The Battalion wa
formed up in mass in front of the band- 
stand at Victoria Park. "-indsor, and 
addresses were delivered by the Chaplain. 
:\Jayor Roach, and others. The next day 
the colors were deposited in Christ- 
church. \\ïndsor, where .the officers and men attended di\-ine 
The I12th Battalion embarked at Halifax, July 23, 1916. on 
H.JI.T. Olympic, and arrived at Liverpool on July 31st. Here it 
entrained and proceeded to Oxney Farm near Bram
hott. The 
Unit remained there far about three weeks, after which it moved to 
Bramshott on the departure of the 4th Division for France. In 

1I2th B

Bramshott the Battalion was put through very intensive training, 
and on October 5th the first draft of 122 other ranks left for France 
to reinforce the 25th Battalion. On October loth. 212 other ranks 
and on October 29th. -t-o other ranks were sent to the 25th Dat- 
talion. all of whom proved to be a very welcome acquisition to that 
famous Unit. Other drafts found their way to the Royal Canadian 
Iost of the officers were detailed to special schools in 
various parts of England for a time, after which they were gradu- 

l1y absorbed by the Battalions already at the Front. At one time it 
was expected that the Battalion would become a Forestry Unit and 
be sent to France, but for some reason this did not eventuate, and 
the Battalion was gradually depleted until the remnant was finally 
merged into the 26th Canadian Reserve Battalion in February, 1917. 




BY C,\PT. .\
GUS L. :\1 'DONALD. 

I T is a difficult task indeed to compress a history of the I85th 
Battalion into the space allotted for the purpose in this book. 
It is a difficult task, because, if we exclude those Battalions that 
saw active service as complete Units, the history of the 185th i5 
longer than that of any other Nova Scotia Battalion. It is a 
difficult task because, through this long association and through the 
high standard of efficiency to which the 
Battalion attained, there gre\\" up between 
an ranks a spirit of pride in their Unit 
and of affectionate, regard for each other, 
which may be fairly said to be almost 
unique, and which deserves a monument 
much grander and more enduring than 
this sketch can hope to raise. 
The origin of the 185th may be said 
to be in the 85th X ova Scotia Highland 
Battalion, recruited by Lieut.-Cot. A. H. 
Borden in the autumn of 1915. The 
enthusiasm with which the people of 
X ova Scotia hailed the advent of the 85th Battalion engendered the 
more ambitious idea of a Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. and in the 
months of February and l\larch, 1916, there was conducted in Nova 
Scotia a recruiting campaign for the raising of three additional 
Battalions, to form, with the 85th, a complete Brigade. The remark- 
able slIccess of that campaign is now part of our Nova Scotian 
 Island of Cape Breton was given the task of raising a 
Battalion, to be known as the 185th and to be under the command 

'. V 




. I 



LIEUT.-COL. F. P. D.\ Y. 



of Lieut.-Co!. F. P. Day (then 
Iajor Day) of the 85th Battalion. 
Though Cape Breton had already gi
en men to the colors, in 
numbers far in excess of her due proportion, nevertheless, the 
prospect of seeing active service with a Unit distinctly and entirely 
Cape Breton, so fired the imagination of the young men of the 
Island that in three weeks the Battalion was recruited to full 
The sytem of recruiting employed was well calculated to obtain 
the best results. First, the officers were selected. 80me of them 
were Cape Bretoners, ::;erving with the 85th Battalion, a few came 
from the Officers' Training Corps of the Colleges, but the majority 
were drawn from the 94th, the Cape Breton :\lilitia Unit. These 
officers were sent out into their own native districts to recruit men 
for their own Companies or Platoons, and the assurance was given 
that men from the same locality would be placed together in the 
3ame Company, Platoon, or Section as the case might be, and under 
an officer from that locality. That assuranc
 was kept sacredly. 
The motto selected for the Battalion was the same as that of 
the 8Sth-" Siol X a Fear Fearail ',-.. Seed of :\Ianly 
Ien." That 
motto was highly appropriate, for the ranks of the Battalion were 
in large part filled by descendants of Highlanders-those manly 
men who peopled Cape Breton in late 18th and early 19th centuries. 
To the Highland element in the population of Cape Breton the 18Sth 
made its greatest appeal, for the promise had been given that the 
Battalion should wear Highland garb, and the prospect of joining 
a Unit which should be clad in that picturesque and historic dress 
undoubtedly touched the Highland imagination, But the other 
races did not lag behind. The French, Irish and English elements 
were well represented. and there were not a few recruits of Italian 
and Russian extraction. 
" A " Company of the 185th came from the counties of Inver- 
ness, Victoria and Richmond; " B " Company from Glace Bay and 

ew \Vaterford; "C" Company from North Sydney and Sydney 

Iines; and "D" Company from Sydney. Broughton, eighteen 
miles from Sydney, was chosen as a mobilization centre, and there 
the Battalion assembled during the first week of April, 1916. 
At Broughton. three bands, Pipe, Brass and Bugle were or- 
g-anized, The citizens of Glace Bay, the Royal Cape Breton Yacbt 
12 3 


Club. the" Creen Feather" Societies of 
orth Sydney and Sydney 
.:\1 ines. and 
I r. Thomas Cantley, of New Glasgow. each presented 
four pipes and three drums to the Battalion. .:\Ioney for the pur- 
chase of instruments for the Brass Band was subscribed by the 
citizens of Sydney. For the Regimental \Iarch, the stirring] Iigh- 
land air. .. A Hundred Piper
." was chosen. 
Broughton did not offer a suitable ground for advanced 
training: and so on 
Iay 26th, 1916, the Battalion entrained for 
_-'\ldershot, X.S.. where the Highland Brigade was to spend the 
summer of 1916. under the command of Lieut.-Co!. 
--\. H. Borden. 
who had recruited and commanded the 85th Battalion. The other 
Battalions of the Brigade were the 85th. 193rd and the 219th. 
During the summer the Brigade wa
 revie,,-ed by H.R.H. the Duke 
of Connaught. Governor-General of Canada: by Sir Sam Hughes. 
Canadian .:\Iinister of ::\Iilitia : by ::\Iajor-General Lessard, Inspector- 
General for Canada. It was twice reviewed by Sir Robert Borden, 
Prime .:\Iinister of Canada. On the last visit of Sir Robert Borden, 
he was accompanied by Lady Borden. who presented colors to the 
Battalion. The colors are of -beautiful design, rich material and 
elegant workmanship. They were received on behalf of the 
Battalion by .:\Iajor Harrington and Lieutenants Pun-es and Liv- 
ingstone. and were blessed by Capt. 
Iichael Gillis. Roman Catholic 
Chaplain to the Battalion. (The colors were taken to England with 
the Battalion and after the \\"ar were returned to Canada. deposited 
in the Cape Breton County Court House at Sydney.) 
On October 4th the Battalion underwent successfully at the 
hands of 
Iajor-General Lessard its last inspection in Canada. 
Preparations for embarking for England were begun and on October 
] Ith the I8Sth bade good-bye to 
-'\ldershot and entrained for 
Halifax. That evening they marched on board .. His .:\1ajesty's 
Transport, 2810." the war-time designation of the great steamship 
At five o'clock on the evening of October 13th the Ol}'mpic 
steamed out of Halifax Harbor. bearing the 
ova Scotia Highland 
Brigade, surely the most precious cargo that 
 ova Scotia ever 
entrusted to the mighty Atlantic. The docks at Halifax were 
thronged on that day with thousands of people from all parts of 
12 4 

THE I8jtlz B
-1LIO_Y (C

ova Scotia who had come t.o say good-bye-in many cases unfor- 
· tunate1y a last good-bye-to relative:; and friends. Nova Scotia 
loves her 0\>\"11, sorrows over their departure from her bosom, and 
watches their fortunes under foreign skies with a fond eye and an 
anxious heart. I was told in London that, after any battle in which 
Canadian troops had taken part. there were more enquiries at Cana- 
dian Headquarters in London, from 
ova Scotians. than from 
people of any other Province of Canada. I could well belie\"e this 
to have ,been so. for in X ova Scotia character. friendship and 
loyalty to kith and kin are outstanding characteristics. 
The officers of the 185th at the time of sailing for England were 
as f.ollows: 

Honorary Colonel -.,."..,'..,.,'. Co!. D. H. 
Officer Commanding, ".....,..". . Lieut.-Cot. Frank P. Day. 
Second in Command ,. . _ _ . . '" Major]. G, Johnstone. 
Adjutant .......,......,...,.. .,"Capt. R. C. Jackson. 
Medical Officer ,.............. ., Capt J. A. Munro. 
Paymaster ,..,....,.,........, . . Capt. R. l\IacDougall . 
Quarterma<;ter ....'.'....,........, Capt, J. T. Malone. 
Protestant Chaplain,.,.,. . '" . '" .. .Capt A.. J. MacDonald. 
R. C. Chaplain .....,....,..,....... Capt, 
lichael Gillis. 
Machine Gun Officer .............. Lieut. J. .\. Holland. 

" A" Company- 
Officer Commandill
. ,...... . . . . Capt. J. 
Second in Command .'.. . . . . Capt A. L. l\Iacdonald. 
Lieutenants ,...".,.........,..., H. 
. Price. John MacKenzie, 
]. D. MacKenzie, E, :\1. 

" B" Compan
Officer Commanding 
[ajor G. S. Harrington. 
Second in Commat{cl ,.,'........, Capt. A. J. :\[acInnis. 
Lieutenants ',.....,.......",.", C. :\IacLeod, \\" F. Carroll, 
J. A. :\1cKinnon. ]. H. Mac- 

" C" Company- 
Officer Commanding " , Capt \V. \V. 
Second in Command ,.....,..,... Capt, Alex. MacDonald. 
Lieutenants ......",..,....,...,. T. D. A. Purves, D. N. :\lac- 
Donald, L. G, :\facCorrison, 
" D" Company- 
Officer Commanding . ..,...'.... :\Iajor J. \V. :\Iaddin. 
Second in Command .... _ . . , Capt. C, W. Sutherland. 
Lieutenants .....,'...,.,....."., A. IV!. Fraser, D. M. \Viswell. 
G. D. Crowell, D. Livingstone. 

The voyage from Halifax to Liverpool was made in a little 
over five da vs. The Battalion disembarked on the morning of 
12 5 


October 19 th , the Pipe Band playÎng the men down the gangway. 
Immediately the train was taken to \\-itley Camp. which was 
reached after a journey of eight hours. Here the Battalion settled 
down to work as part of the 12th Canadian Infantry Training 
Brigade, which name replaced the old name. .. X ova Scotia High- 
land Brigade." 
In early December there came tidings which nearly eyery Cana- 
dian Battalion that ever went to England had grown to dread. 
The Battalion \Vas called on to supply a draft of 19 2 men for 
France. The other Battalions of the Brigade had received similar 
orders, the total number of men required from the Brigade being 
800. The call for these drafts seemed to spell the disruption of 
the Brigade, notwithstanding promises to the contrary in Canada. 
The strongest protests were made by officers of the Brigade, but to 
no avail. On December 5th the drafts set out for Southampton 
whence they were to embark for Havre. The 18Sth sent 20 men 
to the 4 2nd (
Iontreal) Battalion, and 17 2 men to the 73 rd 
Battalion, also of ::\lontreal. 
Each Battalion of the Brigade had now been considerably 
reduced in strength. and the Canadian authorities in England 
decided to amalgamate the 219th with the 8Sth Battalion, and the 
193 rd with the 185th Battalion. Officers and men in anyone of 
these four Units who were not physically fit were sent to the 17 th 
Nova Scotia Reserve Battalion at Bramshott. The Nova Scotia 
Highland Brigade was no more, and the hope in every heart now 
was that the two Battalions-85 th and 18Sth-which constituted 
what was left of that Brigade. might reach France as Lnits. 
After the amalgamation of the 193rd, the officers of the 18Sth 
were as follows:- 

Officer CommandinJ! ' . . , . . . . , . . . . , Lieut.-Col. F. P. Dav, 
Second in Command .........,.,.,. Lieut.-Col. R. J. S, Langford, 
Adjutant .' .',. .. .., . ..... . .. ., ,. ., Major J. W. MacDonald. 
Medical Offic
r ".,................Capt. J, A. :\Junro. 
Quartermaster ....,....,. I . ." . . . . . Capt. F. C. Baird. 
Paymaster ........,................ Capt. R. MacDougall. 
As-sistant Adjutant ,.,:............. Lieut, \V. E. 
Machine Gun Officer ...,....,...." Lieut. J. A. Holland. . 
Musketrv Officer ...,.............. Lieut. D. M. \Viswell. 
Scout Officer ..',........... . . . Lieut. H. 
. Price. 
Bombing Officer ,...........,...... Lieut. J. D. :\lacKenzie. 


" A" Company- 
Officer Commanding .,"..""." Capt. J, :\IacIsaac. 
SecoNd in Command .."......... Capt, A. L. .:\Iacdonald, 
Lieutenants ........"..,.,."....] ohn MacKenzie, E. :\{-. J ohn- 
stone, T. E, Logan, C. J. 
.. B" Company- 
Officer Commanding .,.,......... :\lajor J. P, LeGallais, 
Second in Command .,.,.".,.." Capt. F. B. Schurman, 
Lieutenants .'..'.,. - - , . . . , , , . , . . .]. A. l\IcKinnon, J. H. :\Iac- 
Ivor, J. Soy, P. T. Andrews, 
H. A. Dickson, A. D. 
.. C" Company- 
Officer Commanding .,..,.,....,. Capt. W. \V. Nicholson. 
Second in Command "........... Capt. Alex. :\Iacdonald. 
Lieutenants ......"......,....... D. J. MacGillivray, H, F. 
Orman, 1. G. MacCorrison, 
H, D, Cunningham, D. Liv- 

.. D" Company- 
Officer Commanding .,...,.."..' Capt. R. C. Jackson. 
Second in Command .."..',...', Capt. C. W. Sutherland, 
Lieutenants ....... " , . ., .\.. ),1. Fraser, J. 0, .:\IacLeod, 
J. j. )'Iurray, G, D, Crowell, 
H. C. Lowther. 

About this time the Battalion received permission to use as its 
official name, "I8Sth Canadian Infantry Battalion (Cape Breton 
Highlanders ).,. instead of H I8Sth Canadian Infantry Battalion," 
as before. 
In the spring of 1917, the sth Canadian Division was organized 
at \Yitley Camp, under the command of l\1ajor-General Garnet 
es, who had already won high distinction in France. The 
18Sth wa'S given a place in that Division. The Division was 
assured that it would be sent to France, and in that hope it set to 
work with such earnestness that in the summer of 1917 it was 
regarded as one of the most efficient Divisions that had ever 
trained in England. The 18sth by hard and persevering \York had 
won the reputation of being unexcelled, and by many unbiased 
observers it was regarded as unequalled, in the whole Division. 
Certainly, the Battalion was often specially complimented by 
Inspecting Officers and was often singled out for particular honor. 
At the great Dominion Day Parade in London, in 19 1 7, the Guard 
of Honor for the Colors was drawn from the 18sth. Again and 
again its teams won from other Battalion teams in competitions in 
Musketry, Bayonet Fighting, Physical Training, Drill and 
Gun \Vork. 

12 7 


F rom the first the men had looked forward eagerly to the day 
when kilts would be issued to the Battalion. Their wish was 
realized in August, 1917, when kilts of the Argyll and Sutherland 
tartan were authorized to be worn, and sufficient kilts were sent to 
the Quartermaster to clothe the whole Battalion. 
Reference has been made already to the promise given to the 
5 th Division that it would go to France intact. That promise was 
repeated several times, and the hope that it would be kept was the 
only ground on which men could ,be induced to remain contentedly 
in England. But no phrase has done better service during the War 
than the phrase ... military exi
encies." and it was invoked once 
again to justify the disbanding of the 5th Division in February, 
19 1 8. 
Coincident with the -breakup of the Division came the order to 
the 185th to furnish a draft of two officers and one hundred men 
to each of the three Nova Scotian Battalions in France-the 25 th . 
85 th and R.C.R. All the men at once volunteered. Sergeants 
reverted to the rank of private in order to get to France more 
quickly; Colonels reverted and became J\lajors; J\lajors became 
Captains and Captains Subalterns. The drafts for France were 
finally selected, and the rest of the Battalion was ordered to be sent 
to Bramshott, to be absorbed by the 17th Reserve. On February 
23rd the Battalion paraded for the last time, the drafts for France 
stood fast. the draft for Bramshott swun,g- out on the London- 
Portsmouth Road, the pipers played their last march. and the 18Sth 
passed out of existence as an Overseas Unit forever. 
It is idle now to lament its unhappy fate, or to deplore the 
peculiar policy that was pursued toward it and other Battalions of 
the 5th Division, but Cape Bretoners everywhere will always have 
difficulty in restraining a regretful sigh over the lot of their own 
and only Battalion. Let it always be remembered, however, that 
through no fault of its own did the 185th fail tq reach France as a 
Unit. It kept faith with the people .of Cape Breton, and it estab- 
lished a standard which any Battalion might -be proud to emulate. 
But though there never fell to this Battalion the supreme honor 
of battle or the glory of triumph, its individual members went 
forth to war, stronger in training, in discipline. in comradeship and 
in spirit from their association with the Cape Breton Highlanders. 

THE I8jtlz B

Every officer of the Battalion saw service in some theatre of war, 
and five of them now sleep on the field C:f honor-Lieutenants 
Fraser, Holland, l\lacI yor, Livingstone and J. O. 
IacLeod. K early 
every other officer of the Uattalion has been wounded, and several 
have been decorated for bravery. Of the men it is enough to say 
that incomplete returns 
how that 136 of them fell in action On 



.. ' 

"' '" 



J.H:rT. A. FR -\SE
(killed in action). 

LIEl"T. ]. H. :\f'I\TOR 
(killed in action). 







t .-'J 


(killed in action). 

(died on active service) 

their graves may the turf lie lightly. Truer hearts or more gallant 
spirits never fought for any cause, and to them we may be sure that 
every Cape Breton tongue will apply with heartfelt sincerity the 
words that have been chosen for the crosses that will mark the 
graves of British solrliers buried in France-" Their 
 ame Li\'eth 
Forevermore." . 


12 9 



T HE 193 rd Battalion was authorized on January 27, 1916, 
and John Stanfield. 
l.P. for Co1chester, in the Dominion 
House of Commons, \Vas gazetted Lieut.-Colonel and 
appointed Commanding Officer. 
For a few weeks follo,,"ing this date the 193rd Battalion was not 
regarded as a Highland Brigade Battalion, but on February 23, 
19 16 . Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield was offi- 
cially notified that the 193rd had been 
:-.elected as one of the Drigade Units. 
Organization for recruiting had 
already been effected. and the 193rd was 
in a position to join in the Brigade cam- 
paign at once. The territory of the 
Battalion embraced the six Eastern 
Counties of the 
r aillland-Cumbedand, 
Co1chester. H ants, Pictou, A.ntigonish 
and Guysboro, with headquarters at 
Truro. \Vithin one month the Dattalion 
,,-as over strength. 
Iarch 2-tth Capt. J. L. Ralston. of the 85th Battalion. 
reported for duty as _-\cting 
 \djutant. His assistance was invalu- 
able and counted for much in these early days of organization. 
Capt. J. \Yelsford 
IacDonald relieyed him on . \pril 7th and was 
appointed _-\djutant. He was later succeeded by Capt. F. B. 
In February Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield had askerl for the services 
of Capt. R. J. S. Langford, of the Royal Canadian Regiment. 
Halifax. On _-\pril 18th Captain Langford \\"as attached to the 
193 r d, with the rank of 
Iajor. was appointed second in command 
13 0 






THE 19Jrd B..:1TT ALIGN 

and took over the duties of officer in charge of training. The high 
standard of efficiency to which the Battalion later attained was 
brought about by 
Iajor Langford's enthusiastic and unremitting 
The mobilization of the Battalions of the Highland Brigade at 
Camp Aldershot in 
Iay, 1916, is dealt with elsewhere in this 
\'olume. The 193rd arrived in Camp 300 
men over strength. 
Early in 
eptember the Brigadier. 
Lieut.-Colonel Borden, left for England, 
and wa
 succeeded in the command 0 f 
the Brigade by Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield. 

Iajor Langford took over the command 
of the Battalion with the rank of Lieut.- 
On September 26th, Lady Borden, 
wife of the Premier of Canada, pre- 
sented King's and Regimental Colors 
to the four Battalions of the Brigade. 
The distinctive color 
elected ur the I93rd \Vas .. Royal Blue." 
The Battalion embarked on the Olympic, October 12th. The 
officers at that time were: 


Killed in action. 

Lieut.-Cot R. J. S. Langford ....... o.C 
:\Iajor ]. P. LeGaIlais ...,.."...... Second in Command. 
Capt. F. B. Schurmar. ..,........... Adjutant. 
Capt. F. C. Baird ......,..."".... Quartermaster, 
Capt. C. S. :\Ic\rthur .',.........'. Paymaster. 
Capt. E. D. :\IcLean ........,...,... :\Iedical Officer. 
Capt. J. F. Tupper .........."..... Chaplain. 
" .-\" Co,rPAKy-:\Iaior A. T. :\I cLean. Company Commander; Capt 
C. .-\. Good, Second in Command; Lieuts. H, F. Orman, D. J. :\1cGillivray 
P. Andrews. H. A. Dickson. 
.. B" Co
rp.-\xy-Capt. R. K. Smith, Company Commander; Capt. R. G 
:\lcKay. Second in Command: Lieuts. )J. C. Christie, ]. :\1. Soy, H. C. 
Lowther, C. F. \\T etmore, 
., C" Co,rp.\Ky-:\Iajor A. .-\. Sturley. Company Commander; Capt. A. B. 
Todd. Second in Command: Lieuts, H. DeW. Cunningham. H. B. Potter, 
J. A. Ross, C. J. :\Iarkham, 
.. D" Cmrp.-\xy-:\Iajor J. \V. :\IacDonald, Company Commander: Capt. 
G. :\IcQuarrie. Second in Command; Lieuts. J. O. McLeod, \V. E. :\fcDonald, 
T. E. Logan. J. J. :\Iurray. 

13 1 


A. few weeks after arrival at \\ïtley Camp, Lieut.-Colonel 
Borden returned from the Front and resumed command of the 
Brigade. Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield, owing to ill-health, was in- 
valided back to Canada. \Vhen the Brigade was broken up in Decem- 
ber. 19 11 \ the following officers, with 300 other ranks, \vere trans- 
ferred to the 185th Battalion: Lieut.-Colonel R. J. S. Langford, 
:\fajor J. P. LeGallais, Major J. \V. ?\lacDonaId. Capt. F. B. Schur- 
man. Capt. F. C. Baird, Lieuts. H. F. Orman. D. J. 
P. .-'\nclrews, H. .'\.. Dickson, J. l1. Soy, H. De\Y. Cunningham, 
C. J. ,l\Iarkham, J. O. .McLeod, \V. E. !\IcDonald, J. J. 1lurray. 
The remainder marched to Bramshott, where they were absorbed 
early in January, 19 1 7, by the 17th Reserve Battalion, and used as 
rein fo
cements to the Nova Scotian Battalions in the Field. 

'3 2 


219th B.<--1 TT_-JLIO_V, C.B.F. 

I }.; the limited space alIO\n:d for this article it is necessary to 
omit references to the stirring eyents which marked the recruit- 
ing of the Battalions of the X o\-a Scotia Highland Brigade, the 
18Sth in Cape 
reton, the 193rd in Pictou. Colchester, Cumberland 
and IIants Counties, and the 219th in Halifax and the \\T estern 
Counties of the PrO\"ince. Each contributed 'to the popular 
enthusiasm, and through the agency of 
the press any unusual success in one part 
was heralded throughout the Proyince 
and bore fruit in distant sections. 
In Halifax and the \\T estern Countie:" 
while there were many agencie
\\'urk, too numerous to mention. they 
naturally centred around -the extraordin- 
ary series of meetings addressed by 
Colonel Borden and Captain Cutten, 
when, accompanied by the 85th Band, 
they made their historic tour, commenc- 
ing at Lunenburg on February 26, 1916. 
and ending at \Y oIiville on 
Iarch 12th. They touched at all the 
chief points on the Halifax and South \\'estern Railway and re- 
turned by the Dominion Atlantic as far as \\1 olfville. \ Yhile active 
recruiting in many places had preceded and prepared for their 
arri\Oal, the extraordinary enthusiasm aroused by their speeches and 
by the martial strains of the band formed an epoch in each com- 
Recruits enrolled were billeted in their own towns, and detach- 
ments marched into Camp Aldershot on June 1st from Lunenburg, 
11ahone Bay, Bridgewater, Lockport, Caledonia, Shelburne, Clarke's 
Harbor, Barrington, Yarmouth. \Yeymouth, Trenton, Digby, Rear 








River, _\nnapùlis, Berwick, Bridgetown, Kentville. \\.o}f\"ille. Dart- 
mouth and Halifax. 
The first Battalion orders 011 record \yere issued on 
larch 6th 
by I\Iajor E. C. Phinney, \\"ho had been placed in temporary com- 
mand of the 219th. Lieut. C. Holland was appointed Acting 
Adjutant. For some time -the orders were chiefly concerned with 
the large accessions to the strength of the Battalion. daily reported. 
as the result of Colonel Borden's successful tour, and the formation 
of the various detachments. These recruits were now arranged in 
four companies, ".A" in Halifax, "B" comprising the territory 
from :\Iahone Bay to Clarkes Harbor, .. C ., from Yarmouth to Bear 
River, and .. D .. from _-\nnapolis to \Volfville. 
The first public parade of "A ., Company was on 
[ay 27 th 
to St. l\Iatthew's Church to attend the memorial sen-ice for Lieu- 
tenant Campbell. who had been killed in action, and \\'ho was the 
son of }.I r. G. S. Campbell, one of the most aCli\'e spirits in the 
recruiting campaign. 
In the history of the 2lgth there is a humorous distinction 
between the ,first funeral procession and the first actual funeral 01 
one of its members. .one night in the early spring a fire occurred 
in a house in Barrington Street. Cnfortul1ately the inmates could 
not be extricated in lime. and some fatalities resulted, The charred 
remains of one ,body was identified as 1:hat of 
l etrofan :}'Ieik. a 
Russian recruit in the 2lgth. The funeral took place from St. 

Iary' s Cathedral. ...\ firing party was furnished by .. C ., Company 
of the 85th. The Last Post was sounded and full military honors 
paid to the dead. Next morning who should report in the orderly 
room but 1\T etrofan himself. very much alive and feeling greatly the 
better for his leave. which had now expired. \Yho it was that was 
buried with military honors has never been discovered to this hour. 
The first actual funeral of a soldier in the 2Igth took place on 

Iay 2nd, from the 1Iilitary I Iospital in Halifax. The deceased 
was Private Edwards. a native of England. The sen-ices were 
conducted by Hon. Captain 
It was on \Yednesòay, February 23rd. that a letter came from 
Ottawa authorizing the formation of the 21gth and granting permis- 
sion to appoint l\Iajor E. C. Phinney, of the 85th as temporary O.C. 
It was he who had the task of organizing the 2Igth, and the manner 

219tlz BATT ALIGN, C.E.F. 

In which he accomplished this is a fine tribute to his executive 
ability. For the first few days he was assisted by Lieut. C. Holland, 
who acted as Adjutant. In the beginning of April a rumor was 
in circulation that the Highland Brigade was not to materialize and 
that the 85th was to proceed immediately Overseas. Rather than 
miss this opportunity of going to the Front, 
Iajor Phinney relin- 
quished his position as Commanding Officer of the 219th and went 
back to his former position in the 85th. 
-\pril 8th Lieut.-Cot. X. H. Parsons became temporary C.O. 
of the 2lgth. He planned a tour of inspection, but his purpose was 
frustrated by a serious illness. Lieutenant Holland, who after- 
wards became Staff Captain in the X ova Scotia Highland Brigade, 
was succeeded as Actin
 _-\djutant by Lieut. John S. Roper. He 
along with ::\Iajor Rudland and Lieutenant \Yylie had been one of 
a ::\1ilitary Committee to assist in the formation of the Battalion. 
He remained Adjutant throughout its whole history. 
Iay 4th Colonel Parsons felt sufficiently recovered to pro- 
ceed 'with his tour of inspection, and during his absence the duties 
of command devoh-ed on }.Iajor H. D. Creighton. But the atmos- 
phere was 
urcharged with uncertainty and the Battalion was 
beginning to suffer for \\'ant of a permanent head. Lieut.-Cot. 
Parsons returned to the 85th, and, with him, :\Iajor Creighton. At 
last on 
Iay 5th. Lieut.-Cot. \r. H. l\luirhead assumed command. 
hnmediately the unrest ceased, and the Battalion settled itself to the 
business of training. 
On the outbreak of the \ ,oar Colonel 
Iuirhead went at once to 
the new camp at \. alcartier and was given an appointment on the 
Divisional Headquarters Staff. But being unmarried and anxious 
to take his part in the actual fighting. he transferred to the Royal 
Canadian Dragoons before the First Canadian Contingent sailed, 
reverting to the rank of Lieutenant. Early in 
Iay, 1915, he crossed 
to France in the Canadian Ca\'alry Brigade, which included, with 
(he Dragoons, the Strathcona Horse and the 2nd King Edward 
Horse. For nine months he was in the trenches, and witnessed 
some of the fiercest fighting of the \Yar. 
In Canada the idea was gaining ground that new troops should 
be instructed in the latest methods of warfare, and this could only 
be done by bringing some of the officers from the Front. Colonel 


Iuirhead was subst::ql1ently appointed second in command of the 
112th, vd1Ïch was recruiting at the time, and he returned in January, 
19 16 . As above stated he took over the 219th on 
Iay 5th. His 
keen intelligence, long faqÜliarity with business methods, together 
with the stern experience he had known at -the Front, fitted him in 
quite an exceptional manner for the command and training of a 
The Battalions at Camp Aldershot were arranged in order of 
seniority. Nearest to Aldershot Station was placed the 85th, and 
then in order the 185th, 193rd and 219th. Beyond the lines of the 
2T9th were quartered the 97th, .. The American Legion," made up 
of men from the United States, \\ ho had come ,to take their share in 
the fight for the freedom of the world. 
Later in the season the waste land beyond the 07th was cleared 
and became the home of the 246th, the reserve Untt of the Brigade. 
It might be of interest to mention that the X ova Scotia Highland 
Brigade wore Balmoral caps with feathers. The feathers were dark 
gray, but each one of them had a distinctive coloring. In the 85 th , 
it was red; in the 18Sth, green; in the 193rd, blue; and in the 219th, 
Naturally changes took place in the personnel of the officers of 
the 219th, especially late in the season, when the 246th \Vas formed. 
But the following list represents with fair accuracy the situation 
during most of the summer: 

Officer Commanding "..........".. Lieut.-Col. \V. H, l\Iuirhead. 
Second in Command ...,.....,..... 
Iajor :\1. E. Roscoe. 
Adjutant ..,...,'...,......".. . . Lieut. J. S, Roper. 
Quartermaster ..,..,...,........... :\Tajor F. \V. \"1. Doane, 
Paymaster .....",..,.".,.,....".. Hon. Capt. H. D. Henry. 
::\Tedical Officer . . ,. . . . . , .... '" Capt. D. P. Churchill. 
Chaplain ..,........,......... _ . '.. . HOI1. Capt. C. :\IacKinnon, 
" A" Cü:\IPANv-l\Iajor J. Rudland, Company Commander; Capt. H. A. 
Kent, Second in Command (Capt. Kent, after going Overseas, became 
Company Commander of .. C" Company) ; Lieuts. V. G. Rae, E. R. Clayton, 
A. D. Macdonald, R. D. Graham. 
" B" C01\lPANy-Capt, 1\1. C. Denton, Company Commander; Capt. E. C. 

li1Ier, Second in Command (after going Overseas Capt. Miller became Com- 
pany Commander); Lieuts. \V. 1\1. L. Robertson, ]. Belyea, A. C. King, 
E. J. Hallett. 
"c" COMPANY-:\-fajor A. K. Van Horne, Company Commander: (after 
going Overseas, Captain Kent); Lieut. G. D. Blackadar, Second in Com- 
mand (after going Overseas, Capt. H. E. Crowell); Lieuts. H. E. Crowell, 
13 6 

.![()tli B.-1TT.-1LIOS. C.E.F. 

X. 1. Chipman, \V. J. ""right, Kenneth Campbell, who went over in a draft 
during the summer. 
.. D" CmIP.\Xy-Capt. G. H. Cutten, Company Commander; Capt. \Y, 
X oblett, Second in Command (Capt. Cutten became l\Iajor in the 2-t-6th and 
Capt., afterwards Major, H. K. Emerson, recently returned from the front, 
took command of .. D " Company); Lieuts. .\. D. Borden, J. P, 
J. C. :\1. Vercker and E. R. Power. 
In addition to these officers were Lieut. II. A. Love in charge of 
Signalling Section, and Lieut. \ \. L. Dlack of the 
Iachine Gun 
During the summer lIon. Capt
in Father O'Sullh-an was added. 
lIe was employed most of the time in raising the" Purple Feather 
Fund," and spent only a week or two in camp. 
The Battalion ""as fortunate in its Sergeant-
rajor, .-\. 
. \\"ard. 
who blended a strict sense of duty with a g-enial disposition and 
secured alike the approbation of the officers and the respect of the 
The Camp had not been long established at Aldershot when it 
was honored by a ,"isit from Sir Sam Hughe..;, the 
[inister of 

lilitia. On J line I Ith. at 6 a,l11. the Brigade \'"as paraded. Al- 
though 'there had only been a few days of lIn1l
d training, the 
impression produced upon the 
Iinister was quite noticeable, and 
e\"er afterwards he sho\\'ed a kindly appreciation of the X ova Scotia 
\ugust 9th the Camp was honored by another distinguished 
visitor, Sir Robert norden. the Premier of Canada. .who was accom- 
panied by the Hon. Dayid 
IacKeen, the Lieut.-Governor of Xova 
Scotia. The 
Iarch Past was excellent. and the Premier. a nati,"e 
of the Province, was pleased to speak words of heartfelt apprecia- 
tion and encouragement. Another inspection was made on Angu
15 th . but this was more of a formal mili,tary character and lacked 
the general significance of the previous reviews. 
The red-letter days of the Brigade's whole history at ;\ldershot 
were Friday the 25th and Saturday the 26th of 
'\ugust. On Friday 
the Camp was thrown open to the public. who flocked thither from 
every part of the Province. The resources of the railway were 
taxed to the utmost. Fully eight thousand people visited the 
grounds and witnessed the 
larch Past. They were relatives of " the 
boys," and nothing re\"ealed more clearly how tenderly the thought 
10 13ï 

". ". 






. . 

.. . 




."" ...... 
), > 
, .... 

t ' 
'.1 }, 



.,.t> . 

J .' 






f '. 
'" L /\' 

., l 


. .f" 
'L ' . ' 
J .. .... 


. j 
I \Ó 
i ÕI 





















219t1z B...J.TT_ILIOS, C.E.F. 

of the Province centred about the rows of white tents, where the 
flower of its manhood was encamped. By a happy thought the 
Camp Commandant, Col. \Y. E. Thompson, added to the ordinary 
review exercises a short march in column of route, so the men 
would pass immediately in front of their many friends. 
On Saturday morning Field-
Iarshall His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Connaught arrived. Exhilarated by the enthusiasm of the 
previous day, the Brigade excelled itself in its manOeU\TeS, and 
especially in the 
larch Past. His Royal Highness. who was too 
fine a soldier to be guilty of a meaningless expression, declared that 
he had not inspected anything finer in the Dominion of Canada. 
One other function completes the tale of reviews. . It ,,"as the 
presentation of colors by Lady Borden to the four Battalions on 

J onday, Septemher 25th, K 0 little practice was necessary for the 
involved movements connected with the ceremony. Once again the 
weather was propitious: the sunbeams kissed the silken colors as 
they were unfurled to the breeze. and row-ing cheers greeted the 
declaration of the Premier that they would shortly be sent over the 
That afternoon a competition was commenced between the various 
platoons of the Brigade. which resulted in the award going to the 
.. thirteenth platoon" of the 219th, and as a sign that they had won, 
they were permitted to wear their feathers with the edge triIÙmed. 
On Friday, September 26th, a message arrived ordering the 
Brigade to be ready to go Overseas in six days. and cancelling all 
leave for officers and men. The announcement of this approaching 
embarkation would by itself have been sensational enough, but when 
it came accompanied by an order that no one should have the privi- 
lege of seeing his home again, the men were fairly stunned. All 
had counted on a ,. farewell " leave. At first everyone seemed par- 
alyzed. Then their resolution took shape. It was not in the 
Colonel's power to grant leave but, though a strict disciplinarian, he 
understood the situation and felt a deep sympathy for the men. and 
determined that his attitude should be as lenient as possible. The 
men were resolute to see their hòmes, many of which were in the 
vicinity of the Camp. Every effort was made to stop them. 
Cordons with fixed bayonets were placed around the station at 
Kentville. But all to no purpose. The majority simply ""ose and 





· <'?:"4 
- ..\ 1. .#_ 
i ., .. .* 



, ., 








" f 




... ""'-.> 

'..' -..



... .".. t. 



1"\ ..... 


'I ___ 





t t , . 

219th B_-1TTALIO.LV} C.E.F. 

went. They hired motor car
. mounted horse:-, or eVe!1 walked 
For a moment there was a sense of alarm and humiliation, which 
quickly changed to confidence and pride as the men cam
back, sati
fied that they had seen their friends and ready to do their 
duty in facing the foe. This unauthorized farewell furlough \VJ.S 
not confined to the 2I9th but was general in the 185th and the I9.,ni 
as well. 
The six days' warning was, of course, a mere preliminary 
measure but definite orders at last arri\'ed for the 219th to march 
out on the 12th of October at 5 a.m. Xever did Halifax 
lovelier than in the bright autumn air as the Battalion marched 
along Barrington Street and up Spring Garden Road and throug11 
South Park Street to the Common, where a vast company of friend,; 
and .well-wishers had congregated to say good-bye. Ranks \yere 
broken and the soldiers mingled freely with the people. The" 1',111 
In" sounded. the band struck up a lively air. and the march was 
resumed until the gates of the docks closed behind the last file, 
Opportunities of further adieus were granted in the afternoon 
within the limit of the dock. and then for the final time the troops 
climbed the long gangways to the decks of the transport. 
_\11 night the OZ:ymPic lay at the pier. On Friday afternoon she 
1110yed up to Bedford Dasin. Life 'belts were passed out and 
alarms practised. During the afternoon. \yhen rumors that ,ve 
were doomed to several days' detention in the basin were at their 
height, the anchor was quietly raised and almost noiselessly the ship 
began to glide down the harbor. But the movement ,vas quickly 
noticed on shore, and the tooting of tu,gS and the cheering .of the 
crowds that rushed to the pier heads showed that the" boys" had 
not been forgotten by their friends. The shades .of night were 
gathering in as Cape Sambro fell astern, and the twinkle of its 
kindly light \vas Nova Scotia's farewell. Betting in New York 
had run as high as twenty to one that the OI:.'11l/,ic would be sunk 
because the notorious German submarine L33. which had com- 
mitted serious depredations off X antucket, was reported to be in 
the vicinity. \Yhatever anxiety may have been felt by those on the 
bridge. seemed not in the slightest degree to have reached the troops 
below, who had a confidence in the British seamanship that was 
almost sublime. 

14. 1 

-1RT IX THE GRE.-1T [f".-1R 

On Tuesday night two destroyers picked up the ship and acteå 
as consorts. \Yednesday morning the coast of Ireland was in view, 
and \Yednesday evening anchor was dropped in the l\Iersey, the 
voyage having been completed in four days and nineteen hours. 
\ \r e sailed on a Friday, and the thirteenth at that. but war has 
exploded the superstitions of the world along with many other 
'I\yo or three hours were required for the disembarkation. 
Eight trains were required for the ",,"hole Brigade, and they were 
started at various intervals of time. The 'last two car
ied the 219th. 
] t was nearly midnight when the train drew into the siding at 

lilford Station and, resuming their packs. the men began their two 
miles' march into Camp. 
\\ïtle) CamlJ was situated on \Yitley Common. a sandy tract 
cO\'ered with scattered pines. known as Scotch fir. and with few 
houses in the vicinity. .\lilford Yillage was a mile and a half away, 
and Godalming three miles. The nearest to",,"n was Guildford. eight 
miles off. The county was Surrey, and the landscape among the 
most picturesque in all England. 
After the first cold snap that greeted the troops on their arrival. 
milder conditions prevailed: the air became balmy; the fresh, full 
foliage on the trees, and the fragrance of the flowers still in bloom 
seemed to carry' summer into December. But as 
 ovember dre\\" 
into December cold mists settled into the valley where \ \ïtley Camp 
lay. and caused an acrid chill that seemed to eat into the marrow of 
the bone. Influenza (known as .. flu" or " grippe ") invaded the 
Camp. The sick parade in the morning increased by leaps and 
hounds; the general hospital at Bramshott and the 
ick detention 
hut of the Brigade were filled and could take no more, .\ special 
hut in the Battalion lines was secured and in a few days crowded 
out. and even the spare accommodation in the medical room was 
covered with bed boards on which lay fevered and coughing men, 
December will remain to the troops at \Vitley Camp something of a 
No one as yet seriously believed. or at least publicly announced. 
that the Highland Brigade would not be held together. Had not 
the l\Iinister of :\Iilitia plighted his word to that effect? Had it 
not been a promise to the men when they enlisted? Towards the 
14 2 

21Çth B

end of K ovember, however, sinister rumors began to filter through 
and culminated on the 30th November in the call for the first dra ft 
for France. Immediately the Çamp was in a hubbub of excitement, 
for the draft required 800 men from the Brigade, and this obviously 
meant its dismemberment. .All reasonable means that might avert 
the blow were employed, but the order was explicit. No officers 
were to go except those in charge of drafts, and they were to return 
from France whenever their duty was accomplished. All non- 
commissioned officers chosen were to revert to the rank of private. 
Ultimately 115 went from the 2I9th under the command of Lieu- 
tenant King, The Brigadier addressed a few parting words, and 
to the strains of martial music and the skirl of the pipes the proud 
lads marched a way leaving a thoughtful Camp behind. \Vhat was 
to be the fate of those who remained? Rumor again became busy, 
hope revived and old predictions were renewed, when once more 
with dramatic swiftness the axe fell and when it accomplished its 
business the Highland Brigade was no more. Noone could have 
attempted to parry the blow more resolutely than the Brigadier. 
He felt keenly the pledges that had been given and the injustice to 
K o\"a Scc,tia; and his efforts were not without a measure of success. 
Two Battalions of the four were preserved, the 85th and the 185th. 
Into the 85th some 350 men, nearly all the Lieutenants and Major 
Rudland, were drafted from the 219th. A 1arge number from the 
193rd were put into the 185th. The 85th received orders to prepare 
at once to go Overseas, though this was not actually accomplished 
until February loth. The 185th was "slated" for the Fifth 
Division, and it was to remain in \Vitley Camp. The remainder of 
the Highland Brigade were to proceed to Bramshott Camp. It was 
in the last week of December that the large draft, carefully selected 
and splendidly fit, changed their feathers from purple to red and 
went over to the lines of the 85th. The officers packed their kits 
and the happy fellowship of the :l\Iess Room. that had lasted from 
the happy days of concentration in sunny Aldershot, was dissolved, 
alas. never in its completeness to reassemble again. 
Between five and six hundred of the 2I9th Battalion still re- 
mained. Kits and trunks were packed. adieus paid, our temporary 
English home broken up. and promptly at T 2 o'clock Saturday. 
December 30th; the Purple Feather rank:,. no\\" varierl with blue and 


green and red feathers, moved off headed by the 85th Dand. The 
Battalion settled down in a pleasant part of the Bramshott Camp, on 
the brow of a hill overlooking the picturesque dale through which 
flo\yeù a streamlet gathered from the meadows of Haslemere. 
Shottermill and Hammer. It was the country of George Eliot and 
of Tennyson's later years. .?\Iany trayellers had come to it, but 
never. any on so strange an errand. 
Presently there appeared in Camp the Old lith. It had been the 
first )Joya Scotian Unit sent Overseas. _-\.part from its Commanding 
Officer, Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, it possessed hardly any Nova 
Scotians; it was officered and its ranks were filled almost exclusively 
by "-estern Canadians. This Battalion, like the famous l\Iinotaur. 
had fed on the remnants of many others in its time. \\Tould the 
Highland ßrigade succumb to the usual fate or would it prove an 
indigestible morsel? 
At the commencement of 1917 a change of policy was inaugu- 
rated affecting all the Canadian Camps in England. \\ïtley vças 
reserved for the Fifth Division. In the others the Training Bri- 
gades became reserve ones, which would haye a full strength of 
8,000 each, and each Resen-e B?ttalion (2.000 in strength) would 
have some definite fighting Unit at the Front to which it would send 
reinforcements whenever required. The lith was made a Reserve 
Battalion in the 5 th Reserve Brigade; it was to reinforce the 25 th 
and 85 th and to be distinctively Xova Scotian; it was ordered to 
take over the 219th and 193rd. Officially the whale swallowed 
Jonah, but in the curious and unscriptural sequel Jonah took over 
the control of the whale from the inside. This seconcl transfor- 
mation was undoubtedly due to the fact that the lith Reserve 
was to become a Nova Scotian Unit and naturally Nova Scotians 
assumed the dominant role; and these were to be found in the ranks 
of the Highland Brigade. But it was also due to a stubborn and 
persistent eSþrit de corþs that had always characterized the 2Igth. 
The formal transference took place on January 23 rd , and that 
date marks the end of the 219th as a distinct military Cnit, and 
form.s a fitting close to this article. It has been the story of a 
splendid Battalion into which the \\T estern Counties of Nova Scotia 
poured their best manhood with unstinted patriotism. It represents 


the finest sacrifice ever made by the loyal enthusiasm of that part 
of the Proyince. Fisherman. farmer. lumberman, student. mini:;.ter. 
lawyer. doctor drilled 
ide by side in a spirit of comradeship seldom 
It is not giyen to this Lloodless narrative to trace to the field of 
battle the oraye men that filled the ranks. but in the tale of their 
Battalions they will be found to have played their part in the defence 
of ciyilization bravely and well. and to have left to their country 
the legacy of an imperishable example. 



2J.6t!z BATT.-1LIOX, C.E.F. 

T HE 246th Battalion was authorized in - \ugnst, 19 16 , as a 
Reserve Unit to supply reinforcements to the 
ova Scotia 
Highland Brigade. [t was organized at Camp Aldershot a 
short time before the Brigade embarked for Overseas, and to it 
were tran
ferred officers and other ranks who, from various causes. 
were temporarily unfit for service at the Front. Each Battalion 
of the Brigade was represented by one Company, " :\ " Company. 
the 85th Battalion; .. B" Company. 1Rsth Battalion: .. C .. Company. 
193nl Battalion, and .. D" Company, 2I9th Battalion. 
The officers were: 

Lieut.-Co!. X. H. Parsons .......... .Officer Commanding. 
:\lajor G. B. Cutten ................ Second in Command. 
:\[ajor H. H. Bligh ..."..,......,.." Company Commander. 
:\Iajor H. D. Creighton..,".,.. .... Company Commander. 
:\Iajor :\1. A. :\IcKay .......,...'... Company Commander. 
:\Iajor \V. G. McRae .............. Company Commander. 
Capt. A. 
IcKinnon ..',....'....,.. 
Capt. G. E. Roberts .,.............' 
Capt. J. Armitage ,...........,......\djutant. 
Capt. L, L. Titus ...."...... . . Quartermaster. 
Capt. A, C. \Vilson ....,.,.......,.. :\fedical Officer. 
Capt. C. W. Corey,... ,. . . .. . . . , . . . . Chaplain. 
Capt. F. Robertson ...........,...., Paymaster. 
Lieut. R. V. Harris .....,.......... Asst. Adjutant. 
Lieuts. F. J. McCharles, .\. T. E. Crosby, E, S. H. Lane, 
H. F. Lockhart. H. 1. :\IcTnnes. A. \V. Rogel's. \V. n. 
Ross, E. C. Shields, C. E. Smith. H. R. Theakston, 
'V. :\1. Bligh. C. E. Baker. G. D. BJackadal", R. S. 
Edwards. X. Rogers. J, S. Roy. 

A. detachment of the 246th under the cummand uf 
Iajur I-I. D. 
Creighton was sent to Trenton to guard the Xova Scotia Steel 
Company's plant at that point. and was later relie,"ed by a detach- 
ment from the Composite Battalion. 
During the autumn and winter l11onth
 recruiting became \"ery 
difficult. and \vhen the neces
ity for compulsory sen'ice hecame 
14 6 

1-/6tlz B.JTT.-1LIOX, C.B.F. 

evident it \vas decided to discontinue organization and send the 
Battalion Overseas in drafts. The first draft, under the command 
of Lieuts C. E. Baker and \V. 11. Bligh, embarked in March, 1917, 
and on June 1st a further draft of 230 men and the following 
officers were sent Overseas: 
Lieut.-Cot X. H. Parsons; 
Iajor l\L _ \. 
ay; Capt. A. 
lVlcKinnon, Capt, L. L. Titus. Lienb. .-\.. T. E. Crosby, R. S. 
Edwards, E. S. ] I. Lane. It F. Lockhart. ] l. L. 

\. \V. 
Rogers. \\!. B. Ross. E. C. Shields, C. E. Smith, 
On arrival in England the draft proceeded to Bramshott, where 
one half of the men were sent to the 18Sth Battalion, then training 
at \\ïtley with the 5th Division. The remainder together with the 
officers were absorbed by the 17th Reserve Battalion, 
The remainder of the strength left in Canada was transferred 
to Labor, Forestry, Special Sen,ice and other Units, the majority 
eventually going Overseas. 



-YO. l CO

N O.2 Construction Ua
talioll was authorized 01 . 1 July 5, 1916. 

lr. D. H. Sutherland, of River John. K.S" a wen-known 
railroad contractor, who had enlisted in the 193rd Overseas 
Battalion. ,vas given command of this Unit with the rank of Lieut.- 
-\n Infantry 

Battalion was not deemed advisable as the popu- 
lation \\"a<; not sufficient to send the 
nccessary reinforcements; therefore a 
Construction Battalion was authorized 
to represent the colored cItIzens of 
Canada, \vho were demanding that their 
race should be represented in the C.E.F. 
by a l;nit compused of their own people. 
The colored citizens of Canada are 
settled principally in the Provinces of 

 ova Scotia and Ontario, although of 
late years a great many have settled in 
LIEUT.-COL. D, H. SUTHERLAND. \Yestern Canada. Out of a total popu- 
lation in Canada of 20,000, including 
men. \\ omen and children, ).J ova Scotia has 7,000; Ontario 5. 000 ; 
X e\v Brunswick 1.000, and the remainder of the colored population 
are settled in \"estern Canada. It is estimated that 200 colored men 
were engaged in coal mines in X O\'a Scotia. and therefore not eligible 
to enlist. The number of men who enlisted in Xo. 2 Construction 
from Xova Scotia was 500, so that of the men available in Xova 
Scotia. the colored citizens sent Overseas in l\ o. 2 Construction 
Battalion fully 10 per cent. of their population as volunteers. 
Recruiting ,,"as carried on simultaneously wherever the colored 
population ,vere located. A detachment of sixty men, under com- 
mand of Capt. "-. :-\.. 
IcConneli. was raised at Toronto and 
11- 8 



latterly joined the detachment at \\-illdsor, Ont.. under the C0111- 
mand of Capt. A. J. Gayfer. The Ontario recruits in aU numbered 
35 0 . About fifty recruits volunteered from \\T estern Canada. The 
headquarters \\-a:; first located at Pictou. X.S., and later trans- 
ferred to Truro, ,,-here more barracks room ,,-as a yailable. 
X o. 2 Construction Battalion was the only volunteer Cnit to 
engage 111 war-work before proceeding O,-erseas. -\ Company of 
25 0 men, under command of Capt. Kenneth 
-\. ::\Iorrison, was 
employed during the months of January. February and part of 
:\Iarch lifting rails from the Grand Trunk sidings at 
Xappadogan and Edmundston. X.B., to be shipped O\"erseas for 
the \Vestern Front. 
Following is a list of officers of this Cnit: 

D. H. Sutherland .....,..,.,..... Lieut,-CoIoneI and O,c. 
Kenneth A. ì\lorrison ...,.,....... Capt. and Second in Command. 
John Sidney Da\"ie ".....,.",... Capt. and A.djutant. 
\\'alter Adam )fcConnell ". _, . , . . Captain. 
George Peter )Ic Laren ... " Captain. 
--\. J. Gayfer .,..'"".......,'. _. Captain. 
James Stuart Grant . .. Captain and Pa} ma5ter. 
Da\'id :\nderson .......,...,..,.. Captain and Quarterma5ter. 
Russell R. )IcLean .".,".. .'.'. Lieutenant. 
James Bertram Hayes ., . " . . ..,. Lieutenant. 
Roderick Li\"ing5tone _ _ _ " , , . , , " .. Lieutenant. 
Halton FyIes ........ _ . . _ . , . Lieutenant. 
\ViIIiam 1. young,... .. Lieutenant. 
L Bruce Young- ..,.......,....,.. Lieutenant. 
Isaac Logan Banhill ..."...,.. " Lieutenant. 
-\ttached Officer;;: ..,."..,....,.. Capt. Dan, )Iurray, )ledical Offic
Hon. Capt. \\ïIIiam _-\. \Yhite. 

::\Ir. Harry D. :\IcLean. of the Cook Construction Company. and 
"'heaton Bros.. presented the Unit with a set of band instruments. 

Ir. _-\ndrew "-heaton also assisted the Cnit financially. :\Ir. 
H. B. ::\IcLean was appointed Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel on 
account of his interest in and assistance to the Battalion. 
The Unit embarked at Halifax. 
Iarch 25. 191ï. on board the 
troopship SOlttltland.. in all there ,,-ere 3.500 troops on board. The 
ship was in command of Captain ::\Iorehouse. and the troops in 
command of Lieut.-Co!. D, H. Sutherland. The convoy arrived 
at Liverpool April 8th. During the passage great precautions were 
taken to guard against enemy submarines. Xo lights were shO\\"Il. 


no bugles blown and a constant watch wa:; kept day and night for 
floating mines and submarines. This period was the worst in the 
history of submarine warfare, as more ships were sunk during the 
week .-\pril I to L-\pril R. 1917, than at any time during the ""ar. 
The Cnit entrained at Liverpool Sunday noon, L-\pril 8th, and 
left for Seaford, travelling by special troop train through a very 
picturesque country. L-\rriving at ;:;eaford the Unit was escorted 
by a British band to our Camp under canvas, about two miles from 
the. depot. All troops arriving from Canada at this time were 
segregated ten days. to avoid the introduction of contagious dis- 
eases. The Unit was taken on the strength of the Canadian forces 
at Seaford. under command of Co1. G. S. Gardiner. 
Defore proceeding to France, it was necessary for any Unit to 
have the full quota of men in accordance to the establishment of 
the Unit. As Xo, 2 Construction was 300 under strength, the Unit 
was reorganized into a Construction Company of 500 men and ten 
officers. .-\s there was no provision on the establishment for a 
Lieutenant-Colonel. Lieut.-Cot. Sutherland, Officer Commanding. 
reverted to the rank of 
[ajor to proceed to France in command of 
the Unit. 
\Yhile at Seaford, from \ pril 8 to :\1 ay Ii. 191ï, the Unit 
was detailed into workip.g parties and employed in building 
trenches for the troops in training and in huilding and repairing 
roads within the bounds of the Canadian command. Permanent 
air picket was detailed about ::\1 ay I st. to be in readiness in the 
event of air raids, which were of frequent occurrence. During. 
the Sports' Day Competition among the Canadian Forces at Sea- 
ford. tl?e members of X o. 2 Construction won a silver cup pre- 
sented for competition by the British Y.1LC.A. 
The Unit was ordered to France on :Jlay 17th, and entrained at 
Seaford at 2 a.m., :Jlay Iith, arriving at Folkestone and proceeding 
direct to the Channel troopship at the pier. The crossing occupied 
two hours. The Channel boats carrying troops were well escorted 
by British destroyers on port and starboard sides, while the Sil'Z'er 
Queen, a small-sized dirigible airship, escorted our troopship over- 
head to sight for enemy submarines. Arriving at Boulogne at 
3 p.m. the "Cnit was escorted to a rest camp; twenty-four hours 
15 0 


later. on 
ray 18th, the Cnit entrained at Boulog-ne and travelled 
by special troop train by Etaples. Paris, Dijon, Dole, :\.Iouchard 
and arrived at our destination, La Joux, J our 
Iountains. on 
The Cnit \vas attached to X o. 5 District. Canadian Forestry 
Corps, under command of Lieut.-CoI. Geo. Johnson. There were 
four Forestry Companies consisting of lio men, 40 teams, logging 
and sawmill outfit, located \\'ithin one-half mile radius from Xo. 2 
Construction Company's Camp. The officers and men of X o. 2 
Construction were detailed into working parties and paraded daily 
to assist in the logging, milling and shipping operations of the 
Forestry Corps. 
The officers \\'ere employed as follows: 

rajor Sutherland was in command of the Cnit and kept a 
general supervision over the different working partie
Capt. J. S, Grant was employed as officer in charge of shipping 
for "\'"0. .=; District. and all lumber sawn by the four Companies was 
shipped at La Joux Station by 0:0. 2 Construction men. A de- 
tachment of fi fty men, under command of Lieut. H. Fyle
, assisted 
Xo, 22 Company, C.F.C., in logging and in the construction of a 
narrow gange railway. to transport saw-logs to the mill. The roads 
were kept in repair by Capt. David _-\nderson, X o. 2 Construction, 
with a party of 100 men. A road plant consisting of a rock 
crusher, steam drill, motor lorries and steam roller, was employed, 
and the roads were kept in a good state of repair where the heavy 
traffic demanded the best roads possible. 
The water to supply the Camp had to be pumped to an elevation 
of 1.500 feet by means of force pumps in relay. Lieut. Bertram 
Hayes was officer in charge of pumping stations and water lines. 
Capt. R. Livingstone was Transport Officer for "\'"0. 5 District, 
assisted by Lieut. Russell 
 IcLean, both of X o. 2 Construction 
On December 30, 1917, Capt. K. 
Iorrison left La Joux for 
Alencon. in command of 180 other ranks to report to the O.C. 

o. I District, C.F.C.; Lieut. S. Hood was Adjutant of this detach- 
ment. Fifty other ranks were despatched to 3ith Company, C.F.C., 
Mear Peronne. 



A. few items, as follows, taken from the \Yar Diary of this Cnit 
J ul) I, 1918, will be of interest: . 
Dominion Day celebrated by the eleven Forestry Companies a1H
?\ o. 2 Construction Company, composing X o. 5 District, in field 
sports held at Chapois. The four Companies from La .I oux, 
namely. Xo. 22, 40, 50 and Ko. 2 Construction paraded to the 
grounds under the conunand of 
lajor Sutherland. During the 
day, the band of this Company, by their excellent music. greatly 
assisted in entertaining the crowd and making the holiday a success. 
July 7. 19 18 : Camp inspected by Lieut.-General Sir Richard 
Turner, \
.c., accompanied by 
G.O.c. Canadian Forestry Corps, and Lieut.-Colonel Johnson. O.C. 
Jura Group. The interior economy and general tidiness ""ere 
favorably commented upon. 
July 13, 191
: Hon. Capt. \\". _\. \Yhite J Chaplain. returns 
frum visiting the Alencon detachment. 
July 14. 19 18 : Sunday, no work. The 
[ayor of 
invited the Canadians in this district to send a detachment to Salin:, 
to take part in a review in which American and French troop:; 
were participating. l\Iajor Sutherland represente.d Lieut.-Cot. 
I. Strong, D.S.O.. a.c. NO.5 District, C.F.C., who \Vas absent 
on duty. and acted as reviewing officer of the _-\llied Troop::. at 
Salilis. in commemorating the National Day and to do honor to 
the French Republic. The band of this Company. under the leader- 
ship of Sergt. G. \\1. Stewart, played the Xational Anthem and a 
programme and gl
eatly assisted in making the event a memorable 
July 15. 1918: Camp inspected by General Bouillard, Com- 
manding 7th Army Division, French, and Lieut.-Cot. G. Johnson, 
Ö.C. Jura Group. 
April 3, 19 18 : The following telegram scnt to the D.T.O.. 
C.I...,C.. France, from the O.c. NO.2 Construction Company: 
"\Yill you please recommend my Unit which is organized for 
construction work for transfer to \\T estern Front:' 
In - \pril, 1918, Colonel Strong, D.S.O., O.C. Xo. 5 District, 
C.F.C., recommended that 1\0. 2 Construction Company be given 
the establishment of a Battalion. This recommendation was approved 
15 2 


by the G.O.c., General \ \l1Ïte, and General .2\IaclJougall, but held 
up for lack of reinforcements. 
Shortly aftcr the Armistice: orders were received for this Cnit 
to report at the General Base Depot, Etaples. The Cnit left La 
Joux, December 4th. One hundred and fifty Russian soldiers, who 
had been attached to Xo. 2 Construction Company during 1918, 
were taken over by Ko. -1-0 Company, C.F.C. K o. 2 Construction 
arri,"ed at Etaples December 7th, and was joined by the detach- 
ment from Alencon and fifty men from 37th Company, C.F,C. 
The "Cnit sailed from ßoulogne, December, with 600 attached 
troops, under command of ::\J ajor Sutherland. and arriyed at Bram- 
shott Camp. The Unit was attached to the Xoya Scotia Regi- 
mental Depot, and from there dispersed to the several military 
camps representing the various military districts in Canada, to 
which the men 'would be forwarded for demobilization. The 
different drafts composing this Cnit sailed the latter part of 
January, 1919, for Halifax. 
A -letter was received by ::\Iajor Sutherland from ::\Iajor-General 
::\J acDougall conveying the thanks of the Canadian Forestry Corps 
to the officers and men of this Unit for their valuable and faithful 
seryices whilc attached for duty and discipline to the Canadian 
Forestry Corps. 




 February IS. H)16, the Colonial Secretary cabled to the 
Governor-General of Canada. H.R,H. the Duke of Con- 
naught, the following mes:'\age: 

.. H.:\1. Government would be grateful if the Canadian GO\"ernment 
would assist in the production of timber for war purposes" Owing to 
the \'Cry serious shortage of freight for munitions, food, forage and 
. other essentials, which is a matter of the gravest concern to H.
Go\"ernment, it is impossible to continue to import Canadian timber on 
a sufficiently large scale to meet war requirements. and arrangements 
must therefore be made for felling and converting English forests. 
.. Chief difficult} is finding sufficient skilled labor, fellers, haulers 
and sawyers. One thousand five hundred men are urgently needed, and 
H.:\I. Government would suggest that a Battalion of lumbermen might 
be formed of s'pecially listed men to undertake exploitations of forests 
of this country. If proposal commends itself to Canadian Government, 
would beg very early action. Suggest that men be enlisted into Can- 
adian Expeditionary Force and despatched in small companies under 
competent supervision, Government is aware that lumber season is now 
in progress, but feel sure that men would enlist even at sacrifice of 
present employment if the reason of appeal were made known to them. 
Incidence of cost will be arranged as agreeable to Canadian Govern- 

A further cable was sent on February 29th. So quickly did the 
Canadian authorities make up their minds, that on 
Iarch I, 1916, 
a cable wa:'i sent stating that the Battalion asked for would be pro- 
vided with the least possible delay. The raising of Cnits in thi
Corps exemplified the readiness of the Canadian Goyernment to 
assist in the most unexpected direction. 
The 224th Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel 
IcDougall. arrived 
in England, _ \pril 28. 1916, and the 2,3oth, 238th and 2.+2nd Bat- 
talions followed within six months. 
l\'"ova Scotia's quota in this branch of the Service was about 
5 2 5 officers and men, known as the 
 ova Scotia Forestry. Draft, 


composed of three Companies with a personnel of officer3 as. 
I. C. Denton. Officer Commanding: 
Iajor E. J. 
Stehlen, Second in Command: Capt. J. G. Pierce Adjutant. 
.. A " Comþally.-Capt. }'I. D. 
IcKeigan. O.c..: Lieut. 
-\. Roy. 
Lieut. Parker 
IcDonald, Lieut. Dayid X eal. 
., B" Company-Capt. G. D. Blackader. O.C.: Lieul. X. P. 
enzie, Lieut. C. E. }'IcDougall. Lieut. C. F, Kinney. 
.. C
. COlllþall)'.-Capt. II. E. Verge. 
O.C,: Lieut. George Harding. Lieut R. S, 
Shreve. Lieut. \Y. Y. R. \\
_-\uthorization for this Cnit \\'as 
gTanted in 
larch. 19Iï. Recruiting and 
organization work began immediately by 
Companies, under the direct supen'ision 
of the Company Commanders in the 
various counties as follo\\"s: "_-\ .. Com- 
pany in Pictou. Cape Breton. \
ictoria and 
Im'crness; "B" Company in Halifax. 
Cumberland. Colchester and Prince 
Ed\\'ard Island; and "C
' Company in 
Shelburne. Queens. Lunenburg. Yarmouth 
and Digby; ., 
\" and "B" Companies mobilized at Truro: 
.. C ,. Company at Yarmouth: and on l\Iay 29th all Companies pro- 
ceeded to Aldershot to complete the work of organization. after 
which they embarked on the \Yhite Star Line Transport Jllsticía
and arrived in England, July 4, 1916. 
The Base Depot for the Corps "'as at Smith's Lawn. Sunnillg- 
dale, Berkshire, within the confines of \Vindsor Great Park. This 
site was given to the Corps by His 1Iajesty the I
ing in December, 
19 16 . 
About the middle of August the entire draft was broken up. a 
portion of the officers and men were absorbed into other Forestry 
Units, operating in England, Scotland and the South of France. 
Offìcers that were not disposed of in this manner transferred to the 
Flying Corps, Canadian Railway Troops, Infantry and Labor 
Battalions, subsequ
ntly getting over to France. 

,.. y" 


l\L\JOR 1\1. C. DEKTOX. 
Forestry Corps. 


It is difficult to conceive the multitude of \\"ays in which timber 
was used for war purposes. _ \t the Front, the Army very largely 
walked on timLer, lorries droye on timber, railways, light and 
hea\-y. required huge numbers of sleepers or ties. Underground no 
less than above ground was timber used for dugouts, and all the 
complicated contri\"ances connected with trench warfare. From 
huts to ammunition boxes. from duckboards to stakes for barbed 
wire entanglements. the uses of t}mber ranged. The general speci- 
fications for a Company's operation in this Corps was the pro- 
duction of Sawn Lumber. Fuelwood, Pickets. J Curdles, Fa:,cines, 
Faggots, Continuous Rivetting and Parry Sticks. 
J n order to save time. and for other reasons. it \\"as arranged 
that Canadians should bring with them their own machinery and 
equipment of the kind to which they were accustomed, with the 
necessary modifications to adapt it to the conditions in Britain and 
France. The work of the Forestry Corps was tl1l1s not only of the 
utmost assistance in meeting the need of timber for the \Yar. and 
in saving tonnage, but was of permanent \'alue in that it has knit 
more dosely together the people of Great Britain, with their com- 
patriots scattered throughout Canada. 

15 6 



D CRIXG the early part of 19 18 when the Germans were 
making their last great drive, few people realized that prep- 
arations were already made for the demobilization of the 
Canadian Corps. These preparations were due to the foresight of 
Headquarters Staff. Accordingly when the organization of X o. 6 
District Depot was completed on the 18th of April, 1918, a District 
Depot was established in each 
Iilitary District of Canada, each 
Depot bein
nated by the number of the 
Iilitary District in 
which the Depot was situated. 
Lieut.-Cot. B. \V. Roscoe, D.S.O., \Vas first appointed Officer 
Commanding, and he had under him a small but efficient Staff, with 
Capt. J. S. Davies, 
I.C.. as Adjutant. headquarters being at Leith 
House, Hollis Street. Halifax. 
The functions of District Depots at first were many. Besides 
carrying out ordinary discharges, all personnel in the different 
hospitals had to be looked after, and in addition to this all casual- 
ties who became fit for further service were allotted to the different 
Service Companies and Battalions in the Di.;;trict and to their own 
Units Overseas. 
).;0. 6 Distríct Depot differed from the other Depots in so faT 
that it had an Embarkation Casualty Section ,,-hich handled all 
casualties, on embarkation; that is to say, when troops were pro- 
ceeding Overseas from the different districts of Canada. who for 
various reasons could not embark at the appointed time, they were 
taken on the strength of X o. 6 District Depot and forwarded by 
some future sailing. 
This work \vas carried on by Lieut.-Colonel Roscoe until J uue. 
19 18 , when Lieut.-Co!. D. .\.. :MacRae, 25th Battalion, was ap- 
pointed Officer Commanding, with Capt. G. T. Shaw. 31st Battalion. 
as Adjutant, headquarters being removed to "" ellington Barrack.;;. 


From this time on the work began to increase owing to the 
great number of men returning from England to be demobilized. 
Demobilization went on very rapidly, and when the Armistice 
suddenly came it \Va=-- realized that more speedily to carry out 
demobilization K o. 6 District Depot would have to be enlarged. 
\\ïth this in view two Dispersal Stations known as " A" and" E " 
were added to the Depot, these Dispersal Stations being situated in 
Charlottetown and Halifax, and commanded by 
lajor J. S. Stanley 
Iajor J. G. Johnstone, respeL.:\-ely. To these officers \vas 
allotted the greater part of the organization of their respective 
stations which was carried on in such a manner that great credit 
was reflected upon the Depot as well as upon the officers com- 
Everything was no\v in readiness to handle very speedily troopg 
arriving for demobilization, so that when the first complete Unit, 
the Royal Canadian Regiment, arrived at the Port of Halifax 
early in )'Iarch, 1919, it was demobilized in less than a day. This 
was made possible by the hard work of the Officer Commanding 
Dispersal Station B, l\Iajor J. G. Johnstone. 
This work was kept up by the stations throughout Canada until 
late in July, 1919. when it \\"as found that the Canadian Corps had 
practically been demobilized. At first it was thought it would take 
1\\"0 years to complete demobilization of our forces, but the whole 
work was carried on so speedily that the feat was practically 
accomplished in six months. This in itself speaks well of the 
splendid organization of the Depots. 
Xo. 6 Depot. besides (lemobilizing the 
Iaritime troops, demob- 
ilized a great number of troops from other districts, viz., the 
Ca\"alry Brigade, Engineer and Forestry Units, Railway Troops 
and several Hospital Units. The work of N"o. 6 Depot was highly 
praised by Gen. John Hughes during his tour of inspection, when 
he stated that 
 o. 6 District was one of the best organized through- 
out Canada. 
One will realize the immense amount of work done by Xo. 6 
Di"trict Depot by the results ohtained; that is to say, the total 
nllmber of discharges from 
\pril 18. I()I8. until the latter part of 
)'Iay. 1920, were one thousand five hundred and seventy-eighty 
(J .5ï8) officers and twenty-se\ en thousand eight hundred and 


ninety-six other ranks (2ï ,896), made up as shown 111 the table 

1. JJedically Cllfit. 
(a) Disability due to or aggravated by 
>;prvice . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , , . . , , . . _ . 
(b) Requiring further medical treat- 
ment of long duration or voca- 
tional education .,..',.....',.. 

2, Dcmobilisation. 
:\11 discharged other than above '.'...', 
3. Strltd
 nD" Strength. 
Deaths ".,,'.". 

Transferred to other Districts.."".,., 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

ï6 2,983 
38 S07 
1.4 6 2 24,299 
2 Ii 
1.578 27,896 
R S8 

It will be very gratifying to Xova Scotians to k:ww that the 
whole Staff of No.6 District Depot were made up of \T ova Scotia 
officer ranks, all of whom saw service at the Front, and it is sure 
when the records of the District Depots are compared that No. 6 
District Depot will be well to the forefront. 
Officers on strength Xo. 6 District Depot when organized: 

Officer Commanding.. , . . . . Lieut,-Col. \V. B. Roscoe, 
D.S.O....,............ .c.
Second in Commancl. - . . . , . . , . 
Iajor A. B. Bucknell...... 15th L.H. 
_-\djutant. . .. . .", . . . ." . . " . . . .Capt. J. L. Davie. 
r.C..... 21st Bn. 
Assistant Adjutant. , . . . . , . . . Lieut. J. A. Ros
. "... _ . . 85th Bn. 
Quartermaster. . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . Capt. A. A. Clark.. " . _ ..139th Bn, 
June, 1918. 
Officer Commanding........ . . Lieut.-Cot. D. .-\.. 
racRae. .25th Bn, 
Second in Command..."...., 
rajor J. L. Davie, 
r.C.... 31st Bn. 
--\djutant. . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . , ,Capt. r... T. Shaw......... 21st Bn, 
A.ssistant Adjutant. . '" , . .,. .. Lieut. .-\. F. Ferguson..,.. . 10th RR.T. 
Quartermaster, . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . Capt. A. A. Clark ........ I39th Bn. 
Records Officer. . , . . . . , . . . . " .Lieut. B. E. Elliott..,.,... .C.E. 

Leave and Furlough Sectio/l. 
Officer Commanding......".. .Capt. 
r. S. Hunt.. '. 5,th Bn. 
Second in Command...,.",.. Lieut. J. Harley. . . . . , . , . 25th Bn. 
Details Company. 
Officer Commanding......".. .Capt. F. A. Ladù.,...,..., 7th Bn. 

-J sca [I.--/'S P.-1 RT I

Casualty CompallY. 
Officer Commanding,. . Major L. D. V. Chipman.., 13th Bn. 
Company Officers"."......" Capt. A, G, Foster,..",. .ïth Bn. 
Lieut. W, H. \Vhidden,.... Composite Bn. 
Lieut. H. A, Cra\'".ley...... .85th Bn. 
Lieut. A. A. Crawley..,.... R.C.G..\. 

Discharge Secfioll. 
Officer Commanding.......". Capt. R. \V. Dill .' _ . , , , . . . .23th Bn. 
Section Officers. . . , . . , , . . . . . , . Capt. J, A. Gunn.......,.. Ijth Bn. 
Capt. F. A. 
lac\lone.r.... .R.A.F. 
Capt. \V, Fisher........... ,25th Bn. 
Lieut. G, \V. Banks....... .38th Bn, 
Lieut. I. C. Banks......,.. Composite Bn, 
Hospital Sectioll. 
Officer Commanding........., .Major J. A. Mackenzie.... 85th Bn. 
Section Officer................ Capt F, T. De\\! olfe. . . . . . . C.G..-\.. 

Dispersal Station "A," Chalottetowll. 
Officer Commanding,.......,. 
Iajor J. \\". Stanley,..,., e.G..-\.. 
Second in Command."....". Capt. J. S. Bagnen.,...... C.G.A. 
Company Officers.. .. ... '..... Lieut. R. Richie........... C,G,A. 
Lieut. H. E. McEachem... .50th Bn. 
Ljeut, J. MoDonald....,... C.G,A. 
Lieut. J, White........... .C.G..-\.. 

Dispersal Station" B," Halifax. 
Officer Commanding.......... l\Iajor J. G. Johnstone".. ,85th Bn. 
Second in Command.,..,...." Capt. 1\1. S. Hunt......,., .5th Bn. 
Company Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Capt. R. L. Billman........ C.G.A. 
Lieut. J. Bonner.......,.. .85th Bn. 
Lieut. B. E. Nicks........ 13th Bu. 
Lieut. J, H. E. Jones,..... .C.E. 





I X the lexicon of the _\rmy Service Corps, the \yord .. impos- 
sible" does not exist. It was this spirit, insistently inculcated 
since the organization of the Corps in 1902, that made the 
accomplishment of the seemingly .. impossible" possible by the 
Canadian .L\rm)" Service Corp=, in the 
raritime Provinces when 
the Kaiser let roar his terrorizing thunderbolts in \ugust. I 9 Lt.. 
Blatant glory has seldom perched on 
the escutcheon of this hard-worked Corps, 
but. on the other hand. the capaLle work 
of the A.rmy Service Corps has frequently 
been the means of attracting this coy bird 
to a resting place on the banner of many 
a Unit whose prowess fills the pages of 
Briefly, it is the efficient selTice of the 
Army Service Corp
 that makes possible 
the achievement of great things by the 


 . '...... 
.. .



It is impossible to record the history 
of the Canadian Army Service Corps in the 
raritime Provinces 
throughout the duration of the Creat \\'ar-and after-without be- 
ginning at the basis of the structure. namely, 
 o. -+ Detachment of 
the Canadian Permanent .Army Sen,ice Corps. now kno\yn as Xo. 6 
Detachment of the Royal Canadian .\rmy Service Corps, having ib 
headquarters at Halifax. 
On August 4, 19 1 4. 1\0. 4 Detachment was officerecl by fi\'e 
officers of the Canadian Permanent A.rmy Service Corp:.;, two 
attached officers of the Active 
l ilitia, and one officer of the Imperial 
.Army Service Corps. attached. The Detachment was administered 
rajor E. C. Dean. who was attached to the Staff of 
11 J6r 

LIEUT.-COl.. E, r, DEAN. 


District No.6 as an 
-\ssistant Director of Supplies and Transport 
(now Lieut.-Colonel E. C. Dean. Senior Supply anù Transport 
Officer, attached to the Staff of l\1.D. Xo. 6). He was also Com- 
mandant of the Canadian .<\n11Y Service Corps School of Training. 
In command of the Detachment was 
Iajor R. U. :Marks, an officer 
of the Imperial Army Service Corps, temporarily loaned to the 
Canadian Sister Corps. He was also .L-\djutant of the School of 
Training. The other officers of the Permanent Force were Lieut. 
H. O. Lawson (now 11ajor Lawson. Senior Supply and Transport 
I.D, NO.3, Kingston, Untario) ; Lieut, Keith MacDougall 
(now Major l\lacDougall, in charge of 
 o. 6 Detachment. 
R.C.A.S.C.); Lieut. J. A. Gwynne (who proceeded Overseas as 
Adjutant of the Second Divisional Train) ; and Lieut., now Capt.. 
George Simms. District Barracks Officer-a most efficient, hard- 
working officer, whose capability went a long way towards making 
possible the quartering and comfort of many thousands of troops 
in the l'.Iaritime Provinces. The splendid sen-ices rendered by this. 
officer-his absolute devotion to his arduous duties. his zeal and 
tireless efforts in behalf of the C.E.F., and. at the same time. his. 
careful supervision of all matters pertaining to the financial interests 
of the public purse-are well worthy of recognition. 
The two attached oftì.cers of the Active :\lilitia were Lieut. (nO\\- 

Iajor) II. R. Hendy. of Esquimalt, B.C., and Capt. H. J. B. 
Keating, of No. 6 Company. Canadian Army Service Corps. 
Captain Keating is now stationed at Quebec. 
The rank and file of the Detachment numbered less than fifty- 
ufficient to care for the needs of Halifax Garrison in peace 
time. The available transport comprised about a half-dozen horses. 
two time-worn Ford pa
sel1ger cars. two steamboats. and a " dumh .- 
lighter. Practically the whole of the land transport was carried out 
by horses and wagons under a ciyilian contractor-
rr. George E. 
Van Buskirk. 
The Supply Deput, including grocery store. bakery, and meat 
shop. was located within the confines of Glacis Barracks-the 
headquarters of the Army Service Corps at Halifax-in a smalt 
brick building which, under the regime of the Imperials. had been 
used as a school for the senior chilrlren of Imperial soldiers in garri- 
son at Halifax. Under peace conditions this building was inadequate 


for the purposes for which it \Vas used, and, needless to say. under 
war demands its continuance as such was out of the question. ... \11 
flour, bread, groceries, meat. and other supplies, had to be taken in 
and out of one small door. 
To meet war requirements, the garrison gymnasium-situated 
about fifty feet from the old senior school building-was taken over 
and converted into an ideal Supply Depot. The former grocery store 
was then opened up to enlarge the bakery, which was modernized 
by the introduction of electrically-operated machinery and new and 
enlarged ovens. The meat shop was also improved. the chill room 
enlarged and modernized by the addition of a "trolley" system for 
the expeditious handling of meat. Thus in a short time the handi- 
cap with which the Army Service Corps labored at the outbreak of 
war was quickly overcome. 
The most serious difficulty, howeyer, which had to be comhatted 
was that of obtaining sufficient men to carry out the increased work 
thrown upon this Corps by the sudden strengthening of Halifax 
Garrison. and the calling out of troops to guard various points in 
the 1\faritime Provinces. This was a real and trying hardship. 
The other Permanent Force Units forming Halifax Garrison could 
not spare men to assist the Army Service Corps, as every man was 
needed within his own Unit. The problem was partly sohTed by 
calling up a number of non-commissioned officers and men of 
 o. 8 
Company, Canadian Army Service Corps, commanded by Capt. 
F. \Y. \Yickwire, with headquarters at Kentville, N.S. Xo. 7 Com- 
pany, commanded by 
rajor A. L. Massie, with headquarters at 
St. John, also supplied a few. Later on Lieut.-Col. 1. \V. Videto, 
commanding the 63rd Halifax Rifles, and Lieut.-Col. A. King, coni.. 
manding the 66th Princess Louise Fusiliers, very generously loaned 
a number of splenrlid men, whose ready adaptability made it pos- 
sible for the _'\rmy Service Corps to " carryon." As time advanced 
enlistments made the Corps more or less sel f-sustaining, but the 
fact remains that never throughout the duration of the \Yar \'"ere 
sufficient men actually enlisted in this branch of the Service to 
render it indepedent of other Units. This condition was probablv 
due to the fact that the possibility of getting Overseas wa
by enlisting in other Units. 

16 3 

-lRT IX THE GRE.-1T Tl'.lR 

Iention has been made of Xos, ï and 8 Comvanies of the 
Canadian .L \rl1lY Service Corps, Both the
e Companies played 
important parts in the Grcat \YorId \Yar, at home and abroad. 

Iajor 1\Iassie took Overseas the Second Di\'isional Train, and all 
the officers and practically the whole of the rank and file uf Xo. ï 
Company accompanied him. Captain \\ïck\\"ire. of Xo. 8 Company. 
after a short period as Devuty .\
:-;i:-;tant Director of Supply and 
Transport, l\I.D. X o. 6, also went oyer to France with this Train. 
and renderell very efficient sen'ice \\'ith it in the fighting zone. 
The strengthening of the Garrison of Halifax made possible the 
fulfilment of the plans of defence. which had long 
ince been care- 
fully laid down. This, and the summoning of troops for guard 
purposes at various points in X ova Scotia and X ew Drunswick. 
threw a vast amount uf work on the .\r111)' Service Corps, for not 
only had these troops. scattered oyer a \\'ide area throughout the 
three Provinces. to be housed. and their daily \yants in the matter 
of food J water. light. fuel. stra \\' for bedding. transport and necessary 
senices arranged for, but it was al
o required. follo\\"ing a precon- 
ceived plan, to proyide for them against the possibility of their being 
cut off from their source of supply. To do justice to the amount of 
labor involved in the organization and administration of this ta
would require a volume greater in 
ize than this one, su all that 
can be done is to give a brief uutline of the general scheme followed, 
\\'hen the Royal Canad,ian Reg-iment, with its 
artil1ery, were ordered to garrison points in the Island of Cape 
 and Canso. they left Halifax self-sustaining for fuurteen 
days; that is, they carried with them reserve rations sufficient for 
fourteen days for all ranks. In addition they carried rations for 
current consumption sufficient for all ranks for a further fourteen 
days. but minus meat. butter and hread. Lieut. J. 
--\. G\\'ynnc. of 
the Army Sen-ice Corps. and one clerk. accompanied the Regimcnt 
to Sydney to make necessary supply and other arrangements. The 
tasks this officer had to attend to may be judged when it is knO\\11 
that he had to make contracts. and to arrange to supply the \\"ants 
of troops located at nine different points, cO\'ering a frontage of 
about fifty miles, anrl requiring travel by train, steamship. street car 
and automobile to reach the ,-arious po
. So capably \\-as the duty 
performed that the troops had never to go without a meal. their 


rations being arranged with praetically the regularity which pre- 
vailed in Halifax under peace condition
. \Yhen Lieutenant 
Gwynne was 
Ulnmoned for sen'ice ()verseas. he was replaced at 
Sydney by Lieut. Horace \ Y estmoreland, Later on this officer went 
to France as Transport Officer of the Royal Canadian Regiment, 
being replaced at Sydney by Lieut. Cecil Sircoll1. These three 
officers belonged to the Permanent Force, and received their train- 
ing at Halifax. 
.:-\S the Supply and Transport ()fficer at Sydney found it impos- 
"ible to gi,'e any attention to the troops stationed at Canso, the 
work there incidental to the .--\rmy Sen"ice Corps was performed by 
the Officer Commanding the Guard, who received the necessary 
instructions by telegram and telephone from the .Assistant Director 
of Supplies and Transport at Halifax. an _-\rmy Service Corps' 
Clerk being sent to Canso to attt'nd to the necessary accounting, 
.--\n incident might herè be related as exempli fying the difficulties 
that had to be overcome from time to time by the .--\rmy Service 
Corps. Certain heavy guns had to be transported from Prince 
Edward Island to points in X 0\' a Scotia. Every effort was put 
forth to abtain the ser\"Ìces of a :-,hip capable of carrying these guns. 
but without success. Finally, after a delay of ..;everal days, Lieut.- 
Colonel. \rthur Peake telephoned from CharlottetO\nl to Halifax 
to say that a ship was then approaching Charlottetown Harbor 
which might be suitable. The .--\.D. of S. & T. at Halifax instructed 
him to approach the captain of this vessel and explain to him the 
situation, and if he was not agreeable to undertaking the task of 
transporting these guns, Colonel Peake was to commandeer the ship 
and mO\'e the artillery to the places directed. \\'hether it was 
Colonel Peake's persuasivenes:-, or his \\"ar-like 'demeanor that had 
the desired effect cannot be stated with certainty. Time was spent 
only in remO\-ing sufficient of the ship's cargo to make it possible to 
load the guns, which were then transported \\"ith despatch, 
while other arrangements had been made by the .--\rmy Service Corp:-. 
to carry these guns to the points in X ova Scotia where they were 
The troops forming the actual defence force of Bali fax and 
environments were supplied on the same basis as those sent to Cape 
16 5 


Breton, so that in the event of necessity they could sustain them- 
selves for fourteen days, and by the addition of tinned meat and 
"biscuit, the period could be extended another fourteen days. 
::\leanwhile troops had been summoned for the defence of St. 
John, N.ll., which necessitated calling out a portion of No.7 Com- 
pany of the Canadian ...\rmy Service Corps, under the command of 
::\Iajor A. L. l\Iassie. This detachment took up its headquarters in 
the ...\rmories, and from there efficiently ministered to the wants of 
the troops on duty and in training at St. John and adjoining points. 
Lieut. J. r-::ey, who had been trained at Bali fax, was sent to St. John 
to take up the duties as District Barrack Officer, carrying out these 
duties very satisfactorily. Lieut. Arthur Biggar, who was also 
trained at Halifax, was despatched to St. John as Officer in Charge 
of Supplies. a position he fined very creditably until called for duty 
in France. The troops doing duty at St. John and adjacent points 
\\-ere also rationed on the same basis as were those on duty at 
Halifax, 'Cape Breton, and other points. 
It will be remembered that early in the \Yar a Capt. Von 
\ \ eghorn, an officer of the Prussian Army, startled the civilized 
\\"odd by an attempt to destroy the International railway bridge 

pannillg the St. Lacroix River, between 11cAdam Junction, on the 
Canadian side, and Vanceboro, on the United States' side. A suit- 
e filled with dynamite was placed between the piers of the north- 
cast corner of the bridge on the Canadian side. The attempt 
failed, the bridge being only slightly damaged and traffic not 
delayed. It was considered expedient, however, to place an armed 
guard on this bridge on the Canadian side. To Lieut.-Cot. E, C. 
\.D. of S. & T., l\1.D. No.6, fell the duty of making the 
sary supply and other arrangements for this guard. 
. \ similar guard was placed over the new railway bridge span- 
ning the St. John River at St. Leonards. 
Guards were also established over the :\Iarconi \\lreless Towers 
at Newcastle, N .B., and Barrington Passage, the latter under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Co!. T. :\1. Seeley. These guards required the usual 
attention on the part of the Army Service Corps. To maintain the 
guard at Barrington Passage was a cause of anxiety, as it was sta- 
tioned at a point some miles off the main road, in the midst of a 
wilderness. and could be reached only in good \veather, as the road 


leading to the \\ïreless Station from the main highway \\ as-\yell, 
simply impossible. 
Permanent guards were also maintained at Louisburg, Glace 
Bay, \Vhitney Pier, Sydney, North Sydney, Sydney 
Iines, Cran- 
berry Head, Chapel Hill. Canso and various other places. 
Incidentally troops were gathering at \ T alcartier to fOrtn the 
First Contingent and the quota from the )'laritime Provinces had to 
be transported to the place of rendez\"ous. The manner of the 
arrangement of this transportation was unique. Recruiting was 
being carried on in practically every city, town, village and hamlet 
in the !\1:aritime Provinces. ::\tlovements were made when it was 
known that sufficient numbers of men had been recruited to jUsíi fy 
sending them forward. On the A.D. of S. and T. rested the task 
of making train arrangements to get these recruits to Valcartier. 
J t was done in this manner: In
tructions were sent to various 
recruiting centres to havè certain numbers of recruits entrain on a 
certain train on a certain day. Tllt1s, for instance, the first lot 
might entrain at Louisburg, and other
 along the line as far as 
Sydney: prooably some would be brought over from Sydney l\Iines 
and North Sydney to Sydney. .J. \t the latter place two, three or 
four special coaches would be attached to a regular train. and as 
this train proceeded towards Truro. the number of recruits would 
be augmented, until on its arrival at Trul-o it might have from two 
to three hundred on board, .:\Ieanwhile, a sufficient number would 
be run up from Halifax. and a special train would then be made up at 
Truro and run to Levis. P.Q.. where a transfer would'be made for 
Quebec and Valcartier. At other times l\Ioncton would be made 
the point at which a special train would be made up, in which case 
St. John supplied the completing quota to make up the train load of 
500 or thereabouts. It must be borne in mind. however, that the 
whole movement was planned ahead of time, and the transport 
scheme carried out on a definite plan. 
Obviously it was impossible to send out transport warrants to 
cover the movement of these various groups. so an arrangement was 
made whereby the railway authorities agreed to accept temporary 
interim receipts from officers or non-commissioned officers in 
charge of these groups. on the presentation of a telegram or letter 
of instruction from either the A.D. of S. & T. or an\' other Staff 


officer. These receipts were issued in duplicate, one copy of which 
was kept by the ticket agent and the other l1lailed to the A.D. of 
S. & T. l: pon receipt of the latter, covering transport warrants 
were mailed to the ticket agents concerned. By this means some 
thousands of troops were moved expeditiously from the 
Provinces to Yalcartier. 

e\Y Units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force were forming 
in various parts of the 
laritime Provinces, and it behooved the 
Army Service Corps to quarter them, arrange for supplies, water, 
light, land transportation. barrack equipment, and a thousand and 
one details incidental to the requirements of newly-formed military 
organizations, and of which only a trained soldier has the faintest 
conception. These new Units, or in 
o111e C:lses reinforcements, 
were scattered throughout the length and breadth of the three 
Provinces. at such places in X ova Scotia as: 1 [alifax, \\ïndsor, 
T ruro, Pictou, X ew Gla:>gow, Antigonish. Sydney, North Sydney, 
Iines. Broughton, Glace Bay and Amherst. 
\Yhen the )'Ialleable Iron \Yorks at A.mherst. \vere converted 
into a domicile for the involuntary reception and entertainment 0 f 
adherents of the doctrines of the Kai
er and his admiren_, a small 
detachment of the .--\rmy Sen-ice Corps was sent there to attend to 
ir well-heing. The late Capt. P, F. Keating was in command of 
this detachment which had also to look after the needs of the 
recruib quartered in .--\mherst. Captain h:edting wa
 trained at 
Halifax and later proceeded Overseas in command of 1\0. 4 Com- 
pany of the Third Divisional Train. This Company was recruited at 
Halifax, ha \"ing its headquarters in the old ';\f edical College Building 
at the corner of College and Carlton Streets. 
Shortly after the outbreak of war, Canadian horses began to 
find their way Úverseas. In the first winter of the \\-ar the number 
shipped from the Port of Halifax was something like 17,000. On 
the Army Service Corps rested the duty of embarking these animals. 
The absence of forewarning of train loads of horses being en route 
for Halifax was sometimes the cause of great anxiety. At five 
o'clock one Easter Sunday morning a telephone message from a 
railway official conveyed the tidings that there were three train 
loads of horses in the freight yards consigned to the Assistant 


Director of Supplies and Transport. As this was the first inti- 
mation recei,"ed of the mo,-ement of these horses, naturally no 
arrangements had been made for their reception, and as the ships 
b\- \\"hich they ,,-ere to he conve\"ed (I\-crseas were not in the 
harhor, it became nccessary to arrange for their disentrainment 
\yithout loss of time, 
I r. .\1. 
IcF. Hall, 
ecretary of the Halifax 
Exhibition, ""as called out of bed by telephone. the situation ex- 
plained to him. and 3rrangemcnb completed to detrain and stable 
the horses at the Exhibition Grounds. E,"ery a ,"ailable man of the 
Army Service Corps ,,-as aroused from bed and marched to the 
Exhibition Grounds, there to care for these horses instead of pro- 
ceeding to church to tal...e part in Easter Sunday Service. Later, a 
detachment of artillerymen \\"as told off to take on the responsi- 
bility of these horses. _ \t least on t\\"o other occasions consig-n- 
ments of horses reached Halifax under similar circumstances. 
Another" job ., of the - \ rmy Sen-ice Corps at IIali fax \\-as to 
receive. account for and send fOr\\-anl O\-erseas thousands upon 
thousands of parcels of .. comforts" for the troop
 at the Frunt. 
these parcels coming from all parts of Canada. comprising every- 
thing in size from an en\'elupe containing a handkerchief to packing- 
cases and barrels of comforts of every description. Every p.arccI 
received was gi,-en a number. registered. and then despatched 
Arrangements for the emharkation of complete Cnih and rein- 
forcements of troups during the early part of the "Tar also fell to 
the lot of the -\rmy Sen-ice Corps. the A.D, of S. & T, being- the 
responsible officer. He had a mOst capable and efficient assistant in 
the person of Capt. S. _\. f>oane. of .\rmy Sen-ice Corps, whose 
knowledge of steamship matters is unsurpassed. and who carried 
out practically all the details incidental to the embarkation of troops 
at Halifax_ 
The Barrack Seryices under Capt. George Simms was å hard- 
worked branch
 the pressure on which did not cease ul1tillong after 
peace had been declared, 
It i
 worthy of mention that throughout the \Yar thou3ands of 
contracts for supplies ,,-ere made and carried out by the Army 
Service Corps in the 1Iaritime Provinces. involving the expenditure 
of millions of dollars, the accounting for which was also one of the 
12 16q 

--1 SCOTI.--l'S PART LV THE' GRE.iT Tr.1R 

many duties of the Army Service Corps, yet not in a single instance 
was there the breath of scandal discernible. a single transaction 
questioned, or a suggestion of deviation from the ethical pathway 
of rectitude. Truly a glorious record and heritage for the Can- 
\rmy Service Corps in the 
Iaritime Provinces, with head- 
quarters in the :Metropolis of i'Jova Scotia. 
The statement has been made that at the outbreak of the Creat 
\Yorld \\-ar there were stationed at Halifax eight officers of the 
Army Service Corps. 
rost of these were soon cleared out and 
proceeded Overseas. 
Iarks. Lieutenants La\\-son and 
:\lacDougall were summoned to Yalcartier and acc.ompanied the 
First Contingent. Lieut.-Colonel Dean \\"as calleù to take com- 
manù of the First Divisional Train, but as his services at Halifax 
could not >then be spared, he was not permitted to go. Later on he 
was given the command of the Second Divisional Train. but again 
he was held back, l\Iajor A. L. :\Iassie of St. John being given the 
command. Col. \Y. .c\. Simson, a 
oYa Scotian. was placed in 
command of the First Divisional Train, which proved to be the 
'. first" Train in more senses than one, inasmuch as it wa;.; conceded 
to be the best Train in France, barring none. 
On the establishment of an _\rmy Sen-ice Corps Training School 
at Toronto, Capt. H. R. ] lendy, 
f Halifax. was appointed Adjutant. 
On proceeding Overseas, he was replaced by Capt. Cecil R. Sircom. 
Both of these officers received their training at I [alif<1
, as did also 
upwards -of .one hundred officers, all of \vhom ., made good" in 
Flanders Fields, bringing credit to themselves. the Army Service 
Corps and the l\Ietropolis 0 f i'J ova Scotia. where they were trained, 
Among Nova Scotia officers of the Army Service Corps who 
were trained at Bali fax and saw service at the Front were: Capt. 
G. A. Redford, of New Glasgow; Lieut. D. A. Starr. of Halifax; 
Capt. "Ted" Foster. of Bedford; Capt. G. \Y. Underwood, .of New 
Glasgow; Capt, \Yalter Taylor. of Halifax. who transferred his 
affections to the _'\rmy 
J eòical Corps; Lieut. Frank S. Brennan. of 
Halifax. later transferred to the Flying Corp:;; Lient. A. B. Dew- 
berry, of Halifax. In addition Lieut. L. Pierce. of :\0. 8 Com- 
pany, saw service in France. while Lieuts, J. A. Rose, G. H, 
Applegate. \y, J. V. Tweedie. H, S. Crowe and F. D. Doyle. also 
of No.8 Company. all 
 ova Scotians. performed meritorious service 
17 0 


111 Canada. Lieut. J. G. Ryan, of Kentville. received his training- 
at Halifax and filled many important appointments at Sydne), 
Amherst, .\ldershot. Ottawa and elsewhere, Physical unfitness 
rendered him unable to partake in the campaign UYer
The Headquarters Company of the Fourth Diyisional Train ,,"as 
organized at ] Ialifax. the 200 members being recnt.ited almost 
entirely from X ova Scotia. The Train was mobilized and trained 
at Halifax. It was commanded by Liel1t.-Co1. E. C. Dean. who took 
it Over
eas. Of this Cnit a Canadian officer in high position in 
England said it was one of the best trained bodies of men that 
Canada had contributed to the Great \\"ar. 
On the departure Overseas of Lieut.-Colonel Dean. the duties 0 f 
A.D. of S. & T. were taken over by .Major .\, P. Lomas, of L\o. 6 
Company of the Army Service Corps. This officer very efficiently 
administered the 
\rmy Service Corp:, affairs in the 
laritime Prov- 
inces for nearly three years, and rendered the Dritish Empire 
invaluable sen,ice. I Ie was ably seconded by :\lajor E. E. \Yood, 
who commanded the local C.P.A.S_C., no\\" developed into a Com- 
pany of upwards of 200 men, having about fifty horses and forty 
motor vehicles. 
The Permanent Detachment of the -'\rmy ;)ervice Corp:' at 
Halifax contributed very materially in personnel to the variol1s 
Army Service Corps Units proceeding Uverseas, the Detachment 
being made up largely of Nova Scotians. The training and dis- 
ciplining these men received at Halifax had the effect of lea\-enillg 
the Overseas Units with which they became associated. 
vVhen the casualties began to return from France, they came ill 
ship loads, about ninety per cent_. returning through the Port of 
Halifax. Sometimes as many as three vessels a week arrived. 
l\Iost of the well-known big ships were engaged in bringing home 
these war-scarred veterans, among the number being the Olymric. 
A quitania and J[ auretania. In this \\ ork the \rmy Service C orp
played an important part, as they made all train, berthing amI 
feeding arrangements. as well as issuing all ranks with the necessary 
tickets for transportation. The Army Service Corps worked ont 
each train" consist," gave the completed train schedules to the rail- 
road officials, who made up the trains in accordance therewith. 
17 1 

--lRT IS THE Cl<E.-lT If" JR 

Lieut.....Col. E. C. Dean, who had just returned from France, was 
appointed Chief Transport Officer. Other .--\rmy Sen-ice Corps 
officers employed on this important work were: 
Iajor F, \\-. 
\ \ïckwire (who later succeeded Colonel Dean as Chief Transport 
Offìcer), Capt. S. A. Doane. Lieut. Ken. Love. Capt, L. Prickler, 
and Lieut. George H. Edgar. _ \lso assisting were eighty train 
conducting officers, one of whom was placed in charge of each troop 
train to look after the comforts of the men. See that they \yere 
properly fed, and that the train was run through to its destination 
without undue delay. 
Troops "'ere disemharked at the rate of 1.000 under one hour: 
the OlymPic and AquitmlÏa, each carrying" 3.300. were cleared in 
five hours, 
\bout Ì\yeh-e to fourteen trains on an aYerag-e "'ere 
rcquircd to despatch this l1tll11ber of men home" arci. and the fact 
that over a quarter of a million men ,,-el-e" tl1l1S emrained. tid..ete(l. 
berthed and fed en route without a sing'le mishap or complaint 
serves to illustrate the almost perfect system that preyailed. Troops 
were entrained at the rate of 1.000 an hour. which meant that a 
troop train departed every half hour, \vhich may be considered 
quick work even frum a railroad standpoint. 
Though he ""as not connected ,,"ith the military in any ,,-ay. 
at the same time a "'ord of praisC' is due :\lr. Ernie Cameron. now 
Superintendent of the Dining and Sleeping Car Departmcnt of the 
Canadian National Railwar
 at 1 faliiax. for the \'ery ahle. efficient 
co-operation he gave the military authorities in makin,g- up trains, 
providing most excellent meals for the men en route and in many 
ways doing his bit to make the home-coming of the ,,-an-iors a 
happy one. 
The .Maritime PrO\,inces. and X ova Scotia 111 particular. may 
justly be proud of the part played in the Great \Yar by their sons 
who wore the badg-es of .the .\nny Sen"ice Corps. The highly 
creditable achie\-ements of this organization-a Cnit tbually little 
heard of, but which accomplishes big things-has shed lustre on 
the names of the three Provinces down by the sounding sea. 

17 2 

CH_--\PTER XX\-. 


O X the outbreak of hostilities the Canadian Ordnance Corps 
had a 
trength of four officers, fifty-five other ranks and 
thirteen ci\rilians. It \yaS very soon apparent that the 
Ordnance Depot ""ould hayc to be kept working twenty-four hours 
per diem. _-\11 ranks therefore were immediately placed under 
caIn-as ,,"itIJin the Depot, and shifts arranged so that work of the 
Ordnance Depot could be continued the whole period of twenty- 
four hours. 
The armament of the Fortress and the Royal Canadian 
Engineer Defence electric lights ""ere immediately equipped up to 
war scale. 4 \11 fighting equipment necessary for the Royal Can- 
adian Regiment. the 63rd and 66th Regiments, and 1st Regiment 
Canadian Garrison Artillery was immediately issued. Companies 
of the 94th and ï
th Regiments were later clothed and equipped for 
duty at various strategic points in X ova Scotia. 
\\ïth the manning of all Forts it became necessary to place a 
highly trained mechanic, known as an Armament Artificer, in each. 
to keep all guns and machinery in repair, and ready for immediate 
action. These were provided by the Canadian Ordnance Corps. 
A.s soon as the Camp opened at Valcartier. it fell to the lot of 
the Canadian Ordnance Corps at Halifax to ship forward the bulk 
of the stores for equipping the Cnits .being mobilized at Valcartier. 
Day after day, night af.ter night. it was one continuous loading of 
cars to rush forward to \ - alcartier Camp. Special efforts were 
made to complete the lith Battery, C.F.A., Sydney. with clothing 
and equipment before proceeding to Yalcartier. 
Prior to the departure of the 1st Division from \
alcartier, an 
ad\-ance party from the Canadian Ordnance Corps was being sent 
to England to prepare for the arrival of the Canadians in England. 
Conductor J. D. Pitman and three non-commissioned officers and 


men left Halifa:x with 
eventy minutes notice and proceeded to 
England as part of the Canadian Ordnance Corps adyance party 
The party were each in possession of a haversack and water bottle 
as their kit. Conductor Pitman received promotion to the rank 
of :Major, and held Staff appointments on the various Divisions in 
France, finally being made Chief Ordnance Officer, Canadian Over- 
seas 11ilítary Forces, and was awarded the D.S.O. 
As the Imperial Government was, during the early stage of the 
\Yar, urgently in need of guns and ammunition, all guns and am- 
munition which could be spared from this district were immediately 
shipped a way direct to the Royal Arsenal at \ Y oolwich. 
Two Armament 
\rtificers also left Halifax to proceed with the 
Canadian Artillery Brigades of the 1st Division, and of these twu. 
.\rmament Q.
I.S. Smith, it is regretted, after having greatly 
distinguished himself in action, died of the result of \votmd
In October, 19 1 5, the Halifax Detachment of the Canadian 
()rdnance Corps sent Overseas a nucleus of an Ordnance 
1 obile 
\ ,- orkshop required by the Canadian Corps for the inspection. 
repair and upkeep of guns and vehicles of all kinds in the Field. 
This Unit was placed under the command of :Major A, S, 
Huttenshaw. Inspector of Ordnance .ßlachinery. This officer was 
a fterward
 Chief [nspector of Ordnance :l\1achinery, Canadian 
Forces, and was awarded the 0.5.<), Other ranks of the Detach- 
ment were moved away from time to time Overseas as ordered from 
( )ttawa. U\\-ing to the enormous amount of work required in the 
clothing and equipping of C.E.F. Units in the district, it was 
nec6sary to more than treble the Staff, recruits enlisting being 
trained for their duties by the few permanent men who. though 
much against their own wishes, were kept in Halifax, and even 
then all ranks were working day and night. The explosion which 
occurred in Halifax, December, 1917, also added to the work. 
 temporary hospitals being equipped by the Canadian 
Ordnance Corps. 
In L\ugust. 19 18 , one officer and nine other ranks of the Halifax 
Detachment. C.O.C,. \\'ere ordered to Vancouver as part of the 
Siherian Expeditionary Force. Several cars were loaded at Halifax 
with stores for this force and sent forward. The Halifax Detach- 
ment, with Urdnance men from other districts. arrived in Russia 


at \ ladivostock and at once opened up a cumplete Ordnance Depot, 
where work was carried on in the usual smooth manner. 
Se\'eral hundred thousand tons of ammunition, anns, equipment 
and clothing have been handled by the Canadian Ordnance Corps 
at Halifax during the period of the \Yar, both coming from and 
going to England. The Ordnance \Yorkshops at Halifax carried 
0U-t an enormous amount of repair work, and in addition manu- 
factured large quantities of military stores which were unable to 
be purchased. Trade:-;men enlisting in the C.E.F. in various parts 
Jf Canada, such as wheelers, blacksmiths. saddlers and armorers, 
\dlO were required to accompany troops Oyerseas, were sent to the 
Canadian Ordnance Corp:;. Halifax, for training. The Ordnance 
Department was also called upon to carry out all repairs and testing 
of ammunition for the Xaval Services. both Imperial and Canadian, 
in addition to that of the Land Service. This work has to be done 
by experts, and necessitates very long hours, as certain cordite 
tests have to run continually day and night for several days at a 
Since the \Yar, all the equipment. including ammunition, for the 
new Reorganized Active 
Iilitia, is being handled at Halifax and 
reshipped to the various military points in Canada. 
The following officers and senior warrant officers of Canadian 
Ordnance Corp
 have served with X o. 6 Detachment, Canadi<!n 
Ordnance Corps. during various periods of the \Var:- 
Colonel J. F. :\IacDonald; Lieut.-Colonels A. H. Panet and 

r. C. Gillin; :\Iajors A. S. Buttenshaw, D.S.O.. and J. D. Pitman, 
D.S.a,: Captains E. 
I. Cartmer. J. H. 
racQueen. S. V. Cooke. 
I. Simons, J. X. Gibson. and R. X. C. Rishop; Lieut. G. E. J. 
Ball: Conductors J. \. Yillard. E. V. Hessian. A, Bentley. D.C.
and A. Lable. 
In recognition of services rendered during \Yar 1914-1918, His 

Iajesty the King has graciously approved the grant of the title 
H Royal" to the Canadian Permanent Ordnance Corps, and here- 
after this Corps is permitted to bear the designation of " The Royal 
Canadian Ordnance Corps." 



Twice mentioned in dispatches; :\1.0.. 8:3th Infantry Battalion. 
30-10-15 to 19-12-17; M.O.. 4th Divisional Train, 19-12-17 to 
14-4-18; S.M.O., Central Group. C.F.C., 15-5-18 to 1-1-19; 
O.C" No.2 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 7-1-19 to 17-5-19. 
Author of . 'The 85th in France anù Flanders." 



BY LlEUT.-COL. JOSEPH H_\ YES, D,S.O., c._-\.

.. :\Ien whisper that our arm is \\cak. 
lIen say our blood is cold. 
And that our hearts no longer -,peak 
That clarion note of old; 
But let the spear and sword dra\\ 11l.'ar 
The sleeping lion's den, 
Our Island shore shall start once more 
To life with armèd men." 

T HE medical men of this Province were no less ardent in their 
desire to serve their country in the \\" ar than all the other 
professions. trades and callings. It wa
 a contagion in the 
air that got into the blood. Sooner or later everybody got it and 
responded to it according to their m\'n notion of service or oppor- 
Iedical men were needed at home as well as abroad. There 
were recruits to be examined and young soldiers in training requir- 
ing medical and surgical attention and the country could not be 
stripped of medical service. Xo sooner were Cnits formed than 
there was a clamor for medical appointments. Some medical men 
even joined the combatant ranks. although they ,,"ere soon returned 
to the medical O\\-ing to the demand for medical officers. 

-\lso many X ova Scotia medical men \\'ent direct to England. or were 
already abroad, and joined up with the Royal .-\rmy 
Iedical Corps. 

I any of these. with many regimental medical officers. owing to 
their isolation from the great body of medical men associated with 
Canadian Hospitals. will be overlooked in narratives of the doings 
of the medical fraternity. 
Before describing in detail the medical \\.ork done by ^ ova 
Scotians during the \Yar, it will be useful to give a brief outline of 
the activities of the 
Iedical Service in war. 


l\l edical attention is required all the way from the recruiting 
and training camps at home, and those in England and France and 
along the lines of communication, up to the front areas and fighting 
Cnits in the firing line, No 
Ian's Land and the hand-to-hand 
encounter in the enemy trenches. But perhaps the function of the 

J edical Service which calls for the greatest vigilance and most 
thorough care is the prevention and control of epidemic and con- 
tagious diseases. 
The most strenuous efforts of the .Medical Services are exerted 
to rescue the man who is wounded in action, and to give him such 
prompt attention as will prevent him. as far as possible, from 
bleeding to death or dying from shock or exposure and to hasten 
him to a place where the best surgical skill can 'be exercised to save 
his life and limos. 
The primary aid is under the direction of the Regimental 
)Iedical Officer who is assisted by sixteen stretcher-bearers and Ì\vo 
orderlies whom it is his duty to keep in a constant state of efficiency 
h} careful training, as unskilled men, during acti\"e operations. are 
constantly being added from the ranks to make up \vastage. Une 
;\ ova Scotia Regiment lost thirty-three per cent. of its stretcher- 
hearers in two hours in the \ 
imy Ridge engagement. 
This little coterie goes into the trenches with the Unit. The 
Iedical Officer selects a Regimental Aid Post (R.:-\.P.) 
well to the front and as far as possible out of the direct line of 
enemy fire, so that the wounded may be safely cared for and 
promptly evacuated. The stretcher-bearers are detailed four to 
each Company, and these go with their Companies into action and 
accompany them wherever they go. They are the most exposed 
men in an engagement; for ,,,hile the combatants may advance in 
rushes and seek shelter as they go, the stretcher-bearer is con- 
stantly exposed, going back and forth to the relief of the wounded. 
As a result of the efficiency these men attain. their dressings. 
applied on the battle-field during action. often can go untouched 
until they reach the hospital. 
At the Regimental Aid Post further treatment is given by the 
r edical Officer, food and hot tea or coffee are given 
and the wounded are rolled in blankets and made as comfortable 
as possi'hle hefore being sent out. All cases are tagged, usually a 
17 8 


white tag showing the man's name, number, Regiment, the nature of 
l1Ìs injury, and any special treatment or remedies that may ha\'e 
heen given. In dangerous cases a red tag is u
ed, which secures 
the right of way in rapid eyacuation and immediate attention. 
As soon as casualties are ready for evacuation from the R..-\.P. 
they are handed over to the Bearer Section of a Field .\mbulance 
to be carried to their Advanced Dressing Station. As it is prac- 
1ically never pussible to establish the 
Iain Dressing Station suffi- 
ciently far forward to convey stretcher cases to it in one relay, and 
.:It the same time have it accessible to motor ambulances, light 
railways and other means of rapid evacuation, Advanced Dressing 
Stations are set up as near the front as can be evacuated to the 

[ain Dressing Station by horsed ambulances with reasonable safety 
by day as well as by night. The evacuation of the wounded up to 
this point must usually be done at night 011 account of enemy 
observation; though the walking \\ ounded are often able to take 
,::Hh-antage of lulls in the hostile fire and make their way out during 
the day. Usually arrows are put up along the route pointing the 
.direction for" walking \younded." 
The .Main Dressing Station of the Field Ambulance is provided 
with facilities for attending to cases requiring immediate operation 
.:is the only means of saving life. It must be remembered that this 
Cnit is on the field of actual operations and \\"ithin reach of the 
direct fire of the enemy. The sick and wounded are here 
classified and evacuated as soon as possible to the Casualty Clearing 
Station (C.C,S.). The few mild cases that can be returned to the 
line or sent to near-by rest camps after twenty-four or forty-eight 
110urs are held at the Field . \mbulance. it being necessary to con- 
,en"e, as much as po
sible. the man-power for the line. 
The Casualty Clearing Station affords the next relief. This is 
the first Unit completely equipped for urgent, formal major opera- 
tions. and some have X-ray apparatus and electrically-heated 
<operating tables. .\lthough cases are not carried to a finality of 
treatment, and are only kept until fit to move after relief is given. 
practically all wound" are dres:,ed at the C.C.S. After emergent 
operations wounds are often packed with dressings am] hurried on 
to a general hospital in the Lines of Communication. It must he 
1-emembered that these Cnits are \YÌthin range of enemy guns and 

-Y01'.1 SCOTI.-.J"S P.-1RT IX THE GRE.1T n-.-1R 

liable to get short Iloticè from the enemy. by concentrated high 
explosive shell-fire. to vacate. or they may haye to advance with 
the advance uf thcir own troops. Constant action is therefore 
necessary to maintain rooms for the steady stream of wounded 
which they must always be prepared to handle. It is only the most 
urgent operations that are performed, :-;uch as wounds of the 
abdomen, chest and brain. or such wounds as are liable to become 
hopeless through infection or cumplication
 before reaching the 
base. The C.C.S, is usually located at a rail head and has access to 
ambulance trains for evacuation. The
e trains are wonderfully 
equipped with an emergency operating room. kitchen, dining room 
for up-patients and Staff sleeping berth
. di
pf'n:-;a ry. medical 
officers, nurses and orderlies. 
X ow comes the first real hospital treatment. All along the 
coast of Prance and at suitable -places were hospital centI-es such as 
Calais, S1. Omer, Le Treport, Le Havre, Rouen, Etaples and 
Boulogne, with General and Stationary and 
pecial Hospitals. 
These centrcs were under an _\.D.1f.S,. who was informed usually 
twice daily by the different hospitals what empty beds were avail- 
able. From this information convoys (hospital trains) were 
dispatched from the C.C.S. to the different hospitals. These were 
notified by telegraph of the approximate time of arrival so that 
ample provision could -be made to transfer by motor ambulance the 
patients from th
 train, on arrival. to the hospital. 
These hospitals were all splendidly equipped with X-ray depart- 
ments and pathological laboratories. and were well staffed with 
medical and surgical specialists, highly trained nurses and orderlies. 
\Vhen satisfactory progress had been made here. patients were 
transferred to England to similar, though more highly specialized, 
hospitals and convalescent homes. and finally, where necessary, were 
invalided home to Canada. 
The difference between a General and a Stationary Hospital 
was only in size, the former being prin"iarily about t\yice the size of 
the latter. 
1\ ova Scotia contributed its quota to all these \"aried services, 
including three complete 
Iedical Units, 


lJ, 1 L\X.\DL\S L\:,C.\LTY CU:.\RIXC ST.\TIOX. 

The first X O\'a 
cotia Cnit to he accepted and mobilized for 
en"ice with the First Contingent \\'as a 
Iedical Cnit, 
:\0, 2 Clearing Hospital. \\-hich had recently returned from annual 
training at Sus
ex. X. U. Its headquarter
 \va:-- at Hali fax and it
Commanding Ufficer 
Iajur F. L. S. Ford. who after\\"ards became 
Colonel Foret C.
I .G.. and \\-as three 
times mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig':-- 
This unit afterwards became Xu. 1 
Canadian Casualty Clearing Station and 
had a most brilliant record. going 
through the ,,-hole war :-;ervice of the 
Canadian Curp:,. 
Immediately after Creat Critain en- 
tered the "oar on . \ugust ...J.. 19 q. 

Iajor Ford telegraphed to ()tta\va 
offering his Cn it fur. \ctive Service. and 
on . \ugust lOth its mobilization ,,-as 
ordered at Liverpool, X,S. On "\ugust 12th a recruiting meeting 
occurred in the TO\\"11 IlaIl. Liverpool. which was one of the first. 
if not the first. public recruiting meeting held in Canada. This 
meeting \\-as addre=,
ed by 
I ajor Forel. the mayor of the to\\"11. and 
a number of other citizens, There was a great deal of enthusiasm, 
and then and there the Cnit was recruited up to peace-time strength, 
and in a fe\v days orders \vere received to entrain on .-\ugu:,t 20. 
191...J.. for Yalcanier Training Camp. via Hali fax, 
"'hen the people of Uueens County saw thi
 first draft of the 
flower of their young manhood march a\vay in the I,ing-'
for service on the battle-fieleb of Europe. they felt that the "-ar was 
a real thing and had already reached their erst-while quiet. peaceful 
homes. The send-off was appropriate to the occasion and the 
people were proud of their noble sons who 
o promptly responded 
to the call of Empire and bore themselves splendidly as they marched 
away amidst the acclaim of their friends and comrade:-;. 
This Unit had always been recruited principally from Queen
and Annapolis Cuunties. but had members on its 
trength from all 

CO!.. F. L. :'. FOfW. ( .:I.[ .G, 


over the .i\laritime Provinces and during the period of Active 
Service had on its roIl men from all parts of Canada. 

\t II a.m., August 22nd, the Gnit arrived at Va1cartier with six 
officers and forty-one other ranks, who were soon mixed up in the- 
moil and swirl and grind of military training in that big Camp with: 
some thirty thousand others. 
The officers, N .C.O.'s and men who \\ ent to Valcartier fr0l11l 
rpuul were: l\Iajor F. S. L. Ford, Commanding Officer; Capt. 
J L T. !II. .:\lcI,innon, Capt. C. Haruld Dickson, Capt. G. B. Peat. 
Lieut. H. 
\. Pickup, Q.:\I., Lieut. G. \Y. l\IcKeen, Staff-Sergt. F. 
IJurnett, Staff-Sergt. E. Dexter, Staff-Sergt. E. Hunt, Q.M,S. R. 
Robar, Staff-Sergt. R. Drown. Sergt. J. Fiendel, Sergt. .McLeod: 
Privates-A. Crouse, J. Gardine, L. Keating. P. Joudrey, A. 110rris,. 

. Neily, 
1. Reid, L. Frost, \V. Joudrey, \Y. 
\Iurray, H. Harnish,. 
E. Conrad, G. 1IcGill. H. Rafuse, C. Fraser, C. Holden,. 
E. :McGowan, C. Robart, \\T. Bernadine, J. Hallett, \V. O'Reilly,. 
J-I. Oickle, C. J ollimore, S. \ Vhite, A. Trefry, B. Smith, A. Joudrey. 
L. Brooks, H. Lantz, J. Downer, G. Conrod, R. Bell. 
On arrival at Va1cartier this Unit took over 
o. 2 Camp Hos- 
pital, and carried on as a Field Hospital. The Staff was kept 
pretty busy with the usual run of camp sickness among new recruits. 
camp diarrhæa, acute indigestion, fevers, camp accidents, and the 
usual P.U.O.'s and N .Y.D.'s thrown in. 
\Vhile at Valcartier, the O.C., l\Iajor Ford, was gazetted Lieut.- 
Colonel. Capt. G. \V. O. Dowl1s1ey, Capt. C. E. Cooper Cole, and 
forty other ranks of No. I Clearing Hospital of Toronto were taken 
on the strength as well as :Major n. A. Chisholm, Capt. R. H. 
1\ IcDonald and Capt. J. .1\1. Stewart. Lieut. G. W. l\fcKeen was. 
transferred as IVIedical Officer to an Army Service Corps and 
Captain Cole was retrans ferred to "NO.2 General Hospital. 
. \t 4.30 p.m., September 
5th. the Unit left by train for Quebec 
and embarked on the 55. !.l1egantic at 6 p.m. The other Unit
to embark on this ship \\ ere: The 15th Canadian Battalion (4 8th 
Highlanders), Lieut.-Col. John Currie: The 1st Divisional Ammuni- 
tion Column. Lieut.-Co!. J. Penhole: 
 o. I Canadian Field Ambu- 
lance, Lieut.-Col. A. E. Ross. 



.-\.fter lying in the stream for five days the ship weighed anchor 
at 10.30 p.m. on September 30th and proceeded down the St. La w- 
rence River to the rendezvous in Gaspé Bay, for there were thirty- 
one troopships in this grand fleet \yhich was to convey the Canadian 
Army of thirty thousand safely over the ocean to Old 
_-\.s the good ship Jl egaHtic glided quietly down the river the 
stars shone brightly, the silvery moon was high in the heavens. and 
the clear frosty tang of early autumn was in the air. As the shim- 
mering waters of this great river glistened and danced in the moon- 
light all nature seemed to have an air of serene quietude and uni- 
versal confidence. The scene might have been committed to canvas 
as an emblem of peace; but this was a first stage in the great 
adventure of war, the fullest bitterness of which many of that gay 
company were destined to taste. 
At 3 p.m., October 3, 1914., this great flotilla weighed anchor 
and put to sea, led by H.Ji.S. Eclipsc, immediately followed by 
the Ji egalltic
 containing the first Nova Scotia 
Iedical Unit. 
There were a number of torpedo boat destroyers, and among the 
battleships were the (juecll j1fary and the Glor)'. After an 
uneventful voyage of eleven days this great flotilla arrived at 
Plymouth on Octob
r 14th. The reception given the Canadian 
Contingent everywhere was \\'onderful. The sentiment back of it 
all seemed to reach every heart. A splendid army of sturdy ,.-\.nglo- 
Saxons from a new and great country had come three thousand 
miles over the seas to join the forces of the ::\Iother Land within 
two months from the time she had entered the \Var. 
After lying in the stream for two days the Jl egantic docked 
and on October 16th the I st Canadian Casualty Clearing Station 
disembarked and marched midst cheering throngs through the 
streets of Plymouth together with the other "Cnits, and entrained 
for the land of winter slush and mud at Salisbury Plains. \t 
2 a.m, on a pitch dark October morning the Unit detrained at 
Patney and Chirton Station and marched to \Yest Down )Jorth, 
where they arriveå tired and \yeary after a 
leepless night and a 
long march. at ï.3o a.m., October 17 th . 
18 3 

lRT IX THE GRE.dT rr.lR 

l\Iajor 1 I. .\. Chi
holm wa
 called for duty to the office of the 
_-\..D.l\LS. Canadians shortly after arrival. 
[ajor Chisholm be- 
longed to Antigoni
h. and was a member of the Permanent _-\rmy 

Iedical Corps. He had a di
tinguished career O\"er
ea:, and 
attained the rank of Colonel alHI was mentioned in despatche
awarded the honor
 of C..\I.f;.. and D.S.U. He also held the im- 
purtant positions of D._ \.1 ).
I.S. 1st Canadian Division: . \.D.
--t-th Division: _ \.D.:\l.S, attached to the office of the D.G.
Canadians, London, and D.D..\I.S., U,.\I.F.C" London. 
The unusually heay}" autumn rains of I 9 Lt. converted the rnlling 
downs of Salisbury Plains into seas of mud. through which the 
Unit wallowed and bathed and boated in its efforts to follo,,- field 
trammg. The troops were all under canvas at this time. 
Lord Astor. then ..\lajor _-\.stor. had a palatial residence and 

pacious grounds at Cliveden. near TaplO\\". Bucks, the grounds of 
which he offered for hospital purposes. In December X o. 1 Cana- 
dian C.C.S. \yas sent to Cliveden to est3.Jhlish a hospital. and for :-.ix 
weeks the entire personnel was busy in these preparations, This 
hospital, established by X 0, 1 Canadian Casualty Clearing Hospital 
of 1\ ova .scotia. ultimately developed into the great Duches:, of 
Connaught Hospital. aften\'ard:-. officially kno\\ï1 as X o. ] 5 Canadian 
Ceneral Hospital. upon which thousands of Canadians. _-\.ustralians. 
X ew Zealancters, South. \fricans and other Britisher:-ï can look back 
with grateful memories for the skilful and success ful treatment and 
great kindness for which this hospital became noted, 
A Casualty Clearing 
tation is a field unit. and consclluently 
when the 1st Canadian Division was ordered to France this Cnit 
receiyed a move order and preceded the Diyi
ion to France. landing 
at Le Ha\Te at 10 a.m.. Fehruary 3. 1<)15. on S.S. Hllllllchaco 
f rom Southampton. On the same :-.hip was another Canadian Hos- 
pital Cnit-Xo. I Canadian Stationary. commanded by Lieut.-Co!. 
Lorn Drum (no\\" Colonel Lorn Drum. C,B.E.. Inspector of 
Hospitals for Canada). These. ho\\"ever, were not the first Cana- 
dian Units in France. a
 they were preceded in 1\ovember. 19Lt-. by 
a NO.2 Canadian Stationary I [ospital, which \\"as commanded in its 
last days in France and brought back to Canada by the writer. This 
was really the first Canadian Unit of any description to function in 
France as a Unit and the only one in France in 11)1.+. 


.-\Ïter some six week< 
tay at Le Hayre the Cnit \\'as transierred 
to Boulogne. where it arriyed at 9,-1-5 a.m., February 26, 19 1 5. 

Iotion was n::,ually rapid in France and changes made at 
\ïthin a week this Cnit had orders to proceed from ßonlogne 
to First Army Headquarters at the TO\\"l1 of Aire-Sur-La-Lys. 
where it arrived Saturday morning. -'larch 6th. ()n arri\"al the 
nit was assigned to Fort Gassion. \\-hich had been a French prison 
he fore the "oar but \yas nO\y occupied by TIritish troops as a rest 
camp. and there wa
 also a 
l otor _ -\mhulance COl1YOY billeted there. 
The \yurk a
signed to Xo. I C,C.S, \yas to take over this old prison 
and make it immediately ready for the reception of patients. 
The old buildings \\'ere tilthy and in a dilapidated condition, and 
required a great deal of work to prepare them for patients. and all 
the t:l}uipment had to Lc unpacked and placed. The whole l.
wcnt to work \\.ith diligence and determination and within forty- 
eight hours they brought order out of chaos and on 
londay morn- 
ing admitted and comfortahly hOtbed fifty patients. 
The Dattle of X euye Chapelle \\"a
 in progre:,s and was the 
source of 1110:-;t of the patients during the week, 
Heroic work \yas clone by the :,ix nursing sisters \vho had heen 
attached to and had come O\-er to France with this Cnit. They 
wcre :-\ïyian Tremaine. 
I.Y.().. }{,R.C.. Frances :\f. Frew, 
L C. 
Riverin. . \my Ho\yard. 
l innie Follette, 

 nrsing Si
ter Follette. of Creat \ ïllage. Colchester County. 
afterwards lost her life with the sinking of the hospital ship 
Llalldu'i'cry Castle by the Cennans. 
Xo. I Canadian C,C.S. was the only Canadian Cnit in action 
during the Dattle of Xeuve Chapelle. It was one of six C.C.S."s 
attached to the Fir
t .-\rmy. "?efore the "-ar was over there were 
sixteen. This Unit showed such prompt action and capacity that it 
received the special commendation of 
Iajor-Genera1 Sir \Y. G. 

IacPherson. Director .\Iedical Sen'ices. First _\rmy. and in June 
the O.C,. Lieut.-C010nel Ford, was awarded the C.
LG.. the first 
awarded to Canadians in France. 
During this engagement Capts. C. H. Dickson and G. \V. O. 
ley and a party of twelve orderlies were hasti1y sent to 

Ien-ille to assist a British C.C.S., and at the Second Battle of 
Ypres, Captain DO\\"I1s1ey and Captain J. 
r. Stewart. of Halifax. 
18 5 

--1 5C01'1./"5 PflRT IX THE GRE.I1' TVAR 

with X ursing Sister Follette and twelve orderlies were assigned to 
dmy at HazeLrouck to assist another British C.C.S. 
There was heavy fighting throughout the summer of 1915 in the 
Bethune Sector, and Xo. I Canadian C.C.S. did a lot of heavy and 
trying work. and in addition detailed a section under 
\V. T. 1\1. 
lcKinnon and Captain C. H, Dickson for duty with 
;\ o. 2 ßritish C.C.S., which was located at the Village of Choques. 
This Unit continued its headquarters at Aire, and in May, June 
and September to uk its full share in the herculean task of evacuat- 
ing the wounded from Festubert, Givenchy and Loos. During the 
hattle of Loos over sixty thousand casualties were evacuated from 
the British Front by the various clearing stations in four days. 
One of the outstanding distinctions of No. I Canadian C.C.S. 
is that, when J [is :\lajesty I
ing George V was seriously injured near 
Bethune in August, 1915, by his horse falling and rolling over on 
him. one of the nursing sisters of this Unit, V. A. Tremaine, was 
selected by the Director l\Iedical Services of the 1st Imperial Army 
for personal attendance upon the King. His l\lajesty was cared 
for in a chateau near .Aire until he was able to be moved to England. 
Sister Tremaine and a second nurse who had been selected, Nursing 
Sister E. K. \Vard, Q.A.I.M.N.S. Territorials. accompanied the 
Royal patient and nursed His 
Iajesty through convalescence at 
Buckingham Palace. 
\Yhen Sister Tremaine finished her duties the King conferred 
upon her the 
LV.O. and personally presented her with the insignia 
bf that Order and made a personal gift of an exquisite brooch of 
gold and enamel set with diamonds. Her 
Iajesty the Queen gave 
her autograph copies of the royal photographs. 
The Unit continued to operate at Aire until January. 19 16 . 
when it was transferred to Bailleul and opened up in a very fine 
pavilion of the Asylum for the Insane. This splendid building was 
subsequently destroyed by German shell fire and bombs. The Unit 
saw much strenuous work here, and had its first experience with 
gassed cases. Sixty of these out of eight hundred died within the 
first twenty-four hours after being brought in. 
Major Edward Archibald, of NO.3 (l\IcGill) Canadian General 
Hospital, was attached to the Unit as a surgical specialist. and 
:::\ r ajor \\
. A.. :\lcLean. of Glace Bay, )J.S,. was transferred from 

IL ....;ERl.ICBS IX THE GRE<-lT nr.1R 

No. 1 Canadian General Hospital as his a....sistant, and afterwards 
succeeded Major Archibald. 
lcLeall was killed during the 
summer of 1917 while at work in a C.C.S. in the northern sector 
()f the British line. lIe was considered one of the most brilliant 
surgeons in the British Army. 
In June, 1916, Colonel Ford was appointed Deput) _\ssistant 
Director of Medical Services of the Canadian Corps and Lieut.-Co!. 
T. \Y. H. Young 
ucceeded to the command. Later Colonel Young 
"Was succeeded by 
lajor C. H. Dickson, who was promoted to the 
rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
There was a great deal of activity on the Arras Front in the 
eady spring of 191i. and preparations were being made for the 
driye for Vimy Ridge. At this time the Unit was transferred to 

-\U'bigny, behind .Arras. Under the energetic administration of 
Lieut.-Colonel Dickson this Unit was very much increased in 
:,trength and did valuable work during the Battle of Vimy Ridge 
and throughout the operations on the Arras Front. 
In the summer of 1917 the Unit was again moved to a position 
near Nieuport and arri,'ed just as the Germans had broken through 
and made a nasty salient in the British line. .L \midst this con fusion, 
uncertainty and fierce fighting, the Commanding Officer, Colonel 
Dickson, quickly located his C nit and did such splendid work in 
the evacuation of the wounded that he was mentioned in despatches 
and awarded the D.S.O. 
The Unit remained at 
ieuport for a few weeks only when the 
position became untenable for hospital purpo
es, owing to almost 
constant shelling and nightly bombing. Lieut.-Colonel Dickson was 
called to London for Staff duty, the command '\-vas taken over by 
Lieut.-Colonel A. G. H. Dennett, O.B.E., ancl the Unit was trans- 
ferred again to the Arras- \"-imy Front. 
During- those anxious days of the early spring and summer of 
19 18 , while the Germans battered themselves hopelessly against the 
impenetrable wall of steel erected by the Canadians along the - \rras 
Front this Unit did fine work in caring for and clearing the seriously 
sick and wounded and also got many casualties from that memorable 
drive of the Germans against the 5th British Army in l\larch. 19 18 . 
as all the Ambulance and C.C.S. Units in that area were quickly put 
out of commission. 

18 7 

xor.-1 SCOTI.J'S P.-1RT I
Y THE GRE.-JT lr.1R 

\ \ hen preparations ""ere made for the final victoriuus Canadian 
drive \\"hich commenced at .\miens on .-\ugu:'t K [918. this Unit 
was mO\'ed to that sector and followed the Canadian Corps through 
those strenuous days to final victory and accompanied the 1st Cana- 
dian Division on its \'ictorious march into Germany. At Donl1 
X o. 1 Canadian Stationary Hospital took over the famous St. 

rartin's Hospital. which was located on one of the loftiest hills in 
Donn, and Lut two \\'eeks before had dukes and scions of the lead- 
ing aristocracy of Germany as patients. for it had heen one of the 
most exc1usi\'e hospitals in Germany. X 0\\' it became the haven of 
the sick Canadian Tommy. 
I t seemed like the realization of a fantastic dream to the 
medical Staff and nursing sisters, a:; well as the rank and file, to find 
themselves in a modern and \yell-equipped hospital with luxurious 
appointments and surroundings. as compared \\"ith four long years 
of mud and mire under canvas, in huts. and often broken-down 
buildings on the edge of the Lattle-field
 of the Somme, Ypres, Yimy, 
Passchendaele, .-\miens, Bourlon. CamLrai and Yalenciennes, 
and then glorious victory. 
The following is an incomplete list of the battle casualties of 
this Cnit :- 


:\Iajor \Yalter 
Jaclean: Xursing Sisters 
rae n, Sampson and 
::\Iinnie Follette, both killed on Ho:'pital Ship LlalldO'i.'c1'}.' Castle; 
Pte Proctor. Pte. \


Lieut.-Col. F. S. L. Forel. seriol1sh-. by piece of bombshell 
(fracture base of skull) : Capt. E. C. C. Cole, seriously; Capt. R. H. 
:\IacDonald, Sergeant Àf. Keilly, seriously. 

O. 7 C,\:-J".\DL\X STATION.\RY Hn

(Dalhousie C nit.) 
Dalhousie university was early inspired with patriotic fervor. 
\\ïthin a month after the outbreak of war between Great Britain 
and German, Dalhousie Cniversity offered to the Government the 


personnel of a Ca
ualty Clearing Station. This offer was renewed 
in the spring of 1915, It was not known until later that this type 
of Unit was not in demand. and it was decided to offer the personnel 
of a Stationary lIospital. 
So anxious \\-as Dalhousie to have a definite. tangible part in 
the more strenuou
en"ice of the nation in this great struggle. that 
a delegation was sent to ntta wa on 
.\llgust 13. I
)f5. representing the 
Governors and Faculty of the Cni- 
o well were the claims of 
Dalhuusie presented that the offer wa:, 
now accepted of a Stationary Hospital. 
to be known officially as .. X o. ï Cana- 
dian Stationary HospitaL" Definite 
authority fur thi
 recei\'ed on 
September 2ï. I
\\'hen it came to the selection of a 
Commanding l )fficer everybody turned 
instinctin-ly to that great outstanding 
factotum in ..\Iedicine and Surgery in 
o\-a Scotia. Dr. John 
Stewart. who
e name inspired enthusiasm. confidence and re:-;pect. 
IIalifax was taxed to its utmost in supplying accommodation 
ior troop::. _-\11 the old military barracks were full. the .\rmories 
were occupied by infantry Dattalions. the 
hed5 on 
 o. 2 Pier were 
also occupied. and there was consequently some delay in finding 
accommodation for the mobilization and training of this Hospital 
Unit. Dalhousie Cni,'ersity came to the rescue and ga\'e the old 
l\Iedical College building on the corner of Robie and College 
Streets. and Principal Kaulbach. õf the ::\Iaritime nu
iness College. 
gave the use of the dining room and kitchen of the nusines
College restaurant as a mess room. Dy X ovember 1 st the old 
l\Iedical College had been con\"erted into an adequate barracks and 
orderly room. 
The selection of the medical and nursing personnel and the 
recruiting of other ranks then commenced in earnest and the 
response was wonderful. For a Stationary Hospital only tweh'e 
medical officers and twenty-se\'en nursing sisters \\'ere required: 
but thirty medical men and eighty nurses applied. The material 




was all so excellent that it was a delicate and difficult task to select- 
Preference was given, however, to Dalhousie graduates and those- 
connected with the University; and among the nurses preference- 
was given to graduates of the two outstanding Nova Scotia nurses' 
training hospitals, the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, and SL 
Joseph's Hospital, Glace Bay, as these were the only general hos- 
pitals in the Province with the necessary number of beds to meet 
the requirements of the J\'1ilitary Service in the matter of training. 
Just before orders were received to proceed Overseas in the- 
latter part of December, 1915, the Unit was inspected by General 
Benson, G.O.C. of this 1\Iilitary District, Colonel A. H. Powell,. 
D.A.A. & Q.l\:LG., and Colonel Grant, A.D.:U.S. These officers. 
were very generous in their praises of what the Unit had already 
accomplished in the way of training and establishing a snappy 
military organization. Their sturdy Commanding Officer, with his 
sixty-seven years of youth, had shown his magnificent qualities of 
body as wen as mind and character. \Vhen Colonel Stewart set 
the pace on their route marches the youngest and most athletic had 
to let himself out. Colonel Grant, the A.D.l\I.S., referred to the 
splendid work already done in the service by members of the Staff
and mentioned particularly the work done by lVlajor E. V. Hogan 
as Chief of Surgery at Cogswell Street Military Hospital and Major 
L. 1\1. l\1urray as Chief of :l\fedicine; and also expressed his regret 
at losing his Deputy, Capt. F. V. \V oodbury, but congratulated the 
Unit on what it had gained thereby. 
The time set for leaving Halifax for Overseas was Decembel- 
3 1 , 19I5, via St. John. K.B. The departure at one time of so 
many professional men and ".omen, who stood high in the con- 
fidence of the people of Halifax and Nova Scotia, was a poignant 
reminder of the serious proportions assumed by the Great War. 
On the evening of the last day of 1915, when Dalhousie Unit 
entrained at North Street Depot, a large concourse of people were 
assembled, not only of Halifax but from many other parts of the 
Province. The bands of the 1st Canadian Artillery and 63 rd 
Rifles, as well as the pipers, joined the citizens of Nova Scotia in a. 
fitting farewell. Their train pulled out amidst music and cheers. 
The Unit arrived at St. John at 6 a.m., New Year's Day, and 
went aboard His 
1ajesty's Troopship Aletagama. At noon the 


officers were entertained at luncheon by the medical profession of 
St. John at the Royal Hotel. The Unit sailed at 9 o'clock on the 
evening of January I, 1916, with several other Units, with Co!. 
If, C. Bickford as Ufficer Commanding troops. 
Sea voyages are pretty much alike. There are those who like 
their beer and poker, or bridge, and those who like to laze and read 
and sleep and sleep and read and iaze, or sit and think, or simply 
sit, while others wish they had taken the advice of the poet-- 
<. Praise the sea but keep on land." A conyoy of torpedo boat 
destroyers was met at noon on the eighth day out, and at 3 a.m. on 
January loth the Unit landed at Plymouth and di
ell1barked at 
9 a.m. 
The personnel on arriving in England was as follows: O.C.. 
Lieut.-Cot. John Stewart; :Majors E. V. Hogan and L. 
I. :\Iurray; 
I. _'\.. },racAulay, V. N. :MacKay, K. A. :\lacKenzie
E. K. l\Iaclellan, S, J. :\IacLennan, D. A. i\IacLeod, J. A. 
John Rankine, Frank Y. \Voodbury, Karl F. 'Yoodbury (Dental 
Officer), Lieut. S. R. Balcom, Dispenser; Lieut. \Vatter Taylor
\[iss L. :\1. Hubley. 
Iatron, and twenty-six 

ttrsing Sisters; one hundred and twenty-three N.C.O.'s and men. 
The officers, non-commissioned officers and men entrained at 
once for Shorncliffe, where they arrived in the evening, while the 
matron and nursing sisters proceeded to London and were tem- 
porarily quartered at Honnington Hotel. They were afterwards 
distributed for duty between the hospitals at \Vestcliffe, .l\Ioore 
Barracks and Ramsgate. 
On the I rth the Unit was inspected by Lieut.-Co!. F. \\T. E. 
\\ïlson, of Niagara. Untario, A.D.
I.S. Shorncliffe area. 
Billets were secured and the medical officers were employed on 
medical boards or as medical officers to various Units in the training 
camps, while the non-commissioned officers and men were assigned 
to various duties. 
On January 17th Capt. F. V. \Voodbury \\'as stricken with that 
dread disease among troops, cerebro-spinal meningitis. For some 
days there was great anxiety on his account. but he made a rapid 
and complete recovery. 
On February 5th Colonel Stewart, O.C. of No. 7 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital. was given command of Shorncliffe 1\1ilitarv 
19 1 

.LYOT',4 SCUTI.f'S P.1RT IX TIlE GRE...J.T ll',iR 

Hospital, with the forty subsidiary hospitals of the DO\"er area. in 
succession to Lieut.-Col. R. J. Blanchard: Xo. 3 C.C.S.. of \Yinnipeg. 
He immediately recalled the nursing sisters and reassembled his 
Cnit, and with hi
 reorganized Staff manned Shorncliffe 
General Huspital and the Helena Hospital for officers. The Shorn- 
cliffe Hospital alone had 800 beds. and altogether there were some 
10,000 beds in the hospitals taken o\'er. Colonel Stewart and hi:" 
Staff had a pretty bu
y time administering the huspitals of this 
large area. Sir Frederic E\"e visited these hospitals periodically. 
During this time there were some changes in personnel: Corpls. 
G. S. ::\IitcheU and Eric Grant left to take commissions; Capt. S. J. 
:\IacLennan went to \Yestcliffe Eye and Ear Hospital. 'Capt. E. 
Douglas joined the Vnit during the latter part of the period here 
;md sixteen other ranks were taken on strength. 
There was much excitement and anticipation when it \vas 
announced that the Unit \yas to proceed to France. The im- 
pression got abroad somehow that the C nit \yas to go direct to the 
.\rras and S0l11me areas, where they would be in close contact with 
actual warfare. This was the source of a good deal of enthusiasm. 
The "Cnit left 
horncliffe and proceeded to Southampton un Sunday. 
June IS, IYI6, embarked there on the City of Bel/arcs and landed 
at Le Havre the same day. On arrival the enit received orders to 
take O\'er the Hotel des Emigrants at Le Han-e from X"o. 2 Imperial 
General llospital, \yhich contained -+00 Lcds. This was some\yhat 
disappointing to the men after their anticipations of proceeding- at 
once to the Front. Howe\-er. aU ranks settled down to steady \\"ork. 
and in a few weeks orders were received to establish a suh
tented hospital lTnit at Harfleur, about six miles from Le Ilan'e. 
to consist of 400 additional beds. This meant that the existing 
Staff had to man two hospitals of the 
aI11e size, thus bringing a 
\'ery heavy strain on the entire personnel. especially the nursing 
sisters and other ranks. :\Iajor L. 1\1. 
Iurray was placed in charge 
of the Harfleur Division. 
The main hospital was used for German \younded prisoners 
being sent back from the forward areas and for local sick from 
various Imperial Pnits at Le Ran-e. The subsidiary hospital was 
used for camp sick and accidents from the Canaùian Ba
e and 
se\'eral Imperial Cnits. 



As soon as these extensions were completed and in operation 
an urgent request was sent in for more men. Eventually a much 
larger number were sent than were required of P.B. men. (Per- 
manent Base men are those who are no longer fit for service in the 
front areas.) These were with the Unit only a few days when 
orders were received to despatch to hospitals in another area a draft 
larger in number than the one received. This took away several old 
members of the Unit and left it shorter handed than ever. but the 
Unit" carried on" and did its work under difficulties. 
Constant changes were taking place in the staff. Capt. J. :M. 
Stewart, nephew of the O.C., came to the Unit shortly after arrival 
in France from No. 1 C.C.S., and in August, 1916, Capt. F. V. 
Vloodbury, Capt. M. A. :MacAulay, Capt. John Rankíne and Capt. 
Edgar Douglas were posted to other duties. Capt. E. K. 
was posted to another hospital in March, 1917. Numerous officers 
from other parts of Canada were detailed for duty with this Unit 
from time to time. One of the most popular of these was Captain 
Ireland, of Ontario, who afterwards received the 
1.C. and was 
killed in action. 
On December 31, 1916, the hospital at Le Havre was handed 
over to the Royal Army 
Iedical Corps and the personnel of Dal- 
housie Unit, which had been carrying on there, marched to Harfleur 
and joined the balance of the Unit. Once more the whole "lTnit 
was united and experienced a very general sense of satisfaction. 
Ample provision had been made for quarters, mess, dental offices 
and orderly room. 
In January and February, 1917, the weather was very seyere, 
with steady, keen frost and a good deal of snow, "But," as Colonel 
Stewart puts it, "the bitterest memories are the indescribable mud, 
deep, tenacious and slippery." As spring approached it looked as 
if the summer were to be spent in the beautiful Lezard Valley. in 
which Harfleur was situated
 and consequently potatoes and other 
vegetables were planted. shrubs set out and other work done with a 
view to beautifying the grounds. It was beginning to seel
l_ quite 
like home here. All the troops corning to France en route to the 
Front came through this ba
e, and many 
ova Scotian::; \yere met 
and old acquaintances renewed. Also a good many Nova Scotia 
boys trickled in to the hospital, and when they did they were 
13 193 


lavished with attention, and all the nurses and orderlies wanted to 
wait on them, and the pipers, too, would manage to make them- 
selves heard and many a lad's eye was made brighter when he heard 
again the skirl 0' the pipes. 
There was no abiding place in France, and it was just as one 
got nicely settled down that he had to move, and at this very time 
the Unit got orders to proceed to the front areas and take over a 
hospital at Arques, which is a suburb of the City of St. Omer. 
Headed by the pipers the Unit marched off to the station Saturday 
Iay 12th, but did not entrain until daylight the next 
morning when a special train was provided for the Unit and its 
hospital equipment, 
The hospital at Harfleur \yas taken oyer by a \Velsh Unit, the 
40th Stationary Hospital, R.A..
The route was through Y vetot, .J. \miens, Abbeville and over the 
Somme, past the former battle-field of Crecy, through Boulogne 
and Calais to St. Omer and to the little suburban town of Arques
which was reached at 2 a.m., 
Iay 14. 191i. The rumble of the 
artillery could now be plainly heard, and the eastern sky was 
aflicker with the flashings of guns. The Unit was nO\\' within 
thirty miles of the trenches. A noble old French Chateau with 
spacious grounds, and a canal running through them, was to be 
the domicile of the hospital. This same chateau had been occupied 
by the Duke of \\"ellington after the campaign of \iVaterloo. 
Tents were pitched on the grounds to supply the additional 
accommodations required, and the hospital equipment was soon 
unpacked and placed; but there was considerable delay in getting 
the necessary supplies for the erection of kitchens, bath houses, 
pavilions. and material for other necessary alterations and accom- 
The first conyoy wa
 received on June 8th and consisted of 
\\"ounded German prisoners of war. There were 13 officers and 
379 other ranks. This was a large order for the first while not yet 
completely ready, and tested the resourcefulness and agility of the 
Unit. They rose to the occasion and handled the situation with 
great skill. 
Iany of the men were only slightly wounded, and 
were soon discharged to prison camps, 


From this time on everybody \yas kept busy. \Vounded came 
by ambulances, hospital trains and hospital barges down the canal. 
There were Imperial, Canadian, .\ustralian, i\ew Zealand, East 
Indian and Portuguese troops. 
Dominion Day, 1917, \yilliong be remembered by the inhabitants 
of St. Omer and yicinity. The Cnit engaged a large field and 
adyertised an athletic meet, and sent invitations to all the Units in 
the area. They all re
ponded, for when July 1st came, bright and 
sunny, the whole countryside turned out, including the civilian 
population. . \ splendid programme of sports was carried out, and 
X o. 7 carried off a goodly share of the honors. In the shade of 
the trees of the chateau grounds in the eyening tables were spread 
and the Unit sat down to a ,. family party" and enjoyed a season 
of conviviality and good fellowship. 
The next afternoon all patients who \"ere able to be up, or to be 
carried out, were given a special tea on the lawn in honor of 
Dominion Day. \\Thile this was going on His 11ajesty the King 
with H.R.H. the Prince of \Yales paid the Unit a surprise visit, 
His i\Iajesty was particularly gracious in his felicitations to patients 
and Staff, by all of whom the honor of this visit was greatly 
During the summer the enemy aeroplanes were very active in 
bombing raids on the back areas, (specially on moonlight nights. 
The first real bombing raid this Unit experienced was on' Sep- 
tember 30th. Enemy aeroplanes came over this area in great force 
shortly after sundown and began dropping numerous bombs. The 
loud swish of the bombs coming through the air followed by the 
fearful crash of the explosion was terrifying; but everybody. 
nursing sisters and all, .. stood to" at their post of duty. Although 
!\o. 7 escaped there were serious casualties. Four men were killed 
and several wounded at the British Hospital just across the river, 
and four nursing sisters and sixteen men were killed at the Scottish 
Hospital in 51. Omer, only two miles distant. 
On October 8th H.R.H, the Duke of Connaught visited and 
inspected the Unit. 
The first word of the terrific explosion at Halifax was received 
on December 8th, and many anxious days were spent awaiting 
definite word and to know just what had happened. 


The Commanding Officer, Lieut.-Colonel Stewart, was called to 
Lhe higher and more important duties of Surgical Consultant to 
hospitals in England and left the Unit, greatly to the regret of the 
entire personnel, 011 Thursday, :\larch ï, 1918. The command of 
the Unit was taken over by Major E. \r. Hogan, who was promoted 
to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
:March and .-\pril, 1918, brought still more busy days to the 
Dalhousie Unit. Being so near the Front they received a very 
large number of \y ot1l1d ed, many straight from the field of battle. 
.\lthough this hospital had only 400 beds it frequently had 800 
..;,everely wounded soldiers to look after. 
The final titanic struggles of 1918 had been ushered in when 
the fate of the world hung in a balance and men spoke hoarsely 
and with ,bated breath of the possible outcome. The Germans had 
smashed through the Fifth British Army in front of Cambrai and 
then hurled themselves against the Canadians on the Arras Front, 
only to be checked and beaten off. Then they sought a more 
Htll1erable sector and attacked the Portuguese on the Bailleul Front. 
The Portuguese troops gave way and the enemy rapidly advanced 
towards Aire and got within less than three miles of this strategic 
point and ".ere able to put shells into St. Omer, Arques and all 

ections of that hospital area, so that shelling became more or less 
constant and bombing raids were a nightly occurrence. There 
were a number of casualties among patients and Staff at some of the 
. ".ord \yas hourly expected that Aire had been taken 
and that the Cermans were marching on Hazebrouck and St. Orner. 
It wa::- therefore considered that this area was no longer tenable 
tor hospital purposes and .orders were issued for all hospitals to 
è\-acuate at once. Dalhousie Unit entrained on April 18th for 
The Unit had received orders to promptly open up a large tent 
Ì1 û spital at Etaples: but these orders were subsequently cancelled. 

reatly to the disappointment of the Staff, and the entire personnel 
wa <.. posted to various other hospitals in that area. 
The Germans seemed to have acquired a special fancy for 
bombing and shooting up hospital areas, and on May 18th subjected 
Etaples to a yery severe aerial bombardment by sixty planes. 
Ca..;ualtib among officers, nursing sisters and men amounted to 


over a thousand. Dalhousie Unit lost two men killed-Ph:. F. "-. 
Laidlaw and Pte. Takal1ayagi (Jap )-and two others wounded. 
including the Commanding Officer, Lieut.-Cot. E. Y. Hogan, and 
Pte. \V. G. O'Tulle. 
Etaples had been a large hoslJital centre, Lut was now abandoned 
as such and the various hospitals were withdrawn to other places. 
The Dalhousie 1.7 nit was moved to Rouen, which \yas the largest 
base hospital centre in France. ] [ere the officers and per"onnel 
were distributed and attached to various British Hospitals and had 
a further enriched experience, as there were \ ery many ca;.;ualtie;;; 
constantly coming in direct from the field of battle, owing to the 
demoralization of the hospital service in the front areas during the 
period of the German drive. l\[ost of the nursing sisters had been 
allowed to go on leave, and some were sent to England. 
A special Canadian Hospital was to be established at Camier5, 
between Etaples and Boulogne, and Dalhousie "Cnit was ordered, 
in September, 1918, to reassemble and proceed to Camiers and 
take over a hospital of 1,000 beds at a site formerly occupied by 
No. 42 British Stationary Hospital. In the five months that fo]- 
lowed this hospital was crowded and the patients were all Can- 
It was during this period that the Armistice came with its 
relaxing influences, its glorious sweets of victory, and happy dreams 
of home. Christmas also brought its good-cheer and was most 
pleasantly celebrated by the patients as well as the. Staff with a 
splendid Christmas dinner and other festivities. 
Early in February, 1919, the Unit received order.; to hand over 
to the Nova Scotia sister Unit, NO.9 Canadian Stationary Hospital 
-the St. Francis Xavier Unit-and proceed to Le Ha\...e en route to 
England and Canada. The Unit sailed from Le IIayre on 
lï, 1919, for Southampton, arriving there in the a Ïìernoon. The 
stay in England lasted only a month, but this was ample time for 
all the members of the Unit to visit differcnt parh oi the British 
During its service the Dalhousie Unit treated some ó !'ick 
and wounded, 10,000 in England and 50,000 in France. 
On April Jï, 1919, a happy group of Nova Scotian;;; assembled 
on the docks at Liverpool and boarded the good 
hip Relp;c with 


3,500 other Canadian troops for Home, Sweet Home. On April 
23rd that goodly company landed in Halifax and were greeted by a 
people proud of their noble sons returned with the laurels of 
,'ictory. That happy group of Nova Scotians now assembled on 
the pier at Halifax and were given an ovation and cheered to the 
echo as they marched through the streets to the Armories to be 
demobilized. These \\'ere they who had gone in the honored name 
of Old Dalhousie. \Yell did they guard the honor of that name. 
and long l11ay Dalhousie and Nova Scotia be proud of the record 
and deeds of the Dalhousie Unit. 
The following casualties occurred among the members of the 
e Hit: 
Killed in Action: Ptes. \\'111. Deck. D. E. Fraser, J. F. McLellan. 
Horace Grant, S. J. Dick, F, \Y. Laidlaw, Sergt. F. J. Howley, 
Ptes. ]. C. Sutherland, P. L. Findlay, C. P. \Yright, C. J. A. 
Guymer. Takanayagi (Jap). 
Died from Service Disability': Pte. C. ]. l'IcCarthy. 
TV olwded: Lieut.-Co!. E. V. Hogan, C.B.E.; l\Iajor D. A. 

IacLeod, Ptes. "'. 1 L Chase. F. F. Choote, Dawson (twice), 
Bugler J. E. Doyle (twice), Sergt. P. D. :\IacDonald, Pte. \ Y. G. 
O'Tul1e( twice), Sergt. F, II. Pond. 
The following Nova Scotia medical officers were at different 
times 'attached to the Dalhousie Unit: Gerald Grant, l'I.C.; J. 1'1. 
Stewart, A. E. lVIackintosh. A. H. l\IcKinnon, F. B. Day, J. A. 
1\Iunro, E. D. l\IcLean, E. D. Douglas. 
LC.; J. E. Ellis, Seymour 
l\I acKenzie, K. Blackadar, A. :\1. Covert, A. Ellis, J. I. O'Connell, 
Andrew Love, \V. H. :McDonald, 
The following received commi
sions in the Field: H. B. Archi- 
bald, \Ym Beck (killed in flying), R.F.C.. G. Dawson, l'I.C. 
(wounded and awarded M,C.), Geo. Edgar (awarded commission. 
Embarkation Officer in Halifax), C. \V. Holland, A. R. 1\IcPherson, 
\V. H. Pool, D. H. Sutherland, l'I.C., J. D. Vair, Horace Grant, 
G. \Vright, 1'1.C., C. C. Armstrong, IT. C. Lewis, C. F. J\loriarity, 
J. C. Sutherland (killed), P. R. Tingley, A. \\T. \Vebber, C. Glen- 
nister, C. E. \\Thite, C. P. \V right, G. C. Beazley, J. F. l\IcLellan, 
1\1.1\'1., G. H. l'Iorrison, H. B. Titus, T. H. \Yhelpley, C. J. .'\. 
Guymer, D. H. \\ïndsor. 

19 8 


Promotions and J\ \\"anls : Lieut.-Col. John Stewart became 
Colonel and recei\"ed the CD.E.. and later \yas Surgical Consultant 
to Canadian Hospitals in England. 
:\Iajor E. \. Hogan as
umed command of the hospital on the 
promotion of Colonel Stewart. He \\"as promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel, received the C.D.E. and \Vas wounded in the 
Etaples raid. 
.Major L. 
l urray became heart 
pecialist to Special Can- 
adian Heart Hospital at Bushey Park. 
laL\ulay. promoted to 
Iajor. left the Unit and 
\Vas in command of yarious e nits and Field _ \mhulances. After 
his retu rn home ""as in command 0 f Cogs well Street 11ilitary 
Capt. Y. X. 
.ay, promoted to .Major and was retained in 
England for special laboratory work. 
Capt. K. A. :\IacKenzie, promoted to 1Iajor on leaving the Unit 
at Arques in the summer of 1917 and \Vas detailed for duty at 
Colchester Heart Hospital as Heart Specialist. Subsequently he 
became Officer in charge of :ì\Iedicine at Dramshott :ì\Iilitary Hos- , 
Capt. E. K. :\Iaclellan, promoted to 
Iajor, afterwards returning 
to Canada where he became Officer in charge of Pine Hill lVlilitary 
Hospital, and later President Standing 
[edical Board. In winter 
of 19Ii, 
-\cting Officer in charge Surgical Service No. 12 Canadian 
General Hospital. 
Capt. S. J. l\IacLennan, transferred to \\Testcliffe Eye and Ear 
Hospital, on arrival in England, for special duty. Inyalided home 
from England. 
Capt. D. A. :\IacLeod, mentioned in dispatches, wounded at 
Passchendaele in September. 1918, promoted to :\Iajor, and on 
return to Canada became Registrar at Camp Hill :\Iilitary Hospital. 
Capt. J. A. Murray, promoted to Major, and on return to Eng- 
land from France in summer of 1917 became Officer in charge of 
Clarence House Canadian Convalescent Hospital. 
Capt. John Rankine, left Unit in summer of 1qI6 and went ac; 

Iedical Officer to Xo. I Entrenching Battalion. \Vas attached to 
NO.4 Field Ambulance, returning to Canada for duty in the fall of 
19 1 7. 



Capt. Frank V. \\Toodbury went to one of the Entrenching 
Battalions and was later attached to the Staff of the 3rd Division, 
recalled to England for Staff duty. Received promotion to Majority 
and subsequently promoted to rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Capt. Karl F. \;Y oodbury served continuously and returned to 
Canadq. with the Cnit, with much credit to himself and the Unit, as 
Dental Officer. 
Lieut. S. R. Balcom returned to England in July, 1917, became 
Ql1arterma"ter N"o. 12 General Hospital and promoted to Captain. 
He returned to Canada and took over duties as Officer in charge 0 f 

\I edical Stores, Military District No.6. 
Lieut. and Quartermaster \Yalter Taylor, promoted to Captain, 
served continuously with the Unit until recalled home at the time 
of the Halifax explosion in December, 1917, having had three 
children killed in the explosion and losing his property. Later 
became Quartermaster Cogswell Street Hospital. 
:\J atron L. 1\1. Hubley served continuously with .the Unit until 
April, 1918, subsequently attached for duty to No. 3 General 
Hospital and No. 8 Stationary Hospital, and \Vestcliffe Eye and 
Ear Hospital, returning to Canada, March, 1919. On returning to 
Canada she was employed as :Matron of Cogswell Street lVIilitary 
Hospital. In December, 1916, Matron Hubley was awarded the 
RoyaL Reel Cross, 1st Class. 
Nursing Sister S. A. Archard served continuously with the Unit, 
with the exception of a short time at a Forestry Corps Hospital. 
She was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 
)Jursing Sister R. S. Calder, invalided to England in October, 
19 16 , served with Canadian Hospitals in England during the rest of 
the \Yar and was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 
Kursing Sister E. A. Cooke served continuously with the Unit 
in Englài1d and France, returning home with the Unit. She was 
mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the :Medal of Queen 
Elizabeth of Belgium. 
Nursing Sister A. .M. Johnston, mentioned in dispatches. 

 ursing Sister l\lacDonald, mentioned in dispatches and 
a ,,-anled the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 

 ursing Sister F. A. Rice, awarded Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 


Sergt.-:\Iajor G. T. Brown, recalled to England in June, 19 1 7, 
receiving a commission as Quartermaster of C.A.M.C. General 
Depot, later being promoted to captain's rank and receiving the 
Sergt. P. D. :MacDonald was transferred to the R:C.R. and was 
wounded in action. 
Sergt. F. J. Howley received a commission in service. \Vhile 
home on leave was killed in the Halifax explosion. 
Sergt. A. F. :l\IcGregor, recalled from Shorncliffe to Canada to 
complete medical studies at l\1cGill. On graduating received com- 
mission and later served again Overseas. He was promoted to 

. I 
Sergt. F. H. Pond obtained commission with an Infantry Bat- 
talion and was severely wounded and invalided to Canada. 
Sergt. T. H. Robinson succeeded Sergt.-:Major G. T. Brown, 
being promoted to warrant officer. 
Sergt. C. G. Sutherland, recalled from Shorncliffe to Canada to 
complete medical studies at l\IcGill. On graduating received com- 
mission and later served again Overseas, having been promoted to 
CorpI. E. l\Ic1\. Grant left Unit in Shorncliffe, receiving com- 
missiön in 13th Battalion. Later invalided to Canada. 
CorpI. G. S. l\litchell promoted to Captain, later became Chap- 
lain of the Unit. Invalided to Canada in October, 19 1 7. 
Bugler J. E. Doyle, transferred to 
 o. 1 Field Ambulance. 
promoted to Sergeant, wounded twice and awarded D,C.":\I. 

(St. Francis Xavier College Unit). 
\Vith characteristic enterprise St. Francis Xayier College de- 
cided, as the War went on, that it should stand side bv side with 
other Universities of Canada in direct representation. In the 
autumn of 19 1 5 the President and Governors offered a -:\Iedical 
Unit for Overseas. This seemed the most fit.ting service for a great 
Christian and humanitarian institution, and it was understood that 
hospitals werc in demand. 
14 201 


Dr. H. P. 
IacPherson, President of the Cniversity, took the 
matter up direct with the Government of Canada, and in April, 
19 16 , authority was giyen for the acceptance of .K o. 9 Canadian 
Stationary I [ospital from St. Francis Xavier. 
Thi" announcement was received with great and it 
was decided not to 
end the Unit away empty-handed. A subscrip- 
tion list was opened and friends of the 
Cniversity were given an opportunity to 
subscribe to a fund to prO\ ide for some 
special equipment and to organize a band. 
The response was must generous, and iu 
a very short time an ample amount of 
money was secnred. Desides private sub- 
scriptions, liberal donations were received 
from the Red Cros
, Daughters of the 
Empire, Knights of Columbus and other 
Busy days followed in selecting the 
personnel and urganizing the Unit. No 
recrmt1l1g campaign was necessary. The loyal sons of St. Francis 
and daughters of Antigonish, and many others everywhere. were 
offering their services. .-\s the brokers would say: " The stock was 
over-subscribed." And it was a matter of selection. 
The cummand was given to Lieut.-Cot. Roderick C. :McLeod, 
who had already enlisted in the C.E.F. and was daily expecting 
orders to proceed Overseas. Colonel ::\IcLeod was a graduate of 
St. Francis Xavier and had attained a wide reputation as a suc- 
cessful medical practitioner of North Sydney. He \Vas a man of 
a most genial personality and beloved by all who knew him. His 
appointment to the command of this Cnit was hailed with universal 
sa-tis faction. 
Colonel .:\IcLeod was assisted in the work of organization by 
lVlajor H. E. Kendall as second in command, an outstanding 
surgeon of Cape Breton; and 
Iajor J. S. Carruthers, an energetic 
Militia officer, was appointed adjutant. 
The enthusiasm among nurses for service in this Unit was 
remarkable. A pplications poured 111 from every Province in 





LIEUT.-COL. R. C. M'LEon. 


Canada and from many parts of the United States, by mail and 
telegraph. :\Iiss S. C. 
1acIsaac, a graduate of 1\1t. St. Bernard 
Convent, of Antigonish, was chosen as :ì\Iatron. l\1iss 11acIsaac 
was trained as a nurse at St. Joseph's Hospital, Glace Bay, in 
which institution she had charge of the operating room for three 
years. She had taken a post-graduate course at 
fercy Hospital, 
Chicago, and when war broke out she was Assistant Matron at 
I\It. Zion Hospital, San Francisco. 
racIsaac therefore 
came to her new, important and strenuous post well qualified. 
The organization of the "Cnit was completed at the University 
Town of Antigonish, the seat of the mother College, S1. Francis 
Xavier. The college authorities and citizens of Antigonish vied 
with each other in extending an enthusiastic reception to the volun- 
teers as they came, and everything was done to make their stay 
Orders were issued from headquarters for the Unit to mobilize 
at Halifax in the spring of 1916. The officers took the C.A.:M.C. 
Training Course at Cogswell Street 
Iilitary Hospital, and the 
nursing sisters were also posted there, and faithful work was done 
in a general course of preliminary training. 
The original personnel was as follows: 
Lieut.-Cot. Roderick C. l\facLeod, Commanding Officer; lVIajor 
Henry E. Kendall, Second in Command; 
1ajor J. Stewart Car- 
ruthers, Adjutant. 
Medical Officers: Capts. Alex. R. Campbell, J. F. Ellis, T. A. 
Lebbetter, A. H. :\IacKinnon, J. 1. O'Connell, L. D. Densmore, 
Hon. Capt. J. L. Johnson, Capts. R. :\facCuish, J. A. McCourt, 
L. J. \ïolette, Hon. Lieut. Leo F. Fry. 
Nursing Sisters: Emma Ella Barry, Laura Emily Campbell, 
Sarah Catherine Chisholm, :\lonica Connell, Isabel Helen Dawson, 
Helena :Margaret Ellis, Florence :ì\Iary Kelly, Nellie King, Annie 
:UacDonald, Annie Helen l\IacDonald, Catharine Chisholm :Mac- 
Donald, Catharine Eileen .MacDonald, Catharine Tulloch rv1ac- 
Donald, Jessie 
Iinnie Frances l\1acDonald, Flora 
:MacDougall, 1\Iary 1\lacGrath, Sadie Catharine MacIsaac 
(Matron), Christena 
1ary :MacKenzie, Dora 
1acKenzie, Annie 
facLeod, !\[arcella Agnes O'Brien, Catharine Regina 
20 3 


Shea, Edith Alexander Thompson, l\1ary S. Walsh, Anna Teresa 
The Unit was not long in receiving orders to proceed Overseas, 
and on June 19, 1916, set sail per S,S. Missinabie. After ten 
days' sail on typical summer seas a landing was made at Liverpool 
Here the jolly family group was divided and the officers and men 
were sent to Shornc1iffe and attached for instruction and duty to 
Shornc1iffe l\1ilitary Hospital, while the matron and nursing sisters 
entrained for London, where they were detailed, by the Matron-in- 
Chief, for duty to various hospitals in England. 
This was a sort of a period of orphanage; 'but in exactly three 
months, September 29, 1916, the Unit was again reassembled for 
the purpose of taking over the Bramshott Military Hospital, No. 
12 Canadian General Hospital, which served the large military 
training camps of Bramshott and \Vitley. This was a splendid 
experience and training for the entire personnel. A great deal of 
excellent work was done. The :Medical Division was taken charge 
of by l\1ajor Charles Hunter, of Winni- 
peg, and Major H. E. Kendall was in 
charge of the Surgical Division, assisted 
by Capt. K. A. McCuish. 
While acting as the Medical Officer 
of the 5th C.l\'l.R.'s Captain McCuish 
received wounds at Passchendaele, from 
which he died. He was buried in the 
:Military Cemetery at Remi Siding, near 
Poperinghe, Delgium. in a hero's grave, 
and now .. sleeps where poppies grow 
in Flanders fields." 
The winter of 1917 taxed the cap- 
acity of the hospital to the utmost, as well as the endurance of the 
Staff, owing to a very severe outbreak of influenza in the Bramshott 
area. The splendid manner in which the Unit rose to the great 
demands made upon it and coped with the serious condition that 
arose, called for special commendation from :Major-General Foster, 
etleral of the Canadian Medical Services. 






Here the first great sorrow came to the Unit in the illness 
and death of their beloved Commanding Officer, Lieut.-Colonel 
MacLeod. He contracted anthrax poisoning, from which he died 
January 4, 19 1 7. \Vith military honors and amidst a large con- 
course of sorrowing comrades he was laid to rest in the cemetery 
at Bramshott. 
Command of the Unit was taken by l\Iajor H. E. Kendall, who 
was promoted to the rank of Lieut.
Colonel. Lieut.-Colonel Gilmore 
of Toronto took charge of the surgical section. 
The spring of 1917 was a very hard period, as was also the fall 
of 1917. The damp and chilly English climate was very trying to 
new Canadian troops, and there was a large amount of sickness. 
A good many battle casualties were also received from France. 
A call came from France for more Canadian hospitals, and 
NO.9 Canadian Stationary Hospital was selected. The Unit was 
ordered to proceed to France, and sailed from Folkestone in 
December, 1917, landing at Boulogne the same day with the fol- 
lowing officers: Lieut.-Col. H. E. Kendall, Officer Commanding; 
Major Charles Hunter, :JVlajor Adair.. Quartermaster; Capt. J. 
Williams, Pathologist; Capt. H. L. Reazin, Capt. J. \V. Lord, Capt. 
Andrew Love, Capt. W. F. l\IacIsaac, Capt. A. F. Slayter, Capt. 
D. A. \Vebh, Capt. J. \Nilfred, Hon. Capt. J. O. Ralston, Chaplain; 
HOll. Capt. P. \Yhi,te, Chaplain. 
\dair was subsequently Quartermaster at No. 3 Can- 
adian General Hospital at Boulogne, where he died suddenly of 
uræmia following influenza in the spring of 19 1 9. 
On arrival in Boulogne the Unit received orders to proceed to 
Longuenesse, near St. Omer, and open a hospital of four hundred 
beds. Here everything was found to be in readiness. There were 
hutted wards of corrugated iron. wooden administration buildings 
complete in every detail and ready for occupation. Ther
 was an 
excellent, well-lighted, well-ventilated and thoroughly-equipped 
operating room. The quarters provided for officers, nursing sisters 
and men were all that could be desired. 
It was only a few days before the Unit was ready to carryon, 
and early in January, 1918, the first convoy was received, consisting 
of over one hundred wounded soldiers from the Front. Excenent 
and steady work then continued. 
20 5 


In February instructions were received from headquarters to 
enlarge the hospital to nine hundred beds. "-ith willing hands and 
ènthusiastic workers this was soon completed, and during the month 
ùf :l\1arch a great many surgical cases were dealt with. Capt. A. 
Loos and Capt. A. F. Slater were the surgical specialists at this 
time. On account of the large number of surgical cases application 
was made for assistants. Capt. T. :i\IacGregor, a noted Scotch 
surgeon of Glasgow, was sent for temporary duty. The officer in 
charge of the l\ledical Division was Capt. H. L. Reazin, a successful 
and well-known practitioner of Toronto. 
During the spring of 1918 the St. Francis IHospital Unit carried 
on under precisely the same conditions of harassing shell fire and 
nightly bombing as described in connection with the Dalhousie 
l\fedical Unit. 
The nursing sisters and hospital Staff displayed great courage 
all through these trying times, remaining at their posts in the 
operating room and hospital wards. No pen can describe the nerve- 
testing and nerve-wracking experience of hearing the swish through 
the air of those terrible and deadly bombs, then the terrific explo- 
sions and rocking and trembling of the earth which meant destruc- 
tion and death to many. The way those splendid young women 
carried themselves was magnificent. v\ïthout a quiver or the 
slightest hesitation they kept right along with their work and 
soothed and encouraged and ministered to their patients. They 
were the same living contradiction here as elsewhere to all logical 
relations, and the harmony of things. They would jump up on 
the operating table and scream at the suggestion of a mouse or 
trench rat; but would go out into the storm and darkness and fire 
to give a drink of water to a wounded soldier. 
The Unit was making preparations to still further expand the 
bed capacity of the hospital when orders were issued for all hos- 
pitals in the area to evacuate at once. The wounded were sent by 
an1bulance trains to the base, the equipment was packed up, and 011 
April 19th the Unit moved to Etaples, which is a fishing village 
about twenty miles from Boulogne. It was a large hospital area 
and there were 25,000 available beds. 
On the outskirts of the town near the village of Le Faux a site 
was provided for the St. Francis Unit. The nursing sisters were 


detailed for duty to Xo. I Canadian General Ho
pital and NO.7 
Canadian GenerallIo
pital. The officers and men were under canvas. 
The "Cnit \"as under instructions to open a tent hospital of 600 
beds, and the work was progressing rapidly when that terrible air 
raid came at 10 o'clock in the evening of :;\Iay 18th and continued 
for nearly two hours. The casualties were very heavy and every 
hospital suffered. A number of live bombs dropped within the 
small area occupied by the St. Francis Unit. Two men were in- 
stantly killed and thirteen wounded. The killed were Sergeants 
lillen and Taylor. They were buried in the :\Iilitary Cemetery 
at Etaples. Seventeen hospital marquees of the Unit were de- 
stroyed during this raid. 1 t was fortunate that the Unit had not 
commenced receiving patienb. 
One of the medical officers, Capt \\. F, 
JacIsaac. of Anti- 
gonish, was badly wounded, and succumbed to his injuries in No. [ 
Canadian General Hospit3.1 on June 3rd. He was a young man of 
brilliant attainments, exemplary character and a promising young 
surgeon. lIe too was buried in the l\fili- 
tary Cemetery at Etaples. The whole 
Unit was in attendance at the funeral. 
Since a large part of the hospital 
equipment was destroyed it was decided 
to move the Cnit to another area. All 
the railways were congested and every 
other means of transportation taxed to 
the utmost; consequently no means of 
moving the equipment could be obtained, 
and it remained packed for several 
months. :l\Iost of the officers and men COL. R. ST. JOHN MACDONALD. 
were detailed for duty to other hospitals. 
Lieut.-Co!. H. E. Kendall was recalled for duty to England on 
.-\ugust 28, 1918, and command of the Unit fell to lVIajor R. St. J. 
l\1acDonald, who had been posted to the Unit a few months 
The Unit was instructed to be in readiness to open up a Con- 
valescent Hospital for the Canadian Corps. But before this was 
carried out the Germans made an unconditional surrender which 
they were allowed to call an Armistice. 



Hopes were now high for an early, in fact, immediate return 
home, and this became the all-absorbing topic of conversation. 
Capt. A. Sterling, Capt. S. MacKenzie, Capt. G. Zwicker, Capt. 
G. Phillips and Capt. S. Whitehouse arrived from England on 
November 20th and joined the Unit. Capt. Sterling had gone 
Overseas as a combatant officer with the R.C.R.'s and saw con- 
siderable ,fighting. Owing to the scarcity of medical officers in the 
summer of 1917 he was asked to transfer to the 1Yledical Corps, which 
he did, and was posted to the Canadian SpeciaL Hospital at Etching 
Hill, where he remained until joining NO.9 Canadian Stationary. 
.Major S. L. "Talker was posted to this Unit on November 25, 
19 18 , and was afterwards promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
He had been on active service with various Units since the spring 
of 1915. Colonel v\Talker was an excellent administrative officer 
and added strength to the Staff as second in command. 
The Unit received instructions to take over the special hospital 
at Camiers from the Dalhousie Unit, which had received orders to 
proceed to England en route to Canada. This change took place 
on February 8, 1919, and St. Francis Unit took over the hospital 
with 900 patients. 
In a short time the number of patients increased to 1,100 and 
St. Francis Unit had the honor of being raised to the status of a 
General Hospital. This gave an opportunity for some wen-merited 
promotions among the officers, non-commissioned officers and men. 
At this time the Staff was as follows: 

Co!. R. St. J 01111 l\f acDonald Officer Commanding. 
Lieut.-Cot. S. L. \Valker... .Second in Command. 
Major H. G. Murray....,..In êharge Medical Division. 
1\1 aj or A. Sterling.. , . . In charge Surgical Division. 
:Major R. F, Slater.". . . . , . .Registrar and Paymaster. 
Major J. R. MacRae........ 
Major G. S, Gordon.....,.. 
Major S. Sprague,......... 
Hon. Capt. H. E. Law ,'.. .Quartermaster. 
Hon, Capt. _\. E. Hagar, - . .Chaplain. 
Capt. S, P. H. Morlatt.,. - , .Dental Officer. 
Capt. F" Hinds.......,.,... Dental Officer. 
Capt. J F. Elkerton......,. 
Capt. J. D. MacDonald....,. 
Capt. \V. ;\1. MacDonald.... 
Capt. A. R. Campbell,..... 
Capt. G. Phillips.".,...... 
Capt. S. Whitehouse...,.... 
Ca,pt. G. Zwicker..,........ 


The stay at Camiers was made more pleasant for the personnel 
and patients by the attention paid to recreation and amusements. 
A baseball league 'was formed for the area and many good games 
were played, in which there was a great deal of enthusiastic interest. 
There was also much interest taken in tennis and quoits. A 
moving-picture theatre was constructed and equipped by the Can- 
adian Y.M.C.A., under Capt. A. E. Hagar, which was an unfailing 
source of pleasure to the patients and personnel. The Y.M.C.A. 
also established a canteen and furnished a reading room. The 
Red Cross too, through its representative, Major F. l\Iurphy, 
contributed very largely to the success of the Unit by providing 
comforts for the patients and a large <l;mount of sporting equip- 
A thrill of pleasant anticipation ran through the Unit when on 
llay 20th 'Orders were received that the patients were to be evacu- 
ated at once with a view to demobilization and return to Canada. 
As soon as the patients were evacuated no time was lost in turning 
the hospital equipment and supplies in to Ordnance Stores. This 
was completed on May 28th and on May 30th the Unit moved to 
Boulogne, crossed to Folkestone the same afternoon and arrived 
at \Vitley Camp, Surrey, the next day. 
After a very pleasant month in England, occupied mostIy with 
leave-taking and renewing old acquaintances, the Unit proceeded 
to Southampton and embarked on the S.S. Ol)'mþic for Halifax 
on July 2nd, together with No. 7 Canadian General Hospital 
(Queens) and NO.4 Canadian General Hospital (Toronto). 
On July 8th at 6 p.m., after a voyage of only six days, these 
happy home-comers were docked at Halifax. The Unit was met 
by representatives of St. Francis Xavier College, whose name it 
had the honor of bearing, led by Dr. J. J. Tompkins. Dr. Tompkins 
invited the officers, non-commissioned officers and men to a re- 
ception as well as farewell banquet at the" Green Lantern." Other 
guests present were Governor Grant, Bon. R. E. Faulkner, Hon. 
Senator Crosby, Co!. John Stewart, Lieut.-Co!. E. V. Hogan and 
John Neville. After an excellent supper the Unit was welcomed 
home in a very happy manner by Dr. Tompkins. Governor Grant 
and others. Col. R. St. J. l\1acDonald and Lieut.-Cot. S, L. 
\i\1 alker replied on behalf of the Unit. 


The following morning, July 9th, the Unit was demobilized 
after over three years' service Overseas. 
The entire personnel had changed since lea \"ing Halifax for 
Oyerseas, and on demobilization was as follows: 

Cot. R St. J 
Lieut.-Cot. S. L. \Valker. 
Major A. Sterling. 
Major H. G. .Murray. 
Major G. S. Gordon. 
Major A. F, Slater. 
Hon. Capt. A. E. Hagar, Chap- 
Ron. Capt. F. Kelley, Chaplain. 
Capt. A. H. Haugh. 

Capt. J D. 
Capt. \Y. l\L MacDonald. 
Capt. G. Zwicker. 
Capt. G. Phillips. 
Capt. S. \Vhitehouse. 
Capt. \V. H, P. Lavell. 
Capt. \V, B. Surleton. 
Capt. ::\1. l\IacKay. 
Capt. J l\IacBeth. 
Capt. S. P. II. "Morlatt. 

Following is a list of honors received by original members of 
NO.9 Canadian Stationary Hospital, as far a,> can be ascertained 
at the moment of writing: 
Lieut.-Cot R St. John MacDonald.. l\Ientioned 111 dispatches. 
Capt. A. R. Campbell .'...,..,... M.C. 
Capt. L, D. Densmore............. M,C. 
Matron S. C, MacIsaac .......... Mentioned for valuable services, 
20-10-17; RR.C., 2nd class, 
1-1-19; RR.C., 1st class, 31- 

 ursing Sister F. Kellev.."..,.. RRC.. 2nd class. 
N' ursing Sister C, E. ChÍsholm..., Mention, 20-12-18; mention, 11-7- 
19. _ 
Nursing Sister Annie l\IacDonald. Mentioned for valuable services, 
20- 10- Ii. 
Nursing Sister C. M. l\IacKenzie. .1\lentioned for valuable services, 

lentiol1ed for valuable services, 
9-9- T 9. 

ursil1g Sister C. R. Shea. .... l\Iedaille 
Iilitaife des Invalides. 


Less than half the Nova Scotia medical men who went Overseas 
served with the Nova Scotia l\Iedical Units. This narrative would 
therefore be very incomplete without reference to the major 
lVlany of these had distinguished service with the Royal Army 
Medical Corps (R.A.1T.C.) and with other Canadian and Imperial 
Hospitals, as well as with the fighting Units as Regimental Medical 
Officers and other general and special duties. 


Be it said to the honor of Nova Scotia that the organizing and 
directing genius of the Canadian Army :Medical Sen-ice was sup- 
plied by two Nova Scotians, )'Iajor-Gen. Guy Carleton Jones, 
C.l\I.G., who was born in Nova Scotia and practised his profession 
in Halifax, and l\Iajor-Gen. G. L. Foster, C.B., who was born in 
N ova Scotia and also practised his profession in Halifax. 
General Jones went Overseas with the First Canadian Contingent 
as .A.D.l\LS. and shortly after arrival in England was made 
Director of l\ledical Services, Canadian Expeditionary Force, with 
headquarters in London, which he organized and administered 
with great ability until he was made 
Iedical Inspector, Canadian 
Expeditionary Force, in 1917. Later he became D.1I.S. in charge 
of hospitals in Canada. 
General Foster succeeded General Jones as D.
I.S. Canadian 
Expeditionary Force and later was made D.G.
I.S., O.}I.F.C., and 
successfully carried on the duties of that high and difficult office 
until the end of the \Yar and the demobilization of the Canadian 
Another outstanding Nova Scotia }Iedical Officer was Lieut.- 
Col. H. IVI. Jacques. \Vhen ,the First Contingent left, Colonel 
Jacques became Acting D.G.l\f.S., Ottawa. He was A.D.l\tI.S. 
2nd Cana( LÍan Division in France; he was three times mentioned 
for distinguished service in Sir Douglas Haig's dispatches and was 
promoted to the full rank of Colonel ançl awarded the D.S.O. and 
Bar for distinguished and gallant service in action. 
The nursing service has also brought great credit to Nova 
Scotia, and it is a further honor to the Province that the Canadian 
Army Nursing Service was under the direction of a Nova Scotian. 
The l\Iatron-in-Chief was l\'Iiss Margaret C. MacDonald, of Bailey 
Brook. She \Vas mentioned for distinguished services and awarded 
the R.R.C. She had seen active service in the Spanish-American 
\Var and was selected to accompany the Second Canadian Con- 
tingent to South Africa.. 
The following is a synopsis of the l\Iilitary Services of Nova 
Scotia medical men not previously mentioned, as far as can be 
obtained. It has been impossible to get a complete authentic record, 
and although every medical man on the 1Iedical Register for the 
Province, who was known to have been in the military service, was 


written to personally for information, only thirty replies were 
received to 150 letters. The list is therefore liable to some errors 
and omissions. 


England as a combatant officer with the 8th Canadian Mounted 
Rifles in 1916. On this being broken up, a Canadian Cavalry Field 
Ambulance was formed, which Captain Archibald joined as a 
Medical Officer. He was in the Somme fighting, was two years in 
France, and was promoted to the rank of l\IIajor. 
A TLEE, MAJOR H. BENGE.-Enlisted in R.A.1LC. in Lon- 
don, England, November, 1914. Appointed l\1edical Officer, Royal 
Munster Fusiliers. Served in Gallipoli, the Suvla Bay expedition, 
No. 19 British Hospital, Alexandra, Egypt, the 69th Ambulance, 
Salonika. \'Tas awarded the 1\I.C. and promoted to the rank of 
EL \V. _\. G., D.S.O.-Enlisted 
19 1 4. Demobilized June, 1919. Served in England, France and 
Salonika. Twice mentioned in despatches. Awarded D.S.O, 
20-12-16. Demobilized 12-12-19. Served in Canada . '0-12-16 to 
23-3- 1 7, England 27-3-17 to 15-6-18, France 15-6-18 to 19-5- 1 9. 
Was Neurological Specialist in Camp Hill Hospital, Halifax, 
27-5- 1 9 to 12-12-19. 
BARSS, CAPT. G. A.-Enlisted Captain R,A.
\I.C. in England 
29- 8 - 1 5. Posted to Durham Light Infantry, with which he went to 
France in January, 1916. Served also with Scots Guards. Men- 
tioned twice in dispatches for services ir. the Somme, 1916. and 
Cambrai, rq I 7. Demobilized 29-8-18. 
BLACKADAR, CAPT. K. K.-Enlisted 5-1-17. Demobilized 
21-7- 1 9. Served in Canada, England and France. 
9- 8 - 1 5. Demobilized 23-6-19. Served in Canada 9-8-15 to 18-6-16, 
England 18-6-16 to 4-5-17 and 2-q-18 to 18-1-19. France 4-5- 1 7 to 
2-9- 18. 
BORDEN, CAPT. R. F.-Enlisted 1-7-16. Demobilized 
27-4- 19. Served in Canada, England and France. 


BURGESS, CAPT. HARRY C.-Served Overseas. No par- 
ticulars available. 
BURNS, CAPT. ARTHUR S.-Enlisted 19-2-16. Demobilized 
23-12-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Enlisted 23-12-16. Demobilized 29-12-19. Served in Canada, Eng- 
land and France. 
CAMPBELL, CAPT. JOHN G. D.-Enlisted 26-12-16. De- 
mobilized 29-II-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
CARRt.;THERS, LIEUT.-COL. J. S.-Enlisted 30-6-15. Re- 
turned 26-1-19. Served in Canada, Eng 1 and and France. 
CHISHOLM, CAPT. JA1\1ES STANLEY-Enlisted 8-5-15. 
DemobiLized 30-9-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
CHURCHILL, CAPT. L. P.-Enlisted 15-2-16. Demobilized 
11-3-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 1\1.0. 219th 
talion. Served in France with 5th Field Ambulance, 3rd 
British General Hospital, 47th British General Hospital, 7th Cana- 
dian General Hospital, 1st Canadian :Mounted Rifles and R.C.R. 
A warded M.C. for gallant services at Battle of Arras. 
COCHRANE, CAPT, \VILFREl> N.-Enlisted 13-II-16. De- 
mobilized 1-1-19. Served in England and France; in France with 
No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital (Dalhousie Unit), 8th Cana- 
dian Field Ambulance and 3rd Division Train. 
COCK, MAJOR J. L.-Enlisted 9-3-15. Demobilized 12-1-20. 
Served in Canada, England and France. 
I V.-Overseas Service. No par- 
ticulars availa:ble. 
COLLIE, CAPT. JOHN R. l\1.-0verseas Service in the Navy. 
No particulars available. 
COVERT, CAPT. ARCHIBALD N.-Enlisted 7-3-20, De- 
mobilized 12-6- 19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
England when war broke out and enlisted in the British Navy July 
30, 1914. \Vas posted to H.M.S. Argonaut J transferred to Hos- 
pital Ship China and went to Salonika, Later joined the Army and 
went to France. On returning to England became D.A.D.
Demobilized September, 1919. 

21 3 


CROLL, LIEUT.-COL. ANDRE\\'-Enlisted 1-4- 1 5. De- 
mobilized 4- 11 - 1 8. Seryed in Canada, England and three years in 
CURRY, l\IA]OR \VILFRED A.-Enlisted in R.A.:\I.C. in 
England. Had three years' service in France as Surgical Specialist 
to No. 44 C.C.S. and 
o. 34 C.C.S. On returning to England was 
attached to Shepherd's Bush Orthopædic Hospital, London. On 
demobilization was appointed Orthopædic Specialist to Department 
of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment for 
 ova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. 
DA VIDSOK, CA. PT. VICTOR DA VID.-Overseas Service. 
"X 0 particulars available. 
V.\ Y, CAPT. FREDERICK E., !LC.-Enlisted 5- 10 - 1 5. De- 
mobilized 30-4-19. Service in Canada, England and France. In 
France served with Xo. 7 Calladian Stationary Hospital, 13 th 
Field Ambulance. In trenches as 1\1.0. 54th Canadian Infantry 
Battalion until wounded twice by shrapnel. 
'\ warded l\1:C. for 
gallant services in action. 
DOBSON, CAPT. vV.M. L.-Enlisted 16-9-17. Demobilized 
25-7- 1 9. Served in Canada and England. 
DONOV \X, CAPT. OSCAR C.-Enlisted 11-19- 1 5. Demob- 
ilized 25- 2 - 2 0. Served in Canada, England and France. \Vas a 
Surgical Specialist in France, and after returning to England was 
attached to Shepherd's Bush Orthopædic Hospital, London. \\Tas 
a warded the Croix de Guerre by the French. 
I.C.-Elllisted 17-8-14. De- 
mobilized 29-9-19. Served in Canada, England and three years in 
France. In Prance served with No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hos- 
 o. 1 Canadian C.C.S., No. II C.C.S., R.A.M.C., 4th Cana- 
dian Field Ambulance, No. 13 Canadian Field Ambulance. \Vas 
wounded in head and hand at Lens, and wounded in left shoulder at 
Passchendaele. A warded l\1.C. for gallant service at Lens. 
DOULL, CAPT. ]Al\IES ANGUS, l\1.C., Croix de Guerre- 
Served in England and France. Particulars not available. 
D\YYER, CAPT. THOl\1AS R.-Enlisted 12-5-17. Demob- 
ilized 10-11-19. Served in Canada and England. 
21 4 


DY AS, CAPT. ALEX. D.-Enlisted 10-8-16. Demobilized 
8-10- 1 9. Served in Canada, England and France as Ear, Kose and 
Throat Specialist. \Younded by shrapnel at 
I H.-Service in Canada, Eng- 
land and France as X-ray Specialist. 
, CAPT. PERRY B.-Enlisted 13-3-17. Demobilized 
11-9- 1 9. Sen-ed in Canada and England. 
FREEl\IAX, C.\PT. E. H.-Enlisted II-S-IS. Demobilized 
3 1 - 1 - 1 9. 
en"ed in England, France, Salonika, Palestine and 
L\X. C.\PT. XELSO)J P.-Enlisted 1-10-16. De- 
mobilized IS-6-IK Seryed in Canada and England. Invalided 
home with paralysi
, one side. 
G \SS, C.\PT. CH.\S. L.-Served Overseas. Particulars not 
I.-Served Over::.eas. Xo 
particulars ayailable. 
I.-O\-erseas. No particulars 
GODFREY, CAPT. ALEX. T.-Enlisted 2.2-10-16. Demob- 
ilized -1--6-18. Sen"ed in Canada and England. 
GOUTHRO, C.-\PT. H. P.-Enlisted 26-11-16. Demobilized 
12-1-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Go\\r, l\L'\]OR F. A. R.-Enlisted 1-1--10-14. Demobilized 
15-5- 20 . Served in Canada, England and France. 1914-IS Star. 
GRANT, CAPT GERALD \V.-Enlisted 7-1I-16. Demobilized 
15-7- 1 9. Served in Canada, England and France. Awarded 
for gallantry in action, and the 1915 Star. 
seas. No particulars available. 
HAYES, LIEUT.-COL. JOSEPH, D.S.O.-Enlisted 24-9- I S. 
Demobilized 16-S-19. Served in Canada, England and France. Served 
in France with 85th Canadian Infantry Battalion, 4th Divisional 
Train, No. 10 British General Hospital. Facture Detention Hospital. 
S.1LO. Central Group C.F.C.. O.C. No. 2 Canadian Stationary 
Hospital. \Yas twice mentioned in dispatches and awarded D.S.O. 
HART, CAPT. ED\VARD C.-Served Overseas. No particu- 
lars available. 

21 5 


IlEAL, JAMES G. F.-Served Overseas. Particulars not 
I.-Enlisted 1-3-16. De- 
mobilized 6-8- 19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
HENDERSON, CAPT. CHARLES S.-Enlisted 18-4- 1 8. 
Demobilized 12-1-20. Served in Canada 18-4-18 to 7-12-18 and 
1-9- 1 9 to 12-1-20, and in England 7-12-18 to 21-8- 1 9. 
HINES, CAPT. ARTHUR-Enlisted 31-5-16. Demobilized 
3 1 - 8 - 1 9. Served in Canada, England and two years in France. 
\Vas awarded M.C. for gallantry in Battle of Amiens, August 8th, 
19 1 8. 
lOST, l\1A]OR ARTHUR C.-Enlisted 6-3-16. Demobilized 
1-8- 1 9. Served in Canada and England. On demobilization held 
the temporary rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
l.-Highfield House, Bury, 
England. Served Overseas. No particulars available. 
JOHNSON, CAPT. ]Al\lES :\IAcGREGOR, Highfield House, 
Bury, England. Served Overseas. No particulars available. 
JOHNSON, STEPHEN R.-Served Overseas. Particulars 
not available. 
KEA Y, CAPT. THOMAS-Enlisted 24-1-17. Demobilized 
Il-7- 1 9. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Enlisted 7-16-1S. De- 
mobilized 12-6-19. Transferred from C.A.l\f.C. to R.A.M.C., July, 
19 1 5. Served in Canada, England, l\Ialta (in St. Andrew's Hos- 
pital), Fort l\Ianuel, France, April, 1916, with 77th Field Ambu- 
lance, No. 16 General Hospital, Sth Field Ambulance, 3rd Cavalry 
Field Ambulance, No. 2 Stationary Hospital, No. 223 Brigade. 
R.F.A., No. 7 Stationary Hospital, Boulogne, etc. 
KENNEDY, CAPT. \\TILLIA:\f F.-Enlisted 18-8-18. De- 
mobilized 1-3-20. Served in Canada. England and France in 
various arms of the Service. 
KENNY, CAPT. \"1. F.-Enlisted 28-6-IS. Demobilized 
28-2-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 
S. C!\PT. ]A
rES N,-Served Overseas. No particu- 
lars available. 
\.-Enlisted August, 19 18 . 
Demobilized S-3- If). Served in Canada. England and France. 


:YlcAULA Y, 
ll"]{lJUCl,- \.-Enlisted August, 19 1 5. 
Demobilized on disbanding of C.E.F., but continued in sen'ice of 
\I.C. as O.C. Cogswell Street 
rilitary Hospital, Halifax. Also 
served in England and France. 
I. P.-Served 31 months in the 
R..A.M.C. \Yas on sen-ice in England 6-9-15. Demobilized in 
Canada 4-5-20. Africa 1l)lb. Chief Surgeon on _ \mbulance Ship 
in the :Mediterranean. 
1.C.- Served O\"erseas and was 
a warded the 11.C. for gallant sen-ices. 
 0 particulars available. 

L-\J()R J. R( )

I.O. (
erman Prisoners of \Var 
Camp at Amherst, ::.\Iarch. 19 1 '=;, Joined R.A.
I.C. July, 1915, and 
proceeded to England, Joined X o. 2 British Ceneral Hospital. 
France, in September, lIP'=;. Posted to No. 37 C.C.S. in November, 
19 1 5. Sent to Italian Front \vith 
o. 37 C.C.S. in November. 
19 1 7. Transferred as Surgical Specialist to No. 9 C.C.S., 
January, 1918. In charge _\d\'anced Operating Centre, Asiago 
Plateau. On returning to England assigned to duty with 
Shepherd's Bush Orthopædic Hospital, London. On returning to 
Canada was appointed Orthopædic Specialist to D.S.C.R. for Nova 
Scotia and Prince Edward Island. which position he resigned to 
resume private practice. 

19 1 4. Demobilized II-II-I9. Served in Canada, also England, 
5- 10 - 1 4 to 1-1-15; France I-I-IS to 1-8-15; Gallipoli 5-12-15 to 
5- 2 - 1 6; Egypt ,
-2-16 to 6-2-17; .Macedonia 15-4-17 to 17-10-li. 
11entioned in Sir Ian Hamilton's dispatches, NO\-ember, 1915. On 
return to Canada was O.C. Camp Hill Hospital. Halifax, and later 
D.A.D..M.S., M.D. No.6. 
I.-Enlisted 11-10-15. Demob- 
ilized 28-8-19. Served in Canada. England and France. 

[UIR, CAPT. "-ALTER H.-Enlisted 16-11-15. Demobilized 
13- 12- 19. Served in Canada. England and France. Joined Staff 
of NO.7 Canadian General Ho:,pital in France at Etaples 7-8- Ii". 
Sent to forward areas 28-8- I i for duty with X o. 5 Canadian Field 
r.0. 6th Brigade Canadian Field .\rtillery Lt.--t-- I 8. 
"-as in all the activities of 2nd Division from Passchendaele to the 

21 7 

-1 SCOTI.l"S P

lCXR( >, C\PT. J< )HX _-\.--Enlisted [5-2-1h. Demobilized 
31-3-19' Sen-ed in Canada, England and France. 

lURR_-\Y, C_\PT. D.\
.-Enlisted 26-2-17. Demobilized 
1 -8- 19. 8en-ecl in Canacla. England and France. 
Enlisted 4-II-16. DemobIlized 
13-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
:\IcCURDY, CAPT. DEXTER S.-Enlisted 23-12-16. De- 
mobilized, 12-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
l\I.AcDO)L \LD, LIEUT.-COL. T. HO\V ARD-Enlisted 1914. 
Served in England and France. He was appointed O.C. of the lll- 
fated Hospital Ship Llalldo'l'ery Castle J on her last voyage, on which 
he was drowned 

IACDOX_\LD, CAPT. N.\THANIEL-Enlisted October, 
1915. Demobilized 28-12-18. Served in Canada. England and 
France. \Yas mentioned in 
ir Douglas Haig's dispatches. 
l\IAcDON ALD, CAPT. JOHN CLYDE-Served O\Terseas. 
)J 0 particulars available. 
l\IACDONALD, l\IAJOR P. \V. S.-Enlisted early in 1915. 
Served in Canada, England and France. \Vas on D.
r.S. Staff. 
T .ondon. Died of influenza in England. 

25-9-16. Demobilized 4-6-19. Served in England on Surgical 
Staff, Kitchener l\lilitary Hospital. \Vent to France 10-10-17 and 
joined Ko. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital as Second in Command. 
Surgical Specialist Staff of No. 3 Canadian C.C,S., 4-1-18 to 
14-8-i8. On Surgical Teams No. 19 and No. 38, British C.C.S., 
and No. 32 British Stationary Hospital. 
r as in retreat of 5th 
Army and escaped with small surgical outfit. 
ALD, CAPT. \YILFRED l\I.-Enlisted February, 
1917. Continued in C.A.
I.C. after dispersal of C.E.F. Served 
in Canada, England and France. 

TOSH, CAPT. ARTHUR E.-Enlisted 30-6-15. De- 
mobilized 15-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Served in France with No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

 ST. C.-Enlisted 25-11-15. Demob- 
ilized 13-6-19. Served in Canada. England and France. 
lVIcK;\ Y, CAPT. l\IURDOCK-Enlisted 4-1-17. Demobilized 
T 2-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 


IOUR G.-Enlisted 12-11-17. 
Demobilized 28-8-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

, C
\PT. H"CGH A.-Enlisted 3-5-16. Demob- 
ilized 15-7-19. Sen-ed in Canada, England and France. 
l\IcLARREX, CAPT. PHILIP D.-Enlisted 30-5-17. De- 
mobilized 12-1-20. Sen'ed in Canada, England and France. 

IAcLEAN, CAPT. E. D.-Enlisted 14-2-18. Demobilized 
21-2-19. Sen'ed in Canada, England and France. \Vent to Eng- 
laud with the Highland Drigade. On going to France was attached 
to No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 
OX-Enlisted 25-5-17. De- 
mobilized 31-5-19. Served in Canada, England and France. On 
returning to Canada was appointed O.C. Ross 
Ioxhal11 Hospital, 
L \
\pril, 1914. De- 
mobilized 15-7-19. Served in England 18-11-18 to 4-5-19; France 
19- 6 - 19 to 3 0 - 6 - I 9, 
 R.-Overseas. X 0 particulars 
:\L\cRITCHIE, C_\PT. JeHT:'\" J A
IES-O\"erseas, No par- 
ticulars available. 
PARKS, CAPT. JOHN E.--Enlisted 20-7-15. Demobilized 
15-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
PARKER, CAPT. VERXON H. T.-Enlisted 31-3-17. De- 
mobilized 26-8-19. Served in CanarIa, England and France. 
PA TTON, CAPT. \\'ELDO:\'" "'.-Overseas. No particulars 
GTON, CAPT. JOHN \\T.-Overseas. No particu- 
lars available. 
POTTER, COL. JACOB L.-Canadian Permanent Army 

redical Corps. At outbreak of \Yar was A.D.l\I.S., Military 
District No.3. Called .to office of D.G.
I.S., Ottawa. Became 
acting D.G.l\I.S, and afterwards Deputy D.G.
LS. \Vent to 
Siberia with the Canadian Stationary Hospital. 
PORTER, CAPT. SYDXEY E.-Enlisted 30-7-17. Demob- 
ilized 31-5-19. Served in Canada and England. 
PATRICK, CAPT. IVAN YOUNG-Enlisted 19-4-18. De- 
mobilized 21-7-19. Served in Canada and England. 
21 9 


PEAl'\.E, CAPT. EDGAR P.-Enlisted 3-7-17. Demobilized 
31-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
I A.-Enlisted 16-7-14. Demob- 
ilized 1-7-17. Served in Canada, England and France. 
.ELTOK H.-Enlisted 15-9-17. Demob- 
ilized 25-I1-9. Served in Canada, England and France. 
SLAYTER, l\1A]OR JOHN HOWARD-Enlisted 8-6-16. 
Demobilized 21-11-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
- -\ warded J\iLB.E. 
SPARROW, CAPT. ÇECIL J.-Enlisted 6-9-15. Demobilized 
-7-18. Served in Canada, France and the Balkans. 
SPONAGLE, LIEUT.-COL. J. A.-Enlisted 20-11-14 as M.O. 
25th Infantry Battalion, which proceeded Overseas 20-5-15. \-Vas 

\d.O. 1st Canadian Divisional Train in France. Went through 
Battles of Lens and Passchendaele with this Unit. In England 
held numerous important appointments-among them: Pensions and 
Claims Board; a.c. of C.A.l\1.C. Training Depot; Duchess Con- 
naught Canadian Red Cross Hospital; O.C. Canadian Hospital, 
Hillingdon House, Uxbridge. Had twenty-seven years' previous 
experience in the Canadian l\1ilitia. Received Colonial Auxiliary 
Forces Officers' Decoration for long service. Was demobilized 
February 16, 1920. 
 G.-Enlisted 1-6-17. De- 
mobilized 9-6-19. Served in Canada and England. 
SUTHERLAND, l\L\JOR ROBERT H.-Enlisted 5- 8 - 1 4. 
Demobilized 21-7-19. Served in Canada, England, Egypt and 
Salonika with No. 1 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 
TRITES, CAPT. CHARLES B.-Enlisted 18-4-16. Demob- 
ilized 5-5-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
YVHITl\1AN, CAPT. GEO. \V.-Overseas service. No par- 
t iculars available. 
\VILSON, CAPT. \R1'HUR A. C.-Served in Canada and 
vVISWELL, CAPT. GORDON B.-Enlisted October, 19 1 5. 
Demobilized 6-2- 19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
\-Vas awarded l\i.C. for gallant service in action and was mentioned 
in dispatches. 



\VYLDE, CAPT. CHARLES F.-Served Overseas. No par- 
ticula rs available. 
ZWICKER, CAPT. \Y. D.-Enlisted 24-1-17. Demobilized 
12-1-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 


Capts. W. B. Almon, Hugh O. Blauvelt, \Villiam J. Barton. 
Thomas 1. Byrne, Barry H. Calkin, Allister Calder, Michael J. 
Carney, Prof. John Cameron, George :\1. Campbell, John L. 
Churchill, lVlajor James R. Corston, Capts. Allan R. Cunningham. 
John A. Davis, Lieut. David Drury, Capts. Charles S. Elliott, Guy S. 
Goodwin, John \Y. Gannon, \V. H. Hattie, B. A. LeBlanc, Roy D. 
Lindsay, Vernon L. :\Iiller, :l\1ajor Ernest F. 1\1iller, Capt. Angus 
:M. 1\10rton, 1\1ajor Leander R. l\Iorse, Capt. John A. 1\1urdoch. 
I\1ajor Donald 1\IcDonald, Capt. Dan. F. 1\1c1nnis, Lieut. Joseph 
\V. .McKay, Capts. Donald J. 
lacKenzie, John 1\1. 1IcLean, I\1ajors 
Geo. J. McNally, A. G. Nichols, Lieut.-Cot. Albert A. Schaffner, 
Capt. W. H. Schwartz, Lieut. Sieniewicz, l\:1ajor Dugald Stewart, 
Lieut. Clarence VV. Thorne, Capt. Solomon J. Turel. 1\T a jor Philip 
\Veatherbe, IVlajor H, B. \Vebster. 


In connection with the 
 ova Scotia Hospital Units reference 
has been made to only a few Nova Scotia nurses. No account of 
the humanitarian service of the medical organization in the Great 
War should fail to give prominence to the noble work of the 
nursing sisters. \Yhat they have done to lighten the weary hours 
of the wounded, war-sick and homesick soldier has been stamped 
indelibly on hundreds of thous.ands of hearts throughout the world. 
Every effort has been made to get a complete list of all the 
Nova Scotia nurses who served in the Great \Yar and where they 
served. The nearest approach to it is an official list of nurses who 
either enlisted or \vere demobilized in Nova Scotia at the head- 
quarters of No. 6 Military District. This has been supplement( J 
by submitting the list, for revision. to some thirty active seryice 
nUrses and also a number of l\Iedical Officers, Even now there 
will undoubtedly be some omissions and errors. 



Ellgland, France and Salonika, 
Clarke, Catherine Parker. :\lacIntosh, Mary Catherine. 
J argard. 
lcKay, Alice Lettie. 
.McKenzie, Elizabeth 

England and Salonika. 
Brennan, Emily Lorraine. 
land, Fraure and Russia. 
Cotton, Dorothy 
I., RRC. 

England and France. 
Archard, Sarah Ann, A.RRC. Ba}'l'rs, Gladys Fuller. 
Allan, Ann Doctor, RRC. Beers, Vivian Gertrude. 
Arbuckle, 1\1. B. Cameron, Josephine Christine. 
Benvie, Ada, Connell, ?\lonica. 
13 lack, Amy Isabel. Cooke. Elizabeth Ann; mentioned in 

N ova Scotia was as prominent in the 1\ ursing as in the 
Service, and is said to have contributed during the \Var more 
l\Iatrons in France than any other individual Province in the 
Dominion. It gave the 
Iatron-in-,Chief of the Canadian Forces, 
Iargaret C. 
IacDonald, R.R.C., l\I.
I. des I (French Army). 
l\Iiss l\IacDonald had previously 
een active service in the Spanish- 
American \Var and the South African \Yar. 
The other Xova Scotia nurses who were 
latrons in France 
during the war were: 
Iiss Georgina Pupe. R.R.C. (Senior :i\Iatron 
in Canada), who went \\'ith the Canadian Contingent to the South 
African \\'ar as 1\1 atron; I\Iiss Harriett Graham, R.R.C.; l\Iiss 
L. ^L Hubley, R,R.C.; l\liss K. C.II\IacLatchy, R.R.C.; 
liss S. C. 
l\1acIsaac, R.R.C.: 
\1iss Elizabeth D. Ross. R.R.C.; 
Iiss A. C. 
Strong, R.R.C. 
Calder, Jennie Squair, A.RR.C. Doyle, Elizabeth C. (Mrs.) 
Cameron, Annie .?\Iay, Drew, Margaret Currie. 
Campbell, Laura Emily. Duthie, Edna Craig, 
Chisholm, Christena Elizabeth; men- Edgecombe, Lillian Grace. 
tioned in dispatches. Ellis, Helena Margaret. 
Chisholm. Sarah Catherine. Etherington. Ethel B. 
Churchill, Sarah. Fitzgerald. Lillian l\fary. 
Davidson, Jessie Ann. Follette, Minnie (drowned Llalld- 
Dawson. Isabel Helen, overy Castle). 
Dempsey, '!\Iary Catharine. Fraser, Annie Margaret. 

-/T IV rlR 

Frastr, Edith :\Iorrow. 
Fraser, Pearl (drowncd 
Genders, Sarah Elizabeth, 
Gillan, Ina Gertrude. 
Gordon, Eleanor :\IcLaren, A.RR.C. 
Graham. Harriet :\I. (:\1atron), 
Gray, Dorothy Louise, R.RC. 
Gray, lIarguerite Olive. 
Guild, Ef-fie Jean. 
Gunn, lIary Catharine. 
Haliburton, :\Iarion Frances. 
Hazard, l\Iary Elizabeth. 
Howard, Alice Maud. 
Hubley, Laura .:\Iay (l\1atron), RRC 
Irwin, Eliza Blanche. 
Johnstone, Alice .:\Iay; mentioned 
Johnstone. .:\1argaret A., RRC. 
IÙlly, F. 
I., RRC. 
Kendall. Helen :\lan". 
King-, Hazel :\Iary. - 
Lamplaugh, l\Iary Edith, RRC. 
Landells. :\Iargaret Jane. 
Lynch, Mary Theresa; Belgian 
:\IacAulav. Lorinda. 
MacDonãld, Annie; mentioned in dis- 
MacDonald. .-\nnie Belle; French de- 

IacDonald. . \nnie Helen. 
!\TacDonald, Catherine Chisholm, 
!\T a('Donald, Catherine Tulloch. 
::\IacDonalci. Helen Catherine. 
MacDonald, Hilda Havergill. 
::\IacDonald, Janet :\lacGregor, RRC. 
::\TacDopald, Jessie Belle. 
1\lacDonald, Jessie Helen. 
!\TacDonald, Louise, A.RRC 
1\lacDonalrl, Margaret, A.RRC. 
1\lacDonald. l\Iargaret Clothilda (PI' 
Matron, C.E.F.), RR.C. (Florencc 
:\ì ig-htingale decoration). 
1\lacDonald, ::\fary \Iargaret. 

TacDonald. Mary Simpson. 
Iinnie Frances, 
MacDougall, Annie Claire. 
\1"cCuish. Elizabeth Margaret. 
McDonald. Catharine Eileen, 
\1" cDonald, Nellie Elizabeth, 
'TcDoug-ald. Flora. 
!\f cDougald, 
f argaret : 
McGrath. ::\Jary. 

:\lcInnis, Florence Louise. 
Llalldo'i:ery :\1cIsaac. Sarah Catherine (lIatron). 
ay. Helen Barbara, .\.RR.C. 
:\lcKeel, Theadora, RRC 
:\1 cKenzic, Charlotte. 
:\lcKenzie, Christina :\Ian", 
:\lcKenzie, Dora. - 
McKenzie, l\Iargaret Eliza. 
l\IcKenzie, l\Iinnie Hannah. 
:\lcI(innon, Euphemia. 
:\1cLatchey, Katherine O. pIatron), 
:\1 cLean, Cathe rine. 
:\1 cLean, Elizabeth IsobeI. 
:\1cLean, :\1arguerite. 
:\1cLean, .:\1ary Rachael. 
in :\IcLeod, .-\nnie Tremaine, 
:\1 cLeod. \\ïnifred G, 
McLeod, Isabella Gordon. 
.:\lcLeod, :\1 argaret Christena. 
:\lcXeill, llan' Belle. 
:\Ioreshead, EÏcanor Gorrill. 
:\j osher, Eva II aud, 
:\1 uIcahy, Grace. 
de- :\1 utch, FlorL'nce Sarah. 
:\Iyers, Olga, 
Xicholson, Elsie Sarah. 
O'Brien, :\1 arcella Agnes. 
Paget, Catherine \Vhite. 
Paton, Florcnce 1\1 ay. 
Patton, :\1an' Steele. 
Pidgeon, L.: RRC.; mcntioned m 
Pope, Georg;na. (:\Tatron). RRC. 
Rice, Frances .-\ugusta, -\.RRC. 
Richardson. Edith Louise. 
Rose, Lenora E. 
Ross. Elizabeth Belle Dlatron), 
Schurman, \V i n i f red Dobson: 
French decoration. 
Shannahan, l1ary Catherine. 
Shea. C. R 
Smith, Sarah Catharine. 
Stevens, Louise :\lyrtIe. 
Strong, A. C. (Matron), RRC'. 

tuart. Evelyn lTary. 
Tait, :\lary. 
Thomas, Lalia E. 
Thompson, \\ïlhelmine Irene. 
Thompson, Edith Alexandra. 
Urquhart, Lottie. 
French dec- Veits. Caroline \Vinifred, 
Walsn, M. S, 
\Valters, Emma Jane. 


\V at son, Mabel Margaret. 
\Vatson, Maud. 
\ Vaugh, Belle. 
\Vaughan, Belle. 
\ Vhite, Catherine M. 

Anderson, Minerva Blanche. 
Baill, :\largaret Winnifred. 
Barnes, Ellen Caroline. 
Bentley, Olla l\Iay'. 
Clarke, Edith Esther. 
Campbell, Annie l\Iay, 
Campbell, D. 
Coates, Dora Enlyn, 
Cameron, Elizabeth Vena. 
Cameron, Mary Lillian. 
Cameron. Sarah Belle. 
Colter, Bessie Long. 
Connors, Florence IvIarguerite. 
Cra.r, Bertha Geraldine. 
Currie, Alice 1\Iargaret. 
Desmond, l\Iary, . 
Davies, ::\Iargaret Emily. 
DeWolfe. Annie Clark. 
Dunlop. Laura Alice. 
Ellis, 1\1 a rion Dl'an. 
Fife, Lillian Jessie, 
Fraser, Lavinia Flora. 
Fraser, Flora :\1athilda. 
Harrison. Eunice Knapp. 
Hallisey, Catherine Martina. 
Hillcoat, Anna Rebecca. 
Hubler, Jennie Mable, 
I fartling, Mabel. 
Ho\\ard. Mary Munroe. 
Jennex, Lenna (died). 

Anderson. Roberta. 
Andrews, Edith. 
Barnaby, Agnes Gertrude. 
Bearisto. 1\1ary Kier. 
Bissett, Barbara Beatrice. 
Boland, Florence. 
Bauld, Muriel. 
Burton, l\'T ary Elizabeth. 
Campbell, Jean Marion. 
Cook, Gertrude Pauline. 
Cool en, Anasthasia Muriel 
Coolen, Mary Ellen. 
Davies, Edith l\Iaria. 
Doull, Jessie Cameron. 
Dunbar. Lillian Campbell. 
Farry, Lucy. 

\Yhite, Helen S1. Clair. 
\Vhite, Katherine Elizabeth. 
Wïlliams, Marsie Ellen. 
Young, Anna Teresa. 
Young, Rose Olga. 

Layton, . \drianna R. 
LeDrew, Annie May. 
Mack, Beatrice Helena. 
Mombourquette, Katherine. 
Morrison, Daisy Dean. 
Mutch, Helen Frances. 
Murray, Ann Elizabeth. 
Murray, Emma Blanche, 
McCarthy, May Charlotte. 
McCuish, Harriet Mary. 
MacDonald, Jessie. 
::\1acDonald, Georgina Emily. 
MacDonald, Margaret Catherine. 
McInnes, Dorothy Jean. 
MacIntosh. Margaret Isabel. 
McLeod, Sadie Isabel. 
McLean, Sadie Ethel. 
McNeill, Margaret Blanche. 
Morrison, MyrtilIa Grey. 
1\1 orrison, Jean Augusta. 
Payne, Sarah. 
Smith, Mabel Eliza. 
Sedgewick, F. M. 
Skerry, Annie Adelaide. 
Stewart, Margaret Wood. 
Stevens, Annie Jane. 
Thompson, Ethel Elaine. 
Torr, Alice. 
Tout, Dora Olivia. 
Urquhart. Lottie. 
C allac1a. 
Fitzgerald, Edith Maria. 
Fraser, Florence Amelia. 
Fraser, Frances Margaret. 
Gates, Sarah Gladys. 
Gilchrist. Marion L. 
Gillis, Christine Anna. 
Graves, Laura May. 
Haverstock, Laura Grace. 
Hayden, Mary J osef>hine. 
Holloway, Eva. 
Hunt, Minnie Hannah. 
Hunt, Myrtle C. (died). 
Keith, Gertrude. 
Kennedy, Margaret. 
LaPierre, Mary Ann. 
Larking'. Nora Evelyn. 

-lT l('AR 

Jan-is, Jessie (died). 
LeJ eune, )'lary_ 
Lester, Olla Dell. 
Logan, Caroline. 
)'lanning, :\Iyra _\yer. 

lills. Ethel Rosamund. 

Iorrison, .\nna l\la\". 
l\IcCrea. Theresa Al;n. 
.\IacDonald. Eyangeline. 
.\iacDonald. Harriet Helen. 
.\IacDonnell. )'Iarv Elizabeth. 
)'IcInnis. Ellephaflie Carrie. 
c Kenzie, Helen Gertrude. 
)'IcKinnon. Ruth. 
.\TcLean, Josephine. 
.\lc)'Ianus. Laura. 

.\lc.\lanus, Lila Theresa. 
 eill. )'Ian" Eleanor. 
O'LearY, Catherine. 
Prest, Violet Ella. 
Ross, Yiyian Russell. 
Schattner, .\larion Parker. 
Schaffner, )'luriel Campbell. 
Steens, lna .\laud. 
Sulliyan, )'Iary )'Iargaret. 
Sutherland. Roberta. 
Talbot, Frances Elizabeth. 
Tri\'ett. Jean Dorothy. 
Crquhart. Susan Hone. 
Young. JosephIne .\1. 

JIili/al"J' Ser
'ice-No Partirulars Awilablc. 

Benjamin. Vera Louise. 
Christie. Freda Hope, 
Fraser. Elda Jean, 
Fde. Hannah G. 
Harrison, J ena Augusta. 
Hill. Eliza Victoria. 
T ""IneC;, Helen. 


largaret Xeill. 
.\fosher. Lydia T. 
:\facDonalëL .\l1na Bula. 
.\IcKenzie. Jean .-\nnie. 
.\ I cLeod. 
Pern', H. H. 
Pun::-d!. .\Iary Louise_ 

2 7- 



T HAT Dental Services are a necessity in the army is one of 
the many lessons tanght us by the \Yar and it has been amply 
proved that the Canadian Army Dental Corps was re- 
sponsible for placing at least 10 per cent of the Canadian and 
British troops at the Front who, but for the excellent dental ser- 
vices provided, would not have been there. 
.Members of the dental profession in 
N ova Scotia were among the first to 
offer their services, and in August, 19 1 4, 
three of them, Drs. B. L. Neilly, F. \V. 
Bruce Kelly and H. L. Mitchener, were 
on duty at Valcartier Camp. Drs. K eilly 
and Kelly proceeded Overseas and were 
the first dental surgeons at the Front. 
So far as can be learned these were the 
only dental surgeons with the Canadian 
troops at that date, Captain Bentley of 
Ontario reporting early in September. 
For eight years previous to the "-ar 
a Committee of the Canadian Dental Association on "Dental 
Sen-ices in the Army" repeatedly approached the Federal Govern- 
ment \vith regard to a definite Army Dental Association to be 
administered by the l\Iedical Services or otherwise, but were finally 
informed that the organization then existing, which consisted of 
twenty-six Dental Officers attached to the Army 
1edicaI Corps as 
Honorary Captains and Lieutenants, was quite saisfactory. 
On the outbreak of the vVar members of the profession through- 
out Canada, realizing the necessity of dental services for recruits, 
voluntarily provided dental treatment for thousands of men who, 
otherwise. could not have ,been accepted. 



The attention of the 1Iinister of 1Iilitia, Sir Sam Hughes, was 
directed to the importance and value of this work by Generals 
Fotheringham, Lessard, Loggie and others as \yell as by a sub- 
committee of civilian dentists from Toronto, who proceeded to 
Ottawa early in 1915 under the direction of Dr. George Kerr 
Thomson of Halifax, Chairman of the Canadian Dental A.ssocia- 
tion's Committee on "Dental Services in the Army;' \\"ith the 
result that the 1Iinister immediately issued orders for a Dental 
organization, similar to that of the ::\Iedical, but entirely separate. 
To this action by the .Minister is due the fact that Canada was 
the first country in the world to organize an Army Dental Corps 
separate and distinct from other military organizations. Dr. 
TholUson was first recolUmended by the Toronto Committee and 
the dental profession for Director of Dental Sen"ices, but Dr. 
Armstrong of Ottawa received the appointment, and in ] l1ne, 1915, 
proceeded Overseas with thirty-five officers, thirty-five N.C.O.'s 
ami thirty-five privates. This organization was increased from 
time to time until there were oyer one thousand Dental Officers and 
other ranks on duty O\"erseas. 
It was realized that while it was necessary to provide dental 
services for men Overseas, it was even more important that they 
be made dentally fit before sailing; and in October, 1915, the Home 
Service organization was authorized with a Director at Ottawa 
and an Assistant Director in each 11ilitary District together with 
a strength of one officer, X.C.O. and private for each 1,000 men. 
This necessitated an organization of at least sixty of all ranks in 
::\Iilitary District No.6, which at that time included New Brunswick. 
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. 
::\Iembers of the dental profession in the three provinces re- 

ponded notably to the call of duty, and, while it does not come 
within the scope of this history to mention the services of men in 
other provinces, it is desirable to put on record great appreciation 
of the excellent services rendered by members of the dental pro- 
fession in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island who were 
on duty in 1Iilitary District No.6. One of the most prominent 
practitioners in St. John, N.B., Dr. James 
I. ::\Iagee, ex-President 
of the Canadian Dental Association and Dominion Dental Council 

.... - 

, -. 


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and a member of the 
 ova Scotia Dental Association, who, before 
the \Yar, was attached as Honorary Captain to the Army 
Corps, was one of the first to join the Home Service organization 
Iilitary District No.6. 

Iajor Thomson was appointed A.D.D.S., l\Iilitary District No. 
6, on November 1st, 1915. During his absence at Valcartier Camp 
in the summer of 1916, Captain NIagee acted as A.D.D.S. in 

Iilitary District No. 6 and later was appointed A.D.D.S. of 
::\Iilitary District 
 0.. 7 when 
 ew Brunswick became a separate 
::\Iilitary District. 
The C.A.D.C. in 
Iilitary District No.6 was administered on 
a most economical and business-like basis, and at the Camp Hill 
_-\rmy Dental Surgery, one of the finest and best equipped in the 
world, many thousands of men were made dentally fit, not only 
before going Overseas, but also on their return to Canada. when 
a great many of them needed extensive restorati\Te dental appli- 
For several weeks after the great explosion, which occurred 
on December 6. 1917, the Staff of the Camp Hill Dental Surgery 
rendered services and co-operated with the medical officers, part 
oi the dental surgery being used as an operating room for the 
eye specialists. Some of the dental officers on duty were 
severely but not seriously injured, and the first thirty- 
six hours after the explosion rendered valuable first aid to the 
injured. with whom Camp Hill was overcrowded. 
In 1916, at _\ldershot Camp, two appendicitis operations were 

uccessfully performed in the Camp Dental Surgery, which was 
completed long before the Camp Hospital. These cases would 
probably have proved fatal had it not been for the foresight of 
the dental Staff in expediting the con:,truction of this dental 
Through the efforts of Dean Frank \Yoodbury arrangements 
were carried out by the Dental Faculty of Dalhousie University 
for rendering dental "ervices to the men of the navy before the 
,york was performed by the Dental Corps. 



The following is a list of dental officers who served Over- 
seas and at home: 
lajor G. K. Thomson, :l\1ajor H. E. 1\1 ann, Capts. 
H. L. :\Iitchener, H. G. Dunbar, \V. \V. vVoodbury, G. Tingley, 
J. 1\1. l\Iagee, A. G. \\ïcks, J. E. Sewell, J. B. Brown, J. E. 
Blanchard, F. C. Bonnell, I. K. Farrar, F. A. Godsoe, F. E. Burden, 
\Y. H. Steeves, L. O'Leary (Q.1\L), J. E. Jewett, A. Gasson, R. I. 
Robertson, F. \V. Johnson, II. S. Allen, G. R. Smith, F. T. 
Bowness, Y. E. Gaudet, 1\lcIntyre, F. G. 1\Iann, F. \V. Barbour, 
R. I. Irving, Lieuts. A. J. Cormier, H. 
\damson, Guy Stultz, L. 
Finigan, A. K. \Yade, A. J. Couglin, F. \V. LeFugery, A. B. Crowe. 
H. C. l\IcIntosh, Regtl. Sergt.-1\Iajors, F. E. Fahie, I. K. Jackson. 
F. B. l\liller, Quartermaster Sergts. J. 1\1. Blanchard, Laurie 
Blanchard, L. II. Jenkins, G. Sommers, Staff Sergts. A. H, 
Churchill, ]. H. :i\IcLaughlin. E. S. Dexter, Sergts. A. \Y. Allen. 
L. 1\1. \Vithrow, C. \Y. Burgoyne, Staff Sergts. E. E. Hatfield, 
Neil Flannery, F. H. Phinney, Sergts. J. L. Sears, R. II. \\ïlby. 
Cox. C. R. l\IcLellan, R. C. \Yall, J. St. C. Smith, C. E. Cantelope, 
1'. Ranford, \Y. Hazelwood, Percy Rennels, \V. R. Gunn, 
Quartermaster Sergt. L. 1\IcGuire, Company Quartermaster Sergt. 
\V. H. D. Bence. 
OVERSEAs,-Lient.-Col. D. L. Neilly, :\Iajor F. \V. B. Kelly, 
:Major C. E. 1\IcLaug o hlin, Capts. R. J. 1\Ic1\Ieekin, Karl \Yood- 
bury, C. D. Desbrisay, S. S. Harvie, E. A. Randall, H. Clay, 
E. S. 1\Iillett, H. O. Harding. Arthur Yiets, 
r. E. Robins, R. \\T. 
Frank, \V. R. Fraser, Karl Damon, Otto Kase, J. P. Gallagher. 
J. 1\1cDonald, 1\Ic:\ eil. \Y. R. \Yilkes, R. C. Crosby, E. A. Randall. 
K. C. Dobson, H. C. 
IcDonald, Staff Sergts. J. E. Fraser, 
C. Garrett, R. D. Horton, Sergts. S. \Y. Hatfield, C. A. S. Carlow, 
II. O. Lord, F. A. 
IcGarrigle, G. Lowine, Phillips, G. A. Barter. 
\Y. Dyer, Raymond King, \V. Joy, J. 
IcLean, McGibbon, J. L. 
Rogers, 1. D. S. Ross, G. E. l\IcDonald, H. E. Grey, V. D. Crowe, 
Collier. Jones, Butterworth, Doucette, Quartermaster Sergt. 

23 0 


--1DI_--1X ARJIY P

B EFORE the outbreak of the \Yar in 19 1 4- the Canadian Army 
Pay Corps had only sufficient Staff to deal with the small 
permanent force. of which it was an integral part. \Yhcn 
the Canadian Expeditionary Force \Vas organized, and troop:-, 
mobilized for home defence. the C.A.P.C. \ya.3 called upon to 
undergo the same strain and expansion demanded of every branch 
of the service. Outside of the army little is known of the respon- 
sibilities suddenly thrust upon this department. It had to deal with 
all finances, pay, separation allowance, assigned pay, civilian em- 
ployees, tradesmen's accounts, etc., and, as will be seen by the 
statement at the end of this article, No.6 Detachment stationed at 
Halifax alone disbursed $53.357,388.08 between August, 19q.. and 
July, 19 20 . 
In August, 19q., No.6 Detachment, whose territory at that time 
included K e\\" Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, as well as 
X ova Scotia, consisted of the following officers and non-com- 
missioned officers: Lieut.-Cot. S. J. R. Sircom (now retired with 
rank of Brigadier-General), Capt. J. L. Regan, Sergt.-!\Iajor J, 
Turner, Quartermaster Sergt. G. H. Saunders, Staff Sergt. G. T. 
Allum, Staff Sergt. C. A. Chew, Staff Sergt. B. A. Spink, Sergt. 
E. R. Kelly, Sergt. A. V. Chase, Sergt. \Y. A. Coyne, Sergt. F. A. 
This Staff was increased until at one time 14 officers and 120 
non-commissioned officers and men were employed. Some of these 
served in K o. 6 Detachment throughout the whole period of the 
\\'ar. Others were transferred to various Units, went Overseas, or 
took their discharge. 

23 1 


Every soldier, from a Tommy to a full-fledged General, will 
admit that as far as organization and administration were concerned 
the Canadian Army Pay Corps was beyond criticism. 
\s soon as 
a man enlisted he received his pay regularly, no matter where he 
was-in Canada or in England, in the Field, in hospital or on fur- 
lough; and when he returned to Canada for demobilization the 
cheque for balance of pay due was handed to him on the day he 
was discharged. In addition to this monies were forwarded to his 
dependants on account of Separation Allowance, and assigned pay, 
settlement made for clothing and equipment, which he purchased 
from stores on repayment, for Victory Bonds which he purchased 
during his services, remittances to his friends and other payments. 
All this entailed an enormous amount of work. Ledger sheets 
had to be kept up to date, pay books checked up, remittances looked 
after, cheques written, documents made up and sent along with the 
soldier from one place to another until he finally returned to 
Canada, bearing with him like documents from England. Every 
officer, non-commissioned officer and man knows the amount of 
detail work which this involved. 
Of the original Staff. Co!. S. J. R. 
Sircol11, affectionately known to the 
troops in this district as the ., Grand Old 

Ian," endeared himself to all ranks 
with whom he came in contact by his 
m-banity and kindly consideration. Col- 
onel 8ircom commenced his military 
career early in life. lIe joined the Hali- 
fax Garrison Artillery as a 2nd Lieu- 
tenant in 1878, and the 63rd Regiment. 
Hali fax Rifles, in 1885. lIe transferred 
to the l\Iilitia Staff with the rank of 

Iajor in 1905, and on January I, 1907. 
was appointed to the C.A.P.C. with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and became Paymaster of the 6th Divisional area. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of Colonel on 
Iay 24, 1916. He proceeded to 
London as a representative of the Paymaster-General the latter 
part of 1918, and on his return from Overseas was retired to 
Pension with the rank of Brigadier-General. 
23 2 




CAX.-1DIAX rlRJI}" P.-l}' CORPS 

Capt. J. L. Regan proceeded Overseas \\"ith the First Contingent 
as assistant to Col. \V. R. \\Oard, then Chief Paymaster Canadian 
Expeditionary Force. Captain Regan was largely responsible for 
the organization of the Canadian Pay Services in France and Eng- 
land. He was later promoted to the rank of Colonel and appointed 
Deputy Paymaster-General. He \vas awarded the c.:\I.G., and on 
his return to Canada became Director of 
Pay Services at Otta\\'a. 
Quartermaster Sergt. J. Turner 
transferred to the Highland Brigade as 
Captain and Quartermaster. He was 
seriously injured in the Halifax ex- 
plosion and is now invalided to Pension. 
Staff Sergeant G. T. .\llum, now 
Iajor. is retired to Pension. 
Quartermaster Sergeant G. H. Saunders 
was promoted to the rank of Captain. 
Captain Saunders remained with Xo. 6 
Detachment during the whole period of 
the \Yar, and the admirable manner in which this Gnit met all 
demands upon it, particularly during the trying months of demob- 
ilization, was largely due to his energy, efficiency and foresight. 
Staff Sergts. C. A. Chew and B. A. Spink proceeded Overseas 
and both returned with the rank of Captain. The former was dis- 
charged to Pension; the latter is employed at l\Iilitia Headquarters. 
Staff Sergt. A. V. Chase went Overseas with the Clearing Services 
Command and returned with the rank of Captain. He will be 
remembered by all returning officers and men who pa

ed through 
or had dealings with the Clearing Depot, Halifax, as a very efficient 
officer. Sergt. \Y. A.. Coyne proceeded Overseas as Captain Clear- 
ing Services Command and is now struck off strength. Sergt. F. A. 
Chew proceeded Overseas with the 25th Battalion, returned as a 
Captain in the C.A.P.C.. and is now struck off strength to Pension. 
Capt. G. C. Sircom, son of Brigadier-General S. J. R. Sircom. 
after return from Overseas, was employed in the Pay Office, and 
now has a commission in the Permanent -\rmy Pay Corps. 






Lieut.-Col. J. A. C. 
Iowbray, \"hen war was declared, offered 
his ser\"Ìces and was detailed as Paymaster to the 2nd Brigade, 
C.F.A., proceeding Uverseas with that Unit. After serving in 
France for about one year he was recalled to London to fill 
a post in the Pay Office Headquarters. He became Deputy Assistant 
Paymaster-General, was awarded the O.D.E., and later \vas trans- 
ferred to Canada to fill his present posi- 
tion, which is designated as Senior Pay 
Officer for .x oya Scotia. 
The following are a few of the 
officers who did good work in this 
Division during the \Var, either before 
proceeding Overseas or returning from 
Overseas on demobilization or as Pay- 
masters of Cnits :-Major J. Taylor, 
l\Iajor 1\1. H. :
Iajor R. H. 
Humphrey, ::\lajor ]. D. l\Iurphy, lVIajor 
Colin ::\1 acIntosh, Capt. H. Powis 
O.B.E. J [erbert, Capt. G-. C. l\Iilsol11, Capt. 
\V. \V. Drig-nell, Capt. C. S. Simpson, 
Capt. R. Bartholomew, Capt. H. A. 1\IacDonald, Capt. ]. L. 

lelanson, Capt. R. H. lIardwicke, Capt. 
\. A. Cameron, Capt. Tait 
Scott, Capt. J L \V. Ireland, Capt. "'alter Ruggles, Capt. \Y. C. L. 
Bauld, Capt. R. ::\IacDougall, Lieut. J [. S. :\lajor, Lieut. \Y. E. 

lcDonald, Lieut. II. . \. Allum, Lieut. H. S. Simpson, Lieut. \ Y. J. 
To show the vast amount of work carried out by this Detach- 
ment the following statement of monthly expenditure is appended. 
This does not include disbursements for clothing and equipment, 
horses, transports, camp supplies, wagons, etc., but purely pay and 
allowance of troops and their upl
eep. Considering the amount of 
cash handled it is satisfactory to know that not one cent was lost 
to the public by misappropriation or otherwise. 



1914. 19 1 5. 1916. 19 1 7. 19 18 . 
Jan. .' . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. $482,294 94 $896,549 00 $666,896 18 $557,73 6 27 
Feb, ., . .................. .. 470,04 6 71 976,053 25 644,126 II 518,971 86 

far, . . .................. .. 662,605 50 1,153,944 98 675.447 01 7 2 6,882 97 
Supp. .. .................. .. 28 7,295 99 868,515 21 5,506 91 18,643 78 ., . .................. .. 573,994 33 926,836 I 1 747,234 9Ó 700,400 20 
May . . .................. .. 589.433 57 1,140,637 4 1 691,321 20 600,590 53 
June ... .................. .. 460,883 20 1,2 6 9,057 73 679,157 80 745,238 77 
July ., . .................. .. 4 21 ,3 62 69 9 2 8,3 1 9 og 579, 26 5 37 940,247 4 2 
."-ltg. . . $161,021 38 418,878 19 911,739 50 57 1 ,7 2 7 69 709,107 18 
Sept. ' . 3 1 4,03 1 H) 447,655 00 849,94 2 58 550,065 71 595,238 78 
Oct. .. . 307.412 29 533,3 8 3 39 819,436 00 745,190 00 614,166 48 
Xov. . , 342,922 3 2 602,738 82 752,020 66 697,784 22 610,452 05 
Dec. . " 459,147 34 867,574 05 683,957 09 535,004 98 67 I ,840 28 
Total $ I ,58.t,534 52 $6,818,146 38 $12,177,008 61 $7.7 8 8.7 28 I4 $8,009,5 16 57 
19 1 9. 19 2 0. I Summary. 
Jan. .. . $683,909 27 $657,541 08 IQI4 .............. ................. $1,584.534 52 
Feb. 872,284 08 402,801 20 IQIS .......................... ..... 6,818,146 3 8 

far. 1,176,278 3 6 347,439 80 I IQI6 ...... ......................... 12,177.008 6] 
Supp. 26,683 87 60.765 01 I 19 1 7 7,788,7 2 8 14 
.................... ..-........ 
."-pr. 1,113,7 62 9 6 q2,518 83 IQI8 .. -............................ 8,()()(),5 1 6 57 

fay 1:.208.976 54 121,399 7 6 19 1 9 ............... .............. 14.968,679 16 
June . '. 1,378,733 64 145,Q81 2.:; IQ20 .......................... ..... 2,010,774 7 0 
J ul.v .' , I ,596.3
6 84 13 2 ,3 2 7 77 
Aug. ., . 1,638,E84 02 Total expenditure to 
Sept. . .. 1,505,466 80 July, 1920 ., ..',., $53,357,388 08 
Oct. .. - 1.7 2 7,033 48 
Xov. . ., I.I 78,085 30 
Dee, ., . 862,424 00 
Total ,.$14,968,679 16 $2,010,774 70 




L ORD KITCHEXER once remarked-in reply to a question- 
.. The Front is where a soldier is ordered to be." In accord- 
ance with this. those men whose duties necessitated their 
being retained in connection with the Coast Defences, \"ere made 
to abide 'by the decision of tho
e responsible for the strategy of the 
defence of Canadian shores. 
After the \Yar, the Permanent Force, of which the R.C.Ch-\' 
form a part. are the only persons in uniform; and the imputation of 
not being an Uverseas Cnit is not a good advertisement to attract 
recruits. .:\IoreO\'er. the imputation is not only unjust, but untrue. 
as the following will show: 
In July, 19 1 4, relations between the British Empire and the 
Central Powers were very strained, and on July 30th, four days 
before the \Yar was officially declared. the R.C.G.A. were ordered 
to man the most important forts as a precaution, since it is an axiom 
in naval warfare that, if possible. a surprise attack is the first and 
best declaration of war. 
On August 5th Fortress Orders contained the following:- 
"\Yar having broken out with Germany. the Halifax Defence 
Scheme comes into force herewith." 
On the 6th _\ugust, the 1st Regiment, C.G.A.. mobilized and 
proceeded to the Forts to complete the manning. since the R.C.G.A. 
alone were too few in number completely to man more than the two 
largest forts. 
The first portion of the annual training for the year had just 
been completed, and one can truthfully say that Halifax was as 
well able to repel a raid as any other fortre5s in the Empire at that 

23 6 

THE RU r.-1L C.-1.\".-1LJ/.-1X G.-1RR/SQ'y .-1R1'/ LLERY 

It was thought by most people in the early days of the \Yar 
that the \Yar would la:,t only a few months. and the personnd of 
the Defences had to find accommoùation where they could. until 
well on into the \yinter; for coast forts in peace time are not 
provided with accommodation for lengthy occupation: consequently, 
both officers and men had a far from comfortable time until wooden 
huts were constructed. 
Xone of the .-\rtillery Cnits allotted to the Fortress were for any 
]ength of time up to full strength. 
o that barely sufficient men were 
available to form the necessary rdiefs for the guns. 
Xight and day. all through the \Yar. from July 30th, 1914
after the signing of the .\rmistice. Xovember I I, 1919, enough 
men to \york the guns had to be near them and alert, while on each 
gun \vas a 
entry. who was relieved every hour, and whose duty 
was to watch sea wards for the approach of any hostile craft. X ot 
a very arduotb task at .first sight, but enough to m
ke most men long 
to be Overseas after a few months of it. 
Fortunately the Germans were not very enterprising, anù con- 
:,idered that the presence of the Coast Defences was too great a risk 
to run, so that Halifax diù not have to go through the horrors of a 
bombardment as well as the explosion. though. had the city been 
undefended, it would, no doubt, like several English towns. have 
recei\"ed a few shells from time to time. 
Jarch, 19 J '=;, the 3rd Regiment. c.G..-\., from St. John. X.D.. 
came for training, as St. John was about to be fortified. and a 
portion of this Unit was retained to reinforce the Cnits already 
doing duty in the Forts. In .-\pri1. J91'=;. Xo. 4- Company. P.E.I., 
c.G..-\.. came for training. Snme of these men had already been 
on duty with heavy fie]d guns at Can-;o and Sydney. \Yhen trained 
they remained in Halifax. sending drafts Overseas from time to 
time. and proved themselves efficient gunners. 
In June, 19J'=;, a number of X.C.O.'s and men sailed for the 
Front. but all efforts of others to do so were in vain, though 

everal X.C.O:s and men took their fate in their Own hands and 

tO\Yed away on tran
ports con\"eying infantry. Some of these got 
as far as France, but di:,cipline had to be maintained. and all wen' 



brought back. This incident will show that the men of the R.C.G.A. 
did not remain in Halifax from choice. 
In July, 1916, authority was at last obtained for the R.C.G.A. 
to form a Siege Battery, and this was quickly done; in it were 
some of the best N.C.O.'s and men in the Corps, and the whole 
Battery were of splendid physique. This Battery left for Overseas 
in September, 1916, under the command of l\fajor S. A. Heward, 
R.C.A. It arri,,"ed in France on the 22nd l\Iarch, 1917, and took 
part in many big fights, including Vimy Ridge, Hill 70, Passchen- 
daele, Cambrai and '1\10ns. l\Ien of a Siege Battery get plenty of 
heavy \york and little chance of heroic deeds as individuals, but the 
Battery has to its credit the following decorations :----1\1ilitary Cross, 
2; Distinguished Conduct l\ledal, 2; l\1ilitary 1'ledals, 16; l\Ieri- 
torious. Service l\Iedals, 3; while several other officers from the 
R.C.A. in Halifax were awarded the D.S.O. and lYLC. 
As soon as the Battery left for Overseas, preparations for rais- 
ing another were immediately made, and those officers and men 
w'ho were unable to go in the previous one vied with each other to 
get a place in this, but it was not authorized, and drafts only were 
found as reinforcements to the one already authorized. 1\Ioreover, 
it was deemed advisable that certain specially trained officers and 
men were essential for the efficient working of the Home Defence, 
and these could not go, even in drafts, unless they had others to 
replace them. 
It takes some time to make an artilleryman, particularly a 
garrison gunner, who is expected to know every type of gun from 
a light field piece to the heaviest coast defence gun, or siege 
howitzer, all of which form part of the armament of a coast 
fortress, so that, although no doubt if the \Var had lasted long 
enough all would eventually have been replaced, these men had to 
A number of R.C.A. officers went over in charge of drafts of the 
R..C.G.A. or other Units. 
The 1st Regiment, C.G.A., sent over many officers and men in 
drafts to infantry units and to an Ammunition Column. 
The P.E.I. C.G.A. Detachment also formed an Ammunition 

23 8 


Early in 1915 the British Government decided to re-ar111 St. 
Lucia, and the Units at Bali fax, with some additional personnel 
from Esquimalt and Quebec, were called upon to furnish men for 
this purpose. The first draft went in 
Iarch, 1915. They had to 
mount the guns (some of which were of French pattern and quite 
strange to them), and generally organize the defences. 
In the autumn 6-f 1')17 and spring of 1918 the enemy submarines 
raided the Atlantic coasts of the United States and Canada, and it 
\vas very essential that the important port of Sydney, X.S., should 
be more strongly defended, so new guns of heavier calibre were 
sent from Halifax and mounted there. This necessitated additional 
men. and drafts from Toronto and British Columbia were detailed 
for this purpose. 
These men, some of them called under the 
Iilitary Service Act, 
\\-ere an exceptionally good type and quickly maùe efficient 
specialists and gunners. Some were sent for training as officers 
and would have relieved those officers in the Forts who had been 
unable to get away. unfortunately for them the Armistice was 
declared and hostilities ceased, so that this scheme did not 
materialize, though some of these men obtained probationers' 
.-\n important branch of the R.C.G.A. in Halifax i::\ the Royal 
School of Artillery (Coast Defence and Siege) and this School, the 
only Siege Artillery School in Canada, was responsible for the train- 
ing of most of the Siege Artillery Officers and Specialists, as well 
as several Datteries and Drafts that went Overseas after the First 
In addition to this. a gun practice at Hali fax. Sydney and St. 
John was carried out under the supervision of the R,Sh-'\.' Staff, 
while courses for officers and specialists, Coast Defence Artillery, 
\vere also given. 
The establishment of Instructors was one officer and three other 
ranks, but as one N.C.O. Instructor was stationed at S1. John, this 
was increased by a 
.C.O. from the 1st Regiment, C.G.A. 
Officers from the C.G.A. were attached as assistants for Yarymg 
Tn June, 1915, the LG.. now Lieut.-Col. \Y. G. Beeman, D.S.O., 
R,C.:\.. went Overseas. and in 1916 his successor, 
Iajor II. R. l\. 

T IV.-1R 

Cobbett, R.C.A.. \"em over with )z o. 9 Siege Battery. In 1918 one 
\\Tarrant Officer Instructor was permitted to go; he was imme- 
diately appointed Instructor at the Canadian School of Gunnery, 
\\ïtley, England. and it was only with great difficulty that he 
managed to reach France. where he again was utilized as an 
The rest of the Staff felt most keenly the fact that they had to 
be retained in Canada, as their position after the \Yar, when dealing 
with classes who had seen Overseas sen'ice, would not be at all 
enviable. It was very unfortunate that arrangements had not been 
made to replace them. so that they might go to the Front even for a 
short time, because although it is a fact that good teachers are born, 
not made, there is a tendency to think that anyone with long 
experience in the fighting line must be a good instructor. 
Officers from all parts of Canada took courses at the R.S.A., 
and it speaks well for the training which they received that on reach- 
ing England further training, other than three weeks' at Lydd, was 
considered unnecessary in most cases, and at Lydd these officers 
usuaily took first place in the examinations held there. 
::\Iany of them. who were unable to get positions in the C.E,F., 
were given commissions in the British Artillery. and in several cases 
commanded Datteries. 
Owing to the smallness of Staff and limited demand for siege 
artillery the actual numbers trained were not as large as those in 
other Artillery Schools, but with 
mall classes the training \"as 
naturally very thorough. 
Among the Units trained may be mentioned:- 

Coast Defence. 
1st Regiment, C.G,A. 
Jrd Regiment. C.G.A. 
P.E.I., C.G.A. 
Drafts from Toronto and B.C. 
And 10 courses for officers and 
specialists lasting two months each. 

2nd Montreal H'y B't'y. 

IcGill Siege B',t'y and Drafts. 
3rd C.G,A, Siege B't'y and Drafts. 
RCG.A. Siege B't'y and Drafts. 
Halifax (loth) B't'y and Drafts. 
And 9 courses for officers and special- 
ists, lasting two months each. 
Total number trained bv RS__-\.. exclusive of Batteries: 
Officers, :\T en
 Officers.:\T en. 
19Q 301 122 238 


-lL C
-lX.-lDI.-lX G.lRRISOX 



Other Ranks. 
3 6 

Sphere of Operations. 
\Vestern Front. 
To St. Lucia. 
To C.E.F" Siberia. 
Iission, Siberia. 



3 8 4 
1st Regiment, C.G.A. 
Other Ranks. 

\Vestern Front and St. Lucia. 

Total.. 22 

OfliCHS. Other Ranks. 
3 110 
On mobilization these units had: 

\Yestern Front. 

Officers. O.R. 
KC.G..-\.. ...............,....... 17 33 6 
}..t Regt.. c.G..-\.. ...,..,.". 20 230 
4 Coy.. F.E.!.. c.e..-\.. 3 í 2 




Ahugether about 80 officers and T .500 X .C.O:s and men of the 
Artillery C nits (including 10th Siege Battery) stationed in Halifax 
ent O\"erseas, and the majority of those mobilized in 19 1 4 
who did not go were unable to do so either through being specialists, 
over age or low category. 
\Yhen it is realized that these Corps had great difficulty in 
obtaining recruits, owing to the fear that men \\"ould be retained for 
Home Service. the numbers shown are considered \"ery creditable. 

24 1 



T HE Corps of Canadian Engineers has no local connection 
with any 
rovince in the same way that Infantr
and BattalIons have. At the end of the War 111 France It 
consisted of some twelve Battalions, together with other small 
Engineering Units with Administrative Staffs, etc., which Units 
were recruited from all parts of Canada, and no particular Engineer- 
ing Unit was sent from the Province of Nova Scotia. 
A great many individual officers and men were sent to the 
Engineers from this Province. and did very excellent work, but 
were posted to various Overseas Cnits, hence the impossibility of 
describing particularly the \york and services of Nova Scotia 
As far as service in Canada is concerned the defence of the 
Fortress of Halifax was a very important matter, and the services 
of a very large number of officers and other ranks of the R.C.E. 
Permanent Force and Canadian Engineers, _'\ctive lVIilitia. were 
employed at this Fortress throughout the \Yar. Their strenuous 
duties and long hours in connection with the continual operation of 
electric lights and maintenance of fortifications were carried out 
untiringly and most conscientiously. 
Practically every officer and other rank in these two Corps not 
only volunteered for Overseas service, but also took very strenuous 
measures to get to France, by hook or by crook, and a great many 
of them were successful. Others unfortunately were retained in 
Halifax for the defence of that Fortress. 




T dE following memorandum was prepared to bring to the 
attention of the :\1inister of 1'.Iilitia and 1\1ilitia Council some 
facts and figures respecting the services of the 
Iilitia of 
Canada ill Canada, and particularly the Fortress of Halifax, K ova 
Scotia, and the Atlantic Seaboard, who although they repeatedly 
yolunteered for Overseas were not allowed to go because their 
duties were held to be supremely important by those in authority. 
1st-Halifax has always been a 
Iilitary and 
aval Station of 
the Empire, and confidential instructions ha\-e always been in exist- 
ence and a comprehensive scheme of defence in the hands of 
officers commanding Units, to be put in force immediately on 
declaration of war. Therefore, the following Halifax Fortress 
()rder was issued by the G.O.C. l\I.D. K o. 6, August 5, 19 1 4: 
Xo. 681. .. \Yar having broken out with Germany the Halifax 
defence scheme comes into effect forthwith," 
In accordance with this order all Halifax 17nits were imme- 
diately mohilized and remained on duty in defence of Halifax 
practically for the duration of the \Yar. The Regiment was 
also mobilized for the defence of the Canso cable station, Cape 
Breton wireless station, etc., and other detachments were placed on 
active service at \'arious points in the district. 
2nd-The importance of Halifax as a :\Iilitary and 1'\aval Sta- 
tion in British Xorth America in the eyes of the Imperial and 
Canadian authorities is borne out by the following facts: 

( a) The immense amount of money spent in fortifications. 
(b) The inauguration of an examination service. whereby all vessels 
\\'ere examined before being allowed to enter the harbor, 
(c) Hali fax was the examination port for Korth America. and at 
times there were upwards of 200 large ocean-going vessels lying at 
anchor in the harbor, 


..J. SCOTJ_..J.'S P
..J.RT IN THE GRE...J.T If-_..J.R 

(d) The manning of the Port \Var Signal Station, by \\"hich aU 
British and AlIied warships were passed in under secret signals and 
(e) AU guns in the various forts were kept loaded, and the crews 
were kept standing by day and night, ready for instant action. 
(f) The infantry continually patrolled the coast, guarding the 
approaches to the city, and protecting cable landings and wireless stations. 
(g) \Vhen orders were issued to reduce the strength of the defences 
in September, 1914, the British Admiral on the Station informed Head- 
quarters that if this order were carried out he would withdraw his fleet 
and mine the harbor, which would mean closing the harbor to all 
(h) A Hydroplane Station was established, and patrolled the coast 
daily during the latter part of the War. 
(i) Owing to the protection afforded by the defences of Halifax, the 
authorities were enabled to dispatch from this port in the vicinity of 
300,000 Canadian troops, in addition to many thousand Colonial and 
Allied troops. including :-\ustralians, New Zealanders. Bermudians, Fiji 
I slanders, .--\mericans, and some 50,000 Chinese labor troops. 
(j) By means of its defence Halifax afforded shelter for a large 
number 'Of merchant vessels that were driven in by German raiders 
early in the \Var. 

It should also be noted that submarines were frequently in the 
vicinity of the harbor, and on one notable occasion a large oil tanker 
was sunk two hours after she left her pier. and seyeral fishing 
vessels were sunk off the coast, and other large transports and cargo 
vessels were dri\"en ashore at the entrance of the harbm:. The 
transport City of ['icIlIW became a total wreck. Preparations were 
l11<Jde and orders issued to provide against possible landing parties 
from German raiders. Stringent orders were issued providing for 
the screening of all lights in the city and prosecutions were i:--sued 
for neglecting to carry out this order. 
The fore
. is enumerated with the object of showing the 
importance of Halifax Harhor as a \Yar Station and the necessity 
of having it properly defended by n)àintaining the Garric;on at fulJ 




 Cnit was organized in 186 9 for the purpose of assisting 
the Regular Forces of the Garrison of Halifax in manning 
the Forts. The Regiment has always been at a high state of 
efficiency. due to the superior class of men it has been able to attract 
to its ranks. 
From the date of it:; organization the Regiment has been com- 
manded by many pro'minent citizens. 
The following is the list in order of 
sen-ice: Lieut.-Cot. .\, G. Jones (late 
Lieutenant-Governor of Xova Scotia). 
Lieut.-Co!. \Vm. Creighton, Lieut.-Co!. 
George :l\IitchelI, Lieut.-Co!. Thomas 
:\Io\\"bray. Lieut.-Cot. A. E. Curren. 
Lieut.-Co!. F. H. Oxley, Lieut.-Cot. A. 
G. I [e:,slein, Lieut.-Co!. II. Flowers, 
and. in 1914, at the outbreak of war. by 
Lieut.-Cot. J. A. l\Iarshall, followed at LIEUT.-COL. A. W. DUFFUS, 
the completion of his term of service 
by Lieut.-Co!. A. \Y. Duffus, \,-ho commanded up to the cessation 
of ho"tilities. 
On August 3, 19 1 4. Capts. A. 1\. Jones, S. C. Oland. and George 
Brew were detailed for duty at the examination Batter). On 
A.ugust 4-th the Commanding Officer received orders to mobilize. 
and on _ \ugust 6th the Regiment was detailed to and occupied its 
 posts in the Batteries of the Fortre"s of Halifax. AU 
officers and men in the city reported for duty': tho
e ab
ent were 
.5u1l1moneù by ,,-ire and letter. and joined the Cnit within a few 








The follO\ving officers remained with the Unit during the \Yar, 
but did not proceed Overseas, because the Department at Ottawa 
claimed their services could not be dispensed with: 
Lieut.-CoI. J. A. 
Iarshall, Lieut,-CoI. A. \\". Duffus, 11ajor .-\. 

f. Bauld (Q.
I.), Capts. J. 
I. Allen (Adjt.), \\", C. Dauld (P.
L. J. Donaldson (Chaplain), 
lajor n. E. Gate.;. l\Iajor P. O. 
Soulis (transferred to H.Ç]. 
I.D. X o. 6), Capts. C. ChurchilJ. 
A. F, Haliburton, L. L. Harrison, Lieuts. O. _ \. 
Vilson, G. B. 
Isnor, \Y. J. O'COlìl1ell, J. E. Rutledge, _-\. II. Thomson, Leo Esther, 
G. \V. Carmichael, \\-. E. Forsythe, C. R. Hoben, H. C. Frame, 
P. L. \Yhitman, D. .A. Forsythe. R. 
l. Fielding. F. .\. Grant, \\". E, 
Stewart, E. K, Fielding. I-I. H. 
Iil1er, \\". 
Iitchdl. A. J. Hali- 
burton, C. H. Crosby, F. S. Thomson. 
The Department of 
Iilitia and Defcnce at tìr.;t ruled that no 
oflìcer or man of the Fortress could proceed Over:-ea:-:. as his services 
were required here and he could not be spared. Later on this 
ruling was somewhat modified and officers and men were relieved 
as soon as they could be replaced by new men and permitted to join 
various Cnits. 
Iany, ho\yever, were not accorded this privilege. 
n1t1ch to their chagrin. 
Six hundred and twenty-five men and the following officers were 
permitted to go Overseas at various times and with variou
and branches of the service, taking any chance that offered rather 
than rcmain at home: 
Lieut.-Cot. E. V. Hogan, 
Iajor G. IT, 
rax\\"ell. l\'Iajor J. L. 

racKinl1on (now Lieut.-Colonel), l\Iajor .\. X. Jones, Capts. L. X. 
Seaman. E, L. 
Iil1er, S. C. Oland, G. 
I. Brew. F. 
. R lrns, G. D. 
Oland, G. _
redca1f, P. B. Stairs, Lieuts. J. R. Curry, \V. 1\I. Ray. 
F. B. Sharp, G, .\. 
aherty. R. \V. Churchill. D. J. 
fax\Vell. E. P, 
Flowers, D. .-\. Guildford. E. A. Bell. II. H.. D, Lacon, R. F, D, 
Campbell, T. Oe\\T. Farquhar. H. 1\1. Stairs, E. S. Thomson, F, II. 
Palmer, R. P. Freeman, C. H. CoIl, J. D. Smith. \V. P. Potter. 
F. G. Hayden, If. \\. L. Doane, \Y. 
I. :?\farshaII. .-\, G. \\'ooten, 
H. St. G. S. DeCarteret, E. G. Dickic, .\. E. Horne, R. G, Crosby, 
r. Blackett. R G. 
rcAloney, \Y. R. Harris, 
I. B. Archibald. 
H. B. Bell, T. H. \Yhelpley, O. R. Crowell. 
.--\nd from the Resen"e of Officers. Lieut.-Cot. H. Flowers and 

[ajor Allister Fraser, 
1.C. Of these :.Iajor G. H. 1\Iax\\"ell. 
24 6 




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-1T U'

Capt. Philip B. Stairs, Lieuts. E. G. Dickie and R. G. 
made the supreme sacrifice. 
It is impossible to give a list of the many non-commissioned 
officers and men \\' ho were a credit to their Regiment on the fields 
of Flanders. Their records appear with the records of the V nit:5 
in which they served. 
It is supposed by many that the troops of the Garrison li\"ed in 
comparative luxury, whereas the contrary was the case. 
hardships were undergone and. apart from the fact that the Hun 
raiders gave Halifax a wide berth, knowing that an attack would 
mean a waste of ammunition, which could not be replaced this side 
of Zeebrugge, conditions generally were often not so good as in 
France, owing to the severity of our climate. The casements in 
which the men were supposed to be quartered in time of war were 
entirely unfit for occupation as, owing to long disuse, they \\"ere in 
a very damp and unsanitary condition. The Unit was, therefore, 
placed under canvas, and it was late in December before any 
attempt was made to provide proper and suitable winter quarters. 
Owing to a fine distinction made between the 
lilitia and O"erseas 
forces, which only an army man can understand. the men were not 
provided with a full kit, even boots being denied them until many 
of them were actually barefoot. Underclothing and other neces- 
saries had to be purchased by the men themsekes, until at last the 
responsible authorities awakened to the fact that there was a real 
war on. 
About August 16, 1914, the first Canadian Contingent com- 
menced mobilizing at Valcartier, and orders were received calling 
for volunteers from the Garrison. The 1st C.A. were to provide 
one officer and twenty-five other ranks. Capt. George 1\1. Brew 
proceeded to Valcartier with the draft, and on arrival was told he 
was not wanted and ordered to return to Halifax. This officer was 
so disappointed that he resigned his commission and trayelled to 
England at his own expense, where he joined a Unit of the Imperial 
artillery and served with it during the greater part of the "'ar. 
In September, 1914, it was considered unnecessary to keep the 
Units on garrison duty at full strength. and a reduction was pro- 
posed. The naval authorities, however, insisted that a fully garri- 
soned fortress was necessary a
 a protection for the 
 a val Ba .;;e. 
24 8 


and no reduction was made. Later on the artillery forces were 
increased. A.ll of which shows the importance placed on the 
Fortress by the Imperial authorities during war time. 
From time to time the Commanding Officer offered the services 
of the Cnit for Overseas, and asked permission to form Batteries 
of heayy and field artillery, but \vithout result. Small detachments 
were allowed to \-olunteer as emergencies arose, such as artillery 
Cnits being short of men, on account of casualties occurring, while 
passing through Halifax, and then only on condition that men were 
found to replace them. It was not until 19Ií that permission was 
gi\-en to iorm an ammunition column, and immediately on its com- 
pletion a second one. 
)'Iuch might be written of happenings during the \Var period 
which, while of interest to the officers. non-commissioned officers 
and men. were all in the day's work and of no historical value. It 
ufficient to say that this "Cnit with the other Units of the Garri- 

(ln performed their duties weIl and satisfactorily. 




T HE lIth Brigade was the junior Artillery Brigade of the 
6th Military DIstrict. It comprised in addition to the 
Headquarters Staff, the 27th (Digby) Battery, the 28th 
(Pictou) Battery and the 29th (Yarmouth) Battery. Although 
the Brigade was not ordered out on active service, it contributed 
possibly more than its original strength in personnel to the prose- 
cution of the Great \;Yar. Almost the first day of the \\Tar the 
Commanding Officer (Lieut.-Co!. T. 1\1. Seeley, of Yarmouth. 
N.S.) wired the offer of services to headquarters and the Battery 
officers ,busied themselves with looking to the details of organization. 
Capt. F. W. Pickles, O.C. 29th Battery (Yarmouth), joined the 
17 th Battery of -Sydney, one of the first Units on the march, with 
a detachment of eighteen non-commissioned officers and men from 
his Battery. Subsequently every artillery Unit and many of the 
Infantry Battalions had on their strength representatives of the 
11th Brigade. This was made possible largely by the untiring 
efforts of a few senior officers, who for some good reason or other, 
were unable to proceed Overseas. Prominent among these were 
Majors H. S. Hamilton, of Pictou; D. C. :L\1cKay, of Digby, and 
A. K. Van Horne, of Yarmouth. 
The services of the officers of the I Ith Brigade, summarily put, 
were: Lieut.-Cot. T. 
I. Seeley, O.C., was successful in organizing 
the 23rd Battery, C.E.F.; a Company for guard duty at Barrington 
Passage, Radio Station, and a Company in the 112th Battalion, 

25 0 


C.E.F.. under Colonel Tremaine, with which the latter crossed the 
.\tlantic. Capt. A. 
\. Durkee, Adjutant of the Brigade, organized 
at Yalcartier the first Ammunition Unit in the C.E.F., and pro- 
ceeded Overseas with the First Contingent. He was early at the 
Front, and was promoted to ::\lajor and Lieut.-Colonel, and com- 
manded, in turn; a Brigade Ammunition Column, a Battery, and a 
Drigade of Artillery. He was mentioned in dispatches and was 
awarded the D.S.O. Lieut.-Cot. Durkee is also a South African 
"-ar veteran. Capt. Y. F. Connor, C.
\.).r.C., was on duty through 
the greater part of the \ Y ar. and rendered valuable service at the 
time of the great explosion in Halifax, December, 19 1 7. 
The 27th Battery contributed to the C.E.F. Capt. Glidden 
Campbell, of \Yeymouth. \\"ho went oyer with the 85th Dattaliol1, 
and who was awarded the 
r.C.; Lieuts. C. D. Shreve, T\I.C., killed 
in action in the artillery; K. Y. Schurman and H. 
The 28th Battery had to its credit in the C.E,F., 
rajor J. K. 
::\IcKay, of Pictou. who went oyer in command of the 23rd Bat- 
tery, C.E.F. He commanded a Battery and a Drigade of .\rtillery 
at the Front, being latterly promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
1 Ie was severely wounded and received the D.s.n. From the 28th, 
Licuts. C. E. Churchill, I-I. P. 
IacKeen, J. E. Read. J. D. Hickman. 
II. P. :ßlacKenzie, and possiùly others, entered the C.E.F. Capt. 
Y. C. Johnson, Corps Re
en'e, was Overseas. 
The 29th Battery furnished (in addition to Adjutant Durkee, 
already mentioned) Capt. F. \Y. Pickles, who commanded a section 
of a Divisional Ammunition Column at the Front; Lieut. Ralph 
P. Harding, \vho rose to the command of a Battery, with the 
rank of 1'lajor, and returned \\"ith the I\I.C. and the D.S.O.; Lieuts. 
\V. Arthur Porter, G. St. C. A. Perrin, E. J. Vickery, G. O. Rogers, 
E. J. Stekelin, who became 
Iajor; H. E. Crowell, who became 
::\Iajor: S. C. Hood, Jr., who became Captain, and 
I. B. Davis. 
The 29th Battery claims the honor of having had in its membership 
at one time Drig.-General "-. O. H. Dodds, C.l\'l.G., D.S.O., now of 

25 1 



 April, 19 1 ':;, detachments from the 2ï th Battery (Digby) and 
the 29th Battery (Yarmouth) and No. I Siege Company 
(.Mahone), were a
sembled at Yarmouth, under Lieut.-Cot. 
T. :\1. Seeley, for preliminary training. and in :\Iay fol1o\\-ing pro- 
ceeded to Barrington Passage for guard duty at tbe ß-adio Station. 
Among their duties \Vas the construction of a road three miles long 
through a very difficult country. Practically the whole strength of 
this Company transferred to Overseas Units. Officers. in addition 
to the O.C.: Capt. \Y. T, Ernst. and Lieut. C. :\J eh'in. 

25 2 



T r-IE 63rd Regiment, Hali fax Rifle
, was first organized as a 
Re,Q'iment in 1860, under the title of .. The Halifax Y olun- 
teer Battalion." The \' oll1nteer Companies which then 
composed the Regiment had pre\.iously been acting as independent 
bodies. The first Colonel \yas Sir \\ïllian Fenwick \Yilliams, of 
Kar,. and on 
Iarch 16. 1860. Capt, \\ïlliam Chearnley (late of 
I. 8tl-í King's Regiment of Foot). who was in command of the 
Chebucto Grey:-;. was by an order from _ \djutant-Cenerars Office 
appointed Captain Commanding the Halifax Yolunteer Battalion. 
Thi... \\-as the official date of the organization of the Unit, better 
known a:-; the 63rd I Iali fax Rifles. 
The Companies comprising the Regiment at its formation were 
the Scottish Rifles, ChdJUcto Greys. :\Iayflower Rifles, Halifax 
Rifles. Irish Rifles. and Dartmouth Rifles. In 1862 the Dartmouth 
Engineers joined the Regiment, which mustered se\'en Companies, 
Un X O\'ember 10. 1M2. the Halifax City Council presented the 
Regiment with its first set of colors. The presentation was made 
by the wife of the 
Irs. P. C. Hill. On the same date, Lady 

r ulgra\-e. wife of the Governor of :0; ova Scotia. in the name of 
the ladies of the City of Halifax, presented the Regiment with a 
sih-er bugle. \\'hich was to be shot for each year. This bugle is 
still in the possession of the Regiment. 
In January. 1865. Captain Chearnley was appointed Lient.- 
Colonel and the Battalion reorganized, two of the Companies. the 
Irish Rifles and Dartmouth Engineers, disbanding. The Halifax 
Rifles. which \\-as double strength. took the place -of the Irish Rifles 
-the muster now being six Companies. This Regiment had its 
first call for 
ervice in 1866. doing garrison duty during the alarm 
caused by the Fenian Raids into Canada. The ,en-ice lasted from 
June 6th to July 31St. 



In 1868 the Regiment was transferred from the Volunteer Force 
to the Active :Militia, and was officially designated as the Halifax 
Volunteer Battalion of Rifles, and on 
Iay 13, 1870, the Militia 
Department having been regularly organized, the name changed to 
the 63rd Battalion of Rifles, and later to 63rd Regiment, Halifax 
Rifles, which name it retained up to and during the late Great \-Var. 
Successive Commanding Officers were as follows: Lieut.-Cot. 
Chearnley, 1865 to 1871; Lieut.-Cot. Andrew 11acKinlay, 1871 to 
18 7 2 ; Lieut.-Colonel Pallister, 1872 to 1879; Lieut.-Cot. J. \V. 
:ì\Iackintosh, 1879 to 1890; Lieut.-Cot. J. D. \Valsh, 1890 to 18 9 2 : 
Lieut.-Cot. T. J. Egan, 1892 to 1898; Lieut.-Cot. John Crane, 18 9 8 
to 1903; Lieut.-Cot. J. T. Twining, 1903 to 1908; Lieut.-Cot. C. A. 
Gunning, 1908 to 1913; Lieut.-Cot. 1. \Y. Yidito, 19 1 3 to 19 1 7; 
Lieut.-Cot. C. A. :ì\Iumford, 1917 until demobilized 19 18 . 
The 63rd furnished 109 officers and men for service during the 
North-\Vest Rebellion. :Major \Valsh was in command, with Capts. 
Hechler, Cunningham and Fortune and Lieutenants Silver, James. 
Twining, l\IcKie, Fletcher and Fiske. Captain Corbin was ap- 
pointed Quartermaster of the Provisional Battalion. They entrained 
for the \Yest on April 4, 1885, and returned to Halifax and rejoined 
their Unit July 2..t- of the same year. The Regiment also furnished 
sixty-one officers, non-commissioned officers and men for seryice in 
the South _\frican \Yar. 
On the declaration of the Great "Tar, _\ugnst 4. 19 1 4, the 63 rd 
Regiment, Halifax. Rifles was ordered out for service in defence 
of the Fortress of Hali fax. One hundred men under the command 
of Capt. H. N. Clarke. with Capt. J. \V. Logan, Lieut. E. R. Dennis 
and Lieut. F. H. 1\1. Jones. proceeded at once to \Vellil1gton Bar- 
racks, and the remainder of the Unit was at once mobilized and 
proceeded under command to the various war stations assigned to it. 
By August 5, 1914, the mobilization of the Unit being com- 
pleted, the Regiment paraded in full strength under Lieut.-Cot. 1. \\!. 
Vidito, with 
Iajor \\T. E. Thompson Second in Command, and 
Capt. D. R. Turnbull, .L\djutant, and proceeded to their new 
quarters, \Vellington Barracks, where the Composite Company 
under Capt. H. N. Clarke was absorbed, the officers and men re- 
joining their old Companies. 



On August 12th ,. D" Company proceeded to 
IcNab's Island 
under the command of Capt. C. A. :Mumford, with Lieuts. C. N. 
Bennett and \V. E. Doane. "D" Company, under Capt. H. F. 
Adams and Lieut. C. J. Roche, proceeded to York Redoubt. On 
August 18th" G" and" H" Companies proceeded to the Easteri1 
Camp Site, Dartmouth. These two Companies were under the com- 
mand of 
fajor W. H. Conrod. "G" Company (Capt. E. A. Voss- 
nack, Lieuts. G. S. Kinley and G. C. Sircom) occupied York Farm; 
.' H" Company (Capt. H. N. Clarke and Lieuts. E. C. Phinney 
and J. \tV. Grant) occupied Kuhn's Farm. On August 25 th " D ,
Company under Capt. H. F. Adams 1110\'ed from York Redoubt to 
Camperdown, and on the same date " A " Company (Capt. F. C. 
Kingdon, Lieut. R. C. ::\lcDonald); "C" Company (Capt. H. G. 
De\Volfe, Lieut. H. J. Stech) and" F" Company (Capt. J. \V. 
Logan, Lieuts. G. 1\1. Sylvester and F. H. Jones) moved to :McNab's 
Island. "E" Company (Capt. E. K. l\IcKay, Lieuts. O. V ossnack 
and E. R. Dennis) moved to Lawlor's Island. The last four Com- 
panies were under the command of l\1ajor \tV. E. Thompson. On 
August 3 0t h headquarters and regimental details moved to l\1c
Immediately on arrival at their stations each Company started 
the work of digging trenches, placing wire entanglements, con- 
structing blockhouses, dugouts. etc. The men were driven at top 
speed at this work, officers and men working all day as well as 
doing picquet duty at night. 
During the early days of the \Yar H.
I. ship Suffolk J then 
engaged in hunting for the enemy cruiser Ka.rlsrllhe J called at 
Halifax in urgent need of coal, and was coaled in record time by 
the 63rd Regiment. 
On August 22nd the.first Overseas draft was called for and 
twenty-four non-commissioned officers and men under command 
of Lieuts. A. F. l\1ajor and G. L. Stairs, proceeded to Valcartier 
Camp. On Kovember 25, 1914, forty-eight non-commissioned 
officers and men were transferred to the 2-5th Battalion, C.E.F.
which was then being organized, and on December 6th lVlajor \\T. J-I. 
Conrod, Lieuts. L. 1\. B. Bullock, G. C. Sircom and J. A. Grant 
were transferred to that Datta lion. 

--1'S P
--1T nr

.Major \\-. E. Thompson was called in by Headquarters 
District t\ o. 6 in December, 191.+, to take oyer the work of Inspector 
of Outposts and Detachments throughout the district. with the rank 
of Lieut.-Colonel. 
On .May 20, 1915, Capt. \\"m. Taylor. Lieuts. C. J. Roche and 
J. A. \Yatters, with thirty-three other ranks proceeded to Jamaicd 
on military duty. On August 13, 1915, thirty-six other ranks were 
transferred to the 40th Battalion, then in training at \
In September, 1915. an O\-erseas Company was formed to which 
officers and men gi\'en permission to go Üyerseas \\-ere attached ior 
training. From this time. all drafts from the 63rd for Oyerseas 
Units were taken from this Company. 
An Overseas draft of 100 other ranks with Lieuts. \\- D, 
Simpson, H. D. I Elton and C. D. Llwyd were struck off the 
strength of the 63rd Regiment on February 25. 19 16 . 

Iajor H. F. Adams \\'as appointed Officer Commanding Di::;- 
charge Depot, Halifax. from July I, 1916. 
-\ draft of eighty-eight 
other ranks under command of Lieuts. H. 
\. Creighton and Benj. 
Taylor embarked for Oyerseas on July 15, 1916. The Regiment 
\Vas inspected by Field-
Iarshall H.R.H, Duke of Connaught on 
August 24, 19 16 . 
The 63rd was placed on a fOl1r Company basis from Xovember 
I, 1917. The Company officers were: ".-\" Company. Capt. F. C. 
Kingdon, Lieuts. J. A. \Yatters, H. V. \\-ier, G. \Y. Churchill. 
H. S. Holloway. ,. n" Company. Capts. H. J. Steck D. \\-. Ken- 
nedy, Lieuts. F. A. Taylor. C. S. Innes, H. R. 
IcCaughin. G, R. 
Forbes. ., C" Company, Capts. E. Ricketts. G. S. Kinley. Lieut
T. L. Parkman, J. E. :\1.ilsom, C. N. Innes. ., D" Company. Capts. 
O. F. Vossnack, \Y. Taylor, Lieuts. E. G. 
Iinn. \\- R. R. 
Tayler, H. H. Irwin. _ , 
Lieut.-Cot. I. \Y. \ïdito was transferred to the Reserye of 
Officers on July I. 19Jï, and was succeeded in the conunand of the 
Regiment by Lieut.-Co!. C. .\. 
Iumford. On the morning of 
December 6. 191ï, fi\'e officers and 1-1-3 other ranks were detailed for 
relief work follo\\'ing the explosion at Halifax. On -\pril 16, 19 18 , 
the 6th Battalion Canadian Garrison Regiment \\-as authorized. and 
in :\Iay the 63rd Regiment \\'as relieved from duty. The following 
named officers were transferred to the 6th Battalion: Lieut.-C)l. 
25 6 


lumford. Capts. E. Ricketts, II. J. Steck, E. K. 
G. S. Kinley, Lieurs. H, \-. \\-ier, J. A. \Yatters, E. G. :Mcl\Iinn, 
G. \\T. Churchill. ]. E. 
Iilsom, H. R. 
IcCoughin, G. R. Forbes, 
R. J. Coh\,ell. 
The undermentioned officers were transferred to the 1st Nova 
Scotia Depot Battalion: Lieuts, H. A. \\ïlson. \ \T. R. R. Tayler, 
H, S. Holloway, 
Iajors _\. R. 
IcCleave and H. 'X. Clarke, Capts. 
F. C. Kingdon. J. D. 
Ionoghan and Lieut. T. Parkman were re- 
lieved from active service. 
On the organization of the First Canadian Contingent the 
Regiment \-olunteered for service Overseas, but much to the dis- 
appointment of all ranks had to continue its allotted duties in the 
defence of the Fortress of Halifax. Owing to the heavy demands 
on the Ordnance Department for clothing and equipment needed by 
troops preparing for embarkation the requirements of troops on 
 Service could not be met until late in 1914., and for some 
time clothing was patched with flour sacks or any other material 
available, and worn out soles of boots were reinforced with shingles. 
In spite of all discouragements the 63rd faithfully performed the 
tasks assigned it. and \yhen at last it \yas permitted to send drafts 
Oyerseas it became the ambition of all ranks to obtain a transfer to 
the Overseas Company. _-\ltogether the Regiment supplied 7 0 
officers and 815 other ranks for service at the Front. 
The following is a list of officers who sen-ed with the Regiment 
at various times during the \Yar. Those \\"110 went Overseas are 
marked *: *Lieut. A. B. Anderson; Capt. H. F. Adams (now 
Lieut.-Cot. R. 0.) : *Lieut. A. A. Allenback; *Lieut. \V. B. 
*Lieut. H. P. Dell (Captain C.E.F.); *Lieut. C. \Y. Bennett 
(killed in action) ; *Lieut. L. K. B. Bullock (D.S,O. and Bar- 
Lieut.-Colonel C.E.F.): *Lieut. F. 
-\. Brewster (
I.C.); *Lieut. 
G. .-\. Campbell (killed in action) : >:'
Iajor \Y. H. Conrod; *
H, X. Clarke; Lieut. J. H. Congdon: Lieut. G. \Y. Churchill: 
*Lieut. \y, L. Coleman; Lieut. H. J. Crosskill; *Lieut. R. J. 
Colwell; >::Lieut. T. F. Campbell; *Lieut. C. H. Colwell: *Lieut. 
A. II. Creighton: *Lieut. H. A. Creighton; *Lieut. B, Currie 
(Captain C.E.F.): Capt. H. G. De\Yolf; Lieut. "T. H. Dennis; 
*Lient. E. R. Dennis C\I.C., killed in action) : *
Iajor F. \V. W. 
Doane; *Lieut. H. \\T. L. Doane: *Lieut. \V. E. E. Doane (killed 




in action); ::'Lieut. S. Downer; *Lieut. 1- S. Davie (lVLC., I\Iajor 
C.E.F.); Lieut. R. F. Davison; *Lieut. 
\. C. Delacroix; *Lieut. 
E. R. Eddy; Lieut. R. G, Forbes; *Lieut. \V. G. Foster (killed in 
action) ; *Lieut. P. \V. Freeman; Lieut. L. A. Gastonquay; *Lieut. 
G. II. Gillis (D.F.e., Captain C.E.F.) ; :
Lieut. J. A. Grant; *Liel1t. 
\V. P. Grant; *Lieut. R. J. If arris (died); *Lieut. J. A. Harris, 
*Lieut. H. E. Hilton (killed in action) ; *Lieut. H. S. Holloway; 
*Lieut. \V. A. Hendry; *Lieut. E. J. lIallett (1I.C.) ; *Lieut. E. A. 
Hartling; Lieut. II. H. Irwin; *Lieut. C. S. Innes; *Lieut. Colin 
Innes; ;:'Lieut. F. ] I. Jones (ßI.C.); Capt. R. J. Huston; *Lieut. 
A. E. J uoien; Capt. F. C. Io\:ingdon; *Lieut. A. L. A. Kane; Lieut. 
D. \V. Kennedy; Lieut. A. VV. Kidner; *Lieut. G. S. Kinley (Cap- 
tain C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. G. II. Keeler (M.C.); Lieut. J. H. LeBlanc; 
*Lieut. C. D. Lhvyd (l\I.C., killed in action) ; *l\Iajor J. W, Logan; 
*Lieut. G. R. Leslie; *Lieut. O. VV. Lingham; *Lieut. A T. Lewis 
(I\LC., Captain C.E.F.); *Lieut. A. F. :Major (killed in action) ; 
Lieut J. E. l\lilson; Capt. R. A. l\Iilson; Lieut.-Co!. C. A. 
Licut. J. D. l\Iol1aghan; Capt. A. R. l\lcCleave; Capt. E. K. l\IcI
""Lieut. R. C. 
fcDonald; Lieut.-Co!. J. VV. l\1cl\Iillan (Chaplain); 
*Lieut. Geo. O. l\IcDonald (drowned); Lieut. E. J. IVlcl\1inn; 
Lieut, ] r. R. :\TcCoughin; *Lieut. _\. T. l\lcDonald (l\1ajor 
C.E.F.): Lieut. T. L. Parkman: *Lieut. P. R, Phillips (
*Lieut. E. C. Phinney (Lieut.-Cot. e.E.F.) ; *Lieut. G. C. Pickford; 
Capt. E. Ricketts: *Lieut. C. Roche (killed in action) ; Lieut. G. B. 
Robertson: *tieut. \V. 1\ 1. Rogers; *Lieut. J. S. Roy; *Lieut. C. E. 
Scarfe; *Lieut. \V. D. Simpson: ;:<Lieut. G. C. Sircom; *Lieut. \V. J. 
Stairs; *Lieut. G. L. Stairs (killed in action) ; Lieut. II. J. Stech; 
*Lieut. E. S. Smith; *Lieut. G. JvI. Sylvester (killed in action); 
*Lieut. D. ..\. Taylor (killed in action) ; *l\fajor \V. E. Thompson 
(Colonel D.O,C., l\Tilitary District Ko. 6): Capt. \Y. Taylor, 
Lieut. J. F. Taylor; Lieut. F. A, Taylor; Capt. D, R. Turnbull; 
*Lieut. \Y. R. R. Tayler, Lieut.-Cot. 1. \\T. Vidito; Capt. E. A. 
V os snack ; Capt. O. F. V os snack ; Lieut. J A. \Vatters; Lieut. 
H. V. \Yier: *Lieut. H. .:\. "-ihon: Lieut. P, J. 
\T ebb; Lieut. 
R. E. \Vellard; Lieut. H. H. \i\Testbrooke; Lieut. A. B. West. 

2.1 8 



F OLLO\YIXG Great Britain's declaration of war against 
Germany on August 4. 1914. the 66th Regiment, Princess 
Louise Fusiliers, immediately paraded at the Halifax 
Armories and the same evening sent an advanced party of four 
officers and one hundred other ranks in command of Capt. D. S. 
Bauld to \Yellington Barracks, where the balance of the Unit under 
its Commanding Officer, Lieut.-Cot. 
II. L. Chipman, followed, and estab- 
lished its headquarters on A.ugust 7, 
19I...J.. Preparations were immediately 
made to place the 66th Regiment on a 
war footing, and excitement ran high 
because it was felt by all ranks that, 
this being one of the oldest Units in the 
Province, the 66th Regiment would be 
among the first to see real service; but 
the fact that it was never sent Overseas 
caused in the later years of the \Var a LIEUT.-COL. A. KING. 
feeling of bitter disappointment, par- 
ticularly among those who were destined to carryon tame and un- 
attractive garrison duty throughout the vVar. 
The" Halifax Defence Scheme" unfortunately condemned it to 
this uninteresting work, and although the Regiment repeatedly 
volunteered for service Overseas its requests were ignored. The 
defence of Halifax was altogether a thankless task. and the often 
repeated assurance that the Regiment was performing the rluties 
required of it brought little consolation to the officers and men 
whose sole ambition was to join their comrades in the Field. 

--1T IVAR 

The personnel of the officers who turned out with the Regiment 
at the time of the declaration of \\"ar was as foUO\ys:- 

Lieut.-'Co!. H. L. Chipman.......,. Ufficer Commanding. 
Major and Bt. Lieut.-Col. A. King., Senior l\Iajvr. 
Major R. B. Simmonds........... ..Junior 
Iajor and Acting A.djutant. 
Capt. F. L. Stephen............... ..-\cting Quartermaster. 
Lieut.-Co!. M. A. Curry........... 
Iedical Officer. 
Lieut.-Co!. \V. ]. Armitage........ Chaplain. 
Major R. H. Humphrey........... .Paymaster. 

C on-zþany Officers. 
Capts. A. \V. \Veston, G. \\". 
lurra}. J. 
I.:Fatridge, D. S. Bauld, 
H. H. Bligh. R. \V. Frost. C. E. Do\\;den. 1- R. Glazbrook; Lieuts. 
\V. B. Medcalfe, G. W. Stairs, G. H. Liddell, C. A. Fages, J. C. 
Stairs, J. R. Simmonds, G. Dwyer, W. C. Borrett, J. H. Crosskill, 
B. H. Smith, R. F. Studd, F. H. 
Iarr, F. R. Heuston, D. Stairs, 
G. E. Creighton, L. E. VanBuskirk. 

Later two officers reported for duty from the CoqJS Reserve, 
and during the period of the \Var twenty-fiye additional officers 
were granted commissions in the Regiment. The Regiment at the 
outbreak of the \ \" ar \vas on an eight Company basi
. and it was 
not until December 6. 1915, that the double Company system was 
The first move of importance was the sending of a detachment. 
on August 1 I, 191...1-, of four Companies. D. E. F and (;., and the 
Iachine Gun Section, all under command of :\Iajor 
R. B. Simmonds, to Chain and Long Lakes, with instructions to 
prepare a system of trenches, blockhouses, etc. and arrange gener- 
ally for the defence of ] lalifax City from any possible attack from 
the \\T est. This force was designated the .C Chain Lakes Detach- 
ment," and with interchanges of officers and other ranks remained 
on duty at this post until January IS. 19Iï, ,,"hen it proceeded to 
York Redoubt. 
The headquarters of the Regiment was moved from \Yellington. 
Barracks to York Redoubt on \ugust 29, 1914, and remained there 
until the demobilization of the Unit on :\Iay I, 1918. Tn January, 
19 1 5, Lieut.-Colonel Chipman was seconded from the Regiment and 
took over command of the Composite Battalion, which had been 
organized for garrison duty, and Lieut.-Cot. A. King was gazetted 
O.C 66th Regiment, and continued so until the Cnit was relieved 
from active service in May, 1918. 


-\bout December I. 191,3. authority was granted for the Regi- 
ment to organize a reinforcing draft. five officers and two hundred 
and fifty other ranks. The South Barracks on Sackville Street 
were immediately taken oyer. and recruiting and organization work 
in connection with the draft was proceeded with. The draft finally 
sailed for England on January '22, 1916. This draft was com- 
manded by Capt. R, F Studd, the other officers accompanying it 
being Lieuts. T. F. ';\Iorrison. \Y. K. Fraser, L. J. Atkinson, and 
\Y. S. Fielding. 
During the \Yar the ö6th Regiment was inspected by His Royal 
Highness the Duh.e of Connaught. His Excellency the Duh.e of 
Iajor-General Gwatkin, Chief of the Canadian General 
r ajor-General Lessard. Inspector-General of Eastern Canada, 
and by many other distingui:"hed soldiers. and was at all times 
most highly complimented on its excellent state of efficiency. 
This Unit played a prominent part in the relief work following 
the great explosion of December 6, 1917, which devastated a large 
portion of the City of Halifax. caused the loss of some seventeen 
hundred lives and entailed untold suffering among so many families 
for months follO\ving, Lieut.-Col. R. B. 
Simmonds was in command of all military 
and naval relief parties engaged in rescue 
work in the devastated area, and later was 
placed in charge of a committee to pro- 
cure relief for dependants of all men who 
were serving at home or Overseas. It 
was the duty of this committee to find 
food. clothing and shelter for the families 
of all soldiers who had suffered in the 
explosion. A large number of mechanics 
were placed under the direction of this LIEUT.-COL. R. B. SIMMONDS. 
committee and the work of relief 
practically completed by l\Iay I, 1918. That the duties of this com- 
mittee were all carried out it might be mentioned that it effected 
practically permanent repairs to over one hundred and sixty houses, 
besides looking after the needs of many suffering families, for 
which it was complimented by the l\Iinister of 
lilitia and received 
the thanks of the Halifax Relief Commission. 



Notwithstanding that the Regiment was kept in Canada, it was, 
nevertheless, called upon to perform various and arduous duties at 
aU times. That the Regiment also assisted in a very tangible way 
in winning the War is proved by the fact that the 66th Regiment, 
Princess Louise Fusiliers sent fifty-four officers and eight hundred 
and fifty men to swell the ranks of various Overseas Units of the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, a large number of whom are now 
sleeping their last sleep in the fields of Flanders, having upheld the 
honor of their Regiment and proved their belief in its motto, 
" Fideliter." 



9-1 th lYICTORI

M tTCH has been written of what was done by Canadian Cnits 
in France and Delgium. but little has been said of the Units 
cumpelled to remain on h()111e service. which had to content 
themselves with performing garrison duties and supplying reinforce- 
ments to the army in the Field. 
The Victoria Regiment, Argyll Highlanders, with Head- 
quarters at Baddeck, Cape Breton, was at the commencement of 
hostilities perhaps the most distinctively Highland Battalion in the 
forces of the Empire, inasmuch as the Gaelic language was the 
mother tongue of eighty per cent. of its personnel. _\s a rural 
TIattalion it is recognized as having sent more officers and men 
Overseas than any other similar Unit in Eastern Canada, All its 
original members. excepting those over age or physically unfit. were 
transferred to C.E.F. Units: many of them paid the supreme 
sacrifice. and a number of them were decorated for distinguished 
At 9.30 a.m., .August 4, 191..1., the Officer Commanding the 
Battalion, Lieut.-Cot. J. D. McRae, received mobilization orders. 
The marching-out strength, including the Canso detachment. was 
377 all ranks. The eight Companies were commanded by the 
officers. and proceeded to their different stations. on the dates named 

.. .-\ .. Co., Capt. D. P. :\ r cRae, \Vhitney Pier. Sydney .......... íth .-\ug. 
" B" Co., Capt. D. A. 
lcRae, \Iarconi Towers, Glace Bay... . 6th " 
"C" Co., Capt. A. J. McNeil, North Sydney.,.........,......,Sth 
" D" Co., Capt. 
f. A. McLeod, 
rarconi Towers, Glace Bay, .6th 
"E" Co., Capt. M. D. 1\lcKeigan. Louisburg..,..,..,.",.... .5th 
" F" Co., Capt. R. Y, McKenzie, Lloyd's Cove. Sydney 
fines. . í th 
., G" Co., Capt. J. G. John<;tol1e. Can
().. ...,...... ., ::;th " 
.. H" Co., Capt. W. D. 1\lcKenzie, Sydney.,......,......, - . .7th 
Regimental Staff to Headquarters. 33 Charlotte St.. Syòney... 7th 
26 3 


Regimental Staff. 
Lieut.-Cot J. D, :\IcRae......... Officer Commanding. 
l\Iaj or J. S, McLean..........., Second in Command. 
Major A. D. McRae............Junior 
Capt. ,Yo G, McRae............ utant. 
Lieut. A. J. McInnis.........,.. Instructor of 
Lieut. G. M. McNeil.....,...... Signalling Officer. 
:\Iajor 1\1. A. J. 1\fcDonald.... ..Quartermaster, 
:\Iajor Dan McDonald....."... :\Iedical Officer. 
Capt. 1\1. H. Morrison...,..,.., Paymaster. 

" A" Co., P. "\iV. Anderson and J. A, Kiley. 
" B" Co., W. W. Nicholson and F. J, McChar1es. 
" C" Co., A. J. McDonald and J. A. ::.\lcDonald, 
" D" Co" N. J. l\IcDonald and A. N. 
" E" Co., J. L. McKinnon and D. 
" F" Co., D. McKinnon and D. ::\lcKenzie. 
I. G" Co., K. L. 1\lcKay and J, McIsaac. 
.. H" Co., A. McKinnon and J. D, ::\1cRae. 

Captain C. C. 
IcIntush was Chaplain oi the Unit. but was not 
called out for service \\,ith it. 
During the years 191...J. to 19I8 the folIo\\-ing officers, sixty in all. 
were transferred to C.E.F. Units: 

l\1. W, Morrison and]. G. ] ohnstone. 
Caþ ta ins. 
]. :\IcIsaac. . 
\V. G. ::\IcRae. 

D. A. McRae. 
K. L. McKay, 
M. D. l\fcKeigan. 

A. J. McInnis. 
G. M. McNie1. 
J. D. McIntyre, 
W. J. Brothers. 
C. McDermid. 
G. B. Morley. 
J. '\T. 1\1 addin. 
]. H. McIvor. 
C. F. Gallant. 
A. E, Wilcox. 
S. Schoefield. 
J. A. McDonald. 
David Neil. 
P. W. Anderson. 
]. D. McNiel. 
D, H, McKenzie. 
L. G. McCorrison. 

J. A. ::\lcKinnon. 
J. A. Rankin. 
C. Campbell. 
A. 'V. ::\fcLean. 
W. A. Livingstone. 
T. D. A. Purves. 
R. A. Pertus. 
G. D. Crowell. 
C. R. ::\fcKenzie. 
W. E. Beaton. 
1\1. J. Dryden. 
Alex. McDonald. 
A. H. \Valker. 
C, Hol1and, 
R. Flemming. 
\V. R. 1\1cAskiII. 
A. M. Fraser. 
26 4 

\\". ,V. Xicholson. 
D. ::\IcKinnon. 
. A ::\fcKinnon. 

S. D. ::\'forrison. 
C. "". Sutherland. 
D. N. 1\fcDonald. 
W. H. 
B. Campbell. 
F. ]. McCharles. 
]. A. Hol1and. 
M. \\T. McKinnon. 
H. C. Verner. 
T. C. King. 
r. McDonald. 
M. J. McRae, 
A. S. Henry. 
D. S. Carey, 
J. B. Fraser. 
Theodore Chisholm 


From a total of 344 other ranks who came out with the Battalion 
at the commencement of the \Var 1 3Il volunteered for service Over- 
seas. It took time to train a sufficient number of recruits to replace 
these men, but withín six months all had been transferred to C.E.F. 
Units and were on their way to France. Altogether the Battalion 
during its period of service sent 3,632 men to the Front, and it was 
a difficult matter at all times to retain a sufficient number of men 
to perform the necessary duties. 
The eight Companies of the Battalion were called upon to per- 
form Garrison Guard and Outpost duties at important shipping 
points, wireless and cable stations, not only in Cape Breton but also 
at Canso. For defence purposes the troops at Marconi Towers, 
Glace Bay, Louisburg and Canso erected blockhouses and wire 
entanglements, built redoubts and dug trenches, in addition to 
carrying into effect a syllabus of training designed better to fit the 
men for their more strenuous work with the Expeditionary Force. 
The Battalion was demobilized June 291 1918, and the follow- 
ing officers were transferred to "F" Company, 6th Battalion, 
Canadian Garrison Regiment, who assumed the duties previously 
performed by the 94th :- 
Capt. A. J. McNiel. 

J. A. :McDonald._ 
L. E. McDonald. 

J. D, McRae. 
.\, J, McDonald. 
Dan McKenzie, 

Bert Campbell. 
J. R. Fraser. 

:Major :11. J. McDonald, Quartermaster, was employed as the 
representative of the A.D. of S. & T. in Cape Breton, and :Major 
D. McDonald, lViedical Officer, was attached to the A.D,l\I.S., 1Iili- 
tary District No.6. The undermentioned officers were relieved 
from duty and returned to their homes:- 
Lieut.-Cot. A. D. McRae. 
Major W. G. McRae. 
Major J. Darke (attached from 4th P.E.I. Heavy Battery). 
Capts. D. P. 2\lcRae. D. l\IcKenzie. J. A. Kiley, J. L. McKinnon. 
Lients. S. A. Reeves, J. D. Aucoin. 

,C.O.'s and men in Class 1 of the ::\[ilitary Service Act, and 
tho,>e who were willing to be transferred, were handed over to 
"F" Company, 6th Battalion. C.E.F., for duty in Cape Breton. 
18 26 5 


The following 94th officers transferred to C.E.F. Units were 
awarded decorations:- 

Iajor P. \V. _-\nderson......,...,....... :\Iilitary Cross. 
:1Iajor 1\1. D. McKeigan.........."..... French Croix de 
Capt. \V. _-\. Livingstone."......... . ..
]ilitary Cross and Bar 
Capt. G. B. :Morley....,................ ,
Jilitary Cross. 
Lieut. G. :\1. McNeiL................,., :\IiIitary Cross, 
Lieut. \V. E. Beaton............,..,...., :\IiIitarv Cross. 
Lieut. A. S. Henrv.............,........ :\Jilitar
T Cross. 
Lieut. ). D. :\IcIntyre.................... :\IiIitary Cross. 
lieut. A. E. \\'iIcox.............,.....,. :\Jilitary Medal. 
The following officers were killed in action or died of wounds:- 

Iajor P. \V. Anderson, :1I.C. 
Capt. :\1. W. McKinnon. 
Capt. W. E. Beaton, M.C. 
Capt. Aubrey McKinnon. 
Lieutenants A, H. Walker, W. R. McAskiII, J. A. 
Donald, J. H. McIvor, J. A. HÇ>IIand, A. :\1. Fraser, 
R. A. P ertus. 
It is impossible at the present time to obtain a nominal roll of 
the N,C.O.'s and men who fell on the field of honor. The list is a 
long one, and in many Cape Breton homes. mothers, wives. sisters 
and sweethearts mourn with proud resignation the lads who will 
not return. 
 either is it possible to obtain a complete list 0 f 
decorations awarded. The summary that fol1ows has been compiled 
from incomplete, unofficial sources: 
D.S.O, .............................................., I 
M.C. ...........................................,..... 14 
Bar .to M.C. .......................................... 2 
D.C.M. ............................................. ". IS 
1\1,:\1. ....,........................................... 79 
Bar to ::.\l.M. ......................................... 10 
M.S.M, ...........,......................... . . . . . . . . . 4 
Despatches ........................................... 3 
Croix de Guerre ..................................,'. 2 
The undermentioned N.C.O,'s and men obtained commissions: 
Sergt. G. ?\IcL. Matheson (Major, 25th Bn.) D.S.a., ::.\I.C.. 1\I.M.. Despatches. 
Pte. Jas. A. Anderson (Capt.. 85th Bn.).. ., M.C. 
Corp, C. J. Oram (Lieut., 25th Bn.)...,... .l\I.c. 
Corp. D. A. Livingstone (Lieut.. 25th Bn.) ..1\1.::.\1. 
Corp. K. ::.\Torrison (Lieut" Can, Eng.),.... M.M, and Bar. 
Pte, Thos. Toone (Lient., Can, Eng,).. . ., . .M.C.. D.C.M,. M.M. 
C, S.-M. R. Roberts (Lieut., 25th Bn.)..... .D.C.M. 
Pte. J. R. Burchel1 (Capt., 85th Bn.).,....,. l\T .C. and Bar. 
Pte. H. N, McNeil (Capt" 85th Bn.)....... M.C. 
Pte. W, V. McKinnon (Lieut.. 25th Bn.),. .M.M. 
Pte. \1. Gray (Capt.. Can. Eng.)..,.."..,. !\LC.. :\LM. 


Under the reorganization scheme of the Canadian l\Iilitia the 
94th Regiment is wiped off the slate and is succeeded by the 1st 
Battalion, Cape Breton Highlander:, (85th Battalion, C.E.F.). The 
officers, K.C.O.'s and men of the old Regiment, who served in it for 
years before the fateful summer of 1914, cannot view its passing 
without a certain measure of sadness and regret. The spirit of 
comradeship that existed among all ranks encouraged them to carry 
on through many difficulties in years of peace and enabled them at 
a few hours' notice to proceed in full strength to their allotted 
stations. on the declaration of war. 
Inspired by the Regiment's ancient motto. .. Dileas d'on 
Bhrataich" (" True to the Flag"), every man who was physically 
fit, and man) who were not, volunteered for service Overseas. 
They did their duty nobly and gave their country a full and over- 
flowing measure of splendid service. The memory of our comrades 
whose mortal remains sleep in the stricken fields of France and 
Flanders will be held in affectionate recollection as long as life lasts. 
Of them the soldier poet of 
ova Scotia, Dr. J. D. Logan, a ser- 
geant of the 85th Battalion, who served with many officers and men 
transferred to that Unit from the 94th, writes: 

"They gave the AU that men can give; 
They gave themselves that men might live, 
They are Christ's heroes. Lo. on their brows Love's diadem! 
o God of Righteous Battles, let it be well with them," 

26 7 



T HE Composite Battalion was formed at Halifax from Com- 
panies drawn from the ,lVIilitia Regiments of Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island to replace the 
Royal Canadian Regiment, which was transferred to Bermuda 
shortly after the outbreak of hostilities. 
Companies consisting of three officers and fifty-six other ranks 
were supplied by the 67th, 69th, 7Ist, 
74th, 75th, 76th, 82nd and 93rd Regi- 
ments, and arrived at Halifax on Sep- 
temher 8th and 9th, 1914, taking Over at 
once garrison duties from the 66th Regi- 
ment, P.L.F., which proceeded to York 
Redoubt for outpost duty. 
The following guards were furnished: 
Quarter Gnard, "-T ellington Barracks; 
Gun \\Thad; King's \Vhad; Lumber 
Yard; Station Hospital; Grain Elevator; 
LIEUT.-COL. H. L. CHIPMAN. X orth Ordnance; Dry Dock; Ridhmond 
Pier and Rockhead Hospital. \Veekly 
Guards were also mounted at Fort Clarence, Fort Cambridge, Fort 
Ogilvie and Point Pleasant Battery. 
The Battalion was commanded by Lieut.-Cot. A. E. Carpenter, 
R.C.R., with Capt. \1. E. Roscoe as Adjutant: 
The Company officers were :-" A " Company (67th Regiment) 
-Capt. C. G. 
IcLaughlin, later transferred to 64th Battalion, 
C.E.F.; Lieut. C. Rideout, I45th Battalion. C.E.F.; Lieut. C. E. 
Williams, 55th Battalion, C.E.F. "B" Company (Ó9th Regiment) 
-l\fajor \Vhitman, resigned and replaced by Capt. 1\1. S. Parker, 
II2th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. S. :\'IcN eil; Lieut. J. C. \\Tillett, 
I65th Battalion, C.E,F. "C" Company (7Ist Regiment)-Cai)t. 
- - 268 


H. ""oodbridge, 55th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. C. A. Good, R.F.C.; 
Lieut. B. \Yade, resigned and replaced by Lieut. F. Fitzpatrick, 
55th Da.ttalion, C.E.F. " D" Company (74th Regiment)-Capt. 
S. S. \Yetmore, 55th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. J. A. Sproul, re- 
signed; Lieut. M. P. Gillis, 112th Battalion, C.E.F. "E " Company 
(75 th Regiment)-Capt. \V. L. \\"hitford, 25th Battalion, C.E.F.; 
Capt. A. Berringer, resigned; Lieut. C. C. :Morash, 112th Battalion, 
C.E.F. "F" Company (76th Regiment)-Capt. H. Dickie, resigned 
and replaced by Capt. \V. H. J. 
Ioxsom, l06th Battalion, C.E.F.; 
· Lieut. O. G. Heard, l06th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. C. l\:1ajor, 40th 
Battalion, C.E.F. " G" Company (82nd Regiment)-l\lajor F. 
Boulter, later transferred to 105th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. A. 
l\IcLeod, 105th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. G. E. Full, 40th Battalion, 
C,E.F. "H" Company (93rd Regiment)-1Iajor G. R. Oulton; 
Capt. J. N. l\IcDonald, 106th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. D. Anderson. 
In addition to the duties already enumerated, Guard was 
mounted over prisoners of war at the Citadel and at the Detention 
Barracks, l\Ielville Island. The prisoners were German officers 
and men capturd on the high seas, with a sprinkling of civilians, 
some of whom were found on captured ships; others were residents 
of Canada whom it was found necessary to intern. 
:1arch, 1915, the Interment Station at Amherst was opened, 
and two and one-half Companies under command of :\Iajor G. R. 
Ou1ton, with Capt. J. N. :\lcDonald, Lieuts. Davidson and Sproul, 
were sent there, and were replaced by one Company from each of 
the following Regiments :-78th Regiment-Capt. J. A. l\lcKenzie, 
later transferred to 85th Battalion, C.E.F.; Capt. J. R. 1\laxwell, 
I06th Battalion, C.E.F. 81st Regiment-Capt. E. S. Doering; 
Lieut. J. H. \Vallàce, 64th Battalion, C.E.F., killed in action; Lieut. 
W. W. Slack, 40th Battalion, C.E.F. 93rd Regiment-Capt. J. A. 
l\IcPherson, l06th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. P. Boucher, 165th 
Battalion, C.E.F. 
Lieut. E. \V. Joy reported for duty to replace Lieut. C. S. :Major, 
transferred to 40th Battalion, and assumed the duties of Fortress 
Intelligence Officer. Other officers on duty were :Major F. S. 
Heffernan (o3rd), Quartermaster: Lieut. Keith Rogers. (C.S.C.), 
Signalling Officer; and Lieut. R. Innes (8 1St), Musketry Instructor, 
afterwards O.C. 106th Battalion. 
26 9 

4.RT J..V TllE GRE.-lT Tr.--1R 

Previous to July, 19Ih. each Company Commander had his own 
account with the District Paymaster and was responsible for all pay- 
ments to his officers and men. \ "hen the Battalion was recognized 
as a Unit it was allowed a Paymaster. Capt. H. B. \
erge received 
the appointment and retained it until transferred to the 
 ova Scotia 
Forestry Battalion in June. 19Ii. when Capt, \Y. S. Drignell took 
over his duties. 
The Battalion suffered considerably in the explosion of Decem- 
ber 6, 19 1 ï, losing six men killed and 
ï per cent. of the X.c.O"
men injured. Une officer and two 
.C.O"s died in hospital from . 
injuries received. The more serious injuries were received by men 
on guard at Richmond Pier, X orth Ordnance and Dry Dock 
the men killed. excepting one. who ,,"as killed in the barrack r00111. 
were members of these Guards. :\. 
nowstorm with high ,,"ind 
which raged for thirty-six hours a fter the explosion made the 
barracks almost untenable. as \,"indo,,":, and doors werc gone and no 
fires could be laid until the chimneys were inspected. The morale 
of the men was good during this period. 
rany X,C.():s and men 
had their families living near the barrack
. a large numher of \"hom 
were killed and injured. 
The first draft of one hundred men from the Compositc 
Battalion was sent Overseas in January. 1916. under command of 
Lieuts. \V. S. Brown and O. Thorne. A second draft of fifty-six 
men, under command of Lieut. \\-. R. Clark. sailed on June 26. 
19 16 . A number of men were transferred to the R.C.R. Base 
Depot from time to time and were included in Overseas drafts sent 
by that Unit. 
\Vhen the ::\Iilitary Service Act came in force in 1918, 12 5 
men in the Composite Battalion, who came under its provisions. 
were sent Overseas. The remainder were transferred to the 6th 
Battalion, Canadian Garrison Regiment. All the ;,,>enior officers 
were transferred to their 
Iilitia Units. with the exception of 
J. E. .l\Iorse. who was transferred to the 6th Battalion, C.G.R. 
The junior officers were transferred tû the Depot Battalion. 1st 
Nova Scotia Regiment, excepting Lieut. Vl. H. \\Thidden and Lieut. 
I. C. Banks, who were taken on the strength of No. 6 District 
Depot and appointed respecti\"ely n.c. Casualty Company and Dis- 
charge Section. 

27 0 


The following officers were on duty when the Unit was dis- 
banded :-Lieut.-Col. H. L. Chipman, Officer Commanding; :Major 
G. R. Oulton, Second in Command; 
Iajor E. K. Eaton, R.C.R., 

\dj\ltant; Lieut. \Y. B. 
-\rthur, Assistant 
-\djutant; Capt. \V. W. 
Brignell, Paymaster; 
lajor F. S. Heffernan, Quartelimaster; 
::\Iajor D. G. 
IosslUain, O.C. .. _-\ .. Company: 
rajor F. Boulter, 
a.c. .' B" Company; 
Iajor J. E. 
Iorse, O.C. ., C" Company; 
Capt. G. L. \Yhidden, 0, C. ,. D" Company; Capt. S. L. 
Lieut. \Y. L. Coleman, Lieut. R. J. ColwëIl. Lieut. H. C. Crosby, 
Lieut. C. 
lcLellan. Lieut. J. R. Campbell, Lieut. \V. E. 
Lieut. \\
. H. \Yhidden. Lieut. 1. C. Banks. 
()ther officers who had served \vith the Battalion in 1916 and 
lï ,,-ere as follo\\ s :-Lieut. C. _-\. Yaughan, later transferred to 
I06th and resigned; Capt. A. Stirling, I45th; Lieut. \Y. Ross, 3 8th 
Battalion: Lieut. S. Rogers, R.C.R.: Lieut. St. C. Stayner, un- 
attached; Lieut. S. Bradford, R.F.C.: Lieut. H. F. Arthur, 
R.K.A.S.; Lieut. R. _-\sher, R.F.C. 
The following officers of the R.C.R. also served: _-\s Adjutant, 
Lieut. G. L. P. Grant Suttie. who replaced Capt. 11. E. Roscoe, 
transferred to the 219th Battalion, being later relieved by Capt. 
V, \Y. S. Heron, who in turn was relieved by :\Iajor Eaton. 

2ï I 



T HIS Unit was authorized on September 25, 1917, for the 
purpose of looking .after the Qraftees under the :l\Iilitary 
'\ct. Lieut.-Co!. H. Flowers, formerly of the 64th 
and 25th Battalions, C.E.F., was appointed to command, with 
Lieut.-Co!. D. S. Bauld, 25th, Second in Command. The original 
officers of this Unit were all officers with 
service at the Front in France, invalided 
home, and unable to return on account of 
various disabilities. It was due to this 
experience that they were able to handle 
this Unit, which eventually reached the 
proportions of a Brigade with credit to the 
Province of Nova Scotia and themselves. 
The strength of a Dattalion is roughly 
1.000 all ranks, and at times the strength 
of the 1st Depot Battalion, 
ova Scotia 
Regiment, reached over 5,000. 


...,. " 




The original senior officers were: 
1\fajor F. L. Stephens............"....... 64th and 14th. 
Major O. G Hf'ard........,..............I06thand8ïth. 
;\1aior ,V. McPherson".."".....,..".. II2th and 87th. 
Major G. L. Mott.............",......,. ..(14 t h and 13th, 
Maj or Stanley............................. C,F.A. 

Later the following were attached: 
l\1ajor Inman........."....,............,......... .Io.c;th. 
,!\1ajor W. Grant.............,....,..............,. 25th. 
Lieut.-Co!. N. H. Parsons.......,..",.....,....... 246th. 
Adjutant. Caotain Simpson.....,...".,..."....,... 85th. 
Pavmaster, Capt Geo. Farish............."., "" 25th. 
Qu"artermaster, Capt. \V. St.c. T ngraham. . . ' . , . . . . . . 25th. 
27 2 


From time to time new officers who had not seen Overseas 
service were attached, and these were sent Overseas \vith drafts as 
soon as they could be gotten ready. 
The real work of the Unit commenced about February I, 1918, 
because quarters for mobilization were not available earlier, on 
account of the de
.truction of property caused by the Halifax ex- 
plosion in December, 1917. The work was carried on at the A..r- 
1l10ries, Halifax, under most trying conditions. ","\" Company was 
quartered at Charlottetown to take care of the Prince Edward Island 
draftees, and remained there doing this work until demobilized. 
" B" Company was moved to Amherst early in 
Iarch, 1918, re- 
maining there until :\Iay 16th, when it joined the Battalion at 
Aldershot, Kova Scotia, the Companies in barracks at Halifax 
ha\"ing moved to I\ldershot on l\Iay 13th, 
From that date the work of the Cnit was extremely strenuous. 
Draftees were ordered in at the rate of 250 daily, and the Camp 
soon assumed the appearance of a Brigade. The men were medi- 
cally examined, inoculated, vaccinated, and their dental troubles 
administered to. They were clothed, trained, and when they had 
become sufficiently expert to form fours. were equipped and sent 
to England to complete the training so well begun here. 
This Unit dealt with all men coming under the l\'Iilitary Service 
Act, who were either ordered to report or were arrested for some 
default under the Act, and in this way about 14,000 men passed 
through the files of the Unit. Of course, there was considerable 
shrinkage, because many did not come up to the necessary physical 
standard, and because others became casualties. In all some 5,000 
recruits were sent Overseas. 
The largest draft was one of 1.700. This draft paraded at 
8 p.m. on August 3, 1918; the roll was called, documents checked, 
etc. The men were then dismissed and ordered to parade and 
entrain at 4.30 a.m. on August 4th. Every man of the 1,700 an- 
swered the roll call but one. He was late for parade but in time to 
entrain. His excuse was that he had been married after being 
missed the night previous. Under the circumstances the O.C. 
forg-ave his tardiness. This was the last draft to be sent. The 
\Yar in Europe began to take on a more cheerful aspect; the 

-1T TV4-1R 

farmers and fishermen were required for han-e:,ting, etc.. and some 
lea ve was given. 
In September the Unit moved back to the Halifax Common for 
winter quarters. )J ovember I Ith the Armistice was signed, and 
almost immediately the welcome order to demobilize was received. 
Iarch. IqIg. all the affair:, of the l"'nit ,,-ere a matter of history. 



.. B" UJ.YIT, JI.H.C.C. 

I .K the spring of 19 1 5, when the casualties of the Canadian Over- 
seas Forces commenced returning to Canada, the best method:, 
of dealing with them had to be con
idered. The fir
t men to 
return were not for medical treatment. They were dealt with by 
the Discharge Depots at Halifax and Quebec. At these points the 
men received their discharge from the army. their tickets to their 
homes, a suit of civilian clothes, and the balance of pay due to them. 
Towards the fall of 1915 the 
ick and wounded commenced 
returning. at first in small numbers: and they were also dealt with 
by the Discharge Depots. Those not requiring further medical 
treatment were discharged and sent to their homes. with three 
months' pay, paid in three monthly instalments. Those who re- 
quired further medical treatment were also discharged. but were 
5ent to the Convalescent Home nearest to their homes. These Con- 
valescent Homes were small. and most of them \vere placed at the 
disposal of the Goyernment by private individuals. They were a11 
equipped by the Red Cro
s. LO.D.E.. and other local societies 
organized throughout Canada by the women of Canada. In the 
autumn of 1915 the 
Iilitary Hospitals Commission \\
as created. 
with authority to accept and administer these Homes. The powers 
of this Commission ,,'ere almost unlimited as to their control. 
administration. and creation of Hospitals and Convalescent Home::: 
for the treatment of Canada's troops returning- from Overseas. 
In the spring of 1916 the sick and wounded returned in great 
numbers. and the 
r ilitary Hospitals Commission having foreseen 
this. was well prepared to receive them. having provided large 
Hospital and Convalescent Home accommodation throughout 
Canada from coast to coast. 
The question now before the GO\-ernment .was how were the 
men to be kept under discipline in the
e Hospitals and C011\"alescent 
Homes when the men \\
ere no longer soldier... having received their 


discharge from the army when passing through the Discharge 
Depots at ports of arrival. It was finally decided that those who 
required further medical treatment would not receive their dis- 
charge on arrival, but would be forwarded to the Hospital 
or Convalescent Home nearest to their homes and these men 
would receive their discharge from the army when their medical 
treatment was brought to a finalty. 
To take charge of the administration 
and discipline of these men, in the 
various Hospitals and Homes through- 
out the country, the :\Iilitary Hospitals 
Commission Command was created in 
June, 1916, "D" Unit being the Unit 
charged with the administration of the 
Hospitals and Homes throughout the 
:\laritime Provinces. The Officer Com- 
manding this Pnit during the whole 
period of its existence-two years-was 

Iajor J. F. Taylor, of Halifax, an 
officer who had done excellent service in 
the Pay Branch, and who was selected to command the l\faritime 
Province Unit on account of his tact and business knowledge. 
:Major Taylor organized and administered the affairs of "B " Unit 
in a highly efficient manner at all times, showing great sympathy 
to the men under his command. Owing to his great tact and 
business ability, the Unit was second to none in Canada. 
The duties performed by "B" Unit were manifold. Military 
discipline was adopted to a certain extent in all M.H.C.C. Institu- 
tions, but had to be administered with regard to circumstances. 
The officers saw only the aftermath of the terrible cataclysm 
enacted "over there," and their hearts were absorbed in the work 
of repairing broken humanity. 
The personnel of the Staff of " B " Unit on l\1arch I, 1917, was 
as follows: 





Major J. F. Taylor..,. ..... .... .,. .... '" . . Officer Commanding. 
Capt, C. M. Mosher........................ Adjutant. 
Capt. F, A. R. Gow...........".",......,'lfeòical Officer. 
Captain Clarke...,..,...................,.. Ouartermaster. 
Capt. A. A. Peachy..,...........,........,. Paymaster. 
27 6 

il B" UNIT, M.H.C.C. 

On November I, 1917, Capt. C. M. l\Iosher resigned as Adjutant 
and Capt. Walter Whitford was appointed to that office and carried 
on until ., B" Unit was dissolved. In November, 19 1 7, Capt. H. C. 
Sircom, a returned officer, was appointed Paymaster to succeed 
Capt. Peachy, who had been transferred to the Discharge Depot 
. Command. 
The Hospitals and Convalescent Homes that were turned over to 
" B " Unit by the Military Hospital Commission consisted of the 
following :- 
The Parks Convalescent HospitaL....... St, John, 
Ross Convalescent Hospital...,..... . . . . . Sydney, N ,S. 
Clayton Convalescent Home...... .... . ,. Halifax, N.S. 
Dalton Sanitarium...................... ,
orth Wiltshire, P.E.I. 
Ross Military Convalescent Home was presented to the 
11.H.C.C. by Commander and l\lrs. J. K. L. Ross, of Sydney, C.B., 
on June I, 19 1 5. 
The personnel in each of these Hospitals were transferred to 
the 11.H.C.C., and, with the exception of a few minor transfers, 
carried on in the same efficient manner that had characterized them 
from the organization of the 11.ILC.C. By 
constructing and taking over other large 
buildings, the 
r .H.C.C. soon made ade- 
quate arrangements for dealing with the 
large number of soldiers returning from 
Overseas. Pier 2 having been taken 
oyer by the :\Iilitia Depar
ment for a 
Clearing J [ospital, it was transferred to 
I.H.C.C., February IS, 1917. Neces- 
sary alterations delayed the opening of 
this Hospital until April I, 19 1 7. Its 
worth as a Hospital was well demon- C \PT. \V ALlER \VHITFOim 
strated both while under the command of 
the ::\l.H.C.C. and later under the command of the Clearing Services. 
Pine Hill Presbyterian Theological College, Halifax. was taken 
over by the 
I.H.C,C. as a Convalescent Hospital on :March I, 19 1 7, 
and Capt. 1\'1. S. Hunt was placed in charge, with 
Iajor Philip 
\\' eatherbe, Senior 
ledical Officer, and Capt. John Cameron, Resi- 
I edical Officer. Capt. Dexter 
IcCurdy was also a member 
of the 
Iedical Staff but wac; transferrecl on Oyerseas 
ervice in 





_\ugust, 1918. This Hospital, situated as it was, on the shores of 
the Northwest Arm, Halifax. proved a great boon to the returned 
convalescent soldiers. Its location adjoining Point Pleasant Park 
was an ideal one for the care and comfort of convalescent soldiers. 
There \Vas an abundance of pure air, shady trees, and pleasant 
walks, and though quíte removed from Halifax City and its noisy 
traffic, it was still sufficiently near to permit men able to walk to 
get a tram car running into the city, where they could enjoy a few 
hours with friend
 at a theatre or else\\'here. At the rear of the 
Home the waters of the Northwest Arm gave the men ample 
opportunity for boating. bathing and various other water sports, of 
which they took full advantage during the summer months, It is 
the unanil110us opinion of the returned soldiers that Pine Hill was 
the 1 deal Convalescent Hospital in Nova Scotia. 
In May, 1917, the :Moxham Convalescent Hospital at Sydney, 
C.H" was opened, with 
ajor F, O'Neil in command, l\'Iajor 
(rN eil who had been in command of the Ros
 Convalescent Home 
from December, 1916, was an efficient officer and discharged his 
duties in a very satisfactory manner. 
During the latter part of July, 1916. an arrangement was made 
with Dr. F. A. :Miller, of the Kentville Sanitarium. to deal with 
tuberculosis patients; for a great number of the men returning 
from Overseas were pronounced tubercular. \i\ïthin a very few 
days Kentville Sanitarium was full of patients, and although from 
time to time large additions were built to the Sanitarium, it was 
always taxed to its utmost capacity. In fact during the summer of 
IQI7, many hospital tents were erected on the Sanitarium grounds. 
for the accommodation of tubercular patients, and when autumn 
with its cold winds became too severe, many patients had to be sent 
to their own homes, to be treated until room was available at the 
Sanitarium. when they were recalled. Great credit is due to Dr. 

Iiller for the splendid manner in which he dealt with the patients 
under his control. Capt. A. G. Forster, a returned officer, was in 
charge of Administration and Discipline 'of the Kentville Sanitarium 
and was a conscientious, hard-working officer. 
On July I. 1917. " R" Unit had on its strength 1,886 officers 
and other ranks aU receiving medical treatment. '_\bout 50 per cent. 
of this number were out-patients. with home leave, These men 
27 8 

.. B ., F_YIT J JI.H.C.C. 

were recalled to the HospÌtal from time to time as their physical 
condition demanded. 

 \bout this time X ew Brunswick became a ::-eparate 1Iilitary 
District, and it ,,-as decided to organize a separate 
I.II.C.C. Unit 
for X ew Brunswick. This was accordingly done. and the transfer 
of men anù documents was completed in July, 19 I ï. 
In the early spring of i917 construction work was begun on a 
Convalescent Hospital at Camp Hill. Halifax, and by October I. 
19 1 7, the building was completed sufficiently to receive patients. 
This hospital was fitted up \vith all modern medical appliances and 
proved a Godsend to the people of Halifax. ,,-hen 0
1 December 
6, 191ï, the city was shocked by the terrific explo::;ìon. 
At the opening of Camp Hill Hospital, Lieutenant .Black,,-ood 
was placed in charge by the 1I.H.C.C. and 1Iajor (now Lieut.-Col.) 
, C. 1Iorris was Senior 1 r edical Officer. Ali efficient Staff wa" soon 
organized \'\'hich carried on lmtil the Hospital \vas transferred to 
the A.l\1.C. on Decemher 6, 191ï. Immediately after the explosion 
all patients able to walk ,,-ere given home leave and the Hospital 
and Staff complete was turned over to the -:\fedical Relief Com- 
mission for the purpose of dealing \\-ith the 
ufferers of the ex- 
The writer of this article has \'isited Casualty Clearing Hospitals 
in Flanders on ,. Clearing Day" but never has he seen such human 
suffering as he saw at Camp Hill Hospital when he walked into the 
Hospital at 4 p.m. on December h. IqIï. The Hospital at Pier 2, 
also the office::; of the 1LH.C.C. were destroyed by the explosion. 
The Hospital was quickly rebuilt. but the offices were removed to 
Leith House. Hollis Street. Halifax. and these offices \vere retained 
until the Unit was disbanded. 
Iarch 31, 1918. the l\lilitary Hospitals Commission Com- 
mand was disbanded by an Order-in-Council. The military end of 
the work \Vas taken over by No, 6 District Depot. and the civiliat; 
end by the D,S.C,R. Final transfer of all equipment and records, 
etc.. of the 
.H.C.C. to 
o, 6 District Depot was effected on .-\pril 
18. 1918. 




I N common with other universities in the Empire, _\cadia emptied 
her halls "vhen the call to duty came. Her ideals had always 
been those directly opposed to war, but to carry out these 
ideals, it was necessary to participate in it. Between six and seven 
hundred Acadia men and women enlisted. There was no definite 
Unit formed by the Acadia men, but they were found in all de- 
partments of the service. Sixty were in the Nova Scotia High- 
land Brigade, mostly in " D" Company, 219th Battalion; and their 
Platoon, number 13, won the Brigade trophy for efficiency. Ten 
students left Acadia at one time with the 4th Universities Company 
Reinforcements, Princess Patricia Canadian Light Infantry. The 
attendance at the University was cut down to about one half, not- 
withstanding the fact that the number of young women remained 
constant. The Freshman class was unusually large. but as soon as 
the age of eighteen was reached, practically no fit man remained. 
Of the Acadia students, sixty-three lost their lives in service, sixty- 
two young men and one young woman. 
vVe have no definite figure'S concerning honors, but about eighty 
were conferred on Acadia men, one of which was the coveted 
Victoria Cross, the only one a warded to a college man in the 
Maritime Provinces, and, in fact, the only one awarded to a :Mari- 
time Province Unit. One of our Acadia men had the distinction 
of being the youngest Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army, 
commanding the loth Alberta when hventy-six years of age. He 
receivep the D.S.O. and two Bars. the l\lilitary Cross. was five 
times mentioned in dispatches, and was recommended for the 
Victoria Cross. The only colored chaplain in the British < \rmy 
was an Acadia man. In addition to those who enlisted in the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force. we had a number who enlisted \\Tith 

--1 UXn"ERSITJ" 

\mericans, and still others who enlisted with the British, all 
of \yhom gave splendid account of themselves. 
\\ hen the \Yar broke out. there was a branch of the C.O.T.C. 
at \cadia. but it "Tent out of busin
ss early because practically every 
member enlisted. The officer in charge of the C.O.T.C. for :l\Iilitary 
District Xo. 6 told me that a larger number of C.O.T.C. men went 
from Acadia than from any other 
Iaritime University. Since the 
\\Tar, many students have returned to the "Cniversity to complete 
their \\york. and. without exception. they are making excellent re- 
 \cadia has offered one year's free tuition to returned men, 
being the only university in Canada to do that. 
In 1919, the returned men at .\cadia met, and, after consultation, 
decided that something 
hould be done in the way of a :Memorial for 
those who had given their live
 in the \Yar. The suggestion \Vas 
made that this memorial should take the form of a Gymnasium, 
typifying the splendid physic::!l condition. the manly vigor. and 
sporting spirit of the boys who went Overseas. 
In 191...1. our G} mnasium had been destroyed by fire, alld a com- 
mittee of eight young men had been appointed to raise funds for a 
ne\\' Gymnasium. Of these eight. 
ix had dropped the burden of 
röponsibility of the Gymna
ium and had gone to war, one of whom 
was killed at Passchendaele, It seemed most fitting that their work 
should be carried out by those who were left, and the next of kin 
of all those who had gi\Ten their lives were consulted, and agreed to 
the proposal. 

-\s a result. this Gymnasium is now in process of construction, 
and will be a building in every way suitable as a 
Iemorial for those 
boys who have fallen, On 1\Iay 26. 1920, General Sir Arthur \\T. 
Currie. G.C.:\1.G.. K.C.B.. D.S.O., formerly Commander of the 
Canadian Corps in France, laid the corner stone of the new Gym- 
nasium and delivered an address on that occasion. 
\Vhile we feel that Acadia's part in the \Var was no more than 
it should have been, we are justly proud of the willing sacrifice, the 
ready response, and the splendid record made by our Acadia men. 




T HE activities of Dalhousie University in connection with the 
Great \\Tar may be considered under the following headings. 
(I) The ActivÌties -of the C.O.T.e.; (2) The Dalhousi
University Stationary Hospital No.7. C.E.F.: (3) Activities of the 
Staff; (4) Independent Undergraduate Enlistment. 
reat Britain was forced to 
declare war on Germany -on _ \ugust 4, 1914; so that when the 
University session o
 191..1- opened. it was under war conditions. 
The earliest corpo
ate war effort of Dalhousie University was a 
mass meeting in the Law Library, held on October 16, 1914, for 
the purpose of taking steps to form an O,T.e. The chair was 
taken by Earle C. Phinney, at that time President of the Council 
of Students. The meeting, which was most enthusiastic. was ad- 
dressed by President l\fackenzie, G. S. CampbeII, Chairman of the 
Board of Governors, and by Major \V. E. Thompson, Secretary of 
the Board. It was ultimately agreed to ask :Major Thompson to 
organize an O.T.C,: and all those willing to co-operate were invited 
to sign the roll. Ninety-two names were given in at once on the 
conclusion of the meeting: of these, five were whole-time Pro- 
fessors. Drill began at once in the South End Rink. Sergeant- 
IVfajor Graham of the Permanent Staff being instructor. 
Some of the original officers were: 
Major W. E. Thompson, O,C. 
Capt. D, Fraser Harris, Adjutant. 
Capt, Murray MacNeill. 
Capt. D. A. MacRae. 
Capt. George Henderson. 
Capt. A. W. Cogswell. 
Each was in command of a Platoon, 


_-\lumni and business men interested were permitted to join, and 
there was so much activity in the autumn of 1914 that by the middle 
of December the Corps was ready to be inspected by General Sir 
;:)am Hughes. .Minister of 1Iilitia. The inspection took place on 
December 18th in the South End Skating Rink. The maximum 
strength during the first winte.- session was close on 200. On 
4, lQ I 5. the Corps was inspected by General Rutherford, command- 
ing the Garrison. Lectures continued well on into the summer of 
19 1 5. 
By the ::'t:ssion of IqI6 Professor John Cameron, of London, 
had been appointed to the Campbell 
Iemorial Chair of Anatomy in 
Dalhousie Cniversity. and having had a considerable amount of 
military experience both with the Y olunteer Artillery in Scotland 
and with Infantry Y olunteers in England, was well qualified to take 
command of the O.T.C., .Major Thompson, as Lieutenant-Colonel. 
having been appointed to the Headquarters Staff as A.A.G. of 
l\Iilitary District No.6. This Professor Cameron did with the rank 
of 1Iajor. and retained the command and gave most of the systematic 
instruction during the remainder of the existence of the Corps. By 
arrangement with Colonel Papineau. commanding the R.S.I.. candi- 
dates for commissions were examined at Wellington Barracks. In 
this way a considerable number of members of the O.T.C. obtained 
commissions and were enabled to proceed Overseas with the variou" 
Units which were being formed as the \Var progressed. No less 
than seven officers who had passed through the D.U.C,O.T.C. went 
Overseas with the 219th Battalion of the Nova Scotia Highland 
Brigade. Practically every able-bodied male student was a member 
of the O.T.C. during the first winter session: and no less than 
twenty-five members of it were students from the affiliated Presby- 
terian College at Pine Hill. 
The session of 1916-17 was a very strenuous one. Drill took 
place in the evenings at the newly-erected ::\larket Building at the 
head of Duke Street. 
Iajor Cameron superintending the drill and 
also giving lectures either there or in the rooms of the Board of 
Trade. During each winter firing practice was systematically carried 
out at the miniature ranges erected in the Engineering Laboratory 
of the Technical College. Tn 
Tarch. I<)Jï. the Corp:'. wa:'. in
in the l\Iarket Building by 
Iajor Cooper of the R,S.I. The O.T.C. 
28 3 

,-rS P

is still in existence ready to become active again as soon as the 
University ís in possession of a drill hall. 
STATION.\RY HOSl'IT.-\L UKIT.-The origin of 
o, ï Stationary 
Hospital was the desire of the 
Iedical Faculty of the University to 
serve their country in the Great \\Tar. Early in September, 19 1 4, 
an offer was made to provide the personnel of a Casualty Clearing 
Station; this offer was renewed in the spring of 19 1 5, but the 
Federal Government was not at that time in a position to accept it. 
It was very generally felt that -the only School of l\Iedicine in 
laritime Provinces ought to have a representation on the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force. Those who were the most active 
in renewing the offer were ::\Iajor George 1\1. Campbell, l\Iajor C. V. 
Hogan, and Capts. J. R. Corston, 1\1. A. 1IacAulay. L. 
I moray 
and F. V. \Yoodbury. The Government accepted the offer on 
September 2ï, 1915. On November 1St. the old l\Iedical College 
building was occupied as rooms for headquarters. and enlistment 
and training began. On December 16th the Unit was inspected by 
General Benson, G.O.C., and by Co!. J. A. Grant, \.D.l\I.S,. :
District No.6. On December 31st the Hospital sailed from St. 
John, K.B., on H.Jl.S. 1I/etaga11la, arriving at Plymouth on January 
10, 19 16 . On February 5th the Cnit took over Shorncliffe 
Hospital, and on June 18, 1916. embarked for France. 
The personnel of the Dalhousie Hospital Unit \vas made up as 
follows: O.C., Lieut.-Colonel John Stewart, l\l[ajors E. V. Hogan 
and L. M. l\l[urray, Capts. :\1. A. l\lacAulay, V. N. 
lacKay, K. 
l\IacKenzie, E. K. l\IacLellan, S. J. MacLennan, D. .A. MacLeod
J. A. Murray, John Rankine, Frank V. Woodbury, Karl F, \Vood- 
bury. Lieut. S. R. Hakom, Lieut. and Quartermaster \Yalter 
Taylor. The Matron was l\1iss L. M. Hubley, and there were 
twenty-six nursing sisters. Of all other ranks there were one 
hundred and twenty-three men. Sixteen additional men were taken 
on at Shorncliffe, England. 
The Unit arrived home from active service early in the morning 
of St. George's Day, 1919, on the S.S. Belgic
' in the evening they 
were entertained at dinner at the Green Lantern in Halifax. Co!. 
John Stewart who returned a little later was entertained at a dinner 
given in his honor on June 20, 1919. 
28 4 


-\FF: I. The Facult}, of 
--1 rts alld Science. 
-The only full-time Professor in the Senate to go Uverseas on active 
sen-ice \yas Professor James Eadie Todd. 
L-\., who saw service 
with the D.E.F. in India and in 
Iesopotamia. Professor Todd, 
who remained with the troops until the end of the \Var, did not 
return to Dalhousie Cniversity. Professor Howard l\Iurray, LL.D., 
during tÍ1e first year of the \Yar, was a member of the O.T.C. 
IacX eill during the first year of the \Yar had command 
of a Platoon in the O. T.e. Professor J. X. Finlayson, :\I.Sc., 
entered the O. T.C. 3.t its formation and qualified for a commission 
in the infantry. :\Ir. J. \Y. Logan, 
I.A.. ""ent Overseas as Captain 
in the 25th Canadian Infantry Battalion, attained his majority in 
June. 1916, and saw :::,ervice ill France until the end of the \Yar. 
The Rey. II. .A. Kent. :\I.A., D.D., having passed through the O.T.C. 
obtained his Captain's commission on :\Iarch I. 1<)16. and went 
Over'ieas as a combatant in the 219th Battalion of the )J ova Scotia 
Highlanders, Captain Kent 
a\\" sen-ice until September, 19 1 7, 
when he was transferred to the Chaplain Sen-ice. in which he acted 
as .\djutant. He was also engaged in educational \york in London 
until he returned to Canada in 
Iay. 19H). 
Ir. Harry Dean, 
Examiner in l\Iusic, had command of a Platoon in the n.T.C., and 
qualified for a commission in the infantry. 
II. The Faculty of Lml',- The Dean of the Faculty of Law, 
Professor D. 
-\. :\IacRae. Ph.D., joined the O.T,C. and had com- 
mand of a Platoon during the first session. :\Ir. John E. Read. 
n,c. L. (Oxon.). B.. \, (Dal.). Rhodes Scholar, Lecturer on Real 
Property, enlisted in the 25th Battalion in X ovember, 1<)14, but was 
immediately transferred to the Canadian Field Artillery, and took 
an officer's training course at the Royal School of 
-'\rtillery, Kings- 
ton. In February. 191'=;. :\Ir. Read joined the 23rd Dattery of the 
C.F.A, at Fredericton and immediately proceeded Overseas. In 
July he was transferred to the Divisional Artillery (1st Canadian 
Division) and served in the 4th. 8th and 26th Batteries as Lieu- 
tenant, being promoted to the rank of Captain in July, 1916, on his 
transference to the 27th Battery. \Yhile Captain Read was .-\cting- 
:\Iajor he was wounded in January, 1917. From 
Iay, 1917. to 
:\T arch. 1918, he was Senior Gunnery Instructor at the Canadian 
School of Gunnery. being invalided to Canada in April, 19 1R 
28 5 


Captain Read was mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig's dispatches In 
June, 19 1 7. 
III. Faculty of Medic'Í1ze.-After Professor Cameron relÜl- 
quished the command of the O.T.C. he reverted to the rank of 
Captain, and entering the C.A.1VLC. became Resident Physician of 
the :Military Hospital which had been installed in the Presbyterian 
CclIege at Pine Hill, Halifax. 
Professor A. G. Nicholls, who attained the rank of Major, 
entered the C.A....\1.C. as Captain and discharged the duties of Chief 
Bacteriologist, Serologist and Sanitary Officer for the Halifax 
Garrison. Dr. \\;. H. Hattie, with rank of Captain, saw service 
with the C.A.::\I.C. in Halifax. Professor Fraser Harris, with rank 
of Captain, acted as Adjutant to the O.T.C. as long as that Corps 
remained in activity. The governors could not see their way to 
granting his request for leave of absence for Overseas service. 
Besides addressing recruiting meetings. Professor Harris gave 
courses of instruction in First Aid, under the auspices of the St. 
John Ambulance Association, to large classes of men, both 111 the 
service and to civilians, to women students and to cadets. 
The following members of the Staff gave their services in the 
C.A.M.C. in connection with the Halifax Garrison: Colonels George 
1\1. Campbell and M:. A. Curry; Capts. \V. Bruce Almon, 1\1. J. 
Carney, J. S. Corston, J. F. Lawlor, G. A. l\Iacintosh, Philip 
\ V eatherbe and Hugh Schwartz. 
IV. The Faculty of Dentistr.y.-AIthough the health of the Dean 
of this Faculty, Dr. Frank V/oodbury, precluded him from entering 
military service, both his sons were able to go Overseas. The elder, 
Frank Yalentine, who at the outbreak of the \Var was already 
acting D.A.D.:\I.S. in :\Tilitary District No.6, with the rank of 
Captain, \vas immediately mobilized. This appointment he resigned 
to become 
\djutant in the NO.7 Stationary Hospital. C.E,F., in 
19 1 5. 
In August, 1916, Captain \Voodbury was appointed to NO.3 
Canadian Intrenching Battalion, and in August, 1916, proceeded to 
the Front at Y pres with that Unit. Later he was posted to the 
qth Canadian Field Ambulance, and saw service at Ypres, on the 
Somme, at Vimy and at Loos. Having been promoted, l\1ajor 
\Voorlhury was recalled to headquarters at London for Staff duty. 


I-le was ultimately appointed A.D.
1.S. with the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel, returning to Ottawa for duty in November, 1919. 
Dr. A. \V. Cogswell, Professor of Dental Pathology and Thera- 
peutics, joined the O.T.C. in November, 1914, and as Captain had 
command of a Platoon. 
Dr. George Kerr Thomson, Professor of Crown and Dridge- 
work and -Ceramics and Oral Hygiene, at the outbreak of the \Yar
held the rank of Captain in the 63rd Halifax Rifles. Later he was 
transferred to the C.A.D.C. and appointed A.ssistant Director of 
Dental Services in :\Iilitary District Xo. 6. \Yhen, early in 1915, 
Sir Sam Hughes ordered the organization of the C.A,D.C. Major 
Thomson was made First Director of Dental Services. In 1916 the 
Dental Services at Valcartier Camp were organized by l\IajoF 
Thomson with the assistance of Captain F. H. Bradley of l\Iilitary 
District Ì'\o. 4. Dr. \V. \V. \Voodbury, Professor of Ortho- 
dontia, who had been appointed Captain in the C.A.D.C. in 
1918, proceeded to 
\ldershot Camp, where as A.D.D.S. for the 
Camp he had charge of all the Dental Services there. In October, 
1918, Dr. \Voodbury was posted for special duty at 
Island, where he remained until January, 1919, when he \"as ap- 
pointed to Camp J rill Hospital, to superintend the dental treatment 
of returned soldiers. He remained at this centre until general 
demobilization on X ovember 15, 1919. 
Undergraduate Enlistment.-From the very first hour of the 
\Yar, the attention of the undergraduates had been directed to 
joining the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Up to the date of the 
Armistice five hundred and eighty members of the University had 
enlisted for military or naval service. either Overseas or in Canada. 
Of these, sixty-seven are known to have lost their lives. and forty- 
four to have received decorations for di:-;tinguished service. ( )f 
those who were decorated, five lost their lives, The decorations 
are as follows: 

D.S.O......,..,.. ...'...... 
D.C.1\f.. . ., .......,..,'...,. 
.:\T.C.............",.".....,..,., . 
Croix de Guerre......,......,..,..,.,..... 

3. I with Bar 
32. 2 with Bar 

These do not include decorations awarded to members of the Staff. 
28 7 


The names of those winning the D.S.O. are: John Keeller 
M acKa y 0 f Pictou (Law' 1 3- . I 5 ), Colonel and 0, C. 22nd Battalion 
6th Howitzer Brigade, D.E.F. J. Layton Ralston 
Law '02-'03) 
Amherst, Colonel and O.C. of the 85th Battalion, C.E.F. Barry 
\Ventworth Roscoe. of Kentville (LL.B. '04), 
Iajor 5th C.
At the outbreak of the \Yar the Cniversity had on its books 39 8 
students, of whom go were women. Of the 308 male students of 
the session 1914-15 by the end of the session practically e\"ery third 
man had enlisted for military service. 
So many student::. left the Presbyterian Theological College, Pine 
Hill, Halifax, as to make it only the shadow of its former self. In 
the session of 191...1--15 as many as twenty...five students from Pine 
Hill were drilling with the O,T.C. : thirteen men from this College 
ultimately sa\\" sen"ice Uverseas. 
Of students of Engineering in the session of [() r..f.- IS. twenty- 
one were enrolled in the O.T.C. 
Of Law students twenty-two were on the roll of the O.T.C. 
during the first session. 
One cannot write of what Dalhousie University did in the \\"ar 
without a few words as to what she suffered. The only 
on of the 
Chairman of the Board of Governors, :\'Ir. G. S. Campbell. LL.D., 
Lieut. George Henderson Campbell, was killed near Y pres in l\Iay, 
19 16 . He had graduated B.A.. in the previous 
Iay. and was within 
only two days of his 21st birthday. Two Rhodes Scholars lost 
their lives in the Great \\Tar. namely: \Yalter 
Ielville Billman 
(B.A. '13). Lieut. 1st 
Iiddlesex Regiment. D.E.F.: and Harry 
Austin 1IacCIeave (B,A. '16). Lieut. 13th 
Iontreal Highlanders, 
C.E,F. \ì\Thile the accidental death of the young. the healthy and 
the brave is always a poignant <:::orrow. the passing of tho
 who are 
also the finest products of the academic culture of their day IS a 
catastrophe of the first magnitude. 



V THE rV.-lR. 

T HE Uni\-ersit\- of l
ing's College at \\ïndsor. )J.S., has al- 
ways been small 111 numbers. but always bIg in the SpIrIt 
it has displayed and in the type of men it has fostered. 
It was founded in Iï8<)-the oldest Uniyersity in the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas-by United Empire Loyalists, by men 
who readily gave up all they possessed in a material sense rather 
than forsake their allegiance to an ideal. It is not surprising 
then that at all time
 there have been King's men ready to answer 
the King's call and that the names of men such as Inglis and 
\ Y elsford are held in special re\"erence by their 
-llma JI ater. 
The spirit of loyal sen-ice and sacrifice that has actuated King's 
men ,vas at once evident in her sons ,vhen the Great Call came in 
] <)J..-t-. and h:ing's has e\-ery reason to be proud of her record of 
loyalty and devotion in the Great \Yar. 
Iore than four hundred 
of her sons \vere at the King's side during that fierce struggle for 
f rceclom. 
In H)I-t- there were at least Ì\veh-e King's men. including seven 
Generals. holding con1111is
ion:, in the Imperial Army and the Cana- 
dian Permanent Forces. 
Fourteen \'olunteer
 sailed \vith the First Contingent of the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force. four of ,,-hom \yere killed in action. 
The first King's man to make the Great Sacrifice was Capt. G. L. B. 
Concanon. \yho \vas killed in the .Dardanelles Campaign while 
sen'ing \YÌth the 2nd Battalion of _-\ustralian Infantry. 
In the Second Contingent were some thirty-five students and 
graduates of the College and a number of "Old Boys" of the 
Amongst the notahle enlistments from College during the \Yar 
were the nine \yho volunteered for servìce in the Cycle Corps of the 
2nd Contingent, and some Ì\venty. mostly students. \vho enlisted 
19 28<) 



together in the 193rd Battalion, Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. 
This latter represented an enlistment of about 50 per cent. of the 
student Lody then in residence at King's College and included one 
of her Professors. 
During the period of the \\Tar the largest nutnber of male 
students in attendance at King's College was forty-eight, and this 
number was reduced to a few physically unfit men in 1917, and yet 
sixty-seven students actually enlisted from the College, and ten of 
them made the supreme sacrifice. In all twenty-three King's men 
fell in action on the Field of Honor. 
So reduced was the student body that when the Military Service 
Act came into effect there was not one physically fit student left to 
come under the provisions of that Act. 
Early in 19 1 5 a contingent of the Canadian Officers' Training 
Corps was organized at King's College under Professor Sturley as 
Officer Commanding, and did very useful work not only amongst 
the students at College, but also amongst the young men of YVindsor, 
the seat of King's College. Its active life, however was short, 
for within about twelve months of its organization practically the 
whole of the personnel of the Corps had enlisted for Overseas 
Amongst the honors gained by King's men during the \\Tar were: 

O. B. Jones...".............. ,D.S.O, 
]. P. Silver,...,........,.,... .n.s.a.. C.RE. 
C. Hill...."....,.......,.,... n.5.0. 
C. R. E. "\ViIIets,.........".,. n.5.0, 
H. A. Kaulback,..............,O.B.E. 
A. E. Andrew...,............."1\I.C. 
G. D. CampbelL.......,......, M ,C. 
R. H. Morris................,. :\1.C. 
C. V. Strong."...,......,..,. 
C. CampbeIl......,.,........,.l\I.C. 
\V. G. Ernst....,.. ... . ., ., . .. . U.C. and Bar. 
G. B. 1\lfurray..................M.C. 
R. H. Tait.,...............,.. :\1.c. 
D. 1. Teed...........,......,.M.C. 
P. L. Parlee...,...............n.c.
W. E. "\Varburton,.....,...,., D.C.M. 
G. L. Jones..",........,...,..n.C.M. 
C. Blanchard.................. '\T.
T. W. "!\favnard,..,....""... 'L:\T. 
H. R. Po01e,.,..,....."..,... Legioll of Honor. 
R. H. Stewart....,....,. _ , _ , _ .OrMr of St. George of Russia. 
G. F. Mason... . . . , . , . . . . . . . .Croix òe Gnerre. 
29 0 


Of the many who distinguished themselves by gallant service, 
whether officially recognized or not, the record of a few of the 
younger generation must suffice as typical of all. 
T\\'o of the first students to enlist were Edward Jeffery and 
George :Mason. They enlisted together in the ranks of the First 
Contingent, lïth Dattalion, and went over to France together with 
the L.J-th Battalion, 1st Canadian Division. For sixteen months 
they fought side by side-all through the terrible winter of "19 1 4- 
19 1 5 in the Ypres Salient-and came through that fiery ordeal un- 
scathed. They returned to England together for their commissions, 
training together at Cro\\"borough. l\Iason returned to France 
almost immediately after the course, but Jeffery was taken ill and 
was operated on for appendicitis; and it was not till April. 19 18 , 
that he was again sent to France. In June, 1918, he joined his new 
Battalion, 16th Canadian Scottish, and found himself posted to a 
Company commanded by :l\Iason. now a Captain. So they were 
together again in France. On the night of the 26th September 
Jeffery received his first wound, but it proved fatal, and the next 
day he was laid to rest at Ligny St. Frochel, near St. Pol. Only four 
days later, on October 1st, his great chum followed, and so these 
two, who for four long years had borne the burden and strife of the 
Great \Yar with what seemed charmed lives, were reunited once 
more in that land where there is no more parting and no more 
Arthur Leigh Collett, B.A., had left King's for Oxford as a 
Rhodes Scholar, but at once forsook his work at Oxford and en- 
listed in the Imperial Army. He served in France as a Lieutenant 
with the 8th Gloucesters, and in the autumn of 1915, in the B
of l\Iessines Ridge he was reported missing and later believed 
killed. Others from his Battalion reported missing at the same 
time were later reported as prisoners of war in Germany. There 
is little doubt that Collett fought gallantly facing the odd.s 
choosing to meet death rather than to eease for a moment, while 
life lasted, from striving for the ideals of justice and righteousness. 
A. E. C. Hilbert was Qne of the most popular students and 
one of the best athletes at King's. Enlisting with the Cycle Corps 
he transferred to the Royal Naval Air Service on reaching England. 
29 1 


In July, 19 1 7, he wrote: .. I am at pre:,ent resting after a twenty- 
two weeks' illness due to a little ducking I got in the X orth Sea. 
I am flying again in August:' In October came the news that he 
had fallen a second time in the X orth Sea, and now there he rests 
with many other gallant sons of Britain. 
Of the others who enlisted with him in the Cycle Corps, Turnlmll 
and ..\lcConnick rest in soldiers' gTa\'eS in Flanders; Crawford died 
in hospital ere he saw the foe; Foster and Parlee are back with us 
at King's, and though Parlee lias lost a leg. his breast is adorned 
with that proud emblem of bravery. the Distinguished Conduct 
l\Iedal; Brittain ha" recovered from his serious wounds and is serv- 
ing the King of Peace: Harley, Uallett and the rest are giving the 
same good account of themseh'e
 that they always gave as loyal 
sons of King's. . 
George Stewart Burchell was one of that little band who enlisted 
together with the 193rd Battalion, 
 ova Scotia Highland Brigade, 
and joined the 85th lJattalion in France. He was one of the most 
promising of the younger sons of King's. a dever, manly, gentle- 
manly young fellow. He fought for the cause of liberty and right 
and now rests in a soldier's grave in France. 
In the records of the King's College Advance )'Iovement is 
the entry, .. (;eorge Stewart Burchell. killed at the Front, his pay at 
his request. $100." 
Iay King's never cease to honor the memory 
of this loyal and gallant son. 
\\-. n. Ernst enlisted as a private in the 193nl Battalion, rose 
to the rank of Captain in the 85th Battalion. and was awarded the 

lfilitary Cross and Bar. Ernst has not rested on his laurels, and 
since his return here has shown that in the field of scholarship, too. 
he will take no second place, and has captured the Rhodes Scholar- 
ship from the Province of X ova Scotia. I-\:ing's will ever have 
reason to be proud of the records of Ernst, so affectionately knO\vl1 
as ., Bil1." 
Of others whom King's \vill always delight to honor may .be 
mentioned Capt. 0, L. Teed, 
r.C., and Gunner L. \Yilkinson. who 
fell gallantly serving their guns. Lieut. \y, E. \Varburton, D.C
re\varded for his bravery in the Dardanelles, Lieut.-Co!. C. R. E. 
\\ïIlets, D,S.< )" the gallant and popular Commanding Officer of 
the R,c'R. in France, and now commanding the famous "Princess 
29 2 


Pats," Cecil Blanchard. 
I.. \\"110 was too young to enlist except 
as a bugler. but not too young to show that he came of loyal fighting 
stock: and the Campbell brother
. six of whom. saw active service, 
anò t\\-O 'of \\'hom. Colin and Kenneth. lie .. out there," some- 
,,-here in France. 
Though these record:, are brief and unworthy may they suffice 
tü show that the true spirit of King's still lives in her sons, and 
that they. as of old. have upheld nobly her best traditions and 
realized in some measure her ideals of sen-ice. 




I N the Great \\Tar students, past and present, of St. Francis 
Xavier University served in every branch of the Forces of 
Canada, and in the armies and navies of Great Britain, France 
and America. But it is the especial pride of St. Francis Xavier 
to have furnished a complete Unit, if a small one, of the Canadian 
Expeditionary Forces. The Unit was officially known as No. 9 
Stationary Hospital, C.A.M.C. 
This Unit was organized in November, 1915, and was for some 
time quartered in the University itself. It left Canada for the 
United Kingdom in June, 1916, and proceeded to France in Novem- 
ber of the following year. Till April, 1918, it was stationed at 
St. Omer, but the great German offensive of that spring made 
necessary its withdra\\Tal to Etaples, where it became part of the 
hospital system of the main British base. 
In the nQtorious bombardment of May 18, 1918, NO.9 was the 
first hospital to be attacked, and suffered severely. Its premises 
were completely destroyed, and more than forty per cent. of its per- 
sonnel became casualties. Towards the end of 1918, the status of 
the St. Francis Xavier" Unit was raised to that of a General 
Hospital. It returned to Canada in July, 1919, and upon the reor- 
ganization of the l\1:ilitary Forces of Canada. \Vas preserved as all 
integral part of the Active 1\Iilitia. 
1\Iore than three hundred and fifty Xavierians joined the colors. 
Thirty-three were killed, or died on active service. The following 
decorations were won by students or alumni of the Gniversity: 
C.l\1.G, ...,.,.."..."....".'.. . , . . , . , . , , . , . . . . . I 
D.S,O. ................,.......,. .,.,.....,..., 4 
1\1. C. ........,..."......" . . . . , , , . . . . , . . . , . . . . I T 
First Bar, M,C, ,.,.,......"....,...,..., , .,....... I 
Second Bar, M.C. ....,.....,...." , , . , . .. ,.".",. I 
O.B.E. .............",......,... ,'.,.,....,. ., I 
D,C.M. ..,.,.........,.."..,..."..",.....",.... 3 
M,M, ,..,."',.,....",.........".,........"....., 5 
1\1.S.M. ',....".,..,..,...,.",...,....""..,....... I 


Three professors of the Faculty of the University saw active 
service in the Canadian, Imperial and American Forces respectively; 
two were severely wounded and one received the NI:ilitary Cross. 
In Canada during the War St. Francis Xavier took a becoming 
part in the forefront of every patriotic activity. A contingent of 
the Canadian Officers' Training Corps was gazetted in April, 19 1 5. 
Training had hardly been begun when the Corps lost the majority 
of its officers by enlistment and with the numbers of students con- 
tinually dwindling-at one commencement a single individual pre- 
sented himself for graduation-it became impossible to continue 
In every branch of war work pursued in the neighborhood of 
Antigonish, the lo
ale of the University, the lead was taken by 
members of the Staff of St. Francis Xavier. The chairman of 
the local committee for the Patriotic Fund, the Antigonish County 
Organizer of the Victory Loan Campaign, and the Director of the 
re-establishment activities of the Knights of Columbus over a wide 
area of Eastern Nova Scotia. were professors of the University. In 
connection with the patriotic work of the Knights of Columbus. it 
may be mentioned St. Francis Xavier did its full share in the launch- 
ing of the Dominion-wide campaign. which made it possible for 
this body to perform its splendid services to our troops at the scene 
of war. In brief in St. Francis Xavier, as in all the universities of 
the land. it was the aim of all compelled to " carryon" at home to 
become. by patriotic endeavor and sacrifice. not unworthy of those 
who went from it to fight their country's and the Empire's battles. 
Editor's Xotc.-Xo. 9 Stationary Hospital Unit i" more fulh dealt with 
in Chapter xxvi. 




M IXISTERS of the Cospel are the a\'O\ved ambas:,adors of 
the Prince of Peace: and it is so constantly their task to allay 
the passions of the human heart and to preach uniyersal 
100'e, particularly in their appcab for foreign missions. that many 
people felt that their ideal was at variance with the spirit of war 
and \vere prepared to f1nd students for the ministry offering for 
other forms of patriotic service than fighting in the line. The 
extraordinary response of theolugical colleges and of sons of the 
manse all oyer the Empire showed hO\v mistaken this idea had 
been, The message of the Cross and the call to self-sacrifice had 
quite the opposite effect. Young men \vho \vere going to be 
preachers experienced a ne\\- sense of responsibility; they knew that 
they could not consistently call others to a life of service and suffer- 
ing, if they were not prepared themselves to lead the ,,-ar, This 
is the attitude that prevailed anHìllg the students at Pine Hill. \\'hich 
is the oldest Presbyterian Theological College in Canada. and which 
will celebrate in 1920 its centenary. 
The intensity of this conviction surprised everyone on the parade 
ground of the South End Rink. Halifax. \vhen Col. \y, E, Thompson 
organized the O.T.C. of Dalhousie University. The large majority 
of the students in residence at Pine Hill were there. The Divinity 
classes open late, and thus many had been in the city only a few 
days when this call came in the beginning of )JO\ember. 19LJ. 
Colonel Thompson has on several public occasions paid a fine tribute 
to these theological men; and they in return frankly acknowledge 
how much they were moved by the frank and earnest appeal of the 
Colonel himself, 
The n.T.C. was but a voluntary and preliminary phase of the 
gra\"e decision: but it had a most stimulating effect. and nearly all 

-Jxn THE GRE.--lT lV

the students \vho joined its ranks found themselves ultimately in 
active sen-ice. Right on the heels of the O.T.C. came the forma- 
tion of a small Cycle Corps Unit, to which three from Pine ] fill 
were admitted, the first to enlist for Overseas. This Unit was 
almost entirely maùe up of students, and its advent in Halifax was 
celebrated by a dinner given in the residence at Pine ] [ill. The 
dining hall was crowded. Colonel Thompson and Colonel Grant, 
I.S.. spoke: the impression made was very deep: and prob- 
ably at that hour a large number made up their minds to join the 
colors. The impression was intensified by the dramatic announce- 
mcnt in the course of the dinner of the splendid sea victory at 
Falkland Islands. the news of which had just come over the wire. 
Before the year was out there came an urgent appeal for all 
Ambulance Corps, and fifteen responcled. Few of them stayed 
long in the Army l\Iedical Corp:" after they got across. but asked 
for transfers to fighting units. in \vhich they played their part 
nobly. and where some of them laid down their lives. 
Early in 1915 the óth 
Iounted Rifles were formed and eight 
more joined, going to England in July. In the summer four others 
enlisted in the Xo. ï Overseas Hospital (The Dalhousie) Unit: awl 
in the winter, 1915-1Ó. five enlisted in the "Nova Scotia Highlall<l 
Brigade and fi\Oe in the artillery. By the second anniversary of the 
\Var the great bulk of the Divinity students had entered the army. 
and most of these were already Overseas. 
Delow is given a list of the names and of the Units to which 
they were eventually attached, and henceforward their historv 
becðmes identified with their Units and is told elsewhere. Ther"e 
were forty-eight in all. including the Principal and Professor H. A. 
Kent. who \vere ultimately on the strength of the Chaplain Servicc. 
Two received the )'Iilitary Cross and one the 
Iilitary l\Iedal; seven 
paid the supreme sacrifice; and many were \vOtmded or gassed. An 
but seven of those \vho sun-i\-ed continued their studies for the 
ministry on their return. 
Follo\ving is the roll of honor: 
John Ross. a Scotch lad, who, in the beginning of the War, joined 
the fleet, and went down with the I1ldefatigable in the Battle of 
Jutland. . 
Arthur P. MacIvor, from Cape Breton, joined the C.:\I.R., and 
was killed at :\Iount Sorel. on June 2. 1916. 



-1T Tf'AR 

Earl Lockerby, from P.E.I., in the 42nd R.H,C. Killed at 
Courcellette, September, 1916. 
Ralph B. Clarke, B.A., from New Brunswick, joined the 26th, 
and was killed at Courcellette, on September 17, 1916. 
Stephen Dick, from New Brunswick, joined C.F.A., and survived 
until the final offensive in 1918. 
Liel1t. Harold A. Smith, B.A., M:C., from Cape Breton; served 
in 5th C,M.R.; wounded first on the Somme, and killed in May, 19 1 8. 
Cyril Hyde, Lieutenant in the Royal Air Service; killed over the 
German lines. 


(Those marked with an asterisk were killed.) 

Capt. Principal C. .Mackinnon, D.D., LL.D.. ,Chaplain Service, O.1\1.P.C. 
Capt. H, A. Kent, D.D.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .Chaplain Service, o.

Lieut. B. C. Salter. B.A.......... .:J..!lld R.H.C. 
Lieut. D, A, Guildford, M.A...,...,.. _ . . . CD.A. 
*Earl Lockerby................,......... .-I.2nd RH.C. 
*Lieut. R B. Clarke, B.A,...........,..., ,2óth Can. Infantry. 
L. B. Campbell. B.A"...,.... , . . . . ' . . . . , .3rd Can. Field Ambulance. 
Lieut. J. K. Murchison, B.A..,....,..... .R.F.A. 
R A. Patterson, B.A.............,..,... .C.A.:\LC. 
G. D, 1\lacLeod, B.A..................... C.R.A. 
D. T, Morrison............,.."....,..,. C.A.M.C. 
P. Ì3, Fox, B.A,.,.....,......,.,.,...... C.A.M.G.C. 
Capt. A. D. Archibald, B.A., M.C...,..... 85th N.S. Highlanders. 
Lieut. J. G. Paterson, B.A........,... . .., R.F.A. 
*Lieut, Cyril Hyde...,............."".. .R.\.F. 
-:\'eil Macdonald...................,..,.. .8.=ah 
.S. Highlanders. 
Ca-pt. Geo, 1\lurray, M.C...,...".",.... .8:;th N.S. Highlanders, 
Victor B. Walls........,.......,....,... C.A.:\T.C. 
J. S, Nickerson, B.A...................,. C.A.M.C, 
Colin U, McNiven.................., -. ' .25th Can. Infantry. 
*J. S. Ross.............................. .H.:\1.S. 11ldefatigable. 
*A. P. McIvor, :J.A..........,........... .5th c."!\f.R. 
*Lieut. H. A. Smith, B.A., M.C....,..".. .5th C.1\LR 
Lieut. Me!. McLeod...................., 5th C.M.R. 
Norman A. MacKenzie.................. ,8;;th N.S. Highlanders, 
D, P. :\{acLeod,.........................4th C.M.R. 
\Y. J. V, Tweedie.,...... ' . . .. . . . .. . .. . . -41h C. -:\LR. 
Lieut. John Craigie....................., RE.F. 
Capt. R. E. G. Roome................... .R.F.A. 
Cadet P, C. Lewis....................... RA.F, 
Wm. Matheson....,...................., 85th N.S. Highlanders, 
J, D. MacLeod.......................,.. 13th RR.C. 
H. H, Blanchard, B.A., M.M........,... .85th N.S. Highlanders, 
R H. Scott..,..."..............,..,.., .85th YS. Highlanders. 
29 8 


Lieut. E. S. Smith, M,A...............,. ,R.A.F. 
Lieut. l\IcLaren Keswick..............,. ,25th Can, Infantry. 
Neil 1\1. Rattee, B.A..................... .7th Overseas Hospital. 
John A. Nicholson, B.A.................. C.F.A. 
Lieut, T. H. Whelpley................... 87th Can. Inf. G.G, 
*Stephen ]. Dick......................... C.F,A. 
A. M. Gillis............................. IOth Siege Battery. 
Lieut. A. E. Kerr....................... .R.A.F. 
John Macka)"....................,....... 10th Can. Siege Battery. 
A. B. Simpson........................... 19th C.F.A. 
D. F, Marshall, B.A................. . . . . .15th R.H.C. 
F, yates................................ .1Oth Can. Infantry. 
J. S. Bonnell, B.A....................... .8th Siege Battery. 




T IlE number of men of military age in Canada at the outbreak 
of the \Var was approximately 1,720.000, and of this Nova 
Scotia's quota was 53.500. .\s the \\Tar progressed it was 
decided that Canada's contribution would be 500.000 and Nova 
Scotia's proportion 30,000, which was attained. 
At first no particular effort \vas made by the public to raise the 
various Units, the matter being left entirely in the hands of the 

lilitary. The 1st Field Ambulance and the 17th Field Battery 
proceeded to Valcartier as Units. and thence Overseas with the First 
Division. The 17th, Nova Scotia's first Battalion. to our lasting 
disgrace. was left to paddle its own canoe to the rocks in Salisbury 
Plains. where it eventually became the 17th Reserve Battalion, 
supplying reinforcemenb to the Nova Scotia enits in the Field. 
The 25 th was ihe first Battalion in which the public evinced any 
t. This was mainly recruited from J\[ilitia Units. a large pro- 
portion coming from the Island of Cape Breton and from Halifax. 
The 4 0th Battalion and the 6th Canadian l\lounted Rifles. authorized 
in Fehruary, 1915, were recruited with comparative ease. the 40th 
entirely from Nova Scotia and the 6th C.l\I.R. from the three 
11aritime Provinces. At this time the 25th had not proceeded 
Overseas. and it was not until 
Iay that this Battalion. which in 
France earned for itself the title of the" Fighting 25th." sailed from 
Halifax, taking as its final complement part of the 40th Battalion. 
The 40th was then sent to Aldershot, N.S., for training. and 
was almost immediately called upon to supply a draft of 5 officers 
and 250 men. About this time recruiting slackened. The strength 
of the 40th dwindled, due to casualties from sickness and other 
causes, and it seemed that unless a special effort were made by the 
public this Unit would share the fate of the 17th. or worse. 
I r. 
G. S. Campbell. whose son ,,-as among the officers of this Unit. 
3 00 


brought back from Valcartier the news that unless the Battalion 
was quickly brought up to strength it would be absorbed into a 
Battalion of another Province, and Nova Scotia would lose it. A 
strong Committee of prominent citizens was immediatelv formed. 
J\T oney for advertising was subscribed, and a campaign launched, 
the effect of which never ceased during the period of the \Var. The 
40th was brought up to full strength, and in ()ctober proceeded 
As a result of the efforts of this Committee it was thought by 
Headquarters :\I.D. No.6 that the work of recruiting throughout 
the Province should be inspected and reported oiJ. Lieut.-Cot. H. 
Flowers was selected to undertake this duty. Every important town 
in the Province was visited except in Cape Breton, which was supply- 
ing many men through the energetic \Vor
 of the Rev. E. \Yatering 
Florence. The prominent people in each town were induced to 
lend their assistance. forming such organizations as they in their 
wisdom deemed best. All the assistance that headquarters and the 
Halifax Committee could give was supplied at the request of the 
other centres. 
This proved most successful and when the 64th was authorized 
\ugust, 1915. to be recruited from the three 
Iaritime Provinces, 
::0 great was the enthusiasm in X ova Scotia that in three weeks the 
full complement was supplied by that Province alone, and later the 
men from )Jew Brunswick and Prince Edward Island became the 
nucleus for the ID.-1-th N" ew Brunswick Battalion. Lieut.-Colonel 
Flowers went to the 64th as Second in Command, and 
\Y. B. A. Ritchie was appointed ()fficer in Charge of Recruiting. He 
\\"as followed in December, 1916, by 
Iajor G. B, Cutten, of the 
l\m"a Scotia Highland' Brigade. These officers were assisted by 
Capt. F. \Y. :\Iicklewright and Capt. F. T. De\Yolfe. .Apart from 
Capt. E. \V. Florence, Captain :\licklewright probably recruited 
more men personally than any other officer. 
The 64th Battalion being over strength, the 85th Battalion, Nova 
Scotia Highlanders, authorized some time previously, was ordered 
to proceed with recruiting. N umbers flocked to join its ranks. 

len of responsible positions and lucrative salaries offered their 
services. In less than a month the Battalion was over strength 
and a large number of applicants were turned away. 
3 01 


In the gloomy closing days of 1915, when the withdrawal of the 
Gallipoli Expedition was announced. and many cherished expecta- 
tions were again doomed to disappointment, the whole British 
Empire was profoundly stirred, and hegan to take its grip with 
characteristic bulldog tenacity, _-'\11 its resources were demanded. 
every available man must go. Consequently in January of 1916 the 
question was mooted, why should not N oya Scotia give a whole 
Highland Brigade, and those who applied too late for admission to 
the 85th be afforded another and more liberal opportunity of going 
to the Front? Perhaps no idea ever suggested in the Province was 
taken up with more hearty enthusiasm. 
During the first few \veeks of 1916 organization was developed 
with great assiduity. It was decided to make use of the popular 
85th i
1 the work of recruiting. Every soldier who believed he could 
recruit another man was given six days' leave to do so; and if he 
succeeded in recruiting more than one he \Vas granted an additional 
six days. Officers who volunteered to raise a Platoon were given 
charge of the territory in. which it could be recruited. The results 
were in some instances amazing. Lads \dlO seemed' unlikely enough 
brought in recruits by the score. 
In preparation for this great" drive ., a publicity campaign was 
organized on an extensiye scale. Pnlpit, press and schoolroom 
were commandeered. and ga\"e themselves up generously to the work. 
Religious services were arranged at which moral issues of the "'ar 
were brought home forcihly to the people. "\Iilitary uniforms ap- 
peared in the pulpits and unwonted martial strains, even from the 
bagpipes. were heard in sacred precincts. 
Perhaps the most nnique feature of the campaign was the use 
made of the public schools. The Union Jack was widely displayed. 
The children were drilled in patriotic songs. nooks \yere laid aside 
and mass meetings held at which prominent citizens deli\'ered 
addresses until to the impressionahle mind of the little children it 
was incredible that anyone should stay at home. A letter was 
addressed by Lieut.-Colonel Borden to the hoys and girls of )J o\'a 
Scotia. In simple language he explained the meaning of the \Yar. 
and converted every child into an irrepressible recruiting agent 
among his big brothers at home. or in the circle of his friends. 
3 02 

.-1 SCOTI.-1 

\Yhen the country had thus been duly prepared. and public 
feeling \'-as running high. the master-stroke was given, which re- 
sulted in the raising of "three Battalions in three weeks:' a feat 
unsurpassed in the recruiting efforts of Canada. This was a series 
of meetings. held in every town. village and country hall. crowded 
to the doors, and characterized by the intense fen'or of a religious 
re\"Ì\'al. )J otable among those who took part in the campaign for 
the 193rd and 3H)th Battalions were Lieut.-Colonel Dorden, Lieut.- 
Colonel Guthrie (invalided home from the Front), President Cutten 
of -\cadia "Cniversity, Dr. Clarence 
IcKinnon. and a score of other 
public men. who gladly gave time and talent to the task. The band 
of the 83 th nattalion accompanied the speakers in their tour through 
the counties of Lunenburg. Queens, Shelburne, Yarmouth. Anna- 
poli=-,o Digby. l,ings. Pictou and ..Antigonish. 
Cape Breton had already contributed the lith and 36th Datteries 
(the latter Unit \vas raised in a single day). a large proportion of 
the 35th and 40th Hattalions. six hundred men to the 64th, three 
hundred men to the 
3th. three hundred men to the lo6th. besides 
keeping at full strength it
Iilitia Regiment. the \rgyll High- 
landers. \yhich had heen on active sen-ice from the outbreak of 
the \Yar. X ot satisfied ,,"ith this the Island a
ked for and received 
authority to recruit a purely Cape Dreton Infantry Battalion. to be 
iIirInded in the X ova Scotia Highland Brigade, Under the super- 
ion of 
r ajor Gordon S. Harrington (later appointed Deputy 
rinister and promoted to the rank of Colonel) Cape 
Rreton officers :ll1d men of the R.:;th Battalion returned to their 
fortner homes and engaged in active recruiting. 
 r eetings were held 
in every tm\"n and village. and addresses made by 
Iayor Richard- 
son. F. .\. Crowell. A. D. Gunn. D. .\. Cameron. Dr. C. E. 
Stuart ::\fcCa\dey. the late D. \. Hearn. and many other prominent 
people. .. \s a result of their \york. and in spite of the restrictions 
placed upon them hy the G.U.c. 
I.D. Xo. 6. who forbade the 
enlistment of employees of the Dominion Coal Company and thr. 
Dominion Tron and Steel Company. the 185th Battalion. Cape 
Breton Highlanders "'as recruited to full strength within three 
Tn .\pril, 1916. ::\lr. F. .\. Crowell was requested to act as Chief 
Hccruiting Officer for the County of Cape Breton, In a civilian 
3 0 3 


capacity and without remuneration he accepted the position. and, 
assisted by Lieutenant Chirgwin and Sergt. A. Johnstone of the 
Regiment, carried on the work until January, 1917. Up to the time 
the l\Iilitary Service Act came into force the Island of Cape Breton 
contributed over seven thousand volunteers, including, in addition 
to the Units already named, 100 men to the 2-t-6th Battalion, 200 
men to the Composite Battalion, besides a large number to the 
several .L\rtillery Units mobilized at Halifax, to the 16Sth, IG9th 
and 239th Dattalions, the Army Service Corps, Forestry Units, 
Railway Troops and Army l\ledical Services, with a lower l-ecord of 
rejection than in any other district in Canada-in the case of the 
18Sth only three per cent. 
It would have been impossible for the Chief Recruiting ()ftìcer 
and his Staff of paid officers and men to have made the success they 
did had it not been for the valuable services rendered by the volun- 
tary rccruiting oAì.ccrs all over the Province. These men 
faithfully throughout the 'Var without remuneration, and not in frc- 
quently labored under misrepresentation. 

3 0 4 



T ! IE importance of the work done in :\filitary District No.6 
during the period of the (--;reat \Yar is doubtless not realized 
by the public, other than those who ,,"ere directly interested 
in the work. . \side from H ali fax being a furtified port. and the 
Xaval Base of the .\tlantic Fleet during the \rar, it was the point of 
embarkation of the Canadian troops for ()ver:"eas. with the excep- 
tion of the First Contingent. which was sent Overseas from Qucbcc. 
Therefore the \york, devolving on District )J o. 6. in handling the 
enormous number 0 f Canadian. American, . \ustralian and 
'J ew 
Zealand troops that passed through here was a matter of consider- 
able responsibility ami care, not only in checking the men going 011 
board ship. but also in providing acconul1odations, rations, etc., 
while they were held ashore at Halifax from a day to three or fuur 
weeks. awaiting the arrival of their transports. In addition it \vas 
necessary to make preparatiuns for emergencies, of \vhich there 
were se\'eral, including such things as the stranding of a trúopslIip 
near the mouth of Hali fax Harbor. which necessitated the safe re- 
moval. landing and caring- for the troops by other than the regular 
The detail work in connection with these duties was great and 
varied. For instance, the Department at Ottawa would arrange the 
date for the sailing of transports and the allotment of troops for 
each. The Department would then notify this district accordingly. 
The troops allotted to each ship would arrive by special trains, often 
before their transport reached port. During this period of waiting 
many casualties would occur, either through absentees, sickness. or 
from other causes, necessitating extra accommodation at the local 
quarters or in hospital. On the arrival of the ship these men would 
have to he checked on board individually, all casualties accounted 
3 0 5 


for, comlJlete returns made out. such as marching out state. lists of 
officers, inspection of all documents, and many other details. After 
that particular ship was loaded she ,,-ould pull away from the pier 
and remain in harbor awaiting the loading of the other transports. 
Yer} often these transports \ymIld lie in the harbor for some days 
before sailing, awaiting the completion of the convoy, a result being 
that additional ca"ualties ,,-ould occur daily on each ship during 
that period. These had to be taken off the ship. in turn. all docu- 
ments corrected to date so that when the ship sailed from the harbor 
an accurate record of every man on board was complete and thus 
enahled the Government to check the proper charge
 of the Steam- 
:,hip Companies for transportation. In the early 
tages of the 'Val' 
transports to the number of forty woulcl sail from Halifax in one 
convoy. but tmvards the latter end of the "oar the X a\'al 
prm-ided for conyoys not exceeding se\-enteen ships at one time. 
In all there were 2R-t-,-t-35 Canadian troops embarked from .Hali- 
fax. Some 50.000 Chinamen. and a large number of .American 
troops also embarked from this port. In addition. ships with New 
Zealanders and 
 \ustralians on board called at this port to join the 
convuys. and often ,,-ere allmyed to land for route marches and 
given shore leave. This also entailed much \york on this district, 
due to the necessity of looking after casualties. absentees. etc. 
Of all the casualties occurring during these embarkations a care- 
ful record had to be kept. and in due course, that is. as soon as 
possible a fter they became fit or were apprehended, they were sent 
O\-erseas on later transports. 
"\Iany complicated questions arose during this period. as, for 
ilJ!"tance. men arriving on troop trains under arrest for miscle- 
meanors of various kinds. and thus necessitating this district dealing 
with such cases. 
Follm\"ing is a summary of the Canadian troops that embarked 
at Halifax during the \yar period :- 
1915, Ship. 
Jan, 8.,...,. .Zeetand 

Emharked Monthly 
Halifax. Total. 
34 6 

34 6 

Feh. 23.,.,.... Megantic . ........',..,...... 40 
23, . . . . . . . Missinabie .................... 13 
28. . ., .. , . Scandinayian . ..',.....".,... 23 


3 06 


19 1 5. Ship. 
Mar. 6, _ _..,.. Grampian ........... - -,.... 
15. , . . . . . . Northland ' . . . ., . . . . . . . . . , ., 
21, . . . . . . . Corsican , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
22. . . . . . , .Orduna. ' . ' - , . . . , . . . . . . . ' . . . 
26. . , . . . . , Hesperian - . , . . . . .' .. . , . . , . . . 
26. . . . . . . . Chaleur . ....."........,..... 
28.. " . . .. Missinabie .................... 

Apr. 4, _ . _ , . Scandinavian . . , . . ., " - - . , - . . , 
6. . . , . , Georgia , ....,.." . . - - . . . . , . 
9, , . , . . . , Chignecto . ..".. - . . . . . . . . . 
10, . , , . . . .1\1 etagama . -. .........,...... 
12" , , . . . .Manchester Corporation ,...... 
Ii. ' , . . , . , St, George .,..,....,.......... 
18..,...., Northland ..........,.,...... 
18. ' , , _ _ ". Grampian . ......,..,......". 
24. . . . .. . .1Iissinabie ..............,..... 

May 2."..... Hesperian 
20, ,..... Saxonia . 
20. . . , . . . . Halifax , 

. .............. -.... 

June 14........ Herschell 
I:;. . . . , . . . Caledonia 

Aug. 8.." - - . I talia . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . - - , . . 
8. _ , , . . , . Caledonia . .....,.,."".- 
9. , . . . . . . 
IetaQ"ama ,..,....,.,....,..... 
26. , , . . . , . Caled
nia . , . , , . . - . . . . . . . . . 

Oct. 23..".... Lapland 
2i. , . . ,. . .Orduna 

Nov. 19....,... Chignecto 
22, . . . , . . . Saxonia , 
23....... . California 
27, . . . ., ,. Lapland . 

.................... . 

13 0 
4 0 

4 8 
64 1 
4 1 4 
I,i I I 
44 0 


5 2 3 

1.6 1 5 

2.3 1 9 

1.9 0 f) 

Dec, 3...,.... Chaudiere ..',...,....,........ 98 
6,. ., ., "Orduna . ..,..,.........,.."., 1,121 
8..., _.Italia. ..,...,................ 43 0 

19 1 6. 
J an, 22,.,..... 

Feb, 10"...., .Caraquet 

Mar. 13......., Lapland ..'" ... .... -,. . .,,'. 
T 3. . . . , . . . Baltic . .. -. . - . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
30. , . . , . . . Empress of Britain .,.,......, 
3 1 . . . , . . . . Adriatic . ,...,..,...,.,.,...'. 

3 0 7 


3 21 






 I 4 

6,ii 2 

, .6-
1.59 1 
3.54 2 
2.44 0 
10.i' 5 


19 1 6. Ship. 
\pr. I... . . . . . Olympic 
18. . . . . . . .1fissinabie 
2 I , .. . Chaleur . ...,......., 
23. , . - , . . . Empress of Britain 
2-1-. . . . , . , , Lapland , ....,....", 
2C). . . . . , . . Olympic . ,.....,...,...., 

5,7 8 7 
1.7 1 i 
.,.,.,.. 4,020 


6. . . , , . . , Chignecto . 
19...",. ,Adriatic ....,.. _'... 
20. . . , , . . . Empress of Britain 
26. . . . . . Grampian 
3 1 . . , . . . . . Olympic . ......"......, 

June 18........Empress of Britain 
19. . . . . . . . Missinabie ..........,..,....., 
28. . . Olympic . 

July 8. _ , _ , , . , Lapland , , _ . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1;:;.. .. .. ,. Empress of Britain 
23, . . , . . . . Olympic , 
28, . . . . . . . Caraquet 


6. . , , . . . . Scandinavian , ..... 
7. , . - . . , . Camerollia , . . , , , . . , . . , . . . . . , 
8... , _. Metagama 
8. , . . . . . . Scotian _ ."........,....,., 
I4. , . . . . , . Empress of Britain 
1,S. . .. ., .. Grampian 
21. . . . . , . . Olympic. 


11. , . . . . . . Scandinavian 
1 I . . . . . . . . Cameronia . 
12, , , , . . . , M etagama . ........,...,. _ . . _ _ 
12........Northland. ....".........., 
18. _ " . . . . Olympic ....,..,.............. 
23..... . _. Lapland . 
. . . . _ _ . . Southland 
2; , . . . , , . , Corsican 
26. . . . . . . . Laconia . 
26. . . . . . . . Tusconia 


'2. . , . _ . . . California . ..,.,.,..,.."...,., 
3. . . . . . . . Missinabie ...... ............, 
3. . . . . . . . Saxonia 
II,12&13. 01 ympic. ,.......... 
17, . , . " . . Cameronia . ,..,..,..,. _ . _ . _ 
17. . . , . . , , M etag'ama . .."...,..,......., 
17. . . . . . . . Northland . . . . . . . , . . , . , . . . , . 
24. . . . . . . . Grampian ..................... 
2c;, . , . , . , . Mauretania . ..,..,.."..."... 
 & 26. , . . Corsican , " . , . " . . . . , . . , , 
30,... .. " Lapland . .... _.. .., ... .,. . .. .' 

3 08 


2,3 2 5 
J 5,272 
3,4 2 0 
5. 2 <)0 
II ,-
1,35 1 

T 5,88 [ 
1,4 J2 
1,4<) T 
5,4 8 6 
2,04 2 
1,4 2 6 
2.4 1 7 
1.7 2 1 
1.35 1 


19 1 6. 
Oct. 31. . . . . 
3 1 , . , 

Embarked Monthly 
Ship, Halifax. Tota1. 
. Caronia . .....,.,.......,..... 4. 2 5 I 
Empress of Britain ............ 3,796 

Noy. I. . _ . , . . . Southland . .......,........... 
13,.... .. . Olympic. ......."......,.,. - . 
23 & 24.. ., :\[anretania . ....,..., 
27, . . . . . . .1\[ etagama . .."...,... - - - , , . . . 

Dec. 16,...." ,Olympic, 
27"... _.. Northland 

19 1 ï. 
Jan. 23,. _ . . . , . Scandinavian . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . 
24. . . . . Canada . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
26, . . . . . . . Grampian. .........,.,."", - . 

Feb. 16..,...., Southland 
16, . . . . . , . 

1\far. 4", _ . Canada . .,..,..,...,........... 
4. . . . . . . . Ansonia ..................,.... 
25. _ . , . , . .l\;Ietaganla . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
25. . . , . . . . Lapland . ,.,........,...,.,... 
::3. . 
 . . . . . Southland ...,............"... 
26. . . . . . . . Missinabie ..................., 
26, . . . , , , . Saxonia . . . . . . . . . . , . . , , , , ., - 

Apr. 9... . , . Carpathia . , . , . . . . 
9. . . . . . . , Canada . .... - . - - . . . . . , , . , , . , . . 
17, . _ _ _ , _ Scandinavian , .............,.. 
18. . .. . .Ansonia ....................... 
18., _ _,. Northland ,."..,...",....... 
18. . ' . . . , . Grampian . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . 
27. . . . , . , . Olympic . .".................. 
30. . . . . . :\1 egan tic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . - - - 

May 1...,.... :\1etagama , .,..... - - . . . . , . . , . . 
3, . . . , , . - J usticia ...............,....... 
28.... ,. . . Olympic -. .',..,.' ...,....... 

June 22.... _. _ ,Justicia . 

Aug. 6.,..,.,. Olympic. ",....,..........,.. 
10. . . . . . . . Grampian . .,.,...",.".,. 
II , . . . . . . . Missinabie 

Sept. .5 . . . . . , , . Megantic 

Oct. 4....,." Metagama 
20. . . . . . . . Scandinavian 

XOV. 20.,...... Scotian. ....,..,......,....,.- 
24. . . . . , . . Megantic . ....".,. - . ' 
2'; . . . . . . . . ":\Ietagama , . - " - . . . . , . , . . . , . , . 

3 0 9 

3 2 ,4'4 
1,7 00 
3,1 2 3 
I 2,.1.J t 


l,ï 2 í 

1,24 1 
1,64 1 

2,34 1 
1.57 2 
1,14 1 


1,4 02 

4. II <) 


10,4 1 2 


4. 1 60 




1,27 6 


1,35 2 

4. 1 7 1 


1917. Ship. 
Dec. 21........ Missinabie .......,.,.......... 
21. . " . . . . Grampian . ,............".,.. 
28...... .. Canada. ...................... 

Embarked Monthly 
Halifax. Total. 


19 1 8. 
Jan. 19........Kursk. ....-.................. 50 
2i. . .. . . . .Orita . ....."......,...,...... 320 
28. . . . . . . . Scandinavian . ................ 1,290 

Feb. .5........ Gr
 . ................... 
5. . . . . . . . MlsSlnable ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5. . . . . . . . Canada . ...................... 
13. . . . . . .. Lapland. ...................... 
21, . . . . . . . Megantic . ,..,..,...,.,....", 
21. . . . . . . . Meletia . .......... 
21. , " , . . . Saxonja . ..'".'...."... _ , .. ' 
28. . . . , . . . Me tagama . ...,............,.. 
28. . . . , . . . Kasmala . ....,........,'....'. 

Mar. I........ J usticia . ...................... 
8. . . . . . . . Scotian . ....'................. 
8, . . . . . . . T oloa . ...............'........ 
13, . . . , . . . Chaleur . ... - - , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
17. . . . . . . . Sa.tu
nia.. ....................- 
25, . . . . . . . MlsSlnable ....,.............., 
25. . . . . . . . Scandinavian . ................. 
25. . . . . . . . Grampian . ....,............... 

1.69 2 


Apr. 9........ Met,a
ama .................... 1,672 
9.....,., Tunisian. .......,.....,....... 1,3 1 8 
9, . . . . . . . "LTlua . .......,.,'........'..... 949 
17. . . . . . . . Scotian . ..... _ _ . _ . . _ . . _ _ . . . . . . 1,324 
Ii ",....'[oloa. ....................... I,IOS 
17. . . . . . . . Melita . ............,.....,..,. 1,906 

fay I I. . . . . . . . Tierisias . ..................... 
I I , . . . . . . . Runic . ........................ 
16....... .}
.jana . ......'................ 
16, . . . . . . , Valacia . ..........'....,...... 
 . . . . . . C. of Marseilles ............... 

June Ii........ Pannonia . .........,.......... 853 
24. . . . . . . . Wiamana . ......,........,..., 389 
24. . . . . . . , Gloucestershire . .............. 512 
24. . . . . . . . Ionic. ......................... 27 


2...... .. Oxfordshire . 
3. . , . . . , - Valacia 




13,5 1 9 




1,7 81 


Total . ....,.........,.............,..,......... 28 4.455 

3 10 



A BRIEF history of the work of the Shell Committee, its 
organization, and the part played by the Nova Scotia Steel 
and Coal Company in producing munitions during the first 
two and a half years of the \Yar. 
On September 8, 1915, Co!. Alex Bertram. Thomas Cantley, and 
George "-. "-atts were summoned by the Federal 
Iinister of 

Iilitia. Sir Sam Hughes. to Ya1cartier. On meeting the }Iinister he 
stated that the British Secretary of State for \Var had advised tlJe 
Canadian Government that the \\-ar Office were desirous of having 
shrapnel shells made in Canada. that the Canadian Government had 
decided to entrust the matter to a Committee of 
Ianufacturers, and 
had so advised the \\-ar Office. It was understood that the advice 
of the ,
Iinister had been accepted. and that the names of the three 
gentlemen above referred to had been approved by the \Yar Office 
as a Committee to carryon the work on their behalf. The men 
above named were then asked to sen-e as such Committee. without 
remuneration. which they agreed to do. and were requested to select 
one of their number as Chairman. On the suggestion of Thos. 
Cantley, Colonel Bertram ,,-as appointed Chairman. the :\Iinister 
confirming the appointment of the Committee by a memorandum 
initialed" For Action." 
Later, 1'1r. E. Carnegie. of \Velland, was added to the Com- 
mittee, and at their request the 1Iinister agreed that Colonel Benson. 
::\'faster General of Ordnance: Colonel Lafferty. Superintendent of 
the Dominion Arsenal: and Colonel Greville Harston. Inspector of 
Arms and Ammunition. should be added as Technical lVIembers. 
The first meeting was held the same evening (September 8th) 
at the Chateau Frontenac, Quebec. The second meeting was held 
the following day at the office of the 'Superintendent 'Of the 
Dominion Arsenal. The Committee were accorded the privilege ot 
3 II 

YO r

-lRT IX THE G Rli.
-lT TF

dissecting the manufacturing cost:-. of the \-arious operations in- 
\-olved in making shells of this type at the Dominion ..-\rsenal, which 
at that time had an out-turn of about 200 per day. 
From the data there available and their experience as manufac- 
turers the Committee advised the \Var Office that 200
000 shrapnei 
shells could be produced by the Committee and supplied to the \Yai- 
Office at a price of $8.30 for the I5-pounder. and SS.S5 each Íor 


the IS-pounder. On this information being cabled to London the 
Committee were at once instructed to proceed with the order. 
After the order wa
 in process of execution a contract was pre- 
sented by a representati\-e of the \Yar Office to the four civilian 
members, viz.. J\Ies'irs. Bertram. Cantley. \Yatt and Carnegie, under 
which contract they were ohligated to supply the \Yar Office with 
 at the prices stated. This contract was duly executed. 
3 12 


the Hunorable 
Iinister of :\Iilitia signing on behali of. and repr
senting. the \\-ar Office. the ci\Tilian members signing on their own 
behalf . 
\\"hile the fir
t order \\'as for 200.000 shells, additional orùers 
\"ere placed by the \\ - ar ( )ftì.ce with the C ommi ttee at various times 
between September. I<)q., and X O\-ember. 1<)13. aggregating in all 
$3-t-5.222$ïO.2-t-. The contract price:-; were in most cases named by 
the \ \- ar ( )ffice. In some cases the price:-; were the result of compro- 
mise arranged by cable between the Committee and the \Yar Office. 
In other cases the price
 were tho:,c 
uggested by the Committee amI 
,,-ere accepted by the \ \ ar Office. 

\s already 
tated. e\"ery order \\"a:- cm"ered by a contract hetween 
the \Yar Office on the one hatHI and the four civilian memhers of 
the Committee on the other. for the carrying out of which the 
ci\"ilian members \\'ere collecti\ ely and individually responsible. 
\ \"hen they resigned office a statement. which was prepared and 
duly audited sho,,-ing the total cost. together with the surplus based 
on prices agreed upon and cO\"ered by contracts between the \\ ar 
 and the four ci\'ilian members. showed that the contracts 
entered into amounted in all to 
3-t-3.222.8ï-t-.3-t-. \pproximately 
 per cent. of these orders were then completed, and the 
surplus-the difference between the contract price and the cost of 
-J.2.09ï..:;8-t-.3ï. le
s O\'erhead charges. cost of 
inspection. guage
, etc.. of 
ï3ï.-J.00,3I. Ii 12Ij per cent. be added 
to this overhead charge to meet similar expense:, incidental to the 
completion of the contract:... 
{\2.Iï5,o3 would require to be added, 
making the total overhead expenditure S
2q.5ï5'3-J.. or a total 
net surplus to the credit of the Committee on Xove.mber 3 0 . 1915. 
of S-t- 1.268,009.23. The total overhead cost. co\'ering inspection, 
cost of guage:-;. accounting-. and office expen
e of the Committee, 
worked out at . Iï. or le:,
 than one-fifth of one per cent. of contract 
In this connection it may be stated that the prices paid by the 
"Tar Office to _-\merican makers in many cases \\"ere considerably 
higher than those paid in Canada for shells and other material. In 
other cases. where the prices were approximately the same, the 
\ olume of order:, entrusted to the Cnited States makers were very 
3 1 3 


much greater than the corresponding orders placed with the Cana- 
dian Shell Committee, and the American prices should have been 
considerably lower. Further, the orders placed in the United 
States were entrusted to an agent, who is reported to have received 
a handsome commission, whereas the services of the Canadian Shell 
Committee were freely given. 
In the early stages the executive work of the Committee was 
carried on by General Dertram, whose time was largely taken up in 
co-ordinating the machining of parts, and the placing of orders 
for components among Canadian manufacturers, while Thomas 
Cantley undertook to carry out experiments, both chemical and 
physical, looking to the production of open hearth basic steel to 
meet the specifications and tests called for by the \Var Office. 
Experiments were also carried out later in regard to steel discs, base 
plates, nose plugs, alloy steel armor plating, etc. Later Colonel 
Bertram, Thos. Cantley and G. \Y. \Yatts collaborated in fixing 
prices for component parts and machining and assembling of the 
different size shells. Later they devised a complete system of 
, inspection 
heets. transfer and shipping forms, store and 
stock forms, and a complete system of accounting was worked out 
and inaugurated by them. 
Late in September the Minister of Militia, on the suggestion of 
the Committee. approved the appointment of David Carnegie as 
Ordnance Advi
er to the Committee, in view of the fact that he had 
had con
iderahle experience in munition work at VV oolwich Arsenal. 
\Vhen the \Yar Office first appealed to Canada for assistance in 
supplying munitions. little was known of shell manufacturing in 
Canada. This being the case the Canadian Government decided that 
a Committee of l\Ianufacturers could better serve the \Yar Office 
than could the Government through anv of the Departments; and 
then followed the formation of the Shell Committee as originally 
outlined. The Committee had before them three problems: First, 
that of securing steel of the requisite character; secondly, the forg- 
ing of the steel into shell bodies. together with the supply of other 
component parts, comprising brass, copper, tin, zinc and antimony; 
and thirdly. the machining and assembling of these various com- 
ponent parts. 

3 1 4 


Up to the time that the request came from the \Var Office 
practically no men in Canada, with the exception of those employed 
at the Dominion Arsenal, knew anything about the manu facture of 
shells, or the material required for same. The steel hitherto used 
at the Dominion Arsenal had been supplied by the Crucible Steel Co. 
of America, and the \Var Office had stipulated that only Acid Open 
Hearth Siemens
:\lartin steel could be employed in shell forgings. 
As no Siemens-:\Iartin steel was produced in Canada, and if the 
War Office adhered to their stipulation in that respect the entire 
steel supply would have to be obtained in the United States, the 
American makers, feeling sure that this would be done, promptly 
advanced their prices approximately forty per cent. 
At this juncture the 
1inister of l\'lilitia appealed to Thomas 
Cantley, then President and General 
Ianager of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Co., as to whether the Scotia plant could not produce 
steel which would meet not only the chemical but physical require- 
ments of the \Var Office shell specifications. He at once expressed 
the belief that they could do so, and immediately proceeded to carry 
out exhaustive experiments, both chemical and physical. which 
proved conclusively that the Scotia Company could produce steel as 
called for by the \Var Office, and offered to supply it at a price as 
low as the original price asked by the American works, and indeed 
below the American price. Within a few days of receipt of the 
first order by the Shell Committee from the \Var Office, the Scotia 
Company supplied the Committee with steel for 200,000 shrapnel 
shells. The difference in price paid to the Scotia Company and 
the price asked by the American Co. for the steel supplied on this 
small order amounted to over $4 0 ,000. 
As regards forging of shells, the cost of producing the vari0us 
component parts. the labor involved in finishing and assembling these 
-the Committee were supplied with the cost of these various opera- 
tions as carried on at the Dominion Arsenal, but the difficulty in- 
volved was that the work, having been done there by a class of 
machine not in general use in Canada, and with the comparatively 
small order in hand, manufacturers could not be found who would 
purchase and install plant for this work and turn out shells within 
a reasonable time and price. 

3 1 5 

lYOr 7 .1 SCOTI.-l'S P.IRT LY THE GREAT U 7 .-lR 

\[anufacturers throughout the country were im-ited to visit the 
Dominion. \rsenal at Quebec. where they would be shown the Yariou
operations invoh-ed. and given all information rc cost. methods em- 
ployed. etc. Quite a number responded to thi:'! im"itation. Some 
offered to undertake the work; others declined to undertake it on 
any basis whate\Ter. 
Colonel Bertram \-o
unteered that the John Bertram & Suns Co. 
would do a certain amount of machining and assembling. and Thos. 
Cantley. through his Company. the Xova Scotia Steel and Coal Co.. 
undertook to supply the steel and forgings. while 
Ir. \Yatt, of the 
Canadian General Electric Company. agreed to make some of the 
component parts. Sir Thomas Shaughnessy. on being appealed to 
by the Committee for assistance. instructed the Superintendent of 
'\ngus Shop.s to take on some of the work. and generously 
promised that the Angus Shops would take up their share of the 
\Yith the start made by these finn.s to encourage them. a few 
other manufacturers were induced to take up a share of the work, 
ami tI1tts the supply of components parts anel machining of same for 
the first 200.000 shells was finally placed. and this initial order .was 
shipped complete and to the entire satisfaction of the \Yar Office 

ome considerable time before the contract date. 
So soon as the work involved in the first trial order had been 

ccl'pted by the manufacturers referred to. the Committee took up 
the organization necessary for the co-ordinating of the work on a 
larger scale: and as large orders were received in rapid succession 
from the \\-ar Office, contracts were made with different manufac- 
turers for component parts. which were bought outright by the Com- 
mittee. .\ full set of component parts for each shell was supplied by 
the assembly contractors. by whom these .were finished and returned 
as completed shells. they being paid a fixed price on the shells which 
were completed. and which passed all the tests demanded by the \Var 
Ofhc(. and were certified as such by the GO\"ernment Inspection 
Bureau. The component parts before being accepted by the Com- 
mittee and delivered to the finishing contractors were inspected and 
certified by the Committee's inspectors. '\ny component parts 
.3 16 


spoiled by the assembly manufacturers had to be paid for by them 
at the actual co
t of same. 
The first experiences of the forging' and finishing contractors 
alike were disappointing. If was an entirely n
w business to eyery- 
body "engaged in the work. and the usual initial difficulties were met 
and o\-erconie ,,-ith yaryiYlg success. 
It is safe to say that as far as the first order of 200.000 shells was 
concerned. the companies engaged. either as makers of component 
part:' or as a
sembly contractors. recei\ ed little. if any. profit for 
t!ìeir work. They had only the usual reward that comes to pioneers 
in an
 ne,y y\"ork. 
\ Yhen the new and larger orders came in. both the material and 
the work were thrown open to competition. The Dominion Steel 
Corporation. the Steel Company of Canada. and other smaller steel 
producers were asked to supply steel and forgings. The 
ame thing 
applied to manufacturing establishments. ,,-hich were in a position 
to supply other component parts or to take on the work of machining 
and assembling. By the early part of [()I5 the work was distributed 
throughout the entire Dominion. 
Tho",e ,,-ho had done the pioneering work. and who "-on their 
pi ,sition through dearly-bought f'xperience. and by venturing in where 
others lacked courage to do so. came under criticism from others 
who had not hitherto undertaken any of the work. To overcome 
this difficulty and to assure. hearty co-operation in the production 
of the largest amount of munitions possible. the Committee adopted 
the principle of naming a flat price for each component pan. as \yell 
as for the machining and a:,
embling of each size' shell. 

\ll the orders placed thereafter. from time to time. \yere placed 
at a uniform price. both for the component parts and for the finish- 
ing of the shells. The instant effect of this was that the accumu- 
lated e'\:perience of the pioneering firms was placed at the disposal 
of the other manufacturers. Both forging and finishing shops \\"ere 
thrown open. their methode; of \\-orking and costs were fully ex- 
plained. and shown to other manufacturers. The newcomers t11t1-; 
sayed the heavy cost of experimental \\-ork. 
X e\\- methods. imprO\'ements of great yalue in connection with 
the e'\:ecution of the \\'ork. the outcome of the initiatiye adaptabilit
3 1 7 


of Canadians, wrought a revolution in the methods of production. 
All these improv.ements were in every case put within the reach of 
other manufacturers. Many of these have been adopted, not only 
by Canadian shell makers, but by shell makers in the United States 
and Great Britain. 
During the organization period ÍFom September, 1914, to April, 
1915, more than one member of the Committee worked from ten to 
seventeen hours per day, Sundays and holidays not excepted, and 
none of the members then appointed received one dollar by way of 
The part played by the New Glasgow works of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company in the Great Vvar is an interesting one. At 
the beginning of hostilities in August, 1914, there were only two 
Steel Companies in the United- States who had either the plant or 
experience to produce either shells or armor plates, while none of 
the Canadian steel plants had any experience whatever. 
The first production of munition material, by way of shells and 
shell steel, was undertaken in Canada by the Shell Committee, and 
the story of the experiments carried on in the early days of Sep- 
temher, 1914, which resulted in convincing the British War Office 
that basic steel, as made in Canada, would meet all the requirements 
of both shrapnel and high explosive shells, and whioh resulted in 
very large orders for munitions coming to Canada, is well knmvn to 
all Nova Scotians, and has become a matter of history. 
Between October, 1914, when the Scotia plants produced 22,000 
shell forgings, and the signing of the Armistice, November II. 1<)18, 
the New Glasgow plant had made more than 15,000,000 shells- 
these ranging in size from the Is-pounder shrapnel to I2-inch high 
explosive, the local plant being the only one in Canada which made 
the latter size. The total tonnage of forged shells produced at New 
Glasgow amounted in round figures to 180,000 tons. In addition to 
this a very considerable tonnage of shell and other munition steel 
was shipped to be worked up in other shell forging establishments 
in Canada and Great Britain. A further considerable tonnage was 
worked up into marine forgings. British shipyards about this time 
experienced great difficulty in ohtaining heavy marine forgings to 
meet Lloyd's specification and tests. The Scotia forges had long 
3 18 


been on Lloyd's list as approved makers of J\Iarine Forgings. The 
British shipbuilders' difficulty was now met by Scotia, which sup- 
plied to yarious yards on the Clyde, the East Coast, and other yards 
complete sets of marine forgings of all classes for both mercantile 
and other Ye
sels of large tonnage. The total quantity of marine 
 supplied Great Britain since the outbreak of war amounted 
to tons. 
::\fost X O\Ta Scotians are probably entirely ignorant of the con- 
siderable amount of what might be called .. research ., and experi- 
mental work carried out at the 
 ew Glasgow plant for the Govern- 
ment, and while this did not produce the tangible results brought 
about in connection with the manufacture of shells, not a little of 
the data and knowledge accumulated. contributed in a very consider- 
able rlegree to the successful development of both the offensive 
and the defensi,Te equipment of the Allied forces. 
\\Thile this work was being done secrecy was essential, nothing 
was s3id and but little known of the work carried on along these 
lines. N ow that the \ Y ar is over the necessity for secrecy appears 
10 h
In February. H)19. the firm of \\ïlliam Beardmore and Co,. of 
Glasgow. Scotland, in their works magazine. told the story of the 
evolution and development by them of bullet-proof material for 
the protection of armored cars. trench shields. armor-plate for the 
celebrated " tanks." and other work of a like character. The story. 
a3 told by the Beardmore people, in many important particulars 
runs on all fours with the experiments and results obtained at New 
Glasgow during the latter weeks of 1914 and the early part of 1<)15. 
when a series of exhaustive experiments were carried out at New 
Glasgow. first in connection with the production and testing- bf 
bullet-resisting steel plate. 
This matter \Vas first brought to the attention of the writer by 
General Sir Sam Hughes in connection with the shield shovel. of 
which a good deal was heard during 1915 and 1916. This spade, 
as supplied by the American makers. was formed with a sharp 
cutting edge. and a loophole for a rifle, but had no handle. "Then 
deliveries began to be made by the American manu facturers. a 
certain quantity was collected at random and turned over to the 
3 1 9 


writer for testing. This was carried out at the rifle range of the 
Fifth Royal Highlanders in the ba
ement of the Dleury Street 
Armory. ::\Iontreal. It was then found that while practically all 
would stand ::\Iark Six British Seryice \mmunition, they failed to 
withstand the much greater impact of ::\Iark Seyen Ammunition. 

ix had a muzzle yelocity of about 1.800 feet per second.' 
Further Ìtwestigation showed that the difference in bullet resi
po\yer in the plates submitted was due to lack of uniformity. 
X 0 handles had been supplied \\,ith the shm'els. and no apparent 
effort had been made by the manufacturers to supply one ,,"hich 
\\-as suitable. Scotia's engineers \yere asked to meet the difficulty. 
\yhich they did. and finally offered one which was adopted. \\-eighed 
eight ounces, and \yas secured by a 
ingle riyet passing through a 
square slotted hole in the body of the shovel belO\y the base of the 
At this time the question of 
upplying our army ,,-ith armored 
machine-gun automobile trucks had become a pre
sing matter. The 
question had been turned oyer to a Toronto Committee. Great 
delay was experienced in securing sufficient suitable bullet-resisting 
plate. "and --erious confusion resulted.. The experiments in con- 
nection ,,-ith the shoyel had thrown great doubt on the efficiency 
of the steel being supplied by the _\mericans. and again the Scotia 
Company ,,-ere asked to carry out tests and advise as to the matter. 
From hints which had filtered through from the army in France 
and Flanders it was knU\\ïl that the German Spitzer bullet was mnch 
more effecti\"e than the British ne,," ::\Iark Se\-en. and \yhile the 
armor-plating contracted to be supplied by the Americans for these 
cars was guaranteed to \yithstand 
Iark Se\-en British Ammunition 
at 300 yards. the rumors in regard to the penetrating powers of the 
German Spitzer ammunition \yere most disquieting. and could 110t 
be ignored. 
_\t that time the enitecl States were neutral. hut \yere making 
ammunition for the _ \llies and others. By methods. which it is not 
ary here to refer to. or explain. the General ::\ Ianager of thc 
Scotia Company was able to obtain a German ::\Iauser Sen-ice Rifle. 
and by an expenditure out of all proportion to the real yaluc. 
J ,000 rounds of German ::\Iauser Spitzer :,erv]ce ammunitiun was 
3 20 

111 U }..:IT J O.LV S 

also secured. An improvised range wa:; set up on the ice on the 
East River, X ova Scotia, at a point where, protected by steep banks, 
firing tests could be carried out, when it was demonstrated that .3 11 
Spitzer German ammunition, which, carefully chronographed, gave 
a muzzle velocity of 2,915 feet per second, easily penetrated the 
armor plate which resisted 
Iark Seven Dritish Ammunition fired 
from either the Lee-Enfield or Ross Rifle. 
The effect, of course, was to call a halt to the manufacture of 
these plates, and at the same time to push forward experiments then 
under way in the production by the Scotia Company of bullet-resist- 
ing alloy armor plates. \\Ïthin a short time New Glasgow was able 
to offer the Department of 
Iilitia alloy steel, heat-treated plates. not 
exceeding 3-16th of an inch thick, which successfully withstood 
point-blank impact at one yard from l\Iark 7 ammunition fired from 
the latest model Ross rifle. In one case two shots had struck the 
plate within less than one-half inch of each other, and they neither 
penetrated nor cracked the plate. 
Plates somewhat thicker were later supplied which withstood 
Cerman :Mauser ammunition at point blank range, and the result 
given by these plates when tested at the Proving Station in Toronto 
were so satisfactory that the Artillery Proving Officers, after the 
tests, placed them on exhibition outside the Camp, and later reported 
that the men felt the utmost confidence with the protection afforded 
them by this plating, which later was supplied and fitted to a propor- 
tion of the machine-gun trucks then being equipped. Later the 
British Government asked the Scotia Company to tender for similar 
protective plating for armored trucks. 


3 21 



D E)IonILIZA TIOi\, following a war of such length and 
intensity as that of the Four Years' "Tar from August, 19 1 4, 
to November, 1918, is not a mere problem of repatriation, it 
is a problem of reconstruction-a gigantic one at that-desiderating 
the undivided efforts of eyery organization in the nation and the 
assistance of every citizen. 
Consider for a moment what had happened in the industrial 
world. During the four years of war, Governments were the 
chief employers of men, the chief purchasers of raw materials, and 
the chief sources of revenue for an overwhelmingly large portion of 
the population. To retain the ideals of democracy Governments 
were given unlimited power-po\ver which was utilized in organiz- 
ing practically the entire life of the belligerent nations into a vast 
machine for turning out implements of war. Not only was this 
\yar-time industry mobilized under unified control, but the market 
for which its product was turned out could not be flooded. Indeed, 
it continually called for greater and greater production regardless of 
cost. The expansion of business, and the building up of a huge 
army of war workers. the scarcity of labor and raw materials, the 
shi fting of markets, the meteoric rise of prices, the less rapid rise 
of wages, Government control of prices, raw materials and exports, 
the inflation of currency, the huge increase in national debts-these 
were some of the phenomena which characterized the period. They 
justify the assertion that a revolution in the economic and industrial 
life of the nations had occurred. Even in Canada, remote from the 
scene of actual strife, a generation's changes were. compressed into 
four short years. 
Then suddenly, on November the eleventh, the object for which 
the vast war machine had been huilt up was attained. The neces- 
sity for its existence vanished over-night, and the "Todd found itself 
3 22 


face to face with the task of scrapping the industrial machine which 
had so effectively seryed the requirements of war, and of rebuilding 
one which would serve just as effectively the entirely different 
requirements of peace. The ne\y task was more difficult thaIT th
old, and had to be accomplished in a much shorter period-a few 
months, instead of four years. 
-\gain, the problems themselves 
were more delicate and intricate: largely problems of human 
psychology, not of mechanics. requiring for their solution not com- 
pulsion, but education, persuasion and co-operation. The world 
has learned that it is much easier to make ,,'ar than to make peace. 
The early days of 19Lt. and H)I:; were days of 1110bilizatiort 
prohlems, and the
 \yere prohlems indeed. The pro\'ision of arms. 
equipment and food had to be undertaken on a scale unheard of 
before. It was neces
ary to proyide transportation for vast bodies 
of troops and great quantities of stores. to say nothing of the con
struction of training camps. rifle ranges, and all the paraphernalia 
of war. The human element. fresh and easily responsi\-e to 
patriotic appeal. presented few difficulties at that time. 
There are, howeyer. certain conditions inherent in military life 
\vhich go far to\\'arcls unfitting the soldier for civilian occupation. 
\\ïthout entering into a discussion of the reasons for these condi- 
tions. two of them at least may be enumerated. In military life 
inrliyidual liberty is impossible. but it is of supreme importance in 
civil life. Further. in military life ambition or self-interest, which 
may be consirlered a fundamental motive in human action, becomes 
of secondary importance. Self-interest is, in fact, disciplined intõ 
complete abeyance. The moment the soldier becomes a civilian the 
restraints upon his indiyidual liberty are more or less removed. and 
it is entirely in keeping with the impulses of human nature if he 
should. for a time. go to the opposite extreme. Then again, he 
finds it no easy task to a\yaken the ambition lying dormant within 
him, and it frequently happens that it is only from bitter experience 
that he learns it is necessary to rely. in the first in:-;tance. upon him- 
self. These two conditions alone emphasize how different are the 
various problems of demobilization and mobilization. The success 
or failure of the work of reconstruction depends, not so much on 
the highly-developed organizatiori as on the amount of personal 
service. whole-hearted sympathy and understanding brought to the 
3 2 3 


work by those who, together with the soldier, must face the many 
obstacles confronting him in the first stages of his return to citizen- 
\Vithout the active co-operation of the soldiers themselves the 
work of reconstruction could not be a success. Undoubtedly our 
present stabi1ity, in comparison with many other parts of Canada is, 
in a large measure, due to the initiative and strength of purpose with 
which our soldiers have met, and are meeting, the tasks of a hum- 
drum every-day life. It would, no doubt, be surprising to the 
average citizen were he to know how many men in Nova Scotia 
have re-established themseh'es wivhout assistance from the Govern- 
It was not until the closing days of 1915 and the return of 
casualties gassed and wounded from Ypres, Festubert, and 
Givenchy, that the prohlems of demobilization began to press for 
attention. The country was sadly lacking in proper hospital accom- 
modation and equipment,. especially for the treatment of surgical 
cases. The disabled man was finding it no easy matter to re-estab- 
lish himself and the provision of industrial training <}r suitable em- 
ployment for him was an urgent need. In many other ways the 
necessity for a radical change made itself apparent. 
The actual work of getting the soldiers home and out of khaki 
was in the hands of the Department of IVlilitia and Defence; but 
the methods of peace and war are as far removed as day and night, 
and it was soon recognized that the re-absorption of returned 
soldiers into civil life, with the least disturbance of economic condi- 
tions, could not be best performed by an organization of the mili- 
tary type. The first step in the direction of providing a suitable 
organization was taken when the 1\1ilitary Hospital" Commission 
was formed in the same year. The duties of this Commission 
eventually embraced almost every phase of the prohlem of demobili- 
zation, from the provision of hospitals. cOllYalescent homes and 
treatment, to vocational re-education for those who, through a 
disability were unable to return to their former occupation. 
Not all the emergencies were, of course, foreseen; and from 
time to time changes for the better were made in the regulations. 
Shortly after the formation of the Commission a con ference of 
representatives from the various Provincial Governments was called 
3 2 4 


at Ottawa, and the suggestions there adopted involved an extension 
of the work by the appointment of a sub-committee of the Federal 
Commission in each Province, to assume the responsibility of finding 
employment for discharged soldiers. 
Immediately following this conference the Returned Soldiers' 
Employment Committee of Xova Scotia. or, as i.t was afterwards 
known, the Kova Scotia Returned Soldiers' Commission, was 
appointed. The importance of this work at the time could not be 
overestimated, for is not reconstruction fundamentally a problem of 
employment and employment conditions? This function, however, 
by no means exhausted the activities of the Provincial Commission. 
On exe
ttive questions of a local nature it was the advisory body of 
the Federal Commission at OHawa, and its scope was extended as 
the need arose, until it embraced practically all matters dealing 
with returned men. On certain occasions the Commission main- 
tained an early and aggressive stand on problems which were not 
merely of a local character, but which affected the economic life of 
the Dominion. 
\Vhen the 
riliiary Hospitals Commi:-;sion was formed, it was 
found necessary to operate Interviewing Departments in conjunc- 
tion with the Clearing or Discharge Depots at Halifax, St. John and 
Quebec, in order to secure information from which to compile 
records. Each returning soldier on the ship's nominal roll was ques- 
tioned regarding his pre-war occupation. his future prospects and 
intentions. as well as other general information required. In the 
case of casualties the proceedings of the last medical board were also 
secured. At Halifax a Staff of returned men were engaged in 
this work tuider the supervision of \V. B. 
IacCoy, Secretary of the 
Provincial Commission, .\s the inten-iewing- for the whole of 
Canada was performed at the ports, it can be appreciated what a 
vast amount of work this entailed. particularly when handling 
hospital ships. The :-.everely disahlerl men were, of course, unable 
to visit the Interviewing Department. Consequently it was not 
possible to proceed as rapidly as in the case of ordinary transports. 
.\nother detail of the disembarkation which involved a great 
deal of work on the part of the Commission was that of notifying the 
next-of-kin of returning soldiers. A copy of the Nominal Roll. 
3 2 5 


prepared on the vo) age across, was secured immediately after the 
ship had docked and the Secretaries of the Returned Soldiers' Com- 
missions in the various other Province
 \\"ere telegraphed a cumplete 
list of the men going forward with the names and acldre
ses of 
their relati\Tes or friends. 
1'he .Nova Scotia men were, of course, dealt with first, as in 
many cases they wO
11d arrive home within a few hours. Their 
; were either telegraphed or telephoned to the Secretaries of 
the Tow11 Reception Committees who. in turn. notified the relativcs 
and aided in prodding a suitable reception. 
During the "Tar, Nova Scotia was exceedingly fortunate in the. 
matter of employment. The number of unemployed soldiers seldom 
avcnged more than ten per cent., and was usually between two and 
:-;e\-en per cent. However, the abnormal conditions prevailing after 
the signing of the .I. \rmistice rendered the numher of placements by 
the Commission, for a time at least, almost negligible. Numbers of 
men were suddenly thrown on the labor market by the closing of 
wa'r-time Ìndustries. while at the same time our soldiers v.ere being 
returned in thousands. This was by no means the critical per
l\Iany of the men returning after years of sen,ice Overseas felt 
the neeJ of a well-earned vacation more than they did of a job. 
while those who had dependants and who were anxious, but unable, 
to secnre immediate employment. were temporarily provided for b
the \\'ar sen-ice gratuity. For the majority. the most anxious time 
arrived during the succeeding fall and \\'inter months. It is not 
the intention, huwever, to deal with the empluyment activities of 
the Commission. Attention must be confined to work of a more 
general nature. 
As previously stated, the country. particularly K ova Scotia. 
\Vas sadly lacking in hospital accommodation. In the spring and 
early summer of 1915. nearly al1 returned soldiers either came 
through the Port of Quebec. or. if disembarked at Halifax, were 
forwarded to the Discharge Depot there. Save in a few instances. 
such as se\'ere casualties, these men as soon as medically examined 
were given transportation to their homes. Discharge Certificates 
were usually n()t issued for months after their return. and a great 
deal of con fusion resulted. Indeed. few of the men were aware 
3 26 


of their status, and it not infrequently happened that, instead of 
the longed-for piece of parchment, they received a letter from their 
:l\Iilitary District instructing them to report for duty,-this after 
having perhaps accepted civilian employment. The uncertainty of 
their future added to the difficulties of obtaining a satisfactory 
position, for after a few experiences, employers generally hesitated 
to engage a man who was not in possession of a certificate releasing 
him to civilian duties. As time went on, too, pay complaints Legan 
to pour in by the score, due no doubt to an antiquated system of 
handling documents, and the poor working facilities afforded the 
District ray Staffs. 
About the end of the following year the Provincial Commission 
advised the erection of a hospital, but although the officials of the 
:Uilitary Hospitals Commission apparently concurred in the Pro- 
vincial Commission's views, the conditions remained unchanged, 
Repeated reports were made by the Secretary and concrete cases 
submitted, showing the necessity in certain instances for providing 
treatment. The situation became so acute that at a meeting of the 
local Commission, held on February 21, 1917, certain memLers, 
feeling that the existing state of affairs might be construed as re- 
flecting upon them, tendered their resignations to tihe Chairman. 
These resignations were, however, held in abeyance for a few days, 
and a strongly-worded resolution was passed and fon\'arded to Sir 
James Lougheed. Several days later a special meeting was called 
at the request of the Director of the l\Iilitary Hospitals Commission. 
at \yhich were present two officials of that body with full authority 
to take what steps were deemed necessary in order to relieve the 
situation. The writer, who has had access to the corre
and records, can state without fear of contradiction. that it \\'as 
wholly clue to the efforts of the Provincial Commission that Camp 
Hill Hospital was erected in 1917. Readers who are familiar with 
conditions hath then and during the period following the Halifax 
disaster must realize what a boon it was to have had this splendid 
institution awaiting any and all emergencies. 
The subject of Vocational Training was one in \\,hich the Com- 
mission took a deep interest from the very first. One of its early 
steps was to in
titute a careful survey of all existing educational 
3 2 7 


facilities throughout Kova Scotia, which could be used for the. re- 
education of disabled men. The re-training of this class was of the 
utmost importance, and the Commission successfully fought for the 
enactment of several regulations tending to broaden the scope of 
the Vocational Department. 
One of the most persistent efforts was maùe in the interest of 
the physically fit .. boy soldier." Aside from the minor who had 
been disabled, no provision existed whereby these young boys could 
be afforded the opportunities of re-education or re-training. The 
need for this was foreseen by the Provincial Office some two years 
before the close of the \Var and no opportunity was lost in the 
furtherance of their proposal to place them on the same footing 
as the disabled man. It was most desirable to provide facilities 
for the education of these young soldiers who enlisted in the Forces 
at an immature age. Their decision was made at a time when they 
could not probably measure the consequences of their act, and for 
this reason the public was responsible for any disadvantages accruing 
to: them. The years spent in the army were just those during which 
they should have been fitting themselves to win a position of self- 
support and independence; and it is not only an advantage to them- 
selves, but to the country. that they have been assisted in preparing 
for the earning of a livelihood rather than having been forced into 
the ranks of unskilled labor. The step taken by the Government in 
the early part of last 
'ear was indeed satisfactory in consideration 
of the initial and continuous efforts of the Provincial Commission. 
The Soldier Settlement Act, pas,ed in 1917. has proved to be 
one of the most satisfactory measures of re-establishment provided 
by the Government. As originally framed, however, it was of very 
little value to a man who desired to go on the land in the :Maritime 
Provinces. The free grants provided by the Act were restricted 
to Dominion Lands, while here any land of value for agricultural 
purposes is privately owr..ed. This was clearly placing under a 
handicap the Nova Scotian soldier who wished to stay in his 
native Province, inasmuch as the maximum amount which could 
be borrowed under the Act \vas only $2,500. The Provincial Com- 
mission urged very strongly that the benefits to be derived should 
be equally distributed and enjoyed by soldiers wishing to go on 
3 28 


the land in any Province. At the 1918 yearly meeting of Provincial 
Secretaries, held at Ottawa, the other Provinces were unanimous in 
supporting the l\Iaritime representatiyes, and a resolution was passed 
petitioning the Federal Goverm;;cnt to extend the provisions of the 
Act. This was done some time afterwards, and to-day we haye in 
N ova Scotia some three hundred and. fifty farms producing, and as 
many soldiers re-established in this way. 
The months which followed the erection of Camp Hill Hospital 
brought many changes. The 11ilitary Hospitals Commission ceased 
and was succeeded b"y the Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-Estab- 
lishment. N e\y organizations arose, and new methods were inaugur- 
ated in old ones to meet the constantly increasing needs and changing 
problems. Dut space will not permit to deal with all the phases of 
this many-sided and deeply interesting w'ork. At best details can 
only be touched upon, and the three instances quoted of the Com- 
mission's connection with the larger problems of reconstruction by 
no means exhausts an interesting store of past events. The 
part taken by \V. R. l\IacCoy, K.C., 
Secretary of the Commission, is deserv- 
ing of the fullest public recognition. No 
man has been more sincere or more 
zealous in safcguarJing the interests of 
the .Nova Scotian soldiers. His work 
\vas not undertaken without a sacrifice. 
hut the appreciation of thousands of 
soldiers and dependants expressed in the 
letters of thanks contained on the fyles 
of the Commission, and in many other 
ways, has doubtless repaid him in full. 
Victory was the reward of loyalty and 
co-operation and the willingness of each and every soldier to 
subjugate self in the welfare of the \vhole, and play the game as 
best he could. Demobilization has required no less devotion. energy, 
and co-operation than did the \Yar itself and the measure of success 
attained through the sympathy, tact, and ability displayed by how- 
ever humble a servant in the great work of reconstruction will be 
reflected in the national life of Canada for the next generation, 
22 3 2 9 

w. B. MACCOY, K.C. 



T HE aftermath of the Great \Yar, which virtually end
d with 
the Armistice on November 1 I, 1918, should be historically 
different from the social and economic muddles and messes 
which have succeeded other prolonged struggles. Human nature 
has not changed, but society is more enlightened, more highly 
organized, and more averse to waste. 
The soldiers who returned to Canada from the Boer \Yar \vere 
þaid small Imperial pensions for disabilities incurred and were 
rewarded by grants of land in the great Canadian \\T est, v;hich 
almost all of them realized on immediately, selling them to "land 
sharks" for ridiculously small cash sums. It has been stated that 
most of the British veterans of the Crimea died in the workhouses. 
Just as the last \Var \vas fought with more highly developed 
death-dealing machines and apparatus, and consequently evolved 
entirely new means of counter-offensive and protection, so the 
Allied nations employed entirely new methods to compensate the 
disabled fighting men for the incapacities they suffered through 
service. The aim was to develop all of the remaining abilities and 
aptitudes of the crippled 
olcIier so that he might be able to retain 
his place in civilian life as an active, independent, seJf-supporting 
K ova Scotia can justly claim the credit for starting the plan of 
vocatiunal re-training developed in Canada. In July, 1915, :Miss 
ratthews. who \vas assisting her sister. l\Irs. J. K. L. Ross, in 
preparing the residence of the latter in Sydney for use as a conval- 
escent home for soldiers, secured a pamphlet describing the early 
efforts of France in rehabilitating war cripples. She brought it 
to the attention of Hon. G. II. 
rurray, who asked Principal F. II. 
33 0 


Sexton, of the Technical College. for some concrete practical sng'"" 
gestions. The latter prepared a careful report on the methods 
which the Dominion might use to organize this work
 and this \yas 
submitted to the Premier of Canada. Sir Robert Borden. 
Just before this there h;td been created the :\Iilitary Hospitals 
Commission to control t11e treatment in Canada of wounded and 




Principal Xoya Scotia Technical College. 

disabled men returning from Europe. The report on vocational 
re-training was submitted to the Commission for consideration and 
action. The subject \vas regarded of such importance that a con- 
ference of Provincial Premiers and other representatives was called 
to consider this and some other que:-;tions affecting returned men. 
Principal Sexton was sent as a 
 ova Scotian delegate to this 
conference and explained his ideas. He a:-;serted that nearly all 
33 1 


maimed and crippled men could be put on their feet again as wage- 
earners by a short, practical, intensive course in vocational training. 
The men were adults who had already had some industrial experi- 
ence and consequently would not need as much or as long training 
as youths being apprenticed in trades. During the last twenty.....five 
yeårs industry had been sub-divided into many specialized occupa- 
tions, in many of which little physical effort was required. 
Advantage could be taken of the vocational experience of the 
soldier previous to enlistment and, in most cases, he could be trained 
for some occupation in the same industry where his disability would 
not be a handicap. That is, the crippled men could be moved side- 
wise in industry to some parallel occupation or. by means of a little 
education, could he lifted up higher and fitted for some supervisory 
position as Loss, foreman. or superintendent. T11l1s, a structural 
steel worker, with some physical deficiency, would be trained for a 
position of draftsman. The coal miner, who was disabled, so thåt 
he could no longer dig coal at the face could, in a comparatively 
short time, be trained for the position of shot-firer, fire boss, mine 
examiner, oyerman, underground foreman, or mine manager. 
There were endless opportunities for fitting men for occupations 
that required more technical knowledge. more skill, and more 
mental capacity. l\lost of the Canadian soldiers had not much 
opportunity for vocational education in their youth, and the great 
majority could be prepared for better jobs with their disability than 
they had been able to qualify for before they enlisted. It was 
pointed out that technical schools could offer some courses for 
disabled men, and that the rest of them could be given intensive 
short apprenticeships in industry. The disabled men and their 
families should be supported in respectahility during the course of 
training. It wa:-; emphasized that the soldier in the hospital should 
begin to do some work as soon as possible, so that he would not 
lose his habits of industry by too prolonged an idleness during 
treatment. This method of technical education would be expensive, 
but it would more than repay the country by making almost all 
the disabled men competent to maintain themselves as wage-earners 
for the remainder of their li\-es. and eliminate the great proportion 
of indigent, idle pensioners that had succeeded other great wars. 
33 2 


The conference in September, 1915, enthusiastically recom- 
nlended that the 
Iilitary Hospitals Commission proceed to develop 
vocational training of disabled soldiers along the lines proposed. 
Soon after this steps were taken to put the suggestions into actual 
practice. Principal Sexton was appointed
 under the Commission: 
as V ocatiollal Officer for Quebec and the 
Iaritime Provinces, 
which office he has held for four and one-half years. 
\ Yhen the convalescent hospitals were first opened in Canada, 
it was thought at first that all the men needed was the necessary 
medical treatment and a rest and then most of them would naturally 
return to ,,'ork. People who had not had army training, and who 
had not endured the terrible experiences in the front line trenches, 
did not understand the psychological.reversal most of the soldiers 
had suffered. The ordinary Canadian was noted for his power 
of initiative. In til11e
 of peace he had developed resourcefulness 
and individuality. From thousands of occupations our men donned 
the khaki uniform. The first great lesson for the new soldier was 
that of implicit obedience to his superior officers. lIe was instructed 
that others \\"ould do his thinking for him. The responsibility of 
providing food: shelter. and raiment for himself and his dependants, 
which had been his constant effort in waking hours, \Vas lifted from 
his shoulders. His habits were regularized to conform to a single 
standard,-that of the well-disciplined soldier. In action he was 
forced into a condition of personal dirtiness that would have been 
absolutely repellent to him in ordinary life. lIe was subjected 
to the nerve-racking, soul-splitting ordeal of continuous fire of high 
explosives. Death lurked at 'his elbow continuously in a thousanü 
hideous forms. He lived like a worm, and the taking and giving of 
human life uecame an hourly experience. lIe forgot what a normal 
mode of living was like, and his tours back and forth to the trenches 
seemed the whole of existence, with only a ghastly way out of it. 
Then came his" blighty." and the long, painful period of hospital 
experience where willing and loving hands ministered to every need. 
He was doctored, nursed and entertained lavishly. Is it any wonder 
that he found himself in an abnormal mental state, and that ordinary 
civilian Ii fe seemed petty and cold and humdrum? Is it surprising 
that he found himself slow to rouse himself and prepare to take 


up again some civilian task in the treadmill of industry which would 
reward him with only food, clothing and lodging? After the 
glorious comradeship with his fellows in facing death, the competi- 
tive system in a life of routine duties seemed dull and deadly. 
It seemed evident from the first experience that work was the 
only panacea. Definite, interesting occupation alone offered the 
means of making the man forget himself. and of wrenching him 
around into the footpath of peace. Self-imposed routine duties of 
an absorbing nature provided the necessary attraction and distrac- 
tion to enable the man to prepare himself again for a useful life in 
industry. Therefore interesting work of all kinds was provided to 
suit different ahilities and disabilities. 
Three divisions of the wurk of re-training the disabled soldier 
developed as progress was made with this task, viz.: (I) \ Yard 
Occupations; (2) Curative \Yorkshops: (3) Industrial Re-training. 
These will be taken up in the order named. 
1. \V_\RD OCCl.'PATION"S. Ba
ketry, weaving. le;:j,ther work 
'and other handicrafts were taught to the men in hospital right in 
the ward:., as recreational activity. during the time of conval- 
escence "vhen the soldiers, as patients. are not advanced far enough 
in their recovery to leave their beds or to take up serious education. 
2. CURATIVE \\"ORKSHOPS. Every hospital had either a 
separate vocational huilding or a portion of its space set aside for 
curative workshops. Here were helrl a variety of classes for men 
taking treatment who were able to leave their wards and who 
wished to study some subjects which would be of advantage to 
them when they were discharged from hospital and would re-enter 
'CÏvilian life or take up training for a new occupation. 
3. INDUSTRIAL RE- TRAINING. This was the most im- 
portant division of the work and, in fact, constituted the main 
activity of the Vocational Branch of the Department of Soldiers' 
:Civil Re-establishment. _\11 soldiers who received a disability in 
military service through disease. accident or wounds which pre- 
vented them from returning to their old occupations. were entitled to 
industrial re-training. Any man \\"ho enlisted under the age of 
eighteen, and whose apprentice
hip or training for some 11
occupation was st'riously interrupted hy the \Yar. was also entitJcd 

..jL TR.-1IXING 

to an industrial re-tra1llll1g course. Thousands of men had to be 
intensively trained for hundreds of different occupations in the 
shortest possible time. During their courses they and their 
dependants received pay and allO\yances to support themselves. 
Every kind of institution which offered definite vocational training 
was utilized, but a great proportion of the men were placed in 
industry itself to learn their new occupations. Special trade classes 
and schools had to be organized and equipped by the Department 
of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment to meet the new need. The 
main aim was to train the disabled soldiers and minors in six to 
ten months, so that they could earn the prevailing wage in suitable 
vocations. This aim was realized with results that have amply 
justified the predictions of experts in industrial education and the 
enormous expenditure of money necessary. The development of 
the three main divisions of the vocational work in Nova Scotia 
is interesting and illuminating, and promises much for- the future 
in pointing the way to further developments in our hospital treat- 
ment and the reclaiming of the productiye power of our men who 
have been or will be crippled by accident or disease. 
It was very evident from the first experience with returned 
disabled soldiers in Canadian convalescent hospitals, that they 
needed some definite work to engage their attention just as soon 
as they were able to do it. A fter a prolonged illness their morale 
was very low, and many were convinced that they were so badly 
disabled that they would never be goud for anything again. N en'es, 
muscles, and tendons which had been seriously damaged by wounds, 
could be healed and brought back to part of their former po\\:er 
by operative treatment. massage, electric therapy, etc., but at a 
certain stage further improvement could take place only through 
the action of the will of the patient. At this point the soldier 
will try to make his damaged body function properly if he is 
absorbed in some interesting task. 
Consequently. handicraft work was introduced into the hospitals 
under the title of ward occupatiuns. In the summer of IC)I7 
volunteers from the V.A.D. of the St. John '\mbulance Associa- 
tion were trained in different handicrafts at the Nova Scotia 
Technical College. and gave their services to the patients at Camp 


Hill and Pine Hill Hospitals. The value of the work soon became 
apparent, and a central training school for ward aides, a
handicraft teachers were called, was opened in Toronto. Young 
women of education, character, and aptitude were carefully selected 
for this work, and as soon as they had been given training, they 
were placed in every military hospital and sanitarium. Tltey co- 
operated with the medical officers and nur::;ing sisters in every 
particular, and a combined effort was made to get every patiènt 
busy at some kind of work just as soon as he \Vas able to do any- 
thing. Basketry, weaving, embroidery, leather tooling, raffia work, 
toy-making, wood carving, art craft, metal work, and other forms 
of occupation were provided. The chief difficulty was in first getting 
the individual interested; and this task took an immense amount 
of tact and persuasion in some instances. 
The underlying motive was to divert the man's mind from its 
morbid state and to give him a mental stimulus back toward civilian 
life. In the majority of cases, the patient would make artistic 
objects for his relatives and friends. If he wished to keep the 
articles he merely paid for the cost of the material, but if he did 
not want them the V ocatiol1al Branch offered them for sale at a 
fair commercial value, deducted the cost of raw materials and 
gave the balance to the patient. There was no idea of instructing 
the men in gainful trades which they could follow after their 
Too high a tribute cannot be paid to the high character and 
ability and the unflagging devotion of the Nova Scotia vVard 
Aides. They gave the same high form of unselfish, patriotic 
service that was characteristic of the best groups of women workers. 
The ward occupations were of enormous benefit in making the 
weary hours of the days pass quickly, in improving the discipline 
in the institutions, and in materially shortening the time of treat- 
ment in many cases. The handicraft work has .been specially 
developed for insane patients, and helps to fill the pathetic lives of 
the soldiers confined in the Nova Scotia Hospital for the Insane. 
A large proportion of the men in the institutions were not 
confined to their wards. Their disabilities were such, or they had 
reached such an advanced stage in their treatment, that they were 
33 6 


able to move about and to perform light work. For these cases 
there was only a half-hour a day of treatment, and the rest of the 
time might be spent in playing cards, in reading magazines, or in 
sheer idleness. There was great danger that the men might become 
.. hospitalized" and unfitted for the stern tasks of industrial life. 
Therefore, curative workshops were provided, ,vhere a wide range 
of classes was held for six or seven hours a day. Practical and 
accomplished instructors were in charge of the various branches. 
and nearly every soldier, physically fit to pursue such studies, could 
find something of interest and value. :Many of the patients håd 
never had a fair chance to get a good education, and a goodly 
number who had had such an opportunity had not availed them- 
selves of it. A few of the soldiers did not even know how to 
read and write. As mechanics, most of the soldiers had acquired 

uch skill as they possessed in a careless and haphazard manner 
and \vere not thoroughly competent. To suit the general needs 
and tastes of the patients, instruction was offered in business 
English. practical arithmetic, practical algebra, geometry and trig- 
onometry, bookkeeping, stenography and typewriting, telegraphy, 
mechanical and architectural drafting, gardening, woodworking, 
shoe repairing, automobile driving and repair, etc. 
These adult students made amazing progress in their studies. 
Those who had forgotten all their mathematics, except the first 
four rules, covered years of school work in a few months. and in 
going over it the second time would never again forget it. For- 
eigners and men who were illiterate learned the rudiments of 
arithmetic and the English language in a surprisingly short time. 
Others were absQrbed in the work of the different classes. and 
gained valuable kno\dedge according to their ability and the length 
of time they stayed in the hospital. For some of them, who were 
not entitled to il1dJ.1strial re-training after discharge, it was their 
only opportunity to get general or vocational education. For those 
ho were so disabled that they could not return to their old 
occupations, the curative workshops offered a trying-out ground 
where they could test their aptitudes and often lay a solid basis 
for further training. It was a pathetic as well as an inspiring sight 
to see some grizzled hero bringing back muscular power to a 


scarred and withered arm in planing a piece of wood to make 
some piece of furniture for his home. The workshop offered 
practically the only method of treatment to the neurasthenic or 
" shell-shocked" patient. No medicine or massage or operation 
could help him, and only the stimulation of his self-interest in 
class work could get him to forget himself and thus gradually 
bring him back to normal. 
The first curative workshop classes to be opened in the Dominion 
started at the Ross Convalescent Hospital in Sydney, on April 4, 
19 16 . They were rapidly developed in every hospital and sana- 
torium throughout Canada, and proved of immense benefit in 
helping to re-establish our disabled soldiers who received treatment 
in Canada. 
By far the most important division of the vocational work of 
civil re-establishment, however, \Vas the industrial re-training. 
France and Belgium showed the \Vay in which crippled men could 
.be trained for future usefulness in suitable trades; and practically 
every belligerent country evolved a system of human rehabilitation 
for maimed soldiers. Canada had the advantage of time to plan 
and develop her methods of dealing with this problem before she 
\Vas swamped with numbers. and consequently was able to establish 
a uniform system with centralized authority. The basis of the 
whole work was to give suitable training for every soldier who. 
through some disability incurred in military service, could not 
efficiently resume the occupation which he followed prior to 
enlistment. In addition to this class, all men classed as minors. 
who had enlisted under the age of eighteen, were later given train- 
ing if their war service had seriously interfered with their 
preparation for their chosen occupation, whether they were disabled 
or not. 
Every effort was made to place the disabled man in the rÌght 
position. He was interviewed by a sympathetic and competent 
official and counselled intelligently about the important choice of a 
new trade. The soldier already had industrial experience and, in 
the majority of cases. had some definite idea of what he wished tn 
do. If his conceptions of the duties, remuneration, conditions of 
work, chances for promotion. stability. etc.. in the new occupation. 
33 8 


were wrong, he was reasonably and patiently advised to make 
another choice. The disabled man, however, always made the 
decision about his own future. His own wishes were followed as 
far as possible, because he would make a failure of his training 
and of his new occupation if he himself was not satisfied and 
The queer trait of human nature that considers "distant fields 
as ever green" was much in evidence. During his former experi- 
ence, the disabled soldier had always had a conviction that some 
other job completely outside of his own vocation was easier and 
better paid. or that some new development of industry was holding 
out its arms and screaming for workers. Consequently, there was 
a common tendency to .enter some vocation wholly outside of his 
former experience. 1\lost of the men were extremely reasonable 
and when all the facts were put before them they made wise 
decisions. Every definite effort was made to keep the man as 
close as possible to the industry in which he was employed before 
enlistment. H they had all tried to crowd into a few of the higfily 
skilled occupations, there would not have been vacancies enough 
to give them all employ.ment. So the training was made as wide 
as business and industry. Schools and classes were organized and 
equipped for those vocations which needed preliminary education 
under skilled instructors, and for which comparatively large groups 
of men were preparing. In cases where men were deficient in 
general education, and needed some fundamental knowledge of 
English and arithmetic in order to succeed, they were given inten- 
sive preliminary instruction for one. two or three months before 
starting specialized vocational training. Every educational institu- 
tion which offered intensive practical courses leading to wage- 
earning power, was made use of to the fullest extent. Industry 
itself. however, offered the widest opportunities, and a great 
proportion of the students were placed directly in industry to learn 
there how to fill the job acceptably under worki';g conditions. so 
that at the end of their period of training they could slip over on 
the pay roll of the employer without any break. Other men,. who 
had preliminary training in the special trade classes established 
by the Department of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment. were placed 


in industry for the latter part of their period of education so that 
they would get accustomed to workshop conditions, and in order 
that there would be 110 appreciable hiatus between training and 
In order to provide ample means for the training and employ- 
ment of the thousands of men the \Var produced, it was necessary 
to secure the closest co-operation of the employers, trade union::.. 
and the general public. It is a pleasure to chronicle the fact that 
everybody gave active help without stint. The Dominion Steel 
Corporation and the K ova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, the 
largest single employers of labor in X ova Scotia, announced publicly 
that they would find a suitable place for e\-ery one of their former 
employees who had gone into military service and who desired 
work after his discharge. They carried out their promise. and 
also provided every possible facility for re-training disabled men, 
Trade unions also gave generous assistance, and waived all restric- 
: tions regarding apprenticeship where these might be detrimental 
to maimed and crippled soldiers who were learning new trades. 
\\ïthout all this splendid co-operation, the results achieved in 
Canada in re-training the disabled soldiers for future usefulness 
would have been impossible. 
The usual period of time that was found neces5ary to put the 
discharged soldiers on their feet so that they could earn the 
preyailing wage in a new occupation, was seven or eight months. 
During the \\7ar, when all labor was very scarce, employers would 
accept men and give them full wages after about six months' train- 
ing, but when competition became keener and more workers became 
a vail able in 1919, eight months was found to be necessary in most 
cases, and sometimes even a whole year. During the period of 
learning a new vocation. the soldier's pension was suspended, and 
he and his dependants rt?ceived a uniform scale of pay and allow- 
anées as follows:- 

Single man ...."......................... 

Iarried man and wife ,........,.....,.. 

[arried man with wife and one child...... 
::\[arried man with wife and two children... 
Married man with wife and three children. 
For each additional child above three.. . . . . 
34 0 

$60 00 per month. 
85 00" " 
9 5 00 .. 
103 00 
IIO 00 
6 00 .. 


If trammg caused the man to live apart from his dependants. 
an extra allo\\ ance of $16.00 per month was granted. Owing to 
the increased cost of lh'ing, these rates were advanced on September 
I. 1920. 
All classes carried on by the Department of Civil Re-establish- 
ment in Nova Scotia \vere conducted for eight hours per day in 
order to get the men accustomed to the conditions prevailing in 
industry. \Vhere men were sent to educational institutions. or \yere 
apprenticed in industry, they were subject to the rules and regula- 
tions in force at the place where they were learning. ' 
The scope of the work widened rapidly as it progressed until 
men were being re-trained for more than 300 different occupations. 
It is not necessary to gh.e a list of these occupations. but the com- 
prehensive field coyered may be imagined if only those classified 
under the letter " A ,. \yere mentioned:- 

.-\ccoun tanto 
.\dding Machine Operator. 
.\dding Machine Repairer. 
.\dvertising Agent. 
Aeroplane Manufacturing \V orker. 
Agriculture-Bee Keeping. 
Farm Tractor Oper- 
Farm Mechanics. 
Floricul ture. 
Fruit Raising. 
General Farming. 
Market Gardening. 
Poultry Raising. 
Seed Testing, 
University Course. 

Air Brake 
.-\rchitectural Draftsman. 
Armature \\ïnder. 
.-\rtificial Limb :\Iaker. 
Art Lead Glazer. 
Art Metal \Vorker. 
.-\utomobile Painter. 
Automobile Salesman. 
Automobile Storage Battery Re- 
.-\utomobile Tire Vulcanizer. 
.-\utomobile Truck Driver, 
Automobile Lpholsterer. 

The man who was placed in industrj for training or employ- 
ment was kept under constant supervision and visited eyery two 
or three weeks to ascertain his progress. If he was not securing 
proper treatment or opportunity to learn, he was moyed to some 
other position. If his choice of occupation had not been wise. he 
was tried out in some other line of work. _ \fter he had finished 
his course, he was visited at least once a month for four months 
to see that his re-establishment was complete and his progress 
satis factory. 



The first group to receive industrial re-training in Canada 
consisted of a number of unfortunate members of a British vVest 
lndia Regiment. A large number were landed in Halifax in 
February, 1917, from a transport and were sent to hospital to be 
treated for severe frost bite. Nine of them had to have both legs 
,amputated and eight of them lost one leg or a portion of a leg. 
Previous to enlistment these.J amaicans had been "cultivators" or 
agricultural laborers, and had very little education. \\Then their 
hospital treatment was completed they were re-trained by the V oca- 
tiol1al Branch in Halifax. l\Ir. \V. J. Clayton gave over his whole 
,residence and the Provincial Branch of the Red Cross Society 
fitted it up completely for a convalescent hospital and re-training 
'centre. The men were given instruction in three trades suitable 
to their disability, viz., tailoring, shoe repairing, and tin-smithing. 
At the encl of fiye and one-half months they were sent back to 
Jamaica able to earn at least fifty per cent. more in their new 
'occupations than they had received before as laborers. 
The work of re-training disabled Nova Scotian soldiers began 
seriously in the spring of 1917. _'\ centre was established at the 
1'echnical College in Halifax. It was fortunate, indeed, that the 
Province had embarked on its scheme of technical education before 
'the \Var, and that this splendid institution stood ready with all its 
equipment and trained Staff to render service to the men disabled 

n war. The Provincial Government turned practically the whole 
establishment over to the Dominion Government for this work. 
Classes in garage mechanics, automobile tire vulcanizing, electricity, 
mechanical, architectural and ship drafting, land surveying, machine 
tool operation, stationary engineering, oxyacetylene welding, shoe 
repairing, etc., were organized. The institution beèame a busy.hive 
of industry. The numbers grew until larger quarters had to be 
secured for part of the classes. In the summer of 1919 a large 
group of demobilization barracks on Cunard St., Halifax, was 
taken over and specially fitted and equipped for educational 
lJUrposes. This was called the Burden Re-training Centre, and the 
main portion of the work has been done there since that time. 
A number of the classes are still maintained at the Technical 
34 2 


College, and this service will be rendered by the College until the 
whole task is completed. 
The number of re-training students in Nova Scotia increased 
rapidly in 1919 until it reached its peak with a strength of about 
2,3 00 in :March, 1920. From this number it has rapidly declined. 
Altogether, in the Province, about 4,000 returned men have been 
granted courses to this date. 
Then one considers that they were 
training for nearly 300 trades, and that they were being admitted 
to and discharged from courses every day, that they and their 
dependants must be paid twice a month. that employment must be 
found for them, that they must be followed up for four months 
after completing their training, and thousands of their difficulties 
'Smoothed out, the magnitude of the task can be appreciated. 
A centre for re-training men in agriculture was established at 
the 1\ ova Scotia Agricultural Col1ege at Truro. Here again this 
advantage of having a fully equipped institution. with a Staff of 
highly-trained specialists ready to render service to the discharged 
soldiers, cannot be overestimated. _1\ll the re-training students from 
the three 11aritime Provinces were sent here, because it was the 
only place in this area competent to meet their needs. Special 
courses adapted for the purpose were provided, and the regular 
Staff of the College gave unstintingly of their time and knowledge. 
Like the Technical College, the Agricultural College' allowed dis- 
charged soldiers to attend all regular courses without any tuition 
fees. The number of men applying for re-training in agricultural 
branches was small because most forms of farming demand p'hy- 
'sical fitness, and the army experience of the soldiers tended to 
make them wish to stick to .industries in the towns. 
Contrary to the expectations of the public, very few men were 
'blinded in the army. \Vounds that would deprive a man of his 
'sight usually killed him. Out of our forces of about a half million 
men, only 130 have had their vision impaired to such an extent 
that they require re-fraining. The Canadian authorities arranged 
with Sir Arthur Pearson that the blind men should all be trained 
in that splendid institution. St. Dunstan's Hostel, in London. In 
'the early days of the \Yar. however. a few blinded men drifted 
back to Canada without training. These were collected and about 


a dozen sent to Halifax, where they were given special instruct-ion 
under the 
lilitary Hospitals Commission at the School for the 
Blind. They were taught Braille reading and writing, typewriting. 
Braille stenography, massage, and shoe repairing. 110st of the 
men made remarkable progress, and are successfully earning their 
own livings to-day. 
Altogether Canada has granted about 53,000 courses of re- 
training. From the very first she has followed a sane, practical 
policy, and has enjoyed the advantages of uniformity and central- 
ized control throughout all the Provinces. 
The results speak for themselves. In Nova Scotia 6S per cent. 
of the men who have completed their courses are successfully 
re-established in the occupation for which they were trained, 
Another 20 per cent. are earning satisfactory \vages in other lines 
of work than those for which they were specifically prepared. 
These men have changed because they saw better opportunities 
fQr themselves, individually, in another vocation, or they may have 
felt fit enough, after their course, to return to their old occupation. 
-Their training will not be lost, because they are so much more 
competent because of having it. Ten per cent. of the men have gone 
out of the Province and cannot be traced. It is safe to conclude 
that most of these are successfully re-establi.shed. Two per cent. 
of the men are reported as unemployed, but it is not knmvn to what 
extent this is due to lack of temporary opportunity or disinclina- 
tion on the part of the man. Three per cent. of the men are 
reported as still ill and temporarily under treatment. 
This high salvage among war-wrecked men can be accepted 
with great satisfaction by every patriotic Canadian. 'Vithout the 
loyal co-operation of every section of society and the unflagging 
devotion to duty on the part of the large Staff of returned men 
who were engaged in administration and instruction, these results 
would have been impossible. Canada's record of reconstruction 
and her efforts to rehabilitate the brave soldiers who gave of their 
youth and strength in the serdce of the country, stand on a par 
with her military achievements. 




T HE Nova Scotia Branch of the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
was organized in Halifax. September 2, 1914., with the 
late Lieutenant-Governor Hon. Tames D. ::\'IacGregor as 
Chairman of the Provincial Executive. On completion of his term 
of office as Governor, he was succeeded by Hon. David McKeen as 
,Chairman, who acted to the time of his death, November 13, 19 16 . 
On appointment to the office of Lieutenant-Goyernor, His Honor 
::\IacCallum Grant became Chairman of the Executive. Other 
members of the Executive who have continued in office fróm Sep- 
tember, 1914, to date, are :-Hon. G. H. 
Iurray, l\ILP.P.. Premier 
and Provincial Secretary; Hon. Chief Justice Harris, Hon. E. X. 
Rhodes, lvLP.. the Chairman of County Branches; H. A. Flemming, 
Treasurer: and Arthur S. Barnstead, B.A.. LL.B., Secretary. 
The total amount raised and remitted to the Honorary Treas- 
urer to l\1arch 31, 1919, was $1,847,883.31, and to March 3 1 , 
1920, was $1,862-431.80. The total amount disbursed was to 
!\Iarch 31, 1919, $1,628,177.04, and to l\Iarch 31, 1920, $1,726,520.30. 
The Central Executive arranged for the collection of the 
amounts allotted to the Province in connection with the various 
campaigns, and county committees co-operating. "ïth but one 
exception, every county municipalit) contributed to the Fund, and 
practically every town of the Province made grants. In two or 
three towns. private individuals made collections for the Fund 
where no grant \Vas made by the Town Council. 
The distribution of relief was superdsed by the Provincial 
Executive, requisitions being drawn by the treasurer of every county 
for the money required, the list of beneficiaries being carefully 
.checked before the money was placed to the credit of the local 


.treasurer. The result of co-operation between the Provincial Ex- 
.ecutive and the various relief committees was so beneficial that 
,very little difficulty arose and the rules and regulations of the Fund 
,were very carefully observed. Complaints by the families of 
soldiers themselves were very few, and all complaints were readily 
adjusted. The expense of both collections and disbursements was 
kept at a low figure, there being only one or two paid officials in 
the larger counties, and these but part time. In addition to that, 
some small grants were made for stenographic and clerical 

3-1- ó 


VICTORY LO,llS, 19 1 9. 

Provincial Executive Committee. 
G. S. Campbell..........,..................... Chairman, 
S. A. Heward..... .......... ................... .Secretary. 
R. H. Metzler. R. \V, Elliott. 
P, R. Jack. B. G. Burrill. 
'.IV. B. Milner, \Y. F, 1\lahon. 
A, F. Mackintosh. \V, 1. MacDougall. 
H, 1\1. Bradford. H. C. Coughtry. 
Bankers' Committee. 
D, Macgillivray ........................,......,... Chairman. 
H. A. Flemming. F. St. C. Harris. 
A, E, Nash. F. O. Robertson. 
Publicity Committee. 
Chairman.......,..,...."....,J. K lIcLeod. 
Special Names Committee. 
Ch.lirman. . ' . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . B. G. Burrill. 
Provincial Press Committee. 
Chairman.. ..... ... ... ..,", -.. Dr. J. D. Logan. 
County. 19Iï-18. 1919. 
Annapolis. ............. Hon. S. \\. \V. Pickup. lIon. S. '.IV. \V, Pickup. 
Antigonish. .....,...... Rev. J. T. Tompkins, Rev. R. S, Macgillivray. 
Cape Breton ............ John E. Burchell. VValter Crowe. K.C. 
Colchester . ..,........, A. J. Campbell, K.C. A. J. Campbell. K.C. 
Cumberland. ..,........ J. R. Douglas. Percy C. Black. 
Clare ' ,................ E. L. Comeau. E. L. Comeau, 
Digby. .....,..,......,. H. B. Short. H. B. Short. 
Guyshoro , ....,..."... E. C. \Yhirman. E. C. \Vhitman. 
I-Iants. ......,.......... .Rev. Dr. T. S. Boyle. Rev. Dr. T. S. Boyle. 
Inverness, ,............ Rev. A, L. McDonald, Rev, A, L. McDonald. 
Kings . .......,........ \V. H. Chase. George E. Graham. 
Lunenburg .,.... "... .' J. J. Kinley, 1\,LP.P. J. J. Kinley, M.P.P, 
Pictou East......,.....,..R. 1\1. 
IcGregor. John D. McDonald. 
Pictou \Vest ........... R. If McGregor. J. Ed. :\lcDonald. 
Queens. ....,........... A. \V. Hendry, George S. McClearn. 
Richmond . ............ D. H. Campbell. D, H. Campbell. 
Shelhurne . ............ R. Irwin, l\I.P.P. R. Irwin, 
Victoria. ............... lh1l1. \V. F. McCurdy. Hon. \V. F, McCurdy, 
Yarmouth. ",.......... E. K. Spinney. M.P. E, K. Spinney, M.P. 
Halifax County....,.... Hon. G. E. Faulkner. Hon. G. E Faulkner. 
Halifax City ........... \V. A. Black. \Y. A. Black. 



YJ I9 I 9 
19 1 7 and 1918 Victory Loans-Final Returns. 
No. Sub. No. Sub. Y olume Volume Objecti\"e 
Co un ty. 19 1 7. 1918. 19 1 7. 1918. 19 1 8. 
Halifax City 7,656 9,9 18 $4,59 2 .500 $9,314,050 $5,000,000 
Halifax County 1.47 2 2,4 02 533,200 1,003,950 615,000 
City and County 9,128 12,320 5, 12 5.700 10.3 1 8.000 5,615,000 
_-\nnapolis . o........ . 1,418 1,357 497.950 62 3,750 500,000 
_-\n tigonish .... - 1,218 1,369 430,000 554,050 430,000 
Cape Breton ...... .. Il,251 17,55 I 4,208,100 6,63 1 .9 00 4,000,000 
Co1chester , ....... . 2,294 2,693 1,003.500 1,374,130 1,000.000 
Cumberland ... . 3,6 0 5 3,3 88 2,137,800 3,080.350 1,500,000 
Digby Municipality 84-t 9 2 7 29 2 ,850 463,100 50 0 ,000 
Clare Municipality 15 2 12 4,250 
Guysboro ...... . 1,079 I ,258 377,900 4 2 5,850 375,000 
Hants ... .o.. .o....... 1,460 1,873 5 2 7,300 793,100 650,000 
Inverness ...o.. . 920 922 3 2 4.900 399,700 325,000 
Kings . ...... -..... 1,817 2.3 0 5 586,150 847,060 650,000 
Lunenburg 1,236 2,880 570,250 1,462,600 1,000,000 
Pictou 5,679 7,661 2,073,750 4. 0 44,500 2.000,000 
Queens ...o........ .. 628 634 258,150 343,400 300,000 
Richmond 638 5 6 4 164,500 200,650 175,000 
Shelburne 679 896 3 1 7,400 4 Il ,150 35 0 ,000 
Victoria. '...'..., 4 2 9 5 0 4 161.600 17 8 ,4 00 160.000 
Yarmouth I,Il5 1,505 457.450 767,760 600.000 

Total ........ 45,438 60.759 $19,515,250 $33,043,700 $20,13 0 .000 
Unofficial objective, $25,000,000, being :Kova Scotia's proportion of 
:5 500,000,000. 

N ova Scotia Victory 

Loan Campaign, 1919. 
Objective. Subscribed. 
$4.;-5 0 .000 $6.896.900 
475.000 1.521,000 

Halifax Cih' ....,.....,.......... 
Halifax County ...........,. 
City and County '" _ " . ". . 
_-\nnapolis , ..." 
_-\ntigonish . , . . . , . , . 
Cape Breton ."......,.'...". 
Co1chester . .'.........,...... 
Cumberland , ....,...,.,.,.... 
Digby (Clare Municipality) .,...'. 
Digby (Digby Municipality) ...,.. 
Guysboro '............. . ..,., ., . 
Hants , .......... 
Inverness , ,...,., _ . _ . . . 
Kings . ............,."........._ 
Lunenburg- . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pictou , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , , . . . . , . 
Queens . .........,......,......._ 
Richmond . . , . . . . . , . . . . , , . . . . . . . . 
Shelburne .. .... _ . . . , . . , . . . , 
\ïctoria . ..,..,'.... _ . . 
Yarmouth . .......,....,. _ . . 


5. 22 5,000 


8.4 1 7,900 
93 2 ,800 
I. 2 47,750 
3. 1 74,700 


of Subs. 
2,4 21 

1.5 2 3 




T lJ E Red Cross has been the Angel of l\lercy to the soldier 
lying on his fevered couch in hospital, for it brought to him 
succor and a message of hope and cheer. But coming in 
contact with it at a time when he was least able to apprehend the 
effort; which brought the help so sorely needed, he is apt to regard 
the Red Cross as a field institution and fails to appreciate the labor 
and sacrifice of the women at home who made its work of mercy 
The work of the N Oya Scotia Branch of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society has been the raising of money, manufacturing and distri- 
bution of goods, visiting and supplying the needs of hospital ships. 
trains, military and convalescent ho,spitals, and arranging concerts 7 
drives and entertainments at pl"ivate homes for returned men. Its 
work did not terminate with the declaration .of peace but still goes 
on in almost as great a measure as in time of war, and will con- 
tinue to do so as long as one returned soldier remains in our 

(any Nova Scotians, as well as returned men, do not appreciate 
the magnitude of the task accomplished by the Nova Scotia Branch 
of the Canadian Red Cross, and it is only possible here to give a 
brief outline of its activities. The women of every city, town and 
village in the Province gave the best of their thought, substance 
and action in order that the citizen soldier of Nova Scotia. whether 
in the fighting line or in hospital convalescing from wounds might 
have every possible comfort. At the end of 1915 the Province had 
thirty-one chartered and two hundred and sixty-eight auxiliary 
branches of the Red Cross. Every village and hamlet had its 
workers who contribut
d a steady stream of supplies and an enor- 
mous amount of labor devolved upon the Provincial Branch at 
35 0 


Halifax, which acted as a Clearing House for all branches through- 
out the Province. 
The officers of the Provincial Branch during the \\-ar, with 
slight changes of office but not of personnel, were as follows: 

His Honor Lieutenant-Governor and 1\1rs, Gra


::\Irs. F. H. Sexton. 
::\lrs. Chas. Archibald. 

1\1rs. T. Benson. 
Mrs. A. W, Jamieson. 
l\I rs, G. S. Campbell. 
1\lrs. F. Woodbury, 
l\Irs. W. J. Armitage. 
1\1rs. E. A. Kirkpatrick 

rrs, N, Duffus. 
Mrs. A. Costley. 

::\Irs. \Vi1liam Dennis. 




::\Irs. F. B. ::\IcCurdv, 
::\lrs. Hector ::\IcInñis, 
::\lrs. ::\1. A. Curry (Hon.) 

H Oil. Secretary. 
::\liss ::\largaret Brown, 

H Oil. Treasurer, 
H. E, 
lahon, Ess. 

E uwlive C o11lmittee. 
Mrs. "\iV, E. McLellan, 
Mrs. F. B. McCurd\-. 
Mrs. H. W, Cunningham. 
Mrs. L. J. Donaldson. 
Mrs. G. A. ::\IacIntosh. 
::\J rs. \V. R. Foster, Dartmouth. 
::\Irs. A. P. Scarfe, Dartmouth. 
.:\r rs. Crathorne, Dartmouth, 
35 1 


Mrs. \V. S. 1\lunnis. 
1\1 iss J ean Forrest. 
:\1iss Constance Bell. 
Mrs. Sedley Thompson. 
l\Iiss Ella Ritchie. 
l\Irs. McKay McLeod, Sydney. 
Mrs. M. A. Curry. 
1\1rs. T. "S. Rogel=s. 
Also the President 

Irs. Frank Hope. 
Mrs. ]. A. Clark. 
Mrs. 1. B. Schaffner. 
Mrs. P. J. Mcl\Ianus, 
:\lrs. V\T. T. Allen. 

lrs. J, \Y. Longley. 
:\Irs. Geoffrey :\Iorrow. 

of each Chartered Branch. 

Provincial Reþresentatives 011 Central Council at Toronto. 
l\Irs. William Dennis, ]. L. Hetherington. 
.:\lrs. Charles Archibald, H. E. Mahon. 
. Advisory Board, 
1\lr. ]. L. Hetherington, Chairman, "11r. ]. A. Neville. 
1\1r. H. E. Mahon, Treasurec 
lr. C. C. Starr. 
l\1r. Chas. V. Monoghan. Mr. Emil Gaboury. 
l\Ir. R. Corbett. Mr. H. McF. Hall. 
:\lr. W. H. Dennis. Mr. F. A. Gillis. 
The annual report of the Provincial Branch for the year ended 
October 31, 1916, shows a balance on hand at first of year of 
$10,961.26 and receipts for the year of $52,667.62. Disbursements 
amounted to $56,584.89, of which the principal items were: 
Rcmittances to Head Office, Toronto ..,..,...,.,.".."..,..... $29,278 38 
Remittances to endow 50 cots in Princess Patricia Hospital..,. 2,500 00 
l\Iaterial for surgical dressings and garments, and wool for socks 18,163 Ii 
Office maintenance and expenses at Shipping Pier...,..,.,...,. 1,388 12 
Clayton Military Convalescent Home ,..,..."...,..,......... 1,993 6ï 
Contributions to Special Objects ,........,....,.....,..,.,... 1,141 21 
The sum of $9,405.25 was collected for Prisoners' Relief Ac- 
count and $8.800 sent to England for expenditure. In addition 
to the above amounts the people of Nova Scotia subscribèd $1,500 
to the Duchess of Connaught Prisoners' Fund and $78,433.03 to the 
British Red Cross. 
Two thousand four hundred and seventy cases of goods were 
sent Overseas during the year, including 78 cases furnished No. ï 
(Dalhousie) Stationary Hospital, 112 cases to NO.9 (St. Francis 
Xavier) Stationary Hospital. II cases to Serbia and 60 to France, 
During the year ended Octoher 31, 1917, the following amounts 
were collected: 

For General Purpose
 . . . . . . . . , . , . . , . . . , . . , . . . , . . , , , . . . . . . . 
For Prisoners' Fund ,.'.... . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
For French Red Cross ...........,...,.... . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . 
British Red Cross Collection......,.,.,..........,.........." 

$62,179 80 
18,790 22 
21,897 63 
100,000 00 

$202,867 65 

35 2 


The principal items of expenditure were: 
Purchase of materials, hospital supplies, etc. .,..........."... 
Sundry supplies .. - _............,.........,....,.,..,........ 
Marine and Fire Insurance ..,'............................... 
Contributions to Special Objects ........,........,............ 
Tobacco, fruits and comforts at Pier 2 and City Military Hospitals 
Remittance to Head Office, Toronto ,.........................'. 
Office Expenses .,.,...,..,....,......",.'.,..,... 
Forwarded to England for support of prisoners,....,...".,... 
Forwarded to Toronto ,...."...."......,.,."..............,. 
Forwarded to England for books for prisoners. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 

$39,674 84 
1,318 60 
2,351 50 
4,706 51 
3,963 05 
32,020 70 
2,055 66 
12,000 00 
2,000 00 
100 00 

T\vo thousand and ninety-nine cases of goods were sent Over- 
seas, and a greatly enlarged demand for goods was made on this 
side of the water owing to the increasing number of returned men 
and the opening of the new convalescent hospitals as well as the 
arrival and departure of hospital ships and trains. The following 
institutions were supplied with goods on their requisitions: 
Clayton Military Convalescent Home. Hospital Ships. 
C.E.D. Corps. Hospital Trains, 
Discharge Depot. Kentville Sanitarium. 
Hospital at Pier 2. Dalton, P.E.I. 
Pine Hill Convalescent Home. Camp Hill Hospital. 
Rockhead Hospital (Soldiers' ward). Truro Military Hospital. 
Infectious Hospital. Aldershot Field Hospital. 
Military Hospital, Cogswell Street. 

Visitors were always on hand on the 
arrival of hospital ships and the de- 
parture of hospital trains to welcome 
the returning men and to see that they 
had every comfort necessary for the 
remainder of their journey. A room 
was given to the Red Cross Society for 
the storing of supplies at Pier 2. This 
was found most useful, as boats and 
trains were despatched as soon as pos- 
sible-only a few hours' notice being 
given for the filling of requisitions, which work, however, was 
speedily and ably done by l\ilrs. Sexton and her committee, l\1rs. 
F. B. McCurdy and l\1rs. \V. T. Allen, the latter of whom carried 
on the work to the termination. l\1any returned men were de- 
tained for days at Pier 2 until they went before their medical 
board. For these, concerts and entertainments were provided 








every evening by the Y.1LC.A., the Red Cross Society and the 
Churches. A special Y.M.C.A. Musical Club was formed in this 
connection which gave entertainments at a few hours' notice 
Two exhibitions of Red Cross work were held during the year, 
one at the I'\ova Scotia Provincial Fair, and another at the Exhibit 
of \Var Trophies, held in the _'\rmories. 
A Committee on Sphagnum Surgical Dressings. under the abfe 
supervision of the Secretary, :L\Iis::; 
Iargaret Brown, was appointed. 
Dalhousie University very kindly gave the use of a fine laboratory, 
where boxes of sphagnum, collected from various points along the 
sea coast of the Province were prepared for use. 
Miss Jean Forrest was appointed Superintendent of Supplies at 

. ..... 






the Technical College and distributed parcels of yarn and cut-out 
work at wholesale prices. to some one hundred and thirty branches 
who found it difficult to obtain supplies locally. 
The cost of maintaining a prisoner of war at thi
 time was 
$15 per month. The Nova Scotia Red Cross assumed the burden 
of two-thirds, or $10 per month for 2ïo men, the Canadian Red 
Cross paying the additional $5. The monthly sum required from 
Nova Scot_ia for the support of prisoners was therefore $2,7 00 . 
Receipts for" the year ended October 31. 1918, amounted to 
$4 08 ,..J. 82 .66'-;öf which $334,176.40 was raised by a ProYincial Red 
Cross drive for funds during the second week in July. 


The Canadian Red Cross Society at their Annual l\leeting, held 
in Toronto in 1917, decided to ask the different Provinces to raise 
certain sums of money during the year. Two hundred thousand 
dollars was named for 
ova Scotia, but the Finance Committee 
knowing full well that the people of the Province would gladly con- 
tribute to the Red Cross \Yar Fund raised the. objective to 
$25 0 ,000, and then started to work under the able direction of 
1\1r. J. L. Hetherington and 
I\r. H. E. 
Iahon. Committees of 
citizens were formed in all the counties. and a complete organization 
arranged, with the result that every county "went over the top," 
and the total amount contributed was $343,7 0 1.77. From this was 
deducted $9.5 2 5.37 for expenses in connection with the campaign, 
leaving the net amount of $334,176.40 to the Red Cross Society. 
N ever did men and women from one end of the Province to the 
other work more enthusiastically, and never did our people con- 
tribute more liberally than to this appeal from" the Greatest Mother 
in the W arId." 
The following amounts were raised in the several counties: 

Annapolis . . . . . . . . . , . - . . - - 
,\ntigonish. - , , - . , . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . ' , , , . , 
Cape Breton . , . . . . . . . . , , , . . . ' . . . . . , . , . 
Colchester . ..,.,., - - .,......,.,..".,........ 
Cumberland . . . . . . , - . . . ' , - , , . . ' . . . . . . . . , . . . 
Digby . ........,......,.",.. . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Guysboro . ..,..,.......,.....,' - - - . . . . . . . . , . 
Halifax (City) ,....,.........,... --- 
Halifax (County) "................,....... 
Hants . ' - , . -".,........".............',., 
Inverness ' ...". ' - . , . ' , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kings. .."...,.,. -" . . . .. -, ".... ., . .. 
Lunenburg , . . . . . . , . . . . , . .. ..,......."...... 
Pictou . ,....,.,...,.,........., . ' . . ' , , . . . . 
Queens. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . , , . . .' .,' 
Richmond . . , . , , . . . , . . . . . . , . ' . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . - 
Shelburne. . . - . . , . . . . . . . . . . ' . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 
\Tictoria . ' - , , . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . 
Yarmouth ' , . . . , . , . - - ' , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ' , . . 
Special . . . . . . , . . . . " . . , . . . . , . . . 

$9,7 1 3 54 
5,598 33 
42,150 29 
20,444 29 
20,196 4 6 
4,464 04 
5,521 24 
110,416 87 
15,425 31 
10,340 00 
2,903 67 
10,650 00 
14,44 6 4ï 
40,235 27 
6,341 61 
2,33 2 47 
7,500 00 
2,463 3 8 
11,510 3 6 
1.048 17 


.. ., '. . , ... . .., . ..', . '" ," .., - ,$343,7 01 77 
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . , . . . . . . . . , . . - - . , <),525 37 

Final Total ...........,.,.......,........, ,$334,lï 6 40 


The expenditure for the year 1918 included: 
Purchase of materials. hospital supplies, etc...... $38,700 o-! 
Sundry Supplies ..........,...,............ _ . . _ 1,218 32 
Comforts to City Military Hospitals and Hospital 
Ships . _..,.,..,...,.,................,..... 9,331 67 
Special objects designated by remitters"., '.,. .., 4,158 53 
Remittances to Head Office, Toronto ..,....,..,. 325,931 70 
Office Expenses and wages at Pier 2,...,....... 2,746 49 

During the year 1918 the public maintained their iuterest in the 
Prisoners of \Var Department of the Red Cross. Thé amOUlJ!. 
collected was $20,943.01, of which $ly,oI3.oo was forwarded to 
headquarters in London, England, for the support of prisoners. The 
food rations of each prisoner of war were despatched regularly 
three times every fortnight, which, considering there were 27 0 
men on the list, was no light undertaking. In addition to the food 
supply the prisoners received two complete outfits of clothing, in- 
cluding everything from shoes and socks to overcoats. 
After the signing of the Armi3tice the work of repatriating 
prisoners went steadily on, and each steamer brought men who had 
spent many weary months in the prison camps, and they all testified 
to the value of the work done by this Society and declared that it 
was solely due to this that they were enabled to return to their 
homes. This department of Red Cross work has been most ably 
conducted by Mrs. Charles Archibald, nohly assisted by 1\Iiss 
Ritchie and Mrs. Longley. 
The beginning of this year was marked by the terrible Halifax 
explosion, by which 1,635 persons lost their lives and 10.000 people 
were rendered homeless. 1\'[ uch generous help was received by the 
stricken city. Everyone knows the splendid aid sent by the Ame;'i- 
can Red Cross, and the people and Government of the United 
States in despatching to Halifax train loads and boat loads of sup- 
plies, together with surgeons and nurses. Their neighborly kind- 
ness will never be forgotten. 
But the help rendered by our own Canadian Red Cross is per- 
haps not so widely known. The Chairman of the Executive in 
Toronto wired to the shipping agent in St. John to render every 
assistance possible in money and goods. The agent, 1\lr. l\lilburne, 
immediately requisitioned a special train, and brought with him all 
the Red Cross goods he had ready for shipment Overseas, making 
35 6 


two car loads in all. This train \\"as the first assistance from out- 
side the Province to reach Halifax. Hearing that some of the 
injured had been conveyed to Truro, '
Ir. }'1ilburne put off case's of 
hospital necessaries for their use at that station. A medical supply 
committee of the Canadian Red Cross Society was immediately 
formed with the sanction of the Halifax Relief Committee, 
l\lilburne being appointed Chairman, and l\Irs. Sexton, Vice-Chair- 
man, with a Staff of forty-four voluntary workers. Twice daily all 
the emergency hospitals were visited and their wants noted and 
supplied the same day. The number of these hospitals, dressing 
stations, etc., amounted to sixty-two. 
At the same time, gifts of clothing, food and money poured in 
from Red Cross Branches all over Canada. Ottawa Branch shipped 
in one day eight carloads of clothing. The Nova Scotia Branch, 
under its President, l\1rs. Dennis, co-operated heartily, practically 
every B.ranch and Auxiliary in the Province sending substantial and 
generous aid. 
Special mention must be made of the work of the President of 
the Windsor Red Cross, l\1rs. P. 1\1. Fielding, who organized a 
special train which arrived the evening of December 6th, bringing 
doctors and nurses from Kentville, vVindsor, Truro and neigh- 
boring towns. The vYindsor Red Cross alone spent $422.74 on 
Red Cross supplies and provisions for this trip, Hantsport and 
other Branches also 'providing hampers of food, so that the doctors 
and nurses had their meals en route and arri\'ed in ] Ialifax ready 
to go to work without an instant's delay, thereby saving many lives. 
l\Irs. Fielding remained in the city, established and equipped three 
dormitories, which accommodated in all seventy-five nurses. vVhat 
this meant to the stricken city will never be computed, and the Red 
Cross feels that all who helped can never be sufficiently thanked. 
It was not until the end of 
rarch that the Red Cross was able 
to resume its work for returned invalided soldiers. By that time 
the hospital on Pier 2, wrecked by the explosion, had been repaired. 
The hospital ships once more made their trips, and the Red Cross 
storeroom on the pier \Vas re-stocked. Large requisitions were filled 
each month; sometimes only a few hours' notice was given to get the 
supp!ies on board-sometimes only a few minutes' notice in the 


case of a hospital train. On one trip the ship docked in the 
morning, landed her men and went out again with her new sup- 
plies in the afternoon. At another time 1,400 shipwrecked men 
from 5.5. City of Vienna were visited and supplied with filled kit 
bags, containing toilet necessaries, pipes and tobacco. Directly 
after, the Committee were called upon to minister to 300 influenza 
contact cases, This necessitated the workers going into quarantine 
for two days, very busy days, too, the telegrams alone requiring 
upwards of 300 telephone calls. The Y.'11.C.A. and the Knights of 
Columbus 11usical Club were always at haJl1d to cheer up men who 
were detained by the l\Iedical Board,. ar'anging for their benefit 
concerts, entertainments, motor drives and teas at private houses. 
One thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight cases of goods 
were sent Overseas, and the distribution of supplies on this side 
grew very greatly during the year owing to the increasing number 
of returned men and the opening of new convalescent homes. 
The financial statement for the year ended October 3 1 , 1918, 
shows receipts of $36,848.65. Expenditures amounted to $-t-I ,804.01, 
including the following items: 

Purchase of materials, City and Provincial ] [ospitals $12,172 04 
Kentville Sanitarium .."."..... ..' ".,.".,..... 1,014 42 
Soldiers' Reception Committee ..,. 9,000 00 
Cigarettes . ,............, ...,......,.....,.,. 2.456 51 
Soldiers' Comforts ............."...........,..,... 2,260 23 
Lihraries , ...,..,.".,..:.....,........
.........., 3 1 9 79 
)J urses . .........,..,..".,...,..."......,......., 378 10 
Furnishing-s . ................,...,...,...........,. 2,201 36 
Clayton H.spital .,......, "....,."... or ' . , . . . . . . . 175 00 
Rental and Expenses at Headquarters, 314 Barrington 
St. , ."...,.., ..... . . . .. . .. . . . "..,. .. . . ,. . .. , . 
Office Expenses '.,'...... 
X-Ray :Machines. Kentville . ,. . . " . . . '" 
Hospital Ships ..,.."......,.'.,..,.."..,..',..... 

3,858 &) 
1,7&) 85 
2,396 43 
823 63 

No salaries what'ever were pa!d to officer? of the Red Cross 
Society. The only persons connected with the work who receÌ\'ed 
anything for their services were the shipper at Red Cross warehouse 
at Pier 2, who was responsible for the receiving- and sending for- 
ward of our boxes, and the Office Secretary who took charge of the 
correspondence, kept the books. etc. She was assisted by a large 
corps of voluntary workers. 

35 8 


\\ïth the signing of the Armistice great changes naturally took 
place in the daily work of the Nova Scotia Red Cross. \Vorkers 
decreased in number, and those who remained faithful had to \wJrk 
extremely hard, as, although it was considered that the stores 
already sent would be sufficient for all Oyerseas demands, the 
reserve stock of stores for use in the hospitals in our own Province 
had to be kept up. 
At the time of the Armistice the surgical sphagnum dressings 
were still very greatly needed. Special efforts were put into this 
work, which continued till free transportation ceased on 
Iarch 3 I st. 
Forty-five boxes of the dres:,ings were sent Oversea;;, An eminent 
Surgeon-Colonel in one of the Overseas hospitals gave it as his 
opinion that sphagnum dressings had saved the situation. 
\\1 ork f'Or refugees of 'the devastated area of France was then 
taken up, sanctioned by the Head Office in Toronto, who provided 
samples and gave permission to use Red Cross materials for this 
good work. The patterns were duplicated in our office and dis- 
tributed to Branches thfloughout the Province. The work was 
carried on for two months and 217 boxes of garments were sent 
Change of quarters for the Red Cross became imperative. The 
Technical College, which had sheltered Red Cross workers during 
the four years of the vVar, and had so generously allowed them the 
use of valuable equipment of every kind, was now overcrowded 
with its own work for returned soldiers. It was therefore decided 
to take over the lease of No. 314 Barrington Street from the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, which had occupied it for the last year. 
It was thought best to continue the Canteen which the 
Red Cross had established until such time as the Y.
r.C..-\. should 
take up this work. "This Canteen, under the management of :\lrs. 
Sexton. had a \,yonderful success, becoming a happy and home-like 
centre for returned men and greatly appreciated-especially the hot 
Sunday dinners served by devoted workers. 
I uch regret was 
expressed when, at the end of three months, it was closed and the 
work handed over to the newly-opened Red Triangle Hut next door. 
The principal work throughout the year \vas supplying the needs 
of the hospitals. 
rrs. 11unnis. who worked so faithfully as the. 
Convener of the Hospital Committee resigned and was replaced by 


.:\tIrs. Sexton. An enlarged committee was formed and a large staff 
of visitors began their duties, each having a special ward assigned 
to them. . 
Twelve sun parlors at Camp Hill Hospital were furnished for 
the use of convalescents and made as comfortable and home-like as 
possible. The estimated cost 'Was $500 each, subscribed for by the 
foJ1owing Red Cross Branches: Amherst, \Nincl.sor, \tV olfvil1e, 
\Vestville, Trenton, Glace Bay, Halifax, Truro, Hazel Hill. Joggins 

Iines, New Glasgow and North Sydney. A brass plate, bearing 
the name of the donor, was affixed to the wall of each parlor. 
The cost exceeded the estimate by $240 each. which excess was 
paid from the central treasury. 
ovember 1 I, 1918, until September 30, 1919. 220,000 
men passed through the Port of Halifax, and 92 ships were met 
and as far as possible these men had the use of the Red Cros
rooms at the pier. T.he Port Committee was on hand day and 
night to help make their landing on Canadian soil (many of them 
after years of service) a great home-coming. 
In the first days of disembarkation all men for Canada \yere 
held at Halifax for documentation. Later the military authorities 
changed their plan and it became their ambition to disembark and 
entrain these men in the shortest possible time so that only 1Iari- 
time men waiting for local trains or men held for hospital treat- 
ment came under the care of the Committee. 
Later on the Repatriation Department of the Canadian Govern- 
ment requested the Red Cross to undertake the care of the returning 
soldiers' families. About 5,000 soldiers' dependants passed through 
Halifax and a fully trained nurse was placed on each train con- 
taining soldiers' wives and children. 
Hospital equipment was provided at Pier )[0. 2 for any women 
and childre-n who were unfit to travel after landing from boat, or 
whose husbands were military patients and could not proceed. 
Often their luggage was not obtainable, and the Red Cross was 
called upon to supply such necessaries as infants' outfits, women's 
pyjamas and bath robes, towels, soap, combs, hot water bottles, 
medicines, etc. 
In 'March when the Canadian Government decided to send the 
hospital ships to Portland, :\Iaine, instead of Halifax. Col. Noel 
3 60 


. l\1a rshall requested that a Committee of our Port Workers should 
inaugurate the work at the new port. :Mrs. "-. T. 
\llen, Mrs. J. L. 
Hetherington and 1\lrs. F. B. l\1cCurdy accordingly proceeded to 
Portland and very satisfactory arrangements were made whereby 
the Canadian Red Cross continued to fit ships with hospital stores, 
while the American Red Cross very court
ously and generously 
provided canteen facilities and served refreshments to all the 
Perhaps no department of the Red Cross has developed more 
enthusiasm or been more splendidly supported than the work of 
Prisoners' Relief. From a very small beginning it grew to be work 
of great importance, and one in \vhich the people of Nova Scotia 
have abundantly shown their practical interest. It did not draw 
upon the general Red Cross Funds but appealed for a special 
offering from the public or from friends of men who were prisoners 
of war and found a most gratifying response, no less than .$4 1 ,44 8 
having been contributed for this special purpose. 
Approximately 270 Canadian prisoners of war in forty-one 
different internment camps in Germany were maintained wholly or 
in part through the kindness of the people of 
 ova Scotia, at a 
cost per head of $10 per month. .Almost all these men were 
" adopted" by friends or societies; that is, such persons or societies 
agreed to pay a certain sum per month towards their maintenance, 
two dollars and fifty cents having been fixed as the minimum 
amount. The name and address of the adopted was given to the 
man, and his name, number and prison address to the adopter, and 
letters and cards were exchanged between them, often arousing a 
deep personal interest on the one hand and a sense of gratitude and 
appreciation on the other. 
:1\lrs. Archibald and NIiss Ritchie were brought in close contact 
with the homes and families of prisoners of war. The amount of 
correspondence was very considerable. and the system used entailcd 
a lot of book-keeping. The name and number of each man, date 
of capture, prison camp and any details that could be gathered 
were registered on a card index. The name of the "adopter" 
was also registered both here and \\,ith the Prisoners of \Var 
Department in London. 


3 61 


Close touch was kept with the Department of ,. :Missing lVlen," 
conducted in London and in a few instances it was pm.sible to 
convey reassuring news to sorrow-stricken friends of the" missing 
men," although, too often, it became necessary to deprive them of 
the hope they so touchingly clung to. Yet even the bad "news was 
softened somewhat by details of the death or capture of a man, 
obtained under the system inaugurated by Lady Drummond of 
., Searchers" in hospitals who sought out wounded men of the 
same Platoon or Battalion of the person enquired for. These 
men, if able to write. would themselves send a few \vords telling 
when and where they had seen their less fortunate comrades. Even 
these meagre details were of some comfort to the mourmng ones. 

f' ". 
. , It'" 


:\IRS, W. :\1' K. l\I'LEOD. 


Some of the heart-broken letters received \vere very hard to reply 
to, but when news was good and food parcels arrived safely showers 
of "acknovvledgment cards" flowed in; and when, as often hap- 
pened, the mail brought a personal letter fron1 some grateful mother 
or a few words from some of the poor boys behind barbed wire 
.. somewhere in Germany," or when a rapturous letter came from 
some poor fellow transferred from his prison as 'ó totally unfit" and 
sent to the free air of Switzerland, the ladies conducting this 
Department felt more than happy in being permitted to participate 
in such a work of mercy. NIrS. Archibald, 1Iiss Ritchie, and their 
co-workers possessed in no small degree the confidence of the 
prisoners' friends throughout the P
ovince and deeply appreciated 
3 62 


their attitude to\\'anl them and. their loyalty and patience with the 
many unavoidable delays and mistakes. 
During the last two years of the \ \ - ar, as the work became 
heavier, this Department had associated with it 
lrs. \V. l\tlcK. 
:i\IcLeod, who acted as Secretary for Cape Breton, and 
Iiss Almon. 
Special mention must also be made of the work of l\Iiss Clara 
Dennis in m
eting and \yelcoming home repatriated men who had 
been prisoners of war. During 1918-19 one thousand and eight of 
these men were met and greeted by 
I iss Dennis. To each man 
was handed a card of \yelcome from the Red Cross and a box of 
confectionery, He \Va:, asked to record his name. regimental num- 
ber, German prison camp, and his home address in a book specially 
prepared for the purpose. That the men appreciated this informal 
but hearty welcome home is abundantly proved by the fact that 
lVliss Dennis has since received from them hundreds of letters of 
It is impossible to g-i\'e in detail the names of the many thou- 
sands of devoted and faithful voluntary workers throughout the 
Province of Nova Scotia who sought no re\\-arcl for their labors 
but the joy of kno\ying that the Society achieyed its aim-the 
alleviation of the suffering..;; of our fighting men. 

Red Cross Chartered Branches. 

Place. President. 
.\mherst. . . . . . , , . . . , . . .)'Irs. "-. R. Fishleigh. 
.\richat. . " ..... ., . ", . '. . . , . . .11rs. C. D. Terrio, 
.\ntigonish. . . . . . . . . . , . . . ,. . , .. 1frs, D, G. Kirk. 
naddeck.....,. .,.. "\frs. F, \V. 
Barrington. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . ., "rs. \Vilson Crowe1Ï. 
Berwick. . . . . ' . . . , , . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . 1f r5. .-\.lex. Anderson. 
Bishop's 1f ol1ntain ,....,...... . . . 1frs. C. O. Downie. 
Brass Hill ..". .. " ., 1[rs. F. Xicker50n. 
nrule..... .,. _ ..............,.,..,).[rs. A. C. Cook. 
Barney's River ...,.......,...,....... ).fr5. \Vm. 
noubrdarie. , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ),1 rS. J, Fraser. 
frs. C. O'Donoghue. 
Cape X orth ,.......',..."."....'... 11iss Grace Gwynn, 
Chester, , . . . ' , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . . Dr. C. O. Hehb, 
Dartmouth..,.......... .,.,..."... .. - .1frs. \V R. Foster. 
o. 6 ."..' ...,.,. . 1frs. -\nna B. "Vight. 
Goldboro. . . _ . . , . " ,., _ , . . . . . . . . ).f rs. Edgar Silver. 
Glace Bay . .., . , . . . , . . ." . .. , . .,. , . . 1fl"s. P. 'E. Ogilvy. 
Halifax.,.....,.,...........,.,...,.,. 1frs. \\'m. Dennis. 
Hazel Hitl .....',..........."".,.,. "\Irs. Dunning. 
3 6 3 


Place. President. 
Hantsport. . , . ' . . " . . . , . . . . . . }'liss Marcia Braine. 
Lawrencetown. . . . . . . . , . . . , , . . . :\Irs. D. 
1. Balcom. 
Lawrencetown S.S. ',.....,.,...,'. :\Irs. J. F, Brown. 
Moser's River ...."."....,....... :\Irs. \Vatter Smith. 
Mulgrave...,." ...,..,..........,.. :\lrs. L, C. Dixon. 
New Glasgow...".",............ l\Irs. P. A. MacGregor. 
North Sydney ...'...,............. 1\lrs, ]. J, Pallen. 
Pictou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . ' . , . . , . . . . . .:\1 rs. A. S. Stalker, 
Port Morien ...............,....,. l\1iss C. Macaulav. 
Port Bickerton . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . Mrs. George Taýlor. 
Point Tupper ...,.... .", . " Mrs. James Swaine. 
St. Peters ...,......,. _ . .. .. .....:\1 rs. ]. Kemp. 
Sydney.,.........,........ ....".., Mrs. H. A. Nicholson. 
Sydney l\lines ..,.,..,......,...... Mrs. B. Archibald, 
SOLlth Berwick .....,..",......... :\frs. G. R. Nichols, 
Tancook Island . . , . . . , . , . . , . . . . . . 
Iiss Beulah \Vilson. 
rrs. C. \V. Stromberg. 
Truro.. .. - " . . ,. . , .. . " . '. , '.', .., . , :\Irs. Harold Putnam. 
\Vest Quodd\' ., . . ., . . .... . :\Irs. Alex. Gamnon. 
\Vestville... .-... -. '......... Mrs. R. Fraser. 
Windsor. . . , , . ' , , , . .. .".,'..,.... .
lrs. P, l\f. Fielding. 
\Volfville, , . .. . ., .. . .. . ., . " . , . . . .. . Mrs. Harold Barss. 
\V oodla wn. . . . . , . . . . , . . , . . . . , . . . . , . . 
I rs. Jane N a uffts, 
\Vestchester Station ........,......::\1 rs. \V, 0. Webb. 
Yarmouth. . , , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . :\1 rs. \V. D. Ross. 

Red Cross Auxiliaries. 
Avondale, . , , . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . Miss Bertha 'Crosslev. 
Advocate Harbor.. .' " .,. .l\frs, L. L. Hill. - 
Athol. . .. . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .... ..... . ::\Irs. J. \\T. Boss. 
Aylesford.,...,.,..... .....,......, ,::'vIrs. C. N. l\lcIntyre. 
Apple River .....,'....,........... l\Irs. E. Slocum. 
Billtown.. . . . . . . . . '" . ,. . . . . . . . . ., . . ::\Irs. C. R. Bill. 
Bayhead. . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . , , . . . . . . . . , . 
I rs. James Johnson. 
Baxter's Harbor . . . , . , , . . . ' . ., .' .:!\Irs. Fred Ells. 
Bayfield .. .,....."................ 1\lrs, F, C. Gass. 
Bedford..., ........,.. ..:\Irs. E. Butler. 
Blandford...... .... '.... Mrs. C. \Voods, 
Bear River .'.........,.....,...., .
\Irs. L. ]. Lovitt. 
Bridgetown. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .. :\I1'S. 0. T. Daniels. 
Baccaro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , , .. l\1 rs. G. 1. Crowell. 
Barney's River. . . .. . . . " . ., . " . . . , . .i\Irs, (Rev.) McDonald. 
BarronSSeld...,...........,..... ... .-:\Iiss Nettie Baker. 
Beacon Hill ....................... .
\lrs. E. H, Langille. 
Big Baddeck .,. , .." " 
Irs. Alex. Anderson. 
Birch Grove ...,..,.',."...,. . . :\lrs. D. B. McDonald. 
Brooklynn (Queens) "............ .l\Trs. \V. P. Godfrey. 
Brandford....."... .,....,......'" l\frs, C. Woods. 
Broughton, , . . . . . , . , . , . . . , . . . . . . , . . . l\Iiss Ida l\lcLeod. 
Centre Burlington .,..... ' , . ' , . , , . ,1\lrs. F. G. Brown. 
Clarke's Harbor ...'.".....,...... .Mrs. George Phillips, 
Central New Annan ., _,...,.,. .Miss A. McIntosh. 
Cherry Brook. . , . . ' , . . , . . . . . . , , . . .. Mrs. :\lary Grosse. 
3 6 4 


Place, President. 
Chignecto Mines. _ . . . _ . . . . ., .'., ., 
Irs. F. :\1. Blenkhorn. 
Clam Harbor..,..."....,....,.." 
Irs. J. B. Homans. 
Collingwood,. . . , . . . " . . .. . . . " . ., :\Irs. Davies. 
Cook's Brook..,. . . . " . . . . . . ., . . ,. , :\Irs. \Varren Cook. 
Caledonia.. ., . . . " . '. . ., . . . ,. , . .... :\Irs, B. Lempton. 
Canaan. , . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . , . .. :\liss Bessie Shipley. 
Central GrO\ e ...'.....,......,..,. :.\-Irs. Byron :.\Ielaney. 
Centre Gore. . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . :VIrs. N. Grant. 
Centre Rawdon - - . - . .. - . . . . . " :.\Irs. J. E. \Vood. 
Centreville.. , . . . , .. , . . . ,. . . . , . ., ., . . Rev. H. :.\I. Manzer. 
Clementsport. . , . . , . , . . , . . . . . . . , . . . , . :.\Iiss 1. Hicks. 
Cleveland, . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . .1Irs, D. A. 1\1 cLeod. 
Conquerall Bank.,...... .,.,'.,... :\lrs. Angus Weagle. 
Dalhousie East (Kings) ...'..'..... :.\Irs. M. Oickle. 
Dalhousie East (Annapolis) ..,..... :\Irs. John Long. 
Dean.. '" , . . . . , " . . " ,. .,. . , . , .", . :\Irs. Campbell Brown 
Deep Brook '.,. ." . " . . . .. .. :\Irs. G, 
Diligent River _ :.\-Irs. W. \V. Lamb. 
Digby, . ... ,. . . .. ,. . .., . . . . . . . . , . ... :.\Irs. Eber Turnbull. 
Durham. . '. . . , . . ., . ., . . . . . . '" ., . " 
Iiss Janet Blaikie. 
Ellershouse. , . . . . . , . . . . . , ,. " . . ' ., . . .vIrs. H. D. Archibald 
Elmsdale. , . , , , . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . , .' :\Irs. Chas, Thompson 
East Walton.. .. .. . . . . . . .,. . . ., '. . . :.\-Irs. Levi Lake. 
Economv.. . . . " . . . . . . .,. .,. ...' . ,. . :VIrs. P. Huntley. 
Five Islånds ...'.'...,...,'......" :VIrs. Calvin Corbett. 
Fenwick. . .. ,. . . . . .' "" . . _" , . .. . 
Irs. F. B. Dickinson 
Freeport... _" . . . . . 
frs. Egar Ring. 
Five :\Iile River.,. , . .. . ., ,.,..,... :.\-Irs. H. Hennigar. 
Fraserville. . . . , , . . . ' . , . . , . . . . , . . . . . . 'Irs. Gaius Fraser. 
Glenville and Claremont............ :.\-1 rs. C. A. :\IcCabe. 
Grand River .,.'....,..,..,......'. :\lrs. :\IcDonald. 
Guysboro. " . . ., .,. . . . .. . . . . , .. . . . . . :.\frs. G. E. Buckley. 
Glengarry. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . :\Iiss Christine Fraser. 
Granville Fern- '"..,..",.. , _ . . . . , :\Irs. W. Patterson. 
Giant's Lake. - 'liss K. A. 
Goldenville. . . , . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . .. 
I rs. 1. Fraser. 
Goshen and Argyle ....,..,.,....... :\Irs. J. .'\. Sinclair. 
Great Village ...,.,.....,.......,.. :\1 rs, C, B. Spencer. 
Greenwood.............,..... ....., :.\Irs, Chas. 
Hammond's Plains ..,...".......,. .\Jiss S. Schmidt
H ubbards. _ , . .. ,.......,.........,. 
I rs. Bessie McLean. 
Harmony (Kings) " ...,.. ... :\Irs. C. S. Spinney. 
JIcmsford........". ..,.. ...". _ .
Irs. James Falconer, 
J nverncss. , . . . . . . . ' . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . .1Irs. E. Brassett. 
Joggins Mines ..,..,.....,....,..,.:\Irs. R. J. Bell. 
Kingston Station .............,...., :\Irs. G. G. Power. 
Karsdale.... ....,..,.....,."..,.... :\Irs. G. \V, Chisholm. 
Lake Ainslie ....."....".,...... :\Irs. 1\1. A. :.\lcKay. 
Louisburg.. ...,....,....., :\Irs. A. L. Bates. 
Liverpool..,.....,..,..... .... :\frs, John More, 
Lunenburg. . . . . . , , . . , . . . , , . . . . , , . ., :\1 rs. Emily Smith. 
Lower Sdmah and Sterling Brook" :\Iiss Lena Spicer. 
Lochaber,.."...............,..,... :VIrs. John Brown. 
Latties Brook .....,......"...,... :\Irs. \V. J. Macdonald. 
Liverpool. , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , , . . , , , . . . . :\f re;. J ohn 
T ore. 
3 6 5 


Place. President. 
LockhartviIle.... . . '. . .,... . ...' .... .1\liss F. McInnes. 
Londonderry. . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . Mrs. J. G. R. Smith. 
Lower Granville .,........ . , " . .Mrs. George Anthony. 
Lyons Brook.".....,...,..,.,.. _. .Mrs. A, Hogg. 
Lockeport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mrs. Churchill Locke. 
MosherviIle, .Stanley and ClarkeviIle. Mrs. H, B. Smith. 
Milford Station ....,............... Mrs. Pooley. 
McPhee's Corner ..."..........." .Mrs. James McPhee. 
Margaretsville ".,.. _....'........ .Mrs. A. B. Coulstan. 
Marriott's Cove - - - .. ...,.,..,.,.. .1\lrs. Rupert Millett. 
Middle River ..................,... Mrs. Mary MacDonald. 
Mabon .....,....."...,.......... .l\lrs, E. S. Bayne. 
Maccan ....,.,..,........... . . , . . .M rs. (Dr.) Forbes. 
Mahone ..,...........".......... .Miss Nettie Zwicker. 
Malagash .,.'.................,.. . Mrs. Jacob Treen, 

lalagawatch .,............,...... .Mrs. Hudson. 

lanchestcr and Port Shore ham .. .J\Irs, \\". Bruce. 

Iapleton .. _ _ . . . . .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . l\1rs, G. E, Fletcher. 
Margaree Harbor .... .....,...... l\Irs. A. R. MacDougall. 

lelvern Square ...,.............. .l\Irs. E. F. McNeil. 

ferigomish and Piedmont ........ .Mrs, T, B. Olding. 
Middleton . ....,.......... _ , , . . . .1\1rs. W. GwiIIim. 
MilI Village CHants) .',........, .1Irs. Hattie WalIace. 
1\lira Gut ..........,.............. .Mrs. J. J. Philips. 
Moose Brook and Tennycape ...... .Mrs. W. F. Stevens. 
MillsviIle . ....................... .
\Irs. R. 1\IacKav. 
Mount Uniacke ................... .i\1iss Sadie Robinson, 
Nappan _ '...." _ _, '" ..... ,....... .
lrs. Robert Donaldson. 
Neil's Harbor .." ...,...,...., "l\1rs, Ed. Dowling. 
New Annan .Miss Agnes McIntosh. 
New Port ....,....".............. Mrs. J. F. Rathburn. 
North Dartmouth .............,.. .Mrs. C. V. Vernon. 
New CampbeIlton .................. Mrs. W. McKinnon. 
New Germany ,.................,.1\1" rs, H. P. Chesley. 
N.E. Margaree ............".... .1\1rs. ]. H. Tulston. 
Noel Shore "",...,............,. .l\lrs. E. S. Main. 
North Kingston .....,....,."....,Mrs. H. J. Neily. 
Oxford .,..,......'.,............. Mrs. J. R. Gilroy. 
Owl's Head ".....,......,....... .1\1rs. ]. E. Parker. 
Oxford Junction .."...........". .Mrs. S. Colburne. 
Port Maitland ..................... Mrs. E. H. Porter. 
Port Greville ....,..,..........,.. .Mrs. R. S. Kerr. 
Pleasantfield ......".. _'" . . .... ., .Mrs. Charles Arnburg. 
Paradise , ..........,......",.... .Mrs. H. P. Layte. 
Port Medway '... .., .. . ,. .,... .Mrs. Grace Andrews. 
Parrsboro . ...,...".............. Mrs, F. A. Rand. 
Pentz ..........".........,...... .Miss Alberta Smith. 
Port Dufferin ..,................. .1\'lrs. E. W. Dunlop. 
Port Hawkesbury '....',..... '... .Mrs. D. GiIIis. 
Port Hood ......,..,..,.......... .Mrs. Daniel McLennan. 
Port La Tour .......,..,..,...".. .Mrs. D. Snow, 
Port HiIford ,..........,......... .Miss IsabeIIa Reid. 
Parker's Cove .. ...............,. .Mrs. H. Anderson. 
Plainfield .........,..,........... ..Mrs. W. A. Graham. 
.Princedale "......."..........,.. .Mrs, Forman Wright. 
3 66 


Place, President. 
Ragged Island, East Side .......,.. .11rs. Chas. Matthews. 
Richmond , ....,.,.,............. .1ft-s. .\. G. 
River Herbert .."................ .11rs. T. Shipley, 
Rockingham ..,.,......"......... .Mrs. \\'. J. Clayton. 
Rodney and \Vindham ............. .
Irs. 1\1. Y. Boss. 
River John ....................... ).Irs. C. \V. MacKintosh. 
River Philip .................,.. 11 rs. lr. L. King, 
Rosswav . .,...................... .
Irs.. Bessie Crowell. 
Sandy Point ...................... .
ft-s. Anzo Long. 
Sandy Cove """ . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .Mrs. E, D. Morehouse. 
Shag Harbor . . . . . . . , . . .. . . . . . . . .1\, N. C. Nickerson. 
Shelburne . ,.",.................. .
1 artha C. Morton. 
Ship Harbor Lake ................ .1\[r.s, Alvin Webber. 
Shubenacadie . ..,................ .::\frs. A. E. Culton. 
Smith's Cove ..........,.,........ .1\Irs, Edward Winchester. 
Southampton . ,......"....,..,.. .::\Irs. Victor Brown. 
Spencer's Island . . . . . . . , . . . . . . ..\1 rs. Edmund Spicer. 
Sackville. ..,................ ..\Irs. Robinson. 
South Athol ...,.................. .Mrs. L. D. MacKeen. 
Seal Island ...,.,....,......,..... .::\'1rs. John Smith. 
St. Croix and Sweet's Corner. ..... :\Irs. J. F. Rathburn. 
Stake Road ,..,.............,...... Dr. Barbara McKinnon. 
Sutherland's River ................. 
1rs. Dwight Burns. 
South Side Cape Sable Island ....,..\1 rs. E. C. Nickerson. 
South Farmington ...,......"..... 11 rs. \Vilkins. 
Springhill ...",.."..... ." David Stewart. 
Stellarton. . . . . . . . . _ . . . ., .',...,... .l\Irs. George Gray. 
Stewiacke ...,.,................... ::\lrs. Rachel Pollock. 
Stony Island ....................... Mrs. S. L. Brannen. 
Sydney River ...................... Miss Sarah 1\lcDougall. 
Selmah .....,..........,...........::\1 rs. Cyrus Weldon. 
South Rawdon .................... .1\1rs. \V. H, Lawson. 
South Bay ...,....,................Mrs. T. A. Young. 
Torbrook ....,.,................... ;\, A. B. Payson, 
Tupperville ,...,................... :V1rs, L, H, Chipman. 
Tatamagouche .................... .1\lrs, D. A. Cunningham, 
Upper Burlington .................. Mrs. Harry B. Sandford. 
Upper LakeviIle..............,.,... Mrs. ::\fargaret \Vebber. 
Upper Musquodoboit .............. .Mrs. \V. B. Hutchinson. 
Upper Economy ..................Mrs, C. F. Lewis, 
Upper Rawdon ,................... Mrs. J. E. Weatherhead. 
Upper Port La Tour............... Miss Rosa Snow. 
Wallace ......................... ..Mrs. A, S, Murphy. 
\Vilmot ......................"....1\1 rs. J. B. Kilton. 
\\'est New Annan .................Mrs. W. Wilson, 
'vVestport .......................... Mrs. E. C. Bowser. 
Wallace River ..........,..........::\Trs. Chas. Fisher, 
Waterville ........................ Mrs. D. R. Pineo. 
Waverley .,..................... ..l\1rs, E. Fanchea. 
West La Have ......,.............Mrs. Clarence Wambolt. 
Welton's Corner ...................Mrs. P. A. Smith. 
West Apple River ...,...."...,....!\r rs, Rohert McWhirter, 
\Vest Berlin and Eagle Head. ...... . "!\lrs. B. Conrod. 

3 6 7 



A K organization that blazed a new and unique track in the 
v\'ar, and accomplished great results, especially in the colliery 
districts of Cape Breton, was the \\ïlling \Yar \Vorkers of 
Glace Bay. 
.-\ number of the mothers, sisters, wives and sweethearts of the 
boys ,. over there," finding that other Societies lacked the personal 
touch, banded themseh"es together to send 
parcels every week to their own home 
boys in France. and kept up the good 
work enthusiasticalIy until Armistice Day, 
\v hen they dis banded. 

lrs. Gordon S. Harrington, wife of 
Colonel Harrington, Deputy Overseas 
l\Iinister, \\'as the first President, and 1frs. 
IcCawley, of Glace Bay. the 
Secretary- Treasurer. 

lrs. Harrington went to England in 
Xovember, 1916. and became actively in- 
terested in war work for Canadian sol- 
diers in that country, particularly at the Beayer Hut. Strand, 
London, and St. Dunstan's Hostel for blinded soldiers. 


T HE Society \Vas organized on ::\1arch 9. 1916. The aim of 
the Society was. first, to aid recruiting; second, to look after 
the comfort of the men while quartered at Broughton, and 
as far as possible after they had gone Overseas; third, to assist in 
every possible way the wives and families of the men enlisting. 


lrs. E. ]. Johnstone, President. Mrs. O. Leiers. Treasurer, 
::\Irs. J. A. McLellan, Vice-President. Miss Daniels, Secretar)'. 

From the time of the Society's organization until the r8Sth 
Battalion was disbanded, the Society raised the sum of $2.0ï5.3 6 , 
3 6 8 


which was de\ uted entirely to the use and comfort of the Battalion. 
In addition to this. ::\1r. \Valshaw, of the D.T.S. Co., collected the 
sum of $ïo.oo, and the Xorth Sydney Branch of the Green Feather 
Society also donated the sum of $43.00. These amounts were sent 
to England for the purpose of procuring Ghristmas dinners for the 
The visiting committee of the Society did very good work in 
looking after the wives and children of the men who had gone 

-\t the close of the "Var there was the sum of $12.00 in funds, 
which was presented to the G.\V.V.
\. after their organization. 


T HIS Society was organized the second year of the War by 
the ladies of the Sacred Heart Parish. Sydney, and was 
intended to supply the religious needs of the Cape Breton 
soldiers and Chaplains, and to send comforts direct to the soldiers 
in the trenches. However, as the War went on, the Society en- 
larged its scope and embraced all kinds of patriotic work. The 
work of the Society was carried on by packing tin boxes with 
fruit cake, candy, cigarettes, socks, khaki shirts, and other things 
too numerous to mention. These were addressed to each soldier 
and acknowledged in due time. 
The success of the Society was in no small mea
ure due to the 
activity of the President, i\Irs. V. F. Cunningham, who held that 
office during the four years of the Society's existence. 
The followin
 short statement will give some idea of the work 
oi the Society: 

Total amount received from general city coIlections .........,.. $2,058 89 
.-\rnount horn other sources ."...".. - . . . . , , , , . . . . , , . . - 9ï5 80 

$3,034 69 

Paid supplies for boxes sent Overseas . , , .' . .. ..,' .. 
Chaplain's supplies . 
Catholic Hut Fund ..., . . . . . , . . . . , . , . 
Hospital supplies ...,....'...'.......,...,. ."...,...... 
Local Hospital. Khaki Club, etc., etc. ,....."..,'.'.,..... 

$2.153 ï9 
250 00 
200 00 
3 0 5 90 
125 00 

$3,034 69 

3 6 9 



U NTIL the spring of 19 18 , the war work of the Knights of 
Columbus in Nova Scotia consisted in' aiding the work 
carried on at St. l\1ary's Army and Navy Club at Halifax, 
.and in sending money Overseas to aid the Catholic Army Huts 
,in England and at the Front. The work done by these Huts became 
more and more extensive as the War went on, and the amount of 
ploney that each council could send from its own funds became 
,wholly inadequate to enable these Huts to give efficient service. 
In l\1ay, 1918. His Lordship the Right Reverend James l\10rri- 
son, Bishop of Antigonish, addressed a letter to the Knights of 
Columbus of the l\'Iaritime Provinces, setting out the needs of the 
,Catholic Army Huts and the slender financial resources at their 
.disposal. "
\ccordingly," he says, "I feel it a pressing duty to 
ask the Knights of Columbus to organize a general public campaign 
for funds to provide onr Catholic soldiers Overseas, or wherever 
they may be as'\embled. with Catholic Huts, Club Rooms and 
accessories thereto, in which the Army Chaplains may be enabled 
more efficiently and more conveniently to minister to their religious 
welfare, and where the soldiers themselves, irrespective of denom- 
inational affiliations, may have at their disposal such accommoda- 
tions in social life as may be a proper safeguard for their moral 
On the receipt of this letter the Knights began the work of 
organizing a campaign which extended throughout the whole of 
Canada. l\10re than one million dollars were raised in the 
37 0 


Dominion, to which sum the various counties of Nova Scotia 
contributed as follows:- 

Halifax .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . .. .,....... 
Cape Breton ,....,................,...........'.... 
Pictou ........ . . . . . , . . . . . '" . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

.\ntigonish ,..,..,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cumberland . . . . . . . . . . .. .....,............. 
Inverness ......,.................. - . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 
Guvsboro ..........,...... . . . , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yarmouth . . -,. . . ..'. .. ..... . ,... ., 
Colchester . . , , , . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
IZings . ." . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hants , ... . , . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . 
Richmond "" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . 
Digby . ." . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . 
Victoria . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . , , , . . . . . .. ..,. 
Queens ' , . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . - . , . . . 
Lunenburg ., . . . " .,. " .., .. .......... ., 
Annapolis ., .................... 
Shelburne . . , , , . . . , . . . . . ' . . . . . . . 

$56,621 95 
28,562 80 
9,509 63 
6,635 49 
5,337 73 
4.802 4 6 
3,330 05 
2,877 97 
2,475 29 
2,4 0 5 57 
1,961 66 
1,723 25 
1,54 2 67 
1,144 25 
1,102 20 
66g 50 
444 55 
68 50 

Total for the Province '" . . . . , . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$131, 21 5 52 

The" Drive" by which this money was raised took place during 
the week of August 19-24, 1918. The whole of the amount raised 
was intended for work in England and France but, with the signing 
of the Armistice. the returned soldier problem demanded the 
.attention of the Knights, and Huts were opened in Halifax and the 
other dispersal area 
 in Canarla. The work in Canada and Over- 
seas was under the supervision of Lieut.-Co!. Clarence F. Smith. 
of l\Iontreal. Comptroller. Large sums of the money were sent 
Overseas and the balance was devoted to the work of serving the 
returned men. 
Following are the names on the Executive Committee of the 
Knights of Columbus \Var Activities :-11:essrs. John A. N evilIe. 
John F. O'Connell, Jas. D. O'Connor, \Valter 1\1. Godsoe, Thos. \V. 

1urphy, Frank A. Gillis, Dan. T. Lynagh, Wm. A. Hallisey, Jno. 
P. Quinn. Hon. Judge Chisholm. and l\Ir. \Villiam R. \Vakely. 
The Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Hut, at No. 37 2 
Barrington Street, was opened December I, 1918, and Halifax 
may be regarded as the birth-place of the work of the Knights of 
Columbus Catholic Army Huts in Canada. All men of the Allíed 
37 1 


Armies and Navies were welcome, irrespective of race, creed or 
color. The Knights of Columbus' slogan, ., Everybody \Velcome, 
Everything Free," was carried out to the letter, with the exception 
that a charge of 25 c . was made for beds, although of the total number 
of beds used about half were donated, inasmuch as many of the 
guests were in need of funds. .Men arriving in transports were 
also given a bed free of charge. l'vIr. J. D. O'Connor was Chair- 
man of the 1 rut Committee, and associated with him were l\Ir. John 
F. O'Connell, .Mr. D. T. Lynagh, the late \\T. A. 
Ionoghan, l'vIr. 
\Y. J. \\'illiams, 
r r. E. J. Scanlon, 
1r. \Y. . \. Hallisey, 
\Y. T. l\1urphy, 
1r. "p. E. Donovan. 
Ir. J. K. Kelleher, and 1\1r, 
\Y. R. \\Takely. There was an average daily attendance at the Hut 
during December, 1918, January, February and 
Iarch, 19 1 9, of 
1,3 00 to 1,5 00 , and a total attendance of 177,060 from December I, 
19 18 , until the Hut closed on September 13, 19 1 9. 
l\Ir. \""1. E. Donovan, Chairman of the Entertainment Committee, 
.arranged for weekly entertainments. The men in uniform were 
always most appreciative of the class of entertainment given at the 
.Hut under the direction of the Chairman. He had the happy 
faculty of selecting the very best artists, and had the Columbus 
.Musical Club to draw from as well as other local clubs. 
Refreshments were always served. l\Ir. \V. E. Donovan never 
failed to have a number of young ladies in attendance, and they 
saw that every guest was generously supplied. The Hut was open 
daily from 10 a.m. to II p.m" and on Sundays from 1 p.m. to 
1 1 p.m., and the men had free use of the reading, writing and 
billiard rooms. Canadian and A.merican newspapers and maga- 
zines were supplied; writing paper and envelopes and all billiard 
and pool games were free. 12,983 games of billiards and pool 
were played from December, 1918, to September 13, 1919. May 
la, 1919, a dormitory of fifty beds was opened. and from that date 
to September 13, 1919, 2,725 beds were used. Of that number 
1.279 were supplied free of charge. 
Space in the building would not permit of the Knights of 
Columbus \Yar .--\ctivities having a cafeteria. but there was a 
37 2 


canteen from which the following supplies were given away free, 
from December I, 1918, to September 13, 1919:- 

Soft Drinks (bottles) . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . ' . . , . . . . 
Apples (barrels) .....,...,."......,..,.'............. 
Cigarettes (packages) . , . . . , . . , . . . 
Cigars ....".......... 
Tobacco (pounds) ".'.,.......... ..."...."..,. 
Gum (packages) . . , , . . . . , . . . , . . . , . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
Coffee ( cups) ....,'.,...'.......".'..'............. 
Oxo (cubes) ...,.......,..........,.....,.........,. 
Biscuits (pounds) ........,...............,.,....,... 
Chocolate Bars ......,..,.,..,.".....,.,.,..,....... 
Matches (boxes) ....,.,..........."........"..,... 


Canadian . ....".,..,......,..'..,.'......,.,....,.. 
British and Foreign .".........".".....,....,....,. 

83 0 

8, 06 7 

It was not until after the Armistice \Vas signed that a Pier 
Committee was organized under the able leadership of :Mr. John 
P. Quinn as Chairman. His associates were :\Iessrs. John Neville. 
Henry T. Kline, Harry C. l\Iurphy, John D. Campbell, E. J. 
:Murphy, John Fry. J. J. Penny, P. J. Hanifen. R. J. Flinn, Geo. 
A. Gauvin, and \\T. E. Donoyan. 
The Returned Soldiers' Reception Committee, made up of 
Ì\venty-'five men selected from the various clubs and organizations 
of Halifax City, with an .L\uxiliary Committee of five ladies, was 
organized in K ovember, 1916. From that date the Committee 
received troop and hospital ships. and raised by voluntary sub- 
scription $9,178.96. It also. received $3.000.00 from the Halifax 
Victory Loan canvassers. l\Ir. John P. Quinn waited upon 
\V. S. Davidson. Chairman of the Returned Soldiers' Reception 
.Committee, and informed 
Ir. Davidson that the Knights of Col- 
umbus were prepared to spend an amount of their funds toward 
the reception of the troops returning from Overseas, either in 
conjunction with the Returned Soldiers' Reception Committee, or 
alone. This brought in the Red Cross and the Y.
r.C.A., and an 
agreement was made by each of the three organizations to contri- 
bute to the funds of the Returned Soldiers' Reception Committee 
to the extent of one-third each of the amount required by the 
Returned Soldier
' Committee. From January I, 1919. until the last 


troopship arrived, $9,000.00 was contributed from each of the 
three organizations-a total of $27,000.00. These funds were used 
for the purpose of purchasing cigarettes, fruit, chocolate bars, 
matches, flowers, newspapers, welcome cards. and for postage and 
From the time the work began, une hundred and thirty-eight 
troopships disembarked about 30S,GS5 men. In the distribution 
of supplies at the pier, the work was divided among seven teams 
of twelve each, each team having a captain and an equal. number 
of representatives from the Knights of Columbus, the Red Cross, 
Y.l\I.C.A., and the Returned Soldiers' Reception Committee. Mr. 
Pelix P. Quinn, of the Knights of Colt1mbt1
. was a captain of 
one of the teams. 


rhere existed what was knmvn a
 the h:.nights of Columbus 
,Hospital Comfort Bureau. The following are the names of those 
serving on that Committee: Rev. John Quinan, Capt. 
J Ryan, 
Jas. J. Dates, T. J. Burke, E. J. Griffen. 
Geo. J. Lynch. Jas. P. Mulcahy. Frank 
illis. and O. n. Burke. 

rrs. Johanna 
rary Ternan was 
Daily supplies were sent to Camp Hill 
.) L ilitary I lospital and Cogswell Street 
Station Ho:,pital and weekly visits were 
.made. ()n these visits fruit, candy and 
cigarettes were distributed by the follow- 
ing committee ,)f ladies: :Mrs. Geu, 

Iiss :\'ita Gauvin. :1Iiss Fannie 
[iss :\Ietzler. ::'\[rs. 1\1. Foley, 

eville. and ::\lis:-; Frances Chisholm. 
In addition to the above Hospital
. supplies were sent to Pine 
Hill Convalescent Home. Rock Head 
y Hospital. Kentville 
Sanitarium, Kaval Hospital, County Jail. Yictoria General Hospital. 
Lawlor's Island, Quarantine Station, .'\ir Station. l
.S. Flying 
Corps anù II.:\I.S. Hospital Ship Essequibo, 

':1 , J l

..;. .':. . 1 . 



Weekly visits were made to the Kentville Sanitarium by 
\\,'. S. Rothburn, of Kentville, and. a committee of ladies, JvIiss 
lVlcCormack, l\liss Farrell, and J\1iss Kearney, under the super- 
vision of ::\trs. Johanna 
1. Ternan, of Halifax. 
At Christmas, 1918, there were: 

Camp Hill Hospital . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , , . 440 
Naval Hospital ...'..'......,..........,.............. 38 
Cogswell St. Hospital .............,...."...,.,.,...... 300 
Kentville Sanitarium ,...,..,.......".... ......'..... 200 
N ova Scotia Hospital, Dartmouth ..,.,'.......,..'..., ïO 
Pine Hill Convalescent Home , . . . . . . . . , 125 
Rock Head )'Iilitary Hospital 60 



It was decided by the Hospitals Committee on Thursday. 
December 19, 1918, that candy and smokes should be sent to 
Kentville for the 200 patients. Four hundred boxes were pre- 
pared containing three packages of cigarettes and a half-pound 
of candy for each patient. This work was done by a voluntary 
committee of three little girls and one little boy (the l\1isses 
O'Connor and 
Iaster O'Connor, daughters and son of 11r. J. D. 
O'Connor), and by little 
liss Elliott. Provision was made for 
Rock Head and Cogswell Hospitals. 
December 18. 1918, 328 stockings were made and filled by a 
committee of ladies at the Knights of Columbus Club Rooms. 
Hollis Street. The stockings were all of different shades, and each 
contained fourteen articles, consisting of the following: One box 
of notepaper, one lead pencil, one cuhe of tooth paste, one tooth 
brush. three packages cigarettes, two boxes of matches, one small 
comb. one pocket handkerchief, one ash-tray, two chocolate bars. 
collar buttons, one pipe, one package tobacco and one tobacco 
Two hundred and three of these were sent to Camp HiIl and 
one hundred and twenty-five to Pine Hill. As there were a number 
of very sick patients at Cogswell Street Station Hospital, it was 
requested that fruit be sent, and three cases of oranges, four cases 
of grape fruit and one keg of grapes were supplied. To the Nova 
Scotia Hospital, .Dartmouth, one hundred and forty parcels were 


sent containing three packages of cigarettes and a half-pound of 
candy. Stockings "-ere sent to four soldiers in the County Jail. 
and nine stockings to soldiers in the Victoria General Hospital. 
To the N.S. Naval Air Station were sent two cases of orange;:;. 
t\\"O hundred package
 cigarettes, two hundred cigars and two 
hundred chocolate bars. 

CHRI:::ìTMAS, 1919. 
Christmas boxes were sent from the Head Office m Montreal. 
specially made for the Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Huts 
for distribution on this day to all l\lilitary Hospitals in the Dom- 
inion. Each box contained one package gum, one Durham Duplex 
Safety Razor, one package razor blades, one shaving stick, one 
shaving brush, one package cigarettes, one box matches, one 
chocolate bar, one tooth brush, one tube tooth paste, one handker- 
chief, and short stories. In addition twenty-six quarts of ice cream 
were distributed, also five hundred apples, fifty pounds of assorted 
kisses and fifty pounds of frosted cake. 
Many picnics were given patients who were convalescing during 
the summer of 1919. and entertainments given to special wards in 
Camp HiIl and Cogswell Street Hospitals. 
From January I, ISJI9. to April 30, 19 1 9, no fewer than 125,466 
personal requests for comforts were granted by the Knights of 
Columbus Hospital Comfort Bureau. 

3ï 6 



F UR years previous to the Declaration of \Yar, the Y.l\I.C..l\. 
carried on its work in the summer }lilitia Camps; conse- 
quently the \Yar did not find the Association without some 
idea of the requirements of troops, and fr011! the early days of the 
first big concentration at Valcartier, the" Y " tried hard to measure 
up tu each new phase of war activity. 
In 1914 about 5.(X)() men were served in the camps of the 
time Provinces. During the succeeding winter Y.:\I.C.
\. work was 
established in the various barracks, and in 1915 the work on the 
piers at the points of embarkation was started. All this work was 
carried on continually from this time with increasing efficiency. 
not only in camps, barracks, and hospitals, but alsò on board trans- 
ports and on troop trains carrying returning men. It consisted of 
the erection of large recreation buildings, giving assistance with the 
equipping of recreation rooms in barracks; the provision of free 
writing and reading materials, games. athletic goods, music, pianos. 
gramophones and records, moving picture machines and films; the 
organizing of concerts on land and on board ships; social evenings 
in homes, churches, barracks, hospitals and otherwise; athletics, re- 
ligions services; supplying free hot drinks and doughnuts or biscuits 
at the disembarkation points and demobilization centres. 
The first large financial appeal was made to the people of the 

Iaritime Provinces in the spring of 1916, when approximately 
$3-1-.5 00 were raised for home and Overseas' military work. During 
that year Association service was rendered to troops in eighteen 
different places in these Provinces. Each sncceeding year saw 
most successful campaigns for larger sums of money, until 1918, 
when requirements began to decrease, Altogether about $679.600 


were raised in the :l\Iaritime area and spent on military work at 
home and Overseas. 
Large recreation buildings, which were much needed. were 
erected at Aldershot and Sussex Camps. each capable of accommo- 
dating dose to 1,000 men. These were used to capacity. and were 
practically the only adequate recreation centres. A large hut wa
erected in the 
aval Dockyard. Halifax, for the men of the navy 
and the merchant marine. It was destroyed by the explosion. bitt 
was replaced by a larger structure, and was the great social centre 
for the men of the nayy and the merchant marine. 
The large Red Triangle Hut, on Barrington Street, Halifax. 
was erected as a demobilization service to offset the inadequate 
housing facilities in Halifax, to provide meals and beds for return- 
ing men who had to remain in the city while waiting for trains or 
demobilization, to assist returned men to become re-established ill 
civil life by providing them with wholesome meals and beds at 
prices within their means, to help men taking Government re-training 
courses and drawing barely enough money to live on, and to provide 
them with a clean, attractivé recreation centre. 
Other recreation huts were built and equipped at St. John, :New 
Brunswick, and Cogswell Hospital, Halifax. A large building was 
leased and equipped as a Red Triangle Club at St. John. N.B. 
Clubs on a smaller scale were operated in Sydney, \\-indsor, Kent- 
ville, Nova Scotia, and Fredericton and Sussex, New Brunswick. 
vV ork was carried on among the German prisoners of war at 
Amherst in return for which the German Government permitted 
the Y.1\f.C.A, to carryon work in certain camps in Germany where 
Canadians were confined. Only the work in the Internment Camp..; 
in Canada made this concession possible. 
Co-operating with the Sailors' Comforts' Committee, Halifax, the 
Y.:\1.C.A. workers visited many ships of the merchant sen-ice and 
supplied the men with reading and writing materials, games, 
mufflers, sweaters. socks, gloves, mitts. underwear, etc. Concert" 
were frequently arranged for the crews on shore. 
Uniform reports of activities and the attendance were not kept 
in the early days of the '!\Tar, and it is impossible to arrive at any- 
thing like accurate estimates of the extent of some of the services 
37 8 


rendered. The report of a few activities for the two years of 
maximum efficiency may serve to indicate, however, the great extent 
to which the men patronized the Y.:\I.C.
\. military services. 

8 1 5 
1,3 6 5 

Concerts ............,. - - , - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Social evenings ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 
Moving Picture Shows l free) ,."...........,...,....... 
Religious Services ......,..,......,.."....,............ 
Theatre parties arranged and conducted through courtesy 
of theatre managers, without charge to patients .."..... 
Illustrated Lectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . " .,..... 

35 6 

12,6 1 9 

Supplies Used. 
Magazines .. _, _ _ _ . _ . . . _ _ , , . . . . , . . . . , . . , . . . . . . 162,685 
Sheets of writing paper., .. . . . . . " .... . .. . .. ., . . . , . ., 1,5II,OOO 
Sex and health education booklets ...........,....,... 39,000 
Athletic goods ...................................... large quantities 
Pianos in continual use ...........................,.. 22 
Billiard tables in continual use .,.........,......,.,.. 31 
Gramaphones and records supplied continually , .... ., 50 
:ðIoving picture machines in continual use , - . . - . , . . . . , 9 
Reels of picture films per \\'eek proyided, no charge 
made . . . - , . . . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . . 4 0 

At the disembarkation piers, in co-operation, with various 
women's organizations. the Creche in Halifax, and the combined 
organizations in St. John. free hot or coId drinks and mixed biscuits 
were provided. At the Demobilization Centre, Halifax, co-operating 
with the G.\V,\
.A. Ladies' .\uxiliary, drinks and doughnuts or 
mixed biscuits were supplied free, and a six months' membership 
ticket in any YJ'vLC.A. was given to each man. 
A " Y" representative accompanied each troop train to its desti- 
nation and carried a "tandard stock of equipment, gramophones. 
portable organs, music. song sheets, games, fruits, chocolate, and 
cigarettes. He rendered personal services in every way possible, 
such as "vi ring ahead. mailing letters, ancl carrying on a programme 
of concerts and games. The:-,e representatives were principally busi.- 
ness men, and all gave their 
eryices voluntarily. In all 449 repre- 
sentatives accompanied troop trains. 
Further assistance was gi,'en returned men to re-estahlish them- 
selves by Red Triangle Cluh:; at Halifax and St. John. where bed 
and board could be had at reduced rates. During the first year of 
the Halifax Cluh. I -t-ï.ïI3 meals were served. and 3R.RSS hed" 


occupied for one night or more. This work is still going on. The 
rate for bed and board was $r per day. The food was far above 
the average meal at similar prices. A programme of entertain- 
ments, athletics, moving pictures, religious sen"ices, and educational 
lectures and discussions "'as carried on. The 
ociation's hospital 
service wi1l be continued as long as nece
sary. and funds' are avail- 





T HE splendid sen'ice performed by the Halifax Citizens' Re- 
turned Soldiers' Reception Committee had its inception in the 
fall of 1916, when :VIr. P. F. l\Iartin, at that time :\fayor of 
the city, called a number of representative citizens together at the 
city hall for the purpose of forming a committee to extend a 
welcome to the men returning home. The matter did not take 
definite form. however, until a little 
later on, when a score of energetic 
citizens 'selected b) the various National 
Societies, the Board of Trade and other 
organizations of the city. met at the 
Board of Trade Rooms in November, 
1916, at the call of 
Ir. \\'. S. 
Davidson. '-ice-President of the Board. 
At this meeting the Committee was 
organized, as also an Auxiliary Com- 
mittee of the following ladies :-:\1rs. G. 
l\1c Grego r Mitchell, Mrs. Geoffery 
Irs. T. Sherman Rogers. 
!\Irs. Norwood Duffus, and l\Irs. (Dr.) Ryan. 
Ir. \\Y. S. Davidson 
was elected Chairman, !\Ir. Arthur B. .:\Iitchell, Secretary, 
\. M. 
Smith, Assistant-Secretary, and 1fr. 'V. A. l\fajor, Treasurer. 
The excellence of the choice of this Executive was amply proven 
by the fact that the personnel remained unchanged from the night 
the Committee was fonned until the last transport docked, and the 
work was finished. 
The following gentlemen composed the original Committee: 
Messrs. \,. S. Davidson, \V. A. Major, H. H. l\Iarshall, C. H. 
1VIitchell, J. l\IcL. Fraser, Felix P. Quinn, C. E. Creighton, \V. A. 
3 81 



Hart, A. 
I. Smith, Paul 'Creighton, \Y. E. Bebb, C. H. Climo, W. L. 
Kane, J. P. Quinn, P. T. Strong, and R. B. Colwell, representing 
the North British Society, St. George's Society, the Charitable 
Irish Society, the Canadian Club, and the Citizens of Halifax in 
These gentlemen, who became kno\yn as .. the originals," carried 
or through fair ,veather and foul, night or day as occasion required 
from start to finish. The only exception was Mr. H. H. Marshall, 
who, to the great regret of his friends and fellow-workers, was 
ordered by his physician to seek a change of climate, his health hav- 
ing broken down, but nevertheless, he \yas with the work in spirit, 
always keeping in touch, sending greetings and material aid from 
time to time. 
In addition to those above-mentioned. the following gentlemen 
joined the movement later, entering into the =-,pirit of the work 
with energy and enthusiasm: 1\Iessrs. E. J. 
It1rphy, G. J. Allen, 
Cyril Gorham, A. \V. Robb, \V. R. 
Iorton. H. C. 
lurphy, J [ugh 
Fraser, Chas. \Vaterfield, R. A. \Yood. \Y. S. 
Iunnis, John D. 
Campbell, P. J. Hannifen, Geo. 1\1. \Yood, F. 
I. Guildford, R. K. 
Elliott, George Ritchie, G. VV. Perry, J. A. Neville. H. T. Kline, 
J. A. Reid, V. B. Faulkner, J. L. \\ïlson. E. :\1. :\IcLeod, Geo. '1'. 
McNutt, John Fry, J. J. Penny, J. 
I. Dayison, George Robinson, 
W. R. Scriven, \Vm. \Yilson, Capt. \V. F. 
Iitchell, \V. E. Donavon, 
G. A. Smith, J. F. Roue, "V\Talter Black, R. J. Flinn, G. A. Gauvin, 
George \Vinters, Howard Lawrence, \Y. Cyril Smith, Cyril Stairs, 
Sedley E. Thompson, J. L. Hetherington, H. E. Mahon, C. H. 
'" right, the late Professor Eben 1\fcKay, F. A. :\Ia
r, Allen Patrick. 
and H. R. Price. 
A number of ladies, 
1rs. \Y. T. <\llen. :\Irs.. :\1. R. Morrow and 
others, joined the original Auxiliary Committee of five above-men- 
tioned, doing splendid work in connection with the cot cases. etc., 
but unfortunately a complete list is not available. Two young 
ladies deserving of "pecial mention who became associated with the 
General Committee are 1\Tiss Edna Da\'ison and :\Iiss Helen Creigh- 
ton. Their work was admirable, being here. there. and everywhere 
when required, untiring in their efforts, having the capacity to per- 
form, as well as zeal to undertake. It is safe to say that the soldier 
3 82 


boys who landed at Halifax will never forget the ladies connected 
with this Committee; for their bright kindly faces, apart from their 
work. gaye them a welcome home which is hard to express in \'\Iords ; 
and it was not only on fine days when the sun was shining that 
they were to be seen on the pier when transports were expected, 
but in all kinds of weather, night as well as day, and only those 
who worked there know how cold it sometimes was at Pier 2 on 
a winter night. However, the welcome given the boys was warm 
enough to take away the -chill of the weather. 
During the period in which this Committee carried on its work, 
13 8 transports disembarked some 200,000 Overseas men at Pier 2, 
and of this number very few indeed missed the kindly attentions of 
the Committee. 
The amount expended was as follows:- 

Paid for Cigarettes, Tobacco, etc. _., _ . . , , , . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . 
Fruit.,.".....,..,..,.....,.,.".....,..,..,..,.,... . 
Postage. telegrams, telephones, etc. ......,............ 
\Velcome Cards, badges, printing, etc. .,....... ....". 
X e\\"spapers ."......,...,...,...............,...,..., 
Taxi service conveying local returned men to their homes 

lusic . ..............,..,....... .. 
Baskets, equipment and sundries , _ . , . . . . . . . . . . . 

Iatches . . . _ . " .... . . . . , . , . , , . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . 
Chocolate bars, cakes, etc. ',................,.......... 
Deficit exchanging money .,..,..,..,................,. 
Flowers (for cot cases) .".......,........,..,......., 

Ioney refunded Provincial Recruiting Committee ...... 

$I4.473 51 
7,931 82 
462 42 
t ,294 49 
1,813 62 
1I8 80 
IS 00 
278 66 
4,782 25 
7,157 21 
9 So 
34 So 

Total ...........,.....,..,.,..,........ 

$38,380 78 

-\ word or two in connection with these figures which are from 
the Treasurer's report. The item for postage, etc., would have 
been much larger but through the representations of the Committee. 
after the work had been carried on for a considerable time, the 
Government was induced to allow letters from returned men, on 
arrival. to be posted free, thus conserving the funrls for other 
purposes. The item $15 for music does not mean that this was 
the extent of the music by any means; for the Commanding 
Officers of local military units very -cheerfully permitted their 
bands to play on the pier on arrival of transports. 
..1 .) 


.of the above total amount, the sum of $9,178.96 was received 
in voluntary subscriptions, and $3,000 from Halifax Victory Loan 
canvassers, which came in spontaneously and entirely unsolicited. 
As the end of the \Var approached and the number of returning 
men became greater, it became apparent that the funds would re- 
quire to be largely augmented, and in order to cope with the good 
work, the Y.11.C.A., the Red Cross Society, and the Knights of 
Columbus very generously contribttted equal amounts of $9,000, less 
a refund to each of these organizations of $266.06, being the balance 
or surplus left over at the close of the work. 
It was not long after the work began until a splendid system 
was evolved which worked with almost clock-like precision. The 
usual procedure was as follows: Immediately a transport wa<;; 
docked a certain number of the Committee were told off to go on 
board with the latest newspapers, collect telegrams and letters which 
were, as mentioned above, sent off free of charge, thus doing away 
with the inconvenience of hunting up stamps, etc. \Vhenever it hap- 
pened that a ship had to drop anchor in the stream while waiting 
for a berth to dock at the pier-and as these were busy days in 
shipping circles in Halifax, this very frequently happened-a tug- 
boat was promptly secured by the energetic Chairman. and a con- 
tingent landed on board with newspapers, cigarettes. matches. fruit, 
etc.; and, in most cases, if the ship was to remain at anchor over- 
night, a concert party was always ready to join their efforts with 
those of the Committee in extending a hearty welcome to the boys. 
many excellent entertainments being given on board transports 
waiting to dock. The very best musical talent in Halifax was 
always ready and willing to respond at a moment's notice to calls of 
this nature. Mr. Davidson being one of the principal members of 
the large shipping firm of Messrs. G. S. Campbell and Co., of 
course always knew where to locate one of these tug-boats, as they 
own and operate a number of them, and although in the forefront as 
business men, and blessed with good memories, they must have for- 
gotten to render any bills or charge for this excellent service. 
When the men left the ship and were entrained. a sufficient 
number of Committee-men having in the meantime been told off 
and sub-divided. allowing an equal number to look after each car. 
3 8 4 



the cars being designated by letters .. A." .. B," .. C," and so on, 
beginning with the car nearest the engine, and each party knowing 
the particular car it had to look after. confusion or oversight was 
practically nil. The first Committee-man went through the car 
with baskets of apples and oranges, being followed by another with 
cigarettes and matches, a third and fourth bringing up the rear 
with chocolate bars, welcome cards. newspapers, and collecting any 
letters or postal cards the boys had scribbled while waiting for 
their train to back in. Oftentimes when large steamships like the 
OlymPic, 1\1 auretallia, or _1 quit01lia arrived. fifteen or twenty train:; 
would be dispatched with an average time between of twenty or 
twenty-five minutes; so that the necessity for system was evident, 
or otherwise only a portion of the boys would be looked after; but 
in the way in which the work was handled every man received 
attention; and usually a few minutes were left over. before the 
conductor called "All aboard," in which to chat with them. give 
them a hearty handshake and wish them "Bon voyage" and a safe 
journey to their destination. 
This sketch of the work of the Halifax Citizens' Returned 
Soldiers' Reception Committee is necessarily short. It does not 
begin to express the scope or extent of the work carried on by 
this Committee, but the boys who returned home no doubt still 
remember the way they were received and treated. 
Letters of appreciation were received from all parts of Canada 
and points in the l!nited States. Such evidence of appreciation 
amply rewarded the Committee for any efforts they had made to 
ensure a hearty, and pleasant welcome home to those splendid men. 
who made the name of Canada for ever respected and glorious. 





T 1 IE first branch uf the St. John. \mbulance Drigadc Overseas 
established in 
oYa Scotia was organized in June, 1916, as 
the Halifax Central Xursing Division )Jo. 17, with 
Irs. now- 
man, Superintendent of the \ -ictoria General I [ospital, Hali fax. as 
Lady Divisional Superintendent. This division, besides being the 
first in the 
Iaritime Pro\-inces, was the largest in Canada. 
 r ost 
of the officers ,,-ere graduate nurse
. and all of the members had 
received their in
truction in First Aid and Home X ursing through 
classes held in H ali fax by the sister organization. the St. John 
Ambulance. \ssociation. 
Irs. Bowman's remO\'al from Halifax, 
rrs. G. .-\. 
.:\IacIntosh was appointed Superintendent C\pril, 1917). Owing to 
greatly increa
ed membership. and for the purposes of more 
efficient administration, the division was divided in July, 19I5, into 
two Unit
, .\. No. Ii and D. Xo. ..t-7, 
IacIntosh being' pro- 
moted at the same time to be Lady District Superintendent in 
charge of the ".omen's .\id Department (l\Iilitary District X o. 6). 
[n January, 1920. a reorganization of the two divisions wa
effective by which all acti\'e officers and members \vere assigned to 
Division \. 17, and the inactive members, or tho
e in resen'e for 
emergencies. to B. -I-i. The actÌ\'e division continues as one of the 
most efficient and effectin' in Canada under the ahle superintendence 
of :Miss E. -:\1. Pemberton. of the Yictoria (;eneral Hospital. 
The war work in 
- O\-a 
cotia of this organization fall
four hear'Js: 
(0) Its work in :\Iilitary Hn
pitals as auxiliary to the \rmy :\Iedical 
and X ursing Sen"ice. 
(b) Its work in Xoya Scotia in connection with the Red Cross Society, 
YI\LC..-\.. Canteen
, and other voluntary patriotic organizations. 
(c) Its work of mini"trat:on to women and chilrlr
n returning from 

3 86 


(d) Its emergency ".ork on the day of the Halifax Disa
ter and in the 
relief work and hospital sen ice for the \, eeks and l11f)nths follow- 
ing the di:'
(. a) IIOSPIT.\L 
Hospital duties performed by the memhers of the I fali iax 
Divisions during the \ \" ar include:- 
(a) Eleven members \\-ho \\"ent Uversea:;. scn-l1lg \\-ith great 
crerlit in ho:,pitals in England, 
(b) Local ho!'pitals. 
\\"e believe Pine Hill wa:-; the first 
Iilitary Hospital in Canada 
to recognize or l1!'e the services of the Brigade memher
. 'J'hrce 
pioneer:-; served for t \H) years an<l were followed hy other!'. 
In the latter part of .I9IX the \\"omen's _\icl Department \\-a..; 
iormed in Canada in co-operation \\'ith the military authoritie
. the 
Lady District Superintendent furnishing to the .-\.D.
J.S. of each 

l ilitary Di:-;trict the following personnel. thc numher gi,-en helow 
bcing that of tho
e \dlO sen-ed in 
r.D. :\0. 6:- 
1. T' ull/nicer S celioll :- 
ursing service of Brigade memher
. eight of ,,-hom served at Pine 
Iilitan" Hospital. 
(b) Function Traiilers. also Brigade member;; trained at Hart Honse, 
Toronto. two of \\"hom <;erwd at Camp Hill. 
2_ Special SCI"'l..:cc S celio 1/ :- 
.:\Iasseuses, trained at Hart Honse, Toronto, memhers of St. John \mbn- 
lance Brigade. and 'Serving- at Camp Hill, .:\foxham Ros<;, Prince 
Edward Island 
filitary Hospital
Section 3:- 
General Sen-ice Section consisting of a General Ser\,ice Superintendent 
.-\.ssistant Superintendent. bookkeepers, domestics and many there 
not Brigade mel11bers. but for a short time recoml11ended -by the 
\\"omen's \id Department of the Brigade. 
(c) Before the \\"omen's .\id Department CHlllC into effect five member,;; 
had served at thc :\ ova Scotia Sanatorium in the tent Colon v for 
tubercular soldier"_ - 
(d) During the Influenza epidemÌc of H)I8 six members assisted the de- 
pleted staffs in the Victoria General. the Dartmouth Emergency 
for two months. two members at Infants Home for two months, 
also for two months in the homes of the sick. at the Emergency 
Hospital, Hazelwood Hospital. St. Mary's Emergency Hospital. 
and for three week'S at Brocton Field Hospital, .:\fass. During the 
epidemic in the spring of 1919 a diet kitchen wao; organized and 
conducted and proper nourishment prepared and delivered to all 
asking for it. in the majority of cases 110 charge being made_ 
The Brigade responded to requests for diet from the Victorian 
Urder of 
Ur5e"i. City noardof Health. Social \Velfare Bureau, etc 
( e) The hosp1tal work performed after the explosion is mentionc(ll 
(n ?\I iscellaneous dut;es performed in hospitals include mending- each 
week at the Station Hospital, emergenc
 hedmaking at Camp Hilt 
and hospital train service. 
3 8 7 


At the Clearing Depot, Pier 2. a splendid work was accom- 
plished. Over 13,000 beds wt;re made for soldiers disembarking 
at this port. At very short notice members in "ufficient numbers 
quickly responded to a call from the C.O. to prepare the beds 
required (at time!' a!' many as Roo heels \yere needed) in readiness 
for the men. 
An important work carried on at Pier 2 was the serving of meals 
three times daily for over a week tu 150 men. 
Boats were met by the Lady District 
uperintendent, who. 
assisted by the memLers, ,,-elcomed and .assisted ,,-hen necessary any 
\ -.A.D.'s returning to Canada from Overseas duty. 
A very interesting and important service rendered Ly the organ- 
ization \Vas in connection with the vocational re-education of the 
soldiers. For eight months two members read daily to blinded 
soldiers, assisting them in this way with their study. Four other 
members alsu perfurmed like sen-ice for five and a half months. 
Ten members took a special two months' course in weaving and 
hasketry, nine of whom were able to instruct patients at Carnp ] {ill 
Hospital for from one to seyen months. 
Truly patriotic work has been performed under the Y.l\LC..A. 
.\l their Red Triangle] rut a team of eight members have given one 
day each week and every sixth Sunday for one and a half years to 
serve meals to returned soldiers taking vocational courses in the 
city. IVlembers have also sen-ed refreshments on trains to soldiers 
recently discharged and entraining for their homes. At the 
--\ rmories memhers have responded at all hour!'. sometimes working 
all night to serve refreshments to soldiers just disembarked and 
a waiting their discharge. 
The }{ed Cross has been ably assisted by the making of numerous 
garmenb, surgical supplies, sphagnum mo::;s dressings, and the 
raising of funds during campaigns. 
The following .. drivc!''' have been given willing and able 
:'ttpport :- 

Kavy League, Patriotic Fund, Knights of Columbus, Children's Hospital. 
Victorian Order, Sah-ation \rmy, 
Iaternity Hospital, and the Canadian Red 

3 88 


For two ycars a rc:,t and rcireshment room has been COll- 
(lucted at the city market and ha:-i bcen of great henefit to the market 
people \vho often drivc long distances. 
For t\VO year:; the I [alifax Dispensar
 has had the assistance 
daily of a mcmher for clerical work. 
The 1 falifax \rclfarc. \Ïctorian ()rdcr of :-\urses, and many 
other organizatinns have had a:-i:,istance, and many kindnesses havc 
been performed, 
uch a:' a:-i:;istancc given at orphans' picnics. 
Fir::;t aid bouth:, have heen conducted at exhihition
, \\' anderers' 
.\thletic Cround:" and first aiel rendered during puhlic processions 
and indiyidually in the cvcry-day lifc of thc members. 
_ \11 servicc relHleretl except that required in thc last two sections 
of the \romen's _\id Dcpartment has been vuluntary and performed 
quietly and :,y:,tematically in times of emergencies, and in \var a:-; 
in time:-i of peace for thl' puhlic good. 

THE 1)[
.bTU{ \\'( IRK 

It i:; unneLe
:,ar} here to rc1cr to thc causes and disastrou..; 
result:' of the great explosion on thc morning of December 6. I()lï, 
.-\s nearly a:, can he ascertaine(1 more than r ,500 people lost their 
lives. approximately 5.(XX) people \vcre injured, of whom about 
] .000 recei\-ed morc or less :,eriotb injuri6. \Yith hundreds of 
lither citizcn:-o the mcmbers of the lIalifax J }ivisions of the Drigade 
responded at once to the calls fur as:->i:,tance. and within an hOUï 
1Il0re than q.o member:; wcre on duty in the devastated area: Oil 
the Common. in improvi:,ed aid station..;. and in the various emer- 
gency hospitab rendering fir:-it aid to the injured. the very objcct 
for which they had all been trained. 
Later in thc a ftcrnoon and through the t \\"0 or thrce day:, fol- 
lowing they addcd to their duties tho:,c of matcrial relief, and u1l1il 
a fe\\" days later thc citizen:-o' organization \va
 established when 
the r.rigade \Yorkers werc fitted in under thcir Lady Supcrin- 
tendent as part of the mcdical relief work. 
About sixty () f the membcrs remained un duty a.s V..\.D.'::, in 
Camp Hill Ifo:-pital. the Y,
J .C..\" 
rorri:-; Strect, and the variou..; 
other hospitals for from one to fiye months following the explusion. 
For a short period fo]]()\\-ing the di:-;a
tcr eight 11lemher:-, of thc Sl. 


l\"Ot.I .')'CUTI./'S P.INT is TlIE CRE.IT lI'.JR 

lohll (:\.1 L) I )iyi
ion a:-
isted the local di\"i
ion in proyiding per- 
sonnel fur the yarions hospitals. 
The total of the ser\"1ces rendered during the period December 
6th to 3 1 st 
ho\vs 1.091) days of ho"pital work. 217 cases of district 
relief followcd up. LI-O mis:'ìing children located. a
 well as other 
Illi:-,sing per:-ons traced. food di
trilHtted. and fir:-ít aid service 
- \n official rq>ort f01"\yanlcd throngh regular channels to the 
 of the Urigade in England \\"as referred by head- 
quarters to the parent organization. the. \ncient l )rder of the Hos- 
pital of St. John 0 f Jerusalem in Eng-lam1. and in the spring of 
elected memhers of the Halifax Diyision and yarious citizens 
who co-operated with the I
rigade in its inyaluahle \\.ork. \\'ere 
pröented by the Licutenant-Gm'ernor with the heautifully engrayed 
certificates of thanks of the l )nler for their 
en.icö rendered on 
the occasion of the di-.;aster. 

F.CTlF. .\'1' I'JJ
R XO. 2. TL\LIF.\x. 

I :\ the spring of [()17. when the German suhmarines were trying 
to stan'e Britain into snrrender, the Canadian Government 
thonght it \\"ise tl) hring home the dependants 0 f our soldier:, 
whu were not actualy engaged in \\"ar work in the enited King- 
dp1l1. The OIYlllfÏc arriyed in llaliiax Port one morning with 
T ,noo W01l1en and children aJH lan1. as '.vell as her u:mal number of 
lany hours passed hefore the last travellers 
eni rained for their homes. and one may imagine the scene at Pier 2 
"hcre these tired \\.omen waited for long honrs \\"ith no 
helter or 
food and no com forts for their little ones. 
It was felt that something mUst he done to welcome those sol- 
diers' (kpendanb who had left their loved one:-í in England or 
France. and \\.ho conld not surmise what the future held in store 
for those from Wh0111 they were sepa rate(l. \ committee 0 f ladie" 
\\"a-.; formerl to look a itcr all soldier< depc11llants on their arri\'al 
in C
pacious rooms, with kitchen. dining-room. rest-room, 
llnrsery and hath-room
 were provided hy the Coycrnment at 
Pier 2, togethn with a snm of money 
ufììcient to fnrnisll 

39 0 


For three years a band of ladies under the pre
idency-first of 

Irs. Benson, wife of General Benson, and later of 
'lrs. J. G. 

IcDougall-met all boats and cared for all travellers with the most 
wonderful devotion. _\s soon as the gangway was secured their' 
work began. It mattered not whether the ship was docked at 
ï a.m., or at midnight, on a summer morning, or on a cold winter 
evening, the workers were always there. Two of the Committee 
went on board to see if there were any special cases to be looked 
after and to notify those aboard of the Creche Committee's willing- 
ness to help them in every possible way. 
Some stood at the gangway to welcome tired mothers and relieve 
them of their tiny but very heavy burdens. Others led them to the 
warm and comfortable quarters provided for them. In the kitchen 
busy hands had òeen at work, and sandwiches and fragrant hot 
coffee were not wanting; while in the nursery many young girls 
were preparing beds with cool white sheets in which to lay Canada's 
young and welcome immigrants. 
_-\lthough the railway authorities were \vonderfully expeditious 
in getting the trains despatched. still many hours had to be spent at 
the Creche-days sometimes-and. once or twice, even nights. The 
scenes when a boat arrived with many hundreds of women and 
children defy description. Parties were con
tantly being brought 
to the rooms by ,,
illing and helpful guides. If husband or father 
was there, he saw his dear ones safely housed, and he himself 
returned to look after the tickets and baggage. If the mother was 
in charge, she accompanied her little ones to the Creche, and after 
seeing them safe and happy, was assisted in collecting her baggage 
and procuring transportation. Kind hands undressed the babies. 
washed, warmed and fed them and laid them to sleep in comfort. 
The older children were also fed and then amused by toys and 
picture books. Older travellers, completely tired out by the long and 
often rough voyage, found indeed a warm and steady bed a source of 
joy. Times and movements of trains were called in the waiting 
rooms. and to the outgoing trains the travellers were finally escorted. 
a:-5 comfortable and as happy as it \vas possible to make them. 
The Red Cross placed a most efficient trained nurse at the dis- 
posal of the Committee, and it is not possible to tell how much h
services were appreciated by those who. though not fit for hospital 
39 1 


and anxious to complete their journey, were still n1l1ch in need of 
care. In a general way, as well as in her professional capacity, the 
trained nurse rendered services of a very high order. Space does 
not permit to tell of all the various activities carried on at the 
Creche-money was exchanged, hotel accommodation secured for 
those remaining over in Halifax for a few days, telegrams were 
sent, meal tickets given to those who needed them on the trains, 
babies were supplied"with necessaries for travelling, and money was 
many ,times given to those who through stress of circumstances had 
not the wherewithal to complete their journey. 
The returned men were always eager to assist in any way they 
could, and the bands of the Canadian Battalions gave all great 
pleasure by their delightful music. 

 \rrangements were made for any needing hospital care; and 
they were continually visited by members of the Committee while in 
] Ialifax City. The military authorities placed an ambulance at the 
disposal of the Committee for such cases. The Committee had the 
fullest support and co-operation of the tnilitar). authorities. They 
also had the assistance of a hundred workers who gave up all 
cngagements and pleasures when it was known that a boat was 
The Creche Committee deeply regretted the departure from 
J Ialifax of ::\Irs. Benson and )Irs. 
IcKeh'ey Dell. under whom they 
began their work. The ladie" \\"ho carried on to the close of opera- 
1 ion were:- 

lcCat1um Grant o' 00' _ 0 0 _.... 0 '" 0 Hon Chairll/al/. 

Irs. ]. G. 
IcDougal1 . . . . . , , . 0 . . . .. . , , . , , . .Chairman. 

Irs. Hector 
IcInnes . . . . ..'. .. ........ .., Vice-Chairmall. 
:\1rs. W. A. Henry ..................................... .Secretary. 

lrso \V. E. Thompson...... , . , . . . . " '... ....... ..... Treasurer. 

r rs. David 
IcKeen. Miss] essie 

r 1'5. Go S. Campbell. Lady Townshend. 

lrs. Clarence :\IacKinnon. Mrs. 
I. A. Curry. 

The Cl-eche closed on 31st December, 1919. Since the 18th 
1\ m,'ember, 1918, the Committee and its helpers met 120 ships laden 
with returning Canadian soldiers, their ,,"ives and families. On 
one steamship alone, the J1 egalltic, were 600 women and children, 
180 of the children being under twelve months of age. On several 
occasions there have been as many as 900 women and children on a 
steamer, and, in one instance, the OZ,Y111pic brought 1,000. All were 
39 2 


sent on their homeward journey rested, refreshed, and cheered; 
and the kindly welcome they re
eived has made the name of the 
_-\tlantic Gateway dear to the hearts of thousands of people the 
Dominion over. Countless letters bear testimony to unfeigned 
appreciation and gratitude. One newspaper extract may be per- 
The OUm.t'a J ollrllal of December 28, 1918, says: "\Vhile this 
work, and, to a large extent, its financial obligations have been 
borne almost entirely by the citizens of Halifax, as the benefits 
accrue to the country as a whole the gratitude of the people of 
Canada is due to the small band of workers who for the past 
eighteen months have generously and patriotically assumed the 
burden for the whole Dominion." 
Those were busy days at Pier 2: and although much sacrifice was 
demanded of the Halifax Creche Committee, it is not too much to 
say that it was willingly and joyfully given by those who wished to 
have some small share in tne work of the Great \Var. 

t '" 
. . , 



:\IRS. W. .\. HFNRY. 
1 GR\NT. 





fA description of the work done by each of the churches in 
ova Scotia 
would require a book in itse1f. The fo11owing artide on the activities of 
Iatthew's Church, Halifax, is typical of the manner in which the churches 
of all denominations throughout the Province watched over the spiritual 
a 11(1 material welfare of men of the O\'erseas' Units.-EDIToR.] 

E ARL Y in the \Yar, as SOOll as it became evident to the citizens 
of Halifax that the struggle against .. 
Iight" would endure 
for some time, and that this station would become again and 
remain an important rendezvous for the army and navy while 
hostilities lasted, the question of showing some tangible appreciation 
to the volunteers who were rallying to the colors became paramount 
in many minds. Xoticing the presence of many of these men at 
the regular church services in St. :Matthew's the minister (Rev. 
J. \V. l\Iacmillan, D.D.) conceived the idea of having special re- 
ceptions so that they, while in Halifax, should find a real church 
home and get sociably acquainted \yith members of the congrega- 
Such receptions were held at the close of the usual Sunday 
e\-ening services. :\ [any of the men \\ ere met tInts and later wel- 
comed at various homes during the week. It was later found 
expedient for the
e hosts to join forces so as to he able to entertain 
larger numbers than could be accommodated at the houses, and it 
\vas thus that the Thursday evening entertainments originated ill 
the schoolroom of St. :\Iatthew's Church during October, 19 1 4. 
These gained immediately in popularity until crowded houses with 
S.R.Ö. signs continued for five winters without intermittence. 
except for a few \veeks following the great explosion of December, 
19 1 7. 
The ladies of the congregation were from first to last the chief 
motive power at an the
e meetings, and the secret of their success. 

 IXD THE fV..dR 

Some were not publicly in evidence but worked" behind the scenes ., 
in supplying and providing the refreshments that formed a' most 
important part of thöe functions and did yeoman service. The 
work was quickly organized into a perfect system, everybody being 
assigned to a task that snited the particular attitude of the worker, 
with plenty of eager helpers ahvays on hand as reserves. 
This organization was not any premeditated system nor was it 
arranged on the basis of an) other movement. but being almost 
impromptu formed itself with a naturalne
s according to the needs 
as they developed until it appeared to become as perfect as is 
humanly possible and so it continued with an earnest patriotic zeal 
on the part of the people anxious to help but unable to go to the 
field of war because of their sex or their age limit. Some dis- 
tinguished themseh"es as caterers. cooks. coffee makers, waiters or 
\\-aitresses and even as dish\vashers. Others at the doors as wel- 
coming committees or indoors as cartoon makers, lantern manipula- 
tors, contest managers. leaders of choruses and accompanists or 
.. ma
ters of ceremonið .. and chairmen. Others again found work 
in ad\'ertising the meetings at the various ships and harracks until 
it became the rule that e\'ery new Regiment or warship arri\'ing at 
lIalifax was promptly advised of these Thursday evening meetings. 
The entertainment itself evolved into a systematic method by 
natural causes too. rather than by design. 
oting the crO\nls of 
U1d sailors on the streets at an cady honr the doors ""ere 
opened at G,3o p.m. and immediately the hall hegan filling. To 
entertain the early arri\-als a magic lantern displayed reproductions 
of recent war cartoons ancl cheery messages, while various popular 
songs and choruses thrown on the 

rcen hy the same method \vitI', 
a good accompanist at the piano got ever} one settled rlO\nl for a 
hearty sing-song. Each week the cartoolls \HTe supplemented with 
additkms and new songs added, along with items of current interest 
and latest news. more pictures of local topics ancl jokes that \vere 
full y appreciated. These opening features proved attractive atHl 
were followed with some contest varying ,,'eekly in their style and 
nature, for which prizes were awarded-always two at the least and 
sometimes as many as twch-e. most of them heing made and given 
by the ladies of the congregation-that \\'ere keenly contested for by 
the men in nlli form. This first portion 0 f the meeting soon hecame, 


Nor.l SC01'/.I"S P.1NT /

all essential part of the entertainment and was usually controlled 
. a " master of ceremonies," who hetween j,-l-5 to :::; 0 'clòck would 

\trrender his position to the chairman of the evening, and he in 
turn would call the meeting to order with the singing of the 
\""ational Anthem, and after a few words of \n
lcome the concert 
proper was conducted. 
In this respect all the best and cleverest artists. without dis- 
tinction of clas.-i or creed, responded \\"Ïlling]y and enthusiastically 
to the committee..,; ha \-ing charge of the programmes. These com- 
mittees rotated in their work and there arose a healthy competition 
between them in acquiring' special performers and singers to assure 
successful concert... 
\t ninc o'clock an adjournment for refrC:-.hments tuok place, 
This half-huur prO\-idcd an oJ>J>oïtunity for conn
r:,ation as well as 
for eating; thc lantern thre\\' cartoons and. pictures, jokes and songs 
on the screen !--o that goud humor continued to prevail. During 
this interval some committee member:, lUO\"ed among the audience 
seeking for impromptu items for a programme that \vas continued 
alung with choruse:-, from 9<
0 to 10 o'clock and even later for the 
Lenefit of such as had special" late leave:' 
The interest in these entertainment:-; did not wanc. It ne'"cr 
flagged at an
 period of the fìn
 \\-intcrs. The wurkers ne,-er tired 
of their tasks, nor \\"a:, thcrè e\-cr any ditììculty noticed in obtaining 
a bountiful supply lIf I11tbÍl'al talent or refreshments to ensurc 
The secret 0 f any extra degree 0 f popularity for these Thursday 
evenings cannot be attributed to anyone cause but rather to a com- 
bination 0 f circumstances. To a great degree the down-town 
position of S1. 
1atthe\v's made a strong appeal. The early start 0 f 
these concerts caused them to be hetter known perhap
, and the 
fact of their regularity and continuity helped matters greatly, and 
yet, perhaps more than all, the ladies of St. )fatthew's were a greater 
factor than all these. This can be stated without in any degree 
disparaging the !-!Teat \H)rk done by other churche
 and institu- 
tions or of ladies who \\'ere equally acti\'e in other placcs, and yet 
these ladies as a body ,,,cre able to greet all the 111cn in uniform 
with a heartiness that was promptly felt and without at any time 
the semblance of that fami,liarity that hreeds contempt or of a 


patronizing air to which soldicrs and sailors c:-;pecially are most 
sensitive, and at no time was there anything but the most respectful 
and kindly feeling shown on either side. 
X 0 smoking \ya:, indulged in at these gathcrings, and none ap- 
peareJ to wish the privilege. The men re f rained out of thei
natural respect to the ladies in the audience. Later on some" No 
\llowed" signs were placed in the ante-rooms, wherc 
somc were wont to indulge in a few puffs during the intervals, but 
this \"as donc on account of the fire risks in the older part of thc 
structure and did 110t occasion much if any comment. 
To the credit of the men themseh'es it can ùe recorded now tllat 
though between J 25 and 150 of these meetings were held and the 
a \"(
rage attcndancc was well over 4-00 men in uniform at each, only 
two men ,,-ere noticed to be the worse for liquor, and one of these 
occasioned the o111
 instance of a disagreement over any contest 
that took place on those evenings, and in his case the offender came 
back to the foll(}\\"ing mceting and apologized for his own unseemly 
behavior. Thi:-; i:-; a record for our soldiers and sailors of which 
the people of St. 
latthe\\-'s feel particularly proud. In itself it 
repays them fully for any efforts that were undertaken and lean's 
them ready to entertain such men whencver an opportunity OCC'ltrs.. 
The Sunday evening sen' ices of song were in some respects evcn 
more successful than the Thursday night concerts. A better chance 
to meet and know the men was afforded. and a better opportunity 
prm-ided to intermingle and Con\'erse. The strangers invariably 
:-;eemed to meet people from their own homc towns or provinces, 
and the men from Britain found enthusiast:-ì from 
cot1and, Eng- 
land, Ireland or \Yales ready to greet them 011 mutual racial 
The addresses on thesc occasion:; always had a more serious. 
religious or sentimental strain than was noticeable on week nights. 
and the Rev. Dr. Clarke, who succeeded Dr. 1Iacmillan in 19 16 as 
minister of the congregation was always ready to tell a gDod story 
and point a moral with good effect. The lantern was used for 
throwing the words of well-known hymn tunes on the screen, and 
the singing often had the fervor of a revival meeting. As each 
Unit or Regiment was known to be embarking for the Front, " God 
Be \Vith You Till \Ve 1\feet Again" was invari-ably sung and often 


that hymn, .. Eternal Father Strong to Save" and yarious war- 
time versions thereof \yere prayerfully sung. Desidcs the hymn 
singing there \yen: always solos, duets or quartettes rendered by 
the church choir and other artists. Refreshments ,,-ere served 
hefore dispersing, but were plainer than the fare dispensed on 
Thursdays, being confined to tea and biscuits so as to lessen the 
labor in deference to the Sabhath. These however, were greatly 
appreciated by men who had eaten their suppers at 4 p.m. with no 
other meal in prospect until the next day. 
Some thousands signed their autographs in visitors' books that 
\\'ere frequently passed around for signature, and among thcm are 
those 0 f hundreds \dlO nuw lie in Flanders fields or ga ye their Ii vcs 
od and King and Country in other spheres of the "-ar zone. 

rany appreciatory letters ,,"ere received from boys and mcn after 
thcy left Halifax. expressng their appreciation of these reccptions, 
some of them comparing the ,,"intry nights in the trenches or on 
the North Sea with the peaceful hours spent at St. .:\Iatthew's. 

 I any wives and mothers in all parts of Canada ha\'e heard of 
St. :\Iatthew's and Halifax and have sho\\ï1 their thankfulness in 
many ways for the attention given their husbands and sons while 
here. The ,,"ork of the Halifax Churches combined \\-ith the activi- 
tics of the Citizens' Reception Committee and the Y.
I,.Cu--\. work 
at Pier 2 throughout the \\Oar ha\-e made the name of Halifax well 
and fa\'orably kno\\'n throughout the land. Even no\\" that the \Var 
is m'er the duty of the churches to\yards the strangers within thcir 
gates should be continued-the need is great though the boys and 
men may not be in uniform and many of these could enjoy and 
apprcciate as the soldiers and sailors did. a \varm and kindly wel- 
come from a Christian community. 

39 8 




To the organizing ability, and more especially the extraordinary 
genius for administration, of Co!. \V. E. Thomp
on must be given 
the chief credit for the splendid achievement and unsullied record cf 


COL. \\'. E. THO:\fPSOX. 

\lilitary District 1\0. 6. Second in Command of the 63rd Halifax 
Rifles at the outbreak of the War, he was, in December, 19 1 4, 
called in by headquarters to assume the duties of Inspector of Out- 
posts and Detachments throughout the district, with the rank of 
4 0J 


Lieutenant-Colonel. In l\Iarch, 1915, he was appointed Assistant 
Adjutant-General and Officer in Charge of Administration of 
1Iilitary District No.6. In l\Iay, 1916, he was promoted to the 
rank of Colonel; and during the summer of that year. in addition 
to his duties as Assistant Adjutant-General, "-as Commandant of 
the Camp at Aldershot. In December, 1918, Colonel Thompson 
succeeded to the command of ::\Iilitary Di5trict :K o. 6. 
The effect of his personality and of his genius for organization 
and, more particularly, administration. on the \yhole sen-ice of 
1\Iilitary District No.6, as well as on its morale, \Ya
I-[e was regarded by Headquarters Staff, even by the three General 
Officers Commanding, before he succeeded to the command. as the 
authentic administrative" .Mind " of the district. K 0 other military 
district had such varied and great administrative problems and 
such heayy responsibilities as .Military District K o. 6. and yet the 
\\'ar was concluded with not a single mark against the admini:,- 
tration and not a breath of scandal on its personnel and their 
conduct of the various Department:>. For that splendid achieve- 
ment Colonel Thompson was chiefly responsible. 
In heart, howe\Ter, he was eminently the soldier. Repeatedly he 
\-olunteered for active service Overseas, and even specially appealed 
to Ottawa for permission to go Oversas with a Unit. but the 
Canadian l\Iilitia Department \Vas obdurate, declaring that his 
genius for organization and administration was of such a character 
that he could not be spared from headquarters 
1ilitary Distnct 
X n. 6. Strict. finn, and soldierly at headquarters. Colonel Thomp- 
son, notwithstanding, exemplified democracy in the most undemo- 
cratic of institutions, the army. His g-enuine democracy, hi
tempering of justice with mercy, and his fine killdline

 ""011 for 
him the high respect and admiration of all ranks. 

Co!. Gordon S. Harrington, K.C.. is a son of the late C. S. 
Harrington, K.C.. of Halifax, N.S. He was admitted to the Bar 
on October 19, 1904. and practised his profession at Glace Bay, K.
TIe ,,-as one of the original Company Commanders of the 85 th 
Battalion with the rank of l\lajor, and, on the formation of the 
:K ova Scotia Highland Drigade, returned to Cape Breton and super- 
vised the recruiting of the 18Sth Battalion. I-Ie was transferred to 


that "Cnit with his rank of 
Iajor and proceeded Oyerseas with it. 
"'hen the Brigade \yas broken up he \Vas sent to the Imperial First 
Senior Infantry School at Dedford. where he passed the qualifying 
examination \yith the highest marks ever attained at that institution. 
On reporting to the X ova Scotia Regimental Depot at Bramshott 
he was posted to the 17th Reserve Battalion, of which he was suc- 
cessively Second in Command and Q.C. In 
Iay. 19 1 7, he was 


transferred to the Staff of the Uverseas 
I inister, London, and a 
short time later was appointed Assistant Deputy Minister. In 19 18 
he \Vas appointed Deputy 
I inister and promoted to the rank of 
Colonel. He served in the field on Corps Headquarters. 

lIaying in mind the fact that at the sudden outbreak of war, 
.-\ ugust, 19 1 4. the permanent military force of Canada only num- 
4 0 3 

NO V_..J. seo TI.-J'S P_IRT IN 7'IJ /!, (a
E_..J. T lVAR 

Lercd 3,oÎ5, it will be readily understood that the Department of 

rilitia and Defence was at once compeIIed to grapple with an 
cnormous task for which no one couid expect it to be prepared. 
The situation had to be met. The work had to be done. It had to 
be done quickly, and it is to the everlasting crcdit of Canada that 
wc had men of outstanding ability and energy to Lope successfully 
\\-ith the urgent situation. 
By July. 19 16 . our military force wa
 "r 2..';;:-t--t-. Of these 

lIOX. F. n. ;u 'CURD Y, 
Secretary of Department of .:\lilitia. 

] "I).]
:; wcrc in Canada and ] ïCJ.1J59 were O\-er:->ca:,. l'he number 
was daily increasing; and only those who were in close touch with 
the tremendous work of organizing, equipping, supplying and des- 
patching such an army can realize what that meant in comparìson 
with the \york of administering affairs in regard tu al,out 3,000 men 
during times of peace. 



In these circll\ll:,tances. and in view of the further fact that the 
exigencies of affair..;; frequently called the 
Iinister of 
Iilitia away 
from Ottawa fur the purpose of visiting recruiting centres and 
military camp
 in Canada. as well as Canadian Headquarters in 
England, the GOHTllIllent decided that it was necessary to have a 
eLTetary of the Department of .Militia and Defence: 
and, accordingly. un July 16. 1916. by an Order-in-Council the office 
was created enduwing the holder with general authority in regard 
to administration of the Department, and directing that during the 
ence from ( hta "-a of the ßIinister, the Parliamentary 
should also jJre:-ide at all meetings of the .JIilitia Council and report 
to the Privy Council through the Prime I\Iinister. 
Fortunately. the 
en"ices of a man of wide experience in busilles:, 
alTairs, of well-known executive ability and withal energetic in 
discharge of duty. in the person of Mr. F. B. ::\lcCurdy, _\I.P., was 
a \"ailable, and the Prime :\Iinister wisely asked him to take up this 
ry important work. 

.\Ir. ::\1 cCurdy ,,"illingly agreed; but with one stipulation. The 
salary affixed to the office was $S,()(X). ::\1r. :McCurdy was past 
military age, but he believed that every man should, as far as was 
in his power, contribute to national duty. He, therefore, stipulate,-l 
that his service
 a:o; Parliamentary Secretary of the 'l\Iilitia Depart- 
ment would be a iree contribution to the country, and he so served. 
Immediately after l\Ir. I\IcCurdy's appointment, Sir Sam 
Hughes, .Minister of :\Iilitia and Defence, went Overseas; and from 
that -time. which. it will be remembered. wa
 a \"ery active and 
critical period ui the \\"ar. until the creation of the 
[inistry of 
rseas :\lilitary Forces of Canada, .Jlr. 
kCurdy played a very 
important part in the vital work of huilding up and strengthening 
Canada's grea.t army. 

 aturally :\ r r. }IcCurdy while discharging hi
 \\ eighty duties 
with due and patriotic regard to the national intere
t:, of the whole 
country, had a 'ympathetic ear for his fellow XO\"a Scotian:,; and 
it is well known that his good judgment and influential voice pre- 
vailed in regarù to irritating questions as to the representation of 
Uattalions at the Front, with results that afforded great satisfaction 
4 0 5 

1\'0 VA SCOTI.l'S P.lRT IX TH 1
 (;]<E.-J T IT'.dR 

to the peuple of his native Pro\-ince. It is sufficient to say that 
IcCurdy's eminent record as Parliamentary Secretary proved 
the unerring judgment of the Prime 
Iinister in selecting the right 
men for responsible positions. 
At the election of December, 1917, :\Ir. 
IcCurdy \"as retnrned 
by acclamation for Colchester, his natiye county. 




ERAL G. L, FOSTER, ::\1.11.. 
F.R.C.S., LL.D., c.B. 

Son of George and Elmira Foster. Born at Xorth Kingston, 
Kings County, X ova Scotia, May, 1
74. Graduated :M.D. 1896, 
University of K ew York, U.S.A. First appointment, Canadian 
:\lilitia, August 4, 1897, Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon, 68th 
Regiment. Kings County, 
ova Scotia. Served with Yukon Field 
Forces as P.
Iarch, 1
Ç)8, to July, 1900. _\pril, 1913, appointed 
...-\ssistant Director of l\Iedical Services, 
Iilitary District NO.2, with 
headquarters at Toronto, Ontario. September, 19Lt-, sailed from 
Quebec with First Canadian Contingent and appointed A.D.l\LS. 
1 st Division Canadians, with the rank of Colonel. Served in 
France from February, 1915, to September, 1915, as A.D.l\1.S. 1st 
Division Canadians. September, 1915, appointed Deputy Director 
Iedical Services, Canadian Corps, on its formation and served 
with Canadian Corps in France until February, 1917, when ap- 
pointed Director-General of :Medical Services, Overseas :M"ilitary 
Forces of Canada with the rank of l\fajor-Ceneral, headquarters in 

PROJIIXE.\"T .\"0['_1 SCOTI.

London, England. 
Iarch, 1920, appointed .L \cting Director-General 
of .:\Iedical Seryices, Canadian 
Iilitia. with headquarters at Otta \\-a. 
J! cda/s alld Decoratiol/s. 
1914-15 Star. 
Î.eneral Sen-ice ::\Iedal. 
Victory ::\Iedal with Leaf. 
D ao ratio 1l
', Jfilita rJ'. 
Companion of the Order of the Bath. 
Knight of Grace, St. J 01111 of Jerusalem. 
Officer Legion of Honour. 
Civil Honors received as Head of the Canadian ::\Iedical Sen'ice during 
:he Great \Var, 1914-15. 
October, 1919. Edinburgh University conferred the degree of F.R.C,S. 
June, 11)20, 
IcGill Uni\'crsity, conferred the degree of LL.D. 

.. . 
." .. 




c.:\1.G., D.S.O, 

Lieut.-Cot. Charles E. Bent was a Captain in the Y3rd CumLer- 
land Regiment at the outbreak of the \Yar. He immediately yolun- 

eered for actiye service and, as Adjutant of the 1ïth Battalion. 
accompanied the First Division to England. On the breaking up 
oi that Cnit he took a draft moer to the 13th Battalion, arriying in 
France .-\pril, 1915. He reported for duty with the 15th Dattalion 
and was given command of a Platoon. He became a Company 
Commander immediately after the fighting of Festubert, 19 1 5; 
Second in Command Decemher 3I. 1915: and Officer Commanding 
the 15th Battalion in l\Iay, 1916. He took part in all fighting with 
the First Division until wounded _-\ugust 9, 1918, near Caix. east 
of _\miens. He rejoined his Dattalion on October 1St. and after 
the _\rmistice proceeded with the _\rmy of Occupation to Germany. 
He acted as Brigade Commander on several occasions and was in 
4 0 ï 


command of the 3rd Brigade from October 20 to Xoyember 24. 
19 1 8. He took part in the following battles: 
Festubert ........1915 Hill 60 ..,.....,..19 16 
Givenchy ,......,1915 Sanctuary \\' ood. ,19 16 

[essines ..,....,1915 Soml11e, . . . . . . . . .19 16 
Y pres ......,.....1916 Vimy Ridge .,....19 1 7 
Ploeg-stccrte .1916 Hill iO .....,....19 1 7 
Ypres .,....,.....1916 Pa:'schendaele..,. 19 1 7 
and others up to the signing of the Arm:stice, N ovemhcr 1 T, 19 1 8. 

Telegraph Hill ,. .19 18 
Amiens ,......... 19 1 8 
Queant Line . .19 18 

D.S.O. and Bar. 
lQq-15 Star. 
Colonial :\.uxilian Furccs' Long Service :\Iedat. 
Seven mcntion" i
l despatchcs. 




LlEUT.-COL. J. A. M'Dm-L\LlJ. 

Lieut.-Col. J. _\. 
\LcDonald started his military cart:er by 
enlisting in the 17th Sydney Field Battery in 18g6, receiving first- 
class ccrtificate from the R.S..'\., Quebec, winter of 1897-98, en- 
listed for service in South Africa 1899, served in " E " Battery and 
4 th C.1\I.R., obtained commission in the 17th 1906, qualified and 
promoted through the various stages until he took command of the 
IhLttery in 1913. \Vas still in command at outbreak of the \Yar in 
August, 1914, when he volunteered the Battery for Overseas service 
through the then Brigade Commander, Lieut.-Col. H. G. 
Xugust 8, 1914. On arrival at Valcartier he was posted as Captain 
to the 5 th \iVestmount Battery, 2nd Brigade, C.F.A., promoted in 
Field to rank of :\Iajor :\Iay, 1915, and took command of 7 th 
Battery, promoted to rank of Lieutenant-Colonel April. 19 1 7. and 
4 08 


was posted to command the 3rd Brigade, C.F.A., commanded this 
Brigade until it was demobilized in Canada in :!\Iay, 1919, except 
for period of three months, during which time he was attached to the 
-I-th Canadian Division Artillery Headquarters, acting as C.R,A.. 
During the above period of four years and ten months on active 
service he went througn every engagement in which the Canadian 
Corps took part from the day the First Canadian Division landed 
on French soil (February 12, 1915) up to the day of the ..,\rmistice, 

ovember II, 1918. 

Decorations are as follows:- 
Queen's South Africa ::\Iedal, Three Clasps. 
D.S.O., London Gazette, 1-1-17. 

Ientiolled in despatches, London Ga::;ette, 4- 1 - 1 ;-. 
\Ientioned in despatches, L01tdon Ga::;ettc. 28-5-18. 
'Tentioned in despatches, London Gazette, 31-12-18. 

Ientioned in despatches, LOlldou Ga::;ette. I1-Î-I(). 
.-\warded Bar to D.S,O., London Ga::;ettc, 1-2- 1 9, 
1914-15 Star, London Ga::;ette, 3-5-19. 
Total period of service, twenty-three years, of \\"hich si:o- years :lI1d four 
111l1nth;; were spent on acti,'e sen,ice. 




LlEC'T.-COL. T. HOW o\RD M \('00:-- .\LII, C__\.:\1.c. 

\Yent Overseas January, 1915, unattached. with the rank of 
.:\Iajor. He was first attached to the Canadian Convalescent 
Hospital at Bearwood Park. From there he went to Bath, thence 
to :Moore Barracks Hospital, and \Vas later appointed 11edical 
Examiner of the Pension Board, London. He went to France as 
.:\Iedical Officer of a Labor Battalion. He was promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and received the appointment of Com- 
manding nfficer of the medical personnel of the Hospital Ship 
-1- 0 9 

-lNT LV THE CRE...J.T lï

Lla/ldv;:ery Castle. This ship \\"a
 torpedoed by an enemy sub- 
marine on June 27, 19 18 , and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Iacdonald wa
drmnled. Uut of the entire ship's company there \\
ere only twenty- 
four :,ur\"Ïvors. and of the hospital personnel of ninety-seyen only 
one ottìcer and five other ranks escaped. In spite of their appalling 
circum"tances the conduct of all on board was in fitting keeping with 
the proudest traditions of the British Army and the mercantile 
manne. -\nd throughout nothing was more marked than the cooI- 
nes:, and courage of the fourteen Canadian .K ursing Sisters. eyery 
one 0 f \\.hom was lost. T\\"o of the nursing sister,,-Pearl Fraser 
and .\ I innie Follette-were X Ova 

racdonald was horn at Bailey'
Brook. Pictou County. and is a daughter 
of the late n. D. ::\f,acdonald. She is a 
sister of Col. R. St. John ::\Iacdonald. who 
was in command of the St. Franci:- 
Xavier Unit. 
Iiss l\[acdonald 
en'ed in 
the Spanish-American \Yar, in the South 
.. \frican \Var. and later in the Canal Zone 
at Panama. In Novemher, 1906, she wa:- 
appointed a K ursing Sister in the Cana- 
dian .. \nny Permanent 
J edical Corps. and 


ET :\I.\CIJONALD, after taking a course in England recei\'ed 
LL.D.. R.R.c., the appointment of l\Iatron-in-Chief and 
'Tatron-in-Chief of Cana- 
was in command of three thousand Cana- 
(1 ian 
 ursing- Sisters. 
dian Xursing Sisters during the Grea
\ \ ar. She has been decorated with the H.oyal Red Cros
 and the 
Flurence !\ightingale medal. 







1. F, 
regg, a graduate of 
\cadia Cniversity. \\ ulÙ'illè. 
won the \ ictoria Cross while sen'ing with the Royal Canadian 
Regiment. The following is the official record as puhlished in the 
L01/don Ga::;ette: 
,. On Septemher the 28th. when the advance of the Brigade 
was held up by fire on both flanks and by thick. uncut wire, he 
crawled forward alone and explored the wire until he found a 
small gap, through which he suhsequently led his men and forced 





T. F. GREGG. V,C, 


an entry into the enemy trench. Tbe enemy counter-attacked 111 
iorce and through lack of bombs the situation became critical. 
.. Gregg, although wounded, returned alone under a terrific firc 
and collected a further supply, then rejoined hi:-- party which was 
now much reduced. Despite a second wound he reorganized his 
men and led them in the most determined way against the enemy 
trenches, which he fin- 
ally cleared. He person- 
ally kiIIed or wounded 
eleyen of the enemy and 
took twenty-five prison- 
. lJl'sides capturing 
t\yeh-e machine. guns in 
this trench. H.emaining 
\yith the Company. de- 
spite his wound=--. he 
agal11. on Septembet 
3 0th . It'll the men in 
attack nntil severely 
wounded. The outstand- 
ing yalor of this officer 
saycd many casualties 
and enabled the ad\"ance 
to continne." 


Pre . John Croak. 
Y.c., \"as born in 
fmmdland and came to 
Glace Bay with his par- 
ents at four years of age. He attended St. John's School. New 

\berdeel1. Glace Day. and afterwards worked as a miner in No.2 
Colliery, Glace Bay (the biggest in the world). He volunteered for 
cas service in the 55th Battalion and was transferred to the 
J 3th Battaliún. He died of wounds received in action on _ \ugust 
8, 1918. J [is father. mother, two sisters and t\\"o brothers are living 
at Glace TIay. 

PTE. j(lH 
 CRO.\h., CC. 

.p 2 


The official notice from the \\
ar Ottìce announcing the award 
of the Victoria Cross was as follows: 
"On August 8, 1918. during the attack on Amiens Defence 
System, after being separated from his section, Private Croak 
encountered a machine-gun nest in Ring Copse. which he dealt with 
by first bombing unassisted and then jumping into the post, taking 
the gun and crew prisoner
. Shortly afterwards he was severely 
\\"ounded in the right arm but refused to desist. 
.; In a few minute:-; his Platoon. which this soldier had rejoined
again encountered a very strong point, containing se\"eral machine- 
guns and the) \\ ere forced to take cover. PrÏ\-ate Croak. however. 

eeing an opportunity. clashed forward alone, and was almost im- 
mediately followed by the remainder of the Platoon in a brilliant 
charge. He WaS the first to arrive at the trench line. into which he 
led the men, cavturing three machine-guns and bayoneting or cap- 
turing the entire garrison. 
,. The perseverance and courage of this gallant man were un- 
(Ioubtedly responsihle for taking the strongest point in the whole 
day's advance. 
.. Private Cruak wa:-; again severely wounded in the knee and 
died in a few minute:..." 
On November 23. 19 18 , Lieutenant-Gm'ernor Grant formally 
presented the Yictoria Cross to his 
mother. 1\Irs. James Croak. of 
. \berdeen, Cape Dreton. The Lieutenant- 
Governor complimented the parents and 
a sister who accompanied them on the 
fact that their 
lIn and brother had so 
well demonstrated that he came of good 
stock and was a good soldier. a brave 
man. and a hero. 




Iajor Cecil Yerge Strong. 
of Percy T. Strong. E:-;q.. of Halifax. 1\1 \]OR CFn}. HRGF STROXG! !\I.C. 
He was O.C. I
th Field Company. 
Royal Engineer
. and the youngest Commanding Officer in the 
Dritish Army. He was killed in action 
Iarch 10. 191ï, aged 
23 years. Buried Piney Post Cemetery. _\1 am-epas. near Peronne, 

rentioned in de:-;patche
 fi\-e times. 

4 1 3 

XOl",l SCOTI.-.J'S P.IRT 1.\" THE GRë.--lT 11".-1R 




I.\-'Ol{ J \H"'OLD fJELA:'\CEY, 


l\I-\TOR F\J\V.\RD w. IOY, 

rajor J. .-\.rnold Delance:. :\I.c.. joined the 40th Battalion and 
ierred to the 25th Battalion a
 machine gun officer. He wäs 
.-\djutant of the 25th in France and attained his majority in 
( >CtoLer. }()16. } [e was killed at \ïmy Ridge. .\pril 9. 191ï, while 
leading his Battalion. of \\"hich he was in temporai-y command. 
II e was decorated with the 
lilitary Cruss. He had a distin- 
hed career and \\'a
 rapidly promoted on account of his good 
\york at the Front. 
:\[ajor Edward \ \'. J 0)" went U\"erseas with l06th Dattalion, 
Transferred to ï8th Uattalion in France. I'=illed in action at Yimy 
]{jdge. . \pril 9, 19 1 ï. 

Lieut. I
ennet Stairs. Born 188
. Kille(l in action September 
30, 1918, while serying \dth 60th Dattery. C.F..\.. near Cambrai. 
Lieut. Philip Boyd Stairs, D.S.O. Dorn 1
95. ""ounded while 
serving with 5th Canadian Division. 
1. n. Died of influenza at 
\-alenciennes, I'\ovember 21, 1918. 
Capt. George \ \T. Stair
. Born 188ï. Killed at St. Julien, 

\ pril 24, 1915, while serving with the 14th Battalion. 
Capt. John C. Stairs. Born Ig9I. Killed at Courcellette. Sep- 
tember 15, 1916, while serying with the 25th Battalion. 
Capt. Gat1\'in L. Stairs. Born 18g6. Killed at ::\Ioquet Farm, 
near Courcellette. September ï. 1916, while serving with the 14th 
Pte. Graham Stairs. Born 189-1-. Died of pneumonia at Halifax. 
December 10, 1915, while serving with the 85th Battalion. 
" One by one Death cha1tenged them. One by one they <;miled in his grim 
\"isage and refused to be dismayed." 
4 L t- 



UU"T. KE",,"",,"ET STAIRS. 


SOilS of ]frs. Ed'i.\'ard Stairs. Halifax, 


t">" ... 
.. " 




CAPr. JOB:" c. ST \W:,. 

SOilS of George Stairs. Halifax. 



c.-\PT. G.-\UVIN L. ST.\m:,. 


Sons of Com'lll L. 
tairs. Halifax. 


C-\PT. E. J. DWYER. 

. -.... 



""<III. '



. - 



P RO.lff.Y Ii.\"T \'0 /'.--1 SCO TI, 1.\"...... 

Capt. E. J. Dwyer wa:-; Second in Command of ., C .. Company. 
Rsth Battalion. He left the Battalion :-;hortly after it arriY(
d in 
England to join the 25th Uattalion in France. . \fter :-;erving \yit h 
the latter l Tnit for six months he \\'as detailed to proceed to 
.:\lesopotamia. and 
ailed on the Ì''':ya11':.:a. Thi:-; ship wa
ancl Captain Owyer \\"a:-; dl"l )\nll'd. 

Capt. L. Ray Cutten
 ;)11 officer in the 
3rd Cumhcrland Rè
ment. He volunteered 10r scn'ice ( h'crseas at the ot1tbt'cak of ,,-ar 
and was .\ssi
tant .-\djutant of the 17th Battalion, L Ie transferred 
to the 15th nattalion and again to the 2nd Battalion. in \\'
1Ïch hI.: 
was a Compan) Comander and ,,'"as recornmended -for the :\lilital'Y 
Cross. J [e was killed at :\ I aplc Cro"e. near 1 Till ()(). June 5. \ <) r6. 
Buried near Poperinghe. 

Capt. Edgar S. Spurr. .\1.C., obtained his commISSlO1l \11 r] 2th 
Battalion. Promoted to rank of Captain July 2-1-. lql(), Re\"erted 
to go to France. where he served .with the 25th Battalion. \ wardf'd 
Iilitary Cross and rcgainerl the rank of Captain. \ng"lbt 15 
TC)Tï. Killed in action. JU11(' 1-1-, H)I

Capt. George Collins Parish. Y armuuth, 
. Il1unediatd
after the outbreak of the Great \\ al'. was appointed l.icutena
t in 
the 8Ist Regiment Canadian Infantry 
Commissioned as a lieuteIlant in the -I-oth Uattalioll. L'.E.F. 
Recruited a Platoon in Yarmouth for that l
 nit. took them to Yal- 
cartier. _ \ fter a p
ríod 0 f trainiti g he was sent (h-erseas ill com- 
mand of a reinforcing dI
aft of 250 men. 
He was attached to the f7th H.esen"e Battalion at Bramshott for 
a period, when. in 1<)16. hc was posted to the 25th Battalion. and 
sent to Belgium, \Vas severely \\'olUlded and inyalidecl homc. On 
his partial recovery he \yas po
ted to the 1st Xova Scotia RegimcIlt. 
Depot Battalion. as Paymaster, with the rank of Captain. fie COI1- 
tracted influenza and died Octoher 2R. IqlK \Yas il1ll'rrccl at 

lountain Cemetery, Yarmouth. 


4 T ï 


Si2\. ::iUll::i uf l
. Duugla
 and Kate C. Camphell. uf \\ C) mouth, 
\\ ere \ ulunker
 in August, IY I 4. 

l'uU1\, the} lH1l1gest. enli
ted fir
t and scrved at .\lc 
 a!J's bland. 
He juined the 23rd Dattery at Fredericton in November. Proceeded 
Ovcrsea:-; in .\larch. IYI5, and arrived in France the following Junc. 

l'\ ad.\ ,,-()unded at La Bassee, June ll)th. On di
charge trom 
ho:-pital he joined the lmperial Service and obtained his commissioll, 
Returned tu the Front during the winter of 1915-IÚ. Received 
multiple \H>11l1d::; July II)tll and was a,,-arded the 1I.C. '\tter di
chargt' frum huspital he wa:; decorated by the King and again 
returned to the Front. Passed examination for aviation durlug 
t1lnmer. hut returning to the artillery was killed in action Hear 
P:'lsschendaele. ()ctoher IU, 19 1 7. 

TIL\I. ab() joined the 23rd Hattery and pruceedcd to England 
with Colin, lIe was trans ferrcd to the 3nl D:lttalion and sern
d at 
the Front frum June to Decemher. 1915. Trench life and its filthy 
conditions undermined hi:, health. and in Decemher he was shell- 
shod,.cd and 
ellt to hospital. 1 J e returned to Canada in 19 16 . 

lü:^ .'d
I II, b'-'gan hi" training for acti\ e sèrvice at Halifax. later 
going to Ya1cartier. lie ""as sent to \ Yeymouth to assist in re- 
cruiting the 
5th amI 211)th Battalions. He proceeded Overseas in 
\ugu:,t. I!)JÓ. and joined the ..pnd Battalion, TIe he came Bombing 
()fficer of that LTnit. and \\a.... ktlled at Yimy Ridge. January 18. 
Iqfï. and huried at :\Iotl11t St. Eloi. 

.lUll X DL';\; C \:K, joined thc lOóth Battaliun at Trt1ro in January, 
IqIG. \rrin
d in England. Jul}. lyI6. and at the Front in December. 
19 16 . \Yuunded in hand d.nd thigh at \ïmy Ridge. April 8, 19 1 7. 
Returned to the Frunt and :,cn'ed until shell-shocked at Roch\llOlll. 
Returnell to Halifax. June. ]YI

GUDDEl\". the eldest, was already 111 the 
Iilitia when the \\'ar 
brokt' out, his comI11i
sion being dated JUlle. 191...... He \\"a



I . 
, . 




. . 
. I 




I · 
A I 





command of the Digby Detachment of the Garrison Artillery at 
Barrington, N.S., and joined the 85th Battalion in October, 1915, 
as ::\Iachine Gun Officer. He proceeded Overseas with that Unit. 
arriying in France in time for the Vim}" show. He was appointed 
to the command of "B" Company in October, 1917. He led his 
Compan)" at Passchendaele, wiping out over a dozen machine gun 
nests and capturing a pill-box single-handed. \Vas blown into the 
air by a shell and, although wounded, refnsed to leave the line. He 
\yas a,,-arded the ::vI.C. He carried on with the Battalion until 
June, 19 18 , when. after an attack of trench fever and suffering 
from the effects of gas, he was sent to the South of France to re- 
cuperate. He later transferred to the Forestry Corp
, taking com- 
mand of the 79th Company and \Vas promoted to the rank of ::\Iajor. 

--\LBERT ::\h-,
xGo, volunteered in 1914, but as his five brothers 
had left his father's business, it ,,-as decided that he should remain 
at home. He was so anxious to join up, however, that he was 
reluctantly permitted to do so, and in the early spring of 1916 
enlisted in the 58th Battery, C.F,A. He went to the Front with 
that U ni t and remained \vith it to the finish. He \Vas the last of 
the four surviying brothers to arrive home. 



;' <- 

, < I , 

C":APT. H. -\. l\frRRA Y. 

Capt. H. A. l\lurray joined the 24th 
Battalion as Lieutenant during the winter 
of [915 from the :\lcGill C.O.T.C.. and 
served as Transport Officer until l\Iay, 
19 16 . Promoted to Captain in July, 1916, 
and to \cting-
rajor while in command 
of a Company in September, 1916. 'Vas 
Company Comander of "D
' Company, 
2..t-th Battalion, when killed in fighting for 
Regina 1'rench, near Courcellette, on 
October I, 1916. 

4 20 


Capt. Edward C. Clayton, 
I.C,. son of W. J. Clayton, Halifax. 
Appointed Lieutenant 85th Battalion. December 28, 1916. Pro- 
moted to rank of Captain, 
 \. ugust 9, 
1917. A warded :\Iilitary Cross, Eleudit 
-\lthough not his turn to lead 
his Company in the attack on Pass- : 
chendaele Ridge he urged his reasons for 
doing so upon his Commanding Officer so 
strongly that permis
ion was given him. 
He was killed by a piece of shell just as 
his Company ad\'anced in the attack, but 
he had made hi.; preparation so carefully 
that they carried on, annihilated the 
. d I . 1," d . CAPT. EDWARD C. CLAYTO
, M,C. 
enemy, game t 1eIr oUJechves, ug 111, 
and held their po:-,ition intact until the Battalion was relieved. 



Capt. Harry Elthan [Elton, only child of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. 
Hilton, of Kingston, Nova Scotia. Born 
September 16, 1894. \Vhen war broke 
out was on the Staff 'Of the Bank of Nova 
Scotia. He enlisted in the 63rd Regi- 
ment on August 14, 1914, gazetted 
Lieutenant the following month and 
sailed for England with a draft of the 
63rd on 
Iarch I, 1916. Went to France, 
June Lt., 1916, and was attached to the 
-pnd Dattalion. He fought at Cour- 
cellette and various other engagements 
t lroughout the Somme campaIgn. Later 
was transferred to the 7th Trench 
Iortar Battery and was killed at 
Vimy Ridge. Gazetted Captain, January 13. 1917. 

"' --:- 




Capt. A. S. Allen, 
I.C., son of 
Ir. Arthur E. Allen, of Yar- 
mouth, N.S. Born at Glenwood. Yarmouth County, July 23, 18gS. 

-\t the age of sixteen he entered the service of the Bank of Nova 
Scotia, and in I<)13 was transferred to the Barrington Street 
Branch, Halifax. I Ie qualified a", Lieutenant in the 81st Regiment 
4 21 


and proceeded (h"ersea:-; with the 40th Battalion. In :\Iarch, 19 16 , 
he joined the 18th J:attalion in France. He was later gazetted 
Captain and awarded the .:\Iilitary Cross. In XO\"ember he trans- 
ferred to the R.F.C. ()11 
\pril 30, 1917, 
\yhile reconnoitering o,-er Gouzeaucourt 
his plane was attacked by six enemy 
machines. Captain A.llen was hit by a 
machine-gun bullet and wa
 dead when 
his plane crashed. Lieut. D. 
Il1\-erness, Scotland. who accompanied 
him on this flight. \\"rite
.. I can never forgct him as I saw him 
at the last, calm and collected to the end, 
sighting and firing until his strength gave 
out and he was o\"ercome by exhaustion. 
It i:-, given to a fe\,- men to live greatly, Imt to be able to die as he 
did is a gift of God. Truly he won.Pcr crdlfa (:-d astra." 


,fIIIII" . 


,. . 




CAPT. ]. E. ALl\IOX. 


Capt. J. E. - \lmon. son of the late Dr. Thomas \1111on, of 
Halifax. I
illed in action at Passchendaele, while serving with the 

Lieut. Cyril 
[owbray, only son of Lieut. Col. J. _\. C. 
1\Iowbray, (). H.E., Senior Pay Officer. 
Iilitary District No.6. 
Killed in action, Xovember 10. I91ï, at Passchendaele, aged nine- 
teen years. while sen'ing with the 5th Canadian Battalion. 
4 22 


Second Lieut. John Struan Robertson, 
son of Lieut.-Co!. Struan G. Robertson, 
of Pictou. Horn in \ Y estville, Pictou 
County, November 17, 1896. Got his 
commission from the Roval 
Iilitary Col- 
lege, Kingston, Ont., in 1917. .Attached 
to the R.F.
r\., D. -t-óth Brigade, 14th 
Division, 5th .Army. Killed near Denay. 
in the neighhorhood of St. 
:I\Iarch 21, 1918. 







Lieut. George 
I acdonald Syh'ester. 
\\-ent Overseas with 40th Dattalion as 
.\ssistant Adjutant. Transferred to 14 th 
Dattalion and was killed at Regina 
Trench, Septemher 26. H)16. 




Lieut. "-alter 
r elville lEIlman. At 
Oxford at outbreak of war. Joined 
Officers' Training Corps, Oxford. 
.r\ppointed Second Lieutenant 6th Bat- 
talion 1st 1\1 iddlesex Regiment. Died of 
wounds received at Dattle of ;:)omme, 
1\ ovember 5, 1916. 

. , 

.. t . 
' I t. 
:', III, 

..J\ _ 
\ .. 



4 2 3 



















, .:'" 



Lieut. Ho\yard Charles Dawson, son of 
Ir. and 
Ir:-. C. 
Dawson. of Truro, 
.S, He \Vas killed while on scout duty at .-\blain, 
azaire, on January 12. 1917, at the age of 22 years. He was 
buried in Sucrerie Cemetery, near Lens. He enlisted in January, 
19 16 , in the l06th Battalion and transferred to the 26th Battalion in 
(ktober, 1916. He was scout officer of this Battalion when killed. 

Lieut. John H. Fiendal went Overseas as a Sergeant in Xo. 1 
Casualty Clearing Hospital. "'as given a conlll1i.;;sion and joined 
the 25th Battalion in 1916. He was killed at Yimy Ridge. --\.pril 
9, 19 1 7. 

Lieut. Thomas Louis Brennan trained at _ \ viation School, 
Toronto, and went to England December, 1915, Completed hi.- 
training there and went to France carly in 1916. "-as wounded. 
and after being discharged from hospital was employed a
Instructor. and returned to Canada early in 1918. Up to the tim
of his death was attached to the 1\ viation School in Toronto. He 
died of influenza October, 1918. 

Lieut. G. H. Campbell, son of George H. Campùell. Esq.. of 
Halifax, joined the 40th Battalion with the rank oi Lieutenant. 
He proceeded Overseas with that Unit, and "'as later transferred 
to the 1st Canadian Pioneers. He was killed at Battersea Farm, 
y pres. 
Iay J6, 1916, aged 22 years. 

Lieut, F. P. H. Layton, only son of George .\. Layton. E:-;q.. oi 
Truro. Dorn April 13, 1888. Educated at King's College School 
and Dalhousie University. Admitted to the Bar in 1912. ""hen 
war broke out was practising in Vancouver. He obtained a com- 
n1Íssion in the 40th Battalion and transferred to the 4th Canadian 
l\Iounted Rifles. He \Vas killed in action July 23. 191Ó. 

Lieut. Alfred S. Churchill. Killed in action .\pril í). IC)lï. at 
Yimy Ridge. while serving with the Royal Canadian Regiment. 

4 2 5 



"',,\ ... 



SMITH, 1\I.C. 

















LIEUT. J. T. Pl<OBERT, I1f.C. 


. . 




Lieut. \\-. T. Heck. Served in Egypt \vith Royal Air Force. 
Killed Kovember 15, 1918. 

Lieut. Harold .Archibald Smith, 
I.C. Born at Londonderry 
:\Iay 13, 1893. Educated at Sydney Academy and Dalhousie Uni- 
versity. Graduated B.A.. 1913 and went to Laùrador as missionary. 

-\t Pine Hill College autumn of H)14, Enlisted in 6th C.
January, 1915. \Younded at the Somme, September IS. 1916. 

-\fter convalescence went to Dexhill and rejoined his Unit as 
 \ warded :\Iilitary Cross 
-\ugust 26, 1
18. Two days 
later at l\Ionchy Heights was severel}- \vot1l1ded. Died September 
qth at Prince of \\'ales Hospital, London, and buried in Drook- 
wood Cemetery. 

Lieut. Albert F. 
Iajor, son of F. G. :\Iajor, Esq., of Halifax, 
\\Tent Overseas with Battalion of 
Iontrea1. Killed in action 
at Zillebeke Heights June 3, 1916. 

Lieut. Cordon 11. Hebh, son of Le\"i Hebb. Esq" of Dridge- 
\\"ater, K.S. I
illed in action near Courcellette while serving \\'ith 
ï8th Dattalion. 

Lieut. "T. S. Fielding. son of George n. Fielding. Esq" 
Iagistrate, J lalifax, X.S. Called out for service with 
his Regiment, the ()()th Princess Louise Fusiliers. at the outbreak of 
war. Proceeded with a draft from that Regiment to England in 
January. 1916. lIe \\"as transferred to the ïth British Columbi1 
Battaliun in France. J Ie ,,"as t,,"ice wounded. I
illed in action at 

Lieut. J. T. Probert, 1I.C. Hefore the "Far Lieut. Probert \vas 
an accountant in the service of the Intercolonial Railway at Halifax. 
He was attached tu the Royal Canadian Regiment in France. and 
was killed in action at Camhrai, Septemher 30, 19 1R 

Lieut. Gerald E. Cragg. son of C. J. Cragg, Dridge,,"ater, Xo\'a 
Scotia. l
illed in actiun June 3, 1916. aged 22 years. 4 months. 
near Ypres. Belgium, while sen'ing with the 3rd Toronto Regiment. 

'S P

Lieut. Jas. C)'
eill Fitzgerald. 
I.C.. enlisted in the -+oth Bat- 
talion, was transferred to 25th Battalion in France, 
Iay, 19 1 6, and 
seryed till _'\pril, 191ï, \\-hen he was promoted to commissioned 
rank. He rejoined his Battalion in October, H)lï. and was wounded 
at the Battle of \miens. .-\ugust 9. 19I
, and awarded the 

Cadet H. S. Simson enli:-;ted in the 2nd Canadian Divisional 
Cyclist Company on _-\pril 19. 1915. ] Ie accompanied his Unit to 
France on Septemuer IS, 1915. and \Va:' wounded October 8, 19 16 , 
during the Somme offensiye. He was awarded the 

Iilitaire (French) on July 6, [9Iï. for work on the Somme. 
Joining the Royal .\ir Force in July, 191K he sen'ed until the sign- 
ing of the Armistice. 

Lieut. \\-alter O. Barnstead joined the 6th Canadian 
Rifles at Halifax, February 1 I. 1913. and proceeded to France with 
his Unit in October. 19T 5. He \\-as transferred to the 5 th C.
promoted to commi:,sioned rank in \pril, [9Iï. and seryed \dth 
his Unit until the .-\rmistice, lle \yas a\varded the Croi
 de Guerre 
at .-\miens, 19 1 8. 

Capt. G. 
I. Dre\\- was called out with his Regiment. the bt 
Canadian Garrison .\rtillery. on .-\ugust 22. 1<)14, and left for Yal- 
cartier early in September. From Ya1cartier he proceeded to Eng- 
land, joining the Royal Carrison .-\rtillery. He proceeded to 
France with the 1st Siege Battery in September, 19 1 5, and served 
\yith this Unit and various Trench ::\lortar Batteries until June. 
19 16 , when he was invalided to England suffering from trench 
fever. After service in England. Capt. Drew returned to France 
Iay, 19Tï. with the 239th Siege Battery, and sen-ed in the Yprcs 
Salient and Nieuport areas till the signing of the 

The four boys mentioned ahO\"e are all in the employ of the 
Furness \\ïthy Company. Limited, 




- - - - - -- -----


















Lieut.-Cot. Charles J. T. Stewart, D.S.O., was the son of the 
late Lieut.-Cot. C. J. Stewart, of Halifax. 1 Ie \yent Oyer::;eas with 
the P.P.C.L.!. \\-as awarded the D.S.O. and French Croix dc 
Guerre. He was killed in action September 2t:\, 1918. 

Lieut. J. G. Laurier Fraser, son of the late Lieut.-Governor 
D. C. Fraser. Enlisted at 
Ioose Jaw in the 229th Dattalion and 
sailed for England in Septemher, 1916. Transferred to the 16th 
Battalion. Killed in action 
Iarch 6, IYI8. 

Lieut. Jas. Dlair, son of Lieut.-Cot. H. C. Blair, of Truro. 
Killed in action. 

Lieut. J. C. Sutherland. Killed in action. 

Lieut. Ian C. 
IcGregor. \\'ent U\'er::;eas XO\ ember, 19 1G . 
Trained in England with Royal Flying Corps. \\'ent to France a::i 
pilot, .-\pril, 1917, attached to Squadron 56, and later transferred to 
Squadron 60. \\"ounded September 21, ly1ï, and was eight month
in hospital in France. Died at Saranac Lake, X.Y., -:\[arch 5, 1920. 
Officially credited with eleven machine::;. 

Capt. X elson P. Freeman, of Bridge\\-ater. stricken ,,-ith 
 while on service in England. was inyalided to Canada, 
and died. 

Emile Gaboury. son of Dr. T. C. Gaboury, the late representative 
of the County of Pontiac, Quebec. Came to Halifax in 1911 a::- 

Ianager of the Xova Scotia Branch of the Imperial Tobacco Com- 
pany of Canada, Limited. and after \\-ar broke out was appointed 
French Consul. X otwithstanding his many duties. 
Ir. Gaboury 
took an active interest in the Yictory Loan. Red Triangle, Knights 
of Columbus, and the Salvation Army. lle \\'as a particularly 
strong and active member of the Red Cross. and played a large role 
in the welcoming of returned soldiers at Pier 2. During the \\-ar 
he appealed for the Red Cro
::; in all the theatres of Halifax as well 
as throughout the Province
 and organized Red Cross branches in 
many of the smaller to\\'ns, 

43 1 



.. . 
4f# - 




<" . :'\
G.,I, CO\X'



.'- '\ 



Garnet J ames Colwell, Lieutenant 66th Halifax Regiment. 
Served in Canada 1915-1918. Sent Overseas 
Iay 16, 1918. 
Cyril Henry Colwell, Lieutenant 63rd Halifax Regiment. Served 
in Canada 1<)15-1917. Sent Overseas September 5. 1917. 
Ray John Colwell, Lieutenant 63rd 
Halifax Regiment. Sen-ed in Canada 
1916-1918. Sent O\"erseas ....\ugust 3. 
19 1 8. 
ray E. Sexton. B.Sc.. Vice- 
President, Canadian Red Cross Society. 

ova Scotia Eranch. Ex-l\Iunicipal 
Regent for Halifax, I.O.D,E, Ex-Chair- 
man Halifax Playgrounds Commission. 
Ex- Vice-President Local Council of 

, \\-omen. 
43 2 

.-\ndrewes, F. 1. Goudrey, K, H. Xeville, E, Y, 
.-\nnand, C. D. Grant, B. E. 
 ewell, A. D. 
.-\nthony, L. F. Gregory, H. S. )J ewell, E. D, 
.-\tkinson. C. H. Haines, R. S, 
ickerson, E, C. 
.-\ucoin, J. D. Hains, A. P. R. 
oonan, P. 
Austen, G. .-\. Hall, H. L. O'Connell, J. F. 
Danks, C, X. Hanna, Y, :.\1. O'Keefe, T. P. 
Barry, J. R. Harding, C, E, O'Toole, A. G. 
Bezanson, G, .-\. Hatfield, A. W. Page, E. H, 
Blair, R. G. Hawkins, G. S. Peers, R. H. C. 
Boudreau. L. P. Henderson. H, F. Peters, "V. H. 
Bowers. C. C. Herman, R. R. Pickard, H. ]. 
Boyd, R. ]. Johnston, ]. L. Pitman, 11. R. 
Browne, A. S. Johnstone, G, H. Power, 1\1. L, 
Brvson. \V. E. King, D. A. Poirier, W. P. 
kley, \V. A. King, J. J, \V. Price, E. 
Butler, ]. K. Kirk, J. H, Prince, W. S. 
Cain, C. L. Kierstead, A. L. Rafuse, S, A. 
Cairns, J. A. Knowles, J. E. Redding, R. E. 
Cameron, ]. .-\. Kyte, S. E. Rhind, C. E. 
. P. Kinnie, E. F. Richardson, R. B. 
Campbell, ]. .-\. Knowles, J. E. Ripley, 1. \\-. 
Campbell, J. .-\. Langille, L. H. Risser, W. A. 
Campbell, R. B. LeLievre, P. Roche, G. E. 
Chisholm, A, D. I.orùly, E. F. Ross, C. S. 
Chisholm, J, D. Longley, E. G. Ross, J. 1(, 
Chapman, P. T, Love, H, A. Ryan, A. 11. 
Cornwall, H, .-\, :.\1acDonald, D. \Y. S.::riven, J. A. 
Cosman, E. A. :.\1 acDougall. J. L Shaw, H, J. 
Cotter, J. G, :.\IacDougall R. 
hields, D. D. 
Coumans, R. G. :.\IacKenzie. \\". K, Smith, A. R. 
Crowell, A. L. :.\1acKay, J. "", Smith, G. J. 
Crowell, C. L. :.\1acLean, C. \V. Snell, L. L. 
Cunningham, H, :.\1ann, C. H. Spence, C. M. Y. 
CurIl, M. H. :.\1 arch, ]. E. R. Spence, R. E. 
Daniel, G. H. )IaUhews. C. F. Stanley, F. A. 
Demers, J. c. Melvin, \V. D, Sterns, H, E. 
DesBrisay, A. S. Merriam. S. G. Stephens, A. E, 
Dexter, R. 
lerritt, F. G. Stewart, \\-, L 
Dickie, E. C. :.\Iilner, C. H. Strople, H. G, A, 
Dickie, K. R. :.\Iillett, J. X. L. Stubbs, H. C. 
Dickie, L. \V, :.\Ioore, A. ]. Stewart, D. J. 
Dickson, G. :\1. Morrison, \\T. H. Tanner, H. R. 
Dodge, C, M. }'lorrow, J. Troy, L. T. 
Doucette, H. H. Morash, J. R. Tupper, M. L. 
Douse, G. A. P. :.\losher, A. T. Turnbull, G, A. 
Durham, E. B. 
1osher, \\. .\. Turnbull, G. Y, 
Dustan, S. B. ?\I ulcahey, T. ]. \Vest, C. F, 
Embree. D. T. :.\lurray, B. \Vhidden, E. L. 
Ernst, \V. A, :.\IcAlpine, A. F, Wicks, \V. E. 
Farnell, A. H, :.\IcCallu111. H. :.\1. White, G. 
Flannery, C. G. :.\IcClafferty. J. K. Wickwire, L. H. 
Flinn, G. McDonald. .-\. H. \Vilmot, A. J, 
Forsythe, ]. S. G. 
lcDonald, D. A. \\'allace, H. 
Fraser, .-\. Elmer. :.\IcIntyre, ]. A, \Yilson, J. L. 
cr, A. Ernest. :\IcKenzie, H. \Vilson, \V. :.\I. 
Fraser, A. :.\1. :.\IcKenzie, K. \Vinters, G. \V. 
Fraser. L. G. :.\1cLaren, A. F, \Vithrow, C. A. 
Gage, L. G. :.\IcLean.:.\1. \, Zinck, A. :.\1. 
Gass, C. :.\fcLeod, H. H. D. Zinck, H. .'\. 
Gorham, E. R. :.\1 cRohert.]. \. Y, 

One of Xova Scotia's Leading Patriotic \\.ar \Vorkers 




"The Three Shining Lights" of Pine Hill l\Iilitary Convalescent Hospital. 






1:\"11\\ nnl at sea. Llal/tlm'cry 
astl('. Jl111L' 2ï. IIJIR 

I. c. .\"IIOP(;.\L\I. '1.11.. l M 
Especia\lv noted for his Sur- 
gical \\" ork followilll! 
the Great Explo.;;ion. 
Dccember 6, I9Tï. 

:-. URSllo;G SI:,TER )llNNIE 
1 )rowned at sea. Llulldo'l'cJ'\, 
Castlc, June .2ï. TC)T

""H:""J:\"(; :'1:' rEH PE.\RL Fr

9 -, \' 







.I' (,. 
. .Q! WJSWt\.l. 








\ : 
. I,. /) ..ol-, 
. t/IJ.



:'0:\:' OF .\. B. WISWFLI.. H \LIF:\:\.. 

H 111 t It 

lawtt H 

hturt ffir([mulry 

W g we)"e sitting on the beach at 
Iinl. Ju!St a love!\- 
Cape Hreton moonlig-ht night. The young"-.;ter:- 
w...)"f' singing and telling ) arns, Ullp kid recited 
:\1!'Crae's gl'eat lwem, .. In Flanders Fiddf-:." and one of 
the boys who had heen .. o\'er there" a<.;ked u:" if we kne", 
what 1]cCI'ae meant when he wrote the phrase. .. Felt 
obody seemed tu be entirely clear on the 
question, and we a
k...!1 nUl' frienfl. the veteran, to descriht" 
it fOl' us, Here al.... his worrls: 

A cold. drizzly rain that is eating througn VOUI j
intu your vel') hean 
A sea of mu
liIl1Y. stieky. ,.:tinking- mUll. 
The duck hoards tloating" in ,-,OZe, 
Your feet wet and hea\'). antI YOUr tllPS ''Iuiehy. 
Not a s'Üund of any kind, 
The nearest human tl:'n )'ards a\\ a)-ju,.:t arount1 
.. the bay." 
Darkness supreme. Xot even an ent:'m) Ii are. 
You strain YOUI' e) e:< o\"(.>r the parapet to the barb- 
Your battalion's li fp depen,l-; on ) OHI' IH
eping- '" wal"". 
Oh, the strain 
 Oh, the funl, that i", tJ") in/.{ to grip 
your very soul 
\\Tould to C:od !"omt:'thing would hap).t'n: Thi:-: elp)'mJ) 
watching is feal'fuL 
Then a rustle in the ,
rass: a w d ve of mo\ elllent first 
like the ripple you hear when a stune- is .. s'kipped" on a 
quiet pond: then an extl'a chill in the air': then a glow to 
the east-'Tis Dawn. 
You let loose your .. dip" and you firt:' Jike. mad 
towards the Hun. Uther !Sentries fin'. and the salvo to 
dawn gets the whole line. Thousands of men all along 
the front start a strafe-a crazy. aimless strafe-whil'h 
lasts for only minutes. 'I.'hen, as if 80mp gl'eat unseen 
General had whispered a command, men regain their 
.. morale," and the rifle fire quietens, and dies away. 
The sun struggles up. 
A bird on a shattere!1 stump whistle:-:. "('00. <'00." 
Your blood warms again. Y'Üu have .. felt dawn:' 
Another day has had its birth. The rations will SOun be 
up. ReJief is coming. 'I.'he war is sun on, and the bird 
has showed you that, after an, it is better to Rmile than 
to worry. 
God is stin in command! 


Union Terminal Garage 

Queen St., Opposite Kent, Halifax, N.S. 


E QUIPPED with the 
most modern machinery, 
we are in a position to do all 
kinds of repair work, including 
reboring of cylinders and 
pressing on solid truck tires 
with a 200-ton hydraulic press 






P.O. Box 184 

Tel. Sack. 3477 

W. McL. Robertson, Manager 



BIRKS Goldsmiths 


Fine Platinum Mounted Diamond 
Rings, Bar Pins, Necklets, Articles 
in Sterling Silver and Silver Plate, 
Cabinets, Silver Knives, Forks and 
Spoons, Cut Glass, Fine China, 
Leather Goods, Stationery, Clocks, 
Bronzes, Fine Jewellery Repairing 
and Remodelling. Watch and 
Clock Repairs. 


Copper Plate, Steel Die and General Engravers 

85 th Battalion 
65 c. each 


We tpecia/i?:e 
on r7<<.;r.;ature 
:ltCeda/s and 
Deco: alian.<: of 
dIe Great War 

493-495-497 Barrinç,tcn Streft 


43 8 


should be paid for, 
but at the prices we 
charge for 


you can fit yourself out and 
be affected very little by 
Luxury Tax. 

Frank Colwell, Ltd. 


Gre"n Lantern Buildinll. 

Motor Sales 

Company, Lin1Íted 


F. W. D., Federal 
and Defiance Trucks 

HALIFAX-75-77 Granville St. 


Sydney Post 

Morning Afternoon Weekly 
The various editions of the Post 
are read by upwards of 45,000 
of the biggest wage-earners in 


Post Publishing 
Company, Limited 
. Sydney, N ova Scotia, ", 

JO - HO 




H. A. Zinck 
Company, Limited 
Dartmouth, N. S. 



Sunny cubes of California 
Cherries and Prunes
'With chocolate and s'Wim- 

mlng In nectar. 

Just one Chocolate treat 
out of more than a hundred 
made by 

Moirs Limited, 


44 0 


that will give good service and has a neat appearance 
is what you get when you purchase an 

Atlantic Marine Motor 

We also manufacture a complete line of 


W rile us for information and prices 

Lunenburg Foundry Co., Limited 


Capital Paid Up 
Reserve Fund and Undivided Profits 


Branches from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific 

Halifax Office: Corner Granville and Duke Streets 

R. G. SARE. Manager 

44 1 


The most delicious refre
hment is a 
dish of Scotia Ice Cream-made in 
30 velvet smooth combinations of 
cream and fruit flavors. 

For dessert every week, for refresh- 
ment every day, for convalescents, 
for dances and dinners. there's noth- 
ing so popular because nothing so 
pleasant as 


Scotia Pure iVIilk Co. 
615 Barrington St., Halifax, N .S. 

North Sydney 

Established 1872 



The North Sydney Herald is sent 
to subscribers in nearly every post 
office in Cape Bre ton Island. 

Average sworn circulation 
of Weekly in 1919, 4,769 

Sydney Foundry 
&Machine Works 
Sydney, Cape Breton 


Works: Pitt and Johnstone Streets 
Docks: North Esplanade 


Oxygen - Acetylene and Electric 
Cutting and Welding 

J. W. Cumming 
& Son, Limited 


New Glasgow, N.S. 

44 2 

Mason & Dean, Limited 
Wholesale Fruits, Vege tables 
T ob3cc03, Cigars. Confectionery 


Cor. Georlle and Falmouth Box 570 
Phone. 749-760 Branch at Glace Bav 


Wholesale' Fruits. Produce. 


The McDONALDS did their bit in the 
war. So did 

Alex. McDonald 

1 he leadinll Tailor of North Sydney by 
f,.rnishinll the best Clothin;l to the boy.. 
He is still on the job at the old-stand in the 
DJNALD BL'JCK. Corner St. 
S. Tel. 191. 

When in town make it a 
point to visit 

North Sydney N. S. 

H. G. HAGEN & CO. 

., HEATING .. 

Sydney. N. S. 

Sydney Motors, Limited 

Dealer- in 


Cor. Georlle and T own.end Streets 
Tel. 300 SYDNEY. N.S. P.O. Box 399 


Wholesale Fruits 
and Confectionery 

Georite Street. Sydr..ev. N .s. 


Whole3ale and Retail Dealers in 

PROVISIONS, and all kinds of 

North SydlJey 


Compliments of 


Sydney Min:o:s and North Sydney 
Cape Breton 


Ford Part. 


Dealer in Canadian Ford Cars 

Sydnpy Mines. N, S. 


Dominion Iron .nd Steel Company 
· Limited 

Manufacturers of 

. Basic and FoundrY Grades. 

STEEL RAILS-All sections up to and 
including- IOO 105. per lineal yard. 

STEEL B.\R:-ì. ROl
:\DS, FL.-\TS. 
Reinforcement Bars, Plain or Twisted. 
\\ïRE RODS -A1I 4ualities. in Cauges 
o. S to 21-32" 
IR E- Plain, Annealed, c;ah ani/.ed. Coiled Spring- and 
Barhed Fence. 
"-IRE :\.\ILS-.\l1 standard and special patterns. 

.-\\I\IO'\Jl"\J Sl


Ben/.ol, Toluol. Sohent :\aphtha, Beng-as (\lotor Fuel>' 
Sydney, N .5. I J 2 St. James Street, Montreal, P.Q. 

Dominion Coal Company 
19 Collieries-Output, S.OOO,OO() tons annuall
"Dominion" Coal- Screened, run of mine and slack. 
"Springhill" Coal-Screened. run of mine and slack. 
Collieries at Glace Bay. C.B.. and Springhill, N.S. 
Shipl,ing Port
--Sydney and Loui<;burg, C.B., and Parrsboro, N.S. 
or at the offices oi the Compdny at 171 Lower Water Street, Halifax, N.S., 
and to the following agents: R. P. & W. F. Starr, St. Jahn, N.B.; Buntain, 
Bell & Co.. Charlottetown, P.E.I.; Hull, Blyth & Co., I Lloyds Ave., 
London, E.C.; Harvey & Co., St. John's, Nt1d, 


McDougall & Cowans 


Members Montreal Stock Exchange 

58 Prince William St. 

116 Mountain Hill 

34 King Street Wesl 

211 Union Rank Bldg. 
218 Portage Ave. 

185 Hollis St. 





r; ì 

:, \ 

, t 

Irresistible Styles in 


Are on Display at All Seasons 
in Our Extensive Ready-to-Wear 

Ladies' and Gents'Wearing Apparel of every 
description. See our stock before you buy 

All Mail Orders Receive Our Best Attention 

Weare expert Ladies' and Gents' T ailcrs and Furriers 
Electric Passenger Elevators to All Departments 


Charlotte St. 



Real T Estate and Imurance 
Railway and Steamship 
Ticket Agents 

Possessing unexcelled facilities for 
effecting all classes of In!\urance 
in some of the strongest British, 
Cmadian and American 

Commercial Street 
Glace Bay, N.S. 
Charlotte Street 
Sydney, N,S. 

J. A. Marven 



St. John 

Manufacturers of "WHITE LILY" 

We mention here only a few of our 
r"gular lines:- 

Arrowroot Social Tea Fig Bars 
Coco:Taffy Fancy Wine Hydrox 
Asmrted Sandwich Marshmallow 
Graham Wafers Ginger Snaps 
Apricot Wafers. CrahClm Sandwich 

A.k for and insist on 

Marven', "White Lily" Cream Sodas 

Sold in ti!... l.oxe.. package.; and barrel. 

670 Barringtcn Street, Halifax 

Petrie Manufacturing 
 Co., Limited 


Aerated Waters 
tilled Waters 
Mineral \Vaters 



Isnor Bros. 

Stores where men li
e to come for 
their Clothing-Why? 

" Honest Values" 
(that's' the answer) 

69 lGottingen Street 

Agricola Street 
(Cor. Bloomfield Street) 

Isnor Bros. 

44 6 

This Store's Policy 
To represent good. exactly as to their qual- 
ity; to sell to tho.e wl.o know and to those 
who dou't k!low value. at a uniform fair 
price; to fulfill all guarantees and chet:rfully 
correct all mistake.: to de.erve your con- 
fidence hy alway. ,Jivingy;>u .atiõiaction. 
Jeweler and Optician 
New Waterfcrd N.S. 



Chappell Bros. & Co. 
Brookland Stree t, 




Groceries, Flour, Feeds and Produce 

North Sydney 


Donald J. Buckley 
"The Druggis t" 
Buckley's Busy Bend 
Prince and Charleue Stre

C. & G. MacLEOD 

Booksellers and Stationers 

Sydney and Glace Bay, N.S. 


Dealer in 
Dry Goods. Clothing, Carpets, 
Furniture, Men's Furnishings, 
Crockery, Shoes, Groceries and 



McKinnon & Cameron 

Merchant Tailors 

344 Esplanade 

Sydney, N,S, 

R. H. McLEA.N 

Dealer in 
Confectionery, Fruits. Tobaccos. 
Cigars, Etc. 
Photo Studio in connection. Our 
enlargements are the best 

Eastern Jewellery Co. 
Phone 121 S. PORTE. Manaller 


Green Block, Charlotte Street 
Sydney N.S. 

Have your home wired now 

Let u. do the wiring in your home. and 
you will receive the best material and 
workm.lDship. coin u. for estimates on 
your work: telephone number i,696. 

Charlotte Street Sydney 


Acadia Coal Com pany 

Stellarton, N.S. 

Miners and Shippers of the 



Unexcelled for Steam Purposes 
Popular for Domestic Use 

Manufacturing, Steamship, and Railway 
Companies give it high endorsements. 

Shipments by water from Pictou Landing, N .5. 
Shipments by rail, via Intercolonial Railway. 

For Prices and all Information, 
address General Offices: 


44 8 

Systematic Saving Made Pleasant and 

... Here is the plan under \\ hich many of our clients, selting aside sums as 
small as $10 monthly, have accumulated $5.000 and upwards wit
additions of more than $300 to their incomes. 
tj You buy through us a security of recognized meri t, yielding 6 r r or more 
for municipals, 7 (r or more for Corporation bond". 
tj You pay $10 a month for each $100 and are charged with 6 rr interest on unpaid 
balances but are creditd imm
diately with the full in terest on your inves tmeht, 
as paid, 
IJ As you proceed with your payments the ditferehce of interest in your favor 
increases, adding to your income, and as tim
 goes on the purchase of one 
security after another brings you nearer to independehce 

Write for further def


Member. M",.trea\ Stock Exchange 


Thompson & Sutherland Limited 

Dealers in 


Wholesale and Retail Stores at 




The Hardware Men 


John R. Francis 
& Son 

Dealers in 

General Shelf Hardware, 
Glass, Paints and Oils, 
Enameled and Tinware 
Undertakers and Licensed 

Strict attention given 
to day and night calls. 
Phone connections day and night 

Main St., Sydney Mines, N .S. 
P. O. Box 486 


can buy their outhtting most 
ach-antageously at this store. 
Cro'Welr s standard goods- 
complete from head to foot- 
will appeal to your good busi- 
ness judgment. on account of 
their reliable quality and their 
fair prices. 
We show you the 'Way to 
better outhtting values. 


Crowell's Ltd. 
Sydney. C. B. 

For the Veterans of the 
Great War-in all 
Branches of the 


is none too good, every time and all 
the time 
in Halifax, for instance 

Halifax Hotel 
Hollis Street 

Which was the "Stampin
for H M, Overseas Forces passing 
through Halifax. 
Come in and see us again when you 
are in town. 

If you Shop at 

you'll get value for ycur money 

Stylish Dress Goods and 
Silks, Dress Trimmings, 
Gloves, Hosiery, House 
Furnishings and Furniture, 
Men's and Boys' Furnish- 
ings, Good Footwear. We 
carry an up-to-date stock to 
fit all. Choice Groceries. 
All at lowest prices 

McArel Bros. 
Glace Bay. N.S. 

45 0 

Francis Book Store 

Newspapers, Magazines and Latest 
Books, School Supplies - Wall 
Papers, Etc. Stationery-the very 

W. J. Francis 

Dra""er 814 The Tel. 193 
Home Bottling Company Ltd. 
YIanufacturcrd of Whole.ale Dealers 
 Grade Aerated in Cigarette.. 
Waters Cillar.. etc. 
The up-to-date Bottlinll Plant of Eastern 
Nova Scotia 
D. R. Mancini. President 
Main St. North Sydney. N.S. 

McKenzie & Company 
Norman McKenzie. Manager 
Heavy and Shelf Hardware, Stoves, 
Ranges, Kitchen Furnishings, 
Plumbing and Repairs 
Masonic Block-Commercial Street 
P.O. Box 7R4 - Telephone 167 

Manchester Meat Market 

Harry Samuel.. Prop. 


Main Street 

Glace Bay, N. S. 




Rememl'er ""e .peciali:z:" in 
Complicated Pre.criptions 

Plummer. Avenue 

When i" North Sydney do not forget to 


.. r:che House of Q :la/it:y' , 

R. H. DAVIS & CO., LTD. 
Whole.ale and Manufacturing Stationer. 
Branch Warehou.e and Office. 542 George 
St.. Sydney. N.S. Head Office and Plant. 
Y armou tho N. S. 
Scholar., a.k your retailers for D.lVi.. 10c. 
.erie.of Exerci.e BooIc.and Davi.' Writing 
Tablet.. The he.t value. on the market; 
made in Nova Scotia from "Made in 
Canada" raw material. 

J. M. MacLEAN. Prop. 
High elas!> Tailors 
Gent's Furnishings 
Boots and ShGes 


"In the Health of the People 
Lie. the Wealth of the Nation" 

Angus A. Macdonald 

"The Medical Hall" 

J. \,\7. Smith. A. J. Morri.on. 
Pre.ident Secretary 
Wholesale Flour. Feed.. Oat.. Etc. 
Phone 18 SYDNEY. N.S. 

f"o\Xo\DA FClOl> BClum 
LkelISt' Xns. 1
J. .;.71}';. !I-H


C. E. Choat & Co


L T)' 


Agents for 

Sussex Dry Ginger Ale 
Weston's Biscuits 

Pascall's English Sweets 


Pickford and Black's Wharf 

.. .'1 - 


We specialize on Commercial Fireproof 
Structures, Design and Construction 

Also Reinforced Concrete Bridges 

The presen(high priccs on lumber :-nd al1ied products 
have created_conditions under which a hrerroof building 
will cost no more and in certain insta nces less th3. n a 
so-called brick or conc;ete builJing. 


Room J-Post Building 
Telephone 76J SYDNEY, N.S. 


Brookfield Bros. 


Halifax, N.S. 



Willis Pianos 

Perfect as to TOUCH 

An instrument with these 
essential qualities that dis- 
tinguish it as an ideal piano 
for the home. 

Prices as low as ccnsistent with 
quality-Convenient terms. 

Willis Piano & Organ 
50 Granville Street 

J. C. Larder 

Wholesale Fruits 


P. O. Box 690 

Telephones 234 

We always carry 
complete stocks of 
General Groceries, 
Flour and Feeds. 

We specialize in 
Drug Sundries and 

Cape Breton Wholesale 
Grocery CO. Limited 

Cor ne r George. Townsend 
and Bentinck Streets 


Hillis and Sons 






Ashhy Corner Grocery 

Phone 81 


Groceries, Provisions, Fruits, 
Confectionery, Crockery and 
Tinware, Bakery. 



Fine Shoes 




Importers of 
and C\RPETS 

".arcroom,,: CH \RLOTTE STREET 
SYDNEY Nova Scotia 


Dry Goods. Millinery. 
Ladies' Rf':1dy-to-Wear. 
Garments. Carpets. Etc. 



Compliments of 

A. H. M U N N 
Repairing of Fine 
\\" atches a Specialty 
Bishop Block. Charlotte St. 


Wholesale and Retail 



:::: HARDWARE :::: 
Pûints and Glass 
Automobile Supplies 
:::: 00:::: 


Nova Scotia 

The.. Cape 
.reton boys, who beat 
the Bosche now wear 

Fashion Craft 
Opposite Y. M. C. A. 

Hudson & McEachen 
"The Big Store vvith the Small Prices' 
Groceries, Meats, Provisions 
SPECIALTIES - Fre.h and Salt Fish. 
Butter. Egg.. Etc. 
GASOLINE TANK-Capolcity 500 gal- 
lon.. Get your Supply from u.. 
T:i:LEPHONE 350 
Corner Victoria Road a.\d Prince Street. 

OUR Part isthe Great Work of helping 
to . Lpply the demand for Cbinaware. 
Gla..w-arc. Earthenware. Enamelvvare. 
Tinware and Aluminum-vvare. and Toy. 
and Fancy Goods 
We can meet your requiremel.\tø. 
Our Stock i. complete and price. wiH 
.tand compari.on 

f\3 Gottinl!en St. Phone Lorne 221 


Cable Address: 

Direct Telegraphic Commuuicdtion : 
Western Union and Great North Western 






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Builders of Passenger and Cargo Vessels up to 15,000 tons. 

Drvdoc1. -Halifax. N.S. 
ensions-550 ft. long. 
100 ft. wide. 
30 ft. depth on sil1. 

Marirc Slips-Dartmouth N.S. 
4 Cradlt>s-Capacity up to 3.000 

NOTE-Four ships :ue now on the way being built . for the Canadian 
Merchant Marine.-2 of 8.100 tons D.W. and 
2 of 10.500 .. 

30 per cent. of tbe l'T'en now employed 011 new ship co nstruction
have sen,
d th

cO\.'ntry durin
 the late war. These men are now assisting in rounding out 
C'Jnada's National Policy. by buildine ships rwhich will carry CanadIan 
exports to all parts of the world. 


Cable AddreS5: "NA TFISH" 

o. l-0

P.esident and General Manager 

National Fish Co. 

Wholesale Fish 

P. O. BOX 1104 

Owner3 of the Steam Trawlers 
"Lemberç( and "Venosta" 

Branch at 
Port Hawkesbury 


Company, Limited 

Contractors' Supplies of 
All Descriptions 

Fireproof Materials 
a Specia by 



E5 tablishd 1863 Incorporated 190 I 

Christie Trunk & Bag 
Co., Limited 

Manufacturers of 


Sample Trunks and Cases 
a Specialty 

Amherst, N.S. 





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Sydney's Leading (...rocery 

The l..r(!e.t variety .It riGht price. 
Fre"h fruits and velletable. a specialty 

251 Charlotte Street 
Phones 90 and 91 

Wholes..le Dealers in 

Flour and Feed, etc. 
Corner Townsend and 
Douglas Streets 

Glace Bay Cycle & 
Motor Co., .Ltd. 

Ford Dealers an:! Service Station 
Garage Sale. Rooms and Workshop. 

Main Street 
GL'\CE BAY, 1'o.S. 

The Store That Treats 
You Right 

Choice Groc<.ries. Fruits and Produce 
Beef. Lamb. Pork, Veat. Game and Poultry 
t12 Gottingen Street HALIFAX 
Geurge v,'. Fader. Manager 
Lorne 994 

\\Then in Sydney 
Buy Your Drugs 


.. The Reliable 

.. If you get it at Manson's it's good" 

The Eternal Question 
It "Will be simple "Work to choo.e an 
exquisite Engagement Ring for the best 
girl in the "World If you look over Ross. 
line. Sto"W your good taste in ring a. 
"Well as girl. Please her. 
Jeweller. etc. 

City Meat Market 
Dorchester Street 

Dealers in all kinds of 
Fresh and Cured :\leats. Poultry 
in season; alsQa full line 
of V egeta bles 
Opp. Poct Office. B. \V. Pearce. Mgr. 

G. A. Coleman, D.V.S. 
(Graduate T oTonlo University) 

Veterinary Surgeon 
North Sydney 

No, a Scotia 


The Exclusive Ladies' and 
Children's 'Year Store 
"'When in doubt buy at Rice's" 
Commercial Street 


Commission Merchants 
Real Estate 
Scrap Metals. etc. 

P.O. Box 45 

Phone 102-2 


45 8 


Regular Sailings HALIFAX - LIVERPOOL in Winter 
LIVERPOOL in Summer 

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, -" -.;.L- 
.. :. .

...: m. e..IIM .

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Ex-members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force will 
find the steamers of this Line old friends 
For sailing dates and rates apply 

t\X, N.S. 

General Agents for Nova Scotia and P .E.I. 
or to Local Agents 


P,O, Box 119 

Phone 1418 

General Engineers and Contractors 

STRUCTURAL STEEL -Bridges, Frames and Fire Escapes, 
Fabricated and Erected 

BOILER REPAIRS - Patching, Re-tubing and General Repairs 
by Expert Men 
EXCA V A TION (By Steam Shovel) Cellar, Sewer and Water 
Trench Excavating 

PUlVIPING-- Centrifugal Pump for Cellar, Trench and Ship Work 
MARINE WORK- Floating Plant, Electric and Oxy-Acetylene 
Welding and Cutting, Re-tubing, Pumping, and General Repairs 
SHOP WORK-lVIachine Work, Forging and General Repairs 

Weare situated with ideal lransportation anangements, having side 
tracks and water shipping points. Good altention on outside jobs. 

"The Rotary High Speed Steam Engine" 


Automobiles, Auto 
T rucks, Factories 
Canada's Sole Manufacturers 

Steamers, Motor Boats 
and Machine Shops 
Sf'nd for Booklet 

ASK THE MEN who wore "Kelly - Halifa\.... 
made Leggings, S. H. llelts. 
Kit Bags, Purses. 
lone\ llelts, or other 
[ilitan" Equipment. or who 
trayelled with "Kell,," I
gage. and you'll understand why "Kellr-Ha1i- 
fa\." Oil Leather Goods is all the guarantee required hy those who know 
KELL YS LIMITED, 116-1 18 Granville Street, HALIFAX 

4 60 


V ooght Brothers 
North Sydney 
N ()v a Scotia 

Daily importation
 from Europe 
of Dress Goods, Tapestries 
and Ladies . Wear. 

Contains the largest assortment of 
High Class Footwear and at most 
reasonable prices. 

Carries a full and complete range 
of the best that money can buv- 
efficiency being our watchword. 

V ooght Brothers 

North Sydney'sOld ßl1.ine55 Establishment 

T om McCartney 

:Billiards and Pool 


\vM. MO

A Mortern Hotel oper- 
ated for your comfort 
and safety and favor
ted in tbe he
rt of 
interesting things--shops. 
i'arks. theatres. churches. 
forts. Il:JVY yard and 
historical points. 
Accommodation for 300 


are tl-e men" hose clothes we t..ilor. The fit of 
the .houldt:r. i. one of the .tron;l point. of Our 
tailoring. Our "Work attracts attention for the 
elegant line, "We give to this part of the Garment. 
t..ilor made and ready made garments is one of cut 
and fini.h. Not .tock patterns. but individual 
line. are u.ed and the ;/arm.:nt fit. the Wt'arer 
and not clothiers' model.. 


Established 1!!89 Phonc 
A. R. MacDOVGALL. Prop. 
Wholesale Manufacturcrs al.d Bottler. of 
The Celebra ted Red Seal Brand 
Aerated Waters 
P.O. Bûx 149 Factory-Clyde Avo:. 


Manufacturers of the Finest Class of 
Telephone 399 

Wood & McConnell 

Wholesale Grocers 

T elcphone 541 

P.o. Box 159 


The old reliable SINGER stands the 
test as our Veteran Boys stood the 
test in France. When buying a Sevv- 
ing Machine get the SINGER and 
you vvill not be disappointed. Sold 
on easy terms. Big discounts for 

Singer Sewing Machine Co. 
346 Charlotte St. SYDNEY, N .S. 

For Satisfaction in 
Men's and Boys' Outfitting try 

GOOt> c.Lort""" 


3311-340 Charlotte 51. SYDNEY. N.S. 






Lorne 40 



Cor. Cornwallis and Gottingen Sts. 

Go to 

329 CharloHe Street, Sydney, N.S. 

John B. Morrison 

403 Charlotte Street 

Royal Household (Spring Wheat) Flour. 
Canada's Best (blended) Flour. 
All lines Cereals, Feeds, Grains. 
Lipton' s Ted.. Coffee. Cocoa, Jelly 
Powder.. ctc. 
Ingraham Supply Co.. Ltd. 

4 62 

I F you had a building which 
brought in to you $5,000 a 
year, would you have it 
sufficien tly insured? 

YOU areavaludble 
poperty, produc- 
ing thousands of 
I dollars a year and that revenue 
will cease at your death. ') 
Are you sufficiently insured · 
How long should a man support 
his wife ) 
Some men say" As long as he lives:' 
Most men will say "As long as 
she lives:' 

That support can be made 
sure by Income Policies 
of the Mutual Life. 


Manager for Nova Scotia 

27 Men Enlisted 
2 Paid the Supreme 

Let \.1S who remain per- 
petuate their memory. not 
by blare of horns and roll 
of drums. but by such 
service to our fellow men 
that such a catastrophe 
cannot ::galn occur. 

Cape Breton Electric 
Company Limited 


A good place to buy 


No better Shop to buy 

Everything required from an up- 
to-date Dry Goods House. 


Your Meals 


are prepared and 
with utmost care. 
Everybody visits 
Green Lantern" 
visiting Halifax. 


" The 

The Green Lantern 

4 6 3 

Building Material 

Opposlte.C.N.R Depot 

All our drinks are marle from pure 
caale sugar and the best extracts 
that money can buy. 

Mineral Water "\\' orks 

The firm of 
Maritime Building. New Gla.go,",. N.S. 
do a live and up-to-dat" Real Estdte 
business. If you contempbte purcl,as- 
inJi a farm. bu.iness site Or privdte 
dwelling house in Nova Scotia's indu.- 
trial centre g
t in touch with this firm 
and be assured of prompt a.,d co"rt- 
COU5 treatment. 

John Midgley & Co. 

Real Estate of all Classes 
Life dnc! Fire Insurance 



'l"""he Beautiful Bras 
d'Or Lakes 

"Tho has not heard of the 
most picturesque beauty 

pot in all America the 
famous La kes of Bras d'Or ? 
The Bras d'Or SteamhoatCo. run 
from North Sydney. Nova Scotia. 
a patatiat steamer. the "Marion," 
touching at intermedrate points. 
with Dudle
- \Varner's historical 
Eaddeck the terminal point, close 
by Graham Bell's laboratory. 

F. C. Bezanson & Co. 
Jeweller5 and Opticians 



The Encrmous Price of Clothes 
That is the que.tion answered by 


who are making suit. and overcoats to 
measure. prices ranging from $17 to $45. 
Charlotte St., Sydney, Nova Scotia 

we pay particular attention to the require- 
ments of RETURNED 


Men's Outfitters 

Colin McNab & Co. 

Dealer. In Groceries and Frnit 
EverythinJi stored and handled by sanit.lry 
We give High Quality. Lo,", Prices. 
Prompt Delivery. 
W" solicit your orders Phone Harbour 41 

. Portland Street, Dartmouth 


or silent in deatl,". embrdce. or enjoyinJi 
he:.!th in th" happy family circle. 


is aJ 
'aYB a B'" cct so]a('c to 
omcoll..? be it 
parent. wife, sOn ordaui/hteror"", eetheart 




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. .I,:..__:t
I .... 

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Robb Engineering Works, Limited 

Manufacturers of 


4 6 5 



We carry a full line of Electrical 
Supplies and shall be glad to quote 
on electric work of any kind in 
Cape Breton Or Nova Scotia. 

The Sydney Record 

carrie. dailv all the world news 
in additi"n to all the Cape Breton 
lIew. hesides several f",ature page. 
not tmhlished in any otl,,,r paper. 
Write uS for Sample Copy 
Record Publi5
ing Co., Limited 
Box 360 Sydney. C. B. 


Paints, Oils and Varnishe., Sp::>rting 
Goods. Ele",trical Supplies and Flashlights. 
Automobil", and Bicycle Tires. 

North Sydney, N. S. 

H. C. Ballum & CO. 

Wholesale ProJuce 

Commission Merchants 



The House of Good Clothing 

Headquarters for high-grade (lothing and 
Furnishings for Men and BilYs. 

G. M. BOYD. Manager 

Phone L. 1506 

F. W. Maling 

Electrical Contractor 
180 Gottingen St., Halifax, N,S. 

Wirinl! and Supplies. Motor and 
Generator Repairs a Specialty 

The Store Wbere Quality 
Proves Itself 

- I 

Sydney Mines Drug Store 
.. Rexall" Store 


N. s. 

The mOõt up-to-date hotel in North Sydney. 
Open all day and all night. A first-cla.s 
grill service in connection. The rooms are 
the best in Cape Breton and all newly furn- 
isher\ and renovated. Meal. served at any 
hour of the day or night. Afternoon tea and 
cake can he had every afternoon in the tea 
room. Hotel i. very centrally located and 
has every home <"om fort for the tourist and 
traveller. V. E. SNOWDON, Proprietor. 

L. Nicholson Limited 

Ladies' and Men's Tailoring 

Ien's Furnishings and 
Ready-to-Wear Clothing 



4 6 6